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Книга о Торновском Михаиле Георгиевиче, родившемся в 1882 году в Покровске (г. Энгельс) Самарской губернии в семье крестьянина. В 1904 году он окончил Иркутское военное училище и начал служить младшим офицером. Участвовал в Русско-японской войне в с
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2014??.
??? 94 (47). 08+929 ??????????
??? 63.3 (2)а? 8
?а? 504
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л? ?????????? ????? ?а????╗.а? ???????: ??????????? ????????????, 2014??. ?? 292 ?.
ISBN 978?5?91369?087?6
????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????, ?????????? ? 1882 ???? ? ????????? (?. ???????) ????????? ????????
? ????? ???????????. ? 1904 ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????.
?????????? ? ??????-???????? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ???? ?? ?????????
?????? ?? ????? 1-? ??????? ?????. ??? ????? ? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????.
?????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????????. ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?
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?а???????? ?????????? ????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ??????
? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????????. ?????? 1921 ???? ?????? ??????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? л???????????╗. ????? ???? ???????
?????????? ?. ?. ??????????? ? ?????. ???????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ?? 1947 ????. ?. ?. ?????????? ??????
????????? ???????????, ? ? 1947 ???? ??? ????????? ????? ? ????. ? ??????? 1947 ???? ?? ?????????? ? ?????
??????? (?.а?????), ??? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? л???????╗ ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?
1949 ????. ? 1955 ???? ??? ??????????????.
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???????? ?????????? ??????? XXа???? ??????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?а??? ??? ?а??????????. ?а?? ??????
XX ?аXXIа????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????. ???????
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?????? ?????????? ??????? ?а1882а???? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? (???? ????? ??????????????????? ???????) ?а????? ???????????. ?а?????????, ?а??????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????? ?а???
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?? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????, ????? ???????.
????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? 1747-? (28а???????), ????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а??????
???????? ?? ?????? ?.??.??????????а? ??????????? ??????? ??????????, ?а???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????.
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??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????????, ???? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??????????а? ????????? л??????
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?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? л??????????? ??????? ???????╗.
?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????II ????? 23 ????? ???????????? ?? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?а??????
?????? ????? 104 ???????. ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????а? ??????? ?? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а???????????
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? ????? 1750-? ????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????.
? 1760-? ???? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????????,
??? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ???
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?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а1769а????, ????? 22 ???? ????? ?? ?????????????, ???????? ????? ????????, ??? ?а??? ????????????? 2445 ???????????. ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? 200 ?? 300 ????? ??? ????? ????,
?а???? ??? ?????????. ????????????????.??.???????, ?????? ????? ?а1773а????, ???????, ??? ?а?????????? ???????
л????? 400 ?????, ?? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????
?????, ?а???? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????╗.
?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????. ????? ????????
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????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?а?????? ??????, ??
??????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????????????.
?? ?????? ?????, ???? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ?????, ???? ????????? 87 ??????? ??????? ?????
???????????? ?? 10 ????????? ?????. ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????, ???????????, ????????????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а??????а? ??????-?????????? ?а????????а? ??? ??????? ????????. ???????
?????? ??????????? ?? ?????, ???????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????, ???? ???????.
????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????: ???????-????????, ?????-?????????????? ??????????????, ???????? ???
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????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а???????,
??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ?а1904а???? ????????? ??????? ???????.
???????????? ???????
??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??? ???????-?????????? ???????????????? ?а???????????
???????? ????????-?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?.??.????????????, ??????? ?а????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ?а?? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??
???? ?????? ???????????????????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????, ???????? 20а???????? 1874а????. ??????? ????
??????? ???????? ??????? ??161 ?? 1872а???? ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????????????? ?? ???????,
???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????. ?а??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????, ???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????, ?а????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????. ??????????????,
??? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? 70%, ?? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??????. ??????? ???? ??????? ??
???? ???????: ???????? (????????????????????) ?а???????? (????????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????). ?а1878 ?? 1901а??? ?а????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????
?????????? ???????????????? ?????.
? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????. ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?а5а?? ?? ??????, ?? ???? ????????. ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а60а?? ?? ????????, ?а?????? ??????,
????? ???????а? ?а?????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????. ????? ????????
??????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????? (??????, ???????, ???????, ?????), ?????а? ?? ????????? ????: ????????
?а??????, ?????а? ?а??????? (??????, ???????), ?а????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????.
? 1901а ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??197 ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ?а ????????????
????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? 100 ???????. ??????-?????? ???? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????
???????. ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????, ??????, ??????????? ?а????????. ?? ????? ??????-???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????,
?а?????? 1905а???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?а1-? ?а4-? ????????? ????????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ??????????
??????????. ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?а????? 26 ???????.
?? ???????????? ?.???????????? (???????? ????? ???????? ???????):
л? 1904а????, ????? ??? ???? ????? 22 ????, ?а??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ???????
???????? ?а???????. ?????? ??????? 1905а????, ?а?а??? ?а?, ??? ????????? ?а?????????? ?? ??????-????????
?????. ??????? ??? ?? 1906а????.
???????? ??????? ??766 ?? 23.09.1905а???? ?? 1-? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ???????
?а??? ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? III ??????? ?а?????? ?а??????╗.
????????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????. ?а1855а???? ?а?????? ?????? ??.???????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???????, ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ????? ????????
?????? ?а??????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?а1857а???? ?а?????? ?????? III ???????, ???????? ?? ???????
???????, ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?????.
27а?????? 1903а???? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? 1900а????. ????? ?????, ????? ???????,
?????? ?????. ?????????????? ?????????????.
? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? 1905а???? ?а???????? ???????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ???? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????
?а ???????? ???????????? ???????. ?а ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????-??????????? ?а ???
??????, ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?а???? ????????
?? ?????????. ???????? ????????II, ????? ?? ????, ???????????? ??????? ?а??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?а????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???.
? 1906а???? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??588 ??????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????????? 10 ???????. ?а1909а???? ??? ???? ????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????. ?а1910а????
???????? ??341 ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? 200 ??????? (??а165 ?а1а???????? 1910??. ?а?? 200 ?а1а???????? 1911??.). ?а1а???????? 1913а???? ?а????? ?а???????????? ??????-????????????
??????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? 50 ??????? ????? ?????.
7
? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? 250 (1914??.), ?а????? ?? 320 (1915??.)
???????. ?????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????? (?а???? 1914?1915???. ?????? ????????? ?????????
?? 85% ??????? ???????).
? 1917а???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ?а1918а???? ???? ??????????????.
? 1906 ?? 1909а??? ?.??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? (?????????? ?????-????????)
?а?????? ????????. ?????? ?а???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????????????. ????????
??????????? ???????? ?а1886а???? ?а?????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????. ??? ?а?????????????.
? 1907а???? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????????. ?а??? ????? ?.??????????? ????????
?????????? ?а???? ?? ??????, ??????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????????? (????-???).
? 1908а???? ?а????????????? ?а??? ??????? ??? ?????, ?а?а1909-?а? ??? ????????.
?? ???????????? ?.????????????:
л? 1909а???? ?а??? ????????? ?? ????? ?а?????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????????-???????????? ?????╗.
???????????? ???????
17а??? 1909а???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????II ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а???????
?????????????-???????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ??????. ?????а? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????? ??????
??????? ?????????, ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ????????? ?????? ?а1909 ?? 1914а??? ?????????
????????? ?????????????????, ????????? ?а?????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ????, ????????-?????????????. ???????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????, ?????????. ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????????
????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????а? ????????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?а????????????? ?? ??????????.
?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?а???????? ????????, ?????
?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?.??.?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??
?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ????? ???? ????????. ?? ?????????????
????????????, ??? ???????, ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?.??.?????????, ?а????????? ???? ?????????? ??????
???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ?а???. ????????.??.????????? ???? ???????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????. ??? ?а1906а???? ?а????????? ???
????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????
???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????
??????????? ????????. ?????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? (?а1907а????
?.??.????????а? ???????? ????-??????? ?????), ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а??????.
?????? ?????? ?????????? ?.??.????????? ??????? ???????? ?а1909а???? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????II ??????? ?????????????-???????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????-???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ???? ??????? ?????????
?а10-???????? ?????? ????????, ?а??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????: ????????? ?а?????????? ????,
?????????? ?а??????? ??????????, ??????????, ?а????? ????????, ??????????, ???????, ???????? ?а??????? ???????????
??????????. ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????.
? 1910а????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ?а?????-??????????, ?????? ??????????
???????????? ?а???????. ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ?а????? ?а?????? ????????.
?а1910а???? ????????????.??. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????,
?????????? ?а??????. ?а??????????? ?????а? ??? ????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????
?а???????.
? 1914а????, ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????
?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?а??????????, ?а????? ??? ??????? ??
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????????. ????? ????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????: ???????? (??????) ?а???????????? ????????.
? 1915а???? ?а????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????а? ???? ?????.
????? 1914а???? ?? ????????, ?а?????? ???????, ?а??????, ??????????????? ?а1909а???? ??????-????????,
???? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????-??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??? ??????? ???????????а? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????. ??????????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?????
?????? ????????? ?????????????, ?? ??????????.
? 1914а???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? л??????╗ ?а?????? ?? ???? ?????, ?а??? ?????
??????? ????? ????? ???????????, ????? ??????????? ?????-?? ??????? ?? ????????: ????????? ?????? ?? ??????,
?а??? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?а??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????, ?? ?????????
8
?????? ??? ?????, ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????-???????? ?????, ????????????? ?????????? 1905?1907а?????, ?а??????, ?? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ?????.
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????????????? ????? ???????? 500 ?????????? ???????????? ?????.
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????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????? ???? ????????? ????? (74 ?????????), ?а??????, ??? ?????????????? ?а???? ???????????? ?????????????, ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ????. ?????? ??????-?????-
12
???? ????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????? ???? ????? ??????????, ???????????, ?????????? ?а???????? ?????.
????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? ????????????.
??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????, ?? ??? ???-???? ??????????
?а????? ?????. 20?24а???? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? 4-? ??????? ?а2-? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????
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????? ?? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????????, ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. ????? ???????
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???????? ???? ?а???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???.
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?а???????? ??????) ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????-??????????. 20а?????? 1917а???? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ?а????????????
?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ?а??????????? 26а?????? ?а????????
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????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?а???????????????? ???, ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?а1,2 ???????? ?? ??? ?а??????? ?????? ?????. ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ???? ??????? ???????,
?а??????, ?????????? ?а???????а? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????; ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????????????
????????? 200.000, ??????? ?????а? 100 ?????, ?????????, ???????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????а? 600
?????. ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?? ?????????. ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????
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????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? 130 ??????? ??????????.
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??????? ?а?????? ?а?????? ?? ??????? ?а???? ?а29а???? ?? 3а??????? 1917а???? ?а????? ???????????????. ??
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??? ???????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????╗.
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13
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????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????, ???????????, ??????? ?а??????.
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???????╗.
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??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? 1000 ???????.
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л? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?а???????. ?а??????? ????? ?? ??????????????
??????????? ????????????? 500 ????? ??????, ?? ?????????????? ??????????????????? ?а ?????????а ? 600
????? ??????. ????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????????,
??????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ?а??????╗.
???????????? ??????? ?а???? ?а???????
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???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ????╗.
22а ??? (3а ???? ?? ??????? ?????) 1896а ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????-?????????? ???????? ?а ????? ?????? ?а ????? ?????? ??????. ?а ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?.??.??????
?а?.??.????????-??????????, ?а????????? ???????а? ??????????. ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????
??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????. 27а??????? (8а????????) 1896а???? ????????? ?????????
?а?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????-?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????
80 ??? ?а?????????????? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????????.
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?.??.??????? ??? ?????????, ?.??.??????????. ?а?????? 1897а???? ????????? ????? ????? ???? ?а?????????? ???????
?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????.
???????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?.??.??????, ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????
????????? ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????-????????? ???????? ?????? ?.??.???????. ??????? ????????????
????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????, ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ??????
15
??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? (??????????) ?а????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
??? ???????????? ????? ????? ??????. 24а?????? 1897а???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????
?????????? ???? ?? ????? ?а????????? ?.??.??????????? ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????. ?а????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ???????????????
?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????.
??????? ????????? ??????????????? ???? ????? ????????? ?а 1891а ???? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?а ??????????. ????????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ????? ???? ?????????, ?? ?а1894а???? ??????? ?? ?????????
????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ???????а? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????
????????, л???????? ?????╗. ????? ?а?????? 1897а???? ????????????? ?????, ???????, ????, ???????? ????????????
?а????? ????????, 9а???????? 1897а???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а???????????, ?а???????а? ?а????. ????????? ???
????????????? ?а???????? ?а??? ????????????.
??? ?а1896а???? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????, ?а????? ??????, ???????? ???????, ?????????? ???? ?а??????????а? ???? ????? ????????????? ????????? (7а?? ??????-???????? ????????). ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???? 1897а????. ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???
???????????? ?а????? ?а?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????????. ?а?????? 1906а???? ???????? ??????????
?????? ???????? ???????, ?а?а?????? 1907а???? ?? ??????? ?а?????. ?????????? ?? ???? ???????, ??????, ??????? ?а??????????????? ??????. ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?? ????????
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??????-???????? ?????. ?????? ??? ??????????, ??? ????????а? ?????????????. ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????? 1904а????. ?????? ??? ?????????????, ?а?? ??? ??? ??? ?а??? ???????? ???????.
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???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????. ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ??????
?????. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а1907?1915а?????. ?а???????? ?????????
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????????????????? ????? ?? 36 ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????, ????????? ????????? ??????????
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?????? ?а?.??.
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?а???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????????, ???????????? ?а??? 1898а????. 10а?????? 1898а???? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????. ???????? ???? ??????????, ???????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????,
???????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????, ???
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л?? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???????,?? ????? ?.??.?????????????,?? ????????? ????; ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????, ?? ??????? ????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? (??????) ? ???, ??? ??????
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??????? ???? ?? ????????????? ????? л??????╗ ??????? ?? ???????????? ????? л??????╗а? л??????? ???????╗, ??? ???
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?????? ??????? л??????? ???-???, ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? (??????????? ???????????
1896а????). ?а??????-???????, ?а???? ???????, ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????. ?а??????
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1897?1898а ????? ??? ?????? ?а ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?а ?????????? ?а ???????????????
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?????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????
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?? ????????????.
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?????, ??????????? ?????? ?????? 1918а???? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ?? ???????????
????? ???????? ???? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????????, ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????? ???? ?? 8000
???????, ???????????, ?? ??? ??????, ?а?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ??????.
?????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ?а?? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????? ?? ????????????. ?????? ????????????
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?????, ?????, ????, ?????????, ??????.
? ??????? ?????? ???????????????????? ???? ???? ????????????, ?? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????,
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