close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

network 4

код для вставкиСкачать
1
leqcia.
4
. OSI modeli
qselSi sr
uldeba mravali operacia, romlebic uzrunvelyofen monacemTa gadacemas erTi kompiuteridan meoreze. mTeli gadasacemi informacia gadis damuSavebis mraval etaps. gadasacemi informacia iyofa blokebad, yoveli romelTagan Seicavs mmarTvel informacias. miRebuli blok
ebi formirdeba, rogorc qseluri paketebi. Semdgom mimdinareobs am paketebis kodireba. maTi gadacema xdeba elqtruli an sinaTlis signalebis meSveobiT qselSi SerCeuli wvdomis meTodeis Sesabamisad. Semdgom miRebuli paketebidan aRdgeba masSi Semavali monacemTa b
lokebi. es blokebi erTiandebian monacemebad da misawvdomi xdebian sxva resursebisaTvis. es aris qselSi mimdinare porocesebis gamartivebuli aRwera.
aRniSnuli procedurebis garkveuli nawilis realizeba mimdinareobs programulad, xolo nawilisa aparaturulad, xolo
zogierTi ki rogorc programulad, aseve aparaturulad.
yvela proceduris mowesrigebas, maT doneebad da qvedoneebad dayofas, romlebic urTierTqmedeben erTmaneTTan emsaxureba qselebis modelebi. dResdReobiT yvelaze farTo gavrceleba hpova e.w Ria sistemis informac
iis gacvlis (Open System Interchange) etalonurma modelma. terminis qveS “Ria sistema” igulisxmeba ara Caketili sistema, aramed sistema, romelic urTierTmoqmedebs sxva sistemebTan (Caketili sistemebisgan gansxvavebiT).
OSI modeli warmoadgina standartebis sae
rTaSoriso organizaciam ISO (International Standards Organization) 1984 wels. mas Semdeg mas iyeneben qseluri produqtebis mwarmoeblebi. rogorc yvela sxva universaluri modeli OSI modelic sakmaod didia moculobiT da arc Tu ise moqnilia. amitomac realuri qselur
i saSualebebi, romlebic warmodgenilia sxvadasxva firmebis mier ar eyrdnobian am models. Tumca OSI modelis gacnoba dagvexmareba ukeT gaverkveT Tu ra xdeba qselSi.
yvela qseluri funqcia OSI modelSi dayofilia 7 doned (nax. 1). amasTanave zeda doneebi ufro rTu
l da globalur amocanebs asruleben da iyeneben amisaTvis qveda doneebs da agreTve marTaven maT. qveda doneebi asruleben ufro martiv da konkretul funqciebs. idealSi yoveli done urTierTqmedebs mxolod mis mezobel doneebTan (mis zemoT da mis qvemoT). zeda done Seesabameba gamoyenebiT amocanas mocemul momentSi, xolo qveda done uSualod signalebis gadacemas kavSiris arxSi.
2
OSI modeli
monacemTa tipi
done
funqcia
hostis doneebi
monacemebi
7. gamoyenebiTi done
wvdoma qselur servisebTan
6. prezentaciis d
one
monacemTa kodireba da warmodgena
5. sesiis done
kavSiris seansis marTva, hostebs Soris urTierTkavSiri
segmentebi
4. transportuli done
pirdapiri kavSiri saboloo punqtebs Soris da saimedooba
qseluri doneebi
paketebi
3. qseluri done
marSrutis gan
sazRvra da logikuri damisamarTeba
kadrebi
2. arxuli done
fizikuri adresacia
bitebi
1. fizikuri done
garemo, signalebisa da orobiTi kodebis gadacema
cxr
. 1 OSI modelis 7 done
OSI
modeli miekuTvneba aramxolod lokalur qselebs, aramed nebismier sxva qse
lebsac. kerZod internet qselis funqciebi SeiZleba aseve davyoT doneebad OSI
modelis Sesabamisad. principialuri gansxvaveba lokalursa da globalur qselebs Soris, OSI
modelis TvalsazrisiT, SeiniSneba mxolod qveda doneebze.
Yyvela donis funqcias, romlebic moce
mulia nax.1.
-
ze asrulebs qselis yoveli abonenti. amasTanave yoveli done erT abonentze muSaobs ise, rom TiTqos mas aqvs kavSiri meore abonentis Sesabamis donesTan. erTi donis abonentebs Soris arsebobs virtulauri (logikuri) kavSiri, mag. gamoyenebiT anu prog
ramul doneebs Soris. realuri anu fizikuri kavSiri (kabeli, radioarxi) abonentebs gaaCniaT mxolod yvelaze dabal doneze (pirvel anu fizikur doneze). gadamcem abonentSi informacia gaivlis yvela dones dawyebul zeda donidan da damTavrebuli qvedaTi. xolo mimReb abonentSi ki piriqiT informacia gaivlis gzas ukumimarTulebiT: qveda donidan zeda donemde. (nax.2).
3
nax.2. informaciis mimarTuleba abonentidan abonentamde
ganvixiloT doneebis funqciebi detalurad: ·
gamoyenebiTi anu programuli (7) done (Application Layer
) uzrunvelyofs uSualod momxmareblis mier programebis gamoyenebas, mag: failis gadacemis programuli saSualebebi, wvdoma monacemTa bazebze, el. fostis saSualebebi, serverze registraciis samsaxuri. es done marTavs danarCen eqvs dones. mag., Tu momxmarebeli mu
Saobs eleqtronul cxrilebTan Excel
-
Si da surs Seinaxos Tavisi muSa faili Tavisive direqtoriaSi qselur fail
-
serverze, maSin gamoyenebiTi done uzrunvelyofs failis gadaadgilebas muSa kompiuteridan qselur diskze.
·
prezentaciis (6) done (Presentation Layer)
anu m
onacemTa warmodgenis done gansazRvravs da gardaqmnis monacemTa formatebs da maT sintaqsiss qselisTvis mosaxerxebel formaSi, e.i. asrulebs Targmanis rols. aqve xdeba monacemebis daSifvra da ganSifvra da aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi maTi SekumSva. standartuli fo
rmatebi arsebobs teqsturi failebisTvis (ASCII, EBCDIC, HTML), xmovani failebisTvis (MIDI, MPEG, WAV), naxatebisTvis
(JPEG, GIF, TIFF), videosTvis
(AVI). 4
formatebis yvela gardaqmna xorcieldeba prezentaciis donenze. Tu monacemebi gadaicerma orobiT kodSi maTi
gardaqmna saWiroebas ar warmoadgens.
·
sesiis (5) done (Session Layer)
marTavs kavSiris seansebis ganxorcielebas (e.i. amyarebs da wyvets kavSirs).
es done iTvaliswinebs seansis damyarebis sam reJims: simlequrs (monacemTa gadacema erTi mimarTulebiT), naxevr
addupleqsurs (anu monacemTa gadacema orive mimarTulebiT, magram araerTdroulad, monacvleobiT) da srul dupleqsurs (monacemTa gadacema erTdroulad orive mimarTulebiT). seansur dones monacemTa nakadSi SeuZlia CarTos sakontrolo wertilebi, romlebic akontroleben g
adacemis process kavSiris gawyvetisas. es done amoicnobs abonentebis logikur saxelebs da akontrolebs maTi wvdomis uflebebs.
·
transportuli (4) done (Transport Layer)
uzrunvelyofs paketebis gadacemas Secdomebis da danakargebis gareSe da agreTve saWiro Tanmimd
evrobiT. aq mimdinareobs gadasacemi monacemebis blokebad dayofa da paketebSi Calageba da miRebuli monacemebis paketebidan aRdgena. paketebis gadacema da adresatamde mitana SesaZlebelia kavSiris damyarebiT (virtulauri arxis) an mis gareSe. transportuli done
sazRvaria zeda sam donesa da qveda samive dones Soris, romelic akavSirebs maT.
·
qseluri done (Network Layer)
pasuxismgebelia paketebis damisamarTebaze da logikuri saxelebis (logikuri misamarTebis, mag., IP
-
misamrTebis an IPX
-
misama
r
T
ebis
)gadayvanaze fizik
ur qselur MAC
-
misamrTebad. amave doneze xorcieldeba marSutizaciis amocanis gadawyveta, ris mixedviTac paketi gadaecema daniSnulebisamebr (Tu qselSi ramodenime marSutia). qselur doneze moqmedeben iseTi rTuli Sualdeuri mowyobilobebi, rogoricaa marSrutizatore
bi (
Routers
). ·
arxuli (2)done anu gadacemis xazis marTvis done (Data link Layer) pasuxismgebelia paketebis (kadrebis) formirebaze, romlebis standartulia mocemuli qselisTvis (
Ethernet, Token
-
Ring, FDDI
), romlebic Seicaven sawyis da saboloo mmarTve
l velebs. aqve mimdinareobs qselis wvdomis marTva, Secdomebis aRmoCena sakontrolo jamis daTvlis mixedviT da xorcieldeba xelmeore gadagzavna SecdomiTi paketebisa. arxuli done iyofa or qve doned: zeda LLC
da qveda MAC. arxul doneze muSaoben iseTi mowyobilobe
bi, rogoricaa komutatori (
Switch).
·
fizikuri (1)
done (Physical Layer) –
velaze qveda done
, romelic pasuxismgebelia gadasacemi informacis kodirebaze signalebis doneebad, romlebic gamoiyeneba gamoyenebul gadacemis garemoSi da uku dekodirebac. aqve ganisazRvr
eba moTxovnebi 5
SemaerTeblebze, budeebze, eleqtrul Tanxmobaze, damiwebaze, dabrkolebebisadmi dacvaze da a.S. fizikur doneze muSaoben iseTi qseluri mowyobilobebi, rogoricaa transiverebi, repiterebi da repiteruli koncentratorebi.
Oori qveda (1
-
li da me
-
2)
don
is funqciebis realizeba xdeba aparaturulad (me
-
2 donis funqciebis nawili –
qseluri adapteris programuli draiveriT). saxeldobr am doneebze ganisazRvreba qselis gadacemis siCqare da topologia, informaciis gacvlis marTva da paketis formati, e.i. yvelaferi is
rac Seexeba mag. Ethernet, Token
-
Ring, FDDI, 100VG
-
AnyLAN
-
s teqnologiebs. xolo ufro maRali doneebi 3,4 da 5 ar aqvT uSualo kavSiri aparaturasTan, TumcaRa iTvaliswineben maT Taviseburebebs. me
-
6 da me
-
7 doneebi ki aranairad ar arian damokidebuli aparaturis
tipTan da arc amCneven maT gamocvlas.
rogorc aRiniSna, me
-
2 done iyofa 2 qve doneebad: LLC
и MAC (
nax.3.
)
·
zeda qvedone (
LLC –
Logical Link Control
) anxorcielebs logikuri kavSiris marTvas, e.i. amyarebs virtualur kavSirs virtualuri arxis meSveobiT. Mmkacrad rom vTqvaT, es funqciebi ar aris dakavSirebuli qselis konkretul tipTan, magram maTi nawil
i modis qselur adapterze. xolo LLC qvedonis funqciebis meore nawili sruldeba programulad qseluri adapteris draiveris mier. LLC qvedone pasuxismgebelia me
-
3 donesTan kavSirze. ·
Qqveda qvedone (
MAC –
Media Access Control
) uzrunvelyofs uSualo wvdomas informa
ciis gadamcem garemoze (kavSiris arxi). is uSualod dakavSirebulia qselis aparaturasTan. MAC
qvedoneze xorcieldeba urTierTqmedeba fizikur donesTan. sadac kontroldeba qselis mdgomareoba, paketebis gadacema ramodenimejer (paketebis ganmeorebaTa ricxvi gansazR
vrulia) koliziebis SemTxvevaSi, paketebis miReba da gadacemis sisworis Semowmeba.
Ggarda OSI
-
modelisa arsebobs agreTve IEEE Project 802 modeli, romelic miRebul iqna 1980 wels, romelic SeiZleba gaxilul iqnas rogorc OSI
-
modelis modifikacia, ganviTareba da da
zusteba. Aam modelis mier gansazRvruli standartebi (e.w. 802
-
specifikaciebi) miekuTvneba OSI
-
modelis qveda or dones da iyofa 12 kategoriad. yovels, romelTagan miniWebuli aqvs Tavisi nomeri:
6
Nnax.4. arxuli donis LLC da MAC doneebi
802.1 –
qselebis
gaer
Tianeba xidebis da komutatorebis meSveobiT
802.2 –
logikuri kavSiris marTva LLC
-
qvedoneze
.
802.3 –
lokaluri qseli wvdomis CSMA
/
CD
meTodiT da saltis topologiiT (
Ethernet
).
802.4 –
lokaluri qseli saltis topologiiT da markeruli wvdomiT (
Token
-
Bus
).
802.5
–
lokaluri qseli wris topologiiT da markeruli wvdomiT (
Token
-
Ring
).
802.6 –
saqalaqo
qseli
(
Metropolitan
Area
Network
, MAN
)
5 km
-
ze meti manZiliT abonentebs Soris
802.7 –
monacemTa gadacemis farTo zoliani teqnologia.
802.8 –
o
ptikur
-
boW
kovani teqnologia
8
02.9 –
integrirebuli qselebi xmovani da monacemebis gadacemis SesaZleblobebiT
802.10 –
qselebis usafrTxoeba da monacemebis daSifvra
802.11 –
umavTulo qseli radioarxebSi (
WLAN
–
Wireless
LAN
).
802.12 –
lokaluri qseli wvdomis centralizebuli marTviT moTxovneb
is prioritetebiT da varskvlavis topologiiT (100
VG
-
AnyLAN
).
Автор
v.aslanishvili
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
56
Размер файла
272 Кб
Теги
network_4
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа