вход по аккаунту



код для вставкиСкачать
Автор разработки: Дегтярева Елена
Областное государственное
общеобразовательное учреждение
«Верхотурская гимназия» города
Verkhoturye is a historic town and the administrative center of
Verkhotursky District of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located in the
middle Ural Mountains on the left bank of the Tura River some
306 kilometers (190 mi) north of Yekaterinburg. Population: 7,600
(2005 est.); 7,815 (2002 Census); 8,973 (1989 Census);10,900
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Verkhoturye was founded in 1598 by Vasily Golovin and Ivan
Voyeykov on the site of the Vogul settlement of Neromkar.
There were major fires in 1674 and 1738. The railroad arrived
in 1906. It lost town status in 1926 and regained it in 1947.
Two oil pipelines pass through the area and there are plans to
build an oil refinery.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
In contrast to the surrounding mining towns, Verkhoturye has
been relatively untouched by industrialization and much of its
historic appearance has been preserved. Being one of the
oldest Russian settlements east of the Urals, and with forty
churches in the area, Verkhoturye is considered one of the
centers of Russian Christianity. Famous churches include the
Trinity Church (1703—1712), Nikolay Monastery (established
in 1604) with the Cathedral of Exaltation of the Holy Cross
(1905—1913), and Transfiguration Church (1821). In
addition, the town houses the oldest female monastery beyond
Urals (established in 1621).
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
The Gateway to Siberia
The middle Ural Mountains at the latitude of Verkhoturye are fairly low and form a
natural gateway into Siberia. With the Russian conquest of Siberia and the
foundation of the trans-Ural towns of Tyumen and Tobolsk the problem was to find
the best route from European Russia. Around 1580, Yermak Timofeyevich
ascended the Chusovaya River south of Verkhoturye and crossed to the Barancha, a
tributary of the Tagil River. This route was abandoned because the upper Tagil was
too shallow. Around 1590, a more northern route was opened from Cherdyn north
of Solikamsk up to the Vishera River and down the Lozva River. In 1597, Artemy
Babinov found what became the standard route. This Babinsky Road ran overland
from Solikamsk to Verkhoturye. An ostrog (fort) was built at Verkhoturye in 1598
and a customs house in 1600 or 1601. Until about 1763, this was the main road into
Siberia. All winter sledges would haul goods from Solikamsk to Verkhoturye where
they were stockpiled until the spring thaw. Siberian furs collected as yasak (tribute)
passed through Verkhoturye to the Sable Treasury in Moscow. Privately-owned
furs leaving Siberia paid a 10% tax unless the merchant could prove that the tax had
been paid in Siberia. Goods entering Siberia paid a 4% tax (in addition to the 10%
paid when the goods were sold). Goods coming and going were inspected and
inventoried to prevent contraband. Guard posts were set up in the region to prevent
people from slipping around the custom house.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
• Around 1600, Turinsk was built downriver and a winter ice
road was built to connect the two. At some point the Irbit Fair
downriver became a major trading place. In 1695, all routes
from the Kama basin except Verkhoturye were legally closed.
Verkhoturye declined from about 1763 when the Siberian
Route was built through Yekaterinburg to the south. In the
1770s, the toll for crossing into Siberia was abolished or
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Other Ural crossings
• To the north the three crossing points were the Arctic Ocean,
the Usa River, and the Northern Sosva River. These all
connected the lower Ob River to the Pechora River and the
export port of Arkhangelsk. The routes around Verkhoturye
connected Tobolsk to the Kama River tributary of the Volga
and on to the Sable Treasury at Moscow. Below Verkhoturye
there was an old caravan route which led to the Ufa steppe and
the Volga River. This became more important as the Volga
population increased, but remained minor because it did not
lead to either Moscow or Arkhangelsk.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Размер файла
954 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа