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network 11

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1
leqcia.11
. TCP/IP –
is etalonuri modeli
ganvixiloT
etalonuri modeli, romelic gamoiyeneboda ARPAN
ET
qselSi (pirveli globaluri qseli, Tanamedrove internet qselis winapari). ARPANET
iyo
kvleviTi qseli, romelsac afinansebda amerikis Tavdacvis saministro. man gaaerTiana aTasobiT universitetebi da samTavrobo Senobebi gamoyofili satelefono xazebis saSualebi
T. roca gamoCndnen satelituri da radio
-
qselebi, arsebuli protokolebis meSveobiT didi problemebi Seiqmna am qselebis sxva qselebTan dasakavSireblad. saWiro gaxda axali etalonuri arqiteqturis Seqmna, romelmac mogvianebiT miiRo saxelwodeba TCP/IP –
is etalonur
i modeli am ori ZiriTadi protokolis mixedviT. radganac Tavdacvis saministro wuxda imaze, rom mniSvnelovani hostebi, marSutizatorebi (
router
) da qselTaSorisi Sluzebi (
Gateway
) SeiZleboda myisierad ganadgurebuliyo. amitom meore mniSvnelovani amocana, romeli
c warmoiSva am problemis mosagvareblad mdgomareobda SemdegSi: SesaZlebeli gamxdariyo qsels gaegrZelebina muSaoba qseluri aparaturis mwyobridan gamosvlis SemTxvevaSic ise, rom kavSiri ar gawyvetiliyo anu qsels ar Seewyvita funqcionireba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, Tavdacvis saministro moiTxovda, rom kavSiri ar gawyvetiliyo manam, sanam funqcionirebdnen gadamcemi (
Source
) da mimRebi (
Destination
) manqanebi, maSinac ki Tundac romelime Sualeduri manqana an kavSiris xazi Tu gamovidoda mwyobridan. garda amisa, ar
qiteqtura unda yofiliyo sakmaod moqnili, rom daekmayofilebina sxvadasxva moTxovnebi: dawyebuli failis gadagzavnidan, damTavrebuli xmis gadacemiT realur droSi.
qselTaSorisi (
Internet) done yvela am moTxovnam ganapiroba arCeul iyo qselis modeli paketuri k
omutaciiT, romelsac safuZvlad daedo qselTaSorisi done kavSiris gareSe. es done, romelsac ewodeba igive internet
-
done (anu qselTaSorisi done), warmoadgens safuZvels mTeli arqiteqturisa. misi ZiriTadi amocanaa uzrunvelyos yoveli hostisTvis paketebis gagzavna
nebismier qselSi, romlebic damoukideblad gadaadgildebian daniSnulebis punqtamde (mag. sxva qselSi). paketebi daniSnulebis punqtamde SeiZleba mividnen ara im TanmimdevrobiT, rogorc gaigzavna. xolo gagzavnisas Tanmimdevrobis dacvis moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi am amocanas asruleben ufro maRali 2
doneebi. aq sityva “Internet”
-
is qveS igulisxmeba misi Tavdapirveli mniSvneloba, miuxedavad imisa, rom es done arsebobs TviT internet qselSi.
aq SeiZleba analogiis monaxva safosto sistemasTan. nebismier adamians SeuZlia moaT
avsos ramodenime sarTaSoriso werili erTi qveynis safosto yuTSi da Tu gaumarTla am werilebis umetesoba miva swor adresatamde (anu daniSnul qveyanaSi). savaraudod, werilebi gzaSi gaivlian ramodenime saerTaSoriso Sluzs, Tumca isini korespodentebisTvis rCeba s
aidumlod. yovel qveyanaSi (anu yovel qslSi) SeiZleba iyos Tavisi marka, konvertebis Sesabamisi zoma da gagzavnis wesebi, romlebic SeumCnevelia safosto samsaxuris momxmarebelTaTvis.
qselTaSorisi done gansazRvravs paketis oficialur formats da IP (Internet P
rotocol) protokols. IP protokolis daniSnulebaa IP paketebis mitana daniSnulebis punqtamde. romlis ZiriTadi aspeqtebia: paketis marSrutis SerCeva da dauSvebelia transportuli arteriebis gadaketva. amitomac SeiZleba imis mtkiceba, rom TCP/IP modelis qselTaS
orisi done funqcionalurad axloa OSI modelis qselur donesTan. es Sesabamisoba naCvenebia nax.11.1
-
ze
nax.11.1 TCP/IP
-
is etalonuri
modeli
transportuli done
3
TCP/IP modelSi qselTaSoris doneze zemoT mdgom dones, rogorc wesi, ewodeba transpor
tuli. is Seqmnilia imisaTvis, rom Tanaswor obieqtebs gadamcem da mimReb hostebze hqondeT kavSiri, OSI modelis transportuli donis msgavsad. am doneze aRvwerT or protokols. pirveli, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol –
gadacemis marTvis protokoli
) saim
e
do p
r
otokolia
kavSiris damyarebiT, romelic saSualebas iZleva uSecdomod gadaices baitebis nakadi gaerTianebuli qselis erTi manqanidan meoreze. is yofs baitebis Semaval nakads calkeul Setyobinebebad da gadascems qselTaSoris dones. daniSnulebis punqtSi miRebuli TCP –
procesi Sekrebs miRebuli Setyobinebebidan gamomaval nakads. garda amisa, TCP anxorciel
ebs nakadis marTvas, rom swrafma gamgzavnma mimRebs ar miayaros meti Setyobinebebi vidre mas SeuZlia miiRos anu ar moxdes gadavseba am doneze.
amave donis meore prot
okolia UDP (User Data Protocol –
momxmareblis monacemTa
protokoli) arasaimedo protokoli kavSiris damyarebis gareSe, romelic iyenebs ara TCP protokolis nakadis mimdevrobiT marTvas, aramed sTvazobs Tavis sakuTars. is agreTve farTod gamoiyeneba klient
-
serverul
moTxovnebsa da programebSi, sadac operatiuloba ufro mniSvnelovania vidre adresatamde sworad gagzavna, mag. xmovani Setyobinebebisa da video
-
gamosaxulebebis gadacemisas. IP, TCP da UDP
protokolebis urTierTdamokidebuleba mocemulia nax.11.2
-
ze. misi daarsebi
s dRidan IP protokoli realizebul iqna mraval sxva qselSi
nax.11.2. protokolebi da qselebi TCP/IP
modelSi
gamoyenebiTi done (
Application layer)
4
TCP/IP
modelSi sesiis da warmodgeniTi doneebi ar monawileoben. am doneebis arseboba am modelSi saWiroe
bas ar warmoadgenda, amitom isini ar arian CarTuli am modelSi. OSI
modelTan muSaobis gamocdilebam aCvena, rom programebis umetesoba TiTqmis ar saWiroeben am doneebis arsebobas.
transportul doneze zemdgomi donea gamoyenebiTi done. is Seicavs yvela maRali do
nis protokols. Zvel protokolebs miekuTvneba virtualuri terminalis protokoli (
TELNET
), failebis gadacemis protokoli FTP (File Transfer Protocol) da eleqtronuli fostis prtokoli SMTP
, rogorc mocemulia nax.11.2
-
ze. virtualuri terminalis protokoli momxmarebels saSualebas aZlevs daregistrirdes daSorebul serverze da imuSaos masTan. failebis gadacemis protokoli warmoadgens informaciis gadacemis efeqtur meTods erTi manqanidan meoreze. qleqtronuli fosta Tavidan warmoadgenda failebis gadacemis mravalsaxeobas, magram S
emdgom Seiqmna specialuri protokoli. wlebis ganmavlobaSi daemata iseTi protokolebi, rogoricaa DNS (Domain Name Service –
domenuri
saxelebis servisi), romelic hostis saxelebs gardaqmnis qselur (
IP
) misamarTebad, NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol –
siaxl
eebis gadacemis qseluri prtokoli
), HTTP (
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
–
hiperteqstebis gadacemis protokoli), romelic gamoiyeneba gverdebis Sesaqmnelad World Wide Web
-
ze da mravali sxva.
host
-
qseluri done
TCP/IP –
is etalonur modelSi ar aris ganxiluli qselT
aSoris doneze qvemdgomi done dawvrilebiT. mxolod mocemulia is, rom hosti ukavSirdeba qsels nebismieri perotokolis meSveobiT, romelic saSualebas aZlevs hosts gaagzavnos qselSi IP paketebi. es protokoli ar ganisazRvreba da SeiZleba icvlebodes hostidan hostam
de da qselidan qselamde. OSI da
TCP/IP modelebis Sedareba
5
am modelebs bevri saerTo aqvT. orive modeli efuZneba damoukidebli perotokolebis stekur koncepcias. doneebis funqcionaloba msgavsia. mag. orive modelSi doneebi, dawyebuli transportulidan da zem
oT sTavazoben gamWol, qselisgan damoukidebelad transportul serviss im procesebisaTvis, romlebsac surT informaciis gacvla. es doneebi qmnian transportis mimwodebels. agreTve orive modelSi transportuli donis zemdgomi doneebi transportuli servisebisa gamoyene
biTi momxmareblebis rols asruleben.
miuxedavad am fundamentaluri msgavsebebisa, am modelebs gaaCniaT rigi ganmasxvavebeli niSan
-
Tvisebebisa.
OSI modelisaTvis centralurs warmoadgens Semdegi sami koncepcia:
1.
servisebi
2.
interfeisebi
3.
protokolebi.
servisi gansazR
vravs Tu ras akeTebs uSualod done, magram ara imas Tu rogor akeTebs da rogor iReben wvdomas am donesTan masze zemoT mdgom doneebs
donis interfeisi gansazRvravs wvdomis meTods zemo donis procesebisaTvis. is aRwers parametrebs da mosalodnel Sedegebs. magram
arafers gvatyobinebs donis Sida mowyobilobaze. dabolos, Tanabari rangis protokolebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba doneze, am donis Sida saqmea. mis win dasmuli amocanis Sesasruleblad (e.i. servisis SesaTvazeblad) is iyenebs nebismier protokols. garda amisa, done
s SeuZlia protokolebis gamocvla ise, rom SeiZleba arc Seexos ufro maRali donis programebs.
adre TCP/IP modelSi ar iyo mkveTri gansxvaveba servisebs, interfeisebsa da protokolebs Soris, Tumca iyo mcdelobebi imisa, rom is damgvaneboda OSI models. mag. qselTa
Sorisi donis mier SemoTavazebuli servisebia SEND IP PACKET (IP
-
paketis gagzavna) da RECEIVE IP PACKET (
IP paketis miReba). OSI modelSi protokolebi ufro kargadaa damaluli, vidre TCP/IP modelSi da amitomac teqnologiis Secvlisas maTi Secvla SedarebiT advi
lia. msgavsi cvlilebebis ganxorcieleba -
mravaldoniani protokolebis erT
-
erTi amocanaa. OSI etalonuri modeli Seiqmna ufro adre, vidre Seiqmneboda am modelis Sesabamisi protokolebi. es Tanmimdevroba niSnavs imas, rom es modeli gansazRvruli iyo protokolebis 6
konkretuli nakrebisaTvis, ramac es modeli gaxada universaluri. am Tanmimdevrobis ukusvla ganapiroba damproeqteblebis mcire gamocdilebam am sferoSi da iman, rom maT ar hqondaT naTeli warmodgena imaze Tu romel dones ra funqcia unda Seesrulebina.
mag. monace
mTa gadacemis done anu arxuli done Tavdapirvelad muSaobda mxolod qselebSi kvanZidan kvanZze gadasacemad (wertili
-
wertili). farTomauwyeblobiTi qselebis Seqmnisas saWiro gaxda axali qvedonis damateba modelSi. roca OSI modelis bazaze daiwyes realuri qselebis ageba arsebuli protokolebis meSveobiT, aRmoCnda, rom isini ar Seesabamebodnen moTxovnili servisis specifikaciebs. amitom modelSi saWiro gaxda daematebinaT qvedoneebi am Seusabamoebis aRmosafxvrelad. dabolos, Tvidan Cafiqrebuli iyo, rom yovel qveyanaSi iqne
boda erTi qseli, romelsac marTavda mTavroba OSI protokolebis gamoyenebiT, amitomac aravin fiqrobda sxvadasxva qselebis gaerTianebaze, miTumetes maT Tavsebadobaze. sinamdvileSi yvelaferi ise ar aRmoCnda, rogorc iyo Cafiqrebuli.
TCP/IP modelis SemTxvevaSi ki
yvelaferi iyo piriqiT: Tavdapirvelad Seiqmna protokolebi, xolo Semdgom ukve Tavad modeli, romelic aRwerda arsebul protokolebs. amrigad, protokolebi am models Sesabamebodnen mSvenivrad. erTaderTi problema is iyo, rom modeli ar Seesabameboda arc erT sxva pr
otokolebis steks. es modeli ar gamoiyeneboda sxva qselebis aRsawerad, romelic gansxvavdeboda TCP/IP modelisagan.
am ori modelis Sedarebisas unda aRiniSnos, rom doneebis raodenoba gansxvavdeba maTSi: OSI modelSi Svidi donea, xolo TCP/IP modelSi ki oTxi. o
rive modelSi arsebobs qselTaSorisi, transportuli da gamoyenebiTi, xolo danarCenebi gansxvavdebian.
kidev erTi gansxvaveba modelebs Soris mdgomareobs kavSiris gamoyenebis sferoSi SeerTebis damyarebiT da SeerTebis damyarebis gareSe. OSI modeli qselur doneze Seicavs orive tipis kavSirs, xolo transportul doneze -
mxolod kavSiris damyarebis bazaze (radganac transportuli servisebi momxmraeblisTvis xilvadia). TCP/IP modelSi qselur doneze kavSiris mxolod erTi tipis reJims (kavSiris damyarebis gareSe), xolo transp
ortul doneze is iyenebs orive reJims da momxmareblebs aZlevs arCevis saSualebas. es arCevani gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania martivi protokolebisaTvis, romelTa funqcionireba efuZneba reJims: “moTxovna
-
pasuxi”.
saboloo daskvna: miuxedavad Tavisi naklovanebebi
sa OSI modeli (seansuri da warmodgeniTi doneebis garda) sakmaod sasargebloa kompiuterul qselebSi Teoriuli diskusiebisaTvis. xolo 7
OSI modelis protokolebma ki ver hpoves farTo gavrceleba. TCP/IP modelisaTvis ki piriqiT: modeli praqtikulad ar arsebobs, maSin rodesac am modelis protokolebi sakmaod popularulia. aqedan gamomdinare dgesdgeobiT gamoiyeneba modificirebuli
OSI modeli, xolo protokolebi ki ZiriTadad TCP/IP. amrigad
,
gamoiyeneba qselis hibriduli modeli, romelic mocemulia nax.11.3.
-
ze.
nax.11.3. hibri
duli etalonuri modeli
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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