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Физика 8кл Перышкин 2001 Ответы и решения

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§ 48.
1.
Kh_^bg_gb_ ijh\h^gbdh\ gZau\Z_lky i
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§ 49.
1.
Kh_^bg_gb_ ijh\h^gbdh\ gZau\Z_lky i
Z
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§ 50.
1.
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§ 51.
1.
Fhsghklv ² nbabq_kdZy\_ebqbgZ dhlhjZy hij_^_ey_l [ukljhlm kh\_
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§ 53.
1.
K\h[h^gu_ aZjy^u we_dljhgu\f_lZeeZo beb bhgu\jZkl\hjZo khe_c
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§ 54.
1.
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§ 55.
1.
Ijh\h^Z fh]ml gZ]j_lvky ^h lZdhc kl_i_gb qlh ihdju\ZxsZy bo bahe
y
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§ 56.
1.
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2.
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§ 57.
1.
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fZ]gblghfihe_mklZgZ\eb\ZxlkyhkbfZ]gblguoklj_ehd
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5.
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§ 58.
1.
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2.
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4.
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5.
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§ 59.
1.
Ihklhyggufb fZ]gblZfb gZau\Zxlky l_eZ kihkh[gu_ ^ebl_evgh_\j_fy
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2.
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§ 60.
1.
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5.
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h
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f
gu_aZe_`b`_e_aghcjm^u
§ 61.
1.
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g
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2.
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§ 62.
1.
Emq²wlhebgby\^hevdhlhjhcjZkijhkljZgy_lkywg_j]byhlbklhqgbdZ
k\_lZ
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< h^ghjh^ghc kj_^_ k\_l jZkijhkljZgy_lky ijyfhebg_cgh l_ k\_lh\u_
emqby\eyxlkyijyfufbebgbyfb
3.
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gZ
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A_fe_cEmggh_aZlf_gb_\hagbdZ_ldh]^ZA_feygZoh^blkyf_`^mEmghcb
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§ 63.
1.
Ijb[hj bah[jZ`_gguc gZ jbkmgd_ mq_[gbdZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc
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l
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ky
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b
∠
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iZ^_gby
∠
α
jZ\_gm]emhljZ`_gby
∠
β
: ∠
α
= ∠
β
.
4.
K\hckl\hemq_cf_gylvkyf_klZfbgZau\Z_lkyh[jZlbfhklvxIZ^Zxsbc
b hljZ`_ggucemqbh[eZ^Zxlwlbfk\hckl\hf
§ 64.
1.
>ey ihkljh_gby bah[jZ`_gby lhqdb
S
\a_jdZe_ ihkljhbf ljb emqZ
SO
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SO
1
, SO
2
bkoh^ysb_ ba bklhqgbdZ
S
b iZ^Zxsb_ gZ a_jdZeh
MN
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mq_[gbdZ < kbem aZdhgZ hljZ`_gby emq
SO
hljZ`Z_lky ih^ m]ehf SO
1
² ih^ m]ehf
β
1
= α
1
, SO
2
² ih^ m]ehf
β
2
= α
2
?keb ihkljhblv ij
h
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S
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b
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k
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dmkhdiehkdh]h kl_deZ b mklZgh\bf _]h\\_jlbdZevghf iheh`_gbb gZ ih
^
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Z
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d
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k\_qZ[m^_l dZaZlvky aZ``_gghc l_ g_ aZ``_ggZy k\_qZ [m^_l gZoh^blvky
gZlhff_kl_]^_gZ[ex^Z_lkybah[jZ`_gb_aZ``_gghck\_qb?keb l_i_jv
baf_jblv jZkklhygb_ hl k\_qb ^h kl_deZ b hl __ bah[jZ`_gby ^h kl_deZ lh
fh`ghm[_^blvkyqlhwlbjZkklhygby[m^mljZ\gu
4.
Fgbfh_bah[jZ`_gb_ij_^f_lZ\iehkdhfa_jdZe_gZoh^blkygZlZdhf`_
jZkklhygbb hl a_jdZeZ gZ dZdhf gZoh^blky kZf ij_^f_l JZaf_ju bah[j
Z
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lZ
§ 65.
1.
Emqk\_lZkf_sZ_lky\e_\hjbkmghdmq_[gbdZ
2.
Ba hiulZ bah[jZ`_ggh]h gZ jbkmgd_ mq_[gbdZ fh`gh kdZaZlv qlh
_keb emq k\_lZ b^_l ba kj_^u hilbq_kdb f_g__ iehlghc\[he__ iehlgmx
kj_^mlhm]heij_ehfe_gby\k_]^Zf_gvr_m]eZiZ^_gbyBahiulZbah[j
Z
-
`_ggh]h gZ jbkmgd_ mq_[gbdZ\u\h^blky ke_^mxs__ khhlghr_gb_
n
=
sin
.
sin
l_ hlghr_gb_ kbgmkZ m]eZ iZ^_gby
α
d kbgmkm m]eZ ij_ehfe
_
-
gby
γ
_klv\_ebqbgZ ihklhyggZy ^ey ^\mo kj_^ gZau\Z_fZy hlghkbl_evguf
ihdZaZl_e_fij_ehfe_gby^\mokj_^b h[hagZqZ_fZy[md\hc©
n
».
3.
IZ^Zxsbcb hljZ`_ggucemqbe_`Zl\h^ghciehkdhklbk i_ji_g^bdme
y
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l
-
ghr_gb_kbgmkZm]eZiZ^_gby
α
d kbgmkmm]eZij_ehfe_gby
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ihklhyggZy^ey^\mokj_^
n
=
sin
.
sin
.
§ 66.
1.
Nhdmkgh_ jZkklhygb_ dhjhq_ m l_o ebga m dhlhjuo [he__\uimdeu_ i
h
-
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2.
M dhlhjhcdhjhq_nhdmkgh_jZkklhygb_
3.
Hilbq_kdhc kbehc ebgau gZau\Zxl\_ebqbgm h[jZlgmx __ nhdmkghfm
jZkklhygbx
4.
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5.
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jZkklhygb_jZ\ghf
6.
I_j\Zybawlboebgay\ey_lkykh[bjZxs_c\lhjZy²jZkk_b\Z
x
s_c
§ 67.
1.
Ihemq_gb_bah[jZ`_gbyij_^f_lZ
2.
< aZ\bkbfhklbhllh]hgZdZdhfjZkklhygbbgZoh^blkyij_^f_lhlebgau
3.
Qlh[uihkljhblvbah[jZ`_gb_ij_^f_lZgZoh^ys_]hkyf_`^mnhdmkhfb
ebgahcjbkmghdmq_[gbdZgZ^hihkljhblvoh^^\mogZb[he__ijhkluo
emq_cbkoh^ysbobalhqdb
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t
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û
t
;
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1
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Q
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l d]
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8
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10
6
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ρ
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3
V
e Â
-3
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3
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7
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19
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7
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e_gb_fl_khijhlb\e_gb_ijh\h^Z^ebghc
l
2
f
[hevr_khijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^Z^ebghc
l
1
f
S
l
R
1
1
!
=
; S
l
R
2
2
!
=
; 8
f
0,2
f
1,6
1
2
1
2
=
=
=
l
l
R
R
.
GZclb
1
2
R
R
.
Hl\_l khijhlb\e_gb_\lhjh]h ijh\h^Z\ jZa [he
v
-
r_khijhlb\e
_
gbyi_j\h]h
2.
Z>Zgh
l
kf f
S
ff
2
ρ
= 0,028
f
ff
Hf
2
⋅
J_r_gb_
S
l
R
!
=
; R
=0,028
ù
ùù
Ûù
⋅
⋅
ùù
ù
Hf
GZclb
R
.
Hl\_l
R
Hf
[>Zgh
l
kf f
S
ff
2
ρ
= 0,4
ù
ùù
Ûù
⋅
J_r_gb_
S
l
R
!
=
; R
= 0,4
ù
ùù
Ûù
⋅
⋅
ùù
ù
Hf
GZclb
R
.
Hl\_l
R
Hf
38
\>Zgh
l
kf f
S
kf
2
ff
2
ρ
= 0,5
f
ff
Hf
2
⋅
J_r_gb_
S
l
R
!
=
; R
= 0,5
ù
ùù
Ûù
⋅
⋅
ùù
ù
Hf
GZclb
R
.
Hl\_l
R
Hf
3.
>Zgh
l
f
S
ff
2
ρ
= 1,1
ù
ùù
Ûù
⋅
U
= 220 B
J_r_gb_
KbemlhdZgZoh^bfihaZdhgmHfZ
R
U
I
=
Z khij
h
-
lb\e
_
gb_ihnhjfme_
S
l
R
!
=
.
R
= 1,1
ù
ùù
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⋅
⋅
ùù
ù
Hf
Hf
151,25
B
220
=
I
≈
:
GZclb
I
.
Hl\_l
I
≈
1,5 A.
4.
>Zgh
l
ff f
S
ff
2
ρ
= 0,1
f
ff
Hf
2
⋅
I
f: :
J_r_gb_
GZijy`_gb_ gZc^_f ih aZdhgm HfZ
U
= IR
Z k
h
-
ij
h
lb\e_gb_ihnhjfme_
S
l
R
!
=
.
R
= 0,1
ù
ùù
Ûù
⋅
⋅
ùù
ù
Hf
U
= 0,25 A
⋅
Hf
≈
<
GZclb
U
.
Hl\_l
U
<
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>_ckl\b_ j_hklZlZ hkgh\Zgh gZ kf_g_ ijh\h^gbdh\\p_ib ihkj_^kl\hf
i_j_dexqZl_ey
2.
Hf Qlh[u khijhlb\e_gb_ m\_ebqblv _s_ gZ Hf gZ^h i_j_dexq
Z
-
l_evmklZgh\blv\kZfh_djZcg__ijZ\h_iheh`_gb_
3.
39
4.
>Zgh
R
Hf
S
ff
2
ρ
= 0,4
ù
ùù
Ûù
⋅
J_r_gb_
S
l
R
!
=
; !
RS
l
=
; l
=
f
150
f
ff
Hf
4
,
0
ff
3
Hf
20
2
2
=
⋅
⋅
.
GZclb
l
.
Hl\_l
l
f
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>Zgh
R
1
Hf
R
2
Hf
I
= 0,2 A
J_r_gb_
GZijy`_gb_gZdZ`^hfbaijh\h^gbdh\gZc^_fbaa
Z
-
dhgZHfZ
U
1
= IR
1
; U
1
= 0,2 A ⋅
Hf <
U
2
= IR
2
; U
2
= 0,2 A ⋅
Hf <
H[s__ gZijy`_gb_ ijb ihke_^h\Zl_evghf kh_^bg
_
-
gbb ijh\h^gbdh\gZc^_fihnhjfme_
U
= U
1
+ U
2
; U
= 0,8 B + 1,2 B = 2 B.
GZclb
U
1
, U
2
, U
.
Hl\_l
U
1
= 0,8 B, U
2
= 1,2 B, U
= 2 B.
2.
GZ^h
n
=
50
3000
eZfi\dexqblvihke_^h\Zl_evgh\p_iv
3.
>Zgh
U
= 220 B
n
= 2
J_r_gb_
GZdZ`^hcbaeZfi[m^_lh^bgZdh\h_g
Z
ijy`_gb_
NU
1
= U
; U
1
= U
2
=
n
U
; U
1
= U
2
=
%
= 110 B.
GZclb
U
1
, U
2
.
Hl\_l
U
1
= U
2
= 110 B.
4.
8
5
5
5
±
>Zgh
U
= 6 B
R
1
Hf
R
2
Hf
R
3
Hf
J_r_gb_
H[s__khijhlb\e_gb_\p_ibgZc^_fihnhjfme_
R
= R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
;
R
HfHfHf Hf
KbemlhdZ\p_ibgZc^_fihaZdhgmHfZ
R
U
I
=
; Hf
18,5
B
6
=
I
≈
:
40
GZijy`_gb_ gZ dhgpZo dZ`^h]h ba ihlj_[bl_e_c
gZ
c
^_fbaaZdhgZHfZ
U
1
= IR
1
; U
1
= 0,324 A ⋅
Hf
≈
4,4 B;
U
2
= IR
2
; U
2
= 0,324 A ⋅
Hf
≈
1 B;
U
3
= IR
3
; U
3
= 0,324 A ⋅
Hf
≈
0,6 B.
GZclb
I
, U
1
, U
2
, U
3
.
Hl\_l,
≈
0,324 A, U
1
≈
4,4 B, U
2
≈
1 B, U
3
≈
0,6 B.
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>Zgh
R
1
Hf
R
2
Hf
U
= 12 B
J_r_gb_
KbemlhdZ\dZ`^hfijh\h^gbd_gZc^_fiha
Z
dhgmHfZ
1
1
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U
I
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12
1
=
I
:
2
2
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U
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; Hf
15
B
12
2
=
I
:
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I
= I
1
+ I
2
; I
= 1,2 A + 0,8 A = 2 A.
GZclb
I
1
, I
2
, I
.
Hl\_l
I
1
= 1,2 A, I
2
= 0,8 A, I
= 2 A.
2.
>eylh]hqlh[ugZdZ`^hf[ulh\hfijb[hj_[uehh^bgZdh\h_gZijy`
_
-
gb_jZ\gh_<
3.
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R
1
Hf
R
2
Hf
R
3
Hf
U
= 24 B
J_r_gb_
Kbem lhdZ gZ dZ`^hf ba ihlj_[bl_e_ gZc^_f ih
aZdhgmHfZ
1
1
R
U
I
=
; Hf
20
B
24
1
=
I
:
2
2
R
U
I
=
; Hf
40
B
24
2
=
I
:
3
3
R
U
I
=
; Hf
24
B
24
3
=
I
:
H[smxkbemlhdZgZc^_fihnhjfme_
I
= I
1
+ I
2
+ I
3
; I
= 1,2 A + 0,6 A + 1 A = 2,8 A.
H[s__khijhlb\e_gb_gZc^_fbaaZdhgZHfZ
I
U
R
=
; A
2,8
B
24
=
R
≈
Hf
GZclb
I
1
, I
2
, I
3
, I
, R
.
Hl\_l
I
1
= 1,2 A, I
2
= 0,6 A, I
3
= 1 A, I
= 2,8 A, R
≈
≈
Hf
4.
Ihlhfmqlh\i_j\hfkemqZ_m\_ebqb\Z_lky^ebgZijh\h^gbdZ\h\lhjhf
kemqZ_m\_ebqb\Z_lkyiehsZ^vihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gby
41
5.
>Zgh
R
1
Hf
R
2
Hf
R
3
Hf
R
4
Hf
I
a
= 1 A
J_r_gb_
KbeZ lhdZ\lj_lv_f ijh\h^gbd_ jZ\gZ ihdZa
Z
-
gbyf Zfi_jf_ljZ
I
3
= I
a
$ GZijy`_gb_ gZ
lj_lv_fijh\h^gbd_gZc^_fbaaZdhgZHfZ
U
3
= I
3
R
3
= 1 A ⋅
Hf <
GZijy`_gb_ gZ\lhjhf ijh\h^gbd_ jZ\gh g
Z
-
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iZjZee_evgh^jm]k ^j
m
]hf
U
2
= U
3
= 12 B.
Kbem lhdZ\h\lhjhf ijh\h^gbd_ gZc^_f ih a
Z
-
dhgm HfZ
2
2
2
U
I
R
=
=
Hf
6
B
12
: Kbeu lhdZ\
i_j\hfb q_l\_jlhfijh\h^gbd_h^bgZdh\u
I
1
= I
4
= I
2
+ I
3
; I
1
= I
4
= 2 A + 1 A = 3 A.
GZijy`_gb_f_`^mlhqdZfb< bK
U
BC
= U
2
+ U
3
= 12 B
GZclb
U
BC
, I
1
, I
2
, I
3
, I
4.
Hl\_l
U
BC
= 12 B; I
1
= 3 A; I
2
= 2 A; I
3
= 1 A,
I
4
= 3 A.
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>Zgh
t
fbg k
I
= 0,5 A; U
= 12 B
J_r_gb_
A
= UIt
;
A
= 12 B ⋅
0,5 A ⋅
F >` d>`
GZclb
A
.
Hl\_l$ d>`
2.
>Zgh
U
= 3,5 B
R
Hf
t
fbg k
J_r_gb_
A
= UIt
; R
U
I
=
; Hf
14
B
3,5
=
I
:
A
= 3,5 B
⋅
0,25 A
⋅
F >`
GZclb
A
.
Hl\_l
A
>`
3.
>Zgh
R
1
= R
2
Hf
U
= 4,5 B
J_r_gb_
Ijbihke_^h\Zl_evghfkh_^bg_gbb
A
1
= UI
1
t
; 1
1
2
R
U
I
=
.
IjbiZjZee_evghfkh_^bg
_
gbb
A
2
= UI
2
t
; 1
1
2
2
2
/
R
U
R
U
I
=
=
Hlkx^Z
4
1
2
1
2
=
=
I
I
A
A
.
GZclb
1
2
:
:
.
Hl\_l
4
1
2
=
A
A
.
42
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>Zgh
U
= 127 B
I
= 0,6 A
J_r_gb_
P
= UI
; P
= 127 B ⋅
$ %l
GZclb
P
.
Hl\_l
J
<l
2.
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U
= 220 B
I
= 3 A
J_r_gb_
P
= UI
; P
= 220 B ⋅
$ %l
GZclb
P
.
Hl\_l
J
<l
3.
>Zgh
t
q k
J
1
d<l <l
J
2
<l
J
3
d<l <l
J_r_gb_
A
= Pt
;
A
1
<l
⋅
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:
2
<l
⋅
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:
3
<l
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GZclb
:
1
, :
2
, :
3
.
Hl\_l:
1
d>`:
2
d>`:
3
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4.
>Zggh_aZ^Zgb_ijh^_eZcl_kZfhklhyl_evgh
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>Zgh
J
d<l
t
q
J_r_gb_
A
= Pt
; A
d<l
⋅
q d<l
⋅
q
GZclb
:
.
Hl\_l
:
d<l
⋅
q
2.
>Zgh
J
1
= J
2
<l
J
3
= J
4
<l
t
1
q
J_r_gb_
A
= P
1
t
+ P
2
t
+ P
3
t
+ P
4
t
= 2
P
1
t
+ 2
P
3
t
;
t
= 30
t
1
; t
= 30 ⋅
q q
:
= 2 ⋅
d<l
⋅
q ⋅
d<l
⋅
q d<l
⋅
q
GZclb
:
.
Hl\_l
:
d<l
⋅
q
3.
>Zgh
U
= 220 B
P
1
<l d<l
t
1
q
J
2
<l d<l
t
2
q
J
3
<l d<l
t
3
q
J
4
<l d<l
t
4
q
J_r_gb_
A
= 30
⋅
(4
P
1
t
1
+ P
2
t
2
+ P
3
t
3
+ P
4
t
4
);
A
= 30 ⋅
(4 ⋅
d<l
⋅
q d<l
⋅
q d<l
⋅
q d<l
⋅
q d<l
⋅
q
GZclb
:
.
Hl\_l
:
d<l
⋅
q
43
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>Zgh
t
fbg k
R
Hf
I
= 5 A
J_r_gb_
Dhebq_kl\hl_iehlu
Q
gZc^_fihaZdhgm>`hmey
E_gpZ
Q
= I
2
Rt
.
Q
= (5 A)
2
⋅
Hf
⋅
F >`
GZclb
A
.
Hl\_l
Q
>` d>`
2.
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3.
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_
-
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Z
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_
-
gby ijh\h^h\ WlZ jZagbpZ ^hklb]Z_lky aZ kq_l bkihevah\Zgby ^ey kibjZeb
ijh\h^gbdh\ k m^_evguf khijhlb\e_gb_f fgh]h [hevrbf m^_evgh]h k
h
-
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4.
< [hevr_ckl_i_gbgZ]j__lkygbd_ebgh\Zyijh\hehdZldm g__m^_evgh_
khijhlb\e_gb_[hevr_q_fm f_^ghcb klZevghcijh\
h
ehd
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
GZ^h\dexqblv\p_ivj_hklZl
2.
Ihf_gylvihexkubklhqgbdZlhdZ
3.
M\_ebqblvqbkeh\bldh\\we_dljhfZ]gbl_b\klZ\blv`_e_aguck_j^_
q
gbd
4.
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b
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MijZ`g_gb_
1.
Ijh`_dlhjk\_qZa\_a^uh]hgvKhegp_fhegby
2.
?keb [u k\_l jZkijhkljZgyeky g_ ijyfhebg_cgh lh nhjfu iheml_g_c
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3.
Q_eh\_dgZoh^ysbcky\h[eZklbl_gbijbkheg_qghfaZlf_gbbg_\b^bl
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h[eZklbiheml_gbijbkheg_qghfaZlf_gbb\b^bllhevdhqZklvKhegpZlZd
dZdEmgZaZdju\Z_l_]hg_iheg
h
klvx
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
45°
45°
2.
0°.
44
3.
4.
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
>hdZ`_f jZ\_gkl\h
Δ
SOO
1
b
Δ
S
1
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1
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y
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-
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jZ\_g
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1
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lZd dZd
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1
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1
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1
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_
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45
MijZ`g_gb_
1.
0°.
2.
Ijb ihkljh_gbb ij_ehfe_ggh]h emqZ\dZ`^hf kemqZ_ mqblu\Zcl_ qlh
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BaaZij_ehfe_gbyk\_lZ
4.
5.
1)
2)
3)
MijZ`g_gb_
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Hilbq_kdZykbeZebgaujZkiheh`_gghcgZjbkmgd_
[ke_\Z[hevr_
2.
>Zgh
D
±^ilj
J_r_gb_
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;
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Hl\_l
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