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4
statikuri IP misamarTi
statikuri IP misamarTi
s miniWebisas qselSi administratori TviTon akonfigurirebs qselis parametrebs TiToeuli hostisTvis, rogoricaa: hostis IP misamarTi
(
IP address
), qselis maska (
Subn
et mask
) da internetSi gasasvleli (
Default Gateway
).
statikur IP misamarTebs gaaCniaT garkveuli upiratesobebi. mag. maTi gamoyeneba gansakuTrebiT mosaxerxebelia printerebisTvis, serverbisaTvis da qselSi momuSave sxva mowyobilobebisaTvis, romlebic ukavSirde
bain momxmareblebs. Tu hosti ukavSirdeba servers gansazRvruli IP misamarTi
T, maSin am misamarTis Secvla ara aris mizanSewonili.
IP misamarTi
s statikurad gansazRvra zrdis qselis marTvis resursebs, magram sakmaod Sromatevadia qseluri parametrebis Seyvana TiT
oeuli hostisTvis cal
-
calke. xSiria Secdomebic am meTodis SemTxvevaSi.
statikuri IP misamarTi
s gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia zusti codna imisa Tu romeli IP misamarTi romel mowyobilobas mieniWa. statikuri IP misamarTebi mudmivi misamarTebia, romelTa xe
laxla gamoyeneba ar xdeba.
5
D
dinamiuri IP misamarTi lokalur qselebSi dRiTidRe matulobs momxmarebelTa ricxvi. qselis administratori aniWebs IP misamarTs yovel momxmarebels personalurad, amitomac ufro advilia IP misamarTebis avtomaturad miniWeba. es ki Ses
aZlebelia e.w. DHCP
(
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
)
protokolis mier.
DHCP
–
s gaaCnia meqanizmi, romelic avtomaturad aniWebs damisamrTebis (
addressing
) parametrebs, rogoricaa: IP misamarTi, qselis maska, qselSi gasasvleli da konfiguraciis sxva informa
cia.
DHCP
–
is eniWeba upiratesoba hostebisTvis I
P
misamrTebis miniWebisas didmaStabian qselebSi, radganac is umsubuqebs qselis administrators Sromas da amasTanave aRmoaCens Secdoembs.
meore Rirebuleba DHCP
–
isa is aris, rom I
P
misamarTi hosts eniWeba ar
a mudmivad, aramed is daqiravebulia drois gansazRvruli periodisaTvis. Tu hosti gamoirTo, maSin I
P
misamrTi brundeba rezervSi
SemdgomSi gamosayeneblad.
es ki mosaxerxebelia gansakuTrebiT mobiluri abonentebisaTvis.
DHCP serverebi
Tu Tqveni laptop
-
is DHCP
–
klienti ukavSirdeba DHCP
–
servers umavTulod, am SemTxvevaSi laptop
-
s eniWeba I
P
misamrTi DHCP
–
serveris mier.
DHCP
–
serveri SeiZleba iyos nebismier mowyobiloba, romelic gamoiyenebs DHCP
servisul programul uzrunvelyofas. ufro met SemTxvevbSi DHCP
–
serve
rad gamoiyeneba gamoyofili lokaluri PC serveri.
saSinao qselebis SemTxvevaSi DHCP
–
servers marTavs
ISP
(Internet Service Provider),
xolo hosti IP konfiguracias iRebs pirdapir ISP
-
gan.
saSinao da mcire biznesis qselebis umravlesoba iyenebs integrirebul rou
ters ISP modemTan SesaerTeblad. am SemTxvevaSi integrirebuli routeri aris rogorc klienti, aseve 6
serveri. integrirebuli routeri asrulebs klientis rols da iRebs IP konfiguracias ISP
-
gan, xolo Semdeg ki iqceva, rogorc DHCP serveri lokaluri qselis Sida hostebi
saTvis.
nax.8.2.1. qselis organizacia saSinao da mcire biznesisatvis
A
DH
DHCP konfiguracia
hostis pirvelad dakonfigurirebisas, rogorc DHCP klientis, mas ar gaaCnia arc IP misamarTi, arc qselis maska da arc qselSi gasasvleli. is iRebs am informac
ias DHCP serverisagan an ISP
-
gan. DHCP serveri dakonfigurirebulia IP misamarTebis
gansazRvruli diapazoniT
, romlebic unda mianiWos DHCP klientebs.
hosts, romelsac unda miiRos IP
misamarTi agzavnis DHCP Discover
Sety
obinebas
anu broadcast
-
s mimRebis Semdegi IP
misamarTiT 255.255.255.255 (32 erTiania)
da mimRebis MAC misamarTiT FF
-
FF
-
FF
-
FF
-
FF
-
FF (48 erTiani
). qselis yvela hosti miiRebs am DHCP frame
-
s, magram mxolod DHCP serveri upasuxebs
DHCP IP misamarTis SemoTavazebiT klientisaTvis. hosti ki ugzavnis moTxo
vnas SemoTavazebul IP misamarTze, serveri ki pasuxobs DHCP
dadasturebiT.
7
DH
nax.8.2.3.
hostis DHCP konfiguracia
saSinao da mcire biznesis qselebis umravlesobisaTvis mravalfunqciuri mowyobiloba uzrunvelyofs DHCP servise
bs lokaluri qselis klientTaTvis
. misamrTebis marTva
Q
q
selis sazRvrebi da samisamarTo sivrce
routeris meSveobiT (romelic uzrunvelyofs qselSi gasasvlels) erTi qselis hostebi ukavSirdebian sxva qselis hostebs. routeris yoveli interfeisi SeerTebulia sxva qselTan.
IP misamarTi, romelic mini
Webuli aqvs interfeiss, gansazRvravs Tu romeli lokaluri qseli uerTdeba mas.
8
erT qselSi CarTul yovel hosts SeuZlia gamoiyenos sxva qselSi gasasvleli. Amitomac, yovelma hostma unda icodes im routeris interfeisis IP misamarTi, romelTanac is aris mie
rTebuli. Aam misamarTs ewodeba qselSi gasasvlelis misamarTi (
default gateway address
). romelic hostze SeiZleba dakonfigurirdes, rogorc statikurad, aseve miiRos dinamiurad DHCP
-
gan.
roca integrirebuli routeri dakonfigurirebulia, rogorc DHCP serveri lokalur
i qselisaTvis, is avtomaturad ugzavnis hosts interfeisis koreqtul IP misamarTs, rogorc default gateway address
-
s. aqedan gamomdinare, qselSi myof yvela hosts SeuZlia isargeblos am IP misamarTiT da gaugzavnos Setyobinebebi im hostebs, romlebic ganlagebuli arian ISP
-
ze da daukavSirnen internetSi CarTul hostebs. integrirebuli routerebi, rogorc wesi, gamoiyeneba rogorc
DHCP
serverebi.
Llokaluri routeris interfeisis IP misamarTi hostis dakonfigurirebisas xdeba default gateway
-
is
misamarTiT, romelic SeiZleba m
ieniWos mas, rogorc statikurad aseve
DHCP
-
is mier.
9
roca integrirebuli routeri konfigurirdeba, rogorc
DHCP
serveri, is uzrunvelyofs Tavisi sakuTar IP misamarTs, rogorc default gateway
–
is DHCP
klientebisaTvis da garda amisa, Sesabamisi IP misamarTiTa da qs
elis maskiT.
misamarTebis miniWeba
integrirebuli routeri asrulebs DHCP
serveris funqciebs masTan mierTebuli lokaluri hostebisaTvis, imisda miuxedavad Tu rogor arian dakavSirebuli masTan Ethernet
kabeliT Tu ukabelod. Ees hostebi SeiZleba iyos, rogorc in
ternetSi CarTuli hostebi, aseve Sida qselis hostebi. DHCP
serverebis umetesoba dakonfigurirebulia Sida (
private
) misamarTebis misaniWeblad hostebisTvis Sida qselSi. rac iZleva imis garantias, rom Sida qselSi pirdapiri SeRweva SeuZlebelia internetidan. L
lokaluri ingrirebuli routeris interfeisze dakonfigurirebuli IP misamarTi Cveulebriv C klasis Sida misamarTia. rogorc integrirebulma routerma, misamarTebi hostebs SeiZleba mieniWoT imave qselSi, rogorc statikuri dakonfigurebiT, aseve DHCP
-
is meSveobiT. inte
grirebuli routeri (roca dakonfigurirebulia, rogorc DHCP serveri) misamarTebs aniWebs amave diapazonidan. agreTve uzrunvelyofs qselis maskiT da sakuTar interfeisis IP misamarTs, rogor default gateway
-
is
.
10
ISP
-
is umravlesoba iyenebs
DHCP
serverebs interne
tSi rom mianiWos IP misamarTebi integrirebul routers, romelic dainstolirebulia momxmareblis mxridan. q
seli, romelic uerTdeba routers internetis mxridan, ewodeba gare qseli. r
oca
integrirebuli routeri SeerTebulia ISP
-
Tan is, Cveulebriv rogorc DHCP
klienti
iRebs koreqtul gare qselis IP misamarTs internetis interfeisisaTvis. ISP
-
ebi uzrunvelyofen internet
-
marSrutirebad misamarTebs, rac saSualebas aZlevs hostebs daukavSirdnen integrirebul routers, raTa hqondes wvdoma internetSi. integrirebuli routeri aris sa
zRvari lokalur qselsa da gare intentes Soris.
Aarsebobs mravali gza riTac hosti uerTdeba ISP
-
s da internets. individualuri hosts SeiZleba miniWebuli hqondes an Sida an gare misamarTi imaze damokidebulebiT Tu ra saxis SeerTebaa.
P
pirdapiri kavSiri (
Direct C
onnection
)
zogierT momxmarebels gaaCnia mxolod erTi kompiuteri, romliTac is pirdapir ukavSirdeba ISP
-
s modemis meSveobiT. am SemTxvevaSi
ISP DHCP serverisgan erTeul hosts miniWebuli aq gare (
public
) misamarTi.
11
kavSiri integrirebuli routeris meSveobiT
roca
ramodenime hosti saWiroebs kavSirs internetTan, maSin
ISP
modemi ukavSirdeba ara calkeul kompiuters, aramed integrirebul routers. Ees saSualebas iZleva Seiqmnas saSinao an mcire biznes qseli. integrirebuli routeri iRebs gare IP misamarTs ISP
-
gan. xolo Sid
a hostebi iReben Sida misamarTebs integrirebuli routerisgan. kavSiri gateway mowyobilobis meSveobiT
gateway mowyobilobebi
integrirebuli routerisa da modemisgan Semdgari kombinirebuli mowyobilobaa da pirdapir ukavSirdeba ISP serviss. rogorc integrirebuli
modemi gateway mowyobil
oba iRebs gare misamarTs ISP
-
gan xolo Sida kompiuterebi iReben Sida misamarTebs amave mowyobilobisagan.
12
saSinao da mcire biznes qslebis Seqmna
qseluri misamarTebis gardaqmna (
NAT,
Network Address Translation)
integrirebuli routeri iRebs
gare misamarTs ISP
-
gan, romlis meSveobiTac is agzavnis da iRebs paketebs internetiT, romelic, Tavis mxriv, Sida misamarTebiT
uzrunvelyofs
lokaluri qselis klientebs. aqedan gamomdinare Sida IP misam
arTebs ara qvT wvdoma internetTan, amitom saWiroa Sida IP misamarTebis gare misamarTad gardaqmna, rom lokalur klientebs saSualeba hqondeT internetTan kavSiris. 13
process, romelic gardaqmnis Sida misamarTebs marSrutirebad internet
-
misamarTebad, ewodeba qselu
ri misamarTebis gardaqmna (
Network Address Translation, NAT).
NAT
-
is meSveobiT Sida (lokaluri) gadamcemis (source
)
IP
misamarTi gardaiqmneba gare (globalur) misamarTad. Semomavali paketebis SemTxvevaSi mimdinareobs ukuprocesi. integrirebuli routeri gardaq
mnis Sida IP misamarTebs gare IP misamarTebad NAT
-
is meSveobiT.
mxolod paketebs, romlebic daniSnulia sxva qselebisaTvis saWiroeben gardaqmnas. paketebi gaivlian gateway
-
Si, sadac integrirebuli routeri gadamcemi hostebis Sida IP misamarTebs gardaqmnis Tavi
anTive gare IP misamarTebad.
damisamadTeba da CIDR
teqnologia
domenebs Soris uklaso marSrutizaciis teqnologia (
Classless Inter
-
Domain Routing, CIDR
), romelic aRwerilia RFC 1517, RFC 1518, RFC1519, RFC1520
dokumentebSi
da romlis Sesaxeb pirvelad 1993 we
ls aRiniSna, saSualebas aZlevs misamarTebis danawilebis centrebs Tavidan aicilon abonentebisaTvis zedmeti misamarTebis gacema.
IP
-
misamarTis dayofa qselisa da kvanZis nomrad CIDR
teqnologiaSi xdeba ara ramodenime ufros baitze dayrdnobiT, romlebic gansazR
vraven klass (A,B an
C
) aramed cvalebadi sigrZis mqone maskaze dayrdnobiT, romelic muSavdeba momsaxurebis momwodeblis mier.
CIDR
-
is gamoyenebis aucilebeli piroba aris misamarTebis uwyveti diapazoni, romelic maT gamanawilebel dawesebulebebs gaaCniaT. aseT m
isamarTebs gaaCniaT erTnairi prefiqsebi anu erTnairi cifrebi ramodenime ufros TanrigSi. momsaxureblis momwodeblebis gankargulebaSi aris
IP
-
misamarTebis uwyveti diapazoni 2
n raodenobiT. aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom prefiqsis sigrZea (32
-
n
). darCenili n Tnarig
ebi asruleben nomris mimdevrobis mTvlelis rols.
rodesac momxmarebeli mimarTavs momwodebels misamarTebis raRac raodenobis misaRebad, misamarTebis arsebul “
пуле”
-
Si xdeba S1, S2
da
S3
midamoebis amoWra, moTxovnis raodenobis Sesabamisad. amasTan unda Sesruldes ramodenime piroba:
·
gamoyofil midamoSi misamarTebis raodenoba unda iyos oris xarisxis toli.
14
·
gamoyofili “
пуле”
-
is dasawyisi sazRvari erTerTi mTavari amo
cana romelic
TCP/IP protokolis Seqmnis dros dRis wesrigSi idga aris Semdegi; uzrunvelyofili iqnas iseTi qselis SeTanxmebuli, erToblivi muSaoba romelic sxvadasxva qveqselebisagan da sxvadasxva teqnologiebisagan Segdeba. yovel marSrutizatorze
IP
-
protokoli, g
ansazRvravs romel momdevno marSrutizators unda gadasces paketi. am pirobis gadawyvetisas IP
-
protokoli igebs Semdegi marSrutizatoris IP
-
mosamarTs. imisaTvis rom qselis lokalurma teqnologiam SeZlos paketi gasadces momdevno marSrutizators saWiroa:
·
paketi moTa
vsdes mocemuli teqnologisaTvis damaxasiaTebel kadrSi;
·
miRebuli kadri aRiWurvos momdevmo marSrutizatoris lokaluri misamarTiT.
misamarTebis nebarTvis protokoli
rogorc ukve aRiniSna aranairi damokidebuleba lokalur misamarTsa da
IP
-
misamarTs Soris ar arsebob
s, aqedan gamomdinare maT Soris Sesabamisobis dadgenis erTaderTi gza aris cxrilebis SemoReba. qselis konfiguraciis Semdeg yvela interfeisma icis Tavisi
IP
-
misamarTi da lokaluri misamarTi, rac SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc cxrili romelic mxolod erTi xazisgan S
edgeba. problema mdgomarebs imaSi Tu rogor moxdeba informaciis gacvilis ogranizeba qselis kvanZebs Soris.
lokaluri misamarTis gansazRvrisaTvis
IP
-
misamarTze dayrdnobiT gamoiyeneba misamarTebis nebarTvis protokoli (
Adress Resolution Protokol, APR
). es prot
okoli realizebulia sxvadasxva formiT imis mixedviT, muSaobs Tu ara mocemul qselSi lokaluri protokoli, farTemauwyeblobis SesaZleblobiT an globaluri qselis romelime protokoli, romlebic rogorc wesi, ar uzrunvelyofen farTemauwyeblobas.
ganvixiloT APR
-
is muSaob
a farTesamauwyeblo lokalur qselebSi.
warmovidginiT
IP
-
qselis fragmenti, romelis moicavs or qsels Ethernet1 (
sami saboloo kvanZi
A,B da
C) da Ethernet2 (
ori saboloo kvanZi
D da
E). qselebi Sesabamisad uerTdeba
1 da
2 marSrutizatoris interfeisebs. yovel qse
lur interfeiss aqvs Tavisi
IP
-
misamarTi da
MAC
-
misamarTi. davuSvaT rom raRac momentSi C
kvnaZis
IP
-
moduli ugzavnis pakets
D
kvanZs.
C
kvanZis
IP
-
protokolma gansazRvra Semdegi marSrutizatoris interfeisi
–
IP1. Semdeg sanam moxdeba paketis SefuTva
Ethernet
k
adrSi da marSrutizatorTan gagzavna auciliebelia misi MAC
misamarTis dadgena. amisaTvis
IP
-
protokoli mimarTavs APR
-
s. APR protokoli qseluri 15
adaptoris yvela interfeisSi mxars uWers
APR
-
cxrils, romelSic qselis funqcionirebisas grovdeba informacia IP
-
misamarTe
bisa da
MAC
-
misamarTebis Sesabamisobaze. kompiuteris an marSrutizatoris CarTvisas misi A
APR
-
cxrili sufTaa.
1.
pirvel nabijze
IP
-
protokolis mier
APR
-
isTvis xdeba daaxloebis Semdegi Senaarsis Setyobinebis gadacema “romeli
MAC
-
misamarTs aqvs interfeisi
IP1
misa
marTiT?”
2.
APR
-
protokolis muSaoba iwyeba Sesabamisi interfeisis APR
-
cxrilis SemowmebiT. davuSvaT rom mis CanawerebSi ar moipoveba Sesabamisi Canaweri.
3.
am SemTxvevaSi moxdeba dawyebiTi
IP
-
paketis, romlisTvisac SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda lokaluri misamarTis miReba
AP
R
-
cxrilisad, damaxsovreba buferSi. xolo
APR
-
protokoli ayalibebs
APR
-
SekiTxvas, debs mas
Ethernet
protokolis kadrSi da farTemauwyeblobiT agzavnis.
4.
Ethernet1 qselis yvela interfeisi iRebs APR
-
SekiTxvas da gadaumisamarTebs mas “Tavis” APR
protokols. APR proto
koli adarebs SekiTxvaSi miTiTebul IP1 misamarTs interfeisis IP
-
misamarTs romelizedac movida SekiTxva. APR protokoli romelmac moaxdina damTxvevis konstatacia axdens APR pasuxis formirebas.
APR pasuxSi marSrutizatori uTiTebs lokalur
MAC1
misamarTs. amSemTxv
evaSi farTesamauwyeblo pasuxi ar aris saWiro, radgan APR formati iTvaliswinebs gamgzavnis lokaluri da qseluri misamarTebis vels. unda aRiniSnos rom
APR
-
SekiTxvis gavrceleba Semoifargleba Ethernet1
-
iT, radgan kadrebis farTosamauwyeblo gzaze dgas marSrutizat
ori.
1.1 naxazze naCvenebia
Ethernet
-
is kadri APR
-
SetyobinebiT
. APR
-
SekiTxvebs da APR
-
sasuxebs aqvT erTnairi formatebi. 1.2 cxrilSi magaliTis saxiT moyvanilia APR
-
SekiTxvis realuri mniSvnelobebi, romelic gadaicema
Ethernet
qselSi.
nax1.1
Ethernet kadri
Ethernet saTauri
APR
-
SekiTxva an APR -
pasuxi
nax1.2 APR
-
SekiTxvis magaliTi 16
veli
mniSvneloba
qselis tipi
1(1X0)
protokolis tipi
2048 (0X800)
lokaluri misamarTis sigrZe
6(0X6)
qseluri misamarTis sigrZe
4(0X4)
operacia
1(0X1)
gamgz
avnis lokaluri misamarTi
008048
EB7E60
gamgzavnis qseluri misamarTi 194.85.135.75 mimRebis lokaluri misamarTi
000000000000
mimRebis qseluri misamarTi
194.85.135.65
qselis tipis velSi
Etnernet
-
is qselebisaTvis miTiTebulia 1. protokolis tipis veli saS
ualebas iZleva
APR
-
protokoli gamoyenebuli iqnas aramxolod
IP
-
protokoli aramed sxva qselur protokolebTan
. IP
-
saTvis misi mniSvneloba 0X0800. lokaluri misamarTis sigrZe Etnernet
-
is protokolisaTvis udris 6 baits, xolo
IP
-
misamarTis sigrZe 4 baiti. operaciis v
elisaTvis APR
-
SekiTxvebisaTvis udris 1, xolo pasuxebisaTvis 2.
A
pasuxs agzevnis kvanZi, romelmac icno Tavisi
IP
-
misamarTi. Tuki qselSi ar aris manqana am
IP
-
misamarTiT, maSin
APR
-
pasuxic ar iqneba
. IP
-
protokoli anadgurebs
IP
-
pakets, romelic am misamarTze igzavneboda. qvemoT cxrilSi moyvanilia
APR
-
pasuxi romelic romelic SeiZleboda gascemoda zemoT moyvenil SekiTxvas.
veli
mniSvneloba
qselis tipi
1 (0X1)
protokolis tipi
2048(0X800)
17
lokaluri misamarTis sigrZe
6(0X6)
qseluri misamarTis sigrZe
4(0X4)
opera
cia
1(0X1)
gamgzavnis lokaluri misamarTi
00E0F77F1920
gamgzavnis qseluri misamarTi
194.85.135.65
mimRebis lokaluri misamarTi
008048
EB7E60
mimRebis qseluri misamarTi
194.85.135.75
APR
-
Setyobinenenis gacvlis Sedegad gamgzavnma romelsac Semdegi misamar
Ti aqvs 194.85.135.75, gaarkvia, rom 194.85.135.65 misamarTs Seesabameba Semdegi
MAC misamarTi 00E0F77F1920. es misamarTi moTavsdeba Ethernet kadris saTaurSi .
imisaTvis rom qselSi APR
-
Setyobinebebis ricxvi Semcirdes.
MAC
-
misamarTsa da
IP
-
misamarTs Soris napovni Sesabamisoba inaxeba Sesabamisi interfeisis
APR
-
cxrilSi
-
es Canaweria: 194.85.135.65
-
00E0F77F1920
mocemuli Canaweri APR
-
cxrilSi Cndeba avtomaturad , ramodenime miliwamis Semdeg rac APR
moduli
APR
-
pasuxs gaaanalizebs. axla rodesac saWiro iqneba am misamarTze Setyobinebis gagzavna IP
-
protokoli jer Seamowmebs Tavis cxrils xom ar moepoveba mas es misamarTi.
APR
-
cxrili
ivseba ara mxolod mocemul interfeisze Semoseli
APR
-
pasuxebis xarjze aramed farTosamauwyeblo APR
-
SekiTxvebidan
sasargeblo informaciis mi
RebiT. marTlac yoveli SekiTxva rogorc es cxrilebidan Cans Seicavs gamgzavnis IP
-
misamarTs da MAC
-
misamarTs. yvela interfeiss , romelic am SekiTxvas iRebs, SeuZlia Tavis APR
-
cxrilSi moaTavsos informacia gamgzavnis lokaluri da qseluri misamarTebis Sesabamis
obis Sesaxeb. anu yvela kvanZs romelic miiRebs am APR
-
SekiTxvas SeuZlia Tavisi APR cxrili Semdegi informaciiT Seavsos 194.85.135.75
-
008048
EB7E60
aqedan gamomdinare
ARP
-
cxrili romelSic Caemateba Cvens mier naxsenebi misamarTebi Semdeg saxes miiRebs
18
APR
-
cx
rilis magaliTi IP
-
misamarTi
MAC
-
misamarTi
Caweris tipi
194.85.135.65
00E0F77F1920
dinamikuri
194.85.135.75
008048
EB7E
60
dinamikuri
194.85.60.21
008048EB7567
statikuri
APR
-
cxrilebSi arsebobs ori tipis Cawera: dinamikuri da statikuri. statikuri Cawera
xdeba xeliT apr
-
is daxmarebiT
da ara aqvs daZvelebis dro, ufro swored is arsebobs manam sanam kompiuteri an marSrutizatori CarTulia. dinamikuri Canawerebi periodulad unda ganaxldes. Tu Canawerebi ar ganaxldeba raRac garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi (praqtikul
ad ramodenime wuTSi), maSin is amovardeba cxrilidan. ase rom APR _cxrilSi inaxeba Canawerebi ara yvela kvanZis Sesaxeb aramed mxolod maT Sesaxeb vinc aqtiurad monawileobs operaciebSi. radgan informaciis Senaxvis aseT meTods uwodeben qeSirebuls, APR
-
cxrileb
s zogjer
APR
-
qeSsac uwodeben. misamarTebis daSvebis sruliad sxva meTodi gamoiyeneba globalur qselebSi, sadac mxars ar uWeren farTosamauwyeblo gagzavnas. aq qselis administrators yvelaze xSirad uwevs
APR
-
cxrilebis xeliT Seqmna da maTi moTavseba romelime s
erverze. am cxrilSi mas mohyavs Sesabamisoba magaliTad
IP
-
misamarTebsa da X.25
-
s Soris romelsac IP
-
protokolisTvis lokaluri misamarTis mniSvneloba eqneba. amave dros dResdReobiT aRiniSneba
APR
protokolis muSaobis avtomatizaciis tendencia globalur qselebSic
. am mizniT yvela marsrutizatorebSi romlebic SeerTebulni arian globalur qselSi gamoyofilia erTi specialuri marSrutizatori romelic awarmoebs
APR
-
cxrils.
aseTi centralizebuli midgomisas yvela kvanZisa Tu marSrutizatorisaTvis saWiroa xeliT mxolod
, am miznisT
vis gamoyofili marSrutizatoris
IP
-
misamarTis da lokaluri misamarTis miTiTeba. CarTvisas yoveli kvanZi da marSrutizatori aregistrireben TavianT misamarTs gamoyofil marSrutizatorSi. yovelTvis rodesac Cndeba
IP
-
misamarTze dayrdnobiT lokaluri misamarTis gannsa
zRvris aucilebloba
APR mimarTavs gamoyofil marSrutizators 19
SekiTxviT da avtomaturad iRebs pasuxs administratoris monawileobis gareSe. aseTi saxiT momuSave marSrutizators uwodeben
ARP
-
servers.
zogierTs SemTxvevaSi Cndeba Sebrunebuli amocana –
IP misamarTis povna ukve cnobili lokaluri misamarTis meSveobiT. am SemTxvevaSi moqmedebs APR
reversuli protokoli
(Reverse Addree Resolution Protokol, RAPR)
es protokoli gamoiyeneba magaliTad udisko sadguris startisas, romlebmac sawyis momentSi ar ician TavianTi
IP
-
misam
arTi, magram ician TavianTi qseluri adapteris
MAC
-
misamarTi.
PROXY
-
APR
protokoli
es protokoli
APR
protokolis erTerTi nairsaxeobaa, romelic saSualebas iZleva , aireklos
IP
-
misamarTebi qselSi aparatul misamarTebze, romlebic mxars uWeren garTomauwyeblobas im SemTxvevaSic ki rodesac saWiro kvanZi imyofeba koliziis domenis farglebs gareT.
vrclad mas mogvianebiT ganvixilavT exla sakmarisia vicodeT rom saboloo kvanZi am SemTxvevaSi flobs yvela im SesaZleblobebs rasac kompiuteri, romelic
Ethernet
qselis ZiriTad
nawilSi muSoabs, sakuTriv mas gaaCnia
IP
misamarTi
IPD, romelic igive qsels miekuTvneba
. Etnernet
qselis yvela saboloo kvanZisaTvis daSorebuli kvanZis SeerTebis ganskakuTrebuloba (modemebis arseboba, komutirebuli kavSiri,
PPP
protokoli) absoluturad gamWvir
valea_ isini urTierTqmedeben maTTan Cveulebrivad. imisaTvis rom urTierTqmedebis es reJimi SesaZlebeli iyos saWiroa Proxy
-
APR.
radgan daSorebuli wertili SeerTebulia PPP protokoliT mas ar gaaCnia
MAC
-
misamarTi.
davuSvaT rom danarTi romelic miSaobs magaliTad
C kompiuterze ugzavnis pakets
D kompiuters. man icis daniSnulebis kvanZis
IP
-
misamarTi, magram rogorc Cven ukve aRvniSneT, paketis
Ethernet
qselSi gadasacemad igi unda SeifuTos
Ehternet
kadrSi da aRiWurvos MAC
-
misamarTiT
. MAC
misamarTis gasarkvevad
C
kvan
Zis
IP
protokoli mimarTavs
APR, is ugzavnis mas farTosamauwyeblo APR
-
SekiTxvas. Tu am qselSi marSrutizatorze ar iqneboda dayenebuli Proxy
-
APR,
am SekiTxvas ar upasuxebda arc erTi kvanZi.
20
magram Proxy
-
APR
protokoli dayenebulia, marSrutizatorze da muSaobs S
emdegnairad. qselSi daSorebuli D kvanZis CarTvisas marSrutizaciis
APR
-
cxrilSi Sedis Canaweri IPD –
MAC1
-
int2, romelic niSnavs rom:
·
marSrutizatorSi APR
-
SekiTxvis miRebisas IPD misamarTis mimarT
APR
-
pasuxSi iqneba moTavsebuli MAC1
aparatuli misamarTi, romeli
c Seesabameba marSrutizatoris
1 interfeisis misamarTs.
·
kvanZi romelsac aqvs misamarTi IPD, SeuerTda marSrutizatoris inerfeiss2.
C kvanZis mier gagzavnili
farTesamauwyeblo
APR
-
SekiTxvze pasuxobs marSrutizatori,romelzec dayenebulia Proxy
-
APR
protokoli. is a
gzavnis “tyuil” APR
-
pasuxs sadac D kompiuteris aparatuli mismarTis nacval aTavsebs Tavis misamarTs MAC1. C
kvanZi, romelic “Secvlas” ver xvdeba agzavnis
IP
-
pakets
MAC1
mismamarTze. am kadris miRebisas marSrutizatori “xvdeba” rom is mas ar ekuTvnis (paketSi
miTiTebulia sxvisi
IP
-
misamarTi) da Sesamisad saWiroa misi moZebna
APR
-
cxrilSi. cxrilidan Cans rom kadri unda gaegzavnos meore interfeiss.
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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