Papers to be presented at the joint session of the American Association of Anatomists and American Association of Physical Anthropologists.код для вставкиСкачать
PAPERS TO B E PRESENTED a t the JOINT SESSION of the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION O F ANATOMISTS and AMERICAN ASSOCIATION O F PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS BEAN,School of Anatomy, University of 1. Old Virginians. ROBEI~TBENKEW Virginia. Examinations and measurements have been made during the past twelve years of more than 3000 male and female children and adults between the ages of six and sixty years, who for three generations have been residents of Virginia. This was done to cstablish a standard, for future comparison, of stocks that had been i n one environment f o r a considerable time. Statistical tables and charts are being prepared t o show the stature, sitting height, sitting-height index, head length, head breadth, cephalic index, hair color, and eye color of each sex at each age from six t o sixty years. Already the stature shows that Old Virginians are the tallest people in the world, taken as a whole group, and about of thc same stature as HrdliEka’s Old Americans. A few Patagonian giants, a few East African negroes, and a few Scotch farmers are a little taller, but no whole group of any of these peoples is taller, or as tall. A group of Old Virginians from Albemarle County, farmers of the landlord type, averaged ovcr 180.0 em., or 6 feet. Thcy represent the pioneer gentry, but they cannot be taken as characteristic of the group of Old Virginians, any more than the Patagonian giants, East African negroes, or Scotch farmers can be taken as characteristic of the whole people i n these countries. Other facts will be given a t the meeting. 2. A comparison of the limbs, hands, and feet of man, anthropoid apes, and primitive Eocene mammals. WILLIAMI<. GREGORY,The American Museum of Natural History. Reviews points of agreement between Prof. H. F. Osborn’s version and the Keith-Gregory version of man’s ascent from lower primates. Takes up Osborn’a suggestion that hands and feet of man may be derived, independently of those of specialized apes, from Eocene mammals with dkergent pollcx and hallux. 289 Shows that in many characters of the humerus, manus, prR, &*., inan is f a r ncarclr to modern gorilla and chimpanzee than to known Eocene mammals. 8 h o w , a ) that the mountain gorilla, although now spending much time on the ground, has not pet wholly passed from the brachiating stage; b) that it nevertheless has especially human characters in all its girdle and limb bones.. Infers that human-like characters are not ineonsistent with remote origin from brachiating ancestors. 3. If'oi-nL f y p r x of the b o t 7 ~( m i 1 iqt o s t w l o g y . ALE& I-IRDLI~~KA, Vnited Statc's National Museum. Hesides the ordinary range of nornial variation in the human body and its different parts, thcrr is observable another phenomenon of importance which may be called typogeny. This process may be defined a8 the tendenrv of tho variations of grouping themselvrs into more or less definite form types. Such variations are very perceptible in the body as a whole, a subject reported upon repeatedly by Bean; and they are very clearly defined i n many parts of the human skeleton. ,Many of thew variations arc connected with muscular peculiarities, and are influenced by muscular artion. l n the nlajoritj- of cases they may be regarded therefore as essentially functional. But 8onw of theni are hereditary and have evidently a deeper meaning. DUDLEY J. MORTOX,lfcpartment of Anatomy, College of Physicians and Surgeons. 4. RIjle of structwal mzriutions in atutic foot disorder. Certain anatomical variations of the feet are specifically causal to static disorders under conditions imposed by our civilized enx-ironment ; namelv: 1) Short first metatarsal bone as determined by a rearward position of its head i n relation to that of the srcond metatarsal bone. 2) Sesainoid bones located posteriorly toward the neck of the first metatarsal, instead of being centered beneath t h o head of that bone. 3) Hypermobility of the hallucial segment (first metatarsal and its cuneiforni bone) as the result of ligamentous laxity between the navicular, the inner cuneiform, and middle cuneiform bones. These conditions may exist singly or in rombination. They vary in degree in different feet from zero to a conspicuous morphological character as revealed by dorsoplantar x-ray examination. Each of them imposes an increase in the burden of body weight upon the second metatarsal bone, according t o the greater degree of such variations. The increased burden upon thr second metatarsal becomes expressed in a fourth anatomical character-a distinct, and sometimes conspicuous, hypertrophic development of that bone; the amount of this enlargement is determined by, 1) t h c totality of causal variations, 2 ) age of the individual, and, 3) habitual functional demands. Most conspicuous instances of this hypertrophy are found either in middle-aged persons, or in younger adults presenting a marked degree of the causal variations listed above. Such structural rariatious are of theniselws merely potential causes of foot disorder, since they undoubtedly prevail as widelv among rural groups and nonshoe-wearing races as among our urban populations, but are not accompanied by 291 ABSTRACTS disabling symptoms. Hard, level pavements and floors, poorly dcsigned shoes, excessive occupational demands upon feet, and other artificial conditions induced by our civilized mode of life all combine to furnish the supplementary environmental factor whereby these variations-as structural imperfections-are changed from a potential to an actual source of foot disability. ADOLPH H. SCHULTZ, Laboratory of Physical Anthropology, Johns Hopkins University. 6. Human variability compared with the variability of other primates. The number of vertebrae in the various spinal regions is much more variable in anthropoids than in man. For instance, thoracolumbar vertebrae deviate from the statistical norm in only 8 per cent of 3856 human spines, but i n 42 per cent of eighty-six gorilla spines. I n all higher primates the number of sacral vertebrae varies more than the number of thoracic or of lumbar vertebrae and the eoccygeal vertebrae are most variable. The praecaudal spine of man shows a normal combination of variations (12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral) in 71 per rent of the cases, that of orang (12, 4, 5) in only 46 per cent, and that of chimpanzee (13, 4, 5) in only 35 per cent. According to their variation coefficients, the proportions between the lengths of the limb bones show approximately equal stability in man and other higher primates. Variations in the two halves of the body (asymmetries) are more pronounced in man than in anthropoids. The limb bones of lower primates are as frequently longer on the right side as they are longer on the left. Among higher primates the upper extremity is most frequently longer on the right than on the left in gibbon, orang, and, particularly, man, whereas the lower extremity is most frequently longer on the left side in chimpanzee and in man. Tho clavicles show greater asymmetries than the limb bones. 6. The contributions t o our knowledge of the growth and development of the fetus, infant, ond child, 1960-1930: A quantitative sumnaary. RICHARDE. SCAMMON, Institute of Child Welfare and Department of Anatomy, University of Minnesota. A quantitative analysis has been made of some 1800 publications on the growth and development of the body in the fetal period, infancy, childhood, and adolescence that have appeared in the last ten years. These have been classified according t o subject matter, method of study, language of publiration, and vehicle of publication. An analysis has also been made of the sources of literature on these subjects that have developed in the last decade, the chief bibliographic sources that have appeared in these years, and the development of analytic and quantitative methods in this period. A comparison is made with results of a similar analysis of studies appearing in the decade 1900-1910 and of those of fifty years ago, 1870-1880. 7. The adolescent Zag in the human skeleton. T. WINOATETODD,Western Reserve University. 1. The dates of epiphysial union and eruption of permanent teeth are related so that they may he regarded, for this purpose, as different aspects of the same 292 AXATOMISTS-ANTHROPOLOGISTS phenomenon. Both order-pattern and date of union or eruption can be and are modified by pathological conditions of the bodp. 2. There is a chronological linkage for both epiphysial union and eruption of teeth which is normally stable for a particular animal, but varies with the order or genus. 3. The special character of the primates is a lag of maturation throughout infancy and childhood. Nevertheless, even in them adult characters quickly reach complete dereloyment once they have appeared. 4. The particular feature of man’s dex-elopmeut is his adolescent lag, and the scatter in indiridual rariation which is most pronounced between eleven and fifteen years. The most stable and uniform periods of human skeletal development for both males and females are between one and fire years and between eighteen and twenty-two pears.