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John the Baptist

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Предмет: английский язык, история религии;
Задачи разработки :познакомить учащихся с новыми лексическими единицами
Автор разработки: Дегтярева Елена Александровна
Областное государственное общеобразовательное учреждение «Верхотурская гимназия» города Верхотурья.
John the Baptist
•
Saint John the Baptist
•
John the Baptist baptizing Christ by Francesco Trevisani
•
Forerunner, Precursor, Baptist, Martyr
•
Born c. 6
–
2 BC
•
Died c. 36 AD (aged 38
-
42)
•
Venerated in
•
Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, Oriental Orthodox Churches, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Islam, Mandeanism
•
Major shrine Church of St. John the Baptist, Jerusalem
•
Feast
•
June 24 (Nativity), August 29 (Beheading), January 7 (Synaxis, Eastern Orthodox), Thout 2 ( Coptic Orthodox Church)
•
Attributes Cross, sheep, camel
-
skin robe
•
Patronage patron saint of French Canada, Newfoundland, Puerto Rico, Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, Florence, Turin, Porto, Genoa, Jordan, Xewkija and many other places
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Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
John the Baptist
was an itinerant
preacher and a major religious figure
who baptized Jesus Christ
and led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River.John was a historical figure
who followed the example of previous Hebrew prophets, living austerely, challenging sinful rulers, calling for repentance, and promising God's justice. John is regarded as a prophet in Christianity, Islam,
the Bahá'í Faith, and Mandaeism. Some scholars maintain that he was influenced by the Essenes, who were semi
-
ascetic, expected an apocalypse, and practiced rituals conferring strongly with baptism, although there is no direct evidence to substantiate this. John's baptism was a purification rite for repentant sinners, performed in "living water" (in this case a running river) in accord with Jewish custom. John anticipated a messianic figure who would be greater than himself.
Jesus may have been a follower of John.
Herod Antipas saw John as a threat and had him executed.
Many Christian theologians believe that the ministry of Jesus followed John's, and some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John.
Both John and Jesus preached at times of great political, social, and religious conflict.
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Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
•
Accounts of John in the New Testament
are not incompatible
with the account in Josephus, whose authority is respected.
In the New Testament Jesus is the one whose coming John foretold. Herod has John imprisoned for denouncing his marriage, and he is later executed.
Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus,
since in the Gospels, John announces Jesus' coming. He is also identified with the prophet Elijah, and is described by the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus (Jesus' mother, the Virgin Mary, was a cousin to John's mother, Elizabeth).
•
Because Scripture described John as endowed with prenatal grace, the feast day of his birth (June 24) became celebrated more solemnly than that marking his martyrdom (August 29). In art, John's head is often depicted on a platter, which represents the request of Herod's stepdaughter, Salome.A theme of Christian art is the beheading of St. John the Baptist.He is also depicted as an ascetic wearing camel hair and with a staff and scroll inscribed "Ecce Agnus Dei", or bearing a book or dish with a lamb on it. In Orthodox
icons, he often has angel's wings, since Mark 1:2 describes him as $
γγελος
(
angelos
) (messenger).
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Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
In the Gospels
All four Gospels record John the Baptist's ministry as does the Gospel of the Hebrews. They depict him as proclaiming Christ's arrival. In the Synoptics (Mark, Matthew, and Luke), Jesus is baptized. In Matthew and John, John the Baptist recognizes Jesus as the one he had foretold.
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Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Birth and infancy
John the Baptist (right) with child Jesus, painting by Bartolomé Esteban Perez Murillo
•
The Gospel of Luke
includes an account of John's infancy, introducing him as the son of Zachariah
, an old man, and his wife Elizabeth
, who was sterile. According to this account the birth of John was foretold by the angel Gabriel
to Zachariah, while Zachariah was performing his functions as a priest in the temple of Jerusalem; since Zachariah is described as a priest of the course of Abijah
, and his wife, Elizabeth, as one of the daughters of Aaron
this would make John a descendant of Aaron
on both his father's and mother's side.
•
The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was conceived when Elizabeth was about six months pregnant; when her cousin, the Virgin Mary, came to tell her about her news, Elizabeth's unborn child 'jumped for joy' in her womb. Zachariah had lost his speech at the behest and prophecy of the angel Gabriel, and it was restored on the occasion of Zachariah naming John. On the basis of Luke's account, the Catholic calendar placed the feast of John the Baptist on June 24, six months before Christmas.
According to Luke, Jesus and John the Baptist were related, their mothers being cousins; there is no mention of this in the other Gospels, and the scholar Raymond E. Brown has described the relationship as 'of dubious historicity';
Géza Vermes has called it 'artificial and undoubtedly Luke's creation'.
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Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Ministry
Jan Brueghel the Elder, John the Baptist preaching
•
All four canonical gospels relate to John's ministry, his preaching and baptism in the River Jordan
. Most notably he is the one who recognized Jesus
as the Messiah, and on Jesus' request, baptized him. The baptism marked the beginning of Jesus' ministry. The Gospels of Mark
, Matthew
and (most clearly) Luke
relate that Jesus came from Galilee to John and was baptized by him, whereupon the Spirit descended upon him and a voice from Heaven told him he was God's Son. Their lives (e.g., births) are believed to have been similar, although in Christianity, John is thought of as the last prophet and Jesus as the Messiah.
•
Considered by Christians to be without sin, Jesus nevertheless received John's baptism, which was for the repentance of sins (Mark 1:4). This is addressed in the Gospel of Matthew's account, which portrays John's refusal to baptize Jesus, saying, "I need to be baptized by you." Jesus persuades John to baptize him nonetheless (Matthew 3:13
-
15). In the Gospel of John, John does not baptize Jesus but introduces Jesus to his disciples as the "Lamb of God" (John 1:29
-
36).
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Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Eastern Orthodox Church
•
The Eastern Orthodox faithful believe that John was the last of the Old Testament
prophets. According to Sacred Tradition, John the Baptist appears at the time of death to those who have not heard the Gospel
of Christ, and preaches the Good News to them, that all may have the opportunity to be saved. Orthodox churches will often have an icon of St. John the Baptist in a place of honor on the iconostasis, and he is frequently mentioned during the Divine Services. Every Tuesday throughout the year is dedicated to his memory.
The Eastern Orthodox Church remembers Saint John the Forerunner on six separate feast days, listed here in order in which they occur during the church year (which begins on September 1):
•
September 23 —
Conception of St. John the Forerunner
•
January 7 —
The Synaxis of St. John the Forerunner. This is his main feast day, immediately after Theophany
on January 6 (January 7 also commemorates the transfer of the relic of the right hand of John the Baptist from Antioch to Constantinople in 956) •
February 24 —
First and Second Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner •
May 25 —
Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner •
June 24 —
Nativity of St. John the Forerunner
•
August 29 —
The Beheading of St. John the Forerunner
•
In addition to the above, September 5 is the commemoration of Zechariah
and Elisabeth, St. John's parents. The Russian Orthodox Church observes October 12 as the Transfer of the Right Hand of the Forerunner from Malta to Gatchina (1799).
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
9
Relics
According to ancient tradition, the burial
-
place of John the Baptist was at Sebaste in Samaria, and mention is made of his relics being honored there around the middle of the fourth century. The historians Rufinus and Theodoretus record that the shrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate around 362, the bones being partly burned. A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria, where on May 27, 395, they were laid in the basilica that was newly dedicated to the Forerunner
on the former site of the temple of
Serapis. The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and St. Jerome bears witness to miracles being worked there.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
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•
In July 2010 a small sarcophagus was uncovered on St. Ivan Island, Bulgaria. According to local archaeologists, the sarcophagus holds relics of John the Baptist which were donated by Constantinople to the destroyed monastery on the island.
•
An Armenian Apostolic Church, "St. John's" at Chinsurah, West Bengal, India, also claims to possess a portion of the hand of St. John. Each year on "Chinsurah Day" in the month of January, the Armenians of Calcutta make a pilgrimage to this Church and during the mass the pilgrims are blessed with this hand. During the year, the relic is kept at the Armenian Church, Calcutta.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
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