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Чанг Ха-Джун - Как устроена экономика - 2015

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В этой книге экономист из Кембриджа Ха-Джун Чанг в занимательной и доступной форме объясняет, как в реальных условиях работает мировая экономика. Чанг предлагает читателю идеи, которые нельзя найти в учебниках по экономике, и делает это с глубоким з
Ha-Joon Chang
Economics:
The User's Guide
PELICAN
an imprint of
PENGUIN BOOKS
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2015
??? 330.1
??? 65.011
?-18
??? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ?? ? ??????? ?????????
?????? ? ?????????? Ha-Jon Chang c/o Mulcahy Conway Assocs Ltd.
? ????????????? ????????? Andrew Nurnberg
?? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????
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?-18 ??? ???????? ????????? / ??-???? ???? ; ???. ? ????. ?. ??????? ;
[????. ???. ?. ?????????]. ? ?. : ????, ?????? ? ??????, 2015. ? 322 ?.
ISBN 978-5-00057-433-1
? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??-???? ???? ? ????????????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
н????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ?????????, ? ?????? ??? ? ???????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????.
????? ????? ???????? ??? ???, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????
????????, ??? ??????? ???.
??? 330.1
??? 65.011
??? ????? ????????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????????? ? ????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????????, ???? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????,
???? ?? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????.
???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? л?????-????╗.
ISBN 978-5-00057-433-1
йHa-Joon Chang, 2014
й??????? ?? ??????? ????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????,
??????????. ??? л????, ?????? ? ??????╗, 2015
??????????
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????? 2. ??а??????? ??аPIN-????: ?????????? 1776-?? ?а2014а?????. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а????????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
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????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
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???? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а??????? ????). ??а?????? ???? ????????, ?????????? Financial Times ?а?????? ???????? ????? л?????????
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* ?????а?. ?????????? ??а?????????.а?.а: ???, 2002.
** ???????а?. ????????? ??? ??????????. ???. : BestBusinessBooks, 2009; ???????а?. ?????? ?????,
??? ????????? ??? ???? ??а?????. ???. : BestBusinessBooks, 2011.
*** ???? ??????? ?????????? л??????? ?а??????╗.
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????? ??????? ?????? Economic Naturalist (л????????????? ??????????╗):
л??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???╗.
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* ?????? ?., ??????а?. ???????????.а?.а: ????, ?????? ?а??????, 2011.
**?а ?????? ??????? ????? ??а ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???: л?????? ??????????-?????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????╗. ????. ???.
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(??? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????, ????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??а????????? 1992а????),а? ?а??а?????? л?????????????╗ ???????, ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ???? ????? The Economic
Approach toаHuman Behaviour (л????????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?????????╗), ?????????????? ?а1976а????, ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????.
??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??а?????, ????????? ????????? л????????????? ?????????????╗, ?а????????? ?????
* ??????? ??????? (1898?1984)а? ?????????? ?????????. ?а1925-?? ??а1961 ??? ?????????? ?а???-
??????? ????? ?????????. ??а??????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?а1959а???? ??? ??? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????. ??а??????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????? (THESIS. 1993. ???.а1.а?. 10?23). ????. ???.
????? 1. ?????, ????????? ?а???а?????????: ???а?????а?????????
???????? ?????? ?а????? ??????, ??? л???????????╗. ???? ????????? ?????
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?????? ?а??????????. ??а???????, ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????,
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??а???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????а[2].
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*????а?. ???????????? ?а??????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????.а?. : ?????, 1993.
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?????, ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????????? ??а????????????????? ????????? (???????????).
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?-????????, 2003. ????. ???.
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??????????? ????????? ????? ??а????? ????. ???????? ????? ????? ????
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29
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????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????. ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ?а???. ????. ???.
33
34
????? I. ??????????
???????? ?????-?? ?????? ??????? ???????, ?а??????? ????????, ???
?? ????? ????????. ????? ?? ???????, ??? ????????? ?????????????????
?????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ????? 1950-?? ?а1970-?? ??????, ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а???????
???????, ?а??? ?????а?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?а???????????,
??? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????????? ??????.
??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????. ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????, ??? ???????, ?а?а??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? (??а????
???????а? ?????, ????????, ??????? ???), ??????? ??а????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????-???? ????? ????????????? ???????. ??????,
????а?? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????, ??? TheаEconomist ??? Wall Street
Journal, ?? ???????а??а?????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????
?а?? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ???????????. ????? ???????, ?? ??????? ??, ??? ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????????,
??? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????
??????? ??? ?????????????? ????????, ???? ??а?????? ??, ??? ??? ????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????????????, 85а?????????
????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ???????? ???????
????????????? (????? ??а????????? ?????????????), ?а22а???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????
(??????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ????? 10а?????????). ??а?????????? ??а????? ????????????? ??????а? ???????????????, ????????????,
????????????, ????? ??????,а? ??????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????????. ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
??? ???? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??а????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?а????? ???????????а? ?а?????????? ??а??? ???????????? ???????.
?а?????????, ??а?????? ?????????: ?? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????, ?????? ??? ?а??? ???? ????????? ???? ??а???? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????? ?????. ??а???????????? ????????????
?а?????? ???????????????? ????? (?а???????? ?а???????????) ?????
???????? ???????? л??????? ????????╗ ?а??????????? ???????????
?????, ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ??а?????? л????????? ???????????????? ?????????╗ ?а??? ?а?????????????? ?а1980-? ?а1990-? ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ????? ????????? ?а????
???????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ????????????? ????????, ???????, ??а??????????? ????, ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????, ??а??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????, ????? ??????? ??а????
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
?????, ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ????? ??????
??а????? ?????.
???? ?? ???????? ?а????? ??а????????????? ???? ??????????, ??????????, ?????????? ????? ??а?????, ?а??? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? л??????╗, ??????? ????? ???? ????????. ?а???????, ?а?????????? ????
????????? ??????????? ????а?? ??????? ?????????.
???????? ?????? ??????:
???????а????????? ??а???????????
????????? ???????? ??????
????????????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????, ?а?????????, ?а?????????????? ?а??????? ????????? (?а??????? ??????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ?а??????????), ?аXVI?XVIIа?????. ?????? ?? ????????? ???, ?а??,а??????, ?а????? ??? ?????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а???????? ???????
??а?????? ?????????????? ????????,а? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????????. ?а???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???а? ??а?????????,
????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? (????? ???
???????? ?а??????????????), ??а????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?а????? ???????? ???????. ??а????? ????? ?????????? ??а????
?????????. ?????? ??? ????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????.
??а??? ????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ??? ?а??? ??????
?а??????????????????? ?????, ???????? ????? ????????. ???? ?а???????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ?а???????
??а?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????
?а??а?? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????????.
????? X ?аXV ??????, ?? ???? ?а????? ?????????????, ????? ??а???? ????????? ???????????? ??а0,12а???????? ?а???а[1]. ?????????????, ??????
?а1500а???? ?????????? ????? ??а82а???????? ????, ??? ?а1000-?. ??? ?????????, ??? ????????, ??????? ????? ?а??? 11а?????????? ????? ?а??? ??????
??а????? ??? ?а?????? ????? 2002-? ?а2008а?????. ?????? ???????, ??? ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?а????? ??????? ????????????
83а????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????? (?? ??? ????? ????? ????????
?а??????? ??? ????????а? ?а?????????????а?? ??????? ?????????????????
????? ?????????? ????? 24а????).
35
????? I. ??????????
36
??? ???-???? ???????, ??? ?????????
????? ?????? ?????? ????
???????? ??а?????????????, ???? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ???а?? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???? ?а????????? ?????? (??????? ??????), ???????, ??а???????, ????? ?а??? ???? ?????????
(0,04а????????). ??? ??????, ??? ??а500а??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ??а22а????????. ???? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????, ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????.
??????? ??????????? (1500?1820 ????)
?????????? ???????? л?а??????????? ?????╗
?????????? ???????? ?аXVIа????. ??а??? ??????????????? ???? ?????????
?????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ????????.
?а?????? ????? 1500-? ?а1820 ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??а???? ?????????
?а???????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? 0,14а????????а? ?а????????, ?? ???
????? ??, ??? ?а????????????? (0,12а????????). ?а?????????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????? XVIIIа????,
???????? ?а???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?а??????
????????а[2]. ?а?????????? ?а1500-?? ??а1820 ??? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а0,27
?а0,28а???????? ??????????????. ?а???? ??а??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??????????. ??? ??????? ?а???? ?????????.
????????? ????? ????, ?????????? ?а??????????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ????? л????????????╗
???????? ?а????????? ????, ?????????????????? ???????? ???????????
?????????? ?а????. ?????? ??а???? ???? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ??а????????? ???? ?а????а[3], ??а?аXVI ?аXVIIа????? ?????? ????????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ????-?????????? ???????????
?????????? ?а?????? ????, ????????, ???????, ?????, ?????? ?а???????а? ??? ???????? ?а?? ?????. ???????? ????? ??а????? ???????? ??а????????? ?а?????, ??а????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?а???????
??????????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??а?????, ??? ??? ?? ?????
???????? ????? ??????????. ??? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?а?????а? ?????????????? ?????.
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
XVIIIа??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ???????
?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????
?а???????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????*. ??? ??а?????????? ??????? ????? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?а?????? XIXа????. ?а????????? ???? ????? ????????????????
?????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????,
????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????, ?а??????, ???????? ???????
?????а? ????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????????????????? ???????
????????????. ??? ????????? ???? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????
?????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????????????????? ?, ??????????????, ?а??? ???????? ?????? ????????.
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?а????????? ????????? ?????.
?????? ???????????? ?????????
?а?????? XVа???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????,
??? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?а???????????
????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????.
??????? ?а?????????? ?а????, ?а????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а?????
???????, ?а????? XVа???? ?????????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????. ?а???????? XVIIIа???? ???????? ???????
???? ????????? ????? ???????, ???????? ?а????????. ??????????? ?????
????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??а1810?
1820-? ?????. ????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? (?а????????
???????? ?а?????), ????????? (???-????????? ?????????) ?а????????????
(????????? ?????????? ??????, ?а????????? ???). ???????? ?а??? ?????
?????????? ????????? ????????? (?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?а1788а????). ?????? ?а?? ????? ???? л???????╗ ??а??? ??????, ???
*??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? (1733а?.) ?а?????????? ??????
л??????╗ (1764а ?.) ?а ??????????? ??????????????, ????????????? ????? (1709а ?.) ??? ???????? ????? ?а????????? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? (1730-?
?а1740-? ??.) ?а?????????? ??????????????.
37
????? I. ??????????
38
????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? (????? ??????????? ??????? ????-?????, ???-???? ?а????????) ?а?????????? (????????,
?????????? ?аXVIIа????).
??????????? ??????????? ??а????????????????? ?????????. ??????????, ??? ??а1858а???? ?????????? ????????? ?а????? ??????????????
??????????? (???-??????? ?????????), ?а??а??????????????. ??? ???????
???????? ????? ??????? ?а??????. ???????? ????????? ??????????????
??????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?а???????? ????? (?????? ?а???????), ?а????? ????????? (???????? ??????? ?????). ??а????????
?а????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????????а? ???????? ?а???, ????????
?а??????? ?????????? ????????,а? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????, ?а???????? ?????????? ??а??????. ????????? ????????????, ????? ??????????
?а?????????? ?а?????? ????? ???????????????????? ????????, ????? ???
???????????? ?????, ??????, ?????? ?а?????. ?????????? ??????????? ????
???????, ????? ?а???????? ??а???? ???????????? ??????, ?а??????а? ????????? ?а??????? (????????? ??а????????), ?а?а?????, ???????? ?а?????
??а?????, ??? ????? ????.
??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????
??? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?а???, ????????а?? ?аXVI?XVIIIа????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????????: ??????????? ????????, ???????????????? ?а???????? ?????, ????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????
?а??????, ?а????? ??? ????????????? ????????????, ?????? ??? ??????а[4].
???? ??? ????????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??а?? ???????, ?????? ?????, ?а??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????а?? ?а???
???. ??? ???? ???????????, ??? ????????, ??????? ????????????????
????????. ???????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??а?????
?????????, ?а??? ????? ??а????? ?????????а? ????????. ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ??? ??? ???????, ???????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?а2006а????, ????? ???? ??????
??а????? ????? ??????????? ??а???????????? ??????????а? ??????? ??а????????? ?????????, ????????? ?а?????? ?а???? ???????, ??? ?????????
??????? ???? ?а1492а???? (?????? ??? ?????? ??????, ????????? ???????
?а1858?1872а?????).
????????? ??????????а? ??а????? ??????, ????? 12а?????????а? ????
????????? ?а??????? ?а???????? ?а?????? ?а???????? ??????. ??? ??а??????
????? ????????? ???, ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ???? ?? ?а????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????), ??а????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????. ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????а? ???? ???? ?????? ??а?????????? ?а?????????????
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
???????? ???? ????? ?а??а??? ????. ??, ??? ?а?????? ??? ????? ?????????????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ????
??????????????, ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??а??????
???????, ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???, ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ????????.
??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ????????.
????????, ?а1700а???? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????
(?? ????????? ??а???? ?а?????а2), ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ??а?????????
???????????????? ??????????????. ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????? XIXа???? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?а?? ????? ???
??????????????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ????????. ?????? ????????, ????? ??а????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????? ???????????? ????, ????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??а??????????? ???????. ?а1835а???? ???? ???????, ???????-?????????? ???-??????? ????????,
???????? ????????? ?????: л??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????╗а[5].
???????????? ????????? (1820?1870 ????)
????? ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ????????????? ????? ??а????? ????? 1820а???? ??а???? ???????? ??????, ?а????? ?а?а??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ?а???????. ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ??????? ????? 1820а???? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????
[6]. ??а??? ????????? ??? ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????
??а1а???????, ??? ?????? ???? ??а??????????? ?????? (?а?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??а????? ??? ??????????? ???????????
??????????? 1990-? ?????), ?а??а????????? ?а?????? ????? ?а0,14а????????,
????????????? ????? 1500-? ?а1820а?????, ??? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????.
????????????????? ????? ?а17а???
?а80-??????? ??????? ??????: ?????????
????????? ????? ?????? ?????????
???????, ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ????? ?????, ??? ??????
????????а? ????????, ?????????????, ????????????? ????????,а? ????????
39
????? I. ??????????
40
???? ??????? ?????, ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ?????
???????? ???????????????????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????. ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ??? ???? ???????. ????,
???????????? ??а??????? ??? ?а????????? ????, ???????????? ??? ???
?????, ????????? ????? ?????: 70?80 ????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????, ????? ??????? ????? 100а????? ?а??????, ?а??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????
?????? ?а???????????.
??????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????????? ??-?? ????,
???????????? ?а???????? ????????????. ????????? ??????? ????? ???
????? ?????????, ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ??а15?20а???????. ?????????
?????? ??????????, ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????????. ????
??????? ??? ????. ?а?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? ?????????? 17а??? [7], ??? ??а30а????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??а???????????? ??????????,
???????????? ?а1066а???? (????? ????????????????? ????? ??????????
24а????).
?????? ????????????????????? ????????
???????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ?????????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????????????????????
????????. ????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????
????? ??????. ????????, ???????а? ??????????? ???????????? ??????,
?????????? ???? ??????? ????? ??-?? ????????????? ???????????? ?а1810-?
?????,а? ????????? ??????а? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ?а????????? ????????????
???????????. ?????? ????, ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????????
???????? ??а?????? ????????????? ????? ?а????? ????? ????????????????, ???????????? ??????????? ??????*.
???????? ?????? ????????????????????? ????????????? ??? ????
????? (1818?1883), ???????? ????????? ?а????????????, ??????? ??????
?є????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ?а??????а? ??? ?????? ????????? ??а???????? ??????? ?а???????. ????? ???????? ????? ?а??????, ???????? ???,
л????????????-??????????╗ ??а?? ???? ?а??, ??? ?????????????????????
???????? ????? ???????????? ??а???????????? ???????? ?????. ??????
???? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ?? ?????????, ??? ??????
???????? ??????? ????????? ??а?????????? ???????????, ?а??а?????????а??.
* ????????????? ?????. ????. ???.
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
???????????????? ????????, ??а??????, ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??а???????? ????????????, ??а??? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????? ????????????, ????? ????? ???????????
?а?????? ???? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????????????????. ????? ????,
????? ???????????, ??? ???????????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??а????????????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ???????: ??? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ??, ???
?а???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????????. ?????
?????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????.
????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????????а? ?а??? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????а? ???????, ??? ???????????????? ???????? ?????
??????? ?????? ????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????? ???????, ??????
??? ??????????? ????а?? ??????????? ??????? ??, ??? ?????. ??? ??а?????
????????? ??а?????????????? ??????, ????????? ??? ????????????, ??? ??????-?????????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а???? ????????, ????????,
??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????,
?а??а??? ??????. ??? ????????? ??а????? ????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????, ?а????? ??а???????? ??????????? ???????????.
??????????? ?????, ????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??? ????????????????, ??????? ????????? ??а???? ???????? ?????????????????
???????. ?а?? ?????, ??????, ?????? ??а???? ?????????, ??? ??????? ???
??????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????????,а? ??а?а????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????
????????.
??????? ???????? ?а1870а???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ????? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????. ??а??????? ???? ?а?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ???????, ????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ??????
???????????? ??? ?????????, ?а????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? 60а????? ?а??????. ??????? ????????????????? ????? ??????? ?а36а???
?а1800-? ??а41а???? ?а1860-?а[8]. ?а????? ????? ??????? ???? ???????????
??????? ??????????? ???????????а? ???, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ?а1871а???? ???? ????? ??????????? ??а??????????
???????.
??? ?а????????? ????? ?а????????? ????????:
??? ??а????? ???? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????? ?а?? ???????? ?аXIXа????
????? ????????? ?а???????????????? ????????? ???????? ?а??????????
41
42
????? I. ??????????
?????. ??????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ??а????????
???????? ?а????? ??а???????????? ????????????? ???????? (?????????? ????????? ?????????) ?а?????? ??а??????????? ?а????????????????
????? (?????????? ?????). ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?а????, ???
???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? ????? ???????, ???
?????????????? ?а??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ???
??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а????????? ????????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??а??????. ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??а????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?а??????????????, ??? ?а?а??? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ??????а[9].
?????????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????
??????? ?а???????аVII (1485?1509) ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????
???????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?а?? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????????; ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????*, ???????? ????????.
?????????? ??????? (?????? ??а??????) ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??а????????????? ?? ??????????? ??а?????? ??????. ?????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??а????????? ????????????????? ?????????????, ?а???????? ??а????????, ????? ????????
?????? ?а????????? ???????????. ???????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????
???? ???????? ?а???????а? ??????? ??? ?????????????. ??????, ??? ????
???????? ??а????а?? ??????а007 (?????????, ?????????? ????????? ????
?????????) ?а??????????? (??? ?????????а? ????????? ???????); ?,а???
??? ?????, ?????, ????????** ??а????а?? ?????? ????????, ????а?? ????
????????? ????? ??? ????????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ?а????? ???????, ?а?аXVIIIа???? ??а????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????
???????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????????????. ??? ??? ?????? ????а??
??а?а????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????, ?????? ?? ???
???????????? ?????????.
????????????? ??а??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?а1721а????, ????? ?????? ??????а[10], ?????? ???????-??????? ????
??????, ????? ??????????? ?а???????????????? ????????? ????????
????????????. ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????*** ?а???????? (???????? ??? ????????? ????????) ??? л????????????? ??????╗ ????????
*???????? л?????? ?????╗, ?а ????? л???????????? ??????????╗ ???????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??? ????, ?????? ?а????:
????????, ?????????, ????????, ??? ?а??. ????. ???.
** ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ??????? л????????╗. ????. ???.
*** ?????? ??а??????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??а??????. ????. ???.
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??????????????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??а?????? ???????? XVIII ???? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????. ?а1770а????
??? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ???? ???? ??а?????
????????????? ?а?????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????????????
????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????. ??? ??а?????
?????? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ?????? ????? ?????, ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ??а????????? ???????? (??? ?????????
?а1860а????), ????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????. ?а??
????? ??а??? ??????????? 20а????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? (?? ????????? ??а1860а???) ?а46а????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? (?? ????????? ??а1870а???), ????????
??а?? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? 2,5а???????? ????????? ?????
??????? ????; ??? ?????????, ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???
????? ?????????? 15 ?а14а?????????, ???? ?а???? ?????? ????????? 19а????????? ????????? ?????.
??????????? ?????а? ??????? ??а??????????????
?а??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????. ??а?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ???? ??????, ???, ??????? ?а?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????
????-???????, ?????????? ???????-??????? ?а1766-?? ??а1768а???, ??????,
??? л??? ??а?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??а???????????? ???????
??? ??????╗.
????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????, ???? ??? ?????
????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ?а????????. ????????? ??? ????????
??а??? ????, ??? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? (?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??а???????????????? ????????).
?а1791а???? ?а?????????? ?а????????? л??????? ?а????????????╗ ????????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??????, ???
???, ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????????? ?а??????
????, ????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????,
???? ??????????? ???????????? ??а????????; ??? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????. ????????? ?????????
???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????, ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????, ?а????? ???????? ?а???????????????
?????????? ?а?????????????? (???????? ?а????????????? ???????), ????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???? ??а????????
?????????? ???????.
43
????? I. ??????????
44
??????? ?????????а? ?????????????? ?а???, ??????? ?а?? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????;
??? ??а????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? л????╗, ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?????? ??а??????. ?????? ????? ?????-???????????? ????? (1812?1816)а? ???
??? ?????? ?а???? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ??а?????????? ???а?
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??а???? ?????????? ?а????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????,
?а????? ??а??????????, ???? ??а?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ????
???????????????? ?????????????. ???? ??????, ??? ????????? ??? ??а???
??????? ????????????? ????? ????. ?? ??? ????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?а1804а???? ????? ??????? ??????а? ????????? ????-???????????
?????? (??, ??? ???? ????? ???: ??????????? ????-????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??? ???? ??а???????? ?а??????).
????? ????? ??????????? ?а1816а???? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????????????????. ?а1830-? ?????? ????? ????????????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??а???????????? ??????
?а????а? ???? ?????? ??? (????? ??? ?????????) ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??? ???, ??а?????? ?????? ??????? ?????. ??а?????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????????, ??? ????????, ??????? ?а??????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????
??????????? ??????.
?а?????? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?а???????? ?а???????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????. ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????
????? ??????????? ????? (1861?1865), ??????? ???????? ????????.
?? ?????? ????????? ??а?????????. ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????,
??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??а?????? ??????????????. ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? л????????? ??????╗ ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ?а???, ??? ???? ???????? ?????, ?????? ??? ?а??? ???? ???????,
???????? ???????????, ?????, ???????? ?а???????? ?????а? ??? ??,
???? ??? ?а????.
????????? ???????? ????????????????
?а???????? ??а???? ???????
??а??????? ???????
???? ????????? ???????? ??а???? ???????? ????????????? ???????????,
??? ????????????? ???????????????? ?а??????? ????? XIXа????. ????????
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???? 1860-? ?????,
????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? (???), ?а??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??а??????? ????
??? ?????, ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ?????
??? ???????????????? ??а????????? ???????????а? ?а??????? ?????????
??????? ?а????, ?????? ?а?????????? ????, ??? ?????? ????? ??а?????????
??а?????? л?????????╗,а? ?????????? ???? ??? ??а?????? ?????? ??????
?? ?????????????.
??????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????? ??? ???????????????
л??????????? ????????? ????????╗, ??а???? ??? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??????????????? ??а????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ??????? ??.
???????? л?????????? ?????????╗* ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ??, ?????? ????? ???????, ???????? ????????? (????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????)а[11]. ??
???? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????
(3?5а?????????)а? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????, ??а??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????. ????? ???????? ??а???????? ?????? ?????????
?????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?а1842а????
????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?????. ??а?????????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??а???????? ????????? ???????,
???? ?? ??а?????? ????????????? ?а1810?1820-? ?????. ????? 1820-?
?а1850а????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????????
???????? ????????: ????????? ??????? (??????????????? ??????),
?????? (??????????? ????), ???? (??????????? ???????) ?а????
??????. ???? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????
?а1870?1880-? ?????, ?а?? ????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????
??????????? ?а?аXXа????.
????????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????????, ???? ?? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????
??? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?а????????? ??????? ?а??? ??????: ???
?????????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??а???? ????????? (?? ????????? ?0,1 ?а?0,04а???????? ?а??? ??????????????).
*?????????? ?????????а? ??????-???????????? ????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????????-
?? ???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ??????-???????? ?????. ????????? (??????????? ?????)а?
????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ???????????. ????. ???.
45
????? I. ??????????
46
??? ???????? (1870?1913 ????)
?????????? ????????????? ??а????? ???????
????????: ?????? ????????? ????????????
???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? 1870а????. ????? 1860-?
?а1910а????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?а?????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????????: ???????????? ??????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????? ??????????, ?????????????
????????? ?а?????? ?????????. ?а??????? ??а?????????? ????????????
?????????, ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?а????????.
????? ????, ??????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? (?????????? ?????????) ?а???????????????? ??????? ?????
????????? ???????. ?а???? ????? ??? ???????? (????? ??????????? ???????????) ???????, ???????? ??а?????? ????????? ?а?? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?а1908а????.
????? ????????????? ????????? ????????
??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????
????????????, ??????? ?а???????????????
?а?????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????????
?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а???????; ?а??? ?????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ?а???????????, ???????????
????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ??????. ??? ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ??-??
????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а????????.
?а????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ???????
???????????? ???????????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ???????????????. ?????????????, ?????? ??? ????? ???????????? ????? ????????, ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ?????????
??????????, ???????? ?а???????????? ???????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????. ???? ?????, ??????? ????????? ??
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????
?? л????????????????? ????????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????╗.
????? ?????????? ???????? 1849а???? ????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????
????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ???????. ????? ??????, ????????? ??а?????? ???????? XIXа????, ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ????, ???????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????????? ??а????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? (???????? ?????а11
???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ???, ?????????? ?а1898а????) ?а?????????
????????? ??????? ????? ??????. ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??а??? ??????????.
?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????. ?а?? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ?а???????? ?????????
????????? ?????????,а? ?а?????? ?а1844а???? ???? ???? ??????.
??-?? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ??а????????????? ??а??????? ??????????? ????????????
????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?а1870-? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?а?????: ????????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????, ?????? ??а???????? ?а???????????
??а?????? ???????????. ??а?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ????? (??? ???????, ?а???????? ??а10?12а???) ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? (?????????? ????? ??а12а?????). ????? ??????
????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ??? ??????. ?а?????????,
??? ???? ??????? ??а??а????????? ??????????, ?а??-?? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????. ?????????, ???, ?а??????? ??а??????, ????????
????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????,а? ????? ???????, ?????? ???????????
???????? ??а??? ?????. ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?а?????
???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????а? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????.
????????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????. ???????? ?а???????????? ???????????????? ?а???????? ?а?????????
?????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????, ????????? ?а???????????????????
?????????????, ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????. ???????????? ???????????? ?????, ?а????? ???????, ?а?????? ?а??????????
??????????? ?а?????а? ?а??????, ???? ?????????????? ????? ??а???? ?????????, ??????????????, ????????????? ?а???????????? ????????????, ???
????????? ????????? ??????????, ?а?????????????, ?а???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????. ???? ????? ??????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????
?????? ????? ?а1а???????? ?а??? ?а?????? ???? 1820?1870 ????? ??а1,3а???????? ?а??????? 1870?1913а?????.
47
????? I. ??????????
48
???????????, л???????????╗ ???????
??? ??а??? ????? ?? ???????????
??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????:
????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??а????
??????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ?а??? ??????, ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??а?????????????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ?а?????. ????? ?????????? ??а????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ??а??????????
????????????? ???????? (???? ??а?????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????). ??????? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ?а????????????????? ??????? (??? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ??а????????? ????????? ??????) ?а???????? ???????? ?????????
????? ????????? ?????????. ??а????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???????.
???????????а? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а????
??а??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????, ??? ????? л???????????╗. ?а???? ??? ??а ?????????????? ??а XIXа ????, ????, ??????? ?а?????? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ?аXVIIа????????, ?а??????? ????? ??????????,
??? ????? ????? ?а???? ????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????
????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????. ?а????????????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??а????????????? ????? ????????????? ??а??????? ??????????, ???????? ?а???, ???
???????? ????????? ?????. ?????? ?????????????, ??а ?????? ????????????
???????????,а ? ??, ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???
????????????? ????? ????: ????? ?а???????. ????? ????????????? (???????????)
?????????? ??????????? ????????????. ???????????????? ???????? ?????
????????? ???? ??????? ???? л???????????????╗ (л????? ??? ???? ????? ???????╗), ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????.
??????? ??????????, ??? ???????, ?????????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????, ???????? ??? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????? ????????, ?а??? ?????
??а??????? ?????. ??? ??а????? ??а???????? XXа???? ??????????? ?????????
??а ???? ???????????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??а ?????????????? ????? ??????, ????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ???????? ??????
????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????. ??а??? ????? ???? ???????, ???
??а?????? ??????? ????? ????. ??а?????? ?????????, ??????? ??а????????
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
???????????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??????? ??? ??а ?????? ??????????. ???????? ????? ?????????? ??а ???, ??? ?а ????????? ?????? ??????
????? ??????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????. ???? ???? ??????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????а? л?? ????? ???? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??а?????? ??? ???, ??? ????? ?????-?? ?????????????, ??а???, ??? ?? ??а?????╗а[12].
??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??, ??? ?а??? ?????? л???????????╗ ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????.
???????????? л?????????╗, ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???????, ?а??????
????????а?? ??????-???????????. ?а??????а?? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???
????????, ????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а????????, ??????? ?а??? ??????????а?? ?а??????????????.
??? ???? ?????????????а ? ???????????? ?а 1980 ???? ????????????? ????????? (??. ????). ?? ????? ?????? ?а ????????????? ???????????,
??а???а?? ??а??? ?????? ?????. ?а????????????? ????? ??????, ?????????????
????????? ??а ??????????? ???????????, ??а ?а ?????????? ???????????: ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????
?а??? ????????? ??а??????? ???????, ?а?? ????? ??? ???????????? ????????
???????, ??? ?а???????????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????????. ?а???????????? ????? ??????, ??????????? ??а????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????,
??? ?????? ???????????? ????????. ??а?????? ??а??? ?????? ????????????
??????????? ??а??? ??????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ?????.
?????????????, ???????? ?а????????????? ???????, ???????? ??? ??????
?????????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????????????? ??????????
??? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а????, ??? ????????????? ?а??????????, ?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ???, ?????????????
???????? ???? (???) ?а????????? ????.
?а???????????????? ?а?????? ?а1870-?? ??а1913а??? ??а????????????? ????? ?????? ??а ??????????? ????????? ???????????. ?а?????? ???????????, ???????? ?????? ?а???, ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????,
?а??а??????????.
?а?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а1865а???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ????????????????? ????????????, ??? ??????. ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а1860?1870-?
?????, ??а??????????? ?? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? (?????? ????????? ????????? 20а???).
49
50
????? I. ??????????
??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ??а????? ?????? ????? (????????
??а??? ?а?????????) ?а????????? ?????? (?????? ?а???????), ??а???????
??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ????????
??????????????а? ??????? ?а??????????. ???????? ?а?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? л?????? ??????????????╗, ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? л???? ?????? ?а???╗.
????? ?а1870?1880-? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????,
??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??а????????? ?????????????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????
(30?40а?????????). ??? ??а????? ?а?????? ??????? л?????????╗ ????????
????????? ????????? ????????, ?а??????? ?? ???????? ?????, ???????????????? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????????, ??а?а?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????
(????????, ???????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ??????????????, ????????, ??????? ?а????а? ???????). ??? ????????? ????? ????????????
???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а??????? ?????????, ???
??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??а??????? ??????. ????? ???????????, ??? ????????, ???????, ??? ?а??????, ??????? ?????? ??а??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?а???????????, ???? ?????????????? ?а???а[13]. ??а??? ???? ??????
???????? ??? ????? ????????????.
??а?????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????
???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ?а??а????????? ???????? ???
??????????????? ?????????????. ??? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????? ????????-????????? ????????
(???????? ????????????????? ???????) ?а???????-????????? ????????
(???????? ?????????). ??? ??а????? ???? ?????? ???????????????? ??????
????????? ???? ?????????????: ????????? ???????? ????????????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? (??????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ?а??????) ?а???????????
(???????? ?а??? ?а????????).
??????????? ??????? ??? 1870?1913а?????, ???????, ??? ??а????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ??????. ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????????
????????, ?а???????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????
????? ???????????. ????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ??а???????????, ?а??а??а?????????? ??????а? ?????
??????????? ?а?????????????? ????????. ?а???????????? ????????????
???????, ??? ????????? ??????? ???? ?а??????? ????? ???????, ?а??????
?а????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??а????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????а[14].
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
????? (1914?1945 ????)
???????? ???????????: ?????? ???????
????? ?а????? ???????????? ???????? ????
?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?а1914а???? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? ???????????. ??а??? ???, ???????? ??а?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????? (????????? 1848а???? ?а??????, ????????? ???????
1871а???? ?а?????? ???????? ???????) ?а????????????? ???????? (??????
????????? 1873?1896 ?????), ???????????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????, ???? ?????????? ??????.
?????? ?????? ??????? ????? (1914?1918) ????????? ???????????? ???
??????? ?а????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??а?????
????, ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????????????, ???? ?????? ??????????.
?а????? ???????, ?а??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??а???? ??????
?????????????, ????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?а??а????????
????. ??? ????????, ??? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????
?????????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????. ????????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????: ??? ??????????,
??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ????? ?? ??? ??а????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?а?????, ??????????? ????? ???????????.
?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????:
????????? ?а?????? ?а?????? ??????????
??? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?а?????? л??????????? ??? ??????
?????? ???????????╗* ?????? ??????? ????????? 1917а???? ?????????
??????. ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ??? ??????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????
???????????.
?а??????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????????? ??а???????? ???????????? (????????????, ?????? ???????, ?????)
???? ??????????. ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????
* ?????а?.а?. ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????? // ????? ?. ?. ????. ????. ???. ?. : ??????????, 1971.а?. 27.а?. 387.
51
52
????? I. ??????????
????????? ?а1928а????, ????? ????? ?????????? ????????а? ???????а?
???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????????? ????????? (???????),
?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а???????????????????? ???????????? (????????), ??????? ?????, ????? ????????, ??а???????? ??а??????????. ????? ?а???????? ????? ????????, ?а?а1928а????, ?????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????. ?а1928а???? ????????? ????
???? ??????????? ??а????????????????? ????????????? ???????. ???
???????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?а????? ????????????, ??? ??????
??а???????? ?а??? ??????.
?а????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ???????????, ???????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????. ???????, ?а?????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???? ???????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ????????????а? ????? ??????????????? ?????????????
??? ???????????. ?????? ??а???????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??а???????
?????????? ?а????????????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????
??а????? ???????? ??? ???, ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?а????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????, ?а??а?? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ???????????????? ??а?? ????? ????????????? ?????????.
????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????
(?а??????????) ???????????. ??а???? ??????? ??а???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????. ???? ????? ???????
?????? ??????? ?????????????, ?а????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???? ????????????? ?????.
???? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ???? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???? ???????; ??а??????а?? ?????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??а????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????. ????? ????????????? ???????, ??а??? ???????????,
???? ????? ?а???? ??а????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ?а????????? ???? ????????. ????????? ?????????? ?????а? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????а? ???? ?????? ????????,
?а???? ???????? ?????????????; ????? ????, ?а?????????? ??а???? ????????? ?????????.
?а????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????
??????? ?????, ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ????н????
?????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?????? ??а????? ?????? ???????
?????. ??а???????, ?а?????? ????? 1928-? ?а1938-?а????? ????? ??а????
????????? ?а????????? ????? ????????? ??а5а????????? ?а???а? ??????????
??????? ???? ??? ????, ??? ?????, ??? ???????, ???????????? ??а1?2а???????? ?а???а[15].
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
????? ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????а? ??а???????????? ????????? ?а?????? 1932 ????*. ??? ??а????? ?а?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????
??????????, ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????, ???????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????? ????????? 1929а????
?????????? ????? ??а???????.
???? ???????????: ??????? ????????? 1929а????
??????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????
?а??????????, ??? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ?а???,
??? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ????-????? ?а1929а???? ?а???
????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??а???. ????? 1929-? ?а1932а?????
????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а??? ?????????? ??а30а?????????,
?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???: ?а3 ??а24а?????????а[16].
?????? ?а1937а???? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??а??????
1929а????. ???????? ?а??????? ???? ?????? ??????????: ?а???? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ??а16 ?а15а????????? ??????????????.
?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????, ????? ???????, ??а?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????
?а??????? ????????? ??-?? ??????? ?а??????? ????????, ?????????? л???????? ??????╗ ?а????? ?а????????? ??? ????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ???????????**. ??? ??????? ??а??????????? ??????? ???????. ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а??????
??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????: ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????
??????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??? ?а37 ??а48а?????????. ??а??? ??
?а???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ??а??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ??? ?????? ?а???????, ?а?????? ???????
??а??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????. ?а????? ???????а? ???????????? ??????????,
??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ???????? ????? 1929а????
????? ??а????????? ?????????? ??????, ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????а[17].
* ???????, ????? ?а 1932а ???? ???????? ??????, ??? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????
??а???????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????????. ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????. ????? ????, ????? ??? ??а???????, ?а??а?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????????.
** ????? ???????????а? ????? ?а?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????
??? 20а????? ????????????? ?????????. ??а????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ??а???????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?а???????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?а???????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????. ????. ???.
53
54
????? I. ??????????
????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ??? 1929-?? ??? 2008а????,
??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ????? ??а?????????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????????. ??а???? ??????????? ?????
?????? ?а????, ???????? ?а??????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????, ?а???,
?а???? ???????, ??????? ????? ??а???????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????
??? (???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????????а? ??????
?????????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????). ??????? ??????
?а????????? ???? ??а??????? ????.
?а???? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????, ??? ????????????, ?? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ???????.
?????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?а???????? ????????????????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????. ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??-?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????
??????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????; ????? ???????, ??а?????????? ??????, ??? ?????а?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????а[18]. ?а???? ?????, ??? ??????? ????????
??а???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ?а????
?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????. ?а???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????.
??????? ??????????: ??? ?а?????? ?????? ??????
??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??а???????????
???????????. ??а??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??а???????? ??????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????.
???????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????, ??а??????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????????
?а??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????. ??? ?????????? ????????? л?????? ?????
????╗ (1933?1934), ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????? ?????? (?? ??????
??????????????? 1933а????), ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????
?????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????
????????? ????? (???????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????), ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ????????????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ??а????????????????????
?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? (????????, ????
????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?а?????? л????????╗
1978а???? ?а??????????? ????? ?а??????? ????) ?а?????? ??????. л???????
?????? ?????╗ (1935?1938) ??????? ?????????? ?а????? ??? ?????? ??????,
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????? (1935а????), ???????
???? ??????? ?????? ??а???????? ?а??????????? ??а?????? ???????????,
?а????? ?????? ??????? (1935а????), ?????????? ?????????.
??? ???? ??????, ??? ???? ????????? ???????????? ???????,а? ???
??????. ???????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? 5а????????? ????????? ??? ??????, ?а1932а???? ?а?????? ?????? ??????-??????????????? ??????. ??????
??а??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ???????
??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? (??? ?????????, ?а?????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а1842а????, ?а???? ??????? ???????????
?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?а1913а????). ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??а?????????? ??????????? ???????????
(?а1934а???? ?а?????? ????? ??????????? ??а???????????, ?а?????? ??а???????? ??????????) ?а??? ?????? ?????? ???????? (???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????
??а???????????????????? ?????????). ?а1938а???? ????????????????
????н????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????.
?????? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??а????? ??????, ?????
??? ?а??????, ??а?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????.
?????????? ???????: ??? ???? ???????????,
?а????????? ??????????? ??????????
????? ??????? 1914?1945а????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?а??????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????,
??? ?а?????? ??????? (?? 60а?????????). ?
н ???? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?а?????? XIXа????а[19].
??????? ??? ??????????? (1945?1973 ????)
?????????? ?????? ???????? ??а???? ???????:
???? ???????, ????????? ?а????????????
?????????? ????? 1945а?????, ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????,
?а1973а?????, ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???, ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????????. ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????
?а???????. ????? 1950-? ?а1973а????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????
55
56
????? I. ??????????
?????? ??? ?а????????????? ?????????, ??????????? 4,1а???????? ?а???.
?а??? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ??а?а????? ???? ????? ??? ???????????????а? 2,5а???????? ?а???. ???? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????
5а?????????а? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? л???? ??а?????╗, ?а??
????? ??? ?а?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ?а???????? 8,1а????????; ???
???????? ??????? л????????????? ?????╗ ?а????????? ????, ???????????? ?а????????? ???????.
??????? ???? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ??а???????????? ?????????????
?????????? ???????? ????. ?а???????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ?а????? ?а?????? ?а??? ???? ??????????? ?????????????
???????????а? ??? ???????? ?????? (??. ?????а10). ??? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??а???? ???????????: ??а??????
???????????? ????????? (?а?????????????, ?а????????? ?????????), ??а????? ?а????????. ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????,
??? ?а?????????? ???????, ??а?а????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????
??????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? ?? ??а????? ?????а[20]. ??????? ????????, ?? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ???, ????????? ???????????? ??????а[21], ?а??????? ?????????? ????????????а? ????? ???????.
?а?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??а??????????? ?а?????????? ????????. ??? ?????????, ??????? ?а1975а???? ????????
??а5а??а35а????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??а??????????? ?????????? ??? ?а???????? 2000??а[22].
????? ???????, ??а???? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????????
????????. ????? ?????????? ???????-??????? ??????? ????????? ??????: л??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??а????╗,а? ?? ??а?????????????. ????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ?????? ??а????? ????????????? ??????????????
????????????, ??????? ??а??? ??? ??а??????? ?????????, ??-????????
??а????????????.
???????, ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????????
????????? ????????, ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ?а?а?????? ?????? ???? ??????
?а????? ??а????? ???????? ????. ?????? ??????????, ????????????? ??а????? ????? ??? ???? ??????, ???? ????????????????? ??а??????????
?а??????????? ?????: ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????????, ???????????, ??????, ?????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????, ?????????????
???? (?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????????????? ???????)
?а?????? ??????. ?а?????????? ????? ?а??? ???? ??????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?а????? ???
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
?????????????? ???????????????? ??????, ????????? ??а????? ???????
???????? ?а??????? ??????.
?а????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а???? ???????? ???? ?????
????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????.
??????? ?а1944а???? ????????? ??а??????? ?а???????-???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????
?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а????? ???? ???????? ???????-????????
????????????: ?????????????? ????????? ????? (???) ?а?????????????? ????? ????????????? ?а???????? (????), ????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????а[23].
??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????
????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????а? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???? (????????? ??а???? ??????? ?а?????а12). ????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ????????????? ??????
????? ??????? ???????? (????????, ?а?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????) ????????? ????? ????????, ??? ?????? ????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??
?????. ???????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????,
?а????? ???????? ???? ?а?????????. ???????????? ?а????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????
?а???????? ??????????? ?????????????.
????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????: ?????? ?? ?????????? ??а?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ???????? ??а????????????? ???????. ???????????? ????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?/??? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????
???????? ???????, ????????? ???? ???? ??????????? ???????-????????
?????? ?????????? ????? ???????.
??????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ?а???????? (????), ???????????
?а1947а????. ????? 1947-? ?а1967а????? ?а?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????
??????????? (??? ?????????? ???????), ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????
?а?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????? ????????? ????????.
??????????? ?а???? ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ???
?????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ???????????, ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????????????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ???????????.
?а?????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????????. ?? ??????? ?а????????????
??????????? ???? ?а????? (????), ???????????? ?а1951а????, ?а?????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????: ???, ???????, ??????, ??????????, ???????
?а??????????,а? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????
57
????? I. ??????????
58
?????????? (???)а? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????а? ??а?????????
???????? ???????? 1957а????а[24]. ?а1973-? ??????????????, ????????
?а????? ?????????????? ?а??????, ??????? ?а???? ??????? ??????????
?? (??????????? ??????????). ???? ??? ?а???????, ??????????? ???????
?а??????????????, ?а????? ????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????
?а????????????? ???????? ????? ?????-????????.
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????????
??????????? ?а???, ??? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?а??????????, ??????? ??????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????а? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а??????????.
????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????
???????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???????????. ??? ?????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ???????,
????????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????. ?а??а?? ????? ??????????
???? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????
?а????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????. ????? ?????
?????? ??а??????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????? (????????? ?? ???????
???? ?а?????? ?а????????) ?????? ?а???????? ?а??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????.
??? ????????? ?а???????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???? ??а???? ???????????: ?а???????? ??????????? ????,
????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????????
??????????????? ?????????. ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????,
????????? ??? ?????? ??????.
?????????? ??-??????: ????????
?а?????????, ?????????????? ???????
?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ??????????? (??) ?а???????? ???????? ??????????????,
????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ???????? ??????, ????? ?а??????????????
?????????????? (????????, ??????? ?а?????????????). ??? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а???????????????
???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?а???????? ??????? ???????????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????????, ??????????? ?а??????????
?????? IV ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? (??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?а1995а????, ????? ???? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ?ал?????
???????????╗). ?а????? ???????, ??? ???????, ?????????, ???????? ?а???????, ??а?? ???????????? ???????? ???? ?а???????????? ??????? ??????
????? ??а????? ???????? ????, ????????? ??????????????? ???????????
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????.
?????????? ??????????????, ??????? ????????? ?а????? XIXа????, ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ????? (??????а? ???????????? ??????
??????????????? ??????????????). ??? ??????????????? ??а???? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? (?а????????? ??а????????????? ??????). ????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????
??????????, ??????????????? ??а???????????? ???????????, ??? ???????
?а????? ?????????.
??????????? ??????????: ????????????? ??????????
?а????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ????????????? ???? ???????? ????????????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????????
?????????????????? ????, ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????
(??.а?????а4), ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????? ????? ??а???????????? ????? ??а????? ????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?? ?а??????? ????????.
?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ????????
??????????? ?????????????. ???????? ?????? ????? ???а?? ??????, ???
???, ?а????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??а???????????
???????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??а??? ??? ????? ???????????
??а????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????. ??? ???? ?????,
????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??а???????? ??????, ?а???????
??а?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????*.
?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ????? ???, ??? ???????? ????????????? ?а????????. ?а????????????? ??? ?????????? ??а???? ???????????? ????????,
??а??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??а????????????? ???????? ??????,
??????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???
* ?а2009а???? ??? ??????? ???????: л???????? ?а?????? ??? ?????, ????? ?а??? ????????? ???????????? ??а?????????? ?????????, ???? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????? ????????. ???????? ??а?? ??? ???? ????? ?????????????? ????? ???????
????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????, ???? ?а?????????, ??? ???
????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ????, ????? ??????, ??????? ???????╗.
59
60
????? I. ??????????
????????? ???????? ??????????????: ???????????? (?????????????
??????????), ????????????????? (??? ???), ???????????????? (???
???), ????????? (DARPAа? ????????? ??а????????????? ????????? ??????-????????????????? ???????????), ???????? ?а??????-?????????????
???? (???????????? ????????? ????????)а[25]. ????????????? ????? ?????,
??? ???????, ?????? ?а????? ?????, ??а???????????? ??а?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????
?а????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????а? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????, ?????
???????? ??? ??а???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????.
????? ???????: ????????????? ?????? ???????
??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????
??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ??????? ?а?????
?а1945а???? (??????? ?а1948-? ???? ???????? ??а???????? ?а?????) ?а????? (?? ??????? ????????? ????????) ?а1947а????, ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????. ????????????? ??а?????? ??????? ???????? ??а????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????????. ????????? ????? ????????????? ??????
?а??????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????, ??? ?а1957а???? ????? ??????
???????? ???????. ??а???????? 1960-? ????? ???????? ????? ???????????
?а???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????. ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? (?????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????
?а1975а????, ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??а????? ?????? ?а1990??),
?????-?? ???? ??а??? ???, ??а??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????а? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????а?
???????? ??????? ?а????????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????????.
????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????
?????????? ??а???????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????????. ????????? ??а??? ????? ?????????? ????????????????? (?????, ???????? ?????, ???????? ??????? ?а????), ??а???????????
?????? ????????? ???????? ????????????????, ????????????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ???? ?а???????? ?????????????????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ??????
???????а? ?? ??????? ??? ??????, ??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????. ??? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??а????????????? ?? ???????????
??????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? (????????? ????? ????????
??????????????) ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??????. ????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??а???????? ??????? ?а?????????
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??????????????? ??????????? ?а????????, ?а??????? ??????? ?????????
??а?????? ?????????? ???????? ??-?? ???????? ?????.
????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??а1945?1973а???? ?а?????, ?????????? ???????? ??а?????????????
????????? ????????????? ????? ??а????? ???????? ????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ?????? 1960?1980-?. ??а?????? ?????????? ?????, ?а???????
???? ??????????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??а3а???????? ?а???, ?? ???? ??? ??? ?а???? ?а????? ?????????
?????????????, ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? 3,2а???????? ?а???. л????╗ ????????? ????? ?????, ???????, ????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?а????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ??а7?8а?????????
?а??? ?а??????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??????
????? ??а??? ??????? ???????????? (????а?? ????? ??????? ???????????
???? ?????? ?а????????? ??а?????????????? ???????? ?????).
??????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ????, ??? ????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????
?а??????? ????? ???????. ?а1960?1980-? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ??а1,6а???????? ?а??? ??????????
???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а????; ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ????? (?а????????? 3,1 ????????), ?а?а????????? ????а? ????? ??? ?а??? ???? (5,3а????????). ??? ??а????? ?????
???????????? ??а??????? ????????????. ?????????, ??? ?а???? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ??а???? ????????? ?а???????? ??????
????????? ?????-?? 1а???????.
??????? ??????? ????????: ????? ?????
?????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????
??????????????? ?????????????
?а??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????
????????? ??????????? ??а???? ???????? ??а???? ???????, ??а???????????
????????????? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ????????????. ???????? ??а???,
????????????? ?????????? ??? ?а????????, ??? ?а?а????????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????, ??? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??????? ??а???????
????????? ??а??? ???а? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а1980-? ?????, ????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? (?? ????
?а???????? ???? ?????). ??????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????????? ???????????
?????????? ???? ?????????, ???? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????.
61
????? I. ??????????
62
л????????????╗ (1973?1979а????)
??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??а??? ?а???????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ?а?????? ?а1971а????. ???????-??????? ??????? ?????????? ??а???????
???????? ?????????, ???????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????,а? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??а????? ??????? ?????????. ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ?а??????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???, ??????? ????????????? ????????
???? ??а????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ???????????????
?а???? ??????????? ?????? (?? 35а???????? ??а?????*). ??а????????? ??????, ?????? ????? ??? л?? ??? ??????╗, ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??а????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????? ???????????
?????? ???????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????.
???????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????
????? ??????? ?а????, ??? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???? ????????????.
??? ?????? ???? ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??а??????????? ??????,
?а??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?а????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?а??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????????. ??????????? ?????????????
??? (?????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????а? ???????????????
????????? ???), ??????? ??а??????????? ????????? ??а1959а???? ??????
????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ?а1967а???? ????????? ??? ?а???????
????а[26].
?а1971а???? ??? ?????????? ??а????????????? ?????????????? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ?а??????, ?????????? ???? ?а??????? ?????????
?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??а???????? ???????????? ?????
???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??а????????????? ???????. ?а??????????
?а??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????: ????????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ?а??????????? ??а???????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????
?????????????? ?а??????????? (????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?а??????????? ?????????).
????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????
?а1973а????, ????? ???? ??а????? ??а???? ??????? ?а?????? ???? ??-?? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???? (??????????? ?????а?
??????????? ?????). ?а????? 1960-? ????? ??а?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ??????а?? ??-?? ????????? ???????
??? ?????? ????????.
?а???????а? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ???????????. ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??????????
* 1 ????? = 28,35а?. ????. ???.
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??????? ?????????????? ?а?????????, ?????????, ??? ???? ?????? ???
???????? (??? ?????????) ?а?????? ??а????? ????. ?????? ?????????
???????????? (???? ???????? ???? ??а????? ??????, ??? ??а??????? ??????? ?????????), ?а???? ?????? ?????а? ??а10, 15 ??? ???? 25а?????????
?а???а[27].
?????? ???????? ?????? 1979а???? ????? ??????? ??? ???????????, ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а???????? ????????????????? ???????, ???????? ?а?????????????? ?а???.
?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????
????????????? ??????????, ????? ???? ?а???????????. ?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????, ????????, ?а??????????? ??а????????? ?а???????
?????, ?????? ???? ????? ??а???? ?????????, ?а1973?1980а????? ??????
2а?????????, ???-???? ??? ??????????? ???? ?а????????????? ?а????????
?????? ??????? ????? (1,2?1,4а????????) ?а???? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????? ?а??????????? ??? ???????????
?????????????? (1,8а???????? ?а1980?2010-?)а[28]. ??????? ???????????,
?а??????? ???????????? 4,1а????????, ??? ????, ??? ??а????? ????????
????, ??а??а??????? (????? ?????? ??а????? 3а???????? ???????????????
?????????)а[29]. ??? ??а????? ???? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????
?а????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?а??????????? ????.
????? ?а??????? ??????????????
(?а1980-? ??а???? ???)
???????? ????: ???????? ?????? ?а?????
??????????? ????????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а1979а???? ???????-????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????. ??????????? ??ал??????╗ ??????????? ????* ?а????????????, ???????????? ?а???????????? ??????,
?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????,
??????? ??а???? ???????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????.
????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????,
????????? ??????????????? ??????? (???????? ?а????? ???????????,
* ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????. ????. ???.
63
????? I. ??????????
64
????? ?а??????????), ?????????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ??????????, ?а?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? (???????????
??а??????????????? ????????? ?????). ???????? ???????? ????????
????? ????????????а? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????. ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? (???, ????, ?????????????), ??????????????? ???????????,
????????????, ????????????? ?????????????? ?а????? ???????????????? ?????.
?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?, ?????????????,
??????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????,
???????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ???, ??????????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????????????. ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ??????????
?????? 1979?1983а?????. ????? ??????????? ??????? ??а3,3а???????? ???????а? ?а??? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?а?????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ???????
??? ???????? Labour isn?t working* (??????????? ????????? ??????????
Saatchi&Saatchi) ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ??а????? ???????? ???????.
??а????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????, ??? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????????????????????. ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ?????????,
????????? ?а???????, ?а????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????а?
???????? ?????? ?а?????а? ????????? ??????????, ??? ???? ???????? ?а????? ???????, ??? л????а? ?????╗ (?? ?????????? ??а??????, ??? ???????
?????????????? ????? ????????? ?а????????).
?????: ??????? ?????? ?а??????????????
????????? ???
??????? ??????, ?а??????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????????, ????
??????????? ??? ?а1981а???? ?а??а????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????. ??? ????????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???? ????????????
????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?????????
??? ?????? ???????? ?є????? ????? ?????? ????? ????????. ?????? ?????????, ???, ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????
* ????????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????? ?а??? л????????? ??а????????╗, ?а??? л????
??а????????╗. ????. ???.
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
?????????, ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ?а??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????. ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? л???????????? ???? ?????? ????╗. ?а??а??
????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? (???????? ?а?????????
????????? ???????????), ?а??????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??????????, ????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ???? ?????????, ?а???? ???? ???????? ??????: ??????, ????? ?????????
???????? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????, ?а??????а? ???
??????? ???????, ?????а?? ???????? ??? ?? ????????, ??? ????????????
????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????????
????????? ????????????? ???????? ??а????????? ??? ???????????
?а???а? ?а??а?? ?????????.
??? ?а?а??????????????, ?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????
?а????? ????????? ????????. ????? 1979-? ?а1981а????? ??? ???????
?а10а??а????? 20а????????? ?а???. ???????????? ????? ??????????????
?????????????? ???, ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ????????????, ??а?????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??а??????? ?????? ??????????? ?ал?????? ????╗*.
?????????? ??????????????? ?а??? ?а??? ????? ???????? ?????????
??? ??????????? ????????????? ???????. ????????????? ???? ???????
??????????????? ??????????, ????? ???? ???????? ??????????????
?а?????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???????????, ???????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ???. ?????? ??а???, ??? ????????????? ???????????,
???? ?????????, ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? (?а?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??а??, ??? ??? ???????? ??а???????????? ?????н
??????????? ????????). ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????
????? ?а?????? 1987а???? л????-?????╗. ????? ???????? ????? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ??????. ?а????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????
????, ?????? ???? ??а????? ?а????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????
??????????. ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???
???????? ???? ??????????? ????????????а? ?????????? ??????? ????
?а??????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????????.
* ?????? ????, ??? ??????????????, ??? ????????? ????,а? ????? ???????? ?????? ?а????????-
?? ????????? ???, ??? ?а?????? ???????????? ????????? ?а??а1970-? ????? ???? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????.
?а???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????, ?а?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а1970-? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ????. ???.
65
????? I. ??????????
66
???????? ?????? ?а????? ????????????
????????? ????? ???????? ????
??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??? ?а?????
1970??а? ?????? 1980-? ?????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??а????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ??????
????? ??????????? ??а ??а ???, ?а??а????????????? ???????. ??????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ?а1970-?а? ??????
1980-? ?????, ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????,
???????? ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ??а??????? ???????? ????? ????????
????????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??? ?????????, ??а?? ?????????
?а?а?????????????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ?а????????
??????????????? ??????? ??а??????? ?????? ?а????????????? ???????, ??????? ?а??????? ?а1982а????. ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????,
??? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?? ????? ??????? ?????а? ????? ??????? ???? (???????? ????????????????? ?????) ?а??????? ????
(?????????????????).
??????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а???????-??????? ??????????? (??? ?а?????????? ?????). ?? ????????? ???????: ??????-???????? ??????? ????
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? (???), ??????? ?????????
???????? ???? ??????????? ?а????????? ??а???? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ???????? ?а??????? ????????????? ????????.
?????????? ??? ???? ????????????, ???? ??а??????? ????. ????????
??а????????????? ??????????? л???????????╗ ??????, ?а???????????
????? ?а1980-? ?а1990-? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????. ????? ?????????? ??????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????? ??????? (?а??? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????) ???????
?а3,1а???????? ?а1960?1980-? ??а0,3а???????? ?а1980?2000-?. ?а???????
??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а2000а????
???????? ??а13а????????? ????, ??? ?а1980-?. ?а?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????а? ????? ????????
??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?????, ????? ???????
???? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????
??????????? ????? ?????????????.
?????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? (1974?1990) ??????? ???????
?????? ??а?????????????? ???????? 1980?1990-?, ??а??а??? ???? ?????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????? [30]. ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????, ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ????????
????? 3. ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
???????????????? ?????????????, ?а????????????? ??????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????а? л????╗ (??? л??????╗, ???
??? ?????? ????????) ????????? ????????? ????, ?а??а??? ????????????
??????? ?????.
????? ???????: ???? ??????????
?а1989-? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????. ?а??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????
?????. ???????? ???????????? (?а1990-?), ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??а???????????????? ?????????. ?а1991а????
???? ???????? ??а?????. ?а1978а???? ????? ????????, ??а????? ?????????? ????, ?а??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????????. ???????
(???????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а1975а????) ????
???????????? ???????? л???????? ??????╗ (??? ???) ?а1986а????, ??? ???
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?????????????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?а????.
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??????????, ??а????, ??а???????????? ???????????. ???????, ?а?????????
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?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????), ?????????
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67
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?????????? ?????╗. ????????? ????, ???????? ???????????? (?а?? ?????)
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???????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????)а? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?????.
?а1995а???? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????,
??????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?а??? (????????? ???????? ???????????). ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? (????????, ?????
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????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????????????? ?а????????? (????
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?а????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? (??. ????). ???????? ???? The
Borderless World (л??? ??? ??????╗), л??????? ???╗** ?аOne World, Ready or
Not (л?????? ???, ?????? ?? ?а???? ??? ???╗) ?????? ????????????? ????
????? ?????? ????????.
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???????? ??а?? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ?а???????? ??????.
** ???????а?. ??????? ???. ??????? ??????? XXI ????.а?.а: ???, 2014.
69
70
????? I. ??????????
?????? ?????: ????????? ?????????? ??????
??????? ????? 1980-?а? ?????? 1990-? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ????, ??? ??а??? ?а??????? ?ал?????? ????? ?????╗, ??? ?????????? ?????? 1995а???? ?а???????. ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????, ???, ????????? ??????
???????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????. ??????? ?????? ?????????????
??? ?а?????? (?? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??а?????????
????????), ?а????? ???.
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??? (????????, ????????? ?а???????), ?а????? ????? ????? ????????
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??а?????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ??-?? ?????????????? ????????).
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???????.
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?а1998а???? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??а16 ????????? ?а?????????
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??????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ???????????? Financial Times
????? ???? ?а????????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??????????? ?а???, ????????? ??????? ????????? ??а???? ?????
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????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????. ?а1999а???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????
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???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а??????? 2006-??
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????????? ?????-???? ?а??????? ?????????). ????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? 1987-?? ??а?????? 2006 ????,
??????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????? (??? ???? ??????????? ?а???????? ???
?????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????)а? ???? ??????? ?а???????????
71
????? I. ??????????
72
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?а???????? 2000-? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? л?????????╗ ????? ?????, ?????????????? ?а??????? ??????????
???? ???????????. ?а1978а????, ?а?????? ????????????? ???????, ??а????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? 2,5а???????? ??????? ?????????а[32].
??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??а????????? ???: ?? ???? ?а???????????
???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???? 0,8а????????а[33]. ?а2007а????
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??????) ?а??????? (?а?????? ????????).
??????? ?а?????: ??????? ??????????
?????? 2008а????
?а?????? 2007а???? ?а????? ???? ?????? ??, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????
(??? ????????????) ????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? (?????: ?а??????? ?????? ??????????), ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а????? ?????????? ???? ?????????
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?????? ?????????? ?а?? ?????). ??? ??а????? ????? 2008а???? ?????? ?????????? ??а???? ????????, ?а???????????? ?????????????? ?????? Bear
Stearns, ?а????? Lehmann Brothers. ??? ???????? ??????. ???? ????? ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ????, ?????? ???
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??????????, ???????? ?????????? Royal Bank of Scotland, ?а???????????? ???????????, GM ?аChrysler ?а???, ???????? ??а???? ???????????????
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* PIGSа? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????а? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????????. ????. ???.
73
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?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????; ??????????? ?а????????? ????????
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???????, ???????? ?а??????????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????
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?????????? ??????????.
???????????: ?????????? ????????????
?????? 2008а???? ?????? ?а?????????????? ????????????, ?а????? ?? ???
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(??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а????????)*а? ?????????
???? ??????? ??????????** (?а???????? ????????????? ?????-????????).
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??? ?????? ??????, ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а2012а???? ??-???????? ????????? ??а1,4а???????? ???? ?????? 2007 ????***.
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* ???? ???? ???????? ?а1961 ???? ?а???????? ?а???? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????, ???-
???, ??? ?а??????. ?а???????? 1970-? ????? ?а??? ???????????? ??????, ?????????, ?????????
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??????? ?а????.
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?????а? ?????? ????.
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?????, ?а????????? ???????а? ?а1980-?.
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???????). ?????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????????
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75
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76
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?а???? ????? ?а?????????? ??? ?а??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????????, ??? ???????, ??? ?? ????? ????????*. ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???? ??а????? ???? ???????а[1]. ????? ????????, ??? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ??????
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XVIIIа???? ?а?????????????? ??а????? XIXа????. ?? ??????????а? ???? ????;
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?а?????, ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????????.
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?а?????????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????????? ???????????
?????? XXа????, ???????????? ??а??, ????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????? (1848?1923)
?????????, ??? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
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????????? ?а??????????????? ????????????? ??????а[6]. ?а????????
?????, ?а?????????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??а???????? ?????; ????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????-??? ?а???????????????. ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????????
?????.
????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????:
?????? ????????????????? ?????
??? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?а1920-? ?а1930-? ?????, ?????????, ???????? ??, ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ???? ??????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??а??? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????
????.
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??? ?????? ????????????????? (???????) ?????, ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?а1920-?. ???? ?????????, ??? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??а???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????
?а?????. ????????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????, ?????? ??? ?? ??а?????
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?а?????????, ??????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ??а????? ???? ??а????? ?, ?????????????, ??а?????????? ?а????????????? ????????а? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ?а????? ??????
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??а????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???). ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????? ?????? ????????
?а??????? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????????? (???). ??а???? ????? ??????,
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85
????? I. ??????????
86
???? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????????????? ?????, ?а??? ?а????????
?а?????а11.
????? ????????????, ??а???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????
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?а??????????*.
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?????????????, ????? 1930-?? ?а1970-?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???н
???????????? ????? ?а??а???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ????????? ???, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????, ??а?????
???? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????????,
?????????? ?а1980а????, ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????,
???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????, ?а?????? ???????????????
????? ?????????. ??а?????? ??????, ??????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ?а1980-? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а???? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? (??????: ?????? ???????, ?????? ???????, ????? ????? ?а??
?????????????). ?????????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????? ????????????? ??????????а? ????? ???? ??а?????? ????????? ?????? ?????
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?????а[7].
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????????? ??? ?а ??а ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????
?????????? ??а??????.
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
??? ??а????? ?а1980-? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????
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?а?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? (??? ??????????? ??а2008а????).
(????????? ??а???? ??????? ?а?????а5.)
87
????? I. ??????????
88
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????????.
???????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??а?????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ?а?????? 1840?1860-?, ??????? ?ал????????? ????????????????
??????╗* 1848а????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ?а????????? ????????? (1820?
1895), ??? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????????,
* ????? ?., ???????а?. ???????? ???????????????? ??????.а?.а: ??????????, 1980.
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
?а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? л????????╗* ?а1867а????а[8]. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?а???????, ?а????? ?а??????
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???????? ????????????? ?а??? ?а??????.
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* ?????а?. ???????.а?.а: ????, ?????? ?а??????, 2013.
** ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????????
(1854?1938), ???? ?????????? (1871?1919) ?а??????? ??????????? (1877?1941). ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? (1870?1924), ??????? ?????????????? (1886?1937)
?а??????? ??????? (1888?1938).
89
90
????? I. ??????????
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??????.
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????? ???????????????. ??? ????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ????????, ???????????????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????, ?а??а???????????????? ???????*. ??? ?????????? ???????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?????
???????????? ?а??????????? ???????, ?а????????? ?????? ?а???????????
?????. ?????? ??-?? ????? ???????? ??а?????????? ????? ?????????. ????????, ????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??а???????? ???. ?????? ???, ?а??а????? ???????????
??????????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????,
????? ????? ??а????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????, ??????? ?аXVIII ???? ?а??????????????, XIXа???? ?а??????? ?а???????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????? [9].
????????? ????????????????? ??????????
??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????
???????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? ?? ????????? ?а??????
??а??????? ????? ????????? ??????????. ??? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??а?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ????????
????? ??? ???????? ????. ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????, ?? ???? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????
(?а???????????? ?????) ?????????? ?а???????????.
* ????????? ?? ???, ???????? ????-??????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ???????? XIV (1665?
1683), ??а ??? ??? ?????? ??а ?? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ????????; ?????? VII ?а ??????
?????? ????? ?а???????, ??а??а??-?? ????? ????????????? ????????.
93
94
????? I. ??????????
???????? ????????, ????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????, ???????? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????????????, ???? ???????
?????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????. ???
??а????? ????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???????????? ??а????? ???????????
???????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????????
????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????? ???????. ?а???????
????????????? ????????, ???? ????????????? ??а???????????, ????? ???????, ???????? ?а??????????? ?????????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????, ????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????
??????? ?а????, ?а??? ??? ?а??? ??????, ?? ???? ?а?????????????????????
????????????, ?????????? ??а????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????а[10].
???????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????? ?а????????. ????????? ????????? ???????????? (??? ??????????? ?аXVIIIа????) ??????? ????? ????? ????????????????, ?а?? ????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?а????????
?????????? (????????, ????????? ????????), ????? ???????? ??? ?????
???????? ?????.
?????? ??????????? ?а????????????????????
????????: ????????????, ?????????,
?????????? ?????????? ??????????????,
?а???????? ???????????? ?????
???? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? (??? ???????аVII,
??????? ?????? ?а1485?1509 ?????), ????????????? ????? ??а???????????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а????? XVIа? ?????? XVIIа???? ?????????
??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????, ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????
???????????? ??а??????? ?????????????.
?????????????? ????????????????? XVII ?аXVIIIа?????, ????????? ???
?????????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???, ?????? ??? ???? ????????????? ????????????? ??а????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????, ?? ???? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а????????. ?????? ??а????? ???? ?????? ??а??? ???? ?????? ??????????????
?а??????????? ?????????????????????? ????????????? ????????????
?а??????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???. ??а??????
??????, ????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? (???????? ?????????????????????? ????????????), ?а??а?????????. ?а????? XVIIIа????,
??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??а??????????????????
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
?а????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????, ???????????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ???? ??????????????? ??а????????? ????????????.
????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????
???????? ??????????????, ?а??????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?а??????????
?????, ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????,
???????? ?а???? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????
????? ???????? ??????????????а[11]. ???????? ?а?????, ?а???????? XIXа????
???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????, ???????????????? ?а????????????? ????? ???????? ??а???????? XXа????. ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??а???????????? ????????????? ?????*. ????? ???????????? ????????
?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а???????,
??????? ??а??? ??????? ???????????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????,
?а????? ????????? ????, ??? ??? ?а???? ??????? ???????? ??а???а[12].
???????????????????? ????????
?а??????????? ????: ????????? ????????
?а????? ??????????? ???? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?а1950?1960-? ?????; ?? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??????
?????? (1901?1985), ????? ????? (1915?1991), ?????? ??????? (1889?1987)
?а??????? ??????? (1915?2012),а? ?а??а???? ??? ??? ???????? ????????
????????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????, ???????????
??а????????? ???????????а? ?????????, ??????????? ?а??????????????????,а? ??? ?????????? ?а?? ????????????? ??а?????? ?????????????????
?????? ???????????????????? ??????, ??а?а?????? ???????? ????? ?????
????????????? ?????????.
????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ???????, ?????????, ??? ?????????
??????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? (??? ????????) ?а???????
????????? ??????????????, ????? ???????, ??? ????????а? ?а???????а? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ????????. ???? ?????????????
????????? ?а??????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ???????? (????????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????????????
?а????????????? ??????????????), ?? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????,
??? ???? ???????? ??? ??а?????????? ?????.
?а????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ??а?????? ?????
???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????????????
* ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ????? (1847?1938) ?а?????? ???
(1854?1943) ??????? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????, ????? ??? ????????? ?????
(1817?1894) ?а???? ???? (1821?1898).
95
????? I. ??????????
96
?????????а[13]. ??а?? ????????????, ???????? ????????????? ???????
?????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????????. ????? ??? ????????? ?а????????????????, ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ????????? ???????????? ?а??????-????????????????? ????????????.
??????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??а?????? ??????:
?????? ???????????????????? ????????
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?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????? ???,
???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????? ??а????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ?а??????????
?а????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ????????????.
???????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????. ??? ??????????? ????????
??????? ????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????????.
???????? ??а??? ??????????, ???????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ?? ???????? ????????, ?а?????? ?????????, ??а????? ???? ????? ???? ?а?????????????. ???????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????, ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ????????????
??? ????. ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ?а??????? ?? ???????? ?а?????а3,
?????? ????? ??????? ????????. ????? ????, ???????????? ?????????
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????? ??а????? ????? ???, ??????? ???????? ???? ?а?????.
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?????. ?а??а??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????????????
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
?????. ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????а? ??? ????? ????
?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????.
??????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? (1840?1921) ?а????? XIXа????. ?????? ??? ????? (1881?1973) ?а??????? ??? ????? (1899?
1992) ????????? ?? ??????? ??а??????? ????? ??????. ??? ?????????
????????????? ???????? ?а???? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а1920?1930-? ?????, ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????????а[14]. ?а1944а???? ?????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? л?????? ?а???????╗*,
??????? ??????? ????????????? ??а????????? ????????????? ???????????,
???????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????.
?а???? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?а???а?? ?????? ???????????????, ??? ?а????? ??????????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????
???????? (??????? ?а???? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????), ?????????? ???????????, ???? ?а????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????. ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?а?? ?????????????, ?а??а?????????????? ?????????.
????????? ?а???????????? ??????????????:
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????
??????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??а?? ????? ??а ??????, ??? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????????
?????????. ?а??????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????
????????????. ????????????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ????????
?????? ??????, ??? ??, ????, ???????????, ???? ??а???????????, ???????????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????.
л?????? ?а???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?а???????╗,а? ???????????? ?????. ????????, ???? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ?????
??????? ??????, ?? ????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??а??????? ?????? ?а????? ??а????????????? ???????? ??????, ?а??а??а??????
?????? ???? ??????????.
??????????? ????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?а??н
????????????. ??? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????, ?????а? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????
????????????? ?а???????????????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????,а? ??а???????? ???????? ???
* ?????а?.а?. ???. ?????? ?а???????.а?.а: ?????????, 1992.
97
98
????? I. ??????????
??????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??????????. ????????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а??????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?а??????
?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????.
????? ???????, ????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??а??????, ??? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?а????? ??? ??а????? (???, ??а??????? ????, ?????
????? ??? ??, ??? ?????? ?????), ??? ??????? ??????? ?а???????????????
??????, ?а??? ??? ??????, ??? ?? ??а????? ???????????, ?а?????? ???, ???
?а???? ???? ????? ?????, ??а????? ??????? л????????????╗. ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????, ??? ???????????????,
?????????? ??а????????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а??а?????????????? ???? ?ал?????????????╗
????.
???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????:
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????
????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???, ??? ??? ???,
????????, ????а?? ????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? л???????????
????????╗, ????? ??? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????????????, ??????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??а???????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ??а???????????? ??а????? XIXа????. ???????????? ???????????????
??????????, ??????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????????
????????????? ????????????, ?а??? ??? ???? ????????????????? ???????
???? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????????, ?а??а??????????? ?????????????а[15]. ????? ????,
?а??? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????, ?а??а?????????? ????????. ?? ??????? ??а??????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????,
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??????? ?????-?? ????????? ??????????а? ??????? ?а??????? ????, ????????? ?????????,а? ???? ???????? ?а?????. ?а??а?? ????? ?????? ????,
????? ??????????? ??? ?????, ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????
???????????????. л???????? ?????╗, ????????, ??????? ??????????
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
?а???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??а????? ???? ??????? ?а???????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? л????????????╗
?а?????????????? ????? XVI ?аXVIIIа??????. ????? ?????????? ??а??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а1990-?а[16]. ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????.
??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????
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????? ???? ???????, ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????
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?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????????? ????? л??????????, ????????? ?а??????????╗**, ??????????????? ?а1942а????, ????????? ??????а[17].
????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? л??????? ?а??????????????? ???????????????╗.
* ????????? л???╗ ???????. ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ??????, ???
?????, ????????, ???????????? ?а??????????????? ???????.
** ????????а?. ??????????, ????????? ?а??????????.а?.а: ?????????, 1995.
99
????? I. ??????????
100
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?????-?? ????? ????????? ??? ????? iPad ???????? Apple.
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?????? ????? ????????, ??? IBM ?аGeneral Motors, ??? ???????????? ???????? Kodak, ??????? ??а???? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
?а????? ???????, ????????????? ???? ??????????? ??а???? ?????????.
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101
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102
???????????? ?????
??, ??? ?????? ??? ?????, ????????????? ???а?? ?????? ??? ?????????
?а?????.
???? ??????? ????? (1883?1946) ??????? ?а???а?? ????, ??? ?а????????,
?,а??????? ???, ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?????????
??? ??????. ?а????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ??????????. ?????, ???????, ????? ??????????? ????????? XXа????. ?? ???
????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ??????? ??????????????, ???????
?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ??а????? ???? ?????????.
??а?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????? ?????: л??? ????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ?????, ????? ???? ?????? ?????????
?а????????? ???????????╗. ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????. ????? ???????, ???????-??????? ??????????????, ?а??????? 2011а???? ??????, ???
??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??а????????? ??????, ??а?? ??а??????? ???? ?????? ?а???, ??? ????? ?а?????????? ?????????
??????, ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????. ?? ??а??????? ??????? ?????:
??, ??? ??? ?????? ????????а? ?????, ??? ???????а? ?????, ???? ?????????
???????? ??а???????? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ????? ???????.
??????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????, ???? ??????????????, ??? ?????
?????? ??????????? ????? ?а???????????.
?????? ?????????? ????????????
???????????? ??????????
????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ??????????
??а???, ???????????? ??. ???? ???????? ??а?????????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????, ?а??? ????????? ???????
(?а??? ????? ???? ???????)а? ????????????? (??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????), ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????? ???????????,
?? ???? ??????????, ??????? ?????????????.
?а?????????, ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????????, ???????? ????? ??, ??? ??????????, ?а??, ??? ????????, ??а????
?а??а?? ????, ?а??????? ??а???????? ?????? ???? ???????????, ????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ??а??????????? ??????????, ?а??????? ??а????? ???????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ????.
???? ?а???, ??? ??????????, ?????? ??а??????? ???????? ??а?????, ???????
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
??а????, ???? ???? ???????? ??а????????. ?а???? ???????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????, ?а??а???????????? ??????, ??????
??? ??????? ????? ????????????????.
???????????????? ???????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???,
??? ?????????? ?????-?????? ?????. ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????
?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??а????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????а? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ?????????????, ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??а???????
????????? ???????????? ?????а? ???????, ???????, ????????????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????,а? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????????. ??? ??а????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????????????????????????, ??а?????? ??? ??а?? ?????????????? ???????????. ??????
?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ???, ??? ??? ?? ???????????,
??????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????????? ???????
????-????????. ?а2002а???? ??а?????-???????????, ??????????? ???????? ?а???????????, ????????? ??????: л???? ??????????, ?а?????????????
?а???????? ??????? ?? ?????; ???? ??????????, ?а????????????? ???????
?? ?????, ??а??а????? ?? ????????; ?а???????, ?????????? ??????????,
?а??????? ?? ??а????? ??????, ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????????????,а?
??? ??????????? ???????????╗. ???? ?ал??????????? ???????????╗ ??????
?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????.
???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????
?????????: ???????????? ???????
?а?????????????? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ???????????????
?а????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???? ??????????. ?а????? ????????
???????? ??????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ???
??? ????????????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????, ????????? ??????????
?????? ??а?????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????? (????? ???????, ???? ?????????????), ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????
????????????????.
????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??а??????????. ??? ????????
?????????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????, ???????, ?а???? ???????, ?????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????а? ??? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ????????? ???,
??а????, ???????????? ????? ??, ??? ???????? ????? ???????? (???????,
??? ???????, ??а????? ????????? ?а????? ??а???????? ???????, ?????? ???
???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????????). ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????. ???? ?????????? ??????????
103
????? I. ??????????
104
?????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ?? ??а????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????? ?, ?????????????, ??а????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????.
????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ??????*а?
л?????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?а??а??????????????╗, ??? ?? ???
?????????,а? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????.
?????????? ????????? ???, ??а??? ??????, ??????????? ?а???????, ?????
?????????? ????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????????????????? ??????
(??????? ??а????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????), ????
???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????. ??а??????????? ??????,
??? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???????, ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????а[18].
?????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????:
???????????? ?????? ????????
?????????????????? ???????????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ????????, ??? ??????а? ??а?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????,
??? ???????? ???????????? (?а???????????????) ?????, ?а???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? (??? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????-????
??????????? ?????????) ?а???????????? ????.
?а?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??а?????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????, ??а?а????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ????
??а???????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а?????????? ????? ?а???а?? ?????????????? ????????а? ????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????????. ??а????
????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ???????????? ??а??????? ?????
??а????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????????, ?а?????????? ??а????????а? ?, ??? ??? ??????, ?????????? ???????????? ????, ???? ??????
??????? ?????? ????, ???, ??а?????? ??????, л??????? ??????? ?а???????
??????╗. ???, ??? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ????? ?а??????
??? ???????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ?а?а????????
????? ?????а[19].
?????? ??а?????? ??????? ?????, ??? ????????, ????????????? ??а?????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????????? ??а????????????? ??????: л?????????? ??а????? ????????? ?????,
* ?а????????? animal spiritsа? ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??а????????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ????. ???.
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
??? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????????. ??а????????? ??????????
?????????, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????. ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????, ?????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?????╗.
????? ????????? ???? ???, ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????а? ????? 10 ????????? ?????? ?????????? (??? 15 ????????? ????????) ?а????????? ??а???????????
??????а? ??? ??, ??? ???????? ?а???? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????????
??а???????????????????а[20].
????????????? ??????, ??????? ????????
??? XXа????а? ?а???????
???????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????????? ????????? ?аXXа????, ??? ??????
???????????? ??? ??????????????? ????. ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??а????????? ???? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ????????? ?а????? XIXа????, ????????
?????????? ?а?????????? ?, ?????????????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????.
????? ????, ???????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????
???? ???????? ?а??????????? ???????????. ???????????? ????? ??а??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????
??а???????, ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????. ???????????????
?????? ????????? ?а????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ??а???, ?а????? ??? ?????,
??, ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????????????, ?????? ??а?????
?а??? ???????? ????????. ?а??????? ??а???? ????, ?а???????????? ??????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????, ??????? ??? ????????? ?????
??????? ??? ???, ?????? ???, ?а?????????, ????????? ?????? ????? ???????,
??? ??????? ????????? 1929-?? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? 2008а????.
л?а???????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????╗:
?????????? ???????????? ?????
???????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ??а??, ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????а? ??? ????? ?????????
?а?????????? ??????? ?????? ?а???, ??? л?а???????????? ??????????? ??
??? ??????╗. ????? ??? ????????? ????, ????? ???????????, ??? ?? ??а????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??а??, ??? ?а???????????? ??????????? л???????????????╗ ????, ????? ??? ??????????
105
????? I. ??????????
106
?а??????????, ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?а???????, ?а??? ????? ????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????. ??? ??а????? ???????????? ??а????????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????
?????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????????????? ?????????а[21].
????????????????? ?????: ??????,
????? ?а????? ???????
????а? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ???? ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????.
?а????? XIXа???? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?а?? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????????
???? ??-?? ????????????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????, ?? ???? ???? ?????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ??а????? ?а???? ???????????
??. ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????,
??? ?????????????????, ?а????????????????? ??????????? ?а1980-? ????? ????? ????????????????? ?????, ??? ????????????????????.
???? ??????????? ?????????: ?????????????
?????? ????????????????? ?????
??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????????? ????? ????? ??????????
??а????????? ??????? (1857?1929), ??????? ?????? ???? ???, ???????? ???
???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????????? ????????. ?????? ?????????, ??? ??а????? ?????????? ???????? ?????
????????? ???????а? ????????, ????????, ?????????а? ?а?????? ?????
????? ???????????? ?????. ?????? ????? ???????????, ??? ????????????
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ?а??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ??а??????????, ??? ??????????
(????????, ??????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????) ?а????????????
?????? (?????????? ???????, ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????), ?а??????? ????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?а????????? ????? ?????????. ?????? ??????, ??? ????????? ??а?????? ?????? ??а??, ??? ????? ???? ????,
??а?а?????? ??, ?а????, ?а???? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????????а[22].
?????? ??????????? ??а???? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ??????
??????????, ?а????? ???? ?а????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????, ?а?????? XXа???? ????????? ????? ?????????
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????. ?а1918а????
?а????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????, ?а????????? ?? ????? ??????? (1874?1948), ?????? ???н
???? ?а????????? ????? ??????*.
????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ???? л????? ????╗, ?а?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????. ?а???? ??? л?????
????╗ ?????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????.
??а???? ????????, л????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ?а?????╗**, ??????????????? ???? ??????, ????? ?????? ?а1936-?, ?? ???? ????? ??? ?????
л??????? ?????? ?????╗ (?????? ??? ?????? ?а1933а????). л????? ????╗
?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????а? ??????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ????????,а? ??? ?????????????????? ????????, ?а??? ?а??? ??????? ?а?????а3. ????? ????????????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ?????
(???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???
?а1953?1956а?????, ?а????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????
????????? ???????? ?а1970?1978а?????), ?????? ?????? ???? ?а???????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????.
????????? ????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????:
?????? ????????????????? ?????
????? 1960-? ????? ????????????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????. ????????
??? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а??? ?а1950-?
?????. ???????? ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?а???, ?????
?????? ???? ?????????а? ?а?????? ??а????????? ????????????, л?????????????╗ ???????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ??????,а? ??????? ?? ??а??????? ????????? ??а????????????????? ??????,
??а??? ???? ????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ?а??????????. ???????, ???? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ????????????????? ?????.
??? ??а????? ?а?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ????
?????????, ?????? ??? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? (????????, ????????????????) ??? ????????
??????? (????????, ?????????? ?????). ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ??а???? ?а??????? ??????: ??? ?????????? ???????, ?????????????
?а???? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? (??????????? ?????
* ???????????? ?а?? ????? ???? ??????? (1862?1945), ??? ???????????? ???? ?????? ?????, ????? ?????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а??? ?а???????? 1920-? ?????. ???? ????? ?????
(1884?1963), ??? ????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ??????, ???? ?а????? ???????, ???????.
** ????? ??.а?. ????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ?а?????.а?.а: ?????? ???, 2002.
107
????? I. ??????????
108
?а????? ????????????????? ?????); ??-?? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????
?а??????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? (???????????); ?а?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????
(???????????? ?????).
??? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?а???, ??? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??а????????
???????????? ????????????. ?????????? ????????? ?а?????????, ???????
??? ???????, ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ????; ???? ????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ??а????????, ?а??????? ??? ?????. ????????
????????? ????????? л??? ?????? ???????, ??? ??????????╗ ???????????
???????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ????? ?а??? ???????? ??????.
?????????????? ???????? ?а?????????:
??????? ????????????????????
?а1980-? ?????? ???????????, ???????????????? ???????????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ??????
?а???????? ???????????, ???????????? ????? ?????, ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????????????? ?????, ??? ????????????????????а[23].
??????? ???? ?????????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ????
????? ???? ??????, ??? ??? ??а??????? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????,
??а??????? ???????? ??а?????????, ???????? ??а?? ?????????. ??????,
????????? ?????????????? л?????╗, ??? ?????? ???? ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ??а?????????????? ????????????????? ?????, ??????? ??????
?????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????? (??? ?????? ????????????????? ??????). ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??, ??? ??????????????????? ???? ?????????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??а??????
??????????? ?????? ?????а[24].
???????? ???????? ???????????????????? ????? ??????????????
????????. ?а??????????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? (??????? ??а?????????, ?????????? ?????
?а?.а?.). ?????? ??????????????????? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ?????
???????, ????????? ?а???????????? ????????????? ????????????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????а? ??? ???????,
????????? ?а????? ???????? ???????: ????????? ?????????? ??а?????????????? ????????? (л????????? ???╗), ????? ??????? ?а????? ??а???????
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
???????, ?а?????? ?а???? ??а?????? ????. ?????? ?????????? ?? ?а?????
??????? ?????? ??? л????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????╗,
??????? ???????? ?а???? ??????? ??а?????????? ?????? ??а?????, ?а?????
????????? ?а???? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ???, ???? ???????? ????, ?????????????? ???????? ????????
?а???? ????????? ?????? ??а????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?а????
???????? ??????? ??а???????, ????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????
????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????.
?????????а? ??? ??а?????? ???????????:
???????????? ?а?????????? ?????
????????????????? ?????????
??????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????????. ????? ??а????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а???,
?????? ?а???????????????? л????????╗ ????????? ??? ????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????. ????????? ??????,
???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??-?? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?а????? ???????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????
?????? ?????? ????????. ?????? ??????а? ?????? ??????? ????? ????
???? ????????????? (??????, ??????? ????????????, ??? ?а?а????? ????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????) ??а?????? ??????????, ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ???????.
???????? ??а??? ????? ?????? ??????????, ??????????????????? ??????
???? ???????, ??а?????????? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????. ?? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а????????
???????????а? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??а????????? ??а?????? л????????????╗, ??? ???????? л?????? ???????????╗. ?????
????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ??
????? ?????? ?????? ???????????а? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????, ????????. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ??а????????
????????????? ???? ??????????, ??а??? ??а??????? ??а???? ?????; ????????? ???????? ??а????????? ??? ??а???????????, ??? ????????? ??????????
??????????? ?а???. ??? ????? ?????, ??????????????????? ??а????? л???????????╗ ???? ??????????, ?а???? ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????
?????, ?а??а?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????. ??????? ??? ???????????
?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ????? ??а??????????
??а?????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????.
109
????? I. ??????????
110
???????????
?? ???????????? ????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????
??????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????.
??????????? ??????? ????? ????????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а??????????. ????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??а????????
????????????? ?????????? ?а???????????а? ????????, ??? ????? ???????
???????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????. ?????
???????, ??? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а???? ????????? ?????
?????????? ?а????????????????? ??????.
??? ????? ??????? ??а???? ?????????, ??а??? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????. ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
?????? ????????????? ???????? ?а????????????????? ?????????. ??а??
?????? ????? ?????????? ?а1940?1950-? ?????, ???????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????? (1916?2001), ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????? 1978а????*.
??????? ???????????? ??????????????
?а????????????? ??????????????
?а?????????? ??????
???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??а????????? ???????????? ??????????????. ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ????? ??а?????????????
?а???, ??? ???? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? л????????????╗ (??? л???????????╗, ??? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ) ???????????????.
?????? ??а ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ????????. ?? ??????, ??? ?? ????????? ???? ?????????????, ??а???? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ????????? ????а? ??? ???????????? ????????????????, ???? ????????????
??????? ???????????? ??????. ?????????????, ????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????????? ??????????,
* ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????????, ??? ?а??????? ??? ?а?????а16 ????? ?????
л23а?????: ??, ??? ??? ??а????????? ??? ??????????╗. ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??а??????
?а?????????, ??а?а??а?????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ?? ???? ?? ?????-??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? (??) ?а????????????? ???????????? (??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????) ?а ????? ????????????? ????? ??а ?????????? ???????????????? ????????????? л???????????????? ?????????╗ (?.а: ???, 1974), ??????????????? ?а1947а????. ??? ??????? ?????
??а??????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ???-??? ?а???,
??? ???? ?????? ?а?????????.
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
?а???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????????????
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?? ????????????? ???????????? л??????╗, ??????? ????????? ???
л?????????╗ ?????????? ???????????. ?? ???????? ??????????? (???
??????????? ?????????), ?а??? ????????? ????????? ?????: ??????????? ??????, ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ?а?????? ????
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??а?????????????????? ?????, ???????, ?????? ?????, ????? ?????????
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?а??????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????. ????? ???????, ??????
??????????, ???, ????? ?????, ???? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ????
???? ???????, ?а??а?????? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????а[25].
???????? ????????? ??????
???????????????
???????? ??а?? ??? ?а?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ????????????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ??а?????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????????,
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??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???????
??????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????. ??? ????????
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?????? ??????????? ???, ????????? ?? ?а?а???????????? ?а???? ??????????? ???????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ?????? ????????????
111
????? I. ??????????
112
?а??????????? ?????, ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ????,а? ?а???
???? ??? ?а???????? л????????╗ ?а???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????
???????.
?а????? ?????? ????????????, ?? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????
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?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??? ????????. ????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ????? ??а?????
???? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????. ?а????? ???????
???????? 1990-? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????, ??? ????? 80а?????????
????????????? ???????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????????, ?а??а????? ?????а[26]. ?? ?????????,
??? ????а?? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????????
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??а???????? ??а??? ????????, ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????, ?а?а??????а? ???????????? ????? ??а????????????
???????.
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???????? ???????. ???????? ???????, ?????? ??а???????? ???????????? ??????????????, ?? ?????? ????????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????. ?????????????
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?????????????.
????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
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??а?????? ????; ?а????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?а???. ??а??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??а????????????а? ???????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? (?а??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??????,
??????????? ???? ??? ??????????) ??? ??????????????? (??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?а????????????? ?????? ?????????). ????? ????, ?????????? ????????, ???, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????????, ??????????? ????? ??а??????? ????????
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????? ??? ???? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??????, ???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????????? л?????????╗. ????
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????? ?????, ??? ??, ?а??????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????????. ??а?????
113
114
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???? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????: ??????? ????????? ????????а?? ???????, ???????? ??????? ????????? 1929а????, ????а?? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??а????????? ??????????
????? ?а??а???????а?? ???????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ??????? 2008а????.
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?????, ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????. ????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ????????, ??????????? ????????, ?а???????
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??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????
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???????, ??а?????? ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ???? ?а??????.
???? ???? ??? ?????????? ??а????? ????????????? ???????а? ????????
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????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????, ????????? ?а??????????
?а?????????? ??? ?а1930-? ?????, ??а?а??? ???? ????? ??????? (???????,
??????, ????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ?а??????????????????), ???
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???????? ??а?? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????, ????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??а????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????
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????? 4. ????? ?????????? ???а??????: ???ал??????╗а?????????
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115
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117
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118
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119
120
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???????????? ????????? Cabbage Patch Kids* 1983а???? ?а????????? ?????????
Furby** ?а1998а????). ???? ????? ?????? ???, ??? ???????? ?? ??????, ?????????
????? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ????????????? ?? ???????, ???? ??
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??а?????????????????? ???????, ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ????, ?а??а?????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????╗.
??????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?а??? ?????????
??????????. ?а???????????? ????? ??????, ?а??? ??? ?????? ???????????
????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????, ?а?? ????? ???
?????? ??????????????? ??????, ???????? ?а???????????, ????? ??????
????????????? ??????? ??-?? ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????? ?????. ?а????? ????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????????????
??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ????????
????????????? (?? ???? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????
?а????). ?а???, ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а??? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? (?а??? ????? ??а???? ????????????????? ?????), ??????????
* Cabbage Patch Kids (л?????? ?а????????? ??????╗)а? ?????? ???????? ?????. ???? ????? ??? ??????
?а1978а???? ?а??? ????????? ?????????. ?? ???????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ??а????????? ?????. ??? ?????? ??а???????????, ?? ????? ???? ?????? л?????????╗. ????. ???.
** Furby (л?????╗)а? ??????????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ??а???????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ????? 1998а???? ?а?а?? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ????????. ?????? ???????????? ????????????, ????? Furby ?????? ????? ??? ????, ??????????? ??а2000 ????. ????. ???.
*** ??????? ?., ???????а?. ??????? ????????: ???? ???????.а?.а: ????? ???-??, 2007.
????? 5. ??????????? ????: ??? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
??а???????????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? ?а????????????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????
????? ??а???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????.
????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ??а???????????? ?????????? ????????????????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ????а?? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????
????. ???????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????????, ??? ??? ???????????? (???????? ???????, ??????????
??а????????? ??????, ???, ????????, ???????????? ??? ????????????),
??а??????? ???, ??? ????? ?????? ?а??????, ?а?????????????, ?????? ???????. ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ??? ????????а? ????????, ????? ????????????? ??? ????? ???????,а? ?а??а?????? ??? ???????? ??????-???*.
??????????? ??? ???????
??????????? ????: ??????????
???????? ????????????? ???????
????????? ??????????, ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а???? ????????,
?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??а????????, ??? ?а??????. ??? ???????? ???????????????????? ?????? ??????????, ??а??????? ???? ??????? ?а????? XIXа????. ?а??? ??? ???????? ??????
????????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????????? ??а?????????????, ?а???????? ????????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????: ????????????, ???????????????, ??????????? ?,
??? ??? ?????????? ??? ????, ?????????????? ?????????????.
??????????, ?а??а???? ?????????
????????????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ???????а? ???????? ?????? ?????????????, ??а???
???????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? ????? ????.
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? 10а????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а????. ??а???????, 30?50а????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??а????? ????
* ??? ?а ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ?а ??????????????? ??? ??????; ???, ?????? ??????, ?????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ??. ?а??????? ??, ?а?????????????
??????? ??????? ????? ?а?????? ??а????. ??? ??а????? ????? ????????, ??? ????????????????????
?????? ?а????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??а??а???? ???? ???????????????? ???????????.
121
????? I. ??????????
122
???????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????
?????????????????? ?????????? (???) ??? ????????????????? ???н
??????? (???), ??????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????? ???????а[1]. ????????????????????? ????? Toyota ?а???????, ??? ?а????????, л????????╗
???? ??????? ????????? ??????? Toyota ?а?????? ??? ?????????, ?????
??????????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??а???????? ?а??? ??????, ??а?????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????. ???? ??а?????????, ??????????? ????? ???????, ????????? ??а????-???????? ?а??????, ?а??а??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??а?????.
????????????? ??????? ???????????
?????, ??? ??????????????
?а??????????? ????? ??????, ?? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????????, ??а????????? ??????, ???????? ??а?????
???????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????. ??а??? ????, ?????????а??
??????????????? ??? ?? ????, ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????
?????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????. ???а?? ??????????? ????????????? ????????
?а?????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????. ?????
????????, ?????? ??????, ??а????????????? ????????????????. ?????????
??????? ?????? (??? ???????), ??????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????
?а?????????? ?????????. ??? ??а??????? ????????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ?,
????????, ?????? ????????? ???????????. ??? ????? ?????? ????????,
???? ?а????????, ??? ??а????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????: ????????????????? ?а???????????? (???????).
????????????????? ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????????, ?? ???? ????? ???????, ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ???????????, ?а??????? ??а??? ?? ?????, ??????? ???????????? ??а???????? ????????. ??а???? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????
?????????? ??а???????? ???????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????, ????????, ???? ????????? ???-???????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?а?????а?? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ??? ???? ????????????. ?????,
?????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????. ????????? ???????????? ????? (??????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?а????? ??????????
??а???????? ???????) ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????????. ??? ??????, ??? ???????, ????????????? ???????? л???? ?????а?
???? ?????╗, ?а?а???? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????, ???
?????? (???, ?а?????? ????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????).
????? 5. ??????????? ????: ??? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
??? ????? ??????????
?а???? ????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??????? ????????, ?????????????
????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ???? ?а???????????? ??????? ???. ????? ?????-????, ??????? ??????????? ????
????? 50а????????? ????? ?????? Porsche-Volkswagen Group,а? ??????
??????????.
???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????
?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????, ??? ???????, ????????
????? 20 ????????? ?????????? ?????.
????? ????, ?????????????? 38а????????? ????? Peugeot-Citin Group,
????????????? ??????????? ??а???????, ??? ???? ?????????, ???????
??????? 28а?????????? ????? Facebook,а? ???????? ????????? ?????. ????? ?????????? ??а??????а? ???????? ????????? ????? Saab (40а?????????), Electrolux (30а?????????) ?аEricsson (20а?????????).
?а???????????а?? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????. ?? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??а?????????? ?????????????
?????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????. ????????, ?а????? 2012а???? ???? Japan Trustee Services, ??????????
???????? Toyota Motor, ?????? ???? ???? ????? 10а?????????? ????? ????
??????????. ????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????
????? 6а????????? ????? ??а???????. ???? ???????? ?????????, ??? ??????
??а??????? ????? ???????? ???????.
?????????? ???? ????????????? ?а????????
??????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ??а?? ??? ??? ??а???????
???????????? ????? ?? ?????,а? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????
???? ????????????? ?а????????. ??? ??????? ???????? л?????????а?
?????╗, ????? ?????? (???????????????? ?????????) ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ????????,
?а??а???????? ??????????? (??????????). ????? ???????, ??????????
????? ??????????? ???????, ?а??а??????? ??? ????????? ?????????????
??????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??а??????? ???????????
??? ???????? (?????? ?? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????) ?а???????????
??????????????? ?????????. ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
????? (?а??? ?а???????? ?а?????а3) ?а?????? л????-?????╗, ????? ???????,
123
????? I. ??????????
124
??? ?????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ????????? ??а????? ???????? ???? ????-???????????, ??? ????? ??? ????????????.
?????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????? ????? ??????? ?а?????
????, ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????? 2013а????, ????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????? л?????????а? ?????╗ ????? ?????????, ?а?? ?а?????????, ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????. ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????. ??????
??????????? ?а????????? ????????? ?????????? (?????? ???????? ?????,
??????????) ???? ????, ????? ??????????, ??а??????????????? ??????????, ???? ????? ????????. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ????? ????????, ??а??????? ??? ????????
(????????), ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??а???? ?а??????? ????????????.
???? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ?а???? ??????? л???????????? ????????? ??? ??????????╗, ???????????? ?а1981а???? ?????? ??????, ??а???
?????? ???* ?а????????????? ?????? ?????????? General Electric; ?а??? ???
?а??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ?а???, ?а????? ?а??а???? ????.
????????? ?а????????????? ???? ??????
??а????????????? ???????
???? ?а??? ?а?????????????? ??? ???????? ?а??а???????? ???????????????, ????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??а????????????? ???????.
???????? ?а??????????? ???????????? (?а??????? ?? ????????? ?????),
?????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ??? ???????? ?а??????, ?????? ??а???????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
????????????????? ?а?????? ??????????. ?а?????????, ?а???????? ???????
???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ?а??????
???? ???????, ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?а??????????, ?????????????? ????? (?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????) ?????? ????????
????????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????, ??а??????????????? ??????, ?а??????? ?????????????? ???????
??????????? ???????? ???????, ???? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????
????????????, ???????? ???????? ?????.
????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ????????
??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????????. ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????? ????. ????????, 25а????????? ????? Stora Enso, ??????????? ?а???? ?????????????
* ???а? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ????. ???.
????? 5. ??????????? ????: ??? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
??????????-???????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????????; ?а25 ????????? ????? Commerzbank, ??????? ??а???????? ????? ????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????????????. ???? ?????? ????? ??????????.
????????? ???????? ?а?????????????, ?а????? ???????, ?а?????????
?а???????????????? ?????????а? ?а??????, ?????????? ?????? ????. ?????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????? ????, ???????? ????????????
????? ?а???????? ???????. ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????
?????, ????????? ??а???????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ????????
????????-???????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ?а?????????? ????????, ?а?????????? ????????????? ???????
????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ?????? ????, ????? ???? ?????, ??????
??, ??? ????????? ????????? ?а???????????????? ?????????.
Volkswagen ?а????????? ???????? ?????????????
??????? ?а??????????? ????
??а??????? ????????? ????????????????? Volkswagen ????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?а???????????
????. ?а???????? Volkswagen ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????а?
????? ?????-????. ?а??????????? ????? ??????, ??? ????? л?????????╗
????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ??????. ??а?аVolkswagen ??? ???? ??а????????. ??? ?а?а?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ???? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????????. ????? ????, 20а????????? ????? ???????? ???????????
????????????? ????? ?????? ????????. ?а?????????? ??????? ?а????????
??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????????, ???????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?а????????? ?а????? (????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????).
Volkswagen ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????, ??а?? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???? ???????
?????????? ??а??????????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????, ??а????, ??а??????? ????, ???? ??????-?? ?????????????
?а????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????.
?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????
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?????? ????????????? ?????????.
125
????? I. ??????????
126
??????????????? ??????????, ???? ????????????? Coopа? ??????
??а???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????. ??? ??????????
???????, Co-op,а? ????? ??а???????? ???? ????????????? ?а??????. ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??а????
??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????
????????? ?????? ?а???????????. ???????, ????? ?????? ??а???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??аWalmart ??аGroupon. ??а??????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ??????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?є?????
??????, ????????? ?? ??а????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????.
????????? ????а? ??? ?????????? ??????????. ????? 200а????????? ??????? ??а???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????. ?????????
??а?????????? ?????? ????, ????? ??? ????????????? Rabobank ?а??????????? Credit Agricole, ??а????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????. ?а?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????.
???? ??? ???? ???????????????? ????????????: ??????? ???????????,
??????????? ?а????????????? ?? ???????????, ?а????? ????????????????
???????????, ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????
????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ???? ???????.
????????????? ????????????? ?????????? (???) ??????? ??????????? ????? 70а????? ???????????-?????????, ?????????? ?а????? ??? 100а????????????, ?а?? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????? 19а??????????
???????? ??? (?? ????????? ??а2010а???)а[2]. ??? ??????? ??а????????
???????? ?а??????? ??? ??а?????? ??????, ??? ?а??а?????????, ?а?????
?????????? ?????????? ?а????. ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????????а? ??? John Lewis Partnership of Britain, ???????? ??????????? John Lewis
?а????????????? Waitrose (?????? ??а???????? ???????? ???? ?а??????????????). ??а??????? ?? ????? ??а?????????а? ????? 80а????? ?????????
?а?????? ????? 14а?????????? ???????? ??? (?? ????????? ??а2011а???).
???? ???????а? ???? ?????: ???????
?????????????? ???????? ???????
?????? ????????? ?????????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????
??а?????? ??????? л???? ???????а? ???? ?????╗ (?а??????? ??а?????????????? л???? ?????? [?????]а? ???? ?????╗). ???????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ?а??????????? ???????????.
????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????: ???????, ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?????
???????? ??а???? ??а?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????????
????? 5. ??????????? ????: ??? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
????????, ????????????? ??????? ???????,а? ??а??? ??????. ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ????н????? ?а??????
???????????. ???????? ??? ?а??????????????? ???????* ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??а??????? ???? ?а300?400а??? ??????
??????? (?а??а???????????) ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????**. ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????, ????? ?а???????
???????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????? ?а????????.
?????? ?????????? ??????
??а?????????а??????????????? ???????
?а??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????. ?????? ??а??? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????????. ???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????? ??????, ?а??а????????? ???, ?????????
???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????а[3].
?а????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????????, ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????? ?????. ?а?????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ????????????
???????? ?а????? ???????. ????? ???????? Volvo, ???????? ?????????????
???????????????? ???????, ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????
???????????? ?аSamsung ?а?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
1997а????, ???????, ??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????
(?аSamsung ????а? ?а??а??? ??? ????а? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??а???????????). ???????? ????????? ?????? ??а?????, ??? ?????????
?????????, ??а??????? ??????????, ?а???????? ????? ????? ??????????!
??? ?а???????????, ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????, ?а??????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?а???????? л???? ???????а? ???? ?????╗. ??? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ?а????????,
??? ???????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??а???????????? ??????, ???????? COSATU (?????????? ??????????????? ??????????) ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????-??????? (???). ??а?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
?????? ????????????????? ?????, ???????, ??? ???????, ??????? ??а???????????? ?/??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????. ????????, ?а????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????, ?а??а???????а? ????.
?а????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????? ??а?????????? ??????. ????? ????????? ??а???а? IG Metall (Industriegewerkschaft
* ???????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????. ???.
** ???? ???????? ???? ???????, ??????? ??а ??????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ????? ????
?????? ?а?а1000а???.
127
????? I. ??????????
128
Metall), ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????????
?????????????? ????????, ?аUAW (United Auto Workers), ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???. ???????
IG Metall ???????????? ??а??????? ??????????????, ????????? ?а????????
(??????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????????????), ?????? ???, ?????????
??? ????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ??? ?????? ??????????.
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?а???? ??????????? ?????а? ??????, ?????????, ????????, ????????,
???????, ????????, ???????? ?а???????????а? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??а???????????? ??????. ?а???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????, ??а?????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ????????, ??? ????????,
??????? ????? ?а????????, ??а????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????,
???????? ???????? ?а???????????????? ??????????????.
?а????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а????? ?а???, ???
????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????????. ????? 70а????????? ?????????? ?а????????, ????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????а? ??? ?????????, ?а??? ?? ????? 11а?????????. ??? ??а????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? (?????????? ??????????? ???????)
??а?а?????? ???? ????????? ???? ????????? ?а??????????????? ????????. ????????, ?а?????? ??? ?????????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? (????? 35 ?а25а????????? ??????????????), ??? ?а???????? ?а???????????
(?а????? ??????? ????? 20а?????????), ??а??????? ??????????? ?а??????????
?????????? ??а???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????. ???????????? ??????? (????????, ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????) ?а???????? (????????, ??????????
??а??????????? ??? ????????????) ???? ????? ????????.
?????????????а? ????? ?????? ???????
????????????? ????????????
??а???? ???????, ??? ??а????? ??????? (???, ????????, ??а?????? ????????? ????? ?а??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????), ?????????????
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????? 5. ??????????? ????: ??? ????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
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?????? (?а?а?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????). ????? ???????, ??????
?????, ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ???????? ?а????????, ?а??а????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????????????
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????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????. ????? ??а????? л?????? ???? ???╗
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??????. ??а????????, ??????? ???? ?а???????????????? ???????? ???????
(??? ???????????? ????????? ??????), ?????? ??????? ??????????.
??? ?????? ??-?? ???????? ????????, ???????? ??? ???????; ??? ????? ????????? ???? ?????, ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????
????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??а80а????? ?а?????? ?а??????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????, ?????? ??? ?а??? ??а???? ???????, ????? ????????? ????.
???????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????, ???, ??? ?а??????? ??????, ?а??????? ???????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ???? ?? ????? ?а??? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??? ????.
??? ??????? ?????? ?а??????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ???????????а? ?а??????, ?а?????????????.
?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? (??? ????а?? ?? ?? ????), ???????,
?????? ???????? ?а???? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????, ??а???????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????
?????. ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????????,
????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ?? ????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ????.
137
????? I. ??????????
138
?????????? II
???????????
?????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? л??????????╗ ?а?????????. ?а??? ??
????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????????, ??? ???? ????????? ????? ?????, ????? ??? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?а??? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????.
?а??????, ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?а????????, ??????? ???????, ???
?? ????? ???????????? ???, ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????.
?????????? II. ???????????
139
????? II
??????????
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????? 6
??????? ??? ?????
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?????а?а???????
?????: ???????? ?а1930-? ?????.
???: ???? ??а????????? ?а????????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????.
???: ????????????? ??? ?????? ??а????????? ???????? ??????????.
????????, ?????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????: л???????, ??????? ????? ??? ???? ????╗. ?? ???????: л????╗.
?????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????: л???????,
?? ????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ??а??а??? ????????? ?????
???????, ??????? ????? ???????╗. ????????? ??????? ????????? ??а?????.
????? ??????? ?????????: л???╗. ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????: л????????? ????? ????????! ?? ??а?????? ???????
?????н
????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???? ??????????!╗.
?а????? ??????? ????????? ??а??????? ??????????? ?????????.
????? ????а?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ????????: л??????? ??, ??????╗. ???? ????????, ??????? ??а??????????, ?????? ?????? ???
?????? ??а?????????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ??а?????????? ??????. ????????, ??????? ?????? ??а?????, ??????? ??а???????.
?????????? ????????? ???-???? ??????. ????? ??? ??? ??????
л?а??????? ??? ?????╗
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?????????? ?????? ???????????? (??? ?????? ?????????) ????? ???? ????????????? ???? ?а???????????????? ???????, ??а??????????? ?????
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
??????? ???????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?а?????. ??? ??а?????
????а?? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ????????????
??? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????, ???? ?? ??а?? ?????, ?????
??? ??, ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????.
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??а?????.
?а?????? л????? ??????╗, ?????? ??? л??, ??? ???? ???????????╗, ????????? ?а???????????. ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????, ??? ?????????, ??а??????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????
??а??????? ????????????? ??????. ??????? ????? ?????????? 150а?????
?????? ?????????? ?а???, ???????? ???? ?а?????? ???????, ??а???? ?а???
???? 100а????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????? ???????а? ??????? ????? (????, ?????, ???, ??????), ???????, ?????????????? ?а???????,а?
??????? ??????? ????? 50а????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??а?????
????? ?а??????????.
???? ?? ??а?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????, ?? ??????, ?????? ?а?????? ??? ????????? ???? ?а??а?? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?????
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?а??? ?????? ????? л???????╗? ??? ????????, ??? ?? ??а??? ???
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????? ????? ??? ???????). ?а?????? ?????? ??? ???-??а? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ?а???????? ????????????; ?а?????
??????? ?а????????а? ??? ????, ????????? ?а??????????. ???????? ????????????, ??? ????????????, ??ал????????????╗ ?а??а?????????? ?а????? ???а?? ????????, ??? ?а???? ??? ?????, ??а??а???? ?????????????
* ????? ???????????????, ??а???????? ????? ???????: ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? (???????) ????????.
141
142
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????а? ??? ?????????? ????????????. ???? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??а???, ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???.
?????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???
????????? ?а??? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??? ????? ??а???????????? ?????????а? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ????????????,а? ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????, ??а????????? ?а???. ??а?? ???? ?????????? ?а???, ?а??а?а???,
?????? ??? ??а?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? (????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??? ???? ????????? ????????????? ????????), ??? ?????? ??????????? л?╗ ?а???????????? ??? ??????????
???????.
?а??? ?????? ?????? л?╗ ?а???? л??????????╗ ????? ???????? л???????
?а???????? ?????? ???????????╗. ??а??? ????????????? ?а???????? ??????
???????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?????????????????? ?а???. ???? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????, ??а??? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????, ??? ??? ????????????????; ???????? ????????? ????????? ??а???????, ?а???? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ????????????. ????????,
??????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????????, ????????????? ????????????
(??????? ????????), ?а??а?????? ??, ??? ???? ???????? ??а?????????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ???.
??????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ???
?а??? ??? ???????? ??? ?а??? ???????? ?????????. ?а??????, ???????? ?а?????, ??а?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ?а??????? ????? ??а??? ????? ????????????? ??????????????,
?????????? ??а???????, ??? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??а10.
?а?????? ?а????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????? ??а???????, ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??а2,5 ?а5 ????????? ?????????????? (?? ?????????
??а2010 ???).
??? ???????????? ????, ??? ???, ??? ??? ?а????????????? ???????????
??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????. ??а??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.
???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? (???), ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ?? ?????? ???????? ??а?????????? ??? ??? ??? ??а???? ?????????, ???? ?????
?????, ????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ?????????: ?????? ???????????
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
?а???? ????????? ???????. ???????, ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???
????????, ????а?? ??? ?????????а? ??????? ??????*.
??????????? ??????????? ??? ?а???
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????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????, ????????? ??? ?????
???????????? ???? ????? ?????-?? ??????? ???????а? ????????? ????????????????, л?????????? ???????╗. ????????, ????? ???????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????????
?є????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????
??????? ?????????, ??а??а??????? (?а???????????? ????), ?????? ??а?????????????? ???? ??а???. ???, ???? ???? ????? ?а??????????? ?????, ??
?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ????а?? ?????????????
??????? ?? ???? ???? ??а???????? ?????. ?а??????? ??а?????????????
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?а?????????? ???????????.
???? ????, ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????
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?а???? ????????, ?????? ??а??????????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???. ?????
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?????? ?????????. ?а????? ??????, ??а?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????, ???????
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??? ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????
??-?? ?????? ???????. ??а????????? ???????, ????????? ????? ??а???? ?????????? ????? 30 ????????? ???.
*??-?????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??, ??????? ?????? ???????? ????,
????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а ??а ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????. ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?а?????????????????? ?????????, ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ??а??? ?а????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??а??????????? ?????????,
??а?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????
??????????? ?????????????????? ??????.
143
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
144
???????? ?????
?????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????
???????? ??а????? ??????, ??? ????? ?а?????????а? ????????, ????????????? ??????, ????????????? ???????, ???????? ????? ??а???. ????????
??????? ?а?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??а????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????, ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????????????? ???????? ??? ?а????? ??????.
???????, ????????? ???????-?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????. ?? ?а?а??? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?? ????
??а???, ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?????. ??а?а?????? ??????, ????? ???????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ??а???? ???????? ????, ????а?? ?????? ??? ????,
????? ?????, ??? ?????? ???? ??????. ??? ?????? ????????? ????????, ???
?а?????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???: ????????? ?а???
?????, ?? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????
???? ?? ????????????? 15 ??? 30а?????????, ????? ????????, ??? ?а?????
?????? ???? ??а????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????? ????? ?? ???????, ??? ?є????? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ?а??????, ?? ????? ?а????
20 ??? 40а?????????? ??? ??? ?а???? ?а???? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????? ??а???????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????.
?є????? ????? ???????? ????????????
?????????? ??а????????? ????? ?????
?а2010а???? ??????? ???, ??а?????? ?????????? ?????, ???????? ?????
63,4а????????? ???????? ???. ????? ??????????? ???????? ??а?????
?????????? ????????? ??? (22,7а???????? ??????? ?????????), ?????
(9,4а????????), ?????? (8,7а????????), ???????? (5,2а????????) ?а???????
(4а????????)*. ????? ???????, ??а??? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????.
?а2010 ???? ?????? ?а??????? ???????**, ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? (?? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ???? 12а276а???????? ??а???? ??????*?????????? ??? ??????????: 14,4а ????????? ????????а ? ???, 5,9а ????????? ????????а ? ??-
???, 5,5а ????????? ????????а ? ??????, 3,3а ????????? ????????а ? ???????? ?а 2,5а ?????????
????????а? ???????.
**??? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ??а????????? ???????, ???????? ?а??? ??????? ???????; ?а?? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????
(??????, ???????, ???????? ?а????????) ?а??? ?????? ???????? ??????????? (?????????? ?????? ?а?????). ??а??? ??а????????? ??????, ????? ???????? ????? ???????.
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
???), ????? ????????? ???, ?????? 44,9а????????? ???????? ???. ?? ????
?а??????? ????????? ?????????? 70,8а????????. ????????? ????? ????, ???
????????????? ??????, ?а???????????? ????? ???, ?????? 18,5а????????? ????????, ??? 29,2а???????? ???????? ???. ??а??? ????? (66,6а????????)
??а???? 18,5а????????? ??????????? ??а???? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ?????: ?????, ????????, ?????, ?????? ?а???????*. ??а????????? ?????
?????????????? ???? ?а????? ??? ?а6,3а????????? ????????, ???????????
???????? ?????? 10а????????? ??????? ?????????.
??????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????
?????????а? ??, ?????? ?????????а? ????
????, ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????? (?а??????????
?а5?10а????????? ???????), ????? ??? ????????????????????? ??????????
??? ???????, ????? ?а????????? 1?2а????????? (??? 0,001?0,002а?????????) ???????? ???. ??? ???? ??а0,01а???????? ??? ???, ??????? ?а2010а????
????????? 14,4а????????? ????????.
???????? ???? ????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????
?????????? ????? (?? ???? ?????? ?а??????? 1005а???????? ??а???? ????????? ?а2010а????), ?а???????????? ????? ??? 0,42а????????? ????????. ???
0,66а???????? ??????? ?????????, ??? 2,9а???????? ????????? ???.
???? ??????? ????????????? ?????? (?а?????????? 30?50а?????????
???????), ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???,
????? ????? ???, ?????? 300?400а?????????? ????????. ?? ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а???????? ?????? ???, ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????.
??????? ??????????? ??? ??а???? ????????? ??а??????? ????? ?????. ????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??а???? ?????????,
??????? ?? ?????????? ????, ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???? ????
?а??????? ????? ??? ?а500а???.
*?????????? ??? ??????????: 5,9а????????? ????????а? ?????, 2,1а????????? ????????а? ???-
?????, 1,7а????????? ????????а? ?????, 1,5а????????? ????????а? ?????? ?а1 ???????? ????????а? ???????. ???????? ??? 12,2а????????? ???????? ???.
145
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
146
?????
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??а??????????? ?????????а? ???, ??? ?а??????? ?а??????).
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???????? ????а?? ??????. ?????? ??а???????? ?????????? ??????? ??н
????????, ?????? ??? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??? ?? ???????????, ????? ??????? ??а?????? ??????????.
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?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????. ???????, ??? ????, ???
?? ????????? ????? ??????, ??а????????, ??? ?? ?????????? ?????.
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??а???? ????? ????????, ?а????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ??а10а??????? (????? ???????, ??? ?????????? 50а????? ???????? ??? ??????
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
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??а????????????? ?????, ???????? ???????? Galaxy ??? ?????????????
?????????? ??????, ?а?? ????? ??? ??, ??? ????? ?????? ??а????????? ????? ????? ?а?????-???? ??????, ???????????? ?????? ??а??? ???????? ?а??????, ??????? ??, ??? ??а???????????? ??а????????????? ?????, ????????
??? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? [1].
????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ???? л?????????????? ???????╗. ?????????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? (???), ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????????
?а???, ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????
????????? ?а????? (л??????????????? ???????╗) ?а?????? ??????? ?а????????? ?а????? ???????? ??????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????
????? ?а????? ???? ?????? ?????.
?а?????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ??а??? ????? ?а??????????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? (???????, ??а???????????
??????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ???????????, ???????? ??? ?а?????????) ??????????? ????, ??? ?? ?????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????, ????? ??? ?????? ?а??????? ?а?????н?????????????
147
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
148
??????????? ????? ????? (?а?????? ???????), ??? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ????, ??? ?? ?????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????*.
???? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????? ?а???????,
??????? ??? ??а???? ????????? ?а2010а???? ??? ???????? ??а30а?????????
????, ??? ????? ??а????????? ????????? ????? (40а140 ?????? 58а980а????????), ?а?? ????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??а??? ??а???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??а60а????????? ???? ?????? ??а????????? ?????????
????? (15а010 ?????? 9330а????????). ????? ???????, ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??? ?а????? ??? (58а980 ?????? 9330а????????) ????? ?????????? ???????? ??а??? ???????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ????? ?а??? ???? (40а140 ?????? 15а010а????????).
????????????? ??а??? ????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ??????
?а???????????? ?????? ??а?а????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?а??а?? ??????? ?????????. ?а?? ??а??????? ?а??????????????
????????. ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??а??? ?а2007а????, ?????????
???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?????????? ??а???? ????????? ??а44а????????
(?а7740 ??а5370а????????) ?а??????? ??? ????????? ??а53а???????? (?а31а710
??а48а520а????????) ????????? ??а????.
?????????? ??????? ??а?а?????? ???? ??????????
??????? ?????, ???? ?а?????? ????????????? ??а???
???? ?а????????? ??а??? ?????????? ??????, ????? ??? ??? ??а???? ????????? ?а??? ??а???? ?????????, ??а?а?????? ???? ?????????? ???????
?????. ??а?? ???? ????? ??? ??????.
???? ??а????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???, ???
?? ????? ??а?????? ???? ???????? ???????. ?? ????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?а??????? ???????,
???? ?????? ??????. ???? ???????? ??????? ??а??????????? ??????????
???? ??????? ?, ???? ????????, ????? ????????? ??. ????????, ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??а???? ????? ??????????????? ?а??????????? ??????, ?а??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????????????.
?????? ???????? ??????? ??, ???, ??? ?????????? ????, ??????????
??????? ??а???????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?а??? ????? ??????
??а?????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????а? ?????, ??????? ?а???????а? ?????? ?????.
*???????? ????????, ???, ?????? ??????, ?? ??а????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
???? ?а????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??а??????, ?? ?????
????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? (????????? ?????а5).
??? ???????? ??????? ??? ?а?????????? л???? ??а???? ?????????╗ ??????????? ??а??? ??????????? ????, ?а??????? ?????????? ??а?????????.
?????? ?????????? ??????? ??а?????? ????? ???????, ??? ???? ???? ???
????????? ?а?????? ????????????.
???? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
????????? ?????? ????? (???????, ?????????????? ??? ???? ??????)а[2].
?????????? ????????а? ??? ????, ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??
???????????? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ????????????*. ???? ???? ???
?????? ????? ????????, ?? ????? ??-???????? ??а????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????, ??? ???? ?а?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????????
??? ??????? ???????????, ?????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????, ????
??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????
???? ?????? ?????, ??? ??. ?а????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????
??? ??????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ??? ??? ????
?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?а??а?????? ?????? ?????????????.
?????? ??????????? ??а????????, ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????
????? ??а????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????????????. ????? ???? ????????? ??????????
????????? ??????????, ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?? ??????
????????, ???????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ???????? ??а????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????. ?а??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??а???????
????? ????? ????????. ??а???? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???
?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????. ????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?а????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?а??????
?а???????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????, ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????.
* ??????, ???????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? л?????? ????-
???? ??????╗, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????, ????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ??????, ??????? ??а???????? ??а????? ????? ????????, ????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??,
??? ???? ???????? л??????-???????╗: л??? ????????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????
?????, ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????, ???
??? ??а??????????? ?????????. ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????
?а1976а???? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? л??????, ??????╗╗. (??. л???????
???????? ????????╗, ?????а 3, ??????а 15). ????? Social Limits to Growth (л?????????? ???????
?????╗)а? ??????????????? ???? ?????.
149
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
150
???????? ?????
????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????? ????? ?? ??????????
?????????? ?????? ??а???? ?????????, ????????, ??? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????, ????? ??? ??? ?а???,
??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а????? ??????
??а??? ??а????????.
??????, ??????????? ?????? ????????, ?????
????? 40а????? ???????? ?????? ??а???? ?????????
??а?????? ?????????? ?????, ?а2010а???? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ??????? ?????? (???) ??а???? ????????? ?а???? ???? ?????? (197а460а????????), ??а??? ???????? ??????????? (136а540а????????). ??? ??а????? ???
??? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????? (33 ?а36а????? ??????? ??????????????) ???????????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????????????. ???????,
???? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ?????
??????? ??????? ????? ????????, ????? ??а???? ????????? ??? ??????????
85а380а???????? (?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ??а???? ?????????).
?а??????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????. ?а???????? ???
??????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????? ???????*. ?а??????
?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?а??????? ?а??????????,
?????? ?????????????? ?ал?????? ????╗, ?а????? ????? ????? ??????
?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??????а? ??а???? ???.
???????? ??????
?????? (?? ????? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????)
50а001 ?????? ??? ?а????
???????? (85а380 ????????)
????????? (70а350 ????????)
????? (58а980 ????????)
45а001?50а000 ???????? ???
?????? (49а930 ????????)
?????????? (49а720 ????????)
????????? (47а170 ????????)
??? (47а140 ????????)
??????? (45а420 ????????)
40а001?45а000 ???????? ???
????????? (43а740 ????????)
???????? (43а330 ????????)
??????? (42а390 ????????)
?????? (42а150 ????????)
?????? (41а950 ????????)
???????? (40а920 ????????)
* ?а??? ????????? ???, ??????, ????????? ?а????? ????????. ????. ???.
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
30а001?40а000 ???????? ???
?????????????? (38а540 ????????)
?????? (35а090 ????????)
??????? (31а650 ????????)
20а001?30а000 ???????? ???
????? ???????? (29а050 ????????)
??????? (27а340 ????????)
?????? (27а240 ????????)
15а001?20а000 ???????? ???
????? ????? (19а890 ????????)
????? (17а870 ????????)
???????? (16а220 ????????)
????????: ????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ????????, 2012а?.
?а??????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????? ???????
??а???????????? ???? 1 ??????? ?а????
??????? ??а160а????????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ???? ????? ??????
??????? ?а???? ?а2010а????. ?а?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????
?а??????? ??а??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а???? (365а???????? ?а???).
?????? ?а??????? ????? 1000а???????? ??а???? ????????? ??????????
???????????? ??? ?????? л?а?????? ??????? ???????╗ ??а?????????????
?????????? ????? (????????? ??????? ?????????? 1005а????????) ??? ???
???????? ???????? ?????? (???), ???????? ??????????? ?????????
????????????? ????????? ?а???????????.
???? ???????? ???????? ???. ??? ?????, ??????????? ????? ??????????
????????? ?а??????, ?????????а? ?а???? (?????, ?????????, ????????,
???????????, ?????????? ??????????) ?а?????? ????а? ?а????????? ??????? (?????).
???????? ??????
?????? (?? ????? ?????? ??а????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????)
300 ???????? ??? ?а????
??????? (160 ????????)
??????????????? ?????????? ????? (180 ????????)
??????? (190 ????????)
301?400 ???????? ???
?????? (330 ????????)
??????? (340 ????????)
??????-????? (340 ????????)
?????????? ????? (360 ????????)
??????? (380 ????????)
?????? (380 ????????)
151
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
152
401?500 ???????? ???
???????? (440 ????????)
???? (440 ????????)
????????????????????? ?????????? (460 ????????)
???????? (460 ????????)
?????? (490 ????????)
????? (490 ????????)
501?600 ???????? ???
???????? (530 ????????)
?????? (540 ????????)
???????-???? (550 ????????)
???? (600 ????????)
601?800 ???????? ???
????????? (640 ????????)
????? (650 ????????)
????? (750 ????????)
???????? (760 ????????)
??????????? (780 ????????)
801?1000 ???????? ???
?????????? ?????????? (880 ????????)
????????: ????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ????????, 2012а?.
????? ???????, ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????? (????????)
??? ???????? ?а534а???? ????, ??? ?а????????? (???????) ??а?????????
??а2010а???. ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??а????? ??????? ??????, ????????
??? (8-? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ?а47а140а????????) ??а????????? ?а???????? (8-? ????? ????? ?а??????? ?а380а????????), ??????? ???????? 124а????.
?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????: ??????
????? ?????????????? ????????
????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??а??????? ???????, ???????? ?????????????
?????????? ?????. ?????? ????, ?а??? ????? ?а?, ????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ???????, ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????.
?а??????? ???? ??????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ??? ???? ????????????? ?????, ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а???, ???
?а??? ???????????, ??? ??? ?????????, ?а????? ????? ??????? ?а???????
?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????.
??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????, ??? ???????? ?а???????,
?а??????? ?????? ??а8001 ??а10а000а???????? ??? ??а???? ?????????. ?????
??а???? ????????? ????? ?а50?60а??? ????, ??? ?а????????? ?????, ???????
?? ????????????? ????, ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??а????? ?????? ???.
???????? ??????
?????? (?? ????? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????)
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
8001?10а000 ???????? ???
???? (9940 ????????)
?????? (9910 ????????)
?????? (9500 ????????)
???????? (9390 ????????)
??????? (9330 ????????)
????????? (8450 ????????)
6001?8000 ???????? ???
???????? (7900 ????????)
?????-???? (6580 ????????)
???????? (6240 ????????)
????-??????????? ?????????? (6100 ????????)
4001?6000 ???????? ???
???????? (5510 ????????)
??????? (4510 ????????)
????? (4460 ????????)
????? (4260 ????????)
??????? (4210 ????????)
????? (4070 ????????)
3001?4000 ???????? ???*
?????? (3960 ????????)
????????? (3360 ????????)
2001?3000 ???????? ???
????????? (2580 ????????)
?????? (2340 ????????)
???-????? (2290 ????????)
????????? (2050 ????????)
1001?2000 ???????? ???
??????? (1790 ????????)
????? (1340 ????????)
???? (1240 ????????)
??????? (1100 ????????)
???????? (1050 ????????)
1000 ???????? ??? ?а????*
???????? ???????? ??????
*?? ????????????? ?????????? ?????, ?а2010 ???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????
???? ????????, ???? ?? ??? ??а???? ????????? ???????? 3975а????????, ?а??????? ?а???????
??????? ???? ????????, ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? 1005а????????.
????????: ????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ????????, 2012а?.
??????, ?а??????? ?? ?????? ??????, ????? ?????? ????? л?????????????╗, ????? ??? ?????????, ??????, ???-?????, ?????????, ?????
?а????, ?а???????? ????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????? ??а1000
??а3000а???????? ???. ???? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а5?10а??? ?????????
??????????? ?а????????? ????????????.
153
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
154
????????????? ??а??? ??????????, ??? ???????
?а?????? ????????? ?????????? ??а????? ??????,
????? ??????? ?а??????????????????
????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????, ?а??а??а?? ??????????????????, ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??а???? ????????? (????? ????????????) ?а?????? ???. ???
????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ?а?????????. ?а?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?а63а850а????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а????, ??а??? ??????? ????????, ????????, ??????,
????????? ?а???*. ????? ????????????? ??а??? ????? ??а???? ?????????
?а?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?а????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? (?а????????? ????????) ?а???? ??????? ???????.
?а???? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? (310а????????), ???????
(330а????????) ?а??????? (390а????????) ????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?а????**.
????? ????????????? ??а??? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а????????????, ????????????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????. ??????? ????? ????? ???????
?а????? ?????? ??? ??а???? ????????? ????????? ?а553а??? (????????
??а????????? ?а???????) ??ал????? ????╗ 206а??? (?????????? ??а????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????? ?????).
???????
??а???, ??? ?????, ????? ???? ????????,
??а???,а??? ????? ???? ????????, ?????:
???а???????? ???????а? ?а?????а?? ??? ???????
????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????
?????? ????? ?а???, ????????? ??? ?????????. ????? л???????? ???????╗
????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ?????: ??? ????? ?????????; ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????
* ????? ????????????? ??а??? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ?а???? ??????? ?????????: 57а130 ???????? ?а????????, 54а700 ???????? ?а?????????, 53а630а???????? ?а???????, 49а180а???????? ?а????????? ?а 47а 020а ???????? ?а ???. ??а ???? ???? ?????????? (42а 590 ????????), ????? (40а 140
????????) ?а?????? (39а600а????????).
**??а???? ??????? ??????? (540 ????????), ????? (700 ????????), ????????????????????? ?????????? (760 ????????), ???? (790 ????????) ?а??????-????? (830 ????????).
????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
??????????????? ?????????, ???????? ??а??????? ????? (????????,
???? ??????????? ????? ????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????); ???????, ????? ??? ???? ??????? ????????. ????? ????????? ????????????
?????? ????а? л????? ?а???????╗ ????????? ??????? ?ал????????? ?????
?а?????????╗.
?????? ????? ?????????, ?????а?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?а???????а??
???????? ??? ??????. ??? ????, ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????, ??? ?????, ??а????????, ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ??????,
?????????? ?????????, ??????? ???? ????? ??а??????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ???? ??????????, ?а???? ?????? ???????: л???? ?? ???????,
??? ????? ????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???╗а[3]. ???????, ?????? ??а????????? ??? ????? ??????а? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ??а?????? ???????? л?? ???, ??? ?????, ????? ???? ????????, ??а???, ???
????? ???? ????????, ?????╗.
?? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????, ??????, ???????? ????? ??????? ??а?????????????? ?????, ????????? ??? ??????? ????
???????????, ?а????????????, ??? ?????, ???????? 6,3 ??? 7,8, ? ???????
?????????? ?а???????а?а?а?. ??а????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??а?????????а?? ??????????, ??? 160 ?а85а380а???????? ?????? ??а???? ?????????а?
?? ??? ?????????, ?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????????.
?????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????:
?????? ?? ??а????? ????????? ??????????
??а???????? ????? ??а?? ??????????? ???????
??????? ????? ?????? ???? ?а???, ?????а?? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??а?? ??????????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????
????????????, ?а??????? ???? ???? ????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????, ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????. ???????????? ????????
?????? л??????? ????????╗, ?? ???? ????????? ???? ?а???, ????? ?????, ???
?? ??а?????? ????????, ??а????? ???? ??а????? ??????, ??? ?? ??????.
???????? ????, ???????? ?????????, ???????????? ??? ?????????????, ???????а? ?а??? ???? ??а????,а? ??? ??? ?????????. ?????? ??а???
???? ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????????а?? ?? ?????:
???, ?а??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?а?????? XXа????. ????????? ??а???
????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?а??????????а? ??????? ??? ?????, ??? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а???????а?? ?? ????????????, ???, ????????, ??????а? ????????
?????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????? л?????? ?????????????╗.
155
156
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
??? ???? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??? ???????а? ???
?????? ???????, л???????╗а? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.
л???????╗ ?а??????? ???????????? ???????
????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????, ????
????????????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ??????? 1999а????
??????? ???????? л???????╗. ?а??????? ???? ?????, ????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ????????? ???????????.
??????, ???????? ??????, ????? ????? ???? ?а?????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ????? ????????????? ?а??????????. ?а??? ?? ?????,
????? ????????, ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????
????? ??????? л???????╗ ????? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ??? ?????????????
???? ????????????
?????? ?а?????? ????????а? ????????????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??а????? ????????????? ???????. ?? ??а?????? ???????? ????????
?а???????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???? ???
?????????. ??а??? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??а?????? ???? ?????????, ????
??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?а????-?? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ???????????
???? ???????????, ?????? ?? л??????╗? ??????? ??????? ??а??? ???????
???, ??а????????, ??? ?? ??а????? ?????????? ??ал????????????╗ ??????
?а???????, ????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ????? ????.
???????? ??????? ??а????? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????
???????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? (????????, ??????? ??????, ????????????????? ?????) ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????.
????? ???????а? ?а?????????? ?????????????а? ???????? ?а????
????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ???? ?а2011а????.
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??а??? ????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????).
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????? 6. ??????? ??? ????? ?????а????????????, ?????а?а???????
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?????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????а? ???????? ?а????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????
157
158
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
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??? ??? ??а ????????, ??? ?? ??а?????? ???????????? ????? ?а?????????. ??? ???? ??????-?? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????????а? ????? ???
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????????? ????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??а??? ??????? ?а???? ??а??????? ???.
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
????? 7
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??????????? ?????:
??????????????а??????а???????? ?????
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????????? ?а????????????. ??а????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ??????, ?а??? ????? ???? ????? 700а????? ???????. ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??а??????????а? ?????? ?а?????а[1]. ?? ?а??? ???????
????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ??а????, ????? ?????????, ???
?????????? ??а????? ???? ?????? ????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????а?
??а?????? ????????????? ??а????????? ?????? ?а??????-?????, ??а?а????? ?????а? ????? ?????? ?а????? ??????, ?????? ?а??????????? ??????
?а????? ???????.
?????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????? ??а????? ????????????? ????? ?а????, ??? ?????????? ????? ??а??-?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?а??? ??????. ?????????????? ??????а? ????? ??????? ??????
?а??????, ?? ??? ??а???? ????????? ?а2010а???? ????????? 20а703а???????.
??а???? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ????? ??а????? ??????????????
????? ?а????. ??а?????? ?а1995-?? ??а2010а??? ?? ??? ??а???? ?????????
??? ??а????????? 18,6а???????? ?а???, ??? ????? ??? ?а??? ???? ?????????
?????????? ?????, ????????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?????, ???? ?????
???????? ????????? л?????╗ 9,1а???????? ?а???.
?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????, ????? ???????? ?а????
???? ?????-?? ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????? ???????? ?????????
???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????????.
159
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
160
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???????????. ?а????????? ?????? ?????? ??а??????????, ????? ????, ???
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??? ??? ???? ??????, ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??а?????????? [2].
?а??а?????????, ??? ??? ??????, ???????????? ??????? ???? ?????????
????????? ????????? ????????, ????? ??? ?????, ???????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?????? ??а?????????????? ??????. ?аXIXа???? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ??а???? ???????? ??????????. ?????????, ????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ??а????? ??????? ??????
????????, ?аXXа???? ??а??????? ????? ?????????? ??а????????????? ??? ????????. ???? ????????? ?а????????? ??а??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??а???????
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XIXа???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????, ??а?а??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????
???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????
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???????????? ????????.
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
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????????.
??а?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????. ??а?а?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?а??????: ?? ???????????
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???????? ???????. ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
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??????.
161
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????? II. ?????????? ?????????
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л?????╗ ??а??????? ?а????????????? ??????. ???? ?а?????? XXа????, ?????
??? ??? ??а????????? ?????? ????????? ??а????????????, ??? ??? ???? ????????? ????????? ????????????. ??а??????? ??? ????? ???????????????
??а?????? ???????. ??????????? ??а???, ?????? ?????, ?????????? , ??? ???????? ??? ?????????????, ????? ??????????а? ??, ??? ???????? ???????????
?????, ?????? ?а???????? ?????: ??а?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????*.
??? ??? л?????????╗ ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ???
?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????а? ?????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????????. ??????? ?а?????????? ????????
?????? ??а????? ???????? ????? ?а????????????? ?????????????? ?а???????-????????** ????? ??? ??? ??????, ???????????? ?а?????? XVIIIа????, ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???. (?? ????????? ????????? ??а??? ?а?????а3.) ??????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????,
?????????????, ???????????? ?????, ??????? ??а?????, ???????? (?????????
?а????????????) , ????????, ??????????, ??????? ??????, ??????????????
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?????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??а?????? ?? ?????????????: ????????????? ???, ??????? ????????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ?а??????.
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?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????; ??????? ??????????????; ??????? ??а??????????
????.
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?????? ???? ?а 1733а ????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??а ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?а????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??а??????, ?????????????
????? ????????? (?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????). ????. ???.
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
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?????????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????.
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???????? ??????????? ??????
???? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????
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?а?????? XIXа???? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?а???????????? ?а???????? ??????????
????? ???????????????? ????????. ??? ???????? ????????? ?????. ?а?????
XIXа???? ????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??а??????????? ?????. ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????
???? ??????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????.
??а????????? ???????? ?????????????? (????????, ??????????????????????), ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ?а?а????? ?????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ???????? ????
?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????????а? ????? ????? ????????, ???
????????????? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?а???? ????????. ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?????
???????????? ??? ???????????, ??а??? ??а??? ??? ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????????, ???????? ?а????????????? ???????.
??????? ????????,
???а???????а?????????а????????????
?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????? ????? ???????.
???????? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ?а?????
????????? ??????? (1856?1915), ????????????? ????????, ?а????????????
???? ???????????. ?????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????
???? ???????? ??а?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а??? ??????? ???????
163
164
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??????????
??а??????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ??а???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????.
?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????? ?а??????????????
???????? ?а?????? XXа???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????. ??
????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????????????а? ??а??а??????????, ??? ??????? ???????,а? ????? ?????? ?а1908а????
??? ??????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? лT╗. ??а????, ???????
??а???????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??а???? ??????? ???????? ??????
??????????????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????????????
???????, ???????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?????. ???
????? ?????????а?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?, ????? ???????, ?? ?????а?? ????? ??????????????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????.
???????? ??а?? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ??
?????? ?????? ??, ???????, ??? ??? ????? ???????????? ??а???????? ?а?????????? л?????????╗ ?????, ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ?????????.
????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а??? ?а?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ???? ?????????? ?????
???????? ?????, ??? ???? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ?а???, ?а???? ???????, ??????? ?а????? ????????????? ????????????
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? (?? ????????? ????????????????? ????????????) ??а??????? ????? ?????????.
??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????, ???
???? ????????? ???? ??????? ??. ??????? ?а???? ???????????? ?????????
????????? ??а?????????? ???? ??????? ??-?? ?? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??а???????. ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????,
????? ?? ?????????? ?а?????????????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????; ??а??????????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ?а?????????? ??,
?а????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ??а????
????????? ???????? ?????????. ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ???????
???? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????????.
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??????? ??????????? ????????????
???????? ???????????? ?а???????, ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ???????. ??????
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
?а1980а???? ??? ???? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????
??????????? ????????????, ??????? ????????????? ?а??????.
??????? ??????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? Toyota, ??????????????? ???, ??? ?????? ??а????? ???????????? ????? ?а????, ?а?????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ??а????????.
?????????????? ?а???????????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ????????? ????????
???????????? ??????? (??? ?????????? л????????????? ??????????╗), ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?а??????? ????????,
????????? ??а????????? ?????, ??? ???? ???????????????? ?????????
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???????? (????????, ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????), ?????????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?????.
?а??????? ??а???????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? Toyota ??а??????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??? ?а???????????????? ???????. ????????,
????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ??? ???????????
???????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????? ?а???? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????????. ?????????,
??? ?????????, ????????? ????? ???????, ????? ???????? ????????
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???????? ????? ??????? ????????.
??????? ????????????????? ??????????
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????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?????????????????? ?????. ?? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ????????: ?????????????? (????????, ?????, ????н?????????? ?????), ?????
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165
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
166
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?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ?а??????????????? ??????-????????????????? ????????? ?????????????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????.
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????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????: ??????????????, ????????????? ??????????, ???????????, ????????????? ????????????? (????????, ????????????? ???????? ??а???????? ????????
??? ?????? ???? ????????????), ?????????????? ?а??????? ????????
???????????. ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????
??????? ????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ???????, ???????????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?а???????????, ?а????? ?????????????? ????? ????????????????? ????????????? ?а??????????????.
???????? ?????
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????? ?? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ?а??????? ??? ?а??????????? ??а???? ?????????. ??, ???
?а??????, ????? ???????? ?????????, ??, ?? ????????????? ? ????, ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ?а????.
???? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???,
??а??? ?????, ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????
???????????? ??а???? ?????????. ??а???? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??а???????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??а???? ?????????. ?а2000-?? ??а2010а??? ?а??? ??? ???
??а????????? 1,6а????????, ?а?а????????а? 1 ???????. ???????? ????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????, ??? ?а??? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????. ??????
??а??а?? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а??? ?????????? ??а????????? 0,9а????????, ?а?а????????а? ?а0,1а????????. ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ?а???????? ???? ??????? ?????: ??? ????? ?????
????????? 1,1а???????? ?а???а? ??а????????? ?а???, ?а?? 0,7а????????а[4].
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
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?а?????а3 ?? ???????? ? ???, ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????????????
??а???? ????????? ??а????? XVIIIа???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?а????.
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?а???. ?а??????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????? ?а8?10а????????? ?а??? ??а????? ????? ????? ?а??????? ????-??????? ??????????? л?????????????? ????╗.
?а???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????: ????? ????? ????????????
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6а?????????,а? ??? ??а??????? ?????. ??????????, ?????????? ???????????
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???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? л??????? ????╗ ????????? ????????,
??? ?а?????????????? ??????, ?а??????? ?? ???????? ????, ??? ?????????????? ????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?а?????? ?а??????????? ??а?????????
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???? а100-??????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??а10а????????? ?а??????? ?????? ???, ??? ??а??????, ??? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????
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????????? 200а??????????. ???? ????? ?а10а????????? ???????? ?????
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????????????? ??а110а??????????, ??? ??? ????????? ????? ??а??????
??? ???????? 121а????????, ?а??а120. ????? ???????, ?а????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а259а?????????? ????????,
?а??а?а200а??????????.
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167
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????? ???????, ???? ?? ??а???????????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????????. ?а???? ????? ?а??? ?????? ?а????????.
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
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(????/???)а? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?а????????. ?????????????, ????? ???????????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????
???? ??а???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а?????????.
??? ???? ?а????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? 20?
22а?????????. ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ????????. ?а????? ??? ???????????? 45а?????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????? ???. ?????? ????????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????????????????????
?????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????????????
??????????? ?а????????? ???? ????????? ??а????? 2а?????????, ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? 10а?????????.
?? ???? ????????? ??а???????? л????????╗ ?????? ????? (?? ???? ?????
6а????????? ?а??? ?а????????? ??а???? ?????????), ??а????????? ??а?????
25а????????? ??? ?а???????? ???????. ?а??????? ??????? ?????? ?????
?????? ????????????? ??а????? 30а????????? ???. ?а????? 1960?1970-?
????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????? 35а?????????.
??а????? л?????????╗ ????? ?????, ??????????? ?а1980??, ??????????????
??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? 30а?????????, ?а?????? ???? ???????? 40а????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????????.
??? ??а????????, ??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??????????. ?????????? ??а??????????? ????????
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?????, ???? ????????? ???а? л???????╗, ????? ???????? ??а????, ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а??????????? (???
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????). ??? ??а????? ?????????????? ???????????а? ?а??? ????????а? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????,
??? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????????????? ??????????? ?а??? ?????
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?а????? 6.
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????????а[5].
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????????? ?а????? ????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???, ??? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?а???
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??а????????а? ???╗.
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????????), ????? (3,1 ????????), ????????? (3а????????), ??? (2,9 ????????) ?а????????
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?????????, ????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????, ?????????? ????????
???????? ?а??????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? 2008а???? ???????, ???
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???? ?????????? ??а???? ???????? ???????? ?????????а? ????????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ?а???? ?????????????.
л??????? ?????╗ ?????????
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(????????, ?????????? ??????, ????? ????????), ???????? ?????????
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171
172
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???????? ?а?????? ???????, ???????? ?а????? ?????, ?а???????? ?? ??????????????. ????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ??? McDonald?s, ??????????
л?????????╗ ??????, ???????? ????????????? ??? ??а?????. ???-?? ????
????????? ??? ??а??????????? ?????, ???????? ?а?????????? ??????-????
(???, ??? ????? ?а??????????????, ??????? ???? Yo! Sushi). ??????? ???????? ????а? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ??? ????????-????????а?
????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????????
?а??????? ?????????????? ??????????????.
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?а???????????. ???? ????????????, ??? ?а??????? ?????????, ??? ?а?а?????н
??????????, ?а??????????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????????. ???
??а????? ?а1960-? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????????????????а? ?а ???????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????????
?а??????????????? ?????? ???? ?????, ??? ?а????? ?????? ????????????,
??? ?а?а??????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????н
?????????????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?а??????
??????? ??? ????? ??а??????, ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??а????????, ?????? ???????, ??? ????? ??а???????????????? ??????. ?????????
???? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??а???????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а??? ?????????.
??? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а1990-? ????? ?а??????????
????????? ???? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ?а??а???? ??????
????? ???????? ???????? ?а????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??а???????, ????? ??? ??????? ?а???????????????? ??а???????? ??????????,
?????? ???????? ????????????? ?а??????? ???????, ????????????
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
?????? ??????????????????. ?????????????? ??????????????а?
??? л??????????? ??а??????? ?а??????????╗, ?? ???? ????????????
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????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????, ????? ??? ?????.
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??а?????, ???????а? ?а?? ??????? ?а???????? ????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ???????????, ????????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????????,а?
????? л?????? ????╗, ?а??а????? ??? ??ал?????????? ????╗ (??? ???????? ?????????????, ????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????????
??????????????).
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?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????
???? ??????, ?а??? ????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ????????, ????????? ?а?????????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????.
??????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??? ?????????????????????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????;
?а???? ??????? ???? ??????? ????, ??????? ??а???????????? ????????????, ???????????, ?а?? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?а????????? ?а??????
??????. ?а??????????? ??????????, ??а??а??а????, ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ????????????.
???????, ??? ??а??????????? ????????, ??? ?а?????????? ?????????
??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????.
?є????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??-?? ???????? ???
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?????. ?????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? (??? ???????????? ????????) ??а????????? ?а????????? ??а??????? ??? ?????? ?а????????. ?а?????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ??? ?а????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????
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?????????????? ????????? ?????????????. ???-??? ??? ???? ??????????,
?а??? ?а???????? ????.
173
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??????? ?????????????????? ???? ???????????? ??-?? л?????????? ???????╗, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????
(????????, ???????, ??????, ????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????????), ?а????????? ????? ?????? ??а??????????, ?? ???? ????????????
???????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??а???????? (?а????????? ?????? ???
?????????? ????????). ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ??????
????? ????? ???????, ??? ???? ??а????? ????. ??а?а????????? ????? ???
??????????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??а??? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????.
????? ????, ????, ??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????????, ????????? ???????????????? ????????
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?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????. ??а??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????????, ?а?????? ??а?????? ?а1998-?? ??а2006а??? ???????
????????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ??а10а?????????, ????????, ??-??
????? л??????? ???????????????╗а[7].
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???????????? ????? ?????? ??а????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ??а??????????????? ????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????.
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?????? ????? ????? ??????, ???? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ???? ????? ??а????? ??????????????????? ????????
?????? ??аXVIIIа????, ?а????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???? ??а????? ??????????????????. ?а????? ?а???? ??????? ?????????, ??? л??? ????????
???????? ??????????????, ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????????╗,а? ???
??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????а[8].
?а????????? ????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ??а??????????????
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????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
???????????? ??????? ??а????????. ????? ????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ??а??????????? ??? ????? ???? ??а??????????? ??????? 2008а???? ?????????????? ?????????????
????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ?????, ???????? ??а???????
??????????????????, ????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ??а?????? 2008а???? ????? ???????? ???? ?а???, ??? ?а???????? ???? ?а?????? ??? ?а????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????.
????? ????, ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????????? ??а????? ????
л????????????????╗, ????????: ?????????-???????????????? ??????,
?????? ????????????? ?а???????????????? ??а???????? ??????????, ???????? ????????? ???????а? ???????????????? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???? ?а???????? ????? ???????? ?а????????
???????? ???? ?????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????.
???????? ?????
???????? ????????? ??-???????? ????? ?????
??а????? XIXа???? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????а[9]. ???? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????? ??? ?????????
????????? ?????. ?а1870а???? ?а?????? 72а???????? ?????????????? ?????
???? ?????? ?а???? ?????. ?а?????? ?а1885а???? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? 73а????????.
??а??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??а????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??? ????? ??а???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ???? ???? ?а??? ???????? ??????????? ?????.
?а1870а???? ??а???????? ????????? ??????????? 50а????????? ????????????
?а????? ?а47а? ?а??????. ???? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ????? ????????? 47а????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?а????? 1953а????.
??????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????
???? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?а????? ?????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????. ??? ???????? ????? 2?3а????????
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175
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176
??а?????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??-????????
????? ??????? ????????. ?а?????????? ????????? ??а??? ???????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????*. ???? ?а??? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ?????????,
??а???? ?????????? 20?40а????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????, ????? ???? ???????
??а???????????????. ?а??? ?????? 80?90а????????? ????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????? (92а????????), ???????-???? (85а?????????) ?а??????? (79а?????????). ???????? ??а???????????? ???????????????? ????? ??а????????? ??? ???????????, 37а????????? ??? ?????????
??-???????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????.
?????????????? ?????????????? ?а???????
??????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????
??а????? ?????????????? ???????? (????? 1950-?? ?а1970-?? ?????? ?а??????????? ??а??????) ????? 40а????????? ??????? ???? ?а???????????
???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??? ????????? ?а?????????????? ??????????????. ??? ????? ????????? ????? 50а?????????, ???? ?????? ?а?????????????? ?а?????.
??????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????? ????? 15а????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????,
??? ???????, ???????? ?а????????, ??? ??-???????? ????? 20а?????????
????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ??????????????**. ??????, ???????? ?а??????????????, ???????????, ??? ?а??????, ??? ?????
?????????? ???? 9?10а?????????.
?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а???? ????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?а????? ?????? ????????????. ?а?????????
???????, ????? ??? ???????, ????????? ?а??????, ??а1970-? ????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ?????? ?????????? ????? 25 ?????????. ??????? ?? ?а????? ??а????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ??а?????????
???? 20 ?????????а[10].
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???? ?а??? ????????, ??? ?є????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????
?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??????? ?а????????????
* ??а?????? ?????????? ????? ??а2009а???, ??? ??????-????? (59а?????????), ??????? (58а?????????), ????????????????????? ?????????? (57а?????????) ?а??????? (51а???????).
**?а 2011а ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??????: 28 ????????? ?а ???????, 23а ? ?а ???????? ?а 20а ?
?а????????.
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
?????? ?????????????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??а????????? ?а??????? ????????
(???????? ?а????????????????????? ??????????). ??? ????????, ???
???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??????????
?а??????????? ??а????, ?????????????? ??? ??а?????????? ?????
(???????, ???? ???? ?а????? ??а?????? ???????????????? ???????)
??? ???????.
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?????????????? ?а??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??а??????? ?????
(??а20а????????? ?а????????, ??а30а? ?а?????? ?а??а40а? ??а???????), ??а??а?????????а? ?а????????? ??а?????????? ???? (????? ???
??а10а????????? ??а???? ???? ???????)а[11]. ?а???? ??????? ????? ????
?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ???????????? ?? ??а?????????? ?????: ?а??? ?а????????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ??а5а????????? ??а20а???а[12]; ?а????????? ?а??????а? ??а????? 50а????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????
???????????а[13].
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????, ?а??????? ????
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?????????????????? ????? ??а?????? ????? ??????????? ???????????
???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????
?а????? ?а??????? ?????????????????????, ?а??а?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??-?? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????????????? ??а????????? ?а??????? ?????????.
??????????????? ??????????????????
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??а????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????????. ????? ???????, ????
?????????????? ?????????????? (?а??????? ?а?????) ??а?????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??а??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ??? ??? ????????? ?а???????
???????.
?а????????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а???
??????? ?а25а????????? ?а???????? 1960-? ??а27а? ?а????? 1980?? ?????,
??а?а??? ??? ??????????? ???????????. ?а????????, л??????????╗ ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????????????. ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ????
177
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
178
?????? ??????????? ?а34а????????? ?а???????? 1980-? ??а15а? ?а?????????
?????. ?а??????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а17?18а????????? ?а1970-? ?а??????? ????? 1980-? ?????
??а12а? ???????а[15].
????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ?а???????????? ???????
????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ?а1980-? ????? (??. ?????а3)а[16]. ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????????.
?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????
??????? ?а?????????????? ??а????? ?????????? ????????. ????????, ??????????????? ??а???????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ?а??????????? ????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ???? ????? ?а??????
???????????????? ????????, ?????? ??????? ????????, ?а??????? ?????
???????.
??????? ?????? ?а????? ?????:
?????????, ???????? ?а?????
????? ???? ??????? ?а?????????????????? ?????????, ???? ????? ????????? ??а????????? ?а???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а????? ?????.
л????? ??? ??? ?????? ??а????????,а? ?????????? ???,а? ??? ?? ??????
????? ???????а? ????? ???????а? ?а??????? ????? ?????, ??? ???????,
?????? ?а?????????╗
??а????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????????
?????????. ??а?????? ?????, ?а2002а???? ?а????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? (???) ?????????????? ?????????????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????а? 24а????????, ??? ??????, ???
?а??????. ?а2005а???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????. ?а???а??
??? ???????? ??? ???????. ?а2010а???? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ??а48а????????? ??? ??а???? ????????? ??????, ??? ???. ????????? ????? ????? ??????? (????? ??????): ??? ??????????? ??а30а?????????
??? ??????, ??? ???.
??? ???????? ???????????, ????? ????? ???????? ??????, ??? ??????
????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????? ?????, ?? ??? ????? ????????????. ??а2004а???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ????? (?? ???? ????????????? ?????? ?????,
??? ??????????????). ?а?????? ?а2004-?? ??а2011а??? ??? ?????????????
????? ???????? ???????? (????????? ???, ??????????????? ????????)
?а????? ?????, ??а?? ??? ????? ?????? 0,9а???????? ??а???, ??? ?????????
???? 17 ????????? ????? ???????? ??а???????? ?????????? (????????????? 5,1а???????? ??а???). ????а?? ??? ????? ??????? ???????.
????? 7. ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???а????????????
????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
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?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??а????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????. ??????????, ????????? ???????, ????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????????, ???????? ?????????????
????????????. ????? ????, ?????? ???????????????? ??????? (????? ???
????? ?а????????) ?????? ??????????. ???? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????, ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?а???????
?????????, ??а?????? ????????? ??а????????? ???????? ???????. ??????
??????? ?????? ?????????, ???? ?? ??а?????? ??????? ??????????????
??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??а?????????? ?????.
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?а??????? ?а?????? ??????
??????????????? ??????????а? ??? ???????,
??? ?а??????? ????????????? ???????
??? ????????? ???? ?а1975-? ??? 1976-?, ????? ??? ???? 12 ??? 13а???. ?а????????? ??а????? The Limits to Growth (л??????? ?????╗) ?????? ??а????????
?????? ??????? ????*. ????????? ?????, ?, ???? ?а??а???? ?? ?????????
??????, ????? ???????????. ??? ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ?а???? ?????????? ?а1992а???? ??? ????? ????. л??? ??? ??,а? ??????? ?,а? ??????????, ??? ??а????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?а??????? ?а???? ?????, ????? ??????????╗ ??? ???????? ????? ??????????????,
???????? ????????, ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????-?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????
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?????, ?? ???? ??? ?????, ?????? ?а??????? ????? ?а???????????? 1970-?
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?????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ????????. ??? ?????
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???? ???.
179
180
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?????.
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??а?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??а????????? ???????. ?а?????????, ??? ??????????? ?а????????? Greenhouse
Development Rights (GDR), ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????, Eco-Equity ?а????????????? ????????????? ??????????а[17].
* ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????? ??а?? ???? ?а????????, ??????? ??а??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??. ????????, ?а2010а???? ????????????? ??а?????, ?а??????????
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181
182
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?? ????????? ??а???????? ??а?????????????? ????????? ???????а[19].
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????????? ??????????? ????????.
??????? ??????? ?а????? ???????????? ???? ?а?????????, ?? ??а?????
????? ??????: ?а????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????????. ????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?????, ????????????
?а???? ????????? ?а????????????????????? ??? ?а1980-? ?????: ??а?????
????????, ??? ?????????? ??????а? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????*.
???? ??? ????????, ??? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ????
????????? ??????????а? ??а?????? ?а????? ?????? ?????? ????????????
?????????, ??а?, ??? ????? ?????, ?а??????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????, ?? ???? ?? ????????????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ??а????? ???? ???????????,
????????? ?а??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????
??????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????.
?а?????????, ?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????н
?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ???????????
??????? ?а???????? ???? ??????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ?а?????????. ?????????? ????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ????????????, ?а?????
?????? ????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????? ????? ???????.
??а??????а? ??? ?????, ???, ??? ???????, ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а??? ??? ?????????? ??????????????. ????? ????,
???? ?а????? ????? ?????????????????? ???? ??????а? ??????????????
????? ????????????? ?????????а? ??а????? ?????????? ??? ???????????
????????????????? ???????.
??????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????????, ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????
????????? ?????? ???????а? ?????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????, ?а????? ?????????? ???????????
???????????????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????.
* ?а?????????? ????? ????? л?????╗ ?ал????╗ ???????????? ?а??????? ?????????а? chips. ????. ???.
183
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
184
????? 8
???? ?а????? Fidelity
Fiduciary: ???????
????? ???????? ?а?????????????. ?а???? ?? ?????? ???? ??, ??? ?????
???????? ???? ?????????????, ?? ????? ?????? ???-?? ??а???. ??????
???????? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ????????????
??????, ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?а?????? ????, ???????? ??а?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ??а???? ??????? ??? ?а??????? ??????.
?? ????????, ??? ???????, ????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?а????? ???????, ????? ???, ????? ?а??? ?????? ?????, ??????
?а???? ??а??????.
????? ???? ??????? ????, ????? ?????? ??а????? ?????? ????, ?а??? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?? ????, ?а???? ?? ??? ?а???? ????? ?????? ????, ???
????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??а?????????? ???? ?а????? Dawes,
Tomes, Mousely, Grubbs Fidelity Fiduciary (?? ?а????????!). ??? ????????, ???
??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????, ?а??????? ?? ???? ??а??????, ????????????? ?а?????-?? ???????? ??????: л???????? ?????? ?????
??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????????? ????╗.
???????????? ??????, ????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????а?
?а?а???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
???????????, ????? ????????: л??????? ??? ??????!╗. ??? ?????-?? ??????? ??????? ?а????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????. ???? ????????? ???????а? ?а??????? ????. ?????? ?а?????
???-???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ?а???????, ??, ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????, ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??а??, ??? ?????????. ????? ?????
???? ??? ????? ????, ??а??? ??а??????? ??? ??????.
?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?а????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ??????
??????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ??????????, ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????
???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ???????
????? ???? ????????, ??????? ??а?????
???? ??а????? ?????????
??????????????? ????????а? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ??а???????????? ?????? л???? ???????╗. ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ????а? ???????????.
???????? ????????????? ???????? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary, ????? ??????, ???? ??? ????, ??? ?? ????? ????????, ??????? ??а????? ???? ??а???
?????????. ??? ?а??? ?????? ?????, ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????
??????, ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??а??????? ??????????, ????
??а????? ???? ????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??а??????? ??
?????*.
??? ????? ?????? л??????╗ ????????а? ??а????????. ??? ???????, ???????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????,
??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????? ???????? (???
???????????? ?а??? ?????? ?????, ???????? ??????????????? ?????????,
??????? ????? ?????? ???????), ??????????? ???? ????? ??????? ??а????
?????????? ??????.
?????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????
??а?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????, ?а????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????. ?? ?????,
??? ?а????? ??а????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????, ????? ????????? ?? ????
????????? ??????????, ???? ????? ???????????? ????? ??а??? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????. ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????а? ??? ?а?????? ?а?????? Fidelity Fiduciary,а? ???
????? ????????? ????, ???? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????? ???????.
??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? 2008а????.
??????? ????????????? ?а??????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? Northern Rock, ?а??????-????????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????????
?????????? ???? Icesave, ????????-????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? Landsbanki.
*????? ????????, ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ?а ??? ?????????. ????? ?? ????????? ??????
?а?????, ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????, ??а??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????,
?а??а?????? ??? ????????. ???????, ??????? ?????? ?а?????, ?? ???? ??????????? ????? ?? ???
??????????.
185
186
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ????????????а? ??? ??????
???? ?????????????, ??а???????????
???????? (???? ??? ?????? ???????)
???, ??????, ?????????? ????????????а? ??? ?????????????? ???????,
???-?? ????? ?????. ?????? ??????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????
?а???, ??? ??а????????????? ????????????????. ?????????? ???? ????????
?а???? ????????? ?????????? ?а???-??, ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?а??????????? ??а????, ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?а???. ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ??
?????? ??а??????? ??????????, ?? ????????????? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ???. ?а??? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????а? ?? ??а??????*.
????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?а???? ?????? ???? ?????????????, ????????? ???? ?????????? ??ал????????????
?????????? ????????????╗: ??а?? ??????, ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????????. ??а???? ??????????, ????????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????????а? ????????
???????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ???? ??а????? ????, ?а??????? ??????????????? ???, ???, ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???????????, ?????????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??а????? ??? ???? ?а?????.
???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? (?? ????
???????????)а? ??? ??????????????, ?? ???? ???? ??????????? ?а????????
????????. ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ????? ????
?а?????-?? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ??? ???, ????????? ????????, ???а?? ?????????????? ??а?????? ?????.
??? ??????? ??а?????? ?а???, ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??? ?????, ?????? ??? ???? ??, ?????. ???
??????? ????? ?а???, ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?а????? ??а?????
?????????????? ???????????? ?а??? ???? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????? (?а??? ?а????????? ???????? ????). ???????, ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ???? ?????????? ???????, ?а??а??а?????? ????????? ??????.
* ???? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??? ????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????. ????????????? ????????????? ?????? л??????, ??????? ?а???? ???╗, ?а????????? ??????? ???????. ??а??????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????????, ??????? ??????????? ??????
?а??????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????. ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??а????????, ??? ??????????? ?а??????
??????. ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?, ??????????????,
????? ??????? ????????? ???????????. ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????, ???????????????
??????? ????? ????????, ?? ???? ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????.
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
??????????? ????а? ????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????
???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????? (?а?????), ?а?????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????,
?а???????? ???????? ???????? ?а????????. ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??? ???????? ???????а? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???
????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????????.
????, ????????????? ??а???????????, ??????? ???????? (?????????,
??????? ?? ?????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?а??????), ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? (????????, ?????????? ?????????,
????? ?а??????? ?????). ?????? ?? ??а????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ??? ???? ?????????????.
???? ?а????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????????, ????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????, ?? ??????? ????? ???????
???????????? ????? ??а????? ??? ????????. ?а????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????
??????? ?????????, ???? ????????? ??????????????? ???????, ???????
??????????, ????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а????
???? (??? ????????? ?аNorthern Rock ?аIcesave). ??????????????? ???????
?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? 2008а????, ???? ??а?????
???? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??а?????????? ???? ??????? ???????????.
?????????? ?????????? ???????: ???????????
??????? ?а?????????????? ?????????????
?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ?а????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????. ?а????????????
?а???? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ??а???? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??а???????????? ????? (????????,
100а????? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ??а?????? ??????), ???? ?? ????? ?????
??а?а????????? ??????? ??????. ?а????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??а?????????? ?а??а???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????
??????????? ?а??????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????
???????.
?????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????а? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??а????, ????????? ??? ??????????????
?????????????. ????? ??а?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ?? ???????????? ?????,
??а??????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? (?,а?????????????, ?????????????, ??????????? ?а????? ?????????) ??а???????????? ????????, ???????
187
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
188
??? ???????????? ???????? (?? ???? ???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????????). ?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????????
???? ???????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????????, ?а????? ???? ?? ??????
?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??а???? ??????????? ????????. ???
???? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????????а? ??? ????????????? ???????????, ?? ???? ??????????, ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??а?????
???????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?а???? ???????? ??? ???????????????
??????? (??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????), ???????? ???????????????
?????????.
???????????? ?????????? ???????
(?а????????аXX ????)
?а???????? XXа???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????
??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ???????????. ?а?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????а? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????
???????? ????? ?а????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ??а?????
??????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????.
???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????,
???????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ??????????, ??????? ??? ????? ??а?????,а? ???, ???? ??????, ????????? ?????????? (?? ???? ??????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????????????? ??????????
?????????? ??????????, ???, ????????, Sociedad Anonima ?а???????).
????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????
?а???????????? ??а??????? ???????? (??? ????? ??а????????? ???????
???????) ?а????????? ??????????? ???????? (??? ????? ?????????),
???? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? (???
IPO). ??, ????????, ??????? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ???????????
????????, ??? Google ?аFacebook, ????? ??? ???????? ??а???????? ?????
?а2004-? ?а2012а???? ??????????????. ?????? ????????, ??? ???????????
??????????, ????????? ????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????
?????.
?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????
????? ??????? ????? ?????а? ??? ?????? ???? ??а??????? ?????????
?????. ??? ???? ?????? ???????а? ??а????? ???? ???? ????? ??????
??? ????????? ?????, ??????, ????? ??? ??? ?а??????????????,а? ???
?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????????; ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????. ????
????? ???????? (??? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????) ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????????
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
?а????? ?????????? ?? ???????. ??? ?????????? ?????????????, ???
??????????? (??? ??? ??????????????? ??????????, ?а??????? ?????????????? ?а?????а3). ???????? General Motors (GM) ???? ??????? ?????
????? ???????????? ?а?????? XXа????*. ??????? ????????????? Nokia
Mobile Phone ????????? Microsoft ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????
????????????? ???????????? ??а????????? ?????. ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ?????. ??? ?????????? ???????. ?????
?????????а? ???, ??????, ???????? ?????????а? ???????? ????? ????
??????? ?а2001а???? Time Warner, ??????? ???????????? ???, ?аAOL, ??????? ????????-????? **.
???-???????? ???????? ????? (NYSE), ?????????? ?а1817а????, ?????????? ???????? ????? (LSX), ????????? ?а1801а????, ?а????????? ????????
????? (TSE), ???????????? ?а1878а????, ???? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????
?????. NASDAQ (???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а?????? ???????),
??? ???? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ??? ???????????
????? ?а1971а???? (?а??? ??а???? ??????????? ?????, ??? ?аNYSE ?а??????
?? ????????????), ????? ?????? ????? ?а1980-? ????? ????????? ????, ??? ??
??? ???? л???????????╗ ?????? ??????????????????? ?????????????-н
??????????????? ????????. ??????? ??? ?????? ??а???????? ????????
????? ?а???? ????? NYSE (TSE ???????? ?????? ?????).
????????? ??? ??а???????? ?????, ??? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ??а?? ????????????? ????????.
???????? ??? ??аNYSE ????????????? ???????? S&Pа500 (????????????
??????????? ?????????? Standard and Poor), ??аLSXа? ???????? FTSEа100
(??? ?????? Financial Times), ?а???????? ??? ??аTSEа? ???????? Nikkeiа225
(??? ?????????? Nihon Keizai Shimbun, ??? Japan Economic Times)***.
???????????? ????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????
?а?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ?????
??????? ???????? ???????? (?????????, ??????? ????? ??????????
*?????????? GM, ?????????? ?а1908 ????, ??????????? ?????? ?????????? Buick. ????? 1908-?
?а1909а????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????, ???????????? Oldsmobile, Cadillac ?а?????? ?????,
?а????? ??, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????????. ?а1918а???? ???????? ????????? Chevrolet.
**??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????? Time Warner ????? ??????
?????? ??? л????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????????? ???????╗; ?а2009а???? ??? ???? ?????????? (????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????). ?????? AOL ??а??? ???, ??? ????????? ??а??????
??????? (??? ????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????). ????? ????, ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????.
*** ????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????.
189
190
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
???? ??????) ?а??????? ????????????? ??????? ??а?????. ??? ??а?????
????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а???? ?а??а??????а?? ????? ????????, ??а???????????, ???????, ??? (??? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ????????), ?а????? ????????????? ????????? ??а???? ???????
???????? ???? ?а???????. ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????
?а???, ??-????????, ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????
????? ?????? л?????? ?????????? ?????????╗ (The Bond Buyer?s Primer)
1968а????а[1].
?а?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ????????. ?а??? ?а?????????????? ??? ????? (????? ?а?????????) ???? ??????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?а???????????, ??? ?а????? ???????, ??? ????????, ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ????? ?????? ???????
????? ?????? ????. ??а???? ??????? ??? ?а?????????????? ???????
???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????, ?а????????, ?????? ?а???????а? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????, ??? ??????
??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??а???????? ?а????? ????????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ??????, ????????? ????????? (?а????????? ?????????) ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ??? л???????╗, ??? ?????
??????????? ??? ?????????.
?????????????? ????? ?а???????????
????? ?????????? ???????
?????, ??????? ?? ??а?????: ?????????????? ?????
??а??? ??? ?а??????? ?а???????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ???? ??а??????
??????? ????? ??????. ??? ?????, ????????, ????? ??? HSBC ??? Natwest,
??????? ??????????? ???? ??а???????????, ??а????????? ????? ?а?а?????????, ????????? ??? ?а???, ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?а????? ?????????? (л?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????! ?????? ?а??????????????!╗). ??? ???????, ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????,
??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?а?????? ??а??????? ??? ???????????
?????? ????? ?а??????? ????????????. ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??? ??????????? ???????*.
??а???? ?????, ??????? ?? ??а?????. ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????. ????????? ??а??? ??????? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????????
* ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???? ?а???????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????
?? ?????? ??а??????? ????? ??? ???????????, ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????. ????? ????? ????? ???? ?а??????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????, ???????, ??? ??? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????.
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
???????? ?а????????. ??????, Barclays ????? ???????????? ????, ??а?а????
???? ????? ?????????????? ???? ??? ????????? Barclays Capital. ???, ????????, ???? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????? ????????? ????????: JP Morgan Chase ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? JP Morgan, ?а????? ?????????????
???????????? ?????? Chase Manhattan. ?????? ?????????????? ?????а?
Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, ???? ??а???????????? Lehman Brothers
?а??????а? ??а????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????. ??????????? ??а???
??????? ?а??? (???????? ?аGoldman Sachs, ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????-??????????), ???? ?а??а??а????? ???????????, ???
??? ??????????.
?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?аXIXа????а? ?????? ?а????????
??????????? ?????????, ??а????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????. ???????? ?????, ????? ??? Deutsche Bank ?аCommerzbank,а? ???????? ?????????? ???????.
?а??? ?а1933-?? ??а1999а??? ??-?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????
???????? ???? ?????????. ?а1980-? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????
?а????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????.
???????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ????
(?а????) ?????? ?а??????? ?а???????????????
????? ?а????????? ?а???????? ???
?????????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????а? ??а??????? ????, ??? ???? ?? ?????????????? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?а?????????????
????????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ???????? ??а?? ?????.
???????? ????? ?а????????? ????????-????????, ?????????????? ????? ??а????? ???? ?а??????????, ?? ???? ?а??????? ????????, ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ??? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????
????, ??? ?????????????????? ???????????, ?? ???? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????
????? ?????.
???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?а????: ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ??????, ??????? ???? ??????????? ??а?????????? ??????????; ????? ????????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? (????????,
?????????? ?а????а? ??????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????
191
192
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
?а?????????????? ????? ???-????); ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????
?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ??а????????
?????; ???????? ?????, ??????? ????????????? ?а????? ???????????, ??а????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?а??????????????
???????????? ????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? (????????, ???????????); ?????
?????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ????????, ??а????????????
?????? ????????????? ??а???? ?????? ????????, ?? ????????????????
?а??????? ??а????? ??????? ????.
?а?????????? ?а??????? ????? ?а????????? ????????-???????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ?а????????? ??а??????????? ????????, ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????. ?????????????? ????? ?????
????????????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????.
???????, ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ????????????
?а???? ????????, ?????? ????????????????, ??? ??????????.
?а1980-? ?а???????? ?а1990-? ????? ?????????????? ????? ???????
??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ???????? ??????????????????? ?????????????,
?а??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ???????????*. ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????
??????, ?????? ???, ????? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????
?????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?а????????? ??? ???????????????? ??а???????? ???????
?а??????????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ?а??????? ?а????????
????.
????????????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????????
?????? ?а??????? ?????????
?а?????? ???????, ????? ???-?? ??????? ?????? ?а????? ?а??????? ??а???
???-??????, ?????-????????? ??????????? ???????? ????, ?а?????? ?а????
?????? ???? ????????. ??а????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????
??????? ?а???????? ??а????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????
??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? (ABS). ?????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????? ???? ??????
*???? ???? ????, ?а??? ????? ?а?, ???????? ??? ??? ???????? л???????????? ??????????? ?????????????╗, ?????????? ???-???? ????????? ??а ? ??а ????????, ?а ??????? ?а ???????? ????.
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
???????? ??а??????? ????? ?а?????, ????????? ?????, ????? ??а????????,
????? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?а?????????? ?? ?а????? ???????
л???????╗ ?????????.
???? ?? ?????? ???? ?а???????? ???????? ????, ??? ????????? ?????????, ???? ??????? ????????? ???????. ???????? ???? ????, ????? ???????
?????? ??????? ????-?? ???????. ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????, ?????????, ????????, ?????? ????????? ????????,
??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? (???), ?? ??????
????? ?????????, ??? ?а??????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ???? ???? ??а??????????? ?а??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????? (?а??? ?? ????????
??????????????? ?????????? ??а???????). ?а??????????? ????? ??????,
??? ???????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????, ???
????????? ????????а? ????? ??????????????.
????? ???????, ??????????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ??????? (????????, ??????? ??а????????????? ?????? ????, ?????? ??а???????
??????????? ??????????), ???????????? ?а?????, ??? ????? ?????
?????????. ??а????????????? ABS ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ??а???????????
????? ??? ??????а? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????? ???????. ??????
?????????????? ?????, ???????????????? ?аABS, ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????, ????? ???????????? ???
?????? ????????.
??а1980-? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???? ?а???????? ?????????????? ?а??? ?а??а??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????
???????. ??а?а?????? 1990-? ??а???????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ???? ????????, ?а????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??а?????? ??????? ??????,
??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??????-?????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????.
?а??????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ??????
?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ????? ????????а?
?а???????????????? ????? ???????????
?а????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????????, ????????? ABS ????? ?????????????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????????
???????? ????????????? (CDO). ???????????????? ?а?????? ?????????
???????? ??????????? ???? ABS, ????? ??? ???, ?а??????? ????? ????????? ??а????????? ??????? (????????) ?а?????????? ???????. ?????
л???????╗ ????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а????, ??????,
193
194
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
????????, ??? ?а?????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? (?? ???? ?????? ????? ????, ??? ?????? ????? ????????????
????? ?????????? ???? ?????? л???????╗). ????? ???????, ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??а???? ???????????
???????????? ???????????? ???????а? ??а??????? ????, ?а?????? ??? ?????????????? ???*. ????? ???????? ??? ??а??????? ??аCDO, ??? ????????
??????????? ???????а? ????????? ????????? ???? (CDS), ??????????? ?а???????? ????????? ??а????? ??????? ????????? CDO (??? ????? ????,
?а???????? ???? ?????).
??????????? ?а???????????????? ??????
???????? ?а???????? ????, ??а??а????????? ???
?????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????????????? ??????????
?????????а? ??????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??а????????? ????????? (???????????), ?а????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????????
?а?????? ????? ??????????? (????????????????).
л???????╗ ??????? CDO, ????????? ????? ???????, ????? ???????
?????? ????????? ??????? ???, ??????????? ????????????? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?а?????? ?? ?????????? ?????
????????????? ????????. ?а????????? ??? ??? CDO ????? ???????????
?????????? ?а????????????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????. ???????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ?а??????? ???????????. ????? ???????????
CDO ?а????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????
????????????? ?а???????????, ??? ???? ??? ?а?????? ??????? ??а?????
??????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????
?а?????? ????????? (??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а????? ??а????????????). ??а?????? ????????????????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ???.
??????, ??? ?? ?????, ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ??а?????????? ???????а? ??а????????? ??????, ???????? ????? ?а???????????? ????????????????, ??? ?????? ??а????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????? ?????? ??а????? ????????????
??? ??????, ?????????, ??? ???? л???????╗ ?????? CDO ???? ?????
??а???????????.
*??а ???????? ??? ????? ???????. ???? ??????? CDO-???????? ????? ??????????? ???????
??аCDO ?а???????????????? ?? ???, ??? ??????? ????. ?а????? ????????? CDO-????, ????????? ?а???? ?????????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? CDO-????????. ??а???? ???????
??а???????????, ?а???? ??????? CDO-???????? ??? ??????? ????????.
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
??????????? ?????????? ???????????
?а???????? ?????? ?????? ??а??, ??? ??а????????
?????? ??????????????? ???????а[2]
?а????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ????????
???? ?а???????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???
?????? ????????????, ?а?????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????????????? ?????????? ?????????.
?а??????????? ??? ?????-???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ???
л??????????╗ ???? ???????? ??а????? ??? ???????, ??????? ????????? ???
??, ??а?????? ?????а?? ???????, ????? ???-?? ??а?????????? ????? л??????????╗ ???????? ??а???????????? ??а????? ?а???-??????, ???????? ????
?а?????????? ??? ???? ??а????? ??????а[3]. ????? ???????, ??? ????????н
??? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??а??, ??? ??а???????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????
?а???? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????:
???????? (????????, ???, ?????), ?????????? ?????? (?????, ????? ?????), ???? (??????? ????????? ?????, ???? ??а????????????) ??? ????
??????. ??а?а????? ?????? ??? ?а???????? ???? ??????? ?а??????? ???????.
???????????? ??????а? ??????, ???????????? ???, ?а????????, ?????????? ???, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ??????
??????? ??? ???????? ??а??????? ????????????? ????, ????? ??????? ??????.
????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?????????. ??????? ??а???????????? ??? ??????????, ??а??????? ?????? ?????????????? ???, ????????? ?? ????????? ??????????.
??? ?????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а???????? ????, ??а??????? ?? ???????. ?а????? ??????? ????????? ????????
??а??? ?????????? ??????? ??а???? ???? ?а???????.
??????????? ?????? ?????????: ??????????????
?????????? ?????? ?????????????????
?????? ?????????? ??????????????, ?? ???? ??????? ??а?????,а? ?????
???????, ??? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??????, ???????????? ???, ?а????????, ?????????? ???, ?а????????????? ??????. ????? ??????????? ????????
????? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ??а????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ??????
195
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
196
??а??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??а?????????????????? ?????
?а???????, ??????, ???????????????????? ???????. ????? ??????????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????????.
???????????? ???????? ????? ???? ????????????????? ?а???????????
??а?????? ??? ????? ????????. ?а?????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???а? ???????. ?????????? ???????? ??а????? ????? ???????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??а????????? ?а????? ?а????а??
?? ?? ????, ??????, ?а??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????????
???? (Brent Crude, West Texas Intermediate ??? ??????) ??а???? 100а????????
??а???????.
?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??а??????,
??а??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????
??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??, ??? ??? ?????????
????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??а?????. ????????, ????????????????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??а?????, ?????????
????, ???????? ???? ??а????????? ????, ??? ???? ??а????? ????? ????????
100а???????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ????. ?????????????, ???? ???? ??????
???? 100 ???????? ??а??????? (????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??
??а100, ???? ???? ???? ???????? ????? 90 ???????? ??а???????,а? ???? ??????
??а??????? ???????? ????-?????? ???????), ?? ????? ???????? ??????. ???????????, ????? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????????,
??? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???? 100а???????? ??а??????? ????? ????.
????? ????????????*, ??? ??????, ??? ??а?????, ??а????????????а?
?а?а????????? ????? ???? ?а??а????????а? ??????? ???????????. ??? ????? ????????? ????? ????????????? (?? ???? ?????? ??????) ??а????????
???? ??а?????. ????? ???????, ?????, ??? ??а????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???? ????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?????? ??а???????? ????? ??????????.
?а??????????????, ??а?????????? ???????? ????? ?????, ???????? ?????
????????, ?????????: л[????????? ?а???], ??? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ??????, ?????
??????????? ??а??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а????? [??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????]╗а[4].
????? ???? ???????????а? ??????? ?а?????
??а???????? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? (????????), ?????
??? ????. ?а??? ????????? ??? ????? ?????а? ??????? ?а?????.
* ??????????? ??а?????? ?а????? ?а?????????? ???. ????. ???.
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? (?? ??а?????????????) ?????? (??? ???????) ???-?? ??а????, ????????????? ?а??????????
????. ?????? ??а??????? ?????????? ????, ?а?????? ??а???????а? ???.
??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??а?????а? ??
???? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? (?????) ??а??????? ????????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?????? ?а???????,а? ??????? ??????
???-?????????? (?а?????? ?а?????? ??????????) ?а????? ????????? ??
?а?????????? ????????? ????? ???????, ????? ???? ??а?? ????? ?????.
???? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ??а?????-?? ???? ??????? ?а???????, ????
?????????? ?????? ??а??? ????? ???????, ??????? ?????????? ??????????
??????????, ???????????? ??????. ????????, ?? ????????? ????????? ???
?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???
???????, ????? ??? ????????? ??а?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???
????????????? ????? ??а????????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????а[5]. ????????? ???????? ??? ???????
?????? ??????? ?а??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????, ?????????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????: ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? (?????????? ?????), ????? ?????
(???????? ?????), ???? ??а???????? ?????? (???????? ?????), ???? ?????
(????? ??а?????) ?а???? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? (CDS).
????????, ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??а????????? ????? ????????????, ??а?а???? ??? ??? ?а??????????? ????. ?????? ????????? ?????
?????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?? ????? ????????, ?а??? ?а???????? ?????.
????? ???????? ???????????? ?а1980-?
????? ??????????? ??а???? ????? ????????? ??а?????? 1980-? ?????, ????
??? ?а1970?? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??а?????а[6]. ?????, ?а1982а????, ????????? ???????????? ????????.
?а??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???а? ???????? ??а?????? ??????? ?а?????? (SEC) ?а???????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????? (CFTC)а? ?????? ?а??????????, ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ?????????????
????????? (????????, ???? ??? ?????), ?а??????? ????? ?????????????
?????????. ????? ???????????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??ал????????╗ ?????, ????? ???
???????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а??а??????
??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????а[7]. ?а??? ??? ?? ??????
??????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????
???? ???????????.
197
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
198
???????? ?????
?????? ???? ????? ????????
??а1990-? ????? ?а?????? ???? ????? ???? ????????????????? ????????
????????? (ABS, CDO ?а??????). ??, ??а?????? ????, ?а2010а???? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????? ????? ??а2,7а????????? ???????? ???. ??????
?? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??????, ??? ????? ?а???, ??а???????, ???????????? ????? 10,7а????????? ????????, ??а??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ???? ??????, ??? ??? ?? ??а10а????????? ????????
??? ??? [8].
????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????. ??а1980-? ??? ???? ???????????????. ?а2011а????, ??а??????? ???, ????? ?????????? ????????????
????? ??????????? ????????? 648а?????????? ???????? ?а??????????? л?????????? ????????╗ (?? ???? ????? ????????? л??????╗, ??????? ??????
??а????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????). л????????
?????????╗ ?????????? ??????????? ?а27а?????????? ????????а? ????????
?а110а??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а70а??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? (??? ????? ??а????? ???? ?????????????
???? ?а??????, ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ?? ???????? ???????)а[9].
??????? ???? ??а????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????. ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????. ?а??????
?а1980-?? ??а2007а??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?а1,2 ??а4,4, ???????? ???????? ????????
?????а[10].
????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??а??????
??????? ???????, ???????? (?? ??а?????????????) ?а??? ?а??????????????.
???????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??? ?а??????????????
?а2007а???? ???????? 700а?????????*. ??а??????? ???????????, ?а?????????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?а???????? 700а????????? ?а????? 1980-? ??а?????
1200а????????? ?а2009а????а? ??? ???? ??а1800а?????????, ???? ?? ???????
??????, ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????? ??а???????а[11]. ?????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????,
?????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??? ?а??? ?а?????? ?????
1950-?? ?а1970-?? ?????? ?????????? ????? 400 ?а500а??????????, ??а?а?????? 1980-? ????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ??????????? ???????????????. ?а?????? 2000-? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?аа900а?????????а[12].
*???????, ??????? ????? ????????????????? ???? ?????-????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?а???? ????????? ??а???????: ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?а??? ???? ?????????
??????, ??? ?а??????????????.
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?? ???????????
????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????
????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????
??? ????????????? ?????????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?а????????? ??? ???????????. ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?????
??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????,
??? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????.
???? ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????????а? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ?а??? ?а???????? ????.
????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????, ??? ??????, ?а??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????
?????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ???????????
?а?????????? ??????. ?????????, ??? ?є????? ??????? ???????? ???????
??????????? ????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?а???? ???????,
??? ??????? ???????????? ???????.
??????????? ????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???, ???? ??а???????????????. ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ????????
????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ????? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ??????,
????? ?????? ??? ??а???? ????????, ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?ал???????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???????, ???? ??а?????, ????? ????-????
???????? ???????? ???? ??а????????????? ?а???????????????????? ????????????╗, ??? ??????, ???????? ?а????????? ??? ?а1998а????, ????? ???????,
????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????*.
???? ??а????? л??????????╗а? ????? ??? ???????, ?а?? ???? ???????
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? AIG, ????????
?????? 2008а???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????
???,а? ??а????? ??????? ??а????? ???????: л????????? ?? ??а????? ????
?????????????, ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?а?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????а?? ?????? ?а????? ??а?????? [?? CDS]╗.
*???????, ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?а ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????
(1991?1993), ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? (???? 1999а ????а ? ?????? 2001а ????)
??а?????? ???? ????????????? ????? ????????, ?а????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? (?????? 2009а????а? ??????? 2010а????) ??а????? ????????? ?????? ?????.
199
200
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
???????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ?а?????????????? ?????. ????? л??????╗ ??а????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????,
???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????. ?а????
2005а????, ????????? ??????????? л????????? ???? ??а????????? ???????
??????╗, ???? ????????, ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????
???????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ???, ??? л?????? ??? ??а????????????
??? ????? ?а????? ?????????????? ?????????????╗. ?????? ????????? ???????, ?а??????? 2005а????, ??? ????????, ?а?? ????? ???????????? ??????
????????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?а???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а??????? 2006-?? ??а??????
2014а????, ?????? ?а????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ??? 25-?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а???
?а?????????? ??? ????, л?а???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????╗.
???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ????? ????????????? ?а????????????
???????? ??а??? ?????????, ?????? ??а????? ???????????? ?а??? ??????
?а2007?2008а?????а? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?, ???????? ??????????
?????? ??????? ?а?? ?????? ????????, ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ???????????. ????? ??а???? ???????? ???? ??а?????? CDO ?аCDS, ??????? ???? ??а?? ????,
??? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??а?????? ??????? ?????????. ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????, ????????????????? ?а???,
??? л??????????╗ ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????????????? ??а????????, ??? ??????????.
??? ??? ????????? ??-?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????.
??? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ??а?а???, ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???????. ????
???????, ?????????????? ???????? ??а?????????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????, ??????? ???????, ??? ??? ????, ????? ????????? ???????????
?а???, ??? ???????? CDOа[2] (???? ??а?????а? ??а??а?????а? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????), ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????
????????? ??????? ??????????а[13]. ?а??? ??????????? ?а?????????, ???????????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а???? ????????? ????? ???????, ????????? ???????, ???????????, ?а???
?????? ??а?????????? ???????. ????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????????????
??????? ??????????, ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????,
??а?а????? ??????? ??????????????????, ??? ??? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????
??????????, ?а?а??????а? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????. ???????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ????, ??? ??а????? ???? ?????????
?а2008а????, ???? ???????? ?а????????? ?а??????? 21 ??? 22 ???? ??????а[14].
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
?????????? ????????????????? ????? ???????
?????????????? ?????????? ???????
????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????
??????????? ???????????? ????, ??? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? (????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????),
?а????? ????????????, ????????????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????.
?а?????? 1980-? ???, ??????????????, ?а????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????????
????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????????: ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????; ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????,
??????? ????? ??????? ?????????; ??????????? ??а???? ???????, ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? (????????, ?????????????? ??а1980-? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????
?а????????? ?????????? ??? ??а?????? ??????????????? ????????
?а???????????? ????????? ????????); ??????? ?а???, ????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???????????? (????????, ??????? ?а???????????
???? ???? ?а????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????); ?а????? ????????, ???? ??а????????, ??????????? ??а?????????????? ???????????
???????? (????????? ?? ???? ????????? ?а?????а12).
??????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ???? ??????? ??а???? ??????. ???
??????????? ??а?????? ?а????????? ????????а? ????????, ???????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????????,а? ??а?а?а?????? ???????: ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????????????? CDO ?а2008а???? ???????? ?????
???????? ?а?????????, ??????? ?????? ??? ??????. ??? ????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????, ????????? ?а????? ????? ???????,
?????? ???????????????? ??а?????? ?????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????.
???? ?а???, ???, ???а?? ????? ?? ?? ??????????, ???????????????
?а??????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????????, ?а???????? ?????
???????, ??????? ?а?? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???а?? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ??а???????, ?????? ???????? ??а?????
?а?????? ??а?????, ???????? ?а??? ??????, ????? ?????? ???? ??????. ????? ???????,а???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????, ?? ??? ???? ???????????? ????
??? ???????, ??а??????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ????? ?????????
?????.
201
202
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????
???????????? ???????? ??а????????????? ??????????
????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??а?????? ??а?????????? ??????. ??? ????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????. ??? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????
?а??? ?а??????????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????
??????? ???? ?а???, ?а??????? ??а???????? ??? ??????, ?????, ????? ??????????, ??а???? ??????? ??????? ??а?????????? ?????????.
?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????. ?а?????? ??????????????? ??????????
?а1980-? (????????? ??????? ?????) ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ?а?????? ????????????? ???? ??а???? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????????.
??а?а???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????,
?????????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????, ??а???? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????????. ????????, ?а?????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?а???? ???
?а???????? 1960-? ??а???? ??? ?а1980-?, ?????? ??????? ???????? 7,5а?????? ?а????? 2007а????а[15]. ??? ??? ??????? ?а???????????? л???????????
?????╗ ????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????
??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? л???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????╗ (??. ?????а5). ?а???? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а????? ??а????????????
????????????? ???????а? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????,а? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????
?а???? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? (???????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ???? ??а???).
????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????????????, ????????, ?а????????????, ??? ?а???????? ?????????, ???
?а??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????????? ?а?????????????????????.
?????а?? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ??
???????, ??? ??? ??а????.
??????????????? ???????????? ??????????
????? ?????????? ??????? ??а?????? ??????? ?а????, ??? ????????????
?????????? ????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????.
??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????????????????, ?? ???? ?????????? ??а??????????? ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ????? ???????
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а????????? ?а?????????????, ??????
???????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????????? ????????. ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????????????????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????
?а????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?а??? ?????????.
?а????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????
?????????? ?????????????, ????????: GE Capital ???????? General Electric,
GMAC ???????? GM ?аFord Finance ???????? Ford. ????????? ??а??? ?????
????????? ?????????????, ??? ????? 2013а???? ????? ??а??????? ??а?????????? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??а???,
GE Capital, ????? ??ал???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????╗ (SIFI)а?
???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????.
??????????? ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ???????
??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????????, ???
????????????,а? ???? ??? ???? ??а??????а[16]. ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ????
?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????, ??????? ??????????? ??, ??а???
??????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????, ?а?????????? ????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ??а????, ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????????. ?а?????????,
??? ??????? ?а??????????????? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ????,
??????? ?????а?? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????а? ?а???????, ?????, ?? ?а??? ??????,а? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????????. ????? ????, ??????? ????? ?????, ??????????? ??а????????, ???? ???????,
????????? ?????? ???? ??а????????? ?? ??????, ??????? ?? ??????????
??????*.
?а?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????????
??????????? ???? ????????, ?????? ?????? ??????, ???? ???? ??? ????
????????? ?????????. ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?а???????????? ????? ???? ??а???? ?????????????. ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ????????????,а? ?????
???????? ???????? ???????? л???????? ??????????? ?????╗.
* ????????? ??? ????? ????????? ????? ????, ????????? ???????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????
???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?а2000-?? ??а2007а???, ????????? ???, ???, ????????, 60а????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????.
203
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
204
??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??, ??? л??????????? ?????╗ ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????. ??????????????? ???????? ?????
???????? ???????а? ??????, ??а????????????? ???????,а? ????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????. ????????? ??????н
???????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????. ????? ?а??????, ??? ????
??а?????? ??????? ???? ?а??????? ?????. ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????-?????, ???? ???????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ??????,
???? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ?а?????????? ??????????????? ???????.
??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?а????????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????, ?????????? ?а??? ??? ??а????. ??????????? ??н???????
?а?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??а??????? ????????????? ???????
??????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? 2008а????, ???????? ??а????????????????, ????????????? ?а?????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ???????,а?
?а??а?????? ??-?? ???? ????????????, ?а??а??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?а???, ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????
????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????
??????? ?????????? ???????
?????????? ?????????? ?????
??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? 2008а????, ?????? ?????,
??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??а?а????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?а????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а????????????. ??а????? ????????, ??? ?а????? ??????? ????
????????? ?????????????а? ????????? ???????? ?а??????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????. ??????, ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????
??а???, ??? ????? ??????????.
?а1982а???? ?а???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???????? 1970-? ?а????????
????????? ????????. ?а????? 1980-? ?????????????-????????? ????????
???, ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??а????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??а???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?а???????????????
???????. ????? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
????? ???????? ?????????????-????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ????????, ????????????? ???? ????????? ???.
1990-? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а??????, ????????? ?а???????? ????? ?????????? ?а??? ?а????? 1980-? ????? ??????????? ???????????????. ????? ??? л?????????╗ ?????? ?а??????? ?а1994-? ?а1995а????.
?а??а??? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????? л?????????????? ????╗ ????а?
????????, ?????????, ???????? ?а????? ?????а? ?а1997-?, ???????
???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????????????? ???? ?????
?а????? 1980-?а? ?????? 1990-? ?????. ??а????? ??а????????? ??????
??????? ?????? 1998а????. ?а1999а???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????,
?а?а2002-?а? ????????????, ?а??? ?а???????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????. ?а??? ???? ????? ????????? ???????.
??а?????а?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ?а???????? 1970-?. ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????а[17],
?а?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?а??а???????? 1970-?, ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????
?? ???? ?????? ?а???? ??а??????????? ?а?????????? ????????. ?а????????
1970-? ????? ?а??а????? 1980-? ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ????????, ??????? ??а5?10а?????????, ???????? ?? ???? ?а???????
??????. ?а???????? 1990-? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??а20а?????????. ?а???????? 2000-? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ??а????????? ???, ??а????? ????? ??????? ??а35а?????????, ??а??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? 2008а????.
л?????????? ????╗ ????? ????????????
???????????????? ???????????
?а????????????????? ??????????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????????????
????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?а????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????, ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????.
????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?? ????
???????, ????????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????. ????????, ?????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ??а?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а??? ????????? 35?45а????????? ????? 1950-??
?а1970-?? ??????а[18]. ????? 2001-? ?а2010а????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? 94а???????? ????? ???????, ?а?????? ?????????? ????????а? 89а????????? ????? ???????а[19]. ??? ???????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?а??? ?????????????.
205
206
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
??????? ????????????????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????а? ??? ??а?????? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ?а???????????????? ??????? (?? ???? ???????, ??а?????????????? ????? ???????????). ???????? ???, ?????? ?????????? ??????
????? ???????а? ??а55?65 ??а????? 6а????????? ?а?????? ????????????
??????????а? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ???????.
??????? ???????????? ????????, ??а???????
???? ?а???, ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????
??а?? ?????????? ????????????
???????????? ????????, ???????? ?а???, ??????????? ?????????
???? ?????????? ??????. ????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ?а30а?????????
?а1950а???? ??а40а? ?а1982-?. ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????, ????????? 100а????????? ?а2001а????, ????? ???? ????????? ??а81а????????
?а2008-?. ?а2009а???? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ???????????, ????????? ????? ????? ?а104а????????, ?? ????, ??а????, ?????????? ??а???????
2001а????а[20].
??? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
?? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????????. ?а2003а???? ???????? GE
???????? 45а????????? ????? ??????? ??аGE Capital. ?а2004а???? 80а????????? ??????? GM ?????? ??а?? ??????????? ????????? GMAC, ?а?? ?????
??? ?а2001?2003а????? ???????? Ford ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??аFord
Financeа[21].
??????????: ?????? ???? ????????
?????? ????????? ???????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ??а????????????а?? ?а??? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ??????,
???? ????????? ?????, ???????? ?а????? ?????????????? ????????????
?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а??????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???? ?а??????????????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??а??? ??? ????а?? ?а????
????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?а????????????? л?????????-?????????????╗ ???????, ??????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????????.
????? 8. ???? ?а????? Fidelity Fiduciary: ???????
?а?????????, ????? ????????????? л????? ????????╗ ?а????????? ???
??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ????.
???? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ??а???? ???????? ??????? ???????, ??????????????
??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????, ????????????????
?а?????? ???????. ????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????? ??????????
???? ????????????? ??? ?а???????????? ???????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??а???????????????? ???????, ???????
????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??а???? ????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????. ???? ????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а2008а???? ??????? ?????????? ????????,
??а??а????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ?????? ?а???????
????????, ????????? ?????? ????, ???????? ????, ???, ??????, ????????, ??????, ????????а? ???? ?? ???????????.
???? ?? ??а?????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???????
??????, ?? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????. ???? ??????????
??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????а? ??а?????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ??????????, ??а?а??? ????? л??????????╗ ??????????????
?????????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ????
?? ????????? ??а?а????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ????????????
????????.
???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????, ??а??? ??а???.
?? ????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?а????????? ????????; ????????
????????? ????????????? ???? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????, ???????
???????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ?? ???????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??а?? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????а[22].
????????? ??а??????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????, ?а??а??????? ???????, ??? ??? ??а???????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????.
????????, ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ??-?? ?? ???? ?а????????.
?а??? ??а???? ??????????, ???*, ?????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??а???????, ????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ??а???????, ??????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??а???????. ??????? ?а??? ???
??? ???? (?а????????? ?????????) ?????? ??????, ??? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????, ???? ???-??а? ???? ?????
???????а? ?????? ??а???. ???? ??а????????? ??а?? ?????? ?а????????, ??
????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?????????????
??????, ?????? ????????? ?а????? ???????-????????????? ????????????
?а???? ????????????? ???????????????.
* ????????????????? ????????? ???????. ????. ???.
207
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
208
????? 9
????? ?а?????? ???????
????: ???????????
?а????????
?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ???
?а ???? ???? ????. ?а ????? ???????? ??? ?а ?????????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????. ??? ?? ????????? л????? ?а?????? ??????? ????╗.
?. ??????. ????????? ?а???????? ???????*
???????????
???? ??а???? ?????: ?????????? ?а?????????
??? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????????
???? ??а???? ?????. ?а????? ???? ?????????, ??? ?а??? ????? ?????, ?????
??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????. ?а?а??????, ??? ?????? ???????? ?????
???????? ????? ??? ????????? ?а?????, ?а??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????, ????? ?а????-?? ???? ???? ?????, ??? ?а???.
????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?а?????????, ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????. ?????????
???? ????? ??а??????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ??а????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ?????? ???: л???????, ?????????, ???????? ??? ??????╗
(Liberte, egalite, fraternite ou la mort). ?а??????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????????????? ??????????, ????????????? ??а???, ???? ????????? ????
???? ???????? ?????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????????,
* D. Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations.
????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????????а?? ??? ?????? ??а??????????.
л??????, ?а?????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????╗
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ??????, ?????????????? ???
??а????, ????? ???? л???????? ????????╗ ???? ??? ???? ????. ??? ???????,
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?а2012а???? ??а??????????????, ?а???????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ???????: л??????, ?а?????, ??? ?????? ???????╗.
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209
210
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
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???????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ???????а? ??? ??а??????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????а? ???????????? ???? ?а?????? ????????? ??????? ?????. ????????? ??????????????? ????? ?а?????????, ????????
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????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????.
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????? ??????????? ??а?????а[2]. ???????????? ???? ????????????? ??????,
?????? ?а??????? ??????????, ????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????. ??а?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????????, ?а??????, ?????????? ????? ??????????, ?а???
??????? ????? (??. ?????а4). ?????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ????????
??????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?а????????????? ???????? ???????????
??????? 2008а????. ???????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??а?????,
?а?? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
?????????? ?а1970а????. ?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????
?а????????? ?????, ????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????
???????????, ?????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? (??? ???? ??а???) ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??а??????????.
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??????); ??????, ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????????, ??а????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ????????; ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ????????
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????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
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?а???????? ????????? ????????????????? ?????? (??????????? ????????
???? ?????? ??? ?? ???????????? ????????а? ?????????? ???????)* ???
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?????? ?????, ?а??????? ?????????? ??-?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????.
?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????? л??????? ????????╗ (The Spirit Level).
?а??? ??????????? ?????? ??а???????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????? (?а???????? ?а??????? ??а???? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ??? ?? ?????????? ????? 20а????? ???????? ???). ?????? ????? ??????????, ???
??????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????, ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?????, ????????????, ??????? ?а????????? ??????????, ?а?????, ????????, ????????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????????? ?а????????а[3].
*?????? ??????????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????.
211
212
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
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??????????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????????,
??а?????????????? [4].
??а??????? л?????????????? ????╗ ????? 1950-?? ?а1980-?? ??????
??????, ????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?а???? ??????, ???????? ??а????? ?????? ??????? ???????????.
?а?????? ???? ??? ??????????? ???????, ??? ?а???, ????? ??? ????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????, ??? ???????????
??????? ??????? ???????.
???????? ??а?????? ?????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????, ????
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????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???а? ???? ??а????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ????. ?а1960-?? ??а2010а??? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????? ????????
2,7а???????? ?????? 2,0а???????? ?а???. ??? ????????, ??? ?а??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а2,7а????, ?а??????а? ?а3,8а????.
??? ??????? ??а??????????, ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
???????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????. ???? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ????????????. ??а????? ?????????? ????????????, ????? ??
????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ????? л?????? ???????????а? ????? ???
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?????? ????а?? ???????? ??а?????????? ??????-?? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а????.
?а??????? ????????? ???? ???????????, ???????? ??а?? ??? ?????? ???, ???
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????????? ???????? л??????╗ ??????:
??????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????
???????, ??? ??? ?????????????? ??а????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?а???????? ???????????, ??? ?????. ???? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????????????,
????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ??????, ???
????????? ?а???????????????? ???????а? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????
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?а???? ???????, ??????????? ?а?????: л??? ?????? ???, ??? ?????? ???,
?а?? ?????? ???, ??? ????????╗. ????? ?а????? 1980-? ?а???? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????а?? ??а??????.
???????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????
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??????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? (????????? ?????).
???????? ???????: ???????????
?а??????????? ??а???????
???????????? ????????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ?а??????, ???????
?а1971а???? ??????? ???? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????? ??а?????????
(?????? ???? ?????????? ?а1969-?), ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????? ??а???????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ?а???, ???
??а???? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?а??? ??????? ??????????, ?а????? ???????????. ??? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??а?????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????, ??????? ?????
?????, ?а??? ??????? ??? ????.
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?а????????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ??а????????????????????? ??????? ?а????????????, ??? ????????? ????. ??????????????, ????????????? ???????????. ?????????
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213
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
214
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U-???????? ??????, ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ??а??????? ????.
????? ?? ???? ?????????
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??????? ?????????? ?????. ??а1970-? ????? ???, ????????, ??????????????
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XIXа???? ?а?????? ?а?????? ??а???? ?а???, ?а????? ????????. ??? ??а?????
?а1980а???? ?а??????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
???????а? ?а?????? ??? ?а?????????????? ????? ??????,а? ??? ?????????
????? ??а????? л?????╗ ??????, ??? ???????, ?а??????.
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????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????? ???????
????????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??а?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ????? 1950-?? ?а1960-?? ?????? ?а????? ???? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?а??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ???????
?????????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????
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??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????
???????????? U-??????, ?? ???????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??а?????? ???????? ??а??????? ?????????? ?,
?а?????????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????.
???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???, ??? ???? ????? ????? ??а?????????
??????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? ??а????? ?????????? ?????а?? ??????? ???????, ??? ???
(???????, ??????? ?а???????), ??? ???? ???? (???????? ?а??????). ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??а??????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????,
??? ?а???.
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??? ?????) ??? ????????????? ???????? (??? ??????а? ?а???????а? ?????
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??? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ????? ????????? 55а?????? ?а????????? ??????????,
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?а???? ??а?????? ???? ???????????, ??? ??? ?????.
217
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
218
??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????; ?? ???????? ?????? ??????, ?а???????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ??????? ??????.
?а????? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????????,
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???, ????? ?????? ????????, ???????, ????????? ?????, ????? ?????*. ?а???????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?а????????????? ????? ???? 0,2 ?а???? 0,75.
????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ?????? ???????????:
?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????
???????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ?а???а?? ?????? ?а??????????? ??а??????, ??????? ?? ???????. ?а?????
2000-? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ?а0,25, ?а?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ????? 0,28. ?а??????
?а??? ?????? ??????????: ?????? ???? ?????????? ????? 0,38, ?а???а?
???????? 0,45а[9]. ???? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ?а?????? ????, ??? ?????????? ?????а? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ???а[10].
???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ?а??????, ?? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? 0,2 ?а0,3. ?????? ??а???а?
???????? ????????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????????
???????????, ???????? (?а?????????? ???????): ???????, ???????, ?????,
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??а????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????????? ????,
*??? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??а 0, ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????????
????????а? ??? ??????? ????????.
????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ?а???? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????, ???????, ???????? ?а????????.
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?????????а0,6: ????????, ???????????, ??????? ?а??? (?а?????????? ???????). ??? ??? ????????? ?а????? ??????.
????? ?????? ?а????????????? ????? ????а0,5 ????? ????????? ?????
??????????????. ????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????: ???????,
????????, ????, ????????, ?????-????, ????????, ?????? ?а????????.
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?а??????) ?а???? (????????, ????????? ?а???????). ?а???? ?????? ?????
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???????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????
0,3 ?а0,5. ??? ?а????? ????????? ?а???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????????,
??? ??????? ???????????,а? 0,45?0,5. ????? ??????, ??? ??????, ??????,
????? ???????? ?а??????,а? ??а?????? ??????? (????? 0,3). ????? ??????,
??????????? ????? 0,35 ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а????, ??????? ???????? ??а????????а[11].
??????????? ????????? ???????
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?????? ??а????????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????. ??а????, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??а???? ???????, ?? ???????? ???????: ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ???
???????????? ?????.
???????? ?????? (??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????
??а???????? ?а????????), ??????????? ????? ??а????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ?а??? ????? ??????, ????? ??? ????? ?а?????????,
?а????? ???????, ??? ??? ?а????????, ????? ?а????????? ??а0,5 ??а0,8а[12].
?????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?а??????
?????? ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???????, ????? ??? ???????? ?а????????а[13].
?а1980-? ????? ?а??????????? ?????
????????? ??????????? ???????
?а1980-? ????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????а[14].
???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????? ?а???,
219
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
220
??????? ??????? ??? ?а????????, ?????????????? ???????. ?а??? ????
?????? ???????? 1а???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? 10а????????? ????? 1940-?? ?а1970-??, ??а??????? ??а23а????????? ?а2007а????а[15]. ???????
0,1а???????? ????????? ???? ???? ?а3?4 ??а????? 12а????????? ??а???а??
??????а[16].
??????? ?а2000а???? ????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?????????
???????????. ??а?????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????а? ?а???????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????а? ??? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ??? ??-????????
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?а1910а????, 0,64 ?а1950-? ?а0,66 ?а1992а????а[17]. ?а???????????? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????????, ??????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ??а???????? 0,7 ?а????? 1980-? ?а?????? 1990-? ????? ??а????? 0,66 ??а??????
???????? 2000-?а[18]. ??а??? ????? ????? ???????, ??? ????????????
??????????? ?????.
????? ???????, ????а?? ??? ??? ????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????? ??
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????, ????????, ????а?? ???????, ?????? ????-???? ????? ??????????????
?а1990а????, ?а???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??????.
????????
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??аXIXа???? ????????? ???????? ?а?? ????????????. ?а?? ??????? ??а?????? ?а????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?а?а??? ???? ????????, ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? (??? ?а?????? л???????????╗), ???? ??????? ????? (??? ?а?????? л?????╗) ?а???? ???????????? ??а?????, ?????
????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
?????????? ??а?????? ???? (??? ?а?????? л??????? ?а???????╗). ???????
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????? ????????? c???? ???????? ?????? ?аXIXа???? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????. ??, ??? ?а??????? ?а?????а3, ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????????.
?????? ??????????? ????????: ??????????
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??????????? л????????╗. ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????
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???????, ??? ?????????? ??????? л?? ???????? ????????? ??????????????╗, ??ал?а????????? ????? ?а??????? ????? ?????? ??????????
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????????╗.
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(?а??а????????) ??????. ????????, ?а2012а???? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??а?????? 23а050а???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????
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???????????? ????? ???????, ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????????. ?????? ????????, ??? ?а??????, ???? ??? ??????????
??????, ??а????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ???? ?а??? ????? ????? ???????
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221
222
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??? ????????? ??а?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????, ?????????,
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??? ??? ???????? ?а????? ?????. ??? ???????? ??????? ??, ??? ?а??????? ????????? L?Oreal: ???? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
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???? ??а???? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ???????? ????? ??а?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????
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223
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224
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??а???? ??????? ?а?????а11). ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ?а????? ?????, ?а????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????
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?а?????????? ??????????? ???.
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??????? ????? 1,4а????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???? ??а???? ??????? ?а????, ????? ????? ??? ??а1,25а??????? ?а????. ??? ????? ??????????? ?а1,7а?????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ?а????, ???? ???????????????
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????? 9. ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????: ??????????? ?а????????
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5?6а?????????? (????????, ??????? ?а???????) ?а20а?????????? (?????????? ?а???????).
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??????????!).
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???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ????????? л?????????????╗
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??а????????? ?а?????????? 11,9а????????).
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????????, ??а??? ??? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????????. ????????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? (20,9а????????),
???, ?????? ?а???????*.
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??? ?????????, 17,4а???????? ?а???, 16,0а???????? ?а?????? ?а15,4а???????? ?а???????.
225
226
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????????? ??а?????? ??а???? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? (??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?а???????????), ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? (?? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? л????? ??а?????╗ ?а???????????) ?а??а?????????,
????? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ???????.
?а???????????????? ????? ????? ????????, ??? л???? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??а????? ??????? ?а?????????╗. ?????? ??? ???????????
??а????????????? ??????, ???? ?????-???? ?????? ???????????????. ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????, ????? ????????
?????????? ????????. ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????
??? ??????, ??а??????????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????
??????? ???. ??????????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ??а??? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?а?????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а????????????
?????????, ?а??? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ?????, ?????
?а???????.
????? 10. ???? ? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? ?а???????????
????? 10
???? ? ??????????
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?????: ???? ? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ?? ????????????
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л????? ?а??????╗, ?????? ???, ????? 1, ?????? 1, л??????????╗
??????
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??? ????? ???????, ???????, ??а??????????????? ?????????????????? ????? (??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????, ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ???????
?????) ?а??????????? ??? 1980-? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????? л????? ?а??????╗, ??????а? ??? ??, ??? ?????? ?????? ????. ??? ??а?????, ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????-????????????, ??? ????????? ??????*, ????? ??? ??????, ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????????
???????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????.
*?????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? л?????? ????????? ??????╗ ????????? ???????
(?.а:а????????, 1984) (?а??????? ?? ????????? ? ?????а4), ???????? ??????? ????, ??? ?? ??????
??????????????? ???????????а? ??????????? ?а????? ???????? ???? ?????????, ?а??а??? ????????? ????????????.
227
228
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
?? XIXа???? ??????????? ????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????, ???????? ??а70?80а????? ?а??????, ?а????????? ???? ??????а100. ????????? ?а??? ????? (?? ??а??????) ?????????? ???? ???? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?а???????, ??? ????????, ??? ??? ????????? ??а???????
???? ??????????? ????? ?,а????????, ??а??????????? ????? ?а????, ?????
???????????.
??????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?а?????? ???????. ???????
????????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??а35 ??а55а?????. ???
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??????, ??????? ??а????: ???????? ??????????
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???? ????? ??????? ?а???????????. ?????а?? ?а?????? ???-???? ??????????,
?? ?? ?а???????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????. ?? ?????? ??а????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????, ?? ??а??а??????? ?????
??а????. ?а???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????? ??а?????, ??????? ????????
?????? ??а???? ??????????? ??????. ?а????? ?а???? ?? ???????? ??????
??а???? ???????, ????? ????? ??а??????????????? ???? ????? ?????????????? ??а???? ??????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??а??????????????? ?????? ??а????.
?? ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
??а??, ??? ?????????? ??а??????? ?????, ?????? ??а???? ???????????????
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??????, ?? ???????????. ??а?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????
???????? ??ал???????? ????? ?????╗, ??? ?????????? ?а???????????, ???
????, ?? ???? ???? ??????.
????? 10. ???? ? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? ?а???????????
????? ?????? ??????? ?аXIXа???? ????? 1,5а???????? ????????, ???????? (л????╗) ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а???????? ??????????
??а?????????? ????????, ????? ???????? ?????. ????? ????, ??? ????????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ??а?????????, ?????????? ?а2001а????
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????? ?а?????, ?????? ?????????? ??? ??а????.
?????? ??а?????????? ???????? ??а???? ???????? ?????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ??????? ??а???????? ?????????????? ????????????. ??а?????????
??????? ??а???? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??а????? ???????? ???????? (??а???? ??а?????? ???).
??а?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????а?? ?????, ??? ?а?????, ???????
?? ???????? ????????; ?????? ?????? ? ???а?? ????? ???????, ??? ??????
???? ????.
?? ?? ??а?????? ???????? ??????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?а???????.
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??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????. ????? ?????????? ???????? (? ???? ?а???? ???????? ??????), ??????, ????????,
??????????? ??????????? ??а??? ??????????, ??а?????? ??а????? ????????
???? ??????? ????? ??-?? ??????? (??? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ????????) ??? ????????????? ????? ?????????????а? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??а?????? ?? ?????, ????????, ??????? ??? ??????????. ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а????????,
??????????? ???????? ????? XIX ?а?????? ??а????.
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??? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???, ??? ????????????? ?????????
???.
?????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????*. ????? ????? ??????????
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???? ????????? ?а?????? ????.
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??а?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? (??.а?????а2), ????
???? ??? ?????????? ???, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????
*??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ? ???????? ?? 15а ??? (??? 12а ??? ??? ?????????
????? ?????), ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????, ???????? ??????,
????? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????.
229
230
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ???? ??????
??? ??????? ??????, ??а????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????
??????? л????? ???????╗, ??? ?? ?????? ????????, ???????, ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?а??а?? ??????? ?????? ??а??????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ???? ?а???? ?????????????.
?????? ????????? ??а???????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????. ??, ???
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?????? ????????? ? ??????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????????? ??? ??а????????? ???? ?а????????????, ????? ?????????,
??? ?? ???????, ??????? ????????? ?????????????.
л???????? ???????, ??????? ????????╗:
???????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????
???? ??а?????????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??, ??? ??????????
??а??????, ?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ?? ????????????? ?а?????????
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????? 10. ???? ? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? ?а???????????
?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????а? ???????? ???? ??? ??????????????? ????????????, ?а??ал????????? ???????????
??????????╗, ????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?а???????????. ??а?? ??????, ??????а?? л??????? ???????╗ ???
л??????? ????????╗ ?? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?????, ?? ??????
??????? ?? ??? ????, ????????? ??а??? ??????????? ????????? ???????
?а??????????? ??????????? ?????????????. ????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??ал??????╗ ??????, ?? ???? ??????,
??? ?? ?????? ?а??????, ??? л??????╗ ???????, ?а???????? ??? ???????? ????????, ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????. ?а????? ????,
?????? ??а???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?а1905а???? ???????
(?а???? ?????? ?????? ???-?????), ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ???-????, ????????????????, ????????? ??? л?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????
???????, ??????? ??? ??????╗а[1]. ????? ?????????????? ????????! ????
???-?? ???????? ???????? ???-??, ?? ??????????, ???? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???, ???????а?? ????? ? ????????, ??????? ?????? ?а????? ???? ????????. ???????????
??????????, ??а?????? ??????? ????????????? ??ал??????╗ ??????? ?????, ?????? ??? ??????, ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????
??????. ????????, ??????? ?а???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????,
???? ??????? ?????? ??а?а????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????. ????????,
??? ??а?????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????, ?????? ??? ?????????
????? ??? ????????????? ??-?? ?????? ?????????????. ????????, ???
???????? ??а???????? ???????, ?????????? ??? ??а????? ??????????.
??????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????а? ????? ??????. ?????а?? ???????
?????, ????????? ??? ????? ???????????????, ?????????? ????? ???
???? ??а????????? ??а???????????, ??а????????????? ?????????? ????
??а?????
?? ??а?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????
?????? ?а??????, ???? ?????? ?????? (??????? ?????? ?а????? ???????????? л???????? ????????????╗, ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????
??????? ?а1950?1970-? ?????): л????? ? ??? ???? ??????, ??? ???????? ???? ??????. ??а????? ??? ????????, ?????? ??? ????????, ???
???? ???????? ???????????╗. ????????, ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????????, ?????а?? ??????? ???????, ???????
????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? л??????╗ ??????,
???????????*.
*???? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? л?????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????????????: ??????????? ??????????????? ?????╗ ?????а4.
231
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
232
???????? ?????
?????????????? ????
?? ??????? ???, ??а????????? ??а2012а??? ????? 21а???????? ???????
?а???? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ???? 0,6а???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ???????, ??а???????, ????????? 3,3а????????? ??????? (0,3а???????? ????????? ????), ??а??? ???? ??? ????? ???????
??????. ?? ?????? ???, ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????
????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????? (0,42а???????? ?????????) ?а?????? (0,40а????????).
???? ?а??????? ???????, ??а???????, 0,15а???????? ????????? ??????????
?????????????? ??????а[2].
??????? ????
?? ??????? ???, ?а???? ????????????? 123а???????? ?????????? ?????
?а???????? ??а5 ??а14а???, ??? ???????????? 3,7а???????? ??????? ????
?а????. ??? ??а????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????; ? ?а???? ?????????
?????, ??а??????????????, ????? ???????? ????? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ??????-????? (57а?????????), ??а??? ???? ??????? (53а????????), ?а????? ????????????????????? ??????????, ???, ??????-?????
?а???? (??? ??а47?48а?????????). ??????????? ?????? ????? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????? (??????, ????? 30а?????????) ????????? ?а??????. ??а????????? ??а??? ??????????? ?а????
(????????а? 39а?????????, ?????а? 34а????????) ?а????????? ???????
(????а? 34а????????).
????? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ????????, ?????? ?а????????? ??????, ?? ??а???????????? ??. ?а??????? ?? ????????? 19а?????????, ???????? ??а?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ????????? ?а???? ?а2010а????. ?а???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ????????
?????? ???????? ????? ?а????, ????? ??????? ??а???? ????????? ?а???а??
???? ????????? 4710а????????, ??а???? ??? ????? ?а30а??? ????. ??? ????
??????: ?а1960-? ????? ?????, ???????? ??а?? ??? ?а?? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а????, ??????????? ????????????? ????
????? ??а12а???, ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????, ?а?????
????????? ??????? ??а??????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ??????????,
??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????????
?????, ???? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????, ?а??????? ??
???????????.
????? 10. ???? ? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? ?а???????????
? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????
??????? ??????, ??? ?а???????
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?а??????, ???? ?а???????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? (? ??????а? 42а????, ?а?????а? 44, ?а?????????а? 46)а[3].
???? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????, ???????
???????? ?? ????????????? ?а????????????? (?? 70 ??а80а????? ?а??????).
? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??а???????? ??? ?????, ??? ??,
??? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????
?аXVII?XIXа?????, ??а??????? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ????????????. ????????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ??а?????????? ???? ????? ?а??????, ???,
????????, ?а?????? (??а55 ??а56а?????) ?а???? (??а53 ??а54 ?????). ???????
????????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????а? 45?50а?????а? ?а?????
???????, ??? (?а?????????? ???????) ?????????, ?????, ????????, ?????????, ????????, ???????, ????????, ???????, ?????? ?а???-?????.
??? ????? ????????????? ?????, ??????? ?? ?????? ??а?????? (? ??????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ?????). ?а??????? ?а??????
???????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ???????? ????
?????? ???????? ????? ??а?????? ?? ?????? ?а???????, ??? ????? ??????????? ??а?? ??????????????. ?а????? ?????? ?а??? ????? ???? ??а?????
????? ?а???? ??а??, ????? ?????? ????????? ??а?????? ?а???????, ???? ??
?????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?а????? ??а?????????? ????????
??? ?????? ?а?????????? ?а????? ??а??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????. ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????
?а??????? ????????? ?а?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????
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?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????
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???????? ????? ???????. ??а?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ?????? (??? ?????????? ??? ?????, ??? ??????? ????, ?а48а?????
?а??????), ??? ????????? ??????????? ??а?? ????????. ?????? ????? ??????
?а???????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ?? ????
???????? ???????? ??????? ????, ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????, ???
????????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
2008а????. ?а????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ?????? ?а??? ????, ?? ??? ????
????? ????, ???? ???? ???-?? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?
233
234
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???????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????-?? ?????. ???????? ?????? ????, ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??а????????????? ???????? ?????, ?а???????, ??????? ?а???????????? ???????
(???????????????????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ??а?????? ????????
????????), л????????????╗ ??????, ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? (????????? ??а???? ????????? ?????). ????? ??????, ???
???? л?? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ????????????╗.
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?а????????? (51а???????) ?а????? (50а?????????); ???????, ????????
?а??????? ????? ???? ???? 40а?????????. ????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? (3а????????), ??????? (5а?????????), ???????? (5а?????????) ?а??????????? (7а?????????).
??? ????? ???? ????????????? ????????:
???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????
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??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а????, ?а?? ????? ??? ?а?????? ???
????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????; ??а??????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????
(??? ???????? ???? ??????? ????) ?а???. ????? ???????, ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?а????, ????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?а???, ??? ????? ???????? ???? ?а?????? ????????????.
????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????а? ?????? ????. ????? ???
????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??а??? ??а????????? ??а2011а??? ?а???????????, ????????, ???????? ?а???????а[4]. ??а?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????: ????? ?????,
??????, ??? ?а??????а[5]. ?????? ???? ???????? ?а??? ?????, ???????
??а????? ????????? ????????. ?а????? ??а???а? ???????а? ??????? ????? ?????? (2250а?????) ???? ??????, ??? ?а????? ????? (2090а?????)а[6].
????, ??? ???? ????????????? ??????а? ???? ????, ????? 2047а????? ?а???
?а????????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? (2039а?????).
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?????????????.
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?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????????
????? 10. ???? ? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? ?а???????????
?????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (???? ??а??????????).
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? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????
???????? ??????????, ???????? ??а???? ???????????? ???????. ??а???
???????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????, ????? ????? ?????. ??а????? ???? ????? ???????? ?а1,4?1,5а???? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????????. ????????? ???? ????????? ???
?а??????? ????????????????, ??????? ??????? ??, ??????? ?а??????????,
?а?а1,25а???? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ??????.
?????? ????, ?????????? ??????, ???????
??????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??, ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ???????, ?а???????, ??????????, ???????, ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ?а?????? ????????. ????? ????????????? ???????? ??а??????, ?????????? ??????? ??а50, ?а??
?а?? 80а???. ?а?????? ????? 1870-?? ?а1920-?? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ??а????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????????
??????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????. ??а???????? ?????? ????????
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?????? ?????, ?????? ????? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ??? ????????? ????, ?, ??????????????, ??????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????а[7]. ??а???????, ??а??????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?а?????? ?????????????????? ?????, ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????????. ? ???????????
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235
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????? 10. ???? ? ?????????? ??????????: ?????? ?а???????????
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????????, ???????? ??а???????? ???????? ??? ???????????. ? ?????,
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????????? ??????? ???? ????; ?а?????? 1970-? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????? (????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? 200а????? ???????) ????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ??????? ???, ????????, ??? ??????
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60?75а????????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ????? ??а??? ????. ??а?а?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????. ?а??? ??????????? ???? 30?40а????????? ??а??????????? ?????? (? ??????????? ??а?????,
?а??????? ?? ??????). ?а??????????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????.
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237
238
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???? ???????????? ?а????? ??????? ?а????????????а[9].
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??а??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????? 1970-? ?а1980-?
?????.
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239
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241
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
242
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???? 79а???.
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(?? ???? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????), ?? ??а????????, ?????????
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????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? 2008а???? ??????? ???????????
?а??????????? ??????? ????? ????????. ?а???, ?????????????? ?а??????
?? ????? ?????? ???????????: ??а????? 6а????????? ??а???????? 9?10. ?????
???? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??-???????? ??????????
????? 8а?????????. ????????? ???? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а???, ?????? ????????, ????? 15а?????????, ???? ???????? ?а????
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? л????????????╗ ??????? ????????, ???????? ?????? ????????????
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(18а?????????) ?а???????? (14а?????????).
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??? ??а????? ?????? ?а??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?/??? ???
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243
244
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249
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????? 11. ???????? ??? ?????????-???????? ????а???????????
???????? ?????
???? ??а????????? ???? ??????????????? ????????
?а???, ??а????????? ??????? ???? ???????
????????????? ??????????? ?????????
?? XIXа???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??а????????? ????
??????????????, ????????? ?а?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????. ?а1880а???? ????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????????? 15а????????? ???. ?а?????????????? ?а??? ??????????????? ???????
???? ???????????? 10а????????? ???, ?а? ?????? ? ????? 6а?????????а[4].
?? ????????? ????????а?а???????, ?а?????? ?????????? ???????????
?????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????. ???? ?а????????????? ???????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????, ??? ?а???????,
??????????????? ??????? ???????????? 15?25а????????? ???*. ??? ????? ?????????? 30?55а????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??а??????? ???????????
????? 45а????????? (? ??????? ?а???? ?а2009а????). ?а?????? ????? ????????? (30?40а?????????) ????????? (? ??????? ???????????) ?????, ?????????, ????????? ?а??????. ??а?????? ????? (?? 55а?????????) (? ???????
????????) ??????????? ?????, ?????????, ???????, ?????? ?а???????.
?а????????а? ??? ?а????? ???????? (????? 40а?????????), ????????
?а???????? (????? 45а?????????) ?а?????????? ?а?????????????? (?????
50а?????????)а[5].
? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????
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??????????? ??? ??????????
?????? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??а??а?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????????.
??? ??????????, ?? ???? ??????? ????? ??а????? ????? ????????? ?а??????,
???????? ??а????????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а?? ???????????. ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ??а?????? ?????????
?? ??а????????.
??????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? 10?
25а????????? ??? ?а??????? ???????. ???, ????????, ?????????????, ?????
* ?????????? ?????????? ?????? (10а?????????)а? ?????? ??????, ? ????? ???????? ? ???????
(????? 40а?????????)а? ??????? ??????.
263
264
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? 55а????????? ???, ????? ?????????? ??????? 30а????????? ???, ???? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ?????????? 25а????????? ???.
? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а???
?а????? ???, ?????????????? ??????????????, ?а???? ??????? ???????
??????. ??а?????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ??а???? (????????, ?????????) ??а4?5а????????? ??? (????????, ???????) ?а??????????? ????????????? ?????.
???????? ??а?? ??? ??-?? ????? ???? ????????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ????????, ??? ???? ??а????? ???? ?а??????????? ???, ??????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??а???????? (? ??а?? ??????????? ?????????) ??? ?????????? ????, ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????
?а????????? ??????. ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??а??? ?????????, ???
???? ???-?? ???? ????????, ??? ??а????????, ??? ??? ??а????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ????????, ???, ????????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??а????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а?????
?????? ????????, ?????? ??а?????? ?а??????. ??? ????? ???? ????????
????? ????? ??а??????? ???? ?а?????? ?????????, ???????????????????
???????????? ?а?????????? ?а????? ??????, ???????????? ?? л????????????╗,а? ????????, ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????-???????????????
?????? ??????: л?????????? ???? ????????????╗.
??????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????????
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??? ????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????? ??????, ??а??????????? ?????????????? ??а????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ???? ???????????? ??????, ?а??? ????? ??????????? (????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????
??а???).
??? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?а???????????? ???????. ?????????? ??а??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????????????
??????????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??а????????? ?????????, ???? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ???? ?????????? ??
??????????.
??? ??а????????????? ????????????? ????????. ??а1980-? ????? ??????
???? ??????, ??? л????????????? ????╗ ????? ????????? ????, ????? ???
??????, ??????? ??? ?????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????
????? 11. ???????? ??? ?????????-???????? ????а???????????
??а??? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??а????????? (???? ??а?? ???????). ?????? ??? ??а????????, ??? ??? ??????????????
??????? ???????????????. ? ?????? л????╗ ??? ?????? ?????? ??а???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ????????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???. ????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????????, ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а????????
????????????? ?а???? ???????.
??????????: ????????????? ??????
??а?????????? ??? ????????
? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а??? ?а2000а???? Financial Times
????????? ????? ????????????? ??????: ????? ?????????? ??а ??????
?а ???, ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????????, ??а ?а ?????? ??? ??а ???????????? ???????. ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???,
??? ???? л??????╗ (??? ?????????? ??? ?а????, ??? ?а? ????) ??? л???????
????????????????╗.
??????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??а?????????? ???????????? ???? ?а???? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????
???????, ???. ??? ???????? ???, ?????? ??? ??????? л????????╗ ????? ??????? ??????, ? ??????????? л????????????????╗ ???????????? ?а??????
???????? ????????????? ????????.
? ??? ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ???. ? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????????
?а??????????? ?а???????. ???? ? ?????? ??????а? ?? ????????? ??????
?а????? ?????? ?а??????? ???? ??а??????. ??????? ?а???????????? ???????
??????????? ??????? ????????. ??а?????? ????, ?????? ?а?????? ?а?????????, ??а????? ??????, ?????? ?а??????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ??а?????? ????? ?????? ??????, ??? ???а? ???а?? ??? ????????а? ??а????????.
???????? ????????? ?а????????а? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????????.
??а????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????, ????? ???????????????? ????,а?
????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????. ??? ??а????? ?а?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????. ?????????, ?а????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ????, ?а???
????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????????, ??? ?? ??а????? ???????? ???, ???
????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????. ?????
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???? ?а??? ????????, ??? ????????????? ????????? л?????????? ????╗, ???
??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ??а??????
265
266
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
??а????????? ???????. ????? ????????? ?а????????, ?а???? ???????, ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??а?????????. ?????? ?????? ?????
?????? ???????? ??а????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ? ???
???????? ?а???? ?????. ? ????? ????, ??а?????????????? ????????????????.
??а????????? ???? ????? ?? ??а??? ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ????, ???
??????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????????, ????
??а?????????????? ??, ???????? ??????? ???????????.
??????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ???????, ??а??????????, ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????. ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ???????????
???????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????-???????? ???????. ????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????,
?????? ???? ????????????????. ??? ??а????? ??????????? ??-???????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ?
??????, ??????? ???????????? ????????????? (? ??????????) ?????????
??? ???? ????? ????????.
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
????? 12
л???, ??? ????? ????????╗:
????????????? ???????
????????????? ????????
л? ??????????? ???? ???, ??? ?????? ????? ????????╗
? 1792а???? ?????? ?????????????? ?????аIII ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?а?????. ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????
???????? ??а???? ?????????? ?????, ? ??а?????? ????? ?????? (????????),
? ?? ????? ???????????? ????, ???????? ??? ???????????. ??????????
??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????? (??? ????? ???????),
??а??????? ????? ??-?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???, ?а????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??????, ???? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ????????? ???????????. ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????
?а??????? ?а??????, ?а??????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??а????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????????. ?? ???????? ???????????
??????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а???????? л?????????? ???????╗, ????????? л???, ???? ?а??????, ???????
?????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????╗.
??????? ??????, ??? л? ??????????? ???? ???, ??? ?????? ????? ????????,
?а?? ??а?????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ??????, ??? ??? ????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????? ??а???? ?????????╗а[1].
?? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????. ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а???????
?а??????? ???????? ??????? ?а1799а????. ??а??? ??а?????????, ?а?а1838а????
267
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
268
????????? ???????, ???? ????????, ???????? ?????? л????????? ??а??????????????? ??????????╗ ???? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? ????. ?а????? ??а??? ?а1840а???? ?????????? ??????? ??????
???????? ?????, ?а??????? ????? ??? ?????????. ?????????????? ????????
??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ???????,
??а??????????? ???????? ?а1842а????. ??а???? ??????????? ???????? ???????
?????????, ??????????? ????? ?а????????????? ????????.
????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????
??????????а? ?а????? ?????: ?????????????
???????????? ?????? ??????????
????????, ??? ????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????
??а????????? ????????, ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????????? ????????; ?????? ???????? ?????? ??а???????, ??? ?????????????
????????а? ??? ??????. ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ??а????? ???? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????. ?????? ??????
?а???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????????; ?? ???? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ??а????????? ?а???????? ?а????????, ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????????
???????. ?????????????, ?а????? ??? ??????, ???????????? ??????? ?????.
?????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????
??????? (??. ?????а4), ?????? ??????? ?????????. ???????? ???? ??????, ???
????? ??????? ?????? ??а????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????, ????
???? ???? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????, ??? ??????, ???,
????????, ????? ??а????????? ?а??????????????? ?а????? XVIIIа????а? ??
?????? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????. ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ????????, ?а????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????. ????? ????, ???? ???? ??????
??а?а????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??а????????, ???? ?а???? ???? ????? ????? ??????. ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????, ??? ????????? ?а??? ???????.
?????? ?????? ?????????????
??????????? ??????????а? ????
????????? ?? ???????? ?????????
? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? XIXа???? ?????? ?????????????
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
???????? ?а????????????? ????????, ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а???. ? ?? ?????? ??????????а? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????????, ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????. ?????????
????????? ???, ?????? ??????? ?????? ??а???? ?????? ?????????? ??????
????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????????????????????
(????? ???), ?а??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????а4, ????????? ???
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????а[2].
? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ??????
????? ????????? ??????????????, ?????????, ??а??
??????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????????
???????? ?????? ?????????????, ??????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???, ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????, ?? ???? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????, ????? ????????а[3]. ?а???????????? ?а???? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ??а???????
?????? ????? ?????????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????, ?
??а???????, ?????? ??, ??? ?? ???????????? ?а??????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ????
?а??????????? ??а??????? ???????? ?а??????? ????. ??????????? ????, ???
?????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????, ???? ??а??????????????? (????????? ?????? ?аBMW ?а?????????? ??а?????а4). ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????
????? ????????? ??????????????, ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ????????
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????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????
????????????? ????????, ??? ??? ????????????,
??? ??????? ?а???? ????? ????????????????
????? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????
? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????? ??????, ??а?? ????????? ?а???????, ????? ?? ??а???????, ?????? ??а????????
?????. ????? ??????, ??????, ??а????? ?????????, ?????????? (????????,
?????????????????, ???????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????????
????????????) ?????а?? ???????? ?а????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ??????
??????????????? ??а????? ?????? ????. ?????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????????????? (????????????
269
270
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
?а??????????) ????????????? ????????????? ??????????????, ?????? ???
??????????? ???????? ?????? ??-?? ???????? ???????, ?а???????а? ????
?????. ??а?????? ???? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ????????????, ?а??????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????а? ??????, ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????????????
?????????? ????????????,а? ?????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????,
?а??????, ?????? ???????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ????????
???????, ?а????? ???????, ????? ??????? ?а???????????, ?а????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ?а????????. ?а?????????? ??? ????????.
? ??????????а?? ??????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??а?????????,
?????????? ??? ??????, ????????? ??а?а???. ??????? ????????????, ???????
?а????, ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????: ???? ????????? ?????
л?????? ???????????╗ ??? ??????? ?ал?????? ????????╗, ??????? ????
????? ?а????????? ????????. ??а???????? ???? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??а??????????? ?а???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????, ??????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????. ? ????????
???????????, ??????????????????????? ?а??????? ?????????????????
????????? ???, ??? ??? ????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?? ??????? (????????? ??????? ??а??????? л?????? ?а?╗ ?ал??????? ????????╗.)
?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??а?????????????
????????, ?????? ??? ??????? ??а?????????????, ??? ???? ??????? ?а????
?????????, ??? ?????????, ????????? ????????????????, ?, ?????????????, ????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?а???? ???????????? (??? ?????????????
?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????)а[4].
???? ??????? ??????????? ??а????? ?????????
?????? ??? ????, ??? ??а?????????????
???????? ?????????? ????? ?????
???? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ????????
????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ??????, ???????? ??а??????? ??????????? (??. ?????а4). ??? ??????????, ???, ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ??а??? ??????? ??????
??????????? ????? ??????, ?а??????????, ???? ????? ??????? ???????????,а? ?????????????? ?????.
??? ? ??? ???????, ???????????, ???, ?????? ??а?????????????. ?а??????? ??????? ???? ?????????а? ?????? ?????????а? ??????????? ?????
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
??????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????
??????????? ?а?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????????? ?а(??а??????????? ???) ??????????? ??????. ??а?а???????????
????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????, ???? ?????? ??????????; ?а????а?? ??? ?????????? ??а??? ????? ?????????? ?????.
???? ??????????? ??а?????????????, ?? ????????? ??а??? ?а????????
?????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????, ???
?а?????? ?а?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????а? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????
??????????????? ???????????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ????????, ??? ????? ?????????.
????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????,
???????? ??? ????????????? ?????, ??????
????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??а?????? ???????
?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?а???,
??? ??? л?????? ????????╗ ?а????????. ??а??????????? ????????? ???????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????.
?????? ??????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????
??????. ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ?????? ???????
????????? ?? ???????????? (??? ?????????? ?????? ????????). ??? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????, ?????????, ???? ?а??? ??а????? ???????? ????? ????? ?а??? ??а?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ????????
????????? ?? ??а????? ??????? ????. ?а??????? ???????? ???????????
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????????????а? ??а??????????? ???????? ??а????????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ??а????
??????????? ??????????. ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????,
????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ????, ???????? ????? ??????????, ???????????, ?????????????? ??????.
??? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????.
???? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????. ???????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????????, ??а???????
????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????
?????????? ????????, ????а? ??? ???????, ??????????? ?а????????
271
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
272
?????, ?а??????? ? ??????????? ?а?????а7. ??? ?? ?????. ??????????,
????а?? ????? ??а??????? ???? ????? ??а??????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ?????????????, ???? ?а???? ????????????, ???? ?а???? ???????? ??а?????????? (??????? ??????????
??а????????????? ??????????????? ??????????), ???? ?а???? ??????????? ????????????.
???? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?а???????????? ?а??????? ?????? (?? ????
?а???????? ??? ?а????), ??? ??? ????? ??а?????? ????????? ?????? ??????.
??????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ????????.
???????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ??а????? ??? ??а????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????
????? ????????, ???????? (?? ??а?????????????) ??? ?????????????
?????. ???????? ??????? ?а????????? ????????, ????????????? ??????
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?? ???????? ?а????????? ?????
? ?????? 1960-? ????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????????? ???
????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ?а?????, ???????? 12а????????? ???????? ??? (? ??????? ??а1960?1964а????). ????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????, ??? ??????? ???, ?а?????????
????? ??????????? ?????????? 29а????????? (? ??????? ??а2007?2011
????)а[5].
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??а2007?2011а????), ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? 13а?????????. ????????
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
?????????? ???????/??? ?а??????/???, ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ????????, ?????? 15а?????????. ??? ???????????
???? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?а29а?????????, ??????????? ????.
? ???????????????? ???а? ???? ??а???????? ???????-????????? ?????
?а????.
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???????? ???????-??????????????? ?????????, ??????? ??а???????? ?а?????а?? ???????, ??? ?а??? (15а?????????). ?а?????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? (????????, ?а????????????? ????????) ??? ?????????
?а?????? ????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ???????, ???? ????? ?????????? ??а????????, ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ??????????????????? ?????????
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??????, ????? ??? ??????? (206а?????????) ?а???????? (198а?????????).
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?а???????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????? ?а????? ??????????, л???????╗. ?а??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ????? ???
??????? ?а??????, ?а????????? ????? ??????? ?????????????, ????????
?????, ????????? ?а?????.
??????????? ??????????? ??а???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????? (??????, ???? 60а?????????). ?а??? ?????? ??????
????????? ??????? ?????? (????????, ?????????? ?а???????), ????????? ??????????? ????? (????????, ?????? ?а?????????? ??????) ?а????????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??? (????????, ????????
?а???????).
273
274
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
????????? ????????? ?????????????
????????: ?????????? ???? ???????? ????????
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????????, ???????? ?а????????????? ???????
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???????????? ???????????, ?????? ??а?????? ??????????? ???, ??????,
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??? ??а?????? ???. ????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????????
????? ?а17а????????? ?а?????? 1980-? (1980?1982 ????) ??а????? 20а????????? ?а?????? 1990-? ?????. ?????? ?а??? ??? ?? ????? ??а????????? ?а?????,
?а?????? ????????? ?????????а[6].
??-??????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???, ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????? ????????
? ?????? ???????? ??а???? ?????????? 40?45а?????????а[7]. ??а??????????? ?????? ??? (???? ?????? ComTrade), ??? ??????? ??а57?60а?????????
?а1960а????, ?а????? ??а61?64а????????? ?а1970-?а[8]. ???????? ?????? ???
??????? ?а1980а???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??а?????? ???. ?а?????? 1980-? (? ??????? ? 1980?1982 ?????)
???? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? 57а????????? ??????? ????????
????????. ????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?а78а?????????
?а????? 1990-? ????? (? ??????? ?а1998?2000а?????). ?а??? ??? ??? ????????? ?а?
????????? ????? ?????????? 69а????????? (? ??????? ?а2009?2011 ?????)а[9].
????? ???????, ???? ?????????? ???????? ????????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????????, ? ???? ??????, ??? ???? ????????
????????. ??? ??? ???? ????????????? ????, ??? ?? (???? ???) ??а?????
?а????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????? (??. ????? 7).
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??????????? ?????????: ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????
???? ???? ?а????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????а? ?а????? 9а????????? ?а???????? 1980-? ??а???????? 28а????????? ?а????????? ?????а[10]. ????? ????? ?а???????????? ???? ?????????????? ?????? ????????
????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????????
?а?????. ???? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?а1980а????
?????????? 0,8а????????, ??а?а2012а???? ??????? ??а16,8а????????.
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
????????? ??????
????????? ??????а? ??? ?????????, ????????????, ??????? ?????? ???
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????????. ??а????? ?????, ????? ?? ?????, ????? ?????? ?? ????????, ???
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????? ?????????.
??-??????, ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ?????н
???????? ???????? (?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???? ???
???????? ?????) ???, ??-??????, ??а????-?????? ???????? ?????? (л???????
??????????╗).
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?????????? ??а??????????? ????????????, ??а??????????? ?а?????
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?а?????? ????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????????
???????????????.
275
276
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????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
?????????? ???? ?а???????? ??????? ??а??????????? ??????????, ?????? (???????????) ??????????, ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????????
???????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??????? (????? ????????) ?а????????
????????????? (?а??? ????? ????????? ?а??????????). ?????? (???????????) ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? (??????????? 10а?????????) ???? ????? ????? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ?а?? ??????????а[11]. ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
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???????????? ???????) ?а????? (???????? ??????????). ????????? ??????а?
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277
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???? ???, ????????????? ??? ?????????????. ????????, ?а2010а????
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?????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????
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????????? 67а????????? ??а???. ??????? ????????? ??????? ?а???? ????
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????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
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???????????а[14].
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л????????? ????????╗ (????????, ?????????? ?а????????? ???????)а[16].
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???????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ???????. ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????
????????????.
? 2005а???? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? Christian Aid ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??а?????????? ????? (????????,
*????????? ?? ???, ????????, ??????, ??? ?????? ??? ? ??????? ????? л????? ??????╗ ??????
???? ????? ??а??????? ???? ?аStarbucks Tower ?а??????.
281
282
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
????????????? ?????? ??а????? ??а0,4 ??????? ?? ?????, ???????? ????????? ??а??????? ??а40а???????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??а528а????????), ?а????? ??????? ??а?????????? ????? (????????, ???????????
??????? ??а???????? ??а5485а???????? ??а???????, ???????? ??а??????
??а4896а???????? ?а??????? ?????? ??а??????? ??а1089а????????)а[17]. ?????? Starbucks ?аGoogle ?????????? ??а??????????? ???? ???????? ??????
?а???, ??? ??? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????, ????? ???
??????? ??а????????????? ??????, ????????? ??????, ???????? ??а???????? ?а?????????? ???????????????? ?????? (????????, ?????? ????????
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????? ??? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????н
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??????? ????????????? л?????╗ ??? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????, ?? ??? ??а??? ?? ?????. ?????? ?а???? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????
?а???????? (???? ?а?????? ??????????? ???????????????), ?????? ??? ???,
???а?? ??? ???????,а? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ????????, ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????????????????, ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?а????????????? ??????. ????? ???,
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???? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????????,
??????? ?? ????????? ?а?????а11.
? ??????? ????? ?а???????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ???, ?а??а??? ??????? ?????????. ????
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
???? ??а?????? ?а???????????? ?а???????, ???????? ???????? ?а????????
GlaxoSmithKline ?а?????? ???????????????? ??? ?а?????, ??????????????
?а2013а????, ?? ?а?а????????? ???????????.
??????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?а????????? ????????
????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? Gap. ??а??? ????? ?????? ?????????????. ?????? ??? ???????? ??а????? ?????? ?????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????а? ??????????, ?????????? ?а?????????а? ?????????? United Fruit Company (UFC)
?а?????? ??????????? XXа????. ??????????? ?????? ?а???? ???????а? ?????
????????? ??????? ??а????????? ?????????? UFC ?а????????, ??????????? ? 1928а????, ????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? UFC ????????? ??а????????? ???? ????? ?а?????, ????????, ????????? ????? ??????? (??????
????? ??? ? ??а???? ???????????). ??? ??????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? л???
??? ???????????╗ ???????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ????????????? ????????. ???????, ????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????
?а1960?1970-? ?????, ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????,
??????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?а?а???.
? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????. ??? ?????? ?? ?????????
??? ??????????? ??а????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??а?????????. ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ????? ??? ??????, ?????, ??????? ?а?????????, ?????? ????????????
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??????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?а????? 1950-? ?????, ??? ??? ??????????
?????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? Toyota ?а???а[18],
??????? ???????????????? ????а?? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ???, ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а?? ?????.
(?а1955а???? ???????? General Motors ?а???????? ????????? 3,5а????????
???????????, ?а??а????? ??? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????а? ???? 70а?????.)
???????????? ??? ????? ???? ?????????
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??????????????? ??????
??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??а?????? ??????? (?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????), ??-?? ???? ?????? ??????????
283
284
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????. ??????? ??а?? ????????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?а?? ????????? ????????????? (????? ??? ?????????, ???????, ?????????????????? ?????, ???? ?а???????????? ???????????) ?а???????????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ????????????
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?а?????????? ???????????), ?а??????????? ???????, ???????????????,
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???????? ????????, ????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??а??????????? ??????????? (??????????
?а???????? ??????????) ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? (??????????
???????? ??????????)а[19].
????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ?????, ??????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? ???????а? ??? ?????????, ???? ?????????????? ???
?а????????? ????????, ??а?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????
???? ???????? ????, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????????, ?а???????а?
??????????????. ??????, ????????? ?????????? ??? (?????????? ?а????????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ?????), ???????????? ??????????
?а????????? ???????? (???) ?а???????????? ?????????????? ??????????
(???), ??????? ?????? (? ??? ????? ??????, ?????? ?????????????? ???
?????? ???? ?а????) ??????? ??? ????? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ???????????а[20].
????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?а?????,
??а????????, ??? л????╗а? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???. ?????? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ?а????????, ???????????? л??????╗
??? ??????????? ??? ?а?? ???????, ???????, ??а?? ??????, ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????а[21]. ?? ???????? ????????
???????? ??? ??? ?а????????? ?????????? ?ал????????????╗ ???????,
??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????.
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
???????? ?????
???? ??????? ???
? ???????? 1980-?, ????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ????? ?? ?????
?а???? ???????? ????? 75а?????????? ???????? ?а??? (? ??????? ??? 1983?
1987а?????)а[22]. ??????? ??? 1519 ?????????? ???????? (??????? ????????
??? 2008?2012а?????), ?? ???? ????? ??? ?а???????? ??? ???? ??????????
1980-?; ??????? ????????????? ?а???????? 12,8а???????? ?а???. ??? ?????
??????? ?????????, ?а????? ?????а? ????? ????????, ??а?? ??????? ????????????? ?а???????????.
? ???????? 1980-? ?????????? ????? ??? ?а???? ??? ????????????
0,57а???????? ???????? ??? (? ??????? 13а500а?????????? ????????
?а1983?1987а?????). ?????????? ??? ??????? 2008?2012 ?????, ?????????а??
??????? ?? ?? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?????
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1980-? (1983?1987а????) 87а????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????. ?а?? ????? ??а??? ???????????
83а???????? ???????? ???, ?а??????, ??? ???????? ????-???? ?????? ?????
л????????????╗ ???? ???. ?а????????? ????? (? 2008?2012 ?????), ???????? ??а??? ?????? ?а???????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??а66а?????????.
??????????, ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ???? ???????????. ????? 1980-?
?а2010а????? ?? ????????? 18,7а???????? ??????? ??????? ???. ??а????
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???). ?а??????? ??а???, ????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ???????????
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** ??? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????????? 4,4а???????? ???????? ???.
285
286
????? II. ?????????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ????? 0,7а???????? ??????? ??? ??-?? ?????????? ??а????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?а??????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????.
???? ???????? ???????? ??а????? ??????? ?а??? ?????? (2007?2011а????),
?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???, ?????, ??????????????,
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???, ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????? ????? л????????????╗ ????,
?а?? ????? ??? ??? ?????????а? ??????а[23].
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?а?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??а????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????
?????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?а???? ????. ?а?????? ?а1980-??
??а2010а??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???, ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????, ????????? 75,7а???????? ??а?????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ??а?? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? 71,4а???????? ??? ?????????????
?????а[24]. ?а?????????, ????? ?а??? ?????? ??????? 32,2а???????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????, ???????? ??а?? ??? ??? ???? ?а??? ???? ????????? ??????????
?????????? 22,8а????????.
? ????????? ????? ?а????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ?а???
???????????? ???????????, ??? ????????
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? ?????? ???? ??? 1990-? ????? ??? ?а??? ???????????? ???????????, ??
???? ??????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????, ???? ???????????? 31,5а???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????????
??????????а[25]. ?????????? ????? ????? ??а57,7а???????? ????? 1998??
?а2001а?????. ????? ???????? ??а33,7а???????? ?а2002?2004а????? ?? ?????
???????? ??а44,7а???????? ?а?????? ????? 2005?? ?а2008а?????. ???? ??????, ??? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????
??а?????? ??????? ?????? ??а????????? ??? ??????????? (?? 25,3а????????
?а?????? ????? 2009-? ?а2012а?????), ????? ????????? ??????????, ???
??? ?а??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ?а????? ????????.
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??? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????а[26]. ??а????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ??а???? ????????
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????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
?а???????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????а? Boeing ?аAirbus.
??? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????? ???????-?????????? ????? ?????????????????? (??? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????). ????????, ? ??????? ?????????????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????: Rolls-Royce, Pratt&Whitney
?аFairfieldа? л?????╗ GE.
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287
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288
???? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ?а???? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?а???
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???????? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а1960?1970-? ?????, ?????
Wirtschaftswunder, ??? ????????????? ????, ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????. ??а???? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????а? ??а???????, ??????? ?а????????????
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*???????? ????????, ??? ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ????
???????.
????? 12. л???, ??? ????? ????????╗: ????????????? ???????
?????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????, ??а?????
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???????????? ??? ??????-??????????а[33].
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???????????. ??, ??? ??а????????????, ???????????? ?а????????? ??????,
289
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290
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291
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?????? ???????????? ?????? ??а?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?а??????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? (1945?
1973а????), ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????,
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Cui bono? ?????????а? ??? ???????????? ????????
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293
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???????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?а????????
????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????.
?а????? ?????а?? ????????????? ?????? ?????, ???????, ???????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ????, ??????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ???????? ??????, ??????? ????????, ???? ?????, ??н? ???
???????, ??????? ?????????, ?????? ???????????, ????? ????, ??????
?????, ???? ??????, ??????? ????????-????, ????? ??????, ?????? ??????????, ???????? ??, ????? ????, ??? ????, ?????? ????, ???????? ?????????, ????? ?????, ????? ???????, ?????? ?????, ?????? ???? ?а??? ???.
??? ???????? ?а??????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ??????????
????? ??? ?а?????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????????. ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ??а??????????а?? ?????, ????? ??? ?????.
?а??????? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ???????, ?????? ???
?а???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????, ??а??? ??? ????? ?????? ???
????? ????? ?а???????????? ????.
??? ????????? ????? ?а?????? ??а???? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????
??????? ?????, ??????? ?а?????. ???? ?а???? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????
???????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????????. ??? ?? ????????????????? ?а?????????
?а??????? ??а????а?? ???, ??? ?а???? ??????. ?а???????? ??? ????? ??.
299
??? ???????? ?????????
300
??????????
??????
1.???? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????? The macroeconomist as scientist and
engineer, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 20, no. 4 (2006).
2.????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????????
?а??????? ????????? 2013 ???? ??????? ??????? л?????????????а?? ?????????а? ??? ??????╗ (Robert Shiller ?Is economics a science??): http://www.theguardian.
com/business/economics-blog/2013/nov/06/is-economics-a-science-robert-shiller.
????? 1
1.?R. Lucas, ?Macroeconomic priorities?, American Economic Review, vol. 93, no.а1
(2003). ??? ????????? ?????????? ?а??? ??????????? ??а???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????.
2.??а????? ??????? ??????? Money: The Unauthorised Biography (London:
The Bodley Head, 2013) ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????.
3.??????? ??а???? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ???????? ??? ?а?????????; ??а??? ???? ?? ??????????? ?а?????? ??а????????????? ???? ?а????????????.
????? 2
1.???а????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ????????????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????????; ?а????????? ??а??? ?????????????? ?а?????а4.
2.?Clifford Pratten, ?The manufacture of pins?, Journal of Economic Literature,
vol. 18 (March 1980),а?. 94. ???????? ????????, ???? ?????????? ??? ???????
??а?????????????????? ????? ???????????? ??а???? ?????????????? ????? ???????????. ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? 480а????? ???????
?а????.
3.????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????????????? ?а???????????, ????? 40а????????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????????????? ???????. ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????
????????? 50а?????????, ?а?а????????? ? ?????????а80 ?????????.
??????????
4.?D. Defoe, A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain (Harmondsworth:
Penguin, 1978),а?. 86.
5.??а??????????? ??а?????? 60?80а????????? ?????, ?????????? ??а????????????, ????????????? ?а?????? ?а??????? ???????, ??? ????? ???????
?????????? ??а????????? ?????????? ?????. ???? ????????? ????????
??а?????? ????? 250а?????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?а????? 500а? ?а???.
6.??а?? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????
??а???????? ?а???? ????? ??????. ??? ????????? ????????? 1,1а????????
???????. ??а??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????
???????????? ?????????? ??а????? ?????? ????? л????????? ?????╗ ???????? ?а???? (????????) ?????, ??????, ???????? ?а????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????.
7.??????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??а????? H.-J. Chang,
Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective (London:
Anthem Press, 2002), ??. 93?9, ???? ??а??????? ????.
8.???? ?????????? ?а????????? ????? ?????? ????? ??: http://www.
bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/Pages/about/history.aspx.
????? 3
1.?A. Maddison, Contours of the World Economy, 1-2300 AD (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2007),аp.а71, tableа2.2. ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??а????? ?????????.
2.?????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????? ?а?????????????? ?а?????? ?а1700-?? ??а1760а??? ???????????? ??а1,4а???????? ?а???, ?а?а??????
?а1770-?? ??а1801а??? ???????? 7,7а???????? ?а???. ???????? ????? 1780??
?а1790а????? ???? ????? ???????? 12,8а???????? ?а???а? ??? ????? ????
??а??????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?а?? ?????. ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ?????????????????? ??а5а????????? ?а??? ?а?????? ????? 1770-? ?а1801а?????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ??а?????аN. Crafts,
British Economic Growth during the Industrial Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1995,аp. 23, table 2.4.
3.??а?????аJ. Hobson, The Eastern Origins of Western Civilization (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2004) ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????, ??? ????
??????? ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ??а?????? ???? ?а???????????? ????
?????????????? ??а?????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????.
4.????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????
?аP.аBairoch, Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), Chapters. 5?8.
5.?B. Hartmann andаJ. Boyce, Needless Hunger (San Francisco: Institute for
Food and Development Policy, 1982),аp.а12.
6.??а??????? ??а???????????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????? ???????????
????????? ?а??????? ?????????, ?????????????а? ??а????? ?????? ????
?????? ?а?????. ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??а??????? ????
1750?1850 ?????? ?а??а???????а? 1820?1870 ??????.
301
302
??? ???????? ?????????
7.?R. Heilbroner andаW. Milberg, The Making of Economic Society, 13th edition
(Boston: Pearson, 2012),а?.а62.
8.?N. Carfts, ?Some dimensions of the ?quality of life? during the British industrial
revolution?, Economic History Review, vol. 50, no. 4 (November 1997): ??????? 1
??а?. 623 ??? ?????? 1820а???? ?а??????? 3 ??а?. 628 ??? ?????? 1860 ????.
9.???????????? ????? ?аChang, Kicking Away the Ladder ?аH.-J. Chang, Bad
Samaritans: Rich Nations, Poor Policies and the Threat to the Developing World
(Random House, London, 2007).
10.???а????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??а???????? ??? ???????, ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????-?????????. ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????????? ??? ????????????а?
??а???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????????????. ??????
????? ?????? ????????? (?а1735 ????) ??а???????-????? ?а???? ?а10а? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????-???????? ??????????????.
11.?
?а??????? ?????? ??????????????????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
??а???????н?????, ??????????? ??а?? ??????????. ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? л???????? ?а??????╗ ????? ????? ??????????. ????? ??????? ??????????????
?????? ??????? ?а1842а???? ?а?????? ?а1860-?, ?а?? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? л??????????╗ ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??а99а???
?а1898 ????. ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??а????????????? ????????? ????????, ????????
???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????, ??а??????????? ?????.
12.?A. Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976),а?. 181.
13.????????? ????????? ????????, ???????, ??????, ???????, ????
?а?????? ??????????, ???? ?????? ??а??? ???? ???????? ???????????
?а?????? ??????? ?????. ??? ???????? ???? ?а?????????, ?а???????а?
?????. ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ?а?????????? (??????-????????? ????? ?????).
14.?????? 1870-? ?а1913а????? ???? ??????? ??а???? ????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??а?0,03а???????? ?а1820?1870-? ?????
??а1,86а???????? ?а????? ????? ???????. ?а?????????? ????????? ???? ?????
?????????????? ???????? ???? ?а???? ???????? ??? ?а1,82а??????????,
??????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????.
15.??????????? ??а?????? ?????? ??а?????аA. Maddison, The World Economy:
Historical Statistics) (Paris: OECD, 2003),а?.а100, tableа3c.
16.??????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??аC. Dow,
Major Recessions: Britain and the World, 1920?1995 (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1998),а?.а137, tableа6.1 (1929?1932) ?аp.а182 (1932?1937).
17.???? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ????????? BBC, ?а????????? ?????? ?а????? BBC: http://www.bbc.
co.uk/blogs/thereporters/stephanieflanders/2009/02/04/index.html.
??????????
18.?????????, ???????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????????
??? ???????? ???? 0,3а???????? ?а??? ?а?????? ?а1929-?? ??а1933а??? ?????? 31,8а???????? ???????? ??а???а?? ?????? (Dow, Major Recessions,а?.а164,
tableа6.11), ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? 0,4а?????? 5,1а???????? ???????? ??? ????? 1929-? ?а1932а????? (ibid,аp. 192,
tableа6.23).
19.????? ????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ????????
?а1,31а???????? ?а1870-?? ??а1913а??? ??а0,88а???????? ?а1913?1950а?????.
??.аMaddison, The World Economy,аp. 383, table A.8.
20.?A. Glyn,аA. Hughes,аA. Lipietz andаA. Singh, ?The rise and fall of the Golden
Age?, inаS. Marglin andаJ. Schor (eds.), The Golden Age of Capitalism (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1990),аp. 45, table 2.4.
21.???????? ??????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????????????? ???????
?а???? ?????? ????????? ????? 4а?????????. ??. Ibid.аp. 45, table 2.4.
22.????????? ?., ??????а?. ??а???? ??? ??? ????? ?????. ?????? ????????
??????????? ?????????????. ?. : ??????? ?????, 2011 (???. 16.1).
23.???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????,
??а??? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ???
????? ????????? ?а??? ??????????? ????????а? ????????????? ???? ????????????? ?а???????? (????).
24.???????????? ??????????? ???? ?а????? ?????????????? ??????
??а???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а????????????? ??????????????. ??а????????? ???????? ???????? 1957а???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ??????? (????????), ?а????? ???.
?а1967а???? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????????? (??).
25.?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?аF. Block, ?Swimming
against the current: the rise of a hidden developmental state in the United States?,
Politics and Society, vol. 36, no. 2 (2008), ?аM. Mazzucato, TheаEntrepreneurial
State: Debunking Private vs. Public Sector Myths (London: Anthem Press,
2013).
26.?Glyn et al., ?The rise and fall of the Golden Age?,а?. 98.
27.???????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ??а15а?????????. ?а???
?? ????? ???????? 10а?????????. ?????????????? ?????????? ????????
??????: ???? ???????? ?а?????? ?????? ????? 25а????????? ?а1975а????.
??.аDow, Major Recessions,аp. 293, figure 8.5.
28.????? ????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????????????
??????? ???????? 1,4а???????? ?а1870?1913а????, 1,2а? ?а1913?1950а????
?а3,8а???????? ??а?????????? 1960?1970 ?????. ?????? ????? ??аGlyn et al.,
?The rise and fall of the Golden Age?,аp. 42, table. 2.1.
29.?Ibid.,аp. 42, table. 2.1.
30.???????? ????????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????
???? ?а????????? ???? ?а?????????????? ???? ???????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а???? CODELCO, ???????????????????
303
??? ???????? ?????????
304
?а1971а???? ????? ?????????????? ???????, ???????? ?а???????????????
?????????????. ??? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????? ???????,
???????? Fundacion Chile, ???????????? ????? ?????????????????????
??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??а??????????????
??????????.
31.?????????? ??.аS. Basu andаD. Stuckler, The Body Economic: Why Austerity
Kills (London: Basic Books, 2013), chapter 2.
32.??а1978а???? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??а219а??????????
????????. ?а??? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? 8549
?????????? ????????. ?????????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????,
??????????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ???????? ?а1980а???? (World Development
Report 1980, Washington, DC: World Bank, 1980), pp. 110-11, tableа1.
33.?Ibid., pp. 124-5, tableа8.
34.??а2007а???? ??? ????? ????????? 3280а?????????? ????????, ?а??????? ???а? 54а347 ?????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? 2009а????: World Bank, World Development Report 2009 (New York: Oxford
University Press, 2009), pp. 356?7, tableа3. ??????? ????????? ??а????? ???????? 1218 ?????????? ????????, ????? ??? ??а???? ???? ?? ???????? 13а899
?????????? ???????? (ibid., pp. 358?9, table 4).
????? 4
1.????? ?????? ????????? ?????-??????????? ??????????? ?????, ??а????????? ??????????? ???????? ??, ??? ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?? ????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????. ??? ?????
?????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? XXа????, ?????????????
?????????? ????????????. ??????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????а?
??а??а??-?? ??????????????, ??? ??? ?? ??? ???????????. ?????? ??а?????
???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????????? ?????, ?а?????????
??? ???? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?а????????????.
2.??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??, ??? ??? ???????? л???????
?????╗.
3.?л????? ??????, ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?а?а??????? ??????? ??╗.
4.?????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???, ?????????? ????????, ?а??????? ???????? л???????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????
??? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??????╗.
?????? ???????, ??? л????? ??????? ????? ??а??????????? ??????????????╗, ????????? л??, ??? ?? ????? ????, ????а?? ?????????? ??а????, ?????
??????? ?? ????? ?? ??????╗. ???. ??: ????????а?.а?. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а3а?. ???. : ??????. ??., 2001. ??????? ??????? ????????
??а??, ??? ?? ??????? ??а??? ??? ????????.
5.??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ??а????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????, ?а??а???????. ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ????
??????????
?а???????????????? ?????????????, ?? ???? ?а??, ??? ??????? ??????????
?????? ????????????? ???????????, ?а??? ????? ?????????, ?????? ???? ???????? ??а??? ?????????? ??а?????????? ???????, ?? ???? ????????????.
6.?????? ??????? ?а?????: ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????????? ??а??????, ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??а???????? ?????
???????.
7.??а???????????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ????????, ????????????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??а????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????. ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????
??????????? ????? ???????? л????? ???????╗, ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???????, ??? ????? ?а??????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????? ????? ??????. ??. ???????а?. ????? ???????:
???????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????а//аTHESIS. 1994. ???.а5.
8.??????????? ??? ???? ???? ??????????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????? ?????? ??????.
9.?????????? ??а???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ???? Kicking Away
the Ladder (????? ?????? ?а????????) ??? Bad Samaritans (????? ????????,
??а????? ????????).
10.???????????? ????????????а? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????
??а???? ???????, ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? (?? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????); ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????; ???????? ???????????????
??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??а??????????; ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????; ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ?а??????? ??????????????
???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?а?????????????? ??????????????
????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ????? ???????? ?????; ?а????? ??а?а????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????
?а??????????????.
11.????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ???????
??????? ????????, ??????? ???? ??????????? ?а1834а???? ?а???? Zollverein
(?????????а? ?????????? ????). ??? ??а????? ??а????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??? ?а1820-? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
?а????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????
???????? (???, ????????, ???????? ????? ?а?? ?????), ??а??а???????? ???
???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????????? ?а????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ??? ?а?? ????? ????????
?а???. ?а????? ????? ????????, ??? ????, ??? ?а??????????? ??? ?????????????-??????????, ??? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????
????? ???????????? ?????? ?ал?????????╗ ???????.
305
306
??? ???????? ?????????
12.???? ????????????? ?а??????????????? (?? ??а?????????????) ????????????? ????????-???????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????????
??????, ??а??????? ????????????? ????????????, ??? ??????, ??а??????????, ??? ??????????????.
13.???????? ????????????? (?а?????????? ???????)а? ???? ??????, ????? ???, ??????? ????, ????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????.
14.??????? ?а??????? ??.:аD. Lavoie, Rivalry and Central Planning: The Socialist
Calculation Debate Reconsidered (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
15.???????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ????????????, ???????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? л???????????????
?????????╗, ?а??а???????? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??а??а??????, ?а?а?????? ???????????, ???????????????
????????, ??а????? ????????????????? ?а?????? ???????????. ?????????
?? ???? ?????????????? ?а?????а5.
16.????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? л?????????? ??а???????????╗
??а??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????????. ??а????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??а????????????: ??а2007 ??? ????????? ?????????
??????????? ??а??? ?????? ????????? 64а????????? ????????.
17.???? ?????????? л?????а? ??????╗, л?????а? ?????????╗, л?????а?
????????╗ ?ал?????а? ???????╗.
18.???а???????? ?а????????? ??? ??????а? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?а????? ?????????? ?????? л????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????╗
(?Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren?), ???? ?а???? ??а???? ?????,а?
??????? ????? ?а????? ???????, ??? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????,
??? ??? ??а????? ????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????? ??????????. ???
????? ????????? ???, ???????????? ??, ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??а?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????, ?а???????? ??а???? ????????????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????
?????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????, ?а??????? ??а???????.
19.???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ???????????а?. ??????? ?????????? ???????. ?????, ?????? ?а?????. ???.а: ?????,
2010.
20.??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????
(??????????? ?????????) ????? 1924-? ?а1944 ?????.
21.????????????? ?а???? ????????? ???? ????? ???????? (1899?1970)
?а??? ???????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ???????, ?а????? ??????? ?????? (1908?1986), ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??а???????????????????? ????????, ?а??????, ?????? ??????????? ?а??????-??????????
???????, ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????.
22.??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а????? ??????
????????, ????????????? ????? ?а?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????.
23.??а????????? ??????????????? ????? ?ал???????????? ????????????? ???????????╗ ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????
??????????
??????? ?а???????? ?? ??? ?????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??а???????????? ????????????. ?????????, ????????
?????????, ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????.
24.??а???????????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? (????????, ?а??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????????),
??а??????? ???? ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? (???? ?а????)
?а?????????? ?????? ???????? (???? ?а?????????).
25.?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ???????????. ????????, ??? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ?? ??????
?????? ????????????? ??????? ??? л?????????? ???????????╗ ????????? ???????? (???????????? ??????????????? ????) ?а????????? ????????
???????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????,
???? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??? ????????????? ??а????? ????, ?????? ??? ???????????? ???
????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????, ??? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ????, ???????????? ???????????? ???
????, ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??а????? ?????? (?????????
????????), ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???? (?????????
???????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????)? ??? ????? ????, ??????? ???????????? ????, ????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????????
???????, ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????
26.???????а?. ????? ??а?????????????. ?. : ????????? ????, 2009.
????? 5
1.??????? ??а??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ??а????????? ???????, ??????????????? ???????? ??а20?25а????????? ????? ?????
?а????? ?????, ??? ?а????????????. ?????? ??? ????????? л??????????????
?????╗, ???????? ?а????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ???? ????? ?????, ???
??? ????????????. ??????, ?а????????? ??? ?а??????, ?????? ??а???????
???? ????????, ??? ????????? 60?80а?????????. ?????? ????? ??аR. Lanz
andаS. Miroudot, ?Intra-firm trade patterns, determinants and policy implications?,
OECD Trade Policy Papers no. 114 (Paris: OECD, 2011).
2.??????????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? 150а???????? ????????, ??????? ??а???????? ?????????????, ?а????? 10а????? ???????, ??а??????????? ??? ?????????. ????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????.
3.???а???? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ??? (?????
??????? 1890а????) ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ??а??? ???, ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? 1914а????, ??????????? ??????? ????????.
307
??? ???????? ?????????
308
4.??????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ?а????? ????????????? ???????. ??? ????? ??а????????? л???????????? ???????╗ ??? ?????
л????????????╗ ?????, ??? ?????? ?а???????, ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??а?????????? ????. ??а??? ????? ????? ???????????
?? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???? ???????? ????????? (??? ??????
????) ?а???????, ???????? ?а??? ??????, ?а??? ????? ??? ???????? ???????,
??????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????. ??????? ????? ??????????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?????????????????? ??????????? (??), ?а??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ??????
??????, ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????????, ??а?????? ??а?????????????
???????, ??а???????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
??? ????????????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???. ?а?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?а?????? ??? ?????? ???????,
??? ?????? (29 ?????? ????), ??а?а????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?а200 ??? (82 ???????? ?????? 0,4 ????????
???????).
5.???? ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????? ???. ?а?? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????????????? ???????????, ??? ? ??? ????????????? ?????, ????????? ??а????????????,
?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ?а?????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?а??????????? 2:1:1.
6.?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ?????????. ???????, ????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????: ?????, ??? ????????????? ???????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????, ???????? ?а???? ????, ?????????
?????, ???????????, ??? ??? ?? ???????. ????а?? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????????: ????????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????
??????????? ????????, ????????-?????????? ????? ?????? ????????????
??? ????? ?????? ????????????.
????? 6
1.???а??????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ?а?????, ???????????? ?????????.
2.???? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а?????аJ. Aldred,
The Skeptical Economist (London: Earthscan, 2009), ??. 59?61.
3.???а?????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????, ??. ?The conversation:
can happiness be measured??, Guardian, 20 July 2012.
????? 7
1.?????? ??????, ??????????, ???????, ?????? ?а???????.
2.???? ?а1995а???? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ????????? ????? ???? 371а?????? ?а??? ?а?????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????
????????? ?а????.
??????????
3.???????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????????
??? ????? ??аG. Wright andаJ. Czelusta, ?Exorcising the resource curse: mining as
a knowledge industry, past and present?, working paper, Stanford University, 2002.
4.?????? ????? ????? ????????, ??? ?а2010а???? ?а???????? ????? ??а????
????????? ??? ??а11,5а???????? ????, ??? ?а2000-?, ?а?? ????? ??? ?а???а?
????? ??а7,2 ????????.
5.?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ?????
??а??????? ???? Perspectives on Global Development 2013а? Shifting Up a Gear:
Industrial Policies in a Changing World (Paris: OECD, 2013), Chapter 3, figure 3-1.
6.??а?????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????????, ???????????
??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????. ?а????????? ???????
??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????? 100 ?????????, ??а?????? ??? ?????????? 50?75а?????????. ?а??????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?а??? ??????а?
?????? 30?40а?????????. ??????????? ???? ??? ?а?????? (23а????????)
?а????? (28а?????????), ?а??? ??????? ?а???????? (?а????? ??а50 ?????????) ????????? ??а?????? ????. ?а??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????????
????? 35а?????????, ???? ??а????? ???????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????,
???? ??????????? ????а? 50?70а????????? (??. ?????а3).
7.?????? ???????????? ??а????? ???????, ??????????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? Globalisation and the Changing UK Economy (London: Her
Majesty?s Government, 2008).
8.??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???????. ???. ??:
PаHall, Governing the Economy (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987),а?. 210.
9.????? ??а??????? ????, ?????? ?а????????? ?а?а????????? ???????? ????? ?? H.-J. Chang, ?Rethinking public policy in agriculture: lessons from history,
distant and recent?, Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. 36, no. 3 (2009).
10.??а?????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?а??? ?????????? 30?40а?????????. ??????? ?? ?а????? ??а???? ????? ??? ??а?????????? ?????? 25а?????????. ?????? ????? ??аO. Debande, ?Deindustrialisation?, EIB Papers, vol.а11,
no. 1 (2006). ???????? ??? ?????????? ??а??????: http://www.eib.org/
attachments/efs/eibpapers/eibpapers_2006_v11_n01_en.pdf.
11.??а???????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а27 ??а22 ????????? ??а??????? ????? ??а?????? ?а1991-?? ??а2012а???,
??а?????????? ?????а? ?а24 ??а22 ?????????. ??????????????? ?????
??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а22 ??а16 ????????? ??а??????? ?????
?а?а19а??а17 ????????? ??а?????????? ?????. ??а??????? ??а1991?2011 ????
????????? ?????????? ?а17 ??а10 ????????? ??а??????? ????? ?а?а13 ??а12
????????? ??а?????????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? Eurostats, ???????????
??????????? ??????.
12.??а??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а17
??а12 ????????? ??а??????? ????? ?а?????? ?а1987-?? ??а2012а???. ??????
??а?????????? ????? ??а???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????????а? ?а11,8
309
310
??? ???????? ?????????
??а12,4а????????. ?а?????? ?а1990-?? ??а2012а??? ???? ??????????????
?????????????? ?а??? ????????? ??????????? ?а20 ??а18 ?????????
??а??????? ?????. ??а?а????????? ??а?????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а18
??а19 ?????????. ?????? ??а????????? ????? ??а?????? Eurostats. ??????
??а???а? ??а?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????? (???) ??? ????????????? ???.
13.??а????????? ?а1975-?? ??а2012 ??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??а??????? ????? ????????? ?а25 ??а17 ?????????, ??а??а?????????? ????? ??????????? ?а14 ??а21 ????????. ?а?????? ?а1993-??
??а2012а??? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а18 ??а16
????????? ?а???? ?а12 ??а18 ?????????. ?????? ????? ??а?????? Eurostats.
14.??а?????? ?а1990-?? ??а2012а??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а19 ??а11 ????????? ??а???????
?????, ??? ?????????? 42а???????? ????????. ??а?????????? ????? ???
??????????? ?а17 ??а11 ?????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а35 ?????????.
?????? ????? ??а?????? Eurostats ???????????? ?????.
15.???? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ?????.
16.?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????
G.аPalma, ?Four sources of ?de-industrialisation? and a new concept of the ?Dutch
Disease??, ?????????????? ??а????????? ???????? ????? ??а???????? ?????????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????? (Economic Growth and Development
Initiative) ?????????????????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????? (Human
Sciences Research Council) ????? ??????, ????????????? 21а??? 2007а????.
????? ???????? ??а??????: http://intranet.hsrc.ac.za/Document-2458.phtml.
17.?????????? Greenhouse Development Rights ?????????? ???? ???????? ??а?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ?????
????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? л?????????? ??а??? ???????╗, ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ??????????,
??? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????.
18.?????????? ??. Aldred, The Skeptical Economist, Chapterа5.
19.????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???, ??? ?????? ??а??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????????, ??а?а????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????????
?а??????? ???????. ??, ????????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ?а????? ??????
????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????. ?? ???? ??а?????, ??????? ??????? ??а???? ???? ?????? ??а??????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ????, ?а??????? ????????? ???? ?????.
??????????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ?а??????? ?а1952а????, ??а??????, ??????? ?а?????? ??а??????? ??а?????????? ????? ???????. ??а???
??? ???? ??? (?? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????) ??а???????? ???,
????? ?????????????? ???????? ??а???????????, ?????????? ?????????
????. ??????? ?а??????? ?????, ????? ?а?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??а???????? ????. ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? л?????╗
??????, ?? ?????? ????? ???????, ??? ????? л????╗ ??????? ?????? ?????,
??????????
??? ??????? ??????????, ???? ???? ????? ????? ???????а? ?а????? ???????а? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??а????????????? ??? (?а???????? ??а???? ?????????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????).
????? 8
1.?Martin, Money,а?. 242.
2.??????? ??а????, ??? ?а??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??а?????аB. Scott, The Heretic?s Guide to Global Finance: Hacking
the Future of Money (London: Pluto Press, 2013), ??. 63?74; ?а??? ?????????
?а?? ???????а???? ????? ???????????, ??а?????????????? ??????????,
??.аJ.аLanchester, Whoops! Why Everyone Owes Everyone and No One Can Pay
(London: Allen Lane, 2010), Chapterа2.
3.???????? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ??????. ????? ???????, ??? ??????????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ???
л??????????╗ ???? ????????? ??а??????? ???????. ??????а?? ??? ???? ?????
?????, ??? ????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ????? л???????╗
??????, ????? ??? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????????. ????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????.
4.?Scott, The Heretic?s Guide to Global Finance,а?. 65.
5.?Ibid., pp. 69?70.
6.??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???? CBOT
?а???? ???????? ??.аY. Millo, ?Safety in numbers: how exchanges and regulators
shaped index-based derivatives?а? ??????, ?????????????? ??а???????????
??а???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??а??????????????? ?????????? (???) ????????????? ???????????? 3?4а??? 2002а????,
???????? ??а??????: http://www.coi.columbia.edu/ssf/papers/millo.rtf;
?а?AаBrief History of Options?, ???????? ??а??????: http://www.optionsplaybook.
com/options-introduction/stock-option- history/.
7.???. Millo, ?Safety in numbers?, andаC. Lapavitsas, Profiting without Producing:
How Finance Exploits All (London: Verso, 2013),а?. 6.
8.?H. Blommestein et al., ?Outlook for the securitisation market?, OECD Journal:
Market Trends, vol. 2011, issue 1 (2011),а?. 6, figureа6, ???????? ??а??????: http://
www.oecd.org/finance/financial-markets/48620405.pdf. ??а?????? ?????????а? ??????????????? ????????? ??, ?а2010а???? ??? ???????? 12,3 ????????? ???? ?а??????????? ????? ?а10,9а? ?а???.
9.?L. Lin andаJ. Sutri, ?Capital requirements for over-the-counter derivatives
central counterparties?, ??????? ???????? ???, WP/13/3, 2013,а?.а7, figureа1, ???????? ??а??????: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2013/wp1303.pdf.
10.?G. Palma, ?The revenge of the market on the rentiers: why neo-liberal reports
of the end of history turned out to be premature?, Cambridge Journal of Economics,
vol. 33, no. 4 (2009).
11.?Lapavitsas, Profiting without Producing,аp. 206, figureа2.
311
312
??? ???????? ?????????
12.?J. Crotty, ?If financial market competition is so intense, why are financial firm
profits so high?: Reflections on the current ?golden age? of finance?, Working Paper
no. 134 (Amherst, MA: PERI (Political Economy Research Institute), University of
Massachusetts, April 2007).
13.?A. Haldane, ?Rethinking the financial network?а? ??????????? ?????
??????????? ?????????-??????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????? 2009а????; ???????? ??а??????: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/
speeches/2009/speech386.pdf, ??. 16?17.
14.?M. Blyth, Austerity:the History of a Dangerous Idea (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2013), ??. 26?27.
15.???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????? ????
??? ?а1998а???? ??а?????????????? ???? ??????? ?а2008-?а????.аP.аSikka, ?Nick
Clegg?s plan for shareholders to tackle fat-cat pay won?t work?, Guardian, 6 December
2011; ???????? ??а??????: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/
dec/06/nick-clegg-shareholders-fat-cat-pay?
16.??????????? ?????? ??а?????? ??? ????? ??????????, ??? ?????????????. ??а?????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?а2005а????, ?а??? ?а???????? 1960-? ????? ?а??а????? 1970-? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????
???????? ???? ????, ??? ?а????????????. ??а????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? 1980-? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? (???
????????? ?а????????? ?а????????? ??а4 ??а12 ?????????) ????? ??????????? ????, ??? ?а???????????? (2?5а?????????) ??а?????? 2000-? ????? (????
?????????? ????????????). ??а??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ??????? 1970-? ?а????????? 1980-? (?????? ??? 1960? ??????????) ???? ?????????????. ??? ?????????? ???????????????
????? 1980-? ??? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ????? ???????????? ????????
?а?????? 1990-?, ????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? 5а?????????, ?а?а2001а????
????????? 10а?????????. ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????, ?а?????? 1990-? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? 3а????????? ?а2001а????. ??.аG. Dumenil andаD. Levy, ?Costs and benefits ofаneoliberalism:
a class analysis?, inаG. Epstein (ed.), Financialisation and the World Economy
(Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2005).
17.????????? ?., ??????а?. ??а???? ??? ??? ????? ?????.а?.а: ??????? ?????,
2001, ???. 16.1.
18.?Palma, ?The revenge of the market on the rentiers?,аp. 851, figure 12.
19.?W. Lazonick ?Big payouts to shareholders are holding back prosperity?,
Guardian, 27 August 2012, ???????? ??а??????: http://www.theguardian.com/
commentisfree/2012/aug/27/shareholder-payouts-holding-back-prosperity.
20.?????????? ?????????? ?????? 99а????????? ?а2011-? ?а2012а?????. ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???; ???????? ??а??????: http://
www.federalreserve.gov/apps/fof/. ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? 2000-?
????? ????? ????? ?аCrotty, ?If financial market competition is so intense?. ??? ????
?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????, ??а????? ????????? ????? ??: ????????? ????????? ?????? 20а????????? ?а1955а???? ????????? ?а????? 30а?????????
??????????
?а???????? 1980-?, ????????? ??а50а? ?а?????? 2000-?, ????????? ??а45а? ?а?????????? ??????? 2008а???? ?а????? ??????? ??а50а????????? ?а2010а????. ??.аW.
Milberg andаN. Shapiro, ?Implications of the recent financial crisis for innovation?, New
School for Social Research, mimeo, February 2013.
21.??????????? ?аGE ????? ??аR. Blackburn, ?Finance and the fourth
dimension?, New Left Review, May/June 2006,аp. 44. Froud et al., Financialisation
and Strategy: Narrative and Numbers (London: Routledge, 2006) ???????, ??? ????????? ????? ???? ???? 50а?????????. ?????????? ?аFord ????? ?аFroud
et al., ?а?????? ??аGMа? ?аR. Blackburn.
22.???? ????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??а????? ?????? (??. ????) ?а????? ??????????? л?????? ?а??????╗ (Andy Haldane
?The dog and the frisbee?) ??а36-? ?????????? ??а????????????? ????????
????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ???????????? ???? л?????????? ???????????? ??????╗, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 31 August 2012; ???????? ??а??????: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/
speeches/2012/speech596.pdf.
????? 9
1.???????? ?., ???????а?. ??????? ????????.а?.а: ????? ???-??, 2007.
2.??????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?аJ. Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality
(London: Allen Lane, 2012), Chapterа4.
3.???а?????? ??????? ?а???????, ??? ??????????? ???, ??? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????? ??а????, ??? ?????? ???????? л?????? ???????╗, ?а?????? ????????????
?а????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ???, ???????? ?а??????
????????. ????? ??????????, ??а??????????? ?????? ?а???????, ?????????
?????? ??а???????? ?а?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????????????
?????????, ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????.
4.?
????????????? ?а???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а??????? ??????аF. Stewart, ?Income distribution and
development?, Queen Elizabeth House Working Paper, no. 37, University of
Oxford, March 2000; ???????? ??а??????: http://www3.qeh.ox.ac.uk/pdf/
qehwp/qehwps37.pdf, ?а?аB. Milanovic, The Haves and the Have-Nots (New York:
Basic Books, 2011).
5.??????? ??????? ???????? ?а???? ?????? ?????, ?????? ?????? ?а??????
?????????.
6.???????? ?а????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? XXа???????? ?????
???????.
7.???.аG. Palma, ?Homogeneous middles vs. heterogeneous tails, and the
end ofаthe ?Inverted- U?: The share of the rich is what it?s all about?, Cambridge
Working Papers in Economics (CWPE) 1111, Faculty of Economics, University of
Cambridge, January 2011; ???????? ??а??????: http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/
bitstream/1810/241870/1/cwpe1111.pdf).
313
??? ???????? ?????????
314
8.?????????? ??.аA. Cobham andаA. Sumner, ?Putting the Gini back in the bottle?: ?The Palma? as a policy-relevant measure of inequality?, mimeo, King?s International Development Institute, King?s College London, March 2013; ????????
??а??????: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/aboutkings/worldwide/initiatives/global/
intdev/people/Sumner/Cobham-Sumner-15March2013.pdf. ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??а??????: http://www.washingtonpost.com/
blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/09/27/map-how-the-worlds-countries-compare-onincome-inequality-the-u-s-ranks-below-nigeria/.
9.?
??. OECD Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising (Paris:
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2011), ?а??? World
ofаWork 2012 (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2012).
10.?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??а2010а???
?а????? ??а?????? ??? World of Work 2012,аp. 15, figure 1.9. ?????? ??а???????? ?а??????? ????? ??а????? ?????? ??????????.
11.??????????, ??? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????,
??а???????? ????????????? ????????? ??а????????????? ???????? The
Spirit Level, ????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???????, ??? ??? ????????? ???????????? ???????.
12.?UNCTAD, Trade and Development Report 2012 (Geneva: United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development, 2012), Chapter 3,аp. 66, chart 3.6. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????: ?????????, ??????????????, ????????,
?????, ?????????, ??????, ??????, ?????, (?????) ?????, ????? ????????, ????????, ???, ???????, ???? ?а??????. ?????? ??????? ?а?????????
??а1988а???? ??? ????? ??а2008а???? ??? ??????????????, ??? ??????????,
????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????????.
13.???????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??а????? ??? ???? ????? ???
???? 0,3, ??а??????????? ?а????????? ????????? 0,7. ??????????? ?а????????? ??а????? ???? ????, ??? ?а????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ???????????? ?а???????, ????? ??? ??????? (???? ?????? 0,6 ??а?????????
?а???? 0,5 ??а???????) ??? ????? (????? 0,55 ??а????????? ?а?????? ?а0,5
??а???????).
14.?????????? ??. ibid., Chapterа3.
15.?A. Atkinson,аT. Piketty andаE. Saez, ?Top incomes in the long run of history?,
Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 49, no. 1 (2011),аp. 7, figureа2.
16.?Ibid.,аp. 8, figureа3.
17.?F. Bourguignon andаC. Morrisson, ?The size distribution of income among
world citizens, 1820?1990?, American Economic Review, vol. 92, no. 4 (2002).
18.?????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????,
??.аUNCTAD, Trade and Development Report 2012. But see Milanovic, The Haves
and the Have-Nots, Chapterа3.
????? 10
1.?J. Garraty andаM. Carnes, The American Nation: A History of the United
States (New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000),а?. 607.
??????????
2.???? ??а????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ?????
??а??????? ?а????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????.
3.??????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??????????
?а????????????????? ????? ???????? ???????, ??а?а????????? ?????? ???,
?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??????. ???? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??????
????????? ??????? ???? ?а??????? ???????.
4.??????? ??? ??? ?????????? 1382а???? ?а???????????, 1406а????? ?а????????, 1421а??? ?а???????? ?а1482а???? ??а???????.
5.??????? ??? ??? ?????????? 2090а?а?????, 2039а????? ?а??????, 1787а????? ?а??? ?а1772а???? ?а??????.
6.??а???????????????? ?а????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? (??????? ???????) ??а2007а????.
7.?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?аChang, Bad Samaritans, Chapterа9
(?Lazy Japanese and thieving Germans?) ?а?? ????а?. 23 ?????: ??, ??? ???
??а????????? ??? ??????????.а?.а: ???, 2014. л???? 3╗ (????? 3).
8.???а?????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????-????????????????? ??????????
???, ??????????????, ???????? ?а?????????, ??????? ??а??????? ?????
????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? (????????, ?????????? ?????, ???????, ?????? ??? ????????).
9.???? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? (????) ?а??????
?а????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????????
???????????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????
???????????????. ??. Basu and Stuckler, The Body Economic, Chapterа7.
10.???а?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????, ??а?????????
?????????? ????????. ????????????? ?? ????? ????? ??а?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????????.
11.?????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????,
??????? ???????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ????????? (???????? ?а?????????? ????????????) ?а????????? ??????????????? ????????. ????????? ?????????? ???? ????, ????????, ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ??а??????????? ?а????????
???????????.
????? 11
1.?????????? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ?а?, ???? ??? ?????? ?а??????????,
??? ?а????????, ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??? ????? ?????????????????? (????????, ???????????, ????????????? ??????????????),
л????????????????╗ ?????????????? ????? ??????????????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ???????, ?????? ???????? ??????. ?а????? ???????? ????
?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????,
??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ???? ?? ????????????? ?????. ???? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????, ??
315
??? ???????? ?????????
316
???????????? ?а??????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????. ??? ???????, ??. H.J. Chang, The Political Economy of Industrial Policy (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press,
1994), Chapterа3, ?аA.аAmsden andаA. Singh, ?The optimal degree of competition and
dynamic efficiency in Japan and Korea?, European Economic Review, vol. 38, nos. 3/4
(1994).
2.???????????, ????? ??????????? ?а????? ????????, ???? ???????
????? (?????? 1981а????а? ??????? 1985а????), ??????? ????? (????????
1988а????а? ?????? 1993а????), ????? ??????? (?????? 1993а????а? ???????
1994а????), ?????? ????? (?????? 1995а????а? ???? 1999а????), ????? ??????
(???? 2006а????а? ?????? 2009а????), ??? ??????? (?????? 2009а????а? ?????? 2013 ????).
3.??????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?аChang, Kicking
Away the Ladder, Chapter 3, ??. 71?81, ?аChang, Bad Samaritans, Chapterа8.
4.?World Bank, World Development Report 1991 (Washington, DC: The World
Bank, 1991),аp. 139, table 7.4.
5.??????? ????? ??аOECD, Government at a Glance, 2011 (Paris: OECD, 2011).
????? 12
1.??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? III ???????? ??а??????: http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/2c/texts/1792Qianlo
ngLetterGeorgeIII.htm.
2.??а?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?а?????? ?????????, ?а?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ? ???, ??? л????????? ????????а? ???
????? ??????╗, ???? ?а??а???????????? ?? ?а???? ?????. ????????, ????
??а???а? ????????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? (?? ???? ??????????
???????? ??????). ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????????
????? ?????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????. ?????? ?????? ????????а? ?????????? ??????? ????????
(??. ?????а4 ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????).
3.???а?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????????????
?????????, ?????? ??? ???????? ??а????? ???? ???????? ?????????.
4.?????????? ??. H.-J. Chang andаJ. Lin, ?Should industrial policy in developing
countries conform to comparative advantage or defy it?: A debate between Justin
Lin and Ha-Joon Chang?, Development Policy Review, vol. 27, no. 5 (2009).
5.??????? ?а???????? ????? ??а???????? ?????? ?????????? ????? World
Development Indicators 2013 (л?????????? ???????? ???????? 2013╗).
6.??????? ????? ??а???? ???.
7.?United Nations, International Trade Statistics, 1900?1960 (New York: United
Nations, 1962).
8.??????? ???????? ??а?????????? ???????????. ???????????? ???????
??а1980-? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ??а????????
??????????
?а???????, ??? ??? ???? ?????????? 50?58а????????? ?а1960-? ????? ?а54?
61а??????? ?а1970-?.
9.??а???????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а????? (?????, ???????????????? ?????? ?а??????) ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а47а????????? ?а1980?1982а????? ??а63а????????? ?а1998?2000 ?????,
?а?а2009?2011 ????? ????????? 55 ?????????.
10.???????? ?????????? ??? 1984?1986 ????? ????????? 8,8а????????.
?а??????? ??? 2009?2011 ????? ?? ??? ????? 27,8а????????.
11.?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? (??????????? ??? ??а???????? ?а????????); ???????? ??: http://unctad.org/en/Pages/
DIAE/Foreign-Direct-Investment-(FDI).aspx.
12.??????????? ?????????? 63а???????? ?а???????, 50а????????? ??а?????, 42а???????? ?а?????? ?а39 ????????? ?а???????.
13.???? ?????? ??а??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????, ??? ?????????? ???????. ?а?????? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ?а??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????????, ??а??????????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ???????????.
14.??????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????? ?????
15.????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ?аR. Kozul-Wright and
P.аRayment, The Resistible Rise of Market Fundamentalism: Rethinking Development Policy in an Unbalanced World (London: Zed Books and Third World Network, 2007), Chapterа4.
16.? ?????? ?????????? ?ал????????? ????????╗ ??.аN. Shaxson, Treasure
Islands: Tax Havens and the Men Who Stole the World (London: Vintage, 2012),
?а??а????? ???? ????????????? ??????????????? www.taxjustice.net.
??а?????? ????????? ????? (????? 2013а????) ?????? ????? ??????????
??а??????????? ??? ?а????????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ??а??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??а????.
17.?Christian Aid, ?The shirts off their backs: how tax policies fleece the poor?,
September 2005, ???????? ??а??????: http://www.christianaid.org.uk/images/
the_shirts_off_their_backs.pdf.
18.???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?аChang, Bad Samaritans,
Chapter 1 (?The Lexus and the Olive Tree revisited?).
19.?
?????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?аN. Kumar,
?Performance requirement as tools of development policy: lessons from developed
and developing countries?, ?аK. Gallagher (ed.), Putting Development First
(London: Zed Books, 2005). ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?аChang, Bad
Samaritans, Chapter 4 (л???? ?а????╗).
20.?
????? ????????? ???????????? ?а??????????? ?а???, ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ???????, ??. H.-J. Chang
andаD.аGreen, The Northern WTO Agenda on Investment: Do as We Say, Not
as We Did (Geneva: South Centre, and London: CAFOD (Catholic Agency for
Overseas Development), 2003), ?аR. Thrasher andаK. Gallagher, ?21st century
317
318
??? ???????? ?????????
trade agreements: implications for development sovereignty?, The Pardee Papers
no. 2, The FrederickаS. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future,
Boston University, September 2008; ???????? ??а??????: http://www.ase.tufts.
edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/KGPardeePolSpaceSep08.pdf.
21.?????????? ?а??????? ???????? ?а????????? ??. Chang and Green, The
Northern WTO Agenda.
22.???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а??????, ?а??а????? ??? ?????????? ???, ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????.
23.???? ???????? ?????? 15,0а???????? ??????? ???, ???????? ??а?? ???
??а?? ???? ??????????? 23,1а???????? ???????? ??? ?а???? ??????. ?а??????
??????? ??????????????? ????? ????? 3,0а???????? ?????? 4,3, ?а??? ????????а? 2,8 ?а3,0а????????. ????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????; ??? ???????? ?????????????? 6,0 ?а4,1а????????
??????? ???, ???? ??а?? ???? ?????????? ???? 0,8 ?а0,4 ???????? ????????
???. ?????????????? (6,8а???????? ?????? 4,0) ???? ???? ?????????????????, ??а??? ??????? ????? (11,0 ?????? 8,5 ????????).
24.???? ?????, ????????, ???????, ??????, ?????, ???????, ?????????,
????, ??????? ?а??????.
25.??????????????? ?????? ?а??? ?а??? ???????????? ??????????? (??
???? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????) ?а??? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ??а??????????? ???? ?а?????? ??а???? ??????.
????????, ??-??????, ????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????? ??а??????? ??????. ??-??????, ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ????.
26.?P. Nolan,аJ. Zhang andаC. Liu, ?The Global Business Revolution, the Cascade
Effect, and the Challenge for Firms from Developing Countries?, Cambridge Journal
of Economics, vol. 32, no. 1 (2008).
27.??????? ??????, ????? ????? Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them
(л??????????: ???? ?????? ????????? ?а???╗),а? ???? ??а???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ??а????????????????
(???? ?а??а????????? ?????????) ??????????.
28.??а?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??.аM. Ruhs, The Price of Rights:
Regulating International Labour Migration (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
2013).
29.????????, ???? ??а?????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????,
????????, ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ??а??????, ?????????? ???????????
?????? ??? ???????????? ??а?????????? ????????.
30.??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??.аM. Ruhs andаB. Anderson
(eds.), Who Needs Migrant Workers?: Labour Shortages, Immigration, and Public
Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), Chapterа1.
31.???.аC. Dustmann andаT. Frattini, ?The fiscal effects of immigration to the UK?,
Discussion Paper no. 22/13 London: CReAM (Centre for Research and Analysis
ofаMigration), University College of London, 2013.
??????????
32.???. Ottaviano andаG. Peri, ?Rethinking the gains of immigration on wages?,
NBER Working Paper no. 12497 (Cambridge, MA: NBER (National Bureau of Economic
Research, 2006); ???????? ??а??????: http://www.nber.org/papers/w12497.
33.????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?аI. Grabel, ?The political economy of remittances: What do we know? What
do we need to know??, PERI Working Paper Series, no. 184 (Amherst, MA: PERI
(Political Economy Research Institute), University of Massachusetts, 2008); ???????? ??а??????: http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/working_papers/
working_papers_151-00/WP184.pdf.
34.??а??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????,
??????????????? ????? ????????????, ???????????? ??? ???? ??????????,
??а????? ????? ???? ????????.
35.??????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ??аWorld Bank?s World Development Indicators database.
36.??????? ?а???????? ?????????????, ??????????? ?а???? ?а????????? ????????, ???????? ??а?????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.
??????
1.?J. W. von Goethe, Samtliche Werke, Part 1: Maximen undReflexionen,
Schriften zur Naturwissenschaft, Jubilaumsausgabe xxxix, 72. ???. ??:
A.аGerschnkron, Continuity in History and Other Essays (Cambridge MA: Harvard
University Press, 1968), Chapter 2,аp. 43.
2.??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ??а???????????? ?а?????????? ????????. ??. Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).
3.???????? ?????? ????????? ??а??? ??????.
319
??????????? ????????
????? ?? ????????????
л????,а?????? ?а??????╗
???????? ? ?????: http://www.mann-ivanov-ferber.ru/
??? ????: http://blog.mann-ivanov-ferber.ru/
?? ? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/mifbooks
?? ?????????: http://vk.com/mifbooks
?????????? ??? ?????: h ttp://www.mann-ivanov-ferber.ru/about/
predlojite-nam-knigu/
???? ?????????? ??????: http://www.mann-ivanov-ferber.ru/about/job/
??????-?????????? ???????
??-???? ????
??? ???????? ?????????
??????? ???????? ????? ????????
????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????
???-???????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ?????
??????? ????? ????????????
?????????? ???? ?????????, ????? ??????
??? л????, ?????? ?а??????╗
www.mann-ivanov-ferber.ru
www.facebook.com/mifbooks
www.vk.com/mifbooks
????а//аTHESIS. 1994. ???.а5.
8.??????????? ??? ???? ???? ??????????????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????? ?????? ??????.
9.?????????? ??а???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ???? Kicking Away
the Ladder (????? ?????? ?а????????) ??? Bad Samaritans (????? ????????,
??а????? ????????).
10.???????????? ????????????а? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????
??а???? ???????, ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ??????? (?? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????); ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????; ???????? ???????????????
??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??а??????????; ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ????????; ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ?а??????? ??????????????
???????????? ?????????, ???????? ?а?????????????? ??????????????
????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ????? ???????? ?????; ?а????? ??а?а????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????
?а??????????????.
11.????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ???????
??????? ????????, ??????? ???? ??????????? ?а1834а???? ?а???? Zollverein
(?????????а? ?????????? ????). ??? ??а????? ??а????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??? ?а1820-? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
?а????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????
???????? (???, ????????, ???????? ????? ?а?? ?????), ??а??а???????? ???
???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ??????????????? ?а????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ??? ?а?? ????? ????????
?а???. ?а????? ????? ????????, ??? ????, ??? ?а??????????? ??? ?????????????-??????????, ??? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????
????? ???????????? ?????? ?ал?????????╗ ???????.
305
306
??? ???????? ?????????
12.???? ????????????? ?а??????????????? (?? ??а?????????????) ????????????? ????????-???????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????????
??????, ??а??????? ????????????? ????????????, ??? ??????, ??а??????????, ??? ??????????????.
13.???????? ????????????? (?а?????????? ???????)а? ???? ??????, ????? ???, ??????? ????, ????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????.
14.??????? ?а??????? ??.:аD. Lavoie, Rivalry and Central Planning: The Socialist
Calculation Debate Reconsidered (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
15.???????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ????????????, ???????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? л???????????????
?????????╗, ?а??а???????? ?????????. ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??а??а??????, ?а?а?????? ???????????, ???????????????
????????, ??а????? ????????????????? ?а?????? ???????????. ?????????
?? ???? ?????????????? ?а?????а5.
16.????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??? ??????? л?????????? ??а???????????╗
??а??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????????. ??а????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??а????????????: ??а2007 ??? ????????? ?????????
??????????? ??а??? ?????? ????????? 64а????????? ????????.
17.???? ?????????? л?????а? ??????╗, л?????а? ?????????╗, л?????а?
????????╗ ?ал?????а? ???????╗.
18.???а???????? ?а????????? ??? ??????а? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ?а????? ?????????? ?????? л????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????╗
(?Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren?), ???? ?а???? ??а???? ?????,а?
??????? ????? ?а????? ???????, ??? ??????????????, ???????? ?????????,
??? ??? ??а????? ????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ????? ??????????. ???
????? ????????? ???, ???????????? ??, ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??а?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????, ?а???????? ??а???? ????????????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????
?????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????, ?а??????? ??а???????.
19.???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ???????????а?. ??????? ?????????? ???????. ?????, ?????? ?а?????. ???.а: ?????,
2010.
20.??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????
(??????????? ?????????) ????? 1924-? ?а1944 ?????.
21.????????????? ?а???? ????????? ???? ????? ???????? (1899?1970)
?а??? ???????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ???????, ?а????? ??????? ?????? (1908?1986), ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??а???????????????????? ????????, ?а??????, ?????? ??????????? ?а??????-??????????
???????, ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????.
22.??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а????? ??????
????????, ????????????? ????? ?а?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????.
23.??а????????? ??????????????? ????? ?ал???????????? ????????????? ???????????╗ ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????
??????????
??????? ?а???????? ?? ??? ?????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??а???????????? ????????????. ?????????, ????????
?????????, ???? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????.
24.??а???????????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? (????????, ?а??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????????),
??а??????? ???? ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? (???? ?а????)
?а?????????? ?????? ???????? (???? ?а?????????).
25.?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ???????????. ????????, ??? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ?? ??????
?????? ????????????? ??????? ??? л?????????? ???????????╗ ????????? ???????? (???????????? ??????????????? ????) ?а????????? ????????
???????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????,
???? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??? ????????????? ??а????? ????, ?????? ??? ???????????? ???
????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????, ??? ?а??????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ????, ???????????? ???????????? ???
????, ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??а????? ?????? (?????????
????????), ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???? (?????????
???????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????)? ??? ????? ????, ??????? ???????????? ????, ????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????????
???????, ????????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????
26.???????а?. ????? ??а?????????????. ?. : ????????? ????, 2009.
????? 5
1.??????? ??а??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ??а????????? ???????, ??????????????? ???????? ??а20?25а????????? ????? ?????
?а????? ?????, ??? ?а????????????. ?????? ??? ????????? л??????????????
?????╗, ???????? ?а????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ???? ????? ?????, ???
??? ????????????. ??????, ?а????????? ??? ?а??????, ?????? ??а???????
???? ????????, ??? ????????? 60?80а?????????. ?????? ????? ??аR. Lanz
andаS. Miroudot, ?Intra-firm trade patterns, determinants and policy implications?,
OECD Trade Policy Papers no. 114 (Paris: OECD, 2011).
2.??????????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? 150а???????? ????????, ??????? ??а???????? ?????????????, ?а????? 10а????? ???????, ??а??????????? ??? ?????????. ????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????.
3.???а???? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????????? ??? (?????
??????? 1890а????) ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ??а??? ???, ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? 1914а????, ??????????? ??????? ????????.
307
??? ???????? ?????????
308
4.??????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ?а????? ????????????? ???????. ??? ????? ??а????????? л???????????? ???????╗ ??? ?????
л????????????╗ ?????, ??? ?????? ?а???????, ????????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??а?????????? ????. ??а??? ????? ????? ???????????
?? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???? ???????? ????????? (??? ??????
????) ?а???????, ???????? ?а??? ??????, ?а??? ????? ??? ???????? ???????,
??????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????. ??????? ????? ??????????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??а???????? ?????????????????? ??????????? (??), ?а??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ??????
??????, ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????????, ??а?????? ??а?????????????
???????, ??а???????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
??? ????????????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???. ?а?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?а?????? ??? ?????? ???????,
??? ?????? (29 ?????? ????), ??а?а????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?а200 ??? (82 ???????? ?????? 0,4 ????????
???????).
5.???? ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??????? ???. ?а?? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????????????? ???????????, ??? ? ??? ????????????? ?????, ????????? ??а????????????,
?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ?а?????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?а??????????? 2:1:1.
6.?????? ??? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?????????????
??????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ?????????. ???????, ????????, ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????: ?????, ??? ????????????? ???????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????, ???????? ?а???? ????, ?????????
?????, ???????????, ??? ??? ?? ???????. ????а?? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????????: ????????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????
??????????? ????????, ????????-?????????? ????? ?????? ????????????
??? ????? ?????? ????????????.
????? 6
1.???а??????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ?а?????, ???????????? ?????????.
2.???? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а?????аJ. Aldred,
The Skeptical Economist (London: Earthscan, 2009), ??. 59?61.
3.???а?????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????, ??. ?The conversation:
can happiness be measured??, Guardian, 20 July 2012.
????? 7
1.?????? ??????, ??????????, ???????, ?????? ?а???????.
2.???? ?а1995а???? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ????????? ????? ???? 371а?????? ?а??? ?а?????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????
????????? ?а????.
??????????
3.???????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ??????????????
??? ????? ??аG. Wright andаJ. Czelusta, ?Exorcising the resource curse: mining as
a knowledge industry, past and present?, working paper, Stanford University, 2002.
4.?????? ????? ????? ????????, ??? ?а2010а???? ?а???????? ????? ??а????
????????? ??? ??а11,5а???????? ????, ??? ?а2000-?, ?а?? ????? ??? ?а???а?
????? ??а7,2 ????????.
5.?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ?????
??а??????? ???? Perspectives on Global Development 2013а? Shifting Up a Gear:
Industrial Policies in a Changing World (Paris: OECD, 2013), Chapter 3, figure 3-1.
6.??а?????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??????????, ???????????
??????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????????. ?а????????? ???????
??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????? 100 ?????????, ??а?????? ??? ?????????? 50?75а?????????. ?а??????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?а??? ??????а?
?????? 30?40а?????????. ??????????? ???? ??? ?а?????? (23а????????)
?а????? (28а?????????), ?а??? ??????? ?а???????? (?а????? ??а50 ?????????) ????????? ??а?????? ????. ?а??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????????
????? 35а?????????, ???? ??а????? ???????? ?????, ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????,
???? ??????????? ????а? 50?70а????????? (??. ?????а3).
7.?????? ???????????? ??а????? ???????, ??????????????????? ?а??????? ?????????? Globalisation and the Changing UK Economy (London: Her
Majesty?s Government, 2008).
8.??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???????. ???. ??:
PаHall, Governing the Economy (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1987),а?. 210.
9.????? ??а??????? ????, ?????? ?а????????? ?а?а????????? ???????? ????? ?? H.-J. Chang, ?Rethinking public policy in agriculture: lessons from history,
distant and recent?, Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. 36, no. 3 (2009).
10.??а?????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?а??? ?????????? 30?40а?????????. ??????? ?? ?а????? ??а???? ????? ??? ??а?????????? ?????? 25а?????????. ?????? ????? ??аO. Debande, ?Deindustrialisation?, EIB Papers, vol.а11,
no. 1 (2006). ???????? ??? ?????????? ??а??????: http://www.eib.org/
attachments/efs/eibpapers/eibpapers_2006_v11_n01_en.pdf.
11.??а???????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а27 ??а22 ????????? ??а??????? ????? ??а?????? ?а1991-?? ??а2012а???,
??а?????????? ?????а? ?а24 ??а22 ?????????. ??????????????? ?????
??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а22 ??а16 ????????? ??а??????? ?????
?а?а19а??а17 ????????? ??а?????????? ?????. ??а??????? ??а1991?2011 ????
????????? ?????????? ?а17 ??а10 ????????? ??а??????? ????? ?а?а13 ??а12
????????? ??а?????????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????? Eurostats, ???????????
??????????? ??????.
12.??а??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а17
??а12 ????????? ??а??????? ????? ?а?????? ?а1987-?? ??а2012а???. ??????
??а?????????? ????? ??а???? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????????а? ?а11,8
309
310
??? ???????? ?????????
??а12,4а????????. ?а?????? ?а1990-?? ??а2012а??? ???? ??????????????
?????????????? ?а??? ????????? ??????????? ?а20 ??а18 ?????????
??а??????? ?????. ??а?а????????? ??а?????????? ????? ??? ??????? ?а18
??а19 ?????????. ?????? ??а????????? ????? ??а?????? Eurostats. ??????
??а???а? ??а?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????? (???) ??? ????????????? ???.
13.??а????????? ?а1975-?? ??а2012 ??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ??а??????? ????? ????????? ?а25 ??а17 ?????????, ??а??а?????????? ????? ??????????? ?а14 ??а21 ????????. ?а?????? ?а1993-??
??а2012а??? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а18 ??а16
????????? ?а???? ?а12 ??а18 ?????????. ?????? ????? ??а?????? Eurostats.
14.??а?????? ?а1990-?? ??а2012а??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?а??? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а19 ??а11 ????????? ??а???????
?????, ??? ?????????? 42а???????? ????????. ??а?????????? ????? ???
??????????? ?а17 ??а11 ?????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а35 ?????????.
?????? ????? ??а?????? Eurostats ???????????? ?????.
15.???? ?????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ?????.
16.?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????
G.аPalma, ?Four sources of ?de-industrialisation? and a new concept of the ?Dutch
Disease??, ?????????????? ??а????????? ???????? ????? ??а???????? ?????????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????? (Economic Growth and Development
Initiative) ?????????????????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????? (Human
Sciences Research Council) ????? ??????, ????????????? 21а??? 2007а????.
????? ???????? ??а??????: http://intranet.hsrc.ac.za/Document-2458.phtml.
17.?????????? Greenhouse Development Rights ?????????? ???? ???????? ??а?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????, ?????
????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? л?????????? ??а??? ???????╗, ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ??а?????????? ??????????,
??? ?а??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????.
18.?????????? ??. Aldred, The Skeptical Economist, Chapterа5.
19.????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???, ??? ?????? ??а??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????????, ??а?а????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????????
?а??????? ???????. ??, ????????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ?а????? ??????
????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????????. ?? ???? ??а?????, ??????? ??????? ??а???? ???? ?????? ??а??????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ????, ?а??????? ????????? ???? ?????.
??????????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ?а??????? ?а1952а????, ??а??????, ??????? ?а?????? ??а??????? ??а?????????? ????? ???????. ??а???
??? ???? ??? (?? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????) ??а???????? ???,
????? ?????????????? ???????? ??а???????????, ?????????? ?????????
????. ??????? ?а??????? ?????, ????? ?а?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??а???????? ????. ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? л?????╗
??????, ?? ?????? ????? ???????, ??? ????? л????╗ ??????? ?????? ?????,
??????????
??? ??????? ??????????, ???? ???? ????? ????? ???????а? ?а????? ???????а? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??а????????????? ??? (?а???????? ??а???? ?????????????? ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????).
????? 8
1.?Martin, Money,а?. 242.
2.??????? ??а????, ??? ?а??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??а?????аB. Scott, The Heretic?s Guide to Global Finance: Hacking
the Future of Money (London: Pluto Press, 2013), ??. 63?74; ?а??? ?????????
?а?? ???????а???? ????? ???????????, ??а?????????????? ??????????,
??.аJ.аLanchester, Whoops! Why Everyone Owes Everyone and No One Can Pay
(London: Allen Lane, 2010), Chapterа2.
3.???????? ?????? ?????? ??а???? ??????. ????? ???????, ??? ??????????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ???
л??????????╗ ???? ????????? ??а??????? ???????. ??????а?? ??? ???? ?????
?????, ??? ????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ???????? ????? л???????╗
??????, ????? ??? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????????. ????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????.
4.?Scott, The Heretic?s Guide to Global Finance,а?. 65.
5.?Ibid., pp. 69?70.
6.??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???? CBOT
?а???? ???????? ??.аY. Millo, ?Safety in numbers: how exchanges and regulators
shaped index-based derivatives?а? ??????, ?????????????? ??а???????????
??а???????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??а??????????????? ?????????? (???) ????????????? ???????????? 3?4а??? 2002а????,
???????? ??а??????: http://www.coi.columbia.edu/ssf/papers/millo.rtf;
?а?AаBrief History of Options?, ???????? ??а??????: http://www.optionsplaybook.
com/options-introduction/stock-option- history/.
7.???. Millo, ?Safety in numbers?, andаC. Lapavitsas, Profiting without Producing:
How Finance Exploits All (London: Verso, 2013),а?. 6.
8.?H. Blommestein et al., ?Outlook for the securitisation market?, OECD Journal:
Market Trends, vol. 2011, issue 1 (2011),а?. 6, figureа6, ???????? ??а??????: http://
www.oecd.org/finance/financial-markets/48620405.pdf. ??а?????? ?????????а? ??????????????? ????????? ??, ?а2010а???? ??? ???????? 12,3 ????????? ???? ?а??????????? ????? ?а10,9а? ?а???.
9.?L. Lin andаJ. Sutri, ?Capital requirements for over-the-counter derivatives
central counterparties?, ??????? ???????? ???, WP/13/3, 2013,а?.а7, figureа1, ???????? ??а??????: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2013/wp1303.pdf.
10.?G. Palma, ?The revenge of the market on the rentiers: why neo-liberal reports
of the end of history turned out to be premature?, Cambridge Journal of Economics,
vol. 33, no. 4 (2009).
11.?Lapavitsas, Profiting without Producing,аp. 206, figureа2.
311
312
??? ???????? ?????????
12.?J. Crotty, ?If financial market competition is so intense, why are financial firm
profits so high?: Reflections on the current ?golden age? of finance?, Working Paper
no. 134 (Amherst, MA: PERI (Political Economy Research Institute), University of
Massachusetts, April 2007).
13.?A. Haldane, ?Rethinking the financial network?а? ??????????? ?????
??????????? ?????????-??????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????? 2009а????; ???????? ??а??????: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/
speeches/2009/speech386.pdf, ??. 16?17.
14.?M. Blyth, Austerity:the History of a Dangerous Idea (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2013), ??. 26?27.
15.???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????? ????
??? ?а1998а???? ??а?????????????? ???? ??????? ?а2008-?а????.аP.аSikka, ?Nick
Clegg?s plan for shareholders to tackle fat-cat pay won?t work?, Guardian, 6 December
2011; ???????? ??а??????: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/
dec/06/nick-clegg-shareholders-fat-cat-pay?
16.??????????? ?????? ??а?????? ??? ????? ??????????, ??? ????
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