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1
leqcia.1
4
. qselebis programuli uzrunvelyofa
pirveli kompiuteruli qselebis Seqmnisas ZiriTadi yuradReba aparaturul da ara p
rogramul uzrunvelyofas eniWeboda. es strategia ukve aRar arsebobs. qselis programulI uzrunvelyofa sakmaod maRal donezea.
protokolis ierarqia
dizaineruli kompleqsurobis Sesamcireblad qselebis umetesoba orgenizebulia, rogorc doneebis, fenebis mimdevroba. TiToeuli maTgani aSenebulia winamorbedze. doneebis raodenoba, Titoeuli donis saxeli, TiToeulis Semcveloba da funqcia icvleba qselidan qselSi. miuxedavad amisa yvela qselSi yoveli donis mizania masze maRal dones garkveuli momsaxureba SesTavazos.
erTi manqa
nis n done awarmoebs dialogs meore manqanis n donesTan. wesebis da SeTanxmebebis erTobilioba romelic am dialogSi gamoyenebuli cnobilia rogorc n donis protokoli. ZiriTadad protokoli aris sakomunikacio mxareebs Soris SeTanxmeba, imis Sesaxeb Tu rogor unda iu
rTierTon am mxareebma. rogorc analogia SeiZleba warmovidginoT qalbatoni romelsac mamakacs warudgenen, mas SeuZlia gauwodos mamakacs xeli. mas ki Tavis mxriv SeuZlia ubralo CamoarTvas an eamboros mas. es damokidebulia garkveulwilad imaze Tu vinaris es qalba
toni, amerikeli advokati biznes Sexvedraze Tu evroprli princesa formalur mejlisze. protokolis darRveva komunikacias gaarTulebs an SeiZleba sulac SeuZlebeli gaxados.
xuTdoniani qseli qvemoT aris ganxiluli
realurad aranairi monacemi ar gadecema erTi manqani
s n donidan meore manqanis n dones. yoveli done akontrolebs informacis da gadascems ukidures qveda dones,manm sanam yvelaze dabals ar miaRwevs. qveda done aris fizikuri Sualedi, romlis meSveobiTac realuri komunikacia xorcieldeba. yovel mezobel wyvil done
ebs Soris aris interfeisi. interfeisi gansazRvravs Tu romel umartives operacias da momsaxurebas sTavazobs qveda done maRals. rodesac qselis dizainerebma gadawyvites Tu ramdeni done iqneboda qselis SemadgenlobaSi da TiToeuls ra 2
funqcia mieniWeboda, erT
-
erT mniSvnelovan parametrad doneebs Soris sufTa interfeisi moiazreboda.
doneebsa da protokolebis erTobliobas, simravles, qselis arqiteqtura ewodeba. arqiteqtulis specifika unda Seicavdes informacias romelic nebas darTavs Semsrulebels daweros programa an Seqmn
as mowyobiloba yoveli donisaTvis, imgvarad ,rom is Seesabamebodesmocemul protocols. arc Sesrulebis da arc interfeisis maxasiaTeblebi ar aris arqiteqturis nawili radgan isini ar Canan , danalulni arian gareSe TvalisaTvis. isic ki ar aris savaldebulo rom int
erfeisi yvels manqanas erTnairi hqondes, TiToeul manqanas SeuZlia gamoiyenos yvela protokoli. protokolebis CamonaTvali, romelsac romelime sistema iyenebs, anu donos Sesabamis protokols protokolebis steki ewodeba. Semdegi magaliTi ufro naTlad gviCvenebs m
ravaldoniani komunikaciis ideas. warmovidginoT ori filosofosi, erT erTi maTgani flobs urdos da inglisurs meore ki saubros frangulad da Cinurad. manam sanam ma Tar eqnebaTsaerTo ena TiToeuls dasWirdeba Tarjimani. pirvel filosofoss surs uTxras raime meores. amisatvis is gadascems Setyobinebas (inglisurad) 2/3interfeisis gavliT Tarjimans : “ me miyvars kurdRlebi” Tarjimnebi SeTanxmdnen erT enaze am SemTxvevaSi germanuli ase rom Setyobineba gadiTargmna. enis SerCva aris meore donis protokolis daniSnuleba. rtans
latori gadasacemas Seytobinebas ugzvnis mdivans, magaliTad faqsiT. rodesac Setyobineba miiReba is gadaiTargmneba frangulad da 2/3 interfeisis gavliT midis meore filosofosTan. unda aRiniSnos rom TiToeuli prptokoliabsoluturad damoukidebelis sxvebis, radgan i
nterfeisi ucvlelia. translatorebs SeuZliaT gadaerTon germanulidan imisaTvis rom Tqvan “dasasruli”, ra Tqma unda survilis SemTxvevaSi, Tu orive mxare Tanaxmaa da ar icvlis interfeiss arc pirvel da arc mesame doneze. aseve mdivnebs SeuZliaT gadarTva faqsida
n, eleqtronul fostaze an telefonze, amasTan es sxva doneebis Sewuxebis gareSe unda moxdes. yovel process SeuZlia daumatos raRac informacia es informacia ar gadaicema zemoT mdebare doneze.
axla ki ganvixiloT ufro teqnikuri magaliTi: rpgor vawarmooT zeda do
neze xuTdonian qselSi. M
Setyobineba romelic warmoebulia mexuTe doneze gaSvebuli procesis mier da eZleva meoTxe dones gadasacemad. meoTxe done Setyobinebas umatebs win saTurs misi identifikaciisaTvis da Sedegs ugzavnis mesame dines. saTauri Seicavs sakontr
olo informacias, rogorc aris ricxvebis mimdevroba, romelic saSualebas aZlevs meoTxe dones mimReb manqanaze miiRos Setyobineba swori mimdevrobiT. zogierT doneze saTaurebi aseve Seicaven aomas, dros da sxva sakontrolo vels.
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mraval qselSi meoTxe doneze gadas
acemi Setyobinebis zomis limiti ar aris, magram TiTqmis yovelTvis aris limiti mesame donis protokolisaTvis. mimdevrobiT mesame donem unda dayos Semomavali Setyobinebebi patara nawilebad, paketebad da misces saTauri TiToeul maTgans. am magaliTSi M
-
i dayofil
ia or nawilad, esenia: M1 da
M2.
mesame done wyvets gamomavali xazebidan Tu romeli unda iqnes gamoyenebuli da agzavnides paketebs meore doneze. meore done umatebs ara mxolod saTaurs aramed “kudsac” da saboloo Sedegs agzavnis pirvel donezefizikurad gadasac
emad. mimReb maqanaze Setyobineba zemo mimarTulebiT moZraobs donidan doneze, amasTan saTaurebic TandaTan mcirdeba. n
-
donis qvemoT mdebare arcerTi saTauri ar gadaicema n
-
donis zemoT.
mniSvnelovani ram am naxazze aris urTierToba virtualur da realur komunik
aciebs Soris da gansxvavebani protokolebsa da interfeisebs Soris. magaliTad meoTxe doneze moqmedi procesebis konceptialuri idea aris :horizontaluri”. TiToeul maTgans TiTqos aqvs procedura romelsac ewodeba “gaagzavne meore mxares” da “miiRe meore mxridan”, amave procedurebis daxmarebiTac ki realuri komunikacia dabal doneze Cveulebriv xorcieldaba ¾ protokolis gavliT da ara meore mxares gadataniT.
dizaineruli sakiTxebi
zogierTi mniSvnelovani dizaineruli sakiTxi romelic Cndeba kompiuterul qselSi warmodgenili
a ramodenime doneze. qvemoT Cven ganvixilavT mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs.
yovel dones sWirdeba meqanizmi imisaTvis rom mimRebsa da wyaros identifikacia moaxdinos. radgan normalur qsels aqvs bevri komputeri, aqedan zogierTi mravalprocesoriani, namqanas sWirdeba
SesaZlebliba, romelic gaarkvevs romel manqanas surs mastan saubari. mravali mimRebis arsebobis gamo saWiroa damisamarTebis arseboba, rac zustad gansazrvravs mimRebebs da maT momdevrobas.
dizainerul gadawyvetaTa meore nakrebi monacemTa dagacemis wesebTan aris dakavSirebuli. zogierT sistemaSi monacemebi gadaicema mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT (simpleqsuri komunikacia), sxva sistemaSi isini moZraoben orive mimrTulebiT magram ara erTdroulad (naxevrad
-
rupleqsuri komunikacia), xolo mesame tipis sitemebSi isini orive
4
mimarTulebiT da amasTan erTdroulad gadaicemian (sruli
-
dupleqsuri komunikacia). prookolma aseve unda gansazRvros ramdeno logikuri arxi sWirdeba kavSirs da maTi Tvisebebi, erTi normaluri monacemisaTvis xolo meore urgentuli.
Secdomis kontrolo mniSvnelovani sakiTxia ragdan fizikuri sakomunikacio wredebi ar aris saukeTeso. mravali error
-
detected da Secdomis gasasworebeli kodebi aris cnobili, magram SeerTebis orive bolo unda SeTanxmdes Tu romeli iqneba gamoyenebuli. amasTn damatebiT mimRebs unda hqondes raRac g
za imisaTvis rom uTzras gamgzavsns romeli Setyobineba miiRo wsored da romeli ara.
yvela sakomunikacio arxi ar icavs maTze gamaval Setyobinebebs rigs. imisaTvis rom mogvardes, mimdevrobis SesaZlo dakargva protokolma unda uzrunvelyos mimRebis detaluri aRWur
viloba, imisaTvis rom man Setyobinebis nawilebi swored Sekribos. erT
-
erTi gadawyveta aris nawilebis danomvra, magram es gadawyveta Riad tovebs SekiTxvas imis Sesaxeb Tu ra eSvelaba im nawilebs romlebic mimdevrobidan amovardebian.
sakiTxi romelic yvela don
eze Cndeba swrafi gamgzavnis dacva neli mimRebis swapping
-
sagan. am problemis gadawyvetis sxvadasxva gza iqna iqna SemuSavebuli. zogierTi maTgani ukukvebasac itvaliswinebda mimgebidan gamgzavnamde.
sxva problema romelic unda gadiWras zogierT doneze aris p
rocesebis uunaroba miiRon grZeli arbitraluri Setyobinebebi. es Tviseba ubiZgebs meqanizms Setyobinebis deasamblirebis, reasamblirebisaken da gadacemisken. arsebuli problema exeba moments rodesac procesi dabejiTebiT moiTxovs monacemTa gadcemas im nawilebiT romelic imdenad mcirea rom maTi gadacema efeqturi ar aris. aq gadawyveta aris im ramodenime Setyobinebis SeerTeba did Setyobinebad ronlebsac erTi daniSnuleba aqvT da am Setyobinebis gadatana meore mxares.
rodesac araxelsayreli da Zvuria romelime kavSiris damyareba procesis TiToeuli wyvilisaTvis, qvemoT mdebare donem SeiZleba gadawyvitos gamoiyenos igive SeerTeba Sedgenioi dialogisaTvis.
rodesac arsebobs Sedgenili gzebi wyarosa da mimRebs Soris marSrutizatori unda iqnes arCeuli. zogjer es gadawyvetileba un
dagaiyos or an met dones Soris magaliTad imisaTvis rom gadavceT monacemebi londonidan romSi mRali donis gadawyvetileba unda iqnes miRebuli imisaTvis rom man gaiaros germania. 5
interfeisebi da servisebi
TiToeuli donis funqcia aris servisis warmoeba mis zemoT mdebare donisaTvis. aqtiur elementebs TiToeul doneze xSirad aqtiur nawils uwodeben (
entities)
. arsebiTi nawili SeiZleba iyos programuli (procesi) an aparatuli (inteleqtualuri
I/O Cipi). arsebiT nawilebs sxvadasxva manqanebis erT da imave doneze Tanab
rebi ewodebaT. isini n doneze axorcieleben momsaxurebas, romelic gamoiyeneba n+1
doneze. am SemTxvevaSi n dones ewodeba mwarmoebeli, xolo n+
1 dones momxmarebeli. n donem SeiZleba gamoiyenos n+1 donis momsaxurebaim mimarTebaSi rom awarmoos misi momsaxureba
. mas SeuZlia SesTavazos magaliTad swrafi Zviri momsaxureba.
nSAP(Service Access Points) done aris adgili, sadac n+1 dones SeuZlia miiRos SeTavazebuli momsaxureba. yovel SAP
-
s aqvs unikaluri misamarTi romelic mis identifikacias axdens. imisaTvis rom ukeT gavigoT es momenti Semdegi ram ganvixiloT: SAP
-
ebi satelefono sistemaSi aris wredebis saxiT romlebSic SeiZleba telefonebi SeerTdes, xolo SAP misamarTebi aris am wredebis satelefono nomrebi. aseve safosto sisemaSi SAP misamarTebi aris quCebis misamarTebi da
safosto yuTis nomrebi. werilis gasagzavnad SAP misamarTis cosna aris saWiro.
ori donisaTvis informaciis gasacvlelad unda iyos SeTanxmeba. tipiuri interfeisis SemTxvevaSi n+
1 done atarebs IDU
-
s
(Interface Data Unit , interfeisis monacemis nawils
) n donez
e SAP
-
is gavliT. IDU
Sedgeba SDU (Service Data Unit, momsaxurebis monacemis nawili
) da sakontrolo informaciisagan. SDU
aris informacia romelic gadaicema qselSisakontrolo informacia saWiroa imisaTvis rom dabalma donem Seasrulos Tavisi movaleoba, magram Tavi
s mxriv monacemi ar aris.
SDU
-
s gadasaemad
n
donis arsebiTma nawilma SeiZleba dayos is nawilevad, TiToeuli maTgans misces saTauri da gagzvnos rogorc calkeuli
PDU (Protokol Data Unit, protokolis monacemis nawili), rogorc paketi
. PDU
saTaurebi gamoiyeneba T
anabari protokolebis gadasatanad.
kavSirze orientirebuli da ukavSiro momsaxurebebi
6
doneebs SeuZliaT SeTavazon momsaxurebis ori gansxvavebuli tipi: kavSirze
-
orientirebuli da ukavSiro momsaxurebebi.
kavSirze
-
orientirebuli momsaxurebis modelia satelefono sistemebi. imisaTvis rom vinmes gaesaubroT Tqven irebT telefons, rekavT nomerze, saubrobT da Semdeg kidebT mas. aseve imisaTvis rom gamoviyenoT kavSirze
-
orientirebuli qselis momsaxureba pirvel rigSi unda davamyaroT kavSiri. kavSiris ZiriTadi aspeqti aris i
s rom igi moqmedebs rogorc tubi. gamgzavni gamouSvebs bitebs erTi bolodan, xolo mimRebi iRebs maT imave rigiT.
amis sawinaaRmdegodukavSiro momsaxurebis modelia safosto momsaxureba. yoveli Setyobineba (werili)Seicavs mimRebis srul misamarTs da yoveli Setyo
bineba moZraoba sistemaSi sxvabisagan damoukideblad. Cveulebriv, rodesac ori Setyobineba igzavneba erTidaimave misamarTze , pirvelad gagzavnili miiReba pirveli. magram aseve SesaZlebelia rom pirvelad gagzavnilis dayovneba da meored gagzavnilis miReba pirve
lad. kavSirze
-
orientirebuli momsaxurebis SemTxvevaSi es SeuZlebelia.
yoveli momsaxureba SeiZleba daxasiaTdes momsaxurebis xarisxiT (
Quality of Service
), zogierTi momsaxureba saimedoa im TvalsazrisiT rom isini arasdros kargaven monacemebs. Cveulebriv saime
do momsaxureba xorcieldeba meqanizmiT, rodesac gamgzavni iRebs dadasturebas mimRebis mier yoveli Setyobinebis miRebis Sesaxeb.
tipiuri situacia romelSic saimedo kavSirze
-
orientirebuli momsaxureba aris misaRebi gaxlavT failebis gadatana (
File Transfer
). fa
ilis mepatrones surs darwmundes rom yvela biti miiReba swored da imave rigiT rogoriTac gamoigzavna. failebis gadatanis mepatroneTa Zalian mcire nawili Tu isurvebs swraf momsaxurebas romelic drodadro kargavs bitebs.
saimedo kavSirze orientirebul momsaxureb
as awvs ori minoruli variacia: Setyobinebata mimdevrobebi da baitebis nakadebi. formelurad Setyobinebas aqvs sazRvrebi. rodesac ori 1KB
-
iani Setyobineba aris gagzavnili isini miiReba rogorc ori gansxvavebuli 1KB
-
iani Setyobineba da arasdros rogorc erTi 2KB
-
iani. werilSi kavSiri aris bitebis nakadi sazRvrebis gareSe, rodesac 2KB
-
s iRebs mimRebi, ar arsebobs gza romelic ityvis rom isini gamogzavnilia rogorc erTi 2KB
-
iani, an rogorc ori 1KB
-
iani an rogorc 2048 bitiani Setyobinebebi. Tu wignis gverdebi igzavneb
a qselSi rogorc sxvadasxva Setyobineba aq SeiZleba mniSvnelovani iyos sazRvrebis dacva.
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rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT zogierT SemTxvevaSi dayovnebebi dadasturebaSi miuRebelia. erT
-
erti aseTi SemTxveva aris cifruli xmovani trafiki. satelefono momxmareblisaTvis um
jobesia xmauris erTi biti moisminon xazze vidre saqme hqondeT dadasturebis dayovnebasTan.
yvela form ear saWiroebs kavSirs. magaliTad rodesac eleqtronuli werili gaxdeba ufro sazogado, eleqtronuli dayofa (
junk
) saWiro iqneba? dayofili eleqtronuli werilis g
amdzavns sul ar surs Seqmnas kavSiri mxolod imisaTvis rom gagzavnos erTi nawili. arc 100%
-
iani saimedo miRwevadobaa mTavari Tu is Zviri Rirs. yovelive es saWiroa imisaTvis rom gaigzavnos erTi Setyobineba romelsac miRwevis didi SesaZlebloba aqvs magram ara garantia. arasaimedo ukavSiro momsaxurebas xSirad datagrams gervices
-
s uwodeben. is satelefonos msgavsia, romelic aseve ar uhzavnis gamgzavns dadasturebas.
sxva situaciebSi kavSiris gareSe mcire Setyobinebis gagzavna sasurvelia magram sai,edooba aq mTavar
ia. am SemTxvevaSi gamosadegia Acknoledge Datagram Service
momsaxureba. es registrirebuli werilis msgavsia romelic miRebis dadasturebas iTxovs. rodesac dadastureba brundeba gamgzavni absoluturad darwmunebulia rom Setyobineba miRebulia da ar dakargula gzaS
i.
sxva momsaxureba gaxlavT moTxovna pesuxis momsaxureba (
Request
-
reply service
). am momsaxurebis dros gamgzavni gadascems mcire monacems romelic Seicavs moTxovnas. anu pasuxi Seicavs pasuxs. es momsaxureba gamoiyeneba klient
-
server modelSi: klienti iTxov
s raRac sakiTxebs serveri ki pasuxobs mas. arxebis komutacia
imisaTvis rom avxsnaT arxebis komutaciis ZiriTadi idea, ganvixiloT is maqsimalurad gamartivebuli saxiT. sakomutacio qseli Sedgeba komutatorebisagan, romlebic dakavSirebulebi arian kavSiris xa
zebiT. yovel xazs aqvs erTi da igive gamtaroba. yoveli abonenti ukavSirdeba qsels terminaluri mowyobilobis saSualebiT, romelic agzavnis qselSi monacemebs mudmivi siCqariT, amasTan es siCqare zustad udris xazis gamtarianobas. Tu drois romeliRac momentSi ab
onentis siCqare romliTac mas surs monacemebis 8
gadacema qselSi, aRmoCndeba xazis gamtarianobaze naklebi, terminaluri mowyobiloba agrZelebs qselis momaragebas momacemebis mudmivi nakadiT, amasTan momxmareblis saWiro informacias avsebs “carieli” monacemebiT. is rom nakadis nawili Seicavs saWiro informacias, nawili ki warmoadgens „Sevsebas”, icis mimRebis terminalurma mowyobilobam, romelmas unda gadaagdos arasaWiro informacia da gadasces mimgebs mxolod is monacemebi romlebis mas gamougzavna gamgzavnma.
kavSiri
s marTva
monacemebis gacvla iwyeba winaswar kavSiris damyarebiT. davuSvaT rom or abonents
A
da
B
surT erTmaneTs gadascen ragac monacemebi. manam sanam monacemebs gadascemen qselSi (saubris dawyeba) ,
A
abonenti gadascems moTxovnas sakomutacio qselSi, rome
lSic miTiTebulia B
abonentis misamarTi (telefonis nomeri). moTxovnis gagzavnis mizani -
A
da
B abonentebis dakavSirebaa informaciuli arxiT romlis Tvisebebic gavs uwyveti kavSiris xazis Tvisebebs: is monacemebs erTi da imave sicqariT gadascems. es niSmavs r
om tranzitul komutatorebSi momxmareblis monacemebis buferizaciis aucilebloba ar aris.
aseTi arxis Sesaqmnelad moTxovnam unda gaiaros komutatorebis mimdevroba, romlebic ganTavsebulni arian A dan B
mde da unda darwmundes rom gzis yvela saWiro nawili Tavisuf
alia. garda amisa warmatebuli kavSirisatvis saWiroa, rom saboloo kvanZi
B
ar iyos dakavebuli sxva kavSiriT. imisaTvis rom kavSiri dafiqsirdes yovle komutatorSi imaxeba informacia imis Sesaxeb rom Sesabamisi kavSiris xazi gamoyofilia A da B abonentebisatvis
(darezervirebulia). 9
qselisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebi
qselisadmi wayenuli ZiriTadi moTxovnaa misi ZiriTadi funqciis Sesruleba –
uzrunvelyos abonentebi wvdomis SesaZleblobiT qselSi CarTuli yvela kompiuteris resursebTan. xolo danarCen
i moTxovnebi –
warmadobaze, saimedoobaze, Tavsebadobaze, marTvaze, dacvaze, gafarToebaze da maStabirebaze, dakavSirebulia ZiriTadi amocanis Sesrulebis xarisxTan.
Mmiuxedavd imisa, rom es moTxovnebi Zalian mniSvnelovania, “momsaxurebis xarisxi” (
Quality of
Service, QoS
) ufro viwro cnebaa, romelic gulisxmobs mxolod or yvelaze mTavar maxasiatebels –
warmadobasa da saimedobaas.
M momsaxurebis xarisxis uzrunvelsayofad arsebobs ori midgoma. Ppirveli mdgomareobs imaSi, rom qseli garantias iZleva dacul iqnas momsa
xurebis xarisxis maCveneblis ricxviTi sidide. Mmag., qsels SeuZlia misces garantia A momxmarebels, rom nebismieri
B momxmarebelTan gagzavnili paketebidan qselSi dakavebuli iqneba araumetes 150 mwm
-
isa. Aan arxis saSualo 10
gamtarunarianoba A da B momxmarebe
ls Soris ar iqneba araunakles 5 mbit/wm
-
isa, amasTanave arxi wyvets trafikis pulsacias 10mbit
-
iT drois intervalSi araumetes 2 wuTisa. Frame relay da ATM teqnologiebze seqmnili qselebi garantias iZlevian momsaxurebis xarisxze warmadobis mixedviT.
Mmeore mid
goma mdgomareobs imaSi, rom qseli emsaxureba momxmareblebs prioritetebis Sesabamisad. Ee.i. momsxurebis xarisxi damokidebulia abonentis an jgufis privilegirebis xarisxze. Aam SemTxvevaSi garantirebulia ara momsaxurebis xarisxi, aramed momxmareblis privile
girebis done. Aset momsaxureobas ewodeba best effort
-
udidesi mondomebiT. Qqseli SeZlebisdagvrad cdilobs am SemTxvevaSi ufro xariasxiand momesaxuros momxmarebels, magram arafris garantias ar iZleva. Am prinicpiT muSaoben lokaluri qselebi, romlebic agebulia
komutatorebze kadrebis prioritetizciiT.
warmadoba maRali warmadoba –
kompiuteruli qselebis erTerTi ZiriTadi Tvisebaa, romelic miiRweva qselis kompiuterebs Soris samuSaos daparalelebis meSveobiT. magram am SesaZleblobis realizeba yovelTvis SeuZlebelia.
Aarsebobs qselis warmadobis ramodenime ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi:
·
reaqciis dro;
·
gamtarunarianoba;
·
gadacemis dayovneba da misi variaciebi.
Qqselis reaqciis dro es warmadobis integraluri maxasiaTebelia momxmareblis TvalsazrisiT. Zustad am maxasiaTebels gulisx
mobs momxmarebeli, roca is ambobs: “dges qseli nela muSaobs”.
Zogadad reaqciis dro ganisazRvreba, rogorc drois intervali momxmareblis mier romelime qselur servisze moTxovnis warmoqnasa da pasuxis miRebas Soris am moTxovnaze.
cxadia, rom am maxasiaTeblis mn
iSvneloba damokidebulia samsaxuris tipze, romelsac mimarTavs abonenti, imazec Tu romeli abonenti romel servers mimarTavs, agreTve qselis 11
elementis mdgomareobaze –
segmentebis, komutatorebisa da marSutizatorebis datvirTvaze, romlebsac gaivlis moTxovna da a.
S.
amitomac saWiroa qselis reaqciis droi Sefasdes saSualod momxmareblebis, serverebis da dgis drois mixedviT. qselis reaqciis dro ikribeba ramodenime parametrisgan. esenia momxmareblis kompiuterze moTxovnis mosamzadebel droz, klientsa da servers Soris moT
xovnebis gadacemis droiT qselis segmentebisa da Sualeduri sakomunikacio aparaturis meSveobiT, srverze moTxovnebis damuSavebis dro, serveridan klientze pasuxebis gadacemis dro da serverisgan miRebuli pasuxebis damuSavebis dro klientis kompiuterze.
cxadia, r
om momxmarebels ar ainteresebs reaqciis driois dayofa Semadgenel nawilebad –
mas ainteresebs saboloo Sedegi, Tumca qselis specialisTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania zogadi reaqciis droidan gamoyos Semadgeneli parametrebi, romelic Seesabameba uSualod qsleis monace
mTa damusavebas, -
monacmeTa gadacema klientidan serverze qselis segmentebisa sakomunikacio aparaturis gavliT.
Reaqciis drois Semadgenlebis codna sasualebas iZleva Sefasdes qselis calkeuli elemenetebi, gamovlindes viwro adgilebi da aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi
modes qselis modernizacia misi saerTo warmadobis asamaRleblad.
Ggamtarunarianoba
gviCvenebs qselis an misi nawilis mier gadacemuli monacemebis moculobas drois erTeulSi. Ggamtarunarianoba –
qselis Sida operaciebis (paketebis gadacema qselis kvanZebs Soris
sxvadsxva sakomunikacio mowyobilobebis meSveobiT) Sesrulebis siCqarea. is uSualod axasiaTebs qselis ZiriTadi funqciis –
Setyobinebebis gadacemis –
Sesrulebis xarisxs da amitom gamoiyeneba ufro xSira, vidre reaqciis dro.
Ggamtarunarianoba izomeba an bitebi
T wamSi, an paketebis ricxvit wamSi.
saSualo gamtarunarianoba
gamoiTvleba gadacemuli minacemebis saerTo moculobis gayofiT maTio gadacemis droze, amasTanave irCeva drois sakmaod xangrZlivi monakveTi –
dro, dge, kvira.
12
myisieri
gamtarunarianoba
–
gansxvavde
ba saSualosagan imiT, rom saSualo sididis misaRebad irCeva drois mokle monakveTi –
mag. 10 mwm an 1 wm. maqsimaluri
gamtarunarianoba
-
es aris udidesi myisieri gamtarunarianoba, romelic dafiqsirebulia dakvirvebis periodis ganmavlobaSi.
Qqselis daproeqteb
isas, Sqemnisas da aseve optimizaciis dros ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba Semdegi maCveneblebi: saSualo da maqsimaluri gamtarunaruanoba. Qselis an misi calkeuili elementis saSualo gamtarunarioanoba saSualobeas iZleva Sefasdes qselis muSaoba drois xangrZliv monakv
eTze, romlis ganmavlobaSiac didi ricxvebis kanonis mixedviT trafikis pikebi da cavardnebi akompensireben erTmaneTs. Mmaqsimaluri gamtarunarianoba saSualebas iZleva Sefasdes qselis SesaZleblobebi gaumklavdes pikur datvirTvebs, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia qsel
is muSaobis gansazRvrul periodebSi, mag., didlis saaTebSi, roca organizaciis TanamSromlrbi erTdroulad registrirdebian qselSi da mimarTaven saerTo failebsa da monacemTa bazebs.
G
g
amtarunarianoba 
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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