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New Matrix UPPER-intermediate Student's Book

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tudent's
Book
cooo
Kathy Gude
wi th JaynÕ Wi |dmen
oxroRD
L
New
Upper-lntermediate
Student's Book
Kathy &udÕ
with JaynÕ Wildman
G
trre
oxroRD
UNI\/µRSITY PRµss
PrÕ>ÕÓ| pedPát ) mp|Õ Ðnd pÐ>t si mp|c'
PrÕ\Pnl àÕrl Pál l rmp|Õ Ðnd ( Onti nUous:
Àresent pÕrfÕát With whÕn, it', untiI
6
NÐturÐI images
µxam trÐining: sk]m ÓÕadir×
Exam trÐining: kÐnnInq
v: ThÕ nÐtura| wÞÓ]d' µrÞ ;: oß
Suffiåes Ðnd àÓÕfiåÕs
R: ¿/atáhing hÕÐdlines
4
a PowÕrxa''ittlÐg7Õs
GÕÓunds Ðßd infinitivÕs
2 lÐt.'ÓÐr Ó.eoctno',s
Happi ness
µxÐm trÐi ni ng: \!zl á. ng
v: µåàrÕssi ng i ÕÕi i ngj
Words thÐt go togÕIhár
R: N,4atáhi n8 sUmmÐÓ]Õs
16
3AllÕIping''or,d
âhÕ naturÐ| wor|d
EåÐm tÒining: ÂÓj₠ or fÐ|sÕ quÕstions
v: Gpißii\ Ðnd tÓÕÕooßl
R: ÂÓuÕ or fÐ|sÕ quÕst!ons
30
4 vlediÐ ßâqttÕls
ThÕ trouÌlÕ with ÂV
EåÐm tai ßi ßg: \. JI,O P (.o|(Õ qUÑ[i on\
v: ß Ðno ÓÐd]¾
R: \1UIt]àl Õ.(n0i (á t]UÕsti o¿s
NarrativÕ tensÕs: Past s|mp|Õ,
pÐst áontinUoUs, àÐst pÕrfÕát sjmà|Õ
and áontInUoU5
°dvÕrb álÐusÕs
58
5 s.'GcÕss scoriÕs
out of lndiÐ
ExÐm tÓÐining: ÂÓuÕ ÞÓ fÐ|sÕ quÕstions
V: Fi Im.mÐki ng
R: TruÕ or fÐlsÕ quÕsi!oßs
56
L: SáiÕnáÕ fiátion intÕrviÕw
P: Sounds Ðnd spÕ||i ßg
µxam trÐining: á0mà|Õting sentÕnáÕs
5: µåprÕssing {ÕÕ|ings and opiniÞns
su88Õ5tin8 ÕÅàlÐnÐti0n5
stimUlUs.bÐsed disáussion _ spaáÕ expIorÐtion
72
Past m0dÐ|s
Logi áÐ| ÕXpIпÐti ons
70
6}''/sáÕr'.d''d
ittlogtitlÐtiotâ
Page 68
ThÕ MÐrã CÕlÕstÕ
ExÐm trÐißing: l\lu tip]Õ.áhoiáÕ quÕstions
v: I\,4ãstÕry Ðnd imÐgißÐtiÞn
R: l\,4uIt]p|Õ.áhoiáÕ qUÕstions
68
L: London LÐndmarks _ phone áÐ|l
UnderstÐnding Ðn ßÞUnáÕmÕnt5
5: Saãing whiáh you prÕfer
stimUIUs-basÕd disáussion _ tÞurism
86
ÂhÕ pass|ve
ÁausalivÕ hIvÕ/gÕ|
u
µxtreme sports
ExÐm training: N,lÐtáhing hÕadings
V: LeisurÕ ÐátivitiÕs
spÕÕd Ðnd movemÕnt
R: |VÐtáhing hÕÐdings
a2
7 LeG'sriveÐlix1tlÕ!
Ways of tÐ|king about thÕ tutUrÕ
Exam trainingi µxtrÐ Words
96
L: PoI₠s Ðpart! áhat sh0w
P: HOmoàhonÕs
H0monyms
5: speáU|at|ng
PriÞritisißg
IntÕrprÕtin8 hÕÐdI nÕs
98
Night lights
v: µnvironmÕntÐ| issuÕs
Verbs With negÐtivÕ mÕÐni»8
R: RÕÐdiÛg for speáifiá informÐtion
94
8 a n Go tI, Õ 1' t, k, |o'w,,
L: Good for thÕ brain rÐdiÞ progrÐmme
P: SilÕnt letters
s: Brainstorming a prÕsÕntÐtion
Givin8 Ð presÕntÐtiOn
112
Thi rd áondi ti onÐ|
Wi5hÕs Ðnd rÕ8rÕts
110
gWisdotttot d
Iá',owredge
visuaI áonáepts
v: UndÕrstÐnding
R: ¼atáhing dÕsáriptions
108
L: opting out _ pÕrsona| ÕÅpÕriÕnáÕ
l 0l oms
P: VoWÕ| sounds
µxam trÐining: Ro|Õ p|ay
s; Role p|Ðã _ a dÕáision
song.' ^lÕmory
124
aioDividÕdro5rÐlties
LovÕ áonquÕrs ÐII
V: Love
UsÕs of make
tt,4ÐsáulinÕ and fÕminine nouns
R: N,4U|tipIe-áhoiáÕ quÕsti0n5
120
[: Photographiá imagÕs - a ta|k
YÕ5/no statÕmÕnts
µxÐm trÐining: NotÕ takin8
P: Word strÕss
S: Ro|Õ p|Ðy jobs
Stimulus bÐsÕd disáussiÞn imÐgÕ
I
[: DiffÕrent wor|ds_ pÕrsona| ÕxpÕr|Õnáe
Exam trÐining: 0rdÕring in{ormÐtiÞn
ExÐm training: TruÕ or fÐlse questions
s: Dlsáu55|on
StimuIus-bÐsÕd disáussion _ globÐ|isation
Soa$ One vision
z0
L: ResáUe_ rad|o pro8rÐmmÕ
µåpressions
P: WÕÐk form words
ExÐm trÐining: N,4uItiplÕ áhoiáe questions
µxÐm trÐining: Givin8 Ð prÕsÕntÐtion
S: PrÞb|Õm.so|ving' Ro|Õ p|Ðã
Givin8 Ð 5hort presÕntation
34
L: ThÕ powÕr of the press opinions
P: Using strÕ55 tOr mÕÐnin8
µåam trÐining: |\4U |tip|Õ mÐtáhin8
Eåam t]aining: Speaking tÞ Ðn audienáÕ
s: stimUlUs-basÕd disáUssion _ thÕ mediÐ
D|5áUsslon
46
L: ÒÕÐting thÕ stÕrÕotypes - intÕrviÕW
P: VOWÕ| sounds
Eåam training: Identifyin8 stÐ1Õments thÕ spÕÐkÕrs mÐke
µåÐm training; Using fi|lÕrs
s: t]sing fi||Õrs
° short prÕsentat|on
song: Moneã, moneã' monÕã
60
á:=ául turefo(us,[=Li steni ng'R:=RÕadi ng's:=sPeaki ng,v:=voáÐbul ÐryP:=Pronunái ati on
iliÓâßæ Ð dÕJáiPtio'ß
i mtfai ni ßg:l,::
'I
flryEß{,µ Ð storã
.'Ù Ìi ßi ng. '.l;*..
-:-:'!: -q
6rÐmmr
:.;ânt pÕrfÕát simp|Õ Ðnd pÐst slmp|Õ'
ÀÓÕsÕnt perfÕát With whÕn, if, until;
PrÕsÕnt pÕdÕát simpIe Ðnd áÞntinuous
skills
RÕÐding / ListÕning / Writing
12
',,,¿:rng m0re
frnnßg Ðn informaI IÕttÕr Ðnd notÕs
::: s:ot]лd
i ffi trÐi ni ng: Iná|udi ng a|| thÕ nÕáÕsïrã
.-: --×i i on
rii
ltt*ß:æ Ð dÕÚription o{ an evÕnt
': ] :.;à
ffi trÐi ni ßg: Âi mi ng your wri ti ng
4l
il.{Óé Ðn ÕssÐy arguing for and against
:fl m trai ni ng: Looki n8 Ðt both si des of Ðn
ß]
lr!ßm₠ Ð dÕtÕátive story
'::. nvesti gÐti on
i rÐm trÐi ßi ng: Wri ti ng ÕffÕái vÕ|y
ilèânmg a reviÕw
: - íß in BlÞák
:lèm trÐining: Âhinkin8 about your intÕndÕd
]-]-l áÕ
µt
il*µÓ|× Ð personal statÕmrnt Ðnd Ietter
:: ..|oÓÐj ob
ièm tÒining: HighIightin8 information
'nfl
iä¿ltiÓtg Ðbout dÐtÐ
. ]]:* áÐtti tudÕs
in'm tnining: Presenting data
iint.}g Ðß Õsïy
'- . :g |ÛIÕrÕsâs
VÕrbs and prepositions
NÕgÐtivÕ prÕfixÕs
Word building
PhrÐsÐ| verbs
14
á: Images of lreIand
GrÐmmÐ]
Gerund Þr infinitivÕ
Skills
SpÕÐking / Writing / ListÕning
24
µxpressing fÕÕlings
Using ÐdvÕrbs
ExprÕssing tWO points Þf view
26
R: âhÕ Lä oJ Pi by YÐnn |\4ÐrtÕ|I
GrÐmmÐr
HÐbit5
Skills
RÕading / Writing / LÌtÕning
38
Word building
µnvironmentaI prob|Õms
Adjeátives With JÕss anáJ ul
Words thÐt go together
40
R: âhÕ âhirornine steps by John Buáhan
GrÐmmÐr
RÕ|ativÕ Ðnd noun á|ÐusÕs
5kills
RÕading / ListÕning / Writing
50
VÕrbs with different mÕanings
NÕWspÐpers
TV pro8rÐmmes
52
á: Young peopIe Ðnd the mediÐ
GrammÐr
NÐrrativÕ tÕnsÕs: PÐst simp|Õ, pÐst áontinUoUs,
i]Ðst pÕrfeát 5imp|e Ðnd áontinuous
AdvÕrb álÐusÕs
skills
SpÕaking / ListÕning / Writing
Ä
Word building
PhrÐsÐl vÕrbs
PrÕp05|tl0n5
Words thÐt go tOgÕther
Ski||s Ðnd quÐ|ities nÕÕdÕd in dif{Õrenl jobs
66
GrÐmmar
PÐst modÐ|s
LogiáÐ| ÕåpIanÐtions
Skills
ListÕning / Writing / RÕÐding
PrÕpos|1|ons
ÂhÕ right vÕrb
WÞrds With oppositÕ meÐnings
0rdÕr Þf ad1Õátives
R: ThÕ \ound MoáhiÛe by Roa|d Dah|
GrammÐr
Pa5sIvÕ
ÁalsaIi\tÕ h1ãÕ/gÕt
Ski l l s
ReÐdi ng / Wri ti ng / Li stÕni ng
90
Words thÐt 80 to8ÕthÕr
µÅpressi0ns With l],ye
Adjeái vÕs
ÀÓÕposIt]o»5
WÞrd bui Idi ng
92
á; Âhe British Ðnd their áÐrs
GrÐmmar
WÐys of tÐ|king about the futurÕ
Skills
Writing / ReÐding
102
Fjom0nãms
ThÕ ri ght words
104
R: FohrÕnheit 451 bv RÐv BrÐdburv
Grammar
Third áonditional
WishÕs and rÕ8rÕts
skills
RÕÐding / Writing / ListÕning
116
Word building
PhrÐsÐl verbs With rdke
PrÕpositions
Words thÐt g0 tOgether
118
GrÐmmÐr
RÕpodÕd 5àÕÕáh
Skills
Listening / Wriling
128
l droms
PrÕp05|t]o»5
Words that 80 to8ÕthÕr
µåpressiOns With fldke
130
R. âhÕ áhÐtgÕ oI thÕ Light BrigodÕ
bv AlfrÕd Lord ÂÕnnvsÞn
1 Look Ðt thÕ pi áturÕs. Why i s ÐppÕarÐnáÕ i mportant
Ðni maIs Ðnd to pÕopl e?
Skim rÕad thÕ tÕåt and matáh heÐdings Ð_Õ to
1-5.
il;;;'; a áonstant fÕatuI; of today,s world. WÕ sÕÕ thÕm
on TV at thÕ áinÕma, in magazinÕs. HowÕvÕr, not all of
thÕm havÕ bÕÕn árÕatÕd by huÌan bÕings. NaturÕ itsÕlf has
árÕatÕd somÕ of thÕ most bÕautiful imagÕs, and thÕ variÕty
of imagÕs in naturÕ is Õnormous. OvÕr millions of yÕars'
.u.rl ,fr..i" s has developed its owß .look,..ThÕre arÕ thrÕÕ
*ui'l *u,o's for this divÕrsity of natural imagÕs.
1
WhÕrÕvÕr wÕ look nowadays WÕ arÕ surroundÕd-by'ii.gl]:
2
LÕt,s bÕgin by looking è tw9 vÕIy d'I*':"j.'^Y-::1.:^ ':::
·
But hiding from thÕir prÕdatoIs isn't'th" :-ç}Y.::ii.:
to
TitlÕ:
parÐgraphs
a I nspi rati on
b SÐfÕty
á VÐrlÕtÃ
d °ppÕÐ|
Õ |nvi si bi Ii tã
3 what would be a suitÐbIÕ tit|Õ for the tÕxt?
Sáan thÕ text and find thÕ answÕrs to thÕ quÕstions.
1 WhÕrÕ do wÕ áÞmÕ Ðáross i maïÕs? What arÕ thÕ souráÕs
Þf thÕsÕ i magÕs?
Why havÕ sti ák i nsÕáts dÕvÕ|opÕd thÕi r i magÕ? HavÕ
tigÕrs ÕvolvÕd stripÕs for thÕ samÕ rÕÐson?
WhÐt doÕs thÕ Ðrmadi IIo usÕ to protÕát i tseIf? What othÕr
spÕái Õs usÕ si mi l Ðr wÐys of protÕáti on?
WhÐt i mportÐnt rÞ|Õ doÕs i magÕ p|Ðã i n thÕ |i fÕ of
pÕÐáoáks?
\VhÕrÕ do pÕopl Õ oftÕn Iook for fÐshi on i dÕÐs?
stiák insÕát and thÕ ti!Õr. Stiák insÕáts hav.Õ ÕvolvÕd to look
Õxaátly likÕ thÕ branÙÕs and lÕavÕs thÕy livÕ amongst. For
thÕm, thÕ ability to hidÕ from thÕir ÕnÕmiÕs is ÕssÕntial
bÕáausÕ thÕy arÕ small and áÐmouflÐgÕ offÕrs thÕm thÕ only
*uy .o protÊát thÕmsÕlves. YÕt it,s not only small árÕaturÕs
that usÕ áamouflagÕ. LargÕ mammals do too, but in a
totally diffÕrÕnt way. TigÕis, for ÕxamplÕ, havÕ StripÕS to
hidÕ thÕmsÕlvÕs in ,n" Ù,.g grass, whÕrÕ thÕy áan launáh
thÕir attaáks on thÕir p,"y. ñÙo.,flagÕ madÕ it possiblÕ fÞr
tigÕrs to bÕáomÕ suááÕssful huntÕIs.
4
áan ÕnsurÕ thÕir survival. ThÕ armadillo from ÁÕntral and
South AmÕriáa, for ÕxamplÕ, is protÕátÕd bã thiák piÕáÕs.of
hard bonÕ whiáh to'* u shÊll around its tlody. ThÕ
armadillo looks morÕ likÕ an armourÕd m1áhi1Õ l':i.i
,.i.,'." fi.átion fllm than an animal. Or lÕt,s takÕ a rnÞrÕ
áommon ÕxamplÕ. ThÕ hÕdgÕhog is a muáh smallÕr animal,
Ù.,i ''u',,," has providÕo it Ùitì a áoÐt of Long, sharp SpinÕt
to protÕát itsÕIf from its ÕnÕmiÕs'
RÕadi ng
Skim reading
mÕans reÐdi ng a tÕÅt through qui ákl ã to gÕt Ð gÕnÕraI
i dÕa of whÐt i t i s about. Âhi s prÕparÕs you for answÕri ng
morÕ dÕtai |Õd ÞuÕsti ons,
Sáanni ng
mÕÐns Iooki ng qui ákIy through Ð tÕåt wi thout rÕadi ng
ÕVerã sÕntÕnáÕ to fi nd thÕ i nformÐti on you nÕÕd. Thi s
hÕ|ps ãou to fi nd dÕtÐi l ed i nformati on morÕ qui ák|y.
{D
Yoáahèl ary
Âhe natural èorld
5 µxp|ain thÕ meaning of the words in itÐliá aááording to how thÕy arÕ usÕd in
thÕ tÕxt.
6 Sáan thÕ tÕxt and find words or phrases thÐt mean:
1 a numbÕr Þf di ffÕrÕnt typÕs of somÕthi ng (paragraph 1)
2 a group of Ðni mÐIs or p|Ðnts thÐt shÐrÕ thÕ samÕ áharÐátÕri sti ás (parÐgraph 1)
3 dÕvÕIop grÐduÐ|Iy frÞm Ð si mpIÕ to Ð morÕ áomp|Õx form (pÐrÐgrÐph 2)
4 bÕ i n Ð p|aáÕ whÕrÕ ãou áannot bÕ sÕÕn (pÐragrÐph 2)
5 kÕÕp sÞmÕthi ng or somÕbody sÐfÕ (pÐrÐgrÐph 2)
6 Ðn Ðni maI that i s ki ||Õd and ÕatÕn by othÕr Ðni mal s (paragrÐph 2)
7 Ðn ani mÐ| thÐt ki ||s Ðnd Õats ÞthÕr Ðni mal s (paragrÐph ·)
8 makÕ someonÕ fÕÕ| thÐt thÕã |i kÕ ãou (pÐragrÐph 4)
9 be morÕ suááÕssful thÐn othÕrs (paragrÐph 4)
µvolution
7 Matáh thÕ verbs i n Ii st 1 to thosÕ i n l i st 2 thÐt ÐrÕ si mi |Ðr i n mÕani ng.
1 protÕát ÕVOIVÕ
providÕ ÐttrÐát árÕÐtÕ
2 ofIer form . ÐppÕal dÕvÕl op dÕfÕnd
8 Áomp|ÕtÕ sÕntÕnáes 1_5 With the áorrÕát form of a verb from Iist 1 in 7 ÐbovÕ,
and a suitÐblÕ prÕposition' More thÐn one prÕposition may bÕ áorreát.
] NaturÕ has - thÕ hÕdgÕhog Ð áoat of |ong, sharp spi nÕs.
2 Sái Õnti sts bÕ|i ÕvÕ that our Uni vÕrsÕ wÐs
thÕ Bi g BÐng.
Ð hugÕ expIosi on áa||Õd
3 |\4Ðnã Vl s|tors ÐrÕ
LÐkÕ B|Õd bÕáÐusÕ of i ts naturÐl bÕÐutv
4 DÐrwi n was thÕ fi rst to áIÐi m thÐt thÕ humÐn rÐáÕ - a spÕái Õs
of Ðni mÐ|.
5 Sti ák i nsÕáts arÕ prÕdators bÕáausÕ thÕy |ook |i kÕ twi gs.
suffixgs and profixÞì
9 Form adjeátivÕs from thÕsÕ nouns bã adding -ful andIor./ess. ThÕn sáan the
text and find what thÕ adjeátives dÕsáribÕ.
i
'i.i
:l
1
.- is yÕt anothÕr rÕason for
..'.rÕ.s vari Õty of i magÕs. For thÕ
1''.s to survivÕ it,s not Õnough to
. .:Õ from prÕdators. SomÕtimÕs it,s
. -.tu,.t to stÐnd out iß thÕ árowd.
, - ,.uks, for i nstanáÕ, dÕvÕl opÕd
.:.: Õåtl aordi nary bl uÕ and grÕÕn
. i o attraát {Õmal Õs 1pÕÐhens)
',.:-:1g thÕ mati ng sÕason. Many
...Ó ani mal s usÕ thÕi r i magÕ to
,' , ]áf,} to potÕntial matÕs and to gÕt
. - .×d of thÕir rivals.
. :-' enimal,s appÕaâanáÕ seßds out a
-. i l ßportÐßt mÕSSÐgÕ. ÂhÕi r i magÕ
-.'l.'s i hÕm to hi dÕ, to dÕfÕnd
.ÕßrsÕlvÕs or to flnd paâtnÕrs. WÕ
' ..:âl ans havÕ stol Õn maÛy of ouÓ
'".-lr imagÕs from wildlifÕ ovÕâ thÕ
- =nturiÕs. Just think of rrrilitary
-1lloLtI for ÕxarnplÕ, oâ thÕ fÕathÕâs
:. ÕxpÕnsi vÕ hats, l Õopaâd ski n
:'×riás, punk hairstylÕs, áamouflagÕ
..-.1'',.,,,-fukÕ fur... thÕ list is ÕndlÕss.
.r faát, whÕn it áomÕs to fÐshion-, it
).Õms as if thÕ human raáÕ . nas
=ernÕd ÕvÕrything it knows trÞm
-l st onÕ souráÕ _ naturÕ.
1 hÕ|p
2 pÕÐáÕ
3 worth
4 áount
5 wondÕr
t CI writÕ words with Ð nÕgativÕ prefiå, (un-, im-, in-) whiáh mÕÐn thÕ oppositÕ
of 1-7.
.l nÐturÐI
2 ÕssÕnti aI
3 possi bIÕ
4 suááÕssfuI
ÁhoosÕ onÕ of thÕ statÕmÕnts beIow and sÐy why ãou agreÕ/disÐgrÕÕ with it.
Þ You áan Ð|wÐys j udgÕ a pÕrson by hi s or hÕr appÕÐranáÕ.
o It's nÞt what wÕ wÕÐr but how wÕ wÕÐr i t thÐt mattÕrs.
. BÕÐutv i s onl v ski n dÕÕp.
5 áommon
6 i mportÐnt
7 ÕxpÕnsi vÕ
ä
Present perfeát si mpl Õ and past
si m pl Õ
't;--.i..l+'':.Ýiqj.æ:....l;l..ffi læÔi:-..
Exp|ain why thrÕe of thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáÕs Ðre ináorrÕát.
,l l'vÕ Worn a nÕw drÕss, ÃÕsterdÐY.
2 N4ã fri Õnds IÐughed whÕn thÕã saw mã Þ|d tÓÐi ßÕrs.
3 JÐnÕ di dn't buy Ðnã brand nÐmÕ á|othÕs, t'Õt.
4 JÐmi Õ j ust Iost hi s wÐl IÕt.
In pairs, first answÕr the quÕstions, thÕn rÕad thÕ tÕxt. DÞ
ãou agrÕÕ with what KeIly, DavÕ and thÕ writÕr say?
Whã/why not?
,1 WhÐt i s Ð brÐnd nÐmÕ?
2 WhÐt do ãou thi nk mÐkÕs á|othÕs Ðnd othÕr thi nss wi th
brÐnd nÐmÕs so popu|ar?
RÕad thÕ tÕxt agai n. UndÕrIi ne thÕ Õxamp|Õs Þf thÕ
prÕsÕnt pÕrfeát simple Ðnd áirá|Õ thÕ ÕxÐmp|Õs of thÕ past
simplÕ in the Õxtraát.
HÐve you ever bought Ð brÐnd
name produát? |f so, why? ¼ost
peopte, i t seems, buy thÕse
produáts as a Way of expressing
thei r own i ndi vi duati ty whi l e sti tl
bei ng part o³ Ð grÞup. Buyi ng
brand namÕs i s l i ke bÕi ng Ð fan of
Ð popul ar band or a famous
football team, it gives you a sense
of idÕntity. HowevÕr, thÕse
produáts have bÕáome muáh morÕ
i mportant thÐn they used to bÕ,
espeái Ðl l y for young peopl e.
YÕsterday, I spoke to some
lrlÐtáh thÕ vÕrbs in boId in thÕ tÕxt to thÕ usÕs 1-4.
,l tÞ dÕsári bÕ an ÕåpÕri ÕnáÕ that has Þr hÐsn't hÐpàÕnÕd Ðt
Ðn i ndÕfi ni tÕ ti me i n the past Õ.g.
|lÐve ãou evor bought? and -
2 .- 3Õsári be Ðn Ðáti on thÐt has fi ni shÕd but has Ðn ÕffÕát
'. .' * orÕsÕnt
3 .' :l.s:t..bÕ Ðn Ðáti on or stÐtÕ thÐt stÐrtÕd i n thÕ ÞÐst Ðnd
.. . . . .,] Õs :Þ thÕ prÕsÕnt -
4 :á áÕs:r bÕ Ð fi ni shÕd aáti on or stÐtÕ Ðt Ð dÕfi ni tÕ ti mÕ i n
-i -
UndÕr|i ne thÕ áorrÕát tÕnsÕ i n sÕntÕnáes 1_8.
1 Dtd )ou Õ\Õr sÕÕ ½ÐãÕ \oLl ÕvÕr sÕÕn ¾asis in áonáÕrt?
2 Sj mon bought hÐs Þought sÞmÕ dÕsi gnÕr j Õans |Ðst wÕÕk.
3 SÐrÐ workÕdi hÐs ããorkÕd Ðs a modÕ| i n thÕ hol i dÐys.
4 | áan't áÐlI JÕssiÕ - | t'ÞrgÞtihÐl,Õ t'ÞrgottÕn mv mobiIÕ.
5 | didn,t go/hÐvÕn't bÕÕn to sáhoÞl vÕstÕrdÐã.
6 | sÞw/hÐvÕ sÕÕn Iwo fi|ms starring GÕÞrgÕ ÁloÞnÕã
rÕáÕntIy.
7 Mark didn't ÕÞt/hÐsn,t ÕatÕn ÁhinÕsÕ food bÕforÕ - WÕ,rÕ
goi ng to trã somÕ toni ght.
8 Did ãou watáh/11avÕ ãou wÐtáhed tÕ|Õvision Iast night?
Put thÕ ÐdvÕrbs in braákÕts in thÕ áorrÕát plaáÕ in
sentÕnáÕs .l_8.
1 Don,t fÕÕd thÕ áÐt; |'vÕ gi vÕn hi m hi s di nnÕr. (Ðl rÕady)
2 HÐvÕ ãou pÐi d thÕ tÕl ÕphonÕ bi l |? (yÕt)
3 ThÕ |ÕttÕr from my pÕnfri Õnd hasn,t arri vÕd. (sti I|)
4 Pau|a,s missÕd thÕ bus. (just)
5 HÐvÕ you triÕd GrÕÕk food? (evÕd
6 l'vÕ bÕÕn ÐbrÞÐd. (nÕvÕr)
7 °nna hÐs Ii kÕd á|Ðssi áÐ| musi á. (Ð|ways)
8 N4Ðtt hasn't movÕd hÞusÕ. (yÕt)
Read 1-8 in 6 Ðgain and answÕr quÕstions ,l_3.
Whi áh ÐdvÕrbs or ti mÕ ÕxprÕssi ons dÞ wÕ use
,l to tÐ|k about ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕs thÐt hÐvÕ or haven't happÕnÕd
Ðt an i ndÕfi ni tÕ ti mÕ i n thÕ ÞÐst?
2 wi th thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát to taIk Ðbout rÕáÕnt Ðáti ons wi th
orÕsÕnt rÕsu Its?
· with thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát for unfinishÕd timÕ?
:1,
reenagers about thei r buyi ng
hÐbits. Ke[læ whoÊ r7, explained .|'ve bought lots of
ál othÕs bÕáausÕ oi thÕ l abel. l bought 'u i.,. desi gner
Â.shirt two yÕars ago beáause it was áheap in a satÕ. But
l disáovered that the quÐtity wÐs good. |t didn,t fall to
pieáes after two WÕeks, so now l buy álothes with labets
whÕn | áan.' l tÊ not j ust the gi rts who are i magÕ
áonsái ous. DavÕ, Kel l yÊ brothÕì tol d me .Dad bought me
some dÕsignÕr trainers for my birthday a few yÕars ago.
Sináe then l hÐve Ðlways worn branded trainers. And
,,,,1'
sináÕ l stÐrted buying my own álothes, last yea1 l have also
áhosen jeans and T-shirts with tabets; these jeans l,m
weari ng now for exampl Õ. l t
means you always feel
áonfident that you're
weari ng somÕthi ng
áool.'
:::r.ita:r..r:.:r',:.::::rirrr:..rll
ÀrÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát si mpl e and
à rÕsÕnt perf eát áonti nuous
\ilÐtáh ÕraÓÛpiÕs Ð_á to thÕ usÕs Þf thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát
:Þßti nuous-l -3.
a .\4hã гe fou ío hot?. ,!'ve baan runnin7.,
6 Theã,ve baen going to tha tannis álub for ãoÐrì.
á !,ve been living hore ìináe lÐst °pril.
. l sÕ thÕ presÕnt pÕrfÕát áÞnti nuous for:
'1 Ðáti ons or statÕs whi áh startÕd i n thÕ past Ðnd ÐrÕ sti ||
3Þi ng on. WÕ wÐnt to ÕmphÐsi sÕ thÕ IÕngth of ti mÕ.
] aáti ons or statÕs whi áh hÐvÕ stoppÕd, but havÕ prÕsÕnt
tonsÕquÕnáÕs.
] Ðáti ons whi áh hÐvÕ hÐppÕnÕd rÕpÕatÕdl y for somÕ ti mÕ.
\VÕ want to ÕmphÐsi sÕ thÕ rÕpÕÐtÕd Ðáti on.
: Look Ðt ÕxampIes 1 and 2 and thÕn put thÕ timÕ
ÕåÒressions into thÕ áorrÕát áolumn.
1 l,vo KnÞwn 6Ð|Iã far 6iå ãoÐro.
2 |,vo trived hÕro eináa 2o0l,
a Iong ti mÕ twÞ wÕÕks |ast Maráh thrÕÕ hours
Áhri stmas |VondÐy Ð fÕw mi nutÕs ni nÕ o,á|oák
In pairs, first put thÕ vÕrbs in braákÕts into thÕ áorrÕát
tÕnse (present perfÕát simpIÕ or áontinuous). Âhen
áomplÕtÕ the sÕntÕnáÕs with /or or sináÕ. lf both tensÕs
arÕ possibIe, Õxplain thÕ diffÕrenáÕ in meaning.
1 PÕtÕr (rÕÐd) thÕ sÐmÕ book IÐst ãÕÐr. l
wondÕr whÕn hÕ wi Il fi ni sh.
2 WÕ - (try) to phonÕ thÕm - hours' pÕrnÐps
thÕi r phonÕ i s brokÕn.
3 Our grandpÐrÕnts (hÐvÕ) thÕi r áÐt - two
ãÕa rs.
4 N4Ðri Ð (do) thi s j Þb -- thrÕÕ months.
5 Kar| (bÕ) a friÕnd -- agÕs.
6 | - (not go) to the ái nÕmÐ I movÕd housÕ
7 John (not watáh) a footbal | matáh -
months.
8 SÐm (stay) wi th hi s áousi ns hÕ startÕd
áoIl ÕgÕ.
PrÕsent perfÕct with when, if '
or antil
"µ,E RÕad thÕ ru|Õs and then áomplÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 1_5 using
your own words.
Rul Õs
,l WÕ áÐn usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt perfÕát simp|Õ instÕad of thÕ
prÕsÕnt to taIk Ðbout sÞmÕthi ng thÐt wi l I or shoul d
happÕn bÕforÕ anothÕr ÕVent i n thÕ futurÕ' Õ.g.
When ãou.vo finishod ãour homeworK. ãou ádn go
out.
You áÐn,t go out unIil ãou,ve finished ãour
homÕworK.
2 WÕ áan usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát si mp|Õ i nstÕad of thÕ
ÞrÕsÕnt i n somÕ fi rst áondi ti onÐl sÕntÕnáÕs' e.g.
lf ãou,vÕ fini;hod ãour homeworK, we will go out.
,l |f thÕã not - by |unáhti mÕ, wÕ wi |l ri ng
and fi nd out whÕrÕ thÕy are.
2 WhÕn ãoU - your bÕdroom, wÕ áÐn havÕ
d i n nÕr.
· I'l I bÕ rÕady to go out whÕn | - mã hÐi r.
4 WhÕn you - thÕ tab|Õ for di nnÕr, ãou áou|d
hÕIp mÕ preparÕ thÕ vÕgÕtÐb|Õs.
5 I áan't tÕ|| you what mã sÕárÕt i s unti I I - to
AnnÕ.
LÕt's aátivatÕ
PeÓíonal oêPorieoá.o
12 ln pairs' read thÕ instruátions 1_3 Ðnd intÕrview Õaáh
othÕr. UsÕ thÕse quÕstion words.
WhÕn What WhÞ ... wi th How How |ong
Whã How manã ti mÕs WhÕrÕ
1 Fi nd out i f yoUr partnÕr has donÕ thÕ thi ngs (Ð-á) bÕ|ow.
2 Fi nd out as muáh i nformati on Ðs you áÐn Ðbout what
hÐppÕnÕd whÕn hÕ/shÕ di d thÕm.
3 N4ÐkÕ a notÕ of Ãour partnÕr's rÕp|i Õs.
µåÐmple
WhÐt i s thÕ mÞst exái ti ng sport yoU havÕ tri Õd?
KayÐki ng.
How mÐny ti mÕs hÐvÕ ãÞu donÕ i t?
Lots. I do i t ÕvÕrã wÕÕkÕnd i n summÕr.
Ann How Iong havÕ you bÕÕn doi ng i t?
Bob Si náÕ I wÐs ,l 2'
a try an Õåái ti ng sport
b vi si t Ðn i ntÕrÕsti ng p|aáÕ
á pÕrform i n pub|i á
T 3 Work in groups' Disáuss thÕ quÕstions.
1 Do ãou buã dÕsi gnÕr á|othÕs? Whyi Why not?
2 How havÕ brÐnd nÐmÕs áhÐnged pÕop|Õ,s spÕndi ng
hÐbi ts i n your áountry?
lr
*
ll
I
I
I
ß
Ann
Bob
Ann
Bob
for (period of time)
si náÕ (poi nt i n ti mÕ)
ä
PIlotogtrÐ1oIâiá
I'i,ÐgIes
.t In pai rs, di sáuss thesÕ quÕsti ons.
] HÞw do you fÕe| Ðbout:
. taki ng photogrÐphs?
. sÕÕi ng photÞgraphs of yourse|f?
. Iooki ng Ðt othÕr pÕopl Õ,s photogrÐphs?
2 Whã do pÕopl Õ tÐkÕ photogrÐphs of ÕÐáh ÞthÕr?
· HÞw do pÕop|Õ rÕÐát whÕn thÕã knÞw thÕi r photÞgl.Ðph i s bÕi ng tÐl'Õßi
Whã?
4 How WÕrÕ |mÐgÕs rÕprÕsÕntÕd bÕforÕ thÕ i nvÕnti on Þf phÞtogrÐphã?
Li stÕni ng
2 Look Ðt this photograph a
ÐnswÕr thÕ quÕsti ons.
1 WhÕn do you thi nk i t
was tÐkÕn?
2 WhÐt words wou|d
ãoU UsÕ to dÕsári bÕ
thÕ man?
3 How do ãou thi nk
hÕ fÕ|t Ðbout thÕ
phÞto?
Óo6Jl:l ListÕn to a short nÕws itÕm Ðbout thÕ o|d photogrÐph Ðnd answÕl
thÕ quÕstions. Write notÕs |ikÕ thosÕ in thÕ Õåamp|Õ.
µåÐmplÕ
|ÃhÕrÕ did NlonsiÕur PÐgneuå buã it? °ntiquo mÐrKrt / ÀÐris
1 Whã i s i t so i mportÐnt?
2 WhÕn wÐs i t tÐkÕn?
3 WhÕn di d thÕ pub|i á hÕÐr Ðbout thÕ photogrÐph?
4 Who wÐs Ni áo|Ðs HuÕt?
5 WhÐt di d hÕ hÐvÕ to do?
6 Why di dn't hÕ áomb hi s hai r or smi |Õ?
Eåpand your notÕs into sÕntenáÕs. ÂhÕn áompare your ÐnswÕrs to Ð
pa rtnÕr's.
5 Look at thÕsÕ photographs Ðnd ÐnswÕr
thÕ quÕsti ons.
,l How ol d do yÞu thi nk thÕ pÕopl Õ arÕ?
2 WhÐt j Þbs do ãou thi nk thÕy do?
ro6,|l.z The girl in thÕ photogrÐph is
áa||ed AnnÐ Pi mm. l i stÕn Ðnd áompl ÕtÕ
thÕ notÕs.
AnnÐ Pi mm
.l °gÕ:
2 NÐti ÞnÐ|i tã: -
3 N4Ði n oááupÐti on:
4 PÐrt-l i mÕ j ob: -
5 EÐrni ngs:
6 FÐthÕr's oááupÐl i on:
7 FathÕr's Ðdvi áÕ:
8 N4ai n Ðmbi ti on:
In pai rs, di sáuss thÕsÕ quÕsti ons.
1 Who do ãou thi nk was ri ght, °nnÐ or
hÕr fÐthÕr?
2 What do you thi nk hÐs hÐppÕnÕd to
AnnÐ si náÕ thÕn7
NotÕ-taking
WhÕn Ii stÕni ng don't wÞrrã i f ãou do not undÕrstÐnd Õverã word.
l\4ÐkÕ brief notÕs thÕ first timÕ ãou listÕn e.g. ÐntiquÕ mÐrkÕt/PÞris.
ÂhÕn áonfi rm ãoUr answÕr on thÕ sÕáond Ii stÕni ng bÕforÕ fi ||i ng i n thÕ
ÐnswÕr form.
,:. .: j. ..:., ¡*'' \.'i thZÐák'the
: . .. : l.j; - ..-:. quÕsti ons dÞ ãou
:'* i.. ×s[ ß ml
i.,: . ' j': *:.:-l ._] thÕn Ii stÕn to the i ntÕrvi Õw
. -. :'.;.:*:-:; *×táh rl.hÐt Zaák says Ðbout
. l .: l |: -| . -| nÕsi dÕ ÕÐáh statÕmÕnt. Di d thÕ
: :. ;:æ ]*, -l i hÕ quÕsti onsyou predi átÕd?
.: .. ]: j'l l o0Õl.
' '" ]- ,,' -i l onÕ ÐgÕnáy.
- :: :,':'..; ¾¿g pÕri ods Wi thoUt Work. -
] .., ...].¾.
.: -]:l - ,si O Õ for my Worst ÕXpÕri ÕnáÕ.
- )l s¾l l -l Õ fri Õnds bÕáausÕ of my ÁarÕÕr.
j ":,..s hÐvÕ tri Õd to mÐkÕ mÕ gi vÕ up modÕIIi ng.
Jt]Õrl -l Á rvork suffÕrÕd Ðs a rÕsul t of modÕ|l i nï.
- : i kÕ Ð áomp|ÕtÕ áhÐngÕ of áarÕÕr.
:,]i..l ènái ati on
l. :""435
-: :i i r i dÕd i nto sãl |ÐbIes: uni ts usuÐ||y áontÐi ni ng Ð
. .l rl sÞnÐnt bÕforÕ Ðndi or ÐftÕr i t, Õ.g. af-tÕr.
- -::, nÕ thÕ strÕssÕd syIl abl Õ i n Õaáh worá.
..Ðát (noun) b áon trÐát (vÕrb)
'. 'l l ÕráÕ (noun) b áom mÕr ái a| (Ðdj Õáti ve)
× × ¾6Jl's Now intÕrviÕw Õaáh othÕr. RÕfÕr to whÐt your
pÐrtnÕr hÐs sÐi d tÞ shÞw that you arÕ Ii steni ng. UsÕ thÕ
di aIoguÕ box to he|p you'
, r;:t:r:::::....,.."1",;1;i;:.1-:i::;;;:-:,,:i;::..;r:;;:-;,:.::;";-.:-,;;:;;,;;:rt.,.'-:;Jrr::-..-;"ir:.:;r,
.-! sìowing that you arÕ listÕning
.j A Now ãou mÕntioned thÐtãou,d Ð|wÐãs wantÕd to bÕ Ð
modÕ|.
YÕs, ÕvÕr si náÕ | took pÐrt i n a fÐshi Þn show Ðt sáhooI
So thÐt,s how it a|| stÐ rtÕd?
YÕs, p|us thÕ fÐát that Iwon Ð áompÕti ti on i n Ð |oáÐI
nÕWspapÕr.
B
A
B
j ^
AátuÐllã, I wÐs going to Ðsk ãou Ðbout thÐt. Áould ãou
ÕåplÐin in more detÐil Õåaát|ã how thÐt hÕ|pÕd ãou?
stim ulus - b aìod diìcuÒìion
t4 Di sáuss thÕse quÕsti ons.
'l WhÐt arÕ thÕ pÕop|Õ i n thÕ pi áturÕs doi ng?
2 WhÐt i s thÕ sIogÐn suggÕsti ng?
· WhÐt i s mÞrÕ i mportÐnt for Ð hÐppã |i fÕ ÐppÕaranÁÕ or
pÕrsonaIi ty?
4 To whÐt ÕxtÕnt do photographs i n advÕrti sÕmÕnts
i nfl uÕnáÕ us?
5 Are photogrÐphi á i magÕs aIwÐys Ðn ÐáÁuratÕ pi áturÕ of
rÕÐ | itã?
..:ft vÕrl í)
: : i ¿ V₠³D)
: : I \.Õrb)
b sÐ ti s faá ti Þn (noun)
b as si gn mÕnt (nÞun)
b rÕ Ðá ti Þn (noun)
.Þ grÐph (noun) b phÞ to grÐ phi á (Ðdj Õáti vÕ)
\Þtv Iisten and áhÕák your answÕrs. PrÐátise
thÕ rvords with thÕ áorrÕát strÕss.
l;Õaki ng
' _1 '
" ' . :". goi ng to i ntÕrvi Õw a partnÕr. l mÐgi nÕ you Õaáh
', ' = : J ffÕrÕnt j ob i n whi áh you havÕ bÕÕn vÕry
' ' -.: s.; ]. \Vri tÕ quÕsti ons to fi nd out Ðbout:
r :- . i l tl -l Õ dÞi ng thÕ j ob
.Ó..
)
. .'l g/tvorst ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ
.Ð ßl r i v l i fÕ/| l fÕstã|Õ
l's
n/lake the most
Yourself
of
I
i
", ₠)
, l T:. .j::.:1tradi ti onal i mages of,Bri tai n whi áh hÕtp pÕopl e to
. Look Ðt thÕ piátures. What
diffÕrÕnt images of Britain do thÕy
show?
: What images do you havÕ of
Bri tai n whi áh are not i n thÕ
piáturÕs?
Studyi ng the sampl Õ
Understanding tho taeK
:. Âiák (/) the points in thÕ list thÐt
might ÐppÕar in a writtÕn
desáription.
Þ pÕrsonaI fÕÕ|i ngs Ðnd Õmoti ons
. fÐáts Ðnd figurÕs
. exp|anÐti ons of who, whÐt,
whÕn, whÕrÕ Ðnd why
a
a
i nforma |, áonvÕrsÐti onÐ |-tãpÕ
|Ð nguagÕ, Õ.g. áontraáti ons
stori Õs or nÐrrÐti vÕ
piátu rÕs, drÐwings andl or
di ÐgrÐms
have a better idea of what British tifÕ is tike today.
z Many peopl e thi nk o³ Bri tai n and i mmedi atety thi nk of London. Bi g
Ben i s an Õxampl e of a áharaáteri sti á i mage of London. Âhi s i s
beáause i t i s part of the HousÕs of Parl i aÙ"n., *r.''.Ù ,,.;;;.
tradi ti on as wÕ[l as todayÊ government. other touri st i magÕs don,t
symbol i se the whote áountry i n thÕ same Way as Bi g BÕn. ¼any
peopl e thi nk of a Bri ti sh man wÕari ng a dark ,ui t uÙ .u,.;u;.; u,
umbrel l a' whi áh i s not very typi áat these days. HowevÕr, an umbrel l a
i s an i mportant i mage of Bri tai n bÕáausÕ i t says somethi ng about the
weather, whi áh peopl Õ tal k about al tthe ti me. other i mportant
i magÕs are food and dri nk. Tea i s a tradi ti onat i mage, but most young
peopl e now dri nk morÕ áoffee. Bri ti sh peopl e sti rr ;; . i". "i i on ,.'o
áhi ps, howÕVer, so thi s appears to be one of the best represÕntati ons
o³ tradi ti onat Bri ti sh food.
3 Âhere are many Bri ti sh musi ái ans and bands and Bri ti sh musi á i s
popul ar i n many parts of the worl d. ÂhÕ musi áÐl i nstruments gi ve an
i dÕa oi thÕ i nfl uenáÕ of musi á. Sport i s Ðl so an ,;.;;;;;êi eo wi tr,
Bri tai n beáausÕ so many sports ori gi nal l y áamÕ from there. A f,ootbal t
i s a better i mage than a ári ákÕt bÐt beáause everybody reáogni sÕs a
footba[[.
4 Fi nal l æ young peopl e have an i mportant part to pl ay i n Bri ti sh l i fÕ, Ðs
do pÕopte from many di fferÕnt ául tures. Images of young peopl e and
of a mul ti ául tural soái ety show how fÐsái nati ng Bri tai n i s todav.
j
uring Paregr.?ìá
4 *µÐd thÕ dèbtirru DÕáide whiáh paragrÐph, ,l-4,
foÞrsásom àÙ¿se{.
. \ áoußtrr of áuhurÕs
b British áulfurÕ todaã
á { morÕ ÐááUÓÐtÕ imprÕssion
d ÂypiáÐlIã British
ArÞidißg repetition
\Õt.Õr writÕ ÕxÐát|ã thÕ samÕ thing morÕ than onáÕ whÕn
\tru arÕ writing. TrytÞ use Ð variÕty of waãs of rÕpÕating
si mi l Ðr i dÕas.
5 lÞok Ðt thÕsÕ phrases from thÕ dÕsáription. ThÕy sÐy
sfußilar things about what the imagÕs mÕan but in
frffÕrÕnt ways. Whiáh imagÕ does eaáh phrÐse refÕr to?
1 ... stÐnd for . ..
2 ... don't symbol i sÕ .'.
3 ... i s not vÕrã typi áa| ...
{ ... sÐys somethi ng about ...
5 . . i s Ð trÐdi ti ÞnaI i magÕ ...
6 .-. thÕ bÕst rÕÞrÕsÕntati on of...
7 ... gi vÕ Ðn i dÕÐ of ...
8 ... hÐvÕ Ðn i mportant part to p|ay i n ...
! ... shÞw...
Stáps to hÕttÕr writing
Wri ti ng your desári pti on
9rainÞtorming
7 {),n ßgroups' preparÕ to dÕsign a poster Ðnd writÕ a
desáription of your áountry. Disáuss what imagÕs you
shouId ináIude and why. Use the diÐIoguÕ box to hÕIp
you.
Justifying opinions
A PÕrsonollã, I don,t think ããe should áhoose an imagÕ o{
a man wÕÐri ng a dark sui t and áarryi ng an umbrÕl |a.
B I agrÕe. LÕt,s not hove Ihal bÕáÐusÕ it's a bit o|d-
fÐshionÕd, isn't it?
Á ln mã opinion, we should inálude an imÐgÕ of the
HousÕs of PÐrliÐment beáouse ÕvÕrybody rÕáognisÕs
thÐt as an i magÕ Þf Bri tai n.
A I feel it ltlould be better to ináludÕ an imagÕ of how
young pÕop|Õ |ive. SurÕlã thÐt,s llthot students Want to
see?
B °bsoIutÕ|y. It,s reollã importÐntto inálude that kind
of imÐgÕ. ThÐt,s the kind of thing ãoung people áÐn
rÕlÐte to.
Planning
B DÕáidÕ:
. how tÞ introduáÕ your dÕsáription.
. whi áh ordÕr to put ãour dÕái si ons i n.
Æ|riting
9 UsÕ your notes to writÕ a desáription.
. Expand your notÕs into áomplÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs.
Þ UsÕ diffÕrent waãs of saying what you dÕáidÕd and whÐt
thÕ imagÕs rÕprÕsÕnt'
LhocYing
10 áhÕák that you have:
. used paragrÐphs to introduáÕ diffÕrÕnt idÕas.
. written thÕ right Ðmount (200-250 words).
¡×ßtÞnáÞ building
C áomplÕtÕ thÕ sentenáes with information for a
dÕsáription Þf your own áountry.
l [l Ðny pÕopl Õ thi nk of ... and i mmÕdi ateIy thi nk of ...
2 l wou|d áhoosÕ an i magÕ i n my áountrã |i kÕ ...
3 -.. stands for ...
4 ... dÞÕsn't/don't symbo|i sÕ thÕ who|Õ áountrã'
5 Ìl any pÕop|Õ thi nk of Ð .. ' man or WomÐn as ...
6 '.. i s a trÐdi ti ona| i magÕ of ...
7 \!Õ Õat a |ot of ..
8 PÕÞp|Õ i n mã áountry |i stÕn to ...
9 our nÐti onal sport i s...
l 0 i s a ... soái Õty.
(D
?roìon| porteá|. eimple and paìt simplo
1 Write thÕ pÐst simpIe and past partiáip|Õs of thÕ vÕrbs in
thÕ áorreát áol umn.
= bÕ u bÕgi n * bri ng * áomÕ * deái dÕ * fÐ|l = fi nd
= forgÕt * go ä know u lÕavÕ * prÞmisÕ * rÕmÕm bÕr
= sÕÕ s si ng * 516p * tÕaáh u thi nk " vi si t * wÐsh
= Wri tÕ
2 ÁompIÕtÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ past simplÕ or prÕsÕnt
pÕrfeát simpIÕ of onÕ of thÕ verbs from 1 abovÕ.
1 - you - thÕ HÐrd RÞák Áafñ whÕn you wÕrÕ
i n LÞndÞn?
2 oh no! | - mã ÁamÕrÐ at homÕ. I áÐn't tÐkÕ Ðny
photos.
YÞu IÞÞk tÐnnÕd. ãoU - ÐWay on hol i dÐy?
EthÐn - worri Õd abÞut hi s appÕaranáÕ for yÕÐrs,
but now hÕ's qui tÕ áÞnfi dÕnt.
| - i n pub|i á twi áÕ wi th mã áhoi r. I wÐs vÕrã
nÕrvoUs.
Ni ák - hi s wÐ||Õt i n thÕ ái nÕmÐ |Ðst wÕÕk.
you - BrÐd Pi tt's nÕw fi |m?
you - to phonÕ Susan |Ðst ni ght? | bÕt you
fÞrgot!
ÁompletÕ thÕ dialoguÕs with thÕ most ÐppropriatÕ
adverb. lf morÕ thÐn onÕ answer is possib|Õ, writÕ both
possi bi l i ti es.
" Ðl rÕady * ÕvÕr * j ust Ò nÕVÕr * 51i || * }Õt
1 .½urry up, thÕ fi |m has stÐrtÕd.'
.HÐs Ðnãthi ng happÕnÕd -?,
2 .HÐvÕ ãoU - bÕÕn on Ð photo shoÞt?'
.No, |'vÕ bÕÕn on onÕ, but I wÕnt to Ð fÐshi Þn
show onáÕ.,
3 .HavÕ ãoU - seen MÐtriå RÕ!oÐdÕd?,
.No, I havÕn,t' I,vÕ - bookÕd tiákÕts for SÐturdÐã
ni ght.'
4 .HÐvÕ you fi ni shÕd surfi ng thÕ IntÕrnÕt -?,
.No, I havÕn't fi ni shÕd | - hÐvÕn't found
whÐt I was l oÞki ng for.,
Áomp|etÕ sÕntÕnáÕ Ð of ÕÐáh pÐir with thÕ áorrÕát form of
thÕ vÕrb. ÂhÕn áomp|ÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕ b so i t has thÕ sÐmÕ
mÕani ng Ðs sÕntÕnáÕ a.
1 a l t's ÐgÕs si náÕ | boughi; .ái l àÐi r of trÐi nÕrs. l:,.
b I hÒvpn't bÒuyht a ilÕ,.. i-. ",''.'f trÐinÕrs for ÐgÕ×
2 Ð |t,s a |ong ti mÕ si náÕ l... tÞ thÕ ái nÕma. .:
b WÕ - 1o thÕ ti rl Ó:'
3 a It.s ovÕr Ð ÃÕÐr si náÕ ³,r .,.
a hol rdai
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
It's hours si náÕ wÕ - ..
WÕ - anythl ng to ÕÐt ',
It's Ðbout two mÞnths si náÕ | -
|-ÐhÐi rául -
It,s nÕÐr|ã Ð fortni ght si náÕ SusÐl
. '-.Ðl - l -tÐtÕ
SusÐn-mÕ-,,,
Proìon| Porfoá| wihh when, if, ar unti!
5 UndÕrIi nÕ thÕ áorrÕát word to áompl ÕtÕ Õaáh sÕßtÕnáÕ.
1 WhÕn/Unti l you'vÕ fi ni shÕd pl aãi ng thÕ á.'^.]-., ]. .J.'.:
áanl hÐvÕago?
I'm not |Õndi ng you Ðny morÕ monÕy ãã|l ár ',,'. ,. -- ,Õ
pÐi d mÕ bÐák thÕ monÕã ãoU oWÕ mÕ.
|'m not goi ng anãwhÕre i f/unti l ãou,vÕ tÞ|d -.. ... ...,.h
l f/WhÕn you,vÕ Ð|rÕadã sÕÕn thÕ fi |m, wÕ ]l $¾ :... ::-
somÕthi ng Õl sÕ.
Until/WhÕn you,vÕ tÐkÕn thÕ phÞto, áouId t.ÞL, : .- ...
áÐmÕrÐ bÐák to mÕ?
l'|l ri ng Bob i f/unti l you,vÕ fi ni shÕd usi ng thÕ à[á Ó t
3
4
3
4
6
7
I
Ð
pÐst simpIe
rÕgular pÐst
partiáiplÕs
irrÕgular pÐst
partiáiplÕs
wÐì/wor* bcen
?áeìen|. ?orfoá| íimplÞ and áontinuous
6 RÕwritÕ thÕ sentÕnáÕs so thÕ mÕaning is thÕ samÕ.
,l It's Ðbout two months si náÕ | stÐrtÕd studyi ng
photogrÐphy.
I,vÕ bÕÕn Òtudãing phÒtogrÒpt×ã fÒr two monthí'
2 MÐndã bought that oásis ÁD ãÕstÕrdÐã * shÕ hÐsn t
stoppÕd p|Ðãi ng i t!
MÐndy hÐsn't...
3 WhÕn di d ãÞu buã thosÕ trÐi nÕrs?
How l ong...
4 ÂhÕ l ast ti me I sÐw mã grÐndparÕnts wÐs Ðt Áhri stßl Ðs.
I hÐvÕn,t ...
5 Ross hÐsn't sÕÕn RÐáhÕ| for Ð l ong ti mÕ.
It's bÕen ....
6 |t's hÞurs si náÕ | Ðrri vÕd Ðt thÕ áÐfñ Ðnd \4oni áÐ sti ||
hÐsn't arri vÕd.
I'vÕ bÕÕn wÐi ti ng ...
F
I
l!
Æ
Readi ng
7 ÚÕad thÕ tÕåt Ðnd matáh sÕntÕnáÕs a-d with
parÐgrÐphs 1_4.
ÂhÕ photographs áÐn illustrate
either an invÕntÕd story or a doáumentÐry' Âo
árÕate a photo-story thÕ first stÕà is to write thÕ
outlinÕ, a brief dÕsáription of your idÕÐs for thÕ
doáumentary, or the plot of your story.
An Õpiá talÕ with Ð áast of
thousands will bÕ vÕry ÕxpensivÕ to set up. A
simple story set in your own nÕighbourhood and
using a few friends áan bÕ vÕry effeátive.
If you arÕ pl anni ng to shoé
for example, a áraftsman at work, spend somÕ
time finding out what that pÕrson,s typiáa! day is
likÕ. AltÕrnatively, you might want to photograph
a variety of people, for ÕxamplÕ your friÕnds or
nÕighbours, in thÕir housÕs to show how different
thÕy are.
MakÕ sure thÐt you have somÕ
álose-up, dÕtÐilÕd shots and some broÐdÕr
piáturÕs to givÕ variÕty. Don't worry if you áan't
draw vÕry wÕll, you only neÕd an ideÐ of thÕ
áontÕnt of eaáh photograph. onáÕ you'vÕ donÕ
thÕ storyboard, you're reÐdy to tÐke thÕ piátures.
µinally' when thÕ piátures hÐvÕ bÕÕn dÕvÕloped,
stiák thÕm into your album, Ðnd writÕ your story.
Ð
b
FÞr a doáumÕntÐrã, do somÕ rÕseÐráh bÕforÕ ãoU stÐrt.
DÞn't makÕ the p|ot and sÕtti ng of your storã too
áÞmpIi áatÕd.
An i ntÕrÕsti ng prÞj Õát fÞr an ÐmÐtÕur photographÕr i s to
árÕÐtÕ thÕ ki nd of phÞtostori Õs that ÐrÕ pÞàul Ðr i n
mÐgÐzi nÕs.
NÕxt, p|Ðn your storãbÞÐrd, Ðnd skÕtáh thÕ piátures you
wi Il tÐkÕ.
Li steni ng
8 Q,., vouarÕ going to hÕar four spÕakÕrs tÐlking abÞut
imÐgÕ. DÕáidÕ whiáh speaker 1_4 ÕxprÕssÕs stÐtÕmÕnts
Ð_Õ. one stÐtÕmÕnt doÕs not fit any spÕakÕr
SpÕakÕr 1 ¿
SpÕÐkÕr 2 ¿
SÞÕÐkÕr · ¿
SÞÕÐkÕr 4 ¿
A fri Õnd's pÕrsÞnÐ|i ty i s morÕ i mportant than thÕi r
appÕÐra náÕ.
0n|y attrÐáti vÕ pÕop|Õ áÐn mÐkÕ fri Õnds.
|f yÞu hÐven't got quÐ|ifiáÐtions you won,t gÕt Ð jÞb
A good pÕrsona|i ty áÐn hÕl p gÕt you Ð j ob.
AppÕaranáÕ i s mÞrÕ i mportÐnt than exÐm rÕsuIts.
Wri ti ng
9 writÕ a short Ðrtiále about attitudÕs to appÕaranáÕ in
your áountry. UsÕ thÕ folIowing plan to make notes:
Introduáti Þn:
WhÞt imÐgÕs do mÐgÐzinÕs Ðnd ÐdvÕrtismÕnts portrÐã?
WhÐt Ãour f ri Õnds thi nk
3 Your pÕrsonaI opi ni on
Â'
?
:i
=
:,'!1
:aj
i,i
b
á
d
e
4 Áoná|usi Þn
Ä
Varbs Ðnd propositions
1 (ompletÕ sentÕnáes 1_5 with onÕ of thesÕ vÕrbs and a
suitÐbIÕ preposition.
Ä attraát Ä áreatÕ * ÕvoIvÕ " protÕát * providÕ
,I WÕ arÕ plÕased to bÕ ab|Õ to - ãou - |ight
rÕfrÕshmÕnts aftÕr thÕ mÕÕting.
2 What first - ãoU - this part of thÕ áountry?
3 Âhi s unusuÐl outfi t wÐs a we|l -knÞwn
fashi on housÕ.
4 P|ÕÐsÕ wÕÐr thÕsÕ dÐrk g|assÕs to - yoursÕlf
thÕ sun's rÐys.
5 ÂhÕã saã thÐt human bÕi ngs - ÐpÕ-|i ke
árÕÐTu rÕs.
2 Matáh thÕ sÕntÕnáe bÕginnings 1-4 to the prepositions
bÕIow. ThÕn áomplÕte thÕ sÕntÕnáes with Õndings a_d.
Ä Ðgai nst * by * to * wi th
ÂhÕ pÕrfumÕ ák one was árÕatÕd
ÂhÕ Ðudi ÕnáÕ wÕrÕ orovi dÕd
|\4any peop|Õ ÐrÕ ÐttrÐátÕd
ÂhÕ dÕsi gnÕr dÕfÕnded hi msÕ|f
a thÕ g|amorous i mÐgÕ Þf the fi Im i ndustry.
b áritiáism that his álothÕs WÕrÕ too ÕxpÕnsivÕ.
á thÕ dÕsi gnÕr Áa|vi n Kl Õi n.
d Ð programmÕ of thÕ fÐshi on show.
NagativÞ Pr9fix95
3 ÁompIete thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with the negÐtivÕ form of thÕse
adjÕátivÕs. UsÕ thÕ prÕfixÕs un-, in-, im., ir-, dis- or il-.
Þ ÐttrÐátive * áIÕar s ÕXpÕnsivÕ * |ÕgaI
* mature * organi sÕd * possi bl Õ 8 responsi bl Õ
1 ThÕ photograph was bl urrÕd and -. We áoul dn't
sÕÕ who wÐs i n i t.
2 |t's - to bÕáÞmÕ a supÕrmodÕI un|Õss you'rÕ VÕrÃ
good Iooki ng.
3 l don't spÕnd l ots of monÕã on á|othÕs. l usual |ã buã
thi ngs whi áh ÐrÕ -
4 l t i s Very - tÞ |ÕavÕ thÕ áhi |dren wi tnout
supÕrvi si on neÐr thÕ pool.
5 ThÕ young man had Ð rÐthÕr sáÐr on hi s áhÕÕk.
6 ÂhÕ áonáÕrt wÐs áÞmp|ÕtÕ|y -. Nobody knÕw
where to buã tiákÕts for it.
7 SomÕ mode|s arÕ too to rÕa|i sÕ thÕ ri sks
assoái ÐtÕd wi th worki ng i n thÕ fÐshi on i ndustrã.
8 l n µng|Ðnd i t's - tÞ dri vÕ a áar i I ãou,rÕ undÕr 17.
ÆJord bui l di ng
4 ÁÞmp|ÕtÕ thÕ tÕxt With the áorrÕát form of thÕ words in
braákÕts.
ImÐgÕ i s i mpÞrtÐnt i n most profÕssi ons, but somÕ j obs put
nl ÞrÕ Õßl àhÐsi s on 1- (ÐppÕaä thÐn ÞthÕrs. Nobodã
knoi rs âhi s morÕ thÐn Jodi Õ KÕ||Õr, makÕ-up arIi sIfor VoguÕ
magÐzi nÕ,
.l\4ã wÞrk i nt,Þ|t Õs áot,Õri ng up ti nã 2- (i mperfÕát) Ðs
wÕIl as áÞmpl ÕtÕi r,' transfÞrmi ng fÐáÕs,, eåp|Ði ns Jodi Õ. .For
me thÕ ·- i ÐttrÐát of thÕ j ob i s i ts áonstÐnt 4-
(vÐrã) - ÕÐáh photÞ shÞÞt prÕsÕnts Ð nÕW áhÐ|l ÕngÕ. |t áan
bÕ demÐndi ng Ðt ti mÕs, but thÕ stãl i sts ÐrÕ vÕrã 5-
(hÕ|p)and thÕ modÕIs usuÐ|l ã pÐti Õnt. ÂhÕ wÞrk I do i s vÕrã
6- (árÕÐtÕ) Ðnd |'vÕ mÐde up 7 - (áount) fÐáÕs. °||
i n ÐIl i t's Ð 8- (wondÕr) áarÕÕrl
5 (omplÕte the sentÕnáÕs with the áorrÕát form of the
words in brÐákets.
1 | hÐd to tÐkÕ a |Þt of (photograph) Õqui pmÕnt
wi th mÕ to thÕ fÐshi Þn shoÞt.
2 NÐdi Ð was on|y ] 5 whÕn shÕ got hÕr fi rst modÕ|l i ng
(áontrÐát).
· JÕnna got Ð l ot of - (sÐti sfy)from hÕr work as Ðn
Ð ráh itÕát.
4 WhÐt wÐs SÕÐn's (reÐát) to thÕ good nÕws?
5 ÂhÕ modÕ||i ng (Ðssi gn) wÐs fÞr thrÕÕ daãs on a
bÕÐáh i n thÕ ÁÐri bbean.
6 ÂhÕ fi|m wÐs Ð hugÕ (áommÕráÕ) suááÕss. |t
brokÕ ÐlI box-offiáÕ rÕáords.
PhrÐsal verb6
6 CompIÕtÕ sentenáÕs '1-7 with thÕ áorrÕát form of these
phrasal verbs.
* Á?l.³Ã Þn " drop out of * fa|| behi nd wi th u fÐ|| ovÕr
e $o on about * go out wi th * l i vÕ up to
1 JÕssi áa dÕái dÕd áo||ÕgÕ Ðnd trÐveI round thÕ
wor|d fÞr Ð yÕÐr.
2 ÂhÕ nÕWspÐpers áIÐi mÕd thÐt thÕ supÕrmodÕ| - a
famous Ðátor.
3 ThÕ ath|Õte fÐi |Õd - hi s rÕoutÐti on Ðs thÕ worId,s
bÕst spri ntÕr.
4 °mã di dn't Õnj oy thÕ i áÕ-skati ng tri p. ShÕ - thrÕÕ
ti mÕs.
5 MÐtt i s ÞbsÕssÕd wi th hi s nÕw motorbi kÕ. HÕ áÐn
i t for hours.
6 GrÕg worki ng unti | mi dni ght. He hÐd an ÕXÐm
thÕ next dÐã.
7 tå°ark tÞok on too many pÐrt-timÕ jobs tÞ pÐy for his
áo||ÕgÕ trai ni ng and soon hi s studi Õs Ðs a rÕsu|t.
1
2
3
4
Ä
Ö¶&ffiffi%
#ff ᦦt,&tr*
° briÕf history
ThÕ troubl Õd hi story Þf ]rÕl and bÕgÐn wi th thÕ Bri ti sh i nvÐsi on
i n thÕ twÕl fth áentury. The µngl i sh bÕáÐmÕ morÕ pÞwÕrful Ðnd
i nfl uÕnti Ðl i n thÕ áountry, Ðnd Ð l ong hi story of áoÛf]i át
Õnsued. ]n thÕ fi fteÕnth áÕntury, whÕn ½ÕÛry VIJJ brokÕ Ðway
from thÕ PopÕ Ðnd ÁÐthol i ái sm, hÕ took áontrol Þf áhuráh
prÞpÕrty i n ]rÕ]Ðnd. Rel Ðti onshi ps bÕtwÕÕn CÐthol i ás Ðnd
ProtÕstÐnts i n ]rel Ðnd bÕáÐmÕ di ffi ául t Ðnd rÕmÐi nÕd sÞ, wi th
Catho]i ás deni ed thÕ ri ghts thÐt PrÞtÕstÐnts en;oyed. l ri sh
ÁÐtho]i ás supportÕd Ðny ÐttÕmpts to rÕ-ÕstÐbl i sh Ð ÁÐthol i á ki ng
Look at thÕ mÐp of IrÕIand Ðnd answÕr thÕ questi ons.
1 WhÐt i mÐgÕs of l rÕl and sUrround i t?
2 How sUÁáÕsSfU| ÐrÕ thÕ i mÐgÕs i n tÕ|l i ng pÕop|Õ what
kl nd of áountrã i t i s?
RÕad thÕ two tÕxts about thÕ RepubIiá of lre|Ðnd and
answÕr thÕ quÕstions.
ÂÕxt ]
1 WhÕn di d Bri ti sh ruIe bÕgi n i n l rÕl and?
2 What pÐrt di d HÕnrã V||| pl Ðy i n thÕ Ang|o-|Ói sh áonfl i át?
3 WhÕn di d IrÕ|Ðnd bÕáomÕ knÞwn Ðs thÕ RÕpubIi á of
IrÕ|Ð nd?
IÕxt 2
1 WhÞ has hÕ|pÕd to áhÐnge thÕ i mÐgÕ of IrÕ|Ðnd
i ntÕrnati ona ||y?
2 Who i s now bÕgi nni ng to di sáovÕr IrÕIand?
3 What ki nd of ái ty i s ßub|i nz
4 WhÕrÕ Áan ãoU fi nd thÕ IrÕ|Ðnd you sÕe i n fi Ims?
on thÕ throne of µngl Ðnd. °l I thÕsÕ ÕvÕnts l Õd to áonfl i áts
bÕtwÕÕn ÁÐthol i ás Ðnd ProtÕstÐnts _ Ð si tuÐti on whi áh hÐs
áonti nuÕd up tÞ thÕ àresent day i n NortherÛ ]rÕl Ðnd.
]n l 92l, ]rel Ðnd wÐs di vi dÕd ,i Ûto two pÐrts Ðnd NorthÕrn
]rÕl Ðnd rÕmÐi nÕd pÐrt of thÕ Uni tÕd ºi ngdom, whi l Õ thÕ rÕst o{
thÕ i sl Ðnd ÌÕáÐmÕ thÕ fi rst ]ri sh FreÕ StÐtÕ, l ÐtÕr µi rÕ (i n l 937)'
Ðnd fi nÐl l y thÕ RÕpubl i á of ]rel Ðnd i n l 949.
° wÕláÞming imagÕ
]rÕl Ðnd i s no l ÞngÕr thÕ poorÕst áountry i n µuropÕ. Today i t,s
áool to bÕ ]ri sh Ðnd, thÐnks to ThÕ Áorrs, BÞyzonÕ,.\y'Õstl i fÕ
aÛd |J2, i mÐgÕs of ]rÕl Ðnd ÐrÕ »oW wÕl l known i n popul Ðr
ául turÕ Ðáross thÕ gl obÕ. TodÐy,s ]rÕ]Ðnd i s Ð mÞdÕrn,
progrÕssi vÕ µuropÕÐn nÐti oÛ whÞsÕ Õáonomy i s boomi ng. But
i t i s not oni y l ri sh Õyás thÐt ÐrÕ smi l i ng Ðs morÕ Ðnd more
touri sts di sáovÕr ]rel Ðnd for thÕmsÕ]vÕs.
Dubl i n i s undÞubtÕdl y the spi ri tual Ðnd ául tural hÕÐrt of thÕ
µmÕrÐl d ]sl Õ. ThÕ ái ty i s ri áh i n hi stÞry, frÞm thÕ dÐys whÕn
ÁÕl ti á tri bÕs wÐÛderÕd the pÕÐt bogs tÞ thÕ prÕsÕnt-day trendy
bÐrs Ðnd ni ght ál ubs' µ]sÕwhÕrÕ, the ái ti Õs of ÁÞrk, GÐl wÐy Ðnd
Li mÕri ák boÐst thÕi r own áhÐrms. Bæt i t i s out i n thÕ rol l i ng
áÞuntrysi dÕ thÐt you áÐn fi nd thÕ i dyl l i á ]rÕl Ðnd of the movi Õs.
TÐl ki ng about your áountry
AnswÕr thÕsÕ quÕstions Ðbout ãour áountrã.
1 How doÕs thÕ hi story of thÕ RepubIi á of IrÕl and
áompare wi th thÐt Þf your own áountry?
2 WhÐt ki nds of thi ngs ÐffÕát thÕ Õáonomi á si tuati on
whÕrÕ you Ii vÕ?
3 How mÐny bi g ái ti Õs arÕ thÕrÕ i n your áoUntrã?
4 WhÐt i mÐgÕ do ãou thi nk pÕÞp|Õ i n thÕ rÕst of thÕ
worId hÐve of your áountry?
5 WhÐt touri st ÐttrÐáti ons woul d ãoU rÕáommÕnd to Ð
vi si tor to ãour áÞuntry?
Ä
arÐppitâess
Di sáuss thÕsÕ o uÕsti ons.
. Áan wÕ rÕÐl |v |ÕÐrn to bÕ hÐppy? Why/Why nÞt?
Þ WhÐt ki nds Þf thi ngs mÐkÕ you fÕÕl hÐppy?
RÕad and áomp|ÕtÕ the quÕsti onnÐi rÕ on happi nÕss. Âhen say
whÐt you think thÕ sáores show about your attitudÕ to IifÕ.
° group of °mÕri áan psyáhi atri sts l íÕ|i evÕs that happi nÕss áan be |ÕarnÕd, praáti sed
and appl i Õd to any si tuati on. Ci vÕ yoursÕIf a sáore/ on a sáal e of 1.1 0, for Õaáh
ÞuÕsti on.
°s you go through thÕ day, do you aáti veIy ai m to be as happy as possi bl Õ?
Do you takÕ rÕsponsi bi Ii tã for your Ii fÕ?
Do you makÕ a poi nt of doi ng onÕ thi ng whi áh makÕs you happy eaáh day?
Do you work through prol í|ems and gai n know|edgÕ from thÕm?
Do you gi ve wi thout wanti ng anythi n8 i n rÕturn?
°rÕ ãou honÕst wi th voursÕIf and othÕrs?
,µ'..y ."-"g l promi sÕ mysÕl f l,m gÞi ng. 11:i 91"^:
d"".i. jo"'n,..'u..er i f my f|ÐtmatÕ hÐs usÕd al l thÕ hot
*ut"r., *u trai n i s áanáÕl IÕd, or l havÕ a probl em at WorK.
Ù;;.";"; happÕns, happÕns. I just l Õt the negati ve thi ngs
*o unÐ .Ó'i nÚ of the thi ngs thÐt mÐke mÕ fÕÕl good, l i kÕ the
Ùuu .v fl ÐtmatÕ áÐn ÐIwÐys mÐkÕ mÕ l ÐUgn.
ÂhÕ i ntÕnti on to LtÕ
áan havÕ' Wi thout
bad thi ngs i n l i fÕ.
happy i s thÕ most powÕrfu| tool you
i t, i i,s Êasã to bÕ ovÕrwhel mÕd by the
iiÂlÂi¡":f , :li# jÙ;âë";;s*ft ffi J
il:,#;ã.Â.:ff o*'P,J: l,. i ;Ù;:' ;; ;h at l th o u ght
gor oursÕlves "Ù."',-Êl; tvÕryonÕ áÐimÕd down Ðnd we
@
lt,s important to hÐve áontrol over your own lifÕ, rather
*1 ï"Â:¡,J#: Â J:"; ."ffi :;:ã,è.ll";"xi],j,.,
Readi ng
r
/ MÐtáhi ng
.J ÂhÕ words i n thÕ quÕsti ÞnS mÐã not bÕ thÕ sÐmÕ Ðs thosÕ
i n thÕ tÕxt. RÕÐd ÕÐáh pÐragrÐph áÐrÕfu||ã Ðnd undÕrIi nÕ
thÕ i nformÐti on thÐt gi vÕs ãÞu thÕ áorrÕát пSWÕr.
· Read thÕ texts and answÕr thÕ quÕstions'
Whi áh pÕrsÞn i n thÕ áÐsÕ studi Õs.
1 áou|dn't ÁompÕte wi th somÕÞnÕ thÕã l ÞvÕd?
2 dÕái dÕd to Ðdopt Ð morÕ adu|t approÐáh to thi ngs?
3 di dn't Want to fÐáÕ up to thÕ truth?
4 rÕfusÕd tÞ tÐkÕ pÐrt i n somÕthi ng?
5 nÕvÕr had a si ng|Õ frÕÕ momÕnt?
6 i s not botherÕd by thÕ di ffi áuIti Õs Þf ÕvÕrãdÐy Ii fÕ?
Whi áh Ðáti on p|Ðn suggÕsts thÐt you:
7 shoul dn't put thÕ b|ÐmÕ on othÕr pÕopl e?
B shouId áhÐngÕ Ð di ffi áu|t si tuÐti on i nto one thÐt tÕaáhÕs
ãou somÕthi ng?
9 shoul d mÐkÕ a dÕái si on not to bÕ ÐffÕátÕd bã the
nÕgÐti vÕ si dÕ of l i fÕ?
10 shoul d bÕ gÕnÕrous but not ÕxpÕát any rÕward?
11 shÞuId be Ðb|Õ to admi t how you fÕÕ|?
,l 2 shoul dn't put Þff doi ng thi ngs you want to do?
Ä
l -. ..:i I l ovÕ work, Iast àar l fÕl t.... i i l i ras drowni ng. l
. - -i *"ntty rushi ng around ßl Ðk;rs surÕ 'ÕvÕrãthi ng ran
-. .-l,,. ÂhÕn l startÕd trai ni ng i Þr Ð nl arathon, and l
. .+c ho''v muáh l nÕÕáj Õál sÞßl Õ .i ßl Õ to mãsel f. l dÕái dÕd
- í ál Õfi ni tel y keÕp runnl n:'. l t çi r'Õs mÕ a áhanáÕ to
. ::Õ Ðnd thi nk al íout mr,sÕl; i Þ: a áhÐnge.,
thÕr, do thi ngs they Õnjoy. ÂhÕã
\Õi thÕr shoul d you.
Voáa bu l ary
µxprosíing feet.ingì
4 l n pai rs, di sáuss thÕ mÕani ngs of thÕ phrÐsÕs i n i tÐ|i ás.
ÂhÕn áomplÕtÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs using your own words.
1 PÕop|Õ arÕ somÕtimÕs not honÕst with thÕmselvÕs Ðbout ...
2 PÕoo|Õ ofIen rÕsÕnt thÕ fÐát thÐt ...
3 It dÞÕsn't mattÕr to mÕ / bothÕr mÕ if
4 I somÕtim es losÕ mã tÕmpÕr whÕn ...
5 | never fÕÕl overwhÕlmÕd bã ...
6 I am somÕtimÕs horrifiÕd bã .'.
Æ|ords that go togethar
5 ÚÕad the tÕxts and áomp|ÕtÕ the phrasÕs with a suitÐble
vÕrb.
l to
2Io
3to
4to
5to
6to
7Io
8to
any _ our own
i f wÕ ÐrÕ áÐrÕfuI not to mÐkÕ Ðnã
i
.i
rj
i:!
.l
.F
- .::..' pÕopl e makÕ surÕ
. rrÐi t for neåt rÕÐr.
:.₠'r₠³ had a grÕat rÕl Ðti onshi p wi th my mother, so l was
.' . =d l r,hen shÕ movÕd i nto my f|at for a whi |Õ. WÕ startÕd
.- -. i mmÕdi atÕIy. ÂhÕn l real i sed l was l íehavi ns |i kÕ a
s] \\,e sat down and tal kÕd about thÕ past fori hu fi,,t
.. : l ot of Õmoti ona| thi ngs wÕre sai d but i t real l y á|ÕarÕd
: .. \Þrv We áan get al ong.,
mÕ |augn
Ð áonsái ous dÕái si on
áontroI oVÕr
dÕfÕnsi vÕ
smoothl ã
thÕ Ðl r
wrong
-.s go Wrong/ you áan turn thÕ probl Õm i nto an
_-l;tr'. µven sÕri ous probl Õms áÐn l íÕ turnÕd i nto
.. .q mÕani ngfuI i f you arÕ prÕpared to l Õarn from thÕm.
p rÕssu risÕd
6 Now áomp|Õte sÕntÕnáÕs 1_7 with thÕ áorreát form of thÕ
phrases in 5 abovÕ.
1 PÕopl Õ oftÕn whÕn thÕã ÐrÕ ÐskÕd to 1usti fy thÕi r
Ðátl ons.
2 DÐvi d |ast wÕÕk to work hÐrdÕr and pÐss hi s
ÕXa ms.
Do you real |ã thi nk wÕ
dÕstl nã?
µvÕrãthi ng wi l |-
mistÐ kÕs.
)
6
Don't worrã! |f thi ngs I,|l bÕ thÕrÕ to hÕ|p you.
Pl ÕÐsÕ don,t Ð|l thÕ work you havÕ to do. Just do
i t whÕn you fÕÕI ãou hÐvÕ thÕ ti mÕ!
PÐt Ðnd j i m hÐd an ÐrgumÕnt Ðt work but ÐgrÕÕd to havÕ
Ð dri nk togÕthÕr i ust to -'
ÁhoosÕ onÕ of thÕ statÕments bÕIow and say why you
ÐgrÕÕ/disagrÕÕ with it.
. |\4oneã áÐn'l buã hÐppi nÕss.
. HÐppi nÕss i s no IÐughi ng mÐttÕr.
. ÂhÕ hÐppi nÕss of soái Õtã i s thÕ Õnd of govÕrnmÕnt'
- ..si started goi ng out wi th my gi rl fri end, WÕ WÕre
. :., ' ng prÕsents for eaáh othÕr. Âhe prob|em was that
. . -...,.Ì morÕ money than me so her prÕsÕnts WÕrÕ
. .=. l l Õl t prÕssuri sÕd to buy somÕthi ng'o{ equal val uÕ
. ]:] Lj l ] rÕal Iã rÕsÕnti ng i t. µvÕntua||y, l Jost my tÕmpÕr
. -Õr that i i had to si op. We sti l l eåáhangÕ gi fts but
... '. l ßr mÞre |i kÕl ã to spoi | hÕr wi th a home-áookÕd
@
. :i r,Õ to othÕrs, do you al ways e-xpeát somÕthi ng i n
- . Þl.l gi vÕ Þpenl y, honÕst|y and from the heart, ãou
. .- l i kÕl y to bÕ happy.
. nÐàp\/ i n a rÕl ati onshi p wi th a gi rl fri end ÆaáJ had
. . ^< t]mÕ. l kÕpt tÕ|l i ng mysel f thi ng:s woul d i mprove -
. Ðs shÕ got Ð bÕtter job, or *Ê ,p"nt morÕ ti me
' -. .j::I-Te a,l ong ti mÕ to tíÕ honÕst wi th mysÕl f
--, -ÕÕl l n85 tor her. l,d prÕtendÕd that wÕ werÕ thÕ
- ' .- 'Di Õ f:' j 9o l ong. BrÕaki ng Up Was real Ly hard but
.. . -l'gÕ rÕIi Õf.,
. .=i l r,i th ),oursÕl f i s a vi tÐl step on the road to
.... f.ÕtÕndi n8 you arÕ happy when you,." not onl y
: '-.l ]Õßrs.
₠Ð
GÕrunds and i nfi ni ti ves
lQuiál<quiz
1 RÕad sÕntÕnáÕs 1-3 and dÕáidÕ if thÕ gÕrund in itÐliás:
a i s the subj eát of thÕ sentÕnáÕ.
b is thÕ objÕát of Ð sÕntÕnáÕ.
á áomÕs ÐftÕr a prÕposition.
,l |'m quitÕ gÞod Ðt running.
2 Running is vÕry good ÕxÕráisÕ.
3 l Õnjoy running.
2 ÁorrÕát the mistakÕs in these sÕntÕnáÕs. onÕ sÕntenáÕ
is áorrÕát.
1 Did you enjoã to go to thÕ áinÕmÐ lÐst night?
2 |\/ã fÐthÕr is trying to givÕ up to smokÕ.
3 I'm |Þoking forward to going on ho|idÐy to thÕ StÐtÕs.
4 HÐvÕ you finishÕd to ÕÐt your dinnÕr?
Do you Õnjoy going to sáhooI? DÕsáribÕ whÐt ãou áonsidÕr
to bÕ Ð typiáal good or bad day at sáhooI.
¾q|z,l You arÕ going to hear somÕonÕ talking about
what is happening in somÕ sáhooIs nowadays. ListÕn and
áompIÕtÕ the notÕs.
oÓigin o{ the idoa oi iniroduáing
l into \Þsìonì
èa1 ot 2
ìuÓpÓisod to 7
,L
ii 5tud9nt5 áÐn .
áhaÞáeì oI 5
aro groaler,
hÞloì U áonáantÓÐtion,
holpì botteÓ, -
Vírbs folloued b1 gírunds or infinilivea
5 Put the verbs in the áorreát áoIumn, aááording to whÕther
thÕy are foIlowed by Ð gÕrund or Ðn infinitive.
Ðfford ' ÐgrÕÕ arrÐngÕ Ðvoid áÐn't stÐnd áonsidÕr
dÕái dÕ . dÕny Õnj oy fÐnáy fi ni sh gi vÕ up hÕIp
hopÕ i mÐgi nÕ manÐgÕ . (don,t) mi nd mi ss
prÐátisÕ promisÕ put Þff rÕfusÕ risk want
ÆnitÞd ttates:
µffocl o| thií on lcíìonÞ:
?oaá|ionì of visilorÒ:
/.onáluaion:
Áomplete sentÕnáÕs 1_6 With the áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb
in braákets.
1 We áan,t Ðfford - a nÕw ÂV. (buy)
2 | don't mi nd - grÐmmÐr but I somÕti mÕs fi nd i t
diffiáu|t. (study)
3 DÞ you fanáy - out tonight? (go)
4 ThÕ tÕaáhÕr rÕfusÕd us whÕn thÕ tÕst was. (tÕl|)
5 My brothÕr hÐs gi vÕn Up - (smokÕ).
6 |\4Ðrtin arrÐngÕd to a biáyá|Õ. (bÞrrow)
Gerun°ì af|or prepositions
7 ÁompIÕte thÕ sÕntenáes in your own words using one of
thesÕ prepositions Ðnd a gerund.
',, in ,, of i, on ,i to . with
.I Nobody i n my fÐmi |ã i s i ntÕrÕstÕd ...
2 I'm ti rÕd ...
3 Áhi IdrÕn gÕt borÕd...
4 Marã i s fÕd up ...
5 N4ã fri Õnds Ðnd | ÐrÕ vÕry kÕÕn ...
6 We ÐrÕ a|| |oÞki ng forwÐrd ...
7 |f you work hard, l'm surÕ ãou,|I suááÕÕd ...
8 WÕ áou|d rÕnt a vi dÕo i nstÕad ...
Ì áhango in meaning
8 some verbs áhange in mÕÐning when folIowed by Ð
gerund or an infinitive. Look Ðt thÕ exampIÕs and answer
the questions.
rÕmÕmbÕr
Whi áh of thÕ sÕntenáÕs bÕ|ow mÕans:
a ãoU remÕmbÕr somethi ng hÐppÕni ng?
b you di dn't forgÕt to do somÕthi ng you p|annÕd to do?
I ramamber phoning MÐriÐ.
l ramombered Io phone MÐriÐ.
nÕed
Whi áh of thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs bÕ|ow mÕans:
a i t i s nÕáÕssÐry that somÕthi ng i s donÕ?
b it is nÕáÕssÐrã for mÕ to do something?
I need to ìoo tho doátor.
¼ã hÐir needs áutting.
rÕgrÕr
Whi áh of thÕ sÕntÕnáes bÕ|ow mÕans:
a l'm sorrà Ðbout whÐt l di d?
b |'m sorry Ðbout whÐt | Ðm goi ng to tÕ|| yÞu?
I regrot to sÐã thÐt l hÐvan,t done tho worK.
l regrat eplitting uP with mã boãfriond.
UÃ
Whi áh of thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs bÕ|ow mÕans:
a l triÕd to do somÕthing diffiáu|t but was unsuááÕssfuI?
b I attÕmptÕd to do sÞmÕthing to sÕÕ whÐt wou|d hÐppÕn?
l triod to opan lha window but it wÐÒ stuáK.
lt wÐs ío hot in the room. I tried oponing tha
window but it didn't help.
Verbs ÐIwÐys folIowÕd
by Ð gÕrund
Verbs aIwÐys foIlowÕd
by Ðn infinitivÕ
Ä
i - ".-r,:i :! .l ti ni ti vas
-: - -5'¡ rfi ßi ti r.Õs:
.: l .. . - t]l Inl Õ¿tl on 0r pu rposÕ-
^. : í i ou buã thÐt di áti onÐrã?
-i .l;;. ne wi th mã µngl i sh.
'. : :, -,]s. O¿ Word i n Ðn i ndi rÕát questi on:
":: :nÞu|d l sÐã?' 'Tel l me whÐt taÒd!'.
"; : .:l Þf Ð vÕrb.
... :" ìh1t to do.,
.: * à ÕtÕ thÕse sentÕnáÕs usi ng Ðn i nfi ni ti vÕ Ðnd any
.":.r nÕáÕssÐrã words. You may need to áhÐngÕ thÕ
' :'j s i n the sÕntenáe.
µl Ðßpl Õ
'.ri: ádn I buã Ð r*di o?,
i':' ' doeín,t Know whÞre to buã Ð rÐdi o.
'rÐl I I Ðsk for whÕn I tÕ|ÕphonÕ?'
Ðl ts to know
l ng tÞ l tÐ|y nÕÅt summÕr.'
.Ðs dÕái dÕd
íi Ðv áhÕss.'
.Ðs |ÕÐrnÕ0
"l sÕd tÞ bÕ Ðb|Õ to áount i n JapanÕsÕ.'
.Ðn.t rÕmÕmbÕr -
s thÕ way you sÕnd an ÕmÐi l.'
'., Õd PÕtÕr
.t shou|d I gÞ for hÕ|p?,
t knÞw
l nsomÕAmÕri áansáhool s,l aughtÕri sbÕi ngtakensÕri ousl y
as a mÕáhanism for inárÕasing motivation and 1 -
bÕttÕr studÕnt / tÕaáhÕr relationships. Sáhools are using
Iaughter 2 ,==-thÕ results of thÕir students. ThÕ
findings of rÕáÕnt rÕsearáh into how studÕnts lÕarn has
helpÕd × -Õduáation Õxperts that humour is a good
thi ng.
Aááording to Dr 5Ðm Barnes, a leading Õduáation
ÕxpÕrt: .LaughtÕr lovÕs árowds, and árowds IovÕ laughter.
WhilÕ thÕ personal advÐntages of a ==--fun at sáhool
are obvious, the Õduáational bÕnÕfits havÕ not been
rÕáognisÕd. StudÕnts havÕ to work hÐrd a|l the timÕ and
5 -a studÕnt áan bÕ Õxtremel y tÕdi ous.
But now they look forward to 6 ---.----_-- to sáhool. Âhey
Õnioy 7 in an atmosphere Iike this and WÕ are
g"i.ing bÕtter rÕsults in Õxaminations.'
onthÕ othÕr hand, humour has to be handl ed
áarÕ{ully. What onÕ pÕrson sÕÕs a5 a !oke, anothÕr may find
of{ensive and Õmbarrassing. lt's not simply a question o{
8 -teáhniques from othÕr áountriÕs: idÕas havÕ to
bÕ adapted to fit àartiáuIar situations.
;ii
ti
"a
ii!
. .: : -.;Þn5 uìsd ui th g9Óund6
' .' :-:ss Þns wi th i r áÐn bÕ usÕd wi th gÕrunds.
;::ài 65
.. '. .' .ÕÕi tl g,
. ,',Þrrãing Ðbout thÕ ÕåÞm.
-: m à|ÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 1_5 wi th the áorrÕát form of onÕ of
..sÕ r Õrbs.
'. rÞmpl Ði n hÐvÕ tUrn wÐtáh
- . :- l.ntl Õss Þn thÕ tÕl Õvi si on. It i sn't worki ng.
. ; rl ui sÐnáÕ to áãá|Õ to sáhoo|' ÕspÕái Ð||ã whÕn
] "l ¿ |¿g.
: . ] L]5Õ mÕ for JÐkÕ,s phonÕ numbÕr. I'vÕ Iost
- ' :l drÕss book.
. . í gÞod i f nobodã i s goi ng to |i stÕn.
. . .., ÞÓth thÕ fi l m i f you Õnj oã sái ÕnáÕ fi áti on
LÕt's aátivate
LiKes and dlsliÚÞe
Thi nk about thrÕÕ thi ngs you Ii kÕ or l ovÕ doi ng and thrÕÕ
things you don't likÕ or hÐtÕ doing. Write Ð Iist of thesÕ
on a pi ÕáÕ of paper mi xi ng up your Ii kÕs Ðnd di sIi kÕs. l n
pairs, Õxáhange ãour lists and Ðsk quÕstions to find out
about your partnÕr's Iikes Ðnd disIikÕs.
ThÞ right vrord
ÁompIetÕ thÕ text using Ð gÕrund or an infinitivÕ form of
thÕ words bÕlow.
bÕ Áopã ÕnáouragÕ havÕ go improvÕ
pÕrsuÐdÕ studã
.:.......1:t'-..,.t1.,,.,,rtt"""'''.....,at":':".-. ...,,:::""""a1t ::::ttl:""'
*Ä&Äs*
!
DÕsáribe and namÕ the áitiÕs in the piáturÕs. Whiáh of
thÕsÕ áities wouId you like to visit? Whyz
Read thÕ stÐtÕmÕnts and deáidÕ whiáh áitv or áitiÕs ÕÐáh
onÕ dÕsáribÕs.
'l ThÕrÕ ÐrÕ oVÕr ]00 thÕatrÕs hÕrÕ.
2 ÂhÕ ái ty popuIati on i s morÕ than fi vÕ mi ||i on.
3 ThÕ ái ty |i es on thÕ bÐnks Þf Ð ri vÕr.
4 Âhi s i s Ð áapi tÐ| ái ty.
5 ThÕrÕ i s an i s|and i n thÕ mi dd|Õ of i ts ri vÕr.
6 l t i s nÕar somÕ famous bÐthi nï bÕÐáhÕs.
EåÐtlttÓÐ'.t,'-',gt
TruÕ or faIsÕ quÕsti ons
You may thi nk Ð StatÕmÕnt i s truÕ bÕáÐusÕ i t áontai ns
phrasÕs from thÕ tÕÅt. BUt, i f you l i stÕn áarÕful |y, ãoU mÐã
fi nd i t doÕs not hÐvÕ thÕ sÐmÕ mÕÐni nï as thÕ tÕxt.
4 áC6Jz.× You arÕ going to hÕÐr Tom TurnÕr, an AustrÐIian,
tal ki ng Ðbout hi s nÕw Ii fÕ i n Pari s. Fi rst' rÕad through
statÕmÕnts 1_6. ÂhÕn Iisten and deáidÕ whÕthÕr thÕ
statÕmÕnts ÐrÕ truÕ (T) or false (F).
1 ¿ Tom nÕÕdÕd spÕái Ð| trÐi ni ng to bÕ Ð pÕrfumÕr.
2 ¿ Âom bÕgan hi s nÕW áarÕÕr i n PÐri s.
· ¿ HÕ found thÕ IÐnguÐgÕ di ffi áu|t at fi rst.
4 ¿ HÕ prÕfÕrs tÞ tÕII pÕop|Õ hÕ,s Frenáh.
5 ¿ TÞm i s Ð non-smokÕr.
6 ¿ Âom's ÞriginÐ| Áontraát wÐs for Ð fixÕd timÕ.
5 In pai rs, tÐkÕ turns to ask and answÕr thesÕ quÕsti ons on
HÐdIÕy FrÕÕman and Tom ÂurnÕr. When you havÕ
finishÕd, áompÐrÕ your answÕrs to thosÕ of anothÕr pÐir.
Had|Õy FrÕÕman
'l WhÕn ãoU moVÕ tÞ ÐnothÕr áÞuntry, whÐt do you hÐvÕ to
gÕt usÕd to?
2 How di d Hadl eã try to bÕáomÕ morÕ l i kÕ thÕ µng|i sh?
3 How di d HadIÕy's si stÕr áopÕ wi th movi ng to ÐnothÕr
áou ntrã?
4 How dÞÕs HÐd|Õy fÕÕ| Ðbout hÕr i dÕnti ty now?
Âom ÂurnÕr
] How di d Âom gÕt hi s j ob i n PÐri s?
2 WhÐt wÐs Ii fÕ |i kÕ i n thÕ fi rst si x months hÕ spÕnt thÕrÕ?
3 WhÐt doÕs hÕ nÞt Ii kÕ so muáh Ðbout PÐri s?
4 Whã hÐs hÕ dÕái dÕd to stÐy thÕre?
Li steni ng
3 66.|z.z You ÐrÕ going to hÕar Had|Õy FrÕeman, Ðn
AmÕriáan, ta|king Ðbout moving from New York to
London. Listen Ðnd number áommÕnts a_Õ in thÕ ÞrdÕr
in whiáh you hÕar thÕm ,l_5.
Ð ¿ When l wÕnt to |i vÕ i n FrÐnáe, I bÕgan to hÐvÕ morÕ
áonfidÕnáÕ in mãsÕ|f.
b ¿ l áhose to study a subj Õát whi áh wou|d provÕ | wÐs
rÕÐ||y µngIi sh.
á ¿ You hÐvÕ to Ðááept thÐt peop|e find your áoUntry
Ð musi ng.
d ¿ | soon reÐ|i sÕd thÐt I wou|d havÕ to bÕ thÕ samÕ as
ÕVÕryonÕ e|sÕ.
Õ ¿ I found i t di ffi ául t to get ri d of mã °mÕri áan Ðááent.
.:
/ ordÕri ng i nformÐti on
J BÕforÕ yÞu Ii stÕn, rÕad through thÕ statÕmÕnts áarÕfuI|ã
so thÐt ãou know whÐt ki nd Þf i nformÐti on you arÕ
Ii stÕni ng for. RÕmÕmbÕr, thÕ words you hÕar mi ght bÕ
diffÕrÕnt from thosÕ in thÕ statÕmÕnts.
ä&
5pÕaki ng
6 ,53:. l n grÞups. di sátl ss qèÕsti Þns 1_5 bÕl ow. UsÕ thÕ
:. ÞEuÕ boå to hÕl p l Þl -l.
. *-.',...--., l....,... . ,--..Á i ÞurfÐmi IãwÕntto|i vÕ
- .;..i |l ¡. [.-.,-... . ., s..¿ ti mÕ/pÕrmÐnÕnt|y?
- .×. i\]'] [] ":., -- s-. !₠ .l Ðppyto l eÐvÕ bÕhi nd?Why?
: .×-. i rl.JD --.j Ð],.-IÐgÕs mi ghtãou hÐvÕ i n your nÕW
-- -.-i'rl
, .z.-j okÕs áÞ rÞu thi nk pÕop|Õ mi ght mÐkÕ Ðbout ãour
-.'i rr'? \\ hr?
1 - - i l ÕÞpl Õ i n ãour áountrã hÐvÕ stÕrÕotypi áaI i magÕs of
' .:r áÞuntri Õs? What ÐrÕ thÕy?
:t;l âÕssi ng two poi nts of vi ew
' , ×u thi nk ãÞu and ãour fÐmi |y wi || ÕVÕr go Ðnd Ii vÕ
- ;-othÕr áountrã?
. , on the onÕ hÐnd it might bÕ possib|Õ, but on thÕ
:thÕr hÐnd, i t's unIi kÕ|y. WhÐt about ãÞu?
a! áoursÕ, I'd like to think it might hÐppÕn, but l,m
\at surÕ f it ÕvÕr wi||. ThÕre's no doubt that it wouId
.. ..ÕrÕsti ng, buti t mi ght be qui tÕ di ffi áuIt, too.
* l .;ì-baìod disáusíion
] ;Óèss thÕsÕ questi ons.
. '. :. Ð rÕ thÕ pÕop|Õ i n thÕ pi átu rÕs doi ng?
- -:. i magÕs of g|obaIi sÐti on do theã show?
. - :. dÞ thÕ hÕÐdIi nÕs suggest to ãou?
] ... áÐn bÕ donÕ to he|p dÕvÕ|opi ng áountri Õs
- ' '.. ×dÐvs?
5 Soundbites --:=
0nÞ Viaion
8 d),' ListÕn to one Vision by QueÕn and áomplete
thÕ words.
0nÕ mÐn onÕ goa| onÕ mi ssi on,
0nÕ hÕÐrt onÕ souI j ust onÕ.
0nÕ fl ash of Ii ght yeÐh onÕ god onÕ vi si on.
¾nÕ flesh onÕ bonÕ, onÕ truÕ rÕligion,
¾nÕ voiáÕ onÕ hope, one álÕÐr dÕáision
Wowowowo gimmÕ onÕ vision.
No wrong no ri ght,
|'m gonna tÕ|| you thÕrÕ,s no bIaák Ðnd no whi tÕ,
No b|ood no stÐi n,
°|| wÕ nÕÕd i s onÕ ,
onÕ v|s|on
¾nÕ flÕsh onÕ bonÕ onÕ truÕ rÕligion,
¾nÕ rÐáÕ onÕ hopÕ onÕ álÕÐr dÕáision
Wowowowo ãÕÐh wo ãÕÞh wo ãÕÐh
I had Ð drÕam,
WhÕn I Was young,
° drÕam of swÕÕt i IIusi on,
° gl i mpsÕ of hopÕ Ðnd uni ty,
And vi si ons oI onÕ swÕÕl uni on,
Buta×-bl ows,
AndÐ,-fÐIl s,
And i n mã hÕÐrt i t shows,
Look whÐt thÕy,vÕ donÕ to my drÕam.
0nÕ vi si on so gi vÕ mÕ ãour hÐnds,
Gi vÕ mÕ your '- ,
ThÕrÕ's onl y onÕ di rÕáti on,
One worl d onÕ nÐti Þn, yÕÐh onÕ vi si on
NÞ hatÕ no fi ght, j ust Õxái tÐti on,
A|| through thÕ ni ght, |t's Ð u
Wowowowo yÕÐh
¾nÕ ftÕsh onÕ bonÕ onÕ truÕ rÕligion,
¾nÕ voiáÕ onÕ hopÕ onÕ áleÐr dÕáision
gimmÕ onÕ night gimme onÕ hÕÐrt
just gimmÕ gimmÕ gimme onÕ vision
9 AnswÕr thÕ questions.
1 WhÐt ki nd of vi si on i s thÕ group si ngi ng about?
2 WhÐt drÕÐm di d thÕ |ÕÐd si ngÕr havÕ whÕn hÕ
was ãoung?
3 WhÐt happÕnÕd to hi s drÕÐm?
4 How rÕÐl i sti á do you thi nk thi s vi si on of thÕ worl d
mi ght bÕ?
i;i
tu
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*: "CIVÕment i n
sµ. c a rd of l i vi ng
r -; to worl d trade
ChÕap food -
who pays?
ä
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'} Look Ðt thÕ pi áturÕs and ÐnswÕr the quÕsti ons.
1 WhÐt áÕ|ÕbrÐti ons ÐrÕ tÐki ng p|ÐáÕ?
2 How do pÕop|Õ ÁÕ|ÕbrÐtÕ thÕsÕ oááasi Þns i n ÃoUr
áou ntry?
3 l n Bri tÐi n, WhÕn two pÕÞp|Õ gÕt mÐrri Õd, thÕy ÞftÕn
áÕ|ÕbrÐtÕ bÕforÕ thÕ wÕddi ng wi th Ð .hÕn, (Ðl l gi rIs) or
.stÐg' (a|| boãs) pÐrtã. Is thi s áommÞn i n ãÞur áountry?
Stèdyi ng thÕ sampl e
UndÞrstanding tha tasº
Í RÕad thÕ tÕxt and put the informÐtion a_f in thÕ áorreát
ordÕr. lgnorÕ thÕ gÐps.
Ð ¿ ÂhÕ prob|Õms thÕ fri Õnds hÐd ÐftÕr thÕv'd found a
áÐ m ps|âÕ
¿ WhÐt thÕ fri Õnds di d bÕforÕ goi ng to s|ÕÕp
¿ WhÐt ki nd of ni ght thÕy spÕnt i n thÕ tÕnt
¿ How thÕ fri Õnds fÕl t Ðbout thÕ hÕn pÐrty
¿ WhÐt thÕ fri ends i mÐgi nÕd thÕ hÕn pÐrtã wouId bÕ
Ii kÕ
¿ Why thÕ f ri Õnds orgÐni sÕd thÕ áÐmpi ng wÕÕkÕnd
Using adverbì
× ÁomplÕtÕ the tÕxt bã putting onÕ of thÕsÕ adjÕátivÕs in
Õaáh gÐp 1_10.
Õnthusi Ðsti áÐl Iy ÕvÕntuÐ||ã fÕÕbIy gÕnt|ã
hurri Õdl ã i roni áÐl Iã mi sÕrÐbIy opti mi sti áÐ|l ã
stÕadi |ã unfortunÐtÕ|ã
A₠ ₠ *
##₠#ÎtrÐflí*trí
₠ " /ao* with a
#íAfl*r#Ef Á*
SÐrah, Jane, Sue and I hÐd been fri Õnds for yeÐrs, so' when
Jane announáed shÕ was getti ng marri ed, *. u*,uuo we woul d
organi sÕ Ð hen party wi th'Ð di fferen.u. wu u.,ui g;o Ð áampi ng
weÕkend i n North Wal es. We 1 _*_-- i magi ned i,no.n* u
beauti ful spot i n the mountai ns, pi táhi ng ou, tÕnt Ìy Ð
2 -fl owi ng ri vÕr' Ðnd áooki ng supper on a áÐmp fi re.
2
on the day we l eft, thÕ weÐther áhangÕd. WÕ arri vÕd,
ti red and i rri tabl e, just before sUnset on ßi JuyÊu.ni ns. Ô, i t
was drizzling 4 .'--.-_-, we deá.ided that the best ptaáe to sleep
w0utd be a proper áampsi te wi th faái ti ti es.
5 -.-.--, wÕ found one on the edge of a forest. Afrer a
tremendous struggl e, we managÕd to put the tÕnt Up, thÕn
headed for a áel ebrÐtory meal i n the nearest pub.
Âhree hours l atÕr, wÕ Were si tti ng i n the tent, l i steni ng
6 ---.--- to the rÐi n beati ng down on the áanvas. .Don,t you
j ust l ove the sound of rÐi n on a tent?,Sarah áommÕntÕd
7 =_=_-as we got ready to go to sl eeo.
°fter one of the most unáomfortabl e ni ghts l have ever spent
i n my enti re l i fe, we 8 -.---._-- paáked up the nÕXt morni ng and
madÕ our way homÕ. ° few spots of rai n áan,t dampen my
spi ri ts,'sai d .l ane 9 _-_ .|t,s been the best r.l url puny Ðnyone
áoul d wi sh forJ'Âhe rest of us smi l ed 10 unl ,ui a
noth i ng.
b
á
d
Õ
a.a=
".;;s
I
I
StÕps to better wri ti ng
\rlriting in a suitable etlle
4 Whi áh of thÕ foIIowi ng mi ght bÕ i ná|uded i n a story?
. qUotÕs from di rÕát spÕÕáh
. áo|ourfuI vÞáÐbuIarã
. hÕÐdi ngs
. amUsi ng or i ntÕrÕsti ng ÕvÕnts
Þ i mpÕrsonÐ| forms
. dÕsári pti ons of fÕÕl i ngs
. fÞrma| ÕxprÕssi Þns
5 SáÐn thÕ teåt and find ÕxampIÕs of the points you tiáked
i n 4.
UÒing g9rund6
6 ÁomplÕte thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáes with Ð suitÐbIe gÕrund.
1 | wÐs rÕa||y ÕxáitÕd abouI going to thÕ wÕdding.
2 WÕ i magi nÕd - our mÕal s out of doors i n thÕ
mou ntai ns.
3 WÕ fi ni shÕd - Up thÕ tÕnt, thÕn wÕnt to thÕ
nÕarÕst 0ub.
4 WÕ gavÕ Up - to áook a mÕal out of doors.
Using prosÞnt Par|liáiPtroì
WÕ áan oftÕn áombi nÕ sÕntÕnÁÕs usi ng a prÕsÕnt parti ái p|Õ.
EåÐmplÕ
Wo ÒÐt in the pub. Wa Ðte hÐmburgore.
Wo ìÐt in lhe pub, aÐting hÐmburgar;.
7 Use presÕnt partiáiples to áombinÕ sÕntenáes 14 and
sÕntenáÕs Ð_d.
1 WÕ dÕái dÕd to go áÐmpi ng.
2 WÕ drovÕ to l hÕ áampsi tÕ.
3 WÕ put up our tÕnt.
4 WÕ sat á|osÕ togÕthÕr.
a WÕ |i stÕnÕd to thÕ rÐi n on thÕ tÕnt.
b We sÐng as WÕ Went.
á WÕ shoutÕd i nstruáti ons to ÕÐáh ÞthÕr.
d WÕ thought i t wou|d bÕ Õxái ti ng.
Using tha simplÞ paìt and |ho preìent parfoát èith
6uPerlatives
8 RÕwrite sentenáÕs .l_5 using the simp|Õ pÐst, thÕ prÕsÕnt
perfÕát, and a supÕrIativÕ.
ExÐmple
l ìpen| 4 ver! unáomforIÐbl9 night'
It wÐÒ tho mo×t unáomfortÐble night l hÐva ovar ípont'
1 I hÐd Ð vÕrã l ong j ournÕã.
2 l ÐtÕ a rÕa|Iv ÕxpÕnsi vÕ mÕaI.
3 | sÐw a vÕry bÐd roÐd Ðáái dÕnt.
4 I drove Ð|ong Ðn ÕxtrÕmÕ|ã bumpã roÐd.
5 WÕ had a rÕÐ|l ã good áÕ|ÕbrÐti on.
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Planning
9 Prepare to write a story ÕntitIÕd .A áeIebration with a
diffÕrÕnáe.' DÕáide, and makÕ notes about:
Þ what ki nd Þf áÕ|Õbrati Þn yoU ÐrÕ goi ng to wri tÕ about'
Õ.g. Ð wÕddi n8' a pÐrty, Ðn outi ng.
Þ Ðt whÐt point you arÕ going to start thÕ storã.
o whÐt i nformÐti on ÕÐáh parÐgrÐph shouId áontai n, e.g.
thÕ rÕÐson for thÕ ÕvÕnt, thÕ ÕvÕnt itsÕlf, ãour rÕÐátions
to thÕ ÕvÕnt.
. who ãou wi Il i ná|udÕ i n thÕ story.
Þ what Þi áturÕ vou áoul d i ná|udÕ of thÕ áÕ|Õbrati on.
Ætriting
â s Use your notes to writÕ a storã (200_250 words). Expand
your notÕs into sÕntenáÕs adding more dÕtails. UsÕ thesÕ
i deas to hÕIp you'
.l Your ÕxpÕátati ons of thÕ ÕvÕnt (pÕrhaps ãÞu di dn't wÐnt
to go?).
2 What happÕnÕd bÕforÕ thÕ ÕvÕnt (maybÕ sÞmÕthi ng
wÕnt wrong?).
3 What hÐppÕnÕd duri ng thÕ ÕvÕnt. (Di d somÕthi ng
amusi ng oááur?)
4 How ãou fÕ|t Ðbout it aftÕrwards (wÐs it an intÕrÕsting
ÕxpÕriÕnáÕ?).
LhecYing
t 1 (heák that you havÕ:
. organi sÕd your Story i n parÐgrÐphs.
. i ná|udÕd Ð|l thÕ i mportant dÕtai l s of ãour storã.
. mÕnti onÕd fÕÕl i ngs Ðnd reaáti ons.
. writtÕn thÕ right amount (200-250 words).
Wri ti ng yoèr story
Making your writing morÕ interesting
Try to makÕ ãoUr story intÕrÕsting for the rÕÐdÕr. MakÕ it
amusi ng, surpri si ng, or horri fãi ng bã áontrasti ng your
ÕxÞÕátations of thÕ ÕvÕnt with thÕ ÕvÕnt itsÕ|f.
Ä
l
Gorundì Ðnd infinitivís
1 ÁomplÕtÕ thÕ sÕntenáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕsÕ
vÕrbs.
* áomÕ n drà u go * phÞnÕ × p|Ðã e surti rÕ * tÕ|l * usÕ
,l Ál ÐrÕ wÐntÕd |\4atthÕw' but thÕ |i ßÕ èÐs
Õn8ÐgÕ0.
MÐria hÐs to praátisÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕr.fÕát
bÕáÐusÕ shÕ finds it diffiáU|t.
ThÕ Õxpl orÕr mÐnÐgÕd i n thÕ j Lrngl Õ fÞr
months.
4 Ni ák Õnj oys - bÐskÕtbÐl l. HÕ's áÐptÐi n of thÕ
sáhooI tÕam.
5 WhÕn l ÐskÕd Loui sÕ abÞut thÕ sÕárÕt. shÕ rÕfusÕÞ
6
8
HÐvÕ you ÕvÕr áonsidÕrÕd
to u n l VÕrsIty7
Amy promi sÕd - homÕ bÕfÞrÕ mi dni ght.
AftÕr SuÕ hÐd fi ni shÕd hÕr hÐi r, she wÕnt to thÕ
pÐrk wi th hÕr boyfri Õnd.
VerbÒ folloèed b1 gÞrundÒ oÓ infinitivÞs
2 ÁompIÕtÕ thesÕ sÕntÕnáes so thÕã arÕ truÕ for you. Use
eithÕr a gÕrund or an infinitivÕ.
1 l Õnj oã...
2 | áan't stand ...
3 |'m good Ðt.'.
4 l hatÕ ...
5 I,d |i kÕ.'.
6 |'m |ooki ng forward tÞ ...
7 l'm [Õd up wi th .
8 I don't mi nd ...
På áhango in meÐning
3 ÁomplÕtÕ the sentenáÕs with the áorrÕát form (gerund or
infinitive) of the word in braákÕts.
1 .Di d you rÕmembÕr - (bri ng) thÕ bÕaáh towÕI?,
.No, I di dn't' but I brought mã swi msui t.'
2 | rÕmÕmbÕr - (gÞ) Þn hÞ|i dÐy to AustrÐ|i Ð whÕn I
was Ð áhi l d.
4
)
6
.ArÕ yÞu going out tonight?'
.l áÐn't. I nÕÕd - (rÕvisÕ) for mã ÕåÐms.'
N4y bikÕ nÕÕds - (fix). ItÊ got a punáturÕ.
I rÕgrÕt (tÕl|) trÕd hÕ wÐs Ðn idiot.
I rÕgret (inform) ãoU thÐt you'vÕ fÐilÕd ãour
dri vi ng tÕst.
.My áomputÕr i sn't wÞrki ng propÕr|y.,
.HÐvÕ ãou triÕd - (rÕstÐrt) it?,
l,vÕ bÕÕn tryi ng - (phonÕ) Á|ÐrÕ si náÕ si x o'á|oák,
but thÕrÕ's sti || nÞ rÕpl y.
Gorundì aftÞr ProPo6itiona
4 RÕwritÕ sÕntenáÕs 1_6. UsÕ Ð gerund Ðnd thÕ words givÕn.
µåÒrnplÕ
MÐtt tÕ||s,j okes vÕry wÕ|l' ½Õ rßÐkÕs peÞpl Õ |Ðugh.
Matt is goÞd Ðt tolling jaKaÒ and maÚing pooplo lÐugh'
'1 | didn,t go tÞ thÕ partã, l stÐyÕd Ðt homÕ.
lnstÕÐd of -
2 WhÕn GrÕg.passÕd his ÕxÐms, hÕ wÕnt tÞ univÕrsitã.
AftÕr -
3 RÐáhÕ| was Ðnnoãed whÕn she |ost hÕr mobi l Õ phonÕ
RaáhÕl wasn,t ÞIÕÐsÕd ÐbÞut
Zoñ rÕÐd a book, thÕn shÕ WÕnt to bed'
BÕforÕ -
A|though hÕ l ost thÕ gÐmÕ, PÐuI wasn,t upset.
In spitÕ of
6 KÐrl Ii kÕs tÕnni s. HÕ's Ðl wÐãs pIÐyi ng i t.
KÐr| is kÕÕn on
Other u6o6 of infinitivae
5 RÕwritÕ thÕse sentÕnáÕs using an infinitivÕ and making
Ðny other neáessary áhangÕs.
1 .How áÐn I sÕnd a tÕxt mÕssÐgÕ?'
SÕÐn wantÕd tÞ knÞw
2 .WÕ'rÕ goi ng ro||Õrb|Ðdi ng thi s wÕÕkÕnd.,
WÕ,vÕ dÕái dÕd
3 .I'm sÕÕrng Li sÐ
ton i ght.'
|'vÕ ÐrrÐngÕd
4 .ti Þna has pÐssÕd hÕi dri vi ng tÕst.'
Fi onÐ has |ÕÐrnÕd
5 .WhÞ shou|d l ask
l nÕÕd to know
for hÕ|p?,
6 .Âhi s i s how you pl Ðy thÕ áomputÕr gÐmÕ.,
ÂinÐ shÞwÕd N/ark
7 .WhÕrÕ áan I buã Ðn MP3 p|ayÕr?'
Ni ák wÐsn't sUrÕ -
8 .l'm goi ng to á|i mb thÐt mountÐi nl,
Li z wÐs detÕrmi nÕd
ä
Speaki ng
6 ln pairs, ÕÐáh áhoose a diffÕrent photograph. DesáribÕ the
photograph. Think about thÕ ÕvÕnt and how the peopIÕ
are fÕÕIing. ThÕn ask ãour pÐrtnÕr:
. whÕthÕr thÕã hÐvÕ bÕÕn to a si mi |ar evÕnt.
. |f .vÕs' how thÕv fÕ|t Ðbout i t.
. |f .no' whÕthÕr theã wou|d Õnj oy i t or not and whã.
. whà thi nk pÕop|Õ go to ÕVÕnts l i kÕ thi s.
Wri ti ng
7 write about a timÕ you WÕnt to Ð fÕstivaI in your áountrã
or in another áountry. Use thÕsÕ quÕstions to hÕIp you.
1 WhÕrÕ di d i t takÕ Þ|ÐáÕ?
2 WhÐt was it áÕ|ÕbrÐting?
3 WhÐt happÕnÕd?
4 What di d yÞu enj Þã ÐbÞut i t?
5 WouId yoU rÕáommÕnd goi ng to i t?
[i stÕni ng
8 6),." ListÕn to somÕone talking about Ðpproaáhes to
happinÕss and dÕáidÕ if thÕ statÕments are truÕ (Â) or
fÐ|sÕ (t).
1 ¿ optimists pÕrform bÕttÕr than pÕssimists.
2 ¿ |t hÕl ps to bÕ honÕst and admi t whÕn you ÐrÕ not
fÕeIi ng happy.
PÕssi mi sts mÐkÕ mi stÐkes bÕáÐusÕ thÕy i magi nÕ
thi ngs wi l l go wrong.
Ameri áan psyáhoIogi sts bÕ|i ÕvÕ posi trvÕ thi nki ng
makÕs yÞu hÐppy.
Worrãi ng mÐkÕs pÕop|Õ do badl ã i n j ob i ntÕrvi Õws.
fr
i+i
fil
#
3¿
4¿
F -
)
Ä
µxprossing foalings
1 ÁomplÕtÕ sentÕnáÕs 1_5 with thÕsÕ words.
* bÞthÕrÕd * hÞrrifiÕd * lost * ÞverwhÕ|mÕd . rÕsÕntÕd
.| Âi nÐ WÐs - by John,s bÐd bÕhÐvi our. HÕ was
arrogant and rudÕ.
DÐvi d - hi s tÕmpÕr whÕn | ÐskÕd hi m for mÞrÕ
monÕã'
Li nda - thÕ fÐát thÐt Gi l I Was VÕrã popul ar.
PÐul workÕd |atÕ ÕvÕry ÕvÕni ng. HÕ fÕ|t - bã thÕ
amount hÕ had to do.
5 I'm not rÕa||y - Ðbout spi dÕrs, but | Ðm
frightÕnÕd of miáÕ!
2 ÁompIete sÕntenáes 1_7 with thesÕ words. More than one
ÐnswÕr mÐy bÕ áorreát.
* bÕáome * á|ÕÐr * fÕe| * go * hÐvÕ * makÕ ₠ run
,l WÕ had a bi t of Ðn ÐrgumÕnt l ast ni ght but I thi nk i t
he|pÕd to - thÕ Ði r.
2 Why do things nevÕr sÕem to - smÞothly?
3 From timÕ to timÕ, evÕrãthing sÕÕms to - Wrong.
4 Do you be|iÕvÕ that thÕrÕ arÕ Õvents in our livÕs that wÕ
no áontrol ÞvÕr?
l think you nÕÕd to Ð áonsáious dÕáision to work
hÐrdÕr.
Someti mÕs l - prÕssuri sÕd by whÐt i s hÐppÕni ng
Ðrouno me.
|t's ÕÐsy to - dÕfÕnsi vÕ Ðbout whÐt you'rÕ doi ng
whÕn somÕonÕ i s ári ti ái si ng ãou.
3 write the noun forms of the words 1-8 be|Þw.
Using advoábì
4 WritÕ thÕ ÐdvÕrb form of thÕsÕ ÐdjÕátivÕs 1-8, thÕn matáh
thÕm to thÕ meÐnings a_h.
3
4
'l i roni á
2 opti mi sti á
3 unfortunÐtÕ
4 hurri Õd
5 stÕÐdy
6 Õnth usi asti á
/ TÕÕD|Õ
B gÕntl Õ
a q u i ákl y
b ki ndIy and áÐrÕful |ã
á sÐráasti áÐ|l y
d ÕÐgÕr|y or Õåái tÕdl ã
Õ hÞpÕful |ã Þr áonfi dÕntIã
f wÕak|y or fÐi ntl ã
g unáhangi ng|ã or rÕgul Ðrl ã
h sÐd Iã
ÁompIete sÕntenáÕs 1_B with onÕ of thÕ ÐdvÕrbs you
formÕd in 4.
1 - | wÞn't bÕ Ðbl Õ to áomÕ to your pÐrtã on
SÐturdÐã ÐftÕr Ð|l.
2 .l'd IovÕ to go to thÕ ái nÕma,, sÐi d JÐne
3 l t hÐd bÕÕn rÐi ni ng Ð|l ÐftÕrnÞon.
4 .ÂhÕ wÕathÕr wi Il bÕ bÕttÕr tomorrow,' sÐi d thÕ áhi IdrÕn
.Don't áry. It's not that bÐd!' sÐi d my mothÕr
.I don't fÕÕ| wÕ|l,, sÐi d PÐu|Ð
.Âhi s i s Ð bri Il i ant hoIi dÐã, i sn,t i t? - pouri ng wi th rÐi n
and frÕÕzi ng áo|d - j ust whÐt I Ii kÕ!, sÐi d my brothÕr
8 .ÁÐn't stop. l'VÕ got Ðn Ðppoi ntmÕntl, sai d SaIl y
µxprÞssing tèo points of visvl
6 ÁomplÕtÕ the diaIogue with a suitabIe word.
A Wou|d you ÕvÕr áonsi dÕr goi ng to work i n anothÕr
áou ntry?
B l supposÕ on the one.l - i t wÞuId bÕ Ðn i ntÕrÕsti ng
ÕxpÕri enáÕ, but on thÕ 2 - hÐnd, i t mi ght bÕ
di ffi áu|t.What3-you?
A ThÕrÕ's 4 -doubt thÐt i t wou|d be Ð áhÐ||Õngi ng
thi ng to do, but l'm not surÕ i f I wÞul d wÐnt 5
l ÕavÕ mã own áountry pÕrmÐnÕnt|y. 6 -
woul d gÞ 7 -Ð short ti mÕ 8 -- l hÐd tnÕ
ána náÕ.
5
6
1 happã
2 rÕsponsib|Õ
3 know
4 diffiáu|t
5 honÕst
6 rÕ|iÕve
/ l nIÕno
8 áritiáisÕ
áoursÕ, l
Í
6),, FathÕr said, ,WÕ,ll sail likÕ Áolumbusl,
A
,HÕ was hoping to find India,, I pointÕd out sullÕnly.
WÕ sold thÕ zoo, loák, stoák and barrÕl to a nÕW
áountry' a nÕW lifÕ. BÕsidÕs assuring our áollÕátion of a
happy futurÕ, thÕ transaátion would pay for immigration
and lÕavÕ us with a good sum to makÕ a frÕsh staÓt in
Canada (though noé whÕn I think about it, thÕ sum is
laughablÕ _ how blindÕd WÕ arÕ by monÕy). WÕ áould
havÕ sold our animals to Zoos in India, but AmÕriáan Zoos
wÕrÕ willing to pay highÕr priáÕs. ÁIµS, thÕ ÁonvÕntion
on IntÕrnational TradÕ in µndangÕrÕd SpÕáiÕs, had just
áomÕ into ÕffÕát, and thÕ window on thÕ trading of
áapturÕd wild animals had slammÕd shut. ThÕ futurÕ of
zoos would now liÕ with othÕr zoos. ÂhÕ PondiáhÕrry Zoo
álosÕd shop at just thÕ right timÕ. ThÕrÕ was a sáramblÕ to
buy our animals. ÂhÕ final buyÕrs WÕrÕ a numbÕr of zoos,
mainly thÕ Lináoln Park Zoo in Áhiáago and thÕ soon-to-
bÕ-opÕn ¼innÕsota Zoo, bllt odd aniÌals WÕIÕ going to
Los AngÕlÕs, LouisvillÕ, oklahoma Áity and Áináinnati.
And two animals wÕrÕ bÕing shippÕd to thÕ Áanada
Zoo. That,s how Ravi and I fÕlt. WÕ did not Want to go. WÕ
did not want to livÕ in a áountÓy of galÕ-foráÕ winds and
minus-two-hundrÕd-dÕgrÕe wintÕrs. Áanada WaS not on
thÕ áâiákÕt map. DÕparturÕ was madÕ ÕasiÕr _ as far as
gÕtting us usÕd to thÕ idÕa - by thÕ timÕ it took for all thÕ
prÕ-dÕparturÕ prÕparations. It took wÕll ovÕr a Ãear. I don,t
mÕan for us. I mÕan for thÕ animals. ÁonsidÕring that
animals dispÕnsÕ with álothÕs, footwÕar, linÕn, furniturÕ,
kitáhÕnwarÕ, toilÕtriÕs; that nationality mÕans nothing to
thÕm; that thÕy áarÕ not a jot for passports, monÕy,
Õmpl oymÕnt pÓospÕáts, sáhool s, áost of housi ng,
hÕaltháarÕ faáilitiÕs _ áonsidÕring, in short thÕir lightnÕss
of bÕing, it,s amazing how hard it is to movÕ thÕm'
\{oving a zoo is likÕ moving a áity.
ThÕ papÕrwork was áolossal. LitrÕs of watÕr usÕd uD in
rvÕtting stamps. DÕar ¼r. So-and-so writtÕn hundrÕdi of
ti mÕs. offÕrs madÕ. Si ghs hÕard. Doubts ÕxprÕssÕd.
Haggling to bÕ gonÕ through. DÕáisions sÕnt highÕr up for
approvÐl. PriáÕs agrÕÕd upon. DÕals álináhÕd. DottÕd linÕs
signÕd. Congratulations givÕn. ÁÕrtifiáatÕs of origin
sought. ÁÕrtifiáatÕs of hÕalth sought. µxport pÕrmits
sought. Import pÕrmits sought. QuarantinÕ rÕgulations
álarifiÕd. Transportation organisÕd. A fortunÕ spÕnt on
tÕlÕphonÕ áalls. It,s a jokÕ in thÕ zoo businÕss, a WÕary
iokÕ, that thÕ papÕrwork involvÕd in trading a shrÕw
wÕighs morÕ than an ÕlÕphant, that thÕ papÕrwork
involvÕd in trading an ÕlÕphant wÕighs morÕ than a
whalÕ, and that you must nÕvÕr try to tradÕ a whalÕ,
nÕvÕr...
... A dÕputation of three AmÕriáans áamÕ. I was vÕry
áurious. I had nÕvÕr seÕn rÕal livÕ AmÕriáans. ThÕy wÕrÕ
pink, fat, friÕndly, vÕry áompÕtÕnt and swÕatÕd profusÕly.
ThÕy ÕxaminÕd our animals. ThÕy put most of thÕm to
slÕÕp and thÕn appliÕd stÕthosáopÕsio hÕarts, drÕw blood
in syringÕs and analysÕd it, fondlÕd humps and bumps,
tappÕd tÕÕth, blindÕd ÕyÕs with flashlights, pináhÕd skins,
strokÕd and pullÕd hairs. Poor animals. ThÕy must havÕ
thought thÕy wÕrÕ bÕing draftÕd into thÕ US Army. WÕ got
big smilÕs from thÕ AmÕriáans and bonÕ árushÙg
handshakÕs.
ThÕ rÕsult was that thÕ animals, likÕ us, got thÕir
working papÕrs. ÂhÕy wÕrÕ futurÕ YankÕÕs and wÕ, futurÕ
Áanuks.
':....'f1t|.......-,--'..,.u7.'.,'**?........u.₠*|'***..'*'***?*.......*i
,.,9r"1$t ttttt"ttt:tt?r' "
Your reaátions
ln pairs, disáuss thÕse quÕstions.
o DÞ ãou agrÕÕ wi th thÕ wri tÕr whÕn hÕ says .how b|i ndÕd
WÕ ÐrÕ bv mÞnÕv,?
. Do ãou sUpport thÕ work of orgÐni sati Þns l i kÕ ÁITµS?
Whv? Whv not?
Þ How doÕs thÕ i mÐge RÐvi and thÕ Wri tÕr havÕ of ÁÐnada
áomparÕ wi th ãours?
. HÞw Õffeáti vÕ do ãou thi nk thÕ wri tÕr's dÕsári pti Þn of
thÕ papÕrwork i nvo|vÕd i n shi ppi ng Ðni mÐ|s i s?
Þ WhÐt i mprÕssi on doÕs thÕ Wri tÕr gi vÕ Þf bÕi ng draftÕd
i nto thÕ US Armã? How dÞÕs thi s áompÐrÕ wi th bÕi ng
draftÕd i ntÞ thÕ armã i n yÞur áountrã?
. How do ãÞu thi nk thÕ wri tÕr Ðnd hi s fÐmi |ã wi l I rÕaát to
thei r nÕw l i fÕ i n ÁanÐda?
'..::|
.ar::,rr|.ri:r::::rr' .....,....,....,r,raa:tlitiiii'i:::r'
Ä
Grammar
1 áhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát option, a, b or á, to áomplÕtÕ thÕ ÐrtiálÕ.
From Chanel tÞ the Cirárrs
22-ãear-o|d Iris PÐImÕr wÞrks for Gifford's Áiráus. ShÕ ,,l -- thÕrÕ for six
months. It mÐy sÕÕm surpri si ng, but two yÕÐrs ago Iri s 2 - Ð top modÕI for
ÁhÐnÕ|. Today her áiráus outfit with Ð buttÕrflã dÕsign is Ð fÐr áry frÞm thÕ ÞÐãs
whÕn she on|ã · - dÕsi gnÕr |abÕ|s.
So why di d shÕ qui t modÕ|l i ng? .l rÕmÕmbÕr 4 -- qui tÕ nÕrvous whÕn l fi rst
stÐrtÕd bÕáÐusÕ | 5 - whÐt to do,,shÕ sÐys. .But i t di dn,t tÐkÕ mÕ |onï
bÕáÐusÕ thÕrÕ i sn't muáh to modÕl Ii ng. YÞur who|Õ áÐrÕÕr i s bÐsÕd on
7 --ãou l ook Ii kÕ. AftÕr Ð whi |Õ | got fÕd up wi th 8 - shows. I dÞn't
rÕgrÕt 9 i t up Ðt Ð|I.,
But whã thÕ ái ráus?.| 10- i ntÕrÕstÕd i n pÕrfÞrmÐnáÕ Ðrts si náÕ I was
smÐ||,'Õxp|Ði ns Iri s. .So whÕn somÕ fÐmi |y fri Õnds 11 -- thÕ ái ráus l asr yÕar,
l Ðsked thÕm i f thÕrÕ wÐs anãthi ng |12 --do.' Iri s wÐs gi vÕn vÐri ous j Þbs
from mÕndi ng áostumÕs to 13 - thÕ Ðni mÐl s. .I di dnt know whÐt to ÕÅpÕáâ
14 - | startÕd,'shÕ Ðdmi ts. .But l,vÕ donÕ somÕ j obs thÐt I'd nevÕr drÕamÕd
of 15
befÞrÕ.,
°|thÞugh ,l 6- i n a tÕnt, ÞftÕn knÕÕ-dÕÕp i n mud, |Ðáks thÕ g|amour of hÕr
formÕr profÕssi on, Iri s ÕmbrÐáÕd hÕr nÕw áÐrÕÕr wi th opÕn Ðrms. .l'vÕ mÐde
morÕ fri Õnds hÕrÕ thÐn anywhÕrÕ Õ|sÕ,,shÕ i nsi sts. In fÐát, Iri s Õnj oys i t so mUÁh
thÐt shÕ 17 -a fu||-ti mÕ áÐrÕÕr i n thÕ ái ráus.
.| 18--to go to ái ráus sáhÞo|', shÕ sÐys..l f I di d gãmnÐsti ás- 19
hÐvÕ Ð|wÐys wÐntÕd to do - l áoul d movÕ i nto dÐnái ng. ÂhÕ ái ráus i s mã |i fÕ now
120
sÞ hÐppã.'
Ð wÞrkÕd
a wÐs bÕi ng
a hÐs worn
Ð tobÕ
a di dn't know
a IÕÐrn
a now
a doi ng
a to givÕ
a Was a|WÐys
Ð foundÕd
a must
a l ook ÐftÕr
Ði f
a dÞi ng
Ð Ii vÕd
Ð áonsi dÕrs
a wi l I aIrÕadã Ðpp|ã
Ð whi áh
a nÕVÕr WÐs
b i s worki ng
b has bÕen
b worÕ
bbÕ
b wasn't knowi ng
b |Õarni ng
b whÐt
b todo
b givÕn
b havÕ Ðl wÐys bÕÕn
b hÐd foundÕd
b áouId
b Iooki ng ÐftÕr
bÐs
b tÞdÞ
b l i vi ng
b i s áonsi deri ng
b hÐvÕ al rÕÐdy ÐppIi Õd
b thÐt
b hÐvÕ nÕvÕr bÕi ng
á hÐs bÕÕn worki ng
á Was
á i s wÕÐri ng
á bei ng
á hÐdn't known
á to IÕÐrn
á whi áh
á donÕ
á gi vi ng
á Ðm al wÐys
á WÕrÕ fÞundi ng
á maã
á |ookÕd aftÕr
á whÕn
á hÐvÕ donÕ
á l i vÕ
á wi l | áonsi dÕr
á WÐs Ð|rÕÐdy app|yi ng
á Wnaâ
á hÐvÕ nÕver bÕÕn
ÁompIÕtÕ the sÕntÕnáÕs wi th thÕ
áorrÕát tÕnsÕ (pÐst simp|Õ, prÕsÕnt
pÕrfeát, or prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát
áonti nuous) of thÕ vÕrbs i n
braákets.
1 |ri s - (start) work Ðt thÕ
ái ráus i n N4Ðy. |t's thÕ fi rst j ob shÕ
(havÕ) si náÕ shÕ was Ð
modÕ|.
2 .Why ÐrÕ ãou |ÐtÕ? |
(wÐit) for ÐgÕsl,
.Sorry, | (mi ss) thÕ bus.,
.| - (gÞ) to BudÐpÕst l Ðst
sU mmÕr.'
.RÕÐl l ã? l - (bÕ/nÕvÕä
thÕrÕ. WhÐt wÐs i t l i kÕ?'
PauIwÐnts to work i n
advÕrti si ng. HÕ - (app|y)
[or l ol s of j obs' but hÕ -
(not hÐvÕ) an intÕrviÕw yÕt.
SarÐh - (fi ni sh/j ust) a
tÕåti IÕ Ðnd dÕsi gn áoursÕ. It
ftakÕ) hÕr two ãÕars to
áom pIÕtÕ.
.WhÐt =- (ãou/do) lÐst
wÕÕkÕnd?'
.0nSundÐã|-(start)
rÕvi si ng for my ÕxÐms and I
(rÕvisÕ) ever sináÕl'
7 ,Did ãou hÐvÕ a good hoIidÐy?,
.YÕs, it - (bÕ) grÕÐt, but we
(not hÐvÕ/sti l |) thÕ
photos dÕvÕl ÞpÕd.,
8 .YÞu Iook ti rÕd.'
.| - (work) on my áomputÕr
Ð|I morni ng.'
(ompletÕ thÕsÕ sÕntenáes with thÕ
áorrÕát form (gerund or infinitive)
of the vÕrb in braákets.
1 WhÕn Á|ÐrÕ fi ni shÕd áo||ÕgÕ shÕ
dÕái dÕd (trÐvÕ|) round
thÕ world for a ãÕÐr.
2 BÕn wÐs kÕÕn on -
(bÕáomÕ) Ðn aÁtor' so hÕ ÐppIi Õd
for a p|aáe Ðt drÐmÐ sáhÞol.
I rÕgrÕt (miss) thÕ
áonÁÕrt. EvÕryÞnÕ said how good
it wÐs.
Ji || wÕnt outsi dÕ. ShÕ nÕÕoÕÞ
(mÐkÕ) a áÐl I on hÕr
mobi l Õ phonÕ.
In spi tÕ of - (fÕÕl ) i l l, Âom
sti Il i nsi stÕd on goi ng tÞ sáhÞo|.
1
2
3
4
5
6
-7
8
9
't0
11
12
1×
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Ä
GrÕg áÞu|dn,t afford - (buã)a áar, sÞ hÕ got Ð
motorbi kÕ i nstÕad.
After 5 yÕÐrs, BrÐd fi naIl ã gÐvÕ up -(smokÕ)
á|ga rÕttÕs.
8 InstÕÐd of - (go) to thÕ gãm, Luáã dÕái dÕd to p|ay
tÕn n i s.
9 .Di d you remÕmbÕr - (phone) Guã?'
.I di dn't nÕÕd to. I saw hi m Ðt sáhÞo|.'
10 KatÕ oftÕn i mÐgi nÕd - (bÕ) Ð fÐshi on dÕsi gnÕr. It
was hÕr drÕÐm j ob.
11 SuÕ was fÕd up with (watáh) TV, so shÕ rÕad Ð
mÐgÐzi nÕ i nstÕÐd.
12 LukÕ wantÕd (go) to thÕ áonáÕrt, but thÕ tiákÕts
wÕrÕ soId out.
Voáabu l a ry
4 ÁhoosÕ thÕ bÕst mÕaning' Ð or b, for thÕ vÕrbs in itaIiás.
1 PÕtÕ didn't wÐnt to drop out of Ihe bÐskÕtbÐII tÕam
dÕspi l Õ hi s i nj urã.
a stop bÕi ng pÐrt of b áarrã Þn p|ayi ng wi th
2 Aááordi ng tÞ thÕ tÐbIoi ds, thÕ ãoung pop star i s goi ng out
with her Ðging produáÕr.
a havi ng Ð rÕ|Ðti onshi p b |ÕÐvi ng thÕ áountry wi th
wi th
· GÐry wÐsn't fÕÕ|i ng wÕl |, but he áÐrri Õd oÛ worki ng.
a toÞk a brÕÐk from b áonti nuÕd
4 ThÕ nÕw strikÕr of thÕ fÞotbÐII tÕÐm fai|Õd fo livÕ up tÞ
thÕ mÐnagÕr's ÕxpÕátÐti ons. HÕ ÞnIã sáorÕd four goaIs Ð||
sÕaso n.
a ful fi l
b undÕrstand
5 Kirsty wou|dn't stop gÞiÛg on Ðbout hÕr nÕw boyfriÕnd.
a áomp|Ði ni ng about b taIki ng Õnd|Õss|y about
5 CompIÕte thÕ tÕåt with thÕ áorrÕát prepositions. Use thÕsÕ
prÕpositions.
.. ÐrÞund " for * from'= i n = of '..on
" to * wi th
AdvÕrti si ng pl ays an i mportant pÐrt r - our ÕvÕrydÐy
Ii fÕ. On ÐVera8Õ, pÕop|Õ ÐrÕ ÕxposÕd 2 - ovÕr ],000
advÕrts a daã - on tÕ|Õvi si on, i n nÕwspapÕrs, on thÕ radi o Þr
i n thÕ strÕÕts. You maà thi nk you dÕái dÕ 3 - what
produáts ãou nÕed, but advÕrtisÕrs know bÕttÕr. ÂhÕy shape
oUr atti tUdÕ 4
WhÐt WÕ áonsumÕ
AdvÕrtisÕmÕnts givÕ Ð positivÕ imprÕssion 5
Ð brand
thrÞugh thÕ i mÐges thÕy usÕ. For ÕxÐmpl Õ, thÕ i magÕs i n
sportswÕÐr advÕrts ÞftÕn stand 6 -strÕngth and
suááÕss, whÕrÕÐs pÕrfumÕ Ðds suggÕst you wi || bÕ i rrÕsi sti bl Õ
to othÕr pÕÞp|Õ. Ads Ð|so saã.buy thi s produát Ðnd you wi ||
bÕ part 7 -this group,. WÕ oftÕn go B -.- thÕ
produát whi áh promotÕs thÕ group WÕ i dÕnti fy oursÕIvÕs
9 -, so tÕÕnagÕrs mi ght buy ÁÐIvi n K|Õi n rÐthÕr than
ÁhanÕl.
But thÕ most suááÕssful brÐnds arÕ thosÕ whi áh appÕÐ| to
manã di ffÕrÕnt groUps of pÕop|Õ. In pÐrti áu|Ðr, produáts
whi áh havÕ áomÕ 10
AmÕri áa havÕ had hugÕ suááÕss.
Áoáa-ÁÞ|a, for ÕxÐmp|Õ, i s popu|Ðr aIl 11
thÕ wor|d -
ovÕr 7,000 ÁokÕs arÕ áonsumÕd ÕvÕrã sÕáond. And LÕvi's
j ÕÐns ÐrÕ popu|Ðr 12 -tÕÕnÐgÕrs wor|dwi dÕ.
Put thÕ words in braákets into the áorrÕát form (noun or
adjÕátivÕ) to áompIetÕ thÕ sÕntenáÕs.
1 DÕspi tÕ hi s tough (appÕar), DavÕ i s qui tÕ Ð gÕnt|Õ
0Õrson.
2 Si mon wantÕd a j Þb that offÕrÕd pl Õnty Þf Õxái tÕmÕnt
and - (vÐry).
3 KarÕn,s nÕgativÕ (rÕaát) to thÕ good nÕWs Was
áÞm p|ÕtÕ|ã u nÕxpÕátÕd.
4 Iri s di dn't gÕt any (sÐti sfã) f rom hÕr áarÕÕr Ðs a
modÕI.
5 ShÕ wÐs sÕnt on modÕ||i ng (Ðssi gn) al I ovÕr thÕ
worl d.
6 ÂhÕ nÕw pÕrfume Was Ð - (áommÕráe) suááÕss,
thÐnks to Ð bri ||i ant advÕrti si ng áampai gn.
7 FÐshi on dÕsi gnÕrs ÐrÕ VÕry (árÕatÕ) pÕop|Õ.
8 |f ãou WÐnt to bÕ a fÐshi on photographer, ãou'|l nÕÕd to
buã ÕxpÕnsi vÕ (phÞtograph)Õqui pment.
9 ThÕrÕ ÐrÕ lots of intÕrÕsting tourist - (Ðttraát) in
London, suáh as thÕ London µãÕ.
(omp|Õte the tablÕ with the áorreát form of the words
given.
Write the opposites of thÕsÕ adjÕátives. Use thÕ prÕfixÕs
dis-, il-, in-, un-, ir-.
6
7
I
,l attrÐátlvÕ
2 á|Õar
3 ÕxpÕnsi vÕ
4 |Õgal
5 maturÕ
6 ÞrgÐni sÕd
/ poss|0|Õ
B rÕsponsi b|Õ
q
MakÕ Ðdjeátives from thÕsÕ nouns. Add thÕ suffixes y'Øl
and -/ess.
1 pÕaáÕ
2 wondÕr
3 worth
4 áare
5 harm
6 hÕ|p
/ nomÕ
8 suááÕss
9 thank
10 usÕ
VÕr0
nou n adjÕátivÕ
advÕrb
1
2
3
4
5
6
appÕaI
dÕfÕnd
va ry
attrÐátion
árÕatIVÕ
protÕátivÕ|ã
Ä
1hetlÐtulrÐrw(o
DÕsáribe the áreaturÕs Ðnd the natural hÐbitats in thÕ
photographs.
ÁompIÕte sentenáes 1-4 with thÕsÕ words.
" áonsÕrvÐtionist e ÕáosYstÕm * food áhÐin
" gl obal warmi ng
1 - is onÕ Þf the biggest thrÕÐts to thÕ naturaI
wor|d todÐy.
2 |f thÕ p|Ðnts i n a(n) -ÐrÕ dÕstroyÕd, dÕpÕndÕnt
wi |dIi fÕ mi ght stÐrvÕ.
3 A(n) i s a hÐbi tat and thÕ group of pl Ðnts or
ani mÐ|s thÐt
4 A(n) i s somÕonÕ who tri Õs to reduáe thÕ
dÐmÐgÕ donÕ to thÕ Õarth bã po||uti on Ðnd othÕr humÐn
aátivities.
Readi ng
ÂruÕ or false questions
RÕad Õaáh statÕmÕnt áarÕfuIlã bÕforÕ mÐking your
dÕái si on, Ðs thÕ statÕmÕnts may be parti aIl y truÕ but no1
áomÞ|ÕtÕl v truÕ.
3 RÕÐd thÕ tÕxt and deáide whÕthÕr statemÕnts 1-.|0 are
truÕ (T) or faIse (F).
1 ¿ Luáy hÐs not a|ways workÕd as Ð áonsÕrvationist.
2 ¿ ThÕ orÐng-utans Luáy |ooks ÐftÕr are usua||y brought
i n from thÕ wi Id.
3 ¿ Luáã fÕÕ|s thÕ j ung|Õ i s a dangÕrous p|Ðáe.
4 ¿ Luáy has turnÕd to fÐmous peop|Õ to hÕ|p her i n hÕr
worl(.
5 ¿ Luáy i s one of thÕ fÕw pÕop|e ÐbIÕ to hÕ|p orÐng-
utans |Õarn vi tÐl Ii fÕ ski ||s.
6 ¿ BÐbã orang-utans havÕ Ð á|osÕ rel Ðti onshi p wi th both
pa rÕnts.
7 ¿ Luáã Ðims to use her aáting ÕxperiÕnáÕ to tÕÐáh
pÕÞp|Õ about áonsÕrvati on.
8 ¿ Âhe areÐ Luáyworks i n i s i n dÕspÕratÕ nÕÕd of a new
áÕntrÕ.
9 ¿ 0rÐng-utÐns spÕnd a |ot of ti mÕ i n groups.
10 ¿ More resÕÐráh hÐs bÕÕn donÕ i nto orÐng-utÐns than
i ntÞ othÕr apÕs.
Luáy Wisdom usÕd to swing on thÕ trapÕzÕs in a áiráus. Now
shÕ is swinging among thÕ trÕÕs of thÕ Sumatran rainforÕst,
tÕaáhing orphanÕd orang-utans what should havÕ áomÕ
naturally.
s HÕlplÕss young olang-utans havÕ bÕÕn arriving almost
daily into Luáy,s áarÕ at thÕ Bohorok rÕhabilitation áentrÕ,
usually aftÕr thÕy havÕ bÕen in áapti¹ty for a áouplÕ of yÕars
or morÕ. RÕgardÕd as áharming whÕn tiny, thÕy soon
outgrow thÕir áagÕs and arÕ somÕtimÕs álosÕ to stalvation
lÞ whÕn thÕy appÕar at thÕ áÕntrÕ.
BÕing .mothÕr, to a growing proportion of onÕ of thÕ
world's most ÕndangÕrÕd spÕáiÕs is not for thÕ faint-hÕarted,
yÕt it is somÕthing in whiáh Luáy álÕarly rÕvÕls. ,I fÕel so
luáky whÕn I,m surroundÕd by thÕ apÕs,, she says. .I fÕÕl safÕ
ts in the iunglÕ with thÕ apÕs whÕn I am doing praátiáal stuff.,
HÕr mission is áÕrtainly praátiáal. ShÕ has bÕÕn sÕtting up
a wÕbsitÕ, trying to gain global áharity status and rÕáruiting
roák stars in hÕr áampaign to savÕ thÕ orang-utans, whose
numbÕrs havÕ fallÕn by thrÕÕ-quartÕrs sináÕ thÕ mid-1970s.
zÞ But Luáy,s supÕrhuman áontribution to thÕ saving and
rÕhabilitation of infant apÕs lies in thÕ faát that most of hÕr
adulthÞod has bÕÕn spÕnt as a pÕrforming artist and aárobat.
ShÕ may not talk to thÕ animals like Dr DoolittlÕ, but Luáy
thinks nothing of álimbing 20-mÕtrÕ high trÕÕs and pÕÕling
zs patáhÕs of bark with hÕr tÕÕth to show young orang-utans
what thÕy should bÕ doing.
.ThÕrÕ is an intÕnsÕly strong tiÕ betwÕÕn mothÕr and
ba|íã, aÛd if that,s brokÕn, thÕ infants don,t lÕarn an1thing,,
shÕ Õxplains. .I go into the forÕst and usÕ my trapezÕ skills to
×o hÕlp tÕaáh the small apÕs how to álimb.,
It is littlÕ wonder that Luáy fÕÕls shÕ has arrivÕd at hÕr
lifÕ,s áalling. ThÕrÕ áan bÕ fÕw jobs whiáh nÕÕd aárobatiá
training and stagÕ ÕxpÕriÕnáÕ _ anothÕr skill shÕ is about to
utilisÕ to organisÕ a touring show to ÕduáatÕ youngstÕrs
×s about thÕ importanáÕ of áonsÕrvation. YÕt, as thÕ nÕÕd
inárÕasÕs to providÕ an ÕvÕn stronger safÕä nÕt for thÕ Õver-
dÕárÕasing population of orang.utans, thÕ Bohorok áÕntrÕ
@
"ïÄ1."***-!,sÄ. .**'gggg$*9$b..**-*Äê}×* * - . . ..,''-*'.=u{;
....-as foráÕd to álosÕ its doors to nÕW
:ntlants. Part of thÕ diffiáulty was thÕ
:roximity of a wild orang-utan
ropul ati on, whi áh made thÕ l oáal
æ: :Õ1ÕasÕ of prÕviously áaptivÕ apÕs
.rrpossiblÕ and, furthÕr afiÕld, thÕ
::ÕÕs havÕ bÕÕn áut down. UnlÕss
. "rnding is raisÕd for a nÕw áÕntlÕ, it
l.;ill bÕ impossiblÕ to look aftÕr thÕ
.. .írgÕ numbÕrs of pÕts whiáh ownÕrs
;iÕ now willing to givÕ up. Luáy is
]-loW áontaáting multi-national
;cmpaniÕs to hÕlp hÕr áampaign to
>ar-Õ thÕ orang-utans.
i'. Orang.utans tÕnd to bÕ solitary
×nimals, notiáÕably so in oldÕr agÕ.
- his is onÕ of thÕ rÕasons thÕy havÕ
:ÕÕn lÕss studiÕd than othÕr apÕs suáh
×s áhimpanzÕÕs - ÕvÕn though thÕy
.t lIÕ 96.4o/o gÕnÕtiáally linked to
:]umans and appÕar to sharÕ many
:haraáteristiás with us. ThÕy ÕvÕn
suffÕr from thÕ samÕ disÕasÕs as wÕ do.
.'r.ith thÕ help of Luáy and pÕoplÕ likÕ
:; iÕr, thÕ survival of thÕsÕ gÕntle giants
:lay wÕll bÕ assurÕd.
Lisa Buákingham GuÐrdiÐß Soáietã
a,
t,
'.
::
Voáabu Ia ry
Animal Proteátion
4 Matáh thÕ nouns 1_B to thei r meani ngs a-h.
1 áaptivity (|inÕ 7) a sÕtting frÕÕ
2 stÐrvÐti on (|i ne 9) b gi vi ng or supp|yi ng somethi ng togÕther wi th othÕrs
3 status(|i nÕ17) á hÕ|pi ngtorÕturntoausÕfuI Ii fÕ
4 áampÐi gn (|i nÕ 1B) d not bÕi ng frÕÕ
5 áontri buti on (|i nÕ 20) Õ Ð fi ght for or agai nst somÕthi ng
6 rÕhÐbi Ii tati Þn (|i nÕ 21) f suffÕri ng or dãi ng from Iaák of food
7 rÕ|ÕÐsÕ (l i nÕ 40) g a soái Ð| or profÕssi ÞnÐl posi ti on
8 survi vÐI (|i nÕ 60) h rÕmai ni ng a|i vÕ or i n Õxi stÕnáe
\^lordg urith oppoeitÞ meÐninge
5 write thÕsÕ words nÕxt to thÕir mÕÐnings 1_B. Âhen find words in thÕ tÕåt whiáh
mÕan the oppositÕ. Âhe first two IÕtters are givÕn to hÕIp you.
+ a nastã nÐturÕ * á|osÕr u áoUrÐgÕous * huge * i nárÕasi n8 " se|f-suffi ái Õnt
* soái ab|Õ *, vi o|Õnt
meanrngs
1 Ðbl Õ to manÐgÕ bã onesÕ|f
2 havi ng an unp|ÕÐsÐnt mÐnnÕr
3 ÕxtrÕme|y |ÐrgÕ
4 brÐvÕ
5 bÕáomi ng bi ggÕr i n numbÕr
6 neÐrÕr
7 l i vi ng wi th Þthers/not a|onÕ
8 ÐggrÕssivÕ
words oppositÕs from thÕ tÕxt
hÕ|pl Õss
6 UsÕ thÕ adjÕátives you found in thÕ text to desáribe othÕr nouns.
µåÐmple 1 ° holploss bÐbã
: Disáuss thÕse quÕstions.
i . WhÐt othÕr ani mÐl s i n thÕ wor|d arÕ fÐái nï Õåti náti on?
. Why i s i t i mportant to savÕ Ðni maIs from Õxti náti on?
. What Õ|sÕ áÐn humans do to ÞrÕsÕrvÕ thÕ wor|d arÞund thÕm?
án
ti _
fa -.hÕ-
0e
fu
SO
otr
Ä
Habi ts
QlÛiáI<quiz
1 ÁorrÕát thÕ mistakes in thÕsÕ sentÕnáes.
1 l,m gÕtti ng Up at sÕVÕn o,áIÞák Õvery morni ng, I a|ways
nÐVÕ.
2 Jane nÕvÕr i s ti rÕd Ðt ni ght - shÕ |ovÕs goi ng out.
3 PÕtÕ Ð|ways arri vi ng |ÐtÕ - i t rÕÐ|l ã annoãs mÕ.
Âoday, Deáember 1st, i s worl d AIDS day Ðnd so
our mystery pop personal i ty i s the perfeát person
for thi s weÕkÊ qui z. PÐul Hewson i s muáh better
known to the worId by anothÕr nÐmÕ. He i s the
|eÐd si ngÕr of a hugel y popuIÐr l ri sh group, but
who i s he?
He hÐs been an i mportant pÐÓt of setti ng Up a non-
profi t orgÐni sÐti on áÐ|l ed DAÂA (Debt, Al DS,TrÐde
i n Afri áa) Ðnd has beáome a áel ebri ty l obbyi st.
He often meets statesmen to di sáuss debt rel i ef
and has workÕd wi th top po|i ti ái Ðns to fi ght for Ðn
extra $5 bi l l i on to fi ght Al DS.Âhi s has resul ted i n
ári ti ái sm from some. Fri ends say, ,Peop|e are
al wÐys ári ti ái si ng hi m, but i tÊ the peopl e hÕÊ
hel pi ng who are i mpoftant. l t doÕsn,t bother hi m.'
l n áontrÐst to many roák stars who dress up for
thesÕ oááasi ons, Paul never áhanges hi s i magÕ.
µven for a meeti ng Wi th Pri náe ChÐr|es, he,l l turn
up weari ng Ð árumpl ed sui t and o|d shoes.
Who i s thi s fÐmous pop star who does so muáh
to try to áombat the huge probl Õms i n Afri áÐ?
Proìent habils
3 Look at exampIÕs Ð_á and áompIÕtÕ rulÕs ,l_3 with present
simplÕ, present áontinuous or will.
a ½e'll turn up weÐring Ð árumpled shirt Ðnd
sungIÐsseo.
b ||e often meets slÐteemen tÞ disáuss debt reliaf,
but he nevor dresseÒ up.
á Peopla Ðre alwÐãs áriticising him.
RulÕs
1 ThÕ i s usua||y usÕd tÞ tÐ|k about prÕsÕnt
hÐbi t. It i s ÞftÕn usÕd wi th an ÐdvÕrb of frÕÞuÕnáv
(nÕvÕr, somÕtimÕs, ot'tÕn, ÐlwÐãs, Õtá').
2 WÕ usÕ thÕ
+ Ð lwÐãs/áo nti n uÐ l lã/t'orÕve r Io
tÐl k ÐbÞut Ðnnoyi ng hÐbi ts.
3 WÕ usÕ tÞ tal k about sÞmÕonÕ's tYpi áÐ|
behÐvi ou r.
4 Áomp|Õte thÕ tÕxt with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrbs in
brÐákÕts. UsÕ the prÕsÕnt simp|Õ or will. More thÐn onÕ
answer may bÕ possiblÕ.
l\4y granddad ,l - (tÐ|k)for hÞurs ÐbÞut tvhÕn hÕ was
young, hÕ 2 - (tÕl|) storã aftÕr storã. HÕ ×
(bÕ) rÕaIIy good Ðt mÐki ng thÕ past áomÕ aIi vÕ. ½Õ
4 - (si t) i n hi s fÐvouri tÕ sÕat nÕÐr thÕ fi rÕ Ð¿O nÕ
(Ð|wÐys start) i n thÕ samÕ wÐy, .0náÕ, whÕn I wÐs
j ust Ð ãoung |Ðd...'Ðnd hi s stori Õs 6 - (Ðl ways fi ni sh)
i n thÕ samÕ wÐã, too, .0f áoursÕ, thi ngs ÐrÕ di ffÕrÕnt nÞw.'
|\4y sistÕr 7 - (a|wÐys wÐnt) to knÞw whÐt hÐppÕnÕd
to al I thÕ pÕop|Õ i n grÐnddad,s stori Õs. HÕ 8 - (j ust
smi |Õ) Ðnd thÕn hÕ 9 - (say), .WÕI|, thÐt's ÐnÞthÕr
storã.'
5 Wri tÕ an ÕåÐmpl Õ of an annoyi ng hÐbi t for ÕÐáh
stÐtÕmÕnt using thÕ prÕsÕnt áontinuous and ÐlwÐãs.
1 DÐni e| i s nÕvÕr on ti mÕ.
2 l\4Ðrk nÕvÕr doÕs his homÕwork
3 I'm not gÞi ng to |Õnd SÐ||ã anã
mÐkÕ/us l vÐi t
áopã/ml nÕ
Ðsk/borrow monÕy
morÕ monÕÃ.
4 ¾ur tÕÐáhÕr mÐkÕs us work too hÐrd! gi vÕ/us morÕ work
5 N4i kÕ hÐs a tÕrri b|Õ sÕnsÕ of humour. tÕ||/bÐd i okÕs
EåÐmple
1 ½Õ,s ÞlwÐãs mÐking us wÞit"
6 Áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáes with thÕ áorrÕát form of the vÕrb
in braákÕts.
1 |Vl y si ster i s tÕrri b|Õ. ShÕ - my á|othÕs wi thout
aski ng. (borrow)
2 Tom Ðnd µ||Õn wÐ|ki ng. (Õnj oã)
3 PÕop|Õ ÞftÕn - mÕ for monÕã for good áausÕs.
(Ðsk)
4 l\4i kÕ hi s gi rl fri Õnd ÕvÕry Õveni ng. (phonÕ)
5 l\i aggiÕ to thÕ áinÕma Ðt thÕ wÕÕkÕnd. (go)
2 Read thÕ tÕxt and find four exampIÕs of presÕnt habits.
Ä
Past habits
7 Read the text and Ðnswer thÕ quÕstions.
|n 1976 when tJ2 first formed' thÕ bÐnd mÕmbÕrs wÕrÕ aIl
stiII Ðt sáhooI. ThÕã usÕd to play togÕthÕr ÕvÕry night.
ÂhÕy would praátise in a garagÕ Ðnd spÕnd a fÕw hours
worki ng on thÕi r songs. Bono woul d wri te the musi á usi ng
numbÕrs instÕad of notÕs bÕáÐusÕ hÕ áouldn't read musiá.
ln fÐát hÕ wasn,t Õven ÐblÕ to p|aã thÕ guitar! Now, of
áoursÕ' things are vÕry diffÕrent.
1 Whiáh thrÕÕ wÐys áan WÕ usÕ to dÕsáribe pÐst hÐbits?
2 Áan WÕ usÕ would Io ÕXprÕss a past statÕ?
3 Áan WÕ UsÕ usÕd to or would for sing|Õ pÐst aátiÞns?
4 WhÐt form of thÕ vÕrb do wÕ usÕ aIIer usÕd to and
woulil
8 RÕwritÕ thÕ tÕxt usingwould and|or used to where
possible.
WhÕn wÕ WÕrÕ ãoUng wÕ 1 l i ved i n FrÐnáÕ. In thÕ hol i days,
wÕ 2 wÕnt to thÕ samÕ vil|ÐgÕ on thÕ áoÐst ÕvÕry yÕar. WÕ
3 stayed i n Ð bÕÐuti fuI housÕ ri ght on thÕ bÕaáh. I a got up
Õar|y ÕvÕrã morni ng and 5 ran down tÞ thÕ bÕaáh. I 6 swam
i f thÕ wÕathÕr was good and thÕn I 7 waIkÕd Ðl Þng thÕ
bÕÐáh or B ÕxpIored thÕ area. OnÕ day, I 9 met a gi r| and
aftÕr thÐt wÕ 10 spent aII our sparÕ ti mÕ togÕther. WÕ
11 bÕáame vÕrã gÞod friÕnds and wÕ 12 wrotÕ Iong |ÕttÕrs
ÕvÕrã wÕÕk. WÕ 13 sÐw Õaáh othÕr as oftÕn Ðs possib|Õ Ðnd Ð
fÕw ãÕars |ÐtÕr wÕ 1a startÕd going out togÕthÕr. LÐst ãÕar,
wÕ 15 got mÐrri Õd and wÕ 16 wÕnt baák to thÕ vi ||agÕ for
Þur honeãmoon.
µåomplÕ
Whon wo wero 1f¾ung, wa uÒad ta live in FrÐnáo.
LÕt's aátivatÕ
µota pta1
9 Work in pairs' Student A and StudÕnt B, and rÕad thÕ
instruátions bÕ|ow.
Student A
You arÕ thÕ host of Ð ÂV áhÐt show Ðnd ãou hÐvÕ invitÕd
StudÕnt B to ÐppÕar on thÕ shÞw. HÕ/ShÕ i s now a fÐmous
pop star, Ðnd doÕs Ð Iot of work for humÐni tari Ðn áaUsÕs'
but whÕn hÕ/shÕ wÐs yoUngÕr hi s/hÕr Ii fÕ wÐs vÕry di ffÕrÕnt.
Ask ÞuÕsti Þns Ðbout:
1 hi s/hÕr Ii fÕ whÕn hÕ/shÕ was ãoUnger.
2 hÞw hÕ/shÕ bÕáÐmÕ fÐmous.
· what hi s/hÕr Ii fÕ i s Ii kÕ now, whÐt hÕ/shÕ doÕs ÕvÕrã day.
4 hi s/hÕr work for humÐni tÐri an áÐUsÕs.
5 whÐt hÕ/shÕ thi nks ÐrÕ thÕ most i mportant thi ngs for a
hÐppã, suááÕssfu| |i fÕ.
StudÕnt B
You ÐrÕ Ð ri áh, famous pop stÐr. In your spÐrÕ ti mÕ you do
somÕ work for humÐni tari Ðn áausÕs. You ÐrÕ goi ng to ÐppÕÐr
Þn a TV shÞw. PrÕpÐrÕ to answÕr StudÕnt A's quÕstions. °|so
thi nk Ðbout:
1 whi áh áausÕ/áÐusÕs Ãou work for. Why di d you áhoosÕ
i t/thÕm? What ki nd of thi ngs do you do?
2 whÐt your routi nÕ i s nÞw. What Ðbout whÕn yÞu wÕrÕ
you ngÕr?
3 how your Ii fÕ hÐs áhangÕd i n thÕ past fÕw yÕars.
:Û
*i
ri
s
". r':;. .;-"-,- "'
Re.scate
1 Desáribe whÐt is happÕning in thÕ piáturÕ. What do you
think happÕnÕd bÕfore thÕ piáturÕ was takÕn? What do
you thi nk wi l I happen nÕxt?
Li steni ng
2 áC6|×.l You arÕ going to heÐr a rÐdio progrÐmmÕ about
dogs that heIp to savÕ peop|e's Iives. First, rÕÐd through
statements ,l_5. ÂhÕn listÕn and áhoosÕ the bÕst option.
1 ÂhÕ man i s suffÕri ng from
Ð shoák ÐftÕr Ð fÐl |.
b Ð brokÕn hi o.
á no1hi ng Ðl Ðl |.
d hãpothermi Ð'
2 ÂhÕ mÐn i s on thÕ rÐdi o progrÐmmÕ bÕáausÕ hÕ i s
a Ð dÞg hÐnd|Õr'
b Ð ÞÕt ownÕr.
á a rÕÞortÕr.
d Ð á|i mbÕr.
ÂhÕ purpÞsÕ of thÕ wÕÕkÕnd Ðátivity hÕ is tÐlking
Ðbout i s
a to fi nd peop|Õ whÞ ÐrÕ sui tÐb|Õ to trÐi n rÕsáue dÞgs.
b to ÐssÕss the risks Þf á|imbing in thÕ Sáottish
mou ntarns.
á tÞ gi ve dogs on rÕsáuÕ tÕÐms somÕ furthÕr trÐi ni ng.
d tÞ dÕái dÕ whi áh dogs Ðnd handIÕrs j oi n rÕsáuÕ tÕams.
Good rÕsáuÕ dogs ÐrÕ thÞsÕ whi áh, amongst othÕr thi ngs,
áan be trÐi nÕd
a to kÕÕp áal m i n unusual si tuÐti ons.
b not to go ÐnywhÕrÕ nÕar fÐrm ani mÐ|s.
á to gÕt usÕd to thÕ noi sÕ of Ði ráraft.
d not to touáh thÕ rÕsáuÕ fl ÐrÕs.
Dogs pÐrti áu|Ðr|y sui tÐb|Õ for mÞuntÐi n rÕsáUÕ Work
0Õáa UsÕ
a ÂhÕã áan rUn Ð |ot fÐstÕr thÐn humÐn bÕi ngs.
b ThÕã ÐrÕ ÕÐsi Õr to transport to thÕ si tÕ Þf thÕ sÕÐráh.
á ÂhÕã áÐn sni ff out Ð humÐn somÕ di stÐnáÕ awÐy.
d ÂhÕy áÐn be trai nÕd i n a vÕrã short ti mÕ.
µxpreììioní
3 Üatáh thÕ Õxpressions in italiás ]_6 to meanings Ð_f.
1 hypothÕrmia wi|| finish mÕ ot'f
2 thÕ dogs áÞn,t Þt't'ord to be nervÞus
3 whÕn resáuÕ flares go ä
4 todÐy's mountÐin rÕsÁuÕ owÕs Ð lot to
5 rÕsáuÕ has áome Ð long wÐã sináe
6 thÕ dogs hÞvÕn't lost thÕir touáh
a Õxp|ÞdÕ
b mÐkÕ Ð |ot of progrÕss
á ÐrÕ not i n Ð posi ti on to
d sti Il hÐvÕ thÕ Ðbi l i ty to do somÕthi ng
Õ hÐs Ð |Þt to thÐnk somÕbody for
f ki || mÕ
Mu|ti pl e áhoi áÕ quÕsti ons
BÕforÕ ãou Ii stÕn, rÕad through thÕ quÕsti ons áÐrÕfu||ã,
thÕn as vou Ii stÕn, áhÞosÕ thÕ áorrÕát answÕr. Put a dot .
bÕsi dÕ thÕ ÐnsWÕr you thi nk i s áorrÕát whÕn you l i sten
thÕ fi rst ti mÕ, thÕn makÕ yÞur fi nÐ| áhoi áÕ whÕn Ii stÕni nï
for thÕ sÕáond ti mÕ.
Ä
Pron u nái ati on
WÞaº form vrords
4 áo6J×.z ListÕn to this sÕntÕnáÕ. ÂhÕ words in itÐIiás are
weak forms. What typÕs of words arÕ thÕy?
Il n pl ayi ng thÕ ro|Õ o/Ð á|i mbÕr.
5 put thÕsÕ pÐrts of spÕÕáh into the áorrÕát áoIumn.
. Ðdj Õáti vÕs . ÐdvÕrbs r arti áIÕs . auxi Ii Ðri Õs r nouns
l prÕposi ti ons . pronouns . VÕrbs .
6 áo6J×× ÁiráIÕ thÕ words you think wiII be strÕssÕd in
sÕntenáes 1_8. Then Ii sten and undÕr|i nÕ the wÕak form
words.
'1 I áÐn hÕÐr Ðn Õxái tÕd bÐrk.
2 I,m hÕre to áovÕr thÕ Ðnnua| ÐssÕssmÕnt wÕÕkÕnd.
3 It's a tough tÕst.
4 ÂhÕã,rÕ bÕi ng wi náhÕd up i nto a hÕ|i áoptÕr.
5 HÕ wÐs i nvi tÕd to Swi tzÕrl and to sÕÕ thÕ work of
avÐ|ÐnáhÕ dogs.
6 It's me nÕåt.
7 | nÕÕdn,t worry.
8 |t,|| onl ã bÕ a mattÕr of mi nutÕs.
7 Now rÕad out the sÕntÕnáÕs in ExÕráisÕ 6. Make sure you
strÕss the áorreát words.
SpÕaki ng
Probl Þm-sol vi ng
8 You are going on a mountain Ðátivity weÕkÕnd. ln groups'
dÕáidÕ where to go, how to gÕt thÕrÕ, and áhoose two
aátivities from thÕ list.
. bungÕÕ j umpi ng . áIi mbi ng . paragl i di ng . ski i ng
. snowboardi ng . wal ki ng
9 ÁhoosÕ Õight ÕssentiaI itÕms to take with ãou.
FÞte pla1
10 ln pairs' disáuss whÐt thesÕ nÐturaI disÐstÕrs are and
áhoosÕ one to taIk about. Then do thÕ rol Õ.pIaã i n 1.l.
. avÐ|ÐnáhÕ . ÕÐrthÞuakÕ . ri vÕr fl ood . ti da| wavÕ
. l ornÐdo . vo|áÐni á Õruoti on
1 1 RÕÐd thÕ notÕs Ðnd takÕ turns to ask and answer
questi ons.
Student A
You Ðre a journaIist at thÕ sáÕnÕ of a disÐster. You Ðre
intÕrviÕwing a survivor. MÐkÕ notÕs about the quÕstions
you arÕ going to ask. Find out about:
. whÕrÕ thÕy wÕrÕ and what theã wÕrÕ dÞi ng whÕn thÕ
di sÐstÕr struák.
. how thÕã survi vÕd.
. how thÕy fÕ|t.
Student B
You ÐrÕ a survivor at the sáenÕ of Ð disÐstÕr. A journaIist
is going to intÕrviÕw ãou Ðbout what happÕnÕd. MakÕ
notÕs about your expÕriÕnáes. Âhink about:
. whÕrÕ yoU WÕrÕ Ðnd whÐt you WÕrÕ doi ng at thÕ ti mÕ Þf
thÕ di sÐstÕr.
. how yÞu survi vÕd
. how ãou fÕ|t.
Giving a ehort presentation
12 áhoosÕ onÕ of thÕ questions bÕlow and preparÕ a short
prÕsÕntation of onÕ minutÕ to givÕ to thÕ áIass.
1 ShouId pÕopl Õ whÞ tÐke UnnÕáÕssÐrã ri sks ÕxpÕát to bÕ
rÕsáuÕd by thÕ ÕmÕrgÕnáã sÕrviáÕs?
2 ShouId thÕ ÕmÕrgÕnáy sÕrvi áÕs bÕ fi nanáÕd by thÕ
govÕrnmÕnt or shouId thÕã rÕ|y on áhÐri ti Õs tÞ fund
thÕm?
Words thÐt ÐrÕ likÕ|y
tÞ bÕ strÕssÕd
WÞrds thÐt hÐvÕ
wÕÐk forms
Giving a prÕsentation
Âry to re|Ðx and spÕak áonfi dÕntIy. Your Ðudi ÕnáÕ wi || bÕ
morÕ i ntÕrÕstÕd i n whÐl ãoU ÐrÕ sÐãi ng.
Don't fÞrgÕt to kÕÕp an ÕãÕ on thÕ timÕ. Ârã not to
ovÕrrun or fi ni sh too Soon.
Don,t spÕÐk too qui ák|y or too qui ÕtIy. |V|ai ntÐi n Ð stÕady
ÞÐáÕ and ÞÐusÕ for brÕath.
ä
.',.{;
,: "S.,*
l
;",i.*.{
o SáotrÐnd
i
,
:-i *
;,*" ;;i
-t'
QáliáI<q.'iz
AnswÕr thÕsÕ quÕstions Ðbout Sáot|and.
1 WhÐt i s thÕ áÐpi taI of Sáot|Ðnd?
2 WhÐt famous dri nk i s madÕ i n Sáotl Ðnd?
3 What do SáotsmÕn tradi ti onaIl y wÕar?
4 Whiáh fÐmous Sáottish poÕt WrotÕ °uld LÐng SãnÕ
(sung on NÕw YÕÐr's µvÕ)?
5 What trÐdi ti onaI food i s ÕatÕn on thÕ ni ïht of hi s
bi rthd Ðy?
6 WhÐt ÐrÕ Sáotti sh l akÕs áa||Õd?
7 Whi áh i nstrumÕnt i s assoái atÕd wi th Sáot|Ðndz
B WhÐt i s thÕ hi ghÕst mountÐi n i n SáotIand?
9 Whi áh fÐmous monstÕr i s Ðssoái ÐtÕd wi th Sáot|Ðnd?
Studyi ng the sampl e
-. a)
l tt
3 ÚÕad Bob,s rÕpIy to his áousins. Is his lÕttÕr a forma| or b)
informa| in stv|Õ? GivÕ a rÕason for vour ans\!lÕr.
2 Bob Ii vÕs i n London but hÕ has somÕ áousi ns i n NÕw
Zea|and who arÕ áoming to visit Britain. RÕad the IettÕr
Bob rÕáeivÕd from thÕm.
Bob, ,aÕál be rÕÐllãgrÐkfØ| ifão" áoØld ÐrrÐngÕ Ð trip to
"Ùi""; 1':' '". idiollã,,.,¹7ik, to trÐvÕ| bã trÐiß ÐØd sttlg
i,,,1oitr* or siã diãs, WÕ,, P:::"il::l! .iØt;restÕd iß sÕÕißg
the Sáottish sáÕ¸rr! Ðßá| somÕ of thÕ hìtoriáÐl si1hk bu|, o"' .'
"',u, ",*' ì,,n ti,,, before, èÕ,re ßot s'Øre hoè togo ÐloØt i!.,
WÕ' Ðrrive iß Loßá/oß in /he Õn,,ing oß thÕ 71th °pril yd.áu-,oØ|d
be Ðb|e to átlkh Ð trÐiß ',o,,l ,"Eht.or nißÕ fu SáotlÐØd the
.,*i *",,,"!1, WoØld it bÕ Ðl/ ,ght for Øs to stÐã ovÕrßight Ðt
æoØr f/Ðt?
"Ú,o|iæ |ookiß.q for,uÐrd to sÕÕiØg ãoØ,
Drar Áhri í and Íarah,
Thankí for ãour |attÕr. It waí orra| |o hear f.| a-- ' í - arr
áominq to Brit,ain t¾ ?aà uí a viíiL. I'm íorry âc íÍl, -,h2| |
won.L ba in London on thÕ ÕvÕning ãou arrivÕ. a!-,.Á -qh þu,rÕ
vrry wÕlcomÕ t¾ Ítaà overnight in thÕ »aI,' I wi!!' ná'ÝÕvÕr, bÕ
aD|a to mert þU whrn ãou gÕL baák from Íáot|and '
You aíked mÕ |o arrangÕ a tri p to Ícot|and' whi ch I'vÕ donÕ'
|'vÕ bookÕd Ãou |w¾ íra|í ¾n Lhe ¾9,¾¾ Lrain frorr× Kin/í
Ároíí |o µdi nburqh,You'rÕ i n Áoach B and ãour íÕa|í arÕ 29
and ;. |'vÕ IÕfL ãou a n¾t'r wiLh Lha detai!í of ãour Lrip which
l.íuggÕítãou pi ák up wi ththrti ckÕtí from mã fl atmaLe.
|'vr also baokÕd ãou inI;o thr Loáhã I1otÕI in LhlÕ áÕn|rr of
µdi nburgh for |,vÕ ni ghtí, µdi nburgh'í a bÕauLi fu|, hi ítori ca|
ci tã wi th a magni fi áÕnL caí1|e and thÕ ítaff hava aííured mÕ
t,haLNhÕã can organiíÕ rxcuríioní anãwhÕrr in Íco)land for
þU,
°í f ar aí vi íi tí go, | áan rÕal |ã rrcommrnd LhÕ |,i qh|andí' You
Can írr bÕn NÕvi í, Ícotl and'í hi ghÕít m¾Un|ai n and Nhr
wondÕrfu| ;rnrry of G|ÕncoÕ, a ípÕáI;acul ar moun|ai n va||Õã.
You íhould take a trip to Loch Nríí, |oo - ãou might íÕÕ thÕ
rríidÕnt monÍ|er, which evÕryone'í áonvináÕd ltveí in thÕ |akÕ.
Looking forward to írÕing ãou in London.
Wi thbaítwi íheí,
bob
ÆndsrslÐnding the tasº
YoØrs,
Áhris Ðßd SÐrÐh
?
:
l.
!l
t:
I
'itur:l3il1?:li'iilqtitg:"t9ltlliill:llä-"
':. : : :rr:::iittt:,,119:liittttir!tti'illllii:!u1l3t'll:'tttiiir':t'::::::',r'::r:::rrr:__'__'' ..'' .''
Ä
WÓiting notes
4 RÕÐd thÕ notÕ Bob IÕft for hi s áousi ns Ðbout thei r tri p to
Sáot|and, then underl i ne thÕ samÕ pi ÕáÕs of i nformati on
i n Bob's l ettÕr.
1 train tiákÕtí to µdinburgh 12 °pri|
ÁoachÍ ÍaaLí29 and; !:
2 |iákaLí wi|h mà fiaLmaLe Jakr
3 aácommoda|ion for 12-16 °pri| j
Lochã |'oâr|,µdi nburqh - te|: ¾1379 2¾7 771 s
Jakahaí addraíí i 1
4 viíiLí (orqaniír'd bã hoNr|): ;1
|i qh|andí ,
Ben Navi í * hi gheít mountai n!
G|encoa _ va||Õã! }.
LochNÕíí - maníIar! i;
..*}ia..'.'@×g!1l 91i..i...,...}]×}]:9l}í*{g***oï*Ell.-'*.*llÒ*.l..''.3l
5 RÕwritÕ thesÕ sentenáÕs in notÕ form' |eaving out any
unneáessarã information' (NotÕs shouId always be briÕf
and informÐtivÕ. Âhey do not havÕ to be writtÕn in
áorrÕát grÐmmatiáaI forms.)
1 | hÐvÕ rÕsÕrvÕd Ð room foryou from May 1Oth to ¼lÐy
1 5th Ðt thÕ Hi ghl and HotÕ| on thÕ outski rts of AbÕrdeÕn.
2 | rÕa||ã thi nk ãou shouId vi si t thÕ i sl ands off thÕ wÕst
áoast of Sáotland bÕáÐusÕ theã'rÕ fantÐstiá.
3 ÂhÕ most bÕÐUti fuI of thÕ i sIands i s SkãÕ, Ðnd many
peop|Õ vi si t l ona bÕáausÕ of i ts hi stori áÐ| si gni fi áÐnáÕ.
4 ÂÞ gÕt to thÕ i sIÐnds, ãoU áan takÕ thÕ fÕrrã from thÕ
áoast and thÕrÕ i s Ð bri dgÕ to SkyÕ from Ky|Õ of LoáhaIsh.
5 0n thÕ i s|Ðnd of LÕwi s, you áÐn sÕÕ thÕ standi ng stonÕs
Ðt Áa||Ðni sh and Õnj oy thÕ pÕaáÕ Ðnd qui Õt that
surrounds thÕm.
6 Work with a partner. ÁhÕák that you hÐvÕ ináIudÕd aII thÕ
i mportant detai l s.
Steps to better wri ti ng
LevÞls of formÐlit1
7 Read the phrasÕs and dÕáidÕ whÕthÕr thÕy are formÐl (F)
or i nformÐ| (I).
1 ¿ a |t WÐs great to hÕar thÐt ...
¿ b I wÐs ÕxtrÕmÕIã pIÕasÕd to hÕÐr that ...
2 |1 a I si náÕrÕl y ÐpoIogi sÕ for not bÕi ng avai |Ðb|Õ.
¿ b l,m sorry to sÐã | won,t bÕ thÕrÕ.
· ¿ a WÕ ÐrÕ not áertai n how to orgÐni sÕ i t.
¿ b WÕ arÕn't surÕ how tÞ go about i t.
4 Z a You,rÕ vÕry wÕláomÕ to staã.
¿ b |t wÞu|d bÕ áonvÕniÕnt for you to stay.
5 ¿ a You shÞu|d tÐkÕ Ð tri p to ...
¿ b I wou|d advi sÕ you to arrÐngÕ a vi si t to .. '
6 ¿ a As fÐr Ðs vi si ts go, ...
¿ b Wi th rÕgÐrd to vi si ts, ...
Ælriting about 1our own áountÓ1
8 WritÕ sÕntenáes giving adviáÕ to someonÕ visiting your
áountry using thÕsÕ prompts and your own ideÐs.
1 - i s a ái tã wi th a
2 As visits
4
f
You shou|d Ð|sÞ - a vi si t to whÕrÕ ãÞu áÐn
sÕÕ -
- i s Ðl sÞ i nárÕdi bIy bÕÐuti fu|.
Âwo thi ngs - i s fÐmÞus for ÐrÕ - Ðnd --
Wri ti ng your l Õtter and notÕs
áonáÕrnÕd, I áÐn rÕáommÕnd
*fl
a.,l
Understanding thÞ tasK
9 l magi ne you havÕ áousi ns who Ii ve abroÐd and arÕ
áoming to visit you. You havÕ nÕvÕr met them but thÕy
have askÕd you to makÕ Ð|l thÕ arrÐngÕmÕnts (travÕI,
aááommodation and visits) for thÕm to go on Ð five-day
tri p to vi si t a popul ar touri st arÕa i n your áountry.
WritÕ a rÕp|y (120_150 words) to thÕir IÕttÕr and telI thÕm
whÐt you havÕ arrangÕd.
InáIudi ng al I thÕ nÕ(ÕssÐry i nformati on
WhÕn wri ti ng a |ÕttÕr, makÕ surÕ you i nál udÕ Ð|| thÕ
nÕÁÕssary dÕtÐi |s. If ãou do not, ãoU wi || l ÞsÕ marks.
10 wri tÕ short notÕs under thÕ hÕadi ngs i n 1_3 rÕmi ndi ng
yoursÕ|f what to tÕlI your áousins in your lÕttÕr'
1 Âransoort:
2 AááommodÐti on:
3 ReáommÕndÕd vi si ts:
\tlÓiting
'|1 DÕáidÕ what othÕr informÐtion you might nÕÕd and
i nál udÕ i t i n thÕ l Õtter' for ÕåÐmpIe:
. how you fÕÕ| ÐbÞut thÕi r vi si t.
. i f ãou wi || bÕ thÕrÕ whÕn thÕã arri vÕ.
. whÕrÕ thÕy wi || pi ák up ti ákÕts.
LhocYing
12 áhÕák thÐt you have:
. wri ttÕn bri ef, l Õgi b|Õ and i nformati vÕ notÕs.
. i nál udÕd a|| thÕ nÕáÕssarã i nformati on i n your nÞtÕs Ðnd
|ÕttÕr.
. usÕd an appropri ÐtÕ i nformÐ| stãl Õ.
. wri ttÕn thÕ ri ght Ðmount (120-150 words) i n ãour |ÕttÕr.
@
Proìen|. habits
1 writÕ thÕ words in thÕ áorrÕát order to mÐkÕ sÕntÕnáÕs
about hÐbits.
1 for l wi I|/ N4i kÕ / oftÕn i hours / rÕÐd
2 hard l Sam l Ðnd / wÞrk / usuÐ||y / ÁÕ|i Ð
3 hÕr / bÞrrowing / ÐlwÐys l bikÕ l brothÕr / KÐtÕ,s / is
4 ki nd l theã l Ðrel wi |l l theã l vÕrãl Ðl wÐãs l i t l áan l
thÕã/you/hÕ|p
5 i n / thosÕ / ÐrÕ / tÐ|ki ng l á|ass l studÕnts i áonti nuÐl l v
6 punátuÐ| l Pau| l Ð|wÐãs / hÕ / i s l |ate l i s / nÕvÕr
2 ÁomplÕtÕ the sentenáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb
in braákÕts. Use willwhÕre possibIÕ'
1 JanÕ (|ovÕ) ski i ng. ShÕ - (go) ÕvÕry dÐy l f
shÕ áÐn.
2 |\4Ðrk (gÕt up) Ðt 6.·0 duri ng thÕ wÕÕk bÕáÐusÕ
hÕ - (havÕ) a |ong j ournÕã tÞ work'
PÕtÕ - (not Ii kÕ) wÕÐri ng smÐrt ál othÕs, he
(ÕvÕn wÕar) o|d jÕans and Â-shirts to go to a pÐrtã.
SÐrÐh - (not do) Ðny wÞrk Ðt thÕ wÕÕkÕnd, shÕ
(prÕfÕr) to rÕlÐx.
(hÐvÕ to) bÕ áÐrÕfu| whÕn I (tÐkÕ) him for
Ð WÐ|K.
6 ÁIÐrÕ (ÕåÕráisÕ) ÕvÕry dÐy. ShÕ =-- (run) in
thÕ morni ng i n the pÐrk Ðnd shÕ (go) tÞ thÕ gãm
ÐftÕr work if shÕ - (hÐvÕ) timÕ.
MÐtáh situÐtions 1_6 to Ðnnoying hÐbits a-f. Âhen writÕ
sÕntÕnáes using thÕ prÕsÕnt áontinuous.
EåÒrnple
Thrã ara vpr'{ rßoÐn" Âhrã,re ÐIwÒãs 34ãit's thá.ã havon,t
got Ðnã monoY. buf lt,Ò nÞt trua'
1 ÂhÕã ÐrÕ VÕry mean.
2 JÕnnã i s vÕry ÐbsÕnt-mi ndÕd.
3 Pam nÕver says anãthi ng ni áÕ about hÕr fri ÕnÞs.
4 ]aák i s rÕal Iy unti dã.
5 DÐve Ðnd JÐnÕ ÐrÕ rÕÐl Iy unrÕIi ÐbIe.
6 Ji m i s nÕvÕr pUnátUÐ,.
Ð tUrn up IatÕ for bÐskÕtbÐl I prÐáti áÕ
b l osÕ thi ngs
á ári ti ái sÕs thÕm
d |osÕ thi ngs bÕáÐusÕ hi s room i s i n suáh Ð mÕss
e say thÕy hÐvÕn't got Ðny monÕã, but i t's not truÕ
f |Õt mÕ down
ÁomplÕte the sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb
in braákÕts. UsÕ thÕ presÕnt simp|Õ, thÕ prÕsÕnt
áontinuous, or will.
A dream áomÕ truÕ
1 -ãoU - (oftÕn / drÕÐm) of wi nni ng thÕ
|ÞttÕrã? µverã wÕÕkÕnd thousands of pÕÞp|Õ 2
(i mÐgi nÕ) wi nni ng thÕ mi ||i on-pound j Ðákpot
Ðnd l Ðst
r'vÕÕk RÞb Whi tÕ,s drÕÐm áamÕ truÕ.
'RÞb × - (Ð|wÐys i buã) a IottÕrã ti ákÕt Ðt thÕ
tvÕÕkÕnd,, sÐãs hi s gi r|fri Õnd. .HÕ a - (usuÐ||ã / buy)
onÕ O¿ thÕ way homÕ from work. HÕ 5 - (stop) Ðt
Þur |oáÐl shÞp Ðnd 6 - (áhat) to John, thÕ ownÕr.
ThÕv 7 - (Ð|waãs / j okÕ) about who,s goi ng to wi n
thÕ l ottÕry thi s wÕÕk.'.YÕs,'Ðdds Rob.i t's pÐrt Þf mã
rÞuti nÕ. l 8 - (Ðl ways / thi nk) thÕ wÕÕkÕnd 9
(stÐrt)whÕn | 10 - (go i nto)thÕ shÞp to buy my
tiákÕt. N4ã pÐrÕnts -l-l - (not spend) monÕã on IottÕry
ti ákÕts, thÕã thi nk i t,s Ð wastÕ of monÕy' ÂhÕã 12
(a|wÐãs / tÕl l ) mÕ I shoul dn't WÐstÕ my monÕã buãi ng
..::::::::ll. llllll l : "'lll'1",'"0 I:Io" ::::"..,,
Past habits
5 RÕwritÕ thÕ vÕrbs whÕre possibIe. UsÕ vlould where
possible or usÕd to.
WhÕn I Was youngÕr wÕ 1 Ii vÕd i n a smÐl I vi ||ÐgÕ and wÕ
2 had a dog. WÕ 3 took it for Ð wÐ|k ÕvÕrã dÐy. WÕ a lovÕd
our dog, but i t áou|d bÕ vÕry nÐughty. It 5 áhÐsÕd othÕr
dogs, i t 6 tri ed to j oi n i n footbÐ|l gamÕs Ðnd i n summÕr
when thÕ iáÕ-árÕÐm vÐn 7 áamÕ it 8 sÐt nÕxt to thÕ van and
9 Iooked at ÕvÕryÞnÕ. So manã pÕÞp|Õ 10 gavÕ thÕ dog iáÕ-
árÕÐms thÐt it i1 bÕáamÕ fÐt' onáÕ it 12 followed thÕ iáÕ-
árÕÐm VÐn tÞ thÕ nÕxt vi Il ÐgÕ Ðnd wÕ ,l 3 wÕrÕ rÕÐ||ã worri Õd
unti I thÕ Van ownÕr ]a phonÕd us' ¼l y mothÕr ]5 hÐd to
dri vÕ thÕrÕ Ðnd áÞ||Õát i t!
Ä
Readi ng
6 RÕad thÕ tÕåt. Whiáh paragraph ináludÕs:
,l Ð áÞnál usi Þn - why yoU WrotÕ ÐbÞut thi s pÕrson
2 i nfÞrmÐti on al íout thÕ past
3 i nfÞrmÐti on about whÐt thÕ pÕrson doÕs Ðnd Ii kÕs i n thÕ
0rÕsÕnI
4 a physi áaI dÕsári ptl Þn
A
I
deíáráäáÞru o₠ o par×on'
IÆ9 9.on.d.r^ÞtÌ'er á× qØáte íkort artd ×L.m
ottd. ×Ke. × 9Þt èotv9 ÌLorltde l.ráár artd Lival9
ÌLØe a9aí' Ílre è×èo.LL9 äqot.; áÞLÞÚr₠éL
áLotkeí o.Ø'd. Looks ₠ÓieÚdl9.
St'e L.vÕí oru |..Õr oäh. Lht o' ×rÚáLL |.rÞæíe
r.ot ₠ot. ₠rorw èkerÕ rÚ9 ₠oÛi L9 LtvÕ.í,
Vi×.tin'9 hqr .5 áLèá9× ₠ælt Ìecqæíe.
PeoPLq tu."l'. .^p otLL ttre t.r^Õ. Ít,.e èíÕd to
Ìe o teoáhÕr ond her oLd ×tØÞeßtí Þ.nd
l,reÓ n'er9trÌoær5 äLLL o₠tÕru áotne Lr.t ₠o. o.
á^p o₠ tqá oÚd ot cl,.qt. ALtkoègÌ. ít'e'×
áLèá9× ÌØ×9, ×|-ra'LL ^o.ke t.r^e fo" ol'.9ol't.
ä.th O. proÌ(ÕÜ. ShÕ í o vet9 9ood
Lá×teytÕr Þ.rud E|^'e áLèot9í 9Lve5 9ood..
pr oá tááo( odváCq,
Íhe ÞLíÞ ',Þrks o× o vol Øntqe. è.th q
9rÞèp èko viíát ×áÕk á!ráLd'reØ. .N ko6P.t;L,l.....
Â}'e9 or9Þn.sÕ Àotrt.eí ond other káßds o{
Õn (e rto.n.e,. t Fo. the áhá(dreß, too'
5oÜe(ámeí Ü9 9rotßdrØotØ.er u×oØ(d drÕ×× up
.,1:t1r.rrl l l,.
Wri ti ng
7 Now writÕ a dÕsáription of somÕone you know' using the
samÕ plan as the tÕxt in 6.
Li steni ng
8 ₠).n You are going to hÕar Ð nÕws report about a
storm. ListÕn and dÕáidÕ if the statements arÕ truÕ (Â) Þr
faIsÕ (F).
,l ¿ 0kl ÐhomÐ WÐs struák by l i ghtni ng l Ðst ni ght.
2 ¿ PÕop|Õ survi vÕd i ni ti ÐIl y by |Õavi ng thÕi r homÕs.
3 ¿ ÂhousÐnds of pÕop|Õ ÐrÕ now hÞmÕIÕss.
4 ¿ Some hÞusÕs WÕrÕ b|own awÐy.
5 ¿ ÁhÐd Harri s wÐs wÞkÕn up from Ð ni ghtmarÕ.
6 ¿ Ruth HÕnsl Õã aImost |ost hÕr son.
7 ¿ Storms don't áomÕ ÐnV WorsÕ thÐn thi s.
h
;'i
:{!
f
,. :
Gí G áLoäN o.rud per₠or^ ₠or tÌ.a
"u..o..,'. ÍKe ÌeLievÕ× Lo.è9ktar KeLPí
tKer^ 9et Ìetter rÚoÓa qèáákl9. Â
rar^arÚÌar t[át èÚ.r. äa äa.a 9oL^N9eY
íke äoæLd' Ì.alg èí èráte oØ'd. o.át o.^t o^.
oäN PLo.95, o.Nd äe æíe.d tÞ Loè9l,r á LÞt'
Or'áe äe J'.d o- íÌ.oè ₠oÓ tKe èKoLe
váLlo.9e on.d rt9 9rol.dr^otKer èqí t!.a
o."."t"", r^o.i.e tÌ.a cÞítæÜaí o.rn.d.
or9o.ltá9ad avarä|.'áru9.
Ùi-,"*^o^otÚa. o...'o2' aitcoèro.9e-d :''^::
n.t t[iß9í' Íka Þ.Lèá9í
t,9 oßd dÞ dá\tere t Á
Iræ ur\u ..
,."o t" íoç tØot .t Þi Jßt rnotrer,.I ,::
:::. ;""";-",-i Ù.^ or ÚÞt, ?"i ^â- *:'*.,
tÚe r* oÔd 6.íáa,Je( oLL 9oØr tol en tg l ß
₠oát íÌ.a'í l^ít íto"tad Le.o..t^tLlt-g {ã\a
;; . íÚJ ío9- íKa'a o.Lè+9" .,".., .^,
èárutad to pLÞ.9 Þ' rwØ5ááo.L Lh.5træÜarut o:r!o(
;;.; o. 9ÞÞd ti^a to ítÞ.rti.
 o.4r^.ra r^9 9ro.i..dr^ot|rar 'fÄ
liope T or^ L.ka ker älrr.an.l:l!rÚ.
1Û"*ál,' ...eád
;Ldar:;l,rtr,:r'rl l'rl l'
Ä
\tlord buitdlng
1 Áomplete thÕ tÕxts with thÕ áorrÕát fÞrm of thÕ word
braákÕts.
Aááording to nÕW stÐtistiás, |Ðst yÕÐr sÐw thÕ most 1
(drÐmÐ) storms Ðnd droughts for tÕn yÕÐrs. l n thÕ wÞrst.hi t
áountriÕs, extrÕmÕ wÕathÕr rÕsu|tÕd in 2 - (stÐrvÕ)
Ðnd hÞmÕ|ÕssnÕss. Sái Õnti sts say thÐt i nárÕÐsÕd g|obÐ|
· - (po||utÕ) i s mÐki ng Ð si gni fi áant a
(áÞntri butÕ) to ál i mÐti á áhÐngÕs.
°ááordi ng to thÕ Wor|d Wi dÕ Fund for NÐturÕ, thÕ 5
(survi vÕ) of µuropÕ,s bears, IynxÕs and wo|vÕs i s bÕi ng
threatÕnÕd. SomÕ spÕái Õs ÐrÕ Þn thÕ bri nk of 6
(Õåtinát)' ÂhÕrÕ hÐvÕ bÕÕn sÕvÕra| 7 - (áonservÕ)
programmes, but ÐttÕmpts to rÐisÕ spÕáiÕs suáh Ðs thÕ
|bÕri Ðn |ynx i n B (áÐpti vÕ) hÐvÕ fÐi |Õd. ÂhÕ
áonti nui ng 9 - (dÕstroã) of thÕ habi tat Þf thÕ |ynx
mÕans thÐt i t wi || àrobabl ã di Õ out ovÕr thÕ next fi ftã yÕars
Environmsntal probloms
2 MÐtáh thÕ ÕnvironmÕntaI probIems 1_6 tÞ thÕir
definitions Ð_f.
1 gl obal wÐrmi ng
2 aái d rai n
3 ÕndangÕrÕd spÕáiÕs
4 sÕvÕre drought
5 áhÕmi áaI pol Iuti on
6 oi l sl i ák
arÕÐ Þf oiI that flÞats on thÕ sÕÐ
l ong dry pÕri od
substÐnáÕ that mÐkÕs thÕ Õnvi ronmÕnt di rty Ðnd
0Ð ngÕroU s
i nárÕÐsÕ i n tÕmpÕrÐturÕ Þf thÕ µÐÓth's ÐtmÞsphÕrÕ
rÐin thÐt has bÕÕn ÐffÕátÕd by fÐátorã polIution
Ðni mÐl s or p|Ðnts thÐt arÕ ál osÕ to exti náti Þn
ÁomplÕte thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with onÕ of thÕ phrasÕs ,l*6
tn 2.
1 Sái Õnti sts sÐy thÐt un|Õss - i s stoppÕd, ri si ng
tÕmperÐturÕs wi || áÐusÕ di sÐstrous fl oods i n Iow-l ãi ng
áou ntri es.
2 -, áÐusÕd by pol |uti on i n thÕ ÐtmosphÕrÕ, hÐs
dÕstroyÕd mÐnã trÕÕs in NÞrthÕrn µurÞpÕ.
3 A |ot of ri vÕr wi |d|i fÕ hÐs bÕÕn ki ||Õd bv from
fÐátories.
4 |n 1998, a - i n Afri áÐ áÐusÕd wi dÕsprÕad fÐmi nÕ
5 SomÕ suáh Ðs thÕ IbÕri an |ynx, hÐvÕ bÕÕn
huntÕd ÐImost to ÕxLi náti Þn.
6 ÂhÕ hÐd Ð di sÐstrous ÕffÕát on sÕÐbi rds Ðnd
mÐri nÕ |i fÕ.
AäeetivÞs uith -Ieíe and -ful
4 ÁompIetÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáes wi th onÕ of thÕsÕ words Ðnd thÕ
áorreát suffix ( -lÕss or .fuf . More than onÕ ansWÕr may be
possiblÕ for ÕÐáh gÐp.
* áarÕ s nÐrm * nÕ|à * nomÕ Ä sUÁáÕsS s I'JsÕ
1 AftÕr hi s fal l, thÕ ál i mbÕr l Ðy - unti l a rÕsáuÕ
tÕÐm Ðrri vÕd.
2 LÕÐvi ng l i ttÕr l n thÕ áountrysi dÕ i s - Ðnd
i rrÕspÞ nsi b l Õ.
3 G|obÐl wÐrmi ng i s hÐvi ng Ð - ÕffÕát on thÕ
Õnvi ronmÕnt.
4 ShÕl tÕr i s Ð Bri ti sh áhÐri tã
dÕvotÕd to hÕl pi ng thÕ
Ð|umi ni um áÐns i s Ð
RÕáyá|i ng pÐpÕr, gIass, Ðnd
way of rÕduái ng pol Iuti on.
6 ThÕ dÕmonstrati on agÐi nst nuá|ÕÐr ÕnÕrgy Was VÕry
Lots of pÕop|Õ ÐttÕndÕd
Words that go togÞthar
5 áhoose thÕ áorrÕát words or phrases to áomplÕtÕ the
sÕntÕnáes'
1 |f ãou won mi l |i ons of pÞunds' woul d you - ãour
fÐmi |ã Ðnd fri Õnds?
a hÕ|p out b heIp ovÕr á hÕl p Ðl ong
2 Li sa Ð|| hÕr oId ál othÕs to áhari tã.
a gÐVÕ Up b gavÕ ÞvÕr á gÐVÕ ÐWay
· Sái Õnti sts havÕ - wi th a nÕw tãpÕ of áar engi nÕ to
hÕ|p rÕduáÕ pol Iul i on.
a ÁomÕ Up b áomÕ ÐwÐã á ÁomÕ aáross
4 |f ãou wÐnt to mÐkÕ - monÕã, ãou ought to
0eÁomÕ Ð |awyÕr.
a muÁn
b pl Õntã of á man,
5 In hi s wi l |, Si r j ohn l Õft Ð l ot of prÞpÕrty to
ÁÐ UsÕs.
a worthy
b vÐl uÐb|Õ á prÕái ous
6 0náÕ Mark had gi vÕn Zoñ thÕ monÕy, i t wÐs tÞÞ |atÕ to
hi s mi nd and Ðsk for i t bÐák.
Ð áhangÕ
b mÐkÕ
á modi fy
a
b
á
d
Õ
f
@
Âh.Thirty.ninÕ StÕpS
bã |ohi BuáhÐn
{)'s âWas iust fitting my kÕy into thÕ door whÕn I
notiáÕd a man at my Õlbow. I had not sÕÕn him approaáh,
and thÕ suddÕn appÕaranáÕ madÕ mÕ start. HÕ was a slim
man, with a short brown bÕard and small bluÕ ÕyÕs. I
rÕáognisÕd him as thÕ oááupant of a flat on thÕ top floor,
r'vith whon-r I had passÕd thÕ tlmÕ of day on thÕ stairs.
,Áan I spÕak to you?' hÕ said. ,¼ay I áomÕ in for a
minutÕ?, HÕ was stÕadying his voiáÕ with an Õffort, and his
hand was pawing mY arm.
I got my door ÞpÕnÕd and motionÕd him in. No soonÕr
.ruu, Ù. ovÕr thÕ thrÕshold than hÕ madÕ a dash for my baák
room, WhÕrÕ I usÕd to smokÕ and writÕ my lÕttÕrs. ThÕn hÕ
bol tÕd baák.
,Is thÕ door loákÕd?, hÕ askÕd fÕvÕrishly, and hÕ
fastÕnÕd thÕ áhain with his own hand.
.I,m vÕry sorty,, hÕ said humbly. ,It,s a mighty libÕrty,
but you toÌÚÕo thÕ kind Þf man who would undÕrstand.
I,vÕ had you in my mind all this wÕÕk whÕn things got
troublÕsomÕ. Say, will you do mÕ a good turn?,
,I,1l l i stÕn to you,, I sai d. .That,s al l I,l l promi sÕ.,
,I,m a bit rattlÕd tonight,, hÕ said. ,You SÕÕ, I happÕn at
this rrromÕnt to bÕ dÕad.,
,What doÕs it fÕÕl likÕ?, I askÕd. I was prÕtty áÕâtain that
I had to dÕal with a rrradman.
A small smilÕ fliákÕrÕd ovÕr his drawn faáÕ. ,You sÕÕ I
rrÕÕd hÕlp morÕ than any man ÕvÕr nÕÕdÕd it, and I want
to know i f I áan áount you i n.,
,GÕt on with your story,, I said, ,and I,1l tÕll you.,
HÕ was an ArnÕriáan, frorn KÕntuáky, and aftÕr áollÕgÕ,
bÕing prÕtty wÕll off, hÕ had startÕd out to sÕÕ thÕ world.
HÕ wrotÕ a bit, and aátÕd as War áorrÕspondÕnt for a
Áhiáago papÕrl and spÕnt a ÃÕat oI two in South-µastÕrn
Òurop!. ÝÕÊpoÚ" familiarly of many namÕs I rÕmÕmbÕrÕd
having sÕÕn in thÕ nÕwspapÕrs. HÕ had playÕd about with
politiÙ, hÕ told mÕ, at first fÞr thÕ intÕrÕst of thÕm, and
ihÕn bÕáausÕ hÕ áouldn,t hÕlp himsÕlf.
I am giving yÞu what hÕ told mÕ as wÕ]l as I áould makÕ
i t out.
Away bÕhind all thÕ govÕrnmÕnts and thÕ armiÕs thÕrÕ
WasasubtÕrranÕanmovÕmÕntgoi ngon,Õngi nÕÕrÕdby
dangÕrous pÕÞplÕ. HÕ had áomÕ aáIoss it by aááidÕnt; it
fasáinatÕd him; hÕ wÕnt furthÕr, and thÕn got áaught. I
gathÕrÕd that most of thÕ pÕoplÕ in it wÕrÕ thÕ soÓt of
ÕduáatÕd anaráhists that makÕ rÕvolutions, and that bÕsidÕ
thÕm wÕrÕ flnanáiÕrs who wÕrÕ playing for monÕy. A álÕvÕr
n]an áan makÕ profits from a falling markÕt, and it suitÕd
thÕ book of both álassÕs to hold µuropÕ by thÕ Õars.
HÕ told rnÕ somÕ stlangÕ things that ÕxplainÕd a lot that
had plzz\Õd mÕ _ things that had happÕnÕd in thÕ Balkan
War, how onÕ statÕ suddÕnly áamÕ out on top, why
al l i anáÕs wÕrÕ madÕ and brokÕn, Whà áÕrtai n mÕn
disappÕarÕd, and whÕrÕ thÕ origins of war áamÕ from. ThÕ
aim of thÕ wholÕ áonspiraáy was to sÕt Russia and GÕrmany
against Õaáh ÞthÕr.
I thought for an instant or two' 'Right, I'11 trust you' I
bÕliÕvÕ yÞu,rÕ straight, but if you arÕ not, I should warn
you that I'm a handY man with a gun''
Your rÕaátions
l n pÐi rs, di sáuss thÕsÕ quÕsti ons.
1 Why do you thi nk thÕ mÐn sÐi d .I hÐppÕn Ðt thi s
momÕnt to bÕ dÕad'?
2 What dÞ ãou thi nk madÕ thÕ wri tÕr dÕái dÕ to trust thÕ
man?
3 WhÐt do ãou thi nk happÕns nÕxt i n thÕ stÞrã?
4 Whã do ãou thi nk stori Õs Ii kÕ thi s are so popu|Ðr?
5 HÞw rÕÐ|i sti á do ãou thi nk stori Õs Ii kÕ thi s arÕ?
6 Do ãÞu hÐvÕ Ðnã stori Õs l i kÕ thi s i n ãour own l i tÕraturÕ?
Whi áh onÕs?
l.t,{lµ ÝÔflill{µlT
GÞDFRµY âµARLµ
ÀµáGY Af}|áRoFâ
ol Rf,áâeD BY
Ä
The troubre vviÐIl âv
1 l n smÐII groups' di sáuss thesÕ
quÕstions about TV.
o How manã hours of ÂV do you
wÐtáh Õaáh daã?
. How mÐnã TVs do ãou havÕ i n
you r homÕ?
. How oftÕn ÐrÕ you Ð||owÕd to
dÕái dÕ whÐt progrÐmmÕs ãoUr
fÐmi Iy wÐtáhÕs?
Þ Do you havÕ Ð ÂV i n ãÞur own
room?
. WhÐt do your ÐnswÕrs show
Ðbout thÕ atti tUdÕ of thÕ group
towÐrds watáhing ÂV?
. Áou|d you spÕnd a month
wi thout wÐtáhi ng ÂV? What
wou|d you dÞ i nstÕÐd?
Readi ng
2 skim rÕad thÕ tÕxt and áhoosÕ the
best tit|Õ, a, b, or á.
a No ÂV, no prob|Õm?
b ÂV is bÐd for you
á WÕ shou|d wÐtáh |Õss ÂV
Âi tl Õ:
l áan provÕ that thÕ Áommon fÐátor to troub|Õ-makÕrs Ðtl á.] --- -:. -:]s i s thi s:
thÕy di dn,t watáh Õnough ÂV. ¼any prol íl Õms wouId hÐrÕ i -.ÕÕ- :..Þi ded i f
pÕopl Õ had spÕnt thei r ti mÕ wÐtáhi ng ÂV. l know thi s l l eáÐ'l s= . .Õ. Ð rather
hÕatÕd argumÕnt wi th my parÕnts about my ÂV habi ts. l ,' .,..ÕÕrÕd to
spÕnd a who|Õ month wi thoutÂV. ThÕ l íottom l i nÕ i s tha;:..-..Õi ßl Õ i nto
Ð far worsÕ DÕrson.
ÂhÕre arÕ two thi ngs you qui á|<l y noti áÕ akrout not watái -l:l -.: -..,. Â.Õ i i rst i s
that ÕvÕryone watáhÕs i t far morÕ than thÕy admi t. ÂhÕ .Õ- ..: s thÐt i t
gi vÕs hours of good qua|i tã Õntertai nmÕnt for Ii tt|Õ áost. Á- . -. -.",'Õ |ong
mai ntai ned that ÂV dÕstroãs thÕ mi nd, but l,vÕ no\\ :1]: .- 'l.-j:.-..i i that
pÕopl e who havÕn.t got a ÂV bÕáome rest|Õss, Õdgr, Ði.l; :'i::Õ.sÕáJ rr'i th
tri vi a.
I tri Õd keepi ng a di ary Þf thÕ ÕxpÕri ment: ,Daã 1. Li fÕ l s s- ,.-t,-:. l l Õtter
wi thout ÂV. I,m doi ng so muáh morÕ, and fÕÕI a l íÕttÕr l ]Õr:i -.''. Ðtl ál so
on.... Âhe sÕáond wÕÕk was j ust dul l. I fÕIt s|i ghtl y nunl l l .l -.: ] :. -.' Ð\\,arÕ
that ÕveryÞne Õ|sÕ was havi ng fun whi |Õ | áouIdn,t al l Þr.' :l."sÕ,:Þ á]o so.
Goi ng out wi th fri Õnds al sÞ got probl Õmati á. l now rÕal i sÕ ..:1 . :: Õ]si t\Vo-
thi rds of áonvÕrsati ons bÕgi n: ,HÕyl Di d you sÕÕ ... thÕ ,ri.Õ. ^i qht?,of
ÁoUrSÕ/ I hadn,t! Peopl Õ stjrtÕál rÕgardi ng mÕ as somÕ sol 1 . -.r . .ÐsÕ.
ThÕ |owest poi nts of thÕ month wÕre two µng|anál -Sáá::"l á; i ootbal I
matáhÕs, fÞr whi áh Ij oi nÕd Bri tÐi n,s |ong-di stanáÕ |orrt'áJl .'Õ.s Ðnái shop
stafi i n l i stÕni ng to thÕ radi o. Li fe i n Bri tai n áamÕ to Ð áol l l l l Õ.Õ hÐ|t that
dÐy. l know bÕáausÕ l stared out of the wi ndow watáhi nç -.i.Õ .á:i Þf the
popul ati on hurryi ng home to watáh thÕ matáhes.
ÂhÕn tÞtal di saster struák. l got f|u and had to spend Ð dar' Ði i l Þ:".:l Õ. DÕspi tÕ
thÕ thri Il Þf áomfÞrt food Ðnd rÕadi ng thÕ nÕwspapÕr i n bed rl ]tr i hÕ áentral
hÕati ng Þn, thÕre seemÕd nÞ poi ni i n havi ng a day Þtf si ák i; .,Þu ÁÐn,t
watáh ÂV. l was bÐák Ðt work the next day.
ÂhÕ l ast fÕw days werÕ l i ke bei ng Ð 'Ónul l .hi l d l íÕ{orÕ Áhri stßl as: Õaáh
mi nutÕ toÞk twi áÕ as l Þng as the àreáÕdi ng one. µventuÐl l r,, ßl i ái ni ght árept
around, Ðnd, Ii kÕ a drowni ßg man fi ndi ng dry |and, I l ÕÐàt i n froßt
o³thÕ sÕt and grabbÕd thÕ rÕmÞtÕ ÁontroI Ðs i t i l rrÐs purÕ gÞ|d!
I hÐd rÕaáhÕd an oÐsi s o³ tÕ|Õvi suÐI del i ghts. °nd, oi ÁoursÕ,
you,VÕ guÕssÕd i t! ThÕrÕ was nothi ng i nl ÕrÕsti ng Þnl
@
TÞby Sáott ThÕ Áuardian
MuIti pIÕ-áhoi áe q uesti ons
Fi rst, rÕÐd thÕ quÕsti Þns (not thÕ opti ons). Âhi s wi Il hÕ|p
you to foáus on whÐt to l ook for i n thÕ tÕxt. ÂhÕn reÐd
thÕ tÕxt. NÕxt, go bÐák to thÕ quÕsti ons and rÕÐd Ð|| thÕ
opti ons áarÕful l ã Ðnd undÕr|i nÕ thÕ parts of thÕ tÕxt
whi áh hÕ|p you make your áhoi áÕ.
3 Sáan thÕ tÕxt and áhoosÕ thÕ bÕst ÐnswÕr' a,b, á, or d, to
questi ons 1-6.
1 What i s thÕ wri tÕr suggÕsti ng about troubl ÕmÐkÕrs and
ári mi naIs i n pÐragraph 1?
a ThÕy gÕt most of thÕi r i dÕas from wÐtáhi ng ÂV.
b Watáhi ng TV turns thÕm i nto ÕVÕn WorsÕ pÕop|Õ.
á Watáhi ng TV áouId hÐvÕ Ð bÕnÕfi ái Ð| ÕffÕát on thÕm.
d Wi thout TV thÕy wou|d hÐvÕ nothi ng to do.
What doÕs .i t, rÕfÕr to i n pÐrÐgrÐph 1?
a Ð TV progrÐmme
b not watáhi ng ÂV
á thÕ ÂV nÕws
d bÕi ng a vo|untÕÕr
Whi áh two áommÕnts doÕs thÕ wri tÕr mÐkÕ about ÂV i n
paragraph 2?
a |Vost ÂV programmÕs appÕÐ| to vÕrã fÕw pÕÞp|Õ.
b 0n thÕ who|Õ ÂV progrÐmmÕs ÐrÕ ÕxáÕ||Õnt vÐl uÕ for
monÕy.
á PÕop|Õ who own ÂV sÕts oftÕn do not wÐtáh thÕm
vÕrã muáh'
d PÕop|Õ spÕnd morÕ ti mÕ wÐtáhi ng ÂV than thÕy sÐy
thÕã do.
WhÐt di d thÕ wri ter rÕaIi sÕ as ti mÕ worÕ on?
a KÕÕpi ng Ð di Ðrã was not Ðs ÕÐsy Ðs hÕ hÐd thought.
b HÕ hÐd fÕwÕr fri Õnds thÐn hÕ thought hÕ hÐd.
á AftÕr thÕ fi rst few days, hi s fÕÕ|i ngs begÐn to áhangÕ.
d He wÐs hÐvi ng mÞrÕ i ntÕrÕsti ng áonvÕrsÐti ons wi th
fri Õnds.
WhÐt di d hÕ do whÕn hÕ áouIdn't wÐtáh thÕ fÞÞtba||
matáhÕs on ÂV?
a HÕ dÕái dÕd to spÕnd somÕ ti mÕ vi si ti ng Wa|Õs.
b HÕ wÕnt shoppi ng whi |Õ ÕvÕrãonÕ wÐtáhÕd TV.
á HÕ áamÕ aáross SomÕ |orrã dri vÕrs who toId hi m
ÐbÞut thÕm.
d HÕ di sáÞvÕred thÐt hÕ áouId Ii stÕn to thÕm on thÕ
rÐd io.
ThÕ .totaI disaster' in pÐrÐgrÐph 5 rÕfÕrs to thÕ faát thÐt
Ð hi s i IInÕss prÕvÕntÕd hi m f rom gÞi ng to work.
b hÕ had l ost hi s appÕti tÕ Ðnd áouIdn't ÕÐt Ðnãthi ng.
á hÕ wÐs i II Ðnd unÐbl Õ to wÐtáh TV Ðt homÕ.
d hÕ wÐs unÐb|Õ to wÞrk bÕáÐusÕ hÕ hÐd Ðn Ðáái dÕnt.
Voáabul ary
4 Sáan thÕ tÕxt and find words that mean:
1 shÞw somÕthi ng i s truÕ (pÐragrÐph 1)
2 prÕvÕnt (pÐrÐgraph 1)
3 say somÕthi ng i s truÕ (paragrÐph 2)
4 |ook Ðt somÕbodã or somÕthi ng for a Iong ti mÕ beáÐusÕ
you ÐrÕ i ntÕrÕstÕd or surpri sÕd (pÐragraph 4)
5 ÐttÐák suddÕn|ã (pÐrÐgrÐph 5)
6 move qui ák|ã (parÐgrÐph 6)
7 tÐke somÕthi ng suddÕn|y or roughIy (pÐrÐgraph 6)
5 Find phrases'l_5 in thÕ text and áhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát
Õxplanation of their meaning' a or b.
1 thÕ áommon fÐátor (pÐragraph 1)
a Ð shÐrÕd poi nt
b an uni mpÞrtant poi nt
2 thÕ bottom Ii nÕ (parÐgrÐph 1)
Ð thÕ l ÕÐst i mportÐnt faát
b the áÞnáIusi on
· obsÕssÕd with triviÐ (pÐrÐgraph 2)
Ð áonstantl ã thi nki ng Ðbout uni mportant thi ngs
b oftÕn áonsi deri ng whÐt i s i mportÐnt i n Ii fÕ
4 sl i ghtl ã numb (pÐragrÐph 3)
a rather sad
b not rÕÐl |ã Ðb|Õ to fÕÕ| thi ngs
5 a sad áasÕ (pÐragrÐph ·)
a SomÕonÕ who i s upsÕt Ðbout somethi ng
b somÕone to fÕÕl sorrv fÞr
ÂV Ðnd radio
6 Exp|ain thÕ meaning of thÕsÕ words. UsÕ a diátionarã if
nÕáÕssary.
u aÕri a| u áhannÕ| u broÐdáast u DVD p|ÐyÕr
.* rÕáording studio * rÕmotÕ áontrol * satÕ||itÕ TV " statiÞn
.+ trÐnsmi ttÕr * vi dÕo rÕáordÕr
Disáuss the folIowing quÕstions.
Þ How many di ffÕrÕnt tãpÕs of ÂV prÞgrammÕ áÐn you
thi nk of?
a
a
What ki nds of ÂV programmÕs do ãou áonsi dÕr to bÕ
Ð) ÕntÕrtÐi ni ng, b) usÕful, á) bori ng? Why?
How muáh ÐdvÕrti si ng i s thÕrÕ on TV i n ãour áountry?
WhÐt wouId yÞu dÞ to i mprovÕ TV progrÐmmes i n ãour
áo u ntrã?
@
Rel ati ve and noun ál auses
QtÛiákquiz
1 ÁorrÕát thÕ mistÐkÕs in thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáÕs.
1 Thi s i s the advÕrti si ng ÐgÕnáã who fi rst ÐdvÕrt was so suááÕssful.
2 London whÕrÕ I wÐs worki ng for two ãÕÐrs hÐs mÐny good ÐdvÕrti si ng
ÐgÕnái Õs.
3 Thi s i s thÕ advÕrti sÕmÕnt what I was taIki nï about.
4 Áan you tÕ|I mÕ whÕrÕ i s thÕ stÐti on?
5 DÞ ãou know i f JÐmÕs i s hÕ áomi ng to thÕ pÐrtã?
Whi áh adverti sement beIow do vou thi nk
is morÕ ÕffÕátivÕ? Whv?
Read thÕ teåt and answÕr thÕ quÕstions.
1 ÂhÕ quÕsti onnai rÕ appÕÐrÕd on thÕ bÐák
thi nk i t i s ai mÕd at?
s*r*e *n-$r* &*ã* *
of a paákÕt of fÞÞd. Who do ãou
Defining and non-defining relalive
á|auìeì
4 RÕad the tÕxt agai n and underIi ne the
rÕIative áIausÕs. Whiáh re|ativÕ áIausÕs:
1 tÕ|I us whi áh pÕrson, thi ng, ti mÕ or
p|ÐáÕ thÕ spÕÐkÕr i s tÐ|ki ng Ðbout?
2 gi vÕ Õxtra i nformÐti on?
3 gi vÕ ÕssÕnti Ð| i nformati on?
4 áan be Þmitted?
ÁompIÕtÕ thÕ rulÕs. UsÕ your ÐnswÕrs to 4
to hel p you.
Rul es
1 WÕ usÕ dÕfi ni ng rÕIÐti vÕ á|ÐusÕs to tal k
about thÕ pÕrson or thi ng i n thÕ mÐi n
á|ausÕ. ÂhÕy gi vÕ i nformati on.
2 WÕ usÕ thÕ rÕIativÕ pronouns who,
whiáh, thÐt, whosÕ, whÕrÕ, and when
wi th dÕfi ni ng reIati ve áIÐusÕs.
3 WhÕn thÕ rÕ|Ðti vÕ pronoun rÕfÕrs to thÕ
obj Õát of thÕ vÕrb i t áan bÕ omi ttÕd.
4 WÕ usÕ non-dÕfi ni ng rÕl ati vÕ á|ausÕs tÞ
tÐIk about thÕ pÕrsÞn or thi ng i n thÕ
mÐi n ál ÐusÕ. ÂhÕã gi vÕ-
i nformÐti on.
5 WÕ put áommÐs bÕforÕ Ðnd aftÕr thÕ
ál ÐusÕ. WÕ usÕ thÕ rÕl Ðti vÕ pronoUns
who, whiáh, whosÕ, whÕrÕ' and whÕn
wi th nÞn-dÕfi ni ng rÕ|Ðti vÕ ál ausÕs.
6 WÕ áÐnnoI use thÐt wi th non-dÕfi ni ng
rÕ|ati ve ál ÐusÕs Ðnd wÕ Áannot omi t thÕ
rÕ|Ðti vÕ pronoun.
ln pairs, ÕxpIain thÕ diffÕrenáe bÕtwÕen
thÕ pairs of sentenáÕs. UsÕ the ruIÕs in 5
to hÕIp you.
1 a AII thÕ áustomÕrs who wÕrÕ i nvi tÕd to
thÕ promoti on rÕáÕi vÕd Ð frÕÕ gi ft.
b ÂhÕ rÕgu|ar áUstomÕrs, who wÕrÕ
i nvi tÕd to thÕ promoti on, rÕáÕi vÕd Ð
frÕÕ gift.
2 a ÂhÕ áar whi áh was parkÕd i n front Þf
our housÕ wÐs bri ght rÕd.
b ÂhÕ áÐr, whi áh wÐs parkÕd i n front of
our housÕ, wÐs bri ght rÕd.
Look at the sÕntÕnáÕs in 6 agÐin and
answer thÕ quÕsti ons.
1 ln whiáh sÕntÕnáes áou|d we thÐt
i nstÕÐd of thÕ pronoun usÕd?
2 Áan wÕ omi t thÕ rÕIati vÕ pronoun i n anã
of thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs? Whã/whã not?
6
7
2 What dÞ ãou thi nk thÕ pUrposÕ of thÕ quÕsti onnai rÕ i s?
Ouestionnaire
@ vou,,, at a pÐrty whe1e someone offers you peaßuls and árisps.
What do you sÐy.
a ,Not at thc mome¿t, thanks.'
ì ,áun l take a haßdfæl for my lriÒnd?,
" .oì good, this is lust whÐt l,ve beÒn waiting lor.,
o Y"" visit a dÕntist who points out that you ßoW have more lillings than teÕth.
Do You:
aèakeÐfi rèresol èti ontÞgi veèptaki ngsugari nyourroffee?.
b start èsißg a ,'n;;-i;;;;stitutÕ, but stit| ÌÐvÒ a hisáuit with yoèr áoffee?
á lÒel dÕàâessed ";;;;k yiur motìer' who is a tantastiá áook, to mÐke you a
áhoáolÐte áakÕ?
Gl You arÕ oß thÞ toà lloor ot a bui|ding' Yoè need to go dowß tÞ the ground floor'
- but the lift doesn't áomÕ for ages. Do you:
a tÐkÒ the stairs?
b vvait 15 mißètÒs for a lift thÐt you kßow isnt going to áomÕ? .
á pretend you.le ill and wÐit for someone to come and help you?
o you, neighbour. whose dog you adÞrÕ. asks yoè to eåeráise the pet. Do you:
v u--no to.r a two.kilometre walk thrÞugh thÕ àark?
h ieÐve the animal to run round the gardeß by itself?
á throw a stiáÚ oè ë the window and settle dowß to watáh TV?
Ä
Noun c|auìoì aì ìubieá|. and obioá|
8 Whi áh noun á|ausÕ i n i tal i ás i s thÕ subj Õát and whi áh thÕ
obj eát of thÕ vÕrb i n the mai n áIause?
1 l,vÕ heard thÐt SuÕ is getting mÐrriÕd.
2 WhÐt ãou arÕ tÕlling mÕ is untruÕ.
9 Matáh phrÐsÕs ,l_5 to phrasÕs Ð-Õ to makÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with
a noun á|ause.
] I havÕ no i dÕÐ
2 What thÕ tÕÐáhÕr i s suggÕsttng
3 WhÐt thÕã askÕd mÕ tÞ dÞ
4 HÐvÕ ãÞu notiáÕd
5 WÕ oftÕn fÕar
a wi l I hÕl Þ us i n thÕ ÕxÐm.
b thÐt pÕop|Õ oftÕn buã usÕl Õss thi ngs?
á whÐt wÕ know nothi ng about.
d wÐs áÞmÞIÕtÕl v unrÕasonÐbIÕ.
Õ what you arÕ tal ki ng about.
Noun á|auìoì af|.er indireát quo6t.on5
10 Look Ðt Õxamp|es a_á and answÕr quÕsti ons 1_3.
a Do you know whÕrÕ thÕ bank i s?
b ÁÐn ãou tÕ|| mÕ i f N4Ðggi Õ i s µng|i sh?
á ÁÐn ãÞu tÕ|| mÕ how o|d shÕ i s?
1 What do you noti áÕ Ðbout thÕ vÕrb i n thÕ fi rst pÐrt of
ÕÐáh ÞuÕsti on?
2 What do you nÞti áÕ Ðbout thÕ vÕrb i n thÕ sÕáond part of
ÕÐáh ouÕsti Þn?
3 WhÐt words do WÕ UsÕ to i ntroduáÕ a sÕáÞnd quÕsti on
whÕn thÕrÕ is nÞ quÕstion word (whÕrÕ, how old, whÐt,
when, ÕIá.)?
11 RÕwrite thÕse questions using the words givÕn.
1 WhÕrÕ doÕs Maggi Õ go to sáhool?
Do ãou know ...
2 WhÐt is thÕ poàulation oi lrÕland?
Áan you tÕ|| mÕ ...
Has Sãl vi Ð phonÕd?
Do ãou know ...
Di d |\4ÐnáhÕstÕr Uni tÕd wi n thÕ matáh?
Do you know ...
Di d N/ark buã Ðny brÕÐd?
Di d ãou noti áÕ...
HÞw di d thÕã trÐvÕI to KÕnãÐ?
Do you know ...
Let's aátivatÕ
AdvÞrtising sloganÒ
12 In groups, read thÕ advÕrti si ng s|ogans and answÕr thÕ
questions.
1 WhÐt ÐrÕ thÕ sl ogans ÐdvÕrti si ng?
2 How suááÕssfuI do ãou thi nk thÕy mi ght bÕ i n Ðttraáti ng
attÕnti on?
3 WhÐt i s thÕ bÕst ÐdvÕrt yÞu hÐvÕ ÕvÕr sÕÕn? Whã di d you
Ii kÕ i t?
It's the tobaááo that áounts!
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Th. áar that thinks itÊ a planÕ! ]
The trainers athletes Preferl i
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Âhe dri nk everyÞneÊ tal ki ng about!
ti.
ThÕ bÐnd yÞu'vÕ Ð1l bÕÕn waiting fÞr! ..,]
3;:n*i{!1!llli:t.,rrr,***tg11gil1',,,,,,1;;l.ili'l:ltr'l:""', ',,'." --..,.,.;:liill"tr!r':'::':.1t'f*" I
,l3 áhoÞsÕ thrÕÕ produáts you IikÕ and writÕ slogans for them
Ii kÕ those i n 12.
Ä
TIlÕIDÁDwerof
tlte lDress
Look at thÕ piáturÕ. WhÐt doÕs it show?
In groups' usÕ these ideÐs to find out about your
partnÕrs' rÕading hÐbits.
. how oftÕn / rÕÐd mÐgÐzi nÕs or nÕWspapÕrs
. namÕ of mÐgÐzi nÕs or nÕWspÐpÕrs
typÕ of arti á|Õs
fÐvouritÕ sÕátion
most bori ng seáti on
Li steni ng
Mul ti pIe matáhi ng
RÕÐd qui ák|ã through eÐáh i tÕm for Õaáh di ffÕrÕnt
spÕakÕr. onáÕ ãou hÐvÕ áhosÕn an answÕr and ÐrÕ fÐi r|y
áÕrtÐi n i t i s áorrÕát, put thÕ numbÕr of thÕ spÕÐkÕr nÕxt
to thÐt ÞÞti on.
3 o6Jl.l You arÕ going to heÐr fivÕ journÐIists tÐlking
Ðbout the futurÕ of the nÕws mÕdiÐ. RÕad through
statements a-j. ÂhÕn Iisten Ðnd áhoosÕ thÕ two
statements Õaáh speaker makÕs. WritÕ the appropriÐtÕ
|ÕttÕr in Õaáh box 1_10. ThÕrÕ is Ðn ÕxamplÕ at thÕ
begi nni ng.
Ð |Vany nÕws si tÕs on thÕ NÕt ÐrÕ muáh l Õss dÕtÐi IÕd thÐn
papÕrs Ðnd mÐgÐzi nÕs.
b In thÕ nÕxt dÕáÐdÕ, thÕ NÕt wi || i nárÕÐsÕ i n i mportanáÕ.
á |nformÐti on i s somÕti mÕs vÕry di ffi áuIt to fi nd on thÕ
lntÕrnÕt. speÐKor t
d ÂhÕ NÕt wi l | Ðdd to, not bÕ Ð substi tutÕ for' thÕ nÕws i n
magÐzi nÕs Ðnd pÐpers.
Õ Tradi ti ÞnÐ| nÕwspÐpÕrs Ðnd magÐzi nÕs wi || bÕáÞmÕ
morÕ i mportant.
f PÕop|Õ rÕad thÕi r dÐi |ã nÕws at brÕakfÐst or on thÕ way
IO WOTK.
g Âradi ti onÐ| nÕwspapÕrs Ðnd magazi nÕs wi Il not
di sÐppÕÐr i n thÕ nÕxt dÕáÐdÕ.
h PÕopIe don't trust manã |ntÕrnÕt si tÕs.
i WhÕn thÕ IntÕrnÕt stÐrts broÐdáÐsti ng tÕl Õvi si on
progrÐmmÕs, thÕ nÐturÕ of thÕ WÕb wi Il áhÐngÕ
f u ndamÕntal Iy.
j RÕÐdi ng thÕ nÕws on Ð áompUtÕr sárÕÕn l s |Õss enj oyÐb|Õ
thÐn rÕÐdi ng i t i n Ð nÕwspÐpÕr.
Senr
1
2
a
a
a
First statemÕnt SÕáond statÕmÕnt
SpÕÐkÕr 1 JÕssi áÐ LÕemÐn 1 |a
SpÕakÕr 2 John Woodáoák · ¿
SpÕakÕr · Áhri s ÁampbÕ|| 5 Ó
SpÕÐker4 Ri áhÐrd ÁoIÕburn 7
SpÕÐ|'Õr 5 Jonti Smal | 9
4 Now listÕn Ðgain and áhÕák your answers.
2³1
41
. i 1
r)
B¿
10 fl
Pronu nái ati on
Using 6tr965 for mÞaning
5 o6|Ð.z RÕad thÕ sÕntenáe be|oé and Iisten to it bÕing
said in fivÕ differÕnt wavs. MÐtáh versions 1_5 to thÕir
mÕanings a_Õ.
I don't spÕnd hours surfi ng thÕ NÕt for nÕws.
a l'] but I do hÐvÕ thÕ oááÐsi ÞnÐl |ook
b i l but I do spÕnd Ð Iong ti mÕ |ooki ngthrough thÕ pÐpÕrs
á ] but mã áoIIÕÐguÕs do
d ¿butIáoul d
Õ È but I do for othÕr i nformati on
6 ln pairs, rÕad out sentÕnáÕs 1 and 2 in wÐys that support
mÕÐnings a_Õ.
1 | thi nk mÐgÐzi nÕs wi l I sti II bÕ popu|ar i n 10 yÕars'ti mÕ.
a but nÕWspapÕrs Won't
b but not nÕáÕssari Iy ÐftÕr thÐt
á but not nÕáÕssÐri Iy i mportÐnt
d but my fri Õnds don't
Õ but l dÞn't know
2 |n thÕ futurÕ, I thi nk trÐdi ti onÐ| mÐgazi nÕs wi l I bÕáÞmÕ
morÕ rÕ|ÕvÐnt.
a not |ÕsS
b nÞt nÕw-stãl Õ mÐgÐzi nÕs
á but my áoIl ÕaguÕs don't
d but not now
Õ but I'm not surÕ
Ä
Speaki ng
itimulu×-baìed diìáuììion
7 l n pai rs, ask and answÕr questi ons about thÕ sti muIus
bÕ|ow.
. WhÐt i s happÕni ng/hÐs hÐppÕnÕd?
. Who i s/was i nvol vÕd?
. WhÐt do thÕ hÕÐdIi nÕ Ðnd opi ni on po|| rÕsu|ts suggÕst?
. Do you thi nk thÕ rÕsu|t of thÕ poII woul d bÕ thÕ sÐmÕ i n
vour áountrv?
Þ How muáh of what vou rÕÐd do vou be|i ÕvÕ?
Government accuses :l
press of distortion.
¡..
fi
;*
ff
i.
8 Now givÕ your prÕsÕntÐtion to your group.
Disáussion
9 6)o., ln groups, dÕáidÕ whÐt you think is thÕ bÕst way
to IÕarn Ðbout what i s happeni ng i n thÕ wor|d. UsÕ thÕ
di a|oguÕ box to hÕl p you. Âhi nk about:
thÕ di ffÕrÕnáÕ bÕtwÕÕn sÕÕi ng movi ng pi áturÕs Ðnd
photÞgrÐphs.
thÕ amount of i nformati on gi vÕn i n Ð rÐdi Þ or ÂV nÕws
i tÕm Ðnd i n a magÐzi nÕ or nÕWspapÕr Ðrti ál Õ.
thÕ ti mÕ busy pÕopIe havÕ to fi nd out whÐt's hÐppÕni ng
i n thÕ wÞrl d.
how qui áktã si tuÐti ons áÐn áhÐngÕ.
SpÕÐki ng to an Ðudi ÕnáÕ
Look di rÕátl ã at ãoUr Ðudi ÕnáÕ. I\/Ði ntÐi ni ng ÕãÕ ÁontÐát
wi II hÕl p yoU ÁommUni áÐtÕ ãour mÕssÐgÕ and hol d
pÕop|Õ's i ntÕrÕst.
RÕfÕr to ãoUr notÕs but do not rÕÐd thÕm out.
ÂakÕ Ð dÕÕp brÕÐth and trã to proj Õát ãour voi áÕ so thÐt
your Ðudi ÕnáÕ áÐn hÕÐr you ál Õar|y.
Government press Nei ther
r\ß 17o/o 25% 5g%
Females 14% 26% 60"Ì
20% 25% 55%
f,
µ
t+
I
AgrÕÕing and disagrÕeing
A ÂhÕ rÕÐI di ffÕrÕnáÕ bÕtwÕÕn TV and radi o nÕws i s thÕ
Þi átu rÕs.
B l áouldn,t Ðgree with ãou more! But ÐftÕr Ð whilÕ,
ÕvÕn thÕ pi áturÕs don't mÐkÕ muáh i mprÕssi on on ãÞu.
° AátuÐllã, l,m not sure if l ÐgreÕ with that. ÂhÕã áÐn
bÕ qui tÕ upsÕtti ng Ðt ti mÕs'
B You hÐvÕ Ð point thÕrÕ bØt somÕtimÕs you sÕe thÕ
sÐmÕ thi ng so mÐnã ti mes thÐt ãou j ust stop tÐki ng
Ðnã noti áÕ.
° TruÕ.
1
a
A sárâoortrfio
What kind of trips do studÕnts somÕtimÕs go on?
How usefuI do you thi nk student tri ps arÕ?
Studyi ng the sampl e
UndÞrstanding thÞ tasK
3 RÕad thÕ tÕåts. lgnorÕ the gaps.
1 Whi áh Ðrti á|Õ i s ÐbÞut:
a Ð studv tri Þ ÐbroÐd? b Ðn Õduáati onal vi si t?
2 Whi áh Ðrti ál Õ do ãou thi nk has bÕÕn wri ttÕn by:
a Ð tÕÐáhÕr?
b a studÕnt?
Ð. member áountry of the offiáiÐl ffi * t , G
4 AIl i n Ð||
a Ðt thÕ Õnd
b tÐki ng ÕvÕrãthi ng i ntÞ
áonsi derÐti o n
5 Wi thout doubt
a áÕrtai nIy
b hÕsi tantIy
6 ApÐrt f rom
Ð ÕxáÕpt for
b i n Ð di [[ÕrÕnt di rÕáti on
United Nations, whiáh it i' tr.l.ir. ffifu;-'.*u=-l;#
Woodsi de PÐrk SáhÙ
represented SamoÐ' Âhe student ffi
representatives set off
thei r del egati on. ' estÐbi i shed the ni nà;;,;:;^ "^ .,.- ,
for the,.o ot .r'.*1.ÚÂpiff½''':fl l.ff :: Ö,T::l. :
most of the delegates. ' , Ðtt Ùltuoents made new i.
fri ends Ðnd the eveni ngs *.* o.Ù'.j Ên.,l..'u to soái aIi si ng.
,..--..--.--.- the áomments mÐde by most of the students l0 'i
Ð wonderful time wÐs had bv all! ].'
Ä .:].].|'':i...l..l.::,.;i.....:..:,.il]]]]i'i]].]]]]]..]..r:..].],::::':]|l:::i]]:]]i:]l]::..l''........'.''...'','.'............,,,.,.]ii
WritÕ about a trip of your own. WritÕ sÕntÕnáÕs bÕginning
with thÕ words ,l_6 in 6.
Annuol trip to the Sáie nce Nluseum
0n February 8th, the whol e Þf our year
travel l ed by áoaáh to the Sái enáe
Museum. Âhe Fl i ght Gal l ery of the
museum áontai ns some i mpressi ve
ful l -si zed ai rárÐft, the seárets of a
fl i ght box reáorder and what was
' _=- the students, fÐvourite
exhi bi t _ thÕ amazi ng f|i ght si mu|ator l
experi enáe. The ,Seáret Li fe of the .'
Home'Gal l erY al so had some good i
interÐátive demonstrations Þf
é i nterÐátIve 0emonsl l al l u|l ì Ul i:
te|evi si ons and CD pl Ðyers., -,i twas a very,eni oyabl e l i:
;;'';"-- Ù.nÞing thrÕe Ðnd , h.lf h.,Y]':l''.l]:
l.lio* *on iams' o
London trÐffi á i ams' o -, our áoa0n 0l 0 ßU ]::
áomputerised trÐffiá sysÙl 0n the *1y ho*:..y^1Ð]l started li
i. .'o.r,l. teaáhers: ,Where are We goi ng next yeÐr?,
5
|v|o D µL U N t â µD NAÓ,oNs (|v| U N ) áoNFµRµNáµ
ln JÐnuary every year, over 3000 Ö**-*. . i
LooKing at áontÞnt dÞtail
4 RÕÐd thÕ tÕåts again. What happÕnÕd on thÕ two trips?
How do thÕ writÕrs fÕeI about thÕm?
StÕps to bettÕr wri ti ng
ÁompIetÕ thÕ tÕxts in 3 With thesÕ words and phrasÕs.
Ðááordi ng to Ð|| i n Ð|l Ðpart from i n hi gh spi ri ts
nÕvÕrthÕl Õss on thÕi r rÕturn thÕ fi rst dÐã thi s ãÕÐr
unfortunatÕ|ã wi thout doubt
ÁhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát mÕaning of thÕsÕ words.
The right èord
iÖli.*..J1*fl;i1.H,ffi 6
1 AááÞrdi ng to
Ð i n i mi tati on of
b as stÐtÕd or
rÕportÕd bã
2 U nfortu natÕ|ã
a unIuáki Iy
b hopÕl Õss|ã
3 NÕvÕrthÕ|Õss
a howÕvÕr
b not Ðt Ð|I
Æsing difforant vÞrbÒ to giva information
8 Expl ai n thÕ mÕani ng of thÕsÕ words. UsÕ a di áti onÐry i f
nÕáÕssary.
Ðáhi ÕvÕ ÐIIoáÐtÕ app|ã dÕvotÕ .ÕnáouragÕ
ÕstÐbl i sh gÐthÕr mÐi ntai n rÕprÕsÕnt sÕIÕát
9 ÁompIÕte sÕntÕnáÕs 1-8 with thÕ áorrÕát form of one of
thÕ vÕrbs in 8 abovÕ.
] |V]orÕ than ·000 studÕnts i n thÕ HÐguÕ for the
áonfÕrÕnáÕ l ast month.
2 ThÕ studÕnts WÕrÕ - by thÕi r tÕÐáhÕrs for thÕ tri p
to thÕ HaguÕ.
3 EvÕry studÕnt i n thÕ sáhoo| ãÕar - to go on thÕ
trl P.
4 µaáh sáhoo| - thÕ membÕr of thÕ Uni tÕd Nati ons
i t hÐd bÕÕn
5 ThÕ UN wÐs aftÕr thÕ SÕáond Worl d War i n 1945
to - i ntÕrnati ÞnaI pÕÐáÕ Ðnd sÕáuri tã.
6 StudÕnts ÐrÕ - to tÐkÕ part i n di sáussi ons at thÕ
áo nfÕrÕnáÕ.
µaáh day wÐs
At the Õnd of thÕ áonfÕrÕnáÕ, studÕnts fÕl t that thÕy hÐd
Ð grÕÐt dÕÐ|.
Quoting direá|. ëPooLh
1ff UndÕrl i ne thÕ áorrÕát i nformÐti on to áompIÕte thÕ
sÕntÕnáes.
] WÕ usÕ a áommÐ/áoloÛ to introduáÕ dirÕát spÕÕáh whÕn
WÕ ÐrÕ rÕporti n8 Ð quotÐl i on.
2 WÕ usÕ a áommÐ/áoloÛ to introduáÕ dirÕát spÕÕáh bÕforÕ
or ÐftÕr a rÕporti ng vÕrb.
Put a áommÐ or a áo|on and spÕÕáh mÐrks in thÕ áorrÕát
pIaáe in thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáes.
1 Âhi s WÐs onÕ of mã grÐndfathÕr,s fÐvouri tÕ sÐãi ngs It's
nÕVÕr too IatÕ to IÕarnl
2 EvÕrã ti mÕ | saw mã grÐndfathÕr, he ÐskÕd mÕ HÐvÕ you
got a boãfriÕnd?
3 Ti mÕ f|i Õs mã grÐndfathÕr usÕd to sÐy.
ReÐd thÕ tÕxt Ðnd put in the áorrÕát punátuation of the
dirÕát spÕÕáh.
to a di ffÕrÕnt topi á for di sáussi on.
an rvrnt
Planning
,l3 you arÕ going to write a dÕsáription of an event (200_250
words). DeáidÕ what it is going to bÕ about. Áhoose from
onÕ of thÕsÕ topiás:
. A studà tri p studÕnts hÐvÕ bÕÕn on
. A áonfÕrÕnáÕ studÕnts hÐvÕ tÐken oart i n
. A p|Ðã studÕnts hÐvÕ wri ttÕn Ðnd pÕrformÕd
Æ|riting
,l4 write your dÕsáription. GivÕ as muáh information as
possibIe. Use thesÕ idÕas to hÕ|p you.
. WhÐt happÕnÕd
. Who was i nvo|vÕd
Þ WhÐt pÕÞpIÕ sai d about i t
. WhÕrÕi when/whã i t happÕnÕd
LheáYlng
1 5 áhÕák thÐt you havÕ:
. dÕsári bÕd what hÐppÕnÕd
. usÕd thÕ áÞrrÕát punátuÐti on
. i nál udÕd somÕ Ðmusi ng i nformati on or pÕrsonal poi nts
of vi Õw
. writtÕn thÕ right amount (200-250 words).
l {ri ti ng your dÕsári pti on of
*r
:.,
]¿
ffi
fl
+ii
7
8
â1
12
A former Woodside Park student, Roger Morton' has written 1 book' Neve.r S1v .Goo.dbue;-
whi áhi sab0utt0beèÓnedi ntÞamai orfeaturefi l m,l ha.dwri ttenaá0Upl eofáhaàtersÐt
sáhool i ustforfunsaysRoger,22,ofHi l l áourtRoad,London.l áameoutofuni versi tyand
ended up with a iob l didn't Want _ iust to earn moneY Roger eåàlain-ed. After six mÞnths, l'd
savÕdenoughmoneytogotoAustral i a'Whi l eheWasthere,*o:..^:.:,,n.dwÓi ti nghi sfi rst
proàer notes on,.,uo* oj o,o.,. Roger sai d l l ustthough'uo.un.::u1:,:l.^'::::,.::"'.-
áhÐptersandIefti tatthat.Now,Roger.sbooki sabouttomakei ttÞtheái ßemasáreen.
Ti mi ng ãour wri ti ng
l n Ðn Õxam vÞu ÞnIY hÐvÕ a Ii mi tÕd ti mÕ tÞ wri tÕ ÕÐáh
tÐsk. Ârã ti mi ng ãoursÕ|f whÕnÕvÕr ãou praáti sÕ wri ti ng Ð
pÐrti ául Ðr tÐsk to sÕÕ hÞw Iong thÕ who|Õ prÞáÕss takÕs.
:,,,1r1ilttr,!.tr,rl3il8!i"9?:llr'rsi31i:li1|ri{*llgi'il!rsi:i*ig'i}{{legi{i1*;?8991
@
DÞfining Ðnd non.dafining ralativs á|auìeì
1 UndÕrline the rÕlÐtivÕ áIauses in sentÕnáÕs 1-6. Whiáh are
dÕfi ni ng and whi áh ÐrÕ non-dÕfi ni ng?
1 ThÐt's thÕ DVD p|ÐãÕr thÐt l wÐnt to buã.
2 FriÕnds, whiáh is on ÕVÕry ÂhursdÐy, is Ð pÞpulÐr
Ameri áÐn show.
3 |\4ã mothÕr, who is a TV prÞduáÕr, works vÕry Iong hours.
4 thÕ phÞto, whiáh wÐs takÕn bã N4Ðß RÐã, was sold fÞr
thousands of pounds.
5 lsn't that thÕ vidÕo shÞp whÕrÕ you usÕd to wÞrk?
6 Mã brothÕr, whÞ i s Ðn aátor, l i vÕs i n London.
2 UndÕr|inÕ thÕ áorreát words to áompIÕtÕ thÕ sÕntenáes.
.l HÕrÕ's thÕ book thÐt/who/whose l told ãou ÐbÞut.
2 ÂhÐt's thÕ mÐn who/whiáh/whose WÐs ÐrrÕstÕd.
3 ÂhÕ fans, thÐt/who/whÕn hÐd beÕn wÐiting for hours,
fina||y mÕt thÕ ÂV stÐr'
4 PoliáÕ ÐrÕ |ooking fÞr a woman whiáh/who/whosÕ
bri ÕfáÐsÕ wÐs found Ðt thÕ ai rpÞrt.
5 |s thÐt thÕ rÕstÐurÐnI whiáh/whÕrÕ/th,r WÕ WÕnt to on
my birthday?
6 SeptÕmbÕr, whiáh/whÕn/thÐt I wenI Þn hoIidÐã, was a
wÞnderful month.
7 Franáe was whÕrÕ/whiáh/thÐt thÕy mÐdÕ thÕ fi|m.
B ThÕ ãÕar 2001, whiáh/whÕn/thÞt was Ð busã ÞnÕ fÞr me,
wÐs whÕn I mÕt AIÕx
ÁompIÕtÕ thÕ sentÕnáÕs with Ð rÕ|ativÕ pronoun. ln whiáh
sÕntenáÕs áan you omit thÕ rÕIative pronoun?
1 ThÕrÕ,s thÕ gi r| l wÐs tÕl |i ng ãou Ðbout.
2 ÂhÕ book, - l'vÕ a|most fi ni shÕd, i s by StÕphÕn
Kl ng.
3 ArÕ thÕy thÕ pÕop|Õ wÕ mÕt last wÕÕkÕnd?
4 N4ã motorbi kÕ, - i s vÕrã ol d, brokÕ dÞwn on thÕ
moTorway.
5 HÐve you sÕÕn thÕ |ÕathÕr j aákÕt - AnnÕ bought?
6 EvÕrãonÕ remÕmbÕrs thÕ ÕvÕni ng wÕ sÐw thÕ
ÁamÕron Di az fi |m.
CombinÕ thÕ information in sÕntÕnáes 1_4 with that in
a-d to writÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with rÕ|ativÕ áIauses.
1 ÂhÕ rÕstÐurÐnt i s verV Õx0Õnsi vÕ.
2 DiákÕns wrotÕ ¾liver Twist.
3 ÂhÕ moviÕ wÐs Ð grÕÐt suáÁÕss.
4 Thi s i s thÕ áÞuntry housÕ.
a I wÐs born thÕrÕ.
b HÕ l i vÕd i n London for mÐnV VeÐrs.
á It i s Ð favouri tÕ wi th áÕ|Õbri ti Õs.
d It wÐs fi |mÕd i n ArïÕnti na.
Noun á|auìoì a5 subj9át and objoát
5 Áombi nÕ these sÕntÕnáes usi ng noun á|ausÕs'
µåÐmple
sho wÐntad to buã eamotl'ling' lf wÐs too eåpensive.
WhÐt íha wÐntrd to bwã vlds tao Õåponsivo,
,l YÞu ÐrÕ gÞi ng ÞLi  sÞt.l l Õl t.hÕrÕ. l knÞl v whÕrÕ-
l knÞtl' .. '
2 JÐdÕ to{áj rl l Õ sÞmÕthi ng. l don't bÕl i ÕvÕ i t.
l don.t bÕl i ÕtÕ...
3 YÞu ÐrÕ suggÕsti ng sÞmÕthi ng. It,s a good i dÕÐ.
WhÐt
4 PÕoàl Õ arÕ oftÕn borÕd by somethi ng. It's whÐt thÕã
wÐtáh Þn ÂV.
PÕÞàl Õ ..,
5 PÕopl Õ |ovÕ p|Ðãi ng áomputÕr gÐmÕs. l undÕrstÐnd whã
l undÕrstÐnd ...
6 YÞu'rÕ angrã Ðbout somÕthi ng. I don't know whÐt.
l don't know...
7 l'vÕ hÕÐrd somÕ nÕws. Our nÕi ghbours arÕ movi ng
h Þ usÕ.
l VÕ ...
8 MÐrk i s tÕ|l i ng SÐm somÕthi ng. l t's i ntÕrÕsti ng.
WhÐt . ..
Noun á|auìeì ÐftÞr indirgát quÞstionì
6 RÕwritÕ thÕsÕ quÕstions using thÕ words given.
1 WhÕrÕ's thÕ post offiáÕ?
DÞ ãÞu know ...
2 ArÕ ãou gÞi ng on ho|i dÐy nÕxt mÞnth?
ÁÐn ãou tÕ|l mÕ '..?
3 Who i s that man?
Do ãÞu know '..
4 Did |\4Ðrk áÞme to the mÕÕting?
Di d you nÞti áÕ...
5 How muáh i s thi s j ÐákÕt?
ÁÐn you tÕ|I mÕ ...
4
@
Readi ng
7 Sáan thÕ tÕåt and find thÕ ÐnswÕrs to thÕ quÕstions.
1 Do studÕnts who shÐrÕ Ð housÕ Ðnd havÕ ÂV sets i n thÕi r l íÕdrÞÞms Õaáh nÕÕd
thÕi r Þwn ÂV Ii áÕnáÕ?
2 Do studÕnts who rÕnt sÕÞÐratÕ roÞms i n Ð housÕ ÕÐáh nÕÕd thÕi r own ÂV Ii áÕnáÕ?
· Do studÕnts whosÕ 0ÐrÕnts havÕ Ð ÂV Ii áÕnáÕ nÕÕd Ð thÕi r own ÂV l i áÕnáÕ?
4 How muáh i s thÕ fi nÕ fÞr not havi ng Ð ÂV l i áÕnáÕ i f you nÕÕd onÕ?
5 How muáh doÕs Ð áÞ|our ÂV Ii áÕnáÕ áost?
6 do you nÕÕd Ð ÂV Ii áÕnáÕ to rÕáord ÂV programmÕs on your vi dÕo rÕáordÕr?
7 Áan ãoU pÐy for your ÂV Ii áÕnáÕ onIi nÕ?
B How |ong i s a TV Ii áÕnáÕ vÐl i d for?
9 Who qual i fi Õs for Ð rÕfund?
'l 0 WhÕrÕ áan ãoU fi nd mÞrÕ i nformÐti on?
ä êâÕ1áÞrârÕ tÒ ÂV Liá*nsing
Li steni ng
8 ,o.1Jl'+ You ÐrÕ going to hÕÐr fivÕ
j ournaIi sts taIki ng about thÕ future
of the news mediÐ. RÕad through
statÕments a_h. ThÕn listÕn and
áhoosÕ thÕ two stÐtÕmÕnts ÕÐáh
speaker makes.
Ð Soap opÕrÐs mÐkÕ i t eÐsi Õr fÞr
tÕÕnagers to tÐ|k about thÕi r
prob|Õms.
b Soap opÕrÐs usuÐl Iy dÕÐ| wi th
rÕal i sti á si tuÐti ons.
á Bri ti sh tÕÕnÐgÕrs hÐvÕ pi ákÕd up
°mÕri áan ÕxprÕssi ons frÞm sÞap
opÕras.
d SoÐp opÕrÐs hÕ|p to ÕduáatÕ
tÕÕnÐgÕrs about whÐt i s ri ght
Ðnd what i s wrong'
Õ SomÕ soÐp opÕras áoul d hÐvÕ Ð
nÕgÐtive Õffeát Þn pÕoplÕ.
f ÂÕÕnÐgÕrs prÕfÕr to wÐtáh soÐp
opÕrÐs mÐdÕ fÞr aduIts rathÕr
thÐn áhi |drÕn's progrÐmmÕs.
g N,4orÕ TV áhÐnnÕl s áou|d mÕÐn
poorÕr progrÐmmÕS.
h Soap opÕras hÕ|p pÕopIÕ dÕÐ|
with diffi áu |t áiráu mstÐnáÕs.
First SÕáÞnd
statÕmÕnt stÐtÕmÕnt
SpeakÕr 1 ¿ ¿
SpÕakÕr 2 . ¿
SpÕakÕr · ¿ ¿
SpÕakÕr 4 . ¿
Wri ti ng
9 Áhoose one of the titlÕs Ðnd write
Ð short disáussion Õssay (about 200
words). UsÕ the form bÕ|ow to
mÐkÕ a pl an.
1 DÞ ãou thi nk thÕrÕ i s too muáh
vio|ÕnáÕ on TV?
2 Do you thi nk too muáh tÕ|Õvi si on
i s bÐd for you?
/ââtrodláctlotê:
Poi*t× for:
Àoitêts ogoittst:
¾oâêc/æsio*:
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IntAÓnÕt µone
Varbí èith diffÞrÕ.nt maÐnings
1 ÁompIÕtÕ thÕ pairs of sÕntenáÕs with thÕ áorreát form of
one of thÕse vÕrbs. ÂhÕn matáh thÕ vÕrbs to thÕ mÕÐnings
a-h.
" avoid g maintain * provÕ * strikÕ
1 a In 1926, j Þhn LÞgi Õ BÐi rd that ãÞu áouId
transmi t pi áturÕs by radi Þ.
b Watáhi ng tÕl Õvi si on hÐs - tÞ be onÕ Þf our
most popu|Ðr pÐsti mÕs.
2 a |f ÃÞu want to * bÐd hÕadÐáhÕs, wÐtáh |Õss TV]
b BrÐd di dn,t go to thÕ ái nÕmÐ. HÕ wantÕd to -
PhÞÕbÕ.
3 a ThÕ armã gÐthÕrÕd bÕhi nd the hi ||,
b Al though thÕ áIi mbÕr - bã Ð
wÐsn't bÐdl ã i nj urÕd.
fÐ|l i ng roák' hÕ
4 a ÂhÕ psyáhol ogi st thÐt toÞ muáh tÕIÕvi si on
wÐs bad for ãour hÕÐ|th.
b ÂhÕ hÞusÕ is vÕrã ÕxpÕnsive to
a kÕÕp i n good áondi ti on
b say sÞmÕthi ng i s truÕ
á prÕVÕnt
d kÕÕp ÐwÐã from
Õ show sÞmethi ng i s truÕ
f hi t somÕthi ng
g turn out to bÕ
h attÐák suddÕnl ã
Nowìpapers
2 Matáh thÕsÕ words and phrases to their definitions ,l_8.
lf neáessary, áhÕák your answÕrs in a diátionary.
* broÐdshÕÕt " áoIumni st * Õdi tori a| * fÕÐturÕ
u fÞrÕi gn áÞrrÕspondÕnt * gossi p áol umn " heÐdIi nÕ
u tabl oi d
1 Ð nÕwspÐpÕr wi th smaII pagÕs, short Ðrti ál es Ðnd |ots of
pi áturÕs Ðnd gossi p
2 Ð nÕwspÐpÕr wi th l ÐrgÕ pÐgÕs thÐt dÕal s wi th sÕri ous
nÕws storiÕs
3 thÕ ti t|Õ of Ð nÕwspÐpÕr arti á|Õ
4 an arti á|Õ i n Ð newspÐpÕr wri ttÕn by the hÕÐd of thÕ
nÕWspapÕr (thÕ ÕditÞr)
5 a spÕái Ð| arti á|Õ i n nÕWspÐpÕrs or mÐgÐzi nÕs about a
pÐrti áu|Ðr topi á
6 part Þf Ð newspapÕr wherÕ you áÐn rÕÐd Ðbout famous
pÕÞp|Õ.s pri vÐtÕ l i vÕs
7 a 1ourßa|ist who rÕports on ÕVÕnts in othÕr áountriÕs
8 a j ournÐ|i st who wri tÕs rÕguIÐr Ðrti ál Õs for Ð mÐgÐzi nÕ or
nÕWspÐper
3 Now áomp|ÕtÕ thÕse sÕntÕnáÕs with onÕ of thÕ words or
phrasÕs in 2.
1 ThÕ 5ØÛ i s Ð typi ÁaI tÐbl oi d nÕWspapÕr. |ts - i s fuII
of áÕ|Õl íri tã stÞri Õs.
2 My si stÕr i s a - for VoguÕ. ShÕ wri tÕs for thÕ
magazi nÕ ÕvÕrã month.
3 WhÕn I l ook Ðt thÕ - | Ð|rÕÐdy know i f |'m
i ntÕrÕstÕd i n thÕ arti á|Õ or not.
4 | prÕfÕr to rÕÐd rÐther thÐn broadsheÕt
nÕWSpÐpÕrs. ÂhÕã'rÕ morÕ ÕntÕrtÐi ni ng.
5 ThÕ i n thi s newspÐpÕr Ð|wÐys supports thÕ
govÕrn mÕnI.
6 RobÕrt is Ð - tor ÂhÕ TimÕs. |1e trÐvÕ|s Ðll ovÕr thÕ
wÞr|d to rÕport on di ffÕrÕnt ÕVÕnts.
7 | buy thÕ SundÐy nÕWsàÐpÕr for i ts - on fÐshi on.
T\,l vrogrammeì
4 Look at thÕ diffÕrÕnt things that are broadáast on British
tÕ|evision. Matáh thÕ progrÐmmÕ dÕsáriptions 1_8 to thÕ
type of programmÕ a_h.
1 QuÕsti on Ti mÕ: ° studi o Ðudi ÕnáÕ pUts thÕi r quÕsti ons to
|ÕÐdi ng pol i ti ái ans.
2 ÁomÕ Flã With ¼Õ.. tive áoup|Õs fight it out fÞr Ð drÕÐm
hoIi dÐv i n Âokvo.
WÐlking With DinosÐurs: A fasáinÐting insight into lifÕ Þn
µarth i n prÕhi stori á ti mÕs.
µÞstµndÕrs.. Dot is surorisÕd whÕn Niák rÕturns to AlbÕrt
SquÐrÕ, Ðnd l an,s Ðmbi ti ous i nvÕstmÕnt pIans Õnd i n
d i sÐppoi ntmÕnt.
5 WÕÕkÕnd 24..The latÕst nÕws Ðnd wÕÐthÕr. P|us a prÕviÕw
of thÕ wÕÕkÕnd's sport'
a
b
á
d
PÐrkinson.. |\4iáhaÕl Parkinson grÕÕts Ðnd mÕÕts British
0|ãmpi á áhampi ons.
Top of thÕ Pops: rhÕ biggÕst hits f rom this wÕÕk's ÂÞp 20,
wi th l i vÕ pÕrformanáÕs.
GrÐndstÐnd FinÐl SáorÕ.. ÁhÕák thÕ final sáorÕs áoming in
frÞm Ðround thÕ grÞunds.
musi á programmÕ Õ qui z show
ÁUrrÕnt affai rs progrÐmmÕ f nÕws broadáÐst
áhat show g sports programmÕ
soÐl ] opÕrÐ h doáu mÕntarã
rÕadã tÞ
@
#
4
5
RÕÐd the text Ðnd áomà|ÕtÕ thÕ notÕs.
1 |VÐl n pÐrÕntÐl ÁonÁÕrl l ,
2 Hours Bri ti sh áhi IdÓÕn spÕßál rratáhi ng ÂV pÕr daã:
3 NumbÕr Þf hours áhi ál rÕn i i sÕthÕ mÕdi Ð pÕr day:
Ór iss most:
N4Õdi um ãor:ng 1l ÕÞpl Õ tl ÞLl |ál
Áut Þff ÐgÕ foÓ rÕstri áti Þtl s bv
pÐrÕ¿ts mÕdi a usÐgÕ
6
7
I
9
Âi mÕ Þf thÕ brÞÐdáÐsti ng .l vatÕrshÕd'*
N4Þst nÕgÐtl vÕ ÐspÕát Þt thÕ |ntÕrnÕt
PÕop|Õ who ÐpprÕál atÕ books: -
PÐrt p|ÐãÕd bv musi á i n tÕÕnÐgÕrs, Ii vÕs
* whÕn Ðdu|t progrÐmmÕs start to bÕ shown i n thÕ ÕvÕni ng
l'
YtíèrêE àe₠}àle* new medla
A fasái nati ng aááount of l ei surÕ ti me and medi Ð use bã
áhi l dren Ðnd the áonáÕrns of thei r parÕnts has bÕen
publ i shed.
Parental conáerns
Parents Ðre áonáerned for thÕi r áhi l drenÊ safety outsi de
the home whi l e young peopl e themsetves say there i s not
enough to do i n the area where they l i ve. As a rÕsul t,
u"""Ù o""o|e i n the UK Ðre muáh more l i kel y to. bÕ
*u*"Ùng tel evi si on or pl ayi ng áomputer gamÕs than thei r
Þonti nentÐl áountÕrpafts.
Sáreen entertainment dominates
Âhe study l ooks at the usÕ of ÂV, vi deo, books, áomputer
gamÕs, musi á Ðnd personal áomputers. l t fi nds thÐt young
peopte use thÕ medi a for around fi ve hours eaáh day.
ÂetÕvi si on oááupi Õs Ðbout hÐl f of thi s ti mÕ Ðnd i s the
medi um whi áh young peop|e ,woul d mi ss most,'
onáe áhi l dren have rÕaáhed thei r ear|y teens many
parents áonsi der i t i mprÐáti áabl e for them to attem.pt
Óestri áti ons on medi a use i n thÕ home. ÂhÕy rel y on the
good j udgÕment of broÐdáÐsters and medi a regu|ators.
Âhi s i s parti Þul Ðrl y i mportant to them i n rel ati on to
tÕ|evi si on. µi ghty-two pÕr áÕnt thi nk the watÕrshÕd Ð ,VÕry
good i dea, and 25ok áonsi dÕr i t shoul d be ten p.m. rather
than ni nÕ p.m,
Âhe lnternet. a twenty-first GentÆry pen.àal
The l nternet i nspi res both posi ti ve Ðnd negati ve
Ðssoái ati ons for the young. The most posi ti ve bei ng a
means of Ii nki ng Bri tai n wi th other áountri es. enabl i ng a
li
r
i
I
i:.
new ki nd of pen-pal rel ati onshi p, 1m!i ni ns *n:.o'"u'ã:.::
of l ong di stÐnáe áommuni áati on Wi th the i mmedi Ðáy of the
i"r"pi.Ên"'âhe major downside is the áost.
The deáline of books
Âhe ptaáe of books i n ãoung peop|eÊ l i ves i s áhangi ng,
threatenÕd both by l T Ðs Ð souráe of i nformati on and
te|Õvi si on as a souráe of narrati ve.Âhose who hÐve aááess
to a PC are twi áe Ðs l i kel y to use that as a souráe of
i nformÐti on than turn to a book. Books Ðre not trendy; they
arÕ the sort of thi ng ,your pÐrents approvÕ of,'
Musi á' mæsi á, musi á
ÂhÕre i s al most uni versa| aááess to Ðudi o equi pment i n thÕ
home. The mode of dÕl i vÕry i s of l i ttl e áonsequenáe,
áontÕnt i s ki ng. Musi á pl Ðys an i mportant rol e i n áhi l dren,s
and, espeái al Iy, teenÐgers, Ii vÕs.
l
lil
ri
1:
ÂÐl ki ng about your áountry
... l n pÐi rs or groups' di sáuss thÕ foIIowi ng quÕsti ons.
. What do ãou thi nk ÐrÕ thÕ mÐi n pÐrÕnta| áonÁÕrns In
ãour áountry?
. WhÐt i s thÕrÕ for young pÕop|Õ to do whÕrÕ you Ii vÕ?
r How muáh broÐdáasti ng Ðnd mÕdi Ð rÕgu|Ðti on i s
thÕrÕ i n your áoUntry? Is thÕrÕ an ÕvÕni ng watÕrshÕd
tl mÕ?
. WhÐt usÕ do young pÕop|Õ mÐkÕ of thÕ IntÕrnÕt?
Þ WhÐt pl ÐáÕ do books havÕ i n thÕ l i vÕs of ãour
f ri Õnds?
. WhÐt rol Õ doÕs musi á p|aã Ðmong thÕ ãoung pÕop|Õ
ãou know?
Ä
Grammar
Áomplete these sentenáÕs dÕsáribing prÕsÕnt hÐbits using
the áorrÕát form of thÕ verb in braákets: prÕsent simplÕ'
will, or ÐlwÐãs + prÕsent áontinuous.
1 DÐd - (danáÕ) wi th ÕvÕrãonÕ whÕn WÕ go to parti Õs.
It,s vÕry Õmbarrassi ng.
2 I,m ti rÕd of thÕ samÕ ol d routi ne. µverã daã |- (gÕt)
Up, - (go) to sáhoo|, thÕn - (áomÕ) homÕ Ðnd
- (do) mã homÕwork!
3 \4ã youngÕr brothÕr - (borrow) my ÁDs! |t rÕa||ã
annoys mÕ.
4 - (you/go) to thÕ ái nÕmÐ ÕvÕry SÐturdÐy ÕvÕni ng?
5 N/o|l ã (tÐ|k) Ð|| thÕ ti mÕ whi l Õ I,m Ii stÕni ng to
musi á' It.s vÕrã Ðnnoãi ng.
6 N4y bÕst fri Õnd - (ask) mÕ to hÕ|p hÕr wi th hÕr
homÕwork. I don't wÐnt tÞ but i t,s di ffi áuIt to rÕfusÕ!
ÁompIetÕ thesÕ sentÕnáÕs dÕsáribing pÐst habits. Use usÕd
to, or would whÕrÕver possib|Õ. MorÕ thÐn onÕ ÐnswÕr
maã be (orrÕát.
,l WhÕnÕvÕr I wÐs on holidÐy, | - (get up) ÕvÕrã
morni ng at mi dday.
2 WhÕn I wÐs Ð áhi |d' i t
duri ng summÕr.
(bÕ) sunny ÕvÕrã dÐy
3 0ur MÐths tÕaáhÕr - (gi vÕ) Iong, áomp|i áÐtÕd
Õxp|Ðnati ons that no onÕ undÕrstood.
4 µvÕrã timÕ my fÐthÕr |Õft thÕ housÕ, hÕ -.(forgÕt)
hi s front door kÕãs.
5 A boy i n our áIÐss l ast ãÕar (arri vÕ) |ÐtÕ for
IÕssons ÕvÕry morni ng.
Áombine thesÕ pairs of sÕntÕnáÕs to makÕ onÕ sÕntenáÕ
usi ng a dÕfi ni ng or non-dÕfi ni ng re|Ðti vÕ áIausÕ and a
sui tÐb|Õ pronoun.
1 This watáh wÐs a birthdÐã prÕsÕnt. N4y boyfriÕnd gavÕ mÕ
the watáh.
2 ÂhÕ sáhooI hÐs ovÕr ],000 studÕnts. My si stÕr goÕs tÞ thÐt
sánoo |.
PÕtÕr i s 15 yÕÐrs oId. PÕtÕ/s fathÕr i s i n ÐdvÕrti si ng'
I bought thÕsÕ books i n PÐri s. ÂhÕ books ÐrÕ very oId.
ThÐt i s thÕ spÞrts á|ub. It hÐs an 0l ympi á swi mmi ng
pool.
|\4ã nÕw drÕss i s pal Õ b|uÕ. I bought i t i n a sal Õ.
ÂhÕ hotÕI in BudapÕst wÐs ÕxpÕnsivÕ. WÕ stayÕd thÕrÕ.
Mã nÕi ghbour i s vÕry ni áÕ. |\/y nÕi ghbour hÕ|pÕd mÕ i n
thÕ gÐrdÕn.
4 Matáh thÕ bÕgi nni ngs 1-5 to thÕ Õndi ngs a_e to makÕ onÕ
sÕntÕnáe áontai ni ng Ð noun áIausÕ as a subj eát or obj Õát.
1 | rÕÐl |ã rÕgrÕt . ..
2 whÐt you arÕ tryi ng to Õxp|Ði n ...
3 Sam has found ouL ...
4 hÐvÕ you ÕVÕr noti áÕd ...
5 what ÞÕoÞl Õ thi nk ...
... thÐt thÕ skã i s so bÕauti fuI i n wi ntÕr
... whÐt l sÐi d tÞ ãÞu ãÕstÕrday
... whÐt you ÐrÕ pIÐnni ng to gi vÕ hi m for hi s bi rthdaã
... i s somÕti mes di ffÕrÕnt from whÐt thÕy saã
... mÐkÕs no sÕnsÕ Ðt al I to mÕ
Áombi nÕ thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáÕs to makÕ noun áIausÕs.
1 You want to go ski i ng. I don't know why.
2 l\4ã fri Õnds hÐvÕ gonÕ somÕwhÕrÕ. I don,t know whÕrÕ i t
i s.
3 ÂhÕã ÐskÕd us to do somÕthi ng. |t wÐs to áomp|ÕtÕ Ð
ÞuÕsti onnai rÕ.
4 SomÕÞnÕ IÕft bÕhi nd thÕi r di áti onÐrv. I don,t know whÞ
rI was.
I put mã gl assÕs somÕwhÕre. I rÕmÕmbÕr whÕrÕ.
PÕtÕr i s upsÕt Ðbout hi s Õxam rÕsu|ts. I undÕrstand why.
ÁompIÕte the sÕntenáes with thÕ áorreát prÕposition.
= as::.i n - of :. on....tÞ = wi th
1 ÂhÕrÕ's no poi nt watáhi ng ÂV j ust fÞr thÕ sakÕ
of i t. Why don't ãou rÕÐd a book i nstÕÐd?
2 ranãa stÐrÕd out thÕ áÐf6 window. It wÐs 9
o'á|oák Ðnd PÕtÕr sti II hÐdn,t turnÕd up.
3 ÂhÕ amoUnt of vi o|ÕnáÕ on ÂV áouId havÕ Ð nÕgati vÕ
ÕffÕát - áhi |drÕn.
4 GÐmÕ shows rÕÐ|l ã don't appÕÐ| mÕ. ÂhÕã'rÕ
oftÕn bori ng and prÕdi átÐbl Õ.
5 I wou|dn't rÕgard mysÕl f a TV Ðddi át, l on|y
wÐtáh tÕlÕvision for two hours Ð day.
6 l\4y brothÕr i s rÕÐ||y obsÕssÕd p|Ðyi ng áomputÕr
gÐmÕs.
a
b
á
d
Õ
5
6
Ä
Voáabul ary
Áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs wi th thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ
words in braákÕts.
1 °ftÕr Ð sÕVÕrÕ drought i n Afri áÐ. thÞL;s;Óál s Þf pÕÞpl Õ
wÕrÕ dÕpÕndÕnt on i ntÕrnÐti Þna áhaÓi ti Õs fÞr -
(su rvivÕ).
2 Ti nÐ dÕái dÕd to mÐkÕ Ð month \ - áOntri bUtÕ)to thÕ
áhari tã Fri Õnds of thÕ µarth.
3 NowadÐãs thÕrÕ arÕ mÐnt' ÕndÐtl gÕrÕd spÕái Õs that ÐrÕ
on thÕ bri nk of - (Õåti nát'.
4 ÂhÕ i nárÕasÕ i n Ði r - i ào|l utÕ) mÕÐns thÐt g|obÐl
warmi ng wi || áonti nuÕ to gÕt WorsÕ.
5 SomÕ pÕÞpl Õ thi nk i t's áruÕ| to kÕÕp wi Id Ðni mÐl s i n
- (áaptrvÕ).
6 Envi ronmÕntal organi sati ons ÐrÕ sÕtti ng Up progrÐmmÕS
of - (áÞnsÕrvÕ) i n Ðn attÕmpt to rÕduáÕ po||uti on.
Áomp|Õte thÕ gÐps with a suitablÕ word áonnÕátÕd with
tÕIevision. ÂhÕ first IÕttÕr of Õaáh word is given.
,| ÁÞui d Vou pÐss mÕ thÕ r-á-, pl ÕÐsÕ?
2 How manã tÕ|Õvi si on Á - arÕ thÕrÕ i n Bri tÐi n?
3 |f ãou havÕ Ð v- at homÕ, áou|d you r- thÕ
IatÕ ni ght fi |m fÞr mÕ?
4 ÂhÕrÕ somÕ i ntÕrÕsti ng thi ngs on s- ÂV but i t i s
qui tÕ ÕxpÕnsi vÕ to hÐve i t i nstal l Õd.
5 WhÐt ki nds of TV p- do Ãou l i kÕ to wÐtáh?
6 It's not possi b|Õ to gÕt a good ÂV rÕáÕpti on hÕrÕ wi thout
an a_
7 We áÐn,t gÕt Ð good ÂV rÕáÕption in this ÐrÕa bÕáÐusÕ wÕ
ÐrÕ too far ÐwÐã f rom thÕ t-
8 Is thi s nÕw áomÕdy fi l mÕd i n thÕ tÕ|Õvi si Þn
RÕarrangÕ thÕ words in italiás to makÕ words áonnÕáted
wi th thÕ mÕdi a.
1 A good ÐdvÕrti si ng sol Þgn áan hÕ|p to sÕ|| Ð prÞduát.
2 ThÕ psÕrs Áa| havÕ Ð grÕÐt influÕnáÕ on pÕop|Õ.
3 WhÐt kind Þf mÐzgÞÕnis do you likÕ to rÕÐd?
4 l rÕÐd Ð vÕrã good ÐliártÕ tn thÕ papÕr yÕstÕrdÐã.
5 Do ãÞu thi nk thÕ l trÕnÕnt wi || ÕvÕr rÕpl aáÕ nÕwspapÕrs?
6 HavÕ you sÕÕn IhÕ hdÕÐnilÕs in thÕ papÕr todÐã?
7 |s a tbÐoi l d a sma|| nÕwspÐpÕr?
8 Why do you thi nk pÕop|Õ rÕad gi ssop ámnul os tn
nÕwspÐ pÕrs?
ÂhÞ right vrord× !
-l,..l ÁhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát option, a, b or á, to áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ tÕåt. .Q
t: r*
SavÕd from an iáy hÕll Ô
Wheß Mike Strißger wÐS it1vitÕd to go oß Ðß ffi
ißtroductorã °lpihÕ áourse| hÕ got more thÐß he :
bÐrgÐißÕd for.
Álimbing mountains is not for thÕ 1 -- . We sÕt off from .i:
our AlpinÕ áhalÕt at 4 a.m. and 2 - oul Way to thÕ :l
WÕissmiÕs mountain. our guidÕ assurÕd us that it would bÕ '.
an .Õasy, 4,000-mÕtrÕ álimb, but although things ]i
wÕll, by ninÕ a.m. thÕ wÕathÕr was gÕtting bad. .]l
WÕ werÕ about 100 mÕtrÕs from thÕ top of thÕ mountain, .:''
whÕn disaste| 1 -. ¼y fâiÕnd Damon slippÕd suddÕnly i1.
and
, - a narâOw opÕning in thÕ roák. onÕ of thÕ guidÕs i].
hÕld onto Darrton,s ropÕ, but sÕvÕral roáks fÕll and hit .i:..
Damon,s lÕg. SilÕnáÕ, shouts, silenáÕ again. A simplÕ- aááidÕnt '
was going to turn an Õasy álimb into a majoâ resáuÕ 6 :-. ]i
ÒÙo,i*u, slowly 7 the áreviáÕ and on to thÕ snow .i:
slopÕ. HÕ was suffÕring o -- a brokÕn lÕg, sÞ onÕ of ln: ..l.,
g,,Ù", suggÕstÕd áalling thÕ ÕmÕrgÕnáy sÕrviáÕs. It Was at that .i'
i _- thut thÕ limitations of modÕrn teáhnology bÕáarnÕ ;]
apparÕnt. All of our ßrobilÕ phonÕs failÕd to gÕt any .i]
áonnÕátion. BluáÕ, our sÕáond guidÕ, bÕgan an hour,s álimb .;
downhill whÕrÕ hÕ hopÕd to 'o -.- a signal. ]i
Fouâ hours latÕr it Was '' .- áold and darnp and thÕIÕ ..l
was still rro 12 -of a rÕsáuÕ tÕam. If wÕ stayÕd whÕrÕ wÕ ':.''
WÕrÕ, no onÕ would arrivÕ bÕforÕ nightfall whiáh mÕant a }
frÕÕzing, slÕÕplÕss night at ·,800 mÕtrÕs. But should wÕ }
'. - thÕ risk Þf moving DamÞn? :
It was two p.m. whÕn wÕ finally dÕáidÕd to lowÕr Damon 1
down the snow slopÕ. 'n - wÕ hadn,t got far WhÕn. wÕ 's:
spottÕd thÕ rÕsáuÕ tÕams. Soon a hÕliáoptÕr was áirálin'g i:
abovÕ us and Damon was wináhÕd up to safÕty. In futurÕ I,1l gl
think twiáe LrÕfoâÕ álimbing a mountain. áÕnt London ThÕ ¾bsÕwer {.
t
1 a fÐi nt-hÕartÕd
2 a WÕnt
· a stÐrtÕd ovÕr
4 a hÐppÕnÕd
5 a fÕl | down
6 a advÕnturÕ
7 a áIi mbÕd out of
8 a from
9 Ð sÕáond
10 Ð pi ák out
11 a growi ng
12 a si gn
13 Ð mÐkÕ
14 a GratÕfuIl y
b strong-hÕartÕd
b took
b stÐrtÕd off
b áamÕ
b droppÕd down
b opÕrati on
b pu||Õd out of
bof
b poi nt
b pi ák ÞvÕr
b doi ng
b mÐrk
b hÐvÕ
b l hankful l y
á wÐrm-hÕartÕd
á mÐdÕ
á stÐrtÕd up
á struák
á WÕnt down
á or0eÐI
á movÕd out of
á for
á mi nutÕ
á pi ák up
á hÐvi ng
á si gnÐl
á tÐkÕ
á HopÕf u ||y
''';il9
1
2
i¾áltof arâdio
DesáribÕ what's happening in thÕse piáturÕs'
ThÕse piáturÕs arÕ a|I áonnÕáted with Bo|Iywood movies.
WhÕre do you think the namÕ .Bol|ywood' áomes from?
RÕadi ng
3 skim read the text and find out whÐt thÕ Woman
rÕáÕiving thÕ award doÕs for a Iiving.
ÂruÕ or faIse quÕstions
RÕmÕmbÕr that somÕ, but not aII of thÕ i nformati on i n
thÕ sÕntÕnáÕ might bÕ áorreát. ÁhÕák both thÕ sÕnrÕnáÕ
and thÕ tÕxt áarÕfuIIy bÕforÕ you makÕ ãour dÕái si on.
4 DÕáide whÕthÕr thÕ information in sentÕnáÕs ]_8 is true
(Â) or fÐIse (F).
1 ¿ ÂhÕ dñáor of NÐir's offiáÕs is rÕminisáÕnt of hÕr IÐtÕst
fi l m.
2 ¿ onÕ of NÐi r's fi rst doáumÕntÐri Õs won sÕvÕrÐl awÐrds.
3 ¿ Nai r's ÕÐrl y ãÕÐrs had a grÕat i nfl uÕnáÕ on hÕr oUtIook
Þn Ii fÕ.
4 ¿ HÕr l atÕst fi |m i s áomp|ÕtÕ|y di ffÕrÕnt from othÕrs shÕ
hÐs mÐdÕ.
5 ¿ ÂhÕ rai n shÕ usÕd i n thÕ ori gi nÐ|fÞotÐgÕ of Monsoon
WÕdding wÐs fakÕ.
6 ¿ NÐir is ovÕrjoyÕd thaI ¼onsoon WÕdding wÐs suáh a
h i t.
7 ¿ HÕr fami |y hÕ|pÕd her to puráhÐsÕ many of thÕ
prÞps fÞr Monsoon WÕdding.
8 ¿ Nai r took 2· mÕmbÕrs of hÕr fÐmi l y to Veni áÕ fÞr thÕ
fi |m prÕmi ÕrÕ.
I\4ira lrJair
µve C]axton enters the worl d of Mi ra Nai r,
where New Del hi meets New York
IBritish AirwÐys
Mi ra NÐi r,s offi áes, just off Madi son Square i n New York, are pai nted
two tones _ a WÐrm orange Ðnd a bo|d sunshi ne ye||ow. Âhe
are al I too fÐmi Ii ar from NÐi rÊ 2002 hi t fi |m, Monsoon Weddi ng, aÌout
áhaoti á Punj abi weddi ng' |t fee|s |i ke Indi a _ ri ght here i n New York
You áou|d a|most mi stake the hum of yeI|ow áabs for ri ákshaws.
NÐi r was eduáÐted i n New Del hi Ðnd at HarvÐrd i n Ameri áa.
di sáovered fi Im i n her ear|y 20s and began maki ng doáumentari Õs
suáh powerfuI subj eáts as Indi an-Ameri áan i mmi grants. But i t was
1988, with her first Ii|m, Salaam Bombaã, that NairÊ i
reputÐti on was l aunáhed. The fi Im, about l ndi an street áhi |dren. pi á
up the presti gi ous CÐmera d'0r at Cannes as we|| Ðs 25 other
worl dwi de.
Âhe woman si tti ng square|y i n the |arge terraáotta-áol oured l ea
ÐrmáhÐi r i s a di reátor on top 0f her gÐme. Nai rwÐs born i n 1957 Ð
spent her earl i Õst yeÐrs i n Ð sma|l remote town. where she grew
wi th her mother. two brothers Ðnd her fÐther, a reti red ái vi I servÐnt.
was Ii fe i n thi s remote Ioáati on thÐt i nspi red Ðn eÐrIv desi re for tr
and new experi enáes. ,| don,t know i f i t was a sense of desti ny,, s
Nai 1 ,but defi ni tÕl y l a|wÐys had Ð sure sense of wanti ng to know
bi gger worl d' And a sense of foáus,,
NÐi r begi ns to tÐIk about her fi rst post.Weddi ng projeát, the reá
áomp|etÕd Hãsteri áal Bl i ndÛess, whi áh was made for a US ÂV áhannel
Ostensi b|y, i tÊ a departurÕ for Nai r, who, unti I noé has made fi
@
ei ther about l ndi a, or Indi ans. Instead. thi s one tel l s of two whi te,
#
l=r
*
*
a
tr
ñ':
.1i :Óki ng-ál ass Women roami ng the bÐrs of New Jersey desperÐte|y
;;arÞhi ng for Iove.
,l\ ren she got the áaIl aski ng her to di reát the fi l m, she was i n Bombay.
'r\ Õ had |ost footage from ¼onsoon Weddi ng i n a freak X-rÐy aáái dent
:. the ai rport, and so three months Iater, we found oursel ves re-
:.ooti ng i n Bombay,'says NÐi r. Thanks to a |arge i nsuranáe pÐy out
l:er the aáái dent, she hÐd funds to spÐrÕ. ,Âhi s ti me we áouId Ðfford to
:-y rai n!,she sÐys, |Ðughi ng',The fi rstti me we were shooti ng i n thÕ
:.:ua| monsoon. Âhe sÕáond ti me we had Ðs muáh fake rai n as we
.,. Ðnted !,
]-t NÐi r i s sti II revÕl Ii ng i n the i dea that Monsoon Weddi ng, the Ii tt|e
. r she made for hersÕIf and her fami |y ,hÐs beáome somethi ng of a
:-enomÕn0n, a bi g fi Im.,HÕr fami |y, she says, hÐve been i mmense|y
...ppoÓti ve of her fi Im-maki ng' Shooti ng the fi Im i n New DeIhi gave her
:-r 0pportuni ty to work wi th her extended fami |y and many of thÕ props
:^d áostumes were borrowed from fami |y members. ,Every membÕr of
-7 fami |y appears i n the dÐnái ng and as extras. When we wÕre i n
tíni áe for the worl d premi ere. We Were a pÐrty of 23,,says Nai r.,HÐIf
:. them Were my real fami |y Ðnd hÐIf were the fi l m fami |y, the áÐst who
;,Õre pIayi ng them!'
,,,:.:.,:::.:.:.8,.rrr.,r.3r.ili*Y::t:l:::r:ir-,.-.-::r3!&.rgftr'*i'*:t"i:"r,,.r,,.,,,,,ri,,i:r,,*-,-,,*,1g{i'!l9ttt""'t:t"t"'
l' *
Voáa bu l a ry
Fi tm.maºi ng
5 ExpIai n i n your own words thÕ meani ng of thÕ phrÐsÕs
Ð_j. (SÞmÕ of them ÐppeÐr in thÕ tÕxt.) ThÕn usÕ them to
áompIÕte sÕntÕnáÕs ]-1 0.
a mÐki ng doáumÕntÐri Õs
b powÕrful subjÕáts
á pi ákÕd up Ðn award
d ÐppÕÐr as ÕÅtrÐs
Õ wÞrl d prÕmi ÕrÕ
l\4i rÐ,s - mi ght bÕ ÐnothÕr fi |m Ðbout NÕw York.
ShÕ - for hÕr fi|m ¼onsoon WÕdding.
Do you thi nk thÕ fi l ms thÐt makÕ you fÕÕ| gÞod arÕ thosÕ
wi th ?
4 |\4i rÐ i s wÕ|| known for maki ng Õxtraordi nÐrã fi l ms wi th
hi ghl y _
5 HÕr rÕa| fÐmi |y i n onÕ of hÕr fi |ms.
6 She stÐrtÕd hÕr áarÕÕr bã - .
7 A|| hÕr fi |ms dÕÐ| wi th - l i ke i mmi grati on.
8 Worki ng on fi |ms wi th - áÐn bÕ vÕrã di ffi áu|t
i n dÕÕd.
9 Áhoosi ng thÕ ri ght - to p|ay di ffÕrent parts i s
ÕssÕnti Ð |.
,l 0 |VÕmbÕrs of NÐi/s fÐmi Iy ÐttÕndÕd thÕ
VÕn l áÕ.
in
Di sáuss thÕ fol Iowi ng questi ons
. Why arÕ Iow-budgÕt fi |ms l i ke N4i ra,s somÕti mÕs Ð hugÕ
su ááÕss?
Þ How di ffi áu|t dÞ ãou thi nk i t woul d bÕ to mÐke a fi l m?
. Who do ãou thi nk i s morÕ i mportÐnt whÕn mÐki ng Ð
fi |m: thÕ áÐst or thÕ di rÕátor? Whv?
f áÐst (n)
g |ow budgÕts
h unusual pl ots
i happã Õndi ngs
j nÕåt projÕát
1
2
3
@
QlÛiáfl< qrÆ''-z
,l Áomp|Õte sÕntÕnáÕs 1_· With thÕ áorrÕát tÕnsÕ: p,st
simplÕ, pÐst áontinuous, or past perfeát.
1 WÕ usÕ thÕ - to tal k about an Ðáti Þn whi áh
happÕnÕd bÕforÕ anothÕr Ðáti on i n thÕ pÐst.
2 WÕ usÕ thÕ - to sÕt thÕ sáÕnÕ in Ð story.
3 WÕ usÕ thÕ - to dÕsári bÕ áomp|ÕtÕd ÕvÕnts i n
thÕ Oast.
l n pai rs, dÕái dÕ whi áh words or phrÐsÕs We usÕ a) to tÐ|k
about a rÕsu|t Ðnd b) to givÕ a rÕason.
bÕáÐusÕ so so ... thÐt
Look at thÕ pi áturÕ. WhÐt do you thi nk thÕ womÐn, SarÐh
Renny, doÕs for Ð Iiving?
RÕad pÐragraphs 1 Ðnd 2 of thÕ arti áIÕ about SÐrÐh and
put thÕsÕ ÕvÕnts i n the ordÕr i n whi áh thÕy Þááur.
1 ¿ SarÐh deái dÕd to mÐnufaáturÕ ÞoÞáorn.
2 ¿ SÐrah took on ]6 ÕmÞ|ovÕÕs.
3 ] SÐrÐh wÕnt bÐákpaáki ng i n °fri áÐ.
4 ¿ SÐrÐh bÕgan to work from homÕ.
5 ¿ SÐrÐh grÐduatÕd frÞm uni vÕrsi tã'
6 ¿ SarÐh di d some rÕsÕÐráh.
RÕad paragraph 3 of thÕ arti á|Õ and put thÕ vÕrbs 1_12i n
thÕ áorrÕát tensÕ: past simplÕ or past áÞntinuous.
Read paragraph 4 of thÕ Ðrti áIÕ and undÕrIi ne thÕ áorrÕát
tÕnsÕ: past simpIÕ or past pÕrfÕát.
look at how the words in bold are usÕd in paragraph 4.
Then áomp|etÕ sÕntenáÕs 1_3 usi ng thÕ words bÕl ow.
aftÕr bÕáÐ usÕ whÕn
.l SÐrah was abl Õ tÞ survi vÕ shÕ rÕáÕi vÕd hÕ|p from
hÕr fÐmi Iy.
SÐrÐh bÕáÐmÕ suááÕssfuI shÕ hÐd sÞId hÕr l dÕÐ
tÞ supÕrmÐrkÕts.
ál i Õnts áamÕ to SarÐh,s offi áÕ, thÕy ÕxpÕátÕd to
fi nd an o|dÕr pÕrson.
Narrati ve tÕnses:
Gonti nuous, past
and Gonti nuous
Past si mp|Õ, past
perfÕGt si mpl e
Pop goes the
cash till!
l WhÕn an i dÕa poppÕd i nto hÕr
hÕad, 26-ãear-ol d SÐrah RÕnnv
rÕÐl l y got árÐáki ng! Wi th a
$×,000 l oan SÐrah IaunáhÕd
hÕr busi nÕss whi áh sÞon
bÕáamÕ worth Ð staggÕÓi ng
$8,000. l t Ðl l áamÕ about
bÕáÐusÕ SaÓah, who studi Õd
maths at uni vÕrsi ty, áouIdÛ,t
sÕl.tl Õ dowÛ to a i Þb aftÕr
graduÐti ng, so shÕ dÕái dÕd to
go bÐákpaáki ng Ðround AfÓi áa.
,l wÐs travÕl l i ng and I wÐs
havi ng a fantasti á ti mÕ, buL I
WhÕn Sarah I wÕßt/ hÐd Âore to thÕ bank to ask
for a l oÐn, thÕ managÕr, ál skÕá\/ hÐát ÐskÕd hÕr to
wri tÕ a busi nÕss pIan. ShÕ , stÐrtÕd/ hÐd stqrtÕd thÕ
busi nÕss i n Maráh Ðnd by thÕ Õnd of thÕ ÃÕÐr shÕ
o mÐdÕ/ hÐd mÐdÕ Ð big profit' Sarah . fouiÐ/
hÐd found i t di ffi ául t Ðt fi rst bÕáausÕ shÕ
u nÕvÕr rÐn/ hÐd tlÕVÕr run a businÕss bÕforÕ. AftÕr
she- workÕd/ hÐál workÕd for Ð yÕar, things
u got/ hÐd got ÕÐsiÕr.
ran ouI of monÕy. I had to go homÕ aftÕr I hÐd bÕÕn
travÕl l i ng foÓ a fÕw months, bul I wÐs dÕtÕrmi nÕd to
rÐi sÕ thÕ monÕy to go Ðgai n.,
Sarah startÕd woÓki ng from hÕr homÕ i n
Gl ouáÕstÕrshi âÕ, i mporti ng novÕl ty food from
AmÕriáa to sÕll in supÕrmarkÕts. SÌÕ had iust
i ntÕndÕd Lo makÕ Ð l i tl.|Õ monÕy, but shÕ wÐs bi l tÕn
by thÕ busi nÕss bug. ShÕ wÐs doi ng somÕ ÓÕsÕaráh
whÕn shÕ hi t on thÕ i dÕa o³ mÐnui aátuÓi ng top-ál Ðss
popáorn. ShÕ di dn,t ÕvÕn Õat i t hÕrsÕ|³- but shÕ was
so áonvi náÕd thÕrÕ was a mÐrkÕt for i t that shÕ
dÕái dÕd to ri sk sÕtti ng up hÕr own áompany. BÕforÕ
l ong shÕ had takÕn on 16 pÕopl Õ.
WhÕn SÐÓah ' rbÕgi nl i ooki ng for
áustomÕrs, shÕ . --- (appÓoaáh,1 ÞnÕ of thÕ
bi ggÕst supÕrmarkÕt áhai ns. ,|t .--- (bÕ)
whÕÛ I . -- (Õxpl ai n,) my i dÕas tÞ thÕm that
thÕy , -- (bÕáomÕ) ÓÕÐl l y i ntÕrÕstÕd i n thÕ
prÞduát,, says SÐrah. .l . -- (bÕ) dÕl i ïhtÕd
whÕn thÕã (dÕái dÕ) Lo buy thÓÕ¡ of mv
homÕ-madÕ fl avours. ShÕ 8 -- (do) furthÕr
rÕsÕaráh on thÕ fl Ðvours whÕn shÕ
o --- (wi n) ordÕÓs fÓom sÕvÕn bi g
supÕÓmÐrkÕts. I[ 'o ---- (not bÕ) a]wÐÃs Õasv,
howÕvÕÓ. ÂhÕrÕ wÕrÕ Ð [Õw months whÕÌ shÕ
', - (work) a|l d'aã i n thÕ offi áÕ and shÕ
'' --- (supÕrvi sÕ) work al l ni ght i n thÕ
faátory.
Ä
8 RÕad sÕntÕnáÕs 'l-4 and dÕáidÕ if thÕ underIinÕd vÕrbs
arÕ in past perfeát simp|Õ or past perfÕát áontinuous.
1 NobÞdy had thought of thÕ i dÕa bÕforÕ SÐrah áamÕ Up
wi th i t.
2 AftÕr Sarah had bÕÕn travÕ||i ng for sÕvÕrÐ| months, shÕ
rÕturnÕd homÕ.
3 SarÐh áamÕ homÕ bÕáÐusÕ hÕr monÕy had run out.
4 SarÐh had bÕÕn Õxporting novÕ|ty food from AmÕriáÐ
whÕn shÕ hi t on the i dÕÐ of maki ng popáorn.
9 (ompIete ruIes .l Ðnd 2 with thÕ áorreát tÕnsÕ: past
perfÕát simp|e or past perfeát áontinuous.
RulÕs
.l WÕ usÕ thÕ - to ta|k about Ð áompl ÕtÕd Ðáti on
or statÕ i n thÕ pÐst thÐt happÕnÕd bÕforÕ anothÕr aáti on
i n thÕ past.
2 WÕ usÕ thÕ - tÞ tÐIk about an aáti on i n
progrÕss i n thÕ pÐst whi áh was i ntÕrruptÕd by anothÕr
Ðáti on i n thÕ past.
1 0 ÁhoosÕ thÕ áorreát tensÕ in sentÕnáes 1--4.
] SÐrÐh hÐd rÕseÐráhÕd/hÐd bÕen rÕsÕÐráhinï flÐvÞurs whÕn
shÕ won ordÕrs from supÕrmarkÕts.
2 SÐrah hÐd borrowÕd/hÞd been borrowing Ï·000 bÕáÐusÕ
shÕ wÐntÕd to start hÕr own áompany.
3 BÕforÕ shÕ startÕd hÕr businÕss, Sarah hÐdn,t
ÕåpeátÕd/hÐdn,t bÕÕn Õåpeáting to bÕ sÞ suááÕssfuI
4 AftÕr Sarah hÐd workÕd/hÐd bÕÕn working a|| dÐã in thÕ
offi áÕ shÕ supÕrvi sÕd work Ð|| ni ght i n thÕ fÐátorã.
Adverh ál auses
11 AdvÕrb áIauses givÕ us more information about verbs and
makÕ our sentenáÕs morÕ interesting. UndÕrIinÕ thÕ
advÕrb álausÕs in sÕntÕnáes 1_6, then mÐtáh thÕm to the
types of álausÕ a-f bÕIow.
,l l wÕnt to Afri áa so thÐt I áoul d/i n ÞrdÕr to sÕÕ wi IdIi fÕ.
2 °triáa Was so Õnormous thÐt I mÐnagÕd to sÕÕ vÕry Iitt|Õ
of it.
3 | IikÕd AfriáÐ bÕáausÕ/Ðs/sináÕ it wÐs so diffÕrÕnt from
othÕr áonti nÕnts.
4 If l wÕnt baák to AfriáÐ, I wÞu|d stÐã for |ongÕr.
5 Whi |Õ I wÐs thÕrÕ, I di d a |ot Þf trÐvÕ||i ng.
6 A|though I don,t Ii kÕ thÕ hÕÐt, | Õnj oãÕd bÕi ng i n Afri áÐ.
a áo nd i ti o n
b reason
á ti mÕ
d rÕsu |t
e áonáÕssion
f purposÕ
ÁomplÕtÕ sentenáÕs 1_6 With thÕsÕ words and phrasÕs.
." ÐIthough.. bÕáausÕ '' i f * so tr so... thÐt * whi |Õ
1 | Ii kÕ bÕi ng my own boss I áÐn makÕ my own
deái si ons.
it's hÐrd work, I,d rÐther work for mysÕIf thÐn
anyonÕ Õ|sÕ.
3 I borrowÕd Ï3'000 I áou|d sÕt Up mã own
busi nÕss.
4 - | was doi ng mã Ðááounts, Ð supÕrmÐrkÕt
phonÕd mÕ to ordÕr somÕ popáorn.
5 | was Õxái tÕd about thÕ ordÕr - I had
to phonÕ Ð fri Õnd to tÕII hÕrl
6 - l hÐd thÕ monÕã, |'d go baák tÞ AfriáÐ
tomorrow.
13 write six sÕntÕnáÕs using Õaáh type of advÕrb álause:
áondition, purpose' time' áonáession, reason, and rÕsuIt.
Let's aátivate
Ì|uden|. cafil
14 l magi nÕ you and ãour fri ends startÕd up a l unáhti mÕ áafñ
at sáhool two yÕars Ðgo and it was a hugÕ suááess. In
smÐ|I groups, makÕ a Iist of quÕstions to ask eÐáh other
to find out:
. whÕrÕ studÕnts hÐd bÕÕn going for snaáks bÕforÕ you got
thÕ i dÕÐ.
. what you WÕrÕ doi ng whÕn you got thÕ i dÕa for thÕ áafñ.
. whà ãou thought thÕ áafñ mi ght bÕ suááÕssfu|.
. whv VoU WÕrÕ dÕtÕrminÕd to makÕ a sUááÕss Þf thÕ áafñ.
. how ãou advÕrtisÕd thÕ áafñ.
. whÐt hÐppÕnÕd nÕxt.
. how muáh monÕã you mÐdÕ.
. how worki ng for ãoursÕ|f áompÐrÕd wi th worki ng for
somÕonÕ Õ|sÕ.
1 5 Now ask your partners your questions Ðbout thÕ áafñ'
12
Ä
BeÐCingr tlâest'
Look at thÕ photographs. DÕsáribe thÕ work
these pÕop|Õ are doi ng. What ski IIs or quaIi ti Õs do
peopIe need to do thesÕ jobs suááÕssfulIã?
2 In pai rs, di sáuss whi áh of the j obs you thi nk are:
a morÕ sui tab|Õ for mÕn.
b morÕ sui tab|Õ for womÕn.
á di ffi áu|t/ÕÐsy for both mÕn Ðnd WomÕn.
Li stÕni ng
Identifying statÕmÕnts thÕ speakÕrs makÕ
ThÕ spÕakÕrs may makÕ statÕments whi áh sound si mi l ar
to or rÕfÕr to thosÕ i n thÕ task but whi áh mÕÐn
somÕthi ng qui tÕ di ffÕrÕnt.
3 d)," You arÕ going to heÐr Darren FiIkins intÕrviÕwing
RÐáhÕl AndÕrson, Ð fÕma|Õ footbÐII ÐgÕnt. First, rÕad
through statÕmÕnts 1_10 áarÕfuIly. ThÕn IistÕn and writÕ
R bÕsidÕ thÕ statemÕnts RÐáhÕI makÕs, D besidÕ thosÕ
DarrÕn mÐkÕs, Ðnd N bÕside thosÕ nÕithÕr spÕakÕr mÐkes.
,l ¿ RaáhÕ| usÕd tÞ bÕ a 1ournÐ|i st.
2 ¿ RaáhÕ| mÕt footbaI|Õr j uIi an at a prÕSs áÞnfÕrÕnáÕ.
3 ¿ WomÕn ÐrÕ not as suááÕssful as mÕn Ðt handIi nï thÕ
prÕss.
4 ¿ RÐáhÕ| bÕáÐmÕ a footbal I ÐgÕnt by áhÐnáÕ.
5 ¿ Pl ÐãÕrs nÕÕd anothÕr j ob to fa|| bÐák on.
6 ¿ RÐáhÕl sÕÕms to bÕ maki ng Ð Iot of moneã.
7 ¿ RÐáhÕ| has Ð|wÐãs l ovÕd footba||.
8 ¿ RÐáhÕ| nÕvÕr pl Ðãs footbÐ|l hÕrsÕ|f.
9 ¿ SuááÕss i n footbÐ|| dÞÕs nÞt dÕÞÕnd on
whÕthÕr you arÕ mÐ|Õ or femÐ|Õ.
10 ¿ RÐáhÕ|'s fÐmi Iy i s dÕ|i ghtÕd wi th thÕ áontÐáts
shÕ mÐkÕs.
4
:-
ListÕn again Ðnd answÕr thÕ quÕstions.
1 How di d RaáhÕ| bÕáomÕ Ð fÞÞtba|l ÐgÕnt?
2 What arÕ WomÕn somÕti mÕs bÕttÕr Ðt dÞi ng thÐn mÕn?
3 WhÐt doÕs Ð footbÐ|| ÐgÕnt aátua||y do?
4 What ÕXpÕnsÕs doÕs RÐáhÕ| hÐvÕ to pÐã out of thÕ
monÕy shÕ Õarns?
5 What doÕs RÐáhÕ|'s fÐmi Iy thi nk of hÕr bÕi ng a footbÐ|l
ÐgÕnt?
Eåpl ai n i n your own words thÕ i di oms i n i tÐl i ás that
DarrÕn Ðnd RaáhÕI usÕ.
] I'vÕ beÕn dãing to Ðsk you.
2 ÂhÕ rÕportÕrs áÐn givÕ playÕrs Ð hÐrd timÕ.
3 PIayÕrs áouIdn't rÕa||ã dÕÐl with IhÕ prÕss vÕry wÕ|l.
4 Thi ngsj ust took ot'JfromIhere.
5 |I mÐkÕs sÕnsÕ.
6 ÂhÐt sounds |ike Ðn Þw|ul |ot of monÕy.
7 |I's nowhÕrÕ nÕar Ðs muáh as it sounds.
8 It must givÕ thÕm Ð |ot of strÕÕt árÕd.
Pronunái ati on
VovrÞl 60unds
6 MÐtáh thÕ words in Õaáh group that have the same vowÕ|
sound.
1 faát
2 sÕnsÕ
3 womÕn
a joì
5 rugOy
happã
sáÕnÕ
inj u rÕd
on l y
h ugÕ
pay
meÐn
timÕ
from
MUSI
mÐ|Õ
p rÕss
8ivÕ
mosl
UnnÐppy
@
7 Q'., Now |isten and áheák your ÐnswÕrs.
Speaki ng
s Q)'., Di sáuss thi s questi on. UsÕ thÕ di aIoguÕ box to
hÕ|p ãou.
Do you thi nk mÕn and womÕn arÕ |ooki ng for thÕ sÐmÕ
thi ngs i n Ii fÕ? Whã/Whã not?
i Usi ng fi Il Õrs
A l thi nk nowÐdaãs WomÕn wÐnt si mi l ar thi ngs to mÕn.
B Hmm,l'm not surÕ i f | ÐgrÕÕ wi th IhaI. You know. I
thi nk mÕn Ðnd womÕn arÕ |ooki ng fÞr di ffÕrÕnt thi ngs
i n Ii fÕ.
l,Ãel/, l supposÕ ãou áouId líÕ right, iíut whÐt Ðlíout
thi ngs Ii kÕ pIaãi ng footbaIl? ÂhÕrÕ arÕ Ð l ot of fÕmÐl Õ
footbÐ|| p|ÐãÕrs. As Ð mÐtter o| fÐát, I p|Ðy footbÐ|| for
Ð |oáÐ| womÕn's tÕÐm.
5o, ãou mi ght bÕáÞmÕ ÐnothÕr DÐvi d BÕákhÐm a
sort of f Õma|Õ su pÕr stÐ rl
BÕliÕve Øe, I wouldn't WÐnt IhaI. AnãwÐã, thÕrÕ's not
muáh áhÐnáÕ Þf that happeni ng, i s thÕrÕ?
You nÕvÕr know!
A short presentation
9 You arÕ going to givÕ a short prÕsÕntÐtion (two or thrÕÕ
minutÕs) on .A suááÕssfuI person'. DesáribÕ somÕonÕ from
your áountry or thÕ µngl i sh-spÕÐki ng worId. l nál udÕ:
. whÐt thÕ pÕrson doÕì or hÐs donÕ
. whÐt obstÐál Õs thÕã ovÕráÐmÕ
. whÐt mÐkÕs thÕm outstÐndi ng
10 In smÐI| groups' givÕ your àrÕsentation. AftÕr Õaáh
studÕnt has fi ni shÕd thÕi r prÕsÕntÐti on' thi nk of onÕ
quÕsti on to ask thÕm Ðbout i t. For Õxampl Õ:
. Whã di d ãou áhÞosÕ thi s pÐrti áu|Ðr pÕrson?
. Whã do you admi re or rÕspÕát thÕm?
. What ÕffÕát hÐ!suááÕss hÐd Þn thi s pÕrson?
. What do you thi nk wi Il hÐppÕn to thi s pÕrsÞn i n thÕ
. futurÕ? (lf thÕ àÕrson rs stil| aIivÕ.) . ;l:
r--I -"
â Soundbites -
MonÞ1, monÞI, monÞY
11 áo6Js.Ð ListÕn to Moneã, monÕã, moneã bã AbbÐ and
áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ words.
I work Ð|| ni ght' I wÞrk Ð|| dÐy
To pÐã thÕ'- I hÐvÕ tÞ paã _ ai n't i t sÐd!
And sti || thÕrÕ nÕvÕr sÕÕms to bÕ
A si ng|Õ , - |Õft for mÕ - that,s too badl
In mã drÕÐms l hÐvÕ Ð p|Ðn:
|fIgotmÕÐ.-man,
l wouIdn,t hÐvÕ to work at Ðl |,
|'d foo| Ðround Ðnd hÐvÕ Ð bÐ|l.
¼onÕã, monÕã, monÕã
Must bÕ t'unnã
ln thÕ, - mÐn,s woild.
MonÕã, monÕã, monÕã
°lwÐãs sunnã
In thÕ riáh mÐn,s world.
°hÐ, Ð!l thÕ things l áould do!
lf l hÐd át littlÕ'
lt's Ð riáh mÞn,s woild.
° mÐn Ii kÕ thÐt i s hÐrd to fi nd,
But I áÐn't gÕt hi m off mã mi nd - Ði n't l t sÐd!
And i f hÕ happÕns tÞ bÕ frÕÕ,
I bÕt hÕ woul dn't fÐnáã mÕ - thÐt's too bÐd!
So, l must |ÕavÕ, |'l l hÐvÕ to go
Âo Las VÕgÐs or lVonÐáo,
Andwi nÐo-i nagamÕ
N/y Ii fÕ wi || nÕvÕr bÕ thÕ sÐmÕ.
Áhorus
,t2 AnswÕr thÕ quÕsti ons.
1 WhÐt ki nd of Ii fÕ do thÕ si ngÕrs hÐvÕ?
2 WhÐt wÐy of mÐki ng monÕã havÕ thÕy dreÐmÕd of?
3 Whã wÞuId thÕ i dÕÐ probab|ã not wÞrk?
4 Do ãou ÐgrÕÕ wi th thÕ stÐtÕmÕnt: .It's a ri áh man's
worl d?'Why/Why not?
.];i
ë
I
I
F
i
³
Usi ng fi |IÕrs
Fi IIÕrs ÐrÕ usÕfuI words whi áh áan gi vÕ ãou ti mÕ to thi nk.
DÞ not ovÕrusÕ thÕm, howÕvÕr, as thi s wi l I gi vÕ thÕ
i mprÕssi on thÐt ãÞu áÐnnot fi nd thÕ words you ÐrÕ
IÞoki ng fÞrl
ÁIonitlg
Look at thÕ piáturÕ. Âhis shÕep áaIlÕd DoIly was born in
1997. Why was DoIIy a sáiÕntifiá breakthrough?
Áhoose thÕ áorreát definition, a or b, of the word áIoning.
a árÕati ng a pÕrson or Ðni maI i dÕnti áÐ| to ÐnothÕr
b áopãi ng thÕ áhÐrÐátÕri sti ás of Ð pÕrson or thi ng
Studyi ng the sampl Õ
Undsrstanding thÞ tasK
3 Read the tÕxt Ðnd áompIete the writing pIan.
Wri ti ng pl an
Introduáti on: di sagrÕÕmÕnt about á|oni ng humÐns
^r*r*
Z
3
ArgUmÕnts agal nst:
1
2
3
Áoná|usi on:
StÕps to better wri ti ng
?rÞeanting Ðn argument
4 Áomp|etÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 1_7 with thÕ áorreát form of thÕsÕ
verbs.
* ÐááÕpt * bÕ * áonsidÕr * disÐgrÕÕ e put forward
" rÕjÕát
1 Many argumÕnts havÕ bÕÕn i n fÐvour of
á|oni ng.
2 MÐny pÕopl Õ havÕ - thÕ i dÕÐ that wÕ shou|d
ál onÕ humans.
3 WÕ shoul d how thÕ áhi |d mi ght fÕÕ|.
4 |\4ost pÕop|Õ áÐnnot thÕ i dÕÐ of á|oni ng
numans.
5 ÂhÕrÕ onÕ or two strong argumÕnts for á|oni ng
humÐns'
6 ÂhÕ pÞi nt - that thÕ áhi |d wou|d bÕ Ðn i dÕnti áÐ|
twi n.
7 | am ÐfrÐi d l woul d hÐvÕ to
viÕw.
SináÕ Dolly Was suááÕssfutly álonÕd in 1997, therc
havÕ bÕÕn ÕndlÕss argumÕnts about whÕthÕr
sáiÕntists should álÞnÕ human bÕings.
As far as I áan sÕÕ, thÕrÕ havÕ bÕÕn thâÕe main
rÕasons put forward foâ áloning humans. ThÕ first
advantagÕ is that a áouplÕ who at thÕ momÕnt áan,t
havÕ áhildrÕn will bÕ ablÕ to havÕ them. ThÕ sÕáond
is that, if a áhild diÕs, thÕ family might Want to
bring it baák somÕhow * and thÕ third and final
IÕason is that stÕm áÕlls áould bÕ usÕd to áurÕ SomÕ
of thÕ disÕasÕs humans suffÕr from at prÕsÕnt.
I, pÕrsonally, am not in favour of thÕ first two
things. In faát, I find thÕm quitÕ disturbing. ThÕ
point is that a áhild produáÕd by áloning would be
likÕ an idÕntiáal twin of thÕ original, so physiáally
vÕry similar. on thÕ othÕr hand, thÕsÕ two pÕoplÕ
would havÕ áomplÕtÕly diffÕrÕnt pÕrsonalities.
SÕáondly, it,s my opinion that áhildrÕn should bÕ
wanted for thÕiâ individuality. In making a áopy, thÕ
parents arÕ delibÕâatÕly trying to speáify thÕ way
thÕy wish thÕ áhild to dÕvÕlop. Finally, wÕ should
áonsidÕr how thÕ áhild might fÕÕl about this in latÕâ
lifÕ _ and rÕjÕát this usÕ of áloning.
To sum up, dÕspitÕ onÕ or two algumÕnts put
forward in favour of áloning humans, I fÕÕl that thÕ
main disadvantagÕ of áloning is that families árÕatÕd
in this way would not providÕ a normal
ÕnvironmÕnt for thÕ áhildrÕn to grow up in.
i*{ .
@
wi th thÐt poi nt of
)
µxpÓreeing fÞallngs
Under|i nÕ the di ffÕrÕnt waYs i n whi áh the wri ter ÕåpressÕs
hi s feel i ngs i n the text.
UsÕ somÕ of thÕ Õxpressions you under|inÕd in thÕ tÕxt to
writÕ sÕntÕnáÕs eåprÕssing how ãou fÕÕI Ðbout statÕmÕnts
,l_×'
1 A|I fami Ii Õs shouId Þn|y bÕ aIl ÞwÕd to hÐvÕ onÕ áhi Id.
2 WÕ shouId Ðl I hÐvÕ Ðs many áhi IdrÕn Ðs possi bIe.
3 WÕ shouId bÕ ÐbIe to áhoosÕ thÕ áharÐátÕri sti ás of Þur
áh i Id ren.
ln spita of/doìpi|o
7 ÚÕÐd thÕ exp|anation and the Õåamples a_á. ÂhÕn
áompIÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs ,l_4 with thÕ áorreát phrase.
In spitÕ of/dÕspitÕ mÕan .ÕVÕn if'. WÕ use in spitÕ oJ/dÕspitÕ
bÕforÕ a noun or a gÕrund, and in spitÕ of thÕ fÐát thÐt
/dÕspite thÕ fÐát thÞt bÕfore a álausÕ.
a ln spitÕ of/Despite tho hÕÐvã 6n8w" wo drava intÞ |ho
áountrãÒide,
b tn spite of/DespitÕ mi56ing tha buÒ to Òáhool, wo
were ßot IÐfÕ fÞr our lesÒon.
á ln spitÕ of thÕ t'Ðát thÐt /Despite the faát thÐt it wÐs
Ònowing haÐvilã, we drava intÞ tha áountrãÒido.
1
2
3
I don't Ii kÕ fl yi ng, I agrÕÕd to go bã p|anÕ.
Ð|| thÕ hÐrd work, wÕ Õnj oy studyi ng EngIi sh.
l dÞn't rÕa||y Ii kÕ Ðni mÐ|s, | Õnj oãÕd our vi si t to
thÕ Zoo.
not hÐvi ng muáh monÕy, wÕ had a grÕat
áampi ng ho|i dÐã thi s summÕr.
Wri ti ng your Õssay
UndÞrstanding the taíK
8 You,re going to writÕ an ÕssÐy arguing for and Ðgainst onÕ
of thÕ statÕmÕnts ,l_3. DÕáidÕ whiáh of the idÕas a_f
áouId bÕ usÕd to support or rejeát eÐáh statÕmÕnt.
,l WÕ shou|d Ðl | |i ve unti I wÕ ÐrÕ Ðt |ÕÐst 200 ãÕars oId.
2 ÂhÕ ri áh shouId shÐrÕ al I thÕi r wÕÐ|th wi th thÕ poor.
3 Smoki ng shÞuId bÕ bÐnnÕd i n pubIi á p|ÐáÕs.
a l t's i mpÞssi b|Õ to mÐkÕ ÕvÕryonÕ ÕquÐ|.
b WÕ shouIdn't di sári mi natÕ agÐi nst tobaááo Ðddi áts.
á |\4Õdi ái nÕs Õnab|Õ us to l i vÕ |ongÕr.
d PÞssÕssi Þns don't mÐkÕ you happy.
e |\4Ðnã pÕop|Õ suffÕr thÕ ÕffÕáts of pÐssivÕ smÞking.
f Who Iooks ÐftÕr/supports thÕ Õl dÕr|ã?
9 UsÕ onÕ of thÕ phrases a_á to exprÕss views for and
against statÕments,l-3.
µåÐmple
2no big advantÐge of creÐting áhildran juìt IiKe
ouríelies ií thÐi wa á4n PÐ56 on ÐIl our good points.
t{owevar, wo might ÐIÞo pÐss on ÐII our bÐd pointe.
a 0nÕ bi g (di s)ÐdvantagÕ of ... i s ..., whi |Õ ...
b ThÕ mai n (di s)ÐdvÐntÐgÕ i s...;howÕvÕr...
á A furthÕr bÕnÕfi t/drÐwbÐák woul d bÕ ...whÕrÕÐs . '.
1 l t wou|d bÕ wondÕrfuI to árÕatÕ Ð human bÕi ng j ust Ii kÕ
oU rsÕ|vÕs.
2 Nobody áÐn havÕ too muáh i ntÕ||i gÕnáÕ.
3 Who ãoU arÕ i s muáh morÕ i mportant than whÐt ãou ÐrÕ.
Planning
10 In groups, dÕáide whiáh stÐtÕment in 9 you Ðre going to
writÕ about.
Ælriting
Looking at both sidÕs of an argumÕnt
RÕmÕmbÕr to i ná|udÕ vi Õws ãou do not agrÕÕ wi th bÕforÕ
stati ng your oWn opi ni on Ðnd gi vi ng rÕasons for
di sÐgrÕÕi ng wi th thÕsÕ poi nts of vi Õw.
11 Now writÕ ãour essay about 200_250 words.
. Iná|udÕ Ð sui tabl Õ oÕrsonÐ| i ntroduáti on
. Wri tÕ i n Ð sui tabl Õ pÕrsonÐ| andl or i mpÕrsonaI styl Õ
. µxprÕss pÕrsonÐ| opi ni ons i n your áonál usi on.
CheáKing
12 áheák that you havÕ:
. i ná|udÕd di ffÕrÕnt waãs of prÕsÕnti ng an argumÕnt.
. writtÕn thÕ right Ðmount (200-250 words).
A.
h
@
NarrÐtivs tanses: Past simplq past áontinuouì,
paìt ãorfeá|. íimplÞ and áontinuous
1 CompIete thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form (pÐst simp|e
or pÐst áontinuous) of thÕ vÕrb in brÐákÕts.
1 ÂhÕ ÐthIÕtÕ (run)towÐrds thÕ fi ni shi ng l i nÕ
whÕn hÕ (fal | ÞvÕr).
2 l t - (rÐi n) whÕn thÕy - (sÕt out) on
tnÕ ]oUrnÕy.
· PauIÐ (|oÞk out) Þf thÕ áÐfñ wi ndow whÕn
shÕ - (sÕÕ) RÞsÕ.
4 ThÕ burg|Ðr (not knÞw) thÐt thÕ pol i áÕ
(fol |Þw) hi m.
5 N4att (wÐtáh) a vidÕo whÕn hÕ
(hÕÐä Ð áÐr outsi dÕ.
As soon Ðs Ri áhÐrd (mÕÕt) Moni áÐ, hÕ
(rÕmÕmbÕr) whÞ shÕ wÐs.
ÂhÕ sun (shi nÕ) bri ght|y Ðs wÕ
(j og) Ðl ong thÕ bÕÐáh.
8 WhÕn thÕy - (ÐrrivÕ) Ðt thÕ partã ÕVÕrãonÕ
(dÐ náÕ).
UnderIinÕ thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ verb in sÕntÕnáÕs 1_8'
1 SÐrah wÐs surpri sÕd by thÕ suááÕss of hÕr popáorn
businÕss. She didn,t eåpÕát/hÐdn't ÕåpÕátÕd it tÞ líÕ sÞ
pÞpu |Ð r.
2 Dan wÐs rÕa||ã plÕasÕd whÕn hÕ sÐw.jÕss. |le didn,t
sÕÕ/hÐdn,t sÕÕn her for Ð |Þng timÕ.
3 AftÕr Âanãa t'inishÕd/hÞd t'inished rÕading hÕr boÞk, shÕ
wÕnt/hÞd gone to bÕd.
4 As soon Ðs I ÐrrivÕd at thÕ ÐirpÞrt, I took/hÞd tÐken a taåi
to thÕ hotÕl.
IÐn wÐs l atÕ. Bã thÕ ti mÕ hÕ got to thÕ footbÐIl stÐdi um
thÕ mÐtáh finishÕd/hÞd finishÕd.
I didn,t hÕlp/hÞdn,t hÕlpÕd KÐtÕ With hÕr homÕwork
bÕáÐusÕ she ÐIrÕÐdã t'inishÕd/hÐd ÐlrÕÐdã ftnished it whÕn
l Ðrri vÕd.
By thÕ Õnd Þf thÕ dÐã Sleve wrotÕ/hÐd writtÕn threÕ
l ÕttÕrs ÐppIyi ng for j obs.
GÐrã was upsÕt bÕáÐusÕ Lisa lÕft/hÞd lÕJt the pÐrtã by thÕ
timÕ hÕ got/hÐd got thÕre.
3 UndÕr|i nÕ thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb to áompl ÕtÕ thÕ
tÕxts.
µightÕÕn.yÕar-old Liz SlanÕy has bÕáomÕ thÕ latÕst
IntÕrnÕt suááÕSs story. Liz ' hÞd just fißishÕd/ háls just bÕÕß
-ài,Øi"ghÕr A lÕvÕls whÕn shÕ startÕd work on an
IntÕrnÕt sitÕ offÕring up.to-thÕ-minutÕ fashion tips for
;;;;;8. girls. ,I , Øáld tÙouãht/ hrld bÕÕß t.hißkit×g of sÕtting
; d Ùn sitÕ for a whÙ, but I wasn,t surÕ what to do,,
,trã,i',.,I had thÕ idÕa for futurÕfashio_1.l"* aftÕr I ,
Øid rÕálá1/ hÐál bÕÕß rÕÐdißg fashion magazlnÕS onÕ
mo.ni,-'gt I' hálvÕ plÐßßÕd/ hÐd bÕÕß plÐßßißg, to takÕ a
yÕal out aftÕr my Õxams, but now I,m just too busy.,
2
A British álinrÌÕr has gonÕ rnissing on ¼ount µvÕrÕst.
Paul StÕinÕr 5 hÐt1 -tpÕß,t/ hÐd bÕÕn s"pÕß,liærnorÕ than ]5
yÕÐrs áiimÌing àrÞfÊssionally arrd , hÐr] ál,ißlbÕr]/ hÐr] bÕÕtl
á|irßbi,é µvÕrÕst thrÕÕ timÕs ÌÕ{ÌrÕ. RÕsáuÕ tÕams havÕ
ÌÕÕn working round thÕ áioák to ioáÐtÕ him.
Two men esáaped from pri son yesterday. The men 1 had served/ ha,
been servi ng.l 0-yÕÐr sÕntÕnáeS for Ðrmed robbery. Pri son offi áers
di dn,t noti áe that they u had gone/ had been goi ng unti l i t was too l a
AdvÞÓb c|auìoì
4 ÁombinÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs using thÕ words in braákÕts and
making Ðny othÕr nÕáÕssary áhÐnges.
1 You shouId pIan ãour áÐrÕÕr áÐrefuIl y. You'|| bÕ
suááÕssful. (i f)
2 SÐl|ã WÕnt to univÕrsity. ShÕ wantÕd to gÕt Ð goÞd job. (so
that)
3 | gÞt to thÕ áonáÕrt on ti mÕ. ThÕrÕ wÕrÕn,t Ðnã ti ákÕts
IÕft. (al though)
4 ÂhÕ j ob wÐs vÕrã bori ng. N4i kÕ l Õft ÐftÕr onÕ weÕk. (so ...
that)
5 Susi Õ wÐs IatÕ. HÕr áÐr hÐd brokÕn down. (bÕáausÕ)
6 ThÕ burg|ar wÐs brÕÐki ng i ntÞ thÕ housÕ. HÕ áut hi s
hÐnd. (whi |Õ)
Ä
F aa
) pea Út ng
5 ln pairs, eaáh áhoosÕ Ð diffÕrent photogrÐph' DÕsáribÕ thÕ
photograph. Âhi nk about thÕ ÕvÕnt Ðnd what thÕ pÕopl e
mi ght bÕ fee|i ng' ThÕn tal k to your partnÕr Ðbout:
. thÕ physiáÐ| ÕffÕáts of doing spÞrts.
o thÕ bÕnÕfi t of bÕi ng part Þf a team
. whÐt mÐkÕs suááÕssfu| Ðth|ÕtÕs
Li stÕni ng
6 {),s vouÐrÕ going to hÕÐr Ðn interviÕw with Âom
FrÕmantlÕ. First' read through the questions 1_6. Âhen
Iisten, Ðnd áhoosÕ the bÕst option, a, b, á, or d.
1 Why did ÂÞm go to °ustraIia?
Ð to dÕvÕl op hi s áarÕÕr Ðs a i ournÐl i st.
b to hÐvÕ Ð áyá|i ng hoIi day.
á to ÕsáapÕ from borÕdom.
d to support a {ri Õnd'
Why di d Âom tÐkÕ phol ogrÐphs of hi s fÐmi |y wi th hi m?
a tÞ hÕ|p hi m fi nd pÕopl Õ who knÕw hi s rÕ|Ðti vÕs.
b tÞ ÕnáourÐgÕ pÕÞpl Õ tÞ offÕr hi m aááommÞdati Þn.
á tÞ hÕ|p hi m áÞmmuni áatÕ morÕ ÕÐsi |ã wi th pÕop|Õ.
d to rÕmi nd hi m of hi s rÕ|Ðti vÕs bÐák hÞmÕ'
What was thÕ rÕal ai m of Tom,s tri p?
Ð to rai sÕ monÕy for áhari ty.
b tÞ fu|fi | Ð |i fÕ|Þng Ðmbi ti on.
á to ÕnáouragÕ others to fo||ow in his footstÕps.
d to sÕÕ thÕ wor|d bÕfÞrÕ sÕtt|ing down.
WhÐt did Âom disáovÕr as hÕ áyálÕd through diffÕrÕnt
áÞu ntriÕs?
a pÕop|Õ WÕrÕ morÕ fri Õnd|y thÐn hÕ ÕxpÕátÕd.
b whÐt ki nd of pÕrson hÕ rÕa||ã wÐs.
á that hi s ori gi nÐ| i dÕÐs Ðbout pIaáÕs wÕrÕ áÞrrÕát.
d thÐt hi s |ÐnguÐgÕ ski ||s wÕrÕ bÕttÕr thÐn hÕ thÞught.
Why did Âom go to FrÕmÐnt|Õ?
a bÕáÐusÕ hÕ wantÕd to vi si t hi s fÐmi |y.
b bÕáÐusÕ hÕ hÐd dÕái dÕd to bÕáomÕ Ð sai |Þr.
á bÕáÐusÕ thÕ tÞwn was namÕd aftÕr his anáÕstor.
d bÕáÐusÕ ÁaÞtÐi n Áhar|Õs FrÕmÐntIÕ rÕáÞmmÕndÕd i t.
6 WhÐt is ÂÞm's job now?
a HÕ's a profÕssionÐ| áyálist.
b HÕ's Ð travÕl writÕr.
á He's Ð sponsor for StÞkÕ N4andÕvi l |Õ Hospi tal.
d HÕ,s an ÕxpIorÕr.
Wri ti ng
7 write an short Õssay (about 200 words) about a rÕal or
imaginary journey. you have madÕ. UsÕ Tom's story in 6
and the poi nts bÕIow to hÕl p you.
. Why di d ãou dÕái de to makÕ thÕ j ournÕã?
. WhÕn di d you go Þn thÕ j ournÕã?
. How wÐs it organisÕd?
. WhÐt prob|Õms di d yÞu hÐvÕ?
. WhÐt hÐÞoÕnÕd i n thÕ Õnd?
@
Ælord building
1 ÁompIÕte thÕ tÕxt with thÕ áorrÕát form Þf the words in
brÐákets'
The seá Àr| Þf mv suááess
Marti nÕ N/áCutáhÕÞn
l,ve a|ways |ovÕd dressi ng up
and bei ng gl Ðmorous. My
fi rst'_-(peÓform) was
when I was aged 10 at stagÕ
sáhooI. Then when I was a
tÕenager, I spent Ð few years
i n a gi rl hÐnd, butwe di dnt
get anywhere. I,d a|wÐys
beIi Õved that havi ng , -
(abl e) and Ð .
Prepoeitioní
3 ÁompIÕte thÕ tÕxt with thÕ prÕpositions. You áan usÕ Ð
prÕposition morÕ than onáÕ'
* as * by * for * i n * of 8 on 8 to * undÕr * wi th
JÕss Si mpson i s Ðn 1B-yÕÐr-ol d studÕnt, but at thÕ wÕÕkÕnd
shÕ rÕfÕrÕÕs profÕssiÞnÐ| ruglíy lÕaguÕ mÐtáhÕs.
Rugby mÐtáhÕs usual |ã Õnd i n a pÕaáÕfuI vi átory 1
onÕ si dÕ and dÕfÕÐt for thÕ othÕr, but somÕti mÕs duri ng thÕ
mÐtáh pl ayÕrs2 -thÕ ÞppÞsi ng tÕÐms gÕt i nto
hÕÐtÕd argumÕnts · - thÕ pi táh. JÕss Si mpsÞn hÐs to
dÕÐ| a - thÕsÕ Ðngrã gi ants' Ðnd rÕstorÕ thÕ pÕÐáÕ.
As Ð rÕfÕrÕÕ, ãoU arÕ 5 - prÕssurÕ tÞ kÕÕp things
runni ng smoothIy,' JÕss poi nts out. .|\,4ost 6 -thÕ ti mÕ
i t's on|ã ÐbÞut Õnforái ng thÕ rul Õs, but whÕn thosÕ ru|Õs ÐrÕ
brokÕn, somÕbody has to stÕp i n Ðnd sÐvÕ thÕ dÐã.'And hÕr
ski ||s as Ð pÕÐáÕmÐkÕr havÕ ÕarnÕd her a j ob
Ð rÕfÕrÕÕ on thÕ profÕssi onÐ| ái ráui t.
áhÐnáÕ that JÕss wÐs i ntroduáÕd
It wÐsn't B
9
ti mÕ l seÕ i t as a nÕw .o -- (aáhi eve), a neW á0nqurst.
,ria..r.rr:....arr:.:lliriirii':rr::rr:r1..]*;:rla:.:.r..':r:lrrr::.::r::':::;irrrr::,:..-.-.t:r.l
Phrasal verb6
2 ÁomplÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 1_6 with the áorrÕát form of ÞnÕ Þf
thesÕ phrasal verbs.
* bÐák UÀ Ò brÕÐk up * |Ðã down * pi ák up u pi |Õ up
* turn to
1 WhÕn LukÕ arri vÕd at thÕ foot of thÕ mountÐi n, hi s
Õnthusi Ðsm for thÕ á|i mb - fÕÐr.
2 ÂhÕ pop group aftÕr Ð l Õw months' Nobodã wÐs
buyi ng thÕi r rÕáÞrds.
· ÂhÐnks tÞ my boss me -, I mÐnagÕd to gÕt
the prÞmoti Þn.
4 BÕfÞrÕ |Õaving fÞr thÕ airpÞrt' l hÐd to my tiákÕt
from thÕ trÐvÕ| ÐgÕnt.
5 0n my fi rst dÐy Ðt work, thÕ mÐnÐgÕr thÕ rul es
Ðnd tÞ|d mÕ whÐt I wÐs rÕsÞÞnsi bl Õ for.
6 µmmÐ áoul dn't áopÕ wi th hÕr nÕw j ob. ÂhÕ work
Ðnd thÕrÕ WÐs no ti mÕ to do ÕvÕrãthi ng.
rugbã. ShÕ got intÕrÕstÕd 10
thÕ sport
bÕáÐusÕ hÕr fathÕr WÐs onáÕ Ð rÕfÕrÕÕ hi msÕ|f.
Æ|ordÒ that go togÞthÞr
4 ÁhoosÕ thÕ bÕst Word, Ð, b, or á, to áomp|ÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs
1-5.
1 Ol i vÕr Was - to ask thÕ pop star for hÕr
ÐutogrÐph, but hÕ wÐs too shã.
Ð dãi ng b shoákÕd á Õxái tÕd
2 Brad hÐs nothi ng to - bÐák on i f hÕ Ioses hi s j ob.
a fÐ|| b áomÕ á l ook
3 ÂÕenÐgÕ stÐrs oftÕn find it diffiáu|t to - thÕ prÕss
Ð dÕa|
b hÐnd|Õ
á áopÕ
4 ProfÕssi onÐ| footbÐl |Õrs ÐrÕ ÐbIÕ to ÕÐrn Ð(n) |Þt
Þf mÞnÕã.
Ð Ðwful
b tÕrri b|Õ
á hÞrri bIÕ
|f ãou'rÕ Ð mode| i t - sÕnsÕ to prÕparÕ ãoursÕl f
for anÞthÕr j ob. l\4ost modÕ||i ng áarÕÕrs ÐrÕ vÕry short.
a sÕÕs
b makÕs á nÐs
(bÕIi eve} i n yoursÕ|f woul d be
enough, but i t i sn,t. You nÕÕd
Ð formi dÐbl e teÐm of peop|e
behi nd you Ðnd you Ð|so neÕd a l ot of moneã. o -
(|uáky), I gotthe áhÐnáe tÞ audi ti on for a ro|Õ i n Ð famous
s0ap 0peÓa and si náe then |,ve been worki ng non-stop. I
thi nk I'm . --- (suááess} for my age beáause l,vÕ worked
very hÐrd. l thi nk you need dedi áÐti o¿, u _- (áonfi dent)
and 7 -- (ambi ti ous) to be an aátor. You a|so nÕed to bÕ
Ðb|e to Ðááept rej eáti on and u -- (ári ti ái se) - Ðnd that
áÐn be frustrÐti ng. I thi nk the seáret t0 sUááess i s bei ng
happy i n y0ur áareer. You spend most of your ti me worki ng
so you shoul d hÐve Iots 0f '_- (Õnthusi asti á)for i t. I mÐy
fÕÕI nÕrvous when I go on i n front of the áÐmeras, but eaáh
6Úilts and qualitioì noodod in diffÞrÞnt jobs
5 MÐtáh thÕsÕ ski l Is or quaIi ti Õs to the j obs bÕIow.
u áomputÕr-|itÕrÐte e áonfidÕnt u árÕat!ve
* fl uÕnt i n two |ÐnguÐgÕs u good áommuni áÐti on ski Il s
n organi sÐti onÐ| ski ||s * pÐti Õnt * physi áÐl l ã fi t
* rÕsoonsi b|Õ Ò sÕárÕtÐri Ð| ski ||s * soái Ðb|Õ
IifÕ guard persona| assistant tour guide
@
ÁovÕnt GardÕn
F*.'#
North-Õast of Trafalgar SquarÕ bÕgins thÕ mazÕ Þf
naIIoW StrÕÕts and tiny allÕys áallÕd ÁovÕnt GardÕn,
now thÕ áÕntrÕ of ÕntÕâtainmÕnt in LondÞn but onáÕ
a nÞtorious low-lifÕ distriát and a áriminal haunt.
ÂhÕrÕ has bÕÕn somÕ typÕ Þf markÕt on this spot for
morÕ than 3O0 yÕars, but thÕ namÕ aátually dÕrivÕs
frÞm thÕ áonvent gardÕn that oááupiÕd thÕ arÕa until ,:.
thÕ timÕ Þf HÕnry VIII, when thÕ áonvÕnt was
abandonÕd.
AtthÕáÕntIÕofÁovÕntGardÕnl i Õsaáobbl ÕstonÕ
squaIÕandsupÕrbstÕÕl andgl assmarkÕtpÐvi l i ons
áonstruátÕd ln thÕ 1830s to housÕ flowÕr, fruit, and ..
vÕgÕtabl Õ stal l s. ThÕ markÕt was movÕd to nÕW.
quÊrtÕrs south of thÕ rivÕr Thames in 1'974, and thÕ ...
old dl't'i.t passÕd into sÕvÕral yÕars of povÕrty and ..
nÕglÕát. Òuiin thÕ Õarly 1980s, ÁovÕnt GardÕn was ..
rÕfurbishÕd into an arÕa of rÕStaurarrts, shÞps, and .....
áafñs. It,s now a showplaáÕ for buskÕrs (strÕet
ÕntÕrtainÕrs), and a summÕr paâadisÕ bÞth foâ offiáÕ
wÞrkÕrs at lunáh timÕ and for tourists.
ThÕ popular JubilÕÕ ¼arket at thÕ wÕÕkÕnd offÕrs a
áolourful mixturÕ of arts and árafts, food stalls and ]
puppÕt shows. But thÕ aátion rÕally heats up at night. ...
ânÊi" with a tastÕ for µnglish traditiÞn might drink at ':
thÕ many anÁiÕnt pubs in thÕ arÕa suáh as thÕ Lamb
and Flag, a sixtÕÕnth áÕntury pub known in its rrrorÕ
sinistÕrÊays as thÕ ,Buáket of Blood,. Tutton,s áafñ is
good for a quiÕt áhat, whilÕ thÕ Roák GardÕn offÕâs .]]
ear-shattÕring musiá.
ÁovÕnt GardÕn is alsÞ Synonymous with British
thÕatrÕ, for thÕ distriát plays host to thÕ l"lÕst of
London,s drama, musiá, and danáÕ. It is also popular
for afternoon shÞpping, ÕspÕáially NÕal StrÕÕt with its ].
uniquÕ áollÕátion of spÕáiality shÞps. onÕ shÞp sÕlls ]
only kitÕs, anothÕr dÕals in shÕlls. Book lÞvÕrs usually
hÕad for Charing Áross Road, whiáh marks thÕ
westÕrn boundaiy Þf thÕ ÁovÕnt GardÕn distriát With
a solid wall of book shÞps, all of whiáh have a grÕat
atmosphÕrÕ. It,s all a far áry from thÕ distriát of low
lifÕ and árimÕ that it usÕd to bÕl
.] RÕad thÕ tÕxt Ðnd answÕr thÕ foI|owi ng quÕsti ons.
1 HÞw Iong hÐs thÕ ÐrÕÐ bÕÕn ÐssÞái ÐtÕd wi th Ð mÐrkÕt?
2 WhÕrÕ doÕs thÕ nÐmÕ ÁovÕnt GÐrdÕn ori gi nÐtÕ from?
· WhÐt Áan yoU fi nd Ðt thÕ áÕntrÕ of ÁovÕnt GÐrdÕn?
4 WhÐt áhangÕs took pIÐáÕ whÕn thÕ ÐrÕÐ Was rÕfurbi shÕd?
5 WhÐt áÐn you fi nd Ðt thÕ Jubi |ÕÕ N/ÐrkÕt?
6 What ki nd of ni ght l i fÕ áÐn bÕ found i n ÁovÕnt GÐrdÕn?
7 What i s unusuÐI ÐbÞut thÕ shops i n NÕÐI StrÕÕt?
8 What i s ÁhÐri ng Áross RoÐd fÐmous for?
Tal ki ng about your áountry
Z Answer thÕsÕ quÕsti ons about your áountrã.
1 Do you hÐvÕ Ðny arÕÐs si mi l Ðr to ÁovÕnt GÐrdÕn i n
ãoUr ÁoUntrã? Áan ãou dÕsári bÕ thÕm?
2 WhÐt ki nds of |ÞáÐ| mÐrkÕts do ãÞu havÕ? How do
ãou thi nk thÕy havÕ áhÐngÕd ovÕr thÕ ãÕÐrs?
3 How áommOn i s buski ng i n ãour áountry?
4 WhÐt i s thÕ ni ght l i fÕ |i kÕ whÕrÕ you Ii vÕ? How do
ãou thi nk i t mi ght bÕ i mprovÕd?
5 What ki nds of rÕfurbi shmÕnt hÐvÕ tÐkÕn pIaáÕ
rÕáÕntl ã i n ãÞur town or ái tã?
6 How i mportÐnt i s i t to kÕep on i nvÕsti ng ti mÕ Ðnd
monÕy i n i mprovi ng thÕ surroundi ngs Ðnd faái l i ti Õs
i n our áommuni ti Õs?
Ä
7he 7aorãrÁeleste
;:1t;!i'.!1:i;;:i$lt..-,,':tit;i1t.t'xi*'i*&i*nia?'rtrr*''ial1;''' _ I
1 ln pairs, disáuss whÕther you agrÕÕ with this statÕmÕnt:
ThÕrÕ ÐrÕ árÕaturÕs i n thÕ sÕa that wÕ áÐn't bÕgi n to
i mÐgi nÕ.
Readi ng
2 µxpIain thÕ meaning of thesÕ words. Use a diátionary if
neáessary.
" áabi n * áargo Ù árÕW * deák " |i fÕboÐt * sai l s
3 sÚim read the tÕxt Ðnd find out why the MariÕ ÁÕIestÕ was
áonsidÕrÕd to bÕ Ð mysterious ship.
4 SáÐn thÕ text and áompIetÕ the information.
Shi p's dÕsti nati Þn:
Foáus magazinÕ
:;
j
3
A ¼ARITI¼µ ¼YSTµRY
n 5 NovÕmbu |872, Áaptain BÕnjamin Briggs and his
árÕw raisÕd thÕ sails of thÕir ship thÕ ¼ary CÕlÕste in
NÕw Yoâk,s µast RivÕr and saiiÕd out of thÕ harbour into
thÕ Atlantiá oáÕan. ThÕy wÕrÕ making for thÕ Italian port of
GÕnoa, whÕrÕ they plannÕd to unload thÕir áarïo of industrial
aláohol.
Shi p's áargo:
ori gi nÐ| numbÕr of pÕopl Õ on board:
Fi rst si ghti ng of the shi p:
Beginning of IJS Naval Áourt investigation:
DÐte of shi p's dÕstruáti on: -
i on 4 DÕáembÕr, thÕ ship was sightÕd by Áaptain ¼oorhousÕ of
.. thÕ ship DÕi Gratia, about 600 milÕs wÕst of thÕ AzorÕs . Puzzled
: ìy hÕr irrÕgular movÕmÕnts, MoorhousÕ sÕnt a small boarding
.. pafià to invÕstigatÕ. What thÕy found on dÕák is still arguÕd
.l ovÕr today. ThÕ ship was dÕsÕrtÕd: thÕ Áaptain, his wifÕ, thÕir
] two-yÕar-old daughtÕr and sÕvÕn árew mÕmbÕrs, along with thÕ
only lifÕboat, had all disappÕarÕd.
.:, What thÕy had tÕft bÕhind suggÕstÕd that they must havÕ
. abandonÕd thÕ ship in a grÕat hurry. onty somÕ navigational
: instrumÕnts and thÕ ship,s offiáial doáuments wÕrÕ takÕn.
.: µvÕrything ÕlsÕ (provisions, watÕr, álothing and thÕ árÕw,s
. tobaááo) rÕmainÕd on board. µvÕn thÕ áaIgo Was untouáhÕd. In
l thÕ árÕw,s aááommodation bÕlow thÕ dÕáks, thÕy found
. bÕdding and floors soakÕd with rainwatÕr, suggÕsting thÕ ship
l áou]d havÕ run into sÕverÕ wÕathÕr after lÕaving port.
i
. on 13 DeáÕmbÕq thÕ US Naval Áourt of InvÕstigation startÕd
, looking into thÕ áasÕ of thÕ ¼ary ÁÕlÕstÕ and thÕ lÕgÕnd bÕgan
.. to takÕ shape. ThÕ ChiÕf InvÕstigator áonáÕntratÕd on somÕ
. strangÕ disáovÕriÕs madÕ aboard thÕ abandoned ship: an aåe-
. mark and brown stains on thÕ deák and Briggs, sword áould
. havÕ bÕÕn ÕvidenáÕ of a fight. This thÕory did not stand up,
' howÕvÕr, aftÕr tests showÕd that thÕ brown stains WerÕ not
btood and therÕ was no othÕr ÕvidÕnáÕ of a áonfliát on board.
AnothÕr thÕory was that thÕ áaptain and his family might havÕ
bÕen murdÕred by his árÕw who had bÕÕn drinking from one of
thÕ barrÕls of industrial aláohol, usually áallÕd mÕthanol. But
thÕrÕ wÕrÕ flaws in this thÕory' too. ¼Õthanol doÕsn,t turn
pÕoplÕ into drunks: it poisons thÕm.
A slightly morÕ sÕnsiblÕ thÕory was that thÕ árÕw might havÕ
bÕáomÕ alarmed by the amount of water the ship took on
during a storm, and dÕáidÕd to abandon ship in thÕ lifÕboat. YÕt
Briggs, an ÕåpÕriÕnáÕd sailor, would have known thÕ amount of
watÕr wasn,t Õnough to thrÕatÕn the ship.
ThÕ most likÕly Õxplanation is áonnÕátÕd with thÕ ship's áargo.
Industrial aláohol is potÕntially ÕxplosivÕ. If somÕthing
happenÕd to onÕ of thÕ barrels on board, thÕ árÕw would havÕ
to aát quiákly. InvÕstigators did flnd out that onÕ of thÕ barrÕls
was damagÕd. It áould havÕ bÕÕn damaged during a storm and
might havÕ bÕgun to rÕlÕasÕ lethal fumÕs. FÕaring an Õxplosion,
thÕ áaptain may havÕ orderÕd thÕ árÕw to abandon ship. ThÕ
árÕw lowÕrÕd thÕ lifÕboat, whiáh thÕn sank during thÕ violÕnt
storm. This would Õxplain many of thÕ mystÕâious fÕaturÕs of
thÕ ship.
Unfortunately, it áan,t bÕ put to thÕ test: thÕ ship was destroyÕd
by flrÕ in an insuranáe fraud 1,2ãears aftÕr its árÕw disappÕarÕd.
So thÕ ¼ary ÁÕlÕstÕ took with hÕr thÕ last hopÕ of solÙng thÕ
most famous maritimÕ mystery of all timÕ.
t.ê
ti
1(l
{
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P
á .q
ov¾
r{.i
'"ã"
e.()
f.
L\-
5 RÕad thÕ tÕxt again Ðnd find thÕ four suggested thÕoriÕs
about thÕ árÕw's disappÕaran(e.
1
6 ÁhoÞsÕ thÕ bÕst answÕr tÞ quÕstiÞns 1-4.
1 Why di d ÁÐptÐi n ]VoorhousÕ dÕái dÕ to sÕnd somÕ mÕn to
boÐrd thÕ l\4Ðrã ÁÕ|ÕstÕ?
a HÕ áou|d sÕÕ no onÕ Ðt aII on bÞard thÕ shi p.
b ÂhÕ sÐi |ors Þn thÕ shi p hÐd sÕnt Ð rÕqUÕst for hÕ|p.
á ÂhÕ shi p wÐs sai Ii ng i n a vÕrã strangÕ Waã.
d ÂhÕrÕ was somÕthi ng odd about thÕ shapÕ of thÕ shi p.
2 WhÐt di d thÕ mÕn di sáovÕr aftÕr boÐrdi ng thÕ shi p?
Ð °II thÕ ÕssÕnti Ð| provi si ons for survi vÐl hÐd
d i sa ppÕÐ rÕd.
b ThÕre wÐs Õvi dÕnáÕ thÐt thÕ shi p hÐd mÕt Wi th Ð
storm.
á ÂhÕ shi p's i nstrumÕnts Ðnd doáumÕnts WÕrÕ Ðl I bÕIow
thÕ dÕáks.
d ThÕ árÕw,s aááommÞdati on hÐd not beÕn s|Õpt i n.
3 What doÕs .thÕ l ÕgÕnd begÐn to tÐkÕ shapÕ' mÕan?
Ð It hÐd not bÕÕn hÕÐrd bã Ðnyo¿Õ bÕforÕ.
b It s|owl ã dÕvÕ|opÕd i nto somÕthi ng dÕfi ni tÕ.
á l t graduÐI|ã got IongÕr and morÕ áomp|Õx.
d |t bÕáamÕ a storã ÕVÕrãonÕ wÐntÕd to hÕar.
4 Whã di d thÕ mãStÕry rÕmÐi n unsol vÕd?
a ThÕ shi p Was too dÐmÐgÕd for any áonál usi ons to bÕ
drÐwn.
b ÂhÕ shi p sÐnk Ðs i t was bÕi ng brought baák to thÕ
port.
ÂhÕ shi p was brokÕn up bã Ðn i nsurÐnáÕ Áompanã
ÂhÕ shi p wÐs |ÐtÕr dÕ|i bÕrÐtÕ|y sÕt on fi rÕ.
Voáabu l a ry
7 MÐtáh thÕse adjÕátivÕs to thÕ nouns ]_6 to mÐkÕ word
áombi nÐti ons whi áh appÕÐr i n thÕ text.
. boardi ng l Ðst. |ÕthÐI offi ái Ð| sÕVÕrÕ vi Þ|Õnt
1 doáumÕnts 4 fumÕs
2 wÕathÕr 5 storm
· pÐrty 6 hopÕ
M1ìter1 and imagination
8 Expl Ði n thÕ mÕani ng of thÕse words Ðnd phrasÕs as thÕy
arÕ usÕd i n thÕ tÕxt.
,l |ÕgÕnd 7 Ð|ÐrmÕd
2 strÐngÕ di sáovÕri Õs 8 l i kÕ|y Õxp|ÐnÐti Þn
3 Õvi dÕnáÕ 9 Õxpl osi on
4 áÞnfl i át 10 mãstÕri ous fÕÐturÕs
5 murdÕrÕd 11 di sÐppÕÐrÕd
6 fl aws i n thÕ thÕory ]2 mÐri ti mÕ mãstÕry
Di sáuss thÕ fo||owi ng questi ons.
Þ HavÕ ãoU evÕr hÕard of any mystÕri Õs of thi s ki nd?
. WhÐt possi bl Õ Õxp|Ðnati ons áouId thÕrÕ bÕ for what
hÐ ÞoÕnÕd?
. Do you thl nk thÐt thÕrÕ i s Ð|wÐãs Ðn ÕxpIanÐti on for
ÕvÕrythi ng thÐt happÕns? Whã/Whã nÞt?
2
3
4
á
d
á ,'.}.\
- Szoi$l" "
µåÐlltárÐirâirtgt
Mu Iti p|Õ-áhoi áÕ quÕsti ons
Fi rst, rÕÐd thÕ quÕsti ons (not thÕ opti Þns), thi s wi || hÕl p
ãou to foáus on whÐt to Iook for i n thÕ tÕxt. ÂhÕn rÕÐd
thÕ tÕxt. NÕÅt, go bÐák to thÕ quÕsti ons Ðnd rÕÐd Ð|I thÕ
opti ons áÐrÕfuIIy and undÕrl i nÕ thÕ pÐrts of thÕ tÕxt
whi áh hÕ|p you mÐkÕ ãour áhoi áÕ.
Ä
Past modal s
1 UndÕrIinÕ thÕ áorrÕát words to áompIete thÕ ruIÕs.
1 Modal s form thÕi r nÕgÐti vÕ by addi ng not/do not.
2 ModÐIs form quÕstiÞnsbã using do/invÕrting thÕ modÐl
Ðnd subjÕát.
3 0nÕ modÐ| áÐn hÐvÕ diffÕrÕnI mÕÞnings/t'orms.
il.,-
3 :lQÒl You arÕ going to hÕar a news item Ðbout the
anái Õnt monumÕnt StonehÕngÕ, whi áh i s i n thÕ south of
England. RÕad thÕ notÕs áarÕfuIIy, then áompIÕtÕ thÕ
information.
StonÕhÕngÕ
1 |\4ÕÐni ng of .StonÕhÕngÕ.:
2 Possi b|Õ datÕ of bui Idi ng:
3 Possi b|Õ nÐti onaIi ty of .aráhi tÕát,:
4 WhÕrÕ stonÕs probÐb|y áÐmÕ from:
5 Possi b|Õ pUrposÕ of thÕ bui l di ng:
4 ¾(J,' ListÕn again Ðnd find out:
1 how popu|Ðr StonÕhÕngÕ i s.
2 whã thÕ drui ds áouIdn't hÐvÕ bui |t StonÕhÕngÕ.
3 whã StonÕhengÕ áou|dn't havÕ beÕn dÕsi gnÕd by Ðn
µng|i sh pÕrson.
4 whÐt prob|em thÕ bui |ders mi ght havÕ hÐd wi th thÕ
sTo n Õs.
@
5 Matáh the past modaIs to their funátions 1-3.
.' may hÐvÕ donÕ .' mi ght havÕ donÕ =. nÕÕdn't hÐvÕ donÕ
.. Þught to hÐvÕ donÕ ,' shÞu|d hÐvÕ donÕ
1 ÕxprÕssi ng pÞssi bi Ii ty
2 ÕxprÕssi ng obIi gÐti on
3 ÕxprÕssi ng l Ðák of nÕáÕssi ty
6 µxpand thÕ notÕs at thÕ Õnd of sentÕnáÕs 1_6 using onÕ
of thÕ pÐst modaIs in 5.
µåÐmple
l got up lÐto Òo t nigeod tha buÒ to sáhool. l / gít up
earliar.
! ought to hÐvo got up oÒrlior!
1 I onIy got · out of 10 for my homÕwork. I / do bettÕr!
2 l phonÕd N/Ðry thi s morni ng but thÕrÕ wÐs no rÕpIã.
ShÕ / l eavÕ thÕ housÕ ÕÐr|y.
· I áan't fi nd my swi mmi ng thi ngs anãwhÕrÕ. l / |ÕÐvÕ / Ðt
thÕ ÞooI.
4 | brought my swi mmi ng thi ngs but wÕ don't hÐvÕ
swi mmi ng tÞdÐy. | / bri ng thÕm.
5 .I áÐ||Õd you Õarl i Õr but you di dn,t ÐnswÕr thÕ phonÕ.,
.I / i n thÕ showÕr.,
6 |\i ary phonÕd last night aftÕr I wrotÕ to hÕr. | / writÕ hÕr
ÐnothÕr |ÕttÕr.
Logi áal Õxpl anati ons
MÐtáh thÕ past modaIs 1-3 to thÕ meanings Ð_á.
] áÐn,t/áouIdn,t hÐve Ð Thi s i s pÞssi bl Õ.
2 must havÕ b Âhi s i s aImÞst áÕrtai n|ã i mpossi b|e.
3 áou|d havÕ á Âhi s i s Ð|most áertÐi n|y thÕ áasÕ.
WritÕ sÕntÕnáÕs sÐying why thÕ peopIe in 1_7
áan't/áouldn,t/áouId/must hÐvÕ donÕ these things. UsÕ thÕ
vÕrb in braákÕts.
EåÐmplÕ
Pau| eouldn't kÒvo paintad (paint)this piáturÕ. N-'|Õ has no
Ðrtistiá tÐ|ent whÐtsÞever!
.l Sam (disáovÕä Ð nÕW rÕstÐUrant in town. HÕ
sai d hÕ hÐd a fÐntÐsti á mÕÐ| out |ast ni ght.
2 Sara (gÕt)tÞp mÐrks i n thÕ Õxam i f onl ã shÕ
had wÞrkÕd hardÕr.
3 ThÕ nÕi ghbours (gÞ) Þn ho|i daã bÕáausÕ thÕi r
áÐr i s sti II i n thÕ dri vÕwaã.
ÂhÕ twins (áomÕ) bÐák homÕ vÕry |ÐtÕ last
ni ght. It's mi dday Ðnd theã sti Il hÐvÕn't got out of bÕd
yÕI'
| - (phonÕ) you to sÐã thÐt wÕ'd bÕ |ÐtÕ. l forgot
I hÐd mã mobi |Õ wi th mÕl
Ji m i sn't hÕrÕ yÕt. l t's not Ii ke hi m - he,s Ð|ways on ti mÕ.
Hi s áÐr (brÕak) down.
ThÕ grass Iooks wÕt. It (rÐin) |ast night.
DesáribÕ whÐt you (Ðn see in this piáture. WhÐt do you
think it is or might onáÕ have bÕÕn?
Áompl ÕtÕ the tÕxt wi th phrasÕs Ð_h.
a nÕÕdn't hÐvÕ worri Õd Õ mi ght hÐvÕ bÕÕn dÐmÐgÕd
b áÐn't hÐvÕ bÕÕn
f áouId hÐvÕ formÕd
á mi ght havÕ Þri gi nÐtÕd g must hÐvÕ bÕÕn put thÕrÕ
d ought tÞ hÐvÕ bÕÕn stoppÕd h mi ght havÕ bÕÕn
Di sáussi on
l magi nÕ ãou had di sáovÕrÕd somÕ i ntÕrÕsti ng hi stori áal
rÕmÐi ns on Ð pi ÕáÕ of Iand whÕrÕ yÞu wÕrÕ goi ng to bui Id
a hÞusÕ. In smÐII groups' dÕái dÕ what you
woul d/mi ght/áou|d havÕ donÕ. Gi vÕ rÕasons for yÞur
dÕái si ons.
flJ
ffi
s
*
l rgo. i ³ nÞt l otl gÕÓ.
,-i.n.."Ù*ii*, "t".,o"Ð that thÕ stonÕs . _ Ì' ...
.ì.Ê"..,.".iJ,-,."o,.k, Ì .ThÕ áÞnstruátjon
áon1panã agrÕÕd ..,.,p*..ily to-stop Ìuiiding lvork, so i1'
that ÕxpÕrts áoul.l dÕtÙi,'Ê *h.t p.riod of historã thÕ ...'
..^^^" j ßoi-'. Ùot".,,.,, ih.ã also strÕssÕd .n", '''i:.
.\t()l l\)
,il.i."."è-"* ì aËÕ to wait inálÕfinitÕly.
Citã offiáiÐls ÐgrÕÕd tlrat r,vork soollÕt Ìut .:l
said that it r'vas irrrportant to prÕsÕrvÕ thÕ histoÓiáai .;.
rÕliás. HowÕ,,.., ., o,-'. lo."t i.,. it,..What good is a pilÕ .:l,
of stonÕs r,vhÕn what .". *",,. is nÕr,v homÕs?' :]:.
Áor.istruátion r,vorkÕrs
r'vÕrÕ suddÕnly ordÕrÕd . ,,op all Ìuilding --:l* '.
1 :1^ .L^v -",.Ê*.".,,ting for thÕ
appÕers tnJt Wl l rrá Lrrá,' 1 Ó Ñ -..L,--' l i..-..rrc
aÀPáÐt) Ll l dL !tl r]l 9 ''.i i to.Ú of fl ats thÕã di sáál vÕrÕd sonrÕ
³or-rndation ot a nár,v ,1 :.. ,-^.1', .t.fiP
IOLtl.LLtdLrwrr A l 'L;S Õar1ã st:l gÕ,
Ðnái Õtl t stonÕs i n r ái Óául l r toÓl ttf,tton. rrt ttt'
i r i' i',.po'*i Ìl Õ Óo s.l ã t.årátl ã æ hl r thÕ :l:].:'t
r 6rut th
.,r]. ì' l t ri.l s oÓi çi rl.r]l r. Óhotrçht tl l rÓ
-;^J -- .-'' o,l.. o³Ðn l trái Õnt tÕl rrpl Õ but onÕ
trr( ) ---:- ,| ] áo.,"."1 htrndrÕd v
Let's aáti vatÕ
Hoè did thÞ1 do it?
!.i · l n pai rs or smaII groups' dÕsári bÕ
what thÕse piáturÕs show, thÕn disáuss:
Ð how thÕsÕ monumÕnts Ðnd
bui Idi ngs áou Id/mi ght/must/
áÐn't hÐvÕ bÕÕn áonstruátÕd.
b what i t must hÐvÕ bÕÕn
Ii kÕ worki ng to bui Id thÕsÕ
monU mÕ¿Is.
SáiettcefiáGion
Disáuss thesÕ questions with Ð partner.
1 WhÐt does sáiÕnáe fiátion mean?
2 WhÐt sáiÕnáÕ fiátiÞn fi|ms/bÞoks hÐvÕ you sÕÕn/rÕad? Did
you likÕ thÕm? Whã/Why nÞt?
3 Whã do ãou thi nk sÞmÕ peop|Õ Õnj Þy thi s ki nd of story?
Look at thÕ piáturÕs. Do you rÕáognisÕ eithÕr of thÕse
sáiÕnáÕ-fiátion fiIms? Whiáh sáÕnÕ Iooks thÕ most
intÕrÕsting to you? Why?
Li stÕni ng
(ompIÕting sÕntÕnáÕs
Read thÕ sentÕnáÕs áÐrÕfuIIã Ðnd trã to i mÐgi nÕ whÐt thÕ
Ðnswers might bÕ. WhÐtÕvÕr you writÕ to áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ
sÕntÕnáÕ must fi t i n grÐmmati áÐ|l ã and be spe|t áorrÕátIy.
3 o6JÒ.z You ÐrÕ going to hÕar an interview with two Ðátors
who tÐke part in a popu|ar W sáienáÕ fiátion programmÕ
áaIIed oØt of this World. ListÕn Ðnd áomp|ÕtÕ sentÕnáes 1_9.
'l Bob thi nks that thÕ popuIari ty of thÕ sái ÕnáÕ fi áti on
sÕri es i s duÕ to i ts Õxáel |Õnt
2 BÕforÕ wÞrking on the sÕriÕs, KÐtÕ and Bob had both
bÕÕn emp|oãÕd i n thÕ
Kate hÐs alwÐys prÕfÕrred sáienáÕ fiátion to
5
6
Bob is morÕ intÕrÕstÕd in thÕ mÞst rÕáÕnt than
i n sái ÕnáÕ fi áti on.
KatÕ Ðnd Bob ÐrÕ bÞth Õnthusi Ðsti á Ðbout
NÕi thÕr KÐte nor Bob worri Õs Ðbout thÕ WnÕn
thÕy'rÕ out of doors.
7 Kate suspÕáts thÐt few pÕop|Õ know thÕ - of
hÕrsÕ|f and hÕr áo-aátor.
8 KÐtÕ áonfessÕs thÐt shÕ is Ð vÕry pÕrson.
9 Bob áonsidÕrs aáting to bÕ Ðn ÕxtremÕlã _-
Pron u nái ati o n
iounde and Þpolling
4 6/á× ÂhÕ first word in Õaáh group 1_5 oááurs in the
rÕáording. UndÕrIinÕ the othÕr words in Õaáh group that
rhyme with thÕ first word. ÂhÕn IistÕn and áhÕák your
ansWÕrs.
EåÐmple:
Known brown blown maan
1 Õnough through thorough tough
2 b|uÕ drÕw too thrÞugh
· ri ght hÕi ght si tÕ ei ght
4 áou rse WorsÕ hÞrsÕ foráÕ
5 áÐrÕ WÕÐr fÕar bÕÐr
3
4
aIÞna
áoUgn
took
l i ght
áoÐrse
fai r
SpÕaki ng
ev.preììing feel.ingì Ðnd oPinion6
5 (ompIÕte thÕ Õxpressions thÕ spÕakÕrs usÕd in 3 to taIk
about thÕi r fÕÕIi ngs and opi ni ons. UsÕ thesÕ words.
* admi t ä áarÕ Ä dÕnãi ng * i nto g mÐttÕr Ä sáÕpti áa|
* ti rÕd * worri Õd
1 Don't you gÕt a bi t - of ÐppÕÐri ng i n Ð sái ÕnáÕ
fiátion seriÕs?
2 l wÐs sáiÕnáÕ fiátion in a big waã.
3 |'m Ð bi t morÕ about sái Õnáe fi áti Þn stori Õs. l
takÕ thÕm wi th Ð pi náh of sal t'
4 DoÕs that - tÞ you?
5 | don't whÕthÕr l,m rÕáognisÕd for mysÕ|f' or
my ro|Õ.
6 I'm nÞt parti áu|Ðr|ã i f nothi ng ÕIsÕ áomÕs
a rong.
7 l hÐve to - thÐt I'm Ðmbi ti ous.
8 ÂhÕrÕ,s no - thÕ fÐát that Ðáti ng i s a vÕry i nsÕáurÕ
orofÕssion.
Áhoose fivÕ of the expressions you found in 5 Ðnd writÕ
sÕntÕnáes of vour own.
@
6timulus-basÞd disáussion
8 Disáuss thÕsÕ quÕstions.
1 What do thÕ photographs show?
2 WhÐt doÕs thÕ hÕÐdIi nÕ suggÕst?
3 WhÐt ÐdvantagÕs Þr di sadvantÐgÕs do ãÞu thi nk spÐáÕ
Õxpl Þrati on mi ght bri ng?
4 Do ãou thi nk spÕndi ng monÕy on spÐáÕ Õxp|Þrati on i s
wÞrthwhi |Õ?
5 How opti mi sti á arÕ ãou thÐt Ii fÕ Õxi sts on othÕr p|ÐnÕts?
Hopes raised for disáovery
of life on Mars
tu
tugésting Þxplanations
7 6áJ",. In smaII groups, disáuss this situation. DÕáidÕ
what might bÕ thÕ áausÕ of thÕsÕ iIlnÕsses. UsÕ thÕ
di al ogue box to hel p you.
ÂhÕ popuIati on of a smÐ|| tÞwn i n Ð rÕmotÕ pÐrt of thÕ
áoUntrã hÐs bÕgun to dÕvÕl op i ||nÕssÕs suáh Ðs ski n
áomp|Ði nts Ðnd brÕÐthi ng probl ems. NÕÐr thÕ town i s Ð
l argÕ faátory whÕrÕ most of thÕ tÞwn,s i nhabi tants ÐrÕ
ÕmpIoyÕO.
SuggÕsting ÕxpIanÐtions
A If ãou Ðsk mÕ,IhÕã áould hÐãÕ something to do lllith
thÕ faátory.
B It áÐn,t bÕ Ðnãthing to do ltãith thÐt!Ihe faáI.orã must
hÐãÕ been thÕre for somÕ timÕ. PÕopIÕ would hÐãÕ
stÐrtÕd fÐIling ill bÕfore now, surelã.
Á Nof neáessÐrilã. These things oftÕn tÐkÕ somÕ time to
hÐve Ðn effeát.
A But don't you think IhaI thÕ |Þátorã is the most likÕly
ÕåplÐnÐtion?
Á I áÐn,t sÕÕ whÐt else it áould be.
ÂitlÕ
1 It was a wintÕr aftÕrnoon just bÕforÕ my
birthday whÕn DÕteátivÕ SergÕant FinnÕy rang
to say thÕrÕ had bÕÕn a dÕath in a mansion
bloák. AááidÕntal, aááording to thÕ nÕighbours.
A man had fallÕn down somÕ StÕpS.
2 Snow bÕgan as I lÕft for WillowdalÕ Áourt
¼ansions. ThÕ dÕáÕasÕd was Graham Dunn, a
56-yÕar.old, divoráÕd ÕstatÕ agÕnt Who livÕd
alonÕ. ThÕ body was at thÕ baák nÕar thÕ
dustbins. NÕarby, thÕrÕ was a plastiá bag and
somÕ rubbish whiáh had fallÕn out of it: an
applÕ, SomÕ tÕa bags, a bottlÕ of shampoo, a tin
of áat food and a ÛappÃ.I was suspiáious. ThÕ
man Was bald. Why a bottlÕ of shampoo? HÕ
had no pÕts or áhildrÕn, ÕithÕr. ÂhÕ rubbish
áouldn,t havÕ bÕÕn his. WÕ wÕnt to talk to thÕ
nÕighbours.
3 Ds FinnÕy and I bÕgan our ÕnquiriÕs in thÕ
basÕmÕnt. ThÕ ownÕrs, RÕbÕááa and StÕwart
¼orris, a áouplÕ in thÕir twÕntiÕs, had. abatíã'
ThÕy told us that Dunn oftÕn áomplainÕd
about its árying. ThÕy madÕ us tÕa. ThÕy had
notiáÕd Dunn,s body only whÕn thÕy let the
áat in.
4 ThÕ ownÕr of thÕ flat on thÕ first floor was a
divoráÕe, Abigail Stratton. ShÕ had two áats,
and shÕ oftÕn lookÕd aftÕr thÕ baby for thÕ
áouplÕ downstairs. ShÕ áouldn,t stand thÕ
dÕáÕasÕd, but shÕ didn,t say whÃ. ShÕ offÕrÕd us
tÕa.
5 on thÕ ground flooæ wÕ had a look at Dunn,s
flat. ThÕ door was open and his rubbish bin
Was Õmpty. OthÕrwisÕ all was in ordÕr. WÕ
dÕáidÕd to talk to thÕ rÕmaining nÕighbours.
6 A woman áalled Mrs Pritáhard livÕd alonÕ on
thÕ sÕáond floor. ShÕ admittÕd that shÕ didn,t
likÕ Dunn. A1l day long hÕ playÕd musiá.
Finally, wÕ quÕstionÕd thÕ portÕr, but hÕ had
bÕÕn nÕxt door all day mÕnding a âoof.
7 ThÕ dÕath áÕrtifiáatÕ showÕd Dunn,s dÕath was
no aááidÕnt. ThÕ murdÕrÕr must havÕ lÕft thÕ
rubbish to makÕ it look aááidÕntal, but thÕ
rubbish providÕd áluÕs. We wÕrÕ fairly áÕrtain
who thÕ murdÕrÕr was. WÕ stood on thÕ
doorstÕp, about to push a bÕll.
A txl J, rde r itlve sG igt Ð t io tl
.! ln pairs, disáuss thÕsÕ quÕstions.
,l Whã do pÕÞp|Õ Õnj oy rÕÐdi ng dÕtÕáti vÕ stÞri Õs?
2 How ÕÐsã i s i t to work Þut whÞ thÕ ári mi nÐl i s?
Studyi ng the sampl Õ
UndÞrstanding tha taaK
2 Read thÕ tÕåt quiákIy and áhoosÕ the bÕst titlÕ, a, b, á, or
d, for i t.
a Ál uÕs i n Ð rubbi sh bÐg
b |\4urdÕr Ðt Wi l IowdÐ|Õ Áourt N4Ðnsi ons
á Aáái dÕntÐ| dÕath
d ÂhÕ mÐn wi th thÕ bÐ|d hÕÐd
3 Now sáÐn thÕ tÕxt and áomp|etÕ the information.
1 Possi b|Õ ári mÕ áommi ttÕd
2 Loáati on:
3 Vi áti m:
4 ÁIuÕs:
5 SuspÕáts:
6 Possi b|Õ mÞti vÕs for thÕ ári mÕ:
7 Possi b|Õ soIuti on to thÕ ári mÕ:
4 DÕsári bÕ thÕ peÞpl e i n thesÕ pi áturÕs. whi áh of thÕ
áharaátÕrs in thÕ story do you think they rÕprÕsÕnt?
5 Now answer thÕ questi ons.
,l ÁÐn you guess who thÕ murdÕrÕr was?
2 Whã mi ght thÕ pÕrson hÐvÕ áommi ttÕd thÕ ári mÕ?
Ä
Lrealing atmosphere
6 sáan the tÕxt again. ln whiáh parÐgrÐph(s) doÕs thÕ
narrator:
1 Ðsk hi msÕl f a di rÕát ouÕsti on?
2 dÕsári bÕ whÐt thÕ wÕathÕr was l i kÕ?
3 |ÕÐvÕ thÕ rÕÐdÕr i n susoÕnsÕ?
4 mÕnti on thÕ ti mÕ of yÕÐr?
Steps to better wri ti ng
Visualising your 6tory
7 DÕáide whiáh of thÕ words in thÕ Iist áouId be usÕd to
dÕsáribÕ:
Ð thÕ wÕÐthÕr.
b surroundi ngs or obj Õáts.
á Ð perso¿'s phãsi áÐ| ÐppÕÐrпáÕ.
d a oÕrson,s áharaátÕr'
* áo|d, grÕã * poor, unfortunÐtÕ n a |i ght faII of
* hÐ|f-ÕÐtÕn n di sposab|Õ * smi l i ng, round-fÐáÕd
o* rÐthÕr árampÕd " mi ddIÕ-agÕd o wi th short, brown hai r
* ÐppÐ|l i ngIy Ioud
8 Put thÕ words in 7 into thÕ story to makÕ it morÕ
intÕrÕsting. Âhe Iist foIIows thÕ ordÕr of the story.
Lrea|ing áharaá|orì
9 Study thÕ ÕxampIÕ, thÕn usÕ thÕ prompts to writÕ a
sÕntÕnáÕ dÕsáribing ÕÐáh áharÐátÕr.
µåÒlèple
P1a wÐs Ð 5{Ò*ãoÐr-old astÐte Ðgent áÐIled &rÐhÐm
Àunn' Ò bÐld lâlÐn, who wÐì diioráed Ðnd livad Ðlon*.
1 fÕmÐ|Õ i rÕd-hÐi rÕd / mi dd|Õ-agÕd / Ruth Âhompson /
shop Ðssi stant / unmÐrri Õd / thrÕÕ áÐts
2 mÐIÕ / dark-hÐi rÕd l Bri an Smi th / ·2 / áomputÕr
sa|ÕsmÐn / sÕparÐtÕd / two áhi |drÕn
3 mÐ|Õ / grÕy-hai rÕd / Ti m Wi ntÕr / 68 / rÕti rÕd l marrted l
no áhi IdrÕn
10 writÕ onÕ sÕntÕnáÕ dÕsáribing Ð áhÐraátÕr of your own.
Paragraph oPonorì
11 Expand thÕsÕ notes to makÕ onÕ or two sÕntÕnáÕs you
áouId use to begin paragraphs in Ð dÕtÕátive story.
1 i t/ bÕ/onÕ dÐy/ j ust bÕforÕ / NÕwYÕar/ 6 p.m. / phonÕ
/ ri ng
2 snow / bÕgi n / Ðs / makÕ my Waã / hotÕ| / dÕáÕÐsÕd /
namÕ?
· wÕ / Õnqui ri Õs / rÕáÕpti Þn / dÕáÕÐsÕd / guÕst / two wÕÕks
4 2nd fl oor / hÐd Ð Iook / l i vi ng room / dÕáÕasÕd /
ÕvÕrãthi ng i n ordÕr
5 hotÕ| portÕr / admi t / pÕopl Õ not Ii ke / dÕáÕÐsÕd /
u nf ri Õnd l ã
Wri ti ng your deteáti vÕ story
UndÞrstanding tha taÞº
12 you are going to writÕ Ð short dÕteátivÕ story (200_250
words). lt shou|d áontain fivÕ or six parÐgraphs.
PlÐnning
13 ln groups, mÐke notÕs of thÕ dÕtaiIs of ãour story.
BrÐinstorm your ideas and deáidÕ:
. whÕn and whÕrÕ thÕ story i s goi ng tÞ tÐkÕ p|ÐáÕ.
Þ whÐt i s goi ng to hÐppÕn.
. whÐt áharÐátÕrs ãoU ÐrÕ going to árÕatÕ.
. who i s i nvÕsti gÐti ng whÐt happÕns.
. whÐt the suspÕáts arÕ doi ng whÕn thÕ ÕvÕnt hÐppÕns.
Æ!riting
Writing ÕffÕátivÕIy
WhÕn you ÐrÕ p|Ðnni ng ãour story, rÕmÕmbÕr to i ná|udÕ
i ntÕrÕsti ng dÕsári pti ons of pÕopl Õ, pl aáÕs' Ðnd events.
14 write your story Ðs if you WÕre a dÕtÕátivÕ' You áouId
i náIudÕ an i IIustrati on of thÕ pIÐáÕ, Ðn obj eát or Ð
áharaátÕr in thÕ storã. Do not revÕaI the idÕntity of thÕ
person who áommitted the árime.
. DÕsári bÕ thÕ wÕÐthÕr and thÕ ti mÕ of yÕar.
. DÕsári bÕ thÕ pl aáÕ and i mportant obj Õáts.
. DÕsáribÕ áhÐraátÕrs ÕffÕátive|Ã.
. UsÕ adj Õáti vÕs Ðnd advÕrbs to makÕ your dÕsári pti on
morÕ i ntÕrÕsti ng.
ChocYing
1 5 áhÕák that you havÕ:
Þ árÕÐtÕd ÐtmosphÕrÕ.
Þ provi dÕd á|uÕs for rÕadÕrs.
. provi dÕd Ð ti t|Õ.
. writtÕn thÕ right amount (200-250 words).
Gueìì èho did it!
16 ln pairs, read your storiÕs to eaáh othÕr Ðnd try to guÕss
who áommittÕd thÕ árimÕ Ðnd whã.
#
è
tr*
Ä
PÐÒt modals
1 RÕwritÕ the sÕntenáÕs using should/shouldn,t hÐvÕ, ought
not to hove, needn,t hÐve, mÐã hÐve, áould hÐve or might
hÐãÕ.
'1 l t was suáh a si Il ã thi ng to arguÕ abÞut.
WÕ ...
2 |t wasn't Ð good i dÕÐ to Ii Õ about your Õxam rÕsuIts'
You ...
3 |f you hÐdn't wÐstÕd your monÕã, ãou wou|dn,t bÕ
hÐ rd-u o.
You ...
4 |t's possi b|Õ that pol i áÕ havÕ áaught thÕ murdÕrÕr'
ÂhÕ pol i áÕ...
5 It wasn't nÕáÕssary tÞ tÐkÕ Ð áÞÐt. It wÐs hot al| dÐy.
John hÐd thÕ Ðbi Ii ty to wi n thÕ rÐáÕ, but hÕ fÕII ovÕr Ðt
thÕ stÐrt.
John...
It's probÐb|Õ that Áhri s fai l Õd hi s Õåam. HÕ di dn,t do
Õnough rÕvi si on.
Áhri s ...
8 I di dn't tÐkÕ Ðn umbrÕ||Ð Ðnd l neÕdÕd onÕ
t...
4
5
|-ogláa| Þ}Planation5
2 write sÕntenáÕs using thÕ prompts Ðt thÕ Õnd of sÕntÕnáes
1_7 and áÐn,t hÐve, áould hÐvÕ, áouldn,t hÐvÕ or must
hÐve. There may bÕ more thÐn onÕ ÐnswÕr for eaáh
sÕntÕnáÕ'
1 I'm áÕrtÐi n that hÕ was Ðt thÕ bÐnk thÐt aftÕrnoon. HÕ /
áÞmmit / the robbÕry.
2 Ruth i s on ho|i day Ðt thÕ momÕnt. You / not sÕÕ hÕr / at
thÕ rÕáord shop.
3 GrahÐm di dn't pÐss hi s dri vi ng tÕst. HÕ / not praáti sÕ /
vÕry muáh.
4 l áÐn,t rÕmÕmbÕr when °ndã |Õft ÕxÐátl y. |t / bÕ / Õi ght or
ni nÕ o'á|oák.
5 TÞm ran thÕ London |\4arathon |ast ÃÕÐr. ÂhÐt / bÕ /
d iffiáu |t.
6 I'm surÕ MÕ| wi || turn Up. ShÕ / nÞt fÞrgÕt / the partã wÐs
thi s ÕvÕni ng.
7 l wish |,d bought Ð lottÕrã tiákÕt. I l wiß l thÕ jaákpot.
UndÕr|ine thÕ áorrÕát modal to áompIÕtÕ this disáussion
about thÕ dÕtÕátivÕ story on page74.
Ál ÐrÕ So who do ãou thi nk áommi ttÕd thÕ ári mÕ?
Luke WÕ|l' it 1 áouldn't hÐvÕ bÕÕn/mustn,t hÐvÕ beÕn Ihe
portÕr bÕáÐusÕ hÕ wÐs mÕndi ng thÕ roof a|| day.
YÐsmin And it 2 mightn,t hÐve bÕÕn/áÞn,t hÐvÕ bÕÕn |\4r Ðnd
Mrs Morri s bÕáÐusÕ thÕy rÕportÕd thÕ ári mÕ.
ÁIare WhÐt ÐbÞut N4rs Pri táhÐrd?
Rob WÕ||, shÕ 3 áÞn hÐvÕ donÕ/might hÐvÕ donÕ iI. She
di dn't Ii kÕ Dunn's musi á, but thÐt's not rÕÐ||y a
moti vÕ.
Yasmin I think it 4 must hÐvÕ bÕen/should hÐvÕ bÕen °bigai|
stratton. ShÕ,s thÕ on|y onÕ whÞ won't say why shÕ
di sIi kÕd Dunn. And thÐt,s suspi ái ous.
ÁlarÕ The dÕtÕátivÕ 5 neÕdn,t hÐvÕ ÐskÕd/shou|d hÐvÕ
ÐskÕd her mÞre ouÕstions. WÕ 6 áould hÐvÕ
idÕntifiÕd/must hÐãÕ identiJiÕd the murdÕrÕr by now
áorreát thÕ mistakÕs in sÕntenáÕs 1_8'
1 You mUstn't hÐvÕ sÕÕn AnnÕ in tÞwn ãÕstÕrdÐy, shÕ's
ÐWÐV on ho|i dÐv'
2 WÕ nÕÕdn,t worri Õd, ÕvÕrãthi ng turned out fi nÕ i n thÕ
en0.
You ought hÐvÕ phonÕd to |Õt mÕ know you wÕrÕ goi ng
to bÕ lÐtÕ.
ÂhÕ |ÕttÕr must hÐd bÕÕn postÕd Ðt IÕÐst two dÐys Ðgo.
l áÐn't fi nd mã g|ÐssÕs. l shou|d hÐvÕ IÕft thÕm at sáhoo|
l suppose, or perhÐps thÕy,rÕ Ðt John's housÕ.
Nobodã knÞws who wrÞtÕ thÕ p|Ðy. µxpÕrts think it áÐn
hÐvÕ bÕÕn writtÕn by ShÐkÕspÕÐrÕ, but it,s not Ðbso|utÕ|ã
áÕrtai n.
WÕ must hÐvÕ l Õft Õarl i er. thÕn we wou|dn,t havÕ mi ssÕd
thÕ trÐi n.
l hÐvÕn't seÕn PetÕ. HÕ mÐã go to thÕ ái nÕmÐ l supposÕ.
@
l.i stem¡ng
5 Q),.' You ÐrÕ gÞing to hÕar Ð
story áa|lÕd The RunÐwÐã. ListÕn
Ðnd deáidÕ if thÕ stÐtÕmÕnts arÕ
truÕ (Â) or faIse (F).
,l ¿ ÂhÕ dri vÕr stoppÕd thÕ áar
bÕáausÕ hÕ sÐw a tÕÕnagÕr on
Ð l onÕl ã roÐd.
¿ WhÕn he stoppÕd, shÕ rÐn
ÐWay.
r] ÂhÕ dri vÕr pÕrsuÐdÕd thÕ gi rl
to |Õt hrm tÐkÕ hÕr hÞmÕ.
¿ ÂhÕ WomÐn who answÕrÕd
thÕ dÞor wÐs SÐrah's mothÕr.
¿ ThÕ WomÐn ÐskÕd i f thÕrÕ hÐd
bÕÕn a áar árash.
6 ¿ WhÕn thÕ dri vÕr wÐ|kÕd baák
tÞ thÕ áÐr, SÐrÐh hÐd
d isÐ p pÕa rÕd.
Wri ti ng
6 writÕ Ð short story (about 200
words) abÞut Ð strangÕ ÕvÕnt.
UsÕ quÕsti ons 1_4 to hÕl p you and
i náIude somÕ of the modal s
from 5.
,l WhÕre WÕrÕ you whÕn it
hÐppÕnÕd? WhÐt wÐs thÕ
wÕÐthÕr Ii kÕ?
WhÞ arÕ thÕ pÕopl Õ i n thÕ story?
WhÐt ÐrÕ thÕy Ii ke?
WhÐt hÐppÕnÕd?
How does thÕ storã Õnd?
Readi ng
7 SáÐn the tÕxt and find thÕ answÕrs
to thÕ quÕstions'
,l At whÐt ti mÕ áÐn advanáÕ ti ákÕt
hol dÕrs ÕntÕr?
WhÐt arÕ thÕ othÕr ÐdvantÐgÕs of
booki ng your ti ákÕt i n ÐdvÐnáÕ?
What i s thÕ |ast dÐtÕ for ÐdvÐnáÕ
boo ki ng?
Whi áh twÞ forms of pÐymÕnt ÐrÕ
nÞt aááÕptÕd?
What i s thÕ di sÐdvÐntage of
pÐãing bã árÕdit áÐrd?
D00Òs 0PµN 11Ðm (AdvÐnáe ti áket hol ders onl y) & 1l.30 am i f buyi ng a ti áket0n the dÐy.
W½A Wl LL Bµ Aâ ÂHµ sál ENáµ Fl áÂl 0N á0NVµNTION?
Ä Autograph Si gni ng Sessi on ₠ Guest Âal k (0uesti ons Ðnd Answers)
Ä OFt|á|AL Photograph SÕssi on * Auáti on ä CÞmpeti ti Þns @ Dea|er sta||s
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ä
?ÓÞpositions
1 Áomp|ÕtÕ the text with thÕse prÕpositions.
* by n from u in n of * to " with
ThÕrÕ,s no longÕr any nÕÕd to fÕÕl alarmÕd ' -
things that go bump in thÕ night. Aááording , - a
IÕÁÕnt study' ghosts áould bÕ thÕ rÕsult × - the
random aátivity of an idle brain.
ThÕ thÕory áomÕS n - a study of halluáinations
ÕxpÕriÕnáÕd'- blind pÕoplÕ. It was put ^ -
thÕ tÕst by sáanning patiÕnt,s brains whilÕ thÕy wÕrÕ
halluáinating. ThÕ sáans showÕd ÕvidÕnáÕ
aátivity * - thÕ brain,s visual áortÕx whÕn pÕoplÕ
wÕrÕ half aslÕÕp.
ThÕ visions thÕy ÕxpÕriÕnáÕd wÕrÕ ÞftÕn frightÕning,
suáh as grÞtÕsquÕ faáÕs n - prominÕnt ÕyÕs and
Words èith opposite meanings
3 writÕ thÕ oppositÕs of thÕsÕ words ]-,l2.
1 l oad
2 rÕgu |Ð r
3 ÐppÕÐr
4 offi áiÐ |
5 touáhed
6 usuÐ|l y
7 ÕåpÕri ÕnáÕd
8 l i kÕ|ã
9 áonnÕátÕd
10 dÐmÐgÕd
11 unfortunÐtÕ|y
,l2 solvÕd
tÕÕth, and ghÞstly figurÕs ..,
áoStumÕs.
,WhÕn thÕtÕ,s no information áÞming in and thÕ
brain is idlÕ, it Starts to àroduáÕ thÕsÕ imagÕs,, said
onÕ IÕSÕaIáhÕr. ,I,m surÕ ghosts, fairiÕs and witáhÕs all
rÕlatÕ in SomÕ Way '' - thÕsÕ disÕmbodiÕd
halluáinations. It Õxplains why áharaátÕrs ', -
supÕInatural talÕs from around thÕ world lÞok so
similar.'
ThÕ µåprÕss
'..::::.::1:;]i!.].{i::!:';.'].:]:]ili]'':'''-'-':::..]...]:]]ilii]ii]:]:i]].]::]]:1ii'].:ii|:i:].]
ThÞ right varb
2 ÁÞmplÕtÕ the sentÕnáÕs with the áorreát form of thÕse
vÕrbs.
* ÐbÐndÞn * dÐmÐgÕ * dÕstroy u ordÕr * puzz|e u rÐi sÕ
1 ThÕrÕ havÕ bÕÕn mÐny pl ans - thÕ wrÕák of the
Âi tÐni á frÞm thÕ bottom of thÕ oáean, but so far no onÕ
has áomÕ up wi th ÞnÕ thÐt workÕd.
2 l n thÕ sÕáond Worl d WÐr, thÕ rÕtrÕÐti ng Ðrmã - thÕ
bri dgÕs ovÕr thÕ ri vÕr.
3 ThÕ árÕw had no áhÞi áÕ but - thÕ si nki ng shi p.
4 ÂhÕ sÕárÕt of thÕ origin of árop áirálÕs - ÕxpÕrts of
thÕ parÐnormÐ| for dÕáÐdÕs.
5 WhÕn thÕ shi p hi t Ðn i áebÕrg, thÕ ÁÐptÐi n - thÕ
árÕW to lÞwÕr thÕ lifÕbÞats.
6 ÂhÕ storm sÕri ÞusIy - thÕ sÐi Is, mÐki ng thÕ shi p
unÐbl Õ l o áonti nuÕ i ts i ournÕv.
OrdÞr ot aäoc|iveì
4 Put thÕ adjeátivÕs in thÕ áorrÕát ÞrdÕr.
1 A / bl Ðák / smal | / suspi ái Þus-l Þoki ng ... bri ÕfáasÕ.
2 A / |ÕÐthÕr i brown / |ÐrïÕ ... áhÐi r.
· °(n) / sports / ol d-fÐshi onÕd / b|uÕ ... áÐr.
a A(n) / Swi ss / go|d / ÕxpÕnsi vÕ ... wÐtáh.
5 A(n) / fast i i mprÕssi vÕ.|ÞÞki ng / JÐpanÕsÕ ... motorbi kÕ.
ol d-fashi onÕd
@
The Sound Mochine by RoÐld DÐht
oál,., .Some ti me Ðgo,' |(l ausner sai d, .| made a si mpl e
i nstrument that provÕd to me the exi stenáÕ of many odd
i naudi bl e sounds. often I hÐve sÐt and watáhÕd the need[Õ of
my i nstrument reáordi ng the presenáÕ of sound vi brÐti ons i n
the ai r when I mysel f áoul d hÕÐr nothi ng. And those are the
sounds I want to l i sten to. I want to |<now wherÕ thev áome
from Ðnd who or what i s ma|<i ng them.'
.And thÐt maáhi ne on the tabl e there,'thÕ Doátor sai d, .i s
that goi ng to al l ow you to heÐr thÕse noi sÕs?'
.|t may. Who knows? So far, |'vÕ hÐd no [uál <. But I've mÐde
some áhangÕs i n i t Ðnd toni ght |'m rÕady for another tri al. Âhi s
maáhi nÕ,' he sai d, touáhi ng i t wi th hi s hands, .i s desi gnÕd to
pi ák up sound vi brati ons that are too hi gh-pi táhed for
reáepti on by the human Õar, Ðnd to áonvÕrt them to a sáal e of
audi bl e tones. l tune i t i n, al most [i kÕ a rÐdi o.
.l t i sn't áompl i áated. Say I wi sh to l i sten to the squeak of a
bat. Âhat's a fai rl y hi gh'pi táhÕd sound _ about thi rty thousand
vi brati ons a seáond. The Ðverage human ear áan't qui te hear
i t. Now, i f there wÕrÕ a bat ftyi ng around thi s room Ðnd I tuned
i n to thi rty thousand on my maáhi ne, I woul d hÕar thÕ
squÕa|<i ng of that bat very ál ear[y. l woul d Õven hÕar the
áorreát notÕ _ F sharp, or B fl at, or whatÕver i t mi ght be _ but
mÕrÕl y at a muáh l ower pi táh. Don't you understand?'
ÂhÕ Doátor l ookÕd at the l ong, bl aák áoffi n-box. .And you're
goi ng to try i t toni ght?'
'Yes.'...
... He pl aáed the box áareful l y on a sma[l woodÕn tabl Õ that
stood on the [awn. He returned to thÕ shÕd and fetáhed Ð pai r
of Õarphones. He pl ugged thÕ wi re áonneáti ons from the
Õarphones i nto the maáhi ne and put thÕ earphonÕs ovÕr hi s
Õars. ÂhÕ movemÕnts of hi s hands were qui ák and prÕái sÕ. He
was exái tÕd, and brÕathed [oud[y and qui ákty through hi s
mouth. HÕ kept on tal ki ng to hi msel f wi th ti ttte words of
áomfort and enáouragemÕnt, as though he were afrai d _ afrai d
that thÕ maáhi nÕ mi ght not work Ðnd afrai d Ðl so of what mi ght
happÕn i f i t di d ...
ÂhÕ needl e árÕpt sl owl y aáross thÕ di Ðt, and sudden[y he
heard a shri Õk, a fri ghtfut pi erái ng shri Õk, and he j umped and
droppÕd hi s hands, áatáhi ng hotd of thÕ edge of the tabl Õ. HÕ
starÕd around hi m as i f ÕxpÕáti ng to see the person who hÐd
shri eI<Õd. ÂhÕrÕ was no onÕ i n si ght exáÕpt the woman i n the
gÐrden next door, and i t was áertai nl y not shÕ. She was
bendi ng down, áutti ng yel [ow roses and putti ng them i n hÕr
baskÕt.
Agai n i t áame _ a throatl Õss, i nhuman shri ek, sharp and
short, very á[ear and áol d. The note i tsel f possessÕd a mi nor,
mÕta[[i á quati ty that hÕ had nÕver hÕard beforÕ. |(l ausner
[ooked around hi m, searáhi ng i nsti náti ve[y for the souráe of
thÕ noi se. Âhe woman nÕxt door was the onl y ti vi ng thi ng i n
si ght. He saw her reÐáh down, take Ð rosÕ stem i n the fi ngers
of onÕ hand and sni p the stem wi th a pai r of sái ssors. Agai n he
heard thÕ sárÕam.
It áame Ðt the exaát momÕnt whÕn the stÕm Was áuI.
Your reaátions
l n pai rs, di sáuss thÕsÕ questi ons.
Þ WhÐt do ãou thi nk Kl ÐusnÕr hopÕd hi s rÕdÕsi gnÕd
maáhi nÕ wouId bÕ Ðb|Õ to do?
Þ WhÐt áonnÕáti on do ãou thi nk thÕ WomÐn i n thÕ gÐrdÕn
nÕxt door had wi th thÕ sÞund that hÕ hÕÐrd?
Þ HÞw usÕful á|Þ ãou thi nk a mÐáhi nÕ l i kÕ Kl ÐusnÕr,s
wou |d bÕ?
o Do ãou ÐgreÕ thÐt p|Ðnts mi ght hÐvÕ fÕÕl i ngs thÕy áan
áÞm muniáÐtÕ? (Why?iwhã not?)
q&
Grammar
.. Put thÕ verbs in brÐákÕts into thÕ áorreát tÕnsÕ.
ÁompIÕtÕ thÕsÕ ÐdvÕrb á|ausÕs
wi th thÕsÕ words.
i f so thÐt a|though bÕáÐusÕ
so . . . thÐt wh i |Õ or WhÕn
1 ÂhÕ UFo stÞrã wÐs
mystÕri ous ÕVÕrãonÕ
wÐntÕd to know mÞrÕ.
Idi dn't bÕl i ÕvÕ i n Ð|i Õns,
I dÕái dÕd to vi ìi t RoswÕ|''
I wÕnt to thÕ Ai r FÞráÕ basÕ
I áouId sÕÕ i f thÕ storã
WÐs true.
4 - | was thÕrÕ, I hÐd Ð
stra ¿gÕ ÕxpÕri enáÕ.
5 - peÞp|Õ ÐskÕd mÕ Ðbout
i t, | áÞuIdn't rÕmÕmbÕr Ðnãthi ng
6 -I hÐdrÕmÕmbÕrÕd
somÕthi ng, I mi ght hÐvÕ provÕd
thÐt thÕ stÞry wÐs truÕ.
7 No onÕ l i stÕnÕd to mÕ l
hÐd no proÞf.
ÁhoosÕ thÕ bÕst modÐI fÞr Õaáh
sÕntenáÕ.
1 .Ti m i s áonvi náÕd hÕ sÐw Ð UF0.,
,He must hÐvÕ/shouId hÐvÕ
i magi nÕd i t!'
2 ,| áan,t fi nd mã mÞbi |Õ phonÕ
ÐnãwhÕrÕ.'
,You ought to hÐvÕ/mÐã hÐvÕ |eft.
i t Ðt sáhoÞl.,
3 .I'vÕ brought thi s StÐr ÂrÕk vi dÕÞ
to wÐtáh thi s ÕvÕni ng.'
,You nÕÕdn,t hÐvÕ/áou!dn,t hÐvÕ.
WÕ'vÕ Ðl rÕady sÕÕn i t.,
.I thi nk PÕtÕr has forgottÕn Ðbout
my bi rthdaã.,
,He áÐn,t hÐvÕ/must hÐvÕ done.
HÕ nevÕr forgÕts Ðnãthi ng.'
.I'vÕ fi ni shÕd rÕpÐi rl ng thÕ
áompUtÕr.,
,You áÐn't hÐvÕ/should hÐvÕ.You
on|y stÐrtÕd 10 mi nutÕs agol'
.ÁIÐrÕ was UnSUrÕ ÐbÞut whÐt shÕ
saw.'
,Do ãou thi nk shÕ Øi ght
hÐvÕ/ought to hÐvÕ had Ð
pÐ ra normÐl ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ?,
UFos arÕ bi g busi ness. Movi Õ produáers ,- (make) huge fortunÕs
out of them, sái enti sts and wri ters make thei r ti vi ngs from i nvÕsti gati ng
them, and huge parts of the l nternet.- (dÕdi áate) to them. In faát,
most pÕopl Õ , - (be) fasái nated by the thought of Ðl i ens vi si ti ng
EÐrth.
Perhaps one of the most famous UtO si ghti ngs o _ (happen) i n
Roswel [, New ¼exi áo i n ry47.l n.|ul y, somÕ strange Wreál (age and a árash
site 5 - (find) at the US Air Foráe base at Roswell, just a month after
someone u - (spot) nine disá-shÐped UFos ftying over lvlount
RÐiniÕr. Al[ sorts of reports followed of aliens, dead and alive, whiáh
, - (see) at the site. An investigation . (áarry out) by
Government Agents, but what aátual l y happened ' -(nÕver/reveal ).
Âo try and fi nd out morÕ, We .o - (i ntervi ew) Dr GrÕÕn, Ð mÕmbÕr of
thÕ RoswÕ[t Insti tute. Several years ago' Green .. (work) Ðt the
Centre whÕn he ', - (áontaát) by the son of the seáuri ty man who
', - (be) on guard duty whÕn thÕ UFo árash happÕned. Apparentty,
hjs fathÕr 'o - (sÕe) a[i en áorpsÕs and evÕn a l i ve al i Õn near the árÐsh
si te.
After thÕ i nái dent, govÕrnment agÕnts ., - (threaten) hi s fÐther and
he was forbi dden to te[l Ðnyone about whÐt he 'u - (wi tness). But
many years [atÕr, when he was i [l, hÕ ., (rÕvÕa[) i t to hi s son, who
thÕn tol d Dr GrÕen. Soon afterwards, thÕ son hi msÕl f ,, - (warn off)
by mystÕri ous men drÕssÕd i n btaák sui ts.
Si náÕ Roswel [, there '' _--._ (bÕ) thousands of UFo si ghti ngs
worl dwi dÕ. Some ,o
(be) Õxpl ai nÕd by naturaI phenomena, but
what about the others?
And i f thÕre reaIl y ÐrÕ Õxtraterrestri a[s l i vi ns on al i Õn pl anets. ,.
(be) i nterested i n vi si ti ng us?
Áhoose thÕ best aItÕrnativÕ for Õaáh sÕntÕnáÕ.
1 As soon Ðs ÂrÕvor notiáÕd/wÐs notiáing thÕ strÐngÕ light in thÕ skã, hÕ rÕpoßÕd it
tÞ thÕ poIi áÕ.
2 Bã thÕ timÕ thÕ pÞ|iáÕ arrivÕd, thÕ strÐngÕ |ight had disÐppÕÐrÕd/disÐppÕÐrÕd.
× Did ãou visit/HÐd ãou visitÕd NÕw |VÕxiáo in 1947?
4 ÂhÕ guÐrd sÐw thÕ ÐIiÕn whilÕ hÕ hÐd workÕd/wÐs working Ðt RoswÕ|l.
5 AftÕr hÕ hÐd sÕÕn/sÐw thÕ Ð|i Õn, hÕ wantÕd to tÕl I pÕop|Õ about i t.
6 Sáott wÐs fÐsáinÐtÕd. À'Õ hÐs nÕvÕr hÕÐrd/hÐd nÕvÕr hÕÐrd abou| RoswÕ|| bÕfÞrÕ.
7 DÕbra was tirÕd. ShÕ hÐd bÕÕn rÕÐding/wÐs rÕÐding ÐbÞut strÐngÕ phÕnomÕna Ð||
n i ght.
8 µddiÕ to!d/wÐs tÕlling a ghost story whÕn a|| thÕ lights WÕnt oUt.
9 ÂinÐ wÐsn,t bÕ|iÕving/didn't bÕliÕvÕ in ghosts Until shÕ SaW onÕ.
10 | wÐs hÕÞri ng/hÕÐrd Ð strangÕ noi sÕ whi |Õ l wÐs |ãi ng i n bÕd. It sÞundÕd Ii kÕ Ðn
aÕrop|ÐnÕ was flãing/flÕw over the housÕ.
t:', ,::. .
Voáabul ary
äeátives dÞsáribing pÞopla
5 put thÕsÕ adjeátives into thÕ
áorrÕát áatÕgoriÕs.
7 ÁhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát option, a' b or á, to áompletÕ the tÕxt.
Lrsfr wÄñkend
Davi d Smi th vi si ted Hampton Court Pal aáe and had a strange enáounter. A
sudden wi nd mÐde thÕ hÐi rs ri se on the bÐák of my neák'.. l had j ust set
foot i n the haunted gÐl l Õry. A ghost?, l sai d. Aátual |y thereÊ a draught from
thosÕ doorwÐysi gri nned the tour gui de.
For sáÕpti ás, thereÊ al wÐys a . - exp|anati on. But reáent|y so mÐny
vi si tors have bÕen , - by the si ght of a phantom that Hampton Court
Pa|aáe has áal |Õd i n the ghostbusters.
Dr Ri áhÐrd Wi semÐn, Ð professi ona| i nvesti gator of the pÐranormÐ|, i s
. - the si ghti ngs. HeÊ fi ||i ng HÕnry Vl l l Ê home wi th 21st áentury
gadgets to try to o - whether thÕ ghost real l y exi sts.
But as he prepared to u _ the paranormal, Dr Wi seman admi tted: 'l
don.t thi nk wÕ,rÕ goi ng to fi nd Ð ghost here. l don,t be|i eve i n ghosts. But l
don't thi nk peopl e are l yi ng,' he adds. 'l'm here to understand what have
been real u -, and I hÐve to admi t thi s i s qui te a mystery',
Peopl e say the ghost i s HÕnryÊ V|Il Ê wi fe, the 2O-year-o|d Catheri ne
Howard, CÐtheri ne spent her |Ðst days at HÐmpton Court before bei ng
bÕheÐded at the Tower of London, Da\rs before her deÐth shÕ tri ed to ,
from her l odgi ng and '_ the room of the Ki ng. But before she
áouId reÐáh hi m Ðnd beg for meráy, shÕ was dragged baák.
Now vi si tors to Hampton CouÓt are i nvi ted to i denti fy ÐrÕÐs of the gaIl ery
where they fee| ,áoId,, ,ti ng|y, or somethi ng more to heIp Dr Wi semÐnÊ
ghost-hunt.
One ni ght I went to the gal l ery al one, hopi ng to '_ the ghost. l t was
one Ð'm., the gal |Õry Was .o - and i t was di ffi áu|t to ,, - thi ngs out
i n thÕ darkness, l áou|dn,t qui te wa|k a|ong the áorri dor wi thout expÕáti ng
somethi ng drÕÐdful to happen'
there was Ð noi se - the door was s|owl\r openi ng. I
bri ght whi te
" _ my breath, then as I turned round. I was bl i nded by
Ii ght. Was thi s the ghost of CÐtheri ne? No. i t Wasn,t' l t 14
to be the
newspÐperÊ photographer armed wi th Ð áamerÐ f|Ðsh!
From ° Palace Spook: not a ghost of a áhance'bã David Smith,The µxpress _ |nternet µdition
ThÕ ri ght words
1 a |ogi áÐ|
2 a pani ákÕd
3 a l ooki ng around
4 a fi nd Þut
5 a tÐkÕ i n
6 a Õxperi mÕnts
7 a break
8 a makÕ at
9 a run i ntÞ
10 a aIonÕ
11 Ð mÐkÕ
12 a Qui ák|y
13 a hÕId
.l 4 a turnÕd ovÕr
T
0
rE
t
ri
)
E
A
baId .. Õl dÕr|y . smal | . áur|y
grÕã-hai rÕd . mi ddl Õ-ÐgÕd . thi n
dÐrk-hÐi rÕd .. u8l à .. strÐi ght
áasuÐI .. youngi sh . fÐshi Þnabl Õ
i n thÕi r tÕÕns / twÕnti Õs . sáruffã
tÐ|| .. ÞvÕrwÕi ght .. wÕ|I-bui It
i ntÕrÕsti ng-|ooki ng .. attrÐátivÕ
rÕd-hÐirÕd .. bÕÐrd .., bIondÕ
moustÐáhÕ s W3VÃ - srnÐrt
suspi ái ous-|ooki ng
áIothes
gÕnÕraI appÕaranáÕ
Find words áonnÕáted with mystÕry
and i magi nati on whi áh mean thÕ
same Ðs the foI|owi ng
exp|anÐtions. Âhe first and last
lÕtters of Õaáh word are given.
1 a storã passÕd on from onÕ
gÕnÕrÐti on to ÐnothÕr: a
l--d
2 thÕ faáts that makÕ you beliÕve
somÕthing is truÕ: Õ--Õ
3 possi bl Õ rÕasons for somÕthi ng:
|-VÕ-s
4 vani shÕd wi thout trÐáÕ:
d--d
5 unusuÐ| fi ndi ngs: s--Õ
d-s
6 somethi ng i ||ogi áa| Ðbout thÕ
Õxp|ÐnÐti on: a f--w i n Ð
ty
b áonsi dÕrÐb|Õ
b Ð|ÐrmÕd
b Iooki ng ovÕr
b |Þok out
b tÐkÕ off
b ÕxpÕriÕnáÕs
b avoid
b makÕ Þut of
b run ovÕr
b dÕsÕrtÕd
b sÕÕ
b SuddÕnl ã
b kÕpt
b turnÕd up
á sÕnsItl VÕ
á fÕarfuI
á |ooki ng i nto
á trã oUâ
á taKÕ on
á rÕSÕÐrán
á ÕsáÐpÕ
á makÕ for
á run down
á VaáÐnT
á Watán
á |mmÕdi ÐtÕ|ã
á sÕizÕd
á turnÕd out
Ä
ExtrertâÕsports
1 took at the piátures. Áan you name thesÕ ÕåtrÕmÕ sports?
,*;1+'.,:,
RÕadi ng
z Skim rÕad the tÕåt Ðnd find out how thÕ writÕr fÕ|t during
hi s wi ng waIk. l gnorÕ thÕ gaps.
MÐtáhi ng heÐdi ngs
A hÕÐdi ng usuÐ||y hi ghIi ghts thÕ most i mportÐnt pi Õáe of
i nformati on or the mai n i dÕa i n Ð pÐragraph. RÕÐd ÕÐáh
pÐrÐgrÐph áÐrÕfu||ã Ðnd dÕái dÕ whÐt ãÞu thi nk i t i s about
bÕforÕ áhÞosi ng thÕ hÕadi ng.
1
Wi ng wÐ|ki ng i s a spi ne-áhi ||i ng aáti vi ty l onáe saw on a TV
p|.ogi u''. áÐIIed ,Don,t try thi s at home,. After seei ng i t, I th0ught t0
myse|f, ,l.d l ove to hÐve a go Ðt that!, A áouàl Õ of yeÐrs Ðgo, l aátual l ã
appl i ed for a l ob Ðs a wi ng wal ker, but was unsuááessful, That wÐs the
end of that, or so I thought.
2
Âhen, a few months ago. a |oáaI newspÐper pi áked up on the storythat
l had been áhosen to take part i n a rel Ðy raáe around Bri tai n. Duri ng
the i ntervi eé we tÐl ked abÞutthe di ffÕrent sports and Ðáti vi ti es l hÐd
done around the wor|d. l wÐs then asked, ,WhatÊ next?' l had to stop
Ðnd thi nk for about three mi l |i seáonds. ,I woul d Iove to do Ð wi ng wal k!.
Afterthei ntervi ÕwWas0ver,Iwentstrai ghtontothe|nternetand
áÐmrÐárossÐcompÐnyáaIl edAerosuperbÐti ás.l thoughtl.dgi ve
them Ð try. As i t turned out. the summer was thei r busi est ti me, so l
wÐs to|d to áontaát them towards the end of August.
×
Âhe summer áame and went, Ðnd thi ngs began to l ook àromi si ng foÓ
the wi ng wa|k. At arÞund thi s ti me, I wÐs áontaáted bã the áhari ä
SeeAbi l i ty, whi áh provi des resi denti al nursi ng áÐre fÞr bl i nd peopIe
wi th di sabi |i ti es. Âhey were tryi ng to rÐi se thÕ publ i áÊ awareness ol
the áhari ty and wondered whether | áou|d hel p to promote the áhari ty
i n any way. l expl Ði ned the si tuati on wi th thÕ wi ng wa|k. and we
deái ded thÐt thi s wÐs the i deÐ| oááÐsi on.
3 Matáh the hÕadings Ð_g to paragraphs 1_6. Give reasons
for your áhoi áÕ. ÂhÕrÕ i s onÕ headi ng you do not nÕÕd.
a An unp|Õasant aftÕÓÕffÕát
b A noi sã bÕgi nni ng
á A frustratÕd Ðmbi ti on
d A dangÕrous momÕnt
Õ A pÕrfÕát opportuni tã
f An unforgÕttÐbl Õ ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ
g A áhÐnáÕ ÕnáountÕr
l n pai rs, di sáuss thesÕ questi ons.
] How di d thÕ wri tÕr fi rst bÕáomÕ i ntÕrÕstÕd i n wi nï
wÐ |ki nï?
WhÐt rÕmi ndÕd thÕ wri tÕr ÐbÞut hi s prÕvi ous ambi ti on?
WhÐt turnÕd thÕ wi ng wÐIk i nto somethi ng morÕ
worthwhi |Õ thÐn j ust ÐnothÕr Õxái ti ng ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ?
WhÐt ki nd Þf pl anÕ di d thÕ wri tÕr use for hi s wi ng wal k?
How di d hÕ fÕÕ| Ðs hÕ di d hi s danáÕ routi nÕ?
Looki ng baák, whÐt does hÕ fÕÕ| about thÕ wi ng wa|ki ng
flight?
Voáabu l ary
LeisurÞ aá|ivit'ioì
5 ÁompIÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 1_8 with thesÕ words.
.,donÕ. gi vÕ u. got. grabbed .hÐvÕ..rÕmÐi n
.. tÐkÕ pÐrt '. wÐs flowing . was having
1 |'d Ii kÕ to - Ð go Ðt wi ng wÐ|ki ng.
2 I,vÕ sports Ðnd Ðáti vi ti Õs a|| ovÕr thÕ wor|d.
3 I wÐnt to - tÐndÕm sky di vi ng a try'
4 I'vÕ Ð|waãs wantÕd to
in Ð rÕ|Ðy raáÕ
5 l - an amazi ng ti mÕ.
6 ÂhÕ adrÕnÐIi nÕ through mã body.
7 WhÕn | - thÕ áhÐnáÕ to do wi ng waIki ng, I
thÕ opportuni ty
8 ÂhÕ mÕmorã of thÕ fl i ght wi |l ==- wi th mÕ for ÕvÕr.
Êpeed and movÞmÞnt
6 Matáh words 1_7 to meanings a_g, aááording to how thÕy
arÕ usÕd in thÕ tÕåt.
1 sprn
2 hÕad for
3 roÐr
gathÕr spÕÕd
|ÕÐvÕ thÕ ground
flÐp
7 pummÕl
Disáuss thÕ foIIowing questions.
Þ WhÐt's your opi ni on Þf ÕxtrÕmÕ sports?
o WhÐt do ãou thi nk mÐkÕs pÕop|Õ do ÕxtrÕme sports?
. SomÕ pÕop|Õ fÕÕ| thÐt Ii fÕ i s too bori ng nowÐdays. WhÐt's
vour ÞÞi ni on?
2
×
4
5
6
my bodã bei ng pummel l ed by the fast movi ng Ði r. I had been to|d to
WaVe my hands arounál to showthe pi |ot and the pÕop|e on the ground
that l wÐs havi ng fun. l wÐs so exái ted thÐt l stafted doi ng my Saturday
Ni ght Fever routi ne. The p|ane performed some tri áky mÐnoeuvres. l t
f e|t as i f l was on a rÞ|l er áoÐster. I was to|d l ater that we Went thr0Ugh
a range of .2Gs to +·Gs. Âhi s meÐnt thÐt onÕ mi nute my body was
i náreji bty heavy. and thÕ nÕxt i náredi b|y Ii ght. l di dn,t reaIl y áÐre. l was
havi ng an ÐmÐzi ng ti me.
0n the day of the wi ng wal k, i t was rÐi ni ng. Thi s was n0t a good s|gn.
But by the ti me we had reaáhed the ai rpÞrt, thÕ rÐi n hÐd stÞpàed' I met
up wi i trthe tÕam by the bri ght|y áol oured Utterl y Butterl y bi pl ane. After
a shÞrt áhat, l was strÐpped to the stand on top of the pl aneÊ wi ngs.
Âhen i t was ti me for the propel l er to start spi nni ng. We headed for the
runway and wai ted for thÕ ÞthÕr ai r traffi á to ál eÐr - then we were off.
Wi th engi nes roari ng, we moved down the runwÐy, gatheri ng speed as
We Went' Âhen. al | of a sudden. We Were l eÐvi ng the grÞund.
5
As we started to á|imb, the skin on my fÐáe stÐrted to flap. | áould fee|
After about 15 mi nutes, i twÐsti me t0 áome down. Ifel t as i f l had on|y
been up there for Ð few seáonds. l suppose I shoul d have been áol d but
the amount of adrenÐl i n f|owi ng through my body wÐs more than
Õnough to keep me Warm. 0náÕ off the pl Ðne and on the ground, my
shoul ders bÕgan to aáhe. I worked outthÐtthi s must have been áaused
by my danái ng ÐgÐi nst the wi nd.
Âhe memory 0f the fl i ght Wi l l remÐi n wi th me for ever. If you ever get the
áhanáÕ to wi ßg wal k, grab the opportuni ty wi th both hands. And i f you
dÞn,t. gi ve mÕ a shout and l,l | do i t for you.
1l
!l
i:
t:l
t.
:,
4
)
6
i nárÕÐsÕ thÕ paáÕ of
movÕ up Ðnd down
bÕÐt qui ák|y Ðnd rÕpÕatÕdl ã wi th
your fist
tÐkÕ off
movÕ i n thÕ di rÕáti on of
movÕ qui ákl ã, maki ng Ð Ioud,
dÕÕp noi sÕ
turn round qui ák|y
..::,r,i,:r,::r,::::....-.r:,,,:::r.rr,'..:::.:,::.,,,.r::9:t:::ltar'',,, iil':r'r'i':r':irl::::'irili::rr.,::i ..::.,1:
@
RÕÐd statements .l-4 and dÕáidÕ if thÕy Ðre truÕ (Â)
or false (F).
1 ¿ WÕ form thÕ passivÕ With thÕ áÞrrÕát form of
bÕ + paSI partiáip|Õ.
2 ¿ A|| vÕrbs áÐn bÕ usÕd i n thÕ Þassi vÕ.
3 ¿ WÕ usÕ thÕ passi vÕ whÕn wÕ know whÞ or Wnat
di d the Ðáti on.
4 ¿ WÕ usÕ thÕ pÐssivÕ wiIh bã whÕn wÕ Want to sÐy
who di d thÕ aáti on.
Read the tÕxt and underIine aI| thÕ exampIes of thÕ
pÐssivÕ. ÂhÕn say whiáh tensÕs thÕ passive vÕrbs Ðre in.
l{ew Zealand
hits the world stÐgÕ
New Zeal and i s a áountry that shoutd be watáhed wi th
i ntÕrest. It's tatented i nhabi tants are fast beáomi ng
i ntÕrnati onal l à famoæs. Years ago NÕw ZÕal anders suáh as
wri ter Katheri ne Mansfi etd and pai nter Franáes Hodgki ns
werÕ foráed to travÕl abroad to fi nd suááess. However, now
that the speed of travel has bÕen grÕatl y i nárÕÐsed and
áommuni áati ons are bei ng i mproved al most dai [æ
i nternati onal reáogni ti on has al so been aáhi eved by New
Zeal anders who have áhosen to staà at home. l n rÕáÕnt Ãears
fi l ms l i ke The Pi ano, whi áh was di reáted by Jane Campi on,
and The Lord of the Rings tritogy, whiáh was direáted by PÕter
Jaákson' have beÕn huge[y suááessful. IndÕed The Lord ofthe
Ri ngs not on[y wokÕ the rest of the worl d up to New Zeal and
tal ent bæt al so hetped adverti se what a bÕauti ful áountry i t i s.
Âhe touri st i ndustrà was boosted and the áountry's
geographi áal i sol ati on has beáome an advantage as more
entertai ners, arti sts, and musi ái ans feet they áan ti vÕ and
work i n NÕw Zea[and whi te rÕaáhi ng out to audi enáes to the
rÕst of thÕ worl d.
ÁhangÕ thÕ sÕntenáÕs from aátivÕ to passive. Use thÕ
undÕrIi nÕd words Ðs thÕ subi eát.
1 ThÕ i s|Ðnds hÐvÕ ÐttrÐátÕd touri sts from Ðl I ovÕr thÕ
worl d.
2 ThÕ nÕw ski rÕsort wi || attraát vi si tors from abroÐd.
3 PÕop|Õ thi nk thÕ i s|Ðnds arÕ thÕ pÕrfÕát hoIi day
dÕsti nÐti on.
4 ThÕ travÕl agent hÐd bookÕd thÕ flights bÕfore hÕ
ÐrrangÕd thÕ aááommodati Þn.
5 ThÕã fi|medThÕ Lord oI thÕ Rings in NÕw lÕaland.
6 Peop|Õ hÐvÕ áÐught fi sh wÕi ghi ng up to 400kg i n NÕw
ZÕal Ðnd's BÐã Þf Is|ands.
µåÐmple
Touriíts from Ð|l ovor the world hÐve bean Ðttraátod
bã the iolÐnde.
?aììivo formí uith tha gíÓund and tho infinitivo
4 Matáh ruIÕs 1-3 to ÕxÐmpIÕs a-Õ.
RulÕs
1 Passive forms ÐrÕ oftÕn usÕd aftÕr verbs fo||owÕd bv a
gÕrund, e.g. enjoã beingtÐkÕn to ..,
ThÕy áan aIso bÕ usÕd after vÕrbs foIIowÕd by an
infinitivÕ, e.g. want to bÕ tÐken to ...
PÐssivÕ forms áan Ð|so bÕ usÕd ÐftÕr prÕpositiÞns, Õ.g.
lookforwÐrd to bÕingtÐkÕn to ...
HÕ hopÕs to be fl own over Mount Áook i n a hÕIi áoptÕr
Âhe N4aori gui dÕ wÐs qui tÕ rÕ|ÐxÕd about bei ng askÕd
thÕ samÕ questi ons Ð|| thÕ ti mÕ, but hÕ got ti rÕd of
bÕing photographed by tourists.
I rÕmÕmbÕr bÕi ng gi vÕn Ð tÞur of thÕ musÕum i n
Auák|Ðnd.
d WÕ want to be toId abÞut thÕ disáovÕrã of thÕ Bay of
Isl a nds.
e Jo ÕnjoyÕd bÕing shown famous tourist ÐttrÐátiÞns.
ÁomplÕtÕ thÕ sÕáond sentenáÕ in eÐáh pÐir so it mÕÐns
thÕ samÕ as thÕ first. Use Ð passivÕ form and a gÕrund or
an infinitivÕ.
1 I wouIdn,t ri sk somÕonÕ dri vi ng mÕ up Mount Áook.
l woul dn't ri sk...
2 SÐrÐh was |ooki ng forwÐrd to somÕonÕ tÕÐáhi ng hÕr
sáubÐ di vi ng.
Sarah was l ooki ng forward to ...
3 ¼l y fri Õnd áan,t stand pÕopIe tÕl Ii ng hi m Ðbout hi stÞry.
N4y fri Õnd áÐn't stand ...
4 | nÕÕd somÕonÕ to advi sÕ mÕ about whi áh N4aori vi I|aïÕ
to vi si t.
l nÕÕd ...
5 I don,t mi nd pÕop|Õ gui di ng mÕ round touri st si tÕs.
I dÞn,t mi nd ...
6 WÕ expÕát somÕonÕ to givÕ us a Iift to thÕ North ÁapÕ.
WÕ exoÕát ...
a
b
passl YÕ
Ä
RÕwrite thÕ sÕntenáÕs in thÕ passivÕ.
1 Fami Ii Õs oftÕn áhoosÕ thÕ bÕaáhÕs of |\4ount |\4ÐungÐnui
for thÕi r hoIi days.
ÂhÕ bÕaáhÕs...
2 WatÕr Ðnd i áÕ áarvÕd thÕ vol áÐno We áan sÕÕ i n NÕw
ZÕaIand today.
ÂhÕ vol áÐnoÕs ...
ÂhÕy bui |t Auák|and ái tã Ðmong many Õxti nát vol áÐnoÕs.
Auák|and ...
l n AD 1·0, an ÕnormoUs vol áani á ÕxpIosi on formÕd
LakÕ Taupo.
LakÕ TÐupo ..'
ThÕ ÕxpIosi on dÕstroyÕd thÕ forÕsts i n thÕ North Is|Ðnd.
ÂhÕ fÞrÕsts ...
You áÐn fi nd fi vÕ of thÕ bÕst hi ki ngtrÐi |s i n NÕw Zea|and
i n thÕ Fj ordIand Nati ÞnaI Park.
Fi vÕ ...
Causative hovelget
7 took at the ÕåÐmp|Õs a and b and áompIÕtÕ ruIÕs 1 and 2.
a I hÐd thÕsÕ shoÕs mÐdawhen I was i n NÕw Zea|Ðnd.
b Simon is gotting his hÐir rut bÕfore hÕ goes on
hoIi dÐy,
Rules
1 WÕ usÕ thÕ áorrÕát tÕnsÕ Þf hÞvÕ or
+ objÕát +
to do somÕthi ng for
us.
2_
ÁompIÕtÕ the sentÕnáÕs using the áorrÕát form of hÐve/gÕt
somÕthing done and thÕ idÕas in brÐákÕts.
'1 WÕ'rÕ going to (bÕdroom / paint) nÕxt wÕÕk' it
Iooks tÕrri b|Õ at thÕ mÞmÕnt.
2 Your hÐi r |ooks di ffÕrÕnt. (i t / dyÕ)?
3 It's so áoId hÕrÕ i n wi ntÕr WÕ - (áÕntraI hÕÐti ng /
i nstaI|) Ðt thÕ momÕnt.
5
6
I must - (thÕ áomputÕr / áhÕák). It's not worki ng
prÞpÕr|y.
|\4ã wÐtáh brokÕ |ast month so |- (it / rÕpÐir).
WÕ - (a di shwÐshÕr / put i n) i n thÕ ki táhÕn
rÕáÕnt|y. Now wÕ don't hÐvÕ tÞ wÐsh up.
My parÕnts (thÕi r nÕw housÕ / bui |d) bã a l oáa|
áonstruáti on áompÐnã l ast ãÕar.
|- (thÕsÕ shoÕs / mÐkÕ) by a árÐftsman i n |VÕåi áo.
LÕt's aátivatÕ
Holidal preparations
9 Look Ðt thÕ piátures and say what things you arÕ going to
havÕ/get donÕ bÕforÕ you go on ho|idÐy. Use thÕ prompts
to hÕIp you.
rÕsÕrvÐti ons / makÕ shÞÕs / rÕpÐi r á|othÕs / á|ean
áar / sÕrvi áÕ hai r / áut pÐssport / rÕnÕw
N
tr
rl
s
whÕn wÕ ask/pay somÕonÕ
i s |Õss formÐl than
I
10
11
12
DRY
ÂouÓiÞt guida Pro6antation
In pairs, prÕpare a prÕsÕntation for a short áoaáh tour for
tourists in your area. DÕáidÕ whiáh route thÕ sight.sÕÕing
tour wi II takÕ and whi áh pIÐáÕs of i nterÕst you wi Il tal k
about. Thi nk about:
monUmÕnts, pÐrks' musÕums, pIÐáÕs of hi stori áÐ| i ntÕrÕst,
ÕntÕrtÐi nmÕnt, naturaI fÕÐturÕs
MakÕ notes to rÕmind you what to mÕntion in your
presentation. Add anã informÐtion you think tourists wiIl
find intÕrÕstin8, Õ.8. when pIaáÕs were bui|t, whã IoáÐl
pÕople are attraátÕd to thesÕ pIaáes, wherÕ you áan havÕ
your photograph takÕn.
Now givÕ your presentation (about two minutes eaáh) to
anothÕr pair of students.
Ä
Lo tâ d o tl LÐ tl drxl o r I< s
ÄÐÛiátr<quiz
: l.'l \ a : ::-.: _a-.l.i r.::i 1 :'- l:: i
'l Whi áh of thÕ famous IandmÐrks:
,l hÐs Ð roof strong Õnough to SUpport a 1umbo j Õt?
2 wÐs bui |t bã Si r Áhri stophÕr WrÕn bÕtwÕen 1675
and 1710?
wÐs bui It aftÕr ri oti ng i n thÕ strÕÕt bã angry ái ti zÕns
who wÕrÕ fed up with hÐving to Áross thÕ rivÕr bã boÐt?
wÐs bui |t to protÕát London?
i s a rÕáonstruáti on of Ð fÐmous 16th áÕnturã bui l di ng?
4
5
Li stÕni ng
2 Q,.l YouÐrÕ going to hÕar a tourist phoning to book
some tiákÕts for thÕ London EyÕ. Read statÕmÕnts 1-5,
thÕn IistÕn and dÕáidÕ whÕther thÕ statÕments arÕ truÕ (T)
or falsÕ (F).
1 ¿ Al I ti ákÕts for thÕ London µyÕ must bÕ bookÕd i n
Ð0VÐ n áÕ.
2 ¿ DÕmÐnd for ti ákÕts i s pÐrti ául ar|y hi gh at thÕ momÕnt.
3 ¿ ThÕ ti ákÕt sÕI|Õr sUggÕsts thÐt thÕ áÐ|l Õr books thÕ
ti ákÕts i n oÕrson.
4 ¿ The áal |Õr wÐnts to know i f hÕ áan Þav for thÕ ti ákÕts
0V ánÕ0UÕ.
5 ¿ ÂhÕ tiákÕts áan bÕ ríiákÕd uÞ bÕfÞrÕ the ridÕ.
3 ro6Jt.z You ÐrÕ going to hÕar a guidÕ taIking to Ð group
of tourists who arÕ going for Ð trip on the London EyÕ.
RÕad through thÕ notes. ThÕn Iisten and áompIÕtÕ thÕ
information.
London
Si tuatÕd: on thÕ 1 -
Roman sÕtt|ÕmÕnt of Londl ni um: at thÕ 2
ImportanáÕ of thÕ ri vÕr: thÕ 3 - of thÕ ái tã
Ri vÕr trÐve|: 4
than road travÕI
Ri vÕr prÞbl Õms: 5 -, 6 - Ðnd po||utl Þn.
ÁhangÕ on ri vÕr i n 20th áÕnturã: ri vÕr no |ongÕr usÕd bã
7
ThÕ London EyÕ
Âi mÕ takÕn for áonstruáti on: 8
RÕÐson for áonstruáti on: to mÐrk thÕ 9
Whã i ntÕrÕsti ng?: proj Õát gÕnui nÕ|y ]0
Ä
UndÞrstanding announ áemonllÒ
lmaginÕ that you havÕ had a day out in London Ðnd arÕ
now going homÕ by train. When you arrivÕ at the stÐtion
ãou notiáÕ that your train is not on thÕ information
board. WhÐt quÕstions wouId you ask to find out thÕ
fol l owi ng i nformati on?
1 p|Ðtform for thÕ µdi nburgh trÐi n?
2 lale?
3 pÐssÕngÕr qUÕUe to stand i n?
4 ÕxpÕátÕd ti mÕ of dÕparturÕ?
5 faái Ii ti es on boÐrd?
6 .savÕr tiákÕts' aááÕptÕd?
6áJ,', ListÕn to thÕ station announáement Ðnd find Ðs
many answÕrs as possibIÕ to thÕ quÕstions you thought of
i n 6.
4 Li stÕn Ðgai n and answÕr the questi ons'
1 Whã di d thÕ Romans sÕttIÕ i n Londi ni um?
2 WhÐt hÐs bÕÕn donÕ to protÕát LÞndon Ðgai nst fl oods?
3 Whã di d London stop bÕi ng a maj or port?
4 Why wÕrÕ thÕ di ffÕrÕnt pÐrts of thÕ London µyÕ not bui |t
i n onÕ p|ÐáÕ Þn|ã?
5 WhÕrÕ WÕrÕ somÕ of its parts bui|t?
5 UndÕrIi ne thÕ phrasÕs Ðnd sÕntenáes thÕ speakÕr usÕd.
µxpIai n why hÕ/shÕ usÕd thÕm.
1 thi s di dn't hÐppÕn bã áhÐnáÕ / thi s i s nÞ áoi nái dÕnáÕ
2 asi twÐs áal |Õd / thÐt,s whÐt pÕÞp|Õ áÐ|l Õd i t
3 thÕ ri vÕr wÐs vi tÐ| to tradÕ and trÐvÕl / thÕ ri vÕr was
)
6
rÕÐI|ã i mpÞrtÐnt for trÐdÕ and travÕl
bri ngi ng i n Ðnd sÕndi ng gÞods to sÕ|| / i mporti ng and
Õåporting goods for sa|Õ
happÕnÕd oftÕn / wÕre frÕquÕnt
áondi ti ons hÐvÕ grÕÐt|ã i mprovÕd / thi ngs arÕ muáh
bÕttÕr now
was rÕa||ã di ffÕrÕnt / áhangÕd profound|ã
LondonÕrs Ii kÕ thÕ ThÐmÕs a l ot / thÕ ThÐmÕs hÐs
bÕáomÕ Ð souráÕ of p|ÕasurÕ to Londoners
thÕy finishÕd it in sÕvÕn ãears l it tÞÞk sÕvÕn yÕars to
áomp|ÕtÕ
7
8
SpÕaki ng
g 6),.o ln sma|I groups, say whiáh of thÕ pIaáes you
wouId IikÕ to visit if you wÕrÕ in London and why. UsÕ the
di al oguÕ box to hÕIp you.
Saying whiáh you prÕfer
A l,d muáh rÐther go tÞ ÂowÕr Bridge thÐn visit thÕ
London µyÕ.
B WÕ||, l,d pre|er to visit thÕ London µãe bÕáÞuse iI's a
IovÕIã daã Ðnd thÕ vi Õw shoul d bÕ fÐntÐsti á.
Á AátuÐllã, I think ThÕ G|olíÕ ThÕÐtrÕ would be muáh
morÕ interesting thÐn ÕithÕr of thosÕ.
° PersonÐllã, l |ind Ihe thÕatrÕ rother boring.
B MÕ too. l don,t find ÂhÕ G|obÕ hÞlf Ðs interesting Ðs
most of thÕ othÕr thi ngs wÕ áouId vi si t.
Á Right. LÕt,s go to thÕ London µãÕ' thÕn.
itimuluÞ - b aìod diìáuììion
9 Disáuss thesÕ questions.
1 WhÐt dÞ thÕ statistiás bÕIow show?
2 WhÐt Ðttraáti ons do pÕopl Õ |i kÕ to vi si t?
3 WhÐt sort Þf ÐttrÐáti ons áÐn you sÕÕ i n thÕ photos 1 Ðnd
2? Why do you thi nk thÕã ÐrÕ popul ar?
4 WhÐt ÐrÕ thÕ most popuIÐr touri st attraáti ons i n ãÞur
áou ntry?
5 ShouId art gaIl Õri Õs Ðnd musÕums bÕ freÕ, or shouId
pÕÞpl Õ pay to vi si t thÕm?
t:
lt
Âíà fiuÕ tourisl ÐttrÐctiÞns in LÞndon
.* ÁompletÕ thÕ survey Ðbout ÕntÕrtainmÕnt' thÕn áomparÕ your áIass rÕsults.
WhÐt do thÕy show about your prÕfÕrÕnáes for entertainment?
watáh TV
listÕn to thÕ radio
8o to thÕ áinÕma
go to thÕ thÕÐtrÕ
listÕn to a áassÕttÕ
or ÁD
nÕvÕr sÞmÕtimÕs
¿¿
¿¿
¿¿
¿¿
¿
¿
vÕry oftÕn
E
:
Studyi ng the sampl e
ThÕ Womálß iß BlÐák, now showing at thÕ FoÓtunÕ ThÕatrÕ in
London, is a play basÕd on u gr'o,.-t story adétÕd from a novÕl
{
l
J
.a
!
L
t
t
:
t
{
by Susan Ýill. It tÕlls thÕ tÛ" Ìr u ',,u,'*" o*urÕ who appears
unexpÕátÕdly throughout thÕ plav.
°l though thÕÓÕ aâÕ si x
I".T:]" _ th",. ".".;;ff:";:i.::.½;'#,,old, malÕ and
' (diffÕrenáÕ) parts. ThÕy do this Õxt.ÕmÕiy suááÕsstutly ìy
adopting anothÕr voiáÕ or physiáal upp"u.u.,.", or simply
putting on another áoat.
3 ÂhÕ story áÕntres around a young man who visits thÕ isolatÕd
housÕ of somÕone who has ."...,1ty diÕd. ThÕ loáal inhabitants
sÕÕm unwilling to talk about thÕ house, or its pâÕvious ownÕr.
As thÕ story dÕvÕlops, the truth about thÕ strangÕ figurÕ is
slowly revealÕd but thÕ ÓÕal twist áomÕs at thÕ Õnd, when the
audiÕnáÕ is lÕft , (amazÕmÕnt) that a stagÕ play áould áonvÕy
suáh a × (powÕr) mÕssagÕ.
ThÕ stagÕ direátion is
u s Õ. of li gh tin*,, n,*n,}1' |i ffii;f ,.::T, j3;.i, aJ tart, th Õ
audiÕnáÕ from plaáÕ to plaáÕ in sÕáonds. I., udditio.', a baskÕt
bÕáomes a ra1|waã áarriagÕ, Õliminating thÕ nÕáÕssity for
" (ÕxpÕnsÕ) and , (ináonvÕniÕnáÕ) sáÕnÕ áhangÕs.
SÞmÕ sáÕnÕs arÕ truly 8 (fright) and thÕrÕ wÕre oááasions whÕn
thÕ audiÕnáÕ was sárÕaming in tÕrrol. HowÕvÕr, thÕ play nÕvÕr
allows the audiÕnáÕ to sÕÕ too muáh, and mÕrely suggÕsts
supÕrnatural happÕnings, whiáh is surprisingly, (ÕffÕát).
Âbr say morÕ would givÕ Õverything awÊy. so] è you arÕ rÕady
to suspÕnd your disbÕliÕf and bÕ tÙ,',po.t"j into thÕ thri]l nf ï
UndsrstÐnding tha tÐsº
Look Ðt the piáturÕs. What informÐtion ÐrÕ
they giving?
RÕad thÕ text. MÐtáh thÕ rÕviewÕr's idÕÐs a_f to
paragraphs 1_6. lgnore thÕ nouns in braákets'
Ð rÕáommendÐti ons
b tÕáhni áaI dÕtai Is of thÕ oroduáti on
á bri Õf sUmmary of thÕ pl ot
d i ntroduáti on to thÕ áhÐraátÕrs
e subj Õát of thÕ rÕvi Õw
f own opi ni ons Ðbout thÕ pl ay
ÆloÓd building
4 Áhange the nouns 1-10 into adjeátives.
quitÕ Þften
ti
¿
¿
¿
¿
'ifÕtimÕ -,o,, ."o,-,,, ';:; (.;;;;;il,,J"ÂÌ* rnto thÕ thri.l of a i
UsÕ a_f from exÕráisÕ 3 as paragrÐph hÕadings and put
these words áonnÕáted with the theatrÕ into the
appropriate paragrÐph.
* aátÞrs * áharaátÕrs u áost of produátion g dirÕátor *
|Õngth Þf pIaã * |66311on of thÕÐtrÕ u musi á * othÕr ári ti ás'
opi ni ons * pl ot * produáÕr * rÕáommÕndati ons * sÕtti ng
* spÕáia| effÕáts * stagÕ props * strÕngths g tÕáhniáaI
dÕtai Is * wÕaknÕssÕs * wri tÕr * your opi ni on
6 DÕáide whiáh words in exÕráise 5 are importÐnt to iná|udÕ
in a rÕview and whiáh onÕs arÕ unnÕáÕssÐry.
StÕps to hÕttÕr wri ti ng
lntansif1ing adverbì
7 Put these ÐdvÕrbs into groups .1_3. Some advÕrbs may
appÕar i n morÕ than one group.
* ÐbsoIutÕl ã * áompIÕtÕ|y * áonsi dÕrÐb|y " ÕxtrÕmÕ|y
* fÐi r|y * hi gh|ã s qui tÕ * rÐthÕr Ò rÕÐ|l à * s|i ght|y
* totÐ|Iã * tru|Ã
1 ÐdvÕrbs whi áh i ntÕnsi fy the mÕani ng a l i tt|Õ
2 ÐdvÕrbs whiáh tonÕ down or dÕárÕÐsÕ thÕ ÕffÕát of
mÕani ng
3 advÕrbs whi áh ÐrÕ usÕd wi th ungradÐb|Õ, or .|i mi t'
words, Õ.g. á0rrÕát
8 (ompIÕte sentenáÕs 1_6 wi th an adverb |rom7.
.l ThÕ aátrÕss who took thÕ lÕÐd Was - prÕtty.
2 The Õnd of thÕ p|Ðy was tÕrri fãi ng.
3 ÂhÕ SÕats WÕ had wÕrÕ unáomfortÐb|Õ.
4 ÂhÕ usÕ of l i ghti ng was
5 | nÕ mus|á Was
ori gi nal.
tÕrrifiá.
6 ThÕ tiákÕts wÕrÕ ÕÅpÕnslvÕ
\rlords that go togÞther
9 Matáh verbs 1-9 to thÕ words thÕv are often usÕd with
a-i.
1 adÐpt from a(n)
2 sárÕÐm l n
3 rÕvÕÐ| thÕ
4 áonvÕy Ð(n)
5 transport from
6 Õ|i mi nate thÕ
7 sÕÕm unwi IIi ng
B givÕ Ðway a(n)
9 suspend your
10 write fivÕ sÕntenáÕs of your own using the phrasÕs
i n 9.
µåÐmple
Tha pIÐã wÐí ÐdÐpted from Ð novel bã 6ueÐn Hil|.
Linº èords
'|1 Matáh thÕ |ink words 1_8 to their usÕs a_d.
1 For Ð start,
2 In addi ti on,
3 Fi nÐ |l ã,
4 HowÕvÕr,
5 FurthÕrmorÕ,
6 0n thÕ othÕr hÐnd,
7 NÕvÕrthÕIÕss,
B To sum up,
a to i ntroduáÕ the Iast poi nt of al I
b to i ntroduáÕ a áontrÐsti ng i dÕÐ
á to i ntroduáÕ thÕ fi rst poi nt
d to i ntroduáÕ a furthÕr poi nt
a truth
b sÕárÕt
á onÕ p|aáÕ to ÐnothÕr
d nÕáÕssitã for
Õ novÕ|
f di sbÕ|i Õf
g tÕrror
h to tal k about
i powÕrfuI mÕssagÕ
Wri ti ng your revi Õw
Planning
12 you are going to writÕ a reviÕw of a play or a fiIm. Use
the foIlowing suggÕstions to pIan your writing.
. ÁhoosÕ Ð plÐã or fi|m that intÕrÕsts ãÞu. Do nÞt writÕ a
rÕvi Õw of somÕthi ng ãou havÕ not sÕÕn.
. DÕái dÕ on thÕ numbÕr of paragraphs you wi |I wri tÕ Ðnd
thÕ ordÕr i n whi áh thÕy wi l I appÕar.
. DÕái dÕ whÐt dÕtÐi l s thÕ rÕÐdÕr wi Il nÕÕd to know, Õ.g.
thÕ nÐmÕ of thÕ fi |m/p|Ðã, whÕrÕ i t i s Þn, thÕ
baákground to thÕ story, thÕ sÕtti ng, thÕ author, aátors,
or any othÕr i ntÕrÕsti ng i nformati on.
. |\4ÐkÕ Ð |i st of what arÕ thÕ most i mpÞrtant
áhÐrÐátÕri sti ás of thÕ pIay or fi |m, Õ.g. thÕ (trÕÐtmÕnt of
thÕ) story, thÕ numbÕr of Ðátors, thÕ spÕái a| ÕffÕáts, thÕ
sáÕnÕrV. thÕ l oáati on.
Æiriting
Thi nki ng about your i ntÕndÕd Ðudi enáÕ
RÕmÕmbÕr not to gi vÕ too muáh of thÕ storã away whÕn
ãoU ÐrÕ wri ti ng a rÕvi Õw of Ð pIay or fi l m. Âhi s wouId
spoi | ÕvÕrythi ng for pÕop|Õ rÕÐdi ng thÕ rÕvi Õw thÕn goi ng
to sÕÕ thÕ ÞÕrformÐnáÕ.
.l3 writÕ your rÕview (200_250 words).
. organi sÕ your rÕvi Õw Iogi áaI|ã i n pÐrÐgraphs.
. usÕ phrasÕs, adverbs, Õtá. to makÕ your wri ti ng morÕ
i ntÕrÕsti ng for your rÕÐdÕrs.
. usÕ l i nk words to makÕ ãour rÕvi Õw áoherÕnt.
Þ makÕ somÕ oÕrsonaI rÕáommÕndati ons.
LhoáYing
14 áhÕák that ãou have:
. i ná|udÕd ÐII thÕ nÕáÕssary dÕtai Is.
o not gi vÕn awÐã surpri sÕs.
. writtÕn thÕ áorrÕát amount (200-250 words).
@
1\o ãaììivo
1 ÁÞmpletÕ the sÕntenáÕs with thÕ áorreát (passivÕ) form of
thÕ vÕrb in braákÕts.
1 NowÐdays, studÕnts (wÐrn) nÞt tÞ trÐvÕ| Ð|one i n
dÐngÕrous áountri Õs.
2 Âom dÞÕsn't hÐvÕ to wÞrk. HÕ (support) bã his
parÕnts.
3 LÐst summÕr the áhi |drÕn (tÕÐáh) µng|i sh bã Ð
studÕnt voIuntÕÕr.
4 °t the momÕnt, gÐp yÕÐrs (tÐkÕ) by morÕ Ðnd
morÕ studÕnts.
5 YÕstÕrdÐã Ðt thrÕÕ o,á|oák Âina - (intÕrviÕw) for a
gÐp-ãÕÐr j ob.
6 ÂhÕ hoIidÐã dÕstinÐtion (áhÞosÕ) thrÕÕ wÕÕks ago.
7 WÕ áan't gÞ out tonight. WÕ - (givÕ) a lot of
homÕwork.
8 ÂhÕ nÕw sáhool bui Idi ng (not áomp|ÕtÕ) unti |
neÅt yÕÐr.
2 áhoosÕ thÕ áorreát answÕr.
1 ÂhÕ Ðrt of mÐking pottÕry is bÕing/bÕÕn rÕvivÕd in thÕ
ái ty of NÕl sÞn.
2 SomÕ prÕttã áhuráhÕs hÐvÕ bÕing/bÕÕn buiIt in thÕ
Wi mÕa P|ai n.
3 WhÕn thÕ railwÐy was bÕing/beÕÛ áonstruátÕd, sÕvÕra|
wÞrkÕrs wÕrÕ ki||Õd.
4 Gum trÕÕs arÕ said to have bÕing/bÕeÛ introduáÕd intÞ
thÕ arÕÐ mÐny ãÕars ago.
5 NÕ|sÞn hÐs nÕvÕr bÕing/bÕÕn IinkÕd to thÕ rÐil nÕtwork.
6 ThÕ tÞurist industrã has bÕing/beeÛ hÕlpÕd by rÕáÕnt
áhangÕs.
3 ÁompletÕ thÕ sÕáond sÕntÕnáÕ in ÕÐáh pÐir so it meÐns
thÕ sÐmÕ Ðs thÕ first. UsÕ thÕ áorrÕát fÞrm Þf the passivÕ
or thÕ Ðátive and mÐkÕ any othÕr neáÕssary áhÐngÕs.
1 ThÕã ÐrÕ pai nti ng our sáhoo| Ðt thÕ momÕnt.
Our sáhoo| at thÕ momÕnt.
2 ThÕ govÕrnment has i ntrÞduáÕd a nÕw l Ðw.
A nÕw |Ðw by thÕ govÕrnmÕnt.
3 ÂhÕ ári mi naIs wÕrÕ áaught yÕstÕrdÐã bã thÕ poIi áÕ.
Âhe poliáÕ ãÕsterdÐy.
4 ÂhÕ mÕáhani á wÐs rÕpai ri ng my áar whÕn I Ðrri vÕd.
Mã áÐr - whÕn | Ðrri vÕd.
5 ÂhÕ áontrÐát wi l l bÕ si gnÕd tomorrow.
WÕ - tomorrow.
6 ÂhÕ tÕaáher rÕÐd thÕ poÕm to thÕ studÕnts.
ÂhÕ poÕm
7 Sái Õnti sts hÐvÕ bÕÕn studãi ng thÕ prob|Õm for yÕÐrs.
ÂhÕ prob|Õm for ãÕars.
8 Âhi s bÞÞk hasn't bÕÕn pubIi shÕd beforÕ.
ÂhÕã - bÕforÕ.
Paìì×vo forms èith tho gÞrund and thÞ infinitivs
4 RÕwritÕ thesÕ sÕntÕnáÕs replaáing thÕ words in itÐliás with
a pÐssivÕ form and Ð gerund or an infinitivÕ.
1 Do ãou Õnjoã ir whÕn somÕonÕ tÐkÕs yoØ to thÕ thÕÐtrÕ?
Do you Õnj oã ...
2 Would ãÞu IikÕ SomÕonÕ to tÕll ãou Ðbout thÕ historã of
Þur i sIÐnd?
Wou|d ãou |i kÕ ...
3 WouId you mind if somÕonÕ Ðsked ãou Ð fÕw quÕstions?
Woul d ãou mi nd ..
4 | hopÕ Ihat somÕonÕ will givÕ mÕ somÕ informÐtiÞn
ÐbÞut l ÞáÐl áUstoms.
I hopÕ.,.
5 °rÕ ãou looking forwÐrd Io somÕonÕ tÐking ãou on a tour
of thÕ áity?
°rÕ ãÞu l ooki ng forwÐrd tÞ ...
Lauìalve hÐvo/get
5 RÕwritÕ thÕ sÕntenáes using thÕ áorreát form of hÐve/gÕt
something donÕ.
1 ÂhÕ pÐssport agÕnáy has tÞ rÕnÕw my pÐssport bÕfÞrÕ l
go ÐlíroÐd.
f kÒvg" tt: 5*f m.ã pÐÒÒp*rt ra,nawad b*fÒr*' l gtl
á×tíraqd.
2 Mã motÞrbi kÕ brokÕ down. l t nÕÕdÕd to be rÕpÐi rÕd.
l hÐd to...
3 Âhi s áomputÕr doÕsn't wÞrk. I nÕÕd somÕonÕ to fi x i t.
I nÕÕd tÞ...
4 SÐrÐh Wants somÕonÕ tÞ pi ÕráÕ hÕr nosÕ.
SÐrÐh wÐnts ...
5 j aáki Õ ÐrrangÕd for somÕonÕ to dÕl i vÕr a pÐráÕ| tÞ her
noUsÕ.
JÐáki Õ . ..
6 ThÕ ki táhÕn nÕÕds to bÕ pÐi ntÕd. WÕ wÐnt somÕonÕ to
pai nt i t.
WÕ wÐnt ...
Ä
Readi ng
6 RÕad thÕ text and mÐtáh dÕsáriptiÞns a_d tÞ paragraphs
1_4. ThÕn áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ text with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ
verbs in braákÕts.
a ThÕ wri tÕr's rÕáommÕndÐti Þn
b FÐáts Ðbout thÕ fi |m
á WhÐt thÕ wri tÕr thought of thÕ pIÞt
d A dÕsári pti on of thÕ pIot
l {ri ti ng
7 writÕ Ð rÕview of Ð film. lnálude faáts about the fiIm, Ð
dÕsáription of thÕ plot, what you thought of thÕ film, and
whÕther you rÕáommÕnd sÕÕing it'
Li stÕni ng
8 d),' You arÕ going tÞ hÕÐr a London tour guidÕ. Listen
Ðnd tiák whÐt you áan do or see at Õaáh plaáÕ.
ÁhÐngi ßg áf thÕ GuÐrds
{rÞvá j*r,r:Õls
l dÐti ÞnÐi sÐl l *rã
N*issß,s {Þ!umr':
ShÐft*sbury °vÕ*c"EÕ
St Àaèl's {ÐthÕdrÐ|
StÐtu* *f ¡r*s
StÐtØÕ *f QuÕÕt× Vl átari Ð
ÂÐtÕ Àd*dÕrr×
*i
*t
.r
^at
:tl
:-.1
i i
.l
ÒooÚ of sØÜows: BIÐir Witáh 2 is Ð sÕquÕl to thÕ first-
ratÕ horror hlm ÂhÕ BIÐir Wi|áh ProjÕát. ThÕ film
arÕ ÞbsÕssÕd wi th thÕ spi nÕ-áhi l l i ng ÕVÕßts of ThÕ BIÐi r
Wi táh Proi Õáf. µvÕntual l y, thÕy gÞ to thÕ Bl aák Hi l l s tÞ
fi nd out what rÕal l y hÐppÕnÕd and Õnd up áampi ng i n
thÕ forÕst ovÕrni ght. ÂhÕ nÕxt morni ng thÕy rÕal i sÕ
that thÕy di dn't sl ÕÕp, but thÕy áan,t ÓÕmÕmbÕâ
anvthi ns about thÕ ni ght bÕfoÓÕ' WorsÕ sti l l, bi zarrÕ
,nÌbol,"* (pai nt) on thÕi r bodi Õs. TÕrri frÕd,
tÌÕy rush baák to town, onl y to di sáovÕr that
sÞmÕthi ng oI somÕonÕ has áomÕ Wi th thÕm.
(di rÕát) byJoÕ BÕrl i ngÕr and'=- (sÕt) i n
thÕ Bl aák Hi l l s - thÕ sÐmÕ Ioáati on that
(áhoosÕ) for thÕ ori gi nal Btál i r Wi táh'
ThÕ fi l m tÕl l s thÕ story of fi vÕ áol l ÕgÕ studÕnts Who
Ûttt'oéÔ Ò, ok of ShÐdow.s i s si mi l Ðr to-thÕ fi rs1 Bl ai â
Wi táh movi Õ, tÕrri fyi ng nÕw tÕrri toâÃ, -
(Õxp.l orÕ). Convi nái ng pÕrformanáÕs " -- (gi vÕ)
ìy i t-rÕ mai n aátors and JÕffÓÕy Donovan i s áompÕl l i ng
u, ,t"," orïani sÕr of thÕ tri p. HowÕvÕr, thÕ rÕal strÕngth
of thÕ ÛtÙ i s i ts fast.movi ng and unpÓÕdi átabl Õ
storyl i nÕ. Si náÕ thÕ fi l m fi rst opÕnÕd, audi ÕnáÕs
ÕuÕ,ywhÕ,Õ (suràÓi sÕ) by thÕ horri fi á Õndi ng.
âo s.'m u'p, Book of ShÐdows whiáh is aátiÞn.paáI.1' .
Ðnd frighiÕning' If you o -- (intÓiguÕ) bã ThÕ BIÐir
BÕ*fÕÐtÕrs
Witáh ProjÕár, you,Il Õnioy itl
tpr::.:r.::ri:r,r::,.:::l.l.r::rl:l:rl:
WoÓds thÐt go togÞthÞr
1 ÁhoosÕ thÕ best Word, Ð, b, or á, to áomplÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs ,l-5.
1 TravÕl |i ng i s a grÕat Waã to - ãÞur hÞri zons and
ÕxÞÕriÕnáÕ nÕw áu|turÕs.
a l ÕngthÕß b strÐi ghtÕn á brÞÐdÕn
2 WhÕn NÕi | wÕnt áÐmpi ng i n thÕ mountai ns, hÕ fÕ|t
áomp|ÕtÕl y i n - wi th naturÕ.
a rÕ|Ðti Þnshi p b tunÕ
á unItã
3 I wÐsn't surÕ thÐt thÕ hotÕl was sui tÐbl Õ, but I hÐd to
thÕ trÐvÕl agÕnt's word for it and pay for it in
Ð0VÐ n áÕ.
Ð hÐvÕ
b bÕl i ÕvÕ á tÐkÕ
4 0náÕ JÕss had bÞÞkÕd hÕr flight' it Was too |atÕ to
hÕr mi nd and áanáel the tri p.
a mÐkÕ b turn á ánÐngÕ
5 Hi s ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕs ÐbrÞÐd hÐd l Õft thÕi r - on GÐry. HÕ
fÕ|t muáh morÕ áonfi dÕnt.
a mÐrK b si gn á |mprÕSS|on
µxprÞssionì vi|lh hÐvo
2 RÕpIaáÕ thÕ words in itaIiás in sÕntenáÕs 1_5 with thÕ
áorrÕát form of these Õxpressions.
* hÐs no áÞnnÕáti on * havÕ a áhangÕ of hÕart * havÕ i t out
* l havÕ Ð good mind tÞ Ð you áan't havÕ it both ways
1 |ndÕpÕndÕnt trÐvÕ|ling has nothing to do with paákÐgÕ
touri sm.
2 WhÐt l,d reÞllã likÕ to dois givÕ up mã job and trÐvÕl
round thÕ worId for a yÕÐr.
3 Amy ÞltÕrÕd hÕr opinion about wÐsting thÕ summÕr
doi ng nothi ng.
4 |t's i mpÞssi bl Õ to Õarn a Iot of monÕã Ðnd do Ð ni áÕ ÕÐsã
job - ãou must áhoose onÕ thing or the othÕr.
5 BrÕtt triÕd to sÕttlÕ Ðn ÐrgumÕnt with his gir|friÕnd abÞut
whÕrÕ thÕy werÕ gÞing to go.
äeátivÞe
3 Áomplete the sÕntÕnáÕs with one of thesÕ ÐdjeátivÕs.
* áruái Ð| u obl i vi ous * outraqÕous * rÕÐl i sti á * rÕIuátÐnt
e UnÕasã
1 DavÕ Was - to Ðdmi t hÕ hÐd mÐdÕ thÕ wrong
dÕái si on.
2 GrÕg fÕ|t - Ðbout not i nvi ti ng Luáã to thÕ party bU1
hÕ knÕw shÕ di dn't Ii kÕ thÕ host.
It i s - to tÐkÕ áarÕ i f you,rÕ travÕl Ii ng Ð|ÞnÕ. |t's not
Ð gÞÞd i dÕÐ to hi táh-hi kÕ.
ThÕ pri áÕ of thÕ ÁÐri bbÕan árui sÕ wÐs -. 0nl y
mi ||i onÐi rÕs áoul d Ðfford i t!
5 It wÐs thÕ fi rst ti mÕ Mark hÐd bÕÕn to thÕ Amazon
rÐi nforÕst. HÕ was áomp|ÕtÕIy to dangÕr.
6 Âonã had - ÕxpÕátÐti ons of trÐvÕl i n Asi a. HÕ was
wÕ||-prÕparÕd for hi s tri p.
PrapoeitionÞ
4 ÁompIÕte thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát prÕpositions.
*around*Ðt*i neon*to
,l PÕop|Õ vrsi t London from a|| thÕ worl d. It,s onÕ
of µuropÕ's top touri st dÕsti nÐti ons.
2 RÕd doubl Õ-dÕákÕr busÕs ÐrÕ Ð fun Ð|tÕrnati vÕ
taki ng thÕ UndÕrground.
3 HãdÕ PÐrk i s London's bi ggÕst park. - i ts hÕart i s
thÕ |akÕ SÕrpÕnti nÕ.
4 It áÐn takÕ somÕ ti mÕ to sÕtt|Õ - and gÕt used to
LÞndon. |t's a vÕry áÞnfusi ng ái tyl
5 |f you'rÕ l ost, you áan Ð|ways rÕl y - Ð LÞndon
po|i áÕman to hÕ|p you out.
Æ|ord building
5 ComplÕtÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát adjÕátive form of
the word in brÐákÕts.
1 ÂhÕ storm at thÕ bÕgi nni ng of thÕ fi |m sÕt thÕ
sáÕnÕ for thÕ rÕst of thÕ story. (tÕrrifã)
2 ÂhÕ Ðudi ÕnáÕ wÐs ÐmÐzÕd bã thÕ - stunts i n thÕ
aátiÞn mÞviÕ. (spÕátaá|Õ)
3 ThÕ boÞk tol d a -story of l ovÕ Ðnd rÕVÕngÕ.
(poWÕr,
4 ÂhÕ aátor gavÕ a - pÕrformÐnáÕ in thÕ play.
(di sappoi nt)
5 ÂhÕ most - wÐã to tÕ|l a good story is to kÕÕp thÕ
Ðud iÕnáÕ guÕssing. (ÕffÕát)
TIâe BriCisIâ Ðtld tlleir GÐrs
RÕad thÕ tÕåt bÕlow Ðnd dÕáidÕ if statÕmÕnts 1-5 arÕ truÕ
(T) or faIse (F). ÁorrÕát the faIsÕ stÐtÕmÕnts.
1 ¿ 0nÕ pÕrson i n fÞur owns Ð áÐr i n Bri tÐi n.
2 ¿ l t sÕÕms thÐt thÕ Bri ti sh Ii kÕ to ïi vÕ thÕi r áÐr
an i dÕnti tã.
¿ tÞr thÕ Bri ti sh, áÐrs arÕ si mpl ã a way of gÕtti ng
from A to B.
¿ N,4ost Bri ti sh pÕÞp|Õ wouId nÞt áonsi dÕr l íuãi ng
a áÐr on thÕ |ntÕrnÕt.
¿ |\4any áÐrs puráhÐsÕd rn Brl tai n arÕ fi nÐnáÕd
bã taki ng out a IoÐn.
RÕad thÕ tÕxt and áÞmpl ÕtÕ thÕ summarã bÕIow.
Why do the British drive on the teft?
Âhe si mpl e fÐát that a IÐrge mÐj ori ty of the humÐn
raáe hÐs a|ways been ri ght.handed Ðááounts for tne
dri vi ng hÐbi ts of the Bri ti sh. µarl y road users kept to
the l eft so they áouId draw swords, or use l anáes,
wi th thei r ri ght Ðrms. In 1300, Pope Boni faáe Vl II
di reáted pi l gri ms to Rome to keep to the Ieft of the
roÐds, a rul i ng that WÐs t0 beáome a ki nd of |Ðw.
Ski p forwÐrd to the ei ghteenth áentury Ðnd you fi nd
thÐt WÐgon dri vers were usuaI|y seated on the ri ght
so thÐt they áouId hoId a whi p i n thei r ri ght hÐno
wi thout i nterferenáe from the Ioad behi nd. Âhey áoul d
Ðl so see down the ri ght-hÐnd si de of the wagon to
mÐke sure that the Ðx|e hubs Ðnd the wheel s di dn,t
ál ash when passi ng onáomi ng WÐgons. Consequent|y,
al | áountri es that were part of the Bri ti sh µmpi re ÐIso
drove on the left.
()ne of the reasons why Ameri áa took to the ri ght
hand si de of the roÐd goes baák to the desi gn of thei r
frei ght Wagons i n the 1790s' Bi gger thÐn those useo
i n Bri tÐi n, they had no drrverÊ seat, and dri vers
áontro||ed the horses by ri di ng on the rear Ieft hÞrse,
usi ng a whi p i n thei r ri ght-hand. When WÐgons
trÐve||i ng i n opposi te di reáti ons had to pÐss, eaán
i nsti náti vel y moved to thei r ri ght.
Frenáh frei ght Wag0ns were desi gned i n Ð si mrl ar
wÐy - Ðnd NÐpo|eon, obj eáti ng to the o|d pÐpÐ|
ruIi ng, preferred tÞ dri ve on the ri ght. So. i n áountrl es
áonquered by Napo|eon, the ,keep ri ght, po|i áy
beáame, and remai ned, the rul e.
°A Magazine Spring 2003
Summary
At thÕ bÕgi nni ng of thÕ fourtÕÕnth áÕntUrÃ, PopÕ BÞni fÐáÕ
dÕá|ÐrÕd thÐt pi Igrl ms tÞ RomÕ shouId wÐl k ] -. In thÕ
1700s, wagon dri vÕrs usÕd to si t on thÕ ri ght sÞ thÐt thÕã
áou|d 2 . Âhi s a|so ÕnÐbIÕd thÕm to ÕnsurÕ that thÕi r
wÐgon whÕÕ|s di d not árÐsh i nto thÞsÕ of · -. As a
rÕsu|t ÕvÕrãonÕ drovÕ on thÕ l Õft i n thÕ a . Wagons
i n thÕ USA had no 5 . sÞ dri vÕrs sat on thÕ IÕft horsÕ
Ðt thÕ 6
of thÕ tÕÐm. WhÕn thÕsÕ wÐgons pÐssÕd
Õaáh othÕr, thÕã movÕd ovÕr to 7
NÐpo|Õon mÐdÕ
^
ÂhÕ Bri ti sh l ovÕ thÕi r áars
°t the i ast offi ái al áount
there WerÕ a0ouâ l í
mi l l i on áars regi stÕrÕd'
ÂhÐt.s Ðround onÕ áar for
evrrà two pÕopl Õ i n thÕ
áountryl
onÕ survÕy di sáovÕrÕd
that áars are so pÞpu|Ðr
thÕi r owners treat thÕm
l i ke a seáond home .
most áars havÕ bÕen
usÕd as Ð pl aáÕ to eat or s|Õep. FÞrtã-fi ve àÕr áÕnt of thoSÕ
i ntÕrvi ewÕd sai d thÐt thÕy had ÕvÕn gi vÕn thei r áar a namÕ.
Ì'n-,* ".r. buyÕrs Want to buy thÕi r áÐr as áhÕapl y as
oossi b|Õ and i n ordÕr to gÕt thÕ bÕst pri áe, manà UsÕ
i ntÕrnÕt to searáh for a new áar A l arge.ma1ori tà of thosÕ
survÕyed said they áonsiderÕd this an Õffeátive Waã to
a áar.
ÁhÞosi ng a áar i sn,t on|ã about i nárÕasÕd mobi l i ty _ thÕ áÐr
i ndi áatÕs*thÕ power and status of i ts owner. µÞr thi s
rÕason, peopl Õ are prÕpÐrÕd to takr out l oÐns to âl nanár
;;i;;;Ù;;"Ê' ÔttÌ' ì"yÙs thÕi r hÞmÕs, thÕ áar i s the
""-t ±i gg";t àuráhasÕ thÕ Bri ti sh makÕ.
,ilill:::'
Tal ki ng about your áountry
...j AnswÕr thesÕ quÕstions Ðbout your áountry.
1 WhÐt Ðtti tudÕ dÞ pÕopl Õ hÐvÕ towÐrds thÕi r áÐrs?
2 WhÐt ki nd of áÐr wou|d ãou rÕÐ||ã |i kÕ to dri vÕ? Why?
· How ÕÐsy i s i t to mÐnÐgÕ wi thÞut Ð áÐr whÕrÕ ãou
Ii vÕ?
4 WhÐt ki nd of prob|Õms do áÐrs árÕÐtÕ i n your town
or áity?
5 How suááÕssfu||y arÕ thÕsÕ prob|Õms dÕÐ|t Wi th?
áÕrtÐi n thÐt pÕop|Õ i n 8
drovÕ on thÕ ri ght
Ä
tigtlnt ligrhts
WHY Y0UR ÚlDs
1 Look at thÕ piáturÕ. WhÐt do you think it shows?
Wl LL NEVER sµE
THE STARS
By Mark Townsend
Si náe the dawn of ái vi Ii sÐti on. i t has enáhanted and
i ntri gued humani ty' But the ni ght sky wi th i ts áomets,
áonste||Ðti ons Ðnd gÐ|axi es has nÞw vÐni shed for muáh of
the popuIati on i n Bri tai n. Li ght po||uti on, áaused bythe
huge ri se i n aÓti fi ái Ð| l i ghti ng Ðt ni ght from street Iamps.
faátori es and Ði rports, means thÐt the heavens Ðre no
l onger vi si bl e beyond the gl ow of neon and sodi um. We
hÐve destroyed our vi ew of the stÐrs i n a matter of
deáÐdes. 0n|y the most thi nl y popuIated depths of Sáot|and
and WaIes, Ðnd the heart of µngIand,s nati onaI parks
remÐi n tru|y dÐrk. More than ha|f the present generati on of
áhi |dren have never seen the Mi |ky Way, the band of gÐses
and stars thÐt stretáhes from hori zon to hori zon. But the
Readi ng
2 RÕad the tÕxt and áompIÕte thÕ informÐtion
.l RÕasons for Ii ght po||uti on i n Bri tai n:
2 Dark arÕas rÕmÐi ni ng: -
3 Proporti Þn of áhi |drÕn who hÐvÕ sÕÕn thÕ Mi Iky WÐy
PÕráÕntÐgÕ of Bri tÐi n unÐffÕátÕd by Ii ght poIIuti on i n the
1950s: -, nÞwÐdÐys:
RÕÐsÞns for the i nárÕÐsÕ i n sÕáuri tã |i ghti ng:
Fi rst nÐti on to pÐss Ð |Ðw to rÕduáe Ii ght pÞl Iuti on:
Sáan thÕ tÕxt and answÕr thÕ quÕsti ons.
1 Aááordi ng to thÕ wri tÕr, whÐt effÕát hÐs thÕ ni ght sky
Ðl wÐys hÐd on humÐn bÕi ngs?
How dÞÕs KÐtÕ PÐrmi nstÕr dÕsári bÕ thÕ ni ght sky?
WhÐt ári ti ái sm dÞÕs the wri tÕr mÐkÕ of sÕáuri ty l i ghti ng?
WhÐt mÕasurÕs i s thÕ DÕpartmÕnt for TrÐnsport áurrÕntl ã
tÐki ng to rÕduáe l i ght pol l uti on?
5
6
2
3
4
Ä
reaI feÐr for astrÞnomers i s that hÐrdl y any of the next
generati on wi II be abIe to share i n suáh áeIesti aI beauty.
Âhe extraordi nary expÐnsi on of l i ght po||uti on i s
exposed by satel l i te i mages of London taken i n 1984 and
2003' They show Ðn i s|Ðnd trÐpped i n a bubbl e of |i ghtwi th
on|y about 2% of Britain remÐining unaffeáted. Yet during
the 1950s on|y 50% of the UK wÐs affeáted by sky gIow.
Now i t i s Ð seri ous nati onaI probIem.
KÐte Parmi nster, áhi ef exeáuti ve of the Campai gn for
the Proteáti on of Rural µngl Ðnd, beIi eves that the next
generÐti on wi || be áompl ete|y i sol ated frÞm the rest of the
uni verse behi nd a bank of arti fi ái aI Ii ght. ,We,re fast Iosi ng
one of the most beauti fuI and Ðmazi ng thi ngs nature has to
offer us,, she sÐi d. .Al ready most of us l i ve i n p|Ðáes where
l i ght pol l uti on i s so bad that we'l l never gl i mpse our own
gal axy, the Mi l ky Way.'
Âhe growth of rural ári me i s partl y bl amed f0r the trend.
enáouragi ng the i ntroduáti on of seáuri ty Ii ghti ng whose
tendenáy to swi táh on wi th every passi ng áat Ii ghts up the
most remote |oáati ons. MÐny are too sensi ti ve and too
bri ght.
But the i ssue i s sIÞw|y bei ng taken seri ous|y' A
áommi ttee of MPs i n tebruary began to áonduÞt an i nqui ry
i nto the effeáts of Ii ght pÞl |uti on. UnfoÓtunate|y áonáern
Iags fÐr behi nd that of other µuropean áountri es,
parti áuIar|y the Czeáh RepubIi á where, i n Maráh 2003,
astronomers he|ped to push through the wor|dÊ fi rst
áountrywi de Iaw to reduáe Ii ght po||uti Þn. l n the meanti me,
the Department for TrÐnsport wi Il áonti nue áounti ng the
number of street l amps whi áh have a heavy áover to
ensure that Ii ght i s di rected down on to the roÐd. |f
effeáti ve meÐsures áÐn be taken before i t i s too Iate, on Ð
á|eÐr, dark ni ght betweÕn 2,000 Ðnd 3,000 Stars shouId be
vi si bl e i n the sky.
Voáabu !a ry
µnvironmental iesues
4 ÁhoosÕ thÕ most appropriate word to áomp|ÕtÕ sÕntÕnáes
1_6. At Ieast onÕ of the words appÕars in thÕ tÕxt.
1 ÂhÕ rea| ÐlÞrmffÕÐr is thÐt áhiIdrÕn wiII nÕvÕr sÕÕ thÕ stars.
2 Ai r poIIuti on i s now Ð sÕri Þus probl Õm/doubr i n Bri tai n.
3 WÕ'rÕ fÐst Iosi ng onÕ of thÕ most bÕÐuti fuI thi ngs
áountrãsidÕ/nÐturÕ has to offÕr.
4 Li ght pol Iuti on i s so bÐd/poor thÐt wÕ mÐy nÕVÕr bÕ ab|Õ
to sÕÕ thÕ N4i Iky WÐy agÐi n.
5 ÂhÕ áonáÕrn/issuÕ is s|owlã bÕing tÐken sÕrious|y by
govÕrn mÕn l organi sÐti ons.
6 ÂhÕ govÕrnmÕnt is nÞw áonduáting Ðn Õnquirã/inquÕst
i nto l i ght pol l uti on.
Vorbs vrith nÞgativo m9anin96
5 MÐtáh thÕsÕ vÕrbs to the mÕanings a_h. ÂhÕn put thÕ
vÕrbs in the áorrÕát position in sÕntÕnáÕs 1_B.
" ÐffÕátÕd u b|amÕd * áausÕd * dÕstroyÕd * expÞsÕd
n i so|ÐtÕd * trappÕd * vÐni shÕd
a hÕ|d rÕsponsi b|Õ
b brought Ðbout
á di sappÕÐrÕd from si ght
d troubl Õd (bã)
Õ áut off
f rui nÕd
g madÕ known
h áÐught
1
2
DoÕs ÐnyonÕ know whÐt thÕ ÕxpIosi on?
ÂhÕ rÕaI ÕxtÕnt of thÕ damÐgÕ to thÕ ozone |ÐãÕr wÐs by
an arti áIÕ i n a nÐti Þnal nÕWspÐpÕr.
ÂhÕ ÐnáiÕnt áitã wÐs by an ÕarthquÐkÕ mÐny áÕnturiÕs ago'
No ÞnÕ |i kÕs to bÕ for somÕthi ng thÕy di d not do.
½otÕl guÕsts wÕrÕ i n thÕ |i ft for ovÕr Ðn hour bÕforÕ thÕy
WÕrÕ rÕSÁUÕ0.
ÂhÕ ghost|ã fi gurÕ wal kÕd down thÕ áorri dor thÕn Ðs
qui ák|y as i t had ÐppeÐrÕd.
It i s not yÕt known hÞw manã pÕopl Õ havÕ bÕÕn by thÕ
3
4
5
unknown vl rus.
8 PÕop|Õ |i vi ng on thÕsÕ i s|Ðnds hÐvÕ bÕen from ái vi Ii sÐti on
for hundrÕds of yÕÐrs.
. How sÕri ous i s thÕ prob|Õm of Ii ght pol Iuti on i n your
áou ntrã?
. Whã do you thi nk govÕrnmÕnts shou|d tÐkÕ mÕasurÕs to
rÕduáÕ i t?
. How ÕffÕáti vÕ do ãou thi nk áurrÕnt mÕÐsUrÕs to rÕduáÕ
Ii ght pol Iuti on mi ght bÕ?
Þ How áouId ordi nÐrã pÕop|Õ bÕ pÕrsuÐdÕd tÞ rÕduáÕ |i ght
pÞ|l uti on i n thÕ futurÕ?
l*
µ
::.r*.:.it*u:ataliltit:i.1t,ii:r:,xai:ttgiti::,.1]:*1!::U|Ulliiiii::ii:11.1}i,,,,':.rrlalilillllril:.:rrr.al:llgifl:i..rl.lirrllailllli:
@
l {|ays of taIki ng about thÕ future
QlliáI<Gr.''-z
Matáh the vÕrbs in itaIiá in sÕntÕnáÕs 1-4 to the
mÕanings a_d.
1 |s thÐt thÕ phonÕ? I'i l answÕr i t.
2 \Ne,rÕ going to go out for a pizza tonight.
3 |,m hÐving Ðn intÕrviÕw for Ð job tomorrow.
4 ThÕ µng|ish á|Ðss starfs at 8.·0.
Ð Ðn ÕVÕnt on Ð ti mÕtab|Õ
b Ðn i ntÕnti on
á a dÕfi ni te arrangÕmÕnt
d a dÕái si on whi áh has i ust bÕÕn mÐde
DesáribÕ this piáture
of a smart housÕ.
WhÐt do you thi nk
a smart house
is? How does it
áompare with a
typiáaI home
nowadays?
'.Q,:l ,i,,.n to someone tÐlking about the smÐrt housÕ
and dÕáidÕ if thÕ statÕmÕnts arÕ truÕ (Â) or falsÕ (µ).
ÁorrÕát thosÕ whiáh arÕ fa|sÕ.
,l ¿ ÂhÕ bui IdÕrs wi || hÐvÕ fi ni shÕd thÕ housÕ by thÕ
Õnd of thÕ YÕar.
2 ¿ What i s i nsi dÕ thÕ housÕ wi II havÕ a trÕmÕnÞoUS
ÕffÕát on our Ii vÕs i n futurÕ.
3 ¿ ÂhÕ i nsi dÕ Þf the housÕ l ooks áomp|ÕtÕ|y di ffÕrÕnt
from most modÕrn housÕs.
4 ¿ RÕsi dÕnts wi I| fi nd muáh morÕ thÐn ÕxÞÕátÕd
i n thÕ hÞusÕ.
5 ¿ 0n|ã thÕ ri áh wi II bÕ ÐbIÕ to affÞrd Ð housÕ |i kÕ thi s.
6 ¿ ThÕ dÕsi gn mÕans thÕ Õ|dÕr|ã wi || bÕ |i vi ng
i ndÕpÕndÕntl y for muáh IongÕr thÐn thÕã dÞ todÐy.
Do you think any of thÕ prÕdiátions in exeráisÕ 3 arÕ
IikÕly to áomÕ true? Why/Why not?
will or going to
5 ÁompIÕtÕ thÕ áonvÕrsations using will or going to,
aááording to whÕthÕr the pÕrson has aIready dÕáidÕd to
do something or is dÕáiding or agrÕÕing to do something
at thÕ ti mÕ of spÕaki ng.
1 ArÕn,t you áomi ng wi th us to thÕ ái nÕma?
No, I'm ÕxhaustÕd. |- put myfÕÕt up i n front of
thÕ TV and do nothi ng at Ð|l.
2 What do you fÐnáy dÞi ng on Saturday ni ght?
HavÕn't Ð á|uÕ! oh, I know. WÕ - try that nÕw
|taIi an rÕstaurÐnt i n thÕ Hi gh StrÕÕt.
3 - do your |\4Ðths homÕwork toni ght?
Âoo truÕl I want to gÕt it out of thÕ way bÕforÕ thÕ
wÕÕkÕnd.
4 What do Ðbout that i nvi tati on wÕ reáÕi vÕd to
Pau|'s partã?
SÕaráh mÕl I don't rÕa|l ã Want to gÞ, do ãou?
5 WhÕn l |ÕavÕ sáhoo|, | - fi nd a j Þb that rÕa||y
intÕrÕsts mÕ!
I'vÕ mÐdÕ mã mi nd up to dÞ that, tool
6 | - gi vÕ ãÞu a ri ng Ðbout thÕ áonáÕrt tomorrow
n i ght.
ÂhÐt,s fi nÕ. I shÞuId bÕ at homÕ thÕn.
Future simplÞ Ðnd futurÞ áontinuous
6 Read thÕ ÕåÐmplÕs Ð-d and answÕr the questions ,l-4.
a ThiÒ time noåt wooº, l,ll bÕ moving into mã naw
houío.
b
á
d
Neåt waeº, l,Il bo in PÐrií.
We,re going on holidÐã. ThiÒ time tomarrow, wa,ll
be Jlãing to Fome.
We need to spoÐK' so we,II phono ãou tomorrow
from Fomo. 0K?
1 Whi áh tensÕ i s usÕd to taIk about an Ðáti vi tã thÐt wi Il bÕ
i n progrÕss at a spÕái fi á ti mÕ i n thÕ futurÕ?
2 Whi áh tÕnsÕ do WÕ usÕ to tÐIk about ol ans thÐt wÕ know
Ðbout bÕforÕ spÕaki ng?
3 Whi áh tÕnsÕ do WÕ UsÕ for predi áti ons, gÕnÕral
statÕmÕnts about thÕ futurÕ Þr dÕái si ons about thÕ
futurÕ thÐt wÕ mÐkÕ at thÕ momÕnt of speÐki ng?
4 HÞw do wÕ form thÕ futurÕ áonti nuous?
7 write sÕntÕnáes about whÐt you wi|I bÕ doing at thesÕ
times in the futurÕ.
1 thi s ÕvÕni ng
2 thi s ti mÕ tomorrow
3 nÕxt SÐturday aftÕrnoon
4 nÕxt yÕÐr
5 i n two ãÕars'ti mÕ
6 Ðt thrÕÕ o.áIoák tomorrow morni nï
EåÐmpIÕ
Thií evening l,ll bo meeting mã friÕnds.
@
Future ãerfoái. simplÞ
8 Look at thÕ eåamp|es a Ðnd b Ðnd
áomplÕte ru|Õs .l Ðnd 2.
a Fã íÕven o,áIoáK tonight l wilI
hÐvo finishod mã homoworº.
b tv\ost píople wiII hÐvo tÐKan
hundradí of ÕåÐmí bã the
time thaã dro 20 ãeÐrs old.
1 WÕ usÕ thÕ - to ta|k
about an Ðáti vi ty thÐt wi || bÕ
fi ni shÕd bv a soÕái fi á ti mÕ i n thÕ
futu rÕ.
2 Âo form thÕ futurÕ pÕrfÕát simp|Õ
WÕ usÕ will (not) +
past pÐßi ái pIe.
9 ÁompIetÕ the sentÕnáÕs with the
áorrÕát form: futurÕ simpIÕ or
future perfeát simple, of the vÕrb
in brÐákets.
,l ÂhÕ Õngi nÕÕrs (áonnÕát)
thÕ tÕ|ÕphonÕ by Iunáh ti mÕ.
2 In fu1urÕ, pÐrÕnts - (usÕ)
rÕmotÕ-áontro| áamÕrÐs to áhÕák
thÕi r áhi IdrÕn arÕ safÕ i n bÕd.
3 By 201 5, ÕvÕrã hÞusÕho|d
(i nna||)Ð sÕáuri tã
a|Ðrm.
4 PÕop|Õ (bÕ Ðb|Õ) to
swi táh on ÕvÕrã |i ght i n thÕ
housÕ vi a a áomputÕr.
5 SmokÕ dÕtÕátors (switáh
off) thÕ gÐs supp|y i f |ÕvÕl s of
áÐrbon monoxi dÕ ÐrÕ hi gh.
Future Porfoál. áontinuouì
10 Look at exampl Õs a and b and
áompIÕte ruIÕs ,| and 2.
a 9ã tha ond of tha ãíor l will
hÐvo beon lÕÐrning µnglish
for over four ãeÐrs.
b °t tho ond of thiÒ month
dohn wiII hÐvo been worKing
here for råÐátlã fiva ãeÐrÒ.
Rul es
1 WÕ usÕ thÕ - to ta|k
ÐbÞut Ðáti ons that wi || hÐvÕ bÕÕn
happÕni ng for Ð áÕrtÐi n pÕri od of
timÕ bÕforÕ Ð spÕáifiá point in
thÕ futurÕ.
2 To form thÕ futurÕ pÕrfÕát
áonti nuous WÕ UsÕ
+hÐve+-
form of thÕ vÕrb.
11 ÁompIetÕ thÕ sÕntenáÕs using the futurÕ pÕrfÕát áontinuous.
1 | startÕd |iving hÕrÕ siå days ago.
Bã this timÕ tÞmorrÞw l wiII hÐva boan living hero for Ð weoK.
2 SuÕ startÕd dri vi ng whÕn shÕ was 17 yÕars ol d.
By thÕ ti mÕ SuÕ i s 25, shÕ ...
ThÕ Ðuthor stÐrted writing his nÕw book two months ago.
By thÕ ti mÕ wÕ havÕ Þur mÕÕti ng next month hÕ ...
I stÐrted doi ng my homÕwork Ðt fÞur o'á|oák.
Bã sÕvÕn o'ál oák I ...
ÂhÕ áonstruáti on áompÐny started bui |di ng thÐt housÕ thrÕÕ wÕÕks ago.
By thÕ Õnd of nÕxt wÕÕk thÕy ...
ffi
Extra words
DÞ not j ust rÕad ÕÐáh Ii nÕ i ndi vi dua||y. RÕÐd ÕÐáh sÕntÕnáÕ Ðs Ð whoIÕ. Âhi s wi ||
hÕ|Þ vou dÕái dÕ i f a word i s nÕÕdÕd or not.
12 ÚÕad thÕ text. SomÕ of thÕ linÕs arÕ áorreát, but most hÐve an Õxtra word whiáh
does not fit into thÕ sÕntÕnáÕ. Cross out thÕ extrÐ words Ðnd tiák (/) the Iines
whiáh arÕ áorrÕát.
RobÞtiá futurÕ rushÕs towards us
The fi rst robot.áontrol l Õd tÐxi wi tt { be i nstal l ed somewhere
i n the worl d bÕtween zoo4 and 2oo7. Not on[y that, but beforÕ
thi s deáade i s over, news prÕsÕnters wi l l bÕ transmi t what they
sÕÕ ti vÕ to ÂV sáreens frÞm mi áro.sensors pl anted i n thei r
opti á nÕrve. What thÕy say wi tl have bÕ pi ákÕd up by mobi l Õ phonÕ '
transmi ttÕrs i mp[anted i n thÕ thÕi r shoul dÕrs. Âwo yÕars aftÕr thÐt, '
the fi rst of faátori es wi tt be worki ng i n spaáe, maki ng mi áro-áhi ps '
from árystal s whi áh grown i n spaáÕ' and shi ppi ng them baák to the *
Õarth i n auto-pi l ot shuttl es. Bã zoo6, bi omÕtri á si gnaturÕs wi tt bÕ '
áommonpl aáÕ. WorkÕrs wi tt gai n entry, and áustomers wi tt get . .
thÕir áredit balanáÕs at a glanáe, through bÕing áomputer.basÕd optiáat- *
reáogni ti onofthÕi reyÕs.Stol Õnwi thpersona[teáhni áa[equi pmentWi [[
rÕfusetoworkbÕáausÕi táannotbeenreáogni sÕthepattÕrnsofthÕownÕr's
fi ngerpri nts. PÕopl e wi l l votÕ on-l i ne i n l oáal and nati ona[ Õ[eáti ons ?
from mobi l e termi nal s i n al l over the worl d. Bã zoo5, .goi ng out' ?,
wi tt be Ð matter of a stayi ng i n and downl oadi ng fi l ms, l i ve áonáerts ?
and footbatt matáhÕs to watáh at a timÕ by whiáh suits your routinÕ. ',
a
ryr:;;,::*st'
LÕt's aátivatÕ
LifÞ in the futura
13 Use topiás 'l_6' Ðnd some of your own' to taIk about what pÕopIÕ wiII be doing /
wilI havÕ donÕ by 2050. UsÕ thÕ futurÕ áontinuous or thÕ future perfeát whÕre
possiblÕ.
EåomplÕ
Wâ,II Ðll hÐve |aÐrnad to ;PoaK tho ÒÐmo languÐge.
1 robots 3 spÐáÕ travÕl 5 food Ðnd dri nk
2 ÕduáÐti on 4 trÐnsport 6 work
+ thÕ -i»8
Ä
Pores ÐIDorá!
1 Look Ðt thÕ piátures and answÕr thÕ quÕstions.
1 What do thÕ pi áturÕs show?
2 What mÞti vates pÕop|Õ tÞ Õåpl orÕ pIaáÕs l i kÕ thÕsÕ?
3 What probl ems do you thi nk pÕop|Õ woul d faáÕ survi vi ng
i n thÕsÕ Þl ÐáÕs?
Li stÕni ng
2 ¾6JÒ.z You ÐrÕ going to hear a áhat show host taIking to
Ð Bri ti sh áoupIÕ whosÕ Ði m i s to bÕ thÕ fi rst husband and
wifÕ tÕam to waIk to both po|Õs. RÕad through quÕstions
1_7. Âhen listen and áhoose thÕ áorreát answÕrs.
Harrã and WÕndã bÕáÐmÕ i ntÕrÕsted i n poIar rÕgi ons
a whÕn thÕy wÕrÕ qui tÕ young áhi IdrÕn.
b whi |Õ thÕy wÕrÕ on thÕi r honÕymoon.
á after wÐtáhi ng programmÕs Ðbout thÕ ÐrÕa.
d duri ng a tri p thÕy mÐdÕ tÞ thÕ Antaráti á.
HÐrry fÕÕ|s that thÕã wi II bÕ ab|Õ to áopÕ wi th thÕ tri p
bÕáausÕ thÕã
Ð havÕ tÐkÕn pÐrt i n Ð si mi |Ðr po|Ðr trÕk bÕforÕ.
b hÐvÕ done somÕ tough trai ni ng i n thÕ poIar rÕgi ons
á hÐvÕ studi Õd thÕ Ðrt of survi vaI i n po|Ðr áondi ti ons.
d hÐvÕ hÐd somÕ ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ of |Õss i ntÕnsi vÕ trÕks
Õ|sÕwhÕrÕ.
WÕndã says thÕy wi Il hÐvÕ di ffi áu|ty
a f reÕi ng up Õnough ti mÕ for thÕ wÐl k.
b mÐki ng progrÕss on movi ng i áÕ.
á mÐki ng sUrÕ a sUpport tÕÐm i s Ð|wÐãs on hÐnd.
d wÐ|ki ng Iong di stÐnáÕs i n frÕÕzi ng tÕmpÕratUrÕs.
HÐrry i s most worri Õd Ðbout
a dÕaIl ng wi th thÕ unÕxpÕátÕd Ðrri vaI of an unwantÕd
visitor.
b Õnsuri ng thÕy havÕ Õnough food Ðnd suppl i Õs for thÕ
j ou rnÕy'
á having to put o¿ Õåtra bodã wÕight for thÕ ÕXtrÕmÕ
áond i ti ons.
d rÕmÕmbÕri ng to pÐák thÕ ri ght ÕmÕrgÕnáã Õqui pmÕnt.
WÕndã i s l Þoki ng fÞrwÐrd tÞ
Ð thÕ sÐti sfÐáti Þn of havi ng rÐi sÕd monÕã for Ð goÞd
áa U se.
b thÕ áhal |ÕngÕ of árossi ng prÕssurÕ ri dgÕs.
á thÕ áhÐnáe to feÕl at pÕÐáÕ wi th thÕ surroundi ngs.
d thÕ opportuni tã to photograph thÕ wondÕrs of nÐturÕ
Harry bÕl i ÕvÕs thÐt hÕ and WÕndã wi ||
Ð bÕ proud of whÐtÕvÕr thÕã mÐnÐgÕ to aáhi ÕvÕ.
b bÕ forgottÕn hÕroÕs whÕn thÕi r ordÕaI i s ovÕr.
á mÐkÕ i t to thÕ Po|Õ whÐtÕvÕr hÐppÕns.
d wi n thÕ rÕspÕát of thÕi r fri Õnds Ðnd fÐmi Iy.
HÐrry says thÐt duri ng thÕi r j ournÕy
a thÕy'|| probabl ã |osÕ thÕi r Iuáky mÐsáÞt, Ri sotto.
b thÕy'|| dÕfi ni tÕ|y havÕ to work hard tÞ survi ve.
á thÕã'|| probab|ã rÕaáh a pÐrt of thÕ i áÕ thÕy áÐn áross.
d thÕy'|| áÕrtÐi nIy hÐvÕ Ð sÕri ous ÐrgumÕnt.
Pron u nái ati on
Homophonos
3 Q,' SomÕ words sound thÕ samÕ, but ÐrÕ written
diffÕrÕntIã and have different meanings. ListÕn to some
pÐrts of thÕ taIk agÐin and áiráIÕ thÕ words ãou hÕar.
,l áÞarsÕ / áoursÕ
2 wÕi ght i wÐi t
3 bÐrÕ / bÕÐr
4 thÕã'rÕ / thÕrÕ
4 Explain thÕ meanings of thÕ words you havÕ not áiráIÕd
i n 3.
5 piÕáÕ / pÕaáe
6 |ÕasÕd / |ÕÐst
7 bÕan / bÕÕn
Ä
Homonlms
5 Q"l SomÕ words look Ðnd sound thÕ sÐme but have
diffÕrÕnt meanings. ListÕn and matáh thÕ words 1_5 to
thÕ mÕani ngs a_Õ.
l ntarpreting hoadlinÞs
8 MÐtáh thÕ hÕadlinÕs 1-4 to thÕ paragraphs a_d.
,I p|Ðn a
2 mi ght b
l amp i bri ghtnÕss / not hÕÐvy
rÕmÐi n upri ght / tol ÕrÐtÕ i bÕ si tuÐtÕd or
IoáatÕd
mÐkÕ Ð dÕtÐi |Õd mÐp / i ntÕnd l arrange
bÕforeha nd
strÕngth / modÐ| ÕxprÕssi ng possi bi Ii ty
room / the uni vÕrsÕ bÕyond our ÕÐrth
3 l rght
4
5
spaáÕ
stÐ nd
d
Õ
Speaki ng
6pÞáulÐtinq
6 66)Ò.s ln groups, disáuss how Õasy or diffiáu|t it might bÕ
to take part in thÕsÕ unusuÐI aátivitiÕs to raise money for
áharity. UsÕ the dia|oguÕ box to heIp you.
Rowi ng up thÕ Amazon Áãál i ng aáross PÕru
Walking aáross KÕnyÐ SÐi l i ng aáross thÕ °t|Ðnti á
SpÕáu Iating
A lt,s difJiáult to sÐã eåaáI|ã how diffiáult it might bÕ to
do thÕsÕ thi ngs.
B l suppose áyá|ing might be thÕ eosiest. µvÕrãbody
knows how to áãá|Õ, don,t theã?
Á Surelã rowing up thÕ AmazÞn Ølould be the most
diffiáulP Rowing must be hard work, mustn,t it?
D I'd rÐthÕr row U0 thÕ Amazon than sai I aáross thÕ
At|antiá! lt áÐn,t be muáh fun bÕing stuák on Ð yÐáht
i n thÕ mi ddl Õ of an oáÕan forwÕÕks Þn Õnd. áÐn i t?
PÓi ori ti si nq
7 ¾6JÒ'Ò Disáuss the importÐnáe of thÕ áhÐritiÕs and
dÕái de whi áh one most nÕÕds your support. UsÕ thÕ
di aIogue box to hÕ|p you.
SundÕr|Ðnd HomÕ for strÐV Doïs
HousÕ thÕ HomÕl Õss
Áampai gn agÐi nst °sthmÐ
SuppÞrt Wi IdIi fÕ
organi á trui t and VÕgÕtÐb|Õ Soái Õtã
Pri ori ti si ng
A I don,t think supporIing orgÐniá produáÕ ulould bÕ
nÕÐrIã as usÕful os hÕ|ping thÕ homÕ|Õss, dÞ you?
B ThÐt would dÕfinitelã bÕ mã lÐst áhoiáe, aIthough I
think organiá produáÕ is bÕttÕr. No, l think we should
help to proteát wiIdIifÕ. For me, thÐt,s muáh morÕ
importÐntthÐn organiá produáÕ. ln fÐát, I think it,s
the most importÐnt of Ðll'
. i..al
r':,,rl a
.!l
.. !l
'I il
t:
,
- Amateèr adventurers threaten t
white wildgrness s,.,,,,.*,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,f
.,r,:,rr:,:llli"::llliiitt" '.,,,:llt:r'r',,:'r,,,.:::rlrr::.:::,,.:r,rirrtir..:,r::,,.:..':rí
, Bi g Ìusi nÕss l ooks to
ál Õan up Ìy ál Õani ng up
thÕ South Pol Õ
4F
sea temperature áhangÕs
thrÕaten Ônta,iii. ip"µÙ -
"r,,{l""ttt""' _. ,,it}.,,,:::.,.ir::.::.r.,arr:,:iriiii:,.,r::.:,:riiir,.rirrrriiar:,.:.,,,,.irrrr,,.....i1fi...i,,,.,:r,.,,,r,**,.j
a It's thÕ ul ti matÕ dÕsti nÐti on for advÕnturÕ soorts and
wi IdIi fÕ sÐfÐri s. ÂhÕ sáÕnÕry i s stunni ng. But touri sts
shouId not bÕ ÕnáouragÕd to vi si t °ntaráti áÐ. Aááordi ng
to Õnvi ronmÕntÐIi sts thÕ frÐgi IÕ ÕáosystÕm shou|d bÕ
protÕátÕd from touri sm.
b Vi vÕndi µnvi ronnÕmÕnt.s prÞj Õát to rÕmovÕ pol Iuti Þn
from AntÐráti áa mÐy bÕ daunti ng, but i t wi II boost thÕ
fi rm's árÕdi bi l i ty.
á In 100 yÕars' ti mÕ thÕ SouthÕrn oáÕÐn ÐtmosphÕre wou|d
bÕ wÐrmÕr, wi th muáh |Õss i áÕ Ðnd snow on the
pÕni nsuIa.
d .|Vany AntÐráti á organi sms arÕ susáÕpti bl e to vÕrã smÐ||
áhangÕs i n tÕmperÐturÕ,, ProfÕssor Á|ÐrkÕ sai d. .So i f
somÕ of thÕ mÞrÕ ÕXtrÕmÕ proj Õáti ons of tÕmpÕrÐturÕ
áhangÕ i n thÕ sÕÐ ÕvÕntuatÕ i t i s Ii kÕl ã thÐt wÕ wi || hÐvÕ
somÕ Õxti náti ons.'
9 Disáuss thÕsÕ quÕstions.
1 WhÐt do thÕ hÕÐdIi nÕs suggÕst?
2 WhÐt do yÞu thi nk i s áÐusi ng g|obaI warmi ng?
3 WhÐt áÐn bÕ done to prÕvÕnt i t?
4 WhÐt othÕr thrÕats i s thÕ wor|d faái ng today?
Ä
a1cplã7ing for o iob
,l ln pairs, disáuss whiáh of thÕsÕ statements you agrÕÕ or
disagrÕÕ with. GivÕ rÕasons for your opinions.
1 |'m more intÕrÕstÕd in job sÐtisfaátion thÐn monÕy.
2 | wÞu|dn't WÐnt to spend thÕ who|e of mã worki ng Ii fÕ
doi ng thÕ samÕ j ob.
3 WhatevÕr j ob I havÕ, |'m sure thÕrÕ'|| bÕ ti mÕs when I'm
borÕd.
Ælords conneáted uith r^rorº
2 Matáh words 1_8 to words a_h to makÕ phrases
áonneáted with work. ThÕn disáuss whÐt the phrases
mÕÐn.
1 Ðpp|y for a
2 earn a
3 bÕon
4 gÐi n somÕ
5 takÕ ÕÐr|ã
6 rÕáruit Õxtra
7 supp|ã Ð
8 bÕ mÐdÕ
Studyi ng the sampl Õs
UndÞrÞtanding the taÞº
3 Read the information about a personal statement and
answer thÕ quÕstions.
.l Who writÕs Ð ÞÕrsonÐI stÐtÕmÕnt?
2 Whã do you thi nk Ðn Õmp|oyÕr mi ght fi nd i t usÕfu|?
PÕrsonal statÕment
Þ Âhi s i s an ÞvÕrÐII or supp|ÕmÕntary statÕmÕnt abÞut
your aáhi ÕvÕments, i ntÕrÕsts Ðnd abi Ii ti Õs. It maã
hi ghIi ght any whi áh arÕ parti áu|ar|y si gni fi áant to you.
Þ It i s oftÕn usÕfuI to di sáuss what you arÕ goi ng to sÐy i n
your pÕrsonaI stÐtÕmÕnt wi th ÐnothÕr pÕrson.
Þ It i s i mportant to rÕmÕmbÕr thÐt thÕ stÐtÕmÕnt i s yours.
RÕad AngÕIa ÂayIor's pÕrsonaI stÐtÕmÕnt. Ignore the gaps.
Matáh topiás .l_3 to paragraphs a_á.
1 AngÕIa,s áharÐátÕr Ðnd pÕrsÞnÐ|i tã
2 AngÕIÐ,s Iong-tÕrm áÐrÕÕr p|Ðns Ðnd mai n i ntÕrÕsts
3 AngÕ|Ð's hobbi Õs and short-tÕrm p|Ðns for the futurÕ
ÁompIete AngÕ|Ð's pÕrsonÐl stÐtÕmÕnt by putting a
suitabIe prÕposition in eaáh gap.
NamÕ: AngÕla Âhylor
a ThÕ rolÕ '_--_- sport and physiáat Õduáation
today,s world has always intÕrÕstÕd mÕ and
I would likÕ to pulsuÕ a áarÕÕr . =--- this fiÕld. I
Õnjoy partiáipating in all kinds of sport and, a
many oááasions, havÕ won mÕdals 5
in both traák and fiÕld ÕvÕnts.
athlÕtiás
a hi gh/Iow sÐ|arã
b rÕti rÕmÕnt
á staff
d j ob/post/posi ti on
Õ work ÕxpÕriÕnáe
f rÕfÕrÕnáÕ
g rÕdundant
h mÐtÕrni ty |Õave
¼y hobbiÕs arÕ rÕading playing áhÕss, and travÕlling.
i álimbÕd ¼ount KitimanjaâÞ u _*--- thÕ agÕ of 17
with an organisÕd ÕxpÕdition. I am áurrÕntly tÕarning
to- drivÕ and am áomputÕr-litÕratÕ. ¼y full.timÕ
Õduáation wii] havÕ finishÕd ' July this yÕar
and I will bÕ spÕnding August and SÕptÕÙbÕr
'=-- °ustralia.
WhilÕ I am a árÕativÕ pÕrson/ I am ablÕ to kÕÕp áalm
in a árisis and vÕry rarÕly losÕ my tÕmpÕI. Working as
a mÕmbÕr of a tÕam is somÕthing i would wÕ]áomÕ. I
fÕÕl I havÕ an aptitudÕ
youn8 pÕoplÕ and taking on rÕsponsibility for othÕrs.
ngÕlq Âã/or-
,'íaiçxíÖ]%×l.:.]'iç}a&*3×9
A l etter of appl i áati on
6 RÕad thÕ IÕttÕr AngÕ|a sÕnt with hÕr appIiáation form, CV,
and pÕrsonaI statÕment to Ðpp|y for a job as a sports
áoaáh. ComplÕtÕ thÕ IÕttÕr with phrasÕs a_h.
a most áonvÕn|Õnt
b suááÕssful app|i áant
á Ðs rÕqUestÕd
d advÕrti sÕd i n
hÕari ng from
fi nd Õná|osÕd
ÐppIi áÐti on form
tÐkÕ up
Õ
t
o
o
h
DÕar Sir or Madam'
I am writing to apply for thÕ job of sports áoaáh
1 vÕstÕrday,s DÐilã NÕws.
I r'oti." tt'ut the, -will bÕ rÕquiâÕd to 3
iìÕ post in SÕptÕmbÕr of this yÕar, whiáh would bÕ
4 for mÕ.
PlÕa""'.- my ÁV and pÕrsonal StatÕmÕnt,
; -, togÕthÕr with my áomplÕtÕd 7 .
i look forward to
* ,---._- yoÆ,
Yours faithfullY'
t.
llr
@
°ngetq ÂãtÐ.
Steps to bettÕr
wri ti ng
Formal and informal language
Undorstanding tho tasº
7 RÕwritÕ thÕ sentenáes áhÐnging thÕ
words in italiás into the more
formaI IanguagÕ whiáh appears in
thÕ tÕxts in 5 and 6.
1 l wouId |ikÕ to fry Ðnd find a
áarÕÕr i n thi s fi ÕId.
I am |Þoki ng forwÐrd Io doi nga||
kinds of spoÓts.
l áan typÕ Ðnd Ðlso usÕ a word
proáÕssor.
| Ðm good át dÕal i ng wi th young
pÕop|Õ.
5 | now havÕ Ð pÐrt-timÕ job.
6 | áÐn usÕ a áomputÕr.
7 WhoÕver is áhosÕn wi|| bÕgin
worki ng i n SÕptÕmbÕr.
8 SeptÕmbÕr wou|d bÕ t'inÕ for mÕ.
9 °sãou ÐskÕd me, l Ðm sÕnding
my ÁV.
10 I,m Õåpeáting Ð lettÕr from you.
8 ÁompIetÕ the sÕntenáÕs so that
they are true for ãou.
1 I wou|d Ii kÕ to pursuÕ a áareÕr
, i n ...
2 ÂhÕ kind of work I am intÕrÕstÕd
i n i s....
3 |n my first job, l would expÕát to
Õarn..'.
At sáhoo| | hÐvÕ gai nÕd ....
| Õnj oy pa11i ái pÐti ng i n ....
I am áurrÕnt|ã |ÕÐrni ng to .
''. i s somÕthi ng Iwou|d
wÕ|áomÕ.
I fÕÕ| | havÕ Ðn aptitudÕ for
Writing
10 write your statÕmÕnt and
áorrÕát any mistakÕs.
. UsÕ appropri ÐtÕ formaI
Wri ti ng yoèr personaI statemÕnt and l ettÕr
of appl i áati on
9 You Ðre going to writÕ a personaI stÐtement and an aááompanying IÕtter
to sÕnd with your appIiáation for onÕ of thÕsÕ jobs. Read the two
advertisÕments and dÕáide whiáh job you would like to apply for.
4
í
6
7
LhocYing
11
12
¼Õga VidÕo StorÕ
requires
. Ârainee lvlanager
Þ PreVi ous retai l experi enáe desi rabtÕ but
not essenti al
Þ ¼ust be Ðbl e to áo-operate wi th other
staff members and deal sympÐthÕti áal l y
Þ Post avai[Ðb[e from oátober
á Appty i n wri ti ng by sendi ng a CV and
pñrsonal statemÕnt to
¼ega Vi deo,
16, London Road,
Runford Nµ44 6AN
Highlighting information
UndÕr|i nÕ thÕ most i mportant i nformati on i n thÕ advÕrti sÕment for thÕ j ob you
havÕ áhosÕn. Âhi s wi || hÕ|p you to fÞáus on thÕ nÕáÕssarã dÕtai |s to i nál udÕ i n
your wri ti ng.
. DÕái dÕ how manã paragraphs ãour statÕmÕnt wi || áontai n
. DÕái de what ÕÐáh pÐragraph wi Il foáus on.
. MakÕ a Ii st of poi nts to i nál udÕ i n Õaáh paragrÐph.
. DÕái dÕ whÐt dÕtai l s to put i n ãoUr aááompanyi ng |ÕttÕr.
lÕtter. ln pairs' áheák Õaáh other,s writing and
µns|i sh.
Áheák that in your personal statemÕnt you havÕ:
Þ givÕn rÕasons for ãour main interÕsts.
. i nál udÕd othÕr hobbi Õs and i ntÕrÕsts.
. dÕsári bed your áharÐátÕr Ðnd abi Ii ti Õs.
ÁhÕák that in your Ietter of appliáation you have:
. stÐtÕd your rÕÐson for writing.
. rÕfÕrrÕd to thÕ starting datÕ.
. mÕnti onÕd whÐt othÕr doáumÕnts ÃoU havÕ Õná|osÕd
. usÕd thÕ ri ght Õndi ng.
. wri ttÕn thÕ áorrÕát Ðmount (120-150 words).
@
Will or going to
1 UndÕrlinÕ thÕ áorrÕát phrÐsÕ tÞ áompIÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 1_6.
1 l'm stÐrting univÕrsity in Oátober. |,m going to studã/,ll
stØdy phãsiás.
2 oh, thÕ phonÕ's ringing. DÞn,t worry, |,m going to
ÐnswÕr/'lI ÐnswÕr i|.
WhÐt arÕ my plÐns for thÕ wÕÕkÕnd? I,m going to visit/,l|
visit Judã.
Your suitáasÕ is hÕavy. |,m goingto help /'ll hÕlp yoU Áarrã
i t.
Jo áÐn't gÞ out tonight' she,sgoiÛg to hÐvÕ/,ll hÐvÕ dinner
wi th her pÐrÕnts.
l'm nÞt surÕ ÐbÞut gÞi ng to thÕ ái nÕmÐ. PÕrhÐps l'Ø
going to stÞã in/,ll staã in IonighI.
Futurg ?orfoá,| simple or futurÞ ãorfeá|. áontinuoue
4 UndÕrlinÕ thÕ áorreát phrase to áomplÕtÕ the sÕntÕnáÕs. If
both arÕ possibIÕ, áhoosÕ thÕ áontinuous fÞrm.
1 | wiI! hÐvÕ studiÕd/wi|! hÐvÕ bÕÕn studãing FrÕnáh for ovÕr
fivÕ VÕÐrs bv thÕ Õnd of this vÕÐr.
At ninÕ Þ,á|oák ]amie wi|! hÐvÕ plÞãÕd/will hÐvÕ bÕÕn
plÐãing bÐskÕtbÐlI for ÕxÐát|y two hours.
l'll sÕnd you thÕ rÕsults by lunáhtime. I wi|| hÐvÕ
áÐláulÐtÕd/wiIl hÐvÕ bÕÕn áÐláulÐting thÕm by thÕn.
WhÕn VlikÕ tÐkÕs his driving tÕst nÕXt wÕÕk hÕ wil/
ÐlrÕÐdã hÐvÕ tÐkÕn/wiIl ÐlrÕÐdã hÞve bÕÕn tÐking ittwiáÕ.
WÕ'rÕ mÞvi ng i nto our nÕW apÐrtmÕnt nÕxt month
bÕáÐusÕ thÕ buildÕrs wiIl hÐvÕ {lnishÕd/will hÐvÕ bÕÕn
finishingthÕ rÕpairs.
WÕ will hÐvÕ wÐtáhed/will hÐvÕ bÕÕn wÐtáhing ÂV for ovÕr
fours hÞurs by thÕ ti mÕ thi s fi |m fi ni shÕs!
FutuÓÞ Porfoci simplÞ, futurs áontinuous ' wiII, or
going to
5 Áomplete thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb
in braákÕts. Use thÕ futurÕ pÕrfeát simpIÕ, the future
pÕrfÕát áontinuous, will, or going to. ThÕrÕ mÐy bÕ more
than one possiblÕ answÕr.
] NÕxt May wÕ (know) ÕÐáh othÕr for two yÕars.
2 Bã 2050 mÐn - (probab|ã / áo|Þni sÕ) thÕ pl ÐnÕt
MÐrs.
3 |'m not surÕ whÕrÕ JÕnny - (go) thi s Õveni ng. Why
do ãou wÐnt to know?
4 Don't phonÕ mÕ Ð{tÕr ni nÕ p.m. | - (wÐtáh) thÕ
footbÐlI matáh on ÂV.
5 PÕtÕr i s 16 ãÕars ol d todÐã. Âhi s ti mÕ nÕxt ãÕar hÕ
(bÕ ab|Õ to) to drivÕ a áar.
6 JordÐn (not bÕ) homÕ bã sÕvÕn o,á|oák. HÕ
(sti || / pIay) bÐskÕtbÐl I at sáhooI.
7 WÕ'rÕ mÞvi ng nÕxt month. Bã thÐt ti mÕ thÕ bui |ders
(fi ni sh) our nÕw housÕ.
8 ÂhÕ di reátor i s mÐki ng Ð nÕw fi Im. ½Õ - (work) on
i t for si x months.
Futurí eimplÞ and futurs áontinuouÒ
2 Rewrite thÕ sÕntÕnáes using thÕ futurÕ áontinuous.
1 Laura i s gorng to fl ã to London nÕxt ÂuÕsdÐy morni ng.
At ] 1 o,ál oák next TuÕsdÐã ...
2 DÐvi d i s gÞi ng to mÕÕt Ann at thÕ Ði rport toni ght.
°t si x o'á|Þák tÞni ght . ..
3 WÕ,rÕ going tÞ watáh ThÕ Lord of thÕ Rings Ðt thÕ áinÕmÐ
thi s ÕvÕni ng.
°t Õi ght o.á|oák thi s ÕvÕni ng ...
4 l'm goi ng to trÐvÕ| homÕ bã trÐi n tomorrow morni ng.
Tomorrow morni ng ...
5 Brad i s goi ng to rÕvi sÕ for hi s exÐm thi s wÕÕkÕnd.
0n Satu rdÐã ...
3 ÁompIete the sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form: futurÕ
simpIe or futurÕ áontinuous, of thÕ verb in braákÕts.
,1 Âhi s ti mÕ tÞmÞrrÞw morni ng WÕ - (do) our ÕxÐm.
2 In thÕ futurÕ wÕ (áo|oni sÕ) ÞthÕr pl ÐnÕts.
3 | - (ÕmÐi l ) ãoU tomorrow Wi th thÕ dÕtai |s of our
Þ|ans.
WÕ,rÕ rÕÐl |ã Õxái tÕd abÞut Þur hÞl i dÐã. At Õi ght Þ,á|oák on
tri daã wÕ (trave|) to JamÐi áÐ!
I thi nk | (go out) toni ght, but I havÕn't dÕái dÕd
WnÕrÕ yÕt.
6 ÂhÕy (wÐtáh) thÕ fi l m Ðt ni ne Þ'á|Þák tomorrow
n i ght.
Ä
Wri ti ng
6 Comp|Õte thÕ tÕxt with thÕ áorrÕát form Þf thÕ verb in
braákets.
DÕar lnaÓR'
TÌa|,Rs foÓ ãovÓ le++Õ³, I|,s gÓea| nevws |Ìa| ãov
, - (co,ne) |o LonJon nÕå+ n1on+Ì. UnfoÓ|vnatÕlYl::
I wod+ ÌÕ hÕrÕ wÌÕh ãov arrivÕ. ÌÕcavse I , i
(Jo) a tÓaining CovÓsÕ in BräÌton, I cah,+ Ìe/ieve I,|/ {
actva/tã' - (finis¹ al/ rnã tÓaining Ìã tÌÕ timÕ ii
µli.qã it
Whilñ ãou
áan
ArÕ thÕ latÕst mobilÕ phonÕs too
smart for thÕir own good? onáÕ thÕ
virusÕs gÕt to work, intÕlligÕnáÕ
áould bÕ thÕir undoing, says
Drrnáan Graham-Rowe.
IT LooKS likÕ any ÞthÕr mÞbilÕ phonÕ. Most of
thÕ timÕ it ÞpÕratÕs Õxaátly likÕ any ÞthÕr
handsÕt. But just onÕ áall from a partiáular
numbÕr and it áan bÕ switáhÕd on without 1zour
knÞwlÕdgÕ, with no outward sign that it is
opÕrating. µvÕrything you say will bÕ áapturÕd
and sÕnt aáIoss thÕ nÕtwork to thÕ
ÕavÕsdrÞppÕæ yÕt you will havÕ no idÕa that
anyonÕ is listÕning in.
As wÕll as standard áÕll phÞnÕ áiráuitry, a
typiáal smart phonÕ has a proáÕssor and
mÕmory that allow it to run appliÁation
proglams, whiáh is why it áan bÕ an ¼P· musiá
playÕr, wÕb browsÕr and Õmail tÕxt ÕditÞr all in
onÕ. othÕr softwarÕ ÕnablÕs you to takÕ
piáturÕs, p|aà gamÕs, dÞwnload and rÕad
ÕlÕátrÞniá books and * yÕs _ ÕVÕn makÕ phonÕ
áalls. But a phonÕ that is sÞphistiáatÕd enough
to ÕxÕáutÕ plograms is vulnÕrablÕ tÞ thÕ sort of
attaáks that un]uáky PDA (PÕrsonal Digital
Assistant) ownÕIs havÕ alrÕady ÕxpÕriÕnáÕd.
NonÕ of thÕ thrÕÕ main opÕrating systÕms
ináÞrporatÕs antivirus softwarÕ or a firÕwall, and
of thÕ nÕtworks only T-MobilÕ in thÕ US is so far
ÞffÕring a firÕwall for its GPRS mobilÕ phonÕ
usÕIS.
It is Þnly a mattÕr Þf timÕ bÕforÕ somÕonÕ
unlÕashÕs a malÕvolÕnt áodÕ that doÕs sÕrious
damagÕ to phÞnÕs. If you arÕ luáky Õnough to
own a smart phÞnÕ, Õnjoy it whilÕ you áan.
NÕw SáiÕßtist ¾ßlinÕ NÕws 19:00.01 ¾átobÕr 0·.
,:*×*.,.';1*|ili.i..].i×xiiiir,a'...*il'i:'-|s]..'..........'''g999l]!}!*i:ail,'ti'}:i]i1i]]:l''.'.d!i,u*',....,.*..}
Ä
wÕ sÕÕ Õ.aáÌ o].Ìer - we'/| havÕ lo ÕÕlÕÌralÕ |Ìd|.l
I,I ÌÕ ÌaáR on |ÌÕ l1,|on/aã ahJ ãov'rÕ weláome |o
s|aã a| .Ðã fla| wÌile I'nl onoY, I "
(lÕave)
|ÌÕ RÕ.ãs wt|Ì mã frienJ ln4piÕ (shÕ tivÕ.s ;h +Ìe fl^+
Ìe.|ow),
l.|o-,'s ãovÓ .álu.se'? Wha| u
(ãoulJo> whÕn
ãov finisÌ'? \lÌql arÕ. ãovr plans?
Yov asRÕ/ aÌov| ,QÕå. Wetl, I,ve 9o| sonÕ 9oo/
nÕ.ws,l W. " - (9o) ovt |çe|ÌÕr for |ÌrÕ.e ãeaÓs
*Ìis svnltÕr anJ wÕ,vÕ JÕáiJÕJ to 9Õl engçed, |ÌovgÌ
(n61 aÐ,rÓã) vn+it nÕx+ ãeaÓ, WÕ,ÓÕ going
|o Ìvã ^ Ìovse in lndnáÌÕs*eÓ ÌecavsÕ. .\/ex "
(move) to |ÌÕ officÕ |ÌÕÓÕ dl thÕ Ìeginning of
â^hv^³Y,
TÌa|,s a/| tnã hÕws foÓ tlÕ nînÕ.n|' Á^n,+ w^i+
to sÕÕ |ov'
LovÕ, µlainÕ
.i}!*:lrlEri?it*talrtx:sä.irl::lsi8islltilttrialtlillillii!*lil
7 writÕ Ð short IettÕr to a friÕnd. lnáIudÕ information about
your pIans, what you wi Il bÕ doi ng and whÐt you wi l I
hÐvÕ done at points in thÕ futurÕ. RemÕmber to use
i nformal l anguage.
Readi ng
8 RÕÐd thÕ tÕxt and dÕáidÕ if the statements 1-10 are truÕ
(Â) or fÐlse (t).
,l ¿ YÞu áan i dÕnti fã Ð smÐrt phonÕ bã |ooki ng at i t.
2 ¿ l t's Õasi Õr to ÐttÐák Ð smart phonÕ thÐn an ordi narã
pnonÕ.
3 ¿ A smÐrt phonÕ usÕr wi Il know i f somÕone i s l i stÕni ng
to 1hÕi r áonvÕrsÐti on.
4 ¿ A smÐrt phonÕ runs app|i áati on programs.
5 ¿ |f you havÕ a smart phonÕ ãou don't nÕÕd Ð |Þt of
otnÕr ÕquIpmÕnr.
6 ¿ A smÐrt phÞnÕ wi l l ki Il vi rusÕs.
7 ¿ owners of PDAs hÐvÕ hÐd prob|Õms wi th vi rusÕs.
8 ¿ VirusÕs hÐvÕ ÐlrÕadY bÕÕn dÕvÕ|ÞpÕd to attÐák smart
pnonÕs.
9 ¿ ÂhrÕÕ opÕrÐtors havÕ proteátÕd thÕir phonÕs ÐgÐinst
virus ÐttÐáks.
10 ¿ SmÐrt phonÕs wi l l hÐvÕ probl Õms wi th vi rusÕs i n the
futu rÕ.
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Itomonlms
1 ÁompIÕtÕ the pairs of sÕntÕnáes with onÕ of thÕsÕ
homonãms (words thÐt sound thÕ samÕ' but hÐvÕ
diffÕrent meanings).
o l i ght * mi ght * modÕ| u powÕr Ä produáÕ * si dÕ
* spÐáÕ 8 tÕrm
1 a °strotÕ| is p|Ðnning tÞ bÕ thÕ first áompany to opÕn a
hotÕI i n outÕr
YÞu áÐn put your bÐg on thÕ |uggÐge rÐák. ÂhÕrÕ's
p|Õnty of
°rÕ ãÞu gÞi ng ÐwÐã thi s wÕÕkÕnd?,-
.| -. |t dÕpÕnds on thÕ wÕÐthÕr''
JaßÕ pushÕd wi th Ðl l hÕr --, but shÕ sti II
áÞul dn't open thÕ door.
ThÕ studi o i s goi ng to - a nÕw sái ÕnáÕ fi áti on
fi l m.
ÂhÕ prosÕáuti on Was Ðb|Õ to nÕw Õvi dÕnáÕ
to provÕ that JÐákson wÐs gui|tã.
ÂhÕ bri ght from thÕ áÐr b|i ndÕd SÕÐn. HÕ
áÞuIdn,t sÕe thÕ roÐd ÐhÕad.
ÂhÕ sui táÐse was surpri si nc|y *-* . Li z hadn't
pÐákÕd muáh for hÕr wÕÕk Ðwaã.
ÂhÕ mÐtáh ÕndÕd wi th Ð surpri sÕ rÕsuIt. ÂhÕ Bri stol
sáorÕd threÕ ti mÕs Ðgai nst thÕ PrÕmi Õrshi p
áhÐ mpi ons.
Sarah hÐd Ð sma|| bÕÐutã spot on onÕ -.-- Þf
hÕr fÐáÕ.
ÂhÕ - of thÕ shi p wÐs i nárÕdi bIy dÕtÐi l Õd. l t
wÐs Õxaát|y Ii kÕ thÕ reÐ| thi ng.
KÐtã had Ð|wÐys wantÕd to bÕ Ð but snÕ
was.j ust too short.
ÂherÕ was Ð - áut i n LÞndon l Ðst ni ght. ovÕr
5'000 homÕs wÕrÕ affÕátÕd.
ThÕ prÕsÕnt govÕrnmÕnt áamÕ to ovÕr two
ãÕars ago.
ÂhÕ sáhÞoI Õnds this Friday. We'vÕ got a
thrÕe-wÕÕk hoIi dÐy.
WhÐt doÕs thÕ --.i ntÕr-gÐ|Ðáti á, mÕÐn?
Âhe right èords
2 ÁhoosÕ the áorreát option, Ð, b' or á to áomplÕtÕ the text.
Ðbout bfor áÞf
rÞutÕ bway ádÕsti nÐti on
somÕ bi ts áa
fÐi nt-hÕÐrtÕd b strong-hÕÐrtÕd á wÐrm.hÕÐrtÕd
brokÕn up b brokÕn out á brokÕn i n
adÐpti ng báhÐngi ng átrÐnsfÞrmi ng
áonfi rmÕd bdeái dÕd ááonvi náÕd
rÕáÞrd bhi storã ánote
hÐvi ng bmaki ng átÐki ng
gÐVÕ báÐmÕ áturnÕd
.-.; .,-'..l Ì...*n, ::;4:.,.."Êâ ..; ": '.. ;.".
Óor yÕÐrs ':i *1l..'" fi áti on wri tÕrs hÐvÕ spÕául Ð1Õd ,
hol l dÐVs i n spÐáÕ. Now sái ÕnáÕ fi áti on hÐs '
l íÕáomÕ f.a1 âhÕ l ntÕrnÐ1i onÐ| SpÐáe S1Ð1i on i s the
,"]::T..: hol i dÐy Ðnd DÕnni s Âi to, Ð
. ol IIl onÐi re busi nÕssmÐn ³rom ÁÐl i ³orni Ð, wÐs
l trsI guest.
"; spaáÕ travÕl i s not for the o l + Ì.. ^t'.,^. i 1
bÕÕn a dangÕrous o"'iiljl"""o,*",.;i:*Âfl}J,' $ l
hi s mi nd. He,d tookÕd at thÕ hi storv Þf ; .
spaáe Õåpl orati on and i s sti i l ' that i t,i sl Ðfe i .
,Âhe spaáÕ programme has an Õåáel l Õnt safetv µ i l.
,,; , ,,he.Õxpl ai nÕd l íÕforÕ hi s fl i ght. ÙÕ .i sk ¡ i
l l l | ts vÕry l ow.,
l s thi s thÕn the bÕgi nÛi ngÞf .a.nÕç Õ-rÐ of spaáÕ ;
hol i days? µxperts rÕmai n unáÕrtÐi n. ,WhoÕver ¡ ::,
says onÕ sái Õnti st. ,¼ost peopi Õ wi l | nÕver ì" uìr" i o, ¡ i
afford i t, so i t,s unl i kÕl y to ', , tr i.
l n faát ¼r Âi to pai d,l l s ,è±n à,i to makÕ thÕ ;
',_l +:l
2a
3a
4a
5a
6a
7a
8a
1a
2a
3Ð
4a
5Ð
6a
/a
8Ð
9a
'10 a
11 a
12a
tÐkÕ off b go off
travÕI b tour
á mÐkÕ off
á tri p
Áomp|Õte thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ
vÕrbs.
ä ÕÐrn e gÐi n * wi n o Ðáhi ÕvÕ
1 SÐm
WeÕK
2 ri na i s a nursÕ and shÕ dÞÕsn,t a huïÕ Ðmount
of monÕy.
3 StudÕnts whÞ ÐrÕ not VÕry aáÐdÕmi á áan oftÕn
grÕÐt suááÕss i n thÕi r áhosÕn áÐrÕÕrs.
qui tÕ Ð |ot Þf mÞnÕã i n thÕ l ottÕry l Ðst
4l
@
Ð |ot of ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ worki ng Ðbroad
*i*
*,t
.:*
₠..
t i:=-=
-
!#F₠Õ.A*'. 4:.g'âji.,.+]9sr.Aijiiµtl.+:i¡+ijE*:6:!i1!.="l
Fahrenheit 451 is the temàerÐture at Whiáh
o..o o.o.' áatáhes fi re and burns. l n RaY
;"rldìÙ; astonishingly prophÕtiá vi:i:l Þ:^the
;;;;. Guã Montag is a fireman. His lob is t0
burn books, whiáh are torbidden as thÕy are
the souráe of al l di sáord and unhÐppi ness' µven
so, Montag i S unhappy;there i s di sáord i n hi s
;;;;;;. ;" books hi dden i n hi s house?
."ffi..u+
,But i tÊ fi nÕ wÞrk. Monday burn ¼i l IÐy, WÕdnesday Whrtman,
Friday Faulkner, burn ,em tÞ ÐshÕs, then burn the ashes. ÂhÐt,s our
Þffi ái aI sIÞgan.,
ThÕy walked the rest of the way in Ðn unáomfortable silÕnáÕ.
When thÕy rÕaáhed hÕr house al l i ts i i ghts were bl Ðzi ng.
'l vhatÊ gÞi ng Þn?, MÞntag hÐd rarel y sern s0 many ÙousÕ l i ghts.
,0h, itÊ just my mother and father and unálÕ sitting Ðro"und,
tal ki ng. l tÊ l i ke bei ng a pedestri an, Þnl y rÐrer My unál e wÐs
arrÕstÕd another timÕ - did l telI yÞu? - fÞr being a pedestriÐn, 0h,
We,rÕ rl ]osrprául i Ðr!,
,But whÐt do you tÐ|k Ðbout?,
ShÕ |ÐughÕd Ðt thi s' ,Good ni ghtI, She startÕd up hÕr waIk. Then
she seÕmÕd to rÕmember somÕthing Ðnd áÐme bÐák down tÞ look at
hi m wi th wondÕr and áuri Þsi ty. ,Are you happy?, she sÐi d.
'°n I wha{?' he áried.
But she was gone - running
i n the mÞonl i ght. Her front door shut
gently.
Your rÕÐátions
l n groups, di sáuss thÕsÕ quÕsti ons.
Þ WhÐt vi si ons of thÕ futurÕ doÕs thÕ ÕxtrÐát show?
. WhÐt do ãou thi nk N4ontag fÞund unusuÐl about
Á|Ð rissÕ?
Þ What do ãou thi nk wi || hÐppÕn to |\4ontÐg and Á|Ðri ssÕ
i n thÕ story?
Þ WhÐt di d you thi nk of thÕ stÞrã?
. Why do ãou thi nk thi s tãpÕ of storã i s sÞ popu|Ðr?
Þ WhÐt sái ÕnáÕ fi áti on boÞks andl or fi l ms havÕ ãou rÕÐd
or sÕÕn? How wÐs suspÕnsÕ árÕÐtÕd?
tÖfutffiA±&-.é¡'¹ &ffiA by Ray BradburY
lfulÒz: Âhe trees overheÐd mÐdÕ a grrat sound of |etting down their
dry rÐi n. The gi rl stÞpàÕd and l ookÕd Ðs i f she mi ght àul I bÐák rn
surprise, but instead stood regarding MÞntÐg wlth eyes so dÐrk and
shi ni ng and Ð|i vÕ thÐt he fel t hÕ hÐd sÐi d s0methi n0 0Ui te
wondÕÓfu|. But hÕ knew his mouth had onlã movÕd to sÐy hei|o,'Ðnd
then when she seÕmed hypnoti sed bã the sa|Ðmander on hi s arm
Ðnd thÕ àhoÕni x di sá on hi s áhest, he spokÕ agÐi n.
,0f áourse,, he sai d, ,y0U,re a new nei ghbou1 arÕn,t you?,
,And you must bÕ, - she rÐised her eyes from his àrofessionÐI
symbÞl s _ ,the fi remÐn., HÕr voi áe trai l ed off'
She turned to faáe the sidÕwÐlk going towÐrds thÕir homes. ,Do
yÞu mi nd i f I wÐl k bÐák wi th you? I,m CIari sse MáÁIel l Ðn.,
. ,Cl Ðri ssÕ. Guy Montag. CÞmÕ al ong. What Ðre you doi ng out sÞ
|Ðte wandÕri ng around? How oId are you?, Âhere wÐs onl y the gi rl
wÐ|ki ng wi th hi m now, her fÐáe bri ght as snÞw i n thÕ moÞnIi ght, Ðnd
he knew she was wÞrki ng hi s questi ons around, sÕeki ng thÕ best
answerS she áoul d pÞssi bl y gi ve.
,WÕll,, shÕ said. ,|,m 1] and |,m árazã' My unále says the tWO
alwÐys go together' WhÕn àÕopiÕ Ðsk your Ðge, hÕ sÐid, Ðlways say
]7 and i nsane. |sn,t thi s Ð ni áe ti me of ni ght to wÐl k? l Ii ke to smel l
thi ngs and l ÞÞk at thi ngs, Ðnd someti mÕs StÐy up Ðl l ni ght, wal ki ng
and wÐtáhi ng the sun ri se.,
They waIked on agÐi n i n si l enáe Ðnd fi nÐ|l y she sÐi d, thoughtfuIl y,
,You knÞw, l,m not Ðfrai d of you Ðt al l.,
HÕ wÐs surpri sed. ,Why shÞu|d you bÕ?,
,So mÐny peopl e are. °frai d of fi remen, l mÕan. But vÞu,rÕ i ust a
man, aftÕr aIl,..,
And then C|Ðri sse MáCIe||an sÐi d: ,DÞ you mi nd i f l ask? How l Þng
hÐvÕ you workÕd Ðt being Ð firemÐn?,
,Sináe I was twÕnty, ten years Ðg0.,
,Do you evÕr read Ðny of the books you burn?,
HÕ l Ðughed. ,ThatÊ agÐi nst the l Ðw|,
'0h. 0f course.'
@
Grammar
1 Áomp|etÕ the sÕntenáÕs with the áorreát passivÕ form
(gÕrund or infinitivÕ) of thÕ verbs in brÐákets.
1 l Ii kÕ (tÐkÕ) out tÞ di nnÕr on my bi rthday.
2 | don't mi nd - (dri vÕ) bã somÕonÕ ÕIsÕ.
3 WÕ ÕxpÕát (sÕnd) Ð áopy of this ÐgrÕÕmÕnt.
4 N/y grÐndmothÕr nÕÕds (hÕl p) i nto thÕ áar
nowÐdays.
5 ThÕ áhi IdrÕn wÕrÕ |ooki ng forwÐrd to - (takÕ) to
thÕ thÕmÕ Þark.
2 Rewrite the sÕntenáes using thÕ words givÕn.
1 An Õngi nÕÕr i nsta||Õd oUr IntÕrnet áonnÕáti on thi s
morni ng.
WÕ ...
2 SomÕÞnÕ stol Õ ZoÕ,s wÐIl Õt whi l Õ shÕ was on thÕ bus.
Zoe...
3 ÂhÕ shop i s dÕ|i vÕri ng Rob's bi kÕ nÕXt WÕÕk.
Rob ...
4 ThÕ hai rdrÕssÕr wi l | áut |\4ari Ð,s hai r on SÐturdaã.
Marl Ð ...
3 ÁompIetÕ thÕ sÕntenáes with the áorrÕát future form (wil/
or going to) of thÕ verbs in braákÕts.
1 WÕ - (go) to thÕ ái nÕma toni ght. DÞ you WÐnt to
áomÕ?
2 | -(bÕ) si xtÕÕn nÕxt bi rthdÐã!
3 ÂhosÕ á|ouds Iook thrÕÐtÕni ng. l\4aybÕ i t - (rai n).
4 I hÐvÕ no i dÕa what to gÕt my mothÕr for hÕr bi rthday. I
knowl I (buã) hÕr somÕ flowÕrs!
5 If l havÕ Õnough monÕã, | - (buy) thÐt nÕw ÁDl
6 | - (havÕ) Ð ni áÕ, qui Õt ÕvÕni ng Ðt homÕ toni ght.
4 (ompIetÕ the sÕntenáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form: future
simpIe or future áontinuous, of thÕ vÕrb in brÐákÕts.
] Âom won't bÕ at homÕ thi s ÐftÕrnoon' nÕ - (pl Ðy)
bÐskÕtbÐ | |.
2 P|ÕasÕ don,t phonÕ mÕ Ðt si x o'á|oák, I - (havÕ)
di nnÕr wi th my fÐmi l ã.
3 Sái enti sts thi nk wÕ (|i vÕ) |onger i n thÕ futurÕ.
4 l'm not surÕ whÐt |,m doi ng l ÐtÕr, pÕrhÐps t- (co)
to thÕ ái nÕmÐ.
5 SÐrah has j ust spokÕn to Pau|, shÕ - (not mÕÕt)
hi m tomorrow ÕvÕni ng.
6 WÕ - (nÞt bÕ) Ðt sáhooI tomorrow bÕáÐusÕ it's a
hol i d ay.
5 Áhoose thÕ bÕst futurÕ form to áomp|ÕtÕ the sÕntÕnáes.
By this timÕ nÕxt ãÕÐr, GrÕgÞry will hÐvÕ sÐilÕd/will sÐil
Ðround thÕ wor|d.
WhÕn hÕ rÕaáhes AustrÐlia, he will bÕ visiting/will hÐvÕ
v isitÕd eighI. áou ntriÕs.
ln thrÕÕ yÕÐrs timÕ |'|| bÕ t'inishÕd/,lI bÕ finishing mã
uni vÕrsi tã dÕgrÕÕ.
.What ÐrÕ you doi ng thi s evÕni ng?,
.I don,t know. PÕrhÐps|,llwÐtáh/'m goingto wÐtáh ÂV.'
,WhaI wilI ãou bÕ doing/will ãou do in tÕn yÕars' timÕ?,
.|VaãbÕ |'ll bÕ working/,m going to hÐvÕ workÕd in anothÕr
áoU ntry.'
.I'm |ÐtÕ for sáhool and I áÐn't fi nd mã áÞursÕbook.'
.|,ll/,m gÞing ro hÕ|p you Iook for it.,
.HÐvÕ you got Ðnã p|Ðns for the summÕr?'
,Yes,l,m goingto go/,llgo to thÕ statÕs. |'m Ð|rÕÐdã saving
up for thÕ tri p.,
.What ti mÕ wi l |ãou gÕt homÕ toni ght?,
,|,ll be/,ll hÞvÕ bÕÕn bÐák by tÕn Þ'á|oák.'
@
VoáabuIary
Words that go togethÞr
6 ÁhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát word a, b, or á' to áompIetÕ thÕ
sentÕnáÕs.
1 Aáti Þn fi |ms oftÕn rÕqui rÕ thÕ Ðudi ÕnáÕ to - thÕi r
d i sbÕ|i ef.
a suspÕnd b dÕ|Ðy
á forgÕt
2 ThÕ p|aã áonvÕãÕd a - mÕssagÕ about fami Iy
áo nfl iáts.
a powÕrfu| b thoughtfu|
3 ÂhÕ horror fi |m madÕ NÐdi a sárÕÐm i n
á nar0
b tÕrror
á d reÐd
4 ÂhÕ ári ti á,s rÕvi Õw thÕ Õndi ng of thÕ p|Ðã
a gÐVe Up
b gÐvÕ out á gÐVÕ aWÐã
5 ThÕ fi l m was so bad that pÕop|Õ l Õft ha|fwaã through. |t
rÕaIl ã wasn't sÕÕi ng.
a Ðdvi sÕd
b rÕáommÕndÕd á worth
6 ÂhÕ di rÕátor mÐnÐgÕd to - an ÐtmosphÕrÕ of
dÐnger and suspÕnsÕ.
a di rÕát b árÕÐtÕ á i nvÕnt
7 rhÕ p|Ðã wÐs from Ð nÞvÕ| bã HÕnry JamÕs.
a Ðrranged b adaptÕd á prÕpÐrÕd
B ÂhÕ fÐmous di rÕátor a mul ti -mi l Ii on do||Ðr
bIoákbustÕr fi |m.
a áonstruátÕd b mÐdÕ
á di d
7 ÁomplÕtÕ thesÕ sÕntÕnáes with the áorrÕát form of thÕsÕ
ÕxprÕssions.
* áan,t hÐvÕ i t both ways * hÐvÕ Ð áhÐngÕ ot hÕÐrt
* havÕ Ð good mi nd to * hÐvÕ i t out wi th
* hÐvÕ no áonnÕáti on wi th
1 A|though DavÕ wantÕd to ál i mb |VÞunt EvÕrÕst, hÕ
whÕn SÐrÐh sai d shÕ áou|dn,t mÐnÐïÕ thÕ
busi nÕss wi thout hi m.
ThÕ hotel turnÕd Þut tÞ bÕ Ð bi g di sÐppoi ntmÕnt. Fi ona
and StÕvÕ to boÞk a room somewhÕrÕ Õl sÕ.
WÕ don't hÐvÕ Õnough monÕy to buã Ð áÐr Ðnd go on
ho|i dÐã - ãoU -.
4 DÕspi tÕ havi ng thÕ samÕ namÕ, thÕ rÕstaurÐnt
thÕ hotÕ|.
5 Á|arÕ hÕr boss about whã shÕ hadn't bÕÕn
promol e0.
8 Wri te thÕ Ðdjeáti vÕ form of thÕsÕ words.
1 di sappoi nt
2 ÕffÕát
3 ÕxpÕnsÕ
4 powÕr
5 spÕátaál Õ
6 tÕrrify
9 Find words áonnÕátÕd with speed and movÕmÕnt whiáh
mÕan thÕ samÕ as the eåp|anÐtions in 1_7. Âhe first IÕttÕr
of Õaáh word is givÕn.
1 takÕ off : I- t- c-
2 inárÕasÕ thÕ paáÕ of: g s-
3 mÞvÕ i n thÕ di rÕáti on of: h- f -
4 bÕÐt qui ák|ã Ðnd rÕpÕÐtÕdl y wi th your fi st: p-.
5 movÕ qui ák|y, maki ng Ð |oud, dÕÕp noi sÕ:
6 turn rÞund qui ák|ã: s-
7 movÕ uÞ and down: f
Âhe right \^|ords
10 ÁhoosÕ thÕ áorreát word a' b, á, or d to áomplÕtÕ part of a
pÕrsonaI statÕmÕnt.
I havÕ a|wÐãs beÕn . - i n pursui ng Ð , - i n
Õduáati on. | Õnj oã . - wi th áhi IdrÕn, Ðnd hÐvÕ on
mÐny o spÕnt my frÕÕ ti mÕ '- Õxtra monÕã
by ÐááÞmpÐnyi ng áhi IdrÕn on áampi ng hol i daãs.
My hobbi Õs arÕ hÞrsÕ-ri di ng and rÕadi ng u - to
goi ng i o thÕ ái nÕmÐ and thÕatrÕ. I hÐvÕ Ð|so bÕÕn on
Þrgani sÕd
- to South °mÕri áÐ.
s
.Q
.×
)
er
A
l Ðm u - |Õarni ng to dri vÕ
n - áÐ|m whÕn nÕáÕssÐry.
for wÞrki ng wi th ãoung peop|Õ.
I am árÕativÕ but áÐn
I fÕÕl l hÐvÕ an .o
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
I
9
10
a rÕgardÕd b notiáÕd á intÕrÕsted d áonáÕrnÕd
Ð áÐrÕÕr b j ob á work d post
a doi ng b worki ng á parti ái pÐtl ng d mÐki ng
a i nstÐnáÕs b oááasi ons á opportuni ti Õs d ti mÕs
a ÕÐrni ng b wi nni ng á passi ng d taki ng
a i n addi ti on b Ðs wÕ|l á ÐftÕr al | d too
a Õxáursi on b ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ á ÕxpIorati on d Õxpedi ti on
a al rÕÐdy b aátuÐ||ã á áurrÕnt|y d rÕÐ|Iy
a ho|d b havÕ á kÕÕp d fi nd
a Ðpti tudÕ b ÐppÕÐranáÕ á Ðpp|i áÐti on d approvÐ|
@
VisllÐI Got,Gepts
1 AnswÕr thÕsÕ questions.
1 Whi áh of thÕsÕ pai nti ngs do you Ii kÕ bÕst and why?
2 Who do ãou thi nk pÐi ntÕd thÕm?
3 Whi áh pÐi nti ng i s:
a l mprÕssi oni st i n stã|Õ
b Áubi st i n stãIÕ?
4 WouId ãou rÕáogni sÕ othÕr works by thÕ sÐmÕ Ðrti sts i f
ãou sÐw thÕm?
Readi ng
Skim rÕad the text and find out what expÕrimÕnts wÕre
áarriÕd out and what the rÕsults showÕd.
âiák (/) four statÕments whiáh rÕfleát the áontÕnt of the
text.
1 ¿ |t i s gÕnÕraIIy thought thÐt pi gÕons arÕ stupi d.
2 ¿ Bi rds arÕ VÕry di sáÕrni ng about whÐt thÕã Õat.
3 ¿ Sái Õnti sts áÐn assÕss pi gÕons, i ntÕ||i gÕnáÕ bã rÕwardi ng
thÕm wi th food.
4 ¿ PigÕons appÕÐr to bÕ Ðb|Õ to rÕáognisÕ diffÕrÕnt
Ðrtistiá sty|es.
5 ¿ Pi gÕons áÐn tÕII onÕ |mprÕssi oni st Ðrti st from ÐnothÕr.
6 ¿ ÂhÕ tÕst Wi th studÕnts provÕd thÐt pi gÕons áou|d bÕ
trai nÕd to do anythi ng.
¿ ÂhÕ studÕnts probab|y fai |Õd thÕ tÕsts bÕáÐusÕ thÕy
apprÞÐáhÕd thÕm i n Ð di ffÕrÕnt way.
¿ Pi gÕons ÐppÐrÕnt|y Õnj oy ÐppÕari ng on TV.
Voáahul ary
UndÞrìtanding
4 Find words or phrases in the teåt whiáh mÕÐn:
,l uni ntÕl Ii gÕnt (pÐragrÐph 1)
2 tÐkÕ or aááÕpt Ðs bÕi ng truÕ (pÐragrÐph 1)
3 ÕÐsi Iy pÕrsuadÕd or dÕáÕi vÕd (parÐgraph 1)
4 do bÕttÕr than (pÐrÐgrÐph 2)
5 Ð gÕnÕraI or Ðbstraát i dÕÐ (pÐrÐgrÐph ·)
6 unab|Õ to mÐkÕ Ð dÕái si on (pÐrÐgraph ·)
7 di ffi áu|t (pÐrÐgrÐph 4)
8 áompÕti tors (pÐrÐgrÐph 4)
9 shown (pÐragrÐph 5)
10 vÕry surpri si ng (pÐragrÐph 5)
+
}×
g
Art-loving pigeons are
not so dumb after al l!
1 PigÕons arÕ not as daft as thÕy appÕar. In faát, thÕy arÕ so disáerning
that thÕy áan tÕll a Piáasso from a ¼onÕt. For yÕars, wÕ havÕ
assumÕd that thÕ floáks at Ârafalgar SqualÕ WÕrÕ not áapablÕ of
doing anything but waiting to sároungÕ fÞod from gulliblÕ tourists.
But nÕw rÕsÕaráh suggÕsts that thÕy arÕ probably iust rÕsting aftÕr
taking in thÕ art at thÕ National GallÕry.
2 SáiÕntists in Japan havÕ shown that pigÕons áan outpÕrform alt
studÕnts in tÕlling Piáassos from MonÕts whilÕ in Britain pigÕons
havÕ bÕatÕn univÕrsity studÕnts in a raáÕ to work out whÕrÕ food is
hiddÕn. ThÕ JapanesÕ rÕsÕaráhÕrs rÕpÕatÕdly showÕd pigÕons in
individual áagÕs 30 diffÕrÕnt paintings by Piáasso and ¼onÕt. ThÕ
piáturÕs wÕrÕ flashÕd up in thÕ birds, áagÕs on a sátÕÕn bÕlow whiáh
was a full áontainÕr of sÕÕd.
3 ThÕ birds rapidly lÕarnÕd that if thÕy pÕákÕd at a Piáasso, thÕy wÕâÕ
rÕwardÕd With food whilÕ MonÕts brought no rÕwaâd at all. WhÕn
thÕy bÕgan to Õnioy nÕar-pÕrfÕát sáorÕs, thÕ sáiÕntists thought this
was bÕáausÕ thÕ birds had pÕrfÕát mÕmoriÕs. So thÕy showÕd thÕm
nÕW, unseÕn Piáassos and MonÕts and found thÕ pigÕons wÕrÕ ablÕ
to idÕntify thÕ right artists again, showing thÕy had a visual áonáÕpt
of stylÕ. ÂhÕy áould tÕll thÕ diffÕrÕnáÕ bÕtwÕÕn ¼onÕt,s dapplÕd
light and vivid áolours and Piáasso,s surrÕal angular flgurÕs. But
whÕn work by artists who paintÕd in thÕ samÕ Irnpressionist or
Áubist art stylÕ wÕâÕ bâought in, thÕ birds bÕáamÕ áonfusÕd _ just
likÕ somÕ art studÕnts.
4 In thÕ British stud,v, town pigÕons bÕat 200 univÕrsity students in a
áontÕst to work out whiáh of 60 áolourÕd bar áharts showed whÕrÕ
food was. SlidÕs showing thâÕÕ rÕd áolumns of varying hÕights on a
white baákground wÕrÕ projÕátÕd on to a wall. ThÕ pigÕons, who
had lÕarnÕd ÕarliÕr thÕy woutd gÕt thÕ âight foÞd if thÕy pÕákÕd thÕ
right imagÕs, got it right ÕvÕry timÕ. only two studÕnts in 200
workÕd out that thÕ food lay undÕr thÕ graphs with thÕ smallÕst
áolourÕd areas. The kindÕst eåplanation is that thÕ studÕnts wÕrÕ
sÕaráhing for a morÕ áompliáatÕd answÕr. HowÕvÕâ, thÕ pigÕons no
doubt fÕÕl that it's timÕ thÕiâ human rivals triÕd a littlÕ bit hardÕr in
futurÕ.
5 ThÕ pigÕons, amazing brainpowÕr was rÕvÕalÕd in a thrÕÕ-part TV
doáumÕntary áallÕd Animal Minds. ProduáÕr Paul RÕddish said:
,WhÕn it áomÕs to visual áonáÕpts, thÕ brain of thÕ art studÕnt and
thÕ pigÕon may bÕ vÕry similar.' ThÕ programmÕ also arrivÕd at
thÕsÕ rathÕr startling áonálusions: áÕItain monkÕys in thÕ junglÕ
suffÕr from thÕ samÕ lÕvÕls of strÕss as offiáÕ workÕrs; bÕÕs tÕaáh Õaáh
ÞthÕr not only whÕrÕ to find food but whethÕr it is of a high qualiä
and most animals áan show somÕ Õmotion.
The F'åDrÕss
:l Ælords èith similÐr meÐning
... 5 áÞmpIetÕ sÕntÕnáes 1_10 with the áorrÕát words or
phrases in Õaáh pair.
takÕ in / work out
1 l t took mÕ ÐgÕs to - whÐt thÕ ÐnswÕr to thÕ
quÕstl on wÐs.
ÂhÕ tÕÐáhÕr spÕÐks so qui ák|y thÐt I fi nd i t
di ffi ául t to - ÕvÕrythi ng shÕ sÐãs.
tÕ|l thÕ diffÕrÕnáÕ betwÕÕn / mistakÕ onÕ for
anothÕr
ÂhÕ twi ns Iook so si mi l ar thÐt most ÞÕoo|Õ
ÁÐn yÞu Ð |VonÕt Ðnd Ð Pi áasso pÐi nti ng?
vi vi d / surrÕÐl
I rÕÐI|y Ii kÕ wÕari ng áo|ours |i kÕ rÕd Ðnd
orangÕ.
ÂhÕ womÐn,s fÐáÕ i n that pai nti ng i s so strangÕ
thÐt i t l ooks
win / bÕÐt
Di d µngl and ÕVÕr - thÕ Wor|d Áup?
0ur IoáaI bÐsÕbÐ|l tÕÐm Ðl wÐys sÕÕms to
ItS opponÕnIs.
áontÕst / áontext
9 You áÐn,t Ð|waãs undÕrstand thÕ mÕani ng of a
word l rom i l s _
10 ÂhÕ tÕnni s áhÐmpi Þn's vi átorã wÐs so Õasã thÕrÕ
wÐs rÕÐl |ã no -
Ætriting a summarl
6 ln pairs, disáuss thÕ quÕstions and writÕ answers to
form Ð summary of thÕ tÕxt.
1 What di d thÕ pi gÕons hÐvÕ tÞ do i n thÕ fi rst
ÕxpÕri m Õnt?
2 What wÕrÕ thÕ rÕsults?
3 WhÐt áoul d thÕ pi gÕons not do?
4 WhÐt di d thÕ Bri ti sh study áonsi st of?
5 WhÐt wÕrÕ the resu|ts?
6 WhÐt di d thÕ ÂV progrÐmmÕ show?
Di sáuss thÕse statÕmÕnts Ðbout human bÕi ngs and
animals. Say whã you agrÕÕ or disagrÕe with thÕm.
Þ Humans ÐrÕ j ust ani ma|s who áÐn tal k.
. Ani maIs hÐvÕ fÕÕ|i ngs j ust Ii kÕ humans.
. Humans shouId |ÕavÕ ani maIs i n thÕ wi l d whÕrÕ
thÕy bÕ|ong.
7
8
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Âhi rd áondi ti onal
QlÛiákqèiz
 Üatáh thÕ bÕgi nni ngs ,l _3 to thÕ Õndi ngs a_á to
áomp|ÕtÕ the ruIÕs.
1 WÕ usÕ thÕ fi rst áÞndi ti ÞnÐ| to tÐ|k Ðbout ...
2 WÕ usÕ thÕ sÕáond áondi ti onÐI to taIk about ...
3 WhÕn ÕxprÕssing wishÕs wiIh |lwÕ wish + SomÕonÕ +
woul d ...
a somÕthi ng whi áh i s unl i keIy to happÕn.
b wÕ áÐnnot usÕ thÕ obj Õát pronouns I or wÕ.
á somÕthi ng whi áh may hÐppÕn i n the futurÕ.
2 RÕÐd the tÕxt and áomp|Õte thÕ tab|Õ.
WhÐt wÐs disáoverÕd?
Who madÕ thÕ disáÞvÕry?
WhÕn di d he Ii vÕ?
DÐtÕ of disáovÕry?
WhÐt hÐppÕnÕd i n ']945u
AáálDENÂs
oF sá!µNáE
Si r Al exander Fl emi ng (r88t-r955)
had a áo[[ÕÐguÕ who unti l qui te
reáentl y workÕd at St. MaryÊ
Hospi tal, London. Aááordi ng to
thi s áol l eague, the di sáovery of
peni ái [[i n wou[d nÕver have
happened i f one day i n t9z8 a pi eáÕ of moutd had not ftoatÕd i n
through an opÕn wi ndow (possi bty from thÕ pub opposi te) and
l anded on a pl ate of gl ass Fl emi ng was usi ng i n an
experi ment.ThÕ pl ate was áoverÕd wi th a powerful baátÕri um
áalIed sto p hylo áo áá us.
A l ess observant sái Õnti st mi ght have thrown i t strai ght i n
thÕ bi n, but Ftemi ng noti áÕd there were no baáteri a nÕar the
green mou[d. l n tests, he di sáovered that the moul d al so ki tted
other baáteri a, yet i t áoutd bÕ gi ven to ani ma[s wi th no obvi ous
si de effeáts. Âhe di sáovery, whi áh beáame known as peni ái tti n,
was the fi rst anti bi oti á, and was ab[Õ to áombat a hugÕ number
of fatÐ[ baáteri aI di seases. Fi nal ty, i n t945, Fl emi ng and two
othÕr sái enti sts shared a NobÕt pri ze for the di sáoverv that Was
to sÐVe mi tl i ons of l i ves.
ÁomplÕtÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáe with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb
in braákets. ThÕn answer questions 1 and 2.
l f Ð pi ÕáÕ of moul d (not fl oÐt) through thÕ wi ndow,
Fl Õmi ng (not di sáovÕr) pÕni ái l Ii n.
1 Di d a pi ÕáÕ of mÞu|d fl Þat through thÕ wi ndow?
2 Di d FIÕmi ng di sáovÕr pÕni ái l Ii n as a ÁonSÕqUÕnáÕ of thi s?
Look at thÕ Õxamp|Õs Ð_d Ðnd áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ ruIÕs about
thÕ thi rd áondi ti onÐI.
a flerning tïds ab×ervdnt. f4Ò di,dn't throw fko plÒfr in
tha bin.
b lf Floming hÐdn,t boen obsorvÐnt, hg wÞuld hÐve.
tkrawn tho p|Ðto in thÒ bin,
á Flarßing natiáed w&of wïs hÐppening on thr p!Òte.
no Kapr tt.
d Ftraming wÞÜId nÞt tlÒve K*ãlt tha plÐte lf he hÐdn,t
notiáad wfisf wgs hÐpponing on it"
RuIÕs
,| WÕ usÕ thÕ thi rd áondi ti onÐ| to tÐ|k Ðbout thÕ thÕorÕti áÐ|
ÁonsÕqUÕnáÕs of si tuati ons i n thÕ pÐst.
2 ÂÞ form thÕ thi rd áondi ti onaI WÕ UsÕ If + -, wou|d
/ wouIdß,L hÐvÕ -
3 WÕ áÐn put thÕ f á|ausÕ bÕforÕ or ÐftÕr thÕ mÐi n á|ÐusÕ.
WhÕn thÕ f áIausÕ áomÕs -, WÕ UsÕ Ð ÁommÐ.
Áomp|ÕtÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb
in braákÕts.
1 JÐnÕ WÕnt to HÕIÕn,s pÐrtã. ShÕ mÕt hÕr boãfri Õnd.
If JÐnÕ - (not go) tÞ HÕ|Õn,s party, shÕ (not
mÕÕt) her boyfriÕnd.
2 PetÕ di dn't work hÐrd. HÕ fÐi l Õd hi s ÕÅÐmS.
l f PÕtÕ - (work) hÐrdÕr, hÕ - (not fai l ) hi s
ÕXams.
I di dn't go to bÕd ÕÐrl y. I got up l atÕ thi s morni ng.
|f | - (go) to bÕd ÕÐrliÕr, | - (not gÕt up) so
IatÕ thi s morni ng.
i\4ark ÕntÕrÕd thÕ áompÕti ti on. He won $100.
|\4Ðrk - (nÞt wi n) $100 i f hÕ - (not ÕntÕr) thÕ
áom pÕti ti on.
SÐ||ã wÕnt ski i ng |Ðst wÕÕkÕnd. ShÕ brokÕ hÕr |Õg.
SÐ|i ã - (nÞt brÕak) hÕr l Õg i f shÕ - (not go)
ski l ng |ast wÕÕkÕnd.
I di dn't buã Ð nÕw j aákÕt. I di dn't havÕ Õnough monÕy.
|f - (hÐvÕ) Õnough monÕã, l - (buã) Ð nÕw
jÐákÕt.
@
Wi shes and rÕgrets
6 what did thÕã sÐy? MÐtáh piátures 1_4 to sÕntenáÕs Ð_d.
ÂhÕn áompletÕ thÕ rulÕs Ðbout wishÕs and regrets.
a |f on|ã I hÐd bÕÕn morÕ áÞnfi dÕnt. Iwi sh I hÐd sÐi d.yÕs'
b |f on|y l hÐdn,t l Õft so |atÕl Iwi sh thÕ traffi á hadn't bÕÕn
sÞ bÐd.
á I wi sh I hadn't fÐi |Õd! |f on|v I hÐd prÐáti sÕd morÕ.
d I wi sh I hadn't tÐkÕn thi s j ob. |f on|y |VÐrk hÐdn't
áonvináÕd mÕ to movÕ to this offiáÕ!
Rules
.l Âo makÕ wishÕs Ðbout thÕ past WÕ usÕ wèh +
(not) + pÐst partiáiplÕ.
2 Âo ta|k abÞut rÕgrÕts about thÕ past WÕ usÕ if onlã + hÐd
(not) +
WritÕ sÕntÕnáÕs Õxpressing wishÕs and rÕgrÕts Ðbout thÕ
past using thÕ ideas ,l-6.
1 You havÕ nÕvÕr won anythi ng i n ãour Ii fÕ.
2 Ti m di dn,t studã hÐrd Õnough for thÕ tÕst on |VondÐy.
· You WÕrÕn't abIÕ to go to thÕ paßã |Ðst Fri daã ni ght.
4 Âhe tÕaáhÕr gavÕ yoU Ð |ot of homÕwork last wÕÕkÕnd.
5 You havÕ nÕvÕr had thÕ opportuni tã to trÐvÕI abroÐd.
6 You had Ðn ÐrgumÕnt wi th ãour bÕst fri Õnd about
somÕthi ng rÕa||ã si IIy.
EåÐmpIÕ
l wiÒh l hÐd won Òomathing.
lf onlã l hÐd boen lucKier.
LÕt's aátivate
ælhat if ... ?
8 work i n smÐI| groups. l magi nÕ what thÕ worId woul d
hÐve bÕÕn Ii kÕ i f thesÕ thi ngs hadn't happÕned. Use thÕ
thi rd áondi ti onÐI.
1 thÕ di sáÞvÕry of fi rÕ
2 thÕ dÕvÕ|opmÕnt of |ÐnguÐgÕ
· thÕ i nvÕnti on of boats and trÐi ns
4 thÕ dÕvÕ|opmÕnt of atomi á ÕnÕrgy
5 thÕ bui Idi ng of towns Ðnd ái ti Õs
6 thÕ i nvÕnti on of thÕ mi ároáhi p
EåampIe
lf fira hÐdn,t baan
disáovored' paoplo wouldn,t hÐva
been Ðbte to áooK their meÐt.. ft P.
f rhaã hÐdn,t boon Ðble to áooK
,;:H:n;nil o" i,t'fi,l Xfo"'nf"""n!;X1 #n .
o'tr*";::iL! !;r: I':;{:I,ãuIdiI ,, Ò
In pairs, takÕ turns to Õxpress wishÕs and regrÕts about
thÕ foIlowing situations.
1 YÞur fri Õnds i nvi tÕd ãoU to go to thÕ bÕÐáh, but you
di dn't go. You,rÕ borÕdl
2 You WÕnt to Ð partã on Fri dÐã ni ght, but ãou had Ð
tÕrri bIÕ ti mÕ.
3 You mi ssÕd thÕ bus hÞmÕ ÐftÕr thÕ partã. You Ðrri vÕd
|ÐtÕ Ðnd your pÐrÕnts WÕrÕ Ðn8rã.
4 Your parÕnts dÕái dÕd ãou áou|dn't go out thi s wÕÕk. Your
boãfri Õnd/gi rIfri Õnd hÐs ÐskÕd you to go to thÕ ái nÕmÐ
but ãou áÐn't 80.
5 You |Õft sáhoÞ|and got a j ob. Your j ob i s rÕÐ||ã bori ng.
6 °|| your fri Õnds WÕnt to uni vÕrsi ty. ÂhÕy sÕÕm to hÐvÕ
i ntÕrÕsti ng Ii vÕs.
7 You di dn't sÐvÕ Ðnã monÕã, you spÕnt i t aIl. Now ãou
áÐn't go on hol i day.
8 You spl i t up wi th your boyfri Õnd/gi rIfri Õnd.
h
*r
..\
s
@D
iGood for tlâe brÐitâ?
,l Look qui ákIy at thÕ map of ÁÕntraI London and trã to
memorisÕ it. CIosÕ your books, thÕn seÕ if you áan answÕr
thÕ questi ons thÕ tÕaáhÕr asks you.
Li steni ng
2 oáln:' ListÕn to pÐrt of a radio programmÕ about
London taxi drivÕrs (.áabbiÕs'), Ðnd áompletÕ the notÕs.
] NÐmÕ of tÕst tÐkÕn:
2 What rÕsÕaráh shows: dri vÕrs
3 Di ffÕrÕnáÕ i n brÐi n áÐpaái tã:
4 TypÕ of mÕmorã i nárÕasÕd:
5 What áabbi Õs ÐrÕ fÐmÞus for: -
3 Li stÕn agÐi n and answÕr thÕ quÕsti ons.
1 WhÐt do LondÞn tÐxi dri vÕrs do Ðs pÐrt of thÕi r trÐi ni ng?
2 ÂhÕ spÕakÕr áal Is thÕ taxi dri vÕrs Ð .rÐre brÕÕd'. Why?
· Who di d thÕ rÕsÕaráhÕrs áompÐrÕ thÕ tÐxi dri vÕrs to?
4 WhÐt do thÕ áÐbbi Õs hÐvÕ tÞ do to pÐss thÕ know|ÕdgÕ
test?
@
4 Q),., vou arÕ going to hÕar EIeanor MaguirÕ, a
rÕsÕaráher, talking Ðbout thÕ part of thÕ brain wherÕ we
storÕ thÕ things wÕ áonsáious|y rÕmember (the
hi ppoáampus). Li sten Ðnd ti ák (/) thÕ statÕmÕnts she
makÕs and put a áross (X) bÕsidÕ thosÕ shÕ doÕs not.
1 ¿ RÕsÕaráhÕrs Ð|rÕÐdv knÕw Ðbout the powÕr of Ðn
Ðni mÐ|,s hi ppoáÐmpus.
2 ¿ ÂhÕ humÐn hi ppoáÐmpus i s di ffÕrÕnt from Ðn Ðni ma|'s
3 ¿ A dÐmagÕd hi ppoáampus mÐkÕs Ii fÕ di ffi áu|t for
árÕatU res.
4 ¿ Âaxi dri vÕrs who knÕw morÕ p|aáÕs had Ð |ÐrgÕr
hi ppoáampus'
ÂÐåi dri vÕrs ÐrÕ di ffi áuIt pÕopl Õ to studã.
Thi s study áÞuId hÐvÕ bÕÕn dÞnÕ i n Ðnã ái tã
l n thÕ wor|d.
¿ ÂhÕ rÕsÕaráhÕrs usÕd two áomp|ÕtÕ|y di ffÕrÕnt
methods of tÕsti ng áabbi Õs.
¿ µåpÕri ÕnáÕd tÐåi dri vÕrs WÕrÕ morÕ wi l Ii ng
to spÕnd ti mÕ bÕi ng testÕd.
Pronu nái ati on
iilant lattÞÓa
5 ro6Jí'× SomÕ of thÕ words in ]_7 áontain IÕttÕrs whiáh arÕ
not pronounáed (si|Õnt lÕtters). ÁiráIÕ thÕ |ÕttÕrs whiáh you
thi nk arÕ si IÕnt. Âhen Ii stÕn and áhÕák vour answÕrs.
µåÐmplÕ
änowtadge
1 wri tÕ
2 whÕn
3 housÕ
4 i gnorÕ
5 rÐá|Ðl
6 áonsái ous
7 bui l t
Speaki ng
ÀrainstoÓming a preìentation
6 In groups, prÕparÕ a prÕsentation on the foIIowing topiá.
BrÐinstorm what kind of information you wi|| nÕed for
your prÕsÕntÐtion and wherÕ you might find it. Âhink
about thÕ diffÕrÕnt kinds of ÕduáÐtion you áou|d ta|k
about, and how ãou mi ght i ntÕrpret thÕ word upbri ngi ng.
Whi áh do you áonsi dÕr to bÕ morÕ i mportant: ÕduáÐti on or
u pbri ngi ng?
7 tn the sÐmÕ groups' dÕáidÕ what information for your
presentÐti on you mi ght put undÕr thÕse hÕadi ngs.
. IntrÞduái ng your prÕsÕnl Ðti on
. ArgumÕnts for or ÐgÐi nst thÕ ro|Õ of .ÕduáÐti on'
. ArgumÕnts for Þr ÐgÐi nst thÕ ro|Õ of .upbri ngi ng'
. Áoná|usi ons
PrÞssntinq {our information
s ¾6Jí.l RÕad thÕ áonvÕrsÐtion in thÕ box and matáh thÕ
phrasÕs in italiás to thÕ funátions Ð-Õ:
Ð supportl ng Ðn ÐrgumÕnt
b áonál udi ng an ÐrgumÕnt
á i ntroduái ng Ð áontrÐdi átorã ÐrgumÕnt
d i nIroduái ng Ð l opi á
Õ suppÞrti ng ãour opi ni Þn
PrÕsÕnting information
° \°ã reseÐráh hÐs shown thÐt our upbringing is fÐr
morÕ i mÞortÐnt thÐn our Õduáati on.
B Âhis would ÐppeÐr to be truÕ trom mã own rÕsÕaráh.
on the othÕr hÐnd,l don't thi nk wÕ shou|d
undÕrÕsti mÐtÕ thÕ i mÞortanáÕ of Õduáati on.
l pÕrsonollã feÕl thÐt our status in IifÕ is oftÕn a dirÕát
rÕsu|t of our ÕduáÐti onaI baákground.
A overÐll' it would seem thÐt both are as impÞrtÐnt as
ÕÐáh ÞthÕr.
ilr
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,ft
s
1"'
F -
í
6¿
@noáÚ
worri Õd
whi áh
n on ÕsI
si gnÐ l
áruái Ð l
sái ÕnáÕ
b u Il Õt
Kind
wrong
Wnã
hou r
si gn
tri Ðl
sárÕa m
gu i l t
&iving Your PrÞsÞntÐtion
9 GivÕ a prÕsentation (thrÕe to four minutes) using the
out|inÕ plÐn in 7' UsÕ the presentation áheákIist to hÕ|p
you.
PrÕsÕntÐti on áhÕák| i st
Þ Sti ák to thÕ Þrgani sÐti on Þf yoUr prÕsÕntati on. Thi s wi ||
hÕ|p you to prÕsÕnt ãour i dÕÐs á|Õarl ã.
Þ PrÕsÕnt morÕ thÐn onÕ poi nt of vi Õw. Thi s wi II show thÐt
your i nformÐti on i s not onÕ-si dÕd.
Þ UsÕ fÐáts or stÐti sti ás. Thi s wi II show ãour i dÕas arÕ bÐsÕd
on evi dÕnáe, not i mÐgi nati on.
. spÕÐk á|ÕÐrl ã Ðnd watáh your grammar, InáorrÕát
grammÐr áan i ntÕrfÕrÕ Wi th thÕ áommuni áati on of ãour
mÕssÐgÕ.
AneèÞring quÞetions about Iour PrasÞntation
,!CI lmagine you arÕ bÕing askÕd thÕ fo||owing quÕstions
about your presÕntation, how would you answÕr thÕm?
. Why di d you áhÞosÕ thi s tÞpi á?
o How hÐvÕ you formÕd yÞur opi ni ons?
. Whi áh gi vÕs bettÕr rÕsu|ts - hÐrd work or nÐturaI abi Ii tã?
. l s i t possi b|Õ to ovÕráomÕ a |Ðák Þf nÐtura| Ðbi l i ty by
hÐrd work?
. WhÐt shou|d bÕ rÕwÐrdÕd morÕ - Ðáhi ÕvÕmÕnt or hÐrd
work?
@
AáÐdettâiá
Ðttitudes
ln pairs' disáuss thÕsÕ quÕstions.
. Whi áh sáhool subj Õáts arÕ thÕ mÞst popu|ar i n ãour
álÐss?
. Whiáh subjÕáts do you find thÕ most diffiáu|t/thÕ ÕasiÕst?
whv?
. Whi áh subj Õáts do you do bÕttÕr i n whÕn you tÐke
Õxa m i nations?
Stèdyi ng the sampl Õ
Undsretanding the tÐsº
2 RÕad the text Ðnd answÕr the quÕstions. lgnorÕ thÕ gaps.
1 |s thÕ tÕXt Ð rÕport Þr Ðn argumÕnt?
2 DoÕs the tÕxt dÕsáribÕ rÕsÕaráh or persona| ÕxpÕriÕnáÕs?
3 |s thÕ tÕxt formal or i nforma|?
Last wÕÕk, a survÕy of 1',¾26 sÕáondary sáhÞol studÕnts
was áonduátÕd by thÕ National SpaáÕ SáiÕnáÕ CÕntrÕ in
LÕiáÕstÕr. Four out of five thotlght sáiÕnáÕ at sáhool was
boring, aÛd 90o/o áritiáisÕd thÕ way thÕy had bÕÕn taught
s sáiÕnáÕ. ¾nlã one studeßt iß 74 wantÕd to takÕ up a áarÕÕI
in sáiÕnáÕ.
StÕps to bettÕr wri ti ng
Prí×Þnting statistiás and informÐtion
6 CompIÕtÕ the sentenáes with suitabIÕ words.
1 A survÕy 2'000 studÕnts was - i n
LÕ | áÕste r.
2 On|y onÕ studÕnt 12 was i ntÕrÕstÕd
taking sáiÕnáÕ Ðs a áarÕÕr.
3 OvÕr twÞ thirds of thÕ áIass ÕåprÕssÕd Ðn intÕrÕst
Ðrt, áompÐrÕd ,1 5% who WÕre morÕ
attrÐátÕd historã.
4 Fi vÕ studÕnts of tÕn sai d thÕy thought
gÕogrÐphã was i ntÕrÕsting.
5 20o/o thÕ studÕnts whÞ wÕrÕ - in thÕ
survey produáÕd rathÕr nÕgati vÕ áommÕnts.
6 |t - thÐt most studÕnts ÐrÕ i ntÕrestÕd i n spÐáe
trÐVÕ|.
7 ÂhÕ sUrvÕy - that bi o|ogã i s thÕ onIã sái ÕnáÕ
subjÕát anã intÕrÕst.
B ° quÐrtÕr studÕnts sÐi d that sái ÕnáÕ wÐs
bori ng.
9 ThÕ mi nÞri ty that sái ÕnáÕ wÞu|d bÕ usÕfu|.
10 ThÕ rÕsu|ts-what had bÕÕn suspÕátÕd.
Using hÞadings
MÐtáh hÕÐdings Ð-Õ to paragraphs ,l-5.
a µnáourÐgi ng Ðn i ntÕrÕst i n sái ÕnáÕ
b Jobs whi áh ÐppeÐr to attraát studÕnts
á RÕaáti ons to thÕ fi ndi ngs of thÕ survÕy
d Subj Õáts whi áh i ntÕrÕst studÕnts
Õ What studÕnts hÐd to say
Sáan thÕ tÕxt and áhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát ÕxpIÐnÐtion for thÕ
words i n bol d.
'l thÕrÕ was a twi st tÞ a|| thi s (|i nÕ 7)
a Ðn unÕXpÕátÕd áoná|usi on b Ð hi ddÕn mÕÐni ng
2 Ð wi dÕ rangÕ of (|i ne 1·)
a Ðn unUsUÐ| áombi nÐti on
b Ð grÕÐt variÕtã of
3 rather nÕgati vÕ i n thÕi r tonÕ (|i nÕ 14)
Ð aImost non-Õxi stÕnt
4 dead bori ng (|i nÕ 15)
a ÕxtrÕmÕ|y (i nforma|)
b s|i ghtl y ári ti áÐ|
b sIi ghtl ã
5 not i n thÕ |Õast surpri sÕd' (|i ne21*2\
a j ust Ð |i tt|Õ
6 Ðs i t tÕnded to be (|i nÕ 31)
a was oftÕn
Matáh thÕ statistiás in itaIiás in
ÕxprÕssions a_Õ bÕIow.
a more... thÐn
b a majÞrity
á near|ã two thi rds
d most
Õ vÕry fÕw
b not at al l
b was rÐrÕ|y
thÕ tÕxt to thÕ
Ä
HowÕvÕæ thÕrÕ was a twist to all this: whÕn askÕd abÞut
thÕir ambitions, 4·o/o said thÕy would likÕ to bÕ
astlonauts, 2·o/o footballeâs, Some 650lo wantÕd to sÕÕ
somÕ form of spaáÕ sáiÕnáÕ introduáÕd into thÕ
ál assroom.
ÂhÕ studÕnts who wÕrÕ quÕstionÕd in thÕ survÕy
produáÕd a widÕ rangÕ of áommÕnts, somÕ rathÕr
nÕgativÕ in thÕir tonÕ. µxamplÕs ináludÕ: ,ThÕ
ÕxpÕrimÕnts arÕ good but thÕ rÕst is dÕad boring'; .I
don,t mind ÕxpÕrimÕnts but I hatÕ rÕáording rÕsults.,
½owÕvÕ1 onÕ áommÕnt Was muáh morÕ Õnáouraging: .I
Want to bÕ an astronaut, So I nÕÕd to gÕt all thÕ
knowlÕdgÕ I áan bÕáÐusÕ astlonauts must havÕ lots of
:: qualifiáations.,
4
RÕsÕaráhÕrs at thÕ SpaáÕ ÁÕntrÕ WÕrÕ not in thÕ lÕast
surprisÕd by thÕ flndings. ThÕy áonfirmÕd what had bÕÕn
suspÕátÕd for a long timÕ _ that astronomy, spaáÕ, and
thÕ origin of thÕ univÕrsÕ arÕ thÕ most important
-. subjeáts whÕn it áomÕs to attraáting young pÕoplÕ into
sáiÕnáÕ and maintaining thÕir intÕrÕSt.
(
It sÕÕms that a passion for sáiÕnáÕ áan bÕ maintainÕd by
Õnthusiastiá tÕaáhÕrs who highlight thÕ rÕlÕvanáÕ of thÕ
subjÕát in a modÕrn world and who áan overáomÕ thÕ
:; idÕa that sáiÕnáÕ is rÕprÕsÕntÕd by whitÕ-áoatÕd
aáadÕmiás, as it tÕndÕd to bÕ in thÕ past.
GuÐrdiÐn EduáÐtioß
Usi ng thÕ passi vÕ
? SáÐn thÕ text Ðnd undÕr|inÕ six examplÕs of thÕ passive.
WhÐt tensÕs arÕ thÕ pÐssivÕ vÕrbs in? Why is the passivÕ
sui tÐbl Õ for Ð rÕport of thi s ki nd?
& RÕwritÕ thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáÕs in the pÐssive. UsÕ thÕ
bÕgi nni ngs gi ven.
1 PÕop|Õ áÐrri Õd oUt Ð sUrVÕã.
A survÕy .. '
µnthusi asti á tÕÐáhÕrs had grÕÐt|ã moti vatÕd studÕnts.
StudÕnts ...
ÂhÕy wi II pubIi sh thÕ fi ndi ngs of thÕ survÕã nÕxt wÕÕk
ThÕ fi ndi ngs ...
WÕ áÐn ÕnáouragÕ studÕnts to tÐkÕ morÕ i ntÕrÕst l n
sái Õnti fi á subj Õáts. StudÕnts ...
PÕopIÕ oftÕn sÐã sái ÕnáÕ i s bori ng. Sái ÕnáÕ ...
PÕop|Õ oftÕn thought sái enáÕ wÐs di ffi áuIt. Sái ÕnáÕ ...
Wri ti ng about data
#*
*
t&
a
#
₠*
"µ₠
,g·
5
6
Undsrstandirrg the tasK
You ÐrÕ going to áarrã out Ð áIÐss surveã to find out whÐt
kind of jobs studÕnts wÞuId Iike to do when thÕy leavÕ
sáhooI, thÕn wri te about your fi ndi ngs.
l n groups, brai nstorm what i nformÐti on you wi |I nÕÕd,
thÕn design a quÕstionnairÕ to find the informÐtion. You
wi II nÕÕd spaáÕ for both quÕsti ons Ðnd rÕsu|ts. Use thÕ
i deas from eaáh group to dÕsi gn ãour fi naI quÕsti onnai rÕ'
RÕáord your findings by asking studÕnts to rÐisÕ thÕir
hands whÕn thÕ survey quÕsti ons arÕ ÐskÕd, thÕn
áÐ|áuIatÕ thÕ pÕráÕntages of students for Õaáh quÕstion.
Ask i ndi vi duaI students for somÕ personaI áomments.
MakÕ Ð notÕ of thÕm.
Pl anni ng
·· In the samÕ groups' pl an your rÕport.
,l DÕái dÕ how many pÐragrÐphs your rÕport wi l I hÐvÕ
2 DÕái dÕ what to i nál udÕ i n ÕÐáh pÐragrÐph.
3 DÕái dÕ whi áh studÕnt áommÕnts to i nál udÕ i n ãour
rÕport. Âry to áhoosÕ at lÕÐst two diffÕrÕnt kinds of
áommÕnts.
\ttriting
µxÐltláÓÐittitlgt
PrÕsenting datÐ
As wÕ|I Ðs prÕsÕnti ng dÐta, trã to draw sÞmÕ áonál usi ons
from your fi ndi ngs.
,µ₠" writÕ ãour intÕrprÕtation (200_250 words).
Þ PrÕsÕnt yÞur stÐti sti ás á|ÕÐrl ã Ðnd Iogi áÐ||ã
. Show nÕgÐti vÕ and posi ti vÕ atti tudÕs.
. SuggÕsted Ðn ovÕra|| áoná|usi on.
LhoáYing
₠ ± ÁhÕák that you havÕ:
. i ná|udÕd somÕ pÕrsonal áommÕnts.
Þ mÕnti onÕd your rÕÐáti on(s) to thÕ fi ndi ngs.
o gi vÕ sÕáti ons hÕÐdi ngs.
. writtÕn thÕ right amount (200-250 words).
@
Thi rd áondi ti onal
1 (ompIÕtÕ thÕ sentenáÕs with the áorrÕát form of thÕ vÕrb
in brÐákets.
1 lf wÕ (know) yÞu wÕrÕ in tÞwn |Ðst wÕÕkÕnd, wÕ
(invitÕ) you to dinnÕr.
|f l - (pÐss) my driving tÕst |Ðst wÕÕk, I
(buy) Ð sÕáond-hÐnd áÐr.
WhÐt - (ãÞu/do) if Bi|| - (Ðsk) you to mÐrry
him ãÕstÕrdÐã?
|f the áar (not brÕak down), WÕ - (nÞt bÕ
|atÕ) for our ÐppointmÕnt last FridÐy.
l - (givÕ) you SÐm's phonÕ numbÕr if you -
(ask) mÕ - but ãou didn't.
2 RewritÕ sÕntenáÕs 1_6 using thÕ third áonditionÐ].
1 MÐri Ð di dn't go on hoIi dÐy bÕáÐusÕ shÕ di dn't havÕ
Õnough monÕy.
|f MÐri a ...
2 WÕ didn't seÕ thÕ áonáert beáÐusÕ wÕ didn,t book tiákÕts
i n advÐnáÕ.
|f wÕ ...
3 ÂhÕ po|i áÕ di dn't áÐtáh thÕ thi Õf sÞ he di dn,t go tÞ j Ði |.
rf ...
4 | was Ðb|Õ to wÐtáh thÕ fiIm bÕáÐusÕ l found my gIÐssÕs.
rf ...
5 MÐtt di dn,t buy thÕ áÐr beáÐusÕ i t was toÞ ÕxpÕnsi vÕ.
l\4att ...
6 ÂhÕy had Ðn Ðáái dÕnt bÕáÐusÕ thÕy wÕrÕn't dri vi ng
áa rÕfu I Iv.
rf ...
3 CompIÕtÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 1_7 using the prompts and thÕ modaI
verb in braákets.
1 |f you hÐd toId MÐtt Ðbout your prob|Õm,he l offer l
hÕl p. (mi ght)
2 Âheã / áatáh / thÕ trÐin if thÕã hÐd gÞt up ÕÐr|iÕr. (might)
3 |f ãou hÐd invitÕd JÕss to thÕ party, shÕ / áomÕ. (wou|d)
4 lf you wÐnted to pass your exam, ãou / rÕvisÕ morÕ'
(shoul d)
5 l f thÕy di dn't want to mi ss thÕ shoé they l arri vÕ ÕÐrl i Õr.
(ought tÞ)
6 ÂhÕ Ðth|Õte l wi n l the rÐáÕ i f he hadn't i ni urÕd hi msÕIf.
(áou Id)
7 Á|are l be l a good vi o|i n p|Ðyer i f shÕ hÐdn,t gi vÕn i t up.
(áou ld)
ltlishÕs Ðnd rÕgrÕts
4 RewritÕ sÕntÕnáes 1_8 using t utish or lf onlã.
1 BrvÐn Was sorrv that he left sáhoo| at 16.
Brãan wi shÕs ...
2 l t's unfortunatÕ thÐt BÕn di dn,t gÕt thÕ j Þb.
3
4
5
|f on|ã ...
UnfortunatÕ|y Âi nÐ brokÕ hÕr |Õg whÕn shÕ was ski i ng
Ti na wi shÕs ...
l fÕÕ| awfuI about forgÕtting PÐm,s birthdÐy.
I wi sh ...
I rÕgrÕt not trÐveIling Ðbroad whÕn I WÐs youngÕr.
l f onl ã ...
l t's a shamÕ thÐt WÕ áouIdn't go to thÕ mountÐi ns Iast
wÕÕkÕnd.
WÕ wi sh ...
7 N,{Ðrtin missÕd thÕ bus Ðnd wÐs IÐtÕ fÞr sáhooI
MÐrti n wi shÕs...
8 JÕnny forgot to loák thÕ door of hÕr flÐt.
If onl ã ...
@
Readi ng
5 First read thÕ tÕxt and áÞmplÕtÕ it with thÕ áorreát form
of the vÕrbs in brÐákÕts, ÂhÕn dÕáidÕ if thÕ statemÕnts
bÕIow arÕ true (Â) or faIsÕ (F).
If Admiral ShovÕll , - (know) thÕ
position of his ship in \7o7 , hÕ, - (not
bÕ) shipwrÕákÕd. But in thÕ ÕightÕÕnth
áÕntury, it was vÕry diffiáult to work out
longitudÕ (Õast/wÕst position) at sÕa.
AftÕr Admiral ShovÕll,s shipwrÕák, a sum of
monÕy was offÕrÕd for anyonÕ whÞ áould solvÕ
thÕ problÕm of longitudÕ. An important
astronomÕæ NÕvil ¼askÕlynÕ, was thÕ judgÕ.
A master áarpÕntÕr, John Harrison, had thÕ
idÕa of using timÕ to mÕasurÕ longitudÕ. If a
áloák was sÕt to London timÕ, sailors áould
work out how far Õast or wÕst thÕy wÕrÕ from
London by áaláulating thÕir timÕ from thÕ sun.
If thÕ judgÕ ..- (not bÕ) an astronomÕr,
hÕ . - (not rÕfusÕ) to bÕliÕvÕ thÕ
problÕm áould bÕ solvÕd with a áloák.
If HarrisÞn .'- (bÕ) a wÕalthy, ÕduáatÕd
man, MaskÕlynÕ .'- (takÕ) him morÕ
sÕriously. Although Harrison,s áloák provÕd
aááuratÕ on many voyagÕs, ¼askÕlynÕ always
found rÕasons not to pay him thÕ prizÕ monÕy.
Finally, aftÕr hÕ had bÕÕn woâking on thÕ
problÕm of longitudÕ for fifty yÕars, Harrison
appÕal Õd to thÕ Ki ng. I³ hÕ - - (not ask)
thÕ King for hÕlp, hÕ u - (nÕvÕr gÕt) thÕ
prizÕ monÕy.
¿ Admi rÐ| Shovel l was shi pwrÕákÕd beáÐusÕ hÕ áou|dn't
áÐl ául atÕ l ongi tudÕ.
¿ John ½arri sÞn workÕd out thÐt sÐi |Þrs nÕÕdÕd to know
thÕ ti me i n LÞndon i n ÞrdÕr to áa|áu|ÐtÕ thÕi r posi ti on
ÐÂ SÕa.
¿ ThÕ ÐstronomÕr MÐskÕ|ynÕ di dn't tÐkÕ thÕ prob|em Þf
l Þngi tudÕ sÕri ous|ã Õnough.
¿ |\4ÐskÕ|ãnÕ áoul dn't pÐy HÐrri son bÕáÐusÕ hi s á|oák
di dn't kÕÕp good ti mÕ.
¿ HÐrrison nÕvÕr rÕáÕivÕd thÕ rÕwÐrd'
Itrriting
6 WritÕ Ðbout anothÕr sáientifiá disáovÕry. Use thÕse
questions to hÕ|p you.
. WhÐt prob|Õms wÕrÕ thÕ sái Õnti st(s) tryi ng to so|vÕ?
. WhÐt diffiáu|tiÕs did thÕ sáiÕntist(s) hÐvÕ in gÕtting
rÕáognition for thÕir work?
Þ How di d thÕã fi nÐIl y suááÕÕd?
. WhÐt wou|d hÐvÕ hÐppÕnÕd i f thÕ di sáovÕrã had not
bÕÕn rÕáÞgnisÕd?
Li steni ßg
7 áC6Jí.s You ÐrÕ going to hÕar a disáussion on mÕmory.
First, rÕÐd through statÕmÕnts 1-4. ThÕn listÕn and
áhoose the bÕst option, a, b, á, or d.
1 ÂhÕ bÕst wÐã to rÕmÕmbÕr Ð |i st of thi ngs i s
Ð to prÐáti sÕ rÕmÕmbÕri ng.
b to |ÕÐrn somÕ tÕáhni quÕs'
á to dÞ nothi ng.
d to rÕpÕat the Ii st mÐny ti mÕs.
2 WÞrki ng memorã i s good for rÕmÕmbÕri ng
a Ð |Þt of thi ngs i n grÕat dÕtÐi |.
b Ð fÕw thi ngs for a short ti mÕ.
á Ð |Þt of thi ngs ovÕr Ð pÕri od Þf ti me.
d Ð fÕw thi ngs on Ð regu|Ðr bÐsi s.
.µ|ÐbÞrÐti vÕ enáodi ng, i s Ð way of
a rÕmÕmbÕri ng Ð |ong Ii st of thi ngs.
b i mprovi ng ãÞur worki ng mÕmorã.
á movi ng thi ngs i nto your l ong tÕrm mÕmory
d rÕmÕmbÕring a story'
PÕop|e usÕ storiÕs to
a hÕ|p thÕm rÕmÕmbÕr randÞm i tÕms.
b Õxp|ai n thÕ áonnÕáti on betwÕÕn i tÕms.
á amUsÕ thÕmsÕl vÕs.
d rÕmÕmbÕr thÕ ÞrdÕr of thÕ pl anÕts.
tr9
1
2
3
4
5
6
B
thÞughtfu I
of ãÞu to buy HÕathÕr Ð birthday
to writÕ Ð good ÐdvÕnturÕ
4 Answer thÕse quÕstions.
1 WhÕn wÐs thÕ |ast ti mÕ you hÐd |o tÞkÕ báák somÕthi ng
yÞu sÐi d?
2 Do ãou |ike tÞking on eåIra rÕsponsibilitiÕs Ðt sáhoo|?
· Do ãou fi nd Engl i sh grÐmmÐr ÕÐsã to tÐkÕ i n?
4 Who do ãou tÐkÕ ÐftÕr most in ãour fami|ã?
?rÞpositiona
5 Comp|ÕtÕ thÕsÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát preposition.
* Ðt * for * from * 6f * {6 * 1yi{fi
1 l f the pi gÕÞns áhosÕ thÕ áorrÕát ansWÕr, they wÕrÕ
rÕwardÕd - food.
2 ThÕ Ðmount ti mÕ thÕ ÕxpÕri mÕnt tÞok wÐs
IongÕr than ÕåpÕátÕd.
3 RÕsÕÐráhÕrs |ookÕd Ð|| thÕ Õvi dÕnáÕ. thÕn áamÕ
to Ð áonáIusi on.
Mi áhÕ||Õ was suffÕri ng Ð tÕrri b|Õ hÕÐdaáhÕ
ShÕ'd spÕnt hours i n front of hÕr áomputÕr.
It took DÐni Õ| Ð |ons ti mÕ to work out Ð soIuti Þn
thÕ prob|Õm
Domi ni á 0,Bri Õn i s fÐmous
mÕmory.
hi s phenomÕnÐ|
2
3
4
b Þpportuni ty á fortunÕ
for
All
á áÐrrl Õd Þut
good mÕmÞry Ðnd
á wi th
a gÐVÕ b won
7 RÕsÕÐráhÕrs intÕrviÕwÕd Ð -
bÕforÕ thÕy wrotÕ thÕi r rÕporl'.
a |argÕ b wi dÕ
á hÐd
rÐngÕ of studÕnts
á wi dth
Ælord building
ÁompIÕte thÕ tablÕ with thÕ áorrÕát form of the wÞrds.
UsÕ Ð diátionary to heIp you if neáÕssary.
vÕrb noun
ÅÅX i ntÕ||i gÕnáÕ
adjÕáti ve
to thi nk
to mÕmÞri sÕ
know|ÕdgÕab|Õ
ImagInÐâ|on
to i nform
áonáÕntratÕd
áonfusi ng
(ompIÕtÕ thÕsÕ sentenáÕs with thÕ áÞrrÕát form of Ð
suitab|e word from thÕ tabIe in 1.
1 Âhe ÕxpÕrimÕnt sÕÕmÕd to show that pigÕons WÕrÕ morÕ
thÐn Ðrt studÕnts whÕn i t áÐmÕ to art
2 Áan ãou turn thÕ radi o off? l'm fi ndi ng i t di ffi áUIt
HavÕ you Õver tri Õd a 2O-di gi t numbÕr?
|\4Ðrk i s VÕry - Ðbout áomputÕrs' HÕ he|pÕd mÕ
fix mã PÁ.
It was _
prÕsÕnt.
You nÕÕd a |ot o{
story.
7 Your di rÕáti ons fÞr fi ndi ng thÕ hotÕI WerÕ VÕr,
I got l ost.
8 ÂhÕ book on how to i mprovÕ your mÕmory WÐs VÕrã
ThÕrÕ wÐs Ð |ot of oraátiáÐI ÐdviáÕ
PhraeÐl verbs wi!,h tÐKa
3 Matáh thÕ phrÐsal vÕrbs in italiás to thÕir meÐnings a_f.
.l SuÕ found it Õasã to tÐkÕ in whÐt thÕ tÕÐáhÕr wÐs sÐying
She wÐs vÕry good Ðt mÐths.
2 RÐáhel tookto Âi m i mmÕdi ÐtÕIv. ÂhÕv had thÕ sÐmÕ
hobbi Õs Ðnd i ntÕrÕsts.
· 7oñ sÐid GarÕth wÐs usÕ|ess at hoákÕy. ShÕ had to tÐkÕ
bÐák her words whÕn hÕ sáorÕd Ð goÐ|.
4 WhÕn hÕ missÕd thÕ footbÐ|| mÐtáh, ¼aIttook it out on
a
b
á
d
Õ
T
hi s gi rl fri Õnd. l t was hÕr fÐu|t thÕy arri vÕd |ÐtÕ.
LukÕ wÐs kÕÕn tÞ tÐkÕ on morÕ work Ðnd ÕÐrn his
promoti on.
LisÐ is rÕa||y good Ðt sáiÕnáÕs. ShÕ tÐkes Ðt'tÕr her father
Ðdmi t ãou arÕ Wrong
|ook or bÕhavÕ |i kÕ a mÕmbÕr of your fÐmi |y
takÕ rÕsponsi bi Ii ty for somÕthi ng
bÕhavÕ bÐd|y towÐrds somÕonÕ bÕáÐusÕ ãoU ÐrÕ upsÕt
I i kÕ sÞmÕthi ng/somÕonÕ
undÕrstand somÕthi ng
Words that go togÞthÞr
6 áhoosÕ the áorrÕát word or phrasÕ to áomplete thÕ
sÕntenáÕs.
.l JoÕ ÐááÕptÕd thÕ job offer. |t wÐs Ð go|den
hi m.
a ánÐnáÕ
a fortunÕ wÐsn't i mportÐnt to thÕ sái Õnti st.
hÕ wÐntÕd was rÕáÞgni ti on for hi s work.
a Doi ng
b ÁrÕÐti ng á N4Ðki ng
· ÂhÕ áompany Ð sUrVÕã on thÕ popu|Ðri ty of
sáiÕnáÕ su bjÕáts.
a áÐrri Õd Þn b áarri Õd off
4 l s thÕrÕ Ð áonnÕáti on a
i ntÕl I igÕnáÕ?
Ð bÕtwÕÕn b aáross
5 AIÕxandÕr F|Õmi ng di sáovÕrÕd pÕni ái Il i n
aáá|0ÕnÂ
a0ã
b for
á wtth
WhÕn shÕ was i n F|ori da, Fi onÐ thÕ opportuni tã
to vi si t thÕ KÕnnÕdy SpaáÕ ÁÕntrÕ.
@
VsteTfodern
RÕad thÕ tÕxt and dÕáidÕ if thÕsÕ stÐtemÕnts arÕ true (Â) or fÐlsÕ (F). ÁorrÕát the
faIsÕ statÕments.
1 ¿ ÂÐtÕ |VodÕrn hÐs bÕÕn bui |t nÕåt to Ð powÕr stÐti on.
2 ¿ You áÐn sÕÕ many di ffÕrÕnt ki nds of arti sti á stãl es Ðt ÂÐte N/odÕrn.
3 ¿ ÂhÕ Ðráhi teáts of thÕ nÕw gÐ||Õrã WÕrÕ not Bri ti sh.
4 ¿ ÂhÕ mÐi n ÕntranáÕ tÞ thÕ gÐ||Õrã faáÕs thÕ ri vÕr ÂhÐmÕs.
5 ¿ Vi si tors ÕntÕr thÕ gal |Õri Õs bã waIki ng up Ð fl i ght Þf stÐi rs.
6 ¿ ThÕ bui l di ng has gIÐss si dÕs ovÕr|Þoki ng thÕ ThÐmÕs.
7 ¿ At TÐtÕ N4odÕrn you áan hÐvÕ a mÕal and a wondÕrful vi Õw at thÕ samÕ ti mÕ.
8 ¿ µvÕn i f ãou work fu||-ti mÕ, you wi || bÕ ab|Õ to vi si t thÕ gÐ|l Õry
9 ¿ ThÕ bui Idi ng i s dÕsi gnÕd wi th thÕ di sÐb|Õd i n mi nd.
10 ¿ ThÕrÕ i s an ÕntrÐnáÕ fÕÕ for adu|ts.
Disabted faáilities
. WhÕeláhair aááess
. Heari ng i mpai rÕd
. Visualtã imàairÕd
. Gui dÕ dogs WetáomÕ
. Disabled toitÕts
Thi s i s a pi áture of thÕ ki nd of art
that ÂÐte MÞdern ÞftÕn displaãs. ln
smaIl groups, di sáuss what you
thi nk of art Ii kÕ thi s.
Ì
t.
!\
s
TÐte trAodern is Britain,s new national museum of modern art. lt is housed in the
iffi :ffi;";. ;;;; ;;;; ;;;; banks of the River ThÐmes. The gallery
;.,,hy;; *",iÐ f;;;;;;'i" .otÙ.tion of international modern and
áontem pora ry aß' i nárii'Ù ; ;Ù;;; il.;"Ù.;; ;i.asso, oÐti, Roth ko Ð ßd
Warhol' as well Ðs other áontemporary *o'n;o into Âate Moärn ìy swiss
Bankside Power StÐtion was .transform
aráhiteáts. âìe rormeriurìinÕ Ýatt' 'ulllnY the whole tength of the building
paraller to the ,i".,, no* iorms a Ùreath11Úins entrÐnáe to the gallery. From
here, visitor. ,," ,*Ù up ìy esáalator through two floors.featuring.Ð áafñ,
;;;; ;;;;;iil.ir. il il,i"" i.u"r, of gaueries. At the top of the buildins is a
new two.storey gtÐss- Ùi wìiáì noi onty provides .natural light. into the
;;.i"il; "i iì¡ t±p floor, but atso houses a stunning áafñ offering outstanding
",il:;..l,":',li",'ilÌ of speáiat exhibitionsÐnd.a broad py.b.ç.|j"g-liiT::j
"u"ii,_.ì,ousìout it'. y;"r. ÂÐte lvlode.rn is Ð[so open..lÐte on -Ó11dav 1nd
SÐturday evenings, "nj, .'iì. summernights draw near, it is an exáellent time
;;;;;il;;i;iii;., ;;i; ; gÐllery talk or simply browse in the shop.
FÐáitities
. Groups aááÕpted
. µduáati onaI vi si ts
rE9tffiiäA .
Talking about your áountry
,:. Answer the following questions
about your áountry.
1 WhÐt ki nd of Ðrt gÐ||Õri Õs
Õxist wherÕ you IivÕ?
2 HÞw popuIÐr ÐrÕ thÕã?
3 What othÕr ki nds Þf
mUsÕUms ÐrÕ thÕrÕ?
4 |s therÕ Ðn Õntry áhargÕ?
(How muáh i s i t?)
5 How i mportÐnt do ãou thi nk
i t i s to i ntroduáÕ ãoun8
pÕopl Õ to Ðrt Ðnd áuIturÕ?
@
1 Look Ðt thÕ piáturÕs and ÐnswÕr thÕ quÕstions.
1 ÂhÕ two pÕopl Õ i n thÕsÕ phÞtographs ÐrÕ RÞmÕo Ðnd
Jul i Õt. What happÕns to thÕ two áhÐrÐátÕrs i n
ShÐkÕspÕarÕ's pIay?
2 Whã dÞ you thi nk thi s ki nd of stÞrã i ntÕrÕsts pÕop|Õ?
3 WhÐt sÐári fi áÕs wÞuId ãou mÐkÕ to bÕ wi th thÕ onÕ ãou
IovÕd?
Love'ot,qJrersÐrr L¾vµ. II\I A
llÞt álirl,í¹t₠
l It had Õvárything a film studio áoulá] drÕam ol not only Ð
álÕan-áut hÕrÞ Ðnd an Õåártiá hÕroinÕ, Ìut also lovÕ aárÞss thÕ
dividÕ - in short, thÕ story of a mÞdÕrn RomÕo and }uliÕt. ½Õ
wirs Ð 25-yÕar-old AmáriáÐn m:irinÕ, Ð LiÕutánÐnt ÁorpoÓÐl
áal l Õd jÐson JÞhnson' ShÕ was Ð 19.yáÐr-ol d AraÌ pri náÕss
áÐllád MÕrian. WhÕn tháir ÕyÕs mÕt iß a áÓowdÕd shopping
mall in BÐhrain, it was lovÕ Ðt first sight. WhÕn hÕr ³Ðmiiy
disáÞvÕrÕd thá áourtsÌip, MÕrian wÐs áonfinÕd to hÕr homÕ
Ìut thÕ romÐnáÕ áontinuÕd Ìy tÕlÕphonÕ. FinÐlly, thÕ áouplÕ
dááidÕd tÞ flÕÕ Ðnd mÐkÕ thÕir livÕs togÕthÕr in thÕ USA. It
mÐy sound likÕ a sáript ³or a film Ìut this ÞnÕ is * morÕ oÓ lÕss
_ a truÕ story.
2 fason knÕw that US marinÕs did not hÐvÕ to sholv Ð PassÀÞÓt
to láavÕ BÐhrain sÞ hÕ forgÕd doáumÕnts ³or N{árian so thÐt
shÕ would aÀpÕÐr to ÌÕ Ð mÕmÌÕr of thÕ marinÕ áorDs.
¼Õrian wÐs kittÕt] out in sloppy, Ì"ggy AmÕriáÐn .lothÕ,.
ShÕ hi Ll hÕr l ong hri Ó undÕr Ð NÕw Yurk YÐnkÕÕs ÌÐsÕÌÐl I
áap Ðnrl togÕthÕÓ Óháy ÌÞÐrdÕd a Hi ght to Chi áago.
3 AftÕr ÌÕißg rÕláasÕd Ìy thÕ immigration ,.*i.- whilÕ a
dÕáision wÐs madÕ Ðs to whÕthÕr ,Ù. *ould Ìá Ðllo*Õd to
st:l y i n thÕ USA. thÕ pri náÕss mÐÓri Õd thá meri ßÕ. l Ðson. ÓhÕ
sÞn of Ð áÕmÕnt truák <lrivÕÓ' ÌÐd to mÐkÕ saárifiáÕs tÞ ì. "ìt.
to marrã MÕrian. ½Õ was dÕmÞtÕd tÞ tÌÕ Óank o³PrivÐtÕ fÞr
Ìringing Ðn illÕgÐl immigrant into thÕ áountry Ìut is still
sÕÓvi ng at hi s uni t.s ÌasÕ i n ÁnIi ÊÓni Ð. whárÕ thÕ áoupl Õ now
l i vÕ. ÂÕáhni áÐl l ã. ¼Õri Ðn áÞul d sri l l ÌÕ dÕportÕd. ávÕn though
shÕ is marriád to a US áitizen.
4 A kÕy figurÕ in thÕ lovÕrs. sroÓy is Tom ÁolÌÕrt, thÕ prÕsidÕnt
Þ³l áompÐny rhÐr pÓomotÕs stoÓi Õs rhat fi.,t,pp.,..d i n IoáaI
nÕWsPÐpÕrs Ìy pIeái ng thÕm on ÂV Ðnd i n nÐÓi ál nÐl
nÕWspaPÕÓs rnd mÐgazi nÕs. Áol ÌÕrt aÓrangÕd foÓ Ð áontÐát.
¼ary AlÞÕ, to sign up thÕ film rights to thÕir stÞry.
5 .I fÕl l i n l ovÕ wi th thÕm,'sÐi d Al oÕ. .Tháy ará an awÕsomÕ
áÞuàlÕ. ThÕir story hÐs ÕvÕrything. It,s Ð thrillÕr Ðnd thÕÓÕ
, áÞuld ÌÕ thrÕÕ diffÕrÕßt Õndings. ThÕy áould lir,Õ hÐppily
ÕvÕr a³tÕr Ðnd {ind out thÐt hÕr family sÕárÕtly ,uppo...j ì..'
Or sÌá áould ÌÕ sÕnt Ìaák Ðnd h. h", io l.. ì., go. Ì' .ì.,'.""
indÕpÕnálÕnt Woman who rÕaiisÕs that, although shÕ lovÕs
Jason, nÞw that shÕ's in AmÕriáa shÕ wÐnts to Ùou" on. No
mÐttÕr what thÕ ándi ng i s. i t.s sti l l :l grÕat movi Õ!'
',t
]:::
.t::
RÕadi ng
2 Skim read thÕ text and find out why thÕ story refÕrs to
Romeo and Jul i et.
3 Sáan thÕ tÕxt and áhoosÕ the bÕst answÕr' a' b' á, or d, to
quÕstions .l_6.
,l WhÐt doÕs thÕ word i t refÕr to i n |i nÕ 1?
a thÕ fi |m studi o
b thÕ °mÕri áan mari nÕ áorps
á thÕ áoup|Õ's storã
d the p|aã RomÕo Ðnd JuliÕt
2 Jason and |\4Õri an fÕII i n |ÞvÕ whÕn thÕy
a WÕrÕ studãing togethÕr.
b wÕrÕ worki ng on a fi |m togÕthÕr.
á Went to sÕÕ thÕ p|aã RomÕo Ðnd JuliÕt.
d noti áÕd ÕÐáh other i n Ð busy p|aáÕ.
3 How di d MÕri an managÕ to fl ÕÕ tÞ thÕ USA?
Ð ShÕ Ð|rÕÐdã hÐd an AmÕri áÐn vi sÐ.
b ShÕ áÐrri Õd papÕrs provi ng shÕ was sÕrvi ng as Ðn
AmÕri áan mari nÕ.
á ShÕ ÞrÕtÕndÕd to bÕ Ð mÕmbÕr of Ð bÐsÕbÐ|| tÕÐm.
d ShÕ had hÕr hÐi r áut short to makÕ hÕr |Þok morÕ
Ameri áÐn.
4 What hÐppÕnÕd i mmÕdi ÐtÕ|y aftÕr thÕ áoupIe arri vÕd i n
Áh i áÐgo?
a |\4Õri Ðn was dÕtÐi nÕd bã thÕ i mmi grati on authori ti Õs.
b ÂhÕ áoup|Õ tol d j Ðson's fÐmi |ã thÕy wÕrÕ gÕtti ng
ÕngagÕ0.
á JÐson was di sáhÐrgÕd from thÕ US mÐri nÕs.
d Jason got Ð j ob Ðs a áemÕnt truák dri vÕr.
5 What dÞÕs Tom ÁoIbert dÞ for a Ii vi ng?
Ð HÕ works for a IoáaI nÕWspapÕr.
b HÕ runs hi s own ÁompÐnã.
á HÕ owns a ÂV áomÞanv.
d HÕ produáes fi |m adaptÐti ons of pIÐãs.
6 Why doÕs Mary A|oÕ thi nk thÕ story wÞuId makÕ a grÕÐt
movl Õ?
a ÂhÕ story hÐs thrÕÕ di ffÕrÕnt Õndi ngs.
b ÂhÕ mÐi n áhÐrÐátÕr i s Ðn i ndÕpÕndÕnt Woman.
á ÂhÕ storã offÕrs mÐny i ntÕrÕsti ng possi bi Ii ti Õs.
d ÂhÕ storã i s si mi l Ðr to a suááÕssfuI AmÕri áan thri ||er.
4 ln groups, disáuss what aspÕáts of dividÕd loyalties thÕ
text bri ngs up, Ðnd how you thi nk the story wi l I end.
Voáabul ary
Lovs Ðnd romanág
5 ExpIÐin what thÕsÕ words Ðnd phrÐsÕs from thÕ tÕxt
mÕÐn. UsÕ a diátionary if nÕáessÐry.
'l IovÕ aáross thÕ di vi dÕ
2 IovÕ at first sight
3 áou rtshi Þ
4 romanáÕ
5 fÕ|| i n l ovÕ wi th
6 Ii vÕ happi Iy ÕvÕr ÐftÕr
Uìaì of mÐKa
6 MÐtáh thÕ uses of makÕ 1_5 to thÕ ÕxpIanations a_Õ.
1 makÕ saárifiáÕs a go towards
2 mÐkÕ for b |augh at somÕbody
3 makÕ sÞmÕbodã do á do rÕgu|arl ã
4 mÐkÕ fun of d foráÕ sÞmÕbody to do
5 makÕ Ð habi t of e gi vÕ onÕ thi ng up for
anothÕr
7 ÁompIetÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáes with the áorrÕát form of onÕ of
thÕ phrases with mÐke from 6. There is onÕ phrase you do
not nÕÕd.
1 WhÕn thÕ p|ÐnÕ |Ðnded, thÕ passÕngÕrs - thÕ
passport áontroI offi áÕ.
2 It is oftÕn nÕáÕssary to -to bÕ Ðb|Õ to gÕt What
yÞu wÐnt i n Ii fÕ.
3 DÞn't ÂÕd. HÕ,s trãi ng hi s bÕst to bÕ sÕri Þusl
4 WhÕn thÕ áhi |drÕn WÕrÕ ãoUngÕr, WÕ - spÕndi ng
our hol i days i n thÕ mountÐi ns.
MaÒáulino and fsmining noun6
8 ÁompIÕtÕ thÕ tab|e wi th thÕ masáuIi nÕ and fÕmi ni ne
Õqui vÐIents of thÕsÕ nouns.
MasáuIi nÕ nouns
Femi ni nÕ nouns
pri náÕss
nÕro
so n-in - |Ðw
n|ÕáÕ
ÐáIor
q uÕÕn
¡.,
Ôt
6fi
.*
$
1
2
3
4
f
6
a
I
l i on
bul l
Whiáh of these áonfliáting points of viÕw is áIosÕst to what
you think? Why?
. FÐmi |ã ti Õs arÕ thÕ most i'mportant thi ngs i n Ii fÕ.
. A pÕrson's j ob or Õduáati on pIays Ð morÕ i mportÐnt ro|Õ
i n thÕi r l i fÕ thÐn pÕrsonÐI rÕ|ati onshi ps.
ReportÕd speeáh
Q×liáI<quiz
1 Answer thesÕ quÕstions.
1 How many typÕs of rÕportÕd spÕÕáh arÕ thÕrÕ?
2 WhÐt áhangÕs do you nÕÕd to makÕ whÕn turni ng
dirÕát spÕÕáh into rÕportÕd spÕÕáh?
2 Âhis piáture shows thÕ rÕ-ÕnaátmÕnt of a famous
historiáaI batt|Õ. Why do you think pÕopIÕ enjoy tÐking
part in Õvents IikÕ this?
I
I
I
Roporting etatÞmÞnte I
3 John is a rÕ.enaátor. RÕad thÕ nÕwspapÕr áutting Ðnd then I
rÕport his statements ,I_6. UsÕ thÕ vÕrbs in braákÕts and I
mÐke anã neáÕssary áhangÕs. l
,,1
&l
RÕ-enaátmÕnts of famous battlÕs from thÕ t. ]
Ameriáan Áivil Waâ arÕ frÕquÕnt. onÕ rÕ- ;
enaátment of thÕ battle of MulÕ ShoÕ bÕtwÕÕn 1
thÕ South and thÕ North in 1864 took plaáÕ ;
ovÕr thrÕÕ days and attlaáted 7,000 rÕ-Õnaátors i
and 20,000 SpÕátators.
*À'**
* *q***Ðg*,#***-ï
µåÐmple
.YÕs, thÕ bÐtt|Õ today doÕs look fiÕráÕ., (admit)
dahn Ðdmittod thÐt tho bÐttlo thÐt daã looKed fieráe.
1 .ThÕ battIÕ stÐrtÕd thi s morni ng whÕn i t was sti || mi stã.'
(tÕ||)
2 .You sÕÕ, thÕ rÕ-enaátmÕnt i s on|ã part of thi s wÕÕkÕnd,s
ÕntÕrtai n mÕnt.' (ÕxpIÐi n)
3 .I takÕ my ro|Õ pIayi ng sÕri ousl ã - ãÕs, I do.' (Ðdmi t)
4 .µvÕryonÕ áhoosÕs to be a historiáa| áhÐraátÕr who was
si mi Iar i n ÐgÕ or baákground., (say)
5 .WÕ wÞul d nÕvÕr, Ðnd I mÕÐn nÕver, áhangÕ thÕ
áhÐrÐátÕr wÕ havÕ áhosÕn., (i nsi st)
6 °átuÐI|ã, WÕ'rÕ rÕmÕmbÕri ng thÕ dÐãs whÕn wÕ hÐd tÞ
fi ght for a áausÕ.' (makÕ i t á|Õar)
BÞporting verb$ uith .iß9
4 Look at the eåampIÕs Ðnd the ru|Õ. Âhen report thÕ
statements using a suitabIe vÕrb from thÕ Iist.
a ,Let,e go to the áinoma,, ìÐid Luáã.
Luáã suggested going to the áinomÐ.
b .You told ¼ÐrÚ mã seára|!, {ennã sÐid to Peler.
{onnã ocáused Petor of telling ¼ÐrK her Òeáret.
Rul e
AftÕr áÕrtÐi n reporti ng vÕrbs wÕ usÕ a gerund. SomÕ of thÕ
most áommon vÕrbs ÐrÕ:
aáÁUsÕ (somÕonÕ) of dÕny i nsi st on rÕáommÕnd
suggest
1 .I di dn,t borrow your ÁD,'/ my brothÕr.
2 .WÕ ÐbsoIutÕ|y mUst try the áhoáoIatÕ i áÕ-árÕÐm,'/ Bi l |.
3 .You shouId sÕÕ LÕonardo Di Áapri o,s nÕw fi |m,' / Sy|vi Ð.
4 .You took mã j aákÕt to thÕ pÐrtãl'Si mon / to hi s si stÕr.
5 .Whã don't wÕ p|Ðy footba|| i n thÕ park?'/ Ji m.
Ä
RÞporting ordÞrs and áequoìtì
5 Look at the ÕxÐmpl Õs Ðnd answÕr the questi ons.
a .Àon,t mÐÚ9 Ðn! noiso,, ÒÐid Ò râlÐn to u*.
° man told us not to mÐKo anY noi69.
b Âha rwÒn sitting naål to ma turned ta uÒ Ðnd *Ðid,
.ÀlpÐsg bo quiot,"
Tha mÐn *itting naåt to rnr' asKBd us tÞ be átruiot.
,l Whiáh vÕrb do WÕ usÕ to rÕport ordÕrs?
2 Whiáh vÕrb do WÕ usÕ to rÕport rÕquÕsts?
3 WhÐt áhÐngÕs do wÕ mÐkÕ whÕn wÕ rÕport ordÕrs Ðnd
rÕo u Õsts?
4 How do wÕ rÕport nÕgÐtivÕ ordÕrs Ðnd rÕquÕsts?
6 MÐtáh thÕsÕ vÕrbs to sentÕnáÕs 1_5. ThÕn rewritÕ thÕ
sÕntÕnáÕs in reportÕd speeáh'
ask ÞrdÕr p|Õad wi th tÕ|| UrgÕ
,l .Don't tÐIk wi th your mouth fu||,'thÕ mothÕr sÐi d to hÕr
ãoUng son.
2 .StÐy whÕrÕ ãou ÐrÕ!' thÕ poIi áÕmÐn sai d to thÕ robbÕr.
3 .Pl ÕasÕ, p|ÕasÕ' |Õt mÕ áomÕ wi th you,'Jami Õ sai d tÞ hi s
o|dÕr brothÕr.
4 .Pl ÕasÕ do not put your fÕÕt on thÕ seats,,thÕ bus dri vÕr
sÐi d to thÕ pÐssÕngÕrs.
5 ,I strÞng|y Ðdvi sÕ you to thi nk áarÕfu||y bÕforÕ ãou aááÕpt
a j ob,'thÕ áarÕÕrs advi sÕr sÐi d to thÕ studÕnts.
BepoÓting quoÞtion6
7 Look at thÕ Õåamp|Õs and Ðnswer thÕ quÕsti ons.
a Tha ropartor ÐsÚod whÐt timo tho ro-enÐctmont was
going tÞ stÐrt.
b Ìomeone"asKad lf FÞbort ¾ Loo wÐe a ConfÕdarÐte
or Ð FpderÐl &onorÐl.
1 WhÐt wÕrÕ thÕ di rÕát ÞuÕsti ons?
2 What i s thÕ di ffÕrÕnáÕ bÕtweÕn thÕ two quÕsti ons?
3 WhÐt áhÐngÕs do we mÐkÕ whÕn wÕ rÕpÞrt quÕsti ons?
8 Matáh thÕ dirÕát quÕstions .l_4 to thÕ answÕrs Ð_d. Âhen,
rÕport the questions Ðnd Ðnswers using thÕ vÕrbs bÕlow.
ansWÕr Ðsk Õnqui rÕ rÕspond sÐã tÕ|l
want to know wÞndÕr
1 WhÕrÕ i s thÕ musÕum dÕvotÕd to thÕ Ái vi I War?
2 WhÐt mÐkÕs thÕ mUsÕUm sÞÕái aI?
3 How many Ii vÕs wÕrÕ |Þst i n thÕ Ái vi I WÐr?
4 What di d thÕ so|di Õrs do to ÐmusÕ thÕmsÕ|vÕs i n thÕ
wi ntÕr?
a It usÕs thÕ |atÕst i ntÕrÐáti vÕ tÕáhnoIogy.
b °t PÐmpl i n PÐrk nÕÐr PÕtÕrsburg.
á 620,000.
d ÂhÕy had snowbaII batt|Õs.
lndiroát quo6tion6 r^rithout henìo áhangeì
9 LoÞk at thÕ ÕxampIes a and b and thÕ ruIÕs 1_3. ÂhÕn
rÕwri tÕ questi ons 1-6 bÕgi nni ng wi th the words gi vÕn.
a ls it timÕ for thÕ intÕrvÐ|?
Do ãou know if it's timÕ t'or thÕ intÕrvÐl?
b WhÞt timÕ doÕs the bÐttle stÐrt?
Do ãou know whÐt timÕ thÕ bÐttlÕ stÞrts?
Rul Õs
1 WhÕn wÕ Ðsk i ndi rÕát quÕsti ons, wÕ do not usÕ i nvÕrsi on.
2 WÕ usÕ whethÕr, /, or a quÕstion word tÞ introduáÕ Ðn
i ndi rÕát ÞuÕsti on.
3 WhÕn thÕ i ndi rÕát quÕsti on fo||ows a di reát quÕsti on, or
i mpIi Õd questi on, l wondÕr,or Do ãou know,wÕ do not
nÕÕd to áhangÕ thÕ tÕnsÕ.
1 ArÕ thÕ rÕ.ÕnÐátÞrs mÐd?
l wondÕr...
2 DoÕs Ðnãbodã ÕvÕr gÕt hurt?
Do you know ...
3 WhÕn doÕs thÕ rÕ-ÕnÐátmÕnt fi ni sh?
I want to know
4 What dÞ Ðl I thÕsÕ rÕ-ÕnÐátors do for Ð |i vi ns?
I,d l i kÕ to fi nd out ...
5 Wi || you áomÕ bÐák for thÕ rÕ-ÕnaátmÕnt nÕåt yÕar?
HavÕ vou Ðnv i dÕÐ ...
6 How l ong hÐvÕ you bÕÕn taki ng pÐrt i n thÕ batt|Õ?
TÕ|l mÕ ...
LÕt's aáti vatÕ
10 o6Jlo.l You are going to hÕar part of a IivÕ radio
programmÕ about a Áivil War rÕ-Õnaátment. ListÕn and
makÕ notÕs under thesÕ headings.
1 WhÕrÕ thÕ ÞrÕsÕntÕr i s
2 Why hÕ i s thÕrÕ
3 ÂhÕ wÕathÕr today
4 ÂhÕ sáÕnÕ Ðt fi vÕ thi s morni ng
5 ThÕ appÕÐranáÕ of thÕ rÕ-ÕnÐátors
11 ln pairs, rÕport what thÕ prÕsÕntÕr sÐid. Use thÕ sÕntÕnáÕ
openers to hel p you.
HÕ sai d/ÕxpIai ned that ...
HÕ tol d/ÐskÕdi urgÕd thÕ |i stÕnÕrs (not) to ...
HÕ wondÕrÕd/wantÕd to know ...
12 what di d your partnÕr say?
If you wÕrÕ rÕ-enÐáti ng Ðn i mportant ÕvÕnt i n yoUr áoUntrã's
hi storã, what Õvent wouId ãou áhoosÕ? Why? ÂÕI| ãour
pÐrtnÕr, who wi IIthen rÕport whÐt ãou sai d to thÕ rÕst of thÕ
á|ÐsS.
A
h
|.
.l
s
E₠*,
iOptingtortt
l n groups, di sáuss these questi ons.
1 If you áoul d l i vÕ ÐnywhÕrÕ you wantÕd i n your áountry,
whÕrÕ wou|d you áhoosÕ? Why?
2 How di ffi áuIt do you thi nk i t woul d bÕ to movÕ away
from thÕ ki nd of Ii fÕ vou hÐvÕ nÞw? Whv?
Li stÕni ng
2 Look Ðt the piátures. What kind of lifÕsty|Õs do you think
thÕse pÕoplÕ lÕad?
3 Q'o., You arÕ going to hÕar six spÕakers talking about
how thÕy turnÕd thÕir baáks on their IifÕstyIes to do
somÕthing áomplÕtÕly diffÕrent. Listen Ðnd matáh the
speakÕrs, 1_6 to thÕ statÕmÕnts a_g. onÕ statemÕnt is not
made by Ðnã spÕÐker.
a I was surprisÕd by mã own sUááÕss.
b I fÕ|t i so|atÕd bÕáÐusÕ of my ta|Õnt.
á I madÕ Ð suddÕn dÕái si on to áhangÕ mã l i fÕsty|Õ.
d I rÕgrÕt maki ng thÕ dÕái si on to áhangÕ my Ii fÕstyl Õ.
e I havÕ madÕ saárifiáÕs to áhangÕ mã |ifÕstã|Õ.
f I hÐd Ð |i ttl Õ troubl Õ wi th thÕ l oáÐ|s.
g I p|annÕd my áhÐngÕ i n Ii fÕstã|Õ áÐrÕful Iy.
l di oms
4 Li stÕn agai n and áomp|ÕtÕ the i di oms 1_13.
SpeÐkÕr 1
I was gÕtti ng a bi t 1
SpÕakÕr 1
SpÕakÕr 2
SpÕÐkÕr 3
Pronunái ati on
VouÞl 6ound'
6 ro6fo.× ÁirálÕ thÕ words
same vowÕI sound. ÂhÕn
1 area tÕÐ
2 door soon
grÕal
book
fark
hæg
pl ai n
hurt
SpÕakÕr 4
SpÕÐkÕr 5
SpÕakÕr 6
wi th ái tã l i fÕ, and |'d j ust
I mÐdÕ Ð .- dÕái si on.
i n ÕÐáh group that áontÐi n thÕ
listÕn and áhÕák your answers.
rÕÐán
r00m
sÐ id
pool
tal k
fÕw
p|Ð n
worth
wi th my gi rl fri Õnd.
Speaker 2
I was gÕtti ng'-wi th trÐve||i ng.
thÕ 5- gri nd
wÕ'd soon get 6- of it.
SpÕaker 3
, -fÞr thÕ Õnd of i ts nÐtura| Ii fÕ.
ThÕy thought i t woul d thÕ tonÕ of thÕ ÐrÕÐ.
SpÕakÕr 4
It turnÕd Þut thÐt I had Ð ,- for á|Þwni ng around
SpÕakÕr 5
ThÕy thought thÐt |,d 'o- my ..
It,s 12 hard worÚ.
SpÕakÕr 6
I dÕáidÕd it WÐsn't .,- thÕ Õffort.
5 ExpIÐi n the mÕani ng of the i di oms 1_1· i n 4.
3 hÕÐd
4 |oÞk
5 WorÚ
Þ hægÕ
/ pIanÕ
8 first
Speaki ng
7 Matáh funátions 1-6 to sÕntÕnáÕ opÕners a_f.
1 ask for i nformati on
2 rÕfusÕ to do somÕthi ng
3 j usti fã your Þpi ni on
4 mÐkÕ Ð suggÕstion
5 pÕrsuÐdÕ somÕbodã
6 wÐrn sÞmÕbÞdy
a I know ãou'rÕ not kÕÕn on thÕ i dÕa, but, ãou nÕvÕr
know, ãou mi ght Õnj oy...
b l'm sorry but I rÕÐ||ã don't wÐnt to ...
á ÂhÕ thi ng i s thÐt i t's (not)a good i dÕÐ bÕáausÕ ...
d Just bÕ áÐrÕfu| bÕáausÕ ...
Õ HÞw about (doi ng) ...?
f Áan yÞu tÕ|| me...?
FÞte pla1
RolÕ pIay
Look áÐrÕfu||y Ðt what you ÐrÕ ÐskÕd to do and trã to
rÕmÕmbÕr how to do thi s i n µngl i sh. RÕmÕmbÕr, ãou
must i nál udÕ Ð||thÕ poi nts i n thÕ ro|Õ p|Ðy Ðnd shÞw yÞur
abi Ii tã to eÅprÕss yoursÕ|f i n µng|i sh.
8 In pai rs, roIÕ pl aã thi s si tuati on. TakÕ turns to pIay A and
B. UsÕ thÕ sÕntÕnáe opÕners a_f in 7 to heIp ãou.
Student A äu speak first)
Your bÕst fri end hÐs dÕái dÕd not to go to uni vÕrsi tã ÐftÕr Ð|l.
. Fi nd out why.
. Trã to pÕrsuÐdÕ hi m/hÕr to áhÐngÕ hi s/hÕr mi nd.
Þ Warn hi m/hÕr that hÕ/shÕ mi ght rÕgrÕt thi s dÕái si on,
gi vi ng Ð rÕason.
. SuggÕst an ÐItÕrnati vÕ to goi ng to uni vÕrsi tã.
Student B
You hÐvÕ dÕái dÕd not to go to uni vÕrsi ty ÐftÕr a||. RÕspond
Io your parl nÕr.
. µxp|ai n whã you don't want to go to uni vÕrsi tã.
. Exp|ai n why ãou won't áhangÕ ãour mi nd.
. µxp|Ði n why you don,t thi nk you wi || rÕgrÕt thi s dÕái si on.
Þ ÂÕ|l your fri Õnd whÐt ãou thi nk of hi s/hÕr ÐItÕrnÐti vÕ to
u n ivÕrsity.
5 Soundbites -+
MÞmo11
9 66J'o.n ListÕn to Ð song from thÕ musiáal ÁÐts and
numbÕr thÕ vÕrses i n thÕ ordÕr i n whi áh thÕy ÐppeÐr
i n thÕ song.
Âouáh mÕ!
|t's so ÕÐsy to lÕÐvÕ mÕ
°|| Ð|onÕ wi th Ð mÕmory
0f my dÐys i n thÕ sun
|f ãou touáh mÕ
You,l I undÕrstÐnd whÐt happi nÕss i s
Look' a nÕw dÐã has bÕgun
DÐyIi ght
I musl wÐi t for thÕ sunri sÕ
I must thi nk of a nÕw |i fÕ
And I mustn't gi vÕ i n
When thÕ dÐwn áomÕs
Âoni ght wi || bÕ Ð mÕmory too
And Ð nÕw dÐã wi II bÕgi n
Burnt out Õnds of smokã days
ThÕ stÐ|Õ áoId smÕ|| of mÞrni ng
A strÕÕt |amp di Õs
AnothÕr ni ght i s ovÕr
AnothÕr dÐy i s dÐwni ng
MÕmory
A|l Ð|onÕ i n the mÞonIi ght
I áÐn smi IÕ Ii kÕ thÕ Þ|d dÐãs
I was beauti fuI thÕn I rÕmÕmbÕr
ÂhÕ ti mÕ I knÕw whÐt hÐppi nÕss was
LÕt thÕ mÕmorã |i vÕ ÐgÐi n
10 AnswÕr the quÕsti ons.
,l What mÕmori Õs doÕs thÕ si ngÕr hÐvÕ of her pÐst
IifÕ?
2 WhÐt hÐs shÕ dÕái dÕd tÞ do when dÐy|i ght áÞmÕs?
· DÞ you thi nk our mÕmori Õs of thÕ pÐst arÕ
ÐááUratÕ pi áturÕs of what our Ii fÕ was Ii ke?
Why/Why not?
.#
@
Á o râ fI iá G in gr in t e r es¡s
l n groups, di sáuss thÕ fol Iowi ng probl em. WhÕn you have
fi ni shed, áompÐrÕ your dÕái si ons wi th those of anothÕr
group.
Imagi nÕ that you ÐrÕ |i vi ng on a bÕÐuti fu|, rÕmotÕ i sIand.
ThÕ popuIÐti on Ðnd weÐ|th arÕ dÕárÕÐsi ng rÐpi dIy. ThÕ onIy
Way to ÕnsurÕ thÕ i s|and's survi vÐ| i s to devÕ|op i t fÞr mÐss
touri sm. ArÕ ãou for or ÐgÐi nst thÕ i dÕa? Whã?
Studyi ng the sampl Õ
UndÞrstanding thÞ taÒÚ
z DeáidÕ whiáh of thÕ points a_f arÕ Ðrguing for and whiáh
arÕ argui ng Ðgai nst touri sm.
a Âouri sm provi dÕs j obs for thÕ |oáÐ| áommuni ty.
b Âouri sm dÐmÐgÕs thÕ Õnvi ronmÕnt.
á ThÕ bÕhavi our of somÕ touri sts i s unÐááeptabl Õ to IoáaI
pÕop|Õ.
d Âouri sm i nárÕÐsÕs thÕ wÕÐ|th of thÕ i nhabi tÐnts of Ð
áoU ntry.
Õ Âouri sm hÕ|ps pÕop|Õ to undÕrstand onÕ ÐnothÕr bÕttÕr.
f Âouri sts do not rÕspÕát thÕ áustoms Ðnd trÐdi ti ons of
IoáaI pÕopl Õ.
3 èow rÕad thÕ Õssay about tourism and matáh topiás a_d
to paragraphs 1-4.
Ð °rgumÕnts agÐi nst touri sm
b ÁÞná|usi on
á ArgumÕnl s for touri sm
d ÂhÕ thi nki ng bÕhi nd thÕ ÕssÐy ti tl Õ
TOURtslvl
saneñvi l
::]P]," many rÕáent setbaáks to the travÕl industræ
l::Ii:T is Õxtremely popular nowadÐys. so'. puop..
Ðrgue that i t i s Ð neáÕssary pÐrt of Ð áountrv,s
oevÕ.l opment, others ál ai m that i t bri ngs noi hi ng out
probl Õms Ðnd i s of no real bÕnÕfi t to Lo.ui puopr.. so
how desi rÐbl e i s i t?
Æ,ff i :Ll"*lÆ ff :ffi l'#,'i:: H ;:T Hl?[ ;,ll i"' j'.
áountry with limited wealth and few natural l..Ùu,..,. ,t
1.:::::].-: employment for many loáal people. Finatlæ
|t Õnáourages peoplÕ to travÕt to áountri¡s they would
never previously havÕ dreÐmed of visiting. Âhis resutts in
an t.náreasÕd undÕrstanding of eaáh o'ì.?ê .ui,ur.",
whiáh in turn áan leÐd to bettÕr rÕlationsìips ìeiween
nati ons.
3 NeverthÕ[Õss, tourism has its negÐtive sidÕ. FirstlØ
áritiás argue that any weÐlth árÕa1ed belongs to Ð áhosen
few and that mÞst loáal inhabitants giÙ Very tittte
finanáially from it. In Ðddition, the uriaááÕptaìlÕ
bÕhavi our of som
presenáe',.,.',.,,.,l]ll''j:trhêil:i'.J:i[Ó;:x.ff [
better without peoplÕ who havÕ no i.'à..t for loáal
áustoms and traditiÞns. Lastty, one strong argument
agai nst touri sm i s that i t dÐmi gÕs thu un.ui,on'ent and .
should, therefore, be restriátÕJor banneJ.
4 l n áonál usi on, touri sm sÕÕms to be a áontroversi Ðl Ðnd
emotive issue. |t áan bring wÕalth unÐ p.oÙliy].. Ùrr
as árÕatÕ problems. Those involved in thÕ industry '
should try to Õnsufe.thÐt its effÕáts a.e pÌsitive ana tr'e ..
dÐmage i t áauses i s kÕpt to a mi ni mum. ]
ta
iilli::::::lX:tila:*;:;l;l*:::,
4 Fi nd words i n the tÕåt whi áh have thÕ sÐmÕ mÕani ng Ðs
thosÕ i n 1_8.
1 di ffi áu|ti Õs or prob|Õms thÐt prÕvÕnt somÕthi ng
progrÕssi ng
2 thÕ stÐtÕ of bÕi ng suááÕssfu|, ÕspÕái Ðl |y fi nÐnái Ð||y
· suppl i Õs thÐt áÐn bÕ usÕd to i nárÕÐsÕ weÐ|th
4 thosÕ who fi nd fÐu|t wi th somÕthi ng
5 unwÕ|áomÕ di sturbÐnáÕ
6 fÕÕl i ng admi rÐti on bÕáÐusÕ of good quÐ|i ti Õs or
Ðáh i ÕvÕmÕnt
7 Ðn i mportÐnt topi á fÞr di sáussi on or argumÕnt
8 rÕsul ts or oUtáomÕs
r.E*'
Steps to bÕttÕr wri ti ng
PrÞsanting Ðn ÐrgumÞnt
5 ÁompIÕtÕ sentenáes 1-8 with Ð suitabIe word. lf
nÕáessary' |ook at the tÕåt Ðgain.
1 Âourism is a nÕáÕssary of Ð áountry's
dÕvÕ|opmÕnt.
2 ThÕ tÞuri st trÐdÕ bri ngs - but prob|Õms.
3 Âhe touri st i ndustry i s of no rÕÐ| to |oáÐ|
I
pÕopl Õ.
l t i s Õasã to fi nd argumÕnts i n of Õáo-touri sm.
Touri sm i n i nárÕasÕd wÕal th fÞr mÐnã pÕop|Õ.
GIobal tÞuri sm Áan -to bÕttÕr rÕ|Ðti onshi ps
bÕtwÕÕn nations.
Tourism has its nÕgativÕ -, too'
OnÕ vÕry strong - agai nst Ðn i nvÐsi on of touri sts
i s that ...
ÆnK r^rords and áonooLiorì
6 UsÕ words a_f to áomplÕtÕ the tÕxt.
a dÕsoi tÕ
bso
á thi s i n turn
d nÕvÕrthÕ|Õss
e i n áoná|usi on
f as wÕl | as
LoáÐ| pÕople '- propÕrty dÕvÕ|opÕrs áÐn bÕnÕfit
from touri sm.,-, thÕrÕ arÕ many pÕÞp|Õ whÞ ÐrÕ
strongly ÞppÞsÕd to tourism. .- thÕ obvious
fi nÐnái Ð| gai ns from thÕ ÕnáourÐgemÕnt of touri sm, somÕ
IoáaI i nhabi i ants fÕÕ| that thei r wÐã of Ii fÕ i s bÕi ng
dÕstroyÕd, o -thÕy somÕti mes ÐppÕar unfri Õnd|y
and unwÕl áomi ng to touri sts. ,- áan rÕsul t i n
tensiÞn bÕtwÕÕn tourists and loáaI bÐr Ðnd rÕstaurant
ownÕrs. u-, the prob|Õms árÕatÕd by tourism ÐrÕ not
a|ways Õasã to so|vÕ'
WoÓde thÐt go togothar
7 UnderIi nÕ the noun thÕ Ðdj Õáti vÕs i n 1_8 are somÕti mÕs
used with. ÂhÕn expIain what the word áombinations
mÕan.
,1 wÕláomÕ
2 |i mi tÕd
3 naturÐI
4 an i nárÕasÕd
5 unaááÕptab|Õ
6 loáa I
/ ßnaná|aI
B an Õmoti vÕ
p rospÕrity/sÕtbaák
riáh nÕss/wÕaIth
possÕssio ns/rÕsoU ráÕs
u nd ÕrstÐ nd i n g/thou ght
Ðáti ng/bÕhavi ou r
i n habita nts/tou rists
wi n/gÐi n
rÕÐson/issu Õ
Wri ti ng your essay
UndÞrstanding tha tÐsº
E You are going to writÕ Ðn Õssay of 200-250 words on thÕ
fo|Iowing topiá. .Tourism is a nÕáessary eviI in mã own
áountry.' ln pairs' deáidÕ whÕther you agrÕe or disagrÕÕ
with thÕ stÐtÕmÕnt.
?lanning
9 ln thÕ sÐmÕ pairs, makÕ a Iist of thrÕe or four points
arguing for and three or four points arguing against
touri sm i n your áountry. Âhi nk about:
. whã yoUr áoUntry i s spÕái Ð| Þr di ffÕrÕnt from othÕr
áou ntri Õs.
. what yoUr áountrã has tÞ offÕr tourists.
. what thÕ nÕgativÕ ÕffÕáts of tourism might bÕ.
. whi áh poi nts to i náIudÕ (about si x i n totÐl ).
. whÐt ordÕr to put ãour poi nts i n.
\rlriting
.!0 WritÕ your essaã.
Inál udÕ poi nts for Ðnd Ðgai nst.
Use di ffÕrÕnt Ways to dÕsári bÕ tÞuri sm' Õ.g. thÕ touri st
tradÕ/i ndustrã, Õáo-touri sm, gIobal tÞuri sm, touri sts.
Wri tÕ Ðn i ntroduáti on Õxpl ai ni ng thÕ thi nki ng bÕhi nd thÕ
ÕssÐy tit|Õ.
Wri tÕ Ð áoná|udi ng parÐgraph.
LhoáYing
1"' ÁhÕák that you havÕ:
. prÕsÕntÕd ãoUr argumÕnt á|Õar|y.
. wri ttÕn i n formaI styl Õ.
. usÕd thÕ áorrÕát spÕ||i ng Ðnd punátuÐti on.
. writtÕn thÕ right amount (200-250 wÞrds).
A
i
*.
s
4
)
6
a
a
@
BÞporting ÞtatÞmÞnts
1 Report thÕse statemÕnts using thÕ
áorrÕát form of the vÕrb in
brÐákÕts. Begin thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with
the names givÕn.
1 .l'm not i ntÕrÕstÕd i n romÐnti á
fi Ims. l,d muáh rÐthÕr sÕÕ Ð
WÕstÕrn., (make i t á|ÕÐä
Á|i nt ...
2 .l staãÕd up |Ðst ni ght watáhi ng
ÂV. ÂhÐt's whã l,m ti rÕd., (Õxp|ai n)
MÕg ...
3 ,It's toÞ |ÐtÕ for you to wa|k
homÕ' l,Il tÐkÕ you i n thÕ áÐr.,
(i nsist)
RãÐn '..
4 .Ross and µmi Iy hÐvÕ j ust spIi t
up. ÂhÕy hÐd Ð tÕrri b|Õ
Ð rgu mÕnt., (tÕl |)
Moni áÐ ...
5 .lf I hÐd sÕÕn PÕtÕr ãÕstÕrdÐã, I
wouId havÕ tol d ãou.' (Õxpl Ði n)
Di ÐnÕ ...
KopoÓting ordara and r&quÞsts
2 RÕwrite thesÕ rÕportÕd ordÕrs Ðs
dirÕát speeáh.
,l ÂhÕ wÐitress ÐskÕd mÕ not tÞ
smokÕ i n thÐt Ðrea of thÕ
rÕsta U rÐ nt.
2 ÂhÕ shopl i ftÕr p|ÕÐdÕd wi th thÕ
storÕ dÕtÕátivÕ not to phone thÕ
pol i áÕ.
3 ÂhÕ tÕÐáhÕr to|d us to si t down
Ðnd ÞpÕn our books Ðt pÐgÕ 67.
4 ÂhÕ trÐffi á wÐrdÕn to|d mÕ not to
pÐrk mã áÐr IhÕrÕ.
5 John urgÕd mÕ to bÕ áarÕful
whÕn I wÕnt á|i mbi ng thÐt
wÕÕkÕnd.
6 Mã parÕnts to|d mÕ to bÕ qui Õt
bÕáause thÕ bÐbã was sl eepi ng.
KÞporting questioni
3 RÕÐd thÕ intÕrviÕw with PaulinÕ Fairhurst, who has beÕn mÐrriÕd for 50 ãÕars.
Put thÕ prÕsÕntÕr's quÕstions a_f in thÕ áorreát ordÕr .l_6.
a HÞw did you mÕÕt?
b HÞw l ong hÐvÕ you bÕÕn l i vi ng wi th ãÞur husband, Bi ||?
á And di d you faIl i n l ÞvÕ strÐi ght Ðway?
d |f you áou|d áhÐngÕ somÕthi ng ÐbÞut hi m, what woul d i t bÕ?
Õ And whÐt is ãour ÐdviáÕ to nÕw|y-wÕds?
f Why do yÞu thi nk ãour mÐrri agÕ has |astÕd so l ong?
PresÕntÕr 1
Paul i nÕ
PrÕsentÕr
Paul i nÕ
PrÕsentÕr
Paul i nÕ
PresÕnter
PÐuIi nÕ
PrÕsÕntÕr
Paul i nÕ
PrÕsÕntÕr
PÐuIi ne
WÕI|, wÕ'vÕ bÕÕn mÐrri Õd [or 50 yÕÐrs'
ÂhÐt's a l ong ti mÕ! ,
lt wÐs on|y aftÕr a fÕw
Don,t givÕ up whÕn you havÕ problÕms. AááÕpt ÕÐáh othÕr,s wÕÐknÕssÕs
RÕmÕmbÕr that no onÕ's oÕrfÕát!
4 Now rÕport quÕstions a_f.
lndireát quo5tion6 èithout tenea áhangaÞ
5 RÕwrite thÕse other questions frÞm thÕ intÕrview. UsÕ thÕ words givÕn.
,l WhÐt is thÕ sÕárÕt of Ð suááÕssfuI mÐrriaïÕ?
IwondÕr...
2 HavÕ you ÕVÕr had a sÕri Þus di sÐgrÕÕmÕnt?
Áoul d you tÕ|l mÕ .'.
3 How did you rÕsÞlvÕ it?
I'd l i kÕ tÞ know ...
4 Do you hÐvÕ anã regrÕts?
I wÐnt to know ...
5 How wi Il you áÕl ÕbrÐtÕ ãÞur weddi ng Ðnni vÕrsÐry nÕxt ãÕÐr?
Do ãÞu knÞw '..
6 Is i t di ffi áuIt bÕi ng marri Õd for so Iong?
ÁÞu|d ÃÞu tÕl I me ...
At Ð áonáÕrt i n 1950. I was Ðt a j azzá|ub wi th mã fri Õnds whÕn hÕ
wÐ|kÕd ovÕr and Ðsked mÕ for a dÐnáÕ.
l
NÞ, aIthough
months that
WÕ||' I'd l i kÕ hi m to bÕ ti di Õr, but I woul dn't áhÐngÕ Ðnãthi ng Ðbout hi s
pÕrsonÐ |ity'
I think it's bÕáÐusÕ wÕ'vÕ Ð|waãs had shÐrÕd intÕrÕsts. WÕ'vÕ dÞnÕ Ð |ot
togÕthÕr.
6
l thought hÕ wÐs vÕry hÐndsÞmÕ.
I rÕa|i sÕd I wÐs i n |ovÕ.
ä
Li steni ng
6 b6J'o'u You ÐrÕ going to hÕar
fivÕ pÕoplÕ taIking Ðbout
ÐdvÕrtisements aimed Ðt áhildren.
Read through the statÕmÕnts a_j.
ThÕn Iisten Ðnd áhoosÕ thÕ two
stÐtÕments that eÐáh spÕaker
mÐkÕs. WritÕ thÕ appropriatÕ lÕttÕr
in eaáh box. ÂhÕrÕ is an eåampIÕ
at thÕ bÕgi nni ng.
a It's i mportant to ÕnáoUrÐgÕ
áhi IdrÕn to tÐkÕ ÕxÕrái sÕ'
b ÂhÕ Ðds shouId bÕ usÕd to
promotÕ hÕÐ|thã food.
á Âhe stÐrs don't nÕÕd thÕ monÕã
thÕy ÕÐrn from thÕ Ðds.
d PÕop|Õ don,t undÕrstand how
unhÕÐ|thy sÐl tã snaáks ÐrÕ.
Õ StÐrs shouIdn.t promÞtÕ hi gh-fat.
hi gh sÐ|t snaáks.
f Sports stars i n pÐrti áuIÐr shoul d
bÕ pÞsitivÕ rolÕ mÞdÕ|s.
g The Ðds ÐrÕ fun.
h lt doÕsn,t mattÕr if ãÞu Õat árisps
as l ong Ðs you Õat other thi ngs as
wÕ||.
i unhÕa|thy food i s morÕ
signifiáÐnt thÐn laák Þf ÕxÕráisÕ
i n mÐki ng áhi IdrÕn fÐt.
j footbaIl ers shouId eduáÐtÕ
áhi |drÕn about foÞÞ.
tirst sÕáÞnd
stÐtÕmÕnt stÐtÕment
SpÕakÕr1Angi Õ ¿ L]
SpÕÐkÕr2BÕn ] ¿
SpÕÐkÕr·ÁÐro|i nÕ ¿ ¿
SpÕÐkÕr4DÐvi d ¿ ¿
SpÕakÕr5µIÐi nÕ ¿ ¿
GWYNEâH PALâROW, the daughter of
the Iate di reátor Ðnd produáer Bruáe
Pal trow, was born i n Los Angel es on
February 28,1972, Her fi rst tÐste of
fÐme áame i n 1995 Ðfter her smÐl l paÓt
i n Seven,where she met Brad pi tt.
However, i t wÐsn,t unti l she starred i n
Shakespeare i n LovÕ i n 199B that she
real |y beáame fÐmous. She won the
0sáÐr for Best Aátress for thi s ro|e Ðnd
hasnt Iooked bÐák si náe.
Si náe she began aáti ng she has p|ayed
Ð wi de vari ety of áhÐraáters wi th
suááess. l n her vl ew Ð|l aátors
' - i n order to à|Ðy them wel |.
HÕr more reáent fi Ims i ná|udÕ
Possession and Sãtvia'
PÐ|trow i s now |i vi ng i n London, whi áh
i s where she met her partner, Chri s
MÐrti n, the Iead si nger of the Bri ti sh
pop groUp Coldptaã' She enjoys living
i n London. She sÐi d that 2
WhereÐs i n London ,r'. 'i gl,'t fi nd .
few photographers wai ti ng outsi de a
restaurant, i n Ameri áa there mi ght be
fi ve vÐns and 80 photÞgraphers
fol l owi ng her Ðround! She added thÐt
. -. Pal trow has found wÐys
of re|axi ng and áombati ng the stresses
of Ð fi Imstar,s l i festy|e. She expl ai ned
that o - . When di sáussi ng
her future Pa|trow sai d thÐt
l {ri ti ng
7 Look Ðt the informÐtiÞn in 1-5 Ðnd dÕáidÕ where it áomÕs in the tÕxt beIow.
Then rÕwrite it in rÕportÕd spÕeáh to áomplÕte thÕ text.
1 .BÕi ng fÐmÞus áÐn bÕ di ffi áuIt, but i n London I usÕ thÕ undÕrgrÞund and go
tÞ the supÕrmÐrkÕt or out whÕn l WÐnt to.'
2 .I'm ãoUr.}g, I want to havÕ fun, dÐnáÕ, hÐvÕ Ð good ti mÕ.'
3 .l\4Õditation Ðnd yogÐ ÐrÕ an ÕssÕntiaI part of my dÐy.'
4 , a|| aátÞrs hÐd to fÕÕ| thÕ mÞti vÐti ons Ðnd Õmoti ons of thÕi r áhÐrÐáters.'
5 .l dÞß,t havÕ so mÐny prob|Õms wi th thÕ press.'
ldiÞmí
1 Matáh senten(Õs .l_5 to the áommÕnts thÐt mav folIow
them Ð_e.
,| HÐvÕ you hÕÐrd? Greg hÞs brokÕn up with 1u|ie.
2 Tom wÐs lÕd up with his job.
3 Rob hÐs Ð knÐák for fixing áomputÕrs.
4 WÕ spÕnt hours prÕpari ng thÕ pi áni á, buIi i l.wÞsn,tworth
thÕ et'fort|
5 Rosy was bored with thÕ dÞilã grind.
a ShÕ áouIdn't wÐi t to go Þn hol i day.
b Apparent|y hÕ's goi ng Þut wi th somÕonÕ Õl sÕ.
á HÕ wÐntÕd a áhangÕ Þf áarÕÕr.
d |,|I Ðsk hi m to hÕIo mÕ wi th mi nÕ.
Õ |n thÕ Õnd i t rÐi nÕd.
2 Now matáh the idioms in italiás in 1 to thÕ mÕanings a_Õ.
Ð bÕ borÕd or unhappã wi th sÞmÕthi ng
b Õnd Ð rÕ|ati onshi Þ
á a wastÕ of timÕ
d a rÕpeatÕd Ðáti vi tã thÐt i s ti ri ng or ußi ntÕrÕsti ng
e havÕ thÕ abi Ii ty or ski II tÞ do somÕthi ng
?rÞpÞ×itions
3 CompIete the sentenáes with thÕ áorrÕát prÕposition.
" by * i n * on * through e to
1 Âi nÐ wÐs l ooki ng - hoIi dÐy broáhurÕs, whÕn her boss
wÐ|kÕd i n.
2 trÐnáÕs wÐsn't kÕen - thÕ i dÕÐ Þf tÐki ng Ð ãÕÐr oUt.
ShÕ wÐntÕd to find Ð jÞb.
3 l wÐs vÕrã surpri sÕd - HÕl Õn's suggÕsti on. I hadn't
áonsi dÕrÕd wÞrki ng abroÐd'
4 Li fÕ i n thÕ áÞuntrãsi dÕ i s a dreÐm áomparÕd |i fÕ i n
thÕ áitã.
5 ln ordÕr to suááÕÕd - ath|Õtiás, you nÕÕd to trÐin vÕry
hard Ðnd dÕdi áÐtÕ ãoursÕ|f to thÕ sport.
6 Susi Õ dÕái dÕd tÞ Õnro| -a |ÐnguagÕ áoursÕ' ShÕ
wantÕd to |Õarn l taIi Ðn.
7 ÂhÕrÕ Was no doubt - PÐul,s mi nd Ðbout thÕ answÕr.
HÕ Was áonvináÕd hÕ wÐs riïht.
Ælords thÐt gÞ |ogoIhor
4 áhoosÕ thÕ áorrÕát option, a, b, or á, to áompIÕte thÕ
sÕntÕnáÕs.
,l Gai |- hÕr bÐák on a áarÕÕr i n mÕdi ái nÕ Ðnd studi Õd
b prÕsÕntÕd á mÐdÕ
2 JÐson madÕ a(n) - dÕái si on Ðnd bÞught thÕ
motorbi kÕ, ÕvÕn though hÕ áouIdn't rÕÐ||y ÐffÞrd i t.
Ð rusn
b snap á abrUpt
3 |t's oftÕn vÕry di ffi áu|t to - a l i vi ng as Ðn Ðátor.s
Ð hÐvÕ b do á mÐKÕ
4 AftÕr rÕIÕÐsi ng hÕr fi rst si ng|e, thÕ pop Star - to famÕ
a IaunáhÕd b roáketÕd á took off
5 Ni áo|Ð - advÐntÐgÕ of hÕr yÕÐr i n Brazi | Ðnd |Õarnt
PortuguÕsÕ.
a mÐdÕ b took
á had
6 N4i ssi ng thÕ trÐi n WaS a - of bad Iuák' |f on|ã wÕ,d
Ðrri vÕd ÕÐr|i Õr.
a strÞkÕ b push
á toUál.l
6xprÞìÒionì \||th m*Ka
5 ÁompIete thÕ sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕsÕ
ÕxprÕssions.
u make a hÐbi t Þf " makÕ for n mÐkÕ fun of
* mÐkÕ sÐári fi áÕs * makÕ (somÕonÕ) wÐi t " mÐkÕ up
1 ThÕ si ngÕr - hÕr fÐns - fÞr ovÕr Ðn hour bÕforÕ
shÕ appÕÐrÕd on stagÕ.
2 As soon as hÕ Ðrrived in tÞwn, |\4ark - thÕ nÕÐrÕst
hotÕ|.
· You shÞul dn't - stÐãi ng up so |Ðte. |t's bÐd for ãour
hÕÐ Ith.
4 Li ndÐ -a |ot of - to pUrsuÕ Ð áÐrÕÕr i n
tÕ|Õvi si on.
5 PÕopIÕ Ð|waãs - DÐvi d. HÕ tÐkÕs hi msÕ|f fÐr too
sÕri ou sl y.
6 Âi nÐ Ðnd JÕff hÐvÕ -. ThÕy havÕn't áÐnáÕ|l Õd thÕ
wÕddi ng ÐftÕr Ð||.
Ðrt i nstÕÐd.
a tUrnÕd
Ä
RÕÐd thÕ poÕm and answÕr thÕsÕ
quÕsti ons.
.l WhÐt pi tl urÕ doÕs l hÕ poÕt pÐi nt
of thÕ sÞ|di Õrs' Ðtti tUdÕ to thÕi r
dutã i n vÕrsÕ 2?
2 Whã dÞ ãou thi nk thÕ poÕt kÕÕps
rÕpÕati ng thÕ |rnÕs: .l nto thÕ
vÐ||Õã of DÕath i RodÕ thÕ si x
hu nd rÕd.'?
3 ÂhÕ poÕt rÕfÕrs to thÕ batt|ÕfiÕId
as .thÕ vaI|Õã Þf DÕÐth'. What
ÞthÕr mÕtÐphors doÕs hÕ USÕ to
dÕsáriloÕ it?
4 What do ãou thi nk thÕ wor|d
mi ght hÐvÕ bÕÕn wondÕri ng
(whilÕ ÞIl thÕ woild wondÕrÕd. -
vÕrse ·)?
5 °ááordi ng to thÕ poÕt, whÐt
hÐppÕnÕd to thÕ si x hundrÕd
sol di Õrs? Whã doÕs hÕ suggÕst
thi s hÐppÕnÕd?
Your reaátions
l n -*' di sáuss thÕsÕ quÕsti ons.
. Whã do ãou thi nk thi s wÐs suáh
Ð popu|Ðr poÕm?
. HoW suááÕssfu||ã do ãou thi nk
thÕ poÕt hÐs áonvÕãÕd hi s
mÕssagÕ?
Þ How rÕ|ÕvÐnt i s thi s mÕssagÕ
nowÐdays?
Þ DÞ you hÐvÕ Ðny poÕms Ii kÕ thi s
i n ãour own l ÐnguÐgÕ? Whi áh
onÕs? How dÞ thÕã áompÐrÕ
wi th thi s onÕ?
tfrÕ Cfiorge 0f tfiÕ Ligfit tsrigodÕ
bã ïäÕd Lord TÕnnãsoß
BÙÌAá ÌAVA. {i )t;t' :6!j. Isi l )
d:*o !h: Lteht Bi,rÐcel
oujffiæiê{]1;*l[..,
Q)
10.6 I{Ðtf o [ÕéaÕ, fra[f a [ÕæuÕ,
9{a[f a fÕéue aßrllard,
Ï[[ in tftÕ rlÐ[kã of Deatfi
fuldÕ tfiÕ siafièßdrÕd,
,forulÐrd, tftÕ Ligfrt EngadÕ!
ÁftargÕfor tfiÕgutts!, fiÕ said.
Into tfrÕ rlÐ[[Õã of DÕatft
fudÕ tftÕ sia{tèßdrÕd,
,forzuÐrl, tfrÕ Ligfit EigÐdÕ!'
,l,|Ðs tfiárÕ Ð mÛß lsmÐãed?
ät tfrough tfiÕ so[diár futÕè
S omÕortÕ {tad 6 fußdÕrÕl,
,IhÕirs ßot to mÛfo rÕp[g,
TfrÕis not to rÕÐsoß zu{tã,
Â{tÕirs 6ut to do Òßd diÕ,
lßto rfrÕ uÐ[[Õã o/DÕÐtfi
fudÕ tfrÕ siæfrundrÕd.
ffÐsftÕd Ðs tfiÕg turßed in aiæ
Sa\rißg t{tÕ gumrcâs thÕrÕ,
Áfiaâ1irtg Ðß armæ, rllfti[Õ
Ï[[ t|iÕ zuor[d zuondÕrÕd:
À[ungÕd iß tfrÕ \ÐttÕry-smofo
\jgfit t¹âougfi tfrÕ [ißÕ tfrÕg trofu;
ÁossÐá|Ðnd fossiÐß
fu Õ tÕ d fâom t hÕ s Ð 6rÕ -stro fu:
S fi Ðt t ÕrÕ d Ðßd su ndÕ red,
IÂtÕrt tfrÕã rodÕ 6aáft" 6èt ßot,
ät tfrÕ siæfrußdrÕd.
CÐßßoß to äfrt of tfrÕm.
ÁÐßßon to [Õft of tfrÕm,
ÁÐßßoß 6áfiißd tfiÕm
,|ottÕ ãÕd Ðßd t ¹u ß dÕrÕ d;
StormÕd Ðt zuitfr sfrot qnd s{LÕt[
,WfrifÕ {torsÕ Ðnd fiÕro fÕt[
,IfiÕã tfrat fiÐdfoègfrt sÌ,,lÕ{t
ÁÐml tfirougfr tfrÕ jÐuls of DÕÐtfr,
EÐá{fâom tfrÕ mîutfr of 9{Õ[[,
Ï[{ tfrat ruÐs [rft of tfiÕm,
Lä of siæfrun{rÕd.
,I|frÕß áÐn tfrÕir g[ory fÐ[Õ ?
¾ t¹Õ èi[[ áfiÐrgÕ tfré madÕt
Ï[[ t¹Õ èorfd zuonderÕd.
9{onoèr tfie áhÐlgÕ tfiÕg madd
I{oßour LfrÕ Ligfrt EäÐlÕ,
ä6[Õ sk ftundredt
GrÐmmar
1 RÕwritÕ sÕntÕnáÕs 14 as one sÕntÕnáe, using thÕ third
áondi ti onÐI.
1 SuÕ di dn,t gi vÕ Jami Õ hÕr phonÕ numbÕr. JÐmi Õ di dn't
ohonÕ hÕr.
|f SuÕ ...
2 l gÞt to thÕ stati Þn |ÐtÕ. I mi ssÕd thÕ trÐi n.
3 We di dn,t rÕÐd thÕ quÕsti on. WÕ got thÕ ÐnswÕr Wrong.
|f wÕ...
4 °|Õx ÐppIi Õd for the j ob. He got Ðn i ntÕrvi Õw.
A|Õx ...
2 Áomp|ete the wishÕs and rÕgrets with the áorrÕd form of
thÕ verbs in brÐákÕts.
,l I di dn't wi n thÕ musi á áompÕti ti on. l spÕnt Ð |ot of ti mÕ
p|Ðyi ng áomputer gÐmÕs i nsteÐd of praáti si ng. l wi sh I
- (wi n) i t. |f on|y | - (not spÕnd) so muáh ti mÕ
p|Ðyi ng áomputÕr gamÕs.
2 l |Õft sáhooI whÕn I wÐs ]6 yÕÐrs ol d. I di dn't go to
uni vÕrsi tã. Iwi sh - (not drop)out of sáhooI. |f onl ã |
- (co) to univÕrsity.
l Iost mã |ottÕryti ákÕt. I áoul dn't á|Ði m thÕ pri zÕ. |f Þn|y
- (|osÕ) my |ottÕrã tiákÕt! I wish l - (bÕ ÐblÕ) to
ál ai m thÕ pri zÕl
|\4ikÕ pÕrsuÐdÕd mÕ to stÐã out |atÕ. |\4y parÕnts WÕrÕ
angrã wi th mÕ. I wi sh |- (not Ii stÕn)to N4i kÕ. |f on|y
l\4ikÕ -'(not pÕrsuadÕ) mÕ to go hÞmÕ sÞ |ÐtÕ!
I di dn't wÐnt to IÕÐrn Ð musi áÐ| i nstrumÕnt whÕn l wÐs
ãoUngÕr. I wi sh |- (|ÕÐrn)to p|aã thÕ gui tar. |f onIy I
- (deái dÕ) to study thÕ gui tar.
RÕwritÕ these statemÕnts in rÕported speÕáh using the
words in braákÕts. MorÕ thÐn onÕ answer may bÕ áorreát.
1 .WhÐt l do i s somÕti mÕs bÞri nï.,
(Ji m/Ðdmi t)
2 .WÕ wou|d nÕvÕr do anythi ng di shonÕst.,
(ÂhÕ áhi IdrÕn/i nsi st)
3 .Why don,t wÕ go for a pizla?,
(MariÐ/suggÕst)
4 .You to|d a |i Õl'
(Bob/aááusÕ)
5 AátuÐIIy, thi s pIÐy hÐs nÕvÕr bÕÕn pÕrformÕd bÕforÕ.,
(ThÕ Ðátor/makÕ it á|ÕÐä
RÕport the ordÕrs ,|-5 using one of thÕse vÕrbs and a
subjÕát of your own.
* ask * áommand * ordÕr * tÕ|I * urïÕ
1 .ti rÕ!'
2 .Don't movÕl'
3 .DÞn't |ÕÐvÕ your rÞom i n suáh Ð mÕss Ðgai n.'
4 .Stop trying to find ÕåáusÕs.'
5 .HÕIrí mÕ wi th thi s sui táasÕ.'
RÕwritÕ thÕsÕ questions as reportÕd quÕstions using onÕ
of thÕ verbs bÕ|ow Ðnd the subjÕát given.
Ä ask e Õnqui rÕ e wÐnt to know * wÞndÕr
1 .WhÕrÕ is thÕ tiákÕt offiáÕ?' (Ð spÕátÐtor/Ðn offiáia|)
2 .WhÐt ti mÕ i s i t?, (Susan)
3 .HavÕ you ÕVÕr bÕÕn hÕrÕ bÕforÕ?' (ÂÕd/N4r JonÕs)
4 ,What ti mÕ dÞÕs thÕ show Õnd?, (|/Ð programmÕ sÕl |Õr)
5 .Did you sÕÕ thÕ show yÕstÕrdÐã?' (mã friÕnd)
RewritÕ thesÕ questions using the words givÕn.
1 °rÕ ãou áo|d?'TÕ|I mÕ
2 .HÐs thÕ show fi ni shÕd?' I wondÕr
3 .How muáh doÕs i t áost to get i n?'
HÐvÕ you Ðnã i dÕÐ
4 .What doÕs ÕvÕrãbody hÕrÕ do i n thÕ wi nter?' I'd l i kÕ to
fi nd out
5 'l s i t goi ng to rai n tomorrow?'
Do ãou know
ÃÞáabul ary
7 ÁompIetÕ the sÕntÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of thÕ
words in brÐákÕts.
1 |Q tÕsts ÐrÕ a Waã of mÕÐsuri ng pÕop|Õ's
(i ntÕ||i gÕnt).
ArÕ ãou abl Õ to (mÕmory) tÕ|ÕphonÕ numbÕrs
ÕÐsi Iy?
LondÞn taxi dri vÕrs arÕ i nárÕdi b|y (know)
about roÐds i n thÕ ái ty.
ÁIÐrÕ i s VÕry - (i magi nÕ). She mÐkÕs up thÕ most
i nárÕdi b|Õ stori Õs.
WÕ nÕÕd morÕ - (i nform) about thÕ hotÕ| bÕforÕ
wÕ book it.
It tÐkÕs Ð |ot of (áonáÕntrÐtÕ) to p|Ðy a gamÕ
I i ke áhÕss.
ThÕsÕ di rÕáti ons arÕ VÕry (áonfusÕ). No wondÕr
WÕ got Iostl
SusÐn i s VÕry - (thi nk). ShÕ bought mÕ Ð gi ft fÞr
mã birthdÐy.
@
Áomp|etÕ thÕ sentÕnáÕs with thÕ áorrÕát form of onÕ of
thÕsÕ phrasaI verbs'
= takÕ i t out on * takÕ aftÕr *- tÐkÕ baák * takÕ i n
.* tÐkÕ Þn -.. tÐkÕ to
1 µmmÐ nÕVÕr - |i fÕ i n thÕ ái tã. ShÕ prÕfÕrrÕd
Ii vi ng i n thÕ áountrã.
2 WhÕn thi ngs go wrong ÂÕss Ð|wÐãs - ÕVÕrãonÕ
Õ|sÕ. ShÕ won't Ðdmi t i t,s hÕr faul t.
3 ÂhÕ Õxpl orÕr deái dÕd thÕ áhal |ÕngÕ and
organi sÕ thÕ ÕåpÕdi ti on to thÕ Hi mal aãas.
4 BrÕtt qui ák|ã thÕ ÐssÕmbl ã i nstruáti ons Ðnd sÕt
up thÕ áomputÕr.
5 i Voni áÐ i s a vÕrã tÐ|ÕntÕd musi ái an. ShÕ must
hÕr mothÕr.
6 As soon Ðs Âi m rÕÐl i sÕd hi s mi stÐkÕ, hÕ
ÕvÕrythi ng hÕ hÐd sai d.
ÁhoosÕ thÕ bÕst Word, a, b, or á, to áomplÕte thÕsÕ
sentÕnáÕs.
1 Wi IIi Ðm ShakÕspÕarÕ i s a - fi gurÕ i n µngl i sh
IItÕratU re.
Ð bÐsi á b kÕã
á first
2 ShakÕspÕare,s RomÕÞ Ðnd JuliÕt is a|| about IovÕ Ðáross
thÕ -.
Ð di ffÕrÕnáÕ
3 WhÕn RomÕo fi rst saw IuIi Õt i t wÐs |ovÕ at fi rst
a si ght b l ooÚ
á |mprÕssl on
4 Usua||ã i t tÐkÕs somÕ ti mÕ fÞr pÕopl Õ to trul y - i n
l oVÕ.
Ð gÕt
b bÕáomÕ á fÐ||
5 Al though RomÕo fÞund - thÐt JuIi Õt wÐs a Áapu|Õt,
hÕ sti II wÐntÕd to sÕÕ hÕr.
a aftÕr
b Ðbout á out
Wri ti ng
,l0 writÕ a short biogrÐphã of KÕanu ReÕves, using thÕ
i nformati on bÕl ow, or Ðn aátor or si ngÕr of your áhoi áÕ.
l náIudÕ áommÕnts i n rÕported spÕÕáh. UsÕ thi s p|an to
hÕIp you:
1 Baákground - fÐmi Iy
2 Áareer up to now
3 PrÕsÕnl Ii [Õ Ðnd i ntÕrÕsts
s
,g
,'Æ
)
$
t!
b di vi si on á di vi dÕ
Born: BÕi rut, ]964
FamiIy: mother * British. áÞstumier for stars
l i kÕ Dol l y PÐrtÞn
father * hal f Chi nese. hÐ|f HawÐi i Ðn, gÕÞl ogi st.
Career: first appearÐnáÕ * CocÐ-Áo|Ð ÐdvertisemÕnt
first starring ro|e - Youngb|oÞd, wiLh PÐtriák SwayzÕ
other fi|ms _ My 1wn PrivatÕ |daho, SpeÕd, Draáula,
ThÕ ¼atriå, ³he Matiå RÕloaded, The Matriå
ßeV]l utl0nS
other reáent fi|ms - ÀrÕmonition, ½ardba|!, Sweet
NovÕmber
Life: grew up in Âoronto- Moved to Ho|IywÞÞd whÕn he
was ,] 9, but mÞved bÐák to ÂorontÞ in 2000 ÐftÕr his
gi rl fri end, JÕnnl fÕr SymÕ, di ed i n Ð áar aáái dent.
Usua||y Ii vÕs rß hotel s.
Likes: motÞrbikÕs, spÕed Ðnd musiá (plays bass in group
DogstÐr Ðnd has áomposed sÞme songs)
commeßts: ,¼y àrivate Iife is just thÐt, privÐtÕ. |,d
rather Stay at homÕ than hÐvÕ a photograàher
fÞIl owi ng me ÐrÞund.,
,Why hÞte|s? l Iike having tÞom ServiáÕ. A|so,
sàÕnd most of the ti mÕ on l ÞáÐti on Or tOUri Ûg Wi th
thÕ band.,
,I,vÕ beÕn aáti ng Si náe l wÐs 14. I di d theatre,
advÕÓtisÕments Ðnd ÂV sÕriÕs bÕfore getting film
àÐrts.,
,l,m nÞt l i ke any Þf thÕ áharÐáters |,vÕ à|ÐyÕd.,
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1
7rnit a PresÕnt pÕrfeát and
past si mpl e
PresÕnt pÕrfÕát
WÕ usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát tÞ tÐ|k Ðbout:
] somÕthi ng whi áh hÐs Þr hÐsn,t happÕned bÕforÕ (our
gÕnÕrÐ| ÕxpÕriÕnáÕ)' ÞftÕn with ÕvÕr, nÕvÕr and beforÕ.
l-!ÐvÕ yÞu ÕvÕr bÕrn to NÕw YÞrk?
ilÞ' I'vÕ nevÕr hÐd IhÕ opporlunitã.
l,m surÕ ããÕ hÐven,t mÕt, bÕforÕ,
2 somÕthi ng whi áh happÕnÕd i n thÕ past but sti || hÐs an
ÕffÕát in thÕ prÕsÕnt, oftÕn with ÞlrÕÐdã, just, (not) ãÕt and
sti l l.
ltrÐve ãou ÐlrÕÒdã finished ãaur áampositiÞn?
JÐák htls just áome bÐák from PÐris.
l hÐvÕn,t finishÕd rÕÞding ãour lÕttÕr ãÕt.
JÐnÕ still hÒsn't, phonÕd mÕ.
· somÕthi ng whi áh i s sti || goi ng on noW or i s sti Il truÕ nÞw,
oftÕn with/or and sináÕ. WÕ usÕ/orto Ðdd informÐtion
Ðbout thÕ |Õngth of ti mÕ and si náe Io tal k Ðbout thÕ
starti ng poi nt of thÕ aáti on.
juliÕt Þnd |l,4Ðrk hÒãÕ bÕÕn rnÐrried for t'ivÕ ãÕÐrs.
°nn,s kÒd kÕr dog sináÕ |Ðst ¼Ðã.
N'lle livÕd in this villÐgÕ Ð|l mã li|Õ.
4 instÕÐd of Ð prÕsÕnt tÕnsÕ ÐftÕr whÕn, if and untilto ta|k
Ðbout somÕthi ng thÐt mi ght (not) bÕ fi ni shÕd now or soon
WhÕn l,vÕ finishÕd this áomã;ÞsitiÞn, wÕ,ll ga ta thÕ áinÕmrl'
lf ãÒu hÒven,t baoked thÕ tiákÕts t'Þr thÕ áÞnáÕrt ãÕt, l áÐn do
it for ãou.
YÞu áÐn,t gÞ until ãou,vÕ t'inished ãaur dinnÕr,
Past simplÕ
WÕ usÕ thÕ past si mpIÕ:
1 to taIk about Ð áomp|ÕtÕd aáti on i n thÕ past, ÞftÕn wi th Ð
ti mÕ rÕfÕrÕnáÕ.
11Õ rÒng mÕ two dÐys Ðgo.
l didn,t go to Sáot|Ðnd lÐst ßteÕkÕnd - il wÞs too snÞwã.
2 to tÕII pÕop|Õ about past ÕVÕnts and to tÕ|| stori Õs.
l wokÕ up ÕÐrlã, quiák|ã got drÕssÕd, áÐwghttkÕ trÞm intÞ
town, Þnd rnet Ð t'riÕßd.
· wi th thÕ vÕrb to bÕ + si náÕto tÐ|k Ðbout how l ong i t i s
si náÕ somÕth i ng happÕnÕd.
½ow long is it/hÐs it been sináÕ ãou wÕnt swimming?
lt is / hÒs bÕen ÐgÕs sináÕ | went for Þ swim.
PresÕnt perfÕát simplÕ and presÕnt pÕrfeát
áonti nèoUs
WÕ usÕ both thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát Ðnd thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát
áonti nuous for Ðn aáti on whi áh bÕgÐn i n thÕ past but whi áh
hÐs prÕSÕnt áonsÕq uÕnáÕs.
WÕ usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕál:
1 to ÕmphÐsi sÕ thÐt an aáti on i s áomp|ÕtÕd.
l,vÕ wÐshÕd thÕ áÐr' lt looks niáÕ Ðnd á!ÕÐn nÞw.
2 to sÐy how many ti mÕs somÕthi ng hÐs happÕnÕd.
ÂhÕy,vÕ ãisitÕd us t'our tirnÕs this ãÕÞr.
WÕ usÕ thÕ prÕsent pÕrfÕát áonti nuous:
1 to Õmphasi sÕ thÕ aáti on i tsÕ|f, whi áh mÐã or maã nÞt sti ||
bÕ goi ng on i n thÕ prÕSÕnt.
|Wã álothÕs arÕ wÕt bÕágusÕ l,vÕ beÕn wÐshing thÕ áÐr.
2 to ÕmphÐsi sÕ thÕ |ength of ti mÕ that Ðn i náomp|ÕtÕ Ðáti on
has |astÕd.
l,ve beÕn studãing µng|ish t'or two ãÕars.
· to taIk ÐbÞut aáti ons thÐt hÐvÕ bÕÕn rÕoÕatÕd ovÕr a
pÕri od of ti mÕ up to thÕ prÕsÕnt.
WÕ,ve bÕen going to thÕ tÕnnis álub for ãÕÐrs.
4 For a tÕmporarã Ðáti on or si tuÐti on.
ÂhÕã,ve beÕn áÒrrying aut tÕsts Þß thÕ tÕlÕphÞnr ;ãstÕm.
@
7rniá Z Gerunds and infinitivÕs
Gerunds
GÕrunds ÐrÕ vÕrbaI nouns Õndi ng i n -i ng. WÕ áÐn usÕ thÕm:
1 as thÕ subj Õát Þf Ð vÕrb.
LeÐrning µnglish is nÞt too dit't'táu|t.
2 as thÕ objÕát of Ð vÕrb.
l likÕ studãing dit't'ÕrÕnt lÞnguÐgÕs.
· ÐftÕr Ð prÕposi ti on.
l,m looking t'orãvÐrd to going to µnglÐnd on |lolidÞã.
4 afIer áÕrtÐin vÕrbs.
. avoid . áÐn't stÐnd . áarrãlgolkeep on . áonsidÕr
. dÕnã. (don,t)mi nd . Õnj oy. fÐnáy. fi ni sh . gi vÕ up
. i magi nÕ . mi ss . prÐáti sÕ . put off . ri sk
Jo ÐlwÐãs Ðvoids doing thÕ wÐshing-up.
l |Ðnáã going to the áinÕmÞ tonight.
Would ãou mind álosing thÕ windaw?
5 after somÕ ÕXÞrÕssions with it.
. |t,s (not) worth ... . l t's poi nt|Õss.... It's no UsÕ ...
. It's Ð nui sÐnáÕ ... . l t's no good ...
lt,s no use trãing to ÕåplÐin'
lnfinitives
WÕ áan usÕ i nfi ni ti ves wi th to:
'] to ÕXprÕss pUrposÕ.
l bÞught this bookto rÕÐd on thÕ trÐin.
2 afIer foo + ÐdjÕátivÕ or aftÕr (not) Õnough,
This ÕåÕráisÕ is too dilliáuIt to do in tÕn minutÕs.
ThÕ Ðmount is not enough to áover thÕ ÕåpÕnsÕs.
· Ðs thÕ objÕát of Ð vÕrb aftÕr words IikÕ wherÕ, when and how.
l dan't know how to switáh thÕ á¾mputÕr oß.
4 afIer áÕrtain vÕrbs.
. Ðfford. agrÕÕ. ÐrrÐngÕ. dÕái dÕ. hopÕ. mÐnagÕ
. promi sÕ . rÕfusÕ . want
PÕtÕr Ðgreed to hÕlp mÕ pÐint mã room,
l deáidÕd to go to thÕ bÕÐáh.
YÕrbs folIowed by gerunds or infinitives
1 WÕ áÐn usÕ thÕ gÕrund or thÕ i nfi ni ti vÕ aftÕr somÕ vÕrbs
wi th no áhÐngÕ i n mÕÐnl ng.
I likÕ trÐvÕlling / to trÐvÕ|.
ThÕ studÕnts áontinued working / to work.
lt startÕd snowing / ta sn¾vl'
ÂhÕã bÕgÐn building / to build thÕ nÕw rÐilwÐã stÞtion lÐst
ãÕar.
áhange i n mÕani ng
WÕ áan usÕ thÕ gÕrund or thÕ i nfi ni ti vÕ aftÕr somÕ vÕrbs
wi th Ð áhÐngÕ i n mÕÐni ng.
° rÕmÕmber
WÕ usÕ rÕmember + gÕrund tÞ taIk about somÕthi ng wÕ
di d i n thÕ past Ðnd rÕmÕmbÕr |atÕr.
I rÕmembÕr posting thÕ lÕttÕr,
WÕ usÕ rÕmÕmbÕr + i nfi ni ti vÕ to taIk Ðbout somÕthi ng
that wÕ rÕmÕmbÕr wÕ must do, Ðnd thÕn do ÐftÕrwÐrds.
l rÕmembÕred to phonÕ PÐt,
RemÕmber to tÒke ãour pÕn to sáhoÞl.
B nÕÕd
WÕ usÕ neÕd + gÕrund to taIk about thi ngs thÐt must bÕ
0onÕ.
ÂhÕ kitáhÕn needs dÕáÞrÐting.
h'4ã hÞir nÕÕds áutting.
WÕ usÕ nÕÕd + i nfi ni ti vÕ to taIk about thi ngs thÐt wÕ
must do.
l need ta finish this work bã tÞnight.
|ÆÕ neÕd tÞ gÕt somÕ t'orÕign áurrÕnáã bÕJorÕ gÞing ÞbroÐd.
Á regrÕt
WÕ usÕ rÕgrÕt + gÕrund to tÐl k about somÕthi ng wÕ di d i n
thÕ past Ðnd ÐrÕ now sorrã about.
l regrÕt telling |t'!Ðrã thttt l dir)n,t IikÕ hÕr,
l regrÕt not gaing to univÕrsitã'
WÕ usÕ rÕqrÕt + i nfi ni ti vÕ to Ðpo|ogi sÕ for somÕthi ng wÕ
ÐrÕ goi ng to do. Âhi s i s usÕd i n morÕ formÐ| si tuati ons.
l rÕgret ta sÐã thÞt ! Þrß unÐb|Õ to á¾n·r to thÕ pÐrtã.
WÕ rÕgret- to infÞrm ãÞu thÐt ãÞur Ðpà|iáÐtian hÞs ßÞt bÕÕn
suááÕssfu|.
D trã
WÕ usÕ try + gÕrund to sÐy thÐt somÕthi ng we tri Õd to do
wÐs unsuááÕssfu|.
l tried tÐlking tÞ BÕn but it wÐs no gÞod. ½Õ wouldn,t áhÞngÕ
his mind.
WÕ usÕ rry + i nfi ni ti vÕ to tÐIk Ðbout somÕthi ng wÕ mÐdÕ
Ðn Õffort to do but áouIdn't do.
l tried to phane ãau lÞst night but thÕ |inÕ wÐs ÕngÞgÕd.
WÕ usÕ thÕ infinitivÕ with or without to after some vÕrbs
wi th no áhangÕ i n mÕÐni ng.
l,ll help ãou ta BÐák'
ÁÐn ãou hÕlp mÕ áÒrrã this suitáÐsÕ?
l wÞu|dn't dÐre go bungÕÕ jumping.
l wouIdn't dÐre to go dÕÕp sÕÐ diving.
A
@
1 A gÕrund, Ð prÕsÕnt pÐrti ái p|Õ Ðnd Ðn Ðdj Õáti vÕ Õndi ng
i n -i Ûg IoÞk thÕ sÐmÕ but wÕ usÕ thÕm di ffÕrÕnt|ã.
° Wolking is good t'or ãoØ. (gÕrund/noun)
B We wÕnt on Ð skiing holidÐã. (ÐdjÕátivÕ)
Á WÕ sÐt in thÕ pub eÐting hÞmburgÕrs. (prÕsÕnt pÐrtiáip|Õ)
2 WÕ áÐn usÕ thÕ i nfi ni ti vÕ i n Ð áonti nuous' pÕr{Õát. Ðnd
pÐssi vÕ form.
to lluã
tÞ bÕ bÞught
tÞ bá buãißg
ta hÞvá bÞugh! tÞ hÞã,Õ hÕÕß bou1hi |Þ hál vt'bÕáÓt l l ul i ng
lttÕ naw> rÕà¾rl LÐn bÕ Jound Þrl lhá,, ttl!árßÕ!'
ThÕ árißtirtÐ! is sálid to bÕ Þrriving itt l!tÕ lIK tÞdÐã
½Õ is sÐiál ta hÐve bÕÕn tiving ÐbrÞÐrJ.
½Õ is thuught tÞ hÐvÕ bÕen ÐrrÕstÕd ãÕstárdÞã'
7rnit3 Ýabits
Present hablts
1 WÕ usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt si mp|Õ to tÐIk Ðbout prÕsÕnt Ðáti Þns or
stÐtÕs i n gÕnÕrÐl, oftÕn wi th Ðn ÐdvÕrb of frÕquÕnáã.
I usuÒlly go tr× sáhaÞl bã trÐin
2 WÕ usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt áontinuÞus + ÐlwÐãs, áontinuÞ!|ã and
forÕvÕrIo tÐ|k Ðbout Ðáti ons that ÐrÕ ÐnnÞãi ng i n the
p rÕsÕnt.
¼ã brÞthÕf s tllwÐãs áornplÒining Ðbout samÕLhtng,
· WÕ usÕ wi || to tÐl k Ðbout bÕhavi our thÐt i s typi áaI of Ð
pÕrson.
5hÕ sÕÕs hÕr friÕnds Ò!l r1Ðã tlt sáhÞÞl rlßd thÕn shÕ,tl p|lÒná
thátn in tkÕ ÕvÕning'
Past habits
] WÕ usÕ thÕ past si mp|Õ to tÐ|k about pÐst aáti ons or statÕs,
oftÕn wi th Ðn ÐdvÕrb of frÕquÕnáã.
WhÕn I wÐs !it-t|Õ' t usuÐllã ×ÜÕn{, ta the librarã Òß 5rlturdÐãs.
2 WÕ áan use would and usÕd 1o + infinitive without fo to
tÐ|k Ðbout rÕpÕÐtÕd pÐst aáti ons.
BÕJÞrÕ l áculd rlrivÕ, l usÕd tr×/×'ltÞufd trÒvÕl Õvárã'ãhg{g bã bus.
Note
WÕ áÐn Ð|so usÕ usÕd to, but not woul d, to tÐ|k Ðbout past
stÐtÕS.
l hÕã usrd ta !ivá it× ³rrsnáÕ.
l dir}n,t usÕ t'Ò hr;vÕ Ò lãlÞtÞrbikÕ.
3 WÕ áÐn usÕ thÕ pÐst áonti nuous wi th Ðl wÐãs to tÐIk Ðbout
Ðnnoyi ng hÐbi ts i n thÕ pÐst.
l rámÕmhÕr thr×|, hÕ wÐs ÒlwÐãs t*lking iß á!Ðs×.
1 Many vÕrbs ÐrÕ not used i n thÕ áonti nuous form.
. bÕ|i ÕvÕ. bÕ|ong. áÞnsi st. dÕpÕnd. hÐtÕ. know
. |i kÕ. |ovÕ. mÕÐn. nÕÕd. prÕfÕr. rÕa|i sÕ
. rÕmÕmbÕr . sÕÕm . SUpposÕ . undÕrstand . WÐnt
2 SomÕ vÕrbs áÐn bÕ usÕd i n áonti nuous tÕnsÕs wi l h Ð
diffÕrÕnt mÕÐning' e.g. sÕÕ' think, |ÕÕl, hÐvÕ.
arnit µ Relative and noun álauses
Defi ning rÕlativÕ Glauses
Use
DÕfi ni ng rÕ|ati vÕ á|ÐusÕs gi vÕ us Õssenti Ð| i nformÐti on. ThÕã
dÕfi nÕ thÕ pÕrson or thi ng WÕ arÕ taIki ng Ðbout. ThÕy usuÐIIy
di rÕát|ã fo|l ow thÕ noun thÐt WÕ ÐrÕ dÕfi ni ng.
l|i|r RobÕrts is thÕ wltln whÒ tÕlÕphoned rwÕ ãÕstÕrdÒã.
Âhis is thÕ bÞÞk tfltåt ÀÕter gÐvÕ w×e t'Òr mã birthdÒã.
Pronouns used in dÕfining relativÕ álauses
WÕ usÕ thÕ rÕ|ativÕ pronouns who, whiáh, thÞt or whosÕ.
,] WÕ usÕ who or thÐt for pÕoplÕ.
Âhis is thÕ mrlß vãlra / thÒt dÕsignÕd |hÕ ÐerÞà|ÐnÕ.
2 WÕ usÕ whi áh or thÞtfor thi ngs.
ls this thÕ lÕttÕr wkiálí / thÒt ársrnÕ ãÕstárdÐã?
· WÕ usÕ whosÕ|o sÐã thÐt sÞmÕthi ng bÕIongs to SomÕonÕ
or somÕthi ng. It i s morÕ áommon|y usÕd for pÕop|Õ.
Âl×is is thÕ stÞl,whÒsÕ t'llm was {N boå ÞffiáÕ hit,
ÂhÕ fi!ßl ã,ryhasÕ tit|á t.tlïs GÞßá t,vith thÕ Winc bÕár×rnÕ vÕrã
Jr;mÞus.
4 WÕ áan |ÕÐvÕ thÕ re|Ðti vÕ pronoUn out i f i t rÕfÕrs to thÕ
obj Õát of thÕ rÕ|Ðti vÕ á|ÐusÕ but WÕ áannot l ÕÐvÕ i t out
whÕn i t rÕfÕrs to thÕ subj Õát of thÕ rÕ|Ðti vÕ áIausÕ.
ÂhÕ tiákÕts (tl×Ðt) wÕ hÞÞkÕd fÞr thÕ ácnáÕrt w₠r₠ ÃÕrã
ÕåàÕt,|sIvÕ '
ÂhÕ státrs whÞ ÒpàÕÐrÕd irl thÕ |ilm wÕrÕ'lÕrã t'ÒmÞu's"
Non.dÕfi ning relative álausÕs
UsÕ
Non-dÕfi ni ng rÕ|Ðti vÕ ál ÐusÕs do not dÕfi nÕ thÕ noun. ThÕy
gi vÕ us ÕxtrÐ i nformÐti on. NotÕ thÐt wÕ UsÕ áommÐs wi th non-
dÕtl n i ng rÕIÐti vÕ ál Ð usÕì.
ÂhÕ PrimÕ h4il×istÕr, whÞ is |Õtlvlßg l¾r.u¾t{¾w r:rt Ð h4irld!Õ µátst
tÞur, rnrlr']á a statámÕnt Ihis m{]rßißï.
@
Pronouns in non-dÕfining relative álausÕs
WÕ do not use thÞt i n non-dÕfi ni ng rÕ|Ðti vÕ ál ausÕs Ðnd wÕ
áÐnnot l ÕÐvÕ out thÕ rÕ|Ðti vÕ Dronoun.
ÂhÕ film, whiáh ulÐs mÐdÕ in SáotlÐnd, hÐs bÕÕn Þ boå ot'fiáÕ
5uáÁÕss.
ÂhÕ JiIm, ã'lhosÕ dirÕátor ãtlas StÕven SpiÕlbÕrg, hÐs mÞdÕ mi!lions
of dol!Ðrs.
Noun ál ausÕs
WÕ áÐn use noun áIÐusÕs:
1 as thÕ subj Õát of a sÕntÕnáÕ.
WhÐt ãou ÐrÕ suggÕsting seÕms a good idÕÞ,
2 as thÕ objÕát of Ð sÕntÕnáÕ.
I don,t know whÞt ãou ÞrÕ tÐ|king Ðbout.
· aftÕr i ndi rÕát quÕsti ons. In an i ndi rÕát quÕsti on, thÕ
subj Õát a|waãs áomÕs bÕforÕ thÕ vÕrb i n thÕ sÕáond pÐrt of
thÕ sÕntÕnáÕ.
ÁÐn ãau tÕll mÕ how he is?
QuÕstion words suáh as ½ow? WhÕn? and WhÕrÕ? ÐrÕ usÕd
i n bÞth di rÕát and i ndi rÕát ouÕsti ons.
WhÐt is thÕ tinÕ? (dirÕát)
ÁÐn ãou tÕlI mÕ whÐt thÕ timÕ is? (indirÕát)
|f thÕrÕ i s no quÕsti on word, wÕ usÕ f.
½Ðs shÕ ÐrrivÕd ãÕt? (dirÕáI)
DÞ you know if shÕ hÐs ÐrrivÕd ãÕf7 (indirÕát)
Tlnit 5 Narrative tenses
Past simàle and past continuous
We usÕ thÕ si mp|Õ past wi th thÕ past áonti nuous to dÕsári bÕ
an aáti on thÐt wÐs i n progrÕss whÕn ÐnothÕr Ðáti on happÕnÕd
or.i ntÕrruÞtÕd'i t.
WÕ wÕre hÐving Ðn µng|ish lÕsson whÕn thÕ !ights went of|.
l wÐs listÕning to Þ ÁD whÕn PetÕr ÐrrivÕd.
Past pÕrfeát simplÕ and áontinuous
WÕ usÕ both thÕ past pÕrfÕát Ðnd thÕ pÐst pÕrfÕát áonti nuous
to tÐl k ÐbÞut an Ðáti on whi áh hÐppÕnÕd bÕforÕ anothÕr Ðáti on
in thÕ pÐst. HowÕvÕr, WÕ usÕ the pÐst pÕrfÕát for a áomplÕtÕd
aáti on Ðnd to ÕmohÐsi sÕ i ts rÕsuIt.
l wÐs Þngrã bÕáÐusÕ somÕ¾nÕ hÐd stolÕn mã àurSÕ.
WÕ usÕ thÕ past pÕrfÕát áonti nuous for Ðn Ðáti on thÐt
happÕnÕd ovÕr a pÕri od of ti mÕ, and tÞ ÕmphÐsi sÕ thÕ Ðáti Þn
goi ng on.
I wÐs ÐmÐzÕd thÞt hÕ hÐd been stÕaling from thÕ áompÞnã for so
lonï.
NotÕ
WÕ do not usuÐ||y usÕ thÕ pÐst pÕrfÕát áonti nuous to tÐ|k
Ðbout stÐtÕs.
PrÕsent perfcát áontinuous
WÕ usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt pÕrfÕát áÞnti nuous:
1 to tÐ|k Ðbout Ðn aáti on whi áh hÐs bÕÕn goi ng on for somÕ
ti me and whi áh i s sti Il goi ng on.
PÞul hÐs bÕÕn jogging round the pÞrk sináÕ sÕvÕn o,áloák this
morning.
2 for fi ni shÕd aáti ons whi áh hÐvÕ a rÕsu|t i n thÕ prÕsÕnt.
WÕ,ve bÕÕn living in thÕ áitã for Ðbout t'ivÕ ãÕÞrs now.
¼ã hÐir is wet bÕáÐusÕ |,vÕ bÕÕn swimming'
· for Ðáti ons that havÕ bÕÕn rÕpeÐtÕd ovÕr Ð pÕri od of ti mÕ
up to thÕ prÕsÕnt.
ÂhÕã,ve been goingto thÕ tÕnnis álub t'or ÐgÕs.
Adverb álausÕs
WÕ áÐn usÕ ÐdvÕrb áIausÕs to ÕxorÕss:
] rÕÐson
l borrowÕd somÕ monÕã becÐusÕ / sináe / Ðs l wÐnted to stort
up mã ovtn businÕss,
2 ti mÕ
WhilÕ / WhÕn we werÕ on holidÐã, wÕ mÕt Þn old t'riÕnd,
· áo nd i ti o n
lf we áÐn gÕt tiákÕts, wÕ,lI go to thÕ áonáÕrt.
4 pUrposÕ
l joinÕd a sàorts á|ub so thÐt I áauld mÐkÕ friÕnds.
5 rÕsu It
ÂhÕ ftight was so eåpÕnsivÕ thÐt ãle dÕáided to trÞãÕl bã train.
₠
TfniX ll Past modals
Past modal s and mÕani ng
WÕ áan usÕ oast modal s to tÐIk about:
1 possi bi l i ty
lt might / mÞã hÐãÕ bÕÕn ãour pÐrÕnts l,æho sÕnt thÕ t'lowÕrs.
2 |ogi áÐ|Õxp|anati on
|t áÐn't hÐãÕ bÕÕn llÐriÞ ãæho phonÕd. S|lÕ,s on ha|idÐã.
lt must hÐvÕ bÕÕn SÐrÐh. ShÕ sÞid shÕ wÞs going ta gÕt in
touáh.
· obIi gÐti on
l ought to / should hÐvÕ JinishÕd tLlis áompositiÞn lÐst night.
4 |aák of nÕáÕssi tÃ
WÕ needn,t hÐve got up so ÕÐr|ã.
5 a oÐst áondi ti on
I would hÐvÕ t'inishÕd thÕ áampositiÞn if I llÐd hÐd timÕ.
7rnit7 Passive' Gausative hÐãe
and gÕt
PassivÕ
Form
Âo mÐkÕ an Ðáti vÕ sÕntÕnáÕ passi vÕ, wÕ nÕÕd to makÕ thrÕÕ
ánÐ ngÕs:
° mÐkÕ thÕ obj Õát of thÕ vÕrb thÕ subj Õát of thÕ pÐssi vÕ
sÕ ntÕnáÕ.
B usÕ thÕ sÐmÕ tÕnsÕ of thÕ vÕrb to bÕ and thÕ oast
pÐrti ái p|Õ of thÕ aáti ve vÕrb.
ThÕ áitã hÐs ÐttrÞáted visitors t'rom Ðl! ovÕr the woild. (ÐátivÕ)
Visitors hÐve beÕn ÞttrÐátÕd to thÕ áitã from Ðll ovÕr thÕ
woild. (pass:e)
Á WhÕn i s i t nÕáÕssÐry to sÐy who or what di d thÕ Ðáti on,
wÕ nÕÕd to makÕ thÕ sub1Õát of thÕ vÕrb thÕ ÐgÕnt of thÕ
pÐssivÕ sÕntÕnáÕ bã using by.
Poliáe áÐught thÕ thiÕf this morning. (ÐátivÕ)
ThÕ thiÕf wÐs áÐught by poliáÕ this ßorning. (pÐssivÕ)
Use
WÕ usÕ thÕ oÐssi vÕ form:
.,] whÕn wÕ dÞ not know who di d thÕ Ðáti on.
ÂhÕ BÒã of IslÐnds ããÐs visited Þs ÕÐrlã Þs thÕ tenth ÁÕnturã.
2 whÕn WÕ arÕ nÞt i ntÕrÕsted i n who di d thÕ aáti on Þr i t i s
not i rnÞortant who di d i t.
ÂhÕ islÐnd vilÐs disáovÕrÕd in 17B9.
If wÕ want to sÐy who or what di d thÕ Ðáti on, wÕ usÕ by +
pÕrson orthi ng.
ÂrátdÕ wÒs built up witll nÕighbauring is|Þnds bã the loáál
fishÕrmÕn.
Passive forms with thÕ gÕrund and the infinitive
WÕ áÐn usÕ pÐssi vÕ forms aftÕr vÕrbs whi áh ÐrÕ fo||owÕd bã
thÕ gÕrund (' p134):
l rÕmÕmbÕr being shawn thÕ mÐin sights oJ l ondon.
Ðnd ÐftÕr vÕrbs whi áh ÐrÕ foIIowÕd bã thÕ i nfi ni ti vÕ (l p135):
PÕÞplÕ ÕåpÕát to t×Õ tÐken sÕriÞuslã whÕn thÕã tÐ|k ÐbÞut thÕir
pr0blÕms.
WÕ áan Ð|so usÕ pÐssivÕ gÕru nds aftÕr somÕ prÕpositions (' pl·a)
JÐák wÐs fÕd up l'uith bÕing sÕnt Þn busiãlÕss triàs ÕvÕrã wÕÕkÕßd'
Causative hÐve and get
Form
WÕ form thÕ áausÐtivÕ using hÞvÕ or gÕt + objÕát + pÐst
parti ái p|Õ of thÕ vÕrb.
. WhÕn did ãÞu g,Õt ãour hÒir áut?
' l hÒtl it áut ãÕstÕrdÞã.
. Whã did ãou hÐãe áÕntrÒl heÐting instÒlled?
. WÕ gat it instÐlled bÕátlusÕ thÕ housÕ wÐs frÕÕzing áold in
âæli ßtÕr.
UsÕ
WÕ áÐn use hÐvÕ or gÕti n thÕ áÐusÐti vÕ struáturÕ. Gef i s more
i nformÐ| Ihan hÐvÕ. WÕ usÕ thÕ áÐusÐti vÕ whÕn wÕ ÐrÕ tÐ|ki ng
Ðbout somÕthi ng wÕ Ðsk, tÕ|l or pÐã sÞmÕbody Õ|sÕ to do for
us.
WÕ hÐve hÒrl Ð new áÐrpÕt lÐid'
IhÐd the áÐr wÐshÕd Ihis mortting'
In thÕ áausati ve, gÕt and hÐvÕ áan somÕti mes hÐvÕ Ð nÕgÐti vÕ
mÕani ng.to ÕxpÕri ÕnáÕ, (usuaIl y somÕthi ng unp|ÕasÐnt).
I got / hÐd mã hÞusÕ brakÕn into lÐst night. (|'°ã housÕ was
brokÕn i nto.)
@
Tfnit I ways of talking about
thÕ futurÕ
going to
WÕ áÐn use going to:
1 to taIk Ðbout our i ntÕnti ons.
lngrid sÐãs shÕ,s gaing to tÞkÕ up swimming.
2 to mÐkÕ prÕdi áti ons basÕd on whÐt wÕ áÐn sÕÕ.
LÞak Òt thÐt báÐutiful sunshinÕ! lt,s going to be Ð niáÕ ttrÒã.
Present áontinuous
WÕ áÐn usÕ thÕ prÕsÕnt áonti nuous to tÐ|k Ðbout a dÕfi ni tÕ
arrangÕmÕnt for thÕ f uturÕ.
I,m kÒving rln intÕrviÕw t¾{norr¾w.
WÕ,re gÒing out with friÕnds tonig|lt.
PrÕsent simplÕ
WÕ áÐn usÕ thÕ si mp|Õ prÕsÕnt to taIk about Õvents Ðt Ð
dÕfi ni tÕ ti mÕ i n thÕ futurÕ (oftÕn ti mÕtÐbl Õd ÕvÕnts).
SáhoÞ| stÐrts nÕåt ¼ÞndÐã.
ÂhÕ áonáÕrt bÕgins Ðt 7"·a.
ÂhÕ trrlin lÕÐltÕs Ðt 16.0·,
Future simple (will)
WÕ usÕ wil/:
] to mÐkÕ Ð prÕdi áti on.
ÂhÕ ßumbÕr Þf áÐrs on thÕ roÐds will inárÕÐsÕ rÒpidlã in thÕ
nÕåt fivÕ ãÕÐrs,
2 to mÐkÕ Ð rÕqUÕst.
Will ãÞu p|ÕrlsÕ ga tlnd gÕt mÕ Ð diátianÐrã frÞrn thÕ librrlrã?
· to mÐkÕ Ðn i nstant dÕái si on.
|,ll go Ònd gÕt us tln iáÕ árÕrlm!
4 to mÐkÕ a promi sÕ.
l,ll buã ãÞu ÒnÞthÕr watáh tÁ} rÕà!ÐáÕ thÕ anÕ ãou,vÕ lost"
5 to ÕxprÕss dÕtÕrmi nati on.
WÕ wan't' lÕt rl litt|Õ prob!Õm IikÕ this spÞil ottr haIidÞã!
Future áontinuous
WÕ usÕ thÕ futurÕ áonti nuous to ÕmphÐsi sÕ thÕ IÕngth of Ðn
Ðáti on at a áÕrtÐi n ti mÕ i n thÕ futurÕ.
past ) prÕsÕnt -J 2010 ) 201 5
spÐáÕ stÐtion spÐáÕ sLÐtion
stÐrtÕd finishÕd
ln 2012 thÕã will bÕ building thÕ nÕw sàÐáÕ stgtiÞn.
FuturÕ perfeát simpIÕ
WÕ usÕ thÕ futurÕ oÕrfÕát to tÐl k Ðbout Ðn Ðáti on or ÕvÕnt
whi áh wi || bÕ ovÕr bÕforÕ a áÕrtÐi n ti mÕ i n thÕ futurÕ.
past --+ prÕsÕnt -í 2010 ) 201 5
spaáÕ statlon spaáÕ statlon
Sta rtÕd
fi n ishÕd
ÂhÕã will l×ÐvÕ finishrd thÕ nÕw spÐáÕ stÞtion bã 2a15'
Future perfcct áontinuous
WÕ usÕ thÕ futurÕ pÕrfÕát áonti nuous to sÐã how |ong an
Ðáti on or ÕvÕnt wi || hÐvÕ áonti nuÕd for by a áÕrtÐi n ti mÕ,
oftÕn with /or.
past --+ prÕsÕnt
) 2010 ) 201 5
spÐáÕ stÞtion spÐáÕ stÐtion
stÐrtÕd t'inishÕd
Bã 2a12 ttlÕã wil| hÐvÕ bÕÕn building t|lÕ spÞáÕ stÞtion for two
ãÕa rS.
arni t 9 Âhi rd áondi ti onal, wi shes
and regrÕts
Thi rd (ondi ti onal
Form
WÕ form thÕ thi rd áondi ti onÐI usi ng f + past pÕrfÕát, + woul d
/ wouldn,t + hÐvÕ + pÐst pÐrtiáip|Õ.
lf ãou had givÕn rnÕ ãaur àharlÕ numbÕr, l wauld hÐvÕ áÞIled ãou
lf l,d sÕt mã Ò|álrm á|aák lÐst night, l ltãouldn,t hÐvÕ averslept.
WÕ áÐn Ð|so usÕ áould hÐvÕ or might hÐvÕ + past partiáiplÕ.
$ ãou hÒd told mÕ ãou wÕrÕ lÐtÕ, I áould hÐve givÕn ãou Ð lit't.
tf ¼Ðrk hÐdn,t' bÕen so rudÕ, l might hÒvÕ t'orgivÕn him.
Use
WÕ usÕ thÕ thi rd áondi ti ÞnÐ| to i mÐgi nÕ how thi ngs mi ght
hÐvÕ bÕÕn di ffÕrÕnt i n thÕ oast.
lf l hÐdn,t bÕÕrl sa tirÕd, l wÞuldn,t hÒve fÒllÕn ÐslÕep Þn thÕ
bus.
(But I wÐs ti rÕd, Ðnd I di d fa|| Ðs|ÕÕp.)
lf PÐul hÐd tÞld mÕ Ðbau{ thÕ pÞrtã, l'd hÐve gonÕ to it.
(But PÐul di dn't tÕ|| mÕ' Ðnd l di dn,t go.)
Wishes and regrÕts
WÕ áÐn ÕXprÕss wishÕs and rÕgrÕts about thÕ pÐst using wlsh
or wished + pÐst pÕrfÕát. ThÕ wish WÕ ÕXprÕss is thÕ oppositÕ
of whÐt rÕÐ||y hÐppÕnÕd.
lwisll l'd bÕÕn born Ð hundrÕd ãÕarSago. (You wÕrÕn't born Ð
hundrÕd ãÕars ago.)
@
PÐu!Ðwi shÕsshehÒdn,tspl i tupwi thhÕrbaãt'ri Õnd. (ButshÕdi d 2 |f thÕreporti ngvÕrbi si nthÕprÕsÕnttÕnSÕ,wÕdonot
spIi t up Wi th hi m.) áhangÕ thÕ fÞrm of thÕ tÕnsÕ i n thÕ rÕportÕd statÕmÕnt.
DÐvid wished hÕ hÐdn,t ÐrguÕd vãith his àarÕnts so muáh. (But hÕ ,l,vÕ baught Ð mobi|Õ phÞnÕ,' sÞãs µl|Þ.
did ÐrguÕ With thÕm a lot.) µllÐ sÐãs s|lÕ,s bougl×t Ð mÞbilÕ àhoßÕ.
WÕ áÐn Ðlso ÕåprÕss rÕgrÕts Ðbout thÕ pÐst with if onlã + pÐst
pÕrfÕát. Reporting ordÕrs and requests
lf onlã l hÐd áÐllÕd him!(BuI I didn't áal| him.) WÕ usÕ rel/ + infinitivÕ to rÕport ordÕrs' and Ðsk + infinitivÕ to
tf only JÞmes hÐd rÕmrmbÕrÕd mã birthdÐã!(But hÕ didn't rÕpor rÕquÕsIS.
rÕmÕmber it') ,Staà tátlking,, stlid tkÕ tÕÞáhÕr.
Â!×Õ tÕÐáher tÞld us to stop tÞ|king.
,ÁÞn ãau àÐss thÕ srl|t, à|ÕÒsÕ?, hÕ sÐid,
Unit 7o Reported speÕáh ½Õ ttskÕd mÕ if t áÞuld pÒss thÕ sÐ!t.
Reported spÕech Reporting quÕstions
WÕ usÕ Ð rÕporti ng vÕrb to rÕport di rÕát spÕÕáh. WÕ aIso nÕÕd WhÕn we rÕport quÕsti ons, WÕ:
to áhangÕ:
A pronouns, Õ.g. / bÕáÞmes hÕ / shÕ. ] do not usÕ thÕ vÕrb i n thÕ quÕsti on form i n thÕ i ndi rÕát
B tÕnsÕs, Õ.g. quÕsti on.
simpIÕ prÕsÕnt, simplÕ pÐsâ ,WhÕn did ãau ÐrrivÕ irl LÞndan?,Sièaß ÐskÕd PÕtrÒ.
prÕsÕnt áontlnuous l pÐst áontlnuous SimÞn ÐskÕd PetrÞ êãhÕn shÕ hÒd arrivÕd in LÞndan.
wi|l , wÞu|d; áÒn , áould; mÐã , might 2 UsÕ if or whÕther if thÕrÕ is no quÕstion word in thÕ dirÕát
prÕSÕnt pÕrfÕát (áonti nuous) l pÐst pÕrfÕát (áonti nuous) quÕsti on.
simp|Õ pÐst l pÐst pÕrfÕát ,°rÕ ãou stÒying hÕrÕ |ong?, Simon ÒskÕd PÕtrÐ.
Siman ÒskÕd ÀÕtrÐ if / whÕt,hÕr shÕ wrls stÐãing thÕrÕ long.
Note
Past modÐ|s do nÞt áhÐngÕ thÕi r past form i n rÕpÞrtÕd spÕÕáh. l ndi reát questi ons wi thout tense áhanges
,l wauld |ovÕ to knaw thÕ ÐnswÕr,, sÐid SÐllã' IndirÕát quÕstions without tÕnsÕ áhÐngÕs ÐrÕ knÞwn Ðs
SÐ|lã sÐid shÕ ãtlould lovÕ tÞ kßow thÕ ÒnswÕr. ÕmbÕddÕd quÕstions. ÂhÕsÕ ÐrÕ dirÕát quÕstions whiáh fo||ow
'You should hÐãe told nlÕ ÐbÞut thÕ prab!Õm with thÕ áÐr,, srlid Jim. ÐnothÕr sÕntÕnáe opÕnÕr, e.g. l want to know, l wondÕr, Õ1á.
jim sátid l should havÕ told hiè ÐbÞut the problÕm with thÕ áÐr' WÕ do not áhÐngÕ thÕ tÕnsÕ Þf thÕ dirÕát quÕstion but wÕ do
ÂhÕ past pÕrfÕát áonti nuous doÕs nÞt áhÐngÕ i n rÕportÕál áhÐngÕ thÕ word ordÕr.
spÕÕáh. .°rÕ ãau huÛgrã?, l wÐnt to know if ãÞu,rÕ hungrã.
l fÕlt tirÕd on h4ondÞã bÕáÐusÕ l hÐd bÕÕn trÒvÕlling ÒI| dÒã, ,°rÕ thÕ áhitálrÕn tirÕd?' l luÞndÕr it' thÕ áhildrÕn ÐrÕ tirÕd.
S|tÕ sÐid thÐt shÕ hÐd JÕlt tirÕd an h4ondÞã bÕáÞusÕ shÕ llÒd bÕÕn ,WhÐt timÕ is it?, Áou!r1 ãÞtl tá!! rnÕ whÐt tinÕ it is?
trÐvÕlling Ð|l dÞã.
Á words áonnÕátÕd with thÕ prÕsÕnt, Õ.g. ,|s dinnÕr rÕÐdã ãÕt?, Do ãou knÞvv if tlinnÕr is rÕÐdã ãÕt?
nÞw l thÕn; hÕrÕ l thÕrÕ; this l thÞt; thÕsÕ l thÞsÕ
Reporting statÕmÕnts
1 ThÕre arÕ manã di ffÕrÕnt rÕporti ng vÕrbs i n µng|i sh but wÕ
oftÕn usÕ sÐã or tÕll, somÕtimÕs foIIowÕd bã thÐt, to rÕport
di rÕát stÐtÕmÕnts.
,I'vÕ bought Ð mabi|Õ ãlhÞnÕ,, sÐid µllÐ.
µ!lÐ said {thÒt) shÕ'd bÞught Þ mobilÕ phanÕ"
'l don,t knÞw hÞl,ã it l,uorks,' µl|Ð sÞid to MÐrk.
µllÐ told MÐrk (thÐt) shÕ didn,t knaw how it wot,kÕd.
Note
fel/ i s Ð|wÐãs fo||owÕd by an objÕát
@
Note: Defi ni ti ons takÕn from the oÅford Wordpower Di áti onary for |ÕÐrnÕrs of Eng|i sh
fi rst Õdi ti on o oxford Uni versi ty Press, 2000. Âhi rd Õdi ti on ISBN 97B 0 19 4×9924 1.
rr a. I
UNIT -I
Nouns
agenáy /.Õrd3ínsi/ [Á] Ð business thÐt providÕs Ð
partiáuIar sÕrviáe: a modÕ|ling ÞgÕnáã
aIbum / al bím/ [á] Ð book i n whi áh you áÐß kÕÕp
5tÐmps, àhotogrÐphs, Õtá thÐt you hÐvÕ áo||eáted
appeaI /í'pi:l/ [U] Ð quÐ|i ty thÐt mÐkes sb/sth
attrÐátive or intÕrÕsting
appearanáe /í.àlíríns/ [Á] thÕ WÐã thÐt sb/sth |ooks
0r seÕms verb: ÐppÕÐr
armadi l Io / á:mí'drl ío/ [Á] Ðn Ameri áÐn Ðni mÐ|
wi th Ð hÐrd shÕ||, thÐt eÐts i nsÕáts Ðnd rol |s i nto Ð
bÐ|| i f sth ÐttÐáks i t
armour / á:mí/ [U] ál othi ng, oftÕn mÐdÕ of mÕtÐ|,
thÐt sol di ers wore i n thÕ pÐst to protÕát thÕmsÕl vÕs
attraáti on /í'trzÕkJn/ Ð fÕÕ|i ng of Ii ki ng sb/sth várb:
ÐITÓÐáI
brand name /'brÕnd ßÕrm/ [Á] thÕ nÐme givÕn to Ð
produát by the áompÐny thÐt produáÕs i t
áamoufl age /'kamífl o:3/ [U] the wÐã i n whi áh Ðn
Ðni mÐl's áoIour or shapÕ mÐtáhÕs i ts surroundi ngs
Ðnd mÐkes it diffiáUIt to see.. The po|Ðr beÐf s whitÕ
fur provides áÐmout'lÐgÕ ÐgÐißst thÕ ;now.
áareer /kí.rrí/ [Á] 1 thÕ series of jobs that sb hÐs in Ð
pÐrtiáu|Ðr ÐreÐ of work: SÐrÐh is áonsidÕring Þ
áÐreÕr in enginÕÕßng.2 thÕ àeriod of your IifÕ thÐt
you spend worki ng
áoÐt /kíot/ [á] the fur' hÐir, Õtá, thÐt áovÕrs Ðn
Ðni ma|'s body
áommeráe /'kÞm×:s/ [U] thÕ busi nÕss of buyi ng Ðnd
sel Ii ng thi ngs Ðdj Õáti vÕ. áommerái Ðl
áontraát /'kDntlÐÕkt/ [Á] Ð WrittÕn legÐ| ÐgrÕemÕ»t
vÕÓb: áo»trÐát /kín trÐÕkt/
áosmetiá surgery /koz'metrk 's×:d3íri/ [U] mÕdiáÐ|
trÕÐtmÕnt thÐt i s i ntÕnded to i mprove Ð pÕrson's
appeÐ rÐ náe
áraftsman /'krá:ftsmín/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who mÐkÕs
thi ngs ski Ifu||y, ÕspÕái a||ã Wi th hi s/hÕr hÐnds
áu|ture /,k,tltJa/ [Á] thÕ áustoms, idÕÐs, beIiÕfs, etá.
Of Ð pÐrti áU|Ðr 50ái Õtã, áoUntry, etá.
di versi tã /dar v×:seti i [Á, usuÐ||ã si ng,] Ð wi de
varietã of sth
doáumentarã /'dokjumÕntri/ [Á] a fi|m or te|evision
or rÐdi o pÓogrammÕ thÐt gi vÕs fÐáts or i nformÐti on
Ðbout Ð àÐrti áu|Ðr subj eát
fashion /.fÒJn/ [á] thÕ sty|Õ of drÕssing or bÕhÐvißg
thÐt i s thÕ most popU|Ðr at a àarti áu|Ðr ti me
fashion show /'fÐeJn JíÞ/ [Á] Ðn oááÐsioß whÕrÕ
àÕop|Õ áÐn sÕÕ nÕw desi gns of á|othes bei ng worn
bã fashi on mode|s
feathÕr /'fÕÑí/ [Á] one of the light, soft things thÐt
grow i n Ð bi rd's ski n Ðnd áovÕr i ts bodã
fur /f×:/ [U] the soft thi ák hÐi r thÐt áovers the bodi es
of some Ðni mÐ|s
hedgehog /'hÕd3hÞg/ [á] Ð smÐ|l brown µuropÕan
Ðni mÐ| Wi th shÐrp thi ngs l i kÕ nÕÕdIes (spi ßás)
áovÕring its bÐák
i mage /'rmrd3/ 1 [á,U] thÕ generÐ| i mpressi on that Ð
person or orgÐni zÐti on gi vÕs to thÕ pub|i á 2 [á] Ð
mentÐ| pi áture thÐt you hÐvÕ of whÐt sb/nh i s l i ke
or |ooks like 3 [Á] Ð áopy of sb/sth in thÕ form of Ð
pi áture or stÐtuÕ
imperfeátion / Impí'fÕkJn/ [á] Ð fÐu|t or wÕaknÕss
i n sb/sth Ðdj Õáti vÕ: i mperfÕát
impression /m preJn/ [Á] (Ðß impÓÕssion of s|íÌth)
Ðn i dÕa, Ð fÕÕl i ng or Ðn opi ni on thÐt ãou gÕt Ðbout
sb/sth, or thÐt 5b/sth gives you
influenáe / rnfluíns/ [U] thÕ effeát thÐt sb/sth hÐs
on the wÐã Ð person thi nks or bÕhÐves or on the
WÐy thÐt Ìth workì or detÕ|ops
i nspi rati on / Inspí'âÕr.[n/ [Á,U] Ð fÕeIi ng, person or
thi ng that mÐkes you WÐnt t0 do sth 0r gi vÕs ãou
ÕÅái ti n8 nÕW i dÕÐs
invisibiIity hn vrzí bIlÞti/ [U] thÕ fÐát 0r stÐtÕ of
bÕi ng unÐbi Õ to bÕ sÕÕn wi th thÕ humÐn ÕyÕ
look /1Þk/ [Á] Ð fÐshioß or sIã|Õ: The shop hÞs Ð nÕw
look to ÐppÕÐl to ãoungÕr áustomÕr'.
modÕI /'mndl/ [Á] Ð person whosÕ j ob i s to wÕÐr Ðnd
show new stãl Õs of á|othes Ðnd be photogrÐphed
WÕarl ßg thÕm
modeIIi ng /.mÞdíl ræ/ [U] thÕ work of Ð fÐshi on
modÕl
outIinÕ / aá.itlaân/ [Á] Ð dÕsáription of the most
i mportÐnt fÐáts or i dÕÐs Ðbout sth
peaáoák /.pi:kok/ [Á] Ð l ÐrgÕ bi rd wi th bÕÐuti fu| |ong
bIuÕ Ðnd green tÐi I feÐthÕrs thÐt i t áÐn Ii ft up Ðnd
spreÐd out
photograph / ³ÐÞtígrÞ:f/ [Á] Ð piáture thÐt is tÐken
Wi th a áÐmÕrÐ Ðdj eáti vÕ: photog³Ðph á
/ fíáití.grÐÕ³rk/
àhoto-storã /³íUtíustí:ril [Á] Ð story t0Id through
p hotogrÐ phs
pIot /plot/ [Á] sÕriÕs of eVÕnts Whiáh form thÕ story
of Ð novÕ|' fi|m, Õtá: ÂhÕ plÐã hÐd Ð vÕrã wÕÐk
plot.
predator / prÕdítí/ |Á] Ðn Ðni mÐ| thÐt ki IIs Ðnd ÕÐts
othÕr Ðni mÐ|s
preã /prÕI/ [U, si ng.] Ðn Ðni mÐ|, a bi rd, etá. thÐt i s
hunted, ki l Ied Ðnd eÐten bã ÐnothÕr
rÕpresentation /'rÕprIzÕn.tÕIJn/ [Á] the wÐy thÐt
sb/sth i s shown or dÕsári bÕd; somÕthi ng that shows
0r desári bÕs sth
safÕty / sÕIfti/ [u] thÕ stÐtÕ of being safÕ; not bÕing
dangerous or i n dÐngÕr
speái es /'spi:Ji:z/ [Á] Ð group of p|Ðnts or Ðni mÐ|s
thÐt ÐrÕ Ð|l thÕ sÐme Ðnd that áan hÐvÕ bÐbi es
(brÕÕd) together
spi ne /sparn/ [Á] onÕ of thÕ shÐrp poi nts Ii kÕ nÕÕdl Õs
found on somÕ p|Ðnts Ðnd Ðni mÐ|s
stiák inseát / stlk InsÕkt/ [Á] Ð |arge insÕát With Ð
Iong thi n body thÐt l ooks Ii kÕ a sti ák
storãboard /,stí:ribí:d/ [Á] Ð sÕriÕs of drÐwings or
pi áturÕs that show thÕ out|i nÕ Of a story
stripe /stlarp/ [Á] Ð |oßg nÐrrow IinÕ of áolÞur
survi vaI /sÐ.vaIvl/ [U] thÕ stÐtÕ of áonti nui ng to Ii vÕ
or ÕÅi st, oftÕn dÕspi tÕ di ffi áuIty or danger
varietã /ví'âaríti/ [Á] Ð numbÕr of diffÕrÕnt typÕs of
thÕ Same thi ng vÕrb: vÐÓã
VÕrbs
appÕaI /í,pi:l/ (ÐàpÕÐ| to slr) to attraát or intÕrest sb
assi gn /í sal n/to gi ve sth to sb, t0 gi vÕ sb Ð
pÐrti áU|Ðr j 0b to do nou³l: Ðssi gnn]Õnt
assoáiate /í'sÞUJiÕIt/ t0 mÐkÕ Ð áonnÕátion between
peop|Õ or thi ngs i n your mi nd
attraát /í'tr@kt/ to áÐuse sb/sth to go to sth or givÕ
attÕnti On t0 sth
árÕate /kÓi.elt/ to áÐUse sth nÕW to hÐppen or ÕXi5t
Ðd]Õáti Ve: árÕÐti Ve
develop /dâ,vÕlíp/ to mÐke piátUrÕs or ÛÕgÐtivÕs
from Ð ài ÕáÕ of fi |m by usi ng spÕái a| áhÕmi áaIs
evoIve /i'volv/ to dÕveIop or to make sth devÕ|op
grÐduÐl Iy, from Ð si mp|Õ to Ð more ÐdvÐÛáÕd form
hi dÕ /haâd/ to go somewherÕ whÕrÕ you hopÕ ãou
wi Il not be sÕÕn or found
iIIustrate /IlístÕlt/ to ÕÅp|Ðin or mÐke sth á|eÐr bã
usi ng ÕxÐmp1Õs, pi átUres 0r di ÐgrÐms
invent /rn vÕnt/ to sÐy or desáribÕ sth that is not
trUÕ
pãoteát /plí'tÕkt/ to kÕÕp sb/sth safÕ from dÐnger,
to dÕfÕnd sb/sth
provide /prÞ'vald/ to givÕ sth to sb or mÐkÕ sth
Ðvai l Ðb|Õ for sb to use; to offÕr sth
reaát /ri.Ðekt/ to do or sÐã 5th beáÐUse of sth thÐt hÐs
hÐppÕned or been 'Ði d |oU||: 'à4( |i Ol
represÕnt / rÕplr'ZÕnt/ to dÕsáribÕ sb/sth in Ð
pÐrt|áU|Ðr WÐã
satisfy /'s:etIs³ar/ to mÐkÕ sb p|ÕÐsÕd by doing or
gi vi ng hi m/her whÐt hÕ/she Wants ¿oUß:
5Ðtrsf Ðátio¿ /'slítIs'fÕkJn/
skÕtáh /SkÕtJ/Ð short dÕsáription without Ðny detai|s:
l sat on the grÐss Ðnd sketáhed the áÐstle.
survi ve /sí'varv/ t0 áonti nUÕ to Ii vÕ or Õxi st i n or
ÐftÕr Ð di ffi ául t or dÐngÕroUs si tuÐti on
symbolise /'sImbílaIz/ to reprÕsent sth
AdjÕátivÕs
amatÕur / zÕmítíI/ done, or doi ng sth, f0r p|ÕÐsUre
(not for money Ðs Ð j ob)
attraátive /í'tâiµktrv/ thÐt p|ÕasÕs or intÕrÕsts you;
thÐt you Ii |'e UpU{).i'( : ,'trÐ| Ðr Ii te
bIurred /bl ×:d/ not ál ÕÐr; Wi thoUt a á|ÕÐr out|i nÕ
broader /'brí:dí/ wi thout Ð |ot of dÕtÐi |; generÐ|
áIÕar /k1âí/ ÕÐ5y to 5ÕÕ or hÕar opposi tÕ: uná ÕÐr
áIose.up /'kl íus l p/ Ðt or from Ð vÕrã short di stÐnáÕ
to sb/sth
(ommon /'kÞmín/ hÐppeni ng oftÕn; Õåi sti ng i n
|Ðrge numbÕrì or i n mÐnã p|ÐrÕì oonÞti |á,
Uná0mnl on
áompliáatÕd /'komphkeItId/ d iffi áu It to understÐnd
or deÐ| with: Þ novÕl with Ð vÕrã áompliáÐtÕd plot.
áountIess / kar'intlís/ vÕry mÐny
desi gnÕr /dâ'zarní/ mÐde by Ð fÐmous dÕsi gnÕr;
ÕxpÕnsi ve Ðnd hÐvi ng Ð fÐmous brÐnd nÐmÕ
detai l ed /,di:tÕrl d/ gi vi ng i nformÐti on ÐboUt
i ndi vi duÐ| fÐáts or i tÕms
essentiaI /I'sÕn.[l/ áomplÕte|ã neáÕssÐrã; thÐt you
must hÐvÕ or do 0àpÞ5i tá: ||l ÕsseIl t|Ð|
expensive /Ik spÕnsIv/ áosting Ð |ot of monÕy
ál àl pÞsi tÕ: i nÕåpÕnsi vÕ, áhÕÐp
fake /³Õâk/ mÐdÕ to look Iike sth e|se: Þ jaákÕt in
fÐkÕ Jur
glamorous /'glÕmírís/ ÕspeáiÐ|ly ÐttrÐátiVe Ðnd
exái ti ng, Ðnd di ffÕrÕnt from ordi nÐrã thi ngs or
pÕop|Õ
heIpful /'hÕl pfl/ gi vi ng he|p
heIpl ess /'hÕl pl ís/ unÐb|Õ to tÐkÕ áÐre of ãoursÕi f or
do thi ngs wi thout the hÕ|p of othÕr pÕop|Õ
Iega| /.Ii:gI/ usi ng or áonnÕátÕd Wi th thÕ l ÐW
oppÞsi tÕ. i | ÕgÐ|
mature /mí,tJoí; mí'tj oí/ 1 fu||y grown or fu||ã
dÕvÕ|opÕd 2 behÐvi ng i n Ð sÕnsi bl e Ðdu|t wÐy
oàpos tÕ: Inl mÐtUrÕ
muIti áuIturaI /.mdti'kdtJoríl/ for or i nál udi ng
pÕopIe of mÐny di ffÕrent rÐáÕs, IangUagÕs, rÕ|i gi on5
Ðnd trÐditions: We live in Ð multiáulturÐl soáietã.
natural /'netJríl/ '| eåi sti ng i n nÐturÕ; not mÐdÕ or
áÐusÕd by hUmÐn5 2 nÞrma|; Ðs you WoUId ÕxpÕát
orgÐnised l c:genalzdl invoIving |ÐrgÕ numbers of
peoà|Õ who Work together to do sth i n Ð wÐy thÐt
hÐs bÕÕn áÐrÕfu||y p|ÐnnÕd oppostÕ: di sorgÐßi sÕd
peaáeful /'pi:sfl/ not wanti ng or i nvo|vi ng wÐr,
v|0|ÕnáÕ or Ðrgument
responsi bIe /rr spÞnsíbl/ havi ¿g thÕ j ob or duty of
dÕÐ|i ng wi th sb/sth' so thÐt i t i s your fÐu|t i f sth
goÕs \,vrong oppOsrtÕ: i ÓÓÕsponsi bJÕ
spi ky /'sparki/ hÐvi ng shÐrp poi nts
suááessfuI /sík'sÕsfl/ hÐving aáhieved WhÐt you
wanted; hÐvi ßg bÕáomÕ popu|Ðr, ri áh, Õtá.
oàpÞstÕ: unsuááÕssfuI
@
traditionaI /trí'dIJÐnl/ bÕing pÐrt of thÕ bÕliefs,
áustoms or Way of l i fe of Ð pÐrti áu|Ðr group of
pÕop|Õ, that hÐve »ot áhangÕd for Ð l ong ti mÕ
tãpi áaI /'térkl/ hÐvi ng or showi ng thÕ usuÐ| qual i ti Õs
of Ð parti áu|Ðr pÕrson, thi ng oÓ typÕ
wonderfuI /'wÔndífl/ extremÕIã good; fÐntastiá
worthl ess /.w×:0l ís/ hÐvi ng no vÐ|uÕ or use
Adverbs
personaIIy /'p×:síníli/ usÕd to show thÐt you Ðre
ÕxprÕssi ng your own opi ni on
Phrasal VÕrbs
áar]y on (æi th ì|h doi ng \Ih t0 (onLi nUe
drop out (of sth) to |ÕÐvÕ or stop doing sth bÕfore
ãou havÕ fi ni shÕd
faIl/get behind (with sth) to fÐiI to pÐã or do sth Ðt
thÕ right timÕ: l1Õ's JÐlIÕn behind with his sáhoo|
work ÐgÞin.
faII over to suddÕn|ã stop stÐndi ng Ðnd drop to thÕ
grou nd
gÕt ahÕad (of sb) to make progrÕss (fuÓthÕr than
others hÐvÕ done): He soon got ÐhÕad of the
othÕr' in his álÐss.
go on (Ðbout sb/sth) to tal k Ðbout sb/sth for Ð |ong
ti mÕ i n Ð bori ng or Ðnnoãi ngwaã.. She wÕnt on
Ðnd on Ðbout thÕ peoplÕ she works with.
go out (Wi th sb) to spend ti mÕ regu|Ðrl y wi th sb,
hÐvi ng Ð romÐnti á Ðnd/or sÕxuÐl rÕ|Ðti onshi p: /s
FionÐ going out with onãonÕ?
IivÕ up to sth to bÕ as good Ðs eåpeáIed.. ÁhildrÕn
somÕtimÕs t'ind it hÐrd to livÕ up to thÕir parÕnts'
ÕåpÕátations.
relate to sb/sth âo bÕ Ðble to UndÕrstÐnd Ðnd hÐvÕ
sãmpÐthy With sb/sth
send sth out to produáÕ sth, suáh Ðs Ii ght, a si gnÐ|,
sound Õtá.
stÐnd for sth to bÕ Ðn abbreviÐtion or symboI for sth
stand out to bÕ eÐsi |ã sÕÕn or noti áed
l di oms
have/pIay a part (i n sth) to bÕ i nvoIvÕd i n sth: ShÕ
pIays Ðn aáti vÕ pÐrt i n l oáaI poIi ti ás.
ar Or -
UNIT Z
Nouns
attitude l'rrâtju:dl [Á] thÕ way thÐt you think, feÕ|
0r DÕnÐvÕ
áeIÕbration /,sÕh'brÕIJn/ [á] thÕ aát or oááÐsion of
doi ng sth Õnj oyÐb|Õ bÕáause sth good hÐ5
happÕnÕd or beáÐusÕ i t i s a spÕái Ð| dÐy vÕrb:
áe| ÕbrÐtÕ
áonfidenáe /'konfIdínà [U] trust or strong be|ief in
ãoursÕlf/sb/sth: I hÐd no áonfidenáÕ in mãse|J Ðt
sánooI.
áontroI /kín'tríÞl/ [U] thÕ powÕr or abiIitã to mÐke
sb/sth do WhÐt you Waßt
dÕáision /dl'sI5n/ [Á] a áhoiáe or jUdgemÕnt thÐt you
mÐkÕ Ðfter thi nki ng Ðbout vÐri ous possi bi Ii ti Õs
eåpeátation /'ÕkspÕk tÕIJn/ [Á, usua||y p|] a hopÕ
thÐt sth good wi|| hÐppen: âhe Õvent did not livÕ
up to mã eåpÕátaflo»s. vÕrb: ÕÅpeát
áheerfulness /'t.[ríflnÕs/ [U] the fÕÕ|ing of bÕing
happy Ðnd showi ng i t
hen party /'hÕn pá:til [á] Ð party for womÕn onlã'
ÕspÕái Ð||y onÕ hÕ|d for Ð WomÐn who wi || soon gÕt
mÐrr|Õd
pessimist /'pesrmlst/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who aIwÐys thinks
thÐt bÐd thi ngs wi Il hÐppÕn or thÐt sth wi l I bÕ not
bÕ suááessf u| Ðdj Õáti vÕ: pÕssi mi 5t|á
stag night /'steg naIt/ [Á] thÕ night bÕforÕ Ð mÐn's
weddi ng, oftÕn spent wi th hi s mÐl Õ fri ends
stereotype /'steriítaâp/ |Á] Ð fixÕd idÕÐ Ðbout a
pÐÓti áu|Ðr typÕ of àÕrson or thi ng, whi áh i s oftÕn
n0t trUÕ i n rÕÐl i tã Ðdj Õáti ve: stÕreotypi áÐl
/ stÕrií.tryIkl/
stress /stres/ [U] prÕssure or worry áÐusÕd by thÕ
probIems i n sb.s l i fÕ
VÕrhs
bother /'bDÑí/ to disturb, Ðnnoã or \\orrã sb: Don,t
bothÕr GÕÕtÐ with that now - shÕ,s busã.
áope /kíop/ (with sb/sth) to deal suááÕssfuIly with Ð
diffiáuIt matter or situÐtion: She somÕtimes finds it
dift'iáu|t to áopÕ with all thÕ prÕssurÕ Ðt work.
drizz|e ldrrzll to rÐin light|y With verã sma|| drops
matter /'mµtí/ fto sb) to bÕ importÐnt: lt doÕsn,t
mattÕr to mÕ that he forgot mã birthdÐã.
moan /míon/ to mÐke Ð |ow sound bÕáÐUse you ÐrÕ
i n pÐi n, vÕrã sad, etá'
overwheIm /'íoví'wÕl m/ (usuÐI|y pÐssi vÕ) to áÐusÕ
sb to fÕÕI suáh a strong emoti on thÐt he/shÕ doÕs
not knoW hoW to rÕaát: ½e felt áompletelã
overwhelmÕd bã their kindness.
resent /rr'zÕntl to fÕÕl Ðngrã Ðbout sth beáÐuse you
think it is Ußtair: l rÕsent the Ioát that he hÐs beÕn
promotÕd ovÕr mÕ.
Adjeátives
áonsái ous 'konJís, used Ðbol t Ðrl i on., [ÕÕ|i ng>.
Õtá.) dÕ|i bÕrÐte and áontro|l ed: to mÐkÕ a
áonsáious dÕáision
defensive /dI fÕnsrv/ Ðáting in Ð WÐy that shows thÐt
yoU expÕát sb tO attaák or árlt|á|sÕ yoU
honÕst /,onrst/ (used Ðbout Ð pÕÓson) tÕ|l i ng the
truth; not Iyi ng to pÕop|Õ or stÕÐ|i ng
horrified /'hÞri³ard/ eÅtrÕmÕIã shoákÕd, disgustÕd or
frightenÕd: l wÞs horriJied bã the áonditions in
whiáh theã livÕd.
optimistiá /'ÞptI'mlstlk/ ÕÅpÕáting good things to
hÐppÕn or sth tO bÕ suááessfu|; showi ng thi s feeIi ng
pessimistiá /,pÕsI'mâstrk/ Õxpeáting bÐd things to
hÐpàen or sth not to bÕ suááÕssfuI
prÕssurised l'pre!íralzdl made to fÕÕ| that you
hÐvÕ to or shouId do sth
upbeat /.,tpÌi:t/ posi ti VÕ Ðnd enthusi asti á; mÐki ng
ãou fÕe| thÐt the fUtUrÕ wi l I bÕ good
Adverbs
enthusiastiáalIy /m'0ju:zi,asttkli/ in Ð WÐy that
shows you ÐrÕ Õåáited Ðnd interÕStÕd in sth
Ðdj eáti vÕ: Õnth Usi Ðsti á
eventuaIl y /r'vÕntJuíl i/ i n thÕ Õnd; fi nÐ||ã: He
evÕntuaIlã mÞnÞged to pÕrsuÐde his pÐrÕnts to |Õt
him buã Ð motorbike.
feÕbIy /.fi:bli/ with no ÕnÕrgã or powÕr; wÕak|y
Ðdj Õáti vÕ: fÕÕb|.^
hurriedIy /'h,trldli/ quiák|y: l hurriÕdlã got up Ðnd
dressÕd.
ironiáalIy /ar'rÞnIkl7 in Ð Way thÐt shows ãoU mean
the opposi tÕ of What you sÐã Ðdj Õáti vÕ: i roni á
miserabIy /'mrzâíbli/ in Ðn unhÐppã v'|aÃ: l starÕd
miserÐblã out of the window. Ðdjeátive: miserÐb|e
smoothIy /'smu:Ñ1il Without Ðny diffiáu|tã:
µvÕrãthing rÐn smoothlã whilÕ thÕ boss wÐs ÐwÞã.
Ðdj Õáti vÕ: smooth
steadi Iy /'stÕdl 1i l grÐduÐ|l y and Ðt Ð regu|Ðr rÐtÕ:
IJnemploãmÕnt hÐs risÕn steÐdilã sináÕ °pril 200·.
ÐdjÕátivÕ: stÕÐdã
unfortunateIy /Ûn'³í:tJínítl7 usÕd to sÐy thÐt Ð
pÐÓti áu|Ðr si tuÐti on or fÐát mÐkÕs you sad or
di sappoi ntÕd, or gÕts you i nto Ð di ffi áuIt posi ti on
Idi oms
áIear the ai r to i mprovÕ a di ffi áu|t or tÕnsÕ si tuÐti on
by tÐ|king honÕstIy Ðbout WorriÕs, doubts, Õtá: /,Û'
surÕ iJ ãou disáuss ãour Jeelin4s with hÕr it will
help to álÕÐr thÕ Þir bÕtweÕn ãou.
go wrong,| to makÕ Ð mi stÐke 2 to ÕåpÕri enáÕ
diffiáU|ties: Their relÞtionship 5tÐrtÕd to go wrong
when thÕã movÕd ÐbroÞd.
Iose your tempÕr to beáomÕ very Ðngry
on the one hÐnd ... on the other (hÐnd) usÕd for
showing oppositÕ points of view: on thÕ one h0nd,
áars Ðre verã usÕful. ¾n the other hÞnd, thÕã áÐusÕ
Ð huge Þmount of pollution.
Uni t 3
Nouns
aáid rain /'tÕsrd 'rÕIn/ [Á] rÐin thÐt hÐs áhÕmiáÐ|s in
it from faátories, Õtá. Ðnd thÐt áausÕs damÐge to
trees, bui Idi ngs Ðnd ri vÕrs
aárohat /'ákríbÐÕt/ [Á] a person who pÕrforms
di ffi áuIt movÕments of thÕ bodã, ÕspÕái Ð||ã i n Ð
show whi áh trÐVÕ|s to di fferÕnt towns (Ð ái ráus)
anorak /,ÐÕnírÐk/ [Á] Ð short áoÐt with Ð áovÕring for
ãour heÐd that proteáts you from rÐi n' wi nd Ðnd
áo|0
ape le:rpl [á] a typÕ of animÐ| |ike Ð largÕ monkey
Wi th no tai I or onl y Ð vÕrã short tÐi l
avaIanáhe /'avílá:nJ / [Á] a vÕrã |ÐrgÕ Ðmount of
snow thÐt s|i dÕs qUi ák|y down thÕ si dÕ of Ð mountai Û
axe /aks/ [á] Ð too| with a wooden hÐnd|Õ Ðnd Ð
hÕÐVy mÕtÐI hÕÐd wi th a shÐrp ÕdgÕ, used for
áUtting Wood' e|Á.. on iáe aåe
bark /ÌÞ:k/ 1 [Á] the Ioud, short noi sÕ or noi sÕ5 thÐt
dogs mÐkÕ 2 [U] thÕ hard outÕr áovÕring of Ð trÕÕ
binoáulars /br'nÞkjílíz/ [pl] an instrumÕnt With two
gl ass parts ( ÕnsÕsj whi áh you l ook through i n ordÕr
to make obj Õáts i n the di stanáe sÕem nÕarÕr
bri nk /brIæk/ |Á] i f ãou ÐrÕ Þß thÕ bri nk of sth, you
arÕ Ð|most i n Ð very new, eåái ti ng or dangerous
5|1UÐti on
bungee jumping /'blnd3i d3,tmpé/ [U] a sport in
whi áh Ð person j umps from Ð hi gh p|Ðáe, suáh Ðs Ð
bri dgÕ or a á|i ff, Wi th a l ong rope Whi áh áan strÕtáh
(Ð bungÕÕ), ti Õd to hi s or her fÕet
áage /kÕId3/ [Á] Ð boå mÐde of bÐrs or wirÕ, or Ð
spÐáÕ surroundÕd by wi re or metÐl bÐrs, i n whi áh Ð
bi rd or Ðni mÐl i s kÕpt so that i t áÐnnot Õsáape
áaIIing /'ko:1â1/ [Á] Ð strong dÕsirÕ or feeling of duty
to do Ð pÐrti ául Ðr,j ob, espÕái Ð||y onÕ i n whi áh you
hÕ|p othÕr pÕopIÕ
áampaign /kam'peIn/ [á] Ð p|Ðn to do Ð numbÕr of
thi ngs i n ordÕr to Ðáhi Õve Ð spÕái al ai m: aÛ
ÐdvÕrtisi ng/Õleátion áÐ m pÐ ign vÕrb: áÐ mpaign
áaptivity /kap'tIvíti/ [U] thÕ stÐtÕ of bÕing kÕpt in Ð
plaáe thÐt ãou áannot esáÐpÕ Irom: Wild ÐnimÐls
Þre ot'ten unhÐppã in áaptivitã. VÕrb: áÐpturÕ
áhemiáaI poIlution /'kÕmIkl pí'lu:Jn/ [lJ]
poi sonous áhemi áÐ| substÐnáÕs thÐt mÐkÕ Ði r,
wÐter, soi|, Õtá. dirty
áompass /.k,tmpÞs/ [Á] Ðn instrument for finding
di reáti on, wi th Ð nÕÕdl e thÐt Ð|WÐys poi nts north
(D
₠Ä¡!$ervÐtiÞm /'kÞnsí'vÕrJn/ [U] thÕ proteátion of
the nÐturÐ| wor|d
|.Ùil9Õfi,Ý;itiáÓtis,t /'kÞnsí vÕrJínrst/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who
bÕ|i eves i n proteáti ng thÕ nÐturÐl worl d
iiÞètri[×èuiÞtl /'kÞntrI bju:Jn/ [Á] something that
ãou gi vÕ, Õspeái Ðl |y money or he|p, or do togethÕr
Wi th other peop|Õ r,ÕÓi í: áOl l t³ bt]1Õ
desiLÓèátiillâ /dl'str,lkJn/ [U] the Ðátion of dÕstroãing
sth \]á³l )'.i ÕsIrO!
d]isÐster /dI'zá:stí/ [Á] an event thÐt áÐuses Ð |ot of
hÐrm or dÐmÐgÕ
áirÞègh[ /draut/ [Á] Ð long pÕriÞd Without rÐin
earllltièÐJt* / ×:Okwerk/ [Á] vio|Õnt movÕmÕnt of thÕ
ÕÐrth'5 5UrfÐáe
Õl]t]systrrfl /'i:kÐÞsâstím/ [á] Ð|| the plÐnts and
Ðni mÐ|s i n Ð parti áU|Ðr ÐreÐ áonsi dÕred togÕthÕr
Wi th thÕi r surroUndi ngs
eÝlái;lllgÕrÕÕ! sàeáies /In deInd3íd spi:.[i:z/ [Á] Ð
typÕ of Ðni mÐ|, pl ant, Õtá. that i s now i n dÐnger of
di sappÕari ng from the wor|d i br:áÞi l i rl g Õåti ßáti
Õ;tliplátiá,lß /rk'stræk.[n/ [U] Ð situÐtion in whiáh Ð
p|ant' an Ðni mÐ|, Ð wÐy of Ii fÕ Õtá. stops ÕÅi sti ng
'âi t.5i i ×i (i /'³×:st .ÕId/ [U] mÕdi áÐl hÕ|p thÐt ãou gi vÕ
to sb who i s hUrt or i || beforÕ thÕ doátor Ðrri ves: á
first Ðid kit/áoursÕ
,lJa,-e /flÕí/ [Á] thing thÐt produáÕs Ð bright Iight Or
flÐme, usÕd espeáiÐ||y Ð5 a signa|: a rÕsáuÕ flarÕ
,i!èèá! /flÔd/ [Á] Ð |Ðrge Ðmount of WÐtÕr thÐt hÐs
spreÐd from a river, thÕ sÕÐ, Õtá. thÐt áovers Ðn
ÐreÐ Whi áh shouId bÕ drã
1l.oÞá{ áBlaiè / fu:d tJÕrn/ [Á] Ð sÕriÕs of Iiving
árÕÐtures i n whi áh ÕÐáh árÕÐturÕ ÕÐts the onÕ
bÕl ow i t i n the sÕri es
fèè".iilßg /'f,tndIæ/ [U] mÞnÕã for Ð pÐrtiáu|Ðr
purposÕ; the Ðát of provi di ng monÕã for suáh Ð
pu rp0se
;gilÞfuÐl lâaÓØÒilig l glíobl .wí:mlæ/ [U] the ináreÐsÕ
i n tÕmpÕraturÕ of the eÐrth's ÐtmÞsphÕre, thÐt i S
áÐused bã thÕ i náreÐse of pÐrti ául Ðr gÐsÕs,
ÕspÕái a||ã áÐrbon di oÅi dÕ
haîáiAeil / hÐndlí/ [Á] a pÕrson who trÐins Ðnd
áontroIs ani mÐ|s, ÕspÕái Ð|l y dogs
lilÕ!iááag×ter /,hÕhkÞàtí/ [Á] Ð smÐ|| ÐirárÐft thÐt áan
go strÐi ght Up i nto the Ði r. HÕ|i áopters hÐve Iong
thi n mÕtÐ| pÐrts on t0p thÐt go round'
Ji1iàèâ[âel,llria / harpí'0×:mií/ [U] Ð mÕdiáÐ|
áondi ti on i n whi áh th'e body tÕmperÐture i s muáh
|ower thÐn normÐ|
j èì×g!e /'d3l ægl/ [Á] Ð thi ák forÕst i n Ð hot tropi áaI
á0U ntry
lâtissiÞtl / mIJn/ [á] Ðn imp0rtÐnt offiáiÐ| job thÐt sb
i s sÕnt someWhÕre to do, ÕspÕái Ðl Iy to ÐnOthÕr
áo u ntrã
iilÞ¡×ilÕ /'mír;Ìa:1rl |Á] (Ð|so tlobi á 1-rllÞtltJ Ð
te|ephonÕ thÐt doÕs nÞt hÐvÕ wi res Ðnd works bã
rÐdi o, thÐt ãou áÐn áarry wi th ãou Ðnd usÕ
Ð nywherÕ
l;i,i sliá]t /'ít1 slrki [Á] Ðn ÐrÕÐ of oiI thÐt floÐts on thÕ
seÐ, UsUÐ|l y Ðfter Ð shi p áÐrryi ng oi I hÐs árÐshÕd
á,ra!,Dµ.t!taè /í:,rr1u: tÕn/ [Á] an ÐnimÐ| |ikÕ a |ÐrgÕ
monkÕã Wi th rro tÐi i i л Ðp..;, wi th l ong Ðrms Ðnd
reddi sh hÐi r, thÐt Ii vÕs i Û BornÕo and SUmÐtrÐ
p;lrÐgliá!ißg /'pÐríglaIdlæ/ [U] Ð sport in whiáh you
WÕÐr Ð speái Ðl struátUrÕ |i kÕ Ð pÐrÐáhute, j ump
from Ð p|Ðne or Ð hi gh pl aáÕ Ðnd Ðre áÐrri Õd Ðl ong
bã thÕ wi nd bÕforÕ áomi ng down tÞ ÕÐrth
'r,]Õi l l ri / pl enti/ [U] Ð l argÕ ÐmOUnt; Ðs mUáh or Ðs
mÐny Ðs you need
;l ál l l ui l i Þl l /pí'l u:Jn/ [U] thÕ Ðáti on of maki ng thÕ Ði r,
WÐter, Õtá. di rty Ðnd dÐngerous
,'.:ii,i;io;â:st /'rÕlnfÞrâst/ [Á] a thiák forÕst in tropiáÐ|
pÐrts Of the Wor|d thÐt hÐvÕ Ð l ot of rÐi n
l Õ,]i;lLÞi]¡tÐtl]Þn /'ri:Ð'bIh'tÕlJn/ [U] thÕ proáÕss of
hel pi ng sb to hÐVÕ Ð normÐ|, usÕfu| |i fÕ ÐgÐi n Ðfter
hÕ/she hÐs beÕn vÕry i || or i n pri son for Ð |ong
ti mÕ, rÕi ntroduái ng Ðn Ðni mÐl to thÕ wi Id
rÕ!ÕÐse /rr li:s/ [Á] thÕ freeing of sb/sth or the stÐte
of bei ng freed
;l;sáèÕ / rÕskju:/ [Á] the aát Of sÐVing sb/sth from Ð
si tuÐti on that i s dÐngÕrous or unpIeÐsÐÛt
l,i.,sÕÐl"á:ll /rr's×:tp [U] detÐi|Õd ÐÛd áÐreful study of
sth to tl nd out morÕ i nformÐti on Ðbout i t
ri sk /rrsk/ [á] thÕ posi bi Ii ty of sth bÐd hÐppÕni ng Ðt
somÕ ti mÕ i n thÕ futurÕ; Ð si tuÐti on thÐt áoUId bÕ
dÐngÕrous or hÐvÕ Ð bad rÕsu|t
l";gíl-" /ríop/ |Á] verã strong thiák string mÐdÕ by
twi sti ng thi nner stri ngs, wi rÕs, Õtá. togÕthÕr
si âe /sart/ [Á] Ð p|aáÕ WhÕrÕ sth has hÐppÕned or thÐt
is used for sth
sutiiì.lg /'ski:lr;/ [U] thÕ sport Or Ðátivjty of moving
over snow on skts
r1"'eàiîg lilag /'sli:pIæ bzÕg/ [á] Ð thiák wÐrm bÐg
thÐt you usÕ for s|ÕÕpi ng i n, for eåÐmp|e when ãou
ÐrÕ áÐmpi ng
snÞÒvhÞarálilrg /'sníoÌí:dIæ/ [U] the sport of
movi Ûg over snoW on Ð |ong wi dÕ boÐrd i Ð
sßÞl l''i l oÐÚl;
$âa]tr}ati@.]r /stá: vÕrJn/ [U] suffering or dÕÐth
bÕáÐusÕ thÕre i s not Õnough food
sl(;itus / stÕItas/ [U] your soáiÐ| or profÕssionÐ|
posltion i¿ rÕgÐrd to othÕr pÕoplÕ: âhÕ nÕw job
gÞve him muáh morÕ statu;.
st-rlppliÕs lse'plalzl [pl] the things suáh Ðs food'
medi ái nes, fuÕl, Õtá. thÐt arÕ neÕded by Ð group of
pÕop|Õ, for eÅÐmpl e Ðn army or ÕxpÕdi ti oß
sáirviëafl /sí'vaâvl/ |U] the state of áontinuing to Iive
or Õåist, often in spite of diffiáulty or da¿gÕr: thÕ
flght for survivÐl vÕÓll sr Óv ve
t!.Ðrii /ti:è/ [Á] Ð group of pÕop|Õ who work together
at Ð pÐrti áU|Ðr j ob
i (nt /tÕnt/ |Á] Ð sma|| struáture mÐdÕ of á|oth that i s
hÕ|d up bã poIes Ðnd ropÕs. YoU UsÕ Ð tÕnt to sIeep
In WhÕn yoU go áÐmpIng'
.riill]al tâÐve /'taIdl wÕlv/ [Á] Ð vÕry |ÐrgÕ oáeÐn wÐve
thÐt i s áÐUsÕd bã Ð storm or an ÕÐrthqUÐkÕ Ðnd
thÐt destroys thi ngs whÕn i t rÕÐáhÕs thÕ |Ðnd
tia /tall [á] Ð stron8 áonnÕáti0n between pÕople or
o rga n i sÐti ons
.[ÞrmaÕiitl /tí:'neldío/ [Á] Ð vioIÕnt storm with a very
strong wi nd thÐt b|ows i n Ð ái rá|Õ
irepezl /|rí'pi:z/ [Á] Ð woodÕn or mÕtÐ| bÐr hÐnging
from two ropes hi gh Ðbove the ground, usÕd by
pÕrformÕrs i ÐárÞbÐtsj
volá;'ßliá oi.tili,tiÄß /vpl'kianIk r'r,tpJn/ [Á] Ðn
oááÐsi on whÕn burni ng roáks, smÞke, Ðsh, etá. ÐrÕ
thrown oUt of Ð vo|áÐno
i'tiiá;llrÞ /vol kÕmíál/ [Á] Ð mountÐin with Ð |ÐrgÕ
opÕni ng Ðt the toà through whi áh gÐsÕs Ðnd hot
Ii qui d roák (JÐtl Ð' ÐrÕ fÞráÕd out i nto thÕ Ði r, or
hÐvÕ bÕÕn i n the pÐst
t'vÕhsitÕ /'wÕbsaIt/ [Á] a p|ÐáÕ áonneátÕd to thÕ
IntÕrnÕt, WhÕrÕ Ð á0mpÐnã or Ðn 0rgÐni sÐti 0n, or
Ðn i ndi vi duÐ| pÕrson, pUts i ßformati on thÐt áÐn be
found on thÕ Worl d Wi de WÕb
itÞßngstLÕ.'/'j,tæstí/ [Á] a young person
Verbs
aj foÓd /í'fí:d/ i f you sÐy thÐt you á.l i l't Ðâ1ci l to do
sth, ãoU meÐn thÐt you shoUId not do i t bÕáÐusÕ i t
wi || áÐusÕ probIems for you i f ãou do
:l ssÕss /í,sÕs/ to j udgÕ or form Ðn opi ni on Ðbout sth
Il ot] i l ] i ]5st]ss.j l Õi l t
d*áreÐsÕ /dâ.kri:s/ tÞ bÕáomÕ Þr mÐkÕ sth beáomÕ
smÐ||Õr i n 5i zÕ, nUmbÕr, etá,
iÒtárÕÐsÕ /rn'kri:s/ t0 bÕáomÕ or mÐke sth bÕáomÕ
grÕÐtÕr i n si ze, numbÕr, Õtá.
ÄE]tgfÄW /'aot gríái/ to bÕáomÕ too o|d or too bi g
for sth
ÞvëÕ /ío/ to hÐvÕ to pÐy money t0 sb for sth thÐt
he/shÕ hÐs donÕ or gi vÕn
;.ÕlhÐhjf;itaie / ri:í'brlItÕât/ to heIp sb to IivÕ Ð
normÐ| |i fÕ ÐgÐi n aftÕr Ðn i ||ÛÕss, bei ng i n pri sÞn,
hÕ|pi ng Ðn Ðni mÐ| to survi ve i n thÕ wi |d
sÐØe /sÕIv/ tO kÕÕp sb/sth sÐfe from dÕÐth, hÐrm,
IOss, Õtá.
sw¡èg /swrç/ to move bÐákwÐrds or forwÐrds or from
si dÕ tÞ si dÕ whi Ie hÐngi ng from Ð ti åÕd poi nt; to
mÐkÕ sth do thi 5
tÓÐj,1 /treIn/ to teÐáh Ð pÕrson or Ðn ÐnimÐ| to do sth
whi áh i s di ffi áu|t or whi áh neÕds prÐáti áÕ
.tâiriál.t /wIntJ/ to Iift sb/sth up iÛto the Ðir usißg a
rl i rl ál l (- Ð mÐáhi nÕ thÐt l i fts or pul l s heÐvy
obj eáts usi ng Ð thi ák áhai n, rope, Õtá.)
AdjeátivÕs
;rggÒ.Õssiê.* /Ð,qrÕsIv/ rÕÐdã or IikÕ|ã to fight Or Ðrgue
hLrÐ;vÕ /brerv/ wi ||i ng to do thi ngs whi áh ÐrÕ di ffi áu|t'
dÐngÕrous or pÐi nfu|; not ÐfrÐi d
áarÕ!Õss /.kÕÐl ís/ ßot gi vi ng Õnough Ðtteßti on Ðnd
thoUght to WhÐt yOU Ðre doi ng, so thÐt you mÐke
mi stÐkÕs o1l àosi tÕ: á.l ÓÕl Ll
á:harÒmi r×g /'tJo:mâæ/ very p|ÕÐsi ng Or ÐttrÐáti vÕ
á]o:* kl íus neÐr tn spÐte or l i me
₠ĵflì'ÐgrÄxls /kí rÕId3ís/ hÐving áourÐgÕ: brÐve
faint-fucartÕti / fÕrnt 'há:trd/ |Ðáking áonfidÕÛáÕ
Ðnd not bravÕ, ÐfrÐi d of fÐi Ii ng
gÕm&EÕ /'d3entl/ (usÕd Ðbout pÕopl Õ) ki nd ÐÛd áÐ|m;
touáhi ng or trÕÐti ng pÕopIe or thi ngs i n Ð áÐrefuI
WÐy 50 thÐt theã ÐrÕ ¿ot hUrt
]:Ðr.l l fh[ 'ho:m¿ áÐusi ng dÐmÐgÕ or i nj ur1 to
sb/sth, ÕspÕái Ðl Iy to a person'5 hÕÐ|th or to thÕ
ÕnVi ron ment
hÕBàfèl / hÕl pI1/ gi vi ng hÕ|p
l âÕ!à!ess /'hÕl pl ís/ unÐb|Õ t0 tÐke áÐrÕ of yoursÕl f or
do thi ngs wi thout thÕ heIp of othÕr pÕopIe
hÞ;ßel rss / híoml ís/ hÐvi ng nowhere to l i ve;
Wi thout Ð homÕ
itègÕ /hju:d3/ vÕry big
sÕlf.sè!.tiáiÕr×t /,sÕl³ sí fl.[ínt/ Ðb|Õ t0 produáÕ or
provi dÕ ÕVÕfãthi ng thÐt you nÕÕd wi thout hÕ|p
from, or hÐvi ng to buy from others
5₠t:EÕ 5l'\ |í e\ârcmc|) bÐd or >eri out
:Þái aÌl Õ /'síái.[íbl/ enj oyi ng bÕi ng Wi th othÕr
pÕop|Õ; fri ÕndIy
sÞl i tÐrã /'sol ítri/ (used about Ð perso¿ or Ðn
Ðni mÐ|) Õnj oãi ng bei ng Ð|onÕ; frÕquÕnti ã spÕndi ng
ti mÕ Ðl one
stÒÕáÕssfél] /sík,sÕsfl/ hÐving ÐáhiÕved WhÐt you
WÐntÕd; hÐVi ng bÕáomÕ popu|Ðr, ri áh, Õtá,
ti my /'taIni/ vÕry smÐl I
tÄègh /t^t7 di ffi ául t; hÐvi ng or áÐusi ng prob|Õms
ì:se{èfl /j u:sfl/ thÐt áan hel p yoU t0 do or Ðáhi eve
WhÐt ãoU wanI.. Ð usÕful gÐrdÕn too| ÞpàÞsi|Õ;
t] sá | áss
i'y.$[,t$ry / w×:di/ thÐt should ÓÕáÕ jve rÕspeát, 5Upport
or ÐttÕntlon: a worthã áause
l di oms
ái Jtt:'i 1,çÕ i tÞl l i rßl.Òl ái to áhÐngÕ your dÕái si on or
0pInIo¿
[.l;:i,,Õ :Þètá ;i l l i ]i i ¡. Æ;]l j to hÐve mÐdÕ Ð |ot of
progrÕss.. WÕ'vÕ áomÕ Ð long wÐã sináÕ thÕ Õalã
dÐãs oJ thÕ projÕát'
fl ásr" i l ál l l r ]tÄt!(..]i t0 |osÕ Ð speái Ð| ski Il or Ðbi Ii ty
@
PhrÐsal vÕrbs
(omÕ up wi th sth to fi nd Ðn Ðnswer or Ð soIutl on to
sth
0i e out Lo di sÐppeÐr or sl op Õ\i Ìti ng
fi ni sh sb/sth off to ki l I sb/sth; to bÕ thÕ thi ng thÐt
mÐkes sb unÐb|e to áontinue: âhÕ áat p|aãÕd with
thÕ mousÕ beforÕ t'inishing it oJf.
gi ve sth awaã to gi vÕ sth to sb Wi thout wÐnti ng Ðnã
monÕy in rellrß WÕ Ðre giving awaã Ð free ÁD
with this month,s issuÕ'
go off to Õxp|ode: ° bomb hÐs gone ofJ in the áitã
áÕntre.
heIp sb out to hÕ|p sb i n Ð di ffi ául t si tUÐti on; to gi Ve
monÕy t0 he|p 5b
IÕave sth to sb to give sth to sb whÕn ãou diÕ: /n hÌ
wilI he lÕft Õverything to his two sons.
set sth up to 5tÐrt a bus|nÕss'Ðn orgÐn|sÐt|on, Ð
sysIem' etá.
sniff sb/sth out to disáovÕr or find sb/sth by using
ãour sÕnsÕ of smÕl l
Uni t 4
Nouns
advert /'adv×:t/ [Á] = ADVµRÂ|sµN4µNÂ
Ðdvertisement /íd'v×:trsmínt/ [Á] Ð piÕáÕ of
i nformÐti on i n a nÕwspaper, On te|ÕVi si on, Ð
pi áture on Ð wÐl |, Õtá. thÐt tri Õ5 to pÕrsuÐdÕ peop|Õ
to buy sth, to i ntÕrÕst them i n Ð nÕW ]ob, Õtá.
advertisißg /.Òdva|alzlt1l [U] thÕ Ðátivity Ðnd
i ndustry of ÐdvÕßi si ng thi ngs to peop|Õ on
tel evi si on, i n nÕwspÐpers, on the IntÕfnet, Õtá'
aeri aI /'eíri íl/ [Á] Ð pi eáÕ of equi pmÕnt mÐde of
wi re or l ong strÐi ght pi Õáes of mÕtÐ| for rÕáÕi vi ng
or sÕndi ng rÐdi o and tÕ|Õvi si on si gnÐ|s
arti ál e /,o:tl kl/ [Á] Ð pi eáÕ of Wri ti ng ÐboUt Ð
pÐrti (u|Ðr subi Õál i n Ð nÕWspÐper or mÐgÐzi ßÕ
(the) bottom line / bÞtím .laß' lsing] thÕ most
important thing to áonsidÕr or Ðááept when yOU ÐrÕ
disáussing or dÕáiding sth, Õtá: ° musiáÐl instrumÕnt
shou|d |ook good but thÕ bottom line is how it sounds.
btoadáast /'brí:dko:st/ [Á] a rÐdio or te|evision
progrÐmmÕ Verb: broÐdáÐst
broadsheÕt /.brí:d.[i:t/ [Á] Ð newspÐpÕr printÕd on a
|ÐrgÕ si zÕ of pÐpÕ1 gÕnerÐ|l y áonsi dÕred more
sÕri ous than 5ma||er nÕWsàÐpers
áhannÕI / tJrínl/ [á] ,l Ð tÕ|Õvision sIal|oß.. Whlt's on
ÁhÐnnÕl 4 tonight? 2 Ð bÐnd of rÐdio wÐves usÕd
for sÕndi ng out rÐdi o or tÕ|Õvi si on progrÐmmÕs:
sÐtÕlI ite/ tÕr restr i 0 l áh Þ n nÕ|s
áhat show / tJÕt .[íu/ [Á] Ð tÕ|evision or rÐdio
progrÐmmÕ on whi áh wel |-kßown peop|Õ ÐrÕ
i nvi tÕd to tÐ|k Ðbout themsÕl ves
áoIIeague /'kÞl i:g/ [Á] a pÕrson who wÞrks Ðt the
samÕ p|Ðáe Ðs yoU
áoIumni st /'kol ímnIst/ |Á] Ð j ournal i st who wri tÕs
regu|Ðr Ðrtl áIes i n Ð nÕw>pÐper or mÐgÐzi nÕ
áorrespondent /'kÞrí'spondínt/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who
provi dÕs nÕws or wri tes Ðrti á|Õs for Ð newspÐpÕr,
Õtá, espÕái Ðl l y from Ð forÕi gn áountrã
áurrÕnt affairs /'klrÐnt í'³Õízl [à|] impoßÐnt
poIi ti áÐl or soái Ð| ÕvÕnts thÐt Ðre hÐpàeni ng Ðt thÕ
presÕnI 1l me
dÕáade / dÕkÕId/ [Á] Ð pÕriod of tÕn yÕars
direát debit /'darâíkt 'dÕbtt/ [á,U] Ðn Order to y0ur
bÐnk thÐt Ð|Iows sb el sÕ to tÐkÕ monÕy oUt of ãour
ÐááoUnt on áertÐl n dÐtÕs
DYD / di: vi: di:/ |Á] Ð disá with diffÕrÕßt typÕs of
i nformÐti on on i t, ÕspÕái Ð||ã photogrÐphs Ðnd
vi dÕo, thÐt áÐn bÕ used on Ð áompUtÕr (short for
'digitÞl video disá,; or 'digitÐl vÕrsati|Õ disá,): a
DVD pl ayÕr
edi tori ÐI /'Õdr'tí:ri íl/ [Á] Ðn arti á|Õ i n Ð nÕwspaper,
usuÐl l y wri ttÕn bã the heÐd 0f the nÕWsàÐpÕr (thÕ
Õdi tor), gi Vi ng Ðn opi ni on on Ðn i mportant subj eát
effÕát r ³Õkt |{] Ð rnÐnge l hÐt i s rÐUsÕd b\ s|h: Ð
rÕsult
event /r'vÕnt/ [Á] somÕthi ng thÐt happens, espeái Ðl |y
sth i mportÐnt or unusuÐ|
faátor /'³ÐÕktí/ [Á] one of thÕ things thÐt inflUÕnáes Ð
dÕái si on, srLuÐti on ' Õ1L' DÕprÕ\'i on wa\ a (ommon
fÐátor in thÕsÕ áÐsÕ studiÕs.
finÕ /faân/ [Á] Ð sum of monÕy thÐt yOU hÐVe to paY
for breÐki ng a l aw or ru|Õ
gossià áoIumn /'gosry kolím/ [Á] Ð pÐrt of Ð
nÕWspÐpÕr or mÐgÐz|ne Where yOu áÐn rÕÐd ÐbOut
the pri vÐte Ii vÕs of fÐmous peop|Õ
hall of residÕnáe / hí:l ív 'rÕzrdíns/ |Á] (in áol|ÕgÕs,
uni vÕrsi ti es, Õtá) Ð bUi Idi ng WherÕ studÕnts Ii Ve
headIine / hÕd1aIn/ [á] thÕ tit|e of Ð newspÐpÕr
Ðrti á|e pri ntÕd i n |Ðrge l ÕttÕrs ÐbovÕ thÕ storã
mÕdi a /'mi:di í/ [pIurÐl ] te|Õvi si on, rÐdi o and
nÕWspÐpÕrs used Ðs Ð mÕÐns of áommuni áÐti on:
Reports in thÕ medtÐ hÐvÕ bÕÕn greatlã
ÕåagqerÐtÕd.
(thÕ) Net /nÕt/ (thÕ |ntÕrnÕt) [si ng] Ðn i ntÕrnÐti onÐ|
áomputÕr nÕtwork áonnÕáti ng othÕr nÕtworks Ðnd
áompUtÕr5 from áompÐni es, uni vÕrsi ti Õs, Õtá.
news /nj u:z/ [U] i nformÐti on Ðbout sth thÐt hÐs
happÕned reáÕntIy
poi nt /píInt/ (of/i n sth/doi ng sth) [U] thÕ mÕÐni ng,
rÕason or purposÕ of sth.. ThÕre,s no point in
tÐlking tÞ mã parÕnts _ thÕã nÕvÕr |istÕn.
proseáution /prosr kju:J'n/ [U,Á] the proáÕss of
offi ái Ðl l y áhÐrgi ng sb Wi th Ð ári me Ðnd of trãi ng to
show thÐt he/shÕ i s gui |tã, i n Ð áourt of l Ðw
quiz show / kwrz .[ío/ [Á] a áompetition or gÐme on
te|Õvi sl on i n whi th pcop|Õ l rv to Ðn\Wer questi onì
t0 tÕst thei r knowl edgÕ
reáording studio /rl'kí:dr1 stju:diío/ [Á] Ð room
wherÕ musi á i s rÕáordÕd
rÕfund /'ri:³,tnd/ [Á] Ð sum of monÕã thÐt is pÐid
bÐák to you, espÕái Ðl Iy i f ãou hÐvÕ pai d too muáh
remote áontrol /fl'míUt kín'trítrl/ (Ðlso informÐ|
rÕmotÕ) [Á] Ð dÕviáe thÐt Ð||ows you to opÕrÐtÕ Ð
teIevi si on, Õtá, from Ð di stÐnáe
sateIIite /,stttí1aIt/ [Á] Ðn Õ|Õátroniá dÕviáÕ thÐt is
sent i nto spaáe Ðnd movÕs Ðround thÕ ÕÐrth or
Ðnother p|Ðnet for a pÐrtiáu|Ðr purpose.. sÐte|litÕ TV
(= tÕl Õvi si on thÐt i s broÐdáÐst Usi ng sÐtel Ii tÕs)
set.top box /.sÕt top boks/ [Á] a dÕviáÕ thÐt
áhÐnges Ð di gi tÐ| tÕl Õvi si on si gnaI i nto a form
whi áh áÐn bÕ sÕen on Ðn ordi nÐry tÕ|evi si on sÕt
site /saât/ [Á] Ð p|ÐáÕ 0n thÕ lntÕrnÕt WherÕ Ð
áompÐnã, Ðn orgÐni sÐti on, Ð unIVers|ty, Õtá. puts
i nformÐti on
soaà opera /'síálp Þpâí/ (Ðlso informÐl soÐp) [Á] Ð
story ÐboUt thÕ l i vÕs Ðnd prob|Õms of a group of
peop|e whi áh áonti nuÕs sÕverÐI ti mÕs a week on
tÕ|Õvi si on or rÐdi o
spirits / sprârts/ [pl] thÕ nÐte of mind of s|J|sth to bÕ
in high/Iow spirits (- ;n u happã/sad mood)
station / stÕrJn/ [Á] Ð rÐdio or tÕ|evision áompÐnã
Ðnd the progrÐmmÕs |t l ]roÐdáÐsts
substitutÕ /'s,tÌstrtju:t/ [Á] Ð pÕrson or thing thÐt
tÐkÕs the p|Ðáe of sb/sth Õ|sÕ
tÐbloid /'tablírd/ [Á] Ð newspapÕr with smÐ|| pagÕs,
Ð |ot of pi áturÕs Ðnd short Ðrt|á|Õ5
tenanáy agreement /'tÕníßsI í'grr:mínt/ [Á] thÕ
ri ght to Ii VÕ i n Ð house or room thÐt you rÕnt
transmitter /tlÐíns'mltí/ [Á] a pieáe of eqUipmÕnt
that 5Õnds out el Õátroni á si gnaIs, tÕ|Õvi si on or rÐdi o
pr0grammÕs, Õtá.
trivia / trâvií/ [U] UnimportÐnt matters, dÕtÐiIs or
i nformati on
ÂY liáenáÕ /'ti: vi: laâsns/ [Á] Ðn offiáiÐ| doáumÕnt
thÐt shows that yoU hÐVe pÕrmission to Use Ð ÂV sÕt
video reáorder / vâdiÐo âI kc:dí/ [á] Ð pieáe of
Õqui pmÕnt thÐt you Use to reáord Ðnd p|Ðy fi |ms
and ÂV progrÐmmes oß vi dÕÞ
Verbs
aáhieve /í t.[i:V/ to áompIete sth bã hard Work Ðnd
ski l l
admi t /íd'mIt/ to ÐgrÕÕ thÐt sth unp|ÕÐsÐnt |s truÕ or
thÐt you hÐvÕ donÕ sth wrong
alIoáate / ÐÕ1íkÕlt/ to givÕ sth to sb Ðs his/her shÐrÕ
Or to deái dÕ to usÕ sth for Ð pÐrti áu|Ðr purposÕ
appeÐl /í'pi:l/ a seri ous rÕqUÕst for sth you nÕÕd or
want vÕrã muáh
appIy /í pl a/ to ask for sth i n wri ti ng
avoid /í.vírd/ to prÕVÕnt sth hÐppÕning or to try not
to do sth
ban /bÕn/ (sb from doing sth) to offiáial|y sÐy thÐt
sth i s not Ð||owed, often by l Ðw noun: bÐn
devote /dâ'víot/ (ãourse|f/sth to sb/nh) to give a lot
Of time, ÕnÕrgy' Õtá, to Sb/sth: SÕvÕrÐl pÞgÕs of thÕ
nÕwspapÕr werÕ devotÕd to rÕports of thÕ roãÐl
wÕdd i ng. tl ou ß: dÕvÞtl on
enáourage /ân'k,trrd3/ to givÕ hopÕ, sUpport Or
áonfi dÕnáe to sb
estabIish /r,stÕblâ.[/ to stÐrt or árÕÐtÕ Ðn
orgÐnisÐtiÞn, Ð sãstÕm, eIá.. ThÕ sáhoo| wÐs
estÐblishÕd in 1875.
fine /faân/ to finÕ sb (for sth/doing sth).. ½Õ was linÕd
µ50 for driving without Iights.
gathÕr /'grÑí/ (Used about pÕopl Õ) t0 á0me or DÕ
br0Ught togethÕr in Ð group: âhÕ àrotÕstÕrs
gÐlhÕrÕd in lhÕ lown \quarÕ
grab /grrb/ to tÐkÕ ÐdvÐntÐge of an opàodUni tã to
do or hÐVÕ sth
l eap /l i:p/ i ÕÐà Ðt sth to ÐááÕpt Ð áhanáÕ or Ðn
opportuni ty qui ákl y Ðnd Wi th Õnthu5|Ðsm
maintain /meln'tern/ 1 to keÕà sth in good
áo¿di ti on by áheáki ng Ðßd rÕpÐi ri ßg i t regu|Ðr|y:
Âhe housÕ is |ÐrgÕ Ðnd ÕåpÕnsivÕ ta mrlintÐin.
ßÞrttl: t-l l Ði tl tÕtl Ðt.l áe 2 to kÕep sayi ng thÐt sth i s
truÕ, ÕVÕn thoUgh OthÕr pÕopl Õ do not ÐgreÕ or do
nOt be|i evÕ i t
prÞse(ute / prÞsrkju:t/ to oftiáiÐ||y áhÐrgÕ sb with Ð
ári mÕ
prove /pÓu:v/ t0 U5Õ fÐáts Ðnd ÕvidÕnáe to shoW that
sth i s truÕ
publish / plblâJ/ to prÕpare Ðnd àrint Ð book,
mÐgazi ne, Õtá. Ðnd makÕ i t ÐvÐi Iabl Õ to thÕ pubIi á
qualify /'kwÞlrfa/ to hÐvÕ or give sb thÕ right to
hÐvÕ or do sth
reáeive /rr si:v/ to gÕt or ÐááÕpt sth thÐt sb sÕnds Or
grves to you
reáord /rI,kí:d/ to àUt mUsi á, Ð fi |m, Ð programme,
Õtá onto Ð áD or áÐssette so thÐt it áÐn be IistÕnÕd
t0 Or WÐtáhÕd ÐgÐi n |ÐtÕr
regard /rr gá:d/ (sb/sth/ãouìei f Ðs sth) to thi nk of
sb/sth/ãoursÕl f i n thÕ way mÕnttoned: Do }oU
regÐrd ãoursÕ|f Ðs Ð thorough worker?
rÕnt /rÕnt/ t0 pÐy moneã for thÕ usÕ of |Ðnd, Ð
bui Idi ng, Ð mÐáhi nÕ, Õtá
(D
require /ß'kwalí/ (Often passivÕ) to offiáiÐ||y
dÕmÐnd or ordÕr sth: P(]ssÕngÕrs ÐrÕ rÕquired bã
|Ðw to weÐr sÕÐt bÕIts.
se|Õát /sr'l Õkt/ to áhOosÕ sb/sth, ususa||y áarÕfu||y,
from Ð group of peopl Õ or thi ngs
stare /stÕí/ to |ook Ðt sb or sth for Ð |ong ti mÕ
bÕáÐusÕ you ÐrÕ surpri sed, shoáked, Õtá.
strike /strark/ to hit sbÌth
surf /s×:f/ (suÓf thÕ Net/thÕ |»ternÕt) to usÕ or Iook
for i nformÐti on on thÕ |ntÕrnÕt
Adieátives
(ommon /'kÞmín/ hÐppÕni ng ÞftÕn; Õxi sti ng i n
l ÐrgÕ numbers or i n mÐnã p|ÐáÕs
áommunÐ| /'kÞmj Þnl/ shÐrÕd by Ð group of peop|Õ
áostIã /'kostli/ áosting Ð |Þt of moßey; Õxpensive
áurrent / kÔrínt/ of the presÕnt ti me; happÕni ng
now.. áu r rÕ n t eve nts/fÐ s h i o n s
dai l y /'dÕrl i/ hÐppÕni ng, done or produáÕd ÕvÕrã
daã: Ð dÐi|ã pÐàer
genÕrous 'd3Õnírís hÐpp\ l o gi\e mOrÕ mo¿Õ}'
hel p' etá, thÐn i s usuÐ| or ÕåpÕátÕd
ineåpensive /,rnIk,spÕnsrv/ |ow in priáÕ
numb /nÔm/ not abIe to feÕ| Ðnythi ng; not Ðb|Õ to
move
obsessed /íb'sest/ (obsÕssÕd lvith sb/sth) unÐble to
stop thi nki ng Ðbout Ðnythi ng el sÕ
priáÕIess / praIslís/ of vÕrã grÕÐt vÐ|ue
rÕalistiá /ri:í lrstIk/ not rÕal but appÕÐring to bÕ rÕÐl
relevant /.rÕlívínt/ áonneáted with whÐt is
hÐppÕni ng or bÕi ng tÐl kÕd Ðbout
sad /sÕd/ áÐusi ng sb to feeI unhÐppã or sorrã for yÞu
seàarateIy oááupiÕd / sÕprítli 'ÞkjrrpaId/ Ð room
i n Ð rented housÕ, formi ng Ð Uni t by i tsel f, Wi th Ðn
i ndi vi duÐ| tenÐnáã ÐgreÕmÕnt
ti ght-fi sted /.tal t fl strd/ not wi l Ii ng to spÕnd or gi ve
muáh monÕã; mÕÐn
val i d /'vÕhd/ sth that i s l ÕgÐ||y or offi ái a||y
ÐááeptÐb|e; Âhis pÐssport is vÐ|id for onÕ ãÕÞr
on|ã.
weIl.off /'wÕl Þf/ ri áh; hÐvi ng Ð |ot of mÞnÕy
worthl ess /,w×:0l ís/ hÐvi ng no vÐl ue Þr use
AdvÕrbs
aááording to /í kÞ:dlç tí bÕfore vowÕls Iu..; Iul as
nÐtÕd by sb; Ðs shown bã sth.. °ááording to ¼iák,
iLs Ð brilliÐnt film.
fi naIl y /.³amíl i/ Ðfter Ð l ong ti mñ or dÕ|Ðã
firstly /.f×:stli/ usÕd to introduáÕ thÕ ttrst point in Ð
I rst
furthermore / f×:Ñí'mc:/ Ð|so; i n addi ti on
however /hao'Õví/ usÕd to introduáe Ð stÐtÕment
that áontrÐ5t5 Wi th nh thÐt hÐs j ust bÕÕn sai d; but
i n áonáIusi on / In kín kl u:3nl fi na||y; |Ðst|ã
nevertheIess /'nÕvíÑí'lÕs/ in spitÕ of thÐt
seáondIy /.sekíndl i/ used wheÛ ãou ÐrÕ gi vi ng your
seáond reÐson or opi ni on; Ð|so
sIightly / slartli/ Ð iitt|Õ
l di oms
aII i n aII WhÕn ÕVÕrãthi ng i s áonsi dÕrÕd: °|| i Û Þl I i t
had DÕen 0 grÕ1t suÁáÕss.
without (a) douht definitÕ|y; áÕrtain|ã: it Wd'
without doubt, thÕ áoldest wintÕr Jor mÞnã ãeÐrs.
l l ar -
UNIT 5
Nouns
advantage /íd vÞ:ntrd3/ [Á] something thÐt mÐy
hÕ|p ãou to do bÕtter thÐn othÕr peop|Õ
agent / Õid3ínt/ [Á] Ð pÕrson whose job is to do
busi ness for Ð á0mpÐnã or for ÐnothÕr pÕrson
ambi ti on /Õm'brJn/ [Á] somÕthi ng thÐt ãoU VÕry
muáh WÐnt to hÐvÕ or do
award /í wí:d/ [Á] Ð prizÕ suáh Ðs monÕã, Õtá. for sth
thÐt sb hÐs donÕ
benefit / bÕnlfit/ [Á] Ðn ÐdvÐntage thÐt sth giVes yoU;
a good or usefu| ÕffÕát thÐt sth hÐs
breakthrough /'Ìr.Õrkoru:/ [Á] Ðn importÐnt
disáovÕrã or devÕ|opment: Ð sáienti|tá
breÐkth rough
áast /ká:st/ fsi ng] Ð|| thÕ Ðátors i n Ð p|Ðy, ti Im, Õtá.
(ostumÕ / kostju:m/ |á] the á|othÕs worn bã Ðátors
i n a pl Ðã or fi |m
departure /dl'po:tJí/ [Á] (fÓom stIl) Ðn Ðátion that is
di ffÕrÕnt from whÐt i s usuÐ| or ÕXpÕátÕd
direátor /dí'rÕktí' dar rÕktí/ |Á] ,,| Ð pÕrson who
mÐnÐgÕs or áontrÞ|s Ð áompÐnã or orgÐni sÐti on
2 Ð pÕrson i ß áhÐrgÕ of Ð fi |m or pl Ðy who tel |s thÕ
aátors Ðnd the stÐff whÐt to do
disadvÐntage / drsíd'vÞ:ntId3/ [Á] somÕthing that
mÐy mÐkÕ you |Õss suááÕssfuI thÐn othÕr pÕopIe
doáumentarã /.dÞkju'mÕntri/ [Á] Ð ttIm' tÕ|Õvision
or radi 0 progrÐmmÕ thÐt gi vÕs fÐáts or i nformÐti on
Ðbout Ð pÐrti áu|Ðr subj eát
drawbÐák / drí:brk/ [Á] Ð disÐdvÐntÐgÕ or prob|Õm
ending /'Õndlæ/ [Á] the end (of Ð storã, pIaã, fi|m,
ÕIÁ,): l on|ã like Jilms with hÐppã endings'
eåtra /'Õkstâí/ [Á] Ð person who is pÐid to p|Ðy Ð vÕrã
smÐ|| pÐrt i n Ð fi l m, usuÐ||y Ðs Ð mÕmbÕr of Ð
árowd
footage /.fotId3/ [U] pÐrt of Ð fi|m showing Ð
pÐrt|áu|Ðr evÕnt
immigration / èlr grÕrJn/ [U] the proáess of áoming
to Ii ve permÐnent|y i n Ð áountry thÐt i s not your
oWn; thÕ numbÕr of pÕop|Õ Who do thi s
journalist /'d3×:níhst/ [Á] Ð pÕrson whosÕ job is to
áOl Ieát Ðnd wri tÕ Ðbout nÕws i n nÕwspÐpÕrs Ðnd
mÐgÐzi nes or to tÐ|k Ðbout i t on thÕ tÕ|Õvi si on or
rÐdl o
|ifeguard /'laI³go:d/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who is emp|oyed
Ðt Ð bÕÐáh or Ð swi mmi ng pooI to rÕsáUÕ peop|Õ
who ÐrÕ i n dÐngÕr i n the WÐtÕr
nurse /n×:s/ [Á] Ð person whosÕ jÞb is to takÕ áÐre of
si ák or i nj ured pÕopl Õ, usua||ã i n a hospi tÐ|
pÐrt /pá:t/ [Á] Ð rolÕ p|ayÕd by Ðn Ðátor in Ð p|Ðã,
tl Im, Õtá,
persona| assistant /'p×:sínl í srstínt/ [Á] Ð person
who works Ðs a sÕárÕtÐry or Ðn Ðssi stÐnt for one
pÕrson
photographer /³í'togÓífí/ [Á] Ð person who tÐkÕs
photogrÐ phs
premiere / prÕmiÕí/ [Á] the fiìt pub|iá pÕrformÐnáÕ
of Ð p|Ðã, fi |m, Õtá,
press áonferenáÕ / prÕs kÞnfíríns/ [Á] Ð mÕÕting
Ðt whi áh sb taIks to Ð group of j ournaIi sts i n order
to пswer thÕi r qUÕ5ti ons or to mÐke Ðn offi ái Ð|
5tÐtÕment
projeát / prÞd3Õkt/ [Á] Ð piÕáÕ of work invoIving
áÐrÕfuI studã of Ð subj eát over Ð peri od of ti mÕ,
done bã sáhoo| or áol |ÕgÕ studÕnts
prop /prÞp/ [á usu p|] Ð smÐlI objÕát usÕd by aátors
dUri ng thÕ performÐnáÕ of Ð p|Ðy or i n Ð fi |m: He Ì
responsiblÕ for Ð|l the stÐge props Ðnd Iighting.
rÕferÕe /'rÕ³í Ói:/ [Á] the offiáiÐ| pÕrson in sports
suáh Ðs footbÐl I who áontrol s thÕ mÐtáh ÐÛd
prÕvÕßts p|ÐãÕr5 from brÕÐki ng thÕ rU|Õs
sponsor /'sponsí/ [Á] Ð person who ÐgrÕes to give sb
monÕy for Ð áhari ty i f thÐt per5on suááÕÕds i n
áomp|Õti ng Ð parti áu|Ðr Ðáti vi ty
stereotypÕ /'stÕriítaIp/ [Á] Ð fixÕd ideÐ Ðbout Ð
pÐrti áu|Ðr typÕ of person or thi ng, whi áh i s ÞftÕn
Ûot true i n reaIi tã
street (red / stri:t krÕd/ [U] Ð wÐy of behÐving Ðnd
drÕssi ng thÐt i s ÐááeptÐbl Õ to ãoUng peop|e,
ÕspÕái Ð|l y thosÕ who Ii vÕ i n ái ti es Ðnd hÐvÕ
experi Õnáed the probIems of reÐ| |i fe
subjeát /'slbd3rkt/ [Á] Ð thing or pÕrson thÐt is
bÕi ng di sáussed, desári bed or deaIt Wi th
su(áess story /Sík,sÕs stí:ril |Á] Ð person or thing
that is vÕry sUááÕssful
taxi driver /'t₠Õksi dralví/ |Á] Ð person who drivÕs Ð
tÐå| áÐb
tour guide /'tuí gald/ [Á] Ð pÕrson whosÕ job is to
show touri sts Ðroußd i nterÕsti ng p|Ðáes
VÕrbs
aàpear /í pIí/ to tÐke pÐrt i n Ð fi |m, p|Ðy, te|evi si on
progrÐmmÕ, eIÁ.. 11Õ has ÐppeÐrÕd in over 60
movlÕs.
beat /bi:t/ to gÕt áontrol of sth; to defeÐt: The
governmÕnt's mÐin Ðim is to beÐt inf|ÐtiÞn.
áIone kl ÐÞn tO prodUre Ðn c\Ð(| áopy o[ Ðn Ðni mÐ|
or Ð p|Ðnt from i ts áÕl |s
áonsider /kín srdí/ to think Ðbout sth áÐrefuIIy,
oftÕn bÕforÕ mÐki ng Ð dÕái si on
direát /dí rÕkt; dal'IÕkt/ to be in áhÐrge of Ðátors
in a p|Ðã, or Ð fi|m/moviÕ: The moviÕ wÐs dirÕátÕd
bã stevÕn SpiÕlberg.
fu|fi| /fiÞl fil/ to mÐke sth thÐt ãou wish for hÐppÕn;
to Ðáhi Õve a goÐ|
fund /fÔnd/ to providÕ Ð projÕát, sáhoo|, áhÐrity, Õtá
wi th monÕã noun: fund
hand|e /'hÐendl/ to dÕÐ| Wi th or to áontro| sb/sth: /
hÞve Þ problÕm with Ðß Õmploãee. I don't reÐ|lã
knÞw how to hÐndle hÕr.
rejed /II d3Õkt/ 1 to refusÕ t0 ÐááÕpt or áonsidÕr sth
2 to rÕl use Io Ð((Õp| ìb l or Ð j ob, po)i ti on' Õt('
settIe down /'setl ,daon/ to stÐrt hÐVing Ð quiÕtÕr
way of Ii fÕ, ÕspÕái Ð||ã by stÐyi ng i n thÕ sÐme p|aáe
or gÕtti ng marri ed
shoot /Jrr:t/ t0 mÐke Ð fiIm or tÐke Ð photograph of
sth
AdjeátivÕs
budget /'bl d3l t/ (usÕd i n ÐdvÕrti si ng, Õtá.) |ow i n
pri áÕ
áomputer-Iiterate /kím'pju:tí htírít/ Ðb|Õ to U5Õ
Ð áom putÕr
áonfident / kpnfidínt/ fÕÕling or showing thÐt you
Ðre surÕ Ðbout yoUr oWn Ðbi Ii ti es, opi ni ons, etá.
áreati ve kÓi ÕItIv us|ng skl || or i mÐgi nÐ|i on l o
mÐke or dÞ nÕw thi ngs
fakÕ /³eIk/ not genui ne, ÐppeÐri ng to be sth i t i s not:
fÐkÕ dÕsignÕr álothing
fit /³lt/ hÕÐlthy Ðnd strong, espeáiÐl|y bÕáÐuse you do
rÕgu |Ðr phãsi áÐ | eåerái sÕ
Ä
fluent /,flu:ínt/ Ðb|e to spÕÐk 0r Write Ð forÕign
|ÐnguÐgÕ eÐsi Iy Ðnd ÐááUratÕ|ã
IifeIong / laIflÞç/ (onIã bÕJorÕ a ßoun) for Ð|l of yÞur
l i fe
pÐti Õnt /'pÕâJnt/ Ðb|e to WÐi t for a Iong ti mÕ or
ÐááÕàt ÐnnÞyi ng bÕhÐvi our or di ffi áuIti Õs wi thout
beáOml ng Ðngry
powerful /'àa<;ífl/ hÐving Ð strong effÕát on y0ur
mi Ûd or bodã
sui tabl e /'su:tíbl/ ri ght or Ðppropri Ðte for sb/sth
unusuaI /,tn ju:3uí1/ not ÕxpeátÕd or normÐ|
AdvÕrbs
desàite /dI'spalt/ Without being ÐffeátÕd bã the
thi ng menti oned
l di oms
an awfu| Iot (of sth) Ð lot (of sth): ThÕrÕ Ðre Þn Ðwful
lot o| things to do in London in thÕ ÕvÕß!ngs.
gi ve sb a hard ti me to mÐke Ð si tuati on UnpIeÐsÐnt'
ÕmbÐrrÐssing or diftiáult for sb ÂhÕã reÐlIã gÐve
mÕ Ð hÞrd timÕ al lhÕ inIÕrviÕw,
i n spi te of UsÕd to sh0W thÐt sth hÐppenÕd Ðl though
you did not Õåpeát it: ln spitÕ oJ Ðll her hÞrd work,
SuÕ fÐiled her ÕåÐm.
make sensÕ (to do nh) (usÕd Ðbout Ðn Ðáti on) to bÕ
sÕnsi b|Õ Ðnd Iogi áÐ| (to do sth): / thi nk i t woul d
mÞkÕ sensÕ to wÐit t'or Þ whilÕ bÕfore mÐking Ð
deáision.
over the moon eåtremÕlã hÐpày and Õxáited Ðbout
sth
Phrasal verbs
baák sbi sth up t0 sUpport sb; to sÐy or shoW thÐt sth
is true: / l?? going to sÐã ÕåÐátlã whÐt I think Ðt thÕ
meÕting. Wi|| ãou bÐák me up?
break up (wi th sb) to Õnd a rÕl Ðti onshi p wi th sb: Ihe
bÐnd broke up lÐst ãÕÞr.
deaI wi th sb to treat 5b i n Ð pÐrti áU|Ðr Way, to
hÐndlÕ sb: ½e's Ð dif|láu|t man. Nobodã quite
knows how tÞ dÕÐl wiIh him-
faII baák on sb/sth to go t0 sb t0r sUpport; to have
sth tO usÕ whÕn you ÐrÕ in diffiáu|ty; l hÐve Ð litt|e
monÕã in thÕ bÐnk to t'Ðll bÐák on.
Iay sth down to givÕ sth Ðs Ð rulÕ: lt's Ð|| |Þid down
in thÕ rules of the álub.
piák sth up 1 to gÕt or obtÐin sth 2 to g0 a¿d get
sb/sth; to áo||Õát sb/sth in Ð áÐr, Õtá: What tImÕ ÐrÕ
ãou piáking the áhildrÕn up Jrom sáhoÞ|?
pi |e up (usuÐ||y used Ðbout sth bad) to i náreÐse i n
qUÐntity: Work usuÐ|lã piles up ot this timÕ oJ
ãÕar.
put sth fÞrward to sUggest sth for disáusston
take off (usÕd Ðbout Ðn i dÕÐ, Ð prodUát, Õtá) to
bÕáome suááÕssful or popu|Ðr vÕry qui ákIã or
sudden l y
turn to sth to bÕáomÕ sIh Õ|sÕ: ½Õr lovÕ for hin
soon turned to hate.
Uni t 6
Nouns
bÕard /'bIíd/ [á] the hÐi r Whi áh grows on Ð mÐn's
áhÕÕks and áh|n: ÝÕ's got a long bÕÞrá1.
áabi n /'kÐÕbân/ [Á] Ð sma|| room i n Ð shi p or boÐt,
whÕre a àÐssengÕr s|Õeps
áargo /'ko:gít-l/ [U] thÕ goods thÐt ÐrÕ áarriÕd in a
shi p or Ðn Ði ráraft
áharaáter /'kiíIíktí/ [Á] Ð person iß Ð book, story,
ÕIá.. ThÕ mÐin áhálrÐáter in thÕ t'ilm is Ð boã who
meÕts an alIÕn.
ál ue /kl u:/ [Á] Ð pi ÕáÕ of i nformÐti on thÐt hÕl ps yOU
so|vÕ a prob|Õm or Ð ári mÕ, Ðnswer Ð qUesti On, Õtá.
áo.aátor / kíáliÕktí:/ [Á] onÕ of tWO Or m0rÕ aátors
Who ÐpàÕÐr togethÕr i n the same fi l m or pl Ðy
áonfliát /'kÞnfllkt/ [Á] Ð fight Or Ðn ÐrgumÕnt
árew /kâu:/ [á] Ð|| thÕ pÕopl e who work on Ð shi p,
Ði rárÐft, Õtá,
árop áirále /'kâÞp s×:kl/ [Á] Ð áiráular ÐreÐ in Ð fiÕld
of árops that hÐs suddÕn|ã bÕáomÕ flÐt: PÕople sátã
that ároà áirá|Õs werÕ mÐdÕ bã árÕÐturÕs from
outÕr spaáÕ.
deák /dÕk/ [á] one of thÕ floors of Ð ship: l,m goin8
out on deák |or somÕ frÕ'h Þir.
dÕstination /.dÕstr nÕl.[n/ [Á] the p|Ðáe where sb/sth
i s goi ng
dÕstruátion /dI.stl^k.[n/ [U] thÕ Ðátion of dÕstroying
sth VÕrD: dÕstÓÞã
disáovery /dr'sklvíri/ [Á] thÕ Ðát of finding sth
doáument /'dÞkjumínt/ [á] Ðn offiáial pieáÕ of
wri ti ng whi áh gi vÕs i nformÐti on, proof or Õvi dÕnáÕ
evidenáe /'Õvrdíns/ [U] thÕ fÐáts' signs, Õtá. thÐt
mÐke you bÕ|i evÕ thÐt sth i s truÕ
expIanation /,Õksplí nÕr.[n/ [Á] (for *h/for doing
sth) Ð stÐtement, faát or si tuÐti on thÐt tÕl l s you why
sth hÐppÕnÕd, Ð reÐson gi vÕß for sth
expIosion /Ik splíu3n/ [Á] thÕ sudden vio|ent
bursti ng and Ioud noi sÕ of 5th sUáh Ðs a bomb
eåpIod i ng
feature /'fi:tJí/ [Á] Ðn i mportÐnt or noti áÕÐbIe pÐrt
of sth
fiátion / fikJn/ [U] storiÕs, noveIs, Õtá. whiáh dÕsáribÕ
evÕnts Ðnd peopIe that ÐrÕ not rÕÐ|
flaw/flc:/ [Á] Ð mistÐkÕ in sth that mÐkes it not good
ÕÛough, or meÐns thÐt i t does not funáti on Ðs i t
should. Âhere Ðre somÕ f|Ðws in hÕr (lrgumÕnL
fumes /fi u:mzl [p|] smokÕ 0r gÐsÕs thÐt smÕ||
unpl ÕÐsÐnt Ðnd thÐt áÐn bÕ dÐngerous to breathÕ
in lÕthÐlfumÕs
hope /hÞ<.rp/ [Á] Ð pÕrson, Ð thing or Ð sitUation that
wi|| hÕ|à you gÕt WhÐt ãoU wanI.. PleasÕ áan ãou
helà rnÕ? You'rÕ mã lÐst hope.
instrument /'èstrímínt/ [Á] a tooI that is UsÕd for
doi ng Ð pÐrti áui ar j ob or tÐsk
invÕstigation /rß'vestr'gerJn/ [Á] Ðn offiáiÐ|
ÕxÐmi nÐti on of the fÐáts Ðbout Ð si tuÐti on, ári me,
etá.
Iegend / lÕd3índ/ [á] Ðß oId story thÐt mÐã or mÐã
not bÕ true
l i feboat /'l aIfÊíÞt/ [Á] Ð smÐ|l boÐt thÐt i s áÐrri ed on
Ð |ÐrgÕ shi à Ðnd thÐt i s Used t0 ÕsáapÕ
moustaáhe /mí,sto:J/ hÐi r thÐt grows oß Ð mÐn's
top Ii p, bÕtwÕÕn the mouth Ðnd nosÕ
murder /'m×:dí/ [á,U] thÕ ári mÕ of ki ||i ng Ð pÕrson
i Il Õga||ã and on pUrpose
mystery /'mIstri/ [á,U] Ð thing thÐt ãou áÐnnot
undÕrstand Þr ÕåpIai n
(the) paranormaI /'pzÕrí'ní:ml/ [sing] ÕvÕnts or
sub,j eáts thÐt áÐnnot bÕ ÕxpIai nÕd bã sái ÕnáÕ or
reÐson ÐÛd thÐt sÕem to i nvol vÕ mãstÕri ous foráÕs
àrovisions /prí vI3nzl [p|] supp|iÕs of food Ðnd
dri nk, Õspeái aIIy for a Iong;ournÕy
saiI /sÕrl/ [Á] a |ÐrgÕ piÕáe of strong mÐtÕriÐ| thÐt is
fiÅÕd onto Ð ship or boat: ThÕ wind blows ÐgÞinst
thÕ sÐil Ðnd moves the ship Ðlong.
sáÕnÕ /si:n/ [Á] thÕ p|aáe whÕre sth hÐppÕnÕd: the
sáenÕ of thÕ árimÕ
sáiÕnáe fiátion / saIíns '³Ik.[n/ [U] books, trIms, Õtá.
ÐboUt eVÕnts that take pl aáÕ i n thÕ futurÕ, oftÕn
i nvol vi ng trÐvÕ| i n spÐáe
sighting /.sartræ/ [Á] (Ð sighting 0f sb/sth) an oááÐs|On
whÕn sb/sth i s sÕÕn
suspensÕ /sí'spÕns/ [U] the fee|i ng of ÕÅái tement or
Worry thÐt ãou hÐvÕ whÕn you feÕl sth i 5 goi ng to
happen, whÕn you ÐrÕ WÐi ti ng for nÕWs, Õtá.
theory /'0líri/ [Á] Ðn idÕÐ or set of idÕÐs thÐt tr|Õs to
eåpIai n sth
VÕrbs
abandon /í'bÐÕndín/ to |ÕÐvÕ sb/sth that you ÐrÕ
rÕsponsi b|Õ for, usuÐ||ã pÕrmanÕntl y
admi t /Þd,ml t/ to agrÕÕ thÐt sth Unp|easÐnt l s true
or that yoU hÐve donÕ sth Wrong: I must admit
thÞt I prÕferrÕd his old fiIms to this onÕ.
board /Ìí:d/ t0 gÕt on a pIÐnÕ, ship, bus, Õtá: l{e
wÐved goodbãe Ðnd boÞrded the ship.
áare /kÕí/ to bÕ worried Ðbout or interÕstÕd in
sbIs|h, l don't áÐrÕ whÕthÕr wP ÕaI ouI or staã in
ton ight.
árawI /krí:l/ to movÕ slow|y with your body on or
á|osÕ to thÕ ground' or on your hÐnds Ðnd knÕÕs
damagÕ / dÒmrd3/ to spoi I or hÐrm sth, for eÅampIe
by brÕÐki ng i t
deny /dr,na/ to stÐtÕ thÐt sth is n0t truÕ; to refusÕ to
Ðdmit or ÐááÕpt sth: TherÕ's no denãing \- ãou
áÐnnot deny) that shÕ'| Ð bÕÐutifu| womÐn.
destroy /dl'stríâ/ to dÐmÐgÕ sth so bÐdlã thÐt it áÐn
no IongÕr be used or no l onger eåi sts
di sappear / dIsí'prí/ to bÕáome i mpossi b|Õ to sÕÕ or
to fi nd
frown /frar-in/ t0 shoW ãoU are angrã, sÕrious, Õtá. by
mÐki ng Ii nÕs ÐppÕar On your forehÕÐd ÐbovÕ your
nosÕ
grin /grß-r/ to givÕ Ð broÐd smiIe (so thÐt ãou show
ã0ur tÕeth)
matter /'metí/ to bÕ importÐnt to sb: lt doÕsn,t
matter to mÕ what ãou do with ãour moneã.
murder /.m×:dí/ to ki || Ð pÕrson i l l ÕgÐ||ã and on
pU rposÕ
order /'í:dí/ (ordÕr sb to do sth) t0 Use ãour posi ti On
Of authori ty to tÕl I sb to d0 sth or to sÐy thÐt sth
must hÐppen
puzz|Õ l plrz1l Io mÐkÕ sb fÕÕl áonfusÕd bÕáÐusÕ
hÕ/shÕ doÕs not undÕrstÐnd sth
raise lrelzl t0 |ift sth up: plÐns to raisÕ the âitaniá
reaáh /ri:tJ/ tO strÕtáh out your Ðrm t0 try Ðnd touáh
or gÕt sb/sth
rub lrlãÌl to movÕ ãour hÐnd, a á|oth, Õtá. baákwÐrds
Ðnd forwÐrds on thÕ surfÐáÕ Þf sth whi |Õ prÕssi ng
fi rml ã
unIoad / ,tn'loÞd/ to tÐkÕ things that havÕ bÕÕn
transportÕd off or out of Ð vÕhi á|Õ
whispÕr /,wlspí/ to speÐk vÕrã quiÕtly into slí's ÕÐr,
so thÐt othÕr pÕopl Õ áÐnnot hÕÐr whÐt you arÕ
sÐy! ng
AdiÕátives
aááidental / ttksI'dÕntl/ hÐppening bã áhÐnáÕ; not
pIÐnßÕd: aááidÕntal dÕath
attraátive /í'tr.Õktlv/ thÐt pIÕasÕs or interÕsts ãOu;
thÐt you l i kÕ
bal d /bí:l d/ (usÕd Ðbout peop|Õ) hÐvi ng Ii ttl Õ or no
hai r on your heÐd
bl onde /bl nnd/ (used Ðbout Ð person) wi th fÐi r or
ye||ow hÐi r
áasuaI /'kÕ3uíl/ (used Ðbout á|othÕs) not forma|: /
áhÐngÕ into áÞsuÐl álothes Ðfter work.
áurIã /.k×:\i l (used Ðbout hÐi ä fu|| of áur|s; shÐpÕd
l i kÕ Ð áur|
deáeased /dI si:st/ dÕÐd
(D
eIderl y /'Õl díl i/ (usÕd Ðbout Ð person) oId
fÐsl ×i Þßabl Õ / ³Õ.[níÌ1/ popu|Ðr Þr i n Ð popu|Ðr stã|e
at the trme
µethÐl / l i:0l/ thÐt áÐn áÐUsÕ dÕÐth or grÕÐt dÐmÐge:
|ÕthÐ| JumÕs
li8tÕlã /'laâkli/ probÐbIe or ÕåpeátÕd: o likÕlã
eåà|Ð nation
mari ti Òne /'mtÕrrtaßâ/ á0nneáted wi th the sÕÐ Þr
shrps
rÒ×iddle.agÕd /'mrdl ,Õrd3d/ (usÕd Ðbout Ð pÕrson)
ÐgÕd betwÕÕn 40 Ðnd 60 yÕÐrs ol d
mysteriÄris /mr'stlíriís/ thÐt ãou do not UndÕrstand
or áÐßnot eÅp|Ð|n; 5trÐnge
Þverlveigµ×t / Ðoví'wÕlt/ too hÕavy or fÐt
ste!,ti {afl / skÕptrkl/ not wi IIi ng to beIi Õve thÐt sth i 5
trUe or thÐt sb i s tÕ|l i ng the truth
sárèffã /'skr,tli/ dirty Ðnd untidy
seveyÕ /st'vtí/ ÕÅtrÕme|ã bÐd or sÕri ous
si.i'tÐ{t /smo:t/ (usÕd Ðbout Ð pÕrS0n) havi ng Ð á|ÕÐn
and tidy ÐppeÐran áÕ-, You look smÐrt' °rÕ ãou
goi n g somÕwh Õre spÕái Þ l?
stÓai ght /strÕrt/ (used Ðbout hai r) not i n Ð áurVÕ or Ðt
Ðn Ðng|e; i n Ð strÐi ght ItnÕ
strÐmg* /strÕInd3/ unusuÐ| or UnÕÅàÕátÕd
sèspi ái Þì:s /sí spâJís/ feÕ|i ng thÐt sb hÐs do¿e sth
wrong, di shonÕst or i l |ÕgÐI
ègl'y /,l gl i/ Unp|ÕÐ5Ðnt to Iook Ðt or l i stÕn to; not
ÐttrÐátIVÕ
ê'i Þl erat / vÐríl Ðnt/ vÕrã strOng Ðnd i mpossi b|Õ to
áontrOl: d vio|Õ|1t storm
rÞiev9" / wÕâvi/ hÐving áurvÕs; not strÐight
.yïe!µ hèi i t / wÕl brl t/ (usÕd Ðbout Ð pÕrson) wi th Ð
strong sol i d body
wÞãri eq* /,wÔrl d/ thi nki ng thÐt sth bÐd mi ght
hÐppÕß Þr hÐs hÐppÕÛed
y*u×r×gi sÀÒ / j,tæl J/ qui tÕ ãoung
l di oms
*n lrÒÐyd on a ship or Ðn ÐirárÐft: °ll the pÐssÕßgÕrs
wÕrÕ sÐfÕ|ã on boÐrd'
takÕ sth wi th Ð ài náh 0f raAt to thi nk thÐt sth i s
probÐbl ã not trUÕ or ÐááUrÐtÕ
fl×r âiyed Þf st!×/ Þf dÞi×âg sth to bÕ borÕd with or
Ðnnoyed bã sbAth/doing sIh |'m siák Ðnd tired oJ
IistÕning to the samÕ thtngs ÞgÞin Ðnd ÐgÐin,
Phrasal Yerbs
be i mtÞ sth to bÕ i ntÕrestÕd j n sth i n Ðn Ðáti vÕ wÐy:
½e,s into surJing in Ð big wÐã.
Uni t 7
Nouns
adrÕnal i n /í dÓÕníl è/ [U] Ð substÐnáÕ produáÕd i n
thÕ bodã whÕn you ÐrÕ Õxái tÕd' ÐfrÐi d or fri ghtÕnÕd
Ð!i Õrnat;ve /í:l't×:nítrv/ [á] i t0 sth] one of two or
more things thÐt you áÐn áhOose bÕtwÕÕn: l,4/h.ir
áan l Õot as 0ß Ð|tÕrßÐtivÕ to mÕÐt?
l ×i àl anÕ / bal pl Õân/ [Á] Ðn ÕÐr|y tãpe 0f pl Ðne Wi th
two sÕts of Wings
áiianáÕ /t.[Þ:ns/ [Á] Ðn opportunity: ¾n this trip,
ãou,ll gÕt thÕ áhÞnáÕ to go pÞrÐglidtng,
á[:ÐrÐátÕr /'kzÕÓíktí/ |Á] Ð pÕrson in Ð book, story,
Õtá: ThÕ mÐin áharláter in thÕ rt|m is Þ boã who
mÕÕts an aIIÕn.
áharitã / t.[Ðeríti/ [Á] an orgÐßisÐtion thÐt áoliÕát5
monÕy to hÕ|p peopIe who ÐrÕ poor, si ák, Õtá. or to
dÞ æork thÐt i s uìÕ³u Io rot i ct\
(@
áti.i;×ái dÕßáe /kíÞ'InsIdíns/ [Á] two or morÕ si mi |Ðr
thi ngs hÐppÕni ng Ðt the sÐme ti me by áhÐnáÕ' i ß Ð
surpri si ng wÐy
i:[iti{ /,krrtrk/ [Á] a person whosÕ job is to givÕ
hi s/her opi ni Þn Ðbout Ð pl Ðy' book, fi |m, etá'
i l i sl ]íei l i ef /'dâsbI l i:t7 [U] the feÕ|i ng of Ûot bÕ|i Õvi ng
sil/sth
Õ;].(rem³ja sàÞrt /Ik stri:m spí:t/ [Á] Ðn Õåáiting but
dÐngerous sport, suáh Ðs bungÕÕ j umpi ng
i]tlÞd /1]Ôd/ |Á] Ð |Ðrge ÐmoUnt of WÐtÕr thÐt hÐs
sprÕad from Ð river, thÕ sÕÐ, etá. thÐt áovers Ðn
ÐrÕÐ whi áh shouId bÕ drã
gÞ /gíÞ/ [Á] Ðn Ðttempt to do sth: I had o go Ðt
|tåing it for ãou,
jnhabitaÒ,×.t /ln'hzÕÌItÐnt/ [Á] a pÕrson or ÐnimÐ| thÐt
l i vÕs i n Ð pl aáe
j èmhÞ j ei /,d3l mbíÞ .d3Õtl [Á] Ð verã |ÐrgÕ Ði rárÐft
thÐt áÐn áÐrry severaI hundrÕd pÐs5ÕngÕr5
iÐyldÒâíark / ltÕndmá:k/ [Á] Ðn objeát (oftÕÛ Ð
bui |di ng) thÐt áÐn bÕ sÕen ÕÐsi |ã from a di stÐnáÕ
Ðnd thÐt wi Il he|à ãou to rÕáogni sÕ whÕrÕ ãou Ðre
flÞá:;'LiÞm /líÞ'kÕâJn/ [Á] a piÐáe or position: thÕ Õåoát
loáÞtion of thÕ hotÕ|
meáessity /ní sÕsíti/ [Á] thÕ nÕÕd for sth; thÕ fÐát
thÐt sth mUSt be donÕ or must hÐppÕn
Äp!×Ärt!,Òm¡tã / Þpí tju:níti/ [Á] Ð áhÐßáÕ to do 5th
thÐt you wouId ]i ke to do; Ð si tuÐti Þn or Ð ti mÕ i n
whi áh i t i s possi b|e to do sth thÐt you wou|d Ii kÕ to
do
paáÕ /pÕIsi [Á' usu si ng] thÕ speed Ðt whi áh ãou wÐJk,
rUn, etá. or Ðt Whiáh sth hÐppens: ½Õ inárÕÐsÕd his
àaáÕ as hÕ got álosÕr to homÕ.
àiÐtfÞrÐ×l / plÕt1Ê:m/ |Á] thÕ plÐáÕ where ãou get on
or off trÐi ns Ðt Ð rÐi |WÐã stÐti on
à|a.1 /plÕr/ [Á] Ð piÕáÕ of writing pÕrformÕd by Ðátors
i n thÕ thÕÐtrÕ, or on tÕ|ÕVi si On or rÐdi o
1il'Þ6rÕ!flÕr /àrí pÕlí/ |Á] Ð dÕviáÕ with sevÕrÐ] flÐt
mÕtÐ| pÐÓts i l l l ×ái Õsl whi áh turn round vÕrã fÐst i n
ordÕr to mÐke Ð shi p or Ð pIÐßÕ movÕ
ti seìïe /kj u:/ [á] Ð |i nÕ of pÕop|e, áÐrs, Õtá, thÐt ÐrÕ
wÐi ti ng for sth 0r to do sth
ralr'i{.v/ /ÓI'vju:/ [Á] a nÕwspÐper or magÐZine Ðrtiá|Õ,
Or Ðn |tem 0n the te|evi si on or rÐdi o, i n whi áh sb
gtves Ðn opi ni on On a nÕW book, fi |m, p|aã, ÕIá Âhe
fi l m gol bÐd rÕvi Õtl s, À'l l I' \ ' \'
!"i Äti!,!g /.ral ít¿J/ |U] vi oIent bÕhÐvi our by Ð árowd of
pÕop|Õ |¿ Ð pub|i á pl ÐáÕ, ÞftÕn Ðs Ð protÕst: Rl otl »g
brokÕ out in thÕ áÐàitaI todÞã. vÕrÌ, rtoI
ÓèÓnlvaã / Ó,tnwÕI/ [Á] Ð |ong piÕáe of ground with Ð
hÐrd surfÐáe Where ai rárÐft tÐkÕ off Ðßd |Ðnd Ð1 Ðn
Ði rpoß
setti rl g /'sÕtl n/ [Á] thÕ posi ti on sth i s i n; the p|Ðáe
Ðnd ti mÕ i n whi áh sth hÐppens
sÒèráÕ /sí:s/ [Á] Ð p|Ðáe, peÓson or thi ng where sth
áOmÕs or stÐrts from Þr where sth i s obtÐi nÕd
s!×Õ₠ial efr$ráts /'spÕ.[l I tÊkts/ [p|] unusuÐ| or
Õåái ti ng pi ÕáÕs of Ðáti Þn i n fi |ms or ÂV
programmÕs, thÐt Ðre áreÐted by áomputÕrs or
ál ÕVÕr photogrÐphã to 5hOW thi »g5 thÐt do »ot
usUÐ|]y eÅi st hÐppeni ng
tÕflrÞry /.tÕrí/ [Á,u] vÕÓy greÐt fÕar
try /tÓaI/ [Á] Ðn oááasi on whÕn ãou try to do 5th; Ðn
ÐttÕmpt: Go on' Giãe it a try!
*âi ßg /wIæ/ |Á] onÕ of the tWO pÐrts thÐt Ð bi rd,
InsÕát, etá, usÕs for fl yi ng
YÕrbs
Ðda'àli /í'dÐÕpt/ to áhлgÕ Ð boÞk Þr p|Ðã sO thÐt it
áÐn bÕ mÐdÕ i nto Ð pi ay, fi l m, te|Õvi si Ort
progrÐmmÕ, ÕIÁ âhÕ fiIm wÞs ÞdÞpted Jrom Ð
novÕl. nu ¿' .].|.lptÐt 0i]
hÞÞ×Jri /bÞk/ tO ÐrrangÕ to hÐvÕ or do sth Ðt Ð
pÐrtiáUIar Iime.. l boÞkÕd Þ tablÕ bã thÕ window,
hâÞadri â /'brí:dn/ to i nárÕÐsÕ your ÕåpÕri ÕnáÕ,
knowIedge, eIá.. ârÐvÕ| brÞÐdÕns ãour horizons,
á@l.¡vÓ]y /kín'Ver/ to mÐkÕ 'dÕÐs, thoughts, fÕÕ|i ngs,
etá, knoWn to 5b
Õiill.Òißaâe '/â lImInÕIt/ to [emove sb/sth thÐt is ¿ot
wÐnted or neÕdÕd
Ji Ðà /fl Õp/ to move (sth) up Ðnd down or from si dÕ
to si dÕ, ÕspÕái Ðl Iy i n thÕ wi ßd
i.i l Þvr /fl íál/ tO mOVe i n a smooth Ðßd áonti nuous way
(|i kÕ watÕr)
gatiâ*r, / gÕÑí/ to inárÕÐsÕ in spÕÕd, size, foráe, Õtá:
âhe p|ane gathÕrÕd spÕÕd.
gr;l i × /greb/ t0 tÐke sth Wi th Ð 5uddÕß movemÕnt
i l ÕÐd /hÕd/ l hÕÐd i ÞÓ sth] to move i n thÕ di rÕáti on
m Õ¿tI O nÕd
àun.lrÛÕl /'p,tml/ to hit sb^th with both of your
á|osÕd hÐnds i fi sLsl
l l Õl ]rt /Ól'l al/ l oß sl.l'/stl r] to nÕÕd sb/sth Ðnd not be Ðb|e
tO Ii VÕ or work propÕr|ã wi thout hi m/hÕr/i t
rÕrÒâai ß /rr'mÕrn/ to staã Or áonti nue i n thÕ 5ÐmÕ
p|Ðáe or áo¿di ti 0n
llr:vÕÐl /âr vi:l/ to mÐke sth know» that WÐs sÕárÕt 0r
ußknown beforÕ
rÞar /rí:/ to mÐkÕ Ð |oud, deep sound: ThÕ Õngines
roÞrÕd,
sáreal ââ /skri:m/ to shout or áry i n Ð l oud hi gh voi áe
beáÐuse ãou Ðre fri ghtÕned or i n pÐi n
se'i t!Õ / sÕtl/ to go Ðnd Ii vÕ permÐnÕnt|ã i n Ð nÕw
á0Untrã, ÐrÕÐ' town, etá: ¼Ðnã immigrÐnts hÐve
sÕtt|Õd in tht5 áountrã.
si Þi Ól /spl n/ to turn or mÐke sth turß round qui ákl y
sl i sàei l d /sÐ sàend/ to stop or de|Ðy sth for Ð ti mÕ:
ln the thÕotrÕ we wi||tnglã suspend disbelieJ
(= tÕmporÐri Iy bÕ|i ÕvÕ thÐt thÕ áhÐrÐátÕrs, Õtá
Ðre rÕÐ|l.
:t*ÐßsàÄrt /t³iÕn.spí:t/ 1 to tÐke sb/sth from onÕ
pi Ðáe to anothÕr i n Ð vehi á|Õ 2 to mÐke sb feÕ| thÐt
hÕ/she i s i n Ð di ffÕrÕnt p|Ðáe, ti me or si tuÐti on: rhe
b1ok trÐnsports ãou to (1nothÕr world. Ótálrln..
I l.Ð l l sl Jo [tJti o ¿
Adjeátives
:i!mazÒ'i g /í,mÕâzâr1/ vÕry surpri si ng and di ffi áuIt to
bÕ|i evÕ; i nárÕdi bl e nOtl Il: ;]l l l.l ZÁ¿l Õ»t
árèáµaµ /'kÓu:Jl/ ÕÅtrÕmÕ|ã i m pOrtÐnt
di saààÞi ßti ng /'dâsí'píântrç/ mÐki ng ãou fÕe| sÐd
bÕáÐU5Õ 5th Was not Ð5 goÞd, i nteresti ng, etá. Ðs
1ou hÐd hopefl' 'L' ' l r| U 'j |
d |5Ð l ] ào l ¿t l l Õ|l I
r³fÕá*i vÕ /l'fÕktry/ suááessfu||y produái ng the rÕsu|t
thÐt ãoU WÐnt notl l t: Õl i eLt
fÕd èp /'³Õd l p/ à.',i th sl -./nh/doi rl g stl l 1 bored or
unhÐppy; tirÕd of sth. l,n Jed uà with wÐiting Jor
thÕ àhoßÕ to rin8.
gigantiá /d3aI gÕntlk/ extremÕ|ã big
*l tµi vi Þès /í,bl rvi ís/ nÞt noti ái ng or rÕÐ|i si ng whÐt i s
hÐppeni ng Ðround you
èri gi na[ /í,râd3Þnl/ nÕw Ðnd i ntÕrÕsti ng, di fferent
frÞm other5 of i ts type ]l Þt]|l: O³ g]l l Ð
álÒl{±"agÕÄLis /aÞt'rÕld3ís/ thÐt mÐkes you vÕrã Ðngry
or shoáked
ælÞêvÕ;.fu:! /'paoífl/ hÐving Ð |ot of áontroI or
i nfl uÕnáe ovÕr other peop|Õ tl tl Lttl: pál t.,l,áÓ
.reaµi sttá /'ri:í'hstrk/ sÕßsi bIe and undÕrstÐndi ng
whÐt i t i s possi bl e to Ðáhi ÕvÕ i n Ð pÐrti áU|Ðr
si tuati on
!'Õjuát:.,]J,li{ /rI l,tktínt/ nOt Wanting to d0 sth beáÐUsÕ
you are »ot sure i t i s the ri ght thi ng to do
speátaáuIar /sàÕk t8kjílí/ Verã imprÕssive to seÕ
noun: speátÐá|Õ
supernaturaI / su:pí'nat.[ríl/ thÐt áannOt l]e
exp|ÐinÕd by thÕ |Ðws of sáiÕnáÕ: supernaturll
hÐppenings in thÕ gravÕãard
terrifying /'tÕrrfaßç/ vÕry frightening noun: terror
uneasã /,tn'i:zil worried; not fÕÕ|ing rÕlÐxed or
áomfo rtÐ b|Õ
unwi Il i ng /l n,wIhÆ/ not WÐnti ng to do sth but oftÕn
foráÕd to do i t bã other pÕopl e
vitaI /.valtl/ vÕry importÐnt or nÕáÕ55Ðrã
Adverhs
ÐbsoluteIy / îbsílu:t1il áomp|ete|y; tota||y
áonsiderably /kín'sIdíríbli/ muáh, Ð |ot
extrÕmeIy /rk'stri:mli/ vÕry
tait|ã l'feíl,il qUitÕ; to somÕ ÕxtÕnt
highIy /'haâli/ to Ð high degree; vÕry
rather /'ro:Ñí/ qui te; tO some ÕÅtent
sIightIy /'slaItli/ Ð litt|e
tru|y /'tru:l i/ (used to emphÐsi se Ð fÕeIi ng,
stÐtÕmÕnt) rÕÐ| |y; áompl ete|ã
l di oms
a áhange of heart Ð áhÐnge i n your opi ni on or thÕ
way thÐt you fÕÕI
áhangÕ your mi nd l o áhÐnge vour opi ni on or
dÕái si 0n ÐboUt sb/sth
for a stÐrt used to emphasise your first rÕason for
s|h: .Whã áÐn't we 8o on holidÐã?, .WÕ|l' for a start
we áÐn,t aJford it.,
have Ð good mind to do sth used to SÐy that ãou
thi nk ãou wi || do sth, Ðl though you ÐrÕ not sUre
have a good/bad, et(. time to enjoã/not Õnjoy, Õtá.
ãoursÕ|f doi ng sth
have it both wÐys to hÐve thÕ ÐdvaniÐges of two
di ffÕrÕnt si tuÐti ons or WÐys of bÕhÐVi ng thÐt ÐrÕ
i mpossi b|e to áombi nÕ: You áan't hÐve i t both
wÐãs. lf ãou áÐn Ðfford to go out ÐlI thÕ timÕ, ãou
áÐn ÐJford to pÞã ofJ ãour debts.
i n addi ti on Ðs we|| Ðs
be i n tunÕ (wi th sb/sth) to bÕ i n ÐgreÕmÕnt wi th
sb/sth; to hÐvÕ thÕ sÐme opi ni ons, fÕÕl i ngs, Õtá. Ðs
sbAth
Ieave a mark on sb to hÐVÕ Ðn effÕát ihÐt pÕop|Õ
wi|| notiáÕ Ðnd remembÕr: âhÕ timÕ hÕ spÕnt in
prison lÕJt its mÞrk on him.
Ii ve Ð l i ttl e to enj oã a|| thÕ opportuni ti e5 of Ii fe ful Iy:
I want to live 0 little bet'ore settling down Ðnd
gÕtting mÐrriÕd.
take sb's word for it to beIievÕ WhÐt sb sÐys Without
Ðnã proof
Phrasal vÕrbs
hase sth on sth to use Ðn idÕÐ, Ð faát, Ð situÐtion, etá
as thÕ poi nt from whi áh sth áan bÕ dÕve|opÕd: IhÌ
Jilm is bÐsed on a truÕ storã.
bIow (sbisth) up to ÕxpIodÕ or bÕ dÕstroãÕd in Ðn
explosion: ÂhÕ áÞr blÕw up whÕn thÕ door wos
openÕd.
give sth/sÌ awÐy to shoW 0r tÕ|| the truth Ðbout
nhAb whiáh WÐs sÕárÕt: l don't \4/Ðnt to sÕÕ thÕ
movie now that ãou'ãÕ given the Õnding ÐwÞã.
have sth out (with sb) to trã to sÕtt|e Ðn argumÕnt bã
di sáussi ng or Ðrgui ng Ðbout i t open|ã
sum (sth) up tÞ dÕsári be i n Ð fÕw words thÕ mai n
idÕÐs of whÐt sb hÐs sÐid or writtÕn: âo sum up,
IhÕrÕ ÐtÕ thrÕÕ oàIions hÕrÕ' ' '.
tÐke off (usÕd Ðbout Ðn ÐirárÐft) to |ÕÐvÕ thÕ ground
Uni t 8
Nouns
aIarm /í l o:m/ [U] Ð sudden feÕl i ng of fÕÐr or worrã
appliáant /':Õphkínt/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who mÐkÕs Ð
formÐl rÕquÕst for sth (Ðppl i Õs tor sth), ÕspÕái a||y
for Ð j ob, Ð p|ÐáÕ Ðt Ð áo||egÕ, Uni vÕrsi ty, Õtá.
appIiáation / ÐÕph'kÕl.[n/ [Á] formÐ| writtÕn rÕquÕst,
Õspeái Ð||ã for Ð j ob or Ð p|Ðáe i n Ð sáhoo|, á|ub, etá:
Ðn ÐppliáÐtion form
aptitude / :íptItju:d/ [á] (for sth) a nÐturÐ| Ðbility or
ski l l
áonáern /kín's×:n/ [Á,U] Ð fÕe|i ng of Worrã; sth that
áausÕs Worry
áountryside / kÔntrisard/ [U, sing] thÕ lÐnd whiáh is
ÐwÐy from towns Ðnd ái ti Õs, whÕrÕ therÕ ÐrÕ fi Õl ds,
woods, etá.
eÐvesdroppÕr /i:vzdropel [Á] somÕonÕ who sÕáretly
Ii 5|Õns to WhdI ol her pÕopIe Ðre ìÐ1 i ng
e.book / i:buk/ [á] Ðn Õ|Õátroniá book, novÕ|, Õtá.
enquirã /m'kwaIíri/ [Á] Ð question thÐt ãoU ask
Ðbout sth: PoliáÕ hÐve been making Õnquiries into
thÕ wo m 0 n,s d isÐ p pÕÐ rÐ náÕ'
eåpedition /'Õkspí'dr.[n/ [Á] Ð |ong journey for Ð
spÕá|Ð| pUrposÕ
|ear l³îl [Á] Ð fÕÕling of bÕing afrÐid of sb/sth
firewaIl / ³aIíwí:l/ [á] Ð áompUtÕr progrÐm thÐt is
dÕsi gned tO proteát thÕ i nformÐti on stored on thÕ
áomputÕr
host /hí<;st/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who invitÕs guests to
hi s/hÕr housÕ, etá, and provi dÕs thÕm wi th food,
dri nk, etá.
inquest /'lçkwest/ [Á] an offiáiÐl proáÕSS thÐt trieS to
fi nd out how sb di Õd
i ssue /'r.[u:/ [Á] Ð prob|Õm or subj Õát for di sáussi on
job satisfaátion / d3Þb sÐÕtIs,firkJn/ [U] the fÕÕling
of pIeÐsurÕ that ãOU gÕt from doi ng your j ob wÕ|l
or Ðáhi Õvi ng WhÐt you Want
light /lalt/ 1 [U,á] the ÕnÕrgy or brightnÕss thÐt thÕrÕ
i s from the sun, Ð |Ðmp, etá. 2 sol nÕthi n8 thÐt
produáes Ii ght, for eåÐmpl Õ an eIeátri á |Ðmp
Ii ghti ng / l al tl ç/ [U] thÕ quÐ|i ty or typÕ of Ii ghts usÕd
in Ð room, bui|ding, eIá.: sÕáuritã Iighting
maternity |eave /mí't×:níti li:v/ [U] the pÕriod of
ti mÕ whÕn Ð WomÐn i s away from her work i n
ordÕr to hÐvÕ a babã: to go on/tÐkÕ mÐtÕrnitã
|ÕÞvÕ
meÐsure /.mÕ3í/ [Á] Ðn Ðáti on thÐt i s done for Ð
spÕá|aI rÕÐson
might /maIt/ [U] greÐt strength or powÕr
(the) Milky Waã /.mIlki: wÕr/ [sing] the system of
stÐrs thÐt áontÐi ns our sun Ðnd i ts p|ÐnÕts, sÕÕn Ðs
Ð bri ght bÐnd i n thÕ ni ght sky
model /'modl/ [Á] a áopy of sth, usuÐ|l y sma||Õr thÐn
thÕ originÐl: Ð modÕl rÞilwÐã/villÐge
nÐture / nei tj í/ [U] Ð|| thÕ p|Ðnts, Ðni ma|s, Õtá. i n
the uni vÕrse Ðnd Ðl l the thi ngs thÐt happÕn i n i t
thÐt are nOt mÐdÕ or áÐusÕd by pÕopl Õ
peráentÐge /pí sÕntâd3/ [Á] thÕ numbÕr, Ðmount,
rÐtÕ, Õtá. of sth, ÕÅprÕssed as if it is pÐrt of Ð totÐl
whi áh i s Ð hundrÕd; Ð pÐrt or shÐrÕ of Ð who|Õ
pÕrsonaI statÕmÕnt / p×:sínl stÕltmínt/ [Á] a
Ietter áontÐi ni ng ÕåtrÐ i nformÐti on about yoursÕ|f
thÐt yoU 5Õnd wi th Ð j ob Ðppl i áÐti on
pole /píol/ [Á] eithÕr of thÕ two points Ðt the eÅaát
top Ðnd bottom Of thÕ eÐrth: thÕ North/south PolÕ
proportion /prí'pc:Jn/ [U] (of sth to 5th) Ð pÐrt or
shÐrÕ of Ð who|e: ° lÐrge proportion of thÕ Õarth,s
surJÐáe is áovered bã seÐ.
reáord / rekí:d/ [Á] (of sth) Ð WrittÕn Ðáá0unt of What
hÐs happened, been donÕ, e|á: The áompÞnã hÐs
an ÕåáÕllÕnt sÐIetã rÕáord.
refÕrenáe /'rÕfríns/ [Á] Ð stÐtemÕnt or |ÕttÕr
dÕsári bi ng Ð pÕrson,s áhÐrÐátÕr or abi l i ty thÐt i s
givÕn to Ð possibIe future Õmp|oãer: l hÐd to
supplã two ret'erÕnáÕs bÕJore theã gavÕ mÕ thÕ job.
retirement /rl'talírnínt/ [U] the Ðát of stopping
working permÐnÕn||ã: I dÕáided to tÐkÕ ÕÐrly
retirÕmÕnt (- to stop Work ÕÐr|ier thÐn you nÕÕd
to).
spaáe /spÕIs/ 1 [Á' U] Ð pIÐáÕ or Ðn arÕÐ that is not
Òed ls there Õnough spÐáÕ for mÕ to pÐrk thÕrÕ?
2 [U] thÕ ÐrÕÐ whi áh surrounds the p|ÐnÕt µÐrth
Ðnd othÕr p|Ðnets Ðnd stÐrs: spÐáÕ trÐVeI
term /t×:m/ [Á] 1 Ð word or grÞup of words with Ð
pÐrti áuIÐr mÕÐni ng 2 Ð pÕri od of ti me i nto whi áh Ð
sáhooI or uni versi tã yÕÐr i s di vi dÕd
trek /tâÕk/ [Á] Ð long hÐrd wÐ|k, |Ðsting sevÕraI dÐys
or weeks' uìuÐ||ã i n Ihe moun|Ði nq
(the) unknown /.,tn níÞn/ [sing] Ð p|ÐáÕ or thing
thÐt ãou know nothi ng about
Verbs
advertise /'Ðedvíta¿l Io puI informÐtion in Ð
nÕWspÐpÕr, on tÕ|evi si on, on Ð pi áturÕ 0n thÕ WÐ||,
Õtá. i n ordÕr to pÕrsuÐdÕ pÕop|e to buy sth, to
i nterÕst thÕm i n Ð new.j ob, etá.
Ðffeát /í fekt/ to mÐke sb/sth áhangÕ in Ð pÐrtiáuIar
WÐy; to influenáÕ sb/Sth
appIy /í'p1aâ/ (Ðpp|ã (to sb/sth) for sth) to mÐke Ð
formaI rÕquÕst, usuÐl l y i n wri ti ng, for 5th suáh Ðs Ð
j ob, Ð p|Ðáe dt á0||Õ8Õ. Uni VrrÌi l ã' Õ|r,
bIÐme /ÌlÕIm/ to think or sÐã thÐt sb/sth is
rÕsponsible for sth bÐd: |'!e's alwÐãs b|ÐmÕd her
for thÕ brÕÞkup of thÕir mÐrriÞgÕ. noun: b|ÐmÕ
áause /kc:z/ to mÐke sth hÐppen
dÕstroy /dl'strír/ to damÐgÕ sth so bÐdIy thÐt it áÐn
no IongÕr bÕ used or no IongÕr exi sts
earn /×:n/ to gÕt monÕy by working: to eÐrn Ð high
5ola rã
enáIose /rn'klíozl Io pUI sth in thÕ 5ame envelopÕ,
pÐákÐgÕ, etá. Ðs sth e|sÕ: PlÕasÕ rÕturn thÕ
áonplÕtÕd Jorm, enálosing Ð rÕáent photograph.
exeáutÕ (progrÐmä /'ÕksIk.ju:t/ to perform Ð task
expose /rk'spít'l z/ to show sth thÐt i 5 usuÐ||ã hi ddÕn;
to te|l sth thÐt hÐ5 bÕÕn kÕpt sÕárÕt
gain /gern/ to grÐduÐlly gÕt more of sth to gÐin
áo nfi d Õ n áÕ/strÕ n gth /ÕåpÕ r i Õ n áÕ
ináorporatÕ /rn,kí:pírÕt/ to mÐkÕ sth Ð pÐrt 0f 5th
ÕlsÕ; to hÐve sth as a part
isolate /.alsílÕIt/ to pUt or keep sb/sth sÕpÐrÐte from
other peopl Õ or thi ngs
motivate / mír-itIvÕrt/ [sb to dÞ sth) to áÐUsÕ sb to
Ðát i n Ð pÐrti áU|Ðr WÐã
partiáipate /po:'trsrpÕrt/ (in sth) to takÕ pÐrt or
beáome i nvo|vÕd i n sth
plan /plîn/ 1 to deáidÕ, orgÐnizÕ or prepÐrÕ for sth
yoU WÐnt to do i n l he futurÕ 2 to i ntÕnd or eåpeát
to do sth 3 to mÐkÕ a dÕsi gn or Ðn out|i nÕ for sth
priÞritise lpral'êâetalzl Io put tasks, prob|Õms, etá.
i n ordÕr of i mportÐnáÕ' so that you áÐn deÐ| wi th
thÕ most importÐnt first
pursue /pí'sju:/ to do sth or try to ÐáhiÕvÕ sth oVÕr Ð
period of time: She wishes to pursue Þ mediáÐl
áarÕÕr.
reáruit /rr'kru:t/ to find nÕW pÕop|Õ to join Ð
áompÐny, Ðn orgÐni sÐti on, the ÐrmÕd foráÕs, Õtá.
rÕduáe /rr dju:s/ to mÐkÕ sth |Õss or smÐ||Õr in
qUÐnti ty, pri áÕ, si ze, Õtá.
request /rr kwest/ to formÐ|lã Ðsk for sth
ffi
Ä
s}íeá,tliatÕ /,spÕkjulÕrt/ 1 to form Ðß opinion about
sth Wi thout kßowi ßg Ð|| the dÕtÐi |5 or fÐáts 2 to bUy
gOods, propÕrty' shÐres, etá' hopi ng to mÐkÕ Ð
protrt whÕn y0U sÕ|| thÕm, bUt Wi th thÕ ri sk of
I05|¿g m0neã
stalxd /st8nd/ ,1 to bÕ oÛ your feÕt' to bÕ in Ð vertiáÐ|
posi ti on 2 to be i n Ð pÐrti áU|Ðr p|ÐáÕ: Âhe áÐstl Õ
5tÐßds on the si te of Ðn Ðnái Õnt bÐtt|Õfi Õ|d. 3 used
Õspeái Ð||y wi th áÐßi áoLl á] to say thÐt sl í/sth áÐn
5urVi Ve sth or toIerÐtÕ sb/sth wi thout bei ng hurt or
dÐmÐged in ÐÛã wÐy: |1ls hÕ0rt áaß,t stand thÕ
strÞin for muáh |ongÕr.
sèpài ã /sÐ,àl at/ t0 provi dÕ sb/sth wi th sth thÐt they
neÕd or Wпt: tÞ suppIy Ð rÕtÕrenáÕ
traà /tr:rp/ to kÕÕp sb i n Ð dangÕrous p|ÐáÕ or Ð bÐd
si tuÐti oß from whi áh he/shÕ áÐnnOt ÕsáÐpÕ
èmlÕash / nn li:'[/ to |Õt |oose Ð strong foráe thÐt hÐS
Ðn ÕffÕát, usuÐJIy unp|ÕÐsÐnt
vÐmi sFÒ / vÐÕnr.[/ to di sÐppeÐr suddÕni y or i n Ð wÐy
thÐt you áÐnnot Õåp|Ðl n
AdjÕátivÕs
aìrtivirèg /ÐÕnti vairís/ Ð progrÐm thÐt protÕáts Ð
á0mpUter ÐgÐi n5t i n5trUáti O»s desi gnÕd to áÐusÕ
tÐUIts or destroã dÐtÐ
áÄãmtr}èter.iiterÐie /kím pju:tí lrtíÓít/ Ðb|e to usÕ
Ð á0mputÕr
liÄè.]\ylÕèÙÄ5·t /kín vi:niínt/ suitÐb]e or prÐátiáÐI for Ð
pÐrti áU|Ðr pUrposÕ; not áÐusi ng di ffi ául tã
áèl,t'l'ièáed l,kín vInst/ áomp|ÕtÕ|y surÕ Ðbout sth
rfl eátc.oni á /r.l Õk tâpnl k/ hÐvi ng or usi ng mÐny smÐ||
àÐrts, suáh Ðs mi ároáhi ps, thÐt á0ntro| Ðnd di reát Ð
smÐ|| Õ|Õátriá áUrÓÕnt: all eleátroniá áÞ|áu|Þtor
flig8ât /lalt/ not hÕÐvy
,têÐ!ÕvÞiÕnt /mí lÕvílínt/ hÐving or showing Ð
dÕsi rÕ or tÕ»dÕ»áy to hÐrm
Ätlti'trÐ!,t! isigß' /'aÞtu,íd sarn/ (on|ã bÕt'orÕ a noun)
0n thÕ 0Utsi de
i íÞl ar /.píol í/ of or neÐr the North or South Po|Õ
redunái Ðßt /Ól'dl ndínt/ (usÕd Ðbout ÕmpJoyees) no
l ongÕr nÕÕded for Ð j ob Ðnd thÕrefore oUt Of WOrk:
·0 mÕmbÕrâ of stÐJf hÐvÕ bÕen mÐde rÕdundÐnt
sfl mÐrt i ph¾¿Õ] /,smo:t ³íon/ á|ever, i nte||i gÕnt
ïÞpi ri sti áated /sí.fi stIkÕItl d/ ÐdvÐnáÕd Ðnd
áo m pI iáÐtÕd
vè!neyÐhi e / vl l níríbl/ wÕÐk Ðnd Õasy to hurt
Adverbs
áecÒ,reP,itfl!{ / kÔríntli/ Ðt prÕ5Õnt, Ðt thÕ momÕnt
l di oms
Þè hÐurd ÐvÐi|ÐblÕ, ÕspÕáiÐ||y Io he|p: µmergenáã
serviáÕs wÕrÕ on hand with mediárll ÐdviáÕ.
hÕ àoµÕs б0aÓ.t to bÕ wi del y sÕpÐrÐted; to hÐvÕ no
interÕsts thÐt you shÐrÕ: ½er own Jriends were
polÕs Þport from his'
Phrasal vÕrbs
á4Ò,!!Õ èB! êvith sth to tind Ðn Ðnswer or Ð so|ution tÞ
sIh: µnginÕÕrs hÐve áome up with nÕw wÞãs of
savlßg enÕrgã.
|éok fÞrwÐÒ"t[ tÞ sifl×iáio!mg ït!â to WÐit with p|ÕÐsurÕ
for sth tÞ hÐppen: / Iook forwÐrd to hÕÐring Jrom
ãou.
'i a!ïe sth ol à t0 stÐrt or begi n nh suáh Ðs Ð nÕw j ob:
ShÕ took up thÕ post lÐst wÕek'
Uni t 9
Nouns
.'strÄftÄElilÕÒ"/í strnnÐmí/ [Á] Ð pÕrson who studiÕs
Ð5trO norny
|hreed /bâi:d/ [Á] Ð pÐrti áu|Ðr vÐri Õtã of Ðßi mÐ|: a
rÐrÕ breÕd of áÞtt|Õ
r:Ðfu /kÕb/ [Á] Ð taåi; ½Õ drivÕs Ð blÐák áÐb in
London.
áèntáep.t /,kÞnsÕpt/ [á] Ðn i deÐ; Ð bÐsi á pri nái pIe: /I
is difJiáu|t to grlsp thÕ áonáÕpt of etÕrnitã,
áußì×e(tiÞß,a /kí ßÕk.[ß/ |Á] Ðn ÐssoáiÐtioÛ or
rÕ|Ðti onshi p betweÕn two or morÕ peop|Õ or thi ngs
ár:mitelrâ /'kÞntÕkst/, [Á] the situÐtion in whiáh sth
hÐppÕßs or thÐt áÐuses sth to hÐppÕn: ½i s dÕái si on
áÐß onlã bÕ understood in áontÕåt'
áÞãlÕla,tiou,l /'1rÞrí'lÕI.[ß/ [Á] Ð áonnÕátton between
two thi ngs i n whi áh onÕ thi ng áhÐngÕs Ð5 the othÕr
áloes.. ÂherÕ is Ð dirÕát áorrelÐtion bÕt|,ãÕÕn
ÕåàosurÕ t¾ thÕ sUn Ðßd skin áÐnáer.
fÄrtl»me / fí:t.[u:n/ |Á] Ð vÕrã lÐrgÕ ÐmoUnt Of
m0nÕã: /fe mode o fortune on thÕ stoák m(]rkÕt.
hiààÞáÐlttàès /'hIpí kÕmpís/ |Á] (tÕáhniáÐl) Õither
of the t\,vo areÐs of the brÐi n thÞught tO bÕ the
áentrÕ ot emoti 0n Ðnd memory
krÐÞrvi Õáµge / no1rd3/ [U] i nformÐti on, understÐndi ng
Ðnd ski ||s thÐt yÞu hÐve gÐi nÕd through |ÕÐrni ng or
ÕÅper|ÕnáÕ Ðál j á:ái i r,á' kßÞrl 1ÕdgÕÐl l JÕ
Jálm3 itetllß;t ti1Õ!l]ÄrT / 1oæ t×:m .mÕnlíri/ [á] pÐrt of
thÕ brÐi n whÕrÕ mÕmori es ÐrÕ stored
áÒâgitèá!Õ /lÞnd3ltu:d/ [U] thÕ distÐnáÕ of Ð p|ÐáÕ
ÕÐst or WÕst of Ð |i nÕ from thÕ North Po|Õ to thÕ
South Po|e thÐt àÐssÕs through Greenwi áh i n
London. Longi tudÕ i s meÐsured i n dÕgreÕs.
ßnelxrá]rY /'mÕmíâi/ [Á,U] Ð pÕrson's ÐbiIitã to
rÕmÕmbÕr thi ng5
:'l ÞërÐ. mí:t| [t ] a humÐn bei ng
marliµaitioll /,niÕvl gÕrJn,/ [U] 1 thÕ Ðát of using Ð
mÐp, Õtá to fi nd ãour WÐy tO somÕWhÕrÕ 2 the Ðát
of sÐi Ii ng Ð boÐt Ð|oÛg Ð ri ver or Ðáross Ð seÐ
Þàà*rtèni¡.ql /'Þpí tju:níti/ [Á] Ð áhÐnáÕ to do sth
thÐt ãoU WoUId Ii kÕ to do, Ð si tuÐti on or Ð ti mÕ i n
whi áh i t i s possi b|e to do sth thÐt you wou|d l i kÕ to
do: I have Ð golden opportunitã to 8o to °mÕriáÐ
now that mã sistÕr livÕs thÕrÕ
rÐmge /relnd5/ |Á] Ð vÐriÕtã of things thÐt be|ong to
the sÐme group: Ihls shoà hÐs Ð widÕ rÐnge of
á|othes.
rÕseÐráhÕr /rr s×:tJí/ [Á] Ð pÕÓson who studi es Ð
sub1Õát áÐrÕfu||y, espeái Ð||y i n ordÕr t0 di sáovÕr
ncæ JÐtl l or i nIo.mÐti on Ðbouâ i t
t.i vÐ0 / raIvl/ [Á] Ð person or thi ng thÐt i s áompeti ng
wtth you
shi àwreák /JrprÕk/ [á,U] Ðß Ðáái dÕÛt Ðt sÕÐ i n whi áh
Ð shi p i s destroãÕd by Ð storm' roáks, Õtá Ðnd si nks
sèt×jeát /'s,tbd3Ikt; 'slbd3Õkt/ [Á] Ðn ÐreÐ of
know|ÕdgÕ studi Õd i n Ð sáhoo|' áo||ÕgÕ, Õtá.
th@!'qg|âi i /0J:t/ [Á] Ðß i dÕÐ or opi ni on Ðdi Õáti vá:
I l l Þ Ll gh I l Ll
i v$i st /tw]st/ |Á] Ðn unÕxpÕátÕd áhÐnge or
devÕ|opmÕnt i n Ð story or si tuÐti on
wi st!Þï';t / l vIzdím/ [U] the Ðbi Ii ty to mÐkÕ sÕnsi b]Õ
dÕái si ons Ðnd j udgÕmÕnts beáÐusÕ of ãour
know|Õdge or Õåperi ÕnáÕ
flloPr!{i!âg !,}!rm!sf.ã / rv×:kIæ ,mÕmíÓi/ |Á, U] àÐrt of
thÕ brÐi n thÐt storÕ5 i nformÐti oß for Ð short ti mÕ
Verbs
:ili0jl]liÓ"Õ /í'k\\lalí/ to obtÐin or buy sth
assL.,tn×á /í sju:m/ to Ðááept or bÕiiÕvÕ thÐt sth i5 trUe
ÕvÕn though ãou hÐve no proof; to ÕåpÕát 5th to bÕ
true
;l l Õ't /bi:t/ to defeÐt sb; to bÕ bÕtter thÐn sb: He
a|1,ã0ãs beÐts me 0t tÕnßis.
!:i].lliáÕin:tralt /'konsntrÕlt/ to givÕ ÐlI your Ðttention
or Õffort to sth ßÞLl l l: áOl l (Õ 11-.]ti ¾¿
á.l èTèsÕ /kín'1j u:z/ to mÐkÕ sb unÐb|e to thi nk
ál ÕÐr|y or to k»0W WhÐt to do rl ÞLr l: áotl fLt-çi Þß'
Ðá]]Õát vÕ: áÞßtLtsi tl.q
i tm;l gi i âe /I,mi ád3rn/ to form Ð pi áturÕ or i deÐ i n your
mi nd of whÐt sth/sb mi ght be Ii ke ßÞLl rl:
',', |l'' n' ' ],''|r |³ l g ' ',
.0ir]'i|à*rfĵ:r] / aUtpí'lÊ:m/ to ÐáhiÕve bÕttÕr results
thÐ ß sb/sth
pÕáfl t /àÕk/ (usÕd Ðbout Ð bi rd) to eÐt or bi tÕ sth Wi th
i ts beÐk
ÓrÕ.âÕail /r.r vi:l/ to mÐke sth known thÐt WÐs seárÕt OI
unknown bÕforÕ
"'ÕrryarÓl /rr wí:d/ isll W tlr \th] to givÕ sth to sb
bÕáÐusÕ he/she hÐs done sth good' worked hÐrd,
Õtá.
tel l ] /tÕ1/ to di sti ngui sh onÕ thi ng or person from
Ðnother: áZ?Û ãou tell the differenáe between thÕ
two versions?
.tÕr×ál /tÕnd/ to usuÐ|l ã do or bÕ sth
Adjeátives
áomÔ×!i áarl ed / knmpl rkÕrtrd/ di ffi áuIt to undÕrstÐnd
Þr dÕÐi wi th
t.:Þ..l[èsed /kín fiu:zdl not Ðb|Õ to thiÛk á|ÕÐrlã
ti aft i do:fl/ si l l y; fool i sh
olLænl|æ /d,tm/ not intÕ |igent; stupid
fÐlircqès /,³Õrmís/ ifoÓ sLhl WÕ|l known to mÐnã
peo p|Õ
gè[!i ti ×i e /'q,tl íbl/ (usÕd Ðbout Ð pÕrson) bel i Õvi ng
Ðnd trU5ti ng peop|Õ too ÕÐsi l y, Ðnd thÕrÕfore eÐsi |ã
triáked
j,i.ÕgÐ]triii.je / nÕgítlv/ áonsidÕring onlã thÕ bÐd sidÕ of
sth/sb' |Ðáki ng enthusi Ðsm or hope
t,amái]Þ:m /rÕndím/ áhosÕn by áhÐnáÕ
rarÕ /rÕí/ not done, sÕÕn, hÐppÕni ng' Õtá. VÕrã oftÕn
si gèi $.i áamt /sIg nr³l kínt/ i mportÐnt oÓ |Ðrge Õnough
to bÕ noti áÕd
stl arf]i mg / sto:tl I!/ ÕxtrÕme|ã unusuÐ| Ðnd
su rprising: Þ stÐ ßl i n g áon trÐst/d i sáovÕrã
gur.rÕaµ /sí Ói:íl/ vÕry strÐngÕ; wi th i mÐgÕs mi åÕd
togÕthÕr i n Ð strг]gÕ wÐã as i n Ð dreÐm
âi v!rj /.vl r,Id/ hÐvi ng or produái ng Ð strong, áIÕÐr
p]átUrÕ i n your mi nd
AdvÕrbs
tieÐÓj /dÕd/ áomp|Õte|ã, ÕÅÐát|ã 0r VÕrã: ThÕ |lIm wÞs
deÐd boring.
rÕl sÕ.èl hÕ:,Õ /'Õl s wÕí/ i n or t0 ÐnothÕr p|Ðáe
i Ll ii rÓÒa tÕ iii / mtßrrítli/ á| osÕIã -, i n t i m Ð te l ã
áonneátÕd/| i n ked
t'áàÕaLtÕÕi |y /râ'pi:tIdl i/ mÐnã ti mÕs; Ðgai ß Ðnd Ðgai ß
@
l di oms
: , :.ái dÕnt i n Ð rvay thÐt i s noi p|aßned or
..: . sÕd: We mÕt bã ÞááidÕnt at thÕ aIràort
:: i. áontest usÕd t0 sÐYthat onÕ si de i n Ð
.. r.i i ti Þn i s so muáh strongÕr or bÕttÕr thп thÕ
..l âhÐt i t i s surÕ to wi n ÕÐsi l ã
::'t l n thÕ |east not at a||: |t doesn't m(l ttÕr In the
:: ^Õ i t out on sb to bÕhÐvÕ bÐd|ã towÐrds sD
j ÕáÐUsÕ yoU arÕ Ðngry or upsÕt about sth
Phrasal vÕrbs
áarrã out sth to do a task, Ð rÕpair, Õ|á.. to áa|rã out
tÕsts/an invest!gaßon
×i Ye sth up/gi ve up doi ng sth to stOp doi ng sth thÐt
rou did regu|Ðrly Ìetore: She gÐve up work to start
Ð fÞmi|ã.
take Ðfter sb to l ook or behÐvÕ l i kÕ Ðn oIdÕr
membÕr of ãour familã, espÕáiÐ|ly a parÕnl. JamÕs
tÐkÕ| aJter his JÐthÕr.
takÕ sth baák to Ðdmi t thÐt sth ãoU sÐi d WÐs Wrong:
Youd bÕttÕr tÐkÕ bÐák what ãou sÐid Ðbout mã
áooking!
tÐke sth i n to understÐnd what ãou sÕe, hÕÐr or rÕÐd:
I was toÞ ti|Õd to take in what shÕ was saãlng.
take sth on to Ðááept Ð rÕsponsi bi Ii tã or dÕái dÕ to do
sih.. ½Õ's takÕn on Þ lot of eåtrÐ work.
take to sb stÐrt liking sblslh: t didn,t takÕ to KÐtÕ's
nÕw boãfriÕnd at Ð|l.
work sth out 1 to find thÕ ÐnswÕr to sth; to soIve
slh: | áan't work out how to do this.2 Io áÐ|áUlatÕ
sih: I worked out the total áost.
Uni t 10
Nouns
aátress /'zÕktrís/ [Á] Ð womÐn whose job is t0 Ðát In
Ð pl Ðy or fi |m or on tÕ|Õvi si oß
arranged marriÐge /í,rÕrnd3d marâd3/ [Á] Ð
mÐrri ÐgÕ i ß whi áh thÕ pÐrents áhoose the husbÐnd
Þr wi fÕ for thÕi r áhi l d
buII /Ìol/ [Á] Ðn ÐduIt mÐ|Õ of the áow fÐmi l ã
álown /klaon/ [Á] Ð pÕrson Who WÕÐrs fUnnã á|othÕ5
anál Ð bi g red nosÕ Ðnd does si l l y thi ngs to make
peopl Õ l Ðugh, ÕspÕái Ð||y áhi l dren
áouple / klp1/ [Á] two pÕOplÕ Who arÕ togethÕr
bÕáause thÕã Ðre mÐrri Õd or i n a re|ati onshi p: a
mÐrriÕd áouplÕ
áourtship /'kc:tJâp/ [Á] thÕ rÕ|ationship betwÕÕn Ð
mÐn Ðnd a Woman bÕfore they get mÐrr|Õd
áow /kao/ [Á] Ð |ÐrgÕ fÕmÐ|Õ Ðni mÐ| thÐt i s kÕpt on
farms to produáÕ mi l k
divide /dl'vaâd/ [Á, usu sing] Ð diffÕrÕnáÕ bÕtween
two group5 of peopl e thÐt sÕpÐrÐtÕs them from
eÐáh othÕr
doubt /daot/ [U] unáÕrtÐinty: ThÕrÕ,s no doubt thÐt
JÐn witl ring when shÕ's rÕÐdã.
fame /fÕl m/ [U] bÕi ng known or tÐ|kÕd Ðbout bã
manã pÕopl Õ beáÐuse of WhÐt you hÐvÕ Ðáhi ÕvÕd
figure /,³Igí/ [Á] Ð wÕll-known or Ðn Important
pÕrson: d kÕã figurÕ in thÕ storã
gri nd /graInd/ [si ng] an Ðáti vi ty thÐt i s ti ri ng Ðnd
boring Ðnd thÐt tÐkes Ð |ot of timÕ: the dÐi|ã grind
habit /'hÐÕbrt/ [Á] somÕthing that ãoU d0 oftÕn Ðnd
al most Wi thout thi nki ng, espeái Ð||y sth that i s hÐrd
to stop doing: Don't mokÕ o hÐbit oJ áomtng
h¾mÕ so latÕ.
hÕro / htíríu/ [Á] Ð person who i s Ðdmi red,
Õspeái al l ã for havi ng done sth di ffi áuIt or good
heroi ne /'heríÞân/ [Á] Ð womÐn who i s admi rÕd,
ÕspÕái Ð|l ã for hÐvi ng donÕ sth di ffi ául t or good
inteIIigenáe /m'tÕ1rd5íns/ [U] the Ðbility to
understÐnd, l ÕÐrn and thi nk
king /krç/ [Á] (thÕ titIÕ of) a man Who ru|Õs a
áountry. A ki ng i s usual l ã thÕ 5on 0r ál ose rÕl Ðti vÕ
of thÕ formÕr ru|Õr.
knaák /nrík/ [Á] a skill or ÐbiIitã to do sth (diffiáult)
thÐt you hÐve nÐturÐlly or yoU áÐn |earß., You,vÕ
got a rÕal knÐák with thÕ smaIl áhildren.
l i on /.l arín/ [Á] a |Ðrge Ðni mÐ| of the áat fÐmi |y thÐt
l i vÕs i n Afri áÐ Ðnd pÐrts Þf southÕrn °si Ð. N4Ðl e l i Þns
hÐvÕ Ð l argÕ Ðmount of hÐi r Ðround thÕi r hÕÐd Ðnd
nÕáK (Ð mÐne].
Ii oness 'l arínÕs |(] Ð [cmÐ|e Ii on
l i vi ng /'l wâæ/ fsi ng] monÕy to buy thi ngs thÐt you
neÕd in Iife: ½ow does he mÐkÕ Ð living out of
álÕaning thÕ strÕet'?
loãalty /'1ílílti/ [U, Á] Ð strong feÕling thÐt you want
to be loãÐl Io sb: a áÐsÕ oJ dividÕd loãÐIties
(_ with strong feelings of support for two diffÕrÕnt
áausÕs, pÕoàlÕ, Õtá.)
nephÕw /'nÕfiu:/ [Á] thÕ sÞn of your brothÕr or
si stÕr, or thÕ son of ãour husbÐnd.s or wi fÕ.s
brothÕr or sistÕr
nieáe /ni:s/ [Á] the dÐUghtÕr of your brothÕr or sistÕr,
thÕ dÐughtÕr of your husbÐnd's or Wi fÕ.s brothÕr 0r
si StÕr
prináe /prâns/ [Á] Ð son or othÕr á|osÕ mÐlÕ rÕ|ÐtivÕ
of a ki ng or qUÕen
prináess /'prrn'ses/ [Á] Ð dÐughter 0r other á|ose
fÕmÐl e rÕ|Ðti ve Þf Ð ki ng or qUeÕn
quÕen /kwi:n/ [Á] thÕ fÕma|e ru|er of Ð áountry
rÕsearáh /rI s×:tJ/ [U] Ð detÐilÕd and áÐrÕfuI study of
sth to fi nd out morÕ i nformÐti on Ðbout i t
romanáe /ríÞ,mitns/ [Á,U] a |ovÕ ÐffÐir
saárifiáe /'sakrIfars/ [Á] to give Up sth thÐt ls
i mportÐnt or vÐIuÐb|Õ to ãou i n ordÕr to gÕt or do
sth thÐt seÕms morÕ i mportÐnt
shepherd /,JÕpíd/ [á] Ð person whosÕ job is t0 |ook
after shÕÕp
engineer /Õnd3r.nIí/ [Á] Ð person whosÕ job is to
dÕsi gn bui l d or rÕpÐi r Õngtnes, mÐánl nes, Õtá. on Ð
bui l di ng si tÕ
Verbs
áonquer /'koçkí/ to suááeed i n áontrol l i ng or
dÕaIi ng wi th a strong fÕel i ng, probl Õm, etá.
deáeive /dl si:v/ tO trã to mÐkÕ sb bÕlieve 5th thÐt is
noâ truÕ
en(ourage /In'kèId5/ to givÕ hopÕ, sUpport or
áonfidÕnáÕ to sb
ÕnroI /m'reo1/ to bÕáome or to mÐkÕ sb Ð mÕmbÕr
of a álub' sáhool, etá: |,ve enrollÕd on an ltÐItaß
áoursÕ
eåáÕ| /rk'sÕl/ to líÕ verã good Ðt doing sth
fai| /³ÕIl/ to bÕ unsuááÕssful in sth
make /mÕIk/ (sb do sth) to foráÕ sb/sth to do sth:yoU
áÞn't mokÕ hÕr áome with us if shÕ doesn't want to.
promote /prí'míot/ to ÐdvertisÕ sth in ordÕr to
i nárÕÐsÕ i ts sÐ|Õs or mÐke i t popu|Ðr
roáket /'rÞkrt/ to ináreasÕ or rise very quiák|y: Ihey
roákÕted to t'ÐmÕ with thÕ re|ÕasÕ of thÕir first
album.
suááeed /sík si:d/ (i n nh/doi ng sth) tO mÐnÐgÕ to
Ðáhi ÕvÕ whÐt ãÞU Want; tO do WÕ||
Ad!eátives
áonfliáting /kín flIktræ/ (usÕd about two idÕÐs,
bÕl i Õfs, stori es, Õtá.) unÐbl e to Õåi st tOgÕthÕr Or to
bÕ both I ruc: áonfliáting ÕmoLionã
áonfused /kín'³j u:zdl not Ðb|Õ to thi nk ál eÐr|y
di sáerni ng /dr.s×:ßl æ/ Ðb|Õ to rÕáogni sÕ the quaIttã
of sb/sth
fed up /.fÕd l à/ {wi th sb/sth) borÕd or unhÐppy;
tired of sth
j aded /'d3ÕIdrd/ ti rÕd and bored Ðfter doi ßg thÕ
sÐmÕ thi ng for a |ong ti me wi thout Ð brÕÐk
keÕn /ki:n/ (Þn sth) vÕrã i nterestÕd i n sth, WÐntl ng to
do sth
peráÕptive /pí sÕptrv/ quiák to notiáe or understÐnd
th r ngs
siák /sâk/ (Of sb/nh) feeling borÕd or ÐnnoãÕd
bÕáÐuse you hÐvÕ hÐd too mUáh of sb/sth: /,m so
sick of mã job.
surpri sed /sí'prarzd/ feel i ng or showi ng suràri se: /
wÐs surprisÕd bã hÕr reÐátion to thÕ spÕÕáh,
trained /trÕrnd/ hÐving bÕÕn tÐUght to do sth whiáh
wÐs di {fi áu|t or nÕedÕd prÐáti áe
worth /w×:0/ enjoyÐblÕ or usefuI to do or hÐvÕ, ÕvÕn
if it mÕÐns ÕÅtra áost, Õffort' etá.: lt takes a long
time to álimb the hill, but thÕ viÕw Jrom the top is
worth it.
Adverbs
áompared /kím,pÕíd/ (tÞ sb/sth) in áontrÐst Wlth
slí/sth
iolIã /'d×o1i/ (informÞ|) vÕrã:
l di oms
faII i n l ove (l vi th sb) to stÐrt fÕe|i ng Ð strong feÕIi ng
of deÕp Ðffeáti on for sb thÐt yoU ÐrÕ seÅUÐl l ã
ÐttraátÕd t0
lose your mind to go árÐzã
make fun of sb/sth to l Ðugh Ðt sb/sth i n Ðn unki nd
waã: The older áhi|dren ÐrÕ ÐlwÐãs mÞking Jun of
his Þááent
snÐp deái si on Ð deái si on thÐt i s tÐkÕn qui ák|y Ðnd
suddenl ã' oftÕn wi thout Ðny áarÕfuI thoUght
stroke of Iuák Ð single suááessfu| Ðátion or ÕVent: /t
wÞs Ð stroke of luák thÐt | t'ound ãou hÕrÕ!
takÕ advÐntage of sth to mÐke usÕ of sth WÕ||, t0
mÐkÕ usÕ of Ðn 0pp0ri uni tã
turn your baák on sb/sth to refusÕ to bÕ involved
With sb/sth: ½Õ turned his bÐák on his áÐreer and
wÕnt to livÕ in the áountrã.
Phrasal vÕrbs
break up (l vi th sb) to Õßd Ð rÕ|Ðti onshi p wi th sb
ál own around to Ðát i n Ð funny or foÞl i sh wÐã
find sth out to disáover sth
Iook baák (on sth) to thi nk Ðbout sth i ß ãoUr pÐst
l ook through sth to rÕÐd sth qui ák|y
make for sb/sth to movÕ towÐrds sb/sth
make up for sth to do sth thÐt áorreáts Ð bÐd
situÐtion: 11ow áan I mÐke up for the horm l've
done?
opt out (of sth) to áhoose not to tÐkÕ pÐrt in sth; t0
dÕái de to stop bÕi ng i nvo|vÕd i n sth
(Ä
New
Matrlx
A new edition of the áhalIenging seáondarã áourse whiáh
PrePares students for suááess in their sáhool.leaving exams.
Popular features improved and updated
in Óesponse to teaáheÓs'feedbaák:
... thought-pÓovoking topiás and authÕntiá tÕxts
.l. dÕmandi ng matÕÓi a|s to bui l d áonfi dÕnáÕ
cvctemÐti á ñY:m t.^:^i ^ +^^|,^ +i.. ,Ðnd teÓhni ßrrcc
-/ ''-'. .*' ' ' 'l d|| ||||B. á2\d| |I Ld>l\>l L|l -- *''* .-*''' ''.1--.
.:|' gramma³ aátivatÕd thÓough áommuniáativÕ tasks
eÓnnÌ:ci c Þn àffedi rze nÓndr rÓti Þn.
- spÕÐking on a ÓangÕ of invo|ving subjÕáts
_ stÕp-by_stÕp guidanáÕ in wÓlting a vaÓiÕty of tÕxts
.:i. ÓÕgular ÓÕvision and rÕáyá|ing
]::. gÓammar ÓÕfÕÓÕnáÕ
l diáttonaÓy_sty|e woÓdIist
WhatÊ new?
bui Idi ng of kÕy voáabul ary Lo áoVÕÓ thÕ Õxam topi ás i n ÕvÕÓy uni t
in Word foáus
.i', imPÓovÕd gÓammaÓ pÓaátiáÕ |Õssons
ÐddÕd ski||s oraátiáÕ with exam_|ikÕ tasks
ÕnhanáÕd áovÕÓagÕ of áu|tuÓÕ in ÁulturÕ foáus
.''. authÕntiá ÕxtÓaáts fÓom IitÕratuÓÕ rn RÕáding for p|ÕosurÕ
New Matrix
Students Book
WoÓkboo|<
ÂÕaáhÕÓs Boo|<
Á|ass ÁassÕttÕs / Á|ass ÁDs
OXFORD
t/NIvµRsIâY PRµss
oxFoRD µNGrISÝ
tsBN 978-0-1 9-476621 -O
' |lè ll lIlè|ll]|[[èlll|l|
tEÓfi
ffi
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WWW.ouP.áom/Õlt
Автор
kudinova
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