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1
leqcia.6
. qselis standartuli protokolebi
protokoli anu oqmi -
es wesebisa da
procedurebis nakreb
ia, romlebsac
iyeneben kompiuterebi erTmaneTTan kavSirisas qselSi CarTvisas. kompiuterebi, romlebic monawileoben gacvlis procesSi muSaoben erTi da igive protokolebiT imisaTvis, rom informacia pirvandeli saxiT iqnes miRebuli gadacemis Semdgom.
qseluri adap
teris kavSiri qselis programul uzrunvelyofasTan xorcieldeba qseluri adapterebis draiverebi
s meSveobiT. qseluri draiverebis wyalobiT SesaZlebelia qselurma programam imuSaos erTnairad sxvadasxva mimwodeblebis platebTan da agreTve sxvadasxva lokaluri qselebis
platebTanac (Ethernet, Arcnet, Token
-
Ring da a.S.
). OSI
modelis SemTxvevaSi qseluri draiverebi, rogorc wesi, asruleben arxuli donis funqciebs Tumca iTavseben qselur funqciebsac (nax.4.1.). mag. draiverebi agzavnian pakets adapteris buferul mexsierebaSi, S
emdgom kiTxuloben mosul pakets, gascemen gadacemis brZanebas da ainformireben kompiuters paketis miRebaze. nax.4.1. OSI
modelSi qseluri adapteris draiveris funqciebi draiveris programis doneze didad aris damokidebuli ZiriTadad qselis muSaobis efeqtur
oba mTlianobaSi. qseluri adapteris SeZenisas aucilebelia Tavsebadi aparaturis CamonaTvalis (Hardware Compatibility List, HCL)
gacnoba. Tu HCL
CamonaTvalSi ar Sedis romelime tipi, misi SeZena ar aris sasurveli.
maRali donis protokolebi:
2
arsebobs ramodenime
standartuli protokolebis nakrebi (igive stekebi), romlebmac farTo gamoyeneba hpoves:
·
ISO/OSI protokolebis nakrebi;
·
IBM System Network Architecture (SNA) –
IBM sistemuri qseluri arqiteqtura;
·
Digital DECnet;
·
Novell NetWare;
·
Apple AppleTalk;;
·
Internet
globa
luri qselis TCP/IP protokolebis nakrebi;
CamoTvlili nakrebis protokolebi iyofa sam ZiriTad tipad:
·
programuli protokolebi (romlebic asruleben OSI
modelis sami zeda donis: programulis, prezentaciis da sesiis funqciebs);
·
transportuli protokolebi (axdenen OSI
modelis Sualeduri doneebis: transportuli da sesiis funqciebs;
·
qseluri protokolebi (romlebic asruleben OSI
modelis sami qveda donis funqciebs). gamoyenebiTi protokolebi uzrunvelyofen programebTan urTierTqmedebas da monacemebis urTierTgacvlas. yvelaze pop
ularuli protokolebia:
·
FTAM (File Transfer Access and Management) –
OSI
-
is failebTan wvdomis protokoli
;
·
X
.400 –
CCITT
-
is
protokoli
eleqtronuli
fostos saerTaSoriso gacvlisaTvis
;
·
Х
.500 –
CCITT
-
is
failebisa da katalogebis samsaxuris protokoli
ramodenime sistemaze
;
·
SMTP
(
Simple
Mail
Transfer
Protocol
) –
Internet
globaluri qselis eleqtronuli fostis gacvlis protokoli
;
·
FTP
(
File
Transfer
Protocol
) –
Internet
globaluri qselis failebis ga
cvlis protokoli
;
·
SNMP
(
Simple
Network
Management
Protocol
) –
qselis monitoringis, qseluri komponentebis muSaobis kontrolisa da maTi marTvis protokoli
;
·
Telnet
–
Internet
globaluri qselis protokoli daSorebul serverebze registraciisa da masze monacemebis damu
SavebisaTvis
;
·
Microsoft
SMBs
(
Server
Message
Blocks
, serveris SetyobinebaTa blokebi
)
da
klienturi garsebi anu
Microsoft
firmis redireqtorebi
1
;
3
·
NCP
(
Novell
NetWare
Core
Protocol
) и
klienturi garsebi
anu
Novell
firmis redireqtorebi
;
transportuli protokolebi uzrunvelyofen kavSiris seansebs kompiuterebs Soris da garantias iZlevian monacemebi gacvlis saimedoobaze maT Soris. farTod gavrcelebuli protokolebia:
·
TCP
(
Transmission
Control
Protocol
) –
TCP
/
IP
protokolebis
nakrebis nawili, romelic uzrunvelyofs monacemebis garantirebul miwodebas, dayofils Tanmimdevrulad fragmentebad
;
·
SPX
–
IPX
/
SPX
(
Internetwork
Packet
Exchange
/
Sequential
Packet
Exchange
)
protokolebis
nakrebis nawili, romelic uz
runvelyofs
monacemebis garantirebul miwodebas, dayofils Tanmimdevrulad fragmentebad, SemoTavazebuls Novell kompaniis mier
;
·
NWLink
–
Microsoft
kompaniis
IPX
/
SPX
protokolis
realizacia
;
·
NetBEUI
–
(
NetBIOS
Extended
User
Interface
, NetBIOS
-
is
gafarToebuli
inter
feisi
) –
amyarebs
sensebs
(
NetBIOS)
–
is
kompiuterebs
Soris
da
sTavazobs
transportul
momsaxurebas
zeda
doneebs
. qseluri protokolebi marTaven damisamarTebas, marSutizacias, Secdomebis Semowmebasa da moTxovnebs xelmeored gadacemaze. maT Soris farTod gavrcele
bulia:
·
IP
(
Internet
Protocol
) –
TCP
/
IP
-
protokoli
anu paketebis aragarantirebuli gadacemis protokoli kavSirebis damyarebis gareSe;
·
IPX
(
Internetwork
Packet
Exchange
) –
NetWare
kompaniis protokoli anu paketebis gadacemisa da marSutizaciis aragarantirebuli p
rotokoli:
·
NWLink
–
Microsoft
kompaniis
IPX
/
SPX protokolis realizacia
;
·
NetBEUI
–
transportuli protokoli, romelic uzrunvelyofs monacemTa transportirebis servisebs NetBIOS
-
is sensebisa da programebisaTvis.
ganvixiloT yvelaze gavrcelebuli protokolebi.
OSI mod
eli iyenebs or ZiriTad meTods abonentebis urTieTqmedebisa qselSi:
4
·
ur
T
ierTqmedebis meTodi
logikuri kavSiris gareSe ( anu detagramebis meTodi);
·
ur
T
ierTqmedebis meTodi
logikuri kavSiris meSveobiT
deitagramebis
meTodi –
es umartivesi meTodia, romelSic yoveli p
aketi ganixileba, rogorc damoukidebeli obieqti (na.4.5.).
am meTodis SemTxvevaSi paketi gadaecema logikuri arxis gareSe, e.i. sainformacio paketebis winaswari gacvlis gareSe, romelic Seicavs informacias mimRebis mzadyofnaze, agreTve logikuri arxis likvidac
iis gareSe, e.i. paketis gareSe, romleic Seicavs informacias gadacemis damTavrebis dadasturebaze. Ppaketi miiRo Tu ara mimRebma -
ucnobia (paketis miRebis Semowmeba evaleba ufro maRal doeneebs).
Dd
eitagr
a
mebis
meTodis dros aparaturas waeyeneba maRali moTxo
vnebi (radganac mimRebi yovelTvis mzad unda iyos miRebaze). Aam meTodis upiratesoba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom gadamcemi da mimRebi funqcionireben erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad, amasTanave paketebi grovdeba buferSi, Semdgom gadaecema erTdroulad, aseve SeiZleba gamoviyenoT farTomauwyeblobiTi gadacema anu paketi erTdoulad ramodenime abonets gadaecema. Mam meTodis naklovanebebia –
paketis dakargvis SesaZlebloba, agreTve qselis gadatvirTva paketebiT im SemTxvevaSi Tu mimRebi mzad ar aris.
meTodi logikuri SeerTebiT (
nax.4.6, nax.4.5), romelic ufro axalia vidre deitagramebis meTodi da gamoirCeva urTierTqmedebis ufro rTuli wesrigiT.
Aam MmeTodis dros paketi gadaecema mxolod mas Semdeg rogorc ki damyardeba logikuri SeerTeba (arxi) mimRebsa da gadamcems Soris. yovel sainf
ormacio pakets Tan sdevs erTi an ramodenime samsaxurebrivi paketi (kavSiris damyareba, miRebis dadastureba, xelmeored gadacemis moTxovna, SeerTebis gawyveta). Llogikuri kavSiri myardeba erTi an ramodenime paketis gadacemis dros.
5
Nnax.4.2. OSI mod
elis doneebisa da Internet protokolebis Tanafardoba
nax.4.3. OSI modelis doneebisa da Windows Server operaciuli sistem
is
protokolebis Tanafardoba
6
Nnax.4.4. OSI modelis doneebisa da NetWare
operaciuli sistem
is
protokolebis Tanafardoba
Nnax.4.5. d
eitagramebis meTodi
Nnax.4.6. logikuri kavSiris meTodi
L
logikuri kavSiris meTodi, rogorc aRiniSna ufro rTulia, magram ufro saimedoc, ramdenadac logikuri arxis likvidaciisas gadamcemi darwmunebulia, rom misi yvela paketi 7
mivida daniSnulebis adgilze warma
tebiT. Aam meTodis dros gamoricxulia qselis gadatvirTvac zedmeti paketebiT. xolo am meTodis naklovaneba isaa, rom rTulia iseTi problemis gadaWra, roca mimReb abonents ar SeuZlia miiRos paketi mag. kabelis dazianebis, kvebis gamorTvis, qseluri abonentis gau
marTaobis an kompiuteris mwyobridan gamosvlis gamo. Aam dros moiTxoveba gacvlis algoriTmi daudasturebeli paketis xelmeored gadacemisaTvis ramodenimejer da misi tipi. gadacemaTa ricxvi ki gansazRvrulia. Mam meTods ar SeuZlia gadasces farTomauwyeblobiTi pak
etebi, radganac SeuZlebelia logikuri arxebis organizeba yvela abonentisTvis erTdroulad.
D
deitagramebis
meTodiT momuSave protokolebia -
IP da
IPX.
L
l
ogikuri meTodiT
momuSave protokolebia -
TCP и SPX.
imisaTvis, rom gaerTiandes am ori meTodis Rirebulebebi, e
s protokolebi gamoiyeneba Semdegi nakrebis saxiT: TCP/IP и IPX/SPX, sadac ufro maRali donis (TCP, SPX) protokolebi, romlebic muSaoben ufro dabali donis (IP, IPX)
protokolis bazaze, uzrunvelyofen paketebis garantirebul gadacemas saWiro TanmimdevrobiT.
IPX/S
PX protokolebi, romlebic SeimuSava kompania Novell
-
ma, qmnian nakrebs (steks), romelic farTod gamoiyeneba qselur programul saSualebebSi, romlebsac iyenebs Novell
-
is
(NetWare) lokaluri qseli. Ees SedarebiT patara da swrafi protokolia, romelic uzrunvelyofs m
arSutizacias. gamoyenebiTi programebi uSualod mimarTaven IPX doens, mag. farTomauwyeblobiTi Setyobinebebis gadasacemad, magram Zalian xSirad muSaoben SPX donesTan, romlebic uzrunvelyofen paketebis swraf da saimedo gadacemas. Tu siCqare ar aris mniSvnelova
ni, maSin gamoyenebiTi programebi iyeneben ufro maRal doens, mag, NetBIOS protokols
, romelic gvTavazobs ufro moxerxebul serviss. Microsoft
-
is mier warmodgenilia IPX/SPX protokolis Tavisive versia, romelsac ewodeba NWLink. IPX/SPX и NWLink protokolebs iyene
ben NetWare da
Windows operaciuli sistemebi. Aam protokolebis arCeva uzrunvelyofs qselSi nebiemieri abonentebis Tavsebadobas mocemul operaciul sistemebTan.
TCP/IP protokolebis nakrebi (steki) specialurad SemuSavebulia globaluri qselebisaTvis da qselTaSoris
i kavSirebisaTvis. is Tavidanve orintirebuli iyo dabali xarisxis arxebze, Secdomebisa da kavSiris gawyvetis did albaTobaze. Ees protokoli miRebulia msoflio kompiuterul qsleSi –
Internet, sadac nawili abonentebisa uerTdeba qsels komutirebadi xazebiT (anu Cv
eulebrivi satelefono xazebiT). rogorc IPX/SPX protokoli, TCP/IP 8
protokolic uzrunvelyofs marSutizacias. Mmis bazaze muSaoben ufro maRali donis protokolebi, rogoricaa SMTP, FTP, SNMP. TCP/IP protokolis naklovanebaa –
muSaobis ufro dabali siCqare IPX/SPX p
rotokolTan SedarebiT. Tumca TCP/IP protokolebi gamoiyeneba aseve lokalur qselebSic, imisaTvis rom gamartivdes protokolebis Tanxmobadoba lokalur da globalur qslebSi. dgesdgeobiT is iTvleba rogorc ZiriTadi gavrcelebuli protokoli operaciul sistemebSi. TCP/I
P protokolebis steki moicavs marali doneebis protokolebsac (nax.4.7.). amitomac SesaZlebelia iTqvas TCP/IP protokolebis stekis funqcionalur sisruleze.
rogorc IPX protokoli
, IP protokoli
c dabali donis protokolia, amitomac isini uSualod axdenen informaciis inkapsulacias, romelbsac ewodeba deitagramebi, qselSi gadasacemi paketis monacemTa velSi (ix. Nnax. 3.6.). amasTanave deitagramebis TavsarTSi Sedis ufro maRali donis abonentebis (gadamcemis da mimRebis) misamarTi, vidre MAC
-
misamarTebi, -
es IPX misamarTeb
ia IPX protokolisaTvis an IP
-
misa
marTebi IP protokolisTvis. es misamarTebi Seicaven qselisa da kvanZis, hostis nomrebs (abonentis individualuri identifikatori). amasTanave IPX
-
misamarTebi (nax. 4.8.) ufro martivia, gaaCniaT ernairi formati, xolo IP
-
misamar
Ti (nax.4.9) SeiZleba Seicavdes sam formats (
A, B da
C klasebi), romlebic gansxvavdebian pirveli sami sawyisi bitiT.
N
nax.4.7. OSI modelis doneebisa da TCP/IP protokolebis stekis TanafarToba
9
Nnax.4.8. IPX
-
misamrTebis formati
Nnax.4.9. I
P
-
misamarTis formati
sainteresoa is, rom IP
-
misamarTs araviTari kavSiri ara aq MAC
-
misamarTian abonentebTan. kvanZis nomeri masSi abonents eniWeba misi MAC
-
misamarTisagan gansxvavebiT. sadguris identifikatoris saxiT IPX
-
misamarTi Seicavs abonentis srul M
AC
-
misamrTs.
Qqselis nomeri –
es kodia, romelic eniWeba yovel konkretul qsels, e.i. zogadi erTiani qselis farTomauwyeblobiT ares. farTomauwyeblobiTi aris qveS igulisxmeba qselis is nawili, romelic gamWvirvalea farTomauwyeblobiTi paketebisaTvis, da gaatare
bs maT Seferxebebis gareSe.
NetBIOS protokoli (Seyvana/gamoyvanis qselis bazuri sistema) SemuSavebul iqna IBM kompaniis mier IBM PC Network da
IBM Token
-
Ring qselebisaTvis personaluri kompiuteris BIOS 10
sistemis mixedviT. es protokoli iqca standartul paketad
(oficialurad ar arsi standartizebuli), mravali operaciuli sistema Seicavs NetBIOS
-
is emulators Tavsebadobis uzrunvelsayofad. Tavdapirvelad NetBIOS axdenda sesiis, transportuli da qseluri doneebis realizebas, Tumca Semdgom qselebSi ufro dabal doneebze gamo
iyeneba standartuli protokolebi (mag. IPX/SPX)
, xolo NetBIOS
-
is emulatoris wili rCeba sesis dones. NetBIOS uzrunvelyofs servisis ufro maRal dones, vidre IPX/SPX ,
magram muSaobs ufro nela
.
NetBIOS
-
is bazaze SemuSavda NetBEUI protokoli
, romelic NetBIOS
-
is saxecvlilebaa transportul donemde. Tumca NetBEUI
-
is naklovaneba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom is ar uzrunvelyofs qselTaSoris urTierTqmedebas da marSutizacias. Aamitomac mocemuli protokoli gamoiyeneba mxolod martiv qselebSi, romlebic ar arian gaTvlili Internet
-
TT
an mierTebaze. rTuli qselebi orientirebulia ufro metad universalur TCP/IP da
IPX/SPX protokolebze. NetBEUI protokoli amJamad iTvleba moZvelebulad, Tumca Windows XP operaciul sistemaSi ixmareba, magram rogorc damatebiTi opcia.
1
.
redireqt
ori
(ingl
.
redirector –
mimarTulebis
Semcvleli) –
moduli proxy
-
serverebSi, romelic pasuxismgebelia klientebidan serverebze moTxovnebis (
URL
) misamarTebis filtraciasa da damuSavebaze. SeiZleba iyos, rogorc CaSenebul
proxy
-
serverebSi, aseve calke gaSvebul sk
riptebze.
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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