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leqcia.5
. paketebis struqtura da daniSnuleba
Llokalur qselebSi informacia gadaecema, rogorc wesi, calkeuli porciebis e.w. pakatebis (packets)
, kadrebis (frames)
an b
lokebis saxiT. amasTanave paketebis sigrZe mkacrad gansazRvrulia (Cveulebriv ramodenime kilobaits Seadgens). paketebis sigrZe gansazRvrulia qvemodanac (rogorc wesi ramodenime aTobiT baits Seadgens). paketuri gadacema SeirCeva gansazRvruli TvalsazrisiT.
lok
aluri qseli, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, uzrunvelyofs xarisxian da gamWvirvale kavSirs yvela abonentTan (kompiuterTan). mniSvnelovan parametrs warmoadgens wvdomis dro (
access time
), romelic gansazRvravs droiT intervals abonentis mzadyofnasa informaciis gadasacem
ad (Tu mas aqvs raime gadasacemi) da gadacemis dawyebis moments Soris. Ees aris abonentis lodinis dro informaciis gadacemis dasawyebad. Bbunebrivia, lodinis dro ar unda iyos Zalian didi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi informaciis gadacemis realuri, integraluri siC
qare mkveTrad Semcirdeba maralsiCqariani kavSiris SemTxvevaSic. Llodini informaciis gadacemis dawyebisas dakavSirebulia imasTan, rom qselSi SeuZlebelia erTdoulad gadaices ramodenime informacia (yovel SemTxvevaSi saltis da varskvlavis topologiebis SemTxvev
aSi). winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva gadamcemidan miRebuli informacia ireva erTmaneTSi da maxinjdeba. AamasTan dakavSirebiT abonentebi TavianT infomacias gadascemen mimdevrobiT. DamasTanave yoveli abonenti sanam gadascems Tavis informacias unda daelodos
Tavis rigs. xolo Tavisi rigis lodinis dros ewodeba wvdomis dro.
informaciis gacvlis procesi qselSi warmogvidgeba paketebis mimdevrobiT gadacemiT, yoveli romelTagan Seicavs informacias, romelic abonentidan abonents gadaecema.
2
Nnax.
3.1. paket
eb
is gadace
ma qselSi or abonents Soris
Mmocemul kerZo SemTxvevaSi (nax.3.1.) yvela es paketi SeiZleba gadaices mxolod erTi abonentis mier (im SemTxvevaSi, roca danarCenebs ar surT gadacema). Mmagram Cveulebriv qselSi sxvadasxva abonentebis mier gadacemuli paketebi e
nacvlebian erTmaneTs. (nax.3.2.) Nnax.3.2
. paket
ebis gadacema qselSi ramodenime
abonents Soris
Ppaketis struqtura da sidide yovel qselSi mkacrad gansazRvrulia standartebiT mocemuli qselisTvis, rac dakavSirebulia mocemuli qselis aparaturul Taviseburebeb
Tan, arCeuli topologiiT da informaciis gadacemis garemos tipiT. Ggarda amisa, es parametrebi damokidebulia gamoyenebul protokolzec.
Mmagram arsebobs paketis struqturis formirebis zogadi principebi, romlebic iTvaliswineben informaciis gacvlis maxasiTebel Ta
viseburebebs nebismier lokalur qselSi. Ppaketi ZiriTadad Sedgeba Semdegi ZiriTadi velebisagan da nawilebisagan (nax.3.3):
3
Nnax.3.3. paketis tipiuri struqtura ·
Bbitebis startuli kombinacia anu preambula, romelic uzrunvelyofs adapteris aparaturis an sxv
a qseluri mowyobilobis dayenebas paketis miRebasa da damuSavebaze. Ees veli SeiZleba iyos gamotovebuli an dayvanil iqnas erTaderT startul bitze.
·
mimRebi Qabonentis qseluri misamrTi (identifikatori) anu individualuri an jgufuri nomeri, romelic miniWebuli aq
vs yovel mimReb abonents qselSi. es misamarTi saSualebas aZlevs mimRebs amoicnos paketi, romelic misTvis aris damisamarTebuli an jgufisTvis, romlSic is Sedis an yvela qselis abonentisTvis erTdroulad. (farTomauwyeblobisTvis).
·
gadamcemi Qabonentis qseluri mi
samrTi (identifikatori) anu individualuri nomeri, romelic miniWebuli aqvs yovel gadamcem abonents. es misamrTi ainformirebs mimRebi abomnents Tu saidan movida mocemuli paketi. paketSi gadamcemis misamarTis gawera saWiroa im SemTxvevaSi, roca erT mimRebTan modis paketebi sxvadasxva gadamcemi abonentebidan.
·
samsaxurebrivi informacia miuTiTebs paketis tipze, nomerze, formatze, mis marSutze miiRo Tu ara adresatma
·
monacemebi (monacemTa veli) –
es informaciaa, ris gadasacemadac gamoiyeneba paketi. paketis yvela v
elisagan gansxvavebiT monacemTa vels gaaCnia cvalebadi sigrZe, romelic gansazRvravs paketis srul sigrZes. arsebobs specialuri mmarTveli pakatebi, romlebsac ar gaaCniaT monacemTa veli. maT ganixilaven, rogorc qselur brZanebebs. paketebi, romlebic Seicaven m
onacemTa velebs, uwodeben sainformcio paketebs. mmarTvel paketebs SeuZliaT Seasrulon kavSiris seansis dawyebisa da 4
dasrulebis funqciebi, sainfromacio paketebis miRebis dadastureba, sainformacio paketis moTxovna da a.S.
·
paketis sakontrolo jami –
es ricxviTi
kodia, romelic formirdeba gadamcemis mier garkveuli wesebis mixedviT, da moicavs informacias mTlian paketze. mimRebi, romelic asrulebs ganmeorebiT gamoTvlebs, romelic Sesarula gadamcemma miRebul paketTan, axdens Sedarebas sakontrolo jamTan da askvnis miRe
buli paketis WeSmaritebas Tu SecdomiTobas. Tu paketi SecdomiTia maSin mimRebi moiTxovs mis xelaxla gadacemas. Cveulebriv gamoiyeneba cikluri sakontrolo jami (CRC).
·
stopuri kombinacia axdens mimRebi abonentis aparaturis informirebas paketis dasrulebaze, uz
runvelyofs aparaturis gamosvlas miRebis mdgomareobidan. es veli SeiZleba gamotovebul iyos Tu gamoiyeneba TviTsinqrinirebadi kodi, romelic gansazRvravs paketis gadacemis dasrulebis moments.
nax. 3.4. kadris Cadeba paketSi
paketis struqturaSi gamoiyofa sami veli:
·
paketis sawyisi mmarTveli veli (anu paketis saTauri), e.i. velis, romelic Seicavs startur kombinacias, mimRebisa da gadamcemis qselur misamarTs da agreTve samsaxurebriv informacias.
·
paketis monacemTa veli.
5
·
paketis saboloo mmarTveli veli, sadac Sedis sakontrolo jami da stopuri kombinacia, agreTve samsaxurebrivi informacia.
rogorc aRiniSna, literaturaSi paketis (packet)
garda arsebobs termini kadri (frame)
.
zogjer es terminebi emTxveva. xolo xandaxan gansxvavdebian. zogierTi wyaroebidan mtkicdeb
a, rom kadri Cadebulia paketSi. am SemTxvevaSi paketis yvela CamoTvlili veli garda preambulisa da stopuri kombinaciisa miekuTvneba kadrs. (nax.3.4.). mag. Ethernet qselis aRweraSi mocemulia, rom preambulis boloSi gadaecema kadris dasawyisis niSani.
informa
ciis gacvlis seansis procesSi, qselSi gadamcem da mimReb abonentebs Soris mimdinareobs sainformacio da mmarTveli paketebis gacvla dadgenili wesebis Sesabamisad, romelsac ewodeba gacvlis protokoli. es saSualebas iZleva uzrunvelyofil iqnas informaciis saimed
o gadacema qselSi gacvlis nebismieri intensivobis dros.
nax.3.5
-
ze mocemulia umartuvesi protokolis magaliTi
nax.3.5. paketebis gacvlis magaliTi kavSiris seansis dros
6
gacvlis seansi
iwyeba gadamcemis moTxovniT mimRebis mzadyofnaze miiRos monacemebi.
amisaTvis gamoiyeneba mmarTveli paketi “moTxovna”. Tu mimRebi mzad ar aris is uaryofs am seanss specialuri mmarTveli paketiT. im SemTxvevaSi roca mimRebi mzadaa is pasuxad ugzavnis mmarTvel pakets “mzadyofna”. Semdgom iwyeba saxeldobr monacemebis gadacema
. amasTanave yovel miRebul sainformacio paketze mimRebi pasuxobs mmarTveli paketiT “dadastureba”. im SemTxvevaSi Tu monacemTa paketi gadacemulia SecdomiT, mimRebi moiTxovs xelaxla gadacemas. seansi mTavrdeba mmarTveli paketiT “dasasruli”, ris meSveobiTac m
imRebi iZleva Setyobinebas kavSiris gawyvetaze. arsebobs standartuli paketebis gansazRvruli simravle, romlebic gamoiyeneben gadacemas dadasturebiT (paketis garantirebuli gadacemiT), aseve gadacema dadasturebis gareSe (paketis gadacema garantiis gareSe).
qs
elSi monacemebis realuri gacvlisas gamoiyeneba mravaldoniani protokolebi, romelTagan yoveli done gvTavazobs paketis sakuTar struqturas (damisamarTebas, mmarTvel informacias, monacemTa formats da a.S.). Tumca maRali donis protokolebi dakavSirebulia iseT cne
bebTan, rogoricaa fail
-
serveri anu aplikacia, romelic moiTxovs monacemebs meore aplikaciisgan, da amave dros SeiZleba warmodgenac ar qondeT qselis aparaturis tipze da arc informaciis gacvlis meTodebze. yvela maRali donis paketi TanmimdevrobiT lagdeba gadas
acem paketSi, ufro swored rom vTqvaT gadasacemi paketis monacemTa velSi (nax. 3.6). monacemebis TanmimdevrobiT SefuTvis process maT gadasacemad agreTve ewodeba paketebis inkapsulacia
nax. 3.6. paketebis Calagebis mravaldoniani sistema 7
mimRebis mier m
onacemTa paketebis mimdevrobiTi gaxsnis uku process ewodeba paketebis dekapsulacia.
paketebis adresacia
lokaluri qselis yovel abonents unda gaaCndes Tavisi unikaluri misamarTi (identifikatori anu MAC
-
misamarTi), imisaTvis rom masTan SesaZlebeli iyos paketebis damisamarTeba. arsebobs qselis abonentebze misamarTebis miniWebis ori ZiriTadi sistema (ufro swored am abonentebis qselur adabterebze).
pirveli sistema Zalian martivia da misi arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom qselis agebisas yovel abonents mieniWeba T
avisi misamarTi (programulad an gadamrTvelebis meSveobiT adapteris plataze). amasTanave misamarTis moTxovnili Tanrigebis raodenoba ganisazRvreba Semdegi martivi gantolebiT:
2
n
>Nmax,
sadac n –
misamarTis Tanrigebis raodenobaa, xolo Nmax
–
qselSi SesaZlebeli
abonentebis maqsimaluri ricxvi. mag; 8 Tanrigisgan Semdgari misamarTi sakmarisia 255 abonentisagan Semdgari qselisTvis. erTi misamarTi (Cveulebriv 1111....11
) gaTvaliswinebulia farTomauwyeblobiTi gadacemisaTvis, eseigi is gamoiyeneba im paketebisaTvis, ro
melic damisamarTebulia yvela abonentisaTvis.
aseTi midgoma gamoiyeneba iseT cnobiT qselSi, rogoricaa Arcnet.
. mocemuli midgomis upiratesobebia –
paketSi samsaxurebrivi informaciis mcire gacvla, agreTve adapteris aparaturis simartive, romelic amoicnobs pake
tis misamarTs. naklovanebaa misamarTebis miniWebis sirTule da Secdomis arseboba (magaliTad or abonents qselSi SeiZleba mieniWos erTi da 8
igive misamarTi). yvela abonentis unikaluri qseluri misamarTis kontroli evaleba qselis administrators. damisamarTebis m
eore midgoma SemuSavebil iqna IEEE saerTaSoriso organizaciis mier, romelic muSaobs uSualod qselebis standartizaciaze. saxeldobr es meTodi gamoiyeneba qselebis umravlesobaSi da rekomendebulia axali proeqtebisaTvis. am midgomis idea mdgomareobs imaSi, rom qs
elis yovel adapters mieniWos unikaluri qseluri misamarTi misive damzadebis etapze. Tu SesaZlebeli misamarTebis raodenoba Zalian didia, maSin SeiZleba darwmunebuli viyoT imaSi, rom mTeli msoflios maStabiT nebismier qselSi abonentebis misamarTebi erTmaneTs a
r daemTxveva. amitomac iqna SerCeuli misamarTis 48
-
Tanrigiani formati, romelic Seesabameba daaxloebiT 280 trilion sxvadasxva misamarTs. gasagebia isic, rom amdeni qseluri adapteri arasodes ar iwarmoeba.
imisaTvis, rom gaenawilebinaT misamarTebis diapazoneb
i qseluri adapterebis mwarmoeblebs Soris Semotavazebul iqna misamarTis Semdegi struqtura (nax. 4.1):
·
misamarTis qveda 24
-
Tanriga kods uwodeben OUA (Organizationally Unique Address)
–
organizciulad unikalur misamarTs. am kodebs aniWebs daregistrirebuli mwar
moeblebi qseluri adapterebisa. mTlianad SesaZlebelia 16 milion kombinaciaze meti, anu yovel mwarmoebels SeuZlia gamouSvas 16 milioni qseluri adapteri.
·
kodis Semdeg 22
-
Tanrigs uwodeben OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifier)
organizaciulad unikalur identri
fikators. IEEE
aniWebs erT an ramodenime OUI
-
is qseluri adapteris yovel mwarmoebels. mTlianad SesaZlebelia 4 milionze meti sxvadasxva OUI , es niSnavs, rom Teoriulad SeiZleba daregistrirebuli iqnes 4 milion mwarmoebelze. OUA
-
sa
da
OUI
-
is erTad uwodeben UA
A (Universally Administered Address)
–
universalurad marTvad misamarTs, anu IEEE
-
misamarTs.
·
ori zeda Tanrigebis misamarTi gansazRvraven misamarTis tips danarCeni 46
-
Tanrigis integraciis meTods. ufrosi biti I/G (Individual/Group) miuTiTebs misamarTis tips
. Tu is dayenebulia 0
-
ze e.i individualuria da Tu 1
-
ze e.i jgufuri (mravalpunqtiani anu mravalfunqciuri). paketebs jgufuri misamarTiT miiReben am jgufuri misamarTebis mqone qseluri adapterebi. amasTanave jgufuri misamarTi ganisazRvreba 46 umciresi TanrigiT
. meore mmarTvel bits U/L (Universal/Local) uwodeben universaluri/adgilobrivi mmarTvis droSas da gansazRvravs Tu rogor iyo miniWebuli misamarTi mocemuli qseluri adapterisadmi. Cveulebriv is yendeba nulze. 9
U/L bitis dayeneba 1
-
ze niSnavs, rom misamarTi ar a
ris mocemuli qseluri adapteris mwarmoeblis mier, aramed im organizaciis mier, romelic iyenebs mocemul qsels. es ki Zalian iSviaTad xdeba.
nax. 4.1 48
-
Tanrigian standartuli MAC
-
misamarTis struqtura
farTomauwyeblobiTi gadacemisTvis (e.i qaelSi yvela abon
entis erTdroulad gadacemisTvis) gamoiyeneba specialurad gamoyofili qseluri misamarTi, romlis yvela 48
-
ve biti dayenebulia 1
-
ze. mas gamoiyeneben qselis yvela abonenti. damoukideblad maTi individualuri da jgufuri misamarTebisa.
misamarTebis mocemuli sistemi
T sargebloben iseTi popularuli qselebi rogoricaa Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Token
-
Ring, FDDI, 100VG
-
AnyLAN.
misi naklovanebebia qseluri adapteris didi sirTule, agreTve gadasacem paketSi samsaxurebriv informaciis didi moculoba (e.i wyarosa da mimRebis misamar
Tebi erTad moiTxoven 96 bitian pakets anu 12 baits).
mraval qselur adabterSi gaTvaliswinebulia e.w cirkularuli reJimi. am reJimSi adabteri Rebulobs yvela pakets, romlebis modis masTan miuxedavad mimRebis misamarTis velis mniSvnelobisa. aseTi reJimi gamoiye
neba magaliTad qselis diagnostikis Casatareblad, mwarmoeblobis gasazomad da gadacemis Secdomis sakontrolod. amave dros erTi kompiuteri iRebs da akontrolebs yvela pakets, romlebis gaivlian qselSi, magram TviTon ar monawileobs gadacemis momentSi. mocemul reJ
imSi muSaoben xidebis qseluri adabterebi da komutatorebi, romlebmac unda daamuSaon yvela maTTan mosuli paketi retranslaciis win. 
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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