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1
leqcia 9
. adresacia IP
-
qselebSi
. TCP/IP stekis misamarTebis tipebi
TCP/IP stekSi gamoiyeneba misamarTebis sami ti
pi: lokaluri (e.w. aparaturuli)
misamarTebi
, IP
-
misamarTebi da simboluri domenuri saxelebi.
TCP/IP terminologiaSi lokaluri misamarTis qveS igulisxmeba misamarTis tipi, romelic gamoiyeneba
sabazo teqnologiebis saSualebebis mier informaciis gadasacemad qveq
selSi, romelic warmoadgens Sedgenili qveqselis elements. sxvadasxva qveqselebSi gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva qseluri teqnologiebi, protokolebis sxvadsxva steki, amitomac TCP/IP stekis Seqmnisas SemoRebul iqna lokaluri misamarTebis sxvadasxva tipebi. Tu qveqseli lokaluri qselia maSin likalur misamarTs warmoadgens MAC
-
misamarTi. MAC
-
misamarTi ganisazRvreba qseluri adapterisa da marSrutizatorebis qseluri interfeisebis saSualebiT. MAC
-
misamarTebi ganisazRvreba mowyobilobis mwarmoeblis mier da aris unikaluri, radganac
maTi marTva xdeba centralizebulad. lokaluri qselis yvela arsebuli teqnologiebisaTvis MAC
-
misamarTs gaaCnia 6 baitiani formati, mag. 11
-
A0
-
17
-
3D
-
BC
-
01. radgan IP
protokols SeuZlia imuSaos ufro maRali donis protokolebTan, rogoricaa IPX da X.25. am SemTxveva
Si lokaluri misamarTi IP
protokolisaTvis iqneba Sesabamisad IPX da X.25 misamarTebi. unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom kompiuters lokaluri qselSi SeiZleba hqondes ramodenime lokaluri misamarTi erTi qseluri adapteris SemTxvevaSic. zogierT qseluri mowyobilobas ar ga
aCnia lokaluri misamarTi. mag., aseT mowyobilobebia marSrutizatorebis globaluri portebi, romlebic daniSnulia SesaerTeblad “wertili
-
wertili”. IP
-
misamarTi warmoadgens misamarTebis ZiriTad tips, romlis safuZvelzec qseluri done agzavnis paketebs qselebs Sori
s. es misamarTebi Sedgeba 4 baitisgan, mag. 109.26.17.100. IP
-
misamarTi ganisazRvreba administratoris mier kompiuterisa da marSrutizatorebis konfiguraciisas. IP
-
misamarTi Sedgeba ori nawilisgan: qselis nomrisa da kvanZis nomrisagan. qselis nomeri SeirCeva
administratoris mier nebismieri an Internet
-
is
(Internet Network Information Center, InterNIC) specialuri qveganyofilebis rekomendaviebis mixedviT, Tu qselma unda imuSaos, rogorc Internet
-
is Semadgenelma nawilma. Internet
-
is servisebis mimwodeblebi Cve
ulebriv misamrTebis diapazons iReben InterNIC
-
gan
da Semdgom anawileben TavianT abonentebs Soris. marSrutizatori gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad Sedis ramodenime qselSi da amitomac mis yovel ports gaaCnia sakuTari IP
-
misamarTi. saboloo kvanZi SeiZleba Sediodes ram
odenime IP
-
qselSi. am SemTxvevaSi kompiuters unda gaaCndes ramodenime IP
-
misamarTi qseluri kavSirebis ricxvis 2
mixedviT. maSasadame, IP
-
misamarTiT xasiaTdeba ara erTi calkeuli kompiuteri an marSrutizatori, aramed erTi qseluri SeerTeba. simboluri domenuri s
axelebi.
simbolurs saxelebs IP
-
qselebSi ewodeba domenuri da igeba ierarqiulad. sruli simboluri saxelebis Semadgenelebi IP
-
qselebSi iyofa wertiliT da maTi CamoTvla mimdinareobs Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT: saboloo kvanZis martivi saxeli, Semdgom kvanZebis jgufis
saxeli (mag., organizaciis saxeli, Semdgom ufro msxvili jgufis (qvedomenebis) saxeli da yvelaze maRali donis doemnis saxeli (mag. organizaciebis gamaerTianebeli domeni geografiuli TvalsazrisiT: RU
-
ruseTi, UK
-
didi britaneTi, SU
-
aSS). depmenur saxelad SeiZl
eba gamoyenebul iqnas base2.sales.zil.ru. domenur saxel
eb
sa da IP
-
misamrTebs Soris ar aris aranairi algoriTmuli Sesabamisoba, amitomac aucilebelia gamoyenebul iqnas damatebiTi cxrilebi da servisebi imisaTvis, rom qselis kvanZi erTmniSvnelovnad iqnas gansaz
Rvruli, rogorc doemnuri saxelebis mied, aseve IP
-
misamrTis mixedviTac. TCP/IP qselebSi gamoiyeneba specialuri gamanawilebebli momsaxureba, romelic adgens am Sesabamisobas qselis administratorebis mier Seqmnili Sesabamisobis cxrilis safuZvelze. amitomac dom
enur saxelebs agreTve uwodeben DNS
-
saxelebs. IP
-
misamarTebis klasebi
. IP
-
misamarTis sigrZe Seadgens 4 baits da Cveulebriv Caiwereba oTxi ricxvis saxiT, sadac yoveli baiti gamoisaxeba aTobiTi ricxviT, romlebic dayofilni arian wertilebiT. mag., 128.10.2.30 –
tradiciuli aTobiTi forma misamarTis warmosadgenad, 10000000 00001010 00000010 00011110 –
orobiTi forma amave misamarTisa.
misamarTi Sedgeba ori logikuri nawilisgan –
qselis nomrisa da qselSi kvanZis nomrisgan. misamarTis Tu romeli nawili miekuTvneba qsel
is nomers da romeli kvanZisas, ganisazRvreba misamarTis pirveli bitebis mniSvnelobebiT. am bitebis mniSvnelobebi ki gansazRvraven Tu romel klass miekuTvneba esa Tu is IP
-
misamarTi.
nax. 8.1
-
ze naCvenebia sxvadasxva klasebis IP
-
misamrTebis struqtura.
3
nax.
8.1. IP
-
misamarTis struqtura
Tu misamarTi iwyeba 0
-
iT, maSin is miekuTvneba A klass da am SemTxvevaSi qselis nomersi ikavebs 1 baits, xolod danarCeni nomrebi interpretirdeba, rogorc kvanZis nomeri. A klasis qselebs gaaCniaT nomrebi 0
-
dan 126
-
mde. (0 ar ga
moiyeneba, xolo 127 darezervebulia specialuri miznebisaTvis, razec gamaxvilebT yuradgebas mogvianebiT).
A klasis qselebi mcirea, xolo maTSi kvanZTa ricxvma SeiZleba miaRwios 2
24
-
s, anu 16777216
-
s.
Tu misamarTis pirveli ori biti tolia 10
-
is, maSin is miekuT
vneba B klass. B klasis qselebSi qselisa da kvanZis nomrebisTis gamoyofilia 16 16 biti anu 2 baiti. maSasadame B klasis qseli miekuTvneba saSualo sididis qsels kvanZebis maqsimaluri ricxvi romelSic tolia 2
16
-
is, romelic Seadgens 65 536 kvanZs.
Tu misamrTi iwyeba 110 mimdevrobiT, maSin is miekuTvneba C klass. am SemTxvevaSi qselis nomrisTvis gankuTvnilia 24 biti, xolo kvanZis nomrisTvis –
8 biti. am klasis qselebi ufro farTodaa gavrcelebuli. maTSi kvanZebis ricxvi SezRudulia 2
8
-
mde anu 256
-
mde.
4
Tu misamarTi iwyeba 1110 TanmimdevrobiT, maSin is miekuTvneba D klass da aRniSnavs gansakutrebul, jgufur misamrTs –
multicast.
Tu paketSi daniSnulebis misamarTad miTiTebulia D klasis misamarTi, maSin aseTi paketi unda miiRos yvela kvanZma, romlebsac miniWebuli aqvT moc
emuli misamarTi.
Tu misamarTi iwyeba 11110 TanmimdevrobiT, maSin is miekuTvneba E klass. am klasis misamrTebi darezervebulia momavalSi gamosayeneblad.
8.2 cxrilSi mocemulia qselebis nomrebi diapazoni da kvanZebis maqsimaluri ricxvi, romlebic Seesabameba qs
elebis yovel klass.
cxr.8.2. sxvadasxva klasis misamarTebis maxasiaTeblebi didi qselebs eniWebaT A klasis misamarTebi, saSualo zomis qselebs -
B klasis, xolo mcire zomis qselebs -
C klasis. gansakuTrebuli IP
-
misamarTebi
. IP
-
protokolSi arsebobs
ram
odenime SeTnxmeba IP
-
misamarTebi
s gansakuTrebul interpretaciaze.
........
maskebis gamoyeneba IP
-
damisamarTebaSi
5
IP
-
misamarTebi
tradiciuli sqemis mixedviT iyofa qselisa da kvanZis nomrebad klasis cnebis safuZvelze, romelic ganisazRvreba misamrTis pirveli bitebiT. Tu 185.23.44.206 misamarTis pirveli baiti Sedis 128
-
191 diapazonSi, maSin SeiZleba iTqvas, rom is miekuTvneba B
klass, e.i. qselis nomeria pirveli ori baiti, romelsac emateba ori nulovani baiti –
185.23.0.0, xolo kvanZis nomeria
-
0.0.44.206.
imisa
Tvis, rom ufro mosaxerxebeli iyos qselisa da kvanZis nomrebis gansxvaveba, SemoRebul iqna maTi ganmasxvavebeli niSani e.w. maska –
es aris ricxvi, romelic gamoiyeneba IP
-
misamarTTn erTad; maskas orobiTi forma Seicavs erTianebs sam Tanrigad, romlebic IP
-
mis
amarTSi gansazRvravs qselis nomers. radganac qselis nomeri Seadgens misamarTis mTel nawils, erTianebi maskaSi unda warmoadgendes uwyvet Tanmimdevrobas.
qselis standartuli klasebisaTvis maskebs gaaCniaT Semdegi mniSvnelobebi:
·
A klasi –
11111111.00000000.000
00000.00000000 (255.0.0.0);
·
B klasi -
11111111.
11111111.
00000000.00000000. (255.255.0.0);
·
C klasi -
11111111.
11111111.
11111111.00000000. (255.255.255.0);
maskis CanawerebSi gamoiyeneba sxva formatebic, mag., ufro mosaxerxebelia maskis mniSvnelobis Cawe
ra TeqvsmetobiT kodSi: FF.FF.00.00 –
maska B klasisaTvis. xSirad gamoiyeneba Semdegi formis Canaweric 185.23.44.206/16 –
am CanawerSi qselis nomrisaTvis gamoyofilia 16 orobiTi Tanrigi.
Tu yovel IP
-
misamarTSi gamoviyenebT maskas, maSin SeiZleba klasebis cn
ebaze uaris Tqma, ris Sedegadac damisamrTebis sistema ufro moqnili xdeba. mag., Tu zemoT ganxiluli misamarTi 185.23.44.206 asocirdeba 255.255.255.0 maskasTan, maSin qselis nomeri iqneba 185.23.44.0 da ara 185.23.0.0, rogorc es gansazRvrulia klasebis sistem
aSi.
maskebSi erTianebis ricxvi, romelic gansazRvravs qselis nomris sazRvars, ar aris aucilebeli 8
-
i jeradi iyos, rom gaimeoros misamrTis dayofa baitebad. mag., vTqvaT, 129.64.134.5 IP
-
misamrTisaTvis miTiTebulia maska 255.255.128.0 orobiT kodSi:
IP
-
misama
rTi 129.64.134.5 –
10000001.01000000.10000110.00000101
maska 255.255.128.0 –
11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000
maskis ignorirebiT klasebis sistemis mixedviT 129.64.134.5 misamarTi miekuTvneba B klass, xolo qselsi nomeri ki iqneba pirveli ori baiti -
129.6
4.0.0, xolo hostos nomeri –
0.0.134.5
6
8.1. IP
-
misamarTis daniSnuleba
IP
-
misamarTi (ai
-
pi misamarTi, Semokl. ingl. Internet Protocol Address
-
internet oqmis misamarTi
) –
lokalur qselSi an internetSi CarTuli mowyobilobis (rogorc wesi kompiuteris
) unikaluri identifikatoria (misamarTia). IP
-
misamarTi warmoadgens 32
-
bitur (
IPv4 versiiT) an 128
-
bitur (
IPv6 versiiT) orniSna ricxvs, romelic Caiwereba oTxi aTobiTi ricxvis saxiT (0
-
dan 255
-
mde), dayofils wertilebiT. mag., 192.168.0.1. (an 128.10.2.30 –
aTobiTi formaa, xolo amave misamarTis orobiTi formaa –
10000000 00001010 00000010 00011110)
IP
-
misamarTi eniWeba hostis qselis interfeiss anu qselur interfeisul kartas (
network interface card (NIC)
)
igive qseluri adapteri, romelic kompiuteris erT
-
erTi Sema
dgeneli mowyobilobaa. magaliTad saboloo momxmareblis mowyobilobebi qseluri interfeisebiT moicavs muSa sadgurebs (
workstation
), serverebs
, qselur printerebs, da IP
-
telefonebs (
IP phones
). serverebs SeiZleba hqondeT erTze meti NIC
da Sesabamisad
yovel maTga
ns calkeuli IP
-
misamarTi. marSrutizaciis interfeisebsac (
Router interfaces
), romlebic uzrunvelyofen kavSirs IP qselTan, SeiZleba gaaCndeT sakutari IP
-
misamarTi.
Yyoveli paketi, romelic gadaicema internetSi, Seicavs mimRebisa da gadamcemis IP
-
misamarTebs, r
omlebic saWiroa imisaTvis, rom miaRwios infromaciam adresatamde da ukan daubrundes pasuxi.
8.2. IP
-
misamarTis struqtura
IP
-
misamarTi –
es aris 32 bitis (nulebisa da erTebis) kombinacia (
IPv4)
. orobiTi IP
-
misamarTis wakiTxva Zalian rTulia da amitomac 3
2 biti iyofa 4 baitad (8 bitad), romlebsac uwodeben oqtetebs. 32 bitisgan Semdgari IP
-
misamarTis formati Zalian rTulia wasakiTxad, 7
Casawerad da dasamaxsovreblad da amitom, rom ufro advili gaxdes IP
-
misamarTis wakiTxva yoveli oqtetis warmodgena xdeba misi aTobiTi mniSvnelobiT, romlebic erTmaneTisgan gamoyofilia aTobiTi wertiliT. hostis IP
-
misamarTiT dakonfigurirebisas gamoiyeneba IP
-
misamarTis aTobiTi forma, rogoricaa 192.168.1.5. 32 bitiani IP
-
misamarTi ganisazRvreba IP
-
is me
-
4 versiiT (
IPv4
), romelic fa
rTod gamoiyeneba internetSi. 32
-
bitiani damisamrTebis sqema iyenebs sul 4 miliard IP
-
misamarTs. hosti Rebulobs IP
-
misamarTs 32
-
ve orobiTi bitis saxiT NIC
-
is mier, romelic Zalian rTulad gasagebia momxmareblisTvis da amitomac is gardaiqmneba misi eqvival
entur aTobiT oTx oqtetad. sadac TiToeuli oqteti Sedgeba 8 bitisgan, xolo yovel bits gaaCnia gansazRvruli mniSvneloba. marjvnidan pirveli bitis sidide 1
-
is tolia, xolo danarCeni bitebis mniSvnelobebi marjvnidan marcxniv tolia: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 da 128.
ga
nvsazRvroT oqtetis mniSvneloba: amisaTvis SevkriboT oqtetis mxolod is mniSvnelobebi, romlebic gamosaxulia orobiTi erTianiT. ·
Tu pozociis mniSvneloba 0
-
is tolia, maSin ar vamatebT am mniSvnelobebs.
·
Tu rvave biti 0
-
is tolia maSin 00000000
-
is mniSvneloba 0
-
is
tolia. ·
Tu rvave biti 1
-
is tolia maSin oqteti 255
-
is tolia (128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=255). ·
Tu oqteti Seicavs, rogorc erTebs aseve nulebs, mag., 00100111, maSin am oqtetis mniSvneloba tolia 39
-
is (32+4+2+1=39)
maSasadame, yoveli oqtetis mniSvnelobebi icvleba
0
-
dan 255
-
mde diapazonSi. (nax.8.1) 8
nax. 8.1
. IP
-
misamarTis gardaqmna orobiTidan aTobiTSi
8.3. IP
-
misamarTis Semadgeneli nawilebi
logikuri IP
-
misamarTi ierarqiulia da Sedgeba ori nawilisagan.. pirveli gansazRvravs qsels, xolo meore amave qsel
is hosts. mag. Tu hosts aqvs 192.168.18.57 IP
-
misamarTi, maSin pirveli sami oqteti gansazRvravs qsels (192.168.18), bolo oqteti (57) ki hosts. aseT damisamarTebas ewodeba ierarqiuli. 8.4. IP
-
misamarTebisa da Subnet maskebis urTierT
kavSiri
rogorc aRini
Sna, IP
-
misamarTi Sedgeba ori nawilisagan: qseluri da hostis nawilisagan, maTi erTmaneTisagan garCeva ki ekisreba Subnet maskeb
s
.
9
IP
-
hostis dakonfigurebisas IP
-
misamarTTan erTad moicema Subnet maskac, romelic aseve 32
-
bitiania, rogorc IP
-
misamarTi. Subnet maska ganasxvavebs IP
-
misamarTSi Tu romelia qselis nawili da romeli hostis.
nax.8.2. Subnet maskisa da IP
-
misamrTis Sedareba
Subnet maskisa da IP
-
misamrTis Sedareba xdeba marcxnidan marjvniv TiToeuli bitobiT. erTianebi Subnet maskaSi gansazRvraven q
selis nawils, 0
-
ebi ki hostis nawils. roca hosti agzavnis pakets, is adarebs Subnet maskas Tavis IP
-
misamarTTan da mimRebis IP
-
misamarTTan. Tu qseluri bitebi, rogorc gadamcemis aseve mimRebis Seesabameba erTmaneTs maSin orive imyofeba erT qselSi da pak
eti gadaecema adresats lokalurad. Tu ar Seesabamebian, maSin gadamcemi hosti am pakets gadaugzavnis routeris interfeiss sxva qselSi gadasagzavnad. S
ubnet
maskebi mcire da saSualo zomis qselebisaTvis gamoiyureba Semdegnairad: 255.0.0.0 (8
-
biti
),
255.255.0
.0 (16 biti
)
da 255.255.255.0 (24 biti
)
. 255.255.255.0 (aTobiTi) anu S
ubnet
10
maska 11111111.1
1111111.1111111.00000000 (orobiTi
)
iyenebs 24 bits qselis gansasazRvravad, xolo danarCeni 8 bitiT ganisazRvreba hosti amave qselSi.
Hhostebis ricxvi gamoiTvleba Sem
degnairad: hostebis bitebis ricxvi unda aviyvanoT 2
-
is xarisxSi anu (2
8
= 256)
. Aam ricxvs unda gamovakloT 2 (256
-
2=254). 2
-
ians imitom vaklebT, rom yvela 1
-
iani IP
-
misamrTis hostis nawilSi aris farToamuwyeblobiTi misamarTi (
broadcast address
) qselisaTvis da SeuZlebelia miniWebuli hqondes hostisTvis. xolo 0
-
ianebi hostis nawilSi miekuTvneba qsels da aseve SeuZlebelia mieniWos hosts. Mmeore meTodi hostebis ricxvis gansasazRvravad: SevkriboT hostis yvela SesaZlo biti (128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=255). Aam ricxvs ga
movakloT 1 (255
-
1=254), radganac hostis bitebi yvela ar SeiZleba iyos 1
-
is toli. Aaq ar aris aucilebeli gamovakloT 2, radganac 0
-
is mniSvneloba 0
-
ia da TavisTavad ar daemateba.
16
-
bitiani maskis SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs 16 biti (ori oqteti) hostis misamarTisaTvi
s da am SemTxvevaSi hostis misamarTi SeiZleba Seicavdes yvela 1
-
ians (255) TiToeul oqtetSi. Mmagram am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamoiyurebodes rogorc farTomauwyeblobiTi, magram radgan sxva oqteti ar Seicavs 1
-
ianebs, am SemTxvevaSi is namdvilad hostis misamarT
ia. 8.5. IP misamarTis klasebi
da Sesabamisi Subnet maskebi
IP misamarTis klasebi da Sesabamisi Subnet maskebi
muSaoben erTdroulad imisaTvis, rom ganisazRvros Tu IP misamarTis romeli nawili gamosaxavs qselis misamarTs da romeli hostisas.
IP misamarTebi iyofa 5 jgufad. A, B da C klasis misamarTebi komerciulia da
gamoiyeneba hostebisTvis
. D klasi daniSnulia farTomauwyeblobisTvis (
Multicast
)
, xolo
E klasi eqsperimentebisaTvis.
C klasis misamrTebs gaaCnia 3 oqteti qselis nawilisaTvis, xolo erTi hostisTvis. x
olo Sesabamisi Subnet maska Seicavs 24 bits (255.255.255.0). C klasis misamarTebi gamoiyeneba mcire maStabis qselebisaTvis.
11
B klasis misamrTebSi 2 oqteti gankuTvnilia qselis nawilisaTvis, meore ori ki hostebisTvis. Sesabamisi Subnet maska Seicavs 16 bits (255.255.0.0). B klasis misamarTebi gamoiyeneba saSualo maStabis qselebisaTvis.
A klasis misamarTSi mxolod erTi oqtetia gankuTvnili qselisaTvis, xolo danarCeni sami hostisTvis. Sesabamisi Subnet maska aris 8 bitiani (255.0.0.0). A klasis misamarTebi gamo
iyeneba didi organizaciebisaTvis.
IP
misamarTis klasi ganisazRvreba pirveli oqtetis mniSvnelobiT. mag. Tu IP misamarTis pirveli oqtetis mniSvneloba xvdeba 192
-
223 diapazonSi, maSin is miekuTvneba C klasis misamarTs. Mag. 200.14.193.67 C klasis misamarTia. (cxr.1.)
cxr. 8.1. IP misamarTis klasebi da Sesabamisi Subnet maskebi
12
8.6. Public and Private IP addresses
H
yovel hosts
, romelic SeerTebulia internetTan gaaCnia unikaluri
public
IP misamarTi. radganac 32
-
bitiani misamarTebis gansazRvruli raodenoba
a, arsebobs riski imisa, rom SeiZleba ar iyos sakmarisi.
erT
-
erTi gadawyvetileba am problemisa personaluri misamarTebis darezervebaa organizaciis SigniT, rac saSualebas aZlevs hostebs organizaciis SigniT hqondeT komunikaciis saSualeba erTmaneTTan unikaluri
IP misamarTis gareSe.
RFC 1918 standartia, romelic arezervebs misamarTebis ramodenime diapazons Sesabamisad yoveli klasisaTvis (
A,B,C
). rogorc cxr.8.2
-
Sia naCvenebi personaluri misamarTebi Seicaven erT A klasis qsels, 16 B klasis qsels da 256 C klasis qs
els. rac administrators aZlevs sakmao moqnilobas mianiWos Sida misamarTebi.
cxr.8.2.
misamarTis klasi
Ddarezervebuli qselebis ricxvi
Qqselis misamarTi A
1
10.0.0.0
B
16
172.16.0.0
-
172.31.0.0
C
256
192.168.0.0
-
192.168.255.0
D
d
id
qselebs SeuZli
aT A klasis personaluri qselis gamoyeneba, romelic iZleva 16 milionamde personaluri
(private)
misamarTebis
gamoyenebis saSualebas. saSualo zomis qselis SemTxvevaSi B klasis personalur qsels SeuZlia gamoiyenos 65
000
-
mde misamarTi.
saxlis an mcire zomis q
selis SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba C klasis personalur qsels, romelic 254
-
mde hostis saSualebas iZleva.
13
Ppersonalur misamarTebs iyeneben hostebi organizaciis SigniT, radganac isini pirdapir ar arian mierTebuli internetTan. Aamitomac personaluri misamarTebis ana
logiuri nakrebi SeiZleba gamoiyenos mravalma organizaciam. personaluri misamarTebi ar marSutirdeba
internetSi da amitomac is swrafad iblokeba ISP marSrutizatoris (
Router)
mier
.
Ppersonaluri misamarTebis gamoyeneba uzrunvelyofs dacvis gansazRvrul dones, rad
ganac es misamarTebi mxolod lokaluri qselisTvisaa cnobili, xolo auTsaiderebs ar aqvT maTTan pirdapiri wvdoma. M personaluri misamarTebi gamoiyeneba agreTve mowyobilobebis diagnostikuri testirebisaTvis. aseTi saxis misamarTi cnobilia, rogorc ukukavSiris mi
samarTi (
loopback address
). A klasis 127.0.0.0 qseli gamoiyeneba loopback
misamarTebisaTvis.
N
n
ax.8.3.
14
8.7. Unicast, Broadcast da Multicast misamarTebi
IP misamarTebi iyofa Semdeg kategoriebad: Unicast, Broadcast da Multicast misamarTebi. h
osti iyenebs Unicast
IP misamarTs erTi
-
erTTan komunikaciisas, Broadcast IP misamarTs erTi
-
bevrTan, xolo Multicast IP misamarTs erTi
-
yvelasTan.
Unicast
Unicast
misamarTi yvelaze zogadi tipia IP qselisa. paketi Unicast
misamarTiT daniSnulia specialuri hos
tisTvis. magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT hosti 192.168.1.5 IP misamarTiT (gadamcemi), romelmac gaagzavna moTxovna WEB gverdze serverisgan IP misamarTisgan 192.168.1.200 (mimRebi). Unicast
paketis gadacemis da miRebis momentSi mimRebis IP misamarTs Seicavs IP paketis TavsarTi. Sesabamisi mimRebis MAC misamarTi gamoisaxeba Ethernet frame
-
is TavsarTi. IP misamarTi da MAC misamarTi kombinirdeba monacemebis gadasacemad specialrui hostisTvis.
Nnax.8.4.
Unicast misamarTi
15
Broadcast
Broadcast
misamarTis SemTxv
evaSi paketi Seicavs mimRebis IP misamarTs, romelic Seicavs mxolod erTianebs hostis nawilSi. es niSnavs, rom yvela hosts lokalur qselSi SeuZlia miiRos da naxos peketebi. qseluri protokolebis umravlesoba, rogoricaa: ARP da DHCP iyeneben Broadcast
–
s. C klasis qsels 192.168.1.0 Sesabamisi subnet maskiT 255.255.255.0 aqvs Broadcast
misamarTi 192.168.1.255. hostis nawili aris, rogorc aTobiTi 255 aseve orobiTi 11111111 (yvela erTiania).
B klasis qsels 172.16.0.0 Sesabamisi subnet maskiT 255.255.0.0 aqvs Broa
dcast
misamarTi 172.16.255.255.
A klasis qsels 10.0.0.0 Sesabamisi subnet maskiT 255.0.0.0 aqvs Broadcast
misamarTi 10.255.255.255.
Broadcast
misamarTs qseluri nawilisTvis sWirdeba Sesabamisi Broadcast
MAC misamarTi Ethernet frame
-
Si. Ethernet
qselSi Broa
dcast
MAC
misamarTi gamoisaxeba 48 erTianiT TeqvsmetobiTi formiT FF
-
FF
-
FF
-
FF
-
FF
16
N
nax.8.5. Broadcast misamarTi
Multicast
Multicast
misamrTis meSveobiT gadamcemi pakets gadascems mowyobilobaTa jgufs.
mowyobilobebs, romelic miekuTvneb
a Mmulticast
jgufs mieniWeba M
Multicast
jgufis IP misamrTi. Multicast
misamrTis diapazoni Seadgens 224.0.0.0
-
dan 239.255.255.255
-
mde. e.i. Multicast
misamrTebi gamosaxaven misamarTebis jgufs (zogjer uwodeben hostis jgufebs), romlebic gamoiyeneba paketis m
imRebi. gadamcems ki yovelTvis Multicast
misamrTi gaaCnia.
Multicast
misamrTebis magaliTad SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas remote TamaSebi, roca moTamaSeebi TamaSoben daSorebul manZilze erT da igve TamaSs. meore magaliTi SeiZleba iyos distanciuri swavleba video
konferenciiT, sadac bevri studenti SeerTebulia erTi da igive klasTan.
rogorc unicast
an broadcast, aseve Multicast
IP misamrTebi saWiroeben Sesabamis MAC misamarTebs lokalur qselSi freimebis gadasagzavnad. Multicast
MAC misamrTi specialuri sididea, ro
melic iwyeba 01
-
00
-
5
E
(TeqvsmetobiTSi). 17
Nnax. 8.6. Multicast misamrTi
Nnax.8.7. Multicast misamrTi
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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