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NP 19 Baltic Pilot Vol II 13ed 2005

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NP 19
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notice to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.
Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this to this volume.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2005 2006 2007 2008
IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS
This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of
Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:
Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s
Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),
Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.
All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
NP 19
BALTIC PILOT
VOLUME II
South part of Baltic Sea and Gulf of Rga
THIRTEENTH EDITION
2005
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
ii
Crown Copyright 2005
To be obtained from Agents
for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright for some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner.
First Published in Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland Pilot 1854. . . . . . . Second Edition 1888. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Published as Baltic Pilot Volume II, Third Edition 1896. . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1904. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fifth Edition 1914. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sixth Edition 1928. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seventh Edition 1938. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eighth Edition 1953. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ninth Edition 1965. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tenth Edition 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eleventh Edition 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twelfth Edition 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
PREFACE
The Thirteenth Edition of Baltic Pilot Volume II has been prepared by Commander G. D. Niven Royal Navy. The United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the information obtained by and assessed by it at
the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners where appropriate.
If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them.
The edition supersedes the Twelfth Edition (2002), which is cancelled.
Information on climate and currents has been based on data provided by the Met Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
Germany
Ostsee-Handbuch III. Teil 2002
Charts
Port Handbooks
Poland
Charts
Polish Sailing Directions, Eighth Edition 2001 and Supplement (2004)
Polish Port Handbooks
Russian Federation
USSR 4201, Handbook for ships visiting Soviet ports in Baltic Sea 1990
Charts
Lithuania
Charts
Lithuanian Ports Handbook
Latvia
Charts
Latvian Maritime Administration
Pilot of the Baltic Sea, Latvian Coast
Estonia
Charts
Eesti lootsiraamat (2003)
Estonian Maritime Administration
Sweden
Svensk Lots Del A 1992
Svensk Lots Del I 1996
Svensk Lots Del II 1998
Svensk Kusthandbok Del 3 1994
Svensk Kusthandbok − Mälaren 1996
Charts
Denmark
Den Danske Havnelods 2002
Østersøen omkring Bornholm 2002
Charts
Other publications
Ports of the World 2005
Fairplay World Ports Directory 2003−2004
The Statesman’s Yearbook 2005
Port Handbooks produced by Port Authorities
Dr D W Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
24 February 2005
iv
PREFACE
The Eleventh Edition of Baltic Pilot Volume II has been prepared by Captain E.R.T. Little, Master Mariner, and Captain G.B. Ivens,
Master Mariner, and contains the latest information received by the UK Hydrographic Office to the date given below.
The edition supersedes the Tenth Edition (1978) and Supplement No 9 (1996), which are cancelled.
Information on climate and currents has been based on data provided by the Met Office, Bracknell.
The following sources of information, other than UK Hydrographic Office Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been
consulted:
Germany
Ostsee-Handbuch III. Teil, 1991
Charts
Port Handbooks
Poland
Charts
Polish Sailing Directions, Seventh Edition 1994
Polish Port Handbooks
Russian Federation
USSR 4201, Handbook for ships visiting Soviet ports in Baltic Sea 1990
Charts
Lithuania
Charts
Lithuanian Ports Handbook
Latvia
Charts
Latvian Maritime Administration
Estonia
Charts
Estonian National Maritime Board
Sweden
Svensk Lots Del A 1992
Svensk Lots Del I 1996
Svensk Lots Del II 1998
Svensk Kusthandbok Del 3 1994
Svensk Kusthandbok − Mälaren 1996
Charts
Denmark
Den Danske Havnelods 1993
Charts
Other publications
Ports of the World 1998
Fairplay Ports Guide 1998
Lloyds Maritime Guide 1997
Lloyds List
The Statesman’s Yearbook 1998–1999
Whitakers’s Almanack 1998
Encyclopaedia Britannica
Port Handbooks produced by Port Authorities
J.P. CLARKE CBN LVO MBE
Rear Admiral
Hydrographer of the Navy
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
3rd December 1998
v
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface to the Eleventh edition (1998) iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations ix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary xi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table for the transliteration of Russian geographical names including the Cyrillic Morse Code xviii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlet facing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.11) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.32) 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aids to navigation (1.37) 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.49) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.59) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.70) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Icebreaking services (1.116) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.136) 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.153) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
Sweden (1.164) 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Denmark (1.174) 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Republic of Germany (1.182) 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poland (1.190) 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Russian Federation (1.199) 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lithuania (1.214) 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Latvia (1.222) 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Estonia (1.230) 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports (1.238) 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services — summary (1.239) 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.243) 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents (1.244) 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea level and tides (1.246) 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.247) 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.249) 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice conditions (1.253) 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.262) 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climatic tables (1.284) 64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.300) 81. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
Through Routes to Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland; and the islands of Bornholm and Gotland together with their adjacent islands 83. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
Baltic North Shore — Kullagrund to Kalmarsund 117. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
Kalmarsund and Öland 151. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
Northern Entrance of Kalmarsund to Landsort.181. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS
vi
CHAPTER 6
Mälaren, including Landsort to Stockholm via Södertälje Kanal 227. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 7
Stockholms Skärgård from Landsort to Simpnäsklubb 259. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 8
Baltic South Shore — Kap Arkona to Gulf of Gdask 313. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 9
Gulf of Gdask 353. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
Gulf of Gdask to Gulf of Rga 377. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 11
Gulf of Rga and Western Approaches 393. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 12
Saaremaa, West and North Coasts and Hiiumaa, including Väinameri 413. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES AND INDEX
Appendix I — Russia — Regulated areas 429. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II — Poland — Restricted areas 431. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Table 433. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 434. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 12 m or more in length. They amplify charted detail and contain
information needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended
to be read in conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published in the last weekly edition for each
month. Those still in force at the end of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,
the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Admiralty Maritime Communications is a comprehensive guide on all aspects of maritime communications for the yachtsman and small
craft user. It provides general information on Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), the management of VHF, Maritime
Safety Information, NAVTEX, Inmarsat and Radio Facsimile, and detailed information and procedures for marinas and harbours used by
small craft.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
viii
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Except for submarine exercise areas, details of firing, practice and exercise areas are not mentioned
in Sailing Directions, but signals and buoys used in connection with these areas are sometimes mentioned if significant for navigation.
Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the structure above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
ix
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text.
AIS Automatic Indentification System
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
°C degrees Celsius
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DG degaussing
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
DF direction finding
DW Deep Water
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
E east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost)
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ESE east-south-east
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
ENE east-north-east
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
EU European Union
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
FPU Floating production unit
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
ft foot (feet)
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GPS Global Positioning System
GRP glass reinforced plastic
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HF high frequency
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
HW High Water
HSC High Speed Craft
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
JRCC Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LF low frequency
LMT Local Mean Time
LOA Length overall
LW Low Water
m metre(s)
mm millimetre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MHz megahertz
MW megawatt(s)
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
MSL Mean Sea Level
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
MF medium frequency
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
MV Motor Vessel
MY Motor Yacht
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Navtex Navigational Telex System
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NE north-east
NNE north-north-east
NNW north-north-west
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
NW north-west
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
PEL Port Entry Light
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
RCC Rescue Co−ordination Centre
RMS Royal Mail Ship
Ro-Ro Roll−on, Roll-off
RN Royal Navy
RT radio telephony
S south (southerly, southward, southern,
southernmost)
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SAR Search and Rescue
ABBREVIATIONS
x
SE south-east
SSE south-south-east
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
SBM Single buoy mooring
SPM Single point mooring
Satnav Satellite navigation
sq square
SS Steamship
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
UN United Nations
UHF ultra high frequency
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
UT Universal Time
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VHF very high frequency
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
WGS World Geodetic System
W west (westerly, westward, western,
westernmost)
WNW west-north-west
WSW west-south-west
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
xi
GLOSSARY
Swedish (S), Danish, (D), German (G), Polish (P), Russian (R), Lithuanian (Li), Latvian (La) and Estonian (E) terms and words found
on charts and in the Sailing Directions.
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . å D, S river, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . abwärts G downstream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . achteraus, achtern G astern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . alev E market town, borough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . allvett E underwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alt G old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alumine E lower, front. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . älv S river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ankarplats S anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ankerplads D anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ankerplatz G anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ankruplats E anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anlægsbro D jetty, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anlægsplats D berth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anleger G jetty, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anløbsbro D jetty, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ansteurung G approach, entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ås S moraine, ridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . asula E settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . asundus E settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . au G brook, rivulet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . auffällig G conspicuous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aufschleppstelle G slipway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aufwärts G upstream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aussen G outer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bäck S brook, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . backbord G port side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . backe S hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . båd D boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . båda, både S islet, sunken rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bagbord D port side, porthand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baggerrinne G dredged channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baggerschüttstelle G spoil ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . bai G bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bak D astern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . båk S fixed beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bka La lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bake G beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . båke D beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bakke D hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baklysh R rock above water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . balje G channel between sands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bank S bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banka R shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banke G bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bar R bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . basen P basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baseins La basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bashnya R tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . basseyn R basin, wet dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bassin D basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bæck D brook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . becken G basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bedding D slip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bedeckt G covered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bel-yy-aya-oye R white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . benzin D, G petrol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bereg R shore, river bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berg G, S mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bergkulla S hummock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beton D, G concrete (built). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bia-y,a,e P white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . binnen G inland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bjerg D mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blå D blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blau G blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blitzen G flashes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bliver synligt D uncovers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . block S boulder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bodden G bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boden G ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bohranlage, bohrturm G drilling rig. . . . . . . . . . . bol’sh-oy-aya-oye R great, large. . . . . . . . . . . . . bór P forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . borg S castle, fortified place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bråd D breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brandung G breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bränning S rock awash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brant S steep, precipitous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . braun G brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bredning D broad (water). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bredning S wide place in river or channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breit, breite G broad, breadth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breitung G broad (water). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bro D, S bridge, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . broanleg D wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brücke G bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brun D brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brygga S landing place, wharf, jetty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brygge D quay, wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bryuga R pier, landing stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brzeg P bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brzeg morski P sea shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bucht G bay, bight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bugor R hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bugser D tug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bugt D bay, bight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buhne G groyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bukhta R bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bukt S bay, bight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burg G fortified town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burun R breaker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . busch G bush. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . by D, S village, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chaupa P hut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chern-yy-aya-oye R black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . cypel P point, promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . czarny P black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . czerwony P red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dag D day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dal S valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dalben G dolphin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . damm G embankment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dæmning D embankment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . deich G dyke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . der, die, das G the. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . derevnya R village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . derevo R tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diamant D diamond (shape). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . djup S deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dlinn-yy-aya-oye R long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . dockhafen G wet dock, basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dolina R valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dom R house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dorf G village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doroga R road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drag D isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drehbrücke G swing bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drempel G sill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duc d’albe D dolphin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . düne G sandhill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . durchfahrt G passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . durchfahrtsbreite G navigable width. . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xii
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . durchfahrtshöhe G vertical clearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dworzec P terminus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dyb D deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dybde D depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dybgående D draught. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eck G angle, corner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . edela E south-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Efterretninger for søfarende G Notices to Mariners. . . . . . einfahrt G entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . einlauf G entrance, entering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eis G ice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eisenbahn G railway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enge G narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . entwasserungschleuse G sluicing lock, sluice gates. . . . . . . . . . ezers La lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . faarvaater E channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fähre, fährbett G ferry, ferry berth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fahrt G course, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fahrwasser G fairway, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fahrzeug G vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . falder tort D drying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . farja S ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . farled S channel, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fartøj D vessel, craft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . farvand D waters, fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . farvater R channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . farvatten S waters, fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fastland S mainland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . færge D ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fels G rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . feuer G light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . feuerschiff G light-vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . firkantet D square, rectangular. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fisch, fischerei G fish, fishery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fischstaken G fishing stakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fisk, fiskeri D fish, fishery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fiskehamn S fishing harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fiskeläge S fishing station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fjäll S mountain range, plateau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fjärd S loch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fjord S firth, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . flach G flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . flad D flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . flak S flat, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . flød S river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fløjtetonde D whistle-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . flughafen G airport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fluss G river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fluthafen G harbour that dries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . flydedok D floating dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forbudt D prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . förde G firth, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forst G forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fortøjningsplads D berth, mooring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . frei G free. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . friskvand D fresh water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fyr D, S light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fyrskib D light-vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gab D mouth, opening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gamla S old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gap S mouth, opening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gasleitung G gas pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gatt S gut, narrow inlet, narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gavan’ R harbour, basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gebiet G area, zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gelb G yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gennemseiling D passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . geringste tiefe G least or shoalest depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gezeit G tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gezeitenstrom G tidal stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gleichtaktfeure G equal interval light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gebia P deep, cut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glubok-iy-aya-oye R deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . golomyann-yy-aya-oye R open sea. . . . . . . . . gora R mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . góra P hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . górn-y, a, e P upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gorod R city, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grå D grey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grau G grey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gravede rende D dredged channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grænse D limit, boundary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . greben, gryada R ridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grenze G limit, boundary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grober, kies G shingle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grön S green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grøn D green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gross-er,e,es G great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grün G green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grund D, S, E ground, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grunklack S shoal head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grus D gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . guba R gulf, bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gul D yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hafen G harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hafenamt G harbour office. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haff G bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hage D headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haken G hooked point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . halbinsel G peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . häll S rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hals S neck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . halvö S peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . halvø D peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hamn S harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hauptfahrwasser G principal channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haus G house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hav D, S ocean, sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . havn D harbour, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . havnekontor D harbourmaster’s office. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hebebrücke G lifting bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hochspannungsleitung G overhead power cable. . . . . . . . . . hochwasser G high water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . høfde D groyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . höft G foreland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hög S height, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . högslät S tableland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . höhe, höher G high, higher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . høj D hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . højvande D high water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holm D islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holm S high, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holme S islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holz G a wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoved D head, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . höved G headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hubbrücke G lifting bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hügel G hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . huggeri S quarry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . huk G point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hus D, S house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . huvud S head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hvid D white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ida E east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilist-yy-aye-oye R muddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . indløb D inlet, entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . indre D inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . indsø D inland lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inlopp S entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . innen G inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . innerst S, G innermost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xiii
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inre S inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . insel G island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . insjö S lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is S, D ice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jää E ice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jäme E thick, heavy, course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . järsk E steep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . järv, -ed E lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jernbane D railway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jezioro P lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jõe suu E river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jõed E rivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jõgi E river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . joki F river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kagu E south-east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kai G, S, E quay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kaj D quay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalasadam E fishing harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalda E coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalju E rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kallas E shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalnas Li hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalv S calf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kamen’ R rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kamien P stone, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kammerschleuse G lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kammersluse D lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kanal E, R, S, G canal, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kana P channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kanls La channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kants E fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kap D, G cape, head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kap S cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapell S chapel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kare E grassy islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kärestik E rapids, cataract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kärestiku E waterfalls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kari E shoal, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kase S beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kegle D cone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kekur R pillar rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kendelig D conspicuous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kesk E central, middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kevad E spring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kholm R hill, hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khrebet R ridge, chain of hills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kies G gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kindlus E fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kirche G church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kirde E north-east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kirik, ud E church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kirke D church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kitsus E narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kivi E rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klabb, klubb S islet, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klapbro D bascule bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klappbrücke G bascule bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kleine G little, small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klint S, D cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klipp G cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klipp S rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klippa S rock above water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klippe D rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klitter D dunes, sandhills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . knude D point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kobb, kubb S islet, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . korga R rocky shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kõo
rge E high. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kort D short, chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kosa R spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kocio P church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kosk E waterfall, rapids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kovsh R cove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krasn-yy-aya-oye R red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kryazh R chain of mountains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kugel G ball, sphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kugeltonne G spherical buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kugle D ball, sphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kugletønde D spherical buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuiv E dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . küla, -d E village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kulle S hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . külm E cold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kummel S beacon, cairn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . küngas E hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kurhaus G pumproom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kurk E channel, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . küste G coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . küstenverkehrszone G inshore traffic zone. . . . . . . . . . . . küstenwache G coastguard station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kvarn S mill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kyrka S church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kyst D, S coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kystvagt D coastguard station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lääne E west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ladeplatz G wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . låg S low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laguna R lagoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laht E bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laid E islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lainetemurd E breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . land S land, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landenge G isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landingssted D landing place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landsætingssted D harbour that dries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landsby D village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landungsbrücke G pier, wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landzunge G spit or tongue of land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lang D, G long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . länge G longitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lastageplats S landing place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lavvande D low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lægter D lighter, barge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . awica P shoal, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ledeværk D training wall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lednik R glacier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leitdamm G training wall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ler D clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lera S clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leuchtfeuer G light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leuchtschiff G light-vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leuchttonne G light-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lichter G lighter, barge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liegeplatz G berth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liiva künkad E sand dunes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liivakivi E sandstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lilla, liten S little. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lille D little, small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liman R estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ljudpipa S whistle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . løb D channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lod S lead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lodret D vertical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lods D pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lodsvæsen D pilotage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lodu E bog, marshland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . løftebro D lifting bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loode E north-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . löp S channel, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . loss E castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . losseplads D spoil ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lots S pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lotse G pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
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Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lotsenstelle G pilot station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lotswesen G pilotage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lõuna E south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lubi E chalk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luda, ludka R small rocky islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lufthavn D airport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luftledning D overhead cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lumi E snow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lund D, S grove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lystbåd D pleasure craft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lystønde D light-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maa E islet, land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maabumis sild E landing stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maamärk E landmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . madal E low, shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . madal vesi E low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . madalik, ud E shoal, shoals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mäed, mägi E mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mly P small, little. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mal-yy-aya-oye R little, small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marios Li lagoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . märkpuu E conspicuous tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . materik R mainland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meer G sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meerbusen G gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mel’ R shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . melk-iy-aya-oye R shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mellan, mellem S between. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mererand E seashore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mererohi E seaweed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meresopp E creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . merevool E stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meri R sea, ocean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mets E wood, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . middel D middle, mean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mielizna P shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . militärisches übungsgebiet G military practise area. . . . . . . mindste dydbe D controlling depth, least depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . minerada området S mined area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . mittlere G middle, mean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . myn P mill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . myn wodny P watermill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol R mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . möl S mill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . molo P pier, mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mols La mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . more R sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . most, mostu P bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muda E mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mudder D, S mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mühle G mill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . münde G river mouth, estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mündung G mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mun, mynning S mouth, opening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . munakivid E boulders, shingle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . munding D mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mursten D brick (built). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muul E mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mynning S mouth, opening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mys R cape, point, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nabbe S projection, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nabrzee P quay, wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nachtrichten für seefahrer G (N.f.s.) Notices to Mariners. . . . . . . näs S cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nat D night. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . navolok, nos R cape, point, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . næs D point, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nebelschallsendestelle G fog signal station. . . . . . . . . . nebenfahrwasser G subsidiary channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nedre S lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . neem E cape, promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . neu G new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . niedrig, niedriger G low, lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . niedrigwasser G low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nina E point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nip D neap (tide). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nipp G neap (tide). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nis G cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nizhn-iy-yaya-eye R lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . nizk-iy-aya-oye R low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nödhamn S refuge harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nødhavn D harbour of refuge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nor D inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nord S, D, G north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nordöst S north-east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nordre D north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nordväst S north-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norra S north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nørre D north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nov-yy-aya-oye R new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nowa P new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nowe P new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nowy P new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nukk E cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ny D, S new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ö S island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ø D island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ober - er G upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oblast’ R province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . obryv R bluff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . odde D tongue or spit of land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oja E stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . olieledning D oil pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oljehamn S oil harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ölleitung G oil pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . öre D, S tongue or spit of land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . org E valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ort G place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ost G east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . öst S, P east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . øst, østre D east, eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . osta La port, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Östersjön S Baltic Sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Østersøen D Baltic Sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . östlich G eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . östra S eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ostrov R island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ostrovok R islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ostrów P island in river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ostsee G Baltic Sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . osyp’ R landslide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otmel’ R shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ots E point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . overflydt D submerged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . overskylles D covers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . övre S upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ozero R lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paak E beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pakhta R bluff, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pank E bank, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parre E bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pæl D pile, pillar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pæleværk D groyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pealvett E above-water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peen E fine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pegel G tide gauge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pehme E soft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . perebor, perekat R bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peredn-iy-yaya-eye R front. . . . . . . . . . . . peresheyek R isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pervyy-aya-oye R first. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peschan-yy-aya-oye R sandy. . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xv
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pesok R sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pfahl, pfeiler G pile, pillar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pilsta La town, city. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pirs R jetty, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plade D shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plads D place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . platform G offshore platform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . platt S flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plaa P beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poberezh’ye, pomor’ye R coast, sea-shore. . . . . . . . . podvodn-yy-aya-oye R submerged. . . . . . . . . . . põhi E bottom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . põhja E north, northern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poudnie P south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poluostrov R peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pónocny P north, northern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pówysep P peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poolsaar E peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . port R, P port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . port morski P seaport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . port rybachi P fishing port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poselok R village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . priel G channel (small). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pristan R pier, landing stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prokhod R passage, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . proliv R strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . protok R creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . proviant D provisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . przyladek P cape, promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pulle D shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . punane E red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . punkt G point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pynt D point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . raba E swamp, marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rådhus D town hall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rafa P reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ragas Li point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rags La cape, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rahu E rocky islet, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rakentenstelle G rocket station, (line throwing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . raketredningsstation D rocket station, (line throwing). . . . . . . . . . . . rand E shore, coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . räni E pebbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ranna E coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ränna S pass, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rathaus G town hall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reda P road, anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . redd, red D, S road, roadstead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reede G road, roadstead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . redningsbåd D life-boat (station). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reflektor S reflector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reid E roadstead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reka, rechka R river, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rende D channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rettnungsboot G lifeboat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . retungstelle G lifeboat station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rev D, S reef, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reyd R roadstead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rif R reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riff E, G reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riffkette G ridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rinne G channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . röd S red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rød D red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roheline E green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rohrleitung G underwater pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rollbrücke G drawbridge (rolling). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . røn D rock, rocky ledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rørledning D underwater pipeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rös S heap of stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rot G red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rów P ditch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rücken G ridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ruiny P ruin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rullebro D drawbridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rullesten D shingle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ryg D ridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rzeka P river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saar E island, peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . säär E isthmus, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sadam, -ad E harbour, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . såg S sawmill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sala La island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . salm E strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . salma, shar R strait, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sand S, G sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandhøje D sandhills, dunes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . savi E clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schanze G trench, earthworks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schiff G ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schiffswerft G shipyard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schlepper G tug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schleuse G lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schlick G mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schlipp G patent slip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schloss G castle, palace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schmal, er, st G small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schornstein G chimney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schüttstelle G dumping ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schwarz, e G black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . schwimmdock G floating dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see G sea, lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seefahrer (N.f.s) G Notices to Mariners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seegat G entrance channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seleniye, selo R settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seljandiku E ridge of land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . senkrecht G vertical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . severn-yy-aya-oye R northern. . . . . . . . . . . . . signalstelle G signal station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . silm E narrow channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sissesõit E entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sjö S sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sjöfarande (U.f.s) S Notices to Mariners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . skala R rock, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skaa P rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skans S fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skanse D fort, redoubt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skär S rocky islet, reef, skerry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skärgård S archipelago, islets, skerries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skib D ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skibsværft D shipyard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skog S a wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skorsten D, S chimney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skov D a wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skydeplads D firing area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slæbested D slipway, ramp, hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slott S castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sluse D lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sluss S lock, sluice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . små S small, little. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . snævring D narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sø D sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . södra S south, southern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . søfarende (E.f.s) D Notices to Mariners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sønder, søndre, syd D south, southern. . . . . . . . . . . . . suza P lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . soo, -d E marsh, morass, bog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sopka R hillock, mound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sort D black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spidstønde D conical buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spierentonne G spar buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spirtønde D spar buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spitze G point, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spitztonne G conical buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xvi
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sredn-yy-yaya-eye R middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . redni P middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stad S, D town, city. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stadt G town, city. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stamik R shoal, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stång S beacon, pole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stänga farvatter S closed waters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . starr-yy-aya-oye R old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stary, a, e P old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stawa P beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stein G stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sten D, S stone, stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . steuerbord G starboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stor, stora D, S great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strand S, G shore, beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strelka R narrow spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ström S current, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strøm D, G tidal stream, current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strömmar S rapids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strömung G current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stumpftonne G can, cylindrical buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stumptønde D can, cylindrical buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . styrbord D starboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sud P south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . süd G south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sügavus E depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sund D, G, S sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . suur E large, big. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . svart, svarte S black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . svingbro D swing bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . syd, söder D, S south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sydöst S south-east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sydväst S south-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tågesignal D fog signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tång S tongue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tange D tongue or spit of land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tårn D tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tavla S beacon, board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tegel G sandy clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tief, tiefe G deep, depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tiefgang G draught. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . toldkontor D custom station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tolst-yy-aya-oye R thick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ton G clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tønde med stage D pillar buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tonk-iy-aya-oye R thin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tonne G buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . topbetegnelse D topmarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . toppzeichen G topmarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tør D dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tørdok D dry dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . torn E, S tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tõusu E flood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trafikseparering D traffic separation scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tret-iy-’ya-ye’ R third. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trockendock G dry dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tserkov’ R church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tulelaev E light-vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tuli E light, fire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tulepoi E light-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tullhus S customs house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tunga S tongue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . turm G tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . über G over, above. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . überwasserkabel G overhead cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . udde S cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uddybet løb D dredged channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . üfer G bank of river or canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ujcie P estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ülemine E upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . undersøiske kabler D submarine cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . unter G lower, under. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . unterwasserkabel G submarine cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . untief, untiefe G shallow, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . urbkivi E boulder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ust’ye R river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utes R crag, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utkik S lookout tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uus E new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . väderkvarn S windmill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vägbrytare S breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . väike E little, small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . väin E strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valge E white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vall S steep coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vana E old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vand D water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vandret D horizontal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vandstandsbræt D tide-gauge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . värav E entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . varemed E ruins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vrti La gates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . varv S shipyard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . väst, västra S west, western. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . veeneelus E tide-rip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . verboten G prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . verkehrstrennungsgebiet G traffic separation scheme. . . . . . . . verkhn-iy-aya-eye R upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . vest, vestre D west, western. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vette S hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vig D creek, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vik S cove, inlet, creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vilepoi E whistle-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vilauzis La breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vindmølle D windmill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vitt, vitte S white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vkhod R entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vneshn-iy-yaya-eye R outer. . . . . . . . . . . . vnutrenn-iy-yaya-eye R inner. . . . . . . . . . . vodopad R waterfall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . voolu E current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vorota R gap, gate, entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vostochn-yy-yaya-eye R eastern. . . . . . . . . . vostok R east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vrag D wreck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vrak S wreck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vtor-oy-aya-oye R second. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . waagerecht G horizontal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wald G wood, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wasser G water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . watt G coastal drying flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . weiss G white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wellenbrecher G breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . west G, P west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wiek G creek, cove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wielk-i P large, great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wies G meadow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wie P village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wiea P tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wik G bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wimpel G pendant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . windmühle G windmill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . winkbake G signal beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrack G wreck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrak P wreck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wschód P east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wysepka P islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wyspa P island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wyny P upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ydre D outer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ytterst S outermost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yttre, ytter S outer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xvii
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yug R south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yuzhn-yy-aya-oye R southern. . . . . . . . . . . . . zadn-iy-yaya-eye R rear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . zaimka R settlement, farm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zalew P gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zaliv R gulf, bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zamek P castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zapad R west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zapadn-yy-aya-oye R western. . . . . . . . . . . . . zastruga R long, sandy drying shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zatoka P bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zavod’ R cove, creek, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zelen-yy-aya-oye R green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . zemlya R land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ziemeli La north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zollamt, zollstelle G custom house,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . customs station
zufahrt G entrance area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zufluchtshafen G harbour of refuge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zugbrücke G drawbridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xviii
TABLE FOR THE TRANSLITERATION OF RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES
INCLUDING THE CYRILLIC MORSE CODE
Russian (properly “Great Russian”) is the principal Slavonic language using the Cyrillic alphabet, the latter being largely based on the
Greek, but including some letters of unknown, possibly Eastern, origin.
The rules for pronunciation and accent are so complicated, and contain so many exceptions, that it would be out of place to give them
here. For these and other reasons it has been decided, after full consideration, that Russian words will be spelt, not as they are pronounced,
but as they are written; in fact, a letter-for-letter transliteration has been adopted.
The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN), in agreement with the United States Board of Geographical Names
(USBGN), approved, on 19th May 1948, the use of the following table for the transliteration of Russian, which has the advantage over
previous tables of mechanical applicability.
Notes
1
Seldom initial except in words of non-Russian origin.
2
ye initially, after vowels (a, e, ë, ,o, y, , , , ), and after , ; e elsewhere;
when written as ë in Russian, transliterate as yë or ë.
3
is sometimes written as ’ in Russian, but should always be transliterated as ”.
RUSSIAN Cyrillic Morse
Print Script Transliteration Code Symbol
”
NOTES
xix
2816
2365
2150
2817
2251
2360
2369
2288
2215
2361
2223
2222
2362
2296
2297
2241
0205
Ko*obrzeg Fårö Gdamsk
GULFOFRIGA
SWEDEN
FINLAND
GERMANY
POLAND
RUSSIA
LITHUANIA
LATVIA
ESTONIA
DENMARK
RÜGEN
ÖLAND
BALTIC SEA
SAAREMAA
HIIUMAA
Szczecin K. Arkona
J
a
r
o
s
ł
a
w
i
e
c
Gdynia
Kaliningrad
Klaip4da Liepºja
Ventspils
RØga
Haapsalu
D
a
l
a
r
ö
N
o
r
ö
r
k
p
i
n
g
Västervik
Visby
Oskarshamn
Kalmar
K
a
l
r
s
k
o
n
r
a
S
ö
l
v
e
s
b
o
r
g
Y
s
t
a
d
Gotska Sandön
Norrtälje
S
ö
d
e
r
t
ä
l
j
e
S
T
O
C
K
H
O
L
M
S
t
r
a
l
s
u
n
d
R
ø
n
n
e
BORNHOLM
GOTLAND R
o
z
e
w
i
e
5
6
6
2
2
2
7
7
10
11
11
12
2
4
3
8
9
8
2
NP 20
Baltic Pilot
Vol III
NP 18
Baltic Pilot
Vol I
NP 56
Norway Pilot
Vol I
NP 55
North Sea
(East) Pilot
9°10°
11°12°
13°
14°
15°16°
17°
18°19°
20°
21°22°
23°
24°
25°26°
27°
28°29°
60°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°
53°
9°10°11°12°
13°
14°15°16°17°Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
22°23°24°25°26°27°28°29°
Chapter Index Diagram
xx
NP 19
Baltic Pilot Vol II
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its hydrographic
publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:
(a) that no liability whatever will be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of the details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition
of the international validity of the law or regulation.
BALTIC PILOT
VOLUME II
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
Charts 2816, 2817
Area covered
1.1
1
This volume contains Sailing Directions for the central
and S portions of Baltic Sea, which includes Gulf of Rga,
within the limits defined below:
Bounded W by longitude 13°25′E between, on the N
side, the Swedish coast in the vicinity of
Smygehamn, and on the S side the German coast
at Kap Arkona (54°41′N, 13°25′E). Also included
is the coast of Germany from Stralsund (54°19′N,
13°06′E) to the Polish border. Thence:
2
ENE and NE to Dirhami neem (59°13′N, 23°30′E),
the S entrance point to Gulf of Finland,
encompassing the coast of Poland, the extreme W
coast of Russia, the coasts of Lithuania and Latvia,
and the W coast of Estonia. Thence:
WNW to Bogskär (59°31′N, 20°22′E) and NW to
Flötjan (59°49′N, 19°47′E). Thence:
3
WNW to the coast of Sweden at Långören (59°57′N,
18°55′E) and SW to the Granösundet/Flottskär
narrows (59°55′⋅8N, 18°52′⋅7E). Thence:
SSW along the SE coast of Sweden to longitude
13°25′E in the vicinity of Smygehamn.
It should be noted that the Danish island of Bornholm
(55°08′N, 14°55′E) also lies within the limits of this book.
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Coastal conditions
1.2
1
Navigation in the SW part of Baltic Sea requires
constant vigilance due to the presence of a number of
shallow banks and shoal areas with depths as low as 6 m.
Constant vigilance and monitoring are also necessary on
the E coast of Sweden, particularly NNE of Hanö and
including Stockholms Skärgård, the archipelago stretching
from Landsort to Ålands Hav, which is heavily indented,
and fronted by areas containing innumerable islands, rocks
and shoals which extend up to about 12 miles offshore.
2
The central and N parts have relatively open, deeper
water, but care must be exercised in the approaches to Gulf
of Rga, which has narrow, shallower channels.
Maximum use should be made of all available aids to
navigation. In poor visibility, and despite the good coverage
provided by navigational aids, it is advisable when
approaching the coast to make full use of the echo-sounder.
3
Weather conditions in winter, when storms, fog, ice and
snow storms are experienced, place heavy demands on
vessels and mariners. During the winter months buoyage
may prove unreliable. Many buoys are removed or are
replaced by winter buoyage, whilst others may be damaged
or break adrift.
Floating hazards
1.3
1
In the coastal waters and archipelago areas of Sweden
numerous logs may be encountered adrift throughout the
CHAPTER 1
2
year, but particularly after storms and spring freshets. Such
a hazard may constitute a serious danger to small and
moderate sized craft.
2
In the waters of the W Baltic mariners are advised to
navigate with caution and maintain a constant lookout for
floating obstructions, fish-traps, pots and sections of
damaged piers, especially during the winter ice season and
immediately thereafter.
Severe weather
1.4
1
As a result of the shipping catastrophes which have
occurred in the Baltic due to severe weather conditions and
icing, all ship’s captains, particularly those who have not
experienced icing, are strongly recommended to contact the
nearest Swedish coast station as soon as possible if their
ship gets into difficulty off the Swedish coast. They should
report these difficulties, together with the ship’s position,
course and any other information which may be of
importance. As a result their situation will become known
to the various bodies included in the Maritime Rescue
Service (1.156), allowing early action should the situation
worsen. Safety measures of this type are available free of
charge to ships.
High speed ferries
1.5
1
Ferry traffic is extensive throughout the area covered by
this volume, often crossing routes at high speed, for which
a good lookout should be maintained. In general, ferries
crossing the main direction of fairways will endeavour to
navigate to minimise risk of collision, but if risk of
collision arises then International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) must be observed.
2
Some high speed craft may generate large waves, which
can have a serious impact on small craft and their
moorings close to the shoreline and on shallow off-lying
banks. For further details see Annual Notice to Mariners
No 23.
Navigation in ice
General
1.6
1
Conditions. Ice conditions peculiar to Baltic Sea, within
the area covered by this volume, are described at 1.253.
For a table of ice dates at specified harbours, see 1.261.
2
Accumulation of ice on ships. The concurrence of
strong winds, precipitation and spray in sub-zero
temperatures may be encountered within the area covered
by this volume. The resultant accumulation of ice on a
vessel’s hull and superstructure can constitute a serious
danger, as described in The Mariner’s Handbook, which
also contains advice on the appropriate avoiding action.
Icebreaking service. Details are given at 1.116.
Regulations for working with icebreakers are given at
1.132.
Signals for use with icebreakers are given at 1.134.
3
Ice reports — Baltic Sea Ice Code. The code is
intended to be used for the reporting of ice conditions in
fairways, harbour areas, coastal areas and selected sea
routes. Ice reports are broadcast daily, and on request, by
Swedish, Danish, German, Polish, Russian, Latvian,
Lithuanian and Estonian coast radio stations, and also on
some public radio broadcasts. The reports, in English in
addition to the national language, provide details of ice
conditions in Baltic Sea areas covered by this volume, the
daily positions and availability of icebreakers in those
areas, and may also contain useful information on traffic
restrictions, routes, etc.
4
It should be noted that transmitted ice reports are based
on observations at the stations in the morning. Low
visibility and darkness may prevent observations, making it
difficult to report changes as soon as would be desirable,
and therefore reporting stations would welcome reports
from vessels at sea.
For full details of Baltic Sea Ice Code and reporting
services see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1).
Overhead cables
1.7
1
Overhead cables are mentioned in the text where the
clearance beneath them may be a hazard to navigation.
Some of these cables carry high voltages and allowance
should be made to ensure sufficient clearance when passing
underneath them. In winter, the published clearance may be
varied by ice or snow conditions.
See The Mariner’s Handbook for information on safety
clearances and the radar responses to be expected.
Mine danger areas
Former mined areas
1.8
1
Areas dangerous due to mines laid during the war of
1939−1945 were formerly published in NEMEDRI, which
publication was discontinued in 1974.
Due to the lapse of time the risk to surface navigation
from mines in these areas is considered to be no greater
than the ordinary hazards of navigation such as striking an
uncharted wreck. However, within the danger areas risk
still exists with regard to anchoring, fishing or any form of
submarine activity close to the seabed. Some of these areas
may also present a danger in the form of explosives, gas
canisters or aircraft wreckage.
2
In addition, danger may also exist from uncharted
wrecks and shoals, as the mine danger will have inhibited
hydrographic surveying. Mariners are therefore advised:
(1) To keep strictly to any recommended approach
routes shown on the chart.
(2) To anchor only in port approaches and established
anchorages. In an emergency it is better to
anchor to one side of a channel or swept route
rather than in unswept waters.
3
(3) In darkness, unless entirely confident of
navigational accuracy, it is prudent to anchor in a
safe area and await daylight.
Within the limits of this volume, the main areas
regarded as having a residual danger, the limits of which
are shown on the charts, are as follows:
(1) S and SE of Trelleborg (Baltic Pilot Volume I).
(2) A number of small and large areas within about
35 miles of the Danish island of Bornholm
(55°08′N, 14°55′E).
4
(3) On the Swedish coast: in the approaches to
Västervik, SE and NNE of Kungsgrundet
(57°41′N, 16°55′E); SE of Häradskär (58°09′N,
16°59′E); in the approaches to Arkö, SE of
Norra Fällbådan (58°26′⋅5N, 17°06′⋅3E).
(4) SSE of Gotland centred on 56°00′N, 19°00′E.
(5) In the central part of Gulf of Gdask centred on
55°50′N, 19°10′E.
(6) In the approaches to Klaip
da (55°43′N,
21°08′E) and NW of Klaip
da centred on
56°00′N, 20°00′E.
CHAPTER 1
3
5
(7) An area surrounding, and the approaches to
Liepja (56°31′N, 21°01′E).
(8) A large area extending from the approaches to
Ventspils (57°24′N, 21°33′E), NE through the
Irbe Strait and the W part of Gulf of Rga.
(9) In the N part of Gulf of Rga centred on
58°25′N, 23°30′E.
6
(10) In the approaches to Pärnu Laht centred on
58°10′N, 24°20′E.
(11) In the approaches to Rga (56°58′N, 24°06′E).
(12) On the W side of Gulf of Rga centred on
57°37′N, 22°52′E.
(14) Taga lacht (58°29′N, 22°04′E).
(15) W side of Hiiumaa centred on 58°45′N, 22°27′E.
7
These areas are shown on Admiralty charts and
mentioned in the geographic text, where appropriate, in
accordance with the policy adopted by the coastal state
adjacent to the area concerned.
Instructions for the disposal of mines picked up at sea
are given in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners.
Chemical munitions
1.9
1
Chemical munitions are known to have been dumped in
two areas covered by this volume, 15 miles E of
Christiansø (55°20′N, 15°11′E), and 52 miles SSE of
Hoburg (56°55′N, 18°09′E). The munitions, which included
mustard gas, were primarily dumped within the areas
indicated on the charts, but it must be assumed that they
were spread over a larger area during dumping, and it is
known that some were dumped on passage from
Peenemünde to the dumping areas. Also, due to sea-bed
activity, it is likely that the munitions have been moved
outside the charted areas. The area is intensively trawled,
and over the years there have been incidents where
fishermen, raising canisters or lumps of viscous mustard
gas, have been severely injured. See also Annual Summary
of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Swedish defensive minefields
1.10
1
Along the Swedish coast there are a number of areas
where mines are already laid in peace time. These mined
areas, which are shown on the charts, are usually found in
harbour entrances and archipelago channels where the
waters can be observed and the mines controlled from
observation posts on shore. The mines are not activated and
may only be detonated remotely from the observation post.
2
Anchoring is prohibited within these areas due to the
risk of damage to the equipment, and during thunderstorms,
vessels navigate in these areas at their own risk as full
security cannot be guaranteed in such conditions.
If, owing to an emergency, anchoring in a mined area
becomes essential, ships should anchor as near to the outer
limit as possible in order to minimise damage to the mine
gear.
3
Defensive minefields are laid in the approaches to:
Guövik and Järnavik (3.187).
Karlskrona: S approach (3.250), E approaches (3.231
and 3.244).
Stockholm: Landsort Entrance — Mällsten, Ornö-Utö,
Vettskär (7.18).
Slite (2.212).
Fårösund N and S (2.224).
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
Traffic
Through routes
1.11
1
In general the through routes from the SW Baltic to
Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland follow the deep- water
areas which have been surveyed in recent years by the
Swedish Hydrographic Service to establish their suitability
for navigation by deep-draught vessels.
2
Gulf of Bothnia. The main route, in general terms,
follows the outline of the E coast of Sweden from
Kullagrund (55°18′N, 13°20′E), thence through
Bornholmsgat (55°20′N, 14°25′E), E of Öland, W of
Gotland (57°30′N, 18°30′E) and thence to Ålands Hav via
Ahvenanmeren Deep Channel, E of Svenska Björn
(59°33′N, 20°01′E).
3
Access to the approaches of all the major ports on the E
coast of Sweden may be made directly off this route.
Gulf of Finland. The route to Gulf of Finland follows
the same track from Kullagrund to a position SE of Öland,
thence branching NE to pass E of Gotland and entering
Gulf of Finland NW of Hiiumaa.
4
From this route direct course may be followed to most
of the ports on the SE side of the central Baltic and Gulf
of Rga.
Each of these routes passes through TSS, the areas of
which are given at 1.84.
Details and descriptions of through routes are given in
Chapter 2.
Recommended tracks
1.12
1
Along the Swedish coastline, in some inlets and
channels and in the approaches to ports, recommended
tracks have been established. These are shown on the
charts and are normally marked with an indicated
authorised draught. These figures indicate the maximum
permitted draught of vessels, operating with pilotage
assistance, for which the tracks are authorised at MSL. This
information is for guidance, and does not carry any
guarantee that a vessel with a draught close to the channel
draught can safely proceed in the channel under all
circumstances. See also 1.32.
2
A recommended track, shown on the chart, is established
from the E Baltic for vessels intending to visit ports on the
E side of Germany’s Baltic coastline and the W part of
Poland. In addition, recommended tracks are established in
the approaches to many of the ports on the S and W coasts
of the central Baltic, Irbe Strait, and in Gulf of Rga. Some
of these tracks run through safety fairways. It is
recommended that mariners, where possible, make use of
and follow these tracks as they have been covered by
modern surveys and searched more comprehensively.
Ship Movement Reporting and
Information Systems
Sweden
1.13
1
Mandatory Reporting and Information Systems are in
operation in Stockholm, Mälaren/Landsort and Oxelösund
Traffic Information Areas. In each area reports are made to
a Traffic Information Centre.
Details of limits, reporting points, location of stations,
restrictions and other regulations are given in Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
CHAPTER 1
4
Germany
1.14
1
Mandatory Vessel Traffic Services are in operation at
Stralsund East, Sassnitz/Mukran and Wolgast. Details of
compulsory reports and other requirements are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Poland
1.15
1
Compulsory Traffic Control and Monitoring Systems,
Szczecin VTS and winoujcie VTS, are in operation in the
winoujcie/Szczecin waterway area. An obligatory Vessel
Traffic Service and Reporting System, VTS Zakota
Gdaska, is in operation at Gdynia/Gdask. For details of
reports, reporting points, limits and other requirements see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Russia
1.16
1
A mandatory VTS is in operation at Kaliningrad. For
details of requirements and regulations see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Lithuania
1.17
1
A mandatory VTMS is in operation at Klaip
da
controlled by the Traffic Control Service. For details of
requirements and regulations see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(2).
Latvia
1.18
1
A mandatory VTMS is in operation at Ventspils and a
mandatory VTS system operates at Rga. For full details of
regulations and requirements see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(2).
Gulf of Finland
1.19
1
A mandatory ship reporting system for vessels (as listed
below) using Gulf of Finland came into force on 1 July
2004. The reporting area covers the international waters
between the W reporting line drawn from the Kõpu
peninsula (58°55′N, 22°12′E) and the E reporting line at
longitude 26°30′E (see Baltic Pilot Volume III). This area is
divided into two by the Central reporting line, drawn
through the midpoints of the separation zones of the TSS
off Kõpu, Hankoniemi, Porkkala and Kalbådagrund to
59°59′N, 26°30′E.
2
The following vessels are required to participate:
All vessels of 300 gt or greater.
All vessels of under 300 gt in circumstances where
they:
are not under command or at anchor in the TSS;
are restricted in their ability to manoeuvre;
have defective navigational aids.
Ships may make voice or AIS reports. For further details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Fishing
General remarks
1.20
1
In Baltic Sea there is no international agreement
concerning fishing, areas, quotas and regulations, similar to
that in force within the European Union. Mariners are
requested to navigate with caution in the vicinity of fishing
areas and fishing vessels, taking great care to avoid fouling
or damaging fishing gear. If possible fishing vessels should
be given a wide berth.
The following information relates mainly to fishing
methods in Swedish waters but these methods also apply in
other areas as described in the text.
2
Drift net fishing. This type of fishing is used for
catching salmon, herring and mackerel. The drift nets may
be up to 2 miles in length and be laid in a straight line or
on the perimeter of a circle, with their effective depth,
usually between 6 and 8 m, being regulated by float lines.
Salmon may also be caught, in the same areas, by drift
lines which may extend up to about 9 miles from the
fishing vessel.
3
The nets are usually marked by radar reflectors, lights,
and buoys displaying flags. In shallow water nets are
marked by buoys displaying flags but the marks may carry
no lights.
The salmon season lasts from September to June; the
herring season is in the early spring and from June to
November; the season for mackerel fishing lasts from the
beginning of May to the end of June.
4
Herring drift-net fishing is carried out along the whole
of the E coast of Sweden and continues for as long as the
water is clear of ice. However, in certain areas within the
archipelagos, the nets are also laid beneath the ice.
Off the S and W coasts of the Baltic, in German and
Polish waters, extensive herring fishing is carried out from
May to October. Salmon fishing using drift nets and lines
is carried out on the Polish coast, up to 15 miles offshore,
from March to June.
5
Trawling takes place all the year round in depths of
from 25 to 350 m. The trawl, which may either be dragged
along the bottom or set to run at a pre-determined depth,
may be towed either by a single vessel using otter-boards,
or between two vessels using kites. Danish fishing vessels
use a similar system, known as seine net fishing, mainly to
catch bottom fish such as cod, haddock and plaice.
6
Long line fishing for cod, haddock and eels, is now
mainly limited to the coastal area where the lines are laid
on the bottom during the winter half of the year.
Whiffing or spinning for mackerel is carried out from
July to September; the boats towing a number of lines from
out-riggers.
7
Beach seine netting is carried out sporadically along the
Swedish coast for herring and bait-fish. It involves the nets
being laid some distance from the shore and then hauled
towards it. This form of fishing is also carried out below
the ice, for which purpose holes are cut in the ice in series
extending up to 1 km from the shore.
8
Bottom nets. From May to December, on the Swedish
coast between Smygehuk and Karlskrona, eel fishing is
carried out using bottom nets. The gear, which may extend
several miles from the shore is secured to piles, or by
anchors and buoys, and is difficult to detect. The seaward
end is marked by a dark flag or basket, and at night by an
all round fixed violet light. Mariners should not approach
closer than 1miles to the land in these areas, and
approach harbours with care as eel bottom gear may be
laid close to fairways within the leading light or white
sectors of entrance lights.
9
Fish traps may be found along the coast of Sweden for
the catching of salmon and herring. They are usually in
shallow waters but can extend outside the 3 m depth
contour and be more than 100 m offshore.
For general information on fishing methods see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
CHAPTER 1
5
Marine farms
1.21
1
Fish farms, areas in shallow water where fish are bred
artificially, are found in the waters covered by this volume.
They may be on the surface or submerged. They are not
necessarily confined to inshore locations and may be
moved on occasions. They are usually marked by buoys or
beacons (special) which, if lighted, exhibit yellow lights.
Exercise areas
Firing practice and exercise areas
1.22
1
Military exercises and firing practices take place from
time to time in certain areas. The more important areas are
mentioned briefly in the text; detailed descriptions are not
given as warnings of firing practices and exercises are
promulgated either by local notices to mariners, coast radio
stations, or both. However, warnings concerning the
military exercises that take place in Hanöbukten are no
longer normally promulgated by coast radio stations, but
the area is guarded by patrol vessels during exercises.
For general information on such areas see Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Submarine exercise areas
1.23
1
Submarines may exercise in the area covered by this
volume. Notice of exercises is given only in exceptional
circumstances and therefore all vessels should keep a good
lookout for submarines.
The Mariner’s Handbook and Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners give general information on
the characteristics of British submarines and visual signals
used to denote their presence; in general, other countries
conform to this method of signalling.
Presence of submarines
Sweden
1.24
1
Swedish naval vessels escorting submerged submarines
will show a red flag by day. Vessels in the vicinity should
proceed with caution and keep a sharp look-out for
periscopes, which may be the only visible indication of the
submarine. It should be borne in mind that a submarine on
surfacing is not always in a condition to manoeuvre
immediately or to show the proper signals for a vessel not
under control.
2
Should a merchant vessel sight a submarine’s telephone
or rescue buoy, the escorting vessel should be informed
immediately.
Swedish submarines under way may exhibit navigation
lights as follows:
3
1.In the place of the white lights mentioned in
Rule 23 of International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972), a blue light
on the fore staff and a white top light in another
suitable position. Both lights will be constructed
as in paragraph 21(a) of the regulations. The
white light will be visible for a distance of at
least 5 miles and the blue light 2 miles.
4
2.In addition to the sidelights mentioned in Rule 23,
a second light on each side of the submarine,
either above or below the first sidelight.
1.25
1
Swedish submarines which are submerged for a long
period, by day, may release a towing buoy, either
separately or with a telephone buoy, to indicate their
position and to warn vessels which may be in the vicinity
that she is about to surface; the towing buoy is cylindrical,
painted in white and orange horizontal bands and has a
small triangular flag at its forward end.
2
In similar circumstances at night, the submarine, before
coming to the surface, may release a telephone buoy, under
tow, from the lamp of which short flashes will be made by
the submarine.
By day, and at night, surface vessels should pass astern
of these buoys.
See also The Mariner’s Handbook and Annual Summary
of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
For submarine distress signals see 1.149.
Denmark
1.26
1
Danish naval vessels escorting submarines which are
exercising will display the answering pendant and the
signal HP of The International Code of Signals.
Danish submarines underway on the surface will display,
in addition to the prescribed navigation lights, a quick
flashing blue light, positioned 1 m above the masthead
light, visible at a distance of 5 miles.
For submarine distress signals see 1.150.
Russia
1.27
1
Russian naval vessels exercising with, or accompanying,
submarines display the appropriate signal from The
International Code of Signals. In addition, when possible,
the escorting vessel will transmit by radiotelegraph, on the
international frequency of 500 khz, a message indicating the
presence of submarines.
2
Vessels are requested to give such vessels a wide berth
and maintain a constant lookout for submarines, whose
presence may only be indicated by their periscopes
showing above-water.
It must not be inferred from these signals that
submarines exercise only when in the company of escorting
vessels.
3
Submerged submarines surfacing by night may release
light-buoys each exhibiting a white light and may display
normal navigation lights. Submerged submarines may
release signal cartridges which emit coloured smoke by
day, or coloured rockets by night.
1.28
1
In busy shipping lanes Russian submarines may carry, in
addition to the prescribed navigation lights, a flashing
orange light, 1⋅5 m above the masthead light. A similar
light may be shown at the stern or on the stabiliser fin.
Russian Federation submarines carry their navigation
lights in special positions as follows:
2
One steaming light on the upper part of the front
edge of the fin.
Side lights on the relevant side of the fin in its
central part.
One or two stern lights. When one light is displayed
it will be carried on the stern or on the rear edge
of the vertical stabiliser. When two lights are
carried they are situated on the rear part of the fin.
3
Anchor lights are placed on the bow section and on
the stern or vertical stabiliser. On submarines with
a high stabiliser the stern anchor light may be
CHAPTER 1
6
replaced by two lights set on the sides of the
stabiliser which together are visible over 360°.
Not Under Command and other all-round visibility
lights may be raised on a mast, not less than 2⋅5 m
in height, on the fin.
Manoeuvring lights are not carried.
4
When in areas of heavy traffic submarines on the
surface may also exhibit either one or two orange quick
flashing lights. See also The Mariner’s Handbook and
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
For submarine distress signals see 1.152.
Special areas
Russian regulated areas
1.29
1
Russian regulated areas include all areas where
navigation, fishing and anchoring are prohibited or
restricted. Such areas are normally charted and mentioned
in Sailing Directions.
Some prohibited areas are designated by the Russian
authorities as being temporarily prohibited for navigation.
However, as these restrictions are for an indefinite period
they are treated in the same way as permanently prohibited
areas.
2
Other regulated areas consist of areas declared
periodically dangerous for navigation. These areas, which
include various firing danger and exercise areas, lie partly
or wholly outside Russian territorial waters. Some of these
areas are charted. See also Appendix I.
3
Areas established by the Russian authorities where
special control of navigation exists on a permanent basis
are designated Fortified Zones. Prior permission must be
obtained to enter or leave such areas and pilotage is
compulsory. Special regulations are in force within these
zones and any instructions issued by the pilot must be
strictly complied with. Navigation through these zones in
fog is normally prohibited. At the present time there are no
such areas within the limits of this volume.
Responsibility for violation of the limits of the regulated
areas rests with the Master of the ship involved. Ignorance
of the limits will not serve as a basis to avoid
responsibility.
4
Information about Russian regulated areas is announced
by PRIP or NAVIP. Similar warnings may occasionally be
broadcast concerning areas where navigation is periodically
prohibited. Details of PRIP and NAVIP radio broadcasts are
given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1).
Attention is also drawn to Laws and Regulations
Appertaining to Navigation which appears on Page 1 of this
volume.
Polish regulated areas
1.30
1
Certain areas in Gulf of Gdask are periodically closed
to navigation due to military exercises. Limits of these
areas may lie outside Polish territorial waters. See also
Appendix II. Details and periods of closure of these areas
will be announced by coastal radio navigational warnings
issued by the Polish authorities. Details are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Volume 3(1).
Marine exploitation
Oil and gas fields
1.31
1
Production platforms and associated structures including
tanker moorings, storage tankers and platforms on
pipelines, generally exhibit Mo (U) lights, aircraft
obstruction lights and audible fog signals. Unauthorised
navigation is prohibited within 500 m of all such structures,
including storage tankers which can swing about their
moorings. In some areas the safety zone established around
production platforms and associated structures may exceed
500 m and entry into these zones is restricted. Tankers
manoeuvring in the vicinity of platforms and moorings
should be given a wide berth.
For further information see The Mariner’s Handbook.
CHARTS
Admiralty charts
General
1.32
1
British Admiralty charts covering the area of these
Sailing Directions are adequate for use on passage, for
entry into the principal ports and harbours, and to reach a
required pilot station.
The charts are compiled from Swedish, Danish, German,
Polish, Latvian, Estonian and Russian Government charts.
They are periodically revised and updated from later
foreign editions and information received from the charting
authority concerned.
2
However, the latest Russian charts and publications give
only sufficient information for navigation to the ports open
to international trade. In view of this, navigational aids may
exist which are not shown on Admiralty charts or
mentioned in the Sailing Directions, and caution will be
necessary to avoid the possibility of mistaken identification.
Similarly, the relevant Admiralty List of Lights will give the
latest information available, but it must be assumed that
only those lights along the routes to ports open for
international trade will be corrected from recent
information. Elsewhere the information may not be of
recent date.
3
In Swedish waters Admiralty charts show routes through
inshore waters, and into ports, which are authorised for use
by vessels drawing 3⋅6 m or more, although occasionally
routes authorised for less than 3⋅6 m may be shown on
charts adopted from other countries. These tracks, together
with their adjacent areas, are often the only routes
adequately surveyed and marked. Masters are recommended
to adhere to them strictly.
4
Caution. Mariners should bear in mind the possibility of
the presence of large uncharted boulders, of glacial origin,
and note the remarks on land rise described at 1.243.
Admiralty charts and publications can be obtained from
Admiralty Distributors for Charts and Publications listed in
the Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications and
other hydrographic publications published annually.
Depth reductions
1.33
1
The depths in the central and N Baltic are decreasing
gradually due to the general land rise effect in Scandinavia.
Mariners should consult the cautionary notes on British
Admiralty charts for the MSL year on which the chart is
based and for the annual correction factor to be applied to
all charted soundings for that area.
Foreign charts
1.34
1
In certain areas where British Admiralty charts show
insufficient detail for navigation close inshore or within
inland channels, these Sailing Directions have been written
CHAPTER 1
7
using foreign charts. The text has been written on the
assumption that mariners wishing to navigate in these areas
will have provided themselves with suitable charts on
which to do so. For the following areas, not covered by
Admiralty charts of adequate scale, mariners are advised to
obtain the appropriate charts as follows:
Chart No Area
Sweden 624 Kråkelund and north Öland — ports
Sweden 623 Västervik and inshore channels
Sweden 6231 Västervik and Gamlebyviken
Sweden 621 Slätbaken and approaches
Sweden 622 Slätbaken and Stora Askö
Sweden 6211 Oxelösund and inshore channels
Sweden 6173 Tvären and inshore channels
Germany 1511 Greifswalder Bodden
Germany 1512 Peenestrom nordlicher Teil
Germany 1513 Peenestrom südlicher Teil
Poland 41
Gdask to Baltiysk inland lagoon
Russian 25051 Kaliningradskiy Zaliv
Latvia 2101 Pavilosta and approaches
Estonia 513
Väinameri — Gulf of Rga
2
In addition to the usual navigational charts, yachtsmen
and other mariners intending to navigate in Swedish coastal
and inland waters are recommended to obtain copies of the
appropriate Båtsportkort which are charts produced by the
Swedish Hydrographic Department, in convenient loose leaf
book form, especially for use by small craft. They cover
most of the Swedish coast and inland waters and show
extra information not shown on normal commercial nautical
charts.
3
Foreign charts may be obtained from the publishing
authorities shown below and in the Catalogue of Admiralty
Charts and Publications which includes the Admiralty
Distributors in the main ports of each country. These charts
are not issued by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
nor are they corrected by Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
4
Publishing authorities:
Sjökarteavdelningen
S−601 78
NORRKÖPING
Sweden
5
Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen
Rentemestervej 8
DK−2400 KØBENHAVN K
Denmark
6
Glavnoe Oupravlenie Navigatsii I Okeanografii
Ministetsva Oborony
8, 11 liniya, B–34
SANKT PETERBURG
199034
Russia
7
Hüdrograafia-ja Navigatsioonimärgistuse Teenistus
Lasnamäe 48
11413 TALLINN
EE0014
Estonia
8
Latvijas Hidrografijas Dienests
Anndrejosta 10
RGA
LV–1045
Latvia
9
Klaip
da State Seaport Authority
Ministry of Transport
J. Janonio 24
5799 KLAIPDA
Lithuania
10
Biuro Hydrograficzne
Marynarki Wojennej
81–912 GDYNIA 12
Poland
11
Bundesamt Für Seeschiffahrt Und Hydrographie
Bernhard-Nocht-Strasse 78
Postfach 30 12 20
D20 305 HAMBURG
Germany
Datums
Horizontal datum
1.35
1
Admiralty charts. The datum usually used on Admiralty
charts is that of the country whose waters the chart covers.
The datums are gradually being changed to WGS84 Datum
(World Geodetic System 1984). Correctional information,
according to which datum is in use, is shown on the charts.
2
Foreign charts. Within the limits of this volume all the
countries which publish charts, with the exception of
Russia which uses Russian chart datum, are in the process
of (2005), or have completed the changeover from their
original datum to WGS84 Datum.
Sweden and Denmark have completed the changeover to
WGS84 Datum in the area covered by this volume.
Germany is in the process of converting to WGS84
Datum but the transition is not yet complete.
Poland is in the process of changing to WGS84 Datum
which is used on most of the charts.
3
Latvia is now publishing charts on which WGS84
Datum is used.
Estonia uses WGS84 Datum and Russia uses Russian
chart datum.
Note. On charts using WGS84 Datum, positions
obtained from satellite navigation systems can normally be
plotted direct onto the chart. Any correctional adjustments
which may be necessary are usually shown on the chart.
Vertical datum
1.36
1
On British Admiralty charts the Chart Datum is MSL.
On Swedish charts the datum is the MSL for a specified
year, to which corrections for land rise must be applied.
The value of the adjustment to be applied is noted on
individual charts.
2
On German and Danish charts the datum is MSL with
any variations noted under the title of the chart.
On Russian and Estonian charts depths are reduced to
Sea Level datum.
On Polish and Latvian charts depths are reduced to
MSL.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Lights
1.37
1
In Baltic Sea generally, where lights have sectors of
differing colours, the fairway is usually covered by the
white sector with, to a vessel approaching the light, a green
sector to starboard and a red sector to port. These white
navigational sectors may be very narrow and great care
should be exercised to keep on the centreline. For further
CHAPTER 1
8
details on lights see the relevant Admiralty List of Lights
and Fog Signals.
2
Caution. In the winter season, due to the effects of
icing-over, snowfalls or hoar frost, the range of visibility of
lights and light-buoys may be greatly reduced or their
lights may even become obscured. Lights and light-buoys
exhibiting coloured lights may give the appearance of white
lights.
3
It may be extremely difficult to distinguish the precise
limits between the coloured sectors of lights in such
weather conditions. As most of these directional sectors
lead close to shoal areas, it is imprudent to place too much
reliance on them alone for guidance and the vessel’s
position should be constantly checked using other methods.
Fixed marks and beacons
Sweden
1.38
1
Sea route marks. Notice boards known as sea route
marks are used in Swedish waters. They are boards which,
by their markings, indicate a caution, a prohibition, an
ordinance, or give advice to the mariner.
Cautionary and speed restriction marks have a white
background, red border and black symbols; prohibition
marks are the same but with the addition of a red diagonal
stripe. Advice marks are blue with white symbols.
2
The marks are erected on land at the outer edge of the
relevant areas. In exceptional circumstances they may be
found on buoys (special) at sea.
Submarine cables. These, as a rule, are only marked by
beacons or notice boards; if buoys are used, they are
painted red and white, with the word “Kabel” in black
letters in two places.
3
In channels and especially frequented waters, the cables
are marked by two beacons or poles, which in line indicate
the position of the cable. The front beacon or pole has a
circular topmark and the rear one a circle above a
diamond; the circles are red with white edges. When in
line, the marks appear as a white diamond between two red
circles. Where the beacons are illuminated at night, a red
light is displayed on each of the circular marks and a white
one on the diamond-shaped mark.
4
Beacons or boards marking power cables usually carry
the warnings “Kabel” and “Ankring forbujden”. In some
districts power cables are marked by white triangular
boards with red edges.
Germany
1.39
1
Submarine cables. The landing place of cables is
marked by a white panel with a black inverted anchor, the
whole surrounded by a red border and crossed by a red
diagonal. The direction of cables is marked by two
beacons, the front having a panel with the same marking as
the landing place and surmounted by a red triangle
topmark, point up; the rear similar with the triangle point
down.
Denmark
1.40
1
Submarine cables are marked by pairs of beacons. The
front beacon has a circular board topmark, white with a red
centre, and the rear beacon a circular board, white with a
red centre, over a diamond, white with red borders.
Submarine pipelines are marked by pairs of beacons in
line, the front and rear beacons having yellow,
diamond-shaped topmarks.
2
Firing or danger areas are marked by pairs of beacons
having triangular topmarks with black and yellow bands;
rear point down and front point up.
Landmarks
1.41
1
Caution is necessary when evaluating the descriptions
given in this volume concerning landmarks, such as trees,
and the colour and shape of buildings etc. New buildings
may have been erected and old trees or houses destroyed,
so that marks, which may at one time have been
conspicuous on account of their isolation, shape or colour,
may no longer exist or may now be difficult to identify.
Buoyage
IALA Maritime Buoyage System
1.42
1
All the countries described within the limits of this
volume have adopted the IALA Maritime Buoyage System
(Region A) (red to port), for use in their waters.
They are Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia,
Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Minor variations may occur
between countries in the lettering, and colours used on
miscellaneous buoys.
2
This system is in use throughout the area covered by
this volume.
For full details of the system see The Mariner’s
Handbook and IALA Maritime Buoyage System.
Radar reflectors are not charted. It can be assumed that
most major buoys are fitted with radar reflectors.
Caution
1.43
1
Mariners are warned that they should not absolutely rely
on floating aids to navigation, especially during the winter
ice period, in stormy weather and when the changeover of
markings at the beginning and end of the winter is taking
place.
It has been reported that all navigation aids in SE Baltic
waters, including Gulf Of Rga and the S part of Gulf of
Finland, may be unreliable. Extreme caution should be
exercised in the identification of navigation aids in these
areas.
Sweden
1.44
1
Within the limits of this volume the main direction of
buoyage in Swedish waters runs from N to S. From sea
into the harbours the direction is indicated on the charts.
Unlit buoys have been fitted with retro-reflective
material in accordance with the IALA Comprehensive
Code. A full description of this system is given in The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Estonia and Russia
1.45
1
Temporary marks. In Estonian and Russian waters
temporary floating aids to navigation are used to indicate
areas that are prohibited for navigation, anchoring, fishing,
and those used for naval exercises. Such markings will be
promulgated in radio navigational warnings and be
published in Russian and Estonian Notices to Mariners.
Winter buoyage
1.46
1
Caution. In winter during ice conditions, floating marks
should not be relied upon as they may not be in their
correct positions. Lights and topmarks may be obscured or
CHAPTER 1
9
broken by ice and coloured lights may appear white or pale
and have a reduced range.
2
Sweden. In Swedish waters light-vessels and light-buoys
are kept on their stations, unless withdrawal is necessary on
account of ice or weather conditions when the buoys are in
some cases replaced by spar buoys. They are replaced in
spring as soon as ice conditions permit.
Buoys fitted with racons are generally replaced by
light-buoys when icing is expected due to the racon
equipment being expensive and having sensitive electronics.
3
Denmark has a similar system to that of Sweden in
winter conditions.
Poland. Many buoys and light-buoys are withdrawn or
replaced for the winter season, usually from early
November, or when ice threatens. Information on intended
changes is promulgated annually by Polish Notices to
Mariners and by radio navigational warnings if necessary.
4
Latvia. Many buoys and light-buoys are withdrawn or
replaced during the winter season. Details of intended
changes and dates are issued through Latvian Notices to
Mariners as necessary.
Estonia. Many buoys and light-buoys are withdrawn or
replaced during the winter season. Details of intended
changes and dates are issued through Estonian Notices to
Mariners as necessary.
Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) Buoys
1.47
1
ODAS buoys (special) may be encountered within the
area covered by this volume. These buoy systems, which
vary considerably in size, are used for environmental
research purposes including collection of weather data.
They are coloured yellow and marked “ODAS” with an
identification number. If moored they exhibit a flashing
yellow light. The large buoys should be given a clearance
of at least 1 mile, and in the case of vessels towing
underwater gear this distance should be increased to
2miles.
2
As the buoys have no navigational significance, and as
they are liable to be moved or withdrawn at short notice,
they are not normally mentioned in the text of the book.
For further information see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Water level gauges
1.48
1
Automatic water level gauges in conjunction with a
telephone responder are installed at several Swedish
harbours within the limits of this volume in Baltic Sea.
Information from the port giving the height of water level,
above or below the MSL, can be obtained by means of a
centralised telephone service.
2
Mariners are cautioned that no responsibility can be
accepted by the Swedish authorities for erroneous replies or
other malfunctioning of the apparatus.
A service providing information about water levels along
the Swedish coast is maintained by Swedish Meteorological
and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), and is available on the
Internet from www.smhi.se.
PILOTAGE
General
1.49
1
Information on pilotage procedures at individual ports is
given in the text at the port concerned.
Full details of procedures and other requirements are
given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Deep-sea Pilots
1.50
1
The services of a licensed deep-sea pilot are strongly
recommended by The Baltic Pilotage Authorities
Commission, which recommends that:
a) Masters of vessels which are constrained by their
draught;
b) Masters of vessels, other than those registered in
one of the Baltic States, and who frequently
navigate in the area;
c) Masters of loaded oil and chemical tankers and
gas tankers, irrespective of their size;
should, when bound to or from ports in Baltic Sea, avail
themselves of the services of deep sea pilots certified by a
competent authority of a Baltic coastal state.
2
Deep-sea pilots are available from various locations and
countries. For details of procedures see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(2) under the general remarks for
each individual country.
National pilotage
Sweden
1.51
1
General information. Pilotage is compulsory in Swedish
coastal waters and along certain routes connecting ports
along the coast. The vessels subject to compulsory pilotage
vary in size and type according to location. For this
purpose vessels are divided into the following categories:
Category 1. Vessels carrying, or with unclean tanks
which last carried:
(a) Liquefied gas.
2
(b) Liquid chemicals defined in Marpol 73
Supplement 2, Annex 2, as Category A, B or, if
the vessel does not have a double-skin hull under
all cargo tanks, Category C.
(c) Liquid chemicals which, according to IMO Bulk
Chemical Code, should be carried in Type 1 or 2
vessels.
Category 2. All other chemical tankers which are laden,
or have unclean tanks, and all laden tankers.
Category 3. All other vessels.
3
Large tankers. According to an agreement between the
Navigation Authority and a combination of the Swedish
Petroleum Institute and Owners Association, loaded oil
tankers which are employed by the Swedish oil companies,
with a draught of more than 12 m, or carrying more than
50 000 tonnes of petroleum products, must use the services
of a Swedish pilot on voyages in Baltic Sea N of latitude
55°25′N.
4
Exemption from the obligation to employ a pilot may be
granted by the navigation authority to the Master of a
specified vessel, when navigating in specified fairways,
depending on his familiarity with, and frequency of use of
those fairways, and his fluency in the Swedish language.
5
The coast of Sweden covered by this volume is divided
into pilotage districts as follows:
Pilot station Limits of the district
Stockholm 60°00′N and 59°00′N but excluding
Mälaren.
Mälaren 59°00′N and line bearing 154° through
58°48′N, 17°26′E.
CHAPTER 1
10
Pilot station Limits of the district
Landsort Pipskär 58°55′N 17°44′E to
58°46′N 17°29′E to 58°41′N 17°28′E to
58°36′N 17°53′E to 58°52′N 18°11′E to
58°51′N 18°07′E to 59°00′N 18°23′E to
59°04′N 18°19′E Stora Rotholmen.
Oxelösund Line bearing 154° through Rågön to
58°00′N.
Kalmarsund Line bearing 155° through Brömse
(56°19′N, 16°03′E) and 58°00′N. Served
by Västervik N of 57°25′N, Oskarshamn
between 57°25′N and 57°03′N, and
Kalmar S of 57°03′N.
Karlshamn Line through Brömse bearing 155° and
55°25′N.
Gotland Coastal waters of Gotland (57°38′N,
18°17′E).
6
All requests for pilots for Swedish waters, and any
subsequent amendments, are to be made to the appropriate
combined VTS/Pilot ordering centre. Within the area
covered by this volume, Karlshamn/Åhus district is
operated from VTS Malmö; Oxelösund, Kalmarsund and
Gotland districts from VTS Oxelösund; and Stockholm,
Mälaren and Landsort districts from VTS Stockholm.
7
Pilots should be requested from the appropriate VTS at
least 5 hours before arrival, with amendments notified at
least 3 hours before the original ETA.
Requests for Deep-Sea Pilots should be made 24 hours
in advance through a pilot station or via the Deep-Sea Pilot
central offices in Stockholm.
8
Classification of Pilots. Swedish Pilots are classified as
follows:
Local pilots. For a particular area or harbour.
Long distance pilots. For service in the open sea,
including North Sea and English Channel, which
connects with Swedish waters. One pilot is
normally provided with agreed rest periods. If
continuous attendance on the bridge over 12 hours
is required then two pilots will attend.
Ice pilots. Long distance pilots specially trained for
navigation through ice.
9
Ice pilotage. Requests for ice pilotage should be made
24 hours in advance through Stockholm pilot station. The
Icebreaker Directorate then decides, with regard to
prevailing and expected ice and weather development, and
the suitability of the vessel for ice navigation, whether the
vessel can expect assistance from an icebreaker, and
whether the vessel must then use an ice pilot.
For detailed information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(2).
Denmark
1.52
1
1. Pilotage is compulsory at all Danish harbours for the
following vessels, unless exempted by law:
Loaded oil tankers of 1500 dwt or over.
Loaded chemical tankers carrying dangerous liquid
chemicals covered by the IMO Chemical Code.
Gas tankers.
Vessels carrying radioactive cargoes.
Tankers with uncleaned tanks not secured by inert
gas.
2
2. Pilotage is compulsory for towed/towing vessels of
150 grt and over, or 28 m LOA or more, navigating in
dredged channels, marked navigation channels into
harbours, or at pilot stations (excluding manoeuvres within
a harbour).
3
3. Pilotage is also compulsory for certain vessels within
designated Danish harbours, fjords and bridges.
Other Danish harbours strongly recommend the use of
pilots.
Requests for pilots should be sent to the appropriate
pilot station at least 12 hours before the expected ETA with
confirmation 3 hours before ETA.
4
Within the limits of this volume there are pilot stations
located on Bornholm at Rønne (55°06′N, 14°42′E) and
Allinge (55°17′N, 14°48′E).
Deep-sea pilots should be ordered 18 hours in advance
through Bornholm Pilot at Allinge.
For full details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(2).
Germany
1.53
1
Pilotage is compulsory for the following vessels in the
German harbours described in this volume:
(a) Tankers carrying gas, chemicals, petroleum or
petroleum products.
(b) Unloaded tankers if not cleaned, gas freed, or
completely inerted, after having carried petroleum
or petroleum products with a flashpoint below
35°C.
2
(c) Stralsund North Approach — other vessels over
60 m LOA, 10 m beam or 3⋅3 m draught.
(d) Stralsund East Approach — other vessels over
85 m LOA, 13 m beam or 5 m draught.
These regulations also apply to Sassnitz/Mukran and
Wolgast, for which pilotage is provided by Stralsund.
Requests for pilots should be sent 6 hours before ETA at
pilot boarding position together with vessels details.
3
Licensed Deep-Sea Pilots are also available through the
German Pilotage Service.
For full details of requirements, and services available
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Poland
1.54
1
Pilotage is compulsory in all Polish ports for the
following vessels, unless a specific exemption has been
granted:
(a) All vessels with a length of 40 m or over.
(b) All vessels carrying dangerous cargoes regardless
of size.
(c) Any vessel which is damaged and any vessel,
which through exceptional circumstances, may
create a danger to navigation or a threat to the
environment.
2
Exemptions from the requirement to use a pilot may be
granted by the authorities at their sole discretion dependent
on certain criteria. Minor local variations to the regulations
may be applied which are shown at the individual port.
Licensed Deep-Sea Pilots are available through the
following pilot stations:
winoujcie; Szczecin; Gdynia.
For full details of requirements and services see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Russia
1.55
1
General information. Pilotage is compulsory for all
foreign vessels entering, leaving, or shifting within ports in
Russia which are open to foreign trade. Special regulations
CHAPTER 1
11
are in force with regard to naval vessels. Deep-Sea Pilots
can be requested from Sankt Peterburg.
For ports open to foreign trade see 1.104. For
regulations applying to naval vessels see 1.102.
2
Signals. The signals for a pilot are those laid down in
The International Code of Signals. If a pilot is available the
pilot flag will be displayed at the pilot look-out station and,
if none is available, a ball will be displayed.
Regulations. The following are extracts from the
Regulations concerning Government Marine Pilots:
1.Pilotage will be carried out exclusively by
Government Marine Pilots.
3
14.Areas of compulsory and non-compulsory
pilotage are published in port regulations,
Russian Pilots (Sailing Directions) and Notices
to Mariners.
17.The Port Captain has the right to prohibit the
movement of ships when safe pilotage is
hampered by weather conditions.
25.Pilots are obliged to observe all laws and
regulations and are not to allow soundings to be
taken in the fairway unless required by the pilot.
4
26.Pilots must indicate to the Master of the ship all
observed breaches of regulations and demand
their observance.
31.When embarking or disembarking a pilot,
communications must be maintained with the
pilot boat.
32.If an accident occurs when embarking or
disembarking a pilot, the shipowner is liable to
pay compensation.
5
33.In the event of bad weather the pilot boat, with
the agreement of the Master of the ship, may
lead the ship. During this operation constant
communication must be maintained with the
pilot boat.
35.The pilot will provide a copy of the port
regulations.
39.The presence of a pilot on a ship does not
remove from the Master his responsibility for
the safe conduct of the ship. The pilot will act
only in an advisory capacity.
6
40.If the Master refuses the pilot’s advice, the pilot
has the right to refuse pilotage, in which event
the pilot will demand that this is recorded in the
ship’s log and the pilotage account.
42.The pilot does not have the right to leave the
ship without the agreement of the Master before
it is in a safe anchorage, or mooring, or turned
over to another pilot.
There is one Russian pilot station within the area
covered by this volume, located at Kaliningrad.
Lithuania
1.56
1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels entering, leaving,
or shifting within ports in Lithuania. Under normal
circumstances and where practicable, an ETA should be
sent 12 days, 96 hours and 12 hours in advance. For oil,
gas and chemical tankers 14 days, 72 hours and 12 hours is
applicable.
2
Requests for pilots should be sent 12 hours in advance,
with confirmation 4 hours prior to arrival unless otherwise
advised in local port details.
Licensed Deep-Sea Pilots are available for Baltic Sea
through Klaip
da pilot station.
Latvia
1.57
1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels entering, leaving,
or shifting within ports in Latvia. Under normal
circumstances and where practicable, an ETA should be
sent 12 days, 96 hours and 12 hours in advance. For oil,
gas and chemical tankers 14 days, 72 hours and 12 hours is
applicable.
2
Requests for pilots should be sent 12 hours in advance,
with confirmation 4 hours prior to arrival unless otherwise
advised in local port details.
Licensed Deep-Sea Pilots are available for Baltic Sea
through Ventspils or Rga pilot stations.
Estonia
1.58
1
The pilot service forms part of the Estonian VTS which
is under the administration of the Estonian Maritime
Administration. Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign
vessels within the inner territorial waters of Estonia. Such
vessels may only proceed in established shipping routes or
channels. However, within Gulf of Rga, the use of
established shipping routes or channels is permissible
without the services of a pilot. Pleasure craft with a length
under 12 m are exempt from these regulations.
2
Requests for pilots should be made 24 hours before
arrival at the pilot boarding position. In addition, vessels
are required to request permission to berth 24 hours in
advance of arrival at the port.
Licensed Deep-Sea Pilots for Baltic Sea are available
through Tallinn pilot station.
RADIO FACILITIES
Electronic position fixing systems
Loran C
1.59
1
Most of the area covered by this volume lies to the E,
and outside the proposed coverage provided by the
Northwest European Loran C system.
As there is a need for a position fixing system of a
greater accuracy in this area, and the fact that Loran C
charts are not available, its use should be discounted for
practical purposes.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Satellite navigation systems
1.60
1
Global positioning system. The Navstar GPS, a military
satellite navigation system owned and operated by the
United States Department of Defense, provides world wide
position fixing.
The system is referenced to the datum of the World
Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and therefore positions
obtained must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of the
chart being used.
2
Global Navigation Satellite System. The Russian
Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) is similar
to GPS in that it is a space-based navigation system which
provides world wide position fixing.
The system is referenced to the Soviet Geocentric
Co-ordinate System 1990 (SGS90) and as for GPS
positions must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of
the chart being used.
3
DGPS compares the position of a fixed point, referred
to as the reference station, with positions obtained from a
CHAPTER 1
12
GPS receiver at that point. The resulting differences are
then broadcast as corrections to suitable receivers. The
system and services have been developed to overcome the
inherent and imposed limitations of GPS.
At the present time (2004), within the area covered by
this volume, Sweden, Denmark, and Poland operate
beacons transmitting DGPS corrections. In addition,
Estonia, Russia, Latvia and Lithuania are currently planning
operational beacons, or have beacons on trial.
4
Caution. Satellite navigation systems are under the
control of the owning nation which can impose selective
availability or downgrade the accuracy to levels less than
that available from terrestrial radio navigational systems.
Therefore, satellite based systems should only be utilised at
the user’s risk.
For full details of these systems see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 2.
Other radio aids to navigation
1.61
1
There are numerous racons transmitting in the area
covered by this volume, both as aids to offshore and
coastal navigation and entry into harbours. For details see
Admiralty List of Radio Volume 2. Those aids which are
pertinent to coastal and inshore navigation are included
within the navigational text.
Radio stations
1.62
1
For full details of all coast and port radio stations which
transmit within in the area covered by this volume, together
with the services provided, see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(1).
Radio navigational warnings
NAVAREA I warnings
1.63
1
The area covered by this pilot lies within the limits of
NAVAREA I. Details of warnings and a list of those in
force are issued by the Co-ordinator NAVAREA I, United
Kingdom Hydrographic Office through Admiralty Notices to
Mariners. The Baltic Sea Sub-Area Co-ordinator is the
National Maritime Administration, Hydrographic
Department, Sweden. National Co-ordinators within this
Sub-Area are located in Latvia, Poland and Russia.
2
NAVAREA I Warnings are broadcast through:
1.SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling International
SafetyNET).
2.NAVTEX. Depending upon the area affected,
NAVAREA I Warnings may also be transmitted
through Navtex.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Volume 3(1).
Coastal navigational warnings
1.64
1
Coastal navigational warnings issued by National
Co-ordinators, covering a region or portion of the
NAVAREA I Baltic Sea Sub-Area, are broadcast in both
English and in the national language, through national coast
radio stations. For full details of broadcasts see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 1(1) and Volume 3(1).
Local warnings
1.65
1
Local warnings cover the area within the limits of
jurisdiction of a harbour or port authority and may be
issued by those authorities. They may be issued in the
national language only and supplement the coastal warnings
by giving information which the ocean-going ship may
normally not require. For full broadcast details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1).
Radio weather and ice services
1.66
1
With the exception of Latvia and Lithuania, and Russia
which uses only the Russian language, weather messages,
including storm warnings and ice reports, are broadcast
both in English and in the national language of the country
concerned, through the national coast radio stations of the
countries within the area covered by this pilot.
2
Weather bulletins and ice information are also available
through telephone, telefax, telex or e-mail from some
National Meteorological and Ice Service Authorities within
the area covered by this pilot.
For coast radio stations and details of these services see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(1) and
Volume 3(1).
Radio medical advice
1.67
1
Requests for medical assistance in the area covered by
this volume will be accepted by most of the coast radio
stations in Germany, Poland, Russia, Latvia, Denmark and
Sweden.
For further information, and for details of the coast radio
stations which offer this service see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(1).
Automatic Identification System
General
1.68
1
AIS is designed to contribute to the safety of navigation,
enhance protection of the marine environment and improve
the monitoring of passing traffic by coastal states. A phased
implementation programme is underway (2004) on various
classes of vessel and at certain establishments ashore. For
further details see The Mariners Handbook and Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volumes 2 and 6(2).
Distress and rescue
1.69
1
See 1.153.
REGULATIONS
International regulations
General
1.70
1
Restrictions on anchoring. No vessel, unless in an
emergency situation, may anchor, or lie at anchor on the
lines of leading lights, in the fixed white sectors of lights,
or such that, in the event of swinging may lie in a position
which could obstruct safe navigation.
Submarine cables and pipelines
1.71
1
The area covered by this volume is crossed by a number
of submarine cables and pipelines connecting different
countries, individual islands and the mainland. These are
shown on the chart. However, where pipelines are close
together, only one may be charted.
2
In Swedish waters it is prohibited to anchor on or in the
vicinity of submarine cables and pipelines laid in the water.
The positions of cables are usually marked by beacons,
CHAPTER 1
13
boards or buoys, but the prohibition may not always be
indicated on the chart. This prohibition applies equally to
both power and telegraph cables.
In Danish waters a protection zone is established which
extends 200 m on each side of pipelines and cables.
Anchoring and bottom fishing is prohibited within this
zone.
3
In Russian waters protection zones are established
extending 100 m on either side of all submarine pipelines.
Within these zones it is prohibited to carry out any type of
operation, particularly anchoring, fishing or dredging, which
could interfere with the normal operation of the pipeline.
Latvian regulations prohibit, in areas where submarine
cables and pipelines are located, anchoring, sea-bed
trawling, underwater dredging and blasting, and any other
activity which could cause damage.
4
Caution. Mariners are advised not to anchor or trawl in
the vicinity of pipelines. Gas from a damaged oil or gas
pipeline could cause an explosion, loss of a vessel’s
buoyancy or other serious hazard. Pipelines are not always
buried and may effectively reduce the charted depth by up
to 2 m. They may also span seabed undulations and cause
fishing gear to become irrecoverably snagged, putting a
vessel in severe danger. See Annual Notice to Mariners
No 24 and The Mariner’s Handbook.
Pollution
1.72
1
The International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships, 1973, modified by the Protocol of
1978 and known as MARPOL 73/78, is summarised in The
Mariner’s Handbook. Annexes I, II and V of the
convention are mandatory, Annex III is optional, and
Annex IV, having been incorporated in the Helsinki
Convention, is mandatory within the limits of this volume.
2
The Baltic Sea is defined as a Special Area for the
purposes of the Convention.
Annex I prohibits any discharge of oil or oil mixtures
into the special area.
Annex II deals with Noxious Liquid Substances in
bulk.
3
Annex III deals with Harmful Substances carried at
sea in Packaged Form.
Annex IV prohibits the discharge of sewage into the
Special Area.
Annex V regulates the discharge of garbage from
ships and contains special provisions for the Baltic
Sea.
Annex VI deals with air pollution from vessels: Baltic
Sea is designated as a SOx Emission Control Area.
4
Arrangements for the reception and discharge of oil
residues from ships exist in certain ports covered in this
volume. Vessels requiring such facilities should give details
of requirements at least 24 hours in advance.
Reporting requirements for vessels carrying
dangerous and polluting goods
1.73
1
European Community. See 1.79.
1.74
1
Russia. Russian pollution regulations prohibit, with
severe penalties, discharge within Russian waters of oil, oil
products, noxious materials or any other substance which
may be harmful to human health and the environment.
Failure to inform the nearest Russian authority of
accidental or emergency discharge of polluting substances,
as described in the MARPOL 73/78 Convention, within the
territorial and internal waters of Russia, and failure to note
the occurrence in the ships log, carries severe penalties.
2
Russian merchant vessels and civil aircraft are instructed
to inform Russian authorities of witnessed infringements of
the Russian regulations and of the international regulations.
Within the territorial and internal waters of Russia
vessels suspected of infringing the regulations are liable to
be stopped, boarded and inspected. If an infringement has
taken place within those waters, the vessel is liable to be
detained.
European Community regulations
Directive 2002/59/EC
1.75
1
General information. This Directive establishes a
common vessel traffic monitoring and information system
throughout European Community (EC) waters. The
principal provisions are described below. They apply in
general to all commercial vessels over 300 grt but the rules
concerning the notification of carriage of dangerous and
polluting goods applies to all vessels regardless of size.
2
Caution. These extracts are for reference purposes only
and are not to be regarded as a statement of the applicable
law. The full text of the regulations is the sole authoritative
statement of the applicable law and it is recommended that
it is consulted. The regulations to which the following
refers is Directive 2002/59/EC or the appropriate enabling
legislation drafted by individual member states.
1.76
1
Ship reports. All vessels bound for a port within the
EC must report to the port authority at least 24 hours prior
arrival, or, if the voyage is less than 24 hours, no later than
the time of departure from the previous port. The report
shall include the following information:
Name, call sign, IMO or MMSI number.
Port of destination.
ETA and ETD at port of destination.
Total number of persons onboard.
2
Upon receipt of a ship’s report, the port authority will
notify the national coastguard authority by the quickest
means possible. This information will then be pooled in the
European-wide telematic network called SafeSeaNet.
Any amendments to the initial ship report must be
notified immediately.
3
Mandatory ship reporting systems. All vessels shall
report to the coastguard authority on entering an IMO
adopted mandatory ship reporting system, the report being
made in the recognised format (see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(2)). The coastguard authority is to be
informed of any changes to the initial report.
1.77
1
VTS. All vessels are to participate in and comply with
VTS systems operated by EC member states and also those
systems operated by member states in conjunction with
co-operating non-member states. This includes those
systems operated by member states outside their territorial
waters but which are operated in accordance with IMO
guidelines.
Routeing Schemes. All vessels must comply with IMO
recommended TSS and Deep Water route regulations. (See
IMO publication Ships’ Routeing Guide).
1.78
1
AIS and VDR. All vessels are to be equipped with AIS
and VDR. The systems shall be in operation at all times.
By 2008 individual coastguard stations throughout the
EC are required to be able to receive AIS information and
to relay it to all other coastguard stations within the EC.
CHAPTER 1
14
1.79
1
Notification of dangerous and polluting goods. All
vessels leaving an EC port are to report dangerous and
polluting goods as specified within the Directive to the
harbour authority. Vessels arriving from outside EC waters
must transmit a report to their first EC port or anchorage
upon departure from their port of loading. If, at the time of
departure, the port of destination in the EC is not known,
the report must be forwarded immediately such information
becomes known. Where practical, this report is to be made
electronically and must include the information described in
Annex 1(3) of the Directive.
2
When a harbour authority receives a dangerous or
polluting cargo report, it shall retain the report for use in
the event of an incident or accident at sea, forwarding it
whenever requested by the national coastguard authority.
1.80
1
Reporting of Incidents and Accidents. Whenever a
vessel is involved with one of the following, the coastguard
authority of the EC coastal state is to be informed
immediately;
(a) any incident or accident affecting the safety of the
ship;
(b) any incident or accident which compromises
shipping safety, such as a failure likely to affect a
ship’s manoeuverability or seaworthiness;
2
(c) any event liable to pollute the waters or shores of
the coastal state;
(d) The sighting of a slick of polluting material or
drifting containers and packages.
The owner of a vessel, who has been informed by the
master that one of the above has occured, must inform the
coastguard and render any assistance that may be required.
1.81
1
Measures to be taken in the event of exceptionally
bad weather or sea conditions. If, on the advice of the
national meteorological office, the coastguard authority
deems a threat of pollution or a risk to human life exists
due to impending severe weather, the coastguard authority
will attempt to inform the master of every vessel about to
enter or leave port as to the nature of the weather and the
dangers it may cause.
2
Without prejudice to measures taken to give assistance
to vessels in distress, the coastguard may take such
measures as it considers appropriate to avoid a threat of
pollution or a risk to human life. The measures may
include:
(a) a recommendation or a prohibition on entry or
departure from a port;
(b) a recommendation limiting, or, if necessary,
prohibiting the bunkering of ships in territorial
waters.
3
The master is to inform his owners of any measures or
recommendations initiated by the coastguard. If, as a result
of his professional judgement, the master decides not to act
in accordance with measures taken by the coastguard, he
shall inform the coastguard of his reasons for not doing so.
1.82
1
Measures relating to incidents or accidents at sea.
The coastguard authority will take measures to ensure the
safety of shipping and of persons and to protect the marine
and coastal environment. Measures available to EC states
include;
(a) a restriction on the movement of a ship or an
instruction to follow a specific course.
(b) a notification to put an end to the threat to the
environment or maritime safety;
2
(c) send an evaluation team aboard a ship to assess the
degree of risk and to help the master remedy the situation;
(d) instruct the master to put in at a place of refuge in
the event of imminent peril, or, cause the ship to be piloted
or towed.
The owner of the ship and the owner of the dangerous
or polluting goods onboard must cooperate with the
coastguard authority when requested to do so.
1.83
1
Places of refuge. EC states are required to designate
places of refuge where a vessel which has undergone an
accident or is in distress can receive rapid and effective
assistance to avoid environmental pollution. See also 1.155.
Traffic Separation Schemes
1.84
1
See IMO publication Ships’ Routeing for general
provisions on ship routeing. Within the limits of this
volume the following TSS are IMO adopted and regulations
for navigating in these schemes are contained in Rule 10 of
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972):
Off Öland Island (56°04′⋅2N, 16°41′⋅0E).
Off Gotland Island (56°47′⋅5N, 18°22′⋅4E).
Off Kõpu poolsaar (58°56′⋅4N, 22°03′⋅3), the W side
of Hiiumaa.
2
Approaches to Stockholm — Sandhamn Entrance:
59°19′⋅3N, 18°48′⋅0E.
59°22′⋅0N, 18°45′⋅6E.
59°22′⋅5N, 18°35′⋅8E.
59°26′⋅2N, 18°23′⋅2E.
59°21′⋅5N, 18°26′⋅5E.
3
There is also a TSS, not adopted by IMO, established by
the Government of Poland, in the approaches to Gdask
and Gdynia (54°32′⋅0N, 18°48′⋅5E).
Border controls
1.85
1
The Schengen Convention is an association of European
Union and Nordic countries established to increase freedom
of movement between participating states, while
strengthening border controls with other nations. Within the
area covered by this volume, Sweden, Denmark and
Germany are members of the Convention.
Vessels intending to enter a port of a member country
are required to give advance notification to the appropriate
Coast Guard command centre no later than 24 hours before
arrival at the port using the form Notification in Advance
(6 hours notice is required for fishing vessels).
The form is available from the Coast Guard or on the
internet; e.g. for Sweden: www.kustbevakningen.se.
Swedish regulations
Sea surveillance centres and traffic areas
1.86
1
Naval Sea Surveillance Centres. The main duty of
these centres is to gather and study information concerning
all activities at sea. The centres monitor VHF channel 16
continuously. The area covered by this volume is monitored
by the surveillance centres located at:
Muskö (59°02′N, 18°07′E), covering the area from
Brämön (62°12′N, 17°43′E) to Västervik (57°45′N,
16°39′E).
Karlskrona (56°10′N, 15°35′E), covering the area
from Västervik to Ystad (55°26′N, 13°50′E).
2
Sea Traffic Areas. The Swedish Navigational Office is
organised into 13 Sea Traffic Areas together with four
CHAPTER 1
15
Maritime Inspection Areas. In the area covered by this
volume the Maritime Inspection Areas are Stockholm and
Malmö.
The sea traffic areas comprise Stockholm, controlled
from Stockholm; Mälaren, controlled from Södertälje;
Bråviken, controlled from Oxelösund; Gotland, controlled
from Visby; Kalmarsund, controlled from Oskarshamn and
Hanöbukten, controlled from Karlshamn.
Restricted military areas
1.87
1
Within Swedish waters several military protected areas
have been established to protect defence installations and
places which have special significance for the defence of
Sweden.
2
Under normal circumstances, in peacetime, foreign
citizens and foreign vessels have freedom of access and the
right to remain in these areas without the need for special
permission. However in times of increased military
preparedness, or at other times which may be decreed by
the Swedish government, special regulations and restrictions
apply. Details of when and where these special regulations
are to be applied will be announced in Swedish Notices to
Mariners.
3
The restricted and semi-restricted areas within the area
covered by this volume, the limits of which are shown on
the charts, are as follows:
Karlskrona restricted area (3.197), which covers all
the approaches to Karlskrona and includes the
islands of Hasslö (56°06′N, 15°27′E), on the W
side, thence E and SE to include Sturkö (56°06′N,
15°40′E) and Utlängan (56°01′N, 15°47′E).
4
Gotland restricted area (2.203) which includes the NE
part of Gotland, E of approximately 18°55′E,
Fårösund (57°50′N, 19°00′E), and the SW side of
Fårö, excepting the marked channel through
Fårösund.
Landsort restricted area (58°47′N, 18°00′E) (7.17),
which extends NE from the vicinity of Landsort to
the N point of Nåttarö (58°53′N, 18°08′E).
5
Muskö restricted area (59°02′N, 18°07′E) (7.17),
which encloses the island and the waters W to the
mainland.
Huvudskär restricted area (58°59′N, 18°29′E) (7.17),
which extends WNW from Huvudskär to the N
point of Utö (58°57′N, 18°15′E) and the S part of
Ornö (59°05′N, 18°26′E).
6
Mörtö-Bunsön restricted area (7.17), bounded N by
Mörtö-Bunsön (59°08′N, 18°35′E) and S by
Kvarnön (2 miles SSW).
The area between the Landsort, Muskö and Huvudskär
restricted areas is known as the Utö Semi-restricted Area.
Special regulations
1.88
1
Vessels in Swedish territorial waters, when in company
with Swedish warships in daylight or when within 1 mile of
restricted or semi-restricted areas, are required to hoist their
national flag. When at anchor in company with Swedish
warships the national flag must be hauled down.
2
Vessels may be hailed by Swedish maritime, air or
defence authorities using signal SO or L of The
International Code of Signals, and required to alter course
or stop. They may also be boarded or instructed to enter
harbour for examination. Restriction may also be ordered
on the use of the vessels’ radios. The Master is responsible
for taking into custody such items as cameras and
binoculars which could be used for intelligence purposes.
Speed regulations
1.89
1
Special regulations are in force for passage under certain
bascule and fixed bridges, and for speed limits to be
observed in certain waterways and fairways. Jetties, harbour
installations and moored boats are to be passed at the
slowest possible speed compatible with safe navigation in
order to minimise risk of wash damage.
2
In the inner coastal waters of Sweden special rules are
in force for the marking of ice channels and ice bridges,
and speed restrictions normally apply.
Details of restrictions are given in the appropriate part of
the geographical text of this volume.
Customs
1.90
1
The Swedish Customs Administration is mainly
concerned with external factors connected with the import
and export of goods within the excise policies imposed by
the State. In the modern era these activities are mainly
centred on a control and checking system to implement the
regulations for the protection of life, health and the
environment. The country is divided into seven customs
regions of which Stockholm is the central office for this
volume. Each region is subdivided into districts with
customs houses at various ports.
2
Customs vessels and boats show, in addition to the
Swedish flag, a light-blue standard, with a T under a
crown, both in yellow. At night customs vessels show an
alternate yellow and blue light from a duplex lantern. If a
merchant vessel fails to stop when the above mentioned
flag or light is shown, the Customs vessel will hoist flag K
of The International Code of Signals, or make the letter K
in morse code by signal lamp or searchlight. In addition
she may, if the signal is disregarded, fire a blank charge or
sound a succession of short blasts on the siren or whistle.
Danish regulations
Coastal waters
1.91
1
Under certain circumstances regulations governing
navigation in Danish coastal waters may be introduced.
During military manoeuvres or regular exercises it may be
necessary to prohibit entry to inner waters as specified. In
these cases a warning signal consisting of three red balls
by day, and three red lights vertically disposed by night,
will be displayed at conspicuous positions on shore. Patrol
vessels will exhibit similar signals and may carry the pilot
flag.
2
Vessels in Danish territorial waters must display their
national flag, by day and night, and, if wishing to enter or
leave territorial waters, on observing the warning signals,
display the pilot flag and await the arrival of the patrol or
pilot vessel. These vessels will give information on the
location of the examination service, areas closed to
navigation and any special rules in force within these areas.
Vessels leaving harbour should obtain any information
on restrictions in force before leaving.
Inner waters
1.92
1
Certain additions and modifications are authorised to
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972), in Danish inner waters. The term inner waters
includes rivers, lakes, canals, harbour areas, bays and
CHAPTER 1
16
fjords, and those parts of the territorial waters which inside
and between the islands, islets and reefs which are not
always covered by the sea. The following variations include
the more important:
2
Vessels being towed, when the length of tow does not
exceed 200 m may, instead of the lights required
by Rule 24 (e), exhibit one all-round white light
instead of the prescribed lights, visible for a
distance of at least 1 mile.
Chain ferries shall exhibit three red lights, in the form
of an equilateral triangle, point up. Such ferries
must not exhibit any other navigation lights.
3
A vessel navigating stern first, other than for a short
manoeuvre, shows two black balls, horizontally
disposed, where they can best be seen, and by
night, the lights prescribed by the International
Regulations, place to conform with the direction in
which the vessel is actually proceeding, i.e. the
stern of the vessel is considered to be her bow.
4
Dredgers, when anchored or underway in poor
visibility shall, in addition to the signals prescribed
by the International Regulations, give a signal to
indicate on which side they are to be passed:
Bell signal Meaning
At least six strokes Inbound vessel to leave dredger to
port.
Outbound vessel to leave dredger to
starboard.
At least six double
strokes
Inbound vessel to leave dredger to
starboard.
Outbound vessel to leave dredger to
port.
5
Vessels must not, except in extreme emergency,
anchor, or lie at anchor, on the alignment of
leading lights or leading beacons, or in the white
fixed sectors of directional lights, nor so close to
such alignments and bearings, that by swinging
they will hamper the safe navigation of other
vessels.
6
A vessel which has grounded or is in a narrow
channel, causing a hindrance to navigation, shall
make every effort to refloat as soon as possible.
Warps which cross the channel must be slackened
to allow vessels to pass and the use of the
propeller must not cause damage to the banks of
the channel.
7
In a very narrow channel, where two meeting vessels
are unable to pass each other without danger, the
inbound vessel shall stop to allow the other vessel
to pass unless there is a local regulation to the
contrary.
German regulations
Traffic regulations
1.93
1
Germany claims a Territorial Sea limit of 12 miles,
within which International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972) apply. In addition, within the area
between the coastline and a limit 3 miles to seaward,
including areas covered by buoyed seaways outside the
3 mile limit, German National Traffic Regulations for
Navigable Waters (SeeSchStrO) also apply.
2
The main difference between the national regulations
and the International Regulations is that vessels navigating
in a fairway have the right of way over vessels entering,
crossing or turning within that fairway or leaving an
anchorage or berth.
In addition, the International Regulations concerning the
conduct of vessels in restricted visibility are altered, in that
under some circumstances vessels in radar contact are
considered as vessels in sight of one another.
3
Attention is drawn to The Mariner’s Handbook which
states that publication of the details of a law or regulation
is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and
implies no recognition of the international validity of the
law or regulation.
Navigable Waterways Ordinance
1.94
1
The Navigable Waterways Ordinance (Publication
Seeschiffahrtsttrassen-Ordnung (SeeSchStrO)) comprises
special traffic regulations which are in force in the waters
of the Federal Republic of Germany. They include a
complete section of additional regulations concerning the
Nord-Ostsee Kanal, which is described in North Sea (East)
Pilot. Mariners navigating in these waters without the aid
of a pilot should make themselves familiar with these
regulations.
2
The publication Waterways and Shipping Regulations —
North (Bekanntmachungen der Wasser-und
Schiffarhtsdirektionen Nord (WSD Nord)) lists the
applications of SeeSchStrO by the regional authorities to
their own areas.
1.95
1
Area covered. The waters inside the 3 mile limit
including Greifswalder Bodden and the E approaches to
Stralsund.
1.96
1
Definitions. The starboard side of a fairway is that
which is on the right hand of a vessel when entering from
seaward, and the port hand is that which is on the left hand
under the same circumstances. If however, a channel
connects two areas of sea, or two stretches of water,
separated from one another by shallow banks, the side of
the channel which will be on the right-hand of the mariner
approaching from a N or W direction is defined as the
starboard side of the channel. Where doubt may exist, due
to the tortuous nature of such a channel, the definition as
applied to the most N entrance applies throughout the
channel.
2
A “right-of-way vessel” is one which is obliged by her
draught, length, or other characteristic to keep to the
deepest part of the fairway.
1.97
1
Extracts from the regulations. Some of the more
important regulations are listed below:
a) Vessels are normally to navigate on the right of
the fairway. In specified places certain vessels,
including “right-of-way vessels” are authorised to
navigate on the left.
2
b) Overtaking is normally on the left and is only
allowed where traffic and space permit. The
manoeuvre should only be undertaken on receipt
of an acknowledgement from the vessel being
overtaken. Overtaking is prohibited in the vicinity
of ferry crossings, in narrow channels and at blind
bends, in the vicinity of locks and on certain
stretches of water designated by the competent
shipping police authority.
3
c) Vessels meeting normally give way to the right.
On meeting, “right-of-way vessels” and certain
other hampered vessels have the right-of-way. On
CHAPTER 1
17
meeting at a narrow place, including a narrow
bridge or flood barrage opening, the vessel which
is proceeding with the stream or current has the
right of way. Where there is no stream or current
the vessel which is obliged by the rules to use the
starboard side of the fairway has right of way.
4
d) Vessels navigating in a fairway have right of way
of vessels entering, crossing, turning in or getting
under way in the fairway. In designated narrow
channels the vessel which is proceeding with the
stream or current has right of way.
e) Vessels shall proceed at such a speed as is
appropriate to the existing traffic conditions and
characteristics of the waterway, such that she can
be stopped safely and in good time.
5
f) Other than in the designated roadsteads, anchoring
is prohibited in the fairway, in narrow places,
within 300 m of wrecks, obstructions, cables and
pipelines etc, or (in poor visibility) of overhead
cables.
g) In narrow channels, vessels of 20 m or over in
length, shall have an anchor cleared for immediate
use.
6
h) The prior approval of the appropriate navigation
authority is required for the passage of vessels
carrying dangerous cargoes, including tankers
carrying gas, chemicals, oil and oil products with
a flashpoint below 35°C, unloaded tankers not yet
cleaned, degassed or completely inerted, and
nuclear-powered vessels.
Polish regulations
Traffic regulations
1.98
1
The following are extracts from the more important
navigation regulations:
Vessels should show, at all times, such lights or
shapes as may be required by International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972).
Vessels in Polish territorial waters must display their
national flag, by day and night.
2
Vessels entering port must give way to those leaving
port unless otherwise directed by the Harbour
Master.
A vessel which has grounded in a harbour or
navigable channel and is making efforts to refloat
by herself, or with the aid of a tug must, on the
approach of other vessels, cease operations until
the other vessel is clear.
3
When two vessels are approaching a bridge, where
there is insufficient room for each to pass safely,
the inbound vessel must wait for the outbound
vessel to pass first.
4
Vessels underway in shipping lanes or channels must
have at least one anchor ready for use at all times.
Vessels must not, except in extreme emergency,
anchor, or lie at anchor, on the alignment of
leading lights or leading beacons, or in the white
fixed sectors of directional lights, nor so close to
such alignments and bearings, that by swinging
they will hamper the safe navigation of other
vessels. If emergency anchoring is necessary the
Harbour Master’s office must be informed
immediately, giving full details, and leave the
temporary anchorage as soon as possible.
5
Dredgers, vessels engaged in underwater operations
and other vessels in working in shipping channels,
when anchored or underway in poor visibility
shall, in addition to the signals prescribed by the
International Regulations, give a signal to indicate
on which side they are to be passed:
Bell signal Meaning
Five single strokes
and one double
Vessel to leave dredger or other craft
to port, when viewed from seaward.
Five single strokes
and two double
Vessel to leave dredger or other craft
to starboard, when viewed from
seaward.
Border Guard
1.99
1
The Border Guard is established to uphold the integrity
of the national borders, including the territorial and inland
waters of Poland, and to monitor and police all mandatory
regulations. They have the power to stop and inspect
vessels, and if necessary, force any vessel to enter port.
Warning signals indicating that a vessel must stop after
violations of the regulations are the firing of two green
flares, and two green lights, displayed from the mast of the
guard vessel. Failure to comply may result in the offending
vessel being fired upon.
2
Signals. Vessels belonging to the Border Guard, when
on duty, will exhibit by day, the Polish flag and the flag of
the Border guard. By night they exhibit two all-round fixed
green lights, vertically disposed, above the mast light
prescribed in the International Regulations. Vessels which,
by reason of their construction, are unable to comply with
the regulations, will exhibit an all round flashing green
light. In addition, such vessels will have an additional
marking consisting of a diagonal red strip with a yellow
circle, painted on the hull.
Port closed signals
1.100
1
Vessels are obliged to obey the following signals which
are shown to indicate that entry to a port is closed due to a
serious danger to navigational safety:
a) By night — three red lights, vertically disposed.
b) By day — three black balls, vertically disposed.
During normal conditions the following signals are
displayed to indicate that port entry or leaving port are
prohibited, or in addition, harbour traffic is suspended:
2
Entry prohibited:
By night — a white light between two red lights,
vertically disposed.
By day — three black balls, vertically disposed.
Leaving prohibited:
By night — white light between two green lights,
vertically disposed.
3
By day — black cone, point up, between two black
cones, points down, vertically disposed.
Entry and leaving prohibited together with suspension of
harbour traffic:
By night — green, white and red lights, vertically
disposed with green uppermost.
By day — two black cones, points together, and a
black ball, vertically disposed.
Russian regulations
Economic zone
1.101
1
The Government of Russia claims an economic zone
extending 200 miles seaward from the limits of its
CHAPTER 1
18
territorial sea. Within this economic zone the Government
of Russia issues regulations in connection with, and for the
control of the following:
2
Exploitation and conservation of resources found on
or below the seabed and in the waters above it,
including anadromic fish (those that ascend rivers
to spawn). Catching of anadromic types of fish is
permitted only as a result of inter-governmental
agreement.
Marine scientific research.
3
Pollution of the marine environment. These
regulations are in accordance with the MARPOL
73/78 Convention. There are also regulations for
the inspection of vessels suspected of causing
pollution and there are penalties for infringements.
See 1.74.
Freedom of passage for ships and aircraft through the
economic zone is assured. For the latest information see
Annual Summary of Notices to Mariners.
Entry into territorial and internal waters
1.102
1
Foreign naval vessels. Warships intending to enter the
waters of Russia or to visit Russian ports should obtain a
copy of Regulations for foreign naval vessels navigating
and remaining in the territorial or internal waters of
Russia or visiting Russian ports. These regulations are
published as a Russian Annual Notice to Mariners.
2
Proposals to visit Russian ports should be forwarded
through the Russian Ministry of Affairs not less than
30 days prior to the suggested visit. This rule does not
apply to warships on which heads of government or heads
of state are embarked, or to ships accompanying them.
3
Ships whose approach is necessitated by foul weather or
engine failure which threatens the safety of the ship, must
inform the nearest port of the reason for entry, and if
possible, go to a recognised port open to foreign merchant
vessels or to a point indicated by the vessel sent to aid or
meet them.
For information on ports open to foreign merchant
vessels see 1.104.
1.103
1
Foreign merchant vessels. Foreign non-military vessels
enjoy the right of innocent passage through Russian
territorial waters in accordance with Russian laws and
international treaties. Innocent passage is effected by
crossing them without entering Russia’s internal waters, or
by passing through them enroute to or from Russian ports
open to foreign vessels.
2
While effecting innocent passage vessels must follow the
customary navigational course or course recommended
through sea corridors or in accordance with traffic
separation schemes. The Master of a foreign non-military
vessel which has violated the rules of innocent passage is
accountable under Russian legislation.
For further information see article concerning territorial
waters in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Russian ports of entry
1.104
1
Foreign merchant vessels are permitted only to call at
one of the recognised ports of entry where Customs
stations are established. In the area covered by this volume
the only port of entry is Kaliningrad.
Preliminary notice of arrival
1.105
1
The owner or Master of a vessel should send
preliminary information concerning his vessel and cargo to
the appropriate agency, at the port of destination not less
than 12 days (14 days for tankers, gas carriers, and vessels
loaded with liquid chemicals) prior to arrival. In this
preliminary notice the following information is required by
port authorities:
1.Name and flag of vessel.
2
2.Port of departure (last port of call).
3.Vessels draught at bow and stern.
4.Cargo capacity of vessel, volume of holds etc.
5.Name, quantity and distribution of cargo by hold
or tank (in addition, for tankers, type and
distribution of ballast).
6.Requirements for port services.
3
Information concerning the vessels sanitation state must
be reported in accordance with current sanitation, veterinary
and quarantine regulations. See 1.115.
In addition Masters must indicate that the vessel has
certification which guarantees civil responsibility for
damage from oil pollution.
Notification of ETA
1.106
1
Estimated time of arrival should be forwarded to port of
destination and agency at least 96 hours in advance
followed by confirmation 12 hours before arrival. Oil, gas
and chemical tankers should confirm their ETA 72 hours
and 12 hours before arrival. See also Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Other reports
1.107
1
A vessels arrival in port must be registered directly with
the port authority or with a representative of the Transport
Fleet Maintenance Service, within the first 6 hours in port,
completing sanitation, quarantine, customs and border
formalities.
On sailing, the port authority must be informed of
intended departure at least 6 hours in advance. During a
short term anchorage, less than 6 hours, at least 2 hours
notice is required.
Observance of regulations
1.108
1
All foreign vessels, when within territorial or internal
waters of Russia, must observe radio communication,
navigational, port, customs, sanitary and other regulations.
For special regulations concerning the use of radio by
foreign vessels in Russian territorial waters see Admiralty
List of Radio Volume 6(2).
2
In the event of a emergency entry into territorial waters
or emergency non-observance of rules for navigation and
stay in these waters, foreign vessels must immediately
notify the nearest Russian port authority.
Customs
1.109
1
Before customs inspection commences the Master of a
vessel must complete or present the following information:
(i) A general declaration.
(ii) A cargo declaration.
(iii) A declaration of the personal effects of the
crewmembers.
2
(iv) Crew lists.
(v) Passenger lists.
CHAPTER 1
19
(vi) A manifest containing a Bill of Lading and list
of documents relating to the cargo, plus other
ships documents as required by the customs
service.
(vii) A foreign currency and valuables list.
Until the customs inspection is completed no person
may enter or leave the ship.
Protection of pipelines
1.110
1
The Russian authorities have established protection zones
in the vicinity of underwater pipelines, which transport any
types of product, in order to ensure normal operating
conditions and to exclude the possibility of damage, within
the following parameters:
2
Along the underwater passage of pipelines, namely
the section of the water column from the surface
to the seabed, lying between parallel planes
stretching 100 m from the axis of the pipeline on
both sides.
3
Within the protected zones it is prohibited to engage in
any type of operation which could interfere with, or
endanger the pipeline. In particular these include anchoring,
crossing the zone with a trailing anchor, chain or sounding
lead, casting nets or trawls and dredging the seabed.
Latvian regulations
Continental shelf and economic zone
1.111
1
The continental shelf of Latvia is the surface of the
seabed and the deep underwater areas in close proximity to
its shoreline, but outside the boundaries of her territorial
waters.
2
The Government of Latvia claims an economic zone
extending 200 miles seaward from the limits of its
territorial waters. The boundaries of the continental shelf
and the claimed economic zone are in accordance with the
international treaties concluded with Estonia, Lithuania and
Sweden. Within these zones Latvia claims sovereign rights
and issues regulations to control the following:
3
Exploitation and conservation of resources found on
or below the seabed and in the waters above it,
including anadromic fish (those that ascend rivers
to spawn). Catching of anadromic types of fish is
permitted only as a result of inter-governmental
agreement.
Marine scientific research.
4
Pollution of the marine environment. These
regulations are in accordance with the MARPOL
73/78 Convention. There are also regulations for
the inspection of vessels suspected of causing
pollution and there are penalties for infringements
which may include detention of the vessel.
Freedom of passage for ships through the economic zone
is assured. For the latest information see Annual Summary
of Notices to Mariners.
Entry into territorial and internal waters
1.112
1
Foreign naval vessels may enter Latvian territorial
waters in accordance with the procedures laid down by the
government, and may also remain in these waters, on the
surface and flying the national flag of its country of origin.
Lithuanian regulations
Continental shelf and Economic zone
1.113
1
The continental shelf of Lithuania is the surface of the
seabed and the deep underwater areas in close proximity to
its shoreline, but outside the boundaries of her territorial
waters.
2
The Government of Lithuania claims an exclusive
economic zone extending 200 miles seaward from the limits
of its territorial waters. The boundaries of the continental
shelf and the claimed economic zone are in accordance
with the international treaties concluded with Estonia,
Latvia and Sweden.
Estonian regulations
Continental shelf and Economic zone
1.114
1
The continental shelf of Estonia is the surface of the
seabed and the deep underwater areas in close proximity to
its shoreline, but outside the boundaries of her territorial
waters.
2
The Government of Estonia claims an exclusive
economic zone extending 200 miles seaward from the limits
of its territorial waters. The boundaries of the continental
shelf and the claimed economic zone are in accordance
with the international treaties concluded with Lithuania,
Latvia and Sweden.
The maritime boundary between Estonia and Latvia in
Gulf of Rga and Irbe Strait is defined by an international
treaty between the two countries.
Quarantine
1.115
1
Vessels arriving at any of the ports covered by this
volume are subject to the national quarantine regulations.
Quarantine is enforced in accordance with International
Health Regulations, 1969. Vessels entering territorial waters
from abroad should hoist the appropriate International Code
signal flag by day, and a red light over a white light at
night. Communication with the shore is prohibited until the
vessel has been visited by a Port Health official and
pratique has been granted.
2
A special signal code has been internationally adopted
for sending Radio Pratique Messages. This code forms part
of The International Code of Signals and is given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(1), which also
lists the authorities to whom the signal should be
addressed.
Under normal conditions all vessels, irrespective of flag,
proceeding from one port to another within the European
Community, need not request pratique.
ICEBREAKING SERVICES
General information
Sweden
1.116
1
Organisation. The Government Icebreaking Service is
managed by the National Maritime Administration.
Postal address: Sjöfartsverkets Huvudkontoret
Isbrytningsavdellingen, S–601 78, Norrköping,
Sweden.
2
A telephone answering service provides a brief account
of the ice situation for the day, operating areas of the
icebreakers and instructions for shipping. A new report is
CHAPTER 1
20
issued about 1100 daily and a supplementary report, if
necessary, is issued about 1630. The telephone number of
the Duty Officer can also be obtained from the answering
service. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(2).
3
Local offices. There are Swedish icebreaker
representatives in the area covered by this volume at the
following places:
Åhus; Karlshamn; Karlskrona; Kalmar; Oskarshamn;
Visby; Västervik; Oxelösund; Södertälje;
Stockholm.
4
Icebreakers. Sweden operates seven icebreakers. Details
of their names, call signs and working frequencies, together
with the report required are given in Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Swedish icebreakers show the signals in Diagram 1.116.
Sweden − icebreaker signals (1.116)
Denmark
1.117
1
Organisation. The Danish Ice Service comes under the
authority of the Defence Ministry and management of the
service and the State icebreakers is conducted by the Naval
Operational Command.
Postal address:
Soværnets Operative Kommando
Operationssektionen, Istjenesten
Sumatravej
Postboks 483
DK–8100 Århus C, Denmark.
2
Local offices. There are Danish icebreaker
representatives in the area covered by this volume on
Bornholm at:
Rønne; Neksø.
Icebreakers. Denmark operates four icebreakers. Details
of their names, call signs and working frequencies, together
with the report required are given in Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
3
Danish icebreakers display the signals in Diagram 1.116.
Germany
1.118
1
Organisation. The German Ice Service is under the
control of the Bundesamt fr Seeschiffahrt und
Hydrographie (German Hydrographic Office) located in
Hamburg. When ice poses a threat to navigation and
shipping local Ice Service Centres are established to
provide information on the position of the ice and the
availability of icebreakers. In the area covered by this
volume the local Ice Service Centre is located at Stralsund.
2
The primary function of German icebreakers is to ensure
that German ports and waterways are kept open to
navigation, but will thereafter also support general shipping
needs.
Icebreakers. Germany operates six icebreakers. Their
names, call signs and required operating procedures are
given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Poland
1.119
1
Organisation. In Polish waters, during the winter
navigation period, the responsibility for the control and
operation of the ice services and icebreakers is divided
between the Harbour Masters at Gydnia and Szczecin and
the Maritime Board of Supia as follows:
The eastern coastal region, which includes Koobrzeg
and ports in Gulf of Gdask, is under the control
of the Harbour Master at Gdynia.
2
The central region including the ports of Ustka,
Darlowo and Leba is under the control of the
Maritime Board of Supia.
The western coastal region, including Zatoka
Pomorska and winoujcie, is controlled by the
Harbour Master at Szczecin.
Ice reconnaissance is carried out by aircraft and
helicopters. Icebreaking is carried out by specially built
tugs assigned exclusively to ice operations in Polish waters.
Latvia
1.120
1
Organisation. In Latvian waters, during the winter
navigation season, the responsibility for the control and
operation of the ice services and icebreaker is divided
between the Harbour Masters at the ports of Liepja,
Ventspils and Rga. The dates and implementation of any
rules or restrictions imposed are approved by the relevant
Port Authority.
2
In addition, the Harbour Master at Rga has
responsibility for winter navigation in Irbe Strait, the
principal entrance to Gulf of Rga, and Gulf of Rga itself.
Certain restrictions on the size, engine capacity and ice
class construction apply to vessels intending to pass
through Irbe Strait and call at ports in Gulf of Rga,
dependent on prevailing ice conditions. Vessels with less
than Lloyds Ice Class 3, or equivalent, are prohibited from
entering the waters of these two areas during the ice
navigation season.
3
Vessels bound for, or leaving the port of Rga, intending
to transit Irbe Strait, are obliged to forward a report, giving
full details of vessel and cargo, to Rga Harbour Master not
less than 24 hours before arrival at the strait or departure
from the port.
Icebreaker. At present Latvia operates one icebreaker.
Estonia
1.121
1
Organisation. The Estonian Icebreaker Service is
administered by the Maritime Administration, and
controlled through the Estonian VTS. Postal address:
Vessel Traffic Services, Lume 9, EE 004 Tallinn,
Estonia.
2
In Estonian waters, vessels which have requested
icebreaking assistance and which are bound for Tallinn,
Muuga, Kopli or Paldiski, should await the icebreaker in
position 59°10′N, 22°00′E, at the E end of the TSS off
Kõpu Poolsaar (Hiiumaa) (58°55′N, 22°30′E).
International operations
General information
1.122
1
International co-operation. Icebreaking services are
provided by all countries bordering Baltic Sea. This service
is provided by Norway, Finland, Denmark and Sweden
under a co-operative agreement with the purpose, through
identical regulations, of assisting the maintenance of
CHAPTER 1
21
navigation and safety at sea during the winter period.
German, Polish, Russian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian
icebreakers provide a generally similar service.
General information on icebreaker assistance is given in
The Mariner’s Handbook.
Promulgation of information
1.123
1
General ice conditions are broadcast regularly using the
Baltic Sea Ice Code. See 1.6 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 3(1) for details.
Suitability for winter navigation
1.124
1
The following are the minimum requirements for a ship to
be considered suitable for winter navigation:
a) The ship shall be classified as being of the highest
class by a Classification Society approved by the
state in question, or shall otherwise have
demonstrated that it is of a corresponding
construction and strength at an inspection of
seaworthiness.
2
b) The ship shall be equipped with propulsion
machinery powerful enough for the ship to make
its way through light ice or through broken
channels within the belt of skerries without
icebreaker assistance.
c) The ship shall be at least 500 dwt.
3
d) The ship shall be provided with an approved
radiotelegraph or radiotelephone installation and a
VHF installation.
e) The stability of the ship shall be such that, even
when carrying deck cargo, a certain amount of
icing can occur without risk of capsizing.
Ice-class designations
1.125
1
In setting requirements for ice-strengthening the
Executive Board of the Swedish Icebreaking Service, in the
restrictions issued for sea traffic, uses the designation of the
Swedish-Finnish ice classes, established in 1987, which are
as follows:
Ice class Conditions
1A Super For traffic in extreme ice conditions.
1A For traffic in severe ice conditions.
1B For traffic in semi-severe ice conditions.
1C For traffic in light-severe conditions.
II For traffic in very light ice conditions.
Ice-class comparisons
1.126
Swedish-Finnish Norwegian Lloyds Register of
Shipping
1A Super 1A1, Ice A* 100A1, Ice class 1AS
1A 1A1, Ice A 100A1, Ice class 1A
1B 1A1, Ice B 100 A1, Ice class B
1C 1A1, Ice C 100A1, Ice class C
II 1A1 100A1, Ice class 1D
Periods of restricted navigation
1.127
1
During normal winters the archipelagos in Baltic Sea
freeze between Ålands Hav, on the N side, and Kalmarsund
on the SW side. Ice affects Stockholms Skärgård about the
turn of the year and in Kalmarsund icing begins about the
middle of January. The shallow coastal waters of Gotland
are usually frozen by the end of January.
2
The S part of the Baltic, along the Swedish coast,
normally remains ice-free but Gulf of Rga is generally
iced-up from January to April. Pack ice is sometimes
carried S from Bottenhavet and Gulf of Finland in the
latter part of winter which may affect navigation in the area
between Landsort and Gotska Sandön during February and
the middle of March. Unless there is a severe winter most
ice in the Baltic has dispersed and melted by the end of
April.
3
The inland waters of Mälaren begin to form ice in the
W part, W of Kvicksund, about the beginning of
December. By the first half of January the
Södertälje-Stockholm area on the E side is frozen. Mälaren
is normally frozen every year. Break-up of the ice usually
starts at the end of March and Mälaren is normally ice-free
by the middle of April.
Approaching ice
1.128
1
When approaching waters in which ice exists it is
prudent to establish radio contact with the icebreaker as
soon as possible. In addition, communications should be
established with a neighbouring coast radio station.
On arriving at the edge of the ice, the Master of each
vessel should keep the icebreaker constantly informed of
his position until her arrival and, if possible, should await
the icebreaker in open water.
2
If a vessel finds herself becoming ice-bound and only
able to make slow progress, and if assistance from an
icebreaker cannot be expected within a short time, she
should not be forced through the ice, but should endeavour
to reach ice-free waters, or a large ice-flow, which affords
a bay where the vessel can be moored with ice anchors.
Ship reports
1.129
1
The State Icebreaking Service decides, with regard to the
prevailing and expected ice conditions, when compulsory
reporting for ships bound to harbours in a certain area is
introduced and when such obligation ceases. Information on
this will be given in the daily ice reports.
Ship reports, which should be made well before arrival
at the ice, should contain the same information as for a
request for assistance.
Requests for assistance
1.130
1
Requests for assistance should be made direct to an
icebreaker, if one is working in the vicinity, or to the local
office or headquarters of the State Icebreaking Authority
through the nearest coast radio station. Details of
procedures and information required are given in Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2). Requests should be
made in good time in order that the service can plan its
operations in the most efficient way.
2
Vessel at sea. The request must include all the following
information:
Vessel’s name, nationality, call sign, size/tonnage,
draught, engine power, year of construction, ice
class, description and tonnage of cargo, destination
and ETA area at which icebreaker service will be
required.
In certain areas, whether an ice pilot is required; see
1.51.
CHAPTER 1
22
3
Additional information concerning the vessel and her
cargo must be given if requested by the Icebreaking
Service. Any changes to this information should be notified
immediately.
Vessel in harbour. The Master should apply to the local
Harbour Master giving the ship’s ETD. If there is no
suitable Harbour Authority, requests should be made as for
vessels at sea.
Icebreaking assistance
1.131
1
The Icebreaking Service decides whether a reported
vessel can expect assistance from the icebreakers. In
making this decision regard will be paid to the vessel’s
suitability for winter navigation (1.124) and other priorities
such as:
Vessels in distress or requiring assistance owing to
danger to life onboard.
Vessels bound to or from Scandinavian ports, with
priority given to passenger vessels and vessels
carrying special cargoes.
2
Other vessels.
Having accepted a vessel as suitable for assistance,
directions for the passage will be passed accordingly. These
include, if necessary, the requirement for an ice pilot
onboard.
If icebreaker assistance cannot be made available,
Masters of the vessels concerned will be requested to
discontinue their passage.
Conduct of icebreaking operations
1.132
1
Authority. Each ship receiving icebreaker assistance is
subject to the authority of the Captain of the icebreaker and
of the Coastal Administration for the duration of the
assistance. This means that the Master of each ship
receiving such assistance, be it requested or not, shall
follow the directives. However, the Authorities accept no
responsibility for delay, damage or other loss which may be
incurred. Every vessel is responsible for its own safety.
2
Rules. The following rules, which are in general use by
all authorities, are to be observed by the Master of any
vessel being assisted by icebreakers:
All instructions from the icebreaker must be fully
implemented, with the alternative that the
icebreaker may refuse to give further assistance.
3
Constant attention should be paid to signals from both
the icebreaker and assisted vessels in the convoy.
The means of displaying or sounding such signals
must be ready for immediate use. The specified
VHF channel must be monitored continuously.
4
Propulsion machinery must be ready for immediate
manoeuvring at all times; e.g. full power astern
may be needed to avoid hitting the icebreaker, or
the next vessel ahead, if either should become
ice-bound. The rudder should normally be
amidships when going astern under these
circumstances.
Vessels in convoy following an icebreaker may not
overtake one another, except on the express orders
of the icebreaker.
5
Distance between vessels must be carefully
maintained with particular attention to own speed
and that of the vessel ahead. If own speed
decreases the next vessel in line must be warned
by means of the attention signal, a series of short
blasts.
The icebreaker decides whether or not an assisted
vessel shall be towed.
6
An assisted vessel must be constantly ready to attach
a towing line or release the tow instantly as may
be required.
Vessels under tow may only use their own propulsion
machinery as directed by the icebreaker.
Any damage which may affect the continued safe
navigation of the vessel must be reported to the
icebreaker immediately.
7
By night, any vessel which is part of a convoy and is
unable to follow the icebreaker through becoming
ice-bound must extinguish its searchlights.
Vessels should be maintained in a high state of
watertight integrity and repair readiness. See The
Mariner’s Handbook for details.
Payment for services
1.133
1
The assistance of State icebreakers and the service,
including any towing, is generally free of charge in
ordinary traffic routes. However, this does not apply if the
service is regarded as salvage, nor does it apply to the
services of an ice pilot which may be compulsory in some
waters.
In Polish waters, vessels of sufficient engine capacity
who request towage assistance through ice may be charged
for the service.
Signals
1.134
1
Visual signalling is carried out using the International
Icebreaker Signals which are contained in The International
Code of Signals.
Radio. Icebreakers are all fitted with VHF radio
installations and some may carry cellular mobile
telephones.
2
Sound signals. Icebreakers are equipped with both bass
and treble sirens. Signals made by treble sirens apply only
to the vessel nearest to the icebreaker. Signals made by
bass siren apply to all vessels being assisted, and may
supplemented by a light synchronised with the siren. Bass
signals should be repeated, in sequence, by all vessels in
the convoy in the order in which they follow the
icebreaker.
3
Lights. Finnish icebreakers are equipped with
two rotating red warning lights, vertically disposed, which
are displayed when the icebreaker is unexpectedly stopped
or if its speed significantly decreases.
Caution. It should be noted that the use of the above
signals between icebreaker and assisted vessels, does not
relieve the Master of the responsibility of compliance with
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972).
Use of aircraft in icebreaking services
1.135
1
Aircraft may be used to assist the icebreaking service
and, in the event of this taking place, the following
precautions and rules should be followed by all vessels
concerned to assist communication with the aircraft:
Largest size national flag should flown by day.
Ship’s name and port of registry painted on the ship’s
side or hatches; letters should be at least 1 m in
height.
2
Continuous monitoring watch on 2182 Khz and VHF
Ch 16. When contact is established the channel is
CHAPTER 1
23
changed to an agreed working frequency or
channel.
Vessels unable to communicate by radio may hoist
signal flags according to the International Code of
Signals. However, it is generally accepted that
aircraft are unable to see or read hoisted flag
signals and in addition, the international signal
book is only carried as standard equipment in
rescue and fishery inspection aircraft.
3
If a distress signal is displayed, as far as possible,
some indication of the nature of the emergency
should be included.
In cases of a total lack of means of communication, a
portable radio may be lowered to the vessel from a
helicopter.
4
Confirmation by aircraft that a signal is understood is
indicated by rocking the wings or firing a white flare.
For signals used by aircraft to direct ships towards an
aircraft, vessel or person in distress see the International
Code of Signals.
5
Swedish aircraft operating with the joint Icebreaking
Service are distinguished by a mark consisting of three
yellow crowns on a blue circular ground.
6
Danish aircraft may be distinguished by a red and white
cockade on the upper and lower sides of the wings, and
both sides of the body, together with a swallowtail Danish
flag on both sides of the tail fin.
SIGNALS
International
Port traffic signals
1.136
1
The International Port Traffic Signals consist of signals
recommended by the International Association of
Lighthouse Authorities (IALA), and other international
authorities, in 1982. The system of signalling has been
progressively introduced at ports as circumstances have
permitted. They consist of lights only, shown continuously
by day and night, and are recognisable as traffic signals, as
the main signals are always three lights in a vertical line.
These signals may also be used for controlling movements
at bridges and through locks.
For a description of this system see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Sweden
Dredger signals
1.137
1
In Swedish waters, dredgers and vessels at anchor,
similarly obstructing navigation, must show the signals
(Diagram 1.137) in addition to the lights and signals
required by International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972).
Sweden − dredger signals (1.137)
2
In thick weather or fog:
Two strokes on the bell every minute indicates that
vessels should pass N or E of the dredger.
Three strokes on the bell every minute indicates that
vessels should pass S or W of the dredger.
Mine clearance signals
1.138
1
In addition to the signals described in Annual Summary
of the Admiralty Notices to Mariners, the flags or lights
(Diagram 1.138.1) may also be shown by vessels towing
minesweeping apparatus, but not engaged in mine
sweeping. Such vessels should not be approached within
1 cable.
Sweden − mine clearance signals (1.138.1)
2
When engaged in acoustic minesweeping, Morse code
“U” flashed to a vessel approaching, indicates that the
vessel must not approach closer than 1miles.
When engaged in firing practice, rendering mines safe,
destroying mines or towing mines, the signals (Diagram
1.138.2) will be displayed. Such vessels should be given a
wide berth.
Sweden − mine clearance signals (1.138.2)
Russia
Traffic signals
1.139
1
Signals (Diagram 1.139) regulate entry and departure of
ships to and from ports in Russia.
CHAPTER 1
24
Russia − traffic signals (1.139)
Tidal and water level signals
1.140
1
The signals (Diagram 1.140) are displayed at ports in
Russia to indicate the height of the water level above chart
datum, in units of 20 cm.
Russia − tidal and water level signals (1.140)
Dredger signals
1.141
1
Dredgers in Russian waters show the appropriate shapes
or lights prescribed by International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). These signals should
be interpreted only as an indication of the side on which
the dredger wishes to allow the approaching vessel to pass.
2
The approaching vessel should reduce to the minimum
speed necessary for steerage way before arriving at a
distance of 5 cables from the dredger, and one prolonged
blast should be sounded. The dredger will, in addition to
showing the above signals, confirm the side on which she
is to be passed as follows:
Signal Meaning
One long blast.Leave me on your port side.
Two long blasts.Leave me on your starboard side.
Three long blasts.No passage. Wait until clear.
3
If there is no answering sound signal from the dredger
the approaching vessel must assume that there is no free
passage.
The following regulations also apply:
1.Vessels passing a dredger must not overtake one
another.
2.Vessels passing a dredger must not tow astern a
hawser or chain on the bottom; nor may she trail
an anchor.
Vessels engaged on special operations
1.142
1
Russian vessels when engaged in surveying operations,
show a blue triangular flag with a rounded point to the fly,
having a white circular disc bearing the figure of a
lighthouse.
2
Russian vessels, with the exception of dredgers, engaged
on special operations in narrow waters, such as cable
laying, maintaining navigational aids and surveying, will
display the appropriate signals from International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). Vessels
approaching such a ship must reduce speed in good time
and, at a distance of at least 5 cables, sound one prolonged
blast. She must not pass the ship engaged on special
operations until such ship has lowered or extinguished the
special signal she is displaying.
3
Vessels engaged on special operations should cease
work, and if possible proceed to the edge of the channel,
when approached by a vessel showing the shape or lights
for a vessel constrained by her draught.
Light-vessel signals
1.143
1
In Russian waters when off station the light-vessel
discontinues its characteristic light and fog signal, and if
possible, will lower its daymark.
It will show instead, two large black balls, one forward
and one aft, or two all round red lights, one forward and
one aft. In addition it will hoist the international code flags
LO or will fire red and white flares simultaneously at least
every 15 minutes.
Signals between tugs and towed vessels
1.144
1
The following sound signals are used by the vessel
being towed:
Signal Meaning
One long blast.Tow straight ahead or
astern.
Two long blasts.Stop engines.
One long one short blasts.Reduce speed.
One short one long blasts.Increase speed.
One long one short one long
blasts.
Let go, or take up, tow.
One short blast.Tow to starboard.
Two short blasts.Tow to port.
Three short blasts.Go full speed astern.
Three long one short blasts.Tug required.
At least five short blasts.Stop immediately.
2
When two tugs are employed one will be directed by the
ship’s whistle and the other by oral whistle signals. All
signals are repeated by the tug or tugs.
Examination vessels — special warning services
1.145
1
Occasionally it may be necessary to prohibit entry into
certain areas within Russian territorial waters. For certain
coastal areas a warning service has been established on
special warships, guardships, examination vessels or
coastguard stations, which display the signals (Diagram
1.145.1).
CHAPTER 1
25
Russia − special warning services (1.145.1)
2
Should entry to, or navigation within a certain area be
prohibited, additional signals (Diagram 1.145.2) will be
displayed.
Russia − special warning services (1.145.2)
3
Vessels of the Russian Police Department wishing to
stop vessels will hoist, by day, the signal prescribed in The
International Code of Signals, and by night, two green
lights, vertically disposed, over the masthead light.
Should entry or navigation into a given area be
unrestricted, and no special signal or instruction regarding
further movements have been made or given by the
guardship or coastguard station, an incoming vessel is free
to proceed to her destination, but she must observe such
regulations as may already have been promulgated.
4
If Russian naval vessels are present and if no special
instructions have been issued for navigation in this area
from the warning service, then mariners must navigate in
such a manner as to avoid passing between the naval
vessels.
Frontier guardships
1.146
1
The signals (Diagram 1.146) are shown by frontier
guardships for stopping non-naval vessels within the
territorial or internal waters of Russia. Vessels affected
must stop and remain stopped until permission to proceed
is granted by the guardship.
Russia − special warning services (1.146)
Signals from naval vessels
1.147
1
The following warning signals may be made by Russian
naval vessels to foreign submarines which are submerged in
Russian waters and have violated the Regulations for
foreign naval vessels navigating and remaining in Russian
territorial waters:
Signal: a series of three explosions at 1 minute
intervals followed after an interval of 3 minutes by
a second series of three explosions.
2
Meaning: you have been found within Russian waters.
I demand that you immediately come to the
surface. If you do not do so you will be fired
upon.
Simultaneously, a hydro-acoustic signal may be given
which will have the same meaning. The signal will consist
of five dashes, each 3 seconds long, with 3 second intervals
between dashes.
Submarine distress signals
General
1.148
1
For general information concerning sunken submarines
see Annual Summary of Notices to Mariners.
Sweden
1.149
1
Swedish submarines are supplied with telephone buoys
for communication in the event of the submarine being
sunk.
The telephone buoys are can-shaped and painted orange
with a white rim on the lid to which a ring is attached.
They are fitted with a signal lamp which can be operated
from the submarine. Each buoy is also fitted with a plate
inscribed with directions for use together with the name of
the submarine.
2
On discovery of a telephone buoy the instructions should
be followed and attempts made to communicate with the
submarine. Any vessel sighting such a buoy should
immediately notify any Swedish naval vessel in the
vicinity, or a pilot, or the nearest shore authority.
Some submarines are also fitted with rising buoys,
which are painted red and have a dark green lid. Their
purpose is to assist the crew to rise through the water after
leaving a sunken submarine.
Denmark
1.150
1
Danish submarines are equipped with telephone buoys,
for use only in distress, which can be released from a
submerged submarine. The buoys are fitted with a flashing
light and a green triangular flag. A plate on the upper side
gives instructions for use.
2
Vessels sighting such a buoy should make contact with
the submarine by means of the telephone, taking care not
to moor to the buoy which may damage the attached cable.
A report on the sighting together with all relevant
information should be sent immediately to the Danish naval
authorities.
Poland
1.151
1
Polish submarines are equipped with both salvage and
telephone buoys for use in an emergency. The salvage
buoys are spherical, red and white chequered, fitted with a
double collar forming a drum, painted green, around which
the cable is wound. The name is shown on the red part.
2
The telephone buoys are can-shaped and fitted with a
similar drum, formed by two collars. Marking and colours
are similar to the salvage buoys. They are fitted with two
position lights on top. The key to access the telephone box,
which is sited between the lights, is located on one of the
red sides of the buoy. Instructions for use in Polish,
English and German are shown together with the name.
3
Vessels sighting such a buoy should make contact with
the submarine by means of the telephone, taking care not
to damage it or the attached cable. A report on the sighting
together with all relevant information should be sent
CHAPTER 1
26
immediately to the Commander of the Polish Naval
Authority at Gdynia.
Russia
1.152
1
In cases where a Russian submarine is in distress and
unable to surface it will indicate its position by releasing:
1. A distress signal buoy.
2. Fuel and lubricating oil.
3. Air bubbles.
2
Russian submarines are equipped with two distress signal
buoys, one each in the bow and the stern. Their shapes are;
truncated cones with a flat bottom and rounded top, or
alternatively, flattened spheres. Details are as follows:
Diameter 0⋅9 m to 1⋅25 m
Height 0⋅45 m to 0⋅7 m
Freeboard 0⋅4 m to 0⋅6 m
Colour Red with top part sectored white and red.
Markings Black H for bow and K for stern buoy on a
white sector.
Visibility 1⋅5 to 2 miles.
Light Quick flash white, 70 flashes per minute,
visible 5 miles.
3
Mariners finding indications of a submarine in distress
should determine the position and report to the nearest
Russian Port Authority, and establish communication with
the submarine through the telephone buoy. See also Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
General information
1.153
1
For general information concerning distress and rescue,
including helicopter assistance, see Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Global maritime distress and safety system
1.154
1
The GMDSS enables SAR authorities on shore, in
addition to shipping in the immediate vicinity of a vessel in
distress, to be rapidly alerted to an incident in order that
assistance can be provided with the minimum of delay.
Details of the GMDSS and associated coast radio
stations are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
Places of refuge
Denmark
1.155
1
Twenty-two places of refuge, three of which are in this
volume, have been designated in Danish waters and Danish
harbours for vessels in distress. These have been designated
by the Danish Mininstry of the Environment in consultation
with the Danish Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of
Economic Affairs and in accordance with the EU
monitoring directive and the IMO guidelines on places of
refuge for ships in distress.
2
There is one port which has been designated for
situations where a high risk of pollution exists:
Port of Rønne (2.44).
There are two places of refuge designated for situations
which present a low risk of pollution:
Vang Pier (2.60)
Tejn (2.95)
Rescue services
Sweden
1.156
1
Sweden has one MRCC, located at Göteborg. In
addition, there is a MRSC located at Stockholm. The
waters in the area covered by this volume are the
responsibility of Stockholm MRSC.
The Reporting Centre for Sea Rescue (Sjöfartsveherts
Rapport Central) is established within the Maritime Office
in Norrköping. All rescues carried out by the local MRCC
and MRSC are reported to this centre.
2
Mariners are advised that in case of any emergency,
early contact should be made with the MRCC either
directly or through a coast radio station. Delay in
notification may cause severe difficulty for the rescue
services.
3
In cases where the Master judges that the vessel can
deal with the emergency situation the MRCC should still
be contacted as there may be a need for follow-up. This
also allows the sea rescue service to increase its forward
preparedness and planning.
The MRCC also wishes to be informed of other hazards
such as severe weather conditions and icing.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
4
Swedish sea rescue operates through the cooperation of
nine organisations, the Swedish Maritime Administration,
the Coast Guard Service which has local units known as
coast stations, the communications authority, the navy, air
force, police, civil aviation authority, the Sea Rescue
Association and finally Local Authority Rescue Teams. The
Sea Rescue Association has 37 rescue stations located
around the coasts of Sweden and operates more than
80 rescue craft, most of which are sea-going rescue craft.
In addition, other craft suitable for rescue operations are
available through the local authorities at all the main
maritime centres along the Swedish coast.
Denmark
1.157
1
The MRCC for Denmark is located at Århus which has
no direct contact with ships in distress. Communication is
maintained through the two MRSC under the control of
MRCC Århus together with coast radio stations which
maintain a continuous listening watch on the international
distress frequencies. In the area covered by this volume
there is an MRSC located at Bornholm (55°08′N, 14°55′E).
2
The Danish SAR organisation is administered by the
Industry Ministry and operated by the Ministry of Defence
with the co-operation of the Waterways Authority, the
Fisheries Ministry, the Marine Authority, the police, the
Communications Authority, the Traffic Ministry, the
Customs Authority, the Environment Ministry and with the
resources of local communities and other volunteers.
3
Within the limits of this volume there are fully equipped
coast rescue stations located at:
Rønne (55°06′N, 14°42′E) (2.44).
Nexø (55°04′N, 15°09′E) (2.118).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
Germany
1.158
1
The German Sea Rescue Service is responsible for
co-ordinating SAR operations, supported by units of the
CHAPTER 1
27
German Navy. The MRCC for the area covered by this
volume is located at Bremen. Fully equipped rescue craft
are stationed at the following:
Sassnitz (54°31′N, 13°38′E) (8.22).
Glowe (54°34′N, 13°28′E) (8.37)
Greifswalder Oie (54°15′N, 13°30′E) (8.38).
2
Lauterbach (54°20′N, 13°30′E) (8.69).
Stralsund (54°19′N, 13°06′E) (8.98).
Freest (54°08′N, 13°44′E) (8.126).
Zinnowitz (54°05′N, 13°55′E) (8.171).
Ueckermünde (53°44′N, 14°04′E) (8.155).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
Poland
1.159
1
The Maritime SAR Service in Poland consists of one
MRCC, located at Gdynia, and a MRSC, located at
winoujcie. It is managed by the state owned Polish Ship
Salvage Company under the supervision of the local
maritime authorities. Fully equipped rescue craft are
stationed at the following:
2
winoujcie (53°55′N, 14°16′E) (8.175).
Trzebie (53°40′N, 14°31′E) (8.234).
Dziwnów (54°01′N, 14°46′E) (8.269).
Koobrzeg (54°11′N, 15°33′E) (8.281).
Darowo (54°26′N, 16°23′E) (8.288).
3
Ustka (54°35′N, 16°52′E) (8.303).
eba (54°46′N, 17°33′E) (8.311).
Wadysawowo (54°48′N, 18°25′E) (9.24).
Hel (54°36′N, 18°48′E) (9.37).
Gdynia (54°32′N, 18°33′E) (9.46).
4
Górki Wschodnie (54°21′N, 18°48′E) (9.137).
wibno (54°20′N, 18°56′E) (9.144).
Tolmicko (54°20′N, 19°32′E) (9.224).
Sztutowo (54°20′N, 19°11′E) (9.216).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
Russia
1.160
1
For the Baltic coast the Russian Federation has
two MRCC, located at Moscow and Sankt Peterburg, with a
MRSC at Kaliningrad. The Moscow MRCC is responsible
for co-ordinating SAR operations and for liaising with the
SAR services of neighbouring countries in accordance with
intergovernmental agreements.
2
Emergency SAR operations in the territorial waters of
Russia are normally carried out by Russian rescue units,
however, vessels whose governments have an international
agreement with Russia will, in exceptional circumstances,
be given permission to participate in rescue operations in
these waters.
3
Vessels whose governments are not party to such an
agreement must make an application, through their national
rescue co-ordination centre, to the Russian Rescue
Co-ordination Centre in the area in which they intend to
operate.
When inside the territorial waters of Russia only those
ports or anchorages designated as open (1.104), or those
points specifically designated by the Russian MRCC, may
be used.
4
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
Fully equipped rescue craft are stationed at Baltiysk
(54°39′N, 19°54′E) (9.150), Mys Taran (54°58′N, 19°59′E)
(9.236) and at a rescue station 6 miles NNE of Baltiysk.
Lithuania
1.161
1
The Maritime SAR Service in Lithuania consists of one
MRCC, located at Klaip
da. MRCC Klaip
da maintains a
continuous listening watch on emergency frequencies. The
coast radio station at Klaip
da also maintains a continuous
listening watch on 2182 kHz. For details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 5.
2
Fully equipped rescue craft are stationed at Klaip
da
(55°43′N, 21°08′E) (10.14) and Liepja (56°31′N, 21°01′E)
(10.88).
Latvia
1.162
1
The Maritime SAR Service in Latvia consists of one
MRCC, located at Rga. MRCC Rga maintains a
continuous listening watch on 500 and 2182 kHz and Rga
Rescue Radio, also situated at MRCC Rga, keeps watch on
emergency frequencies. DSC facilities are also available.
2
Rescue craft and/or inshore rubber rescue boats are
stationed at the following:
Ventspils (57°24′N, 21°33′E) (10.128).
Roja (57°30′N, 22°49′E) (11.33).
Rga (56°58′N, 24°06′E) (11.41).
Salacgrva (57°45′N, 24°22′E) (11.92).
Kolka (57°45′N, 22°36′E) (11.22).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
Estonia
1.163
1
The Maritime SAR Service in Estonia consists of one
MRCC, situated at Tallinn, and two MRSC, at Kuressaare
and Kärdla. In addition there are two rescue radio stations
located at Ruhnu and Kunda. MRCC Tallinn maintains a
continuous listening watch on, emergency frequencies for
distress calls. The coast radio stations Pärnu (ESP) and
Tallinn (ESA) also monitor these international distress
frequencies.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
2
The Estonian Lifeboat Service, Eesti Vetelpaasteuhingu,
has several rescue cruisers stationed at the harbours and
coastguard stations along the coast of Estonia. Within the
limits of this volume rescue craft are stationed at the
following Coastguard Stations:
Undva (58°31′N, 21°55′E) (12.32).
Sõru (58°42′N, 22°31′E) (12.51).
3
Kõpu (58°55′N, 22°15′E) (12.13).
Tahkuna (59°06′N, 22°35′E) (12.65).
Dirhami (59°13′N, 23°30′E) (12.72).
Haapsalu (58°57′N, 23°30′E) (12.111).
Pärnu (58°23′N, 24°29′E) (11.107).
Sõrve Säär (57°55′N, 22°02′E) (11.9).
Kuressaare (58°15′N, 22°29′E) (11.144).
Ruhnu (57°48′N, 23°14′E) (11.25).
CHAPTER 1
28
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
SWEDEN
General description
1.164
1
Sweden, the national name of which is Sverige, occupies
the E part of the Scandinavian peninsula in NW Europe.
The country, which has a total land area of approximately
449 964 square km, is bounded W and NW by Norway, E
by Finland and Gulf of Bothnia, SE by Baltic Sea and SW
by the Kattegat.
The capital city is Stockholm which, at the end of 2003,
had a population of about 758 000. The established national
church is the Swedish Lutheran Church.
National limits
1.165
1
Sweden claims a limit of 12 miles for its Territorial Seas
and 200 miles for its Exclusive Economic Zone.
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.166
1
The history of Sweden from Roman times until the
eleventh century is largely one of independent tribes of
whom the Swedes, inhabiting Uppland, were the most
powerful.
In 800 AD the first Swedish kingdom was achieved and
in succeeding centuries Swedish Vikings, originally, like
their Norwegian counterparts farmers and traders,
penetrated deeply into Russia, founding Kiev and reaching
the Caspian and Black Seas.
2
During the eleventh and twelth centuries, Sweden
gradually became a unified Christian kingdom which later
included Finland. Queen Margaret of Denmark united all
the Nordic lands in the Kalmar Union in 1397. However,
continual tension within the countries and within the union
led to open conflict between Sweden and Denmark in the
fifteenth century. The union finally disintegrated in 1527
bringing on a long and bitter rivalry between Norway and
Denmark on one side and Sweden and Finland on the
other.
3
Later in the sixteenth century, Gustav Vasa crushed an
attempt to restore the Kalmar Union with his fight for an
independent Sweden, which laid the foundation for modern
Sweden. During the seventeenth century, after winning wars
against Denmark, Russia, and Poland, Sweden emerged as
a great power. Its contributions during the Thirty Years War
under Gustav II Adolf determined the political, as well as
the religious balance of power in Europe. After Sweden
conquered several provinces from Denmark in 1658,
Swedish territory included present day Sweden, Finland,
Ingermanland (in which Sankt Peterburg, of the Russian
Federation, is now located), Estonia, Latvia and important
coastal towns and other areas in N Germany.
4
Sweden’s fortunes were reversed during the eigtheenth
and nineteenth centuries when, in bitter disputes with her
neighbours, her Baltic empire gradually diminished. Despite
this Sweden retained the rich provinces of Skåne, Halland
and Bleckinge which had been surrendered by Denmark.
5
In 1809, Sweden suffered further losses during the
Napoleonic wars and was forced to cede Finland to Russia,
but with its adopted King, French Marshal Bernadotte and
his forces, joined the allies in 1813 against Napoleon. The
Congress of Vienna compensated Sweden for its lost
German territories through a merger of the Swedish and
Norwegian Crowns in a dual monarchy, which lasted until
1905, when it was peacefully dissolved at Norway’s
request.
6
Since 1814 Sweden has followed a policy of
non-alignment in peace and neutrality in war. Sweden
applied for European Union membership in July 1991 and
joined on the 1st January 1995.
Government
1.167
1
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with the monarch
retaining the title as Head of State but with purely
ceremonial functions. The succession to the throne is
hereditary in the House of Bernadotte and, under an
amendment to the law in 1979, succession is vested in the
monarch’s eldest child, irrespective of sex.
2
The present constitution of Sweden came into force in
1975 and replaced the constitution of 1809. The country is
a representative and parliamentary democracy, with the
Riksdag, the parliament, the central organ of government.
The executive power of the country is vested in the
Government, which is responsible to Parliament. The
Parliament has one chamber with 349 members who are
elected, on a proportional representation basis, for a period
of four years in direct elections.
3
There are 29 constituencies from which 310 members are
elected. The remaining 39 seats comprise a nation-wide
pool which is intended to give absolute proportionality to
parties that receive at least 4% of the votes.
For the purposes of local government the country is
divided into 24 län, or counties, which are subdivided into
288 municipalities, each with an elected council. The
Government appoints a Governor to each county who
chairs a 14 member elected council.
4
The Lapps have their own parliament called the
Sameting which was instituted in 1993.
There is an independent judiciary headed by an
Attorney-General, appointed by the government, and three
judicial Commissioners appointed by Parliament. Authority
is exercised through a Supreme Court, six intermediate
courts of appeal and 97 district courts.
Population
1.168
1
In 2002 the population of the country was estimated to
be about 8 840 000 of which 17 000 are Lapps.
Language
1.169
1
The official language is Swedish which is closely allied
to the other Scandinavian languages, Norwegian, Danish
and Icelandic. German and English are also widely spoken.
Physical features
1.170
1
The interior of Sweden is by no means generally
mountainous, and its surface has far less of a highland than
a lowland character. The most elevated portion of it
commences in the W near the parallel of 62°N, and
continues along the frontier of Norway in isolated
mountain-masses, known as the Kiölen mountains, rising
from an elevated tableland, about 1220 m high. The two
highest mountains, both partly within the Norwegian
frontier, are Sulitelma in 67° N, about 1903 m in height,
and Sylfjellan in 63° N, 1997 m in height.
CHAPTER 1
29
2
These mountains and their tableland slope E towards
Gulf of Bothnia, sending down numerous torrents, which in
their course often expand to form chains of lakes and
swamps. The same slope to the E is continued S of 62°N,
but there is also a slope to the S which reaches its lowest
level near latitude 59°N on the shores of magnificent lakes
which stretch almost continuously across the country from
E to W.
Almost the whole country is composed of gneiss,
partially penetrated by granite.
3
Lakes and rivers are more numerous in Sweden than any
other European country, with the exception of Finland.
There is an extensive system of inland waterways,
especially in central Sweden, where Lake Vänern and Lake
Vättern are linked by Göta Kanal, the E extension of which
provides access to Baltic Sea at Söderköping. On the W
side Lake Vänern is linked to the Kattegat by the Trollhätte
Kanal thus forming a continuous waterway across Sweden.
In addition Lake Mälaren, the third largest inland lake, may
be accessed through Södertälje Kanal, which also provides
access to the W side of Stockholm, or the lock system at
Stockholm.
Flora and fauna
Flora
1.171
1
Forests cover about half of the total land area. Over
80% of the standing timber, estimated at 2450 million cubic
metres, consists of coniferous wood (pine and spruce), and
constitutes Sweden’s greatest natural resource.
Forest in which deciduous trees, oak and beech, are the
prevailing trees occur only in the S.
Fauna
1.172
1
In the mountain districts the Lapps still herd flocks of
reindeer, which are often attacked by wolves. The bear is
dying out. The ptarmigan is the edible bird in these
districts. In the huge pine forests the elk is the king of the
beasts. The capercaillie, hazel hen and the blackcock are of
importance.
2
Roe deer and partridge inhabit the plains in the S of
Sweden and ducks frequent the lakes. Hare, fox and mink
exist in large quantities in addition to other small
mammals, including numerous small birds and birds of
prey, which are to be found all over a great part of the
country.
Industry and trade
1.173
1
Sweden has become a leading industrial nation within
Europe. The country’s prosperity is based on an abundance
of natural resources in the form of forests, hydro-electric
power and mineral deposits. Sweden is one of the leading
exporters of iron ore and aluminium. Lead, copper, zinc
and alum shale, containing uranium and oil, are also
produced.
2
Although at the beginning of the nineteenth century
most of the population lived by agriculture, with the
coming of steam power, the Swedish iron industry began to
expand dramatically. The wealth gained from her iron
exports led to Sweden’s modern engineering industry, much
enriched by local technological entrepreneurs, making
original contributions in such fields as turbines, electrical
machinery, gas accumulators, ball bearings, core drills and
pumping equipment. The de Laval nozzle (Gustav de Laval
1845–1913) for example, first used in steam turbines, is
still in use in space age rocket engines.
3
The most important manufacturing sector is the
production of metals, metal products, machinery and
transport equipment. Production of high quality steel is an
old Swedish speciality, though there is now a decline in the
production of ordinary steel.
Forestry forms the basis for an important manufacturing
sector which includes saw-mills, plywood factories,
furniture industries, pulp and paper-mills and wallboard
factories.
4
The establishment of a petro-chemical industry has led
to a rapid expansion in the output of chemicals and
plastics. Agriculture, although relatively small in
employment terms, is a major industry and contributes
considerably to the economy as Sweden is almost
self-sufficient in food.
In 2001 Germany was Sweden’s leading trading partner.
DENMARK
General description
1.174
1
Denmark, the national name of which is Danmark,
occupies a peninsula in NW Europe known as Jylland and
includes the islands of Sjælland, Fyn and Lolland, the
island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, Føroyar (Færoes) and
Greenland. The country, which has a total land area of
43 094 square km is bounded W by North Sea, NW and N
by the Skagerrak and Kattegat which separate it from
Norway and Sweden, and S by Germany.
2
The capital city is København, on Sjælland, which at the
beginning of 2002 had a population of 500 000. The
national church is the Evangelical-Lutheran but there is
complete religious freedom.
National limits
1.175
1
Denmark claims a limit of 3 miles for its Territorial Seas
and 200 miles for its Exclusive Economic Zone.
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.176
1
In early times the Danes, of the same tribal origin as the
Swedes, moved W to occupy what is now Jylland, in the
fifth and sixth centuries AD. During the Viking period
Danish Vikings attacked England, Scotland and Ireland,
besieging London in 994.
From the Middle Ages to the seventeenth century
Denmark was primarily an agricultural country in which the
village, rather than the individual farm, dominated.
2
It was the disintegration of the Scandiavian Union in the
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries which resulted in the
lasting Danish interest in the North Atlantic islands, her
trade with Iceland, the Færoes and Greenland. In the
seventeenth century the Danes became established in the
Caribbean and in the eighteenth century sugar refining
became a major industry in København.
3
Late in the nineteenth century the opening up of the
American prairies grain trade encouraged the Danes to
make a rapid transition from grain production to intensive
animal husbandry, thus doubling their output and trebling
their export of livestock within a period of 20 years.
4
Denmark acquired most of its present boundaries in
1815 after Norway was transferred to the Swedish crown
CHAPTER 1
30
the year before. It became a constitutional monarchy in
1849. During the Second World War Denmark was
occupied by Germany from 1940 to 1945 and in postwar
years made a marked industrial expansion.
Denmark became a member of the European Union on
1st January 1973.
Government
1.177
1
Under the present constitution, revised in 1953,
legislative power lies jointly with the monarch and the
Folketing, a single chamber parliament at present composed
of 179 members, including two from the Færoes and two
from Greenland, whose legislature lasts for 4 years and who
are all elected by proportional representation. The monarch
must be a member of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church and
is advised by a Council of State headed by the Prime
Minister.
2
Judicial authority is exercised through a Supreme Court
composed of a President and 15 other judges. The lower
courts are organised in 82 tribunals which have a single
judge.
For administrative purposes Denmark is divided into 275
communes, each of which has a district council headed by
an elected mayor. All councils are elected for a four year
term. There are also about 2100 parishes administered by
elected parish councils. The Færoes and Greenland have
some degree of home rule.
Population
1.178
1
In 2002 the population was estimated to be about
5⋅36 million.
Language
1.179
1
The official language is Danish, which is closely akin to
Swedish and Norwegian. English is the predominant second
language and German is widely spoken in the S part of the
peninsula adjacent to the border with Germany.
Physical features
1.180
1
The whole of Denmark is low-lying, the greatest
elevation being about 180 m. A few streams discharge into
the fjords but there are no proper rivers.
The interior is largely divided into small holdings and
the farming industry is highly developed. The landscape is
diversified by fine beech woods. The N part of Jylland
consists mainly of moorland and sand dunes, and the E
coast is generally low and sandy with several fjords
penetrating far inland. The most notable is Limfjord which
traverses Jylland from E to W, connecting Kattegat with the
North Sea. The largest river, Gudenå, discharges into
Randers Fjord and is about 100 miles in length.
Industry and trade
1.181
1
Denmark has large natural resources of oil and gas, in
which the country is self-sufficient, large areas of
agricultural land and fisheries.
2
In 2001 about 35% of the work force were employed in
public and personal services, about 35% in retail/wholesale
and manufacturing industries and about 4% in agriculture.
The principal industries lie in manufacturing, of which food
processing is the largest followed by paper products,
metals, textiles and wood products. Smaller industries
include shipbuilding, which has declined in recent years,
bio-technology, optical and electrical equipment, furniture
and chemicals.
3
In recent years tourism has expanded and now forms a
notable part of the economy, together with large numbers
of cruising yachts visiting the many small harbours in the
summer season.
In 2001 Germany and Sweden were Denmark’s largest
trading partners.
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
General description
1.182
1
The Federal Republic of Germany, the national name of
which is Bundesrepublik Deutschland, is bounded N by
Denmark, North Sea and Baltic Sea, E by Poland, E and
SE by the Czech Republic, SE and S by Austria, S by
Switzerland and W by France, Luxembourg, Belgium and
the Netherlands. It has a total land area of 356 978 square
km.
2
The capital city is Berlin which in 2001 had a
population of 3 388 000. There is no established national
church, Roman Catholics and Protestants forming almost
equally large groups. The Evangelical Church consists of
24 member churches, of which some are Lutheran and
others Evangelical.
National limits
1.183
1
Germany claims a limit of 12 miles for its Territorial
Seas and 200 miles for its Exclusive Economic Zone. In
addition there is a special claim which extends the limit to
include the deep-water anchorage W of Helgoland (North
Sea (East) Pilot).
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
Recent history
1.184
1
At the end of the Second World War in 1945, Germany
was divided into four occupation zones each controlled by
an Allied Power, namely France, United Kingdom (UK),
United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics (USSR). The territory of Greater Berlin,
divided into four sectors, was to be governed as an entity
by the four occupying powers.
2
In 1948 the USA, UK and France agreed on a central
government for the three western zones, the USSR
withdrew from the occupation arrangements and
administered the eastern zone through a military
government. In 1949 the Federal Republic of Germany
formally came into existence under a central government in
Bonn and, on 5th May 1955, became a sovereign
independent state. The USSR formed their E zone into the
German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1949 with a
Soviet-type constitution. The GDR attained sovereignty in
1954 and in 1961 built the mined and guarded “Berlin
Wall” to separate East from West Berlin.
3
Treaties were signed with the USSR in August 1970 and
with Poland in December 1970, confirming the existing
boundaries between West and East Germany.
In the autumn of 1989 demands for political
liberalization in the GDR gained rapid momentum, leading
to calls for the re-unification of Germany, and the
dismantling of the Berlin Wall.
CHAPTER 1
31
4
After talks with the four war-time Allies, on the 3rd
October 1990 the Federal Republic of Germany and the
German Democratic Republic were unified in accordance
with Article 23 of the Federal Republic’s Basic Law which
provided for the Länder of pre-war Germany to accede to
the Federal Republic. On 2nd December 1990 all-German
elections were held for the first time since 1933.
Germany is a member of the European Union and
NATO.
Government
1.185
1
The Federal Republic comprises 16 Länder, or States.
The Basic Law, previously mentioned, having been
approved by the parliaments of the participating Länder,
came into force on 23rd May 1949. It decrees that the
general rules of international law form part of the federal
law. Executive law is vested in the Länder unless the Basic
Law dictates otherwise. Federal law takes precedence over
state law.
2
The Head of State is the Federal President who is
elected for a five year term by a Federal Convention made
up of members of the Bundestag and representatives from
the Länder.
Legislative power is vested in the Bundestag and the
Bundesrat, the lower and upper houses respectively. The
Bundestag is composed of 603 members and is elected in
universal, free, equal and secret elections for a term of four
years.
3
Executive power is vested in the Federal Government,
which consists of a Federal Chancellor, elected by the
Bundestag on the proposal of the Federal President, and the
Federal Ministers who are appointed by the Federal
President on the recommendation of the Federal Chancellor.
Population
1.186
1
In 2001 the population of the country was estimated to
be about 82⋅44 million.
Language
1.187
1
The national official language throughout the Federal
Republic is Modern (or New High) German. English,
French, Dutch and Scandinavian languages are also spoken
in the coastal areas.
Physical features
1.188
1
The area of Germany covered by this volume consists of
relatively low land which seldom exceeds an elevation of
200 m. The N part is flat and featureless and the only
waterway of any consequence is Peenestrom, which is the
W mouth of the Oder delta. It separates Usedom from the
mainland and connects Greifswalder Bodden to Stettiner
Haff.
Industry and trade
1.189
1
Germany has a number of natural resources including
iron ore, coal, oil and natural gas. In the area covered in
this volume the principal resource is lignite and large areas
of land are devoted to agriculture.
Industries include heavy engineering, iron, steel and
other metal products of all kinds, chemicals, electronic and
electrical products, shipbuilding, vehicle manufacture,
textiles and food. Agriculture produces a variety of cereal
and root crops, together with viniculture and forest
products. The fishing industry also plays an important part
in the economy.
2
Germany is the third largest economy in the world after
the USA and Japan and the second largest trading nation
after the USA.
POLAND
General description
1.190
1
Poland, the national name of which is Rzeczpospolita
Polska, is situated in E Europe with its coastline on the S
side of Baltic Sea. The country, which has a total area of
312 685 square km, is bounded N by Baltic Sea and Russia,
E by Lithuania, Belarus and the Ukraine, S by the Czech
Republic and Slovakia and W by Germany.
2
The capital city is Warsaw which, in 2000, had a
population of 1 626 100. The predominant religion is
Roman Catholicism, practised by about 90% of the
population.
National limits
1.191
1
Poland claims a limit of 12 miles for its Territorial Seas
and 200 miles for its Exclusive Economic Zone.
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
Early history
1.192
1
The Polish state was founded in 966 during the reign of
Mieszko I and became a powerful kingdom following union
with Lithuania in 1386. In subsequent centuries the
monarchy survived many upheavals before going into a
period of long decline culminating in the partition of
Poland in 1795 by Russia, Austria and Prussia.
Modern history
1.193
1
Following calls for an independent Poland during World
War I an independent Polish Republic was proclaimed on
10th November 1918. A turbulent period of parliamentary
democracy followed until 1926 when an authoritarian
regime was imposed which lasted until September 1939
when Germany invaded Poland, marking the onset of
World War II.
2
At the end of World War II in 1945 the country was
liberated by Russia and, under the Yalta Conference
Agreement, a Polish Provisional Government was formed.
Despite this agreement calling for free elections a
communist dominated government regime was established
in 1947.
3
Following riots in Pozna in June 1956 nationalist
anti-Stalinist elements gained control of the Communist
Party under the leadership of Wadysaw Gomuka, who
retained some communist traditions but also liberalised the
internal life in the country.
4
In December 1970 workers discontent over living and
working conditions led to riots in the Baltic coast region
and Edward Gierek was installed as leader. He improved
economic conditions and modernized industry with large
amounts of foreign borrowing but much of this was wasted
and a period of economic decline followed, culminating in
1980 with nationwide strikes and the formation of
Solidarity, the national confederation of independent trade
unions.
CHAPTER 1
32
5
In 1981 martial law was imposed and Solidarity was
banned. This situation lasted until 1988 when, after further
unrest, the government resigned. A period of instability
followed, with the communists unable to form a stable
government, until unconditionally free parliamentary
elections were held in October 1991. The 1997 elections
resulted in a coalition government being formed by two
parties with roots in the Solidarity movement.
In 1999 Poland became a member of NATO and, in
2004, a member of the EU.
Government
1.194
1
The present constitution was adopted on 2 April 1997.
The head of state is the President, who may appoint, but
not dismiss, cabinets.
The authority of the republic is vested in the Sejm, the
parliament of 460 members, elected for a term of 4 years.
The Sejm elects a Council of State and a Council of
Ministers. There is also an elected upper house of
100 members, the Senate, which has a power of veto which
only a two thirds majority of the Sejm may override.
2
For administration purposes the country is divided into
549 voivodships and these in turn are divided into 822
towns and 212 wards. Local government is carried out by
councils elected every 4 years at voivodship and community
level.
Population
1.195
1
In 2002 the population of the country was
38.23 million.
Language
1.196
1
The official national language is Polish which is a
western Slavonic tongue.
Physical features
1.197
1
In an east-west direction the country forms part of a
continuous plain, starting in central Europe and extending
to the Ural mountains. The N part, including the coastal
area is generally low, partially wooded and has a large
number of lakes. The S border is a natural barrier formed
by the Carpathian mountain range.
Industry and trade
1.198
1
The country is well endowed with natural resources. It
has substantial reserves of coal, oil and natural gas.
Sulphur, copper, lead and zinc are also produced. There are
large forest areas which are mainly coniferous. The country
is a leading agricultural nation with a total of 14 million
hectares under cultivation in 2000. Principal crops include
cereals and root crops and there is a large quantity of
livestock produced.
2
In recent years the country has also become intensely
industrial. Products include rolled steel, cement, paper,
plastics, motor vehicles, cotton fabrics, domestic appliances
and other goods. Shipbuilding is also a major industry.
The main commodity imports include machines and
equipment, electrical and electrotechnical equipment,
mineral products. The main commodity exports include
machines and equipment, electrical and electrotechnical
equipment, non precious metals and textiles. In 2000 the
largest trading partner was Germany.
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
General description
Extent
1.199
1
The Russian Federation, the national name of which is
Rossiiskaya Federatsiya, occupies an area of
17 075 400 square km, three quarters of the total area of the
former USSR. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the N to
Black and Caspian Seas in the S, and from the Bering Sea
in the E to Gulf of Finland and the exclave of Kaliningrad
(54°43′N, 20°31′E), the former East Prussia, on the Baltic
in the W.
2
That part of the seaboard of the Russian Federation
included in this volume extends from the boundary with
Poland, in Zalew Wilany on the E side, to the boundary
with Lithuania, in Kurskiy Zaliv on the W side. This
encompasses the exclave of Kaliningrad.
Administrative divisions
1.200
1
The Russian Federation is divided into 89 primary
administrative units, all of equal status, consisting of
21 republics, 6 krai (territories), 49 oblast (provinces),
10 avtonomny okrug (autonomous areas), two cities of
federal status (Moskva and Sankt Peterburg), and one
autonomous Jewish region, (Birobijan).
The territory of the Russian Federation lying within the
area covered by this volume is administered by Sankt
Peterburg.
National limits
Territorial waters
1.201
1
The Government of the Russian Federation claims a
limit of 12 miles for its Territorial Seas and 200 miles for
its Exclusive Economic Zone.
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
Russian internal waters
1.202
1
The internal waters of Russia include:
1.All maritime waters shoreward from straight base
lines used to define the width of territorial waters.
2.The waters of Russian ports.
3.The waters of gulfs, bays, inlets, etc, whose
shores belong wholly to Russia.
4.The waters of gulfs, bays, inlets, estuaries, seas
and straits historically belonging to Russia.
History
Early history of Russia
1.203
1
The races who peopled the area now known as Russia
were vaguely known as the Scythians in classical times and
a general theory is that the Russians were so-called from
the Finnish word ruotsi, a term applied to the Vikings, or
Varangians, who visited N Russia before the nineth
century AD.
2
One of the first references is to the Varangian Rurik
who founded the first Russian state at Novgorod in
862 AD. Thereafter a federation of princely states known as
the Kievan Rus controlled most of the E part of European
Russia and Christianity was adopted by Prince Vladimir I
of Kiyev in 988 AD.
CHAPTER 1
33
3
In the eleventh and twelfth centuries the Kievan Rus
was weakened by internal feuding and pressure from the
nomadic peoples farther E. In 1169 the capital was moved
to Vladimir, E of Moscow, after Kiyev was sacked in a
civil war.
The Mongols defeated the northern states in 1238 and
for the next hundred years the principalities were vassal
states of the Khan of the Golden Horde.
Muscovy and Tsarist Russia
1.204
1
Moskva, destined to be the core of the future Russian
State, was founded in 1147 by George Dolgorouki, son of
Vladimir Monomakh who had married the daughter of
Harold II of England and founded the city of Vladimir in
1116.
2
In the mid-fourteenth century the principality of
Muscovy, based on Moskva, began to emerge as a leading
power in the area, and from 1339 the rulers assumed the
title of Grand Princes of Russia. By 1480, having absorbed
most of its neighbours, the state was strong enough under
the rule of Ivan III, the Great, to gain independence from
the Mongols. Ivan had married the niece of the last
emperor of Constantinople and, based on this, his grandson,
Ivan IV, the Terrible, assumed the title of Tsar in 1547.
3
Russia was formerly created from the principality of
Muscovy and its territories by Tsar Peter I, the Great, who
ruled from 1682 to 1725 and introduced western ideas of
government and organisation. Under Peter and his
successors territorial expansion continued and it was as a
huge multinational autocratic state that the Russian Empire
entered World War I against the Central Powers in 1914.
4
Because of food and fuel shortages, repressive
government and lack of competent military leadership a
series of mutinies, strikes, and demonstrations culminated
in revolution on 12th March 1917, or 27th February in the
Julian Calendar which was not replaced by the Gregorian
Calendar until February 1918. Three days later Tsar
Nicholas II abdicated, a provisional government was formed
and a republic declared on 14th September (1st September).
A political struggle ensued leading to the October
Revolution of 7th November (25th October) 1917 in which
the Bolsheviks (Communists) led by V I Lenin (Ulyanov)
seized power and created the Council of People’s
Commissars as the new governmental authority.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
1.205
1
In March 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk marked the
end of the war with the Central Powers. Armed resistance
to Communist rule developed into civil war in the same
year, lasting until 1922, when the Red Army finally
defeated the anti-revolutionary White Forces.
2
During the civil war Russia was declared a Soviet
Republic and other Soviet Republics had been formed in
Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia. These four republics
merged to form the USSR on 30th December 1922 and by
August 1940 the union had been expanded to comprise
sixteen Soviet Socialist Republics.
3
In June 1941 Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union
resulting in the Great Patriotic War in which the USSR lost
26 000 000 combatants and civilians. The Soviet Union
played a major part in the defeat of Germany in World
War II and afterwards became a major world power with a
significant influence on world affairs.
The Communist Party remained dominant in all facets of
life until 1985 when President Gorbachev introduced
policies of restructuring (perestroika) and openness
(glasnost).
4
This political openness allowed ethnic and nationalist
tensions to surface and in order to re-impose Communist
control there was an attempted coup in August 1991. The
coup was defeated but it could be seen that effective power
was in the hands of the leaders of the republics and the
Soviet Union began to break up. On 26th December 1991
the USSR formally ceased to exist.
The Russian Federation
1.206
1
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
adopted a constitution in April 1978 and in June 1990,
pending promulgation of a new constitution, a declaration
of republican sovereignty was adopted. In December 1991
it became a founding member of the Commonwealth of
Independent States, inherited the Soviet Union’s seat at the
United Nations and adopted the name Russian Federation.
2
A new Russian Federal Treaty was signed on 13th
March 1992 between the central government and the
autonomous republics, and a period of confrontation in
1992–93 between the President and the parliament
culminated in a new parliament being elected and a new
constitution being adopted in December 1993.
Government
Constitution
1.207
1
According to the provisions of the constitution, which
came into effect on 24th December 1993, the Russian
Federation is a democratic, federal, legally-based, secular
state with a republican form of government.
2
The state is based upon a separation of powers and upon
federal principles which include a 15 member Constitutional
Court. The most important matters of state, such as
defence, foreign affairs, budget and taxation are reserved
for the federal government and other matters, such as
education, health, use of land and water are for joint
management by the federal and local governments.
The President, who is directly elected for a maximum of
two 4 year terms, has a central role in defining the basic
directions of domestic and foreign policies.
Legislature
1.208
1
The representative and legislative organ of the Russian
Federation is the bicameral Federal Assembly. The upper
house is the Council of the Federation and the lower is the
State Duma. The former consists of 178 deputies, two from
each of the 89 members of the federation, and the latter
consists of 450 deputies, chosen for a four-year term.
2
The Council of the Federation considers all matters that
apply to the federation as a whole and the Duma adopts
federal laws and approves or rejects nominations for Prime
Minister.
Regional and local Government
1.209
1
The Council of the Heads of the Republics is chaired by
the President and includes the Prime Minister. Its function
is to provide an interaction between the federal government
and regional authorities. A presidential decree of October
1993 established a new regime for local authorities, their
membership being limited to 50. During 1996, 47 of the
89 federal units held elections for presidents or governors,
these being areas where regional heads had been appointed
before elections were instituted in 1995.
CHAPTER 1
34
Population
1.210
1
At the 1989 census the population of the Russian
Federation was 147 021 869 and the estimated population in
2002 was 145⋅1 million, of whom about 53% were female
and 73% were urban dwellers.
The Russian Federation is a multinational state with
more than one hundred nationalities and ethnic groupings.
The largest of these groups is the Russians, constituting
about 82% of the population.
2
The state is secular and religious organisations are
independent of state control. The Russian Orthodox Church
is the largest of the religious groups in the country but
there are a number of other religions.
Language
1.211
1
The Russian language is the state language of the
Russian Federation throughout its territory. The language is
a branch of the Slavonic family of languages and is written
in Cyrillic script.
Physical features
1.212
1
In the W, from the Pripet Marshes near the Polish
border to the low and rolling Ural Mountains, the Russian
Federation stretches over a broad plain broken only by
occasional low hills.
In the area covered by this volume the coast is mainly
low lying and fronted by sandspits. It is fringed by lakes
on the landward side. The principal river is Reka Pregolya,
on which stands Kaliningrad, about 5 miles from its mouth.
Industry and trade
1.213
1
The Russian Federation is one of the most industrialized
of the former Soviet Republics. Alongside its resource
based industries, it has developed large manufacturing
capacities, notably in machinery.
2
However with the collapse of communism it is now
going through great changes. Inflation and a decline in
industrial output has caused a number of economic
problems including a fall in real incomes. Private
ownership and the sale of land is now permitted, as are
private commercial enterprises. Some 40% of agricultural
production is now accounted for by private ownership and
over half the workforce is employed outside the state
sector.
3
The Russian Federation has some of the richest mineral
deposits in the world including oil, natural gas, coal,
ferrous and non-ferrous ores, salt, asbestos, precious metals
and gemstones.
In 2002, exports were valued at 107 247 million US$
and imports at 60 966 million US$. In 2000, Germany was
the main trading partner.
LITHUANIA
General description
1.214
1
Lithuania, the national name of which is Lietuvos
Respublika, occupies the E central side of Baltic Sea which
forms part of its W boundary. The country, which has a
total land area of 65 300 square km and is bounded N by
Latvia, E and S by Belarus, W by Poland, the Russian
exclave of Kaliningrad and Baltic Sea.
2
Under the constitution the state supports religious
groups, which have been active in the country for centuries,
the largest of which is the Roman Catholic Church.
The capital city is Vilnius, which in 2002, had a
population of 553 000.
National limits
1.215
1
Lithuania claims a limit of 12 miles for its Territorial
Seas and 200 miles for its Exclusive Economic Zone.
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.216
1
Lithuanian tribes, organized into state units in the nineth
century, unified in the face of encroachment by the German
order of Teutonic Knights. Gradually over the next few
centuries Lithuania annexed Russian lands until, by the
middle of the fifteenth century when its land area stretched
as far as Black Sea. Lithuania united with Poland
dynastically in 1385 and politically in 1569.
2
In the eigtheenth century Lithuania yielded its Russian
territories and was itself absorbed into the Russian empire
in 1795.
Following occupation by Germany during the First
World War a new democratic republic was formed in 1919.
This democratic regime was overthrown in 1926 by a coup,
the new regime ruling until 1940. Under a secret protocol
of the Soviet-German frontier treaty of 1939 the greater
part of Lithuania was assigned to the Soviet sphere of
influence. In 1940 the country became a Soviet Socialist
Republic of the USSR.
3
During the disintegration of the USSR in 1991, and
following civil unrest which culminated in Russian army
units firing on demonstrators, a referendum on
independence was held, which resulted in fully independent
status being conceded by the USSR State Council on 6th
September 1991.
Lithuania became a member of NATO and the EU in
2004.
Government
1.217
1
The present constitution was adopted after a referendum
held on 25th October 1992. Parliament is the 141 member
Seimas, consisting of 70 seats held by parties according to
their share of the vote and 71 constituency seats held by
candidates who poll more than 50% of the vote.
Local government is achieved through ten provinces,
administered by governors.
2
The Constitutional Court is empowered to rule on
whether proposed laws conflict with the constitution or
existing legislation. It comprises nine judges who serve
9 year terms, one third rotating every 3 years. The Supreme
Court is the apex of the justice system.
Population
1.218
1
In 2001 the population of the country was 3⋅48 million.
Language
1.219
1
The official language is Lithuanian but ethnic minorities
have a right to official use of their language where they
form a substantial part of the population.
CHAPTER 1
35
Physical features
1.220
1
Generally, Lithuania is a low-lying country with a large
number of lakes and swamps. Forests, consisting of mainly
conifers, occupy about 19% of the land area. The principal
river is the Nemunas, in the S part of the country, which
together with its tributaries forms part of about 600 km of
inland waterways.
Industry and trade
1.221
1
Lithuania has few natural resources with the exception
of fairly large reserves of peat and a small amount of oil.
Agriculture contributes about 7% towards the economy and
employs about 17% of the workforce. The main crops
include cereals and root crops and a large amount of
livestock is also produced. Fishing also plays an important
part in the economy.
2
Industrial production includes steel, chemicals, fertilizers,
paper, food products and household goods. In 2001 the
main trading partners for exports were United Kingdom,
Latvia and Germany, and imports Russia and Germany.
LATVIA
General description
1.222
1
Latvia, the national name of which is Latvijas
Republika, is situated in E Europe, in the NE part of Baltic
Sea. The country, which has a total area of 64 600 square
km, is bounded N by Estonia and Baltic Sea, W by Baltic
Sea, S by Lithuania and Belarus and E by Russia.
2
The capital city is Rga which, in 2000, had a
population of 764 300. Religious organisations must be
licensed by the Department of Religious Affairs, attached to
the Ministry of Justice. The main religious groups are
Lutheran, Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox.
National limits
1.223
1
Latvia claims a limit of 12 miles for its Territorial Seas
and 200 miles for its Exclusive Economic Zone.
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.224
1
Latvian tribes were under the hegemony of the German
Order of Livonian Knights until 1561 when Latvia fell into
Polish and Swedish hands. By 1795 it was entirely under
Russian control. The country was partially occupied by
Germany during the First World War and in 1918 declared
its independence under Soviet power.
Under a secret protocol of the Soviet-German agreement
of 1939 Latvia was assigned to the Soviet sphere of
interest, which resulted in occupation by the USSR in 1940
and an application to join the USSR which was accepted
on 5th August.
2
On 4th May 1990 the Latvian Supreme Soviet voted
overwhelmingly that the Soviet occupation in 1940 was
illegal and resolved to re-establish the Constitution of 1922.
Fully independent status was conceded and formally
recognized by the USSR State Council in September 1991.
In 2004, Latvia became a member of NATO and the
EU.
Government
1.225
1
The declaration of independence of August 1991 states
that Latvia is an independent democratic republic whose
status is defined by the constitution of 1922. The head of
state is the President, elected by parliament for renewable
4 year terms.
2
Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral
Parliament, Saeima, which comprises 100 deputies elected
from five electoral districts for 3 year terms of office.A
seven member Constitutional Court was established in 1996
with powers to invalidate legislation not in conformity with
the constitution. Local government consists of local
authorities which are two-tiered, regional, which are
appointed, and county which are elected for four year
terms.
The justice system consists of a Supreme Court, regional
courts, district courts and administrative courts. Judges are
appointed for life.
Population
1.226
1
In 2001 the population of the country was 2⋅3 million.
Language
1.227
1
The official language is Latvian, which belongs to the
Baltic branch of the Indo-European languages, and as such
is distinct from Russian with the Latin alphabet being used.
Russian is also widely spoken and the right of minorities to
use their mother tongue is acknowledged.
Physical features
1.228
1
The majority of Latvia is flat or undulating with
numerous forests, lakes and peat bogs. Forests cover about
20% of the land area. The principal rivers are the Venta,
Daugava, Lielupe and Gauja.
Industry and trade
1.229
1
The country has extensive reserves of peat deposits, a
lesser amount of timber, with minor quantities of gypsum,
and amber in the coastal regions.
Agriculture forms an important part of the economy with
significant livestock production, dairy farming and crops
including cereals and vegetables.
2
Industry was largely organised to contribute to the
centralized Soviet economy but a programme of reform and
privatisation has resulted in the halving of trade with
Russia during the period 1997−2000. Trade with the EU
has continued to grow, the main products include electric
and diesel trains, agricultural machinery, timber, steel, and
paper.
3
In 2000 the main export trading country was United
Kingdom, followed by Germany, and the main trading
partners for imports were Germany and Russia.
ESTONIA
General description
1.230
1
Estonia, the national name of which is Eesti Vabariik,
has a total area of 45 100 square km, is bounded N and W
by Baltic Sea, E by Russia, and S by Latvia. There are
numerous offshore islands, of which the largest are
Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, but few are permanently inhabited.
The capital city is Tallinn which, in 2000, had an
estimated population of about 408 000. Other large towns
are Tartu, Kohtla-Järve, Narva and Pärnu.
CHAPTER 1
36
2
The seaboard of Estonia included in this volume extends
from the border with Latvia in Gulf of Rga, to the SW
point of Gulf of Finland in the vicinity of Osmussaar
(59°18′N, 23°22′E), and includes the islands of Saaremaa
and Hiiumaa.
National limits
1.231
1
Estonia claims a limit of 12 miles for its Territorial Seas
and 200 miles for its Exclusive Economic Zone.
For further details see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.232
1
Estonians are one of the longest settled European
peoples whose forebears lived on the southeastern shores of
Baltic Sea more than 5000 years ago. During the first
century AD Estonia had a population of more than 150 000
people and remained the last corner of medieval Europe to
be Christianised. It also managed to remain nominally
independent from the Vikings to the W and Kievan Rus to
the E.
2
However, the Danes eventually conquered Toompea, the
hilled fortress at what is now the centre of Tallinn, and in
1227 the German crusading order of the Sword Brethren
defeated the last Estonian stronghold; the people were
christianised, colonised, and enserfed. By 1236, the Sword
Brethren allied with the Order of the Teutonic Knights and
became known as the Livonian Order of the Teutonic
Knights. In 1436 the Danes sold their part of Estonia to the
Livonian Order.
3
Northern Estonia submitted to Swedish control in 1561
during the Livonian Wars and Southern Estonia became
part of Lithuania’s Duchy of Courland. The Swedish were
then defeated by Russia and the resulting 1721 Treaty of
Nystad imposed Imperial Russian rule in the territory that
became modern Estonia, uniting it under one rule.
4
Following the First World War an independent republic
was proclaimed in 1919 and this remained so until 1940,
when under the terms of a secret protocol of the
Soviet-German agreement of 1939, Soviet forces occupied
Estonia. The Russians installed a pro-Soviet regime which
immediately applied for Estonia’s admission to the Soviet
Union. This was effected by decree of the Supreme Soviet
on 6th August 1940.
5
On 30th March 1990 the Estonian Supreme Soviet
proclaimed that the Soviet occupation of Estonia in 1940
had not disrupted the continuity of the former republic, and
adopted a declaration calling for the eventual
re-establishment of full sovereignty. A referendum in March
1991 showed a large majority in favour of independence,
and while an attempted coup was taking place in the
USSR, parliament declared independence on 20th August
1991. Estonia’s fully independent status was conceded and
formally recognized by the USSR State Council on 6th
September 1991.
In 2004, Estonia became a member of NATO and the
EU.
Government
1.233
1
Under the Constitution of 1992 Estonia is a democratic
republic. Parliament consists of a single chamber, the
Riigikogu or national assembly, of 101 members elected for
four year terms by proportional representation. The head of
state is the President who is elected by the Riigikogu for a
term of five years.
2
Local government comprises 273 local councils.
There is a three tier justice system with the State Court
at its head, together with city and district courts. Judges are
appointed for life.
Population
1.234
1
In 2000 the population of the country was 1⋅37 million,
of whom Estonians accounted for 67⋅9%, Russians 25⋅6%,
Ukrainians 2⋅1%, Belorussians 1⋅3%, and Finns 0⋅79%.
Language
1.235
1
Estonian is the official language but Russian is also
widely spoken, and some national newspapers are published
in Russian.
Physical features
1.236
1
The coast of Estonia is mostly low, the greatest
elevation attained being about 137 m. Inland about 38% of
the country is covered with forests, moors, and small lakes,
the remainder being arable land.
Along the N coast are rich deposits of oil shale. There
are also valuable deposits of peat, and in the vicinity of
Tallinn, deposits of phosphorite and super-phosphates.
Industry and trade
1.237
1
Agriculture and dairy farming are the main industries.
Rye, wheat, barley and potatoes are the main crops, with
meat, milk and butter the chief products of dairy farming.
Manufactured products include steel, timber, paper,
cement, and fabrics.
The main export markets in 2000 were Finland, Sweden,
and Germany. Main import suppliers were Finland, Sweden
and Germany.
PRINCIPAL PORTS
1.238
Place and position Remarks
Sweden
Klintehamn (2.153)
(57°23′⋅4N, 18°11′⋅6E)
Small commercial port on
Gotland
Visby (2.164)
(57°39′N, 18°17′E)
Principal town on Gotland. Small
commercial and ferry port
Storugns (2.176)
(57°50′⋅5N, 18°48′⋅0E)
Small commercial port in
Kappelshamnsviken on Gotland
Slite (2.210)
(57°42′N, 18°48′E)
Medium/small commercial and
industrial port on Gotland
Ystad (3.20)
(55°26′N, 13°50′E)
Medium sized commercial and
fishing port
Simrishamn (3.39)
(55°33′N, 14°22′E)
Large fishing and small
commercial port
Åhus (3.56)
(55°56′N, 14°19′E)
Medium/large size commercial
port
Sölvesborg (3.77)
(56°03′N, 14°35′E)
Medium/large size commercial
port
Karlshamn (3.129)
(56°10′N, 14°52′E)
Large commercial and industrial
harbour
Ronneby (3.170)
(56°12′⋅5N, 15°17′⋅0E)
Small commercial port
CHAPTER 1
37
Place and position Remarks
Karlskrona (3.250)
(56°10′N, 15°35′E)
Large commercial, industrial and
naval port and harbour
Degerhamn (4.22)
(56°21′N, 16°25′E)
Small industrial port for bulk and
oil, on Öland
Bergkvara (4.31)
(56°23′N, 16°05′E)
Small commercial and fishing
port
Grönhögen (4.43)
(56°16′N, 16°24′E)
Small commercial and fishing
port, on Öland
Mörbylånga (4.58)
(56°31′⋅5N, 16°23′⋅0E)
Small commercial and leisure
port, on Öland
Kalmar (4.64)
(56°40′N, 16°22′E)
Large commercial and industrial
port
Borgholm (4.105)
(56°53′N, 16°39′E)
Principal town and commercial
port of Öland
Stora Jätterson (4.120)
(57°06′N, 16°33′E)
Small commercial port serving
industrial complex
Oskarshamn (4.140)
(57°16′N, 16°29′E)
Large commercial and industrial
port
Byxelkrok (4.183)
(57°19′N, 17°00′E)
Ferry and fishing harbour on
Öland
Simpevarp (4.186)
(57°25′N, 16°40′E)
Artificial industrial harbour for
nuclear power station
Gunnebo (5.45)
(57°43′⋅4N, 16°32′⋅0E)
Small industrial port for local iron
works
Västervik (5.47)
(57°45′N, 16°39′E)
Large commercial and fishing
port
Gamleby (5.88)
(57°54′N, 16°25′E)
Small commercial port
Marviken (5.205)
(58°33′⋅3N, 16°50′⋅2E)
Deep-water, single berth port
serving power station
Norrköping (5.216)
(58°36′N, 16°11′E)
Large maritime centre and
commercial port
Oxelösund (5.245)
(58°40′N, 17°06′E)
Major industrial and commercial
deep-water port
Nyköping (5.280)
(58°45′N, 17°01′E)
Medium sized commercial port
Kagghamra (6.40)
(59°06′N, 17°47′E)
Small commercial port
Södertälje (6.73)
(59°12′N, 17°38′E)
Medium/Large sized industrial
and commercial port
Vårby (6.101)
(59°15′⋅5N, 17°52′⋅0E)
Oil terminal in W approach to
Stockholm
Bålsta (6.124)
(59°33′⋅2N, 17°32′⋅5E)
Small/Medium sized port serving
industrial complex
Underås (6.164)
(59°15′⋅9N, 17°32′⋅2E)
Industrial loading place serving
aggregate quarry
Västerås (6.169)
(59°36′N, 16°33′E)
Large inland port in Mälaren
serving major industrial area
Köping (6.195)
(59°30′N, 16°01′E)
Medium sized commercial port in
W Mälaren
Nynäshamn (7.57)
(58°54′N, 17°57′E)
Large oil port and commercial
harbour and ferry traffic
Stockholm (7.190)
(59°20′N, 18°04′E)
Capital city and large commercial
and industrial port
Place and position Remarks
Kapellskär (7.300)
(59°43′N, 19°04′E)
Large ferry port in N of
Stockholm archipelago
Norrtälje (7.353)
(59°45′⋅5N, 18°43′⋅0E)
Medium sized commercial and
ferry port
Denmark — Bornholm
Rønne (2.44)
(55°06′N, 14°42′E)
Principal town on Bornholm.
Small commercial port
Hasle Havn (2.52)
(55°01′N, 14°42′E)
Small fishing and commercial
port
Nexø (2.118)
(55°04′N, 15°09′E)
Small fishing and commercial
port
Germany
Sassnitz (8.22)
(54°31′N, 13°38′E)
Medium sized ferry and
commercial port
Mukran (8.29)
(54°29′N, 13°35′E)
Large ferry port
Stralsund (8.102)
(54°19′N, 13°06′E)
Baltic Pilot Volume I
Poland
winoujcie (8.175)
(53°55′N, 14°16′E)
Large commercial and fishing
port
Szczecin (8.248)
(53°25′N, 14°33′E)
Major large industrial and
commercial port
Koobrzeg (8.281)
(54°11′N, 15°33′E)
Small commercial port
Darowo (8.288)
(54°26′N, 16°23′E)
Small commercial port
Hel (9.37)
(54°36′N, 18°48′E)
Fishing and leisure port
Gdynia (9.46)
(54°32′N, 18°33′E)
Major commercial and industrial
port
Gdask (9.78)
(54°24′N, 18°40′E)
Major industrial port complex
Port Pónocny (9.111)
(54°24′N, 18°43′E)
Large artificial bulk and oil
harbour, part of Gdask
Russia — Kaliningrad exclave
Baltiysk (9.150)
(54°39′N, 19°54′E)
Naval harbour and commercial
lightening port
Kaliningrad (9.150)
(54°43′N, 20°31′E)
Principal city of exclave and large
industrial port complex
Lithuania
Klaip
da (10.14)
(55°43′N, 21°08′E)
Large commercial and industrial
harbour. Only port of significance
ventoji (10.86)
(56°02′N, 21°05′E)
Fishing port close to border with
Latvia
Latvia
Liepja (10.88)
(56°31′N, 21°01′E)
Medium/large commercial and
industrial port
Pavilosta (10.122)
(56°54′N, 21°11′E)
Small commercial and fishing
port
Ventspils (10.128)
(57°24′N, 21°33′E)
Large commercial and industrial
port
CHAPTER 1
38
Place and position Remarks
Rga (11.41)
(56°58′N, 24°06′E)
Capital city. Major commercial
and industrial port
Salacgrva (11.92)
(57°45′N, 24°22′E)
Small commercial port
Estonia
Pärnu (11.107)
(58°23′N, 24°29′E)
Medium sized commercial and
fishing port
Roomassaare (11.138)
(58°13′N, 22°31′E)
Small commercial port
Lehtma (12.82)
(59°04′N, 22°42′E)
Small commercial and
fishing port
PORT SERVICES — SUMMARY
Docking facilities
1.239
1
Ports with docking facilities and, where available, the
size of the largest vessel that can be accommodated, are
listed below. Further detail is given at the reference.
Denmark
Rønne. Two slipways; maximum capacity 400 tonnes
(2.51).
Nexø. Dry dock; maximum capacity 800 dwt. Hydro
lift; maximum capacity 500 tonnes (2.125).
2
Sweden
Simrishamn. Slipway; maximum capacity 400 dwt
(3.46).
Sölvesborg. Dry dock; maximum capacity 5000 dwt
(3.91).
Karlskrona. Seven repair dry docks. (3.273).
Oskarshamn. Floating dock; maximum capacity
2000 tonnes (4.170).
3
Stockholm. Two patent slips; maximum capacity
500 tonnes (7.238).
Germany
Wolgast. Two mechanical lift docks; maximum
capacity 2950 tonnes (8.125).
Additional facilities are available at Stralsund, see
Baltic Pilot Volume I.
Poland
4
winoujcie. Two floating docks; maximum capacity
4500 tonnes (8.210).
Szczecin. Seven floating docks; maximum capacity
15 000 tonnes. Four slipways; maximum capacity
for repairs 300 tonnes (8.263).
Koobrzeg. Lift dock; maximum capacity 200 tonnes
(8.287).
5
Gdynia. Several floating docks; maximum lifting
capacity 4500 tonnes (9.73).
Gdask. Several floating docks; maximum lifting
capacity 36 000 tonnes (9.106).
Lithuania
Klaip
da. Five floating docks; maximum capacity
24 000 tonnes (10.48).
6
Latvia
Liepja. Two dry docks; maximum capacity
20 000 dwt. Floating dock; maximum capacity
4000 tonnes (10.114).
Rga. Six floating docks; maximum capacity
30 000 tonnes (11.75).
Other facilities
Compass adjustment
1.240
1
Authorized compass adjusters are available at the
following places in the area covered by this volume:
Sweden
Simrishamn (3.46).
Karlshamn (3.160).
Kalmar (4.86).
2
Oskarshamn (4.170).
Oxelösund (5.276).
Nynäshamn (7.80).
Stockholm (7.239).
Denmark
Rønne, Bornholm (2.51).
3
Germany
Sassnitz (8.28).
Lauterbach (8.73).
Poland
Koobrzeg (8.287).
Gdynia (9.74).
Gdask (9.107).
4
Russia
Kaliningrad (9.187).
Lithuania
Liepja (10.114).
Deratting
1.241
1
Deratting and deratting certificates:
Rønne (2.51).
Ystad (3.28).
Simrishamn (3.46).
Åhus (3.75).
Sölvesborg (3.91).
Karlshamn (3.160).
2
Karlskrona (3.273).
Kalmar (4.86).
Oskarshamn (4.170).
Västervik (5.77).
Norrköping (5.244).
Oxelösund (5.276).
Nyköping (5.36).
3
Västerås (6.184).
Nynäshamn (7.80).
Stockholm (7.239).
Norrtälje (7.359).
Sassnitz (8.28).
Lauterbach (8.73).
winoujcie (8.210).
4
Koobrzeg (8.287).
Gdynia (9.74).
Gdask (9.107).
Klaip
da (10.49).
Liepja (10.114).
Ventspils (10.161).
Rga (11.76).
Measured distances
1.242
1
Within the area covered by this volume there are
measured distances located at:
Mysingen (7.40).
Zatoka Pucka (9.14).
Kuriu Nerija (10.35).
CHAPTER 1
39
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
Seabed
General geology of the area
1.243
1
The waters of Baltic Sea result from the geological past
history of the area. The retreat of the large Baltic Sea
glaciers, which during the great Ice Age was interrupted by
alternative periods of smaller advances, caused erosion on
the one hand and brought various deposits on the other. As
recently as 11 000 years ago the ice sheet still covered the
whole of Gulf of Bothnia depositing considerable quantities
of morainic material in the entrance zone to the gulf
between the SW extremity of the Finnish mainland and the
Swedish coast. As the large ice mass melted, extensive
earth movements began with Scandinavia rising (in the last
10 000 years about 300 m) in the N, while in the S Baltic
area the land was sinking at a comparable rate.
2
Present annual rates of land movement vary from a
sinkage of 0⋅1 cm on the coast of Poland, to an uplift of
0⋅4 cm in the region of Stockholm and 0⋅9 cm uplift at the
head of Gulf of Bothnia.
3
In areas of land uplift the annual increase in charted
depths, particularly if taken from older surveys, may need
to be considered in the context of under-keel clearances.
Mariners should also be aware that discrepancies may arise
from minor differences in the vertical datum used for
depths on charts drawn from a variety of sources and dates.
Attention is drawn to the Note which is included on
relevant charts.
4
The general shape of the seabed reflects the great
ridigity of the geological crust in this region. The greatest
known depth in Baltic Sea is 459 m in Landsortsdjupet,
about 15 miles SE of Landsort Lighthouse (58°44′N,
17°52′E). Midway between Gotland and the coast of Latvia
there is a depth of 238 m, but over most of the area
covered by this volume, the mean depth is about 65 m.
Most of the hummocky seabed forms, drumlins, eskars and
moraine, are of glacial origin, including the submarine
eskar between the Swedish mainland and Öland which is
21 miles in length, 135 m wide and rising up to 20 m in
height.
5
The combination of the deglaciation process and the
numerous large fluctuations in the relative levels of land
and sea, in recent geological time, has resulted in the
generally irregular shape of the Swedish coastline, fringed
by numerous islands and islets. Within this area the seabed
consists of a complex mixture of mud, sand gravel,
boulders and rock with very irregular depths which tend to
defy the normal processes of hydrographic surveying and
charting. Where ports are located in such an area, access is
sometimes only possible via specially surveyed channels,
many of which have necessitated dredging and blasting
operations through hard rock. Outside the channel limits
there will be numerous uncharted rocks or boulders and
navigation without detailed local knowledge is extremely
dangerous.
6
On the E and S sides of Baltic Sea however, inshore
conditions are less harsh, the seabed in this area being
generally sandy.
The most widespread material underlying the sea bed
throughout the region is boulder clay, otherwise known as
till, deposited from the base of ice sheets and containing
boulders of varying size, some very large, in a matrix of
clay which may itself be quite hard. In many of the deeper
parts the till is covered with more recent softer deposits,
but on the banks and shoals and particularly where exposed
to wave action, it tends to form stony ground. Least depths
over shoals and banks may always be doubtful due to the
many large boulders which may easily escape detection
during survey operations. Boulders may also be present in
areas not shown as such on the charts and it is therefore
advisable to maintain a generous under-keel clearance in
these waters. Other than boulders or stones, solid rock is
seldom exposed on the seabed except near the shore.
7
Over most of the area the underlying boulder clay is
covered by relatively thin layers of superficial deposits,
quite widespread, and in various depths, grey or red clay
may be found. In the deeper parts, however, this clay is
usually covered by recent deposits of mud which in the
coastal areas is covered by thin sheets of sand and gravel.
Owing to the absence of tidal streams and the relatively
weak currents in the region, the various sediments
deposited by glacial process remain comparatively static,
thus there is a complete absence of the elongated banking
effect apparent in North Sea.
8
In Baltic Sea there are two distinct types of mud. The
inorganic type, sometimes mixed with sand, is fairly soft
and usually grey, brown, or black in colour. The other type
present, in sheltered basins, contains a high proportion of
partially decomposed organic material and is very soft,
slimy and malodorous, between green and black in colour.
The latter type is sometimes charted as ooze though it must
not be confused with the pelagic deposits which are deep
sea deposits formed almost exclusively from the shells and
skeletons of planktonic animals and plants.
CURRENTS
General remarks
1.244
1
Baltic Sea and Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland function in
a similar way to large rivers with fresh water draining into
them from the surrounding countries, and which results in a
mainly S going surface current over the greater part of
Baltic Sea. The inflow of fresh water usually reaches a
maximum in May when the ice and snow melts, and again
during the second half of the year when precipitation is
generally at its highest. In addition, a sub-surface current
brings salt water from North Sea into Baltic Sea through
Store-Bælt and, to a lesser extent, through Lille-Bælt and
The Sound (Baltic Pilot Volume I).
2
In the region covered by this volume, the currents are
relatively weak except when affected by meteorological
disturbances, particularly strong winds. With calm or light
winds over Baltic Sea and surrounding regions, there is
normally a weak anti-clockwise circulation with an average
rate of less than kn setting SW near the Swedish coast
and NE near the coasts of Poland and the other eastern
Baltic countries, and with the currents tending to run
parallel to the coast. In restricted channels between islands
the flow is often complex, and with higher average rates.
Conditions that affect currents
1.245
1
After prolonged periods of strong winds from a constant
direction, a wind-drift current may be generated where the
rate varies according to the speed of the wind and its
duration. These wind drift currents may strengthen, weaken
or reverse the surface current and cause major irregularities
to the set of the current across the region. In general,
CHAPTER 1
40
persistent strong to gale force winds blowing along the
length of Baltic Sea can increase rates to around 1 to 2 kn
relatively soon after the onset of the wind. However, this
soon leads to an increase in the water level along the coast
towards which the wind is blowing, and a lowering of the
water level in the area from which the wind is coming.
This difference in water levels will in turn give rise to an
opposing current, and once the gale ceases the difference in
the water levels is usually restored by a flow of water
across the whole width of Baltic Sea. A large pressure
variation, together with strong winds, over one area may
lead to an alteration in the water level which, in turn, may
result in indirect and sudden changes to both the direction
and rate of the current elsewhere in the region.
2
The variation in the currents can be considerable during
periods of unsettled weather, and particularly in narrow
inlets and channels. For example, a current of 6 to 8 kn has
been recorded in Kalmarsund with persistent gale force
winds. In the SW part of Baltic Sea, between the coast of
S Sweden and Bornholm and Kap Arkona, currents of 4 kn
have been reported on some occasions, and in the same
area, off Sandhammaren on the Swedish coast, the current
sets strongly towards the land with SW gales. Near
Hammer Odde, on the NW coast of Bornholm, a strong S
set has been recorded with strong to gale force NW winds.
Other local characteristics of currents, where known, are
described in the geographical chapters as appropriate.
SEA LEVEL AND TIDES
1.246
1
Tidal influence in tBaltic Sea is imperceptible. However,
considerable differences in the sea level may be caused by
strong winds, variation in atmospheric pressure, and the
seasonal increase and decrease in the amount of water
brought down by the rivers.
2
In the area covered by this volume a combination of
these effects raises or lowers the level by about 0⋅6 from
the mean, although at times the variation may be much
greater. Off the S coast of Sweden the sea level may fall
by as much as 1⋅5 m below the mean with strong W gales,
while at winoujcie the sea level may rise 2 m above
mean level in NE gales. Local variations, where known, are
given in the geographical section as appropriate.
3
Atmospheric pressure conditions often give rise to
powerful currents which appear to follow the direction of
the wind. Alterations to sea level follow on this so that
there is usually high water on that coast towards which the
wind blows and low water on the opposite side.
Appreciable local deviations from this rule can be caused
by irregularities in the shape of the coast, such as large
bays or reefs. Very severe gales, although seldom
occurring, may cause such an accumulation of water that
heavy flooding may occur in some localities while, in
others, shoals which are normally always covered become
dry.
4
The atmospheric pressure has also a direct effect on the
sea level. This is weaker than the wind effect, but is more
local and felt more quickly. This movement occurs at all
seasons, but is more frequent in the autumn and winter. It
sometimes lasts for weeks, though more commonly for a
few days over a certain area. A rapid rise of the sea level
can often be taken to indicate a decrease of atmospheric
pressure and consequently as a warning of approaching bad
weather.
5
Normally the changes in sea level will be greater in
bays and narrow waters than on the open coast, where
there are no great obstructions to water movements. During
autumn, winter, and spring large changes in the sea level
occur, but during the summer the changes are confined
within quite narrow limits. This is probably explained by
the fact that storms very seldom occur in the summer.
SEA AND SWELL
General remarks
1.247
1
For general information on sea and swell, see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Sea and swell conditions
1.248
1
Sea waves are generated locally by the wind and can be
very variable in direction. During January the increasing ice
coverage reduces the formation of sea waves but some of
the roughest seas, with a moderate swell, are experienced
in the E of the area with persistent W to SW winds, and in
the SW of the area with E to NE winds.
2
Rough to very rough seas are experienced on around 12
to 14% of occasions in autumn and winter, and 1 to 3% in
summer.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Sea surface temperatures
1.249
1
The mean sea surface temperatures for February, May,
August and November are given in the accompanying
Diagrams 1.249.1 to 1.249.4.
2
Sea surface temperatures are normally at their lowest
between late February and early March, and with extensive
coastal ice during this period in Gulf of Rga and in the
approaches to Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland. Baltic
Sea is usually ice-free by the end of April, and by
mid-May mean sea surface temperatures range from around
5⋅5°C in the N to about 10°C in Gulf of Gdask and off
winoujcie. Sea surface temperatures are usually at their
highest during August with temperatures of around 16°C in
the N and 18°C in the S. Temperatures start to decrease
from late August and by November are around 6°C in the
NE and 8°C in the S. The central part of Baltic Sea is
normally a little warmer than adjacent coastal in winter,
and slightly cooler in summer.
3
The overlying air is usually 1° to 2°C warmer than the
sea surface temperature between April and July, and the
difference is often at its highest in May when sea fogs are
most common over the open sea.
Variability
1.250
1
Sea surface temperatures can vary from one occasion to
another, especially in Gulfs of Rga and Gdask and off
winoujcie in summer. The average variation is normally
about 1° to 3°C above or below the average for the time of
the year, but can be greater in shallow waters or where
there is a major fresh water inflow.
Salinity
1.251
1
For an explanation of salinity, as applied to seawater see
The Mariner’s Handbook.
Salinity diagrams for Baltic Sea are shown in Diagrams
1.251.1 and 1.251.2, for spring (April-June) and autumn
(October-December). Variations to these values, especially
in the vicinity of large rivers and due mainly to fresh water
CHAPTER 1
45
run off, melting ice and summer evaporation, may be
encountered.
2
Average values, in practical salinity values, across the
area covered by this volume, range from 6⋅5 in the NE of
the area to 8⋅0 in the extreme SW, and varying little
throughout the year. In Gulf of Rga values can be
considerably less than the average for Baltic Sea, falling to
as low as 3⋅0 in the SW of the Gulf with isohalines
crossing the gulf NE-SW.
Density
1.252
1
For an explanation of density, as applied to sea water,
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
The mean density values for the area covered by this
volume remain relatively stable throughout the year at
1⋅00525 gm/cm
3
in the NE part of the area, to
1⋅00600 gm/cm
3
in the SW part of the area. It should be
noted that density values tend to decrease in summer with
the increase in temperature, giving values of 1⋅00375 g/cm
3
in the NE to 1⋅00475 g/cm
3
in the SW.
2
For selected areas density values are as follows, where
average density values gm/cm
3
, relative to pure fresh water
at 1⋅000 gm/cm
3
:
Month Off
Bornholm
Off
Gotland
Off
Hiiumaa
In Gulf
of Rga
February 1⋅00675 1⋅00575 1⋅00550 1⋅00525
May 1⋅00575 1⋅00550 1⋅00500 1⋅00400
August 1⋅00450 1⋅00425 1⋅00375 1⋅00250
November 1⋅00575 1⋅00550 1⋅00500 1⋅00425
3
Note. The figures quoted above for Gulf of Rga are
average values for the central part. Values decrease towards
Rga and the SE part of the gulf.
ICE CONDITIONS
General remarks
1.253
1
A general account of the nature, development and
movement of sea ice is given in The Mariner’s Handbook
which also includes a glossary of the recognised ice terms,
some of which are illustrated by photographs.
The following description is limited to the ice conditions
within the region covered by this volume. For a description
of icebreaking services and operations see 1.116.
2
The Baltic winter climate is one of marked contrasts,
being at times subject to intensely cold weather, and at
other times much milder weather prevails. Due to its low
salinity (1.251) Baltic Sea freezes at a slightly higher
temperature compared with typical saline sea water. Near
coasts and within inlets and bays the water temperature is
directly influenced by the very cold air from the land mass
and it is these coastal areas that are most subject to ice.
The severity of the ice season, as evidenced by duration,
extent and thickness of the ice, consequently varies greatly
from one year to another. Accordingly, while it is
convenient to quote average dates for the onset and
break-up of ice, or for opening and closing of ports, it
must be understood that wide variations occur in individual
years; see 1.261.
3
Over much of this region ice may be a threat to
navigation in some or all of the months from December,
when the first ice usually forms, through to April. At some
ports the movement of ships may be suspended for a
longer period, but with the use of larger, more powerful
icebreakers and the construction of more ice strengthened
vessels, the period of navigation has been considerably
extended in the larger ports affected by ice.
4
The comparatively deep waters well offshore in the
central Baltic Sea areas provides an effective store of heat
from the summer months which must be depleted by
prolonged exposure to the cold before ice can build up
seawards from the coastal regions to any extent.
Ice development — average winter
1.254
1
On average, severe ice conditions occur about every
fourth or fifth year but this must not be interpreted to infer
that a regular pattern is normal. Sustained low temperatures
are often associated with a higher frequency of winds from
E or with spells of frosty weather. In other winters
predominately W winds off Atlantic Ocean ameliorate the
coldness associated with the continental mass in winter.
During the course of a winter season rapid changes in
the extent and disposition of ice may occur, thus it is
prudent to ascertain the current conditions before
proceeding into Baltic Sea.
2
The first formation of ice usually occurs during
December and reaches its maximum extent during late
February or early March. The melting process is usually
complete sometime during April. Mean ice concentration
for the months of February, March and April are at
Diagrams 1.254a−c. Although ice seasons vary greatly
certain common patterns emerge. The central and S parts of
Baltic Sea do not generally become extensively covered by
ice in a normal winter, whereas the archipelagos, Gulf of
Rga and the shallower waters round Hiiumaa and
Saaremaa are regularly covered.
Regional ice remarks − Baltic (central part)
1.255
1
December. In December ice of a very low concentration
can be found in the archipelagos of the Swedish coast
between Vastervik and Stockholm and on the Polish Coast
near Swinoujscie, in the NW sector of Gulf of Gdask and
in Zalew Wilany. Ice of low concentration exisits in
Kuriu Marios and Kurshskiy Zaliv.
1.256
1
January. At the beginning of the year there is ice of a
low concentration in the archipelagos on the Swedish coast
between Kalmarsund and Stockholm. Outside the
archipelagos, towards the open sea, there is little or no ice.
There is ice of a low concentration along the German
coast, in the area between Warnemünde and the
German/Poland border. Ice may aslo be found in Zalew
Wilany, Kuriu Marios and Kurshkiy Zaliv during early
January.
2
In the middle of the month, the concentration of ice
between the islands of the archipelagos off the Swedish
coast and the central part of Kalmarsund is between 25%
to 50%. Concentrations above 25% may be found on the
German coast E of Warnemünde and in Zalew Wilany,
Kuriu Marios and Kurshkiy Zaliv. In the region of
Karlskrona, ice concentration can reach 25%. Ice of very
low concentration may be found everywhere along the
coasts of Germany, Poland Lithuania and Latvia.
3
By the end of January the ice concentration in the
central part of Kalmarsund can often be above 50%,
decreasing towards the extremities of the sound.
1.257
1
February. At the beginning of the month ice of very
low concentration can be found between Gotland and the
coast of mainland Sweden. The German coast E of
1
0
0
1
2
2
>2.5
2
<1
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) FEBRUARY (1.249.1)
CHAPTER 1
41
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) MAY (1.249.2)
5
8
8
9
10
9
10
6
>5
4
5
10
9
8
7
6
7
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
CHAPTER 1
42
17
18
18
17
17
17
16
<16
16
>18
18
17
18
>18
17
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) AUGUST (1.249.3)
CHAPTER 1
43
7
6
<6
6
<6
8
8
8
6
<6
7
7
8
9
7
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) NOVEMBER (1.249.4)
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
CHAPTER 1
44
5
5.5
6
6∙5
6
5
4
3
<7
7
7∙5
8
7
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Surface salinity in parts per thousand APRIL - JUNE (1.251.1)
CHAPTER 1
46
5∙5
6
6
6∙5
5
4
abt 7∙25
7∙5
8
10
8
10
12
14
6
7
Surface salinity in parts per thousand OCTOBER - DECEMBER (1.251.2)
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
CHAPTER 1
47
Concentration
100%
90%
75%
50%
25%
10%
0%
S
t
o
c
k
h
o
l
m
Kalmar
Hammerodde
Saaremaa
Pärnu
RØga
Liepºja
V
e
n
t
s
p
i
l
s
Klaip4da
Kaliningrad
Gdamsk
Szczecin
©winouj?cie
Oslo
Arendal
Göteborg
Halmstad
Hamburg
Fredrikshavn
Esbjerg
A
a
l
b
o
r
g
Vyborg
Helsinki
Rauma
Kemi
Oulo
Kokkola
Umeà
Skellefteå
Härnösand
Hudiksvall
Gävle
Tallinn
S
a
n
k
t
-
P
e
t
e
r
s
b
u
r
g
Visby
Vaasa
L
u
l
e
å
N
o
r
r
k
ö
p
i
n
g
H
i
i
u
m
a
a
75%
75%
10%
10%
10%
25%
25%
10%
50%
90%
50%
0%
0%
0%
25%
25%
50%
75%
50%
100%
90%
0%
10°
20°
30°
50°
55°
60°
65°
50°
55°
60°
65°
15°
25°
10°
30°
15°
25°
Longitude 20° East from Greenwich
Mean ice concentration FEBRUARY (1.254a)
CHAPTER 1
48
Concentration
100%
90%
75%
50%
25%
10%
0%
S
t
o
c
k
h
o
l
m
Kalmar
Hammerodde
Saaremaa
Pärnu
RØga
Liepºja
V
e
n
t
s
p
i
l
s
Klaip4da
Kaliningrad
Gdamsk
Szczecin
©winouj?cie
Oslo
Arendal
Göteborg
Halmstad
Hamburg
Fredrikshavn
Esbjerg
A
a
l
b
o
r
g
Vyborg
Helsinki
Rauma
Kemi
Oulo
Kokkola
Umeà
Skellefteå
Härnösand
Hudiksvall
Gävle
Tallinn
Visby
Vaasa
L
u
l
e
å
N
o
r
r
k
ö
p
i
n
g
H
i
i
u
m
a
a
75%
75%
10%
10%
10%
25%
25%
50%
90%
50%
0%
0%
0%
50%
50%
75%
75%
100%
90%
100%
75%
S
a
n
k
t
-
P
e
t
e
r
s
b
u
r
g
10°
20°
30°
50°
55°
60°
65°
50°
55°
60°
65°
15°
25°
10°
30°
15°
25°
Longitude 20° East from Greenwich
Mean ice concentration MARCH (1.254b)
CHAPTER 1
49
Concentration
100%
90%
75%
50%
25%
10%
0%
S
t
o
c
k
h
o
l
m
Kalmar
Hammerodde
Saaremaa
Pärnu
RØga
Liepºja
V
e
n
t
s
p
i
l
s
Klaip4da
Kaliningrad
Gdamsk
Szczecin
©winouj?cie
Oslo
Arendal
Göteborg
Halmstad
Hamburg
Fredrikshavn
Esbjerg
A
a
l
b
o
r
g
Vyborg
Helsinki
Rauma
Kemi
Oulo
Kokkola
Umeà
Skellefteå
Härnösand
Hudiksvall
Gävle
Tallinn
Visby
Vaasa
L
u
l
e
å
N
o
r
r
k
ö
p
i
n
g
H
i
i
u
m
a
a
75%
75%
10%
0%
10%
25%
25%
10%
50%
90%
50%
0%
0%
0%
25%
25%
50%
75%
50%
100%
90%
S
a
n
k
t
-
P
e
t
e
r
s
b
u
r
g
10°
20°
30°
50°
55°
60°
65°
50°
55°
60°
65°
15°
25°
10°
30°
15°
25°
Longitude 20° East from Greenwich
Mean ice concentration APRIL (1.254c)
CHAPTER 1
50
CHAPTER 1
51
Warnemünde has ice with a concentration above 25% and
low concentrations are evident near the Polish coast west of
Kolobrzeg. Zalew Wilany, Kuriu Marios and Kurshkiy
Zaliv show ice concentrations between 50 and 75%. The
coasts of Lithuania and Latvia have typical concnetrations
between 10 and 25%.
2
By mid February ice starts to appear in the central part
of the Baltic, N of Gotland and the inner parts of the
archipelagos between Kalmarsund and Stockholm have
concentrations above 50%. In the central part of
Kalmarsund, concentration increases to between 50 and
75%. An increase of concentration to between 25 and 50%
is evident on the Latvian and Lithuanian coasts.
3
By the end of the month the ice extent is generally at its
maximum and there is ice of low concentration over all the
Baltic N of Gotland. At latitudes between 59°N and 60°N
ice concentrations are between 25 to 50%. Between
Simrishamn and Karlskrona, the ice concentration is in the
range 25 to 50% close to shore, decreasing to 10%
offshore. The N and S entrances to Kalmarsund have
concentration levels between 25 to 50%, whereas it is
between 50 to 75% in the central part of the sound. In
some inner regions of the archipelagos N of Kalmarsund
concentrations can be above 50%. In Gulf of Gdask 10 to
25% concentration levels may be found, whereas in Zalew
Wilany they are between 25 to 50%. Kuriu Marios and
Kurshkiy Zaliv may have levels above 50%. Ice
concentration along the Latvian and Lithuanian coasts,
close to shore, remains above 25%.
1.258
1
March. At the begining of the month, ice of a low
concentration can still be found all over the Baltic N of
Gotland and a level of 25 to 50% between the parallels of
59°N and 60°N. Conditions in Kalmarsund remain as in
late February but between Simrishamn and Karlskrona,
concentrations close to shore reduce to the range 10 to
25%. In Gulf of Gdask ice concentration is lower than
February while in Zalew Wilany it remains 25 to 50% and
above 50% in Kuriu Marios and Kurshkiy Zaliv. Ice of a
low concnetration can still be found along the coasts of
Germany, Poland Latvia and Lithuania; it is still possible to
find concentrations above 25% very close to shore.
2
By the middle of the month the concentration of ice
surrounding Gotland is very small though there is still
some ice in the waters N of Gotland. However,
concentrations above 50% may still be found in central
Kalmarsund.
3
By the end of March there is still some ice around
Karlskrona but the coast W of this point is normally
ice-free. Concentration remains above 50% in the vicinity
of Kalmar, but the concentrations are much lower at the N
and S entrances to Kalmarsund. The channels of the
archipelagos N of Kalmarsund may still have areas of
relatively high concentration. The coasts of Latvia and
Lithuania retain ice of low concentration, whereas, with the
exception of the NW part of Gulf of Gdask, Polish and
German coasts are essentially free of ice.
1.259
1
April. By the beginning of April the central Baltic, S of
59°N, is free of ice. Ice remains on the Swedish coast N of
Kalmarsund and the sound itself retains concentrations
between 25 to 50% in its central part. The coasts of
Germany, Poland, Latvia and Lithuania are ice fre though
low concnetrations remain in Zalew Wilany, Kuriu Marios
and Kurshkiy Zaliv.
2
By mid-April the concentration of ice in the central part
of Kalmarsund and in the archipelagos of the Swedish
coast S of Norrkoping is below 25%. Between Norrkoping
and Stockholm, concentrations above 25% may be found in
the inner channels of the archipelagos. Kuriu Marios and
Kurshkiy Zaliv still have ice of low concentration but
Zalew Wilany is free of ice.
3
At the end of the month, the only part of the area
covered by this volume where ice may still be found is in
the inner passages of the archipelagos of the Swedish coast
between th N entrance of Kalmarsund and Stockholm.
Regional ice remarks − Gulf of Rga
1.260
1
General. Sea ice starts forming in the N part of Gulf of
Rga and in the waters of Väinameri (which are bound on
the NW by Hiiumaa, on the SW by the N coast of
Saaremaa and on the E by the mainland coast of Estonia)
in the first days of December. By the end of the month, ice
can be found everywhere along the shores but the central
part of the Gulf remains ice-free. Concentrations higher
than 25% exist only in Väinameri, reaching values of
above 50% near the coast of mainland Estonia. At this time
ice in Väinameri can be greater than 10 cm thick.
2
In the period January to March, the density of the ice in
the region increases, the highest being found in Väinmeri
and the lowest values being in the S of the Gulf.
3
January. By the beginning of the month, ice can be
found everywhere in the Gulf and also along the W coast
of Hiiumaa and Saaremaa. The concentrations are very low
in its central and S parts but can be as high as 50% in
Väinmeri. By the end of the month, Väinamera is covered
with ice of concentration above 75%, the central part of the
Gulf a range of 50 to 75% and the S part 25 to 50%. At
the end of January, the thickness of the ice is between 20
to 30 cm in Väinamera and between 10 to 20 cm in the
Gulf of Rga.
4
February. In mid February, Väinamera is covered with
very compact ice (concentration above 90%). The S coast
of Saaremaa and the S part of the coast of mainland
Estonia show ice concentrations above 75%. In the central
and S parts of the Gulf the values are between 50 to 75%.
Ice thickness values remain as for January.
5
March. In early March, ice concentration in Väinameri
and along the S part of the coast of mainland Estonia is
above 90%. In the central part of the Gulf, typical values
are between 75 to 90%; in the S part these reduce to
between 50 to 75%. Ice thickness is between 30 to 50 cm
in the E sector of Väinameri and between 20 to 30 cm in
the remainder of Väinameri and the Gulf. Ice
concentrations begin to reduce throughout the area as the
month progresses; by the end of March they are between
50 to 75% in the central part and below 50% in the S. Ice
thickness remains as for the beginning of the month with
the exception of the S part of the Gulf where it reduces to
between 10 to 20 cm.
6
April. At the beginning of the month there are no
regions of very compact sea ice though ice is still compact
in Väinameri and along the S part of the coast of mainland
Estonia. By the end of the month the concentration in the
waters of Väinameri does not exceed 50%, in the central
part of the Gulf it is less than 25% and below 10% in the
S. Thickness of ice is between 10 to 20 cm except in the S
where it is below 10 cm.
7
May. In early May ice concentration is below 10%
everywhere except Väinameri and near the S coast of
mainland Estonia, where it can be as high as 25%. By
mid-May all ice has disappeared from the Gulf.
CHAPTER 1
52
Ice tables
1.261
1
Ice tables 1−5, give guidance on the commencement and
cessation of ice within particular geographical areas and
ports.
Table 1: Ice conditions on the coast of Sweden during the winters 1960/61 to 1999/2000
Number of winters
Onset of ice
Clearance of ice
Place
Observed
Ice−free
Earliest
Average
Latest
Earliest
Average
Latest
Ystad
40
30
19.12
18.01
22.02
12.02
24.03
04.04
Simrishamn
40
26
29.12
28.01
14.03
12.02
14.03
13.04
Karlshamn
40
29
08.01
23.01
17.02
17.02
19.03
13.04
Karlskrona
40
18
24.12
08.01
26.02
02.02
29.03
18.04
Kalmarsund S of Kalmar
40
15
19.12
13.01
04.03
27.02
24.03
28.04
Kalmarsund N of Kalmar
40
12
14.12
03.01
22.02
04.03
24.03
03.05
Visby – Sea
40
33
07.02
17.02
27.02
09.03
24.03
03.05
Slite – Sea
40
24
03.01
02.02
17.02
02.02
19.03
13.04
Oxelösund
40
14
03.12
18.01
12.02
12.02
24.03
23.04
Norrköping
40
3
24.11
29.12
27.02
13.01
04.04
23.04
Landsort – Sea
40
19
08.01
07.02
27.02
07.02
14.03
28.04
Landsort – Södertälje
40
4
14.12
03.01
27.02
08.01
13.04
08.05
Södert – Stockholm
40
0
28.11
24.12
27.12
02.02
23.04
08.05
Sandhamn – Sea
40
21
13.01
07.02
27.02
07.02
24.03
28.04
Sandhamn – Kanholm
40
12
03.01
28.01
19.03
17.02
04.04
28.04
Kanholm – Stockholm
40
5
14.12
08.01
09.03
04.03
08.04
03.05
Söderarm – Sea
40
15
03.01
17.02
19.03
17.02
04.04
23.05
Söderarm – Trälhavet
40
5
29.11
08.01
09.03
24.12
08.04
03.05
CHAPTER 1
53
TABLE 2: Ice conditions on the East Coast of Sweden between Kalmarsund and the Åland Sea during the winters 1960/61 to 1989/90
Table 2 – Part 1
Number of winters
First ice observed
Last ice observed
Number of days with ice
Harbour or Fairway
Observed Ice−free
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
minimum
Average
maximum
Ölands Södra Udde, Sea West
20 9
18.12 27.01 −
− 10.03 26.03
0
10
48
Ölands Södra Udde, Sea East
30 15
28.12 16.02 −
− 03.03 26.03
0
5
37
Utgrunden South
19 13
27.12 08.01 −
− 22.03 20.04
0
17
98
Utgrunden − Mörbylånga
20 6
22.12 13.01 −
− 22.03 26.04
0
34
109
Mörbylånga – Kalmar
30 6
17.12 07.01 −
− 26.03 03.05
0
52
132
Kalmar − Skäggenäs
20 5
08.12 07.01 −
− 25.03 26.04
0
48
110
Skäggenäs – Dämman
20 5
18.12 14.01 −
− 26.03 26.04
0
42
109
Dämman – Blå Jungfrun
30 10
18.12 24.01 −
− 26.03 27.04
0
33
104
Blå Jungfrun, North
20 9
18.12 24.01 −
− 22.03 27.04
0
20
87
Oskarshamn – Furön
30 9
18.12 28.01 −
− 22.03 25.04
0
34
103
Ölands Norra Udde, North
20 8
28.12 31.01 −
− 17.03 22.04
0
16
63
Ölands Norra Udde, West
20 8
28.12 31.01 −
− 17.03 22.04
0
18
63
Västervik – Marsholmen, Fairway
30 6
09.12 03.01 −
− 04.04 26.04
0
62
127
Marsholmen – Idö
19 10
18.12 08.01 −
− 26.03 24.04
0
29
114
Idö, Sea
30 12
02.01 05.02 −
− 19.03 03.05
0
22
98
Slite, Fairway
19 10
31.12 21.01 −
− 09.03 20.04
0
14
65
Magö, Sea
30 17
10.01 05.02 −
− 12.03 10.04
0
11
70
Hoburg, Sea
30 17
07.01 08.02 −
− 06.03 28.03
0
9
64
Visby, Sea
29 23
07.02 17.02 −
− 30.03 03.05
0
6
61
Gotska Sandön, Sea
29 18
07.02 20.02 −
− 23.03 01.05
0
10
63
Norrköping – Algersgrund
18 0
29.11 24.12 27.02
08.12 01.04 25.04
9
75
128
Algersgrund – Vinterklasen
18 0
02.12 06.01 27.02
08.12 01.04 25.04
4
68
128
CHAPTER 1
54
Table 2 – Part 2
Number of winters
First ice observed
Last ice observed
Number of days with ice
Harbour or Fairway
Observed Ice−free
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
minimum
Average
maximum
Vinterklasen – Oxelösund
18 5
09.12 16.01 −
− 25.03 23.04
0
34
104
Vinterklasen – Hävringe
19 8
03.01 17.01 −
− 27.03 23.04
0
30
96
Hävr–Kränkan–Gustav Dalen
30 11
03.01 26.01 −
− 24.03 28.04
0
28
96
Södertälje – Fifång
15 1
14.12 05.01 −
− 14.04 02.05
0
82
133
Fifång – Landsort
15 5
31.12 28.01 −
− 01.04 22.04
0
40
106
Landsort, Sea
30 9
04.01 06.02 −
− 17.03 28.04
0
24
100
Köping – Kvicksund
18 0
02.11 09.12 14.01
25.02 23.04 09.05
77
128
165
Kvicksund –Västeräs – Grönsö
30 0
19.11 15.12 08.02
25.02 24.04 10.05
51
123
168
Grönsö – Södertälje
30 1
28.11 06.01 −
− 24.04 10.05
0
98
143
Södertälje – Stockholm
30 0
26.11 25.12 24.02
05.02 24.04 10.05
32
110
154
Stockholm − Trälhavet −
Klövholmen
20 2
09.12 04.01 −
− 05.04 30.04
0
64
133
Trälhavet – Furusund
27 0
28.11 02.01 04.03
17.12 09.04 03.05
3
76
139
Klövholmen – Yxhammarskubb
19 5
18.12 25.01 −
− 03.04 27.04
0
45
108
Yxhammarskubb – Sandhamn
28 6
31.12 27.01 −
− 05.04 12.05
0
46
108
Sandhamn – Revengrundet
28 8
31.12 29.01 −
− 25.03 28.04
0
30
100
Revengrundet, Sea
20 9
31.12 31.01 −
− 25.03 22.04
0
21
96
Svenska Högarna, Sea
30 10
08.01 06.02 −
− 04.04 03.05
0
28
107
Söderarm, Sea
30 6
01.01 28.01 −
− 01.04 21.05
0
41
111
Simpnäsklubb, Sea
29 6
14.12 27.01 −
− 06.04 27.05
0
38
130
(*) Details only valid for winters with ice.
CHAPTER 1
55
TABLE 3: Ice and navigational conditions on the Coast of Germany during the winters 1960/61 to 1989/90
Ice Conditions (1960/61−1989/90)
Navigational conditions in severe or extremely
severe winters (1960/61−1989/90) (**)
Harbour
Number of winters
First ice observed
Last ice observed
Average number of Days with ice
Average number of days
with navigation restricted for
Harbour
Or
Fairway
Observed Ice−free
Earliest Average
Date Date (*)
Average Latest
Date (*) Date
Mild or
moderate
winters
<7/10 7/10−1
Severe or very severe
winters
<7/10 7/10−1
Ships with
weak
engines
Ships with
strong
engines
Interruption
of Navigation
Stralsund−Palmer Ort
30 6
19.11 01.01
13.03 14.04
5 21
6 82
9 (4)
47 (12)
8
Palmer Ort –
Freesendorfer Haken
30 6
10.12 07.01
13.03 12.04
6 16
9 76
6 (3)
59 (10)
8
Ruden
30 6
11.12 06.01
11.03 06.04
7 10
14 60
7 (2)
44 (7)
7
Ruden, Sea
30 6
06.12 03.01
07.03 06.04
7 5
12 52
6 (1)
34 (3)
7
Arkona, Sea
30 19
08.01 10.01
09.03 30.03
0 0
20 16
7
8
0
Sassnitz, Harbour
30 13
24.12 10.01
07.03 03.04
2 1
24 31
5
3
0
Sassnitz, Sea
30 15
24.12 20.01
11.03 02.04
1 1
16 30
5
19
0
Heringsdorf / Koserow,
Sea
30 9
17.12 08.01
01.03 09.04
8 1
34 33
17
21
1
(*) Details only valid for winters with ice.
(**) Navigational conditions in normal winters are given in brackets.
CHAPTER 1
56
TABLE 4: Ice and navigational conditions on the Coast of Poland during the winters 1960/61 to 1989/90
Ice Conditions (1960/61−1989/90)
Navigation conditions
Number of days
Harbour
or
Number of
winters
First ice observed
Last ice observed
Number
of days
with ice
Length
of the
ice season
Without
restrictions to
navigation
With
restrictions to
navigation
With closure of
navigation
or
Fairway
Obs. Ice−free
Earliest Average
Date Date (*)
Average Latest
Date (*) Date
Max.
Av.
Min.
Max.
Av.
Min.
Av. Max.
Av. Max.
Av. Max.
Szczecin, Harbour
30 4
23.11 28.12
28.02 27.03
1
40
100
1
60
106
7 21
32 94
0 0
Zalew Szczeciñski
30 4
23.11 31.12
16.03 16.04
14
69
122
14
78
128
11 41
61 127
0 4
Œwinoujœcie,Harbour
30 4
26.11 31.12
11.03 08.04
10
49
93
11
72
120
21 51
29 76
0 0
Œwinoujœcie, Sea
30 7
16.12 10.01
27.02 05.04
1
30
105
1
51
105
14 57
16 57
0 5
Kolobrzeg, Harbour
30 6
09.12 06.01
21.02 18.03
2
23
81
2
47
94
13 35
9 52
0 0
Kolobrzeg, Sea
30 11
21.12 21.01
28.02 05.04
1
21
95
1
41
102
8 33
13 51
1 19
Uœtka, Harbour
30 7
05.12 06.01
20.02 25.03
1
23
82
1
45
106
14 49
9 72
0 5
Uœtka, Sea
30 16
27.12 27.01
27.02 31.03
1
25
90
1
32
90
11 43
11 50
3 38
Hel, West
30 18
14.01 07.02
11.03 31.03
2
16
52
2
34
77
6 23
11 43
0 0
Hel, South
30 18
14.01 18.02
09.03 31.03
1
11
49
1
20
77
3 14
8 38
0 0
Hel, East
30 23
13.01 10.02
09.03 31.03
1
14
34
1
28
78
3 9
11 31
0 0
Hel, North
30 24
15.01 05.02
03.03 31.03
1
12
24
1
27
70
4 7
8 18
0 0
Gdynya, Harbour
30 10
26.12 18.01
07.03 08.04
3
29
71
3
47
96
15 43
15 50
0 0
Gdynya, Sea
30 9
22.12 13.01
06.03 06.04
1
25
80
1
48
107
16 60
9 43
0 1
Gdañsk, Harbour
30 12
20.12 16.01
04.03 27.03
2
24
72
2
48
90
13 30
12 46
0 0
Gdañsk, Sea
30 12
28.12 26.01
03.03 09.04
1
19
76
1
36
86
10 32
9 44
0 0
(*) Details only valid for winters with ice.
CHAPTER 1
57
TABLE 5: Ice and navigational conditions on the Coasts of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during the winters 1960/61 to 1989/90
Part 1 (Estonia)
Number of winters
First ice observed
Last ice observed
Number of days with ice
Harbour or Fairway
Observed Ice−free
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
minimum
average
maximum
Narvskij Zaliv – Gogland
30 0
17.12 06.01 03.02
24.02 01.05 19.05
6
98
136
Gogland – Loksa
30 2
26.12 16.01 −
− 27.04 15.05
0
80
127
Lokska – Tallinn
30 3
29.12 25.01 −
− 20.04 07.05
0
66
121
Tallin – O. Vormsi
30 5
02.01 28.01 −
− 15.04 04.05
0
53
108
O. Vormsi – Ristna
30 7
04.01 31.01 −
− 10.04 04.05
0
34
95
Irbenstraâe – Pärnu Laht
30 3
11.11 11.01 −
− 27.04 09.05
0
82
137
Pärnu, Bay and Harbour
30 0
12.11 09.12 03.02
05.03 24.04 10.05
58
129
171
Part 2 (Latvia)
Number of winters
First ice observed
Last ice observed
Number of days with ice
Harbour or Fairway
Observed Ice−free
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
minimum
average
maximum
Irbenstraâe
30 4
23.12 18.01 −
− 17.04 11.05
0
61
120
Irbenstraâe – Mersrags
30 5
13.12 22.01 −
− 18.04 11.05
0
61
120
Mersrags – Entrance Riga
30 5
18.12 16.01 −
− 12.04 09.05
0
56
123
Riga, Harbour
30 2
16.11 25.12 −
− 02.04 07.05
0
64
118
Ventspils, Harbour
30 5
16.11 04.01 −
− 26.03 14.04
0
45
109
Part 3 (Lithuania)
Number of winters
First ice observed
Last ice observed
Number of days with ice
Harbour or Fairway
Observed Ice−free
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
Earliest Average Latest
Date Date (*) Date
minimum
average
maximum
Liepaja – Klaipeda
29 8
20.11 19.01 06.03
20.02 19.03 15.04
0
30
87
Klaipeda, Harbour
30 0
02.11 10.12 16.02
16.02 27.03 19.04
3
56
103
Klaipeda, See SW
30 0
02.11 10.12 19.02
16.12 26.03 19.04
1
53
101
(*) Details only valid for winters with ice.
CHAPTER 1
58
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General information
1.262
1
The following information on climate and weather
should be read in conjunction with the information
contained in The Mariner’s Handbook which explains in
more detail many aspects of meteorology and climatology
of importance to the mariner.
Weather reports, ice reports and forecasts, which cover
the area, are regularly broadcast in a number of different
languages. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(1).
General conditions
1.263
1
The region covered by this volume alternates between a
relatively mild maritime climate associated with a W to
SW airflow and the continental extremes of Russia with
very cold winters and very warm or hot summers. Spells of
each type may persist for long periods in all seasons but in
the SW part of the Baltic the maritime influence is greatest
and in the E and N of the area the continental effects are
more dominant. Winds are very variable with strong winds
being most frequent in autumn and winter.
2
Rainfall is not high, with the driest period usually
occurring in February and March and the wettest in July
and August. Snow is common in winter with much of the
inland areas in the N and E covered with snow from
December to March. The winter months are generally more
cloudy with an average of 6 oktas compared with 4 oktas in
summer.
3
Fog is most common in winter and early spring and
least common in summer. Visibility is often good and, on
relatively frequent occasions, exceptional in the N of the
area in summer.
Pressure
Average distribution
1.264
1
In December and January the average pressure is around
1010 hPa in the N of the region and about 1016 hPa in the
SE, but usually increases by about 3 to 5 hPa between
February and May in the N. By July the average pressure
is generally around 1012 hPa in the N and with little
seasonal change in the SE.
Variability
1.265
1
It is stressed that the actual pressure pattern can be
significantly different from the mean for long periods, due
to the mobile depressions that affect the area with central
pressures as low as 980 hPa. On occasions, but especially
in winter and spring, an intense and persistent high
pressure cell with a central pressure of up to 1050 hPa may
become established over the region. In general daily
pressure changes are greater in winter than summer.
Anticyclones
The Asiatic anticyclone
1.266
1
The Asiatic anticyclone develops in winter over Siberia
and it is not uncommon for a ridge of high pressure to
extend W to NW Europe with, on occasions, a separate
high pressure cell forming over N Scandinavia. When this
occurs, cold dry E to NE winds can affect the area and last
for several weeks. At the same time E-moving mobile
depressions are prevented from approaching until the ridge
collapses.
Depressions
Atlantic depressions
1.267
1
The area lies to the S of the main low pressure belt of
the N hemisphere. Depressions that form over the W North
Atlantic frequently move NE towards Iceland with
secondary depressions forming to their rear. These
secondary depressions, often in a family of three to five,
frequently move E with increasingly S tracks to affect the
region covered by this volume. Most depressions crossing
the area from the W move away between E and NE,
although the tracks of some depressions can be very erratic.
2
In summer, there is generally an increase in the
frequency of E-moving mobile depressions crossing the
area, although the number of intense depressions (central
pressure less than 980 hPa) is very low compared with the
average for autumn and winter. In addition, shallow
thundery lows occasionally form over Poland and move N
to affect the area covered by this volume.
Fronts
Warm and cold fronts
1.268
1
Warm and cold fronts are frequently occluded by the
time they reach the area but are responsible for much of
the bad weather in the region. See The Mariner’s
Handbook for a full description of warm and cold fronts
and occlusions. E-moving occlusions generally become
slow moving and weaken over central Scandinavia, whilst
those from the S or SW frequently remain more active.
Winds
Average distribution
1.269
1
Wind roses showing the frequency of winds of various
directions and speeds for February, May, August and
November are in given in Diagrams 1.269.1 to 1.269.4.
Variability
1.270
1
Due to the mobile depressions that affect the area, and
the coastal topography, there are often marked variations in
both the speed and direction of the wind during any set
period of time. However, if a high pressure cell become
established over N Scandinavia, particularly in winter and
spring, then E to NE winds over the S of the area may
persist for several weeks.
2
The winds in all seasons can be very variable,
particularly in the N of the area. In the S of the area, there
is a marginally higher frequency of SW winds in the SW
of the area and WSW winds in the SE in all seasons, and a
high frequency of NE winds in May. In E coastal areas in
winter, SE winds are not uncommon.
Winds of force 5 and above are recorded on around 49%
of occasions in the autumn, 42% in winter, 15% in late
spring and 24% in summer.
Land and sea breezes
1.271
1
Onshore sea breezes frequently develop around midday
during fine summer spells, but these tend to parallel the
coast during the course of the afternoon near the Swedish
2
1
1
2
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 0%10 20 30
40
50%
2
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Wind distribution FEBRUARY (1.269.1)
CHAPTER 1
59
6
7
8
7
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: 0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 2
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Wind distribution MAY (1.269.2)
CHAPTER 1
60
3
3
4
4
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 0%10 20 30
40
50%
2
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Wind distribution AUGUST (1.269.3)
CHAPTER 1
61
1
1
1
1
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 0%10 20 30
40
50%
2
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Wind distribution NOVEMBER (1.269.4)
CHAPTER 1
62
CHAPTER 1
63
coast. Offshore land breezes are generally much weaker
and relatively infrequent.
Gales
1.272
1
The frequency of winds, in autumn and winter, of
force 7 and above is around 12 to 14% of occasions, and
between 1 and 3% in summer. Strong NE winds can persist
for relatively long periods in mid-winter and spring, and
give rise to rough seas in the vicinity of Bornholm.
For the most part, gales blow most frequently from the
directions the winds are most frequent. Strong winds from
between W and S being the most frequent in the SW of the
area.
Cloud
1.273
1
The average cloud cover is around 6 oktas in winter and
about 4 oktas in summer, but is slightly higher in coastal
waters in the E. However, on any particular day the actual
cloud cover may be very different from the mean. Clear
skies most frequently occur to the rear of a cold front or
occlusion that crosses the area from the NW, or when an
intense anticyclone dominates the area.
Precipitation
1.274
1
The climatic tables (1.284) give the average amounts of
precipitation for each month at several coastal stations
across the region and the mean number of days each month
when significant precipitation was recorded. However, the
quantity and duration can vary significantly from one day
to another and from one year to another.
Rain
1.275
1
The annual amount of rain, and its equivalent in melted
snow, is moderate with most areas averaging between 500
and 750 mm. There is no distinct wet and dry season
although the wettest months are usually July and August
and the driest February and March, with around 61% of the
annual precipitation being recorded during the second half
of the year. Rainfall volumes are generally higher in the SE
of the area, with a yearly average of around 800 mm at
Kaliningrad.
Thunderstorms
1.276
1
Thunderstorms, sometimes accompanied by hail, may
occur in any season but are most common during the
period May to September. The average number of
thunderstorms each year ranges from around nien in central
areas to about 21 near Gdask and Kaliningrad. Hail occurs
on about 4 days per year, with the most destructive hail
storms in the SE of the area.
Snow
1.277
1
In winter snow and rain occur in equal proportions over
the SW and central parts of the area, with the first
snowfalls in October in the N and E, and about a month
later in the S and W. At Stockholm, Rga and in the NE of
the area, persistent snow cover usually lasts from around
mid-December to late March and the coastline is often
obscured when the sea is frozen. In the SW, the snow
cover in coastal inland areas is much less persistent due to
the relatively frequent periods when milder SW maritime
air affects the area. From mid-April snow becomes
increasing less frequent although moderate snowfalls have
been recorded in early May.
Fog and visibility
1.278
1
In winter, fog and poor visibility are more frequent in
coastal waters than over the open sea due to the lower
coastal sea temperatures and the ice edge. In early winter
and late spring, sea fog tends to form near the ice edge
with mild S to SW winds and may persist until there is a
change of airstream. However, in summer, most coastal
fogs usually clear during the morning with rising
temperatures. See The Mariner’s Handbook for details on
sea, and other types of fog.
2
Fog frequency, over the open sea, reaches a maximum
during the period from late April to early June due to the
slowly increasing sea temperature lagging behind the
normally more rapidly rising air temperature. In March and
April, the percentage frequency of visibilities of less than
1 mile is around 25% in the NE of the area, the S tip of
Gotland, near the coast of SE Sweden and around 10%
elsewhere. In July and August, the figures are around 10%
and 2% respectively.
3
Falling or blowing snow is a common cause of poor
visibility from December to April, with visibilities falling to
around 100 m or less in the heavier snowfalls. Good
visibility is, however, relatively common and is more
frequent in summer than winter, particularly in the N of the
area.
Air temperature
General information
1.279
1
In general the coldest time of the year is January and
February and the warmest July and August. Mean air
temperatures in winter are generally about 4° to 5°C higher
at coastal stations in the SW of the area than in the NE but
in summer the differences are small. However, due to the
mobile depressions and anticyclones that affect the area,
seasonal and day to day temperatures can be very variable.
Summer
1.280
1
The mean air temperature over the open sea in July is
between 16° and 17°C across the whole of the area. Mean
daily maximum temperatures along coasts are about 22°C
but slightly less at offshore islands, with mean daily
minimum temperatures of around 13° to 14°C. On some
occasions, mainly in coastal areas in the S, temperatures
may exceed 30°C.
Winter
1.281
1
The NE of the area is very cold in winter with mean
temperatures over the sea of about –2°C in the NE, and
around 2°C in the SW. Mean daily maximum temperatures
along coasts show a similar range, and with mean daily
minimum temperatures of about –4°C in the NE and
around –2°C in the SW. However, coastal minimum
temperatures of –15°C are not uncommon in the N and E
of the area.
Humidity
General information
1.282
1
Humidity is closely related to temperature and generally
decreases as the air temperature increases. During the early
CHAPTER 1
64
morning, around dawn, the humidity normally reaches a
maximum and then slowly decreases to a minimum during
the early part of the afternoon.
Sea and coastal areas
1.283
1
The mean value of the relative humidity over the open
sea shows little variation between winter and summer with
an average value of around 83% in the N of the area and
81% in central and S areas. In coastal areas there are often
large fluctuations in humidity depending on the exposure of
the locality to the prevailing wind and its distance from the
open sea. The humidity normally falls to a minium during
periods of settled weather in May.
2
Saturation is reached when fog is present, and is most
noticeable when mild moist air from the Atlantic is cooled
by the cold Baltic sea in spring and early summer. A
marked decrease in humidity is likely when a moist SW
airflow is replaced by a dry airstream from the continent.
Climatic tables
1.284
1
The climatic tables which follow give data for several
coastal stations (Diagram 1.284) which regularly undertake
weather observations. Some of these stations have been
re-sited and, in consequence, the position given is the latest
available.
2
It is emphasised that these data are average conditions
which refer to the specific location of the observing station,
and therefore may not be representative of the conditions to
be expected over the open sea or in the approaches to ports
in their vicinity. The following comments briefly list some
of the differences to be expected between conditions over
the open sea and at reporting stations. See The Mariner’s
Handbook for details.
3
Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea with more
frequent gales than on land, although funnelling in
narrow inlets can result in an increase in wind
strength.
Precipitation along mountainous, wind facing coasts
can be considerable higher than at sea to
windward. Similarly, precipitation in the lee of
high ground is generally less.
4
Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over
the land and in the lee of high ground.
Topography has a marked effect on local conditions.
1.289
1.290
1.299
1.288
1.292
1.291
1.293
1.294
1.295
1.296
1.287
1.286
1.285
1.298
STOCKHOLM / BROMMA
HOBURG
LIEP†JA
RISTNA
SVENSKA HÖGARNA
GOTSKA SANDÖN
SZCZECIN
HAMMERODDE
UNGSKÄR
©WINOUJ©CIE
KLAIPWDA
R—GA
PÄRNU
KALININGRAD
GDAMSK
1.297
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
60°
61°
59°
58°
57°
56°
55°
54°
53°53°
12°
12°
13°
13°
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
Longitude 19° East from Greenwich
18° 19° 20° 21°
22°
22°
23°
23°
24°
24°
25°
25°
Location of climatic stations (1.284)
CHAPTER 1
65
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.3 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
66
1.285 WMO No 06193 HAMMER ODDE (55
°
18
′
N, 14
°
47
′
E) Height above MSL − 11 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 years observations, 1984 to 2004
January 1015
3
0
7
−5
86
85
6
6
_
_
9
8
9
8
10
20
30
7
7
6
9
9
9
21
33
6
1
18
18
5
3
0
February 1015
3
0
8
−5
86
84
6
6
_
_
9
7
8
9
9
21
31
5
1
8
7
10
9
5
25
30
6
18
18
4
4
March 1015
4
1
11
−3
87
82
6
5
_
_
6
5
17
15
6
21
24
6
1
5
5
19
13
3
21
29
5
1
16
16
3
5
0
April
1014
8
3
17
−1
86
79
5
5
_
_
8
6
20
16
6
16
21
4
2
5
7
24
16
4
17
23
5
1
13
14
1
6
May 1016
13
7
21
4
86
78
4
4
_
_
6
7
21
17
4
16
24
4
1
3
5
25
18
1
18
27
3
1
12
13
4
1
June 1014
17
12
24
8
86
77
4
4
_
_
6
4
10
14
3
16
39
8
1
3
3
14
11
2
17
47
2
12
14
1
2
1
July
1014
19
15
26
11
86
77
4
4
_
_
6
4
9
12
5
13
40
10
1
3
4
14
9
2
15
49
3
1
13
14
1
1
2
August 1014
20
15
26
11
85
76
4
4
_
_
7
5
12
12
5
13
35
12
1
4
4
19
7
2
15
45
4
13
14
1
1
2
September 1014
16
12
20
9
86
78
5
5
_
_
9
6
14
12
6
13
28
10
1
8
5
20
6
3
13
37
6
1
15
16
2
1
1
October
1014
12
9
17
4
86
80
5
5
_
_
7
5
9
16
11
17
27
9
1
5
4
11
13
6
21
32
8
16
16
3
2
November 1014
7
5
12
0
86
84
6
6
_
_
7
6
13
14
12
17
21
8
8
6
14
11
11
18
25
6
1
16
16
3
1
0
December 1014
5
2
9
−3
86
85
6
6
_
_
10
6
9
9
11
20
29
7
11
5
9
9
8
21
29
8
1
17
17
5
2
0
Means
1014
11
7
27*
−6§
86
80
5
5
_
_
7
6
13
13
7
17
29
7
1
6
5
16
11
4
18
34
5
1
15
16
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
29
32
7
Extreme values _
_
_
31†
−12‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
_
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
67
1.286 WMO No 02666 UNGSKÄR (56
°
02
′
N, 15
°
48
′
E) Height above MSL − 2 m
Climatic Table compiled from 14 years observations, 1983 to 1996
January 1012
2
0
6
−7
85
83
6
6
_
_
14
4
8
4
14
14
33
9
1
13
3
8
5
14
13
38
5
1
19
19
5
3
February 1016
2
−1
5
−8
84
80
6
6
_
_
19
6
12
4
13
14
25
7
1
12
10
15
3
13
13
30
3
1
16
17
2
4
0
March 1013
3
0
7
−5
87
82
6
6
_
_
15
8
14
5
14
13
26
4
1
6
10
19
5
14
16
28
1
2
15
17
2
7
0
April
1013
7
3
12
−2
86
78
5
5
_
_
16
19
14
4
11
6
24
4
2
6
18
18
6
14
15
20
1
1
14
15
1
6
May 1016
12
7
17
3
83
76
3
4
_
_
12
23
15
4
7
7
26
5
2
3
18
28
4
13
19
16
13
15
4
1
June 1013
16
12
21
7
83
76
4
4
_
_
11
13
12
1
9
10
35
5
4
2
8
16
6
16
24
25
1
11
14
3
1
July
1014
19
14
23
11
84
77
4
4
_
_
10
8
12
2
9
5
43
7
4
1
7
13
5
14
15
43
1
1
11
14
3
2
August 1013
18
14
22
8
87
76
4
4
_
_
13
8
10
3
11
7
41
5
4
2
7
12
5
12
21
40
1
0
11
13
3
2
September 1012
15
11
19
5
88
78
5
5
_
_
18
8
11
4
11
7
33
7
2
5
7
15
4
15
15
36
3
1
14
15
1
3
1
October
1015
11
8
14
1
87
79
5
5
_
_
12
5
9
6
18
9
32
7
2
5
6
12
5
18
14
35
4
1
15
16
2
5
November 1014
6
3
10
−3
84
80
6
6
_
_
23
4
8
6
19
8
23
8
2
14
9
9
4
15
11
27
9
2
16
16
2
3
0
December 1013
4
1
8
−6
85
82
6
6
_
_
15
4
8
4
17
12
30
7
2
13
6
9
3
14
14
32
7
2
16
17
3
3
0
Means
1014
10
6
23*
−11§
85
79
5
5
_
_
15
9
11
4
13
9
31
6
2
7
9
14
5
14
16
31
3
1
14
16
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
18
47
7
Extreme values _
_
_
28†
−19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
14
14
14
14
_
14
14
14
14
14
14
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
68
1.287 WMO No 02680 HOBURG (56
°
55
′
N, 18
°
09
′
E) Height above MSL − 39 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 years observations, 1984 to 2004
January 1013
2
0
5
−7
81
79
6
6
_
_
14
6
6
8
12
24
20
11
1
12
5
6
7
14
25
19
11
1
15
15
1
4
0
February 1013
1
−1
5
−7
81
76
6
6
_
_
16
8
7
5
11
23
21
10
0
14
7
8
4
15
24
18
10
14
14
1
4
March 1014
3
0
7
−5
83
72
5
5
_
_
15
8
11
9
12
20
15
9
1
10
4
13
12
14
22
14
10
1
12
13
6
0
April
1014
8
2
15
−2
80
65
5
5
_
_
15
15
14
9
10
13
11
11
1
10
12
14
11
15
18
7
13
10
12
6
May 1016
13
6
20
2
74
62
4
4
_
_
13
14
18
9
7
12
17
10
1
9
11
14
12
14
22
8
11
0
10
11
0
4
1
June 1013
17
11
22
6
78
66
4
4
_
_
12
9
11
7
11
17
19
14
1
9
4
10
9
21
24
12
11
0
9
11
0
5
1
July
1013
20
14
24
10
77
64
4
4
_
_
12
7
10
8
11
13
25
14
1
8
4
8
9
15
30
15
12
9
11
0
4
1
August 1014
20
15
24
10
79
63
4
4
_
_
13
9
11
8
9
15
24
10
1
7
5
10
10
16
24
16
12
9
11
2
2
September 1013
16
11
19
7
82
67
5
5
_
_
16
10
10
9
9
13
21
10
2
10
6
12
12
10
20
17
14
11
13
1
1
October
1014
10
7
14
2
83
74
5
5
_
_
12
6
9
13
12
15
21
10
1
11
3
10
11
15
23
15
12
13
13
4
November 1014
6
3
9
−1
83
79
6
6
_
_
16
8
8
11
15
18
13
11
13
6
8
10
17
18
15
10
1
13
13
1
3
0
December 1013
3
1
7
−5
82
79
6
6
_
_
15
8
6
7
18
17
17
11
1
14
6
8
6
15
22
16
11
1
14
14
1
3
Means
1014
10
4
26*
−9§
80
70
5
5
_
_
14
9
10
9
11
16
19
11
1
11
6
10
10
15
23
14
11
12
13
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
46
7
Extreme values _
_
_
30†
−16‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
_
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
69
1.288 WMO No 02584 GOTSKA SANDÖN (58
°
24
′
N, 19
°
12
′
E) Height above MSL − 12 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 years observations, 1984 to 2004
January 1012
2
−1
6
−8
81
78
6
6
_
_
16
5
8
4
20
13
28
7
14
4
9
4
19
11
31
7
15
15
1
1
February 1012
1
−2
5
−9
81
75
6
6
_
_
15
6
11
4
18
13
25
7
1
16
5
12
3
20
14
25
5
0
14
14
1
2
0
March 1013
3
−1
8
−8
83
72
5
5
_
_
16
7
11
5
25
12
18
5
1
14
6
11
4
26
13
22
3
12
12
4
0
April
1014
7
1
15
−4
81
69
4
4
_
_
18
9
17
6
21
11
13
5
1
19
9
16
6
21
12
12
4
1
10
11
5
0
May 1016
12
5
20
−1
77
64
4
3
_
_
20
8
16
4
21
9
16
4
1
22
11
14
3
21
12
15
2
1
10
10
4
June 1012
16
10
22
4
79
68
4
4
_
_
20
5
11
3
23
11
21
4
1
21
7
11
3
22
13
21
3
9
10
4
1
July
1012
20
14
25
8
79
67
4
4
_
_
18
3
9
3
23
11
24
8
19
5
9
2
20
16
26
4
9
11
2
1
August 1013
20
14
25
8
80
66
5
4
_
_
15
6
13
4
20
9
27
5
2
15
7
12
3
17
15
25
5
10
11
1
2
September 1013
15
10
19
2
82
68
5
5
_
_
19
7
13
6
17
8
23
7
1
17
8
11
4
15
13
25
6
12
12
1
1
October
1013
10
7
14
0
82
75
6
6
_
_
15
3
10
6
26
11
22
6
14
2
10
5
26
12
23
6
13
13
3
November 1012
6
3
9
−3
82
79
6
6
_
_
16
4
12
6
24
9
21
7
1
16
3
12
6
26
11
22
5
13
13
1
2
December 1012
3
0
7
−7
81
79
6
6
_
_
15
4
11
4
21
13
23
8
16
4
10
4
21
11
27
8
14
14
1
1
Means
1013
10
5
26*
−10§
81
72
5
5
_
_
17
5
12
4
22
11
22
6
1
17
6
11
4
21
13
23
5
12
12
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
30
5
Extreme values _
_
_
31†
−18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
_
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
70
1.289 WMO No 02464 STOCKHOLM/BROMMA (59
°
22
′
N, 17
°
54
′
E) Height above MSL − 14 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2004
January 1011
0
−4
6
−16
84
82
5
6
39
10
10
5
3
9
13
17
26
12
6
10
5
4
7
15
17
28
13
2
7
8
1
0
February 1011
1
−5
8
−15
83
75
5
5
27
7
11
5
4
6
15
16
25
13
7
13
6
5
6
14
14
31
9
2
7
8
0
1
March 1013
4
−2
11
−11
84
67
6
6
26
7
11
6
5
13
15
15
16
10
9
13
5
7
11
19
12
24
10
1
6
9
0
2
0
April
1014
10
1
19
−6
80
56
5
5
30
7
18
12
8
11
11
10
14
9
7
15
9
15
12
12
9
21
6
1
6
9
0
2
May 1015
16
5
25
0
71
50
4
5
30
7
20
13
7
10
12
9
19
7
4
13
7
15
11
13
11
21
9
1
6
9
0
2
1
June 1011
20
10
26
4
73
56
5
5
45
7
21
8
7
7
13
11
18
11
4
14
8
9
11
14
12
22
9
1
6
8
0
2
2
July
1011
22
13
28
8
77
58
4
5
72
10
17
5
6
9
14
14
23
9
3
13
4
9
9
15
15
26
8
1
6
8
0
2
3
August 1012
21
12
27
6
84
60
5
5
66
10
13
7
6
10
14
16
15
11
8
10
5
10
9
16
14
24
12
5
8
0
4
2
September 1012
16
8
21
0
88
64
5
5
55
10
12
8
6
10
10
14
13
16
11
11
7
9
7
15
12
26
12
5
9
0
3
1
October
1012
10
4
16
−4
89
74
6
6
50
9
8
4
7
14
14
16
14
15
8
10
4
7
12
18
15
23
11
1
6
9
0
4
0
November 1012
4
0
11
−8
88
82
6
6
53
11
11
5
9
12
15
12
17
13
7
11
7
8
11
14
15
18
15
2
6
8
0
2
0
December 1011
1
−3
7
−14
86
84
6
6
46
10
9
5
4
8
15
16
22
15
6
7
6
4
7
15
17
24
17
3
7
7
0
3
0
Means
1012
10
3
29*
−19§
82
67
5
5
_
_
13
7
6
10
13
14
18
12
7
12
6
8
9
15
14
24
11
1
6
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
539
105
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
28
9
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
−26‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
30
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
1300
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
0700
1300
0700 1300
1300
0700
CHAPTER 1
71
1.290 WMO No 02496 SVENSKA HÖGARNA (59
°
27
′
N, 19
°
30
′
E) Height above MSL − 12 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 years observations, 1984 to 2004
January 1010
1
−2
5
−8
83
82
6
6
_
_
13
6
5
5
16
15
29
9
1
14
5
6
4
17
15
28
10
1
19
19
4
3
0
February 1011
0
−3
4
−8
82
80
6
6
_
_
17
5
10
4
13
17
26
8
1
18
4
10
3
17
16
26
6
1
18
18
3
4
0
March 1013
2
−1
6
−6
84
77
6
5
_
_
16
5
10
5
20
18
17
8
2
19
4
11
5
25
17
14
5
1
16
16
2
6
0
April
1014
5
1
11
−2
85
74
5
5
_
_
22
9
14
7
15
13
13
6
1
24
8
16
7
23
14
6
2
1
15
14
1
6
0
May 1015
10
5
16
2
83
71
4
4
_
_
26
7
13
4
18
13
13
5
1
31
5
12
5
26
14
4
2
1
13
13
4
1
June 1012
15
10
20
6
83
73
4
5
_
_
26
5
13
4
19
13
14
5
2
28
5
12
4
30
13
6
2
1
12
13
5
1
July
1012
19
14
23
11
83
72
4
4
_
_
22
4
9
5
17
15
17
8
2
25
3
10
4
30
19
6
3
1
11
13
1
3
1
August 1012
19
15
23
11
83
71
5
5
_
_
17
6
11
5
18
12
20
9
2
22
3
13
6
23
20
9
4
1
13
13
1
2
September 1012
14
11
18
6
81
71
5
5
_
_
18
6
13
4
17
11
21
9
2
21
6
12
6
20
15
16
5
1
15
15
2
1
1
October
1012
9
7
13
2
82
77
6
6
_
_
11
4
10
8
20
16
21
10
1
15
4
7
8
22
17
19
8
1
17
17
2
3
0
November 1012
5
3
8
−2
82
80
6
6
_
_
12
5
13
7
19
13
21
10
13
5
12
6
20
12
20
10
1
17
17
3
2
December 1011
2
0
6
−6
82
82
6
6
_
_
12
5
9
4
19
13
23
14
2
14
5
8
3
18
12
26
13
1
18
19
4
2
0
Means
1012
8
5
24*
−10§
83
76
5
5
_
_
18
6
11
5
18
14
19
8
1
20
5
11
5
23
15
15
5
1
15
16
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
22
42
6
Extreme values _
_
_
29†
−22‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
_
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
72
1.291 WMO No 12200 WINOUJCIE (53
°
55
′
N, 14
°
14
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2004
January 1016
3
−1
9
−10
88
84
5
5
47
11
6
2
4
9
32
25
17
3
3
5
2
6
7
27
27
18
6
2
7
7
3
February 1015
4
0
12
−8
88
79
5
5
38
9
5
3
4
6
24
30
20
4
4
5
5
5
6
19
24
24
11
1
7
8
1
2
March 1016
7
1
16
−4
88
73
5
5
43
9
6
4
11
9
22
21
20
5
1
12
14
7
9
15
16
19
9
7
9
2
April
1014
12
4
22
−2
87
70
4
4
45
9
8
8
11
10
23
15
13
7
5
17
25
6
8
14
11
11
8
6
8
2
May 1016
16
8
26
3
84
70
4
4
46
9
11
12
8
9
13
15
17
11
3
21
30
6
6
6
10
9
10
1
6
8
0
1
2
June 1015
20
12
29
6
83
68
4
5
55
10
6
6
6
7
15
19
29
9
3
17
21
4
5
8
15
21
11
1
6
8
2
July
1015
22
14
30
10
86
70
4
4
72
11
5
10
5
7
15
22
27
7
3
18
21
3
3
8
16
19
11
1
6
8
0
2
August 1015
23
14
31
8
88
68
4
4
70
11
5
4
7
10
17
22
23
5
8
17
21
6
7
9
14
16
11
0
5
7
2
September 1015
18
11
24
5
91
73
5
5
53
9
7
3
7
12
20
30
15
3
2
14
13
7
12
12
16
17
9
6
8
1
1
October
1015
13
7
19
0
92
77
5
5
52
10
4
2
7
11
31
25
15
2
3
7
5
7
9
22
24
17
7
2
6
7
3
November 1015
6
2
12
−4
92
85
5
6
47
10
5
2
8
13
31
24
12
3
4
8
5
9
12
28
21
13
3
2
6
7
3
0
December 1015
3
−1
9
−9
89
85
5
5
54
12
4
3
8
9
30
26
13
4
4
6
3
9
11
25
27
16
4
1
7
7
3
0
Means
1015
12
6
33*
−12§
88
75
5
5
_
_
6
5
7
9
23
23
18
5
4
12
14
6
8
16
18
17
8
1
6
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
622
120
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
20
9
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
−17‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
30
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1mm or more N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
73
1.292 WMO No 12205 SZCZECIN (53
°
24
′
N, 14
°
37
′
E) Height above MSL − 7 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 to 30 years observations, 1970 to 2004
January 1017
2
−2
10
−12
87
81
6
6
36
10
5
6
10
8
9
45
9
5
4
7
5
9
9
8
42
13
4
4
8
9
3
February 1016
4
−1
11
−10
86
76
6
6
28
7
6
6
11
5
6
46
10
4
7
9
6
7
7
7
41
17
4
2
8
10
1
3
March 1016
8
0
17
−7
87
67
5
6
36
8
6
11
15
8
5
35
11
5
4
9
7
12
11
8
29
17
7
1
7
10
3
0
April
1014
14
4
23
−4
85
59
5
5
35
8
9
13
21
3
5
25
10
5
8
16
13
10
11
9
19
14
8
6
10
3
1
May 1016
19
8
27
1
82
57
4
5
48
9
7
17
16
8
3
23
15
6
6
19
11
10
13
9
17
15
6
6
9
3
3
June 1015
21
11
30
5
83
62
5
5
62
9
8
8
10
5
4
33
19
7
6
18
8
4
6
8
28
20
8
1
6
8
3
3
July
1015
23
13
31
7
85
61
5
5
65
9
4
9
9
4
5
34
20
6
9
17
7
6
6
9
25
20
9
1
5
8
3
4
August 1015
24
13
32
7
88
60
4
5
53
8
3
7
13
4
6
36
15
4
14
16
8
5
8
10
26
19
7
1
5
7
5
3
September 1015
18
10
24
3
92
68
5
5
44
8
3
6
16
4
5
41
12
4
8
11
6
9
10
8
28
17
8
1
6
8
0
5
1
October
1016
13
6
21
−2
92
74
5
5
37
8
2
4
15
8
8
43
8
3
9
6
4
9
14
10
36
14
5
3
7
9
7
November 1016
6
2
13
−6
91
83
6
6
40
10
4
4
15
11
10
38
8
3
7
6
5
14
12
11
34
11
6
3
7
8
0
5
December 1016
3
−1
11
−10
89
84
6
6
45
10
4
5
13
8
10
41
11
4
5
7
4
12
8
9
40
11
5
3
8
9
1
4
0
Means
1016
13
5
33*
−16§
87
69
5
5
_
_
5
8
14
6
6
37
12
5
7
12
7
9
10
9
30
15
6
2
7
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
529
104
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
47
15
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
−30‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
30
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0730
0730
0730
1330
1330
1330
1330
0730
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
74
1.293 WMO No 12140 GDASK PORT (52
°
24
′
N, 18
°
42
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic Table compiled from 30 years observations, 1931 to 2000
January 1013
1
−4
7
−14
86
82
6
6
25
8
5
3
3
14
26
17
18
11
3
5
4
4
12
22
18
19
12
4
9
10
4
6
February 1014
2
−3
7
−12
85
79
6
6
18
7
5
2
5
13
26
17
17
10
5
7
4
6
13
23
16
16
11
4
8
10
3
5
March 1014
4
−1
13
−9
82
72
6
6
22
8
8
8
8
17
21
11
13
6
8
12
12
12
13
18
11
12
6
4
7
10
3
4
April
1015
9
3
18
−3
78
66
5
5
30
8
16
9
7
10
14
11
14
12
7
20
20
12
5
11
10
13
8
1
8
11
3
5
1
May 1015
15
7
25
1
71
62
5
5
49
9
22
9
8
7
14
8
13
12
7
28
24
12
5
8
6
9
7
1
7
10
2
3
4
June 1014
19
11
27
6
70
63
4
5
64
9
21
6
8
6
13
11
15
14
6
26
22
13
5
6
8
10
9
1
7
10
1
2
4
July
1013
21
13
28
9
74
65
5
5
67
10
18
7
5
7
9
13
15
20
6
25
20
11
2
5
10
14
11
2
7
9
1
1
5
August 1013
22
13
27
8
77
66
5
5
56
10
10
2
3
7
16
18
23
14
7
16
13
11
4
10
12
21
12
1
7
9
1
1
4
September 1015
17
10
24
4
81
67
5
5
55
9
6
5
6
10
18
17
15
12
11
14
15
11
8
13
13
14
10
2
7
10
2
2
2
October
1013
12
6
18
−1
85
73
5
6
47
9
4
3
8
19
26
14
12
6
8
7
6
12
18
20
16
12
6
3
7
9
3
4
1
November 1013
6
1
12
−7
87
82
6
6
42
9
3
4
3
15
26
21
16
8
4
7
4
5
12
24
20
15
9
4
8
9
2
5
0
December 1015
2
−2
8
−11
87
84
7
6
34
9
4
4
4
15
30
18
13
6
6
4
4
4
15
28
18
14
7
6
9
9
3
6
0
Means
1014
11
5
31∗
−17§
80
72
5
5
_
_
10
5
6
12
20
15
15
11
6
14
12
10
9
16
13
14
9
3
8
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
506
105
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
28
44
21
Extreme values _
_
_
34†
−27‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
75
1.294
WMO No 26702 KALININGRAD (54
°
43
′
N, 20
°
33
′
E) Height above MSL − 21 m
Climatic Table compiled from 30 to 31 years observations, 1960 to 2004
January 1014
1
−3
7
−14
84
79
6
6
57
13
4
5
7
13
15
21
22
6
6
6
5
7
13
14
21
27
6
2
5
6
2
February 1016
1
−3
8
−13
83
74
6
6
40
9
7
8
10
11
12
16
23
6
7
8
8
13
10
13
17
22
7
1
5
6
0
2
March 1015
5
−1
14
−9
84
66
6
6
43
10
6
8
12
14
14
13
19
7
7
7
8
13
16
13
15
20
8
5
7
0
2
April
1014
12
3
23
−3
82
57
5
5
37
8
12
11
12
13
10
11
16
11
5
14
10
10
13
9
12
18
12
1
4
6
2
May 1016
18
7
27
0
76
54
4
5
53
9
12
10
15
15
10
11
15
9
3
16
10
13
12
9
7
18
15
4
6
0
2
2
June 1014
20
11
28
5
78
58
5
5
71
9
10
8
9
10
10
13
25
12
4
14
7
8
9
6
11
28
15
1
4
6
0
2
3
July
1013
23
13
30
8
80
59
5
5
80
11
8
7
8
11
9
14
28
11
5
13
7
8
7
5
12
30
16
1
4
6
0
3
3
August 1014
22
13
30
6
84
59
5
5
90
10
6
6
11
14
9
20
19
9
7
10
9
8
11
9
13
29
13
1
3
6
0
5
3
September 1015
17
9
24
2
90
64
5
6
89
12
5
5
10
13
12
21
18
6
10
9
8
7
11
12
17
25
10
1
4
6
0
5
1
October
1015
12
6
19
−2
90
71
6
6
79
11
4
4
10
18
14
20
18
4
8
5
4
8
18
14
20
22
7
1
4
6
0
4
November 1015
5
1
11
−7
88
79
6
6
91
14
5
6
7
17
18
22
15
4
5
4
5
8
16
17
25
17
6
2
5
6
0
3
December 1014
1
−2
8
−13
85
81
6
6
73
14
3
5
8
14
18
19
21
7
5
4
5
8
14
18
21
22
7
2
5
6
2
Means
1015
11
4
32∗
−19§
84
67
5
6
_
_
7
7
10
13
12
17
20
8
6
9
7
9
13
12
16
23
10
1
4
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
803
130
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
34
13
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
−28‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
31
31
31
31
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
0800
CHAPTER 1
76
1.295 WMO No 26509 KLAIPÉDA (55
°
44
′
N, 21
°
04
′
E) Height above MSL − 7 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2004
January 1014
0
−3
5
−14
83
80
6
6
50
12
10
4
24
11
13
11
21
5
1
9
4
21
11
13
13
22
7
11
11
1
2
February 1014
1
−3
6
−12
83
77
6
6
31
8
13
5
21
9
16
9
20
6
1
10
4
15
9
20
12
21
9
9
11
1
3
March 1015
4
−1
10
−8
81
73
6
5
39
9
11
7
28
12
13
9
15
6
1
8
4
13
11
22
11
19
11
0
9
10
1
4
0
April
1014
10
3
20
−3
78
68
5
5
36
7
13
9
33
8
13
6
10
8
7
4
14
8
19
10
20
18
0
8
10
0
4
May 1016
15
7
25
1
76
70
4
5
39
7
12
9
24
8
15
5
18
9
7
5
9
4
14
12
28
22
0
7
10
0
2
2
June 1013
18
11
26
5
80
74
5
5
56
8
12
5
17
8
14
8
24
11
7
2
5
3
14
15
34
20
0
7
9
3
2
July
1014
21
14
28
8
79
72
5
5
74
10
10
4
18
7
11
12
26
12
4
2
4
3
15
16
34
23
0
8
10
1
2
August 1014
21
14
28
7
81
70
5
5
83
11
11
7
26
9
8
9
24
5
4
2
8
4
16
12
37
17
0
7
10
1
2
September 1014
17
10
22
3
84
71
5
6
89
13
12
11
29
7
7
8
20
5
1
9
5
13
6
13
12
30
13
0
8
10
1
2
October
1015
11
7
17
−1
85
75
6
6
80
12
11
8
27
11
8
8
22
5
8
2
18
14
16
11
22
9
1
9
11
1
2
November 1015
5
2
10
−6
85
81
7
7
90
15
11
6
31
13
8
7
19
5
10
4
28
13
13
8
17
6
10
11
1
2
December 1014
2
−2
7
−11
84
81
6
6
68
14
11
5
28
16
11
8
17
4
1
11
4
21
17
13
7
18
7
11
11
1
2
Means
1014
10
5
30*
−17§
82
74
5
6
_
_
11
7
25
10
11
8
20
7
1
8
3
14
9
16
11
25
14
9
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
735
126
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
27
10
Extreme values _
_
_
33†
−27‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
30
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
77
1.296 WMO No 26406 LIEPJA (56
°
29
′
N, 21
°
01
′
E) Height above MSL − 7 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2004
January 1014
0
−3
6
−15
85
83
6
6
48
11
8
8
8
16
15
14
20
9
2
7
9
7
10
17
16
23
8
2
9
9
1
3
February 1013
1
−3
6
−14
85
79
6
6
35
10
9
8
12
11
16
17
18
8
1
10
9
8
8
18
18
20
8
1
9
9
1
4
0
March 1015
4
−2
10
−9
86
74
5
5
23
8
10
10
13
16
16
17
12
6
2
9
7
9
9
14
24
16
11
1
7
9
5
0
April
1014
10
3
20
−4
82
66
5
5
35
8
10
14
17
16
13
14
9
5
2
14
7
9
9
8
24
15
13
1
7
9
0
8
May 1016
15
7
26
1
77
64
4
4
40
10
8
15
17
15
11
16
13
5
1
16
7
6
5
4
24
20
19
6
9
0
7
1
June 1013
18
11
27
5
80
71
5
5
36
7
10
12
11
9
13
19
17
7
1
12
3
5
4
5
28
24
20
6
9
7
2
July
1013
21
14
28
9
81
69
5
5
47
9
7
9
11
12
10
18
20
10
2
10
2
5
3
5
25
30
19
1
6
8
6
2
August 1014
21
14
28
7
83
68
5
5
76
11
7
9
14
16
13
10
22
7
3
11
3
6
5
7
21
30
16
1
6
9
0
5
2
September 1014
16
10
22
2
86
69
5
6
81
11
8
13
14
20
9
9
18
6
4
10
7
9
9
11
16
26
13
7
9
4
1
October
1014
11
6
17
−3
87
75
6
6
60
10
8
7
12
22
11
13
17
7
4
9
6
8
15
15
18
21
8
1
8
9
4
1
November 1014
5
1
10
−6
86
81
7
7
58
12
5
8
13
24
16
8
16
8
1
5
7
10
21
20
12
15
8
2
8
9
3
December 1013
2
−2
7
−12
85
82
6
6
59
11
9
8
11
17
20
10
16
8
2
8
6
10
16
21
11
17
9
1
9
9
1
3
1
Means
1014
10
5
−30*
−18§
84
73
5
6
_
_
8
10
13
16
14
14
16
7
2
10
6
7
10
12
20
21
13
1
7
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
598
118
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
59
10
Extreme values _
_
_
33†
−27‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
30
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
78
1.297
WMO No 26422 RGA (56
°
58
′
N, 24
°
03
′
E) Height above MSL − 26 m
Climatic Table compiled from 30 to 31 years observations, 1960 to 2004
January 1012
−1
−4
6
−15
83
80
7
7
34
9
6
6
6
15
31
15
10
6
5
9
5
6
15
30
14
12
6
4
9
9
2
February 1016
−1
−5
6
−16
81
74
6
6
27
7
8
6
9
14
26
14
10
6
6
10
4
7
16
24
13
12
11
3
8
9
2
0
March 1015
4
−2
12
−10
83
67
6
6
28
8
7
5
11
19
26
12
7
7
6
12
3
6
18
24
13
9
13
2
8
10
3
0
April
1014
11
3
22
−8
79
59
5
5
41
8
12
7
10
17
18
11
8
9
9
24
4
6
13
14
9
10
18
2
7
10
0
3
May 1016
17
7
26
0
72
55
5
5
44
8
13
8
12
14
16
10
9
12
6
31
4
6
10
15
7
8
18
2
7
10
4
2
June 1013
20
11
28
5
76
60
5
5
63
9
15
4
8
9
17
13
13
13
8
25
3
4
9
13
10
13
21
2
7
9
5
3
July
1012
23
14
30
7
80
61
5
5
85
11
10
5
7
11
20
16
12
12
7
22
3
4
7
14
13
12
24
2
6
9
6
3
August 1014
22
13
29
7
83
62
5
5
73
11
8
6
8
11
20
19
12
7
8
18
3
5
9
17
12
14
20
2
6
8
0
6
2
September 1014
16
9
23
3
88
66
5
6
75
12
6
7
10
12
27
18
10
5
6
15
4
5
11
22
14
15
13
2
7
9
0
5
1
October
1014
10
5
17
−3
89
73
6
6
60
12
4
6
10
16
30
17
8
4
5
9
3
7
15
27
15
15
9
1
8
9
4
November 1014
4
0
10
−7
87
81
7
7
57
13
5
5
9
18
34
15
8
3
3
7
5
7
17
33
13
11
5
2
8
9
3
December 1012
0
−3
6
−14
85
82
6
7
46
12
6
5
8
16
34
14
8
5
3
7
5
7
16
33
15
11
4
3
9
9
3
0
Means
1014
10
4
31*
−20§
82
68
6
6
_
_
8
6
9
14
25
15
10
7
6
16
4
6
13
22
12
12
13
2
7
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
633
120
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
46
11
Extreme values _
_
_
34†
−35‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
31
31
31
31
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
79
1.298 WMO No 26231 PÄRNU (58
°
22
′
N, 24
°
30
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2004
January 1013
−2
−6
3
−17
84
81
6
6
35
10
8
8
13
11
16
21
14
7
3
8
8
9
11
18
21
14
8
3
8
9
1
3
0
February 1013
−2
−6
5
−16
84
79
6
6
30
9
6
10
13
11
17
19
13
7
5
8
8
9
9
24
22
12
7
2
8
9
1
4
March 1015
3
−3
9
−11
84
74
6
6
25
8
7
9
13
16
18
15
10
7
4
8
6
8
8
26
23
11
8
3
7
9
5
0
April
1015
9
1
20
−4
80
65
5
5
29
8
9
15
19
14
16
11
8
5
5
9
10
10
7
22
24
11
5
2
7
8
0
4
May 1016
16
7
25
1
73
59
4
5
46
9
10
16
12
9
15
16
11
7
5
8
12
7
5
20
30
12
7
1
7
9
0
1
1
June 1013
20
11
27
4
77
64
5
5
35
8
12
10
10
8
18
18
12
8
4
6
8
6
5
21
31
15
6
1
6
8
0
3
July
1013
22
14
28
8
80
66
5
5
57
10
9
10
10
12
14
20
12
8
5
7
6
5
4
21
37
13
6
1
6
9
0
3
August 1013
21
13
27
5
85
68
5
5
65
11
9
8
13
11
8
16
14
11
10
5
6
7
5
17
35
12
10
2
6
8
1
3
September 1014
16
9
22
2
88
71
5
6
66
11
14
8
15
13
11
13
12
9
6
9
6
11
6
19
26
12
8
3
7
8
1
1
October
1014
10
4
15
−4
90
78
6
6
76
12
9
6
10
16
15
17
14
8
4
8
6
8
11
20
24
12
9
2
8
9
2
0
November 1015
3
0
8
−8
88
84
7
7
56
10
6
6
18
17
18
14
10
7
4
6
9
15
15
17
16
11
8
3
8
8
3
0
December 1013
−1
−4
5
−15
85
83
6
6
40
10
7
7
12
12
20
15
11
9
5
7
6
12
11
21
16
13
9
5
8
8
3
Means
1014
10
3
30*
−21§
83
73
5
6
_
_
9
9
13
13
15
16
12
8
5
7
8
9
8
20
26
12
8
2
7
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
560
116
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
27
12
Extreme values _
_
_
33†
−33‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
30
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
80
1.299 WMO No 26115 RISTNA (58
°
55
′
N, 22
°
04
′
E) Height above MSL − 9 m
Climatic Table compiled from 21 years observations, 1983 to 2004
January 1012
0
−2
4
−12
84
82
6
7
_
_
12
8
10
12
11
15
20
11
2
12
7
9
10
12
18
21
11
1
9
10
1
2
February 1011
0
−4
4
−12
84
80
6
6
_
_
13
10
11
10
11
18
19
8
1
10
10
7
13
14
16
19
10
9
9
2
0
March 1014
2
−2
6
−8
85
77
5
5
_
_
12
9
14
16
12
17
12
9
2
10
8
7
15
15
21
17
7
0
7
8
5
April
1014
7
1
16
−4
82
72
5
5
_
_
13
16
14
17
12
10
11
6
1
13
20
6
14
11
18
11
8
0
6
7
5
May 1016
12
5
21
0
78
70
4
4
_
_
18
15
8
16
13
11
11
8
1
13
18
3
8
9
20
17
12
0
6
8
0
4
1
June 1013
16
10
24
4
82
73
5
5
_
_
13
12
8
14
13
17
13
9
1
12
12
3
7
10
25
18
13
0
6
8
0
4
2
July
1013
20
14
25
7
82
73
5
4
_
_
11
10
5
12
15
20
15
11
1
11
9
3
6
8
29
23
11
0
7
8
0
1
2
August 1013
20
14
25
7
83
72
5
5
_
_
14
8
10
12
12
16
17
9
1
11
10
4
9
12
22
23
11
0
7
9
0
1
3
September 1013
15
10
20
2
84
73
5
5
_
_
13
9
13
10
10
14
18
9
2
12
12
7
10
10
19
20
10
1
7
9
1
October
1013
10
6
14
−1
85
79
6
6
_
_
10
5
14
13
12
16
20
11
11
7
6
16
12
19
19
10
9
9
1
2
1
November 1013
5
2
10
−5
84
83
7
7
_
_
10
7
18
15
12
13
16
9
1
10
6
15
15
15
12
17
9
9
9
1
1
December 1012
2
−1
6
−9
83
81
6
7
_
_
13
6
15
10
13
15
19
10
1
12
6
13
10
15
15
17
11
1
9
9
1
1
Means
1013
9
4
27*
−15§
83
76
5
6
_
_
13
9
12
13
12
15
16
9
1
11
10
7
11
12
20
19
10
8
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
28
10
Extreme values _
_
_
32†
−29‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
_
_
_
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
_
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
81
1.300
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
HECTOPASCALS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
2.24
2.21
2.27
2.28
2.15
2.20
2.15
2222
2362
2296
2337
2297
2241
2817
2226
2231
2361
2223
2215
2360
2251
2150
2369
2288
2365
958
0205
2222
Rønne
Rønne
Banke
Bornholm
SWEDEN
Norrköping
Stockholm
Ölands
Södra Grund
Ystad
Kalmar
Öland
Rügen
POLAND
Gdamsk
Kaliningrad
RUSSIA
Klaip4da
Liepºja
LITHUANIA
Ventspils
LATVIA
Saaremaa
Hiiumaa
Gotska
Sandön
Farö
Visby
Gotland
Hoburg
Ålands Hav
Simpnäsklubb
Svenska
Björn
82
14°
14°
15°
15°
16°
16°
17° 18°
Longitude 18° East from Greenwich
19°
55°55°
56°56°
57°57°
58°58°
59°59°
60°60°
20°
20°
21°
21°
22°
22°
Chapter 2 - Through routes to Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland
83
CHAPTER 2
THROUGH ROUTES TO GULF OF BOTHNIA AND GULF OF FINLAND;
AND THE ISLANDS OF BORNHOLM AND GOTLAND
TOGETHER WITH THEIR ADJACENT ISLANDS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 259
Scope of the chapter
2.1
1
In this chapter are described the islands of Bornholm,
Christiansø, Gotland, Fårö and Gotska Sandön.
Descriptions of the through routes from longitude
13°30′E to Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland are also
given.
It is arranged as follows:
2
Through routes to Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of
Finland (2.5).
Bornholm and Christiansø (2.30).
Gotland, Fårö and Gotska Sandön (2.133).
Pilotage
2.2
1
Licensed deep-sea pilots for ports in Gulf of Bothnia
and Gulf of Finland, if required, should be requested
through the various pilotage agencies based in the countries
bordering the Baltic.
2
Deep-sea pilots often have to travel long distances to
their point of embarkation and as much notice as possible
should be given to the pilotage agency of the requirement
for a pilot. Similar arrangements can be made by outward
bound vessels and those coasting from port to port in the
area.
For further details see 1.50 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2).
Rescue
2.3
1
In the area covered by this chapter, SAR operations in
Danish waters are co-ordinated by MRCC Århus and in
Swedish waters by MRCC Göteborg and MRSC Stockholm.
See 1.157 and 1.156 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5 for further details.
Natural conditions
2.4
1
Currents and tidal streams. For general remarks see
1.244 and succeeding paragraphs.
Climate and weather. For general remarks see 1.262
and succeeding paragraphs.
Ice. For general remarks see 1.6. For more detailed
information on ice conditions in Baltic Sea see 1.253.
THROUGH ROUTES TO GULF OF BOTHNIA AND GULF OF FINLAND
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 259, 2816
Routes
2.5
1
The through routes described in this section are as
follows:
Kullagrund to Öland, including the recommended
channel for deep-draught vessels (2.11).
Öland to Gulf of Finland (2.17).
Öland to Gulf of Bothnia (2.24).
Traffic regulations
2.6
1
Traffic Separation Schemes, shown on the chart, have
been established S of Öland (56°04′N, 16°41′E), SE of
Hoburg (56°47′N, 18°22′E) and NW of Phja Ristnanina
(59°07′N, 21°41′E). The schemes are IMO adopted and
Rule 10 of International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972) applies.
2
Recommended directions of traffic flow, as shown on
the chart, are established in Bornholmsgat (55°20′N,
14°25′E), which separates the island of Bornholm from the
S Swedish coast. Between Svartgrund (55°14′N, 14°15′E)
and Davids Banke (17 miles ENE) NE-bound traffic is
recommended to keep to the SE side of the international
boundary between Sweden and Denmark, while SW-bound
traffic is recommended to keep NW of the boundary.
Currents
2.7
1
Vessels passing through Bornholmsgat (55°20′N,
14°25′E) (2.6) should take into account the currents off
Sandhammaren (55°23′N, 14°12′E), which may run strongly
during gales from the S.
Off-lying banks
2.8
1
Södra Midsjöbanken (55°39′N, 17°23′E) has depths of
11 to 18 m over it. A wreck with a depth of 15 m
over it lies close S of the bank.
Norra Midsjöbanken (56°11′N, 17°20′E), with a least
depth of 9⋅3 m near its N end.
2
Hoburgs Bank (56°41′N, 18°34′E) extends S from
Gotland for about 50 miles. The shoalest spot, with
a charted depth of 10⋅3 m over it, lies 19miles
SE of Hoburg Lighthouse (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E)
(2.143). There is a depth of 12 m charted 28 miles
S of the lighthouse.
3
Knolls Grund (57°32′N, 17°29′E) has a least charted
depth at its N end of 9 m which is marked by a
light-buoy (N cardinal).
Nielsengrund (58°17′N, 18°00′E), a shoal with a
charted depth of 15 m over it.
4
Kopparstenarna (58°34′N, 19°11′E), an extensive
bank, with a least depth of 1 m, marked at its N
and S ends by buoys (cardinal) and on its W side
by a light-buoy (W cardinal). The bank is covered
CHAPTER 2
84
by the red sector of Gotska Sandön NW Point
auxiliary light.
Offshore production platforms
2.9
1
Baltic Beta Oil Production Platform (55°29′N, 18°11′E)
stands on Oilfield B−3, about 39 miles N of Rozewie. An
SBM is moored about 8 cables SSW of the platform, and
Platform PG−1 stands 1miles SW. A security zone is in
place, radius 2miles, centred on Baltic Beta Platform.
A submarine pipeline is laid between Baltic Beta
Platform and Wadysawowo (54°48′N, 18°25′E). A safety
zone 150m wide is established along the pipeline.
Chemical munitions
2.10
1
Chemical munitions have been dumped in two areas
covered by this chapter; see 1.9.
KULLAGRUND TO ÖLAND
General information
Charts 958, 2251 2360
Routes
2.11
1
From a position S of Kullagrund (55°18′N, 13°20′E), the
route leads through Bornholmsgat (55°20′N, 14°25′E) (2.6),
to the NE-bound lane of the TSS SE of Ölands Södra
Grund (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E).
Deep-draught vessels. From a position NNE of
Christiansø Light (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅2E) a recommended
channel for deep-draught vessels and those carrying
dangerous cargo, leads ENE for 85 miles to a position
35 miles ESE of Ölands Södra Grund (56°04′⋅2N,
16°40′⋅9E).
Submarine power cables
2.12
1
Submarine power cables are laid across Bornholmsgat,
between the W coast of Bornholm, 4 miles N of Rønne
(55°06′N, 14°42′E), and the Swedish coast, 22 miles NW,
as shown on the chart.
A submarine power cable is laid between Ustka
(54°35′N, 16°52′E) and Karlshamn (56°10′N, 14°52′E), as
shown on the chart. See 1.71.
Principal marks
2.13
1
Landmarks:
Television towers (55°09′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅2E) (2.41).
Tower (55°17′⋅2N, 14°45′⋅5E) (2.41).
Christiansø Light (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅2E) (2.130).
Frederiksø Tower (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅1E) (2.130).
Ölands Södra Grund Lighthouse (black tower, red
bands, grey base, helicopter landing platform, 35 m
in height) (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E).
2
Hoburg Lighthouse (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.143).
Major lights:
Kullagrund Light (55°17′⋅9N, 13°19′⋅5E) (Baltic Pilot
Volume I).
Sandhammaren Light (55°23′⋅0N, 14°11′⋅8E) (3.15).
Hammer Odde Light (55°17′⋅9N, 14°46′⋅4E) (2.41).
Christiansø Light (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅2E) (2.130).
3
Hanö Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅9E) (3.87).
Utklippan Light (55°57′⋅2N, 15°42′⋅2E) (3.206).
Utlängan Light (56°00′⋅8N, 15°47′⋅4E) (3.218).
Ölands Södra Udde Light (56°11′⋅8N, 16°24′⋅0E)
(4.19).
Hoburg Light (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.143).
Other aid to navigation
2.14
1
Racon: Ölands Södra Grund (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from Baltic Pilot Volume I)
2.15
1
From a position S of Kullagrund (55°18′N, 13°20′E) the
track leads E for about 35 miles to a position SE of
Svartgrund (55°14′N, 14°15′E) (3.18), then NE for about
15 miles to a position WNW of Davids Banke (55°22′N,
14°41′E) (2.42). Thence the track leads NE for about
85 miles to a position, within the NE-bound lane of the
TSS SE of Ölands Södra Grund Lighthouse (2.13). The
light stands in the middle of Ölands Södra Grund
(56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E), a shoal area with depths of 12 to
17 m over it, extending 7cables NNE and 1miles SSE
of the lighthouse.
2
For recommended directions of traffic flow in
Bornholmsgat, see 2.6.
Descriptions of the coastal passages adjacent to this
route are given in:
Kullagrund to Sandhammaren (3.11).
Rønne to Hammer Odde (2.42)
(Directions for through route to
Gulf of Finland continue at 2.20
and for Gulf of Bothnia at 2.27)
(Coastal passage directions for Åhus are given at 3.37,
for Sölvesborg at 3.88, for Karlshamn at 3.148,
for Karlskrona at 3.208, and for
Kalmar at 4.21 and 4.53)
Directions for deep-draught vessels
2.16
1
From a position 18 miles ENE of Christiansø Light
(55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅2E) (2.130) the recommended channel
leads ENE for about 85 miles to a position ESE of Ölands
Södra Grund Lighthouse (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E) (2.13)
passing (with positions from Ölands Södra Grund
Lighthouse):
SSE of Klippbanken (38 miles WSW); thence:
NNW of Södra Midsjöbanken (30 miles SSE) (2.8);
thence:
Clear of a wreck with a least depth of 21 7 m over it
(24 miles ESE), thence:
SSE of Norra Midsjöbanken (20 miles ENE) (2.8).
Directions continue for
deep-draught vessel channel at (2.16)
ÖLAND TO GULF OF FINLAND
General information
Charts 2251, 2288, 2223, 2222
Routes
2.17
1
From a position SE of Ölands Södra Grund (56°04′⋅2N,
16°40′⋅9E), in the NE-bound lane of the TSS, the track
leads NE, passing through the NE-bound lanes of the TSS
SE of Hoburg (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E), and NW of Ristna
(58°56′⋅4N, 22°03′⋅2E), thence to a position NW of
Tahkuna nina (59°46′N, 22°57′E).
2
Deep-draught vessels. From a position ESE of Ölands
Södra Grund Lighthouse (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E) the
CHAPTER 2
85
recommended channel leads ENE for about 42 miles to a
position SSE of Hoburgs Bank (56°41′N, 18°34′E) thence
NNE for about 115 miles to a position W of Fårö
(57°57′N, 19°10′E). The route passes through a former
mined area, see 1.8.
Principal marks
2.18
1
Landmarks:
Hoburg Lighthouse (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.143).
Heligholmen Lighthouse (56°55′⋅4N, 18°17′⋅3E)
(2.185).
Faludden Lighthouse (56°59′⋅8N, 18°23′⋅7E) (2.185).
Mast (56°59′⋅7N, 18°23′⋅5E) (2.185).
2
Windmotors (57°07′⋅1N, 18°25′⋅4E) (2.185).
När Lighthouse (57°13′⋅3N, 18°41′⋅0E) (2.185).
Torsburgen (57°24′⋅7N, 18°43′⋅2E) (2.185).
Major lights:
Hoburg Light (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.143).
Faludden Light (56°59′⋅8N, 18°23′⋅7E) (2.185).
När Light (57°13′⋅3N, 18°41′⋅0E) (2.185).
Kpu Light (58°55′⋅0N, 22°12′⋅1E) (12.13).
Other aid to navigation
2.19
1
Racon: Ölands Södra Grund (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.15)
Ölands Södra Grund to Tahkuna nina
2.20
1
Öland to Hoburg. From a position about 3 miles SE of
Ölands Södra Grund Lighthouse, in the NE-bound lane of
the TSS, the track leads NE for 72 miles to the TSS SE of
Hoburg, passing (with positions from Hoburg Light
(56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E)):
NW of Norra Midsjöbanken (53 miles SSW) (2.8),
thence:
2
NW of Hoburgs Bank (24 miles SE) (2.8).
Caution. The wreck of a fishing vessel, with a depth
over it of 16 m, lies in the SW-bound lane, 9 miles SSE of
Hoburg Light.
2.21
1
Hoburg to Ristna. From a position about 12 miles SE
of Hoburg, in the NE-bound lane of the TSS, the track
leads NNE for about 180 miles to the TSS off Ristna,
passing (with positions from Fårö Lighthouse (57°57′⋅7N,
19°21′⋅1E)):
SSE of Östergarn (34 miles SSW) (2.186), thence:
NNW of Klints Bank (23 miles SSE), a bank with a
least depth of 26 m over it.
2.22
1
Ristna to Tahkuna nina. From a position 12 miles NW
of Põhja Ristna, in the NE-bound lane of the TSS, the
track leads NE for about 17 miles to a position NW of
Tahkuna nina (59°46′N, 22°57′E).
Descriptions of the coastal passages adjacent to this
route are given in:
2
Hoburg to Östergarn (2.186).
Östergarn to Fårösund (2.206).
Fårösund S entrance to Gotska Sandön (2.245).
Põhja Ristnanina to Tahkuna nina (12.65).
(Directions for through routes
in the Gulf of Finland continue in
Baltic Pilot Volume III)
(Directions for Klaipda are given at 10.40,
for Liepja at 10.106, for Ventspils at 10.155
and for Irbe Strait at 11.16)
Directions for deep-draught vessels
(continued from 2.16)
2.23
1
From a position about 13 miles SSE of Norra
Midsjöbanken (56°11′N, 17°20′E) (2.8) the recommended
channel leads ENE for about 42 miles passing (with
positions from Hoburg Light (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.13):
SE of a wreck, (position doubtful) (42 miles S), with
a depth of 23 m over it.
2
From a position about 40 miles SSE of Hoburg Light the
recommended channel leads NNE for about 115 miles
passing (with positions from Östergarn (57°26′⋅5N,
018°58′⋅5E):
SE of Hoburgs Bank (42 miles SSW) (2.8); thence:
SE of Klints Bank (20 miles E) (2.21); thence:
SE of Fårö (33 miles NNE) (2.237); thence:
To a position E of Fårö to join the through route
Hoburg to Ristna (2.21).
ÖLAND TO GULF OF BOTHNIA
General information
Charts 2251, 2361, 2362, 2297
Route
2.24
1
From a position in the NE-bound lane of the TSS, SE of
Ölands Södra Grund (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E) (2.15), the
track leads initially NNE for about 175 miles to a position
ESE of Landsort (58°44′N, 17°52′E), thence about 72 miles
NE to a position E of Svenska Björn (59°32′⋅9N,
20°01′⋅4E). Thence the route leads about 20 miles NW to
Ålands Hav (Baltic Pilot Volume III), through
Ahvenanmeren Deep Channel, shown on the chart, which
has been swept to a least depth of 18⋅0 m, and for which
directions are given at 7.257. The route is divided as
follows:
Ölands Södra Grund to Landsort (2.27).
Landsort to Svenska Björn (2.28).
Svenska Björn to Ålands Hav (2.29).
Principal marks
2.25
1
Landmarks:
Ölands Södra Grund Lighthouse (56°04′⋅2N,
16°40′⋅9E) (2.13).
Five windmotors (57°02′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅1E) (2.143).
Mast (57°35′⋅6N, 18°22′⋅7E) (2.161).
Mast (57°49′⋅0N, 18°37′⋅0E) (2.161).
Major lights:
2
Ölands Södra Udde Light (56°11′⋅8N, 16°24′⋅0E)
(4.19).
Hoburg Light (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.143).
Stora Karlsö Light (57°17′⋅5N, 17°57′⋅8E) (2.143).
Gotska Sandon NW Point Light (58°23′⋅7N,
19°11′⋅8E) (2.244).
3
Landsort Light (58°44′⋅4N, 17°52′⋅1E) (5.171).
Almagrundet Light (59°09′⋅3N, 19°07′⋅5E) (7.24).
Revengegrundet Light (59°15′⋅1N, 19°00′⋅8E) (7.24).
CHAPTER 2
86
Svenska Högarna Light (59°26′⋅7N, 19°30′⋅3E)
(7.252).
Söderarm Light (59°45′⋅2N, 19°24′⋅6E) (7.252).
Tjärven Light (59°47′⋅5N, 19°22′⋅4E) (7.252).
Other aid to navigation
2.26
1
Racon: Ölands Södra Grund (56°04′⋅2N, 16°40′⋅9E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.15)
Ölands Södra Grund to Landsort
2.27
1
From a position in the NE-bound lane of the TSS, SE of
Ölands Södra Grund, the track leads NNE passing (with
positions from Visby (57°39′N, 18°17′E)):
W of Stora Karlsö (24 miles SSW) (2.144), thence:
E of Knolls Grund (26 miles WSW) (2.8), thence:
E of Nielsengrund (40 miles NNW) (2.8), thence:
2
Clear of a buoy (special) (50 miles N). The buoy
marks a survey station, protected by a safety zone
with a radius 5 cables, thence:.
Clear of a buoy (special) (58 miles N), marking a
survey station.
Thence to a position ESE of Landsort.
Descriptions of the coastal passages adjacent to this
route are given in:
3
East coast of Öland (4.198 and 4.206).
Hoburg to Nyrevsudden (2.144).
Nyrevsudden to Fårösund N entrance (2.162).
Fårösund N entrance to Gotska Sandön (2.247).
Öland to Landsort (5.9, 5.93 and 5.165).
(Directions for Oskarshamn are given at 4.161,
for Västervik at 5.65, for Norrköping at 5.183,
for Oxelösund at 5.183 and for Nyköping at 5.293)
(Directions for Södertälje Kanal and
ports in Mälaren are given at 6.17)
Landsort to Svenska Björn
2.28
1
From a position ESE of Landsort the track leads NE for
about 85 miles passing NW of Kopparstenarna (2.8) and SE
of Almagrundet (7.24), to a position E of Svenska Björn at
the commencement of the deep-water channel leading to
Ålands Hav and Gulf of Bothnia.
2
Descriptions of the coastal passages adjacent to this
route are given in:
Landsort to Sandhamn Entrance coastal route (7.20).
Sandhamn Entrance to Simpnäsklubb coastal passage
(7.246).
(Directions for Stockholm from
Sandhamn Entrance, main deep-water channel,
are given at 7.135, from Landsort Entrance at 7.43,
from Söderarm Entrance at 7.288
and from Arholma Entrance at 7.335)
Svenska Björn to Ålands Hav
2.29
1
Directions for the Ahvenanmeren Deep-water channel
are given at 7.257.
(Directions for Ålands Hav and Gulf of Bothnia
continue in Baltic Pilot Volume III)
BORNHOLM AND CHRISTIANSØ
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 958
Description
2.30
1
The island of Bornholm (55°08′N, 14°55′E), together
with Christiansø, a small group of islets 10 miles NE, lie
about 20 miles off the Swedish coast. The islands, which
belong to Denmark, are principally concerned with
agriculture and fishing, though granite, which is a
prominent feature of the cliffs, is exported.
Bornholm is separated from Sweden by Bornholmsgat
(2.6). Though having no natural harbours, it affords shelter
either at anchor or under its lee on all sides.
2
The island is moderately high except at its SE end. Its
highest point is Rytterknaegten, near the middle of the
island.
The coast of Bornholm is generally steep-to, except off
the SW side and off the S part of the E side.
Rønne Banke
2.31
1
Rønne Banke, with general depths of 11 to 17 m over it,
extends 28 miles from the SW coast of Bornholm towards
the peninsula of Rügen (8.15). For the shoals on the inner
part of Rønne Banke see 2.106 and 2.107.
For Adlergrund, which lies at the SW end of Rønne
Banke, and which is very shallow, see 8.13.
Hazard
2.32
1
Anchoring and fishing may be dangerous in several
areas, shown on the charts, off the coast of Bornholm, due
to mines, gas canisters or aircraft wreckage. See also 1.8.
Pollution of the sea
2.33
1
Due to the non-tidal nature of these waters, the Danish
authorities are extremely rigorous in the application of
anti-pollution regulations. See 1.72.
Ice
2.34
1
For the Danish ice-breaking service see 1.117.
Deep-sea pilots
2.35
1
Danish long-distance pilots, for ships proceeding to
Baltic ports, and for ships leaving Baltic Sea, may be
embarked off Hammer Odde, as shown on the chart. For
full details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Natural conditions
2.36
1
Local magnetic anomalies. Caution must be exercised
in the vicinity of Bornholm owing to magnetic anomalies.
These are most marked NNW of Hammer Odde (55°18′N,
14°47′E) (2.40) where a deflection of 6° has been observed
whilst passing this point.
Other areas in the vicinity (with positions from Hammer
Odde):
958
958
958
958
958
0205
Gudhejem
Hammerodde
Allinge
Vang
Hasle
Rønne
Dueodde
Nexø
Svaneke
Christiansø
Rønne Banke
BORNHOLMSGAT
BORNHOLM
2.78
2.60
2.52
2.44
2.132
2.42
2.76
2.112
2.112
2.106
2.107
2.106
2.107
2.118
2.85
2
.
7
6
15°
30´40´50´10´20´
LongitudeEast from Greenwich
Route Index Chartlet - Bornholm
10´
20´
55°
15°
40´50´10´20´
30´
10´
20´
55°
CHAPTER 2
87
CHAPTER 2
88
2
Well-marked maxima (5 miles W).
Off Svaneke (16 miles SE), on the E coast.
Small deviations from the normal SW of Rønne
(12 miles S).
On the NW coast in the vicinity of Hasle (7 miles
SSW).
3
Current. The current round Bornholm is usually weak
and is dependent on the direction and force of wind. Off
Hammeren (2.40), a strong S-going current has been
observed in NW winds.
Firing practice and exercise areas
2.37
1
Three areas around Bornholm are designated firing
areas. They are centred in positions 55°00′N, 13°55′E;
55°20′N, 15°30′E; 55°05′N, 15°40′E. For further
information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3 (1).
Submarine cables
2.38
1
Several submarine cables, including power cables, as
shown on the chart, are landed on the W and S coasts of
Bornholm. Those landing close N of Rønne are marked by
telegraph beacons.
BORNHOLM WEST COAST — RØNNE TO
HAMMER ODDE
General information
Chart 958 with plan of Rønne
Description
2.39
1
The W coast of Bornholm is the least hospitable on
account of the prevailing W winds and the reefs and rocks
which front it, especially in the S part.
Topography
2.40
1
Between Rønne (55°06′N, 14°42′E) and Hasle, 4 miles
N, the coast is bordered by forest. Between Nyker Rev,
3 miles N of Rønne, and Hasle, the coast is low and
steep-to, but the shoreline is covered with large stones.
To the N of Hasle there are stretches of steep granite
cliffs rising sheer from the sea to a height of 90 m in
places.
2
Hammeren, the N and rocky part of Bornholm, consists
of a hill 82 m high, named Stejlebjerg, situated 1 mile S of
Hammer Odde, the N point of the island; it is steep-to on
its SW side, but slopes gradually NE, and is separated from
the land in the vicinity by a valley.
3
Hammer Odde (55°18′N, 14°47′E), the N extremity of
Bornholm, is composed of sand and when seen from a long
distance E or W, appears like a low island; this point is
steep-to and great caution is necessary at night as the high
land behind it renders it very difficult to distinguish.
Principal marks
2.41
1
Landmarks:
Kongemindet (55°06′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅3E), a monument
12 m in height on the summit of Rytterknaegten
(2.30). It is visible above the trees of Almindingen
in which it stands.
Rø Aero Light (TV mast, elevation 431 m)
(55°09′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅2E).
2
Årsballe Aero Light (mast, elevation 290 m) stands
8 cables SSW of Rø Aero Light.
Hammershus Ruin (55°16′⋅3N, 14°45′⋅3E) stands
above a solitary cliff 2 miles S of the N extremity
of Bornholm. It consists of high walls and the
remains of towers, the highest being square with
embrasures; a building 1cables NE of the ruin is
prominent from seaward.
3
Rutskirke, (55°12′⋅9N, 14°45′⋅0E), standing on a hill
130 m high has a square granite tower; close SW
is a small white square belfry. It is one of the best
landmarks on the island.
Tower (round granite tower, 21 m in height)
(55°17′⋅2N, 14°45′⋅5E), a disused lighthouse
obscured from the S by high land.
4
Major lights:
Hammer Odde Light (white square tower, 12 m in
height) (55°17′⋅9N, 14°46′⋅4E).
Sandhammaren Light (55°23′⋅0N, 14°11′⋅6E) (3.15).
Passage directions
2.42
1
For the coastal passage from Rønne to Hammer Odde,
some 15 miles N, the chart is sufficient guide. Attention is
drawn to:
Hvideodde Rev, a reef with depths of less than 10 m,
which extends 1 mile NNW of Hvideodde, a sandy
point 1miles N of Rønne. It is marked on its W
and S sides by buoys (cardinal). The inner part of
the reef has depths of less than 1 m, rock, sand
and stones, and extends 6 cables WNW from the
point.
2
Kasgård Rev, 8 cables SW of Hvideodde.
Davids Banke (55°22′N, 14°41′E), marked by a
light-buoy (N cardinal), rock, sand and gravel; its
E and W sides are steep-to.
Useful marks
2.43
1
Knudskirke (55°06′⋅4N, 14°45′⋅2E), built of granite
with a square tower, stands on a hill 70 m high,
and is visible from a considerable distance.
Vester-Mariekirke, 2miles E of Knudskirke, visible
only on certain bearings but at a considerable
distance from land.
2
Nykirke, 2 miles NNE of Knudskirke, a low
whitewashed building, visible only on certain
bearings.
Chimney (red obstruction light on top, elevation
126 m), and radio mast (red lights), standing 1 and
2miles, respectively, NW of Knudskirke.
3
Hasle Church (55°11′⋅0N, 14°42′⋅5E), standing in the
middle of town, has a black steeple. There is a
windmill close S of the town, and a wind-motor
close N which is not visible from the S.
CHAPTER 2
89
Ronne Havn from S (2.47)
(Original dated 2003)
(Photograph − Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen)
Klemenskirke (55°10′⋅5N, 14°48′⋅2E), which has a
short steeple; it is best seen from the SW.
Simlegaard, a hill 8 cables WNW of Klemenskirke,
has a trigonometrical station at its summit.
(Directions continue at 2.76)
Rønne
General information
2.44
1
Description. Rønne (55°06′N, 14°42′E) is the principal
town of Bornholm. Close E of the town is a large kaolin
works and stone quarries. The harbour is a good refuge for
vessels overtaken by ice. Nørre-kås, a yacht and small craft
harbour for vessels up to 20 m in length, is situated close
N of Rønne Havn and is under the same administration.
Function. The principal exports are clay, granite, grain
and bricks. Imports include oil, coal, iron and timber. The
population is about 15 000. The port has been designated a
place of refuge, see 1.83.
2
Approach and entry. The port is approached from the
SW on the alignment of leading lights, and entered
between breakwaters through a channel dredged to a depth
of 9 m.
Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by 675 vessels
totalling 1 054 972 dwt.
3
Port Authority. Rønne Havnekontor, Munch
Petersensvej 2, PO Box 47, DK–3700, Rønne, Denmark.
website: www.roennehavn.dk
Limiting conditions
2.45
1
Controlling depth. The channel is dredged to a depth of
9 m.
Deepest and longest berth. Krydstogtkaj, see 2.50.
Water level. The normal mean tidal range is 0⋅5 m.
Abnormal water level. In exceptional circumstances W
winds may lower the level by up to 1 m, and winds from E
or N may raise it by up to 1⋅2 m.
2
Density of water: 1⋅005 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Length 238 m, beam
32 m, draught 8⋅0 m.
Weather. The port may be dangerous to approach in
strong W winds.
Arrival information
2.46
1
Anchorage. It is reported that anchorage can be
obtained 6 cables W of the N breakwater head in a depth
of 15 to 16 m. The anchorage is not safe in strong W
winds.
2
Pilotage is available by day and night. At least 1 hours
notice is required. Pilotage is compulsory for tankers over
1500 dwt. Pilot boards near Rønne Approach Light-buoy
(55°05′⋅1N, 14°38′⋅6E) (2.49), moored 1miles SW of the
harbour entrance.
Tugs are available.
3
Radar assistance. Advice on entering can be obtained
from the pilot station at the SW part of Sydhavnen.
Speed for vessels in the harbour must not exceed 3 kn.
Harbour
2.47
1
General layout. The harbour is protected by inner and
outer N and S breakwaters. The outer N breakwater
extends about 8 cables SW to enclose Rønne and Nørre-kås
harbours, forming part of an extensive land reclamation and
development works in progress (2000).
Within the inner breakwater the harbour has three main
basins around the central area known as Forhavnen. The
basins are named Nordhavnen, Vesthavnen and Sydhavnen.
CHAPTER 2
90
Ronne Havn from NW (2.47)
(Original dated 2003)
(Photograph − Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen)
2.48
1
Landmarks:
Rønne Church (55°06′⋅0N, 14°41′⋅8E) (white with a
red roof and black steeple), stands on a knoll at
the NE end of the harbour.
Methodist Church (grey with a red roof and a
steeple), stands a short distance NE of Rønne
Church.
2
Rønne Castle (55°05′⋅6N, 14°42′⋅0E) (white round
building with a red conical roof), 4 cables S of
Rønne Church.
Chimney (red light, elevation 73 m), stands close NE
of the castle.
Directions
2.49
1
North approach. Set course to arrive off Rønne
Approach Light-buoy (safe water) (55°05′⋅1N, 14°38′⋅6E),
keeping 2miles off the coast until clear of Hvideodde
Rev (2.42) and Kasgård Rev (2.42).
South approach. Set course to arrive off Rønne
Approach Light-buoy, keeping W of the shoals which lie
up to 5 miles off the SW coast of Bornholm (see 2.107).
2
South-east approach. Local knowledge is required.
Vessels of shallow draught can use a buoyed channel inside
the shoals off the SW coast (see 2.107).
Entry. From the vicinity of Rønne Approach Light-buoy
the alignment (064°) of Rønne Leading Lights leads
through the dredged channel between the heads of the
breakwaters and into the main harbour:
3
Front light (framework tower, 14 m in height)
(55°05′⋅9N, 14°41′⋅8E).
Rear light (red mast, 12 m in height) (229 m from
front light).
Lights are displayed at the heads of both the N and S
inner and outer breakwaters and from the inner mole.
4
Caution. Care should be taken to remain within the
dredged channel, shown on the chart, to avoid Trindelen, a
rocky shoal patch on the N side of the channel close W of
the inner breakwater.
Basins and berths
2.50
1
Forhavnen, the central part of the harbour, is dredged to
9 m. Depths decrease to the E of Forhavnen but have been
dredged to a depth of 7 m up to a line between the centre
part of Øernes Kaj and the seaward end of the Oliekaj on
the S side of the harbour. Krydstogtskajen, the passenger
berth, lies on the SE side of Forhavnen and has a total
length of 240 m with a depth alongside of 9 m.
2
Vesthavnen, on the N side of the harbour E of
Trindelen Breakwater, is protected by a spur extending SE
from Trindelen. It has 650 m of wharfs with a depth of 7 m
alongside. The longest berth is 175 m and has a hydraulic
ramp.
3
Nordhavnen is divided into two basins by a broad quay
and protected from the S by Øernes Kaj. There are depths
of 6 to 7 m in the W basin, and 5⋅5 m in the E basin. It
has 750 m of berthing space and two Ro-Ro ramps. The
longest berth is 140 m with depths of 5⋅5 to 6⋅5 m
alongside.
4
Sydhavnen on the S side of the harbour is enclosed
between Tværmolen, which extends NNE from the root of
the S breakwater, and Søndre Pier. It has 620 m of berthing
space which includes the outside of Søndre Pier which is
CHAPTER 2
91
220 m in length, with a depth of 7 m alongside. A basin
for fishing vessels opens on the SW side of Sydhavnen.
5
Oliekaj close NE of Søndre Pier has a length of 100 m
and a depth alongside of 7 m.
Boat camber. Close SE of the root of Øernes Kaj, the S
side of which has a sloping stone face and is not suitable
for berthing, is a boat camber with a depth of 1⋅8 m. A
buoyed channel with a depth of 2⋅4 m leads to the camber.
There is a boat pier 80 m ENE of the head of the
Oliekaj.
Port services
2.51
1
Repairs. Engineering workshops for all types of repairs.
Largest slip: for vessels up to 400 tons, keel length 40 m
LOA, width 7⋅75 m.
Diver assistance can be obtained.
Other facilities: compass adjustment; deratting; oily and
chemical waste reception facilities.
2
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Regional airport 8km SE of Rønne.
Rescue. A life-saving station equipped with line
throwing apparatus, mobile equipment and fast rescue craft
is located at Rønne.
Hasle Havn
General information
2.52
1
Position. Hasle (55°11′N, 14°42′E) is a small harbour
situated 5 miles N of Rønne.
Approach and entry. The harbour is approached with
the aid of leading lights and entered from the N through
the outer breakwaters.
Port Authority. Hasle Havn, Havnen 23,, DK–3790
Hasle, Denmark.
E-Mail kth@hasle.dk
Limiting conditions
2.53
1
Controlling depths. The charted depth between the
inner breakwaters is 5⋅5 m. In Basins 3 and 4 the charted
depth is 4⋅5 m, and in Basins 1 and 2 it is 4⋅0 m.
2
Abnormal water levels. Gales from the W may lower
the water level by 0⋅8 m, and NE gales tend to raise it by
the same amount.
Maximum size of vessel. Length 75 m, breadth 12 m
and draught 4⋅5 m.
Arrival information
2.54
1
Pilotage. The Harbour Master will act as pilot if
required.
Speed. A speed restriction of 4 kn applies in the harbour
area outside Basin 5 where the limit is 3 kn.
Harbour
2.55
1
General layout. Hasle Havn is enclosed by outer and
inner breakwaters and has five basins. Lights are displayed
from the outer breakwaters which are also floodlit.
Caution. A submarine cable is laid between the heads
of the outer breakwaters.
Directions
2.56
1
South approach. Vessels approaching from the S should
keep W of Kasgård Rev (2.42) and Hvideodde Rev (2.42),
thence at least 1 mile from the coast until within the white
sector of Hasle Havn front light.
North approach. Vessels approaching from the N
should maintain sufficient distance from the coast until
within the white sector of Hasle Havn front light, noting
the patch of foul ground with a least depth of 3 m,
extending 2cables from the shore a short distance N of
Hasle Havn.
2
Entry. From a position within the white sector
(093°–101°) of the front light, the alignment (097°) of
Hasle Havn Leading Lights leads E through a dredged
channel to a point N of the entrance through the outer
breakwaters where the entrance is 80 m wide:
Front light (red triangle, white band on framework
tower, 5 m in height) (55°11′⋅4N, 14°42′⋅1E).
Rear light (red triangle, white band on framework
tower, 6 m in height) (120 m E of front light).
2.57
1
Useful marks:
West Breakwater head (framework tower, green base,
6 m in height).
North Breakwater head (grey mast, 5 m in height).
Inside Mole head (grey pedestal, 2 m in height).
Basins
2.58
1
The harbour consists of five basins:
Basin 1, whilst primarily reserved for fishing vessels,
is equipped to handle other cargoes and has a
depth of 4⋅0 m.
Basin 2, which has a depth of 4⋅0 m, is reserved for
fishing vessels.
2
Basin 3, which has a depth of 5 m, is reserved for
fishing vessels.
Basin 4, which has a depth of 5 m, is used for bulk
and general cargoes.
Basin 5, which has depths of 1⋅5 to 3 m, is a small
craft harbour with yacht facilities.
Port services
2.59
1
Repairs. Minor repairs possible.
Facilities: reception for oily and chemical waste
available.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communication. There is a regional airport at Rønne
(2.51).
Vang Pier
General information
2.60
1
Position. Vang Pier (55°14′⋅8N, 14°43′⋅7E) is situated
about 2 cables SW of Vang (2.70).
Function. The pier is used exclusively for the export of
granite. It has also been designated a place of refuge, see
1.83.
Port Authority. The pier is administratively under the
control of Hasle Havn (2.52).
Limiting conditions
2.61
1
Abnormal water level. N storms can raise the level by
1⋅0 m and W winds lower it by 0⋅5 m.
Maximum size of vessel permitted is 100 m long and
15 m breadth.
CHAPTER 2
92
Arrival information
2.62
1
Pilotage. Although not compulsory, the services of a
pilot are strongly recommended, especially for larger
vessels. Pilots are available from Hasle (2.52).
Berthing is possible day and night.
Harbour
2.63
1
General layout. The harbour consists of a pier about
150 m long projecting WNW from the shore with about
80 m of berthing face at the NW corner.
A breakwater is constructed from the S side of the pier,
curving round to extend N for about 200 m to form
protection for the berths from all but N winds. The
breakwater head is about 120 m NW of the berths.
Directions
2.64
1
Approach. The harbour can be approached from the N,
W or S in open water.
Entry. The harbour is entered from the N.
Berths
2.65
1
The berths lie E-W and N-S with depths alongside of
5⋅7 m on the N face and 7⋅5 m on the W face.
Port services
2.66
1
Repairs: minor repairs can be carried out; divers are
available.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Anchorages and harbours
Anchorage
2.67
1
Vessels may obtain anchorage anywhere off the W coast
of Bornholm between Hasle (55°11′N, 14°42′E) (2.52), and
Hammeren, 6 miles N, in depths of 20 to 30 m, with
offshore winds. Should the wind shift to the W then the
vessel must proceed to sea.
Sæne Bugt (2.71) affords anchorage, 2cables offshore,
close S of Hammeren. Local knowledge is required.
Vessels anchoring farther S on this coast are liable to
lose their anchors on account of the uneven rocky bottom.
Helligpeder
2.68
1
General information. Helligpeder (55°12′⋅8N,
14°42′⋅4E) 1 miles N of Hasle, is a small harbour
consisting of an inner and outer basin. The maximum
draught is 1⋅8 m.
Water level. NE winds can raise the level by 1⋅0 m and
SW winds can lower it by 0⋅6 m.
2
Entry. The harbour should only be used by day and
should not be attempted in onshore gales. Foul ground
extends to the N and NW of the harbour.
Facilities. Water is available.
Teglkås
2.69
1
General information. Teglkås (55°13′⋅4N, 14°42′⋅7E)
2 miles N of Hasle, is a small harbour consisting of an
inner and outer basin. It has a depth of 2⋅5 m both at the
entrance and in the basins.
Water level. North-east winds can raise the level by
1⋅0 m and SW winds can lower it by 0⋅6 m.
Entry. The harbour can only be used by day and cannot
be entered in onshore gales.
Vang
2.70
1
General information. Vang (55°14′⋅9N, 14°44′⋅1E),
2 miles NNE of Teglkås, is a fishing village with a small
harbour consisting of an outer basin, an inner basin and a
boat camber. It is suitable for vessels with a maximum
length of 27 m, beam 7 m and draught 3 m.
Water level. NE winds can raise the level by 1⋅0 m and
SW winds can lower it by 0⋅6 m.
Pilots may be obtained from Hasle.
2
Directions. From a position NNW of the harbour the
alignment (155°) of Vang Havn Leading Lights (which are
extinguished when the port is closed) leads into the
entrance, passing close off the E side of the W mole:
Front light (white post, 2 m in height) (55°15′⋅0N,
14°42′⋅1E).
Rear light (mast, 5 m in height) (56 m from front
light).
3
Harbour. There are depths of 3⋅1 m in the outer and
inner basins and 2⋅2 m in the boat camber.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Hammerhavnen
2.71
1
General information. Hammerhavnen (55°16′⋅7N,
14°45′⋅4E) lies at the head of Sæne Bugt. The harbour is
formed by two moles. The entrance between the heads
faces W and is 30 m wide.
2
The size of vessels which can use the harbour depends
on the weather conditions which affect the water level,
which may be lowered by 0⋅3 m in SW winds and raised
by 1 m in NW gales. In favourable conditions the largest
vessel which can enter is 50 m in length, breadth 15 m and
draught 2⋅7 m.
Silting occurs in both the harbour and the entrance and
charted depths may not always be accurate.
3
Pilots are not available.
Harbour. The harbour consists of a single basin with a
greatest depth of 4⋅5 m just off the middle of the quay
which is the inner wall of the N mole. The quay is 120 m
long and has depths alongside of 3⋅6 to 1⋅6 m.
4
Directions. The harbour is approached from the WSW
and entered between moles. At night, keep within the white
sector (073°–077°) of Hammerhavnen Harbour Light (white
wooden hut, 3 m in height) displayed from the E side of
the harbour. Thence, alter course N round a short spur
which projects E into the harbour from the head of the N
mole; the depths a short distance from it shoal rapidly.
A light (framework tower) is displayed from the head of
the N mole.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
BORNHOLM NORTH-EAST COAST —
HAMMER ODDE TO SVANEKE
General information
Chart 958
Description
2.72
1
The coastal bank on the NE side of the island is mostly
steep-to, except at Helligdomskipperne, 6miles SE of
Hammer Odde, where, with two rocks on it, it extends
1 cable from the coast.
CHAPTER 2
93
Topography
2.73
1
The E side of Hammeren (2.40) is rocky and rises
steeply to a height of 91 m. At Rø (55°13′N, 14°55′E),
7 miles SE of Hammer Odde, and near Randkløve,
5miles farther SE, cliffs rise vertically from the sea.
The NE promontory of Bornholm, on which stands the
town of Svaneke (2.85), is comparatively low and rises to
an elevation of 61 m, W of the town. The promontory has
three salient points of which the N and S are named
Møllenakke and Sandkås Odde, respectively.
Climatic table
2.74
1
See 1.284 and 1.285
Principal marks
2.75
1
Landmarks:
Olskirke (55°14′⋅1N, 14°48′⋅1E), a round white
building with a black roof, with an elevation of
110 m.
Television towers (55°09′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅2E) (2.41).
Kure Mølle (55°08′⋅2N, 15°05′⋅5E), standing on high
ground 2 miles W of Svaneke, is an excellent
landmark especially from the SE.
2
Kongemindet (55°06′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅3E) (2.41).
Major lights:
Hammer Odde Light (55°17′⋅9N, 14°46′⋅4E) (2.41).
Christiansø Light (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅2E) (2.130).
Svaneke Lighthouse (grey square tower, 18 m in
height) (55°07′⋅9N, 15°09′⋅1E) on Sandkås Odde
(2.73).
Passage directions
(continued from 2.43)
2.76
1
For the coastal passage from Hammer Odde to Svaneke,
about 17 miles SE, the chart is sufficient guide.
Useful marks
2.77
1
Røkirke (55°12′⋅6N, 14°53′⋅8E), with an elevation of
95 m. Its tower is visible from seaward, but only
on certain bearings.
Øster-Larskirke (55°10′⋅3N, 14°57′⋅7E), with an
elevation of 100 m.
Svaneke Church (55°08′⋅0N, 15°08′⋅5E), a low
building with a black steeple, stands in the middle
of the town.
Allinge
General information
2.78
1
Position. Allinge (55°16′⋅5N, 14°48′⋅2E) is situated
1miles SSE of Hammer Odde.
Port Authority. Allinge Havnekontor, DK–3770 Allinge,
Bornholm.
Limiting conditions
2.79
1
Depths. The outer basin has a depth of 4⋅5 m and the
inner basin a depth of 4⋅3 m.
Abnormal water level may be lowered with SW winds
or raised with NE winds, in both instances, by up to 1 m.
Maximum size. The largest vessels which can enter are:
Outer basin; length 60 m, beam 11⋅5 m, draught
4⋅3 m.
Inner basin; length 50 m, beam 8⋅5 m, draught 4⋅0 m.
Arrival information
2.80
1
The harbour can be used both day and night but during
the summer months regular ferry traffic may close the
harbour.
Harbour
2.81
1
General layout. The harbour entrance faces SE but it is
protected by a breakwater which extends NE from the
shore.
The harbour consists of an outer and inner basin,
separated by a lock gate. Vessels can lie in safety in the
inner basin during onshore gales.
2
Traffic signals. When the harbour is closed to
navigation a signal consisting of a black ball by day, or
three red lights displayed vertically by night, is shown from
the same mast as the front leading light.
Directions
2.82
1
Allinge Leading Lights:
Front light (grey mast, 3 m in height) (55°16′⋅7N,
14°48′⋅1E).
Rear light (grey framework tower, 4 m in height)
(47 m from front light).
The alignment (250°) of these lights leads from seaward
to the harbour entrance.
2.83
1
Useful mark. Allinge Church, which has a red square
tower. It can only be distinguished from the other buildings
in the village at close range.
Port services
2.84
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Communications: Rønne airport is 30 km by road.
Svaneke
General information
2.85
1
Position. Svaneke (55°08′N, 15°09′E) is situated at the
head of a small bay close NW of Sandkås Odde.
Port Authority. See Nexø (2.118).
Limiting conditions
2.86
1
Controlling depths. The entrance channel and outer
harbour have a depth of 4⋅4 m. The inner harbour has a
depth of 3⋅5 m.
Abnormal water level. Prolonged NE winds can raise
the level by 1 m, S and SW winds can lower it by 1 m.
Largest vessel which can use the harbour is length
45 m, breadth 8⋅5 m.
Arrival information
2.87
1
Pilotage. Pilots are available by day and require 24, 12
and 4 hours notice prior to arrival.
Tugs. Local fishing boats may assist with towage.
Harbour
2.88
1
General layout. The harbour consists of two basins, the
outer and the inner reached through an entrance channel
CHAPTER 2
94
which leads WNW. A small boat harbour lies ESE of the
outer harbour and is entered from the N side of the
entrance channel. There is a gate between the outer and
inner harbour to keep out the swell.
2
Traffic signals. If the harbour is closed due to weather,
or no berths are available, a black ball by day, or three red
lights vertically disposed by night, will be shown from a
mast N of the entrance.
If the gate between the inner and outer harbour is
closed, a fixed white light will be shown below the front
leading light.
Directions
2.89
1
Approach. The recommended approach is from the NE,
on a line of bearing of about 215° of Svaneke Havn Light
(green square wooden building, red band, 4 m in height)
(55°08′⋅1N, 15°08′⋅7E), which leads clear of Mågeflak, a
cluster of rocks which lie on the S side of the bay, 1 cable
offshore. By night approach within the white sector
(208°–222°) of this light.
2
Entry. Svaneke Leading Lights:
Front light (grey post) (55°08′⋅2N, 15°08′⋅7E).
Rear light (grey post, 3 m in height) (18 m from front
light).
3
The alignment (297°) of these lights leads through the
entrance into the outer harbour passing close S of the N
breakwater head on which stands a light (green metal
column, 5 m in height).
Caution. Vessels should not approach from the E using
the leading line as this leads over Mågeflak.
Berth
2.90
1
Length of quay 231 m with a depth of 4⋅4 m.
Port services
2.91
1
Repairs. Slip for vessels up to 50 dwt. Minor repairs
only.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Anchorages and harbours
Anchorages
2.92
1
Vessels may anchor off the NE side of Bornholm with
offshore winds. Should a fresh wind blow from W of N, a
considerable swell is immediately raised along this coast.
In Åsand Bugt (55°17′⋅5N, 14°47′⋅0E), close S of
Hammer Odde (2.40), anchorage may be obtained in the
middle of the bay in depths of 9 to 11 m. Local knowledge
is required.
2
In Salene Bugt (55°13′N, 14°57′E), anchorage may be
obtained in the middle of the bay in depths of 9 to 11 m.
Local knowledge is required.
Sandvig Havn
2.93
1
General information. Sandvig Havn (55°17′⋅4N,
14°47′⋅0E) is a boat harbour on the S side of Åsand Bugt.
It consists of two basins formed by moles with an entrance
facing NNW. It is inaccessible during onshore gales.
Depths: entrance 1⋅8 m; outer harbour 1⋅5 m; inner
harbour 1⋅0 m.
Water level. North and NE winds can raise the water
level by 1⋅0 m, W winds can lower it by 0⋅8 m.
2
Directions. The alignment (175°) of Sandvig Leading
Lights leads from seaward to the harbour entrance:
Front light (white building) (55°17′⋅4N, 14°47′⋅0E).
Rear light (white building)
Caution. A below-water rock lies close E of the
entrance.
Supplies: fresh water; provisions.
Kampeløkkehavnen
2.94
1
Kampeløkkehavnen (55°16′⋅9N, 14°47′⋅9E) is a small
harbour, consisting of two basins, situated 1 cable N of
Allinge (2.78). It is only suitable for use by day by craft
with a length of 7 m, a beam of 2 m and a draught of 1 m.
Entry is on the alignment of beacons (white triangles),
which lead clear of dangers into the harbour. Depths are
1⋅4 m in the entrance and 1⋅2 m in the basins.
Tejn
2.95
1
General information. Tejn (55°14′⋅9N, 14°50′⋅2E), is a
fishing village 2miles SSE of Allinge.
The harbour comprises an outer basin and four inner
basins. It is protected by a breakwater which extends NW
from the coast for about 1cables; a light (red framework
tower, 5 m in height) is displayed at its head. The harbour
has been designated a place of refuge, see 1.83.
2
Water level. Winds from W and SW lower the water
level by 0⋅6 m, and E winds raise it by the same amount.
Anchorage may be obtained in depths of 11 to 13 m,
6 cables N of the harbour entrance.
Pilotage. Local knowledge is required. The Harbour
Master serves as a pilot.
Approach. The harbour is approached on a line of
bearing, about 182°, of Tejn Sector Light (framework tower
on building, 7 m in height) (55°15′⋅0N, 14°50′⋅1E). By
night, approach within the white sector (160°–204°) of this
light.
3
Entry. Tejn Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle, point up, on metal
framework tower, 6 m in height) (55°14′⋅9N,
14°50′⋅3E).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, on metal
framework tower) (42
m from front light).
The alignment (144°) of these lights leads between the
breakwaters to the outer harbour.
4
Basins. The outer basin, known as Forhavn, has a depth
of 5 m. Shoal water extending into the basin from the east
breakwater is marked by three buoys (port hand). Within
the inner harbour there are three basins, Vestbassin,
Midterbassin and Østbassin, with depths of 4⋅2 m, 5⋅0 m
and 3⋅8 to 2⋅4 m respectively. These are reserved
exclusively for fishing vessels. To the N of Østbassin
within the inner harbour, there is a yacht basin with depths
of 2⋅5 to 1⋅5 m.
5
Repair. Slip for vessels up to 400 dwt.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Harbour regulations. Fishing vessels have priority in
Vestbassin, Midterbassin and Østbassin.
Nørresand Havn
2.96
1
General information. Nørresand Havn (Gudhjem N
Harbour) (55°12′⋅9N, 14°58′⋅0E) is a harbour for fishing
vessels. It is situated at Sorteodde, the E extremity of a
small peninsula, 80 m high, at the E end of Salne Bugt,
4miles SE of Tjen. The harbour can be used by day and
night.
CHAPTER 2
95
2
Largest vessel which can use the harbour is length
about 35 m, beam about 10 m and draught about 3 m.
Water level. S and W winds lower the level of water, N
and E winds cause it to rise.
Pilots are available.
Current. The current usually depends upon the direction
and force of the wind.
3
Directions. Leading Lights:
Front light (post, 3 m in height) (55°12′⋅9N,
14°58′⋅1E).
Rear light (mast, 9 m in height) (58 m from front
light).
The alignment (120°) of these lights leads from seaward
into the harbour.
4
Berths. The harbour consists of a single basin with a
depth of 3⋅6 m.
Repairs. Minor repairs only.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Gudhjem South Harbour
2.97
1
General information. Gudhjem S Harbour (55°12′⋅8N,
14°58′⋅3E) is situated close SE of Sorteodde (2.96). The
outer moles are built of granite and are about 2⋅5 m high;
they are extended in height to 4 m by a shelter wall built
on top. The harbour consists of three basins. The harbour
entrance, outer and middle basins have a depth of 4 m and
the inner basin a depth of 2 m. In rough weather with
onshore winds, the entrance between the outer and middle
harbour can be closed by a sliding gate.
2
Largest vessel which can use the harbour is length 40 m
and draught 3⋅8 m.
Water level. Winds between N and E can raise the
water level by about 0⋅5 m and winds between S and W
can lower the water level by the same amount.
Pilots are available.
3
Traffic signal. When the harbour is closed to navigation,
a red ball is hoisted on a mast on the N mole and at night
the leading lights are extinguished.
Current depends on the force and direction of the wind.
Directions. Leading lights:
Front light (red triangle, point up, on mast)
(55°12′⋅8N, 14°58′⋅3E).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, on mast) (30 m
from front light).
4
The alignment (202°) of these lights leads from seaward
into the harbour. The entrance is 11 m wide.
Useful marks. Visible at a short distance are:
Gudhjem Church (55°12′⋅7N, 14°58′⋅3E).
Windmill (white, without sails) near harbour.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Melsted
2.98
1
General information. Melsted (55°12′⋅3N, 14°59′⋅0E),
situated 5 cables SSE of Gudhjem, is a boat harbour, with a
depth of 1⋅4 m. It is formed by two moles, each about 3 m
wide and 1 m high.
The harbour can be used by day and night, but not
during onshore storms.
Water level. Winds between N and E give high water
and winds between S and W low water.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. The alignment (208°) of Melsted Leading
Lights leads from seaward to the entrance of the approach
channel:
Front light (red triangle, point up, on mast, 4 m in
height) (55°12′⋅3N, 14°58′⋅9E).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, on mast, 5 m in
height) (30 m from front light).
3
Thence, when about 130 m from the front light, alter
course S through a short approach channel leading into the
harbour, keeping W of the edge of Melsted Rev which
extends 2 cables offshore, close E of the harbour; a 0⋅3 m
shoal patch is marked by a buoy (port hand).
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 9 to 11 m, on
the flat, SE of Melsted.
Bølshavn
2.99
1
Bølshavn (55°09′⋅5N, 15°04′⋅4E), 5 miles SE of
Gudhjem, is a small fishing harbour formed by two stone
jetties, with depths of 1⋅2 m in and within the entrance.
Listed Havn
2.100
1
General information. Listed Havn (55°08′⋅8N,
15°06′⋅6E), 6 miles SE of Gudhjem, is a safe harbour of
refuge for small craft. In its vicinity the coast is fringed
with foul ground which extends cable from the shore and
is steep-to.
Water level. Winds from the NW, through N to E may
raise the water level by 0⋅7 m. Winds from the SW through
W to NW may lower the water level by the same amount.
Pilots. Local fishermen act as pilots.
2
Directions. Listed Havn Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle, point up, white band on
framework tower, 8 m in height) (55°08′⋅8N,
15°06′⋅5E).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, white band on
framework tower, 9 m in height) (25 m from front
light).
3
From a position not less than 3 cables NNE of the front
light, the alignment (201°) of these lights leads from
seaward to the harbour entrance. When clear of the N
breakwater alter course to the E through the entrance which
is 10 m wide.
Caution. There are a number of rocks outside the
harbour.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
BORNHOLM SOUTH-WEST COAST —
RØNNE TO DUEODDE
General information
Chart 958
Description
2.101
1
The coastal bank, as can be seen on the chart, extends
farther offshore than from the other coasts. In places it is
partially obstructed by rocks.
Between Raghammer Odde (55°00′⋅9N, 14°55′⋅6E) and
Dueodde, the coastal bank extends up to 5 cables from the
shore, with a bottom of sand and rock.
Topography
2.102
1
The SW coast of Bornholm consists mostly of cliffs,
from 12 to 18 m high, except between Rønne and
Galgeløkke Odde, about 1 mile SE, where it is higher.
Between Galgeløkke Odde and Korsodde, 1miles SE,
the coast is wooded.
CHAPTER 2
96
Exercise area
2.103
1
Three buoys (special), marking the limits of a firing
practice area, are positioned 2miles W, 2miles SSW,
and 2 miles SE of Raghammer Odde (55°00′⋅9N,
14°55′⋅6E). A signal station stands on the coast about
7 cables N of Raghammer Odde, and a ball is hoisted at
each of two signal masts situated 1 mile SE and 8 cables
NW of Raghammer Odde when firing is in progress.
Prohibited area
2.104
1
An area, in which entry is prohibited, is centred on
position 55°02′⋅3N, 14°37′⋅9E, as shown on the chart.
Principal marks
2.105
1
Landmarks:
Kongemindet (55°06′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅3E) (2.41).
Television towers (55°09′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅2E) (2.41).
Rønne Airport Control Tower (yellow, 24 m in height)
(55°04′⋅2N, 14°44′⋅9E), from which an aero light is
displayed.
Julegård (white building) (55°02′⋅4N, 14°51′⋅8E).
2
Tower (grey, square, 18 m in height) (55°01′⋅4N,
14°56′⋅0E).
Dueodde Tower (granite, circular, 39 m in height)
(55°00′⋅1N, 15°04′⋅4E), a former lighthouse.
Dueodde Lighthouse (white six-sided tower, 47 m in
height) (54°59′⋅5N, 15°04′⋅5E).
Major light:
Dueodde Light — as above.
Directions
Offshore route
2.106
1
From the vicinity of Rønne Approach Light-buoy
(55°05′⋅1N, 14°38′⋅6E) (2.49) the track leads SSE for about
8 miles, then E for a farther 12 miles towards Dueodde,
passing (with positions from Rønne Aero Light (55°04′⋅2N,
14°44′⋅9E)):
WSW of a shoal, with a least depth of 7⋅2 m over it
(2miles WSW), thence:
2
WSW of Møllebakke (2miles SW), marked by a
buoy (W cardinal). Lying SE of Møllebakke are a
number of detached shoals which extend
approximately 4 miles SE. Thence:
WSW and S of Bakkegrund (5miles S), a reef with
dangerous underwater rocks, marked by a buoy (S
cardinal). Bakkebrædt, 3 cables W of Bakkegrund,
is a rock with a depth of 6⋅6 m over it.
Thence to a position S of Dueodde (12 miles ESE)
(2.108).
Inshore route
2.107
1
Local knowledge is required.
From the vicinity of Rønne Approach Light-buoy (2.49)
the track leads generally SE for about 8 miles, passing
(with positions from Rønne Aero Light (55°04′⋅2N,
14°44′⋅9E)):
2
SW of Hadderev (2 miles WNW), a reef which
extends 5 cables SSW from Galgeløkke Odde,
marked by a buoy (S cardinal), and:
NE of a shoal, with a least depth of 7⋅2 m over it
(2miles WSW), thence:
3
NE of Møllebakke (2miles SW) (2.106), thence:
NE of Hvide-Mæhrn (1miles SSW), a shoal with a
least depth of 3⋅4 m over it, thence:
NE of Højbratter (2 miles S), a shoal with a least
depth of 3⋅7 m over it, thence:
Clear of a shoal (2miles SSE), with a least depth
of 5⋅7 m over it, and:
4
SW of Arnager Rev (3 miles SE), an underwater spit
which extends 3 miles SE from Arnager (2.110)
with depths of 1⋅2 m near its inner end and 9⋅4 m
at its outer end. It is marked on its SW side by a
buoy (S cardinal).
Caution. The bottom in the vicinity of the above
described shoals is so uneven that undiscovered dangers
may exist.
2.108
1
Thence the track leads ESE for about 8 miles, passing
(with positions from Dueodde Light (54°59′⋅5N,
15°04′⋅5E)):
SSW of Raghammer Odde (5miles WNW), off
which the seabed, in depths of less than 10 m, is
very irregular, thence:
2
SSW of Gedebak Odde (4 miles WNW), from which
a reef, with a depth of 2⋅8 m over it, extends
2cables S; an outfall pipe extends seaward the
same distance, 5 cables E of this point. Thence:
SSW of Dueodde (54°59′N, 15°05′E), on which
stands a lighthouse. Shifting sands, which are
steep-to, extend 1miles from the point.
Useful marks
2.109
1
Nylarskirke (55°04′⋅4N, 14°48′⋅9E), a white round
building with a pointed roof.
Aakirkeby (55°04′⋅3N, 14°55′⋅1E), a grey building.
Povlskirke (55°01′⋅5N, 15°02′⋅5E), a white building
without a tower, but with a detached belfry.
Pederskirke Mill, a red windmill 2miles W of
Povlskirke.
(Directions continue at 2.116)
Anchorage and harbour
Arnager Bugt
2.110
1
Description. Arnager Bugt (55°02′⋅9N, 14°47′⋅3E) is the
only well-sheltered anchorage on the SW side of Bornholm.
It is situated between the coast and Arnager Rev (2.107).
Arnager (55°03′N, 14°47′E) is a fishing village standing
on a point of the same name. The harbour is a four-sided
basin which is entered from the N; it has depths of 1⋅5 to
2⋅4 m and is connected to the land by a pier 200 m long. It
can be entered by day and night.
2
Largest craft which can use the harbour is length 20 m,
beam 7 m and draught 2⋅4 m.
Water level. SW gales may lower the level of the water
in Arnager Bugt by 0⋅6 m, while NE gales may raise it by
up to 1⋅2 m.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. From a position about 2 miles W of
Raghammer Odde the track leads NW for about 3 miles,
passing (with positions from Sose Odde (55°02′⋅5N,
14°50′⋅0E)):
NE of the SE end of Arnager Rev (1miles SSE)
(2.107), thence:
SW of Blak (8 cables S), a reef with a least depth of
1⋅5 m at its S end, thence:
4
NE of a 5⋅6 m shoal patch (1 mile SW), on Arnager
Rev, marked by a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
CHAPTER 2
97
NE of Tørt Sand (1miles WNW), a reef with a
least depth of 1⋅2 m over it.
Storegab (55°02′⋅7N, 14°47′⋅1E), an unmarked narrow
channel, which has a depth of 3⋅7 m, leads across the inner
end of Arnager Rev into Arnager Bugt.
5
Anchorage may be obtained in a position 1 cable E of
the harbour in a depth of 4 m, sand.
Caution. The anchorage is not recommended for larger
vessels. Winds from the SW, through S to SE, send in a
considerable sea.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Bakkerne
2.111
1
General information. Bakkerne (55°00′⋅0N, 14°59′⋅5E)
is a private harbour which consists of a 1 m high concrete
mole behind which boats can lie in a lee. It is connected to
the land by an 80 m long approach bridge. Depth in the
entrance and at the mole is 1 m.
Water level. The range between HW and LW is 1⋅5 m.
2
Leading lights in line bearing 011°, are displayed when
required by fishing vessels. They lead to the E side of the
mole.
BORNHOLM SOUTH-EAST COAST —
DUEODDE TO SVANEKE
General information
Chart 958
Topography
2.112
1
Between Dueodde (54°59′N, 15°05′E) and Broens Odde,
a low point 2miles NE, there are some partially wooded
sand dunes 1 mile inland.
South of Nexø (55°04′N, 15°09′E) the land is low and
the coast is bordered by sand.
2
The coast between Nexø and Sandkås Odde, 4miles
N, is rocky but the coastal bank is narrow and steep-to
within 7 cables of Nexø.
The land S of Sandkås Odde is not so steep as that on
the N side of the promontory.
Prohibited area
2.113
1
An area, in which entry is prohibited, is centred on
position 55°04′⋅6N, 15°14′⋅1E.
Rescue
2.114
1
A life-saving station equipped with line throwing
apparatus, mobile equipment, lifeboat and fast rescue craft,
is located at Nexø.
Principal marks
2.115
1
Landmarks:
Kongemindet (55°06′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅3E) (2.41).
Television towers (55°09′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅2E) (2.41).
Dueodde Tower (55°00′⋅1N, 15°04′⋅4E) (2.105).
Dueodde Lighthouse (54°59′⋅5N, 15°04′⋅5E) (2.105).
Major lights:
Dueodde Light (54°59′⋅5N, 15°04′⋅5E) (2.105).
Svaneke Light (55°07′⋅9N, 15°09′⋅1E) (2.75).
Christiansø Light (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅2E) (2.130).
Directions
(continued from 2.109)
2.116
1
From a position SSE of Dueodde (54°59′N, 15°05′E)
(2.108) the track leads NE for about 5 miles, passing (with
positions from Dueodde Light):
Clear of a dangerous wreck, position approximate,
(2 miles SE), thence:
SE of Broens Rev (2miles NE), a shoal with a
least depth of 0⋅6 m over it which extends 4 cables
NE from Broens Odde. Thence:
2
SE of Salthammer Rev (3 miles NNE) which
consists of two spits extending ENE from
Salthammer Odde, a low point. The S spit, with a
depth of 2⋅8 m at its outer end, 5 cables from the
coast, is steep-to. The N spit with depths of 3⋅4 to
5⋅3 m is marked at its outer end by a buoy (E
cardinal).
3
Thence, when Salthammer Rev bears W, the track leads
N for about 6 miles until Svaneke (55°08′N, 15°09′E)
bears W.
Useful marks
2.117
1
White windmill (55°04′⋅4N, 15°08′⋅5E), standing on
the coast at Fredriks Stenbrud.
White windmill (55°06′⋅2N, 15°08′⋅5E), standing on
the coast at Årsdale.
Øster Mariekirke (55°08′⋅3N, 15°00′⋅9E) and Ibskirke,
3miles ESE, are visible only from a considerable
distance, and then only on certain bearings.
Nexø
General information
2.118
1
Position. Nexø (formerly Neksø) (55°04′N, 15°09′E) is
the largest harbour on the SE coast of Bornholm.
Function. It is primarily a fishing port with a separate
basin for general cargo. The population is about 3300.
Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by 7 vessels totalling
7765 dwt.
Port Authority. Nexø Havn, Sdr, Hammer 2,1, DK
3730 Nekso, Denmark.
E-Mail Havn@nexo.dk
Limiting conditions
2.119
1
Controlling depths. The entrance channel, commercial
basin, S basin and the channel leading to it, all have a
depth of 5 m.
Water level. Winds between E and SW lower the water
level, but it may rise with an E wind if strong W winds
have prevailed for a long time previously. With W to N
winds, and especially with NE winds, the level of water
rises. The difference from MSL is seldom more than 0⋅6 m.
2
Maximum size of vessels handled: length 78 m; beam
21 m; draught 4⋅5 m.
Current. There may be a cross current running off the
entrance which can affect steering.
Weather. With onshore gales the harbour cannot be
entered by larger vessels.
Arrival information
2.120
1
Anchorage. The best anchorage may be obtained with
Bodilskirke (2.123) bearing 274°, and just open S of Nexø
harbour, in depths from 13 to 15 m, 4 cables from the NE
end of the breakwater; the holding ground is good, but the
bottom is rocky and uneven in places.
CHAPTER 2
98
2
Pilotage. The Harbour Master acts as pilot in and out of
the harbour. ETA at boarding point is required 24, 12 and
4 hours prior to arrival.
Tug. The pilot boat is equipped to be used as a tug if
required.
Harbour
2.121
1
General layout. The harbour consist of a series of
connected basins reached through an entrance channel,
protected by two moles and leading NE. The commercial
basin lies to the N of the entrance and the fishing basins to
the S.
Port closed signal. When entry is prohibited, a black
ball is hoisted on a flagstaff at the harbour. At night, three
red lights (vertically disposed) are displayed from a white
silo, 160 m W of the N mole head.
2
Submarine cable. A cable is laid across the rocky
bottom of the entrance channel, 60 m from the head of the
N mole; the landing place on the N mole is marked by a
notice board. Anchoring is prohibited in the vicinity of the
cable.
Directions
2.122
1
Leading lights:
Front light (green framework tower, 8 m in height)
(55°03′⋅8N, 15°08′⋅2E).
Rear light (gable of building) (110 m from front
light).
The alignment (232°) of these lights leads from seaward,
through the entrance channel to the basins. Two lights are
displayed from the S mole.
Useful marks
2.123
1
Bodilskirke (55°03′⋅7N, 15°04′⋅5E), a white building
with a tower. A small belfry stands close S of the
church.
Basins
2.124
1
The commercial basin, Trafikhavn, lies on the N side of
the inshore end of the entrance channel and has depths
alongside the main berths of 5 m.
The fishing vessel basins which lie to the S of the
entrance are collectively known as Fiskerihavn and
comprise of:
Gamle Bassin and four other connected basins to the
S which are numbered from 1 to 4. The largest
basin is No 4, which is 190 m long, 120 m wide,
and has a depth of 5 m. It has two finger piers
50 m long extending from the E side. The are
small craft moorings and facilities in Gamle
Bassin.
Port services
2.125
1
Repairs of all kinds can be carried out. There is a dry
dock for vessels up to 54 m in length, 9⋅3 m beam and a
draught of 3⋅45 m.
A ship elevator is also available for vessels up to
500 dwt, length 45 m, beam 9⋅9 m and draught 5 m.
Divers are available.
2
Other facilities. Limited facilities for reception of oily
waste.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Anchorages
2.126
1
Anchorage may be obtained on the coastal bank between
Dueodde (54°59′N, 15°05′E) and Broens Rev, about
2miles NE, over a sandy bottom and in convenient
depths. However, winds from W quickly raise a swell.
Nexø Red (55°03′⋅8N, 15°09′⋅0E) is the best anchorage
for large vessels on the E coast of Bornholm, as there is
less swell than at other places.
2
Vessels may anchor in Frenne Rede (55°07′⋅0N,
15°09′⋅1E), N of Årsdale, in depths of 9 to 13 m,
2cables offshore. Small craft may anchor closer inshore
where the coastal bank, with depths of 5 m over it, extends
1cables from the coast; the holding ground is better, and
although onshore winds quickly raise a heavy sea, warning
is usually given by the swell.
Small vessels may also obtain anchorage at Årsdale
(2.128).
Harbours
Snogebæk Havn
2.127
1
General information. Snogebæk Havn (55°01′⋅5N,
15°07′⋅4E) is a private fishing harbour close S of
Salthammer Odde. It consists of a small square basin, with
depths of 1⋅5 to 2⋅0 m, connected to the land by a pier
100 m long. It is protected to the E by a breakwater
situated 30 m E of the basin. Gales cause silting to take
place. The harbour can be used by day and night.
Water level. NE winds raise the water level by 1⋅0 m,
W winds lower the level by the same amount.
2
Directions. Leading lights:
Front light (grey mast, 4 m in height) (55°01′⋅6N,
15°07′⋅4E).
Rear light (similar mast, 4 m in height) (50 m from
front light).
The alignment (318°) of these lights leads close N of
Broens Rev (2.116) and S of the detached breakwater, to
the basin entrance which faces SW.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Årsdale Havn
2.128
1
General information. Årsdale Havn (55°06′⋅5N,
15°08′⋅8E), is a fishing harbour situated at the head of a
bight off the village of the same name. It consists of an
outer and an inner basin, sheltered from all winds, with
depths of 2⋅5 to 3⋅0 m, suitable for vessels of 12 m in
length, 4⋅4 m beam and draught 2⋅5 m.
Water level may be lowered 0⋅6 m by W winds, and
raised 0⋅8 m by E winds.
2
Anchorage. Small craft may anchor S of Årsdale, in
depths of 8 to 11 m, with Årsdale windmill (55°06′⋅2N,
15°08′⋅7E) (2.117) bearing 281°.
Directions. Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on mast)
(55°06′⋅5N, 15°08′⋅7E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on mast, 5 m
in height) (40 m from front light).
CHAPTER 2
99
3
The alignment (248°) of these lights leads from
seaward, clear of rocks, to a position 40 m N of the
harbour entrance which faces NNW.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
CHRISTIANSØ
Chart 958 plan of Christiansø
General information
2.129
1
Description. The small group of islets, named
Christiansø (55°20′N, 15°11′E), and which belong to
Denmark, lies 10 miles NE of Bornholm, and consists of
Christiansø, Frederiksø, Græsholm and Tat, with several
surrounding rocks.
Only Christiansø and Frederiksø, which are joined by a
bridge, are inhabited, the population being about 200.
Together they formed a fortress, the towers and walls of
which are still visible.
2
Christiansø, the largest islet, is 22 m high; above-water
rocks lie 2 cables off its SE end.
Græsholm, situated 5 cables NW of Frederiksø, is 10 m
high. A rocky patch lies 1cables off its NE point.
Tårnrende, the channel between Frederiksø and
Græsholm, has depths of over 10 m, but is less than
cable wide.
3
Tat, situated nearly 5 cables NNW of Græsholm, is 6 m
high. It is surrounded by rocks and shoals which extend
1cables W, though less than 1 cable in other directions.
Vesterrende, the channel between Græsholm and Tat, has
depths of more than 5 m over a width of 1cables, but
that with more than 10 m is less than 1 cable wide.
4
Current. A very considerable current may run between
the islets, especially in stormy weather, its direction
following that of the wind and current in Baltic Sea.
Principal marks
2.130
1
Landmarks:
Christiansø Lighthouse (white tower, 16 m in height)
(55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅2E), standing on the SE side of
Christiansø Great Tower, which is round and
roofless.
Frederiksø Tower (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅1E), round with
pointed roof.
2
Major lights:
Christiansø Light — as above.
Hammer Odde Light (55°17′⋅9N, 14°46′⋅4E) (2.41).
Svaneke Light (55°07′⋅9N, 15°09′⋅1E) (2.75).
Directions
2.131
1
Vessels not bound for the harbour should keep at least
5 cables from any of the islets forming Christiansø. Vessels
should not attempt to pass through any of the channels
without a pilot and will require a large scale Danish chart.
Note. The area within about 1 mile of the island group
has been designated an EEC bird protection zone. Within
this area a speed limit of 12 kn applies and vessels should
keep at least 100 m from Græsholm and Tat, to which
entry is prohibited.
2
Useful mark.
Tat Lighthouse (white tower, red band, 2 m in height)
(55°19′⋅8N, 15°10′⋅5E).
Christiansø Havn
2.132
1
General information. Christiansø Havn, between
Christiansø and Frederiksø is well sheltered from all winds
except S gales and, with local knowledge, is a good refuge
for small vessels.
The harbour is divided into two parts by a bridge, which
opens to allow passage of vessels. The depth of the
channel through the bridge is 4⋅0 m.
2
Normally the largest ship allowed to enter the harbour is
20 grt, but with special permission, or in distress, vessels
with a length up to 50 m, and with a draught of 3⋅5 m, can
use the harbour.
3
Water level. Winds from SSW and W lower the level
by 0⋅4 m; N and E winds raise it by 0⋅6 m.
Pilotage is available. It is recommended that larger
vessels calling for the first time should use the services of
a pilot. Pilot vessel comes out on the lee side of the islet.
4
Traffic signal. If the harbour is closed the following
signals will be displayed from a mast cable S of
Frederiksø Light:
By day a black ball and, by night, three red lights
vertically disposed.
5
Directions. The harbour may be approached safely from
either N or S on a line of bearing of about 190°, from N,
or 348°, from S, of Frederiksø Light (white house, red
band, 3 m in height) (55°19′⋅3N, 15°11′⋅1E). By night,
approach within the white sectors (186°–194° or
347°–350°), of the light.
6
Berths. In the N harbour vessels secure to ring bolts in
the rocks. In the S harbour there are wharves on the E side
where vessels with a draught of 3 m can lie alongside.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions in small
quantities.
GOTLAND, FÅRÖ AND GOTSKA SANDÖN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2251, 2361, 2223, 2816
Description
2.133
1
Gotland (57°30′N, 18°30′E), the largest island in Baltic
Sea, is part of Sweden. It lies 45 miles off the Swedish
coast. Fårö, a smaller island, lies off its NE end, and
Gotska Sandön, which is a nature reserve, lies 20 miles N
of Fårö.
Today Gotlanders are mainly concerned with agriculture,
fishing and a few minor industries, notably the manufacture
of cement. There is also a thriving tourist industry.
2
Centuries ago, however, Gotland was an island of great
commercial importance as it lay on the route from Europe
to the East, used by Vikings who wisely preferred the
passage through Baltic Sea and the Russian rivers, to that
through the Atlantic and pirate infested Mediterranean.
3
German merchants, in the twelfth century, played a large
role in the rise of Gotland, many settling in Visby on the
W coast. The native farming Gotlanders conducted repeated
attacks on Visby’s successful foreign merchants who, in the
thirteenth century, built a protective wall which surrounds
the town on all sides except that facing the sea.
When Mongols closed the passage across Russia, traders
took the more direct sea route and Visby declined. In the
mid–seventeenth century, Gotland was annexed by Sweden.
CHAPTER 2
100
Topography
2.134
1
The greater part of the coast rises steeply from the sea
and forms a plateau, from 26 to 34 m high. A few detached
hills attain a greater height; Torsburgen (57°24′N, 18°44′E),
the highest, having an elevation of 68 m.
The S end of Gotland forms a peninsula, the W side of
which consists of high barren chalk cliffs, but the E side is
lower and wooded; to the N of the peninsula there are
dense forests of pine trees.
Pollution of the sea
2.135
1
Due to the non-tidal nature of these waters, the Swedish
authorities are extremely rigorous in the application of
anti-pollution regulations. See 1.72.
Fishing
2.136
1
During the period 16th September to 14th June, salmon
fishing is carried on with drift nets within 10 miles of the
coast of Gotland, extending farther offshore on the E side
of the island than the W side. Fishing is carried out from
just before sunset to just after sunrise.
Special care to avoid damaging nets is necessary when
passing through the channel W of Östergarn (57°27′N,
18°59′E) (2.186) and these waters should be avoided, if
possible, at night.
Natural conditions
2.137
1
Local magnetic anomalies. A deflection of the compass
of up to 2° has been noted off the W coast of Gotland and
off the NW part of the island including Fårö.
A deflection of 4° has been reported NW of Gotland
in position 57°59′⋅5N, 17°41′⋅5E.
Current. The current between Gotland and the Swedish
coast usually sets SW; off the E coast of Gotland it sets S
or SW, and is weaker than off the W coast.
2
Water level. South winds usually lower the level, whilst
N winds usually cause it to rise.
Ice. The harbours of Gotland are, in normal winters,
clear of ice, but some of them may occasionally be
obstructed between January and March. It is only
ocassionally, in severe winters and for a few days, that
there is ice off Hoburg
3
Caution is necessary when approaching the small
harbours in Gotland as the depths shown on the chart are
not always reliable, due to the ice pressure in spring often
filling the approach channels with large boulders.
Climatic table. See 1.284 and 1.287.
GOTLAND WEST COAST — HOBURG TO
NYREVSUDDEN
General information
Charts 2251, 2361
Route
2.138
1
From a position SW of Hoburg the route leads N,
passing either side of Stora Karlsö, W of Lilla Karlsö and
Utholmen, and thence to Nyrevsudden.
Description
2.139
1
The S half of the W side of Gotland faces the prevailing
wind, but there are some small harbours on this stretch of
coast where local limestone is loaded.
Rescue
2.140
1
A line-throwing apparatus is kept at Gjaus Häll, on the
S side of Stora Karlsö (57°17′N, 17°58′E).
Submarine cables
2.141
1
Submarine cables are laid from the W side of Gotland to
Stora Karlsö and Lilla Karlsö.
Prohibited area
2.142
1
From the 15th April to 31st July annually, a prohibited
area exists NE of Lilla Karlsö. Two buoys (special) mark
the outer corners, about 7 cables N and E of the island.
Principal marks
2.143
1
Landmarks:
Hoburg Lighthouse (white tower, black top, 22 m in
height) (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E).
Five windmotors (57°02′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅1E), standing at
the entrance to Burgsviken, are each 40 m in
height, floodlit, and display a red light at the top.
Stora Karlsö Lighthouse (white tower on dwelling,
18 m in height) (57°17′⋅5N, 17°57′⋅8E).
2
Major lights:
Hoburg Light — as above.
Stora Karlsö Light — as above.
Directions
2.144
1
From the vicinity of 56°50′N, 18°00′E the track leads N
for about 42 miles to Nyrevsudden passing (with positions
from Stora Karlsö (57°17′N, 17°58′E)):
W of Hoburgs Rev (24 miles SSE), a spit with a least
depth of 5⋅5 m over it, marked by a buoy (S
cardinal). It extends 1 mile S from Revet, a low
point on the S side of Hoburg. Thence:
2
W of Hoburg (22miles SSE), a limestone cliff,
35 m high, divided by a deep cleft. Hoburg Light
stands on a hill, 37 m in height, about 8 cables
ENE of Hoburg. Thence:
W of Bockstigen (21 miles SSE) (2.148), thence:
W of Näsrevet Light (20 miles SSE) (2.148), thence:
W of Deppo (11 miles SSE), a shoal patch with a
depth of 3⋅8 m over it, marked by a buoy (W
cardinal), thence:
3
W of Lillbriten, Söderpall and Norderpall (9, 8 and
7miles SSE) respectively, all shoal patches, each
with a depth of 9 m over them, lying within the
red sector of Näsrevet Light. Thence:
Clear of Nygrund (3miles SSE), a 12 m shoal
patch, thence:
W of Breidingen (3 miles SE), a 9 m shoal patch,
which lies 1miles W of Hammarudd (57°16′N,
18°05′E) a salient point, thence:
4
Clear of Stora Karlsö, from where a light is
displayed, and W of Lilla Karlsö, 2miles NE.
The islands have precipitous light-coloured sides.
Both are bird sanctuaries and nature reserves and
permission must be obtained to land or to navigate
close inshore. A reef with depths of less than 5 m
CHAPTER 2
101
extends 5 cables N from Stora Karlsö. From Lilla
Karlsö, foul ground extends 1 mile on the S side,
and 5 cables on the N side. Thence:
5
W of Utholmen (9miles NNE), a low islet fringed
by a reef. A beacon stands on the NE end of the
islet and a white dwelling and a clump of trees
stand in the middle. Landing is prohibited without
special permission. Thence:
W of Scharlakansgrund (11 miles NNE), a rocky
shoal, awash in places, marked by a buoy (W
cardinal), thence:
6
W of Gnisvärdsgrund (12miles NNE), a shoal with
a least depth of 5⋅4 m over it.
Thence, to a position NW of Nyrevsudden (57°32′N,
18°07′E), a light coloured headland.
Useful marks
2.145
1
In addition to the marks listed below there are several
churches, the positions of which are shown on the chart,
and which are visible from seaward.
Radio masts (red lights) (57°01′⋅5N, 18°15′⋅3E).
Radio mast (red lights, elevation 149 m) (57°04′⋅4N,
18°13′⋅5E), with a windmotor close E.
TV mast (red lights, elevation 69 m) (57°07′⋅5N,
18°15′⋅6E).
(Directions continue at 2.162)
Anchorages and harbours
Revviken
2.146
1
Small vessels may obtain anchorage in Revviken
(56°54′⋅5N, 18°08′⋅5E), the bight between Revet and
Flisviken, 8 cables E. Local knowledge is required.
Burgsvik
2.147
1
General information. Burgsvik (57°02′N, 18°16′E) is
situated on the S side of Burgsviken, an extensive inlet
entered 7 miles NNE of Hoburg on the SE side of Gotland.
It is a small harbour, suitable for vessels with a draught
of 3⋅4 m and a length of 60 m, where limestone is loaded.
It has a population of about 300.
2
The port is approached through a dredged channel on
the alignment of leading lights, and entered through a
dredged buoyed channel.
Local knowledge is required. Pilots should be requested
through Oxelösund VTS (2.166); vessels are met outside
the shoals.
2.148
1
Directions. Burgsvik Leading Lights:
Front light (white square, red stripe, on post)
(57°03′⋅0N, 18°17′⋅4E).
Rear light (similar structure) (270 m from front light).
From the vicinity of 57°01′N, 18°06′E, the alignment
(073°) of these lights leads ENE, through a channel with
an authorised draught of 3⋅4 m, into Burgsviken, passing
(with positions from front light):
2
SSE of Bockstigen (4miles WSW), a shoal with a
least depth of 5⋅2 m over it, marked by a buoy (S
cardinal). Thence:
SSE of a reef, partly above water, partly awash
(4 miles W) on which stands Näsrevet Light (red
tower, white top, grey base, 9 m in height), thence:
3
SSE of a 5⋅5 m shoal (2miles WSW), which lies
close N of the leading line, and:
NNW of Valar Light (white tower, 6 m in height)
(2miles WSW), displayed from the S entrance
point to Burgsviken, thence:
SSE of Näsudden, a low and barren point on the N
side of the entrance, N and E of which the land
rises and is wooded. The islet of Storgrund is
situated close W of the point.
4
Thence the leading line leads through a channel, dredged
to 4⋅1 m, with a width of 60 m, marked by buoys (lateral),
to the inner roadstead.
2.149
1
Entry. Burgsvik Hamn Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on white mast)
(57°02′⋅0N, 18°15′⋅7E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on white mast)
(45 m from front light).
The alignment (175°) of these lights leads from the
inner roadstead to the harbour through a channel, dredged
to 4 m over a width of 30 m, marked by buoys (lateral).
2.150
1
Anchorage. Local knowledge is required. Vessels with a
draught not greater than 5⋅6 m may obtain safe anchorage
in the outer roadstead, 1miles WNW of Burgsvik Hamn
pier, in a depth of 7 m, sand and clay, with Valar Light
bearing 185°.
Berth. Burgsvik Hamn consists of a single curved pier,
the E side of the outer 135 m being the cargo quay. There
are depths alongside of 3⋅0 m at the inner end and 3⋅6 m at
the outer end. Berths are available, with depths of 0⋅6 to
3⋅0 m, which have facilities for visiting yachts.
2
Repairs. Small repairs possible.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications: nearest airport at Visby 66 km N.
Rescue. A lifeboat and life-saving equipment are
maintained at Burgsvik.
Djauvik
2.151
1
General information. Djauvik (57°18′⋅5N, 18°09′⋅3E) is
a small fishing harbour, formed by two moles and protected
by a separate breakwater. It is open to wind and weather
from the N and W. The harbour should not be entered by
vessels with a draught greater than 1⋅6 m. There are
facilities for visiting yachts.
Directions. Leading lights:
2
Front light (white triangle point up, on pedestal)
(57°18′⋅5N, 18°09′⋅2E).
Rear light (white triangle point down, on pedestal)
(75 m from front light).
The alignment (137°) of these lights leads from seaward
into the harbour.
Caution. There are shoal banks just N of the leading
line, at the harbour entrance.
Valbybodar
2.152
1
Valbybodar (57°20′⋅0N, 18°10′⋅6E) is a small fishing
harbour. Leading lights (090°) are displayed, when required
by fishing vessels.
Klintehamn
2.153
1
General information. Klintehamn (57°23′⋅4N,
18°11′⋅6E) is a commercial harbour formed by a quay built
on the N side of a tongue of land extending 4cables W
from the coast. A mole extending from the inshore end of
the quay leads N, then W, forming a basin 400 m long and
100 m wide which is suitable for vessels up 75 m in length
CHAPTER 2
102
and a draught not greater than 4⋅5 m. Strong W winds raise
a sea in the harbour.
Function. The harbour is principally concerned with
loading limestone and grain.
2
Density: 1⋅005 g/cm
3
.
Pilotage. Pilots can be ordered through Oxelösund VTS
(2.166). Pilot boards about 2miles SW of the harbour.
Port Authority. See Visby (2.166)
Directions. Varvsholmen Leading Lights:
Front light (white column) (57°23′⋅5N, 18°11′⋅6E).
Rear light (white column) (120 m from front light).
3
The alignment (055°) of these lights leads NE from
seaward to the entrance of a channel, dredged to a depth of
5 m over a width of 30 m, marked by buoys (lateral),
thence to the entrance of the harbour, passing (with
positions from the front light):
Close SE of the outer channel buoy (port hand)
(1miles SW), thence:
SE of a stranded wreck (8 cables WSW).
Thence, commercial vessels proceed to the basin and
small craft to moorings on the N wall of the mole.
4
Useful marks.
Fröjel Church (57°20′⋅2N, 18°11′⋅6E).
Klinte Church (57°22′⋅7N, 18°14′⋅1E).
Anchorages. In good weather or with offshore winds,
anchorage may be obtained, in depths from 11⋅0 to 14⋅5 m,
sand and clay, close NW of Varvsholmen Leading Line,
about 1miles from the light-structure which stands on the
corner of the quay, with Klinte Church bearing 086°.
5
Vessels with a maximum draught of 5⋅2 m and a length
of 75 m may obtain anchorage in the outer roadstead, SE
of the Varvsholmen Leading Line, in depths of 6⋅0 to
6⋅7 m, 6 cables SW of the light-structure which stands at
the outer end of the quay. Vessels with deeper draughts
should not use this anchorage on account of occasional
heavy swells.
6
Berth. The quay on the S side of the basin provides
330 m of berthing space with a depth of 5 m, and a Ro-Ro
berth. There is a ferry berth on the W end of the mole. On
the N side of the mole there are berths for yachts, with
depths from 2⋅5 to 3⋅5 m.
Port services.
Repairs. Minor repairs can be carried out.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Airport at Visby, 28 km N.
Västergarn
2.154
1
General information. Västergarn (57°26′N, 18°09′E) is
a small fishing and small craft harbour sheltered from the
W by the breakwater which connects Svältholm, an islet, to
the shore.
Directions. Västergarn Leading Lights:
Front light (post) (57°26′⋅3N, 18°08′⋅7E).
Rear light (post) (100 m from front light).
The alignment (050°) of these lights leads from seaward
to the harbour entrance.
Useful mark:
2
Skansudde Beacon (white tower, 10 m in height)
(57°26′⋅5N, 18°07′⋅4E), a former lighthouse which
stands on Skansudde, a point of land.
Anchorage. The best anchorage off Västergarn is
9 cables SE of Skansudde in a depth of 3⋅7 m, clay.
Anchorage may also be obtained close ESE of
Svältholm when the centre of that islet is in line with
Skansudde.
Gnisvärd
2.155
1
General information. Gnisvärd (57°30′N, 18°07′E) is a
well-sheltered fishing harbour suitable for small craft with a
draught of 1⋅5 m. In SW gales a considerable current may
run in the entrance.
Directions. Gnisvärd Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle point up, on mast)
(57°30′⋅2N, 18°07′⋅0E).
2
Rear light (white triangle point down, on mast)
(100 m from front light).
The alignment (100°) of these lights leads from W,
through a channel dredged to 1⋅5 m over a width of 20 m,
to the harbour entrance.
GOTLAND WEST COAST —
NYREVSUDDEN TO FÅRÖSUND
General information
Chart 2361
Route
2.156
1
From a position NW of Nyrevsudden (57°32′N, 18°07′E)
(2.144), the route leads NE, then E to Fårösund.
Description
2.157
1
The coast between Visby (57°38′N, 18°17′E) and
Hallshuk, a high point 23 miles NE, is steep and wooded,
with no off-lying dangers outside a distance of 5 cables
from the coast, which is steep-to.
Topography
2.158
1
Stavklint (57°34′N, 18°09′E) is a steep cliff, 43 m in
height. Korplint and Högklint, 1 and 3miles farther
NE, are steep light-coloured cliffs, wooded on top, those at
Högklint being 43 m in height.
Submarine cables
2.159
1
Two pairs of cable beacons, 5 cables E and 1miles
ENE, respectively, of Högklint, indicate the landing places
of submarine cables. A further two pairs of beacons, 3 and
8 cables SW of Högklint, indicate the landing places of
high tension submarine cables. Anchoring within 300 m of
the high tension cables is prohibited.
Archaeological site
2.160
1
Anchoring and diving is prohibited in the vicinity of an
archaeological site on the coastal bank centred on
57°43′⋅1N, 18°22′⋅9E.
Principal marks
2.161
1
Landmarks:
Follingbo Aero Light, (mast, elevation 243 m), from
which red lights, vertically disposed, are displayed
(57°35′⋅6N, 18°22′⋅7E).
Ire Aero Light (radio tower, elevation 155 m), from
which red lights, vertically disposed, are displayed
(57°49′⋅0N, 18°37′⋅0E).
2
Major lights:
Follingbo Aero Light — as above.
Hallshuk Light (57°55′⋅5N, 18°45′⋅3E) (2.162).
CHAPTER 2
103
Directions
(continued from 2.145)
2.162
1
From a position NW of Nyrevsudden the route leads NE
for about 32 miles, then E for about 11 miles to a position
N of Svingrund Lighthouse, passing (with positions from
Stenkyrkehuk Lighthouse (57°49′⋅2N, 18°27′⋅8E)):
NW of the entrance to Visby (12 miles SW),
thence:
NW of Stenkyrkehuk Light (white round metal tower,
15 m in height), exhibited from a point of land,
thence:
2
NW and N of Hallshuk Light (white building)
(11 miles NE).
Thence, the track leads E, passing:
N of the approaches to Kappelshamnsviken
(12miles NE), thence:
To a position N of Svingrund Lighthouse (57°56′⋅1N,
19°01′⋅3E).
Useful marks
2.163
1
In addition to the marks listed below there are several
churches, the positions of which are shown on the chart,
which are visible from seaward.
Lummelunda Church (57°46′⋅1N, 18°27′⋅5E), slender
spire.
Stenkyrka Church (57°47′⋅6N, 18°32′⋅1E), slender
spire.
2
Two windmotors (red lights) (57°48′⋅7N, 18°32′⋅5E).
Norsklint (57°54′⋅7N, 18°42′⋅3E), a wooded hill.
Svingrund Lighthouse (orange tower, black band, 9 m
in height) (57°56′⋅1N, 19°01′⋅3E).
(Directions for Fårösund N approach continue
at 2.231, and for Gotska Sandön at 2.247)
Visby
Chart 2361 with plan of Visby
General information
2.164
1
Description. Visby (57°38′N, 18°17′E) is the principal
town and seat of the provincial government of Gotland.
One of the Hanseatic cities, Visby was sacked by the
Lübeckers in the sixteenth century and extensive ruins
remain to this day. It is surrounded by the longest and best
preserved city wall in N Europe.
2
Function. It is a medium-sized harbour with good
facilities for handling bulk, liquid, general cargo and Ro-Ro
vessels. Principal exports are grain, woodpulp and timber.
Principal imports are oil, salt, gravel, molasses and
fertilisers. Visiting yachts may use the small boat basins in
the outer and inner basins as well as the fishing harbour.
Topography. The coastline N and S of Visby is fronted
by cliffs.
3
Traffic. In 2003 the port was visited by 152 vessels
totalling 447 898 dwt, excluding ferry traffic.
Port Authority.Gotland Ports, Farjeleden 2, SE−621 57
Visby, Sweden.
Website: www.visbyport.com
Limiting conditions
2.165
1
Channel authorised draughts:
Channel to Oljekajen — 7⋅5 m.
Channel to Yttre hamnen — 7⋅5 to 6⋅5 m.
Channel to Inre hamnen — 6⋅3 m.
Water levels. The highest HW is 0⋅88 m above the
mean water level and the lowest LW is 0⋅71 m below the
mean.
Density of water: 1⋅005 g/cm
3
.
Arrival information
2.166
1
Outer anchorage. Anchorage may be obtained, as
shown on the chart, about 4 cables W of the harbour
entrance, in depths of about 40 m, clay and fine gravel.
Pilotage. All messages concerning pilot services within
the coastal waters of Gotland are handled by Oxelösund
VTS, which operates a 24 hour service. At Visby the pilot
boards in the roads. For boarding places at other locations
in Gotland see individual ports and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2).
2
Caution. With onshore gales do not attempt to enter
Visby harbour without local knowledge, as experience has
shown that the danger of stranding in such conditions is
Port of Visby (2.167)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Roland Hejstrom)
CHAPTER 2
104
very great. Pilots are unable to board in adverse weather
conditions.
Speed limits. The speed limit in Yttre hamnen, is 12 kn
and in Inre hamnen, 5 kn.
Harbour
2.167
1
General layout. The harbour comprises an inner and
outer basin, formed by breakwaters. The inner basin is
divided by Holman, a broad quay projecting SW from the
NE side of the harbour. The outer harbour is created by the
extension of the N breakwater and a new S breakwater.
The entrance to the outer harbour is dredged to 9 m. The
harbour is well-sheltered but when a heavy sea prevails at
the entrance it is felt in both inner and outer basins.
Ice. The harbour is usually free from ice.
2
Current. The current off Visby usually sets with the
wind at a maximum rate of 2 to 3 kn.
Landmarks:
Water tower (57°37′⋅9N, 18°17′⋅9E).
Visby Cathedral (57°38′⋅6N, 18°18′⋅1E) with high
tower and spires and a chimney close E.
Binger Windmill (57°38′⋅8N, 18°19′⋅5E).
Radio mast (red light), 4 cables NNW of Binger
Windmill.
Directions
2.168
1
Approach and entry. The harbour can be approached
on a line of bearing of about 071° of Visby Approach
Light (white round concrete structure, red band, 8 m in
height; floodlit), standing at the W end of the S breakwater.
By night, approach is made within the white sector
(055°–087°) of this light.
Thence, on the alignment (055°) of Visby Leading
Lights the harbour is entered between the outer
breakwaters:
2
Front light (red triangle point up, white vertical band,
on pedestal) (57°38′⋅3N, 18°17′⋅0E).
Rear light (red triangle point down, white vertical
band, on pedestal) (230 m from front light).
Useful marks:
North Breakwater Light (57°38′⋅1N, 18°16′⋅4E) (white
tower, green band, 6 m in height).
Radio mast (80 m in height) (red lights) (57°38′⋅5N,
18°20′⋅4E).
Basins and berths
2.169
1
Yttre hamnen. Oljekajen, situated on the E side of the
S breakwater, has a length of 60 m with a depth alongside
of 8⋅0 m. Three Ro-Ro berths, situated on the E side of the
basin, each have a ramp width of 32 m, and with a total
length of 565 m, have depths alongside of 7⋅0 and 8⋅0 m.
2
Inre hamnen. The area NW of Holman (2.167) has
530 m of berthing space and a fixed Ro-Ro ramp with a
width of 18 m. The E side of the basin has a depth of
7⋅0 m and the W side depths of 5⋅8 to 6⋅0 m. SW of
Holman there is a fishing harbour and two Ro-Ro berths
with a quay length of 225 m and a depth alongside of
6⋅0 m lie close NE of the fishing harbour.
Port services
2.170
1
Repairs: minor repairs only; slip for fishing vessels;
engineering workshops.
Other facilities: de-ratting; hospital; facilities for the
reception of oily and chemical waste.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Visby Airport.
Rescue. A line-throwing apparatus is kept at Visby. The
pilot vessel acts as a lifeboat when required.
Kappelshamnsviken
Chart 2361 (see 1.34)
General information
2.171
1
Position and function. Kappelshamnsviken (57°53′N,
18°48′E) is a long inlet, free from dangers to within
1miles of its head where it shoals to less than 9 m. The
shores of Kappelshamnsviken are bordered by a reef, a few
cables in width, except near the middle of the E shore,
where there is a shallow bay with rocks off its S entrance.
It provides the principal outlet for the quarries at
Kappelshamn (2.177) and Storugns (2.176).
2
Topography. From Hallshuk the land decreases in height
to the head of the inlet.
Ice. The harbours and adjacent waters are generally free
from ice but strong N winds may impede navigation
through the build up of drift ice.
Limiting conditions
2.172
1
Maximum authorised draught through the
Kappelshamnsviken approach and Storugns harbour is
9⋅0 m. In the channel to Kappelshamn harbour it is 6⋅0 m.
Largest vessel which can be accommodated in Storugns
is 160 m in length, up to 25 000 dwt, loading to a
maximum draught of 8⋅8 m.
2
Local weather. Strong winds from NW to NE raise a
high and dangerous sea in Kappelshamnsviken, when the
anchorages and berths at Kappelshamn and Storugns
become unsafe. With strong N winds cargo working is
often suspended.
Arrival information
2.173
1
Port radio. Storugns Hamnradio (Storugns Harbour
Radio). For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Anchorage may be obtained, indicated on the chart, in
depths of about 13 m, good holding ground, clay and sand,
1 mile N of the harbour, N of the ferry berth at
Kappelshamn.
2
Pilotage. Local knowledge is required. Requests for
pilots should be made through Oxelösund VTS (2.166).
Pilot boards in the outer part of Kappelshamnsviken. For
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Landmarks
2.174
1
Kappelshamn Lighthouse (framework tower)
(57°50′⋅3N, 18°48′⋅1E).
Hallshuk Lighthouse (57°55′⋅5N, 18°45′⋅3E) (2.162).
Directions for Kappelshamnsviken
2.175
1
From a position in the entrance about 1miles NE of
Hallshuk Light (57°55′⋅5N, 18°45′⋅3E), the recommended
track, shown on the chart, leads S for about 5 miles, by
night in the white sector (173°–180°), ahead, of
Kappelshamn Light, passing (with positions from
Kappelshamn Light):
2
E of Haruddsrevet (5miles NNW), a reef on which
there are rocks both above-water and awash, which
extends 4 cables from the coast in the vicinity of
Hallshuk (2.162), thence:
CHAPTER 2
105
W of Enrevet (5 miles NNE), a reef with
above-water rocks on it, which extends 2cables
from Svarvnäset, a light-coloured cliffy point,
3 miles E of and considerably lower than Hallshuk,
thence:
3
To a position W of a buoy (port hand) (1miles N),
marking the edge of the shoal water close to the
mouth of Storugns entrance channel.
Thence, directions for Storugns are given at 2.176, and
for Kappelshamn at 2.177.
Useful marks:
Fleringe Church (57°52′⋅2N, 18°52′⋅7E).
Lärbro Church (57°47′⋅2N, 18°47′⋅8E).
Norsklint (57°54′⋅7N, 18°42′⋅3E) (2.163).
Storugns
2.176
1
Description. Storugns is a small industrial harbour
situated on the E side of Kappelshamnsviken, near its head.
Its principal function is the export of limestone and
limestone products from the adjacent quarries. Gas oil is
imported.
Port radio. See 2.173.
2
Traffic. In 2003 the port was visited by 274 vessels
totalling 1million dwt.
Port Authority. Nordalk Storugns AB, S–620 34
Lärbro, Gotland, Sweden.
Directions. Storugns Leading Lights:
Front light (57°50′⋅7N, 18°48′⋅4E).
Rear light (200 m from front light).
3
From a position about 1miles N of Kappelshamn
Light, at the E edge of the white sector of the light and
close W of a light-buoy (port hand), the alignment (169°)
of these lights leads through the outer channel for about
5 cables. The outer channel is 90 m wide, marked by buoys
(lateral), and dredged to a depth of 9⋅3 m. Thence, the
inner channel, 80 m wide, marked by buoys (lateral) and
dredged to a depth of 9⋅3 m, leads S for 5 cables to the
berthing area. A yellow steering light is displayed from
Kappelshamn Light for navigating in the inner channel.
4
For Storugns Old Harbour, vessels continue S towards
Kappelshamn Light which stands on the end of the
breakwater which forms the harbour.
Berths. Storugns New Harbour is formed by a
breakwater which extends W from the coast, and a pier
extending S from the end of the breakwater. It lies about
4cables N of Kappelshamn Light on the E side of
Kappelshamnsviken. There is a total of about 420 m of
berthing space in the harbour, including the breakwater.
The berth on the outside of the pier is 140 m long with
depths alongside of 9⋅2 to 10⋅0 m.
5
The old harbour has a berth on the S side of the
breakwater, 60 m long with a depth alongside of 4⋅0 m,
used for discharging gas oil.
Supplies: fuel and fresh water by road tanker;
provisions available.
Kappelshamn
2.177
1
Description. Kappelshamn (57°51′N, 18°47′E), lying on
the W side of the inlet, is a small loading place and the
reserve harbour for Visby ferry traffic in poor weather
conditions. The harbour consists of a pier, extended to a
total length of 150 m, by three breasting dolphins joined by
bridges, with berths on each side and on the land at its
root. A small craft and fishing harbour lies close W with
depths of 1⋅0 to 2⋅7 m.
2
Directions. Vessels may proceed safely to the vicinity of
the berths directly off the recommended track for which
directions are given at 2.175. In addition, by day, using the
line of bearing 182° of Lärbro Church (57°47′⋅2N,
18°47′⋅8E), which leads through the middle of the inlet,
and by night, in the white sector of Kappelshamn Light
(2.174).
3
Berths. On the E side of the pier there is a total of
150 m berthing space, with Ro-Ro ramp at the root with a
ramp width of 33 m, all with a depth alongside of 6⋅5 m.
On the W side of the pier there is about 125 m of berthing
space with depths alongside of 2⋅5 to 4⋅5 m.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Harbours
Flundreviken
2.178
1
General information. Flundreviken (57°39′⋅8N,
18°19′⋅5E) is a small fishing village.
Leading lights;
Front light (red triangle, point up, with white band,
on post) (57°39′⋅8N, 18°19′⋅5E).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, with white band,
on post) (27 m from front).
The alignment (096°) leads from seaward to the harbour
entrance.
Själsö
2.179
1
General information. Själsö (57°41′⋅5N, 18°21′⋅5E) is a
fishing harbour. It is approached through a channel 20 m
wide and 3 m deep with the aid of two pairs of leading
lights as follows:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on mast)
(57°41′⋅5N, 18°21′⋅5E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on mast)
(90 m from front light).
2
The alignment (099°) of these lights leads onto the
alignment (038°) of the second leg:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on mast)
(57°41′⋅6N, 18°21′⋅4E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on mast)
(110 m from front light).
This alignment leads to the harbour entrance.
Lickershamn
2.180
1
General information. Lickershamn (57°49′⋅7N,
18°30′⋅8E) is a fishing harbour protected by a breakwater.
There are three quays with depths of 1⋅5 to 3⋅0 m.
The alignment (148°) of leading lights leads from
seaward to the harbour entrance:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on post)
(57°49′⋅7N, 18°30′⋅8E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on post) (40 m
from front light).
Provisions and water are available.
Ar
2.181
1
Ar (57°55′⋅1N, 18°57′⋅1E) is a former harbour, now
disused, which lies between Svarvnäset (57°55′N, 18°51′E)
and Vialmsudd, a point at the N entrance of Fårösund,
5 miles E. It is protected by the islet of Falholm which lies
close off this stretch of coast. No facilities for navigation
or berthing now exist.
CHAPTER 2
106
GOTLAND EAST COAST — HOBURG TO
ÖSTERGARN
General information
Charts 2288, 2223
Route
2.182
1
From Hoburg (56°55′N, 18°08′E) the track leads NE for
about 26 miles to Östergarn.
Topography
2.183
1
The coast between Hoburg and Faludden, 10 miles NE,
is low and more wooded than that on the W side of the
peninsula forming the S end of Gotland. It is fronted by
numerous dangers and should not be approached within
3 miles nor in a depth of less than 25 m.
Farther NE, past Ronehamn and Ljugarn, 11 and
22 miles NE, respectively, of Faludden, the land is level
and more evenly wooded inland than it is near the coast.
2
The coast between Sysneudd (57°23′N, 18°53′E) and
Grogarnshuvud, 4 miles N, is almost level, wooded and
monotonous in appearance. Grogarnshuvud is steep at its N
end and is clearly visible from seaward.
Traffic regulations
2.184
1
A TSS is established 11 miles SE of Hoburg Lighthouse.
The area between the landward boundary of the lanes and
Gotland is designated as an Inshore Traffic Zone. Details
are shown on the chart. The scheme is IMO adopted and
Rule 10 of International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972) applies.
2
Caution. In 2001 depths less than charted were reported
outside, but near the limits of the traffic separation lanes.
Vessels passing between the S end of Gotland and Hoburgs
Bank are advised to navigate only within an area bounded
by the limits of the appropriate traffic separation lane,
extended for 10 miles NE and SW from the end of the
lanes as shown on the chart. Deep-draught vessels passing
SE of Gotland are advised to use the recommended
channel, see 2.11 and 2.17.
Principal marks
2.185
1
Landmarks:
Hoburg Lighthouse (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.143).
Heligholmen Lighthouse (white tower, 9 m in height)
(56°55′⋅4N, 18°17′⋅3E), stands on a low rocky
islet.
Faludden Lighthouse (white metal tower, 17 m in
height) (56°59′⋅8N, 18°23′⋅7E), stands on a point
of that name.
2
När Lighthouse (red round metal tower, three white
bands, 16 m in height) (57°13′⋅3N, 18°41′⋅0E).
Torsburgen (57°24′⋅7N, 18°43′⋅2E), a flat topped hill,
nearly circular, with steep wooded sides, except on
the S.
Östergarn Lighthouse (white round stone tower, black
bands on upper part, 29 m in height) (57°26′⋅6N,
18°59′⋅3E).
3
Major lights:
Hoburg Light (56°55′⋅3N, 18°09′⋅3E) (2.143).
Faludden Light — as above.
När Light — as above.
Directions
2.186
1
From a position S of Hoburg Light the track leads NE,
passing (with positions from När Light (57°13′⋅3N,
18°41′⋅0E)):
SE of Barshagegrund (26miles SSW), marked by a
buoy (S cardinal). Attention is drawn to a wreck
(28miles SSW), with a depth of 16 m over it,
lying in the SW-bound lane of the TSS. Thence:
2
SE of Flytan (25miles SW), a 3 m shoal patch
which lies at the S edge of a reef, which is partly
awash. The reef runs S for 7 cables from
Barshageudd, a point 2miles E of Revet (2.144).
Thence:
SE of Lillgrund (19miles SW), a shoal area awash
on its W side; it is marked by a buoy (E cardinal).
Thence:
3
SE of Espebådan (18 miles SW), a shoal area which
is awash, thence:
SE of Briten (16miles SW), a reef with depths of
less than 5 m over it which extends 1 mile ESE
from Faludden and is marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
SE of Grötlingbogrund (12miles SW), thence:
SE of Småbriten (9miles SW), thence:
4
SE of Söderbriten (7 miles SW), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
Clear of, depending on draught, a shoal patch with
least depth of 12 m over it (7 miles S), thence:
SE of Närs Holme, a barren peninsula on which
stands När Light (2.185), thence:
SE of Virudden (1miles NE), a low and treeless
point, thence:
5
SE of Laus Holmar (4miles NE), a group of three
low grass-covered islets, which lie in foul ground
which extends 2 miles NE from Nyudden
(3miles NNE). Laus Holmar Light (white tower,
6 m in height) is displayed from the E end of
Storholm, the S and largest of the group. The foul
ground is marked on its E and N sides by buoys
(cardinal). Thence:
6
SE of Blindan (10 miles NE), a rocky shoal awash,
thence:
SE of Grynghällar (10miles NE), a group of rocks,
some of which are above water, lying within
1 mile from the shore, thence:
7
To a position SE of Östergarn (16miles NE), an
island, low on its E side, but rising towards the W
side which is steep. Beside the two lighthouses
there is a tower close to the W lighthouse. An
ODAS light-buoy (special) is moored 2miles
ESE of Östergarn.
Useful marks
2.187
1
Ronehamn Lighthouse (57°10′⋅3N, 18°32′⋅7E) (2.192).
There are numerous churches, prominent from seaward,
as can be seen from the chart.
(Directions continue at 2.206)
Ronehamn
Chart 2288 (see 1.34)
General information
2.188
1
Description. Ronehamn (57°10′N, 18°30′E) is a small
commercial and fishing harbour suitable for vessels with a
CHAPTER 2
107
draught of 4⋅0 m and length of 70 m. It is well sheltered by
islets, rocks and shoals which encumber its approaches.
Function. Principal exports are grain and farm produce.
Imports are general cargo. There is a guest and small boat
harbour on the NE side of the main pier.
2
Approach and entry. The harbour is approached either
from N, the main channel, or from S through a secondary
channel, to the outer roads. An entrance channel, dredged
to 4⋅0 m, 7cables long, marked by buoys (lateral), leads
from the outer roads to the quays.
Traffic. In 2003 the port was visited by 16 vessels
totalling 9925 dwt.
Port Authority. Port Authority of Ronehamn, Ronehamn
Harbour Office, Ronehamn, Sweden.
Limiting conditions
2.189
1
Maximum authorised draught. In the N approach
channel and the entrance channel, 4⋅0 m. In the S approach
channel, 3⋅0 m.
Density of water: 1⋅000 g/cm
3
.
Ice. The harbour is usually closed by ice during January
and February.
Arrival information
2.190
1
Pilotage. Local knowledge is required. Pilots should be
requested from Oxelösund VTS (2.166). Pilot boards in
position 57°10′⋅3N, 18°38′⋅8E. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Harbour
2.191
1
General layout. The harbour is formed by a single main
pier extending SE from the shore with a short spur
breakwater extending from its NE side which provides
protection for the small craft berths close NW. A short
breakwater extends E from the shore, W of the main pier,
forming a basin.
Directions
2.192
1
Approach from north. From a position about 1miles
S of När Lighthouse (57°13′⋅3N, 18°41′⋅0E) (2.185), on a
line of bearing of about 256° of Ronehamn Light (black
tower, white top, grey base, 11 m in height) (57°10′⋅3N,
18°32′⋅7E), and by night, in the white sector (243°–266°)
of the light, the track leads WSW for about 3miles then
SW for a further 1miles, passing (with positions from
Ronehamn Light):
2
NNW of 3⋅8 m shoal patch (1miles E), marked by
a buoy (N cardinal), thence:
N and W of Ronehamn Light, passing cable clear,
and:
SE of a 3⋅2 m shoal (1cables NW) marked by a
buoy (starboard hand).
3
Thence, in the white sector (052°–057°) of Ronehamn
Light, astern, the track leads between shoal depths of 4⋅4
and 4⋅6 m, marked by buoys (port and starboard hand
respectively) and continues to the leading line of the
entrance channel.
Note. Local knowledge is required to proceed beyond
Ronehamn Light as the depth in the inner part of the
channel is liable to change.
4
Approach from south. Leading marks:
Front mark. Grötlingboholm Beacon (white square
topmark on white truncated cone, 6 m in height)
(57°07′⋅7N, 18°28′⋅2E), standing on the N end of
Innerholmen an islet.
Rear mark. Rone Church (57°12′⋅4N, 18°26′⋅9E).
5
From a position about 7 miles S of Ronehamn harbour
the alignment (350°) of these marks leads from S, for a
distance of 4miles, on the first leg of the approach,
passing (with positions from Grötlingboholm Beacon):
E of Grötlingbogrund (4miles S), thence:
W of Småbriten (2miles S), thence:
6
E of Espebriten (1miles S), a shoal awash, marked
by a buoy (port hand), thence:
W of the SW edge of a reef (9 cables SSE), marked
by a buoy (starboard hand). The reef extends SW
from Ytterholmen, an islet (1miles E).
2.193
1
Thence the track leads NE for about 1miles, passing:
NW of the reef off the NW coast of Ytterholmen
(1 mile E), marked by a buoy (starboard hand),
thence:
SW of Isgrund, a reef awash (1 mile NE), marked by
a buoy (port hand), thence:
2
SW of Vinden (1miles NE), a shallow bank with a
least depth of 2 m extending NE from Isgrund; it
is marked by a buoy (port hand). There are depths
of 3⋅4 to 4⋅7 m, over a width of 2 cables, between
this bank and the shoal bank, extending from the
NW side of Ytterholmen.
3
Thence, the track leads NNW for 9 cables, passing the
NW end of Södra Skikgrund, marked by a buoy (starboard
hand). Thence, the track leads N for about 3 cables to join
the entrance leading line.
Entry. Leading lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up) (57°10′⋅4N,
18°29′⋅5E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down) (690 m from
front light).
4
From a position 1 mile SSE of the front light, the
alignment (325°) of these lights leads for 5 cables through
the entrance channel, marked by buoys (lateral), with an
authorised draught of 4⋅3 m. Thence:
5
Harbour. Leading lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up) (57°10′⋅4N,
18°29′⋅7E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down) (150 m from
front light).
The alignment (332°) of these lights leads from the
end of the buoyed channel into the harbour.
6
Caution. A 3⋅0 m shoal lies very close NE of the
alignment of the leading lights, 150 m SSE of the head of
the pier. It is marked by two buoys (starboard hand).
2.194
1
Useful marks:
Austergrund Beacon (grey cement pillar) (57°09′⋅0N,
18°32′⋅6E) standing near the NE end of
Austergrund, an extensive shoal on which there are
above-water rocks.
Tomtbod Beacon (white square, on pole, mounted on
white truncated cone with red band, 4 m in height)
(57°10′⋅8N, 18°31′⋅1E).
2
Radio mast (12 m in height; red light), standing on a
silo (57°10′⋅3N, 18°29′⋅7E).
CHAPTER 2
108
Getorskär Beacon (white disc on pole, mounted on
white cone, 4 m in height) (57°09′⋅6N, 18°29′⋅7E).
Langård Beacon (white truncated cone, 4 m in height)
standing on a point 3 cables WNW of Getorskär
Beacon.
Berths
2.195
1
The main berths lie on the W side of the main pier with
a total of 225 m in length and a depth alongside of 4⋅7 m.
On the E side of the pier there is 105 m of quay with
depths of 3⋅0 to 3⋅5 m alongside. On the N side of the
basin formed by the W breakwater there is 85 m of quay
with depths of 2⋅4 to 4⋅6 m alongside.
Port services
2.196
1
Repairs. There is a slip suitable for vessels up to 150
displacement. Minor repairs only.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Rescue. The pilot boat acts as a lifeboat if required.
Harbours
Vändburg
2.197
1
Description. Vändburg (56°57′N, 18°19′E) has two
small harbours about 400 m apart. The harbour to the N is
the old harbour formed by two breakwaters and partially
silted.
The new harbour, a fishing port, consists of a circular
turning basin with three associated basins leading off. The
entrance channel has an authorised draught of 4⋅3 m; the
turning basin is 4⋅6 m deep. The two S basins have a quay
length of 50 and 60 m respectively and a depth of 4⋅6 m,
the N basin has a quay length of 60 m and a depth of
3⋅1 m.
2
Directions. Outer Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle point up, on mast)
(56°56′⋅9N, 18°18′⋅5E).
Rear light (red triangle point down, on mast) (165 m
from front light).
3
From a position SE of Vändburg the alignment (322°) of
these lights leads to the harbour entrance. Thence, when
abeam of the entrance channel, the alignment (222°) of the
inner leading lights leads through the entrance channel and
into the new harbour:
Front light (red triangle point up, on mast)
(56°56′⋅7N, 18°18′⋅7E).
Rear light (red triangle point down, on mast) (60 m
from front light).
4
Caution. The inner leading lights can be seen at long
range but should only be used in the channel leading to the
harbour.
Supplies. Fuel available.
Närshamn
2.198
1
Description. Närshamn (57°13′⋅5N, 18°40′⋅0E) is a small
fishing harbour suitable for vessels with a draught of 3⋅6 m.
The harbour is formed by two breakwaters extending E
from the shore. The entrance between the breakwater heads
is 25 m wide and there is a 100 m long quay on the S side.
The depths in the entrance and alongside the quay are 4 m.
2
Directions. From a position S of När Light (57°13′⋅3N,
18°41′⋅0E) (2.185) the harbour is approached within the
white sector (344°–358°) of the light (framework tower;
floodlit) displayed from Närshamn S pier head.
Anchorage. Local knowledge is required. Small vessels
may obtain anchorage in the bay NW of När Light; the
shores of the bay are sandy.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Ljugarn
2.199
1
Description. Ljugarn (57°20′N, 18°43′E) consists of a
single unsheltered pier projecting SSE from Ljugarnsudde,
a point on the coast. There is a curved quay about 100 m
long on the W side of the pier with depths alongside of 2⋅7
to 3⋅0 m. There is a separate fishing and small craft
harbour about 300 m W, protected by two breakwaters;
quays on the insides of the breakwaters have depths from
1⋅0 to 1⋅5 m.
2
Directions. Ljugarn can be approached on a line of
bearing of about 276° of Ljugarn Light (on water tank,
12 m in height, near the root of the pier). By night,
approach in the white sector (251°–301°) of this light.
Leading lights (034°) are displayed from the fishing
harbour when required.
3
Berth Small craft may berth alongside the pier or in the
harbour.
Repairs. There is a slip in the fishing harbour.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Communications by sea with Visby and other harbours
on Gotland.
Herrvik
2.200
1
Description. Herrvik (57°25′⋅5N, 18°55′⋅5E) is a small
fishing harbour which faces NE. It is formed by two outer
and two inner moles. The entrance between the outer moles
is 54 m wide and the channel is 30 m wide with a depth of
6 m.
Pilotage. Local fishermen can pilot a vessel if required.
2
Caution. Between 15th March and 15th June each year,
salmon nets are laid between Östergarn and Gotland.
During the hours of darkness there is a great risk of
over-running and damaging the fishing equipment. Mariners
are advised to avoid passing through this area during this
period and at all times during the hours of darkness. See
2.136.
3
Directions. Approach to Herrvik can be made by
passing SW or NW of Östergarn (2.186). The approach
passing NW is preferable, on a bearing of about 210°, in
the white sector (196°–222°) of Herrvik West Breakwater
Head Light (lantern on white pedestal) (57°25′⋅5N,
18°55′⋅3E).
The strait between Östergarn and Gotland has depths
from 11 to 26 m in the fairway which is 1miles in width;
on the W side of the fairway is Skåne Reef, which dries
over its inner part, and is steep-to, extending 7cables
from the coast between Herrvik and Grogarnshuvud.
4
Useful mark:
Östergarn Västra Light (white octagonal lantern on
round concrete base) (57°26′⋅5N, 18°57′⋅9E)
displayed from the W point of the island.
Anchorage may be obtained by vessels with a draught
of 6 m, in a depth of 9 m, sand, 1cables NE of the W
mole head.
5
Harbour. Within the harbour there are berths on the
inside of the inner moles and on the E and W sides of the
basin. On the W side there are two jetties extending E.
Depths alongside range from 1 to 4 m. In the SW corner of
the harbour, protected by a breakwater and the jetties, there
is a small craft basin.
CHAPTER 2
109
Port services.
Repairs:. small slip available.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Rescue. A motor lifeboat is based at Herrvik and
another patrols off the coast.
GOTLAND EAST COAST — ÖSTERGARN
TO FÅRÖSUND
General information
Chart 2223 (see 1.34)
Route
2.201
1
Offshore. From a position SE of Östergarn (57°27′N,
18°58′E) (2.186) the track leads N for about 25 miles to
Fårösund.
Coastal. From a position NE of Östergarn the track
leads NW for about 14 miles to Slite pilot boarding
position. Thence the track leads ENE for about 9 miles to a
position SSE of Rutegrund where it joins the offshore
route.
Topography
2.202
1
Between Grogarnshuvud (57°27′N, 18°54′E) and Slite,
16 miles N, the coast is of uniform height and wooded.
Between Asunden (57°42′⋅4N, 18°51′⋅0E), see 2.214, and
Furillen (2.222), 5miles ENE, the coast is indented and
fronted by a number of islands and shoals.
Fårösund Restricted Area
2.203
1
The NE end of Gotland, E of approximately 18°55′E,
Fårösund, and the SW side of the island of Fårö, lie within
a restricted area, shown on the chart. The marked channel
to and through Fårösund is excepted from the restricted
area.
Ice
2.204
1
The route from Slite to Fårösund can be obstructed by
compact pack-ice in normal winters, particularly in
February and March. In severe winters, for short periods,
ice may be found off Magö (57°41′N, 18°52′E).
Principal marks
2.205
1
Landmarks:
Torsburgen (57°24′⋅7N, 18°43′⋅2E) (2.185).
Östergarn Lighthouse (57°26′⋅6N, 18°59′⋅3E) (2.185).
Major light:
Fårö Light (57°57′⋅7N, 19°21′⋅1E) (2.244).
Directions
(continued from 2.187)
Offshore route
2.206
1
From a position SE of Östergarn (57°27′N, 18°58′E)
(2.186) the track leads N to Fårösund, passing (with
positions from Magö Light (57°40′⋅8N, 18°51′⋅4E)):
E of Briterne (14miles SSE), a shoal patch on the
outer edge of foul ground which extends 1miles
NE and E from Östergarn. It is covered by the red
sector of Östergarn Light and its E limit is marked
by a buoy (E cardinal). Thence:
2
E of Rutegrund (8miles ENE), a shoal marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
E of Rute Missloper (9miles NE), a low rock on
which stands a beacon (white truncated pyramid,
red band, 6 m in height). It lies 1miles SE of
Skenholmen, a low island which is difficult to
identify. Foul ground which extends SSW from
Rute Missloper is marked by a buoy (S cardinal).
Thence:
W of Södergrund (13 miles NE), marked by a buoy
(S cardinal).
Coastal route
2.207
1
Östergarn to Slite. From a position NE of Östergarn
and clear NE of Briterne (2.206) the track leads NW for
about 14miles to Slite pilot boarding position, passing
(with positions from Magö Light (57°40′⋅8N, 18°51′⋅4E)):
2
NE of Anesbådar (11 miles S), a shoal marked by a
buoy (E cardinal). The shoal is the NE limit of
Hammargrund, a shoal area which has rocks
awash, thence:
NE of Sildungen (5miles S), an islet situated on
the coastal bank 7cables E of Botvaldvik.
Thence, follow the directions for Slite.
2.208
1
Slite to Fårösund. From the Slite pilot boarding
position, S of Magö Light, the track leads ENE for about
9 miles and then N for a farther 5 miles, passing (with
positions from Magö Light (57°40′⋅8N, 18°51′⋅4E)):
SSE of Skenalden (2miles ENE), a bare rock on
which stands a beacon (lattice). A dangerous
wreck lies close W of the rock. Thence:
2
SSE of Laugrund (2miles ENE), a rock awash and
Hojskär, an above-water rock, 4 cables N of
Laugrund. These dangers and Skenalden are
covered by a green sector of Magö Light and a
red sector of Grauten Light. Thence:
SSE of Britgrund (4miles ENE), a shoal with a
dangerous wreck on its SW side, thence:
3
SSE of Grautarne (6 miles ENE), two white rocks at
the outer end of a reef, awash in places, which
extends 1 mile SSE from Furillen (2.222). Grauten
Lighthouse (2.209) stands on the E rock. Thence:
ESE and E of Rutegrund (8miles ENE).
Thence, directions are as given in the offshore route.
Useful marks
2.209
1
In addition to the marks listed below there are several
churches, the positions of which are shown on the chart,
which are visible from seaward.
Mast (57°36′⋅1N, 18°45′⋅1E).
Grauten Lighthouse (red tower, 11 m in height)
(57°43′⋅7N, 19°01′⋅8E).
(Directions for Fårösund S approach continue at 2.229
and for Gotska Sandön at 2.245)
Slite and approaches
General information
2.210
1
Description. Slite (57°42′N, 18°48′E) is a large
industrial town and commercial harbour which lies on the
W side of Slite Hamn, an inlet sheltered by several islands,
though winds from the S send in some sea.
Function. The harbour has good, modern facilities for
handling medium sized vessels carrying bulk and liquid
CHAPTER 2
110
cargoes. Principal exports include, grain and other
agricultural products, timber and cement. Imports include,
oil, coal, gypsum, sand and fertiliser. The population is
about 2500.
2
Approach and entry. There are two buoyed channels
leading into Slite Hamn between the islands which lie off
the entrance. The harbour is entered on the alignment of
leading lights.
Traffic. In 2003 the port was visited by 206 vessels
totalling 1⋅7 million dwt.
Port Authority. Cementa AB, PO Box 102, S–620 30
Slite, Sweden.
Limiting conditions
2.211
1
Authorised draught for the deep-water channel between
Enholmen and Grundet is 7⋅8 m. The maximum draught
from the main channel to the berth on the N side of the N
mole of Slite Lanthamn is 6⋅7 m.
Maximum size of vessel: length 150 m; breadth 15 m;
approximately 10 000 dwt.
Ice. In severe winters, during February and March ice
may obstruct the harbour.
Arrival information
2.212
1
Pilotage. Pilots are compulsory for vessels exceeding
1600 grt and should be requested through Oxelösund VTS
(2.166) giving at least 5 hours notice. Pilot boards 1 mile S
of Magö (57°41′N, 18°52′E). For details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).
Restricted area. The approaches to Slite Hamn lie
partly within the Fårösund Restricted Area (2.203).
2
Minefield. A permanent defensive minefield, shown on
the chart, is laid across the entrance to Slite Hamn.
Anchoring, fishing, diving and seabed activities are
prohibited in this area.
Harbour
2.213
1
Slite Lanthamn (57°42′⋅4N, 18°48′⋅6E), the commercial
harbour, consists of a basin enclosed by two breakwaters.
The entrance between the moleheads is 50 m wide, with a
depth of 5⋅8 m.
Slite Industrihamn lies 3 cables N of the commercial
harbour and is mainly used by the cement factory complex
but other cargoes are handled. It comprises a jetty running
N − S along the shore and two jetties extending E from the
shore.
Directions
2.214
1
Deep-water channel. Local knowledge is required. From
a position W of Magö (57°41′N, 18°52′E) a barren island,
10 m high, and clear of a 5⋅3 m shoal, marked by a buoy
(W cardinal), which lies 5 cables to the W, the track leads
N in a channel 2 cables wide, marked by light-buoys
(lateral), between Enholmen (57°40′⋅8N, 18°49′⋅4E), an
island on which there are some fortifications and a house,
and Grundet, a low grassy islet, 3 cables to the E. Thence,
on the alignment (320°) of Slite Hamn Leading Lights:
2
Front light (red triangle, point up, on framework
tower) (57°42′⋅8N, 18°48′⋅6E).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, on framework
tower) (190 m from front light).
The track leads NW through a channel marked by
light-buoys (lateral) to Slite Industrihamn.
3
Vessels bound for Slite Lanthamn, leave the channel
when abeam of the entrance between the breakwaters and
on to the alignment (268°) of a pair of beacons, which
stand on the W shore of the harbour.
4
Smällhålet Channel. From a position about 6 cables NE
of Magö Light the alignment (312°) of the following marks
leads through the channel, with a least depth of 3⋅8 m and
marked by buoys (lateral), between Grundet and Asunden
(57°42′⋅4N, 18°51′⋅0E), an island covered by grass and
connected to the coast N by a reef partly above water:
5
Front mark. Länna Beacon (white diamond on pole,
6 m in height, on white cairn, 3⋅5 m in height)
(57°43′⋅0N, 18°48′⋅2E).
Rear mark. Othem Church (57°44′⋅9N, 18°44′⋅3E).
Thence, the track leads between pairs of buoys (lateral)
to the main channel from where the directions to the berths
are as given for the deep-water channel.
6
Useful marks:
Magö Light (white tower, 6 m in height) (57°40′⋅8N,
18°51′⋅5E).
Magö Beacon (horizontal barrel on pole, 4 m in
height on white four-sided truncated pyramid about
8 m in height), standing on the summit of Magö,
N of the light.
7
Grundet Lighthouse (white lantern) (57°41′⋅8N,
18°50′⋅3E).
Group of eight windmotors (between 55 m and 67 m
in height) (centred 57°43′⋅7N, 18°56′⋅6E), standing
at Smöjen.
Anchorage
2.215
1
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 6 to 7 m, sand
and clay, to the W of Asunden (2.214), N of the mined
area and E of the deep-water channel. Anchoring is
prohibited within 50 m of the submarine cable which is laid
between Asunden and Slite.
Berths
2.216
1
Slite Lanthamn. Inside the basin the breakwaters
provide 290 m of quay space with depths alongside of 3⋅5
to 6⋅0 m. An inner basin, for fishing boats and small craft,
is formed by two smaller jetties which project into the
main basin.
On the N side of the N mole there is a further 160 m of
berthing space with a fixed Ro-Ro ramp at its inshore end
and depths alongside of 6⋅5 to 7⋅0 m.
2
Slite Industrihamn.
Oceankajen lies in a N-S direction along the shore
and is 255 m long with a depth alongside of 6⋅8 m.
Cementpiren projects 130 m from the shore at the N
end of Oceankajen and has depths along both sides
of 8⋅4 m.
3
Silopiren lies immediately N of Cementpiren and
projects 100 m in an ENE direction from the
shore. It has a depth of 7⋅2 m alongside its S side
and a depth alongside its N side of 5⋅5 m.
Slite Lännahamnen lies about 3 cables N of Slite
Industrihamn and has berths and for visiting yachts.
Port services
2.217
1
Repairs: minor repairs only; engineering workshop; slip
for small craft.
Other facilities: de-ratting, including exemption; doctor.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
CHAPTER 2
111
Communications. Visby airport 28 km WSW.
Rescue. The pilot boat acts as a lifeboat when required.
Harbours south of Slite
Katthammarsvik
2.218
1
General information. Katthammarsvik (57°26′N,
18°51′E), which comprises a large single pier and a small
fishing harbour close SW, is situated in the SE corner of a
bay of the same name. The greater part of the bay is
partially obstructed by shoals and should not be approached
without local knowledge.
2
Directions. From a position about 4miles NNE of the
pier head the track leads SSW, passing (with positions from
Östergarn Västra Light (57°26′⋅5N, 18°57′⋅9E)):
ESE of Anesbådar (4 miles NW) (2.207), thence:
Clear of Kullen (3miles W), a shoal with a depth
of 4⋅4 m over it.
3
Thence, vessels proceed to the pier, or if bound for the
fishing harbour approach on the alignment (188°) of
leading lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on post)
(57°26′⋅2N, 18°51′⋅2E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on post) (60 m
from front light).
4
Anchorage may be obtained about 4 cables N of the
pier in a depth of 6 m sand and clay. Winds from the N
send in some sea, but the holding ground is good.
Berths. The 70 m quay at the outer end of the pier has
depths of 3⋅0 to 3⋅5 m. In the fishing harbour the quay is
40 m long with a depth of 2 m alongside. Small craft may
berth alongside the pier; facilities available.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Botvaldvik
2.219
1
General information. Botvaldvik (57°35′N, 18°48′E) is
a small fishing harbour protected by two moles. The
entrance, with a depth of 3⋅5 m, faces ENE. Within the
harbour there is an angled jetty, 45 m in length, with a
depth of 3 m alongside. There is a boat slip for small craft.
2
Directions. Leading lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on post)
(57°35′⋅2N, 18°48′⋅5E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on post)
(195 m from front light).
The alignment (255°) of these lights leads to the harbour
from seaward, close N of Sildungen (2.207).
Harbours north of Slite
General information
2.220
1
On the N and NE coast of Gotland there are several
disused limestone harbours which can be used by visiting
boats. Quays are often in poor condition and mooring
places exposed to the wind and sea. The areas surrounding
the harbours and quarries are deserted.
The coast between Slite and Fårösund lies within the
Fårösund Restricted Area (2.203).
Sankt Olofsholm
2.221
1
General information. Sankt Olofsholm (57°43′N,
18°55′E) is a disused loading place now used as a small
craft harbour. It lies within the Fårösund Restricted Area
and a nature reserve.
Directions. Approach is from the S, passing (with
positions from Magö Light (57°40′⋅8N, 18°51′⋅4E) (2.214)):
2
W of Skenalden (2miles ENE) (2.208), thence:
Clear of Kittlarna (2miles NE), an above-water
rock on which stands a beacon (white triangle over
a cylinder, 3 m in height), thence:
W of Ytterholm (3 miles NE), an islet, and:
E of Sankt Olofsholm Point (2miles NNE).
3
Thence through an unmarked channel, 6 m deep, to the
quay.
Useful mark. There is a windmill on the S side of the
harbour. Close S of the windmill are the ruins of a church.
Valleviken
2.222
1
General information. Valleviken (57°47′⋅3N, 18°57′⋅0E)
is a disused commercial harbour now in private ownership.
The harbour lies near a disused quarry and has a roomy,
well-sheltered basin in which depths vary between 3⋅2 and
2⋅2 m. It lies within the Fårösund Restricted Area.
2
Directions. Local knowledge is required. Approach is
from the S, passing (with positions from Grauten Light
(57°43′⋅7N, 19°01′⋅8E)(2.209)):
E of Laugrund (3miles SE) (2.208), thence:
W of Britgrund (1miles SE) (2.208), thence:
3
E of Lörgeh (2 miles W), an islet close to the coast.
Lörjebacke Beacon (painted black on the N side
and white on the S side), stands on the coast near
the islet. And:
4
W of Söderudd (1 mile NNW), the S point of
Furillen, a wooded island with a ridge that is
easily identified from the S; the island is joined to
the coast NW by a bridge. Thence:
E and N of Fjaugen (2 miles NW), an islet.
5
Thence, it is reported that leading marks (white beacons
with red triangular boards, supplemented by a flag pole on
the leading line) lead to the channel, marked by buoys
(private), for the harbour.
FÅRÖSUND
General information
Charts 2223, 2361 with plan of Fårösund
Fårösund
2.223
1
Fårösund (57°53′N, 19°03′E) separates the island of Fårö
from the NE end of Gotland.
It can be entered from the S through a channel with an
authorised draught of 5⋅2 m, and from the N through a
channel with an authorised draught of 4⋅6 m. Both
entrances are well lighted.
Hazards
2.224
1
Minefields. Permanent defensive minefields, shown on
the chart, are laid across the N and S entrances to
Fårösund. Anchoring, fishing and underwater operations are
prohibited.
Ferry. A ferry operates between Fårösund and a pier at
Broa (57°52′N, 19°05′E), 7 cables ENE, on Fårö.
Pilotage
2.225
1
Pilots should be requested from Oxelösund VTS (2.166).
Pilot boards 8 cables E of Svingrund (57°56′N, 19°01′E)
(2.231) for the N entrance, and 1miles SSE of Bungeör
(57°50′N, 19°07′E) (2.229) for the S entrance. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
CHAPTER 2
112
Restricted area
2.226
1
The Fårösund Restricted Area, shown on the chart, is a
military restricted area. See 1.87.
Submarine cables
2.227
1
Several submarine cables are laid across Fårösund, as
shown on the chart. They include two power cables, one S
of the town of Fårösund (57°52′N, 19°04′E) and the other
close S of Fårösund Norra Front leading light (57°52′⋅7N,
19°02′⋅1E). Anchoring is prohibited within 100 m of these
cables. The landings of the N cable on Fårö, S of
Klintbroviken, and the S cable on Gotland, S of the town
of Fårösund are marked by pairs of lighted beacons (yellow
triangular notice boards), which indicate the direction of the
cable. The Fårö end of the S cable is marked by a pair of
beacons (yellow triangular notice boards), 1 cable apart,
aligned in the direction of the cable.
Natural conditions
2.228
1
Water level. The level of water is highest in autumn
with gales from the N or W, when it can reach 0⋅9 m
above mean level. It is lowest in spring when a succession
of winds from S and E can cause it to fall 0⋅7 m below
mean level.
Current. In the approach to the N entrance, the current
usually sets E or W and in the dredged channel it sets N or
S.
Ice. Fårösund can be obstructed by compact pack-ice in
normal winters, particularly in February and March.
Directions for Fårösund
(continued from 2.209 and 2.163)
Approach and entry from south
2.229
1
From a position 1miles S of Bungeör Lighthouse
(57°49′⋅5N, 19°07′⋅2E) approach on a line of bearing of
about 347° of Fårösund Södra Light (red tower, 7 m in
height) (57°50′⋅9N, 19°06′⋅1E). By night, approach in the
white sector (344°–351°) of this light. The track leads
NNW for about 2 miles, passing (with positions from
Fårösund Södra Light):
2
WSW of Bungeör Light (white tower, black band,
14 m in height) (1miles SSE). Bungeör Beacon
(grey, castellated, 7 m in height) stands 1cables
NNE of the light. And:
ESE of Bungenäs (1miles S), a promontory which
extends S from the NE tip of Gotland, thence:
WSW of Ördar (1 mile SSE), a reef awash with two
islets on it, which extends 4 cables N from
Bungeör.
3
Thence, when Ryssudden (9 cables SE), the S point of
Fårö, is abeam to starboard, the recommended track, shown
on the chart, leads first N then NW to pass close E of
Fårösund Södra Lighthouse which stands near the NE edge
of Flytan, a shoal extending NE from Skarvgrund, a low
rocky islet on which stands Skarvgrund Beacon (white
triangle and pole on white conical cairn, 4 m in height)
(57°50′⋅9N, 19°05′⋅9E). A 5⋅3 m shoal, marked by a
light-buoy (lateral) lies 1cables SSE of the light.
4
Thence the recommended track, as shown on the chart,
passes between 5⋅5 and 5⋅6 m shoals, marked by buoys
(lateral), 3 cables NW of Fårösund Södra Light. The track
then leads on a line of bearing, 325°, of Haurevlar Light
(2.231) and by night is followed by keeping in the white
sector (142°–147°), astern, of Fårösund Södra Light, and in
the white sector (321°–330°), ahead, of Haurevlar Light.
2.230
1
Channel north of Bungeör. Local knowledge is
required. From a position N or S of Fårö Missloper
(57°50′⋅0N, 19°09′⋅3E), a low rocky islet fringed with reefs,
the track leads W or NW respectively to a channel, suitable
for vessels with a draught of 4 m, which leads between
Ryssudden (2.229) and Österflytan, a rock awash lying
midway between that point and the NE extremity of
Bungeör. Thence NW to join the main track E of Fårösund
Södra Light.
Approach and entry from north
2.231
1
The following marks, in line bearing 183°, can be used
in the N approach to Fårösund:
Front mark. Haurevlar Beacon (masonry cairn)
(57°54′⋅5N, 19°01′⋅9E).
Rear mark. Bunge Church (57°51′⋅3N, 19°01′⋅8E) (red
light).
2
Thence, Fårösund N Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on white
pedestal) (57°52′⋅7N, 19°02′⋅1E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on white
pedestal) (8cables from front light).
3
From a position about 4miles from the front light, the
alignment (179°) of these lights leads from seaward, for
about 2miles passing, (with positions from Haurevlar
Light (57°54′⋅3N, 19°01′⋅5E)):
E of Svingrund (1miles N), a reef on which rocks
are both awash and above water. A light (2.163)
stands at the N end. Thence:
4
W of Aurgrund (1mile NNE), an islet lying on the
coastal bank and on which stands Aurgrund
Lighthouse (white tower, black top, 10 m in
height), thence:
W of Fårösund Norra Yttre Light-buoy (starboard
hand) (6 cables NNE).
5
Thence, for about 9 cables, through a channel 40 m
wide, authorised for a draught of 5⋅2 m and marked on
each side by buoys (lateral). The channel leads between
Haurevlar, a point on which stands a beacon, and
Lunsaholm, the W point of Fårö.
6
Thence, the track leads SE through Fårösund, on a line
of bearing of about 144° of Fårösund Södra Light. By
night the track is followed by keeping the white sector
(321°–330°), astern, of Haurevlar Light (lantern on white
framework tower on white pedestal) (57°54′⋅3N, 19°01′⋅5E),
and the white sector (142°–147°), ahead, of Fårösund Södra
Light.
Harbours in Fårösund
2.232
1
General information. The town of Fårösund has three
harbours, namely, the fishing harbour, Mercurina Marina
and the small craft harbour. The marine repair yard has a
separate harbour. There are disused piers at Stra and
Klintbroviken.
2
Fishing harbour. The harbour (57°52′⋅0N, 19°03′⋅5E) is
protected by a curved breakwater 300 m long. A concrete
pier 60 m long extends NE from the shore towards the
head of the breakwater. The pier has depths of 6⋅5 to
2⋅5 m. A quay 125 m long extends from the root of the
NW side of the pier, it has depths of 4⋅5 m on its NE side
and 3⋅7 m on its SW side. Close S of the root of the pier
lies the ferry berth and ramp.
CHAPTER 2
113
3
Marine repair yard harbour. The harbour lies
2cables WNW of the fishing harbour. There are slips
within the yard.
Strå. At Strå, 1miles NNW of the fishing harbour,
there is a pier which is disused but reportedly in good
condition. There is a depth of 5⋅4 m alongside the S side of
the pier.
4
Klintbroviken. On the E side of Fårösund, 1miles N
of the fishing harbour, there is a jetty 70 m in length which
is seldom used; vessels with a draught of 4 m can lie
alongside its S side.
Port services
2.233
1
Repairs. Slip suitable for vessels up to 700 dwt, length
65 m, beam 11 m. Repair facilities available.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Rescue. The pilot vessel acts as a lifeboat if required.
Communications. The nearest airport is at Visby, 50 km
SW.
FÅRÖSUND TO GOTSKA SANDÖN
General information
Charts 2223, 2361, 2362
Submarine cables
2.234
1
Submarine cables are laid between Gotland, Fårö and
Gotska Sandön, as shown on the chart.
Restricted area
2.235
1
The restricted area, shown on the chart, which extends
from NE of Fårö and encloses Gotska Sandön and
Kopparstenarna Bank, is a nature reserve. Entry is not
prohibited except for an area 3miles N of Fårö Light,
shown on the chart, which is a seal breeding colony. Local
regulations are in force.
Climatic table
2.236
1
See 1.284 and 1.288.
Fårö
General information
2.237
1
The island of Fårö (57°57′N, 19°10′E), which lies off
the NE coast of Gotland is of even height, its N side being
mostly steep and light-coloured, with detached rocks. The
SE side is wooded. The NE part of the island forms
Avanäs peninsula, the E point of which is Holmudden.
Ulahau, a white horseshoe-shaped sand dune, opening to
the N, 3 miles W of Holmudden, is visible from the N
and S.
Fårö south-east side
2.238
1
Between Hammarudden (57°53′⋅5N, 19°10′⋅5E) and the
point SW of Ava, a village 5 miles NE, there is a bay,
divided into two parts by a reef which extends S for
1miles. Askugrund, an above-water rock, stands on the
reef 9 cables from the shore. Vinflytegrunden, lies 8 cables
SE, with a 3⋅7 m patch a farther 8 cables SE.
2
The W part of the bay is known as Kyrkviken, in the
entrance of which is Hammarsgrund, which is awash.
The E part of the bay, known as Sundersandsvikenand,
lies between Askugrund and Avagrund, an above-water
rock lying on a shallow spit extending from the point SW
of Ava.
Fårö north-west side
2.239
1
Between Aurgrund (57°54′⋅8N, 19°02′⋅4E) (2.231) and
Lauterhorn, 2 miles NE, is a rocky bight. Tälleviken, which
has depths of 3⋅8 m in the entrance, is entered between
Langshammarshammaren (58°00′⋅0N, 19°11′⋅2E) and
Norsholmen, a small peninsula, 1 mile E.
Ajkesvik, is entered between Norsholmen and a point
2 miles ESE.
Rescue
2.240
1
A motor lifeboat and line throwing apparatus are kept
on the S side of Norsholmen.
Gotska Sandön
General information
2.241
1
Gotska Sandön (58°22′N, 19°15′E) is a wooded island
42 m high, with sandhills on the coast. The island which
has a national park on the N part of its W side lies within
a restricted area (nature reserve) which is regulated by local
government laws.
Caution. Surveys around Gotska Sandön are unreliable.
Vessels should pass the island at a safe distance.
Anchorage
2.242
1
There is no secure anchorage off the island, though
shelter from N winds may be obtained, in summer, under
its lee, but gales are liable to send in a heavy swell.
Anchoring is prohibited between the bearings 244° and
285° from position 58°23′⋅3N, 19°11′⋅3E to a distance of
1000 m from the shore.
Rescue
2.243
1
A line throwing apparatus is kept at Gotska Sandön.
Principal marks
2.244
1
Landmarks:
Fårö Church (57°55′⋅1N, 19°08′⋅1E).
Fårö Lighthouse (white round stone tower, 30 m in
height) (57°57′⋅7N, 19°21′⋅1E).
Mast (201 m in elevation), standing close to Fårö
Light, displaying a white light from its top, and
three red lights, vertically disposed.
2
Gotska Sandön NW Point Lighthouse (brown wooden
tower, 23 m in height) (58°23′⋅7N, 19°11′⋅8E).
Major lights:
Fårö Light — as above.
Gotska Sandön NW Point Light — as above.
Directions
(continued from 2.209)
Fårösund south entrance to Gotska Sandön
2.245
1
Fårösund south entrance to Kittlarna. From a position
close E of Rutegrund (57°44′N, 19°06′E) (2.206) the track
leads NE for about 18 miles passing, (with positions from
Fåro Light):
SE of Södergrund (10miles SSE) (2.206), thence:
CHAPTER 2
114
SE of Lavergrund (7 miles SSE), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
2
SE of Digergrund (4miles S), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
SE and E of Kittlarna (1miles E), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal).
2.246
1
Kittlarna to Gotska Sandön. From a position E of Fårö
Light, clear of Kittlarna, the track leads N for about
24 miles, passing (with positions from Fåro Light):
E of Salvorev (4 miles N), foul ground which
extends 8miles N of Fårö Light. The central
part, consists of a ridge of sand gravel and rock,
and is liable to shift. After heavy gales, large
stretches of the ridge may appear above water but
are afterwards washed away. The whole reef is
steep-to on both sides, particularly on the W side.
Off its N end the depths are very irregular. The N
end of the foul ground is marked by Salvorev
Light-buoy (N cardinal); the E and W limits are
marked by buoys (cardinal), thence:
2
E of Sandö Bank (16miles N), with a least depth
of 9⋅5 m over it, thence:
E of a shoal with a depth of 8⋅5 m over it (24 miles
N), marked by a buoy (E cardinal). The shoal lies
off Kyrkudden, the E point of Gotska Sandön.
Kyrkudden Light (white round tower, 12 m in
height) stands on the point.
Fårösund north entrance to Gotska Sandön
(continued from 2.163)
2.247
1
From a position on the Fårösund N leading line, about
4miles N of the front light, the track leads N for about
27 miles, passing (with positions from Gotska Sandön NW
Point Light (58°23′⋅7N, 19°11′⋅8E)):
W of Lauterhornsudde (26miles S), a low white
point, steep-to on its SW side, thence:
W of Digerhuvud (25 miles S), the most noticeable
point on the NW coast of Fårö, thence:
2
W of Salvorev (22 miles SSE) (2.246), thence:
W of Sandö Bank (12 miles SSE), thence:
W of Hamnudden (3miles SSE), the SW point of
Gotska Sandön on which stands Hamnrudden Light
(white round tower, 15 m in height). A buoy (S
cardinal) is moored 1miles S of the light at the
limit of shoal water. Thence:
3
W of Gotska Sandön NW Point Light (2.244). A
buoy (W cardinal) is moored 1miles NW of the
point marking the limit of shoal water. A depth of
10 m lies inside the 20 m depth contour, 3miles
NW of the light.
Channel north of Fårö
2.248
1
Local knowledge is required. From a position 3 miles
NNE of Fårö Light (2.244) the track leads W, on a line of
bearing of about 266° of Fårö Norsholm Light (57°59′⋅9N,
19°14′⋅7E) (2.249), and by night in the white sector
(265°–267°) of this light, through a channel, 4 cables
wide, and which has a least charted depth of 5⋅4 m, passing
(with positions from Fårö Light):
2
N of Tornbullshällan (2miles N), a rock awash,
marked by a buoy (N cardinal), at the outer end of
a reef extending 1miles from the NE end of
Fårö, and:
S of a shoal, with a least depth of 3⋅8 m over it
(2 miles N), at the S end of Salvorev.
Innerkullen, an above-water rock marked by a
buoy (W cardinal) lies on the N side of the
fairway, 3miles NNW of Fårö Light.
3
Thence, the track leads NW in the white sector
(195°–140°) of Fårö Light. This channel should only be
used by small craft and passage by night is not
recommended.
Useful marks
2.249
1
Fårö Norsholm Lighthouse (white framework tower)
(57°59′⋅9N, 19°14′⋅7E).
Norsholmen Beacon (white rectangle over cone on
large white rectangle) stands 1 cable ESE of the
light.
NOTES
115
3.250
3.170
3.129
3.77
3.70
3.56
3.11
3.20
3.39
3.32
3
.
3
2
3
.3
2
4
.
1
4
3.20
0
3.1
62
2.44
3
.
7
2
3
.
1
5
2
3
.
1
4
9
3
.
9
8
3
.
1
48
3
.
8
8
Karlshamn
Simrishamn
Hanö
Utklippan
Torhamnsudde
Karlskrona
Ystad
Bornholm
Trelleborg
Kullagrund
Kalmarsund
Rønne
116
Sölvesborg
Ronneby
Sandhammaren
Bornholmsgat
Hammerodde
Christiansø
Stilleryd
Åhus
2360
958
2251
2115
2360
2857
2857
2857
2856
2856
2856
2855
N
e
x
ø
9
5
8
958
958
0205
13°
13°
55°
56°
14°
30´
30´
30´
30´30´
30´30´
Longitude 15° East from Greenwich
16°
55°
56°
14°15°
16°
Chapter 3 - Kullagrund to Kalmarsund
117
CHAPTER 3
BALTIC NORTH SHORE — KULLAGRUND TO KALMARSUND
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2360
Scope of the chapter
3.1
1
The area covered by this chapter comprises the S and
SE coasts of Sweden from Kullagrund (55°18′N, 13°20′E),
2 miles SSW of Smygehamn (55°20′N, 13°21′E), to
Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N, 15°51′⋅0E), 100 miles NE, and
is divided into the following sections:
Kullagrund to Hanö (3.10).
Hanö to the approaches to Karlskrona (3.107).
Karlskrona and approaches (3.192).
2
Included are the principal commercial ports of Åhus
(3.56), Sölvesborg (3.77), Karlshamn (3.129) and
Karlskrona (3.250) which is also a major naval base. For
the description of Smygehamn see Baltic Pilot Volume I.
Description
3.2
1
This area of Sweden is famous for farms and old
castles, being mainly agricultural and supplying the country
with the majority of its arable requirements.
Water level
3.3
1
In the area covered by this chapter the coastal waters
rise or fall from 0⋅4 to 0⋅6 m above or below the MSL.
The variations are usually greater towards the SW end of
the area. During winter gales the rise and fall may be over
1⋅0 m above or below MSL.
Due to the land rise effect in Scandinavia generally,
depths are subject to a yearly reduction, dependent on the
geographical location. In this area the land rise is
negligible. For further information see 1.33.
Restricted areas
3.4
1
Certain areas in Swedish waters within the limits of this
chapter have been declared restricted for reasons of
navigational safety and national security. These areas are
shown on the chart. For details of regulations to be
observed within these areas see 1.87.
Fishing
3.5
1
The coastal waters off the S Swedish provinces of Skåne
and Blekinge are important fishing areas. Drift net fishing
is intensive, mainly during the hours of darkness.
Numerous eel bottom nets, sometimes extending several
kilometres from the shore, may be encountered in these
waters. For further details see 1.20.
2
Between Kullagrund and Åhus there are numerous small
areas, shown on the chart, where fishing is prohibited. Each
area is indicated by pairs of beacons standing on the shore.
In Hanöbukten (3.10) there are extensive salmon and
herring fishing operations.
Recommended tracks
3.6
1
Recommended tracks shown on charts may have figures
thereon which indicate the maximum permitted draught of a
vessel, operating with pilot assistance, for which the track
is authorised at MSL.
Pilotage
3.7
1
Within the limits of this chapter all pilotage, with the
minor exceptions of Ystad and Abbekås which are served
by Malmö (Baltic Pilot Volume I), is controlled and
provided through Karlshamn Pilot Station. See also
individual port details. The appropriate pilot ordering centre
is VTS Malmö.
Pilots are available 24 hours and pilotage is compulsory
as follows:
(a) All Category 1 vessels.
(b) Category 2 and 3 vessels above certain limits.
2
Pilot boarding positions are as follows:
(a) Simrishamn: off harbour entrance.
(b) Åhus: (i) near Pållagrund (55°55′N, 14°28′E). (ii)
near Taggen Light-buoy (55°54′N, 14°35′E).
(c) Sölvesborg: (i) about 1 mile SE of Spättgrund
(55°58′N, 14°35′E). (ii) near Pållagrund (55°55′N,
14°28′E). (iii) near Taggen Light-buoy (55°54′N,
14°35′E).
3
(d) Karlshamn: (i) at the Outer position (56°05′⋅0N,
14°51′⋅8E). (ii) at the Inner position (56°07′⋅7N,
14°53′⋅4E).
(e) Karlskrona: near Karlskrona angöring Light-buoy
(56°03′⋅2N, 15°33′⋅5E).
For details of categories and further information see 1.51
and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Hazards
3.8
1
Defensive minefields. Limits of defensive minefields are
shown on the charts. Within the area of this chapter they
are laid in the approaches to the following ports:
Sölvesborg (3.77).
Karlshamn (3.129).
Guövik and Järnavik (3.187).
Ronneby (3.170).
Karlskrona (3.250).
For general remarks on defensive minefields see 1.8.
2
Exercise areas. Within the area covered by this chapter,
gunnery exercises are frequently carried out at ranges at
Kabusa (6 miles E of Ystad), Ravlunda (10 miles S of
Åhus) and Rinkaby (1 mile N of Åhus).
Pollution
3.9
1
Due to the non-tidal nature of these waters the Swedish
authorities are extremely rigorous in the application of
anti-pollution regulations. See 1.72.
CHAPTER 3
118
KULLAGRUND TO HANÖ
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2360, 958
Area covered
3.10
1
This section covers the waters from a position S of
Kullagrund (55°18′N, 13°20′E), E to Bornholmsgat (2.30),
thence NE to Simrishamn (3.39) before turning N and E to
enclose Hanöbukten, a long, sweeping, open bay stretching
from Simrishamn to Åhus.
2
In the N section of Hanöbukten it covers the channels to
Åhus (3.56), Sölvesborg (3.77) and other smaller harbours.
Hanö (56°00′N, 14°51′E) (3.99), a small island, lies at the
NE end of Hanöbukten, 2 miles E of the coast.
KULLAGRUND TO SANDHAMMAREN
General information
Chart 2360
Route
3.11
1
The route leads from a position S of Kullagrund
(55°18′N, 13°20′E), generally E to a position about
11 miles SSE of Sandhammaren (55°23′N, 14°12′E), about
30 miles farther E.
Topography
3.12
1
The coast between Kullagrund and Sandhammaren is
generally low with the exception of Kåsehuvud (55°23′N,
14°03′E), a headland which is high, bare, flat-topped and
steep on its seaward side, 5 miles W of Sandhammaren.
Sandhammaren is a low, sandy point which slopes SE
from the low hills E of Kåsehuvud.
Farther inland, to the N, there are some hills which are
visible from seaward.
Current
3.13
1
During SW gales, in the area of the coastal bank S of
Sandhammaren, the current sets strongly onshore and in
such weather vessels should remain at least 7 miles clear of
the coast in this vicinity.
Rescue
3.14
1
The Swedish Sea Rescue Association has fully equipped
rescue boats stationed at Ystad (55°26′N, 13°50′E) and
Kåseberga (55°23′N, 14°04′E). For further information see
1.156.
Principal marks
3.15
1
Landmarks:
Romeleåsen (55°34′⋅0N, 13°31′⋅5E), a hill (188 m
high), situated 17 miles NE of Trelleborg. It has
two mounds, the E of which is higher, and joins a
lower range of hills, of blue appearance, extending
E, and is one of the best landmarks on this coast,
particularly from S (chart 2360).
TV mast (55°09′⋅7N, 14°53′⋅2E), (2.41), on
Bornholm. A second mast stands 8 cables SSW.
Kullagrund Lighthouse (55°18′N, 13°20′E) (see Baltic
Pilot Volume I).
2
Sandhammaren Lighthouse (red metal tower,
framework base, 29 m in height) (55°23′⋅2N,
14°11′⋅8E).
Major lights:
Kullagrund Light (55°18′N, 13°20′E) (see Baltic Pilot
Volume I).
Sandhammaren Light — as above.
Hammer Odde Light (55°17′⋅9N, 14°46′⋅4E) (2.41),
on Bornholm.
Other aid to navigation
3.16
1
Racon:
Kullagrund Lighthouse (55°18′N, 13°20′E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from Baltic Pilot Volume I)
3.17
1
Caution. During gales the sea breaks heavily on the
coastal bank extending S from Sandhammaren. Depths are
liable to change on this bank and in bad weather vessels
should keep well offshore, not approaching the coast within
7 miles.
Deep-draught vessels should keep at least 7 miles off the
coast at all times.
Inshore passage
3.18
1
From a position S of Kullagrund Lighthouse the route
leads generally E for 32 miles to Sandhammaren, passing
(with positions from Sandhammaren Light (55°23′⋅2N,
14°11′⋅8E)):
Clear of a dangerous wreck (20 miles WSW),
thence:
2
S of Klostergrund (12 miles W), marked by a buoy
(S cardinal), which is moored 1 miles S of
Revnabben, a point 6 cables E of Ystad harbour,
thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (11miles WSW) and a
10 m wreck, position approximate (7 miles WSW),
thence:
N of a dangerous wreck (10 miles SW), thence:
3
S of Osaknallen (55°22′N, 14°08′E) (2 miles
WSW), a shoal patch marked by a buoy
(S cardinal), thence:
S of a buoy (S cardinal) (1miles S), thence:
Clear of Svartgrund (9 miles S), a shoal marked on
its S side by a light-buoy (S cardinal), thence:
To a position SSE of Sandhammaren.
3.19
1
Useful marks:
Silo and warehouse (55°23′⋅7N, 13°22′⋅8E).
Marvinsholm Castle, with two towers (55°27′⋅8N,
13°42′⋅7E).
Balkåkra Church, 5 cables S of Marvinsholm Castle
(above).
2
Tall chimney, 4 miles ENE of Ystad (55°26′N,
13°50′E).
Radio mast (red obstruction lights), 8 cables NNW of
Sandhammaren Light (55°23′⋅2N, 14°11′⋅8E).
Radio mast (60 m in height; red light) (55°26′⋅6N,
13°50′⋅3E.
(Directions continue at 3.37)
(Directions for through route are given at 2.15)
CHAPTER 3
119
Ystad
Chart 2360 plan of Ystad
General information
3.20
1
Position. Ystad (55°26′N, 13°50′E), is a small
commercial port on the coast of Skåne, the S province of
Sweden, and is situated 23 miles E of Trelleborg.
Function. The port is a medium sized harbour with
good facilities for handling bulk and general cargoes. Train
and vehicle ferries operate to Poland and the Danish island
of Bornholm. The population is about 25 000.
Principal exports are grain and timber. Imports include
oil, fertilisers and coke.
2
Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by 98 vessels
totalling 217 800 dwt, excluding ferries.
Port Authority. Ystad Hamn Logistik AB, Hamntorget
2, SE−271 39 Ystad, Sweden.
Website: wwwport.ystad.se
Limiting conditions
3.21
1
Maximum permitted draught in the channel to the
harbour is 6⋅7 m.
Deepest and longest berth: W Quay (3.27).
Water level. The normal range is 0⋅5 m and the
maximum 1⋅2 m, above or below MSL. There is a depth
gauge in the harbour.
Abnormal water level. Sea jump, an abnormal large
variation (1 m or more) in water level, can occur at Ystad.
It is caused by changes in air pressure or wind usually
associated with the passage of a cold weather front off the
coast.
2
Local weather and ice. The harbour provides good
shelter but S and SW gales cause a heavy sea in the
entrance.
It is usually kept open to navigation throughout the year,
if necessary with the assistance of an icebreaker.
Arrival information
3.22
1
Outer anchorage may be obtained in Spanska redden,
W of the approach channel, about 1⋅5 miles SW of the
outer breakwaters, in depths of 14 to 16 m, sand, clay and
stones. The holding ground is good but the anchorage is
exposed to S winds.
2
Pilotage is provided by Malmö (Baltic Pilot Volume I).
Requests for pilots should be made 5 hours in advance, to
VTS Malmö. Pilot boards in Ystads Redd, as indicated on
the chart. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2)
for details.
Tug available.
Speed must not exceed 5 kn within the harbour area.
Harbour
3.23
1
General layout. The harbour is formed by two inner
breakwaters with an entrance width of 150 m between the
heads, and two protective detached outer breakwaters lying
4 cables seaward. The entrance between the heads of the
outer breakwaters is 110 m and the channel through the
outer harbour to the inner entrance is marked by buoys and
a light-buoy (lateral).
2
Two concrete caissons lie close N of the E outer
breakwater, 3 cables E of its head.
All berths are situated within the main harbour.
A small boat harbour for fishing vessels and yachts lies
close W of the main harbour.
Directions
3.24
1
Approach. Approach is from the SW to the close
vicinity of Ystads Redd Light-buoy (safe water) (55°23′⋅6N,
13°47′⋅2E), which marks the seaward end of the fairway.
Entry. From Ystads Redd Light-buoy the alignment
(036°) of the leading lights displayed at the head of the
harbour leads through the buoyed (lateral) channel and
between the heads of the outer and inner breakwaters to the
harbour.
2
Front light (orange triangle point up, on tower,
elevation 31 m) (55°25′⋅5N, 13°49′⋅8E).
Rear light (similar structure, triangle point down)
(250 m NE from front light).
Lights (3.26) are displayed from the head of each outer
breakwater and the heads of the inner breakwaters are
floodlit.
3.25
1
Boat harbour. From a position in the buoyed channel
6 cables SW of the outer breakwater entrance the
alignment (019°) of Ystads Båthamn Leading Lights,
displayed at the small boat harbour head, leads to the boat
harbour entrance, passing close W of the detached
breakwater head and Blockgrund, a shoal area 1cables
SSE of the boat harbour entrance.
2
Front and rear lights (orange triangles on masts,
elevations 6 and 11 m respectively, 150 m apart).
(55°25′⋅5N, 13°49′⋅2E).
3.26
1
Useful marks (positions from E outer breakwater head
(55°25′⋅0N, 13°49′⋅3E):
Silos on W quay (4cables NNE).
Church (7cables N).
2
Water tower (1miles NNW).
Yttre Östra and Västra Lights (white hut and white
lantern respectively) displayed from the heads of
the outer breakwaters.
Aero light mast (elevation 40 m) (4miles ENE).
Radio mast (55°26′⋅6N, 13°50′⋅3E) (3.19).
Berths
3.27
1
West part. The principal berth is W Quay; length
235 m; depth alongside 7⋅2 m. There are six other berths
with a total length of 768 m and depths alongside of 5 to
7⋅2 m.
East part. There are three Ro-Ro berths with a total
length of 380 m and a further quay with a length of 450 m;
all berths have a depth of 7⋅2 m alongside.
Port services
3.28
1
Repairs: engineering workshop.
Other facilities: deratting; hospital; no facilities for oily
waste disposal.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water on the quays; provisions.
Communications: nearest airport at Sovdeborg, 18 km
NNW.
Anchorage and harbours
Anchorage
3.29
1
Anchorage, sheltered from NE winds, may be obtained
over a clay bottom between Ystad (55°26′N, 13°50′E) and
CHAPTER 3
120
Kåsehuvud (8 miles ESE) (3.12). Vessels are recommended
to anchor closer to the headland than the town, in depths of
9 to 17 m, clay and sand.
Exercise areas. See 3.8.
Abbekås
3.30
1
Description. Abbekås (55°24′N, 13°36′E), a medium
sized town and fishing harbour lies 8 miles WSW of Ystad.
It is easily identified against the low coastline.
Harbour. The fishing harbour is formed by two moles
of which the E mole is the outer and the N mole the inner.
It is suitable for vessels with a draught of 2 m but is liable
to silt.
2
Pilots can be obtained from Malmö (Baltic Pilot
Volume I). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2)
for details.
Directions for entry. Approach from the SE on the
alignment (297°) of the leading lights displayed from the N
mole.
Front and rear lights (red triangles on pillars,
elevations 8 m and 10 m respectively, 85 m apart).
3
This track passes two buoys (lateral) which mark the
line of approach and leads clear of the E mole head, on
which stands a beacon (white; floodlit), thence into the
harbour.
A dangerous wreck lies 1 mile NNE of the N mole.
Supplies: fuel oil in drums; fresh water.
Chart 958
Kåseberga
3.31
1
Description. Kåseberga (55°23′N, 14°04′E) is a small
fishing harbour situated on the E side of Kåsehuvud (3.12),
4miles W of Sandhammaren.
The harbour is formed by two breakwaters and is
suitable for vessels with a draught of 2 m. The channel is
liable to silt. A light (red metal framework tower) is
displayed from the head of the N breakwater. There are
berths available for pleasure craft.
2
Facilities: slip for vessels up to 12 m in length.
Supplies: fuel oil; provisions in small quantities; fresh
water.
SANDHAMMAREN TO ÅHUS
General information
Chart 2360
Route
3.32
1
The route runs parallel to the coast from a position SSE
of Sandhammaren (55°23′N, 14°12′E) (3.12) NNE for
about 19 miles to a position E of Simrishamn (55°33′N,
14°22′E) and thence generally N for 20 miles to a position
ESE of Åhus.
Topography
3.33
1
The coastline from Sandhammaren to Åhus is generally
low and featureless being part barren, part wooded and
bordered by a number of sandy beaches; the one exception
is Stenshuvud (55°40′N, 14°17′E) (3.36).
In the hinterland to the far N there are a number of
prominent hills of medium height.
Submarine power cables
3.34
1
Submarine power cables are landed on the Swedish
coast in an area situated 8miles SW of Simrishamn, as
shown on the chart. See 1.71.
Rescue
3.35
1
The Swedish Sea Rescue Association has a fully
equipped rescue boat stationed at Simrishamn (55°33′N,
14°22′E).
A line throwing apparatus is kept at Kivik (55°41′N,
14°14′E) (3.53). See 1.156.
Principal marks
3.36
1
Landmarks:
Hörby Aero Light Mast (55°48′N, 13°43′E) (white
obstruction light).
Radio mast (red lights, 110 m in height) (55°40′⋅0N,
14°09′⋅8E), standing at an elevation of 285 m.
Stenshuvud (55°40′N, 14°17′E), a high, steep and
wooded headland, visible well to seaward.
Major lights:
Sandhammaren Light (55°23′⋅2N, 14°11′⋅8E) (3.15).
Hammer Odde Light (55°17′⋅9N, 14°46′⋅4E) (2.41),
on Bornholm.
Directions
(continued from 3.19)
3.37
1
From a position SSE of Sandhammaren the route leads
generally NNE for about 19 miles then N for 20 miles to
the vicinity of Taggen Light-buoy (55°53′⋅9N, 14°35′⋅5E)
(3.64), passing (positions from Simrishamn Light
(55°33′⋅5N, 14°22′⋅0E):
ESE of a buoy (E cardinal) (10miles SSW), thence:
ESE of Örnhökaknösen, a shoal (8miles SSW),
thence:
2
Clear of Långagrund (4miles ESE), a shoal patch
marked on its SE and SW sides by light-buoys (S
cardinal). The shoal is also covered by the red
sector of Simrishamn Light (3.43). Thence:
E of Stenshuvud (7 miles NNW) (3.36), from where a
light (white tower, 9 m in height) is displayed,
thence:
3
E of Botildas Knall (16miles N), a shoal patch,
thence:
To the vicinity of Taggen Light-buoy.
3.38
1
Useful marks:
Borrby Church, with a tower and lantern (55°27′⋅4N,
14°10′⋅7E).
Östra Hoby Church (55°28′⋅2N, 14°14′⋅0E).
Windmill in Brantevik (55°31′N, 14°21′E).
Radio mast (red light, elevation 182 m) (55°30′⋅0N,
14°15′⋅8E).
2
Östra Nöbbelöv Church (55°31′⋅0N, 14°18′⋅6E), with
a spire, stands on high ground close to a grove of
trees 1miles W of Brantevik.
Simrishamn Church with low tower (55°34′N,
14°21′E).
Simrishamn Lighthouse (55°33′⋅5N, 14°21′⋅6E) (3.43).
Tall Chimney (55°33′N, 14°21′E), close S of
Simrishamn Church.
CHAPTER 3
121
3
Södra Mellby Church (55°39′⋅8N, 14°13′⋅3E) with
windmill to the N.
Lägerholmen Light (55°57′⋅8N, 14°28′⋅4E) (3.69).
(Directions continue for Hanösund at 3.98,
for Åhus at 3.70, and for Sölvesborg at 3.88)
Simrishamn
Chart 2360
General information
3.39
1
Position and function. Simrishamn (55°33′N, 14°22′E),
is a large fishing and small commercial port on the E coast
of the province of Skåne, about 12 miles NE of
Sandhammaren and has a population of about 7 700.
Traffic. In 2003 the port was visited by 20 vessels
totalling 17 035 dwt.
Port Authority. Hamnforvaltningen, Tullhustorget,
Simrishamn, S–272 31.
Limiting conditions
3.40
1
Depth in the entrance to the harbour is 6 m. The
maximum permitted draught to the quay is 4⋅5 m.
Water level. Gales from the W usually lower the level
by 1 m.
Local weather and ice. With strong winds from the E
the harbour entrance is not navigable and no attempt should
be made to enter. In these conditions there is a heavy scend
in the outer harbour.
The harbour is normally free from ice.
Arrival information
3.41
1
Port radio. Simrishamn Hamnradio (Harbour Radio),
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorage may be obtained, with good holding ground,
to the N of the harbour in depths of about 14 m, sand and
clay. Alternatively, anchorage may be obtained SE of the
harbour, in depths of about 25 m, sand and clay.
Pilotage is provided from Åhus. Pilots board 1 mile E
the harbour entrance.
2
Pilotage in this area is controlled from Karlshamn, and
ordered from VTS Malmö. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2) for full details.
Speed must not exceed 5 kn within the outer
breakwaters.
Harbour
3.42
1
General layout. The harbour consists of two outer
breakwaters and two inner moles which together form an
outer and inner harbour. The entrance between the outer
breakwaters, the heads of which are floodlit, is 50 m wide;
buoys (lateral) mark the navigable channel. The E inner
mole is an W extension of the S breakwater, and has a
spur extending 60 m N at its inner end.
2
A yacht and small craft harbour lies within the
breakwaters, close N of the outer harbour.
Current. The current is normally weak but in strong
winds it may set at a rate of 1 to 2 kn off the harbour.
Directions
3.43
1
Approach and entry. From a position to seaward about
2miles ENE of the entrance the approach is made on the
line of bearing (252°) between the outer breakwater heads
of a windmill in the town.
Alternatively, and at night, from the same position the
approach is made on the alignment (249°) of Simrishamn
Leading Lights, displayed from the W inner pier:
2
Front light (red triangle on metal framework tower,
elevation 10 m) (55°33′⋅5N, 14°21′⋅1E).
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 12 m), 105 m
WSW of front light.
This alignment leads WSW, passing (with positions from
Simrishamn Light (white tower, 15 m in height) (55°33′⋅5N,
14°21′⋅6E)):
3
SSE of Nedjan (1 miles ENE), a shoal patch
marked on by light-buoys (cardinal). A wreck,
with a depth of 17 m over it, lies 1miles ENE
of the harbour entrance, thence:
SSE of a wreck, with a depth of 10 m over it
(7 cables NE), thence:
Between the buoys (lateral) marking the channel off
the entrance.
4
Simrishamn Light may be difficult to identify from
seaward due to strong background lighting from the fishing
quays.
Once inside the outer harbour, in depths of 4⋅0 to 5⋅5 m,
the inner harbour is entered through a 30 m wide gap
between the heads of the inner moles. This manoeuvre
requires a very sharp and difficult turn.
5
The small boat harbour is entered to the NW of the
outer harbour, the entrance is marked by buoys (lateral).
3.44
1
Useful marks (positions from S outer breakwater head
(55°33′⋅4N, 14°21′⋅6E):
Simrislund Light-beacons in line (1⋅4 miles S) which
mark an outfall pipe (charted).
Chimney (5 cables SW).
Windmill with sails (7 cables WSW).
Radio mast (red light) (2⋅2 miles NW).
Berths
3.45
1
The outer harbour has one quay with 100 m of berthing
space and a depth of 5⋅0 m alongside.
The inner harbour has about 400 m of berthing space
with depths of 5⋅0 to 5⋅5 m alongside.
The fishing basin has about 470 m of berthing space
with a depth of 5 m alongside.
In the small boat harbour there are five pontoon jetties
with berths for vessels up to 4 m beam and 2⋅5 m draught.
Services
3.46
1
Repairs: minor repairs; one slip, 110 m long with a
cradle length of 38 m; boatyard for yachts.
Other facilities: authorised compass adjuster; deratting;
hospital; no facilities for oily waste disposal.
Supplies: provisions; fuel; fresh water.
Communications: nearest airport Sturup/Malmö, 70 km;
local railway station; ferry to Bornholm in summer.
Anchorage and fishing harbours
Anchorage
3.47
1
Anchorage may be obtained either 1 mile or 2 miles off
Skillinge (55°28′N, 14°17′E) (3.48) in depths of 12 to 15 m
and depths of about 25 m, respectively, sand and clay. The
latter anchorage has good holding ground in W gales.
Anchorage may also be obtained, in depths of about
15 m, sand and clay, about 1 mile E of Kivik (55°41′N,
14°14′E) (3.53), when Simrishamn is just hidden by
Stenshuvud.
CHAPTER 3
122
Skillinge
3.48
1
General description. Skillinge (55°28′N, 14°17′E) is a
fishing and small boat harbour 6 miles NNE of
Sandhammaren (3.12).
The harbour is formed by two moles, the E having two
heads, enclosing an outer and inner basin. The entrance
channel is 400 m long with a bottom width of 30 m and
dredged to a depth of 4⋅0 m.
There is a speed limit of 5 kn in the harbour.
2
Caution. The S part of the approach channel is liable to
shoaling.
Fixed eel fishing bottom nets may be encountered in the
vicinity of the entrance channel.
Annually, from May to September, uncharted red buoys
are laid in the approaches to Skillinge to mark a regatta
track.
3.49
1
Directions for entry. Skillinge Leading Lights,
displayed from the W mole:
Front light (red triangle on post, elevation 5 m)
(55°28′⋅4N, 14°17′⋅4E).
Rear light (red triangle on mast, elevation 9 m) (90 m
WNW from front light).
The alignment (290°) of these lights leads through the
fairway from a position to seaward about 2 miles ESE of
the harbour entrance passing (with positions from front
light):
2
SSW of a 17 m wreck (1miles E), thence:
Close to the Fairway Light-buoy (safe water) (1 mile
ESE) moored on the leading line for approach.
Thence:
When cable from a buoy (starboard hand) (3cables
ESE), marking the entrance to the approach channel, the
line of bearing 298° of the front leading light leads
between the buoys (lateral) marking the channel. Keep
about 15 m off the floodlit pierheads, thence head NE to
the inner harbour.
3
Useful marks (positions from the head of the W mole,
front leading light, as above):
Radio mast, elevation 182 m. (1miles NW).
Windmill (2 cables NW).
Östra Hoby Church (1miles W).
4
Berths. The outer basin has a total of 180 m berthing
space with depths of 2 to 3 m, and some small craft
moorings. The inner basin has 290 m of berthing space and
is dredged to a depth of 4 m.
Repairs. A slip for vessels up to 20 m in length.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Brantevik
3.50
1
General description. Brantevik (55°31′N, 14°21′E) is a
small fishing harbour situated 3miles NE of Skillinge
(3.48). It is formed by two moles enclosed by two outer
breakwaters and is suitable for vessels with a draught up to
2⋅5 m.
Caution. The entrance of the harbour is not navigable in
heavy weather. A current of about 2 to 3 kn may set across
the entrance.
Directions. Approach from the ENE on the alignment
(253°) of Brantevik Leading Lights:
2
Front and rear lights (posts, elevations 7 and 11 m
respectively, 85 m apart) (55°30′⋅7N, 14°21′⋅0E),
displayed when required from the S pier. This
alignment leads through a channel 20 m wide with
a depth of 3 m to the harbour entrance.
Berths. The N basin has a quay 90 m long with a depth
of 3 m alongside. The S basin is for small craft and has a
depth of 1 m.
Supplies: provisions; fresh water.
Baskemölla
3.51
1
General description. Baskemölla (55°36′N, 14°19′E) is
a small fishing harbour situated 2 miles NNW of
Simrishamn (3.39). It is suitable for small vessels with a
draught up to 2⋅1 m and affords good shelter except in
winds from the E.
The small harbour is formed by a breakwater extending
NW from the shore and a jetty projecting NE. There are
depths of between 2⋅4 and 2⋅7 m in the harbour.
Pilots may be obtained from Åhus.
2
Directions for entry. Approach from the NNE on the
alignment (195°) of leading lights:
Front and rear lights (wooden posts, elevations 6 and
11 m respectively, 56 m apart) (55°35′⋅7N,
14°19′⋅1E), displayed when required.
This alignment leads through the entrance, 15 m wide, to
the harbour.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water.
Vik
3.52
1
Description. Vik (55°37′N, 14°18′E) is a small fishing
harbour suitable for vessels drawing up to 1⋅5 m but is
liable to silt. It affords good shelter in all but E gales and
entrance to the harbour is not practicable in strong winds
from between N and E.
There are berths on the inside of the moles with depths
of 1⋅5 m alongside.
Supplies: provisions; fresh water.
Kivik
3.53
1
Description. Kivik (55°41′N, 14°14′E) is a small fishing
harbour, 2miles NW of Stenshuvud Lighthouse (3.37),
formed by two moles. It has depths of 3 m in the entrance
and harbour but is liable to silt.
It affords good shelter in all winds for vessels with a
draught up to 2⋅4 m and has berths for yachts in addition to
the fishing boat berths.
A speed limit of 5 kn applies within the harbour.
2
Directions for entry. Approach from the NE on the
alignment (214°) of leading lights:
Front and rear lights (white triangles on masts,
elevations 6 and 9 m respectively, 50 m apart)
(55°41′⋅3N, 14°13′⋅8E), displayed when required.
3
This alignment leads to the harbour entrance passing
clear E of Strandgrund, a shoal area 3cables NNW of the
entrance.
Repairs. A small slip is available.
Supplies: small quantities of fuel oil; fresh water;
provisions.
Vitemölla
3.54
1
Description. Vitemölla (55°42′⋅0N, 14°12′⋅5E) is a small
fishing harbour, formed by two moles with a depth of
2⋅4 m in the harbour, which is liable to silt.
Directions. Approach from the NE on the alignment
(210°) of leading lights:
Front and rear lights (posts, elevations 6 and 10 m
respectively, 80 m apart) (55°41′⋅9N, 14°12′⋅8E),
displayed when required.
CHAPTER 3
123
2
This alignment leads into the harbour passing close to
Lillgrund, a shoal patch 5 cables NE of the entrance, and
SE of Lindgrund, a shoal patch lying 1 mile NNE of the
entrance.
Yngsjö
3.55
1
Description. Yngsjö (55°52′N, 14°14′E) fishing harbour
lies 5 cables inside the mouth of a river basin, 4miles
SW of Åhus (3.56). It is suitable for vessels with a draught
up to 2⋅0 m but depths are liable to change.
Directions. Approach from the E on the alignment
(286°) of leading lights:
Front and rear lights (masts, elevations 7 and 11 m
respectively, 75 m apart) (55°51′⋅6N, 14°14′⋅6E),
displayed from the harbour.
2
This alignment leads to the harbour from seaward
passing between the breakwater heads, from where lights
are exhibited, at Gropahålet (55°51′⋅5N, 14°14′⋅4E), which
lies at the river mouth.
ÅHUS
General information
Charts 2856 plan of Åhus, 2360
Position
3.56
1
Åhus (55°56′N, 14°19′E), a sheltered harbour usually
open throughout the year, stands on the N bank at the
mouth of Helge å, on the E coast of Skåne province. The
population is about 5000.
Function
3.57
1
Åhus is a medium sized commercial harbour with good
facilities for handling bulk, general and liquid cargoes.
Principal exports are grain, alcohol, stone and timber.
Principal imports include fertilisers, oil, gypsum and grain.
Topography
3.58
1
The coast in the vicinity of Åhus is low and flat with
few significant features. Rocks and shoals extend seawards
for about 10 miles.
Vannenberga Furor and Tosteberga Furor are two pine
tree copses which are prominent, 2 miles and 6miles
respectively, NE of Åhus.
Approach and entry
3.59
1
The harbour is approached on the alignment of a leading
line and leading lights, through a channel marked by buoys
and light-buoys, and entered through a dredged channel,
marked by buoys and light-buoys.
An alternative approach, from the S, for small craft, may
be made through a channel, marked by buoys, thence
joining the main channel close to the entrance channel.
Traffic
3.60
1
In 2003 the port was used by 338 vessels totalling
968 969 dwt.
Port Authority
3.61
1
Åhus Hamn and Stuveri AB, Krangatan 2, SE–296 32
Åhus.
Website: ahushamn.se
Limiting conditions
3.62
1
Controlling depth. The maximum permitted draught in
the channel to the harbour is normally 7⋅6 m, but due to
silting the Port Authority should be consulted for the latest
information on depths in the channel.
The deepest and longest berth is in the outer section
of the harbour at Berth Nos 23–25A (3.74).
Water levels. Strong W winds can lower the mean
water level by 0⋅5 m and strong W winds can raise it by
0⋅7 m.
2
Density of water. 1⋅000 g/cm
3
Maximum size of vessel handled. The port can
accommodate vessels up to 170 m in length and draught
7⋅6 m but note above remark on silting.
Local weather. In winter, after continuous E winds
accompanied by severe frost, the harbour may close due to
ice.
Arrival information
Anchorage
3.63
1
Anchorage may be obtained in an area 2miles S of
Lägerholmen (55°57′⋅9N, 14°28′⋅4E), in depths of 11 to
17 m, sand, clay and stone, as indicated on the chart. This
anchorage is exposed to strong winds from the S and E.
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in an
area within the channel, between two submarine cables, as
shown on the plan.
Pilotage and tugs
3.64
1
Pilotage is available 24 hours, and is compulsory for
most categories of vessel.
There are two pilot boarding places, indicated on the
chart:
(a) near Pållagrund (55°54′⋅7N, 14°27′⋅6E), (3.70).
(b) close S of Taggen Light-buoy, (55°53′⋅9N,
14°35′⋅5E), (3.70).
2
Pilotage in this area is controlled from Karlshamn, and
ordered from VTS Malmö. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2) for full details.
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulation
3.65
1
Speed must not exceed 5 kn within the harbour.
Harbour
General layout
3.66
1
The harbour is formed by quays constructed on the N
and S banks of the river mouth. Entrance to the outer
harbour is between two short moles giving a channel width
of 65 m. Depth in the central 45 m of the entrance is
8⋅0 m.
2
The dredged outer harbour is about 70 m wide with a
turning basin at each end. The outer turning place is 200 m
in diameter with a depth of 8⋅0 m and the inner turning
place is 180 m in diameter with a depth of 7⋅2 m.
CHAPTER 3
124
The inner section of the harbour lies to the W of the
inner turning place.
Exercise area
3.67
1
The approaches to Åhus lie within Rinkaby Firing
Range, bounded by a line joining the following points:
55°58′⋅3N, 14°22′⋅9E,
55°58′⋅0N, 14°28′⋅8E,
55°53′⋅5N, 14°21′⋅8E,
55°56′⋅5N, 14°19′⋅3E.
Current
3.68
1
A N or S current set may be experienced in the entrance
channel at a rate of 1 to 2 kn. The direction and strength
can vary in different sections of the channel due to shoals.
Principal marks
3.69
1
Landmarks:
Fjälkinge and Lilles backe (56°03′N, 14°18′E), two
barren hills connected by a low saddle. A stone
tower, situated on Fjälkinge backe gives an
excellent radar echo.
Ifö Klack (56°08′N, 14°25′E), a prominent hill.
Lägerholmen Lighthouse (white concrete tower, 17 m
in height) (55°57′⋅8N, 14°28′⋅4E).
Major light:
Hanö Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E) (3.87).
Directions
(continued from 3.38)
Main channel
3.70
1
Båkören Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on white framework tower,
elevation 6 m) (55°56′⋅6N, 14°20′⋅5E). Visible on
leading line only.
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 15 m), (830 m
WNW of front light).
The leading line lies in the white sector (288°–290°)
of the rear light.
2
From the vicinity of Taggen Light-buoy (E cardinal),
marking Taggen, a shoal patch also marked by another
buoy (E cardinal), the alignment (289°) of these lights
leads WNW through the channel, passing (with positions
from the harbour entrance):
NNE of Pållagrund (4miles ESE), a shoal patch
marked by a buoy (N cardinal). Thence:
3
S of a buoy (S cardinal) (3miles E), thence:
N of Bröderna (3 miles E), marked by a buoy (N
cardinal). Thence:
Between a buoy and a light-buoy (lateral) (2miles
ENE), the latter marking Tiofotsgrundet, a shoal
patch on the N side of the channel. Thence to the
alignment of:
4
Revhaken Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on framework tower,
elevation 7 m) (55°55′⋅1N, 14°20′⋅3E).
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 14 m), 550 m
SE from front light.
The alignment (245°) of these lights leads 1 mile
WSW to the entrance channel through a channel marked by
light-buoys (lateral) passing between Laxören, a rocky
shoal area 1miles ENE of the harbour entrance, and
Wiltshiregrund, a shoal patch 1miles E of the harbour
entrance.
5
Entrance Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on framework mast)
(55°55′⋅7N, 14°19′⋅3E).
Rear light (red triangle on silo) (265 m from front
light).
The alignment (275°) of these lights leads 1miles W
to the entrance, in a channel marked by light-buoys and
buoys (lateral), and with a swept depth of 8⋅0 m.
3.71
1
Approach from SSE. The alignment (348°) of the
following marks joins the main channel 1 mile E of
Pållagrund, passing E of Botildas Knall (55°49′⋅0N,
14°30′⋅5E) (3.37):
Front mark, Lägerholmen Lighthouse (3.69).
Rear mark, W side of Iföklack (56°08′N, 14°25′E)
(3.69).
Secondary channel
3.72
1
Local knowledge is required for this channel, which is
authorised for a draught of 4 m, and is entered from the S
in the vicinity of Knuven (55°47′⋅7N, 14°24′⋅2E), a shoal
patch 8miles SSE of the harbour entrance.
Thence the track, as indicated on the chart, leads NNW
for about 9 miles to join the main channel 1miles E of
the harbour entrance, passing (with positions from the
harbour entrance):
2
E of Sänket (7miles SSE), and:
W of Botildas Knall (9 mile SE) (3.37), thence:
E of Kiviksbredan (6 miles SSE), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal). Thence:
W of Stupet (3miles SE), thence:
Between Ullersgrund (2miles SE), marked by a
buoy (port hand) and:
3
Branta Knalln (3 miles SE), thence:
ENE of Stenklintarna (1miles ESE), marked by a
buoy (port hand).
Thence 7 cables NW to join the main channel.
3.73
1
Useful marks (with positions from the harbour
entrance):
Caisson (floodlit) (1 cable E) at the seaward end of
the N breakwater.
Water tower (1miles WNW).
Church without spire (1miles WSW).
Silo (5 cables W).
Nymö Church, white building without spire,
(5miles N).
Berths
Alongside berths
3.74
1
Outer harbour. The principal berths are Nos 23–25A
with a length of 150 m and a depth alongside of 8⋅0 m.
There is a further 1330 m of berthing space with depths
alongside from 5⋅8 to 7⋅9 m and a short waiting berth with
a depth of 4⋅2 m alongside.
There is a small shipyard on the S bank of the river
mid-way between the turning places.
2
Inner harbour. The inner harbour has one berth,
handling alcohol, with a length of 100 m and a depth
alongside of 4⋅2 m.
There is a small boat harbour at the W end of the inner
harbour with 250 m of berthing space with depths alongside
CHAPTER 3
125
of about 3 m. Another small boat harbour lies on the S
bank of the river close to the shipyard.
Port services
3.75
1
Repairs: small repairs only.
Other facilities: deratting; hospital; disposal of oily
waste.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications: local airport, Everöd, 18 km; ferry
services to other ports in Sweden.
Rescue: pilot boat acts as rescue craft if required.
Fishing harbour
Tosteberga
3.76
1
General information. Tosteberga (55°59′⋅8N, 14°26′⋅8E)
is a small fishing harbour situated on Tostebergaudde, a
point 6 miles NE of Åhus.
It is formed by breakwaters with an entrance width of
13 m and has a quay in the SW part with a depth alongside
of 2⋅3 m.
2
The harbour is approached and entered from the S on
the alignment (349°) of leading lights:
Front and rear lights (posts, elevations 4 and 7 m),
displayed at the harbour when necessary.
Local knowledge is necessary.
SÖLVESBORG
General information
Charts 2856, plan Sölvesborg, 2360
Position and function
3.77
1
Sölvesborg (56°03′N, 14°35′E) lies at the head of
Sölvesborgsviken, a well sheltered inlet in the N of
Hanöbukten (3.10). The population is about 15 000.
It is a medium-sized commercial harbour with good
facilities for handling a range of general and liquid cargoes.
Principal exports include timber, wood pulp, paper and
scrap metal. Imports include oil, chemicals, grain and steel
plate.
Topography
3.78
1
In the vicinity of Sölvesborg the coastline is generally
low and indented with several small islands, rocks and
shoal areas extending offshore.
Ryssberget, a ridge of hills, extends N for about 9 miles,
just to the N of the town. On the peninsula to the SE of
the town there are low hills.
Approach and entry
3.79
1
The harbour is approached on the alignment of a leading
line and leading lights, through a channel marked by buoys
and light-buoys and entered through dredged channels, on
the alignment of leading lights, and marked by buoys and
light-buoys.
2
Alternatively, with local knowledge, approach may be
made through the shoal areas, some of which are marked
by buoys and on the alignment of leading lines, thence
joining the main channel near to the harbour.
Traffic
3.80
1
In 2003 the port was used by over 225 vessels totalling
509 461 dwt.
Port Authority
3.81
1
Sölvesborg Stuveri & Hamn AB, Lilleviksvägen,
S–294 35, Sölvesborg.
Website: www.stuverihamn.se
Limiting conditions
3.82
1
Controlling depth. The depth in the dredged channel to
the outer harbour is 8⋅2 m, and the maximum authorised
draught is 7⋅7 m. The dredged channel to the inner harbour
has a maximum authorised draught of 5⋅8 m.
Deepest and longest berth is in Ytterhamnen (outer
harbour) at Berth Nos 52–55 (3.90).
2
Density of water in the harbour is 1⋅007 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled. A vessel with LOA
of 170 m and draught of 7⋅7 m.
Local weather. Ice may be encountered in January and
February. See 1.253.
Arrival information
Port radio
3.83
1
Sölvesborg Hamnradio (harbour radio). See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorages
3.84
1
Anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the chart,
in an area 1 miles S of Sillnäsudde (55°59′⋅8N,
14°36′⋅9E) (3.87), a point 3 miles SSE of Sölvesborg, in
depths of about 13 m, sand, but this anchorage is exposed
to strong winds from E to SW.
2
In Inre redden anchorage may be obtained, on the E side
of the fairway, in an area 1cables SSW of Östra Kumlet
(56°02′⋅0N, 14°35′⋅2E), an islet, on which stands a beacon,
2 cables W of Ytterhamnen, in depths of about 6 to 7 m,
mud and clay.
Pilotage and tugs
3.85
1
Pilotage is compulsory for most categories of vessel and
is provided by Åhus (3.56); ordered from VTS Malmö.
There are three pilot boarding places, shown on the
chart:
(a) about 1 mile SE of Spättgrund (55°58′N,
14°35′E) (3.88).
(b) near Pållagrund (55°54′⋅7N, 14°27′⋅6E), (3.70).
2
(c) near Taggen Light-buoy (55°54′⋅9N, 14°35′⋅5E).
(3.70).
Pilotage in this area is controlled from Karlshamn. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for full
details.
Tug is available, with further tugs from Åhus or
Karlshamn if required.
Harbour
General layout
3.86
1
The harbour lies within Sölvesborgsviken, an inlet about
2 miles long and about 6 cables wide, entered through a
dredged channel at its S end.
CHAPTER 3
126
The port is situated on the W side of the inlet. The
inner harbour, abreast the town in the NW section, is
dredged to a depth of 7⋅0 m, and is entered through a
channel which has a bottom width of 60 m.
2
The outer harbour 1 mile S, near the entrance, is
dredged to a depth of 8⋅2 m and is entered through a
channel with a bottom width of 60 m and dredged to a
depth of 8⋅2 m.
Situated between the two cargo berthing areas is a
shipyard complex surrounded by a dredged area to the W
of the channel.
Principal marks
3.87
1
Landmarks:
Nymölla Factory (56°02′⋅7N, 14°28′⋅3E) and chimney
close S.
Sillnäsudde Lighthouse (red tower, white top, 11 m in
height) (55°59′⋅8N, 14°36′⋅9E) standing on an islet
close off the headland of Sillnäsudde.
Ifö Klack (56°08′N, 14°25′E) (3.69).
2
Hjärthalla (56°01′⋅5N, 14°38′⋅0E), a small hill.
Stibybacke (56°01′⋅3N, 14°41′⋅7E), a small hill.
Major lights:
Hanö Light (white concrete tower, 16 m in height)
(56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E).
Karlshamn-Gungvalla Aero Light (56°13′⋅6N,
14°46′⋅7E).
Directions
(continued from 3.38)
Main channel
3.88
1
From a position about 5 miles SSE of Sillnäsudde (3.87)
the line of bearing 313° of Tunören Light (white
framework tower) (56°00′N, 14°32′E), standing on from a
group of rocks awash, within the white sector (309°–319°)
of the light, leads 6 miles NW, through the buoyed fairway,
passing (with positions from Sillnäsudde (55°59′⋅8N,
14°36′⋅9E)):
2
NE of Skintosaflöten (2miles SW), a shoal area
marked on its SE side by a buoy (S cardinal),
thence:
NE of Spättgrund (2 miles SSW), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
SW of a buoy (S cardinal) marking a shoal patch
(1miles SW), thence:
3
NE of Bulleråsen (2 miles SW), marked on its NE
side by a buoy (N cardinal), thence:
SW of Revbådorna, a shoal area, (1miles WSW),
thence:
Close W of a light-buoy (starboard hand) (2 miles
WSW).
4
Sölvesborg Leading Lights:
Front light (red diamond on white framework tower)
(56°02′⋅0N, 14°35′⋅4E). Visible only on leading
line.
Rear light (similar structure) (6 cables from front),
displayed from Ljunganabben, a point on the E
side of Sölvesborgsviken. Visible only on leading
line.
5
The alignment (026°) of these lights leads 2miles
NNE to the entrance at Inre redden through a channel
marked by light-buoys and buoys (lateral), passing (with
positions from Sillnäsudde (3.87)):
ESE of Ledgrund, a shoal patch, (1miles W),
thence:
WNW of Kammen, a shoal patch, (1miles W),
thence:
WNW of Västra Näs (2 miles NNW).
6
From Inre redden, entry to Ytterhamnen, and thence to
Innerhamnen, is through four short reaches, each indicated
by a set of leading lights, and marked by buoys,
light-buoys and light-beacons. The limits of the dredged
areas within the harbour are marked by buoys (lateral).
Alternative approach. Local knowledge is required for
this approach which leads from the S through the shoals to
the S and E of Lägerholmen Lighthouse (3.69).
7
From the vicinity of Taggen (55°53′⋅9N, 14°35′⋅5E)
(3.70) the track leads generally NNW for 4 miles, then
NNE for 3miles on the alignment (026°) of Sölvesborg
Leading Lights, to join the main channel 7 cables SE of
Tunören Light, passing (with positions from Lägerholmen
Light):
8
E of Labansgrund, a shoal patch (1miles SSE),
thence:
Close W of Känningen (2 miles SE), a shoal patch
marked by a buoy (W cardinal), thence:
WNW of Käglan (2 miles ESE), a shoal patch,
thence:
9
ESE of Dösen, a shoal patch (1miles E), thence:
WNW of Bulleråsen (3 miles ENE), thence:
ESE of Galtryggen, a shoal patch (2miles NE).
3.89
1
Useful marks (with positions from Tunören Light
(3.88):
Nymö Church (7 miles W) (3.73).
Water tower (4miles NNW).
Sölvesborg Church (3miles NNE).
Berths
Alongside berths
3.90
1
Ytterhamnen. The principal berths are Nos 52–55 with
a total length of 380 m and a depth alongside of 8⋅2 m.
There is an oil berth, with breasting dolphins, at the N
end of the quay with a length of 25 m and a depth
alongside of 8⋅2 m. Maximum recommended size of vessel,
26 000 dwt.
Immediately S of the main quay there is Ro-Ro complex
with a berth 85 m long and a depth alongside of 7⋅5 m.
2
Innerhamnen. There is a total of 354 m of working
berthing space with depths alongside of 6⋅0 to 7⋅5 m, and a
further 328 m of general purpose berthing space with
depths alongside of 3⋅0 to 5⋅0 m.
At the shipyard, 4 cables S of Innerhamnen, there is a
quay 150 m in length and a depth alongside of 6 m.
Port services
3.91
1
Repairs: machinery and hull; dry dock with a length of
103 m and breadth 16 m.
Other facilities: deratting; doctor; oily waste disposal.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications: local airports with domestic services;
Everöd, Kristianstad 50 km distant; Kallinge, Ronneby
60 km distant.
CHAPTER 3
127
Sölvesborg
− Ytterhamnen (3.90)
(Original dated 2000)
(Photograph − Sölvesborgs Stuveri & Hamn AB)
Sölvesborg
− Innerhamnen (3.90)
(Original dated 2000)
(Photograph − Sölvesborgs Stuveri & Hamn AB)
CHAPTER 3
128
HANÖSUND AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 2856,
Description
3.92
1
Hanösund (56°00′N, 14°49′E), is the channel between
the peninsula on the mainland SE of Sölvesborg (3.77) and
Hanö (3.99), an island 2 miles E. It leads to
Pukaviksbukten (3.108) and the approaches to Karlshamn
(3.129).
Included in the description are the small harbours
between Sillnäsudde (55°59′⋅8N, 14°36′⋅9E) (3.87) and
Listershuvud (56°02′N, 14°47′E) (3.97), at the NW end of
Hanösund, and that on Hanö.
Topography
3.93
1
The coast between Kråknabben (55°59′⋅5N, 14°43′⋅0E) at
the S entrance and Listershuvud (3miles NE) (3.97) is
high and precipitous.
Depths
3.94
1
Hanöbanken, consisting of a number of shoal patches
with depths over them of less than 20 m lies across the S
approaches to Hanösund and extends up to 6 miles SE of
Hanö. Bredgrund, the shallowest part, with a depth of 9 m
over it, lies 5 miles SSE of Hanö.
2
The fairway through Hanösund has charted depths of
between 12 and 26 m to the E of the marked shoal patches
of Fladingen and Blocket. Between the W shore and these
shoals lie other unmarked shoals with depths over them of
5 m or less.
Exercise area
3.95
1
Firing practice areas lie to the E and S of Hanösund as
shown on the chart; see 1.22.
Submarine cables
3.96
1
Submarine power cables are laid across the N end of
Hanösund from the mainland to the island and from
Nogersund to the NW of the island. The former are marked
at each end by a pair of light-beacons. The alignment of
each pair of light-beacons marks the landward end of the
cable.
Principal marks
3.97
1
Landmarks:
Hjärthalla (56°01′⋅5N, 14°38′⋅0E) (3.87).
Stibybacke (56°01′⋅3N, 14°41′⋅7E) (3.87).
Listershuvud (56°02′⋅1N, 14°46′⋅8E), a hill on the
point of that name.
Major lights:
Hanö Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E) (3.87).
Karlshamn-Gungvalla Aero Light (56°13′⋅6N,
14°46′⋅7E).
Directions
(continued from 3.38)
3.98
1
From the vicinity of Taggen Light-buoy (55°53′⋅9N,
14°35′⋅5E) (3.70) the approach leads NE in the white sector
(020°–054°) of Bönsäcken Light (grey framework tower)
(56°01′⋅1N, 14°50′⋅3E), passing (with positions from Hanö
Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E)):
2
SE of Kråkrevet (5 miles WSW), a shoal area with
rocks awash and a dangerous wreck, which
extends 1 miles SSW from Kråknabben
(55°59′⋅7N, 14°43′⋅0E). Västeråsgrund, with a
depth of 4.4m over it, lies at the S end of the
shoal. The extent of the shoal area is marked by a
buoy (S cardinal) moored 2 miles S of
Kråknabben. Thence:
3
NW of a 9⋅8 m patch (3miles SSW), which is
covered by the green sector (000°–020°) of
Bönsäcken Light.
Thence the track continues NE in the white sector
(041°–044°) of Tärnö Light (56°06′⋅7N, 14°58′⋅5E)
(3.183) passing:
4
SE of Fladingen (2miles WSW), marked by a buoy
(S cardinal), thence:
SE of Blocket (2 miles W), a shoal with a depth of
4⋅2 m over it marked by a buoy (E cardinal), and:
5
SE of Närgrund (2miles WNW), a shoal area
extending 3 cables E of Listershuvud, covered by
the red sector (274°–286°) of Listershuvud Light
(white lantern) (56°02′N, 14°47′E), displayed from
the point, thence:
NW of Bönsäcken (56°01′⋅1N, 14°50′⋅3E), the N
point of Hanö, thence:
6
SE of Laxgrund (2miles NW), a shoal area which
lies 1 mile NE of Listershuvud. The N part of the
shoal is awash. It is marked by a buoy (E
cardinal) and a buoy (N cardinal). Thence:
NW of Malkvarn (1miles NE), an above-water
rock. It is covered by the red sector (239°–255°)
of Bönsäcken Light.
(Directions for Pukaviksbukten are given at 3.116)
(Directions for Karlshamn continue at 3.148)
Hanö
Chart 2856
Description
3.99
1
Hanö (56°01′N, 14°50′E), an island 60 m high, is bare
except for a few trees and bushes near the lighthouse.
Anchorages
3.100
1
Anchorage may be obtained off the W side of the island
in a depth of about 26 m, clay, in a position with
Bönsäcken (56°01′⋅1N, 14°50′⋅3E) in line with Matvikshög
Beacon (56°10′⋅3N, 14°57′⋅6E) (3.167), which stands on the
mainland 10 miles NNE, bearing 025°.
2
Anchorage may also be obtained off the W of Hanö, in
depths of about 26 m, clay, with Malkvarn (56°02′N,
14°52′E) (3.98) open N of Bönsäcken and bearing 070°
and, off the NE of the island in depths of about 21 m, with
Kråknabben (3.98) visible over Bönsäcken on a bearing of
248°, but this anchorage is exposed and subject to heavy
swell in bad weather.
There is a third anchorage, in depths of 18 to 26 m,
sand and clay, about 3 cables W of the S end of Hanö but
this is also exposed and subject to heavy swell.
Harbour
3.101
1
There is a small fishing harbour on the W side of the
island. It is formed by two moles and is suitable for vessels
with a draught up to 3⋅4 m.
CHAPTER 3
129
On the inside of the W breakwater there is a 90 m long
quay with a depth alongside of 4 m and in the NE part of
the harbour a ferry berth with a depth alongside of 4 m.
Other berths have depths of about 2 m.
Directions
3.102
1
The harbour is entered from the NW on the alignment
(129°) of leading lights:
Front and rear lights (red triangles on posts,
elevations 6 and 9 m respectively, 140 m apart),
displayed from the inner pier.
This alignment passes clear of a shoal patch, with a
depth of 3⋅8 m over it, lying close off the entrance and
immediately NE of the line, through the breakwaters. A
light is displayed from the head of the S breakwater.
Services
3.103
1
Repairs: slip for vessels up to 14 m in length; ramp for
small craft.
Supplies: diesel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Harbours on the mainland
Torsö
3.104
1
General description. Torsö (56°00′⋅0N, 14°39′⋅1E) is a
small fishing harbour which lies at the head of Östra
Torsöviken, the E of two bays to the E of Sillnäsudde
(55°59′⋅8N, 14°36′⋅9E) (3.87).
2
The harbour is formed by two breakwaters, one
extending E from Köskarvet, a small islet close off the
coast S of the town and the second extending S from the
shore. Together they form an entrance to the outer harbour
facing SSE. An inner harbour, formed by two short moles,
lies close NW of the entrance. It is suitable for vessels
with a draught up to 1 m and has two quays with depths
alongside of 2 m.
3
Directions. Östra Torsöviken is entered between two
points of land, the W of which has an area of foul ground
extending 6 cables SSW marked at its S limit by a buoy (S
cardinal), and Björknabben (55°59′N, 14°40′E), the E
entrance point from which Björkrevet, an area of foul
ground extends 5 cables S, marked on its SE side by a
buoy (E cardinal).
4
Torsö Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (posts) 25 m apart, displayed
from the harbour.
Approach from the SSE on the alignment (346°) of
these lights which leads about 1 mile NNE passing ENE of
Flädjan, a rock awash on the W foul ground, thence to the
harbour entrance.
5
Useful marks:
Radio masts, elevation 138 m. (55°59′⋅6N, 14°40′⋅1E)
Sillnäsudde Lighthouse (55°59′⋅8N, 14°36′⋅9E) (3.87).
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Hällevik
3.105
1
General description. Hällevik (56°00′⋅6N, 14°42′⋅1E)
lies at the head of Hälleviksviken, an inlet close E of Östra
Torsöviken (3.104).
The harbour is formed by two moles and a detached
breakwater. The entrance channel is suitable for vessels
with a draught up to 2⋅3 m.
2
Within the harbour, at the N end there is a small
enclosed boat harbour with a depth of 2 m; in the
remainder of the harbour there are further berths with
depths alongside of 2⋅5 to 3⋅0 m.
There is a speed limit of 5 kn within the harbour.
3
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 4 to 7 m,
sand and stones, 4 cables SSE of the light-structure on the
head of the S mole, but this is exposed in S to SW winds.
With local knowledge anchorage may also be obtained, in a
depth of 5⋅5 m, 2 cables SE of the light-structure.
4
Directions. Hälleviksviken is entered between
Björknabben (55°59′N, 14°40′E) (3.104), on the W side,
and Kråknabben (55°59′⋅7N, 14°43′⋅1E) (3.98), on the E
side.
Hällevik Directional Light (white concrete tower, copper
lantern, 7 m in height) (56°00′⋅8N, 14°42′⋅4E), is displayed
from the head of Hälleviksviken.
5
From a position to the SSW the track leads 3 miles NNE
to the harbour entrance with the above light ahead on a
bearing of 020°, in the white sector (016°–025°) of the
light, passing (with positions from Björknabben):
WNW of a buoy (S cardinal), (2 miles SE), thence:
WNW of Västeråsgrund (3.98) (1⋅1 miles SE), thence:
6
ESE of a buoy (E cardinal) (4 cables S), and:
WNW of Kråkrevet (3.98) (1 mile E), marked by a
buoy (lateral).
Thence the track continues to the head of Hälleviksviken
passing W of the buoys (lateral) marking the foul ground
extending SW from Kråknabben.
7
Useful marks:
Radio masts, elevation 138 m (55°59′⋅6N, 14°40′⋅1E).
Light-structure (white metal framework tower, 7 m in
height) (56°00′⋅6N, 14°42′⋅1E), displayed from the
head of the S mole.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Nogersund
3.106
1
Description. Nogersund (56°00′N, 14°44′E) is an
artificial fishing harbour situated near the SW entrance to
Hanösund, 1miles ESE of Hällevik.
It is formed by E and W breakwaters within which lie
the S harbour and, in the N part, inner and outer basins.
The entrance channel has a depth of 4⋅5 m.
2
The S harbour has 120 m of berthing space with a depth
alongside of 5⋅0 m. The outer basin has about 130 m of
quay length with a depth alongside of 4⋅0 m; the inner
basin has about 220 m of berthing space with a depth
alongside of 4⋅0 m and piers with about 100 berths for
small craft with depths of 2⋅0 m.
A light is displayed from the head of the E breakwater.
3
Directions. Leading lights:
Front and rear lights (red triangles on white
framework towers) (56°00′⋅2N, 14°44′⋅3E), 87 m
apart, displayed from the W breakwater.
4
From a position to the S, about 6 cables ESE of
Kråknabben (55°59′⋅7N, 14°43′⋅1E), the alignment (008°)
of the these lights leads N to the harbour entrance through
a short channel with an authorised draught of 3⋅5 m, 40 m
wide and 4⋅5 m deep, marked by buoys (lateral).
Caution. A wind powered generator lies 300 m offshore
to the E of Nogersund in position 56°00′⋅2N, 14°44′⋅7E. A
CHAPTER 3
130
light is displayed from the generator tower which is 35 m
in height.
5
Useful marks:
Listershuvud (56°02′⋅1N, 14°46′⋅8E) (3.97).
Light-structure (white mast) on E breakwater head
(56°00′⋅3N, 14°44′⋅3E).
Hanö Light-structure (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅9E) (3.87).
Port services.
Repairs: slip for vessels maximum 27 m long, 6⋅0 m
wide and 3⋅5 m draught.
Supplies: fuel; provisions; fresh water.
HANÖ TO THE APPROACHES TO KARLSKRONA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2360
Area covered
3.107
1
This section describes the waters in the N part of
Hanöbukten from Hanö (3.99) to the E approaches to
Karlskrona, about 33 miles ENE. It includes the channels
and minor harbours in Pukaviksbukten (3.108), a
description of the port of Karlshamn (56°10′N, 14°52′E)
(3.129) which includes Stilleryd, the port of Ronneby
(56°10′⋅5N, 15°18′⋅0E) (3.170), and the small harbours and
inlets along the coast.
2
It is arranged as follows:
Pukaviksbukten (3.108).
Karlshamn and approaches (3.129).
Karlshamn to the approaches to Karlskrona (3.162)
including Ronneby (3.170).
PUKAVIKSBUKTEN
General information
Charts 2856, 2360
Description
3.108
1
Pukaviksbukten, a large open bay situated to the SW of
Karlshamn is entered between Listershuvud (56°02′⋅1N,
14°46′⋅8E), and Stärnö Udde (56°08′N, 14°50′E), the S
point of the peninsula of Stärnö which lies 6 miles NNE.
2
The bay has numerous shoals and only those which lie
close to navigable channels or harbours are described. The
main navigable channels lead through the shoals in the
central area of the bay and thence to minor harbours in the
N part.
There are a number of small fishing harbours on the SW
side.
Topography
3.109
1
The coastline round the bay is generally low with small
headlands on the SW side and a number of inlets on the N
side.
Ryssberget (3.78) together with Södra Särdelen, a well
defined gap in the middle, are prominent inland on the W
side.
Depths
3.110
1
The main channel, which leads to Elleholm, is
authorised for a draught of 4⋅0 m. Branch channels to other
ports have lesser draughts.
Pilotage
3.111
1
Pilots for Elleholm (3.127) may be obtained from
Karlshamn, and ordered by VTS Malmö. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Local knowledge
3.112
1
Within the inner part of Pukaviksbukten local knowledge
is required.
Traffic regulations
3.113
1
A speed restriction of 5 kn applies in most of the
harbours within this section. Notice of a speed restriction
within a port or waterway is normally shown on boards in
the area concerned.
Hazards
3.114
1
Submarine pipeline. Anchoring is prohibited within
150 m of a submarine pipeline, shown on the chart, laid in
the approaches to Pukaviksbukten from a position 4 cables
E of Kyrkegrund (56°06′⋅8N, 14°47′⋅3E), 3 miles N and
NW to the coast. Its route is marked from the outer end,
the first mile by light-buoys (special) and the remainder by
buoys (special).
2
Fishing. Intensive salmon fishing takes place in
Pukaviksbukten from March to September. During this
period fishing limits are marked by light-buoys (special)
and two lights, Båknahall Light (56°08′⋅7N, 14°45′⋅3E) and
Skåpehåle Light (56°09′⋅3N, 14°44′⋅5E), on the coast. Two
boards (white and red rectangular) stand at the latter
light-structure; on an alignment of 013° they form part of
the fishing limits.
Principal marks
3.115
1
Landmarks:
Norje Böke (56°07′⋅1N, 14°41′⋅7E), a beech wood on
a headland 6 miles NNW of Listershuvud.
Mörrum pulp factory with chimney (56°09′⋅5N,
14°46′⋅0E), charted but not named. Visible well to
seaward.
2
Chimneys (red lights) (56°09′⋅2N, 14°50′⋅0E), on
Stärnö.
Major light:
Hanö Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E) (3.87).
Directions
3.116
1
Channels. From the central approach area (56°06′⋅5N,
14°49′⋅5E) two channels lead 2miles W and WNW
respectively then merge for 7 cables NW before branching,
one branch leading W and N for 2 miles to Örnavik (3.125)
and Pukavik (3.126), the other branch leading 1miles N
to Elleholm (3.127). The N approach channel is better
marked.
3.117
1
North-most approach. Norje Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle, black border, on post,
elevation 7 m) (56°07′⋅1N, 14°42′⋅0E), displayed
from Norjegryt, an islet close E of Norje Böke.
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 14 m), 375 m
W of front light.
2855
2857
2856
2857
2857
0205
3.162
3.200
3.200
3.228
3.200
3.215
3.170
3.186
3
.
1
8
6
3.129
3.129
3.129
3.129
Utlängan
Torhamnsudde
Utklippan
Stilleryd
Karlshamn
Tarnö
Matvik
Gåsfeten
Ronnebyhamn
Hasslö
Aspö
Tjurkö
Sturkö
Senoren
K
a
r
l
s
k
r
o
n
a
Coastal route
Inshore channels
Hanö
Paragraph numbers refer to directions Explanation
15°
Longitude 15° East from Greenwich
16°
16°
56°56°
50´
50´
10´
10´
10´
50´
50´
20´
20´
30´
30´
40´
40´
50´
50´
40´
40´
Route Index Chartlet - Hanö to Karlskrona
CHAPTER 3
131
CHAPTER 3
132
2
From a position 1 miles SSW of Stärnö Udde
(56°08′N, 14°50′E) (3.108) the alignment (272°) of these
lights leads 2miles W, passing (with positions from
Stärnö Udde):
Close N of a buoy (N cardinal) (1⋅3 miles SSW),
thence:
Between two light-buoys (special) (1⋅6 miles SSW)
marking a submarine pipeline (3.114), thence:
3
S of Rockegrund (1⋅7 miles SW), a shoal marked on
its S side by a buoy (lateral), and:
N of Kyrkegrund (2 miles SW), a shoal marked on its
N side by a buoy (lateral), thence:
W to a position close S of Nypgrund (3⋅2 miles
WSW), a shoal marked on its S side by a buoy
(lateral) where the S channel merges.
3.118
1
South-most approach. From a position 2 miles SSW of
Stärnö Udde the track leads 2miles WNW, passing (with
positions as above):
NE of Uppgrund (2⋅4 miles SSW) (3.149), thence:
SSW of Kyrkegrund (2 miles SW), and:
2
NE of Nyttgrund, a shoal patch (2⋅8 miles SW),
thence:
WNW to a position close S of Nypgrund.
The track then leads 7 cables NW to a position SW of
Gyrn, a shoal patch 1 mile NE of Norjegryt (56°07′⋅1N,
14°42′⋅2E) and marked on its SE side by a buoy (lateral).
3.119
1
West-most branch. From this position the W branch,
authorised for a draught of 1⋅8 m, leads W and N for
2 miles to Pukavik entrance passing (with positions from
Norjegryt):
N of the shoal area extending N from Norrören
(2 cables N), thence:
Close SW of Hållfast (6cables NNW), a shoal
marked by a buoy (lateral), thence:
2
Close W of Rönneholm (1⋅4 miles NNW), a shoal
marked by a buoy (lateral), and where a short
branch channel leads SSW to Örnavik, thence:
N to the harbour.
3.120
1
East-most branch. From the same position off Gyrn a
branch leads 1miles N to Elleholm entrance channel on
the alignment (009°) of Ljungholmen Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (white triangles, orange borders,
on posts) (56°09′⋅3N, 14°44′⋅0E), 100 m apart and
displayed from an islet on the E side of the
harbour.
Useful mark
3.121
1
Lörby kladd Light-structure (lantern on grey base,
elevation 6 m) (56°06′⋅0N, 14°42′⋅9E).
Anchorages and harbours
Hörvik
3.122
1
Description. Hörvik (56°03′N, 14°46′E), a small fishing
harbour, lies at the SW limit of Pukaviksbukten close N of
the hill on Listershuvud (3.97).
The harbour is formed by a breakwater on the N side
and a mole on the S side, with a W facing entrance 27 m
wide. It is suitable for vessels with a draught up to 3⋅3 m.
The outer section of the harbour has a depth of about
4⋅0 m and about 200 m of berthing space with depths
alongside of 2⋅5 to 4⋅0 m. The inner part has a number of
small craft berths with depths of about 2⋅5 m. West of the
existing fishing harbour is a small craft harbour with
minimum depths of 1⋅1 to 2⋅3 m.
2
Anchorage, sheltered from the effects of E winds by
shoals to the E, may be obtained in depths of 5 to 9 m,
sand, 2 cables N of the harbour entrance.
Directions. Hörvik Light (white framework tower,
elevation 6 m) (occas), displayed from the N breakwater
head.
3
From a position to the NNE, and NW of Kåsebåden, a
shoal marked on its NW side by a buoy (W cardinal) and
covered by the red sector (101°–167°) of Hörvik Light,
approach with the light-structure in line with the crest of
Listershuvud on a bearing of 200° or, at night, in the white
sector (194°–203°) of the light. These bearings lead
1 mile SSW to the harbour entrance.
4
Port services.
Repairs: slip for vessels up to 12 m in length.
Supplies: fuel oil; provisions; fresh water.
Krokås
3.123
1
Description. Krokås (56°03′⋅0N, 14°45′⋅5E), a small
fishing harbour 6 cables NNW of Hörvik, is formed by
breakwaters and is suitable for vessels with a draught of
1⋅8 m. There are depths of 2⋅0 m in the harbour and
alongside the quay.
Directions. Krokås Leading Lights:
2
Front and rear lights (posts, elevations 9 and 14 m,
respectively, 90 m apart), displayed from the
harbour.
From a position to the NW of Kåsebåden, as described
in 3.122, the alignment (256°) of these lights leads about
7 cables WSW to the entrance through a short buoyed and
dredged channel.
Norrören anchorage
3.124
1
Anchorage may be obtained, with local knowledge, in
depths of 6 to 9 m, sand, close W of Norrören (56°07′⋅5N,
14°42′⋅1E), an islet 4 cables N of Norje Böke (3.115).
Örnavik anchorage
3.125
1
Anchorage may be obtained off Örnavik (56°08′N,
14°41′E), in depths of 3 to 5 m, sand and clay. This
anchorage is restricted by size and vessels may need a line
to the shore. Local knowledge is essential.
Pukavik
3.126
1
Pukavik (56°09′⋅5N, 14°41′⋅0E), a small commercial
loading place lies at the NW corner of Pukaviksbukten.
The harbour consists of an open roadstead with two
dilapidated jetties projecting E from the shore which are
suitable only for small vessels with a draught of 1⋅0 m.
2
Small vessels may obtain anchorage in depths of 3⋅2 to
4⋅2 m, sand and clay, in the harbour area. The harbour is
usually ice-bound from January to March.
Directions for entry are given at 3.116.
Supplies: fuel oil; provisions; fresh water.
Elleholm
3.127
1
Elleholm (56°09′N, 14°44′E) is a small loading place
situated in a small inlet about 4 miles W of Karlshamn
(3.129), and 1miles E of Pukavik (3.126). It is suitable
for vessels with a draught up to 4⋅0 m. The harbour
consists of an open roadstead and a 20 m long quay with a
CHAPTER 3
133
depth alongside of 4⋅5 m and a ramp facility to load stone
materials directly into vessels.
2
There is a small, well sheltered anchorage in a depth of
about 5⋅0 m, sand and clay, off the loading quay.
Directions for approach are given at 3.116. Entry to the
harbour is through a short buoyed channel suitable for
vessels about 65 m long and 4⋅0 m draught.
Supplies of provisions are available from Mörrum, a
town 2 miles NNE.
Gunnön
3.128
1
Gunnön (56°09′N, 14°47′E) is a small islet with a
loading place situated 1miles E of Elleholm. The islet is
connected to the mainland by a fixed bridge at its N end
under which is a passage 10 m wide, depth 2⋅0 m and
vertical clearance 1⋅8 m.
There is a small quay 45 m long and with a depth
alongside of 4⋅8 m.
2
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 6 to 10 m,
clay, in the bay E of Gunnön.
Directions. Local knowledge is required but approach
and entry from the S will be assisted by the following:
Gunnön Light (56°09′⋅0N, 14°46′⋅7E) (3.149).
Hästen Beacon (56°08′⋅7N, 14°47′⋅1E) (3.149).
KARLSHAMN AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 2855, 2856, 2360
Position
3.129
1
Karlshamn (56°10′N, 14°52′E) lies at the mouth of Mie
ån which flows into Karlshamnsfjorden in the NE part of
Hanöbukten. Included in the port are the jetties and berths
at Stilleryd (56°09′⋅5N, 14°49′⋅5E), 1 miles SW of
Karlshamn, at the head of a bay which is separated from
Karlshamnsfjorden by the Stärnö peninsula. Also included
are the berths at Stärnö Vindhamn (3.159), situated 1 mile
SSW of Karlshamn on the E side of the peninsula and
Vägga (3.161) fishing harbour, mile SE of Karlshamn on
the E side of Karlshamnsfjorden.
Function
3.130
1
The port is a safe, well-sheltered harbour with good
anchorages. It is a major commercial port well equipped to
handle most types of vessel including large tankers and
bulk carriers.
Principal imports include copra, oil seed, coal, all types
of vegetable and mineral oils, general cargo.
2
Exports include pulp and paper products, stone, grain,
timber products and animal feed products.
The population of Karlshamn is about 11 100.
Topography
3.131
1
The coast is generally low and indented with shoal areas
extending up to 4 miles offshore in places. Inland, to the W
of Pukaviksbukten, a range of hills is visible from well to
seaward.
The coastline surrounding Karlshamnsfjorden and
Stillerydviken is generally low with few significant
features.
Approach and entry
3.132
1
The main approach to Karlshamn from the S or SE is
from a position E of Hanöbanken (3.94) where the route
leads NW through clear water to a position about 5 miles S
of Karlshamn.
Approach may also be made via Hanösund (3.92), the
track leading NNE to a similar position as above. From this
position separate channels lead to the main harbour and the
associated harbour at Stilleryd. Vessels approaching from
the E should pass well S of Tärnö (56°07′⋅0N, 14°58′⋅5E).
2
Karlshamn Centralhamnen. The port is approached on
the alignment of a leading line and leading lights through a
broad channel marked by buoys which divides 1 mile S of
the harbour. The main entrance channel then leads NW on
the alignment of leading lights through a channel marked
by buoys and light-buoys to enter the harbour between
breakwaters on the W side.
3
An alternative branch channel leads NNW on the
alignment of leading lights, through a channel marked by
buoys, to enter the N part of the harbour but this channel
is partially obstructed by a line of dolphins at the DG
range N of Kastellet (3.145).
Stillerydshamnen. The harbour is approached on the
alignment of leading lights through a broad channel marked
by buoys and light-buoys and entered through dredged
channels marked by buoys and light-buoys.
Traffic
3.133
1
In 2003 the port was used by 1450 vessels totalling
5 451 062 dwt.
Port Authority
3.134
1
Karlshamns Hamn och Stuveri AB, PO Box 8, S–374
21, Karlshamn.
Website: www.karlshamnshamn.se
E-Mail: info@karlshamnhamn.se
Limiting conditions
Authorised draughts
3.135
1
The channels into the harbours listed below have the
following authorised draughts:
Channel to Centralhamnen — 10⋅0 m.
Branch channel NE of Kastellet — 9⋅0 m
Channel to Stillerydshamnen oil berths — 12⋅6 m.
Branch channel cargo berths — 10⋅5 m.
Stärnö Vindhamn — 5⋅4 m
Deepest and longest berths
3.136
1
Centralhamnen:
Sutudden oil jetty (oil) (3.158).
Sojakajen (bulk grain) (3.158).
Stillerydshamnen:
Kölöhamnen oil jetty (oil) (3.157).
Western basin (containers and general cargo) (3.157).
Water levels
3.137
1
Normal variation in the water level ranges from 0⋅9 m
above to 0⋅7 m below mean level. Strong winds may cause
the range to vary from 1⋅5 m above to 1⋅0 m below.
Winds between N and E raise the level, those between
NW and SW cause it to fall.
CHAPTER 3
134
Density of water
3.138
1
The density of water in the harbour is 1⋅007 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.139
1
A vessel with a maximum length of 260 m and draught
13⋅5 m.
Ice
3.140
1
In general the harbours are normally free from ice but,
if necessary, the channels are kept open by ice-breakers.
For further details on ice see 1.253 and 1.261.
Arrival information
Port radio
3.141
1
Karlshamn Hamnradio (Karlshamn Port Radio). See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Outer anchorages
3.142
1
Anchorage may be obtained in the outer part of
Karlshamnsfjorden in depths of 17 to 24 m, sand and
gravel, but this anchorage is exposed to S winds.
With local knowledge, anchorage may be obtained in a
depth of 11 m, clay, in an area 200 m wide W of Kastellet
(56°09′⋅6N, 14°52′⋅0E) (3.145). Anchorage is limited to
24 hours in this area unless permission to extend the stay is
granted by the authorities.
2
Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited sto the
N and E of Kastellet and adjacent to the submarine power
cable leading from the Stärnö peninsula as shown on the
chart. See also 1.71.
Pilotage and tugs
3.143
1
Pilotage. Pilots are available 24 hours and are
compulsory for most categories of vessel. Requests for
pilots should be made at least 5 hours in advance, to VTS
Malmö. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
2
Pilot boards, as indicated on the chart:
(i) at the outer boarding position (56°05′⋅0N,
14°51′⋅6E).
(ii) at the inner boarding position (56°07′⋅2N,
14°53′⋅2E).
Tugs are available and are compulsory for vessels
berthing at Sutudden oil jetty (3.158).
Traffic Regulations
3.144
1
Restricted Area. A military protected area is established
south of Stärnö as shown on the chart.
Degaussing Range. Vessels must pass N of the DG
range (3.146), situated N of Kastellet and manoeuvre
carefully in its vicinity.
Harbour
General layout
3.145
1
The harbour is divided into two areas, separated
geographically by the Stärnö peninsula.
Karlshamn Centralhamnen. The harbour is formed by
a small bay extending S from the river mouth with the islet
of Kastellet situated slightly SW of its central section. A
breakwater extends SW from the S of the islet which,
together with a short breakwater from the shore, form the
main entrance.
2
A branch channel enters the N part of the harbour to the
E of Kastellet.
The oil jetty lies immediately inside the breakwaters
with the bulk quays farther N. The Ro-Ro berths and small
boat harbour lie on the E side of the river mouth.
3
Caution. Several submarine cables are laid across the
channels in Karlshamnsfjorden, their positions can be seen
on the chart. In addition, several submarine pipelines are
present in the bay. Their positions are also shown on the
chart.
4
Stillerydshamnen. The harbour lies at the head of
Stillerydviken and consists of three berthing areas.
Kölöhamnen and Oxhaga nabb, the oil terminals, lie at the
entrance to a small inlet on the NE side.
The cargo and Ro-Ro area lies at the N end and is
entered on the W side. Access to the E side branches off
the main channel to the oil berths.
Degaussing ranges
3.146
1
There are two DG ranges, shown on the chart, within
port limits:
Close N of Kastellet, marked by a line of dolphins
which are joined by aerial cables.
In an area centred 1cables E of Kastellet, marked
at its SW limit by a light-buoy (special).
Principal marks
3.147
1
Landmarks:
Listershuvud (56°02′⋅1N, 14°46′⋅8E) (3.97).
Mörrum pulp factory with chimney (56°09′⋅5N,
14°46′⋅0E) (3.115).
Chimneys (red lights) (56°09′⋅2N, 14°50′⋅0E), on
Stärnö.
2
Eneskärv Beacon (white, 3 m in height) (56°08′⋅6N,
14°53′⋅7E), on an islet of that name 1miles SE
of the harbour.
Matvikshög Beacon (56°10′⋅3N, 14°57′⋅6E) (3.167).
Major lights:
Hanö Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E) (3.87).
Karlshamn-Gungvalla Aero Light (56°13′⋅6N,
14°46′⋅7E) (3.87).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.98)
Approach
3.148
1
South-east approach. From a position about 10 miles
SE of Hanö (56°01′N, 14°51′E) the track leads 13miles
NW to a position S of Karlshamn in the vicinity of the
outer pilot boarding place (56°05′⋅0N, 14°51′⋅6E), passing
(with positions from Hanö Light),:
NE of the E limit of Hanöbanken (7 miles SE) (3.94),
thence:
NE of Malkvarn (1miles NE) (3.98), and:
SW of Tärnö (7 miles NE).
2
Approach from Hanösund. Follow directions for
Hanösund transit given at 3.98, thence the track leads
3miles NNE to the vicinity of the outer pilot boarding
place as above, passing (with positions from Hanö Light):
WNW of Malkvarn (1miles NE), and:
ESE of Laxgrund (2miles NNW) (3.98).
CHAPTER 3
135
Entry to Stillerydshamnen
3.149
1
Leading marks:
Front mark: Hästen Beacon (white cairn, red band,
white triangle with red border), standing on a shoal
4 cables SE of the light below.
Rear mark: Gunnön Light (triangle on white column,
red bands, elevation 11 m) (56°09′⋅0N, 14°46′⋅7E),
displayed from the S point of the islet of that
name. Windmotors stand 1 cable NW and NNE of
the light; a third windmotor stands close SE, and
partially obscures the red sector of the light on the
bearing of 302°.
2
From the vicinity of the outer pilot boarding position
about 3miles SSE of Stärnö Udde (56°08′N, 14°50′E)
(3.108), the alignment of these marks (324°) in the white
sector (323°–327°) of the light, leads 3 miles NW, through
the fairway, to a position 1miles SSW of Stärnö Udde,
passing (with positions from Stärnö Udde):
3
NE of Uppgrund (2miles SSW), a shoal marked by
a buoy (E cardinal), and:
Close NE of a buoy (N cardinal) (1⋅3 miles SSW).
Thence:
3.150
1
Kölö Leading Lights:
Front light (orange triangle, red border, on metal
column, elevation 9 m) (56°09′⋅3N, 14°49′⋅6E).
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 17 m), 347 m
N from front.
The channel leads 2 miles N to the oil jetties on the E
side of the harbour on the alignment (010°) of these lights,
passing, (with positions from the front light):
2
W of Kasen Light-buoy (W cardinal) (2 miles SSW),
thence:
ESE of Storbåden (1miles SW), and:
WNW of Samsabådarna (1miles S), a shoal area
marked on its W side by a buoy (starboard hand),
thence:
E of Bosaflätt (1 mile SSW), rocks awash and an
above-water rock, and:
3
E of Böse Light-buoy (port hand) (7 cables SSW),
marking a 5 m shoal, thence:
W of a buoy (starboard hand) (4 cables S), to enter
the dredged area, thence:
Round a short breakwater (2 cables S), extending NW
from Kölö, a point on the NW side of Stärnö.
3.151
1
Branch channel to West basin. Stilleryd Leading
Lights:
Front light (orange triangle, white border, on pole,
elevation 8 m) (56°09′⋅6N, 14°49′⋅0E).
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 15 m), 132 m
NW from front light.
2
From a position NE of Böse Light-buoy, as above, the
alignment (346°) of these lights leads NNW for 7 cables
to enter the W basin, passing through a dredged channel
marked by light-buoys (lateral) and a buoy (S cardinal),
marking the S limit of a shoal area 2 cables SSW of Kölö
front light. A light-buoy (port hand) marks the limit of the
11 m dredged area in the W basin.
Entry to Karlshamn Centralhamnen
3.152
1
Main channel — West of Kastellet. From a position
3miles S of Eneskärv (3.147), in the vicinity of the outer
pilot boarding position, approach with Karlshamn Church
(56°10′⋅3N, 14°51′⋅7E) visible midway between Kastellet
(3.145) and Ortholmen Lighthouse (white lantern, elevation
6 m) (56°09′⋅4N, 14°52′⋅8E), bearing 339°, in the white
sector (336°–359°) of Ortholmen Light, or alternatively,
on the alignment (339°) of:
2
Karlshamn Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle, white border, on building,
elevation 10 m) (56°09′⋅8N, 14°52′⋅2E).
Rear light (red triangle, white border, on framework
tower, elevation 15 m), 270 m NNW from front.
This alignment leads 3miles NNW to a position E of
the S point of Boön where the channels divide, passing
(with positions from front light, above):
3
WSW of Kullarna (3 miles SE), thence:
ENE of Lakknallarna (2 miles S), a shoal marked by
a light-buoy (E cardinal). Thence:
WSW of Gomorrön (2 miles SSE), a shoal patch,
marked by a buoy (W cardinal) and:
WSW of Eneskärv (1miles SE).
3.153
1
North-west branch. Sutudden Leading Lights:
Front light (orange triangle on mast, elevation 18 m)
(56°09′⋅5N, 14°51′⋅8E), displayed among oil tanks.
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 37 m), 410 m
NW from front light.
The alignment (318°) of these lights leads 1 mile NW
through a buoyed channel to the entrance, passing (with
positions from front light, as above):
2
NE of Åshuvudet (8 cables SE), a shoal area marked
on its NE side by a light-buoy (port hand), thence:
NE of Lassebåden (4 cables SE), a shoal patch
marked by a buoy (port hand), and:
SW of a buoy (S cardinal), marking the S end of
Svartaskärv (4 cables SE), thence:
3
Close SW of Knekten Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(2cables SE), thence:
NNW for 2 cables to pass between the breakwaters,
each of which displays a light from its head. The
width of the entrance is 100 m.
3.154
1
Branch channel — East of Kastellet.
From the position E of the S point of Boön described
above, the branch channel, continues 1 mile NNW to enter
Centralhamnen N of Kastellet on the alignment (339°) of
Karlshamn Leading Lights, passing (with positions from
Ortholmen Light):
WSW of Ortholmen Lighthouse, thence:
2
ENE of a buoy (port hand) marking the E limit of
Flataskärv shoal area (2 cables W), thence:
WSW of the DG range (2cables NNW) (3.146),
marked on its W side by a light-buoy (special),
thence:
E of Kastellet (4 cables NNW), and:
E of the dolphins (5 cables NNW), marking the
second DG range (3.146), N of Kastellet.
Entry to Stärnö Vindhamn
3.155
1
Vindhamn Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (orange triangles, elevations 14
and 17 m respectively, 60 m apart) (56°08′⋅7N,
14°51′⋅3E), displayed from the head of the harbour.
The alignment (206°) of these lights leads 6 cables
SSW from a position between the buoys marking the NE
limit of the buoyed channnel, through a buoyed (lateral)
channel to the quays on the W side of the harbour.
CHAPTER 3
136
3.156
1
Useful marks:
Chimney (red light) (56°10′⋅0N, 14°49′⋅1E).
Silo (56°09′⋅7N, 14°51′⋅5E), on W side of
Centralhamnen.
Karlshamn Church (56°10′⋅3N, 14°51′⋅7E).
2
Beacon (white) (56°09′⋅7N, 14°51′⋅9E), on rock close
N of Kastellet (3.145).
Vägga Södra Light-structure (white mast, elevation
5 m) (56°09′⋅1N, 14°53′⋅1E), which stands on the
islet of Ytter Ortholmen.
Basins and berths
Stillerydshamnen
3.157
1
The principal berths lie in the W basin, in the S part,
with 230 m of berthing space and a depth alongside of
11 m. They are well equipped to handle containers and
general cargo.
At the SW tip there is a Ro-Ro terminal and berth, with
a depth alongside of 11⋅0 m. In the N part there is further
berthing space, including another two Ro-Ro terminals,
with depths of about 8 m.
2
In the E basin there is a further Ro-Ro berth, at the S
end, formed by two breasting dolphins and a 13⋅4 m wide
ramp, with a depth alongside of 8 m. A further 500 m of
berthing space is available in the inner part.
Oxhaga Nabb Oil Jetty lies on a point close E of the E
basin and is 80 m long with a depth alongside of 13⋅0 m. It
can receive vessels up to 220 m in length.
3
Kölöhamnen Oil Jetty, the principal oil berth, lies
1 cable SSE of Oxhaga Nabb. It is privately owned by
Sydkraft to serve the nearby power station and has a length
of 100 m, including the breasting dolphins, with a depth
alongside of 14⋅0 m. It can receive vessels up to 260 m in
length.
4
Caution. Mariners should note that the E limit of the
dredged area in the vicinity of these oil berths is marked
by two beacons, with triangular white boards, on an
alignment of about 328°, standing close NE of Oxhaga
Nabb jetty. Vessels should not overrun the berths on
approach.
Karlshamn Centralhamnen
3.158
1
Sutudden Oil Jetty is the principal oil berth which lies
close inside the breakwaters on the W side. It is 70 m in
length and has a depth alongside of 11⋅0 m. Vessels of up
to 190 m in length can be received.
Sojakajen together with Oceankajen are the principal
cargo quays, and have a total berthing space of 400 m with
a depth alongside of 8⋅5 m. They are well equipped to
handle bulk grain and other cargo.
2
In the N part of the harbour, on the W bank of the river
mouth there is a further 400 m of berthing space. On the E
bank there is 200 m of berthing space, mainly for small
craft. Depths are from 5⋅0 to 6⋅0 m.
On the E pier, 1 cable N of Kastellet, there is a ferry
terminal and Ro-Ro berth with 15 m wide ramp and a
depth alongside of 7⋅5 m.
Stärnö Vindhamn
3.159
1
The harbour contains four quays with a total length of
400 m and a depth alongside of 6⋅0 m. Its principal use is
the export of forest products.
In the S part of the harbour several jetties for the use of
small craft extend up to 150 m from the shore.
Port services
3.160
1
Repairs. Minor repairs only. At Stärnö Vindhamn there
is patent slip 43 m in length with a lifting capacity of
500 tonnes.
Other facilities. Deratting; oily waste disposal;
authorised compass adjusters; degaussing; hospital.
Supplies. Fuel; fresh water at all berths; provisions.
2
Rescue. The pilot boat acts as a lifeboat when required.
Communications. Nearest airport at Ronneby, 30 km
distant. Regular ferry services to Denmark, Germany and
other Swedish ports.
Fishing harbour
Vägga
3.161
1
Vägga (56°09′⋅5N, 14°53′⋅2E), a small fishing harbour,
lies in an inlet on the E side of Karlshamnsfjorden 1 mile
SSE of Karlshamn.
The harbour is protected by breakwaters to the W and S
and is suitable for vessels with a draught up to 3⋅7 m.
There is a total of 237 m of berthing space with depths of
3 to 4 m alongside and a number of small boat berths with
depths alongside of 1⋅0 to 2⋅5 m.
2
Entry. From the S the harbour is approached and
entered between Ytter Ortholmen (56°09′⋅1N, 14°53′⋅0E),
an islet from which Vägga Södra Light (3.156) is
displayed, and Vägga udde, a point 2 cables farther E,
through a channel which leads for 4 cables in the white
sector (344°–354°) of Vägga Light (white framework
tower), displayed from the head of the E breakwater.
3
An alternative entry, suitable for a draught of 3⋅2 m, is
through a channel from the W, leading from close S of
Ortholmen Lighthouse (3.152) to the W breakwater.
Facilities. A slip and a boatyard within the harbour.
KARLSHAMN TO THE APPROACHES TO
KARLSKRONA
General information
Charts 2855, 2856, 2857, 2360.
Route
3.162
1
The route follows the coast from a position S of
Karlshamn (56°10′N, 14°52′E) (3.129), E for about
23 miles to a position SSW of Karlskrona (56°10′N,
15°36′E) (3.250), in the vicinity of the main entrance
channel.
Topography
3.163
1
The coast between Karlshamn and Karlskrona is
generally low with few significant features and some
wooded areas. The coastline is indented with numerous
inlets. Shoal areas and many small islands extend about
3 miles offshore.
CHAPTER 3
137
Exercise area
3.164
1
Firing practice areas lie within the area covered by this
route as shown on the chart; see 1.22.
Dumping ground
3.165
1
An explosives dumping ground, shown on the chart, is
centred 1miles SE of Utklippan (55°57′⋅3N, 15°42′⋅4E).
Anchoring and underwater operations are prohibited within
the area.
Natural conditions
3.166
1
Local magnetic anomaly. Local magnetic anomalies
have been reported in an area about 8 miles SE of Gåsfeten
(56°07′⋅3N, 15°13′⋅5E), an islet in the approaches to
Ronnebyhamn (3.170).
Currents. Unpredictable currents exist in the vicinity of
Utklippan (55°57′⋅3N, 15°42′⋅4E). The position of the
vessel should be checked frequently.
Principal marks
3.167
1
Landmarks:
Matvikshög Beacon (black square on red pole, 18 m
in height) (56°10′⋅3N, 14°57′⋅6E), standing on the
summit of a sparsely wooded hill.
Ronneby Water Tower (56°12′⋅6N, 15°17′⋅0E).
Karlskrona Water Tower (56°10′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅0E),
standing on an island close N of Karlskrona.
2
Major lights:
Hanö Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E) (3.87).
Karlshamn-Gungvalla Aero Light (56°13′⋅6N,
14°46′⋅7E).
Ronneby Kallinge Aero Light (56°16′N, 15°16′E).
(chart 2816).
Tving Aero Light (56°17′⋅0N, 15°29′⋅6E) (chart
2816).
Utklippan Light (55°57′⋅2N, 15°42′⋅0E) (3.206).
Other aids to navigation
3.168
1
Racons:
Gåsfeten Lighthouse (white tower, red roof, 10 m in
height) (56°07′⋅3N, 15°13′⋅4E).
Västra Försänkningen Light (56°06′⋅5N, 15°34′⋅5E)
(3.211).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
3.169
1
From a position S of Karlshamn in the vicinity of the
outer pilot boarding place (56°05′⋅0N, 14°51′⋅8E) the route
leads 23 miles E to the vicinity of Karlskrona angöring
Light-buoy (56°03′⋅2N, 15°33′⋅5E), passing (with positions
from Gåsfeten Lighthouse (56°07′⋅3N, 15°13′⋅4E):
S of Tärnö (8miles W) (3.183), thence:
S of Tånghällan (3 miles WSW), the S end of a shoal
patch, marked by a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
2
S of Sättekullarna (6miles ESE), marked by a buoy
(W cardinal), thence:
S of Ytterknuven (8miles ESE), a 10 m shoal
patch, marked by a buoy (S cardinal), and:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (10 miles ESE).
(Directions for Karlskrona main entrance are at 3.208,
for W entrance at 3.219 and for E entrance at 3.235)
Ronneby
Charts 2857 with plan of Ronneby Hamn
General information
3.170
1
Position. Ronneby (56°12′⋅5N, 15°17′⋅0E) lies on the
Ronnebyån, 2 miles N of the harbour area. The
population is about 35 000.
Ronnebyhamn (56°10′⋅5N, 15°18′⋅0E) lies at the mouth
of the river in the N end of Ronnebyfjärden.
Function. The port is a small commercial harbour with
facilities for handling general and liquid cargoes. Principal
imports include chemicals, oils and steel plate. Exports
include wood pulp, timber products and ingots.
2
Approach and entry. The harbour is approached on the
alignment of leading lights, through a channel marked by
buoys and light-buoys and authorised for a draught of
5⋅5 m, and entered on the alignment of leading lights,
through a dredged channel marked by buoys and
light-buoys. A secondary channel lies to the E of the main
channel.
Port Authority. Ronneby Hamnkontoret, PO Box 3160,
S–37203, Ronneby.
Limiting conditions
3.171
1
Deepest and longest berths.
W side — Quay No 5 (oil) (3.180).
E side — Quay No 6–7 (timber and general).
Water levels. The normal variation is 0⋅7 m above or
below MSL but strong W winds may cause the level to fall
by up to 1⋅0 m.
Density of water: 1⋅000 g/cm
3
.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. A vessel with LOA
of 152 m and draught 6⋅1 m.
Ice. The harbour is normally free from ice but severe
winters may cause ice during February and March. See
1.253.
Current. At times, manoeuvring in the harbour may be
difficult due to currents in Ronnebyån, caused by heavy
outflow.
Arrival information
3.172
1
Port radio. Ronneby Hamnradio (Harbour radio). See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the chart,
in an area to the N of Stora Ekön (56°08′⋅5N, 15°13′⋅3E),
an islet 3miles SW of the harbour, in depths of 7 to
10 m, clay.
2
Small vessels may obtain anchorage, in areas each side
of the fairway, 2 cables S of Ronnebyhamn, in depths of
between 3⋅8 to 5⋅0 m.
Anchoring is prohibited on the leading light alignments
and in the narrow white sectors of the fairway lights.
3
Pilotage and tugs. Pilots may be obtained from
Karlshamn (3.129), and ordered from VTS Malmö. Tugs
must be ordered from Karlshamn or Karlskrona.
Speed. A speed restriction of 5 kn is in force in the
harbour entrance and the river. This limit also applies in
the small craft channels to the W of the harbour.
Harbour
3.173
1
Description. The harbour is formed by quays
constructed on the W and E banks of the river mouth. A
rail swing bridge spans the river 1cables N of the
entrance. It has a vertical clearance of 2⋅0 m when closed
CHAPTER 3
138
and a navigable opening 10 m wide in the open position. A
road bridge spans the river close S of the rail bridge.
There are general depths of 6⋅5 m in the harbour area.
Landmark
3.174
1
Ronneby Water Tower (56°12′⋅6N, 15°17′⋅0E).
Directions
3.175
1
Saxemara Leading Lights:
Front light (brown lantern, white on side facing
alignment) (56°09′⋅2N, 15°14′⋅1E), displayed from
a rock 2 miles NNE of Gåsfeten Lighthouse
(56°07′⋅3N, 15°13′⋅4E).
Rear light (brown lantern, white with two red bands
on side facing alignment, elevation 10 m)
(56°09′⋅8N, 15°14′⋅4E), displayed from a rock
7 cables NNE of front light.
2
From a position about 2miles SSW of Gåsfeten Light
the alignment (018°) of these lights leads 3 miles NNE
through the fairway to a position close NNE of Eskelen
Beacon, passing (with positions from Gåsfeten Light):
WNW of Slånakullen, a shoal patch marked by a
buoy (S cardinal) (8 cables S), thence:
3
ESE of Sommargrund, a shoal patch marked by a
buoy (port hand) (9 cables SSW), thence:
ESE of Östra Fittjakullen, a shoal marked on its E
side by a buoy (port hand) (4 cables W), and:
WNW of Gåsfeten, on which stands Gåsfeten Light
(3.168), thence:
4
ESE of Eskelen (6 cables NNW), on which stands a
beacon (red, 2⋅6 m in height). It is prudent to
deviate slightly E of the leading line passing
Eskelen in order to pass well clear of the shoal
area.
3.176
1
Central section. Svanvik Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on orange pedestal, elevation
5 m) (56°09′⋅4N, 15°14′⋅8E), displayed from the
SE side of Funkön, the islet close W of Harön.
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 10 m)
(56°09′⋅7N, 15°15′⋅1E), displayed from the W side
of Harön.
Harön Leading Beacons (white triangles, 50 m apart),
standing on the S end of Harön.
2
The alignment (029°) of the above lights, and the
alignment (042°) of the beacons leads initially 1 mile
NNE, thence a further 5 cables NE to a position 3 cables
NE of Dunsön (3.189), passing (with positions from
Eskelen Beacon):
3
Over an 8⋅4 m patch in the middle of the track
(3 cables NNE). In unfavourable weather
conditions deep-draught vessels should monitor the
depth and pass clear of the patch if possible.
Thence:
ESE of a 4⋅7 m shoal (4 cables NNE), and:
NW of 5 m shoal (5 cables NNE), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
4
E of a 2⋅0 m shoal (1⋅1 miles NNE), marked by a
light-buoy (port hand), and:
NW of the shoal area extending W from Dunsön
(1⋅3 miles NNE), marked by a buoy (starboard
hand), thence:
SSE of the S limit of the shoal area S of Funkön
(1miles NNE), marked by a light-buoy (port
hand).
Thence to the alignment of:
3.177
1
North section. Aspan Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on framework tower,
elevation 5 m) (56°09′⋅4N, 15°18′⋅4E).
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 8 m)
(56°09′⋅4N, 15°19′⋅0E), 662 m E from front light.
The alignment (087°) of these lights leads 1miles E
through a channel, marked by buoys and a light-buoy
(lateral), to a position 6 cables from the front light, passing
(with positions from Aspan rear light):
2
N of Ulvask (2 mile W), thence:
S of Stekö Lighthouse (white diamond on orange
pedestal) (1mile W), thence:
S of Lilla Ekön Beacon (1miles W), and:
N of Lindesk (1miles W).
3
The white sector (266°–269°), astern, of Svanviksudde
Light (grey framework tower), displayed close SW of
Svanvik Front Light described above, forms a reciprocal
lead for Aspan Leading Lights through the above channel.
Thence the track leads 8 cables NNE to the entrance
channel, through a channel marked by buoys and a
light-buoy, in the white sector (030°–033°) of Sandviken
Light (white diamond on orange pedestal) (56°10′⋅4N,
15°18′⋅4E).
4
Thence the harbour entrance channel leads 3cables N
on the alignment (358°) of Ronneby Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on post, elevation 14 m),
displayed from the E side of the harbour.
Rear light (similar structure) (150 m N from front
light).
3.178
1
Eastern channel. A channel, suitable for vessels with a
draught up to 3 m, runs through Danziger gatt, about
3 miles S of Ronnebyhamn.
Gökalv Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on framework tower)
(56°08′⋅3N, 15°16′⋅9E) on an islet, Norra Kråken.
Rear light (similar structure) (1cables from front
light) at Mulaholmen.
2
From a position close E of the buoy (W cardinal),
moored 1miles SW of Göudde (56°07′⋅5N, 15°18′⋅7E),
the S point of the Gö peninsula, the track initially leads N
on the alignment (358°) of these lights, thence NNW
within the white sector (329°−331°) of Högaskär Light
(mast) (56°08′⋅8N, 15°16′⋅1E)) and NNE to join the main
channel 7 cables W of Aspan front light (3.177) passing
(with positions from Göudde):
3
W of Rafflorna (1 mile WSW), thence:
Through the channel, marked by buoys (lateral), in
Danziger gatt (1 mile NW), thence:
W of Gökalv (1miles NW), the W point of the
peninsula, and:
4
SE of Högaskär (2 miles NW), an islet on which
stands Hogstar Light, thence:
NNE for 1 mile to join the main channel as described
above.
3.179
1
Useful mark:
Saxemara Church (56°10′⋅1N, 15°13′⋅9E).
Berths
3.180
1
On the W side the principal berth is Quay No 3 which
has a length of 100 m, and a depth alongside of 6⋅0 m. It is
the oil jetty.
CHAPTER 3
139
There is further berthing space amounting to a length of
200 m with depths alongside of 3⋅5 to 6⋅5 m. At the W end
of the S jetty, a pontoon extends 48 m S into the harbour; a
marine farm lies W of the pontoon.
2
On the E side the principal berth is Quay No 6–7 with a
length of 100 m and a depth alongside of 4⋅5 m and a
small boat quay with a length of 70 m.
Port services
3.181
1
Repairs: minor repairs.
Other facilities: oily waste reception; authorised
compass adjuster; customs office; doctor.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Nearest international airport at
Ronneby, 10 km N of Ronnebyhamn.
Anchorages and harbours
Charts 2856, 2857, 2360 (see 1.34)
3.182
1
General information. Between Karlshamn and
Ronnebyhamn, 14 miles E, there are a number of anchorage
loading places and small anchorages which are briefly
described but should not be approached without local
knowledge or the assistance of a pilot. See 1.32.
Tärnö
3.183
1
Description. Tärnö (56°07′⋅0N, 14°58′⋅5E), a small
island which lies 4 miles SE of Karlshamn (3.129), has a
bare summit surrounded by trees.
Harbour. Tärnöhamn lies in a bay on the N coast and is
a fishing harbour suitable for vessels with a draught up to
about 4⋅0 m. It has a small pier with a depth alongside of
3⋅5 m. The bay does not afford good anchorage. Local
knowledge is required.
2
Ice may be expected from January to March.
Pilots may be obtained from Karlshamn.
Directions for entry. The main channel, authorised for a
draught of 5⋅3 m, leads between the NE point of Tärnö,
from where a light (white lantern, elevation 5 m) is
displayed when required, and Harö, an islet 2 cables NE.
3
Approach from the SE with Matvikshög Beacon
(56°10′⋅3N, 14°57′⋅6E) (3.167) bearing 344°, or
alternatively, with Joppö Beacon (orange post) (56°08′⋅6N,
14°58′⋅5E), standing on a rock 1⋅2 miles N of the above
light, in line with Baggahegna Light (56°09′⋅2N, 14°58′⋅1E)
(lantern on post, orange rectangle), displayed from an islet
7 cables NNW of the beacon, bearing 343°.
4
This alignment and bearing leads about 1 mile NNW to
the entrance channel, marked by buoys (lateral), which then
leads a further 9 cables NW and S through the channel to
the harbour passing (with positions from the NE point light
described above):
Clear E of Tjuvnabbsrevet (1cables SSE), and:
Clear W of the shoal area extending SW from Harö,
thence:
NE of Ebbaskär (3 cables NW), and:
SE of Hästkläpp (5 cables NW).
5
Approach may be made from the W but this channel is
poorly marked and twisted. Enter from a position close N
of Skallöragrund, a shoal patch 3 cables NW of the NW
point of Tärnö, marked by a buoy (starboard hand). Thence
follow the buoys (lateral), marking the channel to the bay.
Useful mark. Tärnö Lighthouse (white lantern, elevation
31 m), standing close N of the S point of the island.
Supplies: fuel oil; provisions; fresh water.
Vettekulla
3.184
1
Vettekulla (56°09′⋅6N, 14°55′⋅1E), a small anchorage and
loading place lies in an inlet 2 miles ESE of Karlshamn.
There is a small pier with a depth alongside of 3⋅5 m.
Pilots may be obtained from Karlshamn.
Anchorage may be obtained for small vessels, in depths
of 5⋅0 m, sand. Local knowledge is required.
2
Approach and entry are made from the inshore traffic
route E of Karlshamn, shown on the chart, leading NE for
about 1 mile, thence through a channel suitable for a
draught of 3⋅5 m.
Matvik
3.185
1
Description. Matvik (56°10′N, 14°58′E), is a small
loading place and anchorage area situated 3miles E of
Karlshamn (3.129), in the N part of Matviksfjärden near
the mouth of Tränsum Å.
Ice. The inlet is usually closed by ice from January to
March.
Anchorage may be obtained in a position 7 cables SSE
of Matvikshög Beacon (56°10′⋅3N, 14°57′⋅6E) (3.167), in
depths of 9 to 14 m, clay.
2
Submarine power cable is laid close E of the
anchorage, as shown on the plan.
Pilots may be obtained from Karlshamn.
Speed limit of 7 kn is in force in Matviksfjärden.
3.186
1
Directions — Main channel — from west. Follow the
directions for Karlshamn approach given at 3.152 to
embark a pilot 1 mile SSE of Lakknallarna (3.152).
Thence, from a position 5 cables WSW of Eneskärv
Beacon (56°08′⋅6N, 14°53′⋅9E) (3.147), follow the
recommended track, as shown on the plan and authorised
for a draught of 8⋅2 m, 3 miles ENE to Matvik, passing
through the narrow channel marked by buoys (lateral) N of
Nästensö, an islet 1miles SW of Matvikshög Beacon.
2
Secondary channel — from east. Local knowledge is
required. From a position to seaward about 2 miles E of
Tärnö (56°07′⋅0N, 14°58′⋅5E) (3.183), approach with
Matvikshög Beacon in line with Fåröholm (56°09′⋅6N,
14°58′⋅7E), an islet close W of Fårö, on which stands a
beacon (white cairn, white cask topmark, 4 m in height), on
a bearing of 320°.
3
This alignment (320°) leads 2miles NW, through a
channel authorised for a draught of 5 m. Thence the
channel leads a further 9 cables WNW to Matvik, passing
(with positions from Baggahegna Light-structure
(56°09′⋅2N, 14°58′⋅1E) (3.183)):
NE of Vitaskär, a small bare rock (1miles SSE),
thence:
4
SW of Mjöö, an islet on which stand two beacons
(1miles SE), and:
NE of Bockö, an islet on which stands a beacon
(1 mile SSE), thence:
WNW through the narrow channel, marked by a buoy
(port hand), SW of Fårö (6 cables NE).
Guövik and Järnavik
3.187
1
Description. Guövik (56°11′⋅7N, 15°00′⋅8E), together
with Järnavik (56°10′⋅8N, 15°04′⋅3E), are two loading
places which lie in inlets on the NW and NE sides of a
large bay, containing a number of islets, situated and
entered about 6 miles E of Karlshamn (3.129).
CHAPTER 3
140
There are two jetties at Guövik with depths alongside of
2⋅3 and 2⋅6 m, respectively, and a jetty at Järnavik with a
depth alongside of 3⋅0 m.
2
Ice. The bay is often closed by ice from January to
March. See 1.255.
Minefield. A permanent minefield, shown on Swedish
charts, is laid in the approaches to the bay.
Anchorage may be obtained, with local knowledge, in a
position about 9 cables NNW of Tjärö Beacon (56°09′⋅6N,
15°03′⋅1E), in charted depths of about 12 m.
3.188
1
Approach and entry. Approach to both harbours from
seaward is through a common entrance channel, authorised
for a draught of 5⋅0 m, which divides, the W branch
leading to Guövik, the E branch to Järnavik.
2
From a position to seaward about 2 miles ENE of Tärnö
(56°07′⋅0N, 14°58′⋅5E), the track leads initially 1miles
NNE to a position 2cables SE of the islet of Gråskär
(56°09′⋅0N, 15°02′⋅5E) where the channel divides. The W
channel leads 2miles NNW through Guöviken passing E
of Skiftesön, an islet 5 cables NNW of Gråskär and W of
Tjärö, an island 5 cables NNE of Gråskär, to the entrance
channel, suitable for a draught of 2⋅3 m.
3
The E branch channel leads 2 miles NNE to Järnavik
with the entrance of Järnaviksfjärden bearing 022°, to pass
close E of Ytter Gåse, a small dark rock 3 cables NE of
Tjärö Beacon (56°09′⋅6N, 15°03′⋅1E), thence keeping the
entrance ahead on that bearing.
Supplies: fuel oil; provisions; fresh water at Guövik.
Inshore channel
3.189
1
An inshore channel, marked by buoys (lateral), narrow
and twisting, for small craft only, leads from the
approaches to Järnavik about 8 miles E to join the main
Ronnebyhamn approach channel close W of Dunsön
(56°09′N, 15°15′E), an islet 2 miles SW of
Ronnebyhamn. A list of useful marks close to this channel
is given below.
3.190
1
Useful marks:
Tvegöl Beacon (white conical cairn) (56°08′⋅0N,
15°05′⋅4E), standing on an islet 4 miles ENE of
Tärnö Lighthouse (3.183).
Vitaskär Light-structure (white lantern, elevation 7 m)
(56°08′⋅4N, 15°06′⋅0E).
Saltärna Light-structure (white lantern, elevation 7 m)
(56°08′⋅7N, 15°10′⋅5E), displayed from the E point
of the island.
Göholm
3.191
1
Göholm (56°07′⋅7N, 15°19′⋅0E), a small fishing harbour,
lies 3cables NNE of Göudde (3.178) on the W side of
Kålviken, an inlet at the SE end of Gö peninsula.
The harbour is formed by two breakwaters and is
suitable for vessels with a draught up to 2 m; the entrance
faces NE between the breakwaters. A quay in the S part of
the harbour has depths alongside of 2⋅5 to 3⋅0 m.
2
Approach from seaward in the white sector (011°–026°)
of Millegarne Light (white rectangle on framework tower,
elevation 8 m) (56°07′⋅7N, 15°19′⋅5E), displayed when
required 5cables ENE of Göudde.
This track clears all charted dangers, passing (with
positions from Göudde (56°07′⋅5N, 15°18′⋅7E)):
3
W of Kullarna (1 mile S), and:
E of Rännbåden Rock (4 cables S), thence:
NNE for 7 cables to the harbour entrance.
KARLSKRONA AND APPROACHES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2857 with plan of Karlskrona
Area covered
3.192
1
The area covered by this section comprises the whole of
the Karlskrona archipelago including entrance channels,
minor harbours within the area, and a description of the
port of Karlskrona.
It is arranged as follows:
Main entrance and approaches (3.200).
Western approaches (3.215).
Eastern approaches (3.228).
Karlskrona (3.250).
Topography
3.193
1
The coastline of the mainland is mainly low with
extensive wooded areas. Farther inland the land rises
gradually. Islands are generally low and difficult to identify
although some have clumps of trees. Tångalund (56°06′⋅2N,
15°27′⋅2E), is a sharply defined, prominent clump of trees
on the SW part of Hasslö.
2
In the E part of the archipelago the island of Utlängan is
low and bare but there are several houses and a lighthouse
which are clearly visible from seaward.
Two rivers, Nättrabyån (3.227) and Lyckebyån, flow into
the inlets which lie to the NW and NE of Karlskrona.
Pilotage
3.194
1
Pilotage is provided by Karlshamn and is available
24 hours. The appropriate pilot ordering centre is VTS
Malmö. Pilot boards close to Karlskrona angöring
Light-buoy (56°03′⋅2N, 15°33′⋅5E). See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Rescue
3.195
1
The Swedish Sea Rescue Association has a fully
equipped station with two rescue craft stationed at
Garpahamnen (56°06′N, 15°29′E) (3.226), on the SE side
of Hasslö (3.215). See 1.156.
Submarine barriers
3.196
1
The navigable channels to the inner fjords in the
Karlskrona archipelago are fitted with submarine barriers
which may, if necessary for military reasons, be used to
close each channel.
Anchoring, fishing and underwater operations are
prohibited in the channels affected.
2
Barriers are fitted in the following channels:
Hasslöbron (3.217).
Channel between Hasslö (3.226) and N Bollö
(56°06′⋅4N, 15°29′⋅6E).
Djupasundsbron (3.239).
Skällöbron (3.237).
Möcklöbron (3.235).
CHAPTER 3
141
Restricted area
3.197
1
The majority of the islands and channels in the
approaches to Karlskrona lie within a restricted military
area, the limits of which are shown on the chart. For
details of regulations within these areas see 1.87.
Exercise areas
3.198
1
Certain areas within the Karlskrona archipelago are
designated firing areas. Warning signals may be posted at
the following locations when firing is taking place:
Långören Front Leading Light (56°03′⋅9N, 15°49′⋅4E)
(3.235).
Västra Försänkningen Light (56°06′⋅5N, 15°34′⋅5E)
(3.211).
Äspeskär Light (56°08′⋅5N, 15°37′⋅8E) (3.212).
For details see Admiralty List of Lights Volume C. See
also 1.22.
Submarine cables
3.199
1
Numerous submarine cables, shown on the chart, are
laid across the channels in the Karlskrona archipelago.
MAIN ENTRANCE AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 2857 with plan of Karlslrona, 2360
Description
3.200
1
The main approach and entrance to Karlskrona
archipelago is from the S. The entrance to the bay lies
between the islands of Aspö (56°07′N, 15°33′E) and Tjurkö
(56°07′N, 15°37′E). Numerous shoals extend up to 3 miles
S of the main entrance but the majority of these are well
marked by buoys and their positions can be seen on the
plan.
2
Two channels lead to the entrance, the main channel and
a secondary alternative which runs parallel and 5 cables W
of the main channel. These channels merge close S of the
entrance which lies between Drottningskär (56°06′⋅7N,
15°34′⋅0E) on the W side, and Kungsholmen 8 cables
farther E.
Thence, the channel leads through Yttre redden to
various areas of the harbour.
Draught
3.201
1
The maximum authorised draught in the entrance
channel to the outer roads is 10⋅0 m.
Minefield
3.202
1
A permanent minefield, shown on the chart, is laid in
the main entrance to Karlskrona within which anchoring,
fishing and other underwater activities are prohibited.
Pilotage
3.203
1
See 3.194.
Submarine cables and pipelines
3.204
1
Numerous submarine cables and power cables, shown on
the chart, are laid across the channels in this area.
A pipeline is laid from Drottningskär to Kungsholmen,
passing 4 cables N of Västra Försänkningen Light.
Ice
3.205
1
Sea ice is present during January, February and
occasionally March, in the archipelago during normal
winters. In severe winters it can be quite compact.
Principal marks
3.206
1
Landmarks:
Karlskrona Water Tower (56°10′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅0E),
standing on Vämö close N of Karlskrona.
Aspö Pilot Lookout (disused) (56°06′⋅5N, 15°33′⋅3E).
Major lights:
Ronneby Kallinge Aero Light (56°16′N, 15°16′E)
(chart 2816).
2
Tving Aero Light (56°17′⋅0N, 15°29′⋅6E) (chart
2816).
Karlskrona Leading Lights, rear light (56°10′⋅2N,
15°36′⋅2E) (3.209).
Utklippan Light (red framework tower on old fort,
30 m in height) (55°57′⋅2N, 15°42′⋅0E).
Utlängan Light (56°00′⋅8N, 15°47′⋅2E) (3.218).
Other aid to navigation
3.207
1
Racon:
Västra Försänkningen Light (56°06′⋅5N, 15°34′⋅5E)
(3.211).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.169)
3.208
1
Approach from southeast and east. Vessels
approaching with a draught exceeding 8 m should pass S of
Utklippan (55°57′⋅5N, 15°42′⋅3E), the S islet of the
archipelago surrounded by rocks and shoals, due to the
many shoals which exist in the channel between Utklippan
and Utlängan (56°01′⋅5N, 15°47′⋅5E) (3.193), an island
5 miles NE. Large vessels should keep 4 miles off the coast
between Utlängan and Karlskrona main entrance.
2
An additional useful indication of position for vessels
from the S or SE is sounding from the 40 m contour which
runs about 3miles to 5 miles off Utklippan.
For vessels with lesser draughts; from a position about
3 miles SSE of Utlängan the channel between Utlängan and
Utklippan leads about 5 miles WNW to a position about
2miles SW of Eldsten Beacon (56°02′⋅2N, 15°44′⋅9E)
(3.244), passing (with positions from Utlängan Light
(3.218)):
3
SSW of Klotet Light-buoy (S cardinal), moored
7 cables SSE of the shoal awash, and another buoy
(S cardinal) moored close W, (1miles SSE),
thence:
NNE of Rosenklintsgrunden (4 miles SSW), marked
by a buoy (E cardinal), thence:
4
NNE of a buoy (N cardinal), marking Holmebåden,
(3 miles SSW), and:
SSW of Saltbåden (5 cables SW), which is awash,
marked by a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
NNE of Utmylingen, a shoal patch (3 miles SW) with
a least depth of 7⋅0 m.
5
Thence the track leads 6 miles WNW, clear of any
charted dangers, to the vicinity of Karlskrona angöring
Light-buoy (safewater) (56°03′⋅2N, 15°33′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 3
142
Caution. Submarine power cables, shown on the chart,
are laid across the channel between Utlängan and
Utklippan.
Main channel
3.209
1
Karlskrona Leading Lights:
Front light (white round concrete tower, 24 m in
height) (56°09′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅0E), displayed from
Stumholmen.
Rear light (similar structure, 15 m in height),
displayed from Vämö, 7 cables NNE from front
light.
2
From a position SSW of Karlskrona angöring Light-buoy
(3.208), which lies on the leading line, the alignment
(012°) of these lights leads, in the white sector
(003°–015°) of Västra Försänkningen Light, 4 miles NNE
to the entrance passing (with positions from the light):
3
Either side of Karlskrona angöring Light-buoy
(3miles SSW), thence:
E of Farstugrund (2miles SSW), thence:
WNW of Esten (2miles S), marked by a buoy (W
cardinal), thence:
4
ESE of Saltknölen (1miles SSW), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
WNW of Sundsbåden (1miles S), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), and:
ESE of Ällebåden (1 mile SSW), marked on its E
side by a buoy (port hand), thence:
5
W of Yttre Hjortgrundet (1 mile S), marked on its
NW side by a light-buoy (starboard hand).
Thence, to avoid passing too close to Västra
Försänkningen Light-structure, bring Godnatt Fort ahead on
a bearing of 015°, or by night, into the white sector
(013°–017°) of Godnatt Light (grey fort) (56°08′⋅5N,
15°35′⋅9E). These alignments lead clear through the
entrance.
3.210
1
Alternative channel. From a position about 5 cables W
of Karlskrona angöring Light-buoy the recommended track,
shown on the chart, leads 2miles NNE thence 1 mile NE
to join the main channel 4 cables S of the entrance, passing
(with positions from Busören (56°04′⋅8N, 15°30′⋅1E)):
ESE of Flaggrund (1 mile SE), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
2
ESE of Aspösten (1miles E), on which stands a
beacon, thence:
WNW of Saltknölen (2 miles E), marked by a buoy
(W cardinal), and:
WNW of Allebåden (2miles ENE), marked by a
buoy (W cardinal).
3
Thence 1 mile NE with the NW edge of Kungsholmen
Fort ahead bearing about 045° to join the main channel
4 cables S of the entrance. Thence follow the directions for
that channel.
Entrance and Yttre redden
3.211
1
The entrance, which is 1cables wide, lies between
obstructions extending from Drottningskär (56°06′⋅7N,
15°34′⋅0E) (3.214), and Kungsholmen 8 cables farther E.
The seaward ends of the obstructions are marked, on the W
side by Västra Försänkningen Light (white and red dolphin;
floodlit) (56°06′⋅5N, 15°34′⋅5E), and on the E side by Östra
Försänkningen Light, 1cables farther E.
2
Thence, with Verkö Light (white rectangle on framework
tower) (56°10′⋅2N, 15°38′⋅0E) ahead bearing 025°, or, by
night, in the white sector (023°–029°) of the light, the track
leads 2miles NNE through Yttre redden to the anchorage
area E of Godnatt passing (with positions from Västra
Försänkningen Light):
WNW of Kungsholmen Breakwater Light (framework
tower; floodlit) (5 cables E), thence:
3
ESE of Gärskullen (7 cables N), marked at its E
extremity by a buoy (port hand), thence:
ESE of Lindelövsgrund (1miles NNE), marked by
a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
E of Godnatt (2 miles NNE), and:
W of a 5⋅1 m shoal patch (2miles NE), marked by
a buoy (N cardinal).
Useful marks
3.212
1
Tjurkösten Beacon, standing on a low rock
(56°04′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅2E).
Aspösten Beacon (rectangle, black over white),
standing on a low rock (56°04′⋅9N, 15°32′⋅0E).
Drottningskär Fort, situated on the W side of the
entrance (56°06′⋅6N, 15°33′⋅8E).
Kungsholmen Fort, situated on the E side of the
entrance, 8 cables E of the fort above.
2
Godnatt Fort and Light-structure (56°08′⋅5N,
15°35′⋅7E) (3.209).
Fredrikskyrkan, the tallest church in Karlskrona, with
twin towers (56°09′⋅7N, 15°35′⋅3E).
Tower (red light; 88 m in height) (56°10′⋅1N,
15°38′⋅2E).
Radio mast (56°10′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅1E), close E of
Karlskrona Water Tower (3.206).
Äspeskär Light (post) (56°08′⋅5N, 15°37′⋅8E).
(Directions continue at 3.265)
Anchorage and harbours
Anchorage
3.213
1
Anchorage may be obtained in an area to the E of
Godnatt (3.209), between the islets of Getskär (56°08′⋅8N,
15°36′⋅2E) (3.265) and Äspeskär, 1 mile ESE, in depths of
15 m to 19 m, clay.
Anchorage is prohibited in the mined area (3.202) in the
entrance to Karlskrona and also within the channels fitted
with submarine barriers (3.196).
3.214
1
Drottningskär (56°06′⋅7N, 15°34′⋅0E) is a small fishing
harbour, formed by moles, with depths up to 2⋅8 m, situated
on the E coast of Aspö close to the entrance to Karlskrona.
WESTERN APPROACHES
General information
Chart 2857 with plan of Karlskrona
Description
3.215
1
The W approach lies between Lindö (56°07′⋅1N,
15°21′⋅0E), a point 1miles ESE of Göudde (3.178) and
Hasslö (56°06′⋅5N, 15°28′⋅0E), an island 5 miles SW of
Karlskrona.
2
The first part of the channel, from sea to the bridge at
the N end of Hasslö, is narrow and tortuous. Local
knowledge is required.
Thence the second section of the channel leads E
through the more open waters of Västrafjärden to join the
main channel S of Karlskrona.
CHAPTER 3
143
Depths
3.216
1
The W channel is authorised for a draught of 4⋅2 m.
Hasslöbron
3.217
1
Hasslöbron is a swing bridge which spans the channel
between the S end of Almö (56°08′⋅0N, 15°27′⋅5E) and
Västra Hästholmen, an islet 3 cables S. It has a navigable
opening 20 m wide and a vertical clearance of 4⋅0 m under
the span when closed. The channel passes through the N
span of the bridge.
Lights are displayed at each side of the W and E
approaches to the bridge and the passage is illuminated.
2
Operation and signals. The channel and bridge are TV
monitored and remotely controlled from the coastguard
centre on Kungsholmen (Kungsholms Fort) (56°06′⋅3N,
15°35′⋅3E), situated in the main entrance to Karlskrona.
Requests for opening may be made by giving the sound
signal Morse letter G, or alternatively calling Kungsholmen
direct via VHF channels.
3
Passage is regulated by light signals displayed from the
control cabin at the bridge as follows:
Light exhibited Meaning
Isophase red.Bridge closed or closing.
Isophase red and white.Vessel signal understood.
Isophase red and fixed
white.
Bridge about to open.
Isophase green.Bridge open. Transit permitted.
Fixed red.Passage closed.
4
Westbound traffic has precedence for transit. Speed
through the bridge must not exceed 5 kn. A submarine
power cable is laid across the channel at the bridge.
Principal marks
3.218
1
Landmarks:
Ronneby Water Tower (56°‘12′⋅6N, 15°17′⋅0E).
Almö Tower (high stone tower, hut on top)
(56°08′⋅2N, 15°27′⋅7E).
Karlskrona Water Tower (56°10′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅0E),
standing on Vämö close N of Karlskrona.
Major lights:
2
Hanö Light (56°00′⋅8N, 14°50′⋅8E) (3.87).
Ronneby Kallinge Aero Light (56°16′N, 15°16′E).
(chart 2816).
Tving Aero Light (56°17′⋅0N, 15°29′⋅6E). (chart
2816).
Utklippan Light (55°57′⋅2N, 15°42′⋅0E) (3.206).
Utlängan Light (white tower, black top, elevation
13 m) (56°00′⋅8N, 15°47′⋅2E).
Directions
Sea to Hasslöbron
3.219
1
Leading marks:
Almö Tower (56°08′⋅7N, 15°27′⋅7E) (3.218).
Karlskrona Water Tower (56°10′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅0E).
From a position about 2 miles S of Göudde (56°07′⋅5N,
15°18′⋅7E) (3.178) the recommended track, leads initially
2miles ENE on the alignment (064°) of the above marks,
passing (with positions from Rönneskär Light (white tower,
8 m in height) (56°07′⋅8N, 15°22′⋅9E)):
2
SSE of Nålsten (2miles SW), a shoal patch marked
by a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
SSE of Hyperionsgrund (1miles SSW), marked by
a buoy (port hand), and:
3
SSE of Lilla Kråkan (8 cables SSW), which breaks
and on which stands a beacon (ten red reflectors in
a row, on posts in metal barrels, 3 m in height),
thence:
To a position at the W end of the buoyed channel.
3.220
1
Leading beacons:
Kåsaskär Beacons (orange with white triangular
daymarks) (56°07′⋅0N, 15°25′⋅8E).
From a position at the W end of the buoyed channel the
alignment (087°) of the above beacons leads 1 mile E
through the buoyed (lateral) channel, passing:
2
N of Stångskär (1miles SSE), a rocky islet on
which stands a beacon (white cairn with red band,
4 m in height), thence:
S of the 3⋅8 m shoal (1miles SE), lying 3 cables W
of the beacons on Kåsaskär, marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
3
ENE for 1 miles through Hästholmsfjärden to the
bridge passing:
NNW of Kåsaskär (1miles ESE), and:
NNW of Västra Hastholmen (2miles ESE), thence:
Through the navigation span of Hasslöbron (3.217).
Hasslöbron to Karlskrona
3.221
1
From the E side of the bridge the track, shown on the
plan, leads 5 miles ENE through Västrafjärden to join the
main approach channel E of Getskär (56°08′⋅8N, 15°36′⋅2E)
(3.265), passing (with positions from Bergaholmen Light
(lantern on white pedestal) (56°08′⋅7N, 15°33′⋅3E)):
2
N of Valkyriagrund (3 miles WSW), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), thence:
SSE of Utögrund (2 miles WSW), marked by a buoy
(port hand), and:
NNW of a buoy (E cardinal) (2miles SW), thence:
3
SSE of Lövgrund (1miles WSW), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
NNW of Trashallan Beacons (1 mile SW), thence:
N of Länsman (8 cables SSE) on which stand two
beacons, thence:
4
S of Bergaholmen on which stands the light above,
thence:
S of Gastaskär (1 mile ESE), and:
NW of Godnatt (1miles ESE) where the route joins
with the main approach channel.
Anchorage and harbours
General information
3.222
1
Local knowledge is required for all harbours and loading
places described in this section.
Pilotage. Pilots are available from Karlshamn.
Anchorage
3.223
1
Anchorage may be obtained in a position about 4 cables
N of Eneholmen (56°08′⋅1N, 15°23′⋅0E), an islet 5 cables N
of Rönneskär Light (3.219), in depths of 4 to 8 m, mud.
The anchorage is sheltered from all winds.
Anchorage is prohibited in an area off the NW side of
Aspö (3.200).
CHAPTER 3
144
Torkö and Kuggeboda
3.224
1
Torkö (56°09′⋅0N, 15°24′⋅6E), a small island lying at the
head of Torköfjärden, has a small harbour suitable for a
draught of 4 m with a jetty 80 m long and a depth
alongside of 3 m.
Kuggeboda (56°08′⋅5N, 15°22′⋅7E), a small loading
place, lies on the mainland 6 cables SW of Torkö. It has a
small pier with a depth alongside of 1⋅5 m.
2
Approach and entry. Follow the directions given at
3.219 for Karlskrona W entrance to a position 3 cables SE
of Lilla Kråkan (3.219) where the track divides and a
branch channel, authorised for a draught of 6 m, leads
2 miles NNE to Kuggeboda and Torkö passing close E of
Rönneskär Light (3.219).
3
An alternative approach channel, suitable for a draught
of 3 m, leads from a position NW of Hasslö, 4 cables
NNW of Kåsaskär (3.220), through a narrow channel
marked by buoys (lateral), thence 1miles NW to join the
main channel described above, passing close SW of Arpö
(56°08′N, 15°25′E) and close NE of Ljungskär, an islet
close W of Arpö.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Hallarna
3.225
1
Description. Hallarna (56°07′N, 15°27′E), a fishing
harbour, lies on the NW side of Hasslö. It is suitable for
vessels with a draught up to 3⋅3 m.
The harbour is formed by two moles with the entrance
from the N.
Directions for entry. Normal approach and entry is
from Hästholmsfjärden using the directions given at 3.219.
2
With local knowledge approach may be made from
seaward through a narrow channel, marked by buoys
(lateral), on the W side of Hasslö.
Kåsaskär Leading Lights:
Front light (lantern on white pedestal, elevation 5 m)
(occas, fishing) (56°06′⋅6N, 15°25′⋅8E).
Rear light (mast, elevation 10 m), displayed 500 m N
of front light.
3
The alignment (355°) of these lights leads about 1 mile
N through a buoyed channel passing close E of Asla
(56°05′⋅6N, 15°25′⋅8E), an islet from which is displayed a
light (white lantern, elevation 6 m), shown when required.
Thence the track leads about 1 mile NNE to the harbour
passing close NW of the NW point of Hasslö from which
is displayed a light (white lantern) (56°06′⋅8N, 15°26′⋅4E),
shown when required.
4
Berths. The W quay has a length of about 100 m with
depths alongside of 4⋅0 to 4⋅2 m.
Repairs: slip in small boat harbour.
Supplies: provisions available.
Communications: road to mainland via Hasslöbron.
Garpahamnen (Garpaviken)
3.226
1
Garpahamnen (56°06′N, 15°29′E), a fishing harbour, lies
on the SE side of Hasslö near the head of Rönnfjärden.
The harbour is formed by two breakwaters at the
entrance to a small inlet and the approach channel is
suitable for a draught of 3⋅3 m.
2
Within the harbour the fish quay is a total of 140 m
long with depths alongside between 4⋅0 and 4⋅2 m. There is
a total of 120 m berthing space for the use of the shipyard
and a further 100 m of berthing space for small craft.
3
Approach and entry. The main approach is from
seaward on the alignment of leading lights, through a
channel marked by buoys (lateral), to the harbour entrance
which is 18 m wide. A light is displayed from the head of
the E breakwater.
4
Approach from SSE on the alignment (343°) of
Rönnfjärdsleden Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on post, elevation 8 m)
(56°06′⋅0N, 15°28′⋅5E), displayed from the
harbour.
Rear light (similar structure, elevation 12 m),
exhibited 250 m NNW from front light.
5
This alignment leads about 2 miles NNW to the
harbour passing between the SW point of Södra Bollö
(56°05′⋅8N, 15°29′⋅5E), from where a light (white rectangle
on framework tower, elevation 9 m), is displayed when
required and Rönneskär, a small islet 2 cables W.
6
An alternative approach may be made from the N via a
narrow channel, marked at its N end by a buoy (starboard
hand), which leads through the barrier (3.196) between
Hasslö and N Bollö (56°06′⋅5N, 15°29′⋅5E). A light is
displayed from a small jetty (56°06′⋅4N, 15°29′⋅1E) on the
E side of Hasslö, close NW of the channel buoy above.
Repairs: shipyard.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Nättrabyån
3.227
1
Nättrabyån (56°11′⋅5N, 15°32′⋅5E) flows into the bay to
the NW of Karlskrona. A small pier lies immediately
outside the river mouth on the W side. Nättraby Light (red
framework tower on dolphin, elevation 2 m) is displayed
from a dolphin close to the pier.
A quay, 30 m long with a depth alongside of 2 m, and a
small jetty lie within the river 5 cables S of Nättraby
Church (56°12′⋅0N, 15°32′⋅2E).
EASTERN APPROACHES
General information
Charts 2857 with plan of Karlskrona, 2360
Description
3.228
1
The E approach channel to Karlskrona is entered
between Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N, 15°51′⋅0E) and
Långören, an island situated 1 mile SW.
The channel is narrow and twisted, and despite being
well marked by buoys is difficult for navigation. It is only
suitable for small craft and local knowledge is required.
2
Initially the channel leads generally NNW and N,
passing E of Senoren (56°07′⋅5N, 15°45′⋅0E), thence WNW
off the N part of Senoren to pass under the bridge
spanning Möcklösund leading to the more open waters of
Östrafjärden. The final section of the channel leads WNW
through Östrafjärden to join the main channel N of
Skallholmen (3.265).
3
Between Tjurkö (56°07′N, 15°37′E) (3.200) and
Utlängan (56°01′⋅5N, 15°47′⋅5E) (3.193), 7 miles SE, there
are a number of inlets, approached from the open sea,
which can afford shelter, and in some cases access to
Karlskrona, via the inner channels through the islands for
shallow draught vessels. Local knowledge is essential.
Depths
3.229
1
The E approach channel has a maximum authorised
draught of 2⋅3 m.
CHAPTER 3
145
Restricted area
3.230
1
The approach channel passes through a restricted area.
See 3.197.
Minefields
3.231
1
Permanent minefields, shown on the national chart, are
laid in the E entrance S of Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N,
15°51′⋅0E) and in the entrance to Kållafjärden (3.244), NW
of Eldsten Beacon (56°02′⋅2N, 15°44′⋅9E) (3.244).
Möcklösundsbron
3.232
1
Möcklösundsbron (56°08′⋅3N, 15°44′⋅9E) is a fixed
bridge, with a vertical clearance of 18 m over a navigable
channel width of 35 m, which spans the channel between
the N end of Senoren (3.228) and the mainland on the
Möcklö peninsula. The channel through the bridge is
marked by three pairs of buoys.
Climatic table
3.233
1
See 1.284 and 1.286.
Principal marks
3.234
1
Landmarks:
Karlskrona Water Tower (56°10′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅0E)
(3.206).
Radio mast (red light) (elevation 132 m) (56°08′⋅3N,
15°49′⋅80E).
Radio mast (elevation 63 m) (56°06′⋅3N, 15°49′⋅6E).
2
Major lights:
Tving Aero Light (56°17′⋅0N, 15°29′⋅6E) (chart
2816).
Utklippan Light (55°57′⋅2N, 15°42′⋅0E) (3.206).
Utlängan Light (56°00′⋅8N, 15°47′⋅2E) (3.218).
Ölands Södra Udde Light (56°11′⋅8N, 16°23′⋅8E)
(4.19).
Directions
Sea to Möcklösundsbron
3.235
1
From the SE in a position about 1miles SSE of
Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N, 15°51′⋅0E) approach on the
alignment (307°) of Långören Leading Lights:
Front light (white rectangle on framework tower
elevation 5 m) (56°03′⋅9N, 15°49′⋅4E), displayed
from the N point of Långören.
Rear light (similar structure), displayed from an islet
300 m NW from front light.
2
This alignment leads about 1miles NW to the N point
of Långören passing SW of a buoy (S cardinal) moored
1miles SSE of Torhamnsudde and between two buoys
(lateral) marking the entrance to the channel.
Thence the track leads 1miles NNW through a narrow
buoyed channel to Torhamnsfjärden with Hommenabben
Leading Lights astern bearing 160°:
3
Front light (red triangle on framework tower,
elevation 5 m), displayed from the NE point of
Långören.
Rear light (similar structure), exhibited 375 m SSE
from front light.
4
Follow the buoyed channel NW through
Torhamnsfjärden to pass through Ytterösund (56°05′⋅9N,
15°47′⋅0E) which is crossed by a line driven car ferry. Care
should be exercised not to pass when the ferry is crossing.
Speed is restricted to 7 kn within 150 m of the ferry
crossing.
5
Thence the buoyed channel leads E and N of Senoren to
pass through the bridge across Möcklösund (3.232) and
enter the E part of Östrafjärden.
3.236
1
Möcklösundsbron to Karlskrona. The track leads
4 miles WNW through Östrafjärden to join the main
channel N of Skallholmen. Shoal dangers in the channel
are marked by buoys.
3.237
1
Alternative channel 18 m. Follow directions above to
Ytterösund. Thence small craft may take a channel, marked
by buoys, S of Senoren, which leads through Skällösund,
between Senoren and Sturkö, which is spanned by a fixed
bridge with a navigable width of 12 m and vertical
clearance of 5⋅5 m under the span. Speed is restricted to
5 kn through the sound.
2
Thence the track leads across Kyrkfjärden, through a
channel marked by buoys (lateral), to pass S of Äspeskär
(3.213) and join the main channel SW of Skallholmen.
Useful marks
3.238
1
Långören Beacon (black rectangle on white mast,
white triangle halfway up mast, 21 m in height)
(56°03′⋅8N, 15°49′⋅2E).
Ytterön Beacon (black square on pole) (56°05′⋅4N,
15°46′⋅2E), standing on the NE end of
Hästholmen.
2
Torhamn Light (white rectangle on framework tower,
elevation 6 m) (56°05′⋅6N, 15°49′⋅4E), displayed
from the E breakwater head.
Harbours and inlets
Djupasund
3.239
1
Description. Djupasund (56°06′⋅5N, 15°38′⋅5E) lies
between Tjurkö (3.200) and Sturkö, an island close E. The
channel between the islands is spanned by a fixed road
bridge with a vertical clearance of 3 m underneath and a
depth of 4 m in the channel under the bridge.
The approach and entry channel also leads to Ekenabben
fishing harbour which lies 5 cables S of the bridge.
3.240
1
Directions. From a position about 1 mile SSE of
Tjurkösten Beacon (56°04′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅2E) (3.212) the
fairway leads 3 miles NNE to the bridge, through a buoyed
channel suitable for a draught of 3⋅5 m, with Djupasund
Bridge Light (lantern on white pedestal), displayed from
the W side of the bridge, ahead bearing about 012° in the
white sector (011°–013°) of the light, passing (with
positions from Tjurkösten Beacon):
2
E of Rågrund (5 cables SE), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
Close W of a buoy (starboard hand) (9 cables NE)
marking the W limit of a shoal area, thence:
E of Skälören (1 mile NNE), marked on its E side by
a light-buoy (port hand).
Thence, through the centre of the channel, passing under
the bridge into Djupasund.
3.241
1
Useful marks:
Tjurkö Leading Lights: (white triangles on posts,
120 m apart) (56°06′⋅3N, 15°37′⋅8E), displayed
(occasionally). The alignment (009°) in the white
CHAPTER 3
146
sector is an additional aid through the channel to
the bridge described above.
2
Kråkan Beacon (white triangle, point down, over
tapered board) (56°05′⋅3N, 15°38′⋅4E), standing on
a rock 6 cables E of Skälören.
Sturkö Church with tall steeple (56°05′⋅3N,
15°41′⋅8E).
Ekenabben
3.242
1
Description. Ekenabben (56°06′⋅1N, 15°38′⋅5E), a small
fishing harbour on the E side of Sturkö is formed and
enclosed by moles. The entrance channel is suitable for a
draught of 3⋅5 m and harbour has depths between 2 and
4 m.
Approach and entry. Directions for approach channel
are given at 3.239.
2
Ekenabben Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (white triangles on posts,
elevations 6 and 8 m respectively) (56°06′⋅1N,
15°38′⋅5E), displayed from the harbour.
The alignment (143°) of these lights leads through the
channel to the harbour from a beacon situated in the
approach channel in a position 3 cables S of Djupasund
bridge.
3
Approach may also be made from the N through
Djupasund and the bridge.
Facilities. Slip with a capacity of 100 tonnes.
Sanda
3.243
1
Description. Sanda (56°07′N, 15°39′E), a small fishing
harbour lies on the NW side of Sturkö. The harbour is
formed and enclosed by moles with depths of between 2⋅5
to 3⋅8 m in the two basins and an entrance channel suitable
for a draught of 3⋅0 m.
Entry to the harbour from the N part of Djupasund is
from the W.
Facilities. Small slip with 10 tonne capacity.
Kållafjärden
3.244
1
Kållafjärden is a large, well sheltered inlet situated S of
Hästholmen (56°05′N, 15°45′E), a barren island 3 miles
NNW of Utlängan.
Minefield. A permanent minefield is laid in the
approaches to Kållafjärden and Gåsefjärden close W.
2
Directions. The channel is authorised for a draught of
6⋅0 m. Approach from a position about 1 mile SW of
Eldsten Beacon (pole, 13 m in height, arm points E along
channel to Inlängan) (56°02′⋅2N, 15°44′⋅9E), with
Hästholmen Beacon (black triangle on red pole, 12 m in
height) (56°04′⋅8N, 15°45′⋅7E) and Ytterön Beacon (3.238)
in line bearing 022°. This alignment leads about 3 miles
NNE into Kållafjärden through a channel marked by buoys,
and ensuring that the rocks extending W of Gåsfeten,
3 cables W of Eldsten Beacon, are clear to the E.
3
From the N part of Kållafjärden, with local knowledge,
small vessels may reach Karlskrona via the inner channels.
Useful mark:
Handskarna Beacon (56°03′⋅3N, 15°43′⋅3E).
Stenshamn
3.245
1
Description. Stenshamn (56°01′⋅8N, 15°46′⋅7E), a small
fishing harbour, lies on the NW side of an islet, close NW
of and connected by causeway to Utlängan (3.193).
The harbour is formed by two outer breakwaters, within
which are a pier and a quay. It is suitable for vessels with
a draught up to 2⋅0 m but local knowledge is required for
entry. The berths have a depth alongside of 1⋅8 m.
3.246
1
Directions. The approach and entry channels form part
of a channel which leads from seaward to the W side of
Inlängan, an island 2 miles NNW of Utlängan, and thence
to the inner channels to Karlskrona.
2
From a position 1 mile SW of Eldsten Beacon (3.244)
approach with Kuggaskär Beacon (black triangle on black
pole over white cairn, 2 m in height) (56°02′⋅9N,
15°47′⋅1E) and Långören Beacon (3.238) in line bearing
052°. This alignment leads 2 mile NE to a position 8 cables
N of the harbour where the channel divides, through a
buoyed channel, passing (with positions from Eldsten
Beacon (56°02′⋅2N, 15°44′⋅9E)):
3
SE of Eldsten Beacon, thence:
NW of the 5 m rocky patch (3 cables ESE), thence:
SE of Flötjen (7 cables NE) from where a light (white
tower, 10 m in height) is displayed, thence:
N of Flundrebådan (1 mile NE), from where a light
(lantern on white pedestal, elevation 6 m) is
displayed.
4
Thence to the alignment (178°) of Stenshamn Leading
Lights:
Common front light and rear light (masts, elevations
7 and 10 m respectively) (56°01′⋅8N, 15°46′⋅8E),
rear light 200 m S of front light; displayed from
the harbour when required.
This alignment leads 8 cables S to the harbour through a
channel marked by buoys.
Ungskär
3.247
1
Description. Ungskär (56°02′⋅5N, 15°48′⋅2E), a small
fishing harbour lies on the SW side of the island of that
name 1 mile NNE of Utlängan (3.193). The harbour is
formed by two breakwaters and contains 130 m of berthing
space with a depth alongside of 1⋅8 m. It is suitable for
vessels with a draught of 2⋅1 m.
2
Approach and entry. Approach from the SE on the
alignment (300°) of Ungskär Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (posts, elevations 6 and 8 m
respectively, 50 m apart) (56°02′⋅4N, 15°48′⋅4E),
displayed from the S point of the island.
This alignment leads through the outer shoals, marked
by buoys, and thence, following the buoyed channel, to the
harbour.
3
Anchorage may be obtained, with local knowledge, in a
position off the SE side of Ungskär, in charted depths of
about 3⋅5 m, mud. Entry to the anchorage from seaward is
through a channel with a depth of 3 m, marked by buoys,
on the alignment (266°) of two leading beacons (poles, 2 m
in height, over white cairns, 4 m in height; topmarks: front,
triangle; rear, cross) (56°02′⋅5N, 15°48′⋅4E). The channel
lies N of Stora Baljan, a rocky patch 3cables ESE of the
beacons.
Torhamn
3.248
1
Description. Torhamn (56°05′⋅6N, 15°49′⋅5E), a small
fishing harbour lies in the NE part of Torhamnsfjärden,
1miles NNW of Torhamnsudde (3.228).
The harbour is formed by a mole and a detached
breakwater within which there are quays and berthing
pontoons. The approach channel is suitable for a draught of
CHAPTER 3
147
2⋅8 m and the depths in the harbour are between 2⋅0 and
3⋅5 m.
2
There are numerous berths for small and pleasure craft
throughout the harbour.
Anchorage may be obtained off the harbour in a depth
of 4⋅0 m, mud.
3
Directions. For entry to Torhamnsfjärden directions are
given at 3.235. From a position on the track through
Torhamnsfjärden 1 mile SSW of Torhamn a branch channel
leads NNE to the harbour in the white sector (009°–016°)
of Torhamn E breakwater light (3.238), or by day, with the
light-structure ahead bearing 014°.
4
Useful mark:
Torhamn Church with tall spire (56°05′⋅7N,
15°50′⋅0E).
Facilities: small slip.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Utklippanshamn
3.249
1
Description. Utklippanshamn fishing harbour
(55°57′⋅3N, 15°42′⋅2E) lies between the two largest islets
and rocks which form Utklippan (3.208). The harbour is
formed by two breakwaters on each side of the islets and is
suitable for draughts up to 2⋅5 m. There are berths for
small craft in the harbour.
2
Entry may be made from either E or W, through the
breakwaters. Lights (white columns on white pedestals), are
displayed from the S breakwater head, on the E side, and
the N breakwater head on the W side. Approach should be
guided by the white sectors of these lights.
KARLSKRONA
General information
Chart 2857 with plan of Karlskrona
Position
3.250
1
Karlskrona (56°10′N, 15°35′E) is situated on the SE
coast of Sweden in the province of Blekinge. Included in
the port are the berths at Verköhamnen on the W side of
Verkön, an island 1 mile E of the town.
Function
3.251
1
The port is a well sheltered, large natural harbour,
surrounded by islands. It is a major naval base and port
with separate commercial harbour facilities equipped to
handle a variety of vessels.
It also contains a large shipyard capable of both naval
and commercial work.
2
Principal exports include vehicles, timber products, ships
and power plants. Imports include petroleum products, oils,
construction materials and general cargoes.
In 2003 the population of Karlskrona was 60 676.
Approach and entry
3.252
1
Approach to Karlskrona from the W and E is through
narrow channels marked by buoys and thence through
bridges and the outer fjords to the harbour.
The main approach to Karlskrona is from the S on the
alignment of leading lights through an entrance channel,
marked by buoys, thence on the alignment of leading lines
through the outer roads to the harbour.
2
Entry to the harbour is on the alignment of leading
lights through dredged channels, marked by light-buoys and
buoys, branching off the main channel at the S and N ends
of the harbour.
Traffic
3.253
1
In 2003 the port was used by 538 vessels total
2 051 262 dwt.
Port Authority
3.254
1
Karlskrona Hamn, Ostra Hamngatan 7B, SE−371 83
Karlskrona, Sweden.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
3.255
1
The controlling depths are those authorised in the
channels to the various parts of the harbour as follows:
Main entrance channel to anchorage — 10⋅0 m.
Channel to Verköhamnen — 9⋅4 m.
2
Channel to Oljehamnen at Hattholmen — 8⋅1 m.
N channel to Handelshamnen — 7⋅2 m.
S channel to Handelshamnen — 6⋅0 m.
Channel to Karlskronavarvet shipyard — 7⋅3 m.
Deepest and longest berths
3.256
1
Handelshamnen — Östra Kajen — N part (Ro-Ro)
(3.269).
Hattholmen Oljehamnen — Concrete jetty (oil)
(3.270).
Verköhamnen — Quay 1 or 2 (bulk) (3.271).
Water levels
3.257
1
Normal rise above or below mean level is 0⋅6 m to
0⋅9 m. Winds between NW and SW lower the level and
those between N and E raise it but prolonged E winds in
spring may lower the level.
For suitably equipped vessels an automatic telephone
responder is fitted to a depth gauge in the harbour, at
Kungsholmen.
Density of water
3.258
1
The density of water in the harbour is 1⋅000 g/cm
3
.
Ice
3.259
1
The harbour is usually free from ice but is kept open by
ice-breakers if necessary.
Arrival information
Port radio
3.260
1
Karlskrona Hamnradio (Karlskrona Port Radio). See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorage
3.261
1
In addition to the main anchorage (3.211), anchorage
may be obtained in an area about 4 cables SSW of
Verköhamnen (56°09′⋅8N, 15°37′⋅8E) in depths of about
13 m, clay.
Pilotage and tugs
3.262
1
Pilotage details are given at 3.194.
Tugs with icebreaking capacity are available.
CHAPTER 3
148
Traffic regulations
3.263
1
Tankers may not be underway in the harbour when
passenger vessels over 50 m in length, or other vessels over
70 m in length, are underway in the harbour. Tankers may
not be berthed on the same quay as a passenger vessel.
Harbour
General layout
3.264
1
The naval harbour, to which entry is prohibited, lies to
the S of the town and is enclosed by the islet of
Lindholmen to the S and SW and by breakwaters on its E
side.
Handelshamnen, the main commercial area for general
cargo, Ro-Ro and passenger traffic, lies to the NE of the
town and is entered via a channel from the SSE. A branch
channel to the naval harbour leads SW from this channel.
2
The oil harbour is situated at Hattholmen, a small
peninsula close N of Handelshamnen and is entered via a
dredged channel which leads from the main channel N of
Mjölnareholmen, a small islet close NE of the town. This
channel is also the main channel to the N part of
Handelshamnen.
Verköhamnen, mainly for bulk cargo and with a
specialist jetty to handle heavy lifts, lies 1 mile E of the
town and is approached and entered by the main channel
leading NNE from Yttre redden and the main anchorage.
3
The shipyard lies on the SW side of the town and a
fishing harbour at Saltö, close W of the town. A buoyed
channel leads NNW from close N of Godnatt to these
areas.
Directions for harbour channels
(continued from 3.212)
3.265
1
Main channel 94 m. From a position in the anchorage
area about 2 cables E of Getskär (56°08′⋅8N, 15°36′⋅1E) the
track leads 1miles NNE to Verköhamnen with Verkö
Light (56°10′⋅2N, 15°37′⋅8E) ahead bearing 025°, in the
white sector (023°–029°) of the light, passing (with
positions from the light):
2
WNW of a light-buoy (1 mile SSW) marking the
limit of the shoal area NW of Skallholmen, thence:
E of Koholmen, an islet (8 cables SW) on which
stands a beacon.
Thence to Verköhamnen. A buoy (S cardinal), moored
4 cables S of the light, marks the NW limit of the 10 m
dredged area.
3.266
1
Channel north of Mjölnareholmen. The channel is
entered 7 cables SSW of Verkö Light on the alignment
(321°) of Vämöviken Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on white dolphin) (56°10′⋅2N,
15°36′⋅5E).
Rear light (red triangle on mast) (172 m NW from
front light), displayed from the SE corner of
Vämö.
2
On this alignment the track leads 6 cables NNW through
a channel marked by buoys and light-buoys (lateral), thence
to the alignment (279°) of Karlskrona Oil Harbour
Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on post) (56°10′⋅1N,
15°35′⋅9E), displayed from the S end of
Hattholmen.
Rear light (red triangle on mast) (92 m from front
light).
3
This alignment leads a further 3 cables WNW through
the buoyed channel and thence to the oil jetty at the S end
of Hattholmen.
Thence, with reduced depth, the channel enters the
dredged area including a turning basin in the N part of
Handelshamnen, the limits of which are marked by buoys.
3.267
1
Channel south of Mjölnareholmen 6 m. The channel is
entered, off the main channel 3 cables ENE of Getskär
(3.265), with Laboratorieholmen Light-structure (white
tower, 11 m in height) ahead bearing 334° or, by night, in
the white sector (326°–338°) of the light. These alignments
lead about 6 cables through the first part of the channel,
marked by buoys (lateral), between Basareholmen
(56°09′⋅5N, 15°36′⋅7E) and Stumholmen, 2 cables W.
2
From a position about 2 cables from the light the track
then leads N for 2 cables with Mjölnareholmen ahead and
thence to the alignment (300°) of Kofferdihamnen Leading
Lights:
Front light (post) (56°09′⋅9N, 15°35′⋅9E), displayed
from Handelshamn Östra Kajen.
Rear light (post) (95 m WNW from front light).
3
This alignment leads about 2 cables WNW to
Handelshamnen through a channel marked by a light-buoy
and buoys (lateral). The limits of the dredged area within
Handelshamnen are marked by buoys.
A short channel, shown on the plan, close S of
Mjölnareholmen and in the white sector (240°–247°) of
Laboratorieholmen Light, links the N and S channels
described above.
3.268
1
Other channel. From a position close N of Godnatt
(3.209) a buoyed channel leads about 1miles NNW to
the shipyard and Saltö Fiskehamn (3.272), the fishing
harbour close W of the town.
Saltöhammar Light (framework tower) (56°09′⋅6N,
15°34′⋅2E), displayed from the S end of Saltö, is used by
local small craft for a narrow channel through the rocks
and islets.
Berths
Handelshamnen
3.269
1
The principal berth lies on the N part of Östra Kajen (E
quay) with a length of 230 m and a depth alongside of
7⋅7 m. It is a Ro-Ro berth with a ferry ramp 17⋅5 m wide.
In the central part of the E quay there is a further 360 m
of berthing space with depths alongside of between 6⋅5 to
7⋅2 m and in the S part 75 m of berthing space with depths
alongside of 5⋅0 to 6⋅5 m, fitted with ramps and a sliding
jetty, for the use of local archipelago traffic.
2
The E part of N quay is 140 m long with a depth
alongside of 7⋅5 m, fitted with a mobile Ro-Ro ramp, 6⋅5 m
wide, and a rail track.
Hattholmen Oljehamnen
3.270
1
The main oil berth lies at the S end of Hattholmen and
is a concrete jetty 65 m long with a depth alongside of
9⋅0 m. The recommended maximum length of vessel is
160 m. Buoys are moored off each end to assist with
mooring.
Another berth, with a length of 50 m lies on the W side
of Hattholmen. Charted depth in the vicinity of the berth is
about 7 m.
CHAPTER 3
149
Verköhamnen
3.271
1
There are four berths in Verköhamnen. The two principal
berths are Nos 1 and 2, each of which is 70 m long and
with a depth alongside of 10 m. A third berth lies close N
with a length of 50 m and a depth alongside of 8 m.
2
ABB-kajen, 2 cables SE of Verkö Light, is 80 m long
with a depth alongside of 5⋅6 m. Its short approach channel
is authorised for a draught of 5⋅5 m. It is a specialist heavy
lift berth fitted with an 800 tonnes capacity traverse crane,
the head of which projects 8 m outside the quay line at a
height of 21⋅3 m above mean water level.
Saltö Fiskehamn
3.272
1
Saltö Fiskehamn (56°10′N, 15°34′E), the fishing harbour,
lies 1 mile W of Handelshamnen on the W side of Saltö
and has 515 m of berthing space with a depth alongside of
4 m.
Port services
3.273
1
Repairs of all kinds can be undertaken at the shipyard
of Karlskronavarvet. Seven drydocks are available, the
largest of which can receive a vessel with a length of
200 m, breadth of 26⋅2 m and a maximum draught of
7⋅5 m.
Other facilities. Oily waste reception; deratting;
hospital. Karlskrona is a regional control centre for the
customs authority coast watch. See 1.156 for details.
2
Supplies. Marine fuels; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Nearest airport at Kallinge, 28 km
distant. Regular ferry services to Poland, Germany and
other Swedish ports.
Rescue. The pilot vessel acts as a lifeboat if required,
and a line-throwing apparatus is kept at Aspö.
Torhamnsudde
Ölands
Södra
Udde
Grönhögen
Degerhamn
Kalmarsund
Bergkvara
Kalmar
Mörbylånga
ÖLAND
Kapelludden
Borgholm
Kårehamn
Böda
Oskarshamn
Kalmarsund
Kråkelund
Ölands Norra Udde
Blå
Jungfrun
Ölands Södra Grund
150
Stora Rör
Ekenäs
Mönsterås
Sandvik
2251
2817
2360
2361
2846
2846
2846
2844
2844
2844
2857
2842
2842
2842
2842
2842
2842
2843
2843
2844
2843
2844
2842
0205
Kristianopel
4.105
4.210
4.214
4.140
4.174
4.112
4.208
4.203
4.88
4.43
4.22
4.31
4.64
4.58
4.45
4.191
4.14
16°
16°
Longitude 17° East from Greenwich
17°
30´
30´
30´30´
30´
30´30´
30´
56°
56°
57°
57°
Chapter 4 - Kalmarsund and Öland
151
CHAPTER 4
KALMARSUND AND ÖLAND
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2842, 2843, 2844, 2360, 2251
Scope of the chapter
4.1
1
The area covered by this chapter comprises the SE coast
of Sweden from Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N, 15°51′⋅0E)
(3.228) to Kråkelund (57°27′N, 16°44′E), about 87 miles
NNE. Included in the description is the island of Öland and
Kalmarsund, the navigable passage which separates Öland
from the mainland. Also included are the major ports of
Kalmar (4.64) and Oskarshamn (4.140) together with other
minor harbours.
2
It is divided into the following sections:
Kalmarsund — Southern Part (4.12).
Kalmarsund — Northern Part (4.87).
Öland — East coast (4.190).
Brief details of approach to Kalmarsund from N are
given at 4.180.
Description
4.2
1
The fairway through Kalmarsund is about 85 miles long
with its narrowest part, 1miles wide, N of Kalmar
between Skäggenäs (56°47′N, 16°28′E) and Öland.
The central section, the narrows, in the vicinity of
Kalmar, has numerous shoal areas and islets through which
a navigable channel, known as Kalmarsunds Djupränna
(4.54) is maintained by dredging.
2
Throughout the whole area covered by this chapter the
10 m depth contour is marked at regular intervals by
cardinal buoys. They are described in the various sections
where appropriate.
Topography
4.3
1
The coastline throughout Kalmarsund, both on Öland
and the mainland, is generally low with few significant
natural features, being partly barren and partly covered in
forest.
2
The majority of the coastline on the mainland, and small
sections on the W coast of Öland, is fringed by rocks and
shoals extending up to about 2miles offshore.
Kalmarsund draught
4.4
1
The authorised maximum draught through Kalmarsund
fairway is 6⋅8 m.
Water level
4.5
1
In Kalmarsund the difference between mean water level
and normal low water level is about 0⋅4 m. Winds from the
S usually lower the level with winds from the N and E
causing it to rise.
Hazards
4.6
1
Mariners transiting Kalmarsund should maintain a close
watch and monitor the high volume of ferry traffic which
crosses the channel, mainly in the vicinity of Kalmar and
the N section of the fairway. Traffic is heaviest in the
summer months.
Pilotage
4.7
1
Within the limits of this chapter all pilotage is controlled
and coordinated through Oxelösund VTS to which all
requests for pilots should be sent. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) and also individual port details.
Pilots are available 24 hours and provided by Västervik,
Oskarshamn and Kalmar Pilot Stations as appropriate.
Requests for Kalmarsund pilots should be made 5 hours in
advance. Pilotage is compulsory for certain categories of
vessels.
2
Pilot boarding positions are as follows:
Kalmarsund:
(i) S part — 1 mile SSW of Utgrunden (56°22′⋅5N,
16°15′⋅6E).
(ii) N part — 1 mile E of Västervik Approach
Light-buoy (57°45′N, 16°55′E) or 4 miles SSW
of Kungsgrundet (57°41′N, 16°55′E) or S of Furö
(57°17′N, 16°38′E).
3
Kalmar:
(i) S entrance — near Trädgårdsgrund (56°37′⋅5N,
16°21′⋅5E).
(ii) N entrance — near Sillåsen (56°46′N, 16°30′E)
or NE of Krongrundet (56°41′⋅6N, 16°25′⋅0E).
Västervik:
(i) 1 mile E of Västervik Approach Light-buoy, as
above.
4
(ii) 4 miles SSW of Kungsgrundet — as above.
(iii) In position (57°44′⋅9N, 16°47′⋅3E).
For details of categories and further information see 1.51
and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).
Vessel Traffic Service
4.8
1
A mandatory VTS is in the central part of Kalmarsund,
operated by Oxelösund VTS. For details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).
Traffic regulation
4.9
1
Speed restrictions are in force for a number of areas
within the limits of this chapter. The limits are indicated by
boards standing on the sides of the channel.
Rescue
4.10
1
The MRCC for this area is located at Stockholm. See
1.156 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for
CHAPTER 4
152
details. Details of rescue craft and facilities are given in the
text.
Natural conditions
4.11
1
Local magnetic anomalies are reported to exist in the N
part of Kalmarsund in an area between Oskarshamn
(57°16′N, 16°27′E) and Blå Jungfrun (57°15′N, 16°48′E).
Currents in Kalmarsund are influenced mainly by the
wind and rates may reach 6 kn or more during gales. Near
the N and S points of Öland the current may set E or W
while within the sound it is running N or S. Details of
current in Kalmarsunds Djupränna are given at 4.50.
2
Ice may affect navigation in Kalmarsund at times,
mainly from January to March, but in severe winters this
period may be extended to early May. Ice-breaking services
are available. See 1.6 and 1.253.
KALMARSUND — SOUTHERN PART
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2843, 2360, 2251
Area covered
4.12
1
This section covers the waters of Kalmarsund from a
position SSE of Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N, 15°51′⋅0E) to
Norra Skallö (56°40′⋅6N, 16°24′⋅2E), an islet 1 mile NE of
Kalmar where the bridge spanning Kalmarsund crosses the
fairway. It includes the channels to Kalmar and other
smaller harbours on each side of the fairway between the
mainland and the W side of Öland.
Anchorage
4.13
1
In general anchorage may be obtained in most areas of
the southern part of Kalmarsund in various depths, sand
and clay bottom. Specific anchorages are given in the
description of the various harbours.
Anchoring is prohibited in the vicinity of a group of
windmotors standing from 1 to 2 miles SSE of
Utgrunden Lighthouse (56°22′⋅4N, 16°15′⋅4E).
TORHAMNSUDDE TO UTGRUNDEN
General information
Charts 2842, 2360, 2251
Route
4.14
1
From a position SE of Torhamnsudde the route leads
NNE for about 25 miles to the vicinity of Utgrunden
(56°23′N, 16°16′E), a shoal area, entering Kalmarsund
between the mainland and the S end of Öland.
2
Caution. Due to the existence of currents (4.11) care
should be exercised on approach at night or in thick
weather to avoid being set in towards the shoals and land
on each side of the entrance. Use of soundings can be an
aid to constantly monitoring the position in these
conditions.
Topography
4.15
1
On the W side the coast between Torhamnsudde and
Bergkvara, 21 miles NNE, is of uniform height and
generally wooded but with breaks visible on a ridge,
running parallel with the coast, near the village of Orranäs
(56°11′⋅3N, 15°57′⋅0E).
2
On the E side the S extremity of Öland is bare but
Ottenbylund, a wooded area shown on the chart, extends
about 3 miles N and E from Ölands Södra Udde (56°12′N,
16°24′E). From seaward the trees near the village of
Ottenby appear higher than those of Ottenbylund.
Exercise areas
4.16
1
A number of practice firing areas are found within the
area covered by this chapter. See 1.22.
Submarine power cable
4.17
1
A submarine power cable is laid from the coast of
Öland close N of Degerhamn (56°21′N, 16°25′E) to the
centre structure of a group of windmotors situated SSE of
Utgrunden Lighthouse (4.19).
Rescue
4.18
1
The Swedish Sea Rescue Association has fully equipped
rescue boats stationed at Grönhögen (56°16′N, 16°24′E)
(4.43) and Bergkvara (56°23′N, 16°05′E) (4.31).
Principal marks
4.19
1
Landmarks:
Group of five windmotors (each 60 m in height, red
obstruction lights) (centred 56°10′N, 16°01′E)
standing 2 miles offshore in a line 8 cables long
and orientated N/S.
Radio mast (red light, elevation 132 m) (56°08′⋅4N,
15°48′⋅8E), NW of Torhamnsudde.
Radio mast (red light, elevation 112 m) (56°14′⋅0N,
16°27′⋅3E), NE of Ölands Södra Udde.
2
Windmill at Olsäng (56°12′⋅8N, 15°59′⋅0E).
Kristianopel Church (56°15′⋅4N, 16°02′⋅5E), white
stepped-gable tower, conspicuous.
Group of seven windmotors (each 65 m in height, red
obstruction lights) (centred 56°20′⋅6N, 16°16′⋅9E)
in a line 1 mile long and orientated SSE/NNW; the
N windmotor stands 1miles SSE of Utgrunden
Lighthouse (below). It is reported that the radar
echoes from the windmotors may merge to appear
as a single target from a distance greater than
4 miles.
3
Utgrunden Lighthouse (black tower, white band and
lantern, grey conical base, 28 m in height)
(56°22′⋅4N, 16°15′⋅4E), standing at the N limit of
the shoal area.
Major lights:
Utklippan Light (55°57′⋅2N, 15°42′⋅0E) (3.206).
Utlängan Light (56°00′⋅8N, 15°47′⋅2E) (3.218).
4
Ölands Södra Udde Light (white round stone tower,
black band, 42 m in height. Floodlit.) (56°11′⋅8N,
16°23′⋅8E).
Garpen Light (grey concrete tower, 27 m in height)
(56°23′⋅4N, 16°07′⋅7E), displayed from an islet.
CHAPTER 4
153
Other aids to navigation
4.20
1
Racons:
Utgrunden Lighthouse (56°22′⋅4N, 16°15′⋅4E) (4.19).
Ölands Södra Grund Lighthouse (56°04′⋅2N,
16°41′⋅0E) (2.13).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
4.21
1
From a position SE of Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N,
15°51′⋅0E) the track leads initially NNE, then generally N
in the white sector (348°–020°) of Utgrunden Light,
passing (with positions from Ölands Södra Udde Light
(56°11′⋅8N, 16°23′⋅8E) (4.19)):
2
ESE of a buoy (E cardinal) (17 miles SW), moored in
a depth of 12 m, thence:
ESE of a buoy (E cardinal) marking a 6 m patch
(13miles WSW), thence:
ESE of Olsängs Yttre Kulle (11miles W), marked
by a buoy (E cardinal), and:
3
WNW of the bank extending 5 miles S from Ölands
Södra Udde Light and which is marked at its
extremities by buoys (cardinal). Ölandsrev, a shoal
which breaks and which is steep-to on its W and
SW sides, lies on the N part of this bank. The
bank should not be crossed at any time. Vessels
approaching from E should pass S of Ölandsrev
Buoy (E cardinal) moored 6 miles S of the
lighthouse. Thence:
4
ESE of a buoy (safe water) (10 miles W), moored in
the approaches to Kristianopel, thence:
ESE of Tummen (11 miles WNW), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
ESE of Röret (12miles NW); a buoy (E cardinal)
marks the 10 m depth contour 1miles SSE of the
shoal. Thence:
5
WNW of Utgrunden (11miles NNW), a chain of
rocky shoals with depths of less than 10 m over
them, from the N end of which a light (4.19) is
displayed.
6
The main channel leads W of Utgrunden but the shoal
area may be passed on either side. Passage E of Utgrunden
is made in the white sector (159°–167°) of Ölands Södra
Udde Light with the light bearing 165°, astern, passing E
of the 3⋅5 m patch on the S part of Utgrunden and W of a
buoy (W cardinal) moored on the 10 m depth contour
3 miles E of Utgrunden to rejoin the main fairway about
4 miles N of Utgrunden.
(Directions continue at 4.53)
(Directions for Degerhamn are given at 4.27
and for Bergkvara at 4.36)
Degerhamn
Chart 2842 with plan of Degerhamn
General information
4.22
1
Position. Degerhamn (56°21′N, 16°25′E) lies on the W
coast of Öland, 9 miles N of Ölands Södra Udde.
Function. It is a small, well sheltered, industrial harbour
with facilities to handle bulk and oil cargoes. There are
some facilities for small craft and fishing boats. In 1995
the population of the central built-up area was about 700.
Principal export is cement with the principal imports
being gypsum, coal, sand and oil products.
2
Traffic. In 2003, 9 vessels totalling 28 638 dwt used the
port.
Port Authority. Cementa AB, S–380 65 Degerhamn,
Öland.
Limiting conditions
4.23
1
Maximum permitted draught in the channel to the
harbour is 5⋅9 m but caution should be exercised as the
channel is liable to silting.
Deepest and longest berth. No 4 Yttre Hamnen (4.29).
Largest vessel handled. A vessel 85 m in length,
draught 5⋅9 m and 3500 dwt.
Ice. Continuous W winds may cause a build-up of loose
drift ice in the approach channel and harbour.
Arrival information
4.24
1
Anchorage. The most suitable anchorage may be
obtained in a position 2 miles SW of the harbour entrance
in a depth of 9 m, clay, but this anchorage should be
vacated in winds from the W semicircle.
Pilotage is provided by Kalmar. For details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).
Harbour
4.25
1
The harbour is approached and entered on the alignment
of leading lights, through a buoyed and dredged channel to
the harbour entrance.
It is formed by a long W breakwater and a short E mole
to give a SSW facing entrance 55 m wide. It is entered
through a channel 40 m wide and dredged to a depth of
6⋅5 m.
2
The dredged area of the harbour, marked by buoys, has
depths from 3⋅0 to 6⋅4 m. The main berths are on the E
side and a small boat harbour, with lesser depths, lies in
the N part of the harbour. A short quay for the use of
fishing boats lies in the S of the harbour on the inside of
the E mole.
Landmarks
4.26
1
Södra Möckleby Church (56°21′⋅4N, 16°25′⋅4E),
standing on Alvaret.
Chimney at Alunbruket (56°20′⋅5N, 16°24′⋅6E).
Two chimneys at cement factory (56°21′⋅1N,
16°24′⋅5E).
Directions
4.27
1
From a position to seaward about 2 miles SW of the
harbour, approach on the alignment (052°) of Degerhamn
Södra Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle, black border, on mast)
(56°20′⋅7N, 16°24′⋅4E), displayed from the shore.
Rear light (similar structure) (215 m NE of front
light).
2
This alignment leads 1miles NE to a position 6 cables
from the front light above, entering the dredged channel,
marked by light-buoys and buoys (lateral), 1 mile SW of
the front light.
Vessels close to the limiting draught for the channel
should note a 7⋅5 m shoal patch, on the leading line
CHAPTER 4
154
1miles from the front light, and pass well to the NW of
the alignment until clear of the shoal.
3
Thence to the alignment (018°) of Degerhamn Leading
Lights:
Front light (yellow triangle, red border, on post)
(56°21′⋅2N, 16°24′⋅4E), displayed from the main
quay.
Rear light (similar structure) (85 m NNE of front
light).
4
This alignment leads 5 cables NNE, through the centre
of the buoyed channel to the harbour entrance, between the
breakwater heads which are floodlit and which must not be
passed closer than 10 m.
Each side of the buoyed channel is also indicated by a
pair of lights, in line bearing 018°, displayed from the quay
each side of the leading lights. The W pair show red lights
and the E pair show green lights.
Useful marks
4.28
1
Silos on quay in harbour, close W of chimneys
(4.26).
Windmotors (3) (56°21′⋅2N, 16°24′⋅2E), standing on
main quay. The centre of the boss of each is
34⋅5 m above MSL.
Smedby Church (56°24′⋅4N, 16°26′⋅1E).
Berths
4.29
1
The largest berth in the harbour is No 4 with a length of
140 m and a depth alongside of 6⋅4 m. The inner harbour
has a further 112 m of berthing space suitable only for
small boats.
Port services
4.30
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Bergkvara
Chart 2342 with plan of Bergkvara
General information
4.31
1
Position. Bergkvara (56°23′N, 16°05′E) lies on the
mainland 20 miles SSW of Kalmar and is regarded as the
best natural harbour in the S part of Kalmarsund.
Function. It is a small commercial and fishing harbour
with facilities for handling bulk and general cargoes.
Principal exports are woodpulp, timber products and
grain. Principal imports are fertilisers, cattle fodder and
building materials.
2
Traffic. In 2003, 8 vessels totalling 21 279 dwt used the
port.
Port Authority. Bergkvara Hamn & Stuveri AB,
Hamngatan 1, 385 25 Bergkvara.
Website: www.bergkvarahamn.se
Limiting conditions
4.32
1
Maximum permitted draught in the main E channel to
the harbour, which is swept to a depth of 6⋅1 m, is 5⋅5 m.
Deepest and longest berths. Viktoria Quay, deepest.
Silokajen, longest (4.38).
Largest vessel permissible. A vessel up to 150 m in
length, with a draught of 5⋅5 m.
2
Water level. Strong winds from N or E may,
exceptionally, raise the level by 1⋅3 m. Strong winds from
W or SW may lower the level by 0⋅9 m.
Ice. The harbour is occasionally closed by ice in January
and February.
Arrival information
4.33
1
Anchorage is available 1 miles SE of Garpen
Lighthouse.
Power cable. A submarine power cable is laid between
Garpen Lighthouse and Dalskär, close N of the town.
Pilotage. Pilots are available from Kalmar. Pilot boards
about 1 miles SE of Garpen Lighthouse (56°23′⋅4N,
16°07′⋅6E) (4.19), as indicated on the chart.
2
Tug. A harbour tug is available.
Local knowledge. Due to the sharp bends in the E
channel vessels with deeper draughts may find
manoeuvring difficult, especially at night. Local knowledge
and use of a pilot is required to enter this channel.
Harbour
4.34
1
General layout. The harbour is approached and entered,
from the E main channel, on the alignment of leading
lights through a buoyed channel to the harbour.
A secondary approach channel from the N, marked by
buoys, is for small craft only. It has a maximum authorised
draught of 3⋅0 m, is narrow and twisted and should not be
entered without local knowledge.
2
The harbour consists of an open roadstead partially
sheltered and protected by islets and rocks. The commercial
harbour lies on the shore with three berthing areas. A
fishing and small boat harbour lies close N, formed and
protected by a spit of land and breakwaters.
4.35
1
Landmarks.
Utgrunden Lighthouse (56°22′⋅4N, 16°15′⋅4E) (4.19).
Silo in Bergkvara (56°23′⋅1N, 16°05′⋅5E), 32 m in
height and visible well to seaward.
Söderåkra Church (56°26′⋅8N, 16°04′⋅3E), white
tower.
Garpen Lighthouse (4.19).
Directions
4.36
1
From a position about 2 miles SE of Garpen Lighthouse
approach on the alignment (302°) of Dalskär Leading
Lights:
Front light (red triangle on grey framework tower)
(56°23′⋅5N, 16°05′⋅4E), displayed from the head of
the small boat harbour.
Rear light (similar structure), 300 m NW from front
light.
2
This alignment leads 2 miles NW to the buoyed channel
entrance passing SSW of a light-buoy (S cardinal), moored
6 cables S of Garpen Lighthouse, which marks the S limit
of Norra Garpegrundet; and NNE of a buoy (port hand)
marking a shoal with a least depth of 5⋅8m (1 cable
farther S).
3
Thence the channel is entered on the alignment (263°)
of Bergkvara S Leading Lights displayed close NNW of
Långörsudde (56°22′⋅6N, 16°05′⋅5E):
Front light (white square on cairn) (56°22′⋅8N,
16°05′⋅5E).
Rear light (black and white square over white
triangle, on grey metal framework tower) (200 m
W of front light).
CHAPTER 4
155
4
This alignment leads 6 cables W through the buoyed
channel to the alignment (331°) of Bergkvara N Leading
Lights, displayed from Silokajen in the commercial
harbour:
Front light (building) (56°23′⋅1N, 16°05′⋅5E).
Rear light (building) (35 m NNW from front light).
5
This alignment, and in the white sector (334°–344°) of
Dalskär Front Light, above, leads to the commercial
harbour area and the small craft harbour through a channel
marked by buoys (lateral).
4.37
1
Clearing marks. The alignment (345°) of Kårö Beacon
(white cairn 2⋅7 m in height) (56°23′⋅2N, 16°06′⋅0E)
standing on an islet of the same name and Söderåkra
Church (56°26′⋅8N, 16°04′⋅3E) (4.35), clears well ENE of
Röret (56°20′⋅3N, 16°06′⋅5E) (4.21).
Berths
4.38
1
The deepest berth is Viktoria Quay (previously known as
Södra kajen) which has a length of 110 m and a depth
alongside of 6⋅1 m. Silokajen, which lies 2 cables N, is the
longest berth with a length of 175 m and a depth alongside
of 5⋅1 m.
Modoquay, formerly North Quay, with a length of 110 m
and a depth of 3⋅4 m lies further N, and there are a number
of berths in the small boat harbour with depths of 2⋅4 m.
Port services
4.39
1
Repairs: minor engine repairs.
Other facilities. Oily waste reception; limited facilities,
using road tanker.
Supplies: fuel oil supplied by road tanker; fresh water;
provisions.
Rescue. A fully equipped rescue craft is stationed at
Bergkvara.
Harbours
Chart 2360
Sandhamn
4.40
1
General description. Sandhamn (56°05′⋅6N, 15°51′⋅5E),
a fishing and small craft harbour, lies on the W side of a
small bay 1miles NNE of Torhamnsudde. The harbour
lies within the Karlskrona administrative area.
It is formed by a breakwater extending from the shore
and a detached breakwater close E making an entrance
about 30 m wide. Within the harbour there are two piers
forming two basins, the inner of which contains a small
craft harbour.
2
Depths. In the channel to the anchorage the maximum
draught is 4⋅5 m and in the channel to the harbour the
maximum draught is 3⋅4 m. The harbour is dredged to a
depth of 4 m.
Anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the chart
and with local knowledge, in an area 4 cables SSE of the
harbour entrance, in depths of 8 to 11 m, clay and mud. It
is exposed to winds from NE through E to SSW.
3
Directions. From a position about 2 miles SE of
Torhamnsudde (56°04′⋅5N, 15°51′⋅0E) the approach is made
on the alignment (344°) of Sandhamn Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle on post) (56°05′⋅6N,
15°51′⋅5E), displayed from the W breakwater head.
Rear light (similar structure) (500 m NNW from front
light).
4
This alignment leads 3 miles through the fairway,
firstly to the anchorage thence continuing to the harbour
entrance passing ENE of a buoy (S cardinal) moored
1miles SSE of Torhamnsudde and close SW of a buoy
(starboard hand) marking Revet, a shoal area 7 cables NE
of Torhamnsudde. Thence to the entrance channel marked
by a buoy (starboard hand) and between the breakwaters.
5
Caution. Vessels may experience a heavy swell with S
or SE gales.
Useful marks:
Torhamn Church (56°05′⋅7N, 15°50′⋅0E) (3.248)
Radio mast (red light) (56°08′⋅3N, 15°50′⋅0E).
6
Berths. There is a total of 265 m of berthing space in
the two basins with depths alongside of 4⋅0 m. The small
boat harbour in the inner basin has pontoon berths available
with depths between 1⋅0 to 3⋅5 m.
Facilities: slip for vessels up to 70 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Svanhalla
4.41
1
General description. Svanhalla (56°07′⋅2N, 15°53′⋅2E),
a small fishing harbour, lies in a small inlet 1miles NNE
of Sandhamn (4.40). The harbour is protected by a
breakwater and contains a quay 65 m in length with a
depth alongside of 2⋅0 m.
Local knowledge is required for entry.
Supplies: fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2842 with plan of Kristianopel
Kristianopel
4.42
1
General description. Kristianopel (56°15′⋅4N,
16°02′⋅6E), with a population of about 100, lies on the E
side of a narrow spit of land 8 miles SSW of Bergkvara
(4.31). The harbour, formed by breakwaters, is very narrow
and only suitable for small vessels with a draught up to
2⋅2 m. It is exposed to winds from the S and SE and is
usually free from ice throughout the winter.
2
It contains a quay 150 m in length with a depth
alongside of 2⋅5 m and also berths with all the usual
facilities for small pleasure craft.
Landmark. Kristianopel Church (56°15′⋅4N, 16°03′⋅7E)
(4.19).
Directions. Approach from a position in the vicinity of
the approach buoy (safewater) moored 2miles SE of
Kristianopel Church on the alignment (312°) of
Kristianopel Leading Lights:
3
Front light (white triangle, red border, on post)
(56°15′⋅5N, 16°02′⋅7E), displayed from the N
breakwater head.
Rear light (similar structure) (340 m from front light).
This alignment leads 2 miles NW to the harbour
through the fairway and a channel marked by buoys
(lateral) through the offshore shoals, passing SW of
Lassakullen, a shoal marked on its S side by a buoy
(starboard hand).
4
The buoyed channel is entered 8 cables S of Långaskär
Beacon (white stone cairn, 2⋅5 m in height) (56°15′⋅7N,
16°03′⋅7E), standing on the S end of the island of the same
name, thence follow the above alignment to a position
about 3 cables from the harbour entrance where it is
prudent, to avoid passing too close to the shoals, to deviate
NE of the alignment, being guided by the channel buoys to
the entrance.
5
Useful marks:
Windmill at Olsäng (56°12′⋅8N, 15°59′⋅0E).
Windmill at Rörsäng (56°15′⋅1N, 16°01′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 4
156
Grönhögen (4.43)
(Original dated 1996)
(Photograph − Swedish Maritime Administration)
Kristianopel Beacon (white stone cairn, 2⋅5 m in
height), 2cables N of the church.
Supplies: fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2842 with, plan of Grönhögen
Grönhögen
4.43
1
General description. Grönhögen (56°16′N, 16°24′E), a
small commercial and fishing harbour, lies on the W coast
of Öland 4 miles N of Ölands Södra Udde.
Principal exports include chalk, limestone and grain with
imports including cattle fodder, fertilisers and oils.
2
It is formed by two breakwaters extending S and W
from the shore with a SW facing entrance, 50 m wide
between the breakwater heads which are illuminated. The
harbour is dredged to a depth of 4 m, the limits of which
are marked by buoys, and is suitable for a draught up to
3⋅5 m.
Pilots are available from Kalmar. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
3
Landmarks:
Radio mast (red light) (56°14′⋅0N, 16°27′⋅5E), NE of
Ölands Södra Udde.
Chimney, tall, at factory close N of harbour.
Ventlinge Church (56°17′⋅0N, 16°24′⋅5E), N of town.
The church is white with a red roof.
4
Directions. Approach from the SW in a position about
2 miles from the harbour entrance on the alignment (054°)
of Grönhögen Leading Lights:
Front light (yellow triangle, red border, on post)
(56°15′⋅9N, 16°24′⋅0E), displayed from the E side
of the harbour.
Rear light (similar structure) (80 m NE from front
light).
5
This alignment leads 1miles NE to the entrance,
through the fairway and a short buoyed entrance channel,
noting a buoy (W cardinal) moored 3cables W of the N
breakwater, marking shoal water extending NW from the
harbour. Once inside the entrance a sharp turn to the N is
required to avoid the E limit of the 4 m dredged area in the
harbour.
6
Useful marks (positions from Ölands Södra Udde Light
(56°11′⋅8N, 16°23′⋅8E) (4.19)):
Orminge rör Beacon (grey truncated cone, 3⋅5 m in
height) (1miles N).
Ås Church (56°14′⋅3N, 16°26′⋅9E) (3 miles NE).
Two radio masts (red lights), charted, (about 4 miles
NE).
4.44
1
Berths. On the W side of the harbour there is a total of
240 m of berthing space with a depth alongside of 3⋅5 m,
of which 80 m is on the inside of the breakwater with the
remainder on both sides of a jetty. In the N part there is a
single jetty 20 m long with a depth alongside of 3⋅1 m.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Rescue. A fully equipped rescue craft is stationed at
Grönhögen.
UTGRUNDEN TO KALMAR
General information
Charts 2251, 2842, 2843 with plan of Kalmar and Approaches
Route
4.45
1
From a position W of Utgrunden (56°23′N, 16°16′E) the
route leads generally NNE for about 19 miles to Norra
CHAPTER 4
157
Skallö (56°40′⋅6N, 16°24′⋅2E), 1 mile NE of Kalmar where
Ölandsbron, a fixed bridge, spans the fairway. It includes
Kalmarsunds Djupränna (4.54), the dredged deep-water
channel through the narrows between the mainland and
Öland in the vicinity of Kalmar.
Draught limitation
4.46
1
The maximum authorised draught in the S approach
channel to Kalmar, as shown on the chart, is 7⋅3 m.
Pilotage
4.47
1
See 4.7.
Vessel Traffic Service
4.48
1
A VTS is in operation within Kalmarsund. See 4.8.
Ölandsbron
4.49
1
Ölandsbron is the fixed bridge, 3miles long, which
spans the channel, 1 mile NNE of Kalmar harbour,
connecting the mainland to Öland at Möllstorp, the
navigable span being between the islets of Svinö and Norra
Skallö.
The navigable span has a vertical clearance of 36 m over
a width of 80 m. The bridge pillars on each side of the
fairway are floodlit and painted to a height of 10 m above
the water, the W being red and the E green.
2
A light, visible from both sides, is displayed from the
underside of the span to indicate the centre of the channel.
Lights, showing fixed green on the E side of the channel
and fixed red on the W side, are displayed from each side
of the bridge to indicate the limits of the deep-water
channel and the vertical clearance limits.
Natural conditions
4.50
1
Current. In the vicinity of Kalmarsunds Djupränna the
current does not always run in the direction of the channel.
With a general S flow there is a SW set across the channel
within 3 cables N and S of Skansgrundet Lighthouse
(56°39′⋅1N, 16°22′⋅5E) at the S end; in the central part,
within 2 cables N and S of Huvudet Lighthouse (56°40′⋅1N,
16°23′⋅1E), the set is slightly E of S; in the N part
6 cables S of Krongrundet Lighthouse (56°41′⋅4N,
16°24′⋅3E), the set is SW.
2
With a general N flow, from 5 cables S to 2cables N
of Skansgrundet Lighthouse, there is a NE set, gradually
changing to an ENE set across the channel; from 1 cable S
to 4 cables N of Huvudet Lighthouse the set is N; within
7 cables S of Krongrundet Lighthouse the set is NE.
3
In the vicinity of Prästör, an islet 2 cables NE of
Skansgrundet Lighthouse, a race is occasionally formed in
the channel with a S flow, the latter also being strong in
the channel within 5 cables SSW of Ölandsbron.
Currents can be variable dependent on the strength and
direction of the wind. Caution should be exercised when
navigating in this vicinity.
4
Ice. The S part of Kalmarsund, especially between
Kalmar and Mörbylånga, is likely to have some days of ice
even in mild winters. In a normal winter ice can exist for
periods longer than 30 days, especially in February and
March. In severe winters the S part of the sound can be
covered with ice for long periods from January to March.
Principal marks
4.51
1
Landmarks:
Utgrunden Lighthouse (56°22′⋅4N, 16°15′⋅4E) (4.19).
Kastlösa Church (56°27′⋅5N, 16°26′⋅0E), on Öland.
Radio mast (56°31′⋅0N, 16°26′⋅3E) (elevation 93 m),
on Öland.
Hagby Church (56°33′⋅3N, 16°10′⋅8E), on the
mainland.
2
Kalmar Water Tower (56°39′⋅8N, 16°21′⋅6E).
Castle (Kalmar Slott) (56°39′⋅5N, 16°21′⋅3E), the old
castle with five towers.
Major lights:
Garpen Light (56°23′⋅4N, 16°07′⋅7E) (4.19).
Skansgrundet Light (black tower, green band, grey
conical base, white lantern, 19 m in height;
floodlit) (56°39′⋅1N, 16°22′⋅5E).
3
Krongrundet Light (white tower, green and black
stripe, 11 m in height, floodlit) (56°41′⋅4N,
16°24′⋅3E).
Berga Aero Light (56°41′⋅7N, 16°20′⋅4E) (4.80).
Other aid to navigation
4.52
1
Racon:
Centre of Ölandsbron (4.49) navigable span.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 4.21)
Utgrunden to Skansgrundet
4.53
1
From a position W of Utgrunden the fairway leads
initially N for about 8 miles to join the recommended track,
as shown on the chart, passing (with positions from
Utgrunden Light):
E of the buoy (E cardinal) (2miles N), marking the
S end of Mittgrunden and into the white sector
(185°–193°) astern of Utgrunden Light, thence:
2
E of the buoy (E cardinal), marking the N end of
Mittgrunden (6 miles N), joining the
recommended track close N, thence:
E of Hagbygrundet (10miles N), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal).
3
Thence the recommended track continues NNE for about
6 miles, in the white sector (019°–024°) of
Skansgrundet Light, to the entrance to Kalmarsunds
Djupränna, passing (with positions from Skansgrundet
Light):
ESE of Södra Hossmogrund, marked by a buoy (E
cardinal) at its S end (5miles SSW), thence:
4
ESE of Stensögrund (3 miles SSW), thence:
WNW of Trädgårdsgrund, marked by a light-buoy (W
cardinal), noting a buoy (E cardinal), 5 cables
WSW, marking shoal water on the W side of the
fairway, thence:
To Skansgrundet Light (4.51).
Kalmarsunds Djupränna
4.54
1
Kalmarsunds Djupränna, the dredged deep-water channel
which has a bottom width of 80 m and a least depth of
7⋅7 m over a width of 60 m, is marked on each side by
lighthouses, light-buoys, buoys and beacons.
The main channels to Kalmar and Färjestaden branch off
from this channel.
2
Kalmarsunds Djupränna is entered between Skansgrundet
Lighthouse (4.51) and Grimskär Beacon (white
CHAPTER 4
158
quadrangular daymark on iron framework) (56°39′⋅1N,
16°22′⋅5E), standing on a small islet. Grimskärsgrund
Light-buoy (port hand) is moored 2 cables ESE of the
beacon.
3
Thence the track leads 2miles NNE through the centre
of the channel to its N limit at Krongrundet Light
(56°41′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅3E) (4.51), passing (with positions from
Skansgrundet Light):
WNW of Prästör Beacon (white cairn) (1cables
NNE), standing on a rock, thence:
4
WNW of Grytan (4 cables NNE), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
WNW of Omböjningen Beacon (yellow floodlit board
on grey base, 2 m in height) (5cables NNE),
thence:
ESE of Gillburen Light-buoy (port hand) (7 cables
NNE), and:
5
WNW of Döden, a shoal patch (8 cables NNE),
marked by a buoy (starboard hand), thence:
ESE of Huvudet Light (red tower, black band at base,
7 m in height, floodlit) (1 mile NNE), thence:
ESE of Osvallsgrundet Light (red and black tower,
7 m in height, floodlit) (1miles NNE), and:
6
WNW of Mellgrund (1miles NNE), a shoal marked
by a light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
Under the navigable span of Ölandsbron (4.49),
thence:
ESE of Nyckeln (2miles NNE), the shoal on which
there is a least depth of 2⋅6 m, marked at its NE
limit by a light-buoy (port hand), thence:
WNW of Krongrundet Light (4.51) which marks a
shoal of the same name.
7
Cautions. The lighthouses marking each side of the
channel are so placed that their respective lights are
positioned vertically directly above the edges of the
channel. Their bases however, extend underwater into the
channel for 5⋅0 m and must not be passed at a distance of
less than 10 m.
Vessels should note several submarine power cables,
shown on the plan.
Useful marks
4.55
1
Vickleby Church (56°34′⋅6N, 16°27′⋅6E), on Öland.
Kalmar Pilot Lookout, on Tjärhovet (56°39′⋅6N,
16°22′⋅7E).
Kalmar Cathedral (56°39′⋅9N, 16°21′⋅9E), with four
towers.
2
Beacon (white cairn) (56°39′⋅8N, 16°22′⋅6E) standing
3cables SW of Huvudet Lighthouse (56°40′⋅1N,
16°23′⋅1E).
Södra Skallö Beacon (cairn) (56°40′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅3E),
standing on E end of islet.
Skallörev Beacon (56°40′⋅5N, 16°23′⋅9E).
(Directions continue at 4.97)
(Directions for Ekenäs are given at 4.57,
for Mörbylånga at 4.58, for Färjestaden at 4.59
and for Kalmar at 4.82)
Anchorages and harbours
Anchorages
4.56
1
Anchorage may be obtained in a number of areas in the
vicinity of Kalmarsunds Djupränna and Kalmar as follows:
(a) For vessels with draughts exceeding 6⋅0 m in a
position about 1 mile S of Trädgårdsgrund
Light-buoy (56°37′⋅6N, 16°21′⋅8E), in depths of
about 12 m, fine sand. A wreck with a depth of
7⋅9 m over it lying 5 cables S of the light-buoy
should be avoided.
2
(b) In a position, shown on the plan, about 5 cables
SSE of Grimskär Beacon (56°39′⋅1N, 16°22′⋅5E)
(4.54), in depths of about 8 to 11 m, clay.
However, vessels should not anchor ENE of a line
with the W point of Grimskär in line with Kalmar
Water Tower (4.51) bearing about 335°.
3
(c) In a position, shown on the plan, about 2 cables
SW of Huvudet Lighthouse (56°40′⋅1N,
16°23′⋅1E) (4.54), in depths of 5 to 6 m, clay.
Caution. Anchorage is prohibited in the vicinity of the
submarine power cables shown on the plans.
Chart 2842 with plan of Ekenäs
Ekenäs
4.57
1
General description. Ekenäs (56°30′⋅7N, 16°10′⋅8E) is a
small harbour situated on the W side of Kalmarsund about
10 miles SW of Kalmar. The harbour lies at the NE limit
of a small bay and consists of a pier extending 30 m ESE
from the shore with charted depths of about 2⋅7 to 4⋅0 m
alongside its N side.
A slip lies close S of the pier and a finger pier lies
close NE.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in the roads in a position
about 2cables ENE of the harbour, depth about 3⋅5 m,
good holding ground of mud and clay. Local knowledge is
required.
Ice. The harbour is usually icebound from January to
March.
3
Directions. Approach from the SE, in the vicinity of
Ekenäsgrunden (56°30′N, 16°12′E), on the alignment (298°)
of leading beacons:
Front beacon (truncated cone, surmounted by a staff
and truncated cone small end up) (56°30′⋅7N,
16°11′⋅0E).
Rear beacon (similar structure, similar cone inverted)
(40 m WNW from front beacon).
4
This alignment leads 7 cables WNW through a channel,
suitable for draughts up to 3⋅0 m and marked by buoys
(lateral), to a position 2 cables from the front beacon.
Thence leave the alignment and follow the buoys for about
2 cables W to the harbour entrance.
Facilities. Small shipyard with a patent slip for vessels
up to 150 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2842 with plan of Mörbylånga
Mörbylånga
4.58
1
General information. Mörbylånga (56°31′⋅5N,
16°23′⋅0E) is a small commercial and leisure harbour
situated on the W coast of Öland. It is generally well
sheltered except in W gales when a swell may be
experienced. The buildings in the town are visible well to
seaward.
Principal exports are sugar, grain and stone. Principal
imports are fertilisers, limestone and oils.
2
The population was about 1800 in 1993.
Ice. The harbour is usually affected by ice from January
to March but is kept open by icebreakers.
Pilots are available from Kalmar. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorage may be obtained in positions 8 cables WNW
to WSW of the harbour entrance in depths of 7 to 9 m,
sand and clay.
CHAPTER 4
159
Mörbylånga (4.58)
(Original dated 1996)
(Photograph − Swedish Maritime Administration)
3
Harbour. The channel to the harbour entrance is
dredged to a depth of 3⋅8 m over a bottom width of about
40 m but is liable to silting. Maximum draught in the
channel is 3⋅3 m and vessels close to this draught should
monitor the depth carefully.
4
The harbour comprises two breakwaters which form a
NW facing entrance 35 m wide between the heads of the
breakwaters, which are floodlit, and enclosing a single
basin with a general dredged depth of 3⋅8 m. A shallow
water area close inside the N breakwater is marked by
buoys (port hand).
5
The principal quay, Östra Kajen, is about 170 m long
with a depth alongside of 3⋅8 m. In the remainder of the
harbour there is a further 230 m of berthing space,
including a floating pontoon jetty for pleasure craft, with
depths alongside of 2⋅5 to 3⋅6 m.
6
Landmarks:
Mörbylånga Church (56°31′⋅4N, 16°23′⋅8E).
Radio mast (elevation 93 m) (56°31′⋅0N, 16°26′⋅3E),
about 1miles E of the church.
Resmo Church (56°32′⋅7N, 16°26′⋅7E), 2miles NE
of the harbour.
7
Directions. Mörbylånga Leading Lights:
Front light (orange triangle, black border, on roof of
shed) (56°31′⋅8N, 16°22′⋅5E), displayed from the E
side of the harbour.
Rear light (orange triangle, black border, on metal
framework tower) (200 m SE from front light).
8
From the vicinity of the buoy (W cardinal) (56°32′⋅6N,
16°20′⋅6E), marking the 10 m contour, the alignment
(127°) of these lights leads 1miles SE to the harbour
passing SW of a buoy (port hand) marking the SW limit of
Mölngrund, a rocky patch NNW of the entrance and thence
through a short buoyed entrance channel to the harbour.
9
A useful aid to entry, by day, is to approach from the
NW with Mörbylånga Church in line with the centre of the
harbour entrance bearing 130° until the leading lights are
identified.
Facilities: doctor.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Regular sea services with Kalmar and
Degerhamn.
Chart 2843 plan of Kalmar and Approaches
Färjestaden
4.59
1
General information. Färjestaden (56°39′N, 16°28′E)
lies 3miles ESE of Kalmar on the W coast of Öland.
Before completion of Ölandsbron, the bridge joining the
mainland to Öland, Färjestaden was the terminal harbour
for the ferry service between the two ports. Its present
function is that of a general purpose small harbour handling
commercial, fishing and other small craft. Farm produce
and stone are exported.
2
Local knowledge or the assistance of a pilot is required
for entry if the vessels draught exceeds 3⋅4 m.
Pilots are available from Kalmar. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Currents. See 4.50.
3
Harbour. The harbour comprises N and S breakwaters
forming a W facing entrance 55 m wide between their
heads.
Depths in the central part of the harbour are about 4⋅2 m
and maximum permitted draught in the harbour is 3⋅4 m.
Chimney (56°39′⋅2N, 16°31′⋅2E), 1 miles E of
harbour.
4.60
1
Directions. The main channel to Färjestaden is marked
by buoys (lateral) and cairns which are the remains of the
lighthouses formerly marking the sides of the ferry channel
between Kalmar and Öland.
Leading beacons in Kalmar:
Kalmar Norra Beacon, front (56°39′⋅8N, 16°22′⋅4E),
displayed from the S end of a detached breakwater
2cables E of Kalmar Cathedral.
Kavaljeren Beacon, rear (360 m WNW of front
beacon), displayed from the head of Tullhamnen.
CHAPTER 4
160
2
From a position close N of Omböjningen Beacon
(56°39′⋅6N, 16°22′⋅9E) in Kalmarsunds Djupränna, on the
alignment (286°) astern, of the above beacons, the track
leads initially 1 mile ESE through the channel to a position
1 cable ESE of Norra Midsundsgrundet Beacon (cairn)
(56°39′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅5E), passing firstly, close SSE of the
buoy (port hand) marking the SW limit of Hattkullen,
thence close NNE of Kalmar Södra Tredingsgrund Beacon
(cairn), standing 6 cables ESE of Omböjningen Beacon, and
close SSE of Norra Midsundsgrundet Beacon. Thence to
the alignment (103°) of Färjestaden Leading Lights:
3
Front light (white triangle on post) (56°39′⋅0N,
16°27′⋅8E), displayed from the rear of the harbour.
Rear light (white triangle on post) (140 m ESE from
front light).
4
This alignment leads 1⋅6 miles ESE through the centre
of the channel to the harbour entrance passing close SSE of
Ölands Norra Tredingsgrund Beacon (cairn), standing
1 mile WNW of the entrance, and close SSE of
Lassegrunden Beacon (cairn) which stands 4 cables WNW
of the breakwaters at the outward end of the short buoyed
entrance channel.
Side channels. From a position 7 cables SSE of
Skansgrundet Light (4.51), a side channel leads NNE and E
to join the main channel, as shown on the chart.
5
From a position 5 cables N of Svansholmarna (56°37′N,
16°24′E), a small craft channel, with a least depth of 2⋅5 m
and marked by buoys (lateral) leads 2miles NE to
Färjestaden, passing NW of Södra Ersörsgrundet
(56°37′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅7E) and SE of Norra Ersörsgrundet
(1 mile farther N).
Useful marks:
Färjestaden N and S Breakwater Lights (white posts)
(56°39′⋅0N, 16°27′⋅6E), displayed from each
breakwater head.
6
Berths. Within the harbour there are N and S basins
partially divided by the N quay which is about 80 m long
with a depth of 4⋅0 m on its S face. The S basin has 70 m
of berthing space for fishing boats with depths of 3⋅8 to
4⋅0 m alongside.
The N basin contains a number of finger piers providing
numerous berths for small craft with depths of 2⋅0 to
2⋅5 m. There are also berths for small craft just inside the S
breakwater.
7
Facilities. Engine repairs. Two Ro-Ro ramps in NE part
of harbour. All usual facilities for small craft.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Stensö
4.61
1
Description. Stensö (56°39′N, 16°20′E), a small fishing
harbour, lies on the SW side of Kalmar, 9 cables SW of
Kalmar Castle, at the N end of the Stensö peninsula.
Approach and entry. There are two approach channels,
one from S and the other from E. Both approaches are
through short buoyed (lateral) channels on the alignment of
the following sets of leading lights.
4.62
1
Approach from S is as follows:
Stensö Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (orange diamonds, black borders,
on posts, 54 m apart) (56°39′⋅1N, 16°20′⋅0E),
displayed from the NW part of the harbour, in line
bearing 004°.
Ängen Leading Lights:
2
Front and rear lights (white circles, orange and black
borders, respectively, on posts, 32 m apart)
(56°39′⋅0N, 16°19′⋅9E), displayed close W of the
entrance, in line bearing 351°.
Långviken Leading Lights:
3
Front and rear lights (white triangles, orange borders,
on posts, 32 m apart) (56°39′⋅1N, 16°20′⋅0E),
displayed at the head of the harbour, in line
bearing 016°.
The alignments of the above lights and use of the buoys
leads N to the entrance.
4.63
1
Approach from E is as follows:
Stensö Yttre Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (white rectangles, black borders,
on posts, 23 m apart) (56°38′⋅9N, 16°19′⋅8E),
displayed 1 cable SSW of the entrance, in line
bearing 277°.
Stensö Inre Leading Lights:
2
Front and rear lights (white triangles, black borders,
on posts, 20 m apart) (56°39′⋅0N, 16°19′⋅9E),
displayed close N of the outer lights, in line
bearing 295°.
Långviken Leading Lights: in line bearing 016°, as
above.
The alignments of the above lights and use of the buoys
leads WNW to the entrance.
KALMAR
General information
Chart 2843 with plan of Kalmar and Approaches
Position
4.64
1
Kalmar (56°40′N, 16°22′E), one of the largest cities in
the SE part of Sweden is the provincial capital of Kalmar
province, a region famous for its glassworks.
The central heart of the city which contains the
cathedral and some of the port area lies on Kvarnholmen
which is connected to the mainland by several bridges.
Function
4.65
1
Kalmar has a long and eminent history as a major
trading centre for the Hanseatic League in times past and
as a fortified harbour used by the Vikings in the twelth
century. In its modern form the present city dates back to
the seventeenth century having been rebuilt after a great
fire destroyed most of the original city.
2
One of its former functions was that of principal ferry
port for the island of Öland before construction of
Ölandsbron bridge. It is now a historic and industrial city
with a fairly large, well sheltered harbour suitably equipped
to handle most types of cargo and medium- sized vessels.
Principal exports include grain, piece goods, timber and
timber products. Principal imports include fodder, fertilisers,
oils, bulk products and iron products.
In 2003 the population of Kalmar was 60 066.
Entry
4.66
1
Entry to the harbour areas is directly from Kalmarsunds
Djupränna (4.54) through short dredged channels, marked
by buoys, on the alignment of leading lights or leading
beacons.
Traffic
4.67
1
In 2003 the port was used by 394 vessels totalling
1 131 664 dwt.
CHAPTER 4
161
Port Authority
4.68
1
Kalmar Hamnforvalting, PO Box 810, S–391 28 Kalmar.
Website: www.kalmar.se/kalmarhamn
E-Mail: kalmar.hamn@kalmar.se
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.69
1
The controlling depths are those in the S approach
channel and from the N the depth in Kalmarsunds
Djupränna. Maximum permitted draughts:
Entrance channel — 7⋅0 m
Oil harbour and main harbour from S — 7⋅3 m.
Oil harbour and main harbour from N — 6⋅8 m.
Deepest and longest berth
4.70
1
Jetty in oil harbour (4.83).
Elevatorkajen S part (4.84) (cruise vessels).
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.71
1
Oil jetty. With entry from S, by day and with tug
assistance, pilots can handle a vessel with maximum length
185 m, beam 22 m, draught 7⋅3 m and 30 000 dwt. By night
the figures are reduced to 10 000 dwt and draught 7⋅3 m.
Main basin. With entry from S, by day and with tug
assistance, pilots can handle a vessel with maximum length
155 m, draught 7⋅3 m and 14 000 dwt. By night these
figures are reduced to length 140 m, draught 6⋅9 m and
10 000 dwt.
Arrival information
Port radio
4.72
1
Kalmar Hamnradio (Kalmar Harbour Radio). See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorages
4.73
1
Details of anchorage areas are given at 4.56.
Pilotage
4.74
1
Kalmar is a pilot station providing service 24 hours.
Requests for pilots should be sent to Oxelösund VTS
12 hours in advance. See 4.7 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
2
The pilot lookout and station is located at the NE end of
Tjärhovet (4.77).
Pilot boards, as shown on chart, as follows:
(i) S entrance — near Trädgårdsgrund (56°37′⋅6N,
16°22′⋅1E).
(ii) N entrance — near Sillåsen (56°46′N, 16°30′E) or
NE of Krongrundet (56°41′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅5E).
Tugs
4.75
1
Available and compulsory for larger vessels. For limits
Port Authority should be consulted.
Quarantine
4.76
1
There is a quarantine station at Kalmar (see 1.115).
Harbour
General layout
4.77
1
The harbour is formed by Kvarnholmen to the N and
Tjärhovet, an artificial peninsula to the SE, connected to
Kvarnholmen, and on the E side by a detached breakwater.
The entrance which is reached from the E through a short
channel off Kalmarsunds Djupränna lies between the S end
of the detached breakwater and the NW end of Tjärhovet.
2
The harbour is divided by Barlastholmen, a short
peninsula projecting E from its root in the SW part thence
NE towards the central part of the harbour. This creates
three basins in the N and central part plus a single basin in
the S part. The oil harbour lies on the SE side of Tjärhovet
3 cables N of Skansgrundet Light.
3
There are other berthing areas on Varvsholmen, an islet
4 cables N of the harbour entrance and Ängö, close NW of
Varvsholmen.
Hazards
4.78
1
Strong currents may cause manoeuvring difficulties in
the vicinity of the harbour entrance channel. See 4.50.
Sunken timber may be encountered in the S part of
Nyahamnen.
Ice
4.79
1
In winter months the port is normally kept open by
icebreakers.
Principal marks
4.80
1
Landmarks:
Kalmar Water Tower (56°39′⋅8N, 16°21′⋅6E).
Kalmar Slott (56°39′⋅5N, 16°21′⋅5E) (4.51).
Kalmar Cathedral, with four towers, (56°39′⋅9N,
16°21′⋅9E), near the centre of Kvarnholmen.
Major lights:
2
Skansgrundet Light (56°39′⋅1N, 16°22′⋅5E) (4.51).
Krongrundet Light (56°41′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅3E) (4.51).
Berga Aero Light (water tower) (56°41′⋅7N,
16°20′⋅4E).
Other aid to navigation
4.81
1
Racon:
Centre of Ölandsbron (4.49) navigable span.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
Approach and entry
4.82
1
Approach from S and N is through Kalmarsunds
Djupränna (4.54) with short entrance channels leading off
from the main channel.
2
Entry — Oil harbour. Entry to the oil harbour, dredged
to a depth of 7⋅9 m, from S is through a short channel
marked by buoys (port hand), which leads N off
Kalmarsunds Djupränna close inside its S entrance at
Skansgrundet Light. From the N follow the track, shown on
the plan, to a position about 1 cable SE of the pilot lookout
on the NE end of Tjärhovet thence SW to the berth.
3
Entry — Main basin. From S follow the directions
given at 4.54 to a position about 0⋅5 cables SW of
Omböjningen Beacon (56°39′⋅6N, 16°23′⋅1E). Thence to the
alignment (277°) of Kalmar Leading Lights:
CHAPTER 4
162
Front light (framework tower, red and white daymark,
8 m in height) (56°39′⋅8N, 16°22′⋅3E), displayed
from the W side of the harbour.
Rear light (similar structure, 11 m in height),
displayed 50 m W of front light.
4
This alignment leads 2 cables W to the harbour entrance,
on the track shown on the plan, passing N of the buoys
(port hand) marking the limits of the dredged area off the
NE and N corners of Tjärhovet and S of Inre Gillburen
Light-buoy (starboard hand) which marks the N limit of the
dredged area off the entrance.
5
From the N follow the reverse of the directions given at
4.54 to a position close S of Gillburen Light-buoy (port
hand), moored 2 cables SSW of Huvudet Light
(56°40′⋅1N, 16°23′⋅1E), thence follow the directions given
above for the main basin.
Entry — Varvsholmen. The channel to the S part of
Varvsholmen leads 3 cables WNW from a position about
1 cable SSW of Huvudet Light.
6
The channel to the N part of Varvsholmen is entered
from a position 2cables SSW of the centre of the
navigable span of Ölandsbron to the alignment (248°) of
Ängö Boat Harbour Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (white triangles, black borders,
on posts, 150 m apart) (56°40′⋅3N, 16°22′⋅6E),
displayed from the E side of the islet.
7
This alignment leads 6 cables WSW, through a channel
marked by buoys (lateral), to the N part of Varvsholmen
and also to the small craft harbour on the SE side of Ängö,
an islet close NW of Varvsholmen.
Basins and berths
Oil harbour
4.83
1
The oil harbour contains one oil jetty with a length of
90 m and a depth alongside of 7⋅9 m.
Main harbour
4.84
1
Nyahamnen. Nyahamnen lies in the S and SE part of
the harbour. It comprises the SE face of Barlastholmen and
Tjärhovskajen, the NW side of Tjärhovet and contains a
total of 1174 m of berthing space with depths alongside of
4⋅4 to 7⋅7 m. The deepest berths lie at the NW end of
Tjärhovet equipped with bulk handling and other cargo
handling equipment. Directly opposite these berths, at the
centre of the SE face of Barlastholmen there is a fixed
Ro-Ro berth 14 m wide and a depth of 6⋅3 m.
2
Gamlahamnen. Gamlahamnen comprises the N central
and NW parts of the harbour. The principal berth is
Elevatorkajen, situated in the N and close NW of the
detached breakwater, with a length of 175 m. It is mainly
used for cruise vessels. There is a further 655 m of
berthing space within Gamlahamnen with depths alongside
of 3⋅9 to 4⋅8 m.
3
Tullhamnen is a small basin on the NW side of the
harbour which functions as a museum harbour and contains
245 m of berths.
Ölandshamnen lies in the central part close W of
Gamlahamnen. It is a pleasure and small craft basin with a
total of 285 m of berthing space with depths alongside of
about 2⋅5 to 4⋅0 m.
4.85
1
Varvsholmen has a quay, on its S side, 120 m long with
a depth alongside of 3 m. On its NW side there is a quay
108 m long with a depth alongside of 4⋅5 m. There are a
number of berths with depths of about 2 m in Ängö Boat
Harbour close NW.
Port services
4.86
1
Repairs. Facilities available.
Other facilities. Deratting; oily waste reception;
authorised compass adjusters; hospital; customs and bonded
warehouse.
Supplies. Fuel oil and lubricating oils by barge; fresh
water laid on at berths and also by barge; provisions.
Communications. International airport located 6 km
distant.
Rescue. The pilot boat will act as a lifeboat if required.
KALMARSUND — NORTHERN PART
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2843, 2844
Area covered
4.87
1
This section covers the waters of Kalmarsund from
Norra Skallö (56°40′⋅6N, 16°24′⋅2E), where Ölandsbron
(4.49) spans the fairway NE of Kalmar, to Kråkelund
(57°27′N, 16°44′E) (4.178). It includes the channels
through the N part of Kalmarsund, the channels to
Oskarshamn and other smaller harbours on each side of the
fairway between the mainland and the W side of Öland.
KALMAR TO DÄMMAN
General information
Charts 2843, 2844
Route
4.88
1
From Ölandsbron the route leads generally NNE for
about 25 miles to a position E of Dämman (57°03′⋅4N,
16°41′⋅6E), following the recommended tracks through the
fairway as shown on the charts.
The track through the first part of the fairway from W
of Krongrundet (56°41′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅5E) to Skäggenäs
(56°47′N, 16°28′E), 5 miles NNE, leads through numerous
rocks and shoals. From Ölandsbron a short channel with
less depth passes E of Krongrundet to rejoin the main
channel 2miles NE of the bridge.
2
In addition to the main channel there is an alternative
channel, for vessels with lesser draughts, which rejoins the
main channel E of Skäggenäs. The remainder of the
fairway to Dämman leads through more open water with
shoal patches adequately marked by lights or buoys.
Topography
4.89
1
The coast on the mainland is mainly low and wooded
with no major natural features. The coastline is fringed
with rocks, islets and dangers up to 3 miles offshore.
Skäggenäs (56°47′N, 16°28′E) is easily identified due to its
prominent position, projecting from the coast with dark
wooded areas. The E side of the fairway, on the W side of
2846
2846
2843
2844
2844
2844
2844
2844
2844
2361
2251
0205
4.174
4.186
4.217
4.183
3.148
4.219
4.184
4.164
4.112
4.214
4.134
4.126
4.161
4.134
4.135
4.120
4.128
4.88
4.106
4.88
4.105
4.140
4.165
Through routes
Inshore channels
Explanation
Ölands Norra Udde
Oskarshamn
Påskallavik
Stora Jättersön
Simpevarp
Kråkelund
Grankullavik
Byxelkrok
Böda
Sandvik
Borgholm
ÖLAND
Skäggenäs
Dämman
Gåso
Vållö
Runnö
N. KALMARSUND
Furö
Blå Jungfrun
Mönsterås
Route Index Chartlet - N. Kalmarsund and approaches to Oskarshamn
17°
Longitude 17° East from Greenwich
57° 57°
10´ 20´
20´
50´
50´
40´
40´
30´
30´
50´ 50´
10´ 10´
20´ 20´
30´ 30´
20´
20´
CHAPTER 4
163
CHAPTER 4
164
Öland, is mainly featureless with occasional steep cliffs.
Ölandsbron is visible at long range.
Vessel Traffic Service
4.90
1
A VTS is in operation within Kalmarsund. See 4.8.
Controlling draught
4.91
1
The controlling depth in the fairway from Kalmar to
Skäggenäs is a maximum authorised draught of 6⋅8m.
Submarine power cables
4.92
1
Cables, including power cables, are laid between
Skäggenäs, in the vicinity of Revsudden fishing harbour
(56°46′⋅5N, 16°28′⋅5E), and Öland, in the vicinity of Stora
Rör (56°45′N, 16°32′E). The limits of the cable area are
marked at each end by pairs of lights and beacons as
follows:
Front and rear lights (yellow triangles on yellow
framework towers, 75 m apart) (56°46′⋅8N,
16°29′⋅8E).
In line bearing 298° these lights, visible only on the
bearing, mark the NE limit on Skäggenäs.
2
Front and rear beacons (yellow triangles on yellow
framework towers) (56°45′⋅8N, 16°32′⋅6E).
In line bearing 118° these beacons mark the NE limit on
Öland.
Front and rear lights (yellow triangles on yellow
framework towers, 60 m apart) (56°45′⋅0N,
16°31′⋅6E).
3
In line bearing 122° these lights, visible only on the
bearing, mark the SW limit on Öland.
Front and rear beacons (similar structures to above)
(56°46′⋅2N, 16°28′⋅2E).
In line bearing 302° these beacons mark the SW limit
on Skäggenäs.
Pilotage
4.93
1
See 4.7 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Ice
4.94
1
Some areas in the central part of Kalmarsund always
freeze in winter. In a severe winter the strait can be
obstructed during January, February and March. In the
region between Dämman and Skäggenäs it is possible to
find hummocked ice, a rare phenomenon in the S part of
Sweden.
Principal marks
4.95
1
Landmarks:
Berga Water Tower (56°41′⋅7N, 16°20′⋅4E).
Högsrum Church, on Öland (56°46′N, 16°36′E).
Borgholm Castle (ruins), standing on a high, steep
rock face (56°52′⋅2N, 16°38′⋅6E) and Solliden
Castle (large white building, former royal palace)
lying 4 cables SW, which is clearly visible from W
to N. A windmill, shown on the chart, stands close
ENE of Solliden Castle.
2
Sillåsen Lighthouse (black tower, white top, grey
conical base, 22 m in height, floodlit) (56°45′⋅8N,
16°29′⋅8E).
Kävershäll, a wooded hill (57°04′⋅1N, 16°22′⋅7E).
Major lights:
Krongrundet Light (56°41′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅3E) (4.51).
Berga Aero Light (56°41′⋅7N, 16°20′⋅4E) (4.80).
Sillåsen Light — as above.
Other aid to navigation
4.96
1
Racon:
Dämman Light (57°03′⋅4N, 16°41′⋅4E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 4.55)
Ölandsbron to Skäggenäs
4.97
1
Main channel. From Ölandsbron the channel leads
initially 7 cables NNE to a position WNW of Krongrundet
at the N entrance of Kalmarsunds Djupränna. Directions are
given at 4.54.
From a position WNW of Krongrundet Light the
recommended track, as shown on the plan, leads about
5 miles NE through the fairway, marked by buoys
(lateral), to a position E of Sillåsen Lighthouse (4.95),
passing (with positions from Krongrundet Light):
2
NW of a buoy (starboard hand) (3 cables NE),
marking the NW limit of Krongrundet, thence:
NW of a buoy (starboard hand) (1 mile NE), marking
the limit of the coastal shoals, thence:
NW of a buoy (starboard hand) (2 miles NE),
marking the limit of the coastal shoals, thence:
3
SE of Masknaggen Lighthouse (black tower, orange
top, grey base, 11 m in height, floodlit) (56°43′⋅8N,
16°28′⋅3E), standing on a rock on the W side of
the fairway (3miles NE), thence:
NW of Fäholmsgrund (4miles NE), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), 3 cables SW, thence:
4
SE of Östra Bredgrund (4 miles NE), marked by a
light-buoy (port hand), thence:
W of Ispeudde (5 miles NE), a point of land on
which stands a light (white tower, 7 m in height)
(56°44′⋅7N, 16°31′⋅0E), thence:
To a position E of Sillåsen.
5
This track is also covered as far as Östra Bredgrund,
above, by the white sector (222°–226°) astern, of
Krongrundet Light.
4.98
1
Secondary channel. Local knowledge is required.
From a similar position WNW of Krongrundet, as
above, the recommended track shown on the chart and with
an authorised draught of 4⋅8 m, leads about 5miles NNE
to a position close N of Sillåsen Light, passing (with
positions from Masknaggen Light (56°43′⋅8N, 16°28′⋅3E)):
2
SE of a buoy (port hand) (2miles SW), moored
7 cables NNE of Krongrundet, thence:
NW of Masknaggen, marked on its W side by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
SE of Bullegrund (8 cables NW), marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
CHAPTER 4
165
3
NW of Ispe Bredgrund (1 mile N), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
Close SE of Bakaregrund (1miles NNE), marked
by a buoy (port hand), thence:
W of the central part of Sillåsen (2 miles NNE),
marked by a buoy (starboard hand), thence:
4
SE of Järngrund (2 miles NNE), marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
Between Sillåsen Lighthouse and a buoy (port hand),
marking the SE end of Hatten shoal area close NW.
4.99
1
Alternative channel. Local knowledge is required. A
short alternative channel with no authorised draught, shown
on the chart, leads NE and NNE from Ölandsbron passing
E of the Krongrundet shoal area, marked by a buoy (port
hand), thence NW of Bredgrund, a rocky area which lies
5 cables W of the islet of Nordmannen (56°41′⋅8N,
16°27′⋅8E) to rejoin the main channel about 1miles SW
of Masknaggen Lighthouse (4.97).
Skäggenäs to Dämman
4.100
1
From a position E of Sillåsen the track, shown on the
plan and chart, leads 19 miles NNE to a position E of
Dämman Light, passing (with positions from Borgholm
Castle (56°52′⋅2N, 16°38′⋅6E)):
ESE of Själgrundet (7 miles SW), an islet off
Skäggenäs, thence:
WNW of Ekerumshamn (5miles SSW), thence:
2
WNW of Ekerumsrevet (4miles SSW), thence:
ESE of Nygrund (5 miles SW), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
WNW of Grebygrunden (4 miles SSW), marked by a
buoy (W cardinal), thence:
ESE of a 8⋅0 m shoal (3miles WSW), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal) thence:
3
WNW of Sollidsgrund (1miles W), marked by a
buoy (W cardinal), thence:
WNW of Herr Peder (2 miles NNW), marked by a
buoy (W cardinal), thence:
ESE of Längan (4 miles NNW), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
4
W of Slottsbredan Lighthouse (black tower, green
band and lantern, grey conical base, 21 m in
height, floodlit) (56°55′⋅7N, 16°36′⋅0E), standing
on a rock on the W side of the shoal area, and
ESE of Yttre Bengtsan (4 miles NNW), marked by
a buoy (E cardinal). Thence:
WNW of Elefanten (4 miles N), marked by a buoy
(W cardinal), thence:
5
WNW of Marsgårdskulan (5 miles NNE), marked by
a buoy (W cardinal), and:
ESE of Mannegrund (6miles NNW), an extensive
reef and islet, marked by a buoy (E cardinal),
thence:
6
WNW of Lars Perssonsgrund (9 miles NNE), marked
by a buoy (W cardinal), thence:
ESE of Flisbotten (10 miles N), and:
ESE of Skallen (10miles N), thence:
To a position E of Dämman Light (orange tower, black
band, grey base, 21 m in height) (57°03′⋅4N, 16°41′⋅4E).
The former lighthouse stands on Dämman, a rock 5 cables
W of Dämman Light.
7
This route is also covered by the white sector
(196°–200°) astern, of Sillåsen Light, leading to the white
sectors (018°–022°) and (202°–208°), ahead and astern
respectively, of Slottsbredan Light, thence the white sector
(021°–024°) of Dämman Light.
Useful marks
4.101
1
Windmills at Strandtorp (56°50′⋅N, 16°37′E); the N
windmill is large and conspicuous.
Windmills at Borgehage (56°51′N, 16°38′E); the N
windmill has sails and is conpicuous.
Köping Church (56°52′⋅7N, 16°43′⋅4E), E of
Borgholm.
Alböke Church (56°56′⋅8N, 16°47′⋅2E), on Öland.
Föra Church (57°00′⋅8N, 16°52′⋅1E), on Öland.
Sandvik Windmill (conspicuous) (57°04′⋅3N,
16°51′⋅6E).
(Directions continue at 4.118)
(Directions for Stora Rör are given at 4.103,
for Revsudden at 4.104, for Borgholm at 4.106,
for Pataholm at 4.108, for Timmernabben at 4.109
and for Mönsterås at 4.111)
Anchorages and harbours
Anchorages
4.102
1
In the area between Kalmar and Skäggenäs (56°47′N,
16°28′E) anchorage may be obtained in the following areas:
(a) About 4 cables N of Krongrundet Lighthouse
(56°41′⋅4N, 16°24′⋅3E) in depths of 5⋅5 to 11⋅0 m,
clay.
2
(b) About 1miles W of Masknaggen Lighthouse
(56°43′⋅8N, 16°28′⋅3E) in depths of 5⋅6 to 9⋅0 m,
mud and clay. This anchorage is suitable for
smaller vessels sheltering from N winds.
(c) To the NE of Skäggenäs in depths of 15 to 20 m,
clay.
3
In poor weather there are no good anchorages in
Kalmarsund N of the anchorage NE of Skäggenäs.
Charts 2843 with plan of Stora Rör
Stora Rör
4.103
1
Description. Stora Rör (56°45′⋅3N, 16°31′⋅6E) is a small
harbour on the W coast of Öland, well sheltered except in
SW gales. It is formed by N and S breakwaters with a W
facing entrance, about 30 m wide, and is suitable for
vessels with a draught up to 3⋅0 m. A short inner mole
projects SW from the N part. It is a former ferry terminal
from the mainland.
The main export is stone, the main import being
fertilizer.
2
Directions. The approach is made in a white sector
(166°–191°) of Ispeudde Light (4.97) on the alignment
(085°) of Stora Rör Leading Lights:
Front light (orange triangle, red border, on mast)
(56°45′⋅4N, 16°31′⋅7E), displayed from the NE
corner of the harbour.
Rear light (similar structure), 35 m E of front light.
3
This alignment leads about 6 cables E through the
entrance between the breakwater heads to the NW part of
the harbour which has depths of 3⋅6 m. The other parts of
the harbour are shallow.
CHAPTER 4
166
Berths. There is a quay 40 m in length with a depth
alongside of 3⋅4 m and three former ferry berths now
disused and partially demolished.
4
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Regular sea services to Kalmar and
other ports in Kalmarsund.
Chart 2843
Revsudden
4.104
1
Description. Revsudden (56°46′N, 16°29′E), a small
fishing harbour, lies close NNW of Revsudde, the SE point
of Skäggenäs, on which stand a number of buildings
including a former lighthouse and a pilot lookout.
The harbour is situated in a small inlet, protected on its
E side by a breakwater. It is suitable for vessels with a
draught up to 1⋅8 m and has a depth of 2⋅3 m.
2
Directions. Leave the recommended through track close
N of Sillåsen Light (56°45′⋅8N, 16°29′⋅8E) thence approach
from the SE on the alignment (305°) of Revsudden Leading
Beacons:
Front beacon (orange triangle, red border, on post)
(56°46′⋅5N, 16°28′⋅8E), standing at the head of the
harbour.
Rear beacon (similar structure) (110 m WNW of front
beacon).
3
This alignment leads about 7 cables WNW to the
harbour through a buoyed (lateral) channel between shoal
patches off the entrance.
Berths. A quay 130 m in length with a depth alongside
of 2⋅4 m provides a number of berths for fishing and
pleasure craft.
Facilities: slip; ramp; all usual facilities for small craft.
Supplies: fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2844 with plan of Borgholm
Borgholm
4.105
1
Description. Borgholm (56°53′N, 16°39′E) is the
principal town and harbour on Öland situated on the W
coast.
Two breakwaters protect the harbour which consists of
an outer, industrial basin, and an inner basin for small craft
formed by a pier and a short breakwater.
2
The harbour is equipped to handle bulk grain, oils and
ferry traffic. Principal export is grain. Principal import is
fertilizer.
The population is about 2500.
Port Authority. Borgholms Kommun, Byggnadskontoret,
S–38700 Borgholm.
Ice. In severe winters the harbour may be closed during
January and February.
3
Anchorage may be obtained in the roads, with
favourable conditions, in depths of 7 to 11 m. Local
knowledge is required.
Pilotage. Pilots may be obtained from Kalmar.
Landmarks:
Borgholm Castle (56°52′⋅2N, 16°38′⋅6E) (4.95), with
Solliden Castle, 4 cables SW.
4
Light-coloured silo, 27 m in height, standing on the N
side of the harbour.
Borgholm Church (white with black pointed spire)
(56°52′⋅8N, 16°39′⋅4E).
Water Tower (56°52′⋅5N, 16°42′⋅9E), at Köping.
4.106
1
Directions. There are two approach channels, one from
NW which is seldom used, and the main channel from
WNW, authorised for a draught of 4⋅0 m.
From a position S of Herr Peder shoal (56°54′⋅0N,
16°36′⋅3E), the approach is on the alignment (111°) of
Borgholms Inlopp Leading Lights:
2
Front light (white triangle, red border, on metal
framework tower) (56°52′⋅7N, 16°38′⋅8E),
displayed from the SE corner of the harbour close
to the NNE end of a large white hotel building.
Rear light (similar structure), 200 m ESE of front
light.
3
This alignment leads 1miles ESE through the fairway
marked by buoys (lateral), passing N of Kråkan, a shoal
3 cables W of the entrance, to a position in the entrance
channel at the S end of Hamngrund, marked by a buoy
(port hand).
Thence to the alignment (081°) of Borgholms Hamn
Leading Lights:
4
Front light (green metal framework tower, white top)
(56°52′⋅9N, 16°38′⋅9E), displayed from the N part
of the harbour.
Rear light (similar structure) (80 m E of front light).
This alignment leads 2 cables E to the outer harbour
basin through the partially dredged buoyed entrance
channel.
5
Berths. In the outer industrial basin there is a total of
450 m of berthing space with depths alongside of about 4⋅4
to 5⋅0 m, including the principal quay which is 130 m long,
the oil berth and the ferry berth in the NW of the basin.
The inner basin, with depths of 2 to 4 m has numerous
small craft berths.
6
Repairs: engine repairs can be effected.
Facilities: hospital; customs; all usual facilities for small
craft.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications: ferries to mainland in summer season.
Charts 2843, 2844
Pataholm
4.107
1
Description. Pataholm (56°55′N, 16°26′E) is a small
timber loading harbour situated in a bay near the mouth of
Alster Ån, 7 miles N of Skäggenäs.
It is suitable for vessels with a draught of 3⋅5 m and
vessels with a draught of 5 m can reach the anchorage in
the outer roads.
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from
January to April.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in an area about 5 cables
WNW of Paslan Beacon (white cairn, pole with X topmark,
4 m in height) (56°53′⋅6N, 16°30′⋅6E), standing on an islet
on the NE side of the approach channel, in depths of about
10 m, clay. Local knowledge is required.
Landmark:
Chimney (56°54′⋅5N, 16°26′⋅4E), charted, at Saltor,
5 cables SE of Pataholm.
4.108
1
Directions. From a position about 2 miles SE of Paslan
Beacon (4.107), the track leads 4miles NW through a
buoyed (lateral) channel to the harbour area, passing (with
positions from Paslan Beacon):
NE of Eneskärsrevet (1miles SSE), thence:
Close SW of Yttre Paslan (8 cables SE), thence:
2
NE of Millgrundsrevet (5 cables S), thence:
CHAPTER 4
167
Close SW of the shoal area extending SW from
Paslan Beacon, thence:
SW of Pata Eneskär, an islet (6 cables NW), thence:
Through the buoyed channel to the harbour at Saltor,
close N of the chimney (56°54′⋅5N, 16°26′⋅4E).
3
A speed limit of 5 kn is in force within the area 1 mile
SE of Pataholm.
Berths. A jetty with a berth 20 m long and a depth
alongside of 3⋅7 m.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2844
Timmernabben
4.109
1
Description. Timmernabben (56°58′N, 16°26′E) together
with adjoining Tillingenabben form a town which is a
timber loading harbour situated 3 miles N of Pataholm
(4.107).
The harbour and approach channel are suitable for a
vessel with a draught of 3⋅0 m. The population is about
900.
2
Ice. The channel and harbour are usually obstructed by
ice from January to March.
Landmark:
Matge Beacon (white three sided pyramid, inverted
triangle topmark, 7 m in height) (56°57′⋅5N,
16°28′⋅2E), standing on an islet 6 cables E of
Tillingenabben.
3
Directions. From a position 1 mile WSW and in the
green sector (048°–098°) of Slottsbredan Light (56°55′⋅7N,
16°36′⋅0E) (4.100) the fairway leads 4miles NW to the
harbour, between the shoals, through a buoyed channel
(lateral) passing, (with positions from Slottsbredan Light):
NE of Längan (1miles SW) (4.100), and:
SW of Yttre Bengtsan (7 cables W) (4.100), thence:
4
SW of Störgrund (2 miles WNW), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
NE of Yttre Tången (2 miles W), marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
NE of Väderöbåden (3 miles WNW), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
5
Close NE of Stora Väderön (3miles WNW).
Thence follow the buoyed channel to the harbour
passing SW of Matge Beacon, as above.
Useful mark:
Two leading beacons (56°57′⋅7N, 16°26′⋅8E), at
Tillingenabben.
6
Berths. A pier, about 92 m in length, has depths of 3⋅0
to 3⋅7 m alongside the outer 30 m of its N side. There is a
Ro-Ro berth, marked on the chart, and other finger piers
with berths for small pleasure craft.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2844 with plan of Mönsterås
Mönsterås
4.110
1
Description. Mönsterås (57°02′N, 16°27′E), an industrial
town and well-sheltered harbour, lies about 14 miles S of
Oskarshamn (4.140). It has an outer harbour situated on
Oknö, a peninsula SE of the town which is connected to
the mainland by road. The inner harbour lies close SE of
the town.
Principal exports include timber goods and grain.
Imports include fertilizers and cement. The population is
about 6000.
2
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from
January to March.
Anchorage. Anchorage may be obtained in the outer
roads in a position W of Råggrund (57°00′⋅4N, 16°32′⋅1E),
about 2 cables NNE of Oknö Rear Leading Light, in depths
of 5⋅5 to 10⋅0 m, mud and clay.
3
In the inner roads anchorage may be obtained in a
position N of the NW part of Oknö, in depths of 5 to 9 m,
mud and clay.
Anchoring is prohibited within 100 m of a submarine
power cable, shown on the chart, laid between Oknö and
Björnö Ekleskär (57°01′⋅5N, 16°30′⋅5E), crossing the
channel SE of the inner roads.
4
Pilotage. Local knowledge is required and pilot
assistance is recommended for vessels with a draught
exceeding 2⋅8 m. Pilots are available from Kalmar or
Oskarshamn.
Landmarks:
Kävershäll (57°04′⋅1N, 16°22′⋅7E) (4.95).
Water tower (57°03′⋅0N, 16°26′⋅3E).
5
Mönsterås Church (57°02′⋅6N, 16°26′⋅8E).
Chimney (57°02′⋅3N, 16°27′⋅0E), close SSE of
church.
Major lights:
Oknö Leading Lights (57°00′⋅2N, 16°32′⋅0E).
4.111
1
Directions. Outer and inner harbours are approached and
entered on the alignment of leading lights through well
buoyed channels. The channel to the inner roads is suitable
for 4⋅7 m draught and the dredged, partly blasted, channel
from the inner roads to the inner harbour has a depth of
3⋅1 m over a width of about 20 m and is suitable for a
draught of 2⋅8 m but is liable to silting.
2
Outer harbour — Oknö Leading Lights:
Front light (lantern on white hut, red rectangle with
white stripe) (57°00′⋅2N, 16°32′⋅0E), displayed
from the E point of Oknö.
Rear light (similar structure), (300 m W of front
light).
3
From a position in the vicinity of the fairway buoy
(safewater) moored on the leading line, 2miles E of the
front light, the alignment (270°) of these lights, visible
only on the leading line, leads 3 miles W to the outer roads
and harbour through a buoyed (lateral) channel passing,
(with positions from the front light):
4
N of Sjöberget (2miles ESE), thence:
N of Stengrund (2 miles ESE), marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
S of Bettysgrund (1miles E), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
5
N of Blockbåden (1miles ESE), marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
S of Stora Svartören (6 cables ENE), thence:
Close S of Råggrund (2 cables NNE), marked at its S
end by a buoy (S cardinal).
Thence SW to the outer harbour berths or NW to the
anchorage as required.
6
Inner harbour — Mönsteråsredden Leading Lights:
Front light (lantern on stone pedestal) (57°00′⋅8N,
16°31′⋅4E), displayed from a rock.
Rear light (post) (1⋅1 miles NW of front light).
From a position 4 cables E of Oknö Front Light the
alignment (309°) of these lights leads about 1 mile NW to
a position in the inner roads in the white sector
(100°–114°), astern, of the front light, following the
buoys and passing close S of the front light. The leading
line does not clear the inner shoals.
CHAPTER 4
168
7
Thence, marked by buoys, the track leads 2miles NW
to the inner harbour through the dredged channel which
must be transited at reduced speed to lessen suction effect.
Berths. In the outer harbour on Oknö there is a
T-shaped jetty with a length of 45 m and a depth alongside
of 4⋅5 m. A ferry berth with a depth alongside of 4⋅2 m lies
immediately S of the jetty.
The inner harbour has a total of 380 m of berthing space
with a depth alongside of about 3⋅0 m. Södra Kajen, 150 m
long, provides berths for small pleasure craft.
8
Repairs. Minor facilities.
Facilities: doctor; customs office.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
DÄMMAN TO BLÅ JUNGFRUN
General information
Chart 2844
Route
4.112
1
From a position E of Dämman (57°03′⋅4N, 16°41′⋅6E)
the route to Blå Jungfrun leads NNE for 12 miles through
open water.
Topography
4.113
1
There are few natural features in this area either on the
mainland or on Öland, with the exception of Kävershäll
(4.95), NW of Mönsterås. Blå Jungfrun (Blue Virgin)
(57°15′N, 16°48′E) is a prominent, evenly conical, steep
sided, rocky island which lies in the middle of the fairway
10 miles E of Oskarshamn. Cloud formations around the
summit and mirage phenomena often make illusory changes
in the appearance of the island. It is a national park area
and nature reserve for which local protective regulations are
in force.
Pilotage
4.114
1
See 4.7 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Ice
4.115
1
In severe winters, areas of compact pack-ice may be
found in this region of the sound.
Landmarks
4.116
Kävershäll (57°04′⋅1N, 16°22′⋅7E).
Sandvik Windmill (conspicuous) (57°04′⋅3N,
16°51′⋅6E).
Oskarshamn Water Tower (57°16′⋅2N, 16°26′⋅5E). A
radio mast stands close E.
Blå Jungfrun (57°15′N, 16°48′E) (4.113).
Other aids to navigation
4.117
1
Racons:
Dämman Light (57°03′⋅4N, 16°41′⋅4E) (4.100).
Stötbotten Light (57°16′⋅5N, 16°33′⋅2E) (4.159).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 4.101)
4.118
1
From a position E of Dämman Light (4.100) the fairway
leads 12 miles NNE to Blå Jungfrun, passing (with
positions from Dämman Light):
E of Kvisslan (3 miles NNW), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
WNW of Hornsudde (57°11′⋅8N, 16°54′⋅1E) (11 miles
NE), on which stands a beacon (a former
lighthouse, elevation 10 m).
2
Thence to a position either W or E of Blå Jungfrun,
although passage to the E of the island is recommended to
give a more direct track when using the through route N or
S.
Useful marks
4.119
1
Finnrevet Lighthouse (57°16′⋅6N, 16°38′⋅1E) (4.159).
Light tower (disused) (red tower, white top, 6 m in
height), standing on the W side of Blå Jungfrun.
(Directions continue at 4.178)
(Directions for Sandvik are given at 4.134,
for Stora Jättersön at 4.125
and for Påskallavik at 4.136)
Stora Jättersön
Chart 2844 with plan of Stora Jättersön
General information
4.120
1
Position. Stora Jättersön (57°06′N, 16°33′E) lies on the
mainland 10 miles SSE of Oskarshamn (4.140) on a point
situated in the sound between the islands of Vållö, Bokö
and Norstö and the coast, about 5 miles NW of Dämman
Light.
Function. A commercial harbour with facilities for
handling bulk and liquid cargoes, serving a fairly large
industrial complex.
2
Principal exports are cellulose pulp and liquid resin.
Principal imports are woodpulp, fuel oil and chemicals in
bulk.
Topography. Vållöromp (57°06′N, 16°38′E), the SE part
of the island of Vållö, is densely wooded and is clearly
distinguishable from N or S.
3
Kungsholmen (57°06′N, 16°34′E), an islet 4 cables SW
of the SW point of Vållö, is covered with tall pinewoods
and is easily identified in the sound when approaching
from the SE.
Limiting conditions
4.121
1
Maximum permitted draught:
In N main approach channel — 7⋅5 m.
In SE approach channel — 4⋅8 m.
Maximum size of vessel. With pilot assistance and
visibility not less than 2 miles a vessel of 150 m in length
and maximum 7⋅5 m draught may enter through the N
channel.
Arrival information
4.122
1
Vållö Anchorage. Anchorage may be obtained in an
area about 2 cables NW of Kungsholmen (57°06′N,
16°34′E) in depths of 10 to 12 m, mud and clay. The
anchorage is restricted in size and is exposed to strong N
winds.
Anchorage is prohibited within 100 m of the submarine
power cables laid across the channel from Svartö (57°05′N,
CHAPTER 4
169
16°34′E) to Vållö and from Ödängla (57°03′N, 16°35′E) to
Dämman Light (4.100).
2
Pilotage is compulsory for certain categories of vessel
and pilots are available from Kalmar or Oskarshamn and
ordered from VTS Oxelösund. Pilot boards, as shown on
the charts, 1miles NE of Runnö (57°10′N, 16°33′E). See
also Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) and 4.7.
Harbour
4.123
1
General layout. The harbour consists of an open
roadstead partially sheltered and protected by islets and
islands to the NE and by the land to the S and SW.
4.124
1
Landmarks:
Oskarshamn Water Tower (57°16′⋅2N, 16°26′⋅5E).
Påskallavik Church (57°09′⋅5N, 16°27′⋅9E).
Emsfors Chimney (57°08′⋅6N, 16°27′⋅0E).
Chimneys (three) at factory (57°05′⋅6N, 16°33′⋅1E).
Dämman disused lighthouse (57°03′⋅5N, 16°40′⋅5E).
Directions
4.125
1
Clearing marks:
NE point of Runnö-Rödskär (57°11′⋅1N, 16°34′⋅5E),
an islet.
Oskarshamn Water Tower (57°16′⋅2N, 16°26′⋅5E).
Approaching the N main entrance channel from the SE
the alignment (320°) of these marks, in the white sector
(169°–209°) of Dämman Light (4.100), leads clear NE of
the following shoals in the approach (with positions from
Dämman Light):
2
Kvisslan (3 miles NNW) (4.118).
Slätsänkan (3miles NNW).
Väringen (4miles NW).
Klockaren (6 miles NNW), marked by a buoy
(N cardinal).
Main approach channel from north-east
4.126
1
Åsehorn Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle, point up, on red framework
tower, 20 m in height) (57°06′⋅9N, 16°32′⋅1E),
displayed from a small headland. The structure
also carries a red triangular daymark, point down,
for use as a leading mark from SE.
Rear light (similar structure, daymark point down,
32 m in height), (850 m SSW of front light).
2
From a position 1 mile SE of Runnö-Rödskär (4.125),
close to the pilot boarding position and before Oskarshamn
Church (57°15′⋅8N, 16°27′⋅0E) is visible clear SE of
Runnö-Rödskär, the approach is made on the alignment
(212°) of these lights. This alignment leads 4 miles SSW to
a position 1 mile from the front light, passing (with
positions from the front light, above):
3
SE of Lillgrund (3 miles NNE), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
SE of Inre Runnögrund (3 miles NNE), noting a rock
1 cables S, marked by a light-buoy (port hand),
thence:
NW of Sandögrundet Västra Light-buoy (W cardinal),
(2 miles NNE), thence
NW of Örskärsgrund Västra Light-buoy (W cardinal)
(1 miles NNE).
4
Thence through a short dredged and blasted channel,
70 m wide with a depth of 8⋅2 m and marked by buoys and
light-buoys, between Stora Sandreholm (1miles NNE)
and Storgrundet, marked by a buoy (S cardinal), 6 cables
farther W. Two pairs of beacons, standing close W and
2 cables SW of Åsehorn front light respectively, each pair
in line bearing 212°, mark the edges of this short channel.
4.127
1
Boköskär Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on post) (57°06′⋅4N,
16°33′⋅7E), displayed from a rock close off the
SW point of Bokö.
Kungsholmen. Rear light (red triangle on red and
white framework tower), displayed from
Kungsholmen, 820 m SSE of front light. Visible
only on leading line.
2
Leading beacons:
Front beacon (triangular board, white with red edges)
(57°08′⋅7N, 16°32′⋅0E), standing on Stora Tärnskär,
a rock 2 cables SSE of rear beacon.
Rear beacon (similar structure), standing on the NE
point of Littlö (57°08′⋅9N, 16°31′⋅9E).
3
The alignment (158°), ahead, of these lights and the
alignment (338°), astern, of these leading beacons, leads
9 cables SSE to a position 3 cables from the front light,
above, passing (with positions from the front light):
ENE of Vasterskär (6 cables NNW), marked on its E
side by a buoy (port hand), thence:
ENE of Själeviksgrundet (4 cables NNW), marked on
its E side by a light-buoy (port hand).
4
Norstö Leading Lights:
Front light (framework mast, red, yellow, red board
6 m in height) (57°07′⋅0N, 16°33′⋅7E) displayed
from NW of Bokö.
Rear light (same structure, 7 m in height) (57°07′⋅1N,
16°33′⋅7E) displayed from SW of Noströ.
5
The alignment (011°), astern of these lights leads about
8 cables S from Själeviksgrundet to a position close to the
jetty or alternatively about 5 cables S and E to the
anchorage, through a channel marked on each side by
buoys (lateral).
Secondary approach channel from east-south-east
4.128
1
From a position about 5 cables N of Dämman Light
(57°03′⋅4N, 16°41′⋅4E) approach with Lökskäret Beacon
(red triangle, point up) (57°05′⋅2N, 16°35′⋅1E) ahead
bearing 290°. This line of bearing leads 2 miles WNW
through the fairway, marked by buoys (lateral), passing
(with positions from Dämman Light):
2
NNE of Dämman disused light tower (5 cables W),
thence:
SSW of Nygrund (2miles NW), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
NNE of Gåsö (2miles WNW) on which stands
Gåsö Beacon (cross on white cairn, 4 m in height),
thence:
3
NNE of Gåsögrund (3 miles WNW), thence:
Leading marks:
SW point of Kungsholmen (57°06′N, 16°34′E).
Åsehorn Front Leading Light (red triangular daymark,
point down) (57°06′⋅9N, 16°32′⋅1E).
The alignment (311°) of the above marks leads 1miles
NW to a position close S of Kungsholmen through a
narrow channel marked on each side by buoys.
4
Shoal patches, close to the maximum authorised draught,
lie in the centre of the channel close to the leading line.
Thence the channel leads for about 5 cables to the harbour
or anchorage.
CHAPTER 4
170
Alternative approach channel from south
4.129
1
Gåsöleden, with a depth of about 3⋅9 m, leads from the
S to connect with the secondary channel described above at
a position 2miles NW of Dämman Light but this channel
should only be used in good weather and visibility.
2
Approach from a position about 2 miles SW of Dämman
Light with Gåsö Beacon (4.128), standing on Gåsö
(57°04′⋅3N, 16°36′⋅8E), ahead bearing 340°. This line of
bearing leads about 1miles NNW to a position with
Dämman disused light tower abeam bearing 070° and
1 mile NE of Svartingsskär (57°02′⋅5N, 16°35′⋅5E).
3
Leading beacons:
Front, Lilla Sillekrok Beacon (white cairn, red
diagonal stripe) (57°05′⋅5N, 16°37′⋅2E).
Rear, Vållöromp Beacon (triangle, point up on white
cairn) (57°06′N, 16°37′E), standing on the W end
of the island.
4
The alignment (353°) of these beacons leads 1miles N
through the shoals to a position 4 cables NNE of Gåsö
Beacon to join with the secondary E channel, passing
between the buoys marking the E limit of the shoal area
off Gåsö and the W limit of Gåsöb, 4 cables E of Gåsö.
Berths
4.130
1
A concrete quay is constructed on a point close NE of
the factory area running NW-SE. The quay is 140 m in
length with a depth alongside of about 8⋅0 m. A breasting
dolphin 20 m SE of the SE end, and joined to the quay by
a bridge, forms an extension to the quay. There is a
mooring buoy moored about 40 m SE of the dolphin to
assist in berthing. Liquid cargoes are handled at the SE end
of the quay through pipelines.
Services
4.131
1
All services are located in Mönsterås (4.110), 5 miles
SW.
Harbours
Chart 2844
Svartö
4.132
1
A small fishing harbour lies in an inlet (57°05′⋅1N,
16°34′⋅4E) in the NE part of Svartö, 1 mile SE of Stora
Jättersön (4.120).
It is approached and entered on the alignment (182°) of
Svartö Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (pedestals, elevations 4 and 7 m
respectively), displayed when required.
Chart 2844 with plan of Stora Jättersön
Estenäs
4.133
1
Estenäs (57°06′⋅4N, 16°35′⋅1E) lies at the SW point of
Vållö. It is approached and entered on the alignment (026°)
of Estenäs Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (pedestals, elevations 4 and 6 m
respectively), displayed when required.
A pier 25 m in length with a depth alongside of 2⋅4 m
extends from the shore.
Chart 2844 with plan of Sandvik
Sandvik
4.134
1
Description. Sandvik (57°04′N, 16°52′E) lies on the
coast of Öland about 13 miles NNE of Borgholm (4.105). It
is a former loading place which is now a fishing, small
craft and pleasure craft harbour suitable for a draught of
3⋅0 m. It is generally well sheltered except in gales from
the W.
2
The harbour is formed by two breakwaters, N and S,
with an entrance 28 m wide facing W. A speed restriction
of 5 kn is in force within the harbour.
The population is about 300.
Landmark:
Sandvik Windmill (57°04′⋅3N, 16°51′⋅6E).
3
Directions. From the W approach is made on the
alignment (084°) of Sandvik Leading Lights:
Front light (yellow triangle, red border, on post)
(57°04′⋅2N, 16°51′⋅3E), displayed from the rear of
the harbour.
Rear light (yellow triangle, red border, on mast)
(85 m E of front light).
This alignment leads E to the harbour through a partly
dredged channel which is liable to silting in the entrance
near the breakwaters.
4
Berths. The NW part of the harbour has depths of about
4⋅0 m. There is a quay, with a length of 35 m and depths
alongside of 3⋅4 to 4⋅0 m, on the inside of the N
breakwater. The E part contains a number of pleasure craft
berths and the S part, which is very shallow, has some
small jetties on the inside of the S breakwater.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2844
Påskallavik
4.135
1
Description. Påskallavik (57°10′N, 16°28′E) is a small
harbour situated 6 miles S of Oskarshamn (4.140) and
suitable for a draught of 4⋅2 m. It is well sheltered in all
but NE gales.
Also included in the harbour area are Marseholm, Norra
Vånevik and Näset, loading places which lie within 2 miles
N of Påskallavik.
2
Entry to the harbour should only be made by day and in
good weather due to the narrow and tortuous entrance
channels. Local knowledge is essential.
Principal exports are paper products and stone. Imports
include oil, sulphur and limestone. The population is about
2000.
3
Landmarks:
Påskallavik Church (57°09′⋅5N, 16°27′⋅9E).
Emsfors Chimney (57°08′⋅6N, 16°27′⋅0E).
4.136
1
Directions for south entrance
This channel is an extension of the Stora Jättersön main
entrance channel.
Follow the directions given at 4.126 to a position where
the channels branch, 7 cables NNE of Åsehorn Front
Leading Light (57°06′⋅9N, 16°32′⋅1E) and 5 cables SSE of
Storgrundet (4.126).
2
Thence follow the track, shown on the chart, marked by
buoys (lateral and cardinal) on each side, leading for about
5 miles through the shoals to the SW of Runnö, to the
harbour.
CHAPTER 4
171
Directions for north entrance
Leading marks. The alignment (226°) of the following
marks leads from a position N of Runnö (4.122) through
the N part of the channel:
3
Flutan Beacon (white disc on black pole, wooden
stays) (57°10′⋅8N, 16°30′⋅3E), standing on a rock
1 mile NW of Runnö.
Påskallavik Church (57°09′⋅5N, 16°27′⋅9E).
This alignment leads 2 miles SW to Flutan Beacon,
entering the buoyed channel close N of Portklappen,
marked by a buoy (starboard hand), 7 cables NE of the
beacon. Thence follow the track, shown on the chart,
between the buoys (lateral), 1miles SW through the
channel to the harbour.
4
Påskallavik Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (illuminated rectangular boards,
elevations 6 and 15 m, 110 m apart) (57°09′⋅7N,
16°27′⋅8E), displayed from the shore close S of the
harbour pier when required by fishing vessels.
The alignment of these lights is 269°.
Caution. A 2⋅2 m shoal patch exists in the middle of the
harbour basin.
4.137
1
Anchorage. Anchorage may be obtained in depths of 4
to 13 m, mud, clay and rock, in the roadstead to the NNE
of the harbour enclosed by Fågelöarna, the islands close
NE of the harbour, Vånevik, about 1 mile N of the harbour
and the islands of Kuggö and Storö, about 6 cables
farther E.
2
Anchorage is prohibited within 100 m of a submarine
power cable laid across the channel from Skälevik,
1miles SE of the harbour, to the SW point of Runnö.
4.138
1
Berths. A pier with a length of 100 m and a depth
alongside of 4⋅0 to 4⋅6 m extends SE from the shore.
Immediately N of the pier there is a quay with a length of
90 m and a depth alongside of 5⋅0 m.
At Marseholm, about 7 cables N, there is a jetty with a
length of 44 m and a depth alongside of about 4⋅5 m.
2
At Norra Vånevik, about 1miles N, there is a jetty
with a length of 38 m and a depth alongside of 2⋅4 m.
At Näset (chart 2846), 2 mile N, there is a jetty with a
depth alongside of 2⋅9 m.
Facilities. Medical in Oskarshamn.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Runnö
4.139
1
Runnö fishing harbour (57°09′⋅7N, 16°31′⋅7E) lies on the
W side of the island, 2 miles E of Påskallavik. The harbour
is approached from the W on the alignment (089°) of
Runnö Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (posts, elevations 6 and 11 m
respectively, 300 m apart) (57°09′⋅7N, 16°31′⋅7E),
displayed from the harbour for the use of fishing
boats.
OSKARSHAMN AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 2846 with plan of Oskarshamn, 2844
Position
4.140
1
Oskarshamn (57°16′N, 16°27′E) is a fairly large well
sheltered natural harbour situated in an inlet in the NW
part of Kalmarsund. Also included are the small craft
harbours at Ärnemar (4.171) and Kolberga (4.172) together
with the loading anchorage at Saltvik (4.173), 2 miles NNE
of the harbour.
Function
4.141
1
The port is a safe modern harbour with good anchorage.
It is a major commercial harbour well equipped for
handling most types of vessel including ferries, Ro-Ro,
tankers, general cargo and container. A shipbuilding and
repair industry is based at the shipyard.
2
Principal exports include timber products, paper,
woodpulp, piece goods and stone.
Imports include kaolin, oils, plate, pig iron, forestry
products and paper.
The population of Oskarshamn is about 15 000.
Topography
4.142
1
The area surrounding Oskarshamn is generally low,
wooded and featureless. The approaches are protected by
numerous reefs and shoals and Furö (57°17′N, 16°37′E), a
low almost barren island fringed by reefs and rocks.
Örbåden lies on its E side, Blackbåden on the SW side and
Finnrevet, on which stands a lighthouse (4.159), on the SE
side.
Approach and entry
4.143
1
The harbour is approached on the alignment of leading
lights through channels marked by buoys and light-buoys,
and entered on the alignment of leading lights through a
dredged channel marked by buoys and light-buoys.
An alternative approach from the SE may be made on
the alignment of leading lights, through a buoyed channel,
directly to the outer harbour area.
Traffic
4.144
1
In 2003 the port was visited by 312 vessels totalling
1⋅8 million dwt.
Port Authority
4.145
1
Oskarshamns Hamn AB, Norra Strandgatan 50, SE−572
32 Oskarshamn, Sweden.
Website: www.port.oskarshamn.se
E-Mail: info@port.oskarshamn.se
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.146
1
The controlling depths are those in the main channel to
the anchorage area and Klubbdjupshamnen, which is
dredged to a depth of 11⋅0 m, and the inner harbour which
is dredged to a general depth of about 8⋅0 m.
Maximum permitted draughts:
Channel to Klubbdjupshamnen — 10⋅5 m.
Channel to inner harbour — 7⋅6 m.
Deepest and longest berth
4.147
1
Klubbdjupshamnen berths 51–54 (containers and general
cargo) (4.169).
Density of water
4.148
1
The density of water in the harbour is 1⋅000 g/cm
3
.
CHAPTER 4
172
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.149
1
A vessel with a length of 215 m and a draught of
10⋅5 m.
Ice
4.150
1
The harbour is normally free from ice but, if necessary,
the channels are kept open by ice-breakers.
Arrival information
Port radio
4.151
1
Oskarshamn Hamnradio (Oskarshamn Harbour Radio).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for
details.
Outer anchorage
4.152
1
Anchorage may be obtained in Grimskalledjupet
(57°16′⋅4N, 16°29′⋅2E), to the NNE of the harbour, in
depths of 12 to 20 m, clay and rock.
Submarine cables
4.153
1
Submarine power cables are laid in the vicinity of the
breakwater NE of Klubbdjupshamnen as shown on the
chart. See 1.71.
Pilotage
4.154
1
Oskarshamn Pilot Station provides service 24 hours.
Requests for pilots should be made 12 hours in advance to
the cental co-ordinating centre at Oxelösund VTS.
The pilot station is located at Grimskallen on the N side
of the harbour entrance. Pilots board SSE of Furö
(57°17′N, 16°38′E), as shown on the plan. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Tugs
4.155
1
Available and compulsory for larger deep-draught vessels
proceeding to the anchorage or berthing, and vessels going
to the shipyard.
Speed
4.156
1
A speed restriction of 7 kn is in force within the
harbour.
Harbour
General layout
4.157
1
The harbour is constructed mainly in a natural inlet with
shoal areas and islets off the entrance which is formed and
protected by two detached breakwaters, one lying to the E
and the second to the N. The main entrance from the NE
lies between these breakwaters with a minor entrance off
the S end of the E breakwater.
2
The outer part of the harbour, Klubbdjupshamnen,
contains the oil jetty and deep-water berths, thence a
channel leads to the inner harbour containing the shipyard,
ferry, Ro-Ro and small craft berthing areas.
Local magnetic anomaly
4.158
1
An anomaly is reported to exist in the area between
Oskarshamn and Blå Jungfrun (57°15′N, 16°48′E).
Landmarks
4.159
1
Blå Jungfrun (57°15′N, 16°48′E).
Oskarshamn Water Tower (57°16′⋅2N, 16°26′⋅5E). A
radio mast stands close NE.
Finnrevet Lighthouse (white tower, black band, grey
conical base, 16 m in height, floodlit) (57°16′⋅6N,
16°38′⋅1E).
2
Stötbotten Lighthouse (red tower on grey concrete
base, 13 m in height, floodlit) (57°16′⋅5N,
16°33′⋅2E).
Water tower (57°15′⋅5N, 16°26′⋅6E), in S part of
town.
Oskarshamn Church (57°15′⋅8N, 16°27′⋅0E).
Chimney at Kristineberg heating plant (57°15′⋅0N,
16°28′⋅2E).
Other aid to navigation
4.160
1
Racon:
Stötbotten Light (57°16′⋅5N, 16°33′⋅2E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for entering harbour
Main channel from east
4.161
1
Tillingeö Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle, point up) (57°17′⋅0N,
16°30′⋅9E), displayed from Saxskär.
Rear light (red triangle, point down), displayed from
Tillingeö, 750 m WNW of front light.
2
From a position ESE of the pilot boarding position,
about 1 miles SSE of Finnrevet Light (57°16′⋅6N,
16°38′⋅1E) (4.159), the track, as shown on the plan, leads
3miles WNW through the fairway, on the alignment
(289°) of the above lights, to a position 1miles from
the front light, passing (with positions from Finnrevet
Light):
3
Between a light-buoy (S cardinal) (9 cables SSW),
and another buoy (port hand) moored 1cables
farther SSW which mark the entrance to the main
channel, thence:
NNE of a buoy (port hand), (2 miles WSW), marking
the S limit of the channel, and:
4
SSW of a buoy (S cardinal), (2miles W), marking
the N limit of the channel, thence:
Close NNW of Stötbotten Light (57°16′⋅5N,
16°33′⋅2E) (4.159).
This section of the fairway is also covered, firstly by the
white sector (287°–289°) of Stötbotten Light, and
CHAPTER 4
173
secondly by the white sector (288°–290°) of Tillingeö
front light. In addition, a fixed white spotlight displayed
from Stötbotten Lighthouse marks the limit of the fairway.
5
Ärnemar Leading Lights:
Front light (red rectangle on pedestal) (57°15′⋅7N,
16°29′⋅4E), displayed from an islet forming part of
the small craft harbour to the SE of the main
harbour.
Rear light (similar structure) (425 m SW of front
light).
6
The alignment (245°) of these lights leads 8 cables SW
through the buoyed channel to a position 1miles from
the front light, close N of the light-buoy (port hand)
marking the outer end of the entrance channel. Thence:
4.162
1
Grimskallen West Leading Lights:
Common front light (white lantern on red frame)
(57°16′⋅3N, 16°28′⋅8E), displayed from the NE part
of the harbour.
Rear W light (red triangle on framework tower)
(600 m W of common front light).
2
The alignment (271°) of these lights leads 1miles W
to the anchorage in Grimskalledjupet through the first part
of the entrance channel, marked by buoys and light-buoys
(lateral), passing N of Fidogrund, or alternatively if
proceeding to the harbour entrance the same (271°)
alignment leads 1 mile through the buoyed channel to a
position 6 cables from the common front light above.
Thence:
3
Ovädersudden Leading Lights:
Front light (orange pole) (57°15′⋅7N, 16°28′⋅5E),
displayed from the S of the harbour.
Rear light (orange triangle on post) (208 m SW from
front light).
The alignment (234°) of these lights leads 5 cables SW
to the harbour entrance and the outer harbour, through the
second part of the buoyed entrance channel, passing (with
positions from the SE end of the N breakwater):
4
NW of a beacon (2 cables E) standing on the N end
of the E breakwater, thence:
SE of Katygrund (1cables NE) which is floodlit
and on which stands a beacon, thence:
NW of M Blackgrundet (1 cable SE), marked on its
NW side by two buoys and a light-buoy (all port
hand).
4.163
1
Continuation channel to inner harbour
Badholmen Directional Light (white metal framework
tower) (57°15′⋅9N, 16°27′⋅3E), displayed from a small islet
at the head of the harbour. This light ahead bearing 284° in
the white sector (281°–287°) of the light, leads W through
the harbour to the head, passing S of Rävenäset, an islet
and rocky shoal area extending from the N side of the
harbour, marked at its S limits by two light-buoys
(starboard hand).
Approach from north-east
4.164
1
This channel, passing N of Furö, is for use by day.
Local knowledge is required.
From a position about 1 mile NE of Furö (57°17′N,
16°37′E) the approach is made with Oskarshamn Church
(57°15′⋅8N, 16°27′⋅0E) ahead bearing 253°. This track leads
about 1miles WSW through the shoals passing close SSE
of Furögrunden (57°17′⋅5N, 16°36′⋅5E), marked by a buoy
(S cardinal) and between two buoys (lateral) moored
7 cables NW of Furö.
2
Thence to the alignment (245°) of Ärnemar Leading
Lights (4.161) which leads 1 miles SW through the
fairway joining the main approach channel close NW of
Stötbotten Light. Thence follow the directions for that
channel to the harbour.
Approach from south-east
4.165
1
Grimskallen North Leading Lights:
Common front light (57°16′⋅3N, 16°28′⋅8E) (4.162).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, on white
framework tower) (400 m NW of common front
light).
From a position about 3miles S of Stötbotten Light
(57°16′⋅5N, 16°33′⋅2E) the alignment (321°) of these lights
leads 3miles NW through the fairway, marked by buoys
(lateral), to enter the outer harbour close S of the E
breakwater, passing (with positions from Stötbotten Light):
2
NE of Barneskärsgrunden (3miles SSW), thence:
SW of Uppgrund (2 miles SSW), thence:
NE of Oron (2miles SSW), marked by a buoy,
thence:
SW of Rundeln (2 miles SSW), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
NE of Garpen (2miles SW), thence:
3
NE of Ålgårdsskär Beacon (red and white cairn,
1⋅5 m in height) (2miles SW), thence:
SW of Lars-Olsgrunden (2 miles WSW), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), thence:
NE of Tälleskär (2miles WSW), thence:
SW of the S end of the E breakwater, marked by a
buoy (starboard hand).
Side channel
4.166
1
A short buoyed channel, authorised for a draught of
7⋅6 m, leads from the anchorage in Grimskalledjupet to the
outer and inner harbour.
2
From a position in the anchorage 3 cables E of
Grimskallen Common Front Light (57°16′⋅3N, 16°28′⋅8E),
the alignment (about 193°) of Klubb Beacon (white disc on
white stayed pole, 13 m in height), standing on an islet
2 cables W of the E breakwater, with Ärnemar Rear Light
(57°15′⋅5N, 16°29′⋅0E), in the white sector (191°–195°)
of the light, leads 3 cables S to a position 1cables N of
Klubb Beacon passing W of Katygrund (4.162) and
between the light-buoys marking the harbour channel inside
the breakwaters.
3
Thence to the alignment (234°) of Ovädersudden
Leading Lights, described above, and follow the directions
given for the outer and inner harbour.
Caution. On passing Katygrund ensure that no traffic is
operating in the main channel before entering the harbour.
Useful marks
4.167
1
Mynterhäll Beacon (57°17′⋅3N, 16°33′⋅0E).
Gråsjälsbåden Beacon (57°16′⋅7N, 16°30′⋅9E).
Ljusberget Beacon (57°15′⋅9N, 16°30′⋅2E).
Grimskallen Beacon (57°16′⋅2N, 16°28′⋅5E).
Basins and berths
Basins
4.168
1
The outer harbour, Klubbdjupshamnen, is the deep-water
area of the harbour. The S part of the harbour contains the
shipyard in the E and Södra Kajen in the W. The NW part
CHAPTER 4
174
of the harbour contains Norra Kajen and the small boat
harbour.
Berths
4.169
1
Klubbdjupshamnen contains a total of 350 m of berthing
space with a depth alongside of 11⋅0 m for general, timber
and container traffic and an oil jetty, in the N part, with a
length of 26 m and a depth alongside of 11⋅0 m.
The shipyard area contains a total of about 580 m of
berthing space with depths of 3⋅0 to 8⋅0 m alongside. About
150 m is being developed for ferry traffic.
2
Södra Kajen has a total berthing space of 445 m with
depths alongside of 5⋅0 to 7⋅3 m including a Ro-Ro berth
with moveable ramp.
The N part of the harbour has a total of about 1100 m
of berthing space with depths alongside of 4⋅5 to 8⋅0 m
including a large Ro-Ro berth.
3
The small boat harbour contains numerous berths with
depths of 2 to 3 m alongside.
The former oil jetty, situated at Grimskallen, 2 cables N
of the N breakwater, is 40 m long with a depth alongside
of 12⋅0 m.
Port services
4.170
1
Repairs of all kinds at shipyard. Floating dock with
lifting capacity of 2000 tonnes, maximum size of vessel:
81 m long; 14⋅7 m breadth; draught 5⋅0 m.
Other facilities. Oily waste reception; hospital; customs
station; deratting; authorised compass adjuster.
Supplies. All grades of fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
2
Communications. Local airport 10 km N of town.
Nearest international airport at Kalmar 72 km distant. Ferry
services to Gotland and Öland.
Rescue. The pilot vessel will act as a lifeboat if
required.
Anchorages and harbours
Ärnemar
4.171
1
Ärnemar (57°15′⋅6N, 16°29′⋅1E) a small craft and yacht
harbour lies at the SE side of Oskarshamn harbour.
It is entered from the outer harbour through a buoyed
channel and contains a number of berths with depths of 2⋅5
to 5⋅0 m.
Facilities: boat and engine repairs; slip; crane.
Kolberga
4.172
1
Kolberga (57°16′⋅7N, 16°28′⋅7E), a small craft harbour
lies about 1 mile NE of Oskarshamn.
It is entered through a buoyed channel in the NW part
of Grimskalledjupet, the anchorage area to the NE of
Oskarshamn harbour.
Saltvik
4.173
1
Saltvik (57°18′N, 16°30′E) lies in a small inlet 2 miles
NNE of Oskarshamn. It is a timber loading place and
provides an anchorage in depths of about 3 to 8 m, clay
and mud situated at the mouth of the inlet. The harbour is
usually obstructed by ice in January and February.
2
Directions. Follow the directions for Oskarshamn given
at 4.161 or 4.164 to a position about 6 cables WNW of
Stötbotten Light (57°16′⋅5N, 16°33′⋅2E), in the white sector
(288°–290°) of Tillingeö front light (57°17′⋅0N,
16°30′⋅9E). Thence follow the track, shown on the chart,
1miles NW to the harbour passing between the channel
buoys (lateral) moored 5 cables N of Tillingeö front light.
3
Caution. A submarine pipeline is laid, extending
3 cables E and ESE from the head of the inlet.
Facilities. Slip for vessels up to 250 tonnes.
BLÅ JUNGFRUN TO KRÅKELUND
General information
Charts 2844, 2251, 2361
Route
4.174
1
From Blå Jungfrun the route leads NNE for 12 miles,
firstly through shoals and thence open water, to a position
about 5miles E of Kråkelund (57°27′N, 16°44′E).
Topography
4.175
1
The coastline between Oskarshamn and Kråkelund is
level, wooded and featureless. It is fringed by numerous
islands and dangers extending up to about 3 miles offshore.
On the E side, the N part of Öland is steep and mainly
wooded with no major natural features.
Pilotage
4.176
1
See 4.7 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Principal marks
4.177
1
Landmarks:
Blå Jungfrun (57°15′N, 16°48′E). (4.113)
Oskarshamn Water Tower (57°16′⋅2N, 16°26′⋅5E).
Chimney (red light) at Simpevarp Power Station
(57°25′N, 16°40′E).
2
Radio mast (red light) (elevation 113 m) 3 cables
WNW of chimney, above.
Radio mast (red lights) (elevation 130 m) (57°21′N,
17°04′E), on Öland.
Major light:
Ölands Norra Udde Light (57°22′⋅1N, 17°05′⋅7E).
Directions
(continued from 4.119)
4.178
1
From a position E or W of Blå Jungfrun (57°15′N,
16°48′E) the fairway leads NNE for 12 miles to a position
E of Kråkelund, passing (with positions from Blå
Jungfrun):
ESE of Midbredan (4 miles N), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), and:
2
WNW of Byrumsgrund (3 miles NE), marked by a
buoy (W cardinal) and affected by heavy swell in
N to NE gales, thence:
ESE of Bennen (5 miles NNW), marked by a buoy
(W cardinal), and:
WNW of Enerumsgrund (5 miles NNE), marked by a
buoy (W cardinal) and affected by heavy swell in
N to NE gales, thence:
3
WNW of Tokenäsudde Light (white lantern)
(57°19′⋅3N, 16°59′⋅8E) (8 miles NE), thence:
ESE of Y Rönnerev (7 miles NNW), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
ESE of Knallarna (7miles NNW), thence:
4
ESE of Bredgrund (10 miles NNW), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
CHAPTER 4
175
To a position E of Kråkelund (11miles NNW), on
which stands a beacon (triangle on white pyramid,
12 m in height) which from NE resembles a yacht
under sail.
Useful mark
4.179
1
Finnrevet Light (57°16′⋅6N, 16°38′⋅1E) (4.159).
(Directions continue at 5.18)
(Directions for Figeholm are given at 4.182,
for Simpevarp at 4.189 and for Byxelkrok at 4.184)
Approach to Kalmarsund from north
Chart 2361
4.180
1
Vessels approaching from N or NE should pass clear W
of Knolls Grund (57°33′N, 17°28′E) (2.8) and clear W of
Ölands Norra Grund (57°28′N, 17°09′E) (4.206) before
entering Kalmarsund about 6 miles E of Kråkelund Beacon
(57°26′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅5E) (4.178).
Thence follow the directions given for the N passage
from Kalmar to Kråkelund, in reverse order.
Currents. See 4.11.
Harbours
Chart 2846 plan of continuation to Figeholm
Figeholm
4.181
1
Description. Figeholm (57°22′N, 16°33′E) a small,
former commercial, now recreational harbour lies on the
NW side of Fågelöfjärd, 7 miles NNE of Oskarshamn. It is
administered by the Oskarshamn port authority and is
suitable for vessels with an authorised draught of 3⋅5 m but
the approach channel is narrow and tortuous in places.
Local knowledge is required.
2
The harbour entrance is usually obstructed by ice from
December to March. A speed restriction of 5 kn is in force
within the harbour.
4.182
1
Directions. Leading marks:
Hommeskär Beacon (white slatted truncated pyramid
on lattice framework, 9 m in height) (57°21′⋅0N,
16°36′⋅5E), standing on a rock about 5 m above
sea level.
Fågelö former pilot cabin (yellow gable, facing SE)
(57°21′⋅8N, 16°35′⋅4E), standing on the islet of
that name. The pilot cabin mark may be difficult
to identify due to heavy vegetation growth.
2
The alignment (320°) of these marks leads from a
position about 2 miles ENE of Furö (57°17′N, 16°37′E),
4miles NW through the fairway to a position 2 cables
from Hommeskär Beacon, close SE of the entrance
channel, passing close SW of V Blackan (57°20′⋅2N,
16°37′⋅8E), marked by a light-buoy (starboard hand,
seasonal).
Thence the fairway leads about 2miles NW to the
harbour through the entrance channel, marked on each side
by buoys (lateral).
3
An alternative approach may be made from the NE
through the inshore coastal route which, although well
marked by buoys, is very narrow and tortuous. Local
knowledge is required.
Useful marks:
Finnrevet Light (57°16′⋅6N, 16°38′⋅1E) (4.159).
4
Rödskär Light (white tower, 6 m in height)
(57°18′⋅4N, 16°35′⋅4E), displayed when required.
Gröttlan Light (57°24′⋅3N, 16°40′⋅0E) (4.189).
Lilla Bergö Beacon, standing on a islet 1 cable N of
Fågelö, above.
Hägnekubben Beacon (white cross on pole)
(57°22′⋅5N, 16°35′⋅5E), standing on the N shore of
the inlet.
5
Anchorage. Anchorage may be obtained N of Fågelö
(57°21′⋅8N, 16°35′⋅4E) in depths of about 12⋅0 m, clay.
Berths. The outer harbour has a quay about 50 m long
with mooring buoys and a depth of 4⋅0 m. The inner
harbour contains a number of yacht and small craft berths
with depths of 2⋅0 m.
Facilities. Boat lift with truck to a maximum of
8 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Chart 2361 (see 1.34)
Byxelkrok
4.183
1
Description. Byxelkrok (57°19′N, 17°00′E) is a small
fishing harbour, with ferry traffic, on the W coast of Öland,
about 4 miles SW of Ölands Norra Udde, the N point of
the island.
The harbour is formed and protected by a long
breakwater extending SW and S from the shore and
contains two separate piers extending W from the shore.
The entrance faces S. The outer part of the harbour to the
W end of the S pier is dredged to a depth of 4⋅5 m. The
remainder of the harbour has depths between 1⋅5 to 3⋅6 m.
4.184
1
Directions. Byxelkrok Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on white post) (57°19′⋅6N,
17°00′⋅5E), displayed from the breakwater head
which is floodlit.
Rear light (red triangle on hut) (242 m SE of front
light).
From NW approach is made on the alignment (125°) of
the above lights. This alignment leads 1 mile SE through
the fairway and the entrance channel, to the harbour
entrance, passing (with positions from the front light
above):
2
SW of Torrbogrund (1miles NNW), thence:
Through the buoys (lateral) (1cables NW), marking
the entrance channel between the coastal shoals,
thence:
To the harbour entrance close S of the breakwater head
and N to the harbour.
3
Useful marks:
Ölands Norra Udde Light (57°22′⋅1N, 17°05′⋅7E)
(4.205).
Tokenäsudde Light (57°19′⋅3N, 16°59′⋅8E) (4.178).
Radio masts (red lights), 1⋅4 miles E and 1⋅2 miles
ESE respectively, of Tokenäsudde Light, above.
4.185
1
Berths. The ferry berth, with a length of about 60 m
and a depth alongside of 4⋅5 m lies on the S side of the S
pier. The central basin between the two piers has a total of
about 185 m of berthing space with depths alongside of 2⋅1
to 2⋅4 m. The N part of the harbour and the inside of the
CHAPTER 4
176
breakwater have about 70 berths for small craft and visiting
yachts with depths between 1 to 2 m.
2
Facilities. Slip for small craft.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Ferry services to Oskarshamn and
Västervik.
Simpevarp
4.186
1
Description. Simpevarp (57°25′N, 16°40′E) lies on the
mainland 11 miles NNE of Oskarshamn (4.140) and 3 miles
SW of Kråkelund. It is an artificial industrial harbour
which serves a nuclear power station situated close NW.
The harbour is formed and protected by a 200 m long
breakwater extending SSW from the shore containing a
single basin dredged to a depth of 6⋅0 m.
2
Entry to the harbour is not possible in strong winds
from E to S.
Pilots are available from Oskarshamn. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
4.187
1
Regulations. The harbour is surrounded by a prohibited
area and unauthorised entry is prohibited.
Unauthorised persons may not enter the harbour area
and photography is forbidden.
4.188
1
Landmarks:
Chimney (red light) at Simpevarp Power Station
(57°25′N, 16°40′E).
Radio mast (red light) 3 cables WNW of chimney,
above.
Kråkelund Beacon (57°26′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅5E) (4.178).
4.189
1
Directions. Simpevarp Leading Lights:
Front light (red square, yellow stripe, on framework
tower) (57°24′⋅6N, 16°40′⋅5E), displayed from the
breakwater head.
Rear light (similar structure) (370 m W of front light).
2
Approach from the vicinity of Simpevarps Approach
Light-buoy (safewater) (57°24′⋅7N, 16°45′⋅7E), moored
2miles SSE of Kråkelund Beacon, on the alignment
(267°) of the above lights. This alignment leads 2miles
W to the harbour through the fairway, authorised for a
draught of 5⋅5 m and marked by buoys (lateral), passing
(with positions from the front light, above):
3
S of Bredgrund (2miles ENE), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
S of Rönnbusken (1 mile E), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
N of Lillgrund (6 cables ESE), marked by a buoy
(spar), thence:
S of a submarine pipeline (2 cables ENE), marked at
its outer end by a buoy.
4
Thence to the harbour ensuring that the breakwater head
is cleared by at least 25 m. A turning area, the limits of
which are marked by buoys, dredged to a depth of 6⋅0 m,
lies SW of the harbour.
A submarine power cable is laid from the shore to
Gröttlan Lighthouse, passing close W of the turning area
off the harbour. Anchoring is prohibited within 25 m of the
cable.
5
Useful mark:
Gröttlan Light (red lantern on white support, 2 m in
height, floodlit) (57°24′⋅3N, 16°40′⋅1E), displayed
from an islet 4 cables SW of the harbour.
Berths. A jetty, with a length of 20 m, lies on the inside
of the breakwater. Two breasting dolphins, connected by
bridges to the jetty, are situated off both the inner and
outer ends to form a total length of 110 m with a depth
alongside of 6⋅0 m.
6
On the W side of the harbour there is a quay with a
length of 30 m and a depth alongside of 6⋅0 m. A Ro-Ro
ramp, 14 m wide and with a 6⋅0 m depth lies at the head of
the harbour. It is close N of and placed in line with the
main berth described above.
Rescue. A fully equipped rescue craft is stationed at
Simpevarp.
ÖLAND — EAST COAST
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2251
Area covered
4.190
1
This section covers the coastal waters adjacent to the E
coast of Öland from a position S of Ölands Södra Udde
(56°12′N, 16°24′E) to Ölands Norra Udde (57°22′N,
17°06′E). It includes anchorages, the channels to the small
harbours on the E side of Öland and the off-lying shoal
areas at the N end of the island.
ÖLANDS SÖDRA UDDE TO
KAPELLUDDEN
General information
Chart 2251
Route
4.191
1
From a position S of Ölands Södra Udde and clear of
Ölandsrev Buoy (4.21), the route leads 50 miles NNE to a
position E of Kapelludden (56°49′N, 16°51′E). The 20 m
depth contour lies at a distance of about 3 miles from the
general line of the coast.
Vessels navigating in the area SE of Ölands Södra Udde
are governed by a TSS (4.195). The Inshore Traffic Zone
may only be used by those eligible to do so.
Topography
4.192
1
The E side of Öland is low, part wooded, part bare with
no significant natural features. This creates an illusion
causing the land to appear to be more distant than it
actually is, especially in hazy conditions. Soundings may
be a useful aid for position fixing in poor visibility.
The coastline is fringed by rocks and shoals extending
about 1 mile offshore.
Restricted areas
4.193
1
Anchoring, fishing and underwater operations are
prohibited in a restricted area, shown on the chart,
established (56°25′⋅5N, 16°41′⋅7E) 4 miles ENE of Skärlöv
(4.201), to protect the historic wreck of the Royal Swedish
Ship Kronans. A further area in which anchoring, fishing
and diving are prohibited, is in the vicinity of a wreck in
position 56°10′⋅7N, 16°39′⋅7E, as shown on the chart.
CHAPTER 4
177
Fishing
4.194
1
From September to May intensive salmon fishing takes
place off the E coast of Öland. See 1.20.
Traffic Separation Scheme
4.195
1
A TSS for the use of vessels passing off the S end of
Öland is established SE of Ölands Södra Udde and centred
on Ölands Södra Grund (56°04′N, 16°41′E), on which
stands a light (2.13).
2
The area, shown on the chart, between the inner
separation zone boundary of the traffic lanes and the coast,
is a designated Inshore Traffic Zone which may be used by
vessels allowed to do so, coming from Kalmarsund, and
E-bound vessels coming from Swedish harbours between
longitudes 14°40′E and 16°00′E, passing between Utklippan
Light (3.206) and Ölands Södra Udde.
The scheme is IMO adopted and Rule 10 of
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972) applies.
Principal marks
4.196
1
Landmarks:
Ölands Södra Grund Lighthouse (56°04′⋅2N,
16°41′⋅0E) (2.13).
Radio mast (red light) (56°14′⋅0N, 16°27′⋅5E), NE of
Ölands Södra Udde.
2
Kapelludden Lighthouse (red framework tower, 32 m
in height) (56°49′⋅3N, 16°50′⋅8E), standing on a
headland of that name.
Radio mast (red light) (elevation 142 m) (56°50′⋅3N,
16°44′⋅0E).
Major light:
Ölands Södra Udde Light (56°11′⋅8N, 16°23′⋅8E)
(4.19).
Other aid to navigation
4.197
1
Racon:
Ölands Södra Grund Lighthouse (56°04′⋅2N,
16°41′⋅0E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
4.198
1
From a position about 9 miles S of Ölands Södra Udde
the route leads 50 miles NNE to a position E of
Kapelludden, passing (with positions from Sandby Church
(56°35′N, 16°39′E)):
ESE of Ölandsrev Buoy (E cardinal) (30 miles SSW)
(4.21), thence:
ESE of a 7⋅1 m shoal(24 miles SSW), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal). A wreck lies 1 miles WSW of
the buoy. Thence:
2
ESE of two wrecks, with depths of 9 and 15 m over
them (18 miles SSW), marked on their E side by a
buoy (E cardinal). Össbygrund, a shoal area, lies
off the coast NW of the wrecks. Thence:
ESE of Segerstad Light (white round stone tower,
22 m in height) (56°22′⋅2N, 16°34′⋅1E) (13 miles
SSW), thence:
3
ESE of Sävgrund (6miles S), thence:
ESE of Hallnäsgrund (3 miles SE), thence:
ESE of Hagbygrund (3miles NE) and clear of the
wreck with a depth of 13 m over it 2 miles E,
thence:
ESE of Pinngrund (8miles NNE), thence:
4
ESE of Folkeslundagrund (9 miles NNE), thence:
ESE of Bengts backe (13 miles NNE), thence:
ESE of a buoy (E cardinal) (15 miles NNE),
marking the 10 m contour, thence:
To a position E of Kapelludden Light (4.196).
Useful marks
4.199
1
Gräsgård Church (56°18′⋅6N, 16°30′⋅5E).
Segerstad Church (56°21′⋅7N, 16°32′⋅3E).
Hulterstad Church (56°27′⋅0N, 16°34′⋅2E).
Stenåsa Church (56°30′⋅8N, 16°36′⋅1E).
Gårdby Church (56°36′⋅1N, 16°38′⋅2E).
2
Two radio masts (red lights) (56°38′⋅5N, 16°38′⋅0E).
Norra Möckleby Church (56°38′⋅8N, 16°41′⋅0E).
Runsten Church (56°42′N, 16°42′E).
Långlöt Church (56°44′⋅4N, 16°43′⋅7E).
Gärdslösa Church (56°47′⋅6N, 16°44′⋅4E).
(Directions continue at 4.206)
Harbours
Gräsgårdshamn
4.200
1
Gräsgårdshamn (56°19′N, 16°32′E), a small fishing
harbour, lies 3 miles SSW of Segerstad Light. The harbour,
formed by two breakwaters with a 12 m wide entrance, has
an entrance channel with a least depth of 1⋅5 m. Both the
channel, and the harbour which is suitable for a draught of
1⋅3 m, are liable to silt. Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. Gräsgård Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle on white framework tower)
(56°19′N, 16°32′E), displayed when required from
the harbour.
Rear light (black triangle on black framework tower)
(95 m NW of front light).
The alignment (322°) of these lights leads NW to the
harbour through a buoyed channel.
3
Anchorage may be obtained 4 cables S of the harbour
entrance in a depth of about 4⋅0 m, rock and sand. The
anchorage is sheltered from E by a long narrow reef but is
open to the S.
Skärlöv
4.201
1
Skärlöv (56°25′⋅5N, 16°34′⋅9E) is a small fishing
harbour 15 miles NNE of Ölands Södra Udde. The harbour
has a depth of 1⋅1 m and is protected by a breakwater.
Directions. It is entered on the alignment (295°) of
Skärlöv Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (red triangles on pedestals, 73 m
apart) (56°25′⋅5N, 16°34′⋅9E), displayed from the
harbour when required by fishing vessels.
Bläsinge
4.202
1
Bläsinge (56°37′⋅2N, 16°42′⋅1E) is a small fishing
harbour situated on the E coast of Öland 8 miles ESE of
Ölandsbron (4.49) which joins the island to the mainland. It
is protected from the S by a breakwater and the harbour
has a depth of 2⋅1 m suitable for vessels with a draught up
to 1⋅5 m.
2
Directions. Approach from ESE on the alignment (310°)
of Bläsinge Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (white triangles, black borders,
on posts, 95 m apart) (56°37′⋅3N, 16°42′⋅1E)
displayed from the harbour.
CHAPTER 4
178
The harbour is entered through a dredged channel
passing close N of the breakwater head. A quay on the N
side of the breakwater has a depth alongside of 2⋅0 m.
KAPELLUDDEN TO ÖLANDS NORRA
UDDE
General information
Charts 2251, 2361, Swedish Chart 624 (see 1.34)
Routes
4.203
1
Coastal route. From a position E of Kapelludden
(56°49′⋅3N, 16°50′⋅8E) the route leads initially NNE thence
NW to a position N of Ölands Norra Grund (57°28′N,
17°09′E), a shoal area 12 miles NE of Ölands Norra Udde.
Inshore route. From a position on the coastal route NE
of Ängjärnsudden (57°18′⋅5N, 17°09′⋅0E) the fairway leads
initially N thence W and NW for 5 miles on the
recommended track, shown on the national chart, to a
position N of Ölands Norra Udde (57°22′N, 17°06′E).
Topography
4.204
1
See 4.192.
Landmarks
4.205
1
Borgholm Castle (56°52′⋅2N, 16°38′⋅6E) (4.95),
visible over the island bearing 235°–260°.
Radio mast (red light) (elevation 142 m) (56°50′⋅3N,
16°44′⋅0E).
Ölands Norra Udde Lighthouse (white round stone
tower, 32 m in height) (57°22′⋅0N, 17°05′⋅9E)
displayed from an islet on Storgrundet at the N
point of Öland.
Radio mast (red lights) (elevation 130 m) (57°21′N,
17°04′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.199)
Coastal passage
4.206
1
From a position E of Kapelludden the track leads NNE
for 37 miles thence NW for about 9 miles to a position N
of Ölands Norra Grund, a rocky shoal marked by a
light-buoy (N cardinal) and another buoy (W cardinal),
passing (with positions from Ängjärnsudden (57°18′⋅5N,
17°09′⋅0E)):
ESE of Marskär (26 miles SSW), thence:
2
ESE of Varholmsudde (23 miles SSW), noting an
8⋅5 m wreck 1miles ESE, thence:
ESE of Matkroksgrund (21 miles SSW), thence:
ESE of Klappervall (19miles SSW), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
3
ESE of Yttergrund (18miles SSW), and noting a
detached bank with a least depth of 20 m (17 miles
S), thence:
ESE of Högby Light (white framework tower, 23 m
in height) (57°08′⋅8N, 17°02′⋅8E), (10 miles
SSW), thence:
4
ESE of Kesnäsudden (8miles SSW), a headland,
thence:
ESE of Sandryggen (6miles SSW), thence:
ESE of Flatbådan (1miles SW), and:
ESE of Knölen (1miles SE), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
5
ESE of Tån (5 miles NE), thence:
NE of Skansgrund (6miles N), an extensive shoal
area with a least depth of about 6⋅4 m, thence:
SW of Knolls Grund (17 miles NE) (2.8), thence:
To a position N of Ölands Norra Grund.
4.207
1
Useful marks:
Bredsätra Church (56°50′⋅7N, 16°47′⋅8E).
Egby Church (56°52′⋅5N, 16°49′⋅5E).
Löt Church, tower surmounted by a belfry and cross,
(56°55′⋅2N, 16°50′⋅4E).
Föra Church (57°00′⋅8N, 16°52′⋅1E).
2
Persnäs Church (57°04′⋅1N, 16°56′⋅0E).
Källa Church (57°07′⋅3N, 16°58′⋅1E).
Höby Church (57°09′⋅9N, 17°01′⋅0E), and radio mast
8 cables W.
Böda Church (57°14′⋅7N, 17°03′⋅7E).
Inshore passage north of Ängjärnsudden
4.208
1
From a position NE of Ängjärnsudden the track leads N,
W then NW for 5 miles to a position N of Ölands Norra
Udde, passing (with positions from Ängjärnsudden
(57°18′⋅5N, 17°09′⋅0E)):
Between Bredgrund (2miles NNE), an extensive
shoal with a least depth of 6⋅7 m over Laggrund,
its S part, and Temman (4 miles NE), another
extensive shoal, thence:
2
S of Grytgrund (4miles N), thence:
NE of Flisgrund (4miles NNW), marked by a buoy
(N cardinal), thence:
To a position N of Ölands Norra Udde.
4.209
1
Useful marks:
Masts (red lights) (57°19′N, 17°02′E).
Beacon, standing on shore (57°20′⋅3N, 17°07′⋅7E).
(Directions for Kårehamn are given at 4.212,
for Böda at 4.215 and for Grankullavik at 4.219)
Harbours
Kårehamn
4.210
1
Description. Kårehamn (56°57′N, 16°53′E) is a well
sheltered fishing and leisure craft harbour situated on the E
coast of Öland 9 miles NE of Borgholm (4.105). The
harbour is formed by two breakwaters extending NNE from
the shore with a extension spur off the W breakwater
creating two basins.
The channel to the harbour is authorised for a maximum
draught of 3⋅3 m.
4.211
1
Anchorage. Anchorage may be obtained in a position
about 2 cables SW of Kårholm Beacon (56°57′⋅4N,
16°54′⋅2E), S of the entrance channel, in a depth of 4⋅0 m,
sand and clay. Local knowledge is required.
Vessels may also anchor in the outer roads about
2miles E of Varholmsudde, a headland 2 miles SE of the
harbour, in a depth of 18 m, sand and clay.
4.212
1
Directions. The harbour is entered through a channel
30 m wide, dredged to a depth of about 4⋅4 m and marked
by buoys (lateral). From ESE approach is made on the
alignment (289°) of Kårehamn Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle, red border, on post)
(56°57′⋅5N, 16°53′⋅0E), displayed close NW of the
harbour when required by fishing vessels.
CHAPTER 4
179
Rear light (white triangle, red border, on mast)
(180 m WNW of front light).
2
This alignment leads 3miles WNW to the entrance,
passing (with positions from the front light, above):
NNE of a wreck (2miles ESE), with a depth of
8⋅5 m over it, thence:
Between the buoys (lateral) (1miles ESE), marking
the outer end of the entrance channel, thence:
SSW of Kårholm Beacon (white stone cairn, red
band, 3⋅9 m in height) (6 cables E), standing on
the S end of an islet of that name (56°57′⋅4N,
16°54′⋅2E), thence:
3
To a position about 3 cables W of Kårholm Beacon
where the channel turns SSW to the harbour entrance.
An alternative approach from seaward to the buoyed
channel may be made with Alböke Church (56°56′⋅8N,
16°47′⋅2E) ahead bearing 265°. This track clears all charted
dangers to the entrance channel.
4.213
1
Berths. The outer basin, the fishing harbour, has an
entrance about 30 m wide and contains 185 m of berthing
space with depths alongside of 3⋅6 m.
The inner basin contains a total of about 165 m of
berthing space with depths ranging from 3⋅0 m on the E
side to 1⋅0 m on the inner W side.
Facilities. Slip, capacity 50 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Swedish Chart 624 (see 1.34)
Böda
4.214
1
Description. Böda (57°14′N, 17°05′E), a fishing and
pleasure craft harbour lies at the SW limit of Bödabukten,
a wide, open bay situated 5 miles S of the N point of
Öland.
2
The harbour, suitable for a draught up to 3⋅0 m, is
formed by two breakwaters extending E from the shore
with angled ends giving an entrance 32 m wide with a
depth of 3⋅5 m over a width of 18 m. A short central pier
and a short spur extending S from the N breakwater form
two basins within the harbour.
4.215
1
Directions. Böda Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (white triangles, black borders,
200 m apart) (57°14′⋅4N, 17°04′⋅6E), front
displayed from centre of S breakwater when
required by fishing vessels.
From ESE the alignment (298°) of the above leading
lights leads about 8 cables WNW, through the outer part of
the buoyed entrance channel, to a position 3cables from
the front light.
2
Leading light and beacon:
S Breakwater Head Light (white triangle, black
border) (57°14′⋅5N, 17°04′⋅8E), displayed when
required by fishing vessels.
Böda Beacon (white triangular board, black edges, on
post), standing on the shore 2 cables NW of S
breakwater head.
3
Thence, the alignment (315°) of the above light and
beacon leads 3 cables NW through the inner part of the
buoyed channel to the harbour entrance between the
breakwater heads which are floodlit when required.
The buoyed entrance channel has a general depth of
about 3⋅5 m.
4.216
1
Berths. The outer E basin has a total of 160 m of
berthing space with depths of 3⋅0 to 4⋅0 m alongside.
The W inner basin has about 80 m of berthing space, on
detached pontoons, with depths of 1⋅9 to 2⋅3 m alongside,
mainly for pleasure craft.
Facilities. Slip, capacity 30 tonnes.
2
Supplies: fuel oil in small quantities; fresh water;
provisions in small quantities.
Rescue. Two fully equipped rescue craft are stationed at
Böda.
Grankullavik
4.217
1
Description. Grankullavik (57°20′⋅8N, 17°05′⋅5E), a
ferry and small craft harbour, lies on the W side of
Grankullaviken, a large enclosed bay at the N end of
Öland.
2
The harbour basin, which is reached by a channel across
the bay, is authorised for a draught up to 4⋅0 m. The
harbour is formed by a breakwater projecting ESE from the
shore protected by a wooden former cargo pier close N, the
head of which is demolished. A piled breakwater runs SSW
from a position close S of the N breakwater leaving an
entrance to the W part of the basin about 20 m wide. A
partially demolished detached stone block lies about 75 m S
of the N breakwater and about 65 m E of the piled
breakwater.
Ice. The bay is usually obstructed by ice during
February and March.
4.218
1
Anchorages. In the outer roads anchorage may be
obtained, in good weather or with light S winds, on the
coastal shoals N of Ölands Norra Udde in depths of about
6⋅5 m, sand and stone. Alternatively, anchorage may be
obtained in a position about 1 mile NE of Ölands Norra
Udde Lighthouse in depths of about 18 m, clay.
2
In Grankullaviken well sheltered anchorage may be
obtained about 5 cables ENE of the breakwater in depths of
about 8 to 9 m, clay. Local knowledge is required.
4.219
1
Directions. From NE the bay is entered at a point
7 cables ESE of Ölands Norra Udde Lighthouse (57°22′⋅0N,
17°05′⋅9E) through a channel between the chain of islets
enclosing the bay on the alignment (219°) of
Grankullaviken Hamn Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (white triangles, black borders,
on masts, 400 m apart) (57°20′⋅6N, 17°05′⋅4E),
displayed from the shore S of the harbour. The
lights are visible on the leading line only.
2
This alignment leads about 2 miles SW to the harbour,
initially 8 cables through open fairway, thence through a
narrow buoyed (lateral) channel about 6 cables in length,
40 m wide and finally a farther 8 cables through the
fairway to the berths.
4.220
1
Berths. The wooden 200 m long cargo pier is in poor
condition and closed to shipping. A 60 m long jetty with a
depth alongside of about 5 m on its N side, extends from
the outer end of the breakwater. A fixed ferry ramp lies at
the landward end of the jetty.
On the S side of the jetty there are a number of berths
for fishing vessels with depths of 2 to 3 m. Other berths
for pleasure craft lie farther W inside the harbour.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
3217
2361 2361
2362
3217
3147
3218
3218
3218
3217
3217
3168
3170
2362
3191
3143
2251
3217
2848
2848
2848
0205
5.125
5.164
5.216
5.280
5.245
5.150
5.170
5.130
5.45
5.47
5.88
0
5
.
1
1
5.94
5.66
5.10
Landsort
Häradskär
Hävringe
Gustaf Dalén
Sandsänkan
Storkläppen
Kungsgrundet
Kråkelund
Gunnebo
Västervik
Gamleby
Valdemarsvik
Söderköping
S
lätbaken
Norrköping
B
r
å
v
ik
e
n
Nyköping
Oxelösund
Fläskösund
Gränsösund
Arkö
Västervik
17°
Longitude 17° East from Greenwich
30´
30´
30´
30´ 30´
30´
30´ 30´
18°
18°
58° 58°
59° 59°
Chapter 5 - Northern entrance of Kalmarsund to Landsort
180
181
CHAPTER 5
NORTHERN ENTRANCE OF KALMARSUND TO LANDSORT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2361, 2362
Scope of the chapter
5.1
1
The area covered by this chapter comprises the E coast
of Sweden from Kråkelund (57°27′N, 16°44′E) to Landsort
(58°44′N, 17°52′E), about 86 miles NNE. Included in the
description are the principal ports of Västervik (5.47),
Norrköping (5.216) which lies some distance inland at the
head of Bråviken (5.175), Oxelösund (5.245) and Nyköping
(5.280) together with other minor harbours.
2
It is divided into the following sections:
Kråkelund to Västervik (5.9).
Västervik to Arkö (5.93).
Arkö to Landsort (5.165).
Description
5.2
1
Inshore channel. Within the limits of this chapter an
inshore channel, shown on the charts, leads through the
inner parts of the offshore coastal archipelago of islands
and shoals from Kråkelund to a position NW of Landsort.
Depths vary over the length of this route but if the deeper
sections are chosen the channel is navigable throughout its
length by vessels with a maximum draught of 5⋅0 m.
2
Generally the route is sheltered from the open sea
except for some short stretches. Local knowledge is
required. Details of this route and the channels leading into
it are given in the various sections.
Caution. Within the limits of this chapter certain areas,
indicated on the charts, are incompletely surveyed and may
contain shoals or other dangers. These areas should not be
entered.
Topography
5.3
1
This section of the Swedish coastline is heavily indented
with numerous long narrow inlets, the longest of which
extend up to about 20 miles inland. The coast is fronted
with innumerable islands, rocks and shoals which can
extend up to about 12 miles offshore.
2
There are few natural features which are easily
identifiable to seaward. To compensate and assist with
navigation, both coastal and within the narrow inshore
channels, beacons are established at all the important
entrances for identification. Some of these are visible well
to seaward and may be used in conjunction with other
artificial structures as landmarks.
Water level
5.4
1
On this section of coast the range in the water level may
amount to 1⋅5 m. Winds from N and NE normally raise the
level while winds from SW and W lower the level.
Pilotage
5.5
1
Pilotage for all major ports within this chapter is
controlled by Oxelösund Pilot Station. Pilotage is available
24 hours and is compulsory for certain categories of
vessels. Requests for pilots should be routed through
Oxelösund VTS.
Pilotage at Landsort is controlled by Mälaren/Landsort
Pilot Station, located at Södertälje.
2
Pilot boarding positions are as follows:
Västervik:
(i) In position 57°44′⋅9N, 16°50′⋅0E.
(ii) 4 miles SSW of Kungsgrundet (57°41′N,
16°55′E).
3
Norrköping, Oxelösund and Nyköping:
2 miles N of Gustav Dalén (58°36′N, 17°28′E), or S
of Vinterklasen (58°38′N, 17°08′E), by special
arrangement.
Landsort:
From 4 miles S of, and just W of Landsort Light
(58°44′N, 17°52′E).
For details of categories and further information see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2).
Traffic regulation
5.6
1
Speed restrictions are in force for a number of areas
within the limits of this chapter. The limits are indicated by
boards standing on the sides of the channel or on buoys in
the channel.
Rescue
5.7
1
The Swedish Sea Rescue Association has fully equipped
rescue craft stationed at Fyrudden/Gryt (58°11′⋅5N,
16°51′⋅2E) (5.142). See 1.156 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5 for details.
Local magnetic anomaly
5.8
1
Local magnetic anomalies are reported to exist in
various locations. Details are given in the appropriate
section.
CHAPTER 5
182
KRÅKELUND TO VÄSTERVIK
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2361
Area covered
5.9
1
This section covers the waters of the E coast of Sweden
from Kråkelund (57°27′N, 16°44′E) to Västervik (57°45′N,
16°39′E). It includes a description of the channels to
Västervik, including the harbour, and a general description
of the coastal inshore channel with its entrances. Also
included are the channels, minor harbours and inlets along
the coast.
COASTAL AND INSHORE PASSAGES
General information
Chart 2361, Swedish Charts 624, 623 (see 1.34)
Coastal route
5.10
1
From a position E of Kråkelund (57°27′N, 16°44′E) the
route leads NNE for 20 miles through open water to a
position E of Västervik (57°45′N, 16°39′E), in the vicinity
of the main approach channel entrance about 5 miles NE of
Kungsgrundet Lighthouse (57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅4E).
Inshore route
5.11
1
Within this section the inshore route leads from close N
of Kråkelund, where there are three entrances, about
18 miles N to a position in the main Västervik approach
channel.
Topography
5.12
1
The coastline, which is generally low and partially
wooded, is fronted by numerous rocks, shoals and islands.
Vinö (57°31′N, 16°42′E), a wooded island with Vårberget,
a small hill 25 m in height on its SE side, lies close off the
coast 4 miles NNW of Kråkelund. In clear weather it is
easily identified from seaward.
Pilotage
5.13
1
Pilots for the inshore channel are available from
Västervik or Oxelösund.
Local magnetic anomalies
5.14
1
Local magnetic anomaly is reported to exist in an area
3 miles ESE of Ljungskär Beacon (57°30′⋅9N, 16°46′⋅5E).
A second area of local magnetic anomaly is reported to
exist in an area surrounding the submarine power cables
laid between the mainland and the island of Gotland, in a
position about 4 miles ESE of Kungsgrundet Lighthouse
(57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅2E).
Former mined area
5.15
1
A former mined area, shown on the chart, within which
anchoring, fishing or underwater operations are prohibited,
is centred on a position 4miles SE of Kungsgrundet
Lighthouse, in the S approaches to Västervik. See also 1.8.
Landmarks
5.16
1
Hunö Böte (57°33′⋅4N, 16°38′⋅0E), a wooded hill
steepest on its SW side, situated on the SE side of
the island of Hunö.
Henriksnäsberg (57°35′⋅6N, 16°35′⋅0E), a hill with a
mainly flat top and steep sides on two levels.
Spårö Beacon (57°42′⋅9N, 16°43′⋅7E) (5.63).
2
Kungsgrundet Lighthouse (white lantern on black
tower, red band) (57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅4E), displayed
from a rock; helicopter landing platform above
lantern.
Other aids to navigation
5.17
1
Racons:
Vinökråkan Light (57°30′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅1E) (5.25).
Kungsgrundet Light (5.16).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for coastal passage
(continued from 4.179)
5.18
1
From a position E of Kråkelund the track leads NNE for
20 miles to a position E of Västervik, passing (with
positions from Kråkelund Beacon (57°26′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅5E):
ESE of Blackan (3miles ENE), a group of shoals
with a least depth of 2⋅7 m, marked on their E side
by Blackan Light-buoy (E cardinal), thence:
2
ESE of Ljungskär Approach Light-buoy (safe water)
(5miles NE), moored 2miles E of Strupö
Ljungskär, thence:
ESE of Vinkelgrundet (9miles NNE), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
ESE of Händelöpsgrund (13miles NNE), marked by
a buoy (E cardinal), and:
3
Clear of an 11⋅4 m shoal patch (15 miles NE), thence:
ESE of Kungsgrundet Lighthouse (15miles NNE),
thence:
ESE of Hammarskärsgrund (17 miles NNE), thence:
ESE of an 8⋅5 m shoal (17miles NNE), marked by
a buoy (E cardinal).
Useful marks
5.19
1
Stora Tärnskäret Beacon (cairn), (57°33′⋅7N,
16°46′⋅9E).
Lilla Utterklabben Beacon (former lighthouse)
(57°34′⋅8N, 16°47′⋅8E), standing on a rock 1 mile
NE of Örö.
(Directions continue at 5.99)
Approaches to the inshore channel
Channel marking
5.20
1
Throughout the length of the inshore channel shoals
close to the fairway and narrow sections are marked by
buoys (lateral and cardinal).
Channels
5.21
1
There are three approach channels to the S limit of the
inshore route (5.2), all of which converge at a position
3cables E of Vinökråkan Light (57°30′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅1E).
CHAPTER 5
183
Local knowledge is required for all these channels:
(a) Kråkelunds entrance.
(b) Ljungskär SE entrance. Should only be used by
day.
(c) Ljungskär E — main entrance.
Kråkelunds entrance
5.22
1
From a position close E of Bredgrund (57°25′⋅0N,
16°45′⋅5E) (4.178) the track, shown on the chart, leads
initially 2miles NNW, thence 3miles N through a
narrow buoyed (lateral) channel to a position E of
Vinökråkan Light where the channels merge.
2
Approach with Soen Lighthouse (white lantern, red roof)
(57°27′⋅6N, 16°44′⋅2E) ahead bearing 342° and in the white
sector (341°–343°) of the light. This bearing ahead leads
2miles NNW through the fairway to a position 2 cables
SSE of the light, passing (with positions from Soen
Lighthouse):
3
ENE of Knutsgrund (2miles S), thence:
ENE of Klockargrund (1miles SSE), thence:
ENE of Kråkelund Beacon (1miles SSW) (4.178),
thence:
WSW of Marsbådan (7 cables SSE), marked by a
buoy (S cardinal), to enter the buoyed channel
6 cables SSE of the light.
4
Thence follow the buoyed channel for 3 miles, initially
in the white sector (008°–011°) of Galtbådan Light (lantern
on white pedestal) (57°28′⋅7N, 16°44′⋅7E), displayed from a
rock, secondly in the white sector (355°–356°) of Ekö
Light (white lantern) (57°30′⋅2N, 16°44′⋅3E), displayed
from the E side of the island of that name, and finally in
the white sector (192°–205°) astern of Ekö Light.
Ljungskär south-east entrance — draught 5 m
5.23
1
This entrance, for which local knowledge is required,
should be used by day only. From a position about
2miles ENE of Kråkelund Beacon (57°26′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅5E)
(4.178) the line of bearing 344° of Strupö Ljungskär
Lighthouse (57°30′⋅8N, 16°46′⋅2E) (5.25) leads about
2 miles NNW, passing (with positions from Strupö
Ljungskär Light):
2
ENE of Gåsstensgrund (3 miles SSE), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
WSW of Blackan Light-buoy (E cardinal) (3miles
SE), thence:
ENE of Lilla Örskären (2miles SSE), thence:
3
Close WSW of Örskärsbåden (2 miles SSE), marked
by a buoy (starboard hand), thence:
ENE of Boskär (2 miles S), a densely wooded island,
thence:
NE of Norra Kråkorna (1miles S), thence:
4
The track, as shown on the chart, leads NW for about
2 miles to a position E of Vinökråkan Light (57°30′⋅8N,
16°44′⋅1E) (5.25), passing:
Close NE of Vinö Bredhäll Light, (white tower, black
bands) (7 cables SSW), marked by a buoy (port
hand), and:
SW of Karten (1miles SE).
Useful mark
5.24
1
Gåssten (57°27′⋅9N, 16°46′⋅7E), a steep, yellowish
islet which is easily identified from N or S.
Ljungskär east — main entrance
5.25
1
From the vicinity of Ljungskär Approach Light-buoy
(57°30′⋅4N, 16°50′⋅9E) the channel leads 4 miles NW and
W through a channel marked by buoys and light-buoys to a
position E of Vinökråkan Light.
Leading marks:
Ljungskär Beacon (white concrete post, triangular
topmark, cone shaped stays, 10 m in height)
(57°30′⋅9N, 16°46′⋅5E), standing on the highest
part of Ljungskär islet.
Hunö Böte (57°33′⋅4N, 16°37′⋅5E) (5.16).
2
The alignment (298°) of these marks by day, and at
night in the white sector (271°–291°) of Strupö Ljungskär
Light (white concrete tower, black base, 9 m in height)
(57°30′⋅8N, 16°46′⋅2E), displayed from an islet, leads
2miles NW to a position 4 cables ESE of the light,
passing (with positions from the light):
3
Close NE of Engelsmansgrund (1miles SE), marked
by a buoy (N cardinal), thence:
NE of Bredhäll (6 cables SE), thence:
N of Styrbåden (5 cables SE), marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
4
The track leads W for 1miles, through the buoyed
channel, in the white sector (273°–276°) of Vinökråkan
Light (white concrete tower, red band, black base, 7 m in
height, floodlit) (57°30′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅1E), displayed from a
rock, to a position 3cables E of the light where the
entrance channels merge.
Inshore channel
Ljungskär to Skavdö
5.26
1
From the junction of the entrance channels, 3cables E
of Vinökråkan Light (57°30′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅1E) the inshore
channel track, shown on the chart, authorised for a draught
of 6⋅8 m and marked by light-buoys and buoys, leads
3miles NW, initially through Strupdjupet, to a position
SE of Skavdö (57°34′N, 16°39′E) situated close E of Hunö
(5.16).
2
The following navigational marks lie within this section
of the fairway:
Mannen Light (white lantern, green top) (57°32′⋅6N,
16°42′⋅2E), displayed from a rock.
Tunnholmen Light (white lantern, floodlit) (57°33′⋅4N,
16°41′⋅1E), displayed from a rock.
3
Lilla Bergö Light (white lantern, floodlit) (57°33′⋅3N,
16°40′⋅6E), displayed from the N end of the island.
The white sectors of these lights lead through the
fairway in their vicinity.
Skavdö to Västervik
5.27
1
From a position SE of Skavdö, the track, authorised for
a draught of 6⋅8 m, continues generally NE for about
4 miles thence N for about 5 miles to a position in
Idöfjärden E of Lilla Rågbåden Beacon (57°41′⋅9N,
16°44′⋅8E) where it joins the Västervik S approach channel
(5.68). The following navigational aids are situated along
the fairway in this section of the channel:
2
Mellanhäll Light (lantern on white pedestal, floodlit)
(57°33′⋅8N, 16°41′⋅0E), displayed from a rock SE
of Hamnö (57°34′N, 16°41′E).
Eknö Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on white pedestal, floodlit)
(57°35′⋅2N, 16°42′⋅5E), displayed from the SE side
of Vasträ Eknö.
CHAPTER 5
184
3
Rear light (similar structure) (250 m SW of front
light).
The alignment (234°) of these lights, astern, leads
through a narrow section of the channel SSE of Östra Eknö
(57°37′N, 16°43′E).
4
Alhällan Light (white concrete tower, black base, 6 m
in height) (57°35′⋅9N, 16°44′⋅9E), displayed from a
rock on the S side of the channel. The white
sector (190°–192°) of the light, astern, leads
through the fairway about 1miles NNE.
5
Förö Södra Beacon (white cairn), standing on the SE
side of Förö (57°36′⋅1N, 16°44′⋅4E), and Förö
Norra Beacon (white cairn), 1 cables farther
NNE. A reflector on Förö Södra Beacon is
illuminated by a white beam projected from
Alhällan Light.
6
Lilla Åklabben Beacon (white cairn) (57°37′⋅4N,
16°45′⋅6E), standing on the E side of the channel
5 cables N of Kälmö, a dark coloured islet
(57°37′N, 16°46′E) and 7 cables S of Kråkan, a
group of rocks on the E side of the channel which
leads N on the W side of Stora Hökhallen (5.40).
Beacon (cairn) standing on a rock on the E side of
the channel 2 cables N of Bussan (57°39′⋅5N,
16°45′⋅8E).
7
Bussgrund Light (red metal tower, white top, grey
concrete base, 10 m in height) (57°39′⋅7N,
16°45′⋅5E), displayed from a rock on the W side
of the channel 1 mile WSW of Idö Stångskär
(57°40′⋅3N, 16°47′⋅1E). The white sector
(179°–183°) of this light astern, leads N to the
junction of the channels in Idöfjärden.
8
From this junction the inshore channel trends N through
Idösund (5.70) to join the main Västervik E approach
channel E of Västerbådan Light (57°44′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅5E).
Thence it turns E for a short distance to a position close W
of No 3 Light-buoy (57°44′⋅9N, 16°46′⋅9E) in the main
approach channel where the inshore channel heads N. This
section of the inshore channel is described in the Västervik
approach directions at 5.70 and 5.66.
Useful mark
5.28
1
Lookout tower (57°32′⋅0N, 16°44′⋅7E) on highest part
of Strupö, with group of houses close SE.
(Directions continue at 5.100)
Kärrsvik and approaches
Chart 2361, Swedish Chart 624 (see 1.34)
Description
5.29
1
Kärrsvik (57°26′⋅5N, 16°37′⋅7E), a small harbour, lies on
the S side near the head of Granholmsfjärden, a deep inlet
2miles W of Kråkelund Beacon. The harbour is suitable
for a draught of 2⋅7 m and is usually obstructed by ice
from December to April.
Directions
5.30
1
Local knowledge is required.
From a position E of Kråkelund (57°27′N, 16°44′E) the
track, shown on the chart, leads initially 1 mile NW
through a channel, marked by buoys (lateral), to the
anchorage area described at 5.31.
2
Thence the channel, further marked by buoys, narrows
considerably and leads 1miles WSW through Djupesund,
N of Upplångö (57°27′N, 16°42′E), to enter
Granholmsfjärden close W of Kalvholmen (57°26′⋅5N,
16°40′⋅0E). Thence the fairway leads 1 mile W through
deeper water to the harbour.
Anchorages
5.31
1
Approaches. Anchorage may be obtained in Kråkelund
anchorage, an area 7 cables NNW of Kråkelund Beacon
and NE of Upplångö (57°27′N, 16°42′E), in depths of
about 15 m, sand and clay.
Local knowledge is required for this anchorage which is
entered through a narrow buoyed channel from SE suitable
for a draught of 5⋅4 m.
2
Anchorage may also be obtained in Granholmsfjärden
(57°26′N, 16°39′E), in depths of about 16 m.
Harbour. Anchorage may be obtained off the harbour in
depths of 4 to 6 m.
Berth
5.32
1
A small pier with a depth alongside of 3⋅0 m.
Gåsfjärden and approaches
Chart 2361, Swedish Charts 624, 623 (see 1.34)
General information
5.33
1
Gåsfjärden (57°34′N, 16°35′E) is an area of open water
almost enclosed from the sea by a number of islands, about
11 miles SSW of Västervik. It is entered via a branch
channel leading from the first part of the inshore channel.
Directions
5.34
1
The channel to Gåsfjärden, shown on the chart, is a W
branch from the first part of the inshore channel. Follow
the directions given at 5.25 and 5.26 for the inshore
channel to a position 3cables SE of Skavdö. Thence the
track, marked by light-buoys and buoys (lateral), and
authorised for a draught of 5⋅8 m, leads generally W and
NW for 6 miles to the harbour, passing:
2
N of Lilla Bergö Light (57°33′⋅3N, 16°40′⋅6E) (5.26),
thence:
S of Skavdö, thence:
NW through Skavdösundet, the channel W of Skavdö
and E of Hunö, thence:
3
W across Gåsfjärden, thence:
SW of Grytholmen (57°34′⋅8N, 16°33′⋅2E) and:
NE of Tvetö, 4 cables WNW of Grytholmen, and:
4
SW of Storö, 2 cables N of Grytholmen, entering the
harbour 3 cables from the W end of the island
close NE of a buoy (port hand) marking the
entrance. Five dolphins stand in the SW part of the
outer harbour.
A submarine power cable crosses the channel SW of
Grytholmen.
Blankaholm
5.35
1
Description. Blankaholm (57°35′⋅4N, 16°31′⋅6E) lies on
the NW side of Gåsfjärden. The harbour, which is suitable
for a draught of up to 4⋅8 m, formerly served a large
sawmill in the export of timber products but now operates
only as a small craft and pleasure boat harbour.
Ice is usually present from January to March but the
approach channels are normally kept clear by icebreakers.
2
Berths. In the N part of the harbour there is a total of
300 m of berthing space with depths alongside of 3⋅5 to
5⋅0 m which is reserved for repairs and service.
CHAPTER 5
185
In SW part there are two detached pontoon jetties with a
total of 265 m of berthing space mainly for pleasure craft.
3
Facilities: crane with a capacity of 20 tonnes; shipyard;
small workshop; tug; oily waste reception.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Solstadström
5.36
1
Solstadström (57°34′⋅5N, 16°30′⋅9E) lies about 1 mile
SW of Blankaholm. Deep copper mining, with origins in
the thirteenth century, is in operation. There is a small jetty
inside the river mouth with a depth of 2⋅2 m alongside.
Flivik
5.37
1
Description. Flivik (57°32′⋅4N, 16°35′⋅2E) is a small
loading place situated 5 cables from the head of Fliviken, a
narrow inlet in the S of Gåsfjärden. It is suitable for a
draught of 4⋅0 m. Flivik’s Wharf, a jetty used for shipment
of stone, is located 1 mile N of Flivik at the entrance to
Fliviken. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from
January to April.
2
Pilots for Flivik board in the vicinity of Ljungskär
Approach Light-buoy (57°30′⋅4N, 16°50′⋅9E).
Directions. Follow the directions for Gåsfjärden given at
5.34, leaving the track at a position NW of the NW side of
Hunö (57°33′⋅4N, 16°37′⋅5E). Thence the fairway leads
1 mile S to Flivik’s Wharf, passing NW of a shoal patch
with a least depth of 5⋅3 m, marked by a buoy (57°34′⋅0N,
16°35′⋅4E), and thence to Flivik.
3
Anchorage may be obtained in a position about 5 cables
from the head of the inlet, in a depth of 4⋅6 m, mud. It is
well sheltered.
Berths. Flivik’s Wharf is authorised for a draught of
5⋅8 m. At Flivik, there is a pier, in poor condition, having
50 m of berthing space with depths alongside of 2⋅5 to
4⋅0 m.
Facilities: tug from Blankaholm or Västervik.
Supplies: fresh water; provisions.
Verkebäcksviken and approaches
Charts 2361, 2848, Swedish Charts 623, 6231 (see 1.34)
General information
5.38
1
Verkebäcksviken (57°43′N, 16°34′E) is a deep narrow
inlet about 6 miles long situated 3 miles SW of Västervik
(57°45′N, 16°39′E). It is approached and entered through a
channel, shown on the chart, where shoals, dangers and
narrow sections are marked by buoys (cardinal and lateral).
It contains the small harbours of Gunnebo (5.45) and
Verkebäck (5.46). A branch channel leads to Skaftet (5.44),
5 miles SSE of Gunnebo.
Limiting conditions
5.39
1
Authorised draught. The channel to the anchorage area
near the head of the inlet is authorised for a draught of
7⋅0 m.
Maximum size of vessel permitted: length 105 m;
breadth 16 m.
Ice. Verkebäcksviken is usually obstructed by ice from
January to March.
Directions
5.40
1
Approach and entry. Approach from a position about
1miles NE of Vinkelgrundet (57°36′N, 16°51′E) (5.18).
The track leads 8 miles NW through Stora Hökhallen and
Lökholmsdjupet to enter Verkebäcksviken 7 cables NW of
Måsö (57°40′N, 16°40′E), passing (with positions from
Bussgrund Light (57°39′⋅7N, 16°45′⋅5E) (5.27)):
2
NE of Örö Sankor, a small low rock (4 miles SE),
thence:
NE of Söreskäret, a bare islet (2 miles SSE),
thence:
NE of Norrskäret (2 miles SSE), thence:
3
SW of Parolegrund (1 mile SSE), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand) thence:
NE of Stora Orskär (1 mile S), thence:
SE of Mussehällar (7 cables S), marked by a buoy
(isolated danger), thence:
4
NE of Lökholmen (1miles W), thence:
Between Nävelsö (2 miles WNW) and Måsö
(3 miles WNW).
Thence the channel through Verkebäcksviken leads about
4miles NW to its head NW of Gunnebo, passing (with
positions from Måsö, above):
Through the narrow channel between Bogölsholmen
and Torrö (2 miles NW), marked by buoys
(lateral).
5
An outfall pipe is laid across the channel from a
position close E of Gunnebo (57°43′⋅4N, 16°32′⋅0E) to
Kläcksvik, 1 mile E. The E and W landward ends of the
pipe are marked by light-beacons (white boards, red
borders).
5.41
1
Alternative channel. An alternative approach channel
for which local knowledge is required, authorised for a
draught of 3⋅8 m, leads 4 miles W from the inshore channel
at a position 5 cables N of Bussgrund, to join the main
channel at the entrance to Verkebäcksviken. This channel,
which is marked at its E end by a buoy (port hand), passes
S of Händelöp (57°40′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅5E) and N of Nävelsö,
1 mile W.
Useful mark
5.42
1
Radio mast (red light, elevation 258 m) (57°43′⋅2N,
16°25′⋅6E), displayed about 3 miles W of
Gunnebo.
Händelöps Fiskehamn
5.43
1
A small fishing harbour (57°40′⋅5N, 16°44′⋅7E) lies on
the SE side of Händelöp which is connected to the adjacent
islet of Stomsö, and thence the mainland, by a fixed road
bridge. The approach channel is suitable for a draught up
to 2⋅7 m.
2
Directions. Entry is from the E end of the alternative
approach channel (5.41) to Verkebäcksviken in a position
2 cables SSE of the harbour on the alignment (320°) of
Händelöps Leading Lights:
Front and rear lights (posts with white triangles, 85 m
apart) (57°40′⋅5N, 16°44′⋅7E), displayed from the
harbour when required.
Berth. A quay with a length of 90 m and a depth
alongside most of its length of 3⋅0 m.
Skaftet
5.44
1
Description. Skaftet (57°38′⋅8N, 16°35′⋅5E) lies at the
head of Skaftviken, a small inlet 5 miles SSE of Gunnebo
(5.45), which leads into Västrumsfjärden, close N. The
harbour is suitable for vessels with a draught up to 4⋅6 m.
Ice usually obstructs the harbour from January to March.
CHAPTER 5
186
2
Directions. Follow the directions given at 5.40 to a
position close N of Måsö (57°40′N, 16°40′E) where the
channel branches to Skaftet. The channel leads 3 miles SW
and W to Skaftet through Blåbärssundet and
Grönvållsfjärden.
Anchorage may be obtained in Grönvållsfjärden, E of
Skaftet, in depths of 20 to 30 m, clay.
Berths. There is a total of 305 m of berthing space with
depths alongside of 3⋅5 to 5⋅0 m.
Gunnebo
5.45
1
Description. Gunnebo (57°43′⋅4N, 16°32′⋅0E) lies on the
S side near the head of Verkebäcksviken, 4 miles SW of
Västervik. It is a small industrial harbour mainly serving
the local iron works which exports a variety of metal
products. Imports include wire rod and zinc. The harbour is
suitable for a draught up to 4⋅0 m.
Directions. Directions are given at 5.40.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in the roads in depths of
about 40 m, clay. Anchorage is prohibited within 50 m of
the outfall pipes (5.40) laid across the channel immediately
E of the quay.
Berths. The quay has a length of 53⋅0 m and a depth
alongside of 4⋅3 to 4⋅8 m.
3
A small craft and yacht jetty with about 115 m of
berthing space lies about 100 m W of the industrial quay.
Facilities: mast crane; engine workshop.
Supplies: fresh water; provisions.
Verkebäck
5.46
1
Description. Verkebäck (57°43′⋅6N, 16°32′⋅0E) lies at
the head of Verkebäcksviken, 7 cables WNW of Gunnebo.
Its principal function is a timber loading harbour and it is
suitable for a draught up to 6⋅7 m.
Directions. Directions are given at 5.40.
2
Anchorage may be obtained off the harbour in depths of
about 40 m, clay. Anchoring is prohibited in the vicinity of
a sea collector pipeline laid to the NE of the harbour which
can be seen on the chart.
Berths. There is a total of 90 m of berthing space with
depths alongside of 2⋅4 to 6⋅7 m.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
VÄSTERVIK AND APPROACHES
INCLUDING GAMLEBYVIKEN
General information
Charts 2848 with plan of Västervik, 2361
Position
5.47
1
Västervik (57°45′N, 16°39′E) lies in Skeppsbrofjärden
on the W side of the entrance to Gamlebyviken, a long
narrow inlet on the E coast of Sweden about 22 miles N of
the N entrance to Kalmarsund.
Function
5.48
1
It is a safe, well-sheltered, commercial harbour well
equipped to handle most types of vessel and cargo
including bulk, liquid and container traffic, plus fishing and
small craft harbours.
Principal exports are pulp and paper products, stone and
timber. Imports include fodder, iron and steel goods,
chemicals and oil.
Approach and entry
5.49
1
Approach and entry to the harbour area is from the SE
and E through channels, marked by buoys and light-buoys,
on the alignment of lights, leading lights and beacons. The
inner harbour is entered through Blockholmssundet, a
narrow channel marked by light-beacons.
Traffic
5.50
1
In 2000 the port was used by 118 vessels with a total of
480 000 dwt.
Port Authority
5.51
1
Västerviks logistik och industri AB Farjevagen 10,
SE−593 50 Västervik,, Sweden.
Website: www.vli.nu
E-Mail cjc@vli.nu
Limiting conditions
Controlling draughts
5.52
1
The controlling depths are those in the main channels
leading to the outer and inner harbours. Maximum
permitted draughts:
Channel to Djuphamnen on W side of Lusärnafjärden
— 8⋅5 m.
Channel to inner harbour and also access to
Gamlebyviken, Blockholmssundet — 5⋅5 m.
Deepest and longest berths
5.53
1
Djuphamnen — New quay No 4 (5.75).
Inner harbour — Nya Skeppsbrokajen (5.76).
Water level
5.54
1
Under normal conditions the water level varies between
0⋅7 m above mean level to 0⋅5 m below mean level. Winds
from the W cause an increase in the level; winds from the
NE cause a decrease in level. Prolonged winds from E may
lower the level by 0⋅7 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.55
1
A vessel with a length of 160 m, breadth 25 m and a
draught of 8⋅5 m to the outer harbour on the E side of
Lusärna.
5.56
1
Ice may be present in normal winters, and compact ice
in severe winters, between Västervik and Idö and Västervik
and Marsholmen. Ice breakers ensure year round operation
of the port.
Arrival information
Port radio
5.57
1
Västervik Hamnradio (Västervik Harbour radio). See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorages
5.58
1
Anchorage may be obtained on the E side of the S part
of Idösund (57°42′⋅5N, 16°45′⋅5E) in depths of about 10 m,
clay. Anchorage is prohibited in the vicinity of the
submarine power cable and other cable laid across the
channel in the S part of Idösund.
CHAPTER 5
187
Anchorage may also be obtained on the W side of
Lindödjupet (57°42′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅5E), as indicated on the
chart, in depths of 12 to 23 m, clay.
2
In Lusärnafjärden anchorage may be obtained SE of
Lusärna (57°45′⋅0N, 16°40′⋅5E) in depths of 10 to 25 m,
loose mud.
In the inner harbour, W of Lusärna, anchorage may be
obtained in depths of 10 to 14 m, loose mud.
5.59
1
A submarine power cable is laid in Lusärnafjärden
between 57°44′⋅6N, 16°40′⋅0E and 57°44′⋅2N, 16°42′⋅5E.
See 1.71.
Pilotage and tugs
5.60
1
Pilotage is available 24 hours. See 5.5 and Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for full details.
Tug is available.
Harbour
General layout
5.61
1
The harbour area is formed by two natural bays
separated by an island, Lusärna, and protected from the sea
by several islands.
The outer harbour, Djuphamnen, lies on the E side of
Lusärna and is entered via the W channel through
Lusärnafjärden, the larger of the two bays, authorised for a
draught of 8⋅5 m.
2
The inner harbour is in Skeppsbrofjärden, close W,
approached via either the W or the secondary channels
through Lusärnafjärden and entered through
Blockholmssundet. These channels also provide access to
Gamlebyviken and are authorised for a draught of 5⋅0 m.
3
The limits of Möllegrund, a shoal area in the NW part
of the inner harbour are marked by buoys (lateral). Shoal
patches on Sälgrundet in the central part are marked by
buoys (lateral and isolated danger).
4
A small oil complex is situated on the W side of
Lusärna with the remaining commercial and fishing berths
situated on the W side of the inner harbour. There are
small craft berths in the S of the inner harbour. The
channel leading to Gamlebyviken, spanned by a bridge, lies
in the NW part of the inner harbour.
At the N end of Lusärnafjärden, Gränsö kanal (5.78)
provides access to Gudingen (5.112) for small craft.
Natural conditions
5.62
1
Local magnetic anomaly. See 5.14.
Current. A current of 3 to 4 kn may be experienced in
Blockholmssundet (57°45′⋅5N, 16°40′⋅2E) (5.73), the
narrow channel N of Lusärna to the inner harbour.
Landmarks
5.63
1
Kungsgrundet Lighthouse (5.16).
Spårö Beacon (white square stone tower, red pointed
roof, 24 m in height) (57°42′⋅9N, 16°43′⋅7E).
Factory chimney at Örserum (57°43′⋅9N, 16°39′⋅9E).
Radio mast (red light) (57°43′⋅6N, 16°39′⋅7E).
Water tower in Västervik (57°45′⋅2N, 16°39′⋅0E).
2
Church (redbrick construction), 3 cables WNW of
water tower, above.
Water tower (57°45′⋅7N, 16°36′⋅5E).
Chimney (about 73 m in height, red light) (57°45′⋅0N,
16°39′⋅6E).
Other aids to navigation
5.64
1
Racons:
Kungsgrundet Lighthouse (57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅2E).
Västerbådan Lighthouse (57°44′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅5E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for approaches
Channels
5.65
1
There are two approach channels which lead to the
harbour entrance channel in Borgfjärden; the main channel
from the E, authorised for a draught of 8⋅5 m, and the S
approach through the Idö Stångskär entrance which is
authorised for a draught of 6⋅5 m as far as Idöfjärden
(5.68) and the anchorage in Lindödjupet (5.58). This S
approach then leads to Borgfjärden via Spårösund,
authorised for a draught of 4⋅5 m, or Idösund, which forms
part of the inshore channel, authorised for a draught of
5⋅0 m.
2
Alternatively approach may be made via the inshore
channel from the N, entering the channel in the vicinity of
Storkläppen Light. This channel joins the main approach
channel E of Västerbådan Light. Directions for the inshore
channel are given at 5.100.
East approach — draught 85 m
5.66
1
The track, shown on the chart, leads 7miles W and
SSW through the fairway to a position close N of
Marsholmen (57°43′⋅6N, 16°43′⋅2E) at the entrance to
Borgfjärden.
2
From a position about 4 miles N of Kungsgrundet Light
(57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅2E), close N of Västerviks angöring
Light-buoy (N cardinal), approach with Västerbådan
Lighthouse (red tower, black base, 15 m in height, floodlit)
(57°44′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅5E) ahead bearing 269°, in the white
sector (268°–269°) of the light. On this bearing the track
leads 6 miles W through the fairway, marked by buoys and
light-buoys (lateral and cardinal), to a position 2 cables E
of the light, passing (with positions from Västerbådan
Light):
3
S of Syningsknallen (5miles ENE), thence:
N of Finnknallen (3miles ESE), thence:
N of No 2 Light-buoy (port hand) (2miles E),
marking the channel, thence:
S of No 3 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (1miles E),
marking the channel and the junction where the
inshore channel crosses and continues N, thence:
4
N of Norra Per-Mattsbåden (1 mile ESE), thence:
N of a 4⋅9 m shoal (7 cables ESE), marked by a buoy
(N cardinal) which also marks the junction where
the inshore channel briefly joins the main channel
to lead E for 6 cables, thence:
NW of No 4 Light-buoy (port hand), 2 cables ESE of
the light.
5
Tallskärshålet. Thence, from No 4 Light-buoy the track
leads 1miles SSW through Tallskärshålet, the narrow
straight channel through the shoals between Lilla Tallskär
on the W side and Stångskär, on which stands a beacon
(white cairn, red band, 4 m in height) (57°44′⋅0N,
16°44′⋅3E), on the E side. A heading of about 205° leads
through the centre of the channel which is marked by
buoys and light-buoys (lateral and cardinal) and by the
green sector (138°–220°) of the W side, Green Front light
described below. The sides of the channel are indicated by
two pairs of leading lights:
CHAPTER 5
188
6
Tallskärshålet Green, W side, Front light (green
tower, white band) (57°43′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅5E),
displayed from a rock close E of Marsholmen.
Rear light (similar structure), 6 cables SSW of front
light, displayed from the N side of Grönö, the islet
on the W side of Spårösund. In line bearing 205°.
7
Tallskärshålet Red, E side, Front light (lantern on red
pedestal) (57°43′⋅4N, 16°43′⋅5E), displayed from
an islet 1 cable S of Marsholmen.
Rear light (similar structure), 4 cables SSW of front
light, displayed close E of the green rear light,
above. In line bearing 204°.
8
All the above lights, with the exception of the W Green
Front light which is sectored, are only visible on the
leading line.
Useful mark.
Light, 4 m in height, stands close off the SE point of
Gränsö in position 57°44′⋅1N, 16°43′⋅3E.
5.67
1
Link channel. Leading lights:
Stickskär Light. Front light (57°43′⋅3N, 16°45′⋅3E)
(5.70).
Spårö Light. Common rear light (57°42′⋅8N,
16°43′⋅7E) (5.68), 1 mile SW of front light.
The alignment (236°) of these lights leads from NE,
close to No 2 Light-buoy in the main approach 2miles
SW to a position in the inshore channel 5 cables N of Idö
Light (57°42′⋅8N, 16°45′⋅5E), passing (with positions from
Stickskär Light):
2
SE of Södra Per-Mattsbåden (1 mile NNE), marked
by a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
NW of Norrabåden (8 cables NE), marked by a buoy
(W cardinal), thence:
NW of a 5 m shoal patch (6 cables ENE), marked off
its N end by a buoy (N cardinal), thence:
NW of Norra Karten (5 cables ENE).
South approach — Idö Stångskär entrance — draught
65 m
5.68
1
The track, shown on the chart, leads 8 miles NW to
Idöfjärden and Lindödjupet before dividing to approach the
entrance in Borgfjärden through Spårösund or the branch
channel N of Idösund.
Leading lights:
Idö Stångskär Light. Front light (white lantern, red
base) (57°40′⋅3N, 16°47′⋅1E), displayed from the N
of the islet.
2
Spårö Light. Common rear light (white tower, 8 m in
height) (57°42′⋅8N, 16°43′⋅7E), 3⋅1 miles NW of
front light, displayed from the S of the islet.
Leading marks:
Idö Stångskär Lighthouse — as above.
Spårö Beacon (57°42′⋅9N, 16°43′⋅7E) (5.63).
3
From a position to seaward about 5 miles S of
Kungsgrundet Light (57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅2E) the alignment
(323°), by day, of these marks, and by night the leading
lights, and in the white sector (321°–324°) of Idö Stångskär
Light, leads 5 miles NW, passing (with positions from Idö
Stångskär Light):
4
NE of Vinkelgrundet (5 miles SSE) (5.18), thence:
Close NE of Fyrken (1miles SE), marked by a
light-buoy (port hand), thence:
SW of Norra Blacken (1miles SE), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), thence:
5
NE of Simpbåden (7 cables SSE), marked by a buoy
(port hand), and:
SW of Böskaren (8 cables SE) on which stands a
beacon, thence:
SW of Hamnklabbshällan Light (4 cables SE) (white
tower, green band, 9 m in height) (57°40′⋅1N,
16°47′⋅8E), standing on a rock.
6
Thence deviate slightly E of the track into the white
sector (126°–134°) of Hamnklabbshällan Light, astern,
which leads into the next part of the channel, passing E of
Idö Stångskär, on which a beacon (white rectangle on white
boarded triangular lattice mast, 15 m in height) stands close
S of the lighthouse, and E of the buoy (port hand) marking
the shoal water E of the islet. Västra Algsbåden, a small
islet, lies 3 cables NE.
7
Thence with the E end of Finnklabben (57°42′⋅3N,
16°45′⋅0E) ahead bearing 332°, in the white sector
(150°–152°) of Idö Stångskär Light astern, the track leads
2 miles NNW to a position in Idöfjärden 3cables E of
Lilla Rågbåden Beacon (orange round base, red radar
reflector on posts) (57°41′⋅9N, 16°44′⋅8E), standing on a
rock, passing (with positions from Idö Stångskär Light):
8
ENE of Lekskären (5 cables NNW), through a short
channel marked by buoys (lateral and isolated
danger), thence:
NE of a 1⋅9 m shoal (8 cables NW), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
SW of a 5⋅4 m shoal (1miles NW), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), thence:
To a position E of Lilla Rågbåden Beacon.
9
Caution. A submarine power cable and other cables
cross the fairway in this vicinity and land at Hornsudde
(57°41′⋅8N, 16°43′⋅8E). Their landing points are marked by
pairs of beacons on the coastline.
5.69
1
Spårösund — draught 45 m. From a position E of
Lilla Rågbåden Beacon the track, shown on the chart, leads
1mile NW through Lindödjupet, thence 1 mile N to the
E entrance to Borgfjärden, passing through Spårösund the
narrow channel between Spårö (57°42′⋅9N, 16°43′⋅7E) and
Grönö, close W. A speed restriction of 4 kn is in force.
5.70
1
Idösund and east branch. Idösund (57°42′⋅7N,
16°45′⋅4E), the narrow channel between Idö on the E side
and Krokö on the W side, forms part of the inshore route.
The channel is marked on its W side by buoys (lateral) and
on its E side by Idö Light (white lantern on lattice mast,
green rectangular daymark, floodlit) (57°42′⋅8N, 16°45′⋅5E),
displayed from the NW side of the island.
2
From a position E of Lilla Rågbåden Beacon (57°41′⋅9N,
16°44′⋅8E) (5.68) the track, shown on the chart, leads
initially 2 miles N to a position 1 mile N of Idö Light. The
first part lies in the white sector (354°–358°), ahead, of
Stickskär Light (white tower, 8 m in height) (57°43′⋅3N,
16°45′⋅3E), displayed from an islet, and the second part in
the white sector (180°–182°), astern, of Idö Light.
3
Thence the track leads 1 mile W through the branch
channel, marked by buoys (lateral), leading close S of
Stångskär Beacon (57°44′⋅0N, 16°44′⋅3E), to the S end of
Tallskärshålet (5.66) at the entrance to Borgfjärden.
Useful mark
5.71
1
Dämman Beacon (white cairn, red band, 3 m in
height) (57°42′⋅0N, 16°50′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 5
189
Directions for entry
Main channel
5.72
1
The main entrance channel leads W through Borgfjärden
and NNW on the W side of Lusärnafjärden to Djuphamnen
and Blockholmssundet, which then leads to the inner
harbour and the entrance to Gamlebyviken.
Korphällan Leading Lights:
Front light (white lantern) (57°43′⋅9N, 16°41′⋅1E).
Rear light (similar structure) (180 m W of front light).
2
From a position close NE of Marsholmen (57°43′⋅6N,
16°43′⋅2E) the alignment (279°) of these lights leads 1 mile
W to a position 2cables from the front light, passing
(with positions from the front light):
S of a 5⋅6 m shoal patch (1 mile E), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
3
N of Borgö Light (3 cables ESE) (white lantern)
(57°43′⋅8N, 16°41′⋅6E), displayed from the NW
side of Borgö, and:
S of a 7⋅6 m shoal (3 cables E), marked by two
light-buoys (starboard hand) moored close together.
4
Thence the track leads 1miles NNW through the
fairway, marked by light-buoys and buoys (lateral), initially
in the white sector (154°–158°) of Borgö Light, astern, to a
position E of Källarmästaren Beacon (57°44′⋅6N,
16°40′⋅5E) and thence to Djuphamnen on the alignment
(347°) of leading marks:
5
Ekholmsgrundet Beacon (green, floodlit) (57°45′⋅4N,
16°40′⋅6E), standing on a rock on the NE side of
the channel.
Vitudden Lighthouse (57°45′⋅7N, 16°40′⋅5E).
The track also lies in the white sector (347°–350°) of
Vitudden Light (white lantern) (57°45′⋅7N, 16°40′⋅5E),
displayed from a point 3 cables S of the entrance to Gränsö
kanal.
6
From the above beacon the channel leads 2 cables NW
to Blockholmssundet entrance, in the white sector
(300°–306°) of No 1 Light, exhibited on the N side of the
channel.
5.73
1
Blockholmssundet. Blockholmssundet is the narrow
channel lying between the N side of Lusärna and Stora
Ringholm, cable N. The channel, which is 30 m wide
with a depth of 5⋅7 m, is suitable for vessels up to a
maximum of 95 m in length, breadth 14 m and draught
5⋅5 m. It is marked by lights as follows:
N side — No 1 (green tower, grey base, 6 m in
height) (57°45′⋅5N, 16°40′⋅3E).
2
N side — No 2 (similar structure), 100 m WNW of
No 1 light.
S side — No 3 and No 4 (red pedestals, grey bases),
100 m apart.
All the above light-structures are floodlit. Nos 2, 3, and
4 lights are synchronised.
3
The fairway to Gamlebyviken entrance at Stegeholms
kanal in the NW part of Skeppsbrofjärden leads 8 cables
WNW from the W end of Blockholmssundet.
Caution. Current, see 5.62.
Secondary channel
5.74
1
A secondary channel, shown on the chart and authorised
for a draught of 5⋅5 m, leads from Borgfjärden between
Skansholmarna (57°44′N, 16°42′E) and the SW side of
Gränsö, through the shoals in the middle of Lusärnafjärden
to join the main channel close SE of Ekholmsgrundet
Beacon.
2
Follow the directions for the main channel given at 5.72
to a position about 5 cables E of Borgö Light (57°43′⋅8N,
16°41′⋅6E). Thence the track leads about 5 cables NNW
through either of two channels marked by buoys (lateral
and isolated danger) and a beacon standing on a rock in
the centre of the fairway. Thence the track leads 1miles
NNW, in the white sector (330°–333°) of Vitudden Light
(5.72), to a position close SE of Ekholmsgrundet Beacon,
passing (with positions from the beacon):
3
ENE of Stora Lusärnagrund (6 cables SSE), marked
by a buoy (port hand), thence:
WSW of Tärnskärsgrund (6 cables SE), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), thence:
ENE of Lilla Lusärnagrund (4 cables SSE), marked
by a buoy (port hand), thence:
4
ENE of a 6.4 m shoal (2 cables SSE), marked by a
buoy (S cardinal).
A branch channel continues NNW to pass N of Stora
Ringholm and enter the inner harbour close W of the inner
end of Blockholmssundet.
Useful mark:
Watch tower (57°45′⋅9N, 16°38′⋅8E)
(Directions for Gamlebyviken continue at 5.87)
Berths
Djuphamnen — outer harbour
5.75
1
Djuphamnen lies on the E side of Lusärna. The principal
berth, New Quay No 4, is situated at the N end. It is 150 m
in length with a depth alongside of 9⋅5 m and a Ro-Ro
ramp at its S end, 20 m wide with a depth of 8⋅3 m. In the
central part there is 200 m of berthing space with a depth
alongside of 8⋅3 m, the N section being the oil berth.
2
The S part has 100 m of berthing space with a depth of
6⋅0 m alongside. A second Ro-Ro berth with a fixed ramp,
ferry terminal and harbour authority building are located in
this area. Two floating pontoons, each 30 m long, extend
seawards at right angles to the shore close S of the second
Ro-Ro berth described above.
3
A fishing harbour lies close S with a depth alongside the
quay of 7⋅0 m.
A small harbour protected by breakwaters and dredged
to a depth of 3 m lies on the SE side of Lusärna. It is for
the use of pilot boats and rescue craft only.
Inner harbour
5.76
1
The principal quay is Nya Skeppsbrokajen, on the W
side, with a length of 240 m and a depth alongside of
5.5 m. The remainder of Skeppsbrokajen has 290 m of
berthing space with a depth alongside of 5⋅5 m, for fishing
craft.
2
The old fishing harbour which is situated 2 cables NE of
the water tower (57°45′⋅2N, 16°39′⋅0E), on the W side of
the harbour, contains 530 m of berthing space with depths
of 1 to 4 m alongside. A further 270 m of berthing space
with a depth of about 4⋅5 m alongside is also situated on
the W side.
3
On the W side of Lusärna, the E side of the inner
harbour, there is a disused oil quay with a length of 15 m
and a depth alongside of 6⋅0 m.
At Slottsholmen, close NE of the entrance to
Gamlebyviken, there is 400 m of berthing space with
depths of 1⋅5 to 6⋅0 m alongside.
4
A small craft harbour is situated in Trebrödersundet
(57°44′⋅8N, 16°40′⋅3E) which lies at the S end of the inner
harbour between Lusärna and the mainland. It is protected
CHAPTER 5
190
by breakwaters and a light is displayed from the S side of
the entrance.
Port services
5.77
1
Repairs. Engine repairs; boatyard with slip.
Other facilities. Oily waste reception available; hospital;
deratting and issue of certificates.
Supplies. Fuel oils; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Nearest international airport at
Linköping, 60 km N.
Gränsö kanal
Description
5.78
1
Gränsö kanal (57°46′N, 16°41′E) connects the N part of
Lusärnafjärden (5.61) with Gudingen on the N side of the
Gränsö peninsula. It is about 3cables in length with a
depth of 1⋅5 m. Midway between the N and S ends of the
canal, from which lights are displayed, a fixed bridge spans
the channel with a vertical clearance of 3⋅1 m under the
span.
5.79
1
Directions. The canal is approached and entered through
Kanalviken (57°45′⋅8N, 16°40′⋅7E), a short inlet extending
NNW from the N part of Lusärnafjärden. The channel
leads about 5 cables N to the canal entrance from a
position close N of Ekholmsgrundet Beacon (57°45′⋅4N,
16°40′⋅6E) (5.72), passing E of Vitudden Light (5.72).
Gamlebyviken
Chart 2361, Swedish Charts 6231, 623 (see 1.34)
General information
5.80
1
Description. Gamlebyviken is a long narrow inlet
extending about 12 miles NW from Västervik. Entry is via
either of two channels, both spanned by bridges, close N of
Västervik, at the NW end of Skeppsbrofjärden.
Depths
5.81
1
The channel from Västervik to the anchorage near
Gamleby is authorised for a draught of 5⋅0 m.
Pilotage
5.82
1
See 5.5.
Anchorage
5.83
1
Anchorage may be obtained in Almviken, S of Granö
(57°50′⋅4N, 16°27′⋅2E) and N of Almvik, 7 miles NW of
Västervik, in depths of 10 to 26 m, clay and mud.
See also 5.58.
Bridges
5.84
1
There are two bridges at Strömsholmen (57°45′⋅6N,
16°38′⋅5E), close N of Västervik at the NW end of
Skeppsbrofjärden.
5.85
1
Stegeholmsbron is a bascule bridge with a vertical
clearance of 1⋅8 m when closed and an 18 m wide
navigational opening, spanning Stegeholms kanal which
provides the main access channel to Gamlebyviken.
2
Operation and signals. Requests for opening are made
by giving the sound signal Morse letter U, two short and
one long blast, in good time before arrival at the bridge.
The bridge is normally closed but when manned it is open
to all traffic during the following periods:
Dates Days Canal open
1st May – 20th June
16th August – 30th
September
Monday to Friday 0945
1545
Weekends and
holidays
0945
1815
21st June – 15th August Every day 0945
1545
1815
3
Outside these hours the bridge will open for commercial
traffic after prior notice. Requests should be made by
telephoning 0490−25 70 50, 12 hours in advance.
4
Passage is regulated by light signals displayed from the
bridge as follows:
Stegeholmsbron − bridge signals (5.84)
5
Mooring to the bridge and anchoring in the channel is
prohibited. Speed must be kept to a minimum but sufficient
to maintain manoeuvrability.
Caution. A current of up to 5 kn may be experienced in
the opening just through the bridge spanning Stegeholms
kanal.
5.86
1
Lilla Strömsholmsbron, a fixed bridge for use by small
craft, with a vertical clearance of 2⋅2 m, spans Strömsholms
kanal about 150 m SW of Stegeholms kanal.
Directions
(continued from 5.74)
5.87
1
The track through Gamlebyviken, shown on the chart, is
authorised for vessels up to 75 m in length and 15 m
breadth. From Stegeholms kanal, the limits of which are
CHAPTER 5
191
marked by lights, the track trends generally NW for about
11 miles to Gamleby.
In narrow sections of the channel shoal patches are
marked by buoys (lateral).
Gamleby
General information
5.88
1
Description. Gamleby (57°54′N, 16°25′E) lies in the
NW part of Gamlebyviken, 2 miles S of its head and about
11 miles NW of Västervik. It is a small commercial
harbour situated at the mouth of Gamlebyån.
Principal exports are woodpulp, timber products and
grain. The main import is artificial fertilizer.
2
The population is about 1500.
Ice. In severe winters the harbour is obstructed by ice
from January to March.
Limiting conditions
5.89
1
The controlling draught in the channel to the quay is
5⋅0 m.
Harbour
5.90
1
Description and berths. Charted depths in the harbour
are about 8⋅0 m. The main quay lies on the N side of the
river mouth and is 150 m in length with depths alongside
of 4.0 to 5.5 m. In 1999 it was reported that this quay was
no longer in use for commercial traffic.
At the mouth of the river there is a further 60 m of
berthing space with depths of 4⋅5 to 5⋅0 m alongside,
mainly used for timber products.
Directions
5.91
1
Directions are those given for Gamlebyviken at 5.87.
Port services
5.92
1
Facilities: minor hull and engine repairs.
Supplies: fuel oil by road tanker; fresh water;
provisions.
VÄSTERVIK TO ARKÖ
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2361, 2362
Area covered
5.93
1
This section covers the waters of the E coast of Sweden
from a position E of Västervik (57°45′N, 16°39′E) to a
position ESE of Arkö (58°30′N, 16°58′E) (5.155), 40 miles
NNE. It includes a description of Valdemarsviken (5.125),
Slätbaken (5.150), which includes Söderköping, and other
channels, inlets and minor harbours along the coast. Also
included is a general description of the inshore channel
section from Västervik to Arkö.
VÄSTERVIK TO HÄRADSKÄR
General information
Charts 2848, 2361, Swedish Charts 623, 622 (see 1.34)
Route
5.94
1
From a position E of Västervik, in the vicinity of the
main approach channel entrance, the route leads NNE for
22 miles through open water to a position ESE of
Häradskär (58°09′N, 16°59′E) (5.129).
Topography
5.95
1
The coastline is heavily indented with several deep
inlets. It is fronted by numerous islets, rocks and shoals. In
general most of the coast and the islets are densely wooded
but with few prominent natural features.
Former mined areas
5.96
1
Caution. Two former mined areas, see 1.8, shown on
the chart, within which anchoring, fishing or underwater
operations are prohibited are positioned as follows:
(a) About 5 miles SE of Storkläppen, centred on
57°48′N, 16°59′E.
(b) About 5 miles SE of Häradskär, centred on
58°06′N, 17°06′E.
Principal marks
5.97
1
Landmarks:
Water tower in Västervik (57°45′⋅2N, 16°39′⋅0E).
Radio mast (red light) (elevation 137 m) (57°54′⋅6N,
16°44′⋅6E).
Vindåsen, a wooded hill (57°54′⋅8N, 16°47′⋅4E).
2
Häradskär Lighthouse (red tower, framework base,
29 m in height) (58°08′⋅8N, 16°59′⋅4E), displayed
from an islet.
Major light:
Häradskär Light — as above.
Other aid to navigation
5.98
1
Racon:
Kungsgrundet Lighthouse (57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅2E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for coastal passage
(continued from 5.19)
5.99
1
From a position E of Västerviks angöring Light-buoy
(57°44′⋅9N, 16°55′⋅3E) (5.66), the track leads 22 miles
NNE to a position ESE of Häradskär, passing (with
positions from Kungsgrundet Light (57°41′⋅1N, 16°54′⋅2E)):
CHAPTER 5
192
ESE of Storkläppen Lighthouse (grey and brown
tower), standing on an islet, (9miles N), thence:
ESE of Bredgrund (14 miles N), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
2
ESE of Blackarna (16miles N), thence:
ESE of Innergrund (18 miles N), thence:
ESE of Melstapeln (20miles N), thence:
ESE of Ljusgrund (27 miles N), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal).
(Directions continue at 5.136)
Directions for inshore passage
(continued from 5.28)
Västervik to Storkläppen
5.100
1
From a position close W of No 3 Light-buoy (57°44′⋅9N,
16°46′⋅9E) the track, authorised for a draught of 5⋅0 m,
shown on the chart, leads generally NNE and N for 6 miles
to a position E of Aleskär (57°50′⋅4N, 16°48′⋅7E), passing:
ESE of Äskeskär (57°46′⋅5N, 16°45′⋅5E), and:
E of Ekö (57°49′⋅4N, 16°47′⋅2E) where the track
trends N.
2
The following aids to navigation are situated along the
fairway in this section of the channel:
Finnkarten Light (white concrete tower, green base,
10 m in height) (57°46′⋅7N, 16°48′⋅2E), displayed
from a rock on the E side of the channel.
3
Sladö Ask Light (white concrete tower, red base, 9 m
in height) (57°47′⋅1N, 16°48′⋅2E), displayed from
an islet on the W side of the channel.
The white sector (020°–025°) of Finnkarten Light leads
into the white sector (012°–017°) of Sladö Ask Light, and
thence the white sector (198°–201°), astern, of Finnkarten
Light, leads clear through the buoyed shoal area in the
vicinity of these lights.
4
Aleskär Light (white tower, black base, 6 m in height)
(57°50′⋅5N, 16°48′⋅7E), displayed from an islet on
the W side of the channel.
(Directions continue at 5.102)
Inshore channel — Storkläppen entrance
5.101
1
Directions. Leading marks:
Storkläppen Lighthouse (57°50′⋅5N, 16°50′⋅8E),
(5.99).
Vindåsen (57°54′⋅8N, 16°47′⋅4E) (5.97).
2
From a position about 3 miles SSE of Storklappen
Lighthouse the alignment (334°) of the above marks leads
2 miles NNW, thence the track leads 1 mile NW, at night in
the white sector (278°–297°) of Aleskär Light (57°50′⋅5N,
16°48′⋅7E) (5.100), through a channel authorised for a
draught of 5⋅0m, to join the inshore channel 4 cables E of
Aleskär Light, passing (with positions from Aleskär Light):
3
ENE of Yttre Hasslögrund (3 miles SSE), thence:
ENE of Stora Bredgrund (2 miles SE), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
ENE of Inre Bredgrund (1miles SE), marked on its
N side by a buoy (N cardinal), thence:
4
NNE of Jertknallen (1 mile SE), and:
S of a 0⋅8 m shoal (1miles E), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), lying close S of Storklappen
Lighthouse, thence:
SSW of Storkläppen (1 mile E). A mast (white lattice
framework, wind blades, 12 m in height) stands
6 m SE of the lighthouse.
5
Alternative channel. An alternative channel, of no
authorised draught, shown on the chart, passes SW of
Bredgrund shoal area described above. From a position
about 4 cables NE of Yttre Hasslögrund, above, the track
leads 2miles NNW to join the main channel E of
Aleskär Light, passing W of the Bredgrund shoal area,
almost parallel to and SW of the main channel. On this
track at night the white sector (322°–328°), ahead, of
Aleskär Light leads clear SW of the shoals.
Storkläppen to Torrö Stickskär
(continued from 5.100)
5.102
1
This section of the inshore channel, authorised for a
draught of 5⋅0 m, is narrow and tortuous over most of its
length, passing between numerous shoals and islets.
From a position 4 cables E of Aleskär Light (57°50′⋅5N,
16°48′⋅7E) the track, shown on the chart, leads generally N
for about 10 miles to Torrö Stickskär (58°00′⋅4N,
16°48′⋅9E). It can be joined from seaward by an entrance
channel (5.104) N of Städsholmen, 1miles NNW of
Storkläppen.
2
The following aids to navigation are situated along the
first part of this section of the inshore channel. The white
sectors of all these lights lead through the stretches of
fairway in their vicinity:
Finnhällan Light (white tower, red band, 9 m in
height) (57°52′⋅1N, 16°48′⋅3E), displayed from an
islet on the E side of the channel.
3
Leading lights:
Hommelskär Front Light (lantern on white hut, green
band) (57°52′⋅9N, 16°48′⋅2E), from an islet on the
E side of the channel.
Torröudd Rear Light (lantern on white pedestal, red
band) (57°53′⋅1N, 16°48′⋅2E), displayed from the
SE side of an island 400 m N of front light.
The alignment (353°) of these lights leads through the
channel in the vicinity of Finnhällan Light.
5.103
1
The inshore channel continues N from close E of
Torröudd Light. The following aids to navigation are
situated along this section of the channel, and in addition
to the leading lights described, the white sectors of all
these lights lead through the stretches of fairway in their
vicinity:
2
Järnklint Light (white lantern) (57°53′⋅5N, 16°48′⋅5E),
displayed from a rock on the E side of the
channel.
Råsumskär Beacon (57°53′⋅6N, 16°48′⋅7E), standing
on an islet on the E side of the channel.
Caution. A submarine power cable crosses the channel
between Stora Grindö (57°54′N, 16°48′E) and a small islet
1 cable SW.
3
Grindö Light (white post on white pedestal, green
band) (57°54′⋅3N, 16°47′⋅6E), displayed from the
N end of Lilla Grindö.
Leading lights:
Alen Front Light (white lantern on white pedestal,
green band) (57°54′⋅4N, 16°48′⋅8E), displayed from
an islet on the N side of the channel.
4
Trädskär Rear Light (white lantern on white concrete
tower, black base, 6 m in height) (57°54′⋅4N,
16°49′⋅2E), displayed from an islet 550 m E of
front light.
The alignment (087°) of these lights leads E through the
channel E of Kårö peninsula and N of Fören Light (lantern
CHAPTER 5
193
on white pedestal) (57°54′⋅4N, 16°48′⋅5E), displayed from a
rock on the S side of the channel.
5
Prickhällan Light (white concrete tower, green band,
black base, 6 m in height) (57°56′⋅6N, 16°49′⋅1E),
displayed from a rock close E of the channel.
Leading lights:
Gråskärshäll Front Light (white lantern) (57°58′N,
16°49′E), displayed from a rock on the E side of
the channel.
6
Jungfruskär Rear Light (white square on white
pedestal, green band) (57°57′⋅5N, 16°49′⋅1E),
displayed from a rock 5 cables S of front light.
The alignment (178°), astern, leads N through the
channel between Ålgårdsudde and Olsklabb described
below.
7
Sundshäll Beacon, standing on the W side of the
channel cable NW of Jungfruskär Lighthouse.
Torskklabb Light (white lantern, red band)
(57°58′⋅3N, 16°48′⋅7E), displayed from a rock on
the W side of the channel.
Ålgårdsudde Light (lantern on white pedestal, red
band) (57°58′⋅7N, 16°49′⋅0E), displayed from an
islet on the W side of the channel.
8
Olsklabb Light (lantern on white pedestal, green
band) (57°59′⋅8N, 16°49′⋅0E), displayed from a
rock on the E side of the channel.
Torrö Stickskär Light (white concrete tower, green
band, black base, 6 m in height) (58°00′⋅4N,
16°48′⋅9E), displayed from an islet on the E side
of the channel.
Torrö Stickskär Beacon (white truncated cone,
coloured band, pointed roof) stands close NNE of
the lighthouse.
Beacon standing on the E side of Torrö, 2 cables
NNW of the lighthouse.
(Directions continue at 5.107)
Städsholmen north entrance
5.104
1
The entrance channel, authorised for a draught of 4⋅0 m,
leads N of Städsholmen (57°52′N, 16°49′E). Approach
from E with Torröudd Lighthouse (57°53′⋅1N, 16°48′⋅2E)
ahead bearing 289°. The track, shown on the chart, leads
2miles WNW through the fairway to join the inshore
channel close E of Torröudd Lighthouse, passing (with
positions from the lighthouse):
2
NNE of Tärnkullen (1miles SE), thence:
NNE of a 3⋅3 m shoal area (1 mile ESE), thence:
NNE of a 2⋅9 m patch (7 cables ESE), thence:
SSW of Stora Klanten (5 cables ESE), thence:
NE of Hommelskär (2 cables S).
Useful mark:
Pilot station (disused) (57°52′⋅0N, 16°49′⋅1E), on
Städsholmen.
Viskär entrance
5.105
1
Directions. Local knowledge is required. Approach from
E with Viskär (58°00′⋅5N, 16°50′⋅5E) ahead bearing about
276°. The track, shown on the national chart, leads
3miles W to join the inshore channel in Torrödjupet,
about 3 cables S of Torrö Stickskär Light, passing (with
positions from the light):
2
S of Skallen (3 miles E), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
N of Stapeln (2 miles E), thence:
S of Knutsgrund (2 miles E), thence:
N of Gaddarna (1 mile ESE), thence:
3
S of Viskär (8 cables E), thence:
SE of Jutskär (4 cables E), thence:
S of Håmskär (2 cables SSE).
The continuation of this track W leads through the
fairway to Skeppsgården.
Valdemarsvik entrance
5.106
1
Directions. Approach from seaward in the vicinity of
Skallen (5.105) with Barbena (58°04′N, 16°49′E), close off
the NE side of Kvädö, ahead bearing about 317°. The
track, shown on the chart and authorised for a draught of
5⋅0 m, leads 3miles NW through the fairway to join the
inshore channel 5 cables NW of Örskär Beacon (white
cairn, green band, 4 m in height) (58°02′⋅8N, 16°52′⋅7E),
standing on an islet on the E side of the fairway, passing
(with positions from the beacon):
2
NE of Skallen (2miles SSE), thence:
NE of Knutsgrund (2miles S), thence:
SW of Bengtsbåden (1 mile SSE), thence:
NE of Stora Knallen (1miles SSW), thence:
SW of Nisselklabb (4 cables SSE).
3
The continuation of this track NW leads into
Valdemarsviken passing between the buoys marking the
shoals E of Själhällan Beacon (58°03′⋅4N, 16°51′⋅3E)
(5.107).
Torrö Stickskär to Sandö
(continued from 5.103)
5.107
1
This section of the inshore channel, authorised for a
draught of 5⋅0 m, is mainly through fairly open water with
some narrow stretches in shoal areas. From a position close
W of Torrö Stickskär Light (5.103) the track, shown on the
chart, leads generally NNE for about 12 miles to Sandö,
initially through Kvädöfjärden, thence the shoals N, and
finally through Flisdjupet.
2
A minor alternative channel, shown on the national
chart, passes close W of Stora Källskär, an islet lying close
SE of Kvädö (58°04′N, 16°48′E), to rejoin the main
fairway 1 mile farther NNE.
The following aids to navigation are situated along the
fairway in this section of the channel, and in addition to
the leading lights described, the white sectors of all these
lights lead through the stretches of fairway in their vicinity:
3
Torrö Leading Lights:
Front light (white and red daymark on white hut)
(58°00′⋅8N, 16°48′⋅3E), displayed from an islet
close NE of Torrö.
Rear light (similar structure), displayed from the
island 500 m SW of front light.
The alignment (222°) of these lights, astern, leads
through Kvädöfjärden from a position 1 mile N of Torrö
Stickskär Light to a position NW of Örskär Beacon.
4
Själhällan Beacon (grey cairn) (58°03′⋅4N, 16°51′⋅3E),
standing on W side of the channel.
Ljusklabb Light (white lantern on white pedestal)
(58°05′⋅0N, 16°50′⋅5E), displayed from a rock on
W side of the channel.
Svartbådan Light (white tower, red band, black base,
7 m in height) (58°05′⋅5N, 16°51′⋅2E), displayed
from an islet on NW side of the channel.
5
Halsöklabb Light (white lantern) (58°07′⋅1N,
16°52′⋅5E), displayed from a rock on NW side of
the channel.
Hägerökarten Light (white tower, green band, on
black base, 10 m in height) (58°07′⋅6N, 16°54′⋅1E),
displayed from a rock on E side of the channel. A
CHAPTER 5
194
rock awash, marked by a buoy (S cardinal), lies
5 cables farther S.
6
Flatskär Beacon (white cairn, red band) (58°09′⋅5N,
16°51′⋅7E), standing on an islet 1miles W of the
channel.
Sandö Light (58°10′⋅3N, 16°55′⋅3E) (5.138).
5.108
1
An alternative inner channel, shown on the national
chart, for which local knowledge is essential, suitable only
for small craft, branches off from the main track close E of
Svartbådan Light (58°05′⋅5N, 16°51′⋅2E) (5.107). The
channel, marked at intervals by buoys (lateral), trends N for
6 miles to a position close W of Kättilö (58°12′N, 16°53′E)
where it divides, one branch rejoining the main inshore
channel, a second leading to Gryt (5.145) and a third
leading to Orren (5.147), passing, (with positions from
Svartbådan Light):
2
W of Björkskär (1 mile N), thence:
E of Stora Ålö (2 miles NW), thence:
Through Olsösundet (2 miles N) between Lilla
Olsön and Melön, thence:
W of Flatskär Beacon (4 miles N) (5.107), thence:
W of Skrakholmen (5 miles NNE), thence:
E of Flisö (5 miles N).
(Directions for inshore channel continue at 5.138)
Bokö entrance
5.109
1
Directions. From E, in a position about 3 miles SSE of
Häradskär Light (5.97), approach with Svartbådan
Lighthouse (58°05′⋅5N, 16°51′⋅2E) (5.107) ahead bearing
263°, in the white sector (261°–264°) of the light. The
track, shown on the chart, leads about 4 miles W through
the fairway to join the inshore channel 8 cables E of the
light, passing (with positions from the light):
2
S of Svartbåden shoal area (3 miles ENE), marked at
its SE limit by a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
N of Getryggen (2miles E), marked by a buoy (N
cardinal), thence:
N of Gubben (1miles E), marked by a buoy (N
cardinal), thence:
N of a 5⋅2 m shoal patch (8 cables E), marked by a
buoy (isolated danger).
Häradskär entrance
5.110
1
Directions. Leading marks:
Kättilö Beacon (58°11′⋅5N, 16°54′⋅0E).
Custom House (red roof), standing near the E point
of Kättilö, NNW of the beacon.
From a position about 5 miles S of Häradskär Light
(58°08′⋅8N, 16°59′⋅4E) (5.97), approach on the alignment
(336°) of the above leading marks seen midway between
Sandö (58°10′⋅3N, 16°55′⋅3E) and Barnsö, close W.
2
The track, shown on the chart and authorised for a
draught of 6⋅0 m, leads 7 miles NNW through the fairway,
marked by buoys (lateral), by night in the white sector
(336°–341°) of Sandö Light (5.138), passing (with
positions from Häradskär Light):
ENE of Getryggen (3miles SW) (5.109), thence:
3
ENE of a 5⋅8 m patch (3 miles SW), marked by a
buoy (S cardinal), thence:
ENE of Nygrund (2 miles SW), marked by a buoy (E
cardinal), thence:
WSW of Görviksgrund (1 mile SW), thence:
WSW of Kuggskärsgrunden (8 cables SW), marked
by a buoy (S cardinal), thence:
4
WSW of a shoal with rocks awash (1 mile W),
marked by a buoy (lateral) and surrounded by a
restricted area, thence:
ENE of a 5⋅6 m shoal (1miles W), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
WSW of a 1⋅8 m shoal (1miles WNW), thence:
ENE of Miagrund (2 miles NW).
5
Alternative channel. An alternative channel leads from
E with Hägerökarten Lighthouse (58°07′⋅6N, 16°54′⋅1E)
(5.107), ahead on a bearing of 260°, and by night in the
white sector (255°–264°), ahead, of the light, passing N of
Ljusgrund (5.99), thence S of Kuggskärsgrunden and close
N of Gorviksgrund to join the main channel 8 cables N of
Nygrund.
Anchorages in inshore channel
5.111
1
Anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the national
chart, in the following areas:
NE of Torrö (5.103), in a position 4 cables WNW of
Järnklint Lighthouse (57°53′⋅5N, 16°48′⋅5E)
(5.103), in charted depths of about 15 m.
2
In a position 2 cables N of Grindö Lighthouse
(57°54′⋅3N, 16°47′⋅6E) (5.103), in a depth of 10 m,
clay.
In Smedfjärden, a small bay on the NE side of Stora
Askö (57°59′N, 16°47′E), 4 cables SW of Olsklabb
Lighthouse (5.103), in depths of 10 to 22 m.
Harbours and approaches
Swedish Chart 623 (see 1.34)
Helgenäs
5.112
1
Description. Helgenäs (57°59′⋅8N, 16°29′⋅7E) is a small
harbour, suitable for a draught of 3⋅8 m, lying at the head
of Syrsan, a long well-protected bay 12 miles NNW of
Västervik (5.47), which is reached through Gudingen and
Bergholmsfjärden. Approach to Gudingen is through the
first part of the main Vastervik approach channel. Access to
Gudingen is also possible, for small craft, via Gränsö kanal
(5.78).
2
Grain, timber and woodpulp are exported. The
population is about 150.
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice during
February and March but is kept open by the use of
icebreakers.
Local knowledge is required.
5.113
1
Directions. Follow the directions given at 5.66 to a
position about 4 cables NW of Västerbådan Light
(57°44′⋅8N, 16°44′⋅5E) (5.63).
Thence the track, shown on the chart, leads 18 miles
NW, N and NW to Helgenäs through the fairway, marked
at intervals by buoys (lateral), initially through Gudingen,
then through Bergholmsfjärden before entering Syrsan
through Bjursund, a narrow passage with extensive shoals
through which is a channel, marked by buoys (lateral).
5.114
1
Bjursundsströmsbron, a fixed bridge with a vertical
clearance of 15 m and a navigable opening 22 m wide,
spans the channel at its narrowest part between
Strömsholmen (57°55′⋅2N, 16°35′⋅0E) and Bjursundsström,
CHAPTER 5
195
1 cable E. Passage under the bridge is restricted to vessels
of 300 grt or under with a maximum breadth of 12 m.
Speed is restricted to 5 kn through Bjursund.
2
Caution. Submarine power cables are laid across the
channel as shown on the national chart.
5.115
1
Anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the
national chart, about 2 cables SE of the harbour, in depths
of about 17 m, clay. Anchorage may also be obtained
1 cable E of the N entrance to Gränsö kanal.
Berths. Two jetties with a total of 117 m of berthing
space with depths alongside of 1 to 6⋅2 m.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel oil and provisions in small
quantities.
Loftahammar
5.116
1
Description. Loftahammar (57°54′⋅2N, 16°42′⋅0E) is a
small craft and yacht harbour, suitable for a draught up to
2⋅5 m situated at the N end of Vivassen, a bay with a very
narrow entrance which lies near the head of Rågödjup, a
long narrow inlet about 7 miles NE of Västervik.
2
The harbour consists of six pontoon jetties and a finger
pier, extending from the shore in various directions at the
N end of the bay, close N of the shoal area marked by a
buoy (S cardinal).
5.117
1
Directions. Rågödjup is entered from Knöldjupet
(57°49′⋅5N, 16°49′⋅0E), 1 miles SW of Storkläppen
Lighthouse (57°50′⋅5N, 16°50′⋅8E) (5.99). Directions for
Storklappen entrance are given at 5.101.
Thence, from a position S of the limit of the shoal
extending S from Aleskär, marked by a buoy (starboard
hand), the track, shown on the national chart, leads
5miles NW to the harbour, passing (with positions from
Storklappen Lighthouse):
2
SW of Jutskär (1miles WSW), thence:
WSW of a 3⋅2 m shoal (1miles WSW), marked by
a buoy (starboard hand), and:
NE of Kålmålsö (2miles WSW), thence:
SW of Örarna (1miles W), thence:
3
NE of a 1⋅0 m shoal (2miles WNW), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
NE of Flåtarna (4 miles NW), where a narrow buoyed
channel branches W and leads to Helgenäs (5.112),
thence:
4
NE of a shoal, rocks awash (4miles NW), marked
by a buoy (port hand), and noting a submarine
pipeline laid through the centre of the fairway in
this vicinity, thence:
Through Djupsundet (5 miles NW), the narrow
entrance channel to Vivassen, which has a depth of
about 2⋅9 m and is marked at its S end by buoys
(lateral), thence:
NW to the harbour.
5.118
1
Useful marks:
Loftahammar Church (57°54′⋅5N, 16°42′⋅0E).
Chimney (57°54′⋅1N, 16°41′⋅7E), standing at the head
of the harbour.
Windmill (57°54′⋅2N, 16°43′⋅0E), 6 cables E of the
harbour.
5.119
1
Berths. The six pontoon jetties provide numerous berths
with depths alongside of 1⋅5 to 2⋅5 m. A finger pier lies in
the NW corner of the harbour close to the pontoons.
Facilities: slip with a capacity of 6 tonnes; crane with
20 tonne capacity; hull and machinery repairs.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel oil; provisions
Källvik
5.120
1
Description. Källvik (57°53′⋅5N, 16°43′⋅0E) is a small
summer resort which lies at the head of Rågödjup, 1 mile
SE of Loftahammar (5.116).
Directions. As given for Loftahammar at 5.117 to a
position close SSE of Djupsundet thence NNE to the
harbour.
Berth. A jetty with a length of 20 m and depths
alongside of 2⋅4 to 3⋅0 m.
Flatvarp
5.121
1
Description. Flatvarp (57°59′⋅3N, 16°48′⋅6E), a fishing
harbour suitable for a draught up to 3⋅5 m, lies on the E
side of Stora Askö, at the S end of Smedfjärden, 6 miles
NE of Loftahammar (57°54′⋅2N, 16°42′⋅0E) (5.116).
5.122
1
Directions. The harbour is approached from a position
on the inshore route about 1cables S of Olsklabb Light
(57°59′⋅8N, 16°49′⋅0E) (5.103), thence 4 cables SW through
the anchorage in Smedfjärden (5.111) to the entrance
channel.
Flatvarp Leading Lights:
2
Front light (yellow triangle, red border, on post)
(57°59′⋅2N, 16°48′⋅5E), displayed from the harbour
when required by fishing vessels.
Rear light (similar structure), exhibited 110 m SSE of
front light.
3
The harbour is entered on the alignment (159°) of the
above lights through a dredged and buoyed (lateral)
channel, 15 m wide and with a depth of 3⋅5 m. This
alignment leads about 3 cables SSE to the harbour.
Anchorage. See 5.111.
Berths. A total of 135 m of berthing space with depths
of 2 to 5 m alongside. A dredged basin area lies N of the
quay.
Swedish Chart 622 (see 1.13)
Skeppsgården
5.123
1
Description. Skeppsgården (58°02′N, 16°40′E), a small
loading place, lies on the W side of Edsviken near the head
of Kaggebofjärden, a deep inlet W of Stora Askö (5.111).
The harbour is suitable for a draught of about 2⋅5 m
alongside and up to about 13 m at the anchorage.
A fixed bridge with a vertical clearance of 3 m spans
Edsviken at Skeppsgården.
2
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from
mid-December to mid-April.
Water level. Gales from N to E and persistent winds
from W and SW raise the water level. Gales from SW to
WNW and persistent winds from E and SE cause a fall in
level. The greatest variation from mean level is 1⋅0 m.
5.124
1
Directions. From seaward approach may be made
through Viskär entrance to Torrödjupet, or through
Valdemarsvik entrance (5.105) and thence S through the
inshore channel to Torrödjupet, about 3 cables SSW of
Torrö Stickskär Light (58°00′⋅4N, 16°48′⋅9E).
2
From Torrödjupet the track, shown on the chart, leads
generally W and N for 7 miles to the harbour passing
through a narrow section, 1 cable wide, on the NW side of
CHAPTER 5
196
Stora Askö, thence through Lindödjupet and finally through
Kaggebofjärden.
Anchorage may be obtained in mid-channel, off the
harbour, in depths of 5 to 13 m, clay.
Berth. A small jetty with a depth alongside of 2⋅5 m.
Valdemarsvik
5.125
1
Description. Valdemarsvik (58°12′N, 16°36′E) is a
small, former commercial, now fishing and small craft
harbour, situated at the head of Valdemarsviken, a long
narrow inlet about 7 miles SW of Häradskär Lighthouse
(58°08′⋅8N, 16°59′⋅2E). There is a least charted depth of
5⋅1 m in the fairway leading to the harbour and charted
depths in the harbour are about 4 m.
2
The town has a population of about 3300.
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from late
December to the middle of March.
Landmark:
Radio mast (red lights, elevation 75 m) (58°12′⋅0N,
16°36′⋅4E).
5.126
1
Directions. Approach to Valdemarsviken is made off the
inshore channel using directions for Valdemarsvik entrance
given at 5.106, or alternatively, Bokö entrance given at
5.109.
Thence from a position on the inshore channel 3 cables
NE of Själhällan Beacon (58°03′⋅4N, 16°51′⋅3E) (5.107), if
using Valdemarsvik entrance, or 1 mile NNW of the beacon
if entering via Bokö entrance, the track, shown on the
chart, leads about 11 miles NW through the fairway,
passing (with positions from Själhällan Beacon):
2
SW of a 1⋅5 m shoal (1miles NNW), marked by a
buoy (S cardinal), thence:
NE of Melskären (1miles NW), an area of foul
ground, thence:
NE of Själhällarna (2 miles NW), thence:
NE of Ormö (3 miles NW), thence:
3
NE of Granholmen (5 miles NW), thence:
Close S of Grytö (6miles NW), marked off its S
end by a buoy (starboard hand), thence:
Through Krogsmålaströmmen (7 miles NW), a
narrow channel marked on each side by buoys
(lateral), thence:
NW to the harbour.
Speed is restricted to 6 kn within 1 mile of the harbour.
5.127
1
Anchorage may be obtained about 1 mile SE of the
harbour in depths of 8 to 20 m, clay. Anchoring is
prohibited in the vicinity of a submarine power cable laid
across the fairway 1miles SE of the harbour and in the
vicinity of a submarine pipeline extending 1miles SE
through the fairway from the harbour.
5.128
1
Berths. At the NE end of the harbour there is a total of
200 m of berthing space, known as Ångbåtskajen, with a
depth of about 3⋅5 m alongside. Close SW, three floating
pontoon jetties extend from the shore, providing numerous
berths for yachts and pleasure craft, with depths of 1⋅2 to
3⋅0 m.
2
In the SW part of the harbour there is about 180 m of
berthing space for fishing boats with a depth of about
3⋅0 m alongside.
Facilities. Boatyard with crane, 1 km distant. All normal
domestic facilities available.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Häradskär
5.129
1
General information. A former pilot harbour lies on the
W side of Häradskär (58°09′N, 16°59′E). Two pairs of
leading lights, sharing a common front light, displayed
when required, lead into the harbour.
HÄRADSKÄR TO ARKÖ
General information
Charts 2361, 3217, Swedish Charts 622, 621 (see 1.34)
Routes
5.130
1
Coastal route. From a position ESE of Häradskär
(58°09′N, 16°59′E) the route leads NNE for 18 miles
through open water to a position ESE of Arkö (58°30′N,
16°58′E), an island 20 miles N of Häradskär.
Inshore route. The inshore route leads through the
islands and rocky areas of the archipelago from Sandö
(58°10′N, 16°55′E), to a position S of Arkö (58°30′N,
16°58′E), 19 miles N.
Topography
5.131
1
The mainland, which is generally low and featureless, is
indented by several inlets including Slätbacken which
extends about 15 miles inland leading to Söderköping.
An extensive shoal area lies off the coast, extending up
to 12 miles offshore, containing innumerable islands, islets,
rocks and shoals.
Caution. A large part of the above area, indicated on
the chart, has not been fully surveyed and should be
avoided.
Former mined area
5.132
1
A former mined area, shown on the chart, within which
anchoring, fishing or underwater operations are prohibited,
is centred on a position 6 miles NE of Sandsänkan
Lighthouse (58°18′⋅7N, 17°10′⋅0E). See also 1.8.
Rescue
5.133
1
The Swedish Sea Rescue Association has fully equipped
rescue craft stationed at Fyrudden (58°11′⋅5N, 16°51′⋅2E)
(5.142). The customs coast watch liaison centre is also
located at Fyrudden. See 1.156 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5 for further details.
Local magnetic anomaly
5.134
1
An area of local magnetic anomaly, with differences of
up to 6° from the normal, is reported to exist about
17 miles E of Norra Fällbådan Lighthouse (58°26′⋅5N,
17°06′⋅3E).
Principal marks
5.135
1
Landmarks:
Häradskär Lighthouse (58°08′⋅8N, 16°59′⋅2E) (5.97).
Sandsänkan Lighthouse (black tower with white
lantern, grey conical base, 15 m in height, wind
generator) (58°18′⋅7N, 17°10′⋅0E), standing on a
rock.
2
Norra Fällbådan Lighthouse (black concrete tower,
white top, yellow band, grey base, 17 m in height)
(58°26′⋅5N, 17°06′⋅3E), standing on a rock 5 miles
ESE of Arkö.
CHAPTER 5
197
Major light:
Häradskär Light (58°08′⋅8N, 16°59′⋅2E) (5.97).
Directions for coastal passage
(continued from 5.99)
5.136
1
From a position ESE of Häradskär the track leads
18 miles NNE to a position ESE of Arkö, passing (with
positions from Sandsänkan Lighthouse (58°18′⋅7N,
17°10′⋅0E)):
ESE of a 10 m shoal (5 miles S), marked by a buoy
(E cardinal), thence:
ESE of Vikasgrunden (3 miles S), an extensive shoal,
thence:
2
ESE of Sänkbåden (1miles SSE), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
ESE of Sandsänkan Lighthouse, thence:
ESE of Juliabåden (1miles NNE), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
To a position ESE of Norra Fällbådan Light (8 miles
NNW).
5.137
1
Useful marks:
Gubbö Kupa Beacon (cairn, 4 m in height)
(58°11′⋅6N, 16°57′⋅4E), standing on an islet 3 miles
NNW of Häradskär Lighthouse (58°08′⋅8N,
16°59′⋅2E) (5.97).
Harstena (58°15′⋅5N, 17°00′⋅7E), a flat, wooded
island with a group of red buildings near its S end.
2
Stora Tallskär (58°20′⋅5N, 17°01′⋅0E), a dark, wooded
island higher than the surrounding islets, lying
5 miles WNW of Sandsänkan Lighthouse
(58°18′⋅7N, 17°10′⋅0E).
(Directions continue for Arkö entrance at 5.157,
and for the coastal passage at 5.173)
Directions for inshore passage
(continued from 5.108)
Sandö to Arkö
5.138
1
This section of the inshore channel, authorised for a
draught of 5⋅0 m, is narrow and tortuous over most of its
length. From a position close SW of Sandö Light (white
concrete tower, green band, on black base, 7 m in height,
floodlit) (58°10′⋅3N, 16°55′⋅3E), displayed from the SW
side of the islet, the track, shown on the chart, leads
generally N for about 20 miles to a position W of
Kopparholmen (58°28′⋅3N, 16°57′⋅7E), S of Arkö.
5.139
1
Sandö to Snuggholmen. The following aids to
navigation are situated along the fairway in this section of
the channel and, in addition to the leading lights described,
the white sectors of all these lights lead through the
stretches of fairway in their vicinity:
2
Kättilö Light (white hut, red band, floodlit)
(58°11′⋅7N, 16°53′⋅9E), displayed from the E side
of the island on the W side of the channel, close
W of Fångö.
Kvarnholmen Light (white hut, red band) (58°12′⋅5N,
16°53′⋅7E), displayed from a rock on the W side
of the channel.
3
Espskärsgrund Light (white lantern, green stripe,
black base on grey foundation) (58°14′⋅0N,
16°54′⋅0E), displayed from a rock on the E side of
the channel.
Stora Bockholm Leading Lights:
Front light (white and red daymark on white hut)
(58°14′⋅6N, 16°53′⋅5E), displayed from a rock
close off the NE side of the island of that name.
4
Rear light (similar structure), 500 m SSW of front
light.
The alignment (207°), astern, of these lights leads
2 miles through a narrow passage between Håskö
(58°15′⋅5N, 16°55′⋅0E) on the E side, and Väggö close W.
Beacon (58°14′⋅6N, 16°53′⋅9E), standing on the W
side of the channel, 2 cables E of the front leading
light described above.
5
Bergholmen Light (lantern on white pedestal, 3 m in
height) (58°15′⋅6N, 16°54′⋅1E), displayed from a
rock close off the SE side of Väggö.
Snuggholmen Light (white hut, red band) (58°17′⋅3N,
16°56′⋅1E), displayed from the E side of
Snuggholmen, an islet on the W side of the
fairway at the SE end of Finnfjärden (5.161).
6
A branch channel leads NW and NNW from the W side
of Snuggholmen, forming the S approach to Slätbaken. A
branch channel leads to Frugelöt from the NW end of
Finnfjärden.
5.140
1
Snuggholmen to Arkö. The following aids to navigation
are situated along the fairway in this section of the channel
and, in addition to the leading lights described, the white
sectors of all these lights lead through the stretches of
fairway in their vicinity:
Andskär Beacon (white post, black rectangular
topmark) (58°18′⋅3N, 16°57′⋅5E), standing on the
W side of the channel.
2
Enskär Light (white hut, red band) (58°18′⋅8N,
16°58′⋅2E), displayed from a rock on the E side of
the channel.
Fågelön Light (white hut, green band) (58°19′⋅5N,
16°58′⋅7E), displayed from the W side of an island
on the E side of the channel.
3
Kupa Klint Beacon (grey cairn) (58°19′⋅2N,
16°59′⋅9E), standing on an islet 7 cables ESE of
Fågelön.
Ådkobb Light (lantern on white pedestal) (58°20′⋅6N,
16°59′⋅0E), displayed from a rock on the E side of
the channel.
Stora Högholmen Leading Lights:
4
Front light (white and red daymark on white tower)
(58°21′⋅1N, 16°59′⋅1E), displayed from an islet on
the E side of the channel.
Rear light (white and red daymark on white hut),
115 m N of front light.
The alignment (006°) of these lights leads through a
narrow passage W of Ådkobb Lighthouse.
Lammskär Leading Lights:
5
Front light (red square, white stripe, on white
structure) (58°23′⋅9N, 16°57′⋅1E), displayed from a
rock on the E side of the fairway.
Rear light (similar structure, 6 m in height, floodlit),
7 cables NNW of front light.
The alignment (338°) of these lights leads about
2 miles through Hafjärden, a stretch of relatively open
water 1 mile N of Ådkobb Light.
6
Horvelsö Light (white lantern, red band, floodlit)
(58°24′⋅1N, 16°56′⋅5E), displayed from the E side
of Horvelsö, an island on the W side of the
channel.
CHAPTER 5
198
Beacon (orange) on Snäppan (58°23′⋅9N, 16°55′⋅5E).
Radio mast (red light) (58°25′⋅3N, 16°57′⋅4E),
standing on the W side of Aspöja.
7
Jungfrusalen Light (lantern on white hut, red band,
4 m in height) (58°26′⋅6N, 16°56′⋅7E), displayed
from a rock on the W side of the fairway.
Leading lights:
Front light, Kopparholmen W point (lantern on white
hut, green band, floodlit) (58°28′⋅3N, 16°57′⋅7E),
displayed from Kopparholmen at the S end of
Arkösund,
8
Rear light, Kuggviksskär Light (white tower, 12 m in
height), 6 cables NNE of front light, displayed
from Kuggviksskär, an islet close S of Arkö.
The alignment (016°) of these lights leads about
1miles through the N part of Aspöfjärden to a position
close W of Kopparholmen.
(Directions for the inshore passage continue at 5.192)
Anchorages in inshore channel
5.141
1
Anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the national
chart, in the following areas:
In Barösund, about 6 cables NNW of Sandö
Lighthouse (58°10′⋅3N, 16°55′⋅3E), in depths of
6⋅6 to 14 m, sand and gravel.
In a position 5 cables N of Fågelön Lighthouse
(58°19′⋅5N, 16°58′⋅7E), on the W side of the
channel, in depths of 12 to 20 m, clay.
2
In a position 3 cables N of Ådkobb Lighthouse
(58°20′⋅6N, 16°59′⋅0E), on the E side of the
channel.
In a position 4 cables NNW of Horvelsö Lighthouse
(58°24′⋅1N, 16°56′⋅5E) in a depth of about 18 m,
clay.
Harbours
Chart 2361, Swedish Chart 622 (see 1.34)
Fyrudden
5.142
1
Description. Fyrudden (58°11′⋅5N, 16°51′⋅2E) is a
fishing and pleasure craft harbour situated on the mainland
about 5 miles WNW of Häradskär (58°09′N, 16°59′E). The
harbour, which is suitable for a draught up to 3⋅6 m, is
formed by a breakwater and a pier protected by a detached
breakwater.
5.143
1
Directions. From a position on the inner channel (5.108)
close NW of Skrakholmen (58°10′⋅5N, 16°52′⋅7E) (5.108)
the track leads 1 mile NW to the harbour, passing (with
positions from Kättilö Light (58°11′⋅7N, 16°53′⋅9E)
(5.139)):
E of a rock awash (1miles SSW), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
2
SW of Flötskär (1 mile SW), marked by a buoy (W
cardinal), and:
NE of Grisselholmen (1miles SW), thence:
To the harbour entrance.
Approach may also be made from the inshore channel to
the N.
5.144
1
Berths. There is a total of 260 m of berthing space with
depths alongside of 2⋅7 to 4⋅0 m. On the inside of the
breakwater there is a total of 60 m of berthing space with
depths alongside of 2 to 3⋅6 m for the use of yachts. The
W side of the pier on the W side of the harbour is reserved
for the rescue and coast watch craft.
Rescue. Fully equipped rescue and coast watch craft.
Customs coast watch liaison centre.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Gryt
5.145
1
Description. Gryt (58°11′⋅7N, 16°48′⋅5E), a small
loading place, suitable for a draught of 4 m, lies at the
head of Årsviken, 1 mile WNW of Fyrudden (5.142).
Ice. the harbour is usually obstructed by ice from early
January to early April.
5.146
1
Directions. Follow the directions given for Fyrudden at
5.143 to a position NE of Flötskär (58°11′⋅1N, 16°52′⋅2E)
(5.143). Thence the track, shown on the national chart,
leads about 1miles NW and 1 mile SW to the harbour,
passing (with positions from Kättilö Beacon (58°11′⋅5N,
16°54′⋅0E)):
NE of Hästgrund (1 mile W), marked by a buoy (port
hand), thence:
2
NNE of Själviksskären (2 miles WNW), thence:
S of Fågelö (2 miles NW), thence:
SW through Årsviken to the harbour.
Useful mark:
Radio mast (red light) (58°11′⋅6N, 16°48′⋅5E),
standing near the head of the inlet.
Berths. A quay with a depth alongside of 1⋅1 m.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Fredriksnäs
5.147
1
Description. Fredriksnäs (58°14′⋅2N, 16°45′⋅0E) is a
small, well-sheltered harbour at the S end of Sågviken, an
enclosed bay with a narrow entrance on the S shore of
Orren, about 6 miles NE of Valdemarsvik (5.125). Its
principal function is export of sawn timber.
2
The harbour, suitable for a draught of 3⋅7 m. is
approached through a channel branching off the inshore
channel 2miles NNW of Sandö (58°10′⋅3N, 16°55′⋅3E),
or from the S through a continuation of the alternative
inner channel described at 5.108.
Local knowledge is required.
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from early
January to early April.
5.148
1
Directions. From a position in the inshore channel
4 cables N of Kvarnholmen Lighthouse (58°12′⋅5N,
16°53′⋅7E) (5.139) the track, shown on the chart, leads NW
for 5 miles then S for 1 mile to the harbour, passing (with
positions from Kvarnholmen Lighthouse):
NE of Höga Svedsholmen (1 mile NW), thence:
2
NE of a 1⋅9 m shoal (2 miles NW), close off Hässelö,
thence:
NE of Stora Gåsön (3 miles NW), thence:
N of Karholmen (5 miles NW), thence:
S through Sågviken to the harbour, noting a 2⋅7 m
shoal on the W side of the channel 4 cables SW of
Karholmen.
5.149
1
Anchorage may be obtained 3 cables NNE of the jetty
in depths of 8 to 14 m, mud and clay.
CHAPTER 5
199
Berth. A jetty with a length of 50 m and a depth
alongside of 4⋅2 m.
Supplies. Fresh water.
SLÄTBAKEN AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 3217, 2361, Swedish Chart 621 (see 1.34)
Description
5.150
1
Slätbaken (58°27′N, 16°35′E) is a long inlet, extending
about 27 miles inland from the open sea, lying on the S
side of Vikbolandet, a large peninsula between Slätbaken
and Bråviken, 11 miles N. The harbours of Söderköping
and Mem lie near the head of the inlet.
2
It is approached from E through a channel on the
alignment of leading lights and entered, W of Arkö,
through channels marked by lights and buoys. An
alternative approach from the S branches off the inshore
channel at Snuggholmen (58°17′N, 16°56′E) (5.139).
Topography
5.151
1
The peninsula of Vikbolandet is high and wooded,
particularly in the S part.
Draughts
5.152
1
The channel from sea to Arkö is authorised for a
draught of 5⋅0 m and from Arkö to Mem is authorised for
a draught of 3⋅0 m.
Pilotage
5.153
1
Pilots are available from Västervik or Oxelösund and
ordered from VTS Oxelösund. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Local magnetic anomaly
5.154
1
Local magnetic anomaly is reported in Slätbaken.
Principal marks
5.155
1
Landmarks:
Lönshuvud (58°26′⋅9N, 16°51′⋅0E), a steep, rocky
headland, 4miles SW of Arkö, and visible from
a considerable distance to seaward.
Marviken Power Station Chimney (58°33′⋅2N,
16°50′⋅1E) (5.181).
2
Arkö Beacon (red tower, pointed red roof, lower part
facing seaward white, elevation 35 m) (58°29′⋅5N,
16°59′⋅5E), standing on the SE side of Arkö.
Caution. The beacon is difficult to identify in bright
afternoon sunlight with the sun in the W.
3
Viskär Tower (white octagonal tower with red
dwelling, 11 m in height) (former lighthouse)
(58°29′⋅3N, 16°59′⋅6E), standing on the N side of
Viskär, 400 m SSE of Arkö Beacon. It is visible
well to seaward and should not be confused with
surrounding beacons or lighthouses.
4
Svarta Utterklabben Beacon (grey triangular tower,
12⋅5 m in height) (58°29′⋅0N, 17°01′⋅9E), standing
on a rock 1miles ESE of Arkö Beacon.
Norra Fällbådan Lighthouse (58°26′⋅5N, 17°06′⋅3E)
(5.135).
Major lights:
Arkö Rear Leading Light. Kälebo (58°28′⋅8N,
16°56′⋅7E) (5.157).
Gustaf Dalén Light (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E) (5.171).
Other aid to navigation
5.156
1
Racon:
Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E)
(5.171).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 5.137)
Approach to Slätbaken — Arkö entrance
5.157
1
Arkö Leading Lights:
Front light. Östra Kopparholmen (white lantern, red
rectangle, white stripe, floodlit) (58°28′⋅4N,
16°58′⋅2E), displayed from N end of Östra
Kopparholmen.
Rear light. Kälebo (similar structure), 9 cables WNW
of front light, displayed from the mainland.
2
From a position about 5 miles ESE of Norra Fällbådan
Light the alignment (292°) of these lights leads 10 miles
WNW through the fairway, marked by buoys (lateral), to a
position S of Arkö, passing (with positions from Norra
Fällbådan Lighthouse (58°26′⋅5N, 17°06′⋅3E)):
SSW of Prejaren (6miles NE), thence:
3
NNE of Klacksten (4miles SSE), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
SSW of Arköbådan (4 miles NE), marked by a buoy
(S cardinal), thence:
NNE of Norra Fällbådan Light, thence:
SSW of Galtbrottet (2miles WNW), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), thence:
4
SSW of shoal water, marked by a buoy (starboard
hand), which extends S from Södra Skäret
(3miles WNW), an islet, thence:
To a position S of Arkö heading slightly N of the
alignment to pass clear of Kopparholmen.
Leading marks. The alignment (313°) of the following
marks leads from SE towards Norra Fällbådan Light
offering an alternative approach which clears the shoals to
the SW:
5
Svarta Utterklabben Beacon (58°29′⋅1N, 17°01′⋅9E)
(5.155), and:
Centre of Lundasund (5.199) (1miles farther NW),
the passage between Arkö and Södra Lunda.
Useful marks
5.158
1
Marö Kupa Beacon (grey cairn) (58°26′⋅0N,
16°59′⋅4E), standing on a high, bare hill at the S
end of Lånjö.
CHAPTER 5
200
Månggrenarna Beacon (white and grey cairn)
(58°24′⋅1N, 17°00′⋅8E), standing on a rock
3miles SW of Norra Fällbådan Lighthouse.
(Directions for S approach to
Norrköping continue at 5.192)
Entry to Slätbaken — Arkö to Mem
5.159
1
From the position S of Arkö the track, shown on the
chart, leads generally WSW for 9 miles and WNW for
10 miles to Mem through the fairway, marked at intervals
by buoys (lateral). There are two very narrow passages,
Ettersundet, and Stegeborg at the entrance to Slätbaken, for
which use of the Swedish chart, which has large scale inset
plans for these passages, is recommended.
2
The following lights and other aids to navigation are
situated along the fairway from Arkö to Mem:
Lönshuvud Light (white hut, green band, black base)
(58°26′⋅7N, 16°51′⋅0E), displayed from the SE
point of the headland (5.155).
The white sectors (232°–235°) and (066°–068°),
ahead and astern respectively, lead through
Lönshuvudfjärden.
3
Björkskär Light (white hut, red band, black base)
(58°25′⋅5N, 16°47′⋅6E), displayed from an islet on
the SE side of the channel.
Fårholmen Light (white lantern on white hut, green
band) (58°25′⋅2N, 16°45′⋅3E), displayed from the S
point of the islet on the N side of the channel.
4
The white sectors of these two lights lead through the
passage between Lilla Rimmö (58°26′N, 16°47′E) and
Västra Gärdsholm, 2miles SW, where the S approach
joins the main channel.
5.160
1
Ettersundet, which has a least charted depth of 3⋅2 m, is
marked by:
Ettersundet Östra Light (white lantern, red band, on
dolphin) (58°26′⋅0N, 16°40′⋅3E), displayed from
the NE point of Eknön at the E end of the
channel.
Ettersundet Västra Light (white lantern, green band,
on dolphin), displayed from a rock on the N side
of the channel, 2 cables WNW.
2
The channel through Stegeborg, N of Stegeborgs Ruin,
standing on an islet on the S side of the passage
(58°26′⋅5N, 16°36′⋅0E), is marked on each side by a
dolphin, green on the N side and red on the S side, both of
which are illuminated. A ferry crosses the channel close E
of the dolphins.
3
Hackerstad Light (white lantern, green band)
(58°28′⋅2N, 16°31′⋅4E), displayed from a headland.
Lundbynäs Light (lantern on white pedestal, green
band) (58°28′⋅6N, 16°27′⋅7E), displayed from a
headland 1 mile E of Mem.
The white sectors of these two lights partially assist in
leading through the channel in their vicinity.
4
Mem Tower (former lighthouse), (elevation 4 m,
floodlit) (58°28′⋅8N, 16°25′⋅2E), standing at the N
entrance to the Göta Kanal. (see Baltic Pilot
Volume I for Göta Kanal).
Söderköping Light (metal framework tower, 7 m in
height) (58°28′⋅5N, 16°24′⋅9E), displayed close S
of the mouth of Söderköping Å which runs parallel
and S of the Göta Kanal.
5
Useful mark:
Capella Ecumenica, a replica ancient chapel, standing
on the N point of Västra Gärdsholm (58°24′⋅8N,
16°43′⋅3E).
Chart 2361, Swedish Chart 622 (see 1.34)
Approach to Slätbaken from south
5.161
1
From a position on the inshore channel W of
Snuggholmen (58°17′⋅3N, 16°56′⋅1E) (5.139), the track,
with shoals close to it marked by buoys (lateral), shown on
the national chart, leads 10 miles generally NW and NNW
to a position N of Västra Gärdsholm (58°24′⋅8N,
16°43′⋅3E) where it joins the main channel, passing initially
NW through Finnfjärden to a position N of Korsholmen
(58°19′N, 16°50′E) at the NW end of Finnfjärden where a
channel branches W to Frugelöt (5.162).
2
The fairway then leads NNW through Korsfjärden, on
the SW side of Norra Finnö, to pass through
Lagnöströmmen (58°22′⋅0N, 16°47′⋅5E), a narrow passage
with a draught restriction of 2⋅6 m and a least charted
depth of 3⋅2 m lying between Yxnö on the E and Torön on
the W. A fixed bridge, with a vertical clearance of 15 m
over a navigable width of 35 m, spans the channel at the E
point of Torön. From the N end of Lagnöströmmen the
fairway leads E of Trännö to join the main channel N of
Västra Gärdsholm.
Harbours
Frugelöt
5.162
1
Description. Frugelöt (58°21′N, 16°38′E) is a small
harbour situated near the head of Gropviken, an extension
of Lindesfjärden, an inlet leading W from Finnfjärden,
13 miles SW of Arkö. Its principal function is the export of
timber.
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from late
December to early April.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in a well-sheltered area
1 cable ESE of the jetty, in depths of 10 to 13 m, clay.
Local knowledge is required.
Berth. A jetty with a depth of 3 m at its head.
Swedish Chart 621 (see 1.34)
Mem
5.163
1
Description. Mem (58°29′N, 16°25′E) is a small
pleasure craft harbour situated at the E end of the Göta
Kanal at the head of Slätbaken. It consists of outer and
inner harbours separated by a lock at the end of the canal,
the outer harbour being below the lock.
Water level in the outer harbour may vary between
0⋅6 m above to 0⋅3 m below mean level.
2
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from the
middle of December to the end of March.
Directions are given at 5.159.
Anchorage may be obtained off Killingholm, an islet
4 cables E of the harbour, in depths of 6 to 12 m, clay.
Berths. The outer harbour, which is suitable for draughts
up to 2⋅8 m, has a quay with a length of 125 m and depths
of 3 to 3⋅5 m alongside. The inner harbour, above the lock,
has a quay with a length of 200 m and depths of 2⋅6 to
3 m alongside.
CHAPTER 5
201
3
There are two piers on Killingholm with a total length
of 100 m and depths alongside of 4 to 4⋅4 m.
Facilities. Customs station.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Nearest airport at Linköping, 8 km S.
Söderköping
5.164
1
Description. Söderköping (58°29′N, 16°20′E), with a
population of about 6000, lies on the S side of the Göta
Kanal 3 miles W of the entrance at Mem. It has a small
craft and yacht harbour fronting the town on the canal side
and a further yacht harbour on the riverside.
Ice. The harbour is usually obstructed by ice from the
middle of December to the middle of April.
2
Directions. For Göta Kanal see Baltic Pilot Volume I.
Berths. The quay fronting the town has a length of
90 m and a depth alongside of about 3⋅5 m.
At Klevbrinken, 7 cables above the lock at Söderköping
on the N bank, there is a basin with a general depth of
2⋅9 m containing a quay with a length of 75 m.
3
Facilities. Hull and machinery repairs. Small drydock
suitable for vessel 32 m in length, 7 m breadth and
maximum 300 dwt.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. As for Mem (5.163).
ARKÖ TO LANDSORT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2362
Area covered
5.165
1
This section covers the waters of the E coast of Sweden
from a position ESE of Arkö (58°30′N, 16°58′E) to a
position S of Landsort (58°44′N, 17°52′E), 25 miles NNE.
It includes a description of the major ports of Norrköping
(5.216), Oxelösund (5.245) and Nyköping (5.280) with their
respective approaches.
2
Also included is a general description of the inshore
channel from Arkö to Landsort, where it leads outside the
main channels, and Bråviken, together with minor harbours
and other channels within the area.
Topography
5.166
1
The mainland has few distinctive natural features and is
heavily indented in places, the longest being Bråviken
which extends about 35 miles inland and lies on the N side
of Vikbolandet. Extensive shoal areas extend up to about
11 miles off the coastline containing innumerable islands,
rocks and shoals.
Caution. Certain areas, indicated on the chart, have not
been fully surveyed and should be avoided.
Pilotage
5.167
1
Pilotage is controlled by Oxelösund Pilot Station for the
major ports within this section, and is compulsory for most
categories of vessel. Pilots are ordered from VTS
Oxelösund. For Landsort, pilotage is controlled by
Mälaren/Landsort Pilot Station and pilots are ordered from
VTS Södertälje. See 5.5 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2) for full details.
Vessel Traffic Services
5.168
1
Oxelösund and Mälaren/Landsort Reporting and
Information Systems are established and in force within
the area covered by this section of the chapter. Their limits
are indicated on the large scale charts. Traffic Information
Centres are located at Oxelösund Pilot Station and
Södertälje Pilot Station respectively.
2
The systems are mandatory for all vessels. In each
system the traffic restrictions apply to all vessels. All other
procedures apply to the following vessels:
1.Vessels over 300 grt.
2.Vessels over 50 m in length.
3.Towing vessels where the length, including the
tow, is greater than 50 m.
3
Details of limits, reporting points, restrictions and other
regulations are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Local magnetic anomalies
5.169
1
Local magnetic anomalies, with differences from
normal as stated, and which are shown on the chart, are
reported to exist in the following areas (with positions from
Hävringe Beacon (58°36′⋅2N, 17°19′⋅0E)):
Up to 20° (3miles SSE).
Up to 60° (4miles SSE).
2
Up to 10° (5miles SE).
Up to 5° (6 miles SE).
Up to 22° (6miles ENE).
Other areas of magnetic anomaly:
Gupafjärden, 1 mile W of Trätbådan (58°46′⋅8N,
17°33′⋅9E).
3
Yttre Hållsfjärden, close N of Persö (58°47′⋅4N,
17°36′⋅1E).
In addition, anomalies have frequently been experienced
in Bråviken.
COASTAL PASSAGE
General information
Charts 2362, 3147
Route
5.170
1
From a position ESE of Arkö (58°30′N, 16°58′E) the
route leads NNE to a position S of Landsort (58°44′N,
17°52′E), 25 miles NNE.
Principal marks
5.171
1
Landmarks:
Oxelösund Water Tower (58°40′⋅2N, 17°07′⋅3E).
Järnverk Chimneys (58°40′⋅5N, 17°08′⋅2E), at
Oxelösund.
Hävringe Beacon (red hexagon, white band to
seaward, 19 m in height) (58°36′⋅2N, 17°19′⋅0E),
standing on the W side of Hävringe, a bare islet at
the entrance to Bråviken surrounded by rocks and
shoals.
2
Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (black round concrete tower,
red top, grey base, 26 m in height, floodlit)
(58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E), standing on a rock.
Radio mast (red light) (58°46′⋅4N, 17°23′⋅0E),
standing in the N part of Studsvik.
CHAPTER 5
202
3
Landsort Lighthouse (white tower, red top, 25 m in
height) (58°44′⋅4N, 17°52′⋅0E), standing on the S
point of Öja.
Radio mast (elevation 137 m, red obstruction lights)
(58°49′⋅2N, 17°50′⋅7E), standing on Torö (7.48).
Major lights:
4
Gustaf Dalén Light — as above.
Landsort Light — as above.
Landsorts Bredgrund Light (orange tower, floodlit)
(58°43′⋅9N, 17°52′⋅5E), displayed from a rock
4 cables S of Stångskär, a small islet close off the
S end of Öja.
Other aids to navigation
5.172
1
Racons:
Norra Kränkan Lighthouse (58°37′⋅0N, 17°23′⋅4E)
(5.184).
Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E).
Landsorts Bredgrund Lighthouse (58°43′⋅9N,
17°52′⋅5E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for coastal passage
(continued from 5.137)
5.173
1
From a position ESE of Norra Fällbådan Light
(58°26′⋅5N, 17°06′⋅3E) (5.135) the track leads NE for
23 miles to the vicinity of Landsorts Angöring Light-buoy
(E cardinal) (58°40′⋅5N, 17°52′⋅0E), moored on the W side
of the Landsort approach fairway, 8 cables E of Taget and
about 2 miles S of the inner pilot boarding position,
indicated on the chart, passing (with positions from Gustaf
Dalén Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E)):
2
SE of Prejaren (9 miles SSW), and the 10 m shoal
1 mile SSE, thence:
SE of Ursulas grund (5miles SW), marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), thence:
SE of Gustaf Dalén Light, thence:
SE of Ranten (4miles NE), thence:
3
SE of Gäddan (5 miles NE), and:
SE of a 9 m shoal (6 miles NE), marked by a buoy
(S cardinal), and:
Passing clear of any vessels using the large vessel
anchorage centred 9 miles E, and indicated on the
chart, thence:
4
SE of Långgrund (7 miles NE), thence:
SE of Östra Rågmoreknösar (9 miles NE), thence:
SE of Österknösarna (10 miles NE), thence:
To a position SE of Landsorts Angöring Light-buoy.
(Directions continue at 7.26)
(Directions for
Södertälje Kanal and Mälaren continue at 6.17)
Anchorage
5.174
1
A deep-water anchorage for large vessels, shown on the
chart, is established centred on a position 9 miles SSW of
Landsort Lighthouse (58°44′⋅4N, 17°52′⋅0E).
APPROACH AND ENTRY CHANNELS TO
NORRKÖPING AND OXELÖSUND
General information
Charts 3218, 3217, 2362
Description
5.175
1
This section describes the main and secondary approach
channels to Bråviken, the long narrow inlet which leads to
Norrköping, including the short coastal approach from S,
the inshore route from Arkösund, and the channels through
Bråviken to the harbour area.
2
The main approach to Oxelösund, situated at the outer
end of Bråviken, is also covered by the initial sections of
the approach channels from seaward in the vicinity of
Hävringe.
Also included are descriptions of Arkösund, Marviken
and the minor harbours within Bråviken. Descriptions are
also given for the various connecting and minor branch
channels both within and at the outer end of Bråviken.
Pilotage
5.176
1
Pilotage is compulsory for some categories of vessel.
Pilots are provided from Oxelösund Pilot Station. See 5.5
and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for
details.
Traffic regulations
5.177
1
Speed restriction. Vessels are restricted to 7 kn between
the longitudes of 16°38′⋅4E and 16°35′⋅3E in Bråviken. A
restriction of 12 kn applies in Bråviken between the island
of Brändö (5.187) and Nävekvarnsklint (58°37′⋅4N,
16°47′⋅3E).
Restricted area. An area in which anchoring, fishing
and underwater operations are prohibited surrounds Mesen
Light (58°37′⋅3N, 16°59′⋅5E), as shown on the chart.
Cables
5.178
1
Submarine cables, including power cables, are laid
across the Bråviken fairway in various positions which are
indicated on the chart.
Ice
5.179
1
Bråviken is kept open to navigation in the winter
months by the use of icebreakers. In addition, ice-bridges
are established across the ice channels at various positions
in the section W of Nävekvarn (5.208) when the ice is
strong enough to support road traffic. Positions are
indicated in the appropriate place in directions.
Each bridge is marked by brooms about cable distant
on either side which are easily visible. Speed must be
reduced in their vicinity but not to less than 7 kn.
2
Illuminated notice boards, indicating the maximum
permitted speed, are erected near the brooms. A sound
signal consisting of a prolonged blast should be given in
good time when approaching an ice-bridge. By night, a red
light is displayed if a bridge is in position; a white light if
the bridge has been withdrawn.
3217
2362
2362
3217
3147
3218
3218
3218
3217
3217
3170
3191
3217
0205
Arkö
5.170
5.189
5.183
5.280
5.150
5.185
B
r
5.216
5.280
5.245
5.164
5
.
1
5
9
5
.
1
5
9
5
.
1
9
2
5
.
1
9
4
5
.
1
8
7
Norrköping
å
v
i
k
e
n
Gustaf Dalén
Hävringe
Norra Fällbådan
Tvären
Enskär
Landsort
Nyköping
Söderköping
Torö
Oxelösund
Fläskösund
Gränsösund
17°
Longitude 17° East from Greenwich
58°
30´
58°
30´
10´
10´
10´
40´
40´
50´
50´
20´
20´
20´
20´
30´
30´
30´
30´
40´
40´
40´
40´
50´
50´
50´
50´
Route Index Chartlet - Bråviken and approaches
CHAPTER 5
203
CHAPTER 5
204
3
The area of Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse, the islet of
Hävringe and Vinterklasen is partially covered with sea ice
for some weeks in severe winters and can be compact ice
in very severe ice seasons.
Bråviken entrance channels
5.180
1
There are three approaches from seaward into Bråviken:
Arkö entrance (5.157), authorised for a draught of
5⋅0 m, thence via Arkösund and through the
islands and shoals to Bråviken.
2
Hävringe N entrance (5.183), the main deep-water
channel entered N of Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse
(5.171), authorised for a draught of 15⋅3 m to
Vinterklasen at the S entrance to Oxelösund, then
12⋅6 m to the anchorage at Norrköping. This also
forms part of the main approach channel to
Oxelösund.
3
Hävringe S entrance (5.189), authorised for a draught
of 6⋅0 m, approached S of Gustaf Dalén thence
close NE of Hävringe to join the main channel
farther WNW. A channel to Oxelösund leads NW
from the vicinity of Hävringe.
Principal marks
5.181
1
Landmarks:
Hävringe Beacon (58°36′⋅2N, 17°19′⋅0E) (5.171).
Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E)
(5.171).
Marviken Power Station Chimney (elevation 142 m,
red obstruction lights) (58°33′⋅2N, 16°50′⋅1E).
2
Oxelösund Water Tower (58°40′⋅2N, 17°07′⋅3E) SE of
city centre.
Water tower (58°40′⋅9N, 17°06′⋅2E), N of city centre.
Järnverk Chimneys (58°40′⋅5N, 17°08′⋅2E).
Gullängsberget (elevation 64 m) (58°36′⋅8N,
16°56′⋅1E), rises close to N shore and slopes
steeply to the shore. Further identifiable by Hargö,
an islet 1 mile W, which is steep on its N and S
sides.
3
Kummelberget (elevation 80 m) (58°39′⋅0N,
16°54′⋅5E).
Major lights:
Gustaf Dalén Light (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E) (5.171).
Hävringe Rear Leading Light (58°36′⋅3N, 17°19′⋅1E)
(5.190).
4
Skavsta Aero Light (two masts, obstruction light)
(58°47′⋅1N, 16°56′⋅0E).
Krokek Aero Light (white and orange metal
framework tower, obstruction light) (58°40′⋅6N,
16°28′⋅2E).
Other aids to navigation
5.182
1
Racons:
Norra Kränkan Lighthouse (58°37′⋅0N, 17°23′⋅4E)
(5.184).
Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E)
(5.171).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for Hävringe north —
main entrance
Sea to Vinterklasen
5.183
1
Approaches. For vessels approaching from S, by day,
Hargberget (58°43′⋅4N, 17°28′⋅1E) (5.304), ahead bearing
355° leads clear E of Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N,
17°28′⋅2E) (5.171). By night, approach in the white sector
(258°–018°), ahead, of the light, passing E of the
lighthouse, thence into the white sector (261°–288°), ahead,
of Norra Kränkan Light (58°37′⋅0N, 17°23′⋅4E) (5.184),
leading to the vicinity of the pilot boarding position.
2
From E, for vessels with a suitable draught, approach
may be made, by day, with Norra Kränkan Lighthouse,
ahead, bearing about 262° which leads clear of the
following dangers, (with positions from the lighthouse):
S of a 9 m shoal patch (7miles ENE), marked by a
buoy (S cardinal), thence:
3
S of Gäddan (7 miles ENE) (5.173), a 5⋅6 m shoal,
thence:
S of Ranten (6miles ENE) (5.173), an 8 m shoal,
thence:
S of Köpman (4 miles ENE), a 6⋅4 m patch, and a
buoy (S cardinal) moored 3cables S.
At night, the white sector (261°–288°) of Norra Kränkan
Light, ahead, leads through this approach channel.
5.184
1
Entry channel. From a position in the vicinity of the
pilot boarding position, 1 miles N of Gustaf Dalén
Lighthouse, the recommended track, indicated on the chart,
leads 11 miles W through the fairway, marked by
light-buoys and buoys, to a position S of Vinterklasen
(58°38′⋅5N, 17°08′⋅0E), S of Oxelösund, in the vicinity of
the alternative pilot boarding position, indicated on the
chart, passing (with positions from Hävringe Beacon
(58°36′⋅2N, 17°19′⋅0E)):
2
N of Kränkan NO Light-buoy (N cardinal) (3miles
ENE), thence:
N of Norra Kränkan Lighthouse (white tower on grey
conical base, 11 m in height, floodlit) (58°37′⋅0N,
17°23′⋅4E), standing on a rock on the S side of the
fairway, thence:
3
SSE of Horngrund (2 miles NE), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
NNW of Öster Skåle (2 miles ENE) and Norr Skåle,
2cables NW, two islets close together, thence:
S of Forsbergsgrund (1 mile N), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), and:
4
N of Västra Korpen Light (white tower, 7 m in
height, floodlit) (58°36′⋅3N, 17°19′⋅5E), displayed
from a small islet close NE of Hävringe, thence:
N of Kopparnageln Lighthouse (white tower, red
band, 4 m in height, floodlit) (58°36′⋅5N,
17°17′⋅7E). The white sector (250°–258°) leads
through part of the fairway E of the light. Thence:
5
S of Grässkärsgrund (1miles NW), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
S of Grässkären Lighthouse (white tower, green band,
12 m in height, floodlit) (58°37′⋅1N, 17°14′⋅4E),
standing on Grässkären, thence:
SSW of Grässkärsrevet Light-beacon (white and red)
(3 miles WNW), standing on Västra Grässkären,
and the dangerous wreck lying close W, thence:
6
SW of Ytterskärsgrundet (5 miles WNW), marked by
a light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
CHAPTER 5
205
N of Klasgrunden Östra (5miles WNW), marked
by a light-buoy (E cardinal).
The white sector (301°–309°) of Vinterklasen Rear Light
(58°38′⋅5N, 17°08′⋅0E) (5.271), leads through the latter part
of the channel between Grässkären and Ytterskärsgrundet.
(Directions for Oxelösund harbour continue at 5.264)
Vinterklasen to Hargökalv
5.185
1
From the position S of Vinterklasen the recommended
track, indicated on the chart, and now authorised for a
draught of 12⋅6 m, leads 8miles W through a channel,
marked by buoys and light-buoys, to a position close S of
Hargökalv, on the S side of which stands Hargökalv Light
(lattice mast, white board with green band, 16 m in height,
floodlit) (58°36′⋅5N, 16°52′⋅6E), passing (with positions
from the light):
2
N of Klasgrunden Norra (8 miles ENE), marked by a
light-buoy (N cardinal), thence:
N of Klasgrunden NV (7miles ENE), marked by a
light-buoy (port hand), thence:
S of Mellanskär Beacon (6miles ENE), standing on
a rock on the N side of the fairway, thence:
S of Svinskär (5miles ENE), thence:
3
N of Falkens Grund Light (white tower, red top on
concrete base, 7 m in height, floodlit) (5 miles
ENE), displayed from a rock. The fairway close N
is marked by a buoy (port hand). The white
sectors (260°–265°) and (263°–266°) of
Kungshamn front and rear leading lights
respectively, and the white sector (255°–263°) of
Falkens Grund Light lead through the channel to
the E of Falkens Grund Light. Thence:
4
SSE of Ålbäcksgrund Light (white lantern, green
band, concrete base, floodlit), (4 miles ENE),
displayed from a rock on the N side of the
fairway. The fairway is marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
N of Mesen Light (white hut, red band, on white
base) (3miles ENE), displayed from an islet on
the S side of the channel, thence:
5
Kungshamn Leading Lights:
Front light (white lantern hut, red and white stripes)
(58°37′⋅6N, 17°01′⋅4E), displayed from an islet on
the N side of the fairway.
Rear light (similar structure, 9 m in height), displayed
600 m ENE of front light on Böten.
The alignment (069°), astern, of these lights leads
about 2 miles WSW through the fairway from Mesen.
Thence:
6
NNW of Munken Beacon (black and white cairn, 4 m
in height) (3 miles ENE), standing on above-water
rocks on the S side of the fairway, thence:
SSE of Guldhällan (2 miles ENE), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
S of Gullängsberget (1 miles E), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
7
N of a 10⋅6 m shoal (1 mile E), marked by a
light-buoy (port hand).
The white sectors (087°–080°) and (062°–067°),
astern, of Falkens Grund and Ålbäcksgrund Lights
respectively, lead through the channel W of Falkens Grund.
The white sector (270°–276°) of Hargökalv Light leads
through the channel to the E of the islet.
8
Hargökalv may be passed on either side but there is an
8⋅3 m shoal close to the track on the N side and larger
vessels should pass S in the main channel.
5.186
1
Alternative channel. An alternative channel, indicated
on the chart and suitable for a draught of 7⋅0 m, runs
almost parallel to, and S of the main channel, from S of
Vinterklasen, rejoining the main channel close S of
Gullängsberget, passing (with positions from Falkens Grund
Light (58°37′⋅6N, 17°02′⋅4E)):
2
Between Klasgrunden Norra and Klasgrunden NV
light-buoys (2miles and 2 miles E respectively),
which mark the N and NW limits of Klasgrunden,
an extensive shoal awash in many places, thence:
SSE of Engelskagrundet (2 cables SSE), marked by a
buoy (starboard hand), thence:
3
NNW of Kungshamnsgrund Light-beacon (red post,
3 m in height) (6 cables S), standing on a rock on
the S side of the channel, thence:
S of a 5⋅9 m shoal (2 miles WSW), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
To a position close S of Gullängsberget.
Hargökalv to Sandviksfjärden
5.187
1
From a position S of Hargökalv (58°36′⋅5N, 16°52′⋅6E)
the recommended track leads W for 17 miles to the
anchorage area in Sandviksfjärden, passing (with positions
from Hargökalv Light, as above):
Between Mögö (5 cables NW) and Brändö (6 cables
W), thence:
N of Grässkärsgrund, a group of rocks awash,
(1miles WNW), thence:
2
S of Nävekvarn Light (white hut, green band, 2 m in
height, floodlit) (2 miles NW), displayed from a
headland. The white sectors (295°–296°), ahead,
and (093°–095°), astern respectively, of the light
lead through the fairway in the vicinity of the
light. In winter an ice-bridge (5.179) is established
across the fairway between Nävekvarn (58°37′⋅5N,
16°48′⋅0E) and Stora Krokholmen, 1 mile S.
Thence:
3
N of Stora Järkön (4 miles WNW), through a
narrow channel marked by two buoys (lateral),
thence:
S of Karlslund Light (green hut, white roof and base,
6 m in height, floodlit) (5 miles WNW),
displayed from a headland. The white sector
(095°–099°), astern, leads through the fairway W
of the light. Thence:
4
N of Djupviksholmarna (6 miles WNW), a group of
islets and rocks awash. In winter an ice-bridge
(5.179) is established across the fairway, 1 mile W
of these islets, between Färjestaden (58°37′N,
16°38′E) and Kvarsebo, 1 mile NNE. Thence:
5
SSW of Säterholmen Light (white lantern, green band
on pedestal, floodlit) (9 miles WNW), displayed
from the W point of an islet on the N side of the
fairway. The white sector (280°–281°) leads
through the fairway E of the light. In winter an
ice-bridge (5.179) is established across the fairway,
1 miles W of the light, between Ållonö
(58°37′⋅3N, 16°30′⋅6E) and Skvättan, 2 miles NE.
Thence:
6
NNE of Skallskär (11 miles WNW), thence:
NNE of Åsgrund (13 miles WNW), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
N of Algersgrund Light (lantern on white hut, red
band, black base, floodlit) (13 miles WNW),
CHAPTER 5
206
displayed from a rock on the S side of the
channel, and:
7
S of Lövsgata Light (white tower, green band, 6 m in
height, floodlit) (58°39′⋅5N, 16°27′⋅5E) (13miles
WNW), displayed from a headland, thence:
SSW of Bodagrund (15 miles WNW), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
8
To a position in Sandviksfjärden about 7 cables NE of
Stora Juten Light (red lantern on white tower, 6 m in
height) (58°38′⋅1N, 16°19′⋅7E), displayed from a small islet
in the harbour approaches, in the white sector
(251°–254°) of the light.
9
Caution. A ferry crosses Bråviken from Säter, close E
of Säterholmen Light (58°38′⋅3N, 16°35′⋅5E), to Skenäs,
6 cables S. Anchoring is prohibited and speed is restricted
in the vicinity of the ferry crossing area.
5.188
1
Useful mark:
Two beacons (58°39′⋅6N, 16°25′⋅3E), standing on the
shore close S of Marmorbruket. They mark the N
end of a submarine cable laid across the channel
to Svintaskär and thence SW to the mainland.
(Directions for entering harbour continue at 5.235)
Directions for Hävringe south entrance
5.189
1
Local knowledge is required.
From a position about 5 miles S of Gustaf Dalén
Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E) the recommended track,
indicated on the chart and authorised for a draught of
6⋅0 m, leads 7miles NW and 2 miles WNW to join the
main channel 1miles WNW of Hävringe, initially in the
white sector (312°–321°) of Västra Korpen Light
(58°36′⋅3N, 17°19′⋅5E) (5.184), passing (with positions
from the light):
2
SW of Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (4miles ESE),
thence:
SW of Grytan (3 miles ESE), marked by a buoy
(S cardinal), thence:
NE of Sörgrund (1 mile SSE), thence:
3
SW of Stenen (8 cables SE), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
NE of Kartbådan (5 cables SSE), marked by a buoy
(port hand), thence:
SW of Koppargrund (4 cables SE), marked by a buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
4
The track leads through Korphålet, the narrow channel
between Västra Korpen and Hävringe, thence WNW for
2miles, to join the main channel, at night, in the white
sector (105°–111°), astern, of Västra Korpen Light, passing
close NE of Kopparnageln Lighthouse (58°36′⋅5N,
17°17′⋅7E) (5.184).
5.190
1
Alternatively, approach may be made on the alignment
(295°) of Hävringe Leading Lights:
Front light (white square on white pedestal, black
band, floodlit) (58°36′⋅2N, 17°19′⋅3E), displayed
from the NE side of the islet.
Rear light (white tower, black band, 22 m in height,
floodlit) (183 m WNW of front light).
2
From a position about 2miles SSE of Gustaf Dalén
Light this alignment leads about 6 miles WNW to
Hävringe but passes closer to the shoals SE of Hävringe.
The secondary approach channel (5.282) to Nyköping is
a continuation NW of Hävringe S entrance channel, leading
from the N end of Korphålet and through the shoals
extending NW.
Useful marks
5.191
1
Hargberget (58°43′⋅4N, 17°28′⋅1E), a hill visible to
seaward.
Stora Byttan (58°35′⋅2N, 17°18′⋅1E), a high rounded
islet with a nipple.
Lilla Byttan (58°35′⋅4N, 17°18′⋅3E), similar to above
but smaller.
2
Beacon (white, red band, 3 m in height, floodlit)
(58°36′⋅3N, 17°18′⋅9E), standing on the NW point
of Hävringe.
Beacon (red with white staff, 3 m in height)
(58°36′⋅3N, 17°18′⋅7E), standing on a rock 1 cable
W of the beacon above.
(Directions for main channel continue at 5.183)
Directions for inshore passage Arkö to
Norrköping
(continued from 5.158)
Arkö to Granskär
5.192
1
From a position S of Arkö, 1 cables W of
Kuggviksskär Light (58°28′⋅8N, 16°58′⋅1E) (5.140), the
track, authorised for a draught of 5⋅0 m and indicated on
the chart, leads 1miles NW through Arkösund to a
position W of Hästö (58°29′⋅8N, 16°56′⋅5E), thence it leads
2 miles NW and 2 miles NNW to a position about
2 cables S of Granskär (58°33′⋅2N, 16°52′⋅1E). The fairway,
marked by buoys (lateral), passes through Gränsösund, a
narrow passage on the SW side of Gränsö, an island 1 mile
NNW of Hästö. This section also forms part of the inshore
route (5.2) which branches off S of Granskär to lead NNE
across Bråviken. The following aids to navigation are
situated along the fairway in this section of the channel,
and in addition to the leading lights described, the white
sectors of the lights described lead through the stretches of
fairway in their vicinity:
2
Liss Lindö Light (white lantern, floodlit) (58°29′⋅8N,
16°56′⋅2E), displayed from the N point of the
peninsula on the W side of Arkösund, close W of
Hästö.
Gränsösund Leading Lights:
Front light (white lantern, red rectangle, white stripe)
(58°31′⋅2N, 16°53′⋅7E), displayed from a rock on
the W side of the channel.
3
Rear light (red rectangle, white stripe, on white hut),
125 m NW from front light.
The alignment (316°) of these lights leads 2 miles NW
through the fairway to the NW end of Gränsösund.
Ettergrundshällan Light (lantern on white tower, red
band, 5 m in height, floodlit) (58°30′⋅9N,
16°54′⋅2E), displayed from a rock on the W side
of the channel.
4
Trollholmshällan Light (white lantern) (58°31′⋅7N,
16°53′⋅3E), displayed from a rock in the centre of
the fairway. It may be passed on either side, the E
track passing closer to the NW point of Gränsö.
Norra Gränsö Light (white hut, green band)
(58°31′⋅7N, 16°53′⋅7E), displayed from the NW
point of Gränsö.
5
The channels E and W of Trollholmshällan Light rejoin
at the position 2 cables S of Granskär. The inshore channel
branches off to lead NNE across the E end of Bråviken.
CHAPTER 5
207
Useful mark
5.193
1
Tower (red light), standing on the SW point of Arkö
at the entrance to Arkösund.
(Directions for inshore passage continue at 5.197)
Granskär to Fläskösund
5.194
1
From the position S of Granskär the track, authorised for
a draught of 5⋅5 m, indicated on the chart, leads 3 miles N
through Bosjöfjärden and Fläskösund, a narrow passage
marked by lights and buoys, to a position in Bråviken at
the N end of Fläskösund about 5 cables NE of Isö
(58°35′⋅2N, 16°49′⋅7E), passing (with positions from
Marviken Power Station Chimney (58°33′⋅2N, 16°50′⋅1E)
(5.181)):
2
NE of Bosösten Light (white lantern) (58°33′⋅2N,
16°51′⋅5E), displayed from a rock on the W side
of the fairway (7 cables E), thence:
SW of Västra Ramsholmen (9 cables NE), marked off
its NW point by a buoy (starboard hand), thence:
3
The white sector (170°−172°), astern, of Bosösten
Light leads partially through Bosjöfjärden, clearing E of
Ljungskär (8 cables N), marked off its E side by a buoy
(port hand), and W of a 5⋅1 m shoal (1 mile NNE), marked
by a buoy (starboard hand), thence:
4
W of Fläsköhällan Light (white hut, green band,
black base, 3m in height) (58°34′⋅6N, 16°51′⋅2E),
displayed from a rock on the E side of the
fairway, 2 cables E of Stora Fläskö.
Ramsholmen Leading Lights:
Front light (white triangle, red border, on red hut,
white stripe) (58°33′⋅8N, 16°51′⋅9E), displayed
from the W side of Ramsholmen.
5
Rear light (white triangle, red border, with red square,
white stripe, on white hut), 250 m SSE from front
light.
From a position close W of Fläsköhällan Lighthouse,
above, the alignment (157°), astern, of these lights leads
6 cables through Fläskösund channel, passing:
Close NE of Fläskö Light (lantern on white hut, red
band) (58°34′⋅9N, 16°51′⋅0E), displayed from the
NE point of Fläskö, and:
6
Close SW of Vivstagrund, cable NE of the light,
marked by a light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
Close SW and W of Fläskösund Light (white tower,
green band on black base, 6 m in height)
(58°35′⋅0N, 16°50′⋅9E), displayed from a rock on
the E side of the channel, thence:
7
Close E of Fläskögrund Light (white pillar, red band
on black base, 4 m in height) (58°35′⋅0N,
16°50′⋅8E), displayed from a rock on the W side
of the channel, marked by a buoy (port hand),
thence:
Close W of a buoy (W cardinal), 1cables N of the
above light, marking the N limit of the shoal area
at the N end of Fläskösund.
8
In addition to the leading lights described the white
sector of Fläskögrund Light leads through the fairway in its
vicinity.
Fläskösund to Norrköping
5.195
1
From a position NE of Isö the track, authorised for a
draught of 5⋅5 m, indicated on the chart, leads about
7 miles WNW through the fairway on the S side of
Bråviken to join the main channel from Hävringe to
Norrköping in a position close E of Säterholmen
Lighthouse (58°38′⋅3N, 16°35′⋅5E), passing (with positions
from Lönö Light (white hut, red band, 2 m in height,
floodlit) (58°36′⋅3N, 16°46′⋅6E), displayed from a headland
on the N side of Lönö peninsula):
2
NNE of Råbockarna (1miles ESE), marked by a
buoy (port hand), thence:
NNE of Lönö Lighthouse. The white sectors
(287°–290°), ahead, and (107°–109°), astern,
respectively, lead through the fairway E and W of
the light. Thence:
3
NNE of Flinta (2miles WNW), a small islet. The
white sector (288°–290°), ahead, of Säterholmen
Light (58°38′⋅3N, 16°35′⋅5E) (5.187) leads through
the section of fairway W of Flinta. Thence:
SSW of Djupviksholmarna (3miles WNW) (5.187),
marked at its S limit by a buoy (starboard hand).
Link channels
5.196
1
Three short channels connect the main route on the N
side of Bråviken with the secondary route to the S:
From a position close S of Hargökalv Light
(58°36′⋅5N, 16°52′⋅6E) (5.185) the track,
authorised for a draught of 5⋅5 m, leads 1miles
SW to join the S route, passing SE of Själhällarna,
and shoal with a depth of 5⋅2 m, marked by a
buoy (E cardinal), 1 mile SW of Hargökalv.
2
From a position 4 cables SW of Nävekvarn Light
(58°37′⋅2N, 16°48′⋅8E) (5.187) the track,
authorised for a draught of 5⋅5 m, leads 2 miles
WSW to join the S route, passing between
Korstagsgrund, marked by a buoy (N cardinal),
and Järknögrund, marked by a buoy (starboard
hand), 1 mile SW and 2 miles WSW respectively,
from Nävekvarn Light.
3
From a position close N of Lilla Järkön (58°37′⋅2N,
16°43′⋅7E) a track leads 1miles WSW to join
the S route 2 cables SE of Djupviksholmarna
(5.187).
Inshore route continuation channel
Chart 3217
Directions
(continued from 5.193)
5.197
1
Across Bråviken. From a position about 2 cables S of
Granskär (58°33′⋅2N, 16°52′⋅1E) the track, indicated on the
chart, authorised for a draught of 5⋅0 m leads initially
1 mile E then 4 miles NNE through the fairway to join
with the main Hävringe to Norrköping channel close SW of
Munken Beacon (58°36′⋅8N, 16°58′⋅3E) (5.185), thence
continuing E.
2
Marö Leading Lights:
Marö. Front light (red rectangle, white stripe)
(58°33′⋅6N, 16°54′⋅9E), displayed from the W
point of Marö.
Ekö. Rear light (similar structure), displayed from the
middle of Ekö, 6 cables SSW of front light.
3
The track leads initially 1 mile E, in the white sector
(083°–090°) of Ekö Light, passing N of a 4 m shoal,
marked by a buoy (N cardinal), 4 cables NW of Anholmen
(58°32′⋅7N, 16°53′⋅2E). Thence, after passing NW of Ekö
and close W of Marö, the alignment (203°), astern, of the
above leading lights leads about 3miles NNE through the
fairway passing clear of the shoals adjacent to the channel,
marked by buoys (lateral) and close W of the W side of
CHAPTER 5
208
Grässkären (58°36′⋅0N, 16°57′⋅5E), marked by a buoy (W
cardinal).
4
The inshore route then leads generally E following the
main Hävringe to Norrköping channel in reverse to a
position NE of Norra Kränkan Lighthouse.
(Directions for inshore route continue at 5.306)
Other channel across outer Bråviken
Charts 3217, 3218, Swedish Chart 621 (see 1.34)
Arkö to Oxelösund
5.198
1
Local knowledge is required together with the large
scale Swedish chart with inset. This alternative small craft
channel, authorised for a draught of 3⋅6 m, marked by
buoys, light-buoys, lights and beacons, is narrow and
tortuous and leads NNE across Bråviken, between two
areas of incomplete surveys which are shown on the chart,
to join with the alternative Norrköping channel (5.186) at a
position SW of Vinterklasen.
5.199
1
Directions. From a position S of Arkö, 3 cables S of
Kuggviksskär (58°28′⋅8N, 16°58′⋅1E), the track, shown on
the chart, leads 11 miles generally NNE through the
fairway to a position 1 miles SW of Vinterklasen
(58°38′⋅5N, 17°08′⋅0E), passing (with positions from Arkö
Beacon (58°29′⋅5N, 16°59′⋅5E)):
2
NW of Brändö (5 cables S), through Brändösund,
and:
SE of Viskär (2 cables S), thence:
NW of Utterklabbarna (5 cables SE), thence:
3
W of Södra Lunda Beacon (metal shed) (58°29′⋅9N,
17°00′⋅3E), standing on the W side of Södra
Lunda, passing through Lundasund, a narrow
passage between Arkö and Lunda, thence:
NW and NNW of Logegrund Light (white pedestal,
green band, 2 m in height) (58°32′⋅1N, 17°00′⋅7E),
displayed from a rock close E of the channel,
thence:
4
NNW of Logen Beacon (white cairn, green band)
(2miles NNE), standing on a rock close E of
Logegrund Light, thence:
NW of Lilla Alen Beacon (white pyramid, rectangular
topmark) (4 miles NNE), standing on a rock close
E of the channel, thence:
5
NW of Karthällan Beacon (white tower, 8 m in
height) (58°33′⋅3N, 17°03′⋅7E), standing on a
rocky shoal 4 cables ESE of the channel, thence:
ESE of Penningskärsbåden Beacon (red cairn with
white stripe and grey base) (5 miles NNE),
standing on a rock on the W side of the fairway,
thence:
6
WNW of Klasgrunden (8 miles NNE) (5.186), marked
on its W side by a buoy (starboard hand), and:
ESE of Håldämman Beacon, standing on a rocky
shoal on the W side of the fairway 2miles SW
of Vinterklasen.
5.200
1
Useful mark:
Källskärsrev Beacon, former light tower, (58°33′⋅5N,
17°10′⋅0E).
Viskär Tower (58°29′⋅3N, 16°59′⋅6E) (5.155).
Anchorage and harbours
Outer anchorage
5.201
1
Anchorage Area A, for large vessels, is established
centred on a position 2 miles SE of Gustaf Dalén
Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E), with general depths of
about 45 m.
Anchorage Area B, for other vessels, is centred
2miles ENE of Gustav Dalén Lighthouse.
Each area is further subdivided into four smaller areas,
as shown on the chart.
2
Anchorage may be obtained, with local knowledge, in
several areas within the navigable parts of Bråviken W of
the entrance. Most are well sheltered with good holding
ground.
Arkösund
5.202
1
Description. Arkösund (58°29′⋅4N, 16°56′⋅7E) is a
fishing and small craft harbour situated on the W side of
the passage between Arkö and the mainland at the E limit
of Vikbolandet (5.150). The Swedish Maritime Authority
maintains a sea rescue (sjöräddning) school on the S part
of Arkö.
2
The harbour consists of a large breakwater with a broad
head, extending ESE from the shore, enclosing other small
jetties and pontoons for yachts.
Ice. Although the entrance is normally obstructed by ice
from early January to the middle of March the harbour area
is normally ice-free.
5.203
1
Directions. From a position on the inshore route about
7 cables NNW of Kuggviksskär Light (58°28′⋅8N,
16°58′⋅1E) at the S entrance to Arkösund, in the white
sector (149°–156°), astern, of Östra Kopparholmen Front
Leading Light (58°28′⋅4N, 16°58′⋅2E), the channel, suitable
for a draught of 4⋅4 m, leads 2 cables W to the harbour.
2
Useful mark:
Pilot Lookout (disused) (high, yellow, narrow
three-storeyed house) (58°29′⋅0N, 16°57′⋅9E).
5.204
1
Anchorage may be obtained in the central part of
Arkösund in depths of about 30 m, clay, or alternatively in
depths of about 14 m, clay, in the NE part closer to Hästö.
Berths. On the N side there is a quay with a length of
35 m and depths alongside of 4⋅8 to 6⋅5 m. Other berths for
fishing boats are situated on both sides of the breakwater
which forms the harbour.
2
Facilities: slip with a capacity of 30 tonnes; small
engine repairs at workshop.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Marviken
5.205
1
Description. Marviken (58°33′⋅3N, 16°50′⋅2E), is
situated at the N end of the Björnö peninsula about 5 miles
NW of Arkö. Its principal function is to serve the fuel
needs of Marviken Power Station, lying close W. The
harbour is approached through a channel suitable for a
draught of 5⋅5 m which branches off the main channel to
Norrköping thence leading generally SSW to the harbour
through Fläskösund (5.194).
2
Regulation concerning entry. Although the harbour
may also be approached from the S through the channel
CHAPTER 5
209
from Arkö, all loaded tankers must use the main approach
from the Hävringe to Norrköping channel.
5.206
1
Directions. Follow the directions given at 5.196 for the
link channel SW from Hargökalv (58°36′⋅5N, 16°52′⋅6E) to
a position NE of Isö. Thence follow the reverse of the
directions given at 5.195 and 5.194 to a position E of
Ljungskär (58°34′⋅0N, 16°50′⋅6E) where the channel to
Marviken branches off to lead 7 cables SSW to the harbour.
Useful mark:
Marviken Power Station Chimney (58°33′⋅2N,
16°50′⋅1E) (5.181).
5.207
1
Anchorage may be obtained in Bosjöfjärden, about
3 cables NE of the harbour, in a depth of about 15 m, clay.
Berth. The harbour consists of a T-shaped jetty,
extending NNW from the shore, with a length across the
head of 45 m and a depth alongside of 12⋅5 m. A moveable
oil boom, enclosing the whole harbour, is positioned as
required during operations. It is marked at its NE outer
limit by a buoy (special).
Nävekvarn
5.208
1
Description. Nävekvarn (58°38′N, 16°48′E), a fishing,
small craft and yacht harbour with depths of 4 to 10 m,
situated in a small bay on the N side of Bråviken about
10 miles WSW of Oxelösund. The harbour consists of
quays with a number of floating jetties for yachts.
2
Although primarily a fishing and pleasure craft harbour
a metal foundry has functioned in the town for several
hundred years and the harbour is still used to transport
goods to and from the factory. Depths in the harbour are
about 4⋅0 m. The town has a population of about 1000.
5.209
1
Directions. The bay and harbour are entered directly off
the main channel to Norrköping. From a position in the
channel 4 cables W of Nävekvarn Light (58°37′⋅2N,
16°48′⋅8E) the track leads about 4 cables N to the harbour
entrance passing E of the islet lying in the middle of the
bay and close S of the town.
5.210
1
Anchorage may be obtained off the loading jetty in the
W part in depths of 12 to 15 m, clay.
Berths. The loading jetty has a length of 40 m with
depths alongside of 2 to 4⋅8 m.
Facilities: small slip for vessels up to 12 m in length;
minor engine repairs.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Färjestaden
5.211
1
Description. Färjestaden (58°37′N, 16°38′E) is a small
commercial harbour for the export of bulk grain, suitable
for a draught of 3⋅9 m, situated on the S side of Bråviken
13 miles ENE of Norrköping. The harbour consists of an
artificial jetty extending about 120 m NNE from the shore
and a turning basin, dredged to a depth of 4⋅6 m, suitable
for a vessel with a maximum length of 60 m.
2
It is entered through a channel, marked by buoys
(lateral), about 3 cables in length, 16 m wide and with a
dredged depth of 4⋅6 m but which is liable to silting.
5.212
1
Directions. Färjestaden Leading Lights:
Front light (yellow triangle, red border, on building)
(58°37′⋅3N, 16°37′⋅6E), displayed from the harbour
when required.
Rear light (similar structure) (80 m SSW from light).
From a position 1 miles ESE of Säterholmen
Lighthouse (58°38′⋅3N, 16°35′⋅5E) (5.187) the alignment
(197°) of these lights leads about 4 cables SSW, through
the buoyed channel to the harbour.
5.213
1
Berth. There is a quay, with a length of 50 m and an
extension of about 45 m formed by 4 dolphins joined by
bridges, with depths of 3⋅5 to 4⋅0 m alongside.
Supplies: fresh water; provisions from Östra Husby,
3 miles SW.
Sandviken
5.214
1
Description. Sandviken (58°39′⋅6N, 16°24′⋅0E), a small
craft and yacht harbour lies at the head of a small open
bay on the N side of Bråviken, 7 miles NE of Norrköping,
near the E entrance to Sandviksfjärden.
2
The harbour is formed by a breakwater on the W side
extending SE from the shore, and a stone pier on the E
side extending SW from the shore, each about 70 m in
length, enclosing two pontoon jetties extending S from the
shore. General depths in the harbour are about 7 m.
In winter an ice-bridge (5.179) is established between
Sandviken and the S shore of Bråviken.
5.215
1
Directions. From a position in the main channel close
SW of Bodagrund (58°39′⋅1N, 16°25′⋅0E) (5.187) the
channel leads about 7 cables NNW to the harbour passing
ENE of a 5⋅8 m shoal, 5 cables S of the harbour, marked
by a buoy (starboard hand).
Berths. There are a number of berths on both sides and
the head of the pier with depths of 1 to 5 m.
Supplies. Fresh water available.
NORRKÖPING
General information
Chart 3217
Position
5.216
1
Norrköping (58°36′N, 16°11′E) lies about 35 miles
inland at the head of Bråviken, a long narrow inlet on the
N side of Vikbolandet. It is situated on both banks of
Motalaström about 2 miles from its mouth. Included in the
port are the berths and jetties at Djurönshamn, situated on
Djurön, a peninsula 3 miles ENE of the main harbour, and
Bråvikenshamn, situated on the E limit of Malmölandet, a
peninsula 1 mile N of the main harbour.
Function
5.217
1
Norrköping is a major commercial, industrial and
maritime centre, being the home of the Swedish
Hydrographic Office. It is a safe, well-sheltered harbour
with good anchorage and is well developed with extensive
modern equipment to handle all types of traffic and cargo
including bulk, liquid, container, Ro-Ro and general goods.
CHAPTER 5
210
Port of Norrkoping (5.216)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Norrkoping Port Authority)
2
Principal exports include paper products, woodpulp,
grain, piece goods and timber products. Imports include
fertiliser, coal, coke, bulk oils and piece goods.
Approach and entry
5.218
1
The port is approached through channels in Bråviken
and entered from Sandviksfjärden through channels in
Pampusfjärden, marked by buoys and light-buoys, on the
alignment of leading lights or lights. The inner harbour is
entered through Lindökanalen (5.238), an artificial canal on
the SE side of Händelön (5.231), marked by light-beacons,
lights and buoys, on the alignment of leading lights.
Traffic
5.219
1
In 2003 the port was used by 1332 vessels totalling
7⋅6 million dwt.
Port Authority
5.220
1
Norrköpings Hamn and Stuveri AB, Stuvaregrand, PO
Box 6075, S–600 06, Norrköping.
Website: www.norrkoping-port.se
E-Mail: info@norrkoping-port.se
Limiting conditions
Controlling draughts
5.221
1
The controlling draughts are those in the channels to the
various sections of the harbour. Maximum permitted
draughts:
Channel to anchorage — 12⋅6 m.
Channel to Djurönshamn — 12⋅0 m.
Channel to Bråvikenshamn — 8⋅2 m; Ro-Ro berth —
6⋅2 m.
Channel to Pampushamnen — 11⋅8 m.
2
Channel to inner harbour Lindökanalen — 8⋅4 m.
Inner harbour to Ståthögahamnen — 7⋅9 m.
The original river channel, from Pampusfjärden leading
W through the Motala river for about 4 miles, is heavily
silted up, and is further restricted by a fixed bridge with a
vertical clearance of 2⋅9 m spanning the channel 2 miles W
of its entrance. Buoyage was withdrawn from the channel
in 2002, and the charted dredged depths are no longer
maintained.
Deepest and longest berths
5.222
1
Djurönshamn — bulk grain handling (5.240).
Bravikenshamn — paper products and Ro-Ro (5.241).
Pampushamnen — Pampuskajen, bulk cargo (5.242).
Inner harbour — Berths 59–47 (5.243).
Water level
5.223
1
Under normal conditions the water level varies between
1 m above mean level to 0⋅6 m below mean level. Winds
from the E increase the level; winds from the W decrease
the level. The strongest winds usually occur between
November and April. Depth gauges are established at
Norrköping and at Grytsholmen (58°37′⋅9N, 16°16′⋅6E)
close N of the river entrance.
Density of water
5.224
1
The density of water in the harbour is 1⋅000 g/cm
3
.
CHAPTER 5
211
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.225
1
At the inner harbour a vessel of 34 976 dwt. At
Pampushamnen oil jetty a vessel of 78 228 dwt.
Arrival information
Vessel Traffic Service
5.226
1
Norrköping lies within the mandatory Oxelösund VTS
Area. For details of limits, reporting points and other
requirements see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Port radio
5.227
1
Norrköping Hamnradio (Norrköping Harbour radio). See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Anchorages
5.228
1
Anchorage may be obtained in the following areas in
the roads, as indicated on the chart:
Sandviksfjärden, 7 cables E of Esterön (58°39′N,
16°20′E), in depths of about 22 m, clay.
Pampusfjärden, 4 cables SW of Stora Juten
Lighthouse (58°38′⋅1N, 16°19′⋅7E), in depths of 12
to 16 m, clay.
2
Anchorage is prohibited in the following areas:
On the E side of Pampushamnen in the vicinity of
the turning basin.
In Lindökanalen on the SE side of Händelön.
In the vicinity W and E of Händelöbron.
3
In the vicinity of a submarine pipeline, shown on the
chart, laid across the SE parts of Pampusfjärden
and Lindöfjärden from the SW side of Djurön to a
position on the S side of the yacht harbour at
Lindö, close NE of Norrköping. The approximate
offshore line (064°–244°) of the pipeline is marked
on the shore at each end by a pair of beacons
(yellow triangles, red borders), each front beacon
also having a yellow warning notice board.
4
In the vicinity of the submarine power cable laid
from Djurön to Stora Juten.
In the vicinity of the submarine pipeline laid across
the channel close NW of Pampushamnen.
Pilotage and tugs
5.229
1
Pilotage is provided by Oxelösund and is available
24 hours. See 5.5 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2) for details.
Tugs with icebreaking capacity are available.
Traffic regulations
5.230
1
Movement of tankers loaded with over 10 000 tonnes of
gasoline and tankers over 15 000 dwt is restricted to
daylight hours only.
Speed restrictions are in force in various sections of the
harbour.
Harbour
General layout
5.231
1
The Motala river flows through Norrköping to discharge
into Pampusfjärden at its mouth, about 3 miles NE of the
town, between Malmölandet, a peninsula, and Händelön, an
island close S. The island is connected to the mainland on
its N side by a fixed bridge spanning the river channel, and
on its S side by Händelöbron (5.232), a bascule bridge.
2
There are ten sections within the harbour area:
Djurönshamn lies on the NW part of the Djurön
peninsula on the E side of Pampusfjärden, 5 miles
NE of the town. It is entered directly off the main
approach channel and is partly protected from the
SW by Lilla Juten, a small islet which lies 1 cable
W of the harbour.
3
Bravikenshamn lies on the SE side of Malmölandet,
3miles NNE of the town, and is fronted by a
number of islets including Grytsholmen and
Kvistholmen. It is entered through a buoyed
channel leading from the SW part of
Sandviksfjärden.
4
Pampushamnen lies on the E side of Händelön close
to the entrance to Lindökanalen and contains the
oil jetties and bulk cargo facilities. It is entered
through the main entrance channel in
Pampusfjärden.
Lindöhamnen, the small craft and yacht harbour in
Lindöfjärden, E of the town.
The above sections all lie in the outer part of the
harbour.
5
The islet of Blixholmen (58°36′⋅2N, 16°13′⋅2E) lies at
the junction of the river and the inner end of Lindökanalen
at the S end of Händelön. The channel on the W side of
the islet is closed to navigation. The remaining sections
described below lie within the inner part of the harbour
which extends SW to a fixed rail bridge, with a vertical
clearance of 2⋅5 m, spanning the channel 7 cables WSW of
Blixholmen, and are reached through the main entrance
channel to Pampushamnen thence via Lindökanalen:
6
Edstrandskajen at the SE end of Lindökanalen.
Öhmanskajen lies in the inner harbour on the S bank
of the river and forms part of the inner harbour on
both banks of the river SW of Blixholmen.
Gästgivarehagen lies close NW of Blixholmen on the
S bank of the river.
7
Cementkajen and Ramshällskajen lie on the SW side
of Händelön above and below the bridge.
Ståthögahamnen is a basin off the S bank of the river
close W of the bridge.
Händelöbron
5.232
1
A road and rail bascule bridge with a vertical clearance
of 2⋅5 m when closed and a 30 m wide navigational
opening spans the river channel between Händelön and
Alholmen, close NE of the city centre. The NE, fixed
section of the bridge, has a vertical clearance of 5⋅0 m and
an 11 m wide navigational opening with a depth of 4 m at
mean water level.
2
Operation and signals. Commercial vessels may use the
bridge at all times having given 1 hours notice to SOS
central, Stockholm. Usage by pleasure craft is restricted by
time and season; SOS central, Stockholm should be
contacted for details.
CHAPTER 5
212
Passage is regulated by light signals (Diagram 5.232)
displayed from the bridge.
Händelöbron − bridge signals (5.232)
3
Contact with the bridge watch may also be made by
VHF. Lights are displayed from the ends of the bridge
piers; green on the N side and red on the S side.
Ice
5.233
1
The port is kept open to navigation throughout the
winter by the use of icebreakers.
Principal mark
5.234
1
Landmark:
Kungsängen Aero Light (mast, obstruction lights)
(58°34′⋅6N, 16°13′⋅7E), displayed 1miles SE of
the town.
Major light:
Kungsängen Aero Light — as above.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.188)
Entrance channels
5.235
1
Djurönshamn. From a position in the main channel in
Sandviksfjärden, about 7 cables ENE of Stora Juten
Lighthouse (58°38′⋅2N, 16°19′⋅7E) the channel leads
5 cables SW through clear water to the harbour taking care
to approach the berth clear of the buoys (lateral and
cardinal) marking the narrow channel E of the harbour.
5.236
1
Bravikenshamn. Bråviken Norra Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on post) (58°38′⋅4N,
16°16′⋅9E), displayed from the SE point of
Svartskär.
Rear light (red triangle on orange and white post),
displayed from the shore 700 m W of front light.
2
From a position in Sandviksfjärden 4 cables NE of Stora
Juten Lighthouse the alignment (275°) of these lights leads
1miles W through the channel, marked by buoys and
light-buoys (lateral), to a position 3 cables E of the front
light, passing S of Esterön and N of Kvistholmen.
Bråviken Södra Leading Lights:
Front light (orange triangle, white bands, on orange
and white post) (58°38′⋅2N, 16°15′⋅9E), displayed
from the SW side of the harbour.
3
Rear light (similar structure) (115 m WSW from front
light).
Esterön Leading Lights:
Front light (orange triangle, white bands, on orange
and white post) (58°38′⋅7N, 16°19′⋅4E), displayed
from the SW side of Esterön.
Rear light (similar structure) (500 m ENE of front
light).
4
The alignments (256°) and (076°) of the above leading
lights, ahead and astern respectively, lead 6 cables WSW
through the middle of the buoyed channel to the turning
area off the berths, marked at its limits by buoys and
light-buoys (lateral).
5.237
1
Pampushamnen. Lindökanalen Norra and Södra Lights
in line:
Front lights (orange triangles, red borders, on white
and orange framework towers) (58°37′⋅0N,
16°14′⋅7E), displayed from Händelön close to the
canal entrance.
Rear lights (similar structures) (443 m and 415 m
respectively, SW of front lights).
2
Each pair of the above lights in line bearing 247°,
visible only on their alignment, marks the edges of the
dredged channel, marked by light-buoys (lateral), leading to
Pampushamnen and the entrance to Lindökanalen.
3
From a position about 3 cables NE of Stora Juten
Lighthouse (58°38′⋅2N, 16°19′⋅7E) the track leads 2miles
SW to Pampushamnen entrance, initially passing close NW
of Stora Juten NV Light-buoy (port hand), moored 1 cable
W of the light, thence through the centre of the buoyed
channel, 60 m wide, between the lights in line.
4
The Pampushamnen turning place, with a diameter of
300 m, and the dredged area, are marked at their limits by
buoys (lateral). The centre of the short channel through
Pampushamnen is indicated by the alignment (295°) of
Pampushamnen Leading Lights:
Front light (red triangle on red post) (58°37′⋅5N,
16°14′⋅3E), displayed from the NE corner of
Händelön.
Rear light (similar structure) (80 m NW of front
light).
5
In addition, the N side of the channel is marked by a
pair of lights in line bearing 295° displayed close NE of
the above leading lights. These lights are also in line with
the line of buoys marking the N side of the dredged area.
Caution. In winter an ice-bridge, crossing the entrance
channels, is established from Getå (58°40′N, 16°18′E), on
the N side, to Marby, 4 miles S and close E of
Lindöhamnen.
CHAPTER 5
213
5.238
1
Lindökanalen is entered from the S part of
Pampushamnen between the alignment of Lindökanalen
Norra and Södra Lights in line (5.237). Thence the channel,
marked by numbered light-beacons and buoys (lateral),
leads 1miles SW to the turning place, 250 m in diameter,
close W of Rossviken on the E side of Blixholmen.
5.239
1
SW side of Händelön. The river channel on the SW
side of Händelön, about 40 m wide, marked by buoys and
light-buoys, leads 1miles NW, through Händelöbron, and
the centreline is indicated by the alignment (301°), ahead,
or (121°), astern, respectively, of lights as follows:
2
Marieborg Leading Lights:
Front light (triangle on red and white framework
tower) (58°37′⋅1N, 16°11′⋅0E), displayed from the
W bank of the river 2 cables NW of Karlsro Light
(dolphin) (58°37′⋅0N, 16°11′⋅3E), which marks the
NW limit of the dredged area at the NW end of
the channel.
Rear light (similar structure) (540 m from front light).
3
Rossviken Leading Lights:
Front light (red and orange framework tower)
(58°36′⋅2N, 16°13′⋅7E), displayed close S of the
inner end of Lindökanalen.
Rear light (similar structure) (220 m from front light).
Berths
Alongside berths
5.240
1
Djurönshamn. An elevator jetty, 30 m offshore, with a
length of 160 m and a depth alongside of 12⋅2 m,
connected to the shore by a short bridge at its SW end and
an overhead conveyor system. About 130 m of berthing
space with a depth alongside of about 7 m is available at a
jetty close S of the elevator jetty.
5.241
1
Bravikenshamn. A privately operated quay with a
length of 126 m and a depth alongside of 8⋅8 m. A fixed
Ro-Ro berth with a ramp width of 20 m and a depth of
6⋅8 m lies at the SW end of the quay. It consists of two
breasting dolphins and a mooring dolphin extending a total
of 135 m from the ramp.
5.242
1
Pampushamnen.The oil harbour has three jetties with
depths alongside of 9⋅0 m, 11⋅9 m and 12⋅4 m. Pampuskajen
has a length of 460 m with a depth alongside of 12⋅0 m. A
Ro-Ro berth 80 m in length is situated on the inside of the
SE end of the quay, with a depth of 9 m alongside. A
150 m extension to the main quay at the NW end, with a
Ro-Ro ramp, is planned to enter service in 2005.
5.243
1
Inner harbour area. Berths 59–47 on Öhmanskajen
have a length of 600 m with a depth alongside of 9⋅0 m.
Two fixed Ro-Ro berths lie at the N end of this quay, the
outer having a depth of 8 m. The remainder of this section
which includes Edstrandskajen and the river area SW of
Blixholmen has a total of 3030 m of berthing space with
depths alongside of 5⋅0 to 9⋅0 m.
2
The section on the SW side of Händelön which includes
Gästgivarehagen, Cementkajen, Ramshällskajen and
Ståthögahamnen contains a total of 450 m of berthing space
with depths alongside of 6⋅0 to 9⋅0 m. A fixed Ro-Ro berth
with a ramp width of 8 m and a depth of 6 m lies at the S
end of Gästgivarehagen.
Port services
5.244
1
Repairs. Workshop for engine repairs.
Other facilities. Deratting and issue of certificates;
hospital; oily waste disposal facilities available; customs
house.
Supplies. Fuel oil at some berths and also by bunker
barge; fresh water by boat; provisions and chandlery.
Communications. Nearest airport Kungsängen, 4 km SE
of harbour. Local and international flights to Copenhagen.
OXELÖSUND
General information
Chart 3218 plan of Oxelösund
Position
5.245
1
Oxelösund (58°40′N, 17°06′E) is situated on the E coast
of Sweden on a peninsula about 50 miles SW of
Stockholm, 7 miles NW of Hävringe (58°36′⋅2N,
17°19′⋅0E), at the seaward end of Bråviken. Included in the
port are the jetties at Järnverkshamnen (5.260) on the E
side of the peninsula NE of the main harbour.
Function
5.246
1
Oxelösund is a large industrial community and major
deep-water commercial port with extensive modern
equipment capable of handling large tankers and bulk
carriers in particular, but also including container, Ro-Ro
and general cargo vessels within the harbour.
2
Principal exports include steel products, iron ore, pig
iron, piece goods, timber and oil products. Principal
imports include scrap iron, coal ore, oils, piece goods, steel
products and limestone.
There is a fishing harbour and small boat harbours for
pleasure craft within the harbour area.
The population of Oxelösund is about 14 000.
Topography
5.247
1
The Oxelö peninsula is wooded. The port is fronted on
the E and SE by an extensive offshore bank containing
numerous shoals, rocks, islands and islets. Most of the
larger islands lie SE of the port and provide good
protection for the harbour, which is generally well sheltered
but with winds from S some swell may be experienced.
Approach and entry
5.248
1
The main harbour is approached from seaward and
entered through channels, marked by buoys, light-buoys,
lights and beacons, on the alignment of leading lights.
The E part of the harbour at Järnverkshamnen is
approached from seaward through a channel, marked by
light-buoys, buoys, lights and beacons on the alignment of
leading lights and in the sectors of lights. The outer part of
the channel also forms part of the main approach to
Nyköping. It is entered through a channel in Ålöfjärden
(58°41′N, 17°11′E), marked by buoys and a sectored light.
Traffic
5.249
1
In 2003 the port was used by 1058 vessels totalling
5⋅5 million dwt.
CHAPTER 5
214
Port of Oxelösund (5.245)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Bo Bjorkdahl)
Port Authority
5.250
1
Oxelösunds Hamn AB, PO Box 1200, S–613 24,
Oxelösund.
Website: www.oxhamn.se
E-Mail: oxelosunds.hamn@oxhamn.se
Limiting conditions
Controlling draughts
5.251
1
The controlling draughts are those in the channels to the
various sections of the harbour. Maximum permitted
draughts:
Channel to Oxelösund main harbour — 15⋅3 m.
Channel to Örsbaken anchorage area — 10⋅8 m.
Channel to Järnverkshamnen — 8⋅9m. On
departure,with permission — 9⋅2 m.
Channel to Fiskehamn — 5⋅4 m.
Deepest and longest berths
5.252
1
Main harbour Quay No 10 — iron ore and oil
(5.272).
Järnverkshamnen Quay No 2–3 — steel products
(5.275).
Density of water
5.253
1
The density of water in the harbour is 1⋅005 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.254
1
Bulk carrier 110 000 dwt with draught of 14⋅5 m.
Oil tanker 109 000 dwt with draught of 12⋅8 m.
Arrival information
Vessel Traffic Service
5.255
1
Oxelösund lies within the mandatory Oxelösund VTS
Area. For details of limits, reporting points and other
requirements see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (2).
Port radio
5.256
1
Oxelösund Hamnradio (Oxelösund Harbour radio). See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Outer anchorages
5.257
1
For outer anchorages see 5.201.
In the outer harbour area anchorage may be obtained, as
indicated on the chart, 5 cables W of Vinterklasen
(58°38′⋅5N, 17°08′⋅0E) in depths of about 31 to 39 m, clay.
In the approaches to Järnverkshamnen anchorage may be
obtained, as shown on the chart, in the S central part of
Örsbaken, about 7 cables ENE of Kölhalsen Light
(58°41′⋅5N, 17°10′⋅7E), in depths of about 22 m, clay.
Anchorage may also be obtained in Ålöfjärden S of
Korpholmen (58°40′⋅6N, 17°08′⋅8E), in depths of about
14 m, clay. This anchorage is well sheltered except in
strong NE winds.
Pilotage
5.258
1
Oxelösund Pilot Station is the co-ordinating centre for
all pilotage within the area. Pilots are available 24 hours.
The Oxelösund Traffic Information Centre is also located at
the pilot station. See 5.5 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (2) for details.
Tugs
5.259
1
Two tugs with icebreaking capacity are available. Extra
tugs available with prior notice.
CHAPTER 5
215
Harbour
General layout
5.260
1
The main harbour is formed by an inlet on the SW side
of the peninsula between Femöre (58°39′⋅5N, 17°06′⋅0E), a
small S extension, and Furö, an islet 5 cables E. The main
ore and oil handling area lies on the N shore of the
harbour reached through the main entrance channel. Other
cargo berths and a small craft harbour lie in the NW part
of the harbour with another small craft harbour in the NE
part, N of Furö.
2
Oxelösunds fishing harbour (5.273), formed by two
breakwaters, lies in Östersviken on the E side of Femöre
and is reached through a branch leading W off the main
channel. A small craft harbour lies in the S part of
Östersviken.
3
Järnverkshamnen, the steelworks harbour, lies at the S
end of a small bay on the E side of the peninsula 1 mile
NE of the main harbour, and is fronted by the islet of
Korpholmen. It is reached through Ålöfjärden by a branch
leading W off the main Nyköping approach channel in
Örsbaken.
Natural conditions
5.261
1
Local magnetic anomaly. See 5.169.
Ice is formed during the winter months but navigation is
kept open by the use of icebreakers.
Principal marks
5.262
1
Landmarks:
Hävringe Beacon (58°36′⋅2N, 17°19′⋅0E) (5.171).
Gustaf Dalén Lighthouse (58°35′⋅7N, 17°28′⋅2E)
(5.171).
Norra Kränkan Lighthouse (58°37′⋅0N, 17°23′⋅4E)
(5.184).
Lillhammarsgrund Lighthouse (58°39′⋅7N, 17°20′