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American society of zoologists. Annual meeting; New York city New York December 28 through 30 1960. Officers Proceedings Program and List of Titles Abstracts of Papers

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Officers and Representatives f o r 1959-60
President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EMIL WITSCHI
Past President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VICTOR C. TWITTY
President EEect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. LADDPROSSER
Secretary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAIRDNER B. MOMENT
Treasurer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JERRYJ. KOLLROS
Program Oflicer . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAYL. WATTERSON
Divisional Officers
Animal Behavior: Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LESTERARONSON
Vice Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WILLIAMC. YOUNG
Secretary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MARTIN W. SCHEIN
Comparative Endocrinology: Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMIL WITSCHI
Secretary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..HOWARD
Program Officer . . . . . . . . . . . .ALBERT WOLFSON
Acting for
Comparative Physiology : Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. LADD
Chairman Elect . . . . . . . . . . . .THEODORE
Program OfFicer . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRADLEYT. SCHEER
Secretary-Treasurer . . . . . . . . . . . .F. JOHNVERNBERG
Developmental Biology : Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLIFFORDGROBSTEIN
Vice Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .JAMES D. EBERT
Program Officer . . . . . . . . . JOHN
Secretary-Treasurer . . . . . . . . . . . .BEATRICEMINTZ
Vertebrate Morphology : Organizing Committee: Chairman, BOBB SCHAEFFER
(Election of Divisional
Officers will take place
at New York)
Executive Committee
(In addition to the six general officers and the Chairman of each of the Divisions)
LIBBIE H. HYMAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to
DONALDP. COSTELLO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .to
LEWIS H. KLEINHOLZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EDGARZWILLING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . to
EDGARJ. BOELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KENNETH W. COOPER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Representative of the Society in the Division of Biology
a n d Agriculture of the National Research Council
L. JAHN............................
.to serve through 1962
Representatives of the Society o n the Council of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science
W. BISHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ALBERT WOLFSON.............................
.to serve through 1960
.to serve through 1961
Representative of the Society on the Board of Governors
of the American Institute of Biological Sciences
LYNN .............................
to serve through 1960
Representative of the Society on the Biological Stain Commission
.to serve through 1962
Representative of the Society on the Board of Trustees
of the American Type CuZhire Collection
RICHARDP. HALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.to serve through 1960
(Unless otherwise specified, all terms of office end on December 31st.)
Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synopsis of Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abstracts .......................
Index to Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Although the Society meets officially only on Wednesday through Friday. we are
co-sponsoring certain general symposia on Tuesday as well. and therefore have
included details about them in our program
Symposium: Life under extreme conditions. I Cells and tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Modem aspects of population biology. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Life under extreme conditions. I1 Plants and animals . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Modem aspects of population biology. I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Famous Zoologists ..........................................
Meeting: Policy Committee. American Society of Zoologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meeting: Executive Committee. American Society of Zoologists
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Symposium: Life under extreme conditions. I11 Human studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Evolution and dynamics of vertebrate feeding mechanisms . . . . . . .
Session A: Comparative Physiology. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session B: Comparative Endocrinology. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session C: Animal Behavior and Sociobiology. I Early experience . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session D: Developmental Biology. I . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Evolution of sex .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session E: Comparative Physiology. I1 Special session on muscle . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SessionF: Animal Behavior and Sociobiology. 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business Meeting: Division of Comparative Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business Meeting: Division of Developmental Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business Meeting: Division of Comparative Endocrinology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panel Discussion: Research opportunities for undergraduates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M A S General Meeting: Presidential address and reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Continued on next page)
Symposium: Spermatozoan motility. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Physiology of molluscs. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session G: Comparative Endocrinology. I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session H: Animal Behavior and Sociobiology. I11. Sexual behavior . . . . . . . . . . .
Session I: Developmental Biology. I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session J: Vertebrate Morphology. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organizational Meeting: Division of Vertebrate Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Spermatozoan motility, 11 .
Symposium: Submicroscopic cellular stru
ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Unsolved Problems of Biology, 1960)
Session K: Comparative Endocrinology, I11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session L: Animal Behavior and Sociobiology, IV Sexual behavior
and communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session M: Vertebrate Morphology, I1 . . .
Demonstrations .......................
BusinessMeeting: Section F, AAAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business Meeting: American Society of Zoologists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoologists’ Dinner and Vice Presidential Address. AAAS. Section F . . . . . . . . . . . .
AAAS-3 iologists’ Smoker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Spermatozoan motility. I11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Physiology of molluscs. I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Teaching animal behavior. I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session N: Comparative Physiology. I11 Physiology of arthropods . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session 0: Developmental Biology. I11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demonstrations .........................................................
Symposium: Spermatozoan motility. Iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symposium: Teaching animal behavior. I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session P: Invertebrate Zoology. Parasitology and Protozoology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Session Q: Comparative Physiology. IV Physiology of arthropods ..............
SessionR: Genetics and Cytology ........................................
Session S: Experimental Biology ..........................................
Demonstrations .........................................................
Proceedings of
The Fifty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the
American Society of Zoologists
August 29-31, 1960
The interim business meeting of the
Society was called to order by the President, Professor Emil Witschi, after the
Society dinner at which he had delighted
the members with his colorful and informative presidential address, “The Itinerant
Appointments. President Witschi announced the appointment of the following
Society representatives: Dr. T. L. Jahn to
the Division of Biology and Agriculture of
the National Research Council, Dr. D. W.
Bishop and Dr. A. Wolfson to the Council
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. W. G. Lynn to
the Board of Governors of the American
Institute of Biological Sciences, and Dr.
H. W. Beams to the Biological Stain Commission. Dr. Harry Charipper will be our
local representative in New York.
XVI International Congress of Zoology.
The President then called upon the newly
chosen Secretary-General of the XVI International Congress of Zoology, Dr. Gairdner
Moment, to make a brief statement. The
Congress is sponsored by the National
Academy of Sciences-National Research
Council and will be held in Washington,
D.C. from August 21-27, 1963. Dr. Alfred
Romer was elected President of the Congress and Dr. Alexander Wetmore, Treasurer. All the air-conditioned facilities of
both the Sheraton-Park and Shoreham
Hotels, where the zoologists met at Christmas in 1958, have been reserved. The program is still in the formative state, but it is
expected that there will be provision for
major addresses, invited symposia, and
contributed papers. The last previous Congress, in London in 1958, drew 1,800 mem-
bers from over 60 countries. The first of
these congresses was held in Paris in 1889
and only one has ever previously been held
outside of Europe. That was in Boston in
1907. The present occasion should provide
a magnificent opportunity for North American zoologists to meet and exchange views
with their colleagues from overseas. All
correspondence should be addressed to
2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington 25,
D. C.
New Division and New Members. The
Executive Committee, in accordance with
the new policy, had met the day before the
scientific sessions began. The committee
authorized the formation of a Division of
Vertebrate Morphology on the basis of a
petition from an organizing committee consisting of Drs. Bobb Schaeffer (Chairman),
J. Baldauf, H. Fisher, P. Gilbert, and A. S.
Romer and bearing 96 signatures. The
following members of the executive committee were present: Drs. E. Witschi (serving both as President of the Society and
as Chairman of the Division of Comparative Endocrinology), C. L. Prosser (serving
both as President Elect and as Chairman
of the Division of Comparative Physiology), G. B. Moment, J. J. Kollros, R. L.
Watterson, L. Aronson, J. W. Saunders, Jr.
(for C. Grobstein), E. Zwilling, and E. J.
Boell. Absent were: Drs. V. C. Twitty,
K. W. Cooper, D. P. Costello, L. H. Hyman,
and L. H. Kleinholz.
Immediate entrance into membership
was authorized for approximately 90 new
members with doctor’s degrees, and a number of special cases lacking the doctorate
were deferred until the New York meeting.
Resolutions. President Witschi entertained motions of appreciation from the
Society to be transmitted to the President
and Administration of Oklahoma State
University, to Professor Roy W. Jones, our
local representative, and to Dr. Hiden Cox
of the AIBS for their respective roles in
making our meetings so successful. He
also presented a resolution of gratitude to
Dr. H. B. Goodrich and the retiring members of the Policy Committee for their
years of dedicated and fruitful labors. All
motions were passed unanimously. The
resolution of appreciation to the Policy
Committee follows :
‘The Executive Committee and the entire membership of the American Society
of Zoologists do hereby express their genuine appreciation for the work which
Hubert B. Goodrich and the Policy Committee have achieved. The vigorous growth
of the Society in recent years both in numbers and in usefulness is in large measure
attributable to the devotion, vision, and
expertness with which they have worked.
Dr. Goodrich and the Committee have
earned the lasting gratitude of our Society.” The Policy Committee then consisted
of Drs. J. B. Buck, C. Grobstein, F. Moog,
T. Park, C. L. Prosser, A. G. Richards, and
C. S. Thornton, in addition to Dr. H. B.
The President then called on Dr. Raymond L. Taylor of the AAAS to make a
brief announcement about the New York
meeting at which the Hotel Commodore
will be our headquarters. Room F of the
Commodore has been designated as committee room for the Society during the
New York Meeting.
Refresher Courses. The President announced that the Refresher Course planned
for next summer will deal with Comparative Physiology and for the summer after
that with Comparative Anatomy. He also
explained that the Executive Committee
after several years of careful study believes
that the time has come when the Society
can publish and control its own journal,
to be called The American Zoologist. It
will contain the material now published in
two issues of The Anatomical Record and
in addition our various symposia and refresher courses. There has been a persistent and lively demand for this material.
The journal will be explained in detail
through a letter to the membership and a
mail vote on its establishment requested.
The Executive Committee has thoroughly
modernized the constitution which will also
be presented to the membership for a mail
The urgent need of Biological Abstracts
for volunteer abstractors and the rewards
of such work were presented.
National Legislation. President Witschi
urged each member to write his senator
and congressmen in favor of the Magnuson
Bill (S2692) for the support of oceanographic research. The bill may not be perfect in all respects, but it is a great deal
better than nothing and is essential unless
the United States is to be far outdistanced
in this field by other nations. In regard
to proposed national antivivisection legislation (S3570) which would greatly complicate animal research, he sharply protested that it is discriminatory and that it
is aimed at research and investigators,
whereas any other U.S. citizen remains
free of similar surveillance. In the interest
of research he urged that even the appearance of neglect or mistreatment of animals, including frogs and fishes, should be
carefully avoided in our laboratories.
Future Meetings. It seems evident that,
as a general rule, the Society will hold
two national meetings a year, one with the
AIBS at the end of the summer, and one
with the AAAS immediately after Christmas. The scheduled meeting places for
the AIBS are as follows: Purdue University, 1961; Oregon State University, 1962;
University of Massachusetts, 1963; and
University of Colorado, 1964. The corresponding meeting places for the AAAS are:
Denver, 1961; Philadelphia, 1962; Milwaukee, 1963; Boston, 1964; Berkeley,
1965 (tentative). Dr. Witschi pointed out
the advantages of more meetings on the
Pacific Coast. The Executive Committee,
recalling a vote of the Society favoring occasional meetings by ourselves, solicits invitations, particularly for the post-Christmas meeting of 1962, when it is believed a
meeting in the far South might be desirable.
Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the
DECEMBER 28 through 30, 1960
New York City, New York
A brief synopsis of the program is given
on pages 301 and 302 of this issue. Two
hundred and twenty-five papers will be read
or presented by demonstration in 37 sessions including 7 symposia. Additional
papers will be co-sponsored on two other
symposia. Fifty-one papers will be presented by title only.
Animal Behavior and Sociobiology. In
addition to a two-session symposium on
Teaching Animal Behavior (organized by
E. B. Hale), this Division will hold 4 sessions of contributed papers. A business
meeting will not be held.
Comparative Endocrinology. Emil Witschi has organized a one-session symposium on Evolution o f Sex. Three sessions
will be devoted to contributed papers. A
business meeting will be held.
Comparative Physiology. This Division
will present a two-session symposium on
the Physiology of Molluscs (organized by
R. Boolootian) and a special session of
contributed papers on the comparative
physiology of muscles (organized by C.
Ladd Prosser) in addition to three other
sessions of contributed papers. A business
meeting will be held.
Developmental Biology. Three sessions
will be devoted to contributed papers and
a business meeting will be held.
Vertebrate Morphology. A one-session
symposium on Evolution and Dynamics o f
Vertebrate Feeding Mechanisms has been
organized by Perry W. Gilbert and Bobb
Schaeffer. Two sessions will be devoted to
contributed papers. An organizational
meeting will be held.
Symposium on Spermatozoan Motility.
David W. Bishop has organized a special
4-session symposium on Spemzatozoan
Motility with the aid of a grant from the
National Institutes of Health, U.S.P.H.S.
The principal theme of the symposium is
the physicochemical basis of the mechanism of motility in these flagellated cells.
The program is broad in scope and is directed toward an integration of several
relevant research disciplines.
Miscellaneous Sessions. Three additional sessions of contributed papers will
be held, one devoted to Invertebrate Zoology, Parasitology and Protozoology, one
to Genetics and Cytology and one to Experimental Biology.
Demonstrations. The room containing
the demonstrations will be open specsed
hours on Thursday and Friday.
Panel Discussion. WiUiam Etkin has
organized a panel discussion on Research
Opportunities for Undergraduates for the
Education Committee of The American
Society of Zoologists.
Zoologists’ Dinner and Vice Presidential
Address. Thursday Evening. Dr. Viktor
Hamburger of Washington University will
present the vice presidential address for
Section F, AAAS.
Business Meeting of the American Society of Zoologists. The annual business
meeting will be held Thursday afternoon.
Smoker. A smoker
for biologists will be held at the Commodore Hotel and will be co-sponsored by Sections F and G of AAAS and The American
Society of Zoologists.
Co-sponsored Symposia. The Society
will co-sponsor a three-session symposium
on Life under Extreme Conditions: Part I,
Cells and Tissues (organized by A. Cecil
Taylor); Part 11, Plants and Animals (organized by Charles P. Lyman); Part 111,
Human Studies (organized by J. P. Marbarger). It will also co-sponsor a two-session symposium on Modern Aspects of
Population Biology (organized by Reed C.
Rollins), a one-session symposium on Submicroscopic Cellular Structure and Function (Organized by Barry Commoner and
Viktor Hamburger), and a one-session
symposium on Famous Zoologists (organized by Carl L. Hubbs and George W.
For the past several meetings chairmen and speakers have cooperated t o keep the programs exactly on the published time schedule.
This has been an important feature in the success of the meetings
and this policy should continue. If a speaker fails to appear, the
free time may be used for further discussion or for a brief recess.
Any speaker or presiding officer who finds a t the last minute that he
cannot attend the meeting should notify either the Program Offlcer
of the Division concerned or Ray L .Wattemon, Program Offlcer of
the Society.
Titles are arranged in the order o f presentation. Papers t o be presented by
title only are listed last. T h e abstracts, which follow the list o f titles, are
arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author.
Symposium : L i f e under extreme conditions, I. Cells and
tissues. 9 :00 A.M. (No abstracts)
Organized by A. Cecil Taylor, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
Co-sponsored by Sections F and G, AAAS and The American Society of
West Room 18, Biltmore Hotel
1. MERYMAN,HAROLD.Effects of extreme cold on vertebrate cells.
HALVOR.Effects of extreme temperatures and dessication on
High pressure studies on living cells.
Symposium : Modern aspects of population biology, I.
9 :30 A.M.
Organized by Reed C. Rollins, Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, for the
American Society of Naturalists. Co-sponsored by the American Society of
Zoologists, the Ecological Society of America and The Society for the Study of
Music Room, Biltmore Hotel
REED C. ROLLINS,presiding
DUNN,L. C., Columbia University. Big and little populations: an amateur’s
excursion. (Presidential address, American Society of Naturalists.)
G. EVELYN,Yale University. Niche specificity and diversity with
special reference to plankton.
SLOBODKIN,L. B., University of Michigan. The relation between laboratory
and field investigations in population ecology.
Symposium : L i f e under extreme conditions, II. Plants
and animals. 2:OO P.M. (No abstracts)
Organized by Charles P. Lyman, Harvard Medical School. Co-sponsored by
Sections F and G, AAAS and The American Society of Zoologists.
West Room 18, Biltmore Hotel
2: 00
JANE,Duke University, Structural adaptations of woody
plants to arid environments. (40 min.)
University of Illinois. Adaptations of Arctic
and Alpine plants to environmental conditions. (40 min.)
6. HART,J. S., National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada. Seasonal
acclimatization in mammals and birds. (40 min.)
GEORGEA., University of California, Los Angeles.
Adaptations of reptiles, birds and mammals to high environmental
temperatures. (40 min.)
Modern aspects of population biology, 11. 2 :00 P.M.
Music Room, Biltmore Hotel
EARLL. GREEN,presiding
University of California, Los Angeles. Experimental sympatric
populations of Clarkia.
ROLLINS,REED C., Gray Herbarium, Harvard University. Phenotypic response
to compatibility shift in wild populations of Leavenworthia.
E. O., Harvard University. Some recent theoretical contributions from
MACARTHUR,ROBERTH., University of Pennsylvania. Population effects of
natural selection.
Famous zoologists.
2: 00 P.M.
Organized by Carl L. Hubbs, Scripps Institute of Oceanography and George
W. Wharton, University of Maryland, for the Society of Systematic Zoologists.
Co-sponsored by the American Society of Zoologists and Section F, AAAS. A
series of anecdotal talks and recollections about some famous recently-deceased
Biltmore Suite, Biltmore Hotel
CARL L. HUBBS,presiding
ROMER, ALFRED E., Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.
Thomas Barbour. (30 min.)
L., U. S. National Museum. Leonhart Stejneger. (30 min.)
B., Illinois Natural History Survey. Stephen A. Forbes. (30 min.)
MILLER,ALDEN H., University of California, Berkeley. Joseph Grinnell. (30
min. )
GEORGEW., University of Maryland. A. S. Pearse. (30 rnin.)
HUBBS,CARLL., Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Additional comments on
A. S. Pearse.
Meeting: Policy Committee of The American Society of Zoologists.
3: 00-5: 00 P.M.
Room F, Commodore Hotel
Executive Committee of The American Society of Zoologists.
8 :00 P.M.
Room F, Commodore Hotel
Symposium :
Life under extreme conditions, IIZ. Human studies
9:OO A.M. (No abstracts)
Organized by J. P. Marbarger. Co-sponsored by Section F, AAAS and The
American Society of Zoologists.
Windsor Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
J. P. MARBARGER,presiding
Introduction and resume of problem.
FREDA. The effect of extreme pressure changes on the human
10. HARDY,
JAMES D. The responses of man to extreme conditions of hyperthermia.
M. The effect on the human being of extreme conditions
of hypothermia.
Symposium : Evolution and dynamics of vertebrate feeding
mechanisms. 9 :00 A.M.
Organized by Perry W. Gilbert, Cornell University, and Bobb Schaeffer,
American Museum of Natural History, for the Division of Vertebrate Morphology.
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
ROBERTH., Chicago Natural History Museum. Feeding
mechanisms of Agnatha, Acanthodii and Placodermi. (15 min.)
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Dynamics of
the feeding mechanism in sharks. (Introduced by Perry W.
Gilbert) (15 min.)
BOBB, American Museum of Natural History. The
origin of the holostean feeding mechanism. (10 rnin.)
15. ROSEN,DONNE., Florida State Museum and University of Florida.
The jaw of cyprinodontiform fishes, a pre-acanthopterygian experiment in protractility. (15 min.)
C., University of Chicago. Feeding mechanisms :
Crossopterygians, amphibians, primitive reptiles. ( 15 min.)
17. GANS,CARL,University of Buffalo. The feeding mechanism of
snakes: its possible evolution. (15 rnin.)
ROBERTI., San Francisco State College. Feeding adapta18. BOWMAN,
tions in Galbpagos finches. (15 min.)
19. DAVIS,D. DWIGHT,Chicago Natural History Museum. The feeding mechanism in mammals. (15 rnin.)
20. ROMER, ALFRED S., Harvard University. Concluding comments.
Session A:
Comparative Physiology, 1. 8:50 A.M.
West Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
School of Medicine and Marine Biological Laboratory. Stellarin,
a photosensitive pigment from the dorsal skin of the starfish,
Asterias forbesi. (15 min.)
11 :10
C. LADD,Bermuda Biological Station and University of
Illinois. Mechanical responses of sponges. (15 min.)
Cornell University.
Electrocardiography of free-swimming sharks. (Motion picture,
15 min.)
University of Iowa. Influence of magnesium on intact and isolated
rodent hearts in hypothennia. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
25. HUDSON,JACKW., University of California, Los Angeles. Water
requirements and thermoneutrality in the antelope ground
squirrel, Citellus Zeucurus. ( 15 min.)
West Virginia University. Studies on the metabolism of fowl
spermatozoa. (15 min.)
West Virginia University. Prolonged survival of
human sperm and other mammalian sperm in chemically defined
media at room temperatures. (15 rnin.)
DALEP. J. AND E. S. NASSET,University of Rochester
School of Medicine and Dentistry. Gastric acid secretion in control and thyroid-fed frogs. (Introduced by C. W. Casperi) (15
min. )
Session B :
Comparative Endocrinology, I. 9: 00 A.M.
Windsor Terrace, Commodore Hotel
11 :10
Albert Einstein
College of Medicine. Castration effects in the insect, Leucophaea
maderae. (15 min.)
T., Research Laboratory, Jaffrey Center, N. H.
Neuroendocrine mechanisms in courtship of a turtle. (15 rnin.)
M. NEIL, Western Reserve University School of
Medicine. The biologic activity of the inductors of fetal gonadal
differentiation in the rat. ( 15 min.)
JAMES H., Rutgers University. Reproductive organ responses to estrogen in rodents. (10 min.)
versity. Decidual cell responses following exogenous prolactin in
uterine-traumatized hamsters. (10 min.)
34. KENT, HARRYA., JR., University of Georgia. A glycostatic factor
from the fallopian tube of the golden hamster. (15 min.)
JORGE A., GILLESLA ROCHEAND JOHN H. LAWR E N C E ~University of California, Berkeley. Conversion of testosterone to estrogens in the human female. (15 min.)
WILLIAMB., New York Medical College and the Food
and Drug Research Laboratories. Ovulation-inducing action of
steroid hormones in Rana pipiens. (10 min.)
Session C: Animal Behavior and Sociobiology, I. Early Experience
9: 00 A.M.
(In collaboration with the Section of Animal Behavior and Sociobiology of
the Ecological Society of America.)
Windsor Court, Commodore Hotel
11 :00
11 :20
11 :40
SOL, State University of New York. Early predatory
behavior in praying mantids. ( 15 min.)
Princeton University. The
imprinting object as a reinforcing stimulus. (15 min.)
GILBERT,Duke University. Developmental age as a
baseline for determining the critical period in imprinting. (15
American Museum of Natural History. Infantile experience with
specific visual stimuli as related to later differential approach
responses in rats. (15 min.)
Upstate Medical Center
in Syracuse and Cornell University. Effects of early social
experience on aggressive play in young goats. (Motion picture,
15 min.)
MOORE,A. ULRIC AND MARVIN AMSTEY, Cornell University. Animal hypnosis (tonic immobility) considered as a parameter of
behavior in distinguishing between a group of normal and abnormal (experimental) lambs and kids. (15 min.)
FULLER,JOHN L., Jackson Memorial Laboratory. Effects of
graded and delayed experience on behavioral development in
puppies. (15 min.)
HARRYF., University of Wisconsin. The development
of infant-infant affectional responses in monkeys. (Motion picture, 15 min.) (No abstract)
IRWINS., Laboratories of Primate Biology, Orange
Park, Florida. Response to nesting materials by wild-born and
captive-born chimpanzees. (15 min.)
Session D : Developmental Biology, I .
9:00 A.M.
Parlors B and C, Commodore Hotel
S. AND BERTIE F. ARGYRIS,Syracuse University.
The differential response of epidermis and hair follicles to subcutaneously transplanted Ehrlich ascites tumor. (15 min.)
Iowa State
University. Action of two pyrimidines and a riboside on develop
ment of the down feather. (15 min.)
J. R.,Yale University. An in vivo analysis of tyrosinase function and melanin formation in ascidian embryos.
(Introduced by Patricia F. Knight) (15 min.)
BRICK, IRVING, New York University. Quantitative effects of
pituitary activity on melanophore development in Ambystoma
maculatum. (Introduced by H. Clark Dalton) (15 min.)
MOYER,FRANK,Johns Hopkins University. Some effects of pigment mutations on the fine structure of mouse melanin granules.
(Introduced by C. L. Markert) (15 min.)
BAKER,WILLIAMK.,University of Chicago. Genetic control over
the somatic differentiation of eye pigments in Drosophila. (15
11 :20
Yale University. Transfer of
the “sex-ratio” condition from Drosophila willistoni to D. melanogaster. (Introduced by G . E. Hutchinson) (15 min.)
Yale University. Evidence
concerning the nature of the “sex-ratio” agent in Drosophilu.
(15 min.)
54. GILL, KULBIR S., Yale University. Developmental physiology of
five female-sterile mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. (Introduced by Alexander Petrunkevitch) (15 min.)
MAX,Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Neuro55. HAMBURGH,
embryology of “Reeler,” a neurological mutation in mice. (10
min. )
Symposium: Evolution of sex. 2 :00 P.M.
(No abstracts)
Organized by E d Witschi for the Division of Comparative Endocrinology
of The American Society of Zoologists. Co-sponsored by Section F, AAAS, the
Division of Developmental Biology and The Genetics Society of America.
Windsor Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
EMIL WITSCHI,presiding
D., The Rockefeller Institute. Genetic exchange
in bacteria and bacteriophages. (30 min.)
LIANEB., Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Genetics of
mammalian sex chromosomes. (20 min.)
City of Hope Medical Center. The sex chromatin:
facts and interpretation. (20 min.)
59. POLANI,PAULE., Guy’s Hospital, London. Sex chromsomes and
sex aberrations in man. (35 min.)
Northwestern University. Epigenesis of
sex determination. (40 min.)
61. WITSCHI,EMIL, State University of Iowa. Comments and perspectives. (15 min.)
Session E : Comparative Physiology, 11. Comparative
physiology of muscle. 2:OO P.M.
Special program arranged by C. Ladd Prosser for the Division of Comparative
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
3: 00
GEORGEW., Smith College. Some properties of
the contractile proteins from frog and horseshoe crab muscle.
(15 min.)
63. KOMINZ,DAVID R.,National Institutes of Health. The comparative biochemistry of tropomyosin, paramyosin and the 3 S component of myosin. ( 15 min.)
TERU,Columbia University. Actin and its bound nucleotide. (15 min.) (No abstract)
ANDREWG., Marine Biological Laboratory. Proteins of molluscan muscles. (15 min.)
WILLIAMH., University of Illinois. Evidence for a
dual mechanism for tonic contractions in molluscan muscles.
(15 rnin.)
V., Dartmouth Medical School. Comparative
electrophysiology of fibrillar muscle. (15 min.)
EDWARDG., University of Connecticut. Length68. BOETTIGER,
induced changes in the active state of fibrillar muscle. (Introduced by C. Ladd Prosser) (15 min.)
Yale University. Neuromuscular transmission
in annelids and cephalopods. (15 min.) (No abstract)
70. MARSHALL,JEANM., Harvard Medical School. Relationship between transmembrane potentials and contractile tension in uterine
smooth muscle. (15 rnin.)
Business Meeting
Division of Comparative Physiology of The American
Society of Zoologists. 5: 15 P.M.
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
Session F:
Animal Behavior and Sociobiology, II. 2:OO P.M.
(In collaboration with the Section of Animal Behavior and Sociobiology of
The Ecological Society of America)
Windsor Court, Commodore Hotel
American Museum
of Natural History. Persistence of a conditioned response in the
cichlid fish, Tilapia macrocephala, after forebrain and cerebellar
ablations. (15 min.)
American Museum of Natural History. Physiological effect of preweaning manipulation in two strains of rats. (15 rnin.)
State University of New
York and Cornell University. Aggressive behavior in the social
organization of goats and sheep. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
74. DINGLE,HUGH,University of Michigan. Flight and swimming reflexes in giant water bugs. (15 &.)
75. BROWER,LINCOLNP., Amherst College. Ecological similarity and
cannibalistic interaction in the Monarch and Queen butterfiies,
Danaus plexippus and D . berenice. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
76. BROWER,JANEVAN ZANDT,Amherst College. The reactions of
Southern toads (Bufo tenestris) to honeybees (Apis mellifica)
and their Syrphid fly mimics (Eristalis sp.). (Motion picture,
15 rnin.)
77. GRIFFO, JAMES V., JR., Fairleigh Dickinson University. A study
of homing in the cotton mouse, Peromyscus gossypinus. (15min.)
78. CARPENTER,C. R., Pennsylvania State University. Population
analysis, group composition and behavior of howler monkeys
(Alouatta palliata) of Barro Colorado Island in 1959. (15 min.)
79. KUHINKA, ERNESTM., Dickinson College. Consumer behavior:
inner-orientation of population in a functional area. (15min.)
Business Meeting
Division of Developmental Biology of The American
Society of Zoologists. 5: 15 P.M.
Windsor Court, Commodore Hotel
Business Meeting
Division of Comparative Endocrinology of The American
Society of Zoologists. 8 :00 P.M.
Parlors B and C, Commodore Hotel
Panel Discussion : Research opportunities for undergraduates.
9:oo P.M.
Organized by William Etkin, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, for the
Education Committee of The American Society of Zoologists. Co-sponsored
by Section F, AAAS.
Windsor Terrace, Commodore Hotel
Panel discussions.
Panelists :
JOHN L., Jackson Memorial Laboratory.
PHILLIPS, LYLEW., National Science Foundation.
SHAW,EVELYN,American Museum of Natural History.
STONE,DAVID, Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology.
Discussion from the floor.
The AAAS General Meeting for all societies:
address and reception. 8:00 P.M.
Grand Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
Spermatozoan motility, I.
9:00 A.M.
Organized by David W. Bishop of the Carnegie Institution of Washington,
Department of Embryology. Supported by a grant from the National Institutes
of Health, U.S.P.H.S. Co-sponsored by The American Society of Zoologists
and Section F, U S , and the Society of General Physiologists. No abstracts.
Proceedings to be published in full at a later time.
Windsor Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
University of Cambridge. Sperm movement,
problems and observations.
81. F. D. CARLSON,
Johns Hopkins University. A theory of the survival
value of motility.
(Paper no. 82 has been withdrawn.)
Symposium: Physiology of molluscs, I . 9:OO A.M.
Organized by R. Boolootian, University of California, Los Angeles, for the
Division of Comparative Physiology.
Grand Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
K. M. WILBUR,presiding
10 :20
83. SEGAL,
EARL,Rice University. Acclimation in molluscs. (30min.)
84. VAN WEEL,P. B., University of Hawaii. Comparative physiology
of digestion in molluscs. (30 min.)
University of California, Los Angeles. Nitrogen
metabolism in the rnollusca. (30 min.)
R., University of North Carolina. Comparative functional morphology of the boring mechanism in boring gastropods. (30 min.)
Session G: Comparative Endocrinology, 11. 9:00 A.M.
Windsor Terrace, Commodore Hotel
A. BERN, presiding
10 :20
87. SCOTT,GEORGET. AND LEWIS K. NADING,Oberlin College and
Marine Biological Laboratory. The relative effectiveness of phenothiazine tranquilizing drugs causing the release of MSH in the
frog. (15 min.)
ZINNER,Northwestern University. Further studies on ionic factors
influencing intermedin action on frog skin. (15 min.)
PAULF. AND E. KNOBIL,Harvard Medical School. The
effect of simian and bovine growth hormone on the incorporation
of amino acids into protein. (15 min.)
GERALDRIEGER, Chicago Medical School. Pituitary ICSH in
C5,BBR male mice treated with estradiol. (15 min.)
University of California Med91. RADFORD,
ical Center, Los Angeles and Veterans Administration Hospital,
Long Beach. EEG changes in the rabbit rhinencephalon related
to pituitary activation by intraventricular norepinephrine. ( 15
92. WOLFSON,ALBERT,Northwestern University. Mechanism of
photoperiodic regulation of reproductive and migratory rhythmicity in birds. (15 min.)
93. DEROOS,ROGER,University of California, Berkeley. The corticosteroids of bird adrenals investigated by in vitro incubation.
(Introduced by S. Nandi) (15 min.)
DEROOS,University of California,
Berkeley. The corticosteroids of the California sea lion (Zalophus
californianus) adrenal incubated in vitro. (15 min.)
Session H : Animal Behavior and Sociobiology, I l l .
Sexual Behavior. 9 :00 A.M.
(In collaboration with the Section of Animal Behavior and Sociobiology of
The Ecological Society of America)
10:40 100.
11 :00 101.
11 :20 102.
11 :40 103.
9:oo 104.
9:40 106.
1o:oo 107.
10:20 108.
10:40 109.
11 :00 110.
11 :20 111.
Windsor Court, Commodore Hotel
Amherst College and Harvard Medical School. A quantitative study of the
courtship behavior in the Queen butterfly, Danaus berenice
(Cramer). (Motion picture, 15 min.)
ANTHONYR., University of Maryland. Sex discrimination in species of Colisa and Trichogaster. (15 min.)
SOL,State University of New York. Color changes correlated with parental behavior in cichlid fish. (15 min.)
BERNARD,Roosevelt University, Spawning and parental behavior in female pairs of the jewel fish, Hemichromis
bimaculatus Gill. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
PHILLIPS,RICHARDE. AND D. FRANKMCKINNEY,Cornell University and Delta Waterfowl Research Station. Effect of testosterone
on occurrence of some duck displays. (15 min.)
KLOPMAN, ROBERTB., Cornell University. A motivational interpretation of the greeting display in geese. (15 min.)
HALE,E. B., Pennsylvania State University. Role of head height
in releasing sexual versus fighting behavior in turkeys. (15 min.)
FICKEN,ROBERTW., Cornell University. Some aspects of behavioral evolution. (Motion picture, 15 min. )
DILGER,WILLIAMC., Cornell University. The evolution of agonistic, precopulatory and nest-building behavior in the African
parrot genus Agapornis. (15 min.)
Session I : Developmental Biology, 11. 9:00 A.M.
Parlors 3 and C, Commodore Hotel
MAC V. EDDS,JR., presiding
WEISS,Albert Einstein College
of Medicine. Autolytic activity during limb regeneration in Triturus: a histochemical approach. (15 min.)
CAIRNS,JOHNM., Roswell Park Memorial Institute. Depth of
penetration of growth-stimulating factor from apical ectodermal
ridge into the limb bud mesoderm of the chick. (15 min.)
JR., Marquette
University. Further observations on the reciprocal influence of
ectodermal and mesodermal factors in the origin of limb symmetry in the chick embryo. (15 min.)
University of PennsylSTOCKDALE,
vania School of Medicine. The formation of multinucleated myotubes. (15 min.)
Indiana University and Tulane University. Time-lapse studies of
amphibian blastomeres in culture. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
PECK,DAVID,Johns Hopkins University. Effects of tissue organization upon the stability of synthetic properties of embryonic
cells in vitro. (Introduced by M. S. Steinberg) (15 min.)
CROWELL,SEARS,Indiana University. Non-regulative differentiation in the thecate hydroid, Campanularia. (15 min.)
G., Princeton University. The development of diFANKHAUSER,
ploid and triploid embryos of Triturus (Diemyctylus) viridescens
grafted under the skin of adults of the same species. (15 min.)
c. VAN DE KAMER, University of CO~Orado and the Rijksuniversiteit, Utrecht, Netherlands. Some cytological and histochemical considerations of the amphibian pineal
organ. (15 min.)
113. WOOD,PAULINEJ., University of Washington. Histodifferentiation in the palate of the human embryo. (15 min.)
11:40 112. KELLY, DOUGLAS
Session J:
Vertebrate Morphology, I.
9:00 A.M.
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
C., University of Florida College of Medicine.
Comparative studies on functional anatomy of the cerebellum.
(15 min.)
9:20 115. HECHT,MAX,Queens College. The history of the frogs. (15 min.)
9:40 116. BAIRD,IRWINL., University of Kansas. Observations on the auditory apparatus in typhlopid snakes. (15 min.)
1O:OO 117. BAUMEL,JULIAN J., School of Medicine, Creighton University.
The asymmetrical distribution of the posterior cerebral artery of
the pigeon. (15 min.)
T., University of Pittsburgh. The bird pterygoid,
an example of functional modification. (15 min.)
C., American Museum of Natural History.
The shoulder girdle of the mammalian subclass Allotheria. (15
11:oo 120. DUBRUL,E. LLOYDAND DANIELM. LASKIN,University of Illinois.
Preadaptive potentiality of the mammalian skull. (15 min.)
121. EDINGER,TILLY, Harvard University. Behavioral specialization
reflected in brain morphology. (10 min.)
Demonstrations : 9 :00 A.M. to 12 :00 NOON
Room F, Commodore Hotel
(Note: this demonstration room will also be open Thursday afternoon from
1:OO to 6:OO P.M., Friday morning from 9:00 to 1 2 : O O NOON,and Friday afternoon from 1:00 to 4:OO P.M.)
ALLAN L. and HOWARDL. HAMILTON,Iowa State University.
Mitotic patterns during occlusion and reopening of the esophagus in the
ROBERTF. AND DANIELM. LILLY, St. John’s University, New York.
Growth determinations in Paramecium caudatum by the formazan reaction.
EDITHA., University of Michigan. Cholinesterases in two autonomic
ganglia of the lobster, Homarus amerieanus.
RHODES,RONDELLH. AND H. CLARKDALTON,New York University. Histochemical patterns in developing pituitaries in two strains of Mexican
axolotl, Siredon mexicanum.
Symposium: Spennatozoan motility, 11. 2:00 P.M.
Windsor Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
KEITH R. PORTER,presiding
2 :00 126. D. W. FAWCETT,
Harvard University. Ultrastructure in relation
to sperm motility.
Leeds University. Biophysical principles under2 :45 127. F. G.E.PAUTARD,
lying sperm motility.
3:30 128. L. NELSON,
Emory University. Physicochemical aspects of sperm
Symposium: Submicsoscopic c e h l a r structure and function.
(Unsolved Problems in Biology, 1960) 2 :00 P.M. (No abstracts)
Organized by Barry Commoner and Viktor Hamburger, Washington University. Co-sponsored by Sections F and G, AAAS and by The American Society of
Grand Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
2 :00 129. SIEKEVITZ,
PHILIP,Rockefeller Institute. Biochemical significance
of the endoplasmic reticulum. (35 min.)
ALBERTL., Johns Hopkins University. Chemical and
2 :40 130. LEHNINGER,
enzymatic organization of mitochondria. (35 min.)
3 :20 131. SCHULTZ,
JACK,Institute for Cancer Research. Genetic activity
and chromosome structure. (35 min.)
4: 00 132. DAVISON,PETER F., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Molecular organization in the neuron. (35 min. )
Session K:
Comparative Endocrinology, 111. 2 :00 P.M.
Windsor Terrace, Commodore Hotel
J. KOLLROS, presiding
H. E., Brown University. The initiation of
thyroid function in the mouse. (Introduced by J. Walter Wilson)
(15 min.)
Washington University. Influence of thyroid
2:2O 134. MOOG,
hormone on the functional differentiation of the duodenum in the
chick embryo. (15 min.)
2:40 135. MULVEY,
Veterans Administration Hospital, Boston. The in vitro stimulation of thyroidal activity by propylthiouracil. (15 min.)
3:OO 136. FREGLY,MELVINJ., University of Florida College of Medicine.
Spontaneous activity of hypothyroid rats in cold air. (15 &.)
Smith College. The
effect of excess vitamin A on the basal metabolism and on the
histology of the thyroid and anterior pituitary glands of young
female rats. (15 min.)
JOHNR., De Paul University. The effects of commercially prepared parathormone on calcium and phosphorus
levels in unoperated Rana pipiens. (15 min.)
Laboratories for Therapeutic Research, Research Institute of the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy. Effects of thymectomy on the blood cells and platelets of male rats. (15 min.)
Session L: Animal Behavior and Sociobiology, IV. Sexual
behavior and communication. 2 :00 P.M.
(In collaboration with the Section on Animal Behavior and Sociobiology of
The Ecological Society of America)
Windsor Court, Commodore Hotel
J. L. FULLER,presiding
E., Williams College. Sexual behavior in inbred
strains of mice. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
2:20 141. MORGENSTERN,
LARRYL., University of Kansas. Changes in
3:OO 143.
sexual behavior in spayed female guinea pigs following anterior
hypothalamic lesions. (Introduced by William C. Young) ( 15
min. )
E., University of Michigan. Acoustical behavior
and courtship of conenose bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). (Motion picture, 15 min.) (No abstract)
SHAW,KENNETH C., University of Michigan. An experimental
analysis of the singing behavior of the true Katydid (Pterophylla :
Tettigoniidae). (15 min.)
STOUT,JOHN F., University of Maryland. The significance of
sound production during the reproductive behavior of Notropis
analostanus. (15 min.)
University of MaryWINN, HOWARD
land. Sound production of squirrelfishes. (15 min.)
University of Texas and
American Museum of Natural History. Sound spectrographic
analysis of a continuous singer, the mockingbird. (15 min.)
JAMESM., Cornell University. The role of learning
in the development of the Eastern Bluebird's vocal repertoire.
(15 min.)
Organization Meeting : Division of Vertebrate
1 :30 P.M.
Parlors B and C, Commodore Hotel
Session M :
Vertebrate Morphology, II.
2 :30 P.M.
Parlors B and C, Commodore Hotel
University of California, Davis. Articulation of the
lumbar vertebrae in brachycephalic bovine dwarfs. (15 min.)
G. E., Harvard Medical School. The vertebral column
of New World primates. (15 min.)
3:10 150. HILDEBRAND,
MILTON,University of California, Davis. Relative
variability of body proportions in marsupial and other mammals.
(10 min.)
3:25 151. BAKER-COHEN,
New York Zoological Society. Situs
inversus and vascular asymmetry in xiphophorin fishes. (15
C., University of Missouri School of Veterinary
3 :45 152. MCCLURE,
Medicine. Occurrence of the zygomatic groove and canal in the
sphenoid bone of the dog skull (Canis familiaris). (12 rnin.)
W. AND A. P. LONG,Detroit Institute of Cancer Re4:02 153. PRYCHODKO,
search and Wayne State University. Effect of isolation on the
body weight of laboratory mice. (10 min.)
4:17 154. NATHAN,
HENRYC., The Wellcome Research Laboratories, Tuckahoe 7,New York. The use of specific pathogen-free mice for tumor
studies. (Introduced by Samuel Bieber) (15 min.)
College of St. Teresa
and Rutgers University. Carcinogen-induced hepatic tumors in
mice. (Introduced by A. F. Hopper) (10 min.)
Business Meeting
Section F, AAAS. 5:OO P.M.
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
Business Meeting
The American Society of Zoologists. 5:30 P.M.
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
Zoologists’ Dinner 7:OO P.M.
(Joint dinner for Section F, AAAS and The American Society of Zoologists)
Vice Presidential Address, “AnEmbryologist Visits Japan” VIKTOR HAMBURGER
West Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
EMIL WITSCHI,presiding
AAAS-Biologists’ Smoker. 9 :00 P.M.
Joint smoker for Sections F and G, AAAS and The American Society of Zoologists
West Ballroom and adjacent ballrooms, Commodore Hotel
Symposium: Spermatozoan motility, 111. 9 :00 A.M.
Windsor Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
R. J. FLIPSE,presiding
9:00 156. C. TERNER,
Boston University. Metabolic reactions in spermatozoa.
9:46 157. P. H. GONSE,Centre de Recherches de Lyon. Respiration and
oxidative phosphorylation in relation to sperm motility.
10:30 158. G. W. SALISBURY,
University of Illinois. Ionic and osmotic re11:15
quirements .
Physiology of molluscs, I I .
9: 00 A.M.
Grand Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
9:OO 159. WELSH,JOHNH., Harvard University. Neurohormones in molluscs. (30 min.)
PAULS., U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, Woods Hole.
Physiology of reproduction in molluscs. (30 min.)
10:20 161. KOHN,ALAN J., Florida State University. Chemoreception in
gastropods. (30 min. )
11:OO 162. PICKENS,PETERE., Institute of Marine Science, University of
Texas. Variations in the heart rate of mussels from different
habitats. (Introduced by T. H. Bullock) (15 rnin.)
Symposium : Teaching animal behavior, I. Animal behavior
in biology teaching. 9:00 A.M. (No abstracts)
Organized by E. B. Hale, Pennsylvania State University for the Division of
Animal Behavior and Sociobiology of The American Society of Zoologists in
collaboration with the Section of Animal Behavior and Sociobiology of The
Ecological Society of America. Co-sponsored by Section F, AAAS and The National Association of Biology Teachers.
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
E. B. HALE,presiding
163. HALE, E. B., Pennsylvania State University. Introduction to the symposium.
164. SCOTT,J. P., Jackson Memorial Laboratory. Animal behavior as a biological discipline.
E., University of Chicago. Animal behavior in college
166. BAKER,ARTHURJ., Crystal Lake High School, Crystal Lake, Illinois. Animal behavior in secondary-school biology.
Session N : Comparative Physiology, III. Physiology of
arthropods. 9: 10 A.M.
Windsor Terrace, Commodore Hotel
9: 10 167. BREBBIA,
D. ROBERT,Fordham University. Electrocardiogram of
the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Introduced by D. Ludwig)
9: 30
(15 min.)
168. DOANE,WINIFREDW., Yale University. Corpus datum-complex
and ovarian transplantations in the mutant female sterile (2) adipose of Drosophila melanogaster. (Introduced by Sheila J.
Counce) ( 15 min.)
9:60 169. HODGSON,
KIRALY,Columbia University, Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organization and National Biological Standards Laboratories, Australia. Pharmacological properties of roach
corpus cardiacum. (15 min.)
1O:lO 170. HICHAR,JOSEPH K., Parsons College. Differential effect of picrotoxin on crustacean nerve cords. (15 rnin.)
M., University of Michigan. Forms of activity
10:30 171. MAYNARD,
within the neuropile of the spiny lobster. (15 min.)
KENNEDY, State University Col10:60 172. PRESTON,
lege of Medicine in Syracuse and Stanford University. Properties
of spontaneously active units in the ventral nerve cord of the
crayfish. (Introduced by William H. Telfer) (15 rnin.)
11:lO 173. KENNEDY,
Stanford University
and State University College of Medicine in Syracuse. Complex
responses of central neurons in the crayfish to presynaptic and
direct stimulation. (Introduced by Victor C. Twitty) (15 min.)
11:30 174. ECKERT,
ROGERO., Columbia University. Role of stretch receptor
system in crayfish swimming reflex. (Introduced by E. S . Hodgson) (15 min.)
Session 0 : Developmental Biology, 111.
9 :00 A.M.
Parlors B and C, Commodore Hotel
175. NORMAN,
West Virginia University. A chemically defined maintenance medium for bovine sperm. (Introduced by
Lloyd R. Gribble) (15 min.)
9:20 176. RULON,OLIN, Northwestern University. The extension of fertilizability and life in sand dollar eggs with cobalt, cysteine and thioglycolic acid. ( 15 min.)
Manhat9:40 177. WOLSKY,
tanville College and Fordham University. The effect of a carcinostatic antimetabolite on the development of sea urchin eggs.
(15 min.)
University of Cali1O:OO 178. SMITH,ARLANE. S. AND A. M. SCHECHTMAN,
fornia, Los Angeles. Protein changes during early amphibian
development. ( 15 min.)
10:20 179. MUCHMORE,WILLIAMB., University of Rochester. Muscle proteins in early amphibian embryos. (15 min.)
10:40 180. BLACK,ROBERTE., College of William and Mary. Krebs-cycle
dehydrogenases, DPNH-oxidase and cytochrome oxidase in homogenates of developing oyster-eggs. (15 min.)
11:OO 181. ESTES,ZANEE., Yale University. Cytochrome oxidase activity of
intact and digitonin-treated chick liver mitochondria during development. (Introduced by E. J. Boell) (15 min.)
University of Rochester.
Trimetaphosphatase in the yolk sac of vertebrates. (15 min.)
11:40 183. ENDERS,
ALLEN C., Rice University. Studies on the blastocyst of
the nine-banded armadillo during the period of delayed implantation. (15 min.)
Spermatozoan motility, N. 2 :00 P.M.
Windsor Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
184. J. TIBBS,University of St. Andrews. ATP-ase and acetylcholinesterase in relation to sperm motility.
2:45 185. D. W.BISHOP,Carnegie Institution of Washington. Reactivation
of extracted sperm-cell models in relation to the mechanism of
3:30 186. C. J. BROKAW,
University of Minnesota. Studies on isolated
4: 15
Symposium : Teaching animal behavior, I I . Techniques in
teaching animal behavior. 2:OO P.M. (No abstracts)
(Panel and open discussion)
East Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
ARTHUR J. BAKER,presiding
C. R.,Pennsylvania State University. Film instruction.
188. DILGER,WILLIAMC., Cornell University. Vertebrate materials.
JR., Pennsylvania State University. Invertebrate materials.
Iowa State Teachers College Laboratory School. Special projects.
Open discussion
Session P : Invertebrate Zoology, Parasitology and
Protozoology. 2 :00 P.M.
Windsor Court, Commodore Hotel
RICHARDP. HALL,presiding
2:OO 191. MURCHIE,WILLIAMR., The University of Michigan Flint College.
Production of spermatophores by Dendrobaena samarigera Rosa
1893. (12 rnin.)
Wayne State Uni2:17 192. DEGIUSTI,
versity. The pH of the gut of the amphipods Hyalella azteca and
Gummarus sp. (12 min.)
JOHNC., Cornell University. The nature of the con2:34 193. FERGUSON,
nective tissue of the body wall, retractor harness and cardiac
stomach of the starfish, Asterias forbesi. (Introduced by J. M.
Anderson) (10 min.)
2:49 194. OGREN,ROBERTE.,Dickinson College. Observations on the immature hexacanth embryo of Hymenolepis diminuta, a tapeworm
of mammals. (10 min.)
3:04 195. WEISSENBERG,
J. RICHARD,Emeritus Professor, 5225 Schuyler
Street, Philadelphia 44, Pa. Further studies on the intracellular
microorganism observed in the lymphocystis disease of fish. (15
min . )
196. FEDER,WILLIAMA., Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando, Florida. Osmotic destruction of
plant parasitic and saprophytic nematodes by the addition of
sugars to soil. (10 min.)
E., Howard University. Pseudo-mating of Spirostomum. (15 min.)
3:59 198. SIEGEL,R. W. AND L. LARISON,University of California, Los
Angeles. Induced illegitimate mating in Paramecium bursaria.
(15 rnin.)
4:19 199. WICHTERMAN,
RALPH,Temple University. Survival and reproductive ability after x-irradiation in four species of Paramecium.
(15 min.)
4:39 200. SATO,HIDEMI,Dartmouth Medical School. A morphological study
on the mitochondria of Tetrahymena geleii W. (15 min.)
Wayne State University. Visualization of sulfhydryl groups in Vorticella convallaria. (15 min.)
Session Q:
Comparative Physiology, IV. Physiology of
arthropods. 2: 00 P.M.
Windsor Terrace, Commodore Hotel
J. H. WELSH,presiding
PAULW., University of Colorado. A possible humidity
receptor mechanism in the clover mite, Bryobia praetiosa Koch.
(10 min.)
Stanford University and
2:15 203. KENNEDY,
Harvard University. On the spectral sensitivity of visual systems
in decapod crustacea. (15 min.)
2:35 204. SKINNER,
M., Yale University. Protein synthesis in the
Cecropia silkmoth. (Introduced by D. E. Bliss) (15 min.)
R. E. AND JACK COLVARDJONES,University of Mary2:55 205. WHEELER,
land. The mechanics of copulation in Aedes aegypti (L). mosquitoes. (10 min.)
3:10 206. MILKMAN,ROGER,Syracuse University. Rapid temperature adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster pupae. (15 min.)
Session R:
Genetics and Cytology.
2: QO P.M.
Parlors B and C, Commodore Hotel
P. w., w . s. TYLERAND L. M. JULIAN,University of
California, Davis. Evidence that the Dexter mutant is genetically
related to recessive achondroplasia. (15 min.)
2:20 208. TYLER,w. s., L. M. JULIANAND P. w. GREGORY,University of
California, Davis. Standard values of metacarpal indices for
achondroplastic brachycephalic dwarfs and controls. ( 15 min.)
H. A. AND M. M. GREEN,University of Notre Dame and
2:40 209. BENDER,
University of California, Berkeley. Effects of a suppressor of the
1234kallele in Drosophila melanogaster. (Introduced by R. E.
Gordon) (15 min.)
3:OO 210. RIZKI, M. T. M., Reed College. The nature of the autofluorescence
of the fat cells of Drosophila. (15 min.)
211. KING, R. C., Northwestern University. The hereditary ovarian
tumors of the f e s mutant of Drosophila melanogaster. (15 min.)
3:40 212. MERRIAM,
R. W., Columbia University. Structural variations and
composition of the nuclear envelope. (15 min.)
4:OO 213. KAYE, JEROME S., University of Rochester. Acrosome differentiation in the cricket. (15 min.)
4:20 214. NICKLAS,
R. BRUCE,Yale University. The cytology of Mycophila
speyeri and the origin of the gall-midge chromosome cycle. (15
min. )
4:40 215. WORLEY,
Brooklyn College.
Electron microscopy of the elaboration of protein yolk by the Golgi
complex during the early development of Crepidula. (15 min.)
5:OO 216. PENNEY,
DAVIDP., W. C. DIXONAND D. I. PATT,Boston University.
The cytology of adrenocortical regeneration in selected sites in
the rat. (15 min.)
Session S:
Experimental Biology.
2: 00 P.M.
West Ballroom, Commodore Hotel
Laboratories, Beth Israel Hospital and Medical Department, Port
of New York Authority. Effects of injected nutrient supplements
on weights, oxygen consumptions and respiratory enzyme levels
of fasted salamanders. (15 min.)
PAULK., Brown University. Histological observations on
2:20 218. NAKANE,
the effect of intraperitoneally injected Thorotrast on the surface
of the mouse liver. (Introduced by E. H. Leduc) (15 min.)
2:40 219. CHENEY,RALPHHOLTAND CARLCASKEYSPEIDEL,Brooklyn College and University of Virginia. Differential effects of ultraviolet
and x-ray gamete irradiation in the sea urchin, Arbacia. (Motion
picture, 15 min.)
3:OO 220. ALLEN, ROBERTD., Princeton University. Streaming in cytoplasm
dissociated from the giant ameba, Chaos chaos. (Motion picture,
15 min.)
PER, Beth Israel Hospital and New York University. The inoculation of eggs by sperm previously treated with virus. (15 min.)
Georgia. Absence of the kinetoplast in trypanosomids of insects.
(10 min.)
New York University. Chromatographic separation of human
urinary erythropoietic stimulating factor (ESF). ( 15 min.)
4:15 224. CROSS,J. C., Texas Technological College. A virus-like substance
produced in v i m . ( 15 min.)
Boston Univer4:35 225. SLECHTA,
sity. Blood pressure and flow characteristics in the microcirculation of the hamster cheek pouch with sodium pentobarbital anesthesia. (10 min.)
Papers read by title have been arranged alphabetically by the name of the
first author.
226. ALLEN, M. JEAN, Wilson College. Cytochemical observations on the developing oocytes and attached nurse cells of the polychaete, Diopatra
227. ALLEN, M. JEAN,Wilson College. Histochemical observations on the
early developmental stages of the polychaete, Chaetopterus pergamentaceus.
AND JERRYJ. KOLLROS,State University of Iowa.
The ultrastructure and development of the basement membrane of balancers in Ambystoma embryos.
229. ANDRUS,WILLIAMD. AND A. C. GIESE,Stanford University. Regulation
of sodium and potassium in the ciliate, Tetrahymena pyrifomnis strain W .
230. ANGELONE,LUIS,Washington University. Effect of the thyroid and adrenals on rat erythrocyte glycolysis.
University of Massachusetts.
Possible visual imitation in Coturnix quail.
232. BATTLE,HELENI. AND HANSW. LAALE,University of Western Ontario.
Trypan blue-induced anomalies in embryos of the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio).
TIBBITTS,University of Illinois and
University of Nevada. The use of sodium chloride in minimizing tissue
distortion resulting from fixation by chemical means.
DUNNING,Mount Holyoke
College. Metazoan parasites of the short-tailed shrew, Marina brevicauda
Say in Western Massachusetts.
235. CHAET,ALFRED B., R. SELLERSAND D. KENNAN,American University.
Further characteristics of a burn toxin(s) from the starfish, Asterias
Indiana University. Reorgani236. CROWELL,
zation capacities of dissociated tissues of Campanularia flexuosa.
237. DEWITT,ROBERTM., University of Florida. Glycogen levels in fresh and
starved Uniomerus obesus, a freshwater bivalve.
Laboratory for Gnotobiotic Studies, Berkeley, California. Axenic cultivation of a rotifer species.
239. EAKIN, RICHARD M., University of California, Berkeley. Number of
photoreceptors and melanocytes in the third eye of the lizard, Sceloporus
240. FILOSA,
M., Johns Hopkins University. The effects of ethionine on the
morphogenesis of cellular slime molds.
241. GREENBERG,SYLVIAS. AND M. J. KOPAC,Genetics Laboratory, New York
Zoological Society and New York University. Melanogenic enzyme activity in xiphophorin fishes.
GILBERT S . , University of Washington. Gonadotrophic
content of the pituitary of the lactating mouse.
243. GREENWALD,GILBERTS . , University of Washington. The antifertility
effects in pregnant rats of a single injection of estradiol cyclopentylpropion ate.
L., College of Saint Teresa. The effect of testosterone
propionate on the weight and 0-glucuronidase level of the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle of the castrate immature Wistar rat under
different dietary regimes.
HALL,R. P., New York University. Duration of sulfonamide resistance
and its reversibility in Chilomonas.
LOUIS A. AND LOWELLE. DAVIS, Howard University.
Differentiation of the eye primordium of the mouse in the chick embryo.
Regulation in the developing wing of the chick embryo. I. Differentiation
of grafted somites.
W. AND SUSANKNOVACS,Mount Union College and
Mount Holyoke College. Alkaline phosphatase in the trachea and esophagus of the developing chick.
M., Southern Illinois University. Electrophoretic analysis of protein changes during growth of Pseudemys turtles.
University of Colorado Medical Center. Mediation of
immunologically-induced aspermatogenesis by a nonacid-fast bacterium.
Iowa State University.
Effects of respiratory inhibitors on the development of the down feather.
KOHN,ALAN J., Florida State University. Development in marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus and its ecological significance.
KRAMER, SOLAND HELMUTMUELLER,State University of New York and
Cambridge University, England. Band pattern changes in insect muscles
during stretch and contraction.
J. V. AND J. H. MCALEAR,Albany Medical College, Veterans
Administration Hospital and New York State Department of Health,
Albany. The ultrastructure of primary and FL-amnion cells following
exposure to high hydrostatic pressure.
HOMERB. AND PAULB. SAWIN,University of Kansas and Jackson Memorial Laboratory. Variation in shape and position of some of
the viscera in the rabbit.
LIBBY,ERNESTL. AND PERRYW. GILBERT,Marineland Research Laboratory and Cornell University. Reproduction in the clear-nosed skate,
Raja eglanteria.
Catholic University of
America. Histological study of the thyroid and pituitary in the minnow
Gambusia after exposure to high temperature and treatment with thiourea.
L. Z., University of California, Davis. Salt excretion from
the nasal glands from various species of the Pelicaniformes.
L. Z., University of California, Davis. Salt excretion from
the nasal glands of captive penguins.
L. Z. AND M. T. CLEGG,University of California, Davis.
Sexual behavior in r a m s and the effects of hypothalamic lesions.
SAMUELR., Tufts University School of Medicine. Innervation of the tongue musculature of Eptesicus fuscus.
LUBOWA., Animal Husbandry Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Season and
comparative activity of wool follicles.
G. M. AND M. J. KOPAC,New York University. Cytological
studies on renal cultures of Rana pipiens.
Facult6 des Sciences,
University of Paris. Comparison of the direct action of ultra-violet and
x-rays on the in vitro growth of nerve fibers from irradiated spinal cords
of chick embryos.
University of Palermo,
Italy. A study of the cell fluid proteins of the egg and developmental
stages of Paracentrotus lividus.
JAMES M., Bowdoin College. The acoustical anatomy of teleost
RIZKI, M. T. M., Reed College. Intercellular effects of glucosaminehydrochloride on tumor formation in Drosophila melanogaster.
New York University School of Medicine and Marine Biological Laboratory. Light orientation in the starfish,
Asterias forbesi.
RUBEN,LAURENSN., Reed College. Further studies on implant-induced
supernumerary limbs in urodeles.
FRANKT. AND WALTERS. TYLER,University of California,
Davis. Width of the proximal tibial epiphyseal lines from achondroplastic
and control rabbits.
RUGH, ROBERTSAND ERICAGRUPP,Columbia University. Congenital
effects following low level x-irradiation.
New York University.
Analysis of tail darkening in hypophysectomized urodele larvae.
Yale University. Response of the uterus of
the rat to estradiol-l7@after different periods of time after ovariectomy.
New York University. Effects of acute hemorrhagic anemia and erythropoietin on the mitotic activity of nucleated red cells of rat femoral bone
K., Yale University. Initiation by thyroxine of chick
epidermal differentiation in protein-free chemically defined nutrient
media in vitro.
N. SUDAK,Loyola College and
Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Circulatory responses of Elasmobranchs to hemorrhage.
Abstracts are arranged in a single sequence alphabetically according to the last name
of the first author. Papers 226 to 276 are read by title. The number of an abstract
will give a clue to its location in the program. An author index follows the abstracts.
KENNETH ALLEN, University of California, Los
Angeles. Nitrogen metabolism in the mollusca. (30 min.)
Nitrogen metabolism in molluscs has for the
most part centered around nitrogen catabolism,
and the illucidation of enzymes involved in the
digestion of proteins. Metabolic pathways for
protein synthesis are lacking for molluscs, but
several enzyme systems involved in protein intermediary metabolism have been reported. The
enzymes that have been studied are: amino acid
oxidase, amine oxidase and transaminase.
Recent studies on the amino acid constituents
of molluscan tissue have implicated these compounds in osmoregulation. Amino acids have also
been reported from molluscan shells, and biochemical studies on the protein of shell, conchiolin, have given information concerning its
structure and terminal amino acids. Closely associated with the studies on amino acids, have
been investigations involved with the phosphagen,
arginine phosphate, and its metabolism.
M. JEAN ALLEN, Wilson College. Cytochemical
observations on the developing oocytes and attached nurse cells of the polychaete, Diopatru
Cytochemical tests were performed on both
whole mounts and serial sections. It was reported
earlier (Allen, Anat. Rec., 1957) that RNA is distributed in a n animal-vegetal gradient in fullygrown unfertilized eggs. Tests for RNA are
strongly positive in the cytoplasm and nucleolus
of both the unripe eggs and the two strings of
algal-like nurse cells attached to them. The
writer recently has demonstrated two narrow
cytoplasmic bridges, each traversing the transparent cell membranes of the proximal nurse cell
and egg. There is an apparent continuity of
cytoplasmic material, strongly positive for RNA,
from the proximal nurse cells through the cytoplasmic bridge to the developing oocyte. These
bridges also have been demonstrated following
lipid staining in whole mounts where they appear as clear or finely granular areas, occasionally
with small lipid (probably phospholipid) droplets. The yolky cytoplasm of the oocyte appears
packed with lipid droplets of various sizes, and
small lipid granules occur in a dense polar cap
between the animal pole and germinal vesicle.
Lipid granules and occasional droplets appear in
the attached nurse cells. In oocytes, areas comparable to those containing the small lipid granules were shown also to reduce Nitro-BT, possibly
reflecting mitochondria1 activity. Glycogen tests
demonstrate occasional positive granules in fully
grown oocytes and a few granules in the nurse
cells of developing oocytes. Tests for alkaline
phosphatase were negative for both oocytes and
nurse cells. (Living material was collected a t
the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory.)
(Supported by grant 6-8775 from N.S.F.)
M. JEAN ALLEN, Wilson College. Histochemical
observations on the early developmental stages
of the polychaete, Chaetopterus pergamentaceus.
Unfertilized eggs and cleavage blastomeres of
Chaetopterus have perinuclear rings of RNA. The
remaining cytoplasmic RNA appears as a diffuse
network surrounding the endoplasmic spherules.
The migration of endoplasmic spherules a t maturation results in an animal-vegetal gradient of
RNA with the residual substance of the germinal
vesicle staining intensely. Late cleavage and early
swimming larvae have a periphero-central gradient of RNA, a consequence of the central concentration of endoplasmic spherules lacking RNA.
The unfertilized egg appears packed with glycogen granules diffusely distributed throughout the
endoplasm. During maturation and early cleavage the outer endoplasm is negative for glycogen,
but the residual substance and remaining endoplasm stain intensely. The endoplasm of later
cleavage stages and blastulae is strongly positive,
particularly the innermost portions of mid-cleavage blastomeres. In early swimming larvae and
26-hour trochophores most cells contain glycogen
while in 21h-day trochophores most of the glycogen has disappeared. The fertilization membrane
contains a polysaccharide which is not glycogen
(or possibly a muco- or glycoprotein), as do the
“pellicle,” oral lining, and large intensely staining
cells around the mouth of 2%-day trochophores.
Lipid spherules are distributed diffusely
throughout the endoplasm of unfertilized eggs but
with the migration of the endoplasmic spherules
a t fertilization become distributed in a vegetalanimal gradient. The endoplasm of early cleavage blastomeres appears packed with lipid
spherules. During later cleavage and blastula
formation there i s a progressive concentration of
lipids in the potential endodermal cells. In 26hour trochophores lipids are concentrated primarily in the basal ends of the endoderm cells.
Alkaline phosphatase tests are negative for all
stages tested through 7-day trochophores.
(Embryological stages were obtained at the
Duke University Marine Laboratory and the
Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory).
(Supported by grant 6 8 7 7 5 from N.S.F. and a
summer grant from Wilson College.)
ROBERT D. ALLEN, Princeton University.
Streaming in cytoplasm dissociated from the
giant ameba, Chaos chaos. (Motion picture,
15 mk.)
Cytoplasmic streaming associated with ameboid
movement has traditionally been considered a
property of intact cells. A short film will demonstrate the ability of ameba cytoplasm which
has been dissociated from intact cells but not
physically disrupted to stream for periods up to
an hour at velocities often exceeding those in the
intact cell, Dissociated cytoplasm is obtained by
shattering the ends of quartz capillaries containing amebae under a pool of oil.
While the pattern of streaming is often that of
a fountain, as i n the intact cell, it is more frequently organized into U-shaped “units of streaming” i n which cytoplasm streams along one
arm of the U toward the bend at a velocity 1%
to 3 times that at which it moves away from the
bend on the other arm of the U. This velocity
difference was the intial clue leading to the discovery that the motive force for the streaming in
both the U- and fountain-paUerns of streaming
is a contraction of the cytoplasm as it changes
direction at the front of the cell as proposed in the
Fountain-Zone Contraction Theory of ameboid
movement (Allen, 1960), further evidence for
which w i l l be presented. (Supported by grant
C-3022 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
HAMILTON, Iowa State University. Mitotic
patterns during occlusion and reopening of the
esophagus in the chick.
Colchicine solutions (0.002 mg i n 0.2 ml
saline) were injected into the amniotic cavities of
chick embryos at stages 26-31. Mitotic counts
were made 2%-12 hours later on sections of the
esophagus stained with iron-hematoxylin.
During closure, the epithelial roof collapsed
towards the floor in the region of the tracheal
bifurcation, with no apparent increase in mitoses
at the roof-floor juncture. The mitoses were
widely scattered ahead and behind the point of
fusion, and occurred mainly near the basement
In the occluded zone, there were very few
dividing cells; these occurred in the lateral edges
of the broad anterior portion, and near the basement membrane of the more posterior cylindrical
esophageal cord.
With the appearance of vesicles, there was an
abrupt increase in mitotic rate. Dividing cells
were almost always next to cavities. This is considered a secondary phenomenon, due to the withdrawal of cells to their attachment site when
rounding up for division, rather than a primary
cause of vesiculation, because some vesicles
occurred without mitoses surrounding them.
Likewise, in the completely reopened esophagus
with single lumen, divisions were adjacent to the
cavity as in the neural tube.
It appears that closure of the normal esophagus
is accompanied by a change from a sharply-deh e d inner limiting membrane to an irregular
boundary which shows protrusions of short proto-
plasmic processes between roof and floor. Reopening occurs by cellular separation and possibly
degeneration. Mitotic activity does not seem to
be directly involved in either process. (Sup
ported by grant RG-3813 (C7) from the U.S.P.H.S.)
State University of Iowa. The ultrastructure
and development of the basement membrane of
balancers in Ambystoma embryos.
Balancers were obtained from Ambystoma
opacum and A. jeflersonianum embryos in stages
34-45. The epithelium covering the balancer
consists of two layers of cells. Beneath the basal
layer of cells at stage 34 is the relatively thin
basement membrane. In subsequent stages (3840) a progressive increase in thickness and staining capacity of the basement membrane is observed.
Electron micrographs of the basal epithelial
cells at stage 34 reveal large pseudopodial extensions originating from their basal parts. Most of
the cytoplasmic organelles, e.g., mitochondria and
endopIasmic reticulum, are found aggregated just
above the extensions. Vesicular elements of the
endoplasmic reticulum are often found within the
extensions. The surfaces of many extensions are
free of formed elements; however, a few fine
filaments, randomly oriented, are located at the
periphery, in close contact with the limiting
plasma membrane. In stages 36-45 no basal
extensions are seen; the basement membrane has
increased i n thickness, being constituted mainly
of many fine randomly oriented filaments. (Supported by grants RG-4706, 5749 and A-2202 from
the U.S.P.H.S.)
University. Regulation of sodium and potassium in the ciliate, Tehahymenu p y r i f o n i s
strain W.
Although some protozoa are able to withstand
great changes in environmental salt content and
a true ionic regulation by them is to be expected,
ionic regulation has been little studied in ciliates.
For such a study Tetrahymena, grown axenically
in media similar in sodium content to 5, 10 and
30% sea water, were employed. Relative to cell
total nitrogen or packed volume, cells from all
three media accumulate potassium and extrude
sodium. Cells from 10% medium show similar
gradients on a dry weight basis. Total nitrogen
was the usual basis of comparison.
Physical and chemical agents altering cell
metabolism were employed to investigate the origin of such gradients. In cells from three media,
the established gradients are lost at 6”C, but
regained at 25°C. Potassium reaccumulation
shows a QIO of 3 in “10%” cells. In “10%” cells
the reversible loss produced by anoxia of 1h the
cell potassium, is not accompanied by net sodium
movement. At room temperature monoiodoacetic
acid (I-AcA), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DPN) and sodium azide produce partial loss of potassium without concomitant sodium gain. Cells in I-AcA and
DNP demonstrate the usual cold-induced movements, though potassium is reaccumulated to an
intermediate level. Ouabain at 1 X
M does
not cause potassium loss or sodium gain.
In Tetrahymena two mobile fractions of cell
potassium seem related to metabolism, while the
connection between cell sodium and metabolism
remains unclear. (Supported in part by grants
C-3461(Cl) and HF-10,203 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
LUIS ANGELONE, Washington University. Effect
of the thyroid and adrenals on rat erythrocyte
The response of the oxidative metabolism of
human (Angelone et al., '54) and rat (Barker,
'52) erythrocytes to thyroid hormone as well as
rat erythrocytes to adrenal cortical hormones
(Angerer et al., '47), and the fact that mature
erythrocytes are 90-95% dependent upon anaerobic glycolysis for their energy suggested hormonal effects might be illustrated by measuring
the glucose utilization after exposure to various
hormone levels. Thyroid or adrenal insufficiency
was produced in rats by surgically removing the
thyroids or adrenals, respectively. Thyroxine or
triiodothyronine was given to rats in their drinking water postoperatively for 14 to 24 days; or
cortisone given subcutaneously for 5 days (1
mg/day). Heparinized blood was placed into a
water bath (37.5'C), shaken gently, and samples
withdrawn at intervals for glucose analysis (Nelson-Somogyimethod). The pg of glucose utilized/
hour/billion red cells was calculated from the
cell count and hematocrit. A comparison to normal resulted in the following: Thyroparathyroidectomized (Tx) = -23%, Tx plus thyroxine
25%, Tx plus triiodowater (250 pg % ) =
17%, normal
thyronine water (100 pg% ) =
plus thyroxine water (250 pg% ) = - 42%, adrenalectomized (Adx) plus tap water = - 12%,
9 % , Adx
Adx plus salt water (1% NaCl) =
plus cortisone = 0 % , normal plus cortisone =
-46%. The data indicate that the glucose
metabolism of these cells may be strongly influenced by the thyroid and adrenal hormones,
and further, that the effects do not parallel other
tissues. No explanation for this is apparent at
the present time. (Supported by grant RG-4980
from the U.S.P.H.S.)
hatchability and more abnormalities and led to
the present experiments.
During 1959-60, influenza A' virus was introduced by the above method into eggs of brook
trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, rainbow trout, and
striped killash, Fundulus majalis. Prolongation
of standing time of virus-sperm mixture before
fertilization produced a decrease in number of
fertilized eggs and increase of abnormal embryos.
Brook trout eggs fertilized with virus-treated
sperm and left in the dark showed retarded embryological development and higher mortality as
compared with eggs fertilized with untreated
sperm under similar conditions. However, striped
killifish eggs fertilized with virus-treated sperm
and raised in light showed accelerated embryological development and lower mortality. Besides
introducing virus into eggs of fish and other
species, this technique may also be used as a tool
for the study of effects of nutrients, toxic materials, metabolites and antimetabolites, or immunologic reactions or immune tolerance. Experiments along these lines are now in progress.
(Aided by The Joseph and Helen Yeamans Levy
Foundation and grant H-2670, National Institutes
of Health, U.S.P.H.S.)
Syracuse University. The differential response
of epidermis and hair follicles to subcutaneously
transplanted Ehrlich ascites tumor. (15 min.)
Approximately two weeks after the subcutaneous inoculation of mice with Ehrlich ascites
tumor, the tumor penetrates the subcutis or fatty
layer of the skin. At this time the overlying epidermis shows marked enlargement due largely to
basal cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The resting hair follicles however, do not show any
stimulation even though they are much closer to
the invading tumor than the epidermis. As the
tumor continues its advance it penetrates the
dermis and soon completely fills it. Throughout
this time epidermal stimulation persists. The hair
follicles on the other hand, continue to be unaffected even though they become completely surrounded by the tumor. When the advancing edge
of the tumor comes to lie underneath the epidermis, stimulation of the epidermis markedly
diminishes. Further tumor growth results in
WILLIAM ANTOPOL, ALFRED PERLMUTTER epidermal and hair follicle atrophy and degenand HARRY A. CHARIPPER, Beth Israel Hospi- eration.
tal and New York University. The inoculation
The results suggest that subcutaneously transof eggs by sperm previously treated with virus.
planted Ehrlich ascites tumor can invade mouse
(15 min.)
skin and result i n epidermal stimulation. MoreThe chicken egg shortage during World War over, the distance between tumor and overlying
I1 necessitated a substitute for culturing viruses. epidermis is critical for epidermal stimulation to
Hypodermic inoculation of virus into rainbow occur. The resting hair follicles however, are
trout, Salmo gairdnerii, eggs was unsatisfactory. unaffected, even though the tumor eventually
The egg contents escaped through the puncture surrounds them. This is of particular interest
since it has been shown that the basal cells of
wound. Subsequently virus and sperm were mixed
before fertilization, so that virus might have the the epidermis and the cells of the resting hair
opportunity to adhere to sperm and thereby be follicle have the same developmental capacity.
introduced into the egg during penetration. Ex- Thus the physiological state of an epithelium can
periments conducted in 194344 indicated that profoundly affect its response to growth-promoting
influence from tumors. (Supported by grants
this could be valid for Richettsia (murine typhus
from the U.S.P.H.S., N.S.F. and American Cancer
virus, Wilmington strain). Eggs fertilized by
sperm mixed with this virus showed greater
LESTER R. ARONSON and RONALD HERBERMAN, Department of Animal Behavior, American Museum of Natural History. Persistence
of a conditioned response in the cichlid fish,
Tilapia macrocephala after forebrain and cerebellar ablations. (15 min.)
Using an operant conditioning apparatus designed by Bitterman, male Tilapia were rewarded
automatically with food for striking at a small
plexiglass target placed i n the tank. A test consisted of 10 trials spaced at intervals of one
minute or more. Latency, the interval between
introduction of target and operant response, was
measured i n seconds.
After subjects were conditioned to criterion,
three intact controls, 6 sham operates (cranium
opened) and 4 subjects with both olfactory bulbs
removed, continued responding with an average
latency of “1” and with practically no variation
except directly after operation. Three males with
forebrains completely removed continued to respond but the average latency and variability i n
latency increased considerably. Latency decreased
temporarily in average and variability immediately following several days of n o testing or feeding. Two other males with forebrains ablated also
exhibited increases in latency but ceased responding after the 7th and 8th trials.
After ablation of the corpus cerebelli, 4 subjects continued responding with somewhat higher
latencies than after forebrain ablation. Following removal of both forebrain and corpus cerebelli in two subjects, the latencies became even
higher. These gradually decreased almost to the
level of forebrain operates. Two males were conditioned to respond several months after forebrain
ablation. No locomotory or other quaIitative differences in behavior of the operates were observed.
The results support hypotheses discussed elsewhere that a basic function of the forebrain i n
fishes is facilitation of responses organized in
lower centers. Also suggested is the possibility
that the cerebellum may have a comparable energizing action on motor processes. (R.H.:
American Museum Undergraduate Research Participant supported in part by N.S.F.)
IRWIN L. BAIRD, University of Kansas. Observations on the auditory apparatus in typhlopid
snakes. (15 min.)
Study of prepared skulls and serially-sectioned
heads indicates that the anatomy of the auditory
apparatus in several species of typhlopid snakes
differs considerably from that found i n most other
ophidian families. In a l l species examined, the
circumfenestral crest, a bony elevation elaborated by the prootic and opisthotic and surrounding the fenestra ovalis, is highly developed. Except i n T y p h l o p s punctatus, the crest almost completely encloses the juxtastapedial fossa and
closely surrounds the shaft of the columella auris.
As a result, the usual ophidian counterpart of a
secondary tympanic membrane is eliminated (or
greatly reduced), and the footplate of the columella auris and the terminal part of the periotic
labyrinth (juxtastapedial sinus) occupy positions
which may properly be considered to be intracapsular. Reconstructions of the saccule and cochlear duct show that these parts have certain
characteristics reminiscent of those i n saurians,
but other features of these parts and those of the
periotic labyrinth are typically ophidian.
It is tentatively concluded that the auditory
apparatus i n typhlopids could have been derived
only from primitive but definitive ophidian structures, and that the specializations noted represent
adaptations to a burrowing habit.
WILLIAM K. BAKER, University of Chicago.
Genetic control over the somatic differentiation
of eye pigments in Drosophila. (15 min.)
The genetic phenomenon of position effect may
produce somatic tissue is which cells i n one portion of the tissue are producing one phenotype
while identical cells i n another part have a different phenotype. By altering in various ways the
genotype of the individual showing the somatic
variegation and/or by altering the genotype of
its parents, one can control the relative amounts
of the two types of tissue. This phenomenon has
been studied by using a position effect at the
white locus of D. melanogaster that evokes p i g
ment formation i n certain ommatidia of the compound eyes; other ommatidia do not differentiate
pigment. The patterns of the pigmented and nonpigmented areas so produced follow quite closely
the known cell lineage. Chromatographic analysis of these variegated eyes reveals that the red
pigments and their pteridine precursors are present in different relative concentrations than observed in wild-type eyes or in the known mutants
of the white series. This and other compelling
lines of evidence suggest that variegation is the
result of somatically inherited alterations i n “gene
action” rather than the result of somatic mutation (sensu stricto). The various genetic ways in
which this epigenetic action is controlled raise
the possibility that the control is based in nuclear
processes rather than in cytoplasmic ones. (Supported by contract no. AT(ll-1)-431 of the A.E.C.)
K. FRANCE BAKER-COHEN, New York Zoological
Society. Situs inversus and vascular asymmetry in xiphophorin fishes. (15 min.)
Situs inversus viscerum, an anomaly which occurs in about one out of 10,000 humans, was
found i n 37% of specimens of an inbred line of
the domesticated Fury s t r a i n of the platyfish,
Xiphophoms maculatus. In 4 other strains of
platyfish and i n a species of the closely related
swordtail, this anomaly proved to be infrequent or
was not found. Examination of unborn embryos
of the Fury strain revealed no evidence for twinning i n association with situs inversus, or for a
positive correlation between visceral situs of
mother and offspring.
The asymmetry of the unpaired inferior jugular vein, which occurs in xiphophorin fishes, was
found to be inverted in 10-20% of fish of all
strains of platyfish and swordtails examined. In
fish with situs inversus viscerum, associated inversion of the venous asymmetry occurred in
most specimens (which thus were mirror images
of their normal fellows in both respects). Again,
as in fish with normal visceral situs, about 1020% showed (relative) inversion of the vein (or
a double inversion, which thus produced normal
venous asymmetry).
Investigation of pedigrees led to the conclusion
that both types of inversion were genetically determined, but in neither instance could a simple
hypothesis for the mechanism of inheritance be
fitted to the available data. Situs inversus viscerum, in the Fury strain of platyfish, was not sex
linked, nor was it maternally influenced. The indications were that it was due to autosomal
gene(s) lacking fidl expression. (Supported by
research fellowship CF-6184 to the author and by
grant C-297 to Dr. Myron Gordon from the
St. John’s University, New York. Growth determinations in Paramecium caudatum by the formazan reaction.
Although several species of Paramecizcm have
been successfully cultivated under axenic conditions for a number of years, a satisfactory method
for the quantitative determination of growth has
been lacking. Ordinary turbidimetric methods
used with other microorganisms could not be
utilized because of the relatively low concentrations of these ciliates. Direct counts proved too
tedious and time consuming for routine tests.
Recent work has indicated that photometric
methods using the formazan reaction are practical. Various tetrazolium salts have yielded color
reactions permitting quantitative measurements
proportional to growth. While such tests are
actually dependent on enzymatic activity, under
controlled conditions in a reproducible medium
the intensity of color can also be regarded as an
index of growth. The general procedures as
adapted for growth studies on Paramecium caudatum are demonstrated. (Supported by grant E1506 from N.I.H., U.S.P.H.S.)
University of Massachusetts. Possible visual
imitation in Coturnix quail.
Of 11 males deprived of food and water for
17 and 48 hours, one, designated as “instructor,”
was taught to open a puzzle-box by pecking at the
latch. Three “control” birds were run by trial-anderror procedure, and 7 “student” birds were allowed to observe the instructor opening the box
10 times before themselves attempting solution
of the problem.
No control bird solved the problem; three s t u dents did not solve the problem; the other 4 students solved the problem more quickly than the
instructor had.
These results indicate that some individuals
may utilize visual imitation in the learning process. The species is hardy, rapidly-maturing, easy
to keep, and therefore might become an important experimental animal for studies of avian
HELEN I. BATTLE and HANS W. LAALE, University of Western Ontario. Trypan blue-induced anomalies in embryos of the zebrafish
(Brachydanio redo).
Eggs of the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) at
various developmental stages from cleavage to
optic cup formation were exposed to the azo dye,
trypan blue, in concentrations from 0.1 to 0.5%
for periods from 4 to 32 hours. The dye penetrated
the chorion, and although the embryos were not
visibly stained, teratogenic activity was exhibited
in lower concentrations when initially applied during cleavage for 20 to 28 hours; and at progressively higher concentrations with shorter exposures during blastulation and gastrulation; but t o
a much lesser extent i n later stages. The malformations induced were consistent in type irrespective of the stage subjected. Anomalies of the
postanal region were most apparent and involved various degrees of distortion of the notochord and musculature to a complete developmental failure of these structures. Oedema of the
pericardial cavity was frequently excessive, the
cardiac tube being unflexed and exhibiting an
irregular and sometimes reversed beat. Vascular
stasis especially i n the extra-embryonic area of
the yolk sac was common together with irregularities in melanophore development and distribution. Defects i n the eye and otocysts occurred
with less frequency. (This investigation was
supported by Grant-in-Aid of Research A-563, National Research Council of Canada, to the senior
author. )
JULIAN J. BAUMEL, School of Medicine, Creighton University. The asymmetrical distribution
of the posterior cerebral artery of the pigeon.
(15 min.)
Arterial injections were performed on 25 specimens of Columba livia. Throughout the series
a consistently occurring asymmetrical conformation of the posterior cerebral arteries has been observed. The terminal segment of the posterior
cerebral artery of one side (side variable) courses
rostrad in the fissure between cerebral hemispheres and distributes to both hemispheres. The
contralateral posterior cerebral artery terminates
by coursing caudad to supply bilaterally the superior and anterior portions of the cerebellum.
(Supported by research grant from the Nebraska
Heart Association.)
H. A. BENDER and M. M. GREEN, University of
Notre Dame and University of California, Berkallele
eley. Effects of a suppressor of the k34k
in Drosophila melanogaster. (Introduced by
R. E. Gordon) (15 rnin.)
The presence of a recessive suppressor mutation of the 1z34kallele increases fertility by more
than three-fold, the fecundity by over 28%.
Fecundity of the suppressed lzSmfemales is, however, still significantly below that of the controls.
The viabiIity was not significantly different among
the three classes. Egg production is drastically
reduced in the lz34kfemales as compared with the
controls. The suppressed Zz34kfemales are intermediate. Egg-hatchabilities of 14, 35, and 73%
were observed in the Z Z ~ ~suppressed
~ ,
and control
groups respectively. Sterile lz34kfemales could be
divided into two groups: those laying eggs which
failed to hatch and those which failed to lay any
eggs whatsoever. Analysis of the developing
oocytes of the 2z34k females demonstrates an
abnormally high number of yolk-filled stages by
the 4th day and this condition becomes progressively more pronounced with age. Complete serial
sections of paraffin-embedded female reproductive
systems demonstrate that the yolk-filled follicles
of many of the ovarioles degenerate by the 7th
day and the lumina of the reproductive ducts fill
with what appears to be necrotic yolk material.
The suppressed Bemales display a similar array
of pathologies which, however, are delayed in
degree and time of onset. (Supported by grant
CF-7015 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
GEORGE G. BERG and J. SZEKERCZES, University of Rochester. Trimetaphosphatase in the
yolk sac of vertebrates. (15 rnin.)
Trimetaphosphatase is the catalyst of the hydrolytic conversion of cyclic trimetaphosphate to
linear inorganic tripolyphosphate. The metabolic
significance of the reaction is still obscure, but
studies on the enzyme in adult vertebrates led to
the hypothesis that the enzyme is used in active
transport between external and internal environment. This was tested in histochemical studies of
embryos. In the chick em'bryo, trimetaphosphatase first appeared with the formation of the
area vasculosa, and remained in the cytoplasm
of all endodermal cells of area vasculosa through
development. By the 12th day this positive lining
extended all the way to the yolk stalk. Only
other extraembryonic sites were some blood islands, and endodermal lining of allantois (weak
stain). Embryo proper showed first trimetaphosphatase in kidney tubules at 7 days and in
digestive tract lining at 14 days. Embryonic enzyme was much weaker than extraembryonic
In the mouse, extraembryonic phosphatase was
localized in yolk sac endoderm and in some regions of placenta. In the embryo proper enzyme
appeared only after the 9th day, becoming strongest in lining of intestine and stomach. Extraembryonic enzyme remained more active than
embryonic enzyme until the 16th day.
Newly hatched larvae of the minnow, Percina
cuproides, showed a strong trimetaphosphatase
stain only in the endodermal lining of the yolk
sac, and a much weaker stain in digestive organs
and kidney.
We conclude that in embryos, as in adults, the
sites of active uptake of nutrients for the organism are marked by a high level of trimetaphosphatase. (Supported by grant A-1089 from the
U.S.P.H.S. and aided by the U. o f R. Atomic
Energy Project, under contract with the A.E.C.)
HOWARD A. BERN and CAROLYN deROOS, University of California, Berkeley. The corticosteroids of the California sea lion (Zalophus
californianus) adrenal incubated in viho.
(15 min.)
Adrenal glands were obtained from 10 sea lions
with the help of Dr. Arthur Kelly of the Scripps
Institute of Oceanography, off the Coronados Islands, Baja California. Tissues were obtained
from both yearling and sexually mature indjviduals of both sexes, shortly after their death.
Adrenal tissues were cut into small fragments and
incubated i n the presence and absence of ACTH
at 38°C in a Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate-glucose
solution (pH 7.4). The medium was extracted
with ether-ethyl acetate ( 4 : l v/v), washed with
0.1 N NaOH and water, partitioned between hexane and water (1:l v/v) and chromatographed
in Bush type systems. The steroids obtained were
identified by standard methods including mobility
in two solvent systems, ultraviolet and sulfuric
acid absorption spectra, and mobility of acetylated
Histologic sections of the adrenal showed definite zonae glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis. Between the reticularis and the medulla
are masses of eosinophilic cells, presumably cortical, which extend into the medulla in all individuals examined. lncubation of segments of
the entire adrenal revealed cortisol as the major
secretory product of both maIe and female sea
lions. In addition, chromatograms also show appreciable amounts of compounds with mobilities
similar to standard cortisone, corticosterone, and
Results of separate incubations of capsule
strippings, of cortex without the capsule, and of
the medullary area will also be reported. (Aided
in part by grant G-8805 N.S.F.)
IRWIN S. BERNSTEIN, Yerkes Laboratories of
Primate Biology, Orange Park, Florida. Response to nesting materials by wild-born and
captive-born chimpanzees. (15 min.)
Twenty-five adult chimpanzees ranging in age
from 11 to 40 years were tested with three sets
of materials. Seven of these animals were wildborn and 18 were captive-born. All were tested in
their home cages at the Yerkes Laboratories. The
sets of materials included burlap sacks, cardboard boxes, pine straw, palmetto and palm
leaves, rope, chain, plastic and rubber hose.
All of the wild-born animals constructed nests
during each test session, whereas only 8 of the
18 captive-born animals ever constructed nests,
and 5 of these 8 never constructed anything but
very crude nests and then only on one or two
of the test sessions.
I n addition to nest building, a variety of other
activities were observed and scored. The materials
were thoroughly exploited for activities described
as play behavior, and all animals showed equal
facility in manipulation and transportation of
materials. (Supported by Army contract no.
DA-49-193-MD-2093 to Dr. A. J. Riopelle.)
University of Illinois and University of Nevada.
The use of sodium chloride in minimizing tissue distortion resulting from fixation by chemical means.
The principal concern in this study was to determine the possible worth of sodium chloride as
a fixative additament in alleviating cellular
shrinkage and distortion incurred during the
chemical fixation of tissues or in subsequent processing by the paraffin method.
Samples of rat liver tissue were fixed in 20%
neutral formalin, 20% neutral formalin/0.7%
sodium chloride, Bouin’s fluid, and Bouin’s fluid!
0.7% sodium chloride. By a comparison of nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes, it was noted that
in the case of formalin fixation, the addition of
0.7% sodium chloride reduced nuclear and cytoplasmic shrinkage by 18-26%. In Bouin’s fixation
the addition of 0.7% sodium chloride reduced nuclear shrinkage by 7-10% and cytoplasmic
shrinkage by approximately 21%.
It was also shown that when the sodium chloride is omitted, 20% neutral formalin is significantly less effective than Bouin’s fluid in stabilizing the cytoplasm of liver parenchymal cells
against shrinkage.
In those instances in which tissue shrinkage
was minimized by the addition of sodium chloride
to the fixing medium, the final preparations revealed less tissue distortion and a more adequate
preservation of fine detail. Following the use of
sodium chloride containing fixatives, particularly
formalin, the liver tissue revealed less eosinophilia in hematoxylin and eosin preparations and
increased basophilia when stained with toluidine
blue. This may indicate a reduction in the number of free protein amino groups in such instances, resulting in fewer binding sites for eosin
and reduced protein interference to basic dye
binding by nucleic acid phosphoryl groups.
ROBERT E. BLACK, College of William and
Mary. Krebs-cycle dehydrogenases, DPNH-oxidase and cytochrome oxidase in homogenates
of developing oyster-eggs. (15 min.)
The respiration of whole embryos and the
activities of oxidizing enzymes in homogenates
have been followed in several batches of developing embryos of Crussostrea virginica. Embryos
were cultured at 20”C, and aliquots were taken
at the following times for the measurements:
1-2 hours (first cleavage), 8-10 hours (blastula),
23-25 hours (trochophore), and 48-50 hours
(early veliger). Embryos were homogenized in
0.03 M phosphate or in a mixture of 0.37 M
sucrose, 7.5% polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 0.05 M
tris buffer, pH 7.4. Reduction of TPN, ferricyanide, and 2,6 dichlorophenol indophenol were
measured spectrophotometrically in assays of
isocitric, succinic, and alpha-ketoglutaric dehydrogenases, respectively. Oxidation of DPNH in the
presence of oxalacetate or cytochrome c was followed spectrophotometrically in determining the
activities of malic dehydrogenase and DPNHoxidase respectively. Cytochrome oxidase was
measured manometrically in the presence of ascorbate and cytochrome c.
Respiration increased 4- to 5-fold from fertilization to the trochophore stage, and no further
increase occurred between 24 and 48 hours. Cytochrome oxidase, DPNH-oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, and malic dehydrogenase did not undergo
any major change during the first 24 hours, but
decreases of 50 to 100% in the activities of cytochrome oxidase and DPNH-oxidase were found
between 24 and 48 hours in most experiments.
Isocitric dehydrogenase increased 3- to 4-fold
between 9 and 24 hours, and alpha-ketoglutaric
dehydrogenase increased about two-fold during
this period. Between 24 and 48 hours the activity
of isocitric dehydrogenase declined to 50 to 70%
of the 24-hour level. (Supported by a grant from
HELEN BLAUVELT and A. ULRIC MOORE, Upstate Medical Center in Syracuse and Cornell
University. Effects of early social experience
on aggressive play in young goats. (Motion
picture, 15 min.)
Differences in the group behavior of young kids
and lambs with respect to agonistic contact and
avoidance behavior is shown.
The duration and nature of contact between
mother and young, as a factor affecting this behavior in young goats, is analyzed. (This study
was supported by a grant from the Ford Foundation.)
HELEN BLAUVELT and A. ULRIC MOORE, Upstate Medical Center i n Syracuse and Cornell
University. Aggressive behavior in the social
organization of goats and sheep. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
The incidence, tempo, and form of attack and
escape behavior i s illustrated in three stages of
ontogeny. Postpartum contact and avoidance behavior occurs while the young still live with the
mother. Complex agonistic interaction, short in
duration, rapid in tempo, is seen in the social play
of older kids and occurs with greater frequency
than between lambs. Instances of fighting between adult goats are: dominance combat within
the herd; aggression as a “greeting” to a goat
new to the herd; combat between males in the
mating season; aggression of a postpartum female
toward goats approaching her young; and participation of the mother in the early aggressive
contacts of the older kid.
The adult combat in goats and sheep is compared.
The use of anatomy as an instrument of combat is emphasized. (This study was supported
by a grant from the Ford Foundation.)
Chicago Medical School. Pituitary ICSH in
C5,BBF1 male mice treated with estradiol.
(15 min.)
Blivaiss et al. (Program of 1958 Meeting of
Endocrine Society) reported a higher level of
ICSH in pituitaries of Strain A control mice than
ROBERT I. BOWMAN, San Francisco State College. Feeding adaptations in Galiipagos finches.
(15 min.)
Recent studies on Galiipagos finches (Geospizinae) have revealed fairly distinct dietary preferences that are correlated with differences in
structure and behavior. Of special interest, because of conflicting opinions which have been
expressed, is the functional significance of variations i n bill structure between closely related
species. Food studies show that differences in
size and shape of bill between closely related
species of seed-eating Geospiza are correlated primarily with differences i n ability to crush hard
seeds. In species of insect-eating Camarhynchus,
bill differences are correlated primarily with differences in ability to cut into woody tissues. The
structural basis for these functional differences
is most clearly evident i n the relative size and
positioning of certain adductor jaw muscles. A
functional analysis of bill shape indicates that
the convex curvature of the upper and lower edges
of the bill is greatest in those species which grasp
with the tip of the bill (Camarhynchus),
straighter in those species which employ the bill
for crushing (Geospiza and Platyspiza), and
straightest i n those with probing bills (Cactospiza
and Certhidea). The major species differences i n
the skull are related to the particular mode of
attack of compression and tension forces arising
during feeding. The fundamental anatomical,
physiological, and behavioral differences between
closely related sympatric species are considered
as biological adjustments to food scarcities
evoIved when the “forms” were in isolation. No
EDWARD G. BOETTIGER, University of Connec- two islands are nearly identical in their food
ticut. Length-induced changes i n the active supplies. These feeding specializations, among
state of fibrillar muscle. (Introduced by C. other things, have prevented species from competLadd Prosser) (15 min.)
ing for food on those islands where they now
The operation of fibrillar muscle involves rather
live together.
special mechanical properties. Some insight into
the nature of these has been revealed with the
use of equipment designed to produce accurately
controlled transient changes i n length of 0.1 mm ELIZABETH M. BOYD and DOROTHY COVALT
DUNNING, Mount Holyoke College. Metazoan
in about 1 msec. Comparing results obtained in
parasites of the short-tailed shrew, Blarina
the large beetle, Oryctes, with the behavior of the
brevicauda Say, in Western Massachusetts.
bee, Bombus, it is found that two types of fibrilA survey of 23 Blarina breuicuuda Say collected
lar may be described. In both a small change i n
between October 1959 and March 1960 from
length produced a fall i n the tension-sustaining
Western Massachusetts revealed a 100% inciability of the muscle (deactivation). In Bombus
this fall is transitory, the muscle spontaneously dence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ectoreactivating. In Oryctes the muscle does not re- parasites occurred on 19 hosts (82.6% ) and conturn to the pre-release activation level. The con- sisted solely of fleas and mites. Flea infestation,
clusion is drawn that the length the beetle muscle represented by Ctenophthnlmus pseudogyrtes
is held determines the degree of activation in- Baker was 47.8%. The precentage of mite-induced i n the muscle by tetanic stimulation. De- fested hosts was 82.5;60.9% harbored gamasids,
and 52.2% trombidiform mites. The gamasids
creasing length leads to a lower active state,
stretching to a higher. Changes i n active state obtained were Haemogamasus alaskensis Ewing,
begin after the start of change i n length. The H . liponyssoides Ewing, Eulaelaps stabularis Koch
tension-sustaining ability therefore stays above (Haemogamasidae) ; Laelups alaskensis Grant
(Laelaptidae); three species of digamasellids
the steady state level during shortening and below
during stretching. The deactivation process oc- (Gamasolaelaptidae). The trombidiform mites
comprised the fur mite, Myobia simplex Ewing,
curs instantaneously after a delay of 2 msec., for
from three hosts; two species of Pyemotidae, one
if the muscle is being stretched at this time there
unidentified from a single shrew and numerous
is a sharp break i n the tension and the tension
specimens of Pigmephorus sp. from 9 animals;
then rises less rapidly during the remainder of
and Cheyletus sp. from two Blurina. Cheyletus
the stretch. (Supported by grant B-186from the
sp. and the digamasellids were present probably
i n estradiol-treated mice during induction of
testicular Leydig cell tumors. To determine
whether pituitaries of Strain A mice reacted differently than i n mice which are not known to
develop these tumors, ICSH was measured in
pituitaries of CSTBBFImale mice of which 240 received subcutaneously cholesterol pellet implants
and 202 had 25% estradiol-cholesterol pellet implants starting at 1 month of age. Monthly, pituitaries were excised, acetone dried, resuspended i n
saline and injected twice daily for 3% days i n
C5,BBF1 male mice starting at 17 days of age and
posted at 21 days. Drained seminal vesicle
weights increased 113-141 % over saline controls
in recipients of 2 pituitaries from 4-7 month old
controls compared to 7-55% increase in recipients
of 4 pituitaries from estradiol-treated mice of
same age. Seminal vesicle stimulating potency
of pituitaries declined to 28-60% in controls and
to less than 25% in estradiol-treated animals at
10-12 months of age at above doses. The pituitary ICSH differences between C57BBF1 control
and estradiol-treated mice appear similar to those
observed in corresponding groups of Strain A
mice. Testes of estradiol-treated CSTBBFImice
showed retardation of spermatogenesis and a
slight hypertrophy and hyperplasia of Leydig cells
with deposition of ceroid and increased formation
of reticulum fibers but no tumor development
which occurs in over 80% of Strain A mice surviving 8-10 months. (Supported by The American Cancer Society, grant EDC42.)
as predators. Haemogamasus liponyssoides and
M. simplex are new state records for this host.
The other mites constitute new host records.
Helminths were collected from 22 shrews.
Trematode infection was 57.5% consisting of the
intestinal Brachylaima rhomboideus Sinitsin
(21.7% ) and Panopistus pricei Sinitsin (43.5% ),
a few immature flukes in the intestine of three
and one liverfluke, Corrigia sp., o n a single host.
Hymenolepidids occurred in 34.8% of Blarim as
Hymenolepis sp., H. anthocephalus Van Gundy,
H. blarinae Rausch and Kuns, Protogynella
pauciova Oswald and P. blarinae Jones. The
91.3% nematode incidence included 47.8% encysted larval anisakids, Porrocaecum encapsulatum Schwartz and P. americanus Schwartz, and
78.3%esophageal Capillaria blarinae Ogren.
Medical School. The effect of simian and bovine
growth hormone on the incorporation of amino
acids into protein. (15 min.)
It has been observed (Kostyo and Knobil, Endocrinology, 65: 527, 1959) that the addition of
simian growth hormone to isolated diaphragms
from hypophysectomized rats at concentrations of
10 to 100 pg per ml of incubation medium s i m cantly increases the incorporation of leucine-2-C14
into diaphragm protein. The addition of porcine
and bovine growth hormone preparations at these
concentrations and under identical experimental
conditions was without significant effect. These
observations have been extended to the in vitro
effects of simian and bovine growth hormone
(10 and 50 pg per ml) on the incorporation of
glycine-2-Cx4, phenylalanine-3-Cl4, and glutamic
a~id-2-C'~as well as a l e ~ c i n e - 2 - Cinto
~ ~ the
diaphragm protein of hypophysectomized rats.
The earlier observation regarding leucine incorporation was confirmed. At the higher concentrations, simian and bovine growth hormone were
equally effective in stimulating the incorporation
of glycine into protein, but only the simian preparation was active at the 10 pg/ml level. Bovine
growth hormone failed to increase the incorporation of phenylalanine at the concentrations used
whereas the simian hormone was effective, at
least at the higher concentration. Neither hormone stimulated the incorporation of glutamic
acid. The significance of these findings will be
discussed. (Supported by grant A-3754 from the
U.S.P.H.S. and a post-doctoral fellowship to P.F.B.
from the National Heart Institute.)
and JOHN H. LAWRENCE, University of
California, Berkeley. Conversion of testosterone
to estrogens in the human female. (15 min.)
As early as 1931 Steinach and Kun (Arch. Ges.
Physiol., 227: 266, 1931) suggested that the ovary
or the testes can produce either androgens or
estrogens. This view was also supported by
Lipschutz (Nature, 140: 892, 1937) and Hill
(Endocrinology, 21: 495, 1937; 21: 633, 1937).
By treating adrenalectomized and oophorectomized humans with massive doses of testosterone,
West, Damast, Sarro and Pearson (J. Biol. Chem.,
218: 409, 1956) were able to observe increased
amounts of urinary estrone and estradiol. In this
experiment, doses of 100-200 mg of unlabeled
testosterone were used; therefore, a stimulation of
independent pathways of estrogen formation cannot be ruled out.
The only direct evidence for the in vivo conversion of labeled testosterone to labeled estrogens
was demonstrated in the pregnant mare by Heard,
Jellinck and O'Donnell (Endocrinology, 57: 200,
An attempt was made to study the possibility
of a similar conversion in a human female with
evidence of pituitary impairment as indicated by
a lowering of urinary gonadotropins.
Following the development of metastatic breast
cancer, treated by oophorectomy and pituitary irradiation (Lawrence et al., Medicine in Japan, 5:
859, 1959; Tobias et al., Univ. of Calif. Rad. Lab.
Rep., no. UCRL-3035, 1955; McCombs, Radiol.,
68: 797, 1957), resulting in a remission of cancer,
the patient was administered an intravenous infusion of 14 pc of 4-C14-testosterone. For a period
of 10 days which followed, the urine and feces
were collected for analysis.
Urine samples were hydrolized by bacterial
p-glucuronidase, extracted three times with diethyl
ether : ethyl acetate (4:1), and the extracts were
treated as to either include or exclude the phenolic estrogens. Feces samples were lyophilized,
prior to separate extraction in diethyl ether, ethyl
acetate, and n-butanol.
The various extracts were chromatographed on
methanol washed Whatman no. 20 and developed
in two different solvent systems : benzene : methanol : water (11:7:2) or methanol : hexane
(10: 11.5). Estrogen and androgen standards
were run for comparison. The visualization of
steroid fractionation was made by Folin-Ciocalteau, m-dinitrobenzene and autographic reactions. In most instances, small but detectable
amounts of radioactivity appeared on the chromatograms at the level of estrogenic material. In
addition, liquid scintillation counting of various
fractions furnished evidence in support of a direct
conversion of testosterone to estrogens.
D. ROBERT BREBBIA, Fordham University. Electrocardiogram of the housefly, Musca domestics, L. (Introduced by D. Ludwig) (15 min.)
Relatively little information exists with regard
to insect electrocardiograms. The most complete
study was performed on the grasshopper, Melanoplus differentialis (Jahn, T., L. and F. Crescitelli,
J. Cell. and Comp. Physiol., 10: 1937; Crescitelli,
F. and T. L. Jahn, J. Cell. and Comp. Physiol.,
11: 1938). More recently, action potentials have
been obtained from the cicada heart (Irisawa, A.,
A. F. Irisawa and T. Kadotani, Jap. J. Physiol.,
6: 2, 1956).
Measurement of the action potential of the
heart of M. domestica should provide specific information regarding the action of ions on the
cardiac muscle, which would aid in developing a
satisfactory insect saline solution.
Extracellular electrocardiograms were measured
from in situ preparations of adult hearts by means
of a glass microcapillary electrode connected to a
cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) through a preamplifier. The effects of various concentrations
of Na, K and Ca ions on the electrocardiogram
were determined by perfusion of a saline in which
one ion concentration was varied, while the other
two were maintained constant. Electrocardiographic tracings were photographed from the CRO
A n analysis of the ECG in a normal perfusate
indicates a rapid, diphasic action potential. However, this wave may be fractionated into a complex of three or more components by the addition
of cold saline. Gradations in spike height and
duration occur during perfusion with varying concentrations of the individual ions, each ion producing a characteristic change in the electrical
The reactions of Southern toads ( B u f o terrest r i s ) to honeybees ( A p i s mellifica) and their
Syrphid fly mimics (Eristalis sp.). (Motion picture, 15 rnin.)
Experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mimicry of honeybees by syrphid fiies.
Five experimental toads were each given a sequence of 10 live honeybees. Four learned to reject them on sight after being stung while attempting to eat them, but ate mealworms regularly
throughout the experiments as did 5 control toads.
The latter were each given 10 de-stung live
honeybees which they generally ate, showing that
de-stung bees are palatable. Both experimental
and control toads were then given random series
of 50% normal and de-stung honeybees, respectively, and 50% syrphid flies. The control toads
ate syrphid flies to a significantly greater extent
alone. This is attributed to the laboratory experience of the experimental toads with intact honeybees and indicates that once a toad has learned
that they are noxious, it also rejects the syrphid
IRVING BRICK, New York University. Quantita- fly mimics.
tive effects of pituitary activity on melanophore
development in Ambystoma maculatum. (InLINCOLN P. BROWER, Amherst College. Ecologitroduced by H. Clark Dalton) (15 rnin.)
cal similarity and cannibalistic interaction in
Embryos of Ambystoma maculatum with two,
the Monarch and Queen butterflies, Danaus
one or no pituitary glands were provided by applexippus and D. berenice. (Motion picture,
propriate operative treatment and used to analyze
15 min.)
the relationship between pituitary activity and
Egg cannibalism by hatching larvae of the
establishment of early larval pigment pattern.
Queen butterfly was found to be a density-dependMaintenance of punctate melanophores in hypo- ent phenomenon and therefore can have the
physectomized, and hyperexpansion of melano- property of regulating population size. The Monphores in implanted animals, was evidence for arch is likewise cannibalistic, but to a lesser exabsence of pituitary activity in the former and tent. When the two were interacted in the laboexcess pituitary activity i n the latter. Melano- ratory, the Monarch cannibalized the Queen to the
phore counts were made from serial sections at same extent as itself. The Queen ate the Mon20 and 40 days post-operation i n anterior and
arch less than itself but still more often than
posterior head and in flank areas.
Monarchs ate Monarchs. It is likely that canniThe effect of pituitary activity on melanophore balism occurs to a significant extent in natural
development varies with epidermal and dermal populations in the wintering grounds of the
melanophores, body region and time in develop- Monarch in southern Florida where eggs of the
ment. There are anterior-posterior and dorso- two species were found abundantly together on
ventral differences in developmental response to the same foodplants. The possible significance
pituitary hormone with reference to melanophore of this interaction with respect to the origin of
number, rates ok change and proportions between migration in one of the two ecologically similar
epidermal and dermal melanophores. Melano- species (the Monarch) is discussed.
phore number is directly related to pituitary activity. Dennal melanophores are more dependent
on pituitary activity than epidermal melanophores. There is a greater reduction of dermal LINCOLN P. BROWER and FLORENCE P.
CRANSTON, Amherst College and Harvard
than epidermal melanophores in hypophysecMedical School. A quantitative study of the
tomized as compared to control larvae. O n the
courtship behavior in the Queen butterfly,
other hand dermal as compared to epidermal
Danaus berenice (Cramer). (Motion picture,
melanophores increase in response to two pitui15 min.)
taries at the same or higher rate depending on skin
region. This indicates differences in minimum
Over 50 virgin females of known age were rerequirements between dermal and epidermal leased singly in a natural area in southern Flormelanophores and differences in extent of their ida containing wild males and the ensuing beresponsiveness to pituitary hormone. The evi- havior was observed, filmed, and tape recorded
dence indicates that the pituitary does not act verbally. The courtship follows the well known
directly on melanoblasts and melanophores but stimulus-response reaction chain. When released,
through the skin or skin-melanoblast-melanophore the female is pursued by a male. During this
complex. Regional differences in response of aerial phase, the male extrudes abdominal hair
melanophores is considered a consequence of re- pencils posteriorly which disseminate a sweet
gional differences in the integument.
smelling substance over the anterior of the fe-
male. She then settles upon available herbage
and is in turn lit upon laterally by the male. The
latter alternately strokes her anterior with left
and right antennae and then copulation occurs,
followed by a post-copulatory flight. Several ways
in which the female may be non-receptive were
discovered. In the male, the functional relationship of the extrusable hair pencils to sex pockets
on the wings into which they can be pushed, remains obscure. (Supported by grant 8707 from
JOHN M. CAIRNS, Roswell Park Memorial Institute. Depth of penetration of growth-stimulating factor from apical ectodermal ridge into
the limb bud mesoderm of the chick. (15 min.)
The apical ectodermal ridge of the chick, when
transplanted to proximal levels of another bud,
has been shown to stimulate a new outgrowth
which may develop into a complete limb (Zwilling, ’56). The ectodermal ridge does not influence the leg or wing quality of such a limb. In
fact, even very small groups of leg mesoderm
cells, grafted to the apex of the wing bud, retain
their “leg” quality and form typical toes (Saunders, Cairns and Gasseling, ’57). Thus, if the
apical ectodermal ridge of a leg bud plus a thin
layer of subjacent mesoderm is dissected free
and grafted to the dorsal surface of a wing bud,
and the growth-stimulating influence from the
ridge passes through the included leg mesoderm,
it will act on the host wing mesoderm. The resultant accessory outgrowth should then form
leg elements distally and wing elements proximally. When a sufficient thickness of leg mesoderm is included so that the growth-stimulating
action is entirely contained within it, the outgrowth will form only leg elements. Experiments
to test penetration in this manner, using stage
19 embryos, indicate that the growth-stimulating
influence does in fact operate through approximately 0.10 mm of mesoderm. The results indicate strongly a sharply localized apical growth
zone. (Supported by grant P-231 from the American Cancer Society.)
BYRON A. CAMPBELL and JACK R. PICKLEMAN, Princeton University. The imprinting
object as a reinforcing stimulus. (15 min.)
The purpose of the present experiment was to
determine whether an object to which a chick
had been imprinted could serve as a reinforcing
stimulus in an instrumental learning situation.
To answer this question, chicks were imprinted
to a cardboard cube, and, following imprinting,
the cube was used as a reward in a T-maze. Nonimprinted control subjects were also tested.
The acquisition curves for the imprinted group
were typical instrumental response curves showing a significant increase in both the percentage
of correct responses and in speed of running to
the goal box. The control group, on the other
hand, showed neither an increase in responses to
either goal box nor an increase in running speed
during training. This finding was interpreted as
indicating that the imprinting procedure endows
a previously neutral environmental stimulus with
reinforcing properties.
C. R. CARPENTER, Pennsylvania State University. Population analysis, group composition
and behavior of the howler monkeys (Alouatta
palliata) of Barro Colorado Island in 1959.
(15 min.)
A 5th census of the howler monkey population
of Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone, was conducted during June and July 1959. Methods and
procedures included systematic and consecutive
area surveys, sound localization, use of anchor or
reference groups, group analysis, field tape recorders and motion picture photography. Efforts were
made to make another complete census of this
primate population which was determined to have
at least 814 animals compared with 237 found
by Collias and Southwick in 1951. The increase
in the population was correlated with increases in
the numbers of animals in organized groups.
Furthermore, the composition of groups was
found to correspond more closely to the grouping
patterns observed in 1932-33 than with the “reduced” population pattern of 1951. Several important changes in social behavior were observed.
Smith College. The effect of excess vitamin A
on the basal metabolism and on the histology
of the thyroid and anterior pituitary glands of
young female rats. (15 min.)
At 35 days of age, three pairs of littermate rats
were placed on a purified diet supplemented with
adequate amounts of vitamins. From the 42nd to
56th days experimental rats received 93 to 107
units of vitamin A per gram of body weight; from
the 56th to 70th days 164 to 275 units; thereafter
318 to 369 units until the 73rd day for that of the
second pair, and the 85th day for that of the
third pair.
Calculated on the basis of oxygen used per 100
gm of body weight, the basal metabolism cjf the
first excess vitamin A rat was almost as high as
the control’s on the 65th day; higher on the 70th
(terminal) day. For the second it was higher
than the control’s on the 56th, 63rd and 72nd
days. For the third it was higher on the 71st,
75th, 77th, 78th, 79th and 82nd days. A lower
reading was obtained on the 84th day for reasons
As previously noted by Carpenter and Sampson
(’56) sections of thyroids of hypervitaminotic-A
rats were strikingly different from those of controls: central follicles were smaller and more
numerous; colloid stained more unevenly and was
frequently vacuolated; follicular cells were usually higher and more convex at the surface.
Thyrotrophs were more easily identified in
pituitary glands fixed in mercuric chloride-form01
than in those h e d in Susa. They appeared to be
more deeply stained in the glands of hypervitaminotic-A rats. Preliminary counts on two sets
showed a decrease in the number of thyrotrophs
in glands of excess vitamin A rats.
MELBOURNE R. CARRIKER, University of North
Carolina and Institute of Fisheries Research,
Morehead City. Comparative functional morphology of the boring mechanism i n boring gastropods.
Boring gastropods penetrate shell of prey
chemo-mechanically: radula removes fragments
softened by secretion from accessory boring organ
(abo). Abo is present i n 28 species examined, i n
foot of Muricidae and tip of proboscis of Naticidae. Cap of abo in all borers consists of tall secretory epithelium different from any other i n these
snails. Accessory salivary glands, though discharging into mouth, probably do not aid i n softening shell. Non-boring predatory snails lack
abo and accessory salivary glands, and proboscides and radulae are equipped for tearing and
pulling flesh rather than for rasping.
In proboscisectomized borers resumption of
boring in different individuals varied from 11th to
34th day after excision; i n abo-ectomized snails,
from 8th to 25th day. Of 128 excised snails only
one, which had not regenerated abo, did not resume boring. Experiments on rate of regeneration
of abo and proboscis further showed that no snails
resumed boring until both organs achieved miniature morphology of controls.
During boring process, demonstrated i n behavioral studies snail dternates use of abo and
radula. Borer rasps i n hole for few minutes, retracts proboscis and extends abo into hole, leaving abo in contact with shell up to an hour, then
resumes rasping.
Secretion of abo is neutral. Abos excised from
16 living species and placed on smooth shell i n
moist chamber produced marks on shell surface
ranging from faint etchings to slight depressions
the shape and size of gland. No erosion took
place under control tissues from other parts of
body. Study of nature of secretion (possibly a
conchiolinase or chelating agent) will be undertaken i n the future.
ALFRED B. CHAET, R. SELLERS and D. KENNAN, American University. Further characteristics of a burn toxin(s) from the starfish,
Asterias forbesi.
Evidence of a toxin(s), isolated from the coelomic fluid of scalded starfish and which is responsible for autotomy and death, has been reported
previously (Chaet, 1958, Fed. Proc., Biol. Bull.,
Anat. Rec.).
Since potassium i n high concentrations is
known to be toxic, and since the toxic factor
from starfish is dialyzable, potassium determinations (flame photometry) were performed comparing control and toxic coelomic fluids. Although toxin samples contained more potassium
(3.6-15.9 d i m o l e s / l . ) than controls, the additional potassium does not account for the toxic
effects previously described. It appears, despite
the dialyzable characteristics of the toxin, that
the starfish cannot secrete this toxin before it triggers the physiological mechanism of autotomy,
since starfish kept under running sea water, even
during injection, still autotomize in an apparent
attempt to rid themselves of the noxious material.
Since the autotomizing effect of toxic coelomic
fluid is alleviated in the presence of ether, observations were carried out on the role of the
toxin i n mucle contraction. The muscle of the
starfish tube feet, as well as the muscles of the
dermal pedicalaria, were stimulated by toxin.
Again, as in the experiments involving autotomy,
anesthetics such as ether and magnesium chloride
counteracted the stimulating effect of the burn
The specificity of toxin from scalded starfish
was tested and shown to be lethal (injections of
0.15 cm3/gm) to starfish (Asterias vulgaris),
brittle stars (Ophioderma breuispina), sea urchins
(Arbacia punctulata), sand dollars (Echinuracb
nius parma), marine annelids (Phascolosoma
gouldii, and horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus); whereas no apparent effect was observed
when injected into red starfish (Henricia sanguinolenta) or sea cucumbers (Thyone briareus.)
(Supported by grant A-3362 from the U.S.P.H.S.
and grants 6-8718, G-12045 from N.S.F.)
SPEIDEL, Brooklyn College and University of
Virginia. Differential effects of ultraviolet and
x-ray gamete irradiation i n the sea urchin,
Arbacia. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
Detailed observations were made on early developmental stages of Arbacia following mixing
eggs and sperm after various exposures to either
x-rays or 2537 A ultraviolet (UV) rays. Differences i n the effects induced by these radiations
became clear.
(1) Although eggs exposed to x-rays (4-120
kr) exhibited clumping because of a radiation
effect on the egg jelly capsules, eggs exposed to
UV rays showed no clumping. (2) Eggs i n static
condition exposed to UV rays and then inseminated developed eccentric fertilization membranes, complete or partial. Eggs continuously
shaken during similar UV exposure developed concentric membranes. The degree of membrane
elevation was inversely proportional to dosage
strength, the stronger the dose the less the elevation. With very strong dosages the membranes
failed to rise. Elevation of fertilization membranes on x-rayed eggs was similarly proportional
to dosage strength. (3) A marked difference was
noted in the comparative susceptibility of sperm
and eggs to UV injury. UV-rayed sperm mixed
with normal eggs gave rise to progeny much more
retarded and injured than the progeny arising
from UV-rayed eggs (equal dose) mixed with normal sperm. Further analysis revealed that a oneunit dose of UV to sperm roughly equaled an 8unit dose to eggs i n bringing about equivalent
delayed development and injury in the progeny.
Similar experiments with x-rays showed that a
one-unit dose to sperm was approximately equal
to a two-unit dose to eggs.
The accompanying motion pictures present
specific examples of differential effects resulting
from UV and x-ray irradiation of gametes. (Supported by grant RG-4326(C3) to C.C.S. from the
JOHN R. CORTELYOU, DePaul University. The
effects of commercially prepared parathormone
on calcium and phosphorus levels in unoperated Rana pipiens. (15 min.)
Five units of parathormone (Paroidin, ParkeDavis) were administered to unoperated Rana
pipiens on alternate days for 14 days. Calcium and
phosphorus levels were determined daily in
plasma and urine.
No significant changes occurred in plasma calcium within 14 days even when the animals were
given 10 units of Paroidin. Increases in plasma
calcium have been observed in some mammals
treated with parathormone. However, after Paroidin injection in R. pipiens urine calcium increased from 0.27 mg/100 ml to 0.43 mg/100 ml
within 24 hours. Repeated Paroidin injections
maintained the hypercalciuria for the remaining
12 days. The induction of hypercalciuria under
these conditions is of interest in view of previous
observations in our laboratories that total parathyroidectomy of R. pipiens also causes hypercalciuria.
The decrease in plasma phosphorus following
parathormone administration to mammals was
also observed in Paroidin-treated R. pipiens whose
plasma phosphorus changed from 3.93 mg/100
ml to approximately 2.50 mg/100 ml for the 14day experimental period. Except for an initial increase in urine phosphorus within the first 24
hours (2.39 mg/100 ml to 3.24 mg/100 ml) there
was no evidence of a prolonged hyperphosphaturia. (Supported by grant G-5670 from N.S.F.)
from U.S.P.H.S. and N.S.F. Institute No. E0/3/
J. C. CROSS, Texas Technological College. A
virus-like substance produced in vitro. (15
Litmus milk has been used as a medium for
bacterial cultures for many years. However, the
medium has shown a tendency to "spoil" if the
process of sterilization is not properly controlled.
In a study of this phenomenon methylene blue
and methyiene blue thiocyanate were used as
oxidation-reduction indicators instead of litmus.
Samples of milk intensely colored with one of the
dyes were hermetically sealed in Pyrex glass tubes
with a column of air about half the length of
the column of milk. The milk was carefully sterilized by a n intermittent method that would not
bring about spoiling. Such milk can be kept sterile
indefinitely without reduction of the dye. If the
sterile milk is properly treated in a n autoclave or
with high voltage electricity, a virus-like substance can be produced that can be subcultured
in other tubes as bacteria are subcultured. The
metabolic activity can be kept going for many
days. One culture produced by autoclave continued to show activity for more than 90 days.
It was kept in a dark cabinet at room temperature (25-30°C) during the 90-day period. Particles within the size range of viruses and suspected
as being the cause of the metabolic activity have
been photographed with an electron microscope.
The research indicates that viruses might arise
de novo in suitable environments. (Supported by
grant 1603X from Texas Technological College.)
University of Georgia. Absence of the kinetoplast in trypanosomids of insects. (10 min.)
Examination of the culture forms of 7
species, representing the genera Leptomonas,
Crithidia and Blastocrithidia, of trypanosomids
from insects showed that in all species a small
percentage of the population (0.1-0.5% ) lacks
the kinetoplast. These akinetoplastic individuals
possess neither the central Feulgen-positive component nor the peripheral Feulgen-negative component. They appear normal in all other morphological features.
When Crithidia fasciculata i s grown in the
presence of acriflavin, the percentage of akinetoplastic individuals increases to 25-30% in the
highest concentrations of the drug which permit
multiplication of the flagellate. Lower concentrations produce smaller percentages of akinetoplastic individuals. The loss of the kinetoplast
appears to result from failure of the structure to
divide during cell division; no effect of the drug
on the size of the kinetoplast in normal individuals can be detected. Inability to obtain colonies
of akinetoplastic individuals from plates inoculated with populations containing 30% such individuals and failure to find dividing akinetoplastic individuals in stained preparations from
acriflavincontaining cultures suggest that these
individuals are incapable of cell division, at least
in media which support excellent growth of normal individuals. (Supported by grant E-2701
SEARS CROWELL, Indiana University. Nonregulative differentiation in the thecate hydroid, Campanularia. (15 min.)
In athecate hydroids a developing hydranth
becomes functional when it is tiny and has only
4 to 6 tentacles; it later increases its mass 10- to
100-fold and adds tentacles. In contrast, a hydranth in thecate species differentiates from a
bud nearly as massive as the adult hydranth; all
tentacles develop together, none are added later,
and hydranths do not grow.
The following experiments on thecate hydroid,
Campanularia fiexuosa, indicate rapid non-regulative differentiation. Dissociated tissues of stem,
stolon, and early hydranth bud reconstitute a new
hydranth equally well. Tissue derived from hydranths, however, is incapable of reorganization.
Most pertinent is the observation that tissue derived from an intermediate stage of hydranth development forms irregular masses which quickly
develop hydranth structures : irregularly placed
tentacles and sometimes a hypostome.
When a hydranth bud is cut into two parts,
each develops in accordance with prospective
fate. For example, the larger piece may produce
a hydranth, complete except for a gap with 8
tentacles missing, and the smaller may become
only a little whorl of 8 tentacles.
An isolated early bud continues to grow distally
through utilization of its more basal portion. It
secretes a hydrotheca, inside which there is finally
only a thin disc of most distal tissue. The latter
then differentiates only distal-most parts: i.e.,
hypostome and tentacles.
The observation that removed tentacles and
hypostome do not regenerate is further evidence
that differentiation of a hydranth in Campanularia is quick, thorough, and final. (This
work was supported by grant H-1948 from the
Indiana University. Reorganization capacities
of dissociated tissues of Campanularia pexuosa.
The ability of hydroids to reconstitute has been
known for many years, but most studies have
been on hydra on on athecate hydroids. The following experiments were performed by the second
author using the thecate hydroid Campanularia.
Tissue squeezed from perisarc and teased apart
is reduced to small clumps of cells which, when
pushed together, soon fuse and produce a spheroidal, two-layered, hollow structure. Four t6 6
days later this may produce a hydranth. Although
very small organized spheres can be produced, a
minimum size of about 180 ,u diameter is necessary for the subsequent production of a hydranth.
The larger the sphere, the larger the derived
hydranth and the greater the number of tentacles.
Tissue from stem, stolon, and early hydranth
bud have the same ability to reconstitute. Mature
hydranth tissue, however, lacks the ability to fuse
together to make an organized structure. Tissue
from an intermediate stage of hydranth development forms an irregular mass which produces
tentacles and sometimes a hypostome within a
few hours. When this same stage is cut into proximal a n d distal halves, the tissue derived from
proximal halves is able to reconstitute. And in one
case a hydranth was produced. The tissue from
the distal halves of this intermediate stage, however, quickly produced irregular structures with
tentacles. It appears that during hydranth development there is a stage and time at which the
differentiation suddenly becomes determined.
(This work was supported in part by grant H-1948
from the U.S.P.H.S.)
D. DWIGHT DAVIS, Chicago Natural History
Museum. The feeding mechanism in mammals.
(15 rnin.)
The morphology of the jaw apparatus and associated structures of mammals differs more from
that of typical reptiles than the reptilian apparatus differs from that of fishes. Involved are jaw
suspension, differentiation of dentition, development of a secondary palate, simplification of
hyobranchial skeleton, remodelling of masticatory
musculature, and development of a mobile muscular tongue, fleshy lips, and muscular cheeks.
The fossil record shows that these changes took
place gradually and orthogenetically among
several stocks of therapsid reptiles. The question
of why this revolution came about has scarcely
been examined. From the functional standpoint
there was a profound change of emphasis: in
typical reptiles the function of the mouth is prehension, whereas in mammals it is primarily
mechanical reduction of food and only secondarily prehension. The cheek teeth actually reduce
the food, but efficient use of these tools requires
a mechanism for keeping the food in position
between the toothrows. This mechanism is the
tongue, cheeks and lips. A free mobile tongue,
fleshy lips, muscular cheeks, and a secondary
palate are the really radical, and functionally
significant, innovations in the mammalian masticatory apparatus. The secondary palate permits
breathing during mastication. These innovations
were probably primarily responsible for the morphological revolution represented by the mammalian masticatory apparatus. Differentiation of
dentition and elimination of all jaw elements except the dentary would then represent secondary
refinements conditioned by the primary step. The
new temporomandibular articulation and rebuilding of the middle ear, in turn, would be tertiary
effects conditioned by step 2.
Wayne State University. The pH of the gut of
the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Gammarus
sp. (12 min.)
Experimental work with parasites using the
amphipods, Hyalella azteca and Gammarus sp.,
as intermediate hosts necessitated the determination of the pH within the lumen of the anatomical
segments of the gut of these animals.
Preliminary trials demonstrated that the indicators Bromphenol blue, Bromcresol purple, and
Neutral red could be fed to these amphipods with
little evidence of toxicity. These indicators gave
sharp color change and, therefore, easily interpretable and consistent results. For feeding, the
desired indicator was adsorbed onto yeast cells or
combined into a jell made of a 2:3 ratio of agar
and gelatin. The resulting indicator feed was
given to the animals as the exclusive food item.
The experimental animals were kept in small
aquaria at 23°C and allowed to feed over a period
of 72 hours. Readings were taken at 24, 48, and
72 hours. The tests were read by rapidly removing the entire gut from the living amphipod and
immediately observing with the aid of a dissecting
microscope the color of each section of the gut.
This color was visually compared to the standard
for the particular indicator used i n the test and
the pH was thus obtained.
The results in pH units were as follows:
Hyalella azteca. Hepatic cecae, 3.8 to 4.8;
stomatodeum and anterior gut, 4.1 to 4.7; midgut
6.8 to 7.2; hindgut, rectum and proctodeum 7.2
to 7.7.
Gammarus sp. Hepatic cecae 3.8 to 4.8;
stomatodeum and anterior gut 4.1 to 6.3;midgut
6.4 to 7.2; hindgut, rectum and proctodeum 7.2
to 7.9. (Supported by grant E-1026 from the
ROBERT H. DENISON, Chicago Natural History
Museum. Feeding mechanisms of Agnatha,
Acanthodii and Placodermi. (15 min.)
The ancestors of vertebrates probably fed on
microscopic food suspended i n sea water by
means of a cilia-induced current and mucus en-
tanglement of particles. Many invertebrates and
protochordates feed in this manner. Among jawless vertebrates the ammocoete larva of lampreys
still employs mucus entanglement, but the water
current is produced by muscles instead of cilia.
Adult cyclostomes are highly specialized, lampreys being parasites on other fishes, and hagfishes being scavengers. Fossil Agnatha of the
Silurian and Devonian periods fed in various
ways. Typical Osteostraci were probably benthonic mud swallowers similar to some living
catfishes. Anaspida may have been suctorial
feeders, perhaps parasites of scavengers like
living cyclostomes. Among Heterostraci, pteraspids and cyathaspids probably had a protrusible
mouth with which they fed selectively on the
The possibilities for feeding adaptation, especially for predation, were greatly increased when
jaws with gill-arch skeletons were evolved. The
history of this evolution is completely unknown.
Even the aphetohyoidan stage is improbable in
Acanthodii, though some Placodermi may have
had a free hyoid. Acanthodii, the earliest gnathostomes and the first known predaceous vertebrates, show a very limited range of feeding
adaptation. Placodermi during their Devonian
history became adapted to many different methods
of feeding.
comparable to aldosterone. Age and sex differences in the corticosteroid secretory pattern of
the gull will also be reported. (Predoctoral Fellow of the National Institute of Arthritis and
Metabolic Diseases, U.S.P.H.S. Aided in part by
grant 6-8805 from N.S.F.)
Some properties of the contractile proteins from
frog and horseshoe crab muscle. (15 min.)
Numerous different extraction procedures
known to remove myosin with only traces of actin
from rabbit muscle have, when applied to frog
and Limutus muscle, extracted actomyosin as
judged by the viscosity response upon the addition
of ATP. Among the extractants employed some
contained ATP or pyrophosphate which supposedly dissociates myosin from actin allowing
the myosin to go into solution. Our failure to
obtain myosin by direct extraction suggests that
the filamentous arrangement of the proteins or
the interprotein binding is different from rabbit
Actomyosin from these animals, partially purified by two precipitations from KC1, exhibited the
following properties: drop in viscosity with ATP;
super-precipitation in low KC1 solutions when
ATP was added; threads which contracted with
ATP; and good ATPase activity. Both ATPases
ROGER deROOS, University of California, are Ca+ + activated (optimal concentration, 5
Berkeley. The corticosteroids of bird adrenals mM) and Mg++ inhibited (all concentrations)
investigated by in vitro incubation. (Intro- even a t ionic strengths where actomyosin is in
duced by S. Nandi) (15 min.)
the gel form. Also i n contrast to the rabbit system
Little information is presently available o n the is the fact that increasing KC1 concentrations
adrenocortical secretory products of birds. The result in decreased enzyme activity. The pH
optima are in the neighborhood of 9.0 for both
adrenal secretory pattern in three avian species
from three different orders: domestic fowl (Gal- over a wide range of Ca++ and KCl concentralus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columbia tions. It is of some interest that both enzymes
are completely inactivated by 10-15 minutes a t
Zivia), and the Western gull ( L a m s occidentalis),
temperatures above 50°C although optimal activhas been studied in detail by in vitro incubation
ity occurs at about 35°C. Activity at 25°C in
of adrenal tissue. The adrenals from 3-12 birds
5 mM C a + + , 0.06 M KCl, and pH 9.0 (0.05 M
were incubated in a Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate
medium with 250 mg% glucose after gassing histidine buffer) runs about 2000 pg P/mg protein/
hour for the frog and 300 for the horsewith 95% 02-5% COZ for 5 minutes (pH 7.8),
shoe crab. (Supportedby grant A-2647 from the
with and without added mammalian ACTH. The
medium was extracted ether: ethyl acetate ( 4 : l
v/v), washed with 0.1 N NaOH and with water,
partitioned between hexane and water (I :1 v/v),
ROBERT M. DEWITT, University of Florida. Glyand chromatographed in Bush type systems.
cogen levels in fresh and starved Uniomerus
Identification of the resulting steroids was based
obesus, a freshwater bivalve.
on standard methods, including mobility in two
solvent systems, ultraviolet absorption spectra,
Quantitive determinations of glycogen in whole
sulfuric acid spectra, and mobility of the acety- clams were made on fresh material and on anilated steroids.
mals starved for 6 and 12 months at room temThe in vitro secretory pattern is similar for the perature. Whole clams were homogenized in a
three species investigated. Corticosterone is the Virtis homogenizer in 5% TCA. Aliquots of the
major secretory product with aldosterone present
TCA extract were treated with 95% ethyl alcohol
in smaller quantities. Results to date indicate
to precipitate the glycogen. The determinations
that the ratio of corticosterone to aldosterone is were made by use of anthrone reagent following
between 5 : l and 15:l when the adrenals are the procedure of Carroll, Longley and Roe (1956).
Six individuals in each category were analyzed
incubated in the presence of mammalian ACTH.
Additional steroids were also found in the me- and the mean value for glycogen in milligrams
dium in amounts less than aldosterone and have
per gram of wet tissue was found to be as folbeen identified tentatively as cortisol and 11- lows: fresh material, 73; starved 6 months, 56;
starved 12 months, 37. (Supported by grant
dehydrocorticosterone. An unidentified steroid
G-9844 from N.S.F.)
less polar than cortisone is present in quantities
WILLIAM C. DILGER, Cornell University. The
evolution of agonistic, precopulatory and nestbuilding behavior i n the African parrot genus
Agapomis. (15 rnin.)
The 8 froms of Agapornis studied clearly
demonstrate a fairly uniform evolutionary trend
from the most “primitive,” cana, through to p.
nigrigenis, the most “advanced.” The more “primitive” species tend to be sexually dichromatic and
solitary in their breeding. The more “advanced”
species tend to be sexually monochromatic and
colonial in their breeding.
The “primitive” species have highly evolved
threat displays but little inhibition concerned
with biting one another. The “advanced” species
have almost no threat displays but do have
highly evolved ritualized fighting and complete
inhibition concerned with biting one another
except on the toes.
The lack of sexual dichromatism i n the “advanced’’ species is made up for in precopulatory
The nest building through the same series goes
from a simple pad to a cuplike structure to a
completely covered nest with an entrance tunnel.
HUGH DINGLE, University of Michigan. Flight
and swimming reflexes i n giant water bugs.
(15 min.)
Among the “classic” reflexes of insects is that
of flight initiated by loss of tarsal contact. When
giant water bugs (Benacus griseus and Lethocerus
americanus; Hemiptera; Belostomatidae) were
suspended free on the substrate, they swam instead of flying. In general the bugs responded to
air currents by increased swimming; swimming
ceased when tarsal contact, an applicator stick,
was returned. A few bugs eventually flew, but
only after a considerable period suspended in a
fairly strong air jet. Prior to fiight, swimming
was progressively inhibited. Separate receptors
were found for swimming and flight; a flight receptor is located on the head, a location similar
to those of flight receptors found in other insects.
Receptors affecting swimming include the eyes
and hair beds on the legs.
In nature the bugs cling to submerged vegetation, behavior which correlates with the sufficiency of an applicator stick as tarsal contact.
WINIFRED W. DOANE, Yale University. Corpus
allatum-complex and ovarian transplantations in the mutant female sterile ( 2 ) adipose of
Drosophila . melanogaster. (Introduced by
Sheila J. Counce) (15 min.)
Several of the pleiotropic effects typically associated with adult females that are homozygous
for the recessive factor female sterile (2) adipose
(fs(Z)adp, located at 2.83 2 ) suggest an upset in
the endocrinological control of reproduction and
fat metabolism. These traits include: failure of
some adp/adp ovaries to mature as early as wild
type; slower rate of egg production per ovariole;
yolk-deficiencies in developing eggs ; hypertrophy
of the corpus d a t u m i n mated adp/adp females
(but not in males or virgin females); and hypertrophy of the adult fat body resulting from almost
double the normal lipid accumulation. By experimental manipulation of the residual genetic
background, the first three of these effects may be
eliminated. Thus, for transplantation experiments and for comparisons with wild type, adp/
adp females with superficially normal egg production are available.
Larval and adult ovarian transplantations indicate that wild type implants inhibit fat storage
by adp/adp female hosts while mutant implants
do not. The sterility of adp/adp ovaries is autonomous, and wild type ovaries will develop normally in mutant hosts. Implanted wild type corpus datum-complexes do not alter the mutant
fat condition. The effects of age, mating, starvation, and other factors on the size of the adult
corpus allatum have been analyzed i n mutant
and wild types. Hypertrophy of the corpus allatum in mated adp/adp females is an unstable
condition which may be alleviated by implanted
wild type ovaries or by injection of Ringer’s solution into adults. Evidence favors the view that
a hormone released by normal ovaries partially
regulates fat utilization in conjunction with reproductive activities of females. This hormone,
deficient in adp/adp females, may also influence
corpus allatum activity either directly or indirectly. (Supported by a Predoctoral Fellowship
from N.S.F.)
Gnotobiotic Studies, Berkeley, California.
Axenic cultivation of a rotifer species.
We can now report conditions whereunder continuous axenic cultivation of the minute monogonont Lecane inermis has recently been realized,
starting late June 1960. L. inermis is thus the
first of the class Rotifera to be so grown. (Recently its monoxenic cultivation with single
species of bacteria was reported (Dougherty, Solberg and Harris, Anat. Rec., 137: 350, 1960;
Science, 132: 416, 1960) also similar cultivation
of a bdelloid, Philodina acuticomis var. odiosa;
these two species became the f i s t bacteriophagous rotifers permanently established i n monoxenic culture.) All media so far suitable for
axenic L. inermis are minor variants of a general
formula based on three groups of components:
(1) a water-soluble vitamin mix (“GM-originally developed for axenic cultivation of the
nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae) ; (2) dilute
Horlick’s malted milk (final concentrations 0.050.075% ); and (3) a heated (lamb) liver extract
(HLE) at low concentrations (ca. 3 4 % full
strength). HLE, originally devised by Dr. Francis
W. Sayre (Laboratory of Comparative Biology,
Kaiser Foundation Research Institute) for studies
on C. briggsae, is prepared by a rigid formula of
relatively gentle heating of a lamb liver homogdistilled water);
enate (equal parts, w/v, liver
this homogenate is brought quickly to 53”C,
stirred 6 minutes, cooled rapidly, and spun on a
Sorval high-speed centrifuge, and the resulting
supernatant is sterilized by ultrafiltration. L.
inermis is now i n its 4th serial culture. A chem-
ically defined (holidic) medium for its axenic
cultivation can now be sought. (Supported i n
part by grants 6-6018 and 6-13138 from N.S.F.)
toral process, was selected because here the photoreceptors are fairly uniform cylinders. Among
them lie the retinal melanocytes, similarly cylindrical and of about the same size at this level.
Although the two types of cells are not evenly
E. LLOYD DuBRUL and DANIEL M. LASKIN, distributed, being arranged in bundles, counts of
University of Illinois. Preadaptive potentiality their nuclei indicated that they occur in approximately equal numbers. I conclude, therefore,
of the mammalian skull. (15 min.)
that there are about 2500 of each kind. AssumIt has been clearly demonstrated in widely di- ing that the 250 nerve fibers in the parietal nerve
versi6ed orders of mammals that specific changes
(Eakin and Westfall, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol.,
i n skull structure always accompany trends to- Oct., 1960) are axons of ganglion cells, it follows
ward upright posture. A study specially planned that there are roughly 10 receptors to each ganas a “natural experiment,” with rigorous control glion cell, which is funneling i n the order of
sequences of extant and extinct species (DuBrul, magnitude characteristic of cones in the human
’50; DuBrul and Sicher, ’54), exposed the crucial lateral eye. (Supported by grant 7097 from
question: “HOWis the basic mammalian skull N.S.F.)
equipped to respond, always in the same way, to
shifts toward upright posture?”
An “artificial experiment” was then devised to ROGER 0. ECKERT, Columbia University. Role
of stretch receptor system in crayfish swimming
answer the question. Rats were used because
reflex. (Introduced by E. S. Hodgson) (15
their mature skulls are extremely symmetrical
rectilinear structures. Any deviation from the
In situ stimulation of a pair of dorsal abdombox-like form is seen immediately. Also, the
generalized cranial base has sharply defined inal receptor muscles (RMs) reflexly inhibits
growth sites at symmetrically intercalated carti- the output of adjacent receptors by way of the
peripheral inhibitor neurons impinging on those
lage plates.
When the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was receptors [Eckert, Anat. Rec., 137: 351 19601.
Moreover, the stimulated receptor reflexly inhibits
removed, all the classical postural changes of
the back of the skull appeared. They are: (1) an itself to approximately the same extent, thereby
increased vaulting of the dorsum, ( 2 ) a ventral ruling out a “contrast” function for the system’s
shift of the foramen magnum and occipital reflex inhibition.
Simultaneous recordings were made from a
condyles, (3) a ventral migration of the nuchal
crest, (4) a change to a kyphotic or internally nerve supplying the extensor muscles and from
the intact nerve leading to the contralateral RMs.
convex cranial base, (5) a swinging of the bulla
or pyramid of the temporal complex from sagittal Artificial stretching of the RM unit, and the resulting afferent activity, is associated with an
toward coronal plane.
Thus the primitive array of serially placed car- inhibition of extensor neuron activity during tail
tilage plates along the skull base is an admirable extension. This same inhibition is seen to an
preadaptive plan. The likeliest explanation for even greater degree if the tail is forced into a
this extraordinary constancy in skull changes is flexed (RM stimulating) position during active
that mutating genes can change the relative
tail extension.
growth of skull segments through the agency of
In the light of this and other evidence to be
these cartilagenous target sites, to curve the presented, it is proposed that the R M s may contribute to the control of the swimming reflex in
cranium to the upright form.
the following manner: (1) Extensor neuron
activity brings about contraction of extensor mus239
RICHARD M. EAKIN, University of California, cles and RMs, raising sensitivity of the latter
Berkeley. Number of photoreceptors and mel- while extending the tail. ( 2 ) Giant axon activaanocytes i n the third eye of the lizard, Scelo- tion of the powerful flexor muscles initiates tail
flexion, causing an intense RM response to the
porus occidentalis.
initial portion of flexion. (3) This RM output
The number of photoreceptors and retinal mel- centrally inhibits extensor neurons. The remainanocytes in the parietal eye of the Western Fence der of flexion is thus unopposed. (4) Inhibitory
Lizard, namely 5000, was estimated by dividing feedback reaches receptor dendrites, diminishing
the area (15,000 p 2 ) of the retina at the level of
RM output, thereby stopping central inhibition
the ellipsoid of the photoreceptors by the cross- of extensors. ( 5 ) Uninhibited extensor neurons
sectional area ( 3 p 2 ) of a photoreceptor or mel- extend tail in readiness for next flexion. Further
anocyte. To obtain the first datum it was as- evidence indicates that there is also a central consumed that the eye is a hemisphere. Arcs through
trol of extensor timing. (Aided by U.S.P.H.S.
the retina do indeed approximate semicircles. grant E-2271(Cl) and fellowship BF-8653-Cl.)
The radius (50 p) of an imaginary hemisphere,
the surface of which passes through the ellipsoids,
was measured with ocular micrometer on a
TILLY EDINGER, Harvard University. Behavioral
sagittal section of an adult eye, and from this
specialization reflected in brain morphology.
the surface area was calculated. The second
(10 min.)
datum was determined after measuring the averThe f i s t fossil that revealed the existence of
age diameter of the ellipsoid on electron microSirenia before the Oligocene was neither tooth
graphs. The ellipsoid, a region containing many
mitochondria and lying at the base of the recep- nor bone, but stone: an Eocene natural endo-
cranial cast, its form very similar to that of the
dugong brain which is unique among living mammals. Brains of pterosaurs differed much as do
bird brains from those of creeping reptiles, showing olfaction reduced and vision dominant. The
mammals that conquered the night sky, reducing
olfaction and building up an acoustic system of
singular proportions, developed a brain characteristically different from that of all other mammals.
Because the oldest osseous documents of Chiroptera are Middle Eocene skeletons with microchiropteran differentiations already accomplished,
earlier existence of the order is generally assumed; and because the vast majority of bats
have teeth and jaws difficult to distinguish from
those of Insectivora, proof of the hypothesis
seemed to depend on finding, in Paleocene strata,
wing-bones, the most delicate elements of mammalian skeletons. However, a natural endocast
dorsally exposed in an Upper Paleocene cranial
fragment reproduces the shape of the highly specialized brain that is as typical of nocturnally
insect-hunting microchiropterans as are wings
of the order Chiroptera.
ALLEN C. ENDERS, Rice University. Studies on
the blastocyst of the nine-banded armadillo
during the period of delayed implantation. (15
During the period of delayed implantation, the
single blastocyst of the nine-banded armadillo
shows a high level of succinic dehydrogenase
activity. Glycogen is abundant in the trophoblastic cells throughout this period, as it is in
the ovum prior to ovulation. In general, little
lipid is present, but some phospholipid is seen in
individual cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity is
light and is most readily demonstrable in the cells
of the abembryonic trophoblast ( a portion of the
blastocyst which does not participate in implantation).
No evidence of separate organization centers
within the embryonic cell mass was found by the
methods used. Mitotic figures are occasionally
observed in the trophoblastic cells. One blastocyst,
in which the inner cell mass was necrotic, had
several mitotic figures in the trophoblastic cells.
Electron microscopic examination of the blastocyst reveaIs microvilli on the free surface and
basal interdigitations between the trophoblastic
cells. Desmosomes are common near the free
surface. Mitochondria are numerous, but endoplasmic reticulum is scant. A limited number of
observations on blastocysts from two other animals exhibiting delay (rat and mink) indicates
that these blastocysts are histochemically quite
different. (Supported by a grant from N.S.F.)
G. E. ERIKSON, Harvard Medical School. The
vertebral column of New World primates. (15
The vertebral column, fundamental in the life
of an animal, is a key structure in the understanding of its biology. For most of the New
World primates only fragmentary and elementary
data have been published, and these have generally been based on few specimens, and seldom
related to locomotor or postural matters. The
present study is based on over a thousand specimens, largely in the author's collection, including
all the genera and a wide range of species and
ages. A functional analysis of the platyrrhine
spine as related to locomotor types is attempted.
This analysis is expressed in terms of trunk
length (absolute and relative to limbs; total vertebral number), trunk proportions (numbers and
shapes of vertebrae; relative lengths of cervical,
thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal regions). The
definition of the lumbar region on the basis of
articuIation types and of the position of the anticlinal vertebra is of greater significance for the
analysis of locomotion than one based on absence
of ribs. The correlations between measurements
taken on fresh cadavera (directly and on xray a m ) , dried articulated spines, and reassembled dissarticulated spines allows coniparisons of
specimens of rarer genera in these various states.
(Supported by a grant from the Wenner-Gren
Foundation and grant G-13003 from N.S.F.)
ZANE E. ESTES, Yale University. Cytochrome
oxidase activity of intact and digitonin-treated
chick liver mitochondria during development.
(Introduced by E. J. Boell) (15 min.)
Cytochrome oxidase activity was investigated in
intact and fragmented chick liver mitochondria at
a series of closely spaced developmental stages.
Mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation at 24,000 x G in 0.25 M sucrose in
phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and washed twice. They
wcre broken up (presumably into sub-mitochondrial particles) by homogenization of the mitochondrial pellet in a saturated, aqueous solution
of digitonin. Such sub-mitochondrial particles
were sedimented by centrifugation at 100,000 x
G for 25 minutes. Cytochrome oxidase activity
was measured manometrically in a first order
reaction by the method of Slater-involving the
determination of oxygen consumption at 4 different sub-saturation concentrations of cytochrome
c, each kept reduced by 0.03 M p-phenylenediamine. Oxygen uptake at infinite substrate concentration was determined by the extrapolation
procedure of Lineweaver and Burk.
Results with intact mitochondria show that the
QOZ (PI OZ/hour/pg mitochondria1 nitrogen) at
37.5"C increases from values of 2 in 7-day embryos to 5 at 13 days incubation. It then remains
constant until 17 days incubation when it undergoes a further increase. A value of 7.5 is attained
at one day post-hatching. The QOZ then slowly
decreases to a value of 6.5 at 11 days post-hatching, followed by a rapid decline to 4 at 13 days
and 3 at 17 days, where it remains at subsequent
stages. Digitonin-treated mitochondria show a
QOZof approximately 15 at all stages from 7 days
incubation to 27 days post-hatching. The implications of these results with respect to developmental changes in enzyme-substrate relationships
will be discussed. (Supported on part by N.S.F.
grant 8771.)
trose-treated groups demonstrated lower mortality
than control groups despite the increased weight
losses observed. In enzyme studies with salamanders surviving for two months glycerophosphate
oxidation was extremely low in livers of all groups.
Lactic dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase
activities were appreciable, with malic dehydrogenase consistently higher than lactic dehydrogenase in all groups. With Lipomul and Sustagen
malic dehydrogenase was elevated above control
levels, while levels in dextrose-treated salamanders approximated control values. No marked
differences in lactic dehydrogenase could be noted
among the experimental and control groups. It
appears that Lipomul is most effective in sustaining body weight in fasted salamanders without
producing diminution in metabolic activity.
(Aided by grants H-2670 and H-3027 (Rl),
G. FANKHAUSER, Princeton University. The development of diploid and triploid embryos of
Tritums (Diemyctylus) viridescens grafted under the skin of adults of the same species.
(15 min.)
Embryos of Triturus viridescens, when implanted with their jelly under the skin of the
lower jaw of an adult newt, are invariably resorbed. Implanted without jelly, they usually
develop into teratoma-like structures (Fankhauser
and Stonesifer, ’56).
The experiments have been continued over the
past years to study the development of embryos
and young larvae implanted at various stages and
to compare the reaction of diploid and tiploid
embryos. In most cases, vascularization of the
graft by the host takes place early and leads to
rapid growth of the graft which may continue
more slowly for several months. Grafts have re217
tained their maximum size for up to three years.
DOROTHY EVENSTEIN, GEORGE H. FRIED, In other cases they have regressed slowly.
The structure of the grafts is always abnormal,
and WILLIAM ANTOPOL, Levy Foundation although the main body axis often remains disLaboratories, Beth Israel Hospital and Medical tinct. All grafts lose their epidermal covering;
Department, Port of New York Authority. the skin forms closed vesicles below the surface
Effects of injected nutrient supplements on of the graft; following metamorphosis of the
weights, oxygen consumptions and respiratory graft skin, molt layers are shed into the cavity of
enzyme levels of fasted salamanders. (15 these vesicles. No two grafts are exactly alike in
structure. Most frequently found are connective
Metabolic patterns of fasted salamanders, tissue, cartilage, bone, muscle, spinal cord and
Diemictylus viridescens, and their modifications brain, ear capsules, parts of the digestive tube,
with injected nutrient materials were studied. and mesonephric tubules. There is no indication
Dextrose, Sustagen (Mead Johnson) or Lipomul of invasive growth of graft cells into the surround(Upjohn) were injected weekly into two or more ing host tissues. Triploid embryos as grafts degroups of 4 salamanders each. Weights, oxygen velop in essentially the same manner as diploids.
consumptions, and liver enzyme activities of In the abnormal environment of an adult host, the
sacrsced animals were determined and con- triploid cells, though they are larger, demonstrate
trasted with controls. Body weight losses for a again their equivalence to the diploid. (Sup5-week period averaged 15% of original weight in ported by grants from the Gustavus and Louise
control animals, 25% in dextrose-treated animals, PfeiEer Research Foundation.)
and only 4% in the Lipomul-treated groups.
Weight losses in Sustagen-treated animals were
similar to controls. Periodic oxygen consumptions WILLIAM A. FEDER,Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Orlando,
were determined manometrically for each group
Florida. Osmotic destruction of plant parasitic
and expressed as deviations from control values.
and saprophytic nematodes by the addition of
Significant elevations in oxygen consumption
sugars to soil. (10 min.)
above controls occurred with dextrose, variable
Up to 100% of the plant parasitic and saprorises were noted with Lipomul, while no consistent effects were observed with Sustagen. Dex- phytic nematodes were killed when sucrose or
LLEWELLYN T. EVANS, Research Laboratory,
Jaf€rey Center, N. H. Neuroendocrine mechanisms i n courtship of a turtIe. ( 1 5 min.)
In the box turtle, Terrupene curolina triunguis,
the basic pattern characteristic of all the subspecies T. carolinu is observed. However, the subspecific difference from this familar pattern lies
in the significance of the brilliantly pigmented
orange throat of the male which appears to be
the major male releaser in preliminary courtship.
The male simply moves to a stop within 30 cm of
a female, raises his head, pulsates his throat as in
normal breathing, by expanding and contracting
the gular pouch, and waits. Soon the female
comes alongside, and mounting occurs. The male
was not observed to bite or butt the carapace of
the female before mounting, or bite at her nuchal
plates after mounting and her posterior plastron
had closed tightly upon his rear claws (as in T. c.
buuri or T. c. Carolina). Instead, the male’s head
remains raised and the throat pulsates. The female usually watches the male in this phase.
Such behavior occurs in identical fashion, (1)
normally in the spring season, or (2) in late summer 40 minutes or less after oral administration
of methyl testosterone (Wyeth) to the male. This
confirms similar results with lizards (Evans, L.
T., Anat. Rec., 128: 545, 1957), and suggests that
the behavioral response preceded the hypertrophic changes in the reproductive structures, since
no histological differences were apparent between
treated and untreated males in late summer. Apparently, androgen sensitized the CNS so that
when the female’s image made impact upon his
retina and brain, the male shifted from inactivity
to ardent courtship.
dextrose was added to nematode-infested soils
at the rate of 1 to 5% by weight. As little as
1,000 ppm of dextrose was nematocidal. The
nematocidal action seems to be caused by a n increase in the osmotic value of the soil solution
resulting from the addition of sugars to the soil.
The nematodes living in the more concentrated
soil solution were rapidly dehydrated and destroyed. The osmotic character of the nematocidal
action was demonstrated by the rapidity and character of nematode destruction and by the enhanced nematocidal activity of dextrose over
JOHN CARRUTHERS FERGUSON, Cornell University. The nature of the connective tissue of
the body wall, retractor harness and cardiac
stomach of the starfish, Asterias forbesi. (Introduced by J. M. Anderson) (10 min.)
Morphological studies confirmed previous reports that the connective tissues of the starfish
body wall are composed of fine fibrils extending
from small (2-5 p ) bipolar and multipolar cells
with a small amount of “cementing substance”
binding the fibrils into dense aggregations. The
fibrils enter ossicles as fine bundles which intertwine in the outer portions of the ossicular cellular elements. The cardiac stomach “basement
membrane” consists of a dense mat of connective
tissue fibrils and ‘<cementsubstance” about 2 Q in
thickness with the cell bodies of the fibrils interspersed within and beneath it. It i s continuous
with the connective tissue elements of the retractor harness, which occur as longitudinal sheets of
fibrils and associated cell bodies interspersed
among muscle elements, and a peripheral group
of circular and longitudinally oriented fibrils.
Histochemical tests produced reactions typical
of collagenous tissues i.e., staining with acid
aniline dyes in acid solution, positive PAS reaction unaffected by salivary digestion, Grampositive reaction, resistance to trypsinic digestion,
susceptibility to collagenase digestion, etc. Methylene blue extinction occurred at pH 4.3-4.8, in
the range characteristic of vertebrate collagen.
Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence
of the amino acid hydroxyproline in the three
structures studied. Tests with weak acetic acid
on sections fixed in 70% ethanol produced rapid
swelling and disintegration of most of the fibrils.
It is concluded that the connective tissues of
the starfish are undoubtedly collagenous in nature. The special properties conferred by this
material are of importance in the peculiar normal
activities of these animals, such as eversion and
retraction of the cardiac stomach.
ROBERT W. FICKEN, Cornell University. Some
aspects of behavioral evolution. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
The application of evolutionary theory to behavioral research led to several hypotheses which
were found to be apparently valid during an
observational study of the common Grackle
(Quiscnlus quiscu2a). Some displays are very
rare and may be examples of displays either com-
ing into being or at the verge of extinction. Some
displays probably develop signal value before any
modification of their form. Transitional actions
(Hans Lind effect) are apparently very important
in the ritualization of motor patterns in the passerines. Sexual diethesism is dependent mainly
on threshold differences which may be partially
M. FILOSA, Johns Hopkins University. The effects of ethionine on the morphogenesis of
cellular slime molds.
Dictyostelium discoideum and D. mucoroides
were fed with E. coli on nutrient agar containing
DL-ethionine. D. discoideum forms abnormal
fruiting bodies (short, thick stalks, and elongated
sori) on medium containing 1.2 X lod3 M ethionine and undergoes no growth on 4.8 X 10-3 M.
D. mucoroides will fruit on all concentrations of
ethionine tested (1.2 x
M to 1.9 X 10-8 M )
but with the higher concentrations fewer fruiting
bodies are formed.
A spontaneous mutant (MV) of D. mucoroides
was also grown on ethionine-containing media.
The cells of this mutant aggregate on nutrient
medium to form spherical or elongate masses
which do not usually undergo morphogenesis to
fruiting bodies. However, on all concentrations
of ethionine tested, the MV mutant will form normal fruiting bodies. The number of fruiting
M ethionine,
bodies is greatest at 2.4 X
while at higher concentrations there are somewhat fewer fruiting bodies. MV cells fed with
E. coli that have been grown in the presence of
ethionine will not form fruiting bodies.
MV cells were grown for approximately 40
hours in underwater cultures containing ethionine
and then washed free of bacteria and ethionine
and dispensed on both plain agar and agar conM). Only those
taining ethionine (2.4 X
cells on the ethionine medium completed morphogenesis to fruiting bodies. When MV cells were
grown in the absence of ethionine and then
transferred to plain agar or agar containing ethionine, again only those cells dispensed on the
ethionine-containing medium formed fruiting
bodies. It appears that the ethionine produces its
effect after the vegetative stage.
Preliminary data on the effects of other antimetabolites have also been collected. (This work
was supported by a U.S.P.H.S. postdoctoral fellowship.)
HAROLD E. FINLEY, Howard University. Pseudomating of Spirostomum. (15 min.)
A pseudo-mating reaction in Spirostomum
ambiguum is characterized by the coming together of numbers of spirostoma to form an aggregation. The size of the ag egation varies,
ranging from 4 to nearly I,oof animals. One
characteristic feature of the pseudo-mating reaction i s a pulsation period during which the
spirostoma entwine their bodies and glide back
and forth within the aggregation, as i f attempting
to conjugate; but they do not conjugate. Instead,
each animal undergoes two or three consecutive
binary fissions. The nuclear phenomena appep
to be typical of binary fission. The aggregation
persists until the end of the fission period, then it
is gradually disbanded by individual. migrations.
Lantern slides will show the aggregations and
the details of fission. (Supported by grant E-800
(C6) from the U.S.P.H.S.)
and P. W. GREGORY, University of California,
Davis. Articulation of the lumbar vertebrae in
brachycephalic bovine dwarfs. (15 min.)
The achondroplastic brachycephalic dwarf, also
called the short-headed dwarf, or “snorter” is
conditioned by heredity and occurs in most of the
major beef breeds. Buchanan, Bolin, Burnham,
and Eveleth (N. Dak. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull., 403,
1956) report two types of articulation of the lumbar vertebrae in these dwarfs based upon a
sample limited in number and age range. The
study herein reported was made to determine the
nature of the process (or processes) responsible
for the development of the two articulation types.
Prepared skeletons from 203 short-headed dwarfs
from one day to 8 years of age provided the
material; males and females were in approximately equal proportions, and steers were also
represented; most were from the Hereford and
Angus breeds but there were a number of Fi
hybrids or back crosses which also included the
Shorthorn breed. The type of articulation was not
influenced by breed, sex, castration or the type of
mating. The evidence indicates that the type of
articulation is primarily a function of age. All
animals from birth to 122 days of age exhibited
the arthrodial type of articulation; the age from
123 to 488 days is a transition period, the younger
animals manifest the arthrodial type, the older
the trochlear type, and the remainder are in transition showing both types of articulation. One animal was found in the late state of transition, at
approximately two years of age. The transition
is initiated in the first lumbar vertebra and proceeds posteriorly. (This work was done in conjunction with N.S.F. through the Summer Biology
Program for Secondary Schools (Miss Fowers).
Conducted in collaboration with the W-1 Project
and supported in part by U.S.P.H.S. A-2626.)
MELVIN J. FREGLY, University of Florida College of Medicine. Spontaneous activity of hypothyroid rats in cold air. (15 min.)
Administration of the anti-thyroid drug, propylthiouracil (PTU), to male rats during 4 weeks
had no effect on spontaneous running activity in
air at 25OC. When room temperature was lowered
to 8°C for 4 days, PTU-treated rats increased
their activity level during the first day of exposure but decreased it thereafter. Control rats
responded similarly on the first day but continued
to increase activity during each subsequent day
in the cold. In other experiments PTU-treated
and control rats were lightly restrained and exposed acutely to air at 5°C in individual cages. A
sensitive transducer converted movement of the
cage to electrical impulses which were recorded
simultaneously with colonic temperature on a
polygraph. Mean colonic temperature of control
rats decreased 2 to 3°C during the first two hours
of cold exposure but was maintained at this subnormal level for an additional 2.5 hours by adjustment of activity. Activity increased immediately with cold exposure and became maximal
when colonic temperature fell 0.5 to 1°C. Mean
colonic temperature of PTU-treated rats continued
to fall throughout the cold exposure and decreased approximately 6°C in three hours. These
rats also responded to cold initially with a n increase in activity which became maximal when
colonic temperature fell 3 to 4°C. However, this
maximal effort occurred too late to prevent further fall of colonic temperature. The results suggest that regulation of body temperature in cold
air by adjustment of activity level is an important
aspect of the total regulatory mechanism and that
hypothyroidism alters the relationship between
colonic temperature and activity level. (Supported by grant H-3503 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
JOHN L. FULLER, Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial
Laboratory. Effects of graded and delayed experience on behavioral development in puppies.
(15 min.)
Experiments on restriction of experience during
early development have shown persistent deleterious effects upon behavior at later ages. We have
been interested in two aspects of this phenomenon: ( 1 ) how much experience (or better,
how little experience) will suffice to stimulate
normal psychological development; (2) can normal behavior be established if experience is postponed beyond the age during which rapid acquisition of new behavior patterns usually occurs?
Results will be presented showing: ( 1 ) that very
brief periods of experience are highly effective in
organizing the adaptive social and manipulative
responses of the puppy; (2) that puppies whose
experience is delayed to 16 weeks still become
socialized. However, the nature of the social
relationship in delayed-experience pups is less
competitive and aggressive. (Supported by the
Ford Foundation and by grant MY-1775 from the
U.S.P.H.S. )
PAUL S. GALTSOFF, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological
Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. Physiology of
reproduction in molluscs. (30 min.)
The anatomy of reproductive organs in molluscs varies from a very simple type found in
bivalves to a highly complex system with several
accessory organs found in cephalopods. Sexual
reactions follow the structural pattern. In bivalves the gonad is located near the surface of
the visceral mass and the sex cells are discharged
through short gonoducts. Complication arises in
Unionidae in which special brood chambers are
formed in the gills. In cephalopods the organs of
copulation carrying spermatophores have such
high development that they become independent
of the parent organism (hectocotylus).
Time of spawning is determined by the state
of ripeness of gonads and environment. In most
cases the rise of temperature stimulates spawning
although the actual temperature level varies depending on species’ habitat. In several species
chemical stimulation by the opposite sex provokes
shedding of eggs or sperm.
Female spawning of oysters (Crassostrea) is
characterized by rhythmic contractions of the
adductor and passage of eggs through the gills.
Sperm are discharged through the cloaca. While
female spawning is specific (it can not be provoked by foreign sperm of other genera), the
male spawning is non-specific, the males responding to eggs of other molluscs, sugars, and hormones. Tropisms play directive roles in the mating of gastropods and cephalopods.
Protandry and hermaphroditism are common
among bivalves and gastropods. Sex change is
influenced by environment (Crepidula). In Crassostrea virginica a delayed change in male reaction produces temporary physiological intersexes
in which eggs are discharged in the male fashion.
CARL GANS, University of Buffalo. The feeding
mechanism of snakes: its possible evolution.
(15 min.)
It is certain that snakes evolved from small
tetrapod, carnivorous reptiles. The shift to an
elongate “serpentiform” body pattern resulted in
a reduced diameter to length ratio of the animal
and consequently i n a reduced gape per body
volume. Constant intake could only result from
ingestion of more, though smaller food items or
from a specialization of the ingestion apparatus
to allow the intake of larger prey.
Many lizards manipulate large prey by “‘inertial
feeding” methods; first killing by rapid shaking.
The limbs are but rarely used i n the feeding
sequence. Some forms develop peristaltic movements of the neck thus stretching the prey during
ingestion. A similar feeding pattern exists in
some primitive snakes.
The major advance of the more specialized
ophidian feeding systems over a lizard-like prototype lies in the shift from inertial feeding to the
independent operation of the two sides of the
mouth. Primary steps are (1) the separation and
independent suspension of the two sides of the
palatine-maxillary apparatus, (2) the increasing
freedom at the mandibular symphysis, and (3)
the loosening and shifting of the supratemporalquadrate-pterygoid system to provide mechanical
linkage for coordinated movement between left
and right, rather than dorsal and ventral halves
of the jaw apparatus. Secondary modifications
involve the closure of the brain-case, the shift
from short pinnate to long, multiheaded parallelfibered muscles. Beyond these remains the host of
structural changes documenting the remarkable
adaptive radiation of the several ophidian feeding
mechanisms. (Supported by grant G-9054from
JR., Marquette University. Further observations
on the reciprocal influence of ectodermal and
mesodermal factors i n the origin of limb symmetry in the chick embryo. (15 min.)
In embryos of stages 18 to 25, the apical
zone of the right wing bud was severed and
grafted, base down and in reversed antero-pos-
terior orientation, to the dorsal side of the apical
zone of the right wing bud of a similar host.
In 4 of 13 cases, host and donor apices each
formed a single wing tip of right-hand asymmetry. In 6 specimens the host formed a single
outgrowth but the grafted apex formed duplicate wing tips mirror-twinned in the radial plane
and reversed dorso-ventrally (exceptionally the
graft rotated so that its dorso-ventral orientation
was normal).
Donor apices likewise formed dual outgrowths
in the remaining three cases but in addition, d u p
licate wing tips, mirror-twinned and in normal
dorso-ventral orientation, were formed from the
host apex.
It has been postulated (Zwilling, ’56; Saunders
et al., ’58)that the asymmetry of the normal limb
bud arises from the interaction of a mesodermal
“apical ectoderm maintenance factor” and the
inductive apical ectodermal ridge. In the normal
limb bud, the maintenance factor, polarized with
respect to the antero-posterior axis of the bud
and chiefly active post-axially, maintains the inductive activity of the ridge post-axially and a
single limb outgrowth results. In the present experiments the geometric relationships between
the “maintenance factors” of host ‘and graft and,
respectively, the apical ridge of graft and host
allow the possibility of 4 centers of outgrowth as
occurred i n some of the cases. (Supported by research grant 794-C4from N.S.F.)
HAMILTON, Iowa State University. Action of
two pyrimidines and a riboside on development
of the down feather. (15 min.)
Skin from chick embryos of stages 29+ to 32+
was grown in tissue cultures containing the following compounds :
Barbituric acid. This close relative of uracil
was inhibitory only at high concentrations (833
pg/ml) and then not consistently. Alkaline phosphatase was active, but splotchy, in the centers of
affected feather loci. Peripherally, each feather
area was broken into smaller centers of phosphatase activity, as though the morphogenetic field
had lost control over outlying zones. Nucleoli
were multiple.
2, 4-dithiopyrimidine (333 pg/ml) arrested
growth of feathers with corresponding diminution
i n alkaline phosphatase. Nucleoli were unaffected. The destructive effect was concentrated in
the mesenchyme, with concomitant lack of organization i n the epidermis.
4, 5, 6 (5, 6 , 7)-trichloro-l-(P-D-ribofuranosyZ)benzimidazole is an inhibitor of synthesis
of RNA (Tamm, ’54, ’57). A concentration
of 41.6 pg/ml stopped growth. Alkaline phosphatase was present, but not localized i n feather
loci. Lower concentrations (20 pg/ml) permitted
growth, but not differentiation. Phosphatase was
diffuse throughout the original explant. Many
feather loci were subdivided into smaller centers,
indicating weakening of the original field. Sections showed multiple nucleoli. The only sign of
an epidermal response to the mesodermal substratum was a nodular aggregation of cells next to the
basement membrane. RNA was found in both the
epidermis and pulp. Ribonuclease removed all
basophilia. Thus, at this low concentration, the
compound did not inhibit all synthesis of RNA,
but apparently interfered with the production of
The data agree with the theory that a n aberrant
RNA has been produced which blocks synthesis of
the proper kind of protein and stops morphogenesis. (Supported by grant RG-3813 (C7)
from the U.S.P.H.S.)
Cornell University. Electrocardiography of freeswimming sharks. (Motion picture, 15 rnin.)
To date scant attention has been paid to the
electrocardiography of sharks and electrocardiograms have never before been taken of any freeswimming elasmobranch.
In this study electrocardiograms were taken of
young lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris, approximately 1 m in length as they swam freely in
a circular concrete pool 4 m in diameter and 40
cm in depth. A single exploring electrode was inserted 2-3 cm deep, close to the pericardial sac,
in the mid-ventral line immediately cranial to the
coracoid bar. The flexible conducting cable
(Alpha wire no. 26) was then sutured to the skin
at three points as it passed around the right side
of the shark to the base of the first dorsal fin
where it was again securely sutured. From this
point the cable passed to a swivel 2 m above the
center of the pool and thence to a Sanborn VisoCardiette located at the side of the pool. The indifferent electrode and ground wires were placed
in the water near the edge of the pool in accordance with the method of Wilson, Johnston, Rosenbaum and Barker (Am. Heart J., 32: 277, 1946.)
The shark's heart is well insulated ventrally by
the coracoid bar and dorsally by the second basibranchial cartilage. Indirect and torso leads
yielded no deflections, or minute deflections. Epicardial leads were therefore used, even though
these yielded a current of injury. Deflections of
moderate size were obtained and it was possible to
determine the R-R (cardiac rate), P-R, and Q-T
intervals. Cardiac rate averaged 60 per minute,
the P-R interval averaged 0.22 sec., and the Q-T
interval averaged 0.58 sec. (This investigation
was carried out at the Lerner Marine Laboratory,
Bimini, Bahamas, and was supported in part by
contract Nonr401(33)NR 104-71 between the
Office of Naval Research, Department of the
Navy, and Cornell University.)
the hemolymph of mutant flies contains diffusely
stained masses that are absent in normal flies;
these probably represent metabolites normally
mobilized outside the ovaries under corpus allatum control and utilized in yolk production, but
which in these mutants become accumulated in
the hemocoele because of failure in yolk deposition; (3) in three out of these 4 mutants the fat
cells have fewer fat vacuoles and a more solid
background; the fat cells in the fourth mutant,
however, are highly hypertrophied and have much
more fat than in normal flies; ( 4 ) the thoracic
nephrocytes and the pericardial cells are hypertrophied; the fifth mutant in all these respects
appears normal.
The experiments designed to test the lethality
of homozygotes as opposed to heterozygotes, besides showing no difference in this respect, also
revealed that in two mutants, in the effective
sperm pool of heterozygous males, the proportion
of mutant sperms is 3 to 5 % more than expected.
This deviation from expectation is statistically
significant. (Supported in part by funds provided to the University by the American Cancer
Society Institutional Grant.)
I. D. PORTERFIELD, West Virginia University.
Studies on the metabolism of fowl spermatozoa.
(15 min.)
From the standpoint of both comparative and
reproductive physiology, data concerning the basic
metabolic characteristics of avian spermatozoa are
of considerable significance. Such data are relatively scarce in the presently available literature.
In this study the oxygen and glucose consumption and lactic acid production of ejaculated cock
spermatozoa have been measured. Oxygen consumption was increased 30% by glucose. Although a pronounced "Pasteur effect" could be
demonstrated, there was measurable lactic acid
production both in the presence and absence of
substrate under aerobic conditions. Respiratory
control was blocked in the presence of
DNP. Also, the typical complement of cytochromes
was observable in these cells, spectrophotometrically.
In another series of experiments the respiratory
rates of spermatozoa from 4 different breeds of
cockerals were compared. Differences, possibly of
genetic significance, were observed in both the
endogenous 0 2 consumption and in the amount
of stimulation of respiration in the presence of
KULBIR S. GILL, Yale University. Developmental
It is possible now to use the information obphysiology of five female-sterile mutants in tained in these experiments as a baseline for
Drosophila melanogaster. (Introduced by Alex- future studies on the physiology and biochemistry
ander Petrunkevitch) (15 min.)
of a homogeneous population of cells under a
The mutants under study are x-ray induced and variety of experimental conditions. Also these data
are located on the third chromosome. In one will be useful for comparison not only with the
mutant the egg production is normal, but the eggs metabolism of other types of spermatozoa, but
undergo an abnormal embryology and do not also with that of any specific group of cells.
hatch. In the other 4 mutants the egg develop- (Supported by grant RE6339 from the National
ment almost invariably stops short of yolk de- Institutes of Health. The authors wish to acposition. The female flies in these 4 mutants knowledge the aid of Karl Nestor in obtaining the
show the following: ( 1 ) the corpus allatum and spermatozoa, and are indebted to C. E. Johnson
the neurosecretory cells are hypertrophied; ( 2 ) and V. W. Pence for their skilled assistance)
DALE P. J. GOLDSMITH and E. S. NASSET, University of Rochester School of Medicine and
Dentistry. Gastric acid secretion in control and
thyroid-fed frogs. (Introduced by C. W. Casperi) (15 min.)
Rana pipiens were fed either cat food (control)
or desiccated thyroid for 4-16 days. Sacs of
gastric mucosa from these frogs were sled with
Ringer-phosphate buffer to 25 cm pressure and
shaken for three hours at 26°C in Ringer-phosphate buffer in the Warburg apparatus. Oxygen
consumption was measured for 1Vz hours without
stimulus and then for an additional 1% hours
with 1 mg% histamine. The acid that collected
in the sacs during the shaking period was determined by potentiometric titration. Oxygen consumption of unstimulated mucosae was the same
in all cases. Mucosae from control frogs did not
secrete acid during three hours if histamine was
omitted. Acid secretion of histamine-stimulated
control mucosae was high in May, lower i n June
and July and quite low i n August. Acid secretion
of histamine-stimulated mucosae from thyroid-fed
frogs remained at a relatively constant, low level.
It was considerably lower than control secretion
during May, less so during June and July and
elevated above control secretion during August.
Acid secretion in all cases was proportional to
the increase in mucosal oxygen consumption that
occurred upon addition of histamine. Efficiency
of energy utilization for acid secretion, as measured by the acid to excess oxygen ratio, was similar in all frogs between May and July. Efficiency
of energy utilization for both control and thyroidfed frogs was somewhat lower in mucosae assayed in August. (Supported by grant 1396 from
DONALD C. GOODMAN, University of Florida
College of Medicine. Comparative studies on
functional anatomy of the cerebellum. (15
Morphological studies have provided much interesting data on the evolution of the cerebellum.
Studies on cerebellar function, however, have
been limited primarily to mammals with relatively few investigations devoted to submammalian species. Our laboratory has been studying
systematically the functional anatomy of the
cerebellum from a compartive viewpoint and the
present paper is based on results obtained from
Rana catesbeiana, Caiman sklerops and the albino rat by means of permanently implanted electrodes in the unanesthetized animal.
Experimental evidence of this study supports
morphological interpretations of the phylogeny
of the cerebellar vermis and, further, indicates
that the incipient cerebellar hemispheres of Caim a n may be represented by a more extensive
lateral region of the corpus cerebelli than had
been suggested previously.
Based upon the experimental results from our
laboratory together with data in the literature
concerning cerebellar function, the theory is
proposed that bilateral and reciprocal control of
posture by the cerebellar hemispheres is phylo-
genetically and old organization of cerebellar
function, while homolateral postural control by
the cerebellar hemispheres represents a more
recent specialization of cerebellular function.
(Supported by grant B-1548 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
GILBERT GOTTLIEB, Duke University. Developmental age as a baseline for determining the
critical period in imprinting. (15 min.)
This study contrasted the sensitivity of two
baselines for the critical period. Imprinting in
65 Peking ducklings was plotted as a function of
( 1 ) post-hatch age and ( 2 ) “developmental age”
(which calculates age from onset of incubation).
The findings indicated no critical period in
terms of 5 post-hatch age ranges from 3-27 hours.
Any training (exposure) period from 8-27 hours
contained more and stronger “imprinters” than
the 3-7 hour range; there were no differences between the 4 age periods from 8-27 hours.
Recasting the ducklings’ imprinting performance in terms of developmental age, a critical
period was evident. Proportionately more of the
imprinted ducklings were trained on the 27th day
from the onset of incubation than on days 26 or
28. These results indicated developmental age to
be more sensitive than post-hatch age for determining the critical period. (Present address:
Dorothea Dix Hospital, Raleigh, N. C.)
BERNARD GREENBERG, Roosevelt University.
Spawning and parental behavior in female
pairs of the jewel fish, Hemichromis bimacuZatus Gill. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
Seven homosexual female pairs were observed
on 17 occasions in a total of 22 spawnings. Six
times the paired females spawned the same day;
4 pairs synchronized so well that they laid rows
of eggs alternately or simultaneously.
Pair formation depended on responses that
seemed to check aggressiveness, including a n
“estrous stance” and quivering. Groups of females that did not inhibit aggressiveness developed hierarchies.
In 11 spawning, both females brooded the eggs.
Twice successful exchanges were made for
fertilized spawn of Aequidens portalegrensis and
both pairs raised the young competently for 18
and 21 days, or fully as long as heterosexual
Hence female pairs of H. bimaculatus spawn
largely by chance synchronization of their estrous
cycles. Since no bisexual behavior could be detected, it is held unlikely that cichlids displaying
the Hemichromis type of courtship can have a
bisexual neuromuscular
organization. (Sup
ported by grant RG-4958 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
Genetics Laboratory, New York Zoological
Society and New York University. Melanogenic
enzyme activity in xiphophorin fishes.
The enzyme activity involved in melanogenesis
may be conveniently studied with each of two
radioactive substrates, tyrosine-Ci4and dihydroxyphe11yla1anine-C’~ (dopa). In certain experimental designs, the significance of tyrosine incorporation is difficult to assess, since its role in
normal cellular metabolism cannot be separated
from the specialized function of melanin synthesis. In such instances, the second substrate
involved in pigment production, namely dopa,
must bear the label for the demonstration of
tyrosinase activity. The in vitro utilization of
dopa-Ci4 was determined in tissue culture experiments in which the melanin precursor was added
to the medium normally used to grow the melanomas and amelanotic melanomas of hybrid
xiphophorin fishes. The cell types characteristically found in such cultures include melanocytes, melanophores, epithelial cells, fibrocytes,
and macrophages: Radioautographs of the cultures demonstrated activity in the amelanotic
melanocytes of the amelanotic melanomas from
albino hybrids. There was no increase in chromogen, however, as the color of labeled cultures was
similar to controls. Activity was also present in
those macrophages and epithelial cells which
contained phagocytosed pigment cell granules.
Epithelial sheet cells which were devoid of pigment granules were negative.
The data lend support to a previously proposed
hypothesis, based on cytochemical experiments,
that the albino gene of xiphophorin fishes functions as an inhibitor at the end of a series of
reactions leading to polymerized melanin. It
prevents the formation of an oxidized colored
chromogen by means of thiol groups. Insufficiency of enzyme or substrate cannot account for
the lack of pigment in albino xiphophorin fishes.
(Supported by grant C4945 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
GILBERT S. GREENWALD, University of Washington. Gonadotrophic content of the pituitary
of the lactating mouse.
Swiss mice each nursing 6 young were killed
several hours after parturition or on the 6th or
12th day of lactation. The luteinizing hormone
(LH) activity of the mother’s pituitary was determined by injecting the pituitary intraperitoneally into 30 day old FSH-primed mice, using
the induction of ovulation in the recipient mice
as the end point.
The pituitary on day 6 of lactation had the
maximal content of LH, at a time when the reproductive tract was most inactive as judged by
histological criteria (Greenwald, J. Endocrin.,
1958). As little as 1/4 of the day 6 pituitary
caused ovulation in 78% of the recipient mice
(17 out of 22).
The day 12 pituitary was intermediate in LH
content between the post partum and day 6
groups. The 50% end-point for the day 12 pituitary was between Y4 and Vz pituitary equivalents
while a similar end point for the day 6 pituitary
fell between Ya and ?hpituitary. The 50% endpoint for the post partum pituitary was close to
two pituitary equivalents. In preliminary experiments, the pituitaries of mice nursing 6 or 12
young have failed to show any differences in LH
These experiments suggest that hormonal imbalance during lactation is due to the diminished
release of gonadotrophins from the pituitary
rather than reduced production of the hormones.
(Supported by grant 7063 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
GILBERT S. GREENWALD, University of Washington. The antifertility effects in pregnant
rats of a single injection of estradiol cyclopentylpropionate.
Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 240290 gm were injected subcutaneously on the
morning that sperm were found in the vagina
with 1.0, 5.0, or 10.0 pg of estradiol cyclopentylpropionate (Depo-estradiol). Laparotomies were
performed 9-11 days p.c. and the number of
corpora lutea and embryos was compared. Nineteen % of the embryos were lost after lpg of
Depo-estradiol (compared to 24% in controls)
while 97% were missing after 5 or 10 pg.
Deciduomata formation was inhibited in most
animals that received 10.0 pg of Depo-estradiol
but unaffected by 5.0 fig. However, the most significant effect of Depo-estradiol was to increase
tuba1 and uterine motility so that fertilized ova
were expelled from the uterus by 48 hours in
animals receiving 10 pg of the compound and by
96 hours with 5 pg. Thus, 5 pg of Depo-estradiol
prevented implantation of the majority of embryos by accelerating the rate of transport but did
not interfere with the development of a normal
uterine decidual reaction. (Supported by grant
7063 from the U.S.P.H.S.The Depo-estradiol was
furnished by the Upjohn Co.)
P. W. GREGORY, W. S. T n E R and L. M.
JULIAN, University of California, Davis. Evidence that the Dexter mutant is genetically related to recessive achondroplasia. (15 min.)
A registered Dexter bull, typical of the breed,
was mated to several different types of achondroplastic dwarfs, most of which were presumed to
be conditioned by a specific autosomal recessive
gene. The progeny from short-headed dwarfs
(Johnson, Harshfield and McCone, ’50) and longheaded dwarfs (Baker, Blunn and Plum, ’51)
are as yet unclassified, but “Dexter” and “Kerry”
types appear to be evident at 5 months of age.
When the Dexter sire was mated to long-headed
dwarf segregates employed to test the genetic
relationships of short-headed and long-headed
dwarfs, the “compact” mutant (Stonaker and
Tom, ’44), and the “stumpy” mutant (Baker,
Blunn and Olufa, ‘SO), two resulting Dexter
“bull-dog’’ calves were aborted at 7 months
and another abnormal calf produced is not yet
classified. The “bull-dog” calves are phenotypically similar in general morphology and anatomical details to those produced from mating Dexters inter se. The complete fusion of the sphenooccipital synchondrosis in the ‘bull-dog” calf at a
fetal age of 7 months, or earlier, is a distinctive
feature. The hypothesis is advanced that these
“bull-dog” calves are identical with those produced by Dexters, the Guinea cow, a n d those segregates reported in the Jersey and perhaps other
breeds. The hypothesis that an incompletely
dominant gene conditions Dexter achondroplasia
is inadequate. The whole problem of the inheritance of bovine achondroplasia is considered open.
(This work was conducted i n collaboration with
the W-1 Project and was supported in part by
grant A-2626 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
JAMES V. GRIFFO, JR., Fairleigh Dickinson University. A study of homing i n the cotton mouse,
Peromyscus gossypinus. (15 min.)
Homing success of animals released in unnatural habitat (golf course) adjacent to their
home area was less than in natural areas at comparable distances. In natural areas males homed
with greater success than females from distances
greater than 500 ft. In unnatural areas there was
no sex difference. Repetitive liberations of successfully homing mice from the same release site
on the golf course indicated that mice can learn
homing pathways. Mice which had homed a
number of times and were then held in laboratory
captivity for periods of more than 12 weeks before being liberated at former release sites showed
no decline in homing ability. Animals released in
their former home ranges occupied prior to extended periods of laboratory isolation remained
and maintained these areas. Animals without
previous experience from artificial displacement
returned to and maintained their former home
ranges when released at various distances from
their capture sites after prolonged laboratory isolation.
It is postulated that psychological factors are
the principal source of the motivation to home.
Based on the degree of psychological attachment
to an area small rodents may have a (1) territory; (2) home range; (3) life range. The latter
is considered to be a l l the area an animal traverses during its lifetime. The mechanism for
homing in P. gossypinus apparently involves random movements outside the life range with respect to the homesite and directed movements
within the life range. In the latter case the animal apparently utilizes a previous familiarity
(mnenotaxis) with the general area gained by
exploratory wandering, home range shifting, and
dispersal from the birthplace. Each of these
movements apparently involves environmental
LEONARD L. GROSSO, College of Saint Teresa.
The effect of testosterone propionate on the
weight and B-glucuronidase level of the ventral
prostate and seminal vesicle of the castrate
immature Wistar rat under different dietary
Albino rats of the Wistar strain weighing approximately 40-50 grams were castrated and
maintained on a protein free diet for 10 days
starting o n the day of operation. They were then
divided into 5 major groups of 12 each and placed
on the following diets for three days: group 1,
18% casein; group 2, 18% 0.5% ethionine;
group 3, 18% casein 1% methionine; group 4,
18% lactalbumin; group 5 , 18% gelatin. Six animals of each group each received one subcuta-
neous injection of 0.25 mg of testosterone propionate on the 10th day. All animals were
sacrificed on the 13th day. Intact, uninjected
rats i n the same weight range maintained on Fox
Chow served as initial controls. The weights and
B-glucuronidase levels of the ventral prostate and
the seminal vesicle of a l l animals were determined. Using the initial control group data as
reference the weight and enzyme percentage
responses of both organs were calculated. It was
found that: (1) the weights and the B-glucuronidase levels of the seminal vesicle and ventral
prostate of the uninjected castrate maintained
on the different diets are below those of the
intact animal, ( 2 ) the responses, both weight
and enzyme of both organs, to the different
dietary regimes are i n agreement with the accepted value of the protein (the decreasing
order being: casein, lactalbumin, gelatin), (3)
an increase in the weight and the total enzyme
content of both organs followed the hormone injection, all responses were influenced by the diet
protein, again i n accord with its value, (4)
ethionine reduced the responses to testosterone
propionate, ( 5 ) methionine augmented the enzyme response of both organs to testosterone propionate, but did not statistically increase organ
weights. (This study carried out while a visitor
at the Bureau of Biological Research, Rutgers
University, was suggested by Dr. Leathem.)
LEONARD L. GROSSO and J. H. LEATHEM, College of St. Teresa and Rutgers University.
Carcinogen-induced hepatic tumors i n mice.
(Introduced by A. F. Hopper) (10 min.)
Hepatic tumor induction time with carcinogens
is much longer in mice than i n rats and dosage
tolerance is higher in mice. To further investigate
this problem, several strains of mice were studied.
Adult mice, two to three months old, of both
sexes were fed a purified diet containing 24%
casein and 27% fat. Dimethylaminoazobenzene
(0.06% ) served as the carcinogen and was fed
for 6 months. Hepatic tumor incidence for Swiss,
C3H and C8H X ll male mice was 0, 14 and 40%
and for female mice was 0, 72 and 60% respectively. Relative liver weight was increased with
drug feeding. The response of CIH female mice to
dimethylaminoazobenzene at 0.03 % level was
examined after 6 months. Liver and kidney
alkaline phosphatase and beta glucuronidase were
determined in carcinogen-fed and control mice.
Enzyme concentrations i n the liver were increased
by carcinogen especially when liver tumors were
evident. Kidney enzymes did not increase in mice
unless liver tumor was noted. (Supported by
grant (2-2846 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
E. B. HALE, Pennsylvania State University. Role
of head height in releasing sexual versus fighting behavior in turkeys. (15 min.)
Forty 4-week-old turkey poults were tested by
presenting dummy heads at heights of 5 or 12
inches. The poults had been reared in a larger
group for 18 days after which they were individually isolated and given daily androgen in-
jections (1.25 mg) to induce precocious fighting
and male sexual behavior. All males courted and
none attacked the low head. The high head was
attacked by 50% of the males and courted by the
remainder. Although only approximately half the
females reacted to the high head, all those reacting attacked. Females showed only slight
tendencies toward male sexual behavior and consequently the few reacting to the low head gave
abbreviated or ambiguous responses. Failure of
certain males to attack the high head is attributed
to an exceptionally strong tendency toward sexual
behavior since these birds also persisted in courting live birds despite repeated attacks by the other
R. P. HALL, New York University. Duration of
sulfonamide resistance and its reversibility in
A strain of Chilomoms paramecium, after 12
transfers i n medium containing sulfanilamide
(50 mg% ), has retained distinct resistance to the
drug for 250 transfers (62 months) in drug-free
medium. A similar strain, following gradual
adaptation to and completion of 70 transfers in
300 mg% sulfanilamide, has shown a greater degree of resistance after 83 transfers (25 months)
in drug-free medium.
A change from resistance to sensitivity, induced
by gradual adaptation of sulfonamide-resistant
strains to p-aminobenzoic acid (up to 20 mg% ),
has been reported previously (Hall, ’56). Such a
strain, at first incapable of growth in 50 mg%
sulfanilamide, has been adapted stepwise (5, 10,
20, 30,40,50 mg% ) to increasing concentrations
and is being maintained in 50 mg% sulfanilamide. At the end of 112 transfers (28 months),
sulfonamide-resistance of this formerly sensitive
strain approaches but has not reached that of the
first mentioned resistant strain (derived from the
normal stock and adapted directly to 50 mg%
sulfanilamide and then maintained i n drug-free
medium for 250 transfers).
MAX HAMBURGH, Albert Einstein College of
Medicine. Neuroembryology of “Reeler,” a
neurological mutation in mice. (10 min.)
The “reeler” syndrome i n mice is caused by a
single recessive gene mutation. The main features
of the derangement caused by the “reeler” gene
are lack of muscular coordination, balancing difiiculties and tremors. Mice homozygous for the
“reeler” gene show the disturbance after the 12th
day of postnatal age. Mice heterozygous for the
‘‘reeler” gene behave normally.
The histological analysis of “reeler” mice revealed that the organization of the cerebellum is
altered in afflicted “reeler” mice. The typical
appearance of the folia is missing. T h e arrangement of Purkinje cells is disturbed. The granular
layer is much reduced and the area of white matter is invaded by large cells normally found only
in the deep nuclei.
Abnormalities in development and differentiation leading to cerebellar disorganization make
their appearance soon after birth. One of the
events i n the abnormal development of the cere-
bella of these animals seems to be the suppression of the outer embryonic cell layer from which
the granular cells of the cerebellum are proliferated.
The “reeler” syndrome thus constitutes a genedetermined malformation of the central nervous
system, where processes of histogenesis are interfered with as a result of a single gene mutation.
(Supported by grant B-1716 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
DAVIS, Howard University. Differentiation of
the eye primordium of the mouse in the chick
The optic vesicle of the 6-day albino mouse embryo was excised, the surrounding ectoderm and
mesoderm mechanically removed and then washed
in several changes of Tyrode’s fluid plus horse
serum. The vesicle was cut into pieces of appropriate size i n such a manner that both tapetal and
sensory areas were represented. These were transplanted to the hind-brain of the 33-hour chick embryo. Mortality of the host embryos was very high,
though surviving hosts provided sufficient material for a study of the behavior of both host and
graft tissues. Host embryos were h e d in Bouin’s
fluid from the second to the 4th day after operation. From these, sections were prepared and
stained in Delafield’s hematoxylin and eosin.
A study of the stained material shows that both
optic cup and lens have developed from the
vesicle alone or from the vesicle plus remnants of
head ectoderm which may have remained in spite
of attempts to remove the ectoderm by mechanical
means. Both cup and lens are generally smaller
than those of the control but normal in appearance. There is no clear-cut evidence of induction,
though this is suggested by the relationship between lens and chick head ectoderm and the
changes noted in the appearance of these ectodermal cells. A more effective method of removing the adhering cells from the vesicle and
better controlled orientation of the graft i n the
host will probably provide more concise information as to the role of both graft and host tissues
i n forming the definitive eye.
LOUIS A. HANSBOROUGH and GLORIA J. WILLIAMS, Howard University. Regulation in the
developing wing of the chick embryo. I. Differentiation of grafted somites.
A plug of mesoderm with covering ectoderm
about the size of two trunk somites was removed
from the wing bud of the three-day white Leghorn
chick embryo. The plug was replaced by trunk
somites from donor embryos. Host embryos were
h e d in Bouin’s fluid from one to 4 days after
operation. From these, sections were prepared
and stained i n Delafield‘s hematoxylin and eosin.
A study of the stained material showed that the
transplanted somites differentiated into their
component parts, dematome, myotome and
sclerotome. During differentiation some of the
somites migrated from a superficial to a more
central and dorsal position in the wing bud. In
others, differentiation began at the site of trans-
plantation. Somite mesenchyme freely intermingled with that of the wing bud. The dermomyotomic plate was formed and later divided into
its component elements. The dermal elements of
the somite supplemented those of the wing bud,
thus producing an abnormally thick dermis.
Myoblasts and chondroblasts from the somite
could not be distinguished from similar cells of
the developing wing. Ten-day embryos stained for
skeletal parts show that the wing bud and graft
produced a wing which is essentially normal.
JAMES M. HARTSHORNE, Cornell University.
The role of learning in the development of the
Eastern Bluebird’s vocal repertoire. (15 min.)
The experimental Bluebirds used in this study
were taken from the wild at three main stages of
development: the egg-stage, the nestling-stage,
and the post-nestling-juvenile-stage. Thus, birds
constituting the egg-stage category were placed in
sound isolation as eggs soon after they were laid
in the wild, those constituting the nestling-stage
were isolated while nestlings, and those birds
comprising the post-nestling-juvenile-stage were
removed from the wild as juveniles and isolated
at approximately two months of age. The development of vocalizations and resulting vocal repertoires of the birds in each category were then
It was found that learning plays but a small
part in the Bluebirds’ acquisition of call notes; for
all of the common calls such as those of alarm,
distress, location, etc. appeared only i n the oldest
age-class sampled, that is, only the post-nestlingjuveniles taken from the wild at about two
months of age have produced these vocalizations.
MARY A. FOLK, State University of Iowa. In.
fluence of magnesium on intact and isolated
rodent hearts in hypothermia. (Motion picture, 15 min.)
To elucidate the relationship between thermoregulation and the serum magnesium increase
characteristic of hypothermia, a comparative study
of heart rates and core temperatures of three
rodents under subcutaneously injected magnesium (0.5 mg/kg) and cold stress was made.
The choice of species was based on their relative abilities to hibernate in captivity: the nonhibernating Long-Evans Rat; the Golden Hamster,
which may hibernate; and the 13-Lined Ground
Squirrel, which hibernates readily in captivity.
In two species the combined stress of magnesium
and cold induced a reduction of heart rate and
core temperature, rapidly in the case of the rat
and more slowly in the hamster. Heart rates and
core temperatures of the ground squirrel were
reduced slightly, but were maintained at this
level for several hours. These results implied
some sort of protective role for magnesium in the
hibernating animals. A question raised from this
evidence was whether the heart is singled out as
the major locus of magnesium sensitivity. To
clarify this point a second phase consisted of
repeating the study on isolated hearts of the same
three species of rodents. As with the intact
animals, the isolated hearts were subjected to
magnesium and cold stress. The method used
for obtaining electrocardiographic records of these
isolated small animal hearts is shown in a movie
film. (Supported by grant 6-5282from N.S.F.)
MAX HECHT, Queens College. The history of the
frogs. (15 min.)
The orthodox interpretation of the origin of
the frogs states that Protobatruchus of the early
Triassic represents an intermediate type between
modern frogs and the ancestral group. The author
believes that the resemblances between Protobatruchus and the modern frogs are clearly a case
of convergence. The first known true frogs are
highly evolved forms with typical anuran adaptations from the upper Jurassic. They are: Montsechobatrachus FejBrvary, Eobatrachus Marsh, Eodiscoglossus Villalta, Comobatrachus Hecht and
Notobatrachus Reig. Examination of the type of
Stremmia of Nopsca indicates that it is not a frog.
The Jurassic anurans (relatively primitive forms)
belong to a complex having leiopelmatoid and
possibly some discoglossoid affinities. By the lower
Cretaceous most of the major anuran lines had
already evolved and the 6 major types of vertebral evolution had been completed. One of these
types became extinct in the early Cretaceous. By
the early Tertiary most of the modern frog genera
and subfamilies had evolved. For example,
Calyptocephalella (including Eophractus of Schaeffer and GigaNtobatrachus of Casamiquela) is
known from the early Eocene, early, middle and
late Oligocene, lower and middle Miocene, and
Pleistocene. Detailed study has revealed a single
allometric growth pattern which has persisted
through the entire history of the genus. Only
maximum size and average size have been altered.
It appears that frog evolution passed through an
initial rapid phase which resulted in the establishment of the major higher categories, but the
history of modern species and genera i s primarily
a Tertiary phenomenon.
JOSEPH K. HICHAR, Parsons College. Differential effect of picrotoxin on crustacean nerve
cords. (15 min.)
Experiments with picrotoxin and its effect on
the “spontaneous” electrical activity of crustacean
nerve cords seemed to indicate that picrotoxin
does not have as great an excitatory effect on the
very small and very large nerve fibers as it does
on the intermediate-sized fibers. Pulse height
analysis of the “spontaneous” action potentials
was suggested as a valuable technique which
would make possible the study of picrotoxin and
of its selective effects, if any, on the nerve fibers
contributing to this activity (Hichar, J. K., in
Medical Electronics, niffe & Sons, Ltd., 1960).
Using multi-channel pulse height analysis all the
spontaneous activity from one abdominal ganglion was recorded simultaneously. This activity
was divided into 100 sections determincd by spike
amplitudes. “Normal” activity was determined
followed by studies of the effects on this activity
of various concentrations of picrotoxin on the
abdominal ganglia of the nerve cords of the crayfish, Orconectes virilis, and of the lobster,
Homarus nmericanus. Preliminary results indicate that picrotoxin does, indeed, have a greater
excitatory effect on intermediate-sized fibers
(about 20-30 pv in amplitude) of the lobster abdominal nerve cord. Similar results were obtained in only 25% of the experiments using
crayfish abdominal ganglia except that the spike
amplitudes of the affected fibers were approximately 60 pv.
MILTON HILDEBRAND, University of California,
Davis. Relative variability of body proportions
in marsupial and other mammals. (10 min.)
When the morphologist finds differences in
body proportions among related animals of different body size he may wish to determine by
regression analysis if the proportions are correlated with size. However, adult mammals of a
kind are of closely similar size so the points
plotted for each population tend to cluster. Because marsupials continue to grow slowIy as
adults it was thought that these animals would
lend themselves to more accurate analysis. It
was found that large clusters of plotted points
replaced small clusters because skeletal proportions of marsupials of a kind tend to be more
variable than those of eutherian mammals. This
is demonstrated for 6 limb proportions of 6 marsupial and 6 eutherian populations, and for a
cranial proportion of 13 marsupial and 14 eutherian populations.
Mount Union College and Mount Holyoke College. Alkaline phosphatase in the trachea and
esophagus of the developing chick.
On the fourth day of development the trachea
is found lying ventral to the esophagus. Mesenchyme begins condensing around the tracheal
epithelium on the fifth day, at stage 37 (11 days)
the first cartilaginous rings appear, and by stage
38 (12 days) all are completely formed. There
is some evidence that the most anterior cartilages
are formed before those more posterior. During
the third week of development the trachea increases in size and the lumen becomes filled with
secretion. Pseudo-stratified columnar ciliated epithelium begins to appear at 15 days. Alkaline
phosphatase is highly reactive in the mesenchyme
surrounding the epithelium prior to cartilage formation. After the cartilages have formed the reaction diminishes and in late stages of development phosphatase is found only in the epithelium.
Development of the esophagus and its glands
was described (Schumacher, Zeit. Mikr.-Anat.
Forsch., 5: 1-22, 1926). Allenspach and Hamilton (Anat. Rec., 134: 525, 1959) described alkaline phosphatase activity in the ventral mesenchyme surounding the epithelium to stage 34.
At stage 38 alkaline phosphatase activity appears
in the basal layers of the epithelium and is subsequently lost in the mesenchymal tissues. This
activity persists in the epithelium throughout
development and following hatching. At 16 days
the glands arise as solid buds of the epithelium
projecting into the tunica propria. These buds
are highly positive for alkaline phosphatase. As
differentiation of the glands becomes complete,
they and their ducts lose their positive phosphatase reaction. (Supported by research grant
A-3343(A) from the U.S.P.H.S.)
DODSON and J. K. KIRALY, Columbia University, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organization and National Biological
Standards Laboratories, Australia. Pharmacological properties of roach corpus cardiacum.
(15 min.)
Extracts of corpora cardiaca of the roach Periplaneta americana contain an adrenalin-like component which inhibits acetylcholine-induced contractions of rat uterus. Pooled extracts of up to
40 pairs of the glands were found to contain
highly variable amounts of the adrenergic factor,
but an effect of 10 pairs of glands comparable to
adrenalin was not unusual. When the
roaches were given severe electrical shock treatments prior to removal of corpora cardiaca, the
adrenergic effects of the gland extracts were
significantly reduced (often below the limits of
detectability by this assay method). The active
material is more effective on rat uterus preparations than upon rat colon, suggesting that it may
be more closely related to adrenalin than to noradrenalin. Attempts to follow the presumed release of the substance into the blood stream during or after shocking failed because of the presence of a powerful, long-lasting stimulant for
uterine contraction in the blood of the roach; this
stimulating factor completely obscures both cholinergic and adrenergic effects of other substances
upon the uterus. Effects of injections of adrenalin into roaches have been analyzed. The relative merits of chromatographic and pharmacological analyses of the extracts are considered, and
the possibility that an adrenalin release mechanism may be involved in the insect’s reaction to
stress is raised. (Supported by grant E-2271
from the U.S.P.H.S.)
JACK W. HUDSON, University of California, Los
Angeles. Water requirements and thermoneutrality in the antelope ground squirrel, Citellus
leucurus (15 min.)
The antelope ground squirrel is a small fossorial and diurnal desert mammal which does not
hibernate. It is, therefore, of interest to know
whether such an animal possesses any physic+
logical adaptations to high ambient temperatures
and limited water supplies.
C. leucurus dies after 17 to 35 days of a dry
diet. Animals can maintain weight indefinitely
under laboratory conditions with water rations
equal to 2% of their body weight per day. The
typical ad libitum consumption is 13% of body
weight per day, a value predictable from the
surface area-volume relationship, I ( d / h r . ) =
0.010 gm0.88 (Adolph, Science, 109: 579). The
ad libitum water consumption is constant at aII
ambient temperatures below 40°C, but increases
at higher temperatures coincident with the onset
of salivation, a heat-dissipating mechanism. The
lethal ambient temperature is 42.6%
The urine:serum osmotic pressure ratio of 9.4
is below the 10.7 value reported for the kangaroo
rat under similar conditions ( Schmidt-Nielsen, J.
Cell. and Comp. Physiol., 32: 331), and represents
the maximum capacity of C. Eeucurus to conserve
renal water.
The evaporative water loss is similar to that of
other desert rodents (The Schmidt-Nielsens, Am.
J. Physiol., 262: 31) and increases as the ambient
temperature increases from 30 to 42.6"C.
The standard metabolism of C. leucurus is 1.03
k 0.04 cm3 Oz/gm/hr. at ambient temperatures
between 30 and 37OC, a value predicted from the
equation Q (Cal./gm/hr.) = 17.6 gm-0.27 (Morrison, J. Cell. and Comp. Physiol., 31: 281). A
slight increase in oxygen consumption between
37 and 42.6"C is attributed to hyperthermia. It i s
concluded, therefore, that the thermoneutral zone
extends from 31 to 42.6"C. (This study was
aided in part by a contract between the Office of
Naval Research, Department of the Navy, and
the University of California Nonr-233 (61).)
D. K. HUNTER and ROBERT K. SELANDER, University of Texas and American Museum of
Natural History. Sound spectrographic analysis
of a continuous singer, the mockingbird. (15
The song pattern repertoire of an individual
mockingbird (Mimus polgglottos) recorded at
Austin, Texas, consisted of approximately 45
distinctive patterns, each of which was repeated
an average of 3.84 times in sequence to form song
series. Mean song series length was 4.74 seconds
(range, 0.1-14.0 seconds); and inter-song series
intervals averaged 1.15 seconds (0.7-2.4 seconds).
No fixed pattern with respect to sequence of song
patterns or number of repetitions in song series
was noted; but there was some tendency for songs
of similar structural type to appear i n sequence.
Among renditions of the same song pattern at
different times in a 40-minute period, variation
was no greater than that found among songs of
individual discontinuous singers, such as the
Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina). The
number of song patterns presented by a mockingbird is finite, and the individual does not sing
variations ad libitum.
Comparing inter-song series intervals and song
series lengths, it is calculated that the mockingbird sings 80% of the performance time, as compared to 30 to 50% in the case of a discontinuous singer. The significance of this &ding i n
relation to Hartshorne's theory of the "monotony
threshold" is discussed.
WILLIAM H. JOHNSON, University of Illinois.
Evidence for a dual mechanism for tonic contractions in molluscan muscles. (15 min.)
Muscular contraction is usually conceived of as
a two-stage process mediated by the actomyosin
system in which this system actively develops
tension or shortens, and then passively relaxes at
a rate essentially determined by both the rate of
decay of contractile activity (represented by the
active state) and the forces tending to elongate
the muscle. Contractions of molluscan adductor
and byssal retractor muscles are often followed
by an abnormally prolonged relaxation phase
which is not related i n its time course to the
decay of contractile activity. We have suggested,
along with others, that during such tonic contractions, tension or shortening is maintained
by a second system mechanically in parallel with
the actomyosin system. This second system is
thought to be incapable of active tension development, but, by crystallization of its protein components, to provide a mechanically rigid system
which resists elongation during the relaxation
phase. Thus, contraction i n these muscles is a
function of the actomyosin system, while relaxation is thought to depend on a set of parallel filaments containing paramyosin. Studies on glycerinated fibers from byssus retractor muscles of
Mytilus edulis have revealed the presence of
mechanically continuous elements i n parallel
with actomyosin filaments. These fibers respond
to changes in environmental pH and ionic
strength in a manner to be expected of paramyosin. At pH below 6.5 fibers are mechanically
inextensible, while above pH 6.5, they are plastic.
Furthermore, electron microscopic evidence reveals the presence of paramyosin periodicity in
filaments of tonically contracted muscles, whereas
little periodicity is seen i n relaxed muscles. Such
evidence indicates that a dual mechanism is
present in these muscles and could form the basis
for tonic contractions.
MALCOLM T. JOLLIE, University of Pittsburgh.
The bird pterygoid, an example of functional
modikation. (15 min.)
The pterygoid bone of the passerine, or the
hawk, arises as a single unit which contacts the
vomer anteriorly and the quadrate posteriorly.
Contact with the palatine extends along the
anterolateral margin for some distance. In the
hawk, functional basipterygoid processes occur in
the late embryonic and early nestling period, but
later contact is lost and the processes atrophy.
In the nestling, the anterior end of the pterygoid
fuses with the palatine and a joint develops between it and the posterior part. These two segments can be referred to as the anteropterygoid
(hemipterygoid or mesopterygoid of others) and
the posteropterygoid. The development of the
articulation is related to movement of the upper
mandible. In most neognaths such movement is
possible but i n others it is reduced as indicated
by an incomplete joint. The significance of a
jointed pterygoid may lie i n the idea that the
originally mesokinetic skull of the proavian was
abandoned with the origin of birds and replaced
by a more delicately controlled grasping action of
the bill.
HAROLD M. KAPLAN, Southern Illinois University. Electrophoretic analysis of protein changes
during growth of Pseudemys turtles.
The varying resistance to disease with age has
been partly attributed to serum proteins. These
proteins were compared in female Pseudemys
scripta turtles whose average shell lengths were
1.5 and 7.5 inches. The blood was separated
electrophoretically in Veronal buffer and the
strips were analyzed in an Analytrol densitometer. Total proteins were determined by Microkjeldahl analysis and the amount of each protein
fraction was computed from the estimated areas
obtained in the Analytrol curve. The total serum
protein rose from 1.57 gm/lOO ml in animals of
1.5 inch shell length to 6.03 gm/100 ml in animals of 7.5-inch shell length. The total proteins
of the adults separated to 4 electrophoretic fractions, all of which were probably globulins. There
was no evidence for albumin. The total proteins
of the young turtles separated electrophoretically
in a basically similar manner to that of the
adults. There were, however, two subfractions of
fraction I1 in one group of babies and two subfractions of fraction IV in another group. Also,
the percentage of each fraction varied between
the young and the adult turtles. The young
turtles showed no electrophoretic evidence of
serum albumin. (Supported in part by the N.S.F.
Undergraduate Research Participation Program.)
and hypersensitive states. (Aided by funds from
The Population Council, Inc., and -grant E-2651
from the U .S .P.H.S.)
JEROME S. KAYE, University of Rochester. Acrosome differentiation in the cricket. (15 min.)
The phenomenon of acrosome formation, as it
occurs during spermatogenesis in house crickets,
was studied with the electron microscope. The
acroblast of the earliest spermatid is cup-shaped
and has the typical structure of a Golgi body-a
series of parallel membranes with associated
vacuoles. A “pro-acrosomic” granule, homogeneous in structure and surrounded by a membrane,
forms within the cup. A t about the time of the
initial elongation of the nebenkern, the pro-acrosomal granule is deposited on the nucleus, posteriorly, near the proximal centriole. During the
subsequent stages of spermiogenesis, the granule
both migrates to the most anterior part of the
nucleus and undergoes a complex differentiation
in structure.
In its initial differentiation, the granule assumes the shape of a blunt cone with its base
abutting against the nucleus. Then an invagination of the granule occurs at the base, and in the
space created by the invagination, an entirely new
structure forms which is dart-like in shape. The
entire acrosome then elongates and becomes 3attened. The structure of the mature acrosome consists of two concentric cones. The outer, derived
from the original pro-acrosomal granule, is a
thin-walled cone of elliptical cross-section.
SEYMOUR KATSH, University of Colorado Med- hollow,
is another flattened cone, derived from the
ical Center. Mediation of immunologically-in- Within
also elliptical in cross-section. (This
.- in__
duced aspermatogenesis by a non-acid-fast bac- dart,
6850 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
Immunologically-induced organ-specific dyscrasias offer an excellent opportunity to study
inhibition of growth and development. One of
these disorders, aspermatogenesis, is useful as a DOUGLAS E. KELLY and J. C. van de KAMER,
University of Colorado and the Rijksuniversimodel system in our attempts to elucidate the
teit, Utrecht, Netherlands. Some cytological and
mechanism( s) of specifrc cell destruction during
histochemical considerations on the amphibian
immune response. One of the requisites for the
pineal organ. (15 min.)
induction of aspermatogenesis in the guinea pig
Study on the development of the pineal system
is the use o f complete adjuvant (8.5 ml paraffin
oil, 1.5 ml emulsifier, and 5 mg of bacteria) and in Amphibia has been extended by a histochemiheretofore the only bacteria found to be con- cal and cytological analysis of the epiphysis of the
sistently effective in mediating the tissue destruc- adult frog, R a m esculenta. In this form the epition have been Mycobacteria (butyricum or physis differentiates into a well-defined hollow
tuberculosis). In this study 6 adult male guinea vesicle composed of various so-called sensory,
pigs were injected intracutaneously in 6-8 sites parenchymal, supportive, and ganglionic cell
in the nuchal region with 1.0 ml of homologous types. It is interconnected with the subcommistesticular homogenate (weighed amount of testis sural organ and the subcutaneous “Stirnorgan”
by a neural tract.
homogenized in an equal volume of 0.9% saline)
Outer segments of pineal sensory cells proemulsified in an equal volume of the modified
adjuvant, 8.5 ml Bayol F, 1.5 Arlacel A and 5 mg truding into the epiphyseal lumen can be shown
of Corynebncterium rubrum. Two months after histochemically to contain sulfonic acid, glycol,
injection the animals were sacrificed. The degree or perhaps acid mucopolysaccharide components
of testicular damage was found to be as uni- in addition to an active lipid metabolism. The
formly severe as when Mycobacteria are em- similarity of such components to those of visual
ployed. Also, the ileal segments of the animals sensory cells of the retina has been considered
responded in vitro to specific antigen (homologous as well as the possibility of secretion by pineal
sperm) by contracting strongly. We are currently sensory cells. In many specimens, additional
extracting these bacteria for active materials and cells contributing a definite follicular cysteinecomparing them with substances from Mycobac- or cystine-rich secretion have been observed. A
teria in order to gain further insight as to the close similarity between this secretion and subparticipation of bacteria in autoallergic diseases commissural secretion is well-established. Inner-
Such effects, recorded in these experiments from
intact preparations using intracellular micropipettes, are often long-lasting, and frequently
involve modulation of preexisting “spontaneous”
activity if present.
Potentiating effects of this kind include (1)
extreme many/one responses, in which discharge
to a single afferent volley may last for 1 second
or more; ( 2 ) after-discharge, with adaptation,
following a direct or synaptic tetanus; (3) classical post-tetanic potentiation (not previously found
in fiber-to-fiber synaptic systems), in which either
(a) threshold for spike initiation drops following
the tetanus or ( b ) a volley previously evoking
single spikes causes multiple discharges following the tetanus; (4) entrainment of preexisting
“spontaneous” activity to a higher level, immediately following a direct or synaptic tetanus, which
adapts over a period of 1-5 seconds; and (5)
“tonic” increases in spontaneous activity during
repetitive presynaptic stimulation with afferent
volleys which evoke no fixed-latency spike(s).
Inhibitory effects include (1) reduction of
“spontaneous” activity following single or multiple discharges evoked synaptically, usually followed by rebound increases; ( 2 ) reduction in
level of “spontaneous” activity during repetitive
presynaptic stimulation (the reciprocal of (5)
above); and ( 3 ) depression or abolition of “spontaneous” activity following a direct or synaptic
tetanus. (Supported in part by grants B-1608
and B-1739, U.S.P.H.S.)
Louisiana State University. Decidual cell responses following exogenous prolactin in uterine-traumatized hamsters. (10 min.)
Twenty-four pseudopregnant hamsters with
bilateral uterine traumas induced with sutures
the second or third night after sterile mating
(s.m.) were injected intraperitoneally with 60 IU
of bovine prolactin nightly, as follows: trauma
the second or third night after sterile mating
and prolactin commencing on night of trauma,
12 animals; trauma the second night after s.m.
and prolactin commencing the third night, 6
animals; trauma on the third night after s.m.
and prolactin commencing the second, 6 animals.
All animals were killed on the 6th, 7th or 8th
night after s.m.
Twenty-one animals exhibited a decidual cell
response (DCR). Of 6 animals exhibiting a DCR
characterized as (+), 5 had been killed on the
5th night after s.m. The three animals exhibiting
a DCR characterized as
had all been killed
on the 6th night after s.m. Of 12 exhibiting a
well developed deciduoma, 4 had been killed on
DONALD KENNEDY and JAMES B. PRESTON, the 6th night and 7 on the 7th night after s.m.
Stanford University and State University ColOf 13 uninjected animals traumatized the seclege of Medicine in Syracuse. Complex re- ond or third night after s.m. only three exhibited
sponses of central neurons in the crayfish to a DCR
One had been killed on the
presynaptic and direct stimulation. (Intro- 6th night after s.m. and two on the 7th. Previous
duced by Victor C. Twitty) (15 min.)
efforts to induce deciduomata in uninjected hamFrequently, neurons in the crayfish nerve cord sters had been equally ineffective.
Prolactin enhances the DCR in hamsters, sugshow more subtle sorts of responses to afferent
(and direct) stimuli than the single- or multiple- gesting a luteotrophic effect in this species. Maxispike discharges previously described (Kennedy mal responses are observed on the 6th and 7th
and Preston, J. Gen. Physiol., 43: 655, 1960). nights after s.m. Unpublished studies indicate
vation of the pineal sensory cells includes not
only dendritic plexuses in contact with basal
processes of the cells, but also a system of loopshaped nerve endings on the cell bodies. Clusters
of pineal sensory cells are invariably found with
their outer segments extending into the third ventricle in the vicinity of the subcommissural organ in addition to the usual clusters whose outer
segments protrude into the epiphyseal lumen.
While a functional interpretation of pineal
components remains obscure, these cytological
and histochemical properties provide useful criteria for investigations on the cellular differentiation of the organ. (Supported by postdoctoral research fellowship BF-7283-c from the U.S.P.H.S.)
Stanford University and Harvard University.
On the spectral sensitivity of visual systems in
decapod crustacea. (15 min.)
The comparative biochemistry of vertebrate
visual pigments has revealed interesting correlates with habitat and phylogeny; and the beginnings of such an analysis in decapod crustacea
have been made by Hubbard and Wald (Nature,
180: 278, 1957), who extracted a rhododopsin
from lobster eyes. This visual pigment has X max.
515 mp (difference spectrum). Using the retinal
action potential recorded from intact, darkadapted lobsters as an index of sensitivity, we
have measured the spectral sensitivity function
for lobster vision; our measurements agree fairly
closely with Hubbard and Wald’s absorption spectrum, though the sensitivity peak is shifted 5-10
mfi towards the red-due probably to the known
presence of astaxanthin as a screening pigment.
In the crayfish, however, the sensitivity curve is
quite different; similar measurements on compound eyes of Procambarus clarkii show an extremely consistent sensitivity peak near 570 mp.
This is due to a single visual pigment, since
monochromatic light adaptation has no differential effect upon sensitivity. Since crayfish possess
vitamin A1 exclusively, this pigment owes its
long-wavelength absorption peak to a n altered
protein moiety, just as does vertebrate iodopsin.
The direction of the shift in maximum is the
same as that between marine and fresh-water
fish-the latter, like the crayfish, having sensitivity maxima displaced toward the red, but achieving this through alteration of the carotenoid component of rod and cone pigments. The caudal
photoreceptor of the crayfish, however, has its
sensitivity peak at 500 mp, and must therefore be
utilizing a different photopigment.
that deciduomata induced following trauma and
progesterone injections commence to degenerate
on the 7th night after s.m. despite continued injections. (Prolactin supplied by the Endocrinology Study Section, N.I.H.)
HARRY A. KENT JR., University of Georgia. A
glycostatic factor from the fallopian tube of
the golden hamster. (15 min.)
The influence of ovaries and fallopian tubes
upon muscle glycogen level in the hamster was
investigated. The biceps femoris was analyzed
for glycogen content following the traditional
alcohol precipitation proceedures. Final carbohydrate content was determined using the phenol
method of furfural formation. Ovariectomy alone
does not change muscle glycogen level from that
of unoperated controls. Salpingectomy alone results in a significant increase i n muscle glycogen,
while combined ovariectomy-salpingectomy results in low muscle glycogen levels. It is suggested that a factor from the ovaries tends to increase muscle glycogen while the f allopian tube
factor favors maintenance of a static level of
muscle glycogen.
ROBERT C. KING, Northwestern University. The
hereditary ovarian tumors of the f e s mutant of
DrosophiZa melanogaster. (15 min.)
Hereditary ovarian tumors occur in females
homozygous for the second chromosomal gene
female-sten’le (fes). In Feulgen-stained preparations the ovarioles are seen to be subdivided into
a series of sausage-shaped cell aggregates, each
surrounded by an ill-defined follicular epithelium
(King, Bumett and Staley, ’57). These follicles
are filled with hundreds to thousands of oogonialike cells (many of which are in mitotic stages).
Some metaphases are multipolar and others show
high degrees of polyploidy. King, Sang and Leth
(’60) reported that some cells within tumorous
chambers in ovaries of certain ages can differentiate into cells which, on the basis of chromosomal morphology, resemble normal nurse cells.
A positive correlation exists between the frequency of this more normal differentiation and
the degree to which the residual genotype is
beterozygous. Banded, polytene chromosomes are
observed i n the nuclei of some of the larger,
nurse-like cells. A more recent study of 16,000
chambers from f e s flies reared at 18 or 21 or 25OC
demonstrated an inverse relationship between
temperature and more normal differentiation. At
lower temperatures not only do more chambers
contain “nurse cells,” but more nurse-like cells
occur per chamber. Oocytes are observed rarely,
and when present yolk is often deposited in them.
The frequency of yolky oocytes among chambers
from flies reared at 18OC is 80 times that found
in the 25” series. It is suggested that the plus
allele of f e s is responsible for the formation of a
substance which by promoting differentiation restricts cell division. The f e s gene is thought to be
hypomorphic, and the system it controls seems
to function best at low temperature i n flies of
certain ages and characterized by certain residual
genotypes. (Research supported by grant C-
5302 from the U.S.P.H.S. and by grant 6-11710
from N.S.F.)
C. WARD KISCHER and HOWARD L. HAMILTON, Iowa State University. Effects of respiratory inhibitors on the development of the down
Skin from chick embryos with incipient feather
germs was grown in w i t 7 0 in the presence of 4
respiratory poisons. Histochemical determinations
of alkaline phosphatase and ribonucleic acid were
made on the fixed cultures.
Sodium fluoride (70-140 pg/ml) inhibited the
phosphatase reaction, the accumulation of RNA
at the basement membrane, and development of
feathers. In sections, the mesodermal condensation at each feather locus was separated from
the epidermis at its lateral edges.
2,4-dinit?ophenoZ (8.33-50 pg/ml) inhibited
production of feathers, but not the phosphatase or
the RNA. There was evidence of necrosis in the
Iodacetate (6.25-25 fig/ml) inhibited phosphatase, the build-up of RNA at the basement membrane, and morphogenesis of the feather.
Sodium cyanide (16.67-125 pg/mI) stopped
development of feathers, reduced the RNA at
the basement membrane, but did not inhibit the
phosphatase. At levels of partial inhibition the
phosphatase appeared increased, but with no concurrent increase in epidermal RNA.
Evidence of the morphogenetic field of the
feather was seen i n the consociative polarity of
fibroblasts radiating from the base of each locus.
The inhibitors disturbed this polarity and, at
partially-inhibitory levels, caused subdivision of
the feather locus into several cellular aggregates
each of which retained a strong reaction for
The data suggest that phosphatase and other
enzymes are selectively inhibited. The loss of
phosphatase activity curtails morphogenesis possibly by eliminating a source of energy for the
reconstruction of new kinds of RNA needed in
the synthesis of specsc feather proteins. (Supported by grant RG-3813(C7) from the U.S.P.H.S.)
ROBERT B. KLOPMAN, Cambridge University. A
motivational interpretation of the greeting display in geese. (15 min.)
Greeting is perhaps the most striking display
seen in the behavior of true geese and many other
species of Anatidae. K. Lorenz has devoted considerable attention to greeting i n geese for he
feels it an important example of the spontaneity,
invariability and accumulation of action specific
energy so characteristic of innate behavior patterns. He proposes that while not strictly a
“vacuum activity,” greeting is largely “independent of external stimulation.“ Furthermore, Lorenz
characterizes this display as a form of redirected
attack. The present study indicates clearly, however, that the animal is under the influence of
three conflicting tendencies: to attack, to flee
from and to behave socially toward its companion(s). These results demonstrate also that
specific external stimulation is necessary for the
release of the display.
Fellowship MF-8219.)
(Supported by N.I.H.
ALAN J. KOHN, Flordia State University. Chemoreception in gastropods. (30min.)
The mechanisms by which gastropod molluscs
detect chemical changes in their environment
are reviewed, with special consideration given
to the osphradium. The anatomy and position of
this organ and the results of behavioral experiments have suggested that it functions as a
chemoreceptor, but this has been disputed. In
the present study, attempts were made to determine the function of the osphradium by electrophysiological methods. The results are discussed
in the light of the form and distribution of the
osphradium among gastropods and the relationship between the anatomy of the organ and the
habits of the species. The sensitivity and responses of gastropods to inorganic salts, prey,
enemies, and members of the opposite sex through
the modality of chemoreception are also reviewed
and correlated with ecological characteristics.
ALAN J. KOHN, Florida State University. Development in marine gastropod molluscs of the
genus Conus and its ecological significance.
Egg masses of 21 species of Conus collected in
Hawaii and the tropical Indian Ocean were studied. The number of eggs per egg mass ranged from
2,000 to
1,500,000. Most species lay large
numbers (> 30,000) of eggs per mass, and the
eggs are of small size (125-230 p ) . The course
of larval development within the egg mass was
determined for 9 species. Early cleavage stages
occur during the &st three days after oviposition.
The trochophore stage is suppressed, a characteristic of gastropods i n which that part of development is passed in an egg capsule or brood pouch.
In 7 species the trochophore stage was approximated 4-8 days after oviposition. The veliger
stage is typical and occurred at 7-9 days i n 7
species and at 12-14 days i n one. Although
hatching occurred in only 6 species, at 14-16 days
after oviposition, it was possible to determine the
stage at hatching of 15 species. Twelve, which
deposit large numbers of small eggs, hatch as
pelagic veligers and probably remain so for some
time. Three species lay small numbers
of large (350-490p ) eggs. These hatch as nonpelagic veliconchas, which settle immediately and
assume the benthic mode of life characteristic of
the adult. The correlations of egg diameter, egg
number, and mode of larval development support
the generalizations demonstrated by Thorson
Verh. Deutsch. 2001. Ges., 1951: 276-327, 1952).
The signijicance of the marked difference in larval ecology within the same genus is not known.
(Portions of this study carried out at the University Zoological Museum, Cophenhagen, and the
Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory, Yale University, were aided by a grant-in-aid from the
Sigma Xi-RESA Research Fund and by the W. W.
Anderson Fellowship, respectively.)
DAVID R. KOMINZ, National Institutes of Health.
The comparative biochemistry of tropomyosin,
paramyosin, and the 3 S component of myosin.
(15 min.)
Three classes of muscle proteins having a
sedimentation rate of about 3 S, namely tropomyosin, paramyosin, and the 3 S component of
myosin, have been subjected to a comparative
study employing amino-acid, end group and electrophoretic analysis.
The tropomyosins of lower vertebrates and of
mammalian cardiac muscle are very similar to
that first purified from rabbit skeletal muscle by
Bailey in 1948. However, progressive chemical
differences appear in the tropomyosins of vertebrate smooth muscles, of echinodern muscle, and
that of arthropods and molluscs. No tropomyosin
can be isolated from annelids.
A muscle component apparently peculiar to
molluscs and annelids, paramyosin, differs signscantly from tropomyosin in chemical composition
and in electrophoretic mobility.
Specific procedures have been developed for the
cleavage of the ubiquitous contractile protein,
myosin, into several well-defined components.
One of these, termed the 3 S component, accounts
for about a quarter of the myosin. I n contrast to
tropomyosins from vertebrate and arthropod muscle sources which show reciprocal changes i n lysine and arginine, the 3 S components from these
sources show instead reciprocal changes i n aspartic and glutamic acids.
SOL KRAMER, State University of New York.
Early predatory behavior in praying mantids.
(15 min.)
Newly emerged, first instar nymphs of Tenoderu
aridifolia sinensis were isolated in vials and their
reaction to Drosophila tested. At 28-30 hours of
age, sometimes earlier, they fix (optic localization), strike and catch flies presented to them.
Isolated nymphs 20-22 hours old often fix and
strike at flies, but frequently miss on their &st,
second and even third attempts. While some at
this age succeed on their third or 4th attempt,
others show no interest in flies. At 30 hours of
age, however, 6 or 7 out of each 10 mantids isolated caught fruit flies on their first strike. This
successful first strike ratio did not appear to improve when mantids 44 or 68 hours of age were
presented with flies. These older, unfed mantid
nymphs, however, reacted more quickly with a
strike to the fly stimulus. In addition, they sometimes showed stalking behavior and actively
pursued flies.
SOL KRAMER, State University of New York.
Color changes correlated with parental behavior
in cichlid fish. (15 min.)
Observation of over 20 breeding pairs of
Aequidens lntifrons reveals specific striking color
changes correlated with parental behavior. The
vertical band chromatophores of the female become conspicuously black several days before egg
laying. This female coloration persists during
egg laying and afterwards during egg fanning.
During the --day
egg incubation period most
fanning is performed by the female. The male’s
coloration either shows no vertical banding or a
light banding. Whenever the male relieves the
female in guarding and fanning the eggs, his
vertical banding becomes darker, then lessens or
disappears as he leaves the eggs. When the f r y
begin to swim and the male participates in guarding and schooling the fry with the female, his
banding intensity approximates the female’s.
Most intense banding appears in both parents
when they confine fry to a small territory aggressively defended against other adults in the same
University of New York and Cambridge University, England. Band pattern changes in insect
muscles during stretch and contraction.
The abdominal longitudinal muscles of the
cockroach, Periplaneta americana, with a rest
length of about 7 p/sarcomere appear specifically
designed to undergo considerable length changes
during the insect’s normal activities. These muscles, inserted in parallel bundles on the endoskeletal ridges of the segmental plates, are approximately 2 mm long. When the abdomen is
severed from the thorax and opened, these muscle
bundles shorten to about 1 mm. The segmental
plates can be pulled apart, stretching these muscles to over 3 mm. These length changes are reversible.
_ _ _ _ ~.and mav be considered to lie within
physioldgical limits.
Muscle bundles were secured in different states
of stretch, rest length and contraction by pinning
the segmental plates on paraffin. Subjected to
glycerination and lyophilization, preparations
were obtained which contracted on addition of
ATP and water, respectively. Bundles of myofibrils were separated under a dissecting microscope, then studied with phase contrast i n a suitable medium. Measurement of band widths were
made, and plotted against sarcomere lengths.
The sarcomeres measured ranged from 3-12 p.
Above sarcomere lengths of 5 p , increase in sarcomere length is produced by corresponding increase in I-band widths alone; the A-band remaining relatively constant (4.5 p ) . Above sarcomere
lengths of 9 p, I-band increase exceeds the maximum H-band width of 2.0 p observed. At 4-5 @
sarcomere lengths, however, definite shortening
of the A-band occurs. Another feature is partial
overlapping of contraction band formation and
the A-band curve, indicating that under these
conditions contraction bands may be formed
which are longer than the widths of the A-bands.
(Supported by a Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship
and grant 6-7248 from N.S.F., and a Research
Fellowship from the American Heart Association.
ERNEST M. KUHINKA, Dickinson College. Consumer behavior: inner-orientation of population in a functional area. (15 min.)
A previous study, a functional analysis, which
described potential areas for urban expansion,
was succeeded by a new survey which devoted
special attention to the inner structure of the
functional (natural) area. This survey analyzes
the intensity of the buying habits and geographical orientation of the consumers. The results of
the survey described on maps, following the
basic ecological principles, present spatial relationships in an easily understandable visual form.
The consumers’ buying habits and behavior were
surveyed from the point of view of basic economic needs, such as ( a ) grocery, ( b ) variety
and hardware, ( c ) department and specialty, ( d )
recreation, ( e ) automobile, and ( f ) banking. The
orientation pattern was located in South-Central
Pennsylvania, including large part of the Cumberland Valley with larger population aggregations
in Harrisburg, Carlisle, Shippensburg, and Chambersburg. The survey places a greater emphasis
on the critical challenge of research work which
could contribute greatly to the promotion of general human welfare.
J. V. LANDAU and J. H. McALEAR, Albany Medical College, Veterans Administration Hospital
and New York State Dept. of Health, Albany.
The ultrastructure of primary and FL-amnion
cells following exposure to high hydrostatic
The application of high hydrostatic pressure to
cells in monolayer cultures results in a reversible
solation of the cytoplasmic gel as expressed by a
change from a normal cell shape to that of a
sphere. Throughout the period of pressure application and following release of pressure, primary
amnion cells retain numerous, distinct intercellular connections. As the bulk of the cytoplasm
assumes a spherical shape the retention of these
sites of adhesion results in a series of bridge-like
connections between relatively spherical cells.
Electron micrographs of these clearly defined connective sites reveal distinct, structural, intercellular bars (desmosomes). FL-strain (continuous
culture) amnion cells show far less intercellular
adhesiveness as a result of pressure treatment.
Those sites which do maintain such contact show
a considerably less degree of structural organization.
Shortly after the release of pressure, FL-amnion
cells undergo a decided contraction followed by
vigorous bleb activity over the entire cell surface.
Primary amnion cells exhibit neither of these
phenomena. The bleb activity in FL-amnion has
been examined with the electron microscope and
determined as the formation of pseudopodia
rather than a temporary appearance of cytolytic
blisters. The cytoplasmic ultrastructure is continuous with that of the cell proper and the endoplasmic reticulum in most cases seems especially
prominent within the pseudopodia. A comparison with non-pressurized control cells reveals no
structural difference in nuclei or mitochondria.
Although the formation of numerous pseudopodial blebs must involve a large increase of surface area, these experiments reveal no changes in
the surface membrane which could account for
such a n expansion. (Partially supported by
grants from the National Cancer Institute and
National Heart Institute.)
sal to the renal vessels and adjacent to the inWILLIAM B. LANGAN, New York Medical Col- ferior vena cava. In race X the left suprarenals
lege and the Food and Drug Research Labora- were more variable in position, frequently lying
tories. Ovulation-inducing action of steroid farther to the left and also more caudad. Both
were flattened dorsoventrally, the right pyriform
hormones in Rana pipiens. (10 min.)
It has been reported that progesterone, desoxy- and the left disc-shaped.
Four cases of incomplete embryonic rotation of
corticosterone and testosterone will induce extraseasonal ovulation in Rana pipiens (Langan, the digestive tube were observed.
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 1941; Comparative
Endocrinology, ed. by Gorbman, 1959).
In order to better characterize the biological J. H. LEATHEM, Rutgers University. Reproductive organ responses to estrogen in rodents.
nature of steroids possessing this action, a series
(10 min.)
of 34 steroids were tested.
RUM pipiens were procured from Vermont durTestes of adult male desert rats (Dipodomys
ing March and April and stored at 8°C. During
spectabilis) averaged 639 mg and comprised 0.55
experiments, frogs were housed in glass bowls at mg/100 gm body weight. The adult laboratory
temperatures ranging from 15" to 22°C. Steroids rat testes averaged 2832 mg and comprised 0.89
were carried in sesame oil and administered by a
mg/100 gm body weight. Water, glycogen and
single intraperitoneal injection. Dosages ranged
cholesterol concentrations of 85.0%, 0.06% and
from one to 4 milligrams. Ovulation was deter- 0.20%, respectively, were comparable in the two
mined by stripping and sacrificing for abdominal rodents. Administration of estradiol benzoate subinspection.
cutaneously daily for 20 days to the laboratory rat
The following steroids were effective: desoxy- in 0.1 mg amounts will increase pituitary and
corticosterone; 3-(3-0~0-17~-hydroxy-4-androstenadrenal weights but will depress the reproductive
17a-yl) propionic acid y lactone and its 19 nor organs. Estradiol benzoate in daily dosages of
analogue, progesterone; 17 methyl 19-nortesto- 50 pg was administered to 8 desert rats. Hyposterone; testosterone; methyl testosterone; vinyl physeal weight increased from 4.4 mg in controls
testosterone; ethynyl testosterone; acetoxypregne- to 6.7 mg following estrogen, and adrenal weights
nelone. Untreated controls and those receiving increased from 21.0 to 28.7 mg. Testis weight
averaged 132 mg in estrogen-treated and 639 mg
sesame oil were negative.
It appears that the ovulation-inducing action is in non-treated desert rats. Testis cholesterol reassociated with biological activity described as mained unchanged. The uterine response to
androgen, progestin, and mineralocorticoid. Ste- estrogen in desert rats was associated with an
roids classified as estrogens and glucocorticoids increase in uterine glycogen concentration. Similar results were observed in mice and rats but not
were ineffective.
Interestingly, the following steroids induced in hamsters and guinea pigs. (Supported by
jelly secretion but no ovulation: 9-a flurohydrocor- grant 6-8630 from N.S.F.)
tisone acetate; ethynyl androstenediol; vinyl an201
dro-stenediol; pregneninolone.
LAURENCE LEVINE, Wayne State University.
Visualization of sulfhydryl groups in Vorticella
convallariu. (15 min.)
HOMER B. LATIMER and PAUL B. SAWIN, University of Kansas and Roscoe B. Jackson MeVorticellid sulfhydryl (SH) groups were visualmorial Laboratory. Variation in shape and posi- ized cytochemically by application of the sensitive
tion of some of the viscera in the rabbit.
and reportedly specific DDD (2,2'-dihydroxy-6,6'dinapthyl disulfide) reaction (Barnett and SeligVariations in position and in shape of some of
the organs were observed and recorded during the man, Science, 116: 323-327, 1952).
The availability of SH groups for reaction with
dissections of 100 race X and 65 race I11 rabbits
from the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory. DDD in various cell structures was dependent
All of these rabbits were healthy adult specimens. upon fixative employed. Brief fixation in SchauThe lobes of the thyroid were connected by a dinn's permitted staining of SH in longitudinal
thin isthmus, of varying width, in 19% of race X myonemes of the head but left most of the strucand in 28% of race 111. A few appeared to con- tures in the stalk unstained.
Neutral buffered formalin fixation led to insist solely of the connective tissue capsule of the
tense coloration i n both stalk and head. In the
Small accessory spleens were found in 12% of stalk, spasmoneme stained for SH while spasrace I11 and 22% of race X. These were located moneme canal and stalk sheath were negative. A
in the supporting mesenteries or on adjacent sur- delicate helix (alpha) which coils just beneath
the outer boundary of the spasmoneme canal,
faces of the pancreas.
Every right kidney in the 165 rabbits was more showed high SH concentration. Heads were incephalad in position than the left, varying from tensely colored, bore cilia which showed positive
25% to 125%. There were no sigrdicant sex nor reaction, but displayed no internal structure beracial differences in the relative positions of the cause they shriveled.
The use of neutral buffered formol-saline prekidneys.
Only three accessory suprarenals were found in vented collapse of heads but generally decreased
the 165 rabbits, two in race X and one in race SH stain. However, reactivity was recovered by
111, and all in female rabbits. The right supra- treatment with thioglycollic acid (TGA). Thus
renals were rather constant in position, just dor- alpha helix became more strongly positive than
the spasmoneme. TGA also opened the SH of still
another helix (beta) which winds around the
outside of the stalk sheath. Both beta helix and
longitudinal myonemes were previously shown to
be loci of ATPase (Levine, Science, 131: 1377,
1960). (Supported by grant G-6457 from N.S.F.)
Marineland Research Laboratory and Cornell
University. Reproduction in the clear-nosed
skate, Raja eglanteria.
Clear-nosed skates, Raja eglanteria, are readily
maintained, occasionally mate and lay their eggs
i n laboratory tanks. Mating, observed on three
occasions, lasts for more than two hours; male
and female repose, ventral surface down, on the
bottom of the tank. The male bites the caudal
margin of the female's pectoral, bends his tail
75" beneath hers and inserts one clasper, flexed
medially SOa, into her cloaca and oviduct. Spines
on the upper anterior surface of the male's
pectora assist in holding the female.
A functional ovary is present on each side and
the paired oviducts have a common ostium. Eggs
are usually laid in pairs; 18 days may intervene
between the first and second pair. Successive
pairs emerge 12, 8, 6, and finally 4 days apart.
Subsequently the 4-day cycle is maintained. In
Florida, eggs are laid from February through July
and a single female may lay up to 66 eggs. Eggs
fail to develop in water warmer than 24°C.
At Marineland, Florida, it takes 9 weeks for the
embryo to develop and hatch. At 20 days slits appear in the 4 horns of the egg case through which
sea water freely enters and exists until hatching.
At three weeks embryos removed from their cases
will develop normally; at 5 weeks the tail tip beats
rhythmically and maintains a current of sea
water through the apertures of the case. The yolk
sac is completely resorbed at 9 weeks when the
embryo emerges, pectorals rolled dorsally, through
the end of the case. (This investigation was
conducted at the Marineland Research Laboratory, Marineland, Florida, and was aided by a
grant from N.S.F.)
W. GARDNER LYNN and HENRY E. WACHOWSKI, Catholic University of America. Histological study of the thyroid and pituitary in the
minnow Gambusiu after exposure to high temperature and treatment with thiourea.
Fish maintained at 15°C for two weeks and
then transferred for 24 hours to specially adapted
Aminco high temperature baths accurate to 0.1"C
withstood a temperature of 35.5"C before 50%
mortality occurred. Treatment by immersion i n
0.05% thiourea for three weeks at room temperature and two weeks at 15°C did not significantly
alter high temperature tolerance, although the
thyroid, upon histological examination, did show
heightened follicular epithelium and increase i n
number and extent of follicles. The pituitaries
were examined histologically after staining by the
Elftmann aldehyde-fuchsin technique and the
P aget aldehyde-thionin PAS technique. Evidence
of increased neurosecretory activity in thioureatreated specimens suggested an involvement of
the salt balance mechanism rather than the thyroid in resistance to high temperature. Preliminary experiments involving exposure of thioureatmated fish to high temperatures in a 1% salt
solution indicate a significantly higher temperature tolerance over control animals. Further work
investigating the involvement of the pituitary
rather than the thyroid i n high temperature tolerance in Gambusiu is now in progress. (Supported by grant A-2921 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
CLARENCE M. FLATEN, Indiana University
and Tulane University. Time-lapse studies of
amphibian blastomeres i n culture. (Motion
picture, 15 min.)
Single cells and pairs of recently divided cells
taken from early Rana pipiens blastulae exhibit
characteristic differences in their rates of division
and surface properties when grown in various
media (Elsdale and Lytle, Anat. Rec., 137: 352,
1960). Time-lapse motion pictures have been
taken of cells cultured i n "conditioned medium"
obtained from the disaggregation of 2-3 blastulae
in 10 ml of Ca++ -Mg++ -free saline (Steinberg
solution), Ca++- and Mg++ -free saline alone,
3.0% horse serum i n Ca++- and Mg++- free
saline, and in 0.5% bovine serum albumin in
Ca++- and Mg++- free saline.
The behavior of cells grown in these different
media and certain abnormalities of cells in specific media will be illustrated and discussed.
(This research was supported by grant RG-5850
from the U.S.P.H.S. and grant 6-4284 from N.S.F.)
FRANCES V. McCANN, Dartmouth Medical
School. Comparative electrophysiology of fibrillar muscle. (15 min.)
Flight muscle that is morphologically fibrillar
and functionally asynchronous in insects of the
orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, compared with
Coleoptera and Hemiptera exhibit fundamental
differences i n electrical activity. Fly and wasp
single fibers respond to a single stimulus with an
all-or-none, uniformly rising, in most cases overshooting action potential. Beetles respond with
a variety of potentials, some like the type mentioned above, and others which summate and
facilitate. Some of these latter responses vary
with time in a cyclic manner, and some are altered by the intensity of the stimulus. Further
differences are revealed by exposure to ether and
carbon dioxide. In the wasp and fly ether produces a neuromuscular block, while carbon dioxide rapidly depolarizes the muscle fiber membrane. The electrical responses of bettle muscle
are somewhat affected, but only by massive doses.
Since electrical properties are correlated with
the initial stages of the excitable process as initiated through the motor nerves, mechanical conditions in the muscle membrane, e.g., length, may.
also contribute to muscle activation by effects OR
permeability or on the initiation of coupling processes. One might, therefore, expect some correlation between various aspects of excitation phenomena and mechanical properties.
Evidence will be presented to show that the
degree of activation of beetle muscle is determined
not only by the stimulus, but also by the length
at which the stimulated muscle is held. Conceivably this effect could be mediated through the
excitation mechanism. Whether the electrical and
mechanical properties of beetle muscle are related
in this way or not, there is as yet no evidence that
these unique qualities are found in fibriUar muscle of other insect groups. (Supported by Fellowship 5291 from the National Heart Institute of the
ROBERT C. McCLURE, University of Missouri
School of Veterinary Medicine. Occurrence of
the zygomatic groove and canal in the sphenoid
bone of the dog skull (Canis familiaris). (12
A survey of a random collection of 145 dog
skulls showed that 66 (45.5% ) of the skulls presented no groove or canal; 30 (20.6%) had
grooves on both sides, and 20 (13.8% ) had canals
on both sides; 15 (10.3% ) had a groove on one
side and a canal on the opposite side; 10 (6.9%)
presented a groove on one side and nothing on
the opposite side, and 4 (1.8%) had a canal
on one side and nothing on the opposite side.
Of the total sides of skulls examined (290),
146 (50.3%) showed no indication of a groove
or canal, 85 (29.3%) had a groove, and 59
(20.3% ) had a canal. When present, the groove
was located in the dorsolateral quadrant of the
alar canal and varied from a shallow furrow
to a deep groove which was almost closed to
form a canal. The zygomatic canal when present had its caudal opening in the dorsal
wall of the alar canal rostral to the round foramen.The rostral opening of the zygomatic canal
was located dorsal to the rostral opening of the
alar canal. The only structure found occupying
the zygomatic groove or canal was a branch of
the maxillary nerve (which is described in the
thesis). No correlation between occurrence of the
groove or canal and age or head type was noted.
(From an appendix to a thesis to be submitted
to the Graduate Faculty, Cornell University, for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.)
L. Z. McFARLAND, University of California,
Davis. Salt excretion from the nasal glands
from various species of the Pelicaniformes.
The nasal glands of the Pelicaniformes are
located within the orbital cavity, in contrast to
the supraorbital location in the majority of other
marine birds. Despite this difference in anatomical location, these glands are capable of excreting
a hypertonic salt solution. Functional “salt
glands” were demonstrated in 11 individuals representing 8 species of the Pelicaniformes maintained i n captivity at the San Diego Zoological
Gardens. Each bird was subjected to an oral salt
load consisting of 1-5 grams of NaCl according to
its size, and the nasal fluid was collected and
analyzed for Na, K, and C1 using standard clinical
procedures. The average electrolyte concentrations found for the various species are: gannet
(SuEa bassana), 650 meq Na/l, 20 meq K/1, 724
meq Cl/l; blue-footed boobie (Sula nebouxii), 980
meq Na/l, 16 meq K/1, 1210 meq Cl/l; red-footed
boobie (Sula sula), 757 rneq Na/l, 19 meq K/1,
842 meq Cl/l; blue-faced boobie (Sula dactylatra),
684 meq Na/l, 17 meq K/1, 794 meq Cl/l; crested
pelican (Pelicanus crispus), 734 meq Na/l, 24
meq K/1, 822 meq Cl/1; flightless cormorant
(Nannopterum harrisi), 600 rneq Na/l, 14 meq
K/1, 659 meq Cl/1; little pied cormorant (Microcarbo melanoleucus), 384 meq Na/l, 12 meq K/1,
528 meq Cl/l; and frigate bird (Fregata minor
palmerstoni), 768 meq Na/l, 22 meq K/1, 889
meq C1/1. (Supported in part by the Biological
Research Institute of the Zoological Society of
San Diego.)
L. 2. McFARLAND, University of California,
Davis. Salt excretion from the nasal glands of
captive penguins.
During July, 1959 and 1960, the nasal fluids
from 14 individuals comprising 6 species of captive penguins was collected a t the San Diego
Zoological Gardens. It was the normal practice
to supplement all of the captive penguins with
salt, each bird receiving from 1-6 gm of sodium
chloride daily according to its size. Usually within
15-30 minutes following the ingestion of the
fish in which salt tablets were embedded, drops of
clear nasal fluid began dripping from the tips of
their beaks. The birds frequently shook their
heads to dislodge the drops. The nasal fluid was
analyzed for sodium, potassium, and chloride
concentrations by standard clinical procedures.
The mean electrolyte concentrations 2 standard
error for all samples from the penguins examined
was 604f38 rneq Na/l, 16-C 1 meq K/1, and
688 23 meq C1/1. The individual species had
average electrolyte concentrations of Na, K, and
C1, expressed as meq/l, as follows: Aptenodytes
forsteri, 604, 16, 688; Aptenodytes patagenicus,
477, 14, 594; Eudypturia minor, 591, 17, 749;
Pygoscelia adeliae, 597, 17,677;Pygoscelis papua,
708, 18, 731; and Sphenisczis mendiculus, 660, 17,
690. Based on the data, all of the captive penguins examined still possessed functional nasal
glands. (Supported in part by the Biological
Research Institute of the Zoological Society of
San Diego.)
L. 2. McFARLAND and M. T. CLEGG, University
of California, Davis. Sexual behavior in rams
and the effects of hypothalamic lesions.
The sexual behavior of 32 rams was expressed
as a percentage of the number of typical signs
exhibited toward either estrous or anestrous ewes.
Five behavioral signs were considered typical for
rams of excellent libido, viz., sniffing the vulva,
sniffing voided urine, curling the upper lip, uttering guttural sounds and making licking movements with the tongue. The sexual behavior of
16 rams checked with a band of anestrous ewes
during the Spring of 1960 averaged 30% less
than that of 16 other rams checked with estrous
ewes during the Summer and Fall of 1959. It
appeared that rams had a reduced sexual behavior
pattern which coincided with the anestrous period of the ewe. Hypothalamic lesions involving
the tuberal region resulted in a decreased sexual
behavior varying from 1 1 4 8 % below their preoperative values. However, this decrease could
not be separated from hormonal influences, since
destruction of similar hypothalamic areas resulted
in testicular atrophy and/or altered pituitary gonadotrophin content. (From a thesis of the senior
author submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Supported in part by grant C-3685 from the
THOMAS E. McGILL, Williams College. Sexual
behavior in inbred strains of mice. (Motion
picture, 15 min.)
The sexual behavior of 5 inbred strains of mice
(Mus musculus) was studied. The sexual behavior of the mouse was found to differ from that
of other laboratory rodents such as the rat, hamster and guinea pig. A system of scoring for more
than 20 parameters of sexual behavior was developed. Significant strain differences for several
behavioral measures, including time required to
achieve ejaculation, were discovered.
The results are discussed in terms of their
importance for the comparative study of sexual
behavior. The results also provide the basis for
a genetic analysis of certain behavioral measures,
as well as posing interesting questions concerning
the physiological control of sexual behavior.
The movie shows the pattern of sexual behavior
in the mouse and also illustrates some strain differences. (This investigation was supported by
Postdoctoral Fellowship MF-9688 from the
U.S.P.H.S. The author is grateful to Prof. Frank
A. Beach, University of California, for his guidance during the course of this investigation. )
M. NEIL MACINTYRE, Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The biologic activity of
the inductors of fetal gonadal differentiation
in the rat. (15 min.)
In testing, in the rat, the application of WitschTs
cprtico-medullary induction theory of embryonic
amphibian gonadal differentiation, it has been
demonstrated (Macintyre, ’56) that when heterosexual pairs of 16-day fetal rat gonads are transplanted to a subcapsular site in the kidneys of
castrated adult rat hosts the testis (representing a
tissue of known medullary constitution) developed normally in every case, whereas the ovary
( a tissue of cortical constitution) was always inhibited in its development or transformed into a
testis-like tissue.
Additional studies (Macintyre, Baker and Wykoff, ’59) showed that with the proper age difference an older ovary will inhibit the differentiation of a younger fetal testis.
These experiments indicate that the fetal
gonadal cortex and medulla are capable of elaborating inductor substances which direct the differentiation of the gonad.
In an effort to elucidate the nature of these
morphogenic substances, studies have been undertaken to test their time of elaboration, potency
and range of effectiveness. Transplants of 16day heterosexual gonadal pairs with various distances separating the members showed that as the
distance between testis and ovary is increased,
the effect of the testis on the ovary decreases indicating that the inductor produced by the testis
is effective over short distances only. Other experiments in which up to 4 ovaries have been
transplanted in contact with a single fetal testis
of the same age (16 days) resulted in the inhibition of all ovaries by the testis and indicate that
the difference between the morphogenic substances from ovary and testis is probably one of
time of elaboration rather than one of relative
MALCOLM C. McKENNA, American Museum of
Natural History. The shoulder girdle of the
mammalian subclass Allotheria. (15 min.)
The shoulder girdles of the mammalian subclasses Theria and Prototheria are widely different. That of the extinct subclass Allotheria has
been known from a poorly preserved scrap of
scapula of the Mongolian Cretaceous multituberculate Djadochtathetium. The disputed scapula and ‘Tnterclavicle” from the late Cretaceous
Lance formation named Camptomus by 0. C.
Marsh (1889) and referred to the Allotheria are
reidentified as a therian scapula and probably an
allotherian omosternal fragment, respectively.
The astragalus and calcaneum referred by Marsh
to Camptomus are allotherian. Two isolated
scapulae have been recovered from the American
late Cretaceous which in general conform to the
structure of the Djadochtatherium scapula. The
coracoid is fused to the scapula and the scapular
spine everted as in Theria. The supraspinous
fossa occurs on the medial surface of the scapula
as in the Prototheria, not directly anterior to the
everted spine. The subscapular fossa is confined
to the posterior part of the bone. The tricipital
ridge forms the glenoid border. The allotherian
scapula, therefore, combines certain features of
the Prototheria and Theria. The allotherian stance
was apparently little advanced over that of the
cynodonts, but the everted scapular spine is more
an indication of therian than of prototherian
26 1
SAMUEL R. MAGRUDER, Tufts University
School of Medicine. Innervation of the tongue
musculature of Eptesicus fuscus.
Tissue from 5 adult bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was
prepared by the Nonidez method for staining
nerves. The tongue muscles appeared more profusely innervated than other muscles examined
from the same specimens. This may be partially
due to a relative telescoping of these nerves compared to those innervating larger muscles. On the
basis of dissections plus serial sections of the
tongue it was tentatively concluded that the motor
supply to the bat’s tongue was entirely via the
hypoglossal nerve. The preterminal efferent nerve
fibers divided abruptly at the motor end plate
into three to 6 terminal twigs which appear to
clasp the muscle fiber. Some of these terminals
end as tapered points. But more than 70% end
as rings, loops, solid expansions or neurofibrillar
nets. These observations are not in agreement
with the recent statement (Coers and Woolf, ’59)
that all motor endings, after silver staining, show
only tapered twigs. Motor end plates of the bat’s
tongue are larger and more complex than comparable endings in pectoral intercostal and psoas
muscles from the same animals. There is no
correlation between the morphology of the motor
end plates and the size of the muscle fibers. It
was not determined if the motor ending was
located at the midpoint of the muscle fiber. An
autonomic ganglion, consisting of three to 10
cells, was found bilaterally, i n the posterior third
of the tongue. It was associated with a small
nerve tentatively identified as a branch of the
trigeminal. No muscle spindles nor any other
afferent endings associated with the musculature
have been seen. Very few branching muscle fibers
were observed; their innervation does not differ
from unbranched muscle fibers.
LUBOW A. MARGOLENA, Animal Husbandry
Division, Agricultural Research Service, United
States Department of Agriculture. Season and
comparative activity of wool follicles.
Forty Rambouillet rams from the genetically
stabilized line at the United States Sheep Experiment Station, Dubois, Idaho, were divided at
random into 4 groups of 10 rams each. One
group remained in Idaho, while the other groups
were sent to University Park, New Mexico, Tifton,
Georgia, and Beltsville, Maryland, respectively.
Of each group of 10 rams, 5 were maintained
under normal management practices and 5 were
kept in barns and individually fed a ration of
5.4 pounds (90% dry matter basis) of alfalfa
pellets per day. All pellets used at the 4 locations
were made from a common source in Idaho.
Microscopic examinations of histologic preparations of early March, late April, early May and
June, and mid-October biopsies of the Rambouillet
skins revealed no seasonal shedding. The depth
of follicular penetration of the follicles in the
dermis showed considerable uniformity, the
maxima ranging from 3.75 to 4.40 mm. Above
measurements corroborate the general impression
that fine woolled sheep do not undergo seasonal
molt or molts, which would necessarily be associated with spectacular upward migrations of all
or certain types of follicles.
Irrespective of location, the wool follicles of
individually fed rams showed slightly deeper
penetration as compared to the pasture kept members of their groups; this seems worth noting as
the same barn kept animals produced also heavier
Mitotic counts in the wool matrices of the
Idaho and Georgia skins (300 mitoses were covered per biopsy), tend to indicate that cell divisions directly responsible for the growth of the
wool fiber tend to slow down during the colder
months to about 72% of that found in early
JEAN M. MARSHALL, Harvard Medical School.
Relationship between transmembrane potentials and contractile tension in uterine smooth
muscle. (15 min.)
Simultaneous recordings of transmembrane potentials and contractile tension were obtained
from isolated uteri of rats. The animals were
ovariectomized and divided into three groups: untreated controls, estrogen-treated (6 pg estradiol
benzoate daily for 5 days), estrogen-progesterone
treated (6 pg estradiol for three days, then 1.6
pg estradiol plus 12 mg progesterone for 5 days).
The membrane potentials of the untreated control uteri were quite low, mean 35.2 mv, and
these muscles were quiescent. Estrogen raised
the membrane potential to a level (57.6 mv
mean) sufficient to produce trains of action potentials which initiated contractions. These
rhythmic contractions were always preceded and
accompanied by action potentials, the frequency
of which increased as the tension developed,
then diminished and ceased altogether as the
tension subsided. In small strips of uterus, it was
possible to note that the magnitude of the developed tension was related directly to the frequency of action potential discharge.
Progesterone increased the membrane potential
to a level (63.8 mv mean) where areas of conduction block occurred. The contractions of these
muscles were sporadic and irregular. Furthermore, there was no consistent relationship between the discharge of action potentials and contraction. Discharges in a given fiber either preceded a contraction, or occurred only after tension
had developed, or were entirely absent during a
G. M. MATEYKO and M. J. KOPAC, New York
University. Cytological studies on renal cultures of Rana pipiens.
A cytological and cytochemical study of normal
and adenocarcinomatous frog renal tissue in tissue culture was made. In a medium consisting of
Gey’s solution, chick embryo extract, and sterile
human ascitic fluid of malignant ovarian origin,
both types maintained their own individual characteristics, the malignant explants exhibiting
more rapid growth and variability characteristic
of neoplasia.
After cultures were established, growth could
be held in abeyance without renewal of medium
for periods up to 4 months by storage at a temperature of 4°C.
The following studies were made: phase contrast on living cultures including acrylonitrile;
hypotonic, acid, and alkaline media; trypsin and
RN-ase; hematoxylin and eosin; Pianese; Schleifstein; eosin and methylene blue; acetoacein-fast
green; ferricyanide; methyl green-pyronin; acid
hematin; brilliant cresyl blue, methylene blue,
methylene violet (Bernthsen), toluidine blue 0
at controlled levels of pH; PAS; Sudan N and
Sudan black B; Nile blue sulfate; nitroprusside;
Millon; Sakaguchi; Schultz; and Estable and
Sotelo silver nucleolonemal techniques. Control
studies included the hydrolytic and enzymatic
sequential removal of nucleic acids, protein, lipid,
carbohydrates, etc.
Briefly, in contrast to normal tissue, tumor cells
show the frequent occurrence of acidophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (RN-ase labile), much cytoplasmic RNA and protein, some particulate lipid
birefringent in polarized light, perinucleolar phospholipid, SchSpositive droplets in the cytoplasm
and diffuse PAS-positive material, and considerable amounts of nucleolar RNA, histone, basic
protein, with a nucleolar structural constituent
resistant under usual conditions, to the sequential
action of carbohydrases, nucleases, and proteolytic agents. (Supported by grant C-4410from the
RAOUL MICHEL MAY and JEAN-PIERRE DENLFLE, Facult6 des Sciences, University of Paris.
Comparison of the direct action of ultra-violet
and x-rays on the in vitro growth of nerve
fibers from irradiated spinal cords of chick
The thoracic and lumbo-sacral spinal cord of
7-day old chick embryos was split longitudinally
into two halves, on either side of the central
canal, and each half was cut into 3 4 fragments.
These were placed in small sterile dishes containing 5 m l of Ringer's solution and irradiated
through a cellophane membrane. One of the two
identical lots served as a control, being covered
over with a tin sheet in the case of exposition
to ultra-violet rays, undergoing no irradiation in
that of x-rays. They were then further subdivided
into cubes about 1 mm3 and cultured in de
Fonbrune's oil chambers at 38°C. They were
photographed and cinematographed after 24 and
48 hours growth.
Ultra-violet rays: 569 controls and 545 cultures
stemming from fragments irradiated 7 cm below
a lamp emitting 3003 A. This band has an effect
on the nerve fibers: (1) it stimulates quantitatively and qualitatively their growth if they are
irradiated up to 90 min.; (2) it inhibits their
growth if the irradiation is prolonged beyond 90
min. The exposition during 90 min under these
conditions is thus a liminary threshold between
their stimulation and their degeneration.
X-rays: 344 controls and 336 cultures irradiated with 3400 and 3825 r (70 kv). These
strong doses are necessary in order to bring about
degeneration of the nerve fibers more rapidly
than in controls. Besides, minimal and medium
growths predominate in the case of fibers from
irradiated fragments, while optimal growth does
so in that of controls.
While a certain dosage of ultra-violet irradiation has thus a stimulating action on the growth
of nerve fibers, this does not occur with x-ray
DONALD M. MAYNARD, University of Michigan.
Forms of activity within the neuropile of the
spiny lobster. (15 min.)
Intracellular recordings were obtained from the
semi-isolated, perfused, and desheathed cerebral
ganglia of the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus).
In most cases reported here, the electrode tip was
presumably lodged in fibers contributing to the
deutocerebral neuropile at the base of the antennular nerve.
"Spontaneous" activity in cerebral elements
took three forms: (1) spike discharges arising
from slowly developing generator potentials;
(2) spike discharges arising from and initiated by
a background of post-synaptic potentials; (3) subthreshold post-synaptic discharge only, usually
composed of several potentials differing in amplitude. Both depolarizing (epsp) and hyperpolarizing (ipsp) post-synaptic potentials were
often present. Such continuous discharges frequently could be accelerated or inhibited by illumination of the eye, by stimulation of the
antennular nerve, or by both. In several instances, 2-3 spikes of varying amplitude and discharge frequency apparently recorded from one
unit suggested independent sites of impulse origin along the neuron processes.
Stimulation of rapidly conducting (5-15 m/
sec. at 28'C) afferent fibers in the antennular
nerve caused post-synaptic potentials in internuncial or motor units. A single epsp was characteristically insufficient to initiate a propagated,
post-synaptic response. Spatial summation was
prominent, and all elements examined apparently
received input from several antennular fibers.
Pure temporal summation was present, but in
these experiments usually seemed associated with
defacilitation of the epsp. Facilitation was rare.
Nevertheless, the summed post-synaptic response
to a single massive stimulus of the antennular
nerve frequently lasted several tenths of a second.
In the absence of repetitive discharge in the initial input, this suggests some re-excitation or cascading circuit within the neuropile.
Antennular nerve stimulation occasionally produced ipsp. These tended to become depolarizing
as the membrane potential increased. As with the
epsp, ipsp showed evidence of spatial summation
with increasing stimulus strengths. Some elements showed both epsp and ipsp in response to
massive, indiscriminate stimulation of the antennular nerve. (Aided by a Summer Faculty
Research Fellowship and Rackham Research
Grant 497, The University of Michigan.)
EDITH A. MAYNARD, University of Michigan.
Cholinesterases in two autonomic ganglia of the
lobster, Homarus americanus.
A histochemical study of cholinesterases in
lobster cardiac and ventricular (stomatogastric)
ganglia was made, using the thiocholine method
of Koelle ('51). Material subjected to substrates
(acetylthiocholine or butyrylthiocholine) was in
the form of unfixed, frozen sections, or freshly dissected whole ganglia. After completion of the
histochemical reaction the intact ganglia were
preserved as whole mounts or were dehydrated,
embedded in paraffin, and sectioned.
Both ganglia are located within the circuratory
system and both contain motor neurons, those
of the cardiac ganglion innervating heart muscle
and those of the ventricular ganglion going to
gut musculature. The cholinesterase reactions are
very dissimilar in the two ganglia. The ventricular ganglion, like the central nervous system
3 70
(Maynard and Maynard, ’60), contains large
amounts of cholinesterase, located principally in
sheath cells around nerve cell bodies and in
neuropile; the neuron somata may have a moderate reaction in the periphery of the cytoplasm
but in general nerve cells and their larger processes contain little enzyme. The cardiac ganglion,
in contrast, has only a very small amount of
cholinesterase, contained in sheath cells around
neuron somata and processes.
Complete inhibition of the reaction with acetylthiocholine was obtained in cardiac ganglia in
the presence of
M eserine sufate,
di-isopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), or
B.W. 2e4C5lj dibromide (BW), and in ventricular ganglia with lO-5M eserine sulfate, 10-4M
DFP, or lO-3M BW. Complete inhibition of the
reaction with butyrylthiocholine occurred in
M eserine sulfate,
cardiac ganglia with
10-BM DFP, or lO-5M BW, and in ventricular
ganglia with 10-5 M eserine sulfate,
or 10-SM BW. (Supported by U.S.P.H.S. grant
M-1379 to R. W. Gerard. DFP was obtained from
Dr. B. J. Jandorf, the Army Chemical Center,
Maryland, and BW from Dr. E. de Beer, the Wellcome Research Laboratories, Burroughs Wellcome
and Co., Tuckahoe, New York.)
ROGER MILKMAN, Syracuse University. Rapid
temperature adaptation in Drosophila metanogaster pupae. (15 min.)
Twenty-four hours (at 23‘C) after puparium
formation, Drosophila melanogaster pupae are
maximally sensitive to disturbance of posterior
crossvein formation by exposure to temperatures
in the range 39.5-41.5’C. Over this range, the
Q1 for this effect is uniformly 2.3. Longer exposures result in death.
Prior exposure at 37.5“C for as little as 5 minutes results in increased resistance both to crossvein disturbance and to death. The degree of
adaptation is a function of duration at 37.5’ and
of the interval between treatment at 37.5” and
treatment at the higher temperature.
The adaptation at 37.5’ is differential, since
any subsequent exposures to temperatures between 39.5” and 41.5‘ which are insufficient to
kill the animals will produce no crossvein defects.
This contrasts with the apparently non-differential adaptation resulting from aging the pupae at
28’ rather than at 23‘ from the time of puparium
formation to the time of treatment. Possible
mechanisms and applications are discussed.
(Supported by grant 6-9785 from N.S.F.)
tural variations and composition of the nuclear
University of Palermo, Italy. A study of the
envelope. (15 min.)
cell fluid proteins of the egg and developmental
stages of Paracentrotus Zividus.
Nuclear envelopes from nearly mature eggs of
Rana pipiens were isolated in KC1 solutions,
Cell fluid proteins (proteins remaining in solutreated with enzymes, and fixed in various ways. tion in 0.5M sucrose at pH 6.4 after one hour
Whole mounts were air dried for electron micros- centrifugation at 105,000 G and dialysis to reCOPY.
move low molecular components) of unfertiThe envelope is covered with the usual annu- lized eggs and developmental stages of Pamcenlated “pores” which can be seen after OsOa, trotus lividus have been studied by zone electroKMn04, and 10% formalin fixations. Differen- phoresis in starch (borate buffer at p1-I 8.6).
tial solubilities and enzyme digestions indicate Under these conditions three main components
that the ‘‘pore” is not a hole. A “pore” diaphragm can be recognized, all of them with anodic mimaterial or membrane, at least partially protein, gration. The fastest component, a, has been
is of remarkably constant density and must be identified as ribonucleic acid. The intermediate
considered part of the nuclear envelope. The and largest one bears indications of being made
surrounding annulus is chemically and structur- up of at least two incompletely separated comally of different nature than the diaphragm, sur- ponents, b and b’. The former is a nucleoprotein,
rounding and partially filling the diaphragmed the latter exhibits a typical protein spectrum.
“pore.” Neither diaphragm nor annulus contains Also the slowest component, c, has a protein
digestable RNA but both, along with the bilami- spectrum. Estimates of the areas of the three
nar membrane, are destroyed by trypsin.
main components indicate a significant increase
In addition there are numerous differentiated of c during cleavage stages; from the morula
areas ranging from less than one to three microns stage on the increase is not statistically signifiin diameter. In these, the two elements of the bi- cant. Analyses carried out on cell fluid proteins
laminar membrane are separated, one of them from embryos raised in the presence oE W-methballooning out from the other. The usual annulated ionine show a lively uptake in b,b’ and c at all
“pores” are here replaced by dense granular zones stages of development. The uptake in c is, howcontaining “pore”-like circular structures on one ever, the highest during the cleavage stages;
of the membranous elements only. The dense from then on it is stronger in b’. No activity at
material does not contain digestable RNA but is all has been found in a. These results are sugdestroyed by trypsin.
gestive of a synthesis of at least one protein alOther dense, granular areas containing “pores” ready during cleavage. O n the other hand, owing
in close hexagonal packing adhere to the surface to the incomplete separation of b and b’, it has
of the envelope. They contain n o digestable RNA not been possible to decide whether the uptake jn
and their “pores” are not in register with the these components is due to a synthesis or to a
underlying “pores” of the envelope. (Supported turnover. (Supported by grant RG-6211 from the
by U.S.P.H.S. Training Grant 2G-216(C2).)
R. W. MERRIAM, Columbia University. Struc-
FLORENCE MOOG, Washington University. Influence of thyroid hormone on the functional
differentiation of the duodenum in the chick
embryo. (15 min.)
Incubating eggs were injected with 3.8 mg of
thiourea (TU) at 11 days. As others have previously found, such treatment causes enlargement
of the thyroid glands and severely slows the rate
of development. In TU-retarded embryos the accumulation of duodenal alkaline phosphatase,
which normally proceeds very rapidly between 17
and 21 days, lags 4-5 days behind that i n the
controls. Duodenal phosphatase activity does not
rise above the normal 19-day level, even as late
as a week after the controls have hatched. The
naturally-occurring pre-hatching increase in general protein concentration in the duodenum fails
entirely. Differentiation of the intestinal epithelium, examined by histological and histochemical techniques, is inhibited in parallel with the
retardation of phosphatase development. Although exogenous corticoids ordinarly accelerate
intestinal differentiation, including the synthesis
of phosphatase, the action of cortisone acetate
(1 mg injected at 14 days) is completely blocked
in embryos previously treated with TU. The inhibitory effects of TU on the duodenum are fully
reversed by 1-thyroxine (1.5 pg injected at 13
and at 15 davs). If TU-treated embryos are given
1-thyroxine at 13 and 15 days and cortisone acetate at 14 days, the accumulation of phosphatase
is accelerated to the same degree as in control
chicks given cortisone alone. Evidently the prehatching differentation of the chick duodenum,
whether under normal conditions or under the
influence of exogenous corticoid, requires the
presence of thyroid hormone. (Supported by
grant RG-3937 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
A. ULRIC MOORE and MARVIN AMSTEY, Cornell University. Animal hypnosis (tonic immobility) considered as a parameter of behavior in distinguishing between a group of
normal and abnormal (experimental) lambs
and kids. (15 min.)
A number of species of both birds and mammals are known to yield to experimental tonic
immobility or “animal hypnosis.” The phenomenon is also widely encountered in the natural
state, where it commonly has been interpreted by
behaviorists as an innate mechanism for evading
predators by shamming death after capture.
A group of 15 experimental animals (lambs
and kids) whose maternal bond had previously
been modified through forced adoption by interchanging their mothers postpartum were a11 found
at 6 months of age to be unsusceptible to hypnosis, whereas all control animals were readily immobilized. The animals were selected in intergroup random order and the “hypnotist” was uninformed as to respective identities. Two sets of
tests were run and found to yield consistent data.
Other functional anomalies noted in the adoption
syndrome include : immature physical development, hyper- or hypo-activity under experimental
stress, and poor differentiation between the foster
mother and other females in the Aock.
An interpretation of these data is made in
terms of Pavlov’s theory that sleep and hypnosis
are related phenomena in animals and an hypothesis is presented regarding the relationship to
sleep of the neonate quiescent or “resting phase”
observed during this early period of development.
Tonic immobility in adult animals is regarded as
an energy function of the nervous system called
into play by the disruption of flight capacity. A
similar function for protecting the nervous system
from noxious amounts of stimulation is tentatively conceived of as existing in the neonate
animal. (This work was done at the Behavior
Farm Laboratory and was supported in part by a
grant from the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.)
LARRY L. MORGENSTERN, University of Kansas.
Changes in sexual behavior in spayed female
guinea pigs following anterior hypothalamic
lesions. (Introduced by William C. Young)
(15 min.)
Seven adult females from strain 13 and 8 from
genetically heterogeneous stock T were used.
Electrolytic lesions were placed stereotaxically in
the anterioventral hypothalamus. Four tests for
mounting behavior and receptivity were given
preoperatively and 5 postoperatively. On each
test estrus was induced by injection of estradiol
followed 36 hours later with progesterone; vigor
of lordosis was measured 12 times at hourly intervals.
Maximum vigor of lordosis declined from
means of 24.5 and 18.4 seconds preoperatively to
9.7 and 4.1 postoperatively in strain 13 and
stock T respectively. Postoperatively, vigor of
lordosis was lower on every measurement.
Mounting was eliminated in 6 animals, lordosis
in only three. Moreover, mean frequency declined
from 12.5 and 8.1 preoperatively to 3.9 and 0.5
postoperatively for strain 13 and stock T respectively. Preoperatively mounting was observed in
70 of 89 determinations (77.8% ) postoperatively,
in 28 of 104 (26.9% ).
The lesions produced a continuous series of
reductions in frequency of mounting and vigor
of lordosis. Postoperatively, three animals showed
complete absence of sexual behavior, 9 showed
degrees of loss, and three no change. Histological
study failed to show conclusive similarities within
groups or differences between groups as to locus
or size of lesion.
The findings suggest a complex participation of
the hypothalamus i n the determination of degrees
of expression of the components of sexual behavior in contrast to the concept of an all-or-none
sexual “center.” (Supported in part by grant
M-504 from the U.S.P.H.S. The author was a
recipient of a U.S.P.H.S. Traineeship to the Department of Psychiatry.)
JAMES M. MOULTON, Bowdoin College. The
acoustical anatomy of teleost fishes.
The notable variety in teleost fishes is reflected
no less in their acoustical anatomy than in other
aspects of their morphology. Special adaptations
facilitating hearing and sound production bear
extensive review.
WILLIAM B. MUCHMORE, University of Rochester. Muscle proteins in early amphibian embryos. (15 min.)
There has been considerable controversy recently concerning the first appearance of muscle
proteins in the development of vertebrate embryos. The following data indicate that actomyosin-like antigens do occur in embryos of the
salamander well before the development of crossstriated muscle fibers.
It has not proved possible to isolate pure myosin from amphibian muscle. Therefore, antibodies were prepared in rabbits against actomyosin extracted from the body muscles of Necturus
maculosus with Guba-Straub solution. The resulting sera showed positive precipitin reactions with
homologous antigen at dilutions of at least
1:1024. Some of the sera were absorbed with
the vitellin fraction of the yolk proteins of ovarian
eggs, which gave a positive precipitin reaction.
These sera were then shown to be specific for the
muscle proteins. Embryos of Ambystoma macuZatum at various stages were homogenized in
Guba-Straub solution, and the cleared extract
used in agar diffusion and microprecipitin tests
with the absorbed sera. Positive results were obFRANK MOYER, Johns Hopk!ns University. tained with the Ouchterlony technique using exSome effects of pigment mutabons on the fine tracts of Harrison’s stage 39 or later. With the
structure of mouse melanin granules. (Intro- microprecipitin test (in capillary tubes) positive
duced by C. L. Markert) (15 rnin.)
reactions were obtained with embryos as early as
Recently electron microscopy has revealed that
stage 23. This result is in general agreement with
mouse melanin granules develop through an or- the finding by Ogawa (Nature, 182: 1312, 1958)
derly sequence of 4 stages, each with its own
that myosin-like antigen first appears in Triturus
characteristic fine structure, the final stage cor- pyrrhogaster embryos at stage 24 and actin-like
responding to the mature granule. Furthermore,
antigen at stage 19. The exact nature of the antiseveral pigment mutations result in subtle changes
genic molecule responsible for these early rein the details of this developmental sequence and
actions and its localization in the embryo are the
these changes can be correlated with observed object of continuing investigation. (Supported
phenotypic effects (Moyer, Anat. Rec., 134: 612, by grant G-5540 from N.S.F.)
1959, and 136: 248, 1960). Pigment mutations
which grossly alter granule morphology may be
expected to alter the fine structure of the developPHILIP
A. C. BALLAS 2nd D.
ing granule to a greater degree, and in ways which
W. SLINGERLAND, Veterans Administration
may provide clues to the nature of the primary
Hospital, Boston. The in vitro stimulation of
gene product involved. Accordingly, electron mi(15
thyroidal activity by propylthiouracil.
croscope observations have been made of the
retinal pigmented epithelium of embryos and
In vitro studies were made which indicated
neonatal mice from inbred strains carrying the
genes for pink-eyed dilution (aaBBpp) and al- that a small amount of propylthiouracil (
added to the medium increased the total uptake
bino (aabbcc).
The melanin granules in the pigment epi- of radioiodine by rat thyroid slices under both
aerobic (206% after 30 minutes) and anaerobic
thelium of pink-eyed mice are irregular in shape
(162% after 300 minutes) conditions. Chromatand are smaller than those of the wild type. This
morphology can be correlated with the structure ographic studies (aerobic) showed a possible inof the stage 2 granule in which the internal fibers crease in the amount not only of trapped radioiodide (110%) but also organic radioiodine
are arranged in a different order than those of
(132%) and a decrease in the ratio of iodide/
the wild type. In the albino mouse no mature
melanin granules are formed; however unpig- organic iodinated compounds (I-/Io) (1.09 to
mented “precursor granules” (stages 1 and 2) do 0.86). In addition, there was a decrease in the
ratio of radiomonoidotyrosine to radiodiiodotyroform and are similar i n appearance to those of
pigmented strains. Apparently the albino stage 2 sine (MIT/DIT) in the propylthiouracil treated
slices (5.6 to 2.0), indicating that there was a
granule is incapable of further development. This
finding lends support to the theory that the stage relatively greater stimulation of organification
2 granule is the site of tyrosinase activity in pig- and conversion of MIT to DIT than iodide trapmented mice. The implications of these findings ping. Chromatographic studies (anaerobic ) also
will be discussed. (Supported in part by an mdxated a possible increase in the amount of
N.S.F. grant and by grants H-3141 and CF-9040, trapped radioiodide (108% ) as well as a definite
increase in organic radioiodine (161%) and a
The teleost ear is not so thoroughly enclosed in
skeletal parts as is the ear of other vertebrates,
and thus, as D. R. Griffin has noted in another
connection, the soft tissues provide for sound
transfer between water and the sensory ear a
medium much like water in its acoustical transparency.
The movements of fishes in the water-Trachurus trachurus (Shiskova, E. V., Rybnoe Khoziaistvo, 34: 33-39,1958) Anchoviella choerostoma,
Caranx sp., Trachinotus palometa-create
considerable sound which is probably of biological
The hydrostatic function of the Prionotus air
bladder is admirably adapted to sound production. Species-characteristic sounds are produced
by the air bladder of Prionotus evolans when up
to 1/3 of the gas is removed from the air bladder
of fish contained at the surface. (Supported by
grant G-4403 from N.S.F., by the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution, and by the Faculty
Research Fund of Bowdoin College. Part of the
work was performed at WHO1 and at the
Bermuda Biological Station.)
decrease i n the ratio of I-& (1.64 to 1.23). Further, there was a significant increase in oxygen
consumption (152% after 60 minutes) by the
propylthiouracil treated slices. The results indicate a direct stimulatory effect, in uitro, by small
amounts of propylthiouracil on oxygen consumption and thyroxine biosynthesis. The different
reactions involved in thyroxine biosynthesis are
stimulated to varying degrees.
These observations suggest that intraperitoneally injected Thorotrast, in addition to entering the lymphatic system, is also carried by macrophages through the surface of the mouse liver
to the hepatic sinusoids. (Supported by grants
CRT-5007 and (2-510 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
HENRY C. NATHAN, The Wellcome Research
Laboratories. The use of specific pathogen-free
mice for tumor studies. (Introduced by Samuel Bieber) (15 min.)
WILLIAM R. MURCHIE, The University of Michigan Flint College. Production of spermatoComparative studies on tumor growth were carphores by Dendrobaena samarigera Rosa 1893. ried out with Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Swiss(12 min.)
Bagg and Ha/ICR Swiss mice. Fragments of SarThe lumbricid D. samarigera shows constancy coma 180 (1-2 mm3) were implanted by means
in the formation of large spermatophores associ- of a trocar in the right axillary region. Ten days
ated with the male porophore. These spermato- after implantation the animals were sacrificed
phores occur on the dorsal or dorso-lateral aspect and the tumors were calipered and weighed.
of segments 15 and 16. Rosa (Bull. Mus. Torino, While the average tumor weights in both groups
8: 1-14, 1893) correctly assumed these structures were comparable, the SPF animals exhibited a
to be produced by glandular cells of the poro- significantly narrower range of tumor sizes and
weights as compared with the standard Swiss
Histological sections of specimens recently ob- mice. This uniform tumor growth is a desirable
tained, indicate that the dorsal body wall of D. feature for experimental chemotherapy. Prelimisamarigera is actively involved in retention of nary experiments indicate no differences in the
these spermatophores and further, appear to chemotherapeutic response of the tumor carried
substantiate the conclusions of Ribaucourt (Bull. in the SPF mice as compared with the Ha/ICR
Sci. France Belg., 35: 211-311, 1900) that, in at mice.
Studies were carried out to determine the
least some species of Oligochaeta, the segments
producing and bearing the spermatophores are changes in the bacterial flora of SPF mice housed
the same. Thus, their presence does not neces- in a common colony room. Upon receipt they
sarily indicate that they have been deposited by were verified to be free of bacterial pathogens
whereas the standard mice revealed subclinical
a partner in copulation.
titres of salmonella, streptococcus, proteus and
shigella. Noteworthy is the fact that SPF mice
PAUL K. NAKANE, Brown University. Histologi- had smaller spleens and livers. All animals were
cal observations on the effect of intraperi- housed in cages with wire mesh bottoms. Cages
toneally injected Thorotrast on the surface of were changed weekly and scrubbed and boiled.
the mouse liver. (Introduced by E. H. Leduc) When maintained in separate cages the animals
remained pathogen free for 6 months; when
(15 min.)
Thorotrast combines with unknown basophilic housed in the same colony cage with standard
substances in the peritoneal cavity, and accumu- mice, the SPF animals remained pathogen free for
lates between the connective tissue of Glisson’s 8 weeks. The stability of this condition may allow
for a wider application of this type of mouse to
capsule and the mesothelium on the surfaces of
the mouse liver. Lymphocytes collect inside the experimental programs.
Glisson’s capsule beneath the aggregates of
Thorotrast. During the first day after injection,
these lymphocytes are located between the hepatic R. BRUCE NICKLAS, Yale University. The cytology of Mycophila speyeri and the origin of the
cells and within indentations on the surface of
gall-midge chromosome cycle. (15 min.)
these cells. On the second and third days this
The bizarre gall-midge (Cecidomyiidae; Dipindenting process disrupts the superficial hepatic
cells, and the lymphocytes move further into the tera) chromosome cycle poses many problems of
liver. Macrophages loaded with Thorotrast pene- wide interest, but few are more alluring than the
trate the connective tissue layer of the capsule question of the evolutionary origin of this cycle
and follow the lymphocytes thus coming in con- from the more orthodox cycle of the gall-midge
tact with the hepatic sinusoid. During the third ancestors. An attack on this question has been
and 4th days, a new layer of connective tissue made by cytological investigation of the primitive
forms between the damaged and the undamaged gall-midge, Mycophila speyeri. The chromosome
cycle of Mycophila has three features also found
regions of the parenchyma.
Vacuole-like spaces appear beneath Glisson’s in more specialized gall-midges: a large number of
capsule and among the damaged hepatic cells on chromosomes in the germ-line, chromosome elimthe second and third days. Thorotrast-laden ination from future somatic cells during early
macrophages invade these spaces during the 4th cleavage, and chromosome elimination in spermatogenesis. However, sexual oogenesis lacks
Thorotrast aggregates also accumulate on the unusual features found in other gall-midges,
other surfaces of the peritoneal cavity; however, and instead there is normal chromosome pairing
the process of invasion seen in the liver does not and segregation. The studies on male and female
meiosis suggest that sexual progeny begin develoccur.
opment with fewer chromosomes than their
parents possessed, and therefore a compensatory
increase in chromosome number probably occurs
during early cleavage i n sexual progeny. The
evolutionary origin of the gall-midge chromosome
cycle is considered in the light of these results.
It is concluded that the essential innovation in
the ancestral group was a n increase in chromosome number, possibly by polyploidy, and that
chromosome elimination in cleavage and spermatogenesis made possible the perpetuation of
this elevated chromosome number. Modifications
of oogenesis are viewed as secondary adaptations
not present in the early gall-midge stock.
Virginia University. Prolonged survival of human sperm and other mammalian sperm in
chemically defined media at room temperatures.
(15 min.)
Successful maintenance of metabolically and
functionally active bovine sperm in a coconut
milk diluent suggested the possibility of sustaining human sperm and other mammalian sperm in
chemically definied media at room temperatures
for an extended period of time. Semen collected
from human donors was pooled after liquefaction.
Bovine and rabbit semen were collected with an
artificial vagina. The sperm were washed twice
in the medium under investigation and the final
volume adjusted to give an appropriate cell concentration. All media tested contained the following additives in final concentration: 31 mg%
penicillin (Na), 68 mg% dihydrostreptomycin
sulfate, 300 mg% sulfanilamide, 4 units mycostatin/ml and 150 units aqueous solution of
sterile catalase per ml. The sperm suspensions
were poured into sterile plastic vials, completely
filled and stored in the dark at room temperatures (25°C & 2°C ). Initially and daily thereafter separate vials were removed, inverted several times prior to counting viable cells and
measuring motility quantitatively as well as
qualitatively. Tris (0.02 M) buffered maintenance medium 199 (Hyland Laboratories) gave the
best survival rate for human spermatozoa. In
this medium the number of viable and vigorously
progressive human cells remained relatively constant for 5-6 days. Although bovine sperm survived well in medium 199, a modified White's
medium achieved comparable results and is more
desirable for metabolic and nutritional studies
because of its simpler composition. Rabbit sperm
were satisfactorily maintained in Hank's solution
for 3-4 days. In all cases 0.5-1.0% egg yolk
substantially enhanced sperm survival time.
(Supported by grant RG-6339 from the US.
West Virginia University. A chemicalIy defined
maintenance medium for bovine sperm. (Introduced by Lloyd R. Gribble) (15 min.)
A chemically defined medium has been developed for the in witro maintenance of metabolically
and functionally active bovine spermatozoa for
more than a week at close to physiologic temperatures (25°C f 2°C). The composition of this
medium is: 7.3 X lo-% M sodium citrate dihydrate, 2.7 x
M glucose, 2.1 x 10-e M magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, 2.4 X 10-3 M sodium sulfate, 1.5 X 10-3 M potassium chloride,
1.3 X
M potassium nitrate, and 2.3 X lo-* M
monosodium phosphate. These basic ingredients
dissolved in 3 x distilled water contained the following additives in final concentration: 31 mg%
penicillin G (Na), 68 mg% dihydrostreptomycin
sulfate, 300 mg% sulfanilamide, 4 units mycostatin/ml and 150 units catalase/ml. Survival of
washed cells suspended i n this salt solution remained relatively constant for 5 days and declined approximately 25% on the 6th day. The
significance of this development is that it provides a vehicle for precise environmental control
enabling a more comprehensive and definitive
study of cell metabolism and function. (Supported by grants RG-6339 and E-2497 from the
N.I.H., U.S.P.H.S. and a grant from the N.A.A.B.)
RONALD R. NOVALES, BARBARA JEAN NOVALES and STEPHEN H. ZINNER, Northwestern University. Further studies on ionic factors influencing intermedin action on frog skin.
(15 min.)
Previous studies (Novales, '59 and Wright and
Lerner, '60) have shown that sodium is required
in the medium for the specific response of the
melanophores of isolated frog skin to intermedin
(melanocyte-stimulating hormone, MSH). Neither
potassium, choline, lithium nor guanidinium ion
were able to replace sodium. Further attempts
have been made to find a substitute for sodium.
Ammonium, hydrazinium, tetramethylammonium
and tetraethylammonium Ringer all darkened
skins slightly by themselves in an hour. MSH
did not produce a greater darkening in the above
solutions, thus none of these ions were able to
replace sodium in the response. There was a 10fold reduction of the sodium content of skin kept
in sodium-free media.
In view of the importance of calcium in excitable systems, calcium-free Ringer with sodium
citrate (6mM) has been employed. This had no
darkening effect of its own. The magnitude of
the response was greater in the calcium-free
Ringer, since skins in this medium darkened 17%
more in a high MSH concentration than with
MSH in normal Ringer. Calcium-free Ringer
treatment had little effect on the calcium content
of skins. Experiments with oxalate and EDTA
Ringer were also conducted, as well as with
Ringer with 10 times the normal calcium content.
The effect of replacement of Ringer chloride with
bromide, sulfate or nitrate was studied. These
results will be discussed in terms of the role of
the above ions in melanophore physiology and
cellular excitability. (Supported by grant G-9019
from N.S.F. and by the Graduate School, Northwestern University.)
ROBERT E. OGREN, Dickinson College. Observations on the immature hexacanth embryo of
Hymenolepis diminuta, a tapeworm of mammals. (10 min.)
This undifferentiated invertebrate embryo is
characterized by the presence of 6 hook-forming
cells (oncoblasts) at present unknown in any
other group. Each oncoblast contains a specialized
hook-forming center with abundant mitochondria;
here the original blade is formed. The body of
the immature oncosphere is composed of medullary and cortical mesenchymal cells. A binucleate
medullary cell is present near the central part of
the embryo. In addition to the above, the nearly
spherical embryo contains two large cells with
abundant granular and filamentous mitochondria.
These have been previously termed epidermal
gland cells (Ogren, J. Parasitol., 45: 575-579
1959). These immature oncospheres have not
developed contractile movements. Protective envelopes enclose the hexacanth. The thin transparent outer shell, ellipsiform in outline, covers
a layer of large refractile globules. The future
inner capsule being devolped around the oncosphere beneath the envelope of globules is indicated by the presence of thin membranes. Observations were made by phase microscopy and
the usual histological technique. (Supported by
grant 6-12905 from N.S.F.)
EVERETT C. OLSON, University of Chicago.
Feeding mechanisms: Crossopterygians, amphibians, primitive reptiles. (15 min.)
In spite of notable changes in proportions, composition, and dynamics of skulls between rhipidistian crossopterygians and primitive amphibians, fundamental jaw mechanics were but little
modified. The two groups are adaptively similar
with respect to feeding habits, a result of direct
continuity without modification of feeding environments. After the origin of tetrapods modifications occurred, related on the one hand to
critical modifications of the posterior part of the
skull and on the other to adaptive changes related
to shifts in feeding habits.
In predaceous amphibians, labyrinthodonts in
particular, the application of adductor force continued to lie far posterior, close to the jaw articulation. Depressor action appears to have become
highly developed. Lateral jaw movements were
restricted, with pterygoid and throat muscles playing a relatively minor role.
Reptiles arose early among tetrapods, probably
from the most primitive, technically amphibian
stages. Two early trends are apparent. One
(batrachosaur, diadectomorph) is marked by retention of the otic notch, forward (relative)
movement of the articulation, vertical adduction,
well forward on the jaw, and strong pterygoid
action. The other (captorhinomorph, primitive
synapsid) by closure of the notch, retention of
posterior position of articulation and coronoid
insertion of adductors, and strong development
of pterygoid actions. In both, depressor actions
remained relatively weak. From these types came
the various specialized patterns of reptilian jaw
DAVID PECK, Johns Hopkins University. Effects
of tissue organization upon the stability of synthetic properties of embryonic cells in vitro.
(Introduced by M. S. Steinberg) (15 min.)
The question of stability of cell types can be
resolved to the following alternatives: either the
maintenance of a distinct cell type is due solely
to intrinsic factors, or the cell is induced to exhibit its characteristic properties by virtue of the
intercellular associations to which it is subjected.
The technique of tissue dissociation in conjunction with the method of tissue culture provides a
powerful means of gaining more insight into this
problem. With this in mind, neural retinas were
removed from 6- to 14-day chick embryos and cut
into small fragments. These were then either
attached to the walls of the culture vessel with
chicken plasma, or were first dissociated by means
of enzymes and then cultured as a dispersed cell
population in a synthetic medium.
Within 10-24 hours 95-100% of the cells
cultured as a dispersed population transformed
into pigmented cells. This transformation was
not observed in those cells which were part of
intact fragments of neural retina. Under the
electron microscope the pigment granules display
the morphology and structure characteristic of
melanin granules. Furthermore, distinct and
dramatic alterations of patterns of metabolism
were brought about by the dissociation of the
neural retina. Experiments utilizing C14-glucose
show that the dispersed cell populations lose the
ability to synthesize at least three compounds,
and gain the ability to synthesize one compound
not synthesized by intact fragments. (Supported
by contract AT(30-1)-2194 from the A.E.C.).
PATT, Boston University. The cytology of
adrenocortical regeneration in selected sites in
the rat. (15 min.)
Using adrenocortical autotransplants in different sites and recovered during early development
after various durations of regeneration (usually
2, 4, 7,14, 21 and 30 days), we determined the
following: an approximate measure of the extent
of regeneration; microscopic observations of lipid,
mitochondrial and nuclear characteristics; and
an analysis by means of differential centrifugation of the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions. The above observations were made on the
following combinations of adrenocortical transplant preparations and sites: ( a ) one-quarter
gland intramuscular; ( b ) one-half gland intramuscular; ( c ) one-half gland mesenteric; ( d )
enucleated mesenteric; and in some cases ( e ) in
situ enucleated.
In these studies we found that the mesenteric
site was more conducive to regeneration than
the intramuscular site with a progressive increase
in the mass of regenerated tissue as one compares
sites a, b, c, d and e, respectively. Cells of mesenteric transplants developed sudanophilic lipid
characteristics similar to those of the normal adrenal cortex earlier than cells in the intramuscular transplants. Under phase microscopy the
RICHARD E. PHILLIPS and D. FRANK McKINNEY, Cornell University and Delta Waterfowl
Research Station. Effect of testosterone on occurrence of some duck displays. (15 min.)
Groups of week-old Pintail (Anas acuta), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Redhead (Aythya
americana) ducklings of both sexes were injected
daily with 1 to 10 mg testosterone propionate in
oil. Equal numbers of controls received only the
oil, and all were watched daily for the appearance
of sexual displays. After 4 days of injections
Redheads began to give many “head-throw” displays with calls; Pintail males first showed the
“burp” display after the 6th day and frequently
thereafter. Displays characteristic of courting
parties of Pintail and Mallard were observed very
rarely, and most of them not at all despite the
large doses and long periods of treatment. It is
suggested that testosterone is necessary for these
displays but that they can only occur in the
presence of the proper environmental stimuli.
PETER E. PICKENS, Institute of Marine Science,
University of Texas. Variations in the heart
rate of mussels from different habitats. (Introduced by T. H. Bullock) (15 &.)
Measurements of heart rates at different temperatures have been made in two species of mussels, Mytilus edulis and M. califominnus collected
from Mexico, California, Washington, and Alaska.
When the acutely-determined Rate-Temperature
curves of heart beat are compared, there are
indications of thermal acclimation in latitudinally
and intertidally separated populations of mussels
during the summer and fall; that is, animals from
colder waters or lower intertidally have higher
heart rates at any temperature. During the winter and early spring, however, some populations
show no or even reverse acclimation. When mussels are reciprocally transplanted to each other’s
habitat, differences in heart rate between populations separated intertidally are eliminated within three weeks, between populations separated
latitudinally within 4 to 6 weeks in most cases.
The one group that does not show compensation
after transplantation is a population of M. edulis
from Alaska whose members survive poorly and
do not grow at southern habitat temperatures, and
have different temperature limits which cannot
be changed by acclimation. This may be a physiological species or differences may develop during
ontogeny. Attempts to obtain thermal acclimation in the laboratory have f d e d for all populations. However, changes i n rate can occur if the
nutrient supply is changed. It is concluded that
pure thermal acclimation of heart rate in mussels
is either absent, occurs over a long period of time,
or is masked by the effect of food, and that
transplantation effects may be due to something
other than temperature. (Supported by grants
from the U.S.P.H.S. and N.S.F.)
ANTHONY R. PICCIOLO, University of Maryland.
Sex discrimination in species of Colisa and
Trichogaster. (15 min.)
Vision, olfaction, sound and tactile stimuli
were investigated as possible cues aiding in sex
discrimination. No evidence was obtained to indicate that the fishes responded to olfactory stimuli
or that they produced sounds of biological significance. Rather, sex discrimination is dependent upon the visual cues which include color
patterns and markings, shape and the differential
behavior (movements) of the sexes. Artificial
dummies were utilized to study which characteristics of the fishes, other than their differential
movements, served as cues which aided in discrimination. Besides the differential behavior exhibited by the sexes, it was discovered that the
appearance of the fins was an important factor
for sex discrimination in Trichogastet and that
the color patterns and markings were important
factors for sex discrimination in Colisa. Also,
males exhibited more vigorous courtship responses to “‘female” dummies with bulging abdomens. (Supported by grants N.R. 104-489
from O.N.H. and MF-9945 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
D. F. POULSON and B. SAKAGUCHI, Yale University. Evidence concerning the nature of the
“sex-ratio” agent in Drosophila. (15 min.)
In experimentatl infections of normal Dies with
the “sex-ratio’’ agent the majority of cases of unisexual progenies are detected in the first generation from the injected females. However, the SR
condition may first appear only in the second,
third, or later generations from some injected females. Sub-threshold effects, such as sporadic
lethality, may appear early and persist for many
generations in non-SR lines derived from some
injected females. Thus the agent responsible for
the SR condition may be present in latent form
in apparently normal flies.
That the SR agents so far studied are not
species specific has been shown by Malogolowkin
(personal communication) by experimental transfer among the sibling species of the willistoxi
group and by us in the transfer from D. willistoni to D. melanogastet. The pattern of developmental disturbances appears similar in the several species.
Tests of the distribution of the SR agent at
different stages and in different tissues show it
to be present at exceptionally high levels in the
mitochondria and nuclear characteristics appeared
the same in each site studied; however, the mitochondrial fraction of centrifuged 21- and 30-day
transplants showed significantly more mitochondria than in intramuscular transplants of the
same age. There were no significant differences
in the microsomal fractions of the various sites
An indirect method was used to compute the
percentage of viable cortical tissue in one-half
gland intramuscular transplants. After 2, 4, 7,
14, 21 and 30 days of regeneration viable cortical
tissue constituted 4, 7, 10, 55, 67 and loo%,
respectively. (Supported by grant H-1965 from
the U.S.P.H.S.)
blood of adult SR females of D. willistoni and D.
melanogastet as well as in a new case of SR now
being analyzed in D. nebulosa. Contrary to previous expectation the SR agent is present in high
concentration in the blood of the rare surviving
sons of SR females of D. willistoni as shown by
infection tests, although such males do not transmit the SR condition to any of their progeny.
Experiments on the effects of dilution of blood
on incubation time and frequency of SR infections do not show the simple relations expected
if the SR agent were a typical virus. Filtration
of extracts of SR flies through Millipore filters
gave no reduction in infections at 0.3 p pore size
and 50% reduction at 0.1 ,u pore size.
Phase microscopy of the blood of SR females of
D. melanogaster, D. willistoni, and D. nebulosa
shows the presence of minute motile granules and
of very fine motile filaments (0.142 p by 4-8 B ) .
The latter appear to possess the properties associated with small spirochetes, including Giemsa
staining, Gram-negativity, penicillin sensitivity,
etc. The fine filaments have not been found in the
blood of any normal females of the species studied
and are lacking in the blood of daughters of SR
females whose progenies have been genetically
disrupted, e.g., XXY? X Sevelen 8 in D. melanogaster. The very minute granules, but not the
filaments, are present in the blood of the rare
sons of SR females in D. willistoni. An electron
microscopic study of these particulates has begun.
(Supported by grant 6017 from N.S.F.)
State University College of Medicine in Syracuse and Stanford University. Properties of
spontaneously active units in the ventral nerve
cord of the crayfish. (Introduced by William
H. Telfer) (15 min.)
Single units which discharged repetitively without intentional stimulation were isolated from
the ventral nerve cord by intracellular recording
methods in the proximity of the 6th abdominal
ganglion. These “spontaneously” active units
could be classified into three arbitrary groups;
group I units in which interspike intervals varied
less than 10 msec.; group I1 units in which interspike intervals varied within a range of 20-30
msec. with the majority of intervals being within
a range of 10 msec.; and group I11 units in which
the interspike intervals varied randomly without
prominent peaks in interval distribution. Only
units of groups I and I1 were studied. The frequency of “spontaneous” discharge in these units
was usually between 5 and 10 responses per second. Group I units which maintained “constant”
interspike intervals, in general, could not be discharged by sensory inputs while the majority of
group 11 units could be discharged by appropriate sensory nerve stimulation. Both group I and
I1 units discharged to direct stimulation when the
stimulating and recording electrodes were placed
in the same ganglionic intersegment. Evoked
direct single spike activity in these units reset
the spontaneous activity. In group I1 units, evoked
single spikes from peripheral inputs reset the
spontaneous rhythm of some units and i n other
units evoked spikes were interpolated within the
spontaneous rhythm without resetting the rhythm.
In 4 of 20 units in which attempts were made
it was possible to stop and start spontaneous
activity by evoked discharges, (Supported in
part by grant B-1608 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
C. LADD PROSSER, Bermuda Biological Station
and University of Illinois. Mechanical responses of sponges. (15 min.)
The oscula of many sponges contain spindleshaped myocytes in circular and radial bands.
Oscular contractions were studied in both marine
and freshwater sponges. The adequate stimulus
is quick mechanical deformation. Responses are
local, graded and show temporal but not spatial
summation. Electrical stimulation of several sorts
was ineffective. T h e oscula are sensitive to hydrostatic pressure in the canals. When stretched
and held for a half minute, oscula maintained
an extended form as with a catch mechanism.
Attempts were made to record action potentials
with several kinds of electrode, in sea water, oil
and sucrose but no true potentials were obtained.
Apparent electrical responses resulted from electrode movement and corresponded to a contraction
time of 2-5 seconds and relaxation time of 40-60
seconds. Good contractions were obtained in mixtures of sea water with isotonic KC1 and in 0.05 M
KCI in fresh water. It is suggested that the
primitive contraction may be a direct response to
mechanical deformation without membrane depolarization and without propagation. (Supported by N.S.F. and O.N.R. grants.)
W. PRYCHODKO and A. P. LONG, Detroit Institute of Cancer Research and Wayne State University. Effect of isolation on the body weight
of laboratory mice. (10 min.)
Only limited information i s available concerning the effect of housing conditions on the body
weight of laboratory mice. A series of experiments was undertaken to determine how the
latter could be influenced by the number of animals per cage and by availability of nesting
material. Males and females of several inbred
strains of mice were used in the study. It was
found that isolation of males in bare cages resulted in a reduction of their body weight, when
compared to controls which were kept 10-15 animals to a cage. Significant differences were observed. They persisted during the entire experimental period. The response of females to isolation was less pronounced.
When the singly housed animals were provided
with cardboard boxes and with nesting material,
body weights intermediate between those of controols and isolated mice without nests were found.
Our data indicate that ability to aggregate and
availability of shelter influence body weight of
mice and must be considered i n interpreting experiments with these animals.
H. M. RADFORD and C. H. SAWYER, University
of California, Los Angeles and Veterans Administration Hospital, Long Beach. EEG changes i n
the rabbit rhinencephalon related to pituitary
activation by intraventricular norepinephrine.
(15 min.)
Release of pituitary ovulating hormone has
been induced in the rabbit by injecting norepinephrine into the third cerebral ventricle (Anat.
Rec., 112: 385, 1952). More recent experiments
indicate that the agent is effective via its action
on the central nervous system (CNS) rather ,than
directly on the adenohypophysis (Sawyer, 58).
The present experiments were undertaken to determine whether specific regions of the brain
might be implicated in the neuroendocrine response by revealing localized EEG changes following in traventricular injection of norepinephrine.
In 13 mature female rabbits bipolar electrodes
were implanted chronically into various regions of
the brain and a permanent cannula into a lateral
ventricle. Intraventircular injection of a neutralized solution of norepinephrine (0.75 mg) consistently induced ovulation in estrous but not in
pseudopregnant rabbits.
Characteristic EEG
changes, followed by confirmed ovulation, werc
observed regularly under the former conditions
but not during pseudopregnancy in the same
rabbits. The most dramatic EEG changes occurred in the olfactory bulb and its projection
pathways, including a flattening of the record
during the first 20-40 min. and a subsequent
pronounced amplification of 40-50/sec. sinusoidal
waves over the course of about an hour. During
this period of localized EEG hyperactivity there
were frequently sleep spindles in the frontal
cortex, and the animal was immobile and very
difficult to arouse. The results suggest that central nervous activation of the adenohypophysis by
intraventricular norepinephrine is reflected in
rhinencephalic EEG changes involving olfactory
projections and that these effects are dependent
on alterations in CNS thresholds by ovarian
New York University. Histochemical patterns
in developing pituitaries in two strains of
Mexican axolotl, Siredon mexicanum.
A comparison o f RNA and alkaline phosphatase
contents is made between the black and white
strains of the Mexican axolotl between stages 35
and 46. The patterns are associated with the beginning of secretory activity of the gland. Hypophyseal cells were classified according to the degree of RNA or alkaline phosphatase activity as
determined by the amount of pyronin Y or cobalt
sulfide precipitate within each cell:
amount), +-t (moderate) and
(trace). The
cells are considered active, whereas the f cells are considered inactive. Differential counts were made of these cells at each
stage covered i n the study.
In the black axolotl, the per cent of the total
hypophyseal cells found to be active at stage 35
was 15.13 (RNA) and 45.54 (alkaline phos-
phatase). At this same stage in the white axoltol,
active cell constituency was found to be 41.54%
(RNA) and 52.26% (alkaline phosphatase). Active cells in the black axolotl have increased
52.97% (RNA) and 25.31% (alkaline phosphatase) by the time stage 46 is reached. In the
white axolotl, an increase of 12.88% was found
in alkaline phosphatase but no increase was
found in RNA.
cells are present throughout the
series, both RNA and alkaline phosphatase
cells make their appearance at stage 41 which
coincides with the time of onset of secretion.
These cells increase with time, but the increase
is greater i n the black axolotl than in the white.
M.T.M. RIZKI, Reed College. The nature of the
autofluorescence of the f a t cells of Drosophila.
(15 min.)
As the time of pupation approaches, the autofluorescent pattern of the anterior fatbody of the
larva of Drosophila meZanogaster becomes distinct
from the remainder of the fat cells. Light blue
fluorescent granules accumulate in the cytoplasm
of the fat cells in the anterior fatbody in the
normal Ore-R strain. This same pattern of differentiation between the anterior and posterior larval
fat was found in a number of mutant strains
which were examined : brown; white; cinnabar;
cinnabar, brown; scarlet; rosy; red cell; claret.
The light blue fluorescent material was absent
from vermilion and vermilion, brown larval fat.
These examinations suggested that the light blue
autofluorescence might be due to the presence of
kynurenine, since the latter would be expected in
all of the mutant strains examined except v m milion. Confirmation of this fluorescent substance as kynurenine was obtained by comparing
a known sample of kynurenine with the material
from the anterior fatbodv utilizine uauer chromatography. (Supported *by grant RG-5285 from
the U.S.P.H.S.)
M. T. M. RIZKI, Reed College. Intercellular
effects of glucosamine-hydrochloride on tumor
formation in Drosophila melanogaster.
Various concentrations of glucosamine-hydrochloride have been fed to larvae of a tumorous
strain ( tumrc) which develops melanotic masses
in the posterior fatbody in the late third instar.
Treatment with glucosamine-hydrochloride as
early as the second instar alters the pattern of
tumor formation. On a normal diet, the posterior
fat masses of tuw larvae are encapsulated by blood
cells, and the resulting accumulations appear as
tmo large melanotic masses in the posterior region
of the body. Larvae raised on glucosamine-hydrochloride contain many small free-floating melanotic aggregates. Glucosamine-hydrochloride under
these conditions delays pupation and these larvae
will live for several days with the free-floating
masses. However, if these larvae are then returned to a normal diet, the small masses reaggregate to form larger masses and pupation
occurs. The above observations together with
histological examination indicate that feeding of
glucosamine interferes with the adhesive properties of the cells involved in tumor formation.
(Supported by grant RG-5285 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
New York University School of Medicine and
Marine Biological Laboratory. Stellarin, a
photosensitive pigment from the dorsal skin
of the starfish, Asterias forbesi. (15 min.)
Modikation in extraction procedures has
yielded a highly purified preparation from the dorsal skin, with a D,i,/Dm, of as low as 0.2. This
is a violet, photosensitive pigment with an absorption maximum at 523 mp, in a 2% digitonin solution at pH 6.8 to 11.3, which is rapidly converted
to a peachcolored pigment with an absorption
maximum at pH 490 m p , upon exposure to strong
white light at constant temperature, for as little
as 5 minutes. Storage in the dark at room temperature (25'C) for several hours produces a
similar, but incomplete conversion from 523 to
490 pigment; similar storage at 0-2"C for extended periods of time failed to produce such
effects. This indicates a weak thermolability,
but a strong photosensitivity on the part of the
pigment. Extraction into an acid digitonin solution (pH 3.0 to 6.5) gives a photostable pigment
of deeply purple hue, with a peak absorption at
567 mp, which is convertible to the 523 n q ~pigment by alkalization with sodium bicarbonate or
1.0 NaOH. This shift in peak absorption is not
reversible by further acidiilcation, however.
Heating either the 523 or 567 pigment at 41°C
for 5 minutes results in rapid, irreversible shifting to the 490 pigment to a deeply orange endpoint. These results indicate that there exist in
the dorsal skin of this positively phototactic individual a light-insensitive (567) precursor and a
light-sensitive pigment, stellarin, with a peak at
523 m+ (Supported by grant 6-11664 from
N.S.F. and the New York University Graduate
School of Arts and Sciences.)
University School of Medicine and Marine
Biological Laboratory. Light orientation in the
starfish, Asterius forbesi.
Young starfish, 1%inches in size, showed positive phototaxis to white light of moderate intensi t y only when exposed to such light during normal
daytime hours. Attempts to reverse such responsiveness to light, by exposure to light at normally
night-time hours and dark exposure during normally daylight hours, for a period of over 5 weeks,
failed to shift the rhythmic phototaxis to a nightday response. However, such treatment did
destroy the normal pattern of light responsiveness
during normally daylight hours.
Preliminary experiments involving exposure to
light of specific wave lengths, ranging from 400
to 700 m,in 50 mp steps, gave consistently positive results only at 450 m p . (Supported by grant
6-11664 from the N.S.F. and Nonr-1497(00) from
the Marine Biological Laboratory.)
DONN E. ROSEN, Florida State Museum and
University of Florida. The jaw of cyprinodontiform fishes, a pre-acanthopterygian experiment
in protractility. (15 min.)
The evolution of the protractile acanthopterygian upper jaw from a relatively immobile isospondylous one apparently involved (1) a progressive shift forward of the anterior elements of the
palatoquadrate arch from a postorbital to a
preorbital position, and the resultant forward
movement of the lower mandible, ( 2 ) freeing and
enlargement of the premaxillae and exclusion of
the maxillae from the gape of the open mouth,
(3) consolidation and simplifkation of the subdivisions of the mandibular muscles, and (4)
the origin of new ligaments from the maxilla to
the mandibular muscles and to the ethmoid and/
or palatine bone, and from the upper end of the
premaxilla to the palatine. The jaw mechanism
of cyprinodontiform fishes appears to be a specialized offshoot from a pre-acanthopterygian type,
and represents an early experiment in protractility. The departure of ancestral cyprinodontiforms from the main line of acanthopterygian
evolution evidently occurred before the premaxillary-palatine ligament was established. The cyprinodontiform jaw, as a consequence of lacking
this ligament, may have had much less adaptive
potential than the basic acanthopterygian mechanism that it has paralleled in most respects. The
absence of a premaxillary-palatine ligament, however, has made possible the development of a
highly effective mechanism for nibbling with the
mouth parts fully protracted. This specialization
has been accomplished in part through the insinuation of the greatly expanded lower premaxillary arm between the maxilla and lower mandible,
the growth of a new ligament between the lower
ends of the maxilla and premaxilla, and replacement of the primitive maxillary-mandibular ligament by a premaxillary-mandibular connection.
Einstein College of Medicine. Autolytic activity
during limb regeneration in Triturus: a histochemical approach. (15 min.)
The forelimbs of adult Triturus were amputated
through the humerus, either leaving the proximal
portion or removing it. After varying periods
(from 1 to 54 days), the region of wound repair
or of the accumulation or regeneration blastema
was removed and fixed in Carnoy or acetatebuffered formalin. Paraffin sections were stained
with various molar concentrations of methylene
blue-eosin at controlled pH; frozen sections were
stained for acid phosphatase activity, employing
a method modified after Gomori, and for aminopeptidase activity using leucyl-haphthylamide as
a substrate and Garnet GBC as a coupling agent.
The increased activity of these hydrolytic enzymes was considered as demonstrating autolytic
changes associated with localized cell death. In
unoperated limbs, aminopeptidase activity is confined to the outermost epidermal cells, the mucus
glands and the nerves; acid phosphatase activity
is normally present in macrophages. Immediately
following amputation, only the cut ends of skeletal muscle fibers show intense activity for aminopeptidase while only slight activity for acid phosphatase can be detected. As cut muscle fibers
degenerate, aminopeptidase activity increases
proximally until formation of the accumulation
blastema at about 9 days; acid phosphatase activity is negligible. As the proliferative phase
sets in, the basal epidermis in the vicinity of the
original wound becomes highly active for both
enzymes. This heightened activity persists until
redifferentiation of the blastema becomes evident. During the final reorganization of the
blastema, hydrolytic enzyme activity appears indicative of subtle autolytic changes, localized cell
death and similar degenerative phenomena related to formative processes during regeneration.
(Supported by grant RG-5483 from the U.S.P.H.S.
and by a Medical Student Fellowship awarded by
the National Foundation.)
LAURENS N. RUBEN, Reed College. Further
studies on implant-induced supernumerary
limbs in urodeles.
Sixty adult Triturus viridescens were divided
into 4 groups. One implant (approximately 2
mm in diameter) was placed in each hindlimb
of every host in accordance with techniques described by Ruben, (J. Exp. Zool., 128: 1955).
Hosts in one group bore two implants of adult
Rana pipiens limb cartilage-bone (phalanges and
metacarpals), while members of the remaining
three groups carried frog limb muscle, sciatic
nerve axone, and limb skin, respectively. Implant
volumes were kept equal in all groups. Histological assays of all 120 limbs were made at 82 days
post-implantation. Small host cartilage nodules,
which were physically associated with the cartilage rather than the ossified portions of the donor
implant, were induced to form in 40% of those
limbs bearing frog cartilage-bone. Host cartilaginous formations developed in response to
donor cartilage-bone are less extensive than those
induced by frog kidney. Frog limb muscle,
sciatic nerve axone, and limb skin did not stimulate host limb morphogenesis in these experiments. There was less evidence of implantation
with muscle than with anything else, i.e. absence
of visible signs of implant material or of any
disturbance of host tissue was the usual result.
Muscle implant sites were relatively flat by one
week post-implantation. No sloughing had occurred. Nerve implants were generally encapsulated, the limb response being fibrous rather than
cartilaginous in character. Normal adult frog
kidney remains the most effective donor material
thus far utilizcd in bringing about urodele supernumerary limb formation. (Supported by grant
C-2913 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
University of California, Davis. Width of the
proximal tibial epiphyseal lines from achondroplastic and control rabbits.
The width of an epiphyseal line has been frequently used as an indication of its activity. The
widths of the proximal tibial epiphyseal lines from
14-day-old achondroplastic dwarf and control rabbits were measured in a study of their relative
activities. This type of achondroplasia in the
rabbit was first described by Crary and Sawin
(J. Hered., 43: 255, 1952). Foundation stock was
obtained from the Jackson Memorial Laboratory
courtesy of Dr. P. B. Sawin. Nine complete litters
containing 23 dwarfs and 36 control rabbits were
studied. Thus the controls were full siblings of
the dwarfs and were reared under nearly identical
conditions. The tibias were removed, split sagittally on the midline, and fixed in Bouin’s solution.
Paraffin sections were prepared and stained with
toluidine blue. All measurements were made from
the epiphyseal plate of bone to the bone of the
developing diaphyseal trabeculae. Ten measurements were made along the entire length of the
epiphyseal line and a n average width calculated.
The mean and standard error for the 23 dwarfs
was 748 & 17.3 p, that of the 36 controls was
808 f 18.4 p. Student’s t-test was applied and
the difference of the means was found to be significant at the 5% level, but not at the 1% level.
It is concluded that the epiphyseal lines of the
dwarfs are relatively less active than those of the
control rabbits. These results are in agreement
with observcd differences in the growth rates.
(The work of Mr. Ruggiero was supported by
N.S.F. through the Summer Biology Program for
Secondary School Students. Supported in part by
grant A-2626 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
University. Congenital effects following low
level x-irradiation.
Congenital effects may be produced at any time
prior to the completion of histo- and organogenesis by x-irradiation. There is no “critical period”
for the production of C.N.S. effects, and exposures as low as 15 roentgens have caused the
severe anomaly of exencephalia or herniated brain
in mouse embryos, irradiated during the very
early cleavage stages. This anomaly has been
produced by x-irradiation of grandparental sperm,
grandparental ova, or by x-irradiation of any
stage prior to the completion of neurogenesis.
It has also been produced by radio-mimetic substances, and by vitamin imbalance of the preg
nant mammal, but it is most consistently produced by even low levcls of x-irradiation.
An exposure to as little as 5 roentgens at 0.5
day after conception, prior to the first cleavage in
the mouse, results in about a 10% increase in
intra-uterine death. After 8.5 days, when neurogenesis is completed, such anomalies as exencephalia cannot be produced, but other effects
are noted, particularly in tissues and organs that
have not completed their development.
It is believed that litter mates of those exhibiting such anomalies, while they may not show any
gross effects, are themselves neurologically deficient and may manifest effects with electroencephalography or behavior tests, even though
there may be no histological corollaries. For this
reason it is recommended that pelvic x-ray of the
pregnant human female be discouraged, particu-
larly during the first trimester, and that in nonpregnant human females such examinations be
limited to the first 9 days after the onset of menstruation, in order to avoid any unrecognized
OLIN RULON, Northwestern University. The extension of fertilizability and life in sand dollar
eggs with cobalt, cysteine and thioglycolic acid.
(15 min.)
Under normal laboratory conditions the eggs
of Dendraster excentricus lose their capacity for
fertilization within one day after removal from
ripe ovaries. Previous work by the author has
shown that fertilizability may be extended to approximately 7 days in certain sea water solutions
of cobaltous chloride and to 13 or more days by
the addition of glutathione to the cobalt (50 cc
of 0.05% glutathione plus 50 cc of M/200 cobaltous chloride).
In the present work other reduced sulfur compounds were used which enhanced the effect of
cobalt even more than glutathione. Neither cysteine hydrochloride (0.00625%) nor thioglycolic
acid (0.005% ) had more than minor effects on
fertility when used alone. With cobalt the two
most effective combinations were (1) cobaltouscysteine (50 cm3 of 0.0125% cysteine hydrochloride plus 50 cm3 of M/200 cobaltous chloride) in
which 50% of the eggs were fertilizable at 21
days and (2) cobaltous-thioglycolic acid (50 cm3
of 0.01% thioglycolic acid plus 50 cm3 of M/200
cobaltous chloride) in which 50% were fertilizible at 25 days.
The work suggests that cobalt, cobaltous-cysteine and cobaltous-thioglycolic acid prevent the
deterioration of fertilizability by uniting with
(and preventing the oxidation of) thiol groups
at the egg surface.
B. SAKAGUCHI and D. F. POULSON, Yale University. Transfer of the “sex-ratio” condition
from Drosophila willistoni to D . melanogaster.
(Introduced by G. E. Hutchinson) (15 min.)
The maternally transmitted condition known as
“sex-ratio’’ (SR) in D . willistoni was demonstrated by Malogolowkin, Poulson and Wright
(Genetics, 44: 59-74, 1959) to be transferable to
previously normal strains of this species. To
facilitate analysis of developmental genetic aspects of SR, attempts were made to transfer SR
from D. willistoni to D . melanogaster. This has
been accomplished using as recipients females of
two wild type strains, Ore R inbred and Sevelen
inbred, a triploid strain carrying attached-X chromosomes, and a diploid strain with the same attached-X chromosomes (y2 sc woec/ Y ? X y31dsc*
d m B 8 ) . Hemolymph (0.05-0.08 pl) from SR
females of a strain maintained for many generations by mating to males from the Barbados-3
strain of D . willistoni was injected by micropipet
into the abdomens of 1- to 2-day-old virgin females of the above strains. Individual females
were mated to males from their own strains and
were transferred to new culture medium every two
days. Unisexual progenies began to appear in
many instances even in early broods. From these,
lines of SR have been maintained by mating with
males from the corresponding normal strains.
Some of these lines have proved much more stable
than others. One of the best is a line derived from
the attached-X strain demonstrating that the Ychromosome is not of primary importance in the
lethal disturbances associated with the SR agent.
That the persistence of SR in D. melanogaster
is dependent on the genotype of the flies is clearly
demonstrated through the replacement of chromosomes by crossing females of the new strains of
SR to males from different normal strains. Crosses
of SR females of the attached-X strain to Ore R
males continued to yield unisexual progenies in
the first and subsequent generations, while parallel crosses to Sevelen males led to the immediate
appearance of males in the progenies and disruption of the SR condition. These and other
cases are being analyzed in detail. (Supported
by grant 6017 from N.S.F.)
HIDEMI SATO, Dartmouth Medical School. A
morphological study on the mitochondria of
Tehahymena g e k i i W. (15 min.)
About 80% of the mitochondria of Tehahymena
geleii W are arranged in a layer of ectoplasm
which is located just under the pellicle and surface ribs, and, another 20% are localized around
the end of the gullet and macronucleus. This
trend is revealed both i n osmotrophic and in
phagotrophic conditions. Generally, the mitochondria have an oval or elliptical shape and are
0.8 to 1.3 p in length. The are osmiophylic, sensitive to fat solvents and react faintly with Janus
green B. Sedar & Rudzinska (J. Biophys. Biochem.
Cytol., Suppl., 331439, 1956) and other authors
have showed their microvilli clearly.
The population density of mitochondria in the
ectoplasm is 35 to 40 per 100 p2 and does not depend on cell stage. The total number of mitochondria is 600 to 800 in daughter cell, and increases gradually during interphase, finally reaching 1200 to 1500 at the prefission stage.
When the cell is cultured in very rich nutrient
at high temperature, the generation time is about
20% shorter than usual. In this case, the population density of mitochondria decreases gradually during interphase, but recovers its original
value by the prefission stage. The lowest density
is 28 per 100 p2 at late interphase. At this time
the mitochondria change from oval to thread
shaped and they lose their original localization.
They regain their initial appearance when the cell
recovers the original density during the prefission
The change in mitochondrial shape from oval
to threadlike in cells whose division has been synchronized by temperature shifting occurs about
30 minutes before the first division.
BOBB SCHAEFlFER, American Museum of Natural History. The origin of the holostean feeding mechanism. (10 min.)
The shift from the chondrostean to the holostean feeding mechanism mainly involved modifications related to the adduction of the mandible.
In most palaeoniscoids and some subholosteans
the dorsal part of the adductor mandibulae was
contained in a chamber composed principally of
the maxillary, the preopercular with its internal
lamina closing the chamber dorsally, and the
laterally curved palatoquadrate complex. The
holostean condition was approached in chondrosteans with a vertical suspensorium, a reduced
maxillary, and a preopercular with no internal
lamina so that the adductor chamber opened
dorsally. In such forms part of the adductor possibly arose from the braincase. The chondrosteanholostean transition further involved freeing of
the maxillary from the cheek and palate, separation of the cheek elements from the preopercular,
flattening of the palatoquadrate complex behind
the adductor and development of a coronoid process on the mandible. The adductor mandibulae
increased in size, in area of origin and in degree
of subdivision. Although the major part of this
muscle s t i l l entered the mandibular fossa as in
the palaeoniscoids, one subdivision inserted on the
coronoid process.
As a result of these modifications, the holostean
jaw mechanism, during adduction, is more effective than the chondrostean. The reasons are: (a)
increase in the power of the adductor, (b)
greater range in the angle of application of this
muscle on the mandible and, related to this, ( c )
a marked increase in the torque about the jaw
BERTA SCHARRER and MARIANNE von HARNACK, Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
Castration effects in the insect, Leucophaea
mademe. (15 min.)
Earlier work demonstrated an accumulation of
characteristically staining inclusions in the “B
type neurosecretory cells” of the subesophageal
ganglion of ovariectomized Leucophaea (B. Scharrer, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 17: 1955). These
and similar inclusions i n other neurons are PASpositive following saliva treatment. Comparable
castration effects have been observed in several
non-nervous cell types. Cytoplasmic inclusions
showing the same properties with the techniques
used, are markedly increased in the corpora allata, the fat body, and the musculature of gonadectomized females. While it is not established
that the PAS-positive, saliva-resistant materials
found in various tissues of Leucophaea are chemically identical, their accumulation after ovariectomy suggests a common denominator. These deposits may be related to a change in general body
metabolism in the absence of growing ova, or
they may be an expression of the endocrine disturbance brought about by the removal of the
ovaries and the concomitant imbalance of the
corpora data. It is significant that in the males,
where the corpus allatum-gonad axis does not
operate as in females, fat body, musculature,
corpora allata, and nervous elements do not respond to gonadectomy in the same manner as in
females. (Supported by grant C-3413 from the
U.S.P.H.S. )
GEORGE T. SCOTT and LEWIS K. NADING, Oberlin College and Marine Biological Laboratory.
The relative effectiveness of phenothiazine tranquilizing drugs causing the release of MSH in
the frog. (15 min.)
Nine phenothiazine ataraxic drugs now used in
medical practice were found to cause melanophore dispersion in the intact frog; one was
shown to be ineffective. All drugs employed were
ineffective in the hypophysectomized frog. The
drugs, therefore, are effecting the release of MSH
by direct action on the hypophysis or indirectly
via brain centers. Minimal effective doses of the
drugs were determined and were as follows in
milligrams per 100 grams: fluphenazine (Permitil) 0.09, trifluoperazine (Stelazine) 0.2, perphenazine (Trilafon) 0.4, thiopropazate (Dartal)
0.4, chlorpromazine (Thorazine) 0.6, triflupromazine (Vesprin) 1.0, methoxypromazine (Tentone) 1.2, prochlorperazine (Compazine) 1.3,
promazine (Sparine) 2.3, mepazine (Pacatal) not
effective. Correslations of relative milligram potency for melanophore dispersion with group substitutions on the phenothiazine nucleus were observed. A parallel with milligram potency for
therapeutic control of psychiatric disorder was
noted. (Supported by grant My-3903 from the
EARL SEGAL, Rice University. Acclimation in
molluscs. (30 min.)
During the past few years reviews by Bullock,
Fry, Precht, and Prosser have appeared, wholly
or in part concerned with compensatory changes
in poikilothermic organisms in response to persisting temperature changes i n the environment.
If we are concerned solely with body temperature,
poikilotherms are conformers. But, if we examine
the rates of reactions or the tolerance levels to
temperature extremes, we discover compensatory
responses in activity rates and shifts in tolerance
levels regardless of the passivity of body temperature. This phenomenon, referred to as acclimation, we may consider a homeostatic tendency in
response to a changed environment. Therefore,
whether the environmental change is a naturally
occurring one due to changing seasons, latitude,
and migeographic habitat, or a single factor
change in the laboratory, the organisms acclimated to cold will show a higher metabolism, or
other activity rate, at a given temperature than
organisms acclimated to warmer temperatures.
Cold and warm acclimation may also bring about
a shift in tolerance levels.
Representatives of at least two classes of mollusca, gastropods and pelecypods, from marine,
fresh water, and terrestrial habitats show varying
degrees of acclimation of rate functions and
shifting of tolerance levels. The distribution of
acclimated responses in the mollusca; the biological significance of differences in the ability to
acclimate; and the limits of acclimation and its
possible significance in the distribution of
~- the
species will be discussed. (Supported by grant
G-5943 from N.S.F.)
KENNETH C. SHAW, University of Michigan.
An experimental analysis of the singing behavior of the true Katydid (Pteruphylla: Tettigoniidae). (15 min.)
The sound of a male katydid apparently has
both inhibiting and stimulating effects on his own
sound production and that of other male katydids.
These effects are apparent in male katydid chorusing which consists of imperfect alternation of
song phrases. In addition, the pulse number of
the song phrases of a katydid may change during
alternation of song phrases with another katydid
or when he is singing alone.
Some of the factors involved i n phrase alternation and pulse number change i n the songs of
male katydids have been determined by analyzing tape recordings of katydids responding to:
(1) the songs of other katydids, and (2) artificial
songs produced by an apparatus which allowed
manipulation of the various parameters of the
From the analysis of these tapes, hypotheses
have been formulated concerning the probable
function, mechanism, and origin of phrase alternation and pulse number change i n the songs of
these katydids.
R. W. SIEGEL and L. LARISON, University of
California, Los Angeles. Induced illegitimate
mating in Paramecium bursaria. (15 min.)
Conjugation takes place when sexually mature
paramecia of complementary mating types are
brought together; cells which belong to a given
mating type do not normally conjugate among
themselves. However, clone Wu-67 of P. bursaria
is exceptional for intraclonal conjugations (Wu67 X Wu-67) can be induced following contact
with cells of a complementary type. Various observations indicate that contact does not induce
cells of Wu-67 to change to a new mating type
specificity, hence these exceptional pairs are
termed “illegitimate.” The frequency of illegitimate pairs varies directly with the concentration
of cells in a population of potential mates and
with the number of cells of the complementary
mating type present. Cell-free fluids and breis apparently cannot induce illegitimate mating. The
relationship of these observations to Miyake’s
earlier studies of chemically induced intraclonal
conjugations in other species of Paramecium
will be discussed. (Supported by a grant from
N.S.F. and by Cancer Research Funds of the University of California.)
With the onset of adult development incorporation increased two-, 5-, 8- and 200-fold in midgut,
fat body, epidermis and blood respectively. Two
days before adult emergence, all tissues were
highly labeled except the fat body, which is being resorbed during that period. The specific activity of egg proteins of the old adult (8 days
after emergence) was the highest obtained during
these studies.
In view of Harvey and Shappirio’s work on injury metabolism in Cecropia and since the amino
acid was injected into the silkmoths, the incorporation of valine into injured brainless diapausing
pupae was also investigated. Injury raised incorporation into all tissues to the level of developing
adults. An equal increase was also caused by
injection of the molting hormone ecdysone. Indeed, the hormonally treated animals showed the
first signs of adult development, retraction of the
The in d u o synthesis of a single protein was
also studied. Reduced cytochrome c was extracted
from thoracic muscles (Tuppy, H., 2. Naturforschung, 12: 784,1957). Its absorbency was measured at 550 m in the reduced and oxidized states.
Although muscle formation begins on the 11th
day after the initiation of adult development,
with these methods, cytochrome c was first detected on the 17th day. f t increased in amount
during the next 5 days, and leveled off in the
adult. (Supported by postdoctoral fellowship 5576
from the U.S.P.H.S.)
ROBERT F. SLECHTA and ARTHUR B. CALLAHAN, Boston University. Blood pressure and
flow characteristics in the microcirculation of
the hamster cheek pouch with sodium pentobarbital anesthesia. (10 min.)
Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were
anesthetized with single intraperitoneal doses
(9.0 mg/100 gm) of sodium pentobarital (Nembutal, Abbott). Blood velocites were measured in
small vessels (16-80 p diam.) of the cheek pouch
by a modification of the Hugues method (J. Arch.
Int. Physiol., 61: 565, 1953). Correlative data on
systolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined by femoral cannulation and EKG recording
respectively. During the first 20-30 minutes of
the period of anesthesia (50-120 min.), blood
velocity in arterioles dropped 2540% from estimated normal, unanesthetized levels (6-7 mm/
sec.) after which there was a gradual and rather
consistent rise to normal when the animal awoke.
Similar effects were noted on blood velocity in
DOROTHY M. SKINNER, Yale University. Pro- venules but depression of flow rates was much
tein synthesis in the Cecropia silkmoth. (In- less marked (30-60%). Heart rate slowed as
troduced by D. E. Bliss) (15 min.)
much as 20% during the first 20-30 minutes, but
The in uiuo incorporation of valine-l-C14 into rose to normal values by the end of the period
the proteins of various tissues of the Cecropia of anesthesia. Systolic blood pressure dropped
silkmoth during its life cycle and under various
2 0 4 0 % within the &st 20 minutes, but therephysiological conditions was investigated. Tissues after rose quite steadily until the end of the peexcised from diapausing pupae 24 hours after in- riod of anesthesia when normal levels were
jection of labeled valine contained small amounts
reached (av. 110 mm Hg). (Supported in part
of the label. The specific activities (counts per
by grant H-3087 from the U.S.P.H.S. and conminute/mg) of the tissues were as follows: blood,
tract AF49(638)-44 from the Air Force Office of
2; fat body, 100; epidermis, 340; midgut, 500. Scientific Research.)
University of California, Los Angeles. Protein
changes during early amphibian development.
(15 rnin.)
Jelly and membranes of mid-gastrulae (Stage
11) and neurulae (Stage 14) of R a m pipiens embryos were removed enzymatically. The jellyless
embryos, without prior homogenization or extraction, were preliminarily packed by centrifugation
at 200 x g for three minutes. All excess fluid
above the embryos was removed. The packed embryos were then centrifuged for 1V2 hours at
105,000 x g and the supernatant fluid recentrifuged for one hour. All materials were analyzed
by starch gel electrophoresis using 0.03 M borate
buffer, pH 8.6, immediately after centrifugation.
Avoidance of extraction media is of prime importance. Use of distilled water, 0.15 M sucrose,
or Holtfreter’s solution in a ratio of one volume
of solution to one volume of embryos markedly
reduced the number of electrophoretic components. By avoiding the use of any extraction
medium, and obtaining fluid from the tissue itself (“protoplasmic fluid”) it was possible to discern a relatively large number of components.
Protoplasmic fluid from gastrulae contained 20
different electrophoretic components; 12 migrated toward the anode and 8 toward the cathode. Protoplasmic fluid from neurulae contained
23 electrophoretic components; 14 migrated toward the anode and 9 toward the cathode. It is
clear that new components must arise between
the gastrula and neurula stages. Due to the degree of variation encountered, it is not possible
at present to conclude that there is a loss or alteration of existing components in the transition
from gastrula to neurula. On the basis of position
and relative concentration most of the components from the gastrula appear to be similar to
those from the neurula. On the basis of average
mobility, however, the components from the two
stages appear to be generally different; the difference is perhaps attributable to minor variations in molecular structure. (Supported in part
by grant ‘2-6131 from N.S.F.)
STEWART SPRINGER, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service. Dynamics of the feeding mechanism
in sharks. (Introduced by Perry W. Gilbert)
(15 rnin.)
The more primitive sharks with amphistylic
jaw suspension are presumed to tear or cut off
portions of prey, too large to swallow entire, by
lateral shaking motions of the head region or by
twisting motions involving the entire body. Some
of the more modern sharks with holostylic jaw
suspension, such as the tiger shark, behave similarly. Here the effectiveness of the upper jaw is
enhanced, making deeper and cleaner cuts possible, by the protrusibility of the upper jaw. The
anterior portion of the pterygoquadrate moves
away from the chondrocranium on processes of
the pterygoquadrate which limit its lateral movement with respect to the chondrocranium. Serrate teeth, similar in both jaws of the tiger shark
plus the abiLity of this shark to twist and spin
make this “cut-off mechanism very effective.
Some other galeoid sharks having protrusile
upper jaws are handicapped by an inflexible
trunk region and large, stiff pectorals which
limit twisting. Here the lower dentition is more
or less modsed for holding, and it has been
observed that the cutting effect of the serrate
upper dentition is achieved by a vibratory movement of the entire upper part of the head
region. This appears to be transmitted to the
upper jaw through its processes. In the few instances in which observation has been possible,
a functional relationship has been found to exist
between body and fin form and the structure and
armament of the jaw cartilages.
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.
The formation of multinucleated myotubes.
(15 rnin.)
How skeletal muscle becomes multinucleated
has been attributed to several processes : mitosis
without cytoplasmic division, amitosis and fusion
of cells. Microspectrophotometric evidence indicates that neither mitosis nor amitosis occurs in
adult regenerating skeletal myotubes and it has
been proposed that nuclei in embryonic myotubes
do not divide mitotically or amitotically (Holtzer,
The following experiments were performed to
determine the source of nuclei in myotubes.
Thigh muscle from 10 day chick embryos was
trypsinized into a suspension of mononucleated
cells and plated on coverslips. Twenty hours later
the mononucleated cells were exposed for 30
minutes to tritiated thymidine, a precursor of
DNA, rinsed i n BSS, then plated in fresh medium
and cultured until multinucleated myotubes appeared. In another series myotubes were exposed
to labeled thymidine for 30 minutes and fixed.
Autoradiographs were made of both series.
In the first experiment, where the cells were
exposed as mononucleated cells, the myotubes
which formed three or 4 days later contain a
random mixture of labeled and unlabeled nuclei.
This indicates that mononucleated cells become
incorporated into myotubes and as mononucleated
presumptive myoblasts they synthesize DNA. In
the second experiment nuclei in the myotubes
show no uptake of the thymidine. Presumably
once nuclei are in myotubes they do not synthesize DNA. Thus neither mitosis nor amitosis can
account for multinucleated myotubes. Fusion of
cells is the probable basis for these results.
(Supported by grants B-493 and B-1629 from the
U.S.P.H.S. FES. : Medical Student Research Fellow of the National Foundation; H.H.: Scholar
in Cancer Research of the American Cancer Society, Inc.)
JOHN F. STOUT, University of Maryland. The
significance of sound production during the
reproductive behavior of Notropis analostanus.
(15 rnin.)
Notropis anaEostanus males produce two different sounds during reproductive behavior. One
sound, which is similar to a “knock,” is produced
in a rapid series during fighting behavior with
other males of the same species. The other sound
is a “purring-like’’ sound and is produced during
courtship of the female. In a series of controlled
experiments these two sounds were played back
at the normal level of production to the fish maintained in laboratory aquaria under the following
conditions: (a) 10-12 males; (b) two males;
( c ) one male and two females; ( d ) one male
confined to a gallon jar and one unconfined
female. When the sound was played back it increased the occurrence of the behavior pattern
with which it was normally associated. Thus,
this species of fish can discriminate between the
two sounds. (This research is supported by grants
from O.N.R. (N.R. lO4-489), the U. S. P. H. S.
(B-1668), the Sigma Xi Resa Research Fund,
and by a N.S.F. Summer Fellowship for Graduate Teaching Assistants.)
Laboratory. Proteins of molluscan muscles.
(15 min.)
The smooth adductor muscles of a number of
molluscs and the byssus retractor muscle of the
Mytilus eduli contain paramyosin, a fibrous structure protein, in about equivalent amounts with
actomyosin, also present in the same muscles.
The actomyosin of these muscles behaves very
similarly in first approximation to the actomyosin
of vertebrates. Paramyosin has not been found in
vertebrate muscles. This unique protein characteristically present i n “catch muscles” does
not react in a specific fashion with adenosine
triphosphate, actin or myosin and is unlikely to
participate in the contraction process proper.
Paramyosin behaves as a fully coiled a-helix,
has a characteristic periodicity, and shows a
sharp phase transition at neutral pH, depending
on ionic strength. These, and other properties
which will be described, may explain the ability
of the catch muscles to maintain large tensions
with no apparent energy requirement. The active
contraction is assigned to the actomyosin component, while the change in elastic properties of
the muscle, during the catch state, is derived
from the in situ crystallization of paramyosin.
and T. C. SCHNEIRLA, American Museum of
Natural History. Infantile experience with
specific visual stimuli as related to later differential approach responses in rats. (15 min.)
Wistar strain rats were raised in two types of
situations: (1) cages with wire-mesh walls and
( 2 ) cages with transparent and opaque plastic
walls. In the plastic cages, a black disc encircled
the water-bottle opening, a black triangle contained the food opening. The wire-mesh cages
lacked such patterns. Animals were assigned to
three groups; wire-mesh; plastic cage; and plastic
cage with scheduled wall changes. At weaning
(25 days of age), all animals were observed for
10 minutes in a test apparatus for frequency of
nosing blank walls, disc, triangle, another familiar
stimulus and a new stimulus. Wire-mesh cage
animals nosed the blank walls and “new” stim-
ulus most frequently; the two groups raised in
the plastic cages nosed the triangle more frequently than did wire-mesh cage animals, and
nosed familiar stimuli more frequently than unfamiliar. (Supported by grant M-1441 from the
ORY, University of California, Davis. Standard
values of metacarpal indices for achondroplastic brachycephalic dwarfs and controls.
(15 min.)
Indices derived from metacarpal lengths and
widths are of value in classifying brachycephalic
achondroplastic dwarfs and non-achondroplastic
controls (Tyler, Julian and Gregory, Am. J. Anat.,
101: 1957). Since there are several distinct
forms of achondroplasia that are genetically related and conditioned it is essential to separate
the different components of the complex from
each other and from non-achondroplastic controls.
This study concerns 166 brachycephalic dwarf
bulls, heifers, and steers, and 4 groups of control heifers, steers, cows, and veal calves totaling
178. The indices investigated are total length/
diaphysis length (TL/DL), total length/diaphysis
diameter (TL/DD), and diaphysis length/diaphysis diameter (DL/DD). Dwarfs and controls
were each subdivided; those with open metacarpal
epiphyses were placed in one group and those
with closed were placed in another. Sex and
castration in the dwarfs have little effect, if any,
upon the indices but may be effective in controls.
Age per se has little effect but closure of the
epiphyses has a significant effect. Each of the
three indices consistently separates the achondroplastic mutants from the controls and the difference in all cases is significant at the 1%level.
When the indices of specific control groups
are compared the difference is slight but highly
significant in each test. The causes of the differences have not been determined but they probably arise from several sources. The heifers, cows,
and steers are regarded as selected populations
while the calves are regarded as unselected. (This
work was done in collaboration with the W-1
project and supported in part by grant A-2626
from the U.S.P.H.S.)
H. E. VAN HEYNINGEN, Brown University. The
initiation of thyroid function in the mouse.
(Introduced by J. Walter Wilson) (15 min.)
The problem of the initiation of thyroid function in the mouse has been approached by determining the 24 hour 1131 uptake and the chromatographic distribution of the radioiodinated amino
acids in the thyroid of fetal mice of different prenatal ages. Routine H and E and autoradiograph
slides were also prepared of the fetal thyroids.
The thyroid of 15-day-old mouse fetuses consists
of cords of cells and does not accumulate iodine.
The thyroid of 16-day-old mouse fetuses collects
a small but significant amount of iodine, which
is concentrated predominantly in small irregular
droplets of colloid between the cells. This iodine
becomes incorporated into MIT and DIT, but no
thyroxine was found. The thyroid of 17-, 18and 19-day-old mouse fetuses contains colloid-
Wed follicles as well as inter- and intracellular
droplets of colloid and the iodine taken up is
incorporated into MIT, DIT and thyroxine. The
relative amounts of the radioiodinated amino
acids do not differ between 17-, 18- and 19-day old
fetal thyroids, which shows that thyroxinogenesis
has begun fully at 17 days. The development of
thyroid function takes place therefore between
15 and 17 days of age. The 16-day results show
that the secretion of colloid precedes the formation of follicles and that the production of thyroxine begins later than the organic binding of
iodine to MIT and DIT. (Supported by grants
CRT-5007 and C-510 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
P.B. VAN WEEL, University of Hawaii. Comparative physiology of digestion in molluscs.
The concept that molluscs have an extraordinary enzyme equipment, particularly with respect
to carbohydrases (such special enzymes like inulase, xylase, lichenase, cellulases, chitinase, etc.)
must probably be changed. Florkin and coworkers have demonstrated that cellulase and
chitinase are of bacterial origin and are not
secreted by the molluscs. Morphological specialization of digestive glands as a rule does not mean
physiological specialization in enzyme production,
although in a few cases a special secretion does
occur (Dolium, Conus, Cephalopoda). The midgut gland is the main seat of enzyme production
and of resorption. Permeation through the wall
of the intestine happens apparently along lines of
diffusion. The effect of special diets on enzyme
production is poorly understood. The enzyme
equipment and secretion seems to “fit” the normal
diet and a normal change of diet goes hand in
hand with a change in enzyme production: immature Achatina fdica, predominantly herbivorous, produces slightly more amylase, but definitely less proteases, than the mature, omnivorous
snail. However, mature snails, when fed on special diets for a long period, do not show a “fitting” adaptation of their enzyme production, at
least not with respect to protease and cathepsin.
Starch-fed snails produce more of these enzymes
than protein-fed ones. The special diets do affect
the utilization of the food, in that after 3 weeks
of dieting a decrease in utilization of both starch
and protein occurs. Apparently some unknown
nutritional requirements are lacking i n these
diets. Although rhythms in secretion do occur,
nothing is known yet if and how these affect the
feeding habits of the molluscs.
G. LAWRENCE VANKIN and H. CLARK DALTON, New York University. Analysis of tail
darkening in hypophysectomized urodele larvae.
Following hypophysectomy by extirpation of
Rathke’s pouch ectoderm melanophores i n Ambystoma maculatum and A. opacum larvae become fully punctate, after stage 42, in all body
regions except the posterior half of the tail, where
pigment granules in melanophores in the dorsal
and ventral fin and at the tail tip are completely
dispersed. This tail darkening, which becomes
increasingly conspicuous with advancing age, is
independent of any special type of melanophore
arising from caudal neural crest. Caudal and
posterior trunk neural folds transplanted to flank
produce populations of melanophores which become punctate in hypophysectomized hosts, while
the hypophysectomized donor animals showed intense darkening of their finless tails. Posterior
medullary plate, tested as a possible source for
the stellate melanophores observed, gave rise to
melanophores on the flank which became punctate, while the hypophysectomized donor animals
showed tail darkening. On the other hand, removal of prospective tail somite tissue (stage 15)
or the distal two-thirds of tailbud (stage 28)
greatly reduced or eliminated darkening in the
incomplete tail of hypophysectomized larvae.
Transplants of these tissues produced darkened
tail-like outgrowths i n hypophysectomized hosts.
Both transplants and explants of tailbud skin
indicate the arrival of melanoblasts in the skin
at stage 33-34. Whole tailbuds, explanted at
stage 28, developed a nearly complete complement of melanophores. These experiments indicate that melanophores independent of pituitary
hormones for pigment dispersal originate from
the same primordia as do the axial structures of
the tail. (Supported by grant 0-5543-977 from
Response of the uterus of the rat to estradiol178 after different periods of time after ovariectomy.
Studies on estrogen-induced uterine growth in
adult albino rats reveal that maximal responses
are obtained with three daily doses of 1.0 to 5.0 pg
when treatment is begun 7 days after
ovariectomy. It thus appeared of interest to ascertain the uterine growth-promoting action of estradiol-178 after different periods of time after ovariectomy. In experiments begun 7 days after
ovariectomy, and given three daily subcutaneous
injections of 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 pg estradi01-17~,the
rats had uteri which averaged 238, 278 and 300
mg, respectively. Animals given 0.1 pg estradiol
daily for three days starting 28, 34, 45, 60 and
450 days after ovariectomy had uteri that were
20 to 40% less responsive than those started on
treatment 7 days after ovariectomy. Similar experiments utilizing 1.0 pg estradiol daily for three
days commencing 28,34,45,60 and 450 days after
ovariectomy produced uterine responses that were
approximately 10-30% less than those given this
dosage of estradiol one week after ovariectomy.
Rats given the 5.0 pg estradiol treatment, again
for three days, starting 28, 34, 45, 60 and 450
days postovariectomy had uteri which were 1020% less than those on the 5.0 pg treatment one
week after ovariectomy. These results indicate
that the uterus of the aging rat remains responsive to estradiol 18 months after ovariectomy,
and that while 0.1 pg estradiol treatment is a
potent uterine growth promoter in adult animals
one week after ovariectomy, at least 1.0 pg daily
is required to give comparable responses when the
ovaries have been removed for periods of two to
18 months. (Aided by U.S.P.H.S. grant C-4773.)
T. C. SCHNEIRLA, American Museum of
Natural History. Physiological effect of preweaning manipulation in two strains of rats.
(15 min.)
Four groups of litters each of Wistar and Long
Evans (LE) rats were subjected to graded
amounts of “handling.” At weaning, half of each
group was subjected to a temperature of 4°C for
90 minutes, and all were killed. The following
relationships, among others, were found: weanlings which had been handled most frequently
within the LE strain, and those which had been
handled least within the Wistar strain, weighed
least, and were the only groups in their strains to
show no decrease of adrenal ascorbic acid (AAA)
concentration upon exposure to cold. In the LE
strain only, the least-handled group showed
lowest adrenal:body weight ratio, and the AAA
concentration both before and after exposure to
cold paralleled the amount of early manipulation.
Only in this strain was a correlation found between AAA and hematocrit when adrenal weight
was held constant. (Supported by grant M-1441
from the U.S.P.H.S.)
and ALBERT S. GORDON, New York University. Effects of acute hemorrhagic anemia and
erythropoietin on the mitotic activity of nucleated red cells of rat femoral bone marrow.
It has been suggested that erythropoietin may
stimulate erythropoiesis by increasing the mitotic
rate of definitive erythrocyte precursors. In the
present study, colchicine was employed in the
direct quantitation of the mitotic activity of marrow nucleated red cells in bled and intact rats.
Significant increases in the mitotic indices (based
on either total nucleated marrow cells or on total
nucleated red cells) were observed in rats administered colchicine 18 and 24 hours after acute
hemorrhage. Analysis of the distribution of mitotic activity indicated that increased percentages
of dividing polychromatic and early orthochromatic cells were primarily responsible for the
rises in mitotic index. No increase in mitotic
activity was found in animals given colchicine 6
and 12 hours after bleeding. Mitotic duration was
calculated to be 44-55 minutes, consistent with
well established values. Turnover time from the
early erythroblast to normoblast stage was calculated to be about 23 hours for the unbled controls
and 12 hours for the %-hour bled group. The
mitotic index based on total nucleated cells increased over control levels in animals treated
with urinary erythropoietin for two days previous
to colchicine injection. Since there was no corresponding increase in the mitotic index based
on total nucleated red cells, the result was judged
a manifestation of increased numbers of erythrocyte precursors with no increase in the mitotic
rate. The effects of short term erythropoietin administration and chronic hemorrhage are under
current investigation. (Supported by grant H3357 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
J. RICHARD WEISSENBERG, Emeritus Professor,
5225 Schuyler Street, Philadelphia 44, Pa.
Further studies on the intracellular microorganism observed in the lymphocystis disease of
fish. (15 min.)
In abstract 268 of the preceding meeting, a
microorganism consisting of a pair of small rods
and often surrounded by a clear capsule was described as cell parasite in lymphocystis tumor
cells. Recently, in specimens of Pkuronectes
flesus, Stizostedion vitreum, Pomacanthus arcuat u s , Lepomis macrochitus carrying lymphocystis
tumors, paired structures with the same morphological appearance as in the tumor cells have
rather frequently been observed also in erythrocytes within their nucleus and (or) within their
The possibility of affinities to microorganisms
described by Kirby as producing hypertrophy of
nuclei of certain flagellates has not become firmer
substantiated. On the other hand, the interpretation of the microorganism as representing a
macrovirus appears well supported in conformity
with my previous concept of the lymphocystis
disease as a viral disease. The observed infection
of the nucleolus, formation of colonies in the
nucleus, and free distribution in the cytoplasm
preceding the formation of inclusion bodies are
facts known in a number of other viruses.
Around a few capsulated pairs located in the
cytoplasm, basophilic inclusion substance is then
formed. The further development starts with
multiplication of the pairs in the inclusion bodies
and is followed by transformation of many rods
into flaments often equipped with granules.
These observations confirm the view that the rods
represent the initial forms of a developmental
cycle. Evidently they correspond well to the
“Initialkorper” described by Prowazek ( ’ 0 5 ) in
the development of the vaccinia virus. Their
conspicuous arrangement in pairs makes them
easily recognizable in the lymphocystis lesions.
JOHN H. WELSH, Harvard University. Neurohormones in molluscs. (30 min.)
The neurohumors, acetylcholine (Ach), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) , dopamine and nor-adrenaline have been shown to be present in molluscan nervous systems, sometimes in relatively
large amounts. For example, pelecypod ganglia
contain more 5-HT than any other nerve tissue,
either vertebrate or invertebrate, thus far studied,
while cephalopod ganglia are rich in Ach. Enzymes required in the synthesis of these neurohumors such as choline acetylase and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, and destructive
enzymes such as choline esterase and amine
oxidase are also present in molluscs.
Molluscan heart and body muscle is often
doubly innervated. Cardio-inhibitor nerves are
usually cholinergic while the action of cardioexcitor nerves is usually mediated by 5-HT.
Catechol amines may also help to regulate the
heart. A body muscle such as the anterior byssus
retractor of Mytilus contracts in the presence of
Ach and is relaxed by 5-HT. These substances are
probably the normal transmitter agents for this
The in viuo metabolism of neurohumors may be
studied to advantage in molluscs. For example,
the level of 5-HT in the nervous system may be
increased by injecting 5-hydroxytryptophan and
decreased by reserpine. These results are similar
to those seen in the mammalian brain.
Neuroglandular organs and groups of neurosecretory cells occur in various molluscs, but
little is known concerning the chemical nature
and physiological roles of their products. In some
molluscs there appears to be a relationship between neurosecretory activity and reproductive
cycles. This should be a fertile area for further
and RICHARD ANDELMAN, Laboratories for
Therapeutic Research, Brooklyn College of
Pharmacy. Effects of thymectomy on the blood
cells and platelets of male rats. (15 min.)
Numerous investigations have related thymic
abnormalities to myasthenia gravis, Hodgkin’s disease and lymphatic leukemia. The present study
sought to determine the alterations caused by
thymectomy upon the red blood cells, white blood
cells, differential cell counts and platelet frequencies of young male rats.
Blood samples were taken at one-month, threemonth and 6-month post-thymectomy periods.
The results of studies involving thymectomized,
sham-thymectomized and control animals revealed significant 3 0 4 0 % decreases in the white
blood cells of thymectomized rats, such decreases
were still evident at the 6-month post-thymectomy
period. Analysis of the differential counts indicated however that this decrease was due primarily to a fall in the lymphocytes accompanied
by relative increases in the frequencies of the
neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil cell types.
Significant increases were also observed in the
red blood cell and platelet counts of the thymectomized rats at the three-month post-thymectomy
period. Thus, it becomes apparent that although
the thymus is a small component of the lymphocytic structure, it plays an important role in blood
economy, especially in lymphocytic production.
Findings also point with interest to the neutrophil
to monocyte to eosinophil ratios which support
the premise that the thymus may be a source of
NORMAN K. WESSELLS, Yale University. Initiation by thyroxine of chick epidermal differentiation in protein-free chemically defined nutrient
media in vitro.
Embryonic chick anterior shank skin ( 8 and 10
day) was cultured in a defined medium (Wessells, in press). Control explants in basal medium
failed to differentiate normally; proliferation occurred, but cells remained in nodes or strands
upon the epidermal surfaces. Conversely, explants treated with ( 1 ) Na thyroxine (Tx) (2,
20, or 200 &g/lOO ml basal medium) followed the
normal ontogenetic pattern including forming
birefringent tonofibrils and limited cornified areas.
Treatment of other cultures with Tx at 2000 pg/
100 ml for one hour, resulted in normal development also, to the point where some tonofibril-Wed
subperiderm cells appeared. Tri-iodo-thyronine
(TIT), when supplied continuously, acted like
Tx as a stimulant to development. Growth hormone, alone in the basal medium, or in combination with Tx, failed to produce any observed
effect on explants.
Therefore, under the conditions used: (1) Tx in
continuous supply causes skin to differentiate to
the 16-17 day stage; ( 2 ) the reaction is concentration independent from 2 to 200 pg/lOO ml; (3)
Tx functions similarly when used in massive dose
for a short period; and, ( 4 ) skin differentiation
will not result from treatment with growth hormone, yet can be initiated by the tri-iodo derivative of Tx. These results reinforce Bartels’ suggestion (Roux Arch., 142: 1943) that thyroxine
normally initiates epidermal differentiation.
Eight-day skin used here can respond to Tx or
TIT from two to 4 days before the thyroid is functional in uiuo. (Willier, B. H., Analysis of Development, 1955.) No differentiation occurs, however, until the time of thyroid activity. (Supported by a pre-doctoral fellowship from the
University of Maryland. The mechanics of
copulation in Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.
(10 min.)
An actively mating male does not copulate
freely with a newly emerged female partly because her terminalia are so greatly retracted and
partly because she uses her metathoracic legs to
prevent his clasping. If, however, the newly
emerged female’s abdomen is inserted through a
hole in a paper disc to block the action of her
legs, and if her terminalia are extruded by gentle
pressure, the male can be forced to copulate with
her but insemination does not occur. In free
copulation between mature adults the male seizes
the terminalia of the female with claspers. As the
ventrally located proctiger inserts obliquely into
and blocks the vaginal orifice, the arms of the
proctiger spread laterally. The mesially-grooved,
crescent-shaped phallosome moves in a ventrallydirected arc and is thus in a position to penetrate
the slit-like opening to the bursa copulatrix just
above the upper vaginal lip. (Supported by grant
RG-6021 from the U.S.P.H.S., Scientific Article
Number A-866, Contribution Number 3176 of the
Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Entomology.)
J. R. WHITTAKER, Yale University. An in viuo
analysis of tyrosinase function and melanin
formation in ascidian embryos. (Introduced
by Patricia F. Knight) (15 min.)
Ascidian tadpoles have a melanin pigment
localized in their sensory structures (otolith and
ocellus). Melanin formation was observed i n detail in three species, Styela partita, Ciona intestinalis and Molgula manhattensis.
Embryos of Styela, Ciona and Molgula treated
from the 2-4 cell stage onwards with 3 x
phenylthiourea (PTU), develop normal sensory
structures which are completely non-pigmented.
Since PTU inhibition is reversible, the periods in
development at which tyrosinase function ceases
in the sensory structures were found by removal
of embryos from inhibitor at various stages.
Pigmentation can occur in the otolith and ocellus
of Ciona and the otolith of Styela long after
hatching. The singlecelled eye rudiment of
Styela loses the ability to synthesize melanin just
following the time melanin normally forms ( 6
hours before hatching). Molgula, which lacks a n
ocellus, loses the ability to synthesize melanin in
the otolith shortly before hatching.
In Styela, pigmentation activity in the nonpigmented otolith ceases or diminishes greatly
with the onset of tail resorption in metamorphosis.
Inducing precocious metamorphosis with neutral
red causes premature loss of this synthetic ability.
Cessation of pigmentation activity in the Styela
eye rudiment at the time of normal first melanin
synthesis cannot be reversed by tyrosine, phenylalanine, DOPA or copper.
Treatment of Styela eggs with several other
melanin inhibitors: diethyldithiocarbamate, thiourea and thiouracil, for a 6-hour period prior to
fertilization, results in tadpoles with fully pigmented otoliths but lacking part of their eye
rudiment pigment. PTU does not have this effect.
Several experiments suggest that permeability
factors are responsible for this phenomenon.
RALPH WICHTERMAN, Temple University. Survival and reproductive ability after x-irradiation
in 4 species of Paramecium. (15 min)
Four species of Paramecium, namely P. calkinsi, P. multimicronucleatum, P. bursaria, and P.
trichium were treated as follows: counted specimens (100 or 200) were placed in air-tight, Nylon
syringes ( 2 ml) and irradiated in steps of 50,000
r beginning with this dosage and extending up to
at least 450,000 I. For each experiment, the 4
different species were irradiated simultaneously
each in one syringe. After a given dosage, 0.2 ml
of fluid containing a precisely countable number
of specimens-commonly less than 10-were expressed from a syringe for isolation into spot
plates for the establishment of survival-reproduction curves.
P. trichium, which is the most radiosensitive,
recovers and reproduces only at the lower dosages.
On the other hand, P. calkinsi from sea-water i s
the most radioresistant showing relatively fast recovery and reproductive ability even after fairly
high dosages.
Immobilized irradiated paramecia may remain
seemingly dead for as long as 24 hours. Like
dead ones, they settle on the bottom of the container and do not ingest food. Active cyclosis
and ciliary movement are not apparent. Recovery
in such forms begins by feeble ciliary activity,
then a gradual and slow gliding of the organisms
on the bottom of the dish without the characteristic spiral swimming which occurs later after
major recovery from irradiation effects.
The data show that while reproduction may be
blocked temporarily by irradiation longer than 24
hours, there is usually a gradually increased re-
productive rate so that paramecia from large mass
cultures-the progeny of irradiated specimenshave a reproductive rate comparable to the unirradiated controls. (Part of a project aided by a
grant from the Committee on Research, Temple
University, and contract NR 104475 between the
Office of Naval Research, Department of the
Navy, and Temple University.)
SUDAK, Loyola College and Albert Einstein
College of Medicine. Circulatory responses of
Elasmobranchs to hemorrhage.
Specimens of the smooth dogfish, Mustelus
canis, and of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthius,
were pithed and the ventral aorta exposed. Blood
pressure was recorded through a catheter in the
aorta leading to a pressure transducer recording
system. Electric recording of movement of the
branchial muscles gave respiratory rates. Various
amounts of blood ( 1 to 10 ml) were removed
from the fish via the caudal vein; the effect of removal on heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood
pressure was observed. The blood was then reinfused and comparable observations were made.
Heart and respiratory rates were unchanged. The
circulatory system in each species behaved essentially as a simple pressure-volume container. It
was found that the mean blood pressure (M) is
related to systolic (S) and diastolic (D) pressures
as follows: M = ( S D) 0.45. The response to
hemorrhage can be expressed: for Mustelus 100/
y=4.2+0.35x, r=0.936; for Squalus 1OO/y=6+
0.3x, r = 0.898; where y is mean blood pressure in
ml Hg and x is blood deficit in milliliters. Early
anatomical studies on Elasmobranchs fail to reveal vasoconstrictive nerves associated with the
blood vessels. The present results are in accord
with such observations. There is no obvious
vasomotor compensation for blood loss in Mustelus
or Squalus. If blood is removed from the smooth
or the spiny dogfish, blood pressure falls. As blood
is returned, blood pressure rises. The effects of
various drugs on response to hemorrhage in these
species are being investigated. (Supported in
part by grant MY-3235 and H-3563(Cl) from the
GEORGE CALVOSA, New York University.
Chromatographic separation of human urinary
erythropoietic stimulating factor (ESF). (15
Urine samples from Thalassemia subjects with
hemoglobin values of 4 gm% or less were filtered
and screened for ESF activity by injection into
170-220 g m female rats. When 5 daily 3 ml
subcutaneous injections of a sample increased
reticulocyte counts by 300400% and hematocrit
values by 15-25% it was selected for further
refinement. ESF was precipitated from urine
with 4 volumes of methanol, ethanol, propanol or
acetone at - 10'C. Methanol afforded the highest
yield of ESF while propanol and acetone were
least effective.
Ethanol precipitated preparations were dissolved in a minimum volume of 0.16 M NaCl and
dialyzed 4 days at 5°C against 0.005 M Na2HPOl
(pH 7.3). One half gram of DEAE cellulose was
mixed with every 100 ml of dialysate and removed by centrifugation. ESF was eluted from
each DEAE cellulose sediment with 50, 25, and
25 ml of 0.12 M NaC1-0.005 M Na2HP04 (pH 7:3).
The combined eluates were dialyzed agamst
0.005 M NazHP04 (pH 7.3) and applied to a
1 x 6 cm DEAE cellulose column previously
washed with 0.16 M NaCl-0.005 M Na2HP04 (pH
7.3) and equilibrated with 0.005 M Na2HP04 (pH
7.3). Gradient elution at pH 7.3 from 0.005 M
NasHPO, to 0.005 M NazHP04-0.16 M NaCl resulted i n two successive elution peaks absorbing
maximally at 278 mp. The two peaks emerging
between 0.10 M and 0.12 M NaCl contained approximately 100 and 50 cobalt units of ESF
activity per milligram of protein respectively.
(Supported by grant H-3357 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
meable cuticle act as receptor organs which respond to the temperature changes resulting from
different rates of evaporation. Behavior of the mite
is such that the receptor organs seem to function
in the same way as do the mammalian temperature receptors described by Zotterman (Ann.Rev.
Physiol., 15: 357-372, 1953) in which the time
rate of change is the important factor. Activity
patterns, behavior, and ecology support the possibility that humidity responses i n this animal
function i n such things as feeding behavior and
fecundity rather than in the reduction of water
loss, as is the case in most terrestrial arthropods.
ALBERT WOLFSON, Northwestern University.
Mechanism of photoperiodic regulation of reproductive and migratory rhythmicity in birds.
(15 min.)
Extensive studies of the role of day length in
HOWARD E. WINN and JOSEPH MARSHALL, the regulation of reproduction and vernal migraUniversity of Maryland. Sound production of tion have shown that the annual periodicity of
these events is regulated in two phases-a presquirrelfishes. (15 min.)
paratory phase and a progressive phase. To
The organ of sound production, hearing, be- elucidate the mechanisms involved i n these
havioral circumstances under which two types of phases, studies have been made under various
sound were produced, die1 variations of sound photoperiodic schedules of the hypothalamo-hyproduction and reactions toward various sounds pophyseal system, the role of gonadotropic horwere studied. All field results were duplicated in mones, and the role of testosterone. Observations
the laboratory. The fish basically produces two on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system included
types of sounds, one under low stimulation to- (a) quantitative determinations of acid phoswards familiar individuals and another with phatase in the region of the supraoptic nucleus,
greater stimulation towards unfamiliar discon- the region of the median eminence, the adenotinuous moving objects such as the moray eel. hypophysis, and the neurohypophysis and ( b )
This results in increased escape, attentive and studies of the Gomori-positive material in the
investigative behavior of the squirrelfish. Die1 supraoptic nucleus and median eminence.
variations i n the production of the two sounds
During the progressive phase, the daily photoand in the locomotory activity patterns differ period induces release of neurosecretory material
signi5cantly. The air bladder both produces which i n turn stimulates the gonadotropic acsound and transmits sound vibrations to the tivity of the adenohypophysis. The rate of reinner ear which presents a unique problem lease and the duration of reproductive activity
in the physiology of hearing. The range of hearare a function of the duration of the daily photoing is greater than that of most ostariophysid period. After the gonads have reached almost
fishes (below 300 up to 8,000-9,000 cps). (Sup- maximum size they may be maintained by testosported by the Office of Naval Research, N.R. terone alone. Ultimately, the gonads regress,
but the cause is not known. During regression,
administration of gonadotropins from pregnant
PAUL W. WINSTON, University of Colorado. A mare serum induces reactivation.
possible humidity receptor mechanism in the
Before another period of reproductive activity
clover mite, Bryobiu pruetiosa Koch. (10 min.)
or vernal migratory physiology can occur, the
When normal clover mites are subjected to a preparatory phase must be completed. It requires
choice of two humidities in small tubes, a signifi- exposure for approximately 6 weeks to daily
cant majority is always to be found in the lower uninterrupted dark periods of at least 12 hours
humidity. Forty-six relative humidity combina- duration. Without this treatment, the neurosecretions and over 100,000 position records at 25OC tory material cannot be released from the median
have shown no deviation from this whether the eminence i n sufficient amounts to induce a
m e r e n c e is two or 90 percentage points. The gonadal response.
There appears to be a daily cycle of response to
response is to the difference between the two
humidities not to relative humidity, saturation
the periods of light and darkness whose net
deficit, nor to any particular part of the humidity effect is a particular rate of response for the
range. With a given difference, the response is light-dependent or dark-dependent reactions deessentially the same strength i n all parts of the
pending on the season of the year or the sequence
range. It is postulated that the response of these
in the cycle. The annual rhythmicity is induced
mites is to areas of increasing rates of evapora- by these daily reactions. The timing of vernal
tion; thus the steeper the humidity gradient (the
migration and reproduction is controlled largely
greater the percentage difference) the stronger is by the dark-dependent reaction which occurs during the previous autumn. (Supported by a grant
the s t i m u l u s . It is possible that small areas of
high permeability i n an otherwise almost imper- from N.S.F.)
WOLSKY, Manhattanville College and Fordham University. The effect of a carcinostatic
antimetabolite on the development of sea urchin
eggs. (15 min.)
The sodium salt of N-dichloroacetyl dl serine
(“Frost-T-9045”, see Levi, Blondal and Lozinski,
Science, 131: 666, 1960) was tested on eggs of
Paracentootus lividus. In a concentration of
200 mg% it produced serious disturbances in
development. (Lower concentrations had weaker
effects, 1 mg% had none.) In most cases gastrulation was not completed and development often
arrested in the blastula stage. The effect was
stronger when the treatment was started just before fertilization than immediately afterwards.
Changes of egg permeability at fertilization are
believed to be responsible for this difference. If
the treatment is stopped in time, recovery occurs
and in most cases normal plutei are obtained.
Pre-treatment of sperm for several hours has
no effect on subsequent development. Similar
pre-treatment of unfertilized eggs has a very
slight effect, manifested mainly in a time lag in
development. Treatment started in later developmental stages resulted only in slight effects on
growth, especially of the arms.
A conspicuous effect was shown on ciliary
movements, which were slowed or stopped altogether in most cases, while the controls were
swimming vigorously.
It is concluded that N-dichloroacetyl dl serine
is not a specific antimitotic agent but interferes
with protein synthesis in general. (Work supported by U.S.P.H.S. research grant RG-6713 and
by Manhattanville College; carried out at Station
Biologique Roscoff (University of Paris, France.)
PAULINE J. WOOD, University of Washington.
Histodifferentiation in the palate of the human
embryo. (15 min.)
As a basis for investigations of developmental
mechanisms in the palate region, a study of normal growth and differentiation of the human
palate has been undertaken.
The critical period for palate formation in the
human lies between 8 and 10 weeks of the
gestation period. During this interval the shelves
elevate and fuse, and ossification in the palatine
processes, already perceptible at 8 weeks, intensifies. The ensuing weeks witness further differentiation at the cell and tissue level, although
differentiation is apparently not yet complete at
A series of frontal sections was prepared on the
palates of formalin-fixed human embryos and
fetuses of 6 through 20 weeks. At least three
embryos were sectioned for each week of the
period 6 through 10 weeks; thereafter, fetuses
of 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks were prepared as
above. Additional sections were obtained from
occasional fresh specimens aged 5 through 9
Routine staining with hematoxylin and eosin
and Mallory’s triple stain was carried out. In
addition, selected sections were tested for the
presence of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, lipids,
nerve fibers and keratohyalin. Development of
these several components, as well as certain
morphological features, will be discussed. (Supported by grant D(C1)-910 from the U.S.P.H.S.)
LEONARD G. WORLEY and BETTY HERSHENOV, Brooklyn College. Electron microscopy of
the elaboration of protein yolk by the Golgi complex during the early development of Crepidula.
(15 min.)
In electron micrographs of the veliger larva the
following stages in the Golgi cycle can be identified : homogeneous Golgi droplets (“Praesubstanz”
of Hirsch); simple and compound Golgi vesicles
(“Systeme” and “Polysysteme” of Hirsch) ;pycnotic Golgi bodies (Golgi “Reste” of Hirsch; Gold
“remnants” of spermatogenesis). Protein yolk
spheres, arising as the chromophobic components
of the Golgi vesicles, are completely and intimately invested by chromophilic Golgi envelopes
throughout their growth period. Upon their attainment of full growth the chromophilic component withdraws and then lies in a collapsed
condition at the side of the mature yolk sphere.
Electron micrographs fully substantiate the vital
dye studies of Worley and Worley (’43) in
Navanax except that an elaboration of “fatty”
yolk has not been noted and indeed there appears
to be very little ‘Yatty” yolk in Crepidula. The
Golgi substance presents an obvious lamellated
structure at no stage in the secretory process, but
the identification of the material as Golgi i s fully
confirmed by phase contrast and vitally-stained
living material as well as by fixed preparations
for light microscopy and by hypertonic treatment
of vitally-stained specimens. These results suggest that in these and perhaps in all animal cells
the function of the Golgi “apparatus” is the constant building up of formed energy reserves from
the raw nutritive substances present in the cytoplasm.
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