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network 3

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1
leqcia.
3
qseluri mowyobilobebi
Hub (
habi
)
habi aris qseluri mowyobiloba, romelic funqcionirebs wvdomis doneze Ethernet qselSi. habebi Seicaven ramodenime ports, romlebic daniSnulia hostebis dasakavSireblad internetSi. habebi martivi mowyobilobebia. maT ar gaaCniaT Setyobinebebis dekodirebis
funqciebi, romlebic igzavneba hostidan qselamde. habs ar SeuZlia gansazRvros Tu romelma hostma romeli Setyobineba unda miiRos. habi ubralod iRebs eleqtronul signalebs erTi portidan da imave Setyobinebebs ganavrcobs (imeorebs) sxva danarCen portebze. rogo
rc viciT, hostis NIC
(
N
e
twork
Interface C
ard
–
qseluri karta) iRebs mxolod im Setobinebebs, romlebic damisamarTebulia Sesabamis MAC misamarTze. hostebi aignorireben im Setyobinebebs, romlebic ar arian damisamarTebuli maTTan. mxolod is hosti, romelic miTiT
ebulia mimRebis misamarTSi, amuSavebs Setyobinebas da ubrunebs pasuxs gamgzavns.
Ethernet habis yvela porti uerTdeba erT da igive arxs Setyobinebebis gasagzavnad da misaRebad. radganac yvela hosti iyenebs erTi da imave arxis gamtarinobis zols, habs aseve u
wodeben ganawilebuli zolis mowyobiloba
s
.
habis funqciebi
habis meSveobiT SeiZleba gaigzavnos mxolod erTi Setyobineba xolo roca ori hosti erTdroulad agzavnian Setyobinebebs, am SemTxvevaSi xdeba maTi urTierTSejaxeba (kolizia).
2
koliziis SemTxvevaSi Setyobi
neba maxinjdeba da hosti ver kiTxulobs mas. habi ar Sifravs Setyobienbas da Sesabamisad ar SeuZlia aRmoaCinos, rom Setyobineba dazianebulia da xelmeored agzavnis mas yvela portze. xolo qselis im ares, sadac hosti Rebulobs damaxinjebul Setyobinebas koliziis
Sedegad, ewodeba koliziis domeni
.
koliziis domenSi, roca hosti iRebs damaxinjebul Setyobinebas, aTviTcnobierebs rom moxda kolizia da yoveli am SemTxvevaSi yoveli hosti elodeba mcire droSi da Semdgom cdilobs isev gaagzavnos Setyobineba xelaxla. roca habTan
SeerTebuli hostebis ricxvi izrdeba, ufro didi Sansia meti koliziebisa. xolo koliziebis gazrdis SemTxvevaSi izrdeba xelaxla gadagzavnebis ricxvic. am SemTxvevaSi qselis gadatvirTva xdeba da ris Sedegadac trafiki ecema. amis gamo aucilebelia Semcirdes koliz
iis domeni.
koliziis domeni
komutator
i (
Switch
)
Ethernet Switch
mowyobilobaa, romelic gamoiyeneba wvdomis doneze. habis msgavsad, komutatori akavSirebs hostebs qselTan. magram habisgan gansxvavebiT komutatori Setyobinebas ugzavnis mxolod Sesabamis hos
ts. sanam hostebi ugzavnian Setyobinebebs sxva hostebs 3
komutatoris meSveobiT, komutatori iRebs da Sifravs kadrebs imisaTvis, rom waikiTxos am SetyobinebaSi Semavali fizikuri (
MAC
) misamarTis porcia.
komutatorSi arsebuli cxrili, romelsac uwodeben MAC
misama
rTebis cxrils, Seicavs yvela im aqtiuri ports da hostis MAC
misamarTebs, romlebic mimagrebulia masTan. roca hostebi erTmaneTs ugzavnian Setyobinebebs, komutatori am dros amowmebs aris Tu ara mis cxrilSi mimRebis MAC
misamarTi. Tu aseTi arsebobs, komutatori
amyarebs droebiT kavSirs, qmnis arxs gamgzavnis da mimRebis portebs Soris. axali arxi uzrunvelyofs gamoyofil arxs, romlis meSveobiTac ori hosti ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs. danarCeni hostebi, romlebic mierTebulia am komutatorTan, ar sargebloben am arxiT da ar Rebuloben informacias, romelic maTTvis ar aris damisamarTebuli. axali arxi iqmneba hostebis yoveli axali urTierTobis Sedegad. calkeuli arxebi ki saSualebas iZleva erTdroulad moxdes ramodenime kavSiri hostebs Soris yovelgvari koliziis gareSe. ra x
deba roca komutatori iRebs kadrebs, romlebic damisamarTebulia axali hostisaTvis, romelic ar imyofeba MAC misamarTebis cxrilSi? Tu mimRebis MAC misamarT
i
ar aris cxrilSi, maSin komutators ar gaaCnia sakmarisi informacia imisaTvis, rom Seqmnas individualur
i arxi. roca komutators ar SeuZlia gansazRvros sad imyofeba mimRebi hosti, maSin is ugzavnis Setyobinebas yvela hosts, sadac yoveli hosti SetobinebaSi mocemul MAC misamarT
s adarebs Tavisas da Tu daemTxva, mxolod is hosti amuSavebs Setyobinebas da pasuxobs gamgzavns.
4
rogor xvdeba axali hostis
MAC misamarT
i
MAC misamarTebis cxrilSi? komutatori qmnis MAC misamarTebis cxrils yoveli kadris gamgzavni hostis MAC misamarTis testirebiT. roca axali hosti agzavnis Setyobinebas an pasuxobs, maSin komutatori maSinaTve a
rkvevs da imaxsovrebs Tu romel portTanaa es MAC misamarT
i
dakavSirebuli. cxrilis ganaxleba xdeba dinamiurad yoveli axalis wyaros MAC misamarT
i
s wakiTxvis Semdeg. komutatori Zalian swrafad axdens am axali hostis MAC misamarT
i
s garkvevas da cxrilSi Caweras.
aris SemTxvevebi, roca aucilebelia sxva qseluri mowyobilobis mierTeba, mag habis, portTan qselSi hostebis ricxvis gazrdis mizniT. roca habi ukavSirdeba komutatoris ports, maSin misTvis habTan mierTebuli yvela hostis MAC misamarT
i
komutatoris mxolod erT po
rtTan asocirdeba. Tu habTa mierTebuli erTi hosti ugzavnis informacias mastanve mierTebul meore hosts, komutatori kadris miRebisas amowmebs cxrils, rom naxos sad imyofeba mimRebi hosti. Tu orive gamgzavni da mimRebi hostebi mierTebulia erT da igive portTan,
maSin komutatori agdebs Setyobinebas. habis komutatoris portTan mierTebisas Tavs iCenen koliziebi habze. habi yvela ports ugzavnis koliziebis Sedegad miRebul damaxinjebul informacias. komutatori miiRebs damaxinjebul informacias, magram habisgan gansxvave
biT ar agzavnis mas. komutatoris yoveli porti qmnis calkeul koliziis domens, rac saSualebas iZleva hostebis naklebi ricxvi Sevides koliziis domenSi.
komutatoris muSaobis principi
5
marSrutizatorebi
(
Routers
)
routeri qseluri mowyobilobaa, romelic akavSi
rebs lokalur qselebs erTmaneTTan. qselis gamanawilebel doneze routerebi mimarTulebas aZleven trafiks
da asruleben sxva mniSvnelovan funqciebs qselis efeqturi muSaobisaTvis. routerebs komutatorebis msgavsad SeuZliaT Setyobinebis gaSifvra da wakiTxva, xolo m
aTgan gansxvavebiT, romlebic Sifraven mxolod kadrebs, romlebic Seicaven MAC misamarTebs, routerebi Sifraven paketebs, romelic inkapsulirebulia kadrSi.
paketi Seicavs, rogorc gamgzavni hostis, aseve mimRebi hostis IP misamarTebs, agreTve monacemebs, romlebi
c igzavneba maT Soris. routeri waikiTxavs IP misamarTis qselur nawils, ris mixedviTac gansazRvravs ukeTesi variants Tu romeli qseliT SeiZleba gaigzavnos Setyobineba mimRebamde.
gadamcemi da mimRebi hostebis IP misamarTebis qseluri nawili ar Seesabamebian,
romelsac iyenebs routeri Setyobinebebis gadasagzavnad. Tu hosti, romelic imyofeba 1.1.1.0 qselSi unda gaugzavnos Setyobineba 5.5.5.0 qsels, ugzavnis setyobinebas routers. is ki iRebs Setyobinebas da axdens dekapsulacias, rom waikiTxos mimRebis IP misama
rTi. Semdgom gansazRvravs Tu sad gagzavnos Setyobineba. Semdeg axdens isev paketis inkapsulacias kadrSi da ugzavnis mimRebs.
6
rogor arkvevs routeri Tu ra gziT unda gagzavnos Setyobineba danisnul qselSi?
routeris yoveli porti Tu interfeisi ukav
Sirdeba sxvadasxva lokalur qsels. yoveli routeri Seicavs lokalurad dakavSirebuli qselebisa da maTTan SeerTebuli unterfeisebis cxrils. marSrutizaciis cxrilebi Seicaven agreTve informacias routerebze an marSrutebze, roemlsac iyenebs routeri sxva qselebTan da
sakavSireblad.
roca routeri iRebs kadrs, axdens mis Sifracias, rom waikiTxos paketSi Semavali mimRebis IP misamarTi. Semdgom eZebs da adarebs mas marSrutizaciis cxrilSi Semaval yvela qselSi. Tu mimRebi qselis misamarTi am cxrilSia, masin routeri axdens pak
etis inkapsulacias axal kadrSi, Semdgom ki ugzavnis interfeiss, romelic asocirdeba gzasTan mimrebi qseliaken. process, romlis drosac xorcieldeba paketis gadagzavna danisnul qselSi, ewodeba marSrutizacia
(
Routing
). routeris interfeisi ar gadaaagzavnis sety
obinebebs, romlebic damisamartebulia farTomauwyrblobiT MAC misamarTze. rogorc wesi, lokaluri qseluri farTomauwyeblobiTi Setyobinebebi ar igzavneba routeriT.
Default Gateway
(qselSi gasasvleli)
meTodi, romelsac iyenebs hosti Setyobinebebis gasagzavnad sxva
qselSi, gansxvavdeba im meTodisagan, romelsac iyenebs hosti Setyobinebebis gasagzavnad lokalur qselSi. Tu hosts surs gaugzavnos Setyobineba meore hosts, romelic imyofeb imave qselSi, is gadaugzavnis mas lirdapir. hosti iyenebs ARP protokols mimRebi hosti
s MAC misamarTis gansasazRvravad. is Seicavs mimRebis IP misamarTs paketis SigniT da axdens mis inkapsulacias kadrSi, romelic seicavs mimrebis MAC misamarTs da gadaagzavnis mas.
meores mxriv, roca hosti agzavnis Setyobinebas sxva qselSi, man unda gamoiyeno
s routeri. hosti Seicavs mimRebi hostis IP misamarTs paketSi, xolo paketis kadrSi inkapsulaciis SemTxvevaSi is iyenebs routeris MAC misamarTs, rogorc mimrebs kadrisaTvis.am SemTxvevaSi routeri irebs da agzavnis kadrebs MAC misamarTebis mixedviT.
7
rogor gans
azRvravs gamgzavni hosti routeris MAC misamarTs? hosts eniWeba routeris IP misamarTi qselSi gasasvlelis misamarTis meSveobiT, romelic dakonfigurirebulia misive TCP/IP parmetrebSi. qselSi gasasvlelis misamarTi routeris interfeisis misamarTia, romelic dakav
Sirebulia amave lokalur qselTan, rogorc gamgzavni hosti. lokalur qselis yvela hosti iyenebs qselSi gasasvlelis misamarTs, rom gaugzavnos Setyobinebebi routers. roca hostma icis qselSi gasasvlelis IP misamarTi, mas ARP
-
is meSveobiT SeuZlia MAC misamarTis ga
nsazRvra anu routeris MAC misamarTi, romelic Semdgom Caideba kadrSi sxva qselSi gasagzavnad.
Zalian mniSvnelovania qselSi gasasvlelis sworad dakonfigurireba yoveli hostisTvis lokalur qselSi, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi Setyobinebebis gagzavna SeuZlebelia
sxva qselis HhostebSi.
a)
8
qselSi gasasvlelis misamarTebis gansazRvra hostebisaTvis: a)erT lokalur qselSi, b) sxvadasxva qselebSi myofi qselebisaTvis
marSrutizatorebis cxrilebi
marSrutizatorebi informacias agzavnian lokaluri qselidan daSorebul qselSi. risTvisac isini iyeneben ARP da marSrutizaciis cxrilebs informaciis Sesanaxad. marSrutizaciis cxrilebi ar ari dakavSirebuli individualur hostebTan, aramed isini Seicaven qselebis misamarTebs da am qselebTan dasaklavSireblad sauketeso gzas. am cxri
lebSi monacemebis Seyvana xdeba mimdinareobs ori gziT: dinamiurad ganaxleba routeridan miRebuli informaccis meSveobiT qselSi an xeliT qselis administratoris mier. am cxrilebis meSveobiT routerebi gansazRvraven Tu romeli interfeisi unda gamoiyenos Setyobine
bis gasagzavnad daniSnul misamarTze.
Tu routeri ver gansazRvravs Tu sad gaagzavnos Setyobineba, is agdebs mas. qselis administratorebis mier marSrutizaciis cxrilis dakonfigurireba xorcieldeba nagulisxmevi marSrutiT, rom paketi gadarCes dakargvas an ignorir
ebas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu qselis misamarTi ar aris miTiTebuli cxrilSi. nagulisxmevi marSruti -
es aris interfeisi, romlis meSveobiTac marSrutizatori gadaagzavnis pakets, romelic Seicavs ucnobi mimRebis qselis IP 9
misamarTs. nagulisxmevi marSruti ukavSirdeba s
xva routers, romelic gadaugzavnis pakets saboloo daniSnulebis qsels.
marSrutizatori agzavnis kadrs erT
-
erTze Semdegi mimarTulebebidan: pirdapir SeerTebulqselSi, romelic Seicavs uSualod daniSnulebis hosts an sxva routers, rom miiRos danisnulma hostma. r
oca routeri axdens kadris inkapsulacias, rom gadaugzavnos is Ethernet
-
is interfeiss, is SeiZleba Seicavdes mimRebis MAC misamarTsac. es aris mimRebis MAC misamarTi, Tu daniSnulebis hosti aris routerTan lokalurad mierTebuli qselis nawili. Tu routeri ugzavni
s pakets sxva routers, maSin is iyenebs im routeris MAC misamarTs. routerebi pouloben am MAC misamarTebs ARP cxrilebidan. routeris yoveli interfeisi lokaluri qselis nawilia, romelTanac is aris mierTebuli da iyenebs Tavis sakuTar ARP cxrils qselisaTvis. ARP cxrilebi Seicaven qselis individualuri hostebis MAC da IP misamarTebs.
10
suraTze roca 192.168.1.1 hosts unda gaugzavnos paketi H3 hosts Semdegi IP misamarTiT 192.168.1.1 –
s, radgan es misamarTi amave lokalur qselSia da amasTanave
ARP
cxrili Seicavs IP da MAC misamarTebs pirdapir ugzavnis hosts pakets. magram Tu ugzavnis H
4 hosts IP misamarTiT 192.168.2.1 –
s, romelic ar mdebareobs gamgzavni hostis lokalur qselSi paketi gaegzavneba qselSi gasasvlels gadasagzavnad, radganac ARP
cxrili Seicavs q
selSi gasasvlelis IP da MAC misamarTebs. es hostebi pirdapir arian dakavSirebuli sxva interfeisebTan, Semdgom gamgzavni hosti amowmebs ARP
cxrils da aRmoaCens am misamarTs, mxolod Semdgom ugzavnis pakets.
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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