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 To begin with I'd like to say that the Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It is situated in Europe and in Asia.
Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers, with population of 200 million people.
The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. It is washed by the Japan sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, and The Bering Strait in the east; The Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Chuckchee Sea, the East Siberian Sea, the Laptev Sea in the north; the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Finland in the west; the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the south.
In the south Russia borders on 18 countries: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belorussia, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia , China , and North Korea. It also has a sea border with the USA and Japan.
Russia can be divided into three parts: European Russia, Siberia, the Far East.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian Rivers are the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena - flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean. Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1.600 meters) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
The relief of Russia is mostly flat. Russia is located on two plains the Great Russia Plain and the Western Siberian Plain. There are 150 volcanoes in Kamchatka, 30 of which are active.
Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the vast territory of the country there are various of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.
Russian is the first language of more than 220 million of people throughout the world, and it is the official language of Russian Federation.
The Russian Federation is a Presidential (or a constitutional) republic. The President is the head of the state and is elected directly by the people. In fact he has much power; he controls all the three branches of power: the legislative power, the executive power, and the juridical branch of power.
There are 7 political parties in Russia. The main parties are the United Russia, the KPRF, the LDPR, the Just Russia.
It is divided into 17 districts.
There are 11 cities with a population more than 1 million: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Samara, Omsk, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, Rostov- on-Don, and Ufa. Russia is situated in 11 time zone. The Federal Assembly represents the Legislative branch of power. It's made up of the two houses: the Federation Council and the State. The Federal Assembly is also called the Parliament, but it's not its official name. Both chambers are headed by chairmen sometimes called speakers. The Duma consists of 450 deputies (one half is elected personally by the population, and the other half consists of the deputies who are appointed by their parties after voting). The members of the Federation Council are elected on a different basis. There are two representatives of each subject of the RF (89 subjects). Every law to be adapted must be approved by the State Duma, the Council of Federation and signed by the President. The Federal Government represents the executive branch of power. The President appoints its head, the Chainman of the Government, but the Dumas must approve his appointment.
The juridical branch of power consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and lower Courts. The responsibility of the Constitutional Court is to analyze the new laws to make sure they correspond to the laws of the state. The Constitutional Court has the right to declare actions of the President, the Federal Assembly and the Federal Government unconstitutional. The Supreme Court is the highest instance for civil and criminal cases.
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Людмила
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