close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

14620316.1989.11516018

код для вставкиСкачать
Journal of Horticultural Science
ISSN: 0022-1589 (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/thsb19
Effect of temperature on growth, dry matter
production and starch accumulation in ten mango
(Mangifera indica L.) cultivars
A. W. Whiley, T. S. Rasmussen, J. B. Saranah & B. N. Wolstenholme
To cite this article: A. W. Whiley, T. S. Rasmussen, J. B. Saranah & B. N. Wolstenholme
(1989) Effect of temperature on growth, dry matter production and starch accumulation in ten
mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars, Journal of Horticultural Science, 64:6, 753-765, DOI:
10.1080/14620316.1989.11516018
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14620316.1989.11516018
Published online: 27 Nov 2015.
Submit your article to this journal
Article views: 1
View related articles
Citing articles: 10 View citing articles
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=thsb19
Download by: [UNSW Library]
Date: 27 October 2017, At: 21:06
Journal of Horticultural Science (1989) 64 (6) 753-765
Effect of temperature on growth, dry matter production
and starch accumulation in ten mango
(Mangifera indica L.) cultivars
By A. W. WHILEY 1, T. S. RASMUSSEN 2 , J, B. SARANAW and B. N. WOLSTENHOLME3
•Department of Primary Industries, PO Box 5083, SCMC, Nambour, Queensland 4560, Australia
2
Department of Primary Industries, Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4560, Australia
3
Department of Horticultural Science, University of Natal, South Africa
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
SUMMARY
Ten mango cultivars of tropical and subtropical origin (Carabao, Ke~sington, Nam Dok
Mai, Alphonso, Dashehari, Florigon, Glenn, Irwin, Haden and Sensation) were grafted
onto cv. Kensington seedling rootstock and held at four day/night temperatures for 20
weeks (15/10°C, 20/15°C, 25/20oC and 30/2SOC). Vegetative growth increased with
increasing temperatures. All grew vegetatively at 25/20°C and 30/25°C. Cultivars which
did not grow at 20/15°C were Carabao, Kensington and Oashehari. Cultivars Kensington,
Nam Dok Mai, Alphonso, Florigon, Glenn, Irwin, Haden and Sensation produced flower
panicles at 15/10°C. The rise in temperature increased the average number of growth
flushes (in responsive cultivars) from 0.48 at 15/10°C to 3.21 at 30/25°C, and the number of
leaves per growth flush (1.22 at 15/10°C to 13.63 at 30/25°C). Distribution of dry matter
from new growth was mostly to the roots at the lowest temperature (95% at 15/10°C) and
to the leaves (58%) at 30/25°C. The mean daily temperature for zero vegetative growth
was calculated to be 15°C. Temperature and related growth activity also affected the
concentration of starch in the woody tissue of rootstock trunks at the end of 20 weeks
(15.9% starch at 15/10°C v. 4.8% starch at 30/25°C). 'Irwin' had the highest starch
concentration at the two higher temperatures (twice that of any other cultivar at 30/25°C)
while 'Kensington' the lowest starch level at 25/20°C, ca. 50% of most other cultivars.
THE mango (Mangifera indica L.), thought to
be indigenous to the subtropical Indo-Burmese
border region, has been cultivated in India for
over 4000 years, and was introduced into tropical S.E. Asia around 400-500 B.C. (Mukherjee, 1972).
Evolution of the present day mango has progressed differently in the two regions. In subtropical India, cultivars have evolved fruit
mostly with a single embryo (monoembryonic).
However, in tropical S.E. Asia nucellar
embryony developed and cultivars grown in
Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines are
polyembryonic (Mukherjee, 1972). The indiscriminate dissemination of mango between
evolutionary centres and to other countries,
and their subsequent hybridization, has produced cultivars with wide ranging genotype x
environmental interactions (Gandhi, 1955;
Singh, 1978; Beat, 1981; Bondad, 1983).
Mango production in Australia is based on
one cultivar, Kensington (Beat, 1981; Meurant,
1986), grown in four different environmental
regions (Table I). While 'Kensington' fruits
reliably in the highland tropics (Whiley et at.,
1988b) cropping is irregular in lowland tropical
environments (Beal and Newman, 1986;
Scholefield et at., 1986b) and productivity in
most subtropical areas is commercially
unacceptable (Whitey et al., 1988b). Evaluation of mango cultivars, introduced into
Australia to broaden the genetic base of the
industry, have further highlighted differences
in environmental response and adaptability
(Scholefieldeta/., 1986a; Whileyetal., 1988b).
The mango tree is a complex structure with
754
Mango tree growth
TABLE [
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
Climatic data for mango growing regions in Australia
Region
Latitude/ Altitude
Northern Territory
Atherton Tablelands
North Queensland
Southeast Queensland
l2°S; 10--30 m
!7°S; 350m
20°S; 30m
25-27°S ; 10--40 m
Temperature oc
Jan. max/mm Jul. max/mm
31.7/24.7
29.9/20.2
34.4/24.0
28.3118.9
morphological and physiological growth
responses strongly influenced by the environment. Cull (1987) proposed that consistent
'normal' phenological patterns in specific
environments are congruent with high cropping
performance of mango. Vegetative growth in
mango is never continuous, but exhibits
periodical quiescence (Chacko, 1986). This
cyclic growth pattern is usually called flushing,
with each flush terminating when all new
leaves, W-12 per flush, are fully expanded.
Flushing has been shown to be temperature
dependent in other evergreen fruit crops
(Stephenson eta/., 1986; Menzel and Simpson,
1988) while Scholefield et a/. ( 1986b) report
that excessive vegetative flushing reduced
flowering and fruiting in mango.
Reserve carbohydrate concentrations have
been suggested to be limiting for flower and
fruit development in tree crops (Harley eta/.,
1942; Worley, 1979; Goldschmidt and Golomb,
1982; Monselise and Goldshmidt, 1982; Scholefield eta/., 1985). More recently Goldschmidt et
a/. (1985) correlated starch concentration with
flowering intensity in citrus.
Selection of cultivars with lower vegetative
vigour at high temperatures (25 to 30°C day
max.) is likely to be an important strategy in
improving the productivity of mango in tropical
environments. The purpose of this study was to
quantify the effects of temperature on growth,
dry-matter production and starch accumulation
in ten mango cultivars of subtropical and tropical origin growing in four controlled temperature regimes. ·
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cultivars were selected for this study on a
basis of genetic diversity and their potential for
use by the Australian mango industry. Those
chosen were from the Philippines ('Carabao'/
polyembryonic); Australia ('Kensington' /polyembryonic); Thailand ('Nam Dok Mai'/poly-
30.4119.2
23.3/12.7
23.9113.8
21.1/ 8.0
Rainfall
mm p.a.
1813
962
1023
1575
Climatic type
Monsoonal tropics
Highland tropics
Dry tropics
Moist subtropics
embryonic);
India
('Alphonso'
and
'Dashehari'/both monoembryonic) and Florida
('Florigon' 'Glenn' 'Haden' 'Irwin' and 'Sen'
'
'
sation'/all monoembryonic).
This
research was
conducted at the Maroochy Horticultural
Research Station, Queensland (27°S, 30 m
altitude).
Scions of ten cultivars were grafted to nine
month old seedlings of 'Kensington', used as a
common and effectively clonal rootstock, and
grown in a heated glasshouse (day temperature
about 28°C, falling to a night minimum of 18°C)
for seven months prior to commencing treatments. The plants were grown in ten-litre pots
containing a 40:30:30 sand, peat and soil
medium and trained to a single stem.
One week before beginning the experiment,
all trees were pruned to one growth flush above
the grafted scion and all leaves removed from
the rootstock trunk. To establish a base for root
growth one tree of each cultivar was destructively harvested immediately prior to beginning
the experiment. The roots were separated from
the aerial growth and oven dried to constant
weight. The mean dry weight of roots was 10.2
± 3.5 g, mean ± S.E., n = 10.
On June 16, 1986, three plants of each
cultivar were transferred to each of four naturally lit glasshouse rooms (described by Whiley
et al., 1988a). Each room was set at one of four
temperature regimes, viz. 15°C day, 10°C night
(15/10); 20°C day, 15oC night (20/15); 25°C day,
20°C night (25/20) and 30°C day, 25°C night
(30/25). Temperature regimes were based on a
12 h day:12 h night with changes at 0600 and
1800 hours and were recorded within ± 0.5
degree C of the set values. Root temperatures
were not independently controlled and trailed
set room temperatures by ca. 4 h. The plants
received 11.1 to 13.8 h of daylight and a mean
irradiance of 10.7 MJ m- 2 day -I determined by
an Eppley pyranometer. Relative humidity
ranged from about 70 to 85% in the low and
A. W. WHILEY, T. S. RASMUSSEN, J. B. SARANAH and B. N. WoLSTENHOLME
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
high temperature regimes respectively. Trees
were watered to field capacity every second
day. Plant water status was determined by the
pressure chamber method (Scholander et at.,
1965) measuring leaf xylem water potential
between 1100 and 1200 hours. Water deficits at
all temperature regimes were well within the
normal diurnal range for fruit trees (Jones et
al., 1985). Mean values(± S.E.) for the 15/10,
20/15, 25/20 and 30/25 treatments were -0.42
(± 0.02), -0.43 (± 0.04), -0.60 (± 0.05) and
-0.72 (± 0.04) MPa, respectively.
All trees were fertilized with 1065 mg N, 1273
mg P, 735 mg K, 2450 mg Ca, 300 mg Mg, 924
mg S, 63 mg Cu, 49 mg Zn and 35 mg B per pot,
four weeks prior to and four weeks after beginning the temperature treatments. Additional
fertilization was given at the same rates, eight
weeks later, to those plants at 25/20 and 30/25 as
they grew significantly faster than plants at
15/10 and 20/15.
To maintain a single trunk during the experiment, the dominant bud at the pruned node was
selected and all other buds removed as they
showed signs of growth. The number of vegetative growth flushes were recorded for each tree.
After 20 weeks (October 30, 1986) shoot
length, leaf number, leaf area (Li-Cor LI 300
Leaf Area Meter) and the dry mass of flower
panicles, leaves, stems and · roots were
determined.
Samples of wood tissue were taken from the
trunk below the graft union and from the major
roots of each tree for starch analysis. They were
oven dried at 90°C for 1 h and then dried to
constant weight at 60°C. After milling at 100
mesh, samples were stored in airtight containers at -4.0°C. Starch was analysed by a two
stage enzymetric hydrolysis of the starch to
glucose and the concentration determined colorimetrically using a coupled glucose oxidase/
peroxidase/chromogen system (Rasmussen and
Henry, in preparation).
Data are the means of three trees per cultivar
at each temperature with the cultivars randomized within each glasshouse. Some data have
been transformed by natural logarithm (x + 1)
(total length of new growth, leaf area, dry mass
of new shoot growth) or square root (x + 0.5)
transformation (numher of growth flushes,
number of leaves per growth flush) before
ANOVA. Cultivar means were back-trans-
755
formed for presentation in the tables. Flowering response data was analysed by Chi-square.
Temperature means are presented as transformed values ± S.E. with equivalent means in
parentheses. Significant differences were
judged at P~0.05.
RESULTS
Flowering, flushing and extension growth
There was a significant correlation between
vegetative flushing and mean daily temperature
for the 10 cultivars (y = - 2.60 + 0.20 x; R 2 =
0.85). The mean daily temperature (day maximum plus night minimum divided by 2)
required for zero growth (as measured by shoot
extension) was 15°C.
Trees in the 30/25 treatment produced two
and three times as many flushes and 3.6 and 16
times the length of extension growth of those at
25/20 and 20115, respectively (Table II). At
15/10 some trees of cvs. Haden, Irwin,
Alphonso and Glenn flushed soon after beginning the treatment but growth was barely
measurable.
At 30/25 and 25/20 all cultivars produced at
least one flush (Table II). Cultivars Kensington, Sensation, Haden and Glenn, with a
mean of 3. 7 (latter three) to 4. 7 ('Kensington')
flushes, cycled flushes more regularly than cvs.
Nam Dok Mai and Irwin (ca. two flushes) in the
30/25 regime. At these temperatures the extension growth of cvs. Carabao, Kensington,
Florigon, Glenn, Haden, Sensation and
Alphonso was greater, ca. 1.5 times on average,
than cv. Irwin (Table II). At 23/20 'Haden' and
'Kensington' produced more growth flushes
than cvs. Carabao, Florigon, Alphonso and
Nam Dok Mai, while the extension growth of
cvs. Haden, Glenn and Kensington was greater
than cvs. Nam Dok Mai, Irwin and Carabao.
At 20/15, cvs. Sensation, Haden, Irwin,
Alphonso, Glenn and Nam Dok Mai produced
on average 1.0 to 1.3 flushes, which was greater
than 'Fiorigon' with 0.3. Two of the 'Fiorigon'
trees produced flower panicles at this temperature (Table III) instead of vegetative growth.
Cvs. Sensation, Nam Dok Mai, Alphonso,
Glenn and Irwin had greater extension growth
than 'Florigon' while cvs. Carabao, Dashehari
and Kensington did not flush at 20/15.
At the coolest regime (15/10) only cvs.
Haden, Irwin, Alphonso and Glenn produced
756
Mango tree growth
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
TABLE II
Effect of day/night temperatures and cultivar on the number of flushes and the total length of new growth (mm) over twenty
weeks. Data are means for three trees. Back transformed cultivar means in columns not sharing a common letter are significantly
different (P:;;0.05). Transformed temperature means±S.E. are presented wah equivalent means 1n parenthesis
Cultivar
15/IOoC
Carabao
Kensington
Nam Dok Mai
Alphonso
Dashehari
Florigon
Glenn
Irwin
Haden
Sensation
Mean
S.E.
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.0
0.99
± O.Q7
(0.48)
Number of growth nushes
20/l5°C
25/20°C
30/25°C
0.0
0.0
1.0 b
1.3b
0.0
0.3 a
1.0 b
1.3b
1.0 b
1.0 b
1.23
± 0.05
(1.02)
1.0 a
2.0 be
1.0 a
1.0 a
1.3 ab
1.0 a
1.7 abc
1.3 ab
2.3 c
I. 7 abc
1.37
± 0.04
(1.38)
Total length of new growth (mm)
20/15°C
30/25°C
15/10°C
25/20°C
3 3 bed
4.7 d
2.3 ab
3.0 abc
3.0 abc
3.3 bed
3.7 cd
2.0 a
3.7 cd
3.7 cd
1.92
± 0.04
(3.21)
shoot growth over the 20 week period. However, all trees of cvs. Sensation, Haden,
Florigon, Irwin, Alphonso, Kensington, Glenn
and Nam Dok Mai produced inflorescences
(Table III) towards the end of the experiment
though panicle development was restricted
(Figure 1).
Leaf production and area
The mean number of leaves per growth flush
(averaged across all cultivars producing a flush)
increased from 1.2 to 7.1 to 9.7 to 13.6 with
increasing temperature (Table IV). This was
matched by a corresponding increase in mean
leaf area per growth flush (Table III) from 3.52
cm 2 (15/10), 282.4 cm 2 (20/15), 922.7 cm 2 (25/
20) to 1221.9 cm 2 (30/25), although leaf area at
the highest two temperatures was not significantly different.
At the highest temperature there were no
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
0.0
0.0
2.0
1.2
3.7
0.0
1.1
± 0.40
(2.13)
0.0
0.0
114.8 b
60.4 b
0.0
4.1 a
49.6 b
38.6 b
27.2 ab
140.8 b
3.7
± 0.28
(40.30)
35.1 a
272.7 b
152.5 a
195.5 ab
213.3 ab
165.5 ab
291.9 b
110.8 a
355.1 b
236.6 ab
5.2
± 0.22
(175.58)
786.9 b
749.0 b
532.7 ab
622.8 b
556.7 ab
702.0 b
688.9 b
487.6 a
674.2 b
638.3 b
6.5
± 0.22
(637 .20)
cultivar differences for either leaf number or
leaf area, all cultivars showed excellent vigour
and averaged over 11leaves and over 840 cm 2 of
leaf area per flush. All cultivars had significantly more leaves per growth flush than 'Carabao' at 25/20, while cvs. Nam Dok Mai,
Alphonso and Florigon had greater leaf area
per flush than 'Carabao'. 'Florigon' had the
fewest leaves and smallest leaf area per growth
flush of all the cultivars that grew at 20/15, while
there was no significant difference in the
number of flushes or leaf area between cultivars
that grew at 15/10.
Dry matter production and distribution
Total dry weight of shoots, averaged over all
cultivars, was highest at the 30/25 regime (54.4
g) and decreased exponentially with temperature to 0.5 gat the 15/10 regime (Table V). All
cultivars produced similar dry matter at 30/25
TABLE IJ1
Effect of day/night temperatures and cultivar on flowenng (dry weight of pamcles). Values are means for three trees
Cultivar
Carabao
Kensington
Nam Dok Mai
Alphonso
Dashehari
Florigon
Glenn
Haden
Irwin
Sensation
Flowenng 1
(-)'
(+)
(+)
(+)
(-)
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
15/10°C
Dry wt. of panicles (g)
0.00
0.08
0.13
0.94
0.00
0.82
0.94
5.53
0.32
1.24
1( + )-flowenng occurred; (-)-no flowering
'Flowering at 15/10 was cultivar related as tested by Chi-square (P<0.01)
20115°C
Dry wt. of panicles (g)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
8.34
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
A . W . WHtLEY, T . S. RASM USSEN, J . B. SARANAH and B. N. WOLSTEN HOLME
FIG.
757
I
G rowth response of mango cv. Glenn to tempe rature regimes, from left to right : 30/25, 25/20, 20/15 and 15/ IO"C (day/
night ). The growth responses of cv. Glenn to tempe rature was typical of most cultivars with 'Sensati on', ' Haden',
' Fiorigo n' , ' Irwin ', ' Alphonso' , ' Kensington' and ' Na m Bok Mai' producing panicles at 15/ IO"C.
while at 25/20 'Carabao ' produced significa ntly
less than any othe r cultivar (6.3 vs. cultivar
mean 22. 28) . Of those cultivars that grew at the
lowe r te mperature regimes, the dry weight of
new shoot growth of ' Fiorigon' at 20/15 was less
than any other cultivar and at 15/10 'Glenn ' and
' Irwin ' were less than ' Alphonso'.
Significant diffe rences in new root growth
were observed between cultivars at each temperature regime. Average dry weight of new
roots for all cultivars increased from 14.7 g at
15/10 to 25.9 g at 25/20. Average root dry
weight at 30/25 was intermediate between , but
not different from the 20/15 and 25/20 regimes
(Table V).
At 15/10 new root dry weight of 'Carabao'
TABLE IV
Effect of daylnighttemperawres and cultivar on the n11mber of leaves and leaf area (cm 1) per growth flush . Values are means fo r
three trees. Back transform ed cultivar m eans in columns not sharing a common feller are significam ly different (P ~0 . 05) .
Transformed temp erature m eans±S. £. are presented with equivalem means in paremhesis
Cult iva r
15/ IO"C
Carabao
Kensi ngto n
Nam Do k Mai
Alphonso
Dashehari
Ftorigon
Glenn
Irwin
Haden
Sensatio n
Mea n
S.E.
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.0
0.0
1.1
1.2
1.6
0.0
1.3
± 0.29
( 1. 22)
Numbe r of leaves
20/ I5°C
25/20"C
0.0
0.0
8.6 b
9.9 b
0.0
1.7 a
9.3 b
6.9 b
5.5 b
13 .2 b
2.8
± 0.22
(7 .11 )
3.5 a
13 .6 b
9.0 b
10.6 b
I 1.5 b
11 .6 b
11 .3 b
9.0 b
8.0 b
10.8 b
3.2
± 0. 17
(9.68)
30/25°C
12.4
12 .9
19.6
11 .2
11 .9
12 .6
12 .9
20.5
12. 1
11.9
3.8
± 0. 17
( 13.63)
15/ IO"C
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.8
0.0
0.0
3.9
3.0
5.6
0.0
1.5
± 0.52
(3.52)
Leaf area ( cm 2)
20/ I5°C
25/20"C
30/25°C
0.0
0.0
657.0 b
631.7 b
0.0
9.7 a
100.2 b
377.7b
275.8 b
981.4 b
5.6
± 0.38
(282.4)
1235 .5
1024.9
1256.2
84 1.7
1077.5
1338.4
1629.5
1298.8
1235.5
1469.5
7. 1
±0.29
( 122 1. 9)
88.4 a
1063.2 ab
1668.0 b
1356.4 b
111 7.8 ab
14 11.8 b
1088.3 ab
949.2 ab
1092.0 ab
11 71.2 ab
6.8
±0.29
(922.7)
758
Mango tree growth
TABLE V
Effect of day/night temperatures and culuvar on total dry wetght (g) of new shoot and root growth Data are means for three trees.
Back tramformed (shoots) and ull/ransformed (roots) means Ill columns not shanng a common letter are significamly differelll
(P.;;0.05). Transformed (shoots) tempera/Lire means±S. E. with equivalent means til paremltests and temperature means±S. E.
(roots) are presented
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
Cultivar
Carabao
Kensington
Nam Dok Mai
Alphonso
Dashchdri
Florigon
Glenn
Irwin
Haden
SensatiOn
Mean
S.E.
Total dry weight of new ;hoot growth (g)
20115oC
15/10°C
25120°C
30/25°C
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5 b
0.0
0.0
0.3 a
0.2 a
1.3 ab
0.0
0.38
±0.15
(0.46)
0.0
0.0
6.2 ab
12.6 b
0.0
4.8 a
12.0 b
8.2 ab
10.1 ab
11.7 b
2.21
± 0.11
(8.09)
6.3 a
24 I be
17.1 b
23.7 be
22.3 be
20.4 be
37.0 c
22.7 be
39.8 c
30.1 be
3.15
± 0.09
(22.28)
64.4
52.8
48.1
49.7
40.0
54.5
67.8
49.8
59.1
64.4
4.01
± 0.09
(54.42)
was greater than for the cvs. Haden, Florigon,
Kensington, Glenn and Nam Dok Mai, and at
20/15 it was higher than all other cultivars. Both
'Carabao' and 'Dashehari' had greater new
root weight than 'Kensington' and 'Nam Dok
Mai' at 25/20. The 30/25 regime was favourable
to root growth in 'Carabao', which exceeded all
cultivars except 'Irwin'. 'Florigon' and 'Nam
Dok Mai' produced the least root growth of all
cultivars at this temperature regime.
The percentage of total dry matter produced
during the 20 weeks that was distributed to
roots, stems and leaves at each temperature
was calculated (Table VI). At 15/10 there were
no significant differences between cultivars
(data not presented). Distribution to roots was
highest in trees (averaged across all cultivars)
grown in the 15/10 regime and declined but
correspondingly rose for stems and leaves as
temperatures increased (Figure 2).
Total dry weight of new root growth (g)
15/IOoC
30/25°C
20115°C
25/20°C
32 7 c
6.6 a
8.0 a
27.6 be
18.0 abc
10.5 ab
6.5 a
13.7 abc
10.0 ab
13.0 abc
14.7
± 2.2
51.6
16.0
19 3
23.3
17.9
17.4
15.3
9.7
21.9
14.5
20.7
± 2.2
b
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
34.3 c
14.2 ab
13.7 a
34.0 be
38.4 c
22.4 abc
27.7abc
31.9 abc
23.1 abc
19.5 abc
25.9
± 2.2
53.1
12.5
10.3
29.8
26.0
9.6
30.6
34.5
12.6
12.5
23.2
± 2.2
d
ab
a
be
abc
a
be
cd
ab
ab
Of those cultivars that grew at 20/15, 'Irwin'
and 'Sensation' had greater dry matter distribution to stems than 'Florigon', while 'Glenn'
and 'Sensation' had greater distribution to
leaves than 'Florigon'. At 25/20, dry matter
allocation to roots in 'Carabao' was greater
than in cvs. Kensington, Nam Dok Mai, Glenn,
Haden and Sensation. The percentage of dry
matter distributed to the stem was highest in
cvs. Kensington, Glenn and Haden and lowest
in cvs. Carabao, Dashehari and Irwin. All
cultivars with the exception of 'Alphonso',
'Dashehari', 'Florigon' and 'Irwin' had a
greater percentage of dry matter distributed to
leaves than 'Carabao'.
At the highest temperature regime of 30/25,
dry matter distribution to roots was greater in
'Carabao' than in the cvs. Kensington, Nam
Dok Mai, Florigon, Haden and Sensation. Dry
matter partitioning to the stem was greater in
TABLE VI
Effect of daylmglzt temperatures and cultivar on the dry matter dtstrtbution of new growth (%) over 20 weeks to roots, stem and
leaves. Data are means for three trees. Culuvar means in columns not sharing a common letter are stgmftcamly different
(P,0.05)
Cultivar
Root
20115°C
Stem
Leaf
Root
25!20°C
Stem
Leaf
Carabao
Kensington
Nam Dok Mai
Alphonso
Dashehari
Florigon
Glenn
Irwin
Haden
Sensation
100.0 b
100.0 b
71.5 a
62.1 a
100.0 b
81.3 ab
55.0 a
69.1 a
72.8 a
50.0 a
0.0
0.0
3.4
4.9
0.0
1.7
2.9
6.0
2.8
6.3
73.9 c
35.8 a
44.3 ab
54.4 abc
64.8 be
52.0 abc
42.6 ab
61.2 be
36.7 a
42.0 ab
6.1 ab
9.8 be
7.0 ab
8.9 abc
5.4 a
8.6 abc
9.6 be
6.0 ab
12.1 c
7.5 ab
a
a
abc
be
a
ab
abc
c
abc
c
0.0 a
0.0 a
25.1 be
33.0 be
OOa
17 0 ab
42.1 c
24.9 be
24.4 be
43.7 c
20.0
54.4
48.7
36.7
29.8
39.4
47.8
32.8
51.2
50.5
a
d
bed
abed
ab
abed
bed
abc
cd
bed
Root
30/25°C
Stem
Leaf
45.2 c
17.1 ab
18.3 ab
29.8 abc
38.1 be
12.9 a
30.0 abc
39.2 be
18 4 ab
15.4 ab
16.3 be
19.5 c
16.3 be
13.8 ab
13.3 ab
19.4 c
14.0 ab
10.4 a
17.3 be
15 5 be
38.5
63.4
65.4
56.4
48.6
67.7
56.0
50.4
64.3
69.1
a
b
b
ab
ab
b
ab
ab
b
b
A.
W. WHILEY,
T.
S. RASMUSSEN,
J. B.
SARANAH
and B. N.
100
~
c
0
759
D Root
-Stem
!."SSSl Leaves
r-...
'--"""
WOLSTENHOLME
80
:;:;
:::1
_!)
·c
.......
60
Cll
\)
!....
Q)
.......
.......
40
0
E
c
20
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
0
Day/night temperatures ( °C)
FIG.
2
Dry matter distribution to roots, stems and leaves of new growth on mango trees grown for 20 weeks at
four different temperature regimes. Columns arc means±S.E. where n = 30.
cvs. Carabao, Kensington, Nam Dok Mai,
Florigon, Haden and Sensation than in 'Irwin'.
Cultivars Kensington, Nam Dok Mai, Florigon, Haden and Sensation all had greater
allocation of dry matter to leaves than
'Carabao'.
Starch concentration
There was a positive correlation between
r-...
starch concentration in the major roots and
starch concentration in the rootstock trunks
(R 2 = 0.62, P<O.Ol) with the root concentration (mean of all temperatures and
cultivars) 43% higher than in the trunks (Figure
3). Starch concentration was inversely correlated with tree growth (total dry weight of new
shoots) (R 2 = 0.69, P<O.Ol). Differences in
40
c
0
:;:;
30
0
!....
.......
c
Q)
u
c
20
u
!....
T
10
0
.......
1~
1
·~1
1
T
6
•
(/)
0
Trunks
1
, ___• ___ T
u
..c
T
?----To--o
T
0
·-·
0 - 0 Roots
~
'--"""
l
15/10
20/15
25/20
30/25
Day/night temperatures ( °C)
FIG. 3
Starch concentratiOn (%) in major roots and rootstock trunks of mango trees grown for 20 weeks at
four d1fferent temperature regimes. Data points are means±S.E. where n = 30.
760
Mango tree growth
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
TABLE VII
Effect of day/night temperatures and cultivar on the starch concentratwn (% of dry wetght) m the wood llssue of the rootstock
trunks. Data are means for three trees. Culllvar means (untransformed) in columns not sharing a common letter are significantly
dtfferent (P,;;0.05)
Cultivar
15!10°C
20/15°C
25/20°C
30/25°C
Carabao
Kensington
Nam Dok Mm
Alphonso
Dashehari
Florigon
Glenn
Irwin
Haden
Sensation
17.3
13.9
16.1
13.1
14.4
16.6
19.0
15.1
17.1
16.1
14.6 ab
16.0 ab
15.1 ab
13.0 b
14.4 ab
8.2 c
17.7 a
14.3 ab
13.1 b
8.5 c
13.8 ab
6.4 d
11.6 abc
10.7 bed
9.4 bed
12.3 abc
13.3 ab
15.7 a
11.2 abc
8.6 cd
6.6
3.6
4.1
3.0
4.4
46
3.0
13.0
4.0
1.8
ab
b
ab
b
b
ab
a
ab
ab
ab
starch concentrations among cultivars (Table
VII) were least at the lowest temperature regime (15/10), which averaged the highest concentration, nearly 16% in the rootstock trunk
tissue and 25.5% in the major roots (Figure 3).
'Glenn' (19%) had a higher starch concentration than cvs. Dashehari, Alphonso and
Kensington (average of 13.8% ).
Mean starch concentration in the rootstock
trunks across cultivars at 20/15 was 13.5% and
22% in the major roots. 'Glenn' was again highest at 17.7%, 'Alphonso' and 'Haden' intermediate (mean 13.1%) and 'Sensation' and
'Fiorigon' significantly lowest (mean 8.4% ).
At 25/20 mean starch concentration in the
rootstock trunks averaged 11.3% and 20.4% in
the roots. Starch concentration in 'Irwin',
15.7%, was higher than in 'Alphonso',
'Dashehari', 'Sensation' and 'Kensington', the
latter with a significantly lower starch concentration (6.4%) at this temperature than all
other cultivars.
With the exception of 'Irwin', starch concentrations were markedly lowest at 30/25 averaging 4.8% in the rootstock trunks and 12.5%
in the roots. 'Irwin' was higher than all cultivars
at 13%, 'Dashehari' representative of most
other cvs (4.4%), and Sensation (1.8%) was
lowest.
DISCUSSION
Vegetative growth
This study has shown the large and direct
effect of temperature on the growth of mango
trees. The rate of flushing, number of leaves,
leaf area and length of each flush increased with
temperature. The effect was greatest at 30/25
which produced a new flush about 200 mm long,
b
be
be
be
be
be
be
a
be
c
with 13 to 14 leaves, every six weeks for the
duration of the experiment (mean of all
cultivars). Increases in the rate of flush
development and the reduced interval between
flushes have been reported for orange (Khairi
and Hall, 1976), macadamia (Trochoulias and
Lahav, 1983) and litchi (Menzel and Simpson,
1988) when temperature was raised from 20°C
to 30°C. Sale (1968) and Menzel and Simpson
(1988) found with cacao and litchi respectively,
that most leaves per flush occurred at 25/20°C
with fewer leaves produced at 30/25°C. In this
experiment leaf numbers per flush increased
with temperature and were highest at 30/25°C
(where flush rate was most active) indicating
that leaf initiation in mango may be directly
temperature related. The growth rate at 30/25
was similar to that described for mango trees
growing in wet lowland tropical areas where
successive flushing cycles result in low productivity (Popenoe, 1920; Scholefield et at.,
1986b).
The estimated base temperature for vegetative growth (flushing) across all cultivars was
15°C. However, cultivars did vary in their ability to grow at any one temperature regime. As a
group the polyembryonic cultivars ('Carabao',
'Kensington' and 'Nam Dok Mai') showed
greater sensitivity to low temperatures than the
monoembryonic cultivars (Table II). The tropical adaptation of these cultivars for growth is
exemplified by 'Carabao' which only grew vigorously in the 30/25 regime. Furthermore, this
confirms recent photo-inhibition studies where
polyembryonic cultivars had greater photoinhibition than monoembryonic cultivars
during winter (July mean max./min. 21.11
8.0°C) (Smillie and Heatherington, pers.
A. W. WHILEY, T. S. RASMUSSEN, J. B. SARANAH and B. N. WoLSTENHOLME
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
comm.). 'Dashehari', a monoembryonic
cultivar, reacted similarly to cvs. Carabao and
Kensington and did not grow at temperatures
below 25/20. This cultivar is thought to have
originated in subtropical northern India where
its cropping is irregular. However, it fruits prolifically in a highland tropical environment in
southern India (Chacko, pers. comm.) but not
in lowland tropical Australia (Scholefield et al.,
1986a), suggesting a narrow environmental
adaptation. The remaining monoembryonic
cultivars of subtropical origin grew vegetatively
at 20/15 but expressed greater, vigour at the
higher temperatures, consistent with the ecophysiological adaptation of the species.
A small vegetative flush occurred within
three weeks after beginning the treatments on a
few trees held at 15/10. This was before floral
induction as the same trees subsequently produced inflorescences later in the experiment.
While cvs. Haden, Irwin, Alphonso and Glenn
grew at low temperatures (15/10) the amount of
dry mass produced was small (ca. 8% of that
produced at 20/15). In contrast, root growth
(measured by the total dry weight of new roots)
at 15/10 was high, suggesting a lower base temperature for growth and confirming the
enhanced sink strength of the root system of
dormant mango trees (Kohli, 1985).
Flowering
At 15/10 most trees failed to grow vegetatively, but this regime favoured flower
induction and panicle growth in all Florida
cultivars as well as 'Alphonso', 'Kensington'
and 'Nam Dok Mai'. It is likely that flower
induction also occurred in cvs. Carabao and
Dashehari but floral expression was not shown
as threshold temperatures for panicle growth
were not satisfied at this temperature (viz.
threshold temperatures for vegetative growth
of cvs. Carabao, Kensington and Dashehari
(25/20) were higher than all other cultivars).
These results appear consistent with those
reported for subtropical and tropical fruit trees.
Shu and Sheen (1987) demonstrated with the
mango cv. Haden, after removing the terminal
panicle, that 100% of axillary buds flowered on
plants held at 19/13°C for three weeks and then
grown at 31125°C. Likewise, low temperatures
have been shown to be beneficial for floral
induction in avocado (Buttrose and Alexander,
761
1978), litchi (Menzel and Simpson, 1988) and
sweet orange (Moss, 1976).
'Florigon' was the only cultivar to flower at
20/15; two of the three plants in this regime
producing extended panicles. As this was an
unusual event (two out of 30 plants flowered)
we conclude that in general floral induction
conditions were not met at this temperature
regime.
Dry matter distribution
Dry matter distribution was similar to that
reported by Menzel and Paxton (1985) for litchi
trees and by Menzel et al. (1987) for
passionfruit vines. The percentage partitioning
to roots fell, and that to the stem and leaves
rose with increasing temperature. In other
plants it has been shown that increased gibberellin activity occurs in apical buds at higher
temperatures (Menzel, 1983) increasing their
sink strength for available assimilate
(Ginzburg, 1974). This mechanism may also
apply to mango since in this experiment the
length of each flush increased with temperature. This suggests the possibility of enhanced
gibberellin activity (Loy, 1977). The high percentage of dry matter partitioning to roots at
15/10 and 20/15 (95 and 76% respectively) when
vegetative growth was minimal, is due to the
greater sink strength of roots at low temperature, as shown by the high accumulation of
starch in these organs (25.5% -15/10; 22.0%
-20/15 vs. 12.5% 30/25).
Starch
Reserve carbohydrates have been implicated
in the flowering and productivity of many tree
fruit and nut crops. With mango, Gazit (1960)
found higher concentrations of starch in flowering compared to non-flowering shoots while
Suryanarayana (1978), directly correlated high
starch levels in leaves and stems with improved
floral induction and increased productivity.
Chacko and Ananthanarayanan (1982)
reported on starch concentrations in the bark of
flowering mango trees tenfold that of in nonflowering juvenile trees with an enhanced turnover and mobilization of sugars and proteins
during flower bud induction and development.
Chadha and Pal (1986) in their review of mango
flowering conclude that 'carbohydrate reserves
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
762
Mango tree growth
play an important role in flower bud initiation,
though they are not the primary factor"
This study has shown that repetitive flushing
in mango (30/25 and 25/20 regimes) depressed
starch concentrations in major storage organs
of the tree.
From this experiment there is no evidence
that high starch levels promote flower initiation
as trunk concentrations of trees at 20/15 and
15/10 were similar yet, with the exception of
two 'Florigon' trees, only those at 15/10 produced panicles. Flower induction is likely to be
controlled by changes in other endogenous substances in mango. Chacko et a/. (1974) and
Bondad and Linsangan (1979) have shown that
during off-years, flowering can be induced by
applications of ethephon or KN0 3 sprays while
Tomer (1984), was able to inhibit flowering of
mango with GA 3 •
Pre-flowering reserve starch in mango trunks
and roots may be more closely related to fruit
yield. Chacko et al. (1982) concluded that with
some biennial bearing mango cultivars in 'on
years', the leaf/fruit ratio is insufficient for
normal fruit growth, and crop development is
dependent on reserve carbohydrate. Also
Goldschmidt and Golomb (1982) and Scholefield eta/. (1985), showed a direct relationship
between the dormant-season concentration of
starch in woody tissues of citrus and avocado
trees and their subsequent fruit yield.
Cultivars
'Irwin': In this experiment 'Irwin' was the
most consistent and efficient accumulator of
starch. At the highest temperature (30/25) and
with similar dry-matter production, it had twice
the starch concentration of any other cultivar.
This may be partly explained by the pattern of
dry matter distribution in this cultivar at 30/25,
where allocation to stems was lower than in
most other cultivars while partitioning to
leaves, a source, and roots, a storage sink,
remained high. The reduced flush rate but
similar leaf area of 'Irwin', compared with
other cultivars at 30/25, has maintained the C0 2
assimilation surface but reduced the loading of
repetitive growth flushes on the tree (it takes six
weeks for mango leaves to become a net exporter of photo-assimilates (Chacko and Ananthanarayanan, 1985). A similar pattern in dry
matter partitioning in 'Irwin' was produced at
25/20. In terms of the perceived role of reserve
carbohydrate in mango productivity and the
interpretation of our result, supportive data
were reported by Scholefield eta/. (1986a) who
listed 'Irwin' among the most productive and
consistent fruiting cultivars in tropical northern
Australia (January & July mean max./min.
31.7/24.7°C and 30.4/19.2°C respectively).
Other cultivars common to both studies
('Alphonso' 'Dashehari' 'Glenn' 'Haden'
'
' as conand 'Kensington')
were not' considered
sistent fruiting types.
'Carabao': The growth response of 'Carabao'
to temperature may explain its success as a
major cultivar in the Philippines. At 30/25 this
cultivar was among the most vegetatively vigorous with a new flush beginning every six
weeks and producing a total of 64.4 g dry weight
of new shoot growth. However, at 25/20 the
vegetative growth of 'Carabao' was substantially reduced with the trees flushing only once
in 20 weeks and producing only 6.3 g of new
shoot dry weight (Tables II and V).
In tropical latitudes variation in mean
monthly temperatures are small (Table I). The
responsiveness of 'Carabao' to a 5 degree C
day/night temperature change was dramatic in
terms of the vegetative activity of the experimental trees. At 25/20, after one flush had
matured, a period of vegetative quiescence
began which was interrupted by the termination of the experiment. Such growth patterns
are conducive to flower induction. Bondad and
Linsangan (1979) report flowering of 8.5 month
old 'Carabao' shoots in the Philippines after
spraying with KN0 3 • The five month period
prior to treatment was during the cooler part of
the year.
'Kensington': Once the threshold temperature for vegetative growth was met for 'Kensington' this cultivar had one of the highest
flushing rates. At 25/20 'Kensington' flushed on
a ten week cycle and at 30/25 this was reduced
to a 4.3 week cycle. However, at 25/20 'Kensington' had the lowest concentration of trunk
starch (ca. 50% less than most other cultivars)
even though its total shoot dry weight production was average for cultivars at this temperature. In tropical Australia, mean day/night
temperatures are in the 25/20 range during
autumn when flower induction occurs. It is
likely that the vegetative growth response of cv.
A. W. WHILE¥, T. S. RAsMussEN, J. B. SARANAH and B. N. WoLSTENHOLME
Kensington to temperature is responsible for its
irregular cropping, especially when late rains
force extended vegetative flushing (Beal and
Newman, 1986; Scholefield et al., 1986b).
Other cultivars with similar growth responses at
these temperatures are 'Glenn', 'Haden' and
'Sensation'.
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
Conclusions
This experiment shows the variability of
growth responses to temperature of a range of
mango cultivars. The interpretation of results
from controlled temperature conditions to the
field should proceed with caution as there are
763
many factors which affect the productivity of
mango (Wolstenholme and Mullins, 1982).
However, the experiment has identified differences in growth patterns of cultivars which may
relate to their productivity in specific
environments.
We wish to thank Christine Howitt, QDPI,
for assistance with the statistical analysis of data
and Peter Anderson for technical assistance in
running this experiment. We also thank Drs.
Elias Chacko and Bruce Schaffer for assistance
with the preparation of the manuscript. Funding for the project was given by the Other Fruits
Sectional Group Committee of C.O.D.,
Queensland.
REFERENCES
BEAL, P. R. (1981). Screening of mango varieties at Bowen, Queensland. Queensland Journal of
Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 38, 71-85.
BEAL, P. R. and NEWMAN, G. A. (1986). Climatic influences on mango production in the Bowen
district. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 43, 83-9.
BoNDAD, N. D. (1983). Aspects of mango research and production: past, present and future.
Proceedings of the International Workshop on Promoting Research on Tropical Fruits,
Jakarta, 1-40.
BoNDAD, N. D. and LINSANGAN, E. (1979). Flowering in mango induced with potassium nitrate.
HortScience, 14, 527-8.
BuTIROSE, M. S. and ALEXANDER, D. McE. (1978). Promotion of floral initiation in 'Fuerte'
avocado by low temperature and short day-length. Scientia Horticulturae, 8, 213-7.
CHACKO, E. K. (1986). Physiology of vegetative and reproductive growth of mango (Mangifera
indica L.) trees. Proceedings First Australian Mango Research Workshop, CSIRO Australia:
Melbourne, 54-70.
CHACKO, E. K. and ANANTHANARAYANAN, T. V. (1982). Accumulation of reserve substances in
Mangifera indica L. during flower initiation. Zeitschriftfiir Pf/anzenphysiologie, 106,281-5.
CHACKO, E. K. and ANANTHANARAYANAN, T.V. (1985). Studies on stomatal resistance, transpiration and net photosynthesis rates in newly emerging mango leaves. Abstract papers of the 2nd
International Symposium on Mango, Bangalore, 41-2.
CHACKO, E. K., KOHLI, R. R. and RANDHAWA, G. S. (1974).Investigations on the use of (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (Ethephon, CEPA) for the control of biennial bearing in mango.
Scientia Horticulturae, 2, 389-98.
CHACKO, E. K., REDDY, Y. T. N. and ANANTHANARAYANAN, T.V. (1982). Studies on the relationship between leaf number and area and fruit development in mango (Mangifera indica L.)
Journal of Horticultural Science, 57, 483-92.
CHADHA, K. L. and PAL, R. N. (1986). Mangifera indica. In: CRC Handbook of Flowering.
(Halevy, A. H., Ed.) CRC Press Inc., Florida, Vol. V, 211-30.
CuLL, B. W. (1987). A whole plant approach to productivity research for mango. In: Mangoes-a
review. (Prinsley, R. T., and Tucker, G., Eds.) The Commonwealth Secretariat, London,
20-8.
GANDHI, S. R. (1955). The mango in India. Farm Bulletin, Indian Council ofAgricultural Research,
No.6.
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
764
Mango tree growth
GAZIT, S. (1960). Initiation and development of flower bud in various mango varieties (in Hebrew).
Thesis, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
GINZBURG, C. (1974). The effect of gibberellin A 3 and (2- chloroethyl)-trimethylammonium
chloride on assimilate distribution in gladiolus in relation to core growth. Journal of Experimental Botany, 25, 995-1003.
GoLDSCHMIDT, E. E. and GoLOMB, A. (1982). The carbohydrate balance of alternate-bearing citrus
trees and the significance of reserves for flowering and fruiting. Journal of the American
Society for Horticultural Science, 107, 206-8.
GOLDSCHMIDT, E. E., AscHKENAZI, N., HERZANO, Y., SCHAFFER, A. A. and MoNSELISE, S. P.
(1985). A role for carbohydrate levels in the control of flowering in citrus. Scientia Horticulturae, 26, 159-66.
HARLEY, C. P., MAGNESS, J. R., MASURE, M. P., FLETCHER, L. A. and DEGMAN, E. S. (1942).
Investigations in the causes and control of alternate bearing in apple trees. USDA Technical
Bulletin, No. 792.
JoNES, H. G., LAKSO, A. D. and SYVERTSEN, J. P. (1985). Physiological control of water status in
temperate and subtropical fruit trees. Horticultural Reviews, 7, 301-44.
KHAIRI, M. M. A. and HALL, A. E. (1976). Effects of air and soil temperature on vegetative growth
of citrus. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 101, 337-41.
KOHLI, R. R. (1985). Studies of translocation and distribution of 14C photosynthates in mango
(Mangifera indica L.) Thesis, Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences,
Bangalore, India.
LoY, J. B. (1977). Hormonal regulation of cell division in the primary elongating meristems of
shoots. In: Mechanisms and control of cell division (Rost, T. L. and Gifford, E. M., Eds.),
Dowden, Hutchison and Ross, Strousberg, Pennsylvania, 92-110.
MENZEL, C. M. (1983). Tuberization in potato at high temperatures: gibberellin content and
transport from buds. Annals of Botany, 52, 697-702.
MENZEL, C. M. and PAXTON, B. F. (1985). The effect of temperature on growth and dry matter
production of lychee seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae, 26, 17-23.
MENZEL, C. M. and SIMPSON, D. R. (1988). Effect of temperature on growth and flowering of litchi
(Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars. Journal of Horticultural Science, 63, 347-58.
MENZEL, C. M., SIMPSON, D. R. and WINKS, C. W. (1987). Effect of temperature on growth,
flowering and nutrient uptake of three passionfruit cultivars under low irradiance. Scientia
Horticulturae, 31, 259-68.
MEURANT, V. N. (1986). Early history of Kensington mango. Queensland Fruit and Vegetable News,
57 (5), 20-1.
MoNSELISE, S. P. and GoLDSCHMIDT, E. E. (1982). Alternate bearing in fruit crops. Horticultural
Reviews, 4, 128-73.
Moss, G. I. (1976). Temperature effects on flower initiation in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 27, 339-407.
MuKHERJEE, S. K. (1972). Origin of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Economic Botany, 26,260-4.
PoPENOE, W. (1920). The mango. In: Manual of tropical and subtropical fruits. Hafner Press, New
York (1974 reprint), 79-145.
SALE, P. J. M. (1968). Flushing and leaf growth of cacao under controlled temperature conditions.
Journal of Horticultural Science, 43, 475-89.
ScHOLANDER, P. F., HAMMEL, H. T., BRADSTREET, E. D. and HEMMINGSEN, E. A. (1965). Sap
pressure in vascular plants. Science, 148, 339-46.
ScHOLEFIELD, P. B., BAKER, I. W. and ALEXANDER, D. McE. (1986a). Flowering, maturity time,
production and fruit characteristics of mango cultivars in the Northern Territory.
Proceedings First Australian Mango Research Workshop. CSIRO Australia 1986:
Melbourne, 173-86.
A. W. WHILEY, T. S. RASMUSSEN, J. B. SARANAH and B. N. WoLSTENHOLME
765
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 21:06 27 October 2017
ScHOLEFIELD, P. B., 0AG, D. R. and SEDGLEY, M. (1986b). The relationship between vegetative and
reproductive development in the mango in northern Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 37, 425-33.
ScHOLEFIELD, P. B., SEDGLEY, M. and ALEXANDER, D. McE. (1985). Carbohydrate cycling in
relation to shoot growth, floral initiation and development and yield in the avocado. Scientia
Horticulturae, 25, 99-110.
SHu, Z. H. and SHEEN, T. F. (1987). Floral induction in axillary buds of mango (Mangifera indica
L.) as affected by temperature. Scientia Horticulturae, 31, 81-7.
SINGH, R. H. (1978). Mango. Indian Council of Agricultural Research Book Series No.3.
STEPHENSON, R. A., CULL, B. W. and STOCK, J. (1986). Vegetative flushing patterns of macadamia
trees in south east Queensland. Scientia Horticulturae, 30, 53-62.
SuRYANARAYANA, V. (1978). Seasonal change in sugars, starch, nitrogen and C:N ratio in relation to
flowering in mango. Plant Biochemical Journal, 5, 108-17.
TOMER, E. (1984). Inhibition of flowering in mango by gibberellic acid. Scientia Horticulturae, 24,
299-303.
TROCHOULIAS, T. and LAHAV, E. (1983). The effect of temperature on growth and dry matter
production of macadamia. Scientia Horticulturae, 19, 167-76.
WHILEY, A. W., STEPHENSON, A. P., GEORGE, A. P. and MENZEL, C. M. (1988a). Controlled
environment glasshouses help our fruit industries. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 144,
53-56.
WHILEY, A. W., SARANAH, J. B., RASMUSSEN, T. S., WINSTON, E. C. and WoLSTENHOLME, B. N.
(1988b). Effect of temperature on growth of 10 mango cultivars with relevance to production
in Australia. Proceedings 4th Australasian Conference on Tree and Nut Crops, in press.
WoLSTENHOLME, B. N. and MuLLINS, P. D. (1982). Flowering, pollination and fruit set in mango-a
discussion of limiting factors. South African Growers' Association Research Report, 2, 5-11.
WoRLEY, R. E. (1979). Fall defoliation date and seasonal carbohydrate content of pecan wood
tissue. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 104, 195-99.
(Accepted 22 June 1989)
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
1 991 Кб
Теги
14620316, 1989, 11516018
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа