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Anchor Handling CD-Manual version 4 2

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Maersk Training Centre A/S
Anchor Handling
Simulator Course
“Best Practise in
Anchor Handling”
1.
Program. Abbreviations
Introduction to Anchor Handling Course
2.
“MAERSK TRAINER”
Technical Specifications
3.
Company Policy. Procedures
4.
Risk Assessment. Planning
5.
Anchor Handling Winches. Chain Wheels
6.
Shark Jaws, Triplex
7.
Shark Jaws, Karm Fork
8.
Wire Rope, Guidelines, Maintenance
9.
Anchor Handling Equipment
Swivel – Pin Extractor – Socket Bench
10.
Chains and Fittings
Chasers and Grapnels
11.
Anchor Handling
Breaking the anchor…..
12.
Anchor Deployment – PCP
13.
Vryhof Anchor Manual 2000
14.
Ship Handling. Manoeuvring
15.
Drilling Units / - Operations
Maersk Training Centre A/S
2.0 Index.doc
Chapter 00 Page 2
COURSE NAME
MTC
Manual standard clause
This manual is the property of Maersk Training Centre A/S (hereinafter “MTC A/S) and is only
for the use of Course participants conducting courses at MTC A/S.
This manual shall not affect the legal relationship or liability of MTC A/S with or to any third party
and neither shall such third party be entitled to reply upon it.
MTC A/S shall have no liability for technical or editorial errors or omissions in this manual; nor
any damage, including but not limited to direct, punitive, incidental, or consequential damages
resulting from or arising out of its use.
No part of this manual may be reproduced in any shape or form or by any means electronically,
mechanically, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of MTC
A/S.
Copyright © MTC 2002-09-10
Prepared by: PFR
Modified & printed: 2003-01-07
Modified by:
Internal reference: M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 00\2.0 Index.doc
Contact MTC
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Dyrekredsen 4
Rantzausminde
5700 Svendborg
Denmark
Phone:+45 63 21 99 99
Telefax:+45 63 21 99 49
Telex:SVBMTC
E-mail:MTC@MAERSKTRAININGCENTRE.COM
Homepage:WWW.MAERSKTRAININGCENTRE.COM
Managing Director: Claus Bihl
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 01\2.Introduction & Abbreviations.doc
Chapter 01 Page 1
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
Introduction to the Anchor Handling Course
Background
A.P.Møller owns and operates a modern fleet of anchor handling vessels.
The vessels are chartered to oil companies, and rig operators; the jobs are anchor handling, tow
and construction jobs.
The technical development of these ships has been fast to meet the increased demands.
The demands to the performance of the ships have been increased too.
A few hours off service can mean large economic losses for the different parties involved.
In the last years an increased focus have been on avoiding accidents, and the frequency of
these accidents are low. To get the frequency even lower, actions to avoid accidents are
needed. “Learning by doing”, on board an anchor handling vessels as the only mean of
education, will not be accepted in the future. Part of this training process needs to be moved
ashore, where crew, ship and equipment can be tested without risk in all situations.
Here we will use the anchor-handling simulator.
A study of accidents and incidents occurred on anchor handling vessels (AHV) during anchor
handling operations reveals that some of the most common causes leading to incidents and/or
accidents are lack of or inadequate:
• Experience
• Knowledge
• Planning
• Risk assessment
• Communication
• Teamwork
• Awareness
The keywords for addressing these causes are: “training, training and more training”
The value of on-board, hands-on training is well known and beyond any doubt but the
knowledge and experience gained is sometimes paid with loss of human life or limbs,
environmental pollution and/or costly damage to property.
This simulator course was developed in order to give new officers on AHV’s the possibility of
acquiring the basic knowledge and skills in a “as close to the real thing as possible”
environment, the only thing, however, that might get damaged is “ones own pride”.
The aims of the anchor handling course are:
• To promote safe and efficient anchor handling operations by enhancing the bridge teams
knowledge of, and skills in anchor handling operations.
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Chapter 01 Page 2
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
The objectives of the anchor handling course are:
By planning of and, in the simulator, carrying out anchor handling operations under normal
conditions, the participant shall demonstrate a thorough knowledge of and basic skills in:
• Planning and risk assessment of anchor handling operations adhering to procedures and
safety rules
• As conning officer carry out exercises in anchor handling operations
• As winch operator carry out exercises in anchor handling operations
• On user level, the design, general maintenance and correct safe use of anchor handling
equipment
• The use of correct phraseology
The simulator course
The course consists of theoretical lessons alternating with simulator exercises.
The theoretical lessons
The theoretical lessons addresses:
• AHV deck lay-out and equipment
• AH winch (electrical and hydraulic) lay-out and function
• Anchor types, chain, wires, grapnels, etc. maintenance and use
• Planning of AH operations
• Risk assessment
• Procedures
• Safety aspects and rules
The simulator exercises
The simulator exercises consist of one familiarisation exercise and 3 to 4 AH operations. The
weather condition during the exercises will be favourable and other conditions normal.
The tasks in the AH exercises are:
• Preparing the AHV for anchor handling
• Running out an anchor on a water depth of 100 to 700 meters
• Retrieving an anchor from a water depth of 100 to 700 meters
• Operating an anchor system with insert wire
During the simulator exercises the participants will man the bridge. They will be forming a bridge
team, one acting as the conning officer the other as the winch operator. A captain/chief
engineer will act as a consultant.
Before commencing the exercise, the participants are expected to make a thorough planning of
the AH operation. They will present the plan to the instructor in the pre-operation briefing for
verification.
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Chapter 01 Page 3
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
During the exercises, the simulator operator will act and communicate as all relevant personnel
e.g.:
• Deckhands – engine room
• Rig crew – crane driver – tow master
• Etc.
The instructor will monitor the progress of the exercises and evaluate the performance of the
team and each individual.
Debriefing
Each exercise will be followed by a debriefing session during which the instructor and the team
will discuss the progress and the outcome of the exercise.
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 01\2.Introduction & Abbreviations.doc
Chapter 01 Page 4
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
Commonly used abbreviations:
AHTS:Anchor Handling tug supply
PSV: Platform supply vessel
DVS: Diving support vessel
SV: Survey vessel
MODU:Mobil offshore drilling unit
FPU: Floating production unit
FPDSO: Floating production, drilling, storage and offloading
FPSO: Floating production, storage and offloading
FPS: Floating production system
TLP: Tension leg platform
SBM:Single buoy mooring
SPM:Single point mooring
CALM:Catenary anchored leg mooring
SALM:Single anchor leg mooring
SSCV: Semi submersible crane vessel
HLV: Heavy lift vessel
RTV: Rock dumping/trenching vessel
PLV: Pipe laying vessel
SSAV: Semi submersible accommodation vessel
ROV: Remotely operated vehicle
ROT: Remotely operated tool
AUV:Autonomous underwater vehicle
DP: Dynamic positioning
DPO: Dynamic positioning officer
HPR: Hydroaccoustic positioning reference
TW: Towing winch
AHW: Anchor Handling winch
DMW:Dead Man Wire
PCP: Permanent chaser pennant
HHP: High holding power anchors
VLA: Vertical load anchors
SCA:Suction caisson anchor
DEA:Drag embedded anchor
Sepla:Suction embedded plate anchor.
QMS: Quality management system
HSE: Health, safety and environment
ISM: International ships management
WW:Work Wire
VSP: Vertical seismic survey
Weight in water: Weight x 0,85
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 02\1.0 MAERSK TRAINER.doc
Chapter 02 Page 1
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
“MAERSK TRAINER”
Technical Specifications:
LOA:73,60 m.
Breadth:16,40 m.
Propulsion:15600 BHP.
2 Propellers.
2 Spade rudders (Not independent).
Thrusters:Forward: 1 x 1088 BHP, Azimuth.
1 x 1000 BHP, Tunnel.
Aft:1 x 1000 BHP, Tunnel.
Deck Layout:2 Tuggers, 15 T pull.
2 Capstans, 15 T pull.
A/H Equipment:2 sets of Triplex Shark Jaws. SWL: NA
2 sets of Guide Pins.
2 wire lifters.
2 stop pins, 1 each side.
Distance:From centre AHW to Stern Roller:50 m.
From centre AHW to “visibel” from bridge: App. 20 m.
Breaking load:DMW, WW & Insert Wire:77 mm and BL= 300 T.
Chain:77 mm and BL= 600 T.
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 02\1.0 MAERSK TRAINER.doc
Chapter 02 Page 2
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”MAERSK TRAINER”
Winch Layout:
AHV01:AHV02:
A/H Drum (1):Max pull, bare drum: 500 T.250 T.
Static brake: 650 T.400 T.
Kernal diam.:1,50 m.0,90 m.
Width of drum:3,55 m.1,225 m.
Flange diam.:6,50 m.2,50 m.
Tow Drums (2):Max pull, bare drum: 250 T.125 T.
(TW2: Starboard) Static brake: 650 T.400 T.
(TW3: Port) Kernal diam.:1,50 m.0,90 m.
Width of drum:2,05 m.1,225 m.
Flange diam.:3,60 m.2,50 m.
Wildcats fitted on Tow Drums.
Rig Chain Lockers:1 each side.
Capacity:No limits!!
Bitter end:Between 0 m. and 75 m. each side.
All winches are electrically driven.
Winch computter: SCADA
• No pennant reels fitted.
• Wires and / or chain can`t be stowed on the aftdeck either “in the water” – the
equipment has to be connected up, in the system.
• The winch used for decking the anchor will be “locked” as long as the anchor is
on deck.
• The anchor can not be disconnected from the PCP.
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“MAERSK TRAINER”
Vessel and Deck Layout:
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Winch Layout:
“MAERSK TRAINER”
Technical Specifications. Ch. 2 Page 4/05
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Bollard Pull
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
-1,5 -1 -0,5 0 0,5 1 1,5
Handle
Tons
“MAERSK TRAINER”
Power Settings / Bollard Pull
Anchor Handling. Chapter 2 Page 5/05
Handle Bollard Pull (T)
100 144
90 143
80 142
70 125
60 98
50 69
40 43
30 23
20 9
10 3
00 0
- 10 3
- 20 7
- 30 15
- 40 25
- 50 45
- 60 54
- 70 65
- 80 77
- 90 105
-100 105
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 03\Procedures.doc
Chapter 03 Page 1
Anchor Handling Course
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3.Company Procedures
All operations on board must be performed in accordance with Company
Procedures.
The updated procedures can be found on CD-ROM (Q E S System) issued by Technical
Organisation in Copenhagen.
Please make sure that the latest version is in use.
Any copies of the procedures used on the Anchor Handling Course are all:
UNCONTROLLED COPIES.
Following procedures can be useful:
• 1, Quality 7.:Plans for Shipboard Operations (Risk Assessment)
• 2, 0357:Prevention of Fatigue – Watch Schedules – Records of Hours of Work or Rest
• 7, 0014:Communication with Maersk Supply Service (Supply Vessels)
• 7, 0176:General Order Letter (Supply Vessels)
• 8, 0020:Salvage (Supply Vessels)
• 11, 0015:Bridge discipline (Supply)
• 11, 0234:Safe Mooring Peterhead Harbour (Supply)
• 11, 0596:DGPS Installations (Supply, Brazil waters)
• 11, 0792:DP Operating Procedure (Relevant Supply Vessels)
• 13, 0042:Transport of Methanol (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 0065:Cargo (“Fetcher”)
• 13, 0207:Tank Cleaning. Water/Oil Based MUD, H2S (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 0249:Transportation of Tanks Containing Liquid Gases (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 0251:Hose Handling Alongside Installations (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 0498:Cargo Handling (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 0681:Cargo Pipe Systems – Segregation of Products (Supply Vessels)
• 13, 0766:Deck Cargo Stowage Procedure for Stand-by Mode (“NORSEMAN”/”NASCOPIE”)
• 13, 0812:Cleaning of Hoses after Transfer of Oil, Brine and MUD to or from Rig
(Supply Vessels)
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• 15, 0007:Brattvaag Anchorhandling Winch 250 T (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0009:Aquamaster TAW 2500/2500E (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0010:Aquamaster TAW 3000/3000E (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0016:AH & Towing Wire Maintenance (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0019:Towing (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0024:Ulstein Brattvaag AH Winch 450-IT (“Provider”)
• 15, 0066:Stern Roller Bearing lubrication (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0082:Deck Lifting Tool (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0142:Wildcat Maintenance (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0252:Wire Spooling (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0256:Diving Support Vessels Assistance (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0258:Working alongside Installations (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0259:Wire Rope Sockets (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0266:Anchor Handling – Deep Water (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0273:Triplex Shark Jaw (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0538:Safety during Anchor Handling and Towing Operation (All AHTS)
• 15, 0542:VSP Surveys (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0649:Whaleback Re-enforcement (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0680:AH & Towing Winch gearwheel (open) greasing (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0741:AH & Tow Wires lubrication (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0786:Mono Buoys – Recovery of Hawsers (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0788:Repair of Stern Roller (“Pacer”, “Puncher”, “Promoter”)
• 15, 0932:Towing Pin Roller (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 0950:AH & Towing Equipment (Supply Vessels)
• 15, 1345:Triplex Shark Jaw – Control Measurements (Supply Vessels)
• 19, 0500:Transfer of Personnel and Cargo by MOB Boat (Supply Vessels)
• 19, 0764:Transfer of Personnel between Ship and Offshore Installation by Basket.
(Supply Vessels)
• 23, 1092:Welding Equipment
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 04\1.0 Planning and RA.doc
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Planning and Risk Assessment
Risk Assessment
Some people have a hard time believing that risk assessment has been in the Maritime industry
since “Day One” – since plans for the “ARK” were drawn up. Hazards were appreciated and
control measures added mentally before activities were completed safely. The difference to day
is that they have to be documented like so many other items under the banner of the ISM code
and national / international legislation.
It is not a blame culture as seen by a hard core of seafarers.
Obviously it is easy to stand back and comment with hindsight: "If this had been done, then this
would not have occurred".
The company is required to comply with customers' requirements, and to ensure protection of
the environment, property, the health and safety of the employees and other persons, as far as
reasonably practicable, by the application of certain principles. These principles include the
avoidance of risks, the evaluation of unavoidable risks and the action required to reduce such
risks.
A "Risk Assessment" is a careful examination of the process and its elements to ensure that the
right decisions are made and the adequate precautions are in place thereby preventing risks.
Risk is formed from two elements:
• The likelihood (probability) that a hazard may occur;
• The consequences (potential) of the hazardous event.
To avoid or reduce damage to:
• Human life
• Environment, internal and/or external
• Property
Minimise risks by listing the possible effects of any action, and assessing the likelihood of each
negative event, as well as how much damage it could inflict. Look for external factors, which
could affect your decision. Try to quantify the likelihood of - and reasons for - your plan failing.
Itemising such factors is a step towards the making of contingency plans dealing with any
problem.
Use judgement and experience to minimise doubt as much as possible. Think through the
consequences of activities, be prepared to compromise, and consider timing carefully. Be aware
of that people are not always aware of the risks, as they can’t see them.
An example:
“A man standing close to the stern roller”: One of the risks is, that he can fall in the water. As a
matter of fact he is not falling in the water – he is able to see the hazard – so he is aware.
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On the other hand:
“During an anchor handling operation an AB is hit in his forehead by a crowbar while he is
punching a shackle pin out using a crowbar. The wire rotates caused by torsion in the wire – he
can’t see the hazard – so he is not aware of the risk when using a crowbar.
An initial risk assessment shall be made to identify and list all the processes and their
associated hazards. Those processes having an inconsequential or trivial risk should be
recorded, and will not require further assessment. Those activities having a significant risk must
be subject to a detailed risk assessment.
A risk assessment is required to be "suitable and sufficient" with emphasis placed on
practicality. The level of detail in a risk assessment should be broadly proportionate to the tasks.
The essential requirements for risk assessment are:
• A careful examination of what, in the nature of activities, could cause risks. Decisions
can then be made as to whether enough precautions have been taken or whether
more should be done to prevent the risks.
• After identifying the risks and establishing if they are significant, you should consider if
they are already covered by other precautions. These precautions can for example be
Work Place Instructions, Work Environment Manual, Code of Safe Working Practices
for Merchant Seaman, Procedures, checklists etc. and also the likelihood of failure of
the precautions already in place.
Where significant risks have been identified a detailed risk assessment in writing must be
carried out and recorded appropriately.
The assessment should consider all potential risks, such as who might be harmed and how, fire
and explosion, toxic contamination, oil and chemical pollution, property damage and non-
conformances.
What may happen?
Get a general view of:
• The process, i.e., materials to be used, activities to be carried out, procedures and
equipment to be used, stages of human involvement, and the unexpected operational
failure which may result in further risks.
Determine the probability:
• Quantification: Low - Medium - High
Focus on the potential hazardous situations and assess consequences if it happens:
• Quantification: Low - Medium - High.
How will it be possible to intervene, and / or to reduce the risk?
• What can be done to reduce the probability?
• What can be done to reduce the consequences?
• Decide whether existing precautions are adequate or more should be done.
• Record it.
Review the risk assessments from time to time and revise, if necessary.
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Planning
Why?
So everybody knows what is going to happen.
Take care of inexperience personnel, so they know what to do and when. They do not have the
same life experience as the well experience personnel– they can’t just look out though the
windows and say: “Now we do this and this”.
Quotation from new 3. Engineer:
• “Planning is the only thing we as inexperienced can hold on to”.
- Company’s Core Valure -
Constant care
• No loss should hit us which can be avoided.
• Planning is important. Be prepared at all time.
• Developments may be difference from what you expected.
• Make sure to have an overview of the situation at all times.
• Follow the established procedure and make your own procedure to
awoid any unnecessarily riscs.
• Use your commen sence.
• Training of the crew/staff.
Planning and risk assessment can effective be done in one and same working procedure.
On the page 6/06, you will find an example of a form which can be used for this purpose.
Have a visual plan
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Planning:
Goal Descibe the goal. When do we have to be ready.
Collect data – check systems
What What to do to reach the goal
Who Delegate tasks – make sure everybody knows
who are responsible for each task
How Make job descriptions, descripe standard procedures,
make risk assessment
When When do the tasks need to be finished?
Prioristising of tasks
Be ready to correct the plan as necessary
Have status meetings
Work as a team
Keep the leader informed
Goal, example:Be ready for anchor handling at POLARIS
Water depth 500 meter
Retrieve anchors No 1, 4, 5 and 6
Move rig to position:
Run anchors No 4, 6 and 3
Collecting data:Rig move report
Anchor type
PCP, length, chaser type
Chain / Wire combination
Chain, length and size
Wire, length and size
Winch drum capacity
Load calculations, maximum weight of system, how much
force can I use on engines
Power consumption
Communications:Contact persons
VHF channels
Charts and drawings
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What to do:Prepare deck:Which drums
Check correct spooling of wires
Chain wheel size – correct size
Shark Jaws size – correct size
Chain lockers
Prepare engine room: Defects, out of order, limitations
Power consumption
Ships stability
Ballast, bunkers, trim
Make risk assessment on each job
Voyage planning:Precautions when:
Approaching,
Working alongside
Moving off / on location
Contingencies
Prepare checklists
Brief crew of coming job – ToolBox Meeting
Who:Make sure all know their job
Make sure all know the difficult / risky part of the operation
How:Prepare job descriptions and safe job analysis
Use standard procedures as far as possible
Apoint responsible person for each job
When:Time consumption for each job
Time schedule
Alternative plans
Do status, can we reach the goal on time
The leader to stay on top of the sistuation
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Chapter 04Page 6
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Planning and Risk Assessment
Job:________________________________________________________
Working process /
Plan
HazardConsequenceProbabilityAction to
eliminate / avoid risk
What to do,
if risk cannot
be avoided
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
The 5 steps to
success
in
Anchor Handling
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
The TASK :
600 Meters water depth
10 T Anchor
3” Wire / Chain
3000’ = 914 Meter Dead Man Wire
Can we run and retrieve the anchor ?
Can we deck the Anchor ?
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
Planning
APM-Procedure:
Deep-water A/H. 15, 266
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 1 : Wirelength
600 x 1.1 = 660 Meters
600 x 1.2 = 720 Meters
600 x 1.3 = 780 Meters
Wirelenght 1.5 in shallow water,
but less in deep water (>300 Meter)
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 2 : Winch Capacity
B = 1020 mm, C = 1300 mm, D = 2650 mm, d = 76 mm
Winch Capacity = AxCx
¶x(A +B)
dxd
D
A
C
B
A = (D-B) / 2 = (2650-1020) / 2 = 815 mm
()
1030M=
77
1020+815××1300×815
=CAPACITY
2
π
Connection
on drum you
maybe loose
30-50 meters
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull
(Max pull 1.) * B = K * (Actual diam.)
Max pull 1. = 260 T
K = (260*1020)/2560 = 100 T
(Dynamic)
The static holding force (Bandbreak) is bigger.
Probably 30-50 %
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull
Quadratic equation.
Ax
2
+ Bx + C = 0
_______
X = -B ±√ B
2
-4AC
____________________________________________________________________________
2A
Capacity on drum = A
* C
* 3.14*(A+B)
d d
914000 = A
* C
* 3.14*(A+1020)
77 77
914000*77*77
=A
2
+ 1020A(-C = Ax
2
+ Bx)
3.14*1300
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull
(Ax2
+ Bx + C = 0)
A=1 B=1020 C=-1327561,5
A
2
+1020A-1327561,5 = 0
___________________
A = -1020 ±√
1020
2
-4*1*(-1327561,5)
2*1
__________
A= -1020
±√
6350645,9
2
A= -1020 ±
2520,0
2
A = 750 MM
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 3 : Winch Max. Pull
(Max pull 1.) * B = K * (Actual diam.)
Max pull 1. = 260 T
K = (260*1020)/1020+(2x750) = 105 T
(Dynamic)
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 4 : SYSTEM WEIGHT
600 M
Chain : 126 kg/m 3”
Wire : 25 kg/m 3”
Weight
600 * 0,126 =75,6 T
Anchor + ?? (10 + 5)=15,0 T
Totalt:=90,6 T
Bouyancy = 15 %
Must only be used as safetyfactor
According to proc. 15,266,
Density iron = 7,86
1000kg Iron = 1 / 7,86 = 0,127 M
3
1000kg-(127Lx1,025kg/L)= 872,7 kg
Incl. Bouyancy 90,6 * 0,85 = 77,0 T
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 4 : SYSTEM WEIGHT
Decking the anchor
Weight without bouyancy
600 * 0,126 =75,6 T
Anchor + ?? (10 + 5)=15,0 T
Totalt:=90,6 T
To deck the anchor you maybe
need another 30-50 T
It can be necessary to make
a crossover to a drum with
less wire on and therefore
closer to the center
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 5 : Bollard Pull
200 M
ANCHOR HANDLING CALCULATIONS
STEP 5 : Bollard Pull
600 m
43 T
43 T
77 T
88 T
43 T
90 T
?
?
99 T
Probably using 40% pitch on
Maersk Trainer = 43 T Bollard Pull
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Electrical winches
The winches mentioned are based on A-type winches.
The winches are of waterfall type.
Electrical winches are driven via shaft generator or harbour generators through main
switchboard to electronic panel to DC motors.
The winch lay out is with anchor handling drum on top and 2 towing winches underneath and
forward of the A/H winch. The towing winches each has a chain wheel interchangeable
according to required size.
The winch has 4 electrical motors. The motors can be utilised with either 2 motors or all 4
motors for the AH drum depending on required tension or with one or two motors for the towing
drums. The coupling of motors is via clutches and pinion drive.
The clutching and de-clutching of drums is done with hydraulic clutches driven by a power pack.
This power pack is also used for the brake system on the drums, as the band brake is always
“on” when the handle is not activated.
Apart from the band brake there is also a water brake for each electric motor as well as a disc
brake. The disc brake is positioned between the electric motor and the gearbox. The water
brake is connected to the gearbox and within normal working range, 50% of the brake force is
from the water brake and 50% from the electric motor brake.
The drums are driven via pinion shafts clutch able to pinion drives on the drums. Pinion drives
are lubricated continuously by a central lubricating system to ensure a good lubrication
throughout the service. The control handle for the winch activates the lubrication system, and
only the active pinions are lubricated.
Each winch also has a “spooling device” to ensure a proper and equal spooling of wire on the
drum. The spooling device is operated by means of a hydraulic system supplied from the same
power pack as mentioned above.
Finally, separating the winch area and the main deck is the “crucifix” which divides the work
wires in compartments for each winch. It is also part of the winch garage construction.
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Winch operation
The winches are operated from the aft desks in port side, but can also be operated at the winch.
When operated locally from the winch only ½ speed can be obtained. There are different bridge
lay outs but they are all to some degree based on previous design and partly identical.
To ensure a good overview for the operator a SCADA system has been installed showing the
winch status. Further there is a clutch panel allowing the operator to clutch drums in and out
according to requirement. On the panel lub oil pumps for gearboxes, pumps for hydraulic
system and grease pump for gearwheels are started.
Winch configuration and adjustment is done on the panel, which here at Maersk Training Centre
is illustrated by a “touch screen” monitor. The different settings can be done on the “touch
screen”.
Normally the winch drums are not visible from the bridge. Instead the drums are monitored via
different selectable cameras installed in the winch garage. These are connected to monitors on
the aft bridge allowing the operator and the navigator to monitor the drums.
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General Arrangement
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A/H-Drum at full Capacity
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SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
This system gives the operator an overview of the winch status as well as a warning/alarm if
anything is about to go wrong or already has gone wrong. The system is PLC governed –
“Watchdog”.
3 types of alarms are shown:
Alarm:A functional error in the system leads to stop of winch.
Pre alarm:The winch is still operational but an error has occurred,
which can lead to a winch stop/failure if the operation
continues in same mode.
Warning:Operator fault/wrong or illegal operation
The clutch panel
On the clutch panel the different modes of operation can be chosen. In order to clutch all
functions must be “off”. It is not possible to clutch if the drum is rotating or a motor is running.
Change of “operation mode” can not be done during operation.
Speed control mode
Motors can be operated with the handle in:
Manual clutch control.
If no drum is clutched in.
When drums have been chosen.
Tension
Static wire tension:The pull in wire/chain is measured from the braking load. The drum is
not rotating and the band brake is “ON”. The pull is calculated from
“strain gauges”.
Dynamic wire tension:The pull in the wire/chain is measured from the actual torque in the
motor. The drum is rotating or almost stopped but not braked.
Max wire tension:Highest possible pull in the wire/chain that can be handled by the motor
converted from static pull to dynamic pull.
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Over speed
Over speed of the motor has been the most frequent cause for winch breakdowns. Therefore it
is of utmost importance to protect the motor against overspending.
Over speed occurs when the load on the wire/chain surpasses what the motor can pull/hold and
the drum starts uncontrolled to pay out.
The winch is protected against over speed in the following way:
1.When pay out speed exceeds 100 %. Full water-brake in stead of 50% electrical brake.
Automatic return to 50% electrical brake and 50 % water brake when speed less than 100
%.
2. When pay out speed exceeds 105 %. Band brake is applied with 50 % Opens
automatically when pay out speed less than 100 %.
3. When pay out speed exceeds 110 %. Band brake is applied 100 %.
4. When pay out speed exceeds 120 %. Shut down. The disc brake is applied and the motor
remains electrical braked until balance or break down of the winch.
Water brake
The water brake is installed as a supplement to the motor brake in order to prevent “over speed”
of the motors.
Due to the characteristics of the water brake it will work as a brake amplifier when the braking
power of the electrical motor starts to give in.
The winch motor has great braking effect at low rpm whereas the water brake has very little
effect. With higher rpm the braking effect of the water brake increases and the total outcome of
the characteristics is very great.
Electrical brake (Resistor banks)
Resistor banks have been installed to absorb the current generated during pay out. Part of the
current will be supplied to the circuit-reducing load on shaft generators but in situations with too
small consumption to absorb the generated current it has to be “burnt off” in the resistor banks.
The shaft generators are protected from return current and can not receive current from the
main switchboard.
The resistor banks are clutches in steps according to requirement.
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Band brake
The winch is equipped with a band brake that works directly at the drum. This band brake
ensures that the drum is unable to rotate when the handle is in zero as well as when changing
modes.
If a drum is able to rotate while changing mode it can lead to a break down. 50% of the brake
force comes from springs built in to the brake cylinder and the last 50% from hydraulic pressure.
The band brake is activated via a hydraulic power pack supplying power to the hydraulic
cylinder of the brake.
“Band brake mode” is used if you want to control a payout without damaging the motor with
over speed.
In this mode the drum is de-clutched only being braked by the band brake. The band brake is
set to maximum holding power (less 2 %) which closes the brake almost 100 %. Then the band
brake can be adjusted to tension wanted.
The tension controller can be set from 0 % to 100 % where 0 % means brake fully closed and
100 % means brake fully open in which case the drum is free to rotate.
Spooling of wire
When spooling of wire it is of utmost importance that the wire is spooled correct. There is no
automatic spooling device as the wires are of different types and dimensions. Furthermore care
has to be exercised when spooling connections such as shackles on the drum as these can
damage the wires. Care must also be exercised specially when spooling long wires as it is very
important these are spooled on very tight to prevent the wire to cut into lower layers when
tension increases.
The length of the wire is measured with raps on the drum and if the wire is not spooled correct
the figure showing wire length on the SCADA monitor will be wrong.
“The spooling device” can be damaged if the guide rollers are not opened sufficiently when a
connection is passing through. It is very important always to keep an eye on the wire and the
drum.
It may be difficulty to get used to operate the winch using cameras but usually it quickly
becomes natural. Cameras are located in different places in the winch garage giving opportunity
to watch the desired winch drum from different angles.
Adjustment of motor torque
The torque of the motors can be adjusted (HT control). This can be utilised when working with
wires of smaller dimensions which can easily be broken by the power of the motors.
The torque can be adjusted to correspond with the breaking load of the wire. It is done with a
pot-meter on the winch control panel. The torque can be adjusted between 0 % and 100 %.
Normally the HT controller is set at 100 %. Care must be exercised when adjusting below 100
% as the holding power is reduced and case the wire is strong enough there is a risk of over
speed or other malfunction – shut down of the system.
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Tension control:
To be used during chasing out of anchors.
By pressing “CT ON” once the winch is in chasing mode, and the required tension are to be set
on CT-Potentiometer. During chasing out to anchor the winch will start paying out when the
actual tension is more then the adjusted tension.
QUICK & Full Release
At quick release the following actions will be executed automatically.
Preparation: Quick releases (quick release push button pressed).
a) Hydraulic accumulator 1 and 2 (solenoid KY1 andKY2) on.
b) Band brake closed to 100 % and de-energise the active motor(s) in order to get the active
clutch out while the belonging disk brake(s) are lifted. The quick release procedure will be
continued if the winch is clutched out.
Execution quick release when clutch is out (quick release push button remains pressed):
a) Disc brake closed
b) Band brake closed to 7% when pressing the quick release button only.
c) Band brake 100%open when pressing the quick release and the full release button both.
Stop quick release (quick release push button released):
a) Band brake closed to 100% when the hydraulic pump is running or to 50% when the
hydraulic pump is not running. (Spring operation only).
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Hydraulic winches
General remarks
There is little difference in running a hydraulic winch and an electrical winch. The winch is
operated with handles for heave in and pay out and for controlling the speed.
The lay out of the winch configuration can vary according to ship’s type. Some ships are
equipped with 2 towing winches and 2 anchor handling winches. (P type)
Latest deliveries (B-type) with hydraulic winches have 1 anchor handling winch and 2 towing
winches.
Both types have chain wheels installed on the towing winches.
Lay out (B-type)
The winch is “waterfall type” and consists of 1 anchor handling winch and 2 towing winches.
For running the winches 4 big hydraulic pumps are installed in a pump room. They supply
hydraulic oil to 8 hydraulic motors. The motors transfer power to close clutches which again
transfer the power to a drive shaft. The drive shaft is common for the towing winches.
The anchor-handling winch is not clutch able but is clutched in permanently. It is possible to
route the hydraulic oil round the anchor-handling winch by remote controlled switches on the
control panel. The winch has 4 gearboxes. 2 gearboxes for the anchor handling winch and 1 for
each of the towing winches.
Clutch arrangement
In order to clutch and de-clutch winch-drums a power pack is installed to supply all clutches.
The following options exist for clutching. Either the anchor-handling drum or a towing drum. 2
winches can be clutched at the same time.
“High speed” or “low speed” clutching is not an option as one some ships.
Clutching is done at the panel on the bridge. From there clutching and de-clutching is done as
well as choosing routing of the hydraulic oil for either anchor handling winch or towing winches.
Before clutching the brake must be “ON”. A passive surveillance will warn if trying to perform an
illegal act.
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Brake arrangement
The hydraulic winch has 2 braking arrangements. The hydraulic brake acts via the motors and
the mechanical band brake, which is manually operated.
The hydraulic brake is activated when the oil is passing discs in the motors. A certain slippage
will. Always exist in the hydraulic motors giving a slight rotation with tension on the wire. It is
therefore quite normal to observe the winch paying out slightly even though the handle is not
activated.
If the operation demands the wire to be 100 % secured it is necessary to put the band brake
“ON”.
Tension control
The maximum tension, which can be applied to the wire/chain, depends on the pressure in the
main hydraulic system.
This can be adjusted by a potentiometer installed in the control panel for each winch. If the
tension raises to a higher value than the adjusted, the winch will pay out.
This is very useful when chasing for an anchor, as it can avoid breakage of chaser collar and
PCP.
Emergency release and ultimate release
When the emergency release button is pushed, the band brake is lifted and the pressure in the
hydraulic system is reduced to a minimum, causing the winch to pay out. The normal over
speed protection is active.
If a winch drum which is not connected to a motor is emergency released, a small brake force
will be applied by the band brake, just enough to prevent the wire from jamming on the drum.
The ultimate release button has the same function, the only difference is that the over speed
protection system is not active. This might lead to serious damage of the winch motors.
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Hydraulic winch, “B-type”
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TOWCON
TOWCON 2000 is a control system for controlling and monitoring all towing functions, shooting
the tow wire, towing the towed object and hauling the tow wire.
The system handles both dynamic towing, hydraulic braking and static towing with brakes.
All data as wire lengths, adjusted max tension, actual wire tension, wire speed, motor pressure,
motor temperatures and motor R.P.M. is presented on a high resolution LCD graphical monitor.
The system alarms the user in case of unexpected occurrence, or to warn about special
conditions.
Alarm limits; wire data and control parameters can easily be programmed. Several functions can
be simulated, and there is a system for error detection. Statistical data can also be read.
The system has small mechanical dimensions, and is easy to mount.
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Instruction for use of Wire Drums
Following text and sketches are from the instruction books for the hydraulic winches delivered to
the “B – type”. Sales & Service, I.P.Huse, Ulstein Brattvaag, Norway issues the instructions.
Please note the last four lines in section 4.2
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Changing of Chain Wheels (Wildcats / Chain Lifter)
It will occasionally be necessary to change out the chain wheels depending on the size of chain
to be used. As the size of chain wheels has to fit to the size of chain.
Chain wheels are manufactured for chain of a certain size and using it for other sizes can cause
damage to both the chain and the wheels.
It is important that the chain fits exactly in the pockets to prevent the chain from slipping. A
chain, which is not fitting in size, can wear the chain wheel down in a short time and is time-
consuming to weld and repair.
It can be a troublesome task to change out a chain wheel if it is stuck on the shaft. Which is
often the case when working for a long time with tension of 150 tons or more. Also if some of
the links in the chain did not fit exactly in the pockets and have been slipping which gives large
loads on the chain wheel.
Large hydraulic jacks and heating is not always sufficient to dismantle a chain wheel. In most
cases time can be saved by fitting an "I" or "H" girder to support in one of the kelps of the chain
wheels and welded to a Doppler plate on deck to distribute the weight. The winch is then rotated
in “local control” counter wise to create a load on the chain wheel. This should cause the chain
wheel to come loose allowing the wheel to be dismantled.
Changing of chain wheel can take anything from 8 hours to 24 hours depending on where and
who changes the chain wheel and is often subject to discussion between charter and company
as time used is often for charters account.
It is still the responsibility of the ship to ensure that safety rules and procedures are adhered to
even when shore labour is assisting. Emphasising the need to observe that pulling devices are
used in a correct manner to avoid damage to threads. Likewise it is important to supervise the
use of hydraulic tools to prevent damage to winch motors and anything else which might be
used as a “foundation” for the hydraulic tool.
When the chain wheel has been changed often the changed out wheel is stored at shore.
Before sending ashore it is imperative to preserve it in a satisfactorily way. Lots of chain wheels
have been stored out doors without proper protection and supervision. These chain wheels
have to be scrapped. It is the responsibility of the ship to ensure the proper preservation and
storing.
NOTE.
A return advice must always be filled out for chain wheels being landed.
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TRIPLEX - SHARK JAW SYSTEM.
This equipment has been installed with the objective of safe and secure handling of wire and
chain and to make it possible to connect/disconnect an anchor system in a safe way.
Most vessels are provided with a double plant, - one at the starboard side and one at the port
side of the aft deck.
The largest plants installed in the vessels today have an SWL of 700 tonnes and they are able
to handle chains of the size of 7” or wires with diameter up to 175 mm.
Two control panels are installed in the aft part of the bridge console close to the winch operating
panels. The panels are located in port side and in starboard side referring to the respective
plant. The port side panel serves the port side TRIPLEX shark jaws and pins and the starboard
side serves the starboard side TRIPLEX.
Before any operation of these panels it is most important that the operator has studied the
manuals and made himself familiar with the functioning of the plant and that any operation
complies with the navigator’s instruction. If an order has been indistinct or ambiguous the
operator MUST ask for correct info to avoid any doubt or misunderstanding of the operation to
take place.
This instruction of the TRIPLEX plant has been adjusted to comply with the latest layout and to
describe exactly the plants as they appear in the latest and future new buildings and where the
company has decided to modify the existing plants in order to comply with safety.
The layout is mainly TRIPLEX but APM has added quite some changes to the plant in order to
improve and optimise the safety and reliability.
The manufacturer, TRIPLEX, has not implemented this modification as a standard version in
their basic plants. The development of this modification was prepared and completed by APM
based on experience.
The Danish Maritime Authorities have approved this improvement.
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Operation
To oblige accidents most possible an operating procedure has been prepared.
The operator must carefully study this procedure in order to obtain and ensure full
understanding of the function of the plant.
The marks welded on the links indicate whether the jaws are locked or not. The links MUST
pass 180 degrees to achieve “Locked position”.
If any irregularity in this respect should occur due to e.g. wear down it will be indicated clearly,
as the marks are no longer aligned.
It is as a fact ALWAYS the deck crew who make the final decision if the jaws are locked or not.
As they have to convince themselves by visual check of marks and upon this turn a lever
outside the crash barrier as a confirmation to the operator on the bridge. When this has been
performed the jaws are to be considered “Locked”.
After the acceptance from the deck the bridge operator can not operate any part of the shark
jaws.
The only option for overruling this condition is the “Emergency release”- buttons!
Emergency operation
In cases of power failure (Black Out) it is still possible to operate the shark jaws as the plant is
supplied from the vessel’s emergency generator.
Should even the emergency power supply fail it is possible to release the jaws by the
“Emergency Release” system. In this case the system is powered by nitrogen loaded
accumulators located in the steering gear room and from the vessel’s 24 volt battery supply.
The accumulators are reloaded at each operation of the hydraulic power pack for the TRIPLEX-
system.
Maintenance and inspections
The maintenance and frequent inspection of the shark jaws system is very important and should
be complied by the vessel’s programmed maintenance system, please see procedure 15, 1345:
Triplex Shark Jaw – Control Measurements (Supply Vessels).
Defects or damages are often revealed during inspections or lubrication.
Special attention should be shown to the lower part of the shark jaws – trunk. In spite of
drainage from this compartment the environment is rather harsh and tough to the components
located at the bottom of this area. Hydraulic hoses and fitting are constantly exposed to salt
water as well as the suspension of the shark jaws components.
A procedure concerning the treatment of the hydraulic hoses and fittings has been issued, -
Densyl tape.
The shark jaws trunk is often used as “garbage bin” for various items such as mud from
anchors, used rags, mussels from chains, chopped off split pins, remains of lead and much
more. Due to that fact it is very important to clean this compartment frequently.
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Check of “Lock”- position
It is very important to make sure that the shark jaws links are able to reach the correct position
when in “Lock”- position. The links have been provided with indication marks that have to be
aligned when locked and a special ruler is included in the spare parts delivered along with the
equipment. This ruler is used to check that the links are well above 180
o
.
Ref. Chapter 1, Section 7.2.4, - drawing B-2209 section C.
Please see procedure 15, 1345: Triplex Shark Jaw – Control Measurements.
Also refer to wooden model for demonstration.
This check has to be performed frequently and should be comprised by the Programmed
Maintenance System on board the vessel. If the equipment has been exposed to excessive load
or at suspicion of damage check must always take place and the result entered in the
maintenance log.
The shark jaws may often be exposed to strokes and blows from anchors tilting or other objects
handled.
Safety
It is most important to oblige safety regulations and guide lines connected to the operation of
the plant.
Ensure that all warning signs are located as per instructions - ref. Chapter 1, section 1.
If maintenance or repair work has to be performed inside the shark jaws compartment the plant
MUST be secured in order not to operate the unit unintended or by accident. This includes the
emergency operation as well.
To eliminate the risk of emergency release of the system the accumulators have to be
discharged by opening the return flow valve to the power pack. This will ensure safe access to
the shark jaws compartment.
In case repair or check is performed inside the trunk and the jaws are in upper position it must
not be possible to lower the jaws as the compartment leaves no room for both the jaws and a
person. This may require mechanical fastening of the jaws. (No former accidents reported).
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Guide Pins / A-pins
Together with the shark jaws plant two guide pins are provided. These pins are to ensure
guidance of wires and chains.
The guide pins are hydraulic operated from the power pack common with the shark jaws.
The rollers on the guide pins may be manufactured as single roller or divided into two rolls.
To ensure proper operation of the guide pins it is very important that they are well greased at all
time. In case the rollers are not able to rotate they will be damaged very fast and they will
damage e.g. wires as well. Good maintenance and greasing is essential to ensure good and
safe performance.
A central lubricating plant has been installed in the steering gear room for the greasing of both
the shark jaws, guide pins and the stern roller. Daily check of this greasing unit is important to
ensure sufficient lubricant in the reservoir.
Rather too much lubrication than too little.
Wire Lifter
The wire lift is located just in front of the shark jaws and is a part of the same unit.
This item is used to lift a wire or chain if required in order to connect or disconnect.
Stop Pins / Quarter Pins
The stop pins are located on the “whale back” in order to prevent a wire or chain to slide over
the side of the cargo rail. They function exactly as hydraulic jacks controlled from the shark jaws
panel on the bridge.
The stop pins are often exposed to wear and strokes from the wires and the wear may
sometimes cause need for repair. Especially the collar and bushing may require repair as a wire
could have ground the bushing and created burrs which prevents the hydraulic piston from
proper operation. Due to that fact it is important to frequently check the functioning of the stop
pins and to ensure proper greasing. If these pins are not used for a period they easily get stuck.
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2. OPERATION:
2.1 OPERATION OF THE SHARK JAW CONTROL PANEL BUTTON AND
SWITCHES
.
PUMP START:
Starts hydraulic pump.
The pump works at constant high pressure. It is equipped with a time
relay which will let the PUMP START LAMP start flashing if it has
been switched on but not used for a set period of time.
NOTE!Ensure that valves on suction line are opened before starting up.
PUMP STOP:
Stops hydraulic pump.
WIRE LIFT UP
:Raises the wire lift pin.
WIRE LIFT DOWN:
Lowers the wire lift pin.
The following controls of the panel are arranged so that those on the right side of the panel are
connected to port and those on the left side to starboard.
LOCK-O-OPEN:
Each of these two switches raises locks and opens one Jaw of the
Shark Jaw respectively. These switches can be operated
simultaneously or individually.
When in the central "0" position each switch stops its respective
Jaw of the Shark Jaw in whatever position it has reached. This is the
normal off position for the switches when the Shark Jaw is not in use.
When turned to the LOCK position each switch raises and locks its
respective Jaw of the Shark Jaw. When turned to the OPEN
position each switch lowers its respective Jaw of the Shark Jaw.
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LOCK-O-OPEN:
When full lock pressure is obtained the LOCK PRESSURE lamps
comes on, and when the locking cylinders are in the extended
position, the JAW IN POS. lamps comes on. The work deck-operator
inspects the marks on the link joints, and if the marks indicate that
the jaws are locked, he turns the lever located in the JAW POS.
ACCEPT box to JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED.
On the control panel the ALARM light goes out and the JAWS
LOCKED light comes on.
The jaws are completely locked when the link joints passes 180
degrees, and marks on link joints are on line.
When the Shark Jaw is locked, both switches remain at the LOCK
position. If the lock pressure falls on either one or both jaws or the
locking cylinders are not in the extended position the respective LED
goes out. Then the JAWS LOCKED -right goes out and the ALARM
LIGHT comes on. Under JAWS LOCKED conditions the PUMP
STOP cannot be operated.
QUICK RELEASE:
Before operating the QUICK RELEASE, Guide Pins and Wire Lift
Pin must be in level with the deck.
Two push buttons.
To operate the QUICK RELEASE with only the jaws in raised
position both OPEN-O-LOCK switches must first be moved to the
central "0" position and the JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPT lever
turned to JAW READY FOR OPERATION. The alarm light goes out
and the buzzer and alarm on deck comes on when the QUICK
RELEASE button cover is opened. Then both QUICK RELEASE
buttons must be pressed at the same time.
The system is reset by pressing and reset the E-STOP button.
EMERGENCY RELEASE:T
wo push buttons on the emergency release panel. For
retracting of Guide Pins, wire lift pin first and then the jaws.
To operate the EMERGENCY RELEASE the both buttons
must be pressed at the same time. The buzzer comes on
when the EMERGENCY RELEASE button cover is opened.
When the buttons are pressed the lights above them will
come on. The system is reset by pressing the E-STOP button.
GUIDE PIN UP:
Two buttons, which when pressed raise the respective guide pins.
GUIDE PIN DOWN:
Two buttons, which when pressed lower the respective guide pins.
EMERGENCY STOP:
E-STOP button. When pressed the current to all functions of
the control panel is cut.
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OIL LEVEL LOW
If the oil level in the hydraulic oil tank becomes too low
-TEMP HIGH:
or the oil temperature gets too high, the OIL LEVEL LOW / TEMP
HIGH lamp comes on.
LAMP TEST:
When the lamp test button is activated, all lamps on the panel will
light up.
CONTROL PANEL
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Marks for Locked on Hinge Link
The marks welded on the links indicate whether the Jaws are locked or not. The links MUST
pass 180 degrees to achieve “Locked Position”.
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2.2- OPERATION OF THE "JAW IN POSITION ACCEPT" LEVER:
"Jaw in Position Accept Box" placed on the work deck with lever
inside for operation to JAW READY FOR OPERATION or JAW
LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED.
JAWS LOCK
When the OPEN-O-LOCK switches on the main control
POSITION
panel are in LOCK position and all lamps for JAW IN
ACCEPTED:
POSITION and LOCK PRESSURE light, the work deck operator
inspects the marks on the link joints. When the marks indicate that
the jaws are locked he turns the lever to position: "JAW LOCK
POSITION ACCEPTED". On the control panel the JAWS LOCKED
lamp then comes on.
The Shark Jaw is now ready to hold the load. When the lever is in the
JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED the LOCK-O-OPEN and QUICK
RELEASE buttons cannot be operated without first turning the JAW
POSITION ACCEPT lever to the JAW READY FOR OPERATION
position.
The EMERGENCY RELEASE operates even with the lever in
position: "JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED".
Before operating the Shark Jaw the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever
has to be turned to JAW READY FOR OPERATION.
If the pump stops when the jaws are in locked position and JAW
LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED the JAWS LOCKED lamp goes out
and alarm lamp comes on. Procedure for control of the jaws in
locked position then have to be repeated, marks on the link joints
inspected and confirmed with operating JAW LOCK POSITION
ACCEPTED.
2.3 OPERATION OF THE CONTROL PANEL AT EMERGENCY
POWER.
2.3.1 Emergency power to the bridge Control Panel.
Functions to be operated at emergency power.
• Only the buttons for moving jaws and pins down.
• Pump start.
• Emergency release.
2.3.2 Emergency Power to the Main Junction Box.
All functions to be operated as on normal power.
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3.ELECTRIC AND HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM.
3. 1.ARRANGEMENT OF SYSTEM.
Refer to enclosed hydraulic diagram (section D).
A variable displacement hydraulic pump supplies the system.
The oil is distributed to the various electrically operated solenoid valves. When
activated these valves supply the oil to the hydraulic cylinders, which power the
Jaws, Wire Lift Pin, Guide Pins and Stop Pins.
The pump is connected to accumulators, which are charged as soon as the
system reaches maximum working pressure.
As shown in the hydraulic diagram, all the necessary relief valves over centre
valves and check valves are fitted to enable the system to function efficiently.
The electric system is powered from 220 or 110 Volt AC and is transformed /
rectified to 24 Volt DC.
The system must have a 24 Volt Direct Current emergency power supply.
3.2.FUNCTIONING OF QUICK RELEASE - JAWS ONLY.
Wire or chain held by the Shark Jaw can be released by turning the OPEN-O-
LOCK switches to the OPEN position, or by operating the QUICK RELEASE.
When required the QUICK RELEASE system can be used to open the jaws.
QUICK RELEASE is operated by turning both OPEN-O-LOCK switches to the
central "0" position and the JAW POSITION ACCEPT lever turned to READY FOR
OPERATION. The alarm light goes out and the buzzer comes on when the
QUICK RELEASE button cover is opened. Then both QUICK RELEASE buttons
must be pressed at the same time.
The need to operate two sets of controls to activate the QUICK RELEASE system
is a safety device to prevent the QUICK RELEASE from being operated by
accident.
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3.3.FUNCTIONING OF EMERGENCY RELEASE
A separate control panel on the bridge operates the EMERGENCY RELEASE.
When the EMERGENCY RELEASE is operated, solenoids nos. 42 and 35 are
activated (refer to hydraulic diagram)
The solenoid valve pos. 11 then releases pilot pressure from the accumulators,
supplying high pressure oil to the Wire Lift Pin and Guide Pins hydraulic cylinders,
to retract WIRE LIFT PIN and GUIDE PINS to deck level before the Jaws open.
Following this, even if the WIRE LIFT PIN or GUIDE PINS do not fully retract for
any reason, the Jaws will automatically open and reach deck level in 10 - 20
seconds.
- Pressing the E-STOP button can stop the whole procedure -
3.4.EMERGENCY RELEASE UNDER "DEAD SHIP" CONDITIONS.
The EMERGENCY RELEASE system can also operate under "dead ship"
conditions and under load. This is possible because the accumulators are
charged at the same time as the jaws are locked and the system reaches
maximum working pressure.
Should "dead ship" condition occur and the pump stop the emergency current from
the battery makes it possible to release with. power from the accumulators in the
same way as described above. Even under "dead ship" condition, with no power
from the pump, a load can safely be held in the Jaws, as the link joints are
"locked" past 180 degrees.
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4.Testing program for the Triplex Shark Jaw H-700.
Recommended and approved by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate.
4.1. Triplex Shark Jaw.
The Triplex Shark Jaw and central manoeuvring components have been tested by
manufacturer with 240 bar oil pressure.
4.2 Test without Load.
To be carried out on board after installation and start up.
a) The jaws to be closed and opened separately and simultaneously.
b) The wire lift to be moved to up and down positions.
c) QUICK RELEASE for jaws to be tested with the wire lift down.
d) EMERGENCY RELEASE to be tested when jaws have been locked and the pump is
disconnected.
e) Check marks on link joints when Jaws are locked. If marks are not in line the Shark
Jaw must be repaired before use.
4.3 Test with Load.
Wire of necessary strength to be locked in the Shark Jaw and a static load test to
be carried out by pulling with a load corresponding to the ships bollard pull.
5. General Maintenance
For Triplex Shark Jaw Type H-700
Triplex Guide Pins Type S-300
5.1 Accumulators Depressurising
Important!
Before maintenance work on Shark Jaw it is important to empty the accumulators
for oil by opening of the ball valve on the power unit.
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5.2 Shark Jaw Unit
Check regularly before use, that link joints and jaws have no wear and tear or damages
that can cause any danger.
All bearings and bolts in all joints should be tight.
Check tightness of all bolts and nuts regularly or minimum two times per year.
The inside of the Shark Jaw housing and the moveable parts must be cleaned regularly.
Lubricate according to the lubricating chart.
Shark Jaw Unit Service / Inspection Safety Device:
Before service or inspection of parts inside the Shark Jaw with the jaws in locked position
the jaws must be secured by welding a clamp on top of the Jaws. Remember to remove
the clamp before starting pump.
5.3 Guide Pins Units
Check torque on bolts for the top hats and guide plates on the lower end of the guide
pins, regularly minimum two times per year.
Recommended torque for M24 bolts 10.9 qualities black and oiled is 108 kpm.
Recommended torque for M30 bolts 10.9 qualities black and oiled is 175 kpm.
Check and clean regularly the inside of the guide pin housing.
Lubricate according to lubrication chart.
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Guide Pins Service / Inspection Safety Device:
Before service or inspection of parts on Guide Pins with the pins in upper position the
pins must be secured with a support inside.
Remember to remove the clamp before starting pump.
5.4 Hydraulic System
The filter element for the H.P. – and return line filter on power pack have to be changed
when indicators show blocked filter or minimum one time per year.
Check regularly all high pressure hoses inside the Shark Jaw and Guide Pins.
Ensure that spare high pressure hydraulic hoses are always carried on board.
Hydraulic oil according to lubrication chart.
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5.5 Electric System
5.5.1 With Power Switched off.
Tighten every screw connection for electrical termination. Check all cables for damage.
5.5.2 With Power Switched on.
Check that all operations from the control panel are functioning.
The same procedure shall be followed, also for the emergency release box.
5.6 Control of Operation with Current from the Emergency Power Supply.
Switch off the automatic fuse inside the junction box and check the operation of the
Shark Jaw from the control panel.
Check also the alarm functions.
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6. Control Measurements / Adjustments.
6.1 Control Measure in Lock Position:
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6.2 Adjustment of inductive proximity switches on lock cylinders.
1. Change inductive proximity switch if defect.
2. Dismantle cover on link joint.
3. Move jaws to LOCK position.
4. Adjust proximate switch until light on sensor comes on. Tighten contra nut on
proximate switch.
5. Open and lock jaws to check that light on sensor comes on.
6. Check that adjustment of proximate switch lamp goes out before link joints reach
minimum over centre measurement.
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6.3 Adjustment of Pressure Switches for Lock Pressure.
1. Adjust pressure to 115 bar.
Use horizontal adjusting screw on pump pressure compensatory valve.
2. Adjust pressure switch until green lamp on control panel comes on.
Use alternative voltmeter and measure on cables for pressure switches.
7.Test Program – Periodical Control
Triplex Shark Jaw Type H-700
Triplex Guide Pins Type S-300
7.1 The Triplex system is installed and used under rough conditions. Due to mechanical
stress, vibrations and aggressive atmosphere and the equipment needs to be maintained
carefully for safe operation.
A functional dry run test is recommended before every anchor
handling operation.
The owner is responsible for all maintenance on the Triplex equipment. He must perform
his own routines and schedules after the following guidelines.
7.2 Checking List – Periodic Control Mechanical / Hydraulic.
Procedure for Personal Safety See Section 1; Have to be Followed!
Recommended Regularity:MONTHLY
1. Dismantle manhole cowers on Shark Jaw and Guide Pins.
2. Check H.P. hoses, pipes and fittings. Poor H.P. hoses to be changed.
3. Check that all bolts are properly tightened.
4. Check that link joints are over centre when jaws are in locked position. See
drawing B-2209.
5. Check wears on jaws, rollers and bearings. Repair and change where necessary.
6. Movement of bolts and link joints to be controlled under the function test.
Look carefully for cracks and deformations.
7. Check sea water drain pipes from Shark Jaw and Guide Pins.
8. Check oil lever in hydraulic oil tank.
9. Starts pump and check that hydraulic pressure raise to max. working pressure
(175 bar).
10. Check accumulator nitrogen pressure: 35 Bar.
It’s important first to empty the accumulators for oil by opening the ball valve on
the power unit. Then connect gas-filling equipment according to accumulator
precharging procedure.
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11.Auxiliary equipment as lubrication system to be checked according to the grease
system manual. (LINCOLN)
12. Check that gaskets for manhole covers are in good condition.
13. Fit all manhole covers.
7.3 Checking List – Periodic Control Electrical
Procedures for Personal Safety see Section 1. Have to be followed!
Recommended Regularity:MONTHLY
1. Switch power off.
2. Perform Visual inspection for mechanical damage on:
- Junction boxes, control panels and cabinets.
- Cables.
- Indicators and switches.
- Electrical components mounted on the entire Triplex equipment / delivery.
3. Open every electrical cabinet, panel and boxes one by one, inspect for damage
and heat exposure.
4. Control that all components are firm fastened, and relays are firm in their sockets.
5. Screw connections for every electrical termination to be carefully tightened.
6. Damages and other un-regularities must corrected immediately.
7. Power on, and perform complete functional test programs:
- Normal operation of all functions.
- Quick release.
- Emergency release.
8. Check emergency power (24 V) to junction box.
9. Remount all panels and doors / covers.
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7.4 Testing without Load – Yearly Testing.
Checklist
(Accept with OK)
Control
Panel Bridge
Motor/pump
starter
1 Remote pump start -
2 Remote pump stop -
3 Local pump start -
4 Local pump stop -
5 Pump lamp auto flicker
6 Emergency stop
7 Wire lift pin up
8 Wire lift pin down
9 Starboard jaw close
10 Starboard jaw open
11 Port jaw close
12 Port jaw open
13 Jaws close simultaneously
14 Jaws open simultaneously
15 Alarm light jaws open
16 Lock pressure lights
17 Jaw in position lights
JAW
POSITION
ACCEPTED
18 Jaw in position accepted -
19 Jaws locked light
20 Guide pins up
21 Guide pins down
22 Towing pins up
23 Towing pins down
24 Emergency release
25 Quick release (Jaws only)
26 Reset Quick release buttons
27 Oil temperature high alarm light
28 Oil level alarm light
29 Emergency power supply junction box
connection (193-194)
30 Emergency power supply control panel
bridge connection (77-78)
31 Jaw in lock position marks in line check,
starboard
32 Jaw in lock position marks in line check, port
7.5 Load Test – Emergency Release – 5 Year Control.
Wire with required strength to be locked in the Shark Jaw. Make emergency
release with a load of 90 tons on the wire (Jaws).
First test:With the pump running.
Second test:With the pump stopped and accumulators fully loaded.
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
“In closed / locked position” View from astern of Jaws.
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
“Mark on line !”
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
“In closed / locked position” Looking aft.
Wire lifter 1/3 up, Guide Pins in closed position.
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
“Double set of Jaws, Pins and Wire lifter” Looking aft. A- type vessel.
Maersk Training Centre A/S
View from the bridge.
A-type vessel.
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
“Chain stopped off by the Shark Jaw” Looking aft.
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
“JAW READY FOR OPERATION”
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
“JAW LOCK POSITION ACCEPTED”
Triplex Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 6
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KARM FORK – SHARK JAW SYSTEM.
This equipment has been installed with the objective of safe and secure handling of wire and
chain and to make it possible to connect / disconnect an anchor system in a safe way.
Most vessels are provided with a double plant, - one at the starboard side and one at the port
side of the aft deck.
The Karm Fork system is a patented design for anchor handling and towing operations. The unit
consists of a wide, strong foundation that is inserted into the deck structure. The Fork runs
vertically up and down in the foundation. High-pressure hydraulic cylinders power the Karm
Fork unit.
The Karm Fork can easily be adapted to different wire / chain dimension by changing the insert.
The Karm Towing Pins system is a patented design for anchor handling and towing operations.
The unit consists of a wide, strong foundation that is inserted into the deck structure. The
Towing Pins run vertically up and down in the foundation. The Karm Towing Pins have flaps for
horizontal locking. As the pins move upward they turn the flaps towards one another. This
system traps the wire / chain inside a “square” avoiding it to jump of the towing pins.
High-pressure hydraulic cylinders power the Karm Fork unit.
The Karm Fork & Towing Pins are all placed in the same foundation.
The largest plants installed on board the APM vessels today have a SWL of 750 tonnes and
they are able to handle chains of the size of 6”.
Before any operation of these panels it is most important that the operator has studied the
manuals and made himself familiar with the functioning of the plant and that any operation
complies with the navigator’s instruction. If an order has been indistinct or ambiguous the
operator MUST ask for correct info to avoid any doubt or misunderstanding of the operation to
take place.
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KARM FORK Shark Jaw
Wire and chain Stopper
Fig 1
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Chapter 07
Anchor Handling Course
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Inserts for KARM FORK
Fig 2
Inserts and Carpenter Stoppers for KARM FORK
Fig 3
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Karm Fork in top position with top cover on.
Towing Pins in parked position.
Looking aft.MAERSK DISPATCHER
Karm Fork Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Karm Fork and Towing Pin
in top position.
Looking aft.
MAERSK DISPATCHER
Karm Fork Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Karm Fork Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7
Karm Forks and Towing Pins in top position
with Safety Pins in.
Looking towards port.MAERSK DISPATCHER
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Karm Forks and Towing Pins in top position
with Safety Pins in.
Chain stopped off in both sides.
Looking aft.MÆRSK DISPATCHER
Karm Fork Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Both sets of Towing Pins in up / locked position.
Both sets of Karm Forks in parked position, ready
for use. Looking aft.MÆRSK CHIEFTAIN
Karm Fork Shark Jaw System
Anchor Handling Course, chapter 7
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“Good Advises and Guidelines” in use of NON rotation-resistant steel wires.
First of all it is recommended to read the Technical Information regarding steel wires by Fyns
Kran Udstyr / Randers Reb. These information make the foundation for the following “Good
Advises and Guidelines”.
The wire-thread, which is used in the production of a steel wire, has a very high tensile strength
compared by ordinary steel.
Trade steel (“Steel 37”) has a tensile strength at app. 37 kp/mm2 (362 N/mm2)
Wire steel has a tensile strength from app. 140 to 220 kp/mm2 (1370 – 2160 N/mm2)
The fact that the wire-thread is so strong has the disadvantage that the bending strength will be
reduced. The wire-thread breaks easily, if it is bent – especially under the circumstances as a
“Work wire” is working under.
Below different subjects concerning or are used in connection with steel wire will be covered.
Especially the negative influence on the steel wire will be covered.
Swivel:The breaking load will locally be reduced by app. 30%
When a steel wire is under load it opens and at the same time it will be
extended. The swivel “makes” it easier for the wire to open, stress failure
will occur and the life expectancy will be reduced.
Working Load:A steel wire must maximum be loaded with 50% of the breaking load.
The material reaches the yield point at 50% of the breaking load. The wire-
threads get stiff and will break when they are bent. The life expectancy will
be reduced.
If the load constantly is about the 50%, the steel wire will break.
Loops / kinks:Gives a reduction in the breaking load at app. 50%
The steel wire will be heavily deformed, when e.g. a kink is straightened out
by applying of a load.
A kink is formed due to extraction of a loop.
Fleet angle:Does not matter on ships with spooling devices.
But the steel wire has to run straight into a block.
Running in Steel Wire Rope:
Is recommended, if time. In this way the steel wire will gradually become
accustomed to the new conditions.
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Fitting to Drum: Fundamentally you ought to follow the recommendations made by the
manufacturer.
But this does only matter with the first layer of steel wire. It doesn’t matter
on drums with several layers of steel wire.
If it isn’t possible to fit the steel wire at the right side due to the construction
of the drum, you must subsequent keep away from the first layer on the
drum.
Spooling:Care must be taken to ensure that the reel and the drum are running in the
same direction. That means from under-turn to under-turn and from over-
turn to over-turn. If this isn’t done correctly, the steel wire is subjected to
torsion.
In order to achieve problem-free spooling on multi-layer drums it is
extremely important that the steel wire is spooled on with tension. If the
layers are too loose; the upper layers can damage or cut into the layers
below when tension is applied, resulting in damage to the steel wire.
Spooling from drum to reel: All tension / torsion must first be released by
deploying the wire into the water – at sufficient water depth – before the
steel wire is spooled on to the reel.
The best-recommended way of doing this transferring; is first to deploy the
steel wire into the water, secure it in the Shark Jaws and afterwards spool
the steel wire directly from the water onto the reel.
It is of course a demand, that the reel is able to lift the weight of the
deployed steel wire.
Bending around a mandrel: (Can be compared with a U-lift.)
When the steel wire “works” on the stern roller or is spooled on the drum
this is “Bending around a mandrel”. How big / small this proportion is,
depends on the diameter of the “drum” (Winch drum, stern roller, guide
pins) and the diameter of the wire which is supposed to “work” on the drum.
Depending on the proportion between mandrel diameter and steel wire
diameter, reduction in the breaking load will be:
(d = diameter of the steel wire)
Mandrel, diam.:Breaking load, reduced:
40 d 5%
15 d 10%
5 d 20%
4 d 25%
3 d 30%
2 d 40%
1 d 50%
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A few examples:3000 mm drum / 76 mm wire = app. 40 d
3000 mm drum / 86 mm wire = app. 35 d
1500 mm drum / 86 mm wire = app. 17 d
900 mm drum / 76 mm wire = app. 12 d
The same is also valid, when the steel wire makes a big change in the run-
direction.
E.g. when the steel wire is forced round a guide pin, the proportion will only
be app 4 d (300 mm guide pin / 76 mm wire = 4 d).
For steel wires 6x36 and 6x41 a minimum of 20 d is recommended.
The bigger – that better. Some suppliers of steel wires recommend a
minimum of 40 d.
E.g. a 44-mm steel wire “demands” a sheave with a minimum diameter at
880 mm
A more essential fact is the stress, which will occur when a steel wire runs
round a drum, roller and sheaves or change run of direction due to a guide
pin or a spooling device. This stress will give a shorter life of the steel wire
and the steel wire will be worn down before time as well.
When a steel wire is fed over e.g. a winch drum, stern roller, guide pin or a
sheaf, certain complex tensions (a combination of bending, tensile and
compression stress) are generated in the steel wire.
The greatest tension occurs in the wire threads furthest away from the steel
wire’s bending centre. After repeated bends, stress failure will occur in
these wire threads.
These stress failures occur due to many factors. E.g. the steel wire rope
construction, tension applied, the ratio (d), use of a swivel, wear and tear of
guide pins, spooling devices and stern roller together with martensite
formation.
Martensite:Martensite formation.
Martensite is a structural change in the wire material causes by a very
sudden cooling of the steel wire after a strong local heating generated by
friction. E.g. bad spooling of the steel wire on the winch drum may cause
the friction.
This structure change gives a hard and brittle surface and may cause
fractures during normal operation or when spliced, even though the steel
wire doesn’t show any visible signs of external wear
If a steel wire carries a current or the steel wire is wound on a drum in
several layers, there will often be sparks. The surface temperature where
the sparks appear will be over 800° C, making it quite probable that
martensite will be formed. If there are many sparks, fracture on wire threads
will happen and the wire may break.
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Precautions against martensite:
• The blocks, guide pins, stern roller and spooling devices must not be
worn down and should turn easily. Must be kept in good condition.
If equipment is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensure that
hardness of the welding material is maximum 300 Brinel.
• When a steel wire is wound on a drum, it should be in tight wraps
without the layers crossing each other in order to prevent the top layer
from cutting into the underlying layers.
• The steel wire should be lubricated at regular intervals in order to
minimise the friction between wires and strands. The best would be to
make a sort of continuously lubricating.
• The steel wire should be checked at regular intervals for crushing, minor
cracks and mechanical damages, all of which might indicate martensite
spots.
• Use of wires with less contents of carbon in the wire. (Are used in the
fishing industry for trawl wires).
Re-socketing of steel wire:
• The old steel wire is cut of at the socket base.
• The steel wire piece is pressed out by use of a mandrel / jack.
When heated:
• Only slowly and equably.
• Only up to maximum degrees – depending on the product.
Do “bend / break – test” on the wire from the piece of steel wire, which is
leading into the socket. If the wire threads break, they have been exposed
to martensite. The steel wire will break in the area around the socket base
because the steel wire works heavily in this area.
After Re-socketing remember to:
• The socket base to be filled with grease or oil. To be re-filled, when the
steel wire isn’t in use over a long period, as the steel wire will dry out.
• The re-greasing is very important, when the socket in hanging down.
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Recommendations:
• You must aim at a working load of maximum 1/3 of the Breaking load.
In this way the steel wire can be loaded with peaks up to 50% of the
original breaking load. You will also have room for using the swivel
without complications.
• Guide pins, blocks, spooling devices and stern roller must be kept in a
good condition. If equipment is repaired by welding, care should be
taken to ensure that hardness of the welding material is maximum 300
Brinel.
• Avoid that the steel wire is slipping across the connections between the
two stern rollers.
• The ratio of “d” to “D” must be as big as possible – and always at least
20, when we are dealing with a steel wire under load.
• The steel wire must be lubricated in order to minimise the martensite
formations.
• Martensite formations must generally be avoided – if possible.
10
Randers Odense København
89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66
TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-1
10
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
1. THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF STEEL WIRE ROPE
A steel wire rope normally consists of three components
(fig. 1):
- Steel wires that form a strand.
∙ Strands that are wrapped around a core.
∙ The core.
These elements are available in various models/designs,
depending on the physical requirements of the steel wire
rope and its intended application. A single strand can in
certain cases be used quite properly as a steel wire
rope.
A fourth component, that is equally as important for the
steel wire rope's performance as the design and quality
of the three basic components, is the lubrication of the
core and the strands (see "Maintenance of Steel Wire
Rope").
Steel Wire
There are many different types of material and qualities of wire.
Randers Reb can supply most of these qualities - contact us to find
out how Randers Reb can meet your own particular needs.
The qualities of steel that Randers Reb uses in the production of
standard steel wire rope are supplied by a select few of Europe's
leading wire manufacturers and as a minimum requirement meet
international standards (ISO 2232). In this way Randers Reb's steel
wire ropes achieve a high degree of uniformity.
The minimum tensile strength of the wire defines the classification of
the steel wire rope. The tensile strength of wires in Randers Reb's
standard product range is as follows:
∙ Ungalvanised wires (mainly elevator cables) 1,370 N/mm² (140 kp/mm²).
∙ Zinc galvanised wires (mainly fishing) 1,570 N/mm² (160 kp/mm²).
∙ Zinc/alum. galvanised wires (mainly fishing) 1,570 N/mm² (160 kp/mm²).
∙ Rustproof wires, tensile strength dependent on size 1,670 N/mm² (170 kp/mm²).
∙ Zinc galvanised wires (mainly industry)
1,770 N/mm² (180 kp/mm²).
∙ Zinc galvanised wires (mainly industry)
1,970 N/mm² (200 kp/mm²).
Randers Reb always demands that all wire consignments are
accompanied by a wire certificate.
Strands
A strand is laid by a minimum of three wires that are arranged in
many different designs (geometric patterns). The strand is almost
always arranged around a centre wire. The wires are made from
1. STÅLTOVETS GRUNDELEMENTER
Et ståltov består normalt af tre komponenter (fig. 1):
∙ Ståltråde der danner en dugt.
∙ Dugter der slås omkring et hjerte.
∙ Hjerte.
Disse elementer udføres i forskellig udformning/design
afhængig af, hvilke fysiske krav der stilles til ståltovet
samt hvad det skal anvendes til. Én dugt kan i visse
tilfælde med fordel anvendes som et ståltov.
En fjerde komponent, der er lige så vigtig som udform-
ningen og kvaliteten af de tre basiskomponenter, er indfedtningen af hjerte og dugter (se afsnittet
"Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet").
Ståltråd
Der findes mange forskellige materialetyper og kvaliteter
af tråde. Randers Reb kan levere de fleste af disse kvaliteter.
De stålkvaliteter, som Randers Reb anvender til fremstilling af stan-
dard ståltove, leveres fra få af Europas førende trådproducenter og
opfylder som minimum internationale standarder (EN 10264). Herved
opnår Randers Rebs ståltove en høj grad af ensartethed.
Minimum brudstyrken på tråden angiver klassifikationen af ståltovet.
Randers Reb anvender bl.a. følgende trådtyper:
∙ Ugalvaniserede tråde (primært elevatortove) 1.370 N/mm2 (140 kp/mm2).
∙ Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært fiskeri) 1.570 N/mm2 (160 kp/mm2).
∙ Zink/aluminium-galvaniserede tråde (primært fiskeri) 1.570 N/mm2 (160 kp/mm2).
∙ Rustfrie tråde (brudstyrken er dimensionsafhængig) 1.670 N/mm2 (170 kp/mm2).
∙ Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært industri) 1.770 N/mm2 (180 kp/mm2).
∙ Zink-galvaniserede tråde (primært industri) 1.970 N/mm2 (200 kp/mm2).
Randers Reb kræver, at alle trådleverancer ledsages af et trådcertifikat.
Dugter
En dugt er fremstillet (slået) af minimum 3 tråde, der er lagt i én af
mange forskellige designs (geometrisk opbygning). Dugten er næs-
ten altid opbygget omkring en centertråd. Som regel er trådene af
stål, men de kan også være af fiber (natur- eller kunstfiber) eller af
en kombination af stål og fiber.
Antallet, størrelsen og materialet af de enkelte tråde kendetegner
tovet og dets egenskaber. Få og tykke tråde giver stor slidstyrke,
Fig. 1.
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either steel or fibre (natural or man-made), or a combination of
these.The quantity, size and material from which the individual wires
are made characterise the rope and its qualities. Fewer, thicker wires
create greater abrasion resistance, whereas a greater number of
thinner wires creates greater flexibility (see also section 2: "Types of
Strand").
Core
Almost all steel wire ropes have a core. The core's function is to sup-
port and retain the strands in their respective positions while the
steel wire rope is being
used.
The core may be made of
either steel, fibre, or a com-
bination of the two. The
core is usually one of the
following types:
- FC (natural or man-made fibre, Fibre Core).
∙ WSC (steel core, Wire Strand Core). The WSC is a strand and is of exactly the same construction as the strands in the steel wire rope.
∙ IWRC (steel core, Independent Wire Rope Core). The IWRC is an independent steel wire rope with a fibre core or a WSC (see also
section 2: Types of Core).
2. STEEL WIRE ROPE CONSTRUCTIONS
A steel wire rope is defined not only by its basic elements (wires,
strands, core), but also by the way in which the individual wires are
laid together to create a strand and the way in which the strands are
laid around the core, etc. The steel wire rope's construction is
defined when the following criteria have been determined:
∙ Number of wires in a strand.
∙ Type of strand (strand design).
∙ Number of strands.
∙ Type of core.
∙ Lay direction (steel wire rope and strand).
∙ Pre-forming.
The steel wire rope is designated according to the number of
strands, the number of wires in each strand, the design (type) of the
strand, and the type of core.
∙ 6x7 Standard with FC (fibre core).
∙ 8x19 Standard with WSC (steel core).
∙ 8x19 Seale with IWRC (steel core).
∙ 6x36 Warrington Seale with FC (fibre core).
Number of Wires in a Strand
The number of wires in a strand varies between three and approx.
139, although there are most commonly 7, 19, 24 or 36 wires. The
number of wires and their thickness depend on the design of the
strand and affects the characteristic of the steel wire rope.
hvorimod mange og tynde tråde giver stor fleksibilitet (se også afsnit-
tet "Dugttype/dugtdesign").
Hjerte
Næsten alle ståltove har et hjerte. Hjertets funktion er at understøtte
og fastholde dugterne i deres relative stilling under brugen.
Hjertematerialet kan enten være stål eller fiber eller en kombination
af disse (se fig. 2). Hjertet er normalt af typen:
∙ FC (natur- eller kunst
fiber, Fibre Core).
∙ WSC (stålhjerte, Wire Strand Core). WSC'et er en dugt og af
samme konstruktion
som ståltovets dugter.
∙ IWRC (stålhjerte, Independent Wire Rope Core). IWRC'et er et selvstændigt ståltov med et fiberhjerte eller WSC. 2. STÅLTOVSKONSTRUKTIONER
Et ståltov bestemmes ikke kun ud fra dets grundelementer (tråde,
dugter og hjerte), men også ud fra hvordan de enkelte tråde er slået
sammen for at danne en dugt samt hvordan dugterne er slået
omkring hjertet m.m. Ståltovets konstruktion er fastlagt, når følgende
er defineret:
∙ Antal tråde i dugt.
∙ Dugttype (dugtdesign).
∙ Antal dugter.
∙ Hjertetype.
∙ Slåningsretning (ståltov og dugt).
∙ Formlægning.
Ståltove er benævnt efter antallet af dugter, antallet af tråde i hver
dugt, designet (typen) af dugten og hjertetypen. F.eks.:
∙ 6x7 Standard med FC (fiberhjerte).
∙ 8x19 Standard med WSC (stålhjerte).
∙ 8x19 Seale med IWRC (stålhjerte).
∙ 6x36 Warrington Seale med FC (fiberhjerte).
Antal tråde i dugt
Antallet af tråde i en dugt varierer fra 3 til ca. 139, mest almindeligt
er 7, 19, 24 eller 36 tråde. Trådenes antal og tykkelse afhænger af
dugtdesignet og har indflydelse på ståltovets egenskaber.
Fig. 2
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Types of Strand (Strand Construction)
The type of strand is characterised by the way in which the wires in
the strand are arranged. There are four basic types of strand design
that are used in all steel wire ropes, either in their original form or as
a combination of two or more types. The four basic types are:
∙ Standard.
∙ Seale.
∙ Filler.
∙ Warrington.
Standard
The Standard construction (fig. 3) is characterised by the fact that all
wires are of equal thickness, although the core wire may be thicker.
The wires are also laid together in such a way that all of them, with
the exception of the centre wire, are of equal length. In this way all
the wires are subjected to an equal distribution of load when pulled
straight.
The geometric wire distribution consists of one centre wire, onto
which one or more layers are
laid. Each layer is produced
in a separate operation. If
there are several layers, the
number of wires increases by
six for each layer.
The designation for a
Standard strand with e.g.
seven wires is (6-1), i.e. one centre wire with six external wires in
one operation. If there are 37 wires it is known as (18/12/6-1), i.e.
one centre wire with six external wires from the first operation, 12
from the second operation and 18 from the third operation.
The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a
fibre core (fig. 4).
Seale
The Seale construction (fig. 5) is characteri-
sed by the way in which the strand consists
of two layers of wire produced in one opera-
tion. Also, the number of wires in the first
and second layer is identical.This construc-
tion is somewhat stiffer than a correspon-
ding Standard construction (with the same
number of wires). This is because the outer
wires in the Seale construction are conside-
rably thicker.
Dugttype (dugtdesign)
Dugttypen er karakteriseret ved, hvordan trådene i dugten er arran-
geret. Der findes fire grundtyper af dugtdesign: ∙ Standard.
∙ Seale.
∙ Filler.
∙ Warrington.
Disse indgår i alle ståltove, enten rene eller i kombinationer af to
eller flere typer.
Standard
Standard konstruktionen (fig. 3) er kendetegnet ved, at alle tråde er
lige tykke, dog kan hjertetråden være tykkere. Desuden er trådene
slået således sammen, at alle - med undtagelse af centertråden er
lige lange. Herved belastes alle trådene ligeligt under lige træk.
Den geometriske trådfordeling er én centertråd, hvorpå der
lægges ét eller flere lag. Hvert lag fremstilles i hver sin opera-
tion. Antallet af tråde sti-
ger med 6 for hvert lag. Betegnelsen for en
Standard dugt med
f.eks. 7 tråde er (6-1),
dvs. 1 centertråd med 6
tråde udenom i én
operation. Ved 37 tråde er betegnelsen (18/12/6-1), dvs. 1 centertråd
med 6 tråde uden om som første operation, 12 tråde lægges herefter
uden på i anden operation og 18 tråde i tredje operation.
Centertråden erstattes til tider
af flere tråde eller et fiberhjer-
te (fig. 4).
Seale
Seale konstruktionen (fig. 5) er kendetegnet
ved, at dugten består af to trådlag fremstillet
i én operation. Desuden er antallet af tråde i
første og andet lag ens.
Denne konstruktion er noget stivere end en
tilsvarende Standard konstruktion (med
samme trådantal). Dette skyldes, at ydertrå-
dene i Seale konstruktionen er væsentlig
tykkere.
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
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A Seale strand with e.g. 19 wires is known as (9-9-1), i.e. one centre
wire with nine wires in the first layer and nine wires in the second
layer.
The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a fibre
core (fig. 6).
Filler
The Filler construction (fig. 7) is characterised by a strand
consisting of two layers of wires produced in one operation.
Also, the number of wires in the second layer is twice the num-
ber in the first layer. This is, however, only possible if filler wires
are inserted between the first and the second layers, to prevent
the strand becoming hexagonal in shape.
This construction is
more flexible than a
corresponding Standard
construction and consi-
derably more flexible
than a corresponding
Seale construction (with
the same number of
wires excluding filler wires). A Filler strand with e.g. 25 wires
(including 6 filler wires) is known as (12-6F-6-1), i.e. one centre wire
with six wires in the first layer and 12 wires in the second layer.
There are six filler wires between the first and the second layers.
The centre wire may be replaced by several wires or a
fibre core (fig. 8).
Warrington
The Warrington construction (fig. 9) is characterised by a
strand consisting of two layers of wire produced in one
operation. The second (outer) layer contains wires of two
dimensions, and the number of wires in the second layer
is twice the number in the first.
This construction is very compact and flexible.
A Warrington strand with e.g. 19 wires is known as (6+6-6-1), i.e.
one centre wire with six wires in the first layer and a total of 12 wires
of two dimensions in the second layer.
The centre wire may be replaced by
several wires or a fibre core (fig. 10).
Betegnelsen for en Seale dugt med f.eks. 19 tråde er (9-9-1) dvs. 1
centertråd med 9 tråde i første og 9 tråde i andet lag. Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde (fig. 6) eller et
fiberhjerte. Filler
Filler konstruktionen (fig. 7) er kendetegnet ved, at dugten
består af to trådlag fremstillet i én operation. Desuden er
antallet af tråde i andet lag dobbelt så stort som første lag.
Dette er dog kun muligt, når der indlægges fyldtråde
mellem første og andet lag for at forhindre, at dugten bliver
kantet.
Denne konstruktion er mere
bøjelig end en tilsvarende
Standard konstruktion og
væsentligt mere bøjelig end
en tilsvarende Seale kon-
struktion (med samme trå-
dantal ekskl. fyldtråde).
Betegnelsen for en Filler
dugt med f.eks. 25 tråde (inkl. 6 fyldtråde) er (12-6+6F-1), dvs. 1
centertråd med 6 tråde i første lag og 12 tråde i andet lag. Mellem
første og andet lag ligger 6 fyldtråde.
Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere tråde (fig. 8) eller et fiberhjerte. Warrington
Warrington konstruktionen (fig. 9) er kendetegnet ved,
at dugten består af to trådlag fremstillet i én operation.
I andet lag (yderlag) indgår to forskellige tråddimen-
sioner, og antallet af tråde i andet lag er dobbelt så
stort som det første.
Denne konstruktion er meget kompakt og bøjelig. Betegnelsen for en Warrington dugt med f.eks. 19 tråde er (6+6-6-1),
dvs. 1 centertråd med 6 tråde i første lag og i alt 12 tråde fordelt på
to tråddimensioner i andet lag. Centertråden erstattes til tider af flere
tråde (fig. 10) eller et fiberhjerte. 5+5-5-1
Warrington
6+6-6-1
Warrington
7+7-7-1
Warrington
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
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Other Types of Strand
As previously mentioned, there are also strands that are a combina-
tion of one or more of the above four basic types of strand. One of
these is the Warrington-Seale (fig. 11). This construction is one of the most
widely-used and most flexible construc-
tions compared to the four basic types.
The Warrington-Seale construction is
characterised by a strand consisting of
three layers of wire produced in one
operation. The number of wires in the
third (outer) layer matches the number of
wires in the second layer. Also, the layers
below the outer layer are built as a
Warrington construction.
A Warrington-Seale strand with e.g. 36
wires is known as (14-7+7-7-1), i.e. one
centre wire with seven wires in the first
layer, 14 wires made up of two dimen-
sions in the second layer, and 14 wires in
the third layer.
The strands and the wires in the strands do not necessarily have to
be round. Examples of this are shown in fig. 12. The strands are
special strands (i.a. with profiled wire), designed to meet extremely
unusual requirements.
Number of Strands
The number of strands in a steel wire rope varies between three and
approx. 36, although most commonly there are six strands. The more
strands a steel wire rope contains, the more rounded and flexible it
is, although the wires in the strand are also thinner (less durable).
Types of Core
As mentioned in section 1: "Core", there are two types of core for
steel wire ropes:
∙ Fibre core (natural or man-made).
∙ Steel core (WSC or IWRC).
Fibre Core
Fibre cores are the most commonly used, as not only do they provi-
de a good, elastic base but also enable lubrication of the rope from
the inside, since it is possible to add oil and/or grease to the fibre
core during production. Andre dugttyper
Som tidligere nævnt findes der også dugter, der er en kombination af
én eller flere af ovenstående fire dugtgrundtyper. En af disse er
Warrington Seale (fig. 11). Denne konstruktion er opbygget som
en Warrington med et lag mere og
hører til en af de mest udbredte.
Desuden er den mest bøjelige kon-
struktion i sammenligning med de
fire grundtyper.
Warrington Seale konstruktionen er
kendetegnet ved, at dugten består
af tre trådlag fremstillet i én opera-
tion. Antallet af tråde i tredje lag
(yderlag) svarer til antallet af tråde i
andet lag. Betegnelsen for en Warrington
Seale dugt med f.eks. 36 tråde er
(14-7+7-7-1), dvs. 1 centertråd
med 7 tråde i første lag, 14 tråde
fordelt på to tråddimensioner i
andet lag og 14 tråde i tredje lag. Dugten samt dugtens tråde behøver ikke nødvendigvis at være
runde. Eksempler på dette ses af fig. 12. Dugterne er special-
dugter (bl.a. med profiltråde) konstrueret til at opfylde helt spe-
cielle krav.
Antal dugter
Antallet af dugter i et ståltov varie-
rer fra 3 til ca. 36, mest almindeligt er 6 dugter. Desto flere dugter et
ståltov indeholder, desto rundere og mere fleksibelt bliver ståltovet
(mindre slidstyrke).
Hjertetype
Som nævnt i afsnittet "Hjerte" findes der to typer hjerter til ståltove: ∙ Fiberhjerte (natur- eller kunstfiber).
∙ Stålhjerte (WSC eller IWRC).
Fiberhjerte
Fiberhjerte er det mest anvendte, da det udover at give dugterne et
godt fjedrende underlag også muliggør smøring af ståltovet indefra,
idet der under fremstillingen af fiberhjertet kan tilsættes olie og/eller
fedt. Desuden reduceres risikoen for rustangreb indefra.
Triangular strand
Strand constructed of wires including profiled wire
Strand constructed of profiled wire
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig.10
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This reduces the risk of rust attacking from the inside.
The fibre core is normally produced from polypropylene (PP) or sisal.
PP can withstand weaker acids and alkalis and it does not rot. The
advantage of a sisal core is that it can absorb oil/grease to a greater
degree for lubrication of the steel wire rope from the inside.
The maximum operating temperatures for steel wire ropes with a
fibre core can be seen in section 9: "Maximum Operating
Temperature" and " Minimum Operating Temperature".
Steel Core
A steel core is formed as either one of the strands (WSC) or as an
independent steel wire rope (IWRC).
Randers Reb recommends the use of a steel core, in the event that
it is not certain that a fibre core will provide satisfactory support for
the strands, e.g. if the steel wire rope is spooled on to a drum in
several layers under a considerable load, or at high temperatures.
A steel core increases the steel wire rope's tensile strength by
approx. 10%.
Lay Directions (Steel Wire Rope and
Strand)
The word "lay" has more than one mea-
ning in this context. It is used to describe
the process of interweaving the wires
and strands and also to describe the
appearance of the finished steel wire
rope. The four most common terms to
describe the lay of a steel wire rope are:
Right hand regular lay steel wire rope. In
this instance the wires in the strand are
laid in the opposite direction to the
strands in the rope. The wires are laid
helically left, while the strands are laid
helically right (see fig. 13).
Left hand regular lay steel wire rope.
Here the wires in the strand are laid heli-
cally right, and the strands helically left
(see fig. 14).
Right hand Lang lay steel wire rope. Here
the wires are laid in the same direction as
the strands in the rope. The wires in the
strands and the strands are laid helically
right (see fig. 15).
Fiberhjertet fremstilles normalt af Polypropylen (PP) eller Sisal. PP
kan modstå svage syrer og alkalier, og det rådner ikke. Fordelen ved
et sisalhjerte er, at det i større grad kan optage olie/fedt for smøring
af ståltovet indefra, og at ståltovet kan anvendes ved en højere tem-
peratur i forhold til PP-hjerte.
Anvendelsestemperatur for ståltove med fiberhjerte ses af afsnittet
"Ståltovets anvendelsestemperatur".
Stålhjerte
Et stålhjerte er udformet enten som en af dugterne (WSC) eller som
et selvstændigt ståltov (IWRC).
Randers Reb anbefaler at anvende stålhjerte, hvis det ikke er sikkert,
at et fiberhjerte giver dugterne en tilfredsstillende understøtning,
f.eks. hvis ståltovet opspoles på en tromle i flere lag under stor
belastning eller ved høje temperaturer.
Et stålhjerte forøger ståltovets brudstyrke med ca. 10%.
Slåningsretninger (ståltov og dugt)
Ordet slåning bruges i flere betydninger. Dels om selve processen,
der snor tråde og dugter om hinanden, dels for at beskrive det færdi-
ge ståltovs udseende. De fire mest
almindelige betegnelser for ståltoves
slåninger er:
Højre krydsslået ståltov. Her er trådene
i dugterne slået modsat retningen af
dugterne i tovet. Trådene ligger venstre
i dugterne, mens dugterne ligger i en
højreskrue i ståltovet (se fig. 13).
Venstre krydsslået ståltov. Trådene lig-
ger højre i dugterne, mens dugterne
ligger i en venstreskrue i ståltovet (se
fig. 14). Højre Lang's Patent ståltov. Her er trå-
dene i dugterne slået i samme retning
som dugterne i tovet. Trådene i dug-
terne samt dugterne ligger i en højres-
krue (se fig. 15). Right hand regular lay steel wire rope
Right hand Lang lay steel wire rope
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Left hand regular lay steel wire rope
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Left hand Lang lay steel wire rope. The wires in the strands and the
strands are laid helically left (see fig. 16).
Other terms used are e.g.:
∙ Multi layer steel wire rope (low rotation/rotation resistant). Here there are usually two layers of strands, the inner layer as a rule a
left hand Lang lay, while the outer layer is a right hand regular lay.
∙ Alternate lay steel wire rope. This steel wire rope is a combination of regular lay and Lang lay.
∙ Cable laid steel wire rope. The strands are normally 6-lay steel wire rope with a fibre or steel core. The core is a fibre core or a 6-lay
steel wire rope with a fibre or steel core.
∙ Square braided steel wire rope. The steel wire rope is square brai
ded from strands or steel wire ropes.
∙ Flat braided steel wire rope. This steel wire rope is flat braided from strands or consists of parallel strands or steel wire ropes that are
bound together by sewing (belt strap).
Right hand lay steel wire rope is also known as Z-lay, and
left hand as S-lay. Similarly, a right hand lay strand is
known as Z-lay and left hand as S-lay. Fig. 17 shows why.
Of the types of lay described, right hand regular lay is the
most common.
Pre-Forming
"Pre-formed" refers to steel wire ropes in which the strands
have been permanently formed during the laying process
(see fig. 18), so that they are completely stress-free within
the unloaded steel wire rope. If a strand is removed from
the steel wire rope, it will retain its helical shape, as though
it were still in the steel wire rope. There are many advantages in a pre-formed steel wire
rope, such as:
∙ The steel wire rope will not untwist during cutting.
∙ It is easier to install, as pre-formed steel wire ropes are stress-free. No tendency to form kinks.
∙ It can run over smaller sheaves.
∙ Less tendency to turn on its own axis. Less wear and tear.
∙ Better load distribution between strands and wires.
∙ In the event of a wire breaking, less tendency to protrude from the strand. Less tendency to damage adjacent wires
and sheaves.
All in all, pre-formed steel wire ropes can offer a longer life expectan-
cy than steel wire ropes that are not pre-formed.
Venstre Lang's Patent ståltov. Trådene i dugterne samt dugterne lig-
ger i en venstreskrue (se fig. 16). Andre benævnelser er f.eks.:
∙ Spiralslået ståltov (snoningssvagt/-frit ståltov). ∙ Sildebensslået ståltov. Dette ståltov er en kombination af krydsslået og Lang's Patent.
∙ Kabelslået ståltov. Dugterne er normalt 6-slåede ståltove med fiber- eller stålhjerte. Hjertet kan enten være et fiberhjerte eller et 6-slået
ståltov med fiber- eller stålhjerte.
∙ Krydsflettet ståltov.
∙ Fladflettet ståltov. Dette ståltov er fladflettet af dugter eller af paral
lelle dugter/ståltove, der er sammenholdt ved syning (bæltestrop).
Højre slået ståltov kaldes også Z-slået og venstre slået S-slået.
Tilsvarende kaldes en højreslået dugt z-slået og venstre slået s-
slået. Fig. 17 viser hvorfor.
Af de nævnte slåninger er højre krydsslået (sZ) den
mest almindelige.
Formlægning
I formlagte ståltove har dugterne ved slåningen fået
en blivende formændring (se fig. 18), således at de
ligger fuldstændig spændingsfrie i det ubelastede
ståltov. Hvis man tager en dugt ud af ståltovet, vil dugten
bevare sin skrueliniefacon, som den havde, da den
lå i ståltovet.
Fordelene ved et formlagt ståltov er mangfoldige. Bl.a.:
∙ Ved kapning springer ståltovet ikke op.
∙ Lettere at installere, da formlagte ståltove er spæn
dingsfrie (døde) - herved ingen tendens til kinke-
dannelse.
∙ Kan løbe over mindre skiver.
∙ Mindre tilbøjelighed til at dreje omkring sin egen akse - herved mindre slid.
∙ Bedre fordeling af belastningen mellem dugter og tråde.
∙ Ved trådbrud har trådene mindre tilbøjelighed til at rejse sig fra dugten - herved mindre tilbøjelighed til
at ødelægge nabotråde og skiver.
Alt i alt opnår man en længere levetid med formlagte
ståltove i forhold til ikke formlagte ståltove.
Venstre Lang's Patent ståltov
Left hand Lang lay steel wire rope
Z-lay and S-lay steel wire ropes
Pre-forming
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
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All Randers Reb steel wire ropes are supplied pre-formed, with the
exception of certain individual special constructions (e.g. low-rota-
tion/rotation resistant).
3. SPECIAL STEEL WIRE ROPES
As has previously been mentioned, there are many types of con-
struction/design of steel wire ropes, which is why it is also possible to
design a steel wire rope that meets the particular requirements for a
given application.
Randers Reb has specialised in the development of special steel
wire ropes that can meet such special requirements. Get in touch
with us and find out how we can help solve your problems.
Through the years Randers Reb has produced/developed many spe-
cial steel wire ropes. Some of these special steel wire ropes are now
part of our standard product range.
∙ Compacted steel wire rope.
∙ Cable lay steel wire rope.
∙ Low rotation and rotation resistant steel wire rope.
∙ Coated steel wire rope.
∙ Combination rope.
∙ Sisal/Danline clad wire rope.
∙ Cobra.
Compacted Steel Wire Rope In compacted steel wire ropes the strand's
dimensions are reduced (compacted) before
the actual laying of the steel wire rope. There
are different ways of reducing the dimension
of a strand:
∙ By drawing between rollers (compacting).
∙ By drawing between dies (Dyform).
∙ By beating (hammering).
In individual cases the compacting process is only carried out after
the steel wire rope has been laid. In this instance only the outer part
of the steel wire rope is compacted (fig. 19).
The various methods do not all produce the same level of quality. In
the opinion of Randers Reb, the best quality is achieved by drawing
the strands between rollers, after which the laying process is carried
out.
Compacted steel wire ropes have greater abrasion resistance and
tensile strength than corresponding non-compacted steel wire ropes.
Cable Laid Steel Wire Rope
In a cable laid steel wire rope the strands consist of a 6-lay steel wire
rope with WSC (e.g. 6x7 + WSC or 6x19 + WSC). The core in the
cable laid steel wire rope can be either FC or IWRC.
Alle Randers Reb ståltove leveres formlagte som standard - på nær
nogle enkelte specialkonstruktioner (f.eks. rotationssvage/-frie tove). 3. SPECIELLE STÅLTOVE
Som det fremgår af det forudgående er opbygningen/designet af
ståltove mangfoldig, hvorfor det er muligt at designe et ståltov, der
opfylder specielle krav til anvendelsen.
Randers Reb er specialist i at udvikle specielle ståltove, der opfylder
netop dine specielle krav. Kontakt os og forhør om mulighederne.
Gennem tiderne har Randers Reb fremstillet/udviklet mange speciel-
le ståltove. Nogle af disse ståltove har vi optaget i vores standard
program.
∙ Compacted ståltov.
∙ Kabelslået ståltov.
∙ Rotationssvage/-frie ståltov.
∙ Forhudet ståltov.
∙ Taifun.
∙ Bloktov.
∙ Ormtov.
Compacted ståltov
Før slåningen af selve ståltovet bliver dugternes dimension reduceret
(compacted), se fig. 19. Der findes forskellige metoder til at reduce-
re dugtens dimension:
∙ Trække gennem ruller (Compacting).
∙ Trække gennem dyser (Dyform).
∙ Hamre (Hammering).
I enkelte tilfælde udføres compacteringen først,
når ståltovet er slået. Herved bliver kun den yder-
ste del af ståltovet compacted.
De forskellige metoder giver ikke helt samme kvalitet. Den proces
der efter Randers Reb's mening giver den bedste kvalitet er trækning
af dugter gennem ruller (compacting), hvorefter slåningen af ståltovet
foretages.
Compactede ståltove har større slid- og brudstyrke i forhold til ikke
compactede ståltove i samme dimension. Kabelslået ståltov
I et kabelslået ståltov består dugterne af et 6-slået ståltov med WSC
(f.eks. 6x7 + WSC eller 6x19 + WSC). Hjertet i det kabelslåede stål-
tov kan enten være FC eller IWRC (se fig. 20).
Det samlede antal tråde i en 6x(6x19 + WSC) + IWRC er 931 tråde.
De mange tråde bevirker, at ståltovet er utroligt smidigt/fleksibelt og
gør det meget velegnet til stropper.
Compacted steel wire rope with fibre core
Fig. 19
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A 6x(6x19 + WSC) + IWRC contains a total of 931 wires. The high
number of wires has the effect of making the steel wire rope
incredibly pliable/flexible and thus ideal for slings.
Low-Rotation and Rotation-Resistant Steel Wire Rope
A low-rotation or rotation-resistant steel wire rope is a special steel
wire rope designed not to turn or rotate when bearing a load. There are two types of low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire
ropes available:
∙ One layer of strands. There are three or four strands. The steel wire
rope has either no core or a fibre core.
∙ Spiral lay, i.e. two or more layers of strands. The number of outer strands is normally between eight and 20. The core may be either
fibre or steel.
These steel wire ropes are normally used in single-strand units, or in
multi-strand units for heavy loads and/or significant lifting heights.
The special design results in limited applications for this type of rope
and imposes special handling requirements, such as:
∙ Larger sheaves than for normal steel wire ropes.
∙ Less surface pressure.
∙ Optimal grooves in sheaves.
∙ Small fleet angle on winch.
∙ Preferably one layer on the drum.
∙ Use of swivels is often necessary.
∙ Increased safety factor.
∙ The steel wire ropes are normally not pre-formed. Consequently the wire rope has to be seized before cutting (alternatively welded
ends) to avoid the steel wire rope unwinding (destroying the balan-
ce in the rope).
Rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov
Ved et rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov forstås et specielt ståltov, der er
designet til ikke at dreje op eller rotere, når
det belastes (se fig. 21 og 22). Der leveres to typer af rotationssvage/-frie ståltove:
∙ Ståltove med ét lag dugter. Antallet af dugter er normalt tre. Ståltovet er uden hjerte eller med et fiberhjerte.
∙ Ståltove med to eller flere lag dugter (spiralslået). Antallet af yder
dugter er normalt mellem 8 og 20. Hjertet kan være af fiber eller
stål.
Disse ståltove anvendes normalt i enstrengede anlæg eller som fler-
strenget ved tunge byrder og/eller store løftehøjder. Det specielle
design gør, at anvendelsesmulighederne for tovene er begrænsede.
Desuden kræves specielle håndteringskrav f.eks.:
∙ Større skiver end ved normale ståltove.
∙ Mindre fladetryk.
∙ Optimale spor i skiver.
∙ Lille indløbsvinkel på spil.
∙ Helst ét lag på spiltromlen.
∙ Anvendelse af svirvler ofte nødvendigt.
∙ Større sikkerhedsfaktor.
∙ Ståltovene er normalt ikke formlagte, hvorfor disse skal brændes over (tilspidses) eller takles før overskæring for at undgå, at stålto-
vet springer op og ødelægger balancen i ståltovet.
∙ Under installationen skal man være meget opmærksom på, at der ikke tilføres ståltovet spændinger, f.eks. hvis tovet drejes/twistes.
Cable laid steel wire rope
Examples of low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes
Examples of rotation in ordinary steel wire rope and in low-rota-
tion and rotation-resistant steel wire ropes
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 20
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∙ During installation great care must be taken not to subject the steel wire rope to tension, e.g. caused by turning/twisting.
If you are in any doubt as to the use of low-rotation and rotation-
resistant steel wire ropes, please contact your local salesman or our
Technical Department.
Coated Steel Wire Rope
A coated steel wire rope is one that has been coated
with a plastic material such as PP, PE, PVC or PA,
depending on its intended application (fig. 23).
The coating protects the steel wire rope against rust
and wear and tear. Other advantages are e.g. that its
life expectancy when running over the sheaves is
increased significantly. Furthermore, any wires that
might break will not cause damage to objects in the
proximity of the steel wire rope.
Combination Rope
Taifun is Randers Reb's trade name for a special
combination rope, in which the steel strands are
wrapped up in fibre threads. Combination rope is
produced with FC or IWRC.
Combination rope combines the properties of fibre
ropes and steel wire ropes: The strength and minimal
elongation of the steel wire rope, and the "soft" surfa-
ce and flexibility of the fibre rope.
Combination rope is used primarily for strengthening
fishing nets, but may also be used for swings, clim-
bing ropes and for applications in industry/farming
that require particularly durable ropes.
Sisal/Danline clad wire rope
Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is a special steel wire
rope in which the steel strands are wrapped in a
combination of fibre threads (Danline) and sisal thre-
ads. Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is produced primari-
ly with FC, but can also be produced with IWRC.
The sisal threads expand when wet, causing the Sisal/Danline clad
wire rope to have increased ability to secure objects/materials that are
tied to the rope. In other respects the Sisal/Danline clad wire rope has
the same properties as the combination rope.
The Sisal/Danline clad wire rope is used to streng-
then fishing nets.
Cobra
Cobra is Randers Reb's trade name for a special
spring lay wire rope in which the strands are 6-lay
rope with FC. Three of the strands are steel, and the
other three strands are fibre rope. Cobra is produced
Hvis du er i tvivl om anvendelsen af rotationssvage/-frie ståltov, så
kontakt din konsulent eller vores tekniske afdeling.
Forhudet ståltov
Ved et forhudet ståltov forstås et ståltov, der er belagt (coated) med
et plastmateriale f.eks. PP, PE, PVC eller PA alt efter anvendel-
sesområde (se fig. 23).
Forhudningen beskytter ståltovet mod rust og slid.
Andre fordele er f.eks., at levetiden ved kørsel over ski-
ver forlænges væsentligt. Desuden vil eventuelle tråd-
brud ikke ødelægge ting, som ståltovet kommer i nær-
heden af.
Taifun
Taifun er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et spe-
cielt ståltov, hvor ståldugterne er omviklet med fibergar-
ner (se fig. 24). Taifuner fremstilles med FC eller
IWRC.
Taifuner forener egenskaber fra fibertove og ståltov:
Styrke og lille forlængelse fra ståltovet, "blød" overflade
og fleksibilitet fra fibertovet.
Taifunen anvendes primært som forstærkning i fiskenet,
men kan også anvendes til gyngetove, klatrenet og hvor
der i industri eller landbrug bl.a. stilles specielle krav til
slidstyrken.
Taifuner fremstilles normalt som et 6-slået tov, men kan
også laves med 3, 4 eller 8 dugter.
Bloktov
Bloktov er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et specielt ståltov, hvor ståldugterne er omviklet dels med
fibergarner (Danline), dels med sisalgarner. Bloktovet
fremstilles primært med FC (se fig. 25), men kan også
fremstilles med IWRC.
Sisalgarnerne udvider sig, når de bliver våde, hvorved
Bloktovet i større grad kan fastholde ting/emner, der er
bundet til tovet. Ellers har Bloktovet samme egenskaber som Taifunen.
Bloktove anvendes som forstærkning i fiskenet.
Bloktove fremstilles normalt som et 6-slået tov, men kan også laves
med 3, 4 eller 8 dugter.
Ormtov
Ormtov er Randers Reb's handelsbetegnelse for et spe-
cielt kabelslået ståltov, hvor dugterne er et 6-slået tov
med FC. Tre af dugterne er af stål og de resterende tre
dugter er af fiber. Ormtovet fremstilles primært med FC
(se fig. 26), men kan også fremstilles med IWRC.
Coated Steel Wire Rope
Combination rope with FC
Sisal/Danline clad wire rope
Cobra
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
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primarily with FC, but can also be produced with IWRC.
The special construction of the strands means that the rope has a gre-
ater tensile elongation than standard steel wire ropes and combination
rope, which makes Cobra ideal as a mooring rope on a tug boat.
4. USE OF STEEL WIRE ROPE
Den specielle opbygning af dugterne gør, at tovet har en noget stør-
re brudforlængelse end almindelige ståltove og Taifuner, hvilket gør
Ormtovet velegnet som træktove på slæbebåde.
4. EKSEMPLER PÅ ANVENDELSE AF STÅLTOVE
Fig. 27
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5. SELECTING THE RIGHT STEEL WIRE ROPE
In selecting the right steel wire rope, the properties of the various
types of steel wire rope must be considered, e.g.:
∙ Tensile strength.
∙ Abrasion resistance
∙ Bending fatique resistance
∙ Corrosion resistance.
∙ Elongation.
∙ Rotation resistance.
∙ Crushing resistance.
∙ Vibration resistance.
∙ Pulsation resistance.
∙ Regular lay or Lang lay.
In selecting the right steel wire rope, it is important to determine how
important the various properties are in relation to the application and
then to assign priorities to these. It is also important to be aware of
the relevant standards and regulations. If you are in any doubt, plea-
se contact our sales consultants or our Technical Department.
Tensile Strength
The tensile strength of the steel wire rope depends on the rope's
dimensions, the tensile strength of the wires and the construction.
The minimum guaranteed tensile strength for the different kinds of
rope is shown in the Randers Reb product catalogue.
A steel wire rope should never be subjected to a load exceeding
50% of its breaking load.
The design of the steel wire rope does not significantly affect the ten-
sile strength (up to approx. 5%). A change of core from fibre to steel
makes slightly more difference (approx. 10%). The greatest change
is achieved by changing the dimensions or the tensile strength of the
wires (see also fig. 28).
It is often required that the steel wire rope must have a specific SWL
value (Safe Working Load), also known as a WLL value (Working
Load Limit). This means the steel wire rope's tensile strength divided
by the safety factor required for the relevant application.
NB: There are a number of national and international norms and
standards that define the minimum requirements for the safety factor.
5. VALG AF DET RETTE STÅLTOV
Ved valget af det rette ståltov til et givent formål skal der tages hen-
syn til de forskellige ståltoves egenskaber, som f.eks.:
∙ Brudstyrke.
∙ Slidstyrke.
∙ Fleksibilitet/bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke.
∙ Korrosionsmodstand.
∙ Forlængelse.
∙ Rotationsmodstand.
∙ Knusningsmodstand.
∙ Vibrationsudmattelsesstyrke.
∙ Pulsationsudmattelsesstyrke.
∙ Krydsslået eller Lang's Patent.
Ved udvælgelsen af det rette ståltov er det vigtigt at fastlægge, hvor
vigtige de forskellige egenskaber er for anvendelsen og derefter få
dem prioriteret. Desuden er det også vigtigt, at man er opmærksom
på relevante standarder og regulativer. Hvis du er i tvivl, så kontakt din konsulent eller vores tekniske
afdeling.
Brudstyrke
Brudstyrken på ståltovet afhænger af tovets dimension, trådbrudstyr-
ke og konstruktion. Minimum garanteret brudstyrke for de forskellige
tovtyper er angivet på vores datablade.
Belast aldrig et ståltov til mere end 50% af brudstyrken.
Selve designet af dugterne påvirker ikke brudstyrken væsentligt
(max. ca. 5%). En ændring af hjertetypen fra fiber til stål giver lidt
større ændring (ca. 10%). Den største ændring fås ved at ændre
dimension eller trådbrudstyrke (se også fig. 28).
Ståltove må kun belastes til en given SWL-værdi (Safe Working
Load), også kaldet WLL-værdi (Working Load Limit). Hermed forstås
ståltovets brudstyrke divideret med den for anvendelsen krævede
sikkerhedsfaktor (se tabel 1).
Til mange formål er der udarbejdet nationale og internationale normer
og standarder, der fastsætter minimumskravet til sikkerhedsfaktoren.
Forskellige sikkerhedsfaktorer
De angivne faktorer er kun vejledende
Table 1 Various safety factors.
NB: These factors are only intended as guidelines
Tabel 1
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Abrasion resistance
Steel wire ropes with thick outer wires (e.g. 6x7 Standard or 6x19
Seale) provide good abrasion resistance. Lang lay ropes provide bet-
ter abrasion resistance than regular lay steel wire ropes (see also fig.
27). Abrasion resistance can also be increased by using wires with
greater tensile strength.
Bending fatique resistance
The greater the number of wires in the strand, the greater the ben-
ding fatique resistance and flexibility. Lang lay ropes provide better
bending fatique resistance than regular lay steel wire ropes. Bending
fatique resistance can also be increased by using pre-formed steel
wire ropes (see also fig. 28).
Corrosion Resistance
Galvanised and rustproof wires provide excellent protection against
corrosion. Lubrication with special types of grease or oil will also
increase resistance to corrosion. If the steel wire rope is subjected to
significant corrosive influences, it is recommended that strands with
thick outer wires are used.
Elongation
Steel wire ropes with fewer wires (e.g. 1x7 Standard and 1x19
Standard) are subject to the least elongation (have the greatest elas-
ticity modulus). This type of steel wire rope is ideally suited for guy
ropes, but is not suitable to be run over sheaves/blocks. If only a
small degree of elongation when running over sheaves is required,
6x7 or 6x19 steel wire rope should be used, in each case with a
steel core or with certain special constructions. For larger dimen-
sions, 6x36 steel wire rope with a steel core can also be used. Rotation Resistance
Standard 6-lay and 8-lay steel wire ropes will rotate when they hang
free and carry a load. Regular lay steel wire rope provides greater
resistance to rotation than lang lay steel wire rope. A steel wire rope
with a steel core rotates less than a steel wire rope with a fibre core.
The type of rope that provides greatest resistance to rotation is, as
the name suggests, low-rotation and rotation-resistant steel wire rope
(special constructions, see also section 3:"Low-Rotation and
Rotation-Resistant Steel Wire Rope").
Crushing resistance
A steel core provides better support for the strands than a fibre core,
which is why the risk of flattening is less in a steel wire rope with a
steel core. Strands with fewer, thicker wires have greater resistance
to flattening/crushing. Also, a 6-lay steel wire rope has greater crus-
hing resistance than an 8-lay rope (see also fig. 28).
Vibration resistance
Vibrations, from wherever they might come, send shock waves
through the steel wire rope, which will be absorbed by the steel wire
rope at some point, and in some cases they may cause localised
destruction of the steel wire rope (not necessarily on the outside). Slidstyrke
Ståltove med tykke ydertråde (f.eks. 6x7 Standard eller 6x19 Seale)
giver en god slidstyrke. Lang's Patent tove giver bedre slidstyrke end
krydsslåede ståltove (se også fig. 28). Desuden kan slidstyrken øges
ved at anvende større trådbrudstyrke.
Bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke
Desto flere tråde der er i dugten, desto større bliver bøjningsudmat-
telsesstyrken og fleksibiliteten. Lang's Patent tove giver bedre bøj-
ningsudmattelsesstyrke end krydsslåede ståltove. Desuden kan bøj-
ningsudmattelsesstyrken øges ved at anvende formlagte ståltove (se også fig. 28).
Korrosionsmodstand
Galvaniserede og rustfrie tråde giver en glimrende beskyttelse mod
korrosion. Indfedtning med specielle fedt- eller olietyper vil også øge
korrosionsmodstanden. Hvis ståltovet er udsat for kraftig korroderen-
de påvirkning, anbefales det at anvende dugter med tykke ydertråde.
Forlængelse
Ståltove med få tråde (f.eks. 1x7 Standard og 1x19 Standard) for-
længer sig mindst (har størst elasticitetsmodul). Denne type ståltov
er velegnet til barduner, men egner sig ikke til at køre over
skiver/blokke. Hvis der ønskes lille forlængelse samtidig med kørsel
over skiver, bør ståltovsklasse 6x7 eller 6x19 (begge med stålhjerte)
eller visse specialkonstruktioner anvendes. Ved større ståltovsdi-
mensioner kan ståltovsklasse 6x36 med stålhjerte også anvendes
(se også afsnittet "Ståltovsforlængelse").
Rotationsmodstand
Almindelige 6- og 8-slåede ståltove vil dreje op, når de hænger frit
under belastning. Krydsslåede ståltove giver mere modstand mod
opdrejning end Lang's Patent ståltove. Et ståltov med stålhjerte drej-
er mindre end et ståltov med fiberhjerte. Den type ståltove, der har
størst modstand mod opdrejning, er rotationsfrie/-svage ståltove
(specialkonstruktioner, se også afsnittet "Rotationssvagt/-frit ståltov).
Knusningsmodstand
Et stålhjerte giver bedre understøtning til dugterne end et fiberhjerte,
hvorfor risikoen for fladtrykning er mindre på et ståltov med stålhjer-
te. Dugter med tykke og få tråde har større modstand mod flad-
trykning/knusning. Desuden har et 6-slået ståltov større knusnings-
modstand end et 8-slået (se også fig. 27).
Vibrationsudmattelsesstyrke
Vibrationer, hvor end de kommer fra, sender chokbølger gennem og
absorberes af ståltovet, hvorved der er mulighed for lokalt at øde-
lægge ståltovet (ikke nødvendigvis udvendigt på ståltovet). Der er
her tale om steder, hvor f.eks. ståltovet har kontakt med en
skive/blok eller går ind på spiltromlen eller ved fastgørelsen.
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This may, for example, be at places where the steel wire rope comes
into contact with a sheaf/block, or enters the drum, and by the end
terminals.
In general, those steel wire ropes with the greatest flexibility also
have the greatest vibration resistance.
Pulsation resistance
Changes in the tension of a steel wire rope, depending on the size
and frequency, will reduce the rope's life expectancy.
In general, steel wire ropes with the greatest flexibility can cope bet-
ter with intermittent loading. Great care should be taken in the use of
end terminals or fittings, as their pulsation resistance is equally as
important as the selection of the right steel wire rope.
Regular Lay or Lang Lay
Lang lay steel wire ropes are the ones most suited to running over
sheaves and are the most durable, but if they are to be used, three
things must be observed:
- Lang lay steel wire ropes must be secured at both ends, otherwise the rope will rotate. The steel wire rope has no resistance to rotation.
∙ Lang lay steel wire ropes may only be reeled on to the drum in a single layer, as they can easily destroy themselves.
∙ Lang lay steel wire ropes may not run over small sheaves, as the construction will become unbalanced.
Generelt har ståltove med størst fleksibilitet også størst vibrationud-
mattelsesstyrke.
Pulsationsudmattelsesstyrke
Vekslende træk i et ståltov vil nedsætte levetiden på ståltovet, dog
afhængigt af kraften og frekvensen.
Generelt kan ståltove med størst fleksibilitet bedre optage den pulse-
rende belastning. Man bør være meget opmærksom på, hvilke ende-
terminaler eller fittings der anvendes, idet disses pulsationsudmattel-
sesstyrke er lige så vigtige som valget af det rette ståltov.
Forskellige ståltovs slidstyrke, knusningsmodstandsevne, brudstyrke,
bøjningsudmattelsesstyrke
Krydsslået eller Lang's Patent
Lang's Patent ståltove er den ståltovstype, der bedst kan tåle at køre
over skiver samt har den bedste slidstyrke. Men for at kunne anven-
de et Lang's Patent ståltov kræves tre ting: ∙ Ståltovet skal være låst i begge ender, da det ellers vil dreje op. Ståltovet har næsten ingen modstand mod opdrejning.
∙ Ståltovet må kun køre op i ét lag på spiltromlen, da det ellers let ødelægger sig selv.
∙ Ståltovet må ikke køre over små skiver, da konstruktionen herved kommer i ubalance.
Abrasion resistance, crushing resistance, tensile strength and bending fatique resistance of various steel wire ropes
Wear marks on a regular lay (on the left) and a Lang lay (on the right) steel wire rope respectively
Fig. 28
Fig. 29
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The reason for Lang lay steel wire ropes' excellent qualities of abra-
sion resistance and pliability is that the wires are affected/loaded in a
different way and have a larger load-bearing surface than a regular
lay steel wire rope (see fig. 29).
Note that the largest wearing surface is on the Lang lay steel wire
rope.
6. ORDERING STEEL WIRE ROPE
When ordering steel wire rope, it is important to describe the steel
wire rope as accurately as possible. A correct order should contain the following information:
Description of steel wire rope:
∙ Diameter.
∙ Construction.
∙ Direction of lay.
∙ Type of lay.
∙ Core.
∙ Wire tensile strength.
∙ Surface protection of wire (galvanised/ungalvanised)
∙ Type of lubrication.
∙ Length.
∙ Quantity.
∙ Processing of steel wire rope ends (end fittings).
∙ Packaging (coil, crosses, reels, etc.).
If you are in any doubt as to the type of steel wire rope to be used,
please contact us and we will try to find the best solution.
If the direction of lay and/or specific type of core is not agreed bet-
ween the customer and Randers Reb, Randers Reb will supply a
right hand regular lay steel wire rope with a core type that is stan-
dard for Randers Reb. This will be indicated on the order confirma-
tion form.
7. STEEL WIRE ROPE TOLERANCES
Length Tolerances
Up to 400 m:- 0 + 5%
Over 400 m up to and including 1,000 m: - 0 + 20 m
Over 1,000 m: - 0 + 2%
For steel wire ropes requiring smaller length tolerances, agreement
must be reached between the customer and Fyns Kran Udstyr.
Lang's Patent ståltoves gode slid- og bøjeegenskaber skyldes, at trå-
dene påvirkes/belastes anderledes og har en større bæreflade end
krydsslåede ståltove (se fig. 29).
Slidmærker på henholdsvis krydsslået (til venstre) og Lang's Patent
(til højre) ståltov
Den største slidflade er på Lang's Patent slået ståltov.
6. BESTILLING AF STÅLTOVE
Ved bestilling af ståltove er det vigtigt at gøre beskrivelsen af stålto-
vet så nøjagtig som mulig. En korrekt bestilling bør indeholde følgen-
de:
∙ Diameter.
∙ Konstruktion.
∙ Slåningsretning.
∙ Slåningstype.
∙ Hjerte.
∙ Trådbrudstyrke og/eller ståltovets brudstyrke.
∙ Tråd overfladebeskyttelse (galvaniseret/ugalvaniseret).
∙ Indfedtningstype.
∙ Længde.
∙ Specielle tolerancekrav.
∙ Antal enheder.
∙ Bearbejdning af ståltovsenderne (endebefæstigelser).
∙ Emballage (kvejl, kryds, tromler mm.).
Kontakt os, hvis du er i tvivl om, hvilken type ståltov der skal anven-
des.
Hvis slåningsretning og/eller specifik hjertetype ikke er aftalt mellem
kunde og Randers Reb, leverer Randers Reb et kryds højreslået
ståltov med en hjertetype, der er standard for Randers Reb. Typen
vil fremgå af ordrebekræftelsen.
7. STÅLTOVSTOLERANCER
Længdetolerancer
Indtil 400 m:- 0 + 5%.
Over 400 m og til og med 1.000 m:- 0 + 20 m.
Over 1.000 m:- 0 + 2%.
Hvor der kræves mindre længdetolerancer, skal dette specificeres i
ordren.
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Dimension tolerances and ovalness NB: The above figures apply unless otherwise agreed between the
customer and Fyns Kran udstyr, or otherwise specified on a data
sheet. The values are based on a proposed EN standard. Randers
Reb is currently working on adapting all steel wire ropes to conform
to this proposal.
Measurement of steel wire rope dimension and ovalness. (See sec-
tion:"Inspection of Dimensions").
Weight Tolerances
The weights mentioned in the catalogue are theoretical values. The
weight tolerance is approx. ± 5%.
8. HANDLING, INSPECTION AND INSTALLATION
Receiving, Inspection and Storage
On receipt the product should be inspected to confirm that it corres-
ponds to the one ordered. If the steel wire rope is not to be used
immediately, it must be stored in a dry place. If it is to be stored for a
longer period, it must be checked regularly to determine whether it
requires lubrication (see also section: "Maintenance of Steel Wire
Rope").
Inspection of Dimensions
It is important that the steel wire rope's dimension is checked before
installation, and that it is checked that the dimension matches the
equipment with which the steel wire rope is to be used (see also sec-
tion 7: "Dimension Tolerances and Ovalness").
Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet
Ovenstående er gældende, hvis intet andet er aftalt mellem kunde
og Fyns Kran Udstyr eller angivet på datablad. Værdierne er baseret
på et forslag til EN-norm. Randers Reb arbejder i øjeblikket på at til-
passe alle ståltove dette forslag.
Måling af ståltovsdimension og ovalitet se afsnittet "Kontrol af dimen-
sionen".
Vægttolerancer
De i katalogbladene angivne vægte er teoretiske værdier.
Vægttolerancen er ca. +/- 5%.
8. HÅNDTERING OG INDKØRING
Modtagelse, kontrol og opbevaring
Ved modtagelsen kontrolleres om produktet svarer til det bestilte.
Hvis ståltovet ikke skal anvendes med det samme, skal ståltovet
opbevares tørt. Ved længere tids opbevaring skal man ind imellem
kontrollere, om ståltovet skal eftersmøres (se også afsnittet
"Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet").
Kontrol af dimensionen
Inden installeringen skal dimensionen på ståltovet kontrolleres og
dimensionen skal passe til det udstyr, som ståltovet skal anvendes i
(se også afsnittet "Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet").
Korrekt måling af dimensionen (ISO 3178) foretages med skydelære,
Dimensionstolerancer og ovalitet på ståltove
Dimension tolerances and ovalness of steel wire ropes
Tabel 3
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Correct measurement of dimensions (ISO 3178) is undertaken with a
calliper gauge equipped with a broad enough jaw to cover at least
two strands (see fig. 31).
The measurement is undertaken at two
places at least one metre apart on a
straight section without any load. At each
place two measurements are made at 90°
angles. The average of these four measu-
rements defines the diameter of the steel
wire rope. The degree of ovalness in the
steel wire rope is the greatest difference
between the four measurements, expres-
sed as a percentage of the nominal dia-
meter of the steel wire rope.
Inspection of Guidance Equipment
Before the steel wire rope is fitted, it is important to ensure that all
parts that will come into contact with the steel wire rope are in good
condition and match the steel wire rope, e.g.:
∙ Drum.
∙ Distance between drum and first sheaf or lead sheaf.
∙ Guide roll.
∙ Sheaves.
If the equipment is not suitable, there is a significant risk that the
steel wire rope will suffer unusually great wear and tear and will thus
have a shorter life expectancy.
Drum
Check that the drum dimensions and possible rope grooves match
the steel wire rope, and check the condition of the drum.
Randers Reb recommends that correct rope grooves are as follows:
B = diameter of groove = 1.06 x d
A = elevation of groove = 1.08 x d
C = depth of groove = 0.30 x d
R = upper radius = approx. 0.15 x d
where d = steel wire rope's nominal diameter
If the rope grooves do not match the steel wire rope,
the rope will suffer unusually high wear and tear,
stresses will be introduced and the grooves will have
to be repaired.
Please note that norms and standards often impose
special requirements in respect of drum diameters,
etc.
The steel wire rope's life expectancy depends to a
great extent on the drum's dimensions, among other things. The lar-
ger the drum, the longer the life expectancy (see also section 6:
"Sheaves/Blocks").
der er forsynet med brede kæber, der skal dække over mindst to
dugter (se fig. 31).
Målingen foretages to steder
med mindst en meters afstand
på et lige stykke uden belastning.
Hvert sted foretages to målinger
90° forskudt. Gennemsnittet af
disse fire målinger angiver dia-
meteren på ståltovet. Ståltovets
ovalitet er største forskel mellem
de fire målinger angivet som %
af ståltovets nominelle diameter.
Kontrol af føringsudstyr
Inden ståltovet monteres, er det
vigtigt at sikre sig, at alle dele, som ståltovet kommer i kontakt med,
er i orden og passer til ståltovet. Ting som f.eks.:
∙ Spiltromle.
∙ Afstand mellem spiltromle og første skive/ledeskive.
∙ Styreruller.
∙ Skiver.
Hvis udstyret ikke er i orden, er der stor risiko for, at ståltovet får et
unormalt stort slid og derved en kort levetid.
Spiltromle
Undersøg om tromledimensionen og eventuelle tovriller passer til
ståltovet samt standen af tromlen.
Randers Reb anbefaler, at korrekte riller på tromlen skal have føl-
gende udseende (se fig. 32):
B = rillediameter = 1,06 x d.
A = stigningen på rillesporet = 1,08 x d.
C = rilledybden = 0,30 x d.
R = topradius = ca. 0,15 x d.
hvor d = ståltovets nominelle diameter.
Hvis tovrillerne ikke passer til ståltovet, får ståltovet et
unormalt stort slid og der tilføres spændinger.
Vær opmærksom på, at der ofte stilles specielle
krav til tromlediameter m.m. i normer og standar-
der.
Levetiden på ståltovet er bl.a. meget afhængig af
dimensionen på tromlen. Desto større tromle,
desto længere levetid (se også afsnittet "Skiver og blokke").
Korrekt udstyr og måling af ståltov
Correct equipment and measurement of steel wire rope
Rope grooves on the drum
Fig. 31
Fig. 32
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Distance between Drum and First Sheaf or Lead Sheaf
The distance from the winch to the first sheaf is of importance for the
consistency of the winding process.
Randers Reb recommends that
the distance L or the fleet angle
ß should be:
- For drums without rope grooves:
L
min
= 115 x drum width. L
max
= 15 x drum width.
- For drums with rope grooves
L
min
= 115 x drum width. L
max
= 20 x drum width.
(115 x drum width ~ ß = 0.25º, 15 x drum width ~ ß = 2º, and 20 x
drum width ~ ß = 1.5º).
If the distance does not match these figures, the steel wire rope will
be subject to unusually significant wear and tear; the distance should
therefore be changed.
Guide Rolls
Check whether the guide rolls, e.g. those on the winch, are worn. If
they are, the steel wire rope will be subject to unusually significant
wear and tear; the guide rolls should therefore be replaced or repai-
red.
If the guide roll is repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensu-
re that the hardness of the welding material is approx. 300 Brinel,
and that it is the guide roll that is worn, and not the steel wire rope.
Sheaves/Blocks
Check that the sheaf diameter and sheaf groove match the steel wire
rope. The sheaves must also be able to turn freely.
When a steel wire rope is fed over e.g. a sheaf and bends, certain
complex tensions (a combination of bending, tensile and compres-
sion stress) are generated in the wires. The greatest tensions occur
in the wires furthest away from the steel wire rope's bending centre.
After repeated bends, stress failure will occur in these wires.
The steel wire rope construction and the size of the sheaves are
decisive in determining when wire fracture occurs. The curve below
shows the influence of the D/d ratio (sheaf diameter/nominal steel
wire rope diameter) on the life expectancy of steel wire rope of diffe-
rent types.
Afstand mellem spiltromle og første skive/ledeskive
Afstanden fra spillet til den første skive eller ledeskive har betydning
for ensartetheden af opspolingen samt utilsigtet tilførsel af spænding-
er i ståltovet.
Randers Reb anbefaler, at
afstanden L eller indløbsvinklen
b skal være (se fig. 33):
∙ For tromler uden sporriller: L
max
= 115 x tromlebredde. L
min
= 15 x tromlebredde.
∙ For tromler med sporriller : L
max
= 115 x tromlebredde. L
min
= 20 x tromlebredde.
(115 x tromlebredde ~ b = 0,25°, 15 x tromlebredde ~ b = 2° og 20 x
tromlebredde ~ b = 1,5°).
Hvis afstanden ikke passer, får ståltovet et unormalt stort slid, hvorfor
afstanden skal ændres.
Styreruller
Undersøg om styreruller er slidt, f.eks. på spillet. Hvis de er, får stål-
tovet et unormalt stort slid, hvorfor styrerullen skal udskiftes eller
repareres.
Hvis styrerullen repareres ved svejsning, skal man sørge for, at hård-
heden på svejsematerialet er ca. 300 Brinel, således at man få slid-
det på styrerullen i stedet for på ståltovet.
Skiver/blokke
Undersøg om skivediameteren og skivespor passer til ståltovet.
Desuden skal skiverne let kunne dreje.
Når et ståltov bøjes over f.eks. en skive, opstår der nogle ret kompli-
cerede spændinger (kombination af bøje-, træk- og trykspændinger) i
trådene. De største spændinger forekommer i de tråde, der ligger
længst væk fra ståltovets bøjningscenter. Efter gentagede bøjninger
vil der opstå udmattelsesbrud i disse tråde.
Hvornår der opstår udmattelsesbrud i trådene afhænger bl.a. af kon-
struktionen, belastningen samt hvor store skiverne er. Nedenstående
kurve (fig. 34) viser skiveforholdet DSk/d (skivediameter/ståltovsdia-
meter) indflydelse på ståltovets levetid for forskellige ståltovskon-
struktioner.
Distance between drum and lead sheaf (L), and fleet angle (ß)
Fig. 33
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Please note that norms and standards often impose special require-
ments in respect of sheaf/drum diameters. If this is not the case, a
minimum D/d = 25 is recommended for 6x7 steel wire ropes, and a
minimum D/d = 20 for 6x19 and 6x36.
If at all possible, S-bends (where the steel wire rope runs from the
lower side of one sheaf to the upper side of the next) should be avoi-
ded. Such bends result in premature damage. The sheaf ratio (see
below) should thus be increased by at least 25% in relation to the
same change of direction. The problem is particularly great when the
sheaves are placed close to each other.
The groove in the sheaf also has a significant influence on the steel
wire rope's life expectancy. The groove must be neither too large nor
too small - the groove must match the steel wire
rope's dimensions.
Randers Reb recommends that a correct sheaf gro-
ove should support approx. 1/3 of the circumference
of the steel wire rope (~120 °C) and have a groove
diameter of Dsp = 1.06 x the steel wire rope's nomi-
nal diameter (see fig. 36). The groove diameter may
under no circumstances be less than the relevant
steel wire rope's diameter.
Vær opmærksom på, at der ofte stilles specielle krav til skive-/tromle-
diameter i normer og standarder. Hvis dette ikke er tilfældet, anbefa-
les minimum DSk/d = 25 for 6x7 ståltovsklassen og minimum DSk/d
= 20 for 6x19 og 6x36 ståltovsklasserne.
Hvis det er muligt, skal man undgå S-bøjning dvs. fra f.eks. undersi-
de på én skive til overside på den næste skive. S-bøjning giver tidli-
gere udmattelsesbrud, hvorfor skiveforholdet (se nedenfor) bør øges
med mindst 25% i forhold til samme retningsændring. Problemet er
specielt stort, når skiverne er tæt på hinanden.
Sporet i skiven har også stor indflydelse på levetiden af stål-
tovet. Sporet må hverken være for stort eller for lille - sporet
skal passe til ståltovsdimensionen (se fig. 35).
Randers Reb anbefaler, at et korrekt skivespor
understøtter ståltovet på ca. 1/3 af omkredsen
(~ 120°) og har en spordiameter på DSp =
1,06 x ståltovets nominelle diameter (se fig.
36). Spordiameteren må under ingen omstæn-
digheder være under aktuel ståltovsdiameter.
Ståltovets levetid som funktion af skiveforholdet DSk/d
(skivediameter/ståltovsdiameter) for div. konstruktioner
Life expectancy of steel wire rope of different types expressed as
a function of the D/d ratio (sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter
Skiveforholdet D
Sk
/d Levetidsfaktor
Correct groove diameter
Groove diameter too small
Groove diameter too large
Correct figure of groove in sheave
Fig. 34
Fig. 35
Fig. 36
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The curve in the diagram below indicates the effect of the D/d ratio
(sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter) on the steel wire rope's life
expectancy.
Always check whether the sheaf
groove is worn at the base and
along the edges. If it is not, the
steel wire rope will be subject to
unusually significant wear and
tear and stresses will be introdu-
ced into the rope. Defect shea-
ves/blocks should therefore be
replaced or repaired immediately.
If the groove is repaired by wel-
ding, Randers Reb recommends
that the hardness of the welding
material is approx. 300 Brinel, so
that it is the sheaf that is worn,
and not the steel wire rope.
The size of the steel wire rope's contact angle a (angle change) on
the sheaf also has an effect on the steel wire rope's life expectancy
(see fig. 38).
If the steel wire rope has to change direction, Randers Reb recom-
mends avoiding changes in direction between 5° and 45°.
Installation of Steel Wire Rope
Steel wire rope from Randers Reb is produced in such a way that in
an unloaded state it is tension-free. The steel wire rope is supplied
either on reels or in coils. To avoid creating tension or kinks in the
steel wire rope during installation, it is necessary to place the
coil/reel on a revolving platform, or as shown in fig. 39. If this is not
possible, the steel wire rope can be rolled out on the ground while
the end of the rope is held in place.
Nedenstående kurve (fig. 37) viser sporforholdet DSp/d (spordiame-
ter/ståltovsdiameter) indflydelse på ståltovets levetid.
Inspicér løbende skiver/blokke for
bl.a. slidte lejer, slidte skivespor og
slid på kanter. Hvis disse forhold
ikke er optimale, slides ståltovet
unormalt hurtigt, og ståltovet tilfø-
res spændinger. Defekte
skiver/blokke skal udskiftes eller
repareres omgående.
Hvis sporet repareres ved svejs-
ning, anbefaler Randers Reb, at
hårdheden på svejsematerialet er
ca. 300 Brinel, således at man får
sliddet på skiven i stedet for på
ståltovet.
Størrelsen af ståltovets anlægsvinkel a (vinkelændring) på skiven har
også indflydelse på ståltovets levetid (se fig. 38).
Hvis det er nødvendigt at ændre retningen på ståltovet, anbefaler
Randers Reb at undgå retningsændringer mellem 5° og 45°.
Installering af ståltovet
Randers Reb ståltove er fremstillet på en sådan måde, at de i ube-
lastet tilstand er spændingsfrie. Ståltovet leveres enten på tromler
eller i kvejl. For at undgå at tilføre ståltovet spændinger og kinker
under installationen, er det nødvendigt at anbringe tromlen/kvejlen
på en drejeskive eller i en buk. Hvis dette ikke er muligt, kan stålto-
vet rulles ud på jorden, mens ståltovsenden fastholdes (se fig. 39).
Life expectancy as a function of the Dsp/d ratio (sheaf diameter/steel wire rope diameter)
Life expectancy as a function of the contact angle a
Fig. 37
Fig. 38
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Remember to secure the end of the steel wire rope against opening,
regardless of whether or not it is pre-formed. This can be done by
such means as tapered and welded ends, beckets, or seizing with
soft or annealed wire or strand (see also section 6: "Cutting and
Seizing of Steel Wire Ropes").
During the unwinding of the steel wire rope, it must not:
∙ In any way pass over the edge of the reel or be taken from a coil
on the ground, as this will create kinks in the steel wire rope (see fig.
40).
∙ Be dragged over a hard surface that can damage the wires.
∙ Be dragged through earth, sand or gravel, as abrasive particles will
attach themselves to the greased surface of the steel wire rope.
Winding from Reel to Drum
During installation, when the steel wire rope is running directly from
the reel to the drum, care must be taken to ensure that the reel is
running in the same direction as the drum.
If this is done incorrectly, the steel
wire rope is subjected to tension.
In order to achieve problem-free
winding in multi-layer winding, it is
extremely important that that the
steel wire rope is under tension
when applied to the drum. If the
layers are too loose, the upper
layers can damage or cut into the
layers below when tension is appli-
ed, resulting in damage to the steel wire rope. The rope must be
wound onto the drum at a tension corresponding to at least 2% of
the tensile strength of the rope.
Husk at sikre ståltovsenden mod opdrejning uanset om ståltovet er
formlagt eller ej. Dette kan f.eks. gøres ved overbrænding (tilspids-
ning), påsvejsning af trækøje eller omvikling med ståltråd/jernbindsel
(se også afsnittet "Kapning og takling af ståltov").
Under afspolingen må ståltovet ikke:
∙ På nogen måde aftages over kanten på tromlen eller tages fra en
kvejl, der ligger på jorden, idet der herved opstår kinker på ståltovet
(se fig. 40).
∙ Slæbes hen over en hård overflade, der kan beskadige trådene.
∙ Trækkes gennem jord, sand og grus, idet slidpartikler vil fæstne
sig til den fedtede ståltovsoverflade.
Spoling fra tromle til spiltromle
Når ståltovet under installeringen kører direkte fra tromle til spiltrom-
le, skal man sikre sig, at afløbstromlen løber samme vej som opta-
gertromlen (se fig. 41).
Hvis det gøres forkert, tilfø-
res ståltovet spændinger.
For at opnå en problemløs
opspoling ved flerlags-
opspoling er det af stor vig-
tighed, at ståltovet køres op
på tromlen med forspæn-
ding. Hvis lagene er for løse,
kan ovenliggende lag under
belastning trække/skære sig
ned i underliggende lag, hvorved ståltovet ødelægges. Ståltovet skal
køres på tromlen med minimum 2% af ståltovets brudstyrke.
Correct ways to remove steel wire rope from a coil or reel
Incorrect ways to remove steel wire rope from a coil or reel
Correct/incorrect winding from Reel to drum
Correct
Incorrect
Fig. 39
Fig. 40
Fig. 41
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Braking of the drum can be done in several ways (see fig. 42).
Please note: Steel wire rope should never be pressed between two
wooden plates, as this will result in permanent damage to the rope.
Correct Fitting to Drum
Fig. 43 below illustrates the correct way of installing and winding on
to the drum for right and left hand laid steel wire rope respectively.
Cutting and Seizing of Steel Wire Rope
Randers Reb recommends that, as long as the steel wire rope does
not have welded ends, it has to be seized before being cut. The fol-
lowing seizing method must be used:
Please note that low-rota-
tion and rotation-resistant
steel wire ropes must have
at least four seizings on
each side of the cutting
point.
Afbremsningen af aftagertromlen kan gøres på flere måder (se af fig.
42). Man må under ingen omstændigheder forsøge at klemme stålto-
vet mellem to træplader, idet ståltovet herved bliver varigt ødelagt.
Korrekt montering på spiltromlen
Nedenstående figur (fig. 43) illustrerer korrekt fastgørelse og opspo-
ling på spiltromlen af henholdsvis højre- og venstreslået ståltov.
Kapning og takling af ståltov
Forudsat at ståltovet ikke brændes over (tilspidses), anbefaler
Randers Reb, at ståltovet takles inden kapning. Følgende metode til
takling skal anvendes (se fig. 44):
Rotationssvage/-frie ståltove
skal mindst have fire taklinger
på hver side af kappestedet.
Examples of correct/incorrect ways to brake a reel
Correct
Incorrect
Correct
Correct cutting and seizing of steel wire rope
Fig. 42
Fig. 43
Fig. 44
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Jan 2002
Running in Steel Wire Rope
After the steel wire rope has been installed, Randers Reb recom-
mends that it is run through the system several times at low speed
and moderate loading (e.g. 5% of tensile strength). In this way the
steel wire rope will gradually become accustomed to the new condi-
tions. The strands will settle, the steel wire rope will lengthen and the
diameter will decrease a little due to the fact that the strands and the
core are compressed. The steel wire rope will thus be less suscepti-
ble to damage when maximum load is applied. The time spent "run-
ning-in" the steel wire rope will be earned many time over, as the
steel wire rope will thus have a longer life expectancy.
Maintenance of Guidance Equipment
Thorough maintenance of the equipment that the steel wire rope will
come into contact with is of great significance for the steel wire rope-
's life expectancy. Worn sheaf grooves, guide rolls, etc., crooked
sheaves and jammed bearings all result in such effects as shock
load and vibrations in the steel wire rope, which have a destructive
effect on the steel wire rope, resulting in exaggerated wear and tear
and fatigue.
Equipment that the steel wire rope comes into contact with must be
inspected regularly. If there is a problem with the equipment, it must
be replaced or repaired immediately. If the guidance equipment is
repaired by welding, care should be taken to ensure that hardness of
the welding material is approx. 300 Brinel, so that it is the sheaf that
is worn, and not the steel wire rope (see also section 6: "Inspection
of Guidance Equipment").
9. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
Maintenance of Steel Wire Rope
The oil/grease that is added to the steel wire rope during production
is only sufficient to protect the steel wire rope during the storage
period and initial use. The steel wire rope must be lubricated regular-
ly.
Thorough lubrication is extremely important for the steel wire rope's
life expectancy, as the purpose of lubrication is partly to protect the
steel wire rope against rust, and partly to reduce friction between the
wires and the strands in the steel wire rope. Friction is also thereby
reduced between the steel wire rope and the surfaces with which it
comes into contact.
The lubricant used must be free of acids and must not have a
destructive effect on the steel wires, the fibre core and the environ-
ment. The lubricant must have a consistency that enables it to pene-
trate the core and the strands. The steel wire rope must be cleaned
before lubrication.
To achieve maximum lubrication effect, the lubricant should be appli-
ed during operation, at a sheaf or on the drum, as this is where the
steel wire rope opens up and makes it easier for the lubricant to
penetrate.
Indkøring af ståltovet
Efter montering af ståltovet anbefaler Randers Reb, at ståltovet
køres gennem anlægget flere gange under lav hastighed og moderat
belastning (f.eks. 5% af brudstyrken). Herved tilpasser ståltovet sig
gradvist de nye forhold. Dugterne sætter sig, ståltovet forlænger sig.
Desuden formindskes diameteren lidt, da dugterne og hjertet presses
sammen. Ståltovet vil således være mindre udsat for skader, når
maksimal belastning anvendes. Den tid, der benyttes til indkøringen
af ståltovet, bliver tjent ind igen mange gange, idet ståltovet får
længere levetid.
Vedligeholdelse af føringsudstyr
Ordentlig vedligeholdelse af udstyret, som ståltovet har kontakt med,
har stor betydning for ståltovets levetid. Slidte skivespor, styreruller
mm., skæve skiver og fastsiddende lejer resulterer bl.a. i chokbelast-
ning og vibrationer i ståltovet, hvilket har en ødelæggende effekt på
ståltovet med unormalt slid og udmattelse til følge.
Udstyr, som ståltovet har kontakt med, skal inspiceres regelmæssigt.
Hvis udstyret ikke er i orden, skal det omgående udskiftes evt. repa-
reres. Ved reparation af føringsudstyret ved svejsning skal man
sørge for, at hårdheden på svejsematerialet er ca. 300 Brinel, såle-
des at man får sliddet på føringsudstyret i stedet for på ståltovet (se
også afsnittet "Kontrol af føringsudstyr").
9. KONTROL OG VEDLIGEHOLDELSE
Vedligeholdelse af ståltovet
Den olie/fedt, som ståltovet tilføres under fremstillingen, beskytter
kun ståltovet under opbevaringen og den første tids brug. Ståltovet
skal derfor eftersmøres regelmæssigt.
Ordentlig eftersmøring er meget vigtig for ståltovet levetid, idet smø-
ringen har til formål dels at beskytte ståltovet mod rust, dels at redu-
cere friktionen mellem trådene og dugterne i ståltovet. Desuden ned-
sættes friktionen mellem ståltovet og de flader, som ståltovet berører.
Smøremidlet, der skal anvendes til eftersmøringen, skal være fri for
syrer og må ikke have skadelig indvirkning på hverken ståltråde
og/eller fiberhjertet samt miljø. Smøremidlet skal have en konsistens
som gør, at smøremidlet trænger ind i hjertet og dugten. Ståltovet
skal rengøres før eftersmøringen.
For opnåelse af maksimal eftersmøring skal smøremidlet påføres
under kørsel og ved en skive eller på tromlen, idet ståltovet her vil
åbne sig. Smøremidlet kan herved lettere trænge ind.
Randers Reb har udviklet en speciel eftersmøringsolie - Randers
WIRE OLIE type 01- der tilfredsstiller de specielle krav, der stilles til
eftersmøring af ståltove. Olien har en god indtrængnings- og smøre-
evne. Desuden er olien vandfortrængende og tilsat additiver, der er
rustopløsende og stopper yderligere rustdannelse under lagring og
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Randers Reb has developed a special lubricating oil, Randers WIRE
OIL Type 01, which satisfies the special requirements for lubrication
of steel wire ropes. The oil has excellent penetrative and lubrication
qualities. It is also water-resistant and contains additives that dissol-
ve rust and prevent further formation of rust during storage and
operation. The oil is easily applied with a brush. See also our Product Information leaflet, "Lubrication and
Maintenance of Steel Wire Ropes".
Inspection of Steel Wire Rope
The following guidelines cover possible points that should be chec-
ked in conjunction with the inspection of steel wire rope. This is not a
complete manual, nor is it an alternative to the relevant norms and
standards.
Wear and Tear
As a rule, a steel wire rope should be replaced when the outer wires
are worn down to 1/3 of the original wire dimension.
Elongation
All steel wire ropes become elongated when loaded (see also sec-
tion 9: "Steel Wire Rope Elongation"). The elongation of a steel wire
rope during its lifetime can be divided into three phases:
- Phase 1: The new steel wire rope becomes longer quite naturally during its initial period of use. This partly because of the loading,
and partly because the steel wire rope settles.
- Phase 2: When the steel wire rope has settled and for most of its lifetime, the steel wire rope does not become much
longer.Elongation during this phase is mainly due to wear.
- Phase 3: The steel wire rope suddenly becomes longer very quickly. This means that the steel wire rope is deteriorating rapidly
due to such causes as advanced wear and fatigue. The steel wire
rope must be replaced immediately.
Reduction of Dimensions
Every noticeable reduction of the steel wire rope's dimensions in
comparison with its original dimensions indicates a deterioration in
the steel wire rope. The reduction may be due to such causes as:
- External/internal wear and tear.
- Compression of strands and/or core.
- External/internal formation of rust.
- Elongation.
Rust
Rust is just as important a factor as wear and tear in terms of evalu-
ating the steel wire rope's condition. Rust is normally caused by poor
maintenance of the steel wire rope and promotes quicker fatigue in
the wires (fragility/creation of cracks).
Kinks
Kinks cause permanent damage to the steel wire rope. Kinks are for-
med due to extraction of loops.
The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.
Olien kan let påføres med pensel.
Se også vort Produktinformation's blad "Smøring og vedligeholdelse
af ståltove".
Kontrol af ståltovet
Følgende er en vejledning på mulige kontrolpunkter i forbindelse
med inspektion/kontrol af et ståltov - ikke en komplet manual eller
erstatning for krav angivet i tilhørende normer og standarder.
Slid
Ståltovet skal udskiftes,, når den nominelle diameter er reduceret
med 10%.
Forlængelse
Alle ståltove forlænger sig ved belastning (se også afsnittet
"Ståltovsforlængelse"). Ståltovets forlængelse over levetiden kan
opdeles i tre faser.
∙ Fase 1: Under den første tids brug forlænger det nye ståltov sig helt naturligt. Dels p.g.a. belastningen, dels p.g.a. at ståltovet sæt-
ter sig.
∙ Fase 2: Når ståltovet har sat sig. Under det meste af sin levetid for
længer ståltovet sig ikke ret meget. Forlængelsen under denne fase
skyldes primært slid.
∙ Fase 3: Under denne fase nedbrydes ståltovet hurtigt og forlænger sig uden yderligere påvirkning, hvilket bl.a. skyldes fremskredent
slid. Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående.
Reduktion af dimensionen
Enhver mærkbar reduktion af ståltovsdimensionen i forhold til den
oprindelige dimension indikerer nedbrydelse af ståltovet.
Reduktionen kan bl.a. skyldes:
∙ Udvendigt/indvendigt slid.
∙ Sammenklemning af dugt og/eller hjerte.
∙ Udvendig/indvendig rustdannelse.
∙ Forlængelse.
Rust
Rust er mindst lige så vigtig en faktor som slid i forbindelse med vur-
deringen af ståltovets stand. Rust stammer normalt fra dårlig vedlige-
holdelse af ståltovet og bevirker hurtigere udmattelse af trådene
(skørhed/revnedannelse).
Kinker
Kinker forårsager permanent ødelæggelse af ståltovet. Kinker dan-
nes pga. udtrækning af løkker.
Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående.
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Jan 2002
Bird's Nest
A"bird's nest" (the strands rising in the same place) is created by
such actions as the steel wire rope being subjected to torsion (rota-
ted), sudden unloading, running through sheaf grooves that are too
small and/or winding on a drum that is too small.
The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.
Local Wear and Tear/Damage
Local wear and tear is most often caused by poor
winding. All fittings and splicings must also be
inspected for wear or broken wires, loose or split
strands, wear or cracks in fittings, etc.
Fire Damage
After a fire or exposure to high temperatures,
metal damage, loss of oil/grease and destruction of
fibre core, etc., may occur.
The steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.
Core Protruding between the Strands
Regardless of the cause of the core protruding between the strands,
the steel wire rope must be replaced immediately.
Wire Fracture
A wire fracture may result from many different causes, some serious,
others insignificant.
If the wire fractures are serious, the steel wire rope must be replaced
immediately.
If you are in any doubt as to whether the steel wire rope should be
scrapped or not, please contact your local salesman or our Technical
Department as soon as possible.
10. ELONGATION AND PRE-STRETCHING
Steel Wire Rope Elongation
When a steel wire rope is loaded it becomes longer. This elongation
consists of two types of elongation - construction elongation (perma-
nent) and elastic elongation. Elongation due to overloading (yielding)
or due to rotation are not dealt with here.
Constructional Elongation
When a new steel wire rope is subjected to a load, the strands and
the core decrease in size (are compacted). In addition, the strands
are squeezing more tightly around the core. The construction settles.
This means that the steel wire rope's dimension becomes slightly
smaller, causing the steel wire rope to become longer. This elonga-
tion is known as constructional elongation and remains in place until
the steel wire rope has been subjected to loads several times in nor-
mal operation. If the steel wire rope is at a later date subjected to a
Fuglerede
En fuglerede (dugterne rejser sig samme sted) opstår bl.a., hvis stål-
tovet f.eks. er tilført torsion (drejet op), oplever pludselig aflastning,
køres gennem for små skivespor og/eller spoles op på for lille tromle
(fig. 44).
Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående.
Lokalt slid/ødelæggelse
Lokalt slid på ståltovet skyldes som oftest dårlig
spoling. Alle fittings og splejsninger skal undersø-
ges for slid eller trådbrud, løse eller knækkede
dugter, slid eller revner på/i fittings mm.
Brandskader
Efter brand eller påvirkning af høje temperaturer
kan der opstå metalskader, tab af olie/fedt og
ødelæggelse af stål- eller fiberhjerte mm.
Ståltovet skal udskiftes omgående.
Hjertet kommer ud mellem dugterne
Uafhængigt af årsagen til at hjertet kommer ud mellem dugterne,
skal ståltovet udskiftes omgående.
Trådbrud
Trådbrud kan opstå af mange forskellige årsager. Nogle alvorlige,
andre ubetydelige.
Hvis trådbruddene er alvorlige, skal ståltovet udskiftes omgående.
Hvis du er i tvivl om, hvorvidt ståltovet skal kasseres eller ej, så kon-
takt din konsulent eller vores tekniske afdeling hurtigst muligt.
10. FORLÆNGELSE OG FORSTRÆKNING
Ståltovsforlængelser
Når et ståltov belastes, forlænger det sig. Forlængelsen består af to
typer forlængelser - sætningsforlængelse (blivende) og elastisk for-
længelse. Forlængelse p.g.a. overbelastning (f.eks. flydning) eller
opdrejning vil ikke blive omtalt.
Sætningsforlængelse
Når et nyt ståltov belastes, bliver dugter og hjerte mindre (komprime-
res). Desuden klemmer dugterne hårdere på hjertet - konstruktionen
sætter sig. Dette medfører, at ståltovsdimensionen bliver lidt mindre,
hvorved ståltovet forlænger sig. Denne forlængelse kaldes sætnings-
forlængelse og vedbliver, indtil ståltovet flere gange har været belas-
tet ved normal drift. Hvis ståltovet på et senere tidspunkt belastes
med en større kraft end under normal drift, vil ståltovet sandsynligvis
forlænge sig yderligere.
Bird's nests
Fig. 44
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greater force than that experienced under normal operating condi-
tions, the steel wire rope will probably become a little longer.
Constructional elongation is dependent on:
∙ Type of core
∙ Steel wire rope construction
∙ Elevation (the length a strand passes to wrap once around the core)
∙ Material
∙ Load
Steel wire ropes with steel cores have less constructional elongation
than steel wire ropes with fibre cores.
Since the construction elongation of steel wire
ropes is dependent on a number of factors, it
is not possible to give a clear definition of con-
struction elongation. Table 4 is intended to
provide guidelines.
Elastic Elongation (Modulus of elasticity)
Elastic elongation is not only dependent on the load on the steel
wires, but also on the construction, which is why steel wire ropes do
not follow Young's modulus. It is therefore not possible to produce an
unequivocal Modulus of elasticity for steel wire ropes. Table 5 is
intended as a guide only.
Sætningsforlængelse er afhængig af:
∙ Hjertetype.
∙ Ståltovskonstruktionen.
∙ Slåstigningen.
∙ Materialet.
∙ Belastningen.
Ståltove med stålhjerte har mindre sætningsforlængelse end ståltove
med fiberhjerte. Da ståltoves sætningsforlængelse er afhængig af
flere faktorer, kan en entydig sætningsforlængelse ikke angives.
Tabel 4 er vejledende:
Elastisk forlængelse (E-modul).
Elastisk forlængelse er ikke kun afhængig af belastningen, men også
af konstruktionen, hvorfor ståltove ikke følger Young's E-modul. Tabel
5 angiver forskellige ståltovskonstruktioners E-modul. Tabellen er vejledende.
Guidelines for constructional elongation in steel wire ropes
Guidelines for Modulus of elasticity on steel wire ropes
Tabel 4
Tabel 5
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The elastic elongation in a steel rope is calculated according to the
following formula:
Elastic elongation (mm) = W x L/ (E x A)
Where W = Load (kp)
L = Length of steel wire rope (mm)
E = Modulus of elasticity (kp/mm²)
A = Steel area (mm²)
If a more accurate Modulus of elasticity is required, it must be mea-
sured in the actual steel wire rope in question.
Heat Expansion
A steel wire rope will change its length when the temperature chang-
es. Changes in length are according to the following formula:
Change in length (m) = a x L x Dt
Where:
a = linear heat expansion coefficient = 11 x 10-6 m/m per °C in area
0 to approx. 100° C.
L = Length of steel wire rope (m).
Dt = Change in temperature (°C).
When the temperature drops, the steel wire rope will become shorter,
whereas it will become longer if the temperature rises.
Pre-stretching
By pre-stretching, the steel wire rope is loaded to approx. 45% of its
nominal tensile strength, during the course of which the steel wire
rope's construction elongation is removed.
The removal of the construction elongation pre-supposes that the
steel wire rope is not subjected to further treatment! If there is further
treatment, the steel wire rope will more or less return to its original
form. However, pre-stretching is in many cases a good idea anyway
as it means that the steel wire rope more rapidly ceases its construc-
tional elongation.
However, in many instances pre-stretching can still be beneficial, as
the steel wire rope's constructional elongation will thus be completed
much more quickly. This in turn means that the steel wire rope does
not need to be re-tightened many times.
11. OPERATING TEMPERATURES
Maximum Operating Temperature
∙ Zinc on galvanised wires melts at 419 °C. At 300 °C the zinc begins to soften.
∙ If a relatively short piece of cable is heated to more than 300 °C, the heating affects the inside of the wire rope, the wire rope will
become unbalanced and may become locked, causing fractures in
the cable/wires to occur more quickly.
Den elastiske forlængelse på ståltovet beregnes ud fra følgende for-
mel:
Elastisk forlængelse (mm) = W * L/ (E * A),
hvor:
W = belastningen (kp)
L = ståltovets længde (mm)
E = E-modulet (kp/mm2) A = stålarealet (mm2) Hvis et mere præcist E-modul er nødvendigt, skal man måle E-mod-
ulet på det aktuelle ståltov.
Varmeudvidelse
Et ståltov ændrer længde, når temperaturen ændres.
Længdeændringen beregnes ud fra følgende formel:
Længdeændring (m) = a * L * Dt
hvor:
a = Lineære varmeudvidelseskoef. = 11 x 10-6 m/m pr. ° C i områ-
det 0° C til ca. 100° C.
L = Ståltovets længde (m).
Dt = Ændring af temperatur (° C). Når temperaturen falder, bliver ståltovet kortere. Når temperaturen
øges, forlænges ståltovet. Forstrækning
Ved forstrækning belastes ståltovet indtil flere gange med ca. 45% af
ståltovets nominelle brudstyrke, hvorved ståltovets sætningsforlæng-
else fjernes.
Fjernelsen af sætningsforlængelse forudsætter, at ståltovet ikke
yderligere håndteres. Ved yderligere håndtering falder wiren mere
eller mindre tilbage til dens oprindelige form, men forstrækning er i
mange tilfælde alligevel en god ting, idet ståltovet væsentlig hurtige-
re stopper sin sætningsforlængelse. Dette medfører, at ståltovet ikke
skal efterspændes så mange gange. 11. ANVENDELSESTEMPERATURER
Maksimum anvendelsestemperatur
∙ Zinken på galvaniserede tråde smelter ved 419° C. Ved 300° C
begynder zinken at blive blød.
∙ En opvarmning selv på et relativt kort stykke af wiren til over 300° C - samtidig med at opvarmningen sker et stykke inde i wiren
- bevirker, at wiren kommer i ubalance og evt. låses. Tråd-/wirebrud
opstår herefter hurtigere.
∙ Trådenes mekaniske egenskaber, f.eks. brudstyrke og bøjestyrke, ændrer sig ved opvarmning. Opvarmning i f.eks. en time ved 200°
C bevirker et fald i trådenes bøjestyrke.
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∙ The wires' mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength and bending strength, change when the temperature rises. A temperature of e.g.
200 °C for 1 hour will reduce the wires' bending strength.
∙ An artificial fibre core starts to soften at 80-100 °C. A soft core means that the support for the strands disappears and the steel
wire rope will become unbalanced, causing fractures in the
cable/wires to occur more quickly.
∙ Sisal cores can tolerate significantly higher temperatures than steel wire rope with artificial fibre cores.
Since tensile strength and pliability/flexibility are often important
mechanical properties for a steel wire rope, Randers Reb does not
recommend that a steel wire rope with:
∙ A steel core is subjected to temperatures above 200 °C for a longer period of time.
∙ A sisal core is subjected to temperatures above 200 °C for a longer period of time.
∙ An artificial fibre core is subjected to temperatures above 75 °C for a longer period of time.
For a short period of time it can be acceptable for the surface tem
perature to reach 400 °C.
Minimum Operating Temperature
The steel that is used in steel wire rope can be used at extremely
low temperatures (minus 200 °C or less) without any significant
effect on the characteristics of the steel. However, at temperatures of
only minus 25-50 °C oil and grease will lose their ability to serve as
lubricants and protect against rust. This makes the fibre cores easy
to damage.
Provided that the steel wire rope does not have a fibre core and that
oil and grease are not required as protection against rust or as lubri-
cation, such rope can be used in operating temperatures of approx.
minus 200 °C. If these conditions cannot be met, the minimum tem-
perature is approx. minus 25 °C.
∙ Et kunstfiberhjerte begynder at blive blødt ved 80° C - 100° C. Et blødt hjerte bevirker, at understøtningen for dugterne forsvinder og
stålwiren kommer i ubalance. Tråd-/wirebrud vil hurtigere forekom-
me.
∙ Sisalhjerter kan tåle væsentligt højere temperaturer end ståltov med kunstfiberhjerte.
Da brudstyrke og bøjelighed/fleksibilitet ofte er vigtige mekaniske
egenskaber for et ståltov, kan Randers Reb ikke anbefale, at:
∙ Ståltov med stålhjerte opvarmes til over 200° C gennem
længere tid. ∙ Ståltov med sisalhjerte opvarmes til over 200° C gennem
længere tid.
∙ Ståltov med kunstfiberhjerte opvarmes til over 75° C gennem
længere tid.
Overfladetemperaturen kan i en kort periode accepteres at stige til
400° C.
Minimum anvendelsestemperatur
Stålet, der anvendes i ståltovet, kan anvendes ned til meget lave
temperaturer (minus 200° C evt. lavere), uden at stålets egenskaber
forringes væsentligt. Derimod vil olie/fedt ved minus 25° C - 50° C
miste sin smørende og rustbeskyttende virkning. Desuden vil fiber-
hjerter let kunne knuses ved lave temperaturer.
Forudsat at stålwiren ikke indeholder fiberhjerter og at eventuelt
olie/fedt ikke skal rustbeskytte og/eller have en smørende virkning,
kan ståltovet anvendes ned til ca. minus 200° C. I modsat fald ned til
ca. minus 25° C.
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12. MARTENSITE FORMATION
Martensite formation
Martensite is a structural change in the wire material caused by a
very sudden cooling of the rope after a strong local heating genera-
ted by friction. The friction may be caused by e.g. bad winding of the
wire rope on winches.
The martensite structure is very brittle and may cause fractures
during normal operation or when spliced, even though the wire rope
does not show any visible signs of external wear.
Precautions against martensite: ∙ The blocks must not be worn down and should turn easily.
∙ When a wire rope is wound on a drum, it should be in tight wraps without the layers crossing each other in order to prevent the top
layer from cutting into the underlying layers.
∙ The wire rope should be lubricated at regular intervals in order to minimise the friction between wires and strands.
∙ The wire rope should be checked at regular intervals for crushing, minor cracks and mechanical damages, all of which might indicate
martensite spots.
If a steel cable carries a current, there will often be sparks. The sur-
face temperature where the sparks appear will be over 800 °C,
making it quite probable that Martensite will be formed. If there is a
strong probability of sparks appearing, wire and cable fractures may
occur quickly.
12. MARTENSIT
Martensitdannelse
Martensit er en strukturændring, der sker i trådmaterialet ved høj frik-
tionsvarme (se fig. 45) som f.eks. ved dårlig spoling på spil, hvor de
yderste ståltovslag presses ned i de underliggende lag under en
sådan belastning, at gnistdannelse opstår med efterfølgende hurtig
afkøling (se fig. 46).
Denne strukturændring giver en hård men skør overflade, og under
normal belastning eller ved splejsning kan trådbrud opstå, selvom
der ikke har været nævneværdigt ydre slid (se fig. 47).
Forholdsregler mod martensitdannelse:
∙ Blokkene må ikke være nedslidte og bør kunne dreje let.
∙ Spoling på tromlen bør ligge i tætte vindinger uden krydsninger, så det overliggende lag under belastning ikke skærer sig ned i de
underliggende lag.
∙ Ståltovet bør eftersmøres, således at friktionen mellem tråde og dugter er mindst mulig.
∙ Kontrollér ståltovet for sammentrykninger, små revner og mekaniske skader, som kan være tegn på martensitdannelse.
Hvis en stålwire er strømførende, eller ståltovet spoles op i flere lag
under stor belastning, vil der ofte opstå gnister. Overfladetempe-
raturen, hvor gnisten opstår, er over 800° C, hvorfor sandsynlighe-
den for dannelse af martensit er relativ stor. Hvis forekomsten af
gnister er stor, opstår der hurtigt trådbrud og evt. wirebrud.
Martensite spots in fishing rope which has been used under bad conditions
Flattened wire showing martensite structure
The brittle layer of martensite shows clearly
Fig. 45
Fig. 46
Fig. 47
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13. END TERMINATIONS
End terminations
Type of end terminations. Degree of efficiency
End terminations normally reduce the tensile strength of steel wire
rope. Table 6 shows the approximate effect of the different types of
end terminations.
Fig. 49 Examples of correct and incorrect attachment of wire rope
clips.
13. ENDEBEFÆSTIGELSER
Endebefæstigelser.
I fig. 48 ses eksempler på endebefæstigelser.
En endebefæstigelse nedsætter normalt brudstyrken på ståltovet.
Tabel 6 angiver virkningsgrad (tilnærmet) for de forskellige typer
endebefæstigelser.
Fig. 49 viser eksempler på rigtig og forkert montering af wirelås.
Wire rope socket, resin poured
Wire rope socket, swaged
Mechanical splice with thimble and Talurit
Wedge socket
Clips
Hand-spliced with thimble
Eksempler på endebefæstigelser på ståltove
Examples of end terminations on steel wire ropes
Right way
Wrong way
Wrong way
Examples of correct and incorrect ways of attachment of dead end on
different kinds of wedge sockets
Clips
Wedge socket
Hand-spliced
Mechanical splice with ferrule
Wire rope socket, swaged
Wire rope socket, resin poured
Degree of efficiency for different types of end terminations
Fig. 48
Tabel 6
Fig. 49
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14. SOCKETING (WIRELOCK)
Unless otherwise agreed between the customer and Fyns Kran
Udstyr, Fyns Kran Udstyr will undertake socketing with Wirelock.
Wirelock is an especially strong twin-component moulding material.
Wirelock is increasingly being used instead of zinc, e.g. because:
∙ Heat generation is much lower than with a zinc seal. The risk of hardening of the steel wires, causing stress fractures, is thus elimi-
nated. The disappearance (melting away) of grease is also avoided
at the junction by the base of socket.
∙ Wirelock does not require heating of the rope socket, as long as its temperature is not below 10 °C.
∙ Wirelock permits full loading 1-2 hours after the sealing process.
∙ Wirelock does not require any special ancillary tools in connection with the sealing process.
∙ Wirelock is resistant to acid, salt water, oil and grease.
∙ Wirelock tolerates shock loading and impact.
∙ Wirelock can be used for all types of seal.
∙ Wirelock penetrates further in between the wires than zinc.
∙ Wirelock can be used in temperatures of up to 115 °C.
Wirelock has been approved by such bodies as the Danish
Directorate of Labour Inspection, Det Norske Veritas and Lloyd's
Register of Shipping.
14. ISTØBNING MED WIRELOCK
Istøbning (Wirelock)
Hvis intet andet er aftalt mellem kunde og Fyns Kran Udstyr, så
udfører Fyns Kran Udstyr istøbning af tovpære med Wirelock - er en
speciel stærk 2-komponent støbemasse. Wirelock anvendes i større
og større grad i stedet for zink bl.a. p.g.a. :
∙ at varmeudviklingen er væsentlig lavere i forhold til zinkstøbning. Herved elimineres risikoen for hærdning af ståltrådene med udmat-
telsesbrud til følge. Desuden undgår man at fedtet forsvinder (bort-
smelter) i overgangszonen ved tovpærehalsen.
∙ Wirelock kræver ikke opvarmning af tovpære forudsat, at denne ikke har en temperatur på under 10 °C.
∙ Wirelock tillader fuld belastning 1 - 2 time efter støbningen.
∙ Wirelock kræver ingen specielle hjælpemidler i.f.m. istøbningen.
∙ Wirelock er modstandsdygtig overfor syre, saltvand, olie og fedt.
∙ Wirelock tåler chokbelastning og stød.
∙ Wirelock kan anvendes til alle former for istøbning.
∙ Wirelock trænger bedre ind mellem trådene end zink.
∙ Wirelock kan anvendes op til 115 °C Wirelock er bl.a. godkendt af Arbejdstilsynet, Det Norske Veritas og
Lloyd's Register of Shipping.
Fig. 50
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Guidelines for Socketing with Wirelock
1. Insert the end of the steel wire rope into the rope socket, and fasten the steel wire
rope. The distance from the end of the
rope to the uppermost part of the rigging
(L) must correspond to the length of the
conical part of the rope socket minus the
diameter of the steel wire rope (d). The
length of the rigging (l) must be at least
1.5 x d.
2. The individual wires in the strands can be split after this. If the steel wire rope con-
tains a steel core, this must also be split
open. If there are any fibre cores, they
may be cut above the rigging. The split
must be clean and go as far down as the
rigging.
If the steel wire rope only consists of 19 wires
or less, the wires at the top must be doubled
up. Remember to add the length of the dou-
bled section to the length of the split section.
1) Clean/de-grease the split section of the steel wire rope (the brush), e.g. in a soda
solution. When being cleaned and then rin-
sed off, the steel wire rope must be facing
downwards so that the solution does not
penetrate the rope.
2) Pull the rope socket over the brush until the wires level with the upper edge of the
rope socket. Check that a part (min. 0.5 x
d) of the upper section of the rigging is in
the conical part of the rope socket. Fasten the steel wire rope so that it
is vertical, while a piece (approx. 25
x d) of the steel wire rope is hanging
vertically. Pack the base of socket
with e.g. putty to prevent any
Wirelock escaping during the sealing
process.
3) Mix the two components together in e.g. a plastic bucket. The components must have a temperature of 10-25 °C. Stir the mixtu-
re thoroughly for around two minutes. If the air temperature (sea-
ling temperature) is below 10 °C, a bag of "booster" (accelerator)
should be added before stirring. Vejledning for istøbning af ståltove
1. Ståltovsenden indføre i tovpæren, hvoref
ter ståltovet takles. Afstanden fra toven-
den til den øverste kant af taklingen (L)
skal svare til længden på den koniske del
af tovpæren minus ståltovsdiameter (d).
Længden på taklingen (l) skal være mini-
mum 1,5 x d.
2. Opsplitning af de enkelte tråde i dugterne kan herefter ske. Hvis ståltovet indehol-
der et stålhjerte skal dette også splittes
op. Eventuelle fiberhjerter kappes over
taklingen. Opsplitningen skal være
ensartet og gå helt ned til taklingen.
Hvis ståltovet kun består af 19 tråde eller
mindre, skal trådene i toppen ombukkes.
HUSK at tillægge længden af ombukket til
længden af det opsplittede stykke.
1) Den opsplittede del af ståltovet (kosten) rengøres/affedtes f.eks. i en sodaopløs-
ning. Ved afrensningen og en efterfølgen-
de skylning skal ståltovet vende nedad
således, at væsken ikke trænger ned stål-
tovet.
2) Træk tovpæren op over kosten indtil trå
dene er i niveau med overkanten af tov-
pæren. Kontroller, at et stykke (ca. 0,5 x
d) af den øverste del af taklingen befinder
sig i den koniske del af tovpæren.
Ståltovet fastgøres, så det
står lodret samtidig med, at
et stykke (ca. 25 x d) af
ståltovet hænger lodret.
Herefter tætnes tovpære-
halsen med f.eks. kit for at
forhindre udtrængning af
Wirelock under istøbingen.
3) Bland de to komponenter
sammen i en plasticspand eller lignende (komponenterne skal have en temperatur på mellem 10 °C og
max. 25 °C). Blandingen omrøres grundigt i ca. 2 minutter. Ved en
lufttemperaturer under 10 °C bør een pose "booster" (accelerator)
tilsættes før omrøring. Splitting the steel wire rope and removing the fibre core
Placing and size of rope sockets
Correct location of the rope socket and packing with putty
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
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The bag provides instructions about how much Wirelock must be
used. Below 3 °C two bags should be added. The sealing process
can be undertaken at temperatures below 0 °C, as long as measu-
res are taken to ensure that the Wirelock putty itself does not come
under 10 °C at any time during the process.
NB: The mix ratio between the individual components is precisely
calculated and should not be divided.
The following table shows how Wirelock should be applied.
4) Pour the mixture into the rope socket until the rope socket is full. To prevent air bubbles forming, a piece of steel wire should be
used to "whip" gently between the wires in the steel wire rope.
Several applications may be made at a time, provided that they
are done in quick succession. Any surplus Wirelock must be dis-
posed of.
NB: At the outset the mixture has a thick, liquid consistency. It then
becomes thinner until a certain point at which the hardening process
begins. The Wirelock must be poured before the mixture reaches its
thinnest state.
5) Wirelock is produced in such a way that its hardening time is 10 minutes in the 18-24 °C temperature range. It should, however, be
noted that the product's hardening time is very sensitive to the
temperature of the Wirelock, e.g. it is only approx. 5 minutes at 30
°C and approx. 20 minutes at 10 °C. The hardening time has no
effect on the quality of the hardening.
Loads can be applied to the rope socket one hour after the
Wirelock is hard on the surface.
6) Putty must be removed. Particularly in cases where the unit is to be used with the base of socket upwards, Fyns Kran Udstyr
recommends that the base of socket be filled up with water-repel-
lent oil/grease in order to minimise the risk of rust at this critical
point due to penetration of water.
Seal Inspection
a) If a screwdriver is used to scratch the Wirelock at the opening of the rope socket and a white stripe appears, the hardening process
has been completed correctly.
På posen er angivet, til hvilken mængde Wirelock den skal anven-
des. Under 3 °C bør to poser booster tilsættes. Istøbingen kan godt
foretages i frostgrader, blot man sørger for, at Wirelock massen ikke
kommer under 10 °C under hele istøbningsprocessen.
BEMÆRK : Blandingsforholdet mellem de enkelte komponenter er
nøje afstemt og må ikke deles.
Forbruget af Wirelock ses af tabel 1.
4) Blandingen hældes i tovpæren, indtil tovpæren er fyldt helt op. For at forhindre dannelsen af luftbobler skal en let "piskning" med
et stykke ståltråd foretages nede mellem ståltovets tråde. Flere
istøbninger kan godt foretages forudsat, at ihældning sker lige
efter hinanden.Evt. overskydende Wirelock kan ikke gemmes,
men skal kasseres. BEMÆRK : Blandingsmassen starter med at være tykflydende.
Herefter bliver massen tyndere og tyndere indtil et vist punkt, hvoref-
ter selve hærdeprocessen går igang. Wirelock skal ihældes, inden
massen når sit tyndeste punkt.
5) Wirelock er fremstillet således, at hærdetiden er 10 minutter i tem
peraturområdet 18 °C til 24 °C. Det bør dog bemærkes, at pro-
duktets hærdetid er meget følsom overfor temperaturen på
Wirelock, f.eks. er hærdetiden kun ca. 5 minutter ved 30 °C og ca.
20 minutter ved 10 °C. Hærdetiden har ingen indflydelse på kvali-
teten af hærdningen. Tovpæren må belastes 1 time efter, at Wirelock er hård i overfla-
den (se også afsnit 9.8.2).
6) Kit fjernes. Specielt når tovpærehalsen hænger opad under bru-
gen, anbefaler Fyns Kran Udstyr, at tovpærehalsen fyldes op med
vandfortrængende olie/fedt for at minimere risikoen for rustdan-
nelse på dette kritiske sted (hulrummet fyldes med vand).
Kontrol af istøbning
a) Hvis man ridser med en skruetrækker i støbemassen i tovpæreåb
ningen, og der fremkommer en hvid stribe, er hærdningen foregå-
et, som den skal.
Number of seals per litre Wirelock
Tabel 1
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b) The darker the Wirelock, the higher the temperature during the hardening process. The dark colour is achieved due to correct
hardening conditions. If the colour is bluish-green, it indicates a
"cold" sealing/hardening process. The sealing process may only
be approved if the screwdriver test has been passed.
Re-use of sockets
Dismantling of Wirelock in used rope sockets can be undertaken by
means of heating in a furnace to a temperature of 250 °C, after
which the seal cracks when struck and can be removed with a man-
drel. To avoid heating up the rope socket, it is recommended that the
material be pressed out using special equipment.
Note:
a) Rope and rope socket must be inspected regularly for fractures, especially in and around the base of socket. b) Avoid using an open flame during the mixing and sealing process with Wirelock. The hardening agent contains an acid that is flam-
mable at approx. 30 °C.
c) Protective glasses and gloves must be worn during the sealing process. If undertaken indoors, air extraction equipment must be
used.
d) Wirelock must not come into contact with strong alkaline solutions such as acetone, as these substances can cause the Wirelock to
disintegrate.
e) If the rope socket has a temperature of below 10 °C, it should be warmed up, e.g. by placing it in a bucket of warm water.
f) The "use before" date presupposes that the Wirelock is stored at 10-25 °C.
g) Every consignment is accompanied by "Supplier's Directions for Use" of Wirelock.
Fyns Kran Udstyr will be pleased to carry out the sealing process
with Wirelock either on your premises or in our own splicing shop.
Fyns Kran Udstyr is also a supplier of rope sockets and other types
of fittings.
b) Desto mørkere Wirelock er, desto højere temperatur har hærde
processen opnået. Den mørke farve opnås p.g.a korrekte tempe-
raturforhold. Hvis farven er blågrøn, er dette ensbetydende med
en "kold" støbning/hærdning. Istøbningen kan kun godkendes,
hvis skruetrækkerprøven er O.K. (se punkt a).
Genbrug af tovpærer
Fjernelse af Wirelock i brugte tovpærer kan ske ved opvarmning til
250 °C i ovn, hvorefter støbemassen krakelerer ved slag og kan fjer-
nes med dorn. For at undgå opvarmning af tovpæren er det bedre
blot at presse materialet ud med specialværktøj. BEMÆRK:Tovpæren må under ingen omstændigheder opvarmes til
mere end 250 °C forudsat, at leverandøren af tovpærerne ikke har
angivet andet.
BEMÆRKNINGER:
a) Tovpære og tov skal jævnligt kontrolleres for brud/beskadigelse, specielt i og ved tovpærehalsen.
b) Undgå brug af åben ild under blandingen og istøbning med Wirelock. Hærderen indeholder styren, hvis flammepunkt er ca. 30 °C.
c) Der skal anvendes beskyttelsesbriller og hansker ved istøbning. Hvis det foregår indendørs, skal der være lokal udsugning.
d) Wirelock må ikke komme i forbindelse med stærke alkaliske opløsninger som acetone og lignende, da disse stoffer kan ned-
bryde Wirelock.
e) Hvis tovpæren har en temperatur på under 10 °C, bør denne opvarmes f.eks. ved at lægge den i en spand varmt vand.
f) En forudsætning for at sidste anvendelsesdato gælder er, at Wirelock opbevares mellem 10 °C og max. 25 °C.
Ved hver leverance medsendes "Leverandør Brugsanvisning" på
Wirelock.
Fyns Kran Udstyr foretager gerne istøbningen med Wirelock enten
hos dig eller i vort splejseri. Fyns Kran Udstyr er også leveringsdyg-
tig i såvel tovpærer samt andre typer fittings.
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15. DRUM CAPACITY
16. CLASSIFICATION AND USE OF STEEL WIRE ROPE
Classification of Steel Wire Rope
The different kinds of steel wire rope can be divided up into distinct
classes. The number of strands and the number of outer wires in
each strand is laid down for each class of steel wire rope. The diffe-
rent systems and sets of rules for this classification include ISO, DIN
and American. Randers Reb has chosen to employ the set of classi-
fications used by the EU (the EN norm).
15. TROMLEKAPACITET
16. KLASSIFICERING AF STÅLTOVE
Ståltovsklasser (eksempler på ståltove)
De forskellige ståltove kan inddeles i forskellige klasser. Inden for
hver klasse er fastlagt antallet af dugter samt antallet af ydertråde i
hver dugt. Der findes forskellige systemer/regler for klassificering af
ståltovene (ISO, DIN, amerikanske). Randers Reb har valgt at
anvende den klassificering, der gælder for EU (EN-norm) (se tabel
2).
Max. drum capacity (in metres) is =
A x C x (A + B) x p / d², where
A, B and C are expressed in cm.
D = steel wire rope's diameter in mm.
p = pi = 3.14
Drum Capacity
Eksempler på ståltovsklasser (se også fig. 52)
Examples of different classes of steel wire rope (see also fig. 52)
Class
Number of outer strands
Number of wires in strand
Number of outer
wires in strand
Number of layers
of wire in strand
Tabel 2
Fig. 51
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Examples of the use of Steel Wire Rope
Fig. 52 shows examples of steel wire rope in the most common
categories of steel wire rope.
17. ROPES
Eksempler på anvendelse af ståltove
Fig. 52 viser eksempler på ståltove i de mest anvendte ståltovs-
klasser.
17. TOVVÆRK
Examples of steel wire rope in the most common categories of steel wire rope
Tabel 8
Fig. 52
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10
Ropes are primarily made of synthetic materials such as PE, PP, PA
and polyester. Ropes of natural fibre are still manufactured, but only
in small quantities, as synthetic ropes are more wear-resistant and
do not absorb water or rot.
Ropes are primarily manufactured as 3- and 4-strand, crossbraided,
roundbraided and plaited.
18. CHAINS AND LIFTING COMPONENTS
Gunnebo - your partner in safe lifting
Think Gunnebo when selecting lifting chain and components.
Gunnebo has become known for quality, down to the smallest com-
ponent, as a result of over 200 years experience, systematic quality
control, research and development.
Chain and components are made from quenched and tempered alloy
steel. A guarantee for very high strength, low weight, high wear resis-
tance and long life. All Gunnebo G8 components are uniformly mar-
ked with equivalent chain size, grade and manufacturer's designation
for positive identification.
Quality to international standards
Gunnebo work closely with their steel suppliers to ensure that the
raw material meets their stringent specification.
They also work closely with their world markets and have official
approval by the main national and international authorities including
MOD, NATO, BG and many others.
Gunnebo G8 Grade 8 chain is manufactured and tested to the
requirements of ISO 1834 & 3076, 1984 and EN 818-1, & 2. All com-
ponents match the relevant prEN- and EN-standards.
All Gunnebo productions units are approved by Lloyds (LRQA) for
quality assurance to ISO 9001. This approval also combines the new
European standard EN 29001. Their quality management covers all
aspects of production from raw material to delivered product. LRQA
approval for their system includes design, development, manufactu-
re, marketing and distribution of lifting chains and associated compo-
nents.
Full test certification is supplied on request.
Gunnebo gives you more options
Gunnebo G8 is more than just another chain sling system. It is a
total lifting concept in high grade alloy steel for heavy lifting.
The chain and components in the G8 and SK ranges are designed to
give more flexibility, more options to meet almost any lifting problem
involving slings - whether chain, steel wire rope or soft slings.
When introduced around 30 years ago, the BK Safety Hook dramati-
cally increased industrial safety on sites all over the world.
The new generation safety hooks - OBK/GBK - provide a more com-
pact version of the well-known BK-hook. The grip latch modification
gives better side stability and the hook now has improved riveting.
Once again, Gunnebo innovation leads the way.
Tovværk fremstilles primært af syntetiske materialer som f.eks. PE,
PP, PA og polyester. Tovværk af naturfibre som sisal, hamp, manila
og papir produceres stadigvæk, men udbudet er ikke ret stort. Årsa-
gen hertil er, at det syntetiske tovværk generelt har en større slidstyr-
ke, ikke suger vand og ikke rådner.
Tovværk fremstilles primært som 3- og 4-slået, krydsflettet, rundflet-
tet og kvadratflettet.
18. KÆDER OG KOMPONENTER
Gunnebo - din partner i sikkert løft
Tænk Gunnebo ved valg af løftekæder og komponenter. Gunnebo
er kendt for kvalitet, helt ned til den mindste komponent som et
resultat af mere en 200 års erfaring, systematisk kvalitetskontrol,
forskning og udvikling.
Kæder og komponenter laves af sejhærdet legeret stål. En garanti
for meget høj styrke, lav vægt, høj slidstyrke og lang levetid. Alle
Gunnebo G8 komponenter er mærket ensartet med tilsvarende
kædestørrelse, klasse og producentens betegnelse for positiv identi-
fikation.
Kvalitet i henhold til internationale standarder
Gunnebo arbejder tæt sammen med sine stålleverandører for at
sikre, at råmaterialerne opfylder de strenge kvalitetskrav.
Gunnebo arbejder også tæt sammen med sit verdensmarked og har
officielle godkendelser fra vigtigste nationale og internationale myn-
digheder inklusiv MOD, NATO, BG og mange andre.
Gunnebo G8 klasse 8 kæde er produceret og testet i henhold til kra-
vene i ISO 1834 & 3076, 1984 og EN 818-1, & 2. Alle komponenter
opfylder de relevante prEN og EN-standarder.
Alle Gunnebo's produktionsenheder er godkendte af Lloyd's (LRQA)
for kvalitetssikkerhed i henhold til ISO 9001. Denne godkendelse
kombinerer også den nye europæiske standard EN 29001.
Gunnebo's kvalitetskontrol dækker alle produktionsaspekter fra
råmateriale til leveret produkt. LRQA godkendelse for systemet inklu-
derer design, udvikling, produktion, markedsføring og distribution af
løftekæder og tilhørende komponenter.
Testcertifikater leveres på forespørgsel.
Gunnebo giver dig flere valgmuligheder
Gunnebo G8 er mere end blot endnu et kædeslingsystem. Det er et
totalt løftekoncept i legeret stål af høj kvalitet til tunge løft.
Kæderne og komponenterne i G8 og SK sortimenterne er designet til
at give mere fleksibilitet og flere valgmuligheder og dermed løse
næsten ethvert løfteproblem, hvor der skal bruges kædesling - hvad
enten det drejer sig om kæde-, wire- eller kædesling.
Da BK sikkerhedskrogen blev introduceret for ca. 30 år siden, blev
den industrielle sikkerhed på arbejdspladser over hele verden forhøj-
et betydeligt.
Den nye generation i sikkerhedskroge - OBK/GBK - er en mere kom-
pakt version af den velkendte BK-krog. Modificeringen af sikkerhed-
spalen giver bedre sidestabilitet og krogen har nu forbedret nagling.
Endnu en nyskabelse fra Gunnebo, der viser vejen.
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 37
10
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FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
Safe design down to the load detail
Gunnebo BK/OBK/GBK Safety Hooks fulfil two important require-
ments. One is that the load stays put in the hook. The latch closes
automatically as soon as the hook is loaded. It cannot be opened
under load accidentally. The release trigger will only operate when
the load is safely grounded.
The other is that the hook will not easily snag during lifting because
of its smooth profile.
Gunnebo Safety Hooks are designed for work. It is easy to operate
the release trigger even with working gloves on. It stays open so that
both hands are free to load the hook.
Gunnebo Safety Hooks are available for Working Load Limits 1.25 to
25 tonnes.
Use
∙ Keep a register of all chains in use.
∙ Never lift with a twisted chain
∙ Chain slings should be shortened with at shortening hook, never by knotting.
∙ Never point load a hook - the load should always seat correctly in the bowl of the hook.
∙ Always use the correct size sling for the load allowing for the inclu
ded angle and the possibility of unequal loading.
∙ The master link should always be able to move freely on the crane hook.
∙ Avoid snatch-loading at all times.
Maintenance
Periodic through examination must be carried out at least every six
months or more frequently according to statutory regulations, type of
use and past experience.
∙ Chain with bent, cracked or gouged links should be replaced, as should deformed components such as bent master links, opened up
hooks and any fitting showing signs of damage.
∙ The wear of the chain and components shall in no place exceed 10% of the original dimensions. The chain link wear - max. 10% - is
defined as the reduction of the mean diameter of the material mea-
sured in two directions.
∙ Overloaded chain slings must be taken out of service.
Sikkert design ned til lastdetaljen
BK/OBK/GBK sikkerhedskrogene opfylder to vigtige krav. Det ene er,
at lasten forbliver i krogen. Palen lukker automatisk, så snart krogen
bliver belastet. Den kan ikke åbnes utilsigtet under last. Udløseren
kan kun betjenes, når lasten er sikkert afsat.
Det andet er, at krogen ikke så let hænger fast under løft p.g.a. dens
bløde profil.
Gunnebo sikkerhedskrogene er designet til arbejde. Det er let at
betjene udløseren selv med arbejdshandsker på. Den forbliver åben,
så begge hænder er fri til at belaste krogen.
Sikkerhedskrogene fås fra WLL 1,25 - 25 ton.
Anvendelse
∙ Opret et kartotek over alle kæder, der er i brug.
∙ Løft aldrig med en vredet kæde.
∙ Kædesling skal opkortes med en opkorterkrog - der må aldrig slås knuder på kæden.
∙ Beskyt kæden mod skarpe kanter ved at lægge et mellemlag
imellem.
∙ Belast aldrig en krog i spidsen - lasten skal altid ligge korrekt i bunden af krogen.
∙ Brug altid den korrekte størrelse kæde til lasten under hensyntagen til vinkel og muligheden for ulige belastning.
∙ Topøjet skal altid kunne hænge frit i krankrogen.
∙ Undgå altid belastning i ryk.
Vedligeholdelse
Mindst hver 6. måned eller oftere i henhold til lovmæssige bestem-
melser, type af anvendelse og tidligere erfaring skal der udføres en
omhyggelige kontrol.
∙ Kæder med bøjede, revnede eller udhulede led skal udskiftes, ligesom deformerede komponenter så som bøjede ovalringe, åbne
kroge og enhver komponent, der viser tegn på slitage.
∙ Slitagen på kæden og komponenterne må ingen steder overstige 10% af de oprindelige dimensioner. Slitagen på kædeled - max.
10% - er defineret som den gennemsnitlige diameter af materialet
målt i 2 retninger.
∙ Overbelastede kædesling skal tages ud af brug.
I Danmark kræver Arbejdstilsynet, at alt løftegrej skal kontrolleres
mindst én gang om året. Fyns Kran Udstyr tilbyder at udføre test
direkte hos kunden (se afsnit 9).
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Jan 2002
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10
19. TECHNICAL CONVERSION TABLES
19. TEKNISKE OMREGNINGSTABELLER
Omsætning mellem diverse enheder
Fig. 9
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Randers Odense København
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TEKNISK INFORMATION
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
10-40
10
Testcertifikat for stålwirer
Test and Examination Certificate
for Wire Rope
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 40
10
Randers Odense København
89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66
TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-41
10
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
Certifikat for test af løftegrej
Certificate for test of Lifting Gear
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 41
Randers Odense København
89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66
TEKNISK INFORMATION
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
10-42
10
Certifikat for test af
faldsikringsudstyr
Certificate for test of
Fall Arrest Equipment
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 42
10
Randers Odense København
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TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-43
10
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
Certifikat for test af El-taljer
Certificate for test of Electric
Chain Hoists
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 43
Randers Odense København
89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66
TEKNISK INFORMATION
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
10-44
10
Certifikat for test af
Vakuumløfteåg
Certificate for test of Vacuum
Lifters
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 44
10
Randers Odense København
89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66
TEKNISK INFORMATION 10-45
10
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
Certifikat for test af kædetaljer,
wiretaljer, løbekatte, løftekløer,
spil og donkrafte
Repair Certificate for Chain Hoists,
Pull-Lift Trolleys, Lifting Clamps
and Jacks
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 45
Randers Odense København
89 11 12 89 63 96 53 00 43 73 35 66
TEKNISK INFORMATION
FKU LIFTING A/S
Jan 2002
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10
Fyns Kran Udstyr A/S
ISO 9002 certifikat
Fyns Kran Udstyr A/S
ISO 9002 certificate
Afsnit 10 - 2001 m ny standard 2.qxd 15-01-02 10:20 Side 46
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\1.0 Swivel.doc
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SWIVEL
As a safety precaution, a swivel is inserted in the system to release stress, turns and torsion in
steel wires.
The swivel is inserted between the dead man wire and the PCP, to ensure no stress, turns and /
or torsion in the wire, enabling the deck crew to safely disconnect the systems.
Use of swivel can however give a reduction in the breaking load with up to app. 30%, depending
on the type of swivel in use.
It is strongly recommended not to use a swivel with too low friction coefficient allowing the wire
end to freely rotate during normal operation. This will decrease the fatigue life dramatically.
The MoorLink swivel has a high friction coefficient and will not allow the wire to rotate when
under load.
T.O. has delivered a MoorLink swivel to all AHTS vessels.
Please observe the enclosed table / drawing (page 5) showing breaking strength when the
swivels are on wire drums and stern rollers.
Please read the following pages together with chapter 8 for further information.
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MoorLink Swivel
Subject:Theory - Swivels versus Wire torque
____________________________________________________________________________
Background
Six-stranded wire rope behaves different in different applications or operations, which could lead to
potential problems for the user.
In theory a six stranded rope should not be allowed to open up (swivel) under load to achieve
longest lifetime of the rope. This is normally only possible in a perfect world, where no external
operational criteria are present. An all wire moored drilling or accommodation rig might achieve this
by perfect anchor handling and spooling off / on from / to a winch. In reality the winches are not
spooling perfectly and if the wire is dragged over or in seabed the geometry of the wire could lead
to induced torque.
Safety
Torque can cause severe damages to personnel and equipment. This normally occurs when an
anchor handling wire is spooled in with high tension and disconnection shall occur. The torque has
been transferred to the end of the rope disconnection can be impossible or lead to a kink in the
rope. This also happens during cross over operations on combination mooring systems.
Combination Mooring Systems
For drilling rigs equipped with combination chain /wire system swivels would assist during the
cross over operation and bolstering of anchors. When hauling in the wire, the torque moves
towards the end of the rope. In order to remove the torque from the wire to prior to
disconnection the swivel positioned in the cross over point should absorb the torque at a relative
low tension.
It is strongly recommended not to use a swivel with too low friction coefficient allowing
the wire end to freely rotate during normal operation (when moored). This will decrease
the fatigue life dramatically.
The wire also introduces twist to the chain during normal operation and when hauling in anchors.
The chain has a relative high torsion stiffness when under tension (nil when stored in a pile
onshore or in the chain locker). This means that the wire will induce a number of turns over the
length of the chain, which is not causing any damages to the chain. However, when the chain is
hauled in and the AHT is coming closer to the bolster these turns will be present on a short piece
of chain, potentially leading to problems bolstering the anchor properly. By installing a swivel close
to the anchor end this torque could be absorbed.
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Anchor handling
Anchor handling can be divided into two different main categories:
1. The usage of vessel’s own anchor handling wire or tow wire, which is permanently installed
(and replaced when damaged) and kept with high tension on the drum.
2. The usage of external supplied anchor-handling wires (normal for deep-water operations).
These wires are normally not spooled on to the winches with any high tension before
commencement of work.
The problem that occurs during anchor handling is that the torque induced in the wire is transferred
to the end of the rope and if the axial stiffness in the connected part is low the torque is transferred
further.
This means that a swivel can absorb the torque and avoid any twist to be transferred.
Bearing Systems
1.Slide Bearing System
Bearing system is bronze aluminium type running on a polished stain less steel washer. The
material is often used in high load / low speed bearings in many offshore applications (very good
corrosion and wear resistance in seawater).
The bearing is self-lubricating with embedded sold lubricant. The base material is high-grade
bronze alloys and has finely finished surface with pockets in which a specially formulated solid
lubricant is embedded. During operation a very fine, but very strong lubricating film is deposited
automatically over the complete moving area. This film remains intact at all times, even
immediately upon starting. The construction is also being equipped with grease inlets in order to
secure and guarantees a well-lubricated moving surface.
2.Roller Bearing System
The roller bearing swivels are equipped with a cylindrical thrust roller bearing system (either single
or double row).
Summary
What is best? The usage of roller or slide bearing swivel?
It depends on your operation. The main issue is that most operations are different. The
operation can be normal anchor handling, or installation of chain, polyester ropes or spiral
strand, anchor proof loading, towing etc.
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The slide-bearing swivel should not rotate under tension until the induced torque is
exceeding the start friction. This enhances the fatigue life of the wire. Typical operation
is anchor handling and inserts in combination mooring systems
The roller bearing systems would rotate under tension, as the friction moment is lower
than the induced torque. This could be benefit if you do not want to transfer the torque
from your wire to the object lowered. Bear in mind, fatigue life of the wire will decrease
after continuos use of roller bearing swivels. Typical operation is installation of sub sea
equipment, anchors or proof loading of anchors.
Theory of Torque versus Friction:
Based on our past experience and information provided by two large steel-wire rope
manufacturers: ScanRope and Haggie Rand the induced torque by a six-stranded wire rope is:
6-8% of the diameter of rope x tensions.
Example
Induced torque:
Wire size:89mm
Tension:200 tonnes
Resulted induced torque:0.07 x 0.089 x 200.000 x 9,81 = 12.223 Nm
Break Out Torque Comparison:
1.Friction moment Roller Bearing System: 0.015 (0.005 in rolling mode)
Average Diameter of bearing:0.20 m
Break-out Torque:0.5 x 0.20 m x 0.015 x 200.000 x 9.81 = 2.943 Nm
2.Friction moment Slide Bearing System: 0.12 (0.10 in gliding mode)
Average Diameter:0.20 m
Break-out Torque:0.5 x 0.20 m x 0.12 x 200.000 x 9.81 = 23.544 Nm
As can be seen above the resistance (friction moment) in the slide bearing system is HIGHER than
the induced torque in the wire. The swivel will not rotate when the tension is increased.
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M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 09\2.0 Pin Extractor.doc
Chapter 09 Page 1
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
Pin Extractor
As torsion tension builds up in wires that have been under heavy load this will result in violent
movement of the wires when disconnected.
Removing of pins, in shackles, dismantling of other connecting links e.g. Pear – and Kenter link,
from systems that have been under tension and where torsion is likely, should only take place
by use of a tugger or capstan wire together with a chain - / wire sling or a Pin Extractor.
Occasionally people have been injured when a crowbar has been used for this action, so that is
why a crowbar never should be used to punch pins out of shackles where the wire has been
under tension.
When using the tugger or capstan wire together with a sling or Pin Extractor, the safety is
considerably improved.
See the Pin Extractor in use on an 85 T shackle on the following page.
The wire from either the tugger or the capstan is fixed on the Extractor, which is hooked on to
the shackle pin. The pin is now easily pulled out by use of a tugger or capstan.
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Pin Extractor in use on a 85 T Shackle
Anchor Handling Equipment, chapter 9
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Chapter 09 Page 1
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MTC
Socket Bench
As mentioned in the APM Procedures 15, 16 and 15, 259, that we now and then have to re-
socket the wires used for anchor handling and towing. These re-socketing are often carried out
by the ship’s crew and in this connection occurs the problem how to clean out used wire
sockets.
The only applicable method for removing the old piece of wire is to squeeze the compound out
of the socket. For this purpose you can use a hydraulic jack. The same method is used on
workshops ashore.
The method with using heat on the socket in order to get the used socket cleaned is not
applicable for following two reasons.
1. You can easily change the steel structure of the socket, which afterwards under load can
brake.
2. There can be a pocket of air inside the socket/compound. When the air pocket becomes
superheated this can result in an unexpected explosion of compound.
The attached picture on the following page illustrates how a hydraulic jack can be used to
squeeze out the old compound.
E-procurement work group
Maersk Training Centre A/S
Socket Bench
Hydraulic Jack in use - squeezing out the old compound
Anchor Handling Equipment, chapter 9
2.1
CHAINS & FITTINGS
SECTION 2
CHAINS AND FITTINGS
Introduction
There are currently two types of chain in common use within the marine
industry. Studlink chain which is the most popular is used by the shipping and
the oil Industry. Open link, which has no studs, is generally used in special
mooring applications such as permanent moorings for FPSO’s for the larger
diameter chains and buoy and marine moorings for the small diameters.
Chain is normally supplied in 27.5 metre lengths but the oil industry uses chain
of much longer lengths up to about 1370 feet (4,500 metres). Long lengths of
chain mean no joining links, which may be the weakest links, but shipping and
handling can be a problem.
Chain size is generally expressed as the diameter of the steel at the bending
area. This can mean that steel bars of 78-79mm may be used to manufacture
chain of 76mm diameter. Chain can be fitted with open end links to enable
shackle connections to be made. These end links are normally forged to the
chain using an intermediate link also known as an enlarged link. These links are
larger than the diameter of the chain to take into account the differing radii and
the reduced strength of the links due the end link being studless.
Chain strengths are expressed as grades followed by a number. The letter used
varies with countries but the strength of the chain remains the same. The
United Kingdom used “U”, France and Spain used “Q” and the Scandinavian
countries use “K”. The number relates to the type and hence the strength of
the steel. U1 grade is mild steel, U2 is a high tensile steel and U3 is a special
heat treated steel. These grades are normally only used within the shipping
industry as the oil industry demands even greater strengths for the chain used.
The original grade designed for the offshore industry was ORQ (Oil Rig
Quality). Although this chain is still in use it has been superseded by new
grades such as Rig Quality 3 and Rig Quality 4. These grades were introduced
by the classification societies in order to standardise quality. The same grades
also apply to the joining links that may be used with the chain.
Tables showing the various strengths of chain are shown overleaf.
Offshore Industry dictates that chain must be periodically inspected for wear
and defects. The level of inspection and the intervals of these surveys are laid
down by the classification authorities. Balmoral can carry out such inspections
in line with relevant classification society requirements.
2.2
STUD LINK MOORING CHAIN
CHAINS & FITTINGS
COMMON LINK ENLARGED LINK END LINK
Common Link
Enlarged Link
End Link
3.6d
6d
1d
4d
6.5d
1.1d
4d
6.75d
1.2d
2.3
CHAINS & FITTINGS
STUD LINK CHAIN
Shot = 90 ft = 27.5 m
Weight
Kg/shot
incl.
Kenter
A
306
C
497
E
734
H
919
1420
1720
2100
2640
1240
1480
1820
2500
280
370
530
660
935
1129
1391
1815
870
1040
1270
1660
590
720
910
1050
30
40
65
75
30
40
65
75
222
418
652
826
1105
1209
1437
1555
1809
1946
2100
2253
2573
2742
3097
3374
3681
4187
4832
5385
5723
6613
mm
22
28
34
38
19
26
32
36
42
44
48
50
54
56
58
60
64
66
70
73
76
81
87
92
95
102
in
7/8
1 1/8
1 5/16
1 1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 7/16
1 5/8
1 3/4
1 7/8
2
2 1/8
2 3/16
2 5/16
2 3/8
2 1/2
2 5/8
2 3/4
2 7/8
3
3 3/16
3 7/16
3 5/8
3 3/4
4
P.L.
kN
200
321
468
581
150
278
417
523
703
769
908
981
1140
1220
1290
1380
1560
1660
1840
1990
2150
2410
2750
3040
3230
3660
B.L.
kN
280
449
655
812
211
389
583
732
981
1080
1280
1370
1590
1710
1810
1940
2190
2310
2580
2790
3010
3380
3850
4260
4510
5120
P.L.
kN
280
449
655
812
211
389
583
732
981
1080
1280
1370
1590
1710
1810
1940
2190
2310
2580
2790
3010
3380
3850
4260
4510
5120
B.L.
kN
401
642
937
1160
301
556
833
1050
1400
1540
1810
1960
2270
2430
2600
2770
3130
3300
3690
3990
4300
4820
5500
6080
6440
7320
P.L.
kN
1400
1620
1746
1854
1976
2230
2361
2634
2846
3066
3453
3924
4342
4599
5220
B.L.
kN
2110
2441
2639
2797
2978
3360
3559
3970
4291
4621
5209
5916
6544
6932
7868
U2U3ORQ
9.81 kN = 1 Tonne
P.L.= Proof Load
B.L.= Breaking Load
2.4
STUD LINK/STUDLESS CHAIN –
OIL INDUSTRY GRADES
CHAINS & FITTINGS
Dia
mm
4621
4885
5156
5572
6001
6295
6745
7208
7682
8167
8497
9001
9343
kN
9864
10217
10754
11118
11856
12420
12993
13573
13964
14358
14955
15559
15965
16992
18033
19089
20156
21234
22320
22976
23633
24292
25174
25836
4200
4440
4685
5064
5454
5720
6130
6550
6981
7422
7722
8180
8490
kN
8964
9285
9773
10103
10775
11287
11807
12334
12690
13048
13591
14139
14508
15441
16388
17347
18317
19297
20284
20879
21477
22076
22877
23479
Break Load
3761
3976
4196
4535
4884
5123
5490
5866
6252
6647
6916
7326
7604
kN
8028
8315
8753
9048
9650
10109
10574
11047
11365
11686
12171
12663
12993
13829
14677
15536
16405
17282
18166
18699
19234
19771
20488
21027
3559
3762
3970
4291
4621
4847
5194
5550
5916
6289
6544
6932
7195
kN
7596
7868
8282
8561
9130
9565
10005
10452
10753
11057
11516
11981
12294
13085
13887
14700
15522
16352
17188
17693
18199
18707
19386
19896
kgs/m
Weight
kgs/m
R4-RQ4R3SR3
RQ3-API
Stud and StudlessStudStudless
95
101
107
117
126
133
144
155
166
177
185
198
206
219
228
241
251
270
285
300
315
326
337
353
370
382
411
442
473
506
540
575
596
618
640
671
694
87
92
98
107
116
122
131
141
151
162
169
181
188
200
208
221
229
246
260
274
288
298
308
323
338
348
375
403
432
462
493
525
545
564
585
613
634
66
68
70
73
76
78
81
84
87
90
92
95
97
100
102
105
107
111
114
117
120
122
124
127
130
132
137
142
147
152
157
162
165
168
171
175
178
2.5
CHAINS & FITTINGS
Dia
mm
3643
3851
4064
4392
4731
4962
5317
5682
6056
6439
6699
7096
7365
kN
7776
8054
8478
8764
9347
9791
10242
10700
11008
11319
11789
12265
12585
13395
14216
15048
15890
16739
17596
18112
18631
19150
19845
20367
3238
3423
3613
3904
4205
4411
4726
5051
5383
5723
5954
6307
6547
kN
6912
7159
7536
7790
8308
8703
9104
9511
9785
10061
10479
10903
11187
11906
12637
13376
14124
14879
15641
16100
16560
17022
17640
18104
Proof Load
3036
3209
3387
3660
3942
4135
4431
4735
5046
5365
5582
5913
6138
kN
6480
6712
7065
7304
7789
8159
8535
8916
9173
9432
9824
10221
10488
11162
11847
12540
13241
13949
14663
15094
15525
15959
16538
16972
2935
3102
3274
3538
3811
3997
4283
4577
4878
5187
5396
5716
5933
kN
6264
6488
6829
7060
7529
7887
8251
8619
8868
9118
9497
9880
10138
10790
11452
12122
12800
13484
14174
14590
15008
15427
15986
16407
kgs/m
Weight
kgs/m
Studless
StudStudless
StudStudlessStud
2631
2782
2935
3172
3417
3548
3840
4104
4374
4650
4838
5125
5319
kN
5616
5817
6123
6330
6750
7071
7397
7728
7950
8175
8515
8858
9089
9674
10267
10868
11476
12089
12708
13081
13455
13831
14333
14709
Stud
Studless
2361
2496
2634
2847
3066
3216
3446
3683
3925
4173
4342
4599
4774
kN
5040
5220
5495
5681
6058
6346
6639
6935
7135
7336
7641
7950
8157
8682
9214
9753
10299
10850
11405
11739
12075
12412
12863
13201
Stud
Studless
R4-RQ4R3SR3RQ3-API
66
68
70
73
76
78
81
84
87
90
92
95
97
100
102
105
107
111
114
117
120
122
124
127
130
132
137
142
147
152
157
162
165
168
171
175
178
95
101
107
117
126
133
144
155
166
177
185
198
206
219
228
241
251
270
285
300
315
326
337
353
370
382
411
442
473
506
540
575
596
618
640
671
694
87
92
98
107
116
122
131
141
151
162
169
181
188
200
208
221
229
246
260
274
288
298
308
323
338
348
375
403
432
462
493
525
545
564
585
613
634
2.6
OPEN LINK MOORING CHAIN
LONG LINK
(MILD STEEL)
MEDIUM LINK
(MILD STEEL)
CHAINS & FITTINGS
d
6d
3.5d
d
5.5d
3.5d
3190
4830
6820
10000
12770
Proof Load
kg
7970
12090
17050
24990
31940
Minimum
Breaking Load
kg
3.34
5.06
7.14
10.46
13.38
Weight
kg/m
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
13
16
19
22
26
Size
mmins
3200
4800
6800
9100
11800
Proof Load
kg
6400
9600
13600
18200
23600
Minimum
Breaking Load
kg
3.50
5.20
7.40
10.00
12.80
Weight
kg/m
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
13
16
19
22
25
Size
mmins
148002950016.501 1/828
194003870021.001 1/432
218004360023.501 3/834
273005460029.501 1/238
333006660036.001 5/842
366007320039.501 3/444
435008700047.001 7/848
492009830053.00251
2.7
CHAINS & FITTINGS
OPEN LINK MOORING CHAIN
SHORT LINK
(MILD STEEL)
d
5d
3.5d
700
900
1250
2000
2240
Proof Load
kg
1400
1800
2500
4000
4480
Minimum
Breaking Load
kg
0.89
1.13
1.39
1.95
2.67
Weight
kg/m
1/4
9/32
5/16
3/8
7/16
6
7
8
10
11
Size
mmins
320064003.721/213
5000100005.645/816
682036407.963/419
2.8
KENTER JOINING LINKS
CHAINS & FITTINGS
1.0
1.6
2.6
3.5
4.8
19
22
26
30
32
Size
mm
Weight
kg
6.534
8.438
11.041
13.544
16.548
2052
2454
2857
3260
3964
4567
5270
6073
6776
7779
8683
9386
10189
11292
12395
13798
151102
158105
163108
171110
180114
230120
Common Link
Common Link
Kenter Joining Link
TYPICAL APPLICATION
6d
4d
4.2d
d
1.5d
Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ
Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions given are approximate
2.9
CHAINS & FITTINGS
PEAR SHAPE ANCHOR CONNECTING LINK
E
mm
D
mm
C
mm
B
mm
A
mm
Chain size
in mm
32-40
42-51
52-60
62-79
81-92
94-95
97-102
298
378
454
562
654
692
889
206
260
313
376
419
435
571
59
76
92
117
133
146
190
40
51
60
79
92
98
121
48
64
76
95
124
130
165
83
100
121
149
149
159
190
F
mm
No
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
KJG
40 x 44
51 x 60
62 x 73
85 x 79
111 x 102
124 x 137
130
26
32
37
48
54
57
73
43
52
64
76
79
83
108
No
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
H
56
74
88
111
130 x 133
141
181
Weight
in kg
13
27
49
94
149
236
386
Anchor Shank
A
D
G
E
B
H
C
Anchor Shackle
Common Links
F
J
K
Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ
Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions given are approximate
2.10
DETACHABLE CONNECTING LINK
Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ
Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions given are approximate
CHAINS & FITTINGS
AChain size in mm
30-32
33-35
36-38
40-42
43-44
46-48
50-51
52-54
56-58
59-60
62-64
66-67
190.5
210
229
248
267
286
305
324
343
362
381
400
419
68-70
71-73438
74-76457
4.5
20.0
6.0
7.8
10.0
12.5
14.5
16.5
23.5
27.5
32.0
37.0
45.5
48.5
54.5
weight in KgB
127
140
152
165
190
194
197
210
221
234
246
246
275
283
295
C
44
49
53
57
62
64
64
67
71
78
79
83
92
94
95
D
32
35
38
41
44
48
51
54
57
60
64
67
73
73
76
E
35
39
43
50
51
55
59
64
67
70
73
78
83
85
90
F
39
42
46
50
56
60
64
67
71
75
78
79
90
93
94
G
21
23
25
27
30
31
33
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
78-7947662.530810279929652
81-8349573.0320103839210355
84-8651480.53321078610010757
87-8953793.53501169210511459
90-9255297.53561199210611661
94-95571116.03681229511411962
97-98590123.03811279811712167
100-102607130.039413210211912268
A
D
E
C
F
B
E
G
2.11
CHAINS & FITTINGS
D’ TYPE JOINING SHACKLES
1.7
2.7
4.3
7
7.8
19
22
26
30
32
Size
mm
Weight
kg
8.534
13.838
1841
2244
2748
2952
3954
4657
5260
6464
7467
8470
9873
11076
12279
13483
14486
15489
16892
18495
20098
220102
230105
264108
285110
320114
340120
Common Link
Enlarged Link
End Link End Link Common Link
Joining Shackle Enlarged Link
4d
1.4d
1.3d 1.3d
3.4d
7.1d
2.8d
1.6d
1.2d
2.12
‘D’ TYPE ANCHOR SHACKLES
CHAINS & FITTINGS
2.5
3.8
6.0
9
11.3
19
22
26
30
32
Size
mm
Weight
kg
1434
19.838
2641
3244
3948
4852
5754
6757
8060
9364
10667
12170
14173
15976
17279
18983
20086
23089
25892
29095
30198
344102
390105
422108
431110
475114
530120
Enlarged Link
4d
Anchor Shackle Anchor Shank
Swivel End Link Clenched Anchor
Shackle
8.7d
1.4d 1.4d
2.4d
5.2d
1.3d
1.8d
3.1d
Smaller diameters Grade 3, ORQ
Larger diameters Grade ORQ, R3 R4
All dimensions give are approximate
2.13
CHAINS & FITTINGS
SHACKLES
BOW AND ‘D’ SCREW PIN SHACKLES UP TO 120 tonne SWL
SWL
Tonnes
2
3.25
4.75
6.5
8.5
9.5
12
13.5
17
25
35
55
85
120
Size
mm
13
16
19
22
25
29
32
35
38
44
51
64
76
89
Pin Dia
mm
16
19
22
25
29
32
35
38
41
51
57
70
83
95
Gap
mm
19
26
32
35
42
45
51
57
60
73
83
105
127
140
O/Dia
Eye
mm
32
41
48
54
60
67
76
85
92
111
127
152
165
203
Inside
Length
mm
48
61
70
83
95
108
118
133
149
178
197
267
330
381
Weight
Safety
kg
0.36
0.72
1.3
1.8
2.6
3.6
5.1
6.9
9.0
14.2
21.0
43
66
114
Weight
Screw Pin
kg
0.36
0.68
1.0
1.5
2.4
3.4
3.9
5.9
7.9
12.7
18.7
38.0
59
102
BOW SCREW PIN
'D' SCREW PIN
Inside
Length
Gap
Outside
of Eye
Size
Pin Dia
2.14
BOW AND ‘D’ SAFETY PIN SHACKLES UP TO 100 tonne SWL
CHAINS & FITTINGS
SWL
Tonne
2
3.25
4.75
6.5
8.5
9.5
12
13.5
17
25
35
50-55
75-85
100
Size
mm
13
16
19
22
25
29
32
35
38
44
51
64
76
89
Pin Dia
mm
16
19
22
25
29
32
35
38
41
51
57
70
83
95
Gap
mm
19
26
32
35
42
45
51
57
60
73
83
105
127
149
O/Dia
Eye
mm
32
41
48
54
60
67
76
85
92
111
127
152
165
203
Inside
Length
mm
41
51
60
70
80
89
99
111
124
149
171
203
229
267
Weight
Safety
kg
0.36
0.67
0.72
1.7
2.4
3.3
4.7
6.1
8.4
13.0
19.0
38.0
56.0
99.0
Weight
Screw Pin
kg
0.3
0.55
0.6
1.4
2.1
3.0
4.1
5.5
7.4
16.0
16.5
33.7
49.0
86.0
2.15
CHAINS & FITTINGS
SHACKLES, BOW & ‘D’ SAFETY
SWL
Tonnes
120
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Size
mm
89
102
120
125
135
165
175
195
205
210
220
230
Pin Dia
mm
95
108
130
140
150
175
185
205
215
220
230
240
Gap
mm
146
165
175
200
200
225
250
275
300
300
320
340
Inside
Length
mm
381
400
500
540
600
650
700
700
700
700
700
700
Weight
Safety
kg
120
160
235
285
340
560
685
880
980
1100
1280
1460
CROSBY
SWL
Tonnes
120
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
Size
mm
89
102
108
121
130
149
155
178
Pin Dia
mm
95
108
121
127
152
178
190
210
Gap
mm
133
140
184
216
216
210
219
235
Inside
Length
mm
371
368
394
508
495
571
641
810
O/Dia
Eye
mm
203
229
268
305
305
356
381
432
Weight
kg
120
153
204
272
352
499
704
863
BOW SAFETY
'D' SAFETY
Inside
Length
Gap
Size
Pin Dia
Outside
of Eye
GREEN PIN
2.16
CHAINS & FITTINGS
JAW & JAW SWIVELS
120
156
200
258
303
54
57
60
64
68
Size
mm
Weight
kg
33070
36173
39476
49384
60090
70095
970102
1060105
1170108
1440114
1650120
1.4d
1.3d
1.3d
7.7d
12.7d
2.2d
5.6d
1.7d
c
1.7d
4d
Anchor Shank
End Link
Enlarged Link
Common Link
Anchor Shank
Common Link
Enlarged Link
End Link
Anchor Shackle
TYPICAL APPLICATION
2.17
BOW & EYE SWIVELS
CHAINS & FITTINGS
2.8
4.4
6.8
9.4
12.7
19
22
26
30
32
Size
mm
Weight
kg
17.534
2238
2941
3644
4348
5452
6454
7557
7860
9064
10467
11470
13473
15276
17179
18983
19686
21789
25692
27595
30098
342102
387105
420108
450110
520114
620120
Enlarged Link
TYPICAL SWIVEL ASSEMBLIES
Enlarged Link
End Link
End Link
Swivel
End Link
Enlarged Link
Common Link
Swivel
Enlarged Link
3.6d
1.1d
1.4d
4.7d
6.3d
9.3d
1.2d
3.4d
2.18
MOORING RINGS
6
12
24
40
63
19
25
32
38
44
Size
mm
Weight
kg
9851
13657
19364
25270
32376
42183
51889
63095
780102
7.5d
2d
TYPICAL APPLICATION
Ring
Shackles
Sinker
CHAINS & FITTINGS
2.19
FISH PLATES
CHAINS & FITTINGS
Chain Size
mm
38
48
58
70
76
83
95
102
A
mm
320
360
430
506
550
600
685
736
B
mm
168
184
225
266
290
316
361
388
C
mm
50
60
80
90
90
100
120
120
D
mm
76
88
102
120
130
142
162
174
Proof
Load
Tonnes
81.2
127
190
270
313
356
508
594
Breaking
Load
Tonnes
106
181
287
404
472
549
794
910
Weight
kg
13
25
50
81
96
127
199
230
B
D
A
C
D
2.20
CHAINS & FITTINGS
PELICAN HOOKS
Chain Size
mm
25-28
32
34-42
44-48
51-58
60-64
67-70
76-83
A
mm
90
100
110
120
135
150
170
200
B
mm
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
100
C
mm
38
45
55
60
75
86
90
105
D
mm
30
35
42
50
60
70
80
100
E
mm
358
390
430
475
525
600
705
880
S.W.L.
Tonnes
10
15
25
35
50
60
75
100
Weight
kg
24
35
50
70
98
150
230
430
C
D
E
A
B
Chain
Deck Padeye
TYPICAL APPLICATION
Pelican Hook
2.21
SLIP HOOKS
CHAINS & FITTINGS
4.3
6.6
10
14
19
19
22
25
29
32
Size
mm
Weight
kg
2735
3438
4441
5544
6648
8251
9854
11557
13760
15964
18367
20870
24173
27276
31279
34883
39486
43789
48392
53295
59398
649102
13d
1.3d
0.6d
6.7d
2.5d
1.3d
4d 10.4d
1.3d
4.4d
4.88
27.50
124
699
1829
72.00
12.00
305
ø3.38
86
96.00
2438
3.2
CHASERS & GRAPNELS
CHAIN CHASERS
Stage 1
Wire Rope from
Anchor Handling
Vessel
Chain
Chaser
Mooring Chain
Anchor
Stage 3
Stage 2
Chain chasers were developed to overcome the problems of
recovering rig anchors when anchor pendant lines failed in service.
The operational sequence of chasing is shown below.
‘J’ CHASERS
BEL 101 ’J’ CHAIN CHASER
Safe Working Load:100 Tonnes
Proof Test Load:250 Tonnes
Weight:1882 Kg
3.3
CHASERS & GRAPNELS
GRAPNELS
BEL 109 GRAPNEL
Safe Working Load:100 Tonnes
Proof Test Load:150 Tonnes
Weight:1351 Kg
4.50
114
4.00
102
3.00
76
54.00
1372
70.00
1778
ø3.38
86
The grapnel was designed as a “fishing” tool primarily for the
purpose of recovering an anchor and chain which has become
detached and has fallen to the sea bed. The operational sequence is
as follows:
Stage 1
Broken
Chain
Recovery
Wire Rope
Stage 2
Broken
Chain
Recovery
Wire Rope
BEL 139 GRAPNEL
Safe Working Load:250 Tonnes
Proof Test Load:350 Tonnes
Weight:2630 Kg
3.4
CHASERS & GRAPNELS
GRAPNELS
66.00
1676
7.88
200
3.94
100
78.5
1994
50.5
1283
ø5.25
133
8.5
216
ø3.50
89
Continuous Fillet Weld
3.94
100
5.0
127
7.5
191
66.5
1689
1.5
38
3.5
CHASERS & GRAPNELS
PERMANENT CHASERS
in
mm
in
mm
in
mm
Proof
Test
S.W.L.
BEL
102
BEL
106
BEL
110
Type
B
45.00
1143
46.00
1168
49.00
1245
A
65.25
1657
67.00
1702
73.50
1867
E
12.00
305
15.00
381
13.00
330
D
30.00
762
30.00
762
33.00
838
39.00
991
39.00
991
44.50
1130
CF
7.50
191
8.00
203
8.00
203
G
4.88
124
5.13
130
5.13
130
H
3.38
86
3.88
99
3.88
99
100
Tonnes
130
Tonnes
130
Tonnes
250
Tonnes
250
Tonnes
250
Tonnes
BEL 102 - 106 - 110
Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type.
Specials can be made to suit customer requirements.
Weight:BEL 102 1088 Kg
BEL 106 1451 Kg
BEL 110 1433 Kg
G
C
D
B
A
Hø
F
E
3.6
DETACHABLE PERMANENT CHAIN CHASERS
CHASERS & GRAPNELS
in
mm
in
mm
in
mm
Proof
Test
S.W.L.
BEL
107
BEL
108
BEL
111
Type
B
45.00
1143
46.00
1168
49.00
1245
A
74.25
1886
76.00
1931
78.50
1994
E
12.00
305
15.00
381
13.00
330
D
30.00
762
30.00
762
33.00
838
42.50
1080
42.00
1067
44.50
1130
CF
7.50
191
8.00
203
8.00
203
G
4.88
124
5.13
130
5.13
130
H
3.38
86
3.88
99
3.88
99
100
Tonnes
130
Tonnes
130
Tonnes
250
Tonnes
250
Tonnes
250
Tonnes
BEL 107 - 108 - 111
Weight:BEL 107 1238 Kg
BEL 108 1656 Kg
BEL 111 1742 Kg
G
C
D
B
A
Hø
F
E
Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type.
Specials can be made to suit customer requirements.
3.7
CHASERS & GRAPNELS
PERMANENT WIRE CHASERS
Proof
Test
Tonnes
S.W.L.
TonnesType
B
1245
1099
1308
1168
A
2073
1962
2318
2051
E
330
330
330
356
D
838
692
902
711
1203
1086
1397
1060
CF
432
445
508
445
G
130
130
130
178
H
99
99
99
127
mm
mm
mm
mm
BEL 213
BEL 215
BEL 210
BEL 214
130
250
130
130
250
400
250
250
G
C
D
B
A
Hø
F
E
BEL 210 - 213 - 214 - 215
Weight:BEL 210 1959 kg
BEL 213 1846 kg
BEL 214 2530 kg
BEL 215 2495 kg
Lifting eye dimensions shown are standard for each type.
Specials can be made to suit customer requirements.
3.8
‘J’ LOCK CHAIN CHASERS
CHASERS & GRAPNELS
12.00
305
21.00
533
58.50
1486
711
ø28.00
4.88
124
82.00
2083
3.383.38
86
BEL 115
BEL 115/35 for chain 2
1
/
2
inch to 3
1
/
2
inch.
BEL 115/45 for chain 3
3
/
4
inch to 4
1
/
2
inch.
Safe Working Load:100 Tonnes
Proof Test Load:250 Tonnes
Weight:1778 Kg
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 11\Breaking the anchor off the bottom.doc
Chapter 11 Page 1
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
Breaking the anchor off the bottom:
Breaking out anchors takes its time mainly because:
Breaking out forces is caused by the volume of the soil on the fluke and the sucking or under
pressure below it. Pulling up the anchor increases the soil resistance due to the dilatant
behaviour of the soil. This resistance decreases with time, reducing the negative pressure and
thus easing the break out.
For most anchors the following guide is useful:
1. In sandy soil the break out force will be between 12 and 17% of the anchor's test load.
2. In clay soil the break out force will be about 60% of the anchor’s test load.
3. In sticky soft soil the break out force can exceed 100% of the anchor’s test load.
As the typical test tension of the anchor is around 1/3 break strain of the chain or wire in use,
the following table is a summary of the forces:
Chain type 1/3 Break load
Sandy 17%
Clay 60%
Soft Soil 100%
76 mm U3 143 24 86 143+
76 mm ORQ 154 26 93 154+
76 mm K4 200 34 120 200+
Breaking the anchor off the bottom is very likely the operation where there has been most loss
of time and equipment.
It is a very time-consuming and hard job to get the anchor up, when the connection between the
anchor and the vessel is broken.
Wrong use of equipment and wrong technique gives many possibilities of damaging the work
and or the pennant wire, other anchor handling equipment i.e. the swivel and especially maybe
also the winch.
One of these possibilities must here be mentioned:
The mentioned possibility of damaging the wire is overload on the wire during the work with
breaking the anchor loose from the bottom.
A very common but inappropriate method is to shorten up on the work wire - heave in on the
winch – and keep on going until the stern roller is above the anchor position and the anchor will
break loose or the wire / equipment will break. See fig 1, page 2, chapter 11.
Shorten up on the work wire might help breaking loose the anchor in many situations, but on the
other hand there is a high risk for overloading your equipment.
The tension, which during the above mentioned method is used on the wire, is depended on
following circumstances:
1. Winch pull force
2. Vessel’s displacement
3. Nature of the sea / sea state
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 11\Breaking the anchor off the bottom.doc
Chapter 11 Page 2
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
Pt. 1 is depending on the size of the winch and which layer you are working on. If you are using
one of the bigger winch sizes you are able to exceed the breaking load of the wire.
Pt. 2 and pt. 3 can easily by many times exceed the breaking load of the wire regardless the
size of winch – small or large.
Fig 1
• “A” is the break loose force, indicating the best direction and size of tension to
be used for breaking loose the anchor.
• “B” will be the tension you will get in your work wire in order to obtain the
required force “A”, if position of the stern roller is above the anchor,
• “D” is water depth plus penetration of anchor.
Anchors in very soft clay can be buried very deep. A penetration of 60 meters is mentioned.
Another fact is that the soil aft of the anchor is disturbed due to the penetration of the anchor.
While the soil above the anchor might be intact and has probably been it for several thousand
years.
The forces illustrated on fig 1 are the same if position of chaser collar is on top of the anchor
shank as e.g. on a Stevpris. (Illustrated with green arrows on fig 1)
A
C
B
D
B
A
M:\ANCHOR HANDLING\Course Material\Training Manual New\Chapter 11\Breaking the anchor off the bottom.doc
Chapter 11 Page 3
Anchor Handling Course
MTC
The way to break the anchor loose of the bottom is therefore:
Slowly to increase power in a direction away from the rig (pull the anchor out backwards) until
the above mentioned “breaking loose force” and then holding this power to let the under
pressure or “suction force” be reduced / equalised so as to ease the break out.
If the anchor is not loosened after 30 to 40 minutes (a mater of estimate), then slowly increase
10% and so on.
An example from the North See:
The anchor was buried 60 meter. Maximum allowed tension on the system, 130 T.
The AH-vessel used 18 hours to break loose the anchor – but it came, without breaking
anything.
Changing the heading of the vessel might also help to break the anchor loose, but before this is
performed it has to be verified with the rig, as going off line with the vessel gives a high risk of
bending the shank of the anchor.
The forces on the wire might be considerably increased if there is significant swell as the boat
heaves up and down.
It is very important during the “Breaking loose operation” to keep the actual tension on every
piece of equipment in use, i.e. wires, swivel, connecting links and winch, below allowed
maximum working load.
Below is a bad example of a written procedure about how to retrieve the anchor:
“When the boat has the chaser at the anchor, it will increase power and
maintain app. 50% bollard pull for 15 minutes. If no appreciable forward
movement is recognised, the boat will reduce bollard pull to 30% and
shorten work wire length to water depth plus 30 meters!
The boat will break the anchor off-bottom by increasing power until the
anchor is free from the seabed but will exercise caution not to exceed
200 metric tons work wire tension unless approved by the rig’s OIM and
or barge master.”
As mentioned in the Vryhof Anchor Manual:
“Anchors in very soft clay can be buried very deep. Have patience, take your time and be
gentle with the equipment; the anchor will come.”
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
1
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
Polaris
POLARIS
DANMARK
15 mt
Stewpris anchor
POLARIS
AHTS
MAERSK TRAINER
AHTS backs up
to rig to recieve
PCP on deck
PCP
(w/ chaser)
Anchor deployment, example of
• The Maersk Trainer will back up to rig.
• Rig passes over PCP to deck of the Maersk
Trainer using rig crane.
2
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
POLARIS
DANMARK
POLARIS
AHTS
MAERSK TRAINER
Anchor deployment, example of
3
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
POLARIS
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
• The rig will commence paying out all chain.
• The Maersk Trainer will be instructed to increase
power to prevent mooring chain from rubbing on
the rig’s anchor bolster.
4
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
~ 573 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) ~77 mt
@ stern
~57 mt
~75 mt
@ fairlead
Maersk
Trainer
Polaris
3 9
∕
16
" dia.x 609 m
rig chain
41.18°
POLARIS
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
• The Rig will pay out additional 500 meters of
mooring wire and stop while AHTS keeps wire
off bolster.
5
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
~ 1727 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) ~118 mt
@ stern
~58 mt
~91 mt
@ fairlead
AHTS
Maersk
Trainer
Polaris
3 1
∕
2
"dia.rig wire
(~1000 m outboard)
3 9
∕
16
dia.x 609 m
rig chain
~41.74°
POLARIS
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
• The Maersk Trainer pays 500 meters of work wire
and keeps tension on system.
5A
~ 1727 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) ~118 mt
@ stern
~58 mt
~91 mt
@ fairlead
AHTS
Maersk
Trainer
Polaris
3 1
∕
2
"dia.rig wire
(~1000 m outboard)
3" dia.work wire
(~500 m outboard)
3 9
∕
16
dia.x 609 m
rig chain
15 mt
Stewpris anchor
~41.74°
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
POLARIS
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
• The Maersk Trainer will reduce power and pay out
additional work wire equal to a total of 1.3 times the
anchors water depth.
6
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
AHTS
Maersk
Trainer
Polaris
3 1
∕
2
"dia.rig wire
(~1981 m outboard)
3" dia.work wire
(~1638 m outboard)
3 9
∕
16
dia.x 609 m
rig chain
15 mt
Stewpris anchor
POLARIS
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
• The Maersk Trainer will again increase power sufficiently to
stretch mooring line to appox.91 mt bollard pull.
• When the Rig has determined the mooring line has been
stretched,the AHTS will be instructed to reduce power rapidly,
thereby setting the anchor on bottom.
7
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
AHTS
Maersk
Trainer
Polaris
3 1
∕
2
"dia.rig wire
(~1981 m outboard)
3" dia.work wire
(~1638 m outboard)
Water Depth
1300 m
3 9
∕
16
dia.x 609 m
rig chain
15 mt
Stewpris anchor
~ 3341 m
(Fairlead to stern roller horizontal distance) POLARIS
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
• The Maersk Trainer returns to the rig with the
PCP
8
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
POLARIS
DANMARK
Anchor deployment, example of
9
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
Anchor deployment, example of
• Pee Wee anchor pandant socket.
10
JK MultiMedie +45 6474 1995
Introduction 6
1. General
Mooring systems 9
Mooring components 11
Mooring line 11
Chain 11
Wire rope 11
Synthetic fibre rope 11
Connectors 12
Shackles 12
Connecting link kenter type 12
Connecting link pear shaped 12
Connecting link c type 12
Swivels 13
Anchoring point 13
Dead weight 13
Drag embedment anchor 13
Pile 14
Suction anchor 14
Vertical load anchor 14
History of drag embedment anchors 15
Characteristics of anchor types 16
History of vryhof anchor designs 18
2. Theory
Introduction 23
Criteria for anchor holding capacity 24
Streamlining of the anchor 24
Shank shape 24
Mooring line 25
Criteria for good anchor design 26
Aspects of soil mechanics in anchor design 27
Soil classification 28
Fluke/shank angle 30
Fluke area 31
Strength of an anchor design 32
During proof loading 32
While embedded in the seabed 32
During anchor handling 32
Strength of the shank 33
Stevpris deployment for modus 63
Introduction 63
Laying anchors 63
Retrieving anchors 65
Anchor orientation 66
Decking the Stevpris anchor 66
What not to do!68
Racking the Stevpris 69
Deploying the Stevpris from the anchor rack 69
Boarding the anchor in deep water 70
Ballast in fluke 71
Chaser equilibrium 72
Deployment for permanent moorings 73
Piggy-backing 74
Introduction 74
Piggy-back methods 75
Piggy-backing involving hinging anchors 75
Piggy-backing with two Stevpris anchors 76
Piggy-backing by using a chaser 77
Stevmanta VLA installation 78
Introduction 78
Single line installation procedure 78
Installation procedure 79
Stevmanta retrieval 80
Double line installation procedure 82
Stevmanta retrieval 83
Double line installation procedure with
Stevtensioner 84
The Stevtensioner 88
Introduction 88
The working principle of the tensioner 88
Measurement of the tensions applied 90
Duration of pretensioning anchors and piles 91
Handling the Stevtensioner 92
Stevtensioner product range 93
Supply vessels/anchor handling vessels 94
Table of contents
A stone and something that looked like a rope. For
millennia this was the typical anchor. Over the last 25 years of more recent history, vryhof has brought
the art to a more mature status. They have grown into
a world leader in engineering and manufacturing of
mooring systems for all kinds of floating structures. In
doing so the company has secured numerous anchor
and ancillary equipment patents,and shared its
experience with others. The company understands that the needs of the
industry can not be satisfied by the supply of standard
hard-ware only. Universal and tailored solutions
rooted in proven engineering should be based on
long practical experience.Vryhof has been and will be
introducing new and original anchor designs well
into the 21st century. With their products, advice and
this manual, it shares this knowledge with those who
are daily faced with complex mooring situations.
This manual is intended as a means of reference for
all who purchase, use, maintain, repair or are in any
way involved with anchors. Though written from one anchor manufacturer’s standpoint, the information
contained herein is applicable to many types of
anchors. Total objectivity is, of course, impossible.
It is hoped this manual will contribute to the work
and success of all who work with anchors. They are
the only fixed reference point for many of the
floating structures on the world’s often turbulent
waters.
Introduction
General
1
fig. 1-01
catenary system
fig. 1-02
taut leg system
fig. 1-03
fig. 1-04
Theory
2
Anchor parameters can be scaled from geometrically
proportional anchors using the scale rules in table A.
There are several attributes of an anchor which are
crucial in assuring its effective performance:
•
The anchor must offer a high holding capacity; a
result of the fluke area and shank design in combi-
nation with penetration and soil type.
•
The design of the anchor should be such that the
anchor is capable of being used successfully in prac-
tically all soil conditions encountered over the
world, ranging from very soft clay to sand, corals
and calcarenites.
•
The fluke/shank angle of the anchor should be easi-
ly adjustable, allowing the anchor to be quickly
deployed in different soil conditions.
•
The design must be so conceived and produced that
the high loads common in practice can be resisted
and that the anchor can be easily handled, instal-
led, retrieved and stored.
•
The penetration of an anchor depends upon its
shape and design. Obstructing parts on the anchor
should be avoided as much as possible.
•
The stability of an anchor encourages its penetra-
tion and, consequently, its holding capacity.
Efficient stabilisers are an integral part of a good
anchor design.
•
The shank must permit passage of the soil.
•
The surface area of an anchor fluke is limited by the
required structural strength of the anchor.
•
The anchor design must have optimal mechanical
strength to fulfil requirements and stipulations of
the classification societies.
•
The anchor should be designed to ensure an opti-
mum between structural strength of the anchor
and holding capacity.
•
The anchor should be streamlined for low penetra-
tion resistance.
Soil strength is generally expressed in terms of the
shear strength parameters of the soil. The soil type is
classified mainly by grain size distribution.
Grain size Soil description
< - 2 µm Clay
2 - 6 µm Fine Silt
6 - 20 µm Medium Silt
20 - 60 µm Coarse Silt
60 - 200 µm Fine Sand
200 - 600 µm Medium Sand
0.6 - 2 mm Coarse Sand
2 - 6 mm Fine Gravel
6 - 20 mm Medium Gravel
20 - 60 mm Coarse Gravel
60 - 200 mm Cobbles
> - 200 mm Boulders
In general, the soil types encountered in anchor
design are sand and clay (Grain diameter from 0.1 µm
to 2 mm). However, mooring locations consisting of
soils with grain sizes above 2 mm, such as gravel, cob-
bles, boulders, rock and such, also occur. Clay type
soils are generally characterised by the undrained
shear strength, the submerged unit weight, the
water content and the plasticity parameters. The
consistency of clays is related to the undrained shear
strength. However, American (ASTM) and British (BS)
standards do not use identical values. The undrained
shear strength values S
u
can be derived in the laboratory
from unconfined unconsolidated tests (UU) (table B).
On site the values can be estimated from the results
of the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) or Cone
Penetrometer Test (CPT). An approximate relation
between shear strength and the test values are
shown in table C.
In fig. 2-14, the different force points are shown for
varying soil conditions. The location on the fluke
where the proofload is applied, is also indicated.
Strength in extremely hard soils
In very hard soils such as calcarenite, coral and lime-
stone, an anchor will not penetrate very deeply.
Consequently the load applied to the anchor has to
be held by the fluke tips of the anchor and a small
portion of the fluke. This means that extremely high
loads will be applied to the fluke tips, compared to
normal soil conditions such as sand and clay.
For use in very hard soil conditions, vryhof has
designed the Stevshark anchor, a modified version of
the Stevpris anchor. To create the Stevshark, the
Stevpris anchor has been strengthened, consequently
a Stevshark anchor having the same outside dimen-
sions and holding capacity as a Stevpris anchor will be
heavier.
Strength calculations of the Stevshark design have
been made to guarantee sufficient strength in the
fluke points. The Stevshark anchor is designed to
withstand the application of the main part of the
load on just its fluke tips.
To promote penetration, the Stevshark anchor has a
serrated shank and can be provided with cutter
points on the fluke tips. Ballast weight can also be
added inside the hollow flukes of the anchor, up to
35% of the anchor weight. This is important when
working in very hard soil, where the anchor weight
pressing on the fluke tips promotes penetration, i.e.
increased bearing pressure.
The quasi-static and total dynamic loads are general-
ly calculated for the intact and damaged load condi-
tion. The intact load condition is the condition in
which all the mooring lines are intact. The damaged
load conditions is the condition in which one of the
mooring lines has broken.
From the quasi-static load and the total dynamic load,
the required holding capacity of the anchor can be
calculated. This is called the ultimate holding capaci-
ty (UHC) for drag embedment anchors and the ulti-
mate pull-out capacity (UPC) for VLAs. The required
holding capacity is calculated by applying the factors
of safety specified by the classification societies.
In the tables G and H, the factors of safety are pre-
sented for the different load conditions for drag
embedment anchors (for instance the Stevpris Mk5
anchor), according to API RP 2SK. The factors of safe-
ty used by the major classification societies are gene-
rally similar to those given in API RP 2SK (2nd edition,
1996).
For VLAs, the recently used factors of safety sugge-
sted by ABS, are presented in table I.
The factors of safety for VLAs are higher than the fac-
tors of safety required for drag embedment anchors,
due to the difference in failure mechanisms. When a
drag embedment anchor reaches its ultimate holding
capacity, it will continuously drag through the soil
without generating additional holding capacity, i.e.
the load will stay equal to the UHC. When a VLA
exceeds its ultimate pullout capacity, it will slowly be
pulled out of the soil.
Anchor loads and safety factors
The rate effect An increased rate of loading increases the soil
resistance, consequently the anchor holding capacity
increases. This must be taken into account with
respect to total dynamic loads. For anchor behaviour
the rate effect factor indicates how much higher the
dynamic high frequency load may be without causing
extra movement of the anchor once installed at the
installation load. The rate of loading influences pore
pressure variations, viscous inter-granular forces and
inertia forces. Typical rate effect factors are 1.1 to 1.3
for total dynamic loads, see Fig. 2-16 where the rate
effect is presented for two different soil conditions
(Su = 10 kPa and Su = 50 kPa).
Using the rate effect and set-up factors, the beha-
viour of the anchor after installation can be predicted
more accurately.
Vertical Load Anchors
A VLA is installed just like a conventional drag
embedment anchor. During installation (pull-in
mode) the load arrives at an angle of approximately
45 to 50
0
to the fluke. After triggering the anchor to
the normal load position, the load always arrives per-
pendicular to the fluke. This change in load direction
generates 2.5 to 3 times more holding capacity in
relation to the installation load. This means that once
the required UPC of the VLA is known, the required
installation load for the VLA is also known, being
33% to 40% of the required UPC.
As a VLA is deeply embedded and always loaded in a
direction normal to the fluke, the load can be applied
in any direction. Consequently the anchor is ideal for
taut-leg mooring systems, where generally the load
angle varies from 25 to 45
0
.
Anchor behaviour in the soil
The use of the specified proof loads for HHP anchors
can lead to situations where different types of
anchors with the same holding capacity are proof
loaded at different loads, see fig. 2-18. From this figu-
re it can be concluded that the proof load of the
anchors should preferably be related to the break-
load of the mooring line on the vessel.
Nowadays the rules and regulations are far more
rigid, and the requirements have been substantially
increased. There are now special rules for ‘mobile
offshore units’ and ‘permanently moored structures’.
If anchors need mobile offshore units certification,
the following properties may be required:
•
Proof load of the anchors at 50% of the breaking
load of the chain.
•
Submission of a strength calculation of the anchor
to the classification society prior to commencing
anchor production: this includes determining the
mechanical strength of the anchor as well as pro-
ving that the applied material can withstand the
proofload.
•
A statement of documented holding power from
the anchor supplier.
•
Submittal of a Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Manual.
In fig. 2-19, a mooring system is shown in which all of
the components are balanced. The strength of the
mooring line, holding capacity of the anchor and
strength of the anchor are all in the correct propor-
tion and comply with the rules.
Proof loads for high holding power anchors
Soil table
Practice
3
Product data
4
3.8D
3.8D
4.7D
9.7D
6.3D
1.2D
1.2D
Depending on the required service life of the
mooring system, the following types of wire rope are
recommended:
Design life Recommended product type
Up to 6 years Six strand
Up to 8 years Six strand c/w zinc anodes
Up to 10 years Six strand c/w ‘A’ galvanised outer
wires & zinc anodes
10 years plus Spiral strand
15 years plus Spiral strand c/w Galfan coated outer
wires
20 years plus Spiral strand c/w HDPE sheathing
The two rope constructions have differing properties.
The advantages of each of the rope types are presen-
ted in the following table:
Spiral strand Six strand
Higher strength/weight ratio Higher elasticity
Higher strength/diameter ratio Greater flexibility
Torsionally balanced Lower axial stiffness
Higher corrosion resistance
Higher fatigue resistance
Wire rope sockets
Production and construction in accordance with
BS4928 / BS5053 (1985). The dry breaking strength is
equal to the wet breaking strength.
The properties of the different rope sizes are presented
in the following tables.
Mooring hawsers
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Introduction
The forces acting upon a ship determine her movement. Some of these forces are controllable
and some are not. Some of them can we measure and some we can not.
The ship is subjected to the forces from the wind, waves and current and in shallow water and
narrow waterways by the interaction from the bottom, banks or sides of the channel.
Close approach to other vessels generates intership action, and wash from propellers/thrusters
from another vessel will also affect our ship.
Some of these forces will vary in size depending on the speed of our, or the other ship, whereas
other forces are affecting us all the time.
Forces from pulling an anchor-wire-towing-cable etc, is also an important factor.
This chapter will explain some basis knowledge to Ship handling and Manoeuvring theory but
the most important factor in Ship handling is experience.
It is therefore essential that navigators do practice handling of their ship when there are a
chance to do so.
Propulsion system
Most vessels do have diesel engines, which through a gear rotate the aft propeller, and an
electrical power system generation power to the thrusters.
But some special vessels can have a system with electrical propellers/thrusters, and maybe
only having azimuth thrusters whiteout any rudders.
Depending on the layout of your propellers/thrusters/rudders the ship handling can be quite
different from one ship type to another.
A continued research and development is taking place within the maritime technology and new
engines, propeller and rudder types are invented every year. This chapter will therefore
concentrate on some basis knowledge regarding propellers and rudders.
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Propellers
A propeller can be a fixed propeller, which mean that the propeller blades are fixed, which again
mean that changing from ahead and astern can only be done by stopping the rotation and then
rotate the propeller the opposite way.
In our business we use propellers with variable pitch, where the propeller blades can turn,
changing the pitch. From neutral where the propeller is rotating but without moving any water, to
full pitch ahead or astern.
The variable pitch propeller will always rotate and can very fast go from full ahead to full astern.
If we look at the propeller seen from the aft and the propeller rotate clockwise when sailing
ahead we call it a right-handed propeller and left-handed if rotating anti clockwise.
When the propeller rotate and special when we do not make any headway water flow to the
propeller are less compared to when making headway. The water pressure on the top blades is
lower compared with the blades in their lower position.
The lower blades will therefore have a better grip, and a right-handed propeller going ahead will
push the stern towards starboard (ship’s heading turning port).
With a variable pitch propeller the propeller is always turning the same way and the movement
of the stern will always be to port (rotation clockwise) whether we are going ahead or astern.
If we place the propeller inside a nozzle we eliminate this force and direct the water flow from
the propeller in one direction.
The direction of the trust is determined by the direction of the water flow and by the direction the
water flow pass the rudder.
Thrusters
Thrusters are propellers placed inside a tunnel in the ship or outside as an azimuth thruster.
The tunnel thruster can push the ship in two directions whereas the azimuth thruster can rotate
and apply force in all 360°.
Most thrusters are constructed with an electrical motor inside the ship with a vertical shaft down
to a gear in the thruster, which again rotate the propeller blades.
All thrusters do have variable pitch propellers.
Be aware of that your azimuth thruster can give full thrust in one direction and 15 -20 % less
thrust in the opposite direction (because of the big gearbox).
And also remember that high speed through the water can empty the tunnel from water, and
overheat the gear, if used.
Turbulence and air in the water can during powerful astern manoeuvre also result in air in the
stern thruster.
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Rudders
The rudder is a passive steering system, which only can work if water is passing the rudder.
The rudder is constructed like a wing on a plane, wide in the front and slim aft.
When turning the rudder the flow of water will on the backside create a low pressure and on the
front a high pressure.
The low pressure or suction creates 75% of the turning force, whereas the high-pressure side
only 25%.
That is why a traditional rudder looses steering moment when turned more than 40-50 degrees.
With high angles there will be turbulence on the backside killing the suction force.
The Becker rudder is constructed as a normal rudder, but with an extra small rudder flap on the
edge. This flap turn twice the angle of the rudder, and the water on the high-pressure side will
be directed more or less side wards creating big side wards thrust.
The Schilling rudder has a rotating cylinder built into the front of the rudder, rotating in a
direction moving water towards the backside of the rudder.
A Shiller rudder can therefore turn up to 70 degree.
The Jastram rudder is an asymmetric constructed rudder designed special for the particular ship
and propeller, and can also turn up to 70 degree.
If water do not pass the rudder, the rudder do not have any affect, which many navigators know
from their experience with variable pitch propellers.
When the pitch is placed in neutral the rotating propeller stops the water flow, and the rudder
can not be used.
When the propellers are going astern, the water passing the rudder is poor, and the effect from
the rudder is very low.
But with a high speed astern the rudder will help, as there will be water passing the rudder.
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Manoeuvring
When talking about manoeuvring our ship, we need to look at how the ship is responding to
different forces, and what happen when we apply forces as well.
A ship lying still in the water is exposed to forces from the current and wind. Swell and waves do
not move the ship, but close to an offshore installation, swell and waves can push us into or
away from the installation.
Current
The current moves the water we sail in and the ship will be set in the same direction and with
the same speed as well.
We can calculate the force depending on the angle the current attacking the ship, where current
abeam can be very high, special with water depth lower than twice the draft.
Turning a ship (80m long draft 8 meter) on a river with 2 knots current and water depth of 12
meter will when the ship is across the river give a force of 60 tons. If we have a lot of water
below the keel the force will be 21 tons in above example, but when the water depth are lower
the force will increase rapidly, and with only 2 meter below the keel the force will be 78 tons; a
significant force.
Wind
We can do the same calculation with the wind, but the force from the wind moving the supply
ship is not a considerable force, where big containerships, car-carriers, bulkers and tankers in
ballast have to do their wind calculations.
The problem with wind in our business is the turning moment created by the wind.
With our big wind area in the front of the ship and none in the aft, the ship will turn up in the
wind or away from the wind, depending on the shape of the hull and accommodation and the
direction of the wind.
We can however use the force from the current and wind in an active way. Instead of fighting
against the force, turn the ship and use the current or wind to keep you steady in a position or
on a steady heading.
When operating close to FPSO, drill ships or other installations with a big underwater shape or
hull, this can result in different forces and direction of the current and wind compared to
observations done just 10 meters away.
Other forces
Forces between two ships passing each other can also be a considerable affect special if the
speed is high. In front of a ship steaming ahead there is an overpressure, and along the sides a
low pressure.
If a big ship pass us this pressure system can move or turn our ship, and if the big ship do have
a high speed (30 knots) you can feel that effect up to ½ mile away.
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Turning point (Pivot point)
When a ship is stopped in the water and we use our thrusters to turn the ship, it will normally
turn around the Centre of the ship, depending on the underwater shape of the hull.
When sailing this point will move ahead and the ship will turn around the Pivot point now
approximately 1/3 to 1/6 from the front.
Our bow thruster will therefore loose some of the turning moment as it must now move the hole
ship in the desired direction, whereas the stern thruster, and also the rudders, do have a long
arm and thereby giving a big turning moment of the stern of the ship.
It will be the opposite when going astern, the pivot point moving aft and in this case our bow
thruster having a long arm and a very big moment.
The Pivot point must not be confused with the turning point we can choose on our Joystick; this
is a computer-calculated turning point. But think about it, when you next time have chosen
turning point aft and you are sailing ahead with 5 knots and the ship seems reluctant in
retrieving a high turning rate.
Forces from cable lying, wire/chain from tow and anchor handling, special if there is a big force
in the system, will also have a significant effect on our ship. Some times it can be very difficult to
turn a ship as the Pivot point can move outside the ship.
As the pull from these systems mostly is very big, we need to use high engine/thruster power to
obtain the desired movement.
Ship handling
With a basis knowledge of the different forces acting on our ship. Special whether it is a big or a
small force, knowledge of how our propellers, rudders and thrusters are working and how the
ship react on above, we can gain a better and quicker experience in ship handling of the
particular ship we are on right now.
You will see experienced navigators using split-rudder, where one rudder have one angle and
the other rudder having another angle. Going for and back on the engine you can control the aft
end of the shipside wards without moving ahead or astern. But again other navigators will get
the same result by using the rudders in parallel drive and turn the rudders from side to side, and
still use the engine to control the movement side wards and ahead or astern.
The best way is like mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, to practice manoeuvring of your
particular ship, using the information mentioned in this chapter.
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General layout Jack-Up drilling unit:
A Jack-up drilling unit is designed for drilling in water depth up to 150 metres.
A jack-up is standing on 3 legs, each leg ending in a footing; these footings are called spud
cans.
The derrick is normally situated on a cantilever, in drilling position the cantilever is skidded out
so the derrick is extracted over the rig’s stern.
The Blow Out Preventer (BOP) is placed under the rig floor, the tubular from the BOP to seabed
is called the conductor pipe.
At production platforms a Jack-up is placed very close to the platform and the cantilever is
skidded over the platform.
Before rig move, the rig has to be prepared for towing, all pipe from the derrick are laid down on
deck and secured. Risers and BOP is retrieved and secured. Watertight integrity is checked,
and the cantilever skidded in, flush with aft end of rig and secured. Deck cargo secured, cranes
laid down and secured.
Stability is calculated, ballast distributed for the rig to float at even keel, in this situation the rig
will not accept cargo handling, as the calculations are done, and cargo secured on deck.
Weather conditions for rig move of jack-up rigs are normally 15-20 knots of wind, sea/swell less
than 1.5 metres, weather window more than 24 hours.
A tow master is normally in charge of operations.
A rig move starts with jacking down to 2 metre draft and checking for watertight condition. All
overboard valves are checked for leaks.
At this same time one or more boats for towing will be connected to the tow bridle.
Then the rig is jacked down to calculated draft, boats ordered to pull minimum power.
Due to the considerable size of spud cans, the rig will jack further down to break suction of the
spud cans. This is called freeing legs and can take hours depending of the amount penetration
of spud cans into the seabed.
When the rig float free, the legs are jacked up, flush with bottom of hull and the tow begins.
During the tow a jack-up rig afloat is very sensible to roll and pitch period, the long legs can
cause a whipping effect, and therefore the roll and pitch period has to be more than 10 seconds.
Severe rolling with short rolling period will cause structural damage at jacking houses and is
known to have caused loss of rigs. In the rigs operational manual limits for roll and pitch are
given.
At the new location the rig will lower legs and tag bottom, jack the hull free of the water and
preload. Preloading takes several hours and is a process where the rig is ballasted
corresponding to maximum environmental conditions, normally a 100 years wind condition.
Again operational manual will give the precise procedure.
During preload no cargo operations are allowed to take place.
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When preload is completed, tugs are released and the rig jacked to working air gap, and the
cantilever skidded out.
Now drilling and cargo operations can begin.
A Jack-up drilling rig is fitted with an anchoring system consisting of 4 anchors. These anchors
are light anchors, connected to wire of diameters less than 3”.
In some cases anchor handling will take place with jack ups.
The jack-up will jack down close to location, run out anchors, and use the anchor system to
move in close to platforms or sub sea production well heads.
The tugs will be connected up, but will only use little or no power.
To receive anchors, the A/HV will move close to the rig, and the rig’s crane will first lower the
anchor buoy and pennant wire, and then lower the anchor to the deck.
The anchor is then run out to position, lowered in the pennant wire, pennant wire connected to
anchor buoy, then the buoy is launched.
To retrieve the anchor, the AHV will move in stern to the buoy, catch the buoy, disconnect the
pennant wire from the buoy, connect work wire to pennant wire, then break the anchor loose of
seabed, take anchor on deck, return the anchor, buoy and pennant to the rig.
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General information about a Semi Submersible drilling unit:
A semi submersible-drilling unit (semi) is designed to drill at water depth more than 100 metres.
A semi is floating on stability columns and has low GMT, and therefore a slow rolling period.
This makes the semi an acceptable working platform as regards to crane operation etc.
Generally a semi is anchored in a mooring spread of 8 anchors, 30/60 degrees; another number
of anchor is used, but not very often. Heading into the prevailing weather. Forward end is
defined with heli-deck and accommodations.
On rigs with 8 anchors, the anchors are numbered clockwise with anchor no.1 forward
starboard.
The BOP is placed on the seabed, connecting with risers up to the rig.
Between BOP and riser a flexible joint is installed.
The purpose for a flex joint is to allow some movement of the rig due to the elasticity of the
mooring spread.
At 90 metres this elasticity is greater than the flexibility of the flex joint, this is therefore a critical
depth.
A riser angle of up to 10 degree from vertical is maximum allowable.
In case of severe weather, where the riser angle increases to maximum allowable the rig can
disconnect from the BOP, and connect when the weather improves.
At sea level a slip joint is installed in the riser system.
The purpose of a slip joint is to allow the rig to heave.
At the slip joint the riser tensioning system keeps tension on the riser, this is to carry the weight
of the riser. Slip joints has a stroke of 50 feet.
Just under the rig floor a ball joint is installed. The purpose of a ball joint is to allow the rig to roll
and pitch.
The last component here to be mentioned is the drill string compensator.
This purpose of a compensator is to allow the rig to heave and still keep the same weight on the
drill string; the motion compensator has a stroke of 20 feet.
To prepare a semi for tow, pipe is paid down on deck and secured, deck cargo is secured.
The last operations before a rig move is to retrieve the risers and the BOP, secure these items
on deck, and de-ballast the rig to transit draft.
At transit draft the bolsters are visible.
Sequences for retrieving anchors are given in the procedure for rig move.
Breast anchors, which are number 2,3,6,7, are retrieved first, then a tug is made fast to the tow
bridle, and then the last anchors can be retrieved.
During the tow the rig has a good stability, and can endure severe weather. In some weather
conditions the rig will ballast to survival draft.
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At the new location the sequence will be to run anchors (no 4 &5) first, then anchors no 1 and 8,
disconnect vessel from tow bridle, then run breast anchors.
When all anchors are run and confirmed in the correct position (bearing and distance from rig)
the anchors will pre-tensioned to an agreed load, corresponding to 100 years weather condition.
In some cases the combination seabed and anchor system cannot hold the pre-tensioning. In
that case piggyback anchor will be set. Piggyback are anchors in tandem.
Anchor spread can extent far from the semi, with piggyback anchors the distance to the rig can
be 2 miles.
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