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1
leqcia
.
7
. informaciis gacvlis meTodebi
qseli aerTianebs ramodenime abonents, romleTagan yovels SeuZlia gadasces Tavisi paketebi. rogorc ukve aRiniSna erT kabelSi ar SeiZleba gadaices ori an meti paketi erTdroulad. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi warmo
iqmneba konfliqti (kolizia), romlis Sedegadac orive paketi damaxinjdeba an SeiZleba daikargos (an yvela paketi, romlebic monawileoben koliziaSi). amitom saWiroa qselis wvdomis procesis daregulireba da mowesrigeba. pirvel rigSi es exeba saltisa da wris topo
logiebs, xolo varskvlavis topologiaSi periferiul abonentebs rig rigobiT gadaecema paketebi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi centralurma abonentma SeiZleba Tavi ver gaarTvas maT damuSavebas.
qselSi arsebobs infromaciis gaclis sxvadasxva meTodebi (wvdomis meTodi, a
rbitraJis meTodi), romelebic Tavidan acilebs abonentebs Soris konfliqtis gamowvevas. SerCeuli informaciis gacvlis meTodis efeqturobaze damokidebulia: kompiuterebs Soris informaciis gacvlis siCqare, qselis datvirTvisunarianiba (gacvlis sxvadasxva intensivob
iT muSaoba), qselis reaqcia gare movlenebze da a.S. informaciis gacvlis marTvis meTodi
qselis erT
-
erTi mTavari parametria.
gacvlis meTodis tipi ganisazRvreba qselis topologiis TaviseburebebiT. magram ar aris masTan xistad dakavSirebuli.
infromaciis gacvlis
marTvis meTodebi lokalur qselebSi iyofa or jgufad:
·
centralizebuli meTodebi
, gacvlis marTva Tavmoyrilia erT adgilas. magram am meTodebis naklovanebebia: centis aramdgradoba mtyunebebis mimarT, marTvis mcire moqniloba (centrs ar SeuZlia operatiulad reagireb
a qselis yvela movlenaze). centralizebuli meTodis ZiriTadi Rirebu
lebaa –
konfliqtis uqonloba, radganac centri mxolod erT abonents aZlevs uflebas gadasces informacia da amitomac konfliqts SeuZlebelia adgili hqondes.
·
de
centralizebuli meTodebi
, maTSi ar arseb
obs marTvis centri. yvela sakiTxs, maT Soris konfliqtebis aRmoCenasa da maT mogvarebas uzrunvelyofs qselis yvela abonenti. am meTodis ZiriTadi Rirebulebebia: maRali mdgradoba mtyunebebis mimarT da maRali moqniloba. Tumca SeiZleba daSvebul iqnas konfliqtebi
.
Ddecentralizebuli meTodebis Semdegi saxeebia:
2
·
determinirebu
li meTodebi
, romlebic
mkafiod gansazRvraven wesebs. Aam meTodis SemTxvevaSi abonentebi monacvleobiT ikaveben qsels. maT gaaCniaT prioritetebis gansazRvruli sistema. es prioritetebi ki yvela abone
ntisTvis gansxvavdeba. amasTanave, rogorc wesi, konfliqtebi mTlianad gamoricxulia (an mcired SesaZlebeli), magram zogierTi abonenti SeiZleba elodebodes Tavis rigs Zalian didxans. determinirebul meTodebs miekuTvneba markeruli wvdoma (
Token
-
Ring, FDDI
qseleb
i), romlis drosac gadacemis ufleba abonentidan abonents estafetiT gadaecema.
·
SemTxveviTi meTodebi.
Aam meTodis SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba abonentebis SemTxveviT monacvleoba. am dros konfliqtebi gardauvalia, magram maT mosagvareblad arsebobs specialuri meTodeb
i. SemTxveviTi meTodebi ufro cudad muSaoben (determinirebulTan SedarebiT) sainformacio nakadebis didi moculobisas, qselis didi trafikis dros da garantias ar aZleven abonents wvdomis droze. amasTanave es meTodebi ufro mdgradia qseluri mowyobilobebis mtyuneb
ebis mimarT da qsels iyeneben ufro efeqturad gacvlis dabali intensivobis SemTxvevaSi. SemTxveviTi meTodis magaliTia -
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
-
mravaljeradi wvdoma
gadamtanis
kontroliT da koliziebis aRmoCeniT
)
(Ether
net qseli
).
sami ZiriTadi topologiisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sami ufro tipiuri gacvlis meTodebi.
7
.1. gacvlis marTva
varskvlavis topologiaSi
varskvlavur topologias Seesabameba centralizebuli marTvis meTodi
. rac mdgomareobs, imaSi, rom yvela informaciuli n
akadi gaedineba centris gavliT da swored am centrzea dayrdnobili qselSi monacemTa gadacemis marTva. amasTanave ara aqvs mniSvneloba Tu ra mowyobiloba iqneba varskvlavis centrSi: kompiuteri (centraluri abonenti) (nax.5.1), Tu specialuri koncentratori, romel
ic uzrunvelyofs monacemTa gacvlas abonentebs Soris (pasiuri varskvlavi). yvelaze martivi centralizebuli meTodi mdgomareobs SemdegSi.
3
periferiuli abonentebi, romelTac survili aqvT gadaagzavnon qselSi monacemTa paketi, centrs ugzavnian Tavis moTxovnas, cent
ri ki rigrigobiT aniWebs abonentebs paketebis gadagzavnis uflebas TiToeulis rigiTobis dacviT, mag:, varskvlavur topologiaSi fizikuri ganlagebis (mdebareobis) mixedviT saaTis isris mimarTulebiT. roca erTi abonenti daasrulebs monacemis gadacemas saaTis isris
mimarTulebiT monacemis gadacemis ufleba eniWeba rigiT momdevno abonents Tu mas ganacxadi aqvs gagzavnili centrSi monacemTa gadacemaze. (nax. 5.1.) mag:, Tu monacems agzavnis me
-
2 abonenti, mis Semdeg gadacemis ufleba mieniWeba me
-
3 abonents, Tu me
-
3 abone
nts ar surs monacemis gadacema, maSin monacemebis gadacemis ufleba eniWeba me
-
4 abonents da a.S.
nax. 5
.1 monacemTa gacvlis centralizebuli meTodi varskvlavur topologiaSi
aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom abonentebs gaaCniaT geografiuli prioritet
ebi (maTi fizikuri ganlagebidan gamomdinare). yovel konkretul momentSi umaRlesi prioriteti eniWeba yovel momdevno abonents, sruli moTxovnis ciklis SemTxvevaSi arc erT abonents ar eniWeba upiratesoba mis win mdgom abonentze adre. arc erT abonents ar mouwevs
Tavisi rigis lodinSi didxans yofna. nebismieri abonentis lodinis dro udris qselSi CarTuli yvela danarCeni abonentis monacemTa gadacemis jamur dros. nax. 5.2
-
is SemTxvevaSi molodinis dro Seadgens 4 abonentis gadasacemi paketebis drois xangrZlivobas. am meT
odis gamoyenebisas 4
monacemTa paketebis Sejaxeba gamoricxulia, radgan wvdomis da monacemTa gadacemis uflebebi ganisazRvreba erT adgilas (centralizebulad).
Nnax.5.2
. terminalebis mierTeba centralur kompiueterTan
ganxiluli marTvis meTods SeiZleba vuwodoT p
asiuri centri
, radgan centri pasiurad elodeba abonentebis moTxovnebs. SesaZlebelia gamoyenebul iqnas centralizebuli marTvis meTodis sxva muSaobis principic (aqtiuri centri).
aqtiuri centris
SemTxvevaSi, centri TviTon ugzavnis moTxovnas (signalebs) abonente
bs imis Sesaxeb aqvs Tu ara romelime abonents monacemi gadasacemi. abonenti (romelic pirvelad gamoexmaureba centris moTxovnas) romelsac unda monacemis gadacema, ubrunebs pasuxs centrs an pirdapir iwyebs monacemis gadacemas. monacemis gadacemis (seansis da
mTavrebis) Semdgom centri kvlav agrZelebs wriulad abonentebis mimarT signalebis gagzavnas. Tu centrs Tavad aqvs gadasacemi monacemi is mimdevrobiT rigSi ar dgas, mas SeuZlia nebismier dros gadasces monacemi.
rogorc pirvel, asevev meore SemTxvevaSic nebismi
eri konfliqti qselSi gamoricxulia, radgan gadawyvetilebas iRebs mxolod centri da is qselis erTpirovnuli mmarTvelia. Tu yvela abonenti gaaqtiurebulia da yvelas surs monacemis gadacema, maSin isini monacems gadascemen rigiTobis mkacrad gansazRvruli wesiT (ri
grigobiT). centri aucileblad unda iyos saimedo, misi mwyobridan gamosvla gamoiwvevs qselSi monacemTa gacvlis paralizebas. aseTi marTvis meqanizmi arc Tu ise moqnilia, radgan centri moqmedebs mkacrad gansazRvruli algoriTmiT. amasTanave marTvis siswrafec ar aris maRali. im SemTxvevaSic ki roca monacems 5
gadascems mxolod erTi abonenti, yoveli gadacemuli paketis Semdgom abonents isev Tavidan uwevs lodinis rigSi dgoma, sanam centri isev ar gaugzavnis moTxovnebs wreSi myof sxva abonentebs.
rogorc wesi centralizebu
li marTvis meTodebi gamoiyeneba patara qselebSi (abonentebis raodenoba SeiZleba iyos ramodenime aTeuli), Sesabamisad didi qselebis SemTxvevaSi centrze datvirTva sagrZnoblad izrdeba.
7.2. infromaciis gacvlis
procesis
marTva
saltis
topologiaSi saltis top
ologiis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebelia agreTve centralizebuli marTva. erTerTi (“centraluri”) abonenti ugzavnis yvela danarCen (“periferiul”) abonents moTxovnebs, mmarTvel paketebs amave saltis meSveobiT, imis gasagebad Tu romelma unda gadasces. Semdgom nebas aZl
evs im abonents gadasces informacia. Uuflebis miRebis Semdgom abonenti gadascems sainformacio pakets imave saltis meSveobiT im abonets, romelsac surs gadasces. informaciis gadacemis dasrulebis Semdeg gadamcemi abonenti atyobinebs “centrs” amis Sesaxeb imav
e saltis meSveobiT, rom man daamTavra mmarTveli paketis gadacema. Aamis Semdgom “centri” isev gadascems moTxovnas (nax. 5.3)
Nnax.5.3
. centralizebuli marTva qselSi saltis topologiis SemTxvevaSi 6
am tipis marTvis Rirebulebebi da naklovanebebi igivea, ro
gorc varskvlavis SemTxvevaSi im gansxvavebiT, rom centri ar gadascems infromacias, aramed marTavs informaciis gacvlis process.
Uufro xSirad gamoiyeneba decentralizebuli SemTxveviTi marTvis meTodi, romlis SemTxvevaSi yvela abonentis qseluri adapteri erTnair
uflebiania. yvela abonents wvdomis Tanabari ufleba gaaCnia, e.i. topologiis Taviseburebebi am SemTxvevSi emTxveva marTvis meTodis Taviseburebebs. gadawyvetilebas, imaze Tu rodis unda gadaices paketi ama Tu im abonentisgan, iRebs yvela abonenti adgilze, gam
omdinare qselis mdgomareobis analizidan. magram am SemTxvevaSi warmoiqmneba konkurencia qselis dakavebaze da aqedan gamomdinare SesaZlebelia maT Soris konfliqtebi, informaciis damaxinjeba paketebis erTmaneTis gadafarvis gamo.
Aarsebobs mravali wvdomis a
lgoriTmi, anu wvdomis scenariebi, romlebic gamoirCevian sakmao sirTuliT. maTi amorCeva damokidebulia qselis gadacemis siCqareze, saltis sigrZeze, qselis datvirTvaze (gacvlis intensivobaze anu qselis trafikze), gadacemis kodze.
zogjer gacvlis samarTavad gam
oiyeneba damatebiTi kavSiris xazi, romelic amartivebs aparaturas da wvdomis MmeTods, magram SesamCnevad zrdis qselis Rirebulebas kabelis gaormagebiT da mimRebebisa da gadamcemebis raodenobis gazrdiT.
SemTxveviTi meTodebis arsi ki Zalian martivia: Tu qsel
i Tavisufalia (e.i. aravin agzavnis Tavsi paketebs), maSin abonents, romelsac survili aqvs gadasces, iwyebs gadacemas. wvdomis dro am SemTxvevSi nulis tolia.
Mmagram Tu Tu qseli dakavebulia, abonenti, romelsac surs gadasces paketebi, elodeba sanam qseli ar
ganTavisufldeba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi paketebi damaxinjdeba da daikargeba. xolo qselis ganTavisuflebis Semdeg abonenti iwyebs gadacemas. Kkonfliqturi situaciebis (paketebis dajaxeba, koliziebi), romlis drosac informacia maxinjdeba, SesaZlebelia or SemT
xvevaSi:
·
Tu ori an ramodenime abonenti erTdoulad iwyebs paketebis gadacemas, roca qseli Tavisufalia (nax.5.4). es situacia iSviaTia, magram aris SemTxvevebi.
7
·
Tu ori an ramodenime abonenti erTdoulad iwyebs paketebis gadacemas, qselis ganTavisuflebis Semdeg.
(nax.5.5.). es situacia ufro tipiuria, radganac erTi abonentis mier paketis gadacemis dros SesaZlebelia axali moTxovnebis gamoCena sxva abonentebisagan.
5.4
. koliziebi gadacemis dawyebisas Tavisufali qselis SemTxvevaSi
5.5
koliziebi
gadacemis dawyebi
sas
qselis ganTavisuflebis SemTxvevaSi
G(arbitraJis) gacvlis marTvis arsebuli SemTxveviTi meTodebi gamoirCevian imiTi, rom isini Tavidan icileben konfliqtebs da agvareben warmoqmnil konfliqtur situaciebs. AarcerTi konfliqti ar unda arRvevdes gacvlis proce
ss, yvela abonentma unda SeZlos Tavisi paketis gadacema.
8
Llokaluri qselebis ganviTarebis procesSi SemuSavda gacvlis SemTxveviTi meTodebi. arsebobs meTodebi, romlebmac ver hpoves farTo gamoyeneba. davaxasiaToT TiToeuli maTgani: decentralizebuli meTodi kodur
i prioritetiT
, romlis drosac kolizias ar ganicdis mxolod is abonentebi, romelta paketis TavsarTi ufro grZelia da isini gadascemen TavianT paketebs koliziebis gareSe, xolo danarCenebi koliziis SemTxvevaSi wyveten gadacemas da elodebian qselis ganTavisufleba
s. xolo koliziis sakontrolod yoveli abonenti informaciasa Tu monacemebs amowmebs bitobiT. es meTodi gamoirCeva dabali swrafqmedebiT da realizaciis sirTuliT.
Mmeore -
decentralizebuli meTodi
droiTi prioritetiT
. Aam meTodis dros
yoveli abonenti gadascems inf
ormacias ara qselis ganTavisuflebis momentSi aramed gansazRvruli dayovnebiT, rac Tavidan acilebs koliziebs da amiT minimumade dahyavs maTi saerTo ricxvi. Mmaqsimaluri prioritetiT sargeblos am SemTxvevaSi abonenti minimaluriYdayovnebiT. Ees meTodi kargad mu
Saobs mcire zomis qselebSi.
Oorive meTodi aris SemTxveviTi da xasiaTdebian prioritetebis sistemiT. SemTxveviTi prioritetebis SemTxvevaSi abonentebi imyofebian ara Tanabar pirobebSi, radganac maRali prioritetis mqone abonentebs SeuZliaT daublokon qseli daba
li prioritetis mqone abonentebs.
Pprioritetebis sistema gacvlis meTodebSi saltis topologiis SemTxvevaSi gamoricxulia. Mmag. cnobilia CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection –
mravaljeradi wvdoma gadamtanis kontroliT da koliziebis aRm
oCeniT) meTodi, romelic gamoiyeneba Ethernet
-
Si. Mmisi ZiriTadi Rirebuleba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom am SemTxvevaSi abonentebi sargebloben Tanabari uflebebiT da erTs ar SeuZlia daublokos qseli meores. Aam meTodis SemTxvevaSi xorcieldeba koliziebis ara Tavida
n acileba, aramed maTi mogvareba.
Aam meTodis arsi mdgomareobs SemdegSi: abonenti iwyebs gadacemas qselis ganTavisuflebis SemTxvevaSi. Tu warmoiqmneba koliziebi, maSin maT aRmoaCens yvela abonenti, ris Sedegadac isini wyveten gadacemas da iwyeben gadacemas
garkveuli intervalis Semdeg, romlis xangrZlivoba SemTxveviT ganisazRvreba. amitom ganmeorebiTi koliziebi naklebad SesaZlebelia. Kkidev erTi gavrcelebuli meTodi SemTxveviTi wvdomis -
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance –
mraval
jeradi wvdoma gadamtanis kontroliT da koliziebis Tavidan acilebiT) gamoiyeneba Apple LocalTalk qselebSi. Aabonenti qselis ganTavisuflebis 9
SemTxvevaSi agzavnis mokle mmarTvel pakets da elodeba gansaRvruli drois ganmavlobaSi sapasuxo mokle pakets mimRebi abo
nentisgan. Tu pasuxi ar aqvs, gadacema gadaideba. Tu pasuxi miiRo -
gadascems pakets. Kkoliziebis mTlianad Tavidan acileba ver xerxdeba. ZiriTadad erTmaneTs ejaxebian mmarTveli paketebi, romelTa gamovlena xdeba maRal doneebze.
Mmsgavsi meTodebi kargad muSa
oben qselSi informaciis gacvlis mcire intensivobis dros. kavSiris misaRebi xarisxis uzrunvelyofa SesaZlebelia qselis 30
-
40% datvrTvis SeTxvevaSi (e.i. roca qseli dakavebulia informaciis gadacemiT mTeli drois 30
-
40%
-
iT). Ddidi datvirTvis SemTxvevaSi ganmeor
ebiTi dajaxebebi ise xSirdeba, rom adgili aqvs kolapss anu qselis kraxs, romelic iwvevs misi mwarmoeblobis dacemas.
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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