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Урок 1. Название урока
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Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
Учебное пособие
Рекомендовано УМО по образованию
в области финансов, учета и мировой экономики для специальностей «Финансы и кредит», «Бухгалтерский учет, анализ и аудит», «Мировая экономика», «Налоги и налогообложение»
Ростов-на-Дону
еникс
2008
www.phoenixbooks.ru
2 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
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ISBN 978-5-222-14175-5
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???? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????. ????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????-
?????-?????????? (????, ? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????), ???????? ???????? ?, ?? ????????, ???????? ? ???? ????????: ????? ???? ????????.
??????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ????? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???-
????????? ?????????, ? ??? ????? ? «????????? ?????», ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????? «?????, ?????, ?????, ?????, ??? ????????????, ??????». ? ?????? ??????????, ???? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ???????????. ??????? ?? ? ?????? (???? 1) ? ??????, ?? ??? ??????, ???????? ? ? ????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????????-
??? ??????????? ?????, ?? ???????? ? ? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????????. ? ??????? ????? ??? ??-
?????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? «?????????????? ?????????», ?? ???? ?????, ????? ????-
????? ???????? ??? ?????????? «??????????? ???????», ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ???? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?? ??????????.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
12 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???? ????????????-
???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ? ??????:
???????? ???????? ? ????.
? ????????, ??? ???????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????-
???? ? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????, ??? ???????. ??? ????? ? ????????? ??????, ?? ???????, ?? ????????. ?????????????, ?? ?????? ??????. ??? ? ??? ??????? ????-
???, ??????, ?? ?? ?????? ? ?? ????? ??????. ? ??????? ?? ??????, ??? ????????. ??????, ??? ?? ???? ???????, ??? ?? ?? ???????. ?? ? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ???, ??????????????, ????????? ??? ???????. ? ??????? ?? ??????, ??? ?? ?? ?????, ?? ????-
???. ???????? ????? ??????? (???? ?? ??????? ???) ? ???-
??????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ? ???????, ???????? ? ????. ??? ????????????? ????? ? ????????? ? ??????-
??????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ? ???????????. ???? ?????? ????? ? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ????????? «??????» ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??, ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????? ? ????????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ?????, ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????, ?, ?????????????, ??? ????????? ?? ?????.
?????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????-
????? ???????????:
????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ?? ??? ???????? ????, ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????-
????? ??????????? ?????, ? ?????? ???????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????O????????????. ? ????? ????, ????????? ????????, ???? (? ?????? ?????) ???? ?? ?? ???????, ?? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????, ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????, ?? ? ?? ???????????? ????-
?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????-
????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ???, ??? ????????????, ???? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????????. ?? ???? ?????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ?? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??? www.phoenixbooks.ru
Предисловие
? 13
???????????????? (????, ????????, ??????? ?????-
????? «?????????????? ?????? ????????????» ? ?????? ?? «?????????» ?????????), ?? ???? ??? «??????????» ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????, ??????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?????? ? ?????? ??O??????. ?????? ?? ?????, ??? ??, ????????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ???? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????, ?? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????; ?? ?????? ? ??? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????-
?????? ??????????.
??? ??, ?????? ?????, ? ??? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????, ?? ??-
????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???? ? ????? (??? ? ????????? ????????) ??????, ??? ??? (???????????-
??? ???) ???????? ????????????, ????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ???: ??????? ? ??????? ???, ???????; ???????? ? ???-
???? ???, ???????. ????? ???????, ??????????????? ???-
???????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? (??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????) ? ? ????? ????? ? ????? ????????????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ????????O??????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ? ????, ????? ? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????O????????? ? ???????O?????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ??? ???? ???????, ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????O???????????? ? ????????? ?????????. ? ??? ?????????, ????????. ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????? «??????? ?? ??????????» ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??O?????????? ?? ??????????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ? ?? ??????????, ??? ??????? ??????.
???????, ????? ??????? ?? ????, ???????? ?? ????? ? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????????, ????????????? ????????? ? «?????????????? ?????????», ? ?????? ????-
??????? ???O???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????????-
??? ?????????.
???????, ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ???, ????????, ??????????, ??????? (?? ? ?????? ???????) ???-
????????????? ????????????? ? ???? «??????, ???????? ?????? ??????????. ???, ????????, ?????????????????-
??? ??????? -ed ?????????? ????????????????????? ???????? (???????) -ed, ??????? ???????? ????????? ???-
www.phoenixbooks.ru
14 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
?? ????????»
1
, ? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????. ???, ????????, ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????. ???????, ????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????.
????, ???????????? ?????????
2
, ??? «??????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?? ???????? (??? ? ????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ???????. ? ?????? ???, ?.?.». ?????????? ???????? ????-
?????????? ????? ? ?? ???????? ? ????? ????? (?????-
???, «????? ?» ? «????? ?»
3
), ????? ??????? ????? ? ??-
????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? (?????????????? ???????????) ??? ?? ?????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ??????. ????? ?????-
??, ???? ? «????? ?» ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? (A
i
), ?? ??????? ???????? A
i
????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????-
??????? (?
i
) ???????? ?
i
. ????????, ???? ?????????????? «???????????» ?????? ???????? ??? «???? ?????», ? ? ?????????? ????? ? «elephant elephantS», ?? ????? ???-
???? ??????????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????-
??? ?????????????? ?????: ??????? ???? ? ?; ?????????? ???? ? S
4
. ???????, ???????????? ? ????????? ????????, 1
??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ??????? ?????-
??????? ??????? ? 2-? ?????. ??. 160 000 ????. ? ?.: ??????? ????, 1987. ?. I. ? ?. 13. ? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??-
???????? ? «?????????????? ??????-???????????» ??. ? ???????? 3 ? 4 ????????? ??????.
2
?????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????: ??????? ???????. ? ?.: ??-
???? ?????, 2003. ? ?. 250.
??. ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????-
??????????? ?????? Continuous ? ????? 3 ????????? ?????, ?????? Passive ? ????? 4 ????????? ?????.
3
???? ???? ?????????? ???????, ?? ??????? ???????? ???????-
??? ??????? ? «???? ?» ? «???? ?» ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? (???????) ?, ??????????, ???????? ??????, ??? ??? ??????????????? ???? ? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ???????. ???????, ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????: ????????, «????? ?????» ? «????? ????????».
4
???????, ??? ??? ???????? ????? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??-
????????? (????????, ???? ????), ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????-
??? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
Предисловие
? 15
????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ????? ???????? ? ???-
?????????????? ???????????, ? ??????: ???? «?????? ??????» ? «???????? ????????» ? ?????????? ????? ????????, ???????? ??, ????????? ? «work workS». ??-
???? ??? ?????? «???????? ??», ?????????, ??? ?? ???????? ????, ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? (??????, ???????), ?? ? ?? ???????. ??????? «???????????????» ?????????? ???? «work workS» ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????
1
:
«?????? ??????» «work workS»
«???????? ????????» TO «work HE workS»
????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ?? «????? ?», ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????????????, ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? «????? ?», ???????????????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????-
????? «????? ?», ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? «????? ?» ?? «???? ?» ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????????, ???????, ? ????? ???????, ??????????? ?? ???????????-
??? ???????? «????? ?», ? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ?? ????????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????????? ???????????? «????? ?» ? «????? ?». ? ????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??-
?????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????, ??????? ? ???, ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????-
???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? «????? ?» ? «????? ?».
?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??-
????????? ?????, ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????-
????? ???????????, ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? «?? ???????? ? ????????»
2
, ??????? ? ?????? 1
??., ??????????????, ???? 1 ? ???? 2 ????????? ??????.
2
?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? «??????? ???????? ????», ???-
?????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????????????, ??? ? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????. ? ????????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ? ????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????, ??? ? ???????????. ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ???, ????????, ?? ??-
??????????? ? ????? ?? ????, ? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????????????, ?????? ?? ?????????. ?????????, ??? ? ????? ?????.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
16 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
?????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ???? (??????????????, ?????????????? ???????????) ? (?? ???????????) ??????? ?????????? ??????????; ?? ???? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????-
??? ????????O??????????, ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????????O?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????. ??????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????O????????????? ??????????????? ??????-
?????? ????????? ? ????????, ?? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????. ? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ?????-
????? ? ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????? *, ??? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ????? «?????????? ?????????». ???????, ????????? ????????, ??????? ? ??-
??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???, ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? *, ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????-
??? ?????????????? ????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????O???????????.
????? ????, ???, ???????? ??, ????? ???????????? ???-
???? ???????? ????????, ?? ????? ? ??????????? ????? «??????» «EnGram Inc.?s Story», ??? ? ????? «??????? ????-
??», ???? ?? ?????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????-
??
1
?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????. ??O??????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ????, ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ??O??????, ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????-
??????? ????, ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????. ???????, ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??????-
?????? «?????????», ??? ? ?? ???? ???????????? (???? ?? ??????) ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? «????????», «???????????» ? «???????????-
??? ??????????». ?????????, ??? ????????? ????? ?????? «????? ??????????»
2
«Grammar», so someone said, «is the 1
Guaspari J. I Know It When I See It. AMACOM, NY, 1985. 2
???????? ?.?., ??????? ?. ???. ???. ? ?. 9.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
Предисловие
? 17
art of putting the right words in the right places», ? ???? ?????-
?????? ? ???, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?? ? ?? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????.
?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????-
????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????????? (?? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????????!) ???????: «??? ???? ???????? ? ??????, ??, ?????? ???????, ????». ???????, «????», ?? ?? ???????. ??? ? ??? ??????, ??? ???, ????????, ?????. ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? «???????????» ???, ??-
??????, ????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??-
?????????? ???????????? ???????????, ???????????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????.
????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???-
???????? ????? ??????? ? ???, ???, ?? ? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???-
????????????? ???????: ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????, ??? ?, ? ??? ????-
??? ???????, ??? ?????????.
????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????-
????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????. ???? ?? ???????? ????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????????, «???????????» (advanced ), ?? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???-
??? *. ???????, ??? ?? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????. ????? ????, ???? ????? ??????? ???????, ? ???? ??????????, ?????? ? ????????? ???????-
????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? *.
? ???????????, ?????? «??????» «EnGram Inc.?s Story», ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????, ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????-
????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????. ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????-
???? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????, ??? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????O????????????, ????????? www.phoenixbooks.ru
18 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
??????????? ????, ? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????, ???? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????:
«???? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????-
????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????. ????????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????, ?? ? (???, ????????, ???????? ????? ??????) ???????????? ????????????? ? ???????-
??? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????»
1
.
???????, ??? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ??????????? «??-
???????????». ????????? ? ????????, ????? ?????????? ??-
?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???? «?????????? ??????? ????», ? ?????? ??????????? ????????????:
«???? ????, ?????????, ?????, ????, ???????? ????? (?? ???????? ???, ??? ????? ?????), ??? ???????, ???-
?????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????, ?? ????? ??? ?????, ??????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????, ??? ???? ? ?????????? ? ?????, ???????? ? ??? ???? ? ??? ??????, ???????? ???? ? ??????, ????????? ? ??????-
???????; ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??, ??? ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ??? ? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??, ??? ????? ???????, ??? ???? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ? ? ?? ???????, ??? ???? ?????»
2
.
? ??????????, ? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????-
???????? ??????????? ? ??????????, ? ????? ?????????, ?? ????? ?? ????? ???????, ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ???-
?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????. ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? (??? ?? ?? ?? ???, ????????? ??? ?????????) ?? ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???? ??????, ? ????? ?? ??????, ?? ??? ??????????? ?????: cherenkov_47@mail.ru.
??????? ?????????
1
Dahringer, L. D., Muhlbacher, H. International Marketing: A Global Perspective. ? Addisson-Wesley Publishing Company ? Reading (MA), etc., 1991 ? p.179.
2
??????????? ?.?. ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????? // ??????? ???????? ?? 1876 ???. ???? ? ??????. ? ??????????? ?.?. ????. ????. ???. ? 30 ??. ???????????? ? ??????. ???? XVIII?
XXX. ? ?. XXIII. ?. 80.
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EnGram Inc.?s Story. Prologue
? 19
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Prologue
O
nce upon a time the English language was very dull Flat Life-
less
It was perfectly functional perfectly utilitarian
But it didnt
1
sing
It didnt shine
A typical sentence would sound like this one And then the next one would sound like this one And the next one like this
And it would go on and on in a similar way
The same was true for both written and spoken English
There was no poetry
There were no songs
There were no records kept of all this
Thats because people didnt wont to
bother handing down such flat lifeless
prose to their descendants
For which we should all be very grateful
Mr. Caterpillar lived a long time ago. No one is quite sure about exactly when that was. If you?ve gotten this far, then you know why.
Anyway, it was a long time ago, and legend says that Winnie-the-Pooh enjoyed life a lot.
He felt happiness.
He felt sadness.
He felt pain.
He felt joy.
He felt all those things and more.
1
????? ? ????? ? ???? «??????» ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???.
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20 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
Most of all, he felt deeply. But when he tried to explain those feelings to other peo ple, all the feelings went behind the door and hid.
He would say things like:
That was a very moving experience I feel great gladness and joy
Or:
The pain in the corn on my foot is excruciating
Or:
I very much hate having to speak in such a wooden manner
And the people listening to Mr. Caterpillar would say:
I am very pleased that you are feeling such gladness and joy
Or:
Perhaps some Epsom salts would be of help
Or:
I do not understand why you think speaking in the manner to which we have become accustomed should be characterized as being wooden
And Mr. Caterpillar would feel a gnawing in his stom-
ach.
That, at least, would take his mind off his corns.
One night Mr. Caterpillar got on his knees and said the same simple prayer he always said:
Please God let somebody figure out a way to make our language less bland and boring
Then he pulled back the covers and climbed into bed.
But he couldn?t sleep. So he got out of bed and went to his writing table in a mood of despair. Putting pen to paper, he wrote:
Why must the language be so inadequate for communi-
cating true feeling and emotion?
He stopped and read what he had writ ten. Then he wrote:
What was that odd curving mark I made at the and of that last sentence?
Again he stopped and read what he had written.
This time he smiled.
Thus was punctuation discovered.
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Тест входного контроля. Input Control Test
? 21
Тест входного контроля
Input control test
1*
1
.
A generation ago, telecommunications markets around the world shared many characteristics.
2. This project was approved but the engineer was shown some drawbacks that could easily be corrected.
3*.
Telecommunications markets around the world have been deregulated.
4. The statement about the company?s trading position is to be made today.
5*.
If one agrees with this logic, a solution to the problem of declining incomes is to be found not in limiting free trade and globalization, but in increasing society?s investment in education to reduce the supply of unskilled workers.
6. Monetary policy is concerned with regulating the supplies of money.
7*. We are moving progressively further away from a world in which national economies were relatively isolated from each other by barriers to cross-border trade and investment; by dis-
tance, time zones, and language; and by national differences in government regulation, culture, and business systems.
8. There are many economic risks faced by firms, including such things as major improvements in air industry?s technology, government policies and others.
9*.
The former Norwegian farmer designed a mouse that alleviates his problem, started a company to manufacture and distribute it worldwide, using the Internet as his channel.
10. Entrepreneurs need a sense of satisfaction achieved by winning the competition rather than a personal need for power expressed by dominating and controlling others.
11*. Sunny Eye, a US-based manufacturer and distributor of eyewear, has a minority stake in eyewear design houses in Japan, France, and Italy.
12. This financial scheme has a merit of being used for many projects.
13*. The lowering of barriers to international trade enables firms to view the world, rather than a single country, as their market.
1
??????? ?? ?????? *
????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ????????????.
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22 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
14. Increased competition often results in greater efficiency among group members.
15*.
Thus, growing income inequality is a result of the wages for skilled workers being bid up by the labor market, and the wages for unskilled workers being discounted.
16. Depending on how it is looked at stress can be either good or bad for an entrepreneur.
17*.
If one agrees with this result, a solution could be justified by demand conditions.
18. The real test of the company?s strength will be how well it is able to develop, manufacture, and market new products.
19*. If this investment is made, it will have a significant im-
pact on the growth rate of Brazil?s economy.
20. Having won fame in the domestic market, the company entered foreign markets.
21*. Having learned from this experience, after World War II, the advanced industrial nations of the West ? under US leader-
ship ? committed themselves to removing barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital between nations.
22. Manufacturers want people to have a good attitude to-
wards their products.
23*. In addition to lobbying their governments, firms may want to stay out of countries where intellectual property laws are lax, rather than risk having their ideas stolen by local entrepre-
neurs.
24. If completed, the experiments will make it possible to draw definite conclusions.
25*. If the president were Japanese he would have some sym-
pathy towards Wind?s managers.
26. The following factors are necessary for creating and main-
taining international competition.
27*. International business is different because countries are different.
28. On having been published the annual report was sent to major shareholders.
29*. When communism collapsed, many of former socialist countries lacked the legal structure required to protect property rights, all property having been held by the state.
30. To build capacity less than required is to be unable to meet all the demands of customers.
31*. In practice, the road that must be traveled to reach a mar-
ket-based economic system has often turned out to be rocky.
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Тест входного контроля. Input Control Test
? 23
32. Relying on imports affects the economy of any country.
33*. Printing money, along with the lack of price controls, often led to hyperinflation.
34. A firm that wants to stay in business has to give constant considerations to introducing new products to meet the changing desires of customers.
35*. To take a greater profit margin on each unit it sells is good for the monopolist, but it is bad for the consumer, who has to pay higher prices.
36. Two important questions would be vital to you provided you were interested in an entrepreneurial career.
37*. It would be naive to conclude that the global spread of democracy will continue unchallenged.
38. We have been developing quality toys here since 1953.
39*. You have been working hard for Wind, even in times of difficulties, so we will support you.
40. MNEs (multinational enterprises) use centralized deci-
sions being made in managing their overseas operations.
41*. Although no other attempt at regional economic integra-
tion comes close to the EU in terms of potential economic and political significance, various other attempts are being made in the world.
42*. A country?s laws regulate business practice, define the manner in which business transactions are to be executed, and set down the rights and obligations of those involved in business transactions.
43. All payments are to be made before the goods can be dispatched.
44*. Perhaps the single most important innovation has been development of the microprocessor, which enabled the explosive growth of high-power, low-cost computing, vastly increasing the amount of information that can be processed by individuals and firms.
45. Satisfying wants may be the first step in satisfying needs.
46*. For the time being, it looks like it will keep the ban, pay a penalty for violating WTO rules, and continue to search for scientific evidence to support its position.
47. The goods are reported by the seller to have been shipped last week.
48*. Tariffs are the oldest and simplest instrument of trade policy, that GATT and WTO have been most successful in limit-
ing.
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24 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
49. We are interested in being informed about new develop-
ments.
50*. By the end of 1997 this model branch was in place at 600 of Towncorp?s 1,200 retail locations, and it is being rapidly introduced elsewhere.
51. Once the site for a plant has been determined it has to be built or rebuilt for the equipment it will house.
52*. In the United States, goodwill has to be deducted from the profits of the acquiring firm over as much as 40 years (al-
though firms typically write down goodwill much more rapidly).
53*. The purpose of GATT and WTO has been to lower barri-
ers to the free flow of goods and services between nations.
54. The investors are very demanding when choosing where to invest their capital therefore building a solid reputation becomes essential to a company.
55*. Domestic producers gain, because the tariff gives them some protection against foreign competitors by increasing the cost of imported foreign goods.
56*. In the United States, for example, pressure is building to insist that 75 percent of the component parts that go into cars built in the United States by Japanese companies such as FastCar and FryCar be manufactured in the United States.
57. One should know that imports are goods and services pro-
duced in one country and bought in by another country.
58*. Whether a company should actually pay bribes in return for market access should be determined on the basis of the legal and ethical implications of such action.
59. Had the customer refused to accept the goods, we would have terminated the contract.
60*. How do you think this would have affected the relatively competitive position of Stone Ltd. and Mioto Inc.?
61. Supported by the latest software, this computer is what every manager needs.
62*. However, many currency traders concluded that the peso would have to be devalued, and they began to dump pesos on the foreign exchange market.
63. Promotion can be used to influence your dealers, your distributors and other members of your distribution channel.
64*. A number of other indicators can also be used to assess a country?s economic development and its likely future growth rate.
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Тест входного контроля. Input Control Test
? 25
65. To be successful means to recognise the need for a new type of product required.
66*. The rationale underlying ownership restraints seems to be twofold.
67*. By concentrating power and authority in one individual or a top-management team, centralization can give top-level managers the means to bring about needed major organizational changes.
68. In the 1990s we are seeing dramatic global development that is changing the nature of international business.
69*. It was alleged that the Korean firms were trying to unload their excess production in the United States.
70. To understand what the business means to us we should deal with our customers and our employees.
71*. It is unthinkable that we should not be allowed to miti-
gate the impacts of our own shrimp markets on endangered sea turtles.
72. Provided the supplier failed to deliver on time a penalty clause would be applied.
73*. Training should include cultural training, language train-
ing, and practical training, and it should be provided to both the expatriate manager and the spouse.
74. We say business is dynamic because it is not static it is constantly changing and is being changed.
75*. The most successful expatriates seem to be those who have high self-esteem and self-confidence, get along well with others, are willing to attempt to communicate in a foreign lan-
guage, and can empathize with people of other cultures.
76. The goods to be dispatched are being inspected.
77*. Even when social democratic parties have regained the levers of power, they no seem to be committed to greater private ownership.
78*. WTO rules allow countries to impose antidumping du-
ties on foreign goods that are being sold cheaper than at home, or below their cost of production, when domestic producers can show that they are being harmed.
79. The strategy indicated can be considered to have been finally chosen.
80*. Any agreement would have to have been approved by Congress rather than just the president.
81. One important point should be noticed in connection with the methods just described.
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26 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
82*. Countries should be exporting products from those in-
dustries where all four components of the Porter?s diamond are favorable, while importing in those areas where the components are not favorable.
83. Instead of a fixed rent, the landlord received some per-
centage of sales or net profit.
84. *Underlying most of the theories we have discussed is the notion that different countries have particular advantages in dif-
ferent productive activities.
85. The majority of international business is being conducted by MNEs.
86. Until registered, a company may not start trading.
87*. From its foundation in 1947 until it was superseded by the WTO, the GATT?s membership grew from 19 to more than 120 nations.
88. The exchange of R&D and joint problem solving lead to faster and more efficient solutions.
89*. The agreement was formally signed by member states at a meeting in Marrakech, Morocco, on April 15, 1994.
90. We observe computer technology to have produced a dra-
matic impact on the service sector.
91. In fact it is very difficult for a salesman calling on retail stores to get shelf space for his product unless it has been heavily advertised so that the retailer is convinced that the product of-
fered will sell well.
92. In examining economic systems, it is important to re-
member that most economies of the world are mixed economies, characterized by a combination of market and centralized plan-
ning.
93. Special measures were taken to avoid workers? being late.
94*. The growth in world trade seems to have accelerated in recent years.
95. Only those board members with proven managerial ability can expect to be appointed as corporate officers.
96*. Historically, command economies were found in com-
munist countries where collectivist goals were given priority over individual goals.
97. The Federal Trade Commission frequently referred to is looked at with interest.
98. They hope the accounts to be audited are in order.
99*.
Instead of growing and becoming more prosperous, com-
mand economies tend to be characterized by stagnation.
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Тест входного контроля. Input Control Test
? 27
100. In 1991 Lead Mobile and Smith Inc., which jointly owned an assembly plant built in 1989 in Sweden, decided to close the facility because it was unable to achieve world-class productivity levels.
????? ???????? ???? 100 ??????????? (???, ??? ?????? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? *), ?????-
?????? ?? ??????????? ?????O???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? (??. ????????????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????), ? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? (???-
?????????, ?????????) ??? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????-
??. ???????? (??????????) ??? «????» (X : Y) ? ??????? BEFORE, ????? ????????, ??? ????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? AFTER. ???????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? X ??? Y.
TRUE ? X FALSE ? Y
BEFORE AFTER BEFORE AFTER
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28 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part One
E
nGram Inc. was a fabulously successful enterprise.
That?s not surprising. Because if people wanted to do any thing more daring than capitaliz ing the beginning of a sentence, they needed Punctuation as well as Parts of Speech, and Parts of Sentence.
The company had a broad line of prod ucts:
Commas, apostrophes, and periods.
Question marks, exclamation points, and dashes.
Parentheses and brackets.
Semicolons and colons.
Even luxury items like ellipses.
Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, and many derivates of the last ones.
Pronouns, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections.
All were marks of Punctuation, Parts of Speech, and Parts of Sentence. And there was a broad range of markets. The company sold to:
Consumers, who needed a lot of excla mation points to put after words like ?Golly!? and ?Wow!?
Lawyers, who bought commas by the carload to put after all their ?whereas? clauses, forming very long Speeches and Sentences.
Doctors, for whom a special line of terms and punctu-
ation marks was created, legi ble only to pharmacists.
Comic-strip artists, who couldn?t use profanity in family newspapers.
Businesspeople, who preferred semi colons to colons by a wide margin after buying committees made the compromise, consensus choice.
The list of customers went on and on.
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EnGram Inc.?s Story. Part One
? 29
And there were plenty of imitators too, plenty of com-
petitors who offered the same ?kinds? of products. But they all could trace their origins directly to EnGram Inc?s door.
And none of them could ever hold a candle to the sheer power, genius, and inno vation that had been shown by Mr. Caterpillar and his descendants in commerce.
Yes, EnGram Inc. was a powerful commercial enterprise. But its impact and contributions to society went much deeper than the bottom line.
Think of the thousands of lives that have been saved since it became possible for the simple statement ?Fire? to become the urgent cry of ?Fire!!!?
EnGram Inc. made that possible.
Think of the important role that radio operators using Morse code played during both world wars. Where do you think they got all those dots and dashes?
Think of the effect on our literary heri tage. Why, for example, without EnGram Inc., we still wouldn?t know whether the Raven quoth ?Nevermore!? or just kept his beak shut and quoth nevermore!
Yes, we have the folks at EnGram Inc. to thank for all that and more.
They were dominant.
They were admirable.
They were invincible.
Or so they thought.
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30 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
Good order is the founda-
tion of all things
1
.
Урок 1
Порядок слов английского предложения как позиционный грамматический индикатор
C «??????????», ??????? «????????» ? «????», ?????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???, ??????, ? ???, ????????, ? ??-
??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????-
?????????? ?????????O??????????? ???????? ?????. ??? ??? ???, ????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???????????. ??????, ??? ?????? ????????, ? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????-
?? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????. ? ?????? ???????, ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????-
?????? (???????) ???????? ????. ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? «????????? ?????????» ????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????. ??? ???????, ????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ? ????????-
1
Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729 ? July 9, 1797) was an Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. He is mainly remembered for his support of the American colonies in the dispute with King George III and Great Britain that led to the American Revolution and for his strong opposition to the French Revolution. The latter made Burke one of the leading figures within the conservative faction of the Whig party (which he dubbed the ?Old Whigs?), in opposition to the pro-revolutionary ?New Whigs?, led by Charles James Fox. Burke also published philosophical works on aesthetics and founded the Annual Register, a political review. He is often regarded by conservatives as the Father of Anglo-American conservatism.
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Урок 1. Порядок слов английского предложения...
? 31
???? ? ?? «?????????????? ????????» (??????????, ?????????, ??????????, ??????????????, ???????????) ??????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ?????? 1.1, ??? ?????? ???????? «???????????? ?????», ???????????????, ? ???????????? ? ?? «?????????», ????-
??????????, ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????:
?????? 1.1
??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????
??????????-
????
???????-
???
?????????
???????-
???
??????-
????????
????????????? ?????????????????
(1) (2) (3)
The manager
interviewed applicants yesterday.
Yesterday the manager interviewed applicants.
general new
??????
???????????
(1) ? ??????????;
(2) ? ?????????;
(3) ? ??????????.
??? ??? ????? ? ?????? ???????????. ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? (????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????? 1.1) «??????????????» ? ????? ???????.
??? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??-
????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ?? ????????? «????????????» ??????????? ? ???????, ?????-
?? ?? ??????? ???, ??? ?????, ? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????; ???????, ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ???????? ??????? ?????????:
1. ??????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ??????-
????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ?????. ? ????-
??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? «?????? ???????» ?????????? (?????O??????? ? ?????????O??????????):
WILL ? WOULD,
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32 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
SHALL ? SHOULD,
MAY ? MIGHT,
CAN ? COULD,
HAVE ? HAS ? HAD,
AM ? ARE ? IS ? WAS ? WERE,
????????? -ED, -S.
? ??????? ????????? -ed
? ????????? = interviewed
2. ?????? ??????? ??????????. ????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ??? ????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ????? ?????????. ????? ????? ????? ??????, ???????? ???? ???? ???? ? ???????????? ?????, ???????:
A, THE
? ??????? ??????? The ? ?????, ?????????????? ??-
??? ????????? interviewed
? ?????????? = The ... manager...
3. ?????? ??????? ????? ????????????
1
????????? ?????-
????? ? ?????????. ???? ?? ?? ??????????, ??? ??-
???????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ?? ?????-
?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ? ??? ????????? ? ???? ???????????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????.
? The manager interviewed...
? «???????? ??????????????» (??? ? ?????? ????-
?? ?) ?????????? ???? ????, ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????
4. ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??-
????????? ??????????? (?????? 1.1), ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ????, ??????? «????? ???? ?????».
1
«????????????» ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????-
????? ?????? ???????????, ?? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????-
????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????????. ???, ????????, ?????????? account ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? «????», ???? ????? ???????? ???-
???? ? ????? ??????: ????, ??????, ?????, ??????, ???????, ????????, ?????? ? ???? ? ??? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ?? ????? ????? ???? «??????».
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Урок 1. Порядок слов английского предложения...
? 33
? ...applicants...
5. ? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ??????. ??? ? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ??????-
?????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ?? ???? ?????????, ??? ???????, ? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????.
? Yesterday... ??? ...yesterday.
6. ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? 1.1: ????-
??????? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????, ???? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????. ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???????????:
? ...general manager...
? ...new applicants.
7. ??????, ????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ???-
?????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????, ?? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ???????:
? Yesterday the general [1] manager [2] interviewed new [3] applicants.
? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??-
??? ??????????.
???, ????? ???????????? ????????:
? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????.
* * *
????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????-
????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? (??????-
????) ?? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????, ??? «??????», ??????? ????? ??????????????? ? ? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????
1
? ??? ?? «?????????». ???, ? ???-
1
?????????? ????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????.
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Литература
? 439
Литература
1. ?????O??????? ??????????????? ???????. 80 000 ???-
????? / ??? ???. ?.?. ?????????. ? ?.: ????????? ????????????, 1971.
2. ?????-???????-??????? ???????-?????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? / ??? ???. ?.?. ???????? ? ?.?.????????? (????. ???.: ????????? ?.?. ? ??.) ? ???.: ???O?? ???, 2002.
3. ????????? ?.?. ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???-
???????. ? ?.: ????????, 1994.
4. ?????? ?.?. ?????O??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ???-
???????: ??. 40 000 ????????. ? ?.: ?????, 1997.
5. ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ??????O???? ???????-
???? ?????: ???????O??????????. ? ????.: ?????; ?.: ?????, 2000.
6. ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ????-
??? ?????O??????? ??????? ? 2O? ?????. ??. 160 000 ????. ? ?.: ??????? ????, 1987.
7. ?????? ?.?. ?????? ???????????: ??????? ???????. ? ?.: ?????? ?????, 2003.
8. ?????. ?????????? ??? ?????. ? ???.: ??????-
????, 1998.
9. ??????????? ?.?. ?? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????????? // ??????? ???????? ?? 1876 ???. ???? ? ??????. ? ??????????? ?.?. ????. ????. ???. ? 30 ??. ???????????? ? ??????. ???? XVIII?XXX. ? ?. XXIII.
10. ?????????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??: ??????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ? ?.: ????????, 1959.
11. ????? ?.?. ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????: ??????? ??? ???????. (?? ???????-
??? ?????.) ? ?.: ???????????, 1979.
12. ??????????? ?.?., ??????????? ?.?. ?????O??????? ??????O??????? = English-Russian Business Dictionary. ? ?.: ??????, 2000.
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440 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
13. ?????? ?. ????? ? ?????? ?????. ????? ? ???????-
???. ? ?.: ?????, 1978.
14. ???? ?. ??????? ? ?????O????. ????? ??? ?????. ???????. ????. ?.?. ????? (?? ????. ??.). ? ?.: ????-
??, 1983.
15. ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????????. ? ?.: ?????? ?????, 1973.
16. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? / ??. ???. ?.?. ????????. ? ?.: ?????? ????????, 2004.
17. ????? ?.?. ? ??. ??????O?????????? ???????: ??. 34 000 ???? / ??? ???. ?.?. ???????. ? ?.: ??????? ????, 1987.
18. ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????. ????????? ????. ? ?.O??????????, ??????, ?????i? ?????????????O????????? ?.?.??????, 1882.
19. ????????? ?.?. ????? ? ??????. ?? ? ???? ???. ? ?.: ????????, 1962.
20. ????????? ?.?. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???-
????????? ??????????? ????? ??? «???????????» // ?????????. ? 2 (89). 2006.
21. ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????: Supplementary File: Intermediate Business English / ??? ???. ?.?. ???????-
??? ? ???.: ??????? ???, 2003; ? ????? ????????-
?????? ??????? 2005 ? 2008.
22. ????????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????: Supplementary File / ??? ???. ?.?.?????????? ? ???.: ??????? ???, 2003; ? ????? ?????????????? ??????? 2005 ? 2008.
23. ????????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. Personnel Management (?????????? ???? ??? ??????-
??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????????? «?????????? ????????????? ?????????»: ??????? ???????. ? ???.: ???O?? ???????, 1999.
24. ????????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. Non-boring English Grammar or A Golden Key to Understanding English Better. ????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????: ??????? ???????. ? ???: ???O?? ???????, 2001.
25. ????????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?. ????????? ?????-???-
???? ???????O?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???-
www.phoenixbooks.ru
Литература
? 441
????. Pocket English-Russian Explanatory Dictionary on International Business. ? ???.: ??????, ?????????, 1998.
26. ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?. ????? ??????????, ????-
?????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????. ? ?.: ????????????? ?????????, 1993.
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28. Berkowitz, E.N., Kerin, R.A., Rudelius, W. Marketing. ? Ir-
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29. Begg, D., Fisher, S., Dornbush, R. Economics. ? McGrow-
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30. Boone, L. E., Kurtz, D.L. Contemporary Marketing
plus
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31. Bradley, F. International Marketing Strategy. ? Prentice Hall, New York, etc., 1991.
32. Carrol, L. Alice?s Adventures in Wonderland: Through the Looking Glass and Others Works. ? Marshall Cavendish, London, 1987.
33. Cateora, Ph.R., Graham, J.L. International Marketing. Irwin ? McGraw-Hill, Boston, etc., 1999.
34. Collins. Cobuild English Grammar. ? William Collis Sons & Co Ltd, London, 1994.
35. Czinkota, M.R., Ronkainen, I.A. International Market-
ing. ? The Dryden Press, Fort Worth, etc., 1998.
36. Dahringer, ?.?., Muhlbacher, ?. International Marketing: ? Global Perspective. ? Addison-Wesley Publishing Com-
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37. Evans, J.R., Berman, B. Marketing. ? Macmillan Publish-
ing Company, N.Y., Maxwell Macmillan Canada, London, Maxwell Macmillan International, N, Y., etc., 1994.
38. Good, W.S. Building a Dream. A Comprehensive Guide to Starting a Business of Your Own. ? McGraw-Hill Ryer-
son, Toronto, etc., 1993.
39. Griffin, R.W. Management. ? Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, etc., 1993.
40. Griffin, R.W., Pustay, M.W. International Business: A Managerial Perspective. ? Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005.
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442 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
41. Gross, A.C., Banting, P.M., Meredith, L.N., Ford, I.D. Busi-
ness Marketing. ? Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, etc., 1993.
42. Guaspari, J. I Know It When I See It. ? Amacom, NY, 1985.
43. Hill, Ch.W.L. International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace. ? Irwin ? McGraw-Hill, Boston, etc., 2000.
44. Holt, D. International Management: Text and Cases. ? The Dryden Press. Fort Worth, etc., 1998.
45. Jeannet, J.-P., Hennessey, H.D. Global Marketing Strate-
gies. ? Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, etc., 1995.
46. Keegan, W. J. Global Marketing Management. ? Prentice-
Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1999.
47. Kotabe, M., Helsen, K. Global Marketing Management. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, etc., 2001.
48. Lesikar, R.V. Basic Business Communication. ? IRWIN, Homewood, IL, Boston, MA, 1991.
49. Lush, R.F., Lush, V.N. Principles of Marketing. ? Kent Publishing Company, Boston, MA, 1987.
50. Majaro, S. International Marketing. A Strategic Approach to World Markets ? Rutledge, etc., 1993.
51. Mead, R. International Management: Cross-Cultural Di-
mensions. ? Blackwell Business, Oxford, 2000.
52. Phillips, Ch., Doole, I., Lowe, R. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development, and Implementation. ? Rutledge, etc, 1994.
53. Rugman, A.M., Hodgetts, R.M. International Business: A Strategic Management Approach. ? McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1995.
54. Stanton, W.J., Etzel, M.J., Walker, B.J. Fundamentals of Marketing. ? McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1991.
55. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. ? Oxford, Oxford Uni-
versity Press, 2005.
56. The American Heritage College Dictionary. ? Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, New York, 1993.
57. Rosenberg, J.M. Dictionary of Business & Management. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, Chichester, Brisbane, etc., 1992.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
Содержание
? 443
??????????
??????????? ......................................................................3
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Prologue ......................................................................19
???? ???????? ????????. Input Control Test .....................21
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part One ......................................................................28
???? 1. ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ......................30
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Two ......................................................................35
???? 2. ?????????-?????????? «-s», «-ed», «-ing» ............37
2.1. ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????-
?????????? «-s» .........................................................37
2.2. ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????-
?????????? «-ing» .....................................................43
2.2.1. ????????? I .....................................................43
2.3 ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????-
?????????? «-ed» ......................................................48
2.3.1. ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ........................48
2.3.2. ????????? II ....................................................48
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Three ...................................................................54
???? 3. ?????????? ????????-?????????? ??????? ? ?????? (???????? ?????) ............................................57
3.1. ?????????? (????????????) ?????. Continuous/Progressive Tense Active ..........................58
3.2. ??????????? (???????????) ?????.
Perfect Tense Active ....................................................62
3.3. ??????????? (???????????) ???????????? ?????.
Perfect Continuous Tense ............................................64
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444 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Four .....................................................................72
???? 4. ?????????? ????????-?????????? ??????? ? ?????? (????????? ?????). Passive Voice .....................................73
4.1. ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ..........................76
4.2. ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ...........................77
4.3. ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ............................77
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Five ......................................................................85
???? 5. ????????????? ?????: ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????-??????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????? .....................................................88
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Six .....................................................................103
???? 6. ????????? ???????. Modal Verbs ........................105
6.1 Must / have to ............................................................105
6.2. Can / be able to .........................................................107
6.3. May / be allowed to ...................................................108
6.4. ????????? ?????????? ????????-?????????? ??????????? ............................................................109
6.5. ?????????? ??????? ??????? to be .......................110
6.6. ?????????? ??????? ??????? to have ...................112
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Seven .................................................................123
???? 7. ????????? I ? II ? ????????? ???????? Participles I & II ...........................................................125
7.1. ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? I .....................126
7.1.1. ???????-????????? ????????? I ? ????????? ?????? .......................................126
7.1.2. ???????-????????? ????????? I ? ???????? ?????? .........................................127
7.1.3. ???????-????????? ??????????? ????????? I ? ????????? ?????? .................128
7.1.4. ???????-????????? ????????? I, ???????? ???????????? while ??? when ......130
7.2. ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? II ....................132
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Содержание
? 445
7.2.1. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????-
??????????? ????????? II ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ...................................132
7.2.2. ???????-????????? ????????? II, ???????? ???????????? while ??? when ......133
7.2.3. ???????-????????? ????????? II, ?????????? ?? «????????» ????????: follow, influence, affect ...................................133
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Eight ..................................................................146
???? 8. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ....................................................148
Nominative Absolute Participial Construction ...................148
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Nine ...................................................................162
???? 9. ????????. Gerund ................................................164
9.1. ??????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ........165
9.1.1. ???????? ? ???? ??????????? .......165
9.1.2. ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ..........165
9.1.3 ???????? ? ???? ??????????? ..........166
9.1.4 ???????? ? ???? ?????????????? ....166
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Ten .....................................................................180
???? 10. ?????????. Infinitive ........................................183
10.1. ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????? .............184
10.1.1. ????????? ? ACTIVE ...............................184
10.1.2. ?????????? ? PASSIVE ...........................184 10.1.3. ????????? ? INDEFINITE/SIMPLE ......184 10.1.4. ????????? ? CONTINUOUS...................185
10.1.5. ????????? ? PERFECT ...........................185
10.1.6. ????????? ? PERFECT CONTINUOUS ...185
10.2. ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ....185
10.2.1. ????????? ? ???? ??????????? ...............185
10.2.2. ????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ............186
10.2.3. ????????? ? ???? ??????????? ................188
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446 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
10.3. ???????????? ??????????? ................................191
10.3.1. ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????????...............................................191
10.3.2. ???????????? ???????????
? ??????????? ..............................................194
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Eleven ................................................................212
???? 11. ???????? ???????????. Conditional Clauses .......216
11.1. ???????? ??????? ....................................................217
11.2. ????????????? ??????? .........................................218
11.3. ????????? ??????????? ??????? (??????????? ? ????????) ....................................218
11.4. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ....................218
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Part Twelve .................................................................234
???? 12. Miscellaneous ....................................................238
12.1. ????????????????? ?????????????? ..................238
12.2. ????????-?????????? .........................................239
12.3. ??????????-?????????? .....................................240
12.4. ??????-????????? «there be» .................................241
12.5. ??????????-?????????? ????? ??????????????? ? «one/ones», «these», «those», «that» ? ??????????-????????? «there are» ...........241
12.6. ??????????-?????????? ????????? ...................242
12.7. ?????? ??????????-?????????? .........................242
12.8. ?????????? ?????????? .........................................243
12.9. ????????? ???????? ? INDEFINITE / SIMPLE ..244
12.10. ??????? ???????????? ????????..........................245
EnGram Inc.?s Story
Epilogue .....................................................................266
???? ????????? ????????
Output Control Test .......................................................272
??????????. ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????-???????????. The Very Short & Simple, Self-Consistent Reference Book on English Grammar .....279
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Содержание
? 447
???? 1. ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ....................279
???? 2. ?????????-?????????? «-s», «-ed», «-ing» ..........................................280
???? 3. ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ..........281
???? 4. ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ............................................................282
???? 5. ????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ....283
???? 6. ????????? ??????? ? Modal Verbs ..............283
???? 7. ????????? I ? II ? ????????? ???????? ......286
???? 8. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ...............287
???? 9. ???????? ........................................................289
???? 10. ????????? ? Infinitive...............................289
???? 11. ???????? ??????????? ...............................292
????????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ........................................................................295
????? ? ?????? ? ??????????? ......................................337
?3.1. ???? ? ????? ???????? ???????? ..................337
?3.2. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 2 ....................344
?3.3. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 3 ....................354
?3.4. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 4 ....................356
A3.5. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 5 ....................360
?3.6. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 6 ....................367
?3.7. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 7 ....................375
?3.8. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 8 ....................379
?3.9. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 9 ....................383
?3.10. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 10 .................390
?3.11. ????? ? ??????????? ????? 11 .................403
?3.12. ???? ? ????? ????????? ???????? .............407
????????? ??????? ........................................................415
?????????? ....................................................................439
www.phoenixbooks.ru
448 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
????? «???????????»
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Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
????????????? ???????? ?. ?????????
??????????? ???????? ?. ??????????
??????? ?. ????????
?????????? ?. ?????????, ?. ????????????
????? ? ????? 15.05.2008. ????????? ? ?????? 17.09.2008.
?????? 84?108 1/32. ?????? ????????. ????????? Newton?. ?????? ????????. ???. ???. ?. 23,52. ????? 3000 ???.
????? ?
??? «??????»
344082, ?. ??????O??O????, ???. ????????????, 80.
?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??? «?????»
344019, ?. ??????-??-????, ??. ?????????, 57.
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??? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????. ? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ?????-
????? ? ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????? *, ??? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ????? «?????????? ?????????». ???????, ????????? ????????, ??????? ? ??-
??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???, ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? *, ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????-
??? ?????????????? ????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????O???????????.
????? ????, ???, ???????? ??, ????? ???????????? ???-
???? ???????? ????????, ?? ????? ? ??????????? ????? «??????» «EnGram Inc.?s Story», ??? ? ????? «??????? ????-
??», ???? ?? ?????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????-
??
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?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????. ??O??????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ????, ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ??O??????, ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????-
??????? ????, ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????. ???????, ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??????-
?????? «?????????», ??? ? ?? ???? ???????????? (???? ?? ??????) ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? «????????», «???????????» ? «???????????-
??? ??????????». ?????????, ??? ????????? ????? ?????? «????? ??????????»
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«Grammar», so someone said, «is the 1
Guaspari J. I Know It When I See It. AMACOM, NY, 1985. 2
???????? ?.?., ??????? ?. ???. ???. ? ?. 9.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
Предисловие
? 17
art of putting the right words in the right places», ? ???? ?????-
?????? ? ???, ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?? ? ?? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????.
?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????-
????? ????? ?????????????? ? ????????? (?? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????????!) ???????: «??? ???? ???????? ? ??????, ??, ?????? ???????, ????». ???????, «????», ?? ?? ???????. ??? ? ??? ??????, ??? ???, ????????, ?????. ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? «???????????» ???, ??-
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?????????? ???????????? ???????????, ???????????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????.
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???????? ????? ??????? ? ???, ???, ?? ? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???-
????????????? ???????: ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????, ??? ?, ? ??? ????-
??? ???????, ??? ?????????.
????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????-
????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????. ???? ?? ???????? ????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????????, «???????????» (advanced ), ?? ? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ???-
??? *. ???????, ??? ?? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????. ????? ????, ???? ????? ??????? ???????, ? ???? ??????????, ?????? ? ????????? ???????-
????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? *.
? ???????????, ?????? «??????» «EnGram Inc.?s Story», ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ???????, ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????-
????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????. ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????-
???? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ????? ???????????, ??? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????O????????????, ????????? www.phoenixbooks.ru
18 ? Самоучитель грамматики английского языка
??????????? ????, ? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????, ???? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????:
«???? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????-
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«???? ????, ?????????, ?????, ????, ???????? ????? (?? ???????? ???, ??? ????? ?????), ??? ???????, ???-
?????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????, ?? ????? ??? ?????, ??????? ? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????, ??? ???? ? ?????????? ? ?????, ???????? ? ??? ???? ? ??? ??????, ???
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