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Ho ell.le paHbwe cj:>ororpacjml-1 KaHAI-1- Aaros ( larap!-~Ha 1-1 T1-1rosa) nern~-1 Ha eron H1-1KI-1Tbl Cepre1-1Ya. no OAHOiii sepe1-11-1, Xpyll.les epa3y npi-1ASI-1Hyn K ee6e KapT04KY ynbl6a- IOLl.leroeR larapi-IHa; no Apyroiii - 1 ==:.~~-=--: OTMaXHyneR, npo6yp4aS 4TO-TO SPOAe "o6a opnbi" 1-1 S006Ll.le: OT- eraHbTe 1-1 pewaiiire eaMI-1. Koponesa TaKOiii !-leXOA TOnbKO nopaAOSan - np~-1 n106oM paeKnaAe neren ero cj:>a- sop!-IT. K TOMY }l{e 18-20 anpenR eo- 61-lpanl-leb eraprosarb aMepi-IKaHL(bl, raK 4TO KOeMoHasra rpe6osanoeb 3anyeKaTb HeMeAneHHO, 1-1 eaMOOT- SOA Xpyll.leSa 6bln seeM Ha pyKy. 8 anpenR 1961 rOAa loeKOMI-Ieel-151 nOATSepAI-Ina: larapi-IH - KOMaHAI-IP Kopa6nR, T1-1ros -AY6nep. AeHb no6eAbl 12 anpenR larapi-IHa pa36YAI-1nl-1 s 5.30 . .LJ.yw, 3apRAKa, 3asrpaK. B MeHIO-MReHOe n10pe, A}l{eM 1-13 4ep- HOiii eMOPOAI-IHbl, KOcj:>e, see S ry6ax. CKopo OH ei-IAen S Ka61-1He KOpa6nR Ha KOeMOAPOMe EiaiiiKOHyp, HO }I{AaTb np1-1wnoeb ell.le ASa e ni-IWHI-IM Yaea. MenKI-Ie HaKnaAKI-1 (Hanp!-~Mep, oro- wen KOHTaKT npi-1}1{!-IMa KpbiWKI-1) S enewKe yerpaHRnl-1 Ha Meere. A 4T06bl nepSbliii KOeMOHaST He 3aeKy4an, Ko- pones noeTORHHO SbiXOAI-In Ha eS5l3b 1-1 noA6aAp1-1san ero. 113 cTeHorpaMMbl neperooopoo rarapMHa c 3eMneH IJ!j.I.f,[§:Q TaM s yKnaAKe ry6bl - o6eA, Y}I{I-IH 1-1 3asrpaK. rarapMH: 5leHo. IJ!]o!.f,[§:Q Kon6aea, APa}l{e raM 1-1 sapeHbe K YaiO. rarapMH: Ara. Ci\j.I.f,[§:Q 63 WJYKI-1, 6yAeWb TOn- eTbliii. rarapMH: Xo-xo. Ci!j.!.f,[§:Q CeroAHR npl-lneTI-IWb, epa3y see ebewb. rarapMH: He, rnasHoe-Kon6aeKa eeTb, 4T06bl eaMOrOH 3aKyebiSaTb. (Bee CMeiOTCR). Ci!J.!.J,[§:Q 3apa3a, a seAb oH 3ani-1- Cblsaer seAb see, Mep3asel.(. Xe-xe. Bnpo4eM, larapi-IH 1-1 He xaHAPI-In, a nposOAI-In speMR c nonb30iii -npo- sepRn npi-160pbl 1-1 Hanesan noA Hoc "POAI-IHa cnbiWI-IT", "fleT!-ITe, rony61-1" 1-1 ceHTI-IMeHranbHble "flaHAbiWI-1". Kopo- nes He YAep}l{aneR, 4T06bl He co- erp!-~Tb. 113 CTeHorpaMMbl neperOBOPOB rarapMHa c 3eMneH Ci!j.!.f,[§:Q Hawen npoAOn}l{eHI-Ie "flaHAbiWeiii", noHRn? rarapMH: (CMeercR) noHRn, no~Rn. Ci!j.!.f,[§:Q CnoeM ceroAHR seYepoM. Ha 28 260 KM/'1 B 9.07 Kopa6nb craprosan. Bee 108 MI-IHYT nonera larapi-IH n1-1ean s 6opro- soiii }l{ypHan rpacjJI-ITHbiM KapaHAa- woM, sen neperosopbl e l.(eHrpoM, OeSa!-lsan HeseeOMOeTb, nposepRn, MO}I{eT n~-1 4enoseK ni-ITb-eeTb S TaKOM eoeroRHI-11-1 - see wno, KaK no Maeny. em >KeHe rarapHH He pac- cKa3biBan o nonere AO nocneAHero. To, 4TO ere <t>pa3a - "Co6Hpa10Cb s KOCMOC, fOTOBb 'leMO- AaH c 6enbHWKOM" - He wyrKa, BaneHTHHa Y3Hana MeHee YeM 3a MeCH4 AO crapra. ∙ ,..~. =:Q .~;; ~~- ~ .... --,,,i, . ~iiia - .: .• LE LIVRE OFFICIEL DE LA CONOUETE DE l'ESPACE Cepbe3Hble npo6neMbl B03HiiiKJH1 TOnbKO npill cnycKe (n03TOMY 0 HiiiX ynOMi11HaeTC5l niiiWb B CeKpeTHOM ay- AiiiOAOKnaAe KOCMOHaBTa). noHa4any, C6i11Ba5l TOpMO>KeHille, 3a- na3Ab1Bano pa3AeneHille oTceKoB. 3a 7 KillnOMeTpOB AO 3eMnill larapiiiH ycnewHo KaTanynbTillpoBanc5l ill cpa3y yrOAilln B APYryiO Henpi115lTHOCTb: AOnro He OTKpbiBanC5l AbiXaTenbHbli-1 KnanaH CKa¢aHApa. V1 npi113eMnillnC5l KOCMO- HaBT He B 3aAaHHOM pai-iOHe, a Ha BcnaxaHHOM none Konxo3a "neHiiiH- CKilli-1 nYTb" B CapaToBcKoi-1 o6nacm, HanyraB ill nopaAOBaB MeCTHbiX. Ho BeAb npi113eMnillnc5l! B LJ,Yne onaca- nillcb, 4TO npOi1130i-1AeT C60i.i ill KO- pa6nl0 npi11AeTC5l 60nTaTbC5l B KOCMOCe AHei-1 ceMb (ill 3TO B ny4weM cny4ae). K C4aCTbiO, y>Ke 4epe3 napy 4aCOB nocne B3neTa larapiiiH c a3pOAPOMa 3Hrenbc 3BOHilln AOBOnbHOMY Xpyll1e- By, KOTOpbli-1 y>Ke ycnen nOBbiCiiiTb ero B 3BaHillill. 3a04HO, cpa3y AO Mai-iopa. CnyCT5l ABa AH5l repo5l BCTpe4ana MOCKBa. noA3Be3AHaR )I(M3Hb KaK nocTynaiOT c 3eMn5lHiiiHOM, KO- TOPbli-1 nepBbiM YBiiiAen POAHYIO nna- HeTy C BbiCOTbl 300 KillnOMeTpOB? npaBillnbHO: ero TOpMOWaT, Tepe65lT, eMy 3aAaiOT KY4Y pa3HbiX BonpocoB, Ha Hero CMOTp5lT BO BCe rna3a. nocne npi113eMneHi115l larapiiiH CTan 3aTepme AO Ablp Knillwe, HO T04Hee He CKa>KeWb. Ha4i11Ha5l c anpen5l 1961 roAa Ka>KAbli-1 war KOCMOHaBTa 6bln 3aCH5lT Ha KiiiHO- illnill ¢omnneHKy. Ecnill pa3nO>KiiiTb Bee CHiiiMKill P5lAOM, nony4iiiTC5l TaKOi-1 Ka- nei-iAOCK<;>n, npill BiiiAe KOTOporo n1060i.i COBpeMeHHbli-1 XpOHiiiKep 3aBiiiCTniiiBO B3AOXHeT: BOT larapiiiH ynpa>KH5leTC5l C raHTen5lMill Ha 6anKoHe, a Ha cneAYIO- ll1eM CHiiiMKe ∙eMy Tp5lceT PYKY Xpy111eB. larapiiiH XBaCTaeTC5l nOi.iMaHHbiM ne1110M. Ero (He ne111a, noH5lTHO) Ka4a- IOT B B03Ayxe iiiHAYCbl. Ero 06HiiiMaeT APYr HapoAa ¢i11Aenb KaCTpo; ero 1..\eny- eT HecpaBHeHHa5l nonno6pi11A>Ki11Aa. A BOT Ha HOBOroAHeM "OrOHbKe-66" CaM larapiiiH CHiiiMaeT Ha py4HYIO KiiiHO- KaMepy nepByiO KpacoTKY Col03a, ne- Biiii..IY napillcy MOHAPYC. Bee, 4TO oH Hill Aenan- pa3AaBan aBTorpa¢bl nacca>KillpaM Bcero caMo- neTa, npiiiHiiiMan cTpaHHble HarpaAbl BPOAe "0>Kepenb5l Hillna",-larapiiiH Aenan Ha COBeCTb. KocMOHaBT leop- rilli-1 WOHiiiH rOBOpilln: "Be3Ae pa3Hbli-1, 80 CTpaHHqa xxl anpenb 2011 BMeere e reM se3Ae oH oeraere11 0,[1HI-1M 1-1 TeM >t<e-eaMi-'\M eo6oi1". CeMb neT, BnnOTb ,[10 MOMeHTa l!-16e- nl-1, larap!-1H i-'\enpaBHO 1-1 YeeTHO 6bln ne pBbiM B KOeMOee 1-1 nyYWI-1M Ha 3eMne YenoseKoM: o6be3AI-1n 30 erpaH, Bblerynan B Ka>t<AOi1 AO 20 pa3 B e yrKI-1; 6bln t:~enyraroM BepxosHoro Cosera (e 1964 r.) 1-1 pyKOBOAI-1TeneM ni-160 noYeTHbiM YneHOM KYYI-1 opraHI-1- 3al..(l-1i1 -e era ni-'\YHbiMI-1 >t<enaHI-111MI-1 Mana eYI-1Tanl-1eb. Xor11 larap!-1H xoren TOnb KO OAHOIO: eHOBa neTaTb. CanoJKHHK 6e3 canor C 1961 no 1963 lOA larap!-1H He noA- H I-1Manel1 B He6o B 0,[11-1HOYKy. no3>t<e neran e 3aTI1>t<HbiMI-1 nepepbiBaMI-1 1-1 TOnbKO Ha yYe6HOi1 "enapKe", Be,[lb enyer11 napy H e t:~enb noene np!-13eMne- HI-111 OH ompaB1-1ne11 B rypHe (Aa>t<e e >t<eHoi1 eMy t:~anl-1 no6b1Tb ni-1Wb He- eKOnbKO ,[1Hei1 B KOHI..(e asryera) 1-1 nOYTI-1 ABa IO,[Ia KOnee1-1n no Mi-1py, Ka K!-1e y>t< ryr noneTbl. TaK YTO KBani-1- Q:>!-1Kal..(l-110 neTYI-1Ka-1-1erpe61-1Ten11 y Hero BnOnHe 3aKOHHO OT06panl-1, 1-1 nepBbli1 pa3 OH eMOI nO,[IHI1Tbel1 B He6o ni-1Wb B KOHI..(e 1967 IOAa- Ha Ml-11-17. "PoeT y MeHI1 He aXTI-1 KaKOi1 ... 3aTPYAH11eT Opi-1eHTI-1pOBKY npi-1 noea,[IKe MaWI-1- Hbl," - Beer,[la Wyri-'ln KOeMOHaBT. TaK enyYI-1nOeb 1-1 Ha 3TOT pa3. 0 HeyAaYHOM npi-13eMneHI-11-1 ryr >t<e AO- no>t<i-'lnl-1 KYAa enet:~yer, 1-1 1-13 YnpasneHI-111 BBC np1-1wna w1-1¢posKa: "Or nonems OTeTpaHi-'\Tb!" (HernaeHbli1 npi-1Ka3 He pi-1eKOBaTb eoKpOBI-1Ll.leM Hal..(l-11-1 6bln l-13,[1aH ell.le B Mapre 67-ro, KOI,[Ia B KO- pa6ne "Col03-1" eropen BnaAI-1MI-1P Ko- Mapos, AY6nepoM Koroporo 6bln lara- PI-1H). KoeMoHaBT npot:~on>t<an A061-1- BaTbel1 BOeeTaHOBneHI-111 KBanl-1cj:>I-1Ka- l..(l-11-1, 1-1 BbleOKOe HaYanbeTBO nowno eMy Ha yerynKI-1, o6113as, npaBAa, Hane- TaTb Yaebl e i-'\HerpyKTOpOM, neTYI-1KOM- repoeM BnaAI-1Mi-1POM Ceperi-1HbiM. KOHe'-' CBR3H YTpOM 27 Mapra 1968 IO,[Ia OHI-1 BABOeM OTnpaBI-1nl-1eb B KOHTpOnbHbli1 noneT e a3p0,[1pOMa '-lKanoseKI-1i1 Ha M1-1le-15YTV1. Y>t<e yepe3 KOpoTKoe speMI1 K YAi-'IBneHI-110 "3eMnl-1" 3KI-1na>t< 3anpoe1-1n pa3peweH1-1e Ha o6paTHbli1 • Kype. B 10.30 eBI13b e 60pTOM npe- psanaeb. 06nOMKI-1 eaMonera Hawn1-1 enyer11 He- eKOnbKO YaeOB B 65 Ki-'lnOMeTpaX OT a3p0,[1pOMa. BpeM11, 3a KOTOpoe eaMO- . '. neT nepewen 1-13 HaYanbHoro nono>t<e- HI-111 B KOHeYHOe, paBHI1nOeb ... OAHOi1 MI-1Hyre- B 10.31, epe3aB sepxywKI-1 eoeeH, e BbleOTbl 4000 MeTpOB 1-1 Ha eKopoeTI-1150 MjeeK Ml-11 Bpe3anel1 B 3eMniO. noeMeprHal1 3Kenepm3a no- Ka3ana HeBbleOKI-1i1 yposeHb at:~peHa ­ ni-1Ha B KPOBI-1 n011-16Wi-1X neTYI-1KOB. Bee npOi-130WnO TaK 6bleTpO, LiTO OHI-1 Aa>t<e He yenen1-1 1-1enyrarbe11. Co6paHHble B weeTI-1Merposoi1 sopoH- Ke OeTaHKI-1 yMeeTI-1nl-1eb B 3Mani-1pO- BaHHOe set:~po. 06pbiBOK KYPTKI-1 Cepe- ri-1Ha HaWnl-1 epa3y- Hi-'\KOMY He XOTe- nOeb Bep!-1Tb, LiTO TaM >t<e MO>t<eT 6b1Tb 1-1 larap!-1H. ,1:\o noenet:~Hero HaAe11nl-1eb: KaTanynbTI-1pOBanel1 ... Ho KOeMOHaBT neoHOB no YaeTI-1 nneYa 1-1 POAI-1HKe Ha wee ono3Han era. HaKaHyHe OHI-1 BMe- ere XOAi-'lnl-1 s napi-1KMaxepeKyiO, 1-1 neo- HOB 6eenoKo1-1ne11, KaK 6bl Maerep He nopaHI-1n larapi-1HY 3TY POAI-1HKy. . rarapl1aHa -JTo nocs!l- 111eHHbl~ KOCMOHaBTY pa3Aen ¢11naren11cn1K11: MapKI1, OTKpbiTK11, KOH- BepTbl 11 npoYa!l 6ecl!eH- Ha!l All!l KOJ1JleKL!I10He- J?OB MaKynarypa. 3KC- nepTbl rosop!lT, 'iTO no cny'iaiO 1061111e!l nonera L!eHa Ha peAK11e JK3eM- nn!lpbl MO)I{eT AO~TI1 AO 2000 espo 11 Aa)l{e ne- pecKO'ii1Tb 3Ty nnaHKy. Bbl e111e He y6e)l{al111 pa3rpe6aTb 6a6ywKI1HY aHTpeCOJlb? xxl anpenb 2011 CTpaHHqa N• 81 K1 nO'IEMY norM& rArAPHH? Oci»HqHanbHaR aepcHR TexH~YecK~ ~cnpasHal'l Maw~Ha no He~3BeCTHOCi np~4~He co- psanacb B pe3Koe n~Ke ~ He Bblwna ~3 pem~Ma n~K~posaH~I'l. Heoci»HqHanbHble rHnoTe3bl Vlx B pa3bl 6onbwe. CronKHOBeHMe C MHOPOAHbiM D ltt∙id§til.]ftl Bm Ta *e, ronbKO "He~3BeCTHal1 np~4~- Ha" -3TO nT~L(a, MeTe030H.[\ ~n~ HJlO. PeanbHOCTb B paeioHe na.[\eH~I'l no~cKoB~K~ npo- ce~san~ ~ CHer, ~ rpyHT- ~ H~Yero KP~M~HanbHOrD, KPOMe MepTBOCi coeiK~ (ee BCKope "onpas.[\an~"), He Hawn~. no 3aKn104eH~IO 3KCnepTOB, ~3y4asw~x o6noMK~. s 3eMniO M~l spe3anc11, 6Yt1Y4~ Hespe.[\~MbiM. CopBaBWMMCH WTOnop f) Bm fleT4~K~. orpa6aTbiBal1 np~eM, He cMorn~ BbiBecr~ caMoner ~3 n~Ke. PeanbHOCTb "Wronop" 6bln 3anpew,eH K ~cnonHe­ H~IO c 1952 ro.[\a, ~ BPI1.!1 n~ n~noTbl pew~n~ noxyn~raH~Tb. K TOMY me aHan~3 o6noMKOB ~ 3an~ceei nepero- sopos c 3eMneei sepc~10 "wronopa" He .[\OKa3biBaeT. lin C KOMaHAMPOM EJ mm B Ka6~He yme HeMono.[\OMY Ceper~HY. crano nnoxo. norep11s co3HaH~e. OH 3a6noK~posan pbl4ar cso~M renoM, ~ larap~HY He XBaT~no speMeH~ B311Tb C~ryal(~IO nO.[\ KOHTpOnb. PeanbHOCTb np~ 3KCnepT~3e OCTaHKOB KOMaH- .[\~pa B era KpOB~ 06Hapym~n~ H~3- K~Ci yposeHb K~cnopo.[\a, HO B03- MOmHyiO np~4~HY He.[\OMOraH~S1 He no3son~no onpe.[\en~Tb cocTOI'IH~e rena. 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B TPYAHbiX ycnoB11RX 6opb6bl 3TI1 A11BH3HH HeOAHOKpaTHO HaHOCI1J111 >KeCTOKI1e no- pa>KeHHH HeMel..lKo-<j>awi1CTCKI1M BOHCKaM, o6paiJ.Ia- nl1 11X B 6erCTBO, HaBOA11JlH Ha HI1X ymac. no'leMy 3THM HaWI1M CTpenKOBbiM A11B113HRM YAaBaJlOCb 6HTb spara H rHaTb nepeA co6oi1 xsaneHble HeMel..lKI1e soiilcKa? noTOMy, Bo-nepBbiX, 'ITO npH HacrynneHHI1 OHI1 WJlH BnepeA He BCJle- nyiO, He o'!epTR ronosy, a 1111Wb nocne TIJ.IaTeJlbHOH pa3BeAKH, nocne cepbe3HOH noArOTOBKH, nocne Toro, KaK OHH npoiJ.IYnanH cna6ble MeCTa npOTHBHHKa 11 o6ecne'IHJ1H OXpaHeHHe CBOHX <j>JlaHrOB. noTOMy, BO-BTOPbiX, 'ITO npH npOpbiBe <j>pOHTa npOTHBHHKa OHH He orpaH11'1HBa11HCb ABH>KeHHeM BnepeA, a CTapa11HCb paCWHPRTb npopbiB CBOHMI1 AeHCTBI1RMH no 611H>KaHWHM TbiJlaM npOTHBHI1Ka, Hanpaso H Haneso OT MecTa npopbiBa. noTOMy, B-TpeTbHX, 'ITO, 3aXBaTHB y npOTHBHI1Ka TeppHTOPHIO, OHH HeMeAneHHO 3aKpennR1111 3a co6oi1 3axsa'!eHHoe, OKanbiBaJ111Cb Ha HOBOM MeCTe, opraHI13YR KpenKOe oxpaHeHHe Ha HO'Ib H Bbi- CbiJlaR BnepeA cepbe3HYIO pa3BeAKY A11R HOBOrO npOIJ.IYnbiBaHI1SI oTcryna101.11ero npoTI1BHHKa. noTOMy, B-'leTBepTbiX, 'ITO, 3aH11MaR 060pOHHTeJlbHYIO n03111..lHIO, OHH OCyiJ.IeCTBJlRJlH ee He KaK naCCHBHYIO 060pOHy, a KaK o6opoHy aKTHB- HyiO, COeAHHeHHYIO C KOHTpaTaKaMH. 0HH He AO>K11AaJ1HCb TOro MQ- MeHTa, KOrAa npOTHBHHK YAapHT 11X 11 OTTeCHHT Ha3aA, a CaMH nepe- XOAHJlH B KOHTpaTaKH, 'IT06bl npOIJ.IynaTb CJ1a6ble MeCTa npOTI1BHH- Ka, ynyYWHTb CBOH n03HI..li1H 11 BMeCT~ C TeM 3aKaJ111Tb CBOH nOJlKH B npOI..leCCe KOHTpaTaK AJ1R nOArOTOBKH 11X K HacrynneHHIO. noTOMy, B-nRTbiX, 'ITO np11 Ha>KI1Me CO CTOpOHbl npOTHBHHKa 3TI1 A11BI13HH He snaAa1111 s naHHKy, He 6pocan11 opy>KHe, He pa36era- nHCb B JleCHble 'laiJ.IH, He KpH'IaJlH "Mbl O.Kpy>KeHbl", a opraHH30- BaHHO OTBe'laJlH YAapOM Ha YAap npOT11BH11Ka, >KeCTOKO 06y3Abi- BaJ1H naHHKepOB, 6ecnOIJ.IaAHO pacnpaBJlRJlHCb C TpyCaMH H Ae- 3epTHpaMH, o6ecne'IHBaR TeM CaMbiM AHCI..lHnJlHHY 11 OpraHH30- BaHHOCTb CBOI1X '!aCTeH. noTOMy, HaKOHel..l, 'ITO KOMaHAHPbl 11 KOMI1CCapbl B 3THX AHBH3HRX BeJlH ce6R, KaK My>KeCTBeHHble H Tpe60BaTe1lbHble Ha'laJlbHHKH, yMeiOIJ.IHe 3aCTaBHTb CBOHX nOA'IHHeHHbiX BblnOJlHRTb npHKa3bl H He 60RIJ.IHeCR HaKa3biBaTb HapyWHTeJleH npHKa30B H AHCI..lHnJlHHbl. Ha OCHOBaHHH H3JlO>KeHHOrO H B COOTBeTCTBHH C nOCTaHOBJleHHeM npe311AHYMa BepXOBHOro CoseTa CCCP CTaBKa BepXOBHOro rnaB- HOKOMaHAOBaHHR npHKa3biBaeT: 1. 3a 60eBble nOABHrH, 3a opraHH30BaHHOCTb, AHCI..lHnJlHHY H npHMepHbiH nopRAOK yKa3aHHble A11BH31111 nepei1MeHoBaTb s rsapAeHCKI1e AHB113HI1, a 11MeHHO: 100-10 CTpenKOBYIO A11BI131110 -B 1-10 rsapAeHCKYIO AHBH3HIO. KOMaHAHP AHBH31111 reHepan-Maiilop PyCCHRHOB. 127-10 CTpeJlKOBYIO AHB113HIO-BO 2-10 rsapAeHCKYIO AHBH3HIO. KOMaHA11P AHBH31111 nOJ1KOBHI1K AKHMeHKO. 153-10 CTpe11KOBYIO AHBI13HIO -B 3-10 rsapAeHCKYIO AHBH3HIO. KoMaHAHP AHBI1311H nonKOBHHK rareH. 161-10 CTpeJlKOBYIO A11BH3HIO -B 4-10 rsapAeHCKYIO A11BH3HIO. KOMaHAHP AHBI131111 nOJlKOBHHK MOCKBHTI1H. 2. B cooTBeTCTBHH c nocTaHosneHHeM BepxosHoro CoseTa Co103a CCP yKa3aHHbiM A11BH3HRM spy'II1Tb oco6ble rsapAeiilcKHe 3HaMeHa. 3. 8CeMy Ha'laJlbCTBYIOIJ.IeMy (Bb]CWeMy, CTapweMy, cpeAHeMy 11 MnaAweMy) cocTasy c ceHTS16pS! c. r. so scex 'leTblpex rsapAei1- CKHX AHBI13HRX ycTaHOBHTb nOJlyTOpHbiH, a 60HI..laM ABOHHOH OKJlaA COAep>KaHHSI. 4. Ha'lanbHHKY TbiJla KpacHoi1 ApMI111 pa3pa6oTaTb H K 30 ceHTR- 6pR npeACTaBHTb npoeKT oco6oH <j>opMbl OAe>KAbl AJlR rsapAeH- CKHX A11BI1311H. 5. HaCTOSIIJ.IHH npHKa3 06bRBHTb B AeHCTBYIOIJ.IeH apMI1H H B OKpyrax BO BCeX poTaX, 3CKaApOHaX, 6aTapeRX, 3CKaAp111lbRX H KOMaHAaX. HapOAHbiH KOMHccap o6opoHbl CCCP H. CTanHH Ha'laJ1bHI1K reHepanbHoro wTa6a KpacHoi1 ApMHH Mapwan CoseTcKoro Co103a 6. WanowHHKOB xxl anpenb 2011 CTpaHHqa N! 121 3a 3H1MI-1 A1-1BI-131-15lMI-1 nocneAOB8Jii-1 MHOr!-1e APYrl-1e. K KOHL\Y BOiiiHbl CO- BeTCK85l rB8PAI-15l BKJIIO<j8Jia: 11 06- Ll.(eBOiiiCKOBbiX, 6 T8HKOBbiX apMI-11ii, 40 CTpe!IKOBbiX, 7 K8B8Jiepl-11iiCKI-1X, 12 T8HKOBbiX, 9 MeX8Hi-131-1pOB8HHbiX 1-1 14 8BI-181..\I-10HHbiX KOpnycoB, 215 " A1-1BI-131-11ii, 18 60eBbiX KOpa6nelii 1-1 § 60JibWOe KOJII-1'-jeCTBO <j8CTelii p83Jii-1<j- .o lilll.~;jjjjj,~..wi i HbiX Bi-1AOB Boopy>+<eHHbiX C1-1n 1-1 I"BapAeiiqbl TpeTbero peiixa npHHRTO C'lHTaTb, 'ITO B Hai..IHCTCKOH fepMaHHH fJiaBHbiMH oxpaH- HHKaMH fHTJTepa 6bii1H CC. Ha CaMOM Aelle, fHilepa CTepefJIH He 3C3COBI..Ibl, TOYHee - He TOJlbKO OHH. OxpaHHbiH 6aTallbOH "6ep- 11HH" 6bll1 C03AaH ell.(e B 1921 rDAY, a 3aTeM npeo6pa30BaH B nOJlK, KOTOpbiH OXpaHRJl Ba>KHeHWHe npaBHTellbCTBeHHble COOpy- >KeHHR. Oco6biH 6aTallbOH conpoBO>KAeHHR ¢10pepa 3aHHMai1CR HenocpeACTBeHHOH oxpaHOH fHTJTepa. npH 3TOM npaKTH'leCKH Te >Ke ¢YHKL!HH Bbtn011HRJ1 Jlei16WTaHAapT CC. fHTilep J1106HJ1 KOrAa ero nOAAaHHble KOHKYPHPOBaJIH Me>KAY C06ot4. <j8Jii-1 rsapAeliicKoe 3BaHI-1e asaHcoM. Pe Yb 1-1AeT o 6ampeHx peaKTI-1BHbiX MI-1HOMeTOB (3H8MeHI-1Tble "K8TIOWI-1") 1-1 0 HeCKOJibKI-1X CTpeJIKOBbiX A1-1Bi-131-1- 5lX, KOTOpble 6biJII-1 nepe¢opMi-1pOB8- Hbl 1-13 B03AYWHO-AeC8HTHbiX KOpny- COB. Y HI-1X 6biJI8 H8CTOJibKO CJ18BH85l 6oesa5l 61-1orpa¢1-1H, ljTO s TOM, ljTO 3TI-1 60iiil.\bl I-1MeiOT npaBO HOCI-1Tb rsapAeliicKoe 3HaMH asaHCOM, He 6biJIO HI-1K8KI-1X COMHeHI-11ii! E cn1-1 rosopi-1Tb o AeHe>KHOM COAep>Ka- HI-11-1 rsapAeliil.\eB, TO 8BTOM8T<ji-1K CTpeJIKOBbiX i-'IJII-1 K8B8Jiepl-11iiCKI-1X <j8- CTelii C KOHI..\8 CeHT5l6p5l 1941 rOA8 nonyljaJI s MeCHL\ 12 py6nelii 50 Kone- eK, cneAOBaTeJibHO, rsapAeliil.\Y nona- ranocb 25 py6nelii. B TO speMH 3a 3TI-1 AeHbrl-1 TPYAHO 6biJIO 6bl Kyni-1Tb Aa>+<e 6yxaHKY xne6a. KoMaHAI-1Pbl nonyljaJII-1 60JibWe, HO BCe p8BHO BbiXOAI-1!10 He- ryCTO. Ho nOCKOJibKY BOeHHbiX BCe- T8KI-1 KOpMI-1JII-1 38 K83eHHbllii C<jeT, AeHbrl-1 OHI-1 nepe<ji-1CJ15lJII-1 CBOI-1M POA- HbiM B TbiJI. TaM OHI-1 6biJII-1 HY>KHee. 0AH8KO He B AeHbrax 6biJIO AeJIO. lsapAeliicKoe 3BaHI-1e Aasano npe>+<Ae BCero <jYBCTBO conpi-1<j8CTHOCTI-1 BeJII-1- KOMY Aeny, caMoysa>KeH!-1e. HarpyA- HbiM JB8pAeliiCKI-1M 3H8KOM, y<jpe>K- AeHHbiM B 1942 rOAY, ropA1-1JII-1Cb 60JibWe, <jeM MHOri-'IMI-1 OpAeHaMI-1 1-1!11-1 MeAaflHMI-1. Cny>KI-1Tb s 3KI-1na>+<e rsapAeliicKoro Kopa6nH 1-1 HOCI-1Tb "p>KaByiO" JleHTY H8 6eCK03blpKe 6biJIO npeAeJIOM Me<jT8HI-11ii K8>KAOrD MOPHKa. CTas∙ rsapAeliil..\aMI-1, 60iiil.\bl H8<ji-1H8Jii-1 cpa>KaTbC5l ell(e JIY<jWe. 3TO 6biJ18 1-1 eCTb eAI-1HCTBeHH85l H8CT05l- L1(85l npi-1BI-1Jieri-1H rsapAeliil.\a. XXL 122 CTpaHHqa xxl anpenb 2011 KTO oxpaHReT CaMbiX rnaBHbiX IIIOAeM B MMpe KpacH03HaMeHHhlii opAeHa 0KTA6pbcKoii peaomoqMM npe3MAeHTCKMii nonK 3TOT nonK, C03AaHHbiH B 1936 rOAY Ha OCHOBe cne1..16aTanbOHa HKB,Q, nOA'H1H!l∙ eTC!l Hanp!lMYIO npe311AeHry POCCHHCKOH !l>eAePa'-11111 11 oxpaH!leT KpeMnb 11 APY∙ r11e npaBHTenbCTBeHHble o6beKTbl. KpoMe Toro, Ha YacTH noApa3AeneHHH nonKa ne>KaT 06!l3aHHOCTI1 noYeTHOrO Kapayna 11 3CKOpTa BO BpeM!l O<j>111..111anbHbiX Me∙ ponpH!lTHH. Kopnyc MOpCKOH neXOTbl TenoxpaHHTen!lMH npe3HAeHTa CWA !lBn!liOTC!l areHTbl CeKpeTHOH Cny>K6bl, 113 KO∙ TOpoii <j>opMHpyeTC!l 11 non111..111!l 6enoro ,QoMa, HO l..lepeMOHHanbHYIO oxpaHy nepso- ro n111..1a CWA TpaAI11..1110HHO HeCYT MOpneXH. CTOI1T 3aMeTI1Tb, YTO KOpnyc MOPCKOH neXOTbl He npOCTO Hanp!lMYIO nOA411HeH npe311AeHry, HO 11 MO>KeT 11CnOnb30BaTbC!l 11M An!l BeAeHH!l 6oeBbiX AeHCTBI1H 3a rpaHHI..IeH 6e3 OA06peHI1!l KoHrpecca. I:I:F'Biifi:tj WaeiiqapcKaA rBBPAMA, KOTOpa!l oxpaH!leT nany PHMCKOro 11 ero KpoweYHYIO CTpaHy, 6blna OCHOBaHa B 1506 rOAY 11 C411TaeTC!l CTapeHwei! apMHeH MHpa. KOM∙ nneKTyeTC!l OHa 11CKni0411TenbHO 113 WBeHI..IaPI..IeB, KOTOPble 11CCTapl1 cnaBHni1Cb KaK BenHKOnenHble COnAaTbl. 0AHaKO nocne 1815 rOAa WBeHI..IaPI..IaM 6blnO O<j>l1- 1..111anbHO 3anpe~eHO 3aHHMaTbC!l HaeMHHYeCTBOM. 11CKnl04eHHe CAenanH TOnbKO An!l nancKoii rsapAHH. C Tex nop wseiil..laPI..Ibl MOfYT cny>KHTb 11 cny>KaT 3a rpaHH∙ 1..1eii TOnbKO B 3TOH KpOWeYHOH apMI111, YHH<j>OpMy KOTOpOH, Me>KAY np0411M, pa3pa- 60Tan senHKHH Pa<j>a3nb. xxl anpenb 2011 CTpaHHqa N• 123 BeAYUIHH py6pHKI1: nase/1 KOWHK ..., rOHKH BOOPY)I(EHHH M-16 nPOTHB AKM M-16 - Caliber 5.56 mm. XapaKTepHCTMKH CrpaHa: CWA. roAbl 3KcnnyaTai..IHH: 1961 ro.Q- Hacro~ll.(ee speM~ (o<jli-1L(I-1allbHO Ha soopy- >+<eHI-11-1 c 1964 ro.Qa). Dl!] npoH3BOAHTellb: Colt Defense, FN Herstal, H & R Firearms, General Motors Hydramatic Division. KoHcrpyKrop: fO.Q>t<I-1H CroyHep, Po6epr <!JpeMOHT, ,ll,>+<ei1Mc Can111-1BaH. Macca, Kr: 2,88 (M16 6e3 peMH~ 1-1 Mara31-1Ha); 0,11 (nycroi1 Mara31-1H Ha 30 naTpOHOB); 0,45 CHap~>KeHHbiH Mara31-1H Ha 30 naTpOHOB). II!] AnHHa, MM: 986 (M16A1); 1006 (M16A2); 1000 (M16A4). Dl!] AnHHa crsona, MM: 508 (M16A2/A3 6e3 KOMneHcaropa); 533 (M16A2/A3 c KOMneHcaropo M); 510 (M16A4). narpoH: 5,56*45 MM HATO (M193 Ball -M16 1-1 A1; SS109-A2, A3 1-1 A4). CKopocrpellbHOCTb, BbiCTpenoB/MHH: 650-750 (M16A1); 700-900 (M16A2); 700-950 (M16A4). Dl!] . Ha'!a/lbHaH CKOpOCTb nymt, Mjc: 990 (M16A1); 930 (M16A2); 948 (M16A4). 5 npHI..IellbHaSI AallbHOCTb, M: 450 (M16A1); 800 (M16A2). m MaKCHMallbHaH 3<j><j>eKTHBHaH AallbHOCTb, M: 600 (M16A4); 800 (no nno- ll.(a.QHbiM L(e/l~M). a::E) BHA 6oenHTaHHSI: KOp06YaTbiH Mara31-1H Ha 20/30 naTpOHOB. np111..1ell: .QI-10nTpi-1YeCKI-1H m 5onee 80 crpaH, BK/110'-Ia~ CWA, 5lnOHI-110, <!JpaHL.(I-110, V1ran1-110, Beni-1K06pi--na- HI-110, Ascrpa111-110, 5pa31-11ll-110, lpy31-110, Cay.QOBCKYIO Apas1-110. a::f1 '''•B•Id51 • BbiCOKa~ KYYHOCTb crpenb6bl. Dl!] • CpaBHI-1TellbHO He6onbwa~ Macca. • C6allaHCI-1pOBaHHa~ OT,Qa'-la - npaKTI-1'-IeCKI-1 OTCyTCTByeT OTBO.Q CTBO/la B CTO- poHy np1-1 crpenb6e oYepe.Q~MI-1. Dl!] • Xopowa~ 3proHOMI-1Ka. m • B03MO>KHOCTb 6biCTpoi1 CMeHbl CTBOilOB. • Bo3MO>KHOCTb ycraHOBKI-1 6onbworo K0/11-1'-IecTBa aKceccyapoB. Dl!] • Bo3MO>+<HOCTb BbiCOKOTOYHoi1 KoppeKTI-lpOBKI-1 QPHL(ena. • BbiCOKa~ Ha'-la/lbHa~ CKOpOCTb ny111-1. 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Ha3BaHI1e MOAefll1 o6bi'"IHO Aefli1- KaTHO nepeBOA~T Ha pyCCKI1j;j KaK "He6e c Ha~ TaYKa" (OCHOBHOe 3Ha- YeHI1e- aHrn. flivver-"ManeHb- Ka~ AeWeBa~ MaWI1HKa", HO TaK>t<e 11 "AewesKa, nposan, HeyAaYa"). YBbl, KaK Bbl ~XTY Ha30BeTe, TaK OHa 11 nonnbiBeT: MOAenb ( npocTa~. HO nnoxo ynpasn~eMa~) B3fleTana He- HaMHoro nyYwe "AsmnnaHa" Kep- TI1Ca. np11 11CnbiTaHI111 nor116 n11noT, APYr leHp11 ct:>opAa, 11 KOMnaHI1~ OT0- 3Bana CBOI1 BflO>t<eHI1~. Pa3pa60TKY csepHynl1. 3TO 6blfla nepsa~ CMepTb np11 11CnbiTaHI111 neTai011(11X aBTOM0611flej;l, HO OTHIOAb He no- CfleAH~R noKa caMafl peaflbHafl H3 pa3pa6oToK npeAflO>t<eHa KOMnaHHeit Terrafugia Transition. 3To He6onbwoit caMo- neT C 'leTblpbMfl KOfleCaMH H CKflaAbiBaiOU\HMHCfl Kpblflbf!MH. 3af!BfleHHafl B 2010 rOAY 4eHa - 200 TbiC. AOfl- flapOB. Tpe6yiOTCfl H npaBa, H llH4eH3Hfl nHflOTa. 1937 rOA 0AHaKo 11Ae~ Tpeso>t<11na YMbl, 11 nonbiTKI1 nOAH~Tb aBTOM0611flb B B03Ayx npOAOn>t<ani1Cb. B 1930 roAax HeCKOflbKO 11306peTaTenej;j 06HapOAOBafll1 CBOI1 C06- CTBeHHble BepC1111 aBTOnflaHOB 11 nonyYI1fll1 rpaHT Ha AaflbHej;jwl1e pa3pa6oTKI1 OT TOrAaWHero npe311AeH- Ta CWA Py3senbTa. Ha116onee YAaYHblj;j KOHl..lem npeAf10>t<l1fl KOHCTPYKTop BanbAO BaTepMaH. Era npoeKT <jJI1HaHCI1pOBaflC~ KOMnaHI1ej;j "CTyAe6eK- Kep". 3TO 6blfl MOHOnflaH Ha OCHOBe KOpnyca Studebaker, TOflbKO TpexKoneCHblj;j 11 cera >t<e cTaH- AapTHbiM 100-CI1flbHbiM AB11raTeneM. Ha np116opHoj;j naHefll1 rOpAO KpaCOBafli1Cb KOMnac, BbiCOTOMep 11 11HA11KaTOp neTHQj;j CKOPOCTI1. 0T npeAWeCTBeHHI1KOB era OTI111Yafll1 Kpbl- flb~: OHI1 6blfll1 He nepneHA11KYll~pHbl <jlfll03efl~>t<y, a CKOWeHbl. MoAeflb Ha3Banl1 Arrowplane, no3>t<e Arrowbile-"CTpenonnaH" 11 "CTpeno611nb". Kpblflb~ 6blfll1 CbeMHbiMI1, 11 Ha a3pOAPOMe OTBOA11fl0Cb cnel..ll1aflbHOe MecTO All~ 11x xpaHeHI1~. "CTpeno611nb" OKa3anc~ ycnewHee cso11x npeA- wecTBeHHI1KOB, HO He HaMHOrO. 8CKOpe KOMnaHI1~ "CTyAe6eKKep" npeKpaTI1fla <jJI1HaHCI1pOBaHI1e, 06b- ~CHI1B, '"ITO pe3yflbTaT He onpaBAafl 3aTpaYeHHbiX cpeACTB. "CTpen0611Jlb" 3aBepW11fl CBOI1 AH11 B 3KCn0311- L\1111 Hal..\110HaflbHOro B03AYWHoro 11 KOCMI1YecKoro My3e~ B ,O,annace, CWA. KoMnaHI1~ Convair B3~nacb 3a npoeKT a3poKa- pa ConvAirCar- 3TO 6blfl ABYXABepHblj;j CeAaH CO CbeMHQj;j CaMOJleTHQj;j YaCTbiO. npaKTI1YeCKI1 Hei13MeHeHHblj;j KOpnyc 6blfl OCHall(eH CbeM- HbiM CaMOJleTHbiM 6flOKOM, KOTOpblj;j no 3aMbiCfly nerKO AeMOHT11pOBaflC~. Pa3pa6oTKa 3aH~na 7 neT, 11 B 194 7 rDAY ConvAir Car Ae6tOT11posan, noKa- 3aB pacxoA 4,5 fli1Tpa roptOYero Ha Yac noneTa 11n11 72 KM npo6era. Ka3a- nocb, MeLITa "BblrHan 113 rapa>t<a, npl1cTerHyn Kpblflb~ 11 noneTen" 6blfla 6Jli13- Ka K ocyll(ecTBneHI110. 5onee Toro, nocKOflbKY Kopnyc npaKTI1YeCKI1 He npe- Tepnen 113MeHeHI1j;j, TO, no CYTI1, TaKQj;j MOA11<jJI1Kal..\1111 MOr nOABeprHYTbC~ n106oj;j aBTOM0611flb. Convair y>t<e Bb1611pana, 3anyCTI1Tb MaW11HY B cep1110 111111 >t<e npOAaTb BOeHHbiM, KOrAa aBTOM0611Jlb pa3611JlC~ Ha TpeTbeM noneTe. ·-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------- ------------------- - --- -----------------------~ xxl anpenb 2011 CTpaHHI(a N• 137 ∙-------------------------------------------------------------∙ ∙------------------ ' rGAY, AanbHV11i1 POACTBeHHV1K V1306peTaren51 napa- BOra ABV1raren51 Po6epr cPymoH 3anycrV1n csolil Airphibian. MOAenb V1Mena 150 nowaAV1HbiX CV1n, 6-I..IV1nV1HAPOBblli1 ABV1- rarenb V1 MOrna neTeTb CO CKOpOCTbiO 190 KM/Y V1 exaTb CO CKOpOCTbiO 80 KM/Y. 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Cpa3y scneA 3a cPymoHoM, B 1949 roAy, V1H}I{eHep-V1306perarenb MomoH Telilnop npeACTaBV1n Aerocar ("A3po- Kap")- HeMHOrO ynpOLI.IeHHbllil V1 ne- pepa60TaHHblli1 Airphibian, KOTOpbllil raK}I{e Mar 6b1Tb npeo6pa3oBaH B 06biYHblli1 aBTOM06V1nb OTAeneHV1eM ¢103en51}1{a V1 cKnaAb1BaHV1eM KPbl- nbeB. Telilnop CYV1Tan, YTO BnaAenbi..IY HeyA06HO 6yAeT xpaHV1Tb neTHOe OCHall.leHV1e B a3ponopry. no3TOMY CbeMHble YaCTV1 nOMell.lanV1Cb B He- 60nbWOii1 aBTOM06V1nbHblli1 npV11..1en. MaWV1Ha V1Mena Kpyrnbllil CTeKnOBOnO- KOHHbllil KOpnyc AV1aMeTpOM 3 M V1 TOnKaiOLI.IV11i1 BV1HT; pa3BV1Bana 193 KM/Y. KoHCTPYKI..IV151 rpexMerpo- soro KapAaHHoro sana, coeAV1H5110LI.Ie- ro ABV1rarenb asroM06V1n51 V1 nponennep, 6blna OA06peHa cPeAepanbHOiil KO- MV1CCV1eli1 no a3pOHaBTV1Ke, HO TaK V1 He CTana KOMMepYeCKV1 ycneWHOiil. "A3poKap" 6bln BTOpolil V1 nocneAHelil neraiOLI.Ielil MawV1HOii1, nonyYV1Bweli1 ceprV1¢V1KaT FFA. Vl3o6perarenb no3V1posan An51 }l{ypHanos V1 nepeA rene- KaMepaMV1, C06V1pan CBOii! 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  • Дата публикации: 04 Апрель 2011
  • Владелец: Judo74
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XXL N 04 April 2011



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