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Introduction into Basic Russian

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Пособие “Introduction into Basic Russian” – это введение в базовый курс русского языка, предназначенное для абсолютных новичков. Может использоваться как самоучитель. Вводный курс нацелен на ознакомление студентов со звуками русского языка и подгото
Introduction into Basic Russian
PRACTICE SAYING RUSSIAN SOUNDS
(with Natalia Sidifarova)
Introduction into Basic Russian
A Course of Russian Pronunciation Lessons
Natalia Sidifarova
Natalia
Sidifarova
2016
Second Edition
Copyright © 2016 by Natalia Sidifarova
All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used
in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher.
ISBN-13: 978-1540507105
ISBN-10: 1540507106
Illustrations by Ivan Dagil
Grodno, Belarus, 2016
FOREWORD
Introduction into Basic Russian is for absolute
beginners. The course is quite short and may be used as a
self-study guide. Its aim is to familiarize students with
Russian sounds before they start learning any basic course
at their option. In my introductory course I suggest that
students should go from a sound to a word and from a word
to a phrase (rather than immediately start learning the
alphabet), and this is the main principle which the guide is
based on.
For simplicity, the transcription is mainly given in Latin
script traditionally used by international English language
learners. However, there are a few exceptions. So, it’s a
mixture of very simple symbols which may not be
considered as a commonly accepted transcription system.
In words of two or more syllables the stressed syllable
is underlined.
Organization of the Course
The Course is divided into 9 steps, or lessons. Each
lesson has these components:
- Introduction and description of sounds;
- Their use in words;
- The use of the same words in phrases and sentences;
- Training exercises;
- Summary tables of vocabulary units and of sounds in
Cyrillic script;
- Handwriting samples.
~1~
Dear Russian language learner,
Welcome to my Russian pronunciation lessons!
Why do you need them? Before you take up any
basic course of Russian lessons or even learn how to utter
the first letters of the Russian alphabet, you’ll need to know
how the sounds should be articulated. With the help of this
book you will learn to pronounce them properly.
Although the guide is focused on sounds, you can
also get some ideas of other language aspects, just because
they can’t be separated from each other. You will get the
most necessary initial knowledge of grammar and acquire
initial reading skills. And, together with set expressions and
simple sentence patterns, you will also learn a fixed number
of vocabulary units, which, in my opinion, is very
motivating. Thus you may easily track your progress.
Into each lesson of the book I’ve also incorporated a
section called Exercises. This can help you additionally
train the material delivered in each lesson and achieve
better results.
The idea of including handwritten pieces seemed
interesting to me, too, as writing (alongside reading,
listening and speaking) is an inseparable aspect in mastering
a language.
I wish you every success in your new undertaking –
learning Russian!
Warmly yours,
Natalia Sidifarova
~2~
LESSON 1
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Six vowels: /a/, /o/, /ə/, /e/, /i/, /u/*
(For your convenience most of them are transcribed with Latinbased graphic signs used by English learners. In words of two or
more syllables the stressed syllable is underlined.)
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [а], [о], [ɐ], [э], [и] and [у]
accordingly.
2. Six paired consonants, hard and soft: /v/ – /v’/,
/k/ – /k’/, /s/ – /s’/, /d/ – /d’/, /r/ – /r’/, /n/ – /n’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [в] – [в’], [к] – [к’], [с] – [с’],
[д] – [д’], [р] – [р’] and [н] – [н’] accordingly.
3. Four sentence patterns (with no verb)
4. Twenty-seven vocabulary units
~3~
This lesson is the hardest in the course, so don’t get
discouraged, take your time, and you’ll be compensated for
your efforts with new knowledge. Let’s get started!
Pronounce the following sounds in words with the help
of the comments and transcription provided:
/a/
(like in ‘grass’)
как /kak/ – how
вас /vas/ – you (used as an object)
нас /nas/ – us
я /ja/ – I (used as a subject)
рад (for men), рада (for women) /rat, ra-da/ – glad,
pleased (adjective)
сам (for men), сама (for women) /sam, sa-ma/ – oneself
(reflexive pronoun singular)
/o/
(like in ‘talk’)
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very
хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well
много /mno-gə/ – a lot of, many, much
When a vowel is not stressed, the quality of the sound is
changed – it is reduced, and the vowel becomes very similar
to the ‘shwa’ sound in English.
~4~
/ə/
(like in ‘computer’)
хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well
много /mno-gə/ – a lot of, many, much
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little
плохо /plo-hə/ – badly
/e/
(like in ‘neck’)
дела /d’e-la/ or /d’i-la/ – things, affairs, deeds
привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi
все /vs’e/ or /fs’e/ – all of smb or smth (always
plural
unlike ‘everything’ or ‘everybody’ in English)
всем /vs’em/ or /fs’em/ – to all of smb or smth (used as
an object)
/i/
(like in ‘seek’)
привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, (we) talk (1st
person plural)
по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian
спасибо /spa-s’i-bə/ or / spə-s’i-bə/ – thank you,
thanks
и /i/ – and
~5~
/u/
(like in ‘gloomy’)
по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian
зовут /zə-vut/ – (they) call, (they) name (3rd person
plural)
урок /u-rok/ – a lesson
As you can see from the transcription, some consonants
have two variations: they may be (1) plain or hard and (2)
soft or palatalized (these are marked by an apostrophe). In
writing soft sounds are represented by consonant letters
followed by the letter ‘е’ or ‘и’ or the soft sign ‘ь’ (within
the limits of this lesson). Compare:
1.
/v/ (like in ‘vase’): ‘вас’, ‘зовут’ or ‘говорим’ and
/v’/ (like in ‘Vietnam’): ‘Павел’ (Pavel) or ‘привет’
2.
/k/ (like in ‘acknowledge’): ‘как’ and
/k’/ (like in ‘Tokyo’ or ‘cute’): ‘по-русски’
3.
/s/ (like in ‘grass’): ‘сам, сама’ and
/s’/ (like in ‘senior’ or ‘pussy’): ‘всем’ or ‘спасибо’
4.
/d/ (like in ‘goodness’): ‘да’ (you should press the tip of your
tongue against the back of your upper teeth)
and
/d’/ (like in ‘audience’): ‘дела’
~6~
(unlike hard /d/, Russian soft /d’/ is pronounced with your tongue
flat: make your tongue flat and press the surface of the tongue
against the teethridge)
5.
/r/ (rolling sound, different from English ‘r’, similar to its
Spanish equivalent, needs additional training): ‘хорошо’
(you should roll the tip of the tongue against the teethridge)
and
/r’/ (no equivalent in English, also rolling, but pronounced with
your tongue flat and lips spread as if you are smiling) :
‘привет’
6.
/n/ (like in ‘nut’): ‘нас’ or ‘Анна’ and
/n’/ (like in ‘onion’): ‘очень’ (make your tongue flat and press
the surface of the tongue against the teethridge, spread your lips
as if you are smiling)
~7~
Now pronounce the same words in phrases and
sentences. You can do it on your own or with your Russian
teacher:
Я Анна. Я Павел. – I’m Anna. I’m Pavel.
Я рад. Я очень рад. (for men) – I’m pleased (glad).
I’m very pleased (very glad).
Я рада. Я очень рада. (for women) – I’m pleased
(glad). I’m very pleased (very glad).
Я сам (for men). Я сама (for women). – I (’ll do it)
myself. (or: I am on my own.)
Всем привет! – Hello to everyone.
Нас много. – There are many of us.
Нас мало. – There are few of us.
Вас много. – There are many of you.
Вас мало. – There are few of us.
Вас много? – Are there many of you?
Вас мало? – Are there few of you?
Как вас много! – There are so many of you!
Как хорошо! – So well! (also: So good!)
Говорим по-русски. – We talk (speak) Russian.
Как дела? – Спасибо, (очень) хорошо. – How are
you? – Thanks, (I’m) fine / quite good. (or: How are things
going? – Thanks, (very) well).
Вас зовут. – They are calling you (which means,
somebody is asking you to react).
Как вас зовут? – How do they call you? What’s your
name?
~8~
Нас зовут Анна и Павел. А вас? – They call us
Anna and Pavel. And you? (or: Our names are Anna and
Pavel. And yours?)
У нас урок. – We’re having a class.
У вас урок? – Да. – Are you having a class? – Yes, we
are.
Mind that some consonant sounds may be voiced or
devoiced depending on their position.
Here we have one example of devoicing:
Я рад. – The /d/ sound is devoiced to voiceless /t/ at the
end of the word. In fact, we hear /ja-rat/ in the masculine
adjective.
And one example of voicing:
Как дела? /kag-d’e-la/ – The final voiceless /k/ sound
in the first word is assimilated to the following voiced /d’/
within the consonant cluster (…к д...).
~9~
EXERCISES
1. Read the phrases and sentences. Translate them into
English:
Я Анна. Я Павел.
Я рад. Я очень рад.
Я рада. Я очень рада.
Я сам. Я сама.
Всем привет!
Нас много.
Нас мало.
Вас много.
Вас мало.
Вас много?
Вас мало?
Как вас много!
Как хорошо!
Говорим по-русски.
Как дела? – Спасибо, (очень) хорошо.
Вас зовут.
Как вас зовут?
Нас зовут Анна и Павел. А вас?
У нас урок.
У вас урок? – Да.
2. Complete the sentences with suitable personal
pronouns. Use the pronouns я, нас, вас:
… Анна. … Павел. – I’m Anna. I’m Pavel.
… рад. … очень рад. – I’m pleased (glad). I’m very
pleased (very glad).
~ 10 ~
… рада. … очень рада. – I’m pleased (glad). I’m
very pleased (very glad).
… сам. … сама. – I (’ll do it) myself.
… много. – There are many of us.
… мало. – There are few of us.
… много. – There are many of you.
… мало. – There are few of us.
… много? – Are there many of you?
… мало? – Are there few of you?
Как … много! – There are so many of you!
Как … зовут? – How do they call you? What’s your
name?
… зовут Анна и Павел. А …? – They call us Anna
and Pavel. And you? (or: Our names are Anna and Pavel.
And yours?)
У … урок. – We’re having a class.
У … урок? – Да. – Are you having a class? – Yes.
3. Remember the following sentence patterns:
У нас ... – We’re having… / We have …
У вас ... – You’re having… / You have …
Как …! – How …! (in exclamations)
Как …? – How…? (in questions)
~ 11 ~
4. Learn the following vocabulary units:
NOUNS: 3 units
Masculine gender: урок /u-rok/ – a lesson,
Neuter gender: дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.),
дела /d’i-la/ – things, affairs, business (pl.)
PRONOUNS: 8 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?)
ADVERBS: 6 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian
VERBS: 2 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call
PREPOSITIONS: 1 unit
у /u/ – at, with, by, near
~ 12 ~
ADJECTIVES: 2 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.)
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS: 5 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела?
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS:
у нас, у вас
TOTAL: 27 vocabulary units
5. Translate the following words into Russian:
a lesson; an affair; affairs; I; us; (to) you; how; oneself
(masc.); oneself (fem.); all; (to) all; very; a lot of; few (or:
little); well; badly; in Russian; (we) speak; (they) call; at;
glad (masc.); glad (fem.); and (or: but); thank you; hello
6. Translate the following phrases and sentences into
Russian:
I’m Anna. I’m Pavel.
I’m pleased (glad). I’m very pleased (very glad). (for
men)
~ 13 ~
I’m pleased (glad). I’m very pleased (very glad). (for
women)
I (’ll do it) myself. (for men)
I (’ll do it) myself. (for women)
Hello to everyone (or: to all of you).
There are many of us.
There are few of us.
There are many of you.
There are few of us.
Are there many of you?
Are there few of you?
There are so many of you!
So well! (also: So good!)
We talk (speak) Russian.
How are you? – Thanks, (I’m) fine / quite good. (or:
How are things going? – Thanks, (very) well).
They are calling you.
How do they call you? (What’s your name?)
They call us Anna and Pavel. And you? (or: Our names
are Anna and Pavel. And yours?)
We’re having a lesson.
Are you having a class? – Yes, we are.
~ 14 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 15 ~
~ 16 ~
LESSON 2
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Revision of the vowel /ə/*
*Its Cyrillic-based matches are [а] (when less reduced) and [ɐ]
(when more reduced).
2. Diminutive nouns (simple forms)
3. A rhyme
4. Thirty-two vocabulary units (cumulatively)
~ 17 ~
This lesson is more relaxing. Start with revising the
words already known to you from the previous lesson. Mind
that the letter ‘о’ is pronounced like either /a/, when less
reduced, or /ə/, when more reduced (or like some unclear
sound in between them). The same may also happen to the
letter ‘а’:
/ə/
(like in ‘computer’)
много /mno-gə/ – a lot of, many, much
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little (adverb)
плохо /plo-hə/ – badly
хорошо /hərə-∫o/ – well
зовут /zə-vut/ – (they) call, (they) name (3rd person
plural)
спасибо /spa-s’i-bə/ or / spə-s’i-bə/ – thank you,
thanks
говорим /gəvə-r’im/ – (we) speak, (we) talk (1st person
plural)
по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian
Now add some new words with unstressed /ə/:
моя /ma-ja/ or /mə-ja/ (more reduced) – my (possessive
pronoun singular, subjective case, feminine gender)
ягода* /ja-gə-da / – a berry (singular noun, subjective
case, feminine gender)
*the “я” letter produces the sound /ja/ after a vowel or at the
start of the word
~ 18 ~
сад /sat/ – a garden (singular noun, subjective case,
masculine gender)
в саду /v sa-du/ or /f sə-du/ – in the garden (singular
noun with a preposition of place, prepositional case)
калина /ka-li-na/ or /kə-li-na/ – a guelder rose, a
snowball tree (singular noun, subjective case, feminine gender)
малина /ma-li-na/ or /mə-li-na/ – a raspberry (singular
noun, subjective case, feminine gender)
калинка /ka-lin-ka/ or /kə-li-nka/ – the diminutive form of
‘a guelder rose, a snowball tree’, which means ‘a berry or
a little pretty fruit given by a guelder rose, a snowball
tree’
малинка /ma-lin-ka/ or /mə-li-nka/ – the diminutive form
of ‘a raspberry’, which means ‘a little pretty and sweet
berry or fruit given by a raspberry bush’
Compare the above-mentioned forms калинка and
малинка (constructed from the original nouns калина and
малина with the help of the -к- suffix) to the following
diminutive forms in English:
‘sweetie, hottie’ (from the words ‘sweet’ and ‘hot’),
‘sissy’ (from ‘sis’ or ‘sister’), ‘itsy-bitsy’ or ‘Bobby,
Jimmy’.
So, English suffixes equivalent to Russian -к- are:
-y or -ie
-sie, -sies or -sy.
~ 19 ~
EXERCISES
1. Pronounce the following phrases and sentences and
translate them into English:
моя ягода
ягода моя
моя малина (калина)
В саду малина.
В саду калина.
Малина в саду?
Калина в саду?
У нас в саду калина, и у вас? – Да, и у нас.
У вас в саду малина? – Да.
В саду хорошо? – Да, хорошо.
2. Learn the following rhyme, which is a refrain to a
popular Russian song (listen to the song ‘Калинкамалинка’ on the Internet):
Калинка, калинка, калинка моя!
В саду ягода малинка, малинка моя!
~ 20 ~
3. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 6 units
Masculine gender: урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a
garden
Neuter gender: дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.),
дела /d’i-la/ – things, affairs, business (pl.)
Feminine gender: калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose,
малина /ma-li-na/ – a raspberry
PRONOUNS: 9 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.)
ADVERBS: 6 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian
VERBS: 2 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call
PREPOSITIONS: 2 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in
~ 21 ~
ADJECTIVES: 2 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.)
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS: 5 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела?
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS:
в саду, у нас, у вас
TOTAL: 32 vocabulary units
4. Insert the suitable preposition:
… саду ягода малина. И калина … саду.
… нас … саду малина, а … вас? – Да, и … нас.
5. Translate the following phrases and sentences into
Russian:
We have guelder roses in the garden. And you?
Is it good in the garden?
It’s very good in the garden.
We have raspberries in the garden – quite a lot.
~ 22 ~
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [ш`], [й`]
~ 23 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 24 ~
~ 25 ~
LESSON 3
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Revision of the vowel /ə/
2. The ‘-го’ syllable (stressed and unstressed forms)
4. Thirty-eight vocabulary units (cumulatively)
~ 26 ~
The aim of this lesson is to enrich your vocabulary
based on the previous knowledge of sounds and sentence
patterns. In addition, you will learn one pronunciation
secret concerning the ‘-го’ syllable.
Here are some new words and word combinations with
the unstressed vowel /ə/:
лето /l’e-tə/ – summer (noun, neuter gender)
один /ə-d’in/ – one (numeral, masculine gender)
год /got/ – a year (noun, masculine gender)
один год /ə-d’in got/ – one year
в году /v gə-du/ – in a year
When the ‘-го’ syllable is used in the root of the word,
pronounce it like /go/ in ‘gorge’, if it’s stressed, and like
/gə/ in ‘sugary’, if it’s unstressed.
год /got/ – a year (singular noun, masculine gender)
в году /v gə-du/ – in a year
много /mno-gə/ – a lot of
говорим /gəvə-r’im/ – (we) speak (verb, 1st person
plural)
When the ‘-го’ syllable is used as an ending, pronounce
it like /vo/ in ‘voltage’, if it’s stressed, and like /və/ in
‘never’, if it’s unstressed.
~ 27 ~
его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/* (more reduced) – him or his (pronoun,
masculine gender, objective or possessive)
всего /vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in
total
*As you can see from the transcription, in an unstressed syllable
/e/ may be reduced to /i/.
Всего хорошего! /vs’e -vo hə-ro-∫ə-va/ or /fs’i-vo həro-∫ə-və/ – (all good luck, all the best) Good luck! (as an
object after ‘I wish you …’)
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo- dn’ə/ – today (originated
from the old word combination ‘сего’ + ‘дня’, ‘of this day’ or
‘this day’, where ‘-го’ was an ending)
Pronounce the same words in phrases and sentences:
его дела – his things, his affairs, his business
Как его дела? – How is he? (How are things with
him? How’s his business?)
Сегодня хорошо. – It’s good today.
его урок – his lesson
Сегодня его урок. – It’s his lesson today.
Как его зовут? – What’s his name? (literally: How do
they call him?)
У нас один урок. – We have one lesson.
У нас всего один урок. – We have only one lesson.
Всего один? Как мало! – Only one? So few!
У нас всего один год. – We have only one year.
~ 28 ~
У нас лето. У нас хорошо! А у вас? – It’s summer
here (where we are). It’s so good here! Is it the same where
you are? (And at your place?)
И у нас лето. И у нас хорошо! – It’s also summer
here (We also have summer). And it’s also so good here (where
we are) !
Как я рад! (for men) – I’m so pleased (glad)!
Как я рада! (for women) – I’m so pleased (glad)!
Всего хорошего! – All the best! (Good luck!)
Спасибо, и вам! – Thanks! You, too.
~ 29 ~
EXERCISES
1. Read the phrases and sentences. Translate them into
English:
его дела
Как его дела?
Сегодня хорошо.
его урок
Сегодня его урок.
Как его зовут?
У нас один урок.
У нас всего один урок.
Всего один? Как мало!
У нас всего один год.
У нас лето. У нас хорошо! А у вас?
– И у нас лето. И у нас хорошо!
Как я рад!
Как я рада!
Всего хорошего!
Спасибо, и вам!
~ 30 ~
2. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 8 units
Masculine gender: урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a
garden, год /got/ – a year
Neuter gender: дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.),
дела /d’i-la/ – things, affairs, business (pl.), лето /l’e-tə/ –
summer
Feminine gender: калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose,
малина /ma-li-na/ – a raspberry
PRONOUNS: 11 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.), его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his, всего
/vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total
ADVERBS: 7 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian,
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo- dn’ə/ – today
VERBS: 2 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call
~ 31 ~
PREPOSITIONS: 2 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in
ADJECTIVES: 2 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.)
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS: 5 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi
NUMERALS: 1 unit
один /ə-d’in/ – one
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела? Всего хорошего!
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS:
в саду, у нас, у вас, в году
TOTAL: 38 vocabulary units
~ 32 ~
3. Translate the following
combinations into Russian:
words
and
word
summer; one; a year; one year; in a year; him or his;
only (in total; all of); Good luck!
4. Translate the following phrases and sentences into
Russian:
his affairs (his business)
How is he? (How are things with him? How’s his
business?)
It’s good today.
his lesson
It’s his lesson today.
What’s his name? (literally: How do they call him?)
We have one lesson.
We have only one lesson.
Only one? So few!
We have only one year.
It’s summer here (at our place). It’s so good here! Is it
the same where you are? (And at your place?)
It’s also summer here (We also have summer). And it’s
also so good here (where we are)!
I’m so pleased (glad)! (for men)
I’m so pleased (glad)! (for women)
All the best! (Good luck!)
Thanks! You, too.
~ 33 ~
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [ш`], [й`]
~ 34 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 35 ~
~ 36 ~
LESSON 4
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Revision of the paired consonant /d/ – /d’/;
devoicing of /d/ to /t/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [д] – [д’] and [т] accordingly.
2. Two paired consonants, hard and soft:
/z/ – /z’/, /l/ – /l’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [з] – [з’] and [л] – [л’]
accordingly.
3. Devoicing of /v/ to /f/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [в] and [ф] accordingly.
4. Unpaired consonants: hard /ʒ/, /ts/ and soft /t∫’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [ж], [ц] and [ч’] accordingly.
5. Two sentence patterns
6. Fifty-eight vocabulary units (cumulatively)
~ 37 ~
This lesson is harder and longer than the previous two,
so you may divide it into parts. As usual, we start from
revision. Look at some familiar words with the /d/
consonant. Remember the following rule: if the ‘д’ letter is
final in the word, it does not produce the sound /d/. Instead
we pronounce the voiceless sound /t/ (like in ‘fitness’). As
opposed to its English equivalent, Russian /t/ is not
aspirated and is pronounced with the tip of your tongue not
against your teethridge, but against the back of your upper
teeth. However, if the ‘д’ letter is followed by a hardindicating vowel (in our lesson they are ‘у’ and ‘а’) it is not
devoiced, so we say /d/. Use the same technique as for /t/
described above; only make it voiced (like in ‘admiral’).
Practice saying the following words:
год /got/ – a year (singular noun, masculine gender)
в году /v gə-du/ or /v ga-du/ – in a year
сад /sat/ – a garden (singular noun, subjective case)
в саду /v sa-du/ or /f sə-du/ (more reduced) – in the
garden (singular noun with a preposition of place, prepositional
case)
рад (for men) /rat/ – glad, pleased (adjective)
рада (for women) /ra-da/ – glad, pleased (adjective)
Now, let’s go to the palatalization of /d/. In the first
lesson we talked how the soft /d’/ sound differs from its
hard counterpart: unlike hard /d/, Russian soft /d’/ is
pronounced with your tongue flat. Make your tongue flat
and press the upper surface of the tongue against the
teethridge. In addition to ‘дела', here are some more new
words with soft /d’/ for you to practice:
~ 38 ~
/d’/
(somewhat similar to ’d’ in ‘audience’)
дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (singular noun, neuter
gender)
дела /d’e-la/ or /d’i-la/ (more reduced) – things, affairs,
business (plural of ‘дело’)
декабрь /d’e-kabr’/ or /d’i-kabr’/ (more reduced) –
December (masculine gender)
здесь /zd’es’/ or /z’d’es’/ – here
люди /l’u-d’i/ – people (only plural)
The next pair of consonants is /l/ – /l’/. Pronounce hard
/l/ like in ‘lost’. To pronounce its soft counterpart /l’/ make
your tongue flat and press the front edge of the blade of
your tongue against the teethridge, spread the lips wide.
Russian /l’/ is somewhat similar to ‘l’ in ‘liaison’, but
sounds softer. Here are the words with /l/ – /l’/ already
known to you:
/l/ (like in ‘lost’) – /l’/ (softer than in ‘liaison’)
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little
плохо /plo-hə/ – badly
Павел /pa-v’el/ or /pa-v’il/ (more reduced) – Pavel
(name)
лето /l’e-tə/ – summer
~ 39 ~
And these are new words with /l’/:
/l’/
(softer than in ‘liaison’)
лес /l’es/ – a forest
люблю /l’u-bl’u / – (I) love (verb, 1st
person singular,
Present tense)
Another pair is /z/ – /z’/. Pronounce hard Russian /z/
like English ‘z’ in ‘zoom’, for example:
/z/
(like in ‘zoom’)
зовут /zə-vut/ – (they) call, (they) name (3rd person
plural)
The difference in the articulation of soft /z’/ from its
hard counterpart is that you need to spread your lips, make
your tongue flat and move it a little forward. Now practice
the following new words:
/z/ (like in ‘zoom’) – /z’/ (like in ‘Jacuzzi’)
зима /z’i-ma/ – winter
сезон /s’i-zon/ or /s’ə-zon/ – a season
завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow
здесь /zd’es’/ or /z’d’es’/ – here
праздник /pra-zn’ik/ or /pra-z’n’ik/ (‘д’ is silent like ‘t’
in ‘listen’) – a party, an event, a festivity
~ 40 ~
Just for a change, here is some revision for you. Read
the following words, paying your attention to the devoicing
of /v/.This happens when it joins a voiceless consonant.
Commonly, it’s devoiced to /f/. Practice saying the
following words with /f/ instead of /v/:
завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow
в саду /fsa-du/ – in the garden (singular noun with a
preposition of place, prepositional case)
всего /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total e.g.
Всего хорошего!
всем /fs’em/ – to all of smb or smth (used as an object)
e.g. Всем привет! Всем спасибо!
все /fs’e/ – all (of smb or smth) (always plural unlike
‘everything’ or ‘everybody’ in English)
Excellent!
In addition to paired consonants, we’ll practice some
unpaired consonants in this lesson. In Russian there are
three single (unpaired) consonants, which are always soft,
and another three, which are always hard. Here is one soft
sound – /t∫’/. It’s similar to ‘ch’ in ‘cherry’. For example:
/t∫’/
(like in ‘cherry)
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very
~ 41 ~
Now practice the same sound in new words:
/t∫’/
(like in ‘cherry’)
час /t∫’as/ – an hour
человек /t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ or /t∫’i-lə -v’ek/ (more reduced) –
a person
The next single sound /ʒ/ is articulated like English /ʒ/
in ‘pleasure’, ‘leisure’ or ‘disclosure’. It’s always hard and
doesn’t have a soft variant. Here are new words with this
consonant. Practice saying them:
/ʒ/
(like in ‘pleasure’)
Рождество /ra-ʒd’e-stvo/ or /rə-ʒd’i-stvo/ (more
reduced) – Christmas
тоже /to-ʒə/ – too; also
жена /ʒə-na/ – a wife
замужем /za-mu-ʒəm/ – married (about women)
женат /ʒə-nat/ – married (about men)
Well done!
~ 42 ~
Now you can pronounce the short sentences:
Добро пожаловать! /da-bro pa-ʒa-lə-vat’/ –
Welcome!
Он женат. – He is married.
Она замужем. – She is married.
And the last single sound is /ts/. It’s always hard,
doesn’t have a soft variant and is pronounced like ‘tz’ in
‘Switzerland’. Practice saying this sound in the following
new words:
/ts/
(like in ‘Switzerland’)
месяц /m’e-s’əts/ – a month (singular noun, masculine)
улица /u-l’i-tsa/ – a street (singular noun, feminine)
Pronounce the same words in sentences:
Здесь моя улица. – Here is my street.
Моя улица здесь. – My street is here.
Моя жена здесь. – My wife is here.
Он здесь. – He is here.
Она здесь. – She is here.
~ 43 ~
EXERCISES
1. Read the sentences and translate them into English:
Здесь моя улица.
Моя улица здесь.
Моя жена здесь.
Он здесь.
Она здесь.
2. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian:
Here is my street.
My street is here.
My wife is here.
He is here.
She is here.
3. Read texts 1, 2, 3 and translate them into English:
Text 1
Я люблю лето. Я люблю лес. В лесу калина и
малина. В лесу хорошо. В саду тоже хорошо. В саду
тоже малина и калина.
Text 2
Я Анна. Я замужем. Он Павел. Я люблю его. Я
его жена.
Text 3
У нас зима. Месяц декабрь /d’e-kabr’/ or /d’ikabr’/ – December. Завтра праздник. Завтра
Рождество. Я люблю Рождество. Добро пожаловать
на Рождество!
~ 44 ~
4. Insert the suitable pronouns:
… Анна. … Павел. Я люблю …. Я … жена.
5. Insert the suitable prepositions:
… лесу хорошо. … нас зима. Добро пожаловать
… Рождество!
6. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 19 units
Masculine gender: урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a
garden, год /got/ – a year, декабрь /d’i-kabr’/ –
December, сезон /s’i-zon/ – a season, праздник /praz’n’ik/ – a party, an event, час /t∫’as/ – an hour, человек
/t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ – a person, месяц /m’e-s’əts/ – a month
Neuter gender: дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.),
дела /d’i-la/ – things, affairs, business (pl.), лето /l’e-tə/ –
summer, Рождество /rə-ʒd’i-stvo/ – Christmas
Feminine gender: калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose,
малина /ma-li-na/ – a raspberry, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter,
жена /ʒə-na/ – a wife, улица /u-l’i-tsa/ – a street
Only plural: люди /l’u-d’i/ – people
~ 45 ~
PRONOUNS: 13 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.), его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his, всего
/vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total, он
/on/ – he, она /ə-na/ – she
ADVERBS: 10 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian,
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo-dn’ə/ – today, здесь
/z’d’es’/ – here, завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow, замужем
/za-mu-ʒəm/ – married (about women)
VERBS: 3 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call, люблю /l’u- bl’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st person
singular)
PREPOSITIONS: 3 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in, на /na/ – to (if shows
direction)
~ 46 ~
ADJECTIVES: 3 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.), женат /ʒənat/ – married (about men)
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS: 6 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi,
тоже /to-ʒə/ – too, also
NUMERALS: 1 unit
один /ə-d’in/ – one
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела? Всего хорошего! Добро
пожаловать!
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS:
в саду, у нас, у вас, в году, на праздник, на
Рождество, в лесу
TOTAL: 58 vocabulary units
7. Remember the following sentence patterns:
Здесь ... – We have … here. / There is (are) … here. /
It’s …. here.
Завтра ... – Tomorrow smb is having… / Tomorrow
there will be …
~ 47 ~
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [ш`], [й`]
~ 48 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 49 ~
~ 50 ~
~ 51 ~
~ 52 ~
LESSON 5
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Revision of the soft-indicating letters ‘е’, ‘и’
and ‘ь’
2. Soft-indicating ‘ю’
3. Paired consonant, hard and soft: /t/ – /t’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [т] – [т’] accordingly.
4. The ‘-ть’ particle as an indicator of the infinitive
form (simple forms)
.
5. Two sentence patterns
6. Sixty-six vocabulary units (cumulatively)
~ 53 ~
In this lesson you will learn one more soft-indicating
letter. To make it easier, let’s revise the rule involving the
soft-indicating letters, known to you from Lesson 1.
In writing the softness (palatalization) of the sound is
represented with a consonant letter followed by ‘е’ or ‘и’
or the soft sign ‘ь’. For example:
-е (-се, -ве)
всем /vs’em/ or /fs’em/
привет /pr’i-v’et/
-и (-ри, -ки)
говорим /gəvə-r’im/
по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/
привет /pr’i-v’et/
-ь (-нь)
очень /o-t∫’ən’/
In the same way another soft-indicating letter ‘ю’
makes the preceding consonant soft (or palatalized). You
can refer to the previous lessons for the articulation of soft
/l’/, /d’/, /r’/, /k’/ and /s’/. Now practice saying the following
examples:
люди /l’u-d’i/ – people
рюмка /r’um-ka/ – a tooth glass
Кюсю /k’u-s’u/ – Kyushu
люблю /l’u- bl’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st
~ 54 ~
person singular)
The next paired consonant we’re going to practice is /t/
– /t’/. You already know some of the words with
hard /t/:
зовут /zə-vut/ – (they) call; (they) name (verb, 3rd person
plural)
лето /l’e-tə/ – summer
женат /ʒə-nat/ – married (about men)
and soft /t’/:
Добро пожаловать! /da-bro pa-ʒa-lə-vat’/ –
Welcome!
Now it’s time to learn some more new words.
As it was mentioned earlier, to articulate hard /t/
correctly you should press the tip of your tongue against the
back of your upper teeth. The difference from its English
equivalent is that Russian /t/ is not aspirated.
/t/
(like in ’fitness’)
вот /vоt/ – this is …, here it is (when we point at smth)
твоя /tva-ja / – your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person
singular, feminine gender)
Unlike hard /t/, Russian soft /t’/ is pronounced with
your tongue flat: make your tongue flat and press the
surface of the tongue against the teethridge.
~ 55 ~
/t’/
(no comparison)
тюльпан /t’ul’-pan/ – a tulip
тебя /t’e-b’a/ or /t’i-b’a/ (more reduced) – you (object
pronoun, 2nd person singular, informal)
нюхать /n’u-hat’/ or /n’u-hət’/ – to smell
нюхать тюльпан /n’u-hat’ t’ul’-pan/ – to smell a
tulip
Probably, you’ve noticed that the infinitives
‘пожаловать’ and ‘нюхать’ end in ‘-ть’. The ‘-ть’
particle is similar to the ‘to’ particle in English infinitives.
Compare: пожаловать → to visit; нюхать → to smell
Now pronounce the words with hard /t/ and soft /t’/ in
sentences:
Я люблю лето. – I love summer.
Я люблю сад. – I love the garden.
Вот тюльпан. – This is a tulip. (Here is the tulip.)
Я люблю нюхать тюльпан. – I like smelling a tulip.
Я люблю тебя. – I love you.
Я тебя люблю. – I love you.
Как тебя зовут? – What’s your name? (How do they
call you?)
Тебя зовут. – They’re calling you.
Вот моя улица. – Here is (this is) my street.
Твоя улица здесь? – Is your street here?
Вот моя жена. –This is my wife.(Here is my wife.)
~ 56 ~
Как твоя жена? – How’s your wife?
Добро пожаловать на праздник! – Welcome to the
party!
Нас зовут на праздник. – They’re inviting (calling)
us to the party.
Тебя зовут на праздник? – Are they inviting (calling)
you to the party?
Вот твоя рюмка. – Here is your tooth glass.
EXERCISES
1. Read the sentences and translate them into English:
Я люблю лето.
Я люблю сад.
Вот тюльпан.
Я люблю нюхать тюльпан.
Я люблю тебя.
Я тебя люблю.
Как тебя зовут?
Тебя зовут.
Вот моя улица.
Твоя улица здесь?
Вот моя жена.
Как твоя жена?
Добро пожаловать на праздник!
Нас зовут на праздник.
Тебя зовут на праздник?
Вот твоя рюмка.
~ 57 ~
2. Translate the sentences into Russian:
I love summer.
I love the garden.
Here is the tulip.
I like smelling a tulip.
I love you.
I love you.
What’s your name? (How do they call you?)
They’re calling you.
Here is (this is) my street.
Is your street here?
This is my wife.(Here is my wife.)
How’s your wife?
Welcome to the party!
They’re inviting (calling) us to the party.
Are they inviting (calling) you to the party?
Here is your tooth glass.
3. Remember the following sentence patterns:
Вот ... – This is… / Here is ….
Я люблю ... – I like … / I love…
~ 58 ~
4. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 23 units
Masculine gender: урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a
garden, год /got/ – a year, декабрь /d’i-kabr’/ –
December, сезон /s’i-zon/ – a season, праздник /praz’n’ik/ – a party, an event, час /t∫’as/ – an hour, человек
/t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ – a person, месяц /m’e-s’əts/ – a month,
сезон /s’i-zon/ – season, тюльпан /t’ul’-pan/ – a tulip
Neuter gender: дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.),
дела /d’i-la/ – things, affairs, business (pl.), лето /l’e-tə/ –
summer, Рождество /rə-ʒd’i-stvo/ – Christmas
Feminine gender: калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose,
малина /ma-li-na/ – a raspberry, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter,
жена /ʒə-na/ – a wife, улица /u-l’i-tsa/ – a street, рюмка
/r’um-ka/ – a tooth glass, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter
Only plural: люди /l’u-d’i/ – people
PRONOUNS: 15 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.), его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his, всего
/vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total, он
/on/ – he, она /ə-na/ – she, твоя /tva-ja / – your (f.), тебя
/t’i-b’a/ – you (object)
~ 59 ~
ADVERBS: 10 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian,
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo-dn’ə/ – today, здесь
/z’d’es’/ – here, завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow, замужем
/za-mu-ʒəm/ – married (about women)
VERBS: 4 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call, люблю /l’u-bl’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st person
singular), нюхать /n’u-hət’/ – to smell
PREPOSITIONS: 3 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in, на /na/ – to (if shows
direction)
ADJECTIVES: 3 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.), женат /ʒə-nat/
– married (about men)
CONJ., PARTICLES, INTERJECTIONS: 7 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi,
тоже /to-ʒə/ – too, also, вот /vоt/ – this is, here is (a pointing
particle)
~ 60 ~
NUMERALS: 1 unit
один /ə-d’in/ – one
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела? Всего хорошего! Добро
пожаловать!
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS:
в саду, у нас, у вас, в году, на праздник, на
Рождество, в лесу
TOTAL: 66 vocabulary units
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [ш`], [й`]
~ 61 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 62 ~
~ 63 ~
~ 64 ~
LESSON 6
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Unpaired consonant: soft /j/*
*Its Cyrillic-based match is [й’].
2. New letters ‘ё’ and ‘й’
4. Eighty-one vocabulary units (cumulatively)
~ 65 ~
This lesson must be easy for you as an English speaker,
because the articulation of Russian /j/ does not differ from
that of its English equivalent. Pronounce it like in ‘yet’ or
‘yacht’. By the way, this sound is not completely new, it was
already used in this course before in some words, for
exanple:
/j/
(like in ‘yet’)
его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his (singular pronoun,
masculine gender, objective or possessive)
ягода /ja-gə-da / – a berry (singular noun, subjective case)
моя /ma-ja/ – my (possessive pronoun, 1st person singular,
feminine gender)
твоя /tva-ja/ – your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person
singular, feminine gender)
Now let’s analyze when and how it’s produced. In
writing it may be represented by the soft-indicating letters
already known to you: ‘е’,‘ь’ (the soft sign) and ‘ю’. In
addition, we need three more letters to represent this sound
in writing: they are ‘я’ (pronounced /ja/ in the alphabet),
‘ё’ (pronounced /jo/ in the alphabet) and ‘й’ (the so called
‘short Russian i’). But you should be careful about the
position of the above-mentioned letters in a word. So, let’s
divide our further examples with the /j/ sound into three
groups.
~ 66 ~
Group 1.
This group includes the cases when the letters ‘е’,‘ё’,
‘ю’ and ‘я’ are used at the start of a word. As for the soft
sign ‘ь’, it never starts a word; and as far as ‘й’ is
concerned, it’s only used in a couple of words at their
beginning, the latter being foreign borrowings, not
originally Russian, so we won’t consider them here. This
group is a mixture of known and new words:
Known:
его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his (singular pronoun,
masculine gender, objective or possessive)
ягода /ja-gə-da / – a berry (singular noun, subjective case)
New:
ёж /jo∫/ – a hedgehog (singular noun, masculine gender)
юбка /jup-ka / – a skirt (singular noun, feminine gender)
Group 2.
This group includes the cases, when the letters ‘е’,‘ё’,
‘ю’ and ‘я’ are used at the start of a syllable after another
vowel, for example:
Known:
моя /ma-ja/ – my (possessive pronoun, 1st person singular,
feminine gender)
твоя /tva-ja/ – your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person
singular, feminine gender)
~ 67 ~
New:
моё /ma-jo/ – my (possessive pronoun, 1st person singular,
neuter gender)
твоё /tva-jo/ – your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person
singular, neuter gender)
Or when the same letters ‘е’,‘ё’, ‘ю’ and ‘я’ are used at
the start of a syllable after a consonant with the soft sign
‘ь’, for example:
здоровье /zda-ro-v’jə/ – health (singular noun, neuter
gender)
пью /p’ju/ – am drinking or (I) drink (verb, 1st person
singular, Present form)
коровье /ka-ro-v’jə/ – produced by a cow or cow’s
(singular adjective, neuter gender)
коровье молоко /ka-ro-v’jə mə-la-ko/ – cow’s milk
(singular adjective + noun, neuter gender)
Now pronounce the same words in phrases and
sentences:
Ёж в лесу. – The hedgehog is in the forest.
Моё место здесь. – My seat (place) is here.
Вот моя юбка. – Here (this) is my skirt.
моё здоровье – my health
твоё здоровье – your health
Как твоё здоровье? –How are you? (literally: How is
your health?)
Я пью коровье молоко. – I drink cow’s milk. (or: I’m
drinking cow’s milk.)
~ 68 ~
Group 3.
This group includes the cases, when the ‘й’ letter is
used at the end of a word (or a syllable). As you can see,
‘й’ (called ‘short i’ in the alphabet) is actually pronounced
in words like /j/, for example:
мой /moj/ – my (possessive pronoun, 1st person singular,
masculine gender)
твой /tvoj/ – your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person singular,
masculine gender)
большой /bal’-∫oj/ – big (singular adjective, masculine
gender)
Now pronounce the same words with /j/ in the following
sentences:
Вот мой дом. – Here (this) is my house.
Как твой муж? – How is your husband?
Твой дом здесь? – Is your house here?
Твой дом большой? – Is your house big?
Мой город – Москва. – My city is Moscow.
Москва – большой город. – Moscow is a big city.
NOTE:
It’s interesting to know that the Russian letter Ёё /jo/
(with the two dots above it) is often written or printed
without the dots, e.g. ‘твое’, ‘мое’ or ‘еж’ instead of
‘твоё’, ‘моё’ or ‘ёж’ is the common spelling. Another
important thing to know is that Ёё is always stressed.
~ 69 ~
EXERCISES
1. Read the phrases and sentences. Translate them into
English:
Ёж в лесу.
Моё место здесь.
Вот моя юбка.
моё здоровье
твоё здоровье
Как твоё здоровье?
Я пью коровье молоко.
Вот мой дом.
Как твой муж?
Твой дом здесь?
Твой дом большой?
Мой город – Москва.
Москва – большой город.
2. Insert the suitable pronouns моё, твоё (neuter gender),
мой, твой (masculine gender), моя, твоя (feminine gender):
… место здесь. Вот … юбка, а вот … юбка. Как …
здоровье? Вот … дом. Как … муж?
3. Translate the words or word combinations into
Russian:
my (possessive pronoun, 1st person singular, masculine gender)
your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person singular, masculine
gender)
~ 70 ~
big (singular adjective, masculine gender)
health (singular noun, neuter gender)
am drinking or (I) drink (verb, 1st person singular, Present
form)
cow’s (singular adjective, neuter gender)
cow’s milk (singular adjective + noun, neuter gender)
my (possessive pronoun, 1st person singular, feminine gender)
your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person singular, feminine gender)
my (possessive pronoun, 1st person singular, neuter gender)
your (possessive pronoun, 2nd person singular, neuter gender)
my health
your health
4. Translate the sentences into Russian:
The hedgehog is in the forest.
My seat (place) is here.
Here (this) is my skirt.
How are you?(literally: How is your health?)
I drink cow’s milk.
Here (this) is my house.
How is your husband?
Is your house here?
Is your house big?
My city is Moscow.
Moscow is a big city.
~ 71 ~
5. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 31 units
Masculine gender: урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a
garden, год /got/ – a year, декабрь /d’i-kabr’/ –
December, сезон /s’i-zon/ – a season, праздник /praz’n’ik/ – a party, an event, час /t∫’as/ – an hour, человек
/t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ – a person, месяц /m’e-s’əts/ – a month,
сезон /s’i-zon/ – season, тюльпан /t’ul’-pan/ – a tulip, ёж
/jo∫/ – a hedgehog, муж /mu∫/ – a husband, дом /dom/ – a
house, город /go-rət/ – a city
Neuter gender: дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.),
дела /d’i-la/ – things, affairs, business (pl.), лето /l’e-tə/ –
summer, Рождество /rə-ʒd’i-stvo/ – Christmas, здоровье
/zda-ro-v’jə/ – health, молоко /mə-la-ko/ – milk, место
/m’e-stə/ – seat, place
Feminine gender: калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose,
малина /ma-li-na/ – a raspberry, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter,
жена /ʒə-na/ – a wife, улица /u-l’i-tsa/ – a street, рюмка
/r’um-ka/ – a tooth glass, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter, юбка
/jup-ka / – a skirt
Only plural: люди /l’u-d’i/ – people
~ 72 ~
PRONOUNS: 19 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.), его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his, всего
/vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total, он
/on/ – he, она /ə-na/ – she, твоя /tva-ja / – your (f.), тебя
/t’i-b’a/ – you (object), моё /ma-jo/ – my (n.), твоё /tva-jo/
– your (n.), мой /moj/ – my (m.), твой /tvoj/ – your (m.)
ADVERBS: 10 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian,
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo-dn’ə/ – today, здесь
/z’d’es’/ – here, завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow, замужем
/za-mu-ʒəm/ – married (about women)
VERBS: 5 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call, люблю /l’u-bl’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st person
singular), нюхать /n’u-hət’/ – to smell, пью /p’ju/ – (I)
drink or am drinking
PREPOSITIONS: 3 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in, на /na/ – to (if shows
direction)
~ 73 ~
ADJECTIVES: 5 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.), женат /ʒənat/ – married (about men), коровье /ka-ro-v’jə/ – produced
by a cow (n.), большой /bal’-∫oj/ – big (m.)
CONJ., PARTICLES, INTERJECTIONS: 7 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi,
тоже /to-ʒə/ – too, also, вот /vоt/ – this is, here is (a pointing
particle)
NUMERALS: 1 unit
один /ə-d’in/ – one
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела? Всего хорошего! Добро
пожаловать! Как здоровье?
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS:
в саду, у нас, у вас, в году, на праздник, на
Рождество, в лесу
TOTAL: 81 vocabulary units
~ 74 ~
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [ш`], [й`]
~ 75 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 76 ~
~ 77 ~
~ 78 ~
~ 79 ~
LESSON 7
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Paired consonant, hard and soft: /f/ – /f’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [ф] – [ф’] accordingly.
2. Unpaired consonant: hard /∫/*
*Its Cyrillic-based match is [ш].
3. Vowel /ɨ/ *
*Its Cyrillic-based match is [ы].
4. One sentence pattern
5. A hundred and ten vocabulary units (cumulatively)
~ 80 ~
The /f/ sound is not completely new, either. Do you
recognize the examples below?
завтра /zaft-ra/
в саду /fsa-du/
всего /fs’i-vo/
всем /fs’em/
все /fs’e/
Yes, we discussed them in Lesson 4. The /v/ sound is
devoiced to /f/ when it stands before another voiceless
consonant. And in this case /f/ is represented in writing by
the letter ‘в’. However, in most cases we use the letter ‘ф’.
Pronounce /f/ like ‘f’ in ‘foot’ and /f’/ like ‘fj’ in ‘fjord’.
Look at the words below and pronounce them:
/f/ (like in ‘foot’) – /f’/ (like in ‘fjord’)
фото /fo-tə/ – a photo (singular noun, neuter gender,
uninflected)
фотография /fətə-gra-f’i-ja/ – a photograph (singular
noun, feminine gender)
фамилия /fa-m’i-l’i-ja/ – a surname (singular noun,
feminine gender)
фильм /f’il’m/ – a film (singular noun, masculine gender)
физик /f’i-z’ik/ – a physicist (singular noun, masculine
gender)
кофе /ko-f’ə/ – coffee (singular noun, masculine gender,
uninflected)
~ 81 ~
The next consonant is unpaired and is always hard. It’s
/∫/. Pronounce it like ‘sh’ in ‘shark’. In writing it may be
represented in two ways: (1) by the letter ‘ж’ at the end of a
word (or a syllable followed by a voiceless consonant), for
example:
муж /mu∫/ – a husband
ёж /jo∫/ – a hedgehog
or (2) by the letter ‘ш’ in all the other cases, for example:
большой /bal’-∫oj/ – big (singular adjective, masculine
gender)
The words above are known to you. So, let’s consider
some new examples with the /∫/ sound:
ваш / Ваш /va∫/ – your (2nd person possessive pronoun,
singular, masculine gender, when addressed to several people /
2nd person possessive pronoun, singular, masculine gender, when
addressed to one person, polite form)
наш /na∫/ – our (1st person possessive pronoun, singular,
masculine gender)
что* /∫to/ – what (interrogative pronoun), that (conjunction)
*This type of spelling (when the ‘ч’ letter stands for the /∫/
sound) is an exception.
In this connection, I would like to offer you some more
typical examples with the ‘ч’ letter, i.e. when it shows the
sound /t∫’/:
~ 82 ~
Known:
час /t∫’as/ – an hour or (one) o’clock
человек /t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ – a person
New:
сейчас /s’ej-t∫’as/ or /s’i-t∫’as/ (more reduced) – now,
currently
часа /t∫’ə-sa/ – (two, three, four) hours or (two, three,
four) o’clock
два часа /dva t∫’ə-sa/ – two hours or two o’clock
три часа /tri t∫’ə-sa/ – three hours or three o’clock
вечер /v’e-t∫’ər/ – an evening
And the last sound in this lesson is a vowel.
Unfortunately, there is no equivalent vowel in English and,
therefore, there is no Latin-based transcription symbol for
it among those used by English learners. So, we’ll use the
one offered by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) –
/ɨ/. The Cyrillic-based transcription sign and the letter are
the same: ‘ы’. Now about the articulation: Imagine you’ve
put a small round object in your mouth like a walnut. Join
your upper and lower teeth, press the object inside your
mouth against your teeth and (with your tongue being
pushed back) try to say ‘ee’ (/i/). It won’t be possible. So,
you’ll get /ɨ/. Let’s practice saying the new words with /ɨ/:
~ 83 ~
/ɨ/
(no comparison)
ты /tɨ/ – you (friendly or informal, 2nd person singular, used
as a subject)
мы /mɨ/ – we (1st person plural pronoun, used as a subject)
вы / Вы /vɨ/ – you (either 2nd person plural pronoun or
singular, polite form)
рады /ra-dɨ/ – pleased, glad or happy (plural)
который /ka-to-rɨj/ or / kə-to-rɨj/ (more reduced) –
which
четыре /t∫’ə-tɨ-r’ə/ or /t∫’ə-tɨ-r’i/ (more reduced) – four
новый /no-vɨj/ – new (masculine adjective)
старый /sta-rɨj/ – old (masculine adjective)
добрый /do-brɨj/ – good or kind (masculine adjective)
лучший /lut∫’-∫ɨj/ – the best (masculine adjective,
superlative degree)
жизнь /ʒɨzn’/ or / ʒɨz’n’/ – life (singular noun, feminine
gender)
цирк /tsɨrk/ – a circus (singular noun, masculine gender)
As you can see, in most of the examples above the /ɨ/
sound is represented by the ‘ы’ letter, apart from the last
three words: ‘лучший’, ‘ жизнь’ and ‘цирк’, where the
soft-indicating letter ‘и’ is used. But if you look again at the
table of sounds, you will see that in Russian phonetics there
are three unpaired consonants which are always hard. They
are ‘ж’, ‘ш’ and ‘ц’. Nothing can make them sound soft.
So, there is nothing more left for ‘и’ than sound hardindicating, i.e. like /ɨ/.
~ 84 ~
Now pronounce the words with /f/ – /f’/, /∫/, /t∫’/ and /ɨ/
in phrases and sentences:
Добрый вечер! – Good evening!
Добрый день! – Good afternoon!
Что сегодня? – Сегодня новый фильм. – What do
we have today? (or: What is it today?)
Мой дом новый. – My house is new.
Вот старый город. Он большой. – Here is an old
town. It is big.
Мы рады. А вы рады? – Да, очень рады. – We are
glad (delighted, pleased). And are you pleased, too? – Yes,
very pleased.
Мы рады, что мы здесь. – We are happy that we are
here.
Мы очень рады, что вы сейчас у нас. – We are
happy that you are now staying at our place (with us).
Что завтра? – Завтра цирк. Я люблю цирк. –
What’s going on tomorrow? – It’s (We are seeing) the
circus tomorrow. I like the circus.
Привет! Как жизнь? – Hello! How’s the life?
Где /gd’e/ мы? – Мы здесь. – Where are we? – We
are here.
Ты в саду? – Да, я в саду. А вы где? – Are you in
the garden? – Yes, in the garden. And where are you?
Который час? – Сейчас четыре часа. – What’s the
time? – It’s four o’clock now. (or: Now it’s four o’clock.)
Который час? – Сейчас три часа. – What’s the
time? – It’s three o’clock now. (or: Now it’s three o’clock.)
Который час? – Сейчас два часа. – What’s the
time? – It’s two o’clock now. (or: Now it’s two o’clock.)
~ 85 ~
Который час? – Сейчас один час. – What’s the
time? – It’s one o’clock now. (or: Now it’s one o’clock.)
Где ваш дом? – Вот наш дом. – Where is your
house? – Here is our house.
Вот моё фото. – Here is my photo.
Вот моя фотография. – Here is my photograph.
Ты лучший. – You are the best.
Вы очень хороший человек. – You are a nice (good)
person.
Как твоя фамилия? – What’s your surname?
Кто твой муж? – Мой муж физик. – What does your
husband do? (literally: Who is your husband?) – My
husband is a physicist.
Где мой кофе? – Вот Ваш (твой) кофе. – Where is
my coffee? – Here is your coffee.
~ 86 ~
EXERCISES
1. Read the phrases and sentences. Translate them into
English:
Добрый вечер!
Добрый день!
Что сегодня? – Сегодня новый фильм.
Мой дом новый.
Вот старый город. Он большой.
Ты лучший.
Вы очень хороший человек.
Мы рады. А вы рады? – Да, очень рады.
Мы рады, что мы здесь.
Мы очень рады, что вы сейчас у нас.
Что завтра? – Завтра цирк. Я люблю цирк.
Привет! Как жизнь?
Где мы? – Мы здесь.
Ты в саду? – Да, я в саду. А вы где?
Который час? – Сейчас четыре часа.
Который час? – Сейчас три часа.
Который час? – Сейчас два часа.
Который час? – Сейчас один час.
Где ваш дом? – Вот наш дом.
Вот моё фото.
Вот моя фотография.
Как твоя фамилия?
Кто твой муж? – Мой муж физик.
Где мой кофе? – Вот Ваш (твой) кофе.
~ 87 ~
2. Insert the suitable personal pronouns ты, я, мы,
Вы/вы. Sometimes two options are possible:
… лучший.
… очень хороший человек.
… рады. А … рады? – Да, очень рады.
… рады, что … здесь.
… очень рады, что … сейчас у нас.
Что завтра? – Завтра цирк. … люблю цирк.
Где …? – … здесь.
… в саду? – Да, … в саду. А … где?
3. Insert the suitable question words (pronouns) что,
кто, как, который, где:
… сегодня? – Сегодня новый фильм.
… завтра? – Завтра цирк.
Привет! … жизнь?
… мы? – Мы здесь.
Ты в саду? – Да, я в саду. А вы …?
… час? – Сейчас четыре часа.
… мой кофе? – Вот ваш кофе.
… твоя фамилия?
… твой муж? – Мой муж физик.
4. Translate the words or word combinations into
Russian:
a photo, a photograph, a surname, a film, coffee, your
(2 person possessive pronoun, singular, masculine gender) , our (1st
person possessive pronoun, singular, masculine gender) , what, an
evening, two hours or two o’clock, three hours or 3 o’clock,
nd
~ 88 ~
now, you (informal), we, you (either 2nd person plural pronoun or
singular polite form), pleased (plural), which, four, new
(masculine adjective), old (masculine adjective), life, a circus, the
best (masculine adjective, superlative degree) , good or kind
(masculine adjective)
5. Translate the sentences into Russian:
Good evening!
Good afternoon!
What do we have today? (or: What is it today?)
My house is new.
Here is an old town. It is big.
You are the best.
You are a nice (good) person.
We are glad (delighted, pleased). And are you pleased,
too?
We are happy that we are here.
We are happy that you are now staying at our place
(with us).
What’s going on tomorrow? – It’s (We are seeing) the
circus tomorrow. I like the circus.
Hello! How’s the life?
Where are we? – We are here.
Are you in the garden? – Yes, in the garden. And where
are you?
What’s the time? – It’s four o’clock now.
What’s the time? – It’s three o’clock now.
What’s the time? – It’s two o’clock now.
What’s the time? – It’s one o’clock now.
~ 89 ~
Where is your house? – Here is our house.
Here is my photo.
Here is my photograph.
What’s your surname?
What does your husband do? (literally: Who is your
husband?) – My husband is a physicist.
Where is my coffee? – Here is your coffee.
6. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 41 units
Masculine gender:
урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a garden, год /got/
– a year, декабрь /d’i-kabr’/ – December, сезон /s’i-zon/
– a season, праздник /praz’-n’ik/ – a party, an event, час
/t∫’as/ – an hour, человек /t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ – a person, месяц
/m’e-s’əts/ – a month, сезон /s’i-zon/ – season, тюльпан
/t’ul’-pan/ – a tulip, ёж /jo∫/ – a hedgehog, муж /mu∫/ – a
husband, дом /dom/ – a house, город /go-rət/ – a city,
фильм /f’il’m/ – a film, физик /f’i-z’ik/ – a physicist,
цирк /tsɨrk/ – a circus, вечер /v’e-t∫’ər/ – an evening,
день /d’en’/ – a day, кофе /ko-f’ə/ – coffee (uninflected)
Neuter gender:
дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.), дела /d’i-la/ –
things, affairs, business (pl.), лето /l’e-tə/ – summer,
Рождество /rə-ʒd’i-stvo/ – Christmas, здоровье /zda-rov’jə/ – health, молоко /mə-la-ko/ – milk, место /m’e-stə/ –
seat, place, фото /fo-tə/ – a photo (uninflected)
~ 90 ~
Feminine gender:
калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose, малина /ma-li-na/
– a raspberry, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter, жена /ʒə-na/ – a
wife, улица /u-l’i-tsa/ – a street, рюмка /r’um-ka/ – a
tooth glass, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter, юбка /jup-ka / – a
skirt, фотография /fə-tə-gra-f’i-ja/ – a photograph,
фамилия /fa-m’i-l’i-ja/ – a surname, жизнь /ʒɨzn’/ – life
Only plural:
люди /l’u-d’i/ – people
PRONOUNS: 28 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.), его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his, всего
/vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total, он
/on/ – he, она /ə-na/ – she, твоя /tva-ja / – your (f.), тебя
/t’i-b’a/ – you (object), моё /ma-jo/ – my (n.), твоё /tva-jo/
– your (n.), мой /moj/ – my (m.), твой /tvoj/ – your (m.,
informal, addressed to one person), ваш / Ваш /va∫/ – your (m.,
informal, addressed to several people / m., polite, addressed to one
person), наш /na∫/ – our, что /∫to/ – what, кто /kto/ – who,
где /gd’e/ – where, ты /tɨ/ – you, мы /mɨ/ – we, вы (2nd
person plural) / Вы /vɨ/ – you (singular, polite), который /ka-
to-rɨj/ – which
~ 91 ~
ADVERBS: 11 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian,
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo-dn’ə/ – today, здесь
/z’d’es’/ – here, завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow, замужем
/za-mu-ʒəm/ – married (about women), сейчас /s’i-t∫’as/ –
now, currently
VERBS: 5 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call, люблю /l’ub-l’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st person
singular), нюхать /n’u-hət’/ – to smell, пью /p’ju/ – (I)
drink or am drinking
PREPOSITIONS: 3 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in, на /na/ – to (if shows
direction)
ADJECTIVES: 10 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.), женат /ʒənat/ – married (about men), коровье /ka-ro-v’jə/ – produced
by a cow (n.), большой /bal’-∫oj/ – big (m.), рады /ra-dɨ/ –
pleased (plural), новый /no-vɨj/ – new (m.), старый /starɨj/ – old (m.), лучший /lut∫’-∫ɨj/ – the best (m.), добрый
/do-brɨj/ – good, kind (m.)
~ 92 ~
CONJ., PARTICLES, INTERJECTIONS: 8 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi,
тоже /to-ʒə/ – too, also, вот /vоt/ – this is, here is (a pointing
particle), что /∫to/ – that (for linking clauses in a sentence)
NUMERALS: 4 units
один /ə-d’in/ – one, четыре /t∫’ə-tɨ-r’ə/ – four, два
/dva/ – two, три /tri/ – three
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела? Всего хорошего! Добро
пожаловать! Как здоровье? Как жизнь? Добрый
вечер! Добрый день! Который час?
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS / NUMBERS:
в саду, у нас, у вас, в году, на праздник, на
Рождество, в лесу, два часа, три часа, четыре часа
TOTAL: 110 vocabulary units
7. Remember the following sentence pattern:
Где ...? – Where is…? / Where are …?
~ 93 ~
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [щ`], [й`]
~ 94 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 95 ~
~ 96 ~
~ 97 ~
~ 98 ~
LESSON 8
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Three paired consonants, hard and soft:
/m/ – /m’/, /p/ – /p’/, /g/ – /g’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [м] – [м’], [п] – [п’] and
[г] – [г’] accordingly.
2. A hundred and twenty-five vocabulary units
(cumulatively)
~ 99 ~
The first pair of sounds we are going to practice in this
lesson is /m/ – /m’/. Pronounce hard /m/ like ‘m’ in ‘mask’.
To make it palatalized you need to spread the corners of
your mouth. Soft /m’/ sounds like ‘m’ in ‘Jimmy’, but a little
softer. Now let’s practice saying the words below:
/m/ (like in ‘mask’) – /m’/ (softer than in ‘Jimmy’)
Known:
зима /z’i-ma/ – winter
муж /mu∫/ – a husband
молоко /mə-la-ko/ – milk
место /m’e-stə/ – seat or place
фамилия /fa-m’i-l’ija/ – a surname
New:
мир /m’ir/ – peace or world (singular noun, masculine
gender)
в мире /v m’i-r’ə/ – in the world or in peace
мост /most/ – a bridge (singular noun, masculine gender)
музей /mu- z’ej/ – a museum (singular noun, masculine
gender)
имя /i-m’ə/ – a name (singular noun, neuter gender)
космонавт /kə-smə-naft/ – an astronaut (singular noun,
masculine gender)
~ 100 ~
The next pair is /p/ – /p’/. Pronounce hard /p/ like ‘p’ in
‘sport’, not like ‘p’ in ‘port’, in Russian it’s not aspirated.
To make it palatalized you need to spread the corners of
your mouth, like in the case of /m’/. Soft /p’/ sounds like ‘p’
in ‘Utopia’, but a little softer and with no aspiration. Now
let’s practice saying the words below:
/p/ (like in ‘sport’) – /p’/ (like in ‘Utopia’, no aspiration)
проспект /prə-sp’ekt/ – an avenue or a boulevard
пять /p’at’/ – five
петь /p’et’/ – to sing
первый /p’er-vɨj/ – the first (singular adjective or ordinal
number, masculine gender)
And the last pair is /g/ – /g’/. Pronounce hard /g/ like
‘g’ in ‘golf’. To make it palatalized you need to spread the
corners of your mouth, make your tongue flat, move it a
little forward and shift the center of articulation of the
sound a little bit forward, too . Russian soft /g’/ sounds like
the first ‘g’ in ‘giggle’, but a little softer and with a wider
‘smile’. Let’s practice saying the words below:
/g/ (like in ‘golf’)
Known:
год /got/ – a year
много /mno-gə/ – a lot, much or many
говорим /gəvə-r’im/ – (we) speak
город /go-rət/ – a city or a town
~ 101 ~
/g’/ (softer than in ‘giggle’)
New:
деньги /d’en’-g’i/ – money (plural noun)
гимн /g’imn/ – an anthem (singular noun, masculine
gender)
герой /g’i-roj/ – a hero (singular noun, masculine gender)
гений /g’e-n’ij/ – a genius (singular noun, masculine
gender)
Now pronounce the words with /m/ – /m’/, /p/ – /p’/, /g/
– /g’/ in phrases and sentences:
Я люблю петь. – I like singing (to sing).
Я очень люблю петь. – I really like singing.
Я люблю петь хорошо. – I like to sing well.
Я люблю петь очень хорошо. – I like to sing very
well.
проспект Гагарина – Gagarin Avenue
улица Гагарина – Gagarin Street
Где проспект Гагарина? – Вот проспект
Гагарина. – Where is Gagarin Avenue? – Here (this) is
Gagarin Avenue.
Улица Гагарина здесь? – Да, улица Гагарина
здесь. – Is Gagarin Street here? – Yes, Gagarin Street is
here.
Который час? – Сейчас пять. – What’s the time? –
It’s five now.
~ 102 ~
Который час? – Первый. – What’s the time? – Some
minutes after twelve (This may not be translated literally, as it
doesn’t sound English this way: “It’s the first hour” or “The first”) .
Где музей? – Музей здесь. – Where is the museum? –
The museum is here (nearby).
Вот наш музей. Наш музей здесь лучший. Добро
пожаловать в наш музей! – Here is our museum. Our
museum is the best here. Welcome to our museum!
Вот наш старый мост, а вот наш новый мост.
Сейчас он здесь лучший. – This is our old bridge, and
that is our new bridge. Currently it’s the best one here.
Наш мир очень большой. – Our world is very big.
Мы рады, что у нас мир. – We are happy that we
have piece here.
Как хорошо, что сейчас у вас мир! – It’s so good
that you’ve got piece now!
Юрий Гагарин – русский /rus-sk’ij/. Он – наш
герой. Он – первый в мире космонавт. – Yuri Gagarin
is Russian. He is our hero. He is the first astronaut in the
world.
наш гимн – our anthem.
Я люблю петь наш гимн. – I like singing (to sing)
our anthem.
Как Ваше /va-∫ə/ имя? – Моё имя Дмитрий /dm’itr’ij/. – What’s your name? (polite, formal) – My name is
Dmitri.
Как твоё имя? – Моё имя Фёдор /f’o-dər/. – What’s
your name? (friendly, informal) – My name is Fiodor.
~ 103 ~
Он – гений. – He is a genius.
Она – гений. – She is a genius.
Ты – гений. – You are a genius. (friendly)
Вы – гений. – You are a genius. (formal)
Я – гений. – I am a genius.
Вот деньги. – Here is the money.
EXERCISES
1. Read the sentences and phrases. Translate them into
English:
Я люблю петь.
Я очень люблю петь.
Я люблю петь хорошо.
Я люблю петь очень хорошо.
проспект Гагарина
улица Гагарина
Где проспект Гагарина? – Вот проспект
Гагарина.
Улица Гагарина здесь? – Да, улица Гагарина
здесь.
Который час? – Сейчас пять.
Который час? – Первый.
Где музей? – Музей здесь.
Вот наш музей. Наш музей здесь лучший. Добро
пожаловать в наш музей!
Вот наш старый мост, а вот наш новый мост.
Сейчас он здесь лучший.
Наш мир очень большой.
~ 104 ~
Мы рады, что у нас мир.
Как хорошо, что сейчас у вас мир!
Юрий Гагарин – русский. Он – наш герой. Он –
первый в мире космонавт.
наш гимн
Я люблю петь наш гимн.
Как Ваше имя? – Моё имя Дмитрий.
Как твоё имя? – Моё имя Фёдор.
Он – гений.
Она – гений.
Ты – гений.
Вы – гений.
Я – гений.
2. Insert the suitable possessive pronouns наш, ваш
(masculine gender) or Ваше (neuter gender, polite form).
Sometimes two options are possible:
… мост новый, а … мост старый. Добро
пожаловать в … музей! Как … имя? Он – … герой.
Вот … музей. Я люблю петь … гимн.
3. Translate the words or word combinations into
Russian:
peace or world; in the world or in peace; a bridge; a
museum; a name; an avenue or a boulevard; five; to sing;
the first; money; an anthem; a hero; a genius; your
(possessive pronoun, neuter gender, polite form), an astronaut
~ 105 ~
4. Translate the sentences and phrases into Russian:
I like singing (to sing).
I really like singing.
I like to sing well.
I like to sing very well.
Gagarin Avenue
Gagarin Street
Where is Gagarin Avenue? – Here (this) is Gagarin
Avenue.
Is Gagarin Street here? – Yes, Gagarin Street is here.
What’s the time? – It’s five now.
What’s the time? – Some minutes after twelve (refers to
an interval between twelve and half past twelve).
Where is the museum? – The museum is here (nearby).
Here is our museum. Our museum is the best here.
Welcome to our museum!
This is our old bridge, and that is our new bridge.
Currently it’s the best one here.
Our world is very big.
We are happy that we have piece here.
It’s so good that you’ve got piece now!
Yuri Gagarin is Russian. He is our hero. He is the first
astronaut in the world.
our anthem.
I like singing (to sing) our anthem.
What’s your name? (polite, formal) – My name is Dmitri.
What’s your name? (friendly, informal) – My name is
Feodor.
He is a genius.
She is a genius.
~ 106 ~
You are a genius. (friendly)
You are a genius. (formal)
I am a genius.
Here is the money.
5. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 51 units
Masculine gender:
урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a garden, год /got/
– a year, декабрь /d’i-kabr’/ – December, сезон /s’i-zon/
– a season, праздник /praz’-n’ik/ – a party, an event, час
/t∫’as/ – an hour, человек /t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ – a person, месяц
/m’e-s’əts/ – a month, сезон /s’i-zon/ – season, тюльпан
/t’ul’-pan/ – a tulip, ёж /jo∫/ – a hedgehog, муж /mu∫/ – a
husband, дом /dom/ – a house, город /go-rət/ – a city,
фильм /f’il’m/ – a film, физик /f’i-z’ik/ – a physicist,
цирк /tsɨrk/ – a circus, вечер /v’e-t∫’ər/ – an evening,
день /d’en’/ – a day, кофе /ko-f’ə/ – coffee (uninflected),
мир /m’ir/ – peace or world, мост /most/ – a bridge, музей
/mu- z’ej/ – a museum, проспект /prə-sp’ekt/ – an avenue,
гимн /g’imn/ – an anthem, герой /g’i-roj/ – a hero,
космонавт /kə-smə-naft/ – an astronaut, гений /g’e-n’ij/
– a genius
Neuter gender:
дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.), дела /d’i-la/ –
things, affairs, business (pl.), лето /l’e-tə/ – summer,
Рождество /rə-ʒd’i-stvo/ – Christmas, здоровье /zda-rov’jə/ – health, молоко /mə-la-ko/ – milk, место /m’e-stə/ –
seat, place, фото /fo-tə/ – a photo (uninflected), имя /i-m’ə/
– a name
~ 107 ~
Feminine gender:
калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose, малина /ma-li-na/
– a raspberry, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter, жена /ʒə-na/ – a
wife, улица /u-l’i-tsa/ – a street, рюмка /r’um-ka/ – a
tooth glass, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter, юбка /jup-ka / – a
skirt, фотография /fə-tə-gra-f’i-ja/ – a photograph,
фамилия /fa-m’i-l’i-ja/ – a surname, жизнь /ʒɨzn’/ – life
Only plural:
люди /l’u-d’i/ – people, деньги /d’en’-g’i/ – money
PRONOUNS: 29 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.), его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his, всего
/vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total, он
/on/ – he, она /ə-na/ – she, твоя /tva-ja / – your (f.), тебя
/t’i-b’a/ – you (object), моё /ma-jo/ – my (n.), твоё /tva-jo/
– your (n.), мой /moj/ – my (m.), твой /tvoj/ – your (m.,
informal, addressed to one person), ваш / Ваш /va∫/ – your (m.,
informal, addressed to several people / m., polite, addressed to one
person), наш /na∫/ – our, что /∫to/ – what, кто /kto/ – who,
где /gd’e/ – where, ты /tɨ/ – you, мы /mɨ/ – we, вы / Вы
/vɨ/ – you (either 2nd person plural pronoun or singular, polite),
который /ka-to-rɨj/ – which, ваше (belonging to several
people, singular, neuter) / Ваше /va-∫ə/ – your (belonging to one
person, polite, singular, neuter)
~ 108 ~
ADVERBS: 11 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian,
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo-dn’ə/ – today, здесь
/z’d’es’/ – here, завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow, замужем
/za-mu-ʒəm/ – married (about women), сейчас /s’i-t∫’as/ –
now, currently
VERBS: 6 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call, люблю /l’ub-l’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st person
singular), нюхать /n’u-hət’/ – to smell, пью /p’ju/ – (I)
drink or am drinking, петь /p’et’/ – to sing
PREPOSITIONS: 3 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in, на /na/ – to (if shows
direction)
ADJECTIVES: 10 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.), женат /ʒənat/ – married (about men), коровье /ka-ro-v’jə/ – produced
by a cow (n.), большой /bal’-∫oj/ – big (m.), рады /ra-dɨ/ –
pleased (plural), новый /no-vɨj/ – new (m.), старый /starɨj/ – old (m.), лучший /lut∫’-∫ɨj/ – the best (m.), добрый
/do-brɨj/ – good, kind (m.), русский /rus-sk’ij/ – Russian
~ 109 ~
CONJ., PARTICLES, INTERJECTIONS: 8 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi,
тоже /to-ʒə/ – too, also, вот /vоt/ – this is, here is (a pointing
particle), что /∫to/ – that (for linking clauses in a sentence)
NUMERALS: 6 units
один /ə-d’in/ – one, четыре /t∫’ə-tɨ-r’ə/ – four, два
/dva/ – two, три /tri/ – three, пять /p’at’/ – five, первый
/p’er- vɨj/ – the first (ordinal)
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела? Всего хорошего! Добро
пожаловать! Как здоровье? Как жизнь? Добрый
вечер! Добрый день! Который час? первый в мире
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS / NUMBERS:
At some place (where?): в саду, у нас, у вас, в лесу, в
мире
To some place (where to?): на праздник, на Рождество,
в музей
Periods or time: два часа, три часа, четыре часа
Within a period: в году
TOTAL: 125 vocabulary units
~ 110 ~
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [щ`], [й`]
~ 111 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 112 ~
~ 113 ~
~ 114 ~
LESSON 9
IN THIS LESSON:
1. Revision of /n/ – /n’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [н] – [н’].
.
2. Two paired consonants, hard and soft: /h/ – /h’/
and /b/ – /b’/*
*Their Cyrillic-based matches are [х] – [х’] and [б] – [б’]
accordingly.
2. Unpaired consonant: soft /ɕː/*
*Its Cyrillic-based match is [щ’].
3. Vowel /ɛ/ *
*Its Cyrillic-based match is [э].
4. A hundred and fifty-two vocabulary units
(cumulatively)
~ 115 ~
This is our final lesson, and the first pair of sounds we
are going to practice here is /n/ – /n’/. Pronounce hard /n/
like ‘n’ in ‘nice’. To make it palatalized you need to spread
the corners of your mouth, make your tongue flat and press
the blade of your tongue against the teethridge. Soft /n’/
sounds somewhat similar to ‘n’ in ‘onion’. Now let’s
practice saying the words below:
/n/
(like in ‘nice’)
Known:
сезон /s’i-zon/ – a season
тюльпан /t’ul’-pan/ – a tulip
гимн /g’imn/ – an anthem
космонавт /kə-smə-naft/ – an astronaut
малина /ma-li-na/ – a raspberry
много /mno-gə/ – a lot of
один /ə-d’in/ – one
/n’/
(like in ‘onion’)
Known:
день /d’en’/ – a day
праздник /praz-n’ik/ – a party, a festivity
гений /g’e-n’ij/ – a genius
жизнь /ʒɨzn’/ – life
деньги /d’en’-g’i/ – money (always plural)
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very
~ 116 ~
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo- dn’ə/ – today
нюхать /n’u-hət’/ – to smell
New:
нет /n’et/ – no (used on its own)
не /n’ə/ – not (particle, prefix, unstressed, not used on its own)
извините /i-zvi-n’i-t’ə/ – pardon, sorry, excuse me
мне /mn’e/ (if stressed) and /mn’ ə/ (if unstressed) – me
The next pair is /h/ – /h’/. It’s important to know the
difference between Russian /h/ and its English equivalent.
English ‘h’ reminds of a vowel, i.e. the organs of
articulation are relaxed and the air comes out without
obstruction, while Russian /h/ is tense, the air comes out
with hindrance, the organs at the ‘center’ of articulation
are constricted. To make it palatalized you need to spread
the corners of your mouth, make your tongue flat, move it a
little forward and shift the center of articulation of the
sound a little bit forward. Let’s practice saying the words
below:
/h/
(no comparison)
Known:
хорошо /hərə-∫o/ – well
плохо /plo-hə/ – badly
нюхать /n’u-hət’/ – to smell
Всего хорошего! /vs’e -vo hə-ro-∫ə-va/ or /fs’i-vo
hə-ro-∫ə-və/ – (all good luck, all the best) Good luck!
(used as an object after ‘I wish you …’)
~ 117 ~
New:
холодно /ho-lə-dnə/ – cold, coldly (adverb)
холодный /hə-lo-dnɨj/ – cold (adjective, singular,
masculine)
холост /ho-ləst/ – single, not married (singular adjective,
masculine gender, short form)
холостой /hə-lə-stoj/ – single, not married (singular
adjective, masculine gender, full form)
тихо /t’i-hə/ – quietly (adverb)
/h’/
(no comparison)
тихий /t’i-h’ij/ – quiet (adjective, singular, masculine)
химия /h’i-mi-ja/ – chemistry
бахилы /ba-h’i-lɨ/ – shoe covers
The next pair is /b/ – /b’/. Pronounce Russian /b/ like
English ‘b’ in ‘buy’. For example:
/b/
(like in ‘buy’)
Known:
декабрь /d’i-kabr’/ – December
большой /bal’-∫oj/ – big (singular adjective, masculine)
спасибо /spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you
добрый /do-brɨj/ – good or kind (masculine adjective)
люблю /l’ub-l’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st person singular)
~ 118 ~
To pronounce Russian soft /b’/ you should spread the
corners of your mouth. It sounds similar to English ‘b’ in
‘phobia’, only softer and with a wider ‘smile’. Practice
saying the following new words with soft /b’/:
/b’/
(like in ‘phobia’)
Known:
тебя /t’i-b’a/ – you (objective pronoun, 2nd person singular)
New:
билет /b’i-l’et/ – a ticket
бегать /b’e-gat’/ or /b’e-gət’/ (more reduced) – to run, to
jog (infinitive)
The next sound is an unpaired soft consonant, which
means it doesn’t have a hard counterpart. Like in the case
of ‘ы’ – /ɨ/, there is no equivalent sound in English and,
consequently, no Latin-based transcription symbol for it
among those used by English learners. So, we’ll use the one
offered by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) again.
This time it’s /ɕː/; and the Cyrillic letter for it is ‘щ’. It’s a
fricative sound like hard /∫/ or /ʒ/, but soft. Now let’s learn
how to articulate /ɕː/: begin saying the soft /t∫’/ –‘ч’ known
to you from Lessons 4 and 7, but don’t stop – prolong it.
There you are! You get /ɕː/. I’ve read that some native
English speakers find similarity between the Russian /ɕː/
consonant and the English assimilated sound produced
within the consonant cluster ‘s’-‘sh’ in ‘is she’.
~ 119 ~
I could only add that the Russian one sounds softer. The
‘center’ of articulation is between the blade of the tongue
and the teethridge, the slit is narrower and ‘the smile’ is
wider than in English cluster ‘s’-‘sh’. Now let’s practice
saying the words with /ɕː/:
/ɕː/
(softer than in ‘is she’)
New:
помощь /po-məɕː/ – help, assistance (noun, feminine)
борщ /borɕː/ – ‘borsch’ (masculine noun, the name for
‘beetroot and cabbage soup’)
мощный /moɕː-nɨj / – powerful (adjective, masculine)
мощная /moɕː-na-ja / – powerful (adjective, feminine)
And the last sound in our course is the vowel /ɛ/. This
graphic symbol is also borrowed from IPA. Previously we
used its variation /e/, for example, in бегать /b’e-gət’/ or
привет /pr’i-v’et/, typically in the position after soft
consonants. In some coursebooks they are described as one
and the same sound, but in fact they differ. For simplicity,
let’s say the one we are considering now usually stands at
the beginning of a word and is stressed. It may be compared
to English ‘a’ in ‘gravity’. I would say, it’s a mixture of two
English vowels: [æ] and [α:]. Practice saying the words
below:
~ 120 ~
/ɛ/
(like in ‘gravity’)
New:
это /ɛ-tə/ – this is (demonstrative pronoun)
эхо /ɛ-hə/ – an echo, an aftersound (singular noun, neuter
gender)
Now pronounce the words with /n/ – /n’/, /h/ – /h’/, /b/ –
/b’/ and /ɕː/ in phrases and sentences:
Сегодня холодно? – Нет, не холодно. Завтра
холодно. – Is it cold today? – No, it isn’t cold. It’s (going
to be) cold tomorrow.
Ваш город большой? – Нет. Наш город
небольшой и тихий. – Is your town big? – No. Our town
is small (not big) and quiet.
Вот лес. В лесу тихо. В лесу эхо. – This is a forest.
It’s quiet in the forest. There's an echo in the forest.
Пожалуйста /pə-ʒa-lə-stə/, тихо! У нас урок. –
Какой у вас урок? – Химия. – Please, be quiet! We are
having a lesson. – What lesson are you having? –
Chemistry.
холодный день – a cold day
холодный вечер – a cold evening
холодный сезон – a cold season
Он женат? – Нет, он не женат. Он холост. – Is he
married? No, he isn’t married. He is single. (short adjectives)
~ 121 ~
Он женатый? – Нет, он не женатый. Он холостой.
– Is he married? No, he isn’t married. He is single. (full
adjectives)
Где деньги? – Вот деньги. – Спасибо за помощь. –
Where is the money? – Here is the money. – Thanks for
your help.
Извините, где бахилы? – Вот бахилы. – Спасибо.
– Excuse me, where are the shoe covers? – Here are the
shoe covers. – Thank you.
Это мощный ураган /u-rə-gan/. – This is a powerful
hurricane.
Это мощная атомная /a-təm-nə-ja/ станция /stantsɨ-ja/. – This is a powerful nuclear power station (power
plant).
Это «скорая /sko-rə-ja/ помощь»? – Нет, это не
«скорая помощь», это «полиция» /pə-l’i-tsɨ-ja/. – Is it
an ambulance? – No, it isn’t an ambulance, it’s a police
car.
Что это? – Это борщ. – О! Я люблю борщ. –
What’s that? – It’s borsch. – Oh! I like borsch.
Мне, пожалуйста, один билет. – Вот Ваш билет. –
Спасибо. – Please, one ticket for me. – Here’s your ticket.
– Thank you.
Извините, пожалуйста, это мой билет? – (1) Да,
это Ваш билет. (2) Нет, это не Ваш билет. – Excuse me,
please, is this my ticket? – (1) Yes, this is your ticket. (2)
No, this is not your ticket.
Бегать – (это) хорошо. – Jogging/running is good.
(literally: To jog/run is good)
Я люблю бегать. – I like jogging/running. (literally: I
like to run/jog)
~ 122 ~
EXERCISES
1. Read the sentences and phrases. Translate them into
English:
Сегодня холодно? – Нет, не холодно. Завтра
холодно.
Ваш город большой? – Нет. Наш город
небольшой и тихий.
Вот лес. В лесу тихо. В лесу эхо.
Пожалуйста, тихо! У нас урок. – Какой у вас
урок? – Химия.
холодный день
холодный вечер
холодный сезон
Он женат? – Нет, он не женат. Он холост.
Он женатый? – Нет, он не женатый. Он холостой.
Где деньги? – Вот деньги. – Спасибо за помощь.
Извините, где бахилы? – Вот бахилы. – Спасибо.
Это мощный ураган.
Это мощная атомная станция.
Это «скорая помощь»? – Нет, это не «скорая
помощь», это «полиция».
Что это? – Это борщ. – О! Я люблю борщ.
Мне, пожалуйста, один билет. – Вот Ваш билет. –
Спасибо.
Извините, пожалуйста, это мой билет? – (1) Да,
это Ваш билет. (2) Нет, это не Ваш билет.
Бегать – (это) хорошо.
Я люблю бегать.
~ 123 ~
2. Insert the suitable particles да, нет or не:
Сегодня холодно? – …, … холодно. Завтра
холодно.
Он женат? – …, он … женат. Он холост.
Это «скорая помощь»? – …, это … «скорая
помощь», это «полиция».
Это мой билет? – (1) …, это Ваш билет. (2) …, это
… Ваш билет.
Ваше имя Дмитрий? – …, моё имя Дмитрий.
3. Translate the words or word combinations into
Russian:
no; not; yes; excuse me; (to) me; cold; coldly; single;
quietly; quiet; chemistry; shoe covers; assistance; ‘borsch’
(beetroot and cabbage soup); powerful (masculine and
feminine); this is (demonstrative pronoun); an echo; a ticket; to
run
4. Translate the sentences and phrases into Russian:
Is it cold today? – No, it isn’t cold. It’s (going to be)
cold tomorrow.
Is your town big? – No. Our town is small (not big) and
quiet.
This is a forest. It’s quiet in the forest.
There's an echo in the forest.
Please, be quiet! We are having a lesson. – What lesson
are you having? – Chemistry.
a cold day
a cold evening
~ 124 ~
a cold season
Is he married? No, he isn’t married. He is single. (short
adjectives)
Is he married? No, he isn’t married. He is single. (full
adjectives)
Where is the money? – Here is the money. – Thanks for
your help.
Excuse me, where are the shoe covers? – Here are the
shoe covers. – Thank you.
This is a powerful hurricane.
This is a powerful nuclear power station (power plant).
Is it an ambulance? – No, it isn’t an ambulance, it’s a
police car.
What’s that? – It’s borsch. – Oh! I like borsch.
Please, one ticket for me. – Here’s your ticket. – Thank
you.
Excuse me, please, is this my ticket? – (1) Yes, this is
your ticket. (2) No, this is not your ticket.
Jogging/running is good. (literally: To jog/run is good)
I like jogging/running. (literally: I like to run/jog)
~ 125 ~
5. Revise the table of vocabulary units as amended:
NOUNS: 59 units
Masculine gender:
урок /u-rok/ – a lesson, сад /sat/ – a garden, год /got/
– a year, декабрь /d’i-kabr’/ – December, сезон /s’i-zon/
– a season, праздник /praz’-n’ik/ – a party, an event, час
/t∫’as/ – an hour, человек /t∫’ə-la-v’ek/ – a person, месяц
/m’e-s’əts/ – a month, сезон /s’i-zon/ – season, тюльпан
/t’ul’-pan/ – a tulip, ёж /jo∫/ – a hedgehog, муж /mu∫/ – a
husband, дом /dom/ – a house, город /go-rət/ – a city,
фильм /f’il’m/ – a film, физик /f’i-z’ik/ – a physicist,
цирк /tsɨrk/ – a circus, вечер /v’e-t∫’ər/ – an evening,
день /d’en’/ – a day, кофе /ko-f’ə/ – coffee (uninflected),
мир /m’ir/ – peace or world, мост /most/ – a bridge, музей
/mu- z’ej/ – a museum, проспект /prə-sp’ekt/ – an avenue,
гимн /g’imn/ – an anthem, герой /g’i-roj/ – a hero,
космонавт /kə-smə-naft/ – an astronaut, гений /g’e-n’ij/
– a genius, борщ /bor ɕː/ – ‘borsch’, билет /b’i-l’et/ – a
ticket, ураган /u-rə-gan/ – a hurricane
Neuter gender:
дело /d’e-lə/ – an affair, a deal (sing.), дела /d’i-la/ –
things, affairs, business (pl.), лето /l’e-tə/ – summer,
Рождество /rə-ʒd’i-stvo/ – Christmas, здоровье /zda-rov’jə/ – health, молоко /mə-la-ko/ – milk, место /m’e-stə/ –
seat, place, фото /fo-tə/ – a photo (uninflected), имя /i-m’ə/
– a name, эхо /ɛ-hə/ – an echo
~ 126 ~
Feminine gender:
калина /ka-li-na/ – a guelder rose, малина /ma-li-na/
– a raspberry, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter, жена /ʒə-na/ – a
wife, улица /u-l’i-tsa/ – a street, рюмка /r’um-ka/ – a
tooth glass, зима /z’i-ma/ – winter, юбка /jup-ka / – a
skirt, фотография /fə-tə-gra-f’i-ja/ – a photograph,
фамилия /fa-m’i-l’i-ja/ – a surname, жизнь /ʒɨzn’/ – life,
химия /h’i-mi-ja/ – chemistry, помощь /po-mə ɕː/ – help,
станция /stan-tsɨ-ja/ – station, полиция /pə-l’i-tsɨ-ja/ –
police
Only plural:
люди /l’u-d’i/ – people, деньги /d’en’-g’i/ – money,
бахилы /ba-h’i-lɨ/ – shoe covers
PRONOUNS: 31 units
я /ja/ – I, нас /nas/ – us, вас /vas/ – (to) you, как /kak/
– how, сам /sam/ – oneself (m.), сама /sa-ma/ – oneself (f.),
все /fs’e/ – all (Who?), всем /fs’em/ – to all (Whom?), моя
/ma-ja/ – my (f.), его /je-vo/ or /ji-vo/ – him or his, всего
/vs’e-vo/ or /fs’i-vo/ – (1) only; (2) all of; (3) in total, он
/on/ – he, она /ə-na/ – she, твоя /tva-ja / – your (f.), тебя
/t’i-b’a/ – you (object), моё /ma-jo/ – my (n.), твоё /tva-jo/
– your (n.), мой /moj/ – my (m.), твой /tvoj/ – your (m.,
informal), ваш / Ваш /va∫/ – your (m., informal, addressed to
several people / m., polite, addressed to one person) , наш /na∫/ –
our, что /∫to/ – what, кто /kto/ – who, где /gd’e/ – where,
ты /tɨ/ – you, мы /mɨ/ – we, вы / Вы /vɨ/ – you, который
/ka-to-rɨj/ – which, ваше / Ваше /va-∫ə/ – your (n.), мне
/mn’e/ – me, to me, это /ɛ-tə/ – this is (demonstrative)
~ 127 ~
ADVERBS: 13 units
очень /o-t∫’ən’/ – very, много /mno-gə/ – a lot of,
мало /ma-lə/ – few, little, хорошо /hə-rə-∫o/ – well, плохо
/plo-hə/ – badly, по-русски /pə-rus-sk’i/ – in Russian,
сегодня /s’e-vo-dn’a/ or /s’i-vo-dn’ə/ – today, здесь
/z’d’es’/ – here, завтра /zaft-ra/ – tomorrow, замужем
/za-mu-ʒəm/ – married (about women), сейчас /s’i-t∫’as/ –
now, currently, холодно /ho-lə-dnə/ – coldly, тихо /t’i-hə/
– quietly
VERBS: 8 units
говорим /gə-və-r’im/ – (we) speak, зовут /zə-vut/ –
(they) call, люблю /l’u-bl’u/ – (I) love (verb, 1st person
singular), нюхать /n’u-hət’/ – to smell, пью /p’ju/ – (I)
drink or am drinking, петь /p’et’/ – to sing, извините /izvi-n’i-t’ə/ – excuse me (imperative mood, 2nd person, plural),
бегать /b’e-gat’/– to run
PREPOSITIONS: 3 units
у /u/ – at, with, by, near, в /v/ – in, на /na/ – to (if shows
direction)
~ 128 ~
ADJECTIVES: 18 units
рад /rat/ – glad (m.), рада /ra-da/ – glad (f.), женат /ʒənat/ – married (about men), коровье /ka-ro-v’jə/ – produced
by a cow (n.), большой /bal’-∫oj/ – big (m.), рады /ra-dɨ/ –
pleased (plural), новый /no-vɨj/ – new (m.), старый /starɨj/ – old (m.), лучший /lut∫’-∫ɨj/ – the best (m.), добрый
/do-brɨj/ – good, kind (m.), холодный /hə-lo-dnɨj/ – cold,
холост /ho-ləst/ – single (short), холостой /hə-lə-stoj/ –
single (full), тихий /t’i-h’ij/ – quiet, мощный /moɕː-nɨj /
– powerful (m.), мощная /moɕː-na-ja/ – powerful (f.),
атомная /a-təm-nə-ja/ – nuclear, atomic (f.), скорая /skorə-ja/ – fast, first (f.), русский /rus-sk’ij/ – Russian
CONJ., PARTICLES, INTERJECTIONS: 13 units
и /i/ – and, а /a/ – and, but, да /da/ – yes, спасибо
/spa-s’i-bə/ – thank you, привет /pr’i-v’et/ – hello, hi,
тоже /to-ʒə/ – too, also, вот /vоt/ – this is, here is (a pointing
particle), что /∫to/ –that (for linking clauses in a sentence), нет
/n’et/ – no, не /n’ə/ – not, извините /i-zvi-n’i-t’ə/ –
pardon, пожалуйста /pə-ʒa-lə-stə/ – please, да /da/ – yes
NUMERALS: 6 units
один /ə-d’in/ – one, четыре /t∫’ə-tɨ-r’ə/ – four, два
/dva/ – two, три /tri/ – three, пять /p’at’/ – five, первый
/p’er- vɨj/ – the first (ordinal)
~ 129 ~
SET EXPRESSIONS:
Всем привет! Как дела? Всего хорошего! Добро
пожаловать! Как здоровье? Как жизнь? Добрый
вечер! Добрый день! Который час? первый в мире,
Извините, пожалуйста…
COMBINATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS / NUMBERS:
At some place (where?): в саду, у нас, у вас, в лесу,
в мире
To some place (where to?): на праздник, на
Рождество, в музей
Periods or time: два часа, три часа, четыре часа
Within a period: в году
TOTAL: 152 vocabulary units
Look at the following table of Russian sounds and see
how the sounds you already know look in the Cyrillic script:
Vowel sounds (6):
[и], [ы], [у], [э], [о], [а]
Consonant sounds (15):
[б], [в], [г], [д], [з], [к], [л], [м], [н], [п], [р], [с], [т],
[ф], [х]
Their soft variants:
[б`], [в`], [г`], [д`], [з`], [к`], [л`], [м`], [н`], [п`], [р`],
[с`], [т`], [ф`], [х`]
Hard consonants unvaried (3): [ж], [ш], [ц]
Soft consonants unvaried (3): [ч`], [щ`], [й`]
~ 130 ~
Handwriting Samples
~ 131 ~
~ 132 ~
~ 133 ~
~ 134 ~
CONTENTS
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ*
Foreword
p. 1
стр.* 1
Lesson 1
Урок 1
p. 3
стр. 3
Lesson 2
Урок 2
p. 17
стр. 17
Lesson 3
Урок 3
p. 26
стр. 26
Lesson 4
Урок 4
p. 37
стр. 37
Lesson 5
Урок 5
p. 53
стр. 53
Lesson 6
Урок 6
p. 65
стр. 65
Lesson 7
Урок 7
p. 80
стр. 80
Lesson 8
Урок 8
p. 99
стр. 99
Lesson 9
Урок 9
p. 115
стр. 115
*содержание /sə-d’er-ʒa-ni-jə/ – contents (singular noun, neuter
gender)
*страница /stra-n’i-tsa/ – a page (feminine gender)
TOTAL: 154 vocabulary units
~ 135 ~
Автор
Natalia
Документ
Категория
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Теги
русский для начинающих, basic russian, russian beginner course, базовый русский
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