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Human histology Bruce Cruickshank T. C. Dodds and Dugald Gardner $11.00 268 pages 216 color micrographs E & S Livingstone London and The Williams & Wilkins Co. Baltimore 1964

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HUMAN HISTOLOGY, Bruce Cruickshank,
T. C . Dodds, and Dugald Gardner,
$11.00, 268 pages, 216 color micrographs, E & S Livingstone, London, and
The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore,
1964.
Anatomists, as well as pathologists can
appreciate readily the difficulty in teaching
medical students histopathologic changes
in human disease without “normal” human
material that the student can utilize for
quantitative comparison of the abnormal.
Most currently available textbooks of histology have limited numbers of illustrations of human tisuses. As a result many
medical students begin their clinical studies with incomplete knowledge of the microscopic structure of human tissues. With
this in mind the authors have amassed a
formidable amount of material obtained
from hospitalized patients by biopsy techniques and from necropsy procedures. Because of the nature of the material extreme
care must be taken in defining, as well as
separating, the “normal” from the abnormal. Although it is not possible to achieve
technical perfection to this end the authors
obviously have made every effort to eliminate subtle disease changes and technical
imperfections.
The book contains 216 color micrographs, 3 light micrographs, 35 diagrammatic drawings, 16 electron micrographs,
and 1 macrophotograph. Forty-seven staining techniques are illustrated; hematoxylin
and eosin the predominant stain being
used. I n essence the volume is a n atlas
with succinct text. The contents are presented in much the same fashion as in the
usual histology textbook, starting with
basic cell structure, epithelia, tissues, then
the body sytems. The first chapter covers
cellular organelles, cell division, and chromosome karyotyping. The text is dogmatic
in defining such structures a s microvilli,
cilia, desmosomes, and lysosomes. Information gleaned from recent electron microscopic studies is minimal or lacking.
Epithelia and glands are covered i n six
pages, the text being limited to simple defiANAT. REC., 152: 115-118.
nitions and localizations of various epithelia. The chapter on connective tissue
covers the cells and fibrillar elements of
the loose connective tissues but only mentions the ground substance. Smooth muscle also is described in the chapter on
connective tissue. Excellent examples of
elastic and van Gieson-stained tissue sections are presented in the chapter covering
the cardiovascular system. The effectiveness of illustrations of stomach and small
intestine is accentuated by photographs of
jejunal villi through the dissecting microscope. Three dimensional line drawings
are used to show the relationship of nephrons to the renal cortex and medulla. Conspicuously lacking in this section is recognition or any discussion of the mesangial
(axial) cells of the glomerulus. The section on the pituitary gland is unusually
well illustrated. In several areas throughout the book, as exemplified under the discussion of the adrenal gland, comparative
illustrations of fetal and adult tissue structure are presented. The illustration of the
islet of Langerhans conveys a graphic idea
of the relative number of alpha (glucagon
secreting) and beta (insulin secreting)
cells. Inasmuch a s the reviewer has a special interest i n hematologic pathology,
close scrutiny was made of the chapters
on the hematopoetic and reticuloendothelial systems. The illustrations of blood
cells are comparable to and as fine as those
in the well known Sandoz blood atlas. The
coverage of the hematopoetic system is
good. The presentation is accentuated by
illustration of enzymatic staining of specific granules (now known to be lysosomes)
of leukocytes. The illustrations of the nervous system are excellent. The authors
utilize many of the numerous stains common to neurohistology. The special sense
organs are illustrated in more detail than
usually seen in most histology textbooks.
The quality of micrographs in general
is good; however, there is a tendency to
illustrate some tissues at magnifications
too low to be of practical value. The 16
electronmicrographs used i n the volume
do not enhance appreciably the presenta115
116
BOOKS
tion, since the quality of the electronmicrographs is far inferior to the quality of the
color light micrographs. There are 35
diagrammatic drawings, most of which are
utilized to explain difficult points of histology in the color micrographs. A noteworthy feature of this book is a 4 page
section of artifacts encountered in tissue
sections. Twenty-eight artifacts are defined and well illustrated in color. This
latter feature enhances the usefulness of
this volume in teaching of medical technologists as well as in training of pathologists. The scope of this book is broad
enough to give a basic understanding of
most tissues of the human body. Because
of the scope and the dogmatic style of
presentation, the volume should be more
useful to medical students than the current
available atlases of color line drawings.
The $11.00 price is not unreasonable in
view of the amount of material presented.
The reviewer feels that the authors’ intent,
to provide medical students with a concise,
fully illustrated account of normal histology, is achieved.
JAMES
A. FREEMAN,M.D.
CELL PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY, 2nd edition, William D. McElroy,
120 pages and viii, Prentice-Hall Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964.
In this day and age when anatomists are
turning their attention to genetics, protein
chemistry, hibernation physiology and macromolecular structure, it becomes apparent that the anatomist must achieve a n
understanding of basic cell physiology and
biochemistry. The accelerated development
of these fields makes it impossible to maintain a thorough understanding of multidisciplined approaches in the science of
biology. A thorough presentation of the
dynamic state of modern biology is admittedly beyond the challenge of most
teachers. This book, one of the “Foundations of Modern Biology Series,” attempts
to present a n understandable synopsis of
current concepts i n the physiology and biochemistry of cells. This volume is a succinct, well written, and well illustrated
book of 120 pages divided into 10 chapters.
In a n attempt to integrate the physiology
and biochemistry of the cell the first chapter presents a brief review of the major
cellular organelles and the role they play in
cellular function. Pinocytosis and phagocytosis, phenomena readily familiar to
most electron microscopists in anatomy,
are well presented. The role of the cell
membrane and active cell transport are discussed. The chemistry of cell contents is
divided into two chapters, one of which
discusses proteins in general, and the second discusses enzymes. A short discussion
of acid-base properties of proteins as well
as advantages and disadvantages of methods for their isolation is presented. Determination of the amino acid sequence, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins
are discussed. Although enzymes are proteins, they are discussed in a separate
chapter. The basic properties of enzymes
in general and enzyme inhibition is demonstrated with old lock and key diagrams.
Athough the chapter is succinct and well
done, the five-line paragraphs on naming
enzymes is over-simplified so much as to
be useless to any anatomist. The 7-page
chapter on metabolic energy gives a succinct but understandable discussion of
calorie, oxidation, high energy phosphate
bonding, and other basic information in
energy transfer.
A discussion of alcoholic fermentation,
a revolutionary idea proposed in 1860 by
the French chemist Gay-Lussac, is given
in a n effort to promote understanding of
phosphorylation of glucose and of glycolysis. Throughout chapter 6, which discusses glycolysis, a s well as the preceding
chapter discussing alcoholic fermentation,
the author utilizes the older nomenclature
for coenzyme 1, namely diphosphopyridine
nucleotide (DPN), instead of the recently
accepted terminology by the clinical chemists of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
(NAD). The author notes in chapter 7
that Kreb’s citric acid cycle is a much
more effective method of generating phosphate energy bonds in aerobic organisms
than is anerobic glycolysis. Not only is
pyruvic acid oxidation discussed, but also
that of lipids (predominantly triglycerides)
and fatty acids. Amino acid metabolism
also is discussed. The chapter on photosynthesis is preceded by a basic explana-
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london, livingstone, histology, 268, color, 1964, bruce, gardner, human, dodd, micrographs, page, wilkins, 216, cruickshank, william, dugald, baltimore
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