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1
. , . , . ɑ ə ɘə
( ɕ )
ɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɬɪɟɬɶɟ, ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɨɟ ɢ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɟ
ɨɩɭɳɟɧɨ ɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɦ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɮɥɨɬɚ ɢ ɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɨɦ ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɮɥɨɬɚ ɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɨɜɚɧɨ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɨɜɟɬɨɦ ɩɨ ɬɭɪɢɡɦɭ ɐ,
ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɢɬɟɬɨɦ ɢ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɨɜɟɬɨɦ ɚ ɖ --1972
2
ɑɘ........................................................................................................................................................4
.............................................................................................................................................................4
ɕ. ɓ ə
ɥɚɜɚ I. ɕ ə
§ 1. ə ɑə ə ə ɕ
ɕ .........................................................................................................................................6
§ 2. ɑ ɐə ɕ ....................................................6
ɥɚɜɚ II. ɕ § 3. ɕ ə........................................................................................................................7
§ 4. ɐə ɕ ...........................................................................................10
§ 5. ə ɕ ...................................................................12
§ 6. ɐə ................................................................................................................13
. ɥɚɜɚ III. ɑə ɐə
§ 7. ɓ ə ə..................................................................................................15
§ 8. ə ..........................................................................................................19
§ 9. ə ɕ ə...................................................22
§ 10. ɕ ....................................................................................................28
§ 11. ɖ ......................................................................................................31
ɥɚɜɚ IV. ɕ ɕ § 12. ɓ...................................................................................................................................32
§ 13. ɕ......................................................................................................................................................32
§ 14. ɒɘɕ.......................................................................................................................................................33
ɥɚɜɚ V. ə ɐə
§ 15. ə ......................................................................................................................................34
§ 16. ɐ ə ()..................................................................34
ɥɚɜɚ VI. ɐɕ ɕ ə
§ 17. ɐə ɗɕ . ɒ..........................................................................37
§ 18. ɖ .......................................................................................................................38
ɥɚɜɚ VII. ɐə
§ 19. ɕ ə ɐ.............................................................................................39
§ 20. ɑ ɕ .....................................................................................................44
§ 21. ɑ ......................................................................................................................45
§ 22. ɕ ........................................................47
§ 23. ɕ ə ə.............................................................................................................49
§ 24. ɕ ə ɓɖɘ .......................50
§ 25. ............................................................................51
§ 26. .................................51
§ 27. ɓɕ ə ...........................................................................52
ɥɚɜɚ VIII. ɐ ɑ § 28 ɖə .......................................................................................................53
§ 29. ɒə .....................................................................................................54
ɥɚɜɚ IX. ɐɕ ɕ ɕ
§ 30. ɕ ɕ.........................................................................................................................55
§ 31. ɕ ə ə ............................................................................60
§ 32. ɕ ə ɘə ə əə ....................................62
§ 33. ɑɕ ɕ.........................................................................................................63
ɥɚɜɚ X. ɕ § 34. ...........................................................................................................................................................64
§ 35. ...................................................................................................................................66
§ 36. ɕ....................................................................................................................................................68
§ 37. ɑə.....................................................................................................................................................68
§ 38. ɑ ɕ.........................................................................................................69
. ə ɥɚɜɚ XI. ə ɐɕ ɑ § 39. ɐɕ ɑ ɕ ɗɕ ........................................72
§ 40. ɑɖ..............................................................................................................................................72
§ 41. ɑɖ........................................................................................................................................74
§ 42. ɑ..........................................................................................................................................................77
§ 43. əɖ................................................................................................................................77
3
§ 44. ɖ ɐə............................................................................................................................78
§ 45. əɖ.....................................................................................................................................80
§ 46. ɕ, əɘɓ əɖ..................................................................................84
ɥɚɜɚ XII. ɕ ɓə § 47. ..............................................................................................................................87
§ 48. ɕ .........................................................................................................................88
ɥɚɜɚ XIII. ɑɕ ə
§ 49. ɗɕ ə ɕ ...................................................................................................................................................................89
§ 50. ɕ ...............................................................................91
§ 51. əɖ.........................................................................................................................92
§ 52. ɒ ...............................................................................................................................94
§ 53. ɕ ɕ ..........................................................................................................98
§ 54. ɑ ɖɕ ɑ..........................................................99
§ 55. ɒɘ.........................................................................................................................................100
§ 56. ...........................................................................................................................103
§ 57. ...........................................................................................................................................107
§ 58. ə ........................................................................................................................109
§ 59. ɐə ɕ ...................................................................................109
§ 60. ...................111
§ 61. ɖ ...................................................................................................................112
§ 62. ɑ ɐ......................................................................................................119
ɥɚɜɚ XIV. ɖ, ɖ, § 63. ə ɐ................................................................................................123
§ 64. ɕ ɕ.........................................................................................................................127
§ 65. ɖ ...........................................................................................................................130
§ 66. ɕ ɕ ɕ ............................................................................134
ɥɚɜɚ XV. ɕ ə
§ 67. ɓ ə.............................................................................................................................135
§ 68. ɖɕ ɕ ɕ.....................................................................................................136
§ 69. ə ɐə.................................................................................................................139
§ 70. .................................................................................................................................140
§ 71. ɐə .................................................................................142
ɥɚɜɚ XVI. § 72. ɕ .....................................................................................................................143
§ 73. ..........................................................................................................................145
§ 74. ɕ ɕ............................................................................................................................147
§ 75. ɕ ə.............................................................................................................................147
ɥɚɜɚ XVII. ɐə ə ɕ § 76. ɓ ə..................................................................................................................................148
§ 77. ə ɕ ..............................................................................148
§ 78. ɖ ɕ ......................................................................149
§ 79. ɑə ɗɐə ɕ ..............................................................150
ə
ɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 1 ɕ ɓə , I. ɫɥɨɜɧɵɟ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ, ɨɡɟɪɧɵɯ ɢ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɤɚɪɬ.........................................................................152
II. ɫɥɨɜɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɤɚɪɬ ɢ ɤɚɪɬ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ...............................................................................154
III. ɫɥɨɜɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɤɚɪɬ................................................................................................................160
IV ɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɤɚɪɬɚɯ ɰɜɟɬɚ ɨɝɧɟɣ, ɫɜɟɬɹɳɢɯɫɹ .................................................................................165
ɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 2 ɧɚɤɢ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɟ ɢ ɨɡɟɪɟ.......................................166
ɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 3 ɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɨɝɧɢ ɢ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ «ɪɚɜɢɥ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ »................168
ɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 4 ɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ «ɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɦ
ɩɭɬɹɦ »
. ɢɝɧɚɥɵ, ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ (ɧɚ ɯɨɞɭ)....................................................................174
. ɢɝɧɚɥɵ, ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɬɨɹɧɤɢ (ɫɬɨɹɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɵ)..................................................177
ɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 5 ɢɝɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɜ ɩɨɪɬɚɯ.............................................................................................................178
ɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 6 ɥɚɠɧɚɹ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ
ɜɚɪɢɣɧɵɟ ɞɜɭɯɮɥɚɠɧɵɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɵ ɩɨ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɫɜɨɞɭ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ.........................................................179
ɞɧɨɮɥɚɠɧɵɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɵ.......................................................................................................................................180
ɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 7 ɯɟɦɚ ɪɚɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ........................181
4
ɑɘ
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɬ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɟ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɭɬɶ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɢɫɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɵɫɹɱɚɯ
ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɨɜ. ɥɹ ɩɨɯɨɞɨɜ oɧɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɪɟɤɢ, ɨɡɟɪɚ, ɦɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɟ ɪɚɣɨɧɵ ɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɬɶ
ɩɭɬɟɲɟɫɬɜɢɟ ɜ ɧɟɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ. ɬɚɤɢɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɭɦɟɬɶ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ
ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ ɢ ɩɨɪɨɝɢ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɢ, ɨɬɤɭɞɚ ɩɨɞɱɚɫ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɯɨɞ;
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɩɪɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɦ ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɪɟɤɚɦ ɢɥɢ ɤɚɧɚɥɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨ ɛɵɜɚɟɬ
ɨɠɢɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜ; ɭɦɟɬɶ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨxpaɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɢɥɢ ɜ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɜɧɟ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ
ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ; ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨ ɩɪɨɲɥɸɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢ ɧɟ ɪɚɫɬɟɪɹɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɧɨ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɟɦ ɲɤɜɚɥɟ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɭɟɬ (ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬ) ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ-ɩɨɯɨɞɟ
ɜɵɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɧɹ, ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɩɨɦɧɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɟɦɭ ɞɨɜɟɪɟɧɚ ɠɢɡɧɶ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɬɭ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɨɛɹɡɚɧ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɸ, ɭɦɟɬɶ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɤ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɸ
ɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɢɦ.
ɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɣ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɵɦ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɤɭɪɫɨɦ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɵɦ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɩɨɥɧɨɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɷɬɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ, ɤɚɤ ɞɥɹ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɚ ɜɨɞɧɨɦɨɬɨɪɧɢɤɚ, ɜɟɞɭɳɟɝɨ
ɤɚɬɟɪ ɢɡ ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɢ, ɱɟɪɟɡ ɤɚɧɚɥɵ, ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ, ɲɥɸɡɵ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ ɢ ɩɨɪɬɵ
ɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɛɟɪɟɠɶɹ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ-ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɚ-ɦɨɬɨɪɢɫɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɫɬɚɪɲɢɧɵ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ, ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɟɦɭ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɟ (ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɟ), ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɢɡɭɱɢɬɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɟɱɧɨɟ (ɢɥɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɟ)
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ.
ɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ, ɱɬɨ ɤ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨɣ ɥɨɞɤɨɣ ɝɨɬɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɥɸɞɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ
ɨɛɳɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɨɣ, ɚɜɬɨɪɵ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɥɢɫɶ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɣ ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɤɪɚɬɤɢɦ, ɧɟ ɩɟɪɟɝɪɭɠɚɬɶ ɟɝɨ
ɢɡɥɢɲɧɢɦɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ, ɞɟɥɚɹ ɭɩɨɪ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɛɵɬɶ ɯɥɚɞɧɨɤɪɨɜɟɧ. ɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɧɚɹ ɜɨɥɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶ ɧɚɞ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɦ. ɢɥɵ
ɬɳɟɫɥɚɜɢɹ, ɭɩɪɹɦɫɬɜɚ, ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɠɟɥɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶ ɫɟɛɹ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɯɥɚɞɧɨɤɪɨɜɧɨ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɢɬɶ
ɡɞɪɚɜɨɦɭ ɫɦɵɫɥɭ. ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨ ɫɨɥɢɞɚɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ, ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɦɭ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɥɸɛɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɭ ɨɧ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɶɫɹ ɩɨɦɨɱɶ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɦ ɢ ɝɪɚɦɨɬɧɵɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɜɨɢɦ
ɫɭɞɧɨɦ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɛɹɡɚɧ ɬɜɟɪɞɨ ɡɧɚɬɶ ɜɫɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ. ɗɬɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɱɟɛɨɣ ɧɚ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɭɪɫɚɯ.
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɦ — ɠɢɜɨɟ ɞɟɥɨ. ɨ ɲɚɛɥɨɧɭ
ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ
ɫɬɢɯɢɣɧɵɦɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɫɟ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɤɧɢɝɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɤɚɬɟɪɨɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɡɚ ɨɬɩɪɚɜɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɧɚɞɨ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɭɱɟɛɟ, ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɩɨɪɚɯ
ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɜ ɧɟɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ.
ɗɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɫɜɨɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ɟɯɧɢɤɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɦ
ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɚ, ɱɟɦ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɨɣ ɹɯɬɨɣ, ɢ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ, ɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɝɪɟɛɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ, ɤ ɬɨɦɭ
ɠɟ ɨɧɨ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨ ɜ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ, ɚ ɟɝɨ ɦɚɥɚɹ ɨɫɚɞɤɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɬɶ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɨ ɤɚɧɚɥɭ, ɢ ɩɨ ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ
ɪɟɤɟ, ɢ ɧɚ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɯ, ɜ ɛɟɡɜɟɬɪɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ. ɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɛɟɡ ɨɫɨɛɵɯ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɟɧɢɣ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ ɪɟɣɞɚɦ, ɲɥɸɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɢɞɬɢ ɜɜɟɪɯ ɩɨ ɪɟɤɚɦ ɫ ɫɢɥɶɧɵɦ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ (ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ), ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɶ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɫɭɞɚɦ ɢ ɥɸɞɹɦ.
ɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɹɯɬɵ, ɤɚɬɟɪɚ ɞɥɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɯ ɩɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦɢ ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɛɵɬɶ
ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɵ, ɚ ɜɵɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ, ɨɡɟɪɨ, ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɵ ɢ
ɩɨɫɨɛɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣ ɡɚɩɚɫ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ.
ɫɥɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱɧɵɯ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɩɨɪɬɢɜɧɨ-ɝɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ
ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɦ, ɬɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ, ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɜ ɫɚɦɵɯ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ. ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɢɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɫɬɨɥɶ ɠɟ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ɨɞɧɨɬɢɩɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɝɨ, ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɥɭɠɟɛɧɨ-ɪɚɡɴɟɡɞɧɨɝɨ ɮɥɨɬɚ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɫɭɞɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɢɦɟɬɶ
ɯɨɪɨɲɢɟ ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ — ɛɵɬɶ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɦ ɜ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɭɦɟɬɶ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɤɚɤ-ɬɨ ɩɨɜɥɢɹɬɶ ɧɚ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɝɨ ɢɦ ɫɭɞɧɚ. ɚɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɧɚ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɥɢɲɶ ɩɪɢ ɬɜɟɪɞɨɦ ɡɧɚɧɢɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ
ɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ.
ɭɠɧɨ ɜɨɫɩɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɫɟɛɟ «ɡɞɪɚɜɵɣ ɪɚɫɫɭɞɨɤ» ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɤ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ, ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɩɪɢɦɢɪɢɦɨɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɥɢɯɚɱɟɫɬɜɭ
ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɞɪɚɜɵɣ ɪɚɫɫɭɞɨɤ ɜ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ — ɷɬɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɭɦɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɟɧɢɹ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬ ɤɚɤ ɫ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɨɩɵɬɨɦ ɩɨ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ. ɭɠɧɨ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɩɨɦɧɢɬɶ ɨ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɟɧɨ ɜ ɬɟɦɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɭɬɨɤ. ɨɱɧɨɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɫɭɞɧɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɨ, ɚ
ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɦ — ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɨɝɨ ɪɢɬɦɚ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɫɧɢɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ
ɪɚɛɨɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ (ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɪɨɜɹɧɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɩɭɥɶɫɚ, ɫɢɥɚ ɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɬɚ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ, ɩɪɢɬɭɩɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ). ɱɟɧɶ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɩɫɢɯɢɤɭ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɧɨɱɧɚɹ ɬɟɦɧɨɬɚ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɨɧɢɠɟɧɚ ɨɫɬɪɨɬɚ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ;
5
ɤɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ, ɧɟ ɜɢɞɹ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹ ɟɟ. ɗɬɨ
ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɛɟɫɩɨɤɨɣɫɬɜɨ, ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨ ɬɪɟɜɨɝɢ, ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ. əɫɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɬ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɭ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɬɟɪɹɬɶɫɹ
ɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɟ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ ɡɚ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ. ɚɫɬɭɬ ɧɟɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɨɧɹɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɧɨɱɶɸ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ, ɧɨ ɢ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɜɵɤ ɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ. ɫɥɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ-ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɚ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɦ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɩɵɬɚ ɜ ɬɟɦɧɨɬɟ ɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ, ɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ-
ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɹ, ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɜ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹɯ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɯ, ɷɬɨ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɢ ɨɩɵɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɝɨ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɧɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɟɧ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɸ
ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɢɡɛɟɝɚɬɶ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɨɱɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɩɪɢ ɩɥɨɯɨɣ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɜ ɫɭɦɟɪɤɢ.
ɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨ ɨɩɚɫɧɚ ɩɨɫɚɞɤɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɶ ɢ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɧɚ
ɪɟɱɧɨɦ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɟ, ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɲɬɨɪɦɚ ɢ ɜɧɟ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ, ɨɡɟɪɟ, ɦɨɪɟ. ɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ
ɱɬɨɛɵ ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɞɢɬɶ ɜ ɩɨɯɨɞɟ ɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɹ, ɧɭɠɧɨ ɡɧɚɬɶ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɭ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ.
ɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɱɚɫɵ ɨɛɳɟɜɵɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɧɟɣ
ɢ ɧɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɢɤɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɮɥɨɬɚ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɜɵɜɨɡɹɳɢɯ ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɵ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ ɤ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɬɪɭɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ. ɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɫ ɨɬɱɟɬɥɢɜɨ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɧɚ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ.
ɫɬɟɫɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɚɯ ɢ ɤɚɧɚɥɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɨɞɧɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɜ ɫ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ
ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 9 ɤɦ/ɱɚɫ(ɩɥɨɬɨɜɨɞɵ ), ɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ 60— 70 ɤɦ/ɱɚɫ(ɫɭɞɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ
ɤɪɵɥɶɹɯ) ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ, ɜɟɞɭɳɢɣ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ, ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ, ɬ. ɤ. ɨɧ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɜɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ.
ɨɦɢɦɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɣ ɩɭɧɤɬ, ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-
ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬ ɡɚɞɚɱɭ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ
ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ.
ɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɨɛɹɡɚɧ:
- ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɦɟɧɹɸɳɭɸɫɹ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ;
- ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɩɭɬɢ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ;
- ɜɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɩɨ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɧɨɦɭ ɩɭɬɢ, ɢɡɦɟɧɹɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ
ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɨɪɦ;
- ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɢ ɷɤɫɬɪɟɧɧɨ ɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ.
ɟɪɶɟɡɧɟɣɲɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ ɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɚɥɚɹ ɞɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚ ɢ
ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɬ ɝɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ. ɗɬɨ ɨɛɹɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɹ
ɛɵɬɶ ɜɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚɱɟɤɭ ɢ ɭɦɟɬɶ ɫɜɨɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɬɚɦ ɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɩɨɝɨɞɭ. ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɟɫɬɶ ɢ ɪɹɞ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɸɳɢɯ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɦ.
ɟɫɶ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɥɸɛɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɟ,
ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ: ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɭɸ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭ. ɗɬɢ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɵ ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɫɨɛɨɣ ɢ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɵ.
ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɹɯ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɨɡɟɪɚɯ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚɯ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɚ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɚ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɟɲɚɬɶ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ.
ɪɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɨ ɢɞɬɢ ɩɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɭ, ɱɚɫɬɨ
ɭɡɤɨɦɭ, ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɢ ɢɡɜɢɥɢɫɬɨɦɭ, ɫ ɛɟɫɩɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɩɨ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ,
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɹ ɢ ɨɛɝɨɧɹɹ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɟ ɫɭɞɚ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɚɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ.
ɥɹ ɥɭɱɲɟɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɭɱɟɛɧɨɦɭ ɩɥɚɧɭ ɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚɦ ɩɨ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɟ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɜ ɤɧɢɝɟ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɵ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɵ «ɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ » ɢ «ɭɞɨɜɚɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ».
6
ɕ. ɓ ə
ɥɚɜɚ I. ɕ ə
§ 1. ə ɑə ə ə ɕ
ɕ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɜ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɦ, ɹɯɬɨɣ, ɲɥɸɩɤɨɣ ɢ ɥɨɞɤɨɣ ɫ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ ɨɬ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ
ɢɦɟɬɶ ɭɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ.
ɭɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɢɢ ɡɚɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ, ɚ ɩɨɞɱɚɫ ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɥɢ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ, ɢɥɢ ɬɨ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɨɟ; ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɣɨɧ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ, ɝɞɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ (ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɢ, ɟɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɟɣ, ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɟɣ ɢɥɢ ɩɨ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɭɧɤɬɚɦ, ɪɚɣɨɧ ɩɨɪɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɭɧɤɬɨɜ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɢ ɛɚɡ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.).
ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɜɵɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɞɚɱɢ ɷɤɡɚɦɟɧɨɜ ɜ
ɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹɯ, ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟ, ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɦ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤ.
ɗɤɡɚɦɟɧɵ ɫɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ. ɥɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɯ ɡɨɧɚɯ
ɦɨɪɟɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɞɚɬɶ ɷɤɡɚɦɟɧɵ ɩɨ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ,
ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɢ, ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɚɦ, ɨɫɧɨɜɚɦ ɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ (ɫ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɦɢ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ
ɫɭɞɧɚ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨ «ɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ» (). ɥɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɨɜ ɷɤɡɚɦɟɧɵ ɫɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɬɟɦ ɠɟ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚɦ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɟ, ɧɨ ɜɦɟɫɬɨ
«ɪɚɜɢɥ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɟ» ɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ ɧɚɞɨ ɞɟɪɠɚɬɶ ɷɤɡɚɦɟɧɵ ɩɨ
«ɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɭɬɹɦ» ɢ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ.
ɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɨɜ ɢ ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɢ, ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɨɜ ɫɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɷɤɡɚɦɟɧ ɩɨ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ ɢ «ɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɭɬɹɦ». ɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɷɤɡɚɦɟɧ ɩɨ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɫɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɝɞɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ: ɦɨɪɟ, ɪɟɤɚ, ɨɡɟɪɨ, ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɩɭɬɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɭ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɟɣ.
ɜɚɥɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɷɤɡɚɦɟɧɭɸɳɢɦɫɹ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɹ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨ ɨɛɴɟɦ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɩɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɬɟɦɚɦ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɚ.
§ 2. ɑ ɐə ɕ ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɹɯ ɢ ɪɟɤɚɯ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɢ, ɹɯɬɵ, ɝɪɟɛɧɵɟ ɲɥɸɩɤɢ, ɤɚɬɟɪɚ, ɛɨɬɵ, ɜ ɬɨɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɜɫɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɦɟɥɤɢɟ ɫɭɞɚ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɟ ɩɨɞɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɨɞ ɧɚɞɡɨɪ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɚ (ɧɚ
ɦɨɪɟ ) ɢ ɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɚ (ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɫɭɞɚ, ɧɟ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɧɚ
ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ.
ɗɬɢ ɫɭɞɚ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɤɢ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 12 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ, ɢɦɟɸɬ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɟ
ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɵ. ɗɬɨ ɫɭɞɚ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɟ ɜ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦ, ɚ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɜɨɟɦ (ɛɨɥɟɟ
90%)—ɥɢɱɧɨ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦ.
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɚɬɶɟɣ 19 ɨɞɟɤɫɚ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɟɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɸɡɚ « ɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɫɭɞɚ ɜɚɥɨɜɨɣ ɜɦɟɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ 10 ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɜɵɯ ɬɨɧɧ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ
ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ. ɭɞɚ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧ, ɧɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɢɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɬɪɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ. ɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɥɢɱɧɨ
ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɤɨɦɨɜ ɨɜɟɬɨɜ ɞɟɩɭɬɚɬɨɜ ɬɪɭɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɬɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɷɬɨ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ.
ɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɬ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨɟ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɸ ɜɫɟ
ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɜ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟ, ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦɨɦ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤ. ɚ ɜɫɟ ɜɵɲɟɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ
ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ, ɧɟ ɩɨɞɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɨɞ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɞɡɨɪ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɚ ɢ ɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɚ, ɩɨɫɥɟ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ
ɜɵɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɛɢɥɟɬɵ.
ɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɠɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɫɬɚ
ɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɥɹ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɛɢɥɟɬɚ ɧɭɠɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɵ:
1. ɨɪɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ.
2. ɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɵ, ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ.
3. ɫɥɢ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɢɬ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɬɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɳɟɟ ɩɢɫɶɦɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫ
ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɟɦ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɫɬɨɹɧɤɢ ɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɚ ɫɭɞɧɨ.
ɪɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɹ.
ɪɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɠɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɜɧɨɜɶ ɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɧɨɜɨɦɭ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɠɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɚ ɫ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɧɹɬɢɟɦ ɟɝɨ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɠɧɟɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ.
ɗɬɢ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɢ ɤ ɬɟɦ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɚɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥɢ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ, ɧɨ ɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢ ɢɯ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɬ, ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɭɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɢɹ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɢ.
ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɚ.
ɮɨɪɦɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɬ ɩɪɢɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɜɢɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɨɛ ɭɩɥɚɬɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɫɛɨɪɨɜ.
ɧɟɫɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɜ ɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɪɟɟɫɬɪɵ ɢɥɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɤɧɢɝɢ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɦɭ ɫɭɞɧɭ ɩɪɢɫɜɚɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɡɧɚɤ (ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɧɨɦɟɪ) ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɡɚɩɢɫɶɸ ɜ ɪɟɟɫɬɪɟ. ɭɞɨɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɭ ɜɵɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ
ɛɢɥɟɬ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɠɟ ɧɨɦɟɪɨɦ.
7
ɨɦɟɪ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɜ ɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɬɚɯ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɨɬ 1/4 ɞɥɢɧɵ ɫɭɞɧɚ
(ɨɬ ɮɨɪɲɬɟɜɧɹ ) ɢ ɧɚ ɬɪɚɧɰɟ. ɭɤɜɵ ɢ ɰɢɮɪɵ ɩɨ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ 15 ɫɦ ɢɛɵɬɶ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɦɢ ɩɨ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɰɜɟɬɭ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ. ɪɢ ɫɬɨɹɧɤɟ ɢ ɧɚ ɥɸɛɨɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɨɦɟɪ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɛɵɬɶ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ
ɜɢɞɟɧ.
ɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɷɦɛɥɟɦɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɢɫɜɚɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɥɚɞɟɥɶɰɟɦ ɢ ɧɚɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɬ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɜ ɧɨɫɨɜɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ
ɜɩɟɪɟɞɢ ɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɤɚ ɛɭɤɜɚɦɢ, ɦɟɧɟɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɦɢ ɩɨ ɰɜɟɬɭ ɢ ɦɟɧɶɲɢɦɢ ɩɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ, ɱɟɦ ɧɨɦɟɪ: ɪɭɝɢɟ
ɧɚɞɩɢɫɢ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɬɭ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɚɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɧɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɚɟɬɫɹ.
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɯ, ɚ. ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɢ ɤɪɚɹɯ ɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧ
ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɦ ɛɢɥɟɬɨɦ ɜɵɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɡɧɚɤ.
ɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɞɡɨɪ ɡɚ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ, ɧɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɦɢɫɹ ɤ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɚɦ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɟ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɦ
, ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ — ɟɱɧɵɦ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɦ.
ɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɢɫɩɵɬɚɧɢɣ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɦ ɜɵɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɤ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɸ (ɤɧɢɝɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ).
ɜɵɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɛɢɥɟɬɚɯ ɢ ɜ ɭɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɢɹɯ ɧɚ ɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɸ ɡɚɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɫɜɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɭɞɧɭ
ɤɥɚɫɫ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɢɥɢ ɨɬ ɭɤɪɵɬɢɣ, ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ
ɫɭɞɧɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ, ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɪɚɣɨɧ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɢɥɢ ɬɢɩ ɟɝɨ, ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɦɨɬɨɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɧɟ, ɡɚɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɢ ɧɨɦɟɪ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢ ɡɚɜɨɞɫɤɨɦ ɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɢ,
ɬɢɩ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɢ ɧɨɦɟɪ ɟɝɨ, ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ, ɧɨɪɦɵ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ
ɫɩɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ, ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɠɚɪɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ, ɫɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɧɨɪɦɵ
ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɝɪɭɡɨɩɨɞɴɟɦɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɦ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ.
ɪɨɦɟ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨɞɧɚɞɡɨɪɧɵɟ ɜ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɭ ɫɭɞɚ
ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɜ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɟɫɬɪɚɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢɣ, ɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɟ —
ɜ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɟɫɬɪɚɯ, ɯɪɚɧɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɝ. ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɬɨɪɝɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɪɬɚɯ.
ɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɵ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɧɟ ɢ ɯɪɚɧɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɥɟɝɤɨɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɦ
ɫɭɯɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ. ɚ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɢɯ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɯɪɚɧɢɬɶ ɜ ɧɟɩɪɨɦɨɤɚɟɦɨɦ ɩɚɤɟɬɟ.
ɚɠɞɨɟ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦ ɢ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦ,
ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɩɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɞ ɮɥɚɝɨɦ . ɭɞɚ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɧɟɫɬɢ
ɩɪɢɫɜɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɢɦ ɜɵɦɩɟɥ ɢɥɢ ɮɥɚɝ.
ɗɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɧɟ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɭɱɟɬ ɢɥɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɢɯ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɸ, ɡɚɩɪɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ.
ɪɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɯ ɢ ɛɥɢɠɧɢɯ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹɯ-ɩɨɯɨɞɚɯ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɧɚɹ ɤɧɢɠɤɚ, ɜɵɞɚɜɚɟɦɚɹ
ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɧɨ-ɤɜɚɥɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹɦɢ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɯ, ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ, ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɨɜɟɬɨɜ, ɤɥɭɛɨɜ,
ɫɟɤɰɢɣ.
ɥɚɜɚ II. ɕ § 3. ɕ ə
1. ɢɩɵ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ
ɭɞɧɨɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɨ ɜɨɞɟ, ɧɟɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɝɪɭɡɵ ɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ.
ɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɢ ɛɚɣɞɚɪɤɚ, ɢ ɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɥɚɣɧɟɪ. ɭɞɚ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɜɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɜ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɮɥɨɬɚ, ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɤɨɪɚɛɥɹɦɢ.
ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɤ, ɪɵɛɧɨɣ ɥɨɜɥɢ ɢ ɨɯɨɬɵ,
ɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɒɢɪɨɤɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɨɧɢ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɧɭɠɞ ɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ, ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚ ɢ ɮɥɨɬɚ. ɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ
(ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɢɛɢɪɢ) ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɦ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɢ.
ɨɬɨɪɵ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɝɪɟɛɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ, ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɪɟɛɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɛɨɪɬɨɜɵɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɟ ɢɥɢ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɟ ɥɨɞɨɱɧɵɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɵ. ɚ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɯ ɹɯɬɚɯ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɯ
ɤɚɤ ɝɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɢɥɢ ɭɱɟɛɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ, ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɭɬɶ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜ
ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɨɞ ɦɨɬɨɪɨɦ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɧɚ ɧɢɯ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɨɧɢ ɧɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜ ɫɨɪɟɜɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɧɚ
ɛɨɪɬɭ ɦɨɬɨɪ. ɝɪɟɛɧɵɟ, ɢ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɬɨɪɚ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɫ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ
ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ, ɧɚ ɧɢɯ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɫɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ, ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɟɫɹ ɤ ɫɭɞɚɦ ɫ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɦ.
ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɦ ɥɨɞɤɚɦ (ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɚɦ) ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɜ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ
ɦɚɥɨɦɨɳɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɦɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɜ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ. ɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɢ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɥɚɜɧɵɟ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ, ɛɟɡ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɯ ɝɥɢɫɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɭɸ
ɫɟɞɥɨɜɚɬɨɫɬɶ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɛɨɪɬɚ.
ɤɚɬɟɪɚɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɟ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɞɥɹ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ
ɝɥɢɫɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɨɦ ɤ ɧɟɦɭ. ɥɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɰɟɥɢ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɨɳɧɵɟ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ. ɚɬɟɪɚ,
ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɝɥɢɫɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɥɨɫɤɢɟ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɞɧɢɳɟ, ɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɭɸ ɥɢɧɢɸ ɛɨɪɬɚ,
ɜɨɡɜɵɲɚɸɳɭɸɫɹ ɤ ɧɨɫɭ, ɤɨɪɦɭ ɫ ɬɪɚɧɰɟɦ ɢ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɦ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɛɨɪɬɨɦ ɧɚ ɧɟɦ. ɚɬɟɪɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɚɥɭɛɭ ɜ
ɧɨɫɨɜɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ, ɤɨɤɩɢɬ, ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɫɴɟɦɧɵɦ ɬɟɧɬɨɦ ɢ ɜɟɬɪɨɜɵɦ ɫɬɟɤɥɨɦ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɭ.
ɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɥɨɞɤɢ ɫ ɲɥɸɩɨɱɧɵɦɢ (ɜɢɞɨɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ) ɨɛɜɨɞɚɦɢ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɯ ɢ ɜ ɭɫɬɶɹɯ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɪɟɤ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ ɛɨɥɟɟ 7—8 ɦ,ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɛɨɬɚɦɢ ɢɥɢ
ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɦɢ ɛɨɬɚɦɢ.
8
ɨɬɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɭ ɢ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɣ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ.
ɨɬɵ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ, ɢ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɨɟ ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨ-ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɦɢ ɛɨɬɚɦɢ.
ɨɬɵ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɢ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɡɚɞɚɱ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɧɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ. ɬɫɸɞɚ ɥɨɰɦɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɛɨɬ, ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɣ
ɛɨɬ, ɫɩɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɨɬ, ɜɨɞɨɥɚɡɧɵɣ ɛɨɬ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.
ɨɞ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɦ ɲɥɸɩɤɢ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɸɬ ɜɫɟ ɝɪɟɛɧɵɟ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɲɬɚɬɧɵɦɢ
ɩɥɚɜɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɤɨɪɚɛɥɟɣ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɜɫɟɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɮɥɨɬɚ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɩɚɫɚɧɢɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ (ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɫ
ɛɟɪɟɝɨɦ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.) ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ (ɡɚɜɨɡɚ ɹɤɨɪɟɣ, ɡɚɛɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ) ɰɟɥɟɣ. ɬɫɸɞɚ
ɲɥɸɩɤɢ ɧɨɫɹɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ — ɫɩɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ, ɪɚɡɴɟɡɞɧɵɟ, ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɨɞ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɦ ɹɯɬɵ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɟ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ, ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨ-ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɟ, ɬɭɪɢɡɦɚ ɢ ɫɩɨɪɬɚ. ɬɫɸɞɚ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɹɯɬɚ,
ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨ-ɩɚɪɭɫɧɚɹ, ɩɚɪɭɫɧɨ-ɦɨɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɚɹ.
ɥɢɫɫɟɪ — ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ, ɢɦɟɸɳɟɟ ɪɟɞɚɧɵ²ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɟ ɭɫɬɭɩɵ ɧɚ ɞɧɢɳɟ (ɱɚɳɟ ɨɞɢɧ, ɪɟɠɟ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ).
ɞɧɨɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɝɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɝɥɢɫɫɟɪɵ ɫ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɦɢ ɦɨɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɤɭɬɟɪɚɦɢ.
ɫɥɢ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɞɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɤɪɵɥɶɹ, ɬɨ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ
ɤɚɬɟɪɨɦ (ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɨɣ) ɧɚ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɪɵɥɶɹɯ.
2. ɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɫɭɞɧɚ
ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɥɸɛɨɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ, ɩɨ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɞɟɥɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɤɨɪɩɭɫ (ɫɚɦɨ ɫɭɞɧɨ) ɢ
ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɭ ɢɥɢ ɪɭɛɤɭ.
ɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ — ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɨɦ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɟɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɨɜ, ɢɥɢ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ,
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɟ ɧɚ ɩɚɥɭɛɟ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ (ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ).
ɭɛɤɚ — ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɚɥɭɛɟ, ɧɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɸɳɚɹ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ (ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɵ ɧɚ ɩɚɥɭɛɟ
ɜɞɨɥɶ ɛɨɪɬɨɜ). ɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɪɭɛɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɦ.
ɨɫɨɜɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɚɥɭɛɵ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɚɤɨɦ, ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɧɚɞ ɧɢɦ — ɛɚɤɨɜɨɣ. ɨɪɦɨɜɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɚɥɭɛɵ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɸɬɨɦ, ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɧɚɞ ɧɢɦ — ɸɬɨɜɨɣ.
ɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɭɛɤɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɹɯɬɵ. ɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ
ɤɚɬɟɪɨɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɭ, ɝɞɟ ɪɭɛɤɚ ɫɨɜɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ. ɦɟɫɬɨ ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɱɚɫɬɨ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɛɨɪɬɨɜɵɟ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɡɚɯɥɟɫɬɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɵ, ɫ ɜɟɬɪɨɜɵɦ ɫɬɟɤɥɨɦ ɢ ɧɟɩɨɥɧɵɦ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɢɥɢ
ɨɬɤɢɞɧɵɦ ɬɟɧɬɨɦ.
ɨɪɩɭɫ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɨɧ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɧɚɛɨɪɚ ɢ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɢ. ɚɛɨɪ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɢ — ɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɢ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɣ
ɤɨɪɩɭɫɭ ɜɨɞɨɧɟɩɪɨɧɢɰɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɫ ɧɚɛɨɪɨɦ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɶ. ɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ,
ɩɥɚɜɧɵ, ɡɚɨɫɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɥɹ ɧɨɫɚ ɢ ɤɨɪɦɵ.
ɟɪɟɞɧɸɸ ɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɨɫɨɜɨɣ, ɚ ɡɚɞɧɸɸ — ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ, ɛɨɤɨɜɵɟ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɢɥɢ ɫɬɟɧɤɢ
ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɩɪɚɜɵɦ ɢ ɥɟɜɵɦ ɛɨɪɬɚɦɢ, ɟɫɥɢ ɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɫ ɤɨɪɦɵ ɧɚ ɧɨɫ ɫɭɞɧɚ. ɑɚɫɬɶ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɭɸɫɹ
ɩɨɞ ɜɨɞɨɣ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ, ɚ ɧɚɞ ɜɨɞɨɣ — ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ. ɢɠɧɸɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɞɧɢɳɟɦ, ɚ ɜɟɪɯɧɸɸ,
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɭɸ, — ɩɚɥɭɛɨɣ. ɚɥɭɛɚ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɚɯ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ.
ɚɥɶɲɛɨɪɬ — ɥɟɝɤɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ — ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɧɚɞ ɩɚɥɭɛɨɣ ɜ ɧɨɫɨɜɨɣ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɫɭɞɧɚ. ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɮɚɥɶɲɛɨɪɬ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɝɚɤɚɛɨɪɬɨɦ. ɚɥɶɲɛɨɪɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ, ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɵɦ ɢɥɢ
ɛɪɟɡɟɧɬɨɜɵɦ, ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɦ ɩɚ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɟ ɩɨɪɨɝɨɜ, ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɞ ɩɚɪɭɫɨɦ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɨɤɩɢɬɨɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɵ ɢɥɢ ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ ɜ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɨɤɚɣɦɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɨ
ɤɪɚɸ ɤɨɦɢɧɝɫɨɦ, ɩɪɟɞɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɳɢɦ ɨɬ ɡɚɯɥɟɫɬɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɥɧ.
ɚɛɨɪ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ (ɪɢɫ. 3) — ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɟ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɢɡ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ
ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ:
ɢɥɶ — ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɜɹɡɶ, ɢɞɭɳɚɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɬ ɮɨɪɲɬɟɜɧɹ ɞɨ ɚɯɬɟɪɲɬɟɜɧɹ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɛɚɥɤɢ,
ɤɢɥɶ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɦ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
ɨɪɲɬɟɜɟɧɶ — ɩɟɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɟ (ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɢɥɹ), ɢɦ ɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ
ɫɭɞɧɚ ɫ ɧɨɫɚ.
ɯɬɟɪɲɬɟɜɟɧɶ — ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɞɧɚ (ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɢɥɹ), ɢɦ
ɨɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɫ ɤɨɪɦɵ. ɯɬɟɪɲɬɟɜɟɧɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɶ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ: ɩɟɪɟɞɧɟɣ — ɫɬɚɪɧɩɨɫɬ,
ɱɟɪɟɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɝɪɟɛɧɨɣ ɜɚɥ, ɢ ɡɚɞɧɟɣ — ɪɭɞɟɪɩɨɫɬ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɚɜɟɲɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɭɥɶ.
ɚ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɥɨɞɤɚɯ ɫ ɤɨɪɦɵ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɬɪɚɧɰɟɜɚɹ ɞɨɫɤɚ (ɬɪɚɧɟɰ).
ɬɪɢɧɝɟɪɵ²ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɩɨɞ ɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɢ.
ɚɪɥɢɧɝɫɵ — ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɞɩɚɥɭɛɧɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ.
ɒɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɵ — ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɟ ɛɨɪɬɨɜɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ
ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɱɟɪɬɟɠɟ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɚɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
ɒɩɚɰɢɹ — ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɚɦɢ.
ɢɦɫɵ — ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɩɚɥɭɛɵ.
ɨɪɩɭɫ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɩɟɪɟɛɨɪɤɚɦɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɟɥɚɸɬɫɹ
ɜɨɞɨɧɟɩɪɨɧɢɰɚɟɦɵɦɢ. ɟɪɟɛɨɪɤɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɞɨɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɞɨ ɩɚɥɭɛɵ ɢɥɢ ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɩɨ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ. ɪɚɣɧɹɹ ɧɨɫɨɜɚɹ
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɮɨɪɲɬɟɜɧɟɦ ɢ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɧɨɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɛɨɪɤɨɣ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɮɨɪɩɢɤɨɦ, ɤɪɚɣɧɢɣ ɤɨɪɦɨɜɨɣ ɨɬɫɟɤ —
ɚɯɬɟɪɩɢɤɨɦ.
ɪɢɜɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɪɭɫ:
1. ɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɪɭɫ ɫ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɨɣ ɲɥɸɩɤɢ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɜɚɬɟɪɥɢɧɢɢ, ɚ ɱɚɳɟ ɜɵɲɟ
ɧɟɟ, ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɰɵ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɨɜ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ.
2. ɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɵɣ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɛɪɭɫ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɧɚɪɭɠɢ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɬ
9
ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɭɞɚɪɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɤɟ.
ɥɚɧɲɢɪɶ — ɩɥɨɫɤɢɣ ɛɪɭɫ, ɧɚɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɤɪɨɦɤɭ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɢ ɢ ɬɨɪɰɵ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɨɜ.
ɭɪɬɢɤ — ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɚɹ ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɚɹ ɨɛɧɨɫɧɚɹ ɪɟɣɤɚ ɫ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɛɨɪɬɨɜ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɳɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɢɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɛɪɭɫɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɞɥɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɛɨɪɬɨɜ ɨɬ ɩɨɜɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ.
ɨɦɢɧɝɫɵ — ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ, ɨɤɚɣɦɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɜɵɪɟɡ ɜ ɩɚɥɭɛɟ ɞɥɹ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɥɸɤɨɜ ɢ ɤɨɤɩɢɬɨɜ ɨɬ ɡɚɯɥɟɫɬɵɜɚɧɢɹ
ɢɯ ɜɨɞɨɣ.
ɥɚɧɶɸ, ɢɥɢ ɩɨɟɥɨɦ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɳɢɬɵ ɢɡ ɞɨɫɨɤ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ
ɢ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɢ.
ɪɨɦɟ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɪɹɞ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜ ɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ: ɪɭɥɟɜɨɟ, ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɨɟ, ɹɤɨɪɧɨɟ
ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɧɢ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɵ ɜ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ III «ɭɞɨɜɚɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ».
ɢɫ. 3.ɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɱɟɪɬɟɠ
ɛɵɫɬɪɨɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ: 1 — ɤɢɥɶ; 2—
ɮɨɪɲɬɟɜɟɧɶ;3²ɬɪɚɧɟɰ;4 — ɫɤɭɥɨɜɨɣ
ɫɬɪɢɧɝɟɪ;4ɚ — ɫɤɭɥɨɜɚɹ ɩɥɚɧɤɚ; 5—
ɩɪɢɜɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɪɭɫ;6— ɩɥɚɧɲɢɪɶ
(ɜɚɬɟɪɜɟɣɫ);7 — ɮɥɨɪɬɢɦɛɟɪɫ;76 —
ɬɨɩɬɢɦɛɟɪɫ;8²ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɚ;9 —
ɩɚɡɨɜɚɹ ɪɟɣɤɚ;10 — ɧɚɫɬɢɥ ɩɚɥɭɛɵ;11
— ɛɢɦɫ;12 — ɛɭɪɬɢɤ;13 — ɤɨɦɢɧɝɫ;14
— ɛɪɭɫ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚ;15 — ɧɚɞɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɣ
ɥɸɤ;16 — ɛɪɟɲɬɭɤ;17 — ɤɧɢɰɚ;18 —
ɫɤɭɥɨɜɚɹ ɤɧɢɰɚ;19²ɜɨɞɨɧɟɩɪɨɧɢɰɚɟɦɚɹ
ɩɟɪɟɛɨɪɤɚ;20 — ɥɟɠɧɢ ɫɥɚɧɢ;21 —
ɫɥɚɧɶ;22— ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɚ
.
3. ɥɚɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ
ɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ,
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɨɞɧɨ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ,
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ: ɞɥɢɧɚ, ɲɢɪɢɧɚ, ɜɵɫɨɬɚ
ɛɨɪɬɚ ɢ ɨɫɚɞɤɚ (ɪɢɫ. 6). ɗɬɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ
ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɢɥɢ, ɤɚɤ ɢɯ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ, ɝɥɚɜɧɵɟ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ, ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɡɧɚɬɶ.
ɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ, ɡɚɜɢɫɹɳɢɟ ɨɞɧɨ ɨɬ
ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɨɫɚɞɤɭ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɬɭ
ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ, ɨɧ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɹɬɶ.
ɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɝɪɭɡɚ ɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɬɭ ɦɟɧɹɟɬ ɨɫɚɞɤɭ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɬɭ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ, ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɤɪɟɧ ɢ
ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ, ɱɬɨ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɯ ɫɭɞɧɚ: ɩɥɚɜɭɱɟɫɬɢ, ɨɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ, ɯɨɞɤɨɫɬɢ, ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ
ɧɚ ɤɭɪɫɟ ɢ ɞɪ.
ɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ (ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɟ, ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ), ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ
ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɱɟɪɬɟɠɭ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɢ ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɵɟ — ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
ɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɩɨɜɫɟɞɧɟɜɧɨɣ ɟɝɨ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ. ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɠɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜɚɠɧɵɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ. ɯ
ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ:
ɥɢɧɚ (ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ) —L
ɒɢɪɢɧɚ (ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ) —
ɵɫɨɬɚ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ — ə
ɫɚɞɤɚ ɫ ɝɪɭɡɨɦ —
ɫɚɞɤɚ (ɛɟɡ ɝɪɭɡɚ) —
0
ɵɫɨɬɚ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ —( — )
ɥɢɧɚ ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɚɹ — ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ,
ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɟ ɜ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɤɪɚɣɧɢɦɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɢ ɤɪɨɦɤɚɦɢ
ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɧɨɫɚ ɢ ɤɨɪɦɵ ɫɭɞɧɚ
(ɮɚɥɶɲɛɨɪɬ, ɲɬɟɜɧɢ, ɤɪɢɧɨɥɢɧ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.).
ɒɢɪɢɧɚ ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɚɹ — ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ,
ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ
ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɢ
ɤɪɨɦɤɚɦɢ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɜ
ɫɚɦɨɣ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ (ɩɪɢɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɛɪɭɫɚ,
ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɨɛɧɨɫɨɜ ɢ ɞɪ.)
ɫɚɞɤɚ ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɚɹ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ — ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ, ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɟ ɜ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɞɟɥɶ-ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɚ
ɨɬ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɝɪɭɡɨɜɨɣ ɜɚɬɟɪɥɢɧɢɢ, ɞɨ ɧɢɡɲɟɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɨɣ ɨɛɲɢɜɤɢ ɢɥɢ
10
ɛɪɭɫɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɢɥɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɨ ɧɢɡɲɟɣ ɤɪɨɦɤɢ ɝɪɟɛɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɧɬɚ; ɡɚɦɟɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɬɨɹɧɤɟ ɢ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɨɫɚɞɤɢ
ɧɚ ɯɨɞɭ. ɨ ɠɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ, ɡɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɯ ɠɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ, ɧɨ ɛɟɡ ɝɪɭɡɚ ɢ ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɣ
ɩɨɪɨɠɧɟɦ.
ɨɫɚɞɤɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ — ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ:
ɚ) ɤɪɟɧɨɦ — ɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɢ ɤ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ ɢɥɢ ɞɪɭɝɨɦɭ ɛɨɪɬɭ;
ɛ) ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬɨɦ — ɧɚɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɨɫɢ, ɬ. ɟ. ɧɚ ɧɨɫ ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɪɦɭ.
ɫɥɢ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɭɸ ɨɫɚɞɤɭ ɧɨɫɚ ɢ ɤɨɪɦɵ, ɬɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ, ɱɬɨ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɫɢɞɢɬ ɧɚ ɪɨɜɧɨɦ ɤɢɥɟ.
ɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɣ ɧɨɫɚ ɢ ɤɨɪɦɵ, ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɬɨɝɨ, ɤɚɤɚɹ ɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɭɞɧɚ ɫɢɞɢɬ ɝɥɭɛɠɟ, ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ, ɱɬɨ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ ɧɚ ɧɨɫ ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɪɦɭ.
ɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɡ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɨɫɚɞɤɢ. ɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɭ ɮɨɪɲɬɟɜɧɹ ɮ ɧɚɞɨ ɜɵɱɟɫɬɶ ɦɟɧɶɲɭɸ ɨɫɚɞɤɭ ɭ
ɤɨɪɦɵ ɤ.
ɪɢɦɟɪ: ɮ = 140 ɦɦ.ɤ=60 ɦɦ.
= ɮ-ɤ= 140-60 = 80 ɦɦ.
ɭɞɚ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɹ ɢɡ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɪɨɜɧɵɣ ɤɢɥɶ, ɧɨ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɷɬɨ ɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɟɞɤɨ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ
ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɡɚ, ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɞɚ. ɨɞɱɚɫ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ.
ɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɟ ɢɡ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɫɨɥɟɧɭɸ (ɢɡ ɪɟɤɢ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ) ɢ ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ ɨɫɚɞɤɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ
ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɥɟɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ. ɫɨɥɟɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɨɫɚɞɤɭ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɩɪɟɫɧɨɣ.
ɵɫɨɬɚ ɛɨɪɬɚ — ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ (ɦɢɞɟɥɟ) ɨɬ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɢɥɹ ɞɨ
ɧɢɠɧɟɣ ɤɪɨɦɤɢ ɩɚɥɭɛɵ (ɢɥɢ ɞɨ ɩɥɚɧɲɢɪɹ).
ɵɫɨɬɚ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ — ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɜɵɫɨɬɨɣ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɢ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɣ(—) ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɨɣ
ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ. ɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ — ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɟɫɬɢ, ɨɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ
ɧɟɩɨɬɨɩɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɢ — ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɧɨɪɦɚɦɢ.
ɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ (ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɟ) ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɟɧɧɵɟ
ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
ɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɤ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ L/B- ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬ ɯɨɞɤɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ. ɥɹ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɥɨɞɨɤ ɨɧɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 2,3—3,7; ɞɥɹ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɝɥɢɫɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ 2, 3—2, 7; ɞɥɹ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɜ
2,3—3,2; ɞɥɹ ɬɢɯɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɜ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ 2, 8—4, 0; ɞɥɹ ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɜ 2, 3—
3,2; ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨ-ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ 2,5—3,3; ɞɥɹ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɯ ɹɯɬ ɞɨ 5,0; ɞɥɹ ɛɚɣɞɚɪɨɤ ɞɨ 6,5.
ɬ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ L/B ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ.
ɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɭɥɭɱɲɚɟɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɤɭɪɫɟ, ɧɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɢ
ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɪɭɥɹ.
ɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɫɨɬɵ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɤ ɨɫɚɞɤɟ H/T ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ, ɧɟɩɨɬɨɩɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɬ. ɟ.
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɡɚɩɚɫ ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ. ɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ H/T ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
ɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ H/T ɞɥɹ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɜ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɥɨɞɨɤ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɵɫɨɬɵ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɤɨɥɟɛɥɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ 2, 0 ɞɨ
4, 0. ɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ H/T ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ. ɥɹ ɩɚɪɭɫ-
ɧɵɯ ɹɯɬ H/T =4/3.
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɤ ɨɫɚɞɤɟ B/T ɨɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ; ɫ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɷɬɨɝɨ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɤɭɪɫɟ.
ɑɟɦ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɤ ɨɫɚɞɤɟ L/T, ɬɟɦ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɟɧɧɟɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ.
ɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɤ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɛɨɪɬɚ L/T ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ. ɨɪɩɭɫ ɬɟɦ
ɩɪɨɱɧɟɟ ɢ ɠɟɫɬɱɟ, ɱɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɩɪɢ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɞɥɢɧɟ. ɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ L/H ɞɥɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ 6 ɞɨ 8; ɦɟɧɶɲɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɨɱɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɚɦ ɫ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦɢ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ.
§ 4. ɐə ɕ 1. ɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɭ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ
ɚɦɨɯɨɞɧɵɟ — ɷɬɨ ɫɭɞɚ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɜ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɦɢ.
ɟɫɚɦɨɯɨɞɧɵɟ — ɜɫɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɛɭɤɫɢɪɭɟɦɵɟ, ɬɨɥɤɚɟɦɵɟ ɢ ɫɬɨɟɱɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ (ɩɚɧɬɨɧɵ, ɞɟɛɚɪɤɚɞɟɪɵ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.).
2. ɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɸ
ɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ — ɤɚɬɟɪɚ, ɛɨɬɵ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɢ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɤɢ ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ ɢ ɝɪɭɡɨɜ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ
ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱɧɵɟ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ-ɬɚɤɫɢ, ɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɧɵɟ, ɫɥɭɠɟɛɧɵɟ, ɪɚɡɴɟɡɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɱɟɦ
12 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ*. ɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɵɟ. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟ, ɥɟɫɨɫɩɥɚɜɧɵɟ, ɷɤɫɩɟɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ, ɫɩɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ,
ɭɱɟɛɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɢɯ ɛɚɡ ɮɥɨɬɚ ɢ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɟɝɨ ɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
* ɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɩɨ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɭ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɭɞɚ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɤɢ 12 ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ.
ɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɲɥɸɩɤɢ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɚ ɫɩɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ. ɩɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɲɥɸɩɤɢ ɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɹ ɜ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦɢ, ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɞɥɹ ɫɩɚɫɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɵ ɢ
ɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɚɜɚɪɢɢ ɫ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ, ɚ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɲɥɸɩɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɵ,
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɞɥɹ ɬɪɟɧɢɪɨɜɨɤ ɢ ɮɢɡɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞ.
ɨɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɩɨɪɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɪɟɜɧɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɬɪɟɧɢɪɨɜɨɤ. ɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ ɝɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɦ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ, ɱɚɫɬɨ ɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɯɨɞɚ. ɗɬɨ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜ ɢ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɟɝɨ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ.
ɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɵɟ ɝɨɧɨɱɧɨ-ɫɩɨɪɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɩɨɪɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ.
ɭɞɚ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɟ), ɫɥɭɠɚɳɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯ, ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɢ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ. ɗɬɨ ɫɚɦɚɹ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɚɹ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɫɭɞɨɜ. ɬ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ
11
ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɫɭɞɨɜ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ 90%- ɧɢ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɞɥɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɬɪɭɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɟ (ɞɚɥɶɧɢɯ ɢ ɛɥɢɠɧɢɯ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɭɬɟɲɟɫɬɜɢɣ, ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɤ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ
ɩɨɫɟɳɟɧɢɟɦ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɦɟɫɬ, ɪɵɛɧɨɣ ɥɨɜɥɢ, ɨɯɨɬɵ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.) ɢ ɞɥɹ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɭɠɞ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ.
ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɦ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦ. ɭɞɚ ɷɬɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɟ ɢ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɟ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɚɪɨɤ ɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɫ
ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ, ɫɚɦɵɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɵ, ɨɛɜɨɞɵ ɢ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɨɜ.
ɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɷɬɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɥɨɞɤɢ ɫ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɦɢ ɦɨɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɤ
(ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ), ɪɵɛɧɨɣ ɥɨɜɥɢ, ɨɯɨɬɵ, ɨɬɞɵɯɚ, ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
3. ɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɭ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ
ɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɯ ɩɨɯɨɞɚɯ, ɛɵɜɚɸɬ ɫɚɦɵɦɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ.
ɚɪɲɪɭɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɨɥɟɝɚɬɶ ɜ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɦ ɦɨɪɟ, ɨɡɟɪɟ, ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟ, ɜɧɟ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ ɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɵɯ
ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ. ɪɭɞɧɨɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɦɚɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɪɟɤɚ ɫ ɛɵɫɬɪɵɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɦɚɥɵɦɢ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɦɢ, ɩɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɭɞɧɨ
ɢɞɟɬ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹ, ɡɚɜɬɪɚ, ɫɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɟɦ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɲɥɸɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɤɚɧɚɥɨɦ ɫ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɵɦ
ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɚɠɟ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɚ. ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ
ɝɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ. ɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɲɬɨɪɦ ɧɚ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɲɬɢɥɶ; ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɟ ɜ ɦɟɠɟɧɶ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟ; ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɩɭɫɤɨɜ ɜɨɞɵ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ, ɧɢɠɟ ɢ ɜɵɲɟ ɢɯ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ, ɚ ɷɬɨ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ,
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɵɡɜɚɬɶ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ (ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɯ) ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɟɝɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɩɪɢ
ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɤɭɪɫɚ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ. ɢɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɢɬɶ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɥɢ
ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɭ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɸ ɜ ɲɬɨɪɦ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɜɵɡɜɚɬɶ ɧɟɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɟɧɧɨɟ
ɨɫɥɨɠɧɟɧɢɟ.
ɭɞɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɟ, ɨɡɟɪɧɵɟ, ɪɟɱɧɵɟ. ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɜɵɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɜ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ, ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɯɨɪɨɲɚɹ ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ, ɚ ɭ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɪɟɤɚɯ, — ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɫɚɞɤɚ.
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɫɭɞɚ, ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɦ ɢ ɟɱɧɵɦ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɦ , ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ
ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɢɯ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ, ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɤɥɚɫɫɵ, ɧɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɳɢɟ ɨɬ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
ɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɩɭɬɢ — ɪɟɤɢ, ɨɡɟɪɚ, ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ — ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɟɱɧɵɦ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɨɦ ɜ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ, ɝɞɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɧɚɞɡɨɪɧɵɟ ɟɱɧɨɦɭ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɭ ɫɭɞɚ, ɧɚ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɚ:, , , .
ɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɷɬɢɦ ɠɟ ɤɥɚɫɫɚɦ(, , , ) ɫɭɞɚ, ɩɨɞɧɚɞɡɨɪɧɵɟ ɟɱɧɨɦɭ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɭ.
ɭɞɚ ɤɥɚɫɫɚ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɯ, ɩɪɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɜɨɥɧ ɜɵɫɨɬɨɣ 3 ɦ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ 40 ɦ.
ɫɥɨɜɢɹ — ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɤ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɦ. ɗɬɨ ɫɭɞɚ ɫ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɢ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦɢ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɬ. ɟ. ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɟɫɬɶɸ, ɨɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɭɞɚɦ ɤɥɚɫɫɚ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɯɨɞ ɜ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢ ɫɢɥɟ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɧɟ ɜɵɲɟ ɲɟɫɬɢ ɛɚɥɥɨɜ ɩɨ ɲɤɚɥɟ ɨɮɨɪɬɚ.
ɭɞɚ ɤɥɚɫɫɚ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɜɨɥɧ ɜɵɫɨɬɨɣ ɞɨ 2 ɦ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ 20 ɦ.ɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ
— ɨɡɟɪɧɵɟ.
ɭɞɚ ɤɥɚɫɫɚɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɜɨɥɧɟ ɜɵɫɨɬɨɣ 1, 2 ɦ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ 12, 5 ɦ.ɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɱɧɵɟ,
ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɢ. ɭɞɚ ɤɥɚɫɫɚɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɸɬɫɹ ɤ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɢ ɫɢɥɟ ɜɟɬɪɚ ɧɟ
ɜɵɲɟ ɲɟɫɬɢ ɛɚɥɥɨɜ ɩɨ ɲɤɚɥɟ ɨɮɨɪɬɚ.
ɭɞɚ ɤɥɚɫɫɚ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɜɟɬɪɨɜɨɦ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ. ɧɢ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɚɥɭɸ ɨɫɚɞɤɭ ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɯ.
ɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ
ɥɚɫɫ
ɫɭɞɧɚ
ɢɧɢɦɚ
ɥɶɧɵɣ
ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɣ
ɛɨɪɬ,ɦɦ
ɩɨ
ɛɚɥɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ
ɜɵɫɨɬɚ
ɜɨɥɧɵ
ɞɚɥɟ
ɧɢɟ ɨɬ
ɛɟɪɟɝɚ,ɦ
1 2 3 4 5
ɟɪɜɵɣ 250
ɞɨ 1
ɛɚɥɥɚ
0,50 1000
ɬɨɪɨɣ 050
ɞɨ 2
ɛɚɥɥɨɜ
0,75 3000
ɪɟɬɢɣ 500
ɞɨ 3
ɛɚɥɥɨɜ
1,25 5000
ɪɢɦɟɱɚɧɢɹ:
1.ɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɧɚɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɛɨɪɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɬɨɹɧɤɟ ɦɟɧɶɲɢɦ ɢɡ 3 ɡɚɦɟɪɨɜ ɨɬ ɦɢɞɟɥɹ ɜ ɤɨɪɦɭ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ
ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɣ ɡɚɦɟɪ ɧɚ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɭ ɬɪɚɧɰɚ, ɢɥɢ ɠɟ ɨɧ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɜɚɬɟɪɥɢɧɢɢ ɞɨ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɝɨ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɢ ɧɟɝɟɪɦɟɬɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɪɟɡɚ ɜ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɟ.
2.ɥɹ ɝɪɟɛɧɵɯ ɥɨɞɨɤ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɭ ɮɨɪɲɬɟɜɧɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ 10% ɞɥɢɧɵ ɥɨɞɤɢ.
3. ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɚɦ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɞɨ 5
ɛɚɥɥɨɜ ɢ ɪɚɣɨɧ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨɬɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɨɬ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟɣ. ɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɚɞɚɧɵ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ: ɫ
ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɳɢɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ, ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɪɚɫɫɨɣ, ɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɭɬɨɤ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
12
ɨɪɫɤɢɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɩɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɭ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɚ: ɚ) ɫ ɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɦ (ɧɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɦ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɦ)
ɪɚɣɨɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ; ɛ) ɫ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ;ɜ) ɪɚɣɨɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɨ-ɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ;ɝ) ɪɚɣɨɧɨɦ
ɪɟɣɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ;ɞ) ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɟ ɩɨɪɬɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ. ɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɦɚɥɵɦ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɦ ɫɭɞɚɦ ɢ ɦɨɬɨɛɨɬɚɦ
ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ 10 ɦɢɥɶ. ɧɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ ɩɪɢ ɜɟɬɪɟ ɞɨ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɛɚɥɥɨɜ.
ɚɠɞɨɦɭ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɦɭ ɫɭɞɧɭ, ɧɟ ɩɨɞɧɚɞɡɨɪɧɨɦɭ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɭ ɢ ɟɱɧɨɦɭ ɟɝɢɫɬɪɭ, ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɟɦɭ ɧɚ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚɯ ɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɟ ɦɨɪɟɣ ɩɪɢɫɜɚɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɤɥɚɫɫ: ɩɟɪɜɵɣ,
ɜɬɨɪɨɣ, ɬɪɟɬɢɣ.
4. ɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɭ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ
ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɞɟɥɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɚ ɫ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ (ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ), ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɝɥɢɫɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɵɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɫ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɝɥɢɫɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɪɵɥɶɹɯ, ɫ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɭɲɤɟ.
5. ɨ ɨɛɜɨɞɚɦ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ
ɛɜɨɞɵ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ. ɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɞɜɚ ɬɢɩɚ ɨɛɜɨɞɨɜ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ — ɷɬɨ ɤɪɭɝɥɨɫɤɭɥɵɣ ɢ ɨɫɬɪɨɫɤɭɥɵɣ.
ɪɭɝɥɨɫɤɭɥɵɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ ɫ ɩɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɨɦ ɞɧɢɳɟɜɨɣ ɜɟɬɜɢ ɜ ɛɨɪɬɨɜɭɸ (ɡɚɤɪɭɝɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɤɭɥɚ).
ɫɬɪɨɫɤɭɥɵɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɚɯ ɢɡɥɨɦ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɞɧɢɳɟɜɨɣ ɜɟɬɜɢ ɜ
ɛɨɪɬɨɜɨɣ. ɤɭɥɨɣ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ, ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɚɹ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɢɡɥɨɦɚ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɨɜ.
ɟɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɬɪɨɫɤɭɥɵɟ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ ɫ ɭɫɬɭɩɨɦ (ɫɬɭɩɟɧɶɤɨɣ, ɪɟɞɚɧɨɦ), ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɤ
ɞɧɢɳɚ; ɪɟɞɚɧɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ.
ɟɡɪɟɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɬɪɨɫɤɭɥɵɟ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ ɫ ɪɨɜɧɵɦ ɩɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɞɧɢɳɟɦ, ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦ ɪɟɞɚɧɨɜ.
ɥɨɫɤɨɤɢɥɟɜɚɬɵɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɬɪɨɫɤɭɥɵɟ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɞɧɢɳɟɜɵɟ ɜɟɬɜɢ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɨɜ (ɜɫɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɡɚ
ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ-ɞɜɭɯ ɧɨɫɨɜɵɯ) ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɵ ɩɪɹɦɵɦɢ ɥɢɧɢɹɦɢ.
ɡɨɝɧɭɬɨɤɢɥɟɜɚɬɵɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɬɪɨɫɤɭɥɵɟ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɞɧɢɳɟɜɵɟ ɜɟɬɜɢ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɨɜ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɵ
ɩɥɚɜɧɨ ɢɡɨɝɧɭɬɨɣ S-ɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɢɟɣ.
ɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɜɨɞɵ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɲɩɚɧɝɨɭɬɨɜ ɨɫɬɪɨɫɤɭɥɚɹ, ɚ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɤɪɭɝɥɨɫɤɭɥɚɹ.
6. ɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɭ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ
ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɞɟɥɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɵɟ, ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ, ɩɥɚɫɬɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟ, ɪɟɡɢɧɨɜɵɟ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɭɞɚ, ɤɨɪɩɭɫ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɤɨɪɩɭɫ ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɵɣ, ɚ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɧɵɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ.
7. ɨ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɸ
ɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɟ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɪɨɞɭ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ: ɫ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɦ ɦɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɦ
ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɦ (ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɰɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɟ, ɦɨɬɨɰɢɤɥɟɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ).
8. ɨ ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɸ
ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɹ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɝɪɟɛɧɟɣ ɜɢɧɬ, ɧɨ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɣ ɜɢɧɬ,
ɜɨɞɨɦɟɬɧɵɣ ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɶ, ɝɚɡɨɜɵɣ ɪɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ-ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɶ.
9. ɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɧɚɛɨɪɚ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ
ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɧɚɛɨɪɨɦ, ɫ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɚɛɨɪɨɦ, ɫɨ ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɚɛɨɪɨɦ, ɛɟɡɧɚɛɨɪɧɵɟ.
§ 5. ə ɕ ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɜɨɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ:
1. ɨɪɨɲɚɹ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɥɢɜɨɫɬɶɸ. ɚ ɫɭɞɚɯ (ɫ ɞɜɭɦɹ
ɦɨɬɨɪɚɦɢ) ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬ ɧɚ 180° ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɢ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɟ.
2. ɚɥɵɟ ɢɧɟɪɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɝɥɢɫɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɸ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. ɗɬɨ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɢ ɧɚ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɩɭɬɢ ɨɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ
ɫɭɞɧɨ.
3. ɵɫɬɪɨɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ (ɪɭɥɟɦ, ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɟɦ) ɧɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɪɟɠɢɦɵ
ɪɚɛɨɬɵ. ɗɬɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɞɨɛɧɵɦ, ɧɚɞɟɠɧɵɦ ɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ, ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɦ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɨɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɢɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ.
4. ɪɭɝɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ ɧɚ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɥɨɞɤɚɯ, ɜɜɢɞɭ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɪɭɛɨɤ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 360°. ɗɬɨ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ
ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɧɟɩɪɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɫ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɦɟɪɬɜɨɣ ɡɨɧɨɣ ɜɩɟɪɟɞɢ ɩɨ ɤɭɪɫɭ ɢ ɫ ɛɨɪɬɨɜ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ
ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɜɡɝɥɹɞɚ.
ɹɞ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ. ɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɲɟɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ:
1. ɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɜɵɫɨɬɚ ɝɥɚɡ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɧɚɞ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɨɦ ɜɨɞɵ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬ ɞɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚ ɢ,
ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɡɨɧɭ ɨɛɡɨɪɚ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɡɞɧɨ ɢ
ɫɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɧɨ (ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɛɭɹɦɢ, ɛɚɤɟɧɚɦɢ, ɜɟɯɚɦɢ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ ɢɯ ɫ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ
ɫɭɞɨɜ ). ɚɠɟ ɩɪɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɚ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚɯ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɛɭɢ ɡɚ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ ɫɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɧɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɛɭɢ ɩɨ ɤɭɪɫɭ.
13
ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɤɨɦɩɚɫɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɚ ɤɚɤɨɟ-ɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɬɟɪɹɬɶ
ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɵ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɪɫɚ.
ɪɢ ɦɚɥɨɣ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɝɥɚɡɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɧɚɞ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɪɟɮɪɚɤɰɢɢ ɢɫɤɚɠɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɫɬɨɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɮɨɪɦɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɜ, ɩɪɢɦɟɬɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬ, ɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜ. ɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɟɳɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɨɛɡɨɪ ɢ
ɪɚɫɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɢɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ. ɨɞɱɚɫ ɞɚɠɟ ɧɚ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɦ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɧɚɣɬɢ ɬɨɬ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɛɭɣ, ɜɟɯɭ, ɧɨ ɞɚɠɟ, ɭɜɢɞɟɜ ɢɯ, ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɭ. ɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɧɨɱɢ ɛɟɪɟɝ ɢ ɟɝɨ
ɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɜɢɞɧɵ ɭɠɟ ɫ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ 1—2 ɤɦ,ɚ ɜ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɬɟɦɧɵɟ ɧɨɱɢ ɫ 50—100 ɦ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɢɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɧɵɦ ɯɨɞɨɦ ɛɟɡ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɨɜ, ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɜɢɞɢɬ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɢɟ ɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɟ
ɡɧɚɤɢ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɤɭɪɫɭ ɫ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɡɚ ɟɝɨ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ, ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɩɪɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɢ ɜɢɞɢɬ ɫɭɞɚ
ɧɚ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɟ ɢ ɡɚ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɨɦ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ. ɫɟɝɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɧɟ ɭɜɢɞɢɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɫ ɦɚɥɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɢɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɩɨ ɬɨɦɭ ɠɟ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɭ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ.
2. ɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɝɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɢɥɶɧɟɟ, ɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ.
ɚɠɟ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɤɚɱɤɭ ɢ ɬɪɹɫɤɭ.
3. ɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɦɚɥɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɪɭɛɤɢ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɹɸɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɭɥɟɦ,
ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɸɬ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɫ ɤɚɪɬɨɣ. ɪɨɤɥɚɞɤɭ ɤɭɪɫɚ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜɟɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɛɚɧɤɚɯ ɢɥɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɟɧɹɯ.
4. ɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ (ɪɚɞɢɨɩɟɥɟɧɝɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɪɚɞɢɨɥɨɤɚɰɢɸ)
ɢ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɵ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɚ, ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɲɥɸɩɨɱɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɚɫ.
ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɜɫɸ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ, ɤɚɤ ɧɟɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɭɸ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɭɸ. ɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɝɥɚɡɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ. ɨɥɹ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɜ ɬɨɦ: ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɫɥɭɯɨɜɨɣ,
ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɟɜɟɥɢɤɚ.
5. ɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ «ɩɪɢɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɸ» ɤ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɚɦ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɧɚ ɛɥɢɡɤɢɯ
ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɨɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɤɪɭɩɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ, ɩɨɩɚɜɲɟɟ ɜ
ɧɟɩɪɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɭɸ (ɦɟɪɬɜɭɸ ) ɡɨɧɭ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɤɪɭɩɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
6. ɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɬɚɤɢɯ ɤɚɤ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɤɚ, ɲɥɸɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɨɬɞɚɱɚ ɹɤɨɪɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɪɟɦɨɧɬ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ. ɑɟɦ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ, ɱɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɧɚ ɧɟɦ ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɢ ɱɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɧɚ ɧɟɦ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɢ
ɝɪɭɡɚ, ɬɟɦ ɫɥɨɠɧɟɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ. ɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɪɭɛɤɢ ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ (ɤɚɤ ɢ ɨɩɭɳɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɟɧɬɵ) ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɸɬ ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɡɨɪ, ɧɨ ɢ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɹɸɬ ɜɵɯɨɞ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ, ɩɪɨɯɨɞ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɧɢɯ.
§ 6. ɐə ɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɦɵɟ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ, ɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ. ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤɚɹ-ɥɢɛɨ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɦɚɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɧɭɠɞ ɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɚ,
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɚ, ɫɜɹɡɢ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɥɭɠɟɛɧɵɯ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ. ɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦɢ
ɫɭɞɚɦɢ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɨ ɧɚɣɦɭ ɢ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɵ ɢ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ. ɗɬɨ ɫɬɚɪɲɢɧɵ ɤɚɬɟɪɨɜ, ɪɭɥɟɜɵɟ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɚ ɩɨɞɱɚɫ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɧɵ ɢ ɲɬɭɪɦɚɧɵ.
ɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɦ, ɟɫɥɢ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɟɣ ɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɭ ɧɟɝɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɭɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɟɫɥɢ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥ, ɧɟ ɧɚɧɹɬɵɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ
ɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ. ɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɞɢɧɨɱɧɵɦ (ɨɞɧɨ ɫɭɞɧɨ) ɢɥɢ
ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɵɦ (ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɭɞɨɜ).
ɪɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɦ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɬɶ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɣ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɫɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɨɣ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɨɩɵɬɨɦ ɢɥɢ, ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɢɞɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɣ ɢ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ.
ɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɯɨɞɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɢ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ, ɞɟɥɹɬɫɹ
ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ, ɛɥɢɠɧɢɟ, ɞɚɥɶɧɢɟ.
ɟɫɬɧɨɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ-ɩɨɯɨɞ ɜɵɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɧɹ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱɧɨɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ (ɨɬɫɸɞɚ ɬɟɪɦɢɧ «ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ»)
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ (ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɱɚɫɨɜ ɢɥɢ ɨɞɢɧ-ɬɪɢ ɞɧɹ). ɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ — ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ
ɞɟɫɹɬɤɨɜ ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɨɜ. ɦɟɫɬɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɲɥɸɡɵ, ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱɧɨɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɨ ɲɥɸɡɚ. ɚ
ɩɪɨɝɭɥɤɭ ɭɯɨɞɹɬ ɜ ɯɨɪɨɲɭɸ ɩɨɝɨɞɭ, ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɜɟɬɪɟ, ɚ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ ɜɵɯɨɞɹɬ ɩɪɢ
ɯɨɪɨɲɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɧɨɡɚɯ ɢ ɭɯɨɞɹɬ ɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɨɬ ɛɚɡɵ ɢɥɢ ɭɤɪɵɬɢɹ. ɚɩɚɫ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧ ɧɚ
ɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɢ ɧɨɱɟɜɤɢ ɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ. ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ, ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ ɜ
ɬɚɤɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ, ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɡɧɚɟɬ ɪɚɣɨɧ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɪɨɝɭɥɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɩɨɬɨɤɟ
ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɚ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ, ɤɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɜ ɜɨɞɧɨ-ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɦ ɩɨɬɨɤɟ, ɩɢɤ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɚɯ, ɤɚɧɚɥɚɯ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɢɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɜɨɫɤɪɟɫɟɧɶɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɞɧɹ.
ɟɡɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɨɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɜ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɩɨɬɨɤɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ. ɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɞɜɟɪɢɢ ɬɟɦɧɨɬɵ, ɫɭɦɟɪɟɤ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɢɯ
ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɝɨ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɞɜɢɠɭɳɢɯɫɹ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ
(ɜɨɥɧɨɜɨɣ ɬɨɥɱɟɢ) ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɟ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ
ɨɩɪɨɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ, ɭɱɟɛɧɵɯ ɬɪɟɧɢɪɨɜɨɤ, ɫɩɨɪɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɝɨɧɨɤ, ɛɭɤɫɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɜɨɞɧɨɥɵɠɧɢɤɨɜ, ɪɵɛɧɨɣ
ɥɨɜɥɢ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɧɭɠɞ.
ɥɢɠɧɟɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɭɬɨɤ, ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɧɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ
ɪɚɣɨɧɨɜ, ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɫ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɨɦ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɩɨɪɬɵ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɲɥɸɡɵ. ɥɢɠɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ
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ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɦ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɞɚɸɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɜɵɭɱɤɢ, ɱɬɨ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɸ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ.
ɥɢɠɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɧɨɫɹɬ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. ɟɪɟɞ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɢɡɭɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɵ, ɧɚɦɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ
ɭɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɥɭɱɚɣ ɲɬɨɪɦɚ, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɯɨɞɚ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɡɚɩɚɫɵ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ,
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɣ ɧɟɩɪɢɤɨɫɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɚɫ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɩɢɫɨɤ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɫɧɚɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ. ɛɵɱɧɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-
ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɧɟ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɥ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɭ, ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨ ɡɧɚɤɨɦɢɬɫɹ ɫ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɤɨɧɫɭɥɶɬɢɪɭɹɫɶ ɭ ɥɢɰ, ɯɨɞɢɜɲɢɯ ɜ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣ ɩɨɯɨɞ. ɚ ɛɥɢɠɧɢɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɧɚɹ ɤɧɢɠɤɚ ɢ
ɫɭɞɨɜɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ (ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɡɚɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɫɟ ɱɥɟɧɵ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɵ ɢ ɢɯ ɪɨɥɶ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɧɟ).
ɚɥɶɧɢɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɢɦ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɯɨɞ, ɰɟɥɶɸ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɨɬɞɵɯ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɟ, ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɜɵɭɱɤɢ ɢ ɬ. ɩ. ɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ
ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɨ ɧɟɡɧɚɤɨɦɨɦɭ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɭ ɜ ɱɟɪɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ
ɩɨɝɨɞɟ. ɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɢ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤ. ɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɬɚɤɨɟ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɬɩɭɫɤɚɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɩɨɯɨɞɨɜ. ɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɨ ɜ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɥɢ ɞɜɚ
ɷɬɚɩɚ. ɟɪɜɵɣ ɷɬɚɩ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɞɧɭ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɸ, ɜɬɨɪɨɣ — ɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɭɸ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɦ, ɝɞɟ
ɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɷɬɚɩ.
ɚɞɨɥɝɨ ɞɨ ɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɚ ɫ ɩɨɥɧɵɦ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɬɚɦɢ, ɥɨɰɢɹɦɢ, ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ. ɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬɧɚɹ
(ɤɪɟɣɫɟɪɧɚɹ) ɤɧɢɠɤɚ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɚɹ ɪɨɥɶ.
ɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɧɨɫɢɬɶ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. ɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ ɧɚ
ɩɟɪɟɩɪɚɜɟ, ɩɚɬɪɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɤɚɬɟɪɚ ɫɩɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɥɭɠɛɵ, ɪɵɛɧɚɞɡɨɪɚ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɸ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ
ɜ ɩɨɪɬ, ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜɫɟ ɷɬɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɢ.
ɥɢɠɧɟɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɟ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɟ ɩɨ ɪɟɤɚɦ ɢ
ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɦ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɵ ɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɬ ɢɯ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɤɟ ɝɪɭɡɨɜ, ɩɨɱɬɵ, ɫɭɞɚ, ɡɚɧɹɬɵɟ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɷɤɫɩɟɞɢɰɢɹɯ, ɩɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɧɚɯ ɮɥɨɬɚ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɥɹ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɪɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɚ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɜ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹɯ.
ɫɥɢ ɦɚɪɲɪɭɬ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɛɥɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ
(ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɨɜ ɢ ,ɨɡɟɪɨ ɢ ɦɨɪɟ ), ɧɚ ɫɭɞɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɞɢɨɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɜɹɡɢ (ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɟɦɚ
ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ ) ɫ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɦɢ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɦɢ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɦɢ.
. ɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ, ɢɥɢ ɤɨɪɚɛɥɟɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɭɤɚ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɚɹ ɢɡ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧ, ɡɧɚɧɢɟ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ ɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɤɪɚɬɱɚɣɲɢɦ ɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɦ ɩɭɬɟɦ ɢɡ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɭɧɤɬɚ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ. ɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ
ɩɪɢɟɦɨɜ ɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɢ. ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɜɯɨɞɹɬ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɵ: ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ, ɥɨɰɢɹ,
ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɝɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɚɹ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢɹ ɢ ɞɪ.
ɚ ɪɟɤɟ, ɜ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɨɦ ɢ ɲɯɟɪɧɨɦ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹɯ, ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɟ ɭɡɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ
ɫɭɞɧɚ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɤɭɪɫ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɫɜɨɟ ɦɟɫɬɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨ (ɧɚ ɝɥɚɡ), ɬ. ɟ. ɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɥɨɰɦɚɧɫɤɨɣ
ɩɪɨɜɨɞɤɢ — ɥɨɰɦɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ. ɫɧɨɜɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ — ɯɨɪɨɲɟɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɥɨɰɢɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ.
ɨɰɢɹ —ɱɚɫɬɶ ɧɚɭɤɢ ɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ, ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚ, ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɤ, ɨɡɟɪ, ɦɨɪɟɣ ɢ
ɨɤɟɚɧɨɜ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɧɭɠɞɚɦ ɦɨɪɟɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɦ.
ɚɞɚɱɚ ɥɨɰɢɢ — ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɢ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɧɚɢɜɵɝɨɞɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɢ
ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɝɨ ɩɭɬɢ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɡɚ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɦɭ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɭ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɭ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ. ɥɨɰɢɢ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɚɹ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɨɜ,
ɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɚɯ, ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɹɯ, ɪɟɥɶɟɮɟ
ɞɧɚ, ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨ ɧɚɢɜɵɝɨɞɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɢ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ.
ɨɰɢɹ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɫɤɭɸ ɢ ɪɟɱɧɭɸ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵ. ɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ
ɩɭɬɢ, ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ, ɤɚɧɚɥɵ ɢ ɬ. ɩ. ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɛɚɡɟ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɨɬɱɚɫɬɢ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɱɧɵɟ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɪɟɱɧɭɸ ɥɨɰɢɸ ɟɳɟ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɥɨɰɢɟɣ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɟɣ.
ɬ ɥɨɰɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɧɚɭɤɢ ɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ, ɤɚɤ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɥɨɰɢɸ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɢɡɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɤɚɤɨɦ-ɥɢɛɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɦ ɦɨɪɟ, ɪɟɤɟ, ɨɡɟɪɟ. ɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɥɨɰɢɹ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɝɢɞɪɨɦɟɬɟɨɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɟɣ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɯɨɞɨɜ, ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɣ, ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɪɟɣɞɨɜ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɚɤɚɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɥɨɰɢɹ, ɢɡɞɚɧɧɚɹ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟɦ, ɩɪɢɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɤ ɤɚɪɬɟ.
ɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɢ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɤɭɪɫɚ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ
ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ, ɚ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɢ ɜɨɜɫɟ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦɢ, ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɚɦɢ,
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ, ɤɚɪɬɚɦɢ. ɵɛɨɪ ɤɭɪɫɚ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɨɜ, ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɤɚɪɬ ɧɚ
ɛɚɡɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɲɬɭɪɦɚɧɫɤɢɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ.
ɒɬɭɪɦɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ ɡɚ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ
ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɟɬ ɜ ɫɟɛɟ ɞɜɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɫɬɚ: ɩɨ ɡɟɦɧɵɦ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɚɦ — ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɩɨ ɧɟɛɟɫɧɵɦ ɫɜɟɬɢɥɚɦ —
ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɚɹ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢɹ. ɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɭɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɜɟɞɭɳɟɣ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ
— ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɢ. ɪɢɛɨɪɵ (ɤɨɦɩɚɫ, ɥɨɬɵ, ɥɚɝɢ, ɫɟɤɫɬɚɧɵ, ɯɪɨɧɨɦɟɬɪɵ) ɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
15
ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɬ ɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɚɹ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ.
ɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɦɚɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɧɟ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɞɤɢɦ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ
ɦɨɪɟɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢɟɣ ɟɦɭ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ.
ɥɚɜɚ III. ɑə ɐə
§ 7. ɓ ə ə
ɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɩɭɬɢ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ.
ɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦɢ ɜɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɩɭɬɹɦɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɨɡɟɪɚ, ɝɞɟ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɨ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɞɧɨɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɵɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ.
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɭɬɹɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɪɟɤɢ, ɝɞɟ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɨɞɧɹɬ
ɩɥɨɬɢɧɚɦɢ, ɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɲɥɸɡɵ. ɗɬɢ ɪɟɤɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɚɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ. ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɭɬɹɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤɚɧɚɥɵ, ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɪɟɤɢ, ɢ ɨɛɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɤɚɧɚɥɵ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɨɡɟɪ ɢ
ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ.
ɑɚɫɬɶ ɪɭɫɥɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɦ ɯɨɞɨɦ, ɢɥɢ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɨɦ. ɟɱɧɨɣ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ
ɧɚ ɪɟɤɟ ɜ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɨ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɝɥɭɛɢɧ ɢ ɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ
ɤɪɢɜɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɦ, ɡɚɧɢɦɚɹ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɢ ɞɜɢɠɭɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ. ɟɧɹɸɳɢɟɫɹ
ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ, ɲɢɪɢɧɚ, ɢɡɜɢɥɢɫɬɨɫɬɶ, ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɵ ɜɨɞ — ɜɫɟ ɷɬɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ
ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɭɬɢ (ɜ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɠɟɥɟɡɧɨɞɨɪɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ). ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɞɜɢɠɭɳɟɦɫɹ ɜɨɞɧɨɦ ɩɭɬɢ, ɡɧɚɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ — «ɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɪɟɤɭ». ɨɥɶɤɨ ɬɨɝɞɚ ɨɧ ɫɭɦɟɟɬ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨ
ɜɵɛɪɚɬɶ ɤɭɪɫ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɥɸɛɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨɦ, ɦɚɥɵɦ ɢɥɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ.
ɟɱɧɚɹ ɥɨɰɢɹ, ɢɥɢ ɥɨɰɢɹ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɟɣ, ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸ.
ɛɳɚɹ ɪɟɱɧɚɹ ɥɨɰɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ɨɛɳɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɯ ɪɟɤ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ, ɟɝɨ ɪɭɫɥɨ ɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ
ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ ɢ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ, ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɭɸ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ, ɢɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ (ɧɨɱɶɸ, ɞɧɟɦ, ɜ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟ, ɜ
ɦɟɠɟɧɶ, ɜ ɥɟɞɨɫɬɚɜ). ɟɱɧɚɹ ɥɨɰɢɹ, ɤɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɢɡɭɱɚɟɬ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɭɸ, ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɭɸ ɢ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɭɸ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ ɢ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ. ɫɟ ɷɬɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɚɸɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ
ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɦɟɫɬɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ ɤɪɚɬɱɚɣɲɢɣ ɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɣ ɩɭɬɶ,
ɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ ɤɭɪɫ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɝɨ.
ɨɪɨɲɟɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ ɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨ ɨɜɥɚɞɟɬɶ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɨɣ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɵɛɨɪɭ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ ɧɚ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɪɟɤɟ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ ɨɬ ɟɟ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɟ. ɧɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ
ɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬ ɟɦɭ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ
ɪɟɤɟ, ɝɞɟ ɱɚɫɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɟɬ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɥɨɰɢɣ.
ɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɥɨɰɢɹ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɬ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɥɢ ɟɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɫ ɩɪɢɛɪɟɠɧɨɣ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦɢ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹɦɢ, ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɢ ɞɚɟɬ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɸ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɟ ɢɥɢ ɟɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɭ.
ɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɥɨɰɢɢ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɥɢ
ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɥɚɜɚɬɶ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ.
1. ɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɪɟɤɟ
ɟɤɨɣ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɜɨɞɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɫɢɥɵ ɬɹɠɟɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ
ɦɟɫɬ ɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɢɦ, ɩɨ ɧɢɡɤɨɦɭ ɜɵɬɹɧɭɬɨɦɭ ɜ ɞɥɢɧɭ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɸ ɜ ɡɟɦɧɨɣ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɦɭ ɞɨɥɢɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɢ. ɤɪɚɢɧɵ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɞɨɥɢɧ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɹɬ ɜ ɝɨɪɧɭɸ
ɰɟɩɶ ɢɥɢ ɯɨɥɦɵ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɪɹɠɚɦɢ. ɪɹɠ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɨɬɫɬɨɹɬɶ ɨɬ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɪɟɤɢ, ɬɨɝɞɚ ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ
ɛɭɞɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɢ, ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɜɩɥɨɬɧɭɸ ɤ ɪɟɤɟ ɢɥɢ ɜɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɧɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɦɵɫɨɦ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɦ ɪɵɧɤɨɦ
ɝɨɪ (ɪɢɫ. 7).
ɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɵɯ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ ɪɨɞɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɫɬɟɤɚɸɬ ɩɨ ɫɤɥɨɧɚɦ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ ɜ
ɪɭɫɥɨ ɪɟɤɢ — ɫɚɦɭɸ ɧɢɡɤɭɸ ɢɡɜɢɥɢɫɬɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ, ɩɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɬɟɱɟɬ ɜɨɞɚ. ɑɚɫɬɶ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ,
ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɦɚɹ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɣɦɨɣ.
ɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɨɛɢɪɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɭɸ ɪɟɤɭ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɵ,
ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɨɦɪɟɤɢ. ɚɫɫɟɣɧɵ ɪɟɤ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɵ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ — ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɚɦɢ.
ɚ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɪɚɡɭ ɞɜɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɥɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ. ɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɪɟɞɧɟɪɭɫɫɤɚɹ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɨɦ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɪɟɤ: ɨɥɝɢ, ɧɟɩɪɚ, ɚɩɚɞɧɨɣ ɜɢɧɵ, ɫɬɟɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɦɨɪɹ.
ɚɠɞɚɹ ɪɟɤɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ — ɢɫɬɨɤ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɡɟɪɨɦ, ɛɨɥɨɬɨɦ, ɥɟɞɧɢɤɨɦ, ɤɥɸɱɨɦ ɢ ɬ. ɞ., ɢ ɭɫɬɶɟ
— ɦɟɫɬɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɟɟ ɜ ɦɨɪɟ, ɨɡɟɪɨ ɢɥɢ ɞɪɭɝɭɸ ɪɟɤɭ.
ɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ ɜɨɞɵ, ɢɥɢ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ, ɤɨɥɟɛɥɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɡɚɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɞɨɥɢɧɵ — ɩɨɣɦ ɚ, ɞɨ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɦɟɠɟɧɶ — ɦɚɥɨɜɨɞɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɢ. ɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɢ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɟɠɟɝɨɞɧɨ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɤɢ. ɫɧɟɠɧɵɟ ɢ ɞɨɠɞɥɢɜɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ
ɪɟɤɚɯ ɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ, ɜ ɦɚɥɨɫɧɟɠɧɵɟ ɢ ɡɚɫɭɲɥɢɜɵɟ ɝɨɞɵ — ɦɟɧɶɲɟ.
ɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ, ɧɚɝɨɧɧɨ-ɫɝɨɧɧɵɯ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɞ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɜɟɬɪɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɥɢɜɨɜ ɢ ɨɬɥɢɜɨɜ ɜ ɭɫɬɶɹɯ ɪɟɤ.
ɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɞɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ, ɨɧ ɜɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɫɬɭɩɟɧɟɤ ɫɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ
ɢɫɬɨɤɨɜ ɤ ɭɫɬɶɸ. ɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ — ɩɥɟɫɵ — ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɟɫɱɚɧɨ-ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɦɢ —
16
ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚɦɢ. ɚɠɞɚɹ ɪɟɤɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɜɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɢ ɭɤɥɨɧ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɟɧ. ɛɵɱɧɨ ɜɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɟɟ — ɜɟɪɯɧɢɣ ɩɥɟɫ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɣ ɭɤɥɨɧ, ɩɨɬɨɤ ɪɟɠɟɬ ɩɨɪɨɞɭ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ, ɚ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɧɟɜɟɥɢɤɚ. ɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɧɚ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɪɟɤɟ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɟɧɨ. ɚɤɨɜɚ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɨɥɝɚ ɜ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɦ
ɩɥɟɫɟ. ɧɢɠɧɟɦ ɩɥɟɫɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɭɤɥɨɧ ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɟɧ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɬɶɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ.
ɜɢɠɭɳɢɣɫɹ ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɜɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɨɛɢɜɚɟɬ ɫɟɛɟ ɞɨɪɨɝɭ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɟɬ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɬɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ, ɝɞɟ
ɝɪɭɧɬ ɫɥɚɛɵɣ, ɢ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɨɫɟɪɟɞɤɨɜ, ɨɫɬɪɨɜɨɜ ɢ ɱɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɤɨɫ. ɚɤ
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɢɡɝɢɛɵ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɪɟɤɢ, ɪɚɡɦɵɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚɯ. ɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɵ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɵ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ ɢ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɥɟɞɨɯɨɞɚ.
ɡɝɢɛɵ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɪɟɤ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɭɸ ɞɥɢɧɭ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɭ (ɪɢɫ. 8). ɥɢɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɝɢɛɵ ɦɟɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫ
ɞɨɥɢɧɨɣ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɢɡɜɢɥɢɧɚɦ ɢ. ɱɟɧɶ ɞɥɢɧɧɚɹ ɢɡɜɢɥɢɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɧɚɱɚɥɨɦ ɢ ɤɨɧɰɨɦ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɞɥɢɧɚ ɢɡɜɢɥɢɧɵ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɥɭɤɨɣ. ɥɢɧɧɵɣ ɢɡɝɢɛ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɢɡɥɭɱɢɧɨɣ, ɤɪɭɬɚɹ ɤɨɪɨɬɤɚɹ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɧɚ — ɤɨɥɟɧɨɦ. ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɢ ɤɨɧɟɰ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɧɵ ɜ
ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɵ ɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɦ. ɚɤɨɟ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɩɪɹɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɪɜɨɣ, ɢ ɩɨ
ɧɟɣ ɜ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɢ ɜ ɦɟɠɟɧɶ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɨ. ɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ ɩɪɨɪɜɚ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɝɥɭɛɠɟ,
ɲɢɪɟ ɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ. ɫɚɦɨɣ ɠɟ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɧɟ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ, ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɨɧɚ
ɦɟɥɟɟɬ, ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɹɫɶ ɜ ɫɬɚɪɨɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ — ɫɬɚɪɢɰɭ, ɢɥɢ ɫɬɚɪɨɪɟɱɶɟ.
ɢɫ. 7.ɯɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɥɚɧ
ɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ ɢ ɪɭɫɥɚ: 1 —
ɩɪɚɜɵɣ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɣ (ɧɟɡɚɬɨɩɥɹɟɦɵɣ)
ɛɟɪɟɝ (ɤɪɹɠ); 2 —ɥɟɜɵɣ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɣ
ɛɟɪɟɝ (ɤɪɹɠ); 3 —ɪɭɫɥɨ;4 —
ɩɪɚɜɵɣ ɦɟɠɟɧɧɵɣ (ɡɚɬɨɩɥɹɟɦɵɣ)
ɛɟɪɟɝ; 5 —ɥɟɜɵɣ ɦɟɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ;
6 —ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ; 7 —ɨɫɬɪɨɜ;8 —
ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɟ (ɯɨɞɨɜɨɟ) ɪɭɫɥɨ; 9 —
ɜɨɥɨɠɤɚ (ɧɟɯɨɞɨɜɚɹ);10 —
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɡɟɪɨ; 11— ɫɬɚɪɨɪɟɱɶɟ
(ɫɬɚɪɢɰɚ);12 —ɡɚɬɨɧ; 13 —ɧɚɱɚɥɨ
ɩɪɨɪɜɵ;14 —ɩɪɢɬɨɤ (ɪɟɱɤɚ);15 —
ɨɜɪɚɝɢ;16—ɨɫɟɪɟɞɨɤ; 17 —ɩɪɚɜɚɹ
ɩɨɣɦɚ; 18 —ɥɟɜɚɹ ɩɨɣɦɚ;19 —
ɝɨɪɧɵɣ ɪɵɧɨɤ (ɪɵɧɨɤ ɝɨɪ); ɝ. ɜ. ɜ.
²ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɜɨɞ; ɝ. ɦ. ɜ. —
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ ɦɟɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ
ɡɝɢɛɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɢɡɜɢɥɢɧɵ, ɢɡɥɭɱɢɧɵ, ɤɨɥɟɧɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ
ɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɦɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɦɢ. ɞɟɫɶ ɜ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɦ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨ, ɚ ɧɚ ɤɪɢɜɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɦ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ — ɧɟɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨ.
ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɜ ɤɪɢɜɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɪɭɫɥɚ, ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ
ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɛɪɵɜɢɫɬ, ɩɨɞɦɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɨɤɨɥɨ ɧɟɝɨ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ. ɩɥɚɧɟ (ɜɢɞ ɫɜɟɪɯɭ) ɷɬɨɬ
ɛɟɪɟɝ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɨɫɢɬ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ.
ɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ, ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɩɨɥɨɝɢɣ, ɜɞɨɥɶ ɧɟɝɨ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ, ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɨɤɨɥɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ
ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚ, ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɪɟɤɢ. ɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɚɛɨɟ. ɗɬɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɦ.
ɫɥɢ ɜɫɬɚɬɶ ɥɢɰɨɦ ɩɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɬɨ ɛɟɪɟɝ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɫ ɩɪɚɜɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɚɜɵɦ,
ɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɣ ɟɦɭ — ɥɟɜɵɦ.
2. ɟɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɬɨɤ
ɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɭɤɥɨɧɨɜ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ, ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɨɬɨɤɟ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɢɯ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
ɫɥɢ ɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɡɪɟɡɚɬɶ ɪɟɤɭ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɤ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɸ, ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɨɣ ɤ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ, ɬɨ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɞɧɨɦ, ɛɟɪɟɝɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɨɞɵ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɠɢɜɵɦ
ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ. ɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɞɵ, ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɳɟɟ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɠɢɜɨɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɟɤɭɧɞɵ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɦ
ɜɨɞɵ. ɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɠɢɜɨɦɭ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ.
ɚɤ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɡɚɤɪɭɝɥɟɧɢɹɯ, ɚ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚɯ
— ɨɬ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɥɟɫɟ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
17
ɢɫ. 8.
ɯɟɦɚ ɢɡɜɢɥɢɫɬɵɯ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɪɟɤ: 1 —
ɩɪɚɜɵɣ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɣ
(ɧɟɡɚɬɨɩɥɹɟɦɵɣ) ɛɟɪɟɝ;2 —
ɥɟɜɵɣ
ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ;3—
ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɞɨɥɢɧɵ;
4 — ɩɪɚɜɵɣ ɦɟɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ; 5 —
ɥɟɜɵɣ ɦɟɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ; 6 —
ɲɢɪɢɧɚ
ɦɟɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɭɫɥɚ; 7—
ɩɪɚɜɚɹ ɩɨɣɦɚ;
8 — ɥɟɜɚɹ ɩɨɣɦɚ;9— ɹɪ;10 —
ɧɢɠɧɟɟ ɩɥɟɱɨ ɹɪɚ;11 —
ɜɟɪɯɧɟɟ
ɩɥɟɱɨ ɹɪɚ;12²ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬ;13 —
ɜɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɤɨɫɚ (ɩɟɫɤɢ);14 —
ɧɢɠɧɹɹ
ɤɨɫɚ (ɩɟɫɤɢ);15—
ɝɪɟɛɟɧɶ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ;
16 — ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ; 17 —
ɧɟɯɨɞɨɜɚɹ ɜɨɥɨɠɤɚ;18 — ɨɫɬɪɨɜ;
19
— ɩɪɢɜɟɪɯ ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ;20 —
ɭɯɜɨɫɬɶɟ
ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ;21 — ɡɚɬɨɧ;22 —
ɡɚɳɢɬɧɚɹ
ɥɢɧɢɹ ɥɟɞɨɪɟɡɨɜ;23 — ɪɵɧɨɤ;24 —
ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥ;25 — ɨɫɟɪɟɞɨɤ;26 —
ɩɨɛɨɱɟɧɶ;27 —
ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ
ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ;28 —
ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɟɝɨ
ɞɨɥɢɧɵ;29 —
ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ
ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ;30—
ɲɢɪɢɧɚ
ɞɨɥɢɧɵ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ;
31
— ɤɨɫɚ;32 — ɫɬɪɟɥɤɚ ɭɫɬɶɹ;33 —
ɩɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɡɟɪɚ
ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɠɢɜɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɚ (ɪɢɫ. 9). ɥɸɛɨɦ ɠɢɜɨɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ
ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚɞ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɦ ɦɟɫɬɨɦ ɨɤɨɥɨ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɢɠɟ ɟɟ,
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ ɞɨ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɬɪɟɬɢ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɨɬ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ. ɬ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɠɢɜɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɨɬɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɭ ɬɪɟɬɶ ɨɬ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɨ ɞɧɭ ɪɟɤɢ ɢ ɨɬ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɪɟɤɢ ɤ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɦ.
ɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ; ɪɭɫɥɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɪɭɫɥɚ, ɚ
ɜ ɤɪɢɜɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ — ɛɥɢɠɟ ɤ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɦɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ.
ɫɥɢ ɧɚ ɨɬɪɟɡɤɟ ɪɟɤɢ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɦ ɢɡ ɤɪɢɜɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ, ɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɣ, ɚ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɠɢɜɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɬɶ ɥɢɧɢɟɣ,
ɬɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɦ ɨɫɶ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ —ɫɬɪɟɠɟɧɶ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɥɢɡɤɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ (ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɢ
ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵ) ɢ ɢɞɟɬ ɩɨɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɜ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ.
ɦɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɡɧɚɬɶ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɥɢɧɢɸ ɫɬɪɟɠɧɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ.
3. ɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɬɨɤɟ
ɠɢɜɨɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɢɡɝɢɛɨɜ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɛɟɠɧɨɣ ɫɢɥɵ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɨ ɩɨ
ɧɚɤɥɨɧɧɨɦɭ ɞɧɭ ɤ ɦɟɥɤɨɦɭ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɦɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ — ɤ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɦɭ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɦɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ (ɪɢɫ.
10). ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɥɟɞ ɜ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɟ ɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɸɬ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɟ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɭɜɥɟɤɚɟɬ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ ɤ
ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ ɢ ɨɫɟɞɚɸɬ. ɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜɨɞɵ ɭ
ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ.
ɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɦɟɠɧɵɯ ɠɢɜɵɯ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɢɡɝɢɛɚɯ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɪɟɤɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɜɢɧɬɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ
ɩɨɬɨɤɟ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɤ ɹɪɭ, ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɠɢɦɧɵɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ. ɧɨ ɫɧɨɫɢɬ ɫɭɞɧɨ
ɫ ɤɭɪɫɚ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ.
ɢɫ. 9.ɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɩɥɚɧɟ: / — ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ; 11
— ɧɟɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ. 1 —
ɛɪɨɜɤɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ;2 — ɛɪɨɜɤɚ
ɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ;3 — ɩɪɚɜɵɣ ɭɪɟɡ
ɜɨɞɵ;4 — ɥɟɜɵɣ ɭɪɟɡ ɜɨɞɵ; 5 —
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɩɥɚɧɟ
18
ɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɟ ɨɬ ɤɪɢɜɢɡɧɵ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɤ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ (ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɭɸ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ )
ɜɢɧɬɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɢɡɝɢɛɟ
ɭɫɥɚ ɦɟɧɹɟɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ. ɚ ɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɦ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɟɦ ɷɬɢ ɞɜɚ ɢɡɝɢɛɚ, ɜɢɧɬɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɪɚɫɫɟɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɩɪɢ ɧɨɜɨɦ
ɢɡɝɢɛɟ ɫɧɨɜɚ ɫɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ.
4. ɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɦɚɣɞɚɧɵ,
ɫɭɜɨɞɢ, ɬɨɥɱɟɢ, ɫɜɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɬɢɯɨɜɨɞɵ.
ɚɣɞɚɧɨɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɨɟ
ɜɨɡɦɭɳɟɧɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ,
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɟɟ ɨɬ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ,
ɧɚɪɭɲɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɞɨɧɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ
ɪɭɫɥɟ. ɚɤɢɦ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ
ɤɚɦɟɧɶ-ɨɞɢɧɟɰ, ɤɚɪɱɚ, ɡɚɬɨɧɭɜɲɟɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ. ɚɣɞɚɧ
ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɢɠɟ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɟ ɢɦ ɜɨɡɦɭɳɟɧɢɟ
ɫɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ. ɚɣɞɚɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɟ
ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɣ ɞɜɭɯ ɪɟɤ (ɪɢɫ. 11).
ɭɜɨɞɶɸ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɪɚɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ
ɜɨɞɵ (ɜɨɞɨɜɨɪɨɬ ) ɡɚ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɦ
ɜɵɫɬɭɩɨɦ ɜ ɹɪɭ ɢɥɢ ɪɵɧɤɨɦ ɝɨɪ. ɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ
ɜɨɞɚ ɜ ɫɭɜɨɞɢ ɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɱɚɫɨɜɨɣ ɫɬɪɟɥɤɢ, ɭ
ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ — ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ.
ɬɚɤɨɦ ɜɨɞɨɜɨɪɨɬɟ-ɫɭɜɨɞɢ ɞɜɟ ɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɭɢ
ɱɚɫɬɨ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ (ɪɢɫ. 12). ɞɨɥɶ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ,ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɢ
ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɷɬɢ ɫɬɪɭɢ, ɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɡɚɜɢɯɪɟɧɢɹ
(ɜɨɪɨɧɤɢ), ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɪɚɳɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɜɨɞɚ
ɫɢɥɨɣ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɨ ɞɧɭ ɪɟɤɢ. ɑɚɫɬɢɰɵ ɜɨɞɵ,
ɫɩɭɫɤɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɭ, ɡɚɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɟɱɧɵɦ
ɞɧɨɦ. ɬɫɸɞɚ ɨɧɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɟɝɨ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɬ. ɟ. ɜ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɫɬɪɭɢ ɫ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ. ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɜɨɪɨɬɵ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɸɬ ɪɟɱɧɨɟ ɞɧɨ ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɜɵɪɵɬɶ ɜ ɧɟɦ ɹɦɵ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ 20 ɦ ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ.
ɭɜɨɞɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɭ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ
ɝɢɞɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ: ɭɫɬɨɟɜ ɦɨɫɬɨɜ,
ɩɥɨɬɢɧ, ɞɚɦɛ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ
ɫɭɜɨɞɟɣ ɫ ɫɢɥɶɧɵɦ ɜɪɚɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɜɨɞɵ
ɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ.
ɨɥɱɟɹ — ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɨɬɤɢɯ ɢ
ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɜɨɥɧ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɜɫɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚ
ɨɞɧɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ. ɪɢɱɢɧɚ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɨɥɱɟɢ —
ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɥɧ ɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ, ɩɪɢɱɚɥɨɜ, ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ. ɭɫɬɶɹɯ ɪɟɤ ɬɨɥɱɟɹ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɨɬ ɩɟɪɟɛɨɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɜɟɬɪɨɦ ɫ ɦɨɪɹ.
ɜɚɥɶɧɨɟ (ɤɨɫɨɟ) ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ — ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɟ ɢɥɢ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɨɞ ɭɝɥɨɦ ɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɟɝɨ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɩɨ
ɫɬɪɟɠɧɸ. ɜɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚɯ,
ɤɨɝɞɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɢɜɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɧɟ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɫ
ɤɨɪɵɬɨɦ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɭ ɦɨɫɬɨɜ, ɞɚɦɛ, ɜ ɩɨɪɨɠɢɫɬɵɯ
ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɢ ɬ. ɩ.ɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɡɚɬɹɠɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɢɡ
ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɩɪɨɪɚɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɜɨɥɨɠɤɢ.
ɢɯɨɜɨɞɵ — ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɪɟɤ ɫɨ ɫɥɚɛɵɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ, ɚ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɢ ɜɨɜɫɟ ɛɟɡ ɧɟɝɨ; ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɡɚ ɨɬɥɨɝɢɦɢ ɧɚɧɨɫɚɦɢ;
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɯ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ. ɪɚɧɢɰɵ ɬɢɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬ ɩɨ ɩɟɧɹɳɟɣɫɹ ɩɨɥɨɫɤɟ ɜɨɞɵ.
ɢɫ. 10.ɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɢɡɝɢɛɟ ɪɭɫɥɚ:1 —
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ — ɩɪɢɠɢɦɧɨɟ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ;2 — ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɞɧɟ — ɞɨɧɧɨɟ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ
ɢɫ. 11.ɚɣɞɚɧɵ: I — ɧɚɞ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɦ
ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ; II — ɩɪɢ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɢ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ
ɢɫ. 12.ɭɜɨɞɶ
19
§ 8. ə 1. ɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ
ɨɣɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ, ɨɛɪɵɜɢɫɬɵɣ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɦɵɜɚ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɠɢɦɧɵɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɹɪɨɦ. ɹɪɚ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɭ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ. ɗɬɨ ɞɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɦ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɫ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɣ ɩɨ ɹɪɭ, ɬ. ɟ. ɨɤɨɥɨ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ. əɪ
ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ (ɢ ɤɨɧɱɚɟɬɫɹ) ɜ ɬɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ, ɝɞɟ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɥɢ ɜ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ.
ɚɱɚɥɨ ɹɪɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɪɯɧɢɦ ɩɥɟɱɨɦ ɹɪɚ, ɚ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɟɟɫɹ ɧɢɠɟ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ, — ɧɢɠɧɢɦ ɩɥɟɱɨɦ.
ɢɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɥɢ ɜ
ɨɛɪɵɜɢɫɬɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɪɨɜɤɨɣ ɹɪɚ (ɪɢɫ. 18).
ɹɪɭ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɸɬ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɭɸ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɭ. ɬɚɤɢɦ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɩɟɱɢɧɚ — ɬɪɭɞɧɨ
ɩɨɞɞɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɭ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɨɪɨɞɵ (ɨɛɵɱɧɨ
ɝɥɢɧɚ), ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɨ. ɨɡɥɟ ɩɟɱɢɧɵ, ɤɚɤ
ɜɨɨɛɳɟ ɭ ɹɪɚ, ɛɵɫɬɪɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ.
ɟɱɢɧɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ. ɵɲɟ
ɩɟɱɢɧɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɞɩɨɪ ɜɨɞɵ, ɚ ɧɢɠɟ—
ɤɪɭɝɨɜɨɪɨɬ (ɫɭɜɨɞɶ). ɨ ɫɭɜɨɞɢ ɫɭɞɹɬ ɨ ɦɟɫɬɟ
ɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɩɟɱɢɧɵ.
ɫɥɢ ɧɚ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɭ ɹɪɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɥɟɫ, ɡɧɚɱɢɬ, ɜ
ɜɨɞɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɤɚɪɱɢ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɦɵɟ ɨɬ ɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɜɨɞɭ ɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜ ɢ ɩɧɟɣ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ
ɩɨɞɦɵɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ.
ɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɩɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦ ɪɟɥɶɟɮɚ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɩɚɥɢɰɚ ɢ ɩɨɛɨɱɟɧɶ.
ɚɥɢɰɟɣ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɭ
ɢɡ ɧɟɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɜ ɹɪɭ ɩɨɞ ɜɨɞɨɣ.
ɟɫɬɨɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɥɢɰɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ, ɧɚ ɧɟɣ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ ɜɨɞɵ.
ɨɛɨɱɧɢ — ɧɚɧɨɫɵ ɩɟɫɤɚ ɭ ɹɪɚ — ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɫɥɢɜɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ ɢɡ ɡɚɬɨɩɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɣɦɵ ɜ
ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɹɪ. ɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɜɲɟɣɫɹ ɜ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɯ ɜɵɟɦɤɟ ɨɬ ɫɥɢɜɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ ɩɨɣɦɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɦɟɫɬɨ
ɧɚɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɛɨɱɧɹ ɫɪɚɡɭ ɠɟ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɟɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɨɛɨɱɧɟɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɹɪɚɯ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ, ɤɨɝɞɚ
ɪɟɤɚ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɫɜɨɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ. ɑɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɩɨɛɨɱɧɢ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɨɜɫɟɦ ɢɥɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɜɨɞɨɣ ɦɟɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɭɫɥɚ. ɚ
ɲɥɸɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɟ ɩɨɛɨɱɧɢ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɟɟ, ɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɣ. ɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɧɢɠɟ ɫɭɜɨɞɟɣ ɢɡ-ɡɚ
ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ, ɬ. ɟ. ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɩɨɛɨɱɧɢ.
ɟɱɢɫɬɵɦ ɹɪɨɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɹɪ, ɜɨɡɥɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɟ
ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ: ɩɟɱɢɧɵ, ɩɚɥɢɰɵ, ɤɚɪɱɢ, ɩɨɛɨɱɧɢ, ɨɞɢɧɰɵ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɜɨɡɥɟ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨ.
ɫɥɢ ɭ ɹɪɚ ɧɟɬ ɧɢɤɚɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɟɝɨ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɱɢɫɬɵɦ ɹɪɨɦ.
2. ɵɩɭɤɥɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ ɢ ɧɚɧɨɫɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɤɨɥɨ ɧɟɝɨ
ɚɧɨɫɵ ɜ ɪɟɱɧɨɦ ɩɨɬɨɤɟ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ, ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɳɟɣ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɟ
ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɧɚ ɢɡɝɢɛax ɪɭɫɥɚ ɢ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɧɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ (ɪɢɫ. 14).
ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɯ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ, ɝɞɟ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨ,
ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ.
ɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɧɢɡɤɢɣ
ɨɬɥɨɝɢɣ ɩɟɫɱɚɧɵɣ ɛɟɪɟɝ ɛɟɡ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɣ
ɩɟɫɤɨɦ. ɨɪɦɚ ɩɟɫɤɚ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɸ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɹɪɚ.
ɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɜɢɞɨɦ
ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ ɩɟɫɤɚ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɫɚ (ɪɢɫ. 15),
ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ, ɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ,
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɟɬ ɤ
ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɦɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɢ ɜɟɪɲɢɧɨɣ
ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɡ
ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɜ
ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɟ.
ɢɫ. 13. ɟɱɢɫɬɵɣ ɹɪ: 1 — ɹɪ;2 — ɛɪɨɜɤɚ ɹɪɚ; 3 —
ɭɪɟɡ ɜɨɞɵ;4 — ɫɜɚɥɢɜɲɟɟɫɹ ɞɟɪɟɜɨ;5 — ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɚɹ ɩɟɱɢɧɚ
ɢɫ. 14.ɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɪɟɱɧɨɦ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɨɜ(1,
2, 3) ɢ ɩɥɟɫɨɜ
20
ɢɫ. 15.ɨɫɚ
ɨɫɚ ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ, ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɚɹ ɤ ɤɨɫɟ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɤ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɦɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɡɚɤɨɫɤɨɦ. ɨɞɜɨɞɧɚɹ ɤɨɫɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ, ɜɞɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɨ ɪɟɤɢ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɦɚɧɢɯɨɣ. ɟɫɨɤ ɢɥɢ
ɤɨɫɚ ɩɨɞ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɪɚɡɦɵɬɵ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɨɛɪɵɜɢɫɬɵɦɢ ɨɤɨɥɨ «ɜɟɪɯɨɜɨɣ» (ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ) ɩɨ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɱɚɫɬɢ, ɜɜɢɞɭ ɱɟɝɨ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɨ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɦɭ ɦɟɫɬɭ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ. ɚɤɨɣ ɩɟɫɨɤ ɢɥɢ ɤɨɫɭ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ
ɨɛɪɟɡɧɵɦ ɢ. ɪɭɩɩɚ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɨɫ, ɧɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɫɬɪɭɝɚɦɢ. ɚɫɬɪɭɝɢ
ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɬ ɤ ɤɨɫɚɦ, ɡɚɤɨɫɤɚɦ ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ.
ɚɬɨɧɢɧɨɣ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɡɚɥɢɜ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɡɚ ɤɨɫɨɣ. ɚɧɨɫɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɤɨɫɵ,
ɡɚɤɨɫɤɢ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɜɜɢɞɭ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬ ɫɜɨɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ, ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɭ ɢɥɢ, ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ,
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ.
3. ɚɧɨɫɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ
ɪɨɦɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ ɜɨɡɥɟ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɢ ɩɨɛɨɱɧɟɣ ɜ ɹɪɭ, ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɪɟɤɢ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɧɵɟ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɨɞɨɣ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɟ. ɧɢɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɨɫɟɪɟɞɤɢ, ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ, ɜɵɫɵɩɤɢ,
ɲɚɥɵɝɢ.
ɫɟɪɟɞɤɨɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɚɹ ɨɬɦɟɥɶ, ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɜɨɞɨɣ ɢ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɳɚɹ ɧɢɤɚɤɨɣ
ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɬ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɤɨɫɵ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɣ
ɨɫɟɪɟɞɨɤ; ɨɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɭɬɶ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɢɠɟ
ɦɵɫɚ ɫɬɪɟɥɤɢ,
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɨɬ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɹ
ɞɜɭɯ ɪɟɤ, ɜ ɬɢɯɨɜɨɞɟ, ɡɚ
ɪɵɧɤɨɦ ɝɨɪ, ɧɚ ɲɚɥɵɝɟ ɢ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹɯ. ɫɟɪɟɞɤɢ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɲɢɪɢɧɭ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ, ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɵ.
ɫɬɪɨɜɨɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɣ ɨɫɟɪɟɞɨɤ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ. ɫɬɪɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢɡ
ɨɫɟɪɟɞɤɚ, ɩɨɣɦɵ, ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɫɩɪɹɦɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɥɭɱɢɧɵ, ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɧɚ ɞɜɚ ɪɭɤɚɜɚ, ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɪɚɧɚ — ɭɡɤɨɝɨ
ɪɭɤɚɜɚ, ɞɟɥɹɳɟɝɨ ɨɫɬɪɨɜ ɧɚ ɞɜɚ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ. ɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ ɢ ɨɫɟɪɟɞɤɚ, ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɟɦɚɹ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ, ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɜɟɪɯɨɦ, ɧɢɠɧɹɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ, ɝɞɟ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ, — ɭɯɜɨɫɬɶɟɦ.
ɒɚɥɵɝɨɣ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɧɨɟ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɭ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɫɬɚɜɲɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɶ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɤ
ɤɨɪɵɬɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ (ɪɢɫ. 16), ɬ. ɟ. ɜɡɚɦɟɬ.
ɨɫɥɟ ɫɧɹɬɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɫ ɦɟɥɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɯɨɞɢɬ ɲɚɥɵɝɭ, ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɹ ɟɟ. ɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɲɚɥɵɝɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɛɥɢɠɟ ɤ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɸ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶ ɟɝɨ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɹ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬ ɫ
ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɦ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟɦ. ɒɚɥɵɝɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɚɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɹɫɶ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɢ ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɹɫɶ ɜ
ɨɫɟɪɟɞɨɤ.
ɵɫɵɩɤɨɣ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ, ɜɵɧɨɫɢɦɵɯ ɢɡ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ (ɪɟɱɤɚ, ɪɭɱɟɣ, ɨɜɪɚɝ ɢ ɩɪ. ) ɜ ɭɫɬɶɟ ɢɥɢ
ɧɢɠɟ ɟɝɨ. ɵɫɵɩɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɝɪɚɜɢɹ, ɩɟɫɤɚ, ɝɚɥɶɤɢ, ɚ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɦɧɟɣ.
ɫɥɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ ɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɜɨɝɧɭɬɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɬɨ ɜɵɫɵɩɤɚ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɚɹɫɹ ɜ ɹɪɭ ɨɤɨɥɨ ɭɫɬɶɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɢ ɩɨɛɨɱɧɟɦ. ɫɥɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ ɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɬɨ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ ɭ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ
ɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ. ɥɨɳɚɞɶ ɜɵɫɵɩɤɢ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɢɠɟ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ, ɢ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɚ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɭ ɫɬɪɟɥɤɢ.
ɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɫɵɩɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɤ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɧɢɠɟ
ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɡɚɯɨɞɟ ɜ ɧɟɝɨ ɢ ɜɟɫɬɢ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɧɚ ɦɚɥɨɦ ɯɨɞɭ, ɢɡɦɟɪɹɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɭ ɧɚɦɟɬɤɨɣ (ɦɟɬɪɲɬɨɤɨɦ ).
ɢɫ. 16.ɭɞɧɨ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɢ, ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ
21
4. ɟɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɟɦɵɟ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ
ɪɟɤɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɟɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɣ. ɧɢɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ:
ɞɢɧɟɰ — ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨ ɥɟɠɚɳɢɣ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɤɚɦɟɧɶ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ. ɞɢɧɟɰ, ɜɦɟɪɡɲɢɣ ɜ ɥɟɞ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɦɟɫɬɟ
ɫɨ ɥɶɞɨɦ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɥɟɞɨɯɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ.
ɝɪɭɞɤɢ (ɤɚɦɟɧɢɫɬɵɣ ɨɫɟɪɟɞɨɤ)— ɜɵɬɹɧɭɬɨɟ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɦɧɟɣ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɦɨɧɨɥɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɚ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ.
ɪɹɞɚ — ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɟ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɦɧɟɣ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɤ ɪɟɤɢ.
ɨɪɨɝ — ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɨɟ ɢ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɨɟ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɧɟɣ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɪɭɫɥɚ, ɫɨɡɞɚɸɳɟɟ ɩɨɞɩɨɪ ɜɨɞɵ
ɜɵɲɟ ɩɨɪɨɝɚ ɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɨɪɨɝɟ. ɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ ɪɟɤɢ ɭ ɩɨɪɨɝɚ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɧɟɝɥɭɛɨɤ, ɢɡɜɢɥɢɫɬ ɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɤɚɦɧɹɦɢ.
ɒɢɜɟɪɚ — ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɪɨɝɚ ɧɚ ɫɢɛɢɪɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɤɚɯ — ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɤɚɦɧɟɣ, ɪɚɡɛɪɨɫɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɪɭɫɥɚ. ɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ ɢɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɧɢɦɢ.
ɪɢ ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦ ɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɩɭɬɹɦ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɡɧɚɬɶ ɟɳɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɥɨɰɦɚɧɫɤɢɟ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɵ.
ɟɥɶɬɚ — ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɤɢ ɜ ɨɡɟɪɨ ɢɥɢ ɦɟɪɟ. ɟɤɚ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɪɚɡɜɟɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɦɟɥɤɢɯ
ɩɪɨɬɨɤɨɜ, ɪɭɤɚɜɨɜ. ɟɥɶɬɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɜɢɞ ɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤɚ, ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɛɭɤɜɭ ɞɟɥɶɬɭ. ɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤ ɫɜɨɢɦ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧ ɤ ɦɨɪɸ. ɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɟɥɶɬɚ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ.
ɢɦɚɧ — ɫɟɬɶ ɩɪɨɪɚɧɨɜ, ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɟɥɶɬɚ ɪɟɤɢ. ɢɦɚɧɨɦ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɩɪɨɬɨɤɢ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɚɯ
ɧɟɩɪɚ, ɧɟɫɬɪɚ. ɚ ɨɥɝɟ ɢɯ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɟɪɢɤɚɦɢ, ɧɚ ɭɧɚɟ — ɝɢɪɥɚɦɢ, ɧɚ ɟɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɜɢɧɟ — ɪɭɤɚɜɚɦɢ. ɧɨɝɞɚ
ɩɪɨɬɨɤɢ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ ɛɵɜɚɸɬ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɦɢ, ɬɨɝɞɚ ɢɯ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɥɶɦɟɧɹɦɢ (ɧɚ ɨɥɝɟ), ɩɥɚɜɧɹɦɢ (ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɪɟɤɚɯ).
ɪɟɡ ɜɨɞɵ — ɥɢɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ ɫ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɦ.
ɚɩɥɟɫɤ — ɭɡɤɚɹ, ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɨɬɥɨɝɚɹ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɚɹ ɩɨɥɨɫɚ, ɡɚɩɥɟɫɤɢɜɚɟɦɚɹ ɩɪɢ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ, ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɳɚɹ ɤ ɭɪɟɡɭ
ɜɨɞɵ.
ɨɥɨɠɤɚ — ɜɬɨɪɨɟ ɪɭɫɥɨ ɪɟɤɢ, ɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɬ ɤɨɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ (ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ) ɪɭɫɥɚ ɨɫɬɪɨɜɨɦ. ɨɥɨɠɤɚ ɫɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɦ ɯɨɞɨɦ.
ɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ — ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ, ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɡɚ
ɫɱɟɬ ɞɧɨɭɝɥɭɛɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɩɨɩɭɫɤɨɜ ɜɨɞɵ ɢɡ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ, ɜɵɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ.
ɟɣɞ — ɚɤɜɚɬɨɪɢɹ (ɜɨɞɧɚɹ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ) ɩɨɪɬɚ, ɝɞɟ ɫɬɨɹɬ ɫɭɞɚ ɜ ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɢ ɩɨɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɢ ɜɵɝɪɭɡɤɢ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɢ
ɪɚɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɛɭɤɫɢɪɧɵɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɵ, ɨɬɫɬɚɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɭɞɚ ɜ ɲɬɨɪɦ ɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɟɦɨɧɬɚ.
ɚɦɛɚ — ɝɢɞɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɜɵɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɟɟ ɞɥɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɹ
ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɥɟɞɨɯɨɞɚ.
5. ɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ
ɚɧɨɫɵ ɜ ɪɟɤɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ, ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɳɟɣ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɟ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɹ ɤɨɫɨɣ
ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɣ ɜɚɥ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ. ɗɬɨɬ ɧɚɧɨɫɧɵɣ ɜɚɥ, ɧɚɞ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɜ ɫɦɟɠɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɪɭɫɥɚ,
ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɹɟɬ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɶɟɦ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ (ɪɢɫ. 17). ɟɠɞɭ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚɦɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ
ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɪɟɤɢ — ɩɥɟɫɵ.
ɚɥ, ɢɥɢ ɫɟɞɥɨɜɢɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ, ɩɪɢ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɪɟɠɧɟɦ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɜ ɧɟɦ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ,
ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɟ ɤɨɪɵɬɨɦ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ, ɝɞɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɵɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ. ɨ ɤɨɪɵɬɭ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɯɨɞ.
ɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɥɨɝɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɫɟɞɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɩɨɪɧɵɦ ɫɤɚɬɨɦ. ɢɠɧɹɹ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ
ɱɚɫɬɶ ɫɟɞɥɨɜɢɧɵ ɨɛɪɵɜɢɫɬɚ ɢ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟɦ. ɚɞ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟɦ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ.
ɚɦɚɹ ɜɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɝɪɟɛɧɟɦ. ɬ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ, ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɤɢ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɭ.
ɥɭɛɨɤɨɜɨɞɧɵɣ
ɭɱɚɫɬɨɤ ɪɟɤɢ,
ɩɪɢɥɟɝɚɸɳɢɣ ɤ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɭ,
ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɥɟɫɨɜɨɣ
ɥɨɳɢɧɨɣ ɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚɱɚɥɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɟɦ
ɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɟɫɚ.
ɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɢ ɧɢɠɧɹɹ
ɤɨɫɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɨɜ (ɢɥɢ
ɩɟɫɤɢ) ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ
ɜɵɲɟ ɢ ɧɢɠɟ ɤɨɪɵɬɚ
ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ. ɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚɯ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɯɨɞ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ,
ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɥɢ, ɤɚɤ
ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ, ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɢɜɚɟɬ ɨɬ
ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɤ ɞɪɭɝɨɦɭ.
ɗɬɢ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɚ ɦɢ.
ɜɢɞɭ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɪɚɡɧɢɰɵ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɨɫɚɞɤɨɣ
ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ
ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ ɧɚ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ
ɪɟɤɚɯ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ-
ɢɫ. 17.ɟɪɟɤɚɬ: 1 — ɜɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɤɨɫɚ;2 — ɧɢɠɧɹɹ ɤɨɫɚ;3 — ɜɟɪɯɧɹɹ ɩɥɟɫɨɜɚɹ
ɥɨɳɢɧɚ;4 — ɧɢɠɧɹɹ ɩɥɟɫɨɜɚɹ ɥɨɳɢɧɚ; 5 — ɫɟɞɥɨɜɢɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ; 6 — ɤɨɪɵɬɨ
ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ; 7 — ɧɚɩɨɪɧɵɣ ɫɤɚɬ; 8 — ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ;9 — ɝɪɟɛɟɧɶ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ;10 —
ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ
22
ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɧɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɨɳɭɳɚɟɬ ɦɟɥɤɨɜɨɞɶɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɨɜ, ɧɨ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɫɭɞɧɨ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɹ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ. ɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɡɧɚɬɶ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɚ ɩɨ ɬɨɦɭ ɢɥɢ
ɢɧɨɦɭ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɭ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɨɛɝɨɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɫɜɨɣ ɤɭɪɫ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ — ɪɵɫɤɚɬɶ.
ɨɝɞɚ ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɫɜɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɩɨ ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɟ ɢɥɢ ɪɟɤɟ, ɝɞɟ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɩɥɚɜ ɥɟɫɚ, ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɟɝɨ
ɭɦɟɧɢɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɤɨɪɵɬɨ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ, ɫɥɢɜ ɜɨɞɵ, ɮɨɪɦɭ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ ɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ
ɫɜɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɛɟɡ ɩɨɫɚɞɤɢ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɶ ɢ ɛɟɡ ɚɜɚɪɢɣ.
ɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵ, ɨɧɢ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɞɢɧ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɪɭɫɥɟ, ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɜ ɩɥɚɧɟ
ɢ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɟ, ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɦ. ɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɢɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ.
ɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɣ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɨɜ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɦɫɹ ɧɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɯ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɨɜ, ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɸ-ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɸ.
ɟɪɟɤɚɬɨɦ ɫ ɪɨɜɧɵɦ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟɦ (ɩɨ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ . . ɨɝɞɚɧɨɜɚ) ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬ, ɜɚɥ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɤ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɤɨɪɵɬɚ ɩɨ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɨɬ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɤɨɫɵ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɤ ɧɢɠɧɟɣ. ɟɱɟɧɢɟ
ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɤɨɪɵɬɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ. ɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɵɟ. ɭɞɚ,
ɢɞɭɳɢɟ ɫɧɢɡɭ, ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɜɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɬɚɤ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɥɚ ɫ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɞɥɹ ɱɟɝɨ ɜɵɯɨɞ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɤɭɪɫ ɤ ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɨ ɤɨɪɵɬɭ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɧɭɠɧɨ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɧɶɲɟ.
ɟɪɟɤɚɬ ɫ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɦ
ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟɦ ɩɨ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ
ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɱɚɳɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨ ɬɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɜɨɞɨɣ
ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɦɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ, ɝɞɟ
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɪɚɡɦɵɜ ɪɭɫɥɚ ɢ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɹɪɨɜ. ɬɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
ɧɚɤɨɫɨɜ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ
ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɟɝɨ
ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɟ.
ɵɩɭɤɥɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɥɢ
ɦɟɧɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɟɪɟɞɤɚ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ
ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ, ɝɞɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ
ɫɚɦɵɟ ɦɚɥɵɟ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ ɜɟɟɪɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟ ɢ ɧɟɬ ɹɪɤɨ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɢ — ɫɬɪɟɠɧɹ (ɪɢɫ. 18). ɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɟ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɩɥɨɯɢɟ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɫɜɨɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɨ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ, ɬɨ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ
ɜɵɩɭɤɥɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ. ɟɟɪɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɛɢɜɚɟɬ ɫɭɞɚ ɫ ɤɭɪɫɚ ɤ ɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɦ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ (ɤ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɦ).
ɟɪɟɤɚɬ «ɪɨɫɫɵɩɶ» (ɩɨ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ . . ɨɩɤɨɜɚ) ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɧɢɡɨɜɶɹɯ ɪɟɤ.
ɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɫɬɪɭɝɚɦɢ ɤɨɫ, ɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɯ, ɢ ɲɚɥɵɝɚɦɢ. ɨɞɜɚɥɶɟɜ ɛɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɢ
ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɨɧɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ. ɟɪɟɤɚɬ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ. ɚɫɬɪɭɝɢ, ɲɚɥɵɝɢ, ɨɫɟɪɟɞɤɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ
ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ, ɱɬɨ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɵɫɤɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɞɨɜ. ɡ-ɡɚ ɧɟɱɟɬɤɨ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɹ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɩɨ
ɬɚɤɨɦɭ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɭ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɢɬɟɥɟɧ ɢ ɩɨ ɧɟɦɭ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɢɞɬɢ, ɡɚɦɟɪɹɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɭ.
ɫɬɶɟɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ (ɩɨ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ . , ɨɩɤɨɜɚ) ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɜɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɣ
ɪɟɤɢ ɡɚɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ, ɡɚɧɨɫɹ ɫɜɨɢ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ ɨɫɚɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ. ɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɩɨɞɩɨɪ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɟ ɡɚɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬ ɢ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɧɟɦ ɜɨɞɵ, ɱɟɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɫɚɠɞɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɧɨɫɨɜ. ɨ ɫɩɚɞɨɦ ɜɨɞɵ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ ɷɬɢ ɧɚɧɨɫɵ
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɜ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɟ, ɜɵɲɟ ɟɝɨ ɭɫɬɶɹ, ɭɫɬɶɟɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɧɨɝɞɚ ɬɹɧɭɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɟɫɹɬɤɨɜ
ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɨɜ. ɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤɨɫɵ, ɧɚɞɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɟ ɨɫɟɪɟɞɤɢ, ɨɫɬɪɨɜɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɨɞɚ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɫɦɵɬɶ ɜ ɦɟɠɟɧɶ. ɫɬɶɟɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɡɚɬɪɭɞɧɹɸɬ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɫɬɜɨ.
ɸɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɡɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ ɫɜɨɣ ɬɭɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɯɨɞ ɜ ɧɟɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɜ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɭɸ
ɪɟɤɭ. ɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɜɚɠɧɨ ɭɡɧɚɬɶ, ɟɫɬɶ ɥɢ ɜ ɭɫɬɶɟ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɭɫɬɶɟɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ, ɤɚɤɨɜɚ ɢɯ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɥɢ ɫɭɞɧɨ
ɥɸɛɢɬɟɥɹ ɩɪɨɣɬɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɷɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ.
ɫɥɢ ɜ ɦɟɠɟɧɶ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɷɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ ɩɪɨɣɬɢ ɜ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɭɸ ɪɟɤɭ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ, ɬɨ ɧɭɠɧɨ ɭɡɧɚɬɶ ɫɪɨɤɢ, ɤɨɝɞɚ
ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɟɧɶ, ɫ ɬɟɦ ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɯɨɞ ɪɚɧɶɲɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɣɬɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɭɫɬɶɟɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵ ɞɨ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɧɚ ɧɢɯ. ɚ ɭɫɬɶɟɜɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚɯ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɬɶɫɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɩɭɫɤɨɜ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɤɚɤ ɜ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɣ ɪɟɤɟ, ɜɵɲɟ ɭɫɬɶɹ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɟ.
§ 9. ə ɕ ə
1. ɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɚɹ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɧɚ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɞɥɹ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɨɬ ɩɨɞɜɨɞɧɵɯ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɢ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ, ɬ. ɟ. ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɝɨ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ. ɗɬɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɝɪɚɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ
ɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ: ɩɥɚɜɭɱɟɣ (ɛɚɤɟɧɵ, ɛɭɢ, ɜɟɯɢ) ɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɣ (ɫɬɜɨɪɧɵɟ, ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɟ,
ɯɨɞɨɜɵɟ, ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ). ɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɩɭɬɟɜɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɵ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɨɱɟɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɚ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɲɥɸɡɵ, ɭɡɤɨɫɬɢ (ɫɜɟɬɨɮɨɪɵ, ɫɟɦɚɮɨɪɵ), ɞɥɹ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɩɨɜɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɟ,
ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ, ɫɢɥɟ ɲɬɨɪɦɚ (ɫɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɲɬɨɪɦɨɜɵɟ ɦɚɱɬɵ), ɞɥɹ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɫɬ ɩɪɨɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɩɨ ɞɧɭ
ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ, ɤɚɛɟɥɟɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɯ ɤɚɛɟɥɟɣ.
ɚɤ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɚɹ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɚɹ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɬɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɪɟɤɢ, ɤɚɧɚɥɚ, ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ. ɚɤɢɦ ɛɵ ɦɚɥɵɦ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɧɢ ɛɵɥɨ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɨ
ɢɞɟɬ ɩɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɭ, ɝɞɟ ɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ, ɧɭɠɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ. ɪɨɯɨɞ ɡɚ ɛɚɤɟɧɨɦ ɢɥɢ
ɢɫ. 18. ɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ ɫ ɜɵɩɭɤɥɵɦ ɩɨɞɜɚɥɶɟɦ
23
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɟ ɩɨ ɫɬɜɨɪɭ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. ɜ ɢɬɨɝɟ ɩɨɜɥɟɱɟɬ ɡɚ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɩɪɨɛɨɢɧɭ ɞɧɢɳɚ, ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ ɧɚ ɦɟɥɶ ɢ ɬ. ɞ.
2. ɥɚɜɭɱɢɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ
ɚɤɟɧɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɬɪɟɯɝɪɚɧɧɵɟ ɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɵɟ ɩɢɪɚɦɢɞɵ (ɪɢɫ. 19), ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɩɥɨɬɢɤɚɯ. ɪɨɫɨɦ ɫ ɝɪɭɡɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɹɤɨɪɟɦ ɛɚɤɟɧ ɧɟɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɨ ɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɜɨɟɦ ɲɬɚɬɧɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɜ
ɪɭɫɥɟ ɪɟɤɢ.
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚ ɪɟɤɚɯ, ɧɚ ɫɭɞɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɤɚɧɚɥɚɯ, ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚɯ ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɛɚɤɟɧɨɜ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ
ɛɭɢ (ɪɢɫ. 25) ɢɡ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɚ. ɤɨɪɩɭɫ ɛɭɹ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɛɟɬɨɧ. ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɛɭɹ
ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɫɤɨɜɵɣ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɨɧɚɪɶ. ɭɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɧɵ, ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɟɟ, ɱɟɦ ɛɚɤɟɧɵ, ɢ ɥɭɱɲɟ
ɜɢɞɧɵ.
ɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɧɟɦ, ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɛɭɟɜ ɢ ɛɚɤɟɧɨɜ ɫɬɚɜɹɬ ɜɟɯɢ. ɧɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɫɹ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɛɚɤɟɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɛɭɹ, ɧɚ ɫɥɭɱɚɣ, ɟɫɥɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɛɭɞɭɬ
ɫɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɫɨ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɦɟɫɬɚ. ɪɚɫɧɵɟ ɛɚɤɟɧɵ, ɛɭɢ, ɜɟɯɢ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɸɬ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɫ ɩɪɚɜɨɣ ɟɝɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɬ.
ɟ. ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɸɬ ɤ ɩɪɚɜɨɦɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɚ ɛɟɥɵɟ — ɫ ɥɟɜɨɣ. ɪɚɫɧɵɟ ɛɚɤɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɟɦɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɭɬɨɤ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɣ
ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɨɝɨɧɶ, ɚ ɛɭɢ — ɩɪɨɛɥɟɫɤɨɜɵɣ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɨɝɨɧɶ. ɚ ɛɟɥɵɯ ɛɭɹɯ ɢ ɛɚɤɟɧɚɯ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɛɟɥɵɟ ɨɝɧɢ. ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ ɨɝɧɟɣ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɨɝɨɧɶ ɧɚ ɛɟɥɨɦ ɛɚɤɟɧɟ ɢɥɢ ɛɭɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ
ɡɚɦɟɧɟɧ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɦ.
ɚ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɯ ɛɚɤɟɧɚɯ, ɛɭɹɯ, ɜɟɯɚɯ ɞɧɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɢɯ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɨɬ ɛɟɥɵɯ ɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɤ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɱɟɪɧɨɝɨ
ɲɚɪɚ. ɪɚɫɧɵɟ ɛɚɤɟɧɵ ɬɪɟɯɝɪɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɢɪɚɦɢɞɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɡɚɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɲɚɪɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ.
ɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɞɜɚ ɛɚɤɟɧɚ ɢɥɢ ɛɭɹ («ɫɩɚɪɟɧɧɵɟ» ɛɚɤɟɧɵ ɢɥɢ ɛɭɢ), ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɢ ɛɟɥɵɣ, ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɸɬ ɪɚɡɞɜɨɟɧɢɟ
ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ ɧɚ ɞɜɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɵɯ ɯɨɞɚ. ɨ ɠɟ ɫɚɦɨɟ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɛɚɤɟɧ — ɛɭɣ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɫ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ
ɛɟɥɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɨɣ.
ɪɨɦɟ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɵɲɟ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɟɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ, ɜ ɬɟɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɪɟɤɢ, ɝɞɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɟ, ɬ. ɟ. ɫ
ɬɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɤɭɞɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɨ ɫɜɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ, ɫɬɚɜɹɬ ɜɧɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɫɜɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɚɤɟɧ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɣ
ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɮɨɪɦɭ. 5—10 ɦ ɨɬ ɧɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɤɪɨɦɤɟ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɛɚɤɟɧ ɢɥɢ ɛɭɣ
ɰɜɟɬɚ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ. ɜɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɚɤɟɧ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬ ɜ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɢɥɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɰɜɟɬ. ɧɨɱɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɦ
ɡɚɠɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɢɥɢ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɫɤɨɜɵɣ ɨɝɨɧɶ (ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɭ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɨɧ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧ).
ɢɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɨɝɧɟɣ ɧɚ ɡɧɚɤɚɯ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɟɣ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ: ɛɟɥɵɯ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ 2, 2 ɤɦ,ɰɜɟɬɧɵɯ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ 1, 5 ɤɦ.
3. ɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ
ɟɪɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ (ɪɢɫ. 20) ɜɵɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɧɚ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬ (ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɢɜɚɟɬ) ɨɬ
ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɤ ɞɪɭɝɨɦɭ, ɬ. ɟ. ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɚɯ. ɧɚɤ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɫɬɨɥɛ, ɜ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧ
ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɵɣ ɳɢɬ ɫ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɸ, ɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɨɣ ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ ɨɫɢ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ. ɬɨɥɛɵ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ
ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬ ɩɨɥɨɫɚɦɢ ɛɟɥɨɝɨ ɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɝɨ ɰɜɟɬɚ, ɳɢɬ — ɜ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɰɜɟɬ. ɬɨɥɛ ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬ
ɱɟɪɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ ɛɟɥɵɦɢ ɢ ɱɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɫɚɦɢ, ɳɢɬ — ɜ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɰɜɟɬ. ɨɱɶɸ ɧɚ ɫɬɨɥɛɚɯ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɜɵɲɟ ɳɢɬɚ
ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɪɟɯɝɪɚɧɧɵɣ ɮɨɧɚɪɶ ɫ ɛɟɥɵɦɢ ɛɨɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɫɬɟɤɥɚɦɢ ɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɦ (ɬɪɚɜɟɪɡɧɵɦ) ɫɬɟɤɥɨɦ; ɧɚ
ɫɬɨɥɛɚɯ ɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɬɪɚɜɟɪɡɧɨɟ ɫɬɟɤɥɨ ɡɟɥɟɧɨɟ, ɚ ɛɨɤɨɜɵɟ ɫɬɟɤɥɚ ɛɟɥɵɟ.
ɬɜɨɪɵ ɫɬɚɜɹɬ ɧɚ ɞɥɢɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ, ɤɚɤ
ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɨɬ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɤ
ɞɪɭɝɨɦɭ. ɚɠɞɵɣ ɫɬɜɨɪ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɬɚɜɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɧɚ ɩɪɹɦɨɣ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɨɫɢ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ. ɟɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɡɧɚɤ ɫɬɜɨɪɚ
ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɫɬɚɜɹɬ ɩɨ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɧɢɠɟ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ.
ɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɬɜɨɪɚɦɢ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɜɵɜɟɫɬɢ ɫɭɞɧɨ
ɧɚ ɥɢɧɢɸ, ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɜɢɞɧɵ ɨɛɚ ɡɧɚɤɚ (ɨɞɢɧ ɡɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ). ɨɝɞɚ ɡɧɚɤɢ
ɧɟ ɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ, ɬɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɢ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɵ. ɫɥɢ ɡɚɞɧɢɣ ɡɧɚɤ
ɜɢɞɟɧ ɫɩɪɚɜɚ ɨɬ ɩɟɪɟɞɧɟɝɨ, ɡɧɚɱɢɬ, ɢ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɫɨɲɥɨ ɜɩɪɚɜɨ ɨɬ
ɫɬɜɨɪɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɢɢ. ɪɨɫɬɵɟ ɫɬɜɨɪɵ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ
ɬɢɩɚ ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɨɥɛɨɜ, ɫɬɨɥɛɵ ɢ ɳɢɬɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬ ɜ
ɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ ɰɜɟɬ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧɢ ɫɬɨɹɬ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɢ ɜ ɛɟɥɵɣ
— ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ.
ɪɨɦɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɵɯ ɫɬɜɨɪɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɟɳɟ ɬɪɢ ɬɢɩɚ
ɫɬɜɨɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɫɬɚɜɹɬ ɧɚ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɞɥɢɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ
ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ. ɚɠɞɵɣ ɢɡ ɷɬɢɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɩɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚɦ, ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ
ɬɪɟɯɝɪɚɧɧɵɯ, ɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɬɪɚɩɟɰɢɟɜɢɞɧɵɯ ɳɢɬɨɜ. ɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶ
ɳɢɬɨɜ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɬɜɨɪɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɚɯ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ
ɨɫɢ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ. ɨ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɢ ɳɢɬɚ ɧɚɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɨɫɚ,
ɨɬɥɢɱɧɚɹ ɨɬ ɰɜɟɬɚ ɳɢɬɚ.
ɑɚɫɬɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɳɟɥɟɜɵɟ ɫɬɜɨɪɵ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ ɢɡ ɞɜɭɯ
ɩɟɪɟɞɧɢɯ ɢ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɞɧɟɝɨ ɡɧɚɤɚ. ɭɞɧɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɟɦɨɣ
ɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɫɟ, ɩɨɤɚ ɡɚɞɧɢɣ ɡɧɚɤ ɜɢɞɟɧ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɟɪɟɞɧɢɦɢ.
ɢɫ. 19.ɚɤɟɧɵ: a —ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ; ɛ — ɲɚɪɨɜɵɣ,
ɜ —ɫɩɚɪɟɧɧɵɣ; ɝ —ɫɜɚɥɶɧɵɣ
24
ɢɫ. 20.ɧɚɤɢ, ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɚ: ɚ — ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɧɚɤ, ɛ — ɯɨɞɨɜɨɣ ɡɧɚɤ;ɜ —
ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɡɧɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ; ɝ — ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɡɧɚɤ ɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ;ɞ— ɫɬɜɨɪɵ
ɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɬɢɩɚɯ ɫɬɜɨɪɨɜ, ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ ɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɝɞɟ ɨɧɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ, ɧɨɱɶɸ ɡɚɠɢɝɚɸɬ ɛɟɥɵɟ ɨɝɧɢ — ɩɨ ɨɞɧɨɦɭ
ɧɚ ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɡɧɚɤɟ. ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɫɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ ɨɝɧɟɣ ɫɬɜɨɪɧɵɟ ɛɟɥɵɟ ɨɝɧɢ ɧɚ ɡɧɚɤɚɯ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɚɦɟɧɟɧɵ
ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ ɨɬ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ. ɦɟɫɬɨ ɨɝɧɟɣ ɧɚ ɫɬɜɨɪɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɚɯ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɝɚɡɨɫɜɟɬɧɵɟ ɬɪɭɛɤɢ.
ɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ, ɜɞɨɥɶ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɯɨɞ. ɧɚɤ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ
ɫɬɨɥɛɚ, ɜ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧ ɪɨɦɛɨɜɢɞɧɵɣ ɳɢɬ ɫ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɸ, ɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɭ.
ɬɨɥɛɵ ɢ ɳɢɬɵ ɯɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ.
ɨɱɶɸ ɧɚ ɯɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɡɧɚɤɚɯ ɡɚɠɢɝɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɣ, ɚ ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɨɝɨɧɶ, ɚ ɜ ɬɟɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ, ɤɨɝɞɚ
ɨɝɧɟɣ ɦɧɨɝɨ, ɛɟɥɵɣ ɨɝɨɧɶ ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɡɚɦɟɧɹɸɬ ɡɟɥɟɧɵɦ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɫɤɨɜɵɦ ɛɟɥɵɦ.
ɟɫɟɧɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɯ. ɧɢ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ
ɩɨɥɨɜɨɞɶɹ. ɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɬɨɥɛɵ ɫ ɪɟɲɟɬɱɚɬɵɦɢ ɤɪɭɝɥɵɦɢ ɳɢɬɚɦɢ ɤɪɚɫɧɨɝɨ ɰɜɟɬɚ, ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ
ɛɟɪɟɝɭ — ɫɬɨɥɛɵ ɫ ɪɟɲɟɬɱɚɬɵɦɢ (ɮɨɪɦɵ ɬɪɚɩɟɰɢɢ) ɳɢɬɚɦɢ ɛɟɥɨɝɨ ɰɜɟɬɚ. ɬɨɥɛɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɬ ɠɟ
ɰɜɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɢ ɳɢɬɵ. ɬɟɦɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɭɬɨɤ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɨɫɜɟɳɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɨɝɧɹɦɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɢ ɛɟɥɵɦɢ
ɨɝɧɹɦɢ ɧɚ ɥɟɜɨɦ.
4. ɭɬɟɜɵɟ ɡɧɚɤɢ ɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɵ
ɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɚɱɬɵ (ɪɢɫ. 21) ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɵɲɟ ɢ ɧɢɠɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɢ
ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɟ. ɪɨɦɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɬɱ, ɞɥɹ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɢɯ ɝɥɭɛɢɧ ɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɪɟɤ ɫɬɚɜɹɬɫɹ ɩɥɟɫɨɜɵɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɦɚɱɬɵ. ɢɝɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɦɚɱɬɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɫɬɨɥɛɚ ɫ ɩɪɢɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɤ ɟɝɨ
ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɪɟɟɣ, ɭɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨ ɮɚɪɜɚɬɟɪɭ. ɟɪɟɤɚɬɧɭɸ ɦɚɱɬɭ ɢ ɪɟɸ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬ
ɱɟɪɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ ɤɪɚɫɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɛɟɥɵɦɢ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɫɚɦɢ. ɥɟɫɨɜɚɹ ɦɚɱɬɚ ɨɤɪɚɲɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ
ɱɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɛɟɥɵɦɢ ɩɨɥɨɫɚɦɢ. ɵɲɟ ɪɟɢ ɧɚ ɳɢɬɟ ɩɢɲɭɬɫɹ ɰɢɮɪɵ, ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɚɯ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɚ ɨɬ ɭɫɬɶɹ ɪɟɤɢ.
ɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɨɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɢ ɦɚɱɬɵ, ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɧɨɣ ɜɜɟɪɯ ɩɨ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɸ. ɗɬɢ
ɡɧɚɤɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵ
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