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leqcia.13. qselis standartizacia
qselis mravali momxmarebeli da mflobeli arsebobs. amaTgan TiToeuls Tavisi Sexeduleba aqvs imis Sesaxeb Tu ra da rogor unda Sesruldes. koordinaciis gareSe sruli qaosi iqneboda da momxmarebelic ver
afers gaakeTebda. am situaciidan gamosavali qselis garkveuli standartebis dacvaa.
standartebi sxvadasxva kompiuterebs aramxolod komunikaciis saSualebas aZleven aramed zrdian bazaars im produqtebisaTvis romlebic maT mizdeven, warmoebis masStabis ekonomias akeTeben, uzrunvelyofen VLSI
-
is Sesrulebasa da yvela im parametrs rac amcirebs fass da zrid mogebas.
standartebi iyofa or nawilad: de facto da
de jure
.
De facto
(
laTinurad “faqtidan gamomdinare”) iseTi standartebia, romlebic es
-
es aris moxda yvelanairi fo
rmaluri gegmis gareSe. IBM PC
da misi STamomavlebi miekuTvnebian de facto
standartebs mcire ofisebis kompiuterebisaTvis. UNIX
–
ic aris de facto
standarti, operaciuli sistemebisaTvis universitetebSi kompiuteruli kvlevis departamentebSi. da jure
(laTinura
d “kanonis mixedviT”) standartebi aris legaluri, formaluri standarti, romelic SemuSavebulia standartizebuli piris mier. saerTaSoriso standartizacia or nawilad iyofa: Seqmnilebi mTavrobasTan SeTanxmebiT da nebayoflobiTi SeuTanxmebeli standartebi. kompiuteru
li qselebis standartebSi aris svxvadasxava tipis organizaciebi, romlebic qvemoT aris ganxiluli.
vin vin aris satelekomunikacio sanyaroSi
. msoflio satelefono kompaniebis legaluri statusi icvleba qveynidan qveyanaSi. erTi ukiduresi wertili aris SeerTebuli St
atebi, romelsac aqvs 1500 sxvsdasxva, kerZo mflobelobaSi myofi kompania. sanam daingreoda 1984 wels, AT&T
, im droisaTvis msoflios udides korporacias warmoadgenda da erTpirovnulad dominirebda. is uzrunvelyofda amerikis mosaxleobis 80%
-
s satelefono momsaxure
biT da sxva kompaniebTan erTad , romlebic kombinirebul momsaxurebas sTavazobdnen mudmiv momxmarebels, SeerTebuli Statebis geodrafiuli farTobis naxevars farvda. dangrevis Semdegac ki konkurenciis miuxedavad AT&T
agrZelebs Sor manZilze momsaxurebis warmoebas
. Svidi regionaluri darekvis oparatiuli kompaniebi (
Regional Bell Operating Companies), romlebic gansxvavdebodnen
AT&T
da
1500 damoukidebeli kompaniebi romlebic awarmoebdnen fiWur da 2
lokalur satelefono momsaxurebebs. zogierTi maTgani rogoric aris GTE
sak
maod did kompaniebs warmoadgenen.
SeerTebul StatebSi mdebare kompaniebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen mosaxleobas sakomunikacio momsaxirebiT saerTo matareblebi ewodebaT. maTi fasebi da momsaxurebebi aRwerilia dokumenSi romelsac trafiki ewodeba, isini danrkiceb
uli unda iyos federaluri sakomunikacio komisiis mier SidaStaturi da saerTaSoriso trafikisaTvis da Statis sazogado sargeblobis komisiis mier SidaStaturi trafikisaTvis.
meore ukidures wertils warmoadgenen qbeynebi, romlebSic mTavrobas komunikaciaze monopoli
a aqvs maT Soris: fosta, telegrafi, radio da aseve televizia. msoflios umetesoba am kateorias miekuTvneba. zog SemtxvevaSisatelekomunikacio Zalaufleba vrceldeba ns=acionalur kompaniebze, xolo sxvebSi isini mTavrobis Stos warmoadgenen Cveulebriv cnobilebs r
ogorc PTT ( Post Telegraph & Telephone)
. msoflioSi gavrcelebuli tendenciaa liberalizacia, konkurencia ,saxelmwifo monopoliisagan Sors.
yvela am gansxvavebuli momsaxurebebis mowodebis garda aris naTeli saWiroeba moxdes SeTanxmeba msoflio masStabiT, imisaTv
is rom xalxierT qveyanaSi darwmunebulni iyvnen rom SeZleben daukevSirdnen maTnair momxmarebels msoflios sxva qveyanaSi. sinamdvileSi es saWiroeba didi xnis ganmavlobaSi arsebobda. 1865 wels bevri evropuli qveynebis warmomadgenlebi Seijribnen rom Camoeyalib
ebinaT dRevandeli ITU
-
s (
Internetional Telecomunication Union
) winamorbedi. ITU
-
s movaleoba iyo saerTaSoriso telekomunikaciebis standartizacia, rac im droisaTvis telegrafs warmoadgenda. maSinac ki naTekli iyo rom Tu msoflios naxevari morzes kodiT sargeblob
da meore nawili ki raRac sxva kods iyenebda es ukve problemas qmnida. rodesac satelefono saerTaSoriso servisSi Sevida, ITU
-
m telefonis standartizaciac. 1947 wels ITU
gaxda gaeros agenti.
ITU
-
s aqvs sami ZiriTadi seqtori:
1.
radiosakomunikacio seqtori (ITU
-
R)
;
2.
satelekomunikacio standartizaciis seqtori
(ITU
-
T)
;
3.
ganviTarebis seqtori (
ITU
-
D
).
ITU
-
R msoflio masStabiT moiazreba radio sixSireebis gamyofad
. Cven pirvelad ganvixilavT ITU
-
T
-
s, romelic uzrunvelyofs satelefono da monacemTa sakomunikacio sistemebs. 1956 wlidan 1993
-
mde ITU
-
T cnobili iyo
rogorc
CCITT anu abreviatura misi franguli saxelwodebidan 3
Comite
,
Consulttant Internetional Te
,
le
,
graphuique et Te
,
le
,
phonique. 1993 wlis 1 marts CCITT iqna reorganizebuli, rom gamxdariyo nakleb biurokratuli da saxel
ic Seicvala, rom gardasaxuliyo axal rolSi. ITU da
CCITT muSaoben rekomendaciebis Seqmnaze telefonisa da monacemTa komunikaciebSi. ITU
-
T
-
s hyavs xuTi klasis wevrebi:
1.
administracia (nacionaluri PTT
);
2.
cnobili kerZo operatorebi (
AT&T, MCI, British Telecom
);
3.
regionaluri satelekomunikacio organizaciebi (evropuli ETSI
);
4.
telekomunikaciebis mflobelebi da samecniero organizaciebi;
5.
sxva saintereso organizaciebi (bankebi da sahaero qselebi).
ITU
-
T
-
s hyavs 200 administratori, 100 kerZo operatori da aTasamde sxva wevri
. mxolod administratorebs SeuZliaT kenWisyra, magram wevrebs SeuZliaT ITU
-
T
is muSaobaSI monawileobis miTeba. rac SeerTebul Statebs ar aqvs PTT
sxvas daevala maTi warmodgena ITU
-
T
-
Si. es davaleba Statis departamentma Seasrula qveda doneze, sadac ITU
-
T
urTie
rTobs ucxour qveynebTan, State
Department kisrulobs.
ITU
-
T
-
s movaleoba aris teqnikuri rekomendaciebi telefonisaTvis, telegrafisa da monacemTa sakomunikacio interfeisebisaTvis. es xSirad xdeba saerTaSoriso standartebi. magaliTad: V.
24
(aseve cnobili, rogorc
EIA RS
-
232 SeerTebul StatebSi), rac akonkretebs sxvadasxva Rilakebis mdebareobas da mniSvnelobas koneqtorebze, romlebsac bevri asinqronuli terminali iyenebs.
unda aRiniSnos, rom ITU
-
T rekomendaciebi teqnikurad aris mxolod SemoTavazebebi, romlebic mTavroba
s SeuZlia moiwonos an daiwunos. praqtikulad qveyana, romelsac surs miiRos gansxvavebuli satelefono standarti, maSin msoflios darCenil nawilsac SeuZlia es gaakeTos, magram fasiT aSorebs Tavs danarCenebs. es SeiZleba muSaobdes albaneTSi, magram sxvagan es re
aluri problema iqneba.
ITU
-
T
-
Si
realuri samuSao sruldeba swavluli jgufis mier, romelic xSirad 400 kacisagan Sedgeba. imisaTvis, rom Sesruldes yvelaferi, rac SesaZlebelia swavlulTa jgufi samuSao nawilebad iyofa, es nawilebi saeqspedicio jgufebad, xolo es uk
anasknelebi, ki ad hoc jgufebad. biurokratia, yovelTvis biurokratiaa.
4
yovelive amis miuxedavad ITU
-
T
asrulebs Tavis movaleobas. misi warmateba weliwadSi daaxloebiT 5000 rekomendaciaa. wevrebi sawevros ixdian imisTvis, rom Seamciron ITU
-
T
-
s xarjebi. didi da
mdidari qveynebi weliwadSi 30
-
mde sawevros ixdian; patara da Rarib qveynebs ki SeuZliaT sawevros 1/16 gadaixadon (sawevro 250 000
$
).
rodesac satelekomunikacio sistema daamTavrebs gardaqmnas, romelic 1980 wlidan daiwyo, standartizacia ufro zusti da ufo mni
Svnelovani gaxdeba, amasTan ufro meti organizacia moindomebs maT SemuSavebaSi monawileobis miRebas.
vin vin aris saerTaSoriso standartebis samyaroSi?
saerTaSoriso standartebi SemuSavebulia saerTaSoriso standartebis organizaciis mier (
ISO International Stan
dards Organization
). is aris nebayoflobiTi organizacia, romelic 1946 wels dafuZnda. misi wevrebi arian 89 qveynis erovnuli standartebis organizaciebi.maT Soris: ANSI (aSS),
BSI (didi britaneTi),
AFNOR (safrangeTi), DIN (germania) da a.S.
ISO
amuSavebs didi
masStabis standartebs WanWikidan dawyebuli satelefono xazebiT damTavrebuli. ISO
-
s aqvs daaxloebiT 200 teqnikuri komiteti, maTi danomrva Seqmnis Sesabamisad xdeba. TiToeuli maTgani specialuri daniSnulebis aris. TC 97 urTierTobs kompiuterebTan da sainformac
io procesTan. yovel TC aqvs qvekomiteti (
SCS
), romelic Tavis mxriv samuSao jgufebad (
WG
) iyofa. namdvili samuSao Sesrulebulia
WG
-
Si, romelSic msoflio masStabiT 100
000 moxalisea. bevri aseTi ,,moxalise” CarTulia
IS
O
-
s muSaobaSi da standartebsac amuSavebs.
sxva qveynebSi ko saxelmwifo mkacrad akademiuri eqspertebi aseve aqtiurebi arian
WG
-
Si.
satelekomunikacio standartebis SemuSavebisas
ISO
da
IIU
xSirad urTierTqmedeben (
ISO aris
ITU
-
T
-
s wevri) imisTvis, rom Tavidan aicilon SeuTavsebloba.
SeerTebuli Statebi
s warmomadgenel ISO
-
Si aris ANSI (
American National Standards Institute
), romelic Tavisi saxelis miuxedavad kerZo, arasamTavrobo organizacias warmoadgens. misi wevrebi arian momuSaveebi da sxva dainteresebuli pirebi. ANSI
–
is standartebi
ISO
-
s mier SemuSave
bulia rogorc saerTaSoriso. procedura, romelic gamoiyeneba ISO
standartis misaRebad SemuSavebulia imisTvis, rom igi rac SeiZleba farTed gavrceldes. procesi iwyeba, rodesac erT
-
erTi nacionaluri standartebis organizacias romelime saerTaSoriso standartis saWi
roeba aqvs romelime 5
mxareSi.maSin samuSao jgufi formirdeba imisaTvis, rom SeuerTdes proeqtis komitets (
Comettee Draft CD
), CD Semoivlis komitetis wevrebs 6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi imisaTvis, rom Sesworebebi miiRos. Tu documents gaamarTleben, miowoneben Sesworebu
li dokumenti (
DIS Draft, International Standard
) miiReba da xelaxla miiRebs komentarebsa da xmebs. am ukanasknelze dayrdnobiT saboloo teqsti (
International Standard IS
) mzaddeba da qveyndeba. CD
-
sa da DIS bevri versiis ganxilva xdeba da am procesma SeiZleb
a wlebic ki waiRos.
NIST (
National Institute of Standards and Technology
) aris SeerTebuli Statebis komerciis departamentis saagento. igi cnobili iyo, rogorc standartebis saerTaSoriso biuro. is qmnis standartebs, romlebic gankuTvnilia saxelmwifo Sesyodvebis
aTvis, garda Tavdacvisa, romelsac sakuTari standartebi aqvs.
meore moTamaSe standartebis samyaroSi aris IEEE (
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
). msoflios udidesi profesionaluri organizacia. Jurnalebis gamocemis da yovelwliuri standartebis garda IEEE
-
s aqvs standartizaciis jgufi, romelic anviTarebs standartebs eleqtrosainJinro da kompiuterul sistemebSi.
ukabelo qselebi
mobiluri kompiuterebi, iseTi rogoric aris nouTbuqebi da personaluri cifruli kompiuterebi (
Personal Digital Asisstants PDAs
), kompiuteruli industriis swrafad mzard segments warmoadgenen.
sinamdvileSi cifruli ukabelo komunikaciis idea axali ar aris. 1990 wels italielma fizikosma giliero markonim warmoadgina “gemi
-
napirTan” tipis ukabelo telegrafi morzez kodis gamoyenebiT. Tamn
amedrove cifrul ukabelo sistemebs aqvT uketesi garegani saxe magram ZiriTadi idea aq ucvlelia.
ukabelo qselebs mravali gamoyeneba aqvT. erT
-
erTi portatuli ofisi gaxlavT. xalxs fzaSi xSirad surT gamoiyenon TavianTi portatuli elektronuli mowyobiloba imisaTv
is rom, gagzanon da miiRon faqsebi, satelefono zarebi, eleqtronuli fosta da a.S. amasTan yovelive es gaakeTon nebismier adgilas zRvaze, miwaze an caSi.
ukabelo qselebs didi mniSvneliba aqvT flotSi, taqsebsa da avtobusebSi, imisaTvis rom saxlTan kontaqti h
qondeT. meores mxriv mniSvnelovania maTi gamoyeneba im muSebis mier 6
romlebic eqstremalur situaciaSi muSaoben (xanZari, miwiaZvra da a.S.), anu rodesac komunikaciis sxva saSualebebi ganadgurebulia. am SeTxvevaSi kompiuterebs Setyobinebis miReba da gagzavna SeuZliaT.
sabolood ukabelo qselebi mniSvnelovania samxedro saqmianobaSi. Tu brZola msoflios romelime wertilSi mimdinareoba, gamoTvlebis gakeTeba ukve arsebuli infrastruqturiT arc ise kargi idea. ra Tqma unda sakuTaris gamoyeneba saukeTeso gamosavalia.
mi
uxedavad imisa rom ukabelo qselebi da mobiluri kompiuterebi xSirad urTierTdakavSirebulia isini identuri ar aris. portatuli kompiuteri zogjer kabelebiania. magaliTad: Tu mogzauri sastumroSi aerTebs portatul kompiuters satelefono qselSi, Cven gvaqvs mobiluro
ba ukabelo qselis garaSe. meore magaliTi aris adamiani romelic iyenebs portatul kompiuters matareblis problemebis gamosarkvevad.
meores mxriv zogierT ukabelo kompiuteri ar aris portatuli. saintereso magaliTia kompania romelsac ekuTvnis Zveli Senob. am Se
nobas ar aqvsdainstalirebuliqseli, magram surs kompiuteri SeaerTos. ukabelo LAN –
is instalacias SeiZleba dasWirdes erTi yuTze cota meti eleqtruli mowyobiloba. ase rom ramodenime amtenis SeZeniT problemis gadawyveta mgoni qselis gayvanaze momgebiania.
miux
edavad imisa rom ukabelo qselebi dasayeneblad advilia maT garkveuli nakli aqvT. rogorc wesi maTi tevadoba 1
-
2
Mbps
-
s Seadgens rac Cveulebriv
LAN
-
ze naklebia. Secdomebis albaTobac metia da sxvadasxva kompiuterebs Soris gadcemac SeiZleba airios. magram ra T
qma unda arsebobs wminda mobiluri ukabelo formebi, SemosazRvruli portatuli ofisebiT da xalxiT.mraval aeroportSi, manqanebis ganqiravebeli klerkebi muSaoben portatuli ukabelo kompiuterebiT. licenziebis velSi isini beWdaven dabrunebuli manqanis nomers da ma
Ti kompiuteri romelsac aqvs CaSenebuli printeri urekavs mTavar kompiuters, iRebs informacias da beWdavs angariSs.
ukabelo qselebi sxvadsaxva formuT aris warmodgenili. zogierTi universiteti eukve ayenebs antenebs Tavis ezoSi imisaTvis rom saSualeba misces Tavis studentebs dasxdnen romelime xis ZirSi da ganixilon biblioTekis katalogi. aq kompiuterebi urTierToben zustad ukabelo
LAN
-
is meSveobiT., cifruli formiT. meore SesaZlebloba aris fiWuri telefonis gamoyeneba tradiciul analogu modemTan. fiWuri qseluri mom
saxureba romelsac CDDD(Cellular Digital Packet Data
) ewodeba xorcieldeba mraval qveyanaSi.
7
sabolood SesaZlebelia ukabelo da kabeluri qselebis sxvadasxva kombinaciebis gamoyeneba. magaliTad qvemoT Cven ganvixilavT Semdeg magaliTs TviTmfrinavSi xalxis nawil
i iyenebs modems da telefonebs ofisSi dasarekad. TiToeuli zari meorisagan damoukidebelia. ufro efeqturi gaxlavT LAN, romelic
b naxazzea gamosaxuli. aq yoveli adgili aRWurvilia internetiT da mgzavrebs SeuZliaT SeaerTon TavianTi kompiuterebi. erTaderTi marSr
utizators TviTmfrinavSi warmoadgens radiobmuli miwasTan. aseTi konfiguracia tradiciul LAN
-
s warmoadgens, im details gamiklebiT rom kavSiri gare samyarostan radio bmulis meSveobiT xorcieldeba, anu fizikuri kavSiris gareSe.
im dros, rodesac mraval adamaians
miaCnia rom ukabelo portatuli kompiuterebi momavlis talRas warmoadgens arsebobs gansxvavebuli azric. bob metkalfma Ethernet
-
is gamomgonebelma dawera: ”mobiluri ukabelo kompiuterebi mobilur abazanebs hgavs. isini saerTo iqneba gadasaadgilebel saSualebebze da rok koncertebze. Cemi rCeva iqneba kabeliT aRWurvoT Tqveni saxli da darCeT iq.” gaiTvaliswineben Tu ara metkalfis rCevas? dro gviCvenebs.
qselebis kompleqsi (
Internetworks
)
mravali qseli aresebobs msoflioSi. xSirad, gansxvavebuli qseluri da programu
li uzrunvelyofiT. xalxs, romelic qsels uerTdeba xSirad surT daukavSirdnen sxva qselSi carTul admianebs. es survili iTxova gansxvavebuli da xSirad urTieRSeuTavsebeli qselebis dakavSirebas, rig SemTxvevaSi iseTi manqanebis saSualebiT romelsac Sluzebs (
gatewa
ys)
ewodeba. isini gamoiyeneba kavSiris dasamyareblad da axorcieleben translacias rogorc programul aseve fizikur doneze. urTierTdakavSirebuli Sidaqselebis gaerTianebas Sidaqseli an urdalod interneti ewodeba.
internetis zogadi forma gaxlavT LAN
-
ebis gaerT
ianrba WAN
-
ebad. faqtiurad Tu Cven sqemaze “qveqsels” SevcvliT WAN
-
iT sxva cvlileba saWiro aRar iqneba. erTaderTi gansxvaveba qveqselsa da WAN
-
s Soris am SemTxvevaSi wamyvanis ,mepatronis arsebobaa. Tu sistema wreSi Seicavs mxolod marSrutizators is qveqse
lia. Tu is Seicavs orives marSrutizatirsac da mepatronesac Tavisi sakuTari momxmarebliT maSin is WAN
-
ia.
8
areulobis Tavidan asacileblad aRvniSnoT rom sityva :interneti” qvemoT gampyenebuli iqneba sazogado gagebiT. interneti niSnavs Sidaqsels romelic farTo
d gamoiyeneba universitetbis, samTavrobo ofisebis, kompaniebis da kerZo pirebis dasakavSireblad.
qveqselebi da Sidaqselebi xSirad Sereulia. qveqseli ZiriTad mniSvnelobas aniWebs WAN
-
is konteqsts, sadac is aerTianebs marSrutizatorebs da sakomunikacio xazeb
s romelic qselis operators ekuTvnis magaliTad kompaniebi amerika onlaini da Compuserve
. rogorc analogia satelefoni sisitema Seicavs satelefono gadasarTav ofisebs romlebic erTmaneTs maRal siCqariani xazebiT uerTdebian, xolo saxlebs, dabali siCqaris xazebiT.
es xazebi da aRWurviloba, romelic ekuTvnis da imarTeba satelefono kompaniis mier, satelefono sistemebis qveqselis formiT. telefonebi Tavis mxriv ar aris qveqselis nawili. qveqselisa da fostis erToblioba qmnis qsels. Sidaqseli formirdeba sxvadasxva qsele
bis gaerTianebiT. cveniSexedulebiT WAN
-
is da LAN
-
is gaerTianeba an ori LAN
-
is dakavSireba qmnis Sida qsels.
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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