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Primate ontogeny cognition and social behavior. Edited by J.G. Else and P.C. Lee New York Cambridge University Press. xiii + 410 pp. figures tables index. $59.50 (cloth) $19

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body of non-American literature on shifting
attitudes towards nature and a somewhat
nonexhaustive account of the literature on
his chosen vehicle, the wolf. On balance,
Dunlap’s book is an engaging read of considerable utility and a not insignificant message to us, prone in the immediacy of our
Edited by J.G. Else and P.C. Lee.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
xiii + 410 pp., figures, tables, index.
$59.50 (cloth),$19.95 (paper).
work, not to lose sight of the social context
within which that work is conducted.
Department of Anthropology
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, Virginia
thinking primate a t the cost of “worry,”measured as the physiological consequence of
social stress. Asquith offers some insights
into the ways in which western, in contrast
to Japanese, primatologists think about behavior and the mind.
Part I11examines “Primate Behaviour and
This work contains revisions of a selection Cognition in Nature.” Fragaszy and Box recof papers presented at the Tenth Congress of ommend the usefulness of cognitive conthe International Primatological Society in cepts, especially in studies on resource exNairobi, Kenya, in July, 1984. The book con- ploitation, spatial mapping abilities, intains much of interest, although little that is strumental activities, and attentional abiliprofound. Perhaps this is because “[the] pa- ties and social learning. Andrews describes
pers were kept relatively short in order to species-specific differences in foraging effiinclude as many contributors as possible in ciency between groups of Saimuri and Callieach of the sections,” a very egalitarian ap- cebus studied experimentally in captivity.
proach to publishing but not one that pro- Sigg first lists the several difficulties in
motes excellence in research or scholarship. studying the mental capacities of wild priTwo of the most interesting papers, by mates, then overcomes them in a careful
Mason and by Rhine, are placed by them- analysis of hamadryas baboons’ travel to
selves in Part I, Introduction, no doubt be- water holes. Gibson, arguing from comparacause they have little to do with the rest of tive data on relative brain size, metabolic
the book. Mason argues that resolution of the requirement, and foraging strategies, condissonance between causal and functional cludes that the relatively large neocortices of
explanations of behavior may lie in resolu- several genera of Primates, including Homo,
tion of the meaning of the concept of “behav- correlate with a particularly difficult alioral trait.” Rhine characterizes the strate- though profitable strategy: “omnivorous exgies, travails, and triumphs of long-term tractive foraging.” Whitehead carefully obfield research.
served infant howler monkeys in a seasonal
Part I1 is devoted to papers on “Primate forest in Costa Rica and demonstrates the
Thinking.” Candland and Kyes review the preponderance of socially dependent learnhistory of the epistemology of the theory of ing in the acquisition of leaf-eating behavior.
mind. Rumbaugh reviews various experi- Box and Fragaszy point out that novel social
mental procedures used to evaluate the pres- settings during development may reveal laence and degree of animal thinking and con- tent cognitive abilities not observed in wild
cludes that studies of observational learning members of a species.
may be of special value in elucidating animal
Part IVis entitled “Perception and Perforcognition. Following Anthony Shafton, mance: Growth, Manipulation and CommuSingh sees the timing and orientation of nication.” DeVito and four coauthors designals in episodes of communication among scribe the pre- and postnatal growth of the
primates as particularly revealing of the major subdivisions of the brain from crosshigher mental states, in particular of the sectional samples of Macaca nemestrina. Alstate of consciousness. Reynolds suggests though Sharma and La1 apparently have
that the heightened awareness of compli- available longitudinal observations on physcated social relations and statuses among ical growth and dental eruption in rhesus
primates gives selective advantages to the monkeys, they report their results as cross-
sectional means and standard deviations.
Dienske compares the relative rates of development of brain and social behavior in
Macaca, Pan, and Homo and concludes that
both neoteny and heterochrony explain the
slow maturation of humans. Spinozzi and
Natale compare the progression of a
macaque infant, a gorilla infant, and five
human infants through Piaget’s five stages
of prehension. Peters wonders whether the
observed simultaneous variation of the several acoustic components of primate calls
might be matched by the “cognitivecomplexity to synthesize simultaneously the information in multiple cues” (p. 162). Liska
struggles to define “symptom,”“ritual,” and
“symbol” as regions along the continuum of
arbitrariness of signs within animal and human systems of communication.
Part V, “Functional Aspects of Development,” is introduced by Lee and Bateson,
who suggest that the behavior of juveniles
should be studied as adaptive in immediate
circumstances instead of merely as on a trajectory toward an adult state. Then Bateson
clearly outlines the conceptual issues that
are implicated in the study of the functions of
behavior during development. Hauser illustrates a game-theoretical model of parentoffspring conflict with observations on infant care-soliciting behavior and the
mother’s response in two mother infant pairs
of vervets in Amboseli. Collins speculates on
the possible functions of adult male carrying
of infants among savanna baboons as suggested by detailed tabulations of such instances. Datta promotes the currently popular idea that inheritance of maternal
dominance rank in macaques is largely conditioned by support by others in agonistic
interactions. Noting that play behavior
amongjuvenile vervets was infrequent when
food was scarce, Lee urges that ecological
variation be included in studies of ontogeny
and social organization.
Part VI is called “Social Interactions: Development and Maintenance.” Tartabine
and Simpson demonstrate a method for assessing behavioral scores made on individuals in very small groups and, in addition,
offer insightful comments on the nature of
statistical inference in naturalistic studies.
Mendoza and Mason report on a series of
experiments that, taken together, suggest
that the distribution of parental care between the mother and father is largely under
the control of the infant in the monogamous
species Callicebus moloch. Although the
amount of social interaction varied with the
age of infant Papio cynocephalus and P .
anubis studied by Hendy, maternal dominance rank and infant’s sex curiously had no
effect, in contrast to the findings of many
other studies. Quiatt develops a curious metaphor of “the household to characterize interactional subgroups of rhesus monkeys.
Netto and van Hooff observe that interventions in agonistic interactions among
Macaca fascicularis are patterned to minimize risk to the intervening monkey and
could account for the stability of dominance
relations between families. Messeri and Giacoma summarize comparisons between hierarchies based on several components of agonism among female pit-tail macaques and
show strong concordance of the rankings.
Thierry studied one group each of rhesus,
java, and Tonkean macaques and found significant contrasts between the three species
in the patterning of four variables: the intensity of aggression, symmetry in agonistic
interactions, behaviors in response to aggression, and reconciliation following aggression.
The last section of the book is on “Social
and Reproductive Strategies.” Stern and
Leiblum seek clues to assumed contrasts in
sexual receptivity among the great apes and
humans. They compare self-reports of nursing and bottle feeding groups of “young . . . ,
married, healthy, non-obese, no-drug-taking
. . . Caucasian paid volunteers with no history of infertility problems or irregular menstrual cycles prior to conception, or prepregnancy sexual dysfunction.” Would that such
carefully controlled samples were available
on wild apes! Abbott and three coauthors
observe that dominant male talapoin monkeys suppress the mating of subordinate
males, but subordinate females seem to enjoy a self-imposedcelibacy. Wasser and Starling offer a complicated set of hypotheses
that offers a test of the assumption that
coalitions among female baboons serve to
reduce competition by suppression of reproduction among subordinates. Glatston reports that among captive mouse lemurs offspring of communally nesting females suffer
less infant mortality than offspring of solitary nesters. Manley describes in an entertainingly dramatic manner harem accretion
in the purple-faced leaf monkey. Manzolillo
discusses the factors that influenced male
immigrations in a group of Anubis baboons.
The possible reproductive benefits of alliances among male savanna baboons are examined in the context of a reciprocal altruism model by Noe. Blurton Jones argues that
topics generally studied in isolation, such as
“economic defensibility of territory, dominance hierarchies, polygyny, food sharing,
hoarding” (p. 4041, might find unification in
a set of propositions about conflict over resources in which fitness pay-offs are func-
tions of the amount of resource held. Is the
book to be recommended? At the least it is
less expensive to acquire the work now than
it would have been to travel to Nairobi to
hear the original papers.
Department of Anthropology
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois
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