The United Kingdom of G.B. and Northern Irelands is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consists of two large islands, G.B. and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. The capital of the UK is London. English is the official language. The population of the U. K. is nearly 60 million people. The UK is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Over 46 million people live in England. The capital of England is London. London's population is over 7 million people. Its symbol is a rose. Its patron is St. Jeorge. England can be divided into five parts: the Southeast, the Southwest, East Anglia, the Midlands and the North of England. The Southeast is a highly populated region of England. London, and such historical cities as Windsor, Dover and Brighton are situated here. The Southwest is the region where the main activity is farming. The Southwest used to be known for its pirates. The two principal cities of the region are Bristol and Bath. East Anglia is very flat and it is another farming region. It has beautiful cities with fine historic buildings such as Cambridge. The Midlands, known as the heart of England, is the largest industrial part in the country. The most important industrial cities are Manchester, Sheffield, Liverpool which is one of Britain's big ports, and Birmingham. The two famous Midlands cities are Stratford-upon-Avon and Oxford. The North of England has deep valleys, rivers and waterfalls, hills and mountains. This part of the country is rich in coal. The main attractions of the North of England are certainly the Lake District, the cities of York and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. A little over 5 million people live in Scotland. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. Its symbol is a thistle; its patron is St. Andrew. The country is divided into Highlands and Lowlands. Glasgow and Edinburgh are two great centers of Scotland. The highest of the mountains is Ben Nevis. The lakes of Scotland are called "lochs". The beautiful Loch Lomond is the largest. Over 3 million people live in Wales. The capital of Wales is Cardiff. Its symbol is a daffodil. St. David is the patron saint of Wales. Wales has high mountains, including Mount Snowdon, the second highest mountain in Britain. There are two national languages in Wales - the Welsh language, and English. Both these languages are taught in schools. About 1.5 million people live in Northern Ireland. The capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast. Its symbol is a shamrock. The country consists mainly of a low, flat plain. The largest lake in the British Isles is Lough Neagh. Other important lakes are Lough Erne and Upper Lough Erne. There are the Sperrin Mountains, the Antrim Plateau and the Mourne Mountains there. The main rivers are the Foyle River, the Upper Bann and Lower Bann rivers. Among the many other rivers are the Main, Blackwater, Lagan, Erne, and Bush. The British Isles are separated from European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of GB is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. The climate in Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January. The average range of temperature (from winter to summer) is from 15 to 23 degrees above zero. During a normal summer the temperature sometimes rises above 30 degrees in the south. Winter temperatures below 10 degrees are rare. It seldom snows heavily in winter, the frost is rare. January and February are usually the coldest months, July and August the warmest. Still the wind may bring winter cold in spring or summer days. Sometimes it brings the whirlwinds or hurricanes. Droughts are rare. Extensive forests remain in eastern and northern Scotland and in south-eastern and western England. Oak, elm, ash, and beech are the commonest trees in England, while Scotland has much pine and birch. The Highlands with thin soil are largely moorland with heather and grasses. In the cultivated areas that make up most of Britain there are many wild flowers, flowering plants and grasses. Many mammals such as bear, wolf have been hunted to extinction, others are now protected by law. There are many foxes. Otters are common along rivers and streams, and seals live along much of the coast. Hedgehogs, hares, rabbits, rats and mice are numerous. Deer live in some of the forests in the Highlands of Scotland and England. Some 230 kinds of birds live in Britain, and another 200 are regular visitors, many are songbirds. The most numerous are blackbirds, sparrow and starling. Robin Redbreast is the national bird of Britain. The number of ducks, geese and other water fowl has diminished during recent years.