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Papers to be presented at the joint session of the American Association of Anatomists and American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

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a t the
of the
BEAN,School of Anatomy, University of
1. Old Virginians. ROBEI~TBENKEW
Examinations and measurements have been made during the past twelve years
of more than 3000 male and female children and adults between the ages of six
and sixty years, who for three generations have been residents of Virginia. This
was done to cstablish a standard, for future comparison, of stocks that had been
i n one environment f o r a considerable time. Statistical tables and charts are
being prepared t o show the stature, sitting height, sitting-height index, head
length, head breadth, cephalic index, hair color, and eye color of each sex at
each age from six t o sixty years. Already the stature shows that Old Virginians
are the tallest people in the world, taken as a whole group, and about of thc
same stature as HrdliEka’s Old Americans. A few Patagonian giants, a few
East African negroes, and a few Scotch farmers are a little taller, but no whole
group of any of these peoples is taller, or as tall. A group of Old Virginians
from Albemarle County, farmers of the landlord type, averaged ovcr 180.0 em.,
or 6 feet. Thcy represent the pioneer gentry, but they cannot be taken as characteristic of the group of Old Virginians, any more than the Patagonian giants,
East African negroes, or Scotch farmers can be taken as characteristic of the
whole people i n these countries. Other facts will be given a t the meeting.
2. A comparison of the limbs, hands, and feet of man, anthropoid apes, and primitive Eocene mammals. WILLIAMI<. GREGORY,The American Museum of Natural History.
Reviews points of agreement between Prof. H. F. Osborn’s version and the
Keith-Gregory version of man’s ascent from lower primates. Takes up Osborn’a
suggestion that hands and feet of man may be derived, independently of those
of specialized apes, from Eocene mammals with dkergent pollcx and hallux.
Shows that in many characters of the humerus, manus, prR, &*., inan is f a r ncarclr
to modern gorilla and chimpanzee than to known Eocene mammals. 8 h o w ,
a ) that the mountain gorilla, although now spending much time on the ground,
has not pet wholly passed from the brachiating stage; b) that it nevertheless
has especially human characters in all its girdle and limb bones.. Infers that
human-like characters are not ineonsistent with remote origin from brachiating
3. If'oi-nL f y p r x of the b o t 7 ~( m i 1 iqt o s t w l o g y .
Vnited Statc's
National Museum.
Hesides the ordinary range of nornial variation in the human body and its
different parts, thcrr is observable another phenomenon of importance which
may be called typogeny. This process may be defined a8 the tendenrv of tho
variations of grouping themselvrs into more or less definite form types.
Such variations are very perceptible in the body as a whole, a subject reported
upon repeatedly by Bean; and they are very clearly defined i n many parts of
the human skeleton.
,Many of thew variations arc connected with muscular peculiarities, and are
influenced by muscular artion. l n the nlajoritj- of cases they may be regarded
therefore as essentially functional. But 8onw of theni are hereditary and have
evidently a deeper meaning.
J. MORTOX,lfcpartment of Anatomy, College of Physicians and Surgeons.
4. RIjle of structwal mzriutions in atutic foot disorder.
Certain anatomical variations of the feet are specifically causal to static disorders under conditions imposed by our civilized enx-ironment ; namelv: 1) Short
first metatarsal bone as determined by a rearward position of its head i n relation
to that of the srcond metatarsal bone. 2) Sesainoid bones located posteriorly
toward the neck of the first metatarsal, instead of being centered beneath t h o
head of that bone. 3) Hypermobility of the hallucial segment (first metatarsal
and its cuneiforni bone) as the result of ligamentous laxity between the navicular,
the inner cuneiform, and middle cuneiform bones.
These conditions may exist singly or in rombination. They vary in degree in
different feet from zero to a conspicuous morphological character as revealed by
dorsoplantar x-ray examination. Each of them imposes an increase in the burden
of body weight upon the second metatarsal bone, according t o the greater degree
of such variations.
The increased burden upon thr second metatarsal becomes expressed in a fourth
anatomical character-a distinct, and sometimes conspicuous, hypertrophic development of that bone; the amount of this enlargement is determined by, 1) t h c
totality of causal variations, 2 ) age of the individual, and, 3) habitual functional demands. Most conspicuous instances of this hypertrophy are found
either in middle-aged persons, or in younger adults presenting a marked degree
of the causal variations listed above.
Such structural rariatious are of theniselws merely potential causes of foot
disorder, since they undoubtedly prevail as widelv among rural groups and nonshoe-wearing races as among our urban populations, but are not accompanied by
disabling symptoms. Hard, level pavements and floors, poorly dcsigned shoes,
excessive occupational demands upon feet, and other artificial conditions induced
by our civilized mode of life all combine to furnish the supplementary environmental factor whereby these variations-as structural imperfections-are changed
from a potential to an actual source of foot disability.
Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Johns Hopkins University.
6. Human variability compared with the variability of other primates.
The number of vertebrae in the various spinal regions is much more variable
in anthropoids than in man. For instance, thoracolumbar vertebrae deviate from
the statistical norm in only 8 per cent of 3856 human spines, but i n 42 per cent
of eighty-six gorilla spines. I n all higher primates the number of sacral vertebrae varies more than the number of thoracic or of lumbar vertebrae and the
eoccygeal vertebrae are most variable. The praecaudal spine of man shows a
normal combination of variations (12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral) in 71 per
rent of the cases, that of orang (12, 4, 5) in only 46 per cent, and that of
chimpanzee (13, 4, 5) in only 35 per cent.
According to their variation coefficients, the proportions between the lengths
of the limb bones show approximately equal stability in man and other higher
Variations in the two halves of the body (asymmetries) are more pronounced
in man than in anthropoids. The limb bones of lower primates are as frequently longer on the right side as they are longer on the left. Among higher
primates the upper extremity is most frequently longer on the right than on the
left in gibbon, orang, and, particularly, man, whereas the lower extremity is
most frequently longer on the left side in chimpanzee and in man. Tho clavicles
show greater asymmetries than the limb bones.
6. The contributions t o our knowledge of the growth and development of the
fetus, infant, ond child, 1960-1930: A quantitative sumnaary. RICHARDE.
Institute of Child Welfare and Department of Anatomy, University
of Minnesota.
A quantitative analysis has been made of some 1800 publications on the growth
and development of the body in the fetal period, infancy, childhood, and adolescence that have appeared in the last ten years. These have been classified
according t o subject matter, method of study, language of publiration, and vehicle
of publication. An analysis has also been made of the sources of literature on
these subjects that have developed in the last decade, the chief bibliographic
sources that have appeared in these years, and the development of analytic and
quantitative methods in this period. A comparison is made with results of a
similar analysis of studies appearing in the decade 1900-1910 and of those of
fifty years ago, 1870-1880.
7. The adolescent Zag in the human skeleton.
T. WINOATETODD,Western Reserve
1. The dates of epiphysial union and eruption of permanent teeth are related
so that they may he regarded, for this purpose, as different aspects of the same
phenomenon. Both order-pattern and date of union or eruption can be and are
modified by pathological conditions of the bodp.
2. There is a chronological linkage for both epiphysial union and eruption of
teeth which is normally stable for a particular animal, but varies with the order
or genus.
3. The special character of the primates is a lag of maturation throughout
infancy and childhood. Nevertheless, even in them adult characters quickly reach
complete dereloyment once they have appeared.
4. The particular feature of man’s dex-elopmeut is his adolescent lag, and the
scatter in indiridual rariation which is most pronounced between eleven and
fifteen years. The most stable and uniform periods of human skeletal development for both males and females are between one and fire years and between
eighteen and twenty-two pears.
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