Maersk Training Centre A/S Anchor Handling Simulator Course “Best Practise in Anchor Handling” 1. Program. Abbreviations Introduction to Anchor Handling Course 2. “MAERSK TRAINER” Technical Specifications 3. Company Policy. Procedures 4. Risk Assessment. Planning 5. Anchor Handling Winches. Chain Wheels 6. Shark Jaws, Triplex 7. Shark Jaws, Karm Fork 8. Wire Rope, Guidelines, Maintenance 9. Anchor Handling Equipment Swivel – Pin Extractor – Socket Bench 10. Chains and Fittings Chasers and Grapnels 11. Anchor Handling Breaking the anchor….. 12. Anchor Deployment – PCP 13. Vryhof Anchor Manual 2000 14. Ship Handling. Manoeuvring 15. Drilling Units / - Operations Maersk Training Centre A/S 2.0 Index.doc Chapter 00 Page 2 COURSE NAME MTC Manual standard clause This manual is the property of Maersk Training Centre A/S (hereinafter “MTC A/S) and is only for the use of Course participants conducting courses at MTC A/S. This manual shall not affect the legal relationship or liability of MTC A/S with or to any third party and neither shall such third party be entitled to reply upon it. MTC A/S shall have no liability for technical or editorial errors or omissions in this manual; nor any damage, including but not limited to direct, punitive, incidental, or consequential damages resulting from or arising out of its use. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any shape or form or by any means electronically, mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of MTC A/S. Copyright © MTC 2002-09-10 Prepared by: PFR Modified & printed: 2003-01-07 Modified by: Internal reference: M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 00\2.0 Index.doc Contact MTC Maersk Training Centre A/S Dyrekredsen 4 Rantzausminde 5700 Svendborg Denmark Phone:+45 63 21 99 99 Telefax:+45 63 21 99 49 Telex:SVBMTC E-mail:MTC@MAERSKTRAININGCENTRE.COM Homepage:WWW.MAERSKTRAININGCENTRE.COM Managing Director: Claus Bihl M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 01\2.Introduction & Abbreviations.doc Chapter 01 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC Introduction to the Anchor Handling Course Background A.P.Møller owns and operates a modern fleet of anchor handling vessels. The vessels are chartered to oil companies, and rig operators; the jobs are anchor handling, tow and construction jobs. The technical development of these ships has been fast to meet the increased demands. The demands to the performance of the ships have been increased too. A few hours off service can mean large economic losses for the different parties involved. In the last years an increased focus have been on avoiding accidents, and the frequency of these accidents are low. To get the frequency even lower, actions to avoid accidents are needed. “Learning by doing”, on board an anchor handling vessels as the only mean of education, will not be accepted in the future. Part of this training process needs to be moved ashore, where crew, ship and equipment can be tested without risk in all situations. Here we will use the anchor-handling simulator. A study of accidents and incidents occurred on anchor handling vessels (AHV) during anchor handling operations reveals that some of the most common causes leading to incidents and/or accidents are lack of or inadequate: • Experience • Knowledge • Planning • Risk assessment • Communication • Teamwork • Awareness The keywords for addressing these causes are: “training, training and more training” The value of on-board, hands-on training is well known and beyond any doubt but the knowledge and experience gained is sometimes paid with loss of human life or limbs, environmental pollution and/or costly damage to property. This simulator course was developed in order to give new officers on AHV’s the possibility of acquiring the basic knowledge and skills in a “as close to the real thing as possible” environment, the only thing, however, that might get damaged is “ones own pride”. The aims of the anchor handling course are: • To promote safe and efficient anchor handling operations by enhancing the bridge teams knowledge of, and skills in anchor handling operations. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 01\2.Introduction & Abbreviations.doc Chapter 01 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC The objectives of the anchor handling course are: By planning of and, in the simulator, carrying out anchor handling operations under normal conditions, the participant shall demonstrate a thorough knowledge of and basic skills in: • Planning and risk assessment of anchor handling operations adhering to procedures and safety rules • As conning officer carry out exercises in anchor handling operations • As winch operator carry out exercises in anchor handling operations • On user level, the design, general maintenance and correct safe use of anchor handling equipment • The use of correct phraseology The simulator course The course consists of theoretical lessons alternating with simulator exercises. The theoretical lessons The theoretical lessons addresses: • AHV deck lay-out and equipment • AH winch (electrical and hydraulic) lay-out and function • Anchor types, chain, wires, grapnels, etc. maintenance and use • Planning of AH operations • Risk assessment • Procedures • Safety aspects and rules The simulator exercises The simulator exercises consist of one familiarisation exercise and 3 to 4 AH operations. The weather condition during the exercises will be favourable and other conditions normal. The tasks in the AH exercises are: • Preparing the AHV for anchor handling • Running out an anchor on a water depth of 100 to 700 meters • Retrieving an anchor from a water depth of 100 to 700 meters • Operating an anchor system with insert wire During the simulator exercises the participants will man the bridge. They will be forming a bridge team, one acting as the conning officer the other as the winch operator. A captain/chief engineer will act as a consultant. Before commencing the exercise, the participants are expected to make a thorough planning of the AH operation. They will present the plan to the instructor in the pre-operation briefing for verification. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 01\2.Introduction & Abbreviations.doc Chapter 01 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC During the exercises, the simulator operator will act and communicate as all relevant personnel e.g.: • Deckhands – engine room • Rig crew – crane driver – tow master • Etc. The instructor will monitor the progress of the exercises and evaluate the performance of the team and each individual. Debriefing Each exercise will be followed by a debriefing session during which the instructor and the team will discuss the progress and the outcome of the exercise. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 01\2.Introduction & Abbreviations.doc Chapter 01 Page 4 Anchor Handling Course MTC Commonly used abbreviations: AHTS:Anchor Handling tug supply PSV: Platform supply vessel DVS: Diving support vessel SV: Survey vessel MODU:Mobil offshore drilling unit FPU: Floating production unit FPDSO: Floating production, drilling, storage and offloading FPSO: Floating production, storage and offloading FPS: Floating production system TLP: Tension leg platform SBM:Single buoy mooring SPM:Single point mooring CALM:Catenary anchored leg mooring SALM:Single anchor leg mooring SSCV: Semi submersible crane vessel HLV: Heavy lift vessel RTV: Rock dumping/trenching vessel PLV: Pipe laying vessel SSAV: Semi submersible accommodation vessel ROV: Remotely operated vehicle ROT: Remotely operated tool AUV:Autonomous underwater vehicle DP: Dynamic positioning DPO: Dynamic positioning officer HPR: Hydroaccoustic positioning reference TW: Towing winch AHW: Anchor Handling winch DMW:Dead Man Wire PCP: Permanent chaser pennant HHP: High holding power anchors VLA: Vertical load anchors SCA:Suction caisson anchor DEA:Drag embedded anchor Sepla:Suction embedded plate anchor. QMS: Quality management system HSE: Health, safety and environment ISM: International ships management WW:Work Wire VSP: Vertical seismic survey Weight in water: Weight x 0,85 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 02\1.0 MAERSK TRAINER.doc Chapter 02 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC “MAERSK TRAINER” Technical Specifications: LOA:73,60 m. Breadth:16,40 m. Propulsion:15600 BHP. 2 Propellers. 2 Spade rudders (Not independent). Thrusters:Forward: 1 x 1088 BHP, Azimuth. 1 x 1000 BHP, Tunnel. Aft:1 x 1000 BHP, Tunnel. Deck Layout:2 Tuggers, 15 T pull. 2 Capstans, 15 T pull. A/H Equipment:2 sets of Triplex Shark Jaws. SWL: NA 2 sets of Guide Pins. 2 wire lifters. 2 stop pins, 1 each side. Distance:From centre AHW to Stern Roller:50 m. From centre AHW to “visibel” from bridge: App. 20 m. Breaking load:DMW, WW & Insert Wire:77 mm and BL= 300 T. Chain:77 mm and BL= 600 T. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 02\1.0 MAERSK TRAINER.doc Chapter 02 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC ”MAERSK TRAINER” Winch Layout: AHV01:AHV02: A/H Drum (1):Max pull, bare drum: 500 T.250 T. Static brake: 650 T.400 T. Kernal diam.:1,50 m.0,90 m. Width of drum:3,55 m.1,225 m. Flange diam.:6,50 m.2,50 m. Tow Drums (2):Max pull, bare drum: 250 T.125 T. (TW2: Starboard) Static brake: 650 T.400 T. (TW3: Port) Kernal diam.:1,50 m.0,90 m. Width of drum:2,05 m.1,225 m. Flange diam.:3,60 m.2,50 m. Wildcats fitted on Tow Drums. Rig Chain Lockers:1 each side. Capacity:No limits!! Bitter end:Between 0 m. and 75 m. each side. All winches are electrically driven. Winch computter: SCADA • No pennant reels fitted. • Wires and / or chain can`t be stowed on the aftdeck either “in the water” – the equipment has to be connected up, in the system. • The winch used for decking the anchor will be “locked” as long as the anchor is on deck. • The anchor can not be disconnected from the PCP. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 02\1.0 MAERSK TRAINER.doc Chapter 02 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC “MAERSK TRAINER” Vessel and Deck Layout: E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S Winch Layout: “MAERSK TRAINER” Technical Specifications. Ch. 2 Page 4/05 E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S Bollard Pull -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 -1,5 -1 -0,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 Handle Tons “MAERSK TRAINER” Power Settings / Bollard Pull Anchor Handling. Chapter 2 Page 5/05 Handle Bollard Pull (T) 100 144 90 143 80 142 70 125 60 98 50 69 40 43 30 23 20 9 10 3 00 0 - 10 3 - 20 7 - 30 15 - 40 25 - 50 45 - 60 54 - 70 65 - 80 77 - 90 105 -100 105 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 03\Procedures.doc Chapter 03 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC 3.Company Procedures All operations on board must be performed in accordance with Company Procedures. The updated procedures can be found on CD-ROM (Q E S System) issued by Technical Organisation in Copenhagen. Please make sure that the latest version is in use. Any copies of the procedures used on the Anchor Handling Course are all: UNCONTROLLED COPIES. Following procedures can be useful: • 1, Quality 7.:Plans for Shipboard Operations (Risk Assessment) • 2, 0357:Prevention of Fatigue – Watch Schedules – Records of Hours of Work or Rest • 7, 0014:Communication with Maersk Supply Service (Supply Vessels) • 7, 0176:General Order Letter (Supply Vessels) • 8, 0020:Salvage (Supply Vessels) • 11, 0015:Bridge discipline (Supply) • 11, 0234:Safe Mooring Peterhead Harbour (Supply) • 11, 0596:DGPS Installations (Supply, Brazil waters) • 11, 0792:DP Operating Procedure (Relevant Supply Vessels) • 13, 0042:Transport of Methanol (Supply Vessels) • 13, 0065:Cargo (“Fetcher”) • 13, 0207:Tank Cleaning. Water/Oil Based MUD, H2S (Supply Vessels) • 13, 0249:Transportation of Tanks Containing Liquid Gases (Supply Vessels) • 13, 0251:Hose Handling Alongside Installations (Supply Vessels) • 13, 0498:Cargo Handling (Supply Vessels) • 13, 0681:Cargo Pipe Systems – Segregation of Products (Supply Vessels) • 13, 0766:Deck Cargo Stowage Procedure for Stand-by Mode (“NORSEMAN”/”NASCOPIE”) • 13, 0812:Cleaning of Hoses after Transfer of Oil, Brine and MUD to or from Rig (Supply Vessels) M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 03\Procedures.doc Chapter 03 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC • 15, 0007:Brattvaag Anchorhandling Winch 250 T (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0009:Aquamaster TAW 2500/2500E (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0010:Aquamaster TAW 3000/3000E (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0016:AH & Towing Wire Maintenance (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0019:Towing (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0024:Ulstein Brattvaag AH Winch 450-IT (“Provider”) • 15, 0066:Stern Roller Bearing lubrication (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0082:Deck Lifting Tool (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0142:Wildcat Maintenance (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0252:Wire Spooling (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0256:Diving Support Vessels Assistance (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0258:Working alongside Installations (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0259:Wire Rope Sockets (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0266:Anchor Handling – Deep Water (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0273:Triplex Shark Jaw (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0538:Safety during Anchor Handling and Towing Operation (All AHTS) • 15, 0542:VSP Surveys (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0649:Whaleback Re-enforcement (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0680:AH & Towing Winch gearwheel (open) greasing (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0741:AH & Tow Wires lubrication (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0786:Mono Buoys – Recovery of Hawsers (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0788:Repair of Stern Roller (“Pacer”, “Puncher”, “Promoter”) • 15, 0932:Towing Pin Roller (Supply Vessels) • 15, 0950:AH & Towing Equipment (Supply Vessels) • 15, 1345:Triplex Shark Jaw – Control Measurements (Supply Vessels) • 19, 0500:Transfer of Personnel and Cargo by MOB Boat (Supply Vessels) • 19, 0764:Transfer of Personnel between Ship and Offshore Installation by Basket. (Supply Vessels) • 23, 1092:Welding Equipment M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 04\1.0 Planning and RA.doc A ncho r MTC Planning and Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Some people have a hard time believing that risk assessment has been in the Maritime industry since “Day One” – since plans for the “ARK” were drawn up. Hazards were appreciated and control measures added mentally before activities were completed safely. The difference to day is that they have to be documented like so many other items under the banner of the ISM code and national / international legislation. It is not a blame culture as seen by a hard core of seafarers. Obviously it is easy to stand back and comment with hindsight: "If this had been done, then this would not have occurred". The company is required to comply with customers' requirements, and to ensure protection of the environment, property, the health and safety of the employees and other persons, as far as reasonably practicable, by the application of certain principles. These principles include the avoidance of risks, the evaluation of unavoidable risks and the action required to reduce such risks. A "Risk Assessment" is a careful examination of the process and its elements to ensure that the right decisions are made and the adequate precautions are in place thereby preventing risks. Risk is formed from two elements: • The likelihood (probability) that a hazard may occur; • The consequences (potential) of the hazardous event. To avoid or reduce damage to: • Human life • Environment, internal and/or external • Property Minimise risks by listing the possible effects of any action, and assessing the likelihood of each negative event, as well as how much damage it could inflict. Look for external factors, which could affect your decision. Try to quantify the likelihood of - and reasons for - your plan failing. Itemising such factors is a step towards the making of contingency plans dealing with any problem. Use judgement and experience to minimise doubt as much as possible. Think through the consequences of activities, be prepared to compromise, and consider timing carefully. Be aware of that people are not always aware of the risks, as they can’t see them. An example: “A man standing close to the stern roller”: One of the risks is, that he can fall in the water. As a matter of fact he is not falling in the water – he is able to see the hazard – so he is aware. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 04\1.0 Planning and RA.doc A ncho r MTC On the other hand: “During an anchor handling operation an AB is hit in his forehead by a crowbar while he is punching a shackle pin out using a crowbar. The wire rotates caused by torsion in the wire – he can’t see the hazard – so he is not aware of the risk when using a crowbar. An initial risk assessment shall be made to identify and list all the processes and their associated hazards. Those processes having an inconsequential or trivial risk should be recorded, and will not require further assessment. Those activities having a significant risk must be subject to a detailed risk assessment. A risk assessment is required to be "suitable and sufficient" with emphasis placed on practicality. The level of detail in a risk assessment should be broadly proportionate to the tasks. The essential requirements for risk assessment are: • A careful examination of what, in the nature of activities, could cause risks. Decisions can then be made as to whether enough precautions have been taken or whether more should be done to prevent the risks. • After identifying the risks and establishing if they are significant, you should consider if they are already covered by other precautions. These precautions can for example be Work Place Instructions, Work Environment Manual, Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seaman, Procedures, checklists etc. and also the likelihood of failure of the precautions already in place. Where significant risks have been identified a detailed risk assessment in writing must be carried out and recorded appropriately. The assessment should consider all potential risks, such as who might be harmed and how, fire and explosion, toxic contamination, oil and chemical pollution, property damage and non- conformances. What may happen? Get a general view of: • The process, i.e., materials to be used, activities to be carried out, procedures and equipment to be used, stages of human involvement, and the unexpected operational failure which may result in further risks. Determine the probability: • Quantification: Low - Medium - High Focus on the potential hazardous situations and assess consequences if it happens: • Quantification: Low - Medium - High. How will it be possible to intervene, and / or to reduce the risk? • What can be done to reduce the probability? • What can be done to reduce the consequences? • Decide whether existing precautions are adequate or more should be done. • Record it. Review the risk assessments from time to time and revise, if necessary. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 04\1.0 Planning and RA.doc A ncho r MTC Planning Why? So everybody knows what is going to happen. Take care of inexperience personnel, so they know what to do and when. They do not have the same life experience as the well experience personnel– they can’t just look out though the windows and say: “Now we do this and this”. Quotation from new 3. Engineer: • “Planning is the only thing we as inexperienced can hold on to”. - Company’s Core Valure - Constant care • No loss should hit us which can be avoided. • Planning is important. Be prepared at all time. • Developments may be difference from what you expected. • Make sure to have an overview of the situation at all times. • Follow the established procedure and make your own procedure to awoid any unnecessarily riscs. • Use your commen sence. • Training of the crew/staff. Planning and risk assessment can effective be done in one and same working procedure. On the page 6/06, you will find an example of a form which can be used for this purpose. Have a visual plan M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 04\1.0 Planning and RA.doc A ncho r MTC Planning: Goal Descibe the goal. When do we have to be ready. Collect data – check systems What What to do to reach the goal Who Delegate tasks – make sure everybody knows who are responsible for each task How Make job descriptions, descripe standard procedures, make risk assessment When When do the tasks need to be finished? Prioristising of tasks Be ready to correct the plan as necessary Have status meetings Work as a team Keep the leader informed Goal, example:Be ready for anchor handling at POLARIS Water depth 500 meter Retrieve anchors No 1, 4, 5 and 6 Move rig to position: Run anchors No 4, 6 and 3 Collecting data:Rig move report Anchor type PCP, length, chaser type Chain / Wire combination Chain, length and size Wire, length and size Winch drum capacity Load calculations, maximum weight of system, how much force can I use on engines Power consumption Communications:Contact persons VHF channels Charts and drawings M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 04\1.0 Planning and RA.doc A ncho r MTC What to do:Prepare deck:Which drums Check correct spooling of wires Chain wheel size – correct size Shark Jaws size – correct size Chain lockers Prepare engine room: Defects, out of order, limitations Power consumption Ships stability Ballast, bunkers, trim Make risk assessment on each job Voyage planning:Precautions when: Approaching, Working alongside Moving off / on location Contingencies Prepare checklists Brief crew of coming job – ToolBox Meeting Who:Make sure all know their job Make sure all know the difficult / risky part of the operation How:Prepare job descriptions and safe job analysis Use standard procedures as far as possible Apoint responsible person for each job When:Time consumption for each job Time schedule Alternative plans Do status, can we reach the goal on time The leader to stay on top of the sistuation M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 04\1.0 Planning and RA.doc Chapter 04Page 6 Anchor Handling Course MTC Planning and Risk Assessment Job:________________________________________________________ Working process / Plan HazardConsequenceProbabilityAction to eliminate / avoid risk What to do, if risk cannot be avoided ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS The 5 steps to success in Anchor Handling ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS The TASK : 600 Meters water depth 10 T Anchor 3” Wire / Chain 3000’ = 914 Meter Dead Man Wire Can we run and retrieve the anchor ? Can we deck the Anchor ? ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS Planning APM-Procedure: Deep-water A/H. 15, 266 ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 1 : Wirelength 600 x 1.1 = 660 Meters 600 x 1.2 = 720 Meters 600 x 1.3 = 780 Meters Wirelenght 1.5 in shallow water, but less in deep water (>300 Meter) ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 2 : Winch Capacity B = 1020 mm, C = 1300 mm, D = 2650 mm, d = 76 mm Winch Capacity = AxCx ¶x(A +B) dxd D A C B A = (D-B) / 2 = (2650-1020) / 2 = 815 mm () 1030M= 77 1020+815××1300×815 =CAPACITY 2 π Connection on drum you maybe loose 30-50 meters ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull (Max pull 1.) * B = K * (Actual diam.) Max pull 1. = 260 T K = (260*1020)/2560 = 100 T (Dynamic) The static holding force (Bandbreak) is bigger. Probably 30-50 % ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull Quadratic equation. Ax 2 + Bx + C = 0 _______ X = -B ±√ B 2 -4AC ____________________________________________________________________________ 2A Capacity on drum = A * C * 3.14*(A+B) d d 914000 = A * C * 3.14*(A+1020) 77 77 914000*77*77 =A 2 + 1020A(-C = Ax 2 + Bx) 3.14*1300 ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull (Ax2 + Bx + C = 0) A=1 B=1020 C=-1327561,5 A 2 +1020A-1327561,5 = 0 ___________________ A = -1020 ±√ 1020 2 -4*1*(-1327561,5) 2*1 __________ A= -1020 ±√ 6350645,9 2 A= -1020 ± 2520,0 2 A = 750 MM ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull (Max pull 1.) * B = K * (Actual diam.) Max pull 1. = 260 T K = (260*1020)/1020+(2x750) = 105 T (Dynamic) ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 4 : SYSTEM WEIGHT 600 M Chain : 126 kg/m 3” Wire : 25 kg/m 3” Weight 600 * 0,126 =75,6 T Anchor + ?? (10 + 5)=15,0 T Totalt:=90,6 T Bouyancy = 15 % Must only be used as safetyfactor According to proc. 15,266, Density iron = 7,86 1000kg Iron = 1 / 7,86 = 0,127 M 3 1000kg-(127Lx1,025kg/L)= 872,7 kg Incl. Bouyancy 90,6 * 0,85 = 77,0 T ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 4 : SYSTEM WEIGHT Decking the anchor Weight without bouyancy 600 * 0,126 =75,6 T Anchor + ?? (10 + 5)=15,0 T Totalt:=90,6 T To deck the anchor you maybe need another 30-50 T It can be necessary to make a crossover to a drum with less wire on and therefore closer to the center ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 5 : Bollard Pull 200 M ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS STEP 5 : Bollard Pull 600 m 43 T 43 T 77 T 88 T 43 T 90 T ? ? 99 T Probably using 40% pitch on Maersk Trainer = 43 T Bollard Pull M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC Electrical winches The winches mentioned are based on A-type winches. The winches are of waterfall type. Electrical winches are driven via shaft generator or harbour generators through main switchboard to electronic panel to DC motors. The winch lay out is with anchor handling drum on top and 2 towing winches underneath and forward of the A/H winch. The towing winches each has a chain wheel interchangeable according to required size. The winch has 4 electrical motors. The motors can be utilised with either 2 motors or all 4 motors for the AH drum depending on required tension or with one or two motors for the towing drums. The coupling of motors is via clutches and pinion drive. The clutching and de-clutching of drums is done with hydraulic clutches driven by a power pack. This power pack is also used for the brake system on the drums, as the band brake is always “on” when the handle is not activated. Apart from the band brake there is also a water brake for each electric motor as well as a disc brake. The disc brake is positioned between the electric motor and the gearbox. The water brake is connected to the gearbox and within normal working range, 50% of the brake force is from the water brake and 50% from the electric motor brake. The drums are driven via pinion shafts clutch able to pinion drives on the drums. Pinion drives are lubricated continuously by a central lubricating system to ensure a good lubrication throughout the service. The control handle for the winch activates the lubrication system, and only the active pinions are lubricated. Each winch also has a “spooling device” to ensure a proper and equal spooling of wire on the drum. The spooling device is operated by means of a hydraulic system supplied from the same power pack as mentioned above. Finally, separating the winch area and the main deck is the “crucifix” which divides the work wires in compartments for each winch. It is also part of the winch garage construction. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC Winch operation The winches are operated from the aft desks in port side, but can also be operated at the winch. When operated locally from the winch only ½ speed can be obtained. There are different bridge lay outs but they are all to some degree based on previous design and partly identical. To ensure a good overview for the operator a SCADA system has been installed showing the winch status. Further there is a clutch panel allowing the operator to clutch drums in and out according to requirement. On the panel lub oil pumps for gearboxes, pumps for hydraulic system and grease pump for gearwheels are started. Winch configuration and adjustment is done on the panel, which here at Maersk Training Centre is illustrated by a “touch screen” monitor. The different settings can be done on the “touch screen”. Normally the winch drums are not visible from the bridge. Instead the drums are monitored via different selectable cameras installed in the winch garage. These are connected to monitors on the aft bridge allowing the operator and the navigator to monitor the drums. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC General Arrangement M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 4 Anchor Handling Course MTC A/H-Drum at full Capacity M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 5 Anchor Handling Course MTC SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition This system gives the operator an overview of the winch status as well as a warning/alarm if anything is about to go wrong or already has gone wrong. The system is PLC governed – “Watchdog”. 3 types of alarms are shown: Alarm:A functional error in the system leads to stop of winch. Pre alarm:The winch is still operational but an error has occurred, which can lead to a winch stop/failure if the operation continues in same mode. Warning:Operator fault/wrong or illegal operation The clutch panel On the clutch panel the different modes of operation can be chosen. In order to clutch all functions must be “off”. It is not possible to clutch if the drum is rotating or a motor is running. Change of “operation mode” can not be done during operation. Speed control mode Motors can be operated with the handle in: Manual clutch control. If no drum is clutched in. When drums have been chosen. Tension Static wire tension:The pull in wire/chain is measured from the braking load. The drum is not rotating and the band brake is “ON”. The pull is calculated from “strain gauges”. Dynamic wire tension:The pull in the wire/chain is measured from the actual torque in the motor. The drum is rotating or almost stopped but not braked. Max wire tension:Highest possible pull in the wire/chain that can be handled by the motor converted from static pull to dynamic pull. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 6 Anchor Handling Course MTC Over speed Over speed of the motor has been the most frequent cause for winch breakdowns. Therefore it is of utmost importance to protect the motor against overspending. Over speed occurs when the load on the wire/chain surpasses what the motor can pull/hold and the drum starts uncontrolled to pay out. The winch is protected against over speed in the following way: 1.When pay out speed exceeds 100 %. Full water-brake in stead of 50% electrical brake. Automatic return to 50% electrical brake and 50 % water brake when speed less than 100 %. 2. When pay out speed exceeds 105 %. Band brake is applied with 50 % Opens automatically when pay out speed less than 100 %. 3. When pay out speed exceeds 110 %. Band brake is applied 100 %. 4. When pay out speed exceeds 120 %. Shut down. The disc brake is applied and the motor remains electrical braked until balance or break down of the winch. Water brake The water brake is installed as a supplement to the motor brake in order to prevent “over speed” of the motors. Due to the characteristics of the water brake it will work as a brake amplifier when the braking power of the electrical motor starts to give in. The winch motor has great braking effect at low rpm whereas the water brake has very little effect. With higher rpm the braking effect of the water brake increases and the total outcome of the characteristics is very great. Electrical brake (Resistor banks) Resistor banks have been installed to absorb the current generated during pay out. Part of the current will be supplied to the circuit-reducing load on shaft generators but in situations with too small consumption to absorb the generated current it has to be “burnt off” in the resistor banks. The shaft generators are protected from return current and can not receive current from the main switchboard. The resistor banks are clutches in steps according to requirement. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 7 Anchor Handling Course MTC Band brake The winch is equipped with a band brake that works directly at the drum. This band brake ensures that the drum is unable to rotate when the handle is in zero as well as when changing modes. If a drum is able to rotate while changing mode it can lead to a break down. 50% of the brake force comes from springs built in to the brake cylinder and the last 50% from hydraulic pressure. The band brake is activated via a hydraulic power pack supplying power to the hydraulic cylinder of the brake. “Band brake mode” is used if you want to control a payout without damaging the motor with over speed. In this mode the drum is de-clutched only being braked by the band brake. The band brake is set to maximum holding power (less 2 %) which closes the brake almost 100 %. Then the band brake can be adjusted to tension wanted. The tension controller can be set from 0 % to 100 % where 0 % means brake fully closed and 100 % means brake fully open in which case the drum is free to rotate. Spooling of wire When spooling of wire it is of utmost importance that the wire is spooled correct. There is no automatic spooling device as the wires are of different types and dimensions. Furthermore care has to be exercised when spooling connections such as shackles on the drum as these can damage the wires. Care must also be exercised specially when spooling long wires as it is very important these are spooled on very tight to prevent the wire to cut into lower layers when tension increases. The length of the wire is measured with raps on the drum and if the wire is not spooled correct the figure showing wire length on the SCADA monitor will be wrong. “The spooling device” can be damaged if the guide rollers are not opened sufficiently when a connection is passing through. It is very important always to keep an eye on the wire and the drum. It may be difficulty to get used to operate the winch using cameras but usually it quickly becomes natural. Cameras are located in different places in the winch garage giving opportunity to watch the desired winch drum from different angles. Adjustment of motor torque The torque of the motors can be adjusted (HT control). This can be utilised when working with wires of smaller dimensions which can easily be broken by the power of the motors. The torque can be adjusted to correspond with the breaking load of the wire. It is done with a pot-meter on the winch control panel. The torque can be adjusted between 0 % and 100 %. Normally the HT controller is set at 100 %. Care must be exercised when adjusting below 100 % as the holding power is reduced and case the wire is strong enough there is a risk of over speed or other malfunction – shut down of the system. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 8 Anchor Handling Course MTC Tension control: To be used during chasing out of anchors. By pressing “CT ON” once the winch is in chasing mode, and the required tension are to be set on CT-Potentiometer. During chasing out to anchor the winch will start paying out when the actual tension is more then the adjusted tension. QUICK & Full Release At quick release the following actions will be executed automatically. Preparation: Quick releases (quick release push button pressed). a) Hydraulic accumulator 1 and 2 (solenoid KY1 andKY2) on. b) Band brake closed to 100 % and de-energise the active motor(s) in order to get the active clutch out while the belonging disk brake(s) are lifted. The quick release procedure will be continued if the winch is clutched out. Execution quick release when clutch is out (quick release push button remains pressed): a) Disc brake closed b) Band brake closed to 7% when pressing the quick release button only. c) Band brake 100%open when pressing the quick release and the full release button both. Stop quick release (quick release push button released): a) Band brake closed to 100% when the hydraulic pump is running or to 50% when the hydraulic pump is not running. (Spring operation only). M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 9 Anchor Handling Course MTC Hydraulic winches General remarks There is little difference in running a hydraulic winch and an electrical winch. The winch is operated with handles for heave in and pay out and for controlling the speed. The lay out of the winch configuration can vary according to ship’s type. Some ships are equipped with 2 towing winches and 2 anchor handling winches. (P type) Latest deliveries (B-type) with hydraulic winches have 1 anchor handling winch and 2 towing winches. Both types have chain wheels installed on the towing winches. Lay out (B-type) The winch is “waterfall type” and consists of 1 anchor handling winch and 2 towing winches. For running the winches 4 big hydraulic pumps are installed in a pump room. They supply hydraulic oil to 8 hydraulic motors. The motors transfer power to close clutches which again transfer the power to a drive shaft. The drive shaft is common for the towing winches. The anchor-handling winch is not clutch able but is clutched in permanently. It is possible to route the hydraulic oil round the anchor-handling winch by remote controlled switches on the control panel. The winch has 4 gearboxes. 2 gearboxes for the anchor handling winch and 1 for each of the towing winches. Clutch arrangement In order to clutch and de-clutch winch-drums a power pack is installed to supply all clutches. The following options exist for clutching. Either the anchor-handling drum or a towing drum. 2 winches can be clutched at the same time. “High speed” or “low speed” clutching is not an option as one some ships. Clutching is done at the panel on the bridge. From there clutching and de-clutching is done as well as choosing routing of the hydraulic oil for either anchor handling winch or towing winches. Before clutching the brake must be “ON”. A passive surveillance will warn if trying to perform an illegal act. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 10 Anchor Handling Course MTC Brake arrangement The hydraulic winch has 2 braking arrangements. The hydraulic brake acts via the motors and the mechanical band brake, which is manually operated. The hydraulic brake is activated when the oil is passing discs in the motors. A certain slippage will. Always exist in the hydraulic motors giving a slight rotation with tension on the wire. It is therefore quite normal to observe the winch paying out slightly even though the handle is not activated. If the operation demands the wire to be 100 % secured it is necessary to put the band brake “ON”. Tension control The maximum tension, which can be applied to the wire/chain, depends on the pressure in the main hydraulic system. This can be adjusted by a potentiometer installed in the control panel for each winch. If the tension raises to a higher value than the adjusted, the winch will pay out. This is very useful when chasing for an anchor, as it can avoid breakage of chaser collar and PCP. Emergency release and ultimate release When the emergency release button is pushed, the band brake is lifted and the pressure in the hydraulic system is reduced to a minimum, causing the winch to pay out. The normal over speed protection is active. If a winch drum which is not connected to a motor is emergency released, a small brake force will be applied by the band brake, just enough to prevent the wire from jamming on the drum. The ultimate release button has the same function, the only difference is that the over speed protection system is not active. This might lead to serious damage of the winch motors. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 11 Anchor Handling Course MTC Hydraulic winch, “B-type” M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 12 Anchor Handling Course MTC TOWCON TOWCON 2000 is a control system for controlling and monitoring all towing functions, shooting the tow wire, towing the towed object and hauling the tow wire. The system handles both dynamic towing, hydraulic braking and static towing with brakes. All data as wire lengths, adjusted max tension, actual wire tension, wire speed, motor pressure, motor temperatures and motor R.P.M. is presented on a high resolution LCD graphical monitor. The system alarms the user in case of unexpected occurrence, or to warn about special conditions. Alarm limits; wire data and control parameters can easily be programmed. Several functions can be simulated, and there is a system for error detection. Statistical data can also be read. The system has small mechanical dimensions, and is easy to mount. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 13 Anchor Handling Course MTC Instruction for use of Wire Drums Following text and sketches are from the instruction books for the hydraulic winches delivered to the “B – type”. Sales & Service, I.P.Huse, Ulstein Brattvaag, Norway issues the instructions. Please note the last four lines in section 4.2 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 14 Anchor Handling Course MTC M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 05\AHT winches.doc Chapter 05 Page 15 Anchor Handling Course MTC Changing of Chain Wheels (Wildcats / Chain Lifter) It will occasionally be necessary to change out the chain wheels depending on the size of chain to be used. As the size of chain wheels has to fit to the size of chain. Chain wheels are manufactured for chain of a certain size and using it for other sizes can cause damage to both the chain and the wheels. It is important that the chain fits exactly in the pockets to prevent the chain from slipping. A chain, which is not fitting in size, can wear the chain wheel down in a short time and is time- consuming to weld and repair. It can be a troublesome task to change out a chain wheel if it is stuck on the shaft. Which is often the case when working for a long time with tension of 150 tons or more. Also if some of the links in the chain did not fit exactly in the pockets and have been slipping which gives large loads on the chain wheel. Large hydraulic jacks and heating is not always sufficient to dismantle a chain wheel. In most cases time can be saved by fitting an "I" or "H" girder to support in one of the kelps of the chain wheels and welded to a Doppler plate on deck to distribute the weight. The winch is then rotated in “local control” counter wise to create a load on the chain wheel. This should cause the chain wheel to come loose allowing the wheel to be dismantled. Changing of chain wheel can take anything from 8 hours to 24 hours depending on where and who changes the chain wheel and is often subject to discussion between charter and company as time used is often for charters account. It is still the responsibility of the ship to ensure that safety rules and procedures are adhered to even when shore labour is assisting. Emphasising the need to observe that pulling devices are used in a correct manner to avoid damage to threads. Likewise it is important to supervise the use of hydraulic tools to prevent damage to winch motors and anything else which might be used as a “foundation” for the hydraulic tool. When the chain wheel has been changed often the changed out wheel is stored at shore. Before sending ashore it is imperative to preserve it in a satisfactorily way. Lots of chain wheels have been stored out doors without proper protection and supervision. These chain wheels have to be scrapped. It is the responsibility of the ship to ensure the proper preservation and storing. NOTE. A return advice must always be filled out for chain wheels being landed. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC TRIPLEX - SHARK JAW SYSTEM. This equipment has been installed with the objective of safe and secure handling of wire and chain and to make it possible to connect/disconnect an anchor system in a safe way. Most vessels are provided with a double plant, - one at the starboard side and one at the port side of the aft deck. The largest plants installed in the vessels today have an SWL of 700 tonnes and they are able to handle chains of the size of 7” or wires with diameter up to 175 mm. Two control panels are installed in the aft part of the bridge console close to the winch operating panels. The panels are located in port side and in starboard side referring to the respective plant. The port side panel serves the port side TRIPLEX shark jaws and pins and the starboard side serves the starboard side TRIPLEX. Before any operation of these panels it is most important that the operator has studied the manuals and made himself familiar with the functioning of the plant and that any operation complies with the navigator’s instruction. If an order has been indistinct or ambiguous the operator MUST ask for correct info to avoid any doubt or misunderstanding of the operation to take place. This instruction of the TRIPLEX plant has been adjusted to comply with the latest layout and to describe exactly the plants as they appear in the latest and future new buildings and where the company has decided to modify the existing plants in order to comply with safety. The layout is mainly TRIPLEX but APM has added quite some changes to the plant in order to improve and optimise the safety and reliability. The manufacturer, TRIPLEX, has not implemented this modification as a standard version in their basic plants. The development of this modification was prepared and completed by APM based on experience. The Danish Maritime Authorities have approved this improvement. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC Operation To oblige accidents most possible an operating procedure has been prepared. The operator must carefully study this procedure in order to obtain and ensure full understanding of the function of the plant. The marks welded on the links indicate whether the jaws are locked or not. The links MUST pass 180 degrees to achieve “Locked position”. If any irregularity in this respect should occur due to e.g. wear down it will be indicated clearly, as the marks are no longer aligned. It is as a fact ALWAYS the deck crew who make the final decision if the jaws are locked or not. As they have to convince themselves by visual check of marks and upon this turn a lever outside the crash barrier as a confirmation to the operator on the bridge. When this has been performed the jaws are to be considered “Locked”. After the acceptance from the deck the bridge operator can not operate any part of the shark jaws. The only option for overruling this condition is the “Emergency release”- buttons! Emergency operation In cases of power failure (Black Out) it is still possible to operate the shark jaws as the plant is supplied from the vessel’s emergency generator. Should even the emergency power supply fail it is possible to release the jaws by the “Emergency Release” system. In this case the system is powered by nitrogen loaded accumulators located in the steering gear room and from the vessel’s 24 volt battery supply. The accumulators are reloaded at each operation of the hydraulic power pack for the TRIPLEX- system. Maintenance and inspections The maintenance and frequent inspection of the shark jaws system is very important and should be complied by the vessel’s programmed maintenance system, please see procedure 15, 1345: Triplex Shark Jaw – Control Measurements (Supply Vessels). Defects or damages are often revealed during inspections or lubrication. Special attention should be shown to the lower part of the shark jaws – trunk. In spite of drainage from this compartment the environment is rather harsh and tough to the components located at the bottom of this area. Hydraulic hoses and fitting are constantly exposed to salt water as well as the suspension of the shark jaws components. A procedure concerning the treatment of the hydraulic hoses and fittings has been issued, - Densyl tape. The shark jaws trunk is often used as “garbage bin” for various items such as mud from anchors, used rags, mussels from chains, chopped off split pins, remains of lead and much more. Due to that fact it is very important to clean this compartment frequently. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC Check of “Lock”- position It is very important to make sure that the shark jaws links are able to reach the correct position when in “Lock”- position. The links have been provided with indication marks that have to be aligned when locked and a special ruler is included in the spare parts delivered along with the equipment. This ruler is used to check that the links are well above 180 o . Ref. Chapter 1, Section 7.2.4, - drawing B-2209 section C. Please see procedure 15, 1345: Triplex Shark Jaw – Control Measurements. Also refer to wooden model for demonstration. This check has to be performed frequently and should be comprised by the Programmed Maintenance System on board the vessel. If the equipment has been exposed to excessive load or at suspicion of damage check must always take place and the result entered in the maintenance log. The shark jaws may often be exposed to strokes and blows from anchors tilting or other objects handled. Safety It is most important to oblige safety regulations and guide lines connected to the operation of the plant. Ensure that all warning signs are located as per instructions - ref. Chapter 1, section 1. If maintenance or repair work has to be performed inside the shark jaws compartment the plant MUST be secured in order not to operate the unit unintended or by accident. This includes the emergency operation as well. To eliminate the risk of emergency release of the system the accumulators have to be discharged by opening the return flow valve to the power pack. This will ensure safe access to the shark jaws compartment. In case repair or check is performed inside the trunk and the jaws are in upper position it must not be possible to lower the jaws as the compartment leaves no room for both the jaws and a person. This may require mechanical fastening of the jaws. (No former accidents reported). M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 4 Anchor Handling Course MTC Guide Pins / A-pins Together with the shark jaws plant two guide pins are provided. These pins are to ensure guidance of wires and chains. The guide pins are hydraulic operated from the power pack common with the shark jaws. The rollers on the guide pins may be manufactured as single roller or divided into two rolls. To ensure proper operation of the guide pins it is very important that they are well greased at all time. In case the rollers are not able to rotate they will be damaged very fast and they will damage e.g. wires as well. Good maintenance and greasing is essential to ensure good and safe performance. A central lubricating plant has been installed in the steering gear room for the greasing of both the shark jaws, guide pins and the stern roller. Daily check of this greasing unit is important to ensure sufficient lubricant in the reservoir. Rather too much lubrication than too little. Wire Lifter The wire lift is located just in front of the shark jaws and is a part of the same unit. This item is used to lift a wire or chain if required in order to connect or disconnect. Stop Pins / Quarter Pins The stop pins are located on the “whale back” in order to prevent a wire or chain to slide over the side of the cargo rail. They function exactly as hydraulic jacks controlled from the shark jaws panel on the bridge. The stop pins are often exposed to wear and strokes from the wires and the wear may sometimes cause need for repair. Especially the collar and bushing may require repair as a wire could have ground the bushing and created burrs which prevents the hydraulic piston from proper operation. Due to that fact it is important to frequently check the functioning of the stop pins and to ensure proper greasing. If these pins are not used for a period they easily get stuck. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 5 Anchor Handling Course MTC 2. OPERATION: 2.1 OPERATION OF THE SHARK JAW CONTROL PANEL BUTTON AND SWITCHES . PUMP START: Starts hydraulic pump. The pump works at constant high pressure. It is equipped with a time relay which will let the PUMP START LAMP start flashing if it has been switched on but not used for a set period of time. NOTE!Ensure that valves on suction line are opened before starting up. PUMP STOP: Stops hydraulic pump. WIRE LIFT UP :Raises the wire lift pin. WIRE LIFT DOWN: Lowers the wire lift pin. The following controls of the panel are arranged so that those on the right side of the panel are connected to port and those on the left side to starboard. LOCK-O-OPEN: Each of these two switches raises locks and opens one Jaw of the Shark Jaw respectively. These switches can be operated simultaneously or individually. When in the central "0" position each switch stops its respective Jaw of the Shark Jaw in whatever position it has reached. This is the normal off position for the switches when the Shark Jaw is not in use. When turned to the LOCK position each switch raises and locks its respective Jaw of the Shark Jaw. When turned to the OPEN position each switch lowers its respective Jaw of the Shark Jaw. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 6 Anchor Handling Course MTC LOCK-O-OPEN: When full lock pressure is obtained the LOCK PRESSURE lamps comes on, and when the locking cylinders are in the extended position, the JAW IN POS. lamps comes on. The work deck-operator inspects the marks on the link joints, and if the marks indicate that the jaws are locked, he turns the lever located in the JAW POS. ACCEPT box to JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED. On the control panel the ALARM light goes out and the JAWS LOCKED light comes on. The jaws are completely locked when the link joints passes 180 degrees, and marks on link joints are on line. When the Shark Jaw is locked, both switches remain at the LOCK position. If the lock pressure falls on either one or both jaws or the locking cylinders are not in the extended position the respective LED goes out. Then the JAWS LOCKED -right goes out and the ALARM LIGHT comes on. Under JAWS LOCKED conditions the PUMP STOP cannot be operated. QUICK RELEASE: Before operating the QUICK RELEASE, Guide Pins and Wire Lift Pin must be in level with the deck. Two push buttons. To operate the QUICK RELEASE with only the jaws in raised position both OPEN-O-LOCK switches must first be moved to the central "0" position and the JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPT lever turned to JAW READY FOR OPERATION. The alarm light goes out and the buzzer and alarm on deck comes on when the QUICK RELEASE button cover is opened. Then both QUICK RELEASE buttons must be pressed at the same time. The system is reset by pressing and reset the E-STOP button. EMERGENCY RELEASE:T wo push buttons on the emergency release panel. For retracting of Guide Pins, wire lift pin first and then the jaws. To operate the EMERGENCY RELEASE the both buttons must be pressed at the same time. The buzzer comes on when the EMERGENCY RELEASE button cover is opened. When the buttons are pressed the lights above them will come on. The system is reset by pressing the E-STOP button. GUIDE PIN UP: Two buttons, which when pressed raise the respective guide pins. GUIDE PIN DOWN: Two buttons, which when pressed lower the respective guide pins. EMERGENCY STOP: E-STOP button. When pressed the current to all functions of the control panel is cut. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 7 Anchor Handling Course MTC OIL LEVEL LOW If the oil level in the hydraulic oil tank becomes too low -TEMP HIGH: or the oil temperature gets too high, the OIL LEVEL LOW / TEMP HIGH lamp comes on. LAMP TEST: When the lamp test button is activated, all lamps on the panel will light up. CONTROL PANEL M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 8 Anchor Handling Course MTC Marks for Locked on Hinge Link The marks welded on the links indicate whether the Jaws are locked or not. The links MUST pass 180 degrees to achieve “Locked Position”. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 9 Anchor Handling Course MTC 2.2- OPERATION OF THE "JAW IN POSITION ACCEPT" LEVER: "Jaw in Position Accept Box" placed on the work deck with lever inside for operation to JAW READY FOR OPERATION or JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED. JAWS LOCK When the OPEN-O-LOCK switches on the main control POSITION panel are in LOCK position and all lamps for JAW IN ACCEPTED: POSITION and LOCK PRESSURE light, the work deck operator inspects the marks on the link joints. When the marks indicate that the jaws are locked he turns the lever to position: "JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED". On the control panel the JAWS LOCKED lamp then comes on. The Shark Jaw is now ready to hold the load. When the lever is in the JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED the LOCK-O-OPEN and QUICK RELEASE buttons cannot be operated without first turning the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever to the JAW READY FOR OPERATION position. The EMERGENCY RELEASE operates even with the lever in position: "JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED". Before operating the Shark Jaw the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever has to be turned to JAW READY FOR OPERATION. If the pump stops when the jaws are in locked position and JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED the JAWS LOCKED lamp goes out and alarm lamp comes on. Procedure for control of the jaws in locked position then have to be repeated, marks on the link joints inspected and confirmed with operating JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED. 2.3 OPERATION OF THE CONTROL PANEL AT EMERGENCY POWER. 2.3.1 Emergency power to the bridge Control Panel. Functions to be operated at emergency power. • Only the buttons for moving jaws and pins down. • Pump start. • Emergency release. 2.3.2 Emergency Power to the Main Junction Box. All functions to be operated as on normal power. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 10 Anchor Handling Course MTC 3.ELECTRIC AND HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM. 3. 1.ARRANGEMENT OF SYSTEM. Refer to enclosed hydraulic diagram (section D). A variable displacement hydraulic pump supplies the system. The oil is distributed to the various electrically operated solenoid valves. When activated these valves supply the oil to the hydraulic cylinders, which power the Jaws, Wire Lift Pin, Guide Pins and Stop Pins. The pump is connected to accumulators, which are charged as soon as the system reaches maximum working pressure. As shown in the hydraulic diagram, all the necessary relief valves over centre valves and check valves are fitted to enable the system to function efficiently. The electric system is powered from 220 or 110 Volt AC and is transformed / rectified to 24 Volt DC. The system must have a 24 Volt Direct Current emergency power supply. 3.2.FUNCTIONING OF QUICK RELEASE - JAWS ONLY. Wire or chain held by the Shark Jaw can be released by turning the OPEN-O- LOCK switches to the OPEN position, or by operating the QUICK RELEASE. When required the QUICK RELEASE system can be used to open the jaws. QUICK RELEASE is operated by turning both OPEN-O-LOCK switches to the central "0" position and the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever turned to READY FOR OPERATION. The alarm light goes out and the buzzer comes on when the QUICK RELEASE button cover is opened. Then both QUICK RELEASE buttons must be pressed at the same time. The need to operate two sets of controls to activate the QUICK RELEASE system is a safety device to prevent the QUICK RELEASE from being operated by accident. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 11 Anchor Handling Course MTC 3.3.FUNCTIONING OF EMERGENCY RELEASE A separate control panel on the bridge operates the EMERGENCY RELEASE. When the EMERGENCY RELEASE is operated, solenoids nos. 42 and 35 are activated (refer to hydraulic diagram) The solenoid valve pos. 11 then releases pilot pressure from the accumulators, supplying high pressure oil to the Wire Lift Pin and Guide Pins hydraulic cylinders, to retract WIRE LIFT PIN and GUIDE PINS to deck level before the Jaws open. Following this, even if the WIRE LIFT PIN or GUIDE PINS do not fully retract for any reason, the Jaws will automatically open and reach deck level in 10 - 20 seconds. - Pressing the E-STOP button can stop the whole procedure - 3.4.EMERGENCY RELEASE UNDER "DEAD SHIP" CONDITIONS. The EMERGENCY RELEASE system can also operate under "dead ship" conditions and under load. This is possible because the accumulators are charged at the same time as the jaws are locked and the system reaches maximum working pressure. Should "dead ship" condition occur and the pump stop the emergency current from the battery makes it possible to release with. power from the accumulators in the same way as described above. Even under "dead ship" condition, with no power from the pump, a load can safely be held in the Jaws, as the link joints are "locked" past 180 degrees. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 12 Anchor Handling Course MTC 4.Testing program for the Triplex Shark Jaw H-700. Recommended and approved by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate. 4.1. Triplex Shark Jaw. The Triplex Shark Jaw and central manoeuvring components have been tested by manufacturer with 240 bar oil pressure. 4.2 Test without Load. To be carried out on board after installation and start up. a) The jaws to be closed and opened separately and simultaneously. b) The wire lift to be moved to up and down positions. c) QUICK RELEASE for jaws to be tested with the wire lift down. d) EMERGENCY RELEASE to be tested when jaws have been locked and the pump is disconnected. e) Check marks on link joints when Jaws are locked. If marks are not in line the Shark Jaw must be repaired before use. 4.3 Test with Load. Wire of necessary strength to be locked in the Shark Jaw and a static load test to be carried out by pulling with a load corresponding to the ships bollard pull. 5. General Maintenance For Triplex Shark Jaw Type H-700 Triplex Guide Pins Type S-300 5.1 Accumulators Depressurising Important! Before maintenance work on Shark Jaw it is important to empty the accumulators for oil by opening of the ball valve on the power unit. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 13 Anchor Handling Course MTC 5.2 Shark Jaw Unit Check regularly before use, that link joints and jaws have no wear and tear or damages that can cause any danger. All bearings and bolts in all joints should be tight. Check tightness of all bolts and nuts regularly or minimum two times per year. The inside of the Shark Jaw housing and the moveable parts must be cleaned regularly. Lubricate according to the lubricating chart. Shark Jaw Unit Service / Inspection Safety Device: Before service or inspection of parts inside the Shark Jaw with the jaws in locked position the jaws must be secured by welding a clamp on top of the Jaws. Remember to remove the clamp before starting pump. 5.3 Guide Pins Units Check torque on bolts for the top hats and guide plates on the lower end of the guide pins, regularly minimum two times per year. Recommended torque for M24 bolts 10.9 qualities black and oiled is 108 kpm. Recommended torque for M30 bolts 10.9 qualities black and oiled is 175 kpm. Check and clean regularly the inside of the guide pin housing. Lubricate according to lubrication chart. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 14 Anchor Handling Course MTC Guide Pins Service / Inspection Safety Device: Before service or inspection of parts on Guide Pins with the pins in upper position the pins must be secured with a support inside. Remember to remove the clamp before starting pump. 5.4 Hydraulic System The filter element for the H.P. – and return line filter on power pack have to be changed when indicators show blocked filter or minimum one time per year. Check regularly all high pressure hoses inside the Shark Jaw and Guide Pins. Ensure that spare high pressure hydraulic hoses are always carried on board. Hydraulic oil according to lubrication chart. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 15 Anchor Handling Course MTC 5.5 Electric System 5.5.1 With Power Switched off. Tighten every screw connection for electrical termination. Check all cables for damage. 5.5.2 With Power Switched on. Check that all operations from the control panel are functioning. The same procedure shall be followed, also for the emergency release box. 5.6 Control of Operation with Current from the Emergency Power Supply. Switch off the automatic fuse inside the junction box and check the operation of the Shark Jaw from the control panel. Check also the alarm functions. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 16 Anchor Handling Course MTC 6. Control Measurements / Adjustments. 6.1 Control Measure in Lock Position: M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 17 Anchor Handling Course MTC 6.2 Adjustment of inductive proximity switches on lock cylinders. 1. Change inductive proximity switch if defect. 2. Dismantle cover on link joint. 3. Move jaws to LOCK position. 4. Adjust proximate switch until light on sensor comes on. Tighten contra nut on proximate switch. 5. Open and lock jaws to check that light on sensor comes on. 6. Check that adjustment of proximate switch lamp goes out before link joints reach minimum over centre measurement. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 18 Anchor Handling Course MTC 6.3 Adjustment of Pressure Switches for Lock Pressure. 1. Adjust pressure to 115 bar. Use horizontal adjusting screw on pump pressure compensatory valve. 2. Adjust pressure switch until green lamp on control panel comes on. Use alternative voltmeter and measure on cables for pressure switches. 7.Test Program – Periodical Control Triplex Shark Jaw Type H-700 Triplex Guide Pins Type S-300 7.1 The Triplex system is installed and used under rough conditions. Due to mechanical stress, vibrations and aggressive atmosphere and the equipment needs to be maintained carefully for safe operation. A functional dry run test is recommended before every anchor handling operation. The owner is responsible for all maintenance on the Triplex equipment. He must perform his own routines and schedules after the following guidelines. 7.2 Checking List – Periodic Control Mechanical / Hydraulic. Procedure for Personal Safety See Section 1; Have to be Followed! Recommended Regularity:MONTHLY 1. Dismantle manhole cowers on Shark Jaw and Guide Pins. 2. Check H.P. hoses, pipes and fittings. Poor H.P. hoses to be changed. 3. Check that all bolts are properly tightened. 4. Check that link joints are over centre when jaws are in locked position. See drawing B-2209. 5. Check wears on jaws, rollers and bearings. Repair and change where necessary. 6. Movement of bolts and link joints to be controlled under the function test. Look carefully for cracks and deformations. 7. Check sea water drain pipes from Shark Jaw and Guide Pins. 8. Check oil lever in hydraulic oil tank. 9. Starts pump and check that hydraulic pressure raise to max. working pressure (175 bar). 10. Check accumulator nitrogen pressure: 35 Bar. It’s important first to empty the accumulators for oil by opening the ball valve on the power unit. Then connect gas-filling equipment according to accumulator precharging procedure. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 19 Anchor Handling Course MTC 11.Auxiliary equipment as lubrication system to be checked according to the grease system manual. (LINCOLN) 12. Check that gaskets for manhole covers are in good condition. 13. Fit all manhole covers. 7.3 Checking List – Periodic Control Electrical Procedures for Personal Safety see Section 1. Have to be followed! Recommended Regularity:MONTHLY 1. Switch power off. 2. Perform Visual inspection for mechanical damage on: - Junction boxes, control panels and cabinets. - Cables. - Indicators and switches. - Electrical components mounted on the entire Triplex equipment / delivery. 3. Open every electrical cabinet, panel and boxes one by one, inspect for damage and heat exposure. 4. Control that all components are firm fastened, and relays are firm in their sockets. 5. Screw connections for every electrical termination to be carefully tightened. 6. Damages and other un-regularities must corrected immediately. 7. Power on, and perform complete functional test programs: - Normal operation of all functions. - Quick release. - Emergency release. 8. Check emergency power (24 V) to junction box. 9. Remount all panels and doors / covers. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 06\1.0 TRIPLEX-Shark Jaws.doc Chapter 06 Page 20 Anchor Handling Course MTC 7.4 Testing without Load – Yearly Testing. Checklist (Accept with OK) Control Panel Bridge Motor/pump starter 1 Remote pump start - 2 Remote pump stop - 3 Local pump start - 4 Local pump stop - 5 Pump lamp auto flicker 6 Emergency stop 7 Wire lift pin up 8 Wire lift pin down 9 Starboard jaw close 10 Starboard jaw open 11 Port jaw close 12 Port jaw open 13 Jaws close simultaneously 14 Jaws open simultaneously 15 Alarm light jaws open 16 Lock pressure lights 17 Jaw in position lights JAW POSITION ACCEPTED 18 Jaw in position accepted - 19 Jaws locked light 20 Guide pins up 21 Guide pins down 22 Towing pins up 23 Towing pins down 24 Emergency release 25 Quick release (Jaws only) 26 Reset Quick release buttons 27 Oil temperature high alarm light 28 Oil level alarm light 29 Emergency power supply junction box connection (193-194) 30 Emergency power supply control panel bridge connection (77-78) 31 Jaw in lock position marks in line check, starboard 32 Jaw in lock position marks in line check, port 7.5 Load Test – Emergency Release – 5 Year Control. Wire with required strength to be locked in the Shark Jaw. Make emergency release with a load of 90 tons on the wire (Jaws). First test:With the pump running. Second test:With the pump stopped and accumulators fully loaded. E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S “In closed / locked position” View from astern of Jaws. Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 Maersk Training Centre A/S Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 “Mark on line !” Maersk Training Centre A/S Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 “In closed / locked position” Looking aft. Wire lifter 1/3 up, Guide Pins in closed position. Maersk Training Centre A/S Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 “Double set of Jaws, Pins and Wire lifter” Looking aft. A- type vessel. Maersk Training Centre A/S View from the bridge. A-type vessel. Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 Maersk Training Centre A/S Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 “Chain stopped off by the Shark Jaw” Looking aft. E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S “JAW READY FOR OPERATION” Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S “JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED” Triplex Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 07\1.0 Karm Fork.doc Chapter 07 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC KARM FORK – SHARK JAW SYSTEM. This equipment has been installed with the objective of safe and secure handling of wire and chain and to make it possible to connect / disconnect an anchor system in a safe way. Most vessels are provided with a double plant, - one at the starboard side and one at the port side of the aft deck. The Karm Fork system is a patented design for anchor handling and towing operations. The unit consists of a wide, strong foundation that is inserted into the deck structure. The Fork runs vertically up and down in the foundation. High-pressure hydraulic cylinders power the Karm Fork unit. The Karm Fork can easily be adapted to different wire / chain dimension by changing the insert. The Karm Towing Pins system is a patented design for anchor handling and towing operations. The unit consists of a wide, strong foundation that is inserted into the deck structure. The Towing Pins run vertically up and down in the foundation. The Karm Towing Pins have flaps for horizontal locking. As the pins move upward they turn the flaps towards one another. This system traps the wire / chain inside a “square” avoiding it to jump of the towing pins. High-pressure hydraulic cylinders power the Karm Fork unit. The Karm Fork & Towing Pins are all placed in the same foundation. The largest plants installed on board the APM vessels today have a SWL of 750 tonnes and they are able to handle chains of the size of 6”. Before any operation of these panels it is most important that the operator has studied the manuals and made himself familiar with the functioning of the plant and that any operation complies with the navigator’s instruction. If an order has been indistinct or ambiguous the operator MUST ask for correct info to avoid any doubt or misunderstanding of the operation to take place. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 07\6.0 Karm Fork.doc Chapter 07 Anchor Handling Course MTC KARM FORK Shark Jaw Wire and chain Stopper Fig 1 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 07\6.0 Karm Fork.doc Chapter 07 Anchor Handling Course MTC Inserts for KARM FORK Fig 2 Inserts and Carpenter Stoppers for KARM FORK Fig 3 E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S Karm Fork in top position with top cover on. Towing Pins in parked position. Looking aft.MAERSK DISPATCHER Karm Fork Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7 Maersk Training Centre A/S Karm Fork and Towing Pin in top position. Looking aft. MAERSK DISPATCHER Karm Fork Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7 Maersk Training Centre A/S Karm Fork Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7 Karm Forks and Towing Pins in top position with Safety Pins in. Looking towards port.MAERSK DISPATCHER Maersk Training Centre A/S Karm Forks and Towing Pins in top position with Safety Pins in. Chain stopped off in both sides. Looking aft.MÆRSK DISPATCHER Karm Fork Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7 Maersk Training Centre A/S Both sets of Towing Pins in up / locked position. Both sets of Karm Forks in parked position, ready for use. Looking aft.MÆRSK CHIEFTAIN Karm Fork Shark Jaw System Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 08\1.0 Wire 2001.11.UK.doc Chapter 8 / 1 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC “Good Advises and Guidelines” in use of NON rotation-resistant steel wires. First of all it is recommended to read the Technical Information regarding steel wires by Fyns Kran Udstyr / Randers Reb. These information make the foundation for the following “Good Advises and Guidelines”. The wire-thread, which is used in the production of a steel wire, has a very high tensile strength compared by ordinary steel. Trade steel (“Steel 37”) has a tensile strength at app. 37 kp/mm2 (362 N/mm2) Wire steel has a tensile strength from app. 140 to 220 kp/mm2 (1370 – 2160 N/mm2) The fact that the wire-thread is so strong has the disadvantage that the bending strength will be reduced. The wire-thread breaks easily, if it is bent – especially under the circumstances as a “Work wire” is working under. Below different subjects concerning or are used in connection with steel wire will be covered. Especially the negative influence on the steel wire will be covered. Swivel:The breaking load will locally be reduced by app. 30% When a steel wire is under load it opens and at the same time it will be extended. The swivel “makes” it easier for the wire to open, stress failure will occur and the life expectancy will be reduced. Working Load:A steel wire must maximum be loaded with 50% of the breaking load. The material reaches the yield point at 50% of the breaking load. The wire- threads get stiff and will break when they are bent. The life expectancy will be reduced. If the load constantly is about the 50%, the steel wire will break. Loops / kinks:Gives a reduction in the breaking load at app. 50% The steel wire will be heavily deformed, when e.g. a kink is straightened out by applying of a load. A kink is formed due to extraction of a loop. Fleet angle:Does not matter on ships with spooling devices. But the steel wire has to run straight into a block. Running in Steel Wire Rope: Is recommended, if time. In this way the steel wire will gradually become accustomed to the new conditions. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 08\1.0 Wire 2001.11.UK.doc Chapter 8 / 1 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC Fitting to Drum: Fundamentally you ought to follow the recommendations made by the manufacturer. But this does only matter with the first layer of steel wire. It doesn’t matter on drums with several layers of steel wire. If it isn’t possible to fit the steel wire at the right side due to the construction of the drum, you must subsequent keep away from the first layer on the drum. Spooling:Care must be taken to ensure that the reel and the drum are running in the same direction. That means from under-turn to under-turn and from over- turn to over-turn. If this isn’t done correctly, the steel wire is subjected to torsion. In order to achieve problem-free spooling on multi-layer drums it is extremely important that the steel wire is spooled on with tension. If the layers are too loose; the upper layers can damage or cut into the layers below when tension is applied, resulting in damage to the steel wire. Spooling from drum to reel: All tension / torsion must first be released by deploying the wire into the water – at sufficient water depth – before the steel wire is spooled on to the reel. The best-recommended way of doing this transferring; is first to deploy the steel wire into the water, secure it in the Shark Jaws and afterwards spool the steel wire directly from the water onto the reel. It is of course a demand, that the reel is able to lift the weight of the deployed steel wire. Bending around a mandrel: (Can be compared with a U-lift.) When the steel wire “works” on the stern roller or is spooled on the drum this is “Bending around a mandrel”. How big / small this proportion is, depends on the diameter of the “drum” (Winch drum, stern roller, guide pins) and the diameter of the wire which is supposed to “work” on the drum. Depending on the proportion between mandrel diameter and steel wire diameter, reduction in the breaking load will be: (d = diameter of the steel wire) Mandrel, diam.:Breaking load, reduced: 40 d 5% 15 d 10% 5 d 20% 4 d 25% 3 d 30% 2 d 40% 1 d 50% M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 08\1.0 Wire 2001.11.UK.doc Chapter 8 / 1 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC A few examples:3000 mm drum / 76 mm wire = app. 40 d 3000 mm drum / 86 mm wire = app. 35 d 1500 mm drum / 86 mm wire = app. 17 d 900 mm drum / 76 mm wire = app. 12 d The same is also valid, when the steel wire makes a big change in the run- direction. E.g. when the steel wire is forced round a guide pin, the proportion will only be app 4 d (300 mm guide pin / 76 mm wire = 4 d). For steel wires 6x36 and 6x41 a minimum of 20 d is recommended. The bigger – that better. Some suppliers of steel wires recommend a minimum of 40 d. E.g. a 44-mm steel wire “demands” a sheave with a minimum diameter at 880 mm A more essential fact is the stress, which will occur when a steel wire runs round a drum, roller and sheaves or change run of direction due to a guide pin or a spooling device. This stress will give a shorter life of the steel wire and the steel wire will be worn down before time as well. When a steel wire is fed over e.g. a winch drum, stern roller, guide pin or a sheaf, certain complex tensions (a combination of bending, tensile and compression stress) are generated in the steel wire. The greatest tension occurs in the wire threads furthest away from the steel wire’s bending centre. After repeated bends, stress failure will occur in these wire threads. These stress failures occur due to many factors. E.g. the steel wire rope construction, tension applied, the ratio (d), use of a swivel, wear and tear of guide pins, spooling devices and stern roller together with martensite formation. Martensite:Martensite formation. Martensite is a structural change in the wire material causes by a very sudden cooling of the steel wire after a strong local heating generated by friction. E.g. bad spooling of the steel wire on the winch drum may cause the friction. This structure change gives a hard and brittle surface and may cause fractures during normal operation or when spliced, even though the steel wire doesn’t show any visible signs of external wear If a steel wire carries a current or the steel wire is wound on a drum in several layers, there will often be sparks. The surface temperature where the sparks appear will be over 800° C, making it quite probable that martensite will be formed. If there are many sparks, fracture on wire threads will happen and the wire may break. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 08\1.0 Wire 2001.11.UK.doc Chapter 8 / 1 Page 4 Anchor Handling Course MTC Precautions against martensite: • The blocks, guide pins, stern roller and spooling devices must not be worn down and should turn easily. Must be kept in good condition. If equipment is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensure that hardness of the welding material is maximum 300 Brinel. • When a steel wire is wound on a drum, it should be in tight wraps without the layers crossing each other in order to prevent the top layer from cutting into the underlying layers. • The steel wire should be lubricated at regular intervals in order to minimise the friction between wires and strands. The best would be to make a sort of continuously lubricating. • The steel wire should be checked at regular intervals for crushing, minor cracks and mechanical damages, all of which might indicate martensite spots. • Use of wires with less contents of carbon in the wire. (Are used in the fishing industry for trawl wires). Re-socketing of steel wire: • The old steel wire is cut of at the socket base. • The steel wire piece is pressed out by use of a mandrel / jack. When heated: • Only slowly and equably. • Only up to maximum degrees – depending on the product. Do “bend / break – test” on the wire from the piece of steel wire, which is leading into the socket. If the wire threads break, they have been exposed to martensite. The steel wire will break in the area around the socket base because the steel wire works heavily in this area. After Re-socketing remember to: • The socket base to be filled with grease or oil. To be re-filled, when the steel wire isn’t in use over a long period, as the steel wire will dry out. • The re-greasing is very important, when the socket in hanging down. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 08\1.0 Wire 2001.11.UK.doc Chapter 8 / 1 Page 5 Anchor Handling Course MTC Recommendations: • You must aim at a working load of maximum 1/3 of the Breaking load. In this way the steel wire can be loaded with peaks up to 50% of the original breaking load. You will also have room for using the swivel without complications. • Guide pins, blocks, spooling devices and stern roller must be kept in a good condition. If equipment is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensure that hardness of the welding material is maximum 300 Brinel. • Avoid that the steel wire is slipping across the connections between the two stern rollers. • The ratio of “d” to “D” must be as big as possible – and always at least 20, when we are dealing with a steel wire under load. • The steel wire must be lubricated in order to minimise the martensite formations. • Martensite formations must generally be avoided – if possible. 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-1 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 1. THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF STEEL WIRE ROPE A steel wire rope normally consists of three components (fig. 1): - Steel wires that form a strand. ∙ Strands that are wrapped around a core. ∙ The core. These elements are available in various models/designs, depending on the physical requirements of the steel wire rope and its intended application. A single strand can in certain cases be used quite properly as a steel wire rope. A fourth component, that is equally as important for the steel wire rope's performance as the design and quality of the three basic components, is the lubrication of the core and the strands (see "Maintenance of Steel Wire Rope"). Steel Wire There are many different types of material and qualities of wire. Randers Reb can supply most of these qualities - contact us to find out how Randers Reb can meet your own particular needs. The qualities of steel that Randers Reb uses in the production of standard steel wire rope are supplied by a select few of Europe's leading wire manufacturers and as a minimum requirement meet international standards (ISO 2232). In this way Randers Reb's steel wire ropes achieve a high degree of uniformity. The minimum tensile strength of the wire defines the classification of the steel wire rope. The tensile strength of wires in Randers Reb's standard product range is as follows: ∙ Ungalvanised wires (mainly elevator cables) 1,370 N/mm² (140 kp/mm²). ∙ Zinc galvanised wires (mainly fishing) 1,570 N/mm² (160 kp/mm²). ∙ Zinc/alum. galvanised wires (mainly fishing) 1,570 N/mm² (160 kp/mm²). ∙ Rustproof wires, tensile strength dependent on size 1,670 N/mm² (170 kp/mm²). ∙ Zinc galvanised wires (mainly industry) 1,770 N/mm² (180 kp/mm²). ∙ Zinc galvanised wires (mainly industry) 1,970 N/mm² (200 kp/mm²). Randers Reb always demands that all wire consignments are accompanied by a wire certificate. Strands A strand is laid by a minimum of three wires that are arranged in many different designs (geometric patterns). The strand is almost always arranged around a centre wire. The wires are made from 1. STÅLTOVETS GRUNDELEMENTER Et ståltov består normalt af tre komponenter (fig. 1): ∙ Ståltråde der danner en dugt. ∙ Dugter der slås omkring et hjerte. ∙ Hjerte. Disse elementer udføres i forskellig udformning/design afhængig af, hvilke fysiske krav der stilles til ståltovet samt hvad det skal anvendes til. Én dugt kan i visse tilfælde med fordel anvendes som et ståltov. En fjerde komponent, der er lige så vigtig som udform- ningen og kvaliteten af de tre basiskomponenter, er indfedtningen af hjerte og dugter (se afsnittet "Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet"). Ståltråd Der findes mange forskellige materialetyper og kvaliteter af tråde. Randers Reb kan levere de fleste af disse kvaliteter. De stålkvaliteter, som Randers Reb anvender til fremstilling af stan- dard ståltove, leveres fra få af Europas førende trådproducenter og opfylder som minimum internationale standarder (EN 10264). Herved opnår Randers Rebs ståltove en høj grad af ensartethed. Minimum brudstyrken på tråden angiver klassifikationen af ståltovet. Randers Reb anvender bl.a. følgende trådtyper: ∙ Ugalvaniserede tråde (primært elevatortove) 1.370 N/mm2 (140 kp/mm2). ∙ Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært fiskeri) 1.570 N/mm2 (160 kp/mm2). ∙ Zink/aluminium-galvaniserede tråde (primært fiskeri) 1.570 N/mm2 (160 kp/mm2). ∙ Rustfrie tråde (brudstyrken er dimensionsafhængig) 1.670 N/mm2 (170 kp/mm2). ∙ Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært industri) 1.770 N/mm2 (180 kp/mm2). ∙ Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært industri) 1.970 N/mm2 (200 kp/mm2). Randers Reb kræver, at alle trådleverancer ledsages af et trådcertifikat. Dugter En dugt er fremstillet (slået) af minimum 3 tråde, der er lagt i én af mange forskellige designs (geometrisk opbygning). Dugten er næs- ten altid opbygget omkring en centertråd. Som regel er trådene af stål, men de kan også være af fiber (natur- eller kunstfiber) eller af en kombination af stål og fiber. Antallet, størrelsen og materialet af de enkelte tråde kendetegner tovet og dets egenskaber. Få og tykke tråde giver stor slidstyrke, Fig. 1. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 1 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-2 10 either steel or fibre (natural or man-made), or a combination of these.The quantity, size and material from which the individual wires are made characterise the rope and its qualities. Fewer, thicker wires create greater abrasion resistance, whereas a greater number of thinner wires creates greater flexibility (see also section 2: "Types of Strand"). Core Almost all steel wire ropes have a core. The core's function is to sup- port and retain the strands in their respective positions while the steel wire rope is being used. The core may be made of either steel, fibre, or a com- bination of the two. The core is usually one of the following types: - FC (natural or man-made fibre, Fibre Core). ∙ WSC (steel core, Wire Strand Core). The WSC is a strand and is of exactly the same construction as the strands in the steel wire rope. ∙ IWRC (steel core, Independent Wire Rope Core). The IWRC is an independent steel wire rope with a fibre core or a WSC (see also section 2: Types of Core). 2. STEEL WIRE ROPE CONSTRUCTIONS A steel wire rope is defined not only by its basic elements (wires, strands, core), but also by the way in which the individual wires are laid together to create a strand and the way in which the strands are laid around the core, etc. The steel wire rope's construction is defined when the following criteria have been determined: ∙ Number of wires in a strand. ∙ Type of strand (strand design). ∙ Number of strands. ∙ Type of core. ∙ Lay direction (steel wire rope and strand). ∙ Pre-forming. The steel wire rope is designated according to the number of strands, the number of wires in each strand, the design (type) of the strand, and the type of core. ∙ 6x7 Standard with FC (fibre core). ∙ 8x19 Standard with WSC (steel core). ∙ 8x19 Seale with IWRC (steel core). ∙ 6x36 Warrington Seale with FC (fibre core). Number of Wires in a Strand The number of wires in a strand varies between three and approx. 139, although there are most commonly 7, 19, 24 or 36 wires. The number of wires and their thickness depend on the design of the strand and affects the characteristic of the steel wire rope. hvorimod mange og tynde tråde giver stor fleksibilitet (se også afsnit- tet "Dugttype/dugtdesign"). Hjerte Næsten alle ståltove har et hjerte. Hjertets funktion er at understøtte og fastholde dugterne i deres relative stilling under brugen. Hjertematerialet kan enten være stål eller fiber eller en kombination af disse (se fig. 2). Hjertet er normalt af typen: ∙ FC (natur- eller kunst fiber, Fibre Core). ∙ WSC (stålhjerte, Wire Strand Core). WSC'et er en dugt og af samme konstruktion som ståltovets dugter. ∙ IWRC (stålhjerte, Independent Wire Rope Core). IWRC'et er et selvstændigt ståltov med et fiberhjerte eller WSC. 2. STÅLTOVSKONSTRUKTIONER Et ståltov bestemmes ikke kun ud fra dets grundelementer (tråde, dugter og hjerte), men også ud fra hvordan de enkelte tråde er slået sammen for at danne en dugt samt hvordan dugterne er slået omkring hjertet m.m. Ståltovets konstruktion er fastlagt, når følgende er defineret: ∙ Antal tråde i dugt. ∙ Dugttype (dugtdesign). ∙ Antal dugter. ∙ Hjertetype. ∙ Slåningsretning (ståltov og dugt). ∙ Formlægning. Ståltove er benævnt efter antallet af dugter, antallet af tråde i hver dugt, designet (typen) af dugten og hjertetypen. F.eks.: ∙ 6x7 Standard med FC (fiberhjerte). ∙ 8x19 Standard med WSC (stålhjerte). ∙ 8x19 Seale med IWRC (stålhjerte). ∙ 6x36 Warrington Seale med FC (fiberhjerte). Antal tråde i dugt Antallet af tråde i en dugt varierer fra 3 til ca. 139, mest almindeligt er 7, 19, 24 eller 36 tråde. Trådenes antal og tykkelse afhænger af dugtdesignet og har indflydelse på ståltovets egenskaber. Fig. 2 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 2 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-3 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Types of Strand (Strand Construction) The type of strand is characterised by the way in which the wires in the strand are arranged. There are four basic types of strand design that are used in all steel wire ropes, either in their original form or as a combination of two or more types. The four basic types are: ∙ Standard. ∙ Seale. ∙ Filler. ∙ Warrington. Standard The Standard construction (fig. 3) is characterised by the fact that all wires are of equal thickness, although the core wire may be thicker. The wires are also laid together in such a way that all of them, with the exception of the centre wire, are of equal length. In this way all the wires are subjected to an equal distribution of load when pulled straight. The geometric wire distribution consists of one centre wire, onto which one or more layers are laid. Each layer is produced in a separate operation. If there are several layers, the number of wires increases by six for each layer. The designation for a Standard strand with e.g. seven wires is (6-1), i.e. one centre wire with six external wires in one operation. If there are 37 wires it is known as (18/12/6-1), i.e. one centre wire with six external wires from the first operation, 12 from the second operation and 18 from the third operation. The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a fibre core (fig. 4). Seale The Seale construction (fig. 5) is characteri- sed by the way in which the strand consists of two layers of wire produced in one opera- tion. Also, the number of wires in the first and second layer is identical.This construc- tion is somewhat stiffer than a correspon- ding Standard construction (with the same number of wires). This is because the outer wires in the Seale construction are conside- rably thicker. Dugttype (dugtdesign) Dugttypen er karakteriseret ved, hvordan trådene i dugten er arran- geret. Der findes fire grundtyper af dugtdesign: ∙ Standard. ∙ Seale. ∙ Filler. ∙ Warrington. Disse indgår i alle ståltove, enten rene eller i kombinationer af to eller flere typer. Standard Standard konstruktionen (fig. 3) er kendetegnet ved, at alle tråde er lige tykke, dog kan hjertetråden være tykkere. Desuden er trådene slået således sammen, at alle - med undtagelse af centertråden er lige lange. Herved belastes alle trådene ligeligt under lige træk. Den geometriske trådfordeling er én centertråd, hvorpå der lægges ét eller flere lag. Hvert lag fremstilles i hver sin opera- tion. Antallet af tråde sti- ger med 6 for hvert lag. Betegnelsen for en Standard dugt med f.eks. 7 tråde er (6-1), dvs. 1 centertråd med 6 tråde udenom i én operation. Ved 37 tråde er betegnelsen (18/12/6-1), dvs. 1 centertråd med 6 tråde uden om som første operation, 12 tråde lægges herefter uden på i anden operation og 18 tråde i tredje operation. Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde eller et fiberhjer- te (fig. 4). Seale Seale konstruktionen (fig. 5) er kendetegnet ved, at dugten består af to trådlag fremstillet i én operation. Desuden er antallet af tråde i første og andet lag ens. Denne konstruktion er noget stivere end en tilsvarende Standard konstruktion (med samme trådantal). Dette skyldes, at ydertrå- dene i Seale konstruktionen er væsentlig tykkere. Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 3 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-4 10 A Seale strand with e.g. 19 wires is known as (9-9-1), i.e. one centre wire with nine wires in the first layer and nine wires in the second layer. The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a fibre core (fig. 6). Filler The Filler construction (fig. 7) is characterised by a strand consisting of two layers of wires produced in one operation. Also, the number of wires in the second layer is twice the num- ber in the first layer. This is, however, only possible if filler wires are inserted between the first and the second layers, to prevent the strand becoming hexagonal in shape. This construction is more flexible than a corresponding Standard construction and consi- derably more flexible than a corresponding Seale construction (with the same number of wires excluding filler wires). A Filler strand with e.g. 25 wires (including 6 filler wires) is known as (12-6F-6-1), i.e. one centre wire with six wires in the first layer and 12 wires in the second layer. There are six filler wires between the first and the second layers. The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a fibre core (fig. 8). Warrington The Warrington construction (fig. 9) is characterised by a strand consisting of two layers of wire produced in one operation. The second (outer) layer contains wires of two dimensions, and the number of wires in the second layer is twice the number in the first. This construction is very compact and flexible. A Warrington strand with e.g. 19 wires is known as (6+6-6-1), i.e. one centre wire with six wires in the first layer and a total of 12 wires of two dimensions in the second layer. The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a fibre core (fig. 10). Betegnelsen for en Seale dugt med f.eks. 19 tråde er (9-9-1) dvs. 1 centertråd med 9 tråde i første og 9 tråde i andet lag. Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde (fig. 6) eller et fiberhjerte. Filler Filler konstruktionen (fig. 7) er kendetegnet ved, at dugten består af to trådlag fremstillet i én operation. Desuden er antallet af tråde i andet lag dobbelt så stort som første lag. Dette er dog kun muligt, når der indlægges fyldtråde mellem første og andet lag for at forhindre, at dugten bliver kantet. Denne konstruktion er mere bøjelig end en tilsvarende Standard konstruktion og væsentligt mere bøjelig end en tilsvarende Seale kon- struktion (med samme trå- dantal ekskl. fyldtråde). Betegnelsen for en Filler dugt med f.eks. 25 tråde (inkl. 6 fyldtråde) er (12-6+6F-1), dvs. 1 centertråd med 6 tråde i første lag og 12 tråde i andet lag. Mellem første og andet lag ligger 6 fyldtråde. Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde (fig. 8) eller et fiberhjerte. Warrington Warrington konstruktionen (fig. 9) er kendetegnet ved, at dugten består af to trådlag fremstillet i én operation. I andet lag (yderlag) indgår to forskellige tråddimen- sioner, og antallet af tråde i andet lag er dobbelt så stort som det første. Denne konstruktion er meget kompakt og bøjelig. Betegnelsen for en Warrington dugt med f.eks. 19 tråde er (6+6-6-1), dvs. 1 centertråd med 6 tråde i første lag og i alt 12 tråde fordelt på to tråddimensioner i andet lag. Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde (fig. 10) eller et fiberhjerte. 5+5-5-1 Warrington 6+6-6-1 Warrington 7+7-7-1 Warrington Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 4 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-5 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Other Types of Strand As previously mentioned, there are also strands that are a combina- tion of one or more of the above four basic types of strand. One of these is the Warrington-Seale (fig. 11). This construction is one of the most widely-used and most flexible construc- tions compared to the four basic types. The Warrington-Seale construction is characterised by a strand consisting of three layers of wire produced in one operation. The number of wires in the third (outer) layer matches the number of wires in the second layer. Also, the layers below the outer layer are built as a Warrington construction. A Warrington-Seale strand with e.g. 36 wires is known as (14-7+7-7-1), i.e. one centre wire with seven wires in the first layer, 14 wires made up of two dimen- sions in the second layer, and 14 wires in the third layer. The strands and the wires in the strands do not necessarily have to be round. Examples of this are shown in fig. 12. The strands are special strands (i.a. with profiled wire), designed to meet extremely unusual requirements. Number of Strands The number of strands in a steel wire rope varies between three and approx. 36, although most commonly there are six strands. The more strands a steel wire rope contains, the more rounded and flexible it is, although the wires in the strand are also thinner (less durable). Types of Core As mentioned in section 1: "Core", there are two types of core for steel wire ropes: ∙ Fibre core (natural or man-made). ∙ Steel core (WSC or IWRC). Fibre Core Fibre cores are the most commonly used, as not only do they provi- de a good, elastic base but also enable lubrication of the rope from the inside, since it is possible to add oil and/or grease to the fibre core during production. Andre dugttyper Som tidligere nævnt findes der også dugter, der er en kombination af én eller flere af ovenstående fire dugtgrundtyper. En af disse er Warrington Seale (fig. 11). Denne konstruktion er opbygget som en Warrington med et lag mere og hører til en af de mest udbredte. Desuden er den mest bøjelige kon- struktion i sammenligning med de fire grundtyper. Warrington Seale konstruktionen er kendetegnet ved, at dugten består af tre trådlag fremstillet i én opera- tion. Antallet af tråde i tredje lag (yderlag) svarer til antallet af tråde i andet lag. Betegnelsen for en Warrington Seale dugt med f.eks. 36 tråde er (14-7+7-7-1), dvs. 1 centertråd med 7 tråde i første lag, 14 tråde fordelt på to tråddimensioner i andet lag og 14 tråde i tredje lag. Dugten samt dugtens tråde behøver ikke nødvendigvis at være runde. Eksempler på dette ses af fig. 12. Dugterne er special- dugter (bl.a. med profiltråde) konstrueret til at opfylde helt spe- cielle krav. Antal dugter Antallet af dugter i et ståltov varie- rer fra 3 til ca. 36, mest almindeligt er 6 dugter. Desto flere dugter et ståltov indeholder, desto rundere og mere fleksibelt bliver ståltovet (mindre slidstyrke). Hjertetype Som nævnt i afsnittet "Hjerte" findes der to typer hjerter til ståltove: ∙ Fiberhjerte (natur- eller kunstfiber). ∙ Stålhjerte (WSC eller IWRC). Fiberhjerte Fiberhjerte er det mest anvendte, da det udover at give dugterne et godt fjedrende underlag også muliggør smøring af ståltovet indefra, idet der under fremstillingen af fiberhjertet kan tilsættes olie og/eller fedt. Desuden reduceres risikoen for rustangreb indefra. Triangular strand Strand constructed of wires including profiled wire Strand constructed of profiled wire Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig.10 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 5 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-6 10 This reduces the risk of rust attacking from the inside. The fibre core is normally produced from polypropylene (PP) or sisal. PP can withstand weaker acids and alkalis and it does not rot. The advantage of a sisal core is that it can absorb oil/grease to a greater degree for lubrication of the steel wire rope from the inside. The maximum operating temperatures for steel wire ropes with a fibre core can be seen in section 9: "Maximum Operating Temperature" and " Minimum Operating Temperature". Steel Core A steel core is formed as either one of the strands (WSC) or as an independent steel wire rope (IWRC). Randers Reb recommends the use of a steel core, in the event that it is not certain that a fibre core will provide satisfactory support for the strands, e.g. if the steel wire rope is spooled on to a drum in several layers under a considerable load, or at high temperatures. A steel core increases the steel wire rope's tensile strength by approx. 10%. Lay Directions (Steel Wire Rope and Strand) The word "lay" has more than one mea- ning in this context. It is used to describe the process of interweaving the wires and strands and also to describe the appearance of the finished steel wire rope. The four most common terms to describe the lay of a steel wire rope are: Right hand regular lay steel wire rope. In this instance the wires in the strand are laid in the opposite direction to the strands in the rope. The wires are laid helically left, while the strands are laid helically right (see fig. 13). Left hand regular lay steel wire rope. Here the wires in the strand are laid heli- cally right, and the strands helically left (see fig. 14). Right hand Lang lay steel wire rope. Here the wires are laid in the same direction as the strands in the rope. The wires in the strands and the strands are laid helically right (see fig. 15). Fiberhjertet fremstilles normalt af Polypropylen (PP) eller Sisal. PP kan modstå svage syrer og alkalier, og det rådner ikke. Fordelen ved et sisalhjerte er, at det i større grad kan optage olie/fedt for smøring af ståltovet indefra, og at ståltovet kan anvendes ved en højere tem- peratur i forhold til PP-hjerte. Anvendelsestemperatur for ståltove med fiberhjerte ses af afsnittet "Ståltovets anvendelsestemperatur". Stålhjerte Et stålhjerte er udformet enten som en af dugterne (WSC) eller som et selvstændigt ståltov (IWRC). Randers Reb anbefaler at anvende stålhjerte, hvis det ikke er sikkert, at et fiberhjerte giver dugterne en tilfredsstillende understøtning, f.eks. hvis ståltovet opspoles på en tromle i flere lag under stor belastning eller ved høje temperaturer. Et stålhjerte forøger ståltovets brudstyrke med ca. 10%. Slåningsretninger (ståltov og dugt) Ordet slåning bruges i flere betydninger. Dels om selve processen, der snor tråde og dugter om hinanden, dels for at beskrive det færdi- ge ståltovs udseende. De fire mest almindelige betegnelser for ståltoves slåninger er: Højre krydsslået ståltov. Her er trådene i dugterne slået modsat retningen af dugterne i tovet. Trådene ligger venstre i dugterne, mens dugterne ligger i en højreskrue i ståltovet (se fig. 13). Venstre krydsslået ståltov. Trådene lig- ger højre i dugterne, mens dugterne ligger i en venstreskrue i ståltovet (se fig. 14). Højre Lang's Patent ståltov. Her er trå- dene i dugterne slået i samme retning som dugterne i tovet. Trådene i dug- terne samt dugterne ligger i en højres- krue (se fig. 15). Right hand regular lay steel wire rope Right hand Lang lay steel wire rope Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Left hand regular lay steel wire rope Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 6 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-7 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Left hand Lang lay steel wire rope. The wires in the strands and the strands are laid helically left (see fig. 16). Other terms used are e.g.: ∙ Multi layer steel wire rope (low rotation/rotation resistant). Here there are usually two layers of strands, the inner layer as a rule a left hand Lang lay, while the outer layer is a right hand regular lay. ∙ Alternate lay steel wire rope. This steel wire rope is a combination of regular lay and Lang lay. ∙ Cable laid steel wire rope. The strands are normally 6-lay steel wire rope with a fibre or steel core. The core is a fibre core or a 6-lay steel wire rope with a fibre or steel core. ∙ Square braided steel wire rope. The steel wire rope is square brai ded from strands or steel wire ropes. ∙ Flat braided steel wire rope. This steel wire rope is flat braided from strands or consists of parallel strands or steel wire ropes that are bound together by sewing (belt strap). Right hand lay steel wire rope is also known as Z-lay, and left hand as S-lay. Similarly, a right hand lay strand is known as Z-lay and left hand as S-lay. Fig. 17 shows why. Of the types of lay described, right hand regular lay is the most common. Pre-Forming "Pre-formed" refers to steel wire ropes in which the strands have been permanently formed during the laying process (see fig. 18), so that they are completely stress-free within the unloaded steel wire rope. If a strand is removed from the steel wire rope, it will retain its helical shape, as though it were still in the steel wire rope. There are many advantages in a pre-formed steel wire rope, such as: ∙ The steel wire rope will not untwist during cutting. ∙ It is easier to install, as pre-formed steel wire ropes are stress-free. No tendency to form kinks. ∙ It can run over smaller sheaves. ∙ Less tendency to turn on its own axis. Less wear and tear. ∙ Better load distribution between strands and wires. ∙ In the event of a wire breaking, less tendency to protrude from the strand. Less tendency to damage adjacent wires and sheaves. All in all, pre-formed steel wire ropes can offer a longer life expectan- cy than steel wire ropes that are not pre-formed. Venstre Lang's Patent ståltov. Trådene i dugterne samt dugterne lig- ger i en venstreskrue (se fig. 16). Andre benævnelser er f.eks.: ∙ Spiralslået ståltov (snoningssvagt/-frit ståltov). ∙ Sildebensslået ståltov. Dette ståltov er en kombination af krydsslået og Lang's Patent. ∙ Kabelslået ståltov. Dugterne er normalt 6-slåede ståltove med fiber- eller stålhjerte. Hjertet kan enten være et fiberhjerte eller et 6-slået ståltov med fiber- eller stålhjerte. ∙ Krydsflettet ståltov. ∙ Fladflettet ståltov. Dette ståltov er fladflettet af dugter eller af paral lelle dugter/ståltove, der er sammenholdt ved syning (bæltestrop). Højre slået ståltov kaldes også Z-slået og venstre slået S-slået. Tilsvarende kaldes en højreslået dugt z-slået og venstre slået s- slået. Fig. 17 viser hvorfor. Af de nævnte slåninger er højre krydsslået (sZ) den mest almindelige. Formlægning I formlagte ståltove har dugterne ved slåningen fået en blivende formændring (se fig. 18), således at de ligger fuldstændig spændingsfrie i det ubelastede ståltov. Hvis man tager en dugt ud af ståltovet, vil dugten bevare sin skrueliniefacon, som den havde, da den lå i ståltovet. Fordelene ved et formlagt ståltov er mangfoldige. Bl.a.: ∙ Ved kapning springer ståltovet ikke op. ∙ Lettere at installere, da formlagte ståltove er spæn dingsfrie (døde) - herved ingen tendens til kinke- dannelse. ∙ Kan løbe over mindre skiver. ∙ Mindre tilbøjelighed til at dreje omkring sin egen akse - herved mindre slid. ∙ Bedre fordeling af belastningen mellem dugter og tråde. ∙ Ved trådbrud har trådene mindre tilbøjelighed til at rejse sig fra dugten - herved mindre tilbøjelighed til at ødelægge nabotråde og skiver. Alt i alt opnår man en længere levetid med formlagte ståltove i forhold til ikke formlagte ståltove. Venstre Lang's Patent ståltov Left hand Lang lay steel wire rope Z-lay and S-lay steel wire ropes Pre-forming Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 7 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-8 10 All Randers Reb steel wire ropes are supplied pre-formed, with the exception of certain individual special constructions (e.g. low-rota- tion/rotation resistant). 3. SPECIAL STEEL WIRE ROPES As has previously been mentioned, there are many types of con- struction/design of steel wire ropes, which is why it is also possible to design a steel wire rope that meets the particular requirements for a given application. Randers Reb has specialised in the development of special steel wire ropes that can meet such special requirements. Get in touch with us and find out how we can help solve your problems. Through the years Randers Reb has produced/developed many spe- cial steel wire ropes. Some of these special steel wire ropes are now part of our standard product range. ∙ Compacted steel wire rope. ∙ Cable lay steel wire rope. ∙ Low rotation and rotation resistant steel wire rope. ∙ Coated steel wire rope. ∙ Combination rope. ∙ Sisal/Danline clad wire rope. ∙ Cobra. Compacted Steel Wire Rope In compacted steel wire ropes the strand's dimensions are reduced (compacted) before the actual laying of the steel wire rope. There are different ways of reducing the dimension of a strand: ∙ By drawing between rollers (compacting). ∙ By drawing between dies (Dyform). ∙ By beating (hammering). In individual cases the compacting process is only carried out after the steel wire rope has been laid. In this instance only the outer part of the steel wire rope is compacted (fig. 19). The various methods do not all produce the same level of quality. In the opinion of Randers Reb, the best quality is achieved by drawing the strands between rollers, after which the laying process is carried out. Compacted steel wire ropes have greater abrasion resistance and tensile strength than corresponding non-compacted steel wire ropes. Cable Laid Steel Wire Rope In a cable laid steel wire rope the strands consist of a 6-lay steel wire rope with WSC (e.g. 6x7 + WSC or 6x19 + WSC). The core in the cable laid steel wire rope can be either FC or IWRC. Alle Randers Reb ståltove leveres formlagte som standard - på nær nogle enkelte specialkonstruktioner (f.eks. rotationssvage/-frie tove). 3. SPECIELLE STÅLTOVE Som det fremgår af det forudgående er opbygningen/designet af ståltove mangfoldig, hvorfor det er muligt at designe et ståltov, der opfylder specielle krav til anvendelsen. Randers Reb er specialist i at udvikle specielle ståltove, der opfylder netop dine specielle krav. Kontakt os og forhør om mulighederne. Gennem tiderne har Randers Reb fremstillet/udviklet mange speciel- le ståltove. Nogle af disse ståltove har vi optaget i vores standard program. ∙ Compacted ståltov. ∙ Kabelslået ståltov. ∙ Rotationssvage/-frie ståltov. ∙ Forhudet ståltov. ∙ Taifun. ∙ Bloktov. ∙ Ormtov. Compacted ståltov Før slåningen af selve ståltovet bliver dugternes dimension reduceret (compacted), se fig. 19. Der findes forskellige metoder til at reduce- re dugtens dimension: ∙ Trække gennem ruller (Compacting). ∙ Trække gennem dyser (Dyform). ∙ Hamre (Hammering). I enkelte tilfælde udføres compacteringen først, når ståltovet er slået. Herved bliver kun den yder- ste del af ståltovet compacted. De forskellige metoder giver ikke helt samme kvalitet. Den proces der efter Randers Reb's mening giver den bedste kvalitet er trækning af dugter gennem ruller (compacting), hvorefter slåningen af ståltovet foretages. Compactede ståltove har større slid- og brudstyrke i forhold til ikke compactede ståltove i samme dimension. Kabelslået ståltov I et kabelslået ståltov består dugterne af et 6-slået ståltov med WSC (f.eks. 6x7 + WSC eller 6x19 + WSC). Hjertet i det kabelslåede stål- tov kan enten være FC eller IWRC (se fig. 20). Det samlede antal tråde i en 6x(6x19 + WSC) + IWRC er 931 tråde. De mange tråde bevirker, at ståltovet er utroligt smidigt/fleksibelt og gør det meget velegnet til stropper. Compacted steel wire rope with fibre core Fig. 19 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 8 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-9 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 A 6x(6x19 + WSC) + IWRC contains a total of 931 wires. The high number of wires has the effect of making the steel wire rope incredibly pliable/flexible and thus ideal for slings. Low-Rotation and Rotation-Resistant Steel Wire Rope A low-rotation or rotation-resistant steel wire rope is a special steel wire rope designed not to turn or rotate when bearing a load. There are two types of low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes available: ∙ One layer of strands. There are three or four strands. The steel wire rope has either no core or a fibre core. ∙ Spiral lay, i.e. two or more layers of strands. The number of outer strands is normally between eight and 20. The core may be either fibre or steel. These steel wire ropes are normally used in single-strand units, or in multi-strand units for heavy loads and/or significant lifting heights. The special design results in limited applications for this type of rope and imposes special handling requirements, such as: ∙ Larger sheaves than for normal steel wire ropes. ∙ Less surface pressure. ∙ Optimal grooves in sheaves. ∙ Small fleet angle on winch. ∙ Preferably one layer on the drum. ∙ Use of swivels is often necessary. ∙ Increased safety factor. ∙ The steel wire ropes are normally not pre-formed. Consequently the wire rope has to be seized before cutting (alternatively welded ends) to avoid the steel wire rope unwinding (destroying the balan- ce in the rope). Rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov Ved et rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov forstås et specielt ståltov, der er designet til ikke at dreje op eller rotere, når det belastes (se fig. 21 og 22). Der leveres to typer af rotationssvage/-frie ståltove: ∙ Ståltove med ét lag dugter. Antallet af dugter er normalt tre. Ståltovet er uden hjerte eller med et fiberhjerte. ∙ Ståltove med to eller flere lag dugter (spiralslået). Antallet af yder dugter er normalt mellem 8 og 20. Hjertet kan være af fiber eller stål. Disse ståltove anvendes normalt i enstrengede anlæg eller som fler- strenget ved tunge byrder og/eller store løftehøjder. Det specielle design gør, at anvendelsesmulighederne for tovene er begrænsede. Desuden kræves specielle håndteringskrav f.eks.: ∙ Større skiver end ved normale ståltove. ∙ Mindre fladetryk. ∙ Optimale spor i skiver. ∙ Lille indløbsvinkel på spil. ∙ Helst ét lag på spiltromlen. ∙ Anvendelse af svirvler ofte nødvendigt. ∙ Større sikkerhedsfaktor. ∙ Ståltovene er normalt ikke formlagte, hvorfor disse skal brændes over (tilspidses) eller takles før overskæring for at undgå, at stålto- vet springer op og ødelægger balancen i ståltovet. ∙ Under installationen skal man være meget opmærksom på, at der ikke tilføres ståltovet spændinger, f.eks. hvis tovet drejes/twistes. Cable laid steel wire rope Examples of low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes Examples of rotation in ordinary steel wire rope and in low-rota- tion and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 20 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 9 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-10 10 ∙ During installation great care must be taken not to subject the steel wire rope to tension, e.g. caused by turning/twisting. If you are in any doubt as to the use of low-rotation and rotation- resistant steel wire ropes, please contact your local salesman or our Technical Department. Coated Steel Wire Rope A coated steel wire rope is one that has been coated with a plastic material such as PP, PE, PVC or PA, depending on its intended application (fig. 23). The coating protects the steel wire rope against rust and wear and tear. Other advantages are e.g. that its life expectancy when running over the sheaves is increased significantly. Furthermore, any wires that might break will not cause damage to objects in the proximity of the steel wire rope. Combination Rope Taifun is Randers Reb's trade name for a special combination rope, in which the steel strands are wrapped up in fibre threads. Combination rope is produced with FC or IWRC. Combination rope combines the properties of fibre ropes and steel wire ropes: The strength and minimal elongation of the steel wire rope, and the "soft" surfa- ce and flexibility of the fibre rope. Combination rope is used primarily for strengthening fishing nets, but may also be used for swings, clim- bing ropes and for applications in industry/farming that require particularly durable ropes. Sisal/Danline clad wire rope Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is a special steel wire rope in which the steel strands are wrapped in a combination of fibre threads (Danline) and sisal thre- ads. Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is produced primari- ly with FC, but can also be produced with IWRC. The sisal threads expand when wet, causing the Sisal/Danline clad wire rope to have increased ability to secure objects/materials that are tied to the rope. In other respects the Sisal/Danline clad wire rope has the same properties as the combination rope. The Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is used to streng- then fishing nets. Cobra Cobra is Randers Reb's trade name for a special spring lay wire rope in which the strands are 6-lay rope with FC. Three of the strands are steel, and the other three strands are fibre rope. Cobra is produced Hvis du er i tvivl om anvendelsen af rotationssvage/-frie ståltov, så kontakt din konsulent eller vores tekniske afdeling. Forhudet ståltov Ved et forhudet ståltov forstås et ståltov, der er belagt (coated) med et plastmateriale f.eks. PP, PE, PVC eller PA alt efter anvendel- sesområde (se fig. 23). Forhudningen beskytter ståltovet mod rust og slid. Andre fordele er f.eks., at levetiden ved kørsel over ski- ver forlænges væsentligt. Desuden vil eventuelle tråd- brud ikke ødelægge ting, som ståltovet kommer i nær- heden af. Taifun Taifun er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et spe- cielt ståltov, hvor ståldugterne er omviklet med fibergar- ner (se fig. 24). Taifuner fremstilles med FC eller IWRC. Taifuner forener egenskaber fra fibertove og ståltov: Styrke og lille forlængelse fra ståltovet, "blød" overflade og fleksibilitet fra fibertovet. Taifunen anvendes primært som forstærkning i fiskenet, men kan også anvendes til gyngetove, klatrenet og hvor der i industri eller landbrug bl.a. stilles specielle krav til slidstyrken. Taifuner fremstilles normalt som et 6-slået tov, men kan også laves med 3, 4 eller 8 dugter. Bloktov Bloktov er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et specielt ståltov, hvor ståldugterne er omviklet dels med fibergarner (Danline), dels med sisalgarner. Bloktovet fremstilles primært med FC (se fig. 25), men kan også fremstilles med IWRC. Sisalgarnerne udvider sig, når de bliver våde, hvorved Bloktovet i større grad kan fastholde ting/emner, der er bundet til tovet. Ellers har Bloktovet samme egenskaber som Taifunen. Bloktove anvendes som forstærkning i fiskenet. Bloktove fremstilles normalt som et 6-slået tov, men kan også laves med 3, 4 eller 8 dugter. Ormtov Ormtov er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et spe- cielt kabelslået ståltov, hvor dugterne er et 6-slået tov med FC. Tre af dugterne er af stål og de resterende tre dugter er af fiber. Ormtovet fremstilles primært med FC (se fig. 26), men kan også fremstilles med IWRC. Coated Steel Wire Rope Combination rope with FC Sisal/Danline clad wire rope Cobra Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 10 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-11 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 primarily with FC, but can also be produced with IWRC. The special construction of the strands means that the rope has a gre- ater tensile elongation than standard steel wire ropes and combination rope, which makes Cobra ideal as a mooring rope on a tug boat. 4. USE OF STEEL WIRE ROPE Den specielle opbygning af dugterne gør, at tovet har en noget stør- re brudforlængelse end almindelige ståltove og Taifuner, hvilket gør Ormtovet velegnet som træktove på slæbebåde. 4. EKSEMPLER PÅ ANVENDELSE AF STÅLTOVE Fig. 27 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 11 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-12 10 5. SELECTING THE RIGHT STEEL WIRE ROPE In selecting the right steel wire rope, the properties of the various types of steel wire rope must be considered, e.g.: ∙ Tensile strength. ∙ Abrasion resistance ∙ Bending fatique resistance ∙ Corrosion resistance. ∙ Elongation. ∙ Rotation resistance. ∙ Crushing resistance. ∙ Vibration resistance. ∙ Pulsation resistance. ∙ Regular lay or Lang lay. In selecting the right steel wire rope, it is important to determine how important the various properties are in relation to the application and then to assign priorities to these. It is also important to be aware of the relevant standards and regulations. If you are in any doubt, plea- se contact our sales consultants or our Technical Department. Tensile Strength The tensile strength of the steel wire rope depends on the rope's dimensions, the tensile strength of the wires and the construction. The minimum guaranteed tensile strength for the different kinds of rope is shown in the Randers Reb product catalogue. A steel wire rope should never be subjected to a load exceeding 50% of its breaking load. The design of the steel wire rope does not significantly affect the ten- sile strength (up to approx. 5%). A change of core from fibre to steel makes slightly more difference (approx. 10%). The greatest change is achieved by changing the dimensions or the tensile strength of the wires (see also fig. 28). It is often required that the steel wire rope must have a specific SWL value (Safe Working Load), also known as a WLL value (Working Load Limit). This means the steel wire rope's tensile strength divided by the safety factor required for the relevant application. NB: There are a number of national and international norms and standards that define the minimum requirements for the safety factor. 5. VALG AF DET RETTE STÅLTOV Ved valget af det rette ståltov til et givent formål skal der tages hen- syn til de forskellige ståltoves egenskaber, som f.eks.: ∙ Brudstyrke. ∙ Slidstyrke. ∙ Fleksibilitet/bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke. ∙ Korrosionsmodstand. ∙ Forlængelse. ∙ Rotationsmodstand. ∙ Knusningsmodstand. ∙ Vibrationsudmattelsesstyrke. ∙ Pulsationsudmattelsesstyrke. ∙ Krydsslået eller Lang's Patent. Ved udvælgelsen af det rette ståltov er det vigtigt at fastlægge, hvor vigtige de forskellige egenskaber er for anvendelsen og derefter få dem prioriteret. Desuden er det også vigtigt, at man er opmærksom på relevante standarder og regulativer. Hvis du er i tvivl, så kontakt din konsulent eller vores tekniske afdeling. Brudstyrke Brudstyrken på ståltovet afhænger af tovets dimension, trådbrudstyr- ke og konstruktion. Minimum garanteret brudstyrke for de forskellige tovtyper er angivet på vores datablade. Belast aldrig et ståltov til mere end 50% af brudstyrken. Selve designet af dugterne påvirker ikke brudstyrken væsentligt (max. ca. 5%). En ændring af hjertetypen fra fiber til stål giver lidt større ændring (ca. 10%). Den største ændring fås ved at ændre dimension eller trådbrudstyrke (se også fig. 28). Ståltove må kun belastes til en given SWL-værdi (Safe Working Load), også kaldet WLL-værdi (Working Load Limit). Hermed forstås ståltovets brudstyrke divideret med den for anvendelsen krævede sikkerhedsfaktor (se tabel 1). Til mange formål er der udarbejdet nationale og internationale normer og standarder, der fastsætter minimumskravet til sikkerhedsfaktoren. Forskellige sikkerhedsfaktorer De angivne faktorer er kun vejledende Table 1 Various safety factors. NB: These factors are only intended as guidelines Tabel 1 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 12 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-13 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Abrasion resistance Steel wire ropes with thick outer wires (e.g. 6x7 Standard or 6x19 Seale) provide good abrasion resistance. Lang lay ropes provide bet- ter abrasion resistance than regular lay steel wire ropes (see also fig. 27). Abrasion resistance can also be increased by using wires with greater tensile strength. Bending fatique resistance The greater the number of wires in the strand, the greater the ben- ding fatique resistance and flexibility. Lang lay ropes provide better bending fatique resistance than regular lay steel wire ropes. Bending fatique resistance can also be increased by using pre-formed steel wire ropes (see also fig. 28). Corrosion Resistance Galvanised and rustproof wires provide excellent protection against corrosion. Lubrication with special types of grease or oil will also increase resistance to corrosion. If the steel wire rope is subjected to significant corrosive influences, it is recommended that strands with thick outer wires are used. Elongation Steel wire ropes with fewer wires (e.g. 1x7 Standard and 1x19 Standard) are subject to the least elongation (have the greatest elas- ticity modulus). This type of steel wire rope is ideally suited for guy ropes, but is not suitable to be run over sheaves/blocks. If only a small degree of elongation when running over sheaves is required, 6x7 or 6x19 steel wire rope should be used, in each case with a steel core or with certain special constructions. For larger dimen- sions, 6x36 steel wire rope with a steel core can also be used. Rotation Resistance Standard 6-lay and 8-lay steel wire ropes will rotate when they hang free and carry a load. Regular lay steel wire rope provides greater resistance to rotation than lang lay steel wire rope. A steel wire rope with a steel core rotates less than a steel wire rope with a fibre core. The type of rope that provides greatest resistance to rotation is, as the name suggests, low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire rope (special constructions, see also section 3:"Low-Rotation and Rotation-Resistant Steel Wire Rope"). Crushing resistance A steel core provides better support for the strands than a fibre core, which is why the risk of flattening is less in a steel wire rope with a steel core. Strands with fewer, thicker wires have greater resistance to flattening/crushing. Also, a 6-lay steel wire rope has greater crus- hing resistance than an 8-lay rope (see also fig. 28). Vibration resistance Vibrations, from wherever they might come, send shock waves through the steel wire rope, which will be absorbed by the steel wire rope at some point, and in some cases they may cause localised destruction of the steel wire rope (not necessarily on the outside). Slidstyrke Ståltove med tykke ydertråde (f.eks. 6x7 Standard eller 6x19 Seale) giver en god slidstyrke. Lang's Patent tove giver bedre slidstyrke end krydsslåede ståltove (se også fig. 28). Desuden kan slidstyrken øges ved at anvende større trådbrudstyrke. Bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke Desto flere tråde der er i dugten, desto større bliver bøjningsudmat- telsesstyrken og fleksibiliteten. Lang's Patent tove giver bedre bøj- ningsudmattelsesstyrke end krydsslåede ståltove. Desuden kan bøj- ningsudmattelsesstyrken øges ved at anvende formlagte ståltove (se også fig. 28). Korrosionsmodstand Galvaniserede og rustfrie tråde giver en glimrende beskyttelse mod korrosion. Indfedtning med specielle fedt- eller olietyper vil også øge korrosionsmodstanden. Hvis ståltovet er udsat for kraftig korroderen- de påvirkning, anbefales det at anvende dugter med tykke ydertråde. Forlængelse Ståltove med få tråde (f.eks. 1x7 Standard og 1x19 Standard) for- længer sig mindst (har størst elasticitetsmodul). Denne type ståltov er velegnet til barduner, men egner sig ikke til at køre over skiver/blokke. Hvis der ønskes lille forlængelse samtidig med kørsel over skiver, bør ståltovsklasse 6x7 eller 6x19 (begge med stålhjerte) eller visse specialkonstruktioner anvendes. Ved større ståltovsdi- mensioner kan ståltovsklasse 6x36 med stålhjerte også anvendes (se også afsnittet "Ståltovsforlængelse"). Rotationsmodstand Almindelige 6- og 8-slåede ståltove vil dreje op, når de hænger frit under belastning. Krydsslåede ståltove giver mere modstand mod opdrejning end Lang's Patent ståltove. Et ståltov med stålhjerte drej- er mindre end et ståltov med fiberhjerte. Den type ståltove, der har størst modstand mod opdrejning, er rotationsfrie/-svage ståltove (specialkonstruktioner, se også afsnittet "Rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov). Knusningsmodstand Et stålhjerte giver bedre understøtning til dugterne end et fiberhjerte, hvorfor risikoen for fladtrykning er mindre på et ståltov med stålhjer- te. Dugter med tykke og få tråde har større modstand mod flad- trykning/knusning. Desuden har et 6-slået ståltov større knusnings- modstand end et 8-slået (se også fig. 27). Vibrationsudmattelsesstyrke Vibrationer, hvor end de kommer fra, sender chokbølger gennem og absorberes af ståltovet, hvorved der er mulighed for lokalt at øde- lægge ståltovet (ikke nødvendigvis udvendigt på ståltovet). Der er her tale om steder, hvor f.eks. ståltovet har kontakt med en skive/blok eller går ind på spiltromlen eller ved fastgørelsen. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 13 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-14 10 This may, for example, be at places where the steel wire rope comes into contact with a sheaf/block, or enters the drum, and by the end terminals. In general, those steel wire ropes with the greatest flexibility also have the greatest vibration resistance. Pulsation resistance Changes in the tension of a steel wire rope, depending on the size and frequency, will reduce the rope's life expectancy. In general, steel wire ropes with the greatest flexibility can cope bet- ter with intermittent loading. Great care should be taken in the use of end terminals or fittings, as their pulsation resistance is equally as important as the selection of the right steel wire rope. Regular Lay or Lang Lay Lang lay steel wire ropes are the ones most suited to running over sheaves and are the most durable, but if they are to be used, three things must be observed: - Lang lay steel wire ropes must be secured at both ends, otherwise the rope will rotate. The steel wire rope has no resistance to rotation. ∙ Lang lay steel wire ropes may only be reeled on to the drum in a single layer, as they can easily destroy themselves. ∙ Lang lay steel wire ropes may not run over small sheaves, as the construction will become unbalanced. Generelt har ståltove med størst fleksibilitet også størst vibrationud- mattelsesstyrke. Pulsationsudmattelsesstyrke Vekslende træk i et ståltov vil nedsætte levetiden på ståltovet, dog afhængigt af kraften og frekvensen. Generelt kan ståltove med størst fleksibilitet bedre optage den pulse- rende belastning. Man bør være meget opmærksom på, hvilke ende- terminaler eller fittings der anvendes, idet disses pulsationsudmattel- sesstyrke er lige så vigtige som valget af det rette ståltov. Forskellige ståltovs slidstyrke, knusningsmodstandsevne, brudstyrke, bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke Krydsslået eller Lang's Patent Lang's Patent ståltove er den ståltovstype, der bedst kan tåle at køre over skiver samt har den bedste slidstyrke. Men for at kunne anven- de et Lang's Patent ståltov kræves tre ting: ∙ Ståltovet skal være låst i begge ender, da det ellers vil dreje op. Ståltovet har næsten ingen modstand mod opdrejning. ∙ Ståltovet må kun køre op i ét lag på spiltromlen, da det ellers let ødelægger sig selv. ∙ Ståltovet må ikke køre over små skiver, da konstruktionen herved kommer i ubalance. Abrasion resistance, crushing resistance, tensile strength and bending fatique resistance of various steel wire ropes Wear marks on a regular lay (on the left) and a Lang lay (on the right) steel wire rope respectively Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 14 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-15 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 The reason for Lang lay steel wire ropes' excellent qualities of abra- sion resistance and pliability is that the wires are affected/loaded in a different way and have a larger load-bearing surface than a regular lay steel wire rope (see fig. 29). Note that the largest wearing surface is on the Lang lay steel wire rope. 6. ORDERING STEEL WIRE ROPE When ordering steel wire rope, it is important to describe the steel wire rope as accurately as possible. A correct order should contain the following information: Description of steel wire rope: ∙ Diameter. ∙ Construction. ∙ Direction of lay. ∙ Type of lay. ∙ Core. ∙ Wire tensile strength. ∙ Surface protection of wire (galvanised/ungalvanised) ∙ Type of lubrication. ∙ Length. ∙ Quantity. ∙ Processing of steel wire rope ends (end fittings). ∙ Packaging (coil, crosses, reels, etc.). If you are in any doubt as to the type of steel wire rope to be used, please contact us and we will try to find the best solution. If the direction of lay and/or specific type of core is not agreed bet- ween the customer and Randers Reb, Randers Reb will supply a right hand regular lay steel wire rope with a core type that is stan- dard for Randers Reb. This will be indicated on the order confirma- tion form. 7. STEEL WIRE ROPE TOLERANCES Length Tolerances Up to 400 m:- 0 + 5% Over 400 m up to and including 1,000 m: - 0 + 20 m Over 1,000 m: - 0 + 2% For steel wire ropes requiring smaller length tolerances, agreement must be reached between the customer and Fyns Kran Udstyr. Lang's Patent ståltoves gode slid- og bøjeegenskaber skyldes, at trå- dene påvirkes/belastes anderledes og har en større bæreflade end krydsslåede ståltove (se fig. 29). Slidmærker på henholdsvis krydsslået (til venstre) og Lang's Patent (til højre) ståltov Den største slidflade er på Lang's Patent slået ståltov. 6. BESTILLING AF STÅLTOVE Ved bestilling af ståltove er det vigtigt at gøre beskrivelsen af stålto- vet så nøjagtig som mulig. En korrekt bestilling bør indeholde følgen- de: ∙ Diameter. ∙ Konstruktion. ∙ Slåningsretning. ∙ Slåningstype. ∙ Hjerte. ∙ Trådbrudstyrke og/eller ståltovets brudstyrke. ∙ Tråd overfladebeskyttelse (galvaniseret/ugalvaniseret). ∙ Indfedtningstype. ∙ Længde. ∙ Specielle tolerancekrav. ∙ Antal enheder. ∙ Bearbejdning af ståltovsenderne (endebefæstigelser). ∙ Emballage (kvejl, kryds, tromler mm.). Kontakt os, hvis du er i tvivl om, hvilken type ståltov der skal anven- des. Hvis slåningsretning og/eller specifik hjertetype ikke er aftalt mellem kunde og Randers Reb, leverer Randers Reb et kryds højreslået ståltov med en hjertetype, der er standard for Randers Reb. Typen vil fremgå af ordrebekræftelsen. 7. STÅLTOVSTOLERANCER Længdetolerancer Indtil 400 m:- 0 + 5%. Over 400 m og til og med 1.000 m:- 0 + 20 m. Over 1.000 m:- 0 + 2%. Hvor der kræves mindre længdetolerancer, skal dette specificeres i ordren. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 15 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-16 10 Dimension tolerances and ovalness NB: The above figures apply unless otherwise agreed between the customer and Fyns Kran udstyr, or otherwise specified on a data sheet. The values are based on a proposed EN standard. Randers Reb is currently working on adapting all steel wire ropes to conform to this proposal. Measurement of steel wire rope dimension and ovalness. (See sec- tion:"Inspection of Dimensions"). Weight Tolerances The weights mentioned in the catalogue are theoretical values. The weight tolerance is approx. ± 5%. 8. HANDLING, INSPECTION AND INSTALLATION Receiving, Inspection and Storage On receipt the product should be inspected to confirm that it corres- ponds to the one ordered. If the steel wire rope is not to be used immediately, it must be stored in a dry place. If it is to be stored for a longer period, it must be checked regularly to determine whether it requires lubrication (see also section: "Maintenance of Steel Wire Rope"). Inspection of Dimensions It is important that the steel wire rope's dimension is checked before installation, and that it is checked that the dimension matches the equipment with which the steel wire rope is to be used (see also sec- tion 7: "Dimension Tolerances and Ovalness"). Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet Ovenstående er gældende, hvis intet andet er aftalt mellem kunde og Fyns Kran Udstyr eller angivet på datablad. Værdierne er baseret på et forslag til EN-norm. Randers Reb arbejder i øjeblikket på at til- passe alle ståltove dette forslag. Måling af ståltovsdimension og ovalitet se afsnittet "Kontrol af dimen- sionen". Vægttolerancer De i katalogbladene angivne vægte er teoretiske værdier. Vægttolerancen er ca. +/- 5%. 8. HÅNDTERING OG INDKØRING Modtagelse, kontrol og opbevaring Ved modtagelsen kontrolleres om produktet svarer til det bestilte. Hvis ståltovet ikke skal anvendes med det samme, skal ståltovet opbevares tørt. Ved længere tids opbevaring skal man ind imellem kontrollere, om ståltovet skal eftersmøres (se også afsnittet "Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet"). Kontrol af dimensionen Inden installeringen skal dimensionen på ståltovet kontrolleres og dimensionen skal passe til det udstyr, som ståltovet skal anvendes i (se også afsnittet "Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet"). Korrekt måling af dimensionen (ISO 3178) foretages med skydelære, Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet på ståltove Dimension tolerances and ovalness of steel wire ropes Tabel 3 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 16 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-17 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Correct measurement of dimensions (ISO 3178) is undertaken with a calliper gauge equipped with a broad enough jaw to cover at least two strands (see fig. 31). The measurement is undertaken at two places at least one metre apart on a straight section without any load. At each place two measurements are made at 90° angles. The average of these four measu- rements defines the diameter of the steel wire rope. The degree of ovalness in the steel wire rope is the greatest difference between the four measurements, expres- sed as a percentage of the nominal dia- meter of the steel wire rope. Inspection of Guidance Equipment Before the steel wire rope is fitted, it is important to ensure that all parts that will come into contact with the steel wire rope are in good condition and match the steel wire rope, e.g.: ∙ Drum. ∙ Distance between drum and first sheaf or lead sheaf. ∙ Guide roll. ∙ Sheaves. If the equipment is not suitable, there is a significant risk that the steel wire rope will suffer unusually great wear and tear and will thus have a shorter life expectancy. Drum Check that the drum dimensions and possible rope grooves match the steel wire rope, and check the condition of the drum. Randers Reb recommends that correct rope grooves are as follows: B = diameter of groove = 1.06 x d A = elevation of groove = 1.08 x d C = depth of groove = 0.30 x d R = upper radius = approx. 0.15 x d where d = steel wire rope's nominal diameter If the rope grooves do not match the steel wire rope, the rope will suffer unusually high wear and tear, stresses will be introduced and the grooves will have to be repaired. Please note that norms and standards often impose special requirements in respect of drum diameters, etc. The steel wire rope's life expectancy depends to a great extent on the drum's dimensions, among other things. The lar- ger the drum, the longer the life expectancy (see also section 6: "Sheaves/Blocks"). der er forsynet med brede kæber, der skal dække over mindst to dugter (se fig. 31). Målingen foretages to steder med mindst en meters afstand på et lige stykke uden belastning. Hvert sted foretages to målinger 90° forskudt. Gennemsnittet af disse fire målinger angiver dia- meteren på ståltovet. Ståltovets ovalitet er største forskel mellem de fire målinger angivet som % af ståltovets nominelle diameter. Kontrol af føringsudstyr Inden ståltovet monteres, er det vigtigt at sikre sig, at alle dele, som ståltovet kommer i kontakt med, er i orden og passer til ståltovet. Ting som f.eks.: ∙ Spiltromle. ∙ Afstand mellem spiltromle og første skive/ledeskive. ∙ Styreruller. ∙ Skiver. Hvis udstyret ikke er i orden, er der stor risiko for, at ståltovet får et unormalt stort slid og derved en kort levetid. Spiltromle Undersøg om tromledimensionen og eventuelle tovriller passer til ståltovet samt standen af tromlen. Randers Reb anbefaler, at korrekte riller på tromlen skal have føl- gende udseende (se fig. 32): B = rillediameter = 1,06 x d. A = stigningen på rillesporet = 1,08 x d. C = rilledybden = 0,30 x d. R = topradius = ca. 0,15 x d. hvor d = ståltovets nominelle diameter. Hvis tovrillerne ikke passer til ståltovet, får ståltovet et unormalt stort slid og der tilføres spændinger. Vær opmærksom på, at der ofte stilles specielle krav til tromlediameter m.m. i normer og standar- der. Levetiden på ståltovet er bl.a. meget afhængig af dimensionen på tromlen. Desto større tromle, desto længere levetid (se også afsnittet "Skiver og blokke"). Korrekt udstyr og måling af ståltov Correct equipment and measurement of steel wire rope Rope grooves on the drum Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 17 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-18 10 Distance between Drum and First Sheaf or Lead Sheaf The distance from the winch to the first sheaf is of importance for the consistency of the winding process. Randers Reb recommends that the distance L or the fleet angle ß should be: - For drums without rope grooves: L min = 115 x drum width. L max = 15 x drum width. - For drums with rope grooves L min = 115 x drum width. L max = 20 x drum width. (115 x drum width ~ ß = 0.25º, 15 x drum width ~ ß = 2º, and 20 x drum width ~ ß = 1.5º). If the distance does not match these figures, the steel wire rope will be subject to unusually significant wear and tear; the distance should therefore be changed. Guide Rolls Check whether the guide rolls, e.g. those on the winch, are worn. If they are, the steel wire rope will be subject to unusually significant wear and tear; the guide rolls should therefore be replaced or repai- red. If the guide roll is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensu- re that the hardness of the welding material is approx. 300 Brinel, and that it is the guide roll that is worn, and not the steel wire rope. Sheaves/Blocks Check that the sheaf diameter and sheaf groove match the steel wire rope. The sheaves must also be able to turn freely. When a steel wire rope is fed over e.g. a sheaf and bends, certain complex tensions (a combination of bending, tensile and compres- sion stress) are generated in the wires. The greatest tensions occur in the wires furthest away from the steel wire rope's bending centre. After repeated bends, stress failure will occur in these wires. The steel wire rope construction and the size of the sheaves are decisive in determining when wire fracture occurs. The curve below shows the influence of the D/d ratio (sheaf diameter/nominal steel wire rope diameter) on the life expectancy of steel wire rope of diffe- rent types. Afstand mellem spiltromle og første skive/ledeskive Afstanden fra spillet til den første skive eller ledeskive har betydning for ensartetheden af opspolingen samt utilsigtet tilførsel af spænding- er i ståltovet. Randers Reb anbefaler, at afstanden L eller indløbsvinklen b skal være (se fig. 33): ∙ For tromler uden sporriller: L max = 115 x tromlebredde. L min = 15 x tromlebredde. ∙ For tromler med sporriller : L max = 115 x tromlebredde. L min = 20 x tromlebredde. (115 x tromlebredde ~ b = 0,25°, 15 x tromlebredde ~ b = 2° og 20 x tromlebredde ~ b = 1,5°). Hvis afstanden ikke passer, får ståltovet et unormalt stort slid, hvorfor afstanden skal ændres. Styreruller Undersøg om styreruller er slidt, f.eks. på spillet. Hvis de er, får stål- tovet et unormalt stort slid, hvorfor styrerullen skal udskiftes eller repareres. Hvis styrerullen repareres ved svejsning, skal man sørge for, at hård- heden på svejsematerialet er ca. 300 Brinel, således at man få slid- det på styrerullen i stedet for på ståltovet. Skiver/blokke Undersøg om skivediameteren og skivespor passer til ståltovet. Desuden skal skiverne let kunne dreje. Når et ståltov bøjes over f.eks. en skive, opstår der nogle ret kompli- cerede spændinger (kombination af bøje-, træk- og trykspændinger) i trådene. De største spændinger forekommer i de tråde, der ligger længst væk fra ståltovets bøjningscenter. Efter gentagede bøjninger vil der opstå udmattelsesbrud i disse tråde. Hvornår der opstår udmattelsesbrud i trådene afhænger bl.a. af kon- struktionen, belastningen samt hvor store skiverne er. Nedenstående kurve (fig. 34) viser skiveforholdet DSk/d (skivediameter/ståltovsdia- meter) indflydelse på ståltovets levetid for forskellige ståltovskon- struktioner. Distance between drum and lead sheaf (L), and fleet angle (ß) Fig. 33 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 18 10 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-19 Jan 2002 Please note that norms and standards often impose special require- ments in respect of sheaf/drum diameters. If this is not the case, a minimum D/d = 25 is recommended for 6x7 steel wire ropes, and a minimum D/d = 20 for 6x19 and 6x36. If at all possible, S-bends (where the steel wire rope runs from the lower side of one sheaf to the upper side of the next) should be avoi- ded. Such bends result in premature damage. The sheaf ratio (see below) should thus be increased by at least 25% in relation to the same change of direction. The problem is particularly great when the sheaves are placed close to each other. The groove in the sheaf also has a significant influence on the steel wire rope's life expectancy. The groove must be neither too large nor too small - the groove must match the steel wire rope's dimensions. Randers Reb recommends that a correct sheaf gro- ove should support approx. 1/3 of the circumference of the steel wire rope (~120 °C) and have a groove diameter of Dsp = 1.06 x the steel wire rope's nomi- nal diameter (see fig. 36). The groove diameter may under no circumstances be less than the relevant steel wire rope's diameter. Vær opmærksom på, at der ofte stilles specielle krav til skive-/tromle- diameter i normer og standarder. Hvis dette ikke er tilfældet, anbefa- les minimum DSk/d = 25 for 6x7 ståltovsklassen og minimum DSk/d = 20 for 6x19 og 6x36 ståltovsklasserne. Hvis det er muligt, skal man undgå S-bøjning dvs. fra f.eks. undersi- de på én skive til overside på den næste skive. S-bøjning giver tidli- gere udmattelsesbrud, hvorfor skiveforholdet (se nedenfor) bør øges med mindst 25% i forhold til samme retningsændring. Problemet er specielt stort, når skiverne er tæt på hinanden. Sporet i skiven har også stor indflydelse på levetiden af stål- tovet. Sporet må hverken være for stort eller for lille - sporet skal passe til ståltovsdimensionen (se fig. 35). Randers Reb anbefaler, at et korrekt skivespor understøtter ståltovet på ca. 1/3 af omkredsen (~ 120°) og har en spordiameter på DSp = 1,06 x ståltovets nominelle diameter (se fig. 36). Spordiameteren må under ingen omstæn- digheder være under aktuel ståltovsdiameter. Ståltovets levetid som funktion af skiveforholdet DSk/d (skivediameter/ståltovsdiameter) for div. konstruktioner Life expectancy of steel wire rope of different types expressed as a function of the D/d ratio (sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter Skiveforholdet D Sk /d Levetidsfaktor Correct groove diameter Groove diameter too small Groove diameter too large Correct figure of groove in sheave Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 FKU LIFTING A/S 10 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 19 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-20 10 The curve in the diagram below indicates the effect of the D/d ratio (sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter) on the steel wire rope's life expectancy. Always check whether the sheaf groove is worn at the base and along the edges. If it is not, the steel wire rope will be subject to unusually significant wear and tear and stresses will be introdu- ced into the rope. Defect shea- ves/blocks should therefore be replaced or repaired immediately. If the groove is repaired by wel- ding, Randers Reb recommends that the hardness of the welding material is approx. 300 Brinel, so that it is the sheaf that is worn, and not the steel wire rope. The size of the steel wire rope's contact angle a (angle change) on the sheaf also has an effect on the steel wire rope's life expectancy (see fig. 38). If the steel wire rope has to change direction, Randers Reb recom- mends avoiding changes in direction between 5° and 45°. Installation of Steel Wire Rope Steel wire rope from Randers Reb is produced in such a way that in an unloaded state it is tension-free. The steel wire rope is supplied either on reels or in coils. To avoid creating tension or kinks in the steel wire rope during installation, it is necessary to place the coil/reel on a revolving platform, or as shown in fig. 39. If this is not possible, the steel wire rope can be rolled out on the ground while the end of the rope is held in place. Nedenstående kurve (fig. 37) viser sporforholdet DSp/d (spordiame- ter/ståltovsdiameter) indflydelse på ståltovets levetid. Inspicér løbende skiver/blokke for bl.a. slidte lejer, slidte skivespor og slid på kanter. Hvis disse forhold ikke er optimale, slides ståltovet unormalt hurtigt, og ståltovet tilfø- res spændinger. Defekte skiver/blokke skal udskiftes eller repareres omgående. Hvis sporet repareres ved svejs- ning, anbefaler Randers Reb, at hårdheden på svejsematerialet er ca. 300 Brinel, således at man får sliddet på skiven i stedet for på ståltovet. Størrelsen af ståltovets anlægsvinkel a (vinkelændring) på skiven har også indflydelse på ståltovets levetid (se fig. 38). Hvis det er nødvendigt at ændre retningen på ståltovet, anbefaler Randers Reb at undgå retningsændringer mellem 5° og 45°. Installering af ståltovet Randers Reb ståltove er fremstillet på en sådan måde, at de i ube- lastet tilstand er spændingsfrie. Ståltovet leveres enten på tromler eller i kvejl. For at undgå at tilføre ståltovet spændinger og kinker under installationen, er det nødvendigt at anbringe tromlen/kvejlen på en drejeskive eller i en buk. Hvis dette ikke er muligt, kan stålto- vet rulles ud på jorden, mens ståltovsenden fastholdes (se fig. 39). Life expectancy as a function of the Dsp/d ratio (sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter) Life expectancy as a function of the contact angle a Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 20 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-21 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Remember to secure the end of the steel wire rope against opening, regardless of whether or not it is pre-formed. This can be done by such means as tapered and welded ends, beckets, or seizing with soft or annealed wire or strand (see also section 6: "Cutting and Seizing of Steel Wire Ropes"). During the unwinding of the steel wire rope, it must not: ∙ In any way pass over the edge of the reel or be taken from a coil on the ground, as this will create kinks in the steel wire rope (see fig. 40). ∙ Be dragged over a hard surface that can damage the wires. ∙ Be dragged through earth, sand or gravel, as abrasive particles will attach themselves to the greased surface of the steel wire rope. Winding from Reel to Drum During installation, when the steel wire rope is running directly from the reel to the drum, care must be taken to ensure that the reel is running in the same direction as the drum. If this is done incorrectly, the steel wire rope is subjected to tension. In order to achieve problem-free winding in multi-layer winding, it is extremely important that that the steel wire rope is under tension when applied to the drum. If the layers are too loose, the upper layers can damage or cut into the layers below when tension is appli- ed, resulting in damage to the steel wire rope. The rope must be wound onto the drum at a tension corresponding to at least 2% of the tensile strength of the rope. Husk at sikre ståltovsenden mod opdrejning uanset om ståltovet er formlagt eller ej. Dette kan f.eks. gøres ved overbrænding (tilspids- ning), påsvejsning af trækøje eller omvikling med ståltråd/jernbindsel (se også afsnittet "Kapning og takling af ståltov"). Under afspolingen må ståltovet ikke: ∙ På nogen måde aftages over kanten på tromlen eller tages fra en kvejl, der ligger på jorden, idet der herved opstår kinker på ståltovet (se fig. 40). ∙ Slæbes hen over en hård overflade, der kan beskadige trådene. ∙ Trækkes gennem jord, sand og grus, idet slidpartikler vil fæstne sig til den fedtede ståltovsoverflade. Spoling fra tromle til spiltromle Når ståltovet under installeringen kører direkte fra tromle til spiltrom- le, skal man sikre sig, at afløbstromlen løber samme vej som opta- gertromlen (se fig. 41). Hvis det gøres forkert, tilfø- res ståltovet spændinger. For at opnå en problemløs opspoling ved flerlags- opspoling er det af stor vig- tighed, at ståltovet køres op på tromlen med forspæn- ding. Hvis lagene er for løse, kan ovenliggende lag under belastning trække/skære sig ned i underliggende lag, hvorved ståltovet ødelægges. Ståltovet skal køres på tromlen med minimum 2% af ståltovets brudstyrke. Correct ways to remove steel wire rope from a coil or reel Incorrect ways to remove steel wire rope from a coil or reel Correct/incorrect winding from Reel to drum Correct Incorrect Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 21 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-22 10 Braking of the drum can be done in several ways (see fig. 42). Please note: Steel wire rope should never be pressed between two wooden plates, as this will result in permanent damage to the rope. Correct Fitting to Drum Fig. 43 below illustrates the correct way of installing and winding on to the drum for right and left hand laid steel wire rope respectively. Cutting and Seizing of Steel Wire Rope Randers Reb recommends that, as long as the steel wire rope does not have welded ends, it has to be seized before being cut. The fol- lowing seizing method must be used: Please note that low-rota- tion and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes must have at least four seizings on each side of the cutting point. Afbremsningen af aftagertromlen kan gøres på flere måder (se af fig. 42). Man må under ingen omstændigheder forsøge at klemme stålto- vet mellem to træplader, idet ståltovet herved bliver varigt ødelagt. Korrekt montering på spiltromlen Nedenstående figur (fig. 43) illustrerer korrekt fastgørelse og opspo- ling på spiltromlen af henholdsvis højre- og venstreslået ståltov. Kapning og takling af ståltov Forudsat at ståltovet ikke brændes over (tilspidses), anbefaler Randers Reb, at ståltovet takles inden kapning. Følgende metode til takling skal anvendes (se fig. 44): Rotationssvage/-frie ståltove skal mindst have fire taklinger på hver side af kappestedet. Examples of correct/incorrect ways to brake a reel Correct Incorrect Correct Correct cutting and seizing of steel wire rope Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 22 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-23 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Running in Steel Wire Rope After the steel wire rope has been installed, Randers Reb recom- mends that it is run through the system several times at low speed and moderate loading (e.g. 5% of tensile strength). In this way the steel wire rope will gradually become accustomed to the new condi- tions. The strands will settle, the steel wire rope will lengthen and the diameter will decrease a little due to the fact that the strands and the core are compressed. The steel wire rope will thus be less suscepti- ble to damage when maximum load is applied. The time spent "run- ning-in" the steel wire rope will be earned many time over, as the steel wire rope will thus have a longer life expectancy. Maintenance of Guidance Equipment Thorough maintenance of the equipment that the steel wire rope will come into contact with is of great significance for the steel wire rope- 's life expectancy. Worn sheaf grooves, guide rolls, etc., crooked sheaves and jammed bearings all result in such effects as shock load and vibrations in the steel wire rope, which have a destructive effect on the steel wire rope, resulting in exaggerated wear and tear and fatigue. Equipment that the steel wire rope comes into contact with must be inspected regularly. If there is a problem with the equipment, it must be replaced or repaired immediately. If the guidance equipment is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensure that hardness of the welding material is approx. 300 Brinel, so that it is the sheaf that is worn, and not the steel wire rope (see also section 6: "Inspection of Guidance Equipment"). 9. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE Maintenance of Steel Wire Rope The oil/grease that is added to the steel wire rope during production is only sufficient to protect the steel wire rope during the storage period and initial use. The steel wire rope must be lubricated regular- ly. Thorough lubrication is extremely important for the steel wire rope's life expectancy, as the purpose of lubrication is partly to protect the steel wire rope against rust, and partly to reduce friction between the wires and the strands in the steel wire rope. Friction is also thereby reduced between the steel wire rope and the surfaces with which it comes into contact. The lubricant used must be free of acids and must not have a destructive effect on the steel wires, the fibre core and the environ- ment. The lubricant must have a consistency that enables it to pene- trate the core and the strands. The steel wire rope must be cleaned before lubrication. To achieve maximum lubrication effect, the lubricant should be appli- ed during operation, at a sheaf or on the drum, as this is where the steel wire rope opens up and makes it easier for the lubricant to penetrate. Indkøring af ståltovet Efter montering af ståltovet anbefaler Randers Reb, at ståltovet køres gennem anlægget flere gange under lav hastighed og moderat belastning (f.eks. 5% af brudstyrken). Herved tilpasser ståltovet sig gradvist de nye forhold. Dugterne sætter sig, ståltovet forlænger sig. Desuden formindskes diameteren lidt, da dugterne og hjertet presses sammen. Ståltovet vil således være mindre udsat for skader, når maksimal belastning anvendes. Den tid, der benyttes til indkøringen af ståltovet, bliver tjent ind igen mange gange, idet ståltovet får længere levetid. Vedligeholdelse af føringsudstyr Ordentlig vedligeholdelse af udstyret, som ståltovet har kontakt med, har stor betydning for ståltovets levetid. Slidte skivespor, styreruller mm., skæve skiver og fastsiddende lejer resulterer bl.a. i chokbelast- ning og vibrationer i ståltovet, hvilket har en ødelæggende effekt på ståltovet med unormalt slid og udmattelse til følge. Udstyr, som ståltovet har kontakt med, skal inspiceres regelmæssigt. Hvis udstyret ikke er i orden, skal det omgående udskiftes evt. repa- reres. Ved reparation af føringsudstyret ved svejsning skal man sørge for, at hårdheden på svejsematerialet er ca. 300 Brinel, såle- des at man får sliddet på føringsudstyret i stedet for på ståltovet (se også afsnittet "Kontrol af føringsudstyr"). 9. KONTROL OG VEDLIGEHOLDELSE Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet Den olie/fedt, som ståltovet tilføres under fremstillingen, beskytter kun ståltovet under opbevaringen og den første tids brug. Ståltovet skal derfor eftersmøres regelmæssigt. Ordentlig eftersmøring er meget vigtig for ståltovet levetid, idet smø- ringen har til formål dels at beskytte ståltovet mod rust, dels at redu- cere friktionen mellem trådene og dugterne i ståltovet. Desuden ned- sættes friktionen mellem ståltovet og de flader, som ståltovet berører. Smøremidlet, der skal anvendes til eftersmøringen, skal være fri for syrer og må ikke have skadelig indvirkning på hverken ståltråde og/eller fiberhjertet samt miljø. Smøremidlet skal have en konsistens som gør, at smøremidlet trænger ind i hjertet og dugten. Ståltovet skal rengøres før eftersmøringen. For opnåelse af maksimal eftersmøring skal smøremidlet påføres under kørsel og ved en skive eller på tromlen, idet ståltovet her vil åbne sig. Smøremidlet kan herved lettere trænge ind. Randers Reb har udviklet en speciel eftersmøringsolie - Randers WIRE OLIE type 01- der tilfredsstiller de specielle krav, der stilles til eftersmøring af ståltove. Olien har en god indtrængnings- og smøre- evne. Desuden er olien vandfortrængende og tilsat additiver, der er rustopløsende og stopper yderligere rustdannelse under lagring og brug. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 23 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-24 10 Randers Reb has developed a special lubricating oil, Randers WIRE OIL Type 01, which satisfies the special requirements for lubrication of steel wire ropes. The oil has excellent penetrative and lubrication qualities. It is also water-resistant and contains additives that dissol- ve rust and prevent further formation of rust during storage and operation. The oil is easily applied with a brush. See also our Product Information leaflet, "Lubrication and Maintenance of Steel Wire Ropes". Inspection of Steel Wire Rope The following guidelines cover possible points that should be chec- ked in conjunction with the inspection of steel wire rope. This is not a complete manual, nor is it an alternative to the relevant norms and standards. Wear and Tear As a rule, a steel wire rope should be replaced when the outer wires are worn down to 1/3 of the original wire dimension. Elongation All steel wire ropes become elongated when loaded (see also sec- tion 9: "Steel Wire Rope Elongation"). The elongation of a steel wire rope during its lifetime can be divided into three phases: - Phase 1: The new steel wire rope becomes longer quite naturally during its initial period of use. This partly because of the loading, and partly because the steel wire rope settles. - Phase 2: When the steel wire rope has settled and for most of its lifetime, the steel wire rope does not become much longer.Elongation during this phase is mainly due to wear. - Phase 3: The steel wire rope suddenly becomes longer very quickly. This means that the steel wire rope is deteriorating rapidly due to such causes as advanced wear and fatigue. The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately. Reduction of Dimensions Every noticeable reduction of the steel wire rope's dimensions in comparison with its original dimensions indicates a deterioration in the steel wire rope. The reduction may be due to such causes as: - External/internal wear and tear. - Compression of strands and/or core. - External/internal formation of rust. - Elongation. Rust Rust is just as important a factor as wear and tear in terms of evalu- ating the steel wire rope's condition. Rust is normally caused by poor maintenance of the steel wire rope and promotes quicker fatigue in the wires (fragility/creation of cracks). Kinks Kinks cause permanent damage to the steel wire rope. Kinks are for- med due to extraction of loops. The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately. Olien kan let påføres med pensel. Se også vort Produktinformation's blad "Smøring og vedligeholdelse af ståltove". Kontrol af ståltovet Følgende er en vejledning på mulige kontrolpunkter i forbindelse med inspektion/kontrol af et ståltov - ikke en komplet manual eller erstatning for krav angivet i tilhørende normer og standarder. Slid Ståltovet skal udskiftes,, når den nominelle diameter er reduceret med 10%. Forlængelse Alle ståltove forlænger sig ved belastning (se også afsnittet "Ståltovsforlængelse"). Ståltovets forlængelse over levetiden kan opdeles i tre faser. ∙ Fase 1: Under den første tids brug forlænger det nye ståltov sig helt naturligt. Dels p.g.a. belastningen, dels p.g.a. at ståltovet sæt- ter sig. ∙ Fase 2: Når ståltovet har sat sig. Under det meste af sin levetid for længer ståltovet sig ikke ret meget. Forlængelsen under denne fase skyldes primært slid. ∙ Fase 3: Under denne fase nedbrydes ståltovet hurtigt og forlænger sig uden yderligere påvirkning, hvilket bl.a. skyldes fremskredent slid. Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. Reduktion af dimensionen Enhver mærkbar reduktion af ståltovsdimensionen i forhold til den oprindelige dimension indikerer nedbrydelse af ståltovet. Reduktionen kan bl.a. skyldes: ∙ Udvendigt/indvendigt slid. ∙ Sammenklemning af dugt og/eller hjerte. ∙ Udvendig/indvendig rustdannelse. ∙ Forlængelse. Rust Rust er mindst lige så vigtig en faktor som slid i forbindelse med vur- deringen af ståltovets stand. Rust stammer normalt fra dårlig vedlige- holdelse af ståltovet og bevirker hurtigere udmattelse af trådene (skørhed/revnedannelse). Kinker Kinker forårsager permanent ødelæggelse af ståltovet. Kinker dan- nes pga. udtrækning af løkker. Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 24 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-25 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Bird's Nest A"bird's nest" (the strands rising in the same place) is created by such actions as the steel wire rope being subjected to torsion (rota- ted), sudden unloading, running through sheaf grooves that are too small and/or winding on a drum that is too small. The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately. Local Wear and Tear/Damage Local wear and tear is most often caused by poor winding. All fittings and splicings must also be inspected for wear or broken wires, loose or split strands, wear or cracks in fittings, etc. Fire Damage After a fire or exposure to high temperatures, metal damage, loss of oil/grease and destruction of fibre core, etc., may occur. The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately. Core Protruding between the Strands Regardless of the cause of the core protruding between the strands, the steel wire rope must be replaced immediately. Wire Fracture A wire fracture may result from many different causes, some serious, others insignificant. If the wire fractures are serious, the steel wire rope must be replaced immediately. If you are in any doubt as to whether the steel wire rope should be scrapped or not, please contact your local salesman or our Technical Department as soon as possible. 10. ELONGATION AND PRE-STRETCHING Steel Wire Rope Elongation When a steel wire rope is loaded it becomes longer. This elongation consists of two types of elongation - construction elongation (perma- nent) and elastic elongation. Elongation due to overloading (yielding) or due to rotation are not dealt with here. Constructional Elongation When a new steel wire rope is subjected to a load, the strands and the core decrease in size (are compacted). In addition, the strands are squeezing more tightly around the core. The construction settles. This means that the steel wire rope's dimension becomes slightly smaller, causing the steel wire rope to become longer. This elonga- tion is known as constructional elongation and remains in place until the steel wire rope has been subjected to loads several times in nor- mal operation. If the steel wire rope is at a later date subjected to a Fuglerede En fuglerede (dugterne rejser sig samme sted) opstår bl.a., hvis stål- tovet f.eks. er tilført torsion (drejet op), oplever pludselig aflastning, køres gennem for små skivespor og/eller spoles op på for lille tromle (fig. 44). Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. Lokalt slid/ødelæggelse Lokalt slid på ståltovet skyldes som oftest dårlig spoling. Alle fittings og splejsninger skal undersø- ges for slid eller trådbrud, løse eller knækkede dugter, slid eller revner på/i fittings mm. Brandskader Efter brand eller påvirkning af høje temperaturer kan der opstå metalskader, tab af olie/fedt og ødelæggelse af stål- eller fiberhjerte mm. Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående. Hjertet kommer ud mellem dugterne Uafhængigt af årsagen til at hjertet kommer ud mellem dugterne, skal ståltovet udskiftes omgående. Trådbrud Trådbrud kan opstå af mange forskellige årsager. Nogle alvorlige, andre ubetydelige. Hvis trådbruddene er alvorlige, skal ståltovet udskiftes omgående. Hvis du er i tvivl om, hvorvidt ståltovet skal kasseres eller ej, så kon- takt din konsulent eller vores tekniske afdeling hurtigst muligt. 10. FORLÆNGELSE OG FORSTRÆKNING Ståltovsforlængelser Når et ståltov belastes, forlænger det sig. Forlængelsen består af to typer forlængelser - sætningsforlængelse (blivende) og elastisk for- længelse. Forlængelse p.g.a. overbelastning (f.eks. flydning) eller opdrejning vil ikke blive omtalt. Sætningsforlængelse Når et nyt ståltov belastes, bliver dugter og hjerte mindre (komprime- res). Desuden klemmer dugterne hårdere på hjertet - konstruktionen sætter sig. Dette medfører, at ståltovsdimensionen bliver lidt mindre, hvorved ståltovet forlænger sig. Denne forlængelse kaldes sætnings- forlængelse og vedbliver, indtil ståltovet flere gange har været belas- tet ved normal drift. Hvis ståltovet på et senere tidspunkt belastes med en større kraft end under normal drift, vil ståltovet sandsynligvis forlænge sig yderligere. Bird's nests Fig. 44 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 25 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-26 10 greater force than that experienced under normal operating condi- tions, the steel wire rope will probably become a little longer. Constructional elongation is dependent on: ∙ Type of core ∙ Steel wire rope construction ∙ Elevation (the length a strand passes to wrap once around the core) ∙ Material ∙ Load Steel wire ropes with steel cores have less constructional elongation than steel wire ropes with fibre cores. Since the construction elongation of steel wire ropes is dependent on a number of factors, it is not possible to give a clear definition of con- struction elongation. Table 4 is intended to provide guidelines. Elastic Elongation (Modulus of elasticity) Elastic elongation is not only dependent on the load on the steel wires, but also on the construction, which is why steel wire ropes do not follow Young's modulus. It is therefore not possible to produce an unequivocal Modulus of elasticity for steel wire ropes. Table 5 is intended as a guide only. Sætningsforlængelse er afhængig af: ∙ Hjertetype. ∙ Ståltovskonstruktionen. ∙ Slåstigningen. ∙ Materialet. ∙ Belastningen. Ståltove med stålhjerte har mindre sætningsforlængelse end ståltove med fiberhjerte. Da ståltoves sætningsforlængelse er afhængig af flere faktorer, kan en entydig sætningsforlængelse ikke angives. Tabel 4 er vejledende: Elastisk forlængelse (E-modul). Elastisk forlængelse er ikke kun afhængig af belastningen, men også af konstruktionen, hvorfor ståltove ikke følger Young's E-modul. Tabel 5 angiver forskellige ståltovskonstruktioners E-modul. Tabellen er vejledende. Guidelines for constructional elongation in steel wire ropes Guidelines for Modulus of elasticity on steel wire ropes Tabel 4 Tabel 5 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 26 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-27 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 The elastic elongation in a steel rope is calculated according to the following formula: Elastic elongation (mm) = W x L/ (E x A) Where W = Load (kp) L = Length of steel wire rope (mm) E = Modulus of elasticity (kp/mm²) A = Steel area (mm²) If a more accurate Modulus of elasticity is required, it must be mea- sured in the actual steel wire rope in question. Heat Expansion A steel wire rope will change its length when the temperature chang- es. Changes in length are according to the following formula: Change in length (m) = a x L x Dt Where: a = linear heat expansion coefficient = 11 x 10-6 m/m per °C in area 0 to approx. 100° C. L = Length of steel wire rope (m). Dt = Change in temperature (°C). When the temperature drops, the steel wire rope will become shorter, whereas it will become longer if the temperature rises. Pre-stretching By pre-stretching, the steel wire rope is loaded to approx. 45% of its nominal tensile strength, during the course of which the steel wire rope's construction elongation is removed. The removal of the construction elongation pre-supposes that the steel wire rope is not subjected to further treatment! If there is further treatment, the steel wire rope will more or less return to its original form. However, pre-stretching is in many cases a good idea anyway as it means that the steel wire rope more rapidly ceases its construc- tional elongation. However, in many instances pre-stretching can still be beneficial, as the steel wire rope's constructional elongation will thus be completed much more quickly. This in turn means that the steel wire rope does not need to be re-tightened many times. 11. OPERATING TEMPERATURES Maximum Operating Temperature ∙ Zinc on galvanised wires melts at 419 °C. At 300 °C the zinc begins to soften. ∙ If a relatively short piece of cable is heated to more than 300 °C, the heating affects the inside of the wire rope, the wire rope will become unbalanced and may become locked, causing fractures in the cable/wires to occur more quickly. Den elastiske forlængelse på ståltovet beregnes ud fra følgende for- mel: Elastisk forlængelse (mm) = W * L/ (E * A), hvor: W = belastningen (kp) L = ståltovets længde (mm) E = E-modulet (kp/mm2) A = stålarealet (mm2) Hvis et mere præcist E-modul er nødvendigt, skal man måle E-mod- ulet på det aktuelle ståltov. Varmeudvidelse Et ståltov ændrer længde, når temperaturen ændres. Længdeændringen beregnes ud fra følgende formel: Længdeændring (m) = a * L * Dt hvor: a = Lineære varmeudvidelseskoef. = 11 x 10-6 m/m pr. ° C i områ- det 0° C til ca. 100° C. L = Ståltovets længde (m). Dt = Ændring af temperatur (° C). Når temperaturen falder, bliver ståltovet kortere. Når temperaturen øges, forlænges ståltovet. Forstrækning Ved forstrækning belastes ståltovet indtil flere gange med ca. 45% af ståltovets nominelle brudstyrke, hvorved ståltovets sætningsforlæng- else fjernes. Fjernelsen af sætningsforlængelse forudsætter, at ståltovet ikke yderligere håndteres. Ved yderligere håndtering falder wiren mere eller mindre tilbage til dens oprindelige form, men forstrækning er i mange tilfælde alligevel en god ting, idet ståltovet væsentlig hurtige- re stopper sin sætningsforlængelse. Dette medfører, at ståltovet ikke skal efterspændes så mange gange. 11. ANVENDELSESTEMPERATURER Maksimum anvendelsestemperatur ∙ Zinken på galvaniserede tråde smelter ved 419° C. Ved 300° C begynder zinken at blive blød. ∙ En opvarmning selv på et relativt kort stykke af wiren til over 300° C - samtidig med at opvarmningen sker et stykke inde i wiren - bevirker, at wiren kommer i ubalance og evt. låses. Tråd-/wirebrud opstår herefter hurtigere. ∙ Trådenes mekaniske egenskaber, f.eks. brudstyrke og bøjestyrke, ændrer sig ved opvarmning. Opvarmning i f.eks. en time ved 200° C bevirker et fald i trådenes bøjestyrke. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 27 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-28 10 ∙ The wires' mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength and bending strength, change when the temperature rises. A temperature of e.g. 200 °C for 1 hour will reduce the wires' bending strength. ∙ An artificial fibre core starts to soften at 80-100 °C. A soft core means that the support for the strands disappears and the steel wire rope will become unbalanced, causing fractures in the cable/wires to occur more quickly. ∙ Sisal cores can tolerate significantly higher temperatures than steel wire rope with artificial fibre cores. Since tensile strength and pliability/flexibility are often important mechanical properties for a steel wire rope, Randers Reb does not recommend that a steel wire rope with: ∙ A steel core is subjected to temperatures above 200 °C for a longer period of time. ∙ A sisal core is subjected to temperatures above 200 °C for a longer period of time. ∙ An artificial fibre core is subjected to temperatures above 75 °C for a longer period of time. For a short period of time it can be acceptable for the surface tem perature to reach 400 °C. Minimum Operating Temperature The steel that is used in steel wire rope can be used at extremely low temperatures (minus 200 °C or less) without any significant effect on the characteristics of the steel. However, at temperatures of only minus 25-50 °C oil and grease will lose their ability to serve as lubricants and protect against rust. This makes the fibre cores easy to damage. Provided that the steel wire rope does not have a fibre core and that oil and grease are not required as protection against rust or as lubri- cation, such rope can be used in operating temperatures of approx. minus 200 °C. If these conditions cannot be met, the minimum tem- perature is approx. minus 25 °C. ∙ Et kunstfiberhjerte begynder at blive blødt ved 80° C - 100° C. Et blødt hjerte bevirker, at understøtningen for dugterne forsvinder og stålwiren kommer i ubalance. Tråd-/wirebrud vil hurtigere forekom- me. ∙ Sisalhjerter kan tåle væsentligt højere temperaturer end ståltov med kunstfiberhjerte. Da brudstyrke og bøjelighed/fleksibilitet ofte er vigtige mekaniske egenskaber for et ståltov, kan Randers Reb ikke anbefale, at: ∙ Ståltov med stålhjerte opvarmes til over 200° C gennem længere tid. ∙ Ståltov med sisalhjerte opvarmes til over 200° C gennem længere tid. ∙ Ståltov med kunstfiberhjerte opvarmes til over 75° C gennem længere tid. Overfladetemperaturen kan i en kort periode accepteres at stige til 400° C. Minimum anvendelsestemperatur Stålet, der anvendes i ståltovet, kan anvendes ned til meget lave temperaturer (minus 200° C evt. lavere), uden at stålets egenskaber forringes væsentligt. Derimod vil olie/fedt ved minus 25° C - 50° C miste sin smørende og rustbeskyttende virkning. Desuden vil fiber- hjerter let kunne knuses ved lave temperaturer. Forudsat at stålwiren ikke indeholder fiberhjerter og at eventuelt olie/fedt ikke skal rustbeskytte og/eller have en smørende virkning, kan ståltovet anvendes ned til ca. minus 200° C. I modsat fald ned til ca. minus 25° C. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 28 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-29 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 12. MARTENSITE FORMATION Martensite formation Martensite is a structural change in the wire material caused by a very sudden cooling of the rope after a strong local heating genera- ted by friction. The friction may be caused by e.g. bad winding of the wire rope on winches. The martensite structure is very brittle and may cause fractures during normal operation or when spliced, even though the wire rope does not show any visible signs of external wear. Precautions against martensite: ∙ The blocks must not be worn down and should turn easily. ∙ When a wire rope is wound on a drum, it should be in tight wraps without the layers crossing each other in order to prevent the top layer from cutting into the underlying layers. ∙ The wire rope should be lubricated at regular intervals in order to minimise the friction between wires and strands. ∙ The wire rope should be checked at regular intervals for crushing, minor cracks and mechanical damages, all of which might indicate martensite spots. If a steel cable carries a current, there will often be sparks. The sur- face temperature where the sparks appear will be over 800 °C, making it quite probable that Martensite will be formed. If there is a strong probability of sparks appearing, wire and cable fractures may occur quickly. 12. MARTENSIT Martensitdannelse Martensit er en strukturændring, der sker i trådmaterialet ved høj frik- tionsvarme (se fig. 45) som f.eks. ved dårlig spoling på spil, hvor de yderste ståltovslag presses ned i de underliggende lag under en sådan belastning, at gnistdannelse opstår med efterfølgende hurtig afkøling (se fig. 46). Denne strukturændring giver en hård men skør overflade, og under normal belastning eller ved splejsning kan trådbrud opstå, selvom der ikke har været nævneværdigt ydre slid (se fig. 47). Forholdsregler mod martensitdannelse: ∙ Blokkene må ikke være nedslidte og bør kunne dreje let. ∙ Spoling på tromlen bør ligge i tætte vindinger uden krydsninger, så det overliggende lag under belastning ikke skærer sig ned i de underliggende lag. ∙ Ståltovet bør eftersmøres, således at friktionen mellem tråde og dugter er mindst mulig. ∙ Kontrollér ståltovet for sammentrykninger, små revner og mekaniske skader, som kan være tegn på martensitdannelse. Hvis en stålwire er strømførende, eller ståltovet spoles op i flere lag under stor belastning, vil der ofte opstå gnister. Overfladetempe- raturen, hvor gnisten opstår, er over 800° C, hvorfor sandsynlighe- den for dannelse af martensit er relativ stor. Hvis forekomsten af gnister er stor, opstår der hurtigt trådbrud og evt. wirebrud. Martensite spots in fishing rope which has been used under bad conditions Flattened wire showing martensite structure The brittle layer of martensite shows clearly Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 29 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-30 10 13. END TERMINATIONS End terminations Type of end terminations. Degree of efficiency End terminations normally reduce the tensile strength of steel wire rope. Table 6 shows the approximate effect of the different types of end terminations. Fig. 49 Examples of correct and incorrect attachment of wire rope clips. 13. ENDEBEFÆSTIGELSER Endebefæstigelser. I fig. 48 ses eksempler på endebefæstigelser. En endebefæstigelse nedsætter normalt brudstyrken på ståltovet. Tabel 6 angiver virkningsgrad (tilnærmet) for de forskellige typer endebefæstigelser. Fig. 49 viser eksempler på rigtig og forkert montering af wirelås. Wire rope socket, resin poured Wire rope socket, swaged Mechanical splice with thimble and Talurit Wedge socket Clips Hand-spliced with thimble Eksempler på endebefæstigelser på ståltove Examples of end terminations on steel wire ropes Right way Wrong way Wrong way Examples of correct and incorrect ways of attachment of dead end on different kinds of wedge sockets Clips Wedge socket Hand-spliced Mechanical splice with ferrule Wire rope socket, swaged Wire rope socket, resin poured Degree of efficiency for different types of end terminations Fig. 48 Tabel 6 Fig. 49 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 30 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-31 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 14. SOCKETING (WIRELOCK) Unless otherwise agreed between the customer and Fyns Kran Udstyr, Fyns Kran Udstyr will undertake socketing with Wirelock. Wirelock is an especially strong twin-component moulding material. Wirelock is increasingly being used instead of zinc, e.g. because: ∙ Heat generation is much lower than with a zinc seal. The risk of hardening of the steel wires, causing stress fractures, is thus elimi- nated. The disappearance (melting away) of grease is also avoided at the junction by the base of socket. ∙ Wirelock does not require heating of the rope socket, as long as its temperature is not below 10 °C. ∙ Wirelock permits full loading 1-2 hours after the sealing process. ∙ Wirelock does not require any special ancillary tools in connection with the sealing process. ∙ Wirelock is resistant to acid, salt water, oil and grease. ∙ Wirelock tolerates shock loading and impact. ∙ Wirelock can be used for all types of seal. ∙ Wirelock penetrates further in between the wires than zinc. ∙ Wirelock can be used in temperatures of up to 115 °C. Wirelock has been approved by such bodies as the Danish Directorate of Labour Inspection, Det Norske Veritas and Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 14. ISTØBNING MED WIRELOCK Istøbning (Wirelock) Hvis intet andet er aftalt mellem kunde og Fyns Kran Udstyr, så udfører Fyns Kran Udstyr istøbning af tovpære med Wirelock - er en speciel stærk 2-komponent støbemasse. Wirelock anvendes i større og større grad i stedet for zink bl.a. p.g.a. : ∙ at varmeudviklingen er væsentlig lavere i forhold til zinkstøbning. Herved elimineres risikoen for hærdning af ståltrådene med udmat- telsesbrud til følge. Desuden undgår man at fedtet forsvinder (bort- smelter) i overgangszonen ved tovpærehalsen. ∙ Wirelock kræver ikke opvarmning af tovpære forudsat, at denne ikke har en temperatur på under 10 °C. ∙ Wirelock tillader fuld belastning 1 - 2 time efter støbningen. ∙ Wirelock kræver ingen specielle hjælpemidler i.f.m. istøbningen. ∙ Wirelock er modstandsdygtig overfor syre, saltvand, olie og fedt. ∙ Wirelock tåler chokbelastning og stød. ∙ Wirelock kan anvendes til alle former for istøbning. ∙ Wirelock trænger bedre ind mellem trådene end zink. ∙ Wirelock kan anvendes op til 115 °C Wirelock er bl.a. godkendt af Arbejdstilsynet, Det Norske Veritas og Lloyd's Register of Shipping. Fig. 50 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 31 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-32 10 Guidelines for Socketing with Wirelock 1. Insert the end of the steel wire rope into the rope socket, and fasten the steel wire rope. The distance from the end of the rope to the uppermost part of the rigging (L) must correspond to the length of the conical part of the rope socket minus the diameter of the steel wire rope (d). The length of the rigging (l) must be at least 1.5 x d. 2. The individual wires in the strands can be split after this. If the steel wire rope con- tains a steel core, this must also be split open. If there are any fibre cores, they may be cut above the rigging. The split must be clean and go as far down as the rigging. If the steel wire rope only consists of 19 wires or less, the wires at the top must be doubled up. Remember to add the length of the dou- bled section to the length of the split section. 1) Clean/de-grease the split section of the steel wire rope (the brush), e.g. in a soda solution. When being cleaned and then rin- sed off, the steel wire rope must be facing downwards so that the solution does not penetrate the rope. 2) Pull the rope socket over the brush until the wires level with the upper edge of the rope socket. Check that a part (min. 0.5 x d) of the upper section of the rigging is in the conical part of the rope socket. Fasten the steel wire rope so that it is vertical, while a piece (approx. 25 x d) of the steel wire rope is hanging vertically. Pack the base of socket with e.g. putty to prevent any Wirelock escaping during the sealing process. 3) Mix the two components together in e.g. a plastic bucket. The components must have a temperature of 10-25 °C. Stir the mixtu- re thoroughly for around two minutes. If the air temperature (sea- ling temperature) is below 10 °C, a bag of "booster" (accelerator) should be added before stirring. Vejledning for istøbning af ståltove 1. Ståltovsenden indføre i tovpæren, hvoref ter ståltovet takles. Afstanden fra toven- den til den øverste kant af taklingen (L) skal svare til længden på den koniske del af tovpæren minus ståltovsdiameter (d). Længden på taklingen (l) skal være mini- mum 1,5 x d. 2. Opsplitning af de enkelte tråde i dugterne kan herefter ske. Hvis ståltovet indehol- der et stålhjerte skal dette også splittes op. Eventuelle fiberhjerter kappes over taklingen. Opsplitningen skal være ensartet og gå helt ned til taklingen. Hvis ståltovet kun består af 19 tråde eller mindre, skal trådene i toppen ombukkes. HUSK at tillægge længden af ombukket til længden af det opsplittede stykke. 1) Den opsplittede del af ståltovet (kosten) rengøres/affedtes f.eks. i en sodaopløs- ning. Ved afrensningen og en efterfølgen- de skylning skal ståltovet vende nedad således, at væsken ikke trænger ned stål- tovet. 2) Træk tovpæren op over kosten indtil trå dene er i niveau med overkanten af tov- pæren. Kontroller, at et stykke (ca. 0,5 x d) af den øverste del af taklingen befinder sig i den koniske del af tovpæren. Ståltovet fastgøres, så det står lodret samtidig med, at et stykke (ca. 25 x d) af ståltovet hænger lodret. Herefter tætnes tovpære- halsen med f.eks. kit for at forhindre udtrængning af Wirelock under istøbingen. 3) Bland de to komponenter sammen i en plasticspand eller lignende (komponenterne skal have en temperatur på mellem 10 °C og max. 25 °C). Blandingen omrøres grundigt i ca. 2 minutter. Ved en lufttemperaturer under 10 °C bør een pose "booster" (accelerator) tilsættes før omrøring. Splitting the steel wire rope and removing the fibre core Placing and size of rope sockets Correct location of the rope socket and packing with putty Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:19 Side 32 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-33 10 The bag provides instructions about how much Wirelock must be used. Below 3 °C two bags should be added. The sealing process can be undertaken at temperatures below 0 °C, as long as measu- res are taken to ensure that the Wirelock putty itself does not come under 10 °C at any time during the process. NB: The mix ratio between the individual components is precisely calculated and should not be divided. The following table shows how Wirelock should be applied. 4) Pour the mixture into the rope socket until the rope socket is full. To prevent air bubbles forming, a piece of steel wire should be used to "whip" gently between the wires in the steel wire rope. Several applications may be made at a time, provided that they are done in quick succession. Any surplus Wirelock must be dis- posed of. NB: At the outset the mixture has a thick, liquid consistency. It then becomes thinner until a certain point at which the hardening process begins. The Wirelock must be poured before the mixture reaches its thinnest state. 5) Wirelock is produced in such a way that its hardening time is 10 minutes in the 18-24 °C temperature range. It should, however, be noted that the product's hardening time is very sensitive to the temperature of the Wirelock, e.g. it is only approx. 5 minutes at 30 °C and approx. 20 minutes at 10 °C. The hardening time has no effect on the quality of the hardening. Loads can be applied to the rope socket one hour after the Wirelock is hard on the surface. 6) Putty must be removed. Particularly in cases where the unit is to be used with the base of socket upwards, Fyns Kran Udstyr recommends that the base of socket be filled up with water-repel- lent oil/grease in order to minimise the risk of rust at this critical point due to penetration of water. Seal Inspection a) If a screwdriver is used to scratch the Wirelock at the opening of the rope socket and a white stripe appears, the hardening process has been completed correctly. På posen er angivet, til hvilken mængde Wirelock den skal anven- des. Under 3 °C bør to poser booster tilsættes. Istøbingen kan godt foretages i frostgrader, blot man sørger for, at Wirelock massen ikke kommer under 10 °C under hele istøbningsprocessen. BEMÆRK : Blandingsforholdet mellem de enkelte komponenter er nøje afstemt og må ikke deles. Forbruget af Wirelock ses af tabel 1. 4) Blandingen hældes i tovpæren, indtil tovpæren er fyldt helt op. For at forhindre dannelsen af luftbobler skal en let "piskning" med et stykke ståltråd foretages nede mellem ståltovets tråde. Flere istøbninger kan godt foretages forudsat, at ihældning sker lige efter hinanden.Evt. overskydende Wirelock kan ikke gemmes, men skal kasseres. BEMÆRK : Blandingsmassen starter med at være tykflydende. Herefter bliver massen tyndere og tyndere indtil et vist punkt, hvoref- ter selve hærdeprocessen går igang. Wirelock skal ihældes, inden massen når sit tyndeste punkt. 5) Wirelock er fremstillet således, at hærdetiden er 10 minutter i tem peraturområdet 18 °C til 24 °C. Det bør dog bemærkes, at pro- duktets hærdetid er meget følsom overfor temperaturen på Wirelock, f.eks. er hærdetiden kun ca. 5 minutter ved 30 °C og ca. 20 minutter ved 10 °C. Hærdetiden har ingen indflydelse på kvali- teten af hærdningen. Tovpæren må belastes 1 time efter, at Wirelock er hård i overfla- den (se også afsnit 9.8.2). 6) Kit fjernes. Specielt når tovpærehalsen hænger opad under bru- gen, anbefaler Fyns Kran Udstyr, at tovpærehalsen fyldes op med vandfortrængende olie/fedt for at minimere risikoen for rustdan- nelse på dette kritiske sted (hulrummet fyldes med vand). Kontrol af istøbning a) Hvis man ridser med en skruetrækker i støbemassen i tovpæreåb ningen, og der fremkommer en hvid stribe, er hærdningen foregå- et, som den skal. Number of seals per litre Wirelock Tabel 1 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 33 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-34 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 b) The darker the Wirelock, the higher the temperature during the hardening process. The dark colour is achieved due to correct hardening conditions. If the colour is bluish-green, it indicates a "cold" sealing/hardening process. The sealing process may only be approved if the screwdriver test has been passed. Re-use of sockets Dismantling of Wirelock in used rope sockets can be undertaken by means of heating in a furnace to a temperature of 250 °C, after which the seal cracks when struck and can be removed with a man- drel. To avoid heating up the rope socket, it is recommended that the material be pressed out using special equipment. Note: a) Rope and rope socket must be inspected regularly for fractures, especially in and around the base of socket. b) Avoid using an open flame during the mixing and sealing process with Wirelock. The hardening agent contains an acid that is flam- mable at approx. 30 °C. c) Protective glasses and gloves must be worn during the sealing process. If undertaken indoors, air extraction equipment must be used. d) Wirelock must not come into contact with strong alkaline solutions such as acetone, as these substances can cause the Wirelock to disintegrate. e) If the rope socket has a temperature of below 10 °C, it should be warmed up, e.g. by placing it in a bucket of warm water. f) The "use before" date presupposes that the Wirelock is stored at 10-25 °C. g) Every consignment is accompanied by "Supplier's Directions for Use" of Wirelock. Fyns Kran Udstyr will be pleased to carry out the sealing process with Wirelock either on your premises or in our own splicing shop. Fyns Kran Udstyr is also a supplier of rope sockets and other types of fittings. b) Desto mørkere Wirelock er, desto højere temperatur har hærde processen opnået. Den mørke farve opnås p.g.a korrekte tempe- raturforhold. Hvis farven er blågrøn, er dette ensbetydende med en "kold" støbning/hærdning. Istøbningen kan kun godkendes, hvis skruetrækkerprøven er O.K. (se punkt a). Genbrug af tovpærer Fjernelse af Wirelock i brugte tovpærer kan ske ved opvarmning til 250 °C i ovn, hvorefter støbemassen krakelerer ved slag og kan fjer- nes med dorn. For at undgå opvarmning af tovpæren er det bedre blot at presse materialet ud med specialværktøj. BEMÆRK:Tovpæren må under ingen omstændigheder opvarmes til mere end 250 °C forudsat, at leverandøren af tovpærerne ikke har angivet andet. BEMÆRKNINGER: a) Tovpære og tov skal jævnligt kontrolleres for brud/beskadigelse, specielt i og ved tovpærehalsen. b) Undgå brug af åben ild under blandingen og istøbning med Wirelock. Hærderen indeholder styren, hvis flammepunkt er ca. 30 °C. c) Der skal anvendes beskyttelsesbriller og hansker ved istøbning. Hvis det foregår indendørs, skal der være lokal udsugning. d) Wirelock må ikke komme i forbindelse med stærke alkaliske opløsninger som acetone og lignende, da disse stoffer kan ned- bryde Wirelock. e) Hvis tovpæren har en temperatur på under 10 °C, bør denne opvarmes f.eks. ved at lægge den i en spand varmt vand. f) En forudsætning for at sidste anvendelsesdato gælder er, at Wirelock opbevares mellem 10 °C og max. 25 °C. Ved hver leverance medsendes "Leverandør Brugsanvisning" på Wirelock. Fyns Kran Udstyr foretager gerne istøbningen med Wirelock enten hos dig eller i vort splejseri. Fyns Kran Udstyr er også leveringsdyg- tig i såvel tovpærer samt andre typer fittings. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 34 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-35 10 15. DRUM CAPACITY 16. CLASSIFICATION AND USE OF STEEL WIRE ROPE Classification of Steel Wire Rope The different kinds of steel wire rope can be divided up into distinct classes. The number of strands and the number of outer wires in each strand is laid down for each class of steel wire rope. The diffe- rent systems and sets of rules for this classification include ISO, DIN and American. Randers Reb has chosen to employ the set of classi- fications used by the EU (the EN norm). 15. TROMLEKAPACITET 16. KLASSIFICERING AF STÅLTOVE Ståltovsklasser (eksempler på ståltove) De forskellige ståltove kan inddeles i forskellige klasser. Inden for hver klasse er fastlagt antallet af dugter samt antallet af ydertråde i hver dugt. Der findes forskellige systemer/regler for klassificering af ståltovene (ISO, DIN, amerikanske). Randers Reb har valgt at anvende den klassificering, der gælder for EU (EN-norm) (se tabel 2). Max. drum capacity (in metres) is = A x C x (A + B) x p / d², where A, B and C are expressed in cm. D = steel wire rope's diameter in mm. p = pi = 3.14 Drum Capacity Eksempler på ståltovsklasser (se også fig. 52) Examples of different classes of steel wire rope (see also fig. 52) Class Number of outer strands Number of wires in strand Number of outer wires in strand Number of layers of wire in strand Tabel 2 Fig. 51 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 35 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-36 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Examples of the use of Steel Wire Rope Fig. 52 shows examples of steel wire rope in the most common categories of steel wire rope. 17. ROPES Eksempler på anvendelse af ståltove Fig. 52 viser eksempler på ståltove i de mest anvendte ståltovs- klasser. 17. TOVVÆRK Examples of steel wire rope in the most common categories of steel wire rope Tabel 8 Fig. 52 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 36 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-37 10 Ropes are primarily made of synthetic materials such as PE, PP, PA and polyester. Ropes of natural fibre are still manufactured, but only in small quantities, as synthetic ropes are more wear-resistant and do not absorb water or rot. Ropes are primarily manufactured as 3- and 4-strand, crossbraided, roundbraided and plaited. 18. CHAINS AND LIFTING COMPONENTS Gunnebo - your partner in safe lifting Think Gunnebo when selecting lifting chain and components. Gunnebo has become known for quality, down to the smallest com- ponent, as a result of over 200 years experience, systematic quality control, research and development. Chain and components are made from quenched and tempered alloy steel. A guarantee for very high strength, low weight, high wear resis- tance and long life. All Gunnebo G8 components are uniformly mar- ked with equivalent chain size, grade and manufacturer's designation for positive identification. Quality to international standards Gunnebo work closely with their steel suppliers to ensure that the raw material meets their stringent specification. They also work closely with their world markets and have official approval by the main national and international authorities including MOD, NATO, BG and many others. Gunnebo G8 Grade 8 chain is manufactured and tested to the requirements of ISO 1834 & 3076, 1984 and EN 818-1, & 2. All com- ponents match the relevant prEN- and EN-standards. All Gunnebo productions units are approved by Lloyds (LRQA) for quality assurance to ISO 9001. This approval also combines the new European standard EN 29001. Their quality management covers all aspects of production from raw material to delivered product. LRQA approval for their system includes design, development, manufactu- re, marketing and distribution of lifting chains and associated compo- nents. Full test certification is supplied on request. Gunnebo gives you more options Gunnebo G8 is more than just another chain sling system. It is a total lifting concept in high grade alloy steel for heavy lifting. The chain and components in the G8 and SK ranges are designed to give more flexibility, more options to meet almost any lifting problem involving slings - whether chain, steel wire rope or soft slings. When introduced around 30 years ago, the BK Safety Hook dramati- cally increased industrial safety on sites all over the world. The new generation safety hooks - OBK/GBK - provide a more com- pact version of the well-known BK-hook. The grip latch modification gives better side stability and the hook now has improved riveting. Once again, Gunnebo innovation leads the way. Tovværk fremstilles primært af syntetiske materialer som f.eks. PE, PP, PA og polyester. Tovværk af naturfibre som sisal, hamp, manila og papir produceres stadigvæk, men udbudet er ikke ret stort. Årsa- gen hertil er, at det syntetiske tovværk generelt har en større slidstyr- ke, ikke suger vand og ikke rådner. Tovværk fremstilles primært som 3- og 4-slået, krydsflettet, rundflet- tet og kvadratflettet. 18. KÆDER OG KOMPONENTER Gunnebo - din partner i sikkert løft Tænk Gunnebo ved valg af løftekæder og komponenter. Gunnebo er kendt for kvalitet, helt ned til den mindste komponent som et resultat af mere en 200 års erfaring, systematisk kvalitetskontrol, forskning og udvikling. Kæder og komponenter laves af sejhærdet legeret stål. En garanti for meget høj styrke, lav vægt, høj slidstyrke og lang levetid. Alle Gunnebo G8 komponenter er mærket ensartet med tilsvarende kædestørrelse, klasse og producentens betegnelse for positiv identi- fikation. Kvalitet i henhold til internationale standarder Gunnebo arbejder tæt sammen med sine stålleverandører for at sikre, at råmaterialerne opfylder de strenge kvalitetskrav. Gunnebo arbejder også tæt sammen med sit verdensmarked og har officielle godkendelser fra vigtigste nationale og internationale myn- digheder inklusiv MOD, NATO, BG og mange andre. Gunnebo G8 klasse 8 kæde er produceret og testet i henhold til kra- vene i ISO 1834 & 3076, 1984 og EN 818-1, & 2. Alle komponenter opfylder de relevante prEN og EN-standarder. Alle Gunnebo's produktionsenheder er godkendte af Lloyd's (LRQA) for kvalitetssikkerhed i henhold til ISO 9001. Denne godkendelse kombinerer også den nye europæiske standard EN 29001. Gunnebo's kvalitetskontrol dækker alle produktionsaspekter fra råmateriale til leveret produkt. LRQA godkendelse for systemet inklu- derer design, udvikling, produktion, markedsføring og distribution af løftekæder og tilhørende komponenter. Testcertifikater leveres på forespørgsel. Gunnebo giver dig flere valgmuligheder Gunnebo G8 er mere end blot endnu et kædeslingsystem. Det er et totalt løftekoncept i legeret stål af høj kvalitet til tunge løft. Kæderne og komponenterne i G8 og SK sortimenterne er designet til at give mere fleksibilitet og flere valgmuligheder og dermed løse næsten ethvert løfteproblem, hvor der skal bruges kædesling - hvad enten det drejer sig om kæde-, wire- eller kædesling. Da BK sikkerhedskrogen blev introduceret for ca. 30 år siden, blev den industrielle sikkerhed på arbejdspladser over hele verden forhøj- et betydeligt. Den nye generation i sikkerhedskroge - OBK/GBK - er en mere kom- pakt version af den velkendte BK-krog. Modificeringen af sikkerhed- spalen giver bedre sidestabilitet og krogen har nu forbedret nagling. Endnu en nyskabelse fra Gunnebo, der viser vejen. Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 37 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-38 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Safe design down to the load detail Gunnebo BK/OBK/GBK Safety Hooks fulfil two important require- ments. One is that the load stays put in the hook. The latch closes automatically as soon as the hook is loaded. It cannot be opened under load accidentally. The release trigger will only operate when the load is safely grounded. The other is that the hook will not easily snag during lifting because of its smooth profile. Gunnebo Safety Hooks are designed for work. It is easy to operate the release trigger even with working gloves on. It stays open so that both hands are free to load the hook. Gunnebo Safety Hooks are available for Working Load Limits 1.25 to 25 tonnes. Use ∙ Keep a register of all chains in use. ∙ Never lift with a twisted chain ∙ Chain slings should be shortened with at shortening hook, never by knotting. ∙ Never point load a hook - the load should always seat correctly in the bowl of the hook. ∙ Always use the correct size sling for the load allowing for the inclu ded angle and the possibility of unequal loading. ∙ The master link should always be able to move freely on the crane hook. ∙ Avoid snatch-loading at all times. Maintenance Periodic through examination must be carried out at least every six months or more frequently according to statutory regulations, type of use and past experience. ∙ Chain with bent, cracked or gouged links should be replaced, as should deformed components such as bent master links, opened up hooks and any fitting showing signs of damage. ∙ The wear of the chain and components shall in no place exceed 10% of the original dimensions. The chain link wear - max. 10% - is defined as the reduction of the mean diameter of the material mea- sured in two directions. ∙ Overloaded chain slings must be taken out of service. Sikkert design ned til lastdetaljen BK/OBK/GBK sikkerhedskrogene opfylder to vigtige krav. Det ene er, at lasten forbliver i krogen. Palen lukker automatisk, så snart krogen bliver belastet. Den kan ikke åbnes utilsigtet under last. Udløseren kan kun betjenes, når lasten er sikkert afsat. Det andet er, at krogen ikke så let hænger fast under løft p.g.a. dens bløde profil. Gunnebo sikkerhedskrogene er designet til arbejde. Det er let at betjene udløseren selv med arbejdshandsker på. Den forbliver åben, så begge hænder er fri til at belaste krogen. Sikkerhedskrogene fås fra WLL 1,25 - 25 ton. Anvendelse ∙ Opret et kartotek over alle kæder, der er i brug. ∙ Løft aldrig med en vredet kæde. ∙ Kædesling skal opkortes med en opkorterkrog - der må aldrig slås knuder på kæden. ∙ Beskyt kæden mod skarpe kanter ved at lægge et mellemlag imellem. ∙ Belast aldrig en krog i spidsen - lasten skal altid ligge korrekt i bunden af krogen. ∙ Brug altid den korrekte størrelse kæde til lasten under hensyntagen til vinkel og muligheden for ulige belastning. ∙ Topøjet skal altid kunne hænge frit i krankrogen. ∙ Undgå altid belastning i ryk. Vedligeholdelse Mindst hver 6. måned eller oftere i henhold til lovmæssige bestem- melser, type af anvendelse og tidligere erfaring skal der udføres en omhyggelige kontrol. ∙ Kæder med bøjede, revnede eller udhulede led skal udskiftes, ligesom deformerede komponenter så som bøjede ovalringe, åbne kroge og enhver komponent, der viser tegn på slitage. ∙ Slitagen på kæden og komponenterne må ingen steder overstige 10% af de oprindelige dimensioner. Slitagen på kædeled - max. 10% - er defineret som den gennemsnitlige diameter af materialet målt i 2 retninger. ∙ Overbelastede kædesling skal tages ud af brug. I Danmark kræver Arbejdstilsynet, at alt løftegrej skal kontrolleres mindst én gang om året. Fyns Kran Udstyr tilbyder at udføre test direkte hos kunden (se afsnit 9). Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 38 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-39 10 19. TECHNICAL CONVERSION TABLES 19. TEKNISKE OMREGNINGSTABELLER Omsætning mellem diverse enheder Fig. 9 Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 39 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-40 10 Testcertifikat for stålwirer Test and Examination Certificate for Wire Rope Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 40 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-41 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Certifikat for test af løftegrej Certificate for test of Lifting Gear Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 41 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-42 10 Certifikat for test af faldsikringsudstyr Certificate for test of Fall Arrest Equipment Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 42 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-43 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Certifikat for test af El-taljer Certificate for test of Electric Chain Hoists Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 43 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-44 10 Certifikat for test af Vakuumløfteåg Certificate for test of Vacuum Lifters Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 44 10 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-45 10 FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 Certifikat for test af kædetaljer, wiretaljer, løbekatte, løftekløer, spil og donkrafte Repair Certificate for Chain Hoists, Pull-Lift Trolleys, Lifting Clamps and Jacks Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 45 Randers Odense København 89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66 TEKNISK INFORMATION FKU LIFTING A/S Jan 2002 10-46 10 Fyns Kran Udstyr A/S ISO 9002 certifikat Fyns Kran Udstyr A/S ISO 9002 certificate Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 46 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\1.0 Swivel.doc Chapter 09 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC SWIVEL As a safety precaution, a swivel is inserted in the system to release stress, turns and torsion in steel wires. The swivel is inserted between the dead man wire and the PCP, to ensure no stress, turns and / or torsion in the wire, enabling the deck crew to safely disconnect the systems. Use of swivel can however give a reduction in the breaking load with up to app. 30%, depending on the type of swivel in use. It is strongly recommended not to use a swivel with too low friction coefficient allowing the wire end to freely rotate during normal operation. This will decrease the fatigue life dramatically. The MoorLink swivel has a high friction coefficient and will not allow the wire to rotate when under load. T.O. has delivered a MoorLink swivel to all AHTS vessels. Please observe the enclosed table / drawing (page 5) showing breaking strength when the swivels are on wire drums and stern rollers. Please read the following pages together with chapter 8 for further information. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\1.0 Swivel.doc Chapter 09 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC MoorLink Swivel Subject:Theory - Swivels versus Wire torque ____________________________________________________________________________ Background Six-stranded wire rope behaves different in different applications or operations, which could lead to potential problems for the user. In theory a six stranded rope should not be allowed to open up (swivel) under load to achieve longest lifetime of the rope. This is normally only possible in a perfect world, where no external operational criteria are present. An all wire moored drilling or accommodation rig might achieve this by perfect anchor handling and spooling off / on from / to a winch. In reality the winches are not spooling perfectly and if the wire is dragged over or in seabed the geometry of the wire could lead to induced torque. Safety Torque can cause severe damages to personnel and equipment. This normally occurs when an anchor handling wire is spooled in with high tension and disconnection shall occur. The torque has been transferred to the end of the rope disconnection can be impossible or lead to a kink in the rope. This also happens during cross over operations on combination mooring systems. Combination Mooring Systems For drilling rigs equipped with combination chain /wire system swivels would assist during the cross over operation and bolstering of anchors. When hauling in the wire, the torque moves towards the end of the rope. In order to remove the torque from the wire to prior to disconnection the swivel positioned in the cross over point should absorb the torque at a relative low tension. It is strongly recommended not to use a swivel with too low friction coefficient allowing the wire end to freely rotate during normal operation (when moored). This will decrease the fatigue life dramatically. The wire also introduces twist to the chain during normal operation and when hauling in anchors. The chain has a relative high torsion stiffness when under tension (nil when stored in a pile onshore or in the chain locker). This means that the wire will induce a number of turns over the length of the chain, which is not causing any damages to the chain. However, when the chain is hauled in and the AHT is coming closer to the bolster these turns will be present on a short piece of chain, potentially leading to problems bolstering the anchor properly. By installing a swivel close to the anchor end this torque could be absorbed. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\1.0 Swivel.doc Chapter 09 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC Anchor handling Anchor handling can be divided into two different main categories: 1. The usage of vessel’s own anchor handling wire or tow wire, which is permanently installed (and replaced when damaged) and kept with high tension on the drum. 2. The usage of external supplied anchor-handling wires (normal for deep-water operations). These wires are normally not spooled on to the winches with any high tension before commencement of work. The problem that occurs during anchor handling is that the torque induced in the wire is transferred to the end of the rope and if the axial stiffness in the connected part is low the torque is transferred further. This means that a swivel can absorb the torque and avoid any twist to be transferred. Bearing Systems 1.Slide Bearing System Bearing system is bronze aluminium type running on a polished stain less steel washer. The material is often used in high load / low speed bearings in many offshore applications (very good corrosion and wear resistance in seawater). The bearing is self-lubricating with embedded sold lubricant. The base material is high-grade bronze alloys and has finely finished surface with pockets in which a specially formulated solid lubricant is embedded. During operation a very fine, but very strong lubricating film is deposited automatically over the complete moving area. This film remains intact at all times, even immediately upon starting. The construction is also being equipped with grease inlets in order to secure and guarantees a well-lubricated moving surface. 2.Roller Bearing System The roller bearing swivels are equipped with a cylindrical thrust roller bearing system (either single or double row). Summary What is best? The usage of roller or slide bearing swivel? It depends on your operation. The main issue is that most operations are different. The operation can be normal anchor handling, or installation of chain, polyester ropes or spiral strand, anchor proof loading, towing etc. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\1.0 Swivel.doc Chapter 09 Page 4 Anchor Handling Course MTC The slide-bearing swivel should not rotate under tension until the induced torque is exceeding the start friction. This enhances the fatigue life of the wire. Typical operation is anchor handling and inserts in combination mooring systems The roller bearing systems would rotate under tension, as the friction moment is lower than the induced torque. This could be benefit if you do not want to transfer the torque from your wire to the object lowered. Bear in mind, fatigue life of the wire will decrease after continuos use of roller bearing swivels. Typical operation is installation of sub sea equipment, anchors or proof loading of anchors. Theory of Torque versus Friction: Based on our past experience and information provided by two large steel-wire rope manufacturers: ScanRope and Haggie Rand the induced torque by a six-stranded wire rope is: 6-8% of the diameter of rope x tensions. Example Induced torque: Wire size:89mm Tension:200 tonnes Resulted induced torque:0.07 x 0.089 x 200.000 x 9,81 = 12.223 Nm Break Out Torque Comparison: 1.Friction moment Roller Bearing System: 0.015 (0.005 in rolling mode) Average Diameter of bearing:0.20 m Break-out Torque:0.5 x 0.20 m x 0.015 x 200.000 x 9.81 = 2.943 Nm 2.Friction moment Slide Bearing System: 0.12 (0.10 in gliding mode) Average Diameter:0.20 m Break-out Torque:0.5 x 0.20 m x 0.12 x 200.000 x 9.81 = 23.544 Nm As can be seen above the resistance (friction moment) in the slide bearing system is HIGHER than the induced torque in the wire. The swivel will not rotate when the tension is increased. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\1.0 Swivel.doc Chapter 09 Page 5 Anchor Handling Course MTC M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\2.0 Pin Extractor.doc Chapter 09 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC Pin Extractor As torsion tension builds up in wires that have been under heavy load this will result in violent movement of the wires when disconnected. Removing of pins, in shackles, dismantling of other connecting links e.g. Pear – and Kenter link, from systems that have been under tension and where torsion is likely, should only take place by use of a tugger or capstan wire together with a chain - / wire sling or a Pin Extractor. Occasionally people have been injured when a crowbar has been used for this action, so that is why a crowbar never should be used to punch pins out of shackles where the wire has been under tension. When using the tugger or capstan wire together with a sling or Pin Extractor, the safety is considerably improved. See the Pin Extractor in use on an 85 T shackle on the following page. The wire from either the tugger or the capstan is fixed on the Extractor, which is hooked on to the shackle pin. The pin is now easily pulled out by use of a tugger or capstan. E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S Pin Extractor in use on a 85 T Shackle Anchor Handling Equipment, chapter 9 M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\4.0 Socket Bench.doc Chapter 09 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC Socket Bench As mentioned in the APM Procedures 15, 16 and 15, 259, that we now and then have to re- socket the wires used for anchor handling and towing. These re-socketing are often carried out by the ship’s crew and in this connection occurs the problem how to clean out used wire sockets. The only applicable method for removing the old piece of wire is to squeeze the compound out of the socket. For this purpose you can use a hydraulic jack. The same method is used on workshops ashore. The method with using heat on the socket in order to get the used socket cleaned is not applicable for following two reasons. 1. You can easily change the steel structure of the socket, which afterwards under load can brake. 2. There can be a pocket of air inside the socket/compound. When the air pocket becomes superheated this can result in an unexpected explosion of compound. The attached picture on the following page illustrates how a hydraulic jack can be used to squeeze out the old compound. E-procurement work group Maersk Training Centre A/S Socket Bench Hydraulic Jack in use - squeezing out the old compound Anchor Handling Equipment, chapter 9 2.1 CHAINS & FITTINGS SECTION 2 CHAINS AND FITTINGS Introduction There are currently two types of chain in common use within the marine industry. Studlink chain which is the most popular is used by the shipping and the oil Industry. Open link, which has no studs, is generally used in special mooring applications such as permanent moorings for FPSO’s for the larger diameter chains and buoy and marine moorings for the small diameters. Chain is normally supplied in 27.5 metre lengths but the oil industry uses chain of much longer lengths up to about 1370 feet (4,500 metres). Long lengths of chain mean no joining links, which may be the weakest links, but shipping and handling can be a problem. Chain size is generally expressed as the diameter of the steel at the bending area. This can mean that steel bars of 78-79mm may be used to manufacture chain of 76mm diameter. Chain can be fitted with open end links to enable shackle connections to be made. These end links are normally forged to the chain using an intermediate link also known as an enlarged link. These links are larger than the diameter of the chain to take into account the differing radii and the reduced strength of the links due the end link being studless. Chain strengths are expressed as grades followed by a number. The letter used varies with countries but the strength of the chain remains the same. The United Kingdom used “U”, France and Spain used “Q” and the Scandinavian countries use “K”. The number relates to the type and hence the strength of the steel. U1 grade is mild steel, U2 is a high tensile steel and U3 is a special heat treated steel. These grades are normally only used within the shipping industry as the oil industry demands even greater strengths for the chain used. The original grade designed for the offshore industry was ORQ (Oil Rig Quality). Although this chain is still in use it has been superseded by new grades such as Rig Quality 3 and Rig Quality 4. These grades were introduced by the classification societies in order to standardise quality. The same grades also apply to the joining links that may be used with the chain. Tables showing the various strengths of chain are shown overleaf. Offshore Industry dictates that chain must be periodically inspected for wear and defects. The level of inspection and the intervals of these surveys are laid down by the classification authorities. Balmoral can carry out such inspections in line with relevant classification society requirements. 2.2 STUD LINK MOORING CHAIN CHAINS & FITTINGS COMMON LINK ENLARGED LINK END LINK Common Link Enlarged Link End Link 3.6d 6d 1d 4d 6.5d 1.1d 4d 6.75d 1.2d 2.3 CHAINS & FITTINGS STUD LINK CHAIN Shot = 90 ft = 27.5 m Weight Kg/shot incl. Kenter A 306 C 497 E 734 H 919 1420 1720 2100 2640 1240 1480 1820 2500 280 370 530 660 935 1129 1391 1815 870 1040 1270 1660 590 720 910 1050 30 40 65 75 30 40 65 75 222 418 652 826 1105 1209 1437 1555 1809 1946 2100 2253 2573 2742 3097 3374 3681 4187 4832 5385 5723 6613 mm 22 28 34 38 19 26 32 36 42 44 48 50 54 56 58 60 64 66 70 73 76 81 87 92 95 102 in 7/8 1 1/8 1 5/16 1 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 7/16 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/8 2 3/16 2 5/16 2 3/8 2 1/2 2 5/8 2 3/4 2 7/8 3 3 3/16 3 7/16 3 5/8 3 3/4 4 P.L. kN 200 321 468 581 150 278 417 523 703 769 908 981 1140 1220 1290 1380 1560 1660 1840 1990 2150 2410 2750 3040 3230 3660 B.L. kN 280 449 655 812 211 389 583 732 981 1080 1280 1370 1590 1710 1810 1940 2190 2310 2580 2790 3010 3380 3850 4260 4510 5120 P.L. kN 280 449 655 812 211 389 583 732 981 1080 1280 1370 1590 1710 1810 1940 2190 2310 2580 2790 3010 3380 3850 4260 4510 5120 B.L. kN 401 642 937 1160 301 556 833 1050 1400 1540 1810 1960 2270 2430 2600 2770 3130 3300 3690 3990 4300 4820 5500 6080 6440 7320 P.L. kN 1400 1620 1746 1854 1976 2230 2361 2634 2846 3066 3453 3924 4342 4599 5220 B.L. kN 2110 2441 2639 2797 2978 3360 3559 3970 4291 4621 5209 5916 6544 6932 7868 U2U3ORQ 9.81 kN = 1 Tonne P.L.= Proof Load B.L.= Breaking Load 2.4 STUD LINK/STUDLESS CHAIN – OIL INDUSTRY GRADES CHAINS & FITTINGS Dia mm 4621 4885 5156 5572 6001 6295 6745 7208 7682 8167 8497 9001 9343 kN 9864 10217 10754 11118 11856 12420 12993 13573 13964 14358 14955 15559 15965 16992 18033 19089 20156 21234 22320 22976 23633 24292 25174 25836 4200 4440 4685 5064 5454 5720 6130 6550 6981 7422 7722 8180 8490 kN 8964 9285 9773 10103 10775 11287 11807 12334 12690 13048 13591 14139 14508 15441 16388 17347 18317 19297 20284 20879 21477 22076 22877 23479 Break Load 3761 3976 4196 4535 4884 5123 5490 5866 6252 6647 6916 7326 7604 kN 8028 8315 8753 9048 9650 10109 10574 11047 11365 11686 12171 12663 12993 13829 14677 15536 16405 17282 18166 18699 19234 19771 20488 21027 3559 3762 3970 4291 4621 4847 5194 5550 5916 6289 6544 6932 7195 kN 7596 7868 8282 8561 9130 9565 10005 10452 10753 11057 11516 11981 12294 13085 13887 14700 15522 16352 17188 17693 18199 18707 19386 19896 kgs/m Weight kgs/m R4-RQ4R3SR3 RQ3-API Stud and StudlessStudStudless 95 101 107 117 126 133 144 155 166 177 185 198 206 219 228 241 251 270 285 300 315 326 337 353 370 382 411 442 473 506 540 575 596 618 640 671 694 87 92 98 107 116 122 131 141 151 162 169 181 188 200 208 221 229 246 260 274 288 298 308 323 338 348 375 403 432 462 493 525 545 564 585 613 634 66 68 70 73 76 78 81 84 87 90 92 95 97 100 102 105 107 111 114 117 120 122 124 127 130 132 137 142 147 152 157 162 165 168 171 175 178 2.5 CHAINS & FITTINGS Dia mm 3643 3851 4064 4392 4731 4962 5317 5682 6056 6439 6699 7096 7365 kN 7776 8054 8478 8764 9347 9791 10242 10700 11008 11319 11789 12265 12585 13395 14216 15048 15890 16739 17596 18112 18631 19150 19845 20367 3238 3423 3613 3904 4205 4411 4726 5051 5383 5723 5954 6307 6547 kN 6912 7159 7536 7790 8308 8703 9104 9511 9785 10061 10479 10903 11187 11906 12637 13376 14124 14879 15641 16100 16560 17022 17640 18104 Proof Load 3036 3209 3387 3660 3942 4135 4431 4735 5046 5365 5582 5913 6138 kN 6480 6712 7065 7304 7789 8159 8535 8916 9173 9432 9824 10221 10488 11162 11847 12540 13241 13949 14663 15094 15525 15959 16538 16972 2935 3102 3274 3538 3811 3997 4283 4577 4878 5187 5396 5716 5933 kN 6264 6488 6829 7060 7529 7887 8251 8619 8868 9118 9497 9880 10138 10790 11452 12122 12800 13484 14174 14590 15008 15427 15986 16407 kgs/m Weight kgs/m Studless StudStudless StudStudlessStud 2631 2782 2935 3172 3417 3548 3840 4104 4374 4650 4838 5125 5319 kN 5616 5817 6123 6330 6750 7071 7397 7728 7950 8175 8515 8858 9089 9674 10267 10868 11476 12089 12708 13081 13455 13831 14333 14709 Stud Studless 2361 2496 2634 2847 3066 3216 3446 3683 3925 4173 4342 4599 4774 kN 5040 5220 5495 5681 6058 6346 6639 6935 7135 7336 7641 7950 8157 8682 9214 9753 10299 10850 11405 11739 12075 12412 12863 13201 Stud Studless R4-RQ4R3SR3RQ3-API 66 68 70 73 76 78 81 84 87 90 92 95 97 100 102 105 107 111 114 117 120 122 124 127 130 132 137 142 147 152 157 162 165 168 171 175 178 95 101 107 117 126 133 144 155 166 177 185 198 206 219 228 241 251 270 285 300 315 326 337 353 370 382 411 442 473 506 540 575 596 618 640 671 694 87 92 98 107 116 122 131 141 151 162 169 181 188 200 208 221 229 246 260 274 288 298 308 323 338 348 375 403 432 462 493 525 545 564 585 613 634 2.6 OPEN LINK MOORING CHAIN LONG LINK (MILD STEEL) MEDIUM LINK (MILD STEEL) CHAINS & FITTINGS d 6d 3.5d d 5.5d 3.5d 3190 4830 6820 10000 12770 Proof Load kg 7970 12090 17050 24990 31940 Minimum Breaking Load kg 3.34 5.06 7.14 10.46 13.38 Weight kg/m 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 13 16 19 22 26 Size mmins 3200 4800 6800 9100 11800 Proof Load kg 6400 9600 13600 18200 23600 Minimum Breaking Load kg 3.50 5.20 7.40 10.00 12.80 Weight kg/m 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 13 16 19 22 25 Size mmins 148002950016.501 1/828 194003870021.001 1/432 218004360023.501 3/834 273005460029.501 1/238 333006660036.001 5/842 366007320039.501 3/444 435008700047.001 7/848 492009830053.00251 2.7 CHAINS & FITTINGS OPEN LINK MOORING CHAIN SHORT LINK (MILD STEEL) d 5d 3.5d 700 900 1250 2000 2240 Proof Load kg 1400 1800 2500 4000 4480 Minimum Breaking Load kg 0.89 1.13 1.39 1.95 2.67 Weight kg/m 1/4 9/32 5/16 3/8 7/16 6 7 8 10 11 Size mmins 320064003.721/213 5000100005.645/816 682036407.963/419 2.8 KENTER JOINING LINKS CHAINS & FITTINGS 1.0 1.6 2.6 3.5 4.8 19 22 26 30 32 Size mm Weight kg 6.534 8.438 11.041 13.544 16.548 2052 2454 2857 3260 3964 4567 5270 6073 6776 7779 8683 9386 10189 11292 12395 13798 151102 158105 163108 171110 180114 230120 Common Link Common Link Kenter Joining Link TYPICAL APPLICATION 6d 4d 4.2d d 1.5d Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4 All dimensions given are approximate 2.9 CHAINS & FITTINGS PEAR SHAPE ANCHOR CONNECTING LINK E mm D mm C mm B mm A mm Chain size in mm 32-40 42-51 52-60 62-79 81-92 94-95 97-102 298 378 454 562 654 692 889 206 260 313 376 419 435 571 59 76 92 117 133 146 190 40 51 60 79 92 98 121 48 64 76 95 124 130 165 83 100 121 149 149 159 190 F mm No 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 KJG 40 x 44 51 x 60 62 x 73 85 x 79 111 x 102 124 x 137 130 26 32 37 48 54 57 73 43 52 64 76 79 83 108 No 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 H 56 74 88 111 130 x 133 141 181 Weight in kg 13 27 49 94 149 236 386 Anchor Shank A D G E B H C Anchor Shackle Common Links F J K Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4 All dimensions given are approximate 2.10 DETACHABLE CONNECTING LINK Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4 All dimensions given are approximate CHAINS & FITTINGS AChain size in mm 30-32 33-35 36-38 40-42 43-44 46-48 50-51 52-54 56-58 59-60 62-64 66-67 190.5 210 229 248 267 286 305 324 343 362 381 400 419 68-70 71-73438 74-76457 4.5 20.0 6.0 7.8 10.0 12.5 14.5 16.5 23.5 27.5 32.0 37.0 45.5 48.5 54.5 weight in KgB 127 140 152 165 190 194 197 210 221 234 246 246 275 283 295 C 44 49 53 57 62 64 64 67 71 78 79 83 92 94 95 D 32 35 38 41 44 48 51 54 57 60 64 67 73 73 76 E 35 39 43 50 51 55 59 64 67 70 73 78 83 85 90 F 39 42 46 50 56 60 64 67 71 75 78 79 90 93 94 G 21 23 25 27 30 31 33 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 78-7947662.530810279929652 81-8349573.0320103839210355 84-8651480.53321078610010757 87-8953793.53501169210511459 90-9255297.53561199210611661 94-95571116.03681229511411962 97-98590123.03811279811712167 100-102607130.039413210211912268 A D E C F B E G 2.11 CHAINS & FITTINGS D’ TYPE JOINING SHACKLES 1.7 2.7 4.3 7 7.8 19 22 26 30 32 Size mm Weight kg 8.534 13.838 1841 2244 2748 2952 3954 4657 5260 6464 7467 8470 9873 11076 12279 13483 14486 15489 16892 18495 20098 220102 230105 264108 285110 320114 340120 Common Link Enlarged Link End Link End Link Common Link Joining Shackle Enlarged Link 4d 1.4d 1.3d 1.3d 3.4d 7.1d 2.8d 1.6d 1.2d 2.12 ‘D’ TYPE ANCHOR SHACKLES CHAINS & FITTINGS 2.5 3.8 6.0 9 11.3 19 22 26 30 32 Size mm Weight kg 1434 19.838 2641 3244 3948 4852 5754 6757 8060 9364 10667 12170 14173 15976 17279 18983 20086 23089 25892 29095 30198 344102 390105 422108 431110 475114 530120 Enlarged Link 4d Anchor Shackle Anchor Shank Swivel End Link Clenched Anchor Shackle 8.7d 1.4d 1.4d 2.4d 5.2d 1.3d 1.8d 3.1d Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4 All dimensions give are approximate 2.13 CHAINS & FITTINGS SHACKLES BOW AND ‘D’ SCREW PIN SHACKLES UP TO 120 tonne SWL SWL Tonnes 2 3.25 4.75 6.5 8.5 9.5 12 13.5 17 25 35 55 85 120 Size mm 13 16 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 44 51 64 76 89 Pin Dia mm 16 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 41 51 57 70 83 95 Gap mm 19 26 32 35 42 45 51 57 60 73 83 105 127 140 O/Dia Eye mm 32 41 48 54 60 67 76 85 92 111 127 152 165 203 Inside Length mm 48 61 70 83 95 108 118 133 149 178 197 267 330 381 Weight Safety kg 0.36 0.72 1.3 1.8 2.6 3.6 5.1 6.9 9.0 14.2 21.0 43 66 114 Weight Screw Pin kg 0.36 0.68 1.0 1.5 2.4 3.4 3.9 5.9 7.9 12.7 18.7 38.0 59 102 BOW SCREW PIN 'D' SCREW PIN Inside Length Gap Outside of Eye Size Pin Dia 2.14 BOW AND ‘D’ SAFETY PIN SHACKLES UP TO 100 tonne SWL CHAINS & FITTINGS SWL Tonne 2 3.25 4.75 6.5 8.5 9.5 12 13.5 17 25 35 50-55 75-85 100 Size mm 13 16 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 44 51 64 76 89 Pin Dia mm 16 19 22 25 29 32 35 38 41 51 57 70 83 95 Gap mm 19 26 32 35 42 45 51 57 60 73 83 105 127 149 O/Dia Eye mm 32 41 48 54 60 67 76 85 92 111 127 152 165 203 Inside Length mm 41 51 60 70 80 89 99 111 124 149 171 203 229 267 Weight Safety kg 0.36 0.67 0.72 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.7 6.1 8.4 13.0 19.0 38.0 56.0 99.0 Weight Screw Pin kg 0.3 0.55 0.6 1.4 2.1 3.0 4.1 5.5 7.4 16.0 16.5 33.7 49.0 86.0 2.15 CHAINS & FITTINGS SHACKLES, BOW & ‘D’ SAFETY SWL Tonnes 120 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Size mm 89 102 120 125 135 165 175 195 205 210 220 230 Pin Dia mm 95 108 130 140 150 175 185 205 215 220 230 240 Gap mm 146 165 175 200 200 225 250 275 300 300 320 340 Inside Length mm 381 400 500 540 600 650 700 700 700 700 700 700 Weight Safety kg 120 160 235 285 340 560 685 880 980 1100 1280 1460 CROSBY SWL Tonnes 120 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 Size mm 89 102 108 121 130 149 155 178 Pin Dia mm 95 108 121 127 152 178 190 210 Gap mm 133 140 184 216 216 210 219 235 Inside Length mm 371 368 394 508 495 571 641 810 O/Dia Eye mm 203 229 268 305 305 356 381 432 Weight kg 120 153 204 272 352 499 704 863 BOW SAFETY 'D' SAFETY Inside Length Gap Size Pin Dia Outside of Eye GREEN PIN 2.16 CHAINS & FITTINGS JAW & JAW SWIVELS 120 156 200 258 303 54 57 60 64 68 Size mm Weight kg 33070 36173 39476 49384 60090 70095 970102 1060105 1170108 1440114 1650120 1.4d 1.3d 1.3d 7.7d 12.7d 2.2d 5.6d 1.7d c 1.7d 4d Anchor Shank End Link Enlarged Link Common Link Anchor Shank Common Link Enlarged Link End Link Anchor Shackle TYPICAL APPLICATION 2.17 BOW & EYE SWIVELS CHAINS & FITTINGS 2.8 4.4 6.8 9.4 12.7 19 22 26 30 32 Size mm Weight kg 17.534 2238 2941 3644 4348 5452 6454 7557 7860 9064 10467 11470 13473 15276 17179 18983 19686 21789 25692 27595 30098 342102 387105 420108 450110 520114 620120 Enlarged Link TYPICAL SWIVEL ASSEMBLIES Enlarged Link End Link End Link Swivel End Link Enlarged Link Common Link Swivel Enlarged Link 3.6d 1.1d 1.4d 4.7d 6.3d 9.3d 1.2d 3.4d 2.18 MOORING RINGS 6 12 24 40 63 19 25 32 38 44 Size mm Weight kg 9851 13657 19364 25270 32376 42183 51889 63095 780102 7.5d 2d TYPICAL APPLICATION Ring Shackles Sinker CHAINS & FITTINGS 2.19 FISH PLATES CHAINS & FITTINGS Chain Size mm 38 48 58 70 76 83 95 102 A mm 320 360 430 506 550 600 685 736 B mm 168 184 225 266 290 316 361 388 C mm 50 60 80 90 90 100 120 120 D mm 76 88 102 120 130 142 162 174 Proof Load Tonnes 81.2 127 190 270 313 356 508 594 Breaking Load Tonnes 106 181 287 404 472 549 794 910 Weight kg 13 25 50 81 96 127 199 230 B D A C D 2.20 CHAINS & FITTINGS PELICAN HOOKS Chain Size mm 25-28 32 34-42 44-48 51-58 60-64 67-70 76-83 A mm 90 100 110 120 135 150 170 200 B mm 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 C mm 38 45 55 60 75 86 90 105 D mm 30 35 42 50 60 70 80 100 E mm 358 390 430 475 525 600 705 880 S.W.L. Tonnes 10 15 25 35 50 60 75 100 Weight kg 24 35 50 70 98 150 230 430 C D E A B Chain Deck Padeye TYPICAL APPLICATION Pelican Hook 2.21 SLIP HOOKS CHAINS & FITTINGS 4.3 6.6 10 14 19 19 22 25 29 32 Size mm Weight kg 2735 3438 4441 5544 6648 8251 9854 11557 13760 15964 18367 20870 24173 27276 31279 34883 39486 43789 48392 53295 59398 649102 13d 1.3d 0.6d 6.7d 2.5d 1.3d 4d 10.4d 1.3d 4.4d 4.88 27.50 124 699 1829 72.00 12.00 305 ø3.38 86 96.00 2438 3.2 CHASERS & GRAPNELS CHAIN CHASERS Stage 1 Wire Rope from Anchor Handling Vessel Chain Chaser Mooring Chain Anchor Stage 3 Stage 2 Chain chasers were developed to overcome the problems of recovering rig anchors when anchor pendant lines failed in service. The operational sequence of chasing is shown below. ‘J’ CHASERS BEL 101 ’J’ CHAIN CHASER Safe Working Load:100 Tonnes Proof Test Load:250 Tonnes Weight:1882 Kg 3.3 CHASERS & GRAPNELS GRAPNELS BEL 109 GRAPNEL Safe Working Load:100 Tonnes Proof Test Load:150 Tonnes Weight:1351 Kg 4.50 114 4.00 102 3.00 76 54.00 1372 70.00 1778 ø3.38 86 The grapnel was designed as a “fishing” tool primarily for the purpose of recovering an anchor and chain which has become detached and has fallen to the sea bed. The operational sequence is as follows: Stage 1 Broken Chain Recovery Wire Rope Stage 2 Broken Chain Recovery Wire Rope BEL 139 GRAPNEL Safe Working Load:250 Tonnes Proof Test Load:350 Tonnes Weight:2630 Kg 3.4 CHASERS & GRAPNELS GRAPNELS 66.00 1676 7.88 200 3.94 100 78.5 1994 50.5 1283 ø5.25 133 8.5 216 ø3.50 89 Continuous Fillet Weld 3.94 100 5.0 127 7.5 191 66.5 1689 1.5 38 3.5 CHASERS & GRAPNELS PERMANENT CHASERS in mm in mm in mm Proof Test S.W.L. BEL 102 BEL 106 BEL 110 Type B 45.00 1143 46.00 1168 49.00 1245 A 65.25 1657 67.00 1702 73.50 1867 E 12.00 305 15.00 381 13.00 330 D 30.00 762 30.00 762 33.00 838 39.00 991 39.00 991 44.50 1130 CF 7.50 191 8.00 203 8.00 203 G 4.88 124 5.13 130 5.13 130 H 3.38 86 3.88 99 3.88 99 100 Tonnes 130 Tonnes 130 Tonnes 250 Tonnes 250 Tonnes 250 Tonnes BEL 102 - 106 - 110 Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type. Specials can be made to suit customer requirements. Weight:BEL 102 1088 Kg BEL 106 1451 Kg BEL 110 1433 Kg G C D B A Hø F E 3.6 DETACHABLE PERMANENT CHAIN CHASERS CHASERS & GRAPNELS in mm in mm in mm Proof Test S.W.L. BEL 107 BEL 108 BEL 111 Type B 45.00 1143 46.00 1168 49.00 1245 A 74.25 1886 76.00 1931 78.50 1994 E 12.00 305 15.00 381 13.00 330 D 30.00 762 30.00 762 33.00 838 42.50 1080 42.00 1067 44.50 1130 CF 7.50 191 8.00 203 8.00 203 G 4.88 124 5.13 130 5.13 130 H 3.38 86 3.88 99 3.88 99 100 Tonnes 130 Tonnes 130 Tonnes 250 Tonnes 250 Tonnes 250 Tonnes BEL 107 - 108 - 111 Weight:BEL 107 1238 Kg BEL 108 1656 Kg BEL 111 1742 Kg G C D B A Hø F E Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type. Specials can be made to suit customer requirements. 3.7 CHASERS & GRAPNELS PERMANENT WIRE CHASERS Proof Test Tonnes S.W.L. TonnesType B 1245 1099 1308 1168 A 2073 1962 2318 2051 E 330 330 330 356 D 838 692 902 711 1203 1086 1397 1060 CF 432 445 508 445 G 130 130 130 178 H 99 99 99 127 mm mm mm mm BEL 213 BEL 215 BEL 210 BEL 214 130 250 130 130 250 400 250 250 G C D B A Hø F E BEL 210 - 213 - 214 - 215 Weight:BEL 210 1959 kg BEL 213 1846 kg BEL 214 2530 kg BEL 215 2495 kg Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type. Specials can be made to suit customer requirements. 3.8 ‘J’ LOCK CHAIN CHASERS CHASERS & GRAPNELS 12.00 305 21.00 533 58.50 1486 711 ø28.00 4.88 124 82.00 2083 3.383.38 86 BEL 115 BEL 115/35 for chain 2 1 / 2 inch to 3 1 / 2 inch. BEL 115/45 for chain 3 3 / 4 inch to 4 1 / 2 inch. Safe Working Load:100 Tonnes Proof Test Load:250 Tonnes Weight:1778 Kg M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 11\Breaking the anchor off the bottom.doc Chapter 11 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC Breaking the anchor off the bottom: Breaking out anchors takes its time mainly because: Breaking out forces is caused by the volume of the soil on the fluke and the sucking or under pressure below it. Pulling up the anchor increases the soil resistance due to the dilatant behaviour of the soil. This resistance decreases with time, reducing the negative pressure and thus easing the break out. For most anchors the following guide is useful: 1. In sandy soil the break out force will be between 12 and 17% of the anchor's test load. 2. In clay soil the break out force will be about 60% of the anchor’s test load. 3. In sticky soft soil the break out force can exceed 100% of the anchor’s test load. As the typical test tension of the anchor is around 1/3 break strain of the chain or wire in use, the following table is a summary of the forces: Chain type 1/3 Break load Sandy 17% Clay 60% Soft Soil 100% 76 mm U3 143 24 86 143+ 76 mm ORQ 154 26 93 154+ 76 mm K4 200 34 120 200+ Breaking the anchor off the bottom is very likely the operation where there has been most loss of time and equipment. It is a very time-consuming and hard job to get the anchor up, when the connection between the anchor and the vessel is broken. Wrong use of equipment and wrong technique gives many possibilities of damaging the work and or the pennant wire, other anchor handling equipment i.e. the swivel and especially maybe also the winch. One of these possibilities must here be mentioned: The mentioned possibility of damaging the wire is overload on the wire during the work with breaking the anchor loose from the bottom. A very common but inappropriate method is to shorten up on the work wire - heave in on the winch – and keep on going until the stern roller is above the anchor position and the anchor will break loose or the wire / equipment will break. See fig 1, page 2, chapter 11. Shorten up on the work wire might help breaking loose the anchor in many situations, but on the other hand there is a high risk for overloading your equipment. The tension, which during the above mentioned method is used on the wire, is depended on following circumstances: 1. Winch pull force 2. Vessel’s displacement 3. Nature of the sea / sea state M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 11\Breaking the anchor off the bottom.doc Chapter 11 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC Pt. 1 is depending on the size of the winch and which layer you are working on. If you are using one of the bigger winch sizes you are able to exceed the breaking load of the wire. Pt. 2 and pt. 3 can easily by many times exceed the breaking load of the wire regardless the size of winch – small or large. Fig 1 • “A” is the break loose force, indicating the best direction and size of tension to be used for breaking loose the anchor. • “B” will be the tension you will get in your work wire in order to obtain the required force “A”, if position of the stern roller is above the anchor, • “D” is water depth plus penetration of anchor. Anchors in very soft clay can be buried very deep. A penetration of 60 meters is mentioned. Another fact is that the soil aft of the anchor is disturbed due to the penetration of the anchor. While the soil above the anchor might be intact and has probably been it for several thousand years. The forces illustrated on fig 1 are the same if position of chaser collar is on top of the anchor shank as e.g. on a Stevpris. (Illustrated with green arrows on fig 1) A C B D B A M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 11\Breaking the anchor off the bottom.doc Chapter 11 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC The way to break the anchor loose of the bottom is therefore: Slowly to increase power in a direction away from the rig (pull the anchor out backwards) until the above mentioned “breaking loose force” and then holding this power to let the under pressure or “suction force” be reduced / equalised so as to ease the break out. If the anchor is not loosened after 30 to 40 minutes (a mater of estimate), then slowly increase 10% and so on. An example from the North See: The anchor was buried 60 meter. Maximum allowed tension on the system, 130 T. The AH-vessel used 18 hours to break loose the anchor – but it came, without breaking anything. Changing the heading of the vessel might also help to break the anchor loose, but before this is performed it has to be verified with the rig, as going off line with the vessel gives a high risk of bending the shank of the anchor. The forces on the wire might be considerably increased if there is significant swell as the boat heaves up and down. It is very important during the “Breaking loose operation” to keep the actual tension on every piece of equipment in use, i.e. wires, swivel, connecting links and winch, below allowed maximum working load. Below is a bad example of a written procedure about how to retrieve the anchor: “When the boat has the chaser at the anchor, it will increase power and maintain app. 50% bollard pull for 15 minutes. If no appreciable forward movement is recognised, the boat will reduce bollard pull to 30% and shorten work wire length to water depth plus 30 meters! The boat will break the anchor off-bottom by increasing power until the anchor is free from the seabed but will exercise caution not to exceed 200 metric tons work wire tension unless approved by the rig’s OIM and or barge master.” As mentioned in the Vryhof Anchor Manual: “Anchors in very soft clay can be buried very deep. Have patience, take your time and be gentle with the equipment; the anchor will come.” DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of 1 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 Polaris POLARIS DANMARK 15 mt Stewpris anchor POLARIS AHTS MAERSK TRAINER AHTS backs up to rig to recieve PCP on deck PCP (w/ chaser) Anchor deployment, example of • The Maersk Trainer will back up to rig. • Rig passes over PCP to deck of the Maersk Trainer using rig crane. 2 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 POLARIS DANMARK POLARIS AHTS MAERSK TRAINER Anchor deployment, example of 3 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 POLARIS DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of • The rig will commence paying out all chain. • The Maersk Trainer will be instructed to increase power to prevent mooring chain from rubbing on the rig’s anchor bolster. 4 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 ~ 573 m (Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) ~77 mt @ stern ~57 mt ~75 mt @ fairlead Maersk Trainer Polaris 3 9 ∕ 16 " dia.x 609 m rig chain 41.18° POLARIS DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of • The Rig will pay out additional 500 meters of mooring wire and stop while AHTS keeps wire off bolster. 5 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 ~ 1727 m (Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) ~118 mt @ stern ~58 mt ~91 mt @ fairlead AHTS Maersk Trainer Polaris 3 1 ∕ 2 "dia.rig wire (~1000 m outboard) 3 9 ∕ 16 dia.x 609 m rig chain ~41.74° POLARIS DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of • The Maersk Trainer pays 500 meters of work wire and keeps tension on system. 5A ~ 1727 m (Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) ~118 mt @ stern ~58 mt ~91 mt @ fairlead AHTS Maersk Trainer Polaris 3 1 ∕ 2 "dia.rig wire (~1000 m outboard) 3" dia.work wire (~500 m outboard) 3 9 ∕ 16 dia.x 609 m rig chain 15 mt Stewpris anchor ~41.74° JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 POLARIS DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of • The Maersk Trainer will reduce power and pay out additional work wire equal to a total of 1.3 times the anchors water depth. 6 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 AHTS Maersk Trainer Polaris 3 1 ∕ 2 "dia.rig wire (~1981 m outboard) 3" dia.work wire (~1638 m outboard) 3 9 ∕ 16 dia.x 609 m rig chain 15 mt Stewpris anchor POLARIS DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of • The Maersk Trainer will again increase power sufficiently to stretch mooring line to appox.91 mt bollard pull. • When the Rig has determined the mooring line has been stretched,the AHTS will be instructed to reduce power rapidly, thereby setting the anchor on bottom. 7 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 AHTS Maersk Trainer Polaris 3 1 ∕ 2 "dia.rig wire (~1981 m outboard) 3" dia.work wire (~1638 m outboard) Water Depth 1300 m 3 9 ∕ 16 dia.x 609 m rig chain 15 mt Stewpris anchor ~ 3341 m (Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) POLARIS DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of • The Maersk Trainer returns to the rig with the PCP 8 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 POLARIS DANMARK Anchor deployment, example of 9 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 Anchor deployment, example of • Pee Wee anchor pandant socket. 10 JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995 Introduction 6 1. General Mooring systems 9 Mooring components 11 Mooring line 11 Chain 11 Wire rope 11 Synthetic fibre rope 11 Connectors 12 Shackles 12 Connecting link kenter type 12 Connecting link pear shaped 12 Connecting link c type 12 Swivels 13 Anchoring point 13 Dead weight 13 Drag embedment anchor 13 Pile 14 Suction anchor 14 Vertical load anchor 14 History of drag embedment anchors 15 Characteristics of anchor types 16 History of vryhof anchor designs 18 2. Theory Introduction 23 Criteria for anchor holding capacity 24 Streamlining of the anchor 24 Shank shape 24 Mooring line 25 Criteria for good anchor design 26 Aspects of soil mechanics in anchor design 27 Soil classification 28 Fluke/shank angle 30 Fluke area 31 Strength of an anchor design 32 During proof loading 32 While embedded in the seabed 32 During anchor handling 32 Strength of the shank 33 Stevpris deployment for modus 63 Introduction 63 Laying anchors 63 Retrieving anchors 65 Anchor orientation 66 Decking the Stevpris anchor 66 What not to do!68 Racking the Stevpris 69 Deploying the Stevpris from the anchor rack 69 Boarding the anchor in deep water 70 Ballast in fluke 71 Chaser equilibrium 72 Deployment for permanent moorings 73 Piggy-backing 74 Introduction 74 Piggy-back methods 75 Piggy-backing involving hinging anchors 75 Piggy-backing with two Stevpris anchors 76 Piggy-backing by using a chaser 77 Stevmanta VLA installation 78 Introduction 78 Single line installation procedure 78 Installation procedure 79 Stevmanta retrieval 80 Double line installation procedure 82 Stevmanta retrieval 83 Double line installation procedure with Stevtensioner 84 The Stevtensioner 88 Introduction 88 The working principle of the tensioner 88 Measurement of the tensions applied 90 Duration of pretensioning anchors and piles 91 Handling the Stevtensioner 92 Stevtensioner product range 93 Supply vessels/anchor handling vessels 94 Table of contents A stone and something that looked like a rope. For millennia this was the typical anchor. Over the last 25 years of more recent history, vryhof has brought the art to a more mature status. They have grown into a world leader in engineering and manufacturing of mooring systems for all kinds of floating structures. In doing so the company has secured numerous anchor and ancillary equipment patents,and shared its experience with others. The company understands that the needs of the industry can not be satisfied by the supply of standard hard-ware only. Universal and tailored solutions rooted in proven engineering should be based on long practical experience.Vryhof has been and will be introducing new and original anchor designs well into the 21st century. With their products, advice and this manual, it shares this knowledge with those who are daily faced with complex mooring situations. This manual is intended as a means of reference for all who purchase, use, maintain, repair or are in any way involved with anchors. Though written from one anchor manufacturer’s standpoint, the information contained herein is applicable to many types of anchors. Total objectivity is, of course, impossible. It is hoped this manual will contribute to the work and success of all who work with anchors. They are the only fixed reference point for many of the floating structures on the world’s often turbulent waters. Introduction General 1 fig. 1-01 catenary system fig. 1-02 taut leg system fig. 1-03 fig. 1-04 Theory 2 Anchor parameters can be scaled from geometrically proportional anchors using the scale rules in table A. There are several attributes of an anchor which are crucial in assuring its effective performance: • The anchor must offer a high holding capacity; a result of the fluke area and shank design in combi- nation with penetration and soil type. • The design of the anchor should be such that the anchor is capable of being used successfully in prac- tically all soil conditions encountered over the world, ranging from very soft clay to sand, corals and calcarenites. • The fluke/shank angle of the anchor should be easi- ly adjustable, allowing the anchor to be quickly deployed in different soil conditions. • The design must be so conceived and produced that the high loads common in practice can be resisted and that the anchor can be easily handled, instal- led, retrieved and stored. • The penetration of an anchor depends upon its shape and design. Obstructing parts on the anchor should be avoided as much as possible. • The stability of an anchor encourages its penetra- tion and, consequently, its holding capacity. Efficient stabilisers are an integral part of a good anchor design. • The shank must permit passage of the soil. • The surface area of an anchor fluke is limited by the required structural strength of the anchor. • The anchor design must have optimal mechanical strength to fulfil requirements and stipulations of the classification societies. • The anchor should be designed to ensure an opti- mum between structural strength of the anchor and holding capacity. • The anchor should be streamlined for low penetra- tion resistance. Soil strength is generally expressed in terms of the shear strength parameters of the soil. The soil type is classified mainly by grain size distribution. Grain size Soil description < - 2 µm Clay 2 - 6 µm Fine Silt 6 - 20 µm Medium Silt 20 - 60 µm Coarse Silt 60 - 200 µm Fine Sand 200 - 600 µm Medium Sand 0.6 - 2 mm Coarse Sand 2 - 6 mm Fine Gravel 6 - 20 mm Medium Gravel 20 - 60 mm Coarse Gravel 60 - 200 mm Cobbles > - 200 mm Boulders In general, the soil types encountered in anchor design are sand and clay (Grain diameter from 0.1 µm to 2 mm). However, mooring locations consisting of soils with grain sizes above 2 mm, such as gravel, cob- bles, boulders, rock and such, also occur. Clay type soils are generally characterised by the undrained shear strength, the submerged unit weight, the water content and the plasticity parameters. The consistency of clays is related to the undrained shear strength. However, American (ASTM) and British (BS) standards do not use identical values. The undrained shear strength values S u can be derived in the laboratory from unconfined unconsolidated tests (UU) (table B). On site the values can be estimated from the results of the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) or Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT). An approximate relation between shear strength and the test values are shown in table C. In fig. 2-14, the different force points are shown for varying soil conditions. The location on the fluke where the proofload is applied, is also indicated. Strength in extremely hard soils In very hard soils such as calcarenite, coral and lime- stone, an anchor will not penetrate very deeply. Consequently the load applied to the anchor has to be held by the fluke tips of the anchor and a small portion of the fluke. This means that extremely high loads will be applied to the fluke tips, compared to normal soil conditions such as sand and clay. For use in very hard soil conditions, vryhof has designed the Stevshark anchor, a modified version of the Stevpris anchor. To create the Stevshark, the Stevpris anchor has been strengthened, consequently a Stevshark anchor having the same outside dimen- sions and holding capacity as a Stevpris anchor will be heavier. Strength calculations of the Stevshark design have been made to guarantee sufficient strength in the fluke points. The Stevshark anchor is designed to withstand the application of the main part of the load on just its fluke tips. To promote penetration, the Stevshark anchor has a serrated shank and can be provided with cutter points on the fluke tips. Ballast weight can also be added inside the hollow flukes of the anchor, up to 35% of the anchor weight. This is important when working in very hard soil, where the anchor weight pressing on the fluke tips promotes penetration, i.e. increased bearing pressure. The quasi-static and total dynamic loads are general- ly calculated for the intact and damaged load condi- tion. The intact load condition is the condition in which all the mooring lines are intact. The damaged load conditions is the condition in which one of the mooring lines has broken. From the quasi-static load and the total dynamic load, the required holding capacity of the anchor can be calculated. This is called the ultimate holding capaci- ty (UHC) for drag embedment anchors and the ulti- mate pull-out capacity (UPC) for VLAs. The required holding capacity is calculated by applying the factors of safety specified by the classification societies. In the tables G and H, the factors of safety are pre- sented for the different load conditions for drag embedment anchors (for instance the Stevpris Mk5 anchor), according to API RP 2SK. The factors of safe- ty used by the major classification societies are gene- rally similar to those given in API RP 2SK (2nd edition, 1996). For VLAs, the recently used factors of safety sugge- sted by ABS, are presented in table I. The factors of safety for VLAs are higher than the fac- tors of safety required for drag embedment anchors, due to the difference in failure mechanisms. When a drag embedment anchor reaches its ultimate holding capacity, it will continuously drag through the soil without generating additional holding capacity, i.e. the load will stay equal to the UHC. When a VLA exceeds its ultimate pullout capacity, it will slowly be pulled out of the soil. Anchor loads and safety factors The rate effect An increased rate of loading increases the soil resistance, consequently the anchor holding capacity increases. This must be taken into account with respect to total dynamic loads. For anchor behaviour the rate effect factor indicates how much higher the dynamic high frequency load may be without causing extra movement of the anchor once installed at the installation load. The rate of loading influences pore pressure variations, viscous inter-granular forces and inertia forces. Typical rate effect factors are 1.1 to 1.3 for total dynamic loads, see Fig. 2-16 where the rate effect is presented for two different soil conditions (Su = 10 kPa and Su = 50 kPa). Using the rate effect and set-up factors, the beha- viour of the anchor after installation can be predicted more accurately. Vertical Load Anchors A VLA is installed just like a conventional drag embedment anchor. During installation (pull-in mode) the load arrives at an angle of approximately 45 to 50 0 to the fluke. After triggering the anchor to the normal load position, the load always arrives per- pendicular to the fluke. This change in load direction generates 2.5 to 3 times more holding capacity in relation to the installation load. This means that once the required UPC of the VLA is known, the required installation load for the VLA is also known, being 33% to 40% of the required UPC. As a VLA is deeply embedded and always loaded in a direction normal to the fluke, the load can be applied in any direction. Consequently the anchor is ideal for taut-leg mooring systems, where generally the load angle varies from 25 to 45 0 . Anchor behaviour in the soil The use of the specified proof loads for HHP anchors can lead to situations where different types of anchors with the same holding capacity are proof loaded at different loads, see fig. 2-18. From this figu- re it can be concluded that the proof load of the anchors should preferably be related to the break- load of the mooring line on the vessel. Nowadays the rules and regulations are far more rigid, and the requirements have been substantially increased. There are now special rules for ‘mobile offshore units’ and ‘permanently moored structures’. If anchors need mobile offshore units certification, the following properties may be required: • Proof load of the anchors at 50% of the breaking load of the chain. • Submission of a strength calculation of the anchor to the classification society prior to commencing anchor production: this includes determining the mechanical strength of the anchor as well as pro- ving that the applied material can withstand the proofload. • A statement of documented holding power from the anchor supplier. • Submittal of a Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manual. In fig. 2-19, a mooring system is shown in which all of the components are balanced. The strength of the mooring line, holding capacity of the anchor and strength of the anchor are all in the correct propor- tion and comply with the rules. Proof loads for high holding power anchors Soil table Practice 3 Product data 4 3.8D 3.8D 4.7D 9.7D 6.3D 1.2D 1.2D Depending on the required service life of the mooring system, the following types of wire rope are recommended: Design life Recommended product type Up to 6 years Six strand Up to 8 years Six strand c/w zinc anodes Up to 10 years Six strand c/w ‘A’ galvanised outer wires & zinc anodes 10 years plus Spiral strand 15 years plus Spiral strand c/w Galfan coated outer wires 20 years plus Spiral strand c/w HDPE sheathing The two rope constructions have differing properties. The advantages of each of the rope types are presen- ted in the following table: Spiral strand Six strand Higher strength/weight ratio Higher elasticity Higher strength/diameter ratio Greater flexibility Torsionally balanced Lower axial stiffness Higher corrosion resistance Higher fatigue resistance Wire rope sockets Production and construction in accordance with BS4928 / BS5053 (1985). The dry breaking strength is equal to the wet breaking strength. The properties of the different rope sizes are presented in the following tables. Mooring hawsers M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 14\Ship Handling Manoeuvring.doc Chapter 14 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC Introduction The forces acting upon a ship determine her movement. Some of these forces are controllable and some are not. Some of them can we measure and some we can not. The ship is subjected to the forces from the wind, waves and current and in shallow water and narrow waterways by the interaction from the bottom, banks or sides of the channel. Close approach to other vessels generates intership action, and wash from propellers/thrusters from another vessel will also affect our ship. Some of these forces will vary in size depending on the speed of our, or the other ship, whereas other forces are affecting us all the time. Forces from pulling an anchor-wire-towing-cable etc, is also an important factor. This chapter will explain some basis knowledge to Ship handling and Manoeuvring theory but the most important factor in Ship handling is experience. It is therefore essential that navigators do practice handling of their ship when there are a chance to do so. Propulsion system Most vessels do have diesel engines, which through a gear rotate the aft propeller, and an electrical power system generation power to the thrusters. But some special vessels can have a system with electrical propellers/thrusters, and maybe only having azimuth thrusters whiteout any rudders. Depending on the layout of your propellers/thrusters/rudders the ship handling can be quite different from one ship type to another. A continued research and development is taking place within the maritime technology and new engines, propeller and rudder types are invented every year. This chapter will therefore concentrate on some basis knowledge regarding propellers and rudders. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 14\Ship Handling Manoeuvring.doc Chapter 14 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC Propellers A propeller can be a fixed propeller, which mean that the propeller blades are fixed, which again mean that changing from ahead and astern can only be done by stopping the rotation and then rotate the propeller the opposite way. In our business we use propellers with variable pitch, where the propeller blades can turn, changing the pitch. From neutral where the propeller is rotating but without moving any water, to full pitch ahead or astern. The variable pitch propeller will always rotate and can very fast go from full ahead to full astern. If we look at the propeller seen from the aft and the propeller rotate clockwise when sailing ahead we call it a right-handed propeller and left-handed if rotating anti clockwise. When the propeller rotate and special when we do not make any headway water flow to the propeller are less compared to when making headway. The water pressure on the top blades is lower compared with the blades in their lower position. The lower blades will therefore have a better grip, and a right-handed propeller going ahead will push the stern towards starboard (ship’s heading turning port). With a variable pitch propeller the propeller is always turning the same way and the movement of the stern will always be to port (rotation clockwise) whether we are going ahead or astern. If we place the propeller inside a nozzle we eliminate this force and direct the water flow from the propeller in one direction. The direction of the trust is determined by the direction of the water flow and by the direction the water flow pass the rudder. Thrusters Thrusters are propellers placed inside a tunnel in the ship or outside as an azimuth thruster. The tunnel thruster can push the ship in two directions whereas the azimuth thruster can rotate and apply force in all 360°. Most thrusters are constructed with an electrical motor inside the ship with a vertical shaft down to a gear in the thruster, which again rotate the propeller blades. All thrusters do have variable pitch propellers. Be aware of that your azimuth thruster can give full thrust in one direction and 15 -20 % less thrust in the opposite direction (because of the big gearbox). And also remember that high speed through the water can empty the tunnel from water, and overheat the gear, if used. Turbulence and air in the water can during powerful astern manoeuvre also result in air in the stern thruster. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 14\Ship Handling Manoeuvring.doc Chapter 14 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC Rudders The rudder is a passive steering system, which only can work if water is passing the rudder. The rudder is constructed like a wing on a plane, wide in the front and slim aft. When turning the rudder the flow of water will on the backside create a low pressure and on the front a high pressure. The low pressure or suction creates 75% of the turning force, whereas the high-pressure side only 25%. That is why a traditional rudder looses steering moment when turned more than 40-50 degrees. With high angles there will be turbulence on the backside killing the suction force. The Becker rudder is constructed as a normal rudder, but with an extra small rudder flap on the edge. This flap turn twice the angle of the rudder, and the water on the high-pressure side will be directed more or less side wards creating big side wards thrust. The Schilling rudder has a rotating cylinder built into the front of the rudder, rotating in a direction moving water towards the backside of the rudder. A Shiller rudder can therefore turn up to 70 degree. The Jastram rudder is an asymmetric constructed rudder designed special for the particular ship and propeller, and can also turn up to 70 degree. If water do not pass the rudder, the rudder do not have any affect, which many navigators know from their experience with variable pitch propellers. When the pitch is placed in neutral the rotating propeller stops the water flow, and the rudder can not be used. When the propellers are going astern, the water passing the rudder is poor, and the effect from the rudder is very low. But with a high speed astern the rudder will help, as there will be water passing the rudder. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 14\Ship Handling Manoeuvring.doc Chapter 14 Page 4 Anchor Handling Course MTC Manoeuvring When talking about manoeuvring our ship, we need to look at how the ship is responding to different forces, and what happen when we apply forces as well. A ship lying still in the water is exposed to forces from the current and wind. Swell and waves do not move the ship, but close to an offshore installation, swell and waves can push us into or away from the installation. Current The current moves the water we sail in and the ship will be set in the same direction and with the same speed as well. We can calculate the force depending on the angle the current attacking the ship, where current abeam can be very high, special with water depth lower than twice the draft. Turning a ship (80m long draft 8 meter) on a river with 2 knots current and water depth of 12 meter will when the ship is across the river give a force of 60 tons. If we have a lot of water below the keel the force will be 21 tons in above example, but when the water depth are lower the force will increase rapidly, and with only 2 meter below the keel the force will be 78 tons; a significant force. Wind We can do the same calculation with the wind, but the force from the wind moving the supply ship is not a considerable force, where big containerships, car-carriers, bulkers and tankers in ballast have to do their wind calculations. The problem with wind in our business is the turning moment created by the wind. With our big wind area in the front of the ship and none in the aft, the ship will turn up in the wind or away from the wind, depending on the shape of the hull and accommodation and the direction of the wind. We can however use the force from the current and wind in an active way. Instead of fighting against the force, turn the ship and use the current or wind to keep you steady in a position or on a steady heading. When operating close to FPSO, drill ships or other installations with a big underwater shape or hull, this can result in different forces and direction of the current and wind compared to observations done just 10 meters away. Other forces Forces between two ships passing each other can also be a considerable affect special if the speed is high. In front of a ship steaming ahead there is an overpressure, and along the sides a low pressure. If a big ship pass us this pressure system can move or turn our ship, and if the big ship do have a high speed (30 knots) you can feel that effect up to ½ mile away. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 14\Ship Handling Manoeuvring.doc Chapter 14 Page 5 Anchor Handling Course MTC Turning point (Pivot point) When a ship is stopped in the water and we use our thrusters to turn the ship, it will normally turn around the Centre of the ship, depending on the underwater shape of the hull. When sailing this point will move ahead and the ship will turn around the Pivot point now approximately 1/3 to 1/6 from the front. Our bow thruster will therefore loose some of the turning moment as it must now move the hole ship in the desired direction, whereas the stern thruster, and also the rudders, do have a long arm and thereby giving a big turning moment of the stern of the ship. It will be the opposite when going astern, the pivot point moving aft and in this case our bow thruster having a long arm and a very big moment. The Pivot point must not be confused with the turning point we can choose on our Joystick; this is a computer-calculated turning point. But think about it, when you next time have chosen turning point aft and you are sailing ahead with 5 knots and the ship seems reluctant in retrieving a high turning rate. Forces from cable lying, wire/chain from tow and anchor handling, special if there is a big force in the system, will also have a significant effect on our ship. Some times it can be very difficult to turn a ship as the Pivot point can move outside the ship. As the pull from these systems mostly is very big, we need to use high engine/thruster power to obtain the desired movement. Ship handling With a basis knowledge of the different forces acting on our ship. Special whether it is a big or a small force, knowledge of how our propellers, rudders and thrusters are working and how the ship react on above, we can gain a better and quicker experience in ship handling of the particular ship we are on right now. You will see experienced navigators using split-rudder, where one rudder have one angle and the other rudder having another angle. Going for and back on the engine you can control the aft end of the shipside wards without moving ahead or astern. But again other navigators will get the same result by using the rudders in parallel drive and turn the rudders from side to side, and still use the engine to control the movement side wards and ahead or astern. The best way is like mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, to practice manoeuvring of your particular ship, using the information mentioned in this chapter. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 15\Drilling Units.doc Chapter 15 Page 1 Anchor Handling Course MTC General layout Jack-Up drilling unit: A Jack-up drilling unit is designed for drilling in water depth up to 150 metres. A jack-up is standing on 3 legs, each leg ending in a footing; these footings are called spud cans. The derrick is normally situated on a cantilever, in drilling position the cantilever is skidded out so the derrick is extracted over the rig’s stern. The Blow Out Preventer (BOP) is placed under the rig floor, the tubular from the BOP to seabed is called the conductor pipe. At production platforms a Jack-up is placed very close to the platform and the cantilever is skidded over the platform. Before rig move, the rig has to be prepared for towing, all pipe from the derrick are laid down on deck and secured. Risers and BOP is retrieved and secured. Watertight integrity is checked, and the cantilever skidded in, flush with aft end of rig and secured. Deck cargo secured, cranes laid down and secured. Stability is calculated, ballast distributed for the rig to float at even keel, in this situation the rig will not accept cargo handling, as the calculations are done, and cargo secured on deck. Weather conditions for rig move of jack-up rigs are normally 15-20 knots of wind, sea/swell less than 1.5 metres, weather window more than 24 hours. A tow master is normally in charge of operations. A rig move starts with jacking down to 2 metre draft and checking for watertight condition. All overboard valves are checked for leaks. At this same time one or more boats for towing will be connected to the tow bridle. Then the rig is jacked down to calculated draft, boats ordered to pull minimum power. Due to the considerable size of spud cans, the rig will jack further down to break suction of the spud cans. This is called freeing legs and can take hours depending of the amount penetration of spud cans into the seabed. When the rig float free, the legs are jacked up, flush with bottom of hull and the tow begins. During the tow a jack-up rig afloat is very sensible to roll and pitch period, the long legs can cause a whipping effect, and therefore the roll and pitch period has to be more than 10 seconds. Severe rolling with short rolling period will cause structural damage at jacking houses and is known to have caused loss of rigs. In the rigs operational manual limits for roll and pitch are given. At the new location the rig will lower legs and tag bottom, jack the hull free of the water and preload. Preloading takes several hours and is a process where the rig is ballasted corresponding to maximum environmental conditions, normally a 100 years wind condition. Again operational manual will give the precise procedure. During preload no cargo operations are allowed to take place. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 15\Drilling Units.doc Chapter 15 Page 2 Anchor Handling Course MTC When preload is completed, tugs are released and the rig jacked to working air gap, and the cantilever skidded out. Now drilling and cargo operations can begin. A Jack-up drilling rig is fitted with an anchoring system consisting of 4 anchors. These anchors are light anchors, connected to wire of diameters less than 3”. In some cases anchor handling will take place with jack ups. The jack-up will jack down close to location, run out anchors, and use the anchor system to move in close to platforms or sub sea production well heads. The tugs will be connected up, but will only use little or no power. To receive anchors, the A/HV will move close to the rig, and the rig’s crane will first lower the anchor buoy and pennant wire, and then lower the anchor to the deck. The anchor is then run out to position, lowered in the pennant wire, pennant wire connected to anchor buoy, then the buoy is launched. To retrieve the anchor, the AHV will move in stern to the buoy, catch the buoy, disconnect the pennant wire from the buoy, connect work wire to pennant wire, then break the anchor loose of seabed, take anchor on deck, return the anchor, buoy and pennant to the rig. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 15\Drilling Units.doc Chapter 15 Page 3 Anchor Handling Course MTC General information about a Semi Submersible drilling unit: A semi submersible-drilling unit (semi) is designed to drill at water depth more than 100 metres. A semi is floating on stability columns and has low GMT, and therefore a slow rolling period. This makes the semi an acceptable working platform as regards to crane operation etc. Generally a semi is anchored in a mooring spread of 8 anchors, 30/60 degrees; another number of anchor is used, but not very often. Heading into the prevailing weather. Forward end is defined with heli-deck and accommodations. On rigs with 8 anchors, the anchors are numbered clockwise with anchor no.1 forward starboard. The BOP is placed on the seabed, connecting with risers up to the rig. Between BOP and riser a flexible joint is installed. The purpose for a flex joint is to allow some movement of the rig due to the elasticity of the mooring spread. At 90 metres this elasticity is greater than the flexibility of the flex joint, this is therefore a critical depth. A riser angle of up to 10 degree from vertical is maximum allowable. In case of severe weather, where the riser angle increases to maximum allowable the rig can disconnect from the BOP, and connect when the weather improves. At sea level a slip joint is installed in the riser system. The purpose of a slip joint is to allow the rig to heave. At the slip joint the riser tensioning system keeps tension on the riser, this is to carry the weight of the riser. Slip joints has a stroke of 50 feet. Just under the rig floor a ball joint is installed. The purpose of a ball joint is to allow the rig to roll and pitch. The last component here to be mentioned is the drill string compensator. This purpose of a compensator is to allow the rig to heave and still keep the same weight on the drill string; the motion compensator has a stroke of 20 feet. To prepare a semi for tow, pipe is paid down on deck and secured, deck cargo is secured. The last operations before a rig move is to retrieve the risers and the BOP, secure these items on deck, and de-ballast the rig to transit draft. At transit draft the bolsters are visible. Sequences for retrieving anchors are given in the procedure for rig move. Breast anchors, which are number 2,3,6,7, are retrieved first, then a tug is made fast to the tow bridle, and then the last anchors can be retrieved. During the tow the rig has a good stability, and can endure severe weather. In some weather conditions the rig will ballast to survival draft. M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 15\Drilling Units.doc Chapter 15 Page 4 Anchor Handling Course MTC At the new location the sequence will be to run anchors (no 4 &5) first, then anchors no 1 and 8, disconnect vessel from tow bridle, then run breast anchors. When all anchors are run and confirmed in the correct position (bearing and distance from rig) the anchors will pre-tensioned to an agreed load, corresponding to 100 years weather condition. In some cases the combination seabed and anchor system cannot hold the pre-tensioning. In that case piggyback anchor will be set. Piggyback are anchors in tandem. Anchor spread can extent far from the semi, with piggyback anchors the distance to the rig can be 2 miles.