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NP 30 China Pilot Vol I 6ed 2004

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NP 30
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notices to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.
Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this
volume.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2005 2006 2007 2008
NP 30
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOLUME I
The west side of the South China Sea from Tanjung Lompat on the eastern side of
Peninsula Malaysia to Zhelang Jiao in China; Pulau−Pulau Anambas, Hainan
Dao, and the islands and banks bordering the main route from the Singapore
Strait to Hong Kong.
SIXTH EDITION
2004
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
ii
Crown Copyright 2004
To be obtained from Agents
for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright for some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner.
Area formerly covered by:
China Sea Directory Vol. II First Edition 1868. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition 1879. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1889. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1899. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fifth Edition 1906. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China Sea Pilot (First Series) Vol. III First Edition 1912. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition 1923. . . . . . . . . . . . . . China Sea Pilot (Second Series)Vol. I First Edition 1937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition 1951. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1964. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition (Revised) 1987. . . . . . Fifth Edition 2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
PREFACE
The Sixth Edition of the China Sea Pilot Volume I has been revised by Lieutenant Commander P. Jordan, Royal Navy. The
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the appropriate
information obtained by and assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be
included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners where appropriate. If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of what
Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them.
This edition supersedes the Fifth Edition (2001), which is cancelled.
Information on climate and currents has been based on data provided by the Meteorological Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
International
International Maritime Organisation, Ships’ Routeing Seventh Edition (1999) Amended to December 2003
British
Fairplay World Ports Directory 2003/2004
Guide to Port Entry 2003/2004
Lloyds Ports of the World 2004
Whitaker’s Almanack 2004
The Statesman’s Yearbook 2004
United States
United States Publication 120 − Sailing Directions ( Planning Guide) Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia, Second Edition,
2001
United States Publication 161 − Sailing Directions (Enroute) South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand, Eighth Edition, 2002
China
Guide to Chinese Ports 2003
Charts.
Dr DW Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
12th August 2004
iv
PREFACE
to the Fifth Edition (2001)
The Fifth Edition of the China Sea Pilot Volume I has been compiled by Commander AC Grattan−Cooper, RN, and the late
Commander JB Wilson RD* RNR, and contains the latest information received in the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office to
the date given below.
This edition supersedes the Fourth Edition (1978) (Revised 1987) and Supplement No 4 (1996), which are cancelled.
Information on climate and currents has been revised based on data provided by the Meteorological Office, Bracknell.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
British
Fairplay World Ports Directory 1999/2000
Guide to Port Entry 2001
Lloyds Ports of the World 2001
Lloyds Maritime Guide 1999/2000
Whitaker’s Almanack 2001
The Statesman’s Yearbook 2001
United States
United States Publication 120 − Sailing Directions ( Planning Guide) Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia, Second Edition,
2001.
United States Publication 161 − Sailing Directions (Enroute) South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand, Seventh Edition,
1998.
China
Guide to Chinese Ports Volume III, 1998.
Dr DW Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
27th July 2001
v
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface to the Fifth Edition (2001) iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations ix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossaries xi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlets facing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.5) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.13) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aids to navigation (1.16) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.18) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.19) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.22) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.24) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.30) 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
Malaysia (1.31) 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indonesia (1.40) 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thailand (1.42) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cambodia (1.50) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vietnam (1.58) 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China (1.66) 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macau SAR (1.74) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hong Kong SAR (1.76) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.84) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services — summary (1.85) 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.90) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marine life (1.94) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents and tidal streams (1.98) 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tides (1.105) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.106) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.110) 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.114) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climatic tables (1.148) 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.172) 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
Main route from Singapore to Hong Kong — Passages − Islands, banks, dangers and offshore fields, including Pulau-Pulau Anambas 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
East coast of Peninsular Malaysia from Tanjung Lompat to the border with Thailand 85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
Gulf of Thailand 109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
Vietnam — South and east coasts, from Mui Bai Bung to Vung Da Nang 155. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS
vi
CHAPTER 6
Vietnam — Gulf of Tonkin: Vung Da Nang to Baisungong Jiao 195. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 7
China — South coast: Baisungong Jiao to Zhujiang Kou, including Hainan Dao 219. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 8
China — South coast: Zhujiang and its approaches, including ports to Guangzhou 253. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 9
Approaches to Hong Kong — Hong Kong Harbour 269. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
China — South coast: Hong Kong to Zhelang Jiao 311. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES
Appendix I — Mined Areas 327. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II — Extracts from Navigation in Thai Territorial Waters Act 329. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix III — Regulations governing supervison and control of foreign vessels, quarantine and maritime safety in The People’s Republic of China 331. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix IV — Hong Kong — Boundary of administration and extracts from port regulations 338. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISTANCES TABLE
Table of distances — South China Sea 341. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEX
Index 342. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 12 m or more in length. They amplify charted detail and contain
information needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended
to be read in conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published in the last weekly edition for each
month. Those still in force at the end of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,
the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Admiralty Maritime Communications is a comprehensive guide on all aspects of maritime communications for the yachtsman and small
craft user. It provides general information on Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), the management of VHF, Maritime
Safety Information, NAVTEX, Inmarsat and Radio Facsimile, and detailed information and procedures for marinas and harbours used by
small craft.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
viii
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Except for submarine exercise areas, details of firing, practice and exercise areas are not mentioned
in Sailing Directions, but signals and buoys used in connection with these areas are sometimes mentioned if significant for navigation.
Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the structure above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
ix
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text.
Directions
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NNE north-north-east
NE north-east
ENE east-north-east
E east
ESE east-south-east
SE south-east
SSE south-south-east
S south
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
WSW west-south-west
W west
WNW west-north-west
NW north-west
NNW north-north-west
Navigation
AIS Automatic Indentification System
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
GPS Global Positioning System
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
Satnav Satellite navigation
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
Offshore operations
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FPU Floating production unit
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SBM Single buoy mooring
SPM Single point mooring
Organizations
EU European Union
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
RN Royal Navy
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Radio
AIS Automatic Indentification System
DF direction finding
HF high frequency
LF low frequency
MF medium frequency
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
Navtex Navigational Telex System
RT radio telephony
UHF ultra high frequency
VHF very high frequency
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
Rescue and distress
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
JRCC Joint Rescue Cooperation Centre
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
SAR Search and Rescue
Tides
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HW High Water
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LW Low Water
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
MSL Mean Sea Level
ABBREVIATIONS
x
Times
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
UT Universal Time
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
Units and miscellaneous
°C degrees Celsius
DG degaussing
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
ft foot (feet)
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
GRP glass reinforced plastic
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
m metre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MHz megahertz
mm millimetre(s)
MW megawatt(s)
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
Vessels and cargo
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
HSC High Speed Craft
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length overall
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MV Motor Vessel
MY Motor Yacht
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
RMS Royal Mail Ship
Ro-Ro Roll-on, Roll-off
SS Steamship
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
xi
GLOSSARIES
Words found on Charts and in Sailing Directions.
MALAY/INDONESIAN
The following words are for the most part of Malay origin but are subject to modification in some dialects.
Malay/Indonesian English Malay/Indonesian English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air water, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air masin salt water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air mentah freshwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air pasang high water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air pelajaran bay, inlet, creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air perbani neap tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air surut low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ajer, ayer water, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alang bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alangan bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alur channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alur layar channel, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ambang shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ambang sungai shoal, bank, bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . anak ayer small stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anak sungai rivulet, tributary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anggai signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angin wind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anja, anjar anchor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . api light (lit. fire). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arus (harus) current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer see ajer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer mati low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer masin salt water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer pasang flood tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer rabong high water (springs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer surut ebb tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bagan quay, wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baharu, baru new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bandar harbour, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bandara airport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barat west, western. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barat daya south-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barat laut north-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baru new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batang river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batu stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batuan rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batuan dalam air underwater rock. . . . . . . . . . . . batu-batu group of rocks,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bayu wind, breeze. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bengawan river, large stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . besar large, great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berbahaya dangerous, hazardous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berbukit hilly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berlabuh anchor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beting reef, sandbank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . biduk river boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . biru blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bukit hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bulan moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burong bird. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . busong sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . changkat low hill, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cetek shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ci stream, small river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . daerah area, zone, region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dalam deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . danau lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dangkal shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . danu lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . darat landward, the interior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . delapan eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dermaga wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diangkat remove, delete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . didasar laut seabed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dilarang prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . empat four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enam six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gelap eclipse, dark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gosong shoal, sandbank, bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gunonganang mountain ranges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . gunung (gunong) mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . gunung api volcano. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gusung shoal, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hari day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . harus current, tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hijau green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hilir downstream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitam black, dark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hujan rain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hujung tanjung point. . . . . . . . . . . . . hulu upper reaches of a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hutan jungle, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ikan fish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inggelan, inglitir England. . . . . . . . . . . . inggeris English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inggris raya Great Britain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jalan street, road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jambatan bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jeram rapid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jermal fishing stake, fish trap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jernih clear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jong sea-going junk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . káli river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kampung (kampong) village. . . . . . . . kapal ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal api steamship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal barang freighter, general cargo vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal dadang cargo vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal lajar sailing vesse1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal layar sailing vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal muslim pilot vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal muatan freighter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal pandu pilot boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal penambang ferry. . . . . . . . . . . kapal pengangkut cargo vessel. . . . . . . . . . . kapal penumpang passenger vessel. . . . . . . . . . . kapal perang warship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal peronda coastguard vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal tangkar tanker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal tunda tugboat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal uap steamship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal udara aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karang coral, coral reef, atoll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karang-karang group of reefs, atolls. . . . . . . . . . . . . kecil, kechil, kechik small. . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xii
Malay/Indonesian English Malay/Indonesian English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kegunongan mountainous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kelelap submerged, sunk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kepulauan archipelago, large group of islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kering dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ketjil small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kidul the south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kota city, town, fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuala estuary, river mouth, confluence of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two rivers
kulon west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kumpit fast narrow river craft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuning yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . labuhan, labuan anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . lapan eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . larangan prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laut sea, seaward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lautan ocean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lebak valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lebar broad, wide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lima five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lubuk deep pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lumpur mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lurah valley, ravine, gully. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malam night. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malim pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mas golden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . merah red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . minyak oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muara estuary, river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . musim season. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . musim tenggara SW monsoon. . . . . . . . . . . . musim utara NE monsoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . negri town state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nelajan fisherman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nol nought, zero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nusa island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ombak waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ombak memetjah breakers. . . . . . . . . . . ombak selabu rollers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . omong fishing ground mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pabean customs house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pagi morning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paja swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . panchang stake, pile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pangkalang anchorage, landing place, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . panjang long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pantai beach, coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pantjang stake, pile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parigi well, spring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parit mote, ditch, trench. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasang rise (of tide). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasang kering ebb, low tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasang naik high tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasang purnama spring tides. . . . . . . . . . . . pasang surut the tides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasanggrahan resthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasir sand, sandy- beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paya marsh, swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pegunungan mountain range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pelabuhan port, roadstead, anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pelayaran passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pekan market town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pemayang large fishing-boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pematang, permatang bank, sandhill, dune. . . . . . . . pendaratan landing place, quay, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pengkapalan shipping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . perahu boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . perahu majang deep-sea fishing boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . perahu tambang ferry boat. . . . . . . . . . . . perkapalan fleet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peta chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . petang evening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pinggir laut coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pohon, pokok tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . prau boat, small craft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . propinsi province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puloh ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pulau island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pulau-pulau small group of islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puntjak, puncak summit, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . puri town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . putih white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rajut fish net. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rawa, rawang swamp, marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . rebas sparse jungle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . redang deep swamp, marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rendah low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riam waterfall, rapids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ribut strong wind, storm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rimba jungle, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rintangan (rint) obstruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . romba beacon, fisherman’s mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rumah house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rumbu fishtrap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sampan small boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . satu one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selat strait, narrows, channel, sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selatan south, southern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selatan daya south-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . semenanjung peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . sembilan nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . semboyan signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sepuluh ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . suar light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sumur well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sungai river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . syarbandar harbour master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tali ayer canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tanah land, country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tanjung (tanjong) cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . tanjung tinggi promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . tasek lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . teluk (telok) bay, bend in a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . telukan gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tempat place, spot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tengah middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tenggara south-east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tepi bank, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tepi laut south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . terumbu reef, rock awash at low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . terusan canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tiang mast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tiga three. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timur east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timur laut north-east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tinggi high. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . titik point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tohor shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tokong reef, below-water bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tompok shoal patches, bank, shallows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tongkang lighter (for cargo). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tua old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tujuh seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tukun hidden rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ujung cape, point, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ulu (hulu) upper reaches of a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . umpur mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utan (hutan) jungle, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xiii
Malay/Indonesian English Malay/Indonesian English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utara north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utara barat north-west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . waduk reservoir. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wai river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wetan east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THAI
Thai English Thai English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . akhan building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amphoe provincial town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ao bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ao kwang bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ban house, village (with place name). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bo lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bot church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bung swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chawak pak nam estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . chet seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chiang town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chom nam submerged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chong channel, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chong khaep strait, narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chong kwat laeo swept channel. . . . . . . . . . . . chong thang rua doen pass, passage. . . . . . . . dam black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dan truat rok quarantine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . deng red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . din−nieo clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . din−say−pong chalk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . don high land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doi hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fai light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fai nam leading light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fang shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ha five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ham prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hard beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hardzai sand beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hen dai chat conspicuous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hin rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hin pakarang coral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hin phut reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hlaem cape, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ho tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoioy stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hok six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hup khao valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hyai great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kao old, nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kaho white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . keben cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khao hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khap samut peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khlon mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khlon rim thale creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . khlong canal, creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khok hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khon spar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khot shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khot hin rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khruang mai bon yot topmark. . . . . . . . khwa mu starboard hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khwam−luk depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khwan−sung height. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klom spherical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ko island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ko lek islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krachom beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krapong can. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krasae nam current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kruat gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kruat kon yai shingle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kruay conical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laem cape, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laem yai cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lamtham stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lang lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lek small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luang large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lueng yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mai, mai nam river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . mai lek number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . met metre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monthol, monthon province, state. . . . . . . . . . mu ban village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mu ko archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muang town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muang tha port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . naew hin phut ridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . nai, nai−kwa inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nakhon city, large town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam khun flood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam long ebb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam khun−long tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . noen hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noi little. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nok, nok−kwa outer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . nok wit whistle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nung one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pa dong forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pa mai woodland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paet eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pak mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pak nam mouth of a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pan chan crane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phra−chedi pagoda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phukhao mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phun thi antarai foul ground. . . . . . . . . . . . phun thi ham prohibited area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . phun thi khut dredged area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . plong fai chimney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pluak hoi shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pom fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . praphakhan lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pratu nam lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radap nam tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radap sung elevation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rakhang bell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rong channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rua ap pang wreck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rua chuay chiwit lifeboat. . . . . . . . . . . . sai sand, gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sai mu port hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xiv
Thai English Thai English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sairen siren. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sam three. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sanyan mock fog signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sao phuk rua dolphin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saphan bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saphan thiap rua jetty. . . . . . . . . . . . si four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si dam black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si daeng red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si khao white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si khiao green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si luang yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si nam ngoen blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . sip ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . so−cloke rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . song two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sun nought, zero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tam low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tha rua harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tha rua kham fak ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . tha thiap rua pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tha thiap rua yai wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . thale sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thale sap lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thang khao entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thi chot rua yai berth. . . . . . . . . . . . . thi samo, thia thaot samo anchorage. . . . . thi tun bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thit nua north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thit tai south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thit tuan (tawan) ok east. . . . . . . . . thit tuan (tawan) tok west. . . . . . . . . thun buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thun fai light−buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thun phuk rua mooring buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . tong koong river bend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u loi floating dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u rua dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u to rua shipyard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wa fathom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wat temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yai great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yot top. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yot laem peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yot sung klong laem promontory. . . . . . . . . CAMBODIAN
Cambodian English Cambodian English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ap hamlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . au stream, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bai bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ban village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banteai, banteay fort, fortified place, citadel. . . . . . . . . . . . bei three. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beng lake, pond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boeng lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buon four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . camnam bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chhak bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chhung cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chrouy cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chrung cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cua mouth of river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dac river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dai stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dap ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . giri mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hon island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kampong village on river bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kaoh island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . keng rocks, rapids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khum village, commune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khuon quay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kinh strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . koh island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . koi (koy) customs house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kok village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kompong hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . komput (kompul) summit. . . . . . . . . . . krong stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lem point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meat (moat) mouth, estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muang town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mui point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muy one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nui hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o, ong stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phnom, pnom, phnum hill, mountain. . . . . . . phra tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phum srok city, capital, urban centre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phumi village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pil two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poulu island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pram five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pram muy six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pram pil seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pram bei eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pram buon nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prasap tributary, confluence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prasat tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prek stream, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shrui cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . song river, rapids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . srok canton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stoeng river, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tahi (keng) rapids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tbong peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thui water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tik water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tonle large river, lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tranh village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trep floating island of reeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tuk water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xom village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xv
VIETNAMESE
Vietnamese English Vietamese English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ap hamlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ba three. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ban village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ban dao peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bay seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ben bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ben tau seaport, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bien sea, lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bon four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bot inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cang mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chin nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chu hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . con island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cua mouth of river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cu lao island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dao island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dar, dia river, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doi high hill, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duong ocean, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . giang large river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . giong hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hon small island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoang lake, lagoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kas island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khum village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kinh strait, canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kompong village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lach canal, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lang village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luon irrigation canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mot one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muoi ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mui cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muong irrigation canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nhai thi river port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nui hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nuoc stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oan gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ong steam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phnom hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pho branch of river, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phum village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puolo, puolu island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prek stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quan dao archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rach stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ran breaker, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ranh canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roc canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sa sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sau six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . se stream, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . so khong nought, zero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . son, song river, stream, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . soung, sung island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stoeung river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tam eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . than shallows, bar of river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thom under water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tieu reef, coral reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tong, tot mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tram woods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tranh village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vam river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vinh bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vung bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wat temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xa village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xom hamlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xeo stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xuyen river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRENCH
French English French English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anse bay, creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . archipel archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baie bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banc bank, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barre bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . basse shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bouche mouth of a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bras branch of river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cap cape, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chenal channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colline hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . coude bend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . coupure gap, cutting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . entrée entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . est east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . falaise cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . goulet narrow entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grand(e) great, large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haut(e) high, height. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . île island, isle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . îlot islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lac lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lagune lagoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . massif mountain range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mont, morne mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mouillage anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noir(e) black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nord north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xvi
French English French English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ouest west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passe channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . petit(e) small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plateau table−land, or flat below water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pointe point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . presquî’le peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . récif reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rivière river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roche, rocher rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . sommet summit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sud south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vert(e) green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHINESE
This list includes words in both pinyin and Wade−Giles forms of spelling; see 1.71.
Chinese English Chinese English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an embankment, bank, shore, coast, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an−chiao submerged rocks, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anjiao sunken rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ansha shoal, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ao bay, cove , inlet, dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bandao peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bei north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bi point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bodi anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bu village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cao channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cha lock, dam, flood barrier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chau island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chao bog, marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chen town, market town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’eng city, walled town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chi obstruction, ledges in a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’i stream, river, head, cape, point,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mountain, seven
chia cape, bluff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ia customs barrier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chiang river, shoal, harbour, port, inlet, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . channel, sound
chiang−tao channel, strait, sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chiao creek, rock, reef, shoal, islet, cape, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . point
ch’iao bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chien mountain, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien shallow, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien−lai bank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien−t’an bank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien−tui bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ih pond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chi−chiang−tao reach. . . . . . . . . . . . . ching capital city, isthmus, ford, ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chiu nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cho, chou, chow island, bank, sandbar. . . . . . . . . . . . ch’uan stream, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chuang village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chüeh cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chung middle, centre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chu−tao, ch’üng−tao archipelago, group of islands. . . . . . . . . cun village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . da big, great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dao, daozi island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diantan patch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ding top. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dizui landspit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dong east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . erh two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fangbodi breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . feng mountain, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fou port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fu provincial capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gang port, harbour, mount, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gangchi basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gangkou port, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . goajiao promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . guanchang square. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ha lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai sea, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haibin beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haidi sea wall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai−hsia strait, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haikou, hai−k’ou sea mouth, channel entrance. . . . . . . . . . . hai−pin seashore, beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haiqu sea area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai−wan bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haixia strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hang stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hangdao fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hang−lu fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hangmen pass navigable to ships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hau inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . he river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hedao river channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hei black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ho river, waterway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoi bay, harbour, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoi hap channel, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hou rear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsi west, mountain, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsia strait, gorge, lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsiang rural area, village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsiao small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsien district, district capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hisin new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsü island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsuan eddies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hu lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . huang yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hung red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ji village, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jia headland, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jian top, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jiang river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jiao point, cape, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jie street. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jiu old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kan dry, harbour, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kang mound, hill, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kao high. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kao−chiao promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kao−jüan plateau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xvii
Chinese English Chinese English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kau nine, see also kou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kiang see chiang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kiao see chiao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kiu bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kok headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kou, k’ou, kow mouth, river entrance, port, inlet, . . . . . . . . . . . . . ravine, gulley
ku valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ku−k’ou ravine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuan barrier, customs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuo country, kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lan reef, blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lanjiangsha bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lao old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . li gravel, shingle, inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liedao, lieh−tao group of islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . lieh−yen group of rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lin forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ling ridge, mountain, mountain range, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nought, zero
liu stream, current, six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lo old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lu road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luk six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . man see men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maodi, mao−ti anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . matou wharf, quay, pier, dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . men gate, pass, passage, channel, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . miao temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mu tress, wood, grave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mun see men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam, nan south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nei inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nei−ao basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ng five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n’i mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o, ou see ao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pa embankment, quay, eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pai reef, rock, white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pak north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pang see peng. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pan−tao see bandao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pao town, village, rampart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’ao−t;ai port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pat eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pei see bei. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peng creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pi cape, nose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . piao rock, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’ing−chou level shoals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’o arm of the sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . po−ti roadstead, anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pu village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’u inlet, creek, village, town, rampart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qian front. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qiantan shoal, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qu area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qundao archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qunjiao reefs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sai west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sam three. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . san three, new, see also shan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . san−chiao−chou delta. . . . . . . . . . . . seu see hsu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha sandbank, islet, sand, low sandy point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha−chiao sandspit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha−ch’iu sand−dune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan mountain, hill, island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shang upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−hu coral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−hu−chiao coral reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−mo mountain range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−sha bar, sand−bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−tien mountain summit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shao small, few. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shap ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shatan sandy shoal, sand flats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha−tsui, sha−tui sandbank, sandspit. . . . . . . . . . . . shazhou, shazui sandbank, sandspit. . . . . . . . . . . . shek stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shen deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sheng province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sheung upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shi, shih rock, city, municipality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shih−t’ai ridge of rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shih−ti swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shu tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shu−lin forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shui water, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shuidao, shui−tao channel. . . . . . . . . . . shui−lu channel, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . siu small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssu monastry, temple, four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . su see hsu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sz four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ta tower, great, large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’a pagoda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tai big, great, large, see also tui. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tan flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’an banks, flats, rapids, lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tang village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’ang embankment, pond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tao island, road, paddy field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’ao bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tao−tzu islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tau cape, point, see also tao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tautze see t’o−tzu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ti embankment, dyke, earth, ground, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . place, low, bottom
t’ien arable land, field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tin fields (paddy). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ting summit, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’o stone, rocky eminence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’o−tzu stone, rocky knob, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tou, t’ou, t’ou−tzu cape, headland, point. . . . . . . . . . . tow see tou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tsat seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tsui, tsui−tzu, tsui−wei cape, point, spit. . . . . . . tsuen, ts’un village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tu ferry, ford. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tuan village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tui mound, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tui−tsui bank, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tun village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tung east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uk grave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wa swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wai outer, walled village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wan bay, gulf, bend in river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wei headland, tail, walled town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi west, creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xia strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xian county. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiao small, little. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xin new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xviii
xu village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese English Chinese English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yai cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yan rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yang ocean, enclosed portion of the sea, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . channel
yat one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yeh moorland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yen embankment, dyke, rock, reef, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yen’t’an salt pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yen−tien salt pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yen−chang salt works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yi two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yu, yü island, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yuen garden, orchard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yunhe, yun−ho canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . zhai village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhang mount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhen town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhong middle, central. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhou shoal, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhuang village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zui, zuizi point, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zulangdi breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PORTUGUESE
Portuguese English Portuguese English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baía bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barra bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canal channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fortaleza fortress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponta point (of land). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOTES
xix
67
66
4
THAILAND
CAMBODIA
HO CHI MINH CITY
V
I
E
T
N
A
M
5
2
3988
B. de Nha Trang
Continued on
Index 30(b)
98°
98°
99°
99°
100°
100°
101°
101°
102°
102°
103°
103°
104°
104°
105°
105°
106°
106°
107°108°
Longitude 108° East from Greenwich
109°110°111°
111°
112°
112°
113°
113°
114°
114°
115°
115°
116°
116°
117°
117°
13°
12°
11°
10°
9°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
3°
2°
1°
13°
12°
11°
10°
9°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
3°
2°
1°
KRUNG THEP
(BANGKOK)
4
4
3985
3542
5
S
o
n
g
a
i
G
S
o
n
3986
Charlotte Bk
Prince of Wales Bk
3
MALAY
PENINSULA
Kuantan Port
3543
2
Natuna
Eilanden
SOUTH
CHINA
SEA
NP 31
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOL II
BRUNEI
1358
S
U
M
A
T
E
R
A
China Sea Pilot Vol I
NP 44
MALACCA STRAIT PILOT
SINGAPORE
P. P.
Anambas
SingaporeStrait
1311
NP 36
INDONESIAN PILOT VOL I
SARAWAK
NP 30(a)
3987
Sattahip
0904
Kampong
Saom
SABAH
Songkhla
xx
GULF OF
THAILAND
Chapter Index Diagram
103°
103°
104°
104°
105°
105°
106°
106°
107°
107°
108°
108°
109°
109°
110°111°
Longitude 111° East from Greenwich
112°113°114°
114°
115°
115°
116°
116°
117°
117°
118°
118°
119°
119°
120°
120°
121°
121°
25°
24°
23°
22°
21°
20°
19°
18°
17°
16°
15°
14°
13°
12°
3990
3892
H
s
i
C
h
i
a
n
g
P
e
i
C
h
i
a
n
g
CHINA
7
8
9
10
U
A
N
Z
G
H
O
U
C
(
A
T
N
O
N
)
See
Index Chart
NP 30(c)
H
O
N
G
J
i
e
s
h
i
W
a
n
1962
NP 32
CHINA SEA
PILOT VOL III
T
A
W
I
A
N
S
T
R
T
A
I
1968
T
'
A
I
-
W
A
N
6
5
7
7
HAI-NAN TAO
1555
Pratas I. & Rf.
3989
V
I
E
T
N
A
M
3991
3988
G
U
L
F
O
F
T
O
N
I
K
N
7
2
2
Woody I. Paracel Is.
Triton I.
Macclesfield Bk.
CHINA
SEA
NP 31
CHINA SEA
PILOT VOL II
LUZON
China Sea Pilot Vol I
Continued on Index 30(a)
3987
NP 30(b)
0904
94
25°
24°
23°
22°
21°
20°
19°
18°
17°
16°
15°
14°
13°
12°
G
Da Nang
Sanya
HANOI
Beihai
xxi
K
O
N
G
Chapter Index Diagram
113°
113°
114°
Longitude 114° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
23°
23°
22°
22°
G
A
Z
H
U
N
G
U
(
O
C
A
N
T
O
N
)
H
u
a
n
g
p
u
CHINA
343
4128
Daya Wan
Sanzhou Ao
Honghai Wan
o
341
343
8
8
Z
HU
J
I
A
NG
K
O
W
L
O
O
N
YANTIAN
Mirs Bay
10
10
Tuoning Liedao
Daxingshan Jiao
Zhenyantou
MACAU
Wanshan
Qundao
9
Lantau Island
D
a
n
g
a
n
L
i
e
d
o
a
341
HONG
KONG
937
1372
China Sea Pilot Vol I
7
3026
8
Jiapeng
Liedao
NP 30(c)
0904
Lamma Island
Gaolan
Liedao
Shekou
344
346
Chapter Index Diagram
xxii
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its
hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:-
(a) that no liability whatever will be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition
of the international validity of the law or regulation.
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOLUME 1
______________________________
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
Chart 4508
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
1.1
1
This volume contains Sailing Directions for the coastal
waters and islands in the W part of the South China Sea
and for the sea area within the limits defined below:
From 1°34′N, 104°15′E, a position on the coast of
Malaysia at the E end of the Singapore Strait,
thence N along:
2
The E coasts of Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia,
Vietnam and the S coast of China to Zhelang Jiao
(22°39′N, 115°34′E), thence SE to:
20°00′N, 119°00′E, thence SW to:
8°30′N, 111°00′E, thence S to:
7°00′N, 111°00′E, thence SW to:
4°30′N, 107°00′E, thence S to:
2°50′N, 107°00′E, thence SW to:
1°34′N, 104°34′E, thence W to:
The Malaysian coast.
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Navigation amongst coral
1.2
1
Coral reefs are encountered in certain regions covered
by this volume; attention is drawn to the section under
‘Coral’ to be found in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Former mined areas
1.3
1
Certain areas within the limits of this volume in which
mines are known to have been laid during the 1939–45 war
have not been swept. Further extensive areas dangerous
owing to mines laid during hostilities in Vietnamese waters,
between 1963−73 exist; the details of many of these areas
are not known. Details of the known areas are given in
Appendix I and are referred to within the text of the
relevant chapters.
2
Mine risks. The danger to surface ships from mines laid
during the 1939−45 war is decreasing as the detonating
mechanisms, triggered in nearly all cases by a ship’s
magnetic field or by its machinery noise, become
inoperative after many years. The risk to surface navigation
from these mines is now considered no greater than normal
navigational hazards. However, such mines continue to
constitute a risk to ships anchoring, trawling or carrying
out sea-bed operations and indeed, the explosive in the
mines becomes more unstable with age. See also Annual
Notice to Mariners No 6.
3
Navigational risks. The existence of minefields has
inhibited hydrographic surveying in them, and outside the
swept routes there may be many uncharted wrecks and
isolated shoals especially dangerous to deep-draught
vessels.
Piracy
1.4
1
Attacks on vessels by armed thieves in the South China
Sea can take place in international waters as piracy, or,
more commonly, as armed robbery in the territorial waters
of a coastal state. These attacks are usually made from fast
motor boats approaching from astern. Laden vessels with
low freeboard are particularly vulnerable. However vessels
with a high freeboard and travelling in excess of 17 kn
have been boarded. Attacks usually take place under cover
of darkness, most often between 0100 and 0600.
2
Reports by the International Maritime Bureau indicate
that while the incidence of reported piracy and armed
robbery within the area covered by this volume is low, and
that most cases occurred while berthed or at anchor, it
remains high in adjacent areas. The areas most prone to
attacks are in the vicinity of the Vietnamese ports of
CHAPTER 1
2
Haiphong, Saigon Port (Ho Chi Minh City) and Vung Tau.
Foiled attempts were invariably attributed to alert crews
taking the recommended countermeasures.
3
A Piracy Reporting Centre at Kuala Lumpur operates for
the SE Asian region. It is able to receive reports from
vessels about piracy attacks, and advise of danger areas
within the region. See section on ‘Piracy and Armed
Robbery’ towards the end of Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1.
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
High speed craft
1.5
1
High speed craft operate in the Zhujiang Kou area
between Hong Kong, Macau, Shekou and ports on the
Zhujiang (Chapters 8 and 9). Mariners are advised to
maintain a good lookout. Some high speed craft may
generate large waves, which can have a serious impact on
small craft and their moorings close to the shoreline and on
shallow off-lying banks. For further details, see Annual
Notice to Mariners No 23.
Fishing
1.6
1
General remarks. Fishing is a major industry and one
of the main sources of food in many countries bordering
the South China Sea. For many years, owing to primitive
craft and equipment, the fishing grounds have been
confined to the shallow and comparatively sheltered waters
near the coast. With the progressive modernisation of the
fishing industry in SE Asia, fishing grounds have been
extended. Trawling is a significant development in these
open-sea operations.
Fish are abundant, with little evidence of fish migration,
but certain grounds have seasonal fishing owing to their
exposure to the NE and SW monsoons.
2
Peninsular Malaysia. All coastal regions off the E coast
of Peninsular Malaysia may be considered potential fishing
grounds, the main fishing port being Terengganu (3.139).
Palisade traps, seine and drift nets, lines, lures and bottom
trawls are used. Sizes of craft vary from rowing or sailing
boats, 3 m in length, to power-driven craft 15 m in length.
In coastal waters the fishing fleet may number from three
to fifty vessels, with net and line fishing out to the 10 m
line, and trawling in deeper waters. The coastal waters of E
coast of Peninsular Malaysia are subjected to the full force
of the NE monsoon and this greatly reduces fishing
between the months of November and March.
3
Gulf of Thailand. In the Gulf of Thailand fishing is
carried out in a coastal belt extending to the 40 m line.
Krung Thep (Bangkok) is the main fishing port. Fishing is
carried out, mainly by night, with pair trawling using otter
trawls to depths of 30 m and net and line fishing to depths
of 20 m. The fishing seasons are dictated by weather, thus
during the NE monsoon (November to March), the E side
of the Gulf is fished and during the SW monsoon, the W
side.
4
South China Sea — Northern part. In the N half of
the South China Sea, as in the S, the fishing is confined
mainly to the shelf regions and there is little activity in the
deeper waters off the shelf. Little is known of fishing
operations along the Vietnamese coast, but as fishing is an
important industry, there is little doubt that vessels will be
active in these waters. On the coastal shelf of SE China,
the fishing grounds extend from Hainan Dao in a NE
direction. Within the 100 m depth contour, trawling and
long line fishing are carried out so that operations continue
for most of the year. If the region is divided into three
sub-regions, then fishing is carried out as follows:
Area Method Period
E of Hainan Dao Long line
Trawling
January to May
November to May
Central region (W of Pratas Reef)
Long line
Trawling
100 m 50 m
May to August November to May
February to March
June to October
SE of Hong Kong Long line
Trawling
September to April
November to March
5
The region is fished mainly by vessels from Hong Kong,
but visits are made by vessels from the Philippines. At
Hong Kong, there are about 10 000 vessels engaged in
fishing, and while many undertake only limited day to day
inshore operations, a great percentage do operate in
offshore regions.
6
Sizeable fleets of fishing junks may be met off the coast
of China. As a rule the junks have their smallest sail
forward. Large trading junks have five masts, with two
small sails aft. Chinese junks do not carry the regulation
lights.
1.7
1
Fishing stakes. On most banks fronting the shores, and
probably off many parts of the coasts mentioned in this
volume, particularly off the mouths of rivers, fishing stakes
and enclosures will be met in depths of 5 to 10 m
(16 to 33 ft) and in some cases greater depths. These
enclosures are constructed of trees firmly driven into the
banks, and interlaced with branches, etc, and form a
considerable danger to vessels navigating at night in the
depths mentioned above. They last many years, and to
those with local knowledge are good landmarks.
2
Recent Admiralty charts may show only a caution, to
the effect that fishing stakes are liable to be encountered
and that their positions are frequently altered. The absence
of fishing stake symbols from charts does not, therefore,
imply that they do not exist.
1.8
1
Marine farms. An increasing number of marine farms
and enclosures may be encountered in many bays and other
inshore coastal areas of the region, particularly in the Gulf
of Thailand. These are charted where known.
Fish aggregating devices have been moored at a
number of places off the coast of Peninsular Malaysia in
depths of up to 30 m. They are marked by buoys (special).
Mariners should keep well clear.
Submarine exercise areas
1.9
1
Submarine exercise areas exist in the SW part of the
South China Sea; see 2.4 and 3.12.
Marine exploitation
1.10
1
Drilling rigs. Floating or fixed drilling rigs may be
encountered in some of the waters covered by this volume,
especially off the E coast of Peninsular Malaysia, in the
Gulf of Thailand, off the SE coast of Vietnam and in some
areas off the S coast of China. Buoys and light-buoys
associated with drilling operations are frequently laid in the
vicinity of rigs. The position of rigs and buoys are subject
to frequent change and where known are promulgated by
NAVAREA XI radio navigational warning messages (1.20).
Permanent platforms, structures and buoys are charted.
CHAPTER 1
3
1.11
1
Gasfields and pipelines in the Gulf of Thailand.
Numerous structures, usually showing lights Mo(U)
15 seconds, and below-water obstructions, some marked by
buoys, exist in the gasfields. The limits of the gasfields are
charted but some of the features within them may not be.
Special care should be exercised by vessels navigating in
the vicinity.
2
Unauthorised passage between the platforms and
anchoring within the gasfields is prohibited. mariners risk
prosecution if they anchor or trawl near a pipeline and so
damage it. Gas from a damaged pipeline could cause a fire
or the loss of a vessel’s buoyancy.
1.12
1
Gas pipeline — Kakap Natuna Oilfield to Singapore.
A gas pipeline, lying mostly within the Indonesian
economic zone (see chart), connects Anoa Marine Terminal
(5°13′N, 105°36′E) (2.86), Kakap Natuna Oilfield (4°57′N,
106°00′E) (2.90) and Belida Oilfield (4°09′N, 105°07′E)
(2.76) to a terminal at Singapore. Indonesian authorities
have declared a marine activity exclusion zone, extending
750 m either side of the pipeline, in which anchoring, sand
mining and other similar seabed activities are prohibited.
CHARTS
Admiralty charts
1.13
1
The general remarks on charts and their use contained in
The Mariner’s Handbook should be read in conjunction
with these paragraphs.
There are some parts of the area covered by this volume
where the charts depend mainly on lead line surveys
carried out in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The
coverage is summarised as follows:
Indonesia. The charts of Pulau-Pulau Anambas (2.19)
are based on British surveys mainly carried out in
the latter part of the 19th century. See also 2.21.
2
Malaysia. The charts of Malaysian waters are
compiled mainly from British surveys, although
not all are based on modern survey techniques,
augmented by recent Malaysian surveys,
particularly in the approaches to the major ports.
The shifting nature of the bars fronting some of
the rivers should be borne in mind when assessing
the reliability of a chart, taking into consideration
the date of the latest survey.
3
Thailand. The charts of the Gulf of Thailand are
based on Thai and French charts drawn from Thai,
French and US surveys. Surveys of the inshore
waters date from the latter half of the 20th century.
Cambodia. Charts are compiled from French, Thai,
US and Russian charts.
4
Vietnam. The charts of the S and E coasts are
compiled mainly from French charts prior to 1956
and US charts prior to 1967. Not all, however, are
based on modern techniques. The metric charts of
the Song Sai Gon and approaches are based on US
charts from US and Vietnamese surveys to 1968.
5
China. Admiralty metric charts cover the coast E of
Qiongzhou Haixia to the limit of this volume and
a number of major ports with their approaches.
The remaining fathoms charts of Gulf of Tonkin
and Hainan Dao are based mainly on old surveys.
6
Hong Kong SAR. The waters of Hong Kong SAR
are based, in the main, on modern British surveys
carried out up to 1972, supplemented by later
surveys conducted by the Public Works
Department. The waters E of the Tathong Channel
were mostly surveyed in the beginning of the
twentieth century.
Foreign charts
1.14
1
Malaysia. The Hydrographic Department of the Royal
Malaysian Navy publish a number of charts of the E coast
of Peninsular Malaysia. These include some large scale
charts not available within British Admiralty coverage.
Thailand. A full series of charts covering Thai waters is
published by the Hydrographic Department of the Royal
Thai Navy. The series includes a number of large scale
charts of smaller ports not available within British
Admiralty coverage.
2
China. A comprehensive series of Chinese charts,
incorporating data from recent survey work, is published by
the Chinese Maritime Safety Administration. In certain
areas of the Chinese coast where Admiralty charts show
insufficient detail for navigation close inshore, information
used in these Sailing Directions has been taken from this
series of charts.
3
Chinese charts may be obtained from the address shown
under China in the Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and
Publications or from:
China Navigation Press,
102 Shanghai Road,
Tanggu District,
Tianjin 300450,
Peoples Republic of China.
Datums
1.15
1
Chart datum. On the modern British Admiralty charts
of the area covered by this volume, depths are reduced to
chart datum which is approximately the level of LAT.
Elevations. On the majority of British Admiralty charts
of the region, elevations are given above MHHW; a few
charts show elevations above MHWS.
2
Horizontal datums. British Admiralty charts of the
Malaysian coast are mostly referred to the Revised Kertau
Datum; those within the Gulf of Thailand are mostly
referred to Indian Datum (1975). Large scale charts
covering the Hong Kong SAR have been converted to
WGS 84 Datum, while most of the remaining charts are
referred to Hong Kong (1980) Datum. The datums of most
of the charts covering other areas of the region are not
known.
3
Many charts carry a note of the corrections to be applied
to satellite-derived positions, where these are known. On
charts where this correction is not known, it should not be
assumed that such a correction is negligible. For further
information, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Daymarks
1.16
1
With respect to the descriptions in this book concerning
the shapes and colours of buildings, etc., and any
remaining remarks concerning trees, which are from old
surveys, caution must be exercised. Many new buildings
may have been erected and old trees destroyed, so that
such marks, which may at one time have been conspicuous
on account of their isolation, shape or colour, may no
longer exist or may now be difficult to distinguish.
CHAPTER 1
4
Buoyage
1.17
1
The IALA Maritime Buoyage System (Region A) is in
use in all countries covered by this volume, although
conversion may not be complete in Vietnam. Details of the
IALA system are given in The Mariner’s Handbook and
IALA Maritime Buoyage System.
PILOTAGE
National pilotage
1.18
1
Pilotage is compulsory for most classes of vessel for all
ports in this volume where pilots are available. Details are
given within the description of the ports.
RADIO FACILITIES
Position fixing systems
1.19
1
Loran C skywave coverage is available throughout the
area and groundwave coverage throughout the NE part of
the region, N and E of central Vietnam.
Satellite navigation systems. See 1.15 concerning
satellite-derived positions.
2
DGPS coverage is limited to the E coast of peninsular
Malaysia S of about 6°N and to China N of about 15°N.
For full details of these position fixing systems see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Radio navigational warnings
1.20
1
The area covered by this volume lies in NAVAREA XI
of the World-wide Navigation Warning Service; the Area
Co-ordinator is Japan. Coastal Warnings and Local
Warnings may also be transmitted by, respectively, National
Co-ordinators and port or harbour authorities.
2
NAVTEX service is available from:
Singapore (Jurong) (1°20′N, 103°42′E)
Krung Thep (Bangkok) (13°43′N, 100°34′E)
Ho Chi Minh City (10°47′N, 106°40′E)
Da Nang (16°05′N, 108°13′E)
3
Sanya (18°14′N, 109°30′E)
Guangzhou (23°05′N, 113°32′E)
Hong Kong (22°13′N, 114°15′E)
Full details of services may be found in Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 3(2). See also Annual Notice to
Mariners No 13.
Radio weather services
1.21
1
Full details of radio weather services, including diagrams
of forecast areas, may be found in Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 3(2).
REGULATIONS
International regulations
1.22
1
Submarine cables. See The Mariner’s Handbook under
‘Submarine pipelines and cables’ for information on The
International Convention for the Protection of Submarine
Cables.
Pollution. Brief details of The International Convention
for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as
modified by the protocol of 1978, known as MARPOL
73/78, may be found in The Mariner’s Handbook under
‘Pollution of the sea’.
National regulations
1.23
1
Thailand. Extracts from ‘Navigation in Thai Territorial
Waters Act’ will be found in Appendix II.
Indonesia. National regualtions for Indonesia may be
found in China Sea Pilot Volume 2 or in a volume of
Indonesia Pilot.
2
China. A reproduction of ‘Regulations Governing
Supervision and Control of Foreign Vessels by the People’s
Republic of China’, extracts from quarantine regulations,
and a reproduction of the ‘Maritime Traffic Safety Law of
the People’s Republic of China’ will be found in Appendix
III.
SIGNALS
Peninsular Malaysia
1.24
1
The signals in Diagram 1.24 are in use within the limits
of ports in Peninsular Malaysia. All lights, shapes and
signals required by the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) and the International
Code of Signals will be recognised within port limits with
the following modifications and additions.
Malaysia − Harbour Signals (1.24)
Thailand
1.25
1
Submarines. Thai vessels display a red triangular flag to
denote that submarines, which may be submerged, are in
the vicinity.
Naval signals to merchant vessels. Within Thai
territorial waters merchant ships may be signalled by Thai
naval craft to stop, or proceed in a certain direction for the
purpose of search.
2
Signals for stopping vessels. By day, signals from
the International Code of Signals will be used by
a naval patrol craft. By night, repeated short and
long flashes will be made by a naval patrol craft,
or a rocket, from which a red flare is ejected, will
be fired. Vessels which do not stop in answer to
these signals will be fired on.
CHAPTER 1
5
3
Signals for directing vessels. A naval aircraft,
making an appropriate signal from the
International Code of Signals, flying low round the
vessel and then proceeding towards a certain
direction, indicates that the vessel must proceed in
that direction. Vessels ignoring this signal will be
warned by a burst of machine-gun fire directed
ahead of the vessel.
China
1.26
1
In addition to signals from the International Code of
Signals, the visual signals in Diagram 1.26 may be used in
Chinese harbour areas: China − Vessel quarantine signals (1.26)
China − Vessel berth signals (1.26)
Vessels engaged in special work(4)
China − Vessel engaged in special work (1.26)
China − Traffic signals (1.26)
Storm and strong wind warnings
1.27
1
Terminology. The following terms are used in storm
warnings to indicate tropical disturbances of different
intensities:
Term Indicating
Tropical depression Winds up to 33 kn.
Tropical storm Winds from 34 to 63 kn.
Typhoon Winds of 64 kn and over.
2
Storm warning broadcasts. Storm warnings are
broadcast by all weather services in those parts of the
region covered by this volume which are liable to be
affected by tropical storms or typhoons. An area of
responsibility has been assigned to each weather service,
and these areas overlap so that the whole region is
effectively covered. Details of these transmissions by RT
and NAVTEX in English and local languages are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(2).
1.28
1
Thailand. The system of visual storm signals in use in
Thailand to indicate intensity and locality is shown in
Diagram 1.28 2
The signals indicating the occurrence of storms in the
Gulf of Thailand and adjacent waters and their intensity are
displayed at Krung Thep (Bangkok). The signals are
Day
MeaningNight
Pilot vessel on station
Vessel requires fresh water
Vessel requires rope handling boat or ropehandlers for berthing/unberthing
Vessel requires transportation boat
Vessel requires wastewater boat (or vehicle)
Ve s s e l c a r r y i n g o u t manoeuvering trials
Vessel on fire and requiring immediate assistance Vessel leaking water and requiring immediate assistance
Vessel requires urgent medical assistance
Vessel entering/exiting a dock; passing vessels to remain clear
Day
MeaningNight
Vessel fumigating
Vessel is venting following fumigation
Vessel is conducting above or underwater construction work
Large vessel or tow will be or is turning in Zone 1-5 (as designated by pennant)
Cable vessel is mooring/casting off mooring cables
Vessel signals
Vessel requires rubbish disposal boat (or vehicle)
China - Harbour Signals (1.26)
CHAPTER 1
6
CHAPTER 1
7
Thailand − Storm Signals (1.28)
hoisted on the same yardarm with the pennant indicating
the intensity and the flag indicating the locality of the
storm, with the pennant uppermost. In normal weather
conditions a white pennant with a red circle is displayed at
the upper yardarm.
1.29
1
China. The signals in Diagram 1.29 may be displayed
in Chinese ports to warn of strong winds or typhoons:
Hong Kong. Details of the local storm warning signals
used in the Hong Kong SAR are given in 9.103.
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
General information
1.30
1
The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
(GMDSS) is described, and general information on distress
and rescue is given, in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5, The Mariner’s Handbook and Annual Notice to
Mariners No 4.
2
The Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centres (MRCC) at
Singapore, Hai Phong and Hong Kong are responsible for
the Search and Rescue Regions (SRR) covering the South
China Sea. The MRCC at Krung Thep (Bangkok) is
responsible for the SRR within the Gulf of Thailand.
China − Storm Signals (1.29)
CHAPTER 1
8
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
THE FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA
General description
1.31
1
The Federation of Malaysia consists of the former
Federation of Malaya (now known as Peninsular Malaysia),
Sabah (formerly British North Borneo) and Sarawak (W
Borneo). This volume covers the E coast of Peninsular
Malaysia. The W coast of Peninsular Malaysia is covered
in Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot and
Sabah and Sarawak are covered in China Sea Pilot
Volume II.
2
Peninsular Malaysia (or West Malaysia) is a
comparatively narrow strip of land lying between the
Malacca Strait to the W and the South China Sea to the E.
The territory is about 725 km long and 320 km wide at its
widest point. The total area is some 131 600 square km and
is divided into 11 states. The capitals are Putrajaya
(administrative) and Kuala Lumpur (financial). Thailand
borders the N limit; to the S are a number of islands
comprising the Republic of Singapore.
3
From S to N, the states of Johor (Johore), Pahang,
Terengganu and Kelantan fall within the limits of this
volume.
National limits
1.32
1
Malaysia claims a 12 mile breadth of territorial sea; an
exclusive economic zone to 200 miles; and employs a
straight baseline system along the coasts. See also Annual
Notice to Mariners No 12 and The Mariner’s Handbook
under ‘National Maritime Limits’.
History
1.33
1
The Federation of Malaya became an independent
country within the Commonwealth in August 1957. The
Federation of Malaysia came into being in September 1963
and included the State of Singapore. Singapore
subsequently withdrew from the Federation in August 1965
and became an independent republic.
Government
1.34
1
The constitution, based on that of the former Federation
of Malaya, provides for a strong federal government, but
allows for a degree of autonomy for the thirteen state
governments. The Supreme Head of the Federation (Yang
di-Pertuan Agong), and a deputy, serve for 5 years, and are
elected from amongst themselves by the Rulers of the
Malay States.
2
The Federal Parliament consists of two houses, the
Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate
consists of elected and appointed members from each state.
The House of Representatives consists of members elected
by universal adult suffrage with a common electoral roll.
Population
1.35
1
The population was estimated in 2001 to be
22⋅63 millions. The principal ethnic groups are Malays
(58%) and Chinese (27%); the remainder being of Indian or
Sri Lankan origin, as well as the indigenous races of
Sarawak and Sabah.
Languages
1.36
1
Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) is the official language.
English, several dialects of Chinese, and Tamil are also
widely spoken.
Physical features
1.37
1
About a half of Peninsular Malaysia is covered by
tropical jungle. A central mountain range runs N/S, with
the highest mountain, Gunung Tahan, 2189 m high. Low
lying coastal plains lie on each side of the range. The W
plains are well served by road and rail and contain most of
the towns of the peninsula. The E plains are less well
developed.
2
Malay rivers at their sources and in their upper reaches
are quick flowing, often with tortuous rapids and
precipitous gorges. In the lower reaches, the descent is
more gradual and the water takes on a muddy hue from
contamination with the silt of the plains through which they
meander, flowing out ultimately through strips of mangrove
swamp.
3
The two principal rivers of the peninsula are Sungai
Pahang (3.59) and Sungai Perak. Gunung Tahan and other
peaks constitute some of the highest territory S of the
Himalayas. That part of the country, free from the torrid
luxuriance of forest and jungle, has been developed into
great rice producing areas, particularly in Kelantan on the
E side. Other stretches have been scarred by the incisions
of industry.
4
The coastline of Peninsular Malaysia extends for over
1000 miles. On the E coast, there are long unbroken
stretches of sand and surf bordered by a littoral vegetation
which lends to beauty probably unparalleled in the tropics.
Flora and fauna
1.38
1
A general description of flora and fauna of Peninsular
Malaysia may be found in Chapter 1 of Malacca Strait and
West Coast of Sumatera Pilot.
Industry and trade
1.39
1
Industry. Major products include electronic components,
electrical goods and appliances. Rubber and tin mining are
still important industries, although they have declined in
relation to manufacturing over recent decades.
Trade. The chief exports are are rubber, tin, metal, palm
oil, electronic goods, LNG, electrical products, textiles,
wood (sawn timber and logs) and iron ore.
The chief imports are machinery and transport
equipment, food and live animals, and manufactured goods.
REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
General description
1.40
1
The Republic of Indonesia consists of the large islands
and groups of islands of Sumatera, Jawa, Madura, Bali,
Nusatenggara, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), Sulawesi,
the Moluccas, Irian Jaya and some 3000 smaller islands
and islets. The capital is Jakarta, situated on the NW side
of Jawa.
2
Only the small island group of Pulau-Pulau Anambas
facing the E coast of Peninsular Malaysia fall within the
limits of this volume. Further information on Indonesia will
be found in Indonesia Pilot Volume I, Indonesia Pilot
CHAPTER 1
9
Volume II, Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot
and China Sea Pilot Volume II.
National limits
1.41
1
Indonesia claims a 12 mile breadth of territorial sea; a
24 mile contiguous zone; an exclusive economic zone to
200 miles. The country claims archipelago status. See also
Annual Notice to Mariners No 12 and The Mariner’s
Handbook.
KINGDOM OF THAILAND
General description
1.42
1
The Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam,
took its present name in 1939. The W coast of the country
borders the S part of the Andaman Sea and the N part of
the Malacca Strait, while the E coast described in this
volume borders the Gulf of Thailand. The country is
510 900 square km in area, with its capital, Krung Thep
(Bangkok) situated near the head of the Gulf of Thailand.
The country borders Peninsular Malaysia at the S extremity
of the narrow Isthmus of Kra and Cambodia to the SE.
National limits
1.43
1
Thailand claims a 12 mile breadth of territorial sea; an
exclusive economic zone to 200 miles; and employs a
straight baseline system along the coast. See also Annual
Notice to Mariners No 12 and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.44
1
Following a bloodless coup in 1932, Thailand
transformed itself from an absolute to a constitutional
monarchy, albeit a nominal one as for much of the period
until 1992 the country has been ruled by a series of
military governments, interspersed with brief periods of
democracy. Since 1992 the country has been a functioning
democracy.
Government
1.45
1
The present constitutional monarchy provides for a
bicameral National Assembly consisting of a 393 member
House of Representatives, elected by universal suffrage for
a term of 4 years, and a 200 member Senate directly
elected on a non-party basis. For administrative purposes,
the country is divided into 76 provinces (changwads),
including the metropolis of Krung Thep.
Population
1.46
1
The population, which is 89% Thai, was 63 584 000 in
2001.
Languages
1.47
1
The official language is Thai, although English is widely
used in Government and commercial circles. There are
some ethnic and regional dialects, reported to be spoken
mainly in the N of the country.
Physical features
1.48
1
The country has a densely populated central plain, the
Khorat plateau to the NE and mountains elsewhere.
Industry and trade
1.49
1
Industry. A high percentage of the labour force is
employed in agriculture, rice being the country’s most
important crop. Significant amounts of tapioca, rubber,
corn, sugar, fish and fishery products are also produced. A
diversifying manufacturing industry includes computers and
electronics, textiles and shoes, cement, furniture, wood
products, canned food, toys, plastic products, gems and
jewelry. Tourism is also a major industry.
2
Trade. The chief exports include rice, processed foods,
integrated circuits and parts, electrical appliances and
vehicles, while principal imports include machinery and
parts, vehicles, electronic integrated circuits, chemicals,
crude oils and fuels, iron and steel.
KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA
General description
1.50
1
The Kingdom of Cambodia, bordering the Gulf of
Thailand in the SW, became a fully independent state in
1953, having previously been a French protectorate and
then briefly an Associate State within the French Union.
The country, bordering Thailand to the NW and Vietnam
to the E, is about 181 035 square km in area. The capital,
Phnom Penh, is situated in the SE part of the country.
Phnom Penh is accessible by sea via Mekong River.
National limits
1.51
1
Cambodia claims a 12 mile breadth of territorial sea; a
contiguous zone of 24 miles; and an exclusive economic
zone to 200 miles. Cambodia employs a straight baseline
system along the coast. See also Annual Notice to Mariners
No 12 and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.52
1
Prince Sihanouk, the Head of State, was deposed in
March 1970 following a period of increasing economic
difficulties and growing indirect involvement in the
Vietnamese War. Later that year the Kingdom was declared
the Khmer Republic. Phnom Penh fell to the N
Vietnamese-backed Khmer Rouge in 1975 and during
Khmer Rouge rule, maybe 2 million Cambodians were
killed and hundreds of thousands fled into exile. Following
an invasion of Vietnamese troops in 1978, the country was
renamed The People’s Republic of Kampuchea, and then in
1989 the State of Cambodia at the time of Vietnamese
withdrawal. Following peace agreements signed in 1991,
elections were held under UN auspices in 1993 and a new
constitution put in place later the same year. However
armed conflict continued between rival factions until a
Japanese brokered peace led to further ‘fair and free’
elections in 1998.
Government
1.53
1
The present government is a multiparty democracy under
a constitutional monarchy. The National Assembly has 122
members elected for 5 year terms and the Senate has 61
appointed members. The country is divided into 17
provinces.
Population
1.54
1
The 1998 census recorded a population of 11⋅4 millions;
estimated in 2000 to be 13⋅1 millions.
CHAPTER 1
10
Languages
1.55
1
The official language is Khmer. French, Vietnamese and
Chinese are also spoken.
Physical features
1.56
1
The SW and the N border with Thailand are
mountainous. A low central plain is drained by the Tonle
Sap and the Mekong River. There are heavy forests away
from the rivers and the lake.
Industry and trade
1.57
1
Industry. A high percentage of those economically
active are employed in the areas of fishing, agriculture and
forestry. Light industry is more advanced than heavy
industry.
2
Trade. The chief exports are rubber, rice, wood,
soy-beans, textiles and furnishings. Principal imports
include petroleum products, construction materials,
machinery, vehicles and cigarettes.
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
General description
1.58
1
The present Socialist Republic of Vietnam was formed
in July 1976 from the unification of the former North and
South Vietnam. The country, with a total area of
331 690 square km, borders the Gulf of Thailand in the SW,
South China Sea in the E and Gulf of Tonkin in the NE.
Vietnam has a land border with China to the N and
Cambodia in the SW. The capital is Hanoi situated in the N
part of the country.
National limits
1.59
1
Vietnam claims a 12 mile breadth of territorial sea; a
contiguous zone of 24 miles; and an exclusive economic
zone to 200 miles. Vietnam employs a straight baseline
system along the coast. See also Annual Notice to Mariners
No 12 and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.60
1
French forces re-entered Vietnam after World War II to
declare it a free state within the French Union. However
the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, under Ho Chi Minh,
had been formed a year earlier and continued to press for
full independence. Full scale hostilities followed the break
down of talks with France and continued until the French
defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. The cease-fire terms
provided for provisional partition of Vietnam into two
military zones with the French S of 17°N in South Vietnam
and the Democratic Republic N of 17°N in North Vietnam.
2
After 1959, forces from North Vietnam actively assisted
insurgent movements in South Vietnam and this escalated
into the Vietnamese War, with the US participating on the
side of the anti-communist regime in Saigon (now Ho Chi
Minh City). A peace agreement was signed in January
1973 providing for a cease-fire in the S and the withdrawal
of US forces. The cease-fire was not observed and
following the withdrawal of US forces, the forces of the
South Vietnamese government were routed and a
Provisional Revolutionary Government was in control of
South Vietnam by May 1975.
Government
1.61
1
The most recent state constitution approved in April
1992 reaffirmed the central role of the Communist Party,
which remains the ultimate source of power. A 450
member National Assembly is elected for a 5 year term.
The country is divided into 60 provinces grouped into
7 regions.
Population
1.62
1
Projected population in 2000 is 80⋅5 millions.
Languages
1.63
1
The official language is Vietnamese. Some French,
English, Chinese and Khmer are also spoken.
Physical features
1.64
1
Much of the country is mountainous, with the flat delta
of the Mekong River in the S and that of the Song Ca
(Red River) surrounding Hanoi in the N.
Industry and trade
1.65
1
Industry. Building materials, chemicals, machinery and
foodstuffs are among the main products. Although still
high, agriculture has been declining as a share of economic
output and production in other sectors has risen
Trade. Vietnam is one of the leading exporters of rice,
while other products include coal, fish products, livestock
and coffee. Principal imports include oil, steel and
fertilizers.
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
General description
1.66
1
The People’s Republic of China, the third largest country
in the world, comprises about one fifth of Asia, over
9⋅5 million square km. The country borders Korea Bay, Bo
Hai, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South
China Sea between North Korea and Vietnam. The capital,
Beijing, is situated in the NE part of the country.
National limits
1.67
1
China claims a 12 mile breadth of territorial sea; a
contiguous zone of 24 miles; and an exclusive economic
zone to 200 miles. China employs a straight baseline
system along the coast. See also Annual Notice to Mariners
No 12 and The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.68
1
The People’s Republic of China was proclaimed by Mao
Zedong in October 1949 following the defeat of the
Kuomingtang government by the Communist forces. The
succeeding years included the disasters of ‘The Great Leap
Forward’ in the late 1950s and The Cultural Revolution of
the late 1960s. With the passing of Mao Zedong in 1975, a
new and pragmatic leadership emphasised economic
development and the present leadership remain committed
to economic reform and opening to the outside world.
Government
1.69
1
The People’s Republic of China is a communist state
governed by a President nominally elected for a 5 year
CHAPTER 1
11
term by the National People’s Congress, the highest organ
of state authority and the sole legislative authority in the
country. The Congress, with 2978 deputies elected for a
5 year term, meets only once a year. It also elects a
Standing Committe which carries on business when the
Congress is not in session and supervises the State Council,
the supreme executive organ.
2
China is divided into 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions
and 3 government-controlled municipalities. The coasts of
the provinces of Hainan, Guangxi and part of Guangdong
are covered in this volume. Macau and Hong Kong Special
Administrative Regions border Guangdong province.
Population
1.70
1
The population in 2000 was estimated at 1⋅27 billion.
Languages
1.71
1
The principal N Chinese dialect, known in China as
putong hua (common speech) rather than its English name
of Mandarin, has been adopted as the national language. It
is spoken by about 70% of the population. There are six
other major Chinese dialects which tend to be concentrated
in the SW and SE of the country. The written language,
being ideographic and not phonetic, is common to all
dialects.
2
In 1979, pinyin, the Chinese phonetic system for the
transliteration of names into Roman letters, was adopted in
place of the Wade-Giles system. Admiralty charts used the
Wade-Giles system until that time and older charts still
show that system. In this edition of the volume, the old
and new spellings (where known) are given where the old
system still remains on charts. The glossary at the front of
the book continues to reflect both versions.
Physical features
1.72
1
China is a great basin cut off from the rest of Asia by
deserts and mountain ranges. Most of the country is
mountainous except for the two great river plains of the
Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) and the Huang He (Yellow
River).
Industry and trade
1.73
1
Industry. Since the early 1980s, China’s economic
growth has been remarkable, even though much of the state
industry remains unreformed and inefficient. Major state
industries are iron, steel, coal, machine building, light
industrial products, armaments and textiles. Most of China’s
work force remain in agriculture, where under 10% of the
land is suitable for cultivation.
2
Trade. Machinery and electronic products have become
main exports from industry, while much agricultural exports
go to Hong Kong. Cotton, other fibres and oil seeds are
other major export products. Imports include machinery,
vehicles, fertilizer, books, paper and paper-making
materials, chemicals, metals and ores.
MACAU
SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION
General description
1.74
1
The former Portuguese colony of Macau (Aomen in
Chinese), 35 miles W of Hong Kong on the W side of the
Zhujiang Kou and comprising the peninsula of Macau and
islands of Taipa and Coloane, became a Special
Administrative Region of China in 1999. The region is
about 18 square km in area with a population of under
500 000.
National limits
1.75
1
See 1.67.
HONG KONG
SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION
General description
1.76
1
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region borders the
South China Sea and the Guangdong Province of China.
The Region comprises Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon
peninsula, the New Territories and more than 230 islands
and islets, a total area of about 1090 square km.
National limits
1.77
1
See 1.67. The administrative boundary between Hong
Kong and Guangdong province is shown at Appendix IV.
History
1.78
1
Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain under the terms
of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, Kowloon Peninsula was
acquired in 1860, and the New Territories were leased from
China in 1898 for a period of 99 years. A Joint Declaration
was signed between Britain and China in December 1984
whereby Britain agreed that Hong Kong become a Special
Administrative Region of China, with a high degree of
autonomy, on expiry of the lease in July 1997.
Government
1.79
1
As a Special Administrative Region of China, Hong
Kong has its own mini-constitution (the Basic Law). The
Government is headed by a Chief Executive, aided by an
Executive Council and a Legislative Council. The
Legislative Council comprises 60 members, of whom 24 are
directly elected by 5 geographical constituencies, 30 by 28
functional constituencies and 6 members by the election
committee.
Population
1.80
1
The population in 2000 was 6⋅8 millions, of whom about
95% are ethnic Chinese. Hong Kong is one of the most
densely populated places on earth.
Languages
1.81
1
Cantonese, one of the Chinese dialects, and English are
official languages. Putong hua (1.71) is widely understood.
Physical features
1.82
1
Hilly to mountainous with steep slopes and a natural
harbour. Extensive reclamation work has taken place over
the years which has altered the coastline in many places.
Industry and trade
1.83
1
Industry. The economic policy is mainly export
orientated and is based on free enterprise and free trade.
Service industries, including shipping, civil aviation,
tourism and various financial services, account for a high
CHAPTER 1
12
proportion of GDP as much manufacturing has migrated
across the border to cheaper labour markets. Manufacturing
includes textiles and clothes, plastics, electronics, watches
and clocks, and electrical appliances
2
Trade. Chief domestic exports include clothing and
accessories, electrical machinery and parts, textiles and
fabrics, watches and clocks. Imports include consumer
goods, raw materials and semi-manufactures, capital goods
and foodstuffs.
PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS AND
ANCHORAGES
1.84
Place and position Remarks
Malaysia
E coast Peninsular Malaysia
Pelabuhan Kuantan (3.72)
(3°58′N, 103°26′E)
Commercial port; naval
base
Kuantan (3.79)
(3°49′N, 103°20′E)
Small commercial port
Kuala Kemaman Port
(3.86)
(4°12′N, 103°30′E)
Pelabuhan Kemaman (3.86)
(4°15′N, 103°28′E)
Commercial port and off-
shore industry supply base
Chukai (3.99) (4°14′N, 103°26′E)
Small commercial port
Kertih (3.104)
(4°33′N, 103°28′E)
Offshore tanker moorings
Kertih Terminal
(3.114)(4°34′N, 103°28′E)
Kertih Port Marine
Terminal (3.119)
(4°36′N, 103°28′E)
Petrochemical terminal
Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
Songkhla (4.24)
(7°12′N, 100°36′E)
Commercial port
Prachuap Khiri Khan (4.72)
(11°12′N, 99°35′E)
Commercial port
Krung Thep (Bangkok)
(4.110) (13°42′N, 100°35′E)
Large commercial and
naval port
Ko Si Chang Harbour and
Transhipment Area (4.188)
(13°10′N, 100°50′E)
Anchorage
Si Chang Thong Terminal
(4.188) (13°08′N, 100°50′E)
Bulk liquids terminal
Si Racha Harbour (4.169)
Laem Chabang Port (4.170)
(13°03′N, 100°54′E)
Large commercial port
Si Racha Oil Terminals
(4.178) (13°07′N, 100°53′E)
Petroleum product
moorings and terminals
Ao Udom (4.183)
(13°08′∙0N, 100°53′∙5E)
Export loading piers
Place and position Remarks
Sattahip Commercial Port
(4.162) (12°37′N, 100°55′E)
Commercial port
Map Ta Phut (4.221)
(12°40′N, 101°09′E)
Large commercial port
Map Ta Phut Terminal
(4.229) (12°29′N, 101°12′E)
Offshore tanker mooring
Rayong (4.234) (12°39′N, 101°18′E)
Small commercial jetty
Gulf of Thailand Gasfields
(4.310)
Gas export terminals
Cambodia
Kampong Saom (4.257)
(10°38′N, 103°30′E)
Commercial port
Kampot (4.263) (10°36′N, 104°10′E)
Small commercial port
Phnom Penh (5.34)
(11°36′N, 104°54′E)
Small commercial port
Vietnam
Ha Tien (4.294) (10°23′N, 104°29′E)
Small commercial port
Ho Chi Min City (5.70)
(10°47′N, 106°42′E)
Commercial port
Nha Be (5.99) (10°42′N, 106°45′E)
Petroleum port
Vung Tau (5.104) (10°21′N, 107°05′E)
Commercial port
Phu My (5.110) (10°35′N, 107°02′E)
Commercial port
SE Vietnam Oilfields
(5.134)
Oil export terminals
Vinh Cam Ranh (5.157)
(11°53′N, 109°10′E)
Commercial port and
anchorage
Nha Trang (5.171)
(12°14′N, 109°12′E)
Commercial port and
anchorage
Qui-Nhon (5.225)
(13°46′N, 109°14′E)
Commercial port
Da Nang (5.263) (16°04′N, 108°13′E)
Large commercial port
Hanoi (6.62) (21°03′N, 105°51′E)
Small commercial port
Haiphong (6.64) (20°52′N, 106°40′E)
Large commercial port
Hon Gai (6.97) (20°58′N,
107°04′E)
Commercial port
Cam Pha (6.105) (21°02′N,
107°22′E)
Coal exporting port
China
S coast and Hainan Dao
Fancheng (7.20) (21°37′N, 108°20′E)
Commercial port
Beihai (7.29) (21°29′N, 109°05′E)
Commercial port
Weizhou Marine Terminal
(7.36) (20°50′N, 108°37′E)
Offshore export terminal
CHAPTER 1
13
Place and position Remarks
Macun (7.68) (19°58′N, 110°01′E)
Commercial port
Haikou (7.73) (20°02′N, 110°16′E)
Commercial port
Zhanjiang (7.101) (21°11′N, 110°24′E)
Large commercial port
Shui Dong (7.111)
(21°29′N, 111°05′E)
Small commercial port; off-
shore export terminal
Gaolan (7.118) (21°56′N, 113°13′E)
Commercial port and LPG
terminal
Basuo (7.147) (19°06′N, 108°37′E)
Commercial port
Yangpu (7.157) (19°44′N, 109°12′E)
Commercial port
Sanya (7.181) (18°14′N, 109°25′E)
Commercial port
Macau (8.30) (22°12′N, 113°33′E)
Small commercial port
Zhuhai (8.42) (22°17′N, 113°34′E)
Commercial port
Shenzhen ports:
Shekou (8.50) (22°28′N, 113°54′E)
Commercial port
Chiwan (8.50) (22° 28′N, 113°53′E)
Commercial port
Mawan (8.50) (22° 30′N, 113°52E)
Commercial port
Guangzhou (8.84)
(23°07′N, 113°14′E)
Commercial port
Huangpu (8.84) (23°06′N, 113°27′E)
Large commercial port
Huangpuxingang (8.84)
(23°02′N, 113°31′E)
Large commercial port
Hong Kong (9.76)
(22°18′N, 114°10′E)
Major commercial port and
anchorage
Yantian (10.22) (22°34′N, 114°15′E)
Commercial port
Huizhou (10.71) (22°42′N, 114°34′E)
Commercial port
Shanwei (10.81) (22°46′N, 115°21′E)
Small commercial and fish-
ing port
PORT SERVICES — SUMMARY
Docking facilities
1.85
1
Dry or floating dock facilities are available at:
Krung Thep (Bangkok)
(4.110)
Vessels up to LOA 170 m,
beam 26 m, draught 7⋅5 m,
23 000 dwt.
Laem Chabang (4.170) Vessels up to LOA 285 m,
beam 47 m, draught 7⋅3 m,
140 000 dwt.
Ho Chi Minh City (5.70) Vessels up to LOA 140 m,
beam 13 m, draught 8 m.
Da Nang (5.263) Floating dock maximum
4500 tonnes lift.
Haiphong (6.64) Vessels up to 16 000 dwt.
Shekou (8.50) Vessels up to LOA 240 m,
beam 32 m, draught 8⋅5 m.
Guangzhou (8.84) Vessels up to LOA 140 m,
beam 19 m, draught 7.7 m,
9000 dwt
Huangpu (8.84) Vessels up to LOA 298 m,
beam 60 m, draught 6.5 m,
150 000 dwt.
Hong Kong (9.76) Vessels up to LOA 290 m,
beam 40 m, draught 10 m,
70 000 dwt.
Other facilities
Compass adjustment
1.86
1
Arrangements to adjust compasses can be made at:
Krung Thep (Bangkok) (4.110).
Laem Chabang (4.170).
Haiphong (6.64).
Hong Kong (9.76).
Deratting
1.87
1
Deratting and deratting certificates:
Kuantan (3.72).
Krung Thep (Bangkok) (4.110).
Kampong Saom (4.257).
Phnom Penh (5.34).
Ho Chi Minh City (5.70).
Da Nang (5.263).
Haiphong (6.64).
Fancheng (7.20).
2
Beihai (7.29).
Haikou (7.73).
Zhanjiang (7.101).
Basuo (7.147).
Sanya (7.181).
Shekou (8.50).
Huangpu (8.84).
Guangzhou (8.84).
Hong Kong (9.76).
Huizhou (10.80).
1.88
1
Deratting exemption certificates only:
Songkhla (4.24).
Sattahip (4.162).
Laem Chabang (4.170).
Si Racha (4.178).
Ko Si Chang (4.188).
Map Ta Phut (4.221).
2
Hon Chong (4.301).
Can Tho (5.45).
Vung Tau (5.104).
Cam Ranh (5.157).
Nha Trang (5.171).
Qui-Nhon (5.225).
Vinh (6.37).
Cua Lo (6.43).
Hon Gai (6.97).
Measured distances
1.89
1
Ko Si Chang (4.190).
Yalang Wan (7.201).
Hong Kong — Chi Shui-Men (9.142).
CHAPTER 1
14
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
General remarks
1.90
1
A large number of islands subdivide the waters of SE
Asia into several different seas connected by numerous
channels and passages. The structure of the seabed and that
of the local land makes the region a very complex
structure. Deep trenches, chains of mountains, rows of
volcanoes, deep sea basins and countless coral islands form
a complexity of phenomena which are not found in other
parts of the world.
2
The whole area is supported by a partly submerged land
bridge joining the Asian and Australian continents, with the
South China Sea and the Java Sea occupying basins on this
bridge.
The South China Sea, which stretches from T’ai-wan to
the equator, provides the only direct connection between
the North Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. This large
body of water exercises a considerable influence upon the
climate, which is essentially tropical throughout the year.
Seabed
1.91
1
Sunda Shelf is the name given to the extension of the
Asian continent which connects Asia with the islands of
Borneo, Sumatera and Jawa; it supports the S half of South
China Sea. In this area depths do not exceed 200 m. Sunda
Shelf is intersected with river valleys similar to those found
in the Java Sea.
2
The deep sea basin of the South China Sea, with a
maximum known depth of 5559 m, lies along the axis of
this sea N of a line Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E) to
Tanjung Baram (4°36′N, 113°58′E). To S of this line the
entire area is supported on the Sunda Shelf and thus has
depths of less than 200 m. To the N of this line the major
portion of the region is contained in the South China Sea
Basin with depths in excess of 1800 m. In the N area the
shelf is confined to the coastal regions, its width varying
considerably owing to the coastal configuration. Off the S
coast of Vietnam, the mean width of the shelf is 12 miles,
but farther N off the coast of China the width increases to
150 miles.
3
There are two shallow areas within the limits of the
deep sea basin, the Macclesfield Bank (2.16) and the
Paracel Islands (2.57). The Macclesfield Bank is a
submerged atoll with a mean depth of 75 m but over which
a number of shallower patches exist. The Paracel Islands
are an extensive group of low-lying islands and reefs with
deep passages between them.
No seamounts have been reported in the area covered by
this volume.
1.92
1
In the deep waters off Sunda Shelf, the seabed is mud
and ooze, providing a smooth sedimentary surface layer.
The depth of the layer is not known but is probably similar
to that of the Pacific Ocean, which is estimated to be about
300 m. Patches of sand, coral and rock surround the reefs
and banks in this region. In the shallower shelf regions,
mud is still the dominant sediment but is interspersed by
large patches of sand and smaller patches of rock, stone
and coral.
2
Along the E coast of Peninsular Malaysia the seabed is
a large belt of sand which extends N from Selat Bangka.
The belt has a mean width of 40 miles opening to
100 miles NE of Pulau-Pulau Anambas (3°00′N, 106°00′E),
and then tailing away to a 10 mile strip in the N of the
region. Off the coast of Malaysia in the vicinity of 4°N,
there is a large mud patch. The outlying islands of
Pulau-Pulau Anambas are supported on a sand/mud bed
and are bordered by coral.
3
In the Gulf of Thailand the bottom is mud with isolated
patches of sand/mud, and sand and stone in the coastal
regions. From the S tip of the W shore to 7°30′N, the coast
is fronted by a sand/mud strip, varying in width from 5 to
40 miles. To the N of this latitude to the head of the Gulf,
mud predominates in the coastal region with small isolated
patches of sand and coral. In the outer approaches to
Krung Thep (Bangkok) there is a comparatively large area
of sand with a smaller area of sand and shell adjoining it.
Along the E shore, bordering the coast of Cambodia, there
is an extensive belt of sand/mud of mean width 40 miles,
with mud predominant close inshore. Around the islands in
the SE part of the Gulf, sand is the dominant sediment. In
the main mud areas the bottom is generally soft and
smooth.
1.93
1
Along the coast of Vietnam, S of 12°N, the shelf has a
continuous sand bottom which extends S as a belt
100 miles wide almost to the W coast of Borneo. Inshore
of the sand belt, off the low-lying alluvial coast of the E
tip of Vietnam, mud is the dominant sediment. In the
waters of the Mekong River delta the bottom is sand/mud.
Farther to the N there are isolated patches of mud and
stone. Coral surrounds the islands and shallow areas
dispersed over the sand belt. To the N of 12°N along the
narrow coastal shelf, rock is abundant on a mainly mud
bottom with very narrow sand strips fringing the shore.
2
On the wide shelf region supporting the Gulf of Tonkin
and bordering the S coast of China, mud is the main
constituent with sand/mud present in patches close inshore
and along the edge of the shelf. Across the S entrance to
the Gulf of Tonkin is an elongated patch of sand/mud, and
fronting the S shore of the Gulf are narrow belts of sand
and sand/mud. In the outer approaches to Haiphong, sand
predominates over the mud and there are large areas of
sand and sand/mud. To the N of Hainan Dao (19°00′N,
110°00′E) the bottom is mud, but relatively large areas of
sand lie along the edge of the shelf and isolated patches of
stone and sand/mud are located on the mud bottom.
MARINE LIFE
Venomous fish
1.94
1
There are many species of venomous and dangerous fish
in the area covered by this volume. The ‘scorpion’ or stone
fish is found in shallow waters over rocky or weedy
bottoms throughout the area. The ‘scorpion’ has a number
of venomous spines along its back which can inflict an
exceedingly painful wound. Certain species of catfish are
dangerous and are found in coral reefs and in the river
mouths of Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Stingrays may
be found in shallow waters over a muddy bottom anywhere
in the area.
2
Barracudas, considered the most dangerous of fish, and
several species of shark inhabit the area. The barracuda is
to be found in the shallow coral and rocky regions as well
as with the shark in the more open waters. Moray eels are
CHAPTER 1
15
common and are particularly dangerous during April to
May, their breeding season.
3
A species of jellyfish, whose sting can cause death, is to
be found in the Gulf of Thailand and in the coastal waters
of Vietnam and S China. Sea snakes, with a bite that is
extremely toxic, may be encountered in coastal waters
throughout the area and are particularly prolific in
Malaysia.
Sonic fish
1.95
1
The South China Sea contains a large number of fish
capable of producing a variety of sounds over a range of
frequencies. Toadfish, sunfish, demoiselles, croakers,
scorpion fish, snappers and catfish are the most common.
Whales and porpoises
1.96
1
Whales and porpoises are found in the South China Sea;
the whales are humpback and fin with lengths varying from
12 to 20 m. Porpoises usually inhabit the coastal waters of
the N region rather than the open sea.
Plankton
1.97
1
Plankton life is prolific and evenly distributed in tropical
waters. This results in a marked absence of fish swarming,
with no large concentrations of fish and no large scale
migration in search of food.
CURRENTS AND TIDAL STREAMS
Currents
General remarks
1.98
1
The surface currents of the South China Sea are
influenced mainly by the monsoon winds which control the
flow of water into or from the Sulu Sea, the Java Sea and
through the Taiwan Strait. The main current flows on the
W side of the region and sets SW during the NE monsoon
(October to March) and NE on the SW monsoon (May to
August). During the regime of either monsoon the
appropriate current has a high constancy but some
variations, and occasionally even reversals, may occur with
irregularities in the monsoon. Over the E part of the area
currents are much more variable being controlled largely by
the positions of eddies which are common in the central
part of the South China Sea in all seasons.
2
Diagrams 1.99 to 1.102 indicate the predominant
currents, their mean rates, constancies and seasonal
variations.
Monthly variation of surface currents in the South
China Sea
1.99
1
January. (Diagram 1.99) With the NE monsoon firmly
established over the South China Sea, the main current runs
with a high degree of constancy. Water enters the area from
the NE and is generally SW-going at a mean rate of to
kn until deflected S near the coast of central Vietnam,
where dangerous onshore sets may be experienced. In this
region the flow is augmented by a broad current setting
NW then W from the Sulu Sea at a mean rate of about
kn. The combined flow sets S along the coast of
Vietnam from 16°N to Mui Dinh (11°22′N 109°01′E), at a
mean rate exceeding 1 kn which, when the monsoon is
strong, may increase to 4 kn in the axis of the flow a few
miles offshore. S of Mui Dinh the current recurves SW
broadening but maintaining a rate of 1 kn to close
Peninsular Malaysia S of 6°N, where it is again deflected S
and SSE into the Java Sea.
2
February/March. With the NE monsoon gradually
weakening, the main SW current slowly declines; by
mid-March the mean rate off central Vietnam is kn,
although occasional NE gales may increase the rate to 3 kn,
and more variability is apparent. The current is still
reinforced by water from the Sulu Sea, most of which now
takes a more N track leading to the formation of a
counter-clockwise eddy, which persists well into April near
15°N off central Vietnam.
1.100
1
April. (Diagram 1.100) A month of transition between
monsoons, the predominant flow through the Taiwan Strait
becomes NE. A residual SW-setting current along the W
side of the South China Sea is still maintained for much of
the month, however, by water from the Sulu Sea. Some
surface water from the left flank of the S-going current off
Peninsular Malaysia recurves E and then N, merging with
the water of Sulu Sea origin to produce a
counter-clockwise eddy near 5°N. Thus for much of April,
an anti-clockwise pattern of surface water movement
prevails over the area. Mean rates are generally to kn,
but there is considerable variability, particularly in the zone
between N and S-setting currents. Towards the end of the
month, NE sets become more frequent off the coast of SE
Vietnam between Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E) and
Cap Varella (12°54′N, 109°28′E).
2
May. The SW monsoon over the S half of the South
China Sea begins in May. Water now enters the area from
the Java Sea, reversing the current of the NE monsoon. As
the month progresses a NE-going current becomes
increasingly evident on the W side of the South China Sea.
Mean rates are initially less than kn, increasing slowly to
kn from Peninsular Malaysia to the coast of central
Vietnam. Currents elsewhere are variable, but late in the
month E sets are favoured.
3
June. The SW monsoon extends over the whole South
China Sea and from then until September, sets between N
and E predominate over the area covered by this volume.
An inflow of water from the Java Sea sets N and then NE,
S of Vietnam, and finally curves E or even SE to leave the
area between 5°N and 15°N. The mean rate of this broad
and fairly constant flow is about kn, but off Peninsular
Malaysia it is N-going at kn, and off S Vietnam between
Mui Vung Tau and Mui Dinh (11°22′N 109°01′E),
ENE-going at kn and occasionally 1 kn. Over the N
half of the area currents are weak and variable with a
slight preference for NE drifts except for a more marked
ENE inshore current E of Macau (22°12′N, 113°33′E),
where a mean rate of kn increases to 2 kn with strong W
winds.
1.101
1
July/August. (Diagram 1.101) Except for the E coast of
Vietnam, these months are similar to June, but with an
overall increase in current rates. The main axis of the
ENE-going current S of Vietnam is transferred a degree or
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
3/4
3/4
3/4 - 1
1/4
1
1
1/4
1
<1/4
1
3/4
1
1/4
1
1/4
1
1
<1/4
Predominant surface currents JANUARY (1.99)
KEY
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50% 1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
3/4 - 1
CHAPTER 1
16
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
Predominant surface currents APRIL (1.100)
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
1
1/2 -
1
3/4
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 <1/4
CHAPTER 1
17
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
KEY
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50% Probable direction when
observation count is low
3/4 - 1
3/4 - 1
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4
<1/2
<1/4
<1/4
1
1/4
1
1/4
3/4 - 1
CHAPTER 1
18
Predominant surface currents JULY (1.101)
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
Predominant surface currents OCTOBER (1.102) 1
1/4
- 1
3/4
1
3/4
- 2
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4
1/4
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 1/2
1/4 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 KEY
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50% Probable direction when
observation count is low
1
1/2
1/2
CHAPTER 1
19
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
CHAPTER 1
20
so S and mean rates increase to to 1 kn. Currents in
excess of 3 kn have been reported between 10°N and 15°N
after strong SW winds. In late June or early July a marked
inshore SSE and S-setting counter current becomes
established along the coast of Vietnam as far S of Mui
Dinh (11°22′N 109°01′E), where it meets and joins the
main ENE-going flow. Its mean rate is to kn but rates
exceeding 2 kn have been reported. A slight increase in NE
sets over the N part of the area occurs in August, but there
is still much variability.
2
September. There is still a net flow of water from the
Java Sea, but mean rates of the N and NE-setting currents
slowly diminish to kn off Peninsular Malaysia and kn
near SE Vietnam. Also the pattern distorts, producing a
short-lived clockwise eddy E of the N-going current off the
Malaysian coast. During the month the boundary between
SW and NE monsoons moves S over the N part of the
area. Much of the weak NE-going surface flow in this
region is therefore turned W and then S, forming a
counter-clockwise eddy off central Vietnam and increasing
the S-going coastal current to a mean rate of 1 kn and at
times nearly 3 kn.
1.102
1
October. (Diagram 1.102) During the month this latter
eddy (see September) becomes more marked. With the
intensifying NE monsoon, the surface water now begins to
flow SW through the Taiwan Strait, rounding S China and
closing with the coast of Vietnam near 16°N at a mean rate
of to 1 kn. Here it reinforces the S-going inshore
current, increasing the mean rate to nearly 2 kn. Between
Cu Lao Xanh (Pulau Gambir) (13°37′N, 109°21′E) and Mui
Dinh (11°22′N 109°01′E), rates of 4 kn have been
recorded and between Mui Da Nang (16°07′N, 108°20′E)
and Mui Dinh, dangerous onshore sets may be experienced.
To the S of Mui Dinh, S drifts reappear, although the
broadening current is rather variable and weak, being
mostly less than kn, and some water is lost from the left
flank into the eddy. A clockwise eddy appears
intermittently off Peninsular Malaysia so that weak N sets
are probable near the coast.
2
November/December. The surface pattern of water
movement is generally anti-clockwise, with water entering
the South China Sea from the Sulu Sea and through the
Taiwan Strait and leaving it through Selat Karimata and
into the Java Sea. To the E of 112°E, drifts over the area
covered by this volume are mainly N at a mean rate of
kn; W of 112°E, drifts are S or SSW and slightly
stronger. Strong currents along the coast of central Vietnam
are maintained and, as in October, dangerous onshore sets
may be encountered.
Currents — Effect of tropical revolving storms
1.103
1
The region covered by this volume is subject to
typhoons N of about 5°N, but the centres rarely track S of
10°N. The prevailing pattern of currents is affected,
sometimes considerably, by violent winds accompanying
such storms. The current thus produced sets in a general
down-wind direction, but is deflected to the right (in the N
hemisphere) between 20° and 25°. However, since the
current is dependent on the length of time that the wind
blows in a particular direction as well as upon the wind
strength, the current in most cases does not have time to
become fully developed. It is estimated that at wind speeds
of 40 kn and over, the wind must blow in the same
direction for over 48 hours to produce maximum currents.
Thus it is particularly with slow-moving cyclones that
strong currents, which may exceed 2 kn, are encountered.
Where a cyclone approaches the coast, still higher rates
may be produced owing to the piling up of water against
the coastline.
Tidal streams
General remarks
1.104
1
General information on tidal streams is included early
within the geographical chapters.
TIDES
General remarks
1.105
1
The tides in the area covered by this volume are owing
to oscillations of the Pacific Ocean which result in a flow
of water to and from the Asian mainland. The tidal wave
enters the area through Luzon Strait and advances rapidly
in a SW direction across the South China Sea. Off the
Paracel Islands (16°30′N, 112°00′E) a branch of the wave
turns N to circulate anti-clockwise in the Gulf of Tonkin,
while the main wave continues S towards Peninsular
Malaysia. In the vicinity of 7°N, the wave divides, one
branch turning N into the Gulf of Thailand and the other
SE into the Java Sea.
2
The tides in the area are mainly diurnal, giving usually
one HW and one LW in a lunar day. However the tidal
characteristics vary with astronomical conditions and during
the period of equinoxes, the semi-diurnal component
becomes more dominant, which results in two HWs and
two LWs in a lunar day, but with inequalities in the times
and heights of successive HWs and LWs.
3
Co-Tidal Atlas, South East Asia (NP215) gives further
information in the form of co-tidal and co-range charts for
use in offshore areas and those coastal areas that are not
included in Admiralty Tide Tables.
SEA AND SWELL
Sea and swell conditions
South China Sea
1.106
1
Sea and swell conditions of the area are directly related
to the monsoons, and since the NE monsoon (November to
March) winds are stronger than those of the SW monsoon
(July and August), the maximum sea and swell conditions
therefore occur during the winter months; see Diagrams
1.106.1 and 1.106.2. The presence of islands, which tend to
obstruct the passage and reduce the height of the sea and
swell generated by the monsoons, together with the
weakening of the wind force in the lower latitudes, S of
5°N, means that more favourable sea conditions will be
met in the S part of the South China Sea area.
2
To the N of 5°N during the height of the NE monsoon
(December/February), seas are predominantly moderate with
the occasional rough sea; in February about 50% of
observations indicate a moderate or higher state of sea,
while to the S of that latitude seas are mainly slight with
only 20% frequency of moderate conditions. Calm seas are
the exception throughout the area.
3
During April and May there is a marked improvement in
sea states with a mean frequency of 80% smooth to slight
seas, and 10% calms prevailing throughout the whole area.
As the SW monsoon develops, sea waves increase in
height, particularly in the N part of the area, where the sea
Swell distribution JANUARY (1.106.1)
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend: Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 0%10 20 30
40
50%
CHAPTER 1
21
<1
<1
<1
2
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
Swell distribution JULY (1.106.2)
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend: Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 0%10 20 30
40
50%
CHAPTER 1
22
<1
1
1
1
<1
<1
1
<1
1
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
CHAPTER 1
23
states are generally higher than during the NE monsoon
with an increase in frequency of rough seas. In the S part
where the winds are lighter, slight seas predominate and
moderate seas are relatively rare.
4
In September, with the weakening of the SW monsoon,
the seas moderate and in October there is a high frequency
of slight seas throughout the area.
East coast of Peninsular Malaysia
1.107
1
The NE monsoon produces a considerable swell along
this coastline so that, in many places landing or the
working of cargo are hindered, and at times made
impossible, following periods when the monsoon has been
blowing strongly.
Gulf of Thailand
1.108
1
The Gulf of Thailand is fairly sheltered from the winds
of both monsoons and thus the region has a high
percentage of calm to slight seas throughout the year. In
February, when the sea conditions are bad in the South
China Sea, the frequency of waves under 1 m in height in
the Gulf of Thailand is over 80%.
Gulf of Tonkin
1.109
1
In the Gulf of Tonkin the highest frequency of moderate
to rough seas is experienced during the period of the NE
monsoon (November to March), when the monsoon blows
into the Gulf. During this period, the swell from the NE
enters the S half of the Gulf of Tonkin but does not exceed
low to moderate seas. In the summer months (May to
September), the winds of the SW monsoon result in slight
to moderate seas, but local thunderstorms or squalls can
cause temporary worsening of sea conditions. The
frequency of low swell increases, but there are considerable
periods of no swell.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Salinity
1.110
1
The salinity of the area covered is extremely variable
and is in direct contrast to the uniform sea surface
temperatures experienced. In general, water masses of low
salinity form at the surface and high salinity water of
oceanic origin is found at depth. Excessive rainfall and
river run-off result in the formation of the low salinity
masses, while the penetration of oceanic water into the area
provides the high salinity masses. Between these two
masses, a large area of mixed water is formed. These
different water masses are transported by the monsoonal
currents to and fro such that many regions are alternately
filled with waters of different origins resulting in large
seasonal variations of salinity.
2
The sources of low salinity are the mouths of the big
rivers; the Mekong in Vietnam is a typical example where
the discharge from the river has a greater influence on the
salinity than the actual rainfall.
Density
1.111
1
Density is computed from temperature and salinity with
corrections to allow for the effect of pressure. Thus
variations in either the value or distribution of temperature
or salinity will automatically change the density. In the S
half of the South China Sea, S of 11°S, where the annual
variation of sea surface temperature is small (see Diagrams
1.112.1 and 1.112.2), the density is largely governed by
variations in salinity. In the N part, where there is a
relatively large variation in sea surface temperature,
changes in salinity have little or no influence on the
density.
2
Areas of low density, which may be expected in the
South China Sea, are given in the following table:
Month S Part N Part
January
February
March
NE and SW sides of
the Gulf of Thailand.
No lows.
April
May
NE side of the Gulf
of Thailand.
Localised lows off S
coast of Vietnam and
off Haiphong.
June
July
All coastal areas.S coast of Vietnam
and China coast.
August
September
October
All coastal areas Central Vietnam and
China coast.
November
December
Low less dense with
lows on W and
central Gulf of
Thailand and coast of
Cambodia.
S approaches to the
Gulf of Tonkin.
Sea surface temperature
1.112
1
The seasonal distribution is illustrated in Diagrams
1.112.1 and 1.112.2, with a minimum in February and a
maximum in August. There is a considerable seasonal
range over the N sector and a marked increase from N to S
in winter. Seasonal change is small elsewhere and almost
uniform over the whole sea area around August. Variations
from the average seldom exceed 1°C, but may be plus or
minus 4°C temporarily near Hong Kong in winter. Similar
variations between sea and air temperature occur in this N
sector, reaching 2 or 3°C at times.
Bioluminescence
1.113
1
Bioluminescence is most frequently observed in the
shallow regions of the S part of the South China Sea and
in the Gulf of Thailand from April to October; the displays
are primarily of the ‘milky sea’ and ‘glowing ball’ types.
In the N part of the South China Sea, off Hong Kong and
in the inlets and bays of south China, luminescence is
common from December to February owing to the large
concentrations of zoo plankton which form in the area.
These give off a bluish, greenish or silver light and are
especially responsive to mechanical agitation.
2
8
2
8
2
7
2
7
2
4
25
2
6
22
2
0
1
8
20
2
2
2
7
28
18
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) FEBRUARY (1.112.1)
CHAPTER 1
24
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) AUGUST (1.112.2)
2
9
>29
<29
3
0
29
>29
2
9
>29
29
2
8
2
9
>29
29
2
9
CHAPTER 1
25
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
CHAPTER 1
26
2
In open waters the ‘milky sea’ type of display is the
most common at any time of year. ‘Phosphorescent wheels’
have been reported but are very much rarer occurrences.
Further information on these types of bioluminescence
may be found in The Mariner’s Handbook.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General conditions
General remarks
1.114
1
The climate is hot, except in the N in winter. Both air
temperature (1.146) and humidity (1.147) are high
throughout the year in the S. The temperature is also high
in the N in summer while the humidity is a little lower
with little seasonal variation. The winter months are
comparatively cool and dry N of 20°N.
2
This is a ‘monsoon’ region (1.124) with NE winds in
winter and SW winds in summer. Winds of Force 7 or
more are rare but more common to E of Hainan Dao
(19°00′N, 110°00′E) and off central Vietnam in December.
These are owing to temporary increases in the NE
monsoon. ‘Typhoons’ (1.119) cause a major hazard from
time to time as they cross the region N of 10°N from the
Pacific. These tropical storms rarely track S of 10°N.
3
Fog (1.144) is rare in the S part of the area and
visibility is good except in rain. Mist and fog are more
frequent to the N of 20°N especially in winter with very
low cloud and drizzle at times. Among the driest places are
the inner parts of the Gulf of Thailand.
This section should be read in conjunction with The
Mariner’s Handbook. Comprehensive monthly averages,
frequencies and extremes are given in the climatic tables at
the end of this chapter.
4
Weather reports and forecasts for the area are issued
regularly from various transmitting stations, which also
broadcast warnings as appropriate. Full details are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(2).
Pressure
General remarks
1.115
1
There is a fairly regular seasonal change in the average
monthly pressure over most of the area. The rise in
pressure in winter is owing to the large anticyclone which
forms over S Siberia. There is a corresponding decrease in
pressure in spring to give a low pressure area of about
996 hPa over N India in July. These two seasonal pressure
systems are large enough to be the dominating influence on
the coasts. The seasonal variation of pressure varies
according to latitude, being very marked in the N and
almost negligible towards the equator.
2
Diagrams 1.124.1 and 1.124.3 show the reversal of the
pressure pattern for winter (January) and summer (July)
corresponding with the two monsoons. The pressure
gradient becomes slack during the transition periods in May
and October. The pattern may vary considerably from the
average owing to local depressions or to changes in the
seasonal pressure systems.
Diurnal variation
1.116
1
Apart from the irregular variations of pressure, there is a
regular diurnal variation with maxima at 1000 and 2200
local time and minima at about 0400 and 1600. This
underlying fluctuation has an amplitude of about 3 hPa
from maximum to minimum.
The table below gives the corrections in hPa to be
applied to the observed pressure to allow for diurnal
variation.
Local time
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
0° − 10° N
−0⋅6
−0⋅1
+0⋅4
+0⋅7
+0⋅8
+0⋅7
+0⋅2
−0⋅3
−0⋅9
−1.3
−1⋅4
−1.2
10° − 20° N
−0⋅5
−0⋅1
−0⋅4
+0⋅7
+0.7
+0⋅5
+0⋅1
−0⋅4
−0⋅8
−1⋅2
−1⋅2
−1⋅0
Local time
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
0° − 10° N
−0⋅7
0⋅0
+0⋅7
+1⋅3
+1⋅5
+1.5
+1.1
+0⋅5
−0⋅2
−0⋅7
−1⋅0
−0⋅9
10° − 20° N
−0⋅5
+0⋅1
+0⋅7
+1.2
+1⋅3
+1.2
+0⋅9
+0⋅3
−0⋅2
−0⋅7
−0⋅9
−0⋅8
Depressions
1.117
1
Depressions fall into two main categories, namely
tropical and extra-tropical. The latter originate over S China
and move ENE; they normally possess a frontal structure.
They are usually shallow but intensify after reaching the
sea. Consequently, it is only the N parts of the area that are
affected to any extent by these depressions. They are most
frequent from March to May, although they may occur at
any time between October and June. The cold fronts of
these depressions are usually well marked, but most warm
fronts are weak.
2
In contrast, tropical depressions, which when sufficiently
intense are termed typhoons (1.119), originate in tropical
waters in the vicinity of the Philippine Islands and move W
or NW across the region to N of 10°N. They cause large
departures from the average values of pressure and wind.
Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
1.118
1
Besides the fronts associated with extra-tropical
depressions (1.117), another frontal phenomenon affecting
the area is the ITCZ. This lies N of the area in
mid-summer, then moves S during September and reaches
S Malaysia by November. The ITCZ lies S of the region in
December to April and then moves N again during May.
By June, it is once more N of the region. The ITCZ is a
rather diffuse zone of varying width, separating the
trade-winds of the N and S hemispheres. Dense cloud and
CHAPTER 1
27
outbreaks of thundery rain are encountered along the zone
boundaries.
Typhoons
General remarks
1.119
1
The name ‘typhoon’ is applied to the intensive cyclonic
disturbances of tropical origin that occur in this region; see
‘Tropical Storms’ in The Mariner’s Handbook, which
includes indications of their existence or approach, and
rules for avoiding them. Broadcast warnings may be
expected to indicate the severity of each storm, but a
disturbance may intensify rapidly and so pass from one
category into the next.
2
If the corrected barometric pressure is 3 hPa or more
below the normal, there is a threat of a tropical depression
or a typhoon, and preparation should be made for
appropriate avoiding action. The normal pressure for the
time of year can be deduced from the climatic tables at the
end of the chapter and Diagrams 1.124.1 and 1.124.3. For
diurnal corrections, see 1.116.
The effect of typhoons on currents is discussed at 1.103.
Region of origin
1.120
1
Most typhoons originate E of the Philippine Islands, but
some originate farther W in the South China Sea. There is
an annual movement of the mean latitude of the zone of
origin from about 160°E in January to about 140°E in
June. The source region moves NW in spring and retreats
SE in the autumn.
Track
1.121
1
The average track also has a seasonal variation, being
farthest S in winter and farthest N in summer. Most of the
tracks fall into two main groups; those which move W or
NW, but later curve towards N and finally NE, and those
that continue to move W or NW, sometimes even SW,
without recurvature; see Diagram 1.121. While this diagram
indicates the most likely paths, tropical storms can move
erratically and occasionally may even effect a complete
loop. Although typhoons have been known to move W near
the S coast of Vietnam, appreciable penetration of the Gulf
of Thailand is rare. None have been reported on the coasts
of Malaysia, and few are known near Isthmus of Kra that
joins Peninsular Malaysia to the mainland N.
2
Most of the typhoons recurve E of the Philippines and
T’ai-wan, so that it is the second group that affects the area
covered by this volume.
Speed
1.122
1
The speed of movement of typhoons varies considerably
even in different parts of a single track. Usually it is
between 5 and 15 kn, but may be even less in the early
stages of development, and during recurvature. The speed
increases to 25 kn or more after recurvature.
Frequency
1.123
1
Typhoons are rare in winter but the frequency increases
somewhat more in May N of 20°N, reaching a maximum
of one per month during July to September, then decreases.
The total number occurring farther S is less, and the
maximum frequency is in November.
2
The table below shows the number of typhoons recorded
within the Hong Kong zone of responsibility over a 10 year
period (1968−1977).
Month
Latitude
5° to
10°N
Latitude
10° to
15°N
Latitude
15° to
20°N
Latitude
N of
20°N
January 0 1 0 0
February 0 0 0 0
March 0 0 0 0
April 0 0 0 0
May 0 1 1 1
June 0 0 3 4
July 0 0 7 11
August 0 0 7 14
September 0 3 8 12
October 0 3 9 6
November 5 4 4 2
December 2 2 1 0
Totals 7 14 40 50
Winds and gales; monsoons
Open sea (20 to 100 miles from coast)
1.124
1
General remarks. The seasonal variation of pressure
causes regular seasonal winds or monsoons. The term
monsoon is applied equally to a season or to the prevailing
wind. NE winds prevail over most of the area in winter
and the SW monsoon predominates in summer, though it is
less regular than the NE monsoon. Short periods of
variable winds in spring and autumn separate the two
monsoons. The two monsoons are not very well marked off
the S part of Peninsular Malaysia, but become more regular
towards the N part of the area covered by this volume.
Diagrams 1.124.1 to 1.124.4 illustrate the distribution of
winds in the region.
2
Diagram 1.124.5 illustrates the frequency of winds of
force 7 or more in winter, when the maximum frequency
occurs. The frequency is only slightly less in other seasons.
Significant variations from the average winds occur in
the vicinity of tropical storms and other depressions.
Seasonal intensification of the continental highs and lows
beyond the normal increases the wind strength considerably
over the N sector at times.
1.125
1
Off Peninsular Malaysia. Here the NE monsoon
becomes established during November or December, at an
average of force 4 in the S and force 5 farther N. The wind
strength varies from light to fresh and may increase to
force 6 or 7. Reports of force 7 occur in 1% of
observations for most of this season and up to 2 or 3% in
December.
CAUTION
Tracks of individual tropical storms
or typhoons can be very erratic
Typical tracks of tropical cyclones (1.121)
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
CHAPTER 1
28
1
0
1
8
1
0
1
6
1014
1012
101
1
1020
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
1
HIGH
LOW
LOW
HIGH
HIGH
1
0
1
2
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind distribution JANUARY and mean barometric pressure hPa (1.124.1)
CHAPTER 1
29
1
1
1
1
<1
<1
8
3
1
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich 115°
120°
120°
0°0°
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind distribution APRIL (1.124.2)
CHAPTER 1
30
3
1
3
4
3
6
6
12
7
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind distribution JULY and mean barometric pressure hPa (1.124.3)
1004
1
0
0
6
1
0
0
8
1
0
0
9
1010
1
0
1
0
CHAPTER 1
31
2
2
3
3
2
3
3
3
4
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind distribution OCTOBER (1.124.4)
CHAPTER 1
32
2
1
1
2
3
5
9
10
8
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
1
5
%
5
%
<5%
1
%
10%
1
0
%
5%
5
%
Percentage of winds of force 7 or more in winter (1.124.5)
CHAPTER 1
33
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
CHAPTER 1
34
2
The SW monsoon operates from May to October and
may reach force 6 at times over the open sea, but the wind
is lighter and less regular near the coast. The average over
the area is force 3 or 4. During October, the winds become
variable before the onset of the NE monsoon.
3
Although, during the SW monsoon, sustained winds of
force 7 are rare, squalls, known locally as ribut, in which
gale force may be reached temporarily, are fairly common.
The worst type is the ‘arch squall’, which is preceded by
clouds rising from the horizontal in the form of an arch;
heavy rain is usual when the arch is passing overhead.
1.126
1
Gulf of Thailand. The winds over the open sea are
mainly from the N and E from November to January. In
February and March the dominant wind direction is from
SE. The directions are variable in April, and then in May
to September the SW monsoon is dominant. Variable winds
in October mark the transition from the summer to winter
monsoons.
2
In the first half of the winter monsoon, wind force
decreases considerably towards the head of the Gulf, but
the winds are fresher in the N than in the S in summer.
Reports from the S part of the Gulf in December give 50%
force 1 to 3, then increase to 80% towards the head of the
Gulf. The proportion of light winds increases to about 90%
in the NW during February to April. Then, as the SW
monsoon takes over, the average wind freshens in the NW,
and from May to September only 60% of the winds are of
force 1 to 3 in the S. Isthmus of Kra gives little shelter
from SW winds in the N part of the Gulf. Winds of force
7 or more are infrequent. To the N of 10°N, squalls are
fairly common.
1.127
1
Off south-east Vietnam (south of 11°N). The NE
monsoon prevails from November to March, weakening and
veering E in April. In December and January, the average
wind force is 4 to 5 and winds of force 7 or more occur in
5% of the observations. In November, February and March,
the average wind is less and strong winds are rare. SW
winds predominate from May to September. The average
strength is force 3 to 4, but in August and September, it
reaches force 7 in 1 to 2% of the observations.
1.128
1
Off central Vietnam (11°N to 15°N). The NE monsoon
sets in during October and persists until March; the average
strength is force 5 in December and reaches force 7 in 10%
of the observations. In May, winds from S or SW become
the most frequent. The average wind strength is force 3 and
seldom reaches force 7 in April and May. SW winds
prevail from June to September, mainly force 4 but reach
force 7 in 2% of the observations.
1.129
1
Off north Vietnam and in the Gulf of Tonkin (north
of 15°N). The NE monsoon is weaker in this area and E
winds are common early and late in the season (October to
March). In October winds are mainly between NE and E,
and from November to February they become mainly NE
force 4. Force 7 is reported in about 5% of the observations
with more frequent strong winds in the S than in the N. In
March winds from all directions between N, through E, to
S predominate, and SW winds become predominant only in
July and August. In September the winds become variable
again. From April to September the average strength is
force 3, and force 7 winds are seldom reported except for
about 2% in June and July.
1.130
1
East and north Hainan Dao. The NE monsoon is more
prolonged and the SW monsoon shorter and more variable
than farther S. In September the predominant winds are NE
to E, force 3 to 4. In October NE winds gain in frequency
and strength, though E winds are still frequent. The average
strength is force 4. From November to April NE winds
strongly predominate, with an average strength of force 4,
although force 7 is reached in 3% of the observations. May
is the transitional month, although N and E winds
predominate, but only about 1% of the observations reach
force 7.
Coastal (out to 20 miles)
1.131
1
General remarks. At 20 miles distant from the coast,
the winds are much as described above for the open sea,
but as the coast is approached, there is a gradual change to
coastal winds. See article on ‘Local winds’ in The
Mariner’s Handbook.
1.132
1
East coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Some of the coastal
winds in this region are illustrated in the climatic tables at
the end of this chapter. Gales are rare, but gusts known as
ribut (1.125) may reach gale force in squalls on one or two
days per month in the summer.
1.133
1
Gulf of Thailand — West shore. The NE monsoon
prevails from December to April, and the SW monsoon
from May to October. NW squalls occur at times in the
SW monsoon. See summaries for stations from Songkhla to
Krung Thep. in the climatic tables at the end of this
chapter.
1.134
1
Gulf of Thailand — East shore. Land and sea breezes
are well developed, the sea breezes reinforcing the SW
monsoon in summer, with average force of 4 to 5. The NE
monsoon is weaker here than on the W side of the Gulf
since the local sea breeze opposes it.
2
At Ha Tien (10°23′N, 104°29′E) winds are mainly from
between N and NE at 1300 in January with a mean speed
of 10 kn, but SW winds are also common. At night the
winds are mainly light. In July W winds are dominant,
both by day and by night, the speed averaging 8 kn by day
and 6 kn by night.
1.135
1
East Coast of Vietnam. From Mui Bai Bung (8°37′N,
104°43′E) to about Dong Hoi (17°28′N, 106°37′E), there is
a tendency for the winds to be diverted along the coast
during both monsoons. NE winds, averaging 16 kn,
predominate by day, backing to N or NW about 12 kn at
night. In July SW winds predominate throughout the
24 hours with average speed of 15 kn by day and 10 kn at
night.
2
At Qui-Nhon (13°46′N, 109°14′E) N winds predominate
in winter with average speeds of 9 kn around noon and
7 kn at dawn. Winds are variable in summer, reaching
about 10 kn around 1300 and very light or calm at dawn.
At Vinh (18°40′N, 105°40′E) in winter the dominant
direction is NNE, 14 kn by day and 9 kn at night with 68%
light winds. In summer WSW winds of 11 kn prevail by
day and 70% light winds at night.
3
On the central and N coasts of Vietnam the winter
monsoon is sometimes interrupted by the formation of a
CHAPTER 1
35
depression over China. These depressions, which occur
most frequently from January to June, cause warm W
winds known locally as ‘winds of Laos’. Squalls may be
violent near the head of the Gulf of Tonkin.
1.136
1
South coast of China, including Hainan Dao. The
winter monsoon prevails from October to March, and the
summer monsoon from May to August, the months of
April and September being transitional.
In January at Zhanjiang (21°11′N, 110°24′E), the winds
are mainly between NE and SE with an average speed of
11 kn. Strong winds are rare. In July SW winds
predominate with occasional force 6. Violent squalls occur
near the mouth of Zhujiang Kou.
2
At Hong Kong the average seasonal winds are shown in
the climatic tables. On the S side of Hong Kong Island S
and SW winds predominate, but even as far as Wenwei
Zhou (21°49′N, 113°56′E), E winds are common during the
SW monsoon.
Cloud
South of 5°North
1.137
1
Seasonal variation in the average cloud amounts over the
sea in the extreme S is small. The average varies from 4 to
5 oktas in February to 6 oktas in November. Farther N the
months of February to April are least cloudy at sea with
from 4 to 5 oktas, most of the months having an average of
5 to 6 oktas; November being the most cloudy with 6 oktas.
2
On a typical day in Singapore the sky is almost
cloudless at dawn. The cumulus forms and increases to a
maximum during the afternoon. It disperses towards
sundown and the sky is almost clear by midnight.
Gulf of Thailand
1.138
1
Off the SW shores, the cloudiest months are October to
January. The least cloudy months are March to May.
Towards the head of the Gulf the mean cloud cover is 3 to
4 oktas from November to April and 6 oktas from May to
September.
2
On the coast of Cambodia and Vietnam the cloudiest
months are from May to October, but only small amounts
of cloud occur during the NE monsoon when the skies are
often clear for days on end on the E shore of the Gulf.
Off Vietnam
1.139
1
From Mui Bai Bung (8°37′N, 104°43′E) to 17°N, 5 to
6 oktas occur during May to November and 4 oktas from
December to March. N of Mui Dinh (11°22′N 109°01′E),
there is more cloud during the NE monsoon.
Gulf of Tonkin
1.140
1
The cloudiest period is early spring, with 6 to 7 oktas.
This does not correspond with the period of maximum
rainfall but with the period of low stratus and intermittent
drizzle known locally as crachin. These overcast drizzly
conditions may persist for days on end at this season. The
months of May and July to October are the least cloudy
with 4 to 5 oktas. Very low cloud is frequent in March and
the cloud base is below 300 m in 50% of the dawn
observations. The average cover in autumn is 4 to 5 oktas.
East of Hainan Dao
1.141
1
Off SE Hainan Dao, S of 20°N, it is most cloudy in
February and March, about 6 oktas, and least, 3 to 4 oktas,
in April and May. Between 20°N and the Chinese coast,
the cloudy period is longer, February to April having about
6 oktas, and the least cloudy period is July to October, 4 to
5 oktas. The period February to April has frequent overcast
conditions with very low cloud base (60 m) and some
drizzle or rain at times.
Rain
General remarks
1.142
1
Rainfall over the area is generally abundant, the annual
average ranging from 100 to 500 cm. It is 250 cm among
the islands N and NE of Singapore, but varies greatly in
the Gulfs of Thailand and Tonkin and on the coasts of
Vietnam depending on exposure to the two monsoons.
Along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia the annual total
exceeds 300 cm and increases to more than 500 cm on
parts of the coast of Cambodia. In contrast, the innermost
parts of the Gulf of Thailand are considerably drier, with
average annual total of about 150 cm.
2
Along the S coast of Vietnam the mean annual rainfall
falls below 200 cm and to less than 100 cm over a small
area to SW of Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E). On the
Chinese coasts the mean annual rainfall is mostly between
150 to 220 cm.
3
In the S part of Malaysia, most of the rain falls as
heavy showers but in other parts of the region, which are
exposed to the prevailing monsoon, the rainfall is more
widespread and prolonged. This effect is most marked in
hilly areas. The most intense falls occur with typhoons. For
example, 53 cm fell in 24 hours in a typhoon at Hong
Kong, and 49 cm was recorded in 24 hours at Phu Lien,
near Haiphong.
4
Thunderstorms are rather common over most of the area
from March to November, but infrequent in the remaining
months.
Seasonal variation
1.143
1
On the coast of Thailand the rainy season is earlier than
along the S coast of Vietnam. The wettest period is from
September to November followed by a drier spell from
December to March. To the N of Prachuap Khiri Khan
(11°48′N, 99°48′E) the rainy season coincides with the SW
monsoon and the transitional period before the onset of the
NE monsoon.
Along the Cambodian coast, the wet season persists
from May to October with the maximum of nearly 100 cm
in August. The dry period occurs during December to
February with less than 10 cm per month.
2
On the coast of Vietnam N of 12°N, the seasonal
distribution changes again because the hills inland provide
shelter from the SW monsoon, but this coast is exposed to
the winter monsoon. Consequently between 12°N and
17°N, the wettest period is from August to December, and
the months of February to July are comparatively dry. In
the Gulf of Tonkin, the wet season lasts from May to
November.
3
Near the Chinese coasts, the period February to April
has spells of very low cloud and drizzle or rain, with poor
visibility. These months, in spite of the low rainfall, have
spells of rain or drizzle and frequent poor conditions.
Between Hainan Dao and Hong Kong the wet season
CHAPTER 1
36
prevails from May to September and the dry from
November to March.
Fog and visibility
Offshore
1.144
1
Diagram 1.144 indicates the fog frequency in winter. In
the months of May to December it is much less frequent.
Fog is very rare throughout the year to the E of Peninsular
Malaysia. Except for a few reports in March, fog is also
rare in the Gulf of Thailand. Off Vietnam, fog is rare
except in the months of February to April inclusive, when
it is reported in about 5% of the observations in the N,
decreasing in frequency elsewhere.
2
In the Gulf of Tonkin, ships’ reports show fog in 2 to
5% of the observations in March and April and 5 to 10%
in February. Fog is rare from August to December. To the
E of Hainan Dao, fog is rare from October to December,
increasing to between 5 and 10% during February to April.
Much of the fog N of 20°N occurs during very low cloud
and drizzle. Heavy rain may also reduce visibility to below
fog limits temporarily, and almost to nil in torrential
storms.
3
Reports of ‘poor visibility’, that is visibility of less than
5 miles, have a similar distribution. Thus, poor visibility is
most frequent N of 20°N and occurs in 20% of the
observations in some months between January and April. In
most of the remaining months, the frequency is 5 to 10%.
The frequency of poor visibility decreases to less than 5%
off the coast of Peninsular Malaysia but may increase to a
frequency of 5 to 10% locally during August to December.
Coastal
1.145
1
The number of days with fog at certain coastal stations
are given in the climatic tables; intensive fog is rare in
these waters. A few ports and harbours in the N are
affected by radiation fog around dawn, but this
inconvenience soon disappears after sunrise. Dust haze may
obscure some familiar landmarks along the coast in
summer.
Air temperature
General remarks
1.146
1
The mean monthly temperature over the sea in all
months is within 1°C of the corresponding sea surface
temperature (1.112). Consequently an evaluation of the
mean air temperature over the region may be obtained from
Diagrams 1.112.1 and 1.112.2, which give the average
seasonal sea surface temperatures.
2
In the S part of Peninsular Malaysia, the temperature
over the sea varies little through the year; 27°C in winter
and 28° to 29°C in summer. Conditions in the Gulf of
Thailand are similar, with April and May the warmest
months. The temperature here drops when the SW monsoon
commences.
3
There is greater seasonal variation in the N part of the
area covered by this volume. Temperatures on land are
highest in the afternoon and lowest around dawn. There are
local variations caused by the onset of the sea breeze
towards noon and the development of land breezes during
the night.
Humidity
General remarks
1.147
1
Humidity is high for most of the year. On the coast of
Peninsular Malaysia it is very high with little seasonal
variation. Here, as with temperature, the diurnal cycle is
more marked than seasonal change. Monthly averages at
0700 and 1300 are included in the climatic tables (1.148).
In the Gulf of Tonkin, humidity is highest during the
drizzly period from February to April, but it is also high
from May to September, which is the rainy season; it is
lowest in November and December.
CLIMATIC TABLES
General remarks
1.148
1
Stations for which climatic tables are included on the
following pages are shown on Diagram 1.148. Weather at
ports and harbours often differs from conditions offshore.
Some of the common variations encountered along the
coast are described in The Mariner’s Handbook under
‘Weather near the coast’. In general the main changes
which occur are:
2
The average wind speed over the sea is greater than
on land; gales are more common over the open
sea. There is greater variation of wind direction
and speed on land.
Clouds tend to increase on land during the day and
disperse at night, but maximum cloud density over
the sea often occurs around dawn.
3
More rain, especially showers, occurs on land than
over the sea. Onshore winds and hills are
contributory factors.
Fog is often very local and visibility at sea may be
different from that at the observing station,
especially around dawn.
4
Average temperature is higher on land than over the
sea in summer and usually lower in winter. Sudden
changes are most frequent on land.
Mariners will encounter substantial variation from the
seasonal values and may have to rely on their own
accumulated meteorological knowledge to some
extent.
5
%
1
0
%
5
%
1
0
%
Frequency of visibility less than 2 miles in March (max occurrence) (1.144)
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
CHAPTER 1
37
DONG HOI
DA NANG
PATTLE ISLAND
(SANHU DAO)
QUI NHON
NHA TRANG
HO CHI
MINH CITY
CON SON
PHU QUOC
CHANTHABURI
KRUNG THEP (BANGKOK)
PRACHUAP
KHIRI KHAN
SONGKHLA
KOTA BAHARU
KUANTAN
TAREMPAH
BACH LONG VI
HAIKOU
PRATAS ISLAND
(DONGSHA DAO)
HONG KONG
GUANGZHOU
MACAU
BEIHAI
Location of climatic stations (1.148)
LIMIT OF PILOT
CHAPTER 1
38
PHU LIEN
1.170
1.166
1.163
1.160
1.159
1.157
1.153
1.152
1.151
1.150
1.149
1.154
1.155
1.165
1.171
1.169
1.167
1.164
1.161
1.158
1.156
1.162
1.168
5°5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100°
105°
105°
110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
120°
120°
0°0°
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
39
1.149 WMO No 96145 TAREMPAH (03
°
12
′
N, 106
°
15
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1010
29
24
31
22
88
77
7
7
48
5
1
2
0
5
39
79
7
1
1
1
1
5
5
3
7
February 1010
29
24
32
22
88
75
6
7
36
3
0
2
4
4
52
71
7
1
1
1
9
11
3
7
0
March 1009
30
24
33
22
89
72
5
6
20
2
5
13
5
53
60
7
1
1
3
2
2
10
15
2
5
0
0
2
April
1008
32
25
34
23
90
69
5
6
5
0
9
33
1
1
51
36
8
3
16
3
1
9
25
2
4
4
May 1008
33
25
34
23
89
69
5
6
2
10
44
43
17
4
1
5
37
5
2
6
23
3
5
6
June 1008
33
25
34
22
87
67
6
6
2
0
1
12
45
40
10
3
1
6
55
6
2
3
16
3
6
5
July
1008
32
25
34
22
87
67
6
6
1
10
44
2
0
42
5
1
1
7
59
7
1
2
17
3
5
0
1
4
August 1009
32
24
34
23
86
66
6
6
1
1
8
43
2
0
45
2
1
2
7
68
6
1
2
12
3
6
0
3
September 1009
32
25
34
23
87
69
6
7
1
1
9
48
1
1
40
5
1
1
8
58
7
1
3
17
3
5
1
5
October
1009
31
24
33
22
89
73
6
7
1
1
1
9
42
1
2
43
14
4
2
6
34
6
1
10
23
3
5
8
November 1009
30
24
33
22
90
76
6
7
8
4
8
24
1
1
2
53
31
6
1
4
11
2
3
11
31
2
4
6
December 1010
29
24
31
23
88
79
7
7
39
7
0
2
4
1
1
5
40
63
6
1
1
2
1
3
11
13
4
7
2
Means
1009
31
24
35*
21§
88
72
6
6
_
_
13
2
1
7
29
1
2
45
33
4
1
4
29
4
1
7
17
3
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
45
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
40
1.150 WMO No 48657 KUANTAN (03
°
47
′
N, 103
°
13
′
E) Height above MSL − 16 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1012
30
22
32
20
96
72
7
7
296
12
72
4
1
0
1
12
11
28
55
9
1
0
5
1
4
9
1
February 1011
31
23
33
21
97
66
7
7
142
9
63
4
0
1
1
9
21
14
50
29
4
0
0
2
1
3
8
0
2
March 1011
32
23
34
21
97
67
7
7
178
9
43
4
1
2
2
1
8
39
10
28
39
14
2
2
3
2
1
2
8
1
6
April
1010
33
24
35
23
97
65
7
7
164
13
22
1
2
2
6
2
10
56
7
14
40
16
9
7
2
3
2
1
6
2
12
May 1009
33
24
35
23
97
65
7
7
203
12
6
2
1
7
11
3
4
67
2
4
18
16
21
26
6
2
5
1
5
0
1
17
June 1009
33
24
35
22
97
63
7
7
160
9
3
2
11
14
1
2
66
2
2
7
12
24
39
8
2
5
1
6
0
1
11
July
1010
33
23
34
22
97
63
8
7
173
11
2
1
1
2
14
18
3
5
54
2
1
7
12
38
33
5
3
2
6
0
1
15
August 1010
33
23
35
22
97
61
7
7
174
11
3
1
1
2
8
24
2
4
57
1
1
5
13
34
37
7
2
1
1
7
0
1
15
September 1010
33
23
34
22
97
63
7
7
233
14
4
1
1
2
13
15
5
2
58
2
4
9
12
24
43
4
1
3
2
7
0
2
17
October
1010
32
23
34
22
98
66
8
8
272
16
5
2
2
2
8
16
3
5
58
3
9
15
9
19
30
5
4
6
1
6
2
17
November 1011
30
23
32
22
98
74
8
8
344
19
16
2
1
1
3
11
5
7
54
24
19
20
7
6
9
3
9
4
2
6
0
2
13
December 1012
29
23
32
22
97
78
7
8
564
18
53
3
1
1
2
3
17
21
27
49
8
1
1
1
2
9
2
4
8
3
Means
1010
32
23
36*
20§
97
67
7
7
_
_
25
2
1
1
6
10
2
7
46
10
21
17
10
14
18
4
3
3
2
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2903
153
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
13
129
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
41
1.151 WMO No 48615 KOTA BAHARU (BHARU) (06
°
10
′
N, 102
°
17
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1012
29
23
30
21
91
71
7
7
127
8
0
4
26
5
8
18
5
0
35
1
25
63
10
2
0
0
4
10
0
February 1012
30
23
32
21
94
68
7
7
50
5
0
1
14
3
16
18
5
0
44
2
24
64
8
1
0
1
2
10
0
1
1
March 1011
32
24
33
21
93
67
7
7
90
6
1
8
3
20
27
6
35
5
33
52
9
0
0
3
10
0
3
April
1009
33
24
34
22
94
64
7
7
86
5
0
3
29
34
7
0
27
8
34
47
5
1
2
2
1
3
9
1
6
May 1009
33
25
35
23
92
65
7
7
99
9
0
1
1
28
45
10
0
16
8
42
27
4
3
1
3
2
3
8
0
13
June 1009
33
25
35
23
92
65
8
7
123
9
0
0
0
18
49
13
0
19
23
32
15
6
5
7
8
3
1
3
7
0
13
July
1009
33
24
34
22
93
65
8
7
155
11
0
17
43
15
1
22
18
32
13
2
8
8
12
6
1
3
7
0
15
August 1009
32
24
34
22
93
67
8
7
172
12
0
0
0
14
43
13
0
29
23
27
12
3
7
5
16
4
2
3
7
0
16
September 1010
32
24
34
22
94
67
8
7
202
14
0
1
0
16
47
15
0
20
32
26
13
2
4
5
10
7
2
3
7
0
17
October
1010
31
23
33
22
94
70
8
7
269
16
0
14
51
13
1
19
28
34
12
2
2
2
9
10
1
3
7
0
13
November 1011
30
24
31
22
95
75
8
7
656
20
2
3
6
1
9
45
14
1
21
24
30
17
3
3
3
7
8
3
4
7
7
December 1012
29
24
31
22
90
75
8
7
571
17
10
29
3
9
23
6
20
6
32
48
4
2
2
2
1
2
5
9
1
Means
1010
31
24
35*
20§
93
68
7
7
_
_
2
8
2
16
36
10
26
15
31
33
5
3
3
6
6
3
3
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2600
132
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
105
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
42
1.152 WMO No 48568 SONGKHLA (07
°
12
′
N, 100
°
36
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 11 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1011
30
25
31
22
83
70
6
5
82
7
0
7
29
24
1
1
0
0
39
21
58
18
1
0
2
4
7
0
February 1011
30
25
32
22
84
68
6
4
25
3
1
3
22
22
1
3
0
49
1
29
54
14
0
1
1
3
7
March 1010
31
25
33
22
87
67
5
4
37
3
0
1
10
13
3
5
1
0
68
2
42
50
5
1
0
2
7
0
3
April
1009
32
25
35
24
88
66
5
4
70
6
0
1
1
4
2
11
2
0
79
4
53
25
5
3
4
3
3
1
6
7
May 1009
33
25
36
24
87
64
6
6
120
11
0
1
1
1
22
5
0
71
3
41
13
3
6
21
6
6
1
5
13
June 1008
33
25
35
24
87
63
6
6
101
9
0
0
0
2
19
6
0
73
5
25
7
1
3
12
32
8
7
1
5
0
12
July
1008
33
25
35
23
88
63
7
6
95
9
0
0
0
3
21
3
0
72
5
16
8
3
4
21
30
7
7
1
6
0
11
August 1009
33
25
35
23
88
63
7
6
100
10
0
0
0
1
25
8
0
66
3
20
7
1
2
17
39
4
9
1
6
0
12
September 1010
32
25
34
23
88
66
7
6
130
11
1
0
2
22
4
0
71
6
24
2
1
1
18
35
5
8
1
6
1
11
October
1010
31
24
34
23
91
71
7
6
283
18
3
1
2
22
7
1
65
8
37
8
1
1
10
18
6
10
1
5
1
14
November 1010
30
24
32
23
91
77
7
7
588
20
1
10
12
5
2
9
2
58
7
33
21
8
1
5
8
3
14
3
5
0
9
December 1011
29
24
31
22
86
76
7
6
404
17
2
19
24
8
1
1
1
1
42
9
34
33
9
1
2
2
10
4
6
0
4
Means
1010
31
25
36*
21§
87
68
6
5
_
_
1
4
8
6
2
13
3
63
4
31
24
6
1
8
16
4
6
2
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2035
124
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
96
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
20‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
11
11
11
11
30
11
11
11
11
11
11
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
43
1.153 WMO No 48500 PRACHUAP KHIRI KHAN (11
°
50
′
N, 99
°
50
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1012
31
21
33
17
86
61
4
3
42
2
12
5
0
0
7
76
4
34
12
35
13
0
1
2
1
8
February 1011
31
22
33
18
90
66
4
4
55
3
5
2
0
1
1
2
90
1
11
6
38
41
1
2
<1
8
0
1
March 1010
32
23
35
20
88
67
4
4
42
3
2
1
0
0
4
3
4
86
1
3
5
41
45
1
1
3
1
9
0
3
April
1009
34
25
37
23
85
67
4
4
41
3
1
0
5
9
5
80
1
3
4
49
34
2
2
2
4
1
10
0
8
May 1008
33
25
36
24
85
66
6
6
124
10
1
9
12
5
72
1
1
3
37
31
6
16
2
3
1
9
0
11
June 1007
33
25
36
24
83
66
7
7
95
12
0
0
0
17
25
4
54
2
12
22
11
39
10
5
2
8
5
July
1007
32
25
36
23
83
65
7
7
89
11
0
0
1
16
23
3
56
1
1
13
17
11
44
10
4
2
8
0
5
August 1008
32
25
35
23
84
66
7
7
103
14
0
0
19
24
6
50
1
1
11
16
8
50
9
4
2
8
4
September 1009
32
25
35
23
86
66
7
7
96
10
1
0
0
1
10
17
4
67
1
5
6
23
11
8
29
9
6
1
7
0
9
October
1010
31
24
34
22
90
71
6
6
205
12
9
3
1
3
3
3
78
6
26
14
23
9
2
6
4
11
1
6
13
November 1011
31
23
33
20
84
64
5
5
227
8
34
14
0
0
0
6
45
14
53
13
11
2
1
1
1
5
3
8
6
December 1013
30
21
33
17
79
56
4
4
35
2
35
16
0
0
0
0
0
5
44
16
61
10
9
2
0
0
2
3
9
0
1
Means
1010
32
24
38*
14§
85
65
5
5
_
_
8
4
7
10
5
66
4
17
6
25
20
4
16
4
4
2
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1154
90
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
66
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
13‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
44
1.154 WMO No 48455 KRUNG THEP (BANGKOK) (13
°
44
′
N, 100
°
34
′
E) Height above MSL − 20 m
Climatic Table compiled from 11 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1012
33
23
35
18
85
52
5
5
9
1
2
7
8
1
1
2
1
1
78
6
16
24
8
17
11
2
3
15
1
4
0
1
1
February 1012
33
24
35
21
85
54
5
5
30
2
1
5
10
1
12
3
1
67
3
8
12
7
40
16
3
1
10
1
5
0
March 1010
34
26
37
22
86
55
5
6
29
2
2
4
4
4
19
7
1
60
2
3
6
4
43
29
3
1
9
2
6
4
April
1009
36
27
38
23
84
55
6
6
65
4
3
2
5
2
13
5
2
1
68
2
4
8
45
21
6
1
14
1
5
6
May 1008
35
26
37
24
85
59
6
6
220
13
2
4
2
2
5
4
5
1
75
1
2
1
5
35
22
12
1
21
1
4
15
June 1007
34
26
36
24
82
60
7
7
149
12
1
1
2
5
9
8
1
74
1
1
1
2
29
30
20
4
13
1
5
0
9
July
1007
33
26
36
23
83
60
7
7
155
13
1
1
4
10
7
2
75
2
1
1
4
25
30
20
3
15
1
5
0
8
August 1007
33
26
35
24
84
62
7
7
197
15
1
1
4
10
10
1
74
1
1
1
2
22
25
23
6
20
1
5
9
September 1008
33
25
35
23
89
64
7
7
344
18
1
2
3
1
1
4
4
2
83
4
4
4
4
14
16
20
3
32
1
4
0
16
October
1010
32
25
35
22
89
63
6
7
242
14
6
7
5
1
1
2
1
78
10
23
10
4
9
6
4
5
28
1
4
0
0
13
November 1012
32
24
35
20
82
54
5
5
48
5
9
15
5
2
69
19
29
20
3
2
3
3
4
17
1
4
0
4
December 1013
32
22
34
18
78
49
5
5
10
1
10
12
8
1
2
67
20
27
15
2
3
1
2
6
22
1
4
0
Means
1010
33
25
38*
17§
84
57
6
6
_
_
3
5
4
2
5
5
3
1
72
6
10
8
4
24
17
10
3
18
1
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1498
100
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
85
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
13‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
11
11
11
11
30
11
11
11
11
11
11
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
45
1.155 WMO No 48480 CHANTHABURI (12
°
36
′
N, 102
°
07
′
E) Height above MSL − 4 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1012
33
22
35
17
83
49
4
4
12
1
3
27
0
0
0
0
0
0
70
3
46
2
2
7
10
1
1
29
2
3
0
February 1012
33
23
35
20
88
55
5
5
45
3
2
12
0
0
0
0
0
86
2
20
1
3
28
24
0
21
<1
3
0
1
March 1010
33
24
35
22
90
59
5
6
55
4
1
5
0
0
0
92
8
1
3
37
28
1
0
22
<1
3
0
4
April
1009
34
25
36
23
91
61
5
6
111
9
1
3
0
0
0
95
3
0
4
41
25
1
25
0
2
0
10
May 1008
33
25
35
23
92
69
6
7
355
19
1
1
1
0
96
1
0
4
24
27
3
40
0
2
0
16
June 1007
32
25
34
23
92
73
7
7
513
22
0
0
1
2
1
95
1
1
16
42
3
37
0
2
12
July
1007
31
25
34
23
92
73
7
7
440
21
0
0
0
2
6
0
92
1
12
50
3
33
0
2
11
August 1008
31
25
33
23
92
74
7
7
514
23
0
1
5
0
93
0
1
14
48
3
33
0
2
10
September 1009
31
24
34
23
94
73
7
7
475
22
1
1
96
1
3
3
11
33
4
1
44
0
2
12
October
1010
32
24
34
22
91
66
6
6
280
16
2
10
0
0
0
80
8
29
1
1
9
9
2
1
38
1
2
11
November 1011
32
23
34
20
82
57
4
5
61
5
5
50
0
0
0
0
45
7
69
2
2
3
17
3
4
3
December 1013
31
21
34
17
77
49
3
4
12
1
3
57
0
0
0
0
0
40
6
77
1
0
1
3
0
0
12
4
4
0
Means
1010
32
24
36*
15§
89
63
5
6
_
_
2
15
1
82
3
21
1
2
17
25
2
29
1
3
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2873
146
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
90
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
46
1.156 WMO No 48917 PHU QUOC (10
°
13
′
N, 103
°
58
′
E) Height above MSL − 4 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1012
31
23
32
19
85
60
6
5
1
23
54
6
3
1
0
13
1
27
47
7
6
5
6
1
1
4
6
February 1012
31
24
33
21
86
62
6
5
1
10
62
11
2
0
14
1
12
49
11
12
11
3
1
3
6
0
March 1010
32
25
34
22
86
63
5
5
6
60
13
4
2
1
0
15
1
5
34
17
17
16
8
1
2
3
6
0
0
2
April
1009
32
26
34
23
87
68
6
5
2
6
61
7
3
5
4
1
11
1
5
25
14
19
22
12
1
2
3
6
7
May 1008
32
26
34
24
88
75
6
6
3
7
47
2
2
11
15
3
10
3
3
14
4
12
29
28
5
3
4
7
13
June 1008
30
26
33
23
89
81
7
7
7
6
26
1
3
11
34
8
5
2
2
3
2
22
53
14
1
7
9
7
July
1008
30
25
32
23
89
82
7
7
5
4
19
1
4
17
34
10
5
2
1
2
1
4
23
55
11
7
9
7
August 1008
30
25
32
23
90
83
7
7
6
6
12
2
1
17
43
10
3
3
1
3
1
4
19
60
9
1
8
9
1
6
September 1009
29
25
32
23
92
83
7
7
7
6
19
2
12
31
10
12
2
1
5
1
6
19
49
15
2
7
8
5
October
1009
29
24
33
23
92
78
7
7
5
18
44
3
2
2
8
3
16
2
11
21
3
7
19
23
8
5
3
5
7
November 1010
30
24
33
22
84
67
6
6
3
37
43
2
2
1
12
3
35
36
4
3
6
11
2
1
5
8
3
December 1011
30
23
32
20
77
60
6
5
1
43
46
1
9
1
49
33
3
1
3
6
2
1
6
9
0
1
Means
1010
31
25
37*
18§
87
72
6
6
_
_
4
14
40
4
2
7
15
4
10
2
13
23
5
7
16
26
6
2
5
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
57
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
13‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
47
1.157 WMO No 48918 CON SON (08
°
41
′
N, 106
°
36
′
E) Height above MSL − 9 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1012
28
24
29
21
82
72
7
7
3
72
18
0
0
7
3
67
27
1
1
0
1
8
8
0
0
February 1012
29
24
30
20
84
71
7
6
2
47
27
1
0
0
0
23
4
54
35
6
0
6
8
0
0
March 1011
30
24
32
21
85
70
6
6
1
23
37
3
1
0
0
0
34
1
25
53
15
3
0
1
4
7
0
April
1010
32
25
33
22
84
69
6
6
10
30
5
4
1
3
0
48
2
10
45
24
10
4
2
3
3
5
1
May 1009
32
26
33
23
85
71
6
7
3
1
8
6
5
6
8
2
61
4
2
20
21
14
14
12
5
7
2
5
7
June 1009
31
26
33
23
84
75
7
7
1
1
2
1
7
21
24
4
41
4
1
5
7
17
25
29
5
8
4
5
7
July
1009
31
25
33
23
85
74
7
7
1
1
1
1
4
25
24
5
38
3
1
3
3
16
30
32
4
8
4
5
8
August 1009
31
26
33
23
84
76
7
7
1
1
5
25
32
5
31
1
1
4
10
32
35
10
7
4
6
1
5
September 1009
30
25
32
23
86
77
7
7
1
1
4
20
26
7
41
2
1
3
5
9
24
37
11
9
3
6
1
5
October
1010
30
25
32
23
89
78
7
7
3
9
6
2
1
4
11
7
58
5
11
19
8
7
6
16
13
15
2
5
5
November 1011
29
25
31
23
84
77
7
7
4
46
17
1
1
3
5
23
4
42
28
3
2
2
6
8
5
6
7
1
December 1012
28
25
30
21
81
74
7
7
4
63
17
0
1
6
10
7
61
21
1
1
1
7
2
8
8
Means
1010
30
25
35*
19§
84
74
7
7
_
_
2
21
13
2
3
9
12
3
35
3
22
21
8
8
12
15
6
5
4
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
39
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
15‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
48
1.158 WMO No 48900 HO CHI MINH CITY (10
°
49
′
N, 106
°
40
′
E) Height above MSL − 10 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1941 to 1999
January 1012
32
22
34
17
88
54
4
4
7
1
29
17
10
4
2
2
7
30
25
15
15
8
6
4
7
16
5
2
5
1
February 1012
33
23
35
20
86
52
4
4
13
1
16
11
20
18
3
1
2
6
24
14
14
14
21
15
6
6
8
2
3
5
1
March 1011
34
25
37
22
84
50
4
4
12
2
8
11
25
26
8
1
1
3
17
6
8
14
28
33
5
3
3
1
3
7
0
1
April
1009
35
26
38
23
84
55
4
5
65
4
9
9
25
20
15
5
2
2
14
4
4
11
27
36
6
5
5
2
4
7
5
May 1009
34
26
37
22
86
61
5
6
196
15
6
10
18
12
10
13
6
2
23
4
4
10
19
22
14
18
7
3
3
7
0
12
June 1008
33
25
36
22
90
67
6
6
285
19
5
8
6
4
11
29
14
3
21
4
2
2
5
8
22
45
12
2
4
9
1
13
July
1008
33
24
35
22
91
69
6
6
242
18
4
7
4
4
7
34
13
4
24
3
2
2
3
7
29
44
10
1
3
9
1
13
August 1008
32
25
35
23
92
70
6
7
277
21
4
5
3
2
8
42
11
3
21
2
2
2
2
6
26
51
10
1
4
10
1
9
September 1009
32
24
34
23
93
72
6
7
292
20
9
7
5
2
5
25
12
2
34
5
2
2
4
4
24
45
13
2
3
8
1
12
October
1010
32
24
33
22
93
69
6
6
259
18
22
18
9
4
3
4
6
8
26
11
8
7
10
5
12
27
16
3
3
6
1
12
November 1011
32
23
34
21
91
64
5
5
122
9
35
21
7
2
1
1
3
9
21
19
14
15
9
4
6
12
19
3
3
5
1
8
December 1012
31
22
34
18
89
59
5
5
37
4
36
17
6
1
1
3
11
25
32
16
10
6
3
4
5
19
4
3
5
1
2
Means
1010
33
24
38*
17§
89
62
5
5
_
_
15
12
11
8
6
14
6
5
23
11
8
9
11
12
13
22
11
3
3
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1807
132
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
9
87
Extreme values _
_
_
41†
12‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
49
1.159 WMO No 48877 NHA TRANG (12
°
13
′
N, 109
°
13
′
E) Height above MSL − 4 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1014
27
22
29
18
85
72
7
6
16
2
1
0
0
8
33
41
36
45
13
1
0
0
1
2
4
3
10
0
0
0
February 1014
28
22
31
17
86
72
6
5
11
4
1
0
6
21
57
14
44
29
10
1
0
0
0
3
2
10
0
March 1012
29
23
32
20
85
71
6
5
5
2
2
2
6
20
62
7
36
22
31
1
2
1
10
0
April
1010
31
25
33
22
84
70
6
5
2
2
2
5
1
1
5
18
63
1
24
28
41
3
0
3
1
10
2
May 1008
32
26
35
24
82
68
6
6
2
1
2
2
9
25
60
1
12
21
53
6
0
7
1
10
6
June 1007
33
26
35
24
81
65
6
6
2
1
2
3
1
1
6
17
68
4
18
59
5
1
1
2
9
1
8
0
4
July
1006
33
25
34
24
82
65
6
6
1
2
1
6
17
72
3
15
68
4
1
1
9
1
8
0
3
August 1007
33
25
35
24
82
65
6
7
2
0
3
1
1
8
14
71
1
3
14
64
5
1
2
10
1
8
4
September 1008
32
25
34
23
86
69
7
7
2
1
1
8
24
64
2
13
19
42
4
1
2
16
1
7
7
October
1010
30
24
32
22
88
75
7
7
6
1
1
1
9
26
56
8
32
25
16
1
0
2
4
13
2
7
3
November 1012
28
23
30
21
87
76
7
7
15
4
1
0
8
23
48
31
37
9
4
1
0
1
5
13
3
9
1
December 1014
27
22
29
17
86
75
7
7
24
5
2
0
0
0
7
21
42
46
36
7
1
0
1
4
6
4
10
0
0
Means
1010
30
24
36*
15§
85
74
6
6
_
_
7
2
1
2
1
7
21
59
13
24
18
32
2
1
2
8
2
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
30
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
50
1.160 WMO No 48870 QUI NHON (13
°
46
′
N, 109
°
13
′
E) Height above MSL − 6 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1015
27
22
30
19
86
71
6
6
29
6
1
0
0
0
2
34
27
52
18
4
2
1
10
14
4
6
0
0
February 1014
28
22
32
19
89
70
6
4
29
5
1
2
2
1
20
40
35
20
9
13
3
0
1
3
17
3
5
0
March 1012
30
24
33
20
89
70
5
3
24
5
2
4
3
1
12
50
19
13
11
30
10
1
2
15
2
5
0
0
April
1010
32
25
35
22
86
70
5
3
19
5
3
7
6
1
10
49
14
7
10
41
10
1
16
2
5
0
2
May 1008
34
26
37
24
82
68
5
4
19
4
1
4
5
3
6
58
5
3
12
36
15
3
3
22
1
3
0
7
June 1006
35
27
38
24
75
62
5
5
10
2
1
2
3
2
16
12
52
2
3
4
34
11
3
18
7
19
2
4
0
1
5
July
1005
35
27
38
24
74
60
5
5
11
2
1
2
2
15
14
53
1
1
3
24
9
3
28
7
25
2
4
1
3
August 1006
35
27
38
25
74
60
6
5
9
3
1
2
1
5
21
13
45
4
2
4
20
9
4
32
8
18
3
5
4
September 1008
33
26
37
24
82
67
6
6
23
3
1
1
2
1
6
20
43
18
9
6
21
6
2
12
7
20
2
4
10
October
1010
30
25
34
22
88
75
6
6
25
4
1
1
1
1
5
30
33
29
19
8
10
3
0
3
13
15
3
5
1
7
November 1013
28
24
31
21
87
77
7
6
34
12
2
1
1
4
29
17
53
21
5
3
1
1
8
9
5
7
2
December 1015
26
22
30
18
86
76
7
7
32
11
1
1
0
3
31
21
56
20
2
1
0
1
13
6
4
7
0
Means
1010
31
25
39*
16§
83
69
6
5
_
_
22
5
1
2
2
1
7
19
41
25
12
6
19
6
1
8
7
16
3
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
40
Extreme values _
_
_
41†
9‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
51
1.161 WMO No 48855 DA NANG (16
°
02
′
N, 108
°
12
′
E) Height above MSL − 7 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1941 to 1999
January 1016
25
20
28
16
91
74
7
7
110
13
8
2
3
1
2
4
12
68
26
6
38
8
1
1
2
11
8
1
5
0
1
0
February 1015
26
20
29
17
91
73
7
6
43
8
13
1
3
2
3
1
4
11
62
32
6
40
11
1
1
6
4
1
6
0
1
March 1012
28
22
34
18
92
71
7
6
26
5
12
1
4
5
5
1
1
9
61
21
7
48
11
3
1
7
3
1
7
2
2
April
1010
31
24
35
21
89
70
7
6
31
5
8
1
4
7
12
4
1
5
58
16
5
55
10
3
2
6
3
1
7
0
1
5
May 1008
33
25
37
23
84
66
7
6
62
8
4
4
9
20
5
2
4
52
17
8
57
7
2
1
1
4
3
1
6
0
11
June 1005
35
26
38
24
81
62
7
7
78
9
1
0
3
4
16
8
3
1
65
18
8
38
6
11
6
3
5
5
1
5
0
10
July
1005
35
26
38
24
81
60
6
6
76
9
1
1
2
4
14
5
1
2
70
17
9
36
6
8
8
4
4
8
1
5
9
August 1005
34
26
37
24
84
62
7
7
116
13
1
1
2
15
6
2
1
72
24
8
32
6
7
6
5
6
7
1
5
8
September 1008
32
25
35
23
90
69
7
7
393
17
2
2
10
8
5
4
68
43
8
22
3
4
2
2
7
9
1
6
11
October
1012
29
24
32
21
91
76
7
7
577
22
7
7
4
3
5
4
4
8
57
31
12
28
6
1
1
3
8
10
2
5
7
November 1014
27
22
31
18
91
77
7
7
364
20
15
9
8
2
3
1
4
10
49
35
19
25
3
1
2
9
5
2
5
1
December 1017
25
20
28
16
90
77
7
7
221
18
12
7
2
2
1
1
5
14
58
39
13
18
5
1
1
3
13
8
2
5
Means
1011
30
23
39*
13§
88
70
7
7
_
_
7
2
3
4
9
4
3
6
62
27
9
36
7
4
2
2
7
6
1
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2097
147
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
64
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
9‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
52
1.162 WMO No 59985 PATTLE ISLAND (SANHU DAO) (16
°
32
′
N, 111
°
36
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1016
26
22
28
19
81
72
5
5
21
52
23
2
2
0
0
0
1
21
52
23
1
2
1
0
12
12
0
February 1015
27
22
29
20
85
72
4
4
13
37
28
11
9
2
13
31
31
13
11
1
0
10
10
0
March 1013
29
24
31
22
84
72
4
4
9
20
28
14
25
1
0
3
10
21
25
15
28
1
0
0
9
10
0
April
1011
31
26
33
24
83
74
4
4
3
10
29
20
35
1
0
2
5
12
23
13
44
2
1
8
9
0
3
May 1008
32
27
34
24
83
75
5
5
4
5
14
12
46
10
3
1
4
6
6
11
11
43
16
3
2
1
8
9
6
June 1006
32
27
33
25
86
79
6
6
2
3
3
7
60
17
5
2
2
4
2
4
5
57
21
4
3
1
10
10
6
July
1006
32
27
33
24
85
78
6
6
1
1
2
8
55
21
5
2
4
3
1
2
6
55
20
8
3
1
9
9
4
August 1006
31
27
33
24
87
80
6
6
3
2
4
5
42
24
13
3
4
4
2
4
5
35
27
15
5
2
9
9
7
September 1008
31
26
32
24
87
79
6
6
13
15
16
8
20
8
10
3
7
19
15
13
5
17
9
13
7
2
7
8
9
October
1011
30
25
31
23
86
80
6
6
21
37
27
4
3
1
2
3
3
27
35
23
4
4
2
2
2
11
11
5
November 1014
28
24
30
22
84
78
6
5
25
49
21
1
1
1
1
29
50
16
1
2
0
1
1
13
13
1
December 1016
26
23
29
20
81
75
6
5
22
58
19
0
0
0
0
1
28
54
16
1
0
0
0
14
14
Means
1011
30
25
34*
19§
84
76
5
5
_
_
11
24
18
8
25
7
3
1
3
14
23
16
7
25
8
4
2
1
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
41
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
15‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
53
1.163 WMO No 48848 DONG HOI (17
°
29
′
N, 106
°
36
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic Table compiled from 9 years observations, 1991 to 1999
January 1017
22
17
27
11
91
78
7
6
6
1
2
3
10
38
40
21
19
14
6
4
33
2
4
7
0
1
February 1016
22
18
29
13
93
82
7
6
8
2
1
1
1
1
2
40
45
25
21
13
5
1
1
1
30
5
4
7
0
3
1
March 1013
25
20
34
15
95
80
7
6
8
3
2
2
3
2
5
20
55
24
25
18
6
1
6
1
14
6
3
6
0
4
3
April
1010
29
23
36
19
92
76
7
5
7
3
10
7
3
8
14
49
13
25
35
9
2
3
2
8
3
2
7
0
2
7
May 1007
32
25
38
21
84
68
6
6
6
3
2
5
18
11
5
11
39
11
13
37
5
4
14
6
7
2
3
7
10
June 1005
35
27
38
24
73
58
7
7
2
1
3
31
31
11
1
20
2
10
14
4
18
39
11
1
2
5
8
0
5
July
1004
34
27
38
24
73
57
7
7
0
0
2
4
27
34
8
2
23
2
6
12
4
14
40
19
2
2
5
8
3
August 1005
34
27
37
24
78
62
7
7
2
1
2
20
28
17
5
25
8
16
15
2
14
29
13
3
4
8
6
September 1008
31
25
35
22
91
74
6
7
2
2
1
3
5
8
18
15
47
16
33
8
1
6
8
10
14
5
3
6
11
October
1013
28
23
32
19
90
77
7
6
10
7
2
3
4
14
30
30
32
23
15
3
2
1
3
18
4
5
8
7
November 1016
25
21
29
16
89
77
7
6
8
4
2
1
11
41
32
28
21
9
3
4
30
5
5
8
0
December 1018
23
18
27
13
89
78
7
7
11
4
1
1
9
45
30
30
16
8
4
0
0
5
35
2
5
8
0
0
Means
1011
28
23
39*
10§
87
72
7
6
_
_
6
3
1
3
9
10
10
22
36
18
19
16
4
5
11
7
17
3
4
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
10
53
Extreme values _
_
_
41†
4‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
54
1.164 WMO No 48826 PHU LIEN (20
°
48
′
N, 106
°
38
′
E) Height above MSL − 116 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1941 to 1999
January 1018
20
15
26
10
89
75
7
7
28
7
19
23
20
8
2
1
2
4
22
18
6
19
19
9
1
2
9
18
3
4
0
5
February 1017
21
15
27
11
91
80
8
8
43
7
16
21
18
14
3
0
0
5
24
16
8
13
15
17
1
1
4
26
3
3
0
8
1
March 1013
22
18
28
13
94
85
8
7
48
7
12
15
23
17
5
1
3
25
11
8
10
26
16
1
1
3
23
3
3
0
14
2
April
1010
27
21
31
16
95
82
7
7
81
7
8
11
17
26
11
1
3
22
5
3
8
31
28
2
3
2
18
4
4
0
6
4
May 1007
30
24
34
20
92
77
7
7
201
10
7
5
13
26
20
2
2
5
20
5
2
7
25
36
3
6
4
13
4
5
0
1
9
June 1004
32
26
35
23
91
76
7
7
239
12
7
4
13
19
29
4
4
4
18
5
2
5
17
38
6
7
3
15
4
5
0
1
11
July
1003
32
26
35
23
91
77
7
7
295
14
7
6
7
17
33
6
3
5
17
2
3
8
21
36
6
6
5
14
4
5
0
1
10
August 1004
32
26
35
23
92
80
6
7
330
15
14
10
7
13
14
4
5
11
22
8
5
6
14
23
7
8
11
18
4
4
1
13
September 1008
31
25
34
22
91
75
5
6
311
17
26
15
6
6
7
2
3
12
25
13
5
8
16
13
3
5
10
28
4
3
1
9
October
1014
29
22
32
17
86
70
5
5
122
8
35
20
9
5
4
1
1
10
15
20
7
13
17
12
2
2
8
19
4
4
1
4
November 1017
26
19
30
14
84
67
6
6
56
3
29
30
11
5
2
0
1
10
11
16
9
15
15
10
2
4
9
20
4
4
1
December 1020
23
16
27
11
83
66
5
5
28
3
29
26
11
4
3
0
1
10
16
17
7
15
15
11
3
2
11
20
4
4
0
3
Means
1011
27
21
36*
9§
90
76
7
7
_
_
18
15
13
13
11
2
2
7
19
11
5
11
19
21
3
4
7
19
4
4
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1782
110
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
43
63
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0700
0700
0700
1300
1300
1300
1300
0700
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
55
1.165 WMO No 48839 BACH LONG VI (20
°
08
′
N, 107
°
43
′
E) Height above MSL − 56 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1018
20
16
26
13
88
80
6
6
17
47
26
6
2
0
0
2
23
47
20
7
2
0
0
14
15
1
February 1017
20
16
25
13
93
84
8
6
12
58
20
4
4
0
0
22
47
15
10
5
1
1
0
14
13
3
March 1013
22
18
27
14
94
85
6
6
16
48
16
7
9
0
4
25
37
17
10
10
0
1
13
13
1
6
1
April
1010
26
21
30
17
94
83
6
5
15
31
19
13
17
1
1
4
19
24
18
14
20
1
1
2
3
11
11
4
3
May 1007
29
25
32
21
92
82
6
5
11
17
14
16
33
1
1
2
6
13
16
12
15
40
2
2
1
12
12
5
June 1004
31
27
33
24
89
81
6
6
3
5
6
13
60
4
4
2
4
7
6
4
10
57
7
4
4
2
14
13
5
July
1003
31
27
34
24
86
79
6
6
3
1
3
9
70
6
4
2
2
3
4
3
9
64
10
3
3
2
16
14
1
4
August 1004
31
27
33
24
87
80
6
6
8
4
7
6
44
10
8
6
8
13
4
7
6
43
10
7
7
3
12
11
6
September 1008
30
26
32
23
85
80
5
5
17
20
17
8
17
3
3
5
10
26
24
12
6
14
3
4
8
3
10
10
1
6
October
1013
28
24
30
20
83
77
5
4
17
39
25
7
3
1
1
2
5
26
36
24
6
5
1
1
1
13
14
1
2
November 1016
25
22
29
18
81
74
5
5
17
45
27
3
4
2
24
45
20
4
4
1
1
1
14
15
1
0
0
December 1019
22
18
27
13
83
75
6
5
21
50
21
3
3
0
0
2
25
47
18
6
3
0
0
1
1
15
15
1
0
Means
1011
26
22
35*
11§
89
80
6
5
_
_
13
28
16
8
24
3
2
2
4
18
27
14
9
23
3
2
3
1
13
13
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
10
32
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
7‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
56
1.166 WMO No 59644 BEIHAI (21
°
29
′
N, 109
°
06
′
E) Height above MSL − 16 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1941 to 1999
January 1020
19
12
26
6
85
68
7
6
30
7
59
12
18
8
0
0
1
2
1
51
3
13
18
5
1
1
8
1
8
10
0
1
February 1018
19
13
27
7
89
74
7
6
38
9
55
9
23
9
0
1
3
47
5
14
18
7
1
1
6
1
8
10
2
2
March 1014
22
16
29
9
90
75
7
6
71
11
44
12
26
9
1
1
2
4
41
4
14
18
7
3
5
7
1
7
9
0
2
3
April
1011
27
21
32
14
91
75
7
6
102
10
32
11
26
18
3
1
1
2
6
27
3
13
18
20
6
7
6
1
6
8
0
1
6
May 1008
30
24
33
19
87
71
6
6
73
10
19
12
24
21
11
3
3
2
5
19
4
8
15
31
9
8
5
1
6
8
8
June 1004
32
26
34
23
86
74
7
7
292
14
12
8
17
18
26
9
3
2
4
8
4
7
14
41
14
6
5
1
6
8
13
July
1004
32
26
34
23
86
74
6
7
503
16
7
8
20
18
24
14
4
1
4
4
2
8
14
41
19
7
4
1
7
8
14
August 1005
32
26
35
23
88
74
6
6
465
17
19
13
21
10
12
8
5
5
7
13
4
10
10
27
13
12
8
3
6
7
17
September 1009
31
25
34
21
86
68
5
5
255
13
40
22
19
5
3
2
2
2
6
30
6
14
12
12
6
7
10
3
6
7
11
October
1014
29
22
33
16
81
61
5
4
91
7
53
23
17
4
1
0
1
1
40
9
13
14
11
2
2
9
8
8
3
November 1018
25
18
30
12
80
58
5
4
48
5
60
18
17
3
1
0
0
1
45
6
15
17
6
2
2
9
7
8
0
1
December 1020
22
14
27
8
79
57
5
5
46
6
60
16
18
4
1
0
0
1
1
48
4
14
17
5
1
1
9
1
8
9
1
Means
1012
27
20
35*
5§
86
69
6
6
_
_
38
14
20
10
7
3
2
2
4
31
4
12
15
18
7
5
7
1
7
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2014
125
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
8
77
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
3‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
57
1.167 WMO No 59758 HAIKOU (20
°
02
′
N, 110
°
21
′
E) Height above MSL − 24 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1941 to 1999
January 1019
22
16
28
10
90
77
6
6
22
4
22
25
24
4
2
1
22
32
39
19
4
3
0
3
4
7
0
4
February 1017
23
17
31
11
93
79
6
6
34
6
19
28
20
8
7
1
1
18
27
36
17
7
7
1
3
2
4
7
0
4
1
March 1014
26
19
35
13
91
74
6
6
51
6
12
19
19
13
20
1
1
1
14
26
26
14
10
16
1
2
4
1
4
7
0
3
3
April
1011
30
23
36
18
91
72
6
6
106
8
7
12
19
19
27
1
1
2
12
22
22
15
10
21
1
3
5
2
5
7
0
2
6
May 1008
32
25
37
22
87
70
6
6
183
12
5
6
12
19
39
2
2
3
12
21
21
14
9
19
3
4
8
2
5
6
0
15
June 1005
33
26
36
23
86
68
6
7
211
12
3
3
8
16
52
4
2
2
10
15
13
8
13
25
4
10
10
3
5
6
0
16
July
1005
34
26
36
23
86
66
6
6
210
11
2
1
4
17
56
7
4
1
8
14
11
8
14
21
5
9
16
3
5
6
0
15
August 1005
33
26
35
24
88
71
6
6
225
12
4
2
7
14
33
6
10
5
19
17
17
10
8
11
5
11
19
2
4
6
13
September 1008
31
25
34
22
88
73
5
6
251
12
11
9
14
10
14
2
5
5
32
18
29
21
6
5
1
8
10
2
3
6
11
October
1013
29
23
32
19
84
72
5
6
201
10
18
17
24
13
4
0
1
2
21
19
36
31
5
3
2
4
4
7
0
4
November 1017
26
21
30
15
82
71
5
5
97
6
21
28
22
6
3
0
1
3
18
24
42
26
5
2
1
4
7
0
December 1019
22
17
28
11
84
73
6
5
34
4
23
31
22
3
1
2
18
29
45
22
2
2
0
1
0
4
7
0
2
Means
1012
28
22
37*
9§
87
72
6
6
_
_
12
15
16
12
22
2
2
2
17
22
28
17
8
11
2
4
7
1
4
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1625
103
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
15
84
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
6‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
58
1.168 WMO No 45011 TAIPA GRANDE, MACAU (22
°
10
′
N, 113
°
34
′
E) Height above MSL − 114 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1941 to 1999
January 1024
18
13
24
7
82
68
6
5
26
4
66
9
13
3
1
8
1
39
15
31
11
1
4
8
7
0
1
February 1019
18
14
24
8
86
76
7
6
54
6
53
10
19
7
4
6
37
13
24
20
2
1
3
7
7
0
3
1
March 1016
21
16
27
10
89
80
7
7
83
8
35
8
24
15
9
2
4
2
23
9
27
25
10
3
4
6
7
0
5
2
April
1013
25
20
31
15
90
81
7
7
156
9
21
9
30
18
12
5
2
3
1
13
7
30
29
12
7
1
2
6
7
0
3
5
May 1010
28
24
32
21
88
80
7
6
263
13
17
4
27
17
15
13
3
4
1
9
5
25
30
15
13
3
2
6
7
0
7
June 1006
31
26
34
23
87
78
7
7
346
16
9
4
15
14
23
25
5
4
1
4
3
14
21
27
25
5
2
6
7
8
July
1006
32
26
35
24
86
76
6
6
292
16
9
1
13
14
24
22
13
4
2
3
1
10
22
30
25
8
1
5
7
8
August 1006
32
26
35
24
86
75
6
6
293
15
18
7
16
9
14
16
10
11
1
6
5
22
19
24
14
6
3
5
6
10
September 1009
30
25
34
22
84
72
6
6
205
11
38
9
18
6
6
4
2
16
18
8
33
20
8
5
1
6
6
7
6
October
1014
28
22
31
17
78
65
5
4
57
5
52
12
20
5
1
1
8
28
18
33
18
2
1
1
8
8
1
November 1018
24
19
28
12
77
61
5
4
43
3
65
11
12
2
1
9
40
20
27
10
1
0
2
8
8
0
December 1022
20
14
26
8
76
61
5
4
28
3
69
7
10
1
1
11
42
19
27
8
3
8
8
0
Means
1014
26
20
35*
5§
84
73
6
6
_
_
38
8
18
9
9
7
3
7
1
22
10
25
19
11
8
2
3
7
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1846
109
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
12
48
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
3‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
59
1.169 WMO No 59287 GUANGZHOU (23
°
08
′
N, 113
°
19
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1021
19
11
26
5
78
58
6
5
43
5
39
10
6
2
1
4
39
37
9
7
6
11
2
5
9
13
3
4
0
February 1020
18
12
26
6
84
67
7
6
65
7
32
14
7
4
5
37
34
10
9
10
14
2
4
7
11
3
4
1
2
March 1016
21
15
28
8
87
72
8
7
85
10
21
9
15
10
2
1
5
37
23
6
11
14
16
4
5
7
14
2
4
0
2
4
April
1013
26
19
31
14
88
73
8
7
182
12
13
7
21
17
5
1
3
34
15
4
14
20
21
6
4
5
12
3
4
0
1
7
May 1010
29
23
34
18
87
71
7
7
284
14
11
8
27
18
11
1
1
2
22
11
6
13
19
26
6
5
5
12
3
4
0
9
June 1006
32
25
35
22
87
71
7
7
258
15
6
6
25
23
16
2
1
1
19
6
2
14
25
31
7
6
2
8
3
5
13
July
1006
33
26
36
23
86
68
6
7
228
12
3
4
28
17
19
3
2
2
22
4
3
12
21
31
9
8
4
7
3
5
13
August 1006
33
26
36
24
85
67
6
7
221
13
10
10
24
9
5
2
3
3
35
10
5
14
16
21
8
9
6
12
3
4
13
September 1010
32
24
35
21
82
63
5
6
172
10
25
12
16
3
2
1
4
36
23
9
15
11
13
4
7
8
11
3
4
8
October
1015
29
21
32
15
74
54
5
5
79
5
34
17
11
1
1
1
6
28
35
10
12
8
10
2
5
8
9
3
5
1
November 1019
25
17
30
11
72
50
5
4
42
4
37
16
5
1
4
36
36
11
12
7
8
3
5
10
9
3
5
December 1022
21
12
27
7
73
49
5
4
24
3
36
13
4
1
5
41
37
10
7
5
9
3
6
9
15
3
4
Means
1014
27
19
37*
4§
82
64
6
6
_
_
22
10
16
9
5
1
1
4
32
22
7
12
13
17
5
6
7
11
3
4
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1683
110
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
70
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
1‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
30
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
60
1.170 WMO No 45004 KING’S PARK, HONG KONG (22
°
19
′
N, 114
°
10
′
E) Height above MSL − 66 m
Climatic Table compiled from 8 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1999
January 1020
19
14
26
8
77
62
5
5
24
4
13
15
25
25
1
2
20
14
7
17
44
2
11
1
5
4
5
0
0
February 1019
19
14
26
9
81
67
6
6
47
6
9
14
29
28
1
2
18
8
9
21
42
1
1
9
1
8
5
6
0
1
2
March 1016
22
17
28
11
86
72
7
6
68
6
6
5
32
35
4
2
0
16
3
5
20
49
4
3
11
1
4
5
6
0
1
1
April
1013
26
21
30
16
89
74
7
6
160
8
2
5
32
33
5
3
4
18
2
3
24
43
6
10
10
1
4
4
6
0
3
May 1010
28
24
32
20
88
75
6
6
314
11
4
3
24
24
6
6
6
2
25
3
3
21
35
7
14
11
1
5
4
6
0
6
June 1007
30
26
33
22
88
77
7
7
378
16
2
16
17
14
20
14
2
15
1
1
12
20
16
28
19
1
5
4
6
0
9
July
1006
31
26
33
23
88
76
6
6
327
14
3
13
20
8
13
22
2
20
1
12
25
10
19
29
4
4
6
0
8
August 1006
31
26
34
24
88
76
6
6
395
14
2
4
12
19
2
9
21
2
30
2
1
10
27
6
10
35
4
6
3
6
0
10
September 1009
30
25
33
21
84
71
5
6
305
12
10
12
28
17
1
1
10
1
21
5
4
18
42
1
2
17
1
9
4
6
0
5
October
1015
28
23
32
19
75
62
5
4
145
6
12
28
35
11
3
12
11
12
23
44
1
1
4
2
1
5
6
0
November 1018
26
20
29
14
75
58
5
4
34
4
17
20
27
15
22
11
9
23
46
2
6
1
3
4
6
December 1021
22
16
27
11
73
57
5
4
27
2
26
19
24
16
1
14
20
10
18
37
1
3
6
1
4
4
5
0
0
0
Means
1010
26
21
34*
8§
83
69
6
5
_
_
9
11
25
21
3
4
7
1
19
7
5
18
38
4
8
14
1
5
4
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2224
103
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
44
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
8
8
8
8
30
8
8
8
8
8
8
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
61
1.171 WMO No 59792 PRATAS ISLAND (DONGSHA DAO) (20
°
40
′
N, 116
°
43
′
E) Height above MSL − 6 m
Climatic Table compiled from 17 years observations, 1983 to 1999
January 1017
23
21
25
19
83
78
6
6
14
56
26
2
1
12
59
26
2
0
0
1
15
15
0
February 1017
23
20
26
18
86
79
6
5
12
48
30
3
2
1
1
3
12
47
30
5
3
2
1
1
1
13
13
March 1015
26
22
29
17
88
77
5
5
6
35
34
10
9
2
3
8
34
31
8
16
3
1
1
10
11
April
1012
28
24
32
18
86
77
4
4
4
26
36
11
16
4
1
1
3
7
27
30
7
14
11
3
1
1
9
9
1
May 1009
30
26
32
23
85
77
5
5
6
15
25
13
21
13
4
2
3
7
19
23
8
21
11
7
2
2
7
8
1
3
June 1007
31
27
33
26
86
80
5
5
2
7
11
12
37
24
4
2
3
9
11
8
33
26
8
1
1
7
8
1
2
July
1006
32
27
33
26
84
76
4
4
4
6
9
18
26
22
11
2
2
6
5
10
11
26
23
14
4
1
8
8
1
1
2
August 1006
32
27
33
26
85
78
5
5
5
8
13
12
21
23
14
2
2
8
9
13
8
17
24
15
6
1
8
9
1
2
September 1009
30
26
32
24
83
78
5
5
8
25
29
11
9
6
6
3
3
12
27
29
7
9
6
4
5
1
10
10
1
3
October
1013
28
25
30
23
82
77
5
5
6
51
37
3
1
1
1
1
7
55
31
2
1
1
1
1
15
15
November 1016
26
23
28
21
81
77
6
5
5
69
24
1
1
0
1
8
67
23
2
0
1
0
0
17
17
December 1018
23
20
25
17
81
77
6
6
9
63
26
1
0
0
11
64
24
1
0
0
0
17
17
0
Means
1012
28
24
34*
16§
84
78
5
5
_
_
7
34
25
8
12
8
3
1
2
8
36
24
6
11
8
4
2
1
11
12
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
5
13
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
13‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
.
of years
observations
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
CHAPTER 1
62
1.172
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
HECTOPASCALS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
NOTES
63
Da Nang
Ho Chi
Minh City
Krung Thep (Bangkok)
Hong Kong
Guangzhou
(Canton)
CHI NA
CAMBODI A
V
I
E
T
N
A
M
THAI L AND
Singapore
MAL AY
PENI NSUL A
Chapter 2 - Main route from Singapore to Hong Kong - Passages - Islands,
banks, dangers and offshore fields, including Pulau-Paulau Anambas
Pulau-Pulau Anambas
Kuantan
Tapis oilfield
Belida oilfield
Dai Hung Oilfield
Paracel Islands
Huizhou Terminal
Pratas Reef
T
e
l
.
K
u
a
l
a
NP 32
China Sea Pilot
Vol III
NP 31
China Sea Pilot
Vol II
Haiphong
HAI NAN
DAO
2.105
2.70
2.57
2
.
8
2.19
2.76
2.82
2.97
64
3482
1371
3488
3489
362
94
1
3
7
1
0904
5° 5°
10°10°
15°15°
20°20°
100°
100° 105°
105° 110°
Longitude 110° East from Greenwich
115°
115°
65
CHAPTER 2
MAIN ROUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO HONG KONG — PASSAGES —
ISLANDS, BANKS, DANGERS AND OFFSHORE FIELDS,
INCLUDING PULAU-PULAU ANAMBAS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3482, 3488, 3489, 4508
Scope of the chapter
2.1
1
This chapter covers the main route through the W part of
the South China Sea between Singapore and Hong Kong
and includes descriptions of Pulau-Pulau Anambas (3°00′N,
106°00′E) (2.19), the Paracel Islands (16°30′N, 112°00′E)
(2.57) and Pratas Reef (20°42′N, 116°48′E) (2.70) together
with the offshore oil and gas terminals.
Routes
2.2
1
For general information about passages through the South
China Sea, see Admiralty Ocean Passages for the World.
When proceeding from Singapore to Hong Kong, two
routes may be followed:
Main Route, a distance of 1460 miles, leads NE on
the W side of the South China Sea.
Palawan Passage, a distance of 1925 miles, which
may be preferred by low-powered vessels during the
NE monsoon. See China Sea Pilot Volume II.
Depths
2.3
1
In the SW part of the South China Sea, depths are less
than 100 m. The central part is generally deep, but with
numerous shallow reefs and banks. In the N part off the S
China coast, the 100 m depth contour runs parallel with the
coast between 75 to 120 miles offshore.
Exercise areas
2.4
1
Submarine exercise areas exist 15 miles SE and 50 miles
SE of Pulau Aur (2°27′N, 104°31′E) (3.38), and 22 miles
NE of Pulau Tioman (2°47′N, 104°10′E) (3.48). See also
Annual Notice to Mariners No 8.
Dumping grounds
2.5
1
An explosives dumping ground is centred on 9°12′N,
110°46′N; see chart. Several further explosives dumping
grounds are charted within 85 miles of the Vietnamese coast.
A dumping ground is centred on 21°44′N, 115°10′E; see
chart.
Currents
2.6
1
General information on currents within the South China
Sea will be found at 1.98.
HMS Rifleman, when surveying during the years from
1864 to 1868, anchored on most of the banks and reefs
between the main route from Singapore to Hong Kong and
the area between the parallels of 7°33′N and 12°00′N and
the meridians of 112°50′E and 117°44′E, in which numerous
shoals exist.
2
It was observed that, for sixteen hours out of the
twenty-four, the current invariably set to windward, generally
at the greatest rate when the monsoon was strongest.
Further information from observations made at specific
places is given at 2.11.
Oil and gas offshore fields
2.7
1
There are a number of offshore fields in the SW part of
the South China Sea, off the SE coast of Vietnam and in the
NE part of the South China Sea. These are described
commencing at 2.73. Vessels engaged in offshore exploration
may be encountered in the vicinity of existing offshore fields
and elsewhere. Uncharted wellheads and obstructions on the
seabed up to 4⋅6 m (15 ft) high may exist in the vicinity of
existing offshore fields.
MAIN ROUTE FROM SINGAPORE TO HONG KONG
General information
Charts 94, 1311, 1968, 3543, 3482, 3488, 3489
Route
2.8
1
The main route for fully powered vessels at all seasons
leads NE, from a position between Pulau Aur (2°27′N,
104°31′E) (3.38) and Pulau-Pulau Anambas (3°00′N,
106°00′E) (2.19), and passes 20 miles NW of the Udang
Oilfield (4°02′N, 106°28′E) (2.94) and 25 miles SE of
Charlotte Bank (7°08′N, 107°35′E) (2.14); then passes
between the Paracel Islands (16°30′N, 112°00′E) (2.57) and
Macclesfield Bank (15°50′N, 114°20′E) (2.16), thence to
Hong Kong passing 15 miles W of Helen Shoal (19°12′N,
113°53′E) (2.17). Vessels proceeding NE to Taiwan or the
Luzon Straits may pass either side of Pratas Reef (20°42′N,
116°48′E) (2.70).
Depths
2.9
1
See 2.3.
Incomplete surveys
2.10
1
In the SE part of the South China Sea, W of Palawan
Island (10°00′N, 119°00′E), there is an incompletely
surveyed region encumbered with numerous coral reefs and
shoals. This area, which is described in China Sea Pilot
Volume II, should be avoided by all vessels.
Currents
2.11
1
The following information is from observations gathered
at specific places close to the main route; see also 2.6:
Macclesfield Bank (15°50′N, 114°20′E) (2.16). In
1987 an E-going current of to 1 kn was reported
over the bank.
CHAPTER 2
66
Paracel Islands (16°30′N, 112°00′E). See 2.57.
2
Bombay Reef (16°02′N, 112°30′E) (2.59). The current,
3 miles SE of the reef, was reported in 1951 to set
040° at a rate of 1 to 2 kn.
Helen Shoal (19°12′N, 113°53′E) (2.17). The current
has been found usually to set with the wind.
St Esprit Shoal (19°33′N, 113°02′E) (2.17). The
current has been observed to set generally with the
wind.
3
Pratas Reef (20°42′N, 116°48′E) (2.70). The currents
set in a NE or SW direction according to the
prevailing monsoon. At distances of 20 to 50 miles
NW, through N to NE and E of Pratas Reef, the
currents have been observed to be exceptionally
strong. Tide-rips, which occasionally appear like
breakers, have been seen.
4
Vereker Banks (21°05′N, 116°00′E) (2.17). In
February, the prevailing current sets between WNW
and WSW with a rate of to 1 kn; at times it sets
to windward, and with calm or light SW winds it
sets between SSE and ESE at a rate of to 1 kn.
Major lights
2.12
1
Pulau Damar Light (white GRP tower, 10 m in height)
(2°45′N, 105°23′E).
Pulau Mangkai Light (white metal framework tower,
40 m in height) (3°05′N, 105°36′E).
Udang Oilfield — light on tanker (4°02′N, 106°29′E).
2
Bombay Reef (Langhua Jiao) Light (white round
concrete tower, 22 m in height) (16°02′N,
112°27′E).
Lufeng Terminal (LF13−1 platform) (21°35′N,
116°09′E).
Other aids to navigation
2.13
1
Racons:
Pulau Mangakai Lighthouse — as above.
Belida Oilfield storage tanker (4°08′N, 105°08′E)
(2.78).
Directions
2.14
1
The route is described in Admiralty Ocean Passages for
the World. The information that follows describes the banks
and shoals close to the route and other features of
navigational significance.
A shoal patch (4°26′N, 106°33′E), with a depth of 12 m
over it (reported 1973), in a position about 100 miles NE of
Pulau Mangkai Light (2.12).
2
Charlotte Bank (7°08′N, 107°35′E), with a least depth of
8⋅7 m over it, lies 25 miles NW of the main route. In 1964,
a shoal, with a least depth of 21⋅5 m over it, was reported to
lie 6 miles WNW of Charlotte Bank.
Scawfell (7°18′N, 106°51′E), 46 miles WNW of Charlotte
Bank, has a depth of 9⋅1 m over it and is composed of coral.
When examined by HMS Waterwitch in 1908, Scawfell was
not marked by discoloured water nor by overfalls.
2.15
1
A group of banks lie on the E side of the route between
the parallels of 7°20′N and 8°12′E and the meridians of
109°30′E and 110°40′E. Vanguard Bank (7°28′N, 109°37′E),
the S bank of the group with a least depth of 16⋅5 m over it,
lies 60 miles SE of the main route. A 20 m patch, reported
in 1960 to show muddy discolouration, lies near the E
extremity of the bank. Lights are exhibited from two
platforms standing on the bank. A depth of 12⋅5 m, reported
1990, lies 32 miles W of the W extremity of the bank, with
depths of 12⋅5 m and 7⋅5 m, reported 1992, lying between 5
to 8 miles S of this depth. It has been reported that gas is
erupting within 3 miles of position 7°34′N, 108°54′E,
approximately 49 miles WNW of the W extremity of
Vanguard Bank.
2
Prince Consort Bank (7°53′N, 110°00′E), composed of
sand and coral, lies 12 miles NE of Vanguard Bank and has
a least depth of 18⋅2 m over it near its NW edge. Depths of
21⋅5 m and 23⋅5 m, coral, exist on the W edge of the bank,
S of the shallowest part. A light is exhibited from a platform
standing on the bank. In 1982, it was reported that both
Vanguard and Prince Consort Banks lay 4 miles NW of their
charted positions.
3
Grainger Bank, coral with a least depth of 10⋅9 m over it,
lies 35 miles ENE of the E end of Vanguard Bank. The coral
bottom of this bank is visible over nearly the whole of it. A
light is exhibited from a platform standing on the bank.
4
Prince of Wales Bank, with a least depth of 7⋅3 m over it
on its W side, lies 12 miles N of Grainger Bank. The bank
is of coral formation and the depths over it are very
irregular. Alexandra Bank, 2 miles SE of Prince of Wales
Bank, has a depth of 5⋅4 m over it on its E side; the coral
bottom of this bank is distinctly visible. Lights are exhibited
from platforms standing on these banks.
5
Caution. Vessels bound between Singapore and Hong
Kong should not attempt to pass between these banks, nor
between the numerous shoals which exist over the very large
area between the parallels of 7°33′N and 12°00′N and the
meridians of 111°30′E and 117°44′E.
2.16
1
Macclesfield Bank (15°50′N, 114°20′E) is situated E of
the main route, its SW extremity lying 66 miles ESE of
Bombay Reef (16°02′N, 112°30′E) (2.59). It was discovered
by the English ship Macclesfield in 1701 and was surveyed
in 1892−3. The W portion of the bank has been only
partially surveyed. The bank is a below-water atoll, with
many patches, over which there are depths of less than 20 m
on its edge. The shallowest part of the edge is at the NE end
of Pigmy Shoal (16°14′N, 114°48′E) at the NE end of the
bank, where there is a depth of 11⋅9 m. Detached depths of
9 m have been reported 11 miles ESE and 19 miles ENE of
the E extremity of Pigmy Shoal.
2
Penguin Bank (15°38′N, 113°44′E) lies at the SW end of
Macclesfield Bank 73 miles SW of Pigmy Shoal, and has a
least depth of 16⋅5 m over it at its NE end. Within the
perimeter shoals (see chart) are several detached shoals, the
shallowest of which is Walker Shoal with a depth of 9⋅1 m
over it, which lies near the middle of Macclesfield Bank.
3
Caution. Macclesfield Bank can generally be seen from
aloft. In heavy weather the sea on its edge is high and
confused. Mariners are recommended to pass either E or W
of the bank as uncharted dangers may exist on it.
2.17
1
Helen Shoal (19°12′N, 113°53′E), situated midway
between Macclesfield Bank (2.16) and Hong Kong, 15 miles
E of the main route, has a least depth of 10⋅2 m over it, with
depths of over 200 m close round it. The sea breaks over it
in bad weather. Strong tide-rips have been observed in the
vicinity of Helen Shoal, but on examination, deep water was
found to exist. HMS Dampier anchored on this shoal in
1962.
2
St Esprit Shoal (19°33′N, 113°02′E) lies near the edge of
the 200 m depth contour 49 miles WNW of Helen Shoal.
The shoal, on which the least depth is 10⋅8 m, is situated
35 miles W of the main route. Strong tide-rips have been
CHAPTER 2
67
observed in the vicinity of the shoal but on examination,
deep water was found to exist.
3
Vereker Banks (21°05′N, 116°00′E), situated 120 miles
SE of Hong Kong, are two dead coral banks with deep
water between and around them. There are heavy overfalls
and tide-rips in their vicinity. In 1957, a bank, with depths
of 12⋅8 m near its SW end and 34 m near its NE end, was
reported to extend 26 miles NE from a position 12 miles
NNW from the shallowest part of North Vereker Bank.
4
South Vereker Bank has a least depth of 59 m over it.
A depth of 11⋅8 m exists 37 miles SW of South
Vereker Bank in approximately 20°39′N, 115°19′E.
North Vereker Bank has a least depth of 10⋅9 m over it
at its NE edge. A below-water rock, the existence of
which is doubtful, lies on Beckwith Shoal
approximately 28 miles NNW of North Vereker
Bank.
5
Caution. Breakers were reported in 1949 in 18°10′N,
117°15′E, some 180 miles SSE of South Vereker Bank.
Anchorage
2.18
1
Anchorage is possible in some instances, weather
permitting, on some of the shallower banks where sand or
clay bottom may be found; most of the banks and reefs
covered by this chapter are of coral or sand formation.
Particular care must be taken in the monsoon seasons, not
only for changes in wind and rain, but also for the variations
of current direction and strength, see 2.6.
2
Of the islands W of the main route, Con Son (5.24)
offers the best anchorage and shelter, with bays that will
accommodate large vessels. The other groups of islands offer
only temporary shelter according to favourable winds.
ISLAND GROUPS
Pulau-Pulau Anambas
Charts 1371, 1311, 3543, 3482
General information
2.19
1
Description. Four groups of islands, all belonging to the
Republic of Indonesia, lie in the S part of the South China
Sea N of the Equator. They are known as Pulau-Pulau
Badas, Pulau-Pulau Tambelan, Pulau-Pulau Natuna and
Pulau-Pulau Anambas. The best time to visit these islands is
at the change of the monsoon, the spring being preferable.
During the monsoons, many of the islands are inaccessible
on account of heavy surf, and the probability of favourable
weather is small.
2
Pulau-Pulau Badas and Pulau-Pulau Tambelan are
described in Indonesia Pilot Volume I, while the Pulau-Pulau
Natuna group are described in China Sea Pilot Volume II.
3
Position. Pulau-Pulau Anambas (3°00′N, 106°00′E) lie on
the E side of the main route from Singapore to Hong Kong.
They consist of two principal groups, the SW group and the
NE group, and numerous detached islets. See views on chart
1371. These two groups are divided from one another by an
imaginary line joining Pulau Ayerabu (Airabu) (2.32), Pulau
Buan (2.34) and Pulau Durai (2.37) which lie 55 miles E
and NE of Pulau Damar (2°45′N, 105°23′E) (2.23). All
these islands form part of the SW group.
4
Function. The export of copra forms the main trade of
the islands; sage is also exported, and the forests produce
excellent timber. Fruit, goats and fowl may be obtained at
the large villages.
5
Topography. The higher peaks of Pulau-Pulau Anambas
have elevations up to 566 m (1855 ft) and have dense forests
which reach to the summits. Many of the islands are
uninhabited; the abundance of coconut plantations is a
notable feature of these islands. The principal village is
Terampah (2.45) situated on the N coast of Pulau Siantan
(2.43), the SW island of the NE group.
Floating islands
2.20
1
Floating islands, composed of grass, small trees and other
debris from rivers, are sometimes met in the neighbourhood
of Pulau-Pulau Anambas; in 1911 one floating island was
reported to be 15 m long and from 3 to 6 m high.
Local knowledge
2.21
1
Although the survey of 1893 did not discover any
dangers in many of the passages between the islands, it was
not of an exhaustive character. As a general rule, vessels
should therefore use only the channels between the groups of
islands and not attempt passages between individual islands
without local knowledge.
Flow
2.22
1
HMS Rifleman, in 1862 when surveying in the
neighbourhood of these islands in fine weather with
generally light winds, observed that during the SW monsoon
period, from the middle of July to the middle of September,
and also during the NE monsoon period, in December, the
tidal stream set to windward, against the prevailing monsoon
drift, for an uncertain period of each day. The S stream
began to run about 3 hours before HW at Terengannu
(3.139) and the N stream commenced about 4 hours after
HW at Terengganu, but these were subject to an uncertainty
of as much as 2 or 3 hours either way. The S stream usually
ran for 13 or 14 hours, and the N stream for 10 or 11 hours.
At springs, the tidal streams had rates from 1 to 2 kn; at
neaps they were weak and irregular. See also 2.6.
Pulau-Pulau Anambas — South-west Group
Charts 1371, 1311
South-west detached islets
2.23
1
Pulau Damar (2°45′N, 105°23′E) is a steep and barren
rock, 82 m (270 ft) high, with depths of 55 m (30 fm) close
round it. A little scanty vegetation exists near the top of the
islet; the bold cliffs show white owing to the guano
deposited on them. A rock, with depth of less than 2 m over
it, lies close S of Pulau Damar. A light (2.12) is exhibited
from the island. There is a small indentation on both its SW
and NE sides where landing can be effected in fine weather.
2
Batu Katoaka, a coral shoal 4 cables in extent with a
depth of 8⋅8 m (29 ft) over it, lies 19 miles SSE of Pulau
Damar; less depths may exist on this shoal. A shoal patch,
with a depth of 28 m (15 fm) over it, was reported to lie
4 miles NE of Batu Katoaka.
2.24
1
Pulau Tokongmalangbiru (Tokong Malangbiru) (2°18′N,
105°36′E), the SW islet of Pulau-Pulau Anambas, lies
CHAPTER 2
68
30 miles SSE of Pulau Damar. It is a white flat-topped
barren rock, 34 m (110 ft) high, with steep cliffs at its E end.
The rock is steep-to all round except close to its SW
extremity where shallow water extends a short distance
offshore. A light is exhibited from the island.
2
Pulau Repong (2°22′N, 105°53′E), 17 miles NE of Pulau
Tokongmalangbiru, is covered with trees and has two peaks
forming a high saddle, the E peak being the higher and
having an elevation of 209 m (690 ft). It is fringed by a
narrow reef, the edge of which is steep-to. A shoal with a
depth of 27 m (14 fm) lies 1 miles W of Pulau Repong. A
light is exhibited from the island.
3
Pulau Bawah is a group of uninhabited islets and rocks
lying 13 miles NE of Pulau Repong. The group rises from
depths of over 55 m (30 fm) and is surrounded by a reef.
The N and largest islet has a wooded summit 134 m (440 ft)
high, and close N of it there is a pyramidal-shaped rock
67 m (220 ft) high. The S islet of the group is 125 m
(410 ft) high. Between the two principal islets there are a
few low bushy islets and rocks lying on the edge of the reef
which joins them.
Pulau Jemaja (Djemadja)
2.25
1
Pulau Jemaja (Djemadja) (2°56′N, 105°46′E) is the
principal and largest island of the SW group. The island is
densely wooded and mountainous, attaining an elevation of
467 m (1541 ft) in Gunung Tudjuh in the NE part of the
island; the peaks in the N part of the island are, for the most
part, easily identified, but towards the S end they become
more uniform in outline. Gunung Datu, 451 m (1488 ft),
situated 6 miles NW of Gunung Tudjuh, is seen as a
remarkable sharp peak from all directions. Gunung Adong,
433 m (1421 ft) high, is situated 1 miles NE of Gunung
Datu; it is another remarkable peak which shows as a
rounded hill from E or W, but appears sharp from N. See
view B on chart 1371.
2
West side. Tanjung Lelan, from where a light is
exhibited, is the S extremity of Pulau Jemaja. A flat
detached rock, 6 m (20 ft) high, lies 3 cables SE of Tanjung
Lelan. Gosong Margesson (Margesson Shoal), usually
marked by tide-rips, lies 7 miles NW of Tanjung Lelan.
The shoal is composed of sand and coral and consists of two
parts; there is a least depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over its S part.
Pulau Daru (2°55′N, 105°41′E) is a wooded islet, 194 m
(640 ft) high lying mile off the central part of the W coast
of Pulau Jemaja. Pulau Katukan, 33 m (108 ft) high, lies
close W of Palau Daru and is separated from it by a narrow
boat channel. Pulau Sibrong, 2 miles N of Pulau Daru, is
joined to Pulau Jemaja by a reef. Pulau Sibrong has two
prominent peaks, the S of which is 177 m (581 ft) high, and
the N is 105 m (344 ft) high. Kumbur, an islet, lies on a reef
which extends mile from the NE side of Pulau Sibrong.
2.26
1
Pulau Tulai (2°59′N, 105°41′E), 81 m (266 ft) high and
from where a light (white beacon) is exhibited, lies in the
middle of the entrance to a bay between Pulau Sibrong
(2.25) and Tanjung Julan (Djutan), 2 miles NW. Pulai Tulai
is fringed by a reef which extends 2 cables from its SE
extremity. Kampung Letong, where there is a pier alongside
which boats can lie at all states of the tide, is situated on the
shore of this bay 1 mile E of Pulai Tulai. A light is
exhibited near the head of the bay.
2
Berala, an islet, lies on the outer edge of a reef extending
mile from the NE shore of the bay, near Kampung
Letong. A detached patch of coral, with a depth of 2⋅7 m
(9 ft) over it, is marked by a buoy (red can; red cylinder
topmark), lying 1 cable SW of it and mile SE of Pulau
Tulai. Pulau Ipan, 24 m (79 ft) high and covered with
coconut trees, lies mile W of Tanjung Julan; it is steep-to
and a detached islet lies close off its S extremity. Courier
Bank, with a depth of 11 m (36 ft) over it, lies 1 mile SSW
of Pulau Ipan. Between Tanjung Julan and the NW extremity
of Pulau Jemaja, 3 miles NNE, there is a bay, the S shore
of which is fringed by a reef. A reef, on which there are
some black above-water rocks, extends mile from the NW
extremity of the island.
3
Anchorage may be obtained NE of Pulau Tulai. There is
also anchorage for small craft with local knowledge off the
pier at Kampung Letong, the best approach to which is S of
Pulau Tulai and the buoy mentioned above.
2.27
1
North-east side. Between the NW extremity of Pulau
Jemaja and Tanjung Mingga (3°03′N, 105°44′E), 2 miles
ESE, there is a bay. Tanjung Mingga is a promontory 107 m
(351 ft) high, and appears from a distance as an island, being
joined to Pulau Jemaja by a low sandy neck. Teluk Mampo
is entered between Tanjung Mingga and Pulau Ayam (Ajam),
4 miles SE. Pulau Ayam has two peaks, each 152 m
(499 ft) high, and is connected to Pulau Jemaja, S, by a reef.
2
Pulau Gumbong, 97 m (318 ft) high, and Pulau Hudang,
70 m (230 ft) high, lie on a reef situated in the NW part of
Teluk Mampo, 1 mile SE from Tanjung Mingga and mile
offshore. At the SW head of the bay there is a white sandy
beach, at the E end of which lies Gunung Silvassi, 256 m
(840 ft) high and prominent. Gunung Puding, also prominent
and 213 m (699 ft) high, lies near the W end of the sandy
beach, 4 miles SSW from Tanjung Mingga.
3
Several villages are situated along this sandy beach;
Kampung Mampo, surrounded by coconut trees, being at its
W end.
Tanjung Pinanang (2°59′N, 105°51′E), the NE extremity
of Pulau Jemaja, is low and lies 2 miles ESE of Pulau
Ayam. Pulau Pinanang, 82 m (269 ft) high and planted with
coconut trees, lies 1 miles NW of Tanjung Pinanang.
4
Anchorages. Anchorage can be obtained in the bay W of
Tanjung Mingga in a depth of 29 m (16 fm), sand, with
Tanjung Mingga bearing 092° distant 1 mile, out of the
influence of the tidal streams in Impul Passage (2.30).
Anchorage may be obtained in a depth of 20 m (11 fm)
near the middle of Teluk Mampo, 2 miles W of Pulau
Ayam.
2.28
1
South-east side. The SE side of Pulau Jemaja is rocky
and steep. In some places there are beaches with coconut
trees growing up the slopes of the hills behind them. The
bays in the coast are open E and are not suitable for large
vessels to enter.
2
Between Tanjung Pinanang and Tanjung Jebung (2°58′N,
105°51′E), a low wooded point 2 miles S, the coast is
indented; an islet 44 m (144 ft) high and covered with
coconut trees, lies mile S of Tanjung Pinanang and mile
offshore. Detached reefs extend S from the islet as far as
Tanjung Jebung. Westacott Bank, 4 miles ESE of Tanjung
Jebung, has a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft), sand, over it. Teluk
Jebung is entered between Tanjung Jebung and a point
3 miles SW. Some detached reefs lie in the NW part of the
bay mile offshore and two islets lie on the coastal reef
close S of Tanjung Jebung.
3
Teluk Kuala is entered between the S entrance point of
Teluk Jebung and Tanjung Linang (2°53′N, 105°49′E),
1 miles SSW. A buoy (conical; black and white chequers;
black conical topmark) is moored close S of a detached coral
patch lying in the middle of the entrance to the bay 8 cables
CHAPTER 2
69
NNW of Tanjung Linang. Another patch of coral, marked by
a buoy (black conical) moored E of it, lies 2 cables farther
W. The bay narrows inwards from this latter buoy and is
obstructed by a rocky bar with a depth of 5⋅7 m (19 ft) over
it and by a coastal reef and some detached coral patches.
Within the inlet the salient points of the reefs are marked by
beacons (black with topmarks). Kampung Kuala, situated
along the N shore of the inner part of the bay, consists of
about 30 houses built on piles. There is a wooden jetty and
good drinking water can be obtained.
4
Teluk Tiru is entered between Tanjung Linang and Pulau
da Jong (Dajong) (2°51′N, 105°46′E), 35 m (115 ft) high
and joined to Pulau Jemaja, 4 miles SW. The bay is divided
into two parts, but it is so encumbered by reefs and rocks
that it is of no navigational importance. Pulau Punisan, 122
(400 ft) high, lies in the middle of the entrance to the N part
of Teluk Tiru, 1 miles W of Tanjung Linang. A detached
reef lies mile S of Pulau Punisan. Between Pulau da Jong
and Tanjung Lelan (2.25), 3 miles SW, the coast is indented.
A 3⋅7 m (12 ft) patch lies 1 miles SSW of Pulau da Jong
and mile offshore.
5
Anchorages. Good temporary anchorage may be obtained
near the middle of Teluk Jebung, 1 mile offshore, in a depth
of 16 to 18 m (52 to 59 ft), sand.
Anchorage may be obtained in the entrance to Teluk
Kuala with Tanjung Linang bearing 180° distant mile and
Kampung Kuala bearing 295° in a depth of 24 m (13 fm),
sand. Small vessels with local knowledge can anchor further
in.
6
Anchorage may be obtained off the entrance to the S part
of Teluk Tiru with the N extremity of Pulau da Jong bearing
216°, distant 1 mile, in a depth of 26 m, (14 fm), mud. Care
should be taken to avoid a 3⋅7 m (12 ft) patch which lies in
the middle of the entrance to the S part of Teluk Tiru,
mile N of Pulau da Jong.
Islands north of Pulau Jemaja and Impul Passage
2.29
1
Pulau Mangkai (3°05′N, 105°36′E), the NW of the group
of islands N of Pulau Jemaja (2.25) lies 6 miles NW of
Tanjung Julan (2.26); it is 175 m (574 ft) high, almost of
uniform elevation, and wooded. A light (2.12) is exhibited
from the W summit of the island. The light is obscured,
except in Impul Passage (2.30), by islands from 239°,
through W to 338°. It is also obscured intermittently from W
of the island within 1 miles and from E of the island
within 3 miles. Pulau Mangkai Kecil, 61 m, (200 ft) high,
lies close SE of Pulau Mangkai. The coasts of both islands
are fairly steep-to.
2
Caution. When approaching Pulau Mangkai during the
NE monsoon between November and April, it should be
noted that Pulau Mangai Light is frequently obscured by
heavy rain squalls.
3
Pulau Kramut, 113 m (371 ft) high, lies 2 miles ENE of
Pulau Mangkai, and is separated from it by a deep and clear
passage. Pulau Mubur, 248 m (818 ft) high, lies NE of Pulau
Kramut and is separated from it by a mangrove swamp
through which there is a canoe passage. Kampung Kramut
lies at the head of the bay on the S side of Pulau Mubur;
this bay is encumbered by foul ground. The channel to this
village is on the W side of the bay and is marked by
beacons. Pulau Datu, 107 m (351 ft) high, lies close off the
SE extremity of Pulau Mubur.
4
Pulau Anak (3°07′N, 105°41′E), 195 m (643 ft) high, lies
mile NE of Pulau Mubur. Two islets lie, respectively,
5 cables NW and 3 cables N of the NW extremity of Pulau
Anak; the W islet is 62 m (203 ft) high and fringed by a
reef, and the E islet is 55 m (180 ft) high. Pulau Impul, with
a prominent sharp wooded summit, 360 m (1181 ft) high, is
situated SE of Pulau Anak and is separated from it by a
channel 2 cables wide with a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) in the
fairway.
5
Anchorage may be obtained by small vessels with local
knowledge in the bay on the S side of Pulau Mubur in a
depth of 38 m (21 fm), sand and stones, with the SW
extremity of Pulau Datu bearing 119°, the SE extremity of
Pulau Mubur bearing 085°, and the SE extremity of Pulau
Kramut bearing 248°. Small vessels with local knowledge
can also anchor off Kampung Kramut.
2.30
1
Impul Passage is entered from W between the NW
extremity of Pulau Jemaja (Djemadja) (2°56′N, 105°46′E)
(2.25) and the SW side of Pulau Impul (2.29) 1 mile NE.
Gosong McCaulay (McCaulay Bank) (3°04′N, 105°40′E), a
small coral bank with a depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) and possibly
less over it, lies in the W approach to Impul Passage 1 mile
SSW of Pulau Datu (2.29). Bunker Bank, a coral head with
a depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it, lies in the middle of the E
approach to Impul Passage.
2
Tidal streams in Impul Passage set E and W at a rate of
1 knots at springs.
Clearing marks.
3
Gosong McCaulay. The summit of Pulau Telaga
(3°03′N, 105°59′E) (2.36) in line with the S
extremity of Pulau Impul bearing 091°, leads N of
Gosong McCaulay; the SE extremity of Pulau
Impul in line with the outer black rocks extending
from the NW extremity of Pulau Jemaja, bearing
069°, leads S; and Pulau Katukan (2.25) bearing
180° and open E of Pulau Ipan (2.26), leads E of
Gosong McCaulay.
4
Bunker Bank. The N side of Pulau Mangkai (2.29),
bearing 280° and open S of Pulau Impul, leads S of
Bunker Bank.
Pulau Ritan group
2.31
1
Pulau Ritan (2°37′N, 106°17′E), 137 m (452 ft) high and
thickly wooded, is the largest of a group of islands lying
15 miles ENE of Pulau Bawah (2.24). The island is fringed
by a reef extending 2 cables from its SE side. Close off its
W side is a conspicuous white rock, 12 m (39 ft) high. An
islet, 85 m (279 ft) high, lies close E of the N extremity of
Pulau Ritan and is joined to it by a reef. The NE island of
the group, 61 m (200 ft) high and from where a light is
exhibited, lies 1 miles NE from Pulau Ritan from which it
is separated by a channel 6 cables wide, which appears to be
deep and clear but has not been thoroughly examined; see
2.21. A reef extends 4 cables from its N and W sides, and
the W extremity of the latter is marked by a flat-topped rock
9 m (30 ft) high. Terumbu Brownrigg (Brownrigg Klip)
(2°38′N, 106°19′E), a coral patch with a depth of 3⋅7 m
(12 ft) over it, lies 1 mile E of the NE island of the group.
2
Tide-rips and overfalls occur S of Pulau Ritan, which are
apparently caused by the unevenness of the bottom and not
by any off-lying danger.
Pulau Ayerabu (Airabu) group
2.32
1
Pulau Ayerabu (Airabu) (2°45′N, 106°13′E) is the largest
of a group of islands lying 6 miles NNW of Pulau Ritan
CHAPTER 2
70
(2.31). A high wooded ridge, with several prominent peaks
on it, traverses the island. The highest peak, near the NW
end, has an elevation of 486 m (1604 ft) showing sharp from
all directions; another prominent peak, 482 m (1581 ft) high,
is near the middle of the island, and is flat-topped. The E
side of Pulau Ayerabu is indented. A reef, awash, lies mile
E of a point situated 3 miles SE of the NE extremity of
the island; a 5⋅5 m (18 ft) coral patch lies 1 mile S of the
reef, awash, and 1 miles NE of the SE extremity of the
island. The only known village on the island is situated in a
small inlet about 1 mile WSW from the NW summit of the
island; fresh water can be obtained here in barrels or cans.
2
Anchorage may be obtained by vessels with local
knowledge in the middle of a bay on the W side of Pulau
Ayerabu about 1 miles SE of the NW extremity of the
island in depths of 22 to 27 m (12 to 15 fm), mud. It has
been reported that the best anchorage in bad weather is in
the NE corner of the bay in a depth of 36 m (20 fm)
opposite two huts on the beach. Anchorage is also reported
in a depth of 46 m (25 fm) off the small inlet (see above)
close N of the N entrance point of the bay.
3
Pulau Lintang, 186 m (614 ft) high, with a sharp wooded
summit, lies close SE of Pulau Ayerabu, and is separated
from it by a boat channel. A group of six islets lies NE and
E of Pulau Lintang; the NE islet is 55 m (180 ft) high and is
situated 1 miles from the island. The E islet is 67 m
(220 ft) high and lies 6 cables S of the NE islet. Batuputih
(Witte Rots) consists of a group of rocks lying mile SE of
Pulau Lintang. The S rock of the group is flat-topped and
14 m (46 ft) high.
4
Pulau Gembili, 324 m (1069 ft) high and densely wooded
with a sharp prominent summit, lies mile W of Pulau
Ayerabu. A depth of 9 m (29 ft) was reported 7 miles SW of
Pulau Gembili. Pulau Serak (2°47′N, 106°01′E), 123 m
(406 ft) high and wooded, lies 10 miles W of Pulau
Ayerabu. It is fringed by a narrow reef which is steep-to
close to its edge except on the N and S sides, where shallow
water extends 1 cable offshore.
2.33
1
Pulau Tokong, an islet 30 m (98 ft) high steep-to and
covered with trees, lies 2 miles NNW of Pulau Ayerabu
(2.32). Tokongdahan (2°49′N, 106°10′E), a dangerous rock
with a depth of less than 2m (6 ft) over it, on which the sea
occasionally breaks, lies 1 miles WNW of the N extremity
of Pulau Ayerabu. Pulau Genting, 96 m (315 ft) high and
wooded, lies 3 miles W of Pulau Tokong; it has two
rounded peaks on its E end and its NW end is low, with a
reef extending 3 cables from it. Pulau Mentanyu (Mentanju),
99 m (325 ft) high and wooded, lies 1 miles NNW of
Pulau Genting. A reef extends mile from its NE side; on
the N edge of this reef there is a rock 2 m (6 ft) high.
2
Pulau Temiang (2°56′N, 106°08′E), the largest of the
group of islands lying NNW of Pulau Ayerabu, is low in the
centre rising to a broad flat-topped hill at either end; the NW
and higher hill is 262 m (864 ft) high and densely wooded.
There is a village on the NE side of the island. Pulau
Temiang is surrounded by a coastal reef which extends
mile from its SE extremity, where there is an islet near the
edge of the reef. Pulau Mangkait, 44 m (144 ft) high, with a
tongue of reef projecting mile W from it, lies mile off
the S side of Pulau Temiang. The channel between Pulau
Mangkait and Pulau Mentanyu is 2 miles wide and is deep
and clear of dangers.
3
Pulau Mankudu, 30 m (98 ft) high, and Pulau Telaga
Tjina, 40 m (131 ft) high, are both flat-topped and similar in
appearance lying mile SE and 1 mile S, respectively, of
Pulau Temiang; they are joined together by a reef. A
detached reef, on which there is an above-water rock, lies in
the middle of the channel between Pulau Mangkudu and
Pulau Temiang. Two small islets stand on the reef extending
4 cables S from Pulau Mangkudu; the S islet is
button-shaped and 26 m (85 ft) high. A small detached
drying reef lies mile SW of the 26 m (85 ft) islet.
2.34
1
Pulau Ujung (Udjung) (2°57′N, 106°11′E) is the SE
island of a group of four lying 1 miles NE of Pulau
Temiang (2.33) from which they are separated by a deep
channel clear of dangers. Pulau Ujung is inhabited and is
155 m (511 ft) high and wooded. A reef, on the outer end of
which is a rock, above-water, extends 2 cables S from the
SE extremity of the island. Reefs also extend the same
distance from the NE and N extremities of the island. Pulau
Lubangtamban, 161 m (531 ft) high is inhabited and lies
mile NW of Pulau Ujung with a narrow channel between.
The E side of the island is fringed by a reef and some
detached patches of reef lie close on its W side.
2
Pulau Telibang (2°59′N, 106°08′E), 186 m (614 ft) high
and wooded near its N end, lies 1 mile NW of Pulau
Lubangtamban. Pulau Dikar, 107 m (353 ft) high, is situated
4 cables W of Pulau Telibang and lies on a reef which
extends in patches mile N, leaving a narrow boat channel
between it and Pulau Telibang; some rocks, above-water, lie
near the extremity of the reef on the side of the island.
3
Pulau Buan (3°00′N, 106°15′E), 76 m (250 ft) high and
wooded, lies 5 miles E of Pulau Telibang. A detached reef,
parts of which are above-water, lies close off the W side. Its
E side is fringed by a reef and from its S extremity a reef,
on which there are two islets, the N being 4 m (13 ft) high,
extends 3 cables S. Karang Pascoe (Pascoe Klip), with a
depth of 5 m (16 ft) over it, is steep-to and lies 2 miles ENE
of Pulau Buan. Karang Bennet (Bennet Klip), with a depth
of 3 m (10 ft) over it, lies 1 mile E of Pulau Taloyan
(Talojan) (3°03′N, 106°13′E), a wooded islet 87 m (287 ft)
high. A patch of coral, with a depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) or
probably less over it, lies 1 miles ENE of Pulau Taloyan.
Gosong Barnes (Barnes Bank), with a depth of 12 m (39 ft)
over it, sand and coral, is situated 4 miles NW of Pulau
Taloyan.
Pulau Gentingunyut group
2.35
1
Pulau Gentingunyut (3°08′N, 106°05′E) is the W and
largest of a group of islands situated 8 miles NW of Pulau
Taloyan (2.34). A ridge of wooded hills extends along the
middle of Pulau Gentingunyut, rising to an elevation of
290 m (957 ft) near the S end. A reef, on which there is a
rock, 1 m (5 ft), extends 3 cables from the N end of the
islands. Pulau Linggai lies 1 mile E of the S end of Pulau
Gentingunyut; a ridge of wooded hills rises to the summit,
290 m (957 ft) high, near the S end of the island. Pulau
Semisak, 137 m (449 ft) high and wooded, lies close W of
the N extremity of Pulau Linggai and is connected to it by a
reef. Pulau Musuh, 120 m (394 ft) high, lies close S of Pulau
Linggai and is connected to its SW extremity by a reef.
2
Pulau Nawan, 82 m (269 ft) high and wooded, lies 1 mile
E of Pulai Linggai and is the E island of the group. Karang
Singka (Batu Karang Singka), awash, lies on a dangerous
coral patch, 1 miles NNE of Pulau Nawan.
Pulau Telaga group
2.36
1
Pulau Telaga (3°03′N, 105°59′E) is the largest and E
island of a group lying 7 miles SW of Pulau Gentingunyut
(2.35). A prominent conical peak, 530 m (1749 ft) high, is
situated near the N end, and a ridge of hills extends the
CHAPTER 2
71
whole length of the island which is densely wooded. Foul
ground extends 3 cables from the S end of the island, and a
reef, near the extremity of which is a rocky islet, extends
6 cables from its SW corner. Pulau Telaga is inhabited, the
villages being mainly on the W side. Pulau Buton, 110 m
(363 ft) high at its N end, lies mile W of the S end of
Pulau Telaga. The island is uninhabited and is covered with
coconut trees. A reef, on which there are some above-water
rocks, extends mile from its S extremity, and another reef
extends mile from its NW end. Pulau Dinkor, a
white-coloured rock, lies on the last mentioned reef mile
offshore.
2
Pulau Telaga Kecil, with a sharp summit 179 m (590 ft)
high, is the largest of a group of four islands lying off the
NW side of Pulau Telaga. Pulau Lima, 145 m (476 ft) high,
is joined to Pulau Telaga Kecil by a reef. Pulau Pasu and
Pulau Midai are joined by a sandy neck which dries. A
channel mile wide with a depth of 24 m (13 fm) in the
fairway, lies between Pulau Midai and Pulau Telaga. Pulau
Tokongblinau, 2 m (7 ft) high, lies 2 miles W of Pulau
Telaga Kecil. Foul ground extends mile from this rock
except on its W side.
3
Anchorage, of an indifferent character, can be obtained
by vessels with local knowledge W of Pulau Telaga in a
depth of 31 m (17 fm). It is approached either by a narrow
channel between Pulau Dinkor and a detached reef 5 cables
N of it, or by the channel between Pulau Buton and Pulau
Telaga.
Pulau Durai group
2.37
1
Pulau Durai (3°20′N, 106°03′E) lies 11 miles NNW of
Pulau Gentingunyut (2.35); it has two sharp peaks 152 m
(501 ft) high. Some rocks, with a depth of less than 2 m
(6 ft) over them, lie close off the NW side of the islet. Batu
Mamong, 1 m (3 ft) high, lies mile SW of Pulau Durai.
Pulau Tokongnanas, 21 m (69 ft) high, lies 5 miles W of
Pulau Durai. A narrow coral bank, with a least depth of
11 m (36 ft) over it, and steep-to, extends 1 mile WSW from
Pulau Tokongnanas.
Pulau-Pulau Anambas — North-east Group
Chart 1371, 1311
Description
2.38
1
The NE group of Pulau-Pulau Anambas consists of four
large islands and a number of smaller islands; see view A on
chart 1371. In the channels between the islands of the group,
there are many dangers, and vessels should not use them
without local knowledge.
Pulau Mubur and adjacent islands
2.39
1
Pulau Mubur (3°20′N, 106°12′E), the NW of the four
large islands of the NE group, is situated 7 miles E of Pulau
Durai (2.37). Its summit, 405 m (1336 ft) high and densely
wooded, is situated in the SE part of the island; viewed from
N or S the summit appears as a fairly sharp peak, but from
W as a high ridge. Pulau Pahit (3°24′N, 106°09′E), the NW
islet of the NE group, lies 4 miles W of the N extremity of
Pulau Mubur. It can be recognised by its comparatively
isolated position and its flat wooded summit 213 m (699 ft)
high. Pulau Pejanti (Pedjantai), 65 m (213 ft) high, with a
flat top, lies off the NW side of Pulau Mubur 1 mile N of
Tanjung Sapan, the W extremity of Pulau Mubur. Pulau
Tokongbelayar, the N island of Pulau-Pulau Anambas, lies
7 miles ENE of Pulau Pahit. It is a remarkable light green
bare rock like a pillar 21 m (69 ft) high.
2
Pulau Tenggiling, 137 m (449 ft) high, lies 5 cables SSE
of the NE extremity of Pulau Mubur and mile offshore.
Two smaller islets lie, respectively, 1 cables E and 3 cables
SSE of Pulau Tenggiling. Pulau Ucing, 73 m (240 ft) high,
is the E islet and lies 1 miles ESE of the N extremity of
Pulau Mubur; a bank with depths of less than 5 m (16 ft)
over it, on which there are some above-water rocks, extends
3 cables W from Pulau Ucing; Pulau Labong, an islet, 14 m
(46 ft) high, lies near the outer end of the bank.
3
Pulau Rinji, wooded and 50 m (164 ft) high, with black
cliffs 15 m (49 ft) high on its S side, lies 3 cables off the SW
side of Pulau Mubur. Teluk Ajer Bandong is a narrow bay
situated on the S side of Pulau Mubur, with Pulau Mantas,
158 m (519 ft) high, forming the W entrance point to the
bay. Pulau Mantas is separated from Pulau Mubur by a
channel which is only a few metres wide at its N end. The
shores of Teluk Ajer Bandong are sparsely populated and are
ringed by a reef which, except at the head, extends a short
distance offshore.
4
Anchorage, safe, can be obtained by vessels with local
knowledge 6 cables from the head of the bay in a depth of
31 m (17 fm), mud.
Pulau Matak and adjacent islands
2.40
1
Pulau Matak (3°19′N, 106°16′E), the second largest island
of the NE group, lies close E of Pulau Mubur (2.39) and is
separated from it by Selat Matak (2.41). Gunung Niulwan,
the summit of Pulau Matak, is 416 m (1372 ft) high, and it
lies at the S end of the island; it is very prominent. The
middle of the island is low. Pulau Semut, a wooded islet
216 m (712 ft) high, lies close N of Pulau Matak, from
which it is separated by Selat Onas, a passage 1 cable wide
and encumbered with rocks.
2
Pulau Baru, 76 m (249 ft) high, lies 1 miles SSW of the
W extremity of Pulau Semut and mile offshore on the E
side of Teluk Matak, a large bay situated between the N
parts of Pulau Mubur and Pulau Matak. Teluk Ulumangar,
which is narrow and marked by light-beacons, is entered
mile S of Pulau Baru. Reefs extend offshore from both
sides of this inlet. The village of Pemutus is situated on the
W side of the inlet, where there is an airstrip and Matak Oil
Base. The approach is made SW of Pulau Baru; buoys mark
the side of the bay. There is a light on the radio mast at the
base. A seaplane operating area is established at the head of
Teluk Ulumangar.
3
Anchorage may be obtained in any part of Teluk Matak
in depths from 38 to 55 m (21 to 30 fm), mud and coral.
When entering Teluk Matak from N, pass E of Pulau Ucing
(2.39).
2.41
1
Selat Matak, a narrow strait mile wide in its narrowest
part, is entered at the S end between Tanjung Jang, a black
cliffy point and the W extremity of Pulau Matak, and a point
2 miles N. The fairway through the strait is deep and clear
of dangers.
2
Tidal streams set N and S through the strait at a rate of
1 to 2 kn in the narrow part at the NE end where it opens
out into Teluk Matak (2.40).
2.42
1
Pulau Batugaram (3°23′N, 106°20′E) lies 1 miles E of
the NE extremity of Pulau Matak. Tanjung Kepinis, the
island’s N extremity, slopes steeply from a hill, 149 m
(489 ft) high, and is steep-to. A ridge of hills, from 183 to
234 m (600 to 772 ft) high, runs along the middle of the
CHAPTER 2
72
island for nearly its whole length. The island is densely
wooded and there are several villages along the coast. The
area between the SW side of Pulau Batugaram and the NE
end of Pulau Matak is shallow and occupied by islets and
drying reefs with no navigable channel between them. In this
area are four islets; Pulau Piatjuk (3°22′N, 106°19′E) is the
N of these islets and is 49 m (161 ft) high.
2
Anchorage may be obtained between the E side of the N
end of Pulau Matak and Pulau Piatjuk, with the N extremity
of the latter bearing 070°, 3 cables, in a depth of 26 m
(14 fm), coral.
Pulau Siantan and Tarempah
2.43
1
Pulau Siantan (3°10′N, 106°15′E) lies close S of Pulau
Matak (2.40), from which it is separated by Selat Peninting
(2.44). It is the principal island of Pulau-Pulau Anambas,
mountainous throughout and densely wooded. Gunung
Sama, 566 m (1868 ft) high, situated 4 miles SSE of Tanjung
Pedas (2.44), is prominent. Another peak, 486 m (1594 ft)
high, 2 miles NE of Gunung Sama is prominent by its
forming a shoulder that falls steeply N, but the general
outline of the mountain ridges in the broader part of the
island is smooth and rounded, making the peaks difficult to
identify.
2
Tanjung Kretang (3°05′N, 106°17′N), the S extremity of
Pulau Siantan, can be identified by a prominent hill, 64 m
(210 ft) high, on its extremity. Gunung Peta, a sharp
prominent peak 235 m (771 ft) high, lies 8 cables N of
Tanjung Kretang with a valley between them. Batu Tikas,
4 m (13 ft) high, lies on a reef extending 2 cables SW from
Tanjung Kretang; other rocks, one of which is black with a
flat top 6 m (20 ft) high, extend 1 cables S from the point.
Berhala, an islet 43 m (141 ft) high and covered with trees,
lies mile E of Tanjung Kretang; a reef extends 1 cables
NW from Berhala.
3
Pulau Sui, situated 1 miles NW of Tanjung Kretang, is a
flat-topped wooded islet 91 m (299 ft) high. It lies in the
entrance to Teluk Ajer Bini, a bay entered between Tanjung
Maluat, 2 cables NE of Pulau Sui, and Tanjung Baik
(3°06′N, 106°14′E), a low point 1 miles W of Tanjung
Baik. Teluk Luing, on the shores of which are some houses,
is entered on the W side of Teluk Ajer Bini between
Tanjung Baik and a point 6 cables NE; some white rocks,
3 m (10 ft) high, lie close E of the latter point, with a
detached reef 1 cable farther S. A patch, with a depth of 3 m
(10 ft) over it, and marked by discolouration, lies in the
middle of Teluk Ajer Binin mile N of Pulau Sui.
4
Anchorage, good, may be obtained 2 cables SE of this
patch in a depth of 29 m (16 fm), mud.
2.44
1
The W side of Pulau Siantan, between Tanjung Mandi
Angin (3°07′N, 106°13′E) and Tanjung Pedas, the NW
extremity of the island, 7 miles N, can safely be approached
to a distance of mile. Tanjung Pedas is a steep point and
rises to a hill 186 m (610 ft) high mile SSE of it. A light
(white tower, 40 m high) is exhibited from the point. A
dangerous wreck, position approximate, is charted 8 cables
NNE of Tanjung Pedas, and a rock, m (1 ft) high, with a
depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) close SE of it, lies 2 cables off the NE
side of the point.
2
Selat Peninting, the passage between Pulau Siantan and
Pulau Matak (2.40), is entered between Tanjung Momang
(3°14′N, 106°14′E), the N point of Pulau Siantan, and
Tanjung Jang (2.41), 1 miles N. The passage, leading to
Selat Batubelah (2.46), is navigable for small vessels with
local knowledge. The SE end of Selat Peninting is
obstructed by reefs and islets. On the NE side the coast is
indented and reefs and foul ground extend 1 mile from it,
leaving a navigable channel only 2 cables wide between this
foul ground and the reefs extending from the SW side. Selat
Peninting turns N between Pulau Telukpau (3°14′N,
106°18′E) and the SE side of Pulau Matak (2.40), mile W
and runs along the SE side of the latter. Teluk Niulwan,
1 mile N of the SE extremity of Pulau Matak, is shallow and
the entrance is obstructed by a reef; it divides the S part of
Pulau Matak into two high and wooded peninsulas. There
are several villages along the shore of Teluk Niulwan. The N
entrance to Selat Peninting, between Pulau Matak and Pulau
Lidi (3°17′N, 106°18′E) (2.48) 4 cables E, leads into Selat
Tebang (2.48), but it is obstructed by reefs.
3
The N side of Pulau Siantan, between Tanjung Pedas and
Tanjung Baruk, mile SE, is indented by a small bay. Teluk
Tarempah is entered between Tanjung Baruk and Tanjung
Angkak, mile E. A beacon (white metal, black cone
topmark) marks the edge of the reef extending from the W
shore and another beacon (black, red cylinder topmark)
marks the edge of the reef extending from the E shore.
2.45
1
Tarempah (3°13′N, 106°13′E) is the principal village in
Pulau-Pulau Anambas and stands at the head of Teluk
Tarempah (2.44) on either side of a drying creek. The
Chinese section is located on the E side of this creek and the
Malayan settlement on the W side. A government official
resides in Tarempah, with government offices located near
the E side of the village.
2
A light (white mast, 10 m in height) is exhibited from a
hill near the head of the bay 1 miles SE of Tanjung Barak
(2.44). Another light (white metal mast, 13 m in height) is
exhibited from the head of a cargo pier situated at the head
of the bay. A further light-beacon (green beacon, 10 m in
height) stands in the SW part of the bay.
3
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.149.
Directions. When approaching Teluk Tarempah steer for
the mast situated on the hill S of Tarempah village, on a S
bearing, passing midway between the two entrance points.
4
Anchorage may be obtained in Teluk Tarempah
1 cables NNW of the head of the cargo pier in a depth of
27 m (15 fm), sand and mud. During the NE monsoon
vessels should anchor farther out and landing is then usually
impracticable.
5
Berths. A cargo pier, 95 m long, alongside which vessels
with a draught of 4 m can berth. A small pier, with a depth
of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) alongside, is situated in front of the
government offices, cable E of the cargo pier. A few
metres N of the government pier there is a patch of coral.
Supplies. Fresh bread and pork can be obtained; drinking
water is obtainable at the cargo pier.
Pulau Bajau (Badjau)
2.46
1
Pulau Bajau (Badjau) (3°08′N, 106°19′E), the SE of the
four large islands of the NE group, has two prominent
peaks; the W one, Gunung Simangi, 239 m (784 ft) high,
lies 2 miles NNW of Tanjung Suka, the S extremity of
Pulau Bajau. The other peak, 238 m (781 ft) high, is 1 mile
NE of Gunung Simangi. Some islets, one of which is 21 m
(69 ft) high, lie close S of Tanjung Suka. On the SW side of
Pulau Bajau between Tanjung Suka and Tanjung Dumang,
1 miles NW, there is a bay.
Anchorage may be obtained in the entrance to this bay in
a depth of 27 m (15 fm), sand.
2
Selat Semanggi separates Pulau Bajau from Pulau Siantan
(2.43). It is entered at its SW end through Selat Berawa.
CHAPTER 2
73
Selat Taburik, the NE entrance to Selat Semanggi, leads into
Alur Pelayaran Thetis (2.47) and separates Pulau Bajau from
Pulau Masabang (3°10′N, 106°18′E), 133 m (436 ft) high,
4 cables NW; the channel is clear of dangers, except for a
reef which extends 1 cables from the S extremity of Pulau
Masabang, and mile from its NE side. Selat Batubelah, in
which the channel is only 2 cables wide, is entered close SE
of Pulau Masabang. At the N end, Selut Balubelah leads into
Selat Peninting (2.44). This passage is navigable by small
vessels with local knowledge.
3
Tidal streams set through Selat Tabrurik in a SW and
NE direction at a rate of 1 kn. In Selat Batubelah, tidal
streams run somewhat strongly in a NW and SE direction.
4
On the E side of Pulau Bajau, there are two detached
reefs; one is 1 mile NE of Tanjung Suka and 2 cables
offshore, and the other, which dries 0⋅9 m (3 ft) and
generally shows clearly, mile farther NE and 3 cables
offshore. Between the E extremity of Pulau Bajau and
Tanjung Lanting (3°09′N, 106°20′E), the NE extremity of
the island 1 miles N, the coast, except for two rocks awash
close offshore, is clear of danger.
Alur Pelayaran Thetis (Thetis Vaarwater)
2.47
1
Description. The NE group of Pulau-Pulau Anambas is
divided by Alur Pelayaran Thetis (Thetis Vaarwater). The
four large islands of the NE group, Pulau Mubur (2.39),
Pulau Matak (2.40), Pulau Siantan (2.43) and Pulau Bajau
(2.46), together with their adjacent islands, lie on the W side
of Alur Pelayaran Thetis. A number of smaller islands and
islets lie on the E side. There are several islets and dangers
lying in the fairway. The N entrance lies between Tanjung
Kepinis (3°25′N, 106°21′E) (2.42) and Pulau Penjalin Besar
(Pendjalin Besar) (2.49), 5 miles E. Its SW entrance is
through the channels between the islands which lie between
Pulau Nunsa (2°59′N, 106°25′E) (2.54) and Pulau Selai
(2.51), 12 miles NNE. Alur Pelayaran Thetis could
probably be navigated from aloft with the sun in a
favourable position, but there is little to be gained by using
it. The route outside the islands appears to be preferable.
2
Tidal streams in Alur Pelayaran Thetis set N and S at a
rate of to 1 kn.
2.48
1
North-west part. Pulau Snul (3°23′N, 106°21′E), wooded
and 91 m (300 ft) high, lies 2 miles S of Tanjung Kepinis
(2.42) and is separated from the E coast of Pulau Batugaram
(2.42) by a channel 2 cables wide. The S part of Pulau
Batugaram consists of a narrow peninsula 1 mile long, at the
N end of which is a bay which is foul.
2
Gosong Hooper are two detached shoals lying on the W
side of Alur Pelayaran Thetis. The N patch, composed of
sand and coral with a least depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it at
its S end lies 1 miles E of Tanjung Muning, the S
extremity of Pulau Batugaram; the S patch, with a depth of
11 m (36 ft) over it lies 1 miles SE of the same point. A
chain of four islands extend 2 miles S from Tanjung
Muning, all cultivated with coconut trees and inhabited.
Pulau Piogus, the N island 53 m (174 ft) high, is separated
from Tanjung Muning by a channel mile wide and with a
depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) in the fairway.
3
Karang Thetis (Thetis Rif) (3°15′N, 106°21′E), composed
of coral, lies 2 miles SSE of Pulau Mantang Kecil, 61 m
(200ft) high, the S island of the chain. A reef, with a sand
cay which dries 1⋅5 m (5 ft) on the middle of its W side, lies
1 miles SSW of Karang Thetis.
4
Selat Tebang is entered from S between Pulau Lidi
(3°17′N, 106°18′E), 67 m (220 ft) high and wooded, and
Pulau Mantang Kecil, lying 1 miles ENE of the NE
extremity of Pulau Lidi. A coral patch, with a depth of
12⋅8 m (42 ft) lies 6 cables S of Pulau Mantang Kecil in
the approach to the S entrance of Selat Tebang.
5
Clearing mark. The NE extremity of Pulau Matak
(3°19′N, 106°16′E) (2.40) bearing 350° and open W of
Tanjung Muning leads W of the foul ground extending SW
of Pulau Mantang Kecil and the 12⋅8 m (42 ft) coral patch.
Anchorage, good, can be obtained in Selat Tebang
mile W of Pulau Mantang Besar (3°18′N, 106°20′E),
72 m (236 ft) high, in a depth of 24 m (13 fm), mud.
2.49
1
North-east part. Pulau Penjalin Besar (Pendjalin Besar)
(3°23′N, 106°26′E), with a rounded summit 131 m (430 ft)
high, is the largest of a group of islands forming the NE
entrance point to Alur Pelayaran Thetis, and lies 5 miles E of
Pulau Batugaram (2.42). Pulau Setuju (Setudju), 66 m
(217 ft) high, the NE island of Pulau-Pulau Anambas, lies
3 cables E from the N extremity of Pulau Penjalin Besar.
Pulau Penjalin Kecil (Pendjalin Kecil), 66 m (217 ft) high,
lies close SE of Pulau Penjalin Besar. Two rocks, the E of
which is 1 m (3 ft) high, lie on the reef close off Tanjung
Lamun, the S extremity of the island. Pulau Pasu, with a
conical summit 61 m (200 ft) high, lies close NE of Pulau
Penjalin Kecil, with islets, one of which is 21 m (69 ft) high,
and rocks between them. A rock, 18 m (59 ft) high, lies
1 cable NW of Pulau Pasu.
2
Gosong Alarm (Alarm Bank), lying 8 cables ENE of
Pulau Pasu (3°23′N, 106°28′E), is composed of sand and
coral, with depths of 8⋅5 to 10⋅1 m (28 to 33 ft) and possibly
less over it.
Caution. Heavy overfalls and tide-rips mark this bank
and others in the vicinity, and the area should be avoided.
3
Anchorage, temporary, may be obtained in the bay
formed by the N side of Pulau Penjalin Kecil and the W
side of Pulau Penjalin Besar, with the SE extremity of the
latter bearing 233°, distant 4 cables, in a depth of 27 m
(15 fm), sand and coral.
2.50
1
Pulau Nyemuk (Njemuk) (3°20′N, 106°23′E), 55 m
(180 ft) high, lies 3 miles SW of Pulau Penjalin Kecil, and is
the N island of the Mandariau group of islands that extend
4 miles SSE from it. Pulau Mandariouw Darat (3°18′N,
106°24′E), an irregular shaped island with a prominent
summit 142 m (466 ft) high in its NW part, is situated
1 miles SSE of Pulau Nyemuk. Close off the W side of the
island are two boulders, one 9 m (30 ft) high and the other
mile N, 12 m (40 ft) high. A square rock, 4 m (12 ft)
high), lies close off the S extremity of the island. Pulau
Mandariouw Laut is 102 m (335 ft) high and lies close SE
of Pulau Mandariouw Darat. The area between these two
islands is encumbered with reefs. Pulau Ipil, an islet, lies on
a reef that extends 2 cables from the S extremity of Pulau
Mandariouw Laut. A rock, 1 m (4 ft) high, lies close off the
SW extremity of the island and Teluk Lubang Buaya is
enclosed between this reef and Pulau Ipil. Gosong Hale,
coral with a depth of 6⋅4 m (21 ft) over it, lies 2 miles W of
the W extremity of Pulau Mandariouw Laut. Pulau
Mangkian, 43 m (141 ft) high and cultivated with coconut
trees, lies 1 mile SW of Pulau Mandariouw Laut; the channel
between these two islands is clear of danger.
2.51
1
Pulau Sagudampar (3°14′N, 106°27′E), 152 m (499 ft)
high is situated 2 miles SE of Pulau Mandariouw Laut.
Pulau Sama, 69 m (226 ft) high, lies on the NE side of a
CHAPTER 2
74
reef that extends 8 cables N from Pulau Sagudampar; on the
N extremity of this reef is an islet 12 m (40 ft) high. Alur
Pelayaran Thetis can be entered from NE by a deep and
clear channel between Pulau Mandariouw Laut and Pulau
Sagudampar.
2
Pulau Busung, wooded and 102 m (335 ft) high, lies
mile E of the S extremity of Pulau Sagudampar. A reef
extends 3 cables SE from the islet; on the extremity of this
reef is an islet 34 m (110 ft) high, with Batu Dikenal, a
conspicuous boulder 15 m (50 ft) high, on the same reef
2 cables N. The channel between Pulau Busung and Pulau
Sagudampar is obstructed by a rock, with a depth of less
than 2 m (6 ft) over it, lying mile WSW of Pulau Busung.
With this exception, the channel is deep and clear.
3
Pulau Selai (3°12′N, 106°29′E) is the E island of
Pulau-Pulau Anambas. Its summit, 162 m (531 ft) high,
shows sharp from N or S, and broad topped from other
directions. The bays on the E and W sides of the island are
foul and rocky; a reef extends 1 cables from the head of
the bay on the N side and a spit extends a short distance
from each entrance point. Pulau Penilan, 93 m (305 ft) high,
lies close NW and is separated from Pulau Selai by a narrow
boat channel.
4
Anchorage, protected from S winds, can be obtained in
the middle of the bay on the N side of Pulau Selai in a
depth of 24 m (13 fm). Temporary anchorage, protected from
N winds, can also be obtained between the N extremity of
Pulai Selai and the SE side of Pulau Penilan, but the
anchorage has not been thoroughly examined.
5
Pulau Telokrisan (3°11′N, 106°27′E), an irregular shaped
island 174 m (571 ft) high and wooded, lies 2 miles WSW of
Pulau Selai. Pulau Temuruk, an islet 85 m (279 ft) high, lies
close S of Pulau Telokrisan. A sandy isthmus extends SW
from Pulau Temuruk ending in a promontory 24 m (80 ft)
high, 4 cables from the islet. Pulau Nibung, an islet 41 m
(135 ft) high, lies 1 cables SE of Pulau Temuruk. The
passage between Pulau Sagudampar and Pulau Telokrisan is
unsafe. Pulau Kudok (3°13′N, 106°27′E), an islet 26 m
(85 ft) high, together with other dangers, lies in this passage
9 cables S of Pulau Sagudampar.
2.52
1
South-east part. Pulau Pempang (3°08′N, 106°27′E),
140 m (459 ft) high, wooded and inhabited, is the SE island
of a group lying at the SE end of Alur Pelayaran Thetis.
Pulau Punjung (Pundjung), the largest of the group, lies NW
of Pulau Pembang and is separated from it by a channel
mile wide. The island has two prominent peaks 6 cables
apart separated by a saddle; the E peak is 347 m (1140 ft)
high. Pulau Mentalak (3°07′N, 106°24′E), 91 m (299 ft) high
at its S end and cultivated in places, lies 6 cables W of
Pulau Punjung.
2
Pulau Pejaul (Pedjaul), 232 m (761 ft) high, lies 8 cables
NNW of Pulau Mentalak. Two islets lie on a reef which
fringes the NW side of the island; the NE islet is 55 m
(180 ft) high, and the SW is 46 m (150 ft) high. A rock, 1 m
(3 ft) high, lies 2 cables SW of the latter and 2 cables
offshore. Pulau Pengending (3°09′N, 106°24′E), an island
248 m (814 ft) high, is connected to Pulau Pejaul by a reef.
An islet, 49 m (160 ft) high, lies close off the NW extremity
of Pulau Pengending; a rock awash, lies 1 cables N of this
islet with a rock, 1 m (4 ft) high, between them. Gosong
Chabrol, two patches mile apart in a NW direction, lie in
the middle of the SW part of Alur Pelayaran Thetis 8 and
13 cables W of Pulau Pejaul. In 1973, a depth of 3⋅7 m
(12 ft) was reported on the SE patch; the NW patch has a
depth of 8 m (26 ft) over it.
3
Selat Telukdalam is the passage between Pulau Punjung,
on its SE side, and Pulau Pejaul and Pulau Pengending on
the NW side. The E shore of the strait is fringed by a reef
extending a short distance from the NW side of Pulau
Punjung. A rock, 2 m (6 ft) high, lies close off the NE
extremity of Pulau Pengending on a reef which extends
3 cables from the same point.
4
Anchorage, sheltered from S winds, can be obtained N of
Pulau Pejaul, with the 49 m (160 ft) islet close off the NW
extremity of Pulau Pengending bearing 095°, and the 35 m
(115 ft) islet lying 6 cables N of Pulau Pejaul bearing 034°
distant 3 cables, in a depth of 24 m (13 fm), sand and coral.
2.53
1
Pulau Luyong (Lujong) (3°11′N, 106°22′E) is joined to
Pulau Getah, 88 m (289 ft) high, 1 mile SE, by a reef, Pulau
Luyong is wooded and has two well defined peaks,
separated by a strip of low land; the N peak is 114 m
(375 ft) high, and the S peak 101 m (330 ft) high. A
detached reef lies close outside the fringing reef near the S
end of the island. Pulau Mangkianpandak (3°12′N,
106°21′E), an islet 49 m (160 ft) high, lies 1 miles NW of
Pulau Luyong; it has a sandy spit at its S end, and a reef
extends 2 cables from its W side. A wooded islet, 24 m
(80 ft) high, lies 1 cables SE of Pulau Mangkianpandak; a
reef extends 2 cables S from the islet, and a bank, with
depths of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it, extends a short distance from
its E and N sides. A wooded islet, 49 m (160 ft) high, lies in
the channel between Pulau Luyong and Pulau
Mangkianpandak, mile W of the N extremity of Pulau
Luyong.
2
Karang Esperance, with a sandbank which dries 1⋅8 m
(6 ft) near its S end, lies 1 mile N of Pulau Luyong. Shallow
coral patches, with depths of less than 10 m (33 ft) lie within
a distance of 2 miles NE from Karang Esperance; as there
may be less water than charted over these shoals, they
should be avoided.
3
Clearing mark. The SE extremity of Pulau Getah in line
with the N extremity of Pulau Urukuruk (2.55) bearing 209°,
so that the N entrance of Selat Tanjungsuka (2.56) cannot be
seen, leads between Karang Esperance and the detached reef
lying 1 miles W of Pulau Telokrisan (3°11′N, 106°27′E)
(2.51), and E of the shoals lying NNE of Karang Esperance.
2.54
1
South-west part. Pulau Nunsa (2°59′N, 106°25′E) is the
SE island of the NE group of Pulau-Pulau Anambas. It is
59 m (195 ft) high, wooded and fairly steep-to except at its S
end which is foul.
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Pulau Nunsa are diurnal
in character and attain a rate of 1 kn, the flood stream setting
SW and the ebb NE.
2
Pulau Akar (3°02′N, 106°24′E), 160 m (525 ft) high, is
the largest and E island of a group of six lying NNW of
Pulau Nunsa. It is separated from Pulau Nunsa by a channel
1 miles wide which is deep and clear of dangers, but
across which there are frequent tide-rips. Pulau Catu, 58 m
(190 ft) high, lies 1 cables off the SW side of Pulau Akar.
Karang Egeria (Egeria Klip), a coral head with a depth of
3 m (10 ft) over it, lies 2 miles ENE of the S extremity of
Pulau Akar. There is a patch, with a depth of 6 m (20 ft)
over it, mile W of Karang Egeria.
3
Pulau Bate, 82 m (269 ft) high, lies 2 cables NW of Pulau
Akar; reefs extend 3 cables from the S end of the island.
Pulau Telukbakau, 69 m (226 ft) high, lies 3 cables W of
Pulau Akar. A reef extends 6 cables NNW from Pulau
Telukbakau; on the NW edge of it is Pulau Baba, an islet
41 m (135 ft) high. Pulau Semut, 73 m (239 ft) high, the W
CHAPTER 2
75
islet of the group, lies mile SW of Pulau Baba. Batu Bini,
which dries 1 m (3 ft), and Batu Laki, 1 m (3 ft) high, lie on
a bank 11 and 7 cables, respectively, NNW from Pulau
Semut. Tide-rips are often observed in the vicinity of these
dangers.
2.55
1
Pulau Memperuk (3°04′N, 106°21′E), the largest of a
group of islands, lies 1 miles NW of Pulau Semut (2.54).
Gunung Munjan 232 m (760 ft) high, the summit of the
island 1 mile NNW of Tanjung Belantan, the SE extremity,
is prominent from all directions. Two above-water rocks lie
close off Tanjung Belantan. Batu Rakit, consisting of a
number of rocks, the highest of which is 2 m (6 ft) high,
extends from the middle of the E side of the island for a
distance of mile. Karang Howard, with a depth of 4 m
(14 ft) over it, lies 8 cables ESE from the N extremity of
Pulau Memperuk. Pulau Abang, 105 m (344 ft) high, lies
close W of the S end of Pulau Memperuk from which it is
separated by a very narrow channel. Pulau Abang is fringed
by a reef, except of its N side. Gosong Walsh (Walsh Bank),
with a least depth of 11 m (36 ft) over it, lies 2 miles
WSW from Pulau Abang.
2
A chain of islands extending for 3 miles and orientated
NE/SW lie between Pulau Memperuk and the SE side of
Pulau Bajau (3°08′N, 106°19′E) (2.46), 2 miles NW. Pulau
Tenggeran, 41 m (135 ft) high, is the SE island of the chain,
lying 1 mile NW of Pulau Abang. Pulau Pemutus, 79 m
(260 ft) high in its N part, lies with Tanjung Bulukara, it SE
extremity 7 cables NE of Pulau Tenggeran. Pulau Batuhitam,
76 m (250 ft) high, and Pulau Urukuruk are small islands
joined together by a reef situated mile ESE and mile
ENE, respectively, of the N extremity of Pulau Pemutus. An
islet, 9 m (30 ft) high, stands on the reef which projects
mile S of the W extremity of Pulau Urukuruk. Pulau
Pengelat, 76 m (250 ft) high and the NE island of the chain,
lies mile E of Pulau Urukuruk, from which it is separated
by a narrow channel.
3
Anchorage can be obtained in a depth of 33 m (18 fm),
sand, 1 cables NW of Pulau Pengelat with Gunung Munjan
bearing 183°.
2.56
1
Selat Tanjungsuka (Tandjung Suka) leads into Alur
Pelayaran from the SW and is entered between Pulau
Tenggeran (2.55) and Tanjung Suka (2.46), the SE extremity
of Pulau Bajau. With the exception of the detached reefs
(2.46) of the E side of Pulau Bajau, the channel is clear of
danger, with depths over 36 m (20 fm) in the fairway.
Tidal streams set through Selat Tanjungsuka in a NE-SW
direction at a rate of 1 to 2 kn. With a S wind and a
SW-going stream, tide-rips and overfalls occur in the S part
of the channel.
2
Directions. When approaching Selat Tanjungsuka from
SW, steer with the W side of Pulau Getah (3°09′N,
106°22′E) (2.53) bearing 030° and just open of the E
extremity of Pulau Bajau. This leads close NW of Gosong
Walsh (2.55) and through the S part of the channel, SE of
the reefs on the W side.
Paracel Islands
Charts 94, 3488
General information
2.57
1
Description. The Paracel Islands (16°30′N, 112°00′E),
known to the Chinese as Xisha Qundao, are an extensive
group of low coral islands and reefs lying on the W side of
the main route from Singapore to Hong Kong. They consist
of two main groups, Crescent Group (2.61) and Amphitrite
Group (2.65), and several islets and reefs. The islands are
often visited by junks. A few edible plants and wild fruit
may be found. The sovereignty of the Paracel Islands is
disputed between China and Vietnam.
2
Current. The current is generally influenced by the wind
in both monsoons, but with a light wind between the
monsoons, it continually changes its direction among the
reefs, and sometimes attains a rate of 2 kn.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.162.
3
Directions. In fine weather, there is no difficulty in
navigating between the reefs with a good lookout aloft. The
trees on the islands and the sea breaking over the heads of
some of the above-water rocks on the reefs give warning of
approach to the dangers, but in 1936 Neptuna Banks (2.59)
were reported to be extremely difficult to see. In misty or
bad weather the Paracel Islands should be avoided unless
seeking an anchorage. When approaching the Paracel Islands
from SW, a wide berth to W is recommended owing to the
difficulty of sighting Triton Island (2.58). Money Island
(2.62) should be approached on a course of not less than
070°.
Southern group of reefs
2.58
1
Triton Island (15°47′N, 111°12′E), known to the Chinese
as Zhongjian Dao, is the SW island of the Paracel Islands
and is a sand cay 3 m high. It lies on a coral reef which
extends 1 mile NE from the island and mile in other
directions. The reef has a depth of not more than 1⋅8 m over
it and is steep-to. The island is a breeding place for sea
birds. In 1986, a square white building near the centre was
reported to be conspicuous. A stranded wreck lies on the W
edge of the reef.
2
Passu Keah, known to the Chinese as Panshi Yu, is a
sand cay 35 miles ENE of Triton Island. It is situated near
the W end of a coral reef, which extends 4 miles E from the
cay. The edge of the reef is steep-to. A stranded wreck lies
on the N side of the cay.
3
Discovery Reef, known to the Chinese as Huaguang Jiao ,
is 15 miles in length in an E-W direction and lies 8 miles N
of Passu Keah. The outer edge of the reef is steep-to with
several above-water rocks on it. There is barely a depth of
3⋅7 m on any part of the reef. There are two openings in the
reef leading through to the lagoon, that can be used by
boats; one on the S side and a narrower one on the N side.
The reef is marked by heavy overfalls.
4
Vuladdore Reef (16°21′N, 112°00′E), known to the
Chinese as Yuzhou Jiao, lies 10 miles NE of Discover Reef.
It is 7 miles long and has a few above-water rocks on it,
over which the sea breaks heavily at times.
2.59
1
Bombay Reef (16°02′N, 112°30′E), known to the Chinese
as Langhua Jiao, lies 39 miles E of Passu Keah (2.58), and
is the SE reef of the group. This reef, which encloses a
lagoon, has some rocks awash and four above-water rocks
on it. The reef is steep-to and the sea breaks over it. There is
an opening in the reef near its SW extremity where it is
possible for boats to enter the shallow rock-strewn lagoon
within. The channel has been dredged and the material
deposited on each side forming banks about 3 m high.
During the NE monsoon the best time to enter is 3 hours
after LW when the reef begins to cover and the current is
eased.
2
A light (2.12) is exhibited from the N side of the channel
entrance. The structure is conspicuous on radar up to about
17 miles. Some wreckage, the remains of boilers, is visible
CHAPTER 2
76
on the N edge of Bombay Reef and there is a conspicuous
stranded wreck on the NE extremity of the reef which gives
a good radar response.
Current. See 2.11.
3
Bremen Bank, known to the Chinese as Binmei Tan, lies
15 miles N of Bombay Reef and is about 14 miles long from
ENE to WSW with a least depth of 11⋅4 m towards its SW
end. The bank was reported (1954) to be extending to W.
Jehangire Bank, the existence of which is doubtful and over
which depths are very irregular, consists of three detached
patches lying 4 miles ENE of Bremen Bank. A least known
depth of 12⋅8 m exists on the S patch. Neptuna Banks,
known to the Chinese as Beibianlang, consisting of two
coral patches, are situated 11 miles N of Bremen Bank. The
NE patch, with a least depth of 12⋅3 m over it, lies 6 miles
WSW of Pyramid Rock (2.60); the SW patch lies 4 miles
farther SW and has a least depth of 16⋅5 m. Both these
patches are extremely difficult to see and there are depths of
over 200 m close NW of them. A depth of 20 m lies 2 miles
SSW of the 16⋅5 m depth.
2.60
1
Lincoln Island (16°40′N, 112°44′E), known to the
Chinese as Dong Dao, is the E island of the Paracel Islands.
The island, 6 m high with the NE side being cliffy, is
covered with brushwood and surrounded by a coral reef,
which dries, extending a short distance from its SW side and
3 cables from its NE side. A narrow coral bank, studded
with rocks, extends 14 miles S then 5 miles WSW from
Lincoln Island. This bank has not been examined and should
not be crossed. A conspicuous wreck, forming a good radar
target, lies about 1 miles SE of the SE extremity of the
island.
2
It has been reported that fresh water can be found on
Lincoln Island.
Dido Bank, known to the Chinese as Xidu Tan, lies
12 miles NE of Lincoln Bank. It has a depth of 23 m over
it, sand, and is steep-to.
3
Pyramid Rock (16°35′N, 112°39′E), known to the
Chinese as Gaojian Shi, is situated 7 miles SW of Lincoln
Island. It is 7 m high and cone-shaped; at a distance it has a
junk-like appearance.
Anchorage, good, can be obtained at all times of the year
under the lee of Lincoln Island mile offshore in a depth of
18 m, coral.
Crescent Group
2.61
1
Description. Crescent Group (16°30′N, 111°40′E), known
to the Chinese as Yongle Qundao, consists of several low
sandy islands and numerous reefs in the form of a crescent
and are situated 43 miles NE of Triton Island (2.58). The
principal islands are covered with thick vegetation and may
be seen from a distance of 10 miles.
2
The channel on the S side between Duncan Islands (2.64)
and Antelope Reef (2.62) is 5 miles wide, and for the most
part deep, but a 3⋅7 m shoal lies 3 miles W of Duncan
Islands.
3
Within the crescent, W of the foul ground between
Observation Bank (2.64) and Drummond Island (2.64), the
general depths in the lagoon vary from 24 to 48 m, but there
are several detached shoal patches over which there are
depths from 7 to 13 m. Good shelter can be obtained during
the NE monsoon, but a swell may be expected in the middle
of the lagoon during the strength of the SW monsoon.
4
Tidal streams, with a rate of 1 kn, have been observed
in the SE entrance to the lagoon between Drummond Island
and Duncan Islands.
2.62
1
Money Island (16°27′N, 111°30′E), 7 m high, covered in
brushwood and known to the Chinese as Jinyin Dao, lies at
the W end of a reef that is separated from the SW horn of
the crescent by a channel 1 miles wide. There is an isolated
depth of 1⋅8 m near the centre of this channel. Several cays
lie E of Money Island on the same reef. In 1978, structures
resembling drilling rigs stood on the N and S extremities of
the island.
Anchorage can be obtained close to the reef N of Money
Island, where the tidal streams are negligible.
2
Antelope Reef, known to the Chinese as Lingyang Jiao,
partly dries and forms the SW horn of the crescent; a cay is
situated on the SE extremity of the reef. Robert Island,
known to the Chinese as Ganquan Dao, 8 m high, lies
mile N of Antelope Reef. It is fringed by a reef and
covered in vegetation. In 1950, one building was on the
island and there was a pier on its SE side. A bank, with
depths of 4 m and less over it, extends mile N of Robert
Island. Well water may be obtained on the island.
2.63
1
Pattle Island (16°32′N, 111°36′E), known to the Chinese
as Shanhu Dao, lies 2 miles NE of Robert Island. The island
is 5 m high and covered with brushwood and mangroves.
The climate at Pattle Island is healthy except after rain when
a noxious gas rises from the deposits of guano. There are
two large rectangular buildings and several smaller buildings
in the middle of the island. A skeleton tower with a flagstaff
stands on the W end of the W large building, and a
prominent pylon stands midway between this building and
the SW extremity of the island. A meteorological station is
located on the island. A small shrine, situated on the SW
extremity of the island, is prominent.
2
The reef surrounding Pattle Island extends 1 miles NE
and there is an above-water rock on the reef 2 cables N of
the island. On either side of the reef there is a clear channel.
Landing may be effected from boats at LW in a bay on the
S side of the island. A rock jetty, 180 m long and
terminating in a small T-shaped head with depths of 1⋅5 to
2⋅7 m alongside, extends from the E side of Pattle Island.
Phosphate is loaded into barges by a 3-ton mobile crane
from the jetty. A red building is situated at the root of the
jetty. Fresh water is obtainable from a well on the island.
3
Anchorage can be obtained mile SE of the jetty in a
depth of 27 m, coral, but the holding is poor and anchoring
is not recommended.
2.64
1
Observation Bank, with a brushwood covered sand cay
known to the Chinese as Yin Yu on it, lies at the N end of
Crescent Group 6 miles NE of Pattle Island (2.63). The reef
surrounding the cay extends 1 miles SE from it. Several
detached reefs lie W and SW of Observation Bank; these
extend in a general WSW direction for 3 miles, leaving a
deep channel between their SW edge and the reef lying NE
of Pattle Island.
2
Drummond Island (16°28′N, 111°45′E), known to the
Chinese as Jinqing Dao, is 3 m high and lies 7 miles SSE of
Observation Bank. The area between is occupied by foul
ground on which there are several sand cays. The reef
surrounding Drummond Island extends a short distance from
its S side and 4 miles NE, whence it curves NW for another
4 miles.
Anchorage can be obtained close off the reef on the W
side of Drummond Island.
3
Duncan Islands, two in number and known to the Chinese
as Chenhang Dao, the E island, and Guangjin Dao, the W
island, form the SE horn of the crescent and lie 1 miles
CHAPTER 2
77
SW of Drummond Island, from which they are separated by
a navigable channel. The islands consist of coral and are
connected by a sandspit. They are covered with shrubs and
are surrounded by a reef that extends mile S from the
islands. The reef is steep-to with the exception of a rock,
with a depth of less than 2 m over it, which lies close SE of
the E island. Several small buildings and a flagstaff stand on
the E island, and on its S side are two prominent palm trees,
near which is a well.
4
Anchorage. The best anchorage in the Crescent Group is
found near the reef on the N side of Duncan Islands in
depths of 18 to 27 m, where there are some broad patches of
sandy bottom. The tidal stream (2.61) is not appreciable
within this anchorage.
Amphitrite Group
2.65
1
Description. Amphitrite Group (16°50′N, 112°15′E), the
NE group of the Paracel Islands, consists of two portions
separated from one another by a deep channel 3 miles
wide. The N portion of the group consists of two reefs
separated from one another by Zappe Pass (2.67). On these
two reefs are several islands and sand cays. The S portion of
the group consists of Woody Island (2.66) and Rocky Islet,
which stand on a reef.
2.66
1
Woody Island (16°50′N, 112°20′E), known to the Chinese
as Yongxing Dao, is the largest island of the Amphitrite
Group and lies 24 miles WNW of Lincoln Island (2.60); it
is surrounded by a white sandy beach and is covered with
trees. Guano is shipped from the island. There is a square
tower, two temples, a village and several large buildings on
the island. An observation tower is situated on the S side of
the island. Four whip aerials are located in the centre of the
island 3 cables N of the observation tower. A light (white
round structure, 2 m in height) is exhibited from the island.
There is a concrete pier on the N side; landing can be
effected on the lee side of the island. Two mooring buoys lie
close off the N of Woody Island and two large mooring
buoys, painted red, lie outside the 20 m depth contour
8 cables NW of Rocky Islet.
2
Anchorage can be obtained during S winds mile from
the reef fringing the N side of Woody Island in a depth of
24 m, sand. In NE winds good anchorage can be obtained
5 cables off the SW side of the island in a depth of 33 to
37 m, sand.
3
Rocky Islet, known to the Chinese as Shi Dao, is 14 m
high and lies near the outer edge of a reef extending mile
NE from Woody Island. A bank, with depths of less than
20 m over it, extends 4 cables N of the reef. There are a few
houses on the S end of Rocky Islet. An overhead cable
connects the island with Woody Island.
4
Iltis Bank, known to the Chinese as Yinli Tan, with
depths from 10⋅5 to 14⋅6 m over it, lies 7 miles SW of
Woody Island. There are depths of 14⋅6 m 5 miles SSE of
the island.
2.67
1
Tree Island (16°59′N, 112°16′E), known to the Chinese
as Zhaoshu Dao, is in the N portion of the Amphitrite
Group, 9 miles NNW of Woody Island. It is covered with
mangrove bushes and surrounded by a white sandy beach.
The reef on which Tree Island lies extends 1 miles E from
the island and 4 miles W. Near the W end of the reef is
West Sand, a sandy cay 2 m high, known to the Chinese as
Xisha Zhou. Landing on Tree Island may be effected in the
openings on the SW side of the reef between the islands and
cays.
2
Zappe Pass, close E of the reef on which Tree Island
stands, is mile wide and has a least known depth of 4⋅6 m
in mid-channel, and is suitable only for small craft. With a
fresh breeze, breakers extend across the pass and there is
usually a strong current running through it.
3
Anchorage can be obtained 1 mile S of Tree Island and
also 3 miles NW of it. Junks visiting these islands during the
NE monsoon period from October to March anchor close off
the SW side of Tree Island, in a depth of 4 m. The channel
leading to this anchorage is on the S side of the reef and is
2 cables wide, with a depth of 1 to 2 m in the fairway.
2.68
1
North Island (16°58′N, 112°18′E), known to the Chinese
as Bei Dao, lies 2 miles SSE of Tree Island and is separated
from it by Zappe Pass (2.67). A reef extends mile NW
from North Island and 4 miles SE. Middle Island and South
Island, known to the Chinese as Zhong Dao and Nan Dao
respectively, lie on the SE part of the reef, mile and 1 mile
from North Island. All three islands are covered with
mangrove bushes and there are several small buildings on
North Island. Near the SE end of the reef are three sand
cays, covered with vegetation; South Sand, known to the
Chinese as Nansha Zhou, is the SE cay.
2
Anchorage can be obtained SSW of North and Middle
Islands in depths from 20 to 29 m, sand.
North Reef
2.69
1
North Reef (17°05′N, 111°30′E), known to the Chinese as
Bei Jiao, lies 42 miles WNW of Tree Island (2.67); it
extends for 6 miles from E to W and encloses a lagoon.
The reef is steep-to in places and the edge, all round, has
rocks just above water. The noise of the breakers on the reef
may be heard for a considerable distance at times. On the
SW side of the reef there is a boat passage leading into the
lagoon. A light (white round concrete tower, 22 m in height)
is exhibited from the SW side of North Reef.
2
In 1965, two cylindrical boilers, 3 m in height, were lying
near the SW end of the reef, E of the boat passage. In the
same year three boilers, one of which was below-water, lay
within 2 cables of each other of the NE side of the reef;
there is a beacon nearby.
Pratas Reef and Island
Charts 362, 3489
Pratas Reef
2.70
1
Pratas Reef (Dongsha Jiao) (20°42′N, 116°48′E), is a
circular coral reef, 11 miles across, enclosing a lagoon. The
S, E and N sides of its circumference, as well as a portion
around Pratas Island (2.72), dry at LW and are steep-to
along the greater part of their outer edges. Northwest Horn
and Southwest Horn are the extremities of the main drying
part of the reef. A coral shoal, with a least depth of 9⋅1 m
(30 ft) over it, that has not been examined, lies outside the
200 m (109 fm) line, 2 miles SW of the W extremity of
Pratas Island. Depths in the vicinity are irregular and vary
from 10 to 65 m (33 ft to 36 fm).
2
The fore part of a vessel, standing up-ended and 12 m in
height, was reported in 1926 to be on the NE edge of the
reef. The conspicuous wreck of SS Loyal Fortunes, 3 miles
W of Northeast Point, was reported in 1968 to be a good
radar target. The area E of Pratas Reef abounds with
discoloured water.
3
Two channels, known respectively as North Channel and
South Channel, give access to the lagoon, one either side of
Pratas Island. Many coral heads exist in these channels and
CHAPTER 2
78
in the lagoon. South Channel is the better of the two, being
wider, a little deeper and comparatively free from coral
heads. A white sandspit, on which the sea breaks with a W
swell, lies on the N side of the channel 2 miles S of the W
extremity of Pratas Island. North Channel is entered
2 miles N of Pratas Island; it contains many coral heads,
some with a depth of only 0⋅6 m (2 ft) over them.
2.71
1
Dumping grounds. Two ammunition dumping grounds
are situated 1 miles and 5 miles, respectively, SW of the
SE extremity of Pratas Island (2.72).
Currents. See 2.11.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.171.
2
Directions. During the strength of the monsoon, always
endeavour to pass to leeward of Pratas Reef on account of
the invariable set of the current to leeward. Soundings give
no warning of the approach to the reef and the weather is
frequently thick and hazy in the vicinity. The safest quarter
to make the reef is from W, as the island is on this side and
the currents set in a NE or SW direction; see 2.11.
3
Anchorages. Although Pratas Reef is steep-to in most
parts, there are several spots where, in case of necessity,
anchorage can be obtained outside the breakers, particularly
on the W side abreast the middle of North and South
Channels where an area between to 1 mile wide, covering
the approaches to the Channels, outside the 20 m (11 fm)
line has been swept to a depth of 18 m (59 ft).
4
Good anchorage in the NE monsoon in depths from
18 to 37 m (10 to 20 fm) can be obtained abreast
the entrance to South Channel.
In 1949, HMS St Brides Bay anchored in 30 m (16 fm)
with the SE extremity of Pratas Island bearing 072°
distant 2 miles.
5
A vessel of light draught can anchor in safety on the
reef in the middle of South Channel in a depth of
6 m (20 ft), or cross it and anchor inside the lagoon
on a fine sand bottom.
Pratas Island
2.72
1
Pratas Island (Dongsha Dao) (20°42′N, 116°43′E),
160 miles SE of Hong Kong, lies on the W side of Pratas
Reef (2.70). The island is covered with scrubby bush and is
12 m (39 ft) high to the top of the trees. In hazy weather
which prevails in this locality during the NE monsoon from
February to April, the island is seldom seen beyond a
distance of 5 or 6 miles; the breakers at the edge of the reef
may possibly not be seen until within a distance of 1 mile.
The airfield control tower which stands 6 cables WNW of
the SE extremity of the island is conspicuous and presents a
good radar target. A meteorological station is located on the
island.
2
Pratas Island is composed of sand and has a shallow inlet
on its W side; this inlet affords shelter to the Chinese
fishermen who come here in the early part of the year. An
aircraft landing strip 1500 m long and orientated 100°−280°
is situated in the N part of the island. On the NE side, where
there is a settlement, are two jetties; the principal one is
18 m long with a depth of 1⋅8 m at its head. The other jetty
is suitable only for very light draught boats, and there are
several rocks in the vicinity. In 1963, these jetties were
stated to be unusable through disrepair.
3
On the S side of the island near its E end, there is a
vehicle ramp with bollards set in concrete clumps. In 1966,
three pairs of leading beacons stood near the SE end of the
island; the centre pair, aligned 030°, led through South
Channel to this vehicle ramp. The channel was also marked
by two buoys (conical, black, triangular topmarks), the outer
buoy being moored 1 mile SSW of the light on the SE end
of the island.
SOUTH CHINA SEA — OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS FIELDS
General information
Charts 3482, 3489, 4508
Scope
2.73
1
This section covers the offshore oil and gas fields in the
SW part of the South China Sea on the E and W side of the
main route between Singapore and Hong Kong; the Dai
Hung Oilfield (2.97) off the SE coast of Vietnam; and the
oilfields that lie between 60 and 110 miles SSE and SE from
Hong Kong in the NE part of the South China Sea. The
offshore fields within the Gulf of Thailand are described in
Chapter 4 and those within 60 miles of the SE coast of
Vietnam are described in Chapter 5.
Uncharted dangers
2.74
1
Numerous structures, wellheads and obstructions may
exist within the offshore fields, not all of which are charted.
Regulations
2.75
1
Unauthorised navigation is prohibited within 500 m of
any production platform or associated structure, including
storage tankers.
Belida Oilfield
Charts 3543, 2414, 3482
General information
2.76
1
Position. Belida Oilfield (4°09′N, 105°07′E) lies on the E
side of the main route between Singapore and Hong Kong,
about 85 miles NW of the Matak Oil Base (2.40). The field
comprises production platforms and a FSO. The flare from
platform A may be seen at a considerable distance.
2
Port Authority. The field is operated by Conoco
Indonesia Inc.
Arrival information
2.77
1
Port operations. The terminal operates 24 hours, subject
to weather, but night berthing is not normally permitted.
Outer anchorage. Vessels waiting to berth anchor in a
position 4 miles NW of the FSO in a depth of about 76 m
(41 fm), good holding; see chart. Anchoring in the vicinity
of the terminal is prohibited.
2
Pilotage is compulsory and a Mooring Master will board
prior to berthing, normally by boat, but helicopter boarding
is an option for suitably equipped vessels. See Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs. Vessels able to assist with mooring and unmooring
are available.
CHAPTER 2
79
Regulations. A restricted entry area is established around
the terminal; see chart.
Berth
2.78
1
FSO Intan is a converted tanker of 300 m LOA, fitted
with a light and racon (2.13). Vessels up to 230 000 dwt can
be accepted and moor to the stern of the FSO.
Port services
2.79
1
There are no fuel, supplies, fresh water, garbage disposal
or dirty ballast facilities available. Medical assistance may be
arranged in an emergency.
Sotong Oilfield
Charts 3543, 2414, 3482
General information
2.80
1
Sotong Oilfield (4°45′N, 104°49′E) comprises a FPSO
and a number of connected production platforms. The
Sotong Collector platform is connected to the Tapis Oilfield
(2.82), the Duyong Gasfield (2.81) and Kertih Terminal
(3.114) by pipeline. FPSO Perintis (4°38′N, 104°49′E) is
moored about 1 mile N of Malong production platform.
Lights are exhibited from the FPSO and the production
platforms. A waiting area for tankers is established centred
6 miles W of the FPSO; see chart. A pilot boarding
position is at the NE corner of the waiting area, 3 miles NW
of the FSO.
Duyong Gasfield
Charts 3543, 2414, 3482
General information
2.81
1
Duyong Gasfield (5°00′N, 105°15′E), lying about
34 miles NE of FPSO Perintis (2.80), comprises three
lighted production platforms connected by underwater
pipeline with the Sotong Oilfield (2.80).
Tapis Oilfield and Dulang Marine Terminal
Charts 3543, 3542, 2414, 3482
General information
2.82
1
The Tapis Oilfield consists of large number of lighted
production platforms situated between the parallels of 5°12′N
and 5°50′N and the meridians of 104°05′E and 105°30′E.
Tapis A platform (5°32′N, 105°02′E) is at the centre of the
field. Most of these platforms are enclosed within an area to
which entry is restricted; see chart. Many of these platforms
are interconnected by pipeline and pipelines connect the field
with Kertih Terminal (3.114) and the Sotong Oilfield (2.80).
2
Dulang Marine Terminal (5°49′N, 104°10′E), comprising
four lighted production platforms connected to a FSO, lies at
the W end of the restricted area, 54 miles WNW of Tapis A
platform. The terminal is operated by Petronas Carigali,
Kertih. Semangkok A and B platforms are situated 6 and
7 miles ESE, respectively, of the FSO.
3
Isolated lighted platforms lie to the N and NW of Dulang
Marine Terminal. Bunga Kekwa A (7°04′N, 104°07′E) is
situated 75 miles N of the FSO, Jerneh AC.AP and Lady
Down (6°34′N, 103°44′E) lie 53 miles NNW and Lawit A
(6°33′N, 104°21′E) lies 66 miles NW. Jerneh AC.AP and
Lawit A, fitted with racons, are connected to Kertih Terminal
by pipeline. An isolated unlit platform lies 20 miles SW of
the FSO in position 5°37′N, 105°54′E.
Arrival information
2.83
1
Port operations. Berthing is carried out in daylight hours
only; unberthing may be carried out at any time.
Waiting area for tankers is established SW of the FSO,
centred on 5°44′N, 104°04′E. Owing to the depth of water
and the nature of the bottom, anchoring within the waiting
area is not recommended.
2
Pilotage. A Mooring Master will board, normally by
boat, either in the NE part of the waiting area, or in a
position about 4 miles NE of the FSO.
Tug. A tug is available.
Regulations. Unauthorised entry to the restricted area is
prohibited. Vessels may not anchor in the restricted area.
Berth
2.84
1
FSO Puteri Dulang is moored 1 mile SSE of Dulang B
platform. A light is exhibited from the FSO. Vessels up to
85 000 dwt can be accommodated alongside while vessels up
to 150 000 dwt may moor in tandem.
Port services
2.85
1
There are no fuel, supplies, fresh water, garbage disposal
or dirty ballast facilities available. The disposal of garbage
overboard is prohibited. Medical assistance may be available
in an emergency.
Anoa Marine Terminal
Charts 3543, 2414, 3482
General information
2.86
1
Position. Anoa Marine Terminal (5°13′N, 105°36′E) is
situated 39 miles ESE of Tapis A platform (2.82). It is
enclosed by an extension of the restricted area surrounding
the Tapis Oilfield. The terminal comprises a lighted
production platform and a FPSO and is connected by
pipeline to Jurong Island, S of Singapore. The production
platform flare may be visible from a considerable distance.
2
Port Authority. Premier Oil Natuna Ltd, Plaza City
View, 4th Floor, Jl Kemang Timur No 22, Jakarta 12560,
Indonesia.
Arrival information
2.87
1
Port operations. The terminal operates 24 hours. Mooring
is carried out in daylight hours only; unmooring may be
carried out at any time. Operations may be curtailed in the
event of severe weather.
Notice of ETA: 48 hours, with updates thereafter.
Outer anchorage. A recommended anchorage is
established within mile of position 5°12′N, 105°38′E, to
the SE of the FPSO.
2
Pilotage, by a Mooring Master, is compulsory; boarding
normally takes place within the anchorage area.
Tugs. Vessels able to assist with mooring and unmooring
are available.
Regulations. Entry into the restricted area without a
Mooring Master embarked is prohibited. Anchoring within
the restricted area is prohibited.
Berth
2.88
1
FPSO Anoa Natuna, 182 m LOA, is moored 1 mile SE of
the production platform and is connected to it by a pipeline.
CHAPTER 2
80
Lights are exhibited from the FPSO. Vessels up to
160 000 dwt can be accommodated in tandem; larger vessels
may be accepted.
Port services
2.89
1
There are no fuel, supplies, fresh water, garbage disposal
or dirty ballast facilities available. Medical assistance may be
available in an emergency.
Kakap Natuna Oilfield and Marine Terminal
Charts 2414, 3482
General information
2.90
1
Position. Kakap Natuna Oilfield (4°57′N, 106°00′E)
comprises five lighted platforms and a FPSO, moored close
to the NW platform, situated about 63 miles ESE of the
Tapis A platform (2.82). The terminal is connected by
pipeline to Jurong Island, S of Singapore. The oilfield is
enclosed within a restricted area (see chart) and lies W of the
main route from Singapore to Hong Kong. Flares from the
production platforms may be visible at a considerable
distance.
2
Port Authority. Gulf Resources Indonesia Ltd, PO Box
3293, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Arrival information
2.91
1
Port operations. The terminal operates 24 hours.
Mooring normally takes place during daylight hours only;
unmooring may take place at any time.
Notice of ETA: 72 hours, with updates thereafter.
Outside anchorage. To the NE of the FPSO within
1 mile of position 5°02′⋅9N, 105°58′⋅5E.
2
Pilotage, by a Mooring Master, is compulsory. The pilot
will board either within the anchorage or another agreed
position.
Tugs. Vessels are available to assist with mooring and
unmooring.
3
Regulations. Unauthorised entry to the restricted area is
prohibited and vessels may not approach within 1 mile of the
FPSO or 500 m from the production platform prior to
embarking the Mooring Master. Anchoring within 500 m of
a pipeline if prohibited.
Berth
2.92
1
FPSO Kakap Natuna, a converted tanker, can
accommodate vessels up to 100 000 dwt in tandem. Lights
are exhibited from the FPSO.
Port services
2.93
1
There are no fuel, supplies, fresh water, garbage disposal
or dirty ballast facilities available. Medical assistance may be
available in an emergency.
Udang Oilfield
Charts 1311, 2414, 3482
General information
2.94
1
Position. Udang Oilfield (4°02′N, 106°28′E), comprising
a FPSO connected to two lighted production platforms
enclosed by a restricted area, lies E of the main route from
Singapore to Hong Kong, about 44 miles NNE of the Matak
Oil Base (2.40).
2
Port Authority. Pertamina (Shipping, Harbour and
Communication Directorate), PO Box 1287, Jalan Jos
Sudarso 32−34, Jakarta 14012, Indonesia.
Arrival information
2.95
1
Port operations. The terminal operates 24 hours.
Mooring is normally daylight hours only, with unmooring at
any time.
Notice of ETA: 10 days, with updates thereafter.
Outer anchorage. A waiting anchorage is established
3 miles WNW of Udang A platform; see chart.
2
Pilotage, by the Mooring Master, is compulsory.
Tugs are available.
Regulations. Anchoring within the restricted area is
prohibited.
Berth
2.96
1
FSO Udang Natuna. A light (2.12) is exhibited from the
FSO.
Dai Hung Oilfield
Charts 3986, 3482
General information
2.97
1
Position. Dai Hung Oilfield (8°29′N, 108°41′E),
comprising a floating production unit connected to a CALM
buoy, surrounded by an exclusion zone (see chart), lies on
the W side of the main route between Singapore and Hong
Kong.
2
Port Authority. BHP Petroleum (Dai Hung) Pty Ltd., 8
Nguyen Hue, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Arrival information
2.98
1
Notice of ETA: 72 hours, with updates thereafter.
Pilotage, normally by the Mooring Master, is compulsory.
The pilot usually boards about 3 miles from the terminal.
Regulations. Anchoring is prohibited within the exclusion
zone. Should a vessel require to anchor, the advice of the
Mooring Master should be sought.
Berth
2.99
1
Vessels may moor direct to the CALM buoy, or moor in
tandem to a FSO, if employed. Vessels between 60 000 to
150 000 dwt may be accommodated.
Port services
2.100
1
There are no facilities available. In a medical emergency,
it may be possible to arrange evacuation to Vung Tau
(5.104).
Xijiang Terminal
Charts 1968, 3489
General information
2.101
1
Position. Xijiang Terminal (21°18′N, 114°57′E),
comprising two lighted production platforms connected by
underwater pipeline to a FPSO moored between the two
platforms, is situated about 67 miles SSE of Hong Kong
Island (9.78).
2
Caution. An unlit and uncharted mooring buoy for use
by supply vessels is in position 21°20′⋅7N, 114°59′⋅5E,
about 3 miles NE of the FPSO.
Port Authority. Shekou Harbour Superintendency
Administration. Operator: Conocophillips China Inc., 7/F
CHAPTER 2
81
Finance Centre, Tai Zi Road, Shekou, Shenzhen 518067,
Guangdong Province, China.
Arrival information
2.102
1
Port operations. Mooring takes place during daylight
hours only, subject to weather; unmooring at any time.
Notice of ETA: 96 hours, with updates thereafter.
Pilotage by the Mooring Master is compulsory. Pilot
boards by helicopter; winching area must be on port side.
See also Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs. Vessels are available to assist during mooring and
unmooring.
Berth
2.103
1
FPSO Nan Hai Kai Tuo, a converted 152 000 dwt tanker,
can accommodate vessels up to 120 000 dwt in tandem.
Port services
2.104
1
There are no facilities available. Evacuation by helicopter
may be available in a medical emergency.
Huizhou Terminal
Charts 1968, 3489
General information
2.105
1
Position. Huizhou Terminal (21°21′N, 115°25′E)
comprises four lighted production platforms connected to a
FPSO. The FPSO is situated about 82 miles SE of Hong
Kong Island (9.78), with three of the production platforms
lying between 13 to 18 miles SW of the FPSO. The fourth
platform is 1 mile SE of the FPSO.
2
Port Authority. CACT Operators Group, 15th−21st
Floor, Offshore Petroleum Building, No 1 Industry Road 2,
Shekou Industrial Zone, Shenzen 518069, Guangdong
Province, China.
Arrival information
2.106
1
Port operations. Mooring normally takes place during
daylight hours only.
Waiting area is established 3 miles SE of the FPSO;
the depth of water makes anchoring inadvisable.
2
Pilotage, undertaken by the Mooring Master, is
compulsory. Pilot normally boards by helicopter; winching
area must be on port side. Boarding from a supply vessel
may be undertaken in favourable weather.
Tugs are available.
Berth
2.107
1
FPSO Nan Hai Fai Xian, a converted VLCC 349 m
LOA, is able to accommodate vessels between 60 000 dwt
and 160 000 dwt moored in tandem. Lights are exhibited
from the FPSO, which is fitted with a racon.
Port services
2.108
1
There are no facilities available. Evacuation by helicopter
may be available in a medical emergency.
Lufeng Terminals
Charts 1968, 1962, 3489
General information
2.109
1
Position. Lufeng 13−1 Terminal (21°36′N, 116°09′E)
comprises a lighted production platform (2.12) and a FSO,
enclosed with a restricted area, situated about 112 miles ESE
of Hong Kong Island (9.78) and 28 miles N of North
Vereker Bank (2.17). Lufeng 22−1 Terminal (21°29′N,
116°38′E), comprising a FPSO, lies 38 miles ESE of Lufeng
13−1. A restricted zone of 2 miles radius encloses the FPSO.
2
Caution. In 1961, depths of 9⋅1 m and 9⋅8 m were
reported to lie close SSE of Lufeng 13−1 Terminal.
Port Authority. Lufeng 13−1; JHN Oil Operating Co.,
13th Floor, Finance Centre, Tai Zi Road, Shekou Industrial
Zone, Shenzen, Guangdong province, China. Lufeng 22−1;
Statoil (Orient) Inc., 13/F Chiwan Petroleum Building,
Chiwan, Shekou, Shenzhen 518068, China.
Arrival information
2.110
1
Port operations. The terminals operates 24 hours.
Mooring is normally daylight hours only, with unmooring at
any time.
Pilotage, undertaken by the Mooring Master, is
compulsory. Pilot boards by helicopter; winching area must
be on port side.
2
Tugs. Tugs or supply vessels are available.
Regulations. Vessels may not enter the restricted
area/zone surrounding the terminals unless the Mooring
master is embarked.
Berths
2.111
1
FSO Nan Hai Shengkai, a converted 120 000 dwt tanker
of 259 m LOA, can accommodate vessels up to 100 000 dwt
in tandem at Lufeng 13−1 Terminal. FPSO Navion Munin, a
shuttle tanker of 103 000 dwt and 253 m LOA, can
accommodate vessels up to 150 000 dwt in tandem at Lufeng
22−1 Terminal.
Port services
2.112
1
There are no facilities available. Evacuation by helicopter
may be possible in a medical emergency.
Liuhua Terminal
Chart 3489
General information
2.113
1
Position. Liuhua Terminal (20°50′N, 115°42′E), formerly
known as Lan Shui Terminal, comprising a FPSO and a
floating production system, is situated about 116 miles SE of
Hong Kong Island (9.78) and 13 miles SW of South Vereker
Bank (2.17). A restricted zone encloses the terminal out to
CHAPTER 2
82
about 5 miles. A light-buoy (pillar, special) is moored
10 miles SSW of the terminal.
2
Port Authority. Amoco Orient Petroleum Company, 15th
Flr, Chiwan Petroleum Building, Chiwan, Shenzen 518067,
Guangdong Province, China.
Arrival information
2.114
1
Port operations. The terminal operates 24 hours, subject
to weather. Mooring takes place in daylight hours only;
unmooring at any time.
Waiting area is established 6 miles SSW of the terminal.
Pilotage is conducted by the Mooring Master who will
board by helicopter, normally in the vicinity of the waiting
area.
2
Tugs. Vessels are available to assist during mooring,
loading and unmooring.
Regulations. The restricted zone may not be entered
without the Mooring Master embarked.
Berth
2.115
1
FPSO Nan Hai Sheng Li, a converted 140 000 dwt tanker
of 258 m LOA, can accommodate vessels up to 140 000 dwt
in tandem.
Port services
2.116
1
There are no facilities available. Evacuation by helicopter
may be available in a medical emergency. The disposal of
garbage overboard is prohibited.
NOTES
83
THAI L AND
M A L A Y
P E N I N S U L A
Singapore
T. Lompat
Mersing
Kuala Rompin
Kuala Pahang
Kuantan New Port
Kemaman
Kertih Terminal
Terengganu
Tumpat
P. Tioman
P. Aur
P. Redang
Kuala Terengganu
3
.
6
1
3
.
8
3.167
3.139
3.114
3.86
3.72
3.59
3.54
3.31
84
3
.
1
4
9
2403
769
770
771
3961
1374
1374
1379
1379 Sungai Kuantan
3543
3542
1311
771
771
1379
0904
2°2°
3°3°
4°4°
5°5°
6°
6°
7°7°
102°
30´
30´
30´ 30´ 30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´30´
30´30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
102°
103°
103°
104°
Longitude 104° East from Greenwich
105°
30´
8°
106°
1°1°
101°
106°
30´
101°
30´
8°
30´
Chapter 3 - East coast of Peninsular Malaysia from Tanjong Lompat to the border with Thailand
85
CHAPTER 3
EAST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA FROM TANJUNG LOMPAT TO
THE BORDER WITH THAILAND
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3542, 3543
Scope of the chapter
3.1
1
This chapter covers the E coast of Peninsular Malaysia
from N of position 1°34′N, 104°15′E to the border with
Thailand close NW of Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E), together
with the islands and dangers off the E coast.
2
It is divided into the following sections:
Tanjung Lompat to Kuala Pahang (3.8).
Kuala Pahang to Terengganu (3.61).
Terengganu to the Thailand border (3.149).
Topography
3.2
1
This section of the coast of Peninsular Malaysia is
generally low and swampy and intersected by numerous
rivers discharging into the sea. In a few places, however,
coastal ridges and hills extend to the coast.
2
Many of the rivers have sand-bars at their mouths which
are affected by the impingement of South China Sea
currents on the coast at about latitude 5°N. South of the
point of impingement rivers build sand-bars at their mouths
which curve S, the river’s mouth being to the S of the
sand-bar. North of the point of impingement the rivers
build sand-bars which curve N and have their mouths on
the N side of the sand-bars, this causes those rivers to turn
sharply to the N and their discharges build further
sand-bars as they run N. One effect of this phenomenon is
the gradual movement of the coast to seaward.
3
Off the coast, the islands are generally quite high and
wooded, and there are some reefs, isolated rocks and shoal
patches; see chart.
See also 1.37.
Depths
3.3
1
Throughout the area depths in excess of 55 m (30 fm)
are few, and mainly confined to the NE part. Depths shoal
gradually towards the coast, and most of the islands lie
within the 50 m (27 fm) depth contour.
Hazards
3.4
1
Fish aggregating devices, marked by buoys (special),
may be encountered in depths up to 30 m, or up to
10 miles offshore. See also 1.8.
Fishing stakes are also extensively employed within the
coastal 20 m (10 fm) depth contour. During the NE
monsoon these are frequently destroyed, and broken
wooden stakes, often below water and dangerous to small
craft, may be encountered anywhere along the coast. See
also 1.7.
2
Submarine exercise areas, shown on the chart, lie close
to the SE boundary of this chapter. See 3.12.
Submarine cables and pipelines
3.5
1
Oil and gas pipelines and submarine cables traverse the
area; see chart. See also 1.10 to 1.12.
Natural conditions
3.6
1
Currents caused by prolonged strong winds (1.98), in
particular the S current caused by the NE monsoon in
summer and the N current caused by the SW monsoon in
winter, may mask the tidal streams. For example, in one
year during July, a NW set of 2 kn over a period of
12 hours was experienced between the entrance to
Singapore Strait and Pulau Tioman (2°47′N, 104°10′E), the
vessel concerned passing E of Pulau Aur (2°27′N,
104°31′E).
2
Tidal streams off the E coast of Peninsular Malaysia
are weak, the rate seldom exceeding 1 kn, and they
generally set S along the coast on the rising tide and N on
the falling tide. In the mouths of rivers, strong tidal streams
run with rates of 2 to 3 kn setting in and out of the river.
After heavy rain, the rate and duration of the out-going
stream will be increased.
3
In the vicinity of the outlying islands (3.10) tidal
streams attain no great strength, and are swamped by the
oceanic monsoonal currents, which are strong and dominate
the flow in offshore waters such that the tidal effect is
marked. When the streams and current flow in the same
direction, rates of 3 to 3 kn may be expected. The rate
increases and is accompanied by strong eddies about the
appropriate corners of offshore islands; during the SW
monsoon these are particularly marked on the NW and SE
corners, as the general direction of set is usually between
350° and 010°.
Buoyage
3.7
1
The IALA System, Region A (red to port), is in use
throughout the area.
CHAPTER 3
86
TANJUNG LOMPAT TO KUALA PAHANG
General information
Charts 3543, 2403, 769
Description
3.8
1
This section comprises the E coast of Peninsular
Malaysia and the offshore islands between Tanjung Lompat
(1°35′N, 104°16′E) and Kuala Pahang (3°32′N, 103°28′E).
Directions are given for a coastal route, for waterways off
that route, and for the small ports and anchorages along the
route, including Mersing (2°26′N, 103°51′E) (3.31) and
Pulau Tioman (2°47′N, 104°10′E) (3.48).
Topography
3.9
1
The coast throughout the area covered in this section is
generally low and thickly wooded, with occasional
clearings, some of which extend to the sandy beaches that
head the bays in the S part and fringe the shore in the N
part. However, between Tanjung Tenggaroh (2°15′N,
103°59′E) (3.22) and Mersing (2°26′N, 103°51′E) (3.31)
parts of the coast are steep-to and rocky and interspersed
with sandy beaches, the 4 mile stretch immediately S of
Mersing being steep and rocky, with foul ground and
drying rocky ledges extending 2 cables from the shore.
Hills back the coast, coming close to the shore in places.
2
South of Tanjung Penyambong (Penyabong) (2°39′N,
103°46′E) there are numerous bays and promontories, and,
with the exception of Sungai Sedili Besar (1°56′N,
104°07′E) (3.28), the rivers in this region are of a minor
nature. North of Tanjung Penyambong, however, the coast
is fairly uniform, with only a few shallow bays, but the
rivers are, in the main, much larger, with sand-bars at their
mouths, and erosion and accretion takes place continuously
along this stretch of the coast; see 3.2 concerning
impingement.
3
North of Sungai Rompin (2°49′N, 103°29′E) (3.56) the
series of long sandy beaches is fringed by a line of
casuarina trees and backed by flat jungle country. A few
streams discharge into the sea. Settlements are distinguished
by the coconut palms which surround them.
4
Close off the coast, generally within the 10 m (6 fm)
coastal depth contour, isolated islets, rocks and shoals are
to be found; see chart. In the vicinity of Tanjung
Penyambong a number of these features are grouped to
form an area previously known as Blair Harbour (2°40′N,
103°44′E) (3.44).
3.10
1
Offshore, groups of island trending NE-SW, more-or-less
parallel with the mainland coast, predominate in the S part
of the area, the larger islands being the farthest offshore;
see chart. The N part of the area is relatively
unencumbered, there being only a few isolated islets and
shoals. Some further description of the main offshore
islands may be found later in the section.
Depths
3.11
1
Throughout the area, except W of Pulau Aur (2°27′N,
104°31′E) (3.38), depths do not exceed 50 m (30 fm), and
shoal gradually towards the shore; although in some
instances the offshore shoals and islets are steep-to or rise
precipitously from the seabed. The chart is the best guide
to depths in the area.
Hazards
3.12
1
Submarine exercise areas. Submarines exercise to the E
of the islands, as shown on the charts. See Annual Notice
to Mariners No 8 for information concerning submarines.
Gunnery practice area. A target, consisting of a group
of four mooring buoys, lies 2 miles S of Pulau Aur
(2°27′N, 104°31′E) (3.38).
2
Fish aggregating devices and fishing stakes. See 3.4.
Swell. During, and for some weeks after, the NE
monsoon there is considerable swell along the 42 mile
stretch of coast between Kuala Rompin (2°49′N, 103°29′E)
(3.54) and Kuala Pahang (3°32′N, 103°28′E) (3.59). In
particular, this makes landing on the beaches difficult.
Local knowledge
3.13
1
Because of the ever changing nature of the seabed and
sandbars in the approaches to the ports, harbours,
anchorages and rivers described in 3.2, where pilotage is
not compulsory local knowledge is required.
Traffic regulations
3.14
1
Prohibited area. Entry is prohibited to a circular area,
radius 1 mile, shown on the chart, centred upon Batu
Gajah, which lies 8 cables NE of Pulau Setindan (Pulau
Stindan) (2°29′N, 103°51′E) (3.24). A light-buoy (special)
is moored close NE of Batu Gajah.
Prohibited anchorage. A corridor 1 mile wide extends
ENE from 2°22′N, 103°54′E for 3 miles in which
anchoring is prohibited.
2
Marine parks. The offshore islands lying S of latitude
3°N are within marine park limits that extend 2 miles from
the shores around each island, or group of islands. The
exceptions are Pulau Tokong Yu (2°07′N, 104°15′E) (3.30),
together with the islands NW of it as far as Tokong Sangoe
(9 miles NW), and Pulau Tokong Burong (2°47′N,
103°58′E) (3.23).
3
Within these designated parks, it is prohibited to fish,
collect coral or other marine life, anchor over coral, use
underwater explosives, dispose of waste or discharge oil.
Rescue
3.15
1
See 1.30.
Principal marks
3.16
1
Landmarks. In general, the off-lying islands and islets
in the area, which are quite high and wooded, are good
landmarks for coastal navigation. Some have distinctive
features.
Pulau Lima Besar (2°13′N, 104°09′E), 47 m (179 ft)
in height, has five distinct pinnacles. Pulau Lima
Kechil, 39 m (174 ft) lies close NW.
2
Pulau Tinggi (2°18′N, 104°07′E) (3.30), rising to
608 m (1999 ft), has a remarkable cone-shaped
peak.
Gunung Arong (2°34′N, 103°49′E), rising to 898 ft,
is easily identifiable.
Bukit Tioman Darat (2°36′N, 103°47′E), 445 ft high,
has a readily identifiable conical hill.
3
Pulau Mawar (2°37′N, 103°47′E), consists of two
islets, the NW having two remarkable pillar rocks.
CHAPTER 3
87
Major light:
Pulau Harimau Light (white square framework tower,
red bands) (2°33′⋅6N, 103°56′⋅6E).
Directions
(continued from Malacca Strait and
West coast of Sumatera Pilot)
Charts 2403, 769
General information
3.17
1
These directions are for the coastal passage W of Pulau
Tioman (2°47′N, 104°10′E) (3.48), from a position E of
Tanjung Lompat (1°35′N, 104°16′E) to a position ENE of
Kuala Pahang (3°32′N, 103°28′E) (3.59), some 137 miles
NNW.
2
The directions are in three parts, the first two parts
being for the island encumbered area to the S and the third
for the clearer waters to the N; the division being a line
drawn ENE from Kuala Rompin (2°49′N, 103°29′E) (3.54).
Caution. See 3.4 concerning fish aggregating devices
and fishing stakes.
West-East passages
3.18
1
Passage W-E between Pulau Pemanggil (2°35′N,
104°20′E) (3.41) and Pulau Aur (2°27′N, 104°31′E) (3.38),
or between Pulau Tioman (2°47′N, 104°10′E) (3.48) and
Pulau Pemanggil, is unencumbered except for a wreck,
shown on the chart, considered to have a safe clearance
depth of 23 m (13 fm), which lies 4 miles N of Pulau
Pemanggil.
2
When considering W-E passage between other islands or
groups of islands, for which directions are not given, the
chart is the best guide.
Tanjung Lompat to Tanjung Sekakap
3.19
1
Passage is in a NNW direction for about 50 miles,
passing (with positions from Tanjung Tenggaroh Light
(2°15′N, 103°59′E)):
ENE of Tanjung Lompat (1°35′N, 104°16′E). Before
Teluk Mahkota (Jason Bay) (24 miles SSE), a
wreck with a least depth of 10⋅1 m (5⋅3 fm)
(29 miles SSE), marked by a buoy (special), lies
4 miles off the coast. Thence:
2
ENE of Teluk Mahkota. The bay is entered between
Tanjung Sedili Kechil (26 miles SSE) in the S and
Tanjung Sedili Besar (21 miles SSE) in the N.
Both points are tree covered. Sungai Sedili Kechil,
which has a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft) in its entrance,
discharges into the S end of Teluk Mahkota close
W of Tanjung Sedili Kechil. Foul ground, near the
outer end of which are two rocks, 2 and 4 m (8
and 12 ft) high, extends 1 mile SE from Tanjung
Sedili Besar. Sungai Sedili Besar (3.28) flows into
the N end of Teluk Mahkota. Thence:
3
Clear of Pulau Tokong Yu (18 miles SE) (3.30) and
the islets and dangers between it and Pulau Tinggi
(8 miles ENE) (3.30).
3.20
1
Passage to the E of Pulau Tokong Yu (18 miles SE)
(3.30) to a position ENE of Tanjung Sekakap (6 miles
NNW) is clear between it and Pulau Aur (34 miles ENE)
(3.38).
3.21
1
Passage W of Pulau Tokong Yu (18 miles SE) (3.30)
and to the E of the Sibu group of islands (7 miles SE)
(3.29) and E of Batuan Murau (Batu Murau) (4 miles
NE) to a position ENE of Tanjung Sekakap (6 miles
NNW) is clear in the main channel, with a least charted
depth of 16⋅5 m (54 ft), see chart, passing:
2
WSW of Tokong Belatai (Blalang) (13 miles SE) and
the other islets and dangers that lie between Pulau
Tokong Yu and Pulau Lima Kechil (10 miles
ESE) (3.16), and:
3
ENE of Pulau Sibu Hujung (9 miles SE) and the
other islets and dangers between Pulau Sibu Kukus
(9 miles SE) and Pulau Sibu (5 miles SE)
(3.29). Thence:
WSW of Pulau Tinggi (8 miles ENE) (3.30); thence:
ENE of Batuan Murau (4 miles NE), and to a
position ENE of Tanjung Sekakap (6 miles NNW).
3.22
1
Sibu Channel. Passage W of Pulau Tokong Yu
(18 miles SE) and W of the Sibu group of islands (7 miles
SE) (3.29) is through the Sibu Channel (2°10′N, 104°04′E).
On its E side, NW of Pulau Sibu (5 miles SE), the channel
is encumbered by a number of patches; the shallowest, with
a depth of 5⋅2 m (17 ft) over it, lies 1 miles off the NW
point of the island. Passage continues:
2
ENE of Tanjung Tenggaroh, a high prominent point
from which a light is exhibited. Numerous rocks
and reefs, above-water, awash and below-water, lie
within the coastal 5 m (3 fm) depth contour S of
Tanjung Tenggaroh to Tanjung Sedili Besar
(21 miles SSE). Thence:
3
Clear of Batuan Murau (4 miles NE); ENE of
Tanjung Murau (3 miles NNW), a prominent,
tree covered point, and to a position ENE of
Tanjung Sekakap (6 miles NNW).
Tanjung Sekakap to Kuala Rompin
3.23
1
Passage continues NNW and then NW for some
40 miles, passing (with positions from Pulau Tokong
Bahara Light (2°40′N, 104°04′E)), E or W of Pulau Babi
Besar (14 miles SSW) (3.35).
2
From a position ENE of Tanjung Sekakap (21 miles
SSW), passage E of Pulau Babi Besar (14 miles SSW) and
the associated islands, rocks and dangers extending E and
N from it, as far as Tompok Mawar (Mitchell Patches)
(13 miles WNW), continues NNW to a position ENE of
Kuala Endau (25 miles W) (3.43), passing:
3
Clear of Pulau Tokong Bahara, from where a light
(white column, concrete base) is exhibited, and
WSW of Pulau Tioman (10 miles NE) (3.48),
from where a light (white square on concrete
structure) (12 miles NNE) is exhibited. Thence:
4
Clear of Pulau Tokong Burong (9 miles NNW) and
clear of the shoal patches (12 miles NNW), least
charted depth 16⋅1 m (53 ft), to a position ENE of
Kuala Endau.
3.24
1
Passage W of Pulau Babi Besar (14 miles SSW) and
associated dangers, until clear of Tompok Mawar (Mitchell
Patches) (13 miles WNW), may be had, noting that a
number of shoal patches exists to the E of the 10 m (6 fm)
depth contours. The passage continues:
2
ENE of Pulau Belanak (Blanah) (20 miles SSW),
which lies 1 miles NW of the tree covered
Tanjung Sekakap. Sungai Sekakap flows into the
small bay SE from the island. Two prominent
radio masts (red lights) (21 miles SW) stand on
CHAPTER 3
88
the S end of hills 5 miles WNW of Pulau
Belanak. Thence:
3
ENE of Mersing (19 miles SW) (3.31), a town at
the mouth of Sungai Mersing. Lights are exhibited
at Mersing and from Pulau Setindan (Pulau
Stindan), an island lying on the edge of the coastal
bank about 2 miles offshore, 2 miles NNE of
Mersing. An entry prohibited area (3.14) lies close
N of Pulau Setindan. Thence:
4
ENE of Tanjung Resang (15 miles WSW), with Pulau
Puchong lying 5 cables offshore, 1 mile SE of
Tanjung Resang; WSW of Pulau Achi (Mertang)
(11 miles W), from where a light (white wooden
framework tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited;
thence:
5
ENE of Pulau Aceh (Kaban) (17 miles W) (3.44)
and Blair Harbour (18 miles W) (3.44), thence:
Clear of Tompok Anggerek (Remora Patches)
(16 miles W). A wreck, with a depth of 10⋅1 m
(33 ft) lies on the bank; see chart. Thence ENE of
Kuala Endau (25 miles W).
3.25
1
From a position ENE of Kuala Endau (25 miles W)
(3.43), passage continues NW to a position ENE of Kuala
Rompin (36 miles NNW) (3.54). The passage is clear of
dangers to the E of the 10 m (6 fm) depth contours. A light
(white concrete pile) is exhibited from Batuan Pontian
(Boya Rock) (28 miles WNW).
Kuala Rompin to Kuala Pahang
3.26
1
From a position ENE of Kuala Rompin (2°49′N,
103°29′E) (3.54), passage continues N for a further
40 miles approximately, passing (with positions from Pulau
Berhala (3°15′N, 103°40′E)):
E of Beting Mercung (Margaret Shoal) (20 miles
SSW), which extends 18 miles N from Kuala
Rompin, with isolated shoals up to 11 miles from
the coast. Thence;
2
E of Kuala Merchong (19 miles SW) (3.57). A
light (white metal framework tower, 8 m in
height), is exhibited from the shore at Pandan,
4 miles N of Kuala Merchong. Thence:
E of Kuala Bebar (15 miles SW) (3.58). A light
(white disc on white wooden framework tower) is
exhibited from Nenasi, 1 miles N of Kuala
Bebar. Thence:
3
E of Tanjung Batu (13 miles W), close to which a
wooded hill rises, at the entrance to a small creek.
The coastal 10 m (6 fm) depth contours lies more
than 8 miles off in places, in the vicinity of
Tanjung Batu. Remain clear of Pulau Berhala,
from where a light (wooden framework tower) is
exhibited, and Beting Melati (Jubilee Shoal)
(9 miles E). Thence:
4
E of Beting Teja (Wardlaw Shoals) (16 miles NW),
which consist of patches of coral rising steeply
from the seabed, with a least known depth of
1⋅2 m (4 ft) over them; clear of Beting Merak
(Cardno Shoals) (16 miles NNW) and Beting
Gagak (Bass Shoals) (18 miles NNW), which has
several heads with depths from 9⋅8 to 10⋅7 m (32
to 35 ft) over them. Thence to a position E of
Kuala Pahang (20 miles NNW) (3.59).
(Directions continue at 3.70)
Minor harbours, anchorages
and offshore islands
Chart 769
Caution
3.27
1
See 3.13 concerning the need for local knowledge.
Sungai Sedili Besar
3.28
1
General information. Sungai Sedili Besar (1°56′N,
104°07′E), at the N end of Teluk Mahkota (3.19), is
entered between Tanjung Sedili Besar and Pulau Tagal, a
densely wooded island 4 cables W of Tanjung Sedili
Besar. The entrance is fronted by a shallow bar which is
subject to change.
2
Vessels wishing to enter Sungai Sedili Besar should pass
S and W of the foul ground extending S from Tanjung
Sedili Besar, at the S end of which there is a light; close E
of the charted position of the dangerous wreck on the bar,
and E of Kuala Sedili Besar Inner Light (white column on
piles), shown on the chart. Two pole beacons mark the
limit of the drying sandbank on the W side of the entrance;
they are situated close together 4 cables S of Pulau Tagal.
In 1969 the least depth in the entrance was 1⋅2 m (4 ft).
3
A reef, on which there are two rocks, the N of which is
0⋅5 m (2 ft) high, is situated 1 cables NNE of Pulau
Tagal; between this reef and Tanjung Lembu, 1 cables W,
there is some foul ground with a narrow channel between it
and the reef. A pylon stands on the N rock on the reef, it
supports an overhead telephone cable between Tanjung
Lembu and Kampung Sedili Besar (see below) and is a
good landmark.
4
Kampung Sedili Besar, a fishing village with a wooden
jetty with a Custom office close to it, is located on the E
side of the entrance to Sungai Sedili Besar.
Depths of up to 12⋅5 m (41 ft) may be found in Sungai
Sedili Besar 12 miles above the entrance, and of 9⋅1 m
(30 ft) at Mawai, a village 10 miles WSW of Tanjung
Lembu. A road from the village leads to a concrete jetty
2 cables W of Tanjung Lembu. The concrete jetty is
18 m in length and has a least depth alongside of 2⋅4 m
(8 ft).
5
Tidal streams in the river run at a rate of 2 to 3 kn,
but the rate of the out-going stream may be accelerated
when the river is in flood. The river is tidal as far as
Mawai.
Pulau Sibu
3.29
1
General information. Pulau Sibu (2°13′N, 104°05′E) is
the largest of four named islands in a group. On its W side
there is a shallow bay encumbered with numerous rocks;
the NW side of the island is steep-to, but there are several
shallow patches within 2 miles of the NW end of the
island; the island is highest near its SE end. Several rocks,
with depths of less than 2 m (6 ft) over them, lie close off
the S side of the island.
2
The other named islands are, from NW to SE:
Pulau Sibu Tengah.
Pulau Sibu Hujung (Pulau Sibu Hujong).
Pulau Sibu Kukus.
See 3.14 concerning marine park restrictions.
3
Anchorage. Good anchorage, sheltered from the NE
monsoon, may be obtained in a depth of 10 m (33 ft), in
Sibu Channel (3.22), W of the reef extending from the W
side of Pulau Sibu, with the summit of Pulau Tinggi (3.30)
bearing 028°.
CHAPTER 3
89
Pulau Tinggi
3.30
1
General information. Pulau Tinggi (2°18′N, 104°07′E),
is an inhabited island from which a chain of islets and
rocks extends 12 miles SE, as far as Pulau Tokong Yu
(2°07′N, 104°15′E). The inhabitants live mostly on the SW
side of the island, where a boat channel, sheltered from the
NE monsoon and much used by local fishing craft, lies
between the island and a drying reef, strewn with rocks,
6 cables SW.
2
The drying reef, orientated WNW-ESE, and about
1 mile in extent, has a chain of three islets lying on it;
from E to W they are Pulau Nanga Besar, Pulau Nanga
Kechil and Pulau Mentigi. Pulau Apil, 30 m (98 ft) high
to the tops of the trees, and a rock 2 m (7 ft) high, lie on
a drying reef 3 cable SW from Pulau Tinggi.
3
There are many other tree covered islets, rocks and
dangers within the 10 m (33 ft) depth contour surrounding
Pulau Tinggi, including Pulau Ibol (Iboi) to the E, with
Pulau Penyambong (Penyabong) between it and Pulau
Tinggi. Pulau Simbang, with One Tree Rock close N of it,
lies to the SE. A detached rocky ledge which dries 2⋅4 m
(8 ft), and is uncovered at most states of the tide, lies
close E of One Tree Rock.
4
Gebang Rocks which dry, and on which the sea breaks
during the NE monsoon, lie 1 miles N of Pulau Tinggi,
and Siam Knoll lies 3 cables N of the otherwise steep-to N
coast.
See 3.14 concerning marine park restrictions.
Current. A strong current, with an estimated rate of
2 kn, is reported to run S round the NW extremity of the
island, and down its W side.
5
Anchorage, sheltered from the NE monsoon, may be
obtained SW of the islets bordering the S side of Pulau
Tinggi, in depths of 11 to 18 m (36 to 60 ft). There are
fishing stakes in the area.
In 1975 HMS Diomede (2500 tons) obtained good
anchorage, in depths of 25 m (14 fm), 9 cables SW of the
NW extremity Pulau Tinggi. There is a small pier,
accessible at HW, E of this anchorage.
Mersing
3.31
1
General information. Situated at the mouth of Sungai
Mersing, Mersing (2°26′N, 103°51′E) is a small coastal
trading town. It is a port of entry, and has a Customs
House. Coasters occasionally use the port. There is ample
water in the river as far as the Customs Wharf (3.33). Size
is limited by the need to cross the bar. The harbour is
extensively used by fishermen during the summer months.
Salt is imported from Terengganu (5°20′N, 103°08′E)
(3.139) but there are no exports by sea.
3.32
1
Directions. Local knowledge is required to enter the
river. Directions for Mersing are not given; the following
navigational information is recorded. The bar, which is of
sand, may dry at LW, and depths vary from year to year
with the NE monsoon.
Mersing Light (white metal framework tower) (2°26′⋅1N,
103°50′⋅5E) stands on the S side of Sungai Mersing, in the
centre of the town; it is difficult to distinguish from the
lights of the town.
2
Light-beacons stand at the bar:
Inner Light-beacon (green triangle on white concrete
pillar) (NW side of channel, inside the bar,
6 cables NE of Mersing Light).
Outer Light-beacon (red square on white concrete
pillar) (seaward of the bar, 3 cables NE of Inner
Light-beacon).
3
Both light-beacons are difficult to distinguish by day.
The wreckage of a former Outer Light-beacon stands about
120 m W of the present structure.
Useful marks, with positions from Mersing Light:
Radio masts (3 miles S) (3.24).
A mosque (3 cables SSE), with a green tiled dome
and a minaret.
4
Batu Chawang (1 mile E), a rock, reddish in colour.
Another rock lies 4 cables W of Batu Chawang.
A flag staff (8 cables NNW), on a hill, near a
meteorological hut.
3.33
1
Berth. Customs Wharf, a concrete structure, is located
on the S side of the river close to the entrance.
3.34
1
Port services:
Repairs: small boat repair yard.
Other facilities: hospital.
Supplies: fresh water at Customs Wharf (3.33); small
quantities of petrol, diesel fuel, fresh vegetables
and other provisions.
Communications: by air from a small airstrip 5 km
SE of the town.
Pulau Babi Besar and islands to the north
3.35
1
Pulau Babi Besar (2°26′N, 103°59′E) is the most S of
a further chain of islets, rocks and dangers extending NNW
some 6 miles from the N of the island to Pulau Harimau
(2°34′N, 103°57′E) (3.37). Pulau Babi Besar is a thickly
wooded island with four separate summits, the highest
being in the S part. Kampung Busong, reported to have a
dilapidated wooden pier extending to the edge of the
fringing coral reef, is situated on the SW side of the island.
Batu Tikus and Batu Sakit Mata are rocky outcrops on a
bank, with general depths from 13 to 18 m (43 to 59 ft),
which lies parallel to the coast, between 2 and 3 miles
off its E side.
2
Marine park restrictions apply to this group of islands;
see 3.14.
3.36
1
Pulau Babi Tengah (Pulau Babi Kechil (South)) and
Pulau Babi Hujung (Pulau Babi Kechil (North)), lie 1 and
2 miles N, respectively, of Pulau Babi Besar. Both
islands are planted with coconut palms; there are sandy
beaches on the SW sides of the islands where the land
slopes gently, but the NE sides are steep and rock bound.
A rock 5 m (16 ft) high lies 2 cables NE of Pulau Babi
Tengah, and there are several above-water rocks farther
inshore. Foul ground exists between the two islands and
vessels should not attempt to pass between them.
2
Between Pulau Babi Besar and Pulau Babi Tengah there
is a channel about 5 cables in width, with a least depth of
11⋅6 m (38 ft) in the fairway; local knowledge is required
if it is to be used.
3.37
1
Pulau Rawa (2°31′N, 103°59′E), an islet lying 2 miles
NE of Pulau Babi Hujung, is covered with trees. The NE
side is steep-to with precipitous cliffs, but there is a sandy
beach on the SW side of the islet. Good landing is possible
on this beach, although there are some fishing stakes.
2
A chain of islets and rocks extends 3 miles NW from
Pulau Rawa as far as Pulau Harimau (2°34′N, 103°57′E),
from where a light is exibited (3.16), which is steep-to
CHAPTER 3
90
except on its SW side where there are some below-water
rocks close inshore. With the exception of the channel
between Pulau Mensirip (2°33′N, 103°58′E) and Pulau
Harimau, which is 7 cables in width and free of dangers,
the channels between these islets are obstructed by rocks
and reefs and vessels should not attempt to use them.
3
Anchorage, shown on the chart, may be obtained, in
depths of 20 m (11 fm), mud and sand, about 1 mile SW
of Pulau Rawa.
Pulau Aur
3.38
1
General information. Pulau Aur (2°27′N, 104°31′E),
lies some 35 miles off the mainland coast. The island is
densely wooded and steep-to. It has two main peaks, the
best defined and highest peak, Bukit Makum, is to the SE,
the smaller peak being to the NW. When viewed from a
great distance on a NE or SW bearing, Pulau Aur, being
saddle-shaped, often presents the appearance of being two
islands.
2
The main settlement, Kampung Berhala, is at the NW
end of the island. The sandy beach fronting the village is
fringed by a coral reef which extends 500 m offshore and
dries at LW springs. A remarkable pinnacle rock, known
locally as Batu Berhala China, elevation 124 m (407 ft),
with two large boulders precariously balanced on top,
stands 2 cables NE of the village.
3
Three islets lie close off Pulau Aur. To the SE is Pulau
Pinang; to the NW and W, respectively, are Pulau Dayang
and Pulau Lang. A group of rocks, the largest of which is
1⋅5 m (5 ft) high, extends 6 cables E from Tanjung Batu
Ronchek, the N point of Pulau Dayang, and three rocks
and coral shoals, with depths of 9 to 10 m (30 to 33 ft)
over them, lie SW of Pulau Pinang, close S of Pulau Aur.
4
Marine park restrictions apply to this group of islands;
see 3.14.
Caution. For gunnery practice area see 3.12.
3.39
1
Tidal Streams. Strong tidal streams and current eddies
may be encountered S of Pulau Aur and between it and
Pulau Pinang; this area should be given a wide berth.
During the SW monsoon a stream sets strongly off the
NW side of Pulau Aur, around the SW end of Pulau Lang
and along the line of the deep-water trench which runs
from the NW side of Pulau Dayang, close W of Pulau
Lang and thence S for 2 miles.
3.40
1
Anchorages. Excellent sheltered anchorage may be
obtained at the NW end of Pulau Aur, equidistant between
that island, Pulau Dayang and Pulau Lang, in depths of
42 m (23 fm), sand and shell, but swinging room is
limited to 3 cables. The E approach to this anchorage,
between Pulau Aur and Pulau Dayang, is only 1 cable
wide but is deep and clear of dangers. A good approach
may be made by keeping the left hand edge of Pulau Lang,
bearing 235°, in the centre of the channel, which leads
through the channel and to the anchorage. The W
approaches to the anchorage, on either side of Pulau Lang,
are deep and clear of dangers. The tidal stream (3.39) does
not make itself much felt in the narrow channel, or in this
anchorage. No experience of this anchorage in bad weather
is available.
2
Good, and less restricted, anchorage may also be
obtained 5 cables off the W coast of Pulau Aur, 6 cables
SSE of Pulau Lang, between the edge of the deep-water
trench and the coast of Pulau Aur.
3
During the NE monsoon, Teluk Galing (To Kaya) on the
SW side of Pulau Aur affords good shelter, although within
the bay the bottom is irregular, and tidal eddies create
discoloured water that gives the impression that the waters
are shallow. Small vessels may anchor close inshore, but
larger vessels should anchor with the left-hand edge of
Pulau Dayang open just off the left-hand edge of Pulau
Aur, and with Tanjung Jongkar, the SW extremity of Pulau
Aur, bearing between 100° and 110°, in depths of 42 m
(23 fm), sand and shell.
4
Large vessels may also obtain good anchorage
5 cables offshore, with the left-hand edge of Pulau Aur
bearing 335° and the right-hand edge bearing 117°, in
depths of 40 m (22 fm), sand.
Pulau Pemanggil
3.41
1
General information. Pulau Pemanggil (2°35′N,
104°20′E) lies 12 miles NW of Pulau Aur (3.38). It is
steep-to on all sides, though partially fringed by a narrow
coral reef and rocks close inshore, particularly in the bays.
It has two main peaks and a number of subsidiary peaks.
The higher, more distinctive peak, Bukit Topo, rises steeply
from Tanjung Pandan in the SE; the less distinctive NW
peak has its summit 1 mile SE of Tanjung Epil, the NW
extremity of the island. A remarkable dome-shaped rocky
summit with smooth vertical sides, visible only from the S
and W sides of the island, lies 5 cables SSW of the NW
peak.
2
The island’s inhabitants occupy the area, distinguished
by its coconut tree plantations, close to the shore of the
two bays on the SW side.
See 3.14 concerning marine park restrictions.
3.42
1
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained, as
convenient, in either of the two bays on the SW side of the
island, in depths of 33 to 39 m (18 to 21 fm), sand and
shell.
Kuala Endau
3.43
1
General information. Kuala Endau (2°40′N, 103°39′E)
is entered NW of Tanjung Kempit. It is obstructed by a bar
extending 1 miles offshore, with depths of 0⋅9 to 1⋅5 m
(3 to 5 ft) over it, but which can be crossed at most states
of the tide. The channel is marked by beacons surmounted
by cylindrical drums, the outer ones white and the inner
ones red; lights are exhibited from the outer beacons
situated on the edge of the drying flat 9 cables W of
Tanjung Kempit. A light (white metal framework tower)
also stands on the S entrance point of the river 1 miles
W of Tanjung Kempit; it is difficult to identify from
seaward. Beting Endau (Robb Shoals) (2°43′N, 103°39′E),
an extensive rocky patch, lies in the N approach to Kuala
Endau, with its shallowest part 3 miles N of the light
structure.
2
Locally produced iron ore is loaded from 150 ton
lighters at the offshore anchorage.
Sungai Endau is navigable by motor launches for a
distance of 40 miles. Padang Endau, connected by road to
Mersing (3.31) and Pontian (2°46′N, 103°32′E) (3.54), is
located on the right bank of the river 1 mile within the
entrance. There are two jetties at Padang Endau.
3
There are ferry ramps on each side of the river, and a
submarine cable is laid across the river on a line joining
the two ferry ramps. The cable landing places are marked
by beacons, and vessels are prohibited from anchoring
within a distance of 55 m on either side of the cable.
CHAPTER 3
91
4
Both banks of the river are thickly wooded where not
cleared, and during the rainy season the right bank is often
under water.
Anchorage for larger vessels may be obtained 5 miles
NE of Kuala Endau, in depths of 13 to 17 m (43 to 56 ft),
mud.
Pulau Aceh (Blair Harbour)
3.44
1
General information. The water area, about 1 miles
N of Tanjung Penyambong (Penyabong) (2°39′N,
103°46′E), lying between the coastal bank and a small
chain of off-lying islets, of which Pulau Aceh (Kaban) is
the largest, was previously known as Blair Harbour. The
other islets are Pulau Tunus and Pulau Layak.
2
Pulau Aceh has several summits, the highest of which is
situated near the SE end of the island. The E side of the
island is rocky and steep, but the W side is more sloping
and has sandy bays suitable for landing. The islet, covered
with dense jungle, is uninhabited. Two rocks, 0⋅5 and 16 m
(2 and 52 ft) high, lie close S of Pulau Aceh, and a small
islet lies close to its N end. Batu Berdawan, a rock awash,
lies 4 cables SW of the S end of Pulau Aceh, and there is
a rocky ridge between it and the shore of the islet. Malang
Gading, 1 miles SSE of Batu Berdawan, consists of two
groups of rocks 2 cables apart.
3
Pulau Tunus, 1 mile NW of Pulau Aceh, is comprised
of three small islets close together; each is steep-to and
sparsely covered with vegetation.
Pulau Layak, 7 cables NW of Pulau Tunus, is covered
with grass and low scrub, except that the summit, which is
at its SE end, is covered with low jungle. Landing is
practicable at the SE end of the SW side of Pulau Layak.
Batu Doyak, which dries, lies 6 cables S of Pulau Layak.
4
Pulau Tengah (2°40′N, 103°45′E) lies to the W of the
area and Pulau Pelandok lies 6 cables S of Pulau Tengah,
between it and Tanjung Penyambong.
3.45
1
The area may be entered from the SE between Tanjung
Penyambong and Pulau Aceh via a very narrow channel W
of Batu Berdawan, with a least depth of 7 m (23 ft) in the
fairway, or from the NE between Pulau Aceh and Pulau
Tunus via a channel much constricted by dangers on either
side, with depths of 11 to 13 m (36 to 43 ft).
2
Anchorage, sheltered from the prevailing winds, may be
obtained off the W side of Pulau Aceh, between Pulau
Tunus and Tanjung Penyambong, in depths of 7 m (23 ft),
stiff mud.
Pulau Sembilang and Pulau Seri Buat
3.46
1
General information. Pulau Sembilang and Pulau Seri
Buat (Sribuat) (2°41′N, 103°55′E), two densely wooded
islands, lie 2 miles NE of Pulau Mertang (Achi) (3.24).
The two islands are separated by a shallow passage
encumbered with sand and coral, drying in patches, and
suitable only for very shallow draught boats at high water.
Other features of this boat passage are a wooded islet
situated on its SE side, and a remarkable pillar rock, 15 m
(49 ft) high, standing at its NE end.
2
Pulau Seri Buat is almost divide in two by a narrow
creek which extends N from the S side of the island and
ends in a mangrove swamp. The creek, which is shallow, is
used by fishing boats; there is a wooden pier and several
huts occupied by fishermen. Pulau Sembilang is
uninhabited.
3
Tompok Mawar (Mitchell Patches) is a fairly extensive
bank of sand over mud on underlying rock, lying between
5 cables and 7 miles N of Pulau Sembilang. The channel
between Tompok Mawar and the islands to the S is
comparatively deep and free of dangers.
Marine park restrictions apply to these islands; see 3.14.
3.47
1
Anchorages.
Good anchorage, shown on the chart, may be
obtained on the bank extending SE from Pulau
Seri Buat, in depths of 16 m (52 ft), mud and
sand, with Pulau Seri Buat distant about 1 miles.
Fishing stakes, extending over the bank, should be
avoided.
2
Anchorage NW of Pulau Seri Buat, distant about
1 mile, well sheltered from the S, may be obtained
in depths of 15 m (49 ft), mud, sand and shell;
see chart.
Pulau Tioman
3.48
1
General information. Pulau Tioman (2°47′N, 104°10′E)
is the largest island off the E coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
The highest peak, Gunung Kajang, rises to 1037 m
(3455 ft) in the W of the island’s broadest part. Tanjung
Lanting, the SE extremity of the island, can be identified
by a remarkable twin-peaked hill, elevation approximately
456 m (1496 ft), rising close to the point; 2 miles NW of
the point stands a remarkable flat-topped mountain with an
elevation of 957 m (3140 ft). The S side of the island is
formed of a large sandy bay Teluk Mukut (Mokut) (3.52).
From behind the W end of the S side of the island two
conspicuous outcrops of rock, each with a twin peak, rise
sheer from the jungle. The SE outcrop is known locally as
Chula Naga or Ass’s Ears, and the NW outcrop, Nenek
Si-Mukut, resembles a thumb.
2
The whole of the SW coast is steep-to. Most of the NW
is formed of a large bay, Teluk Tekek (3.49). Tanjung
Salang (2°53′N, 104°09′E) and Gua Layang Layang, 1 mile
NE of it, are, respectively, the NW and N extremities of
Pulau Tioman. Bukit Perayon, rising near the island’s N tip,
is readily identifiable.
3
With the exception of Teluk Juara (2°47′N, 104°13′E)
(3.51), the E side of Pulau Tioman presents a rugged,
indented, steep, rocky shore backed by dense jungle and
scrub. The rocky points descend into deep water with no
off-lying dangers. The numerous small indentations are
filled with rocks and jagged coral reefs along the beaches,
and more often than not the state of the sea or swell is
such as to make landing hazardous.
4
The inhabitants, some 2000, are dispersed around the
island, the presence of coconut palms usually indicates
where they live, but there are no large kampongs.
Marine park restrictions apply to Pulau Tioman and the
adjacent islands close NW; see 3.14.
5
Harbour limits are shown on the chart.
Tidal stream. A N-going set is usually experienced off
the E coast of Pulau Tioman, with a strong counter eddy
close inshore off the NE point.
3.49
1
Teluk Tekek, the large bay on the NW side of Pulau
Tioman, is clear of dangers, except for a shoal off Pulau
Rengis (2°48′⋅6N, 104°08′⋅3E), and a rock with a depth of
1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, 6 cables SSW of Tanjung Mesoh
CHAPTER 3
92
(2°50′⋅1N, 104°09′⋅7E). However, Karang Lentang (2°51′N,
104°06′E), a ridge consisting of sand over rocks, and
Karang Pabuyong (2°48′⋅5N, 104°07′⋅0E), a coral patch
rising from a deep trench, lie off the entrance to the bay.
2
The shore of Teluk Tekek is, for the most part composed
of sand, with patches of coral extending seaward in places
below the high water line. Many small streams flow into
the bay, the largest, Sungai Tekek, enters near the head of
the bay 6 cables NE of Tanjung Said (2°48′⋅8N,
104°09′⋅0E), a rocky point with a steep hill above it.
Located close SW of the mouth of Sungai Tekek is the
Harbour Master’s office and a small airport. A police
station is situated close to the shore 3 cables NE of the
river’s mouth, and a medical dispensary is located on the E
bank of the river a short distance inland.
3
Tekek jetty, with depths of 0⋅6 m (2 ft) at its head, and
a concrete roadway, extends NW from the shore 2 cables
SW of the mouth of Sungai Tekek. A resort jetty also
extends NW from the shore 3 cables SE of Pulau Rengis.
The use of these jetties in a heavy swell can be tricky.
4
Pulau Rengis is small and rocky with a few trees on it.
A shallow bank of sand and coral extends 4 cables from
its W side. There is a narrow boat channel between Pulau
Rengis and the shore, but there are three drying coral heads
S of the islet.
During the NE monsoon, Teluk Tekek is very sheltered
and boats may land at any time; excellent landing exists
close S of Tanjung Mesoh.
5
Anchorage. Teluk Tekek is well sheltered during the
SW monsoon; it is also well sheltered from the full force
of the NE monsoon, but squalls may come down over the
hills. Anchorage, with good holding ground and very little
tidal stream, may be obtained anywhere NE of Pulau
Rengis, but not less than 5 cables offshore, in depths of 26
to 36 m (14 to 20 fm), mud and sand.
In 1953 HMS Mounts Bay (1600 tons) obtained good
shelter from the swell, even with the wind from NW, when
anchored near the centre of the bay 1 miles NE of Pulau
Rengis.
6
Useful marks, with positions from Pulau Rengis
(2°48′⋅6N, 104°08′⋅3E):
Radio mast (red light) (7 cables SW).
Beacon (white, two white triangles points up)
(2⋅1 miles NE).
Tanjung Layar (Penuba) Light (white square on
concrete structure) (2⋅8 miles NNE).
3.50
1
Teluk Salang, a sandy bay on the NW coast 3 miles to
the N of Teluk Tekek, provides shelter for small vessels.
There is a jetty in the bay.
3.51
1
Teluk Juara (2°47′N, 104°13′E), situated on the E side
of Pulau Tioman, is entered between Tanjung Ruit in the N
and Tanjung Pisang Kera in the S. The head of the bay
consists of a shelving sandy beach backed by coconut
plantations. Sungai Bhara discharges into the bay at the N
end, and Sungai Mentawak at the S end, and there is a
small stream close N of Black Rock, a tree-covered outcrop
near the middle of the beach. Detached rocks and a rocky
shoal extend 3 cables SE from a densely wooded
headland 2 cables SW of Tanjung Ruit. A jetty with a
green roof, reported to be prominent when viewed from
seaward and suitable for small vessels, extends SE about
90 m from the shore at Kampung Juara, 2 cables N of
Black Rock.
2
Teluk Juara is passed by the main N-going set (see 3.48)
and experiences only weak eddies.
The swell entering Teluk Juara, even during the SW
monsoon, is often sufficient to make landing difficult; surf
conditions are unpredictable and the safest landing is
usually in the SW corner of the bay.
3
Anchorage in Teluk Juara is best in the SW corner of
the bay and should be approached as close as is prudent.
This position is not always free from swell. The holding
ground, mud under sand, is good.
In 1947 HMS Penn (1540 tons) anchored in the bay,
with good holding ground, with Black Rock bearing 286°,
distant 5 cables in depths of 15 m (49 ft).
3.52
1
Teluk Mukut (Mokut) (2°43′N, 104°11′E), on the S
side of the island, is entered between Tanjung Lanting
(3.48) in the E and Tanjung Duata in the W. The bay is
sandy; there is a village, and the valley behind the bay is
comparatively cleared and cultivated.
Anchorage may be obtained in the bay, during fine
weather, in depths of 36 to 40 m (20 to 22 fm), sand.
2
Useful mark:
Tanjung Lanting Light (white square on concrete
structure) (2°43′⋅3N, 104°13′⋅0E).
3.53
1
Pulau Tulai lies 3 miles WNW from the NW point of
Pulau Tioman and within the Pulau Tioman’s harbour
limits. A bay on the NW side of the island provides
sheltered anchorage for small vessels, but there is little
swinging room and depths shoal very steeply.
Kuala Rompin
3.54
1
General information. The port of Kuala Rompin
includes the more S port of Kuala Pontian (2°46′N,
103°32′E). The port limits for Kuala Rompin are, in the N
latitude 2°53′⋅4N; in the W, the meridian of 103°36′⋅8E;
and in the S, the latitude of 2°45′⋅0N.
2
A radio tower (red light), not shown on the chart, stands
on Tanjung Tengku, the N entrance point of Sungai
Rompin. Vessels intending to work cargo via Kuala Pontian
should obtain anchorage within port limits and S of the
latitude of the radio tower; vessels intending to work cargo
via Kuala Rompin should do so within port limits but N of
the latitude of the radio tower.
3.55
1
Sungai Pontian. The entrance to Sungai Pontian is
obstructed by a drying bar, and some posts stand on the
drying bank on the E side of the entrance. The fishing
village of Pontian is situated on the right bank of the river,
and there is a jetty, with a depth of 1⋅8 m at its head,
located a short distance up river from the main part of the
village.
3.56
1
Sungai Rompin. The mouth of Sungai Rompin (2°49′N,
103°29′E) is also fronted by a bar which, though not
recently reported, may be expected to have a least depth of
about 1 m (3 ft). The entrance channel is formed, in the
N, by an extensive bank which dries, extending 5 cables
ENE from Tanjung Tenku; and in the S, by another bank
which dries, which extends 4 cables NE of Tanjung
Sa-ratus, the S entrance point of the river. A light-buoy
(safe water) is moored 1 miles NNE of Tanjung Sa-ratus.
2
Beacons marked the channel, but in 1970 they no-longer
marked the deepest channel. They should not be relied
upon. The port is now little used other than by local
fishing craft, and no attempt should be made to enter the
river without local knowledge, as changes occur every
CHAPTER 3
93
monsoon. A sharp look-out must be kept for water-logged
tree trunks which are commonly met on the bar and in the
river. During the NE monsoon passage across the bar is
often risky, even for small craft.
3
Within Sungai Rompin an extensive bank, which dries
2 m (6 ft) in places, extends E towards the town of Kuala
Rompin from the S end of Tanjung Tengku, and forms the
N bank of the river. Depths of 2⋅2 m (7 ft) exist in the
narrow approach channel to the town, and for some
distance up river. The river is navigable by small craft for
a distance of 140 miles; the wires of a floating bridge form
an obstruction 8 miles up river, but they can be slackened
if the ferry sentry is notified.
4
Three jetties are situated on the N bank, close inside the
river entrance. At the town of Kuala Rompin there is a
short concrete jetty on the S side of the river, with a drying
mud-bank close N of it. A light (white concrete pile) stands
on the jetty. A submarine cable, each end of which is
marked by a beacon, is laid from the town, in a NNW
direction, to the opposite bank. Limited quantities of fresh
water can be obtained at the town jetty, and limited
amounts of fresh provisions are available in the town.
Kuala Merchong
3.57
1
General information. Narrow and shallow, Kuala
Merchong (3°01′N, 103°26′E) is encumbered by a bar
which dries. The fishing village of Merchong is located
close SW of the entrance; there are a few shops and a
police station, and a ferry for small vehicles crosses the
river 1 mile above the village.
Kuala Bebar
3.58
1
General information. Kuala Bebar (3°06′N, 103°27′E)
has a least depth on the bar of 0⋅3 m (1 ft). Sungai Bebar
enters the sea from within a sandy spit lying parallel with
the coast; it is navigable at HW by small craft.
2
Nenasi is a fairly large fishing settlement situated
1 miles N of Kuala Bebar, on the N bank of Sungai
Bebar. It contains a number of shops, a post office, a
Customs office and a police station. There is good sheltered
landing at Nenasi, and a ferry for small vehicles crosses the
river there.
Kuala Pahang
3.59
1
General information. Kuala Pahang (3°32′N, 103°29′E)
has Tanjung Agas as its S entrance point; Kuala Pahang
Light (white square on white metal mast) (3°32′N,
103°28′E) stands close N of the N entrance point, and a
white flagstaff stands 1 cables SW of the light. Pulau
Syed Hassan lies in the middle of the entrance and the
entrances N and S of it each have a bar. Sungai Pahang is
one of the two principal rivers of the peninsula and is
fairly wide for about 70 miles.
2
The limits of the port are, in the N, latitude 3°33′N; in
the S, latitude 3°29′N; and, between those latitudes, in the
E, the meridian of 103°30′E; and in the W, the meridian of
103°23′E.
3
The entrance S of Pulau Syed Hassan is obstructed by
drying sandbanks which extend 1 mile offshore and a
considerable distance S, and there is a least depth over the
bar of 0⋅3 m (1 ft). This entrance is used only by local
fishermen.
The bar at the entrance N of Pulau Syed Hassan lies
5 cables outside the entrance and there is a least depth of
1 m (3 ft) over it. There are drying sandbanks extending
seaward from each side of this entrance.
4
Although tidal streams in the approaches to Sungai
Pahang are weak, local knowledge is essential if entering
the river because the sandbanks and the E coast of Pulau
Syed Hassan are subject to change after each NE monsoon.
Inside, the river is shallow and the banks are constantly
changing.
5
Kampung Kuala Pahang stands on the N bank, close
inside the entrance to the river. There is a Customs office,
police station and postal agency. A ferry service operates
between Kampung Kuala Pahang and Kampung Pekan
Seberang, on the N bank 4 miles up stream. Kampung
Pekan Seberang is connected by a vehicular ferry to Pekan,
a town of over 1000 inhabitants, situated opposite it on the
S bank.
3.60
1
Anchorage outside the bar, but within the limits of the
port of Kuala Pahang, may be obtained 1 mile NE of
Kuala Pahang Light, in depths of 8 m (26 ft), mud and
sand.
KUALA PAHANG TO TERENGGANU
General information
Charts 770, 3543
Description
3.61
1
This section comprises the coastal route from a position
off Kuala Pahang (3°32′N, 103°29′E) (3.59) to a position
off Terengganu (5°20′N, 103°09′E) (3.139). Directions are
given for Pelabuhan Kuantan (3°58′N, 103°26′E) (3.72), the
principal deep-water port on the E coast of Peninsular
Malaysia, as well as Pelabuhan Kemaman (4°15′N,
103°28′E) (3.86), Kuala Kertih (4°31′N, 103°28′E) (3.104)
and the other small ports, anchorages and rivers along this
stretch of the coastline.
2
The Tapis Oilfield, which lies to the E of the area , is
described in Chapter 2.
Topography
3.62
1
From Kuala Pahang to Tanjung Dungun (4°47′N,
103°26′E) (3.71) the coastline is formed of several shallow
bays and numerous river mouths; N of Tanjung Dungun it
is flat and largely featureless. Inland, beyond the mainly
sandy beaches, lie trees and jungle, cleared in places for
cultivation; hills, usually wooded or jungle covered, range
farther inland.
2
Pulau Tenggol (4°48′N, 103°41′E) (3.137) and its
neighbouring islets are the only offshore islands in this
CHAPTER 3
94
section. Pulau Kapas (5°13′N, 103°16′E) (3.138) lies on the
coastal bank.
Depths
3.63
1
S of Tanjung Labuhan (4°32′N, 103°28′E) (3.104), the
20 m (10 fm) depth contour lies up to 25 miles offshore
and there are numerous shoal patches which cause the
seabed to be irregular. N of Tanjung Labuhan, the 20 m
(10 fm) contour closely follows the coast, being generally
less than 2 miles off. Beyond it, the seabed gradually slopes
towards deeper water. The deepest water is in the E of the
area covered, but depths rarely exceed 55 m (30 fm). The
chart is the best guide to depths and the shoal patches.
Local knowledge
3.64
1
Local knowledge is required when using the ports,
harbours and anchorages described in this section. See 3.13.
Fishing reserve
3.65
1
A fishing reserve of the Sultan of Pahang, about
2 miles square, its seaward limit marked by light-buoys
(special), is centred upon Batuan Serandu (3°35′N,
103°27′E).
Prohibited anchorages
3.66
1
From the vicinity of position 4°06′N, 103°23′E, an area
approximately 4 miles in width, shown on the chart, in
which anchoring is prohibited owing to the presence of
submarine cables, extends offshore for about 27 miles.
Anchoring is also prohibited in the restricted area
centred on 4°34′N, 103°30′E off Kertih Terminal (3.114);
see chart.
Current
3.67
1
During the SW monsoon, a current with a rate of 3 kn
usually sets in a NNW direction between Tanjung Dungun
(4°47′N, 103°26′E) (3.71) and Pulau Tenggol (4°48′N,
103°41′E) (3.137). However, a N to NE current may be
experienced. In the past, a NE current of 3 to 3 kn was
experienced during the first week in September, by the SY
Sea Belle II. During the NE monsoon, the current is
usually S-going.
2
In the vicinity of Pulau Tenggol and its off-lying islets,
the current attains a high rate close inshore, and is most
erratic both in direction and strength. In the passage
between Pulau Tenggol and Pulau Nyireh (3.137) there is
usually an area of dead water in mid-channel. The current
within 1 mile of the mainland coast is generally much
weaker than in the offing.
Principal marks
3.68
1
Landmarks:
Bukit Pengorak (Pengorok) (3°59′N, 103°24′E) and
Bukit Balok (3°59′N, 103°20′E) both have conical
summits which are easily identifiable.
Bukit Labuhan (Labohan) (4°32′N, 103°28′E) is
heavily wooded, and prominent from seaward.
Bukit Bauk (4°42′N, 103°25′E), the summit of a high
range of hills which is densely wooded and abrupt,
is conspicuous.
2
Major lights:
Tanjung Tembeling Light (white wooden framework
tower, 6 m in height) (3°48′N, 103°23′E).
Tanjung Gelang Light (white masonry tower, 7 m in
height) (3°58′N, 103°26′E).
Bukit Pejajat Light (white and red masonry tower,
9 m in height) (4°14′N, 103°27′E).
3
Tanjung Labuhan Light (white metal framework
tower, 6 m in height) (4°31′N, 103°28′E).
Tanjung Dungun Light (metal framework tower)
(4°47′N, 103°26′E).
Bukit Puteri Light (white brick column) (5°20′N,
103°08′E).
Sungai Golok Light (white GRP tower, concrete base,
27 m in height) (6°14′N, 102°06′E).
Other aids to navigation
3.69
1
Racon: Sungai Golok Lighthouse — as above.
Directions
(continued from 3.26)
3.70
1
From a position E of Kuala Pahang (3°32′N, 103°29′E)
(3.59) the coastal track leads N and then NNW for
approximately 115 miles to a position ENE of Terengganu
(5°20′N, 103°09′E) (3.139), passing (with positions from
Tanjung Labuhan (4°32′N, 103°28′E)):
2
Clear of the shoals within the coastal 20 m (10 fm)
depth contour S of latitude 4°N (3.63) and a wreck
(52 miles SSE) with a safe clearance of 10.3 m
(charted as 33 ft). A second dangerous wreck,
position approximate, lies 67 miles SSE. Thence E
of Tanjung Tembeling (44 miles S). A light (3.68)
is exhibited from a position 2 cables N of the
point. Sungai Kuantan, which leads to Kuantan
town (3.79), is entered 1 miles W of the point.
Thence:
3
E of Tanjung Pelindung (Pelindong) (42 miles S). A
dangerous wreck, marked by a light-buoy (isolated
danger), lies 2 miles E of the point, and there are
several obstructions within 7 cables of the point.
A large conspicuous radio mast (red lights, 76 m
in height), stands close E of the summit of Bukit
Pelindung (Pelindong), 1⋅7 miles N of Tanjung
Tembeling Light. Thence:
4
E of Tanjung Gelang (34 miles S). A light (3.68) is
exhibited from the point, and Pelabuhan Kuantan
(3.72) is entered close N of it. Beting Gebing
(3.76), lies on a shallow ridge 2 miles NE of
Tanjung Gelang, and Pulau Ular and Pulau Lang,
which are surrounded by drying rocks, lie on the
coastal bank 6 miles N of the same point. The
prohibited anchorage area (3.66) extends E from
the coast close N of these islets. Thence:
5
E of Tanjung Geliga (21 miles S), a densely wooded
point; E of Tanjung Mat Amin (17 miles S). A
light (3.68) is exhibited from Bukit Pejajat,
1 cables NW of the point. Sungai Kemaman,
leading to Chukai (3.99), is entered close W
CHAPTER 3
95
Tanjung Mat Amin, and Pelabuhan Kemaman
(3.86) is entered close NE of it. Thence:
6
E of Tanjung Penunjok (11 miles S). Two radio
towers (red lights) stand on Bukit Kijal, 1 miles
SW of Tanjung Penunjok; the lights on the towers
are visible for a considerable distance from NE
and SE, but cannot be seen from E. Beting Karang
Baharu (Karang Baru) lies 4 miles SE of
Tanjung Penunjok. A light (white beacon) is
exhibited from the coast near the large fishing
village of Kampung Kijal, 6 cables N of Tanjung
Penunjok, and a beacon (diamond on white
wooden framework tower) stands in the village.
There is an airstrip S of the village. Kuala Kijal
lies 1 miles NNW of Tanjung Penunjok. Thence:
7
E of Kemasik (6 miles S), a large fishing village. A
light (white diamond on white wooden framework
tower; 8 m in height) stands in the village. Batu
Bau lies 1 miles E of Kemasik, and Selok Liat,
Caslon Bank and Winkworth Bank lie, respectively,
5 miles E, 4 miles ENE and 4 miles NE of it.
These banks consist of coarse sand and are very
steep-to on their seaward side. Thence:
8
E of Tanjung Labuhan (Labohan) which has Kuala
Kertih (Kerteh) (3.104) close W of it, and Kertih
Terminal (3.114) 3 miles N of it, both of which
are within Kertih port limits. A light (3.68) is
exhibited from a position 3 cables NNE of
Tanjung Labuhan.
3.71
1
From Tanjung Labuhan, passage continues:
E of Tanjung Pilur (Pelor) (8 miles N). A light
(white pillar, concrete base) is exhibited from
Tanjung Pilur and a second light (white mast, 9 m
in height) within Kuala Paka, 8 cables SW of
Tanjung Pilur, off the fishing village of Paka
(3.132). Thence:
2
Clear of Pulau Tenggol (21 miles NE) and its
neighbouring islets (3.137) and ENE of Tanjung
Dungun (16 miles N). A light (3.68) is exhibited
from its highest point, and two beacons (white
triangular topmarks) also stand on the point. A
stranded wreck lies 6 cables N of Tanjung
Dungun, and a dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 6 miles NNE of the same
point. Kuala Dungun (3.133) is entered close W of
Tanjung Dungun. Thence:
3
ENE of Kuala Merchang (32 miles NNW). Batu
Siatin, consisting of two rocks, the outer being
steep-to with a depth of 0⋅6 m (2 ft) over it, and
the inner, 2 cables W, with a depth of 7⋅3 m
(24 ft) over it, lies 3 miles NNE of Kuala
Merchang. Obstructions were reported to exist
6 miles NNE of Kuala Merchang; see chart.
Thence:
4
ENE of Pulau Kapas (43 miles NNW) (3.138). A
light (metal tower) is exhibited from the SW
extremity of the island. A dangerous wreck,
position approximate, lies 8 miles ENE of Pulau
Kapas. Sungai Merang discharges into the sea
3 miles W of Pulau Kapas. Thence:
5
ENE of Tanjung Chenering (48 miles NNW), which
is remarkable as being the only rocky headland in
the vicinity. A light (white metal framework tower)
is exhibited from the point. There is a port at
Tanjung Chenering (shown as Works in progress
(1977) on chart). A dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 12 miles ENE from Tanjung
Chenering and a second dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 7 miles NE from the same point.
Kuala Ibai is 1 miles NNW of Tanjung
Chenering, and Batu Burok, which dries, lies
3 miles N of the same point. Thence to a
position ENE of Terengganu (53 miles NNW)
(3.139). Bukit Puteri Light (3.68) is exhibited from
Terengganu.
(Directions continue at 3.157)
Pelabuhan Kuantan
Charts 770, 1379
General Information
3.72
1
Position. Pelabuhan Kuantan (3°58′N, 103°26′E) is
situated on the N side of Tanjung Gelang. The river port
and town of Kuantan (3.79), situated some 10 miles SSW,
is also within Kuantan port limits (see below).
Function. Pelabuhan Kuantan is the principal deep water
port on the E side of Peninsular Malaysia. Main exports are
palm oil and timber; main imports are fertilizers,
machinery, construction materials and mineral oils.
2
Topography. The land in the vicinity of the port is
generally hilly behind the coast.
Port limits extend N to latitude 4°03′N, S to latitude
3°45′N and E to the meridian of 103°34′E between those
latitudes.
3
Approach. Pelabuhan Kuantan is approached from SE
via a channel dredged in part, marked by light-beacons and
light-buoys, and entered between breakwaters. A minimum
depth of 12⋅6 m is said to be maintained in the dredged
part; lesser depths are charted both in the dredged part of
the channel and within the harbour. Up-to-date information
should be sought from the port authority. See Admiralty
Tide Tables Volume 3 for Tanjung Gelang for tidal
information.
4
Traffic. In 2003 there were 1617 ship calls with a total
of 21 109 255 dwt.
Port Authority. Kuantan Port Authority, PO Box 161,
25720 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.
Arrival information
3.73
1
Port operations. The port operates on a full 24 hour
basis. In bad weather, most likely during the NE monsoon,
sea conditions at the harbour entrance may be such as to
cause the port to be closed until conditions improve. The
signals at 3.74 may be used.
2
The movement of vessels with a draught of more than
11 m is subject to tide. For the duration of the NE
monsoon an underkeel allowance of 3⋅5 m is required.
Port radio. There is a port radio station operating on
VHF.
Notice of ETA: 24 hours and at least 2 hours before
arrival.
3
Outer anchorages. Anchorages are designated on either
side of the approach channel; general, quarantine, and
petroleum NE; general, warship, and dangerous cargo SW.
Vessels up to 13 m draught can be accommodated, and the
holding ground, sand and mud, is good. However, the
anchorages are exposed during the NE monsoon.
CHAPTER 3
96
4
A dangerous wreck, the masts of which are visible, lies
within the NE general cargo anchorage. A light-buoy
(special) is laid close SW of this wreck.
Vessels awaiting a pilot may anchor E of the Fairway
Light-buoy (3°55′⋅5N, 103°29′⋅2E), and well clear of the
pilot boarding place, shown on the chart.
5
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in the
outer approaches to the approach channel and in the
approach channel itself; see chart.
Pilotage is compulsory, pilots boarding in the vicinity of
the Fairway Light-buoy.
6
In bad weather, pilots may board small vessels inside the
harbour.
Tugs are available.
Quarantine customs and excise. For quarantine
anchorage see chart. Appropriate signals are shown at
diagram 3.88. See also 1.24.
3.74
1
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Harbour
3.75
1
General layout. The harbour is formed by two main
basins which form an L orientated approximately
NNW/SSE. The entrance is at the foot of the L and is
protected from NE and E by a long breakwater extending
initally ENE, thence ESE and finally SSE. The Southern
Breakwater extends for 1 cable ENE from the shore to
form the W side of the SSE facing harbour entrance. Inside
the Southern Breakwater the small Naval Basin is further
protected by a breakwater extending N from the base of the
Southern Breakwater.
2
Development continues (2004) to provide further
container and chemical berths in the NNW basin.
Tidal stream. The stream sets predominantly N across
the entrance to the harbour at a rate of approximately 2 kn,
decreasing to seaward. A S set may be experienced after
heavy weather during the NE monsoon.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.150.
3
Principal marks.
Landmarks:
Bukit Pengorak (Pengorok) (3°59′N, 103°24′E)
(3.68).
Bukit Balok (3°59′N, 103°20′E) (3.68).
Major light:
Tanjung Gelang Light (3°57′⋅8N, 103°26′⋅3E)
(3.68).
Directions for entering harbour
3.76
1
Approach. Vessels approaching Pelabuhan Kuantan
should avoid Beting Gebing, a sand shoal which lies on a
shallow ridge 2 miles NE of Tanjung Gelang.
The Fairway Light-buoy (safe water) is moored about
3 miles SE of Tanjung Gelang and marks the seaward
entrance to the dredged approach channel, 220 m wide,
marked by light-buoys, which leads NW, between the
designated anchorages (3.73), to the harbour entrance.
2
Entrance − Leading lights. The alignment (311°) of the
entrance leading lights leads through the buoyed channel
and the harbour entrance:
Front light (red square on metal framework tower,
10 m in height) (3°58′⋅6N, 103°26′⋅0E);
Rear light (red square on metal framework tower,
30 m in height) (960 m NW from front light). A
red aircraft warning light is exhibited from the top.
3
About 5 cables after passing between the breakwater
heads the alignment (252°) of a second set of leading
lights leads through the SE basin:
Front light (red triangle on white beacon) (3°58′⋅2N,
103°25′⋅4E);
Rear light (on warehouse 130 m WSW from front
light).
4
Caution. Two obstructions and a dangerous wreck are
charted within the approach channel.
The rear light of the inner harbour leading lights has
been reported to be frequently obscured by stacked
containers.
5
Useful marks:
S breakwater head light (red beacon, 6 m in height)
(3°58′⋅1N, 103°26′⋅4E).
Inner breakwater head light (3°58′⋅2N, 103°26′⋅3E).
N breakwater light (green beacon, 6 m in height)
(3°58′⋅2N, 103°26′⋅6E). Additionally the N
breakwater is marked by five fixed blue lights at
250 m intervals.
Berths
3.77
1
Owing to the continuing development (2004), and lack
of current survey information, advice concerning berths
should be sought from the harbour authority.
In the SE basin there are bulk cargo berths on the S
wharf; container berths on the S and SW wharfs, and
chemical berths on the N wharf.
2
The NNW basin has chemical berths on the E side, with
further chemical berthing being developed on the N wharf.
Extension of the container handling facility is taking place
on the W side of the basin.
Both basins are reported to be dredged to 12⋅2 m.
Port services
3.78
1
Repairs: no facilities.
Other facilities: deratting; hospital and medical facilities
at Kuantan town (3.85); no oily waste disposal.
Supplies: fuel at Mineral Oil Berth or road at other
berths; fresh water at all berths; limited provisions from
Kuantan.
Communications: domestic and international flights
from Subang and Singapore, respectively 5 and 7 hours
distant by road. See also 3.85.
Kuantan town
Charts 770, 1379
General information
3.79
1
Kuantan town (3°49′N, 103°20′E) is located on the N
bank of Sungai Kuantan, close within the entrance; it is the
outlet for a considerable tin mining industry. Sungai
Kuantan is entered via Kuala Kuantan between Tanjung
Lumpur (3°48′N, 103°21′E) and Tanjung Api, 3 cables E.
2
Kuala Kuantan, the channel through the coastal bank to
the river entrance, is dredged to maintain a depth of 0⋅6 m
from April to September. It is marked by Outer Light-buoy
(starboard hand), moored 1 miles SW of Tanjung
Tembeling (3°48′N, 103°22′E), at its outer end, and by
Inner Light-buoy (port hand), moored 1 miles W of
Tanjung Tembeling, at its inner end. From November to
February the port is not used.
3
Caution. The channel is subject to frequent change,
particularly during the NE monsoon; leading lights,
light-buoys and buoys are moved with changes in the
channel.
CHAPTER 3
97
Outside anchorages
3.80
1
Anchorage outside the bar, with good holding ground,
may be obtained 8 cables SSE of Tanjung Tembeling
(3°48′N, 103°22′E), in depths of 9 m, mud and sand.
The anchorage shown on the chart, 2 miles SE of
Tanjung Tembeling, in depths of 12 m, is recommended for
ocean going vessels.
Directions
3.81
1
Approach. Vessels approaching Sungai Kuantan must
pass clear of the numerous shoals and obstructions which
lie offshore to the E; see chart. A dangerous wreck, marked
by a light-buoy (isolated danger), is charted 2⋅7 miles NE
from Tanjung Tembeling Light (3°48′N, 103°23′E) (3.68)
and a second dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies
close to the river entrance 1⋅9 miles SSW from the light.
3.82
1
Entrance. Local knowledge is required if it is intended
to attempt to enter Sungai Kuantan. No directions are given
here.
3.83
1
Useful marks, with positions from Tanjung Lumpur
(3°48′N, 103°21′E):
Water tank (3 cables S), is prominent.
Radio mast (red lights) (2 miles SW), position
approximate, is conspicuous.
Berths
3.84
1
Anchorage may be obtained S of Marine Jetty (below).
Alongside berths at Kuantan town:
Two T-headed oil jetties are situated on the N side of
Sungai Kuantan, one each side of the entrance to
Sungai Galing. The E jetty is 10 m in length, with
depths alongside of 5⋅5 m; and the W jetty is
6⋅7 m in length, with depths alongside of 5⋅8 m.
With the aid of mooring posts situated on the river
bank, both berths can accommodate vessels up to
46 m LOA.
2
Marine Jetty, the main wharf, is 43 m in length, with
depths alongside of 2⋅1 m, and depths a short
distance off of 4⋅9 m.
A private wharf, close SW of Marine Jetty, has
frontages of 50 and 13 m about 10 m apart, with
depths alongside of 3 m.
Harbour Master’s jetty, near Marine Jetty.
Port services
3.85
1
Other facilities: a small hospital.
Supplies: fresh water, at Marine Jetty; fresh provisions
in limited quantities.
Communications: airstrip 12 km WSW of Kuantan
town. See also 3.78.
Pelabuhan Kemaman
Charts 770, 1374
General information
3.86
1
Position. The area shown on the chart as Kuala
Kemaman Port (4°12′N, 103°30′E) includes within its limits
(see below) Pelabuhan Kemaman (4°15′N, 103°28′E) and
the river port and town of Chukai (4°14′N, 103°26′E)
(3.99), situated on the SW bank of Sungai Kemaman.
2
Function. Pelabuhan Kemaman functions as a supply
base for the offshore industry, and also has facilities for
handling bulk and general cargoes, and LPG.
Topography. From the coast, the land generally rises
gradually to a range of jungle-covered hills. Bukit Geliga
Che Akop (Akob), 2 miles N of Tanjung Geliga (4°10′N,
103°27′E), is visible from seaward.
3
The entrance to Sungai Kemaman is close W of Batu
Pejajat, which lies on the W side of Tanjung Mat Amin
(4°14′N, 103°27′E). Pelabuhan Kemaman lies between
Tanjung Sulung, 2 cables NE of Tanjung Mat Amin, and
Tanjung Berhala, a low promontory 1 miles farther NE.
4
Port limits extend N to latitude 4°16′⋅4N, S to latitude
4°08′⋅0N and E to the meridian of 103°34′⋅0E between
those latitudes; see chart.
Approach and entry. The port is approached from
seaward between anchorages to the SE and entered between
breakwaters at the NW end of a channel.
5
Traffic. In 2003 there were 517 ship calls with a total of
4 180 431 dwt.
Port Authority. Kemaman Port Authority, Teluk Kalong,
Peti Surat 66, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, Malaysia.
Limiting conditions
3.87
1
Controlling depth. The approach channels are dredged
to 18 m (1998).
Deepest and longest berth. East Wharf (3.97) has been
dredged to 17 m (1999) at its S end.
Mean tidal levels. For tidal information, see Admiralty
Tide Tables Volume 3 under Tanjung Berhala.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
150 000 dwt may be accommodated, although it is reported
larger vessels have been handled. The maximum allowable
draught is 16.4 m.
Arrival information
3.88
1
Port operations. The port is operational day and night,
however, LPG carriers are normally handled during the
hours of daylight only. See also Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4).
Notice of ETA. At least 24 hours in advance.
Outer anchorages. The designated anchorages, shown
on the chart as being rectangular in area, are (with
positions from Tanjung Berhala (4°15′N, 103°28′E)):
2
Supply vessels anchorage (1 miles SE).
Quarantine and deep draught anchorage (5 miles
ESE).
Explosives anchorage (5 miles E).
Tanker anchorage (4 miles SSE).
3
Pilotage is compulsory, except for offshore supply
vessels. The usual pilot boarding place for vessels with
draughts of less than 12⋅5 m is at the outer end of the
entrance channel in approximate position 4°13′N, 103°30′E.
Deeper draught vessels are boarded about 3 miles to the
SSE of this position; see chart. See also Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
4
Tugs are available. The use of tugs is compulsory for
vessels carrying LPG as a precaution against fire or
accident.
Quarantine. Vessels requesting free pratique may be
permitted to proceed direct to their berths, others will
always be boarded at the quarantine anchorage (see above).
Harbour
3.89
1
General layout. Pelabuhan Kemaman is roughly
rectangular, its long axis being N-S. The W and N sides
CHAPTER 3
98
are formed by the surrounding land, the entrance is in the
E and is protected to its NE by East Breakwater which
extends SE from North Breakwater which, in turn, extends
S from Tanjung Berhala (4°15′N, 103°28′E) to form the
NE side of the harbour. The S and SE sides of the harbour
are formed of a South Breakwater, which extends E then N
from Tanjung Sulung (4°14′⋅4N, 103°27′⋅7E); it is because
of the name of this point that the S part of the harbour,
which includes the LPG terminal, may sometimes be
referred to as Tanjung Sulung Port.
2
The principal features are the turning basin (3.95) in the
N part of the harbour; East Wharf (3.97), which is formed
of North Breakwater, the NE side of the harbour; the
supply vessels base (3.97) on the N side of the harbour;
and the LPG terminal (3.97) on the SW side of the
harbour.
Traffic signals
3.90
1
See 1.24.
Natural conditions
3.91
1
Tidal stream sets normally to the S during a rising tide
and to the N during the ebb.
Current sets predominantly to the S at a rate of 2 to
3 kn across the entrance channel during the NE monsoon.
Major light
3.92
1
Bukit Pejajat Light (4°14′⋅3N, 103°27′⋅4E) (3.68).
Directions
3.93
1
Approach. The seaward approaches to Pelabuhan
Kemaman are generally clear of dangers, except that larger
vessels should pass clear of Beting Karang Baharu (Baru)
(4°17′N, 103°33′E) (3.70), which extends N from the N
port limit.
Leading lights:
No 2 channel light-beacon (beacon on dolphin)
(4°13′⋅6N, 103°29′⋅2E);
2
Bukit Pejajat Light (4°14′⋅3N, 103°27′⋅4E) (3.68).
The alignment (291°) of these lights leads through the
outer dredged channel from the outer pilot boarding point
(3.88).
Caution. It has been reported that numerous fishing
stakes and fixed nets are to be found within Kuala
Kemaman port limits, including in way of the anchorages.
3.94
1
Useful marks:
East approach beacon (4°12′⋅7N, 103°32′⋅1E).
North approach beacon (4°13′⋅1N, 103°31′⋅2E).
South approach beacon (4°12′⋅9N, 103°29′⋅9E).
3.95
1
Entrance. Two sets of beacons lead through the
entrance channel, also marked on both sides by
light-beacons.
Front light, No 8 (white triangle, red stripe, on
framework tower) (4°15′⋅0N, 103°27′⋅7E);
Rear light, No 10 (inverted white triangle, red stripe,
on framework tower) (457 m NW from front
light).
2
The alignment (310°) of these lights for 1⋅9 miles leads
between Nos 1 and 2 Light-beacons.
Front light, No 7 (white triangle, red stripe, on
framework tower) (4°15′⋅4N, 103°27′⋅8E);
Rear light, No 9 (inverted white triangle, red stripe,
on framework tower) (210 m NW from front light,
No 7).
3
The alignment (327°) of these lights for about 1 mile
leads into the turning basin.
Vessels may be swung in the turning basin, charted
depth 17 m (1998), so as to berth bows out, as is the
custom of the port.
4
Caution. Shoal patches lie to the SW of the channel
between South approach beacon (3.94) and No 2 channel
beacon (3.93); see chart.
A bank extends 4 cables SSE from East Breakwater
head, and a rock, Batu Belacan (9 cables ENE), lies near
the S extremity of the bank; see chart.
3.96
1
Useful marks. With positions from Tanjung Berhala
(4°15′N, 103°28′E):
Chimney (red light) (6 cables NW).
Tanks at LPG terminal (1 miles SW); they are
reported to be painted white, and to be prominent
from seaward. A flare tower stands close S of the
tanks.
Alongside berths
3.97
1
The LPG terminal jetty, 320 m in length, is orientated
NE-SW at the head of a pier that extends E into the
harbour. Lights are exhibited from dolphins at the ends of
the jetty. The jetty can accommodate vessels up to 60 000
dwt, with depths alongside of 15 m. Whilst the jetty is
primarily used to export LPG, it is sometimes used by oil
tankers.
2
The Liquid Chemical Berth, close N of the LPG
terminal, 240 m in length, can accommodate vessels of
40 000 dwt with a draught of 11⋅4 m.
West Wharf, where dry bulk cargoes are handled, total
length of 650 m with depths alongside of 15 m, can handle
vessels of up to 150 000 dwt.
3
Kemamam Supply Base, on the N side of the harbour,
has five berths along a wharf 360 m in length, with
maximum depth alongside of 8 m.
4
East Wharf, with four multi-purpose berths, is 645 m in
length with depths alongside berths 1 and 2 at the S end of
17 m and 14 m alongside berths 3 and 4 at the N end. The
wharf is situated on the W side of North Breakwater and
can accommodate vessels up to 220 000 dwt. It is used for
handling containers and general and bulk cargoes,
especially steel billets, scrap iron and other raw materials
for local industry.
Port services
3.98
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Other facilities: hospital and medical facilities at
Chukai (3.99), distant about 7 km; no oily waste facilities.
Supplies: marine diesel by road tanker; fresh water;
provisions and stores from Chukai and Kuantan (3.85).
2
Communications: Kertih airport is about 40 km to the
N and Kuantan airport about 90 km to the S.
Harbour regulations: a tug is required to standby in
case of accident whilst a vessel is at the LPG jetty.
CHAPTER 3
99
At East Wharf the use of the garbage collection service
is compulsory; drums are provided as part of the service.
Chukai
General information
3.99
1
Chukai (4°14′N, 103°26′E) is an important town situated
on the SW bank of Sungai Kemaman. Except during the
NE monsoon, when the working of cargoes is often
impracticable, iron ore is exported through Chukai by
lighter to vessels at anchor outside the river entrance. The
river is navigable by large boats for a distance of 30 to
40 miles.
3.100
1
Local knowledge is required, especially if entering at
low water.
Directions
3.101
1
Approaches. As for Pelabuhan Kemamam, including the
caution. See 3.93.
Entrance. Boats can cross the bar at all states of tide,
and vessels with draughts of 2⋅4 m can enter the river, but
depths on the bar vary. It is impassable when a heavy swell
is running.
2
Kuala Kemaman, the entrance channel to Sungai
Kemaman, is first marked by outer leading lights on the
shore close S of the W entrance point, and then by inner
leading lights on the N side of the entrance.
Front light, No 1 (white diamond on white wooden
framework tower) (4°14′⋅2N, 103°26′⋅8E);
3
Rear light, No 2 (white diamond on white wooden
framework tower) (55 m WNW from front light).
The alignment (288°), approximately (see caution
below), of these lights leads across the outer bar.
Front light, No 3 (triangle, on white pillar) (4°14′⋅5N,
103°27′⋅0E);
4
Rear light, No 4 (inverted triangle, on white pillar on
piles) (180 m NNW from front light).
The alignment (340°), approximately (see caution
below), of these lights leads into the river.
Caution. Both these sets of leading lights are moved as
necessary so that they lead in the best water.
A dangerous wreck lies on the bar; see chart. Rocks are
also charted on the E side of the entrance to the river.
Berths
3.102
1
Anchorages. There are designated anchorages off
Pelabuhan Kemaman (3.88). In addition, vessels loading
iron ore from lighters may anchor ESE of the entrance to
Sungai Kemaman, close outside the 10 m depth contour.
2
Alongside berths.
At Chukai: a small T-headed jetty, length 30 m,
depth alongside 1⋅8 m.
At Kampung Kemaman, a large fishing village on the
S entrance point of Sungai Kemaman: a wooden
pier, dilapidated when last reported.
Port services
3.103
1
Facilities: doctor and hospital.
Supplies: provisions available.
Kertih
Charts 770, 1374
General information
3.104
1
Position. The port of Kertih (Kerteh) is located in the
vicinity of Tanjung Batu Lata (4°33′N, 103°28′E), an unlit
point which lies between Tanjung Labuhan (Labohan),
1⋅8 miles to the S, and Tanjung Pilur (3.71), 6⋅7 miles to
the N.
2
Functions. The port of Kertih includes Kertih Terminal
(3.114), which is an offshore oil terminal; Kertih Port
Marine Terminal (3.119), a modern and developing
petrochemical terminal; and the village of Kertih (31°31′N,
103°27′E), which lies on the S side of the entrance to
Sungai Kertih (3.123).
3
Topography. The coast between Tanjung Batu Lata and
Tanjung Labuhan is rocky and backed by jungle.
Port limits are, in the N, latitude 4°37′N; in the S,
latitude 4°30′N; and in the E, the meridian of 103°33′E
between those latitudes.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 430 ship calls with a total of
14 623 015 dwt.
Local weather
3.105
1
Rapidly developed local squalls, sometimes severe and
with little or no warning, can affect vessels at anchor.
Arrival information
3.106
1
Port operations. The terminal (3.114) and marine
terminal (3.119) operate 24 hours with berthing and
unberthing at any time, subject to weather.
Vessel traffic service. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4). Radar surveillance is maintained
within 24 miles of the port.
Notice of ETA: 72 hours with updates thereafter.
3.107
1
Outer anchorage. There is a designated deep water
anchorage area, 2 miles square, centred at position 4°31′N,
103°33′E for vessels waiting to berth at the terminal
(3.114). The holding ground is poor. During adverse
weather conditions, because of the poor holding ground,
vessels waiting to anchor or berth may remain underway
within 5 to 10 miles of the coast, maintaining VHF contact
with Kertih Marine Control.
2
A second designated deep water anchorage is established
some 2 miles NNE of Kertih Port Marine Terminal for
vessels waiting to berth alongside; see chart.
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited within
the area shown on the chart, which encompasses the buoy
mooring area, owing to the presence of submarine pipelines
and cables.
3.108
1
Pilotage is compulsory for berthing and for the N
anchorage, and is undertaken by the mooring masters. The
pilot boarding places are:
No 1, in position 4°36′⋅9N, 103°31′⋅0E.
No 2, in position 4°34′⋅0N, 103°33′⋅0E.
2
Pilots may also board at the S anchorage, and during the
NE monsoon they may embark 12 miles E of Tanjung
Penunjok (4°20′N, 103°30′E). See also Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs are available.
3.109
1
Restricted area. A restricted area, shown on the chart,
bounded by the shoreline and by straight lines joining
positions 4°34′N, 103°28′E; 4°37′N, 103°31′E; 4°32′N,
CHAPTER 3
100
103°33′E; 4°32′N, 103°31′E and 4°33′N, 103°28′E. Vessels
may not enter the restricted area unless in charge of a pilot
(3.108).
Harbour
3.110
1
Current. During the NE monsoon the current normally
sets S at a rate of to 1 kn: when winds are strong the
rate may reach 2 kn or more. In combination with a flood
stream the rate may reach 3 kn.
During the SW monsoon the current sets N, but less
strongly.
Major lights
3.111
1
Tanjung Labuhan Light (4°31′⋅3N, 103°28′⋅3E) (3.68).
Tanjung Dungun Light (4°47′⋅0N, 103°26′⋅4E) (3.68).
Directions
3.112
1
Approach. The approaches to the port of Kertih from
seaward are clear of dangers.
Useful marks:
Bukit Labuhan (Labohan) (4°32′N, 103°28′E) (3.68).
2
Kertih Terminal Marine Control Tower Light (metal
framework tower, 35 m in height) (4°34′N,
103°28′E).
Breakwater South Light (4°35′⋅1N, 103°28′⋅2E).
Breakwater North Light (4°36′⋅0N, 103°27′⋅9E).
3.113
1
Entry to Kertih Terminal is strictly controlled; see
3.116. In view of this control, no directions are given. The
following is for guidance only:
A light-buoy (pillar; safe water) (4°32′N, 103°34′E) is
moored at the NE corner of the deep water
anchorage. A second light-buoy (pillar; special) is
moored at the NE corner of the restricted area
(3.109), 5 miles NNW of the first.
2
Paton Bank (4°32′⋅3N, 103°31′⋅1E), a shoal of coarse
sand, very steep-to on its seaward side, is marked
by Paton Bank Light-buoy (port hand), moored
5 cables NE of it.
3
Lights are exhibited from each of the buoy moorings
in the restricted area (3.109). Inshore of these
moorings, for the benefit of deep draught tankers,
three danger line light-buoys, N1, N2 and N3,
(pillar; special) are moored approximately 1000 m
apart on the 15 m depth contour. Two further
light-buoys (pillar; special), N4 and N5, lie to the
S a short distance clear to seaward of the 15 m
contour.
4
The breakwater (4°35′⋅5N, 103°28′⋅0E) off Kertih Port
Marine Terminal is marked by light-beacons close
NE and SE of its extremities; see 3.112.
(Directions continue for
Kertih Port Marine Terminal at 3.120)
Kertih Terminal
General information
3.114
1
Position. Located offshore of position 4°34′N, 103°28′E,
Kertih Terminal consists of three SBMs served by
submarine oil pipelines emanating from the nearby shore.
Pipelines are laid ENE from the shore terminal to Tapis
Oilfield (2.82) and Sotong Collector platform (2.80).
3.115
1
Approach and entry. Kertih Terminal is approached
from seaward, and entered from the vicinity of one of the
pilot boarding places (3.108), or from the anchorage
(3.107), under the guidance of Kertih Marine Control and
in charge of a pilot.
Regulations concerning entry.
3.116
1
Strict criteria govern the type and size of vessels which
may use each of the buoy moorings, and the conditions
under which they may operate, with particular emphasis
being placed on safety and anti-pollution measures.
In order to ensure compliance with the regulations prior
knowledge of them is required. Mooring masters and
loading controllers, as well as other officials, will board
vessels on arrival, and many will remain onboard until
departure.
Berths
3.117
1
With positions from Kertih Terminal Marine Control
Tower Light (4°34′N, 103°28′E):
SALM No 2 (2 miles ESE), a yellow and black
striped single anchor leg mooring for loading crude
oil, suitable for vessels from 40 000 to
250 000 dwt, and maximum loaded draught
20⋅4 m.
2
SALM No 1 (2 miles ENE), a yellow and black
striped single anchor leg mooring for loading crude
oil, suitable for vessels from 40 000 to
250 000 dwt, and maximum loaded draught
17⋅4 m.
3
Petronas SBM (1 miles NE), an orange single buoy
mooring for loading petroleum products from a
refinery ashore, suitable for vessels from 15 000
to 85 000 dwt (partially loaded), and maximum
loaded draught 11⋅1 m.
Port services
3.118
1
There are no services other than emergency medical
facilities.
Kertih Port Marine Terminal
General information
3.119
1
Kertih Port Marine Terminal is located in the vicinity of
position 4°36′N, 103°28′E. Constructed between 1993 and
1999, and intended to serve the local petrochemical
industry, the terminal now consists of a T-headed jetty with
six berths capable of accommodating gas carriers with
capacities of up to 10 000 m
3
and oil tankers of up to
40 000 dwt, the whole being protected by a breakwater,
approximately 8 cables in length, lying parallel to the
shore.
2
The port area covering the S three berths is dredged to
12⋅2 m (1998) and the area covering the N three berths is
dredged to 9⋅7 m (1998).
The port lies within the restricted area (3.109).
Directions
3.120
1
Approach. See 3.112.
Entry (south of breakwater). From a position E of the
S end of the breakwater, a set of beacons lead S of the
breakwater:
Front light (4°34′⋅8N, 103°27′⋅7E);
Rear light (730 m WSW from front light).
CHAPTER 3
101
2
The alignment (241°) of these lights leads SSE of the
Breakwater South Light (3.112).
The white sector of a multi-sector light exhibited from
the shore (4°35′⋅5N, 103°27′⋅5E) visible from the SE
indicates the centre of the NW approach towards the S
berths within the dredged area. Red conical light-boys mark
the inshore limit of the dredged area.
3
Two light beacons (triangular topmarks), one close
inshore from the centre of the breakwater and the other on
the jetty close E of berth B3 mark the N limit of the
deeper dredged area.
4
Entry (north of breakwater). From a position NNE of
the N end of the breakwater, the white sector of a
multi-sector light exhibited from the beacon described
above and visible from the NNE indicates the centre of the
SSW approach towards the N berths, passing NW of
Breakwater North Light (3.112). A green conical light-buoy
marks the inshore limit of the dredged area on the
alignment of the white sector light.
Berths
3.121
1
The designated berths can accommodate vessels as
follows:
Berth Max LOA Max dwt Max draught
B1 130 m 10 000 8 m
B2 140 m 10 000 8 m
B3 140 m 10 000 8 m
B4 170 m 30 000 10⋅5 m
B5 130 m 10 000 8 m
B6 210 m 40 000 10⋅5 m
Port services
3.122
1
Facilities: medical facilities and garbage disposal are
available.
Supplies: fresh water at berths; no fuel.
Sungai Kertih
General information
3.123
1
Kuala Kertih (4°31′N, 103°27′E), the entrance channel to
Sungai Kertih, has a bar liable to change, and at the
entrance to the river the channel dries 0⋅3 m. A light
beacon (red square, white beacon) (4°30′⋅9N, 103°27′⋅3E)
stands on the S side of the entrance to the river.
2
Across the bar boatwork is often difficult, and a rowing
boat should be used near the time of LW.
The village of Kertih lies 4 cables within the entrance
on the S bank of Sungai Kertih.
Anchorage
3.124
1
Anchorage may be obtained, in a suitable depth, in good
holding ground, sand and shell, to the E of Kuala Kertih.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 770
Caution
3.125
1
See 3.13 concerning the need for local knowledge.
Sungai Terus
3.126
1
General information. Sungai Terus (Sungai Pahang
Tua) (3°37′N, 103°24′E) enters the sea 6 miles NW of
Kuala Pahang (3.59). The mouth of the river is blocked by
a constantly changing sand-bar, but, with caution, small
boats can enter at most states of the tide.
Sungai Penor
3.127
1
General information. Sungai Penor, which enters the
sea 2 miles N of Sungai Terus (3.126), has a constantly
changing bar and is navigable only by boats.
The beach between Sungai Penor and Sungai Kuantan
(3.79), 10 miles NNW, is used by motor transport, except
for 2 hours either side of HW.
Besarah
3.128
1
General information. The village of Besarah stands on
the coast 1 miles N of Tanjung Pelindong (3°50′N,
103°23′E).
Anchorage during the SW monsoon may be obtained, in
depths of 8 m (26 ft), 7 cables offshore.
Sungai Balok
3.129
1
General information. A light (fishing) is exhibited from
a structure standing at the entrance to Sungai Balok
(3°56′N, 103°22′E), and Batu Balok, an above-water rock,
lies 1 miles SE of that entrance.
Sungai Ular
3.130
1
General information. Sungai Ular enters the sea
7 miles SSW of Tanjung Geliga (4°10′N, 103°27′E). The
large fishing village of Kampung Sungai Ular is situated on
the S bank of the river, with a few huts on the N bank.
Sungai Cherating
3.131
1
General information. Sungai Cherating enters the sea
4 miles SW of Tanjung Geliga (4°10′N, 103°27′E).
Kampung Cherating, a large fishing village, is situated
between its E bank and Tanjung Cherating, 7 cables ENE.
Bukit Cherating rises 1 mile N of Tanjung Cherating, and
Tanjung Batu Pak Mok is the adjacent point, 6 cables NE.
Sungai Paka
3.132
1
General information. Sungai Paka enters the sea close
SW of Tanjung Pilur (4°39′N, 103°27′E) and the fishing
village of Paka lies on the S side of the river, 1 mile from
its entrance.
CHAPTER 3
102
2
The bar across the entrance to Sungai Paka can be
crossed by motor launches 1 hour either side of HW
springs, at which time there is a depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) over
it. Launches can proceed to Kampung Rasau, 20 miles
upstream, during the period between HW and 3 hours
afterwards, but it is advisable to take a pilot.
Anchorage can be obtained, in depths of 4 m (13 ft),
off Paka village.
Kuala Dungun
3.133
1
General information. Kuala Dungun (4°46′⋅5N,
103°25′⋅0E), as well as being the name of the approach
from seaward to Sungai Dungun, is also the name of the
town on the S side of the river, close inside the entrance. It
has a small commercial cargo port. The town serves both
the community of the port and the iron ore mines at Bukit
Besi, 35 km inland, to which it is connected by a light
railway.
2
Port limits. The limits of the port are, in the N, latitude
4°47′N; in the S, latitude 4°42′N; and in the E, the
meridian of 103°028′⋅2E between those latitudes.
Port Authority. Dungun Port Authority, Port Office,
Dungun, Terengganu State, Malaysia
3
Pilotage inwards is compulsory for vessels anchoring off
Sura Jetty.
Principal marks:
Landmark:
Bukit Bauk (4°42′N, 103°25′E) (3.68).
Major light:
Tanjung Dungun Light (4°47′⋅0N, 103°26′⋅4E) (3.68).
3.134
1
Directions. Coastal vessels of less than 200 tons and
with a draught up to 2 m can cross the bar; vessels up to
500 tons and a draught of 2⋅7 m may do so on spring
tides. With the exceptions of Pulau Tenggol and its
adjacent islands (3.137) lying 15 miles E of Tanjung
Dungun, and the dangerous wreck, position approximate,
7 miles NNE of it, the approaches are free of dangers.
2
If entering or navigating in Sungai Dungun local
knowledge is required.
Boat work is difficult over the outer part of the bar. On
an out-going stream, a SE wind causes a confused sea. The
sandbanks over the bar and in the entrance are liable to
frequent change. A mooring buoy lies in the approach to
the river mouth, 3 cables S of Tanjung Dungun.
3
There are no aids to navigation for passage over the bar,
but the best approach is from the SE to pass midway
between the SW part of Tanjung Dungun and the W
entrance point of Sungai Dungun.
Having entered the river, navigation by boat is possible
for several miles. The channels are indicated by pairs of
leading beacons which are moved according to changes in
the channel; there are many mud banks to be avoided.
4
Useful marks:
A light at the S entrance point of the river (white
post) (4°46′⋅7N, 103°25′⋅8E).
Beacon (rectangle on white beacon) on the SE slope
of Bukit Pak Sabah, a hill, not shown on the chart,
1 mile WNW from Sura Jetty. The beacon is used
as a rear mark by vessels berthing at the jetty.
3.135
1
Anchorages. Sura Jetty, situated 1 miles S of the W
entrance point of Sungai Dungun, is a jetty from which
iron ore is exported when the weather is calm. Vessels of
over 35 000 dwt can anchor off, and iron ore is carried to
them in lighters from the jetty. Numerous mooring buoys
for lighters lie 3 cables off the jetty, and off a rest-house
located 6 cables NNW of it. However, lack of shelter
means that shipment is possible only during the SW
monsoon.
2
Larger vessels anchor off Sura Jetty, in depths of 11 to
13 m (36 to 43 ft), soft mud and sand, 1 to 1 miles E
of the jetty.
Small craft may anchor, in depths of 7 m (23 ft), with
good holding ground, 9 cables SSW of Tanjung Dungun.
3.136
1
Port services:
Repairs: emergency repairs only.
Other facilities: small hospital.
Supplies: fresh water; fresh provisions in limited
quantities.
Pulau Tenggol
3.137
1
General information. Pulau Tenggol (4°48′N, 103°41′E)
is densely wooded. It has three main summits, the N and
centre of which are divided into two peaks. On the W side
is a small sandy bay, but elsewhere the coast is steep and
rocky, with considerable depths off the points. The interior
of Pulau Tenggol is rocky and covered by thick jungle;
numerous types of snakes and wild animals abound. The
island is uninhabited except, occasionally, by a few
fishermen.
2
An old tower (white framework structure; 6 m in
height) stands on the E extremity of the island.
3
Batu Tokong Daik, a bare rock, lies 7 cables S of Pulau
Tenggol; the channel between appears to be clear of
dangers. Pulau Nyireh, lying 2 miles NNW Pulau Tenggol,
has two summits, the N summit being the higher; the coast
is steep, and a rock which dries and an underwater rock
lie, respectively, 1 cable NW and 3 cables E of the N
point of the island. Pulau Tokong Burong, a steep-to, bare
rock, lies 1 mile N of Pulau Nyireh; two small, steep-to
rocks lie, respectively, 1 cables NW and 8 cables ESE of
Pulau Tokong Burong.
4
Anchorage can be obtained, in depths of 47 m (26 fm),
off the sandy bay on the W side of Pulau Tenggol,
3 cables N of its S entrance point. The approach to the
anchorage is reportedly clear of dangers.
The best landing place at all states of the tide is close to
some rocks on the beach in the NE corner of this bay;
elsewhere, boats may approach to within a few metres of
the sandy shore, but at low water they are impeded by a
coral reef.
Pulau Kapas
3.138
1
General information. Pulau Kapas (5°13′N, 103°16′E)
is densely wooded and is inhabited by fishermen. Foul
ground extends a short distance from the SW side of the
islet; another islet, Pulau Gumia lies 1 cable N of Pulau
Kapas. A shoal, 5 cables W of Pulau Kapas, lies on the
bank connecting Pulau Kapas to the mainland.
Anchorage. With local knowledge, it is reported to
afford good anchorage during the NE monsoon.
Charts 770, 771
Terengganu
3.139
1
General information. Terengganu (Trengganu) (5°20′N,
103°09′E) has a natural harbour at the mouth of Sungai
Terengganu (Trengganu), entered between Tanjung Takir in
the N and Tanjung Luan in the S. The town is mainly
situated on the S entrance point and is a main fishing port.
CHAPTER 3
103
Terengganu harbour is within the limits of the port of
Kuala Terengannu, shown on chart 770, which encompass
the port at Tanjung Chenering (3.71), as well as Kuala
Marang, 3 miles farther S.
2
The port limits are; in the N, latitude 5°22′⋅0N from the
coast to longitude 103°11′⋅0E; thence SSE to position
5°13′⋅3N, 103°15′⋅9E on the W side of Pulau Kapas; thence
SSE along the W side of Pulau Kapas to its S most point;
thence W to the coast in position 5°12′⋅0N, 103°13′⋅2E.
3.140
1
Pilotage. The pilot boarding place is within an area of
1 mile radius from Fairway Light-buoy (spherical; safe
water) (5°21′⋅4N, 103°09′⋅7E). This is also the designated
anchorage area for vessels awaiting a pilot.
3.141
1
Tidal streams. Strong eddies and sets may be
experienced in the inner harbour, except at slack water, and
the channels are liable to change without warning.
3.142
1
Principal marks:
Landmark:
Bukit Puteri Lighthouse (5°20′⋅2N, 103°08′⋅3E) is
conspicuous.
Major light:
Bukit Puteri Light (5°20′⋅2N, 103°08′⋅3E) (3.68).
3.143
1
Directions. During the NE monsoon, it is often difficult
to enter harbour. A bar, with depths of less than 1⋅5 m
(5 ft) over it, forms on the coastal bank to the E of the
entrance; see chart. However, the channel is liable to
change, both in depth and direction, and specific directions
cannot, therefore, be given.
2
Over the bar the navigable channel is marked by buoys,
and depths decrease from 9 m (29 ft) at the entrance to
less than 2 m (6 ft) at the inner end of the buoyed
channel. Drying rocks, marked by beacons (white spherical
topmarks), lie S of the channel, 1 cable NW of Bukit
Puteri Light (5°20′⋅2N, 103°08′⋅3E) (3.68).
3.144
1
Useful marks:
Bukit Besar (5°18′⋅4N, 103°08′⋅1E), a hill surmounted
by radio masts (lighted).
Taman Syahbandar Light (white round GRP tower)
(5°20′⋅3N, 103°08′⋅4E).
2
Pulau Duyong Light (white wooden framework tower)
(5°20′⋅3N, 103°07′⋅9E).
No 4 Light (white concrete pile) (5°20′⋅1N,
103°08′⋅0E).
Light (white square on white wooden framework
tower) (5°20′⋅5N, 103°08′⋅0E).
3.145
1
Anchorages. For vessels awaiting a pilot, see 3.140.
Anchorage outside the bar may be obtained, in depths
of 9 m (30 ft), sand, with Bukit Puteri Light
(3.68) bearing 243°, distant 1 miles, but it is
exposed to winds from seaward which send in a
heavy swell.
2
With local knowledge, there is good anchorage for
small vessels, in depths of 4 m (13 ft), just within
the harbour entrance.
3.146
1
Prohibited anchorages:
Anchorage is prohibited on a line, the ends of which
are marked by beacons, shown on the chart,
between Tanjung Takir and the front of the town.
2
Anchorage is also prohibited in way of a pipeline,
shown on the chart, running between the W side
of the town and the shore of the island, Pulau
Duyong Besar, 3 cables due W of it, and marked
on either shore by a notice-board.
3.147
1
Berths:
There is a landing jetty at the town, which dries out
up to 3 m at LW; at HW boats drawing up to
0⋅6 m (2 ft) can berth alongside.
Between the town and a point 1 miles upstream
there are four private jetties with depths of 3⋅7 m
alongside.
3.148
1
Port services:
Facilities: hospital.
Supplies: diesel fuel and petrol at two of the private
jetties and by road tanker; fresh water at one of
the private jetties; fresh provisions.
Communications: Terengganu airport 5 km NW from
Tanjung Takir.
TERENGGANU TO TUMPAT
General information
Chart 771, 3961
Description
3.149
1
This section comprises the coast from N of Terengganu
(5°20′N, 103°09′E) (3.139) to Malaysia’s border with
Thailand close NW of Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E) (3.167),
including the ports, offshore islands, and dangers.
Topography
3.150
1
Practically the whole length of the coastline in this
section is low, sandy and featureless, intersected
occasionally by rivers, and backed in places by numerous
lagoons and light forest, but with a range of hills, with
many peaks, running behind the coast about 17 miles
inland; the highest peak being Gunung Lawit (Bukit Batil)
(5°25′N, 102°35′E). This range subsides N of latitude 6°N,
leaving only the occasional hill within range of the coast
thereafter.
3.151
1
Pulau Redang (5°47′N, 103°01′E) (3.160) is the largest
of the islands in this section. A number of islets, of which
Pulau Penang is the largest, lie close off the S and E of
Pulau Redang.
3.152
1
Other islands lie SSE and W from Pulau Redang, of
which the main ones are, with positions from Pulau Penang
Light (5°45′N, 103°00′E):
CHAPTER 3
104
Pulau Bidong Laut (8 miles SSE). The island is
thickly wooded and has several small bays with
sandy beaches on its W and SW sides.
2
Pulau Lang Tengah (6 miles NW), with an
elevation of 127 m (417 ft charted as 520 ft), is
heavily wooded, and cultivated in places.
3.153
1
Pulau Perhentian Besar (5°55′N, 102°45′E) (3.164) with
Pulau Perhentian Kechil close W of it, separated from it by
a narrow channel, are the other two significant islands
along this coast.
Some further small islands, including Pulau Susu Dara
lie NW from Pulau Perhentian Kechil.
Depths
3.154
1
The 35 m (20 fm) depth contour encompasses all the
islands and shoals along this stretch of the coast, diverging
from the coast as it runs from S to N, and at no time
approaching closer than 7 miles to it. The 10 m (6 fm)
depth contour follows the coastline more closely, being
never more than 4 miles off, and within about 1 mile for
much of its length.
Principal marks
3.155
1
Landmarks. The following summits are identifiable
along the more N stretch of this coastline:
Bukit Batu Meninjau (Maninjau) (5°51′N, 102°16′E).
Bukit Panau (5°54′N, 102°11′E).
Bukit Gunong (5°59′N, 102°21′E).
Bukit Marak (6°02′N, 102°19′E).
2
Major lights:
Bukit Puteri Light (5°20′⋅2N, 103°08′⋅3E) (3.68).
Sungai Golok Light (6°14′⋅2N, 102°05′⋅5E) (3.68).
Other aids to navigation
3.156
1
Racon: Sungai Golok Lighthouse — as above.
Directions
(continued from 3.71)
3.157
1
From a position ENE of Terengganu (5°20′N, 103°09′E)
(3.139) the coastal route continues NNW for about
27 miles, then on a NW track for approximately 58 miles,
to a position NE of Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E) (3.167),
passing (with positions from Tanjung Basi, the N point of
Pulau Perhentian Besar (5°55′N, 102°45′E)):
2
ENE of Batu Rakit (33 miles SSE), a small group
of low rocks about 3 cables off Kampung Batu
Rakit, in the vicinity of which, unusually along
this stretch of coastline, high land approaches the
coast. A light (white concrete pile) is exhibited
from Batu Rakit. A dangerous wreck, position
approximate (35 miles SE), lies 19 miles off the
coast. Thence:
3
ENE of Tanjung Merang (25 miles SSE), from
where a light (white square on white mast, 6 m in
height) is exhibited. Kuala Merang, 1 miles W
of the light, gives access to Kampung Merang.
Batu Rusa and Batu Tengah lie about 2 miles
ENE of Tanjung Merang. Farther ENE lies Pulau
Bidong Laut with other smaller islands N, E and S
from it. All are steep-to. Thence:
4
Clear of Batu Barat (21 miles SE), high and partially
wooded, from where a light is exhibited. Three
isolated above-water rocks with deep water round
them, lie 8 cables NW of Batu Barat; and Hafther
Rock with depths of less than 2 m (6 ft) over it,
lies on the edge of the bank, 7 cables SE of Batu
Barat. Thence:
5
ENE of Kuala Setiu Baharu (17 miles S), an inlet in
the coast. Kuala Setiu Light (red square on white
framework tower, 8 m in height) stands on a
fishing tower situated on the coast 2 miles NW of
the inlet. Pulau Chipu, a prominent islet covered
with coarse scrub, and surrounded by shallow
water, lies 5 miles E of Kuala Setiu Light. Two
small coral patches, Dickson Shoal and Baker
Shoal, lie respectively 3 miles ESE and
3 miles NNW of Pulau Chipu. Farther ENE lie
Pulau Redang (16 miles SE) (3.160) and the small
islets close SE of it. A light (metal framework
tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from Pulau
Penang. Pulau Lang Tengah (11 miles SE) and a
dangerous wreck, position approximate, (31 miles
E) lie, respectively, 6 miles W and 14 miles ENE
from Pulau Redang.
3.158
1
Passage continues NE of Pulau Ru (Rhu) (10 miles
WSW), a small island 1 miles offshore. The adjacent
islands of Pulau Perhentian Kechil and Pulau Perhentian
Besar (3.164) lie ENE of Pulau Ru. Pulau Perhentian Besar
Light (white pedestal on rock) (2 miles SSW) is
exhibited from the SW point of the island and Seabelle
Rock Light-beacon (white column on piles) (3 miles WSW)
is exhibited from the rock of that name close W of Pulau
Perhentian Kechil. Thence:
2
NE of Sungai Besut Light (white metal tripod, 11 m
in height, fishing), exhibited from the S entrance
point to Sungai Besut (3.162), 2 miles W of
Pulau Ru. A dangerous wreck, position
approximate, marked by a light-buoy (pillar,
isolated danger) lies 5 miles NE of Sungai Besut
Light. Thence:
3
NE of Kuala Semerak (15 miles WSW), the
entrance to Sungai Semerak (3.163). Kuala
Semerak Light (white wooden tower, 14 m in
height) is exhibited from the S entrance point of
Sungai Semerak and Tok Bali Light is exhibited
from a position on the coast 2 miles farther NW.
The islets of Pulau Serenggeh, Pulau Susu Dara
and Pulau Rawa (5 miles NW) lie approximately
10 miles ENE of Kuala Semerak. Thence:
4
NE of Bachok (23 miles NW) (3.165), a small town
from where a light (white square on tower) is
exhibited. Churchill Patches (12 miles NNW),
sand and shell, lie 14 miles off Bachok. Thence:
NE of Kuala Kemasin (26 miles NW), the entrance
to Sungai Kemasin. Kemasin Light (white tower)
is exhibited off the mouth of Sungai Kemasin.
Thence:
5
NE of Kampung Sabak (29 miles NW), situated
close NW of the entrance to Sungai Peng Datu. A
light (white rectangle on aluminium framework
tower, 15 m in height) is exhibited at Kampung
Sabak, and Pengkalan Datu South Breakwater
Light (white GRP tower, 14 m in height) is
exhibited from the head of the breakwater,
CHAPTER 3
105
1 miles SE. Shoal patches, with depths of 2⋅4 m
(8 ft) over them, have been reported to exist
1 mile NNE of Sabak Light; a wreck with a least
depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) over it lies 3 miles NNE of
the same light. Thence:
6
NE of the entrances to Sungai Kelantan (37 miles
NW) (3.167). The W entrance is also that used for
Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E) (3.167). Discoloured
water may be encountered several miles to seaward
of the entrance to Sungai Kelantan. Thence to a
position NE of Tumpat.
(Directions continue at 4.23)
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 771
Caution
3.159
1
See 3.13 concerning the need for local knowledge.
Pulau Redang
3.160
1
General information. Pulau Redang (5°47′N, 103°01′E)
has its highest point, with an elevation of 358 m (1174 ft,
charted as 1249 ft), towards the N of the island. The island
is thickly wooded and moderately steep-to on all sides. A
valley which connects Teluk Dalam, in the NE, with Pulau
Redang Harbour, in the SSW, divides the island and, at a
distance, gives it the appearance of two islands.
2
Teluk Dalam, the bay on the NE side of Pulau Redang
(5°47′N, 103°01′E), has thickly wooded sides. The head of
the bay comprises two sandy beaches backed by palm trees
and separated by a prominent rocky outcrop above which
there is a thickly wooded hill. The E of the two beaches
provides excellent landing, as does the W beach, where a
small fishing community lives in about six huts. Water may
be obtained from a brackish swamp lake behind the beach,
but it is not recommended for drinking. The bay is free of
dangers except at the W end where a rock which dries
stands close offshore.
3
Anchorage. Medium sized vessels may obtain safe
anchorage in Teluk Dalam. The prominent rocky outcrop at
the head of the bay should be steered for on a bearing of
200° and the vessel anchored, in fine coral sand, on this
bearing in a convenient depth. The holding ground has
been reported to be especially good at the seaward end of
the bay, where the bottom is of hard sand or clay.
3.161
1
Pulau Redang Harbour is situated on the S side of
the island. Pulau Penang, from where a light is exhibited
(3.157), forms the W side of the harbour, and the islets of
Pulau Chipor and Pulau Ekor Tibu stand in the approaches,
as does Connell Rock, a coral patch lying 2 cables E of
Pulau Penang; see chart.
2
Pulau Penang is separated from the SW extremity of
Pulau Redang by a channel 1 cable wide, with a least
depth in it of 10⋅4 m (34 ft). This channel is used by
boats and leads to Kampung Penang, a village situated on
the NE extremity of Pulau Penang. This passage is
dangerous when the tidal stream is strong; it should not be
attempted without local knowledge.
3
Anchorages. Pulau Redang Harbour is easy of access. It
should be approached from E between Pulau Koringo Besar
in the N and Pulau Ekor Tibu in the S, and anchorage
obtained, in a depth of 18 m (59 ft), sand and coral, in the
E approach with a swinging room of 3 cables.
4
Small craft may proceed farther in and anchor in the
NW part of the harbour, with good holding ground, in
depths of 7 to 9 m (23 to 30 ft).
Sungai Besut
3.162
1
General information. Sungai Besut (5°50′N, 102°34′E)
is approached via Kuala Besut which is marked by Kuala
Besut Fairway Light-buoy (pillar; safe water), moored
1 mile NNW of Sungai Besut Light (3.158), exhibited from
the E entrance point of Sungai Besut. The entrance is
closed by a bar with depths of less than 2 m (6 ft) over it,
which shifts its position according to the prevailing
monsoon. It is impassable, even for boats, without local
knowledge.
2
Kampung Kuala Besut is situated on the W side of
Kuala Besut, and there are some buildings and a jetty on
the opposite bank, at Kampung Seberang Timor. An
overhead cable, vertical clearance 12 m, crosses Sungai
Besut in a SE direction, 4 cables within the entrance.
Kampung Raja, a village of considerable size, is situated on
the SE side of the river, 2 miles up.
3
Anchorage for small vessels may be obtained during the
SW monsoon, with local knowledge, 5 cables offshore
from Sungai Besut, with good holding ground, black mud.
Sungai Semerak
3.163
1
General information. Entered via Kuala Semerak
(5°52′N, 102°31′E), near which there is a signal station and
a flagstaff, Sungai Semerak is closed by a bar at its
entrance. A light (3.158) is exhibited from the S entrance
point of the river. The river is tortuous as far as Pasir
Puteh, 6 miles inland.
Anchorage. Small vessels may anchor during the SW
monsoon, with local knowledge, 5 cables offshore from
Sungai Semerak, with good holding ground, black mud.
Pulau Perhentian Besar and Kechil
3.164
1
General information. Pulau Perhentian Besar (5°55′N,
102°45′E) is thickly wooded, and only sparsely inhabited.
Pulau Perhentian Kechil lies close W and has some villages
on its S side, and is cultivated in places. The channel,
2 cables wide at its narrowest point, between them is
suitable only for boats, as above water rocks extend
1 cable W from Pulau Perhentian Besar.
2
Anchorage, with good holding ground, especially during
the NE monsoon, may be obtained for small vessels with
local knowledge in the position (5°53′N, 102°44′E) shown
on the chart off the S entrance of the channel between the
two islands.
Bachok
3.165
1
Anchorage may be obtained off the small town of
Bachok (6°04′N, 102°24′E), in depths of 5 m, sand and
shell. However communication with the shore may be
difficult during the NE monsoon owing to heavy seas. A
light (3.158) is exhibited at Bachok, and from the coast
2 miles farther NW.
Semut Api
3.166
1
General information. Semut Api (6°12′N, 102°16′E), a
village, is situated opposite the NW end of a narrow bank
which extends 3 miles NW, parallel to the shore but
3 cables off, from off Kampung Sabak (3.158). There are
depths of 0⋅6 to 1⋅5 m (2 to 5 ft) over the bank, and
CHAPTER 3
106
depths of 2⋅4 to 3⋅4 m (8 to 11 ft) between it and the
shore. Landing in the vicinity of this bank is inadvisable
except at HW, but in fair weather landing is possible at
Semut Api; the landing place is indicated by a mark (white
triangular board on a tree). At LW landing is somewhat
obstructed by a detached sandbank which lies 50 m
offshore abreast the mark. Landing on the beach in the
vicinity of the anchorage is comparatively free from the SE
swell, but slight surf may be experienced at LW.
2
Anchorage, convenient for vessels visiting Kota Baharu
(3.167), may be obtained in depths of 7 to 9 m (23 to
30 ft), good holding ground, with Pantai Sri Tujoh Light
(3.169) bearing 265°, distant about 6 miles.
Sungai Kelantan
3.167
1
General information. Sungai Kelantan is entered via a
delta, the mouths of which are continually changing both in
depth and direction, and are sometimes blocked altogether.
The two main entrances are those in the E and W and are
marked by lights.
Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E), the principal port of Sungai
Kelantan, is situated on the S side of Kuala Tongkong, the
W entrance. It is sheltered from seaward by Tanjung Kuda,
a sandy spit upon the W end of which stands Pantai Sri
Tujoh Light (3.169).
2
Tumpat is now virtually unused except for the export of
logs. All cargo must be lightered to and fro from Kota
Baharu (Bharu) (6°08′N, 102°14′E), which is situated 5
miles up river from Kuala Besar (6°13′N, 102°14′E), the E
entrance. Barges can navigate the 6 miles of river between
Tumpat and Kota Baharu at HW, but no cargo work is
possible during the NE monsoon.
3
The port limits are defined as being, in the N, latitude
6°16′⋅0N; in the S, latitude 6°11′⋅5N; and between those
latitudes, in the W, the meridian of 102°07′⋅4E; and in the
E, the meridian of 102°11′⋅4E.
3.168
1
Currents and tidal streams. During the NE monsoon
when the river is in flood, there is a strong current in the
river. Off the mouth of the river, there is a S-going set of
from 2 to 2 kn. During the SW monsoon, the offshore set
is N at a slightly reduced rate. The tidal streams alone are
very weak.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.151.
3.169
1
Directions. Because of the continually changing
positions of the sandbanks and channels, and the associated
changes in depths, local knowledge is required to enter
Sungai Kelantan, and to navigate the river. A description of
the principal navigational features in the approaches
follows.
2
East entrance. A light-buoy (pillar; safe water) is
moored in the approach to Kuala Besar, 1 mile
NNE of the entrance. Kuala Besar Light (white
square on wooden tower) (6°12′⋅9N, 102°14′⋅0E) is
exhibited from Pulau Kuda.
3
West entrance. A shoal is marked on its E side by a
light-buoy (conical, starboard hand) moored
1 miles N of Pantai Sri Tujoh Light (white
wooden framework tower) (6°13′⋅1N, 102°10′⋅2E).
A wreck stands on the W side of this shoal with
four masts visible, 12 m high, the centre two in
the form of a goal post; a second dangerous
wreck, position approximate, lies about 2 miles
N of the light, and a shoal patch lies 1 mile ESE
of the second wreck.
4
Useful marks:
Sungai Tapang Light (fishing) (6°12′⋅6N, 102°08′⋅3E)
is exhibited from the shore, 1 mile WSW Pantai
Sri Tujoh Light.
Kampung Dalam Rhu Light (white square on wooden
framework tower) (6°12′⋅2N, 102°09′⋅9E) is
exhibited at Tumpat.
5
Caution. Fishing stakes may be encountered up to
6 miles offshore.
3.170
1
Anchorages:
East entrance. Anchorage, with good holding
ground, may be obtained in depths of 9 m (30 ft),
mud, 1 miles N of Kuala Besar Light (6°12′⋅9N,
102°14′⋅0E) (3.169).
2
West entrance. Vessels approaching from SE should
keep at least 2 miles off the coast until 3 miles
NE of Pantai Sri Tujoh Light (3.169) before
making for an anchorage. The shoal patch and
wrecks (3.169) off Tumpat are to be avoided.
3
Anchorage, but with bad holding ground, may be
obtained in depths in excess of 10 m (33 ft),
3 miles NNE of Pantai Sri Tujoh Light
(6°13′⋅1N, 102°10′⋅2E).
Small vessels may obtain anchorage in depths of 6 m
(20 ft), soft mud, 2 miles NE of Pantai Sri Tujoh
Light.
Only small craft may anchor within Tumpat harbour,
in the shelter of Tanjung Kuda (3.167).
3.171
1
Berths — Tumpat:
A jetty, 185 m in length, extends N from the S shore,
7 cables SSW of Pantai Sri Tujoh Light (3.169). A
crane stands 1 cable E of the root of the jetty, and
mooring buoys for the use of lighters lie N of the
jetty head.
2
Two wooden piers at Tumpat, one situated N of the
town and the other on the E side of the town.
Their use is restricted to near HW by the shallow
water, less than 0⋅6 m (2 ft), N of Tumpat.
3.172
1
Port services:
Facilities: hospital at Kota Baharu.
Supplies: no fuel, fresh water, or stores; provisions in
limited quantities from Kota Baharu.
Communications: Kota Baharu Airport 5 km NE
from Kota Baharu.
NOTES
107
Mui Bai Bung
M
u
i
B
a
i
B
u
n
g
Tumpat
Pattani
Songkhla
Surat Thani
Khanom
Ko Samui
Ko Sattakut
Chumphon
Prachuap Khiri Khan Harbour
THAI L AND
CAMBODI A
VI ETNAM
Krung Thep (Bangkok)
Ko Si Chang
Laem Chabang S
a
t
t
a
h
i
p
M
a
p
T
a
P
h
u
t
Chanthaburi
K
a
m
p
o
n
g
S
a
o
m
Dao
Phu Quoc
Ha Tien
Hon Chong
Bongkot gasfield
Erawan gasfield
Tantawan gasfield
Benchamas gasfield
Khlong Yai
M
u
i
N
a
i
4
.
2
8
7
4
.
2
5
2
4
.
2
1
1
4
.
9
7
4
.
1
4
9
4
.
5
8
4
.
5
8
4
.
6
7
4
.
1
4
4.278
4.301
4.294
4
.
2
5
7
4.245
4
.
1
6
2
4
.
2
2
1
4.170
4.188
4.110
4.72
4.333
4.328
4.322
4.317
4.84
4.92
4.38
4.24
108
4
.
4
0
4.57
771
3961
66
66
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3879
3961
3542
3985
67
993
999
986
1046
3727
3724
2103
3986
0904
2
1
0
3
3
7
2
4
6°6°
7°7°
8°8°
9°9°
10°10°
11°11°
12°12°
13°13°
14°14°
99°
99°
100°
100°
101°
101°
102°
Longitude 102° East from Greenwich
103° 104°
104°
105°
105°
106°
106°
Chapter 4 - The Gulf of Thailand
109
CHAPTER 4
THE GULF OF THAILAND
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2414
Scope of the chapter
4.1
1
The Gulf of Thailand (10°00′N, 102°00′E) is one of the
major coastal indentations of SE Asia, and has one of the
region’s major ports, Krung Thep (Bangkok) (4.110), at its
head. Much of its coastline comprises the E seaboard of
Thailand, except in the E, in way of the Cambodian coast
and the W coast of Vietnam.
2
The exploitation of the area’s natural resources of
offshore gas, and the general development taking place in
the countries around the Gulf, has created a demand for
increased port facilities which has resulted in the creation
of several new port areas, notably Prachuap Khiri Khan
(11°12′N, 99°35′E) (4.72), Laem Chabang Port (13°04′N,
100°54′E) (4.170), the Ko Si Chang Transhipment Area
(13°09′N, 100°49′E) (4.188), and Map Ta Phut (12°40′N,
101°09′E) (4.221).
3
In this chapter are described, and directions given for,
the coasts and waters of the Gulf of Thailand, and for the
ports and areas of marine exploitation therein.
The chapter comprises the following sections:
W shore of the Gulf of Thailand from Tumpat to Ko
Sattakut.
4
The head and the NE shore of the Gulf of Thailand
between Ko Sattakut and Khlong Yai.
The coast of Cambodia.
The W coast of Vietnam.
The gasfields within the centre of the Gulf of
Thailand.
Topography
4.2
1
The Gulf of Thailand, approximately 205 miles wide at
its entrance between Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E) in the W
and Mui Bai Bung (8°37′N, 104°43′E), the SW tip of
Vietnam, in the E, extends approximately 400 miles NW to
its head, maintaining its width throughout.
The NE shore of the Gulf is more indented and irregular
than the W shore, and the islets and dangers lie farther off.
2
The coastal ranges of hills and mountains backing the W
and NW shores extend to the coast in places, and the coast
is mainly composed of sandy beaches interspersed by
ridges and rocky points. Inland there are dense forests and
numerous streams.
Four notable rivers (4.98) enter the sea at the head of
the Gulf, where the coast is low and wooded and fringed
by mud-flats.
Depths
4.3
1
In general, beyond the 30 m depth contour, which
more-or-less reflects the Gulf’s shoreline, depths in the
main body of the Gulf are in excess of 50 m. Shoaler
patches, however, do exist, particularly in the entrance, in
the bight forming the head of the Gulf, and off the E
shore; the central part of the gulf is relatively free of
dangers, although several shoals, rocks and wrecks have
been reported. The chart is the best guide to depths
throughout the area.
Exercise areas
4.4
1
Within the Gulf of Thailand there are numerous
designated exercise areas, variously referred to as:
dangerous exercise areas,
aircraft target practice areas, and
danger areas.
2
Some of these designated exercise areas are charted on
some charts but not on others, and some are not yet
charted at all. Where possible, these directions will draw
attention to all exercise areas that are currently charted and
close to a route for which directions are given.
3
When navigating in the Gulf of Thailand, whether or not
a designated exercise area is shown on the chart or
mentioned in these directions, due regard should be made
for the information concerning these areas contained in
local notices to mariners. These remain the best guide to
the whereabouts of such areas and their activation.
Fishing
4.5
1
Marine farming is a developing industry throughout the
shallower coastal waters of the Gulf of Thailand, and areas
where marine farms are to be found, particular on the W
side, are numerous; see charts.
2
Fishing stakes abound in the shallower waters around
the shores of the Gulf of Thailand; areas where they are
thought most likely to be encountered are shown on the
chart. However, their positions are frequently changed and,
in practice, they may be encountered anywhere, particularly
during the NE monsoon.
Mined areas
4.6
1
Former mined areas exist in a number of places along
the coast of Thailand. These are mentioned in the
appropriate places in the directions. For further details and
an assessment of the risks currently attached to them, see
1.3 and Appendix I.
4.7
1
ODAS light-buoys (special) may be encountered
anywhere in the Gulf of Thailand laid temporarily.
Positions are notified in temporary notices to mariners.
Mariners are advised to give these buoys a wide berth. For
further information see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Dumping grounds
4.8
1
There are several explosives dumping grounds within the
Gulf of Thailand, some of which coincide with one or
other type of designated exercise area (4.4). Explosive
dumping grounds will be included in these directions in the
same manner as exercise areas.
CHAPTER 4
110
Dumping grounds, other than explosives dumping
grounds, are described in the relevant sections.
Flow
4.9
1
Currents. The monsoon currents (1.98) of the South
China Sea set across the mouth of the Gulf of Thailand,
but in the Gulf itself, currents are thought to be weaker and
much more variable. A counter-clockwise flow
predominates from October to May and a clockwise drift
from June to September. Rates appear to be greatest in the
NE side of the Gulf, where currents exceeding 1 kn have
been reported, but the mean rate is probably less than
kn.
2
Tidal streams. In the Gulf of Thailand, the main
S-going tidal stream of the South China Sea meets the W
shore of the Gulf in the vicinity of 7°N. Here the stream
divides, one half setting N along the coast of Thailand and
the other half S along Peninsular Malaysia. To the N of
7°N, the N-going set is associated with the rising tide and
to the S with the falling tide. On the E side of the Gulf,
the stream appears to set S on the rising tide and N on the
falling tide. The stream runs for about 12 hours in each
direction, but their duration is subject to large variations.
Regulations
4.10
1
For Thailand, see Appendix II.
For signals in Thai waters, see 1.25.
Buoyage
4.11
1
Throughout the Gulf of Thailand, buoyage is officially
in accordance with the IALA Maritime Buoyage System,
Region A, red to port, although some beacons and buoys
continue to exist which do not conform to this system.
Offshore gasfields
4.12
1
Offshore gasfields and their associated pipelines are to
be found in the Gulf of Thailand. They are shown on the
charts. Those close off the coast are described in the
appropriate sections of this chapter. Directions for those
gasfields in the centre of the Gulf are given in the final
section of the chapter.
GULF OF THAILAND — WESTERN SEABOARD FROM TUMPAT TO KO SATTAKUT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3542, 3983, 67, 3985
Description
4.13
1
This section describes the W seaboard of the Gulf of
Thailand from a position close NW of Tumpat (6°12′N,
102°10′E) (3.167) to Ko Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E),
including the ports, anchorages and off-lying islands.
2
The section is in three parts, comprising:
Tumpat to Songkhla (4.24).
Songkhla to Ko Samui (4.79).
Ko Samui to Ko Sattakut (4.66), including Prachuap
Khiri Khan (4.72).
TUMPAT TO SONGKHLA
General information
Charts 3542, 3961
Route
4.14
1
From a position NE of Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E)
(3.167) the coastal passage enters the Gulf of Thailand and
follows a NW direction.
Topography
4.15
1
For the most part the coast between Tumpat and
Songkhla is low, wooded, and in places marshy, with hills
and mountains in the background. Rivers intersect the
coastline, some forming lagoons before entering the Gulf,
as at Songkhla.
Ko Losin (7°20′N, 102°00′E) (4.23), an islet, is the only
offshore feature along this section of the coast.
Depths
4.16
1
Depths shoal gradually from about 50 m, some 50 miles
offshore, to the coastal bank within the 10 m depth contour,
which closely follows the shoreline, generally not more
than 3 miles off.
Danger area
4.17
1
A circular danger area (4.4), radius 3 miles, is centred
on Ko Lopi (Hin Rakit) (6°40′N, 101°44′E) (4.23).
Marine farms
4.18
1
A number of areas along the coast between Tumpat and
Songkhla, usually within 5 miles of the shore, have been
designated as marine farms; the chart is the best guide to
their location.
Gasfield
4.19
1
The Bongkot Gasfield, located in the vicinity of 8°00′N,
102°20′E, is described at 4.317.
Tidal stream
4.20
1
In the vicinity of Laem Ta Chi (6°56′N, 101°15′E)
(4.23) the tidal stream sets E and W; the stronger, W-going
stream, attains a rate of 2 to 3 kn.
Between Laem Ta Chi and Songkhla (7°12′N, 100°36′E)
(4.24), the tidal streams set W and NW when the tide is
rising, and in the opposite directions when the tide is
falling; whether rising or falling, rates of 2 to 3 kn are
attained.
Principal marks
4.21
1
Landmark:
A conspicuous dark hill, covered with trees and over
150 m high, is situated 3 miles S of Khao Tanyong
(6°25′N, 101°52′E), a conical tree-covered hill
with an elevation of 294 m.
2
Major lights:
Sungai Golok Light (white GRP tower, concrete base,
27 m in height) (6°14′N, 102°06′E).
Sai Buri Light (white metal framework tower, 26 m in
height) (6°43′N, 101°38′E).
CHAPTER 4
111
Ko Losin Light (black metal framework tower on
concrete base, white bands, 7 m in height) (7°20′N,
102°00′E).
Songkhla Khao Tangkuan Light (white brick tower,
14 m in height) (7°13′N, 100°36′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.22
1
Racon: Sungai Golok Lighthouse — as above.
Directions
(continued from 3.158)
4.23
1
From a position NE of Tumpat (6°12′N, 102°10′E) to a
position NE of Songkhla (7°12′N, 100°36′E) the coastal
route leads NW for a distance of approximately 103 miles,
passing (with positions from Ko Losin Light (7°20′N,
102°00′E) (4.21)):
2
NE of Sungai Golok (65 miles S) (4.34). Sungai
Golok Light (4.21) stands 5 cables within the
entrance to Sungai Golok, and a second light
(white concrete tower) stands 2 cables NE of
Sungai Golok Light. Thence:
3
NE of Narathiwat (54 miles S) (4.35), a small port
and Sai Buri (43 miles SSW) (4.37), a village
served by an anchorage. Sai Buri Light (4.21)
stands on the S side of the river entrance close E
of the village. Ko Lopi (Hin Rakit), a white,
steep-to rock islet, lies 6 miles ESE of Sai Buri
Light; see also 4.17. Thence:
4
NE of Laem Ko Phra (39 miles SW), which
consists of two remarkable steep bluffs 2 miles
apart, which form the N end of a range of
mountains extending SSW; the summit of this
range, Khao Yai, lies 6 miles SSW of Laem Ko
Phra. A wreck with a depth of 5⋅4 m over it lies
about 5 miles ESE Laem Ko Phra. A second
dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies about
6 miles ENE from Laem Ko Phra. Ko Losin, from
where a light is exhibited (4.21), is an isolated
steep-to islet. Thence:
5
NE of Laem Ta Chi (48 miles WSW), which is the W
extremity of a long narrow sandy spit of land,
covered with pine trees, which extends 6 miles
WNW from the coast. Ao Pattani, a shallow bay
which dries in places, lies to the S of this spit of
land, and the small anchorage port of Pattani
(4.38) is situated 4 miles S of Laem Ta Chi. A
light (white metal framework tower; 29 m in
height) is exhibited from a position 2 miles E of
Laem Ta Chi. Between the light and Khot Tun
Beating China, marked by a light-buoy (N
cardinal), 6 miles ENE of it, lies Khot Loftus, and
an area where numerous rocks are reported to
exist; this area has also been designated as a
marine farm (4.18). Khot Tun Beating China is a
detached sandy shoal, and Khot Loftus is a bank
of hard sand. Three miles WNW of the light lies a
dangerous wreck, marked on its S side by a
light-buoy (S cardinal). Nine miles to the W of
Laem Ta Chi is Khot Enemy Chaser, an extension
of the coastal bank. Thence:
6
NE of Ko Kham (71 miles WSW), an islet closely
surrounded by below-water rocks. The entrance to
Khlong Thepa, which leads to the town of Thepa,
is 8 miles SE from Ko Kham. A dangerous
wreck, shown on the chart, lies 45 miles NE from
Ko Kham. Thence:
To a position NE of Songkhla (7°12′N, 100°36′E)
(4.24)
(Directions continue at 4.47)
Songkhla
Chart 3961
General information
4.24
1
Position. Songkhla (7°12′N, 100°36′E) is situated at the
point where the lagoon formed of Thale Luang (see below)
and Thale Sap Songkhla enters the sea via Songkhla
Harbour. The town is the capital of the province of the
same name.
2
Topography. The harbour is formed in the E by an
outer broad low coastal spit and in the W by an inner low
sandy neck of land separating the lagoon to its W from the
Gulf of Thailand. A breakwater protects the harbour in the
N, and in the S it is open to Thale Sap Songkhla. The land
on the W side of the harbour is hilly, the highest hill being
Khao Muang.
3
The lagoon extends some 45 miles from N to S and is
shallow in the N part, Thale Luang; Thale Luang is
connected to the S part, Thale Sap Songkhla, by a narrow
boat channel. Ko Yo lies in the S part of Thale Sap
Songkhla, 2 miles WSW of the S harbour limit. Thale Sap
Songkhla is navigable by boats drawing up to 2⋅7 m.
4
Port limits are shown on the chart.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 455 ship calls with a total of
2 997 413 dwt.
Port Authority. Harbour Department of Thailand, 1278
Yotha Road, Talardnoi, Samphanthawong District, Bangkok
10100, Thailand.
Limiting conditions
4.25
1
Controlling depth. The port is approached through a
buoyed channel reported to be 120 m in width and dredged
to a depth of 9 m; lesser depths are charted.
Vertical clearance. An overhead cable, vertical
clearance 40 m, crosses the N end of the inner harbour,
3 cables SE of the front leading light.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to 173 m
LOA, 25 m breadth and 8⋅2 m draught can be handled.
Arrival information
4.26
1
Outer anchorage. Large vessels may anchor, in depths
in excess of 8 m, in the position (7°15′⋅6N, 100°36′⋅4E)
WNW of the entrance buoy; deeper water may be found E
of this position.
Small vessels may anchor, in depths in excess of 4 m,
3 cables E of the outer end of the Laem Sai breakwater,
between it and Ko Nu (4.28).
2
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels exceeding 50⋅3 m
LOA. The pilot boards 9 cables NE of the entrance buoy,
as shown on the chart.
Tugs are available.
Local knowledge is required if entering the harbour.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Harbour
4.27
1
General layout. In the NW, in the outer harbour,
opposite the harbour entrance and protected by the
breakwater to the N, a berthing area, connected to the SW
CHAPTER 4
112
side of the outer harbour by an access causeway, has berths
(4.32) along its N face. There are reported to be plans to
develop this terminal area W and N from the present
berths.
2
North of this facility an oil pier extends SE from an oil
refinery on the coast to a position in the N of the outer
harbour, 3 cables NNW of the W end of the N face of
berthing area. A buoyed channel leads from the harbour
entrance to the S end of the oil pier. The W side of the
outer harbour is mainly shoal.
3
South of the entrance, the main channel, which is
buoyed, leads SSE and follows the E side of the inner
harbour until it enters Thale Sap Songkhla. The customs
pier, the railway pier, and other commercial piers, are
located on the E side of the inner harbour.
4
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.152.
Major light. Songkhla Khao Tangkuan Light (7°12′⋅5N,
100°35′⋅6E) (4.21).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.23)
4.28
1
Approach. Songkhla Harbour is approached from
seaward on a SW track via a buoyed channel and entered
between a breakwater extending 2 cables NE from Laem
Sai in the SE, and the SE end of the breakwater 3 cables
NNW of Laem Sai, in the NW. A one way traffic system
operates in the approach channel.
2
Leading lights:
Front light A (white metal framework tower)
(7°13′⋅4N, 100°34′⋅5E);
Rear light B (white metal framework tower) (250 m
SW from front light).
The alignment (225°)of these lights leads from Entrance
Light-buoy, through the buoyed channel, to the harbour
entrance.
Islets, reefs and rocks lying in the approachesare (with
positions from the outer end of the Laem Sai breakwater):
3
Ko Maeo (1⋅7 miles N); two below-water rocks lie
5 cables N of Ko Maeo.
Hin Luk Maeo Nai (1⋅3 m NNE), a reef with a drying
rock on it.
Hin Luk Maeo Nok (1⋅5 miles ENE), a reef which
dries.
Ko Nu (8 cables E), the largest islet.
4.29
1
The channel leads well clear of these dangers. From
No 5 Light-buoy to No 7 Light-buoy, approximately, it is
dredged through a spit upon which there are heavy
breakers during the NE monsoon. A light (white metal pile)
is exhibited from the head of Laem Sai breakwater, and a
light is also exhibited from the head of N breakwater.
2
Caution. Fishing stakes are reported to extend up to
30 m into the main channel.
4.30
1
There is a turning area, diameter 300 m, inside the
harbour entrance, N of the main berths in the outer
harbour; turns should be attempted only at slack water. The
tidal current in the harbour may attain a rate of up to 2 kn,
the out-going stream being the stronger.
4.31
1
Useful marks, with positions from Songkhla Khao
Tangkuan Light (7°12′⋅5N, 100°35′⋅6E) (4.21):
Radio tower (red light) (close S).
Pagoda (1⋅2 miles WNW).
Lights on the W and E ends of the N face of the
berth area in the outer harbour (1⋅6 miles NW).
Berths
4.32
1
The berthing area in the outer harbour has three berths
on its N face, numbered 1 to 3 from E to W, with a total
length of 510 m, able to accommodate vessels up to
20 000 dwt. There is a least charted depth of 6⋅3 m
alongside.
2
The Oil Pier in the N of the outer harbour is reported to
have three berths:
Jetty A, for LPG and Mogas carriers, maximum LOA
75 m, draught 6 m, displacement 3000 tonnes.
Jetty B, for product tankers, maximum LOA 200 m,
draught 8 m, displacement 30 000 tonnes.
Shell Jetty, maximum LOA 103 m, draught 5⋅5 m, and
5000 dwt.
3
The Railway Jetty at the S end of the E side of the
inner harbour is reported to be used by tankers with LOAs
up to 81 m, draught 5⋅2 m, and displacement 3600 tonnes.
Port services
4.33
1
Facilities: hospital and garbage collection service;
deratting exemption certificates; no oily waste disposal
facilities.
Supplies: fresh water alongside.
Communications: domestic and international services
from Songkhla Airport.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3961
Sungai Golok
4.34
1
General information. Sungai Golok (6°15′N, 102°06′E)
forms part of the boundary between Peninsular Malaysia
and Thailand. The town of Tak Bai stands in Thailand, on
the NW side of the river, just inside the entrance.
A regular motor-boat service up river provides the only
communication by water with the interior of the State of
Kelantan.
Directions. The white sector of Sungai Golok Light
(6°14′N, 102°06′E) (4.21) marks the entrance to the river.
Narathiwat
4.35
1
General information. Narathiwat (6°26′N, 101°50′E) is
situated on the W bank of the river, close within its
entrance, from where rubber and copra are exported, being
taken out to the anchorage by lighter.
2
A shifting sandbank extends 1 mile ENE from the S
entrance point of the river, and the entrance itself is
obstructed by a bar with a depth of less than 1 m over it.
Lighters cross the bar at HW.
3
A mud-bank extends from the E bank, within the
entrance, halfway across the river, leaving a channel close
to the W bank. The position of the navigable channel is
subject to change; in 1970 a NE storm blocked all the
channels, except to small craft at high tide.
Supplies may be obtained in the town.
4.36
1
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained 1 miles
off the river entrance. Small vessels may anchor closer in,
but to do so local knowledge is required.
Sai Buri
4.37
1
General information. Sai Buri (6°42′N, 101°38′E) is
situated 1 miles within the entrance of the Mae Nam Sai
Buri. A shifting bar, with depths of less than 1 m over it,
CHAPTER 4
113
obstructs the entrance. During the NE monsoon a heavy
surf prevents the working of cargo. Some supplies may be
obtainable in the town.
2
Anchorage may be obtained off the mouth of Mae Nam
Sai Buri, about 7 cables offshore, in depths of 5 m, blue
mud. If approaching this anchorage from N, vessels, should
keep at least 1 miles offshore.
Pattani
4.38
1
General information. Pattani (6°52′N, 101°16′E), used
by fishermen, is situated on both banks of the Mae Nam
Pattani, 1 miles from its entrance. Dry bulk and general
cargoes are transported by lighter to and from vessels at
anchor. Rubber is the major export.
The coast is low-lying but gives reasonable radar
definition. The Entrance Light-buoy lies close W of Laem
Ta Chi (6°56′N, 101°15′E) (4.23).
2
Lighters and small coastal vessels can cross the bar at
HW only. On the W side of the entrance to the Mae Nam
Pattani there is a flagstaff, customs office, and pier. A
channel 60 m wide and, in 1985, dredged to a depth of
3⋅7 m, leads from the river mouth to the berths at Pattani.
Present charted depths indicate less than 2 m across the bar.
3
A wharf 196 m in length with a least depth of 5 m
alongside can accept up to two vessels of not more than
1000 grt.
Minor repairs can be made. Limited supplies and fresh
water may be available. There is a hospital in the town and
an airfield 14 km to the SW.
4.39
1
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 10 to 11 m,
NW of Laem Ta Chi, distant about 4 miles.
Small vessels, with local knowledge, may obtain
anchorage W of Laem Ta Chi, distant 5 miles, in depths
of 5 to 9 m, mud. During the SW monsoon, this anchorage
is subject to frequent squalls from NW, especially by night
during the periods of spring tides, and vessels are liable to
drag their anchors.
SONGKHLA TO KO SAMUI
General information
Charts 3542, 3961, 3963, 3983
Route
4.40
1
From a position NE of Songkhla (7°12′N, 100°36′E) the
coastal route leads NNW for about 145 miles to a position
ENE of Ko Samui (9°30′N, 100°00′E).
Topography
4.41
1
Between Songkhla and Laem Talum Phuk (8°31′N,
100°09′E) (4.48), some 82 miles NNW, the coast is low
and sandy, with trees in places. There are a few villages on
the coast. Behind the coast a range of mountains runs
parallel to it between 30 and 35 miles inland.
Ko Kra (8°24′N, 100°44′E), a rock islet with three rocks
close S of it, the closest being unnamed and the other two
being Hin Sung and Hin Rua, lies 36 miles E of Laem
Talum Phuk.
2
Ao Nakhon Si Thammarat (4.49) lies W of Laem Talum
Phuk; the Mae Nam Pak Phanang links Ao Nakhon Si
Thammarat with Thale Luang (4.24) some 36 miles S.
North of Ao Nakhon Si Thammarat, except in way of
the headlands, the coast is low and intersected by several
small streams with villages near them.
3
Behind the coast, from Khao Luang (8°30′N, 99°45′E), a
chain of mountains extends 35 miles N about 13 miles
inland. N of this stands another range of mountains with
several prominent peaks (4.46).
Ko Samui (9°30′N, 100°00′E) (4.79) is separated from
the mainland SW by Chong Samui (4.67), an island
encumbered channel.
Depths
4.42
1
Beyond the coastal bank, which closely follows the
shoreline, depths shoal gradually from the 20 m depth
contour, which runs about 20 miles offshore. The bottom is
mainly mud, and there are no known natural dangers.
Marine farms
4.43
1
Numerous marine farms have been established off the
coast, generally within 3 miles of it; see chart.
Marine exploitation
4.44
1
Numerous wells, production platforms, pipelines and
tanker loading facilities are largely contained in an
extensive restricted area, shown on the chart, centred about
position 9°30′N, 101°23′E. These are described in the last
section of this chapter.
Tidal stream
4.45
1
The tidal stream sets NW to N on the rising tide from
about 8 miles offshore N of Laem Talum Phuk (8°31′N,
100°09′E), and has been reported to attain rates of 2 to
3 kn off the entrance to the Mae Nam Pak Klai (8°47′N,
99°56′E), and 3 kn off Laem Phlai Dam (9°05′N,
99°55′E). In Ao Nakhon Si Thammarat (8°25′N, 100°08′E)
(4.49) it takes a SW direction with rates of up to 2 to
3 kn. With the falling tide the stream sets in the opposite
direction.
2
South of Chong Samui (9°17′N, 99°53′E), in the S
approaches, the tidal stream sets N and has been reported
to attain a rate of 3 kn on the rising tide. The stream
divides, one part setting NW through the strait, the other
continuing N past the E side of Ko Samui (9°30′N,
100°00′E).
Principal marks
4.46
1
Landmarks:
Laem Na Tham (9°13′N, 99°53′E) is conspicuous,
consisting of five peaks known as the Five Devils.
The following peaks are prominent to the S and W
from Laem Na Tham:
Khao Phlai Dam (9°05′N, 99°54′E) rising to 473 m.
Khao Phra (9°06′N, 99°52′E) rising to 813 m.
Khao Luang Phanom (9°10′⋅5N, 99°43′⋅0E) rising to
503 m.
CHAPTER 4
114
2
Major lights:
Songkhla Khao Tangkuan Light (7°13′N, 100°36′E)
(4.21).
Ko Kra Light (white concrete tripod, 15 m in height)
(8°24′N, 100°44′E).
Ko Wang Nai Light (white metal framework tower,
9 m in height) (9°19′N, 99°54′E).
Ko Phangan Light (white metal framework tower,
20 m in height) (9°40′N, 100°05′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.23)
Songkhla to Kro Kra
4.47
1
From a position NE of Songkhla (7°12′N, 100°36′E) to
a position E of Ko Kra (8°24′N, 100°44′E), the track leads
NW for about 70 miles, passing (with positions from Laem
Talum Phuk (8°31′N, 100°09′E) (4.48)):
NE of two dangerous wrecks, shown on the chart
(64 miles SSE and 61 miles SE); thence:
2
NE of Ranot (46 miles S), from where Amphoe Ranot
Light (white metal framework tower, 31 m in
height) (7°47′N, 100°22′E) is exhibited. A stranded
wreck, the position of which is approximate, lies
4 miles N of the light. Thence:
Clear of Ko Kra (36 miles ESE) (4.41). A light (4.46)
is exhibited from the island.
Ko Kra to Ko Samui
4.48
1
From a position clear of Ko Kra to a position ENE of
Ko Samui (9°30′N, 100°00′E) the track leads NNW for
about a further 75 miles, passing:
ENE of Laem Talum Phuk, a narrow curved spit of
coarse sand with a group of trees near its
extremity, from where Laem Talum Phuk Light
(white metal framework tower, 29 m in height) is
exhibited. Thence:
2
ENE of the Mae Nam Pak Phun (9 miles WNW). A
light (white metal framework tower, 30 m in
height) is exhibited from the N side of the
entrance to the river. Thence:
3
ENE of Tha Sala (15 miles NW) (4.51) and ENE of
Laem Kho Kwang (32 miles NNW). The town of
Sichon, from where a light (white metal framework
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited, is situated
close W of the point. Several rocks, marked by a
buoys (N and S cardinal), lie within 1 mile of
Laem Kho Kwang. These rocks are covered by the
red sector of the light at Sichon. The coast
between Laem Kho Kwang and Laem Phlai Dam,
4 miles N, should be given a good berth. Laem
Kho Kwang is reported to be radar conspicuous.
Thence:
4
ENE of Laem Na Tham (44 miles NNW) (4.46) and
Khanom (46 miles NNW) (4.57). A dangerous
wreck lies 2 miles E of Laem Na Tham. A shoal
patch, least charted depth 13⋅1 m, lies 22 miles
ENE of Laem Na Tham. The Khanom gypsum
berth (4.52), shown on the chart, is situated on the
S side of the point. Thence:
5
ENE of Chong Samui (50 miles NNW) (4.67), and to
a position ENE of Ko Samui (9°30′N, 100°00′E).
A light (4.46) is exhibited from Ko Wang Nai.
(Directions continue at 4.65)
Minor harbours and anchorages
Charts 3983, 3963
Ao Nakhon Si Thammarat
4.49
1
General information. Ao Nakhon Si Thammarat
(8°25′N, 100°08′E) lies W of Laem Talum Phuk (4.48).
The bay, which is shallow, and can be navigated only by
boats at or near HW, is entered between Laem Talum Phuk
and the entrance to the Mae Nam Pak Phaya, which is
situated 3 miles SE of the entrance to the the Mae Nam
Pak Phun (8°32′N, 100°00′E) (4.48). There is a customs
office near the entrance to the Mae Nam Pak Phaya. A bar,
with depths of less than 2 m (6 ft) over it, extends
3 miles seaward from the line joining the two entrance
points.
2
Nakhon Si Thammarat, the provincial capital of the
province of the same name, is situated 7 miles inland on
the W shore of the bay, and is accessible by boat via the
Mae Nam Pak Nakhon.
3
Amphoe Pak Phanang, a town of considerable size with
a hospital, is situated 1 mile inland on the S shore of the
bay, and is accessible by vessels of 2⋅1 m draught, via the
Mae Nam Pak Phanang (4.41). This river is reported to be
navigable by boats drawing 0⋅6 m through to Thale Luang.
4.50
1
Anchorage may be obtained during the SW monsoon
off the entrance to the Mae Nam Pak Phun distant about
4 miles, in depths of 7 m (23 ft). Vessels approaching
from the S should round Laem Talum Phuk at a distance of
not less than 5 miles.
Tha Sala
4.51
1
General information. Tha Sala (8°40′N, 99°57′E) is a
small port at a river’s mouth where bulk carriers load
cargoes of gypsum and fluorspar at anchor. Pilotage is not
compulsory.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 3 ship calls with a total of
37 977 dwt.
Anchorage. Vessels anchor about 2 miles off the river
mouth, in depths of about 7 m (23 ft) clear of the charted
fish farms.
Khanom gypsum berths
4.52
1
General information. The Khanom gypsum berths,
shown on the chart, are situated on the SE extremity of
Laem Na Tham (9°13′N, 99°53′E) (4.48), 2 miles SSE of
the river’s mouth. The facilities comprise of an old and a
new jetty.
4.53
1
Pilotage is compulsory and a tug is available. Pilots
board at the anchor position, about 1 miles E of New
Jetty. See also Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
4.54
1
Berths:
Old Jetty extends S from the S side of the SE
extremity of Laem Na Tham. Vessels berth E-W;
mooring lines to buoys. The berthing face at the
head of the jetty is about 70 m in length and the
loader can travel the length of the berth. Maximum
draught at this jetty is 8⋅2 m. A service launch
jetty is located on the shoreline NW of Old Jetty.
2
New Jetty extends E from the E side of the SE
extremity of Laem Na Tham. Vessels berth N-S
against the berthing face at the head of the jetty,
with mooring lines to three buoys forward and
CHAPTER 4
115
three buoys aft; vessels lie 2 to 3 m off the berth.
The gypsum loader has a limited arc of travel, and
it is necessary to shift the vessel to facilitate
loading. Maximum draught 9⋅2 m.
4.55
1
Cautions. It has been reported that:
The berths are difficult to identify, except close to,
and that sighting vessels at anchor can provide an
early indication of their position.
Numerous small fishing boats may be found within
the 10 m depth contour, in close proximity to the
berths.
2
Vessels are not berthed when wind speeds approach
20 kn, and may be required to unberth if wind
speeds are expect to exceed 20 kn.
During the NE monsoon the swell may cause vessels
to roll whilst alongside.
4.56
1
Port services:
Facilities: limited medical facilities.
Supplies: no fuel or fresh water; some stores and
provisions, but reported to be expensive.
Khanom
4.57
1
General information. Khanom (9°14′N, 99°53′E) is a
small port at the mouth of a river, 2 miles NNW of Laem
Na Tham (9°13′N, 99°53′E) (4.48), from where barytes ore
and gypsum are loaded at anchor from lighters. A stranded
wreck lies 6 cables NE of the river’s mouth. The entrance
is buoyed.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 31 ship calls with a total of
593 984 dwt.
2
Useful mark:
Chimney (red and white bands; red light), shown on
the chart, on power station on NW bank of the
river.
3
Anchorage with good holding ground, in depths of
13 m, mud and sand, is 2 miles E of the mouth of the
river. Mariners should note that a gas pipeline lies close to
this position.
KO SAMUI TO KO SATTAKUT
General information
Charts 3983, 67, 3963, 3964, 3965
Route
4.58
1
From Ko Samui (9°30′N, 100°00′E) to Ko Sattakut
(12°12′N, 100°02′E) the coastal route leads N for about
170 miles.
Topography
4.59
1
West of Ko Samui the mainland coast turns WSW, then
N, to form Ao Ban Don (4.83), a bay into which the Mae
Nam Ban Don discharges.
2
Two chains of islands, referred to for the purpose of
these directions as the Ko Samui group of islands (4.67),
and the Ko Phaluai group of islands (4.69), extend NNE
from Laem Na Tham (9°13′N, 99°53′E) and N from Laem
Thuat (9°20′N, 99°41′E), respectively. The two chains of
islands are separated by a broad passage entered between
Ko Phangan and Ko Tungku (9°48′N, 99°43′E) in the N,
and connected to Chong Samui (4.67) in the S.
3
Ko Tao (10°03′N, 99°50′E) lies N of these groups of
islands. The passage between is Chong Ko Tao (9°55′N,
99°45′E); Hin Bai, high and steep-to, lies in mid passage,
11 miles SE of Ko Tao.
4
North of Laem Sui (9°23′N, 99°19′E) (4.71), the W
entrance point of Ao Ban Don, as far as Laem Mae
Ramphung (11°12′N, 99°35′E) (4.65), the coast trends N,
then NNE, for about 112 miles; it is indented by numerous
bays, intersected by numerous rivers and has many small
islands and rocks close offshore. Inland, hills lie behind the
coast, with mountain ranges beyond.
5
Between Laem Mae Ramphung and Ko Sattakut
(12°12′N, 100°02′E), approximately 66 miles NNE, the
coast is shallowly indented between headlands, and there
are few offshore dangers. Numerous rivers discharge to the
sea from the mountain ranges close behind this stretch of
the coast.
Depths
4.60
1
A narrow, partly drying, bank consisting variously of
mud, sand or coral, follows the coast for much of its
length; all the islands lie within the 40 m (20 fm) depth
contour; and depths along the coastal route for which
directions are given do not exceed 55 m (30 fm).
Hazards
4.61
1
Exercise areas. See 4.4 and charts. Exercise areas exist
off this stretch of the coast as follows:
A circular practice area, radius 5 miles, is centred on
Hin Bai (9°57′N, 100°00′E)
A rectangular shaped practice area extends E and N
from the bay close S of Prachuap Khiri Khan
(11°48′N, 99°48′E).
2
A circular shaped practice area and explosives
dumping ground, radius 7 miles, is established
18 miles E from Ko Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E).
Fishing stakes, numerous, may be encountered during
the SW monsoon, particularly in depths of less than 10 m.
Marine farms
4.62
1
Marine farms exist in many locations along the coastal
belt; see chart.
Natural conditions
4.63
1
Magnetic anomaly. A local magnetic anomaly has been
reported to exist in approximate position 9°52′N, 99°50′E
within Chong Ko Tao (4.59).
Tidal streams:
2
NW of Chong Samui (9°17′N, 99°53′E). After
passing through Chong Samui, the flood stream
flows N past Ko Samui. At the same time,
off-shoots flow W through the channels between
the Ko Phaluai group of islands (4.69) which lead
to Ao Ban Don. The main branch of the tidal
stream, after passing W of Ko Phangan, then turns
NW into Chong Ko Tao (9°55′N, 99°45′E), and
then SW 10 miles E of Hin Loftus (9°47′N,
99°14′E); close inshore S of this shoal, it sets S
into Ao Ban Don. On the falling tide the stream
probably sets in the opposite direction.
3
In Chong Phangan (9°40′N, 100°00′E) (4.68), the
tidal streams set NW during the rising tide, and
are an off-shoot of the stream setting N off the E
coast of Ko Samui; see 4.45.
CHAPTER 4
116
Off Ko Mat Wai Yai (10°12′N, 99°15′E) (4.91) the
tidal stream sets N on the rising tide.
4
Within Ao Chumphon (10°28′N, 99°15′E) (4.92) the
tidal streams set in a SW direction on the rising
tide and in a NE direction on the falling tide; the
SW-going stream runs at a rate of to kn.
Caution. Tide-rips occur off the SW end of Ko Tao
(10°03′N, 99°50′E).
Principal marks
4.64
1
Landmarks:
Khao Prasong (9°32′N, 99°11′E), 2 miles inland and
rising to 413 m, is the most prominent feature
between Ao Ban Don (4.83) and Lang Suan
(4.86).
Khao Khanthuli (9°39′N, 99°09′E), 1 miles inland
and rising to 247 m, has a prominent sharp conical
peak and lies NNW of Khao Prasong.
Khao Luang (11°39′N, 99°35′E), 7 miles inland and
rising to 1250 m, is a prominent mountain summit.
2
Major lights:
Ko Wang Nai Light (9°19′N, 99°54′E) (4.46).
Amphoe Ko Samui Light (9°32′N, 99°56′E).
Ko Phangan Light (9°40′N, 100°05′E) (4.46).
Ko Prap Light (white metal framework tower, 6 m in
height) (9°16′N, 99°26′E).
3
Lang Suan Light (white concrete tower, 13 m in
height) (9°57′N, 99°10′E).
Ko Tao Light (white concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(10°07′N, 99°51′E).
Ko Mattaphon Light (white metal framework tower,
6 m in height) (10°27′N, 99°15′E).
4
Ko Rang Light (white metal framework tower, 6 m in
height) (10°49′N, 99°30′E).
Ko Raet Light (white concrete tower, 4 m in height)
(11°48′N, 99°50′E).
Ko Sattakut Light (white tripod, 10 m in height)
(12°12′N, 100°02′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.48)
Ko Samui to Laem Mae Ramphung
4.65
1
For inshore route, see 4.67. From a position ENE of Ko
Samui (9°30′N, 100°00′E) to a position E of Laem Mae
Ramphung (11°11′N, 99°34′E), the track leads NNW for
about 105 miles, passing (with positions from Ko Tao Light
(10°07′N, 99°51′E)):
2
ENE of Chong Phangan (30 miles SSE) (4.68), the
passage between Ko Samui (4.79) and Ko Phangan
(4.81). A light (4.64) is exhibited from Laem
Thian, the SE point of Ko Phangan, at the E
entrance to Chong Phangan. Thence:
ENE of Chong Ko Tao (4.59) and the island of Hin
Bai (13 miles SE) (4.59). A firing practice area
is centred upon Hin Bai; see 4.61. Thence:
3
Clear to the E of Ko Tao, from where a light is
exhibited (4.64). There is a wreck (2 miles N)
and two further wrecks, positions approximate,
(13 miles NNW), all with charted depths of 18 m.
Thence:
4
ENE of Laem Thaen (43 miles NW), a peninsula, at
the S extremity of which is a hill, elevation 46 m,
with a red cliff. Ko Khai lies 3 miles NE of Laem
Thaen. A shoal patch, with a charted depth of
9⋅8 m, lies 3 miles ENE of Ko Khai. Thence:
5
ENE of Ko Rang (10°49′N, 99°30′E), from where a
light (4.64) is exhibited. Ko Ran Pet and Ko Ran
Kai lie, respectively, 3 miles SE and 3 miles
ESE of Ko Rang, and a wreck, position
approximate, with a charted safe clearance depth
of 18 m, lies 1 miles SE of Ko Ran Pet. Thence:
6
ENE of Laem Yai (10°54′N, 99°31′E), a remarkable
craggy headland. It is the N promontory of a
peninsula of which Laem Chong Phra is the S
extremity. Ko Sikong, with a rock awash close NE
of it, lies 1 miles S of Laem Chong Phra. Ao
Pathiu lies to the W of Laem Chong Phra, and a
below-water obstruction and a dangerous wreck lie,
respectively, 9 cables SE and close N of Laem Yai.
Thence to a position:
7
E of Laem Mae Ramphung (11°11′N, 99°34′E), the S
extremity of a peninsula, which appears as an
island from a distance. A light (4.76) stands
9 cables NE of the point. Prachuap Khiri Khan
harbour (4.72) is situated close N of Laem
Ramphung. Ko Thalu, a flat-topped island, lies
6 miles S of Laem Mae Ramphung; a
below-water obstruction lies 3 miles SSW of the
island, and there are several islets and dangers
between it and the mainland.
Laem Mae Ramphung to Ko Sattakut
4.66
1
From a position E of Laem Mae Ramphung (11°11′N,
99°34′E), the track continues NNE for 65 miles, passing
(with positions from Ko Raet Light (11°48′N, 99°50′E)):
2
ESE of Laem Kum (22 miles SSW), a rocky point.
Ko Ramra, with Hin Krut, awash, an extension of
the reef which extends 1 mile S from it, lies
4 miles S of Laem Kum. Thap Sakae, a village
of considerable size, is situated 1 miles N of
Laem Kum, at the entrance to Khlong Thap Sakae.
Thence:
3
ESE of Ko Chan and Ko Thai Si (10 miles SSW).
A dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies
3 miles NE of Ko Chan. Thence:
4
ESE of Ko Raet from where a light (4.64) is
exhibited. Ko Raet lies in the S entrance to Ao
Prachuap Khiri Khan. A dangerous wreck lies
close NE of it, and it is surrounded by rocks and
islets; see chart. Prachuap Khiri Khan is situated at
the head of the bay. Ao Manao lies close S of Ao
Prachuap Khiri Khan and is entered between two
promontories extending from Khao Khlong Wan in
the S, and Khao Ruam Muak in the N; the
promontories are remarkable, each rising to a
rocky horn a short distance inland. The bay is
encumbered by obstructions and islands. An
aircraft target practice area extends E and N from
the mouth of the bay; see 4.61. Ko Luam stands in
the E approach to the bay; a danger area (4.4)
surrounds the island out to mile from the
island’s centre. A former mined area exists S and
E of Ao Prachuap Khiri Khan, see 4.6. Thence:
5
To a position E of Ko Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E),
from where a light (4.64) is exhibited. A
remarkable range of rocky mountains, Khao
Samroi Yot, lies 5 miles inland W of Ko Sattakut;
the highest peaks are situated at the N end of the
range, which at a distance has the appearance of a
CHAPTER 4
117
serrated tableland, and is unlike any other land in
the Gulf of Thailand. An explosives dumping
ground and aircraft target practice area lie E of Ko
Sattakut; see 4.61.
(Directions continue for the head of the
Gulf of Thailand as far as Bangkok Bar at 4.104;
directions continue for the E seaboard of
the Gulf of Thailand from Ko Chuang at 4.220)
Inshore route — Ko Samui to Laem Thaen
4.67
1
The Ko Samui group of islands, which extend 36 miles
NNE from Laem Na Tham (9°13′N, 99°53′E), are
separated from the mainland, and from each other by
navigable channels.
2
The passage between the mainland and Ko Samui
(9°30′N, 100°00′E) (4.79) is, for the most part, encumbered
by islets and rocks. Ko Wang Nai, the islet closest to the
mainland from where a light (4.46) is exhibited, is high
and rock fringed. Between Ko Wang Nai and Ko Samui lie
Ko Wang Nok, with Hin Ran Pet close SE of it; Ko Rap, a
rock fringed islet; Hin Nam Lai, above water and foul; Ko
Mat Kong (Ko Mat Kaing); Ko Katen, a rock fringed islet;
Ko Mat Sum; Hin La Lek; and Hin Ang Wang, which lies
on the E side of a detached reef marked on its E side by a
light-buoy (E cardinal). Several other dangers, consisting of
above and below-water rocks, lie amongst these islets, and
between them and Ko Samui.
3
Chong Samui, the best channel, leading between the
mainland and Ko Wang Nai, is partly encumbered by
fishing stakes. The passage between Ko Katen and Ko
Samui is suitable only for small craft. See 4.45 and 4.63
concerning tidal streams.
4.68
1
Chong Phangan, is the channel between Ko Samui and
Ko Phangan (9°45′N, 100°02′E) (4.81). It is entered from E
between Ko Kong Ok, that lies close NE of Ko Samui, and
Laem Thian, the SE extremity of Ko Phangan, from where
a light (4.46) is exhibited. There is clear passage, almost
3 miles in width, between the 10 m depth contours on
either hand. See 4.63 concerning tidal streams.
4.69
1
Between Laem Thrap (9°19′N, 99°49′E) at the NW end
of Chong Samui (4.67) and Laem Thuat, 8 miles WNW,
the coast consists of several small bays with islets offshore.
Khao Hom Muang, a remarkable crag, is situated close
inland, 1 miles SSW of Laem Thuat. A light (white metal
framework tower, 15 m in height) (9°21′N, 99°41′E) is
exhibited from Ko Palikan, close N of Laem Thuat.
2
The Ko Phaluai group of islands extend some 28 miles
N from Laem Thuat (9°20′N, 99°41′E). Ko Phaluai
(9°32′N, 99°41′E), its summit near the centre, has a
remarkable horn of land, 316 m high, near its SW
extremity. Ko Tao Pun, surrounded by rocks, lies 8 cables
off the NW side of Ko Phaluai, and close off the SE side
lie Ko Pra Tu and Ko Kluai.
3
South of Ko Phalaui lie Ko Thalu, Ko Chuak, Ko Wua
Chiu, Ko Som, and Ko Nok Taphao.
Chong Tai, the most S passage, between Ko Nok Taphao
and Ko Palikan, is entered from the E, passing N of Ko
Lak, which lies 2⋅2 miles E of Ko Palikan. This passage is
through a former mined area; see 4.6.
4.70
1
North of Ko Phaluai lies Ko Ang Thong, with Ko Wua
Te 1 miles E of it, and Ko Ai Chae, also known as Ko
Phai Ruak, 2 miles ESE of it. North of Ko Ang Thong
several rocks and islets extend about 4 miles N, mostly
within the 5 metre depth contour.
2
Ko Wao Yai, which has three islets and other dangers
extending 7 cables S from it, lies 3 miles N of Ko Lim,
and Ko Tungku, the most N islet in this chain, lies
2 miles NE of Ko Wao Yai, and has a small islet about
3 cables S of it.
3
Chong Ang Thong (9°35′N, 99°41′E), the best channel
through the Ko Phaluai chain of islands, is entered from E
between Ko Phaluai and Ko Ang Thong. Depths throughout
are generally about 6⋅5 m. Dangerous wrecks lie,
respectively, 3 miles ENE and 10 miles from the
summit of Ko Phaluai.
4
Chong Nua, the N channel through the Ko Phaluai
group, is about 3 miles in width and lies between Ko Lim
and Ko Wao Yai.
4.71
1
On the mainland, W of the Ko Samui and Ko Phangan
groups of islands (4.67 and 4.69), is Laem Sui (9°23′N,
99°19′E) from where a light is exhibited (white metal
framework tower, 30 m in height). Ao Ban Don (4.83) lies
to the S of it and Laem Riu, a promontory, 38 miles N.
The Mae Nam Lang Suan (4.86) discharges into the sea
4 miles S of Laem Riu. Offshore, between Laem Sui and
Laem Thaen (9°13′N, 99°53′E), there are numerous
dangers, most of which are below-water; see chart. Ko
Rang Banthat, a rocky islet from where a light (white metal
framework tower, 9 m in height) is exhibited, lies 6 miles
NNE from Laem Riu. The Nan Nuang Oilfield (10°11′N,
99°27′E) (4.90) lies 14 miles ENE from Ko Rang
Banthat.
Prachuap Khiri Khan
General information
4.72
1
Position. The port of Prachuap Khiri Khan (11°12′N,
99°35′E) has been constructed close N of Laem Mae
Ramphung (4.65).
Function. It is Thailand’s deepest sea port, handling
containers as well as minerals, rubber and fertiliser.
2
Traffic. In 2003 there were 5 ship calls with a total of
69 127 dwt.
Port Authority. Harbour Department of Thailand, 1278
Yotha Road, Talardnoi, Samphanthawong District, Bangkok
10100.
Limiting conditions
4.73
1
Maximum size of vessel handled. The port has handled
a vessel up to 242 m LOA, 75 000 dwt and draught 13⋅5 m.
Arrival information
4.74
1
Outer anchorage. The anchorage is centred on
11°11′⋅5N, 99°37′⋅0E.
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boarding point is close
E of the Entrance Light-buoy (11°11′N, 99°36′E).
Tugs. Tugs are available and must be used for berthing
and unberthing.
Climatic table
4.75
1
See 1.148 and 1.153.
Directions
4.76
1
Approach. The approach from seaward is clear of
dangers.
CHAPTER 4
118
Entry. From the Entrance Light-buoy (11°11′N,
99°36′E), the buoyed channel leads NNW into the harbour.
Leading beacons are established on the shore.
2
Useful marks:
Laem Mae Ramphung Light (white metal framework
tower, 15 m in height) (11°11′⋅N, 99°34′⋅8E)
Breakwater light (11°11′⋅9N, 99°35′⋅3E).
Berths
4.77
1
The main jetty on the E side is 450 m long with two
berths able to accommodate vessels up to 80 000 dwt. The
second jetty on the N side has two berths able to
accommodate vessels up to 20 000 dwt. The berths are
protected by a breakwater running E and then S from the
shore.
Port services
4.78
1
Repairs are possible.
Other facilities: a hospital at Bang Saphan, about
6 km W. Collection service available for garbage.
Supplies: fuel, if previously arranged; fresh water;
limited stores.
Communications. Nearest airport is at Krung Thep
(Bangkok).
Minor harbours, bays and anchorages
Charts 3963, 3964
Ko Samui
4.79
1
General information. Ko Samui (9°30′N, 100°00′E), a
popular resort island, is part of the province of Nakhon Si
Thammarat. The island is covered with dense forest and
there are several villages and holiday resort developments
around its shores, and an airport in the NE. The island’s
summit is Khao Yai, near its centre.
2
Laem Hin Khom is the island’s SW point; a group of
five islets, Ko Malaeng Pong, Ko Mao Thap, Ko Din, and
two others, lie together 2 miles NW of the point. Laem
Chong Khram is the islands W point. Close SSE of this
point is a ferry terminal. Laem Yai, from where a light is
exhibited (white metal framework tower, 15 m in height), is
the NW point. Amphoe Ko Samui is situated at the head of
the bay between these points. A reef fringes the bay, except
for an opening in front of the village, where there is a
jetty. The white sector of the light (4.64) exhibited from
the head of the jetty marks the safe approach. A pipeline
marked by a can buoy at its end, extends 4 cables offshore
from the village; there is a mooring buoy on each side of
the can buoy.
3
On the N side of the island, Hin Kong Noi lies 5 cables
NE of Laem Yai. Between Laem Na Lan (9°35′N, 99°59′E)
and Laem Samrong, 5 miles to the E, there are several
bays. A below-water rock lies 7 cables NE of Laem Na
Lan, and between Ko Som, 5 cables W of Laem Samrong,
and Ko Kong Ok, 1 miles ENE of Laem Samrong, there
are two above-water rocks, and numerous below-water
rocks and other dangers.
4
The E side of Ko Samui consists of a number of bays.
Many have rocks close off the shore.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 2 ship calls recorded with a
total of 7504 dwt.
4.80
1
Anchorage may be obtained in the bays on the E and
W sides of Ko Samui, according to the prevailing
monsoon. There is also anchorage in the bays on the E side
of the N coast of the island. Local knowledge is required
in either case.
Ko Phangan
4.81
1
General information. Ko Phangan (9°45′N,100°02′E)
has its highest point, Khao Ra, near its centre. Close off its
SW extremity lies the islet of Ko Tae Nai, with Ko Tae
Nok 1 miles W of it; a stranded wreck lies 7 cables SSE
of Ko Tae Nai. Ko Kong Kliang lies 2⋅4 miles NNW of Ko
Tae Nok and Ko Kong Nui lies close offshore, 1⋅7 miles
NE of Ko Kong Kliang. Ko Ma lies close off the NW
extremity of Ko Phanang; the NE extremity is Laem Pak
Chong (Laem Thong Ta Pan). Ko Kong Than Sadet lies
1.4 miles SSE from this point.
4.82
1
Anchorage may be obtained on all sides of the island,
depending on the prevailing monsoon. Local knowledge is
required.
Ao Ban Don
4.83
1
General information. Laem Khlung Mo (9°17′N,
99°32′E), the E entrance point to Ao Ban Don, lies
9 miles WSW of Laem Thuat (4.69), and Laem Sui, the
W entrance point, lies 14 miles WNW of Laem Khlung
Mo. A light (4.71) is exhibited from Laem Sui. The bay
itself is shallow and navigable only by small craft with
local knowledge. The shoals in the bay are reported to be
constantly changing in position and decreasing in depth,
and much of the bay and the area E of it, including Chong
Tai (4.69), is within a former mined area; see 4.6. During
the SW monsoon numerous fishing stakes are to be found
in the vicinity.
2
Pilotage is required for vessels exceeding 1000 gt.
4.84
1
Directions. The Entrance Light-buoy (pillar, safe water)
moored 7 miles E of Laem Sui, marks a buoyed channel
which leads S then SSW, passing W of Ko Prap, 7 miles
farther S, and to the entrance to Mae Nam Ta Pi (Mae
Nam Ban Don). Tha Thong is close to the entrance to the
river and has a general cargo terminal (4.85). The channel
is maintained at a depth of 4⋅8 m.
2
Ko Prap Light (9°15′⋅7N, 99°26′⋅1E) (4.64) stands on
the summit of Ko Prap; Ko Prap Light stand on Ko
Prap, close NW of Ko Prap Light; and Ko Prap Light
stands close off Ko Prap, 8 cables N of Ko Prap Light.
Two further lights, Lights and , stand at the river
mouth, one at the entrance on the W side, and one farther
in on the E bank.
3
The town of Surat Thani is situated 4 miles within the
mouth of the Mae Nam Ta Pi. Above the town the river
divides into two branches, and it is reported that, with only
a short porterage, boats using the E branch can
communicate with the upper waters of Khlong Trang,
which discharges on the W side of the Malaysian
Peninsula.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 5 ship calls recorded with a
total of 11 785 dwt.
4.85
1
Anchorage for small craft is in the vicinity of Ko Prap,
as shown on the chart. This anchorage is within the former
mined area (4.83).
Vessels with draughts of 4 m and more may anchor
about 6 miles N of Laem Sui.
Berths. Tha Thong pier has two berths, one with a
length of 194 m and the other 94 m.
CHAPTER 4
119
Lang Suan
4.86
1
General information. The town of Lang Suan is
situated about 6 miles inland from the mouth of the Mae
Nam Lang Suan (9°57′N, 99°10′E). The mouth itself is
obstructed by a shifting bar over which there are depths of
less than 2 m at HW; during the rainy season the out-going
stream from the river attains a rate of 4 kn. There are dry
sandspits off the mouth, and a bank extends a mile
offshore.
2
Lang Suan Light (4.64) stands on the S side of the
entrance to the river. Hin Si Phayat, a narrow spit on
which there are several rocks awash, lies 1 miles SE of
the light; a W cardinal light-buoy (can) marks the inshore
end. Hin Folcon (charted as Hin Falcon), lies 1 miles NE
of Lang Suan Light, and patches with rocks awash lie
between the W end of Hin Si Phayat and Hin Folcon; the
W side of Hin Folcon is marked by a W cardinal
light-buoy (can). No 1 Entrance Light-buoy (pillar, special
mark) is moored about 6 cables ENE of Lang Suan Light.
Other named dangers are (with positions from Lang Suan
Light), Hin Haeng (3 miles NE); Hin Nai Phin (2 miles
ENE); and Hin Rua Tit (1 miles E).
4.87
1
Directions. The least encumbered approach to the Mae
Nam Lang Suan, though still with several rocks and shoals,
is from NNE, passing S of Ko Phithak, which lies
6 miles NNE of Lang Suan Light, and is connected to
Laem Tong Wo, 5 cables SW, by a drying ridge; a ledge of
rock, upon which stands Hin Phithak, extends 5 cables S
from Ko Phithak. Numerous fishing stakes may be
encountered N and S of the river’s entrance during the SW
monsoon. There are also fish farms to the N and S.
4.88
1
Anchorage is off the mouth of the Mae Nam Lang
Suan. It has been reported that small craft with local
knowledge may be able to obtain secure anchorage in the
inner part, W of the inner line of dangers, in a depth of
5 m.
Mae Nam Tako
4.89
1
General information. The Mae Nam Tako (10°06′N,
99°09′E) has Khao Kratha close S of it. A light (white
concrete column, 6 m in height) stands on the S entrance
point of the river. Ko Khram, surrounded by foul ground,
lies 2 miles SE of the light, and the Entrance Light-buoy
(safe water, can) is moored 6 cables ENE of the river
mouth. Further buoys mark the river entrance.
2
Ko Rang Banthat (4.64) lies 4 miles off the Mae Nam
Tako. Ko Khang Sua, with a rock awash close W of it; Ko
Rang Ha, also with a rock awash close W of it; Ko
Maphrao, which lies on the outer edge of a reef extending
SE from Laem Ngu, and Ko Khi Nok, lie respectively,
2 miles N, 2 miles NNW, 2 miles NW, and 1 miles W
of Ko Rang Banthat. Two other islets, Ko Yo and Ko Muk,
lie 9 cables SW of Ko Maphrao. During the SW monsoon
fishing stakes may be encountered in the N and NE parts
of the bay.
Nang Nuang Oilfield
4.90
1
General information. Nang Nuang Oilfield (10°11′N,
99°27′E) consists of a terminal comprising an offshore
platform to which a storage tanker is moored, both of
which are lighted. Navigation is restricted in an area,
marked by four light-buoys, within 500 m of the terminal.
Depths alongside the terminal are about 29 m.
2
Pilotage is compulsory when berthing, which is carried
out during the hours of daylight only.
Ao Sawi
4.91
1
General information. Ao Sawi (10°19′N, 99°12′E) is
entered between Laem Pracham Hiang and Laem Thian; the
islets Ko Mat Wai Noi and Ko Mat Wai Yai lie 1 miles S
of Laem Pracham Hiang, and Ko Raet lies 8 cables SW of
the same point.
2
Ko Kula, which has a sharp peak, lies 1 mile NE of
Laem Pracham Hiang, with Ko Kra between them. Ko
Yung lies 1 miles NW of Ko Kula, and a group of three
islets, Ko Nu, Ko Maeo and Ko Khi Nok (not named on
the chart), lie inshore of Ko Kula. A dangerous wreck lies
close NW of Ko Kra. Ko Klaep lies in mid bay with Ko
Rang Kachiu and Ko Thonglang about 3 miles NE of it.
Ko Hua Krachong, a rock, lies 2 miles W of Ko Klaep,
near the edge of a mud-flat extending from the head of the
bay. Ko Ka, one of a group of islets and rocks, lies
1 miles ESE of Laem Thian.
3
Caution. Local knowledge is required if entering this
bay. Fishing stakes may be found in the bay.
Ao Chumphon
4.92
1
General information. Ko Samet (10°26′N, 99°18′E) lies
on the S side, in the entrance to Ao Chumphon; except on
its SE side the island is fringed with rocks. Ko Mattra,
3 miles SE, with rocks extending a short distance from its
NE and SW ends, has Ko I Raet with Ko Lak Raet and
other above-water rocks, and Ko Lawa, respectively 1
and 2 miles SW of it, and Ko Maphrao 2 miles W of it.
Ko Sak lies 2 miles NW of Ko Mattra.
2
Ao Chumphon is entered in the S between a reef fringed
point (10°25′⋅3N, 99°16′⋅8E) with an light-buoy (E
cardinal) close E of it; an islet, Ko Kho Thian, lies on the
reef; and, in the N, Laem Kho Kwang. Laem Kho Kwang
consists of a hill at its extremity which is connected to the
coast SW by a low isthmus covered with trees. The N side
of the bay is hilly, the E slopes rising steeply. Khlong Tha
Taphao discharges into the bay 2 miles N of the S entrance
point; there is a village on either side of its mouth, and the
town of Chumphon lies 9 miles upstream.
3
Ko Mattaphon lies about 3 cables E of the mouth of
Khlong Tha Taphao; a light (4.64) is exhibited from the
island. Ko Mattaphon is connected to the river mouth by a
drying bank which extends for about 5 cables off the coast,
forming the head of the bay. The S part of this bank
consists of sand, and the N part, of mud. A light-buoy
(port hand) marks the E side of the channel in the
approach to the river’s mouth.
4
There are several islands in the approaches to Ao
Chumphon; Ko Ngam Yai (10°29′⋅5N, 99°25′⋅5E), with Ko
Ngam Noi close SSW and Hin Lak Ngam, an above-water
rock close NNE, lies in the outer approaches; Ko
Chorakhe, with a reef extending 1 mile W from its S
extremity with a rock awash at the outer end, lies 4 miles
NNW of Ko Ngam Yai, and rocks with depths of 4⋅9 m
and 6⋅8 m lie respectively 1 mile and 3 miles W of Ko
Chorakhe; Ko Kalok, Ko Thalu and Ko Lak Ngam lie,
respectively, 3 miles WSW, 3 miles WSW, and 2 miles
SSW of Ko Ngam Yai, and Hin Lak Mattra lies on a shoal
1 miles S of Ko Thalu. Farther into the bay, in the N
part, lies Hin Chumphon, and there is a 2⋅5 m rocky patch
between it and the mainland NW of it.
CHAPTER 4
120
5
Ao Phanang Tak is the bay close N of Ao Chumphon. It
is entered between Laem Kho Kwang and Laem Thung
Sai, 1 miles NNE. The shores of the bay are wooded, and
the coastal bank of sand dries out to a distance of about
7 cables.
Traffic. In 2003 there was 1 ship call with a total of
1800 dwt.
4.93
1
Caution. There is a former mined area in Ao
Chumphon; see 4.6.
Fishing stakes may encumber the bay during the SW
monsoon period.
4.94
1
Anchorage may be obtained NE of Ko Mattaphon,
distant about 1 miles, in depths of 1 to 9 m, during the
SW monsoon. During the NE monsoon, small vessels with
local knowledge may anchor under the lee of Ko Samet.
Ao Bang Son
4.95
1
General information. Ao Bang Son is a shallow bay W
of Laem Thaen (10°40′N, 99°22′E) (4.65). Khlong Bang
Son discharges into the head of the bay; the village of Ban
Bo Mao is situated on the E side of the entrance to the
river, and the town of Pathiu lies 2 miles NW of it.
2
Anchorage. The village of Ban Na Thap is situated on
its W shore. Local craft occasionally anchor off this
village.
GULF OF THAILAND — THE HEAD OF THE GULF FROM KO SATTAKUT TO KO CHUANG
AND THE NORTH EASTERN SEABOARD FROM KO CHUANG TO KHLONG YAI
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 67
Description
4.96
1
This section describes the head of the Gulf of Thailand
from Ko Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E) to Ko Chuang
12°31′N, 100°58′E), including Krung Thep, and the NE
seaboard from Ko Chuang to Khlong Yai (11°46′N,
102°53′E).
2
The section is in three parts comprising:
The W seaboard of the head of the Gulf from Ko
Sattakut, including Krung Thep (4.97).
The E seaboard of the head of the Gulf from Ko
Chuang, including Si Racha Pilotage District
(4.149).
The NE seaboard of the Gulf from Ko Chuang to
Khlong Yai (4.211).
KO SATTAKUT TO THE HEAD OF THE
GULF OF THAILAND — W SEABOARD
General information
Chart 3965
Route
4.97
1
From a position E of Ko Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E),
the route continues N and thence NE to the head of the
Gulf of Thailand S of the Bangkok Bar (13°26′N,
100°36′E). For vessels approaching the head of the Gulf of
Thailand from the SE and making for ports on the E side
of the head of the Gulf or Krung Thep, directions are given
after 4.149.
Topography
4.98
1
The bight which forms the head of the Gulf of Thailand,
that area lying N of Lat 12°30′N, is approximately
rectangular in shape. The long axis, lying N-S, is about
60 miles in length, and the average width is about 45 miles,
broadening in way of the bays.
2
Four large rivers discharge into the head of the bight
through its NW and N shores, from W to E, they are, the
Mae Nam Mae Klong (4.107); the Mae Nam Tha Chin
(4.109); and the Mae Nam Chao Phraya (4.112), upon
which Krung Thep (Bangkok) (4.110) is situated, and the
Mae Nam Bang Pakong (4.209).
3
The stretch of coast between Khao Mong Lai (11°51′N,
99°50′E) and Laem Phak Bia (4.104), 75 miles NNE, is
known as Chai Fung Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat,
meaning the Coast of King Naresuan the Great.
4
From Laem Phak Bia (13°02′N, 100°06′E) in the W, to
the entrance to the Mae Nam Chao Praya in the N, fringing
mud-flats may extend up to 4 miles offshore. The coast
itself is largely straight and wooded in the W and low and
mangrove fringed in the N. There are very few islands or
rocks off the W and N coasts of the bight forming the head
of the Gulf of Thailand.
Depths
4.99
1
Depths throughout the area are shallower than elsewhere
within the Gulf of Thailand, and in the main do not exceed
20 m. The 10 m depth contour follows the coastline,
extending S for up to 13 miles from the N shore of the
bight.
2
Caution. Between 10 and 20 miles offshore, between
Laem Phak Bia (13°02′N, 100°06′E) and the mouth of the
Mae Nam Mae Klong (13°21′N, 100°00′E), depths may be
up to 3⋅7 m less than charted.
Hazards
4.100
1
Exercise areas. A danger area exists 20 miles off the
coast between Hua Hin (12°35′N, 99°57′E) and up to Lat
12°53′N. See 4.4 and charts.
Fishing stakes, numerous, may be encountered,
particularly along the N coast in depths of less than 10 m.
Marine farms
4.101
1
Marine farms exist in many locations along the coastal
belt; see chart.
CHAPTER 4
121
Bangkok Bar Light and Pilot Station (4.102)
(Original dated 1996)
Major lights:
4.102
1
Ko Sattakut Light (12°12′N, 100°02′E) (4.64).
Khao Takiap Light (white metal tripod, 7 m in height)
(12°31′N, 99°59′E).
Mae Klong Light (white framework tower, 30 m in
height) (13°21′N, 100°00′E).
Mae Klong Entrance Channel Beacon N (13°18′⋅8N,
100°01′⋅3E).
2
Bangkok Bar Light (white concrete structure, red
bands, 36 m in height) (13°23′N, 100°36′E).
Ko Phai Light (white concrete tower, 12 m in height)
(12°56′N, 100°40′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.103
1
Racon: Bangkok Bar Lighthouse — as above.
Directions
(continued from 4.66)
4.104
1
From a position E of Ko Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E)
to a position S of the Bangkok Bar Light (13°23′N,
100°36′E), the track leads N for about 52 miles and then
NE for 32 miles, passing (with positions from Laem Phak
Bia (13°02′N, 100°06′E)):
2
Clear of the dangerous wreck (12°17′N, 100°24′E),
position approximate. Other dangerous wrecks lie
5 miles NW and 3 miles ENE of this wreck, and
a wreck over which there is a safe clearance depth
of 18 m lies 2 miles NE of it. Thence:
3
E of Khao Takiap (33 miles SSW), which rises from
a low headland fronted by Hin Sao and other
rocks awash, and stands out prominently from the
coast. A former mined area exists close N of Hin
Sao; see 4.6. A light (4.102) is exhibited from
Khao Takiap. Hua Hin (4.105), is situated 4 miles
NNW of Khao Takiap, and Hua Hin Light (white
concrete column, black bands, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from a rock lying 3 cables off the
adjacent coast. A dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 18 miles E of Khao Takiap.
4
Caution. On account of the banks and shallow
patches extending 8 miles offshore, vessels should
give a wide berth to the coast N of Hua Hin, and
not approach it within depths of 18 m, until
approaching Laem Phak Bia. Thence:
5
E of Laem Phak Bia, a low point. A light (white
metal framework tower, 15 m in height) is
exhibited from a position 6 cables NNE of the
point. North of the point, a lighted platform
(4 miles NNE) is linked to the shore W of it by
a submarine oil pipeline. A former mined area
exists 13 miles E of Laem Phak Bia; see 4.6.
Thence:
6
SE of Ao Mae Klong (19 miles NNW), at the
entrance to the Mae Nam Mae Klong (4.107); Ao
Bang Tabun being 5 miles SW of it. The entrance
to the Mae Nam Tha Chin (29 miles NNE) (4.109)
lies 18 miles ENE of the entrance to the Mae Nam
Mae Klong. Thence:
7
NE to the Bangkok Bar Light (13°23′N, 100°36′E)
(4.102), which is a conspicuous structure,
remaining clear of a dangerous wreck (31 miles
ENE), position approximate. A former mined area
exists 8 miles S of the coast between the mouths
of the Mae Nam Tha Chin (4.109) and the Mae
Nam Chao Phraya (4.112); see 4.6.
(Directions continue at 4.136 for Krung Thep
and 4.158 for the E side of the Gulf)
CHAPTER 4
122
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3965
Hua Hin
4.105
1
General information. Hua Hin (12°34′N, 99°57′E), a
town of considerable importance, has a T-headed pier,
180 m in length, which extends ENE from the shore
6 cables NW of Hua Hin Light (4.104). A dangerous wreck
lies close off the pier.
Hua Hin airfield is situated close to the coast 6 km N of
the town.
Cha Am
4.106
1
General information. Cha Am (12°48′N, 99°58′E), a
substantial village where there is a large cement factory
and four storage silos, has Ban Klong Thian, a smaller
village, situated on the coast 2 miles NE of it, close S of
which two small breakwaters extend ESE from the coast.
Mae Nam Mae Klong
4.107
1
General information. The Mae Nam Mae Klong
(13°21′N, 100°00′E), which rises some 120 miles NW, has
Samut Songkhram 4 miles N of its entrance, and Rat Buri a
further 15 miles up river.
4.108
1
Directions. See caution at 4.99 concerning depths.
Light-buoys (pillar, safe water) are moored 10 miles SSE
and 4 miles S of the Mae Klong Light (4.102). Having
crossed the bar, with depths of less than 1 m over it, which
blocks the entrance 3 miles offshore, a buoyed channel
about 2 miles in length, marked by light-beacons at its
outer end, leads between drying banks of soft mud to the
river mouth at the head of Ao Mae Klong.
2
Useful mark: radio tower (red light), 3 miles N of
Mae Klong Light.
Caution. A former mined area exists off the Mae Nam
Mae Klong; see 4.6.
Mae Nam Tha Chin
4.109
1
General information. The Mae Nam Tha Chin
(13°30′N, 100°17′E) has Samut Sakhon situated on its right
bank 2 miles N of its mouth. The entrance to the river,
which is difficult to distinguish as the land in the
neighbourhood is low and covered by trees, is obstructed
by a bar with depths of less than 1 m over it. The
alignment (338°) of two light-beacons on the E bank of the
river leads through a marked channel and over the bar.
Another light-beacon and a light-buoy (safe water) lie,
respectively, about 5 miles and 6 miles SSE from the
river mouth. A light (white metal framework tower, 15 m
in height) is exhibited from Ban Hua Phong, on the W side
of the entrance to the river.
2
In November, 1871, near the time of the highest tides of
the year, HMS Teazer, draught 3⋅4 m, reached Amphoe
Nakhon Chai Si, 25 miles up river.
Numerous fishing stakes may be encountered off the
entrance and in the river.
3
Traffic. In 2003 there were 3 ship calls with a total of
5645 dwt.
Useful mark: radio tower (red lights) on the E bank,
2 miles N of the light at Ban Hua Phong.
Caution. Two former mined areas exist off the Mae
Nam Tha Chin; see 4.6.
KRUNG THEP (BANGKOK)
General information
Charts 999, 993
Position
4.110
1
Krung Thep, also known as Bangkok, is situated on the
banks of the Mae Nam Chao Phraya, which discharges into
the head of the Gulf of Thailand in position 13°30′N,
100°38′E. The area, now known as Krung Thep Harbour,
in the vicinity of position 13°42′N, 100°35′E, is some
16 miles up river from its entrance at Phra
Chunlachomklao Fort (13°32′⋅5N, 100°35′⋅3E) (4.138),
whilst the city of Krung Thep and the old port lie some
8 miles farther up.
Function
4.111
1
Krung Thep is the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand,
and of Changwat Phra Nakhon, and is Thailand’s principal
port, both commercial and naval, although, in commercial
terms, Laem Chabang Port (4.170) is being developed to
assume this role. Krung Thep is also a port of entry for
Laos.
2
The city, which lies on the E side of the river, is
surrounded by battlements flanked by towers in places, and
is traversed by canals. It accommodates the Royal Palaces
and most of the public offices; the Grand Palace and the
temples are magnificent and of a style peculiar to Thailand.
To the S of the city proper is the commercial quarter,
housing some of the legations and consulates.
Topography
4.112
1
The coast in the vicinity of the mouth of the Mae Nam
Chao Phraya (13°30′N, 100°38′E) is, in keeping with the
remainder of the N shore of the head of the Gulf of
Thailand, featureless, low, wooded, and fringed by
mangroves and a coastal bank, parts of which dry.
2
In way of the river mouth the coastal bank forms a bar
extending some 6 miles offshore, consisting of extensive
drying banks of mud and sand through which two
navigable channels are maintained.
The river banks are lined with trees in the lower
portions of the river; the river rises in the N part of
Thailand near the frontier with Laos.
Port limits
4.113
1
The port limits are shown on the chart.
Approach and entry
4.114
1
The Mae Nam Chao Phraya is approached from S and
entered via the main (W) dredged channel across the bar. A
shallower approach channel in the E is used by lighters and
barges.
Traffic
4.115
1
In 2003 there were 2564 ship calls with a total of
35 788 559 dwt.
At Bangkok Bar anchorage there were 277 ship calls
with a total of 2 699 739 dwt.
Port Authority
4.116
1
Krung Thep Port, Port Authority of Thailand Office
Building, Klongtoey, Krung Thep 10110, Thailand.
CHAPTER 4
123
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.117
1
Bangkok Bar extends 8 miles S from the point by Phra
Chunlachomklao Fort (13°32′⋅5N, 100°35′⋅3E), the W
entrance point of the Mae Nam Chao Phraya, and is subject
to frequent changes.
2
The depth of the dredged channel across the bar to the
river mouth is maintained at 6⋅0 m, with a bottom width of
100 m in the straight sections and 250 m in the curve.
However a typhoon in the South China Sea in the vicinity
of Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E) has been known to
lower the water level at the bar by as much as 0⋅9 m.
3
The river level is highest in February and lowest in July
and August; in the vicinity of the bar the difference is
about 0⋅5 m. Water level is also affected by the wind; S
winds will raise the level; strong NE or E winds blowing
in the Gulf of Thailand will also cause the water level to
be raised; strong W winds and heavy NW or W squalls
retard the in-going stream, and the water level is lowered.
4
Above the bar the river is navigable by small craft for
some 60 miles, and all vessels able to cross the bar may
use the port of Krung Thep. The maximum draughts at
which vessels may enter is dependant on their length; and
lengths and draughts are in turn subject to maximums of
172 m and 8⋅2 m, respectively.
5
A Bar Adder, determined by a vessel’s length, when
added to the predicted height of tide at the bar, will give
the maximum draught allowed for that vessel. The Bar
Adder figures are shown in the following table for vessels
with beams not exceeding 25 m:
Length of vessel Bar Adder
128⋅4 to 135⋅6 m 4⋅8 m
135⋅6 to 143⋅3 m 4⋅6 m
143⋅3 to 152⋅4 m 4⋅4 m
152⋅4 to 161⋅5 m 4⋅2 m
6
Owing to the bends in the channel and in the river, the
ship handling characteristics of a vessel over 150 m in
length must also be taken into consideration if crossing the
bar with a deep draught.
7
Several major bridges span the river in Zone 1;
elsewhere, overhead cables cross the river in places, as
indicated on the chart (see also 4.139).
Tidal levels
4.118
1
Bangkok Bar MHWS, 3⋅5 m; MLWS, 1⋅2 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.119
1
Vessels of LOA 172 m, 25 m breadth and draught 8⋅2 m
(Zone 3), 7.9 m (Zone 2) and 7.6 m (Zone 1) are permitted
to enter the river and to berth. For Zones, see 4.128.
Vessels of greater LOA and beam may be permitted to
enter with prior approval of Port Authority, but tighter draft
restrictions will apply. At least 7 days notice is required.
2
Vessels permitted to pass beneath Krung Thep Bridge
(13°42′N, 100°30′E) are restricted to a maximum LOA of
85.3 m and draught 5.2 m; for vessels without cargo
proceeding to Bangkok Dockyard Ltd, the maximum
permitted LOA is 100.6 m.
Arrival information
Port operations
4.120
1
There are no restrictions on time of entry.
The harbour fairway is divided into two parts, the E and
the W, by vessels moored in mid-stream. The E part, the
main fairway, is to be used by vessels of more than
50 tons, and the W part by all others.
Port radio
4.121
1
There is a port radio service at Krung Thep.
Notice of ETA
4.122
1
ETA should be sent 48 hours in advance.
Outer anchorages
4.123
1
There are four designated anchorage areas, shown on the
chart, outside the Bangkok Bar. These are (with positions
from Bangkok Bar Pilot Station (13°22′⋅6N, 100°36′⋅0E)):
Bangkok Bar anchorage (2 miles SE). A dangerous
wreck (3 miles SSE), position approximate, marked
by a light-buoy (pillar, isolated danger), lies near
the S boundary of the anchorage.
2
Navy anchorage (2 miles E). A dangerous wreck
(3 miles E), position approximate, lies within the E
part of the anchorage.
Dangerous goods anchorage (4 miles ESE).
Quarantine anchorage (6 miles E).
Should bad weather make the anchorages outside the bar
unsuitable, vessels may anchor off Ko Si Chang (4.189), or,
during the NE monsoon, under the lee of Laem Samuk
(13°19′N, 100°54′E) (4.160).
3
Caution — Piracy. See 1.4. Vessels anchored outside
the bar should provide watchmen and adequate
illumination, keep ladders hoisted and take any other
necessary precautions. A police patrol boat is on duty day
and night at or near the pilot station and can be contacted
by radio, or by visual or sound signals (4.131).
4
Spoil grounds. An area of spoil ground with depths of
less than 5 m exists at the E end of the S harbour limit;
see chart.
A second spoil ground (6 miles ESE) is located E of
the dangerous goods anchorage and S of the quarantine
anchorage; see chart.
Submarine cables
4.124
1
Submarine cables cross the river as indicated on the
chart (see also 4.139 and 4.141).
Pilotage and tugs
4.125
1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 50 m or more in
length and is available throughout 24 hours (Zones 2 and
3). Vessels proceeding to Zone 1 should proceed from the
pilot station between 0300 and 1400. Vessels should close
to within 3 cables of the Bangkok Bar Pilot Station
(13°22′⋅6N, 100°36′⋅0E) to pick up the pilot.
Tugs are available.
Quarantine
4.126
1
In addition to the quarantine anchorage (4.123), there is
a quarantine station at Samut Prakan (13°35′⋅5N,
100°36′⋅0E) (4.139). Quarantine Officers may board
inbound vessels off Samut Prakan or at the berth, as may
Custom Officers.
CHAPTER 4
124
4.127
1
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Harbour
General layout
4.128
1
South of the river mouth lie the bar and the the outer
anchorages, whilst N of it, the river forms the port.
The river is divided into three zones, the limits of the
zones being marked by obelisks on each bank. The
principal port area is now in Zone 2, the middle zone; the
old port area is in Zone 1, the inner zone, fronting the city;
whilst Zone 3 is the outer zone.
2
The river is defined as having two fairways. The E, or
main, fairway is that lying between vessels moored or
anchored midstream and the E bank of the river. The W
fairway is that lying between ships midstream and the W
bank of the river. The fairways within 30 m of the river
banks are reserved for boat traffic.
4.129
1
The main berthing area (4.142), in Zone 2, is on the N
bank in the vicinity of latitude 13°42′⋅0N between the
meridians of 100°34′⋅0E and 100°35′⋅5E. The entrance to
Khlong Phra Khanong (13°42′N, 100°35′E) separates West
Quay from East Quay. There are general cargo, bulk liquid,
and container handling facilities. A line of dolphins runs
parallel to the bank on the S side of the river, where
vessels not exceeding 172 m in length may moor, and there
are five sets of moorings at the W end of Zone 2. In
addition, there are numerous berths, mostly private, shown
on the chart in Zones 1 and 3; and in Zone 1, on the NW
side of the river, is an extensive lighter anchorage area,
also shown on the chart, as are other lighter anchorage
areas in Zones 2 and 3.
2
Customs and quarantine offices are to be found at Samut
Prakan (13°36′N, 100°36′E) and at Krung Thep Harbour
(13°42′N, 100°35′E).
Naval moorings extend for about 1 mile on the W side
of the river in the S part of Zone 2, and opposite them, on
the other side of the river, there is a designated anchorage
area for the Royal Thai Navy.
Traffic signals
4.130
1
Tidal and berthing signals are displayed from a flagstaff
standing on the E end of West Quay (4.142).
When a vessel is leaving a dock or slipway by day, a
black ball is displayed at the dock or slipway entrance. At
night the black ball is replaced by a red light.
2
International Code flags LU shall be flown forward by a
vessel proceeding down river within harbour limits (4.113).
Such a vessel shall, when another vessel coming with the
tidal stream is encountered, keep in mid-stream, or as close
to mid-stream as possible if vessels are moored in
mid-stream, until she has been passed.
Storm signals: see 1.28.
Other signals
4.131
1
Two-letter groups from the International Code of Signals
may be hoisted by day, or signalled by flashing light at
night, to indicate that assistance is required, as in Diagram
4.131.
2
In each case, the making of the signal is to be followed
by the sounding of the Morse Code letter X continuously
on the ship’s whistle and, in addition, the vessels name,
location, and the two-letter group should be repeatedly
transmitted by VHF radio, in English.
Krung Threp − Emergency Signals (4.131)
Tidal streams
4.132
1
Tidal streams outside the bar and near the anchorages
set NW on the rising tide and SE on the falling tide,
attaining a rate of up to 1 kn. During the NE monsoon the
current occasionally sets W along the edge of the bank
with considerable strength.
2
Tidal streams over the bar run in the direction of the
channel. Maximum rates in normal conditions, at distances
from the Entrance Light-buoy (13°24′⋅2N, 100°34′⋅5E) are:
Distance Rate
mile to 1 kn
4 miles 1 to 2 kn
5 miles
1 to 2 kn
6 miles
1 to 3 kn
3
The flow at the first two or three stations may be
affected by the currents at sea outside the bar; see above.
4.133
1
Tidal streams within the bar. The flow, which sets in
the direction of the channel, is the resultant of the tidal
streams setting in and out of the river, and of the current
down the river. Maximum rates in normal conditions are as
follows:
Position Rate
Samut Prakan (13°36′N, 100°36′E) 1 to 2 kn
13°40′⋅8N, 100°31′⋅4E
1 to 2 kn
13°42′⋅0N, 100°29′⋅8E
2 to 2 kn
13°42′⋅7N, 100°30′⋅8E
2 to 2 kn
13°44′⋅0N, 100°30′⋅8E
2 to 3 kn
Grand Palace (13°45′N, 100°30′E)
1 to 2 kn
13°46′⋅0N, 100°30′⋅0E
1 to 2 kn
2
At Krung Thep the tidal stream is usually weaker than
the river current from September to December; during this
period the flow is almost continuously towards the sea.
Occasionally, during the rainy season, it may reach a rate
of 4 to 5 kn, and an exceptional quantity of floating matter
may be brought down river; see 4.136.
Climatic table
4.134
1
See 1.148 and 1.154.
Major light
4.135
1
Bangkok Bar Light (13°22′⋅6N, 100°36′⋅0E) (4.102).
CHAPTER 4
125
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.104 )
4.136
1
Cautions:
Fishing vessels, many of which carry no lights during
the hours of darkness, crowd the approaches to
Bangkok Bar.
2
The extensive drying banks fronting the coast,
through which run the approach channels crossing
the bar to the river entrance, are covered with
fishing stakes from which fishermens’ lights may
be exhibited at night.
Flotsam, particularly in the river, in the form of
floating vegetation and other rubbish, is liable to
block sea suction intakes.
4.137
1
Krung Thep is entered on crossing the S port limit
(4.113) en route to the Bangkok Bar Pilot Station
(13°22′⋅6N, 100°36′⋅0E) (4.125). The outer entrance to the
channel across the bar (4.114) is marked by the Entrance
Light-buoy (pillar, safe water) (13°24′⋅2N, 100°34′⋅5E),
moored 2 miles NW of Bangkok Bar Pilot Station.
2
From the Entrance Light-buoy, the channel leads NNE
for about 7 miles, then NW for a further 3 miles, to the S
limit of Zone 3. Throughout its length it is marked by
leading light-beacons and light-buoys, the positions of
which are frequently changed to conform to the changes in
the dredged channel; in addition, major changes to the
buoyage system may be undertaken. Local knowledge is
required when crossing the bar or navigating in the river.
For depths in the entrance channel see 4.117.
4.138
1
Phra Chunlachomklao Fort (13°32′⋅5N, 100°35′⋅3E), with
a flagstaff, is situated on the W entrance point of the river.
The river is entered on crossing the S limit of Zone 3 when
passing Phra Chunlachomklao Fort inbound.
2
From the entrance, to a position above Krung Thep city,
marks are placed on both sides of the river, at intervals of
3 km, to indicate the distance in kilometres from the river
mouth. These marks are shown on the chart; on the W side
of the river the start (Km 0 mark) is situated 2 cables E of
Phra Chunlachomklao Fort, and the mark on the E bank is
9 cables NE of the W mark. Krung Thep Harbour
(13°42′⋅0N, 100°34′⋅5E) is located in the vicinity of the
km27 mark.
4.139
1
From the entrance to the Mae Nam Chao Phraya (0 km)
to Krung Thep Harbour (27 km), and beyond, to the inner
limit of Zone 2 (36⋅7 km), passage is up-river for a distance
of approximately 19 miles, passing (with positions along
the river in kilometres from 0 km):
Between 0 to 3 km:
NE of Phra Chunlachomklao Fort (4.138) ( 0⋅35 km),
at the S limit of Zone 3, thence:
2
NE of the naval dockyard at Phra Chunlachomklao
(1⋅6 km). Jetties, on which there are berths for six
small vessels, extend up and down river from the
entrance to a basin on the W side; within the basin
there are two small dry docks. Thence:
Between 3 to 6 km:
SE of the entrance to Khlong Sanphasamit (3⋅9 km).
A stranded wreck lies 3 cables NNE from the
entrance. Thence:
3
Between 6 to 9 km:
Off Samut Prakan (6⋅6 km), situated on the E bank.
An island, on which is Phisua Samut Fort, lies
close off the W bank abreast Samut Prakan. A
submarine cable crosses the river between the islet
and Samut Prakan; see 4.141. Custom and
Quarantine officers may board here; see 4.126.
Thence:
4
Between 9 to 12 km:
Clear of the mid-river anchorage (9⋅7 km). Thence:
Between 12 to 15 km:
Clear of the fishing stakes (12⋅4 km). An overhead
power transmission line crosses the river at
12⋅6 km, as do submarine pipelines and cables; see
4.141. Thence:
5
WSW of a line of dolphins interspersed with
light-beacons (13⋅2 to 14⋅8 km). A tower is
situated on the river bank opposite the N most
light-beacon and close S of a substantial jetty.
Thence:
Between 15 to 18 km:
6
E of the S end of Khlong Lat Luang (16⋅4 km) which
is suitable only for boats, and leads N for about
1 miles and rejoins the river. It is closed during
the rainy season. Thence:
ESE of a church (17⋅1 km) at Phra Pradeng.
Overhead power transmission lines, vertical
clearance 51 m, cross the river close NE of this
church.
7
Between 18 to 21 km:
Clear of a number of fishing stakes; see chart.
Samrong lies on the right bank where there are
numerous wharves. Thence:
8
Between 21 to 24 km:
From Zone 3 to Zone 2 (21⋅45 km) and NW of the
Naval Ordnance Department (23⋅7 km), midway
through a stretch of the river with moorings on
either side kept exclusively for the use of the
Royal Thai Navy, see also 4.129. Thence:
9
Between 24 to 27 km:
E of a lighter anchorage area (25 km) and WSW of
East Quay (26 km) (4.142). Anchorage is
prohibited in this section of the river, in the area
shown on the chart. Thence:
10
Between 27 to 30 km:
SSW of West Quay (27⋅7 km) (4.142), with mooring
dolphins opposite (4.140). The river off West Quay
is a designated anchorage (4.140). Thence:
Clear of the oil depots and their berths (29 − 31 km).
Anchorage is prohibited in this section of the river;
see chart. Thence:
11
Between 30 to 33 km:
ESE of a lighter anchorage area (32⋅7 km), thence:
Between 33 to 36 km:
Through an anchorage prohibited area, shown on the
chart, and NNE of the N end of Khlong Lat Luang
(36 km) (above). Thence:
12
NW through Sathu Pradit mooring area (4.140) to the
inner limit of Zone 2 (36⋅7 km). Rama 9 Bridge,
vertical clearance 41 m, spans the river close NW
of the inner limit of Zone 2.
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
4.140
1
River anchorages, mostly in mid-river, are shown on
the chart. See also 4.129.
The stretch of harbour above the Grand Palace (13°45′N,
100°30′E) is normally reserved for Thai naval vessels.
CHAPTER 4
126
Moorings. In addition, there are dolphin and buoy
berths available at other locations:
2
The five mooring buoys at Sathu Pradit mooring area
(36⋅5 km) can accommodate four vessels of 137 m
LOA and draught 7⋅6 m, and one vessel of 91 m
LOA and draught 7 m.
The twenty-five Bang Hua Sua dolphins (14 km) have
a berthing length of approximately 1600 m and can
accommodate eight vessels of 172 m LOA and
draught 8⋅2 m.
4.141
1
Prohibited anchorage areas. Anchorage is prohibited in
the bends of the river, and near the line of the submarine
cables which cross the river. The positions of the
submarine cables are marked on each side of the river by
sign-boards with an arrow pointing in the direction of the
cable; behind these boards are white discs on posts. The
post and board in line indicate the direction of the cable.
Alongside berths
4.142
1
Krung Thep Harbour is described in general terms at
4.128. The main berthing area, in Zone 2, in the vicinity of
latitude 13°42′N between the meridians of 100°34′⋅0E and
100°35′⋅5E, is described in more detail here:
2
East Quay has a frontage of approximately 1525 m
divided into eight berths, seven of which can
accommodate vessels up to 172 m LOA and
draught 8⋅2 m; the eighth accommodating vessels
up to 91 m LOA, and draught 4⋅5 m. This quay is
used by container vessels.
3
West Quay has a frontage of approximately 1660 m
divided into ten berths, each of which can
accommodate vessels up to 172 m LOA and
draught 8⋅2 m.
4
The thirty-six Klong Toei dolphins opposite West
Quay have a berthing length of approximately
1400 m and can accommodate seven vessels of
172 m LOA and draught 8⋅2 m.
4.143
1
Berths, which are numbered from seaward, are allocated
daily at 1000 hours. In general, container vessels are
berthed at East Quay, and vessels discharging general cargo
at West Quay, but East Quay can also accommodate
Ro-Ro, bulk cargo and passenger vessels. Vessels loading
general cargo moor at, or move to a dolphin or buoy berth,
as do vessels undergoing minor repairs.
Port services
Repairs
4.144
1
Most repairs can be undertaken. Divers are available.
There are dry and floating dock facilities.
Other facilities
4.145
1
Deratting certificates issued; hospital and medical
facilities available, advance notice required; no oily waste
disposal; garbage disposal service available; compass
adjusting service available.
Supplies
4.146
1
Fuel oil and diesel oil, advance notice 48 hours, and
fresh water, advance notice 24 hours, available by pipeline
at some berths, or by barge. Provisions and stores available
by barge or by road; provisions can also be supplied at
Samut Prakan (13°36′N, 100°36′E).
Communications
4.147
1
Domestic and international services from Krung Thep
International Airport.
Harbour regulations
4.148
1
The requirements for vessels navigating in Thai waters
are contained in the ‘Navigation in Thai Territorial Waters
Act’ and the regulations and schedules thereto, a copy of
which should be provided onboard all visiting ships.
Extracts may be found at Appendix II.
KO CHUANG TO THE HEAD OF THE
GULF OF THAILAND — E SEABOARD
General information
Chart 1046, 3965
Route
4.149
1
These directions are for vessels entering the head of the
Gulf of Thailand from the S or SE and making for Krung
Thep or ports on the E seaboard of the head of theGulf.
From a position S of Ko Chuang (12°31′N, 100°58′E) to
the Bangkok Bar Light (13°23′N, 100°36′E), the route
leads in a NNW direction.
Topography
4.150
1
One major river discharges in the NE of head of the
Gulf, the Mae Nam Bang Pakong (4.209). Off the E coast
there are several groups of islands, the larger islands having
lengths of 2 miles or more. The coast itself is low and
mangrove fringed in the N; and more developed in the E,
around the bays and numerous offshore islands.
Depths
4.151
1
Along the N coast, the 10 m depth contour extends
generally no more than 6 to 7 miles from the coast, while
on the E side of the head of the Gulf, depths of 10 m or
less are to be found within the bays and the immediate
surrounds of the islands.
Hazards
4.152
1
Exercise areas. A number of danger areas exist off the
E coast between Lat 12°20′N and Lat 13°05′N and W to
the meridian of 100°30′E. See 4.4 and charts.
Fishing stakes, numerous, may be encountered,
particularly along the N coast in depths of less than 10 m.
Dumping grounds
4.153
1
See 4.8. An explosives dumping ground, 2 cables square,
is situated close NNE of Ko Chuang (12°31′N, 100°58′E).
A circular dumping ground, radius 5 cables, is centred upon
Hin Chalam (2⋅6 miles SSE from Ko Chuang); see chart.
Marine farms
4.154
1
Marine farms exist in the NE corner of the head of the
Gulf; see chart.
CHAPTER 4
127
Tidal streams
4.155
1
Tidal streams run through Chong Samae San, the
channel between Laem Samae San and Ko Raet (12°35′N,
100°58′E) with considerable velocity at springs. The stream
sets W on the rising tide and attains a rate of 1 to 1 kn.
In Chong Pla Wai, the channel between Ko Raet and Ko
Samae San close SW, the tidal stream sets NW on the
rising tide, with rates of 1 to 1 kn.
2
Along the E shore of the head of the Gulf of Thailand,
N of Laem Samae San (12°36′N, 100°58′E), tidal streams
set N when the tide is rising at Bangkok Bar, and S when
it is falling there. For tidal streams in the approaches to Ao
Sattahip (12°39′N, 100°55′E), see 4.165. For tidal streams
in Chong Khram (12°43′N, 100°49′E), see 4.197.
3
One mile N of Laem Samuk (13°19′N, 100°54′E)
(4.160) the tidal streams set NE towards the mouth of the
Mae Nam Bang Pakong (13°27′N, 100°58′E) on the rising
tide.
Principal marks
4.156
1
Landmark:
Ko Luam (12°57′N, 100°39′E), a bold, cliffy islet,
steep-to on its S and E sides, and with a
dome-shaped summit.
2
Major lights:
Ko Chuang Light (white brick tower, 15 m in height)
(12°31′N, 100°58′E).
Laem Pu Chao Light (Chumphon Khet Udom Sak)
(white concrete tower, 9 m in height) (12°39′N,
100°51′E).
Ko Phai Light (12°56′N, 100°40′E) (4.102).
Bangkok Bar Light (13°23′N, 100°36′E) (4.102).
Other aids to navigation
4.157
1
Racons:
Bangkok Bar Lighthouse — as above.
Laem Chabang Light (13°04′⋅6N, 100°52′⋅6E).
Directions
4.158
1
Vessels entering the head of the Gulf of Thailand from
the S or SE bound for Krung Thep (4.110) should make
for a position W of Ko Khram (12°42′N, 100°47′E)
(4.205), passing clear of the dangerous wreck 8 miles
SSW. Another wreck, position approximate, is reported to
lie about 12 miles S. Thence:
2
E or W of Ko Phai, (12°56′N, 100°40′E), the largest
island in the W group of islands off the E side of the head
of the Gulf, from where a light is exhibited (4.102). A
wreck, marked by a light-buoy (special), with a least depth
of 6⋅6 m over it lies 4 cables off the E coast. Ko Luam
(4.156) lies close NW of Ko Phai and between there is a
narrow channel, on the W side of which lies Ko Luam
Noi. Thence:
3
Direct to the vicinity of Bangkok Bar Light, remaining
clear of the dangerous wreck, position approximate,
14 miles NNW from Ko Phai; see chart.
4.159
1
Vessels intending to call at ports or terminals within Si
Racha Pilotage District (4.169) and its vicinity, especially
deep draught vessels, should make for a position close W
of Ko Khram (12°42′N, 100°47′E) (4.205) before following
a N, then NNE track for approximately 23 miles, to a
position off Laem Chabang Port (13°04′⋅0N, 100°53′⋅5E).
This route crosses the broad bar, extending S from Ko Si
Chang (13°09′N, 100°49′E) to Ko Lan (approximately
11 miles to the S), at its deepest part.
2
From a position S of Ko Chuang (12°31′N, 100°58′E),
from where a light is exhibited (4.156), the track leads NW
passing (with positions from Ko Phai Light (12°56′N,
100°40′E)):
3
SW of Laem Pu Chao (20 miles SSE), with a bluff
headland 3 cables SE from where a light (4.156)
is exhibited. Ao Sattahip (4.162), a large bay
encumbered by islands, lies to the E of Laem Pu
Chao, with Sattahip Port (4.162) at its SE entrance.
A dangerous wreck lies 10 miles SW from Laem
Pu Chao. Thence
4
W of Ko Khram (15 miles SSE) (4.205), separated
from the mainland by Chong Khram (4.195);
Thung Prong Harbour (4.195) is situated on the E
side of Chong Khram. Thence:
E of Ko Rin (8 miles S). Small islands lie close NNE
and S of Ko Rin. A former mined area exists
around these islands; see 4.6. Thence:
5
W of Ko Lan (6 miles E) (4.206), passing about
4 miles E of Ko Phai Light. Thence:
WNW of Ko Nok (10 miles NE) and to the Si
Racha Pilotage District (4.169) pilot boarding
position in the vicinity of Inward Light-buoy about
2 miles NW of Ko Nok Light (white framework
tower, 10 m in height), thence:
6
Across the bar to a position W of Laem Chabang
Light (15 miles NE) (4.157), distant about
2 miles. On this track the least depth on the bar
is more than 15 m, but lesser depths exist on either
hand, see chart. Vessels should cross the bar at a
state of tide which will ensure adequate under-keel
clearance; the tidal stream sets N with a rising tide
(4.155). Laem Chabang rises steeply. Close E of
Laem Chabang is Laem Chabang Port (4.170);
close N is the Si Racha Oil Terminals (4.178) and
Ao Udom (4.183), all of which lie within Si Racha
Pilotage District (4.169). Six miles NNW is Ko Si
Chang, and Ko Si Chang Harbour and
Transhipment Area (4.188). Thence:
7
Direct to Si Racha Pilotage District anchorages
(4.172), Laem Chabang Port pilot boarding point
(14 miles NE) (4.172), or to other local
destinations.
8
Caution. The area between Ko Si Chang (13°09′N,
100°49′E) and the mainland is frequently congested with
vessels, at anchor or underway, ranging from local fishing
craft to very large dry and liquid bulk carriers.
4.160
1
For the head of the Gulf, passage continues clear to the
E of Ko Si Chang (13°09′N, 100°49′E) and it’s surrounding
islands, thence:
2
W of Laem Samuk (13°19′N, 100°54′E), which
appears as an island. The Mae Nam Bang Pakong
(4.209) enters the Gulf 10 miles NNE of Laem
Samuk, and Khlong Dan (4.210) discharges into
the Gulf 8 miles W of the entrance to the Mae
Nam Bang Pakong. Thence:
WNW to the Bangkok Bar Light (4.102).
4.161
1
Useful marks:
Ko Rang Kwian Light (white concrete pile structure,
7 m in height) (12°47′⋅5N, 100°48′⋅1E).
Ko Thai Ta Mun Light (white concrete pile structure,
7 m in height) (13°06′⋅5N, 100°48′⋅4E).
CHAPTER 4
128
Sattahip Commercial Port
Chart 1046, 3727, 3724 plan of Sattahip Commercial Port
General information
4.162
1
Position. Sattahip Commercial Port, formerly Chuk
Samet Harbour (12°37′N, 100°55′E), is situated in the SE
of Ao Sattahip (12°39′N, 100°55′E). The bay is entered
between Laem Pu Chao (12°39′N, 100°51′E) (4.159) in the
N and the point upon which Sattahip Commercial Port has
been built, 4 miles ESE.
2
Function. Serves as a naval base for the Royal Thai
Navy. Commercial operation is limited to berths on the N
wall where dry and bulk cargoes are handled.
3
Topography. Between Laem Pu Chao (12°39′N,
100°51′E) and Laem Thian, 2 miles ENE, the coast of Ao
Sattahip is mostly hilly and fringed by stony beaches. The
NE shore of Ao Sattahip is low and wooded and is fringed
by a sandy beach. Ao Chuk Samet lies on SE side of Ao
Sattahip.
4
Several islands and dangers lie in the W part of Ao
Sattahip; Ko Tao Mo is the largest; Ko Phra lies close E of
Ko Tao Mo. These islands, together with a breakwater
extending WNW from the NW point of Ko Tao Mo form a
natural harbour for the naval station. There is a narrow
channel between Ko Tao Mo and Ko Phra, but foul ground
lies between Ko Phra and Ko Phra Noi, close to the E.
5
Ko I Lao (12°36′⋅5N, 100°52′⋅8E) lies, with Ko Yo, on a
bank in the outer approaches to Ao Sattahip; Ko Maeo lies
4 cables SE of Ko Yo, and Ko Mu lies 1 mile ENE Ko Yo.
The Commercial Port is protected by a breakwater
extending 5 cables SE from Ko Mu. There are numerous
other dangers, some marked by buoys, light-buoys or
beacons, see chart.
6
Amphoe Sattahip is situated at the head of the bay.
Several jetties extend into the bay fronting the town, the
longest, L-shaped, nearest the head of the bay, extends
towards a seaplane landing area about 1 miles in length,
shown on the chart, in the centre of the bay.
Ko Chorakhe (12°36′⋅0N, 100°55′⋅2E), with Ko Nang
Ram 6 cables N of it, lies in the SE approaches to Sattahip
Commercial Port.
7
Between Sattahip Port and Laem Samae San 3 miles
SE, there are two bays, the shores of which are low and
wooded but their entrance points rise steeply. From Laem
Samae San a chain of islands extends S as far as Ko
Chuang (12°31′N, 100°58′E). Separated from Laem Samae
San by Chong Samae San, which is 2 cables wide, Ko
Raet is the N most island. Ko Samae San, the largest island
in the chain, lies 3 cables W of Ko Raet, and is separated
from it by Chong Pla Wai.
8
Port limits are shown on the chart.
Approach and entry is from the SSE through a buoyed
channel.
Note. Unauthorised entry into Ao Sattahip is prohibited.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 3 ship calls with a total of
29 063 dwt.
9
Port Authority: Port of Thailand Authority, Sattahip
Commercial Port, Sattahip Naval Base, Chonburi 20230,
Thailand.
Limiting conditions
4.163
1
Controlling depth: minimum charted depth in approach
channel is 8⋅9 m.
Deepest and longest berth: on N wall, see 4.167.
Tidal levels: MHHW 2⋅7 m; MLLW 1⋅3 m.
Density of water: 1⋅025 g/cm
3
Maximum size of vessel handled: up to 250 m LOA
and 9⋅1 m draught at Pol Pier.
Arrival information
4.164
1
Port radio. There is a port radio station at Sattahip.
Notice of ETA: 72 hours, with updates thereafter.
Outer anchorages. The anchorages below are exposed,
particularly during the SW monsoon.
There are two rectangular anchorage areas, each with
depths of 22 to 31 m, shells and mud, shown on the chart
in position 12°35′N, 100°51′E and position 12°34′N,
100°53′E.
2
There is a circular quarantine anchorage, also shown on
the chart, in position 12°31′N, 100°56′E.
There is also anchorage N of the NE extremity of Ko
Tao Mo (4.162), in depths of 6 to 8 m; local knowledge is
required. This anchorage is reported to be unsafe during the
SW monsoon.
3
Prohibited anchorage. A circular area, 1 mile in radius,
centred upon Laem Pu Cho Light (12°38′⋅9N, 100°51′⋅4E)
(4.156), within which anchorage and fishing are prohibited
owing to the presence of submarine cables.
4
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of more than 50 m
LOA; available during daylight hours only. The pilot
boarding place is shown on the chart.
Tugs are available.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Harbour
4.165
1
General layout. A reclaimed area with berths on N, W
and S faces; protected from W and SW by the island Ko
Mu and a breakwater extending 5 cables SE from Ko Mu.
There is an oil berth 2 cables S of the main complex.
Development. Further reclaimation is reported (2001) E
and NE of the N berths to provide further deep-water
berths and a dry dock.
2
Tidal streams. The tide in Ao Sattahip is usually
diurnal; for further information see Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3 under Ao Sattahip.
West of Ko Tao Mo (4.162) the tidal stream attains a
rate of 1 to 1 kn, setting NW on the rising tide and SE
on the falling tide. In the channel between Ko Tao Mo and
Ko Phra, the flow attains a rate of 1 kn in the same
directions as above: 5 cables S of Amphoe Sattahip the
flow reaches to kn, setting 260° on the rising tide and
080° on the falling tide.
3
Between Ko Tao Mo and Ko Yo the tidal stream sets
SW at a rate of to 1 kn on the rising tide; NW of Ko
Mu (4.162) it sets 255° at a rate of to kn on the
rising tide.
In the channel between Ko Chorakhe (4.162) and the
mainland the tidal stream sets NW on the rising tide and
attains a rate of 1 to 1 kn.
4
In the entrance channel to Sattahip Commercial Port the
tidal stream has been reported to set W on the flood tide
and E on the ebb tide, and to attain rates of 2 to 3 kn.
5
Major lights:
Ko Chuang Light (12°31′N, 100°58′E) (4.156).
Laem Pu Cho Light (12°39′N, 100°51′E) (4.156).
CHAPTER 4
129
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.159)
4.166
1
Approaches. Sattahip Commercial Port is approached
from between W and S. The anchorages (4.164) lie in the
approaches. The outer light-buoy close to the pilot boarding
point is liable to drift.
Caution. Smaller vessels should not attempt to approach
through Chong Samae San (4.162) without local knowledge
owing to the strong tidal streams; see 4.155.
2
Entrance channel. Light-beacons mark the centre of the
entrance fairway:
Front No 2 (red rectangle, white stripe, on white
framework tower, 14 m in height) (12°37′⋅3N,
100°55′⋅1E);
3
Rear No 1 (red rectangle, white stripe, on white
framework tower, 27 m in height) (490 m NNE
from front light).
The alignment (017°) of these lights leads from the
outer light-buoyfor 1⋅9 miles through a buoyed fairway to
the harbour entrance.
4
Useful marks:
Ko Chorakhe Light (round white metal pipe)
(12°36′⋅1N, 100°55′⋅2E)
Ko Mu Breakwater Light (white concrete square
column) (12°36′⋅9N, 100°54′⋅8E).
Berths
4.167
1
Pol Pier, used by naval vessels only, extends 3 cables
WSW from the E shore close inside the entrance to the
harbour and can accommodate tankers up to 250 m LOA
and draught of 9⋅1 m. A light (white metal framework
tower, 7 m in height) is exhibited from the S dolphin of the
pier head.
2
There are five berths on the quay faces close N of the
Pol Pier:
West Quay, normally used only by warships, has a
length of 540 m, and three vessels, each up to
180 m LOA and draught 9 m, can berth there.
North Quay has a length of 350 m and two vessels,
each up to 150 m LOA and draught 7⋅5 m, can
berth there.
Port services
4.168
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Other facilities: hospital; deratting exemption
certificates.
Supplies: fuel available by barge, advance notice
required; fresh water, maximum 200 tons, plus 100 tons for
boilers, available by road tanker, advance notice required.
Communications: airport 3 km NE of the harbour.
Ports in the Si Racha Pilotage District
Chart 986
General
4.169
1
The Si Racha Pilotage District extends from the coast
between latitudes 13°00′N and 13°13′N to about mile W
of Ko Si Chang; see chart.
Entrance light-buoys (safe water) are laid, in the
following positions, at either end of a buoyed fairway
which runs approximately NNE/SSW between the coast and
Ko Si Chang:
Inward Light-buoy (13°03′N, 100°48′E).
2
Outward Light-buoy (13°13′N, 100°52′E).
Pilots board/disembark in the vicinity of these buoys, as
shown on the chart, but see 4.170 for Laem Chabang
pilotage.
Within the Pilotage District are:
Laem Chabang Port (13°03′N, 100°54′E) (4.170).
Si Racha Oil Terminals (13°07′N, 100°53′E) (4.178),
including the PTT Marine Terminal (13°05′N,
100°52′E).
3
The loading piers in Ao Udom (13°08′N, 100°53′E)
(4.183), which extend to beyond the 10 m depth
contour, including Siam Seaport (13°07′⋅8N,
100°52′⋅6E) (4.183) and Si Racha Harbour Pier
(13°09′⋅3N, 100°53′⋅2E).
Ko Si Chang Harbour and Transhipment Area and Si
Chang Thong Terminal (4.188) on the E side of
Ko Si Chang.
Laem Chabang Port
General information
4.170
1
Position. Laem Chabang Port is situated at 13°03′N,
100°54′E.
Function. Laem Chabang is a purpose built port
handling bulk cargoes, in particular agricultural products
such as tapioca, molasses and sugar. It is Thailand’s main
container port. Continued development (2003) is extending
the port to the SE.
2
Port limits are shown on the chart.
Approach and entry are from NW through a dredged
channel.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 3821 ship calls with a total
of 92 593 8929 dwt.
Port Authority. Port Authority of Thailand, Klongtoey,
Bangkok 10110, Thailand.
Limiting conditions
4.171
1
Controlling depth: 13⋅6 m in the entrance channel.
Deepest and longest berths are in Basin No 2 (4.176).
Maximum size of vessel handled: up to 300 m LOA
and draught 13 m.
Arrival information
4.172
1
Vessel Traffic Service. There is a radar equipped VTS
control station adjacent to Laem Chabang Light (13°04′⋅6N,
100°52′⋅6E) (4.157).
Port radio. There are coast and port radio stations.
Notice of ETA: 24 hours.
2
Outer anchorages. Laem Chabang Port dedicated
anchorage, Anchorage Area H, marked by two light-buoys
(special) lies within the harbour limits W of the breakwater.
Explosives and dangerous goods, and quarantine anchorages
lie S of the S harbour limit.
3
Other anchorages, mainly working, within the Si Racha
Pilotage District are designated from Anchorage Area A to
Anchorage Area G and are positioned either side of the
fairway (4.169); see chart.
Caution. Precautions against unauthorised boarding by
thieves while at anchor should be taken.
4
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots are available at all times
and board close to the entrance channel outer buoy, about
mile W from Laem Chabang Light (4.157).
Tugs are available.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
CHAPTER 4
130
Harbour
4.173
1
General layout. Two large basins aligned approximately
ENE/WSW are protected by a breakwater aligned
approximately NNW/SSE.
Development work to construct a third basin to the S of
the complex is under way and is expected to complete in
2004. The breakwater is being extended SSE.
Directions
4.174
1
Approach: see 4.159.
Useful mark:
Laem Chabang Light (13°04′⋅6N, 100°52′⋅6E) (4.157).
4.175
1
Entrance. The port is entered from NW. The entrance
channel leads SE from the vicinity of the the light-buoy
(safe water), moored 1 miles NW from the harbour
entrance. The white sector of a directional light (metal
framework tower) leads through the centre line of the
entrance channel; see chart. The buoyed fairway is dredged
to 13⋅6 m.
2
Light-beacons, situated at the head of the each basin,
lead into the basins, aligned 060° (No 1 Basin) and 073°
(No 2 Basin). A light (green metal framework tower) is
exhibited from the SW corner of No 1 Basin and lights
(metal framework towers) are exhibited from the NW and
SW corners of No 2 Basin. Basin No 1 is dredged to
11⋅6 m and No 2 Basin to 13⋅6 m.
Berths
4.176
1
There are operational berths within each basin and on
the fairway quay face, these are:
A container terminal with four numbered berths, each
300 m in length, which occupies the S side of No
1 Basin, able to accommodate vessels up to
50 000 dwt. A further container berth, 400 m in
length, is on the quay SW of the basin,
2
A short T-headed jetty which extends S from the W
end of the N side of No 1 Basin, and forms a bulk
sugar/molasses berth. Vessels up to 70 000 dwt can
be accommodated.
A short T-headed jetty which extends W from the
fairway quay face N of the entrance to the basin,
and forms a bulk tapioca berth. Vessels up to
70 000 dwt can be accommodated.
3
Berth A1 at the NE end of No 1 basin is reported
(2000) to be undergoing conversion to a passenger
terminal.
No 2 Basin has three designated container berths on
each of its N and S sides able to accommodate
vessels up to 80 000 dwt. There is a multi-purpose
terminal at the head of No 2 Basin.
Port Services
4.177
1
Repairs. There is a ship repair yard at Laem Chabang,
including a floating dock with a 40 000 tonnes lifting
capacity.
Other facilities: hospital; no oily waste facilities;
deratting exemption certificates; compass adjusting; garbage
disposal.
2
Supplies: fuel, by road tanker only; fresh water, piped
to berths; provisions and stores available.
Communications: domestic and international air services
via U-Tapao, about 50 km S of Laem Chabang; or via
Krung Thep (4.147). Excellent rail infrastructure.
Si Racha Oil Terminals
Chart 986
General information
4.178
1
The Si Racha Oil Terminals (13°07′⋅0N, 100°52′⋅5E) are
enclosed within an area in which entry is restricted to
authorised vessels; see chart. There are offshore tanker
berths for the discharging of crude oil, and barge jetties for
the loading of petroleum products by coasters up to
5000 dwt. The PTT Marine Terminal lies close S and
outside the restricted area and is associated with the gas
separation plant (13°05′⋅3N, 100°53′⋅0E), shown on the
chart.
Arrival information
4.179
1
Notice of ETA: 72 hours.
Outer anchorage: see 4.172.
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots and berthing masters
board in the vicinity of either the Inward or Outward
Light-buoy (4.169). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Tugs are available.
Directions
4.180
1
See 4.159.
Berths
4.181
1
PTT Jetty and the PAT Bridge extend 7 cables WNW
from the shore close W of the plant (13°05′⋅3N,
100°53′⋅0E). No 1 Berth, which accommodates vessels up
to 100 000 dwt, is situated at the head of the jetty, and
No 2 and 3 Berths, which accommodate vessels up to 5000
and 2000 dwt respectively, are situated on a spur on the N
side of the jetty. Lights are exhibited from No 1 berth
structure and from the N and S dolphin heads. Lights are
exhibited from the platform of the Nos 2 and 3 Berth and
from the dolphin head.
2
PTT Berth (13°06′⋅2N, 100°52′⋅2E) consists of a
platform, flanked by dolphins and mooring buoys,
connected with the shore by a pipeline. No 4 Berth can
accommodate vessels up to 80 000 dwt and No 5 Berth
vessels up to 20 000 dwt.
3
Esso Berth (13°06′⋅8N, 100°52′⋅1E) lies 8 cables WNW
of Esso Pier, to which it is connected by pipeline; a
platform flanked by dolphins stands on the pipeline
3 cables WNW of the pier head. The berth consists of a
conventional six buoy mooring arrangement which can
accommodate vessels up to a maximum size of
105 000 dwt.
4
PTT Pier Berth (13°06′⋅8N, 100°52′⋅7E). PTT Pier
extends about 3 cables NW from the shore, in way of a
pipeline which extends 2 cables beyond the pier head.
Mooring buoys lie close W off the pier. Vessels up to
6000 dwt can be accommodated at No 6 Berth and vessels
up to 2000 dwt at No 7 Berth.
5
Thai Oil Company SBM (13°07′⋅7N, 100°51′⋅8E),
lighted and fitted with a radar reflector, can accommodate
vessels of 60 000 to 230 000 dwt fully loaded, and partly
loaded vessels up to 320 000 dwt. It is connected by
pipeline with the refinery ashore. A cautionary area extends
around the buoy; see chart.
6
Thai Oil Company Berth (13°07′⋅5N, 100°52′⋅5E),
charted as TORC Berth, consists of a conventional six buoy
mooring arrangement which can accommodate vessels of
CHAPTER 4
131
30 000 to 120 000 dwt. A pipeline connects it with the
refinery ashore.
7
The Thai Oil Pier extends NW, in way of the pipeline,
from the shore to just beyond the 5 m depth contour, and
the TORC Jetty extends WSW from close to its head.
Vessels may berth bows N or S, depending upon the tide
and weather, at any of the above berths.
Port services
4.182
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Other facilities: no oily waste disposal facilities; doctor
and hospital facilities available; deratting exemption
certificates.
Supplies: fuel and fresh water, by barge, at anchorage
only, except at PTT Sea Berth where barges can supply
whilst vessel alongside, advance notice required; provisions
and stores available, advance notice required.
Communications: by air via Krung Thep (4.147).
Ao Udom
Chart 986
General information
4.183
1
Ao Udom (13°08′⋅0N, 100°53′⋅5E), is the name given to
the bay which has Ban Ao Udom at its head. The area is
sometimes referred to as Si Racha Port, although Si Racha
itself is situated 3 miles NNE of Ban Ao Udom and is
mainly a fishing port and local ferry terminal; Laem Hin
Khao (13°08′⋅3N, 100°54′⋅1E) lies between the two towns.
This area, in part, forms the NE part of Si Racha Pilotage
District (4.169) and is where three loading piers (4.186),
extending to beyond the 10 m depth contour, are located;
see chart.
2
Traffic:
Siam Seaport. In 2003 there were 9 ship calls with a
total of 111 768 dwt.
Si Racha. In 2003 there were 106 ship calls with a
total of 4 542 240 dwt.
Arrival information
4.184
1
Notice of ETA: 72 hours.
Outer anchorage. See 4.172 and chart.
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots and berthing masters
board in the vicinity of either the Inward or Outward
Light-buoy (4.169). See also Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs are available.
Directions
4.185
1
See 4.159.
Useful marks:
Flare burning at chimney top, elevation 200 m,
situated 3 cables E of Khao Pho Bai (13°07′N,
100°54′E).
Radio tower (red and white bands) with
accommodation blocks close to it, 1 mile SW of
Khao Pho Bai (13°07′N, 100°54′E).
Berths
4.186
1
Anchorage for small vessels is designated either side of
Si Racha Harbour Pier in depths of 4 to 8 m. Anchorage
Area C (Eastern Petroleum Area 1) lies N between the Pier
and Ko Loi (13°10′⋅3N, 100°55′⋅4E), an island upon which
stands a pagoda. Area E (Eastern Petroleum Area 2) lies S
between Belt Conveyor/Silo Pier and Siam Transport Pier.
Local knowledge is required.
A pier 4 cables in length connects the island to the
shore. Numerous small piers project from the coast between
this pier and Laem Ban Nai, 9 cables SW.
2
Siam Transport Pier (Siam Seaport) extends WNW
from the shore in the N part of Ban Ao Udom (13°07′⋅5N,
100°54′⋅1E) for a distance of about 2740 m, to beyond the
10 m depth contour. At its head is Siam Sea Port, a modern
terminal designed to accommodate vessels up to
60 000 dwt. Lights are exhibited from the N and S heads of
the berth.
3
Belt Conveyor/Silo Pier, also known as the MBK (Mah
Boon Krong) Berth, has its root close N of Si Racha
Harbour Pier, which it crosses as it extends E for about
2980 m, to beyond the 10 m depth contour, where a head,
consisting of three towers with mooring posts orientated
NE-SW, forms a berth which can accommodate vessels up
to 150 000 dwt.
4
Si Racha Harbour Pier has its root 7 cables NE of
Laem Hin Khao (13°08′⋅3N, 100°54′⋅1E) and extends about
2780 m WNW to beyond the 10 m depth contour, then
NNE for about 470 m to form a head which provides an
inner berth of 350 m in length and an outer berth of 450 m
in length. Vessels up to 70 000 dwt can be accommodated.
Port services
4.187
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Other facilities: no oily waste disposal facilities; doctor
and hospital facilities available; deratting exemption
certificates.
Supplies: fuel and fresh water available; some
provisions and stores available.
Communications: by air via Krung Thep (4.147).
Ko Si Chang Harbour and Transhipment Area
and Si Chang Thong Terminal
Chart 986
General information
4.188
1
Position and function. The Ko Si Chang Harbour and
Transhipment Area, to the N and NE of Ko Si Chang
(13°09′N, 100°49′E) is used by vessels lightening before
proceeding to Krung Thep, or completing loading after
leaving there, cargo being lightered to or from vessels.
Si Chang Thong Terminal (13°08′N, 100°50′E) on the
SE side of Ko Si Chang has berths designed for bulk liquid
cargoes.
2
Topography. Ko Si Chang (13°09′N, 100°49′E) is the
most N island off the E coast of the Gulf. It is the largest
of a group of islands which include the lesser, reef fringed
islands of Ko Khangkhao, close S, and Ko Kham Yai,
close E. Khao Chunlachomklao, its highest point, rises to
191 m in the N of the island. In the middle of the S part of
the island there is a wooded table land surrounded by hills
which rise steeply from the coast.
3
The principal points on Ko Si Chang are, in the E,
Laem Wang (13°08′⋅9N, 100°49′⋅4E), a narrow promontory
from where a light is exhibited (white brick column, 9 m in
height); in the SE, Laem Hin Khao; in the SW, Laem
Tukta; in the W, Laem Tham Phang, a narrow promontory;
and, in the NW, Laem Khao Khat. A bay on the W side of
the island, Ao Tham Phang, lies between Laem Than
Phang and Laem Tukta.
4
Hin Sampayu, a reef fringed rock islet from where a
light is exhibited (white brick tower, 5 m in height), lies
6 cables NNW of Ko Si Chang, and has Hin Kong Nok, a
CHAPTER 4
132
rock nearly awash, 6 cables ENE of it. Ko Yai Thao lies on
the reef cable S of the S tip of Ko Si Chang, and Ko
Thai Ta Mun lies close SW of Ko Khangkhao, to which it
is joined by a narrow reef, and is the most S island of the
group.
5
Hin Kong Nai, which partly dries, lies 3 cables NNW
of the most N tip of Ko Kham Yai. Ko Kham Noi lies
6 cables E of Hin Kong Nai, and Ko Prong, wooded,
fringed by a narrow reef, and with a pier at its SE end, and
Ko Ran Dok Mai, also fringed by a narrow reef, lie,
respectively, 5 cables and 1⋅3 miles S of Ko Kham Noi.
6
Traffic. In 2003 there were 854 ship calls with a total of
22 015 716 dwt.
Port Authority. Port Authority of Thailand, Klongtoey,
Bangkok 10110, Thailand.
Arrival information
4.189
1
Outer anchorages. Good anchorage may be obtained
close N of the N limit of Ko Si Chang Harbour, in
approximate position 13°11′⋅5N, 100°50′⋅4E; see chart.
There is a designated anchorage for vessels bound for Si
Chang Thong Terminal close E of the port in depths of
approximately 15 to 27 m, good holding, mud and sand;
see chart.
2
Cautions:
A former mined area exists around Ko Si Chang; see
4.6.
Precautions against unauthorised boarding by thieves
while at anchor should be taken in this area.
Pilotage is compulsory, pilots boarding at either the
Inward or Outward Light-buoy (4.169).
Tugs are available for the port.
Measured distance
4.190
1
A measured distance of 1843⋅7 m (6049 ft) exists E of
Ko Prong (4.188) and Ko Ran Dok Mai (4.188), with a
running course of 010°. The N limit is marked by a pair of
beacons, in line bearing 280°, the rear beacon situated on
the E side of Ko Kham Yai (4.188) and the front beacon
on Ko Prong 4 cables ESE. The S limit is marked by a pair
of beacons, in line bearing 280°, situated on Ko Si Chang
(4.188) 3 and 4 cables WNW of Laem Wang (4.188).
Directions
4.191
1
Ko Si Chang Transhipment Area. Directions continue
from 4.158. The harbour and transhipment area are usually
approached from N, passing clear of Hin Kong Nok
(13°11′⋅5N, 100°48′⋅7E) (4.188) marked on its W side by a
light-buoy (W cardinal).
Si Chang Thong Terminal. The port is normally
approached from the S. Directions are given at 4.159.
2
Useful marks:
Hin Sampayu Light (13°11′⋅2N, 100°48′⋅1E) (4.188).
Laem Wang Light (13°08′⋅9N, 100°49′⋅4E) (4.188).
Obelisk (13°08′⋅9N, 100°49′⋅4E), standing on the
extremity of Laem Wang (4.188).
Obelisk (13°10′⋅2N, 100°49′⋅5E), prominent from N,
standing on the N extremity of Ko Kham Yai
(4.188).
Berths
4.192
1
Anchorages. Working anchorages are designated
Areas A, D, F and G, from N to S, with a barge only
anchorage close NE of Laem Wang (13°08′⋅9N,
100°49′⋅4E) (4.188); as shown on the chart.
During the SW monsoon Area A is the preferred
anchorage for large vessels.
2
Small vessels with local knowledge generally anchor, in
depths of more than 5 m, between a line drawn from the
NE extremity of Ko Si Chang to the N extremity of Ko
Kham Yai, and a line drawn from the SW extremity of Ko
Kham Yai to a point on Ko Si Chang 6 cables SW.
3
A light-buoy (N cardinal) marks the N side of Hin Kong
Nai (13°10′⋅5N, 100°49′⋅3E) (4.188) lying close N of this
area and a below-water rock, marked by a buoy (E
cardinal) lies 6 cables NNW of Laem Wang.
Caution. A dangerous wreck lies in the NE part of
anchorage Area D, 7 cables ENE of Ko Ran Dok Mai.
4.193
1
Alongside berths. There are four berths at Si Chang
Thong Terminal able to accommodate vessels up to the
following limits:
No 1 berth: 100 000 dwt, 280 m LOA, 14⋅8 m
draught.
No 2 berth: 10 000 dwt, 140 m LOA, 7⋅9 m draught.
No 3 berth: 5 000 dwt, 103 m LOA, 6⋅5 m draught.
No 4 berth: 5 000 dwt, 75 m LOA, 3⋅0 m draught.
2
Berthing is permitted in daylight hours only, although
unberthing may be permitted at night.
Port services
4.194
1
Repairs, minor, can be undertaken at the port.
Other facilities: deratting exemption certificates;
hospital at Si Racha; see 4.182.
Supplies: fresh water.
Communications: by air through Krung Thep (4.147).
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3727
Thung Prong Harbour
4.195
1
General information:
Position. Thung Prong Harbour (12°42′⋅0N,
100°50′⋅5E), the limits of which are shown on the
chart, lies on the mainland shore of Chong Khram
and is a first port of entry.
2
Topography. Chong Khram separates Ko Khram
(12°42′N, 100°47′E) (4.205) from the mainland.
From the N it is entered between Ko Khram Noi
(12°43′⋅5N, 100°48′⋅1E) (4.205) in the W and Ko
Klet Kaeo (12°45′⋅5N, 100°50′⋅8E)) in the E. On
the W side of the strait a reef extends 4 cables
offshore from the NE side of Ko Khram. On the E
side of Chong Khram, from the NE entrance point,
for about 3 miles S, the coast is composed
mainly of high rocky bluffs with sandy bays
between. S of this lie the two deeper bays, Ao
Thung Prong (4.202) and Ao Thung Kai Tia
(4.199). The S end of the strait lies between the S
extremity of Kho Khram and Laem Pu Chao
(12°39′⋅2N, 100°51′⋅1E) (4.159), the S entrance
point of Ao Thung Kai Tia.
3
Ko I Ra, a small island, lies in the S approach to
Chong Khram. NE of Ko I Ra, between it and
Laem Tham Phang on Ko Khram, lies Hin Khi Pla
and other below water dangers. Hin Wua Lai
Khwai Wing, which partly dries, lies 9 cables N
of Hin Khi Pla. Hin Khi Sua lies on a reef
2 cables NE of Ko I Ra.
CHAPTER 4
133
4.196
1
Arrival information:
Pilotage is not compulsory. Pilots are available.
Because of the strong tidal streams (4.197) in the
vicinity of the piers, local knowledge is required.
Tugs are available.
4.197
1
Tidal streams set N when the tide is rising at Bangkok
Bar (see Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3) and S when the
tide is falling at the following rates:
Position Rate
W of Ko I Ra (4.195) 2 to 3 kn
Abreast Hin Wua Lai Khwai Wing (4.195) 2 to 4 kn
Between Ko I Ra and the mainland 1 to 2 kn
5 cables from the mainland E of Hin Wua
Lai Khwai Wing
1 to 2 kn
5 cables E of Ko Khram Noi (4.195) 1 to 2 kn
4.198
1
Caution. The tidal streams in the vicinity of the piers at
Thung Prong Harbour are reported to attain rates of 6 to
8 kn.
4.199
1
Directions. Thung Prong Harbour may be approached
and entered from either S or N via Chong Khram (4.195),
passing (with positions from Delong Pier (12°42′⋅0N,
100°50′⋅3E) (4.203)):
Approach from S:
W of Laem Pu Chao (3 miles SSE) (4.159) and the
area within which anchorage is prohibited centred
upon Chumphon Khet Udom Sak Light (4.156).
Thence:
2
W of Ao Thung Kai Tia (2 miles SSE). The head
of the bay is low and wooded with a barracks and
other buildings. The islet of Ko Kai Tia lies in the
SE part of the bay. Thence:
Between Laem Taphao (2 miles SSE) and Ko I Ra
(1 miles SSW) (4.195), thence:
3
E of Hin Khi Sua (1 miles SSW) (4.195), from
where a light (white concrete tower, black bands)
is exhibited. Thence:
Direct to a berth (4.203) in Thung Prong Harbour.
4.200
1
Approach from N:
Clear of Ko Rang Kwian (6 miles NNW) from where
a light is exhibited (4.161). Thence:
W of Ko Klet Kaeo (3 miles N), separated from the
mainland by Chong Klet Kaeo. Thence:
E of a wreck with a safe clearance depth of 18 m
(4 miles NNW), thence:
2
E of Ko Khram Noi (2 miles NW) (4.195). A buoy
(special) is moored 6 cables E of Ko Khram Noi,
and two other similar buoys are moored close to
the mainland shore E of it. There is a mooring
buoy 9 cables SE of Ko Khram Noi. Thence:
Direct to a berth (4.203) in Thung Prong Harbour.
4.201
1
Useful mark: Hin Khi Sua Light (12°40′⋅8N,
100°49′⋅8E) (4.199).
4.202
1
Anchorages:
Vessels awaiting a pilot or a berth have anchored,
with good holding ground, E of Ko Khram Noi, in
depths of 10 to 14⋅9 m.
Anchorage for small vessels may be obtained in Ao
Thung Prong (12°41′⋅5N, 100°51′⋅0E). The bay is
shallow and dries out at its head for a distance of
5 cables.
4.203
1
Alongside berths:
Map Pier, a T-headed pier, projects SW from Laem
Hat So (12°41′⋅7N, 100°50′⋅5E). The head of the
pier, 135 m in length, has a dolphin either end and
can accommodate vessels up to 183 m LOA.
The Delong Pier, 183 m in length, projects W from
the coast 2 cables N of Map Pier.
2
Caution. Owing to the strong tidal streams (4.198),
particularly in the vicinity of the berths, berthing should
take place only in daylight during slack water.
4.204
1
Supplies: no fresh water available.
Chart 3727
Ko Khram
4.205
1
General information. Ko Khram (12°42′N, 100°47′E),
the largest island off the E coast of the head of the Gulf of
Thailand lies 2 miles W of Thung Prong (4.195). It rises to
232 m in the SW. Among the named features on Ko Khram
are Laem Kai Ti, its NE extremity, with Ko Khram Noi
lying on a rocky bank 6 cables N of it; Laem Tham Phang
in the E; and Laem Rang Nok in the S. The SE side of Ko
Khram is fringed by a reef which extends 2 cables
offshore, and a bank which extends 1 miles SE. In
addition, Hin Yai and Hin Ta are amongst the dangers
which lie within 6 cables of the S side of Ko Khram; see
chart.
2
Ao Phutsa Wan (12°42′⋅5N, 100°46′⋅5E), lies on the NW
side of Ko Khram. Foul ground, over which there is a
strong tidal stream or current, extends 1 cables from the
W entrance point. The depths in the bay are less than 5 m.
The coast at the head of the bay is low and wooded.
Anchorage. Small vessels may obtain temporary
anchorage in Ao Phutsa Wan.
Caution. A former mined area exists SSW of Ko
Khram; see 4.6.
Chart 1046
Ao Phatthaya and Ko Lan
4.206
1
General information. Ao Phatthaya is formed between
Laem Phatthaya (12°55′⋅7N, 100°52′⋅0E), consisting of a
number of low rocky bluffs, in the SW, and Laem Khwan
2 miles NE. Ko Chun, a low, rocky islet, from which a
light (white concrete tower, 4 m in height) is exhibited, lies
1 mile N of Laem Phatthaya. Ban Phatthaya is a popular
beach resort.
2
Ko Lan (12°55′N, 100°47′E), with the named point,
Laem Hat Sangwan, at its NW tip, and the village of Ban
Ko Lan on its NE side, lies approximately 5 miles WSW of
Ao Phatthaya. The lesser islands of Ko Sak and Ko Khrok
lie, respectively, close N and close E of Ko Lan. Hin Phra
Nang, a below-water rock, and Hin Ko Lan, awash, lie,
respectively, 9 cables S and 1 miles E of Ko Khrok; each
is marked by a light-buoy (conical, N and E cardinal
respectively).
3
The limits of Phatthaya harbour are shown on the chart
and include Ko Lan.
Anchorage may be obtained about 9 cables NW of
Laem Phatthaya, in depths of 16 to 24 m, good holding
ground, sand.
CHAPTER 4
134
Caution. Tidal streams in the vicinity set NE-SW, with
rates of up to 6 kn.
4
Good anchorage may be obtained during the SW
monsoon close under the NE side of Ko Lan. Local
knowledge is required.
Useful marks:
Ko Nok Light (13°01′⋅3N, 100°49′⋅5E) (4.159).
5
Radio tower (red and white lights), on a hill,
elevation 97 m, 1⋅6 miles SSE of Ko Chun Light
(12°56′⋅8N, 100°51′⋅7E) (4.206).
Radio masts (red lights), 1⋅6 miles SSE of Ko Chun
Light.
Tower (red lights), 2⋅4 miles S of Ko Chun Light.
Chart 1046
Bang Saen
4.207
1
General information. Bang Saen (13°17′N, 100°55′E),
2 miles SSE of Laem Samuk (4.160), is a small seaside
resort with a T-headed pier where landing may be effected.
Anchorage may be obtained in depths of 7 m, off Bang
Saen.
Chart 1046
Chon Buri
4.208
1
General information. Chon Buri (13°22′N, 100°59′E) is
a town of considerable importance. Several jetties front the
town, which can be reached from seaward at HW.
Anchorage. Ban Ang Sila is a village 4 miles WSW of
Chon Buri and 2 miles NE of Laem Samuk (4.160).
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 5 m, 1 mile off
Ban Ang Sila. Local knowledge is required.
Chart 1046
Mae Nam Bang Pakong
4.209
1
General information. The banks of the Mae Nam Bang
Pakong (13°27′⋅5N, 100°58′⋅0E) near its mouth and the
coast for 4 miles S and W, consist of mangroves, and
mud-banks. These dry or nearly dry and extend up to
3 miles offshore S of Laem Talat Nok, the E entrance point
of the river, and up to 2 miles offshore W of the W
entrance point. The bar, upon which there are numerous
fishing stakes, is nearly 4 miles wide and has charted
depths of less than 2 m, although depths in the buoyed
channel generally exceed 2 m. Entrance Light-buoy (can,
safe water) is moored 7 miles WSW of Laem Talat Nok.
2
Mae Nam Bang Pakong is reported to be navigable by
small craft as far as Changwat Chachoengsao, 15 miles up
river. A swing bridge crosses the river 1 mile above Ban
Pak Pakong, 2 miles NNE of Laem Talat Nok.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 56 ship calls with a total of
405 593 dwt.
3
Useful mark: pagoda on summit of Khao Phra Bat,
5 miles SSE of Laem Talat Nok.
Chart 1046
Khlong Dan
4.210
1
General information. Ban Khlong Dan is situated on
the E bank of the Khlong Dan, 5 cables inland. A light (red
and white concrete tripod, 15 m in height) is exhibited from
the W side of the river close within the entrance.
An outfall is marked by a light-beacon and a light-buoy
(special, pillar) 1 miles SSE of the river mouth.
KO CHUANG TO KHLONG YAI
General information
Chart 67, 3966
Route
4.211
1
The coastal route around the Gulf of Thailand continues
from a position E of Ko Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E),
crossing to the S of the mouth of the head of the Gulf to
pass S of Ko Chuang (12°31′N, 100°58′E) and E along the
S-facing coast of the E side of the Gulf, before turning SE
to pass SW of Khlong Yai (11°46′N, 102°53′E), a point
close to the boundary between Thailand and Cambodia.
2
During the SW monsoon, vessels routeing between the
head of the Gulf of Thailand and rounding the S tip of
Vietnam may find a certain amount of shelter by keeping
toward the W side of the Gulf and, when S of latitude
10°40′N, remaining W of all the dangers in the fairway of
the Gulf.
3
The directions given below and in the following section
of this chapter are those recommended during the NE
monsoon. They follow a route close to the E side of the
Gulf of Thailand.
Topography
4.212
1
Between Laem Samae San (12°36′N, 100°58′E), and
Laem Ya (26 miles to the E) (4.240), lies Ao Rayong
(4.221). To the E of Laem Ya are three further bays, in the
third of which, E of Laem Thoraphim (12°39′N, 101°39′E),
the coast turns from being S-facing to trending SE,
incorporating more bays and providing access to several
major rivers between Laem Thai Ran Dokmai (12°31′N,
101°57′E), Laem Ling (12°12′N, 102°17′E) and Laem Nam
(12°03′N, 102°35′E). A chain of islands extends SE from
Laem Ling. E of Laem Ling lies Ao Muang Trat (4.248),
to the E of which the coast continues its SE trend towards
Khlong Yai (11°46′N, 102°53′E); see chart.
2
The areas of undeveloped coastline are generally low,
wooded, and fringed by a sandy beach. Isolated hills stand
behind the coast in places, and in the extreme SE a
mountain range rises gradually to elevations of more than
600 m from within 1 to 3 miles of the coastline. There are
higher mountains farther inland.
4.213
1
Whilst there are numerous small islands, islets and
isolated rocks to be found along this stretch of the coast,
the more significant are Ko Samet (12°35′N, 101°27′E)
(4.240), and the islands in the chain extending SE from
Laem Ling (12°12′N, 102°17′E), including Ko Chang
(12°05′N, 102°20′E) (4.247) and Ko Kut (11°40′N,
102°34′E) (4.249).
Depths
4.214
1
Beyond the coastal 20 m depth contour the waters are
generally clear of dangers; see chart.
Hazards
4.215
1
Exercise areas. Danger areas exist off the coast in the
NW part of the route and off Ko Chang (12°05′N,
102°20′E). See 4.4 and charts.
Fishing stakes may be encountered in large numbers
anywhere along the coast, particularly during the NE
monsoon.
CHAPTER 4
135
Marine farms
4.216
1
Marine farms, which may be floating or fixed, exist in a
number of locations along the coastal belt; see chart.
Mined area
4.217
1
Former mined area (11°52′N, 102°26′E) exists between
Ko Chang and Ko Mak; see 4.6.
Dumping grounds
4.218
1
See 4.8. An circular explosives dumping ground, radius
1 miles, is centred on 12°12′N, 101°21′E; see chart. This
area is also used as an aircraft target area.
Major lights
4.219
1
Ko Phai Light (12°56′N, 100°40′E) (4.102).
Laem Pu Chao Light (12°39′N, 100°51′E) (4.156).
Ko Chuang Light (12°31′N, 100°58′E) (4.156).
Prasae Light (white metal framework tower, 16 m in
height) (12°42′N, 101°42′E).
Khlong Yai Light (white metal framework tower)
(11°47′N, 102°54′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.66)
4.220
1
In crossing the mouth of the head of the Gulf from Ko
Sattakut (12°12′N, 100°02′E), there are a number of
dangerous wrecks lying between 19 to 26 miles ENE from
Ko Sattakut. From a position S of Ko Chuang (12°31′N,
100°58′E) and clear of Hin Yai (4⋅3 miles to the S), the
track leads E for about 45 miles before turning SE for
about a further 70 miles, passing (with positions from
12°00′N, 101°30′E):
2
S of Ao Rayong (41 miles NNW) (4.221), which
encompasses Map Ta Phut (4.221) and Rayong
(4.234), and has the Map Ta Phut Terminal
(34 miles NNW) (4.229) in its entrance. Thence:
S of Ko Samet (31 miles N) (4.240); thence:
SW of Ko Man Nok (36 miles NNE) (4.241), from
where a light (white metal framework tower, 13 m
in height) is exhibited. Hin Ai Lop, which dries,
with Hin Ritthidet, below-water, 7 cables SW of it,
lies 5 miles E of Ko Man Nok. And:
3
Clear of Hin Alhambra (27 miles NNE), which
consists of two coral patches. The SW rock dries,
and the sea breaks heavily over it in bad weather;
the NE rock is below-water. Thence:
SW of Laem Sing (43 miles NE) at the entrance to
the Mae Nam Chanthaburi (4.245). Thence:
SW of Hin Phut (38 miles NE), an above-water rock
marked by a light-buoy (pillar, E cardinal), thence:
4
SW of Ko Chik Nok (12°12′N, 102°14′E) (4.246) at
the entrance to the Mae Nam Wen (4.246). A light
(white concrete tripod, 7 m in height) is exhibited
from Ko Chik Nok. Thence:
5
SW of Laem Ling (12°12′N, 102°17′E), the NW
entrance point of Chong Ko Chang (4.247), and
SW of the chain of islands extending S from Laem
Ling, terminating with Ko Kut (11°40′N,
102°34′E) (4.249). A light (white metal framework
tower, 30 m in height) is exhibited from the S
extremity of Ko Kut. There is a dangerous wreck,
marked by a buoy (pillar, isolated danger) 20 miles
SSE. Thence:
6
To a position SW of Khlong Yai (11°46′N, 102°53′E)
(4.250), in the vicinity of position 11°14′N,
102°20′E. A light (4.219) is exhibited from Khlong
Yai.
(Directions continue at 4.256)
Map Ta Phut
Charts 3966, 1046, 3724
General Information
4.221
1
Position. The main Map Ta Phut port area is located at
the head of Ao Rayong, in position 12°40′N, 101°09′E; the
Thai Petrochemical Industry (TPI) berth (4.234) is situated
10 miles E of it; the Map Ta Phut Terminal (4.229) lies
offshore, in the entrance to Ao Rayong, in position
12°29′N, 101°12′E.
2
Function. Map Ta Phut is an artificial harbour, purpose
built to support the petrochemical, fertilzer and soda ash
industries. It is one of Thailand’s largest industrial ports.
3
Topography. Ao Rayong lies between Laem Samae San
(12°36′N, 100°58′E) and Laem Ya (12°35′N, 101°25′E).
The bay has a low, wooded coastline, except for Khao Sap,
an isolated hill on the coast 2 miles W of Laem Ya. The
coast is fronted by a sandy beach. Ko Saket (12°39′N,
101°10′E) lies close E of the entrance to Map Ta Phut. The
Mae Nam Rayong (4.234) discharges into the sea 8 miles E
of Map Ta Phut.
4
Port limits. Map Ta Phut harbour limits are shown on
chart.
Approach and entry. The harbour is approached from
SSE and entered via a buoyed channel.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 1462 ship calls with a total
of 36 228 352 dwt.
Limiting conditions
4.222
1
Controlling depth. The approach channel and the
fairway to the inner basin within the harbour were dredged
to 12⋅5 m in 2001.
Maximum size of vessel handled. The officially
permitted maximum dimensions for a vessel entering the
harbour are 260 m LOA, and breadth 46 m.
Arrival information
4.223
1
Port operations. The harbour is open at all times,
weather permitting.
Port radio. There is a port radio.
2
Outer anchorages. A circular anchorage area, radius
1 mile, has been established, in depths of approximately
14 m, 4 miles SSE of the harbour entrance; see chart.
There is a dry cargo anchorage in Ao Rayong in
position 12°34′⋅5N, 101°15′⋅5E, and a petroleum anchorage
in position 12°30′N, 101°18′E; both are shown on the
chart. A dangerous wreck lies in the NE corner of the dry
cargo anchorage.
3
A quarantine anchorage is established close E of Ko
Samae San (12°34′N, 100°57′E).
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards in approximate
position 12°36′N, 101°10′E.
Tugs are available.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Harbour
4.224
1
General layout. The harbour is entered from SSE and is
enclosed by two substantial areas of reclaimed land; the W
CHAPTER 4
136
side projects 6 cables S from the shore with a breakwater
extending a further 1 miles SE from it; the E side
projects 2 miles SSE from the coast and has a large number
of tank sites on it, as do parts of the W side. The fairway
runs diagonally through the harbour from SSE to NNW, the
areas to NE and SW, except close within the entrance, were
shallow, but are being dredged, particularly in the NE in
way of the Star Petroleum berths (4.227).
2
Marine farms (4.5) have been established in Ao
Rayong and its approaches.
Directions
(continued from 4.220)
4.225
1
Approaches. From a position off the entrance to Ao
Rayong, to the pilot boarding place (4.223) off Map Ta
Phut, the track leads N, passing (with positions from the
the W harbour entrance breakwater light):
Clear of Map Ta Phut Terminal (10 miles SSE)
(4.229), thence:
2
Clear of the petroleum anchorage (12 miles SE), the
marine farms (10 miles SE) and the dry cargo
anchorage (8 miles SE); see chart, thence:
To the Map Ta Phut pilot boarding point
approximately 1 mile S of the light-buoy
(spherical; safe water mark) (1⋅9 miles SSE).
3
Caution. There are numerous below-water rocks and
other isolated dangers in Ao Rayong; see chart.
Useful mark:
Hin Chula Light (white concrete tower, black bands,
6 m in height) (12°35′⋅6N, 100°58′⋅2E).
4.226
1
Entrance channel. From the vicinity of the light-buoy
(spherical, safe water mark) (1⋅9 miles SSE), two sets of
light-beacons mark the centre of the entrance fairway:
Outer front light No 18 (12°40′⋅1N, 101°08′⋅9E);
Outer rear light No 19 (590 m NNW from front
light).
The alignment (345°) of these lights leads through the
buoyed fairway for 2⋅5 miles passing E of the W
breakwater head.
2
Inner front light No 20 (12°40′⋅3N, 101°08′⋅5E);
Inner rear light No 21 (620 m NW from front light).
The alignment (330°) of these lights leads through a
buoyed channel in the centre of the harbour to the berths in
the NW corner.
Useful mark:
W breakwater head light-beacon (red and white
chequered structure) (12°38′⋅7N, 101°09′⋅1E).
Berths
4.227
1
Alongside berths. Within the harbour there are three
main berthing areas:
The Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd berths on the
NW part of the E reclamation, consisting of two
concrete piers extending W into the harbour from
the reclamation.
2
The N pier is a dedicated LPG pier and can
accommodate vessels up to 90 m LOA and draught
7⋅5 m on the N side, at the largest of its two
berths, the other, on the S side, being able to
accommodate vessels up to 80 m LOA and draught
5⋅5 m.
3
The S pier is a products pier with five berths; three
on its S side and two on its N side; numbered
from W to E, berths 2 and 5 are on the N side
and 1, 3 and 4 are on the S side. A vessel of up
to 90 000 dwt and draught 12 m can be
accommodated at this pier; however, such a large
vessel would berth on the S side of the pier and
occupy all three berths.
4
The Alliance Refining Co. Ltd berths on the W part
of the E reclamation, consist, at the S end, of three
L-shaped jetties extending W into the harbour from
the reclamation, their berthing heads parallel with
the face of the reclamation. All vessels berth port
side to, bows S.
5
The jetties are numbered 1 to 3 from S to N. Jetty
No 1 can accommodate vessels up to 260 m LOA,
draught 11⋅5 m and displacement 87 000 tons. Jetty
No 2 can accommodate vessels up to 170 m LOA,
draught 10⋅5 m and displacement 49 500 tons. Jetty
No 3 can accommodate vessels up to 110 m LOA,
draught 7⋅5 m and displacement 7950 tons.
6
To the N of these jetties lie an oil pier and an LPG
pier, both extending into the harbour. The oil pier
has five berths.
7
The Thai Tank Terminal, close inside the harbour
entrance on the W breakwater, consisting of two
dolphin type liquid handling berths, their berthing
faces parallel with the breakwater. The inner berth,
No 1, can accommodate vessels up to 160 m LOA
and draught 11⋅9 m; and the outer berth, No 2, can
accommodate vessels up to 200 m LOA and
draught 11⋅9 m. The maximum deadweight at
either berth is 45 000 tons.
8
In addition, the Thai Prosperity Terminal Co. Ltd have
facilities in the NW part of the harbour; to the N is the
Phadaeng Berth; see chart.
Close W of the harbour, a pipe jetty extends 2 miles S
to close within the 10 m depth contour, at which point
there is a dolphin type berth, NPC 1. The jetty then extends
SW for a further 3 cables to a second dolphin type berth,
NPC 2, in a depth of about 12 m. NPC 1 is orientated
NE-SW, and NPC 2, E-W; these berths are the Fluid
Chemicals Materials berths.
Port services
4.228
1
Repairs: no repair facilities.
Other facilities: hospital and medical facilities on
request; deratting exemption certificates; limited oily waste
disposal facilities at some berths.
Supplies: fuel and fresh water available by barge whilst
alongside at some berths, otherwise at anchor; provisions
and stores available.
SPM Terminal
Chart 1046
General information
4.229
1
A lighted SPM terminal (12°29′N, 101°12′E), within a
1 mile radius restricted area, is located about 10 miles SSE
from Map Ta Phut harbour (4.221).
Arrival information
4.230
1
Anchorage. Vessels awaiting berthing normally anchor
about 3 miles S of the terminal.
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot, who also acts as
mooring master, usually boards at the anchorage. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
CHAPTER 4
137
Directions
4.231
1
A light-buoy (pillar, special mark) with racon, is moored
7 cables NE of the terminal; 2 cables NNE is a lighted
mooring buoy used by the terminal support vessel.
Caution. A below-water rock 1 miles WNW of the
terminal is marked by a light-buoy (pillar, isolated danger)
on its N side.
Berth
4.232
1
The SPM is designed for the importation of crude oil,
and can accommodate vessels of 60 000 to 280 000 dwt,
with a maximum of 345 m LOA and draught 20⋅4 m.
Port services
4.233
1
Facilities: see Map Ta Phut port services (4.228).
Supplies: fuel and fresh water by barge.
Rayong
Chart 3966
General information
4.234
1
Position. Some 2 miles ESE from the light (4.237) at
the entrance to the Rayong river is the TPI (Thai
Petrochemical Industry Public Company Ltd) Jetty
(12°38′⋅5N, 101°18′⋅8E); see chart. It is reported that land
to the W of the jetty is being reclaimed. The area is being
developed as a private facility for the TPI, and that the
place is becoming known as the port of Rayong.
2
The entrance to the Mae Nam Rayong (12°39′⋅2N,
101°17′⋅0E) is continually shifting, and is fronted by a bar
which almost dries. The town of Rayong is located 1 mile
inland, on the N bank of the river.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 37 ship calls with a total of
2 354 927 dwt.
3
Port Authority. Harbour Department of Thailand, 1278
Yotha Road, Talardnoi, Samphanthawong District, Bangkok
10110, Thailand.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.235
1
Vessels up to 340 m LOA and draught 18⋅5 m can be
accommodated.
Arrival information
4.236
1
Outer anchorages. See 4.223.
Pilotage is compulsory for berthing, contact being made
by VHF through the port control situated on the TPI Jetty.
The pilot boarding point is shown on the chart. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs are available from Map Ta Phut (4.223).
Directions
(continued from 4.220)
4.237
1
From a position in the entrance to Ao Rayong (4.221),
in the vicinity of the light-buoy (spherical, safe water mark,
fitted with a racon), (12°30′⋅7N, 101°15′⋅3E); having passed
E of Map Ta Phut Terminal (4.229), and W of the
petroleum anchorage (4.223); the line of bearing (023°) of
the TPI Jetty leads through the approach channel and to the
jetty.
2
The approach channel, approximately 8 miles in length,
is reported to be 2 cables in width, dredged to a depth of
19 m, and marked by light-buoys.
Caution. Three dangerous wrecks lie in the approaches
W of the buoyed channel; see chart.
3
Useful marks:
Rayong river entrance light (12°40′N, 101°17′E)
(white metal framework tower, 16 m in height)
A chimney is shown on the chart close N of the jetty
(5 cables NW).
Berths
4.238
1
The TPI Jetty, a dog-legged jetty extending about
7 cables SW from the shore, reportedly accommodates oil
tankers at its outer end, and dry cargo vessels nearer to its
root. Tankers may berth on either side of the jetty, the
larger berths, Nos 1 and 2, being on the outer W side,
whilst berths Nos 3 and 4, on the inner W side of the jetty,
are for coal and other dry cargoes. There is an LPG berth
on the E side of the jetty. As part of the development of
the TPI facility a second jetty has been constructed to W
of the current operational jetty.
Port services
4.239
1
Facilities: limited garbage disposal facilities, but none
for oily waste disposal.
Supplies: fuel, fresh water, and provisions at the jetty
with advanced notice.
Minor harbours, bays and anchorages
Chart 3966
Ko Samet and Chong Samet
4.240
1
General information. Ko Samet (12°35′N, 101°27′E) is
a hilly island, highest at its N end, and cliffy in places,
especially on its W side, and on the E side of its S end. It
is almost completely surrounded by rocks lying close
offshore. The N extremity of the island is Laem Noina;
Laem Yai, the E extremity, has two small hills on it. Chong
Samet (12°35′N, 101°26′E), as well as being encumbered
by rocks, has had marine farms (4.5) established in its
approaches and in the channel itself. Local knowledge is
required if the channel is to be used.
2
Ko Chan, which lies 3 cables S of Ko Samet, is nearly
divided into two by a low isthmus; Hin San Chalam lies
5 cables S of Ko Chan.
The approaches to Chong Samet, the channel which
separates Ko Samet from Laem Ya (12°35′N, 101°25′E), a
cliffy promontory on the mainland, and the channel itself,
are encumbered by rocks; Hin Sunthon, a below-water
rock, lies in mid-channel in its SW approaches.
3
Ao Phe is the bay between Laem Ya and Laem Ban
Klaeng, 5 miles NE, a prominent bluff. Foul ground
extends 1 mile from the shore of Ao Phe, and there are
numerous off-lying dangers.
Ban Phe is situated 2 miles N of Laem Ya; there are
several jetties fronting the village, and two light-buoys
(pillar, cardinal) mark dangers in the approaches to E and S
of the village; see chart.
4
A chain of small islets, including Ko Pla Tin, Ko Kruai
and Ko Kudi, lies 2 miles NE of Ko Samet. All these
islets are fringed by below-water rocks which extend up to
1 cable offshore.
CHAPTER 4
138
Two miles NNW from this chain of islets is Khlong
Klaeng (12°38′N, 101°30′E), with Ban Klaeng situated on
the N side close inside the entrance.
5
Anchorage may be obtained in depths of 6 m, N of Ko
Samet, distant 5 cables, and clear of the fish farm
established in the bay on the N shore of Ko Samet.
Useful marks:
Ko Samet Light (white metal framework tower, 15 m
in height) (12°35′N, 101°27′E).
6
Radio mast (red light), 2 miles NW of Ko Samet
Light.
Radio mast on the S extremity of Laem Ya (12°35′N,
101°25′E) (4.240).
Mae Nam Prasae
4.241
1
General information. Between Laem Thoraphim
(12°39′N, 101°39′E) and Laem Thai Ran Dokmai (12°31′N,
101°57′E) is a bay, on the W side of the head of which is
the entrance to the Mae Nam Prasae; the entrance to the
Mae Nam Phangrat (4.242) is on the E side of the head of
the same bay.
2
Mae Nam Prasae (12°42′N, 101°42′E) has the village of
Ban Prasae on its E side, close inside its entrance. A light
(4.219) is exhibited from the W entrance point of the river;
a light-buoy (pillar, safe water) is moored 1 miles S of
the light, and a beacon is positioned between them to mark
the bank on the E side of the approach channel.
3
There are several off-lying islets and dangers in the bay;
see chart. Ko Man Nok, fringed by below-water rocks, is
the outermost of a chain of islets which lie on the foul
ground extending from the NW shore of the bay. Hin
Loftus, a patch of coral awash, lies 8 cables SE of Ko Man
Nok, and Hin Yuan, consisting of above-water rocks
surrounded by below-water rocks, lies 4 cables N of Ko
Man Nok. Ko Man Khlang lies 2 miles NNW of Ko Man
Nok and Ko Man Nai lies 5 cables N of Ko Man Khlang,
to which it is joined by a reef. The area between Ko Man
Nai and the coast N and NW is foul and not navigable.
Mae Nam Phangrat
4.242
1
General information. Ban Phangrat (12°41′⋅5N,
101°47′⋅0E) is situated on the W side of the entrance to the
Mae Nam Phangrat, situated at the head of a bay. For
information on the bay and its approaches, see 4.241.
Two rocks lie S of the Mae Nam Phangrat; Hin Volant,
awash, lies 1 miles S, and Hin Phangrat, awash, lies
between it and the river mouth. A light-buoy (pillar, W
cardinal) marks these rocks, as may best be seen on the
chart.
Ao Khung Kraben
4.243
1
General information. The entrance to Ao Khung
Kraben (12°35′N, 101°53′E) is located 5 miles NW of
Laem Thai Ran Dokmai (12°31′N, 101°57′E). This point is
the S end of a hilly projection.
2
Ao Khung Kraben a shallow bay with wooded shores,
has an entrance 3 cables wide obstructed by two small
islets, on the S of which is a pagoda. Khao Khung Kraben,
elevation 125 m, at the tip of a narrow isthmus, marks the
S side of the entrance; Ban Khung Kraben is situated on
the isthmus.
Hin Lom and Hin Wisit lie, respectively, 1 mile SSE and
4 miles NW of Khao Khung Kraben.
Mae Nam Khem Nu
4.244
1
General information. The coast in this region is hilly.
Entered close E of Laem Thai Ran Dokmai (12°31′N,
101°57′E), the Mae Nam Khem Nu is obstructed by a bar,
with a least depth of 2⋅5 m over it, extending from between
the N ends of Ko Saba, close off Laem Thai Ran Dokmai,
and Hin Pluang, a below-water rock lying 6 cables ENE of
Ko Saba. Inside the bar the channel is very narrow, and
there is a sandspit extending 1 mile offshore on its E side,
which can generally be seen distinctly, and which partly
dries. Ban Khem Nu is situated on the E entrance point of
the river.
2
Hin Ai Lao, rocks, some of which are awash, extends
1 mile offshore from a point 2 miles NNW of Laem Thai
Ran Dokmai.
Ko Saba, separated from the mainland N by Chong
Saba, has Ko Luk Saba, a reef awash extending 2 cables S
from it.
Mae Nam Chanthaburi
4.245
1
General information. The Mae Nam Chanthaburi is
entered close E of Laem Sing (12°28′N, 102°04′E).
Chanthaburi, an important town, is located 9 miles NNE of
the entrance to the Mae Nam Chanthaburi. Tha Chalaep,
the port for Chanthaburi, is located on the N bank of the
river 3 miles N of the entrance.
2
A small harbour at the entrance to the river on the E
side, close W of the town of Laem Sing, can accommodate
a few vessels not exceeding 45 m LOA, and 2⋅5 m draught.
Arrival information:
3
Outer anchorages. Large vessels may obtain
anchorage outside the river in Ao Mu Yai, 1 mile
NW of Ko Nom Sao. Anchorage for small craft
may be obtained in depths of 7 m, SW of Ko
Chula, distant 1 mile.
Pilotage. Pilots are not available.
4
Natural conditions:
Tidal streams in the river are strong and very
variable, and run for 12 hours without turning
when the moon has a high declination N or S. In
the entrance the out-going stream tends to set a
vessel towards Ko Chula.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.155.
5
Directions. Approached from W, the Mae Nam
Chanthaburi is entered on a N heading passing clear of Hin
Phut (12°20′⋅5N, 102°02′E) (4.220), and Hin Boisen,
2 miles NE, and the islands of Ko Nom Sao and Ko
Chula which lie, respectively, 2 miles W and 4 cables SE of
Laem Sing. Below-water rocks in the approaches and
entrance to the river leave a fairway only about 2 cables in
width and 3⋅7 m deep.
6
Vessels drawing 3⋅7 m can proceed up river to Ban
Laem Pradu on the W bank, where there is a Custom
office and a 90 m long wooden pier.
Boats drawing up to 1⋅2 m can ascend the river as far as
Tha Chalaep; local knowledge is required. There is a shoal,
with a depth of 3 m over it, 1 mile S of the jetty at the
town.
7
Useful marks, with positions from Laem Sing (12°28′N,
102°04′E):
Khao Map Wa Krok (10 miles NE).
Khao Phloi Waen (8 miles N), surmounted by a
pagoda.
Ko Nom Sao (2 miles W).
CHAPTER 4
139
Laem Sing Light (white metal framework tower, 6 m
in height).
Beacon (white) (5 cables N).
8
Berths:
Anchorages. There is an anchorage for naval vessels
about 2 cables NW of the small harbour (4.245).
Local vessels anchor off Ban Laem Pradu, but it is
necessary to moor because of the strength of the
tidal streams.
9
Alongside berths. At Tha Chalaep a concrete
T-headed jetty can accommodate vessels up to 500
tons and 3 m draught at HW. There are landing
steps on either side of the head of the jetty.
Vessels unable to berth alongside may anchor off
the jetty.
Supplies: available.
Mae Nam Wen
4.246
1
General information. Ko Chik Nok (12°18′N,
102°15′E), a cultivated island with a village on its N side,
has Ko Chik Klang to the E of it; both islands lie off the S
entrance point to the Mae Nam Wen. A light (4.220) is
exhibited from Ko Chik Nok.
2
A bar extends 2 miles SW from Ko Chik Nok, the least
depth in the fairway being about 2 m. A shoal which dries
extends 4 cables from the S entrance point of the Mae
Nam Wem, narrowing the navigable channel to a width of
2 cables; in this part of the river the least depth in
mid-stream is in excess of 5 m. About 1 mile within the
entrance the river divides into two branches. Both branches
lead between mangrove swamps; the E branch is shallow;
the N branch leads to Ban Khlung 10 miles up river. A
boat channel leads from Ban Khlung to the Mae Nam
Chanthaburi (4.245).
3
There are no aids to navigation in the river; local
knowledge is required.
Anchorage may be obtained outside the river entrance,
in depths of 4 m, N of Ko Chik Nok, distant 3 cables.
Chong Ko Chang and Ko Chang
4.247
1
General information. Chong Ko Chang is entered from
NW between Laem Ling (12°12′N, 102°17′E) and Ko
Chang Noi, an islet 3 miles SW lying close off the NW
extremity of Ko Chang (12°05′N, 102°20′E). Hin Khi
Chang (12°10′N, 102°19′E) lies on the N side of the
entrance fairway, 3 miles SE of Laem Ling; rocks awash 7
cables ENE of Hin Khi Chang are marked on their NE side
by a light-buoy (pillar, E cardinal).
2
On the NE side of Chong Ko Chang, a pier extends S
from Laem Lanthom, 3 miles ESE of Laem Ling, and
between Laem Lanthom and Laem Nam (12°03′N,
102°35′E) there are two bays of unequal size, separated by
Laem Ngop. Ko Pui lies in the NW part of the N bay, and
Khlong Tha Taphao enters the head of the S bay. Hin Mun
Chang, a group of rocks, lies 7 miles NW of Laem Nam.
3
On its SW side Chong Ko Chang is bounded by the E
side of Ko Chang. There are several villages on the E coast
of Ko Chang. Ko Lim (12°03′N, 102°26′E), with an islet
close NW of it, lies off this coast.
Caution. If transiting Chong Ko Chang enroute to Ao
Muang Trat (4.248) in a vessel drawing more than 4⋅6 m,
local knowledge is required before continuing beyond Hin
Khi Chang.
4
There is a customs office at Laem Ngop (12°11′N,
102°25′E) on the N side of Chong Ko Chang, and at Ban
Nonsi (12°06′N, 102°21′E) on the NE side of Ko Chang.
Access to Ban Nonsi, and the other villages on the E side
of Ko Chang, is difficult at LW.
5
Inland, Ko Chang has several peaked hills intersected by
rocky and precipitous ravines. The islands highest summit,
Khao Salak Phet, is a table topped peak near the middle of
the S end of the island. The major bays around its shores
are Ao Son, the small, deeply indented bay at the NW
extremity of the island, and Ao Salak Phet on the E side of
the island’s S shore. Ko Chang Noi (4.247) and Ko
Mapring lie at either side of the entrance to Ao Son.
6
Laem Bang Bao is the SW extremity of Ko Chang. Ao
Salak Phet is shallow and encumbered by the two islands,
Ko Phrao Nok with Ko Phrao Nai close N of it. Ko Ngam
lies close off the S extremity of Ko Chang, E of Ao Salak
Phet. A dangerous wreck lies mile WSW of the S
extremity of Ko Chang.
Caution. There is a firing practice area off the W side
of Ko Chang; see 4.4.
7
Ko Mak (11°49′N, 102°29′E), which has a rocky
headland at its W extremity, lies 7 miles SSE of Ko Chang.
It has Ko Rang Yai, with Ko Mapring and Ko Rang Lek,
3 miles W of it, and Ko Kradat 8 cables E of it. Ko Rang
Yai has several above-water rocks around it and an
obstruction off its W side.
8
Ko Mak also has Ko Rayang Nok close S of its W
extremity, and it, Ko Mak and Ko Kradat, along with
numerous other below-water rocks, lie on a coral flat; see
chart. Between Ko Mak and Ko Chang lie numerous other
islands, islets and rocks.
Caution. A former mined area exists (4.215).
9
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 8 to 9 m, SE
of Hin Khi Chang Light, distant about 7 cables. There is
deeper water in the fairway between Hin Khi Chang and
Ko Chang. From NW, having passed clear S of Hin Khi
Chang, anchor only when Hin Khi Chang is in line with,
or open SW of, Laem Ling (12°12′N, 102°17′E).
Small vessels may obtain anchorage, in depths of 5 m,
SW of Laem Ngop (12°11′N, 102°25′E), distant 1 miles.
10
Useful marks, with positions from Hin Khi Chang
(12°10′N, 102°19′E):
Hin Khi Chang Light (white metal framework tower,
8 m in height).
Radio mast (red light) (2 miles NNW).
Laem Ngop Light (white concrete framework tower,
10 m in height) (5 miles ENE).
Radio tower (red light) (5 miles ENE).
Laem Nam Light (white concrete tower, 15 m in
height) (18 miles ESE).
Mae Nam Trat
4.248
1
General information. Ao Muang Trat (12°05′N,
102°38′E) is entered between Laem Nam (12°03′N,
102°35′E) and Khao Hua Maeo, a rocky bluff 14 miles SE.
Mae Nam Trat (12°12′N, 102°34′E) flows into the head of
the bay, which is shallow with drying mud-banks. Laem Ko
Pu, from where a light is exhibited, is on the W side of the
bay, and Laem Khuan is on the E side, 3 miles E of Laem
Ko Pu. A light-buoy (pillar, safe water) marks the outer
end of the buoyed entrance channel at the river’s mouth.
2
The town of Trat is situated on the E side of the river
4 miles NW of its mouth. Fresh provisions may be
obtained.
CHAPTER 4
140
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained, in depths
of 7 m, E of Laem Nam (12°03′N, 102°35′E), distant
4 miles.
3
Useful mark:
Laem Ko Pu Light (white concrete tower, 11 m in
height) (12°09′⋅8N, 102°34′⋅6E).
Ko Kut
4.249
1
General information. Ko Kut (11°40′N, 102°34′E), a
high, level island attaining its highest elevation in the S,
lies about 4 miles SSE of Ko Mak (11°49′N, 102°29′E)
(4.247). The island is indented by many small bays on all
sides, the principal ones on the W side of the island being
Ao Khlong Chao and Ao Lak Uan, with the island of Ko
Maisi Lek (11°43′N, 102°32′E) at its entrance; and on the
E side, Ao Yai and Ao Salat. The island’s main headlands
are Laem Yai Tui, its N extremity; Laem Khlong Kluai, its
E extremity; Laem Thian, its S extremity, and Laem Hin
Dam on the W side. Close off the W side of the island lie
Hin Bang Bao and Ko Raet; see chart.
2
Anchorage. The bay, Ao Lak Uan, on the NW side of
Ko Kut with Ko Maisi Lek close NW affords good
anchorage. Local knowledge is required.
Khlong Yai
4.250
1
General information. Khlong Yai (11°46′N, 102°53′E)
lies 10 miles SE of Khao Hua Maeo (4.248); numerous
fishing stakes are to found on this part of the coast during
the NE monsoon. The approximate land boundary between
Thailand and Cambodia meets the coast about 7 miles S
of Khlong Yai.
2
The harbour is formed of a channel which runs through
a built-up area and extends 1 mile to seaward. There is a
jetty 840 m in length. Ban Khlong Yai (11°46′N, 102°53′E)
consists of houses and go-downs built over the foreshore.
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 4 m, W of
Ban Khlong Yai, distant 2 miles offshore.
3
Useful marks: With positions from Khlong Yai Light:
Khlong Yai Light (11°46′⋅5N, 102°53′⋅5E) (4.219).
Tower (1 miles NW) with a chimney close W of it.
Radio mast (red and white bands, red light) (4 miles
NW).
CAMBODIA, THE WEST COAST OF VIETNAM AND THE OFFSHORE GASFIELDS
IN THE GULF OF THAILAND
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3985, 3542, 3983
Description
4.251
1
The area described in this section is that part of the E
seaboard of the Gulf of Thailand which forms the coastline
of Cambodia and the W coast of Vietnam. Included are the
offshore islands, irrespective of their nationality, and
directions are given for Cambodia’s major port, Kampong
Saom (4.257), and for Ha Tien (10°23′N, 104°29′E) (4.294)
in Vietnam.
2
The final part of this section describes, and gives
directions for, the offshore gasfields in the central part of
the Gulf of Thailand
The boundaries on the coast between Cambodia and its
neighbours, Thailand in the N and Vietnam in the S, are to
be found, respectively, some 7 miles S of Khlong Yai Light
(11°47′N, 102°54′E), and some 3 miles N of Mui Nai
Light (10°22′N, 104°26′E).
3
Phnom Penh (11°36′N, 104°54′E) (5.34), the capital of
Cambodia, is accessible from seaward via the Mekong
River, and the first 150 miles of the 200 mile journey, from
river’s mouth to the boundary between Vietnam and
Cambodia, is through Vietnam. Directions for Phnom Penh
are given with those for the Mekong River (5.38) in
Chapter 5.
THE CAMBODIAN COAST — KHLONG
YAI TO MUI NAI
General information
Charts 3985, 3879
Route
4.252
1
From a position SW of Khlong Yai (11°46′N, 102°53′E)
(4.250) to a position SW of Mui Nai (10°22′N, 104°26′E)
the route leads generally SSE, and inshore of the outer
islands, for about 120 miles.
The directions given in this section are those suggested
for vessels during the NE monsoon and would afford the
best shelter. During the SW monsoon, mariners may find it
preferable to remain W of the islands off this section of the
coast; see 4.211.
Topography
4.253
1
The coast of Cambodia is much indented by bays,
Chhak Kampong Saom (10°50′N, 103°30′E) being the
largest. The sandy beaches on the coast are generally
backed by wooded sand-hills, and great mountain ranges
extend inland from the coast in the vicinity of position
10°35′N, 104°00′E. Numerous rivers intersect the coastline,
and there are many inshore and offshore islands and
dangers; see chart.
Depths
4.254
1
Cambodia’s coastal waters and bays are mostly shallow,
the majority of islands and dangers being found within the
35 m (20 fm) depth contour. Beyond the 55 m (30 fm)
depth contour, although depths do not greatly increase, the
waters are generally free of dangers to navigation.
Principal marks
4.255
1
Landmarks:
Ko Yo (Koh Yor) (11°35′N, 102°56′E), 117 m (385 ft)
high and prominent, which appears as an island
from a distance.
Kaoh Kapik (Kas Kapik), (11°27′N, 103°01′E) where
there is a remarkable pagoda.
2
Le Coin de Mire (11°03′N, 103°09′E) is the highest
and most remarkable hill on this part of the coast.
Îlot Veer (10°15′N, 102°53′E) is high and steep-to.
Phnum Bokor (10°37′N, 104°02′E) is a high and
prominent nipple on the S end of the prominent
CHAPTER 4
141
massif, Phnum Pouvankhone, with an elevation of
more than 1000 m.
3
Major lights:
Khlong Yai Light (11°47′N, 102°54′E) (4.219).
Kaoh Rung Samlœm Light (white tower, red band,
18 m in height) (10°33′N, 103°19′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.220)
Charts 3985, 3967, 3879
4.256
1
From SW of Khlong Yai (4.250), in the vicinity of
position 11°14′N, 102°20′E, the coastal track continues SE
for approximately 80 miles, thence SSE for about a further
40 miles to a position SW of Mui Nai with Hon Tho Chau
(9°18′N, 103°28′E), distant about 30 miles, passing (with
positions from Kaoh Rung Samlœm Light (10°33′N,
103°19′E)):
2
SW of Kaoh Kong (50 miles NNW) (4.269) and clear
of the offshore islands and dangers within the
35 m (20 fm) depth contour, including the
dangerous wreck 16 miles WNW of the NW
extremity of Kaoh Kong. Thence:
3
SW of Kaoh Kusrovie (46 miles NNW), 11 m (36 ft)
high; the sides of the rock are shelving and
islolated rocks extend cable from it. Baterek
Ubon Boratit, composed of coral and sand with a
least depth of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it, lies 1 mile NNE
of Kaoh Kusrovie. There is deep water between
Kaoh Kusrovie and the shoal water, with a depth
of 6⋅1 m (20 ft), which extends mile SW of
Baterek Ubon Boratit. Thence:
4
NE of Récif Condor (28 miles NW), a drying rock,
thence:
SW of Kaoh Rung Samlœm (4.272), which lies in the
entrance to Chhak Kampong Saom. Kampong
Saom (10 miles E) (4.257) is situated on the
mainland at the SW entrance point to Chhak
Kampong Saom. Thence:
5
NE of Kas Tang (17 miles SW) (4.275). Thence:
SW of Chhak Réam (16 miles ESE) (4.273). Thence:
WSW of Kinh Ganh Dau (31 miles ESE) (4.265),
the channel off the NW extremity of Dao Phu
Quoc (4.278) which leads to Chhak Veal Renh
(4.277), and Kampot (51 miles E) (4.263). Thence:
6
ENE of Depond Reef (37 miles SSW) (4.276) and
clear of the dangers E of it. Thence:
To a position WSW of Mui Nai (68 miles ESE), and
the land boundary between Cambodia and
Vietnam, and ENE of Dewagougse Shoal (57 miles
S) and a shoal reported to lie 2 miles NW.
(Directions continue at 4.292)
Kampong Saom
(Sihanoukville)
Chart 3967, 2103
General information
4.257
1
Position. Kampong Saom (10°38′N, 103°30′E), formerly
named Sihanoukville, lies close NNE of the SE entrance
point of Chhak Kampong Saom (4.257) on the E side of a
deep-water channel between Kaoh Poah (10°38′N,
103°29′E) and the mainland.
Function. Kampong Saom is the only port in Cambodia
where ocean-going vessels may berth alongside.
2
Topography. Chhak Kampong Saom is entered between
Chrouy Samit (10°53′N, 103°07′E) (4.270) and Kampong
Saom (10°38′N, 103°30′E), 26 miles SE. Several islands
and dangers lie across the mouth of the bay between those
points. The bay extends about 30 miles NW from its
mouth.
3
Within the bay there are a few natural encumbrances,
but the waters are generally shallow NE of the 10 m depth
contour which extends SE from the bay’s N entrance point
to Pointe du Depart (10°43′N, 103°32′E) (4.260) on the S
side of the bay some 7 miles within the entrance. Prek
Kampong Saom (Rivière de Sre Umbell) discharges into
the bay in the NE and Prek Piphot enters the head of the
bay.
4
The N shore of Chhak Kampong Saom is low and
bounded with mangroves. Chamlang Kou (10°53′N,
103°22′E), a fishing village built on piles, lies 1 miles NE
of Îlot de la Comète. Depths are generally less than 3 m in
the N part of the bay.
A ridge of hills, rising about 5 miles inland, backs the E
side of the bay N of Prek Thma Rong (Rach Sabao) and S
of Prek Kampong Saom.
5
Across the S entrance to the bay and extending ENE
from Kaoh Rung Samlœm (4.272) to the mainland in the
region off Kampong Saom lie another chain of small
islands. They are, from W to E (with positions from Pointe
du Depart (10°43′N, 103°32′E)):
Kaoh Kaong Kang (Île des Paletuviers) (10 miles
SW). A reef extends 4 cables WSW from the
island.
6
Kaoh Dek Koul (Rocher Dekcol) (7 miles SW),
known previously as Rocher Carré, an above-water
rock.
Kaoh Poah (Île Pos) (7 miles SSW), which is densely
wooded, has an elevation of 45 m (147 ft, charted
as 251 ft).
Rocher Thmor (5 miles SW), which dries. A shoal
lies 2 cables NNW of it.
7
Approach and entry. Kampong Saom may be
approached from within Chhak Kampong Saom or from the
S. Chhak Kampong Saom may be entered from the W via
the channel between Kaoh Rung (10°43′N, 103°15′E)
(4.271) and Kaoh Ta Team (2 miles N); or the channel
between Kaoh Rung and Kaoh Rung Samlœm (2 miles
SSE) (4.272) may be used, but it is rocky, and unsuitable
for anchoring. From S, the channels between Kaoh Rung
Samlœm and Kaoh Kaong Kang, and between Koah Kaong
Kang and Kaoh Poah are clear of dangers.
8
Kampong Saom is generally approached from S and
entered via Deep Passage (10°36′⋅5N, 103°29′⋅0E), or, if
making for a berth N of Kaoh Poah, approached via the
channel between Kaoh Kaong Kang and Kaoh Dek Koul,
and entered via North Passage, and these are the
approaches for which directions (4.260) are given.
9
Caution. Local knowledge is required if proceeding to
the head of Chhak Kampong Saom. There are numerous
fishing stakes inshore of the 10 m depth contour.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 307 ship calls with a total of
2 049 599 dwt.
Port Authority. Kampong Saom Port Authority,
Kampong Saom, Cambodia.
Arrival information
4.258
1
Port operations. Berthing is permitted during daylight
only, except by special arrangement with the Harbour
Master’s Office and pilots; unberthing may be at any time,
subject to the weather during the SW monsoon.
CHAPTER 4
142
Port radio. There are port and coast radio stations at
Kampong Saom.
2
Notice of ETA. Vessels should send an ETA 48 hours in
advance.
Outer anchorages.
South Anchorage, close N of the seaward end of
Deep Passage, 3 cables SW of the S tip of Kaoh
Poah, with depths of 8 to 10 m, is sheltered from
N winds, and is the general anchorage. See also
4.261.
3
North Anchorage (10°39′N, 103°30′E), at the E end
of North Passage, 3 cables NNW of Pointe
Loune (10°38′⋅7N, 103°30′⋅3E), has good holding
ground, mud and sand, in depths of 8 to 11 m. It
is used by vessels up to 2000 grt and draught less
than 7 m. See also 4.261.
Tanker Anchorage, 4 miles WNW of Pointe Loune,
has depths of 15 to 20 m.
4
Prohibited anchorages. Anchorage is prohibited in an
area fronting the pier to the E of a straight line drawn
between Light-buoy (conical, white), 4 cables WNW of
Pointe Loune, and No 8 Light-buoy (conical, red), 4 cables
WSW of Pointe Loune.
Anchorage is also prohibited within Deep Passage
between No 2 buoy (conical, red), 3 cables S of the S tip
of Kaoh Poah, in the S, and No 8 Light-buoy in the N.
5
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels of more than
150 grt. Pilots board at any of the three anchorage areas,
and in the vicinity of Light-buoy (conical, black and
white) (10°36′⋅5N, 103°29′⋅0E) at the seaward end of Deep
Passage. The pilot boat displays international pilot signals.
Tugs are available; at least one tug is required for
berthing.
6
Regulations concerning entry. Dry cargo vessels, if
berthing in daylight with a draught of more than 8⋅5 m,
may have a maximum draught of 7⋅6 m plus the height of
tide. The controlling factor is the depth in the approach to
the berth.
If berthing during the hours of darkness the maximum
permitted draught is 8⋅5 m.
7
At the tanker mooring (4.261), close off Pointe du
Depart (10°43′N, 103°32′E), the maximum permitted LOA
is 220 m and draught 11⋅5 m.
Quarantine. All vessels should fly the quarantine flag;
officials will board on arrival. Cases of suspected disease
should be reported in advance.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Harbour
4.259
1
General layout. The harbour area is situated on the
mainland coast to the N and S of Pointe Loune (10°38′⋅7N,
103°30′⋅3E).
The main wharf (4.261) extends 275 m WSW from
Pointe Loune, then SSW for a further 275 m; the SSW
extension forms its principal berthing area, the S half of
which is known as Old Pier.
2
Close to the root of the main wharf a breakwater
extends SSW for about 275 m, forming a basin used by
lighters. The basin has a lighter quay on its E side.
A quay face, known as Commercial Quay, extends ENE
for about 850 m from the E side of Pointe Loune. The E
half of Commercial Quay, with deeper water fronting it, is
known as New Wharf.
3
Two breakwaters, one a short, dog-legged breakwater
extending NNE from Pointe Loune for about 520 m, and
the other a much longer breakwater extending W from
Pointe Dominique (10°39′⋅9N, 103°31′⋅5E) to Kaoh Préab,
then SSW for a further 8 cables approximately, form a
sheltered area enclosing Commercial Quay and a large,
shallow area to the N of it. The entrance, in the SW,
between the heads of the breakwaters, which are lighted, is
about 3 cables in width.
4
There is a short landing jetty on the S side of Kaoh
Préab.
Several wrecks, many of which are visible, lie within the
breakwaters and close to the shore to the S of Pointe
Loune; see chart.
5
Tidal stream. In Deep Passage the tidal stream is strong
and irregular; off the main wharf it runs parallel with the
wharf in either direction, with rates of up to 1 kn. A flag
is displayed at the N end of the main wharf when the
stream is running in a N direction and at the SW end when
it is running in a S direction; during slack water no flag is
displayed.
6
Major light:
Kaoh Rung Samlœm Light (10°32′⋅9N, 103°18′⋅9E)
(4.255).
Directions
(continued from 4.256)
4.260
1
Approach for Deep Passage. Kampong Saom is easy of
approach. From a position WSW of Kaoh Rung Samlœm
(4.272), the SW entrance point to Chhak Kampong Saom,
having passed clear of the off-lying islands shown on the
chart, the port is approached from a S direction. If making
for South Anchorage (4.258) or the Deep Passage pilot
boarding place (10°36′⋅5N, 103°29′⋅0E) a direct approach
may be made.
2
Entrance — Deep Passage. The harbour may be
entered via Deep Passage, which is marked by buoys, some
of which are lighted; least depth in Deep Passage is to be
found ENE of the E extremity of Kaoh Poah. An
obstruction lies between No 4 and No 5 buoys; see chart.
This is the most direct route to the harbour area, but it is
not recommended for use during the hours of darkness.
3
Leading beacons: The alignment (189°) of two
beacons located on the mainland shore in approximate
position 10°37′⋅4N, 103°29′⋅8E, leads through the narrowest
part of the channel, 2 cables SSW of the SW end of the
main wharf, marked on its E side by No 7 Light-buoy.
4
Approach passing W of Kaoh Poah. If making for a
position N of Kaoh Poah, or approaching during the hours
of darkness, the approach from S is direct and clear of
dangers, passing (with positions from Kaoh Dek Koul Light
(10°38′⋅0N, 103°27′⋅6E)):
E of Kaoh Kaong Kang (2 miles SW) (4.257), from
where a light is exhibited from the E extremity.
Thence:
W of Kaoh Poah (1 mile ESE) (4.257), thence:
5
W of Kaoh Dek Koul, distant about 4 cables. A light
is exhibited from the island. Thence:
Direct to the Tanker Anchorage and pilot boarding
place (2 miles NNW):
or:
NW of Kaoh Dek Koul, thence:
6
N of Light-buoy (conical, white) (1⋅9 miles NE)
which marks its NNW side and N of Rocher
CHAPTER 4
143
Thmor (2 miles ENE) (4.257) into North Passage,
thence:
Via North Passage and N of a shoal (2 miles ENE),
and Light-buoy (conical, white) (2 miles ENE)
which marks its NE side. Thence:
Direct to North Anchorage, or to a berth.
7
Useful marks. With positions from Pointe Loune
(10°38′⋅7N, 103°30′⋅3E):
Kaoh Kaong Kang Light (metal framework tower,
9 m in height) (4 miles SW).
Kaoh Dek Koul Light (metal framework tower, 9 m
in height) (2 miles WSW).
South breakwater head light (2 cables NNE) and
North breakwater head light (5 cables NNE)
exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters at the
entrance to the N harbour area.
8
It is reported that the following may also be seen:
Flare at the refinery at Pointe du Depart (10°43′N,
103°32′E) (not shown on the chart).
Two warehouses on the mainland shore close E of the
main wharf.
Berths
4.261
1
Anchorages. North Anchorage is used for lighterage, as
is South Anchorage when too rough at North Anchorage;
see 4.258.
2
Tanker terminal. There is a tanker mooring area located
1 mile NW of Pointe du Depart (10°43′N, 103°32′E)
consisting of moorings linked to the refinery facilities
ashore by submarine pipeline. It is reported that there are
two mooring berths which can accommodate vessels up to
220 m LOA and draught 11⋅5 m, and that there are
alongside berths at the refinery for vessels up to 60 m LOA
and draught 4⋅6 m.
3
Alongside berths.
Old Pier (4.259), at the S end of the main wharf, is
reported to be able to accommodate two vessels
with draughts up to 9⋅5 m alongside its W side,
and two vessels with draughts up to 7⋅5 m
alongside its E side.
4
New Wharf (4.259) at the SE end of Commercial
Quay in the N harbour area, has a maximum depth
of 7⋅3 m alongside and in the approaches. It is
reported that two mooring buoys have been
positioned between the breakwater entrance and
New Wharf.
Port services
4.262
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Other facilities: deratting; hospital; no oily waste
disposal.
Supplies: fuel with advanced notice and in small
quantities; fresh water.
Communications: domestic flights.
Kampot
Chart 3879
General information
4.263
1
In position 10°36′N, 104°10′E, Kampot is the chief town
of the province of that name, which extends from the
boarder between Cambodia and Thailand to Chrouy Kab
(4.283); it stands on the E bank of a river.
2
There is a customs office situated at the mouth of the
river; 2 miles farther up river is a quay where landing
can be effected at any state of the tide.
The town of Kampot owes its importance to the
extension of the pepper trade.
Natural conditions
4.264
1
Tidal streams. The flow in Kinh Ghan Dau (10°23′N,
103°49′E) is fairly strong but variable, and depends mainly
upon the tidal streams.
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Cap Bumbi (10°32′N,
104°10′E) run for 12 hours when the moon has a high
declination N or S, and are subject to great irregularities.
2
Local winds during the months of March and April are
usually from SE or E, but strong squalls are occasionally
experienced from directions between NW and ENE.
Directions
4.265
1
Approach. There are two approaches to Kampot. The
approach from S of Dao Phu Quoc (10°15′N, 104°00′E)
(4.278) via Chenal Sud (9°45′N, 104°10′E) (4.295), then E
of Dao Phu Quoc is direct, keeping in the deepest water
and clear of the shoals and other dangers shown on the
chart; Mui Ong Doi (10°00′N, 104°03′E) (4.280) should be
given a berth of at least 5 miles; numerous fishing stakes
will be found N of Rocher du Brandon (10°25′⋅5N,
104°15′⋅0E) (4.284). This approach is suitable for vessels
drawing less than 4⋅5 m, but soundings are irregular and
extreme caution is advised.
2
Directions for the other approach, from W, passing N of
Dao Phu Quoc via Kinh Ganh Dau (10°23′N, 103°49′E),
are given below. This approach should be used by vessels
drawing more than 4⋅6 m when approaching from W;
depths in the fairway are not less than 10 m (30 ft) until
within 7 miles of Kampot.
3
From a position W of the entrance to Kinh Ganh Dau
the approach leads through the channel, thence generally
NE then ENE, N of Dao Phu Quoc, for a distance of about
24 miles, passing (with positions from Mui Kwala
(10°27′⋅2N, 103°59′⋅5E)):
4
NW of Hon Tray Bui (12 miles SW), which is
covered with trees, and NW of Hon Ban, which
lies 1 mile N of it. Thence:
SE of Kaoh Ses (11 miles W) (4.277) and the shoal
patches lying SE of it. Thence:
5
NW of Mui Ganh Dau (10 miles SW) (4.278).
Rocher Plat lies 7 cables NW of Mui Ganh Dau.
Thence:
NW of Mui Kwala and Banc du Loire Inférieure
(1 miles NNW), thence:
Direct to the entrance to Kampot (11 miles ENE); but
see the second caution below.
6
Cautions:
The boat channel E of Hon Tray Bui and S of
Rocher Plat is not recommended as the ground is
foul between them and Dao Phu Quoc, and the set
of the tidal streams is irregular.
7
When approaching Kampot from W, when standing
towards Cap Bumbi (10°32′N, 104°10′E), care is
required as the edge of the coastal bank is steep-to
and rocky.
8
Useful marks:
Conspicuous summit, elevation 161 m (530 ft),
4 miles E of Mu-hu (10°32′⋅5N, 103°43′⋅5E).
Phnum Dong (10°33′N, 104°10′E), prominent, 1 mile
N of Cap Bumbi.
CHAPTER 4
144
9
Entry. There are three channels by which junks can
enter the river, that NE of Cap Bumbi being the best. The
bar has a depth over it of 0⋅6 m (2 ft), but within the bar
depths increase to 3⋅7 m (12 ft) or more. A boat can cross
the bar at all times when the water is smooth, but during
the SW monsoon the sea breaks along the whole coast at
times. The channel across the bar is marked by stakes, but
local knowledge is required if entry is to be attempted.
Anchorage
4.266
1
Anchorage may be obtained either 1 miles S of Cap
Bumbi, in depths of 5 m (16 ft), or W of Kaoh Kras
(10°28′N, 104°11′E) where depths are greater.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3967
Prek Kaoh Pao
4.267
1
General information. The main branch of Prek Kaoh
Paoh, formerly known as Rivière de Kaspor, is entered in
approximate position 11°34′N, 102°57′E by crossing a bar
with a depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it. The river leads NNW,
parallel with the coast and about 3 miles inland, until
turning N after about 30 miles. Kaoh Kong, a town of
considerable size, is situated on the E bank about 4 miles
within the entrance. The town has an airstrip.
2
There is a customs office at a village on the W entrance
point of the river.
Prek Boeng Krassop
4.268
1
General information. Prek Boeng Krasaop (Rivière
Krassop) (11°31′N, 102°59′E), discharges into the Gulf of
Thailand over a bar with depths of 1⋅5 m on it. This river
interconnects, through a series of shallow creeks, with Prek
Kaoh Pao (4.267) and Chhak Kaoh Kong (4.269). Kas
Kapik (4.255) is situated on the coast 4 miles SE of the
entrance to Prek Boeng Krasaop.
Îlot Cône and Koah Kong
4.269
1
General information. Îlot Cône (11°26′N, 103°00′E),
also known locally as Kaoh Mul, is joined to the mainland
by a stony causeway. There is a customs office and a pier
at the N end of the island, and a house, where there is
another pier, on its E side. Landing can be effected at both
piers at all states of the tide.
2
Chrouy Lam Dam (Pointe Lem Dam), a point 1 mile SE
of Îlot Cône, has a house standing upon it 1 cables W of
its E extremity, and a pier extending a short distance S of
the house.
3
Passe de Lam Dam, the channel between Chrouy Lam
Dam in the N, and Kaoh Kong to the S, has a depth of
2⋅4 m in the fairway of the channel entrance, and depths
become greater before reducing further as Chhak Kaoh
Kong is entered.
4
Kaoh Kong (11°20°N, 103°00′E) is a table-topped island
about 10 miles in length from N to S, and highest near its
centre. There are some sandy beaches along its fairly
steep-to W side. Fishermen visit the island occasionally.
Chhak Kaoh Kong (Baie de Koh Kong) lies to the E of
Kaoh Kong; it is shallow and numerous rivers flow into it
from the mainland, which is low around the S part of the
bay but rises gradually farther N, eventually joining the
high table-land some 20 miles N at about latitude 11°40′N.
Chhak Kaoh Kong is entered from N through Passe de
Lam Dam, or from S through a channel, the fairway of
which lies close along the SE side of Kaoh Kong.
5
Tidal streams. in Passe de Lam Dam are strong, and
appear to reverse their direction through the pass every
12 hours, about 3 hours after HW and LW; at the end of
the dry season, December to February, the greatest rate on
the falling tide does not exceed 2 kn.
6
Anchorages:
Anchorage may be obtained in Passe de Lam Dam
off the house on Chrouy Lam Dam. When entering
the pass the alignment (098°) of the pier on
Chrouy Lam Dam leads through the pass until the
house on Îlot Cône bears N, when course should
be altered to keep in mid channel to the chosen
anchorage. During the SW monsoon the best
shelter will be found with the pier on Chrouy Lam
Dam bearing about 338°, distant about 1 cable, in
depths of 10 m (33 ft).
7
During the NE monsoon there is anchorage NW of
Îlot Cône, but there are numerous fishing stakes to
be found in the area, and on the coastal bank to
the NW.
8
There are no sheltered anchorages on the W side of
Kaoh Kong.
Useful mark:
Îlot Cône Light (red metal framework tower, 9 m in
height) (11°26′⋅0N, 103°00′⋅2E).
Charts 3967, 2103
Chrouy Samit
4.270
1
General information. Chrouy Kaoh Putsa (Pointe de
Koh Kussat) (11°05′N, 103°06′E), is one of the rocky
bluffs, with sandy bays between them, forming the hilly
coast from Chrouy Yeay Sen (8 miles NNW) to Chrouy
Samit (13 miles S). Several small islands lie inshore of the
20 m (10 fm) depth contour, within 3 miles of the shore
between Chrouy Kaoh Putsa and Chrouy Samit; see chart.
2
Anchorages:
Anchorage may be obtained, with local knowledge, in
the small bay on the N side of Chrouy Samit
(10°53′N, 103°07′E). An islet lies close NW of the
point, and a shoal patch lies N of the islet. The
chart is the best guide to depths in the area. There
are several houses and a wharf on the shore of the
bay.
3
Good anchorage may also be obtained with offshore
winds N of Chrouy Samit, between it and Chrouy
Yeay Sen (11°13′N, 103°02′E), in the sandy bays.
Chart 2103
Kaoh Rung
4.271
1
General information. Kaoh Rung (10°43′N, 103°15′E),
the largest of the islands lying in the entrance to Chhak
Kampong Saom (4.257), is high and wooded and rises to
an elevation of 317 m. It has two sandy bays on its W
side; the SW and NW sides of the island are steep-to. On
the N side there is a bay with an above-water rock 7 cables
W of the E entrance point and close offshore. Banc de
Kaoh Rung lies off the NE side of the island, and Kaoh
CHAPTER 4
145
Bang Pahin (Les Frères), two islets, lie 7 cables SSE of the
NE extremity of the island. Kaoh Toch (Îlot Sud) lies
2 miles NE of the S extremity of Kaoh Rung, 5 cables
offshore.
2
Anchorages:
Anchorage, with shelter during the SW monsoon,
may be obtained off the NE side of Kaoh Rung in
depths of 7 to 15 m (23 to 49ft).
Anchorage may also be obtained in the S of two
sandy bays on the SW side of the island. The bay
on the N side of the island is well protected.
Kaoh Rung Samlœm
4.272
1
General information. Kaoh Rung Samlœm (Rong Sam
Lem) (10°35′N, 103°18′E), lies SE of Kaoh Rung (4.271).
It is thickly wooded and the SW and SE sides are steep-to.
Kaoh Kon (Îlot Cone) lies in the entrance of a small bay
on the N side, 3 cables offshore; a reef extends a short
distance from the W side of the bay. Chhak Saracen is
entered on the E side of the island; the bay is 1 mile wide
between the entrance points and its head is divided into
two parts by a promontory. Some above-water rocks and
boulders extend 2 cables offshore NW of the promontory.
On the S side of the bay there is a sandy beach with a
cascade near its S end.
2
Anchorage, good, may be obtained in Chhak Saracen on
the E side of the island. During the SW monsoon there is
anchorage at the SE end of the bay, in depths of 7 m
(23 ft), about 3 cables off the cascade. During the NE
monsoon the N side of the bay affords better shelter.
Chhak Réam
4.273
1
General information. Situated 8 miles SE of Kampong
Saom (4.257), Chhak Réam (10°32′N, 103°35′E) is a bay
with several islands in its entrance, and with several
villages along its shores.
Kaoh Khteah, fringed by a reef, lies 1 miles NW of
the NW entrance point (10°32′N, 103°34′E) to Chhak
Réam. A ledge of rocks extends 4 cables SSW from this
entrance point.
2
Five islands lie in the entrance; Kaoh Praeus, lies 1 mile
SW of the NW entrance point of the bay; Kaoh Russei lies
1 miles SE of Kaoh Praeus; Kaoh Chraloh, elevation
39 m (129 ft) lies 5 cables NNE of Kaoh Russei; Kaoh Ta
Kiev, the SE and largest of these islands, lies 1 mile E of
Kaoh Russei, and has a customs office on its NE extremity.
Kaoh Sramaoch lies on the E side of the S entrance point,
6 cables E of Kaoh Ta Kiev. Reefs fringe all the islands.
3
Prek Moat Péam (Rivière de Réam) discharges into the
NW part of the bay and the village of Smach Deng is
located 2 miles NW of its mouth. The river has a least
depth of 0⋅6 m for a distance of 2 miles up stream, above
which it nearly dries.
4
Tidal streams of about 1 to 2 kn have been observed at
the anchorage (4.274) between Kaoh Ta Kiev and the
mainland, setting N on the rising tide and SSE on the
falling tide, changing direction at about the time of local
HW and LW. The flow is felt at the jetty.
5
Directions. Vessels entering Chhak Réam, if drawing
less than 4⋅6 m, can use any passage between the islands
except between Kaoh Sramaoch (4.273) and the mainland.
There is a least depth in the fairway between the NW end
of Kaoh Ta Kiev and Kaoh Chraloh of 5⋅5 m (18 ft), but
there is a spit extending 2 cables SE from Kaoh Chraloh
with a depth of 4⋅6 m (15 ft) at its outer end. The best
approach is the channel between Kaoh Sramaoch and Kaoh
Ta Kiev, passing SW of two shoals which lie 5 cables NNE
of the Custom office on Kaoh Ta Kiev.
6
Leading lights. The alignment (348°) of Chhak Réam
Leading Lights (on the SE entrance point of Chhak Réam)
leads through the S part of the entrance passage between
Kaoh Sramaoch and Kaoh Ta Kiev:
Front light (white metal framework tower, 9 m in
height) (10°30′⋅3N, 103°36′⋅3E);
Rear light (white metal framework tower, 12 m in
height) (290 m NNW from front leading light).
Useful mark: a light is exhibited from a position about
1 cable SW of the front leading light.
4.274
1
Anchorage. Though exposed to the SW monsoon,
Chhak Réam affords fairly secure anchorage during that
period, off the NE extremity of Kaoh Ta Kiev. The best
anchorage is at the N end of the channel between Kaoh
Sramaoch and Kaoh Ta Kiev, with the N side of the jetty
at Phsar Réam (see below) bearing about 105°, in depths of
11 m (36 ft).
2
There is a mooring buoy about 3 cables NW of the jetty.
Berth. Phsar Réam, a village located close inside the S
entrance point of the bay, has a concrete jetty 45 m in
length and a depth of 4⋅6 m at its outer end, which can
accommodate vessels up to 61 m LOA.
Kas Tang
4.275
1
General information. Kas Tang (10°18′N, 103°08′E), is
high at its N end, wooded and inhabited. There is a sandy
bay on its E side with Île Abri in the entrance. A small
islet lies 1 mile SE of Kas Tang, and the two islets,
4 cables apart, comprising Îlots du Sud Est, lie 5 miles
ESE Kas Tang. A shoal nearly 1 mile in extent lies 5 cables
to the S of the E of the two islets.
2
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon, good anchorage
may be obtained in the sandy bay on the E side of Kas
Tang.
Chart 3879
Kaôh Wai
4.276
1
General information. Kaôh Wai (9°55′N, 102°54′E)
consists of two wooded islands. There is a sandy bay on
the NE side of the W island, and rocks extend a short
distance from the N and NE extremities of the island. A
light stands on the E extremity of the W island.
2
The E island is separated from the W island by a
channel 7 cables in width, with depths of more than 18 m
in the fairway. There are fresh water wells on the E island.
Rocher Saracen, a rock awash, lies 7 cables NNW of the E
island, and an above-water rock lies 7 cables E of the E
island. Depond Reef, position approximate, lies 12 miles E
of the E island, but see note on chart. The reef dries, and
has a below-water rock close N of it. In fine weather the
reef is hard to distinguish. A shoal has been reported to lie
7 miles E of the E island, between the island and Depond
Reef.
3
Anchorage, good, may be obtained off the NW side of
the E island, but the best anchorage is off the sandy bay on
the NE side of the W island, about 3 cables offshore, in
depths of 15 m (49 ft).
CHAPTER 4
146
Kaoh Ses and Chhak Veal Renh
4.277
1
General information. Kaoh Thmei (10°29′N, 103°46′E)
lies close S of the entrance to Prek Toek Sap (Rivière Dat
Sap); the island has two peaks, the N being the higher.
Kaoh Ses lies 7 cables SE of Kaoh Thmei. Hon Ruoc lies
5 cables W of the S extremity of Kaoh Ses, with a shoal
1 miles SE of the same point. A below-water rock lies
5 cables SSE of Mui Hang Quyen, the E extremity of Kaoh
Ses. Dao Phu Quoc (10°15′N, 104°00′E) (4.278) lies SSE
of Kaoh Ses, separated from it by Kinh Ganh Dau (4.265),
which leads into Chhak Veal Renh, the large sea area
enclosed between the N side of Dao Phu Quoc and the
mainland. In the N, Prek Kampong Smach discharges into
the head of Chhak Veal Renh where the coastal bank
extends 7 miles from the shore.
2
Anchorage. During the NE monsoon good anchorage
may be obtained about 3 cables off the NW side of Kaoh
Ses in depths of 7 m (23 ft), avoiding the rocky patch
which extends 4 cables S from Kaoh Thmei (4.277), close
NE.
3
Caution. The channel, Kinh Ta Ly, between Kaoh Ses
and Kaoh Thmei leading into Chhak Veal Renh is not
recommended as tidal streams are very strong and
dangerous to small craft.
Dao Phu Quoc
4.278
1
General information. Dao Phu Quoc (10°15′N,
104°00′E), about 27 miles in length and the largest island
in the Gulf of Thailand, is separated from the islands and
mainland N by Kinh Ganh Dau (4.265) and Chhâk Veal
Renh (4.277). The island is elongated from N to S and
broadens in the N from a very narrow S half. The E side
of the island has a few shallow bays on a gently curving
coast, whereas the W side is steep-to and almost straight,
except in the NW. The N side largely consists of a wide
gradually shoaling and V-shaped bay between Mui Ganh
Dau (10°23′N, 103°50′E) and Mui Kwala (10 miles ENE),
fronted on the W side by dangerous rocks.
2
Nui Chua (10°22′N, 104°02′E), the highest summit on
the island, is situated at the N end of a table-land, Chaine
de Ham Ninh, at the S end of which is Nui Da Bac.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.156.
4.279
1
Duong Dong (10°13′N, 103°58′E), the capital of the
island, is situated on the W coast, on the S side of Prek
Duong Dong. It is the centre of an important fishing
industry.
2
Duong Dong may be reached by river in small craft at
all times, although the entrance to the river is difficult. The
S entrance point to the river is marked by a large rock
surmounted by a white mast near which is a pagoda. The
N entrance point is Mui Ganh Cau (10°13′N, 103°57′E).
There is an airstrip near Duong Dong, and
communication by sea with Ha Tien (10°23′N, 104°29′E)
(4.294), but this is interrupted by the SW monsoon.
3
Anchorage may be obtained off the mouth of Prek
Duong Dong, but local knowledge is required. A light
(white tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited from the S side of
the entrance to Prek Duong Dong, and a beacon stands on
the edge of a reef which extends 4 cables W from the
light.
4.280
1
An Thoi is a village situated on the S side of the island
at the head of the W of two bays lying to the E of Mui
Hanh (10°01′N, 104°00′E). Mui Dat Do lies 2 miles
NNW from Mui Hanh, with Nui Dat Do, a square hill,
rising close to the E. Hon Dua lies close S from Mui Hanh
and is separated by a channel about 5 cables in width, the
fairway of which is deep. There is a black and white rock
at the NE extremity of Hon Dua. Tidal streams between
Mui Hahn and Hon Dua to the S are fairly strong.
2
Mui Ong Doi (10°00′N, 104°03′E), the SE extremity of
Dao Phu Quoc, lies 2 miles ESE and is a tongue of land
with a rounded summit. Two islets lie S of the bays; the
SE islet, Hon Dam, has a prominent white rock at its NW
extremity.
3
An Thoi, a fishing and trading village, has two piers.
The W pier is 100 m in length and can accommodate
vessels of 150 m LOA with a maximum draught of 4⋅3 m.
The E pier is 152 m in length, with a -head where there is
similar depth alongside. A light (white tower, 5 m in
height) is exhibited from An Thoi.
4
Anchorages:
Anchorage, sheltered, may be obtained in Bai Dat
Do, 2 miles N of Mui Hanh (10°01′N, 104°00′E),
in depths of 5 m (16 ft), but the swell is felt in this
position.
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 15 m
(50 ft), 7 cables S of An Thoi.
5
Anchorage, well sheltered during the SW monsoon,
may be obtained in the E of the two bays close W
of Mui Ong Doi (10°00′N, 104°03′E). Depths in
this bay decrease regularly as the shore is
approached and depths of 6 m (20 ft) will be found
2 cables from the head of the bay, where there is
a landing place. Care must be taken to avoid the
detached shallow banks which lie off Mui Ong
Doi.
6
Supplies. Diesel fuel and fresh water may be available
in limited quantities, but fresh water is usually unobtainable
during the dry season, December to February.
4.281
1
Anchorages.
Off the N coast of Dao Phu Quoc anchorage is not
recommended. During the NE monsoon anchorage
may be obtained anywhere on the SW side of the
island. Anchorage off the E coast it is difficult
owing to the irregularity of the bottom, but there
are anchorages off the S part of E coast (see
below).
2
On the E side of the island, Mui Den Phach is reef
fringed and lies 4 miles SSW of Ham Ninh
(10°11′N, 104°03′E), standing at the entrance to a
small river; between them is Bai Vong. Although
anchorage may be obtained off Ham Ninh, distant
3 miles, in depths of 5 m (16 ft), there is better
anchorage during the SW monsoon in the same
depth, distant 3 cables offshore, in Bai Vong, N
of Mui Den Phach (10°07′N, 104°02′E), but the
landing is bad. A light (white metal framework
tower, red bands, 7 m in height) is exhibited from
Ham Ninh. There is a customs office in the
village.
3
Mui Bai Sao, also reef fringed, lies 3 miles S of Mui
Den Phach. A river, Vinh Dam, enters the sea
close W of Mui Chua, a point 1 miles NW of
Mui Bai Sao. Anchorage may also be obtained at
the head of the bay from which Vinh Dam is
entered, 2 miles SSW of Mui Den Phach, in
depths of 5 m (16 ft).
CHAPTER 4
147
4.282
1
Quan-Dao An Thoi consists of a group of about twelve
islands, islets and rocks which lie within 6 miles S of
Dao Phu Quoc (4.278).
Caution. Between the islands there are channels which
are apparently deep, but should not be used as dangers
other than those shown on the chart may exist.
Chrouy Kab
4.283
1
General information. From Cap Bumbi to Mui Nai,
18 miles SE, with Chrouy Kab (10°28′N, 104°17′E)
between them, there are two bays; SE of Chrouy Kab the
coast is low.
Between the E side of Dao Phu Quoc and the mainland
coast N of Mui Nai the waters are shallow, rarely
exceeding depths of 6 m, and there are numerous islands
and off-lying dangers.
2
Chrouy Kab is a prominent point, with Phnum Kep (Pic
Kep) rising 5 cables inland. Krong Kep, where there is a
customs office and a small mole, is situated 2 miles ENE
of the point, and on the point is a settlement with some
villas and a reddish coloured bungalow. At LW, and also
with SW winds, landing is difficult at Krong Kep, and the
stones which extend from the beach should be avoided.
3
Krong Kep is on the S side of the entrance to Prek
Kampong Trach, the river entered 8 miles SE of Chrouy
Kab, which is navigable by junks at HW.
Caution. The sea between this stretch of the coast and
the offlying islands and dangers is navigable only by very
shallow draught vessels, and local knowledge is required.
4
Anchorage may be obtained 1 mile SE of Chrouy Kab;
local knowledge is required.
Hon An Tay
4.284
1
General information. Hon An Tay (10°26′N, 104°19′E)
is a wooded island. Rocher du Brandon, a below-water
pinnacle, lies 3 miles W of Hon An Tay, and Kaoh Tbal
lies 1 mile SE of it. Hon Queo is the largest of four islets
lying up to 1 miles NE of Hon An Tay.
Anchorage, during the NE monsoon, may be obtained
in a depth of 4 m (13 ft), under the S side of Hon An Tay
(10°26′⋅5N, 104°19′⋅5E). See caution at 4.283.
Hon Dung
4.285
1
General information. Hon Dung (10°24′N, 104°20′E),
71 m (233 ft, charted as 377 ft) high, has three small islets
lying close off its NE side and an islet 3 cables to the SW.
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 4 m (13 ft),
2 miles E of Hon Dung. See caution at 4.283.
Quan-Dao Hai Tac
4.286
1
General information. Quan-Dao Hai Tac (10°18′N,
104°20′E) comprises a group of islands and islets lying on
the NW side of the approach to Ha Tien (10°23′N,
104°29′E) (4.294). The group include Hon Doc in the N,
Hon Long in the SE, with Hon Ngan and Hon Doi to the
WSW of Hon Long. Hon Duoc (3 miles SW from Hon
Long) is the S island of the group. There are also
numerous dangers between the islets.
2
Hon Kien Vang lies 3 miles NNW from Hon Doc, with
Hon Keo-Ngu’a 8 cables ESE. Rocher Déchiré, an
above-water rock, and Rocher Rosita, a rock which dries,
lie, respectively, 1 and 8 miles SW of Hon Kien Vang,
although Rocher Rosita is reported to lie 5 cables farther
NW than charted.
3
Poulo Cici (8 miles SW from Hon Doc) consists of
two islets covered with trees and joined together by a reef;
the islets lie at the S tip of an extensive bank; see chart.
Anchorage, during the SW monsoon, may be obtained
5 cables SE of Hon Doc (10°19′N, 104°19′E). See caution
at 4.283.
MUI NAI TO MUI BAI BUNG
General information
Charts 3879, 3985
Route
4.287
1
From a position SW of Mui Nai (10°22′N, 104°26′E) to
a position SW of Mui Bai Bung (8°37′N, 104°43′E) the
route leads SE off the coast of Vietnam, for approximately
90 miles.
Topography
4.288
1
From Mui Nai (10°22′N, 104°26′E) to Mui Bai Bung
(8°37′N, 104°43′E), approximately 105 miles S, the trend of
the coastline, with the exception of Vinh Cay Duong
(10°10′N, 104°45′E) and Vinh Rach Gia (10°00′N,
104°55′E), is generally S and straight. The coast itself is
low, and is intersected by some rivers and several small
streams. There are numerous islands on the coastal bank in
the N, and several offshore.
2
A feature of the coast in this section are the canals
which link the coast with the network of interconnecting
waterways, river and canals that extends throughout the
Mekong Delta to the E. The network is generally accessible
to craft drawing up to 1⋅8 m.
4.289
1
Between Vinh Rach Gia and Mui Ba Quan (8°46′N,
104°48′E) the coast is low and featureless, with the
exception of Hon Da Bac (9°11′N, 104°48′E), two small
rocky outcrops. The Song Ong Doc (15 miles N of Mui
Ba Quan) is navigable as part of the inland waterway
system (4.288). Mui Ba Quan is the N entrance point of
Cua Song Bai Hap, the shallow bay into which flow the
rivers Song Bai Hap and Song Cua Lon, A bar, which
almost dries, and is constantly extending seawards, extends
4 miles from the mouths of these two rivers; it is covered
with fishing stakes. Mui Bai Bung (8°37′N, 104°43′E)
forms the S entrance point of the bay.
Depths
4.290
1
Depths on the route reduce on the approach to Mui Bai
Bung (8°37′N, 104°43′E); the chart is the best guide. See
also caution at 4.293.
CHAPTER 4
148
Major light
4.291
1
Hon Khoai Light (square granite tower and dwelling,
16 m in height) (8°26′N, 104°50′E).
Caution. Because of the elevation of the island, within 9
miles of the light the arc of the obscured section increases
as the island is approached, and is greater than charted.
Directions
(continued from 4.256)
4.292
1
From a position SW of Mui Nai (10°22′N, 104°26′E),
with Hon Tho Chau (9°18′N, 103°28′E), distant about
30 miles, to a position SW of Mui Bai Bung (8°37′N,
104°43′E), the route is direct passing (with positions from
Mui Bai Bung):
2
ENE of Hon Tho Chau (4.309) and the adjacent
islands. A light (lantern on house, 10 m in height)
is exhibited from the S end of the island.
Caution. It has been reported that the Hon Tho Chau
group of islands may lie 1⋅3 miles farther E than
charted.
3
WSW of Hon Chuoi (23 miles NNW) steep-to, cliffy
and wooded, from where a light (house, 10 m in
height) is exhibited. From the S it has the
appearance of two islands. A depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft)
was reported to lie 12 miles SW of Hon Chuoi.
Thence:
4
NE of four dangerous wrecks (70 miles WSW),
positions approximate, shown on the chart centred
about position 8°00′N, 103°45′E. These wrecks lie
on an extensive bank, with depths of 15 to 18 m
(50 to 60 ft) over it, which has not been surveyed.
Thence:
5
To a position SW of Mui Bai Bung, and a rock
which dries (14 miles SW). An obstruction
(19 miles WSW), position doubtful, was reported
in 1914 and subsequently searched for
unsuccessfully. Mui Bai Bung is the SW extremity
of Vietnam, the E entrance point of the Gulf of
Thailand and the SW entrance point of Cua Song
Bai Hap. It is low, covered with trees and fringed
by a shallow bank. There are numerous fishing
stakes on the coastal bank W of Mui Bai Bung.
See caution at 4.293.
4.293
1
Caution. The charts in the vicinity of Mui Bai Bung are
based on old and incomplete surveys. In 1965 the coastal
bank in this area was reported to have extended W; depths
of less than 1⋅5 m (5 ft) were found up to 8 miles W of
Mui Bai Bung; a similar depth extended N for 10 miles
from this position, and depths of less than 15 m (50 ft)
extend up to 15 miles SW from Mui Bai Bung. Particular
care should be exercised when navigating in this vicinity,
and it is recommended that Mui Bai Bung should be given
a berth of 15 miles, or more, depending on the draught of
the vessel, when rounding it.
(Directions continue at 5.17)
Ha Tien
Chart 3879
General information
4.294
1
Ha Tien (10°23′N, 104°29′E), the principal provincial
town, stands on the NW side of the entrance to Rach
Giang Thanh, close E of Pointe Phao Dai, the N entrance
point to the river, 2 miles ENE of Mui Nai (10°22′N,
104°26′E).
4.295
1
Ha Tien is approached from the SW via Chenal Sud
(not named on the chart) lying between Mui Ong Doi
(10°00′N, 104°03′E), the SE extremity of Dao Phu Quoc
(4.278), and Quan-Dao Nam Du (4.307), 24 miles SE.
Three islands lie in Chenal Sud between Quan-Dao An
Thoi (4.282) and Quan-Dao Nam Du, namely, Hon Da Ban
(9°48′N, 104°01′E); Hon Tay, with a rock 2 cables W of it,
which lies 1 miles NE of Hon Da Ban; and Hon Dong,
which lies 3 miles NE of Hon Tay. Donai Shoal, position
doubtful, lies 16 miles NE of Hon Dong.
2
The Quan-Dao Hai Tac islands (4.286) lie SW of Mui
Nai (10°22′N, 104°26′E), from where a light (4.298) is
exhibited, and Vinh Thuan Yen lies close SE of the point.
Port limits. The limits of Ha Tien port are reported to
encompass Hon Chong and Binh Tri to the SSE; see 4.301.
Arrival information
4.296
1
Outer anchorages. Whilst waiting to enter the river,
vessels drawing 4⋅6 m are obliged to anchor 1 miles
seaward of Mui Nai Light (4.298). Those drawing less
water may anchor in a small bay N of Mui Nai, or in the
mouth of the river, where there is excellent holding ground,
in depths of 4 m (13 ft).
2
If not entering the river, the leading lights (4.297) may
be used to lead through the approach and to an anchorage
position seaward of the bar.
Local knowledge. The river should not be entered
without local knowledge.
Directions
4.297
1
It is recommended that vessels approaching Ha Tien
should pass NW of Île de l’Ouest (10°09′N, 104°23′E) and
SE of Quan-Dao Hai Tac (10°18′N, 104°20′E) (4.286).
Having done so, a set of beacons leads through the centre
of the approach fairway. The leading beacons are moved as
required to meet changes in the channel.
2
Leading beacons:
Front light (white metal tower, 6 m in height)
(10°22′⋅7N, 104°28′⋅7E);
Rear light (white metal tower, 12 m in height) (750 m
NE from front light).
The approximate alignment (044°)of these lights leads
through the inner approach and over the bar.
3
A below-water rock and a dangerous wreck lie,
respectively, 1 mile and 1 miles SE of Mui Nai Light
(4.298); the latter is marked by a beacon on its W side.
The bar is about 5 cables wide and its outer edge lies
about 1 miles SW of Pointe Phao Dai (4.294); on the bar,
for a distance of about cable, there are depths of only
0⋅6 m (2 ft), however, the mud is very soft and vessels
drawing 3⋅4 m, and having sufficient power, can cross it
and enter the river. Within the entrance is a lake, Bai d’Ha
Tien, 2 miles long, most of which dries.
4
Numerous fishing stakes, some of which carry red flags,
may be encountered in the approaches when within
20 miles, or more, of Ha Tien.
4.298
1
Useful marks:
Mui Nai Light (white masonry tower on dwelling,
8 m in height) (10°21′⋅8N, 104°26′⋅4E).
Sommet Mirador, 62 m (203 ft) high, (9 cables N of
Pointe Phao Dai (4.294) and not charted) and Nui
Dai To Chau 177 m (583 ft) high ( miles E of
CHAPTER 4
149
the E entrance point). These two hills, together
with the gap between them, are remarkable from
SW.
Berths
4.299
1
At Ha Tien, on the N side, there is a quay, length
185 m, with a depth alongside of 2⋅4 m, and two small
jetties; on the S side there is one jetty.
Port services
4.300
1
Supplies: fresh provisions are available.
Communications: canals (4.288) link Ha Tien with
Rach Gia (4.303), and with Chau Phu (10°42′N, 105°07′E),
shown on Chart 3986.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3879
Hon Chong
4.301
1
General information. Hon Chong (10°09′N, 104°36′E)
is a town of considerable importance standing at the head
of a small bay about 1 miles N of Mui Ong Thoa; the
shores of the bay are low N of Hon Chong. There are
reported to be berths at Hon Chong and at Binh Tri within
Vinh Khoe La, about 4 miles N. Pilots and tugs are
reported to be available.
2
Mui Ong Thoa is a rocky headland. A range of hills, the
highest being Nui Tra Doc, extends 4 miles NE from it.
Mui Hon Chong, a rocky headland 2 miles E of Mui Ong
Thoa, is the N entrance point of Vinh Cay Duong, a
shallow and sandy bay into which flow several navigable
canals (4.288).
3
The majority of islands along this stretch of the coast lie
inshore of the 20 m (60 ft) depth contour. The most N
group are Quan-Dao Ba Lua which extend for a distance of
up to 12 miles from the coast W and SSW from Hon
Chong.
4
Hon Son Thue Nho (10°06′N, 1094°31′E), with a group
of islets and rocks extending 2 miles N to Hon Vong, lies
6 miles W of Hon Chong. Separated from this group by a
narrow channel is Hon Nhum Ba, the S islet of Quan-Dao
Ba Lua which extend 4 miles N to Hon Heo. Two islets,
and Îles da Lua, lie, respectively, 1 and 1 miles W, and
2 miles NW of Hon Chong.
5
Hon Minh Hoa (10°02′N, 104°33′E), a cone-shaped
island, wooded and inhabited, is the largest of Quan-Dao
Ba Lua, and lies 8 miles SSW of Hon Chong; an
above-water rock lies 5 cables S of the island.
Caution. Local knowledge is required if navigating
within the Quan-Dao Ba Lua group of islands.
4.302
1
Anchorage may be obtained off the town, but there is
no greater depth than 3⋅7 m (12 ft) and local knowledge is
required. Alternatively, there is good holding ground, in
depths of 5 m (16 ft), in a position 3 cables NW of Mui
Ong Thoa. Landing can be effected at the pier in the S part
of the bay.
2
During the SW monsoon these anchorages are untenable
and the sea breaks around the off-lying islets, but there is
some shelter for small craft under Hon Heo (4.301).
Berths. The berth at Hon Chong is reported to be 60 m
in length with a depth of 5 m (16 ft) alongside. A jetty at
Binh Tri is reported to have a depth alongside of 7⋅8 m
(25 ft) and be able to accept vessels up to LOA 145 m.
3
Facilities: deratting exemption certificates; beef, fruit
and fresh water available.
Rach Gia
4.303
1
General information. Rach Gia (10°01′N, 105°04′E) is
the name of the town which stands at the mouth of the
river of the same name in the NE part of Vinh Rach Gia.
A customs office with a flagstaff stand in the town, near
the mouth of the river.
Nui Hon Dat (10°06′N, 104°54′E), cone shaped, stands
at the N entrance point of Vinh Rach Gia. The Song Cai
Lon (4.304) enters the SE part of Vinh Rach Gia. Hon Tre
(4.305), lies in the entrance to Vinh Rach Gia.
2
The bar at Rach Gia dries at very low tides; tidal
streams over the bar sometimes attain a rate of 3 to 4 kn,
and in May to October, the season of high river, the flow
sets seaward, but in the low river season the flow usually
changes direction though the outgoing is stronger than the
ingoing. Slack water lasts only about 15 minutes, but at
times may be irregular.
3
A light (white metal tower, 16 m in height) is exhibited
at the entrance to the canal. Another light (concrete tower)
is exhibited at the entrance to the river; within this light
structure, the entrance to the river is marked by lights.
4
Berths. There is port area at Rach Gia, consisting of
two moles extending WSW; the moles consist of rows of
wooden piles, and there is a 45 m wide channel between
them. There is a jetty which river craft lie alongside, and
there are quays on both sides of the canal within the moles.
5
Communications. Rach Gia is connected by canal
(4.288) to Ha Tien (4.294), and to Long Xuyen (10°23′N,
105°25′E) (5.30), 34 miles NE, shown on chart 3986.
Song Cai Lon
4.304
1
General information. The entrance to the Song Cai Lon
(9°57′N, 105°05′E), lying 4 miles S of Rach Gia (4.303),
has a depth on the bar of less than 1 m (3 ft). Within the
bar, under favourable conditions, the inland waterway
system (4.288) is accessible to vessels drawing up to 1⋅8 m.
Hon Tre
4.305
1
General information. Hon Tre (9°58′N 104°50′E) is a
high, cone shaped island with a plantation on its S end.
Anchorage, temporary, may be had off the S end of the
island; local knowledge is required.
Hon Rai
4.306
1
General information. Hon Rai (9°48′N, 104°38′E) is
high, table-topped and wooded. Mui Tay, the W extremity
of Hon Rai, has a below-water pinnacle of rock lying
2 cables off it, and a detached shoal, existence doubtful,
1 miles SE of it. The village of Lai Son is situated in a
small bay on the S side of the island.
Anchorage. In quiet weather, anchorage may be
obtained, in depths of 5 m (16 ft), off the bay on the S side
of the island; local knowledge is required.
CHAPTER 4
150
Quan-Dao Nam Du
4.307
1
General information. Hon Nam Du (9°41′N, 104°20′E),
the principal island of Quan-Dao Nam Du, has a high
sharp peak near its centre; on its E side, 1 miles from its
S extremity, is a monument; a below-water rock lies
4 cables NE of the monument. Three islets lie within
1 miles S of Hon Nam Du, from N to S they are Hon
Hoa Lu, Hon To Yen and Hon Mong Tay, and a steep-to
shoal lies 1 cable farther S. Banc du Beryl, with a depth of
less than 1 m (3 ft) over it, the position of which is
approximate, lies 1 mile W of Hon Nam Du; obstructions
lie respectively 5 cables ESE and cable SE of this
rock. Hon Co Son, with another island close S of it, lies
5 cables W of the N end of Hon Nam Du.
2
Hon Moc, with a below-water rock in the passage
between them, lies 4 cables N of Hon Nam Du; a coastal
bank extending 1 cable offshore fringes the N end of the
island. An islet with an above-water rock 2 cables WNW of
it lies 5 cables WNW of Hon Moc. Hon Gian, the N island
of Quan-Dao Nam Du, lies 5 cables NE of Hon Moc, and
Hon Nhom lies 4 cables E of the N end of Hon Nam Du.
3
East of Hon Nam Du lie Hon Mau, 2 miles SE of its
S extremity; Hon Botra, 7 cables NNW of Hon Mau, with
an islet close of its S extremity and another islet 6 cables
ENE; Hon Dau, 2 cables NE of Hon Botra, with a bank
extending 3 cables W from its S end, near the W edge
of which are some islets, and with a similar bank extending
7 cables from its N end, on which there are two islets. Hon
Truong, with an islet close off its S extremity, lies 6 cables
NW of Hon Dau. Hon Truoc is the N island of the E chain
of islets, and lies 1 miles E of the N end of Hon Nam
Dau. Roche de l’Aspic, a below-water rock, lies 3 cables
NNE of Hon Truoc, and another rock, the position of
which is doubtful, lies 2 cables NW of this rock.
4.308
1
Anchorages:
Anchorage may be obtained in the entrance to the
small bay on the NW side of Hon Nam Du, but
there is a below-water rock 2 cables NNW of the
S entrance point of this bay. Local knowledge is
required.
Anchorage may be obtained 5 cables W of Hon Moc
in the position shown on the chart, in depths of
15 m (50 ft).
2
The best anchorage in Quan-Dao Nam Du, for vessels
with local knowledge, during the SW monsoon is
E of the summit of Hon Nam Du, in the position
shown on the chart, with the E extremity of Hon
Nhom in line with the S extremity of Hon Gian,
bearing about 345°, in depths of 7 m (23 ft). The
holding ground is good, but squalls come off the
high land.
3
Anchorage may be obtained during the NE monsoon,
5 cables SW of the W extremity of Hon Mau in
the position shown on the chart, in depths of 13 m
(43 ft).
Hon Tho Chau
4.309
1
General information. Farther offshore, close to the
route for which directions are given, lies Hon Tho Chau
(9°18′N, 103°28′E). See caution at 4.292. The W side of
Hon Tho Chau is inhabited. Being of nearly uniform
elevation it has the appearance of a table-land from all
directions. Île du Pic lies 2 cables off the S extremity of
Hon Tho Chau, with foul ground between them.
Rajannatianuhar Reef, consisting of two heads of
below-water rock surrounded by a fringe of coral which is
steep-to, lies 7 cables S of Île du Pic. Hon Da Bac lies
1 miles SSW of Île du Pic.
2
Two islets lie respectively 7 cables and 1 mile ENE of
Hon Tho Chau; an obstruction lies 2 cables SW of the
former islet, and below-water rocks extend a short distance
from the NE side of the same islet. The passage between
these two islets, and between Hon Tho Chau and the islets,
is obstructed by coral.
3
Hon Da Ban, with Rocher Table 2 cables SE of it, lies
8 miles NE of Hon Tho Chau.
Anchorage. During the NE monsoon, good anchorage
may be obtained on the W side in depths of 29 m (16 fm),
mud and coral, in a bay which affords good shelter. An
above-water rock lies 5 cables SW of Pointe Ouest, the N
entrance point of the bay.
GULF OF THAILAND — GASFIELDS
General information
Chart 2414, 3542, 3963, 3983
Scope
4.310
1
This section covers the gasfields that lie within the
centre of the Gulf of Thailand bounded by the latitudes of
7°20′N and 10°40′N and the meridians of 101°00′E and
103°00′E.
Depths
4.311
1
Depths throughout the area of the offshore fields exceed
30 m.
Hazards
4.312
1
Numerous structures, wellheads and obstructions may
exist within the gasfields, not all of which are charted.
Dumping ground
4.313
1
An explosives dumping ground exists SW of the
Tantawan Gasfield (10°04′N, 101°26′E) (4.328); see chart.
Regulations
4.314
1
Unauthorised navigation is prohibited within 500 m of
any production platform or associated structure, including
storage tankers.
Anchoring is prohibited within the restricted areas
surrounding the gasfields, except for designated anchorages.
See also 1.11.
Principal marks
4.315
1
Flares from a number of the structures may be visible at
ranges in excess of 20 miles.
CHAPTER 4
151
4.316
1
Racons:
Bongkot Gasfield, Platform WP9 (7°51′N, 102°29′E).
Bongkot Gasfield, Platform WP11 (8°01′N,
102°29′E).
Baanpot Gasfield, Platform WA (8°51′N, 101°25′E).
Erawan Gasfield, Platform WM (9°08′N, 101°16′E).
Bongkot Gasfield
Chart 3542
General information
4.317
1
Position. Bongkot Gasfield (8°00′N, 102°20′E) consists
of numerous wells, offshore platforms and a FSO located
within a restricted area; see chart.
Port Authority. PTT Exploration &Production PCL,
BONGKOT ASSETS, 555, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road,
Chatuchak, BANGKOK 10900, Kingdom of Thailand.
Arrival information
4.318
1
Port operations. Berthing and commencement of
loading does not take place at night. The terminal closes in
the late afternoon until daybreak the following day.
It is mandatory that vessels are escorted by tugs from
the anchorages to the pilot boarding stations (see below).
Notice of ETA: 72 hours with updates thereafter.
2
Outer anchorages. There are two designated
anchorages:
Western Outer Anchorage; 7°59′⋅0N, 102°09′⋅2E
Northern Outer Anchorage; 8°11′⋅5N, 102°17′⋅3E
While the holding is generally good in a layer of soft
clay becoming firmer beneath, care should be exercised
owing to the depth of water.
3
Pilotage is compulsory and is undertaken by the
Mooring Master. The boarding stations are about 2 miles
N and 6 miles WSW from the FSO, serving the Northern
and Western Outer Anchorages respectively.
Tugs. Supply vessels act as tugs.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Directions
4.319
1
The approach to the terminal should be made with due
care within the designated approach channels, shown on the
chart, see 4.312.
Large concentrations of fishing vessels may be
encountered.
Berth
4.320
1
Patumabaha FSO2, storage capacity 67 550 cubic m, is
moored to a SPM in position 8°03′N, 102°20′E. Incoming
tankers up to 60 000 dwt can be accepted and moor to the
stern of the FSO.
Port services
4.321
1
No repairs, supply or medical facilities are available. A
casualty evacuation by helicopter from the FSO may be
possible in an emergency.
The dumping of any waste or the discharge of bilges is
prohibited.
Erawan Gasfield
Charts 3963, 3983
General information
4.322
1
Position. The Erawan Gasfield (9°04′N, 101°19′E) is
contained in the extensive restricted area, shown on the
chart, centred about position 9°30′N, 101°23′E.
Port Authority. Unocal Thailand Ltd., 5th Floor, Tower
III, SCB Park Plaza (East Building), 19 Ratchadapisek
Road, Chatuchak Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
Arrival information
4.323
1
Port operations. The terminal operates 24 hours, subject
to the weather, although alongside berthing will take place
only during daylight hours. Berthing may take place at any
time if tandem moored.
Vessel Traffic Service is provided. Reporting points are
shown on the chart.
2
Notice of ETA. An ETA should be sent 72 hours in
advance.
Outer anchorages. Designated anchorages with radii of
1 mile are shown on the chart to the W and E of the berths
(4.325). See also 4.314.
3
Pilotage is compulsory, except when proceeding to an
anchorage. Pilots will normally board in the vicinity of the
anchorages.
Tugs. A vessel able to provide tug services is available.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Directions
4.324
1
Approach — E terminal. Approach lanes, with
associated reporting points (4.323), are established from the
S and from the NE for SPM1, the E terminal (4.325).
These approach lanes are 2 miles wide at their narrowest
points.
2
Approach — W terminal. There is an approach lane
from the W for SPM2, the W terminal (4.325); see chart.
When approaching this terminal from the S, vessels should
be W of Long 101°08′E when crossing Lat 08°20′N; when
approaching from the N, vessels should be W of the same
longitude when crossing Lat 10°00′N. Vessels bound for
the W terminal may not approach from the E between the
latitudes of 08°20′N and 10°00′N.
Berths
4.325
1
The terminal comprises two tanker loading berths with
an FSO.
SPM 1, in approximate position 9°06′N, 101°21′E, is the
East Export terminal. Whilst at SPM 1 a vessel’s
displacement must not exceed 70 000 tons; maximum LOA
250 m.
SPM 2, located in approximate position 9°05′N,
101°15′E, is the West Export terminal.
2
FSO Erawan may be moored at either SPM 1 or
SPM 2; arriving vessels will be informed of her position in
advance. FSO Erawan consists of a modified 87 000 dwt
CHAPTER 4
152
Erawan FSO (4.325)
(Original dated 1999)
tanker. The loading vessel berths either in tandem, bow to
bow, with FSO Erawan, or alongside, port side to, unless
advised otherwise. If moored in tandem, 130 000 dwt is the
maximum permitted; if moored alongside, the loading
vessel must be kept below 70 000 dwt at all times;
maximum LOA alongside is 245 m.
Port services
4.326
1
No facilities for repairs or reception of oily waste. No
fuel, fresh water or other supplies available. Emergency
medical facilities only.
Platong Gasfield
Charts 3963,3983
General information
4.327
1
The Platong Gasfield (9°41′N,101°25′E) is operated by
Unocal (4.428) lies in the N part of the restricted area, S of
the explosives dumping ground, as shown on the charts.
Port Authority. Unocal Thailand Ltd. (4.428)
Tantawan Gasfield
Charts 3963, 3983
General information
4.328
1
Position. Tantawan Gasfield (10°04′N, 101°26′E) is
located in the NE corner of the extensive restricted area,
shown on the chart, centred about position 9°30′N,
101°23′E. An explosives dumping ground lies to the SW
(4.313).
Maximum size of vessel handled. 111 000 dwt, 256 m
LOA.
2
Port Authority. Chevron Offshore (Thailand) Ltd, 27th
Floor Suntowers Building B, 123 Vibhavadi-Rangsit Road,
Khet Jatujak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
Arrival information
4.329
1
Port operations. Berthing normally takes place in
daylight hours, weather permitting. Night berthing may be
permitted.
Notice of ETA: 72 hours with updates thereafter.
Outer anchorages. Designated anchorages for the
prevailing season, radii 1⋅5 miles, are shown on the chart
NE and SSW from the FPSO (4.331). See also 4.314.
2
Pilotage is compulsory when berthing; pilots board close
N of the terminal.
Tugs. A vessel is available to provide tug services.
For further details of arrival information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Directions
4.330
1
Approach lanes to the FPSO and anchorages are
designated and charted from the NE and from the SE.
Berth
4.331
1
The terminal is comprised of the FPSO Tantawan
Explorer, a floating production offloading vessel of
137 000 dwt, in position 10°05′N, 101°25′E. Vessels moor
bow to stern.
Port services
4.332
1
Repairs. It may be possible to provide limited
equipment for repairs in an emergency.
Other facilities: medical facilities only in an emergency.
No garbage disposal facility.
CHAPTER 4
153
Supplies: no fuel, fresh water or other supplies
available.
Benchamas Gasfield
Chart 3983
General information
4.333
1
Position. Benchamas Gasfield (10°31′N, 101°16′E)
consists of a single FSO. Designated approach lanes are
established from the NE and from the SE leading to the
anchorage and the berth; see chart.
Port Authority. Chevron Offshore (Thailand) Ltd, 27th
Floor Suntowers Building B, 123 Vibhavadi-Rangsit Road,
Khet Jatujak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
5
.
1
1
5
.
1
5
0
5
.
2
1
7
5
.
2
5
5
5.24
5.46
5.70
5.104
5.134
5.171
5.157
5.225
5.263
5.34
154
5
.
1
2
4
5
.
6
5
Chapter 5 - Vietnam - south and east coasts, from Mui Bai Bung to Vung Da Nang
Con Son
My Tho
Saigon Port
(Ho Chi Minh City)
Vung Tau
Offshore Terminals
Dao Phu Qui
CAMBODI A
Phnom Penh
V
I
E
T
N
A
M
NhaTrang
Cam Ranh
Qui-Nhon
Da Nang
M
u
i
B
a
i
B
u
n
g
3986
3833
3988
3874
3988
3987
3833
1016
1016
3884
3884
1261
0904
1016
6°
7°
8°
9°
10°
11°
12°
13°
14°
15°
16°
17°
104°
105°
106°
107° 108°
109°
110°
111°
18°
104° 105° Longitude 106° East from Greenwich 111°109°
110°
6°
7°
8°
9°
10°
11°
12°
13°
14°
15°
16°
17°
18°
106°
155
CHAPTER 5
VIETNAM — SOUTH AND EAST COASTS,
FROM MUI BAI BUNG TO VUNG DA NANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3482, 3488
Scope of the chapter
5.1
1
In this chapter are described, and directions given for,
the coast, rivers, ports and offshore islands and dangers
which are to be found along the E seaboard of Vietnam
between the entrance to the Gulf of Thailand in the S, and
the entrance to the Gulf of Tonkin in the N.
2
The main rivers described in this chapter are the
Mekong River and the Song Sai Gon, and the major ports
for which directions are given are Saigon Port (Ho Chi
Min City) (5.70) (Description of the Song Sai Gon only),
Vinh Cam Ranh (5.157), Qui Nhon (5.225) and Da Nang
(5.263) in Vietnam, and Phnom Penh (11°36′N, 104°54′E)
(5.34), the capital of Cambodia, accessible via the Mekong
River.
3
The W seaboard of Vietnam and the remainder of the E
seaboard are described in Chapters 4 (4.287) and 6,
respectively.
Topography
5.2
1
The parts of the E seaboard of Vietnam described in this
chapter, the S and central parts, border on the W side of
the South China Sea.
The S part, which is mainly SE facing, is low and
featureless, much of it being comprised of the mouths of
the Mekong River. Offshore there are numerous islands,
banks and other dangers, in waters which retain depths of
less than 30 m for 100 miles or more from the coast in
places.
2
The coast of central Vietnam is, for the most part,
mountainous, and consists of a succession of jagged cliffs
and wind-swept sandhills; numerous banks of sand or rock
fringe the coast, which is indented by bays fronted by
islands. The 100 m (50 fm) depth contour closely follows
the coast, and there are few offshore dangers.
Fomer mined areas
5.3
1
Former mined areas are reported to exist in many places
along the SE and E coasts of Vietnam. Where known, these
are mentioned in the appropriate places in the directions,
but approaches and entrances of other ports in the S part of
Vietnam may also be mined and caution is advised. For
further details and an assessment of the risks currently
attached to them, see 1.3 and Appendix I.
Flow
5.4
1
Off the Vietnamese coast the main tidal wave across the
South China Sea strikes the coast at right angles and the
resultant tidal streams are weak and generally have little
influence in the flow along the coast.
2
Off the S part of the coast, between Mui Bai Bung
(8°37′N, 104°43′E) and Mui Dinh (11°22′N, 109°01′E) the
tidal streams set generally WSW on the rising tide and NE
on the falling tide; near the mouths of the Mekong River
the set is NW into the river on the rising tide and SE out
of the river on the falling tide. In the Mekong River delta,
the river water level is low from January to June when
rates up to 2 kn may be expected on the out-going stream,
while from July to December when the river water level is
high, rates of up to 4 kn may be experienced. In the
lower reaches of the delta, rates are about 1 kn, and this
may be the approximate rate close off the mouths of the
river.
3
Off the central part of the coast of Vietnam the tidal
streams are weak and the water flow is governed by the
current. Such observations as are available suggest a
N-going stream at about HW, and a S-going stream at
about LW. Near large inlets or river mouths the flow is
inward on a rising tide and outward on a falling tide.
However, between Mui Dinh (11°22′N, 109°01′E) and Cap
Varella (12°54′N, 109°28′E) the full force of the strongest
part of the currents in both monsoons is experienced. The
currents attain their greatest rates at distances of 3 miles
offshore; during the NE monsoon the greatest rates
recorded are 2 to 3 kn, and during the SW monsoon 2 to
2 kn, the flow being approximately parallel to the coast;
occasionally, during both monsoons, there is an eddy
current within this distance of the coast.
4
In February 1933, HMS Kent experienced no current off
Mui Dinh, and a S-going current of kn between Mui
Dinh and Hon Tre, 52 miles NNE.
Regulations
5.5
1
Prior permission must be obtained from the Vietnamese
authorities for all commercial vessels intending to visit a
Vietnamese port. ETA’s must be sent as required and a
pilot must be employed; see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4) for more details.
Without appropriate clearance, passage should be made
well clear of the coast.
Buoyage
5.6
1
The IALA System, Region A (red to port), is in use
throughout Vietnam, although conversion may not be
complete.
Offshore oilfields
5.7
1
A number of oilfields lie off the SE coast of Vietnam
and are described in the appropriate parts of the directions.
CHAPTER 5
156
MUI BAI BUNG TO MUI VUNG TAU, INCLUDING
THE MEKONG RIVER AND THE SONG SAI GON
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3986
Description
5.8
1
This section is comprised mainly of two major rivers,
the Mekong and the Song Sai Gon, there being little of
consequence to record along the coast between Mui Bai
Bung and the entrance to the Song Hau Giang (Le Bassac),
the most W tributory of the Mekong, other than the
offshore islands, of which the Con Son group (8°42′N,
106°36′E) is the largest.
Topography
5.9
1
The S coast of Vietnam from Mui Bai Bung to Mui
Vung Tau, 174 miles NE, is low, inundated by the sea at
times, and in most parts the tops of the trees are visible at
a distance of only 11 or 12 miles. The whole coast is
fringed by shallow banks which extend offshore for
distances of up to 15 miles in places.
2
Numerous rivers and canals, most of which lead into the
Mekong River, intersect the interior of the S part of
Vietnam in every direction. Some of these are navigable by
small vessels and nearly all are navigable by native craft.
Caution
5.10
1
Unknown dangers may exist in the approaches to the
mouths of the Mekong River and the Song Sai Gon
between the meridians of Hon Khoai (8°26′N, 104°49′E)
and Dao Phu Qui (10°30′N, 108°59′E), and less depth than
charted may exist on the shoals so far discovered. Since
1929, on-going surveys of this area have disclosed several
dangers which were hitherto unknown, especially ESE of
Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E).
MUI BAI BUNG TO THE MEKONG RIVER
General information
Charts 3482, 3985, 3986
Route
5.11
1
The recommended route at all times of the year is to
pass well clear of the shoals off Mui Bai Bung and to give
Hon Khoai (8°26′N, 104°49′E) a wide berth before turning
in a NE direction to pass NW of Les Deux Frères and Con
Son (8°42′N, 106°36′E). When well to the NNE of Con
Son, course may be set for the mouths of the Mekong
River or the Song Sai Gon.
Topography
5.12
1
See 5.9 concerning the mainland coast in general.
Several islands, rocks and banks lie offshore.
Depths
5.13
1
Throughout the area depths are generally unpredictable,
and the chart is the best guide. See cautions at 5.10 and
5.17.
To the E of Mui Bai Bung, for a distance of 17 miles,
depths of less than 10 m (33 ft) extend 10 miles offshore. A
bank with depths of less than 5 m over it, on which lies
Marsh Reef, extends offshore from this point to within
2 miles of Hon Khoai.
Tidal streams
5.14
1
East of Hon Khoai (8°26′N, 104°49′E) the tidal streams
set NW on the rising tide and SE on the falling tide. The
rate may exceed 1 kn. See also 5.4.
Major lights
5.15
1
Hon Khoai Light (8°26′N, 104°50′E) (4.291).
Hon Bai Canh Light (white square tower on red
roofed dwelling, 16 m in height) (8°40′N,
106°42′E).
Mui Vung Tau Light (white masonry tower, 18 m in
height) (10°20′N, 107°05′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.16
1
Racon: Mui Vung Tau Lighthouse (Nui Nho) — as
above.
Directions
(continued from 4.293)
5.17
1
Cautions:
The coast is low and destitute of any particular
marks, and, if proceeding towards Mui Vung Tau
from W, care should be taken to avoid it. No
attempt should be made to pass between Mui Bai
Bung and Hon Khoai. See also the caution at
4.293.
2
The whole of the coastal sea area bounded by Hon
Khoai, Royalist Bank, Con Son and the approaches
to the Mekong River is imperfectly surveyed. The
bottom is irregular and there are many relatively
shallow patches and wrecks seaward of the 10 m
(33 ft) depth contour. See also the caution at 5.10.
3
Hon Bai Canh Light (5.15) is obscured to the W of
Con Son; see chart.
5.18
1
From a position SW of Mui Bai Bung (8°37′N,
104°43′E), the track leads SE then E to round Hon Khoai,
thence NE to a position NNE of Con Son, thence NW or
N as required for the mouths of the Mekong River or the
Song Sai Gon, a distance of over 200 miles, passing (with
positions from 9°00′N, 106°00′E):
2
SW and S of Hon Khoai (8°26′N, 104°49′E) (5.20).
A light (4.291) is exhibited from the island; see
also the caution at 4.291 concerning the arc of
visibility of the light. A shoal patch lies 10 miles
SSE of Hon Khoai. Thence:
3
SSE of Royalist Bank (69 miles SW), thence:
SE of St Marcouf (48 miles SW), a shoal, and a
wreck, position aproximate, lying 19 miles SSE
of St Marcouf. Thence:
4
W and NW of Les Deux Frères (26 miles SSE), two
islets. The SW islet, Hon Trung Nho, is low,
covered with patchy vegetation, and appears white
from E; the sea breaks heavily on its E side during
strong winds. A shoal patch, reported 1965, lies
14 miles SSE of the islands. Thence:
5
NW of Con Son (40 miles ESE) (5.24). A dangerous
wreck lies 13 miles NW of Hon Ba, the SW island
of the group, and three further dangerous wrecks
CHAPTER 5
157
lie close together some 27 miles NW from Hon Ba.
A light (5.15) is exhibited from Hon Bai Canh
from a position near the E extremity of the island.
The islands lie in the track of vessels proceeding
between Singapore and Saigon Port; they form a
useful mark in making landfall on the mainland
coast from S, but see caution at 5.17. Thence:
6
To a position NNE of Con Son, with Hon Bai Canh
distant about 45 miles, from where courses may be
set for the appropriate entrance to the Mekong
River or the Song Sai Gon. Three dangerous
wrecks, positions approximate, lie to the SE of the
track between 35 and 37 miles NNE from Hon Bai
Canh and a fourth dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies NW of the track some 43 miles
NNE from the island.
5.19
1
Useful mark:
Radio mast (red lights) on Con Dao (8°43′N,
106°38′E).
(Directions continue for the coastal passage at 5.131;
directions for the Mekong River are given at 5.38,
and directions for Mui Vung Tau and
the Song Sai Gon begin at 5.65)
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3986
Hon Khoai
5.20
1
General information. Hon Khoai (8°26′N, 104°49′E)
lies about 7 miles S of the most S point of Vietnam. The
island is highest at its S end, and densely wooded. Hon
Doi Moi lies close off the N extremity of Hon Khoai, with
a below-water rock between them. A shallow bank extends
1 miles NW from Hon Khoai. Hon Sao, wooded, lies
7 cables SE of Hon Khoai, and Hon Go, also wooded, lies
2 cables ENE of Hon Sao. In 1965 depths of less than
5⋅5 m (18 ft) were reported to lie up to 2 miles S of Hon
Sao. Rocher Hull (Hull Rock) lies 2 miles SE of Hon
Sao.
2
Marsh Reef, consisting of rocks with depths over them
of less than 2 m (6 ft), lies on a bank (5.13) 3 miles N of
Hon Khoai.
Anchorage. See caution at 5.17. Small vessels may
obtain anchorage in the bays either side of Hon Khoai
(8°26′N, 104°49′E) according to the monsoon, about
5 cables offshore; local knowledge is required. Anchorage
may also be obtained on the bank midway between Hon
Khoai and Hon Sao in depths of 5 m (15 ft). Larger vessels
should anchor farther off.
3
In 1940 the French vessel Admiral Charner anchored in
depths of 18 m (60 ft), with good holding ground, 1 mile
WSW of Hon Sao.
Cua Bo De
5.21
1
General information. Cua Bo De (8°46′N, 105°13′E) is
the mouth of a river which connects with the Gulf of
Thailand. The entrance to the river is indicated by a
directional light, 330°, (red rectangle, white border). The
approach is also marked by buoys, some of which are
lighted; the entrance light-buoy is moored 6 miles SSE of
the entrance to the river.
Cua Ganh Hao
5.22
1
General information. Cua Ganh Hao (9°00′N,
105°25′E), the mouth of the Song Ganh Hao, is obstructed
by a bar, 1 mile offshore, which dries at LW. Two mooring
buoys, shown on the chart, are moored 7 miles SE of the
river mouth. During the SW monsoon junks ascend the
river as far as the town of Quan Long, 20 miles NW of the
entrance. The Gulf of Thailand can be reached by inland
waterways.
Song My Thanh
5.23
1
General information. The Song My Thanh (9°24′N,
106°09′E) connects the town of Bac Lieu, which lies
4 miles inland and 25 miles WSW of the river mouth, with
the sea.
Con Son
5.24
1
General information. Con Son (8°42′N, 106°36′E)
consists of a group of twelve islands, the principal and
largest island being Con Dao, which is mountainous; Grand
Sommet rises in the S part of the island to an elevation of
609 m (1998 ft, charted as 1933 ft), and has a flat summit.
Vinh Con Son (5.26) lies on the SE side of Con Dao.
2
Hon Ba lies close off the W side of Con Dao, separated
from it by Cua Hong Dam, a narrow passage navigable by
boats at HW only, which is entered 2 miles W of Mui Ca
Map, a steep point that is the SE extremity of Con Dao. La
Dent, the summit of Hon Ba, rises to an elevation of 341 m
(1119 ft, charted as 1083 ft) on the E side of the island; it
is prominent from S and W. Close off the S extremity of
Hon Ba lies Hon Vung, with Banc d’Hon Vung lying 2 to
12 cables to the E.
3
Hon Troc lies 1 miles NNE of Mui Ba Non, the NW
extremity of Hon Ba, and is connected to the W side of
Con Dao by a shallow ridge. Hon Tré Lon (8°42′N,
106°32′E), with an islet close off its E extremity, lies
1 mile NW of Hon Troc; a white triangular beacon with a
square topmark, 4⋅5 m in height, stands near the centre of
the islet situated off the E end of Hon Tré Lon. Hon Tre
Nho lies 2 miles NE of Hon Tré Lon and 8 cables off the
NW side of Con Dao. Reefs and above-water rocks extend
a short distance from the W side of Hon Tre Nho and
1 cable from its NW side.
4
Mui Dong Bac is the NE extremity of Con Dao, and
Hon Trung is a solitary steep-to islet lying 3 miles NE of
Mui Dong Bac. Vinh Dam Tre, entered 1 mile SSW of Mui
Dong Bac, is shallow, and its entrance is encumbered with
rocks, rendering it of no use for navigation.
5
Mui Ta Be is the extremity of a rocky peninsular
situated 3 miles S of Mui Dong Bac. Hon Cau, a wooded
islet, lies 4 miles E of Mui Ta Be. Hon Bai Canh
(8°40′N, 106°40′E) is a large wooded island lying 7 cables
SE of Mui Ta Be, from which it is separated by a deep
channel; it attains an elevation of 351 m (1152 ft, charted
as 1040 ft) in its W part. Hon Bong Lan lies 2 cables S
of Hon Bai Canh.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.157.
5.25
1
Anchorages:
Ben Dam (8°39′⋅5N, 106°34′⋅0E) lies between Hon
Ba (5.24) and Con Dao and is entered from NW.
The bay is sheltered by the surrounding hills,
except to the NW, but the wind is seldom strong
from that quarter; heavy squalls may, however,
necessitate caution. Anchorage may be obtained in
CHAPTER 5
158
depths of 11 to 14 m (36 to 43 ft), with good
holding ground, gravel and mud.
2
Vinh Dong Bac (8°43′N, 106°39′E) lies on the NE
side of Con Dao to the N of Mui Ta Be (5.24) and
is entered from ENE. A radio mast (5.19) stands at
the head of Vinh Dong Bac. The bay is free of
dangers, but depths decrease rapidly within the
10 m (33 ft) depth contour. Anchorage, sheltered
during the SW monsoon, may be obtained in the
bay, in depths of 13 m (43 ft), mud.
Vinh Con Son
5.26
1
General information. Vinh Con Son (8°40′N,
106°37′E), on the SE side of Con Dao, is suitable for use
only during the SW monsoon. The village of Con Son,
where there is a penal settlement, is situated at the head of
the bay. Poultry and some fresh fruit are obtainable, but
there is no fresh water. There is a hospital. Loading can be
effected at the village pier at all times, except at LW; a
light is exhibited from the head of the pier.
2
Vinh Con Son, is entered between Mui Ta Be (5.24) and
Mui Ca Map (5.24) and the SE extremity of Con Dao,
4 miles SW. Hon Tai lies 1 mile E of Mui Ca Map, and
Hon Nghe, with a prominent lime kiln on it, lies near the
extremity of the reef extending 1 cables E from Hon Tai.
Banc des Tortues extends from the W side of Hon Bai
Canh to the N end of Hon Tai. Hon Chat lies midway
between Hon Tai and Mui Ca Map. The coastal reef
extends 2 cables from Hon Chat; near the extremity of
this reef is Hon Chac Nho.
3
The bay may be approached by one of three channels
(5.27). Within the bay two detached shoals lie near the
centre of the deeper water of the bay; the shallowest of
these, Roche du Courrier, lies 1 mile SW of the W
extremity of Hon Bai Can. Inside a line joining the
entrance points, the N part of the bay is encumbered by
detached shallow patches; Banc du Convict, which dries,
lies near the outer edge of this area.
5.27
1
Directions. When entering from NE:
Keep in mid channel between the NW extremity of
Hon Bai Canh and Mui Ta Be, 1 mile NNW,
thence:
Clear of Roche du Courrier and to a position where
Mui Ta Be bears about 026° and the light on the
prominent white rock (5.28) bears about 256°,
keeping Hon Trung open astern by twice its
breadth S of Mui Ta Be. Thence:
2
Steer towards Mui Ca Map, the SE extremity of Con
Dao, and anchor as convenient.
Note. This is the entrance by which deeper draught
vessels must enter Vinh Con Son.
When entering from SE:
Keep in mid channel between Hon Bai Canh and Hon
Tai (5.26) on a NW track to pass about 1 cable NE
of Hon Nghe (5.26), in depths of about 10 m
(33 ft), with Banc des Tortues on the opposite
hand.
3
When entering from SW:
Pass through the channel close off Mui Ca Map,
between Mui Ca Map and Hon Chat (5.26), on a
NE track. N of the entrance to the channel, which
is deep, depths decrease rapidly.
5.28
1
Useful mark. White rock, prominent, on the W shore of
Vinh Con Son. A light (8°39′⋅5N, 106°35′⋅9E) is exhibited
from the rock.
5.29
1
Anchorages. Having entered via the NE entrance to
Vinh Con Son, deeper draught vessels may anchor, in
depths of 11 to 13 m (36 to 43 ft), with the summit of Hon
Tai (5.26) bearing about 182°, and the N extremity of Hon
Bong Lan (5.24) bearing about 095°.
2
During the strength of the SW monsoon, vessels drawing
less water may anchor W of the above position; although
squalls are strong here, the holding ground, grey mud, is
good. There appears to be good anchorage, in depths of 8
to 9 m (26 to 30 ft), with Mui Ca Map bearing between
199° and 176°, and Hon Bong Lan bearing between 092°
and 098°.
3
Anchorage may also be obtained in Mouillage de la
Pierre Blanche. The alignment (339°) of the leading lights
established on the W shore of Vinh Con Son leads to the
anchorage, in depths of 6 to 7 m (20 to 23 ft), with the
head of the pier at Con Son (5.26) bearing 010°, distant
8 cables:
4
Front light (white pyramidal tower, 7 m in height)
(8°40′⋅7N, 106°35′⋅8E);
Rear light (white pyramidal tower, 9 m in height)
(875 m NNW from front light).
THE MEKONG RIVER, INCLUDING
PHNOM PENH
General information
Chart 3986
General description
5.30
1
The Mekong River is 2800 miles long from its source in
central Tibet to its delta in the S part of Vietnam. It is one
of the important rivers of the world. In addition to Tibet
and Vietnam, it flows through China, Myanmar, Laos and
Cambodia. For the greater part of its length it runs through
steep gorges and over dangerous rapids; it is not until it
reaches Kratie in central Cambodia, 105 miles above
Phnom Penh (11°36′N, 104°54′E), that it becomes wide and
slow-flowing, and suitable for navigation by ocean-going
vessels.
2
At Phnom Penh, the Mekong River is joined by a river
flowing from Tonle Sap, a lake, 80 miles long, to the
NNW. Also at Phnom Penh, the Mekong River divides into
two branches which flow nearly parallel with one another
through Vietnam to the South China Sea.
3
The W of the two branches of the Mekong River, the
Song Hau Giang (Le Bassac), takes a SSE direction from
Phnom Penh as far as Chau Phu (Chau Doc), a distance of
some 55 miles down river, thence to Long Xuyen, 80 miles
SSE of Phnom Penh. At Long Xuyen a canal connects the
Song Hau Giang with Vinh Rach Gia (4.289) on the Gulf
of Thailand. At its mouth the Song Hua Giang is divided
into two branches by islands. Cua Tran De (Cua Tranh De)
is the SW branch, and Cua Dinh An the NE branch. Can
Tho (5.45) lies on the Song Hua Giang between Long
Xuyen and the mouth of the river.
4
The E branch of the Mekong River, the Song Tien
Giang, follows a course paralleling the W branch from
Phnom Penh to near Vinh Long (10°16′N, 105°54′E)
CHAPTER 5
159
(5.47), 102 miles SE. Up river fron Vinh Long the main
stream turns briefly NE before heading generally E past the
town of My Tho (5.46), 25 miles ENE of Vinh Long, to
finally enter the sea 25 miles farther E by two mouths, the
Cua Dai (5.31) to the SW, and the Cua Tieu (5.39) to the
NE. Cua Tieu is the only entrance used by vessels
proceeding to My Tho and beyond.
5
Two other mouths of the E branch of the Mekong River
lie between Cua Dai and Cua Dinh An; the SW, Cua Cung
Hau (5.31), is reached from Vinh Long via the Song Co
Chien, and Cua Ham Luong (5.31) is reached via the Song
Ham Luong, which diverges from the S side of the main
stream at a position some 10 miles E of Vinh Long.
Mouths of the Mekong River
Charts 3986, 1261
General information
5.31
1
The principal mouths of the Mekong River have bars
with depths of 2 to 3 m (6 to 10 ft) over them. Above the
bars, in most rivers, the depths increase.
2
The shallow banks fronting Cua Tran De (Cua Tranh
De) and Cua Dinh An (5.30) extend from 9 to 10 miles
offshore. Pointe de Hoi Binh (9°28′N, 106°13′E) is the W
entrance point of Cua Tran De, and 3 miles farther SE are
Bancs du My Thanh. Pointe de Long Khanh is the N
entrance point to Cua Dinh An. The approach to Cua Dinh
An is marked by buoys.
3
Cua Cung Hua (9°46′N, 106°34′E) and Cua Co Chien
have a common entrance 5 miles wide, 21 miles NE of
Pointe de Long Khanh (9°32′N, 106°24′E). The coast
between is low and covered with mangroves. Cu Lao Co
Chien (Île Long Hoa) separates the two mouths. The
shallow banks fronting these mouths extend 11 miles
offshore and partly dry. The bar has a least depth of 2 m
(6 ft) over it. There are some fishing stakes within
2 miles SE of the SW entrance point to Cua Cung Hau,
and a clump of trees stand on the SW bank of Cua Cung
Hua; there is a fort on the NE bank at the SE extremity of
Cu Lao Co Chien.
4
Cua Ham Luong lies 10 miles NNE of Cua Cung Hau.
Cua Ham Luong is not buoyed and is difficult to enter;
banks, parts of which dry, extend 9 miles from the
entrance. The Song Ba Lai is entered 5 miles NE of the
N point of Cua Ham Luong. The Song Ba Lai is suitable
only for small craft.
5
Cua Dai and Cua Tieu, the two main mouths of the E
branch of the Mekong River, the Song Tien Giang, are
separated from one another by Cu Lao Loi Quan. Fishing
stakes, some old and invisible, are numerous on the banks
fronting these entrances. Cua Dai, the S of these two
mouths, is entered 10 miles N of the entrance to the Song
Ba Lai. The Cua Dai entrance is seldom used; the coastal
bank extends 7 miles from the S entrance point; Banc
Ilo-Ilo, which dries, and upon which lies Con Cong,
extends 7 cables ESE from the same point.
6
The Cua Tieu entrance is described in the directions at
5.38.
Local knowledge is required if navigating within any of
the rivers leading into the Mekong.
Topography
5.32
1
The land in the vicinity of all the mouths of the Mekong
River is low and subject to frequent changes in
consequence of the accumulation of alluvial deposit brought
down by the various branches of the River.
Flow
5.33
1
During the NE monsoon the combined effects of the
currents and tidal streams sets SW towards the banks
fronting the Mekong Delta, over which there is a
considerable sea. The direction varies from WSW to SSW,
and its rate, which is greatly influenced by the wind, is
sometimes as much as 2 kn. Near the delta the rate of this
combined effect increases with the flood stream entering
the rivers, and decreases with the ebb.
2
Between Cua Cung Hau (9°46′N, 106°34′E) and the
Song Ba Lai (18 miles to the NE) (5.31), during the NE
monsoon, in April, an eddy has been observed setting E at
a rate of 2 to 2 kn. To the S of Cua Cung Hau this eddy
was observed to set SE and to diminish in rate; it ceases in
the vicinity of Cua Dinh An (20 miles to the SW).
3
In position 10°02′N, 106°56′E the flow sets WSW on
the rising tide and NE on the falling tide, attaining a
maximum rate of 1 kn with a range of tide of 4 m at Mui
Vung Tau; see also 5.63.
See 5.37 regarding the flow within the Mekong River.
Phnom Penh
General information
5.34
1
Position. Phnom Penh, in approximate position 11°36′N,
104°54′E, is situated in Cambodia, on the W bank of a part
of the Mekong River known as the Tonlesap River.
2
Function. Phnom Penh is the capital and seat of
government of Cambodia, and the port, consisting of a
commercial harbour and a naval harbour strategically
located in a vast network of waterways, is important for its
river traffic between Saigon Port (5.70) and the interior, by
which the commerce of the country is carried on. However,
there are no facilities for handling bulk cargoes and in
recent years most ocean-going trade has been channeled
through Kampong Saom (10°38′N, 103°30′E) (4.257).
3
Topography. See 5.32.
Approach and entry. Phnom Penh is approached from
seaward via the pilot boarding place (5.36) and the Mekong
River is entered via Cua Tieu (10°15′N, 106°45′E).
Port Authority. Phnom Penh Port Authority, Phnom
Penh, 2 Bacsey Chamkrong, Cambodia.
Limiting conditions
5.35
1
The maximum permitted LOA is 100 m.
The maximum draughts permitted for vessels proceeding
to Phnom Penh vary with the season, and are shown in the
table below. These draughts may be subject to change from
time to time, depending on the depths at Phnom Penh,
which are maintained by dredging.
Date Draught Date Draught
Jan 1−15 4⋅4 m Jul 16−31 4⋅7 m
Jan 16 − Feb 15 4⋅3 m Aug 1−15 4⋅8 m
Feb 16 − May 15 4⋅2 m Aug 16−31 5⋅0 m
May 16−31 4⋅3 m Sep 1−Oct 31 5⋅2 m
Jun 1−15 4⋅4 m Nov 1−15 5⋅0 m
Jun 16−30 4⋅5 m Nov 16−30 4⋅8 m
Jul 1−15 4⋅6 m Dec 1−31 4⋅6 m
CHAPTER 5
160
Arrival information
5.36
1
Notice of ETA. When bound for Phnom Penh, an ETA
at Mui Vung Tau should be sent 48 hours in advance to
Mekong Pilotage Sai Gon, and an ETA at Phnom Penh, 72
hours in advance, to the Phnom Penh Pilot Station. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
2
Pilotage in the Mekong River is compulsory for
ocean-going vessels. A Vietnam pilot is embarked, at the
pilot boarding place (10°20′⋅3N, 107°03′⋅2E) off Mui Vung
Tau, who will take the vessel up river to the frontier
(10°56′N, 105°12′E) between Vietnam and Cambodia,
where a pilot from Cambodia will take over for the
remainder of the passage to Phnom Penh. Each country
maintains a pilot station near the frontier between them;
Vietnam at Tan Chau, and Cambodia at Phum Kaam
Samma Kraon.
3
Vessels in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong River are
permitted to be underway only between sunrise and sunset,
except in the event of adverse tides. Vessels waiting for the
tide may anchor only at My Tho (5.46), or as indicated by
the pilot.
4
When applying for pilots for Phnom Penh, permission to
visit Cambodia must first be obtained from the Cambodian
authorities.
Tugs are available at Phnom Penh.
Flow
5.37
1
The Mekong River is tidal for about 50 miles above the
entrance. The water level is low from February to June,
being lowest in April and May, and high from July to
December, highest from August to October.
Within the river mouths the flow attains a rate of 3 to
4 kn during the high-river season on the out-going stream.
In the low-river season it may reach 1 to 2 kn with
large tides. The out-going stream is always greater than the
in-going.
2
During the low river season the flow as far as Phnom
Penh is affected by the tidal stream; during the high-river
season the effect of the tidal streams is apparent to about
Sa Dec (10°18′N, 105°46′E). At and above Vinh Long
(10°16′N, 105°54′E) (5.47) the direction is always seaward.
3
Between Vinh Long and Phnom Penh, in the high-river
season, rates of 3 to 4 kn may be expected. The strongest
flows are met between Kratie (5.30) and Khône (13°56′N,
105°54′E), 90 miles N, where a rate of 9 kn may be
attained in the narrows. To the S of Kratie rates do not
exceed 6 kn in the narrows.
See 5.33 regarding the flow in the approaches to the
Mekong Delta.
Directions
(continued from 5.19)
5.38
1
Approach. Directions for the approach to the pilot
boarding place (5.36) are given at 5.65. While Admiralty
charts cover the river entrance, there are no Admiralty
charts showing details of the Mekong River and specific
directions for the river passage cannot be given. Such
information as is available follows below.
5.39
1
Entry. Cua Tieu, the NE mouth by which the Mekong
River is entered, lies between the NE extremity of Cua Lao
Loi Quan and Pointe du Mirador (10°16′N, 106°45′E),
6 cables NNE. A directional light, 290°, (round tower on
piles), stands on the S side of Banc Norodom, 2 miles
ESE of Pointe du Mirador, and the channel is indicated by
light-buoys and buoys. There are dangerous wrecks and
obstructions in the vicinity, see chart. Abreast Pointe Du
Mirador the channel is obstructed by fish traps, and large
isolated fishing stakes, invisible at night, which constitute a
danger to navigation. No further obstructions have been
reported beyond these; see 5.40. The depth over the bar is
2⋅1 m (7 ft).
5.40
1
The passage from Cua Tieu to Phnom Penh is not as
difficult as it might appear; the river is generally wide and
there are few sharp turns. The bottom is mostly of soft
mud and no damage should result if a vessel grounds.
There are many fishing stakes, but these are well lit at
night; the end stake is normally marked by a red light.
Fishing nets are also laid across the river, but they may be
passed over without being damaged.
2
Having embarked a pilot at the Mui Vung Tau pilot
boarding place, a vessel should arrive at the entrance bar of
Cua Tieu at such a time as to have an under keel clearance
of 1⋅2 m (4 ft), and then proceed up river on the flood
stream. It is possible that the pilot will wish to cross the
78-mile bar on this tide before anchoring, even if it entails
navigating after dark; see 5.36. Subsequently, the time of
weighing will depend on the ETA at Phnom Penh, which
must be adjusted so as to cross the 120-mile bar at
low-water. Beyond this bar vertical tide effects are
negligible, but it has been observed that the flood stream
may still run at a rate of about 1 kn. The 182-mile bar is
the most difficult of the passage as the channel is only
45 m wide and passes very close to the bank.
5.41
1
Distances in the Mekong River are measured from the
entrance of the Song Sai Gon. When bound for Phnom
Penh, some of the more important are:
Place Distance
Baie de Cocotiers Mile 6
Seaward end of entrance bar. Depth on bar
2⋅1 m (5.39)
Mile 26
Inshore end of entrance bar Mile 35
My Tho (5.46) Mile 56
Bar Mile 70
Bar. Depth on bar 3⋅4 m (5.40) Mile 78
Car ferry Mile 87
Bar. Depth on bar 5⋅5 m (5.40) Mile 120
Place Distance
Vietnam/Cambodia border Mile 154
Bar. Depth on bar 4 m (5.40) Mile 182
Bar. Depth on bar 4⋅9 m Mile 205
Phnom Penh Mile 209
5.42
1
Departure. On the return journey from Phnom Penh it
is recommended that a vessel sails in the afternoon, so that
as much distance as possible may be made in daylight.
Except at neaps, when the 120-mile bar may present a
problem, a vessel should be able to reach the 78-mile bar
regardless of the time of HW at Mui Vung Tau. Whether
the latter bar is crossed on the same tide, and at what time
CHAPTER 5
161
the vessel will weigh in the morning, will depend on the
time of HW at Mui Vung Tau.
Berths
5.43
1
Anchorage. Vessels discharge cargo at an anchorage off
the town into lighters and junks.
Alongside berths. In the commercial harbour there are
three pontoon wharves; Nos 1 and 3, each 58 m long, and
No 2, can accommodate vessels up to 2000 tons. Additional
pontoons allow the berthing of vessels up to 100 m in
length. In addition, a wharf 200 m in length, two T-headed
quays and a wharf 60 m in length, have least depths of 5 m
alongside. There are other berths for small craft.
2
Shell POL Pier, a T-headed pier with a berthing length
of 76 m, can accommodate vessels of 5200 dwt, with
draughts of 3⋅3 to 5 m.
Ship’s gear is generally required for working cargo.
Port services
5.44
1
Repairs: minor only.
Other facilities: hospital; deratting.
Supplies: fuel oil and diesel available by barge; fresh
water available; limited provisions and stores available.
Communications: by air: local and international.
River ports
Can Tho
5.45
1
General information. Can Tho (10°02′N, 105°48′E) is
on the Song Hau Giang, located about 55 miles up river
from the pilot boarding place (5.45).
Traffic. In 2003 there were 30 port calls with a total of
134 809 dwt.
2
Pilotage is compulsory and should be requested by VHF
24 hours in advance. The pilot boarding place is in position
9°26′⋅4N, 106°30′⋅8E; the Harbour Master will advise of
any change of pilot boarding place owing to weather
conditions. Pilotage is available only during the hours of
daylight. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
See also the caution at 5.31.
3
Vessels awaiting a pilot may anchor in the vicinity of
the pilot boarding place; a dangerous wreck, marked by a
light-buoy, lies 1 mile NE.
Directions (continued from 5.19). The chart is the best
guide for a route to the Can Tho pilot boarding place; see
the cautions at 5.10 and 5.17.
4
The Song Hau Giang is usually entered via Cua Dinh
An, see 5.31. The entrance channel is buoyed, but the
buoyage is reported to be unreliable.
Berths. Vessels of up to 18 800 dwt, and LOA 140 m,
with draughts up to 7 m, can be accommodated alongside
two quays with a total berthing length of 142 m, with
depths alongside of 9 m.
5
Port services:
Repairs: minor only.
Other facilities: deratting exemption certificates.
Supplies: fuel oil; freshwater; provisions.
My Tho
5.46
1
General information. My Tho (10°21′N, 106°22′E), the
largest city S of Ho Chi Min City, is situated about
30 miles above the seaward end of the bar at Cua Tieu. A
ferry crosses the river at My Tho.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 5 port calls with a total of
15 253 dwt.
2
Directions (continued from 5.19). For information
concerning the river passage see 5.31 to 5.42.
Berths. Berthing, suitable only for lighters, consists of a
pier and two wharves. Vessels anchor in mid-stream; see
also 5.36.
3
A T-shaped pier with a frontage of 41 m, and a depth
alongside of 9⋅1 m, is situated 4 miles NW of My Tho,
on the S bank of the river. A tug is available.
Port services:
Facilities: hospital.
Supplies: fuel and fresh water available to river craft;
no provisions.
Vinh Long
5.47
1
General information. Vinh Long is situated 23 miles
above My Tho (10°21′N, 106°22′E). There are three
wharves. Some fresh water and provisions may be
obtained.
Sa Dec (10°18′N, 105°46′E) is situated 12 miles above
Vinh Long.
THE SONG SAI GON INCLUDING
SAIGON PORT (HO CHI MIN CITY)
Song Sai Gon — General information
Charts 3986, 1261, 1016
General description
5.48
1
From its source, at an altitude of 965 m near Nui Ba
Dinh, situated 80 miles NW of Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N,
107°05′E), the Song Sai Gon follows a winding course
through Ho Chi Min City to join the Song Nha Be at Mui
Den Do (10°44′N, 106°46′E). About 5 miles downstream at
Pointe Phami (10°40′N, 106°47′E) the river divides, the
Song Nha Be contining on a generally S course and the
Song Long Tao, the E river, takes a more SSE course. Both
these rivers discharge into the delta of the Song Sai Gon
(10°20′N, 106°55′E), and both can be used by ocean going
vessels, but the Song Long Tao provides the principal route
of the Song Sai Gon.
2
The Song Sai Gon is joined from the ENE, 5 miles N of
Pointe Phami, by the Song Dong Nai, which irrigates all
the N part of the province of Bien Hoa, and passes the
town of that name 11 miles NNE of Ho Chi Min City.
From its confluence with the Song Sai Gon, the Song Dong
Nai is navigable for about only 15 miles, to a position
6 miles below Bien Hoa. In the Song Dong Nai, about
3 miles from its confluence with the Song Sai Gon, the
navigable channel, which is marked, passes S and E of the
island of Cu Lao Ong Con.
3
The delta of the Song Sai Gon lies in a bay WNW of
Mui Vung Tau.
Topography
5.49
1
The land in the Song Sai Gon delta region is low lying
and generally featureless, being comprised mainly of
mangrove swamps and waterways. The bay in which lies
the delta of the Song Sai Gon is entered between Mui
Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E) and Pointe du Mirador
(10°16′N, 106°45′E) (5.39), 20 miles WSW. The delta is
formed by numerous islands separated by rivers and
waterways which are connected with one another.
2
In the W of the Song Sai Gon delta, Cua Soirap
(10°24′N, 106°48′E), the entrance to the Song Nha Be, is
CHAPTER 5
162
entered between Mui Doi Ba Cai, a point on the mainland
8 miles N of Pointe du Mirador, and a point 1 miles E.
The channel leading to the entrance, 1 miles wide, lies
between the bank extending NE from Banc Norodom (5.39)
and the bank which extends 12 miles SE from the E
entrance point of the river. Banc du Soirap lies at the
extremity of the latter bank, 9 miles WSW of Mui Vung
Tau.
5.50
1
In the E of the Song Sai Gon delta is Mui Vung Tau
(10°19′N, 107°05′E) (5.65). An islet, Îlot Archinard, lies
4 cables NE of Mui Vung Tau on the outer edge of a reef
extending 2 cables offshore. There is a below-water rock
2 cables SE of Mui Vung Tau. Banc Formosa, 1 mile ESE
of Mui Vung Tau, extends 1 miles E to where there is
another below-water rock. Banc du Requin extends 3 miles
E from a position 3 miles ESE of Mui Vung Tau; Banc
du Cap lies 8 cables W of Banc du Requin, and a detached
shoal patch lies 3 miles SE of Mui Vung Tau. Banc Ranza
lies 1 miles W of Mui Vung Tau.
2
Banks extend 7 miles SE from Mui Can Gio (10°25′N,
106°59′E) (5.67). Several shallow banks lie near the end of
Banc du Sud Ouest (10°20′N, 107°02′E); the E shoal is
situated 1 miles SSW of Mui Vung Tau. Banc du Phare
lies 5 miles NNE of Banc du Sud Ouest. The E entrance,
the principal entrance to the Song Sai Gon, is approached
between these banks and Mui Vung Tau, and is entered
from NW of Vung Ganh Rai via the Song Nga Bay
(10°27′N, 106°57′E). A drying bank extends 3 cables NE
from Mui Can Gio.
3
Several other rivers discharge into Vung Ganh Rai,
notably, in the N, the Song Cai Mep, which is entered
between Cu Lao Phu Long (10°29′N, 107°01′E) and the SE
extremity of Cu Lao Phu Loi, 3 miles SW, and Rach Ong
Ben, which enters Vung Ganh Rai 5 miles NW of Cu Lao
Tao (10°24′N, 107°06′E); and in the E, the Song Cha Va
(10°25′N, 107°06′E), which is entered over a bar with
fishing stakes on it, and the Song Dinh (10°24′N,
107°05′E) (5.104). Rach Ben Dinh, 4 cables E of Mui
Ganh Rai (10°23′N, 107°04′E), separates Cu Lao Ben Dinh
from the land to the S.
Depths
5.51
1
Depths off Mui Vung Tau are subject to frequent
change. Local knowledge is required if navigating in the
delta area. See also 5.2.
Tidal streams
5.52
1
Cua Soirap. In the entrance to Cua Soirap, 4 miles S of
Mui Dong Tranh (10°22′N, 106°53′E), the tidal stream sets
NW on the rising tide and SE on the falling tide. The
flows change direction 1 hour after local HW and local
LW; the turns are clockwise in direction, and very abrupt.
The flows attain their greatest rates, on both the rising and
falling tides, a little after half tide; for a 3 m range of tide
the rates are 2 kn for the in-going, and 3 kn for the
out-going flows.
2
Cua Dong Tranh. Tidal streams in Cua Dong Tranh,
close N of Mui Dong Tranh (10°22′N, 106°53′E), are
strong and turbulent with large tides.
Song Sai Gon. See 5.63.
Song Sai Gon main channel — General
information
Chart 1016
Route
5.53
1
The Song Sai Gon main channel leads from Mui Vung
Tau and the pilot boarding place (10°20′⋅3N, 107°03′⋅2E),
via the buoyed channel through Vung Ganh Rai to the
Song Sai Gon, the Song Nga Bay, the Song Long Tao and
the Song Nha Be, to Ho Chi Min City, a distance of
approximately 46 miles. For a description of the river, see
5.48.
Topography
5.54
1
See 5.49.
Depths
5.55
1
See 5.51.
There are several shallow patches on the bar of the river
which is 2 miles wide and lies NE of Mui Can Gio
(10°25′N, 106°59′E), and between the latter and the shoals
extending SE from Cu Lao Phu Loi. The shallowest of
these patches has depths of 5⋅6 m over it, and lies 1 mile
NNW of Mui Can Gio.
2
The least charted depth in the Song Sai Gon main
channel to Ho Chi Min City is 5⋅9 m to be found close NE
of the main buoyed channel, mile SSE from Banc de
Corail (10°37′N, 106°52′E).
Advice concerning depths should be sought from the
harbour authorities.
Limiting conditions
5.56
1
Draught. Vessels of up to 230 m LOA, and draught
9⋅5 m, regularly use Saigon Port. The maximum allowable
draught on a particular day will depend on the height of
HW on that day; at least 0⋅3 m under keel clearance must
be allowed. See also 5.79.
Vertical clearance. Overhead cables crossing the river
close to the S boundary (5.73) of Saigon Port have an
estimated vertical clearance of 40 m.
Hazards
5.57
1
Many vessels may be found anchored in the approach to
the entrance to the Song Sai Gon main channel, and
numbers of local fishing craft, some working in pairs, may
also be encountered, especially at dusk, in this vicinity.
Fishing stakes and fish traps are numerous along the
banks of the rivers.
Pilotage
5.58
1
Pilotage in the Song Sai Gon is compulsory. The pilot
boards at the Mui Vung Tau pilot boarding place; see
5.105. An ETA should be sent via the agent 24 hours in
advance, and on arrival the pilot service should be
contacted with the vessel’s position and particulars,
including draught and the speed which can be maintained
in the river. The pilot service will advise the time of
CHAPTER 5
163
commencing the river transit direct to the vessel via VHF;
the last transit should commence no later than 1530 local
time. Pilotage is undertaken during the hours of daylight
only, commencing at 0500 and ending at 1900.
2
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for
further information, and also 5.59 concerning anchorages.
Outer anchorages
5.59
1
Vessels awaiting a pilot anchor to the W of the fairway,
W to NNW of Mui Vung Tau. The holding ground is good,
mud, and the anchorage well sheltered during the NE
monsoon, though there is often a considerable swell during
the SW monsoon. See also 5.59 concerning the signals to
make at anchor.
2
Numbered designated anchorages are shown on the
chart, and may be allocated to arriving vessels. Otherwise,
in order to facilitate the boarding of officials and the pilot,
vessels should anchor close N of latitude 10°20′N; officials
will not normally board S of this latitude.
3
Vessels may anchor anywhere in the approach channel to
the Song Sai Gon. The best anchorage during the SW
monsoon is N of Mui Can Gio (5.67), in depths of 12 to
13 m.
Caution. Precautions against unauthorised boarding by
thieves while at anchor should be taken in this area.
4
Small vessels may anchor in the outer part of Baie des
Cocotiers (10°20′⋅5N, 107°04′⋅5E), but during the SW
monsoon, as well as during the NE monsoon, a better
anchorage can be obtained off the entrances to the Song
Cha Va and the Song Dinh (10°24′N, 107°05′E). Local
knowledge is required.
Signals. If anchored, one of the signals in Diagram 5.59
should be displayed.
Mui Vung Tau anchorage − Signals (5.59)
Prohibited anchorages
5.60
1
When navigating in the Song Sai Gon, anchorage is
prohibited, except in an emergency, within a distance of
1 mile either side of a sharp bend in the river. Anchorage
is also prohibited:
Near or in the dredged channel through Banc de
Corail (10°37′N, 106°52′E).
In an area NW of Pointe Phami (10°40′N, 106°47′E).
Dumping ground
5.61
1
An area containing unexploded ordnance is charted close
NNW of designated anchorage B14 in the S of Vung Ganh
Rai.
Rescue
5.62
1
The Vietnam MRCC is at Hanoi with a MRSC at Vung
Tau (5.104). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
Tidal streams
5.63
1
Mui Vung Tau. At Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E)
the in-going stream begins very shortly after LW, and the
out-going shortly after HW. The duration and rates of the
tidal streams are greatly influenced by the rainy season
(August and September), when the flood is often
completely overcome, the ebb stream flowing continuously.
2
During the NE monsoon, the prevailing current
accelerated by the flood stream may cause a set to the W
of Mui Vung Tau towards Bancs de Can-Gio (10°22′N,
106°56′E); however, the ebb stream may at times overcome
the prevailing current and there may then be a NE set.
Over Banc Formosa, 1 mile ESE of Mui Vung Tau, on the
rising tide the stream sets W, while to the W of this bank
it sets more N, into Vinh Ganh Rai; on the falling tide the
stream sets S out of Vinh Ganh Rai and E over Banc
Formosa. Slack water occurs 1 hours after HW and LW
at Mui Vung Tau, and the stream attains a rate of 2 kn,
which is maintained for the middle two hours of the rising
and falling tides.
3
In Baie des Cocotiers (10°20′⋅5N, 107°04′⋅5E) the tidal
stream sets NW on the rising tide and SSE on the falling
tide; the changes are very abrupt, and occur at the times of
local HW and LW. On the rising tide the maximum rate of
flow of 1 kn is attained 1 hours before half tide, and on
the falling tide the maximum rate of flow of 2 kn is
attained at half tide.
4
Song Sai Gon entrance. In the entrance to the Song Sai
Gon, at a position 1 miles N of Can Gio Aval Light
(10°24′N, 107°01′E), the streams set NW on the rising tide
and SSE on the falling tide; when changing from out-going
to in-going the direction of the stream turns in an
anti-clockwise direction. In a position 2 miles NW of the
same light, the stream sets W on the rising tide and E on
the falling tide.
5
Saigon Port. At Saigon Port the flood stream begins
4 hours after LW at Mui Vung Tau, and the ebb stream
4 hours after HW at Mui Vung Tau; the duration of slack
water is about 20 minutes. The stream on the E bank turns
20 minutes after the turn in mid river.
6
The flood stream attains its maximum rate quickly, and
the ebb stream slowly. The rate of flow varies between 1
and 3 kn; the rate for a particular tide may be estimated
as being equivalent to 1 kn for every metre of the range of
that tide; however, if the range of flood tide is less than
1 m then there is unlikely to be a flood stream for that
flood tide.
Principal marks
5.64
1
Landmark:
Conspicuous monument, charted position approximate,
standing on high ground 4 cables N of Mui Vung
Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E).
CHAPTER 5
164
Major light:
Mui Vung Tau Light (10°19′⋅9N, 107°04′⋅9E) (5.15).
Directions
(continued from 5.19)
Approaches to Mui Vung Tau
5.65
1
From a position NNE of Con Son, with Hon Bai Can
(8°40′N, 106°40′E) distant about 45 miles, to the Mui Vung
Tau pilot boarding place (10°20′⋅3N, 107°3′⋅2E), the track
leads N for about 55 miles, passing (with positions from
10°00′N, 107°00′E):
W of Callou Bank (53 miles SE) (5.132), thence:
W of Wallace Bank (49 miles SE) (5.132), and
Dragon Oilfield (5.134) some 13 miles ENE of it,
thence:
2
SW of Mui Vung Tau (20 miles NNE), and to a
position between Mui Vung Tau and the shallow
banks 3 miles W, passing clear of the numerous
shoal patches, wrecks and obstructions shown on
the chart; see the cautions at 5.10 and 5.17.
3
Mui Vung Tau is the S extremity of a peninsular on
the W side of which are three steep hills, which
are the first high land seen when approaching from
SW, and appear as islands at a distance.
4
Nui Nho and Nui Hoa Sup lie, respectively, 1 mile
and 2 miles NNW of Mui Vung Tau with Nui
Vung Mai 1 mile farther NNW. Mui Vung Tau
Light (5.15) is exhibited from the summit of Nui
Nho. There is a signal station near the light.
5
It has been reported that Mui Vung Tau is clearly
visible on radar at 15 miles. See the cautions at
5.66. Thence:
To the Mui Vung Tau pilot boarding place (5.105), or
to an anchorage (5.59).
5.66
1
Cautions. If passing along the edge of the banks
fronting the delta of the Mekong River and extending to
the entrance to the Song Sai Gon, vessels should keep in
depths of not less than 18 m (60 ft) until Mui Vung Tau
bears less than 020°, when the entrance may be steered for.
During the SW monsoon strong freshets run out of the
rivers and join the NE current; due allowance should
therefore be made in order to prevent being set to the SE
of Mui Vung Tau.
2
Wrecks and other obstructions, some of which are not
marked, are present in considerable numbers in the entrance
to the main channel W of Mui Vung Tau and throughout
the channel. It is, therefore, recommended that the tracks
shown on the chart be followed. There are numerous
fishing stakes on the banks on the W side of the channel.
From Mui Vung Tau to Saigon Port
5.67
1
The main channel is reported to be adequately marked,
mainly by light-buoys and light-beacons, in accordance
with the IALA Maritime Buoyage System, Region A, as
well as having many leading marks. Consequently, whilst
the passage to Saigon Port can be made with confidence
under pilotage, no specific directions are given. Such
information as is available is given here.
2
When bound for the Song Sai Gon, vessels arriving at
Mui Vung Tau on the same tide can follow one another
only at intervals of 45 minutes. It is advisable for a vessel
with a speed of 13 kn in the river, and a draught not
exceeding 6⋅7 m, to arrive at Mui Vung Tau at the
commencement of the flood stream which occurs 1 hour
after LW there; the vessel should then arrive off Saigon
Port at the beginning of the flood, which is the best time
for berthing.
3
Deep-draught vessels should adjust their ETA so as to
pass Banc de Corail (10°37′N, 106°52′E) at the time of
local HW, which occurs 50 to 80 minutes after HW at Mui
Vung Tau. Whilst the beginning and end of flood are the
best times for berthing, pilots will berth vessels at all states
of the flood tide.
4
Whilst following the main channel from Vung Tau the
following features will be passed (with positions from Banc
de Corail (10°37′N, 106°52′E)):
Mui Do Cao Trang (20 miles SE), a point 2 miles
NNW of Mui Vung Tau from where a light is
exhibited (white square tower, black bands, green
top, 17 m in height). Fausse Baie lies to the N of
the point, Pointe Vung is the N point of this bay.
5
Mui Ganh Rai (18 miles SE), the NW extremity of
the peninsula, 4 miles N of Mui Vung Tau. Mui
Ganh Rai Light (white metal framework tower,
black bands, 14 m in height) is exhibited from
Pointe du Lazaret, 1 cables SW of Mui Ganh
Rai.
6
Can Gio Aval Light (octagonal hut on red and white
piles, 21 m in height) (16 miles SE), situated on
the N end of Banc du Phare (5.50).
Mui Can Gio (14 miles SSE), a low point, covered
with brushwood and not easily seen. There is a
heliport on the point. Between Mui Can Gio and
the mouth of the Song Dong Dinh, 2 miles
WNW, the edge of the bank is steep-to.
7
Rach Tchen (11 miles SSE), 3 cables wide, which
flows into the Song Sai Gon opposite the mouth of
the Song Dong Dinh. Mui Nuoc Van, the SW
extremity of the island of Thanh An, lies 1 miles
NW of Rach Tchen.
8
The entrance to the Song Ca Gau (10 miles SSE).
Two pairs of leading light-beacons (8 miles SE) on E
bank.
Les Quatre Bras (6 miles SSE), the reach where the
Song Dong Tranh and the Song Dua enter the
Song Sai Gon on its N side.
Song Dan Xay (6 miles S), which enters the Song
Sai Gon on its S side and connects with Cua Dong
Tranh (5.52).
9
Pointe An Thanh (5 miles SSW). Pointe du Kervella
lies on the opposite side of the river 5 cables N
of Pointe An Thanh.
Pointe de l’Est (3 miles SW), which lies on the SE
side of a bend, and has a spit which extends
1 cable W from it. Coude de l’Est, opposite Pointe
de l’Est, lies on the N side of the entrance to Tac
Ong Nghia.
10
Haut de l’Est (2 miles S), a point on the NW side
of a bend. Banc du Propontis, a sandbank, extends
along the E side of the Song Sai Gon from abreast
Haut de l’Est to the S entrance point of Rach Tac
Roi, 6 cables N. Rach Tac Din Cau leads SE from
Rach Tac Roi to the Song Dua, and is used by
small craft; tidal streams in Rach Tac Din Cau
attain a rate of 5 kn.
11
Pointe du Lombard (1 miles S), which lies on the
W side of the Song Sai Gon. Banc du Lombard
CHAPTER 5
165
extends about 90 m from the point. Violent cross
streams and undertows are experienced off Pointe
du Lombard.
Banc de Corail, which consists of hard red rock
under about 1 m of mud, through which a channel
approximately 140 m wide has been dredged,
having a least depth of 6 m near its S end. See
also 5.55, 5.60 and 5.67.
12
Pointe Mongom (1 miles WNW), the E entrance
point of the Song Dong Tranh. Pointe du Valéro is
situated on the S side of the river 2 cables SSW of
Pointe Mongom.
Pointe O Ro (3 miles NW), which lies on the SW
side of the river. There is a coral patch near the
middle of the river 1 cables N of Pointe O Ro,
and the entrance of Rach Nha is 1 miles NW of
the point.
13
Pointe Phami (5 miles NW), from where a spit
extends 2 cables NW. Pointe du Phuoc Khanh
lies on the NE side of the river 2 cables N of
Pointe Phami. See also 5.60.
5.68
1
The Song Nha Be is entered at Pointe Phami and runs
to Mui Den Do (10°44′N, 106°46′E), 4 miles N, with
Nha Be (5.99) on the W bank. From Pointe Phami the
main channel to Saigon Port continues, passing (with
positions from Pointe Phami):
2
Pointe du Lazaret (5 cables W). From this point, the
Song Nha Be continues E and thence S to its
mouth at Cua Soirap (10°24′N, 106°48′E) (5.49).
Banc du Sud lies 2 cables NNE of Pointe du
Lazaret, and a shoal lies on the recommended
track 7 cables N of the same point.
3
Rach Mieu (1 miles NNW), the entrance to which
is on the E side of the river, has a drying bank at
the entrance. Banc de la Ville de Paris, composed
of sand and rock, extends 3 cables from the E
shore between Rach Mieu and Rach Ban Nho,
1 mile N, and a bank extends to the middle of the
river from the E bank from the N end of Banc de
la Ville de Paris to abreast Mui Den Do
(4 miles N).
4
Rach Doi (2 miles NNW), which is entered on the
W side of the river. There are a large number of
oil tanks, which are prominent, S of Rach Doi.
Mui Den Do (4 miles N). The Song Dong Nai
(5.48) joins the Song Sai Gon from E of Mui Den
Do. Banc du Caobang extends 7 cables SSE from
the N side of the junction of the Song Sai Gon
and the Song Dong Nai.
5
Pointe du Rach Ba Buom (4 miles NNW), on the N
side of the river, from the SW side of which Banc
du Chargeur extends about 100 m. Banc du Gange
extends from the W bank nearly half across the
river just above Banc du Chargeur. Rach Ba Buom
(4 miles NNW) enters the Song Sai Gon from
the S.
6
Kinh Te (6 miles NNW), which is entered on the S
side of the river, marks the S limit of Saigon Port
(5.73). Overhead cables (5.56) span the main
channel 3 cables E of Kinh Te.
Alternative channel — Cua Soirap
5.69
1
The Cua Soirap (10°24′N, 106°48′E) (5.49) entrance
channel, which joins the main channel at Pointe Phami
(5.67), can be used at any stage of the tide by vessels with
draughts of up to 6⋅7 m. The channel is marked by buoys
and light-buoys, some of which are moved in accordance
with changes in the channel; the bar across Cua Soirap is
covered with fishing stakes. Local knowledge is required if
this channel is to be used. See also 5.52 concerning tidal
streams.
2
The mouth of the Song Vam Co is situated on the W
side of Cua Soirap, 6 miles NW of Mui Doi Ba Cai
(10°24′N, 106°47′E). The Song Rach Cat is entered close
N of the Song Vam Co, on the same side of the river;
drying banks extend 4 cables from both entrance points of
the Song Rach Cat, and abreast the entrance there is an
inner bar with a least charted depth of 5⋅2 m. Above this
bar, as far as Pointe du Lazaret (5.68), depths in the river
are greater. A shallow ledge extends 3 cables from the N
river bank for 1 miles W of Pointe du Lazaret.
3
Close E of Cua Soirap, Cua Dong Tranh, the S entrance
to the Song Mui Nai, is entered between Mui Dong Tranh
and the E side of the coastal bank extending from the E
entrance point of Cua Soirap. A bar fronts this entrance,
which gives access to an area of mangroves and largely
uncharted waterways, some of which link with the Song
Sai Gon in the N and E; local knowledge is required if
navigating within Cua Dong Tranh. See also 5.52
concerning tidal streams.
Saigon Port, Ho Chi Min City —
General information
Position
5.70
1
Ho Chi Min City (10°47′N, 106°42′E) is situated mainly
on the W bank of the Song Sai Gon. Its port is known as
Saigon Port.
Function
5.71
1
Ho Chi Min City is the capital of the S part of Vietnam.
As well as being an international port it is also a main
business centre for the region. The business part of the city
is the S portion known as Port de Commerce (5.73); to the
N are the dockyards and barracks, and the W is the
industrial quarter.
2
There are on-going programmes to develop or refurbish
port facilities.
See also Nha Be (5.99).
Topography
5.72
1
See 5.49. In the vicinity of Ho Chi Min City the
mangroves give way to rice fields.
Port limits
5.73
1
Saigon Port is that part of the Song Sai Gon which lies
between Kinh Te (10°45′⋅4N, 106°43′⋅5E) and Rach Cao
Bong (10°47′⋅0N, 106°43′⋅1E); the positions are
approximate, both river entrances are on the W side of the
Song Sai Gon.
2
Port de Commerce consists of that portion of the port S
of a line drawn across the Song Sai Gon from a position
3 cables N of Rach Ben Nghe (10°46′⋅0N, 106°42′⋅7E); N
of this line is Port de Guerre, the remainder of the port.
Approach and entry
5.74
1
The port is usually approached from seaward along the
Song Sai Gon and entered from S via the main channel
from Mui Vung Tau (5.53).
CHAPTER 5
166
Traffic
5.75
1
In 2003 there were 2094 port calls with a total of
27 735 748 dwt.
Port Authority
5.76
1
Port Authority of Saigon Port, 3 Nguyen Tat Thanah
Street, District 4, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
5.77
1
See 5.55.
Tidal levels
5.78
1
MHHW 3⋅3 m; MLLW 0⋅7 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3 under Mui Vung Tau and Ho Chi Minh City.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.79
1
Alongside, 32 000 dwt; 60 000 dwt at lighterage. See
also 5.56.
Arrival information
Port operations
5.80
1
Berthing. All vessels are berthed at the direction of the
Harbour Master. Vessels are usually moored head and stern
between mooring buoys, bows down river, or alongside the
wharves.
Turning is permitted in only two areas, one of which is
near the mouth of Rach Ben Nghe (10°46′⋅0N, 106°42′⋅7E),
and the other above Port de Guerre (5.73).
2
Vessels berthing in Port de Commerce (5.73) usually
turn on their starboard anchor off Rach Ben Nghe with the
assistance of the flood stream; deep-draught vessels should
arrive off Rach Ben Nghe with the very last of the flood
stream in order to avoid turning too quickly, thus risking
parting their cable.
3
Vessels proceeding to Port de Guerre are swung by
placing their bows against the E bank of the Song Sai Gon
and allowing the tidal stream to swing them; pylons
indicate the positions on the bank where a vessel’s bow can
safely be placed.
4
Shifting. No vessels, except mail vessels, are, as a
general rule, allowed to shift berth between the hours of
1800 and 0600.
Port radio
5.81
1
There is a coast radio station at Ho Chi Min City; pilots
and agents may also be contacted; see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 1(2) for details. See also Vung Tau
(5.105).
Prohibited anchorage
5.82
1
Anchorage is prohibited in the river, except below the
mooring buoy berths, and out of the fairway at a
considerable distance from the city. See also 5.60.
Pilotage
5.83
1
Pilotage is compulsory; see 5.105.
Tugs
5.84
1
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
5.85
1
Vessels carrying explosives must anchor at Nha Be
(5.99).
Quarantine
5.86
1
Quarantine officials normally carry out their duties on
arrival off Mui Vung Tau; see 5.59. Vessels which do not
have a clean bill of health must anchor at Nha Be (5.99).
Harbour
General layout
5.87
1
The W side of the Song Sai Gon, throughout the
harbour area, consists almost entirely of wharfage. Vessels
either berth alongside or at jetties. In addition, there are
mooring berths on both sides of the river, but the majority
are on the E side.
Alongside berths provide facilities for handling Ro-Ro
and container vessels, as well as ore, bulk cargo and wood
products, and there is a passenger terminal.
2
Rach Ben Nghe (10°46′⋅0N, 106°42′⋅7E) connects
Saigon Port with Cho Lon, close SW. Rach Ben Nghe has
a least depth of about 1 m and is crossed by three bridges.
The Saigon Port harbour offices and customs office are
situated on the N side of the entrance of Rach Ben Nghe.
Two ferries cross the river N of this point, as shown on the
chart.
Storm signals
5.88
1
Storm signals are displayed at Saigon Port from a
position, shown on the chart, on the N side of the entrance
of Rach Ben Nghe (10°46′⋅0N, 106°42′⋅7E).
Natural conditions
5.89
1
Tidal streams. See 5.63.
Local weather. See 1.148 and 1.158.
Directions
Entering harbour
5.90
1
See 5.65.
Leaving harbour
5.91
1
If proceeding to sea, the best time for a deep-draught
vessel to leave Saigon Port is two hours before HW, so that
it is near the time of HW when passing Banc de Corail.
Permission to proceed to sea must be obtained from the
Port Authority 6 hours in advance and in daylight hours.
Berths
Moorings
5.92
1
There are a total of 20 mooring berths all utilising head
and stern buoys, some of which are S of the S limit of the
port; the majority are in the Port de Guerre (5.73) area.
The mooring berths can accommodate vessels from 50 to
200 m LOA in depths of 7 to 13⋅3 m.
CHAPTER 5
167
Alongside berths
5.93
1
Proceeding up river the principal alongside berths are at
the following terminals:
Tam Thuan Terminal 2, about 1 miles NW from
Mui Den Do (5.68) and on the SE side of the Tan
Thuan Export Processing Zone (10°46′N,
106°45′E), handles bulk cargo. There is one berth
with an alongside depth of 10⋅5 m.
2
Tam Thuan Terminal 1 close E of the entrance of
Kinh Te, just outside the S port limit, handles
container, Ro-Ro and bulk cargo. There are 4
wharves with alongside depth of 11 m.
3
The Khanh Hoi terminal, situated on the W side of
the entrance of Kinh Te, and extending to meet the
Nha Rong terminal. The eight wharves have
alongside depths of 8⋅2 to 10 m and handle
container and general cargo. A conspicuous water
tower stands near these wharfs. Vessels lying
alongside with a falling tide, in certain positions,
are liable to foul projections.
4
The Nha Rong terminal, close NW of the Khanh Hoi
terminal and S of Rach Ben Nghe, has seven
wharves, handling general cargo and passengers,
with alongside depths of 8⋅2 to 9⋅1 m.
See also 5.87.
5.94
1
The Saigon New Port Company operates five alongside
container and general cargo berths farther upstream in the
vicinity of 10°47′⋅4N, 106°43′⋅7E. Depths alongside from
9⋅5 to 10⋅5 m.
Port services
Repairs
5.95
1
Slipways; dry docks; floating docks (maximum lift
8000 tonnes).
Other facilities
5.96
1
Floating crane, 100 tonnes capacity; hospitals; deratting;
waste oil disposal by road tanker or barge.
Supplies
5.97
1
Fuel oil and diesel by road tanker or barge; fresh water
from the wharf or by barge; provisions and stores.
Communications
5.98
1
Domestic and international air services.
Nha Be Oil Terminal
General information
5.99
1
Nha Be Oil Terminal (10°42′N, 106°45′E), on the W
side of the Song Sai Gon close S of Rach Doi, is the
petroleum port of Ho Chi Min City (5.70); the storage
tanks are conspicuous. Vessels up to 32 000 grt can be
accommodated.
A customs office is situated on the N side of Rach Doi.
2
Traffic. In 2003 there were 318 ship calls with a total
of 3 682 410 tonnes of fuels and oils.
Directions
5.100
1
For the approach and entry see the directions at 5.65.
Most vessels when proceeding to Nha Be cross Banc de
Corail (10°37′N, 106°52′E) at HW, turn opposite the jetties
on the flood tide and berth starboard side to. Vessels
crossing Banc de Corail later than 1 hour after HW have to
berth on the ebb tide.
Berths
5.101
1
There are eight berths with depths alongside from
6⋅8 to 11⋅8 m.Tankers secure with mooring buoys at each
end.
In addition, several mooring buoys lie within the 10 m
depth contour on the W side of the river between Pointe du
Lazaret (10°40′N, 106°46′E) and Nha Be.
Supplies
5.102
1
Fuel oil and diesel available; fresh water can be
obtained by barge from Saigon Port, advance notice
required.
Vientiane
General information
5.103
1
Seaborne trade is conducted at certain times of the year
(July to December) between Ho Chi Minh City (5.70) and
Vientiane (18°00′N, 102°45′E), the capital of Laos,
760 miles up river. Vessels of 200 tons and 1⋅7 m draught
can reach Vientiane. The Mekong River is an important
navigable highway but is interrupted by rapids. There are
four stretches above Ho Chi Minh City which can be
navigated during these months when the river is sufficiently
high by vessels of suitable size and draught, and with
power to maintain the following speeds:
Stretch Distance Tonnage Draught Speed
Ho Chi Minh
City to Khone
to Pakse
373 miles
690 km
500 grt 2⋅4 m 7 kn
Pakse to
Savannakhet
(16°35′N,
104°40′E)
140 miles
257 km
200 grt 1⋅7 m 12 kn
Savannakhet to
Vientiane
250 miles
458 km
200 grt 1⋅7 m 7 kn
Vung Tau
General information
5.104
1
Position. The town of Vung Tau (10°20′⋅5N,
107°05′⋅0E), is situated at the head of Baie des Cocotiers.
The bay is entered 1 miles NNW of Mui Vung Tau
(5.65); a partially destroyed mole, which covers at HW,
extends 3 cables WNW from the S entrance point of the
bay, and affords shelter for landing during the SW
monsoon.
2
Reports have been received that major works were in
progress to create a new port at Vung Tau, and that vessels
were using part of the new facility, but no details are
available; later reports indicate that these works are no
longer in progress.
Topography. See 5.49.
3
Port limits. The port area encompasses the designated
anchorages in the approaches to the Song Sai Gon, the
petroleum and gas facility in position 10°23′⋅2N,
107°05′⋅7E and Cat Lo in position (10°24′⋅8N, 107°08′⋅0E).
CHAPTER 5
168
the Bach Ho Oilfield (9°47′N, 108°00′E) is an associated
offshore export facility; see 5.135.
4
The petroleum and gas facility is located at the entrance
to the Song Dinh, close W of Thang Nhut. Cat Lo is
situated on the S side of the river 2 miles farther NE.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 121 port calls with a total of
6 538 853 dwt.
5
Port Authority. Vung Tau Port Authority, Vung Tau
Harbour Office, No 2 Quang Trung Street, Vung Tau,
Vietnam.
Arrival information
5.105
1
Port radio. There is a coast radio station and port
control at Vung Tau. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2) and Volume 6(4).
Outer anchorages. See 5.59.
2
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boarding place
(10°20′⋅3N, 107°03′⋅2E), shown on the chart, is off Baie
des Cocotiers, but it has been reported that the pilot boat,
which is not conspicuous, may be found up to 1 mile S of
Mui Vung Tau. Requests for pilotage should be sent
24 hours in advance. Pilots are available at all times. See
also 5.59 for signals.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
5.106
1
Storm signals are shown from the signal station close to
Mui Vung Tau Light (5.15).
Tidal streams. For tidal streams in Mui Vung Tau and
the approaches to the Song Sai Gon, see 5.63.
Tidal streams in the Song Dinh turn 1 hour after HW
locally, and 1 hours after LW locally.
Major light. Mui Vung Tau Light (10°19′⋅9N,
107°04′⋅9E) (5.15).
Directions
5.107
1
Approaches. See the directions at 5.65 concerning the
approaches to Mui Vung Tau and the pilot boarding place
(10°20′⋅3N, 107°03′⋅2E).
2
Entry. The petroleum and gas facility near Thang Nhut,
and Cat Lo, are both approached and entered via the
dredged and buoyed channel, close N of Mui Ganh Rai
(5.67). There are reported to be more buoys than charted.
This channel crosses the bar of the Song Dinh; the bar is
about 7 cables across and has fishing stakes on it. Light
beacons aligned 096° lead across the bar. There is a turning
basin in the river off the petroleum and gas facility.
3
Useful mark:
Radar tower (lighted), 5 cables E of Mui Do Cao
Trang (10°21′N, 107°04′E) (5.67).
Berths
5.108
1
Petroleum and gas facility near Thang Nhut. There
are nine berths; Berth 6 can accommodate vessels up to
12 000 dwt, 160 m LOA, breadth 28 m, and draught 15 m,
and other berths accommodate vessels of less than 6000
dwt, 120 m LOA, and 6 m draught.
Cat Lo. Total wharf frontage 250 m, depth alongside
approximately 9 m. Vessels up to 6000 dwt, 135 m LOA,
and breadth 20 m can be accommodated.
Port services
5.109
1
Repairs: minor only.
Other facilities: hospital; deratting exemption
certificates issued.
Supplies: fuel oil and diesel available; fresh water at
Cat Lo, and elsewhere by barge; provisions available.
Communications: domestic air services from the airport
at Vung Tau.
Phu My
General information
5.110
1
Position. Phu My (10°35′N, 107°02′E), not charted, lies
on the E bank of the Song Thi Vai some 16 miles from the
pilot boarding point (5.105) off Vung Tau. The port may
also be referred to as Baria Serece.
Function. Phu My is the deepest river port in Vietnam
and is able to handle dry, bulk and containerised cargo as
well as passenger vessels. There is also a petroleum
terminal.
Topography. See 5.49.
2
Approach and entry. Phu My is approached from Vung
Ganh Rai via the Song Cai Mep. There is no British
Admiralty chart coverage above the entrance to the Song
Cai Mep.
Caution. Because many of the navigation buoys are
unlit and there is a preponderance of small unlit fishing
and trading vessels, entry at night is inadvisable.
3
Traffic. In 2003 there were 283 port calls with a total of
1 422 035 tonnes of cargo handled.
Port Authority. As for Vung Tau (5.104).
Limiting conditions
5.111
1
Controlling depth. Although the chart shows a least
depth of 6⋅9 m across the bar to the Song Cai Mep, it is
understood that the least depth is in excess of 9 m.
Deepest and longest berth. See 5.115.
Maximum size vessel handled. Up to 60 000 dwt.
Arrival information
5.112
1
Port operations. While the port operates on a 24 hour
basis, there may be restrictions on unberthing at night.
Outer anchorages. See 5.59.
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots board at the Vung Tau
pilot station (5.105).
Tugs are available at Phu My.
Tidal streams
5.113
1
For tidal streams in Vung Ganh Rai to the N of Can
Gio Aval Light, see 5.63.
Directions
5.114
1
Approaches. See the directions at 5.65 concerning the
approaches to Mui Vung Tau and the pilot boarding place
(10°20′⋅3N, 107°03′⋅2E).
2
Entry. Directions cannot be given, but the following
information is available. The river is buoyed from the Song
Cai Mep bar to Phu My and beyond. All the buoys were
reported (1998) to be green in colour and may have barges
or sampans moored to them. The least depth on the
passage is across the Song Cai Mep bar (5.111). Vessels
may be turned in a basin S of 24 buoy which is about
1 mile above Phu My.
CHAPTER 5
169
Berths
5.115
1
Moorings. There are three mooring buoys off the port in
depths of 12 m.
Alongside berths. The longest berth is ‘A’, 189 m,
depth alongside 12 m. There are six other berths with
alongside depths from 3 to 12 m.
Port services
5.116
1
Supplies: fresh water; fuel by barge; provisions.
Communications: domestic and international flights
from Ho Chi Minh City (5.98).
MUI VUNG TAU TO CAP VARELLA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3482, 3986, 3987
Scope of the section
5.117
1
In this section is described the coast of S and central
Vietnam which lies between the two major points, Mui
Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E) in the S, and Cap Varella
(12°54′N, 109°28′E), some 212 miles NE. Included are the
islands and banks which lie to the W of the main route to
Hong Kong (2.8), which lies to the SE of this part of the
coastline, together with the ports of Ba Ngoi (11°53′N,
109°10′E) in Vinh Cam Ranh (5.157), Nha Trang (12°14′N,
109°12′E) (5.171) and Van Fong Bay (12°31′N, 109°23′E)
(5.194).
Topography
5.118
1
The majority of the off-lying islands, banks and dangers
lie off the SE facing coast of Vietnam; Îles Catwick
(10°00′N, 109°00′E) lie some 70 miles offshore, whereas
off the E facing coast such islands and dangers as there are
lie close offshore. See also 5.2.
Depths
5.119
1
The 30 m depth contour runs well offshore off the SE
facing coast and Dao Phu Qui (10°32′N, 108°57′E) lies
within it. Beyond the 30 m depth contour to the S and SW
of Dao Phu Qui there are numerous areas of lesser depths.
N of the island there are few, and the 30 m depth contour
runs close to the coast.
Hazards
5.120
1
Mined areas. See 5.3.
Dumping grounds
5.121
1
A number of dumping grounds for explosives, some of
which are no longer used, are shown on the charts.
Flow
5.122
1
The current and tidal streams information for this section
of the coast is below; see also 5.4.
From Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N, 107°05′E) to Mui Dinh
(11°22′N, 109°01′E) the currents during both the NE and
SW monsoons are weak; rates rarely exceed 1 kn. Off Mui
Ky Van (10°23′N, 107°16′E), at a position 1 miles E, the
tidal streams have a rate of 1 kn for a tidal range of 2 m,
setting 230° on the rising tide and 040° on the falling tide.
2
Between the monsoons, at a position 1 mile SE of Mui
Ba Kiem (10°30′N, 107°30′E), the tidal streams are as
follow:
Interval from
local HW
Rate & Direction
−0400 Weak stream setting WSW on the rising
tide.
−0100
Stream setting WSW at kn and
decreasing quickly.
+0100 Stream begins setting NE on the falling
tide.
+0500
Stream setting NE at 1 kn.
3
Between Mui Ba Kiem and Mui Ké Ga, 30 miles ENE,
the tidal streams, inshore, follow the coastline. On the
rising tide the stream sets WSW attaining a maximum rate
2 hours before local HW and changes to a NE direction
soon after local HW.
Near Britto Bank (10°30′N, 107°49′E), the tidal streams
set E on the falling tide, attaining a maximum rate of 2 kn
5 hours after HW locally; the rate is minimum at HW
locally.
4
In a position 6 miles SSE of Mui Ké Ga, with a large
tide, tidal streams set SW on the rising tide, attaining a rate
of kn, and E on the falling tide, attaining a rate of
1 kn. Between Mui Ké Ga and Pointe Lagan (11°10′N,
108°42′E) the tidal streams are very weak.
Off Baie de Binhcang (12°20′N, 109°15′E) the tidal
streams set NW on the rising tide, at a rate of 1 kn.
Offshore oilfields
5.123
1
The Dragon Oilfield (9°34′N, 107°53′E) (5.134), the
Bach Ho Oilfield (9°47′N, 108°00′E) (5.135), the Rang
Dong Oilfield (10°01′N, 108°15′E) (5.136) and the Ruby
Oilfield (10°23′N, 108°30′E) (5.137) lie off the SE coast of
Vietnam.
The Dai Hung Oilfield (8°29′N, 108°41′E) is described
at 2.97.
MUI VUNG TAU TO MUI DINH
General information
Route
5.124
1
From Mui Vung Tau to Mui Dinh (11°22′N, 109°01′E)
the route for which directions are given leads in a ENE
direction, S of Îles Catwick, keeping offshore of the
islands, banks and dangers to the NW until clear of Îles
Catwick, thence on a N heading until abeam Mui Dinh.
2
Alternatively, HMS Warrior used a coastal route on
several occasions in September 1954. The route began
19 miles S of Mui Ba Kiem (10°30′N, 107°30′E) (5.140)
and took a NE direction until about 5 miles N of Madge
Bank (10°39′N, 108°19′E) (5.142), then passed between
Rivier Bank (10°43′N, 108°32′E) and Torcy Bank, 12 miles
NE, and continued until the course could safely be altered
to the NE.
CHAPTER 5
170
Topography
5.125
1
As the main route for which directions are given at
5.131 lies well offshore, notes on coastal topographical
features are included in the appropriate entry under Minor
harbours and anchorages.
5.126
1
Îles Catwick. An area of irregular depths in which signs
of volcanic activity have been noted is marked by Îles
Catwick (10°00′N, 109°00′E), which comprise three islands
70 miles off the coast of Vietnam.
2
Poulo Sepate (9°59′E, 109°05′E), high and barren, is the
E and highest island of the group. When viewed from
some directions, Poulo Sepate resembles a shoe; from
others, it appears as a square column, and from the E as a
pyramid. With the exception of a rock, awash, lying close
E of the S end, Poulo Sepate is steep-to.
3
Petite Catwick, a pyramidal rock, lies 2 miles NW of
Poulo Sepate, and Grande Catwick (10°03′N, 108°54′E), a
round barren rock, lies 9 miles WNW of Petite Catwick.
Julia Shoal, coral, lies 3 miles SE of Poulo Sepate; La
Paix, a rock which dries, lies 4 miles E of Grande
Catwick. Except in calm weather the sea always breaks on
La Paix, which is small and steep-to.
4
See 5.149 for anchorages off Îles Catwick.
Yusun Shoal (Roche Yusun) is a coral patch lying
18 miles NNW of Poulo Sepate. In quiet weather Roche
Yusun is not easily seen, but in the strength of the
monsoon the sea has been observed to break on it.
Depths
5.127
1
Throughout the area depths can be irregular, there are
many known shoals and dangerous wrecks; numerous
others have been reported. Except in the extreme E of the
area, depths are less than 200 m (100 fm).
2
Caution. In the vicinity (10°15′N, 109°00′E) of Îles
Catwick and Dao Phu Qui, between the years 1824 and
1964, banks have been reported. It is possible that volcanic
eruptions have produced these banks, but successive
searches by HM Surveying vessels between 1909 and 1937
have indicated that all these banks have subsided, although
the bottom remains uneven. Light patches of water, caused
by currents, were seen on several occasions by HM
Surveying Ship Herald in April 1937, in position (10°02′N,
109°51′E). Great caution is necessary when navigating in
this area. In 1923, two volcanic islands, which have since
been levelled by the action of the sea and no longer
constitute a danger to navigation, where formed 10 miles N
of Îles Catwick.
Tidal streams
5.128
1
See 5.122.
In the vicinity of Îles Catwick (10°00′N, 109°00′E) the
flood stream sets SW and the ebb NE; currents in the
vicinity are at times strong, and are quite irregular close in
around the islands. South of Poulo Sepate (9°59′E,
109°05′E), in an area in which submarine volcanoes have
been reported, strong tide-rips may be met.
Major lights:
5.129
1
Mui Vung Tau Light (10°19′⋅9N, 107°04′⋅9E) (5.15).
Mui Dinh Light (white square tower, 16 m in height)
(11°21′⋅6N, 109°01′⋅1E).
Other aids to navigation
5.130
1
Racons:
Mui Vung Tau Lighthouse (Nui Nho) (5.15).
Cuu Long FPSO, Su Tu Den Oilfield (10°25′N,
108°24′E).
Dao Phu Qui Lighthouse (10°32′N, 108°56′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.19)
5.131
1
Note. Some of the features described in these directions
are also relevant if a route which passes closer to the coast
(5.124) is chosen. More coastal features are described in
the entries under the section on Minor harbours and
anchorages.
5.132
1
From a position NNE of Con Son, with Hon Bai Can
(8°40′N, 106°40′E) distant about 45 miles, the track leads
ENE for about 160 miles, thence N for approximately
80 miles, to a position abeam Mui Dinh (11°22′N,
109°01′E), passing (with positions from 9°00′N, 108°00′E):
Clear of Callou Bank (30 miles NW), a shoal patch
with a least depth of 9 m (30 ft); thence:
2
SSE of the Wallace Bank (36 miles NW), a shoal
patch with a depth of 8.5 m (28 ft) over it; thence:
SSE of the Dragon Oilfield (35 miles NNW) (5.134).
A dangerous wreck, position approximate, and a
dangerous wreck lie, respectively, 14 miles and
25 miles SSE from the FPSO at the terminal.
Thence:
3
SSE of Royal Bishop Banks (30 miles N), composed
of coral with a least depth of 7.9 m (26 ft) over
them, and the Bach Ho Oilfield (45 miles N)
(5.135). An unlit mooring type buoy was reported
(1989) in the vicinity of the Royal Bishop Banks
in a position about 39 miles WSW of Grande
Catwick (10°03′N, 108°54′E) (5.126). Thence:
4
NNW of a rock (17 miles ENE), reported 1999,
position approximate and existence doubtful,
thence:
SSE of the Rang Dong Oil Terminal (63 miles NNE)
(5.136), thence:
Clear of a shoal patch (79 miles ENE), reported 1982,
thence:
SSE of Îles Catwick (87 miles NE) (5.126). The
islands are reported to be radar conspicuous.
5.133
1
The route continues N, passing (with positions from
Poulo Sepate (9°59′E, 109°05′E)):
E of Dao Phu Qui (33 miles N) (5.148), from where
a light is exhibited. Îlot du Sud lies 7 cables SSE
of Dao Phu Qui, and a black rock, 17 m (56 ft)
high lies close S of Îlot du Sud. A former mined
area is shown on the chart close S of Îlot du Sud;
see 5.3. Thence:
2
E of Holland Bank (Banc Hollandais) (10°39′N,
108°42′E), a coral bank, very steep-to on its SE
side, where the least depths are found. Rocher
Elevé, 11 miles ESE, is separated from Holland
Bank by a channel in which the depths are very
irregular. Rocher Elevé is frequented by sea birds;
it lies on a bank, with another above-water rock
with a rock awash beyond it, close N.
3
Caution. The depths are so irregular in the vicinity of
Holland Bank that it should be given a wide berth
as it cannot be approached safely by sounding.
CHAPTER 5
171
E of Mui Dinh (83 miles N), which is steep and
convex to seaward. A light (5.129) is exhibited
from the summit of the point. When approached
from SW or N the land near Mui Dinh appears
isolated.
(Directions continue at 5.156)
Offshore terminals
Chart 3986, 1261
Dragon Oilfield
5.134
1
The Dragon Oilfield (9°34′N, 107°53′E), consisting of a
moored storage tanker, FPSO Chi Lang, and production
platforms, all of which are lighted, lies some 13 miles SW
of Bach Ho Oilfield (5.135). Submarine pipelines connect
the FPSO with the production platforms and the Bach Ho
Oilfield.
The pilot boarding point is charted 3 miles NW of the
FPSO. A vessel requiring to anchor may be advised to do
so in this position.
Bach Ho Oilfield
5.135
1
Located in position 9°47′N, 108°00′E, the Bach Ho
Oilfield is linked by submarine pipeline to the shore at Mui
Ky Van (10°23′N, 107°16′E) (5.140). The oilfield consists
of a large number of lighted production platforms and two
storage tankers, the FPSO Chi Linh in the N of the field
and the FPSO Ba Vi on the W side of the centre of the
field.
2
The pilot boarding place is to the N of the field; see
chart. It is reported to be safe to anchor in the vicinity of
the pilot boarding point which is clear of submarine
pipelines. A support vessel is used as a tug.
Caution. There are reported to be several disused and
unlit rigs in the area of the Bach Ho Oilfield, together with
unlit mooring buoys.
Charts 3986, 3987
Rang Dong Oilfield
5.136
1
Rang Dong Oilfield, in position 10°01′N, 108°15′E,
consists of a number of platforms and the FPSO Rang
Dong permanently moored to a buoy. The terminal is
within a restricted area (see charts). Vessels may not enter
the area without prior permission. Pilotage is compulsory;
pilots board 3 miles N of the terminal. For further
information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Ruby Oilfield
5.137
1
The Ruby Oilfield, in position 10°23′N, 108°30′E,
consists of the FPSO Ruby Princess permanently moored to
a buoy. The terminal is within a circular restricted area,
radius 2 miles, centred upon the above position. Vessels
may not enter the area without prior permission. Pilots
board in position 10°20′N, 108°33′E. For further
information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Marne Bank (Banc de la Marne) (10°25′N, 108°35′E),
with a least depth of 15⋅8 m (52 ft) over it and which has
not been examined, lies 6 miles ENE from the FPSO.
Su Tu Den Terminal
5.138
1
Su Tu Den Terminal, operated by Cuu Long Joint
Operating Company, Ho Chi Minh City, consists of a FPSO
moored in position 10°25′⋅4N, 108°23′⋅65E. Pilotage is
compulsory and is provided by the mooring master who
boards in the vicinity of 10°21⋅2N, 108°23⋅4E, the
anchorage. In bad weather the mooring master boards in
the vicinity of 10°15′N, 107°05′E.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 1261
Cua Lap
5.139
1
General information. Between Mui Vung Tau (10°19′N,
107°05′E) and My Ky Van, 11 miles ENE, there is a
shallow bay, the shores of which are low and backed by
sand hills. Cua Lap (10°24′N, 107°10′E) is entered at the
head of this bay.
2
Cua Lap has a depth of 0⋅6 m in the channel across the
bar, and boats can reach Vung Ganh Rai (5.50) through it.
Ap Cua Lap and Phuoc Tinh stand, respectively, on the W
and E sides of the entrance. Submarine cables land
5 miles W of Cua Lap.
Rach Song Cai
5.140
1
General information. The entrance to Rach Song Cai
(10°27′⋅5N, 107°21′⋅0E) and the village of Phuoc Hai
(3 miles SW) are at the head of a shallow bay. The SW
entrance to be bay is Mui Ky Van (10° 23′N, 107°16′E),
rising to several peaks, the highest of which is Nui Chau
Vien, 2 miles N of the point; Mui Com Thieu is situated
1 mile W of Mui Ky Van. Roche Pernambuco lies 2 miles
S of Mui Ky Van. Depths are irregular in the vicinity of
Roche Pernambuco and shallow patches lie near it. An
11 m patch, charted as an obstruction, lies 8 miles ESE of
Mui Ky Van.
2
The NW entrance to the bay is Mui Ho Tram, with Ap
Thuan Bien close W of it, lying 12 miles E of Mui Ky
Van. A chain of yellowish-white sand-hills, from 35 to
45 m high, extends along the coast a short distance inland
from 1 to 3 miles NE of Mui Ho Tram.
3
Ba Ké Shoals, a number of isolated shoal patches, lie
within 7 miles SSE of Mui Ho Tram. These dangers cause
overfalls, particularly near the edge of the coastal bank,
where depths are irregular; in depths of 18 to 22 m, the
bottom is generally soft mud, and depths are regular.
Rosslyn Rock, a below-water rock, lies 6 miles SSE of
Mui Ba Kiem, which lies 4 miles ENE of Mui Ho Tram;
Mui Ba Kiem is close to the seaward end of the boundary
between S and central Vietnam. An area containing
unexploded ordnance lies 3 miles ENE from Mui Ba
Kiem.
4
The village of Loc An is situated on the W bank of
Rach Song Cai, 7 cables within the entrance. A
conspicuous red building stands near the shore 5 miles
SW of the entrance. There is a customs office at Phuoc
Hai, 1 miles NE of the red building. Vessels passing Mui
Ky Van, the SW entrance point of the bay, should keep in
depths of more than 18 m to avoid the shoals lying up to
3 miles SSE from it, and, in hazy weather, when passing
Mui Ho Tram, the NE entrance point of the bay, vessels
should keep in depths of more than 22 m to avoid the
shoals and dangerous wrecks lying up to 25 miles off it. A
CHAPTER 5
172
wreck, marked by a light-buoy (pillar, isolated danger)
close E of it, lies in the approach to the bay, 7 miles SE
of Mui Ky Van.
Mui Ké Ga
5.141
1
General information. The mouth of the Song Dinh
(10°39′N, 107°46′E), and the village of La Gi lie 18 miles
NE of Mui Ba Kiem; the coast between is low and
wooded. Hon Ba, wooded at its summit, lies 2 miles E of
the entrance to the Song Dinh, and Pointe Deu lies 5 miles
NE of the same position. The entrance to the Song Phan,
near the village of Tam Tan, lies 1 miles ENE of Pointe
Deu, and NW of Tam Tan there is a range of low hills;
Mui Nui Nhum lies 7 miles E of Pointe Deu.
2
Britto Bank (10°30′N, 107°49′E), on which there is a
below-water rock, lies on the outer edge of the 20 m depth
contour, 10 miles SSE of La Gi. A former mined area lies
17 miles SE of Mui Ba Kiem (5.140) and 9 miles S of
Britto Bank; see 5.3.
3
Mui Ké Ga (10°42′N, 107°59′E) lies 1 miles E of Mui
Nui Nhum. Îlot Ké Ga, from where a light (octagonal
granite tower, 41 m in height) is exhibited from the W side,
lies close S of Mui Ké Ga. Inland, W of Mui Ké Ga, the
country is mountainous. Nui Takou lies 9 miles NW of Mui
Ké Ga and is the most prominent of these mountains,
standing detached from any other high land. Mui Ké Ga is
the extremity of a tongue of land, the prolongation of a
spur from Nui Takou.
4
WSW of Mui Ké Ga, passage is not recommended
between Britto Bank and the mainland coast NW without
local knowledge; in thick weather it is recommended to
keep in depths of more than 30 m. A dangerous wreck lies
on the E side of Britto Bank. A dangerous wreck also lies
4 miles NE of the bank, and another dangerous wreck,
position approximate, lies 10 miles E of the same bank;
between the positions of these two wrecks, discoloured
water was reported in 1969. A former mined area, shown
on the chart, lies S of Mua Ké Ga; see 5.3.
5
Anchorage may be obtained off Mui Ké Ga during the
NE monsoon, about 7 cables SSW of the light, in depths of
13 m, sand. A dangerous wreck lies about 2 miles SW of
the light.
Chart 3987
Phan Thiet
5.142
1
General information. Vinh Phan Thiet is entered E of
Mui Ké Ga (5.141), between Mui Ké Ga and Mui Ne
(10°55′N, 108°17′E), 22 miles NE. Mui Ne is the extremity
of a peninsula that projects 2 miles S, and is formed of a
low wooded hill, steep on its S side; the point is steep-to
on its E side. Hai Long, a village of considerable size, with
a tower, stands on the W side of Mui Ne, 1 mile N of the
point. Ap Thien Khanh is situated 3 miles NW of Mui
Ne. Hon Lao, grass covered, lies 5 cables E of Mui Ne and
is separated from it by a navigable channel.
2
Madge Bank (10°39′N, 108°19′E), which consists of
sand and coral, lies some 15 miles SW of Vinh Phan Thiet.
A dangerous wreck, with mast visible, lies 2 miles W of
the bank.
3
Situated at the head of Vinh Phan Thiet, the town of
Phan Thiet (10°55′N, 108°06′E) is an important fishing
centre. Fishing nets may be encountered up to a distance of
10 miles offshore abreast the bay and off Mui Ne, the E
entrance point of the bay. Depths in the bay are irregular.
The town is situated at the mouth of the Song Cai, which
is fronted by a drying bank over which the sea nearly
always breaks, leaving only a narrow channel.
4
A light (metal framework tower, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from the E side of the river’s entrance, near the
customs office. Landing may be effected on a small beach
W of the customs office. Three buoys and a mooring buoy
are reported to lie 2 miles SSW, and 2 miles SSE,
respectively, of the light.
5
Supplies are plentiful, and there is an airfield 2 miles
SW of the town.
5.143
1
Anchorages:
Anchorage may be obtained in the position shown on
the chart, 2 miles SE of the light, in depths of 8 m
(26 ft), mud.
During the NE monsoon anchorage may also be
obtained W of Mui Ne, off Ap Thien Khanh, in
depths of 6 m (20 ft).
2
During the SW monsoon there is anchorage off a
fishing village in the bay NNE of Mui Ne, in
depths of 5 to 9 m (16 to 30 ft), but this anchorage
is not secure.
Useful marks, with positions from the light (5.142):
Tower (Aero RC, lighted) (2 miles W).
Water tower, red roof (1 mile NNW).
Charts 3987, 3883
Phan Ri Cua
5.144
1
General information. Pointe Guio (11°03′N, 108°28′E)
lies 13 miles NE of Mui Ne (5.142). Vung Phan Ri is
entered between Pointe Guio and Pointe Lagan (11°10′N,
108°42′E). Nui Binh Nhon (Mount Gio), an easily
identifiable sand-hill with an elevation of 235 m (770 ft),
stands 4 miles W of Pointe Guio. This hill has been
reported to give a good radar response out to 33 miles.
2
Phan Ri Cua (11°10′N, 108°34′E) is a large fishing
village at the mouth of the Song Luy. The coast between
Pointe Guio, 9 miles SSW, and the village, consists of cliffs
of a reddish colour; E of the village the coast is sloping
and wooded. There is a bar with a depth of 1 m over it at
the entrance to the Song Luy, which is suitable only for
small craft, and local knowledge is required. Ap Ha Thuy
is situated on the E side of a rocky point 3 miles E of the
Song Luy; junks anchor off the point during the NE
monsoon.
3
Ap Binh Than, a fishing village, is situated 1 mile N of
Pointe Lagan, a narrow neck of land and the E entrance
point of the bay.
5.145
1
Anchorages:
Anchorage may be obtained SW of the mouth of the
Song Luy, WSW of Pointe Lagan, in depths of 7
to 9 m (23 to 30 ft).
2
Good anchorage for small vessels may also be
obtained, with local knowledge, off Ap Binh
Thanh, in depths of 6 m (20 ft), or, during the SW
monsoon, NE of Pointe Lagan, in depths of 9 to
11 m (30 to 36 ft), but this latter anchorage is not
secure.
Useful mark, with position from Pointe Guio (5.144):
A point on the coast (3 miles WSW), with an
elevation of 132 m (432 ft).
5.146
1
Caution. Off Pointe Lagan fishing stakes may be
encountered in considerable depths, and all the banks
between the coast and Althea Bank (10°58′N, 108°47′E)
CHAPTER 5
173
are rocky; the point should be given a berth of about
15 miles.
Chart 3883
Vinh Dinh
5.147
1
General information. Between Pointe Lagan (11°10′N,
108°42′E) (5.144) and Mui Dinh (11°22′N, 109°01′E)
(5.132), 22 miles NE, the coast is backed by mountains.
Vinh Dinh (Baie de Padaran) is entered between Pointe
Lagan and Mui Sung Trau, 15 miles NE; Mui Dinh lies
7 miles farther NE.
2
Tuy Phong, a village of considerable size, and Ap Vinh
Hao, are situated on the W side of the bay, 4 and 8 miles
respectively, NE of Pointe Lagan. Ca Na is a village
situated on the E side of a narrow entrance to a lagoon,
8 miles WSW of Mui Dinh. The lagoon lies at the S end
of a gap, prominent from SW, between the ranges of
mountains to the NNW and NNE.
3
Two above-water rocks lie 4 cables WSW of Ca Na, and
between Ca Na and Mui Sung Trau, the NE entrance point
of the bay, the coast is fringed by a coral reef extending
1 cables offshore, beyond which depths increase suddenly.
Les Barillets, two rocky heads which dry, and which break
only in bad weather at HW, lie 2 miles NW of Mui Sung
Trau and 5 cables offshore. Banc de Breda lies midway
between Cu Lao Hon, which lies 8 miles NE of Pointe
Lagan, and Mui Sung Trau; an obstruction lies 1 mile
WNW of the shallowest part of Banc de Breda. Cu Lao
Hon is mostly rocky and barren, but there is some grass on
the flat parts. Banc Ernest Simons lies 1 miles E of Cu
Lao Hon.
4
There is a small pier, with a T-head with a depth of 3 m
off it, situated on the N side of Mui Sung Trau; a buoy is
moored close W of the pier-head.
5
Tidal streams in Vinh Dinh, between Tuy Phong and
Ap Vinh Hao, always set NNE whatever the wind, attaining
rates of to kn; the flow is stronger on the falling tide
than on the rising tide. At Ca Na the flow sets between
SW and WNW during the NE monsoon, attaining rates of
to 1 kn. In calm weather the flow is WSW on the rising
tide and ENE on the falling tide.
6
Anchorage, shown on the chart, may be obtained during
the NE monsoon, S of Ca Na, about 7 cables offshore, in
depths of 9 to 13 m (30 to 43 ft), sand. A SE swell is felt
in the bay during the NE monsoon.
Chart 3987
Dao Phu Qui
5.148
1
General information. Dao Phu Qui (10°32′N,
108°56′E), belonging to Vietnam, has two hills near its N
end. The SW hill has a rounded top, and is the higher; the
NE hill is conical and several masses of rock near its
summit give it a jagged appearance. Some rocks, one of
which is 20 m (67 ft) high, lie on the outer edge of the
coastal reef which extends mile NE from the island. On
the E side of the island there is a sandy bay in which there
is a detached reef which dries 0⋅9 m (3 ft), and a bank with
depths of less than 5 m (16 ft) over it extends 1 mile
offshore. A bank with depths of less than 5 m (16 ft) over
it extends 3 cables from the SW side of Dao Phu Qui.
Although the island is well cultivated, no supplies can be
obtained.
2
Anchorages:
During the NE monsoon, anchorage may be obtained
off the sandy shore forming the SW and W sides
of the island in depths of 24 to 29 m (13 to
16 fm), sand and shells, but the best position is
just S of the SW extremity, mile off the coastal
reef in depths of 18 to 26 m (59 ft to 14 fm). The
coastal reef surrounding the island is steep-to.
3
During the SW monsoon, anchorage may be obtained
off the NE end of the island in depths from 25 to
27 m (14 to 15 fm), but the bottom is rocky and
the holding ground poor. This anchorage is not
recommended. There is good anchorage off the NE
end of the island with the 20 m (67 ft) rock (see
above) bearing 170° distant 11 cables.
Îles Catwick
5.149
1
Anchorages:
Poulo Sepate (9°59′E, 109°05′E) (5.126). Anchorage
may be obtained E of the island in a depth of
29 m (16 fm), coral, but the holding ground is not
good. In very favourable conditions, landing may
be effected on the rocks at the S end, otherwise
the island is inaccessible.
2
Petite Catwick (10°00′N, 109°03′E) (5.126).
Anchorage may be obtained 2 cables NE of the
island in a depth of 20 m (11 fm), but the rock
gives no shelter.
Grande Catwick (10°03′N, 108°54′E) (5.126).
Anchorage is possible 1 cables N of the island in
a depth of 40 m (22 fm), with good holding
ground, but it is unprotected. The rock, which can
be climbed, is frequented by sea birds.
MUI DINH TO CAP VARELLA
General information
Chart 3883, 3987
Route
5.150
1
From Mui Dinh (11°22′N, 109°01′E) to Cap Varella
(12°54′N, 109°28′E) the track leads N for approximately
92 miles.
Topography
5.151
1
Between Mui Dinh and Cap Varella, 96 miles NNE, the
coast is high and rugged, and numerous bays, fronted by
high and rugged islands, indent the coast.
Depths
5.152
1
The 200 m (100 fm) depth contour runs within 40 miles
of the Vietnamese coast throughout the area, and the 100 m
(50 fm) depth contour within 15 miles; there are no known
dangers to navigation beyond the 100 m depth contour.
Dumping grounds
5.153
1
There are four offshore dumping grounds for explosives
in the area. Three are on or within the 200 m (100 fm)
depth contour, and two of those are disused. The fourth is
in much deeper water some 60 miles E of Hon Tre
(12°12′N, 109°17′E); see chart.
Tidal streams
5.154
1
See 5.4. Tidal stream information relevant to a particular
area is given with that area.
CHAPTER 5
174
Principal marks
5.155
1
Landmarks: though frequently obscured by clouds,
especially during the NE monsoon, several notable
mountain peaks lie NW of Baie de Ben Goi; they are,
(with positions from Sommet Conique (12°42′N,
109°10′E)):
Nui Da Den, 620 m (2036 ft) in height (3 miles SW).
2
Chu Mu (La Mère Et L’Enfant), 2050 m (6726 ft) in
height, (11 miles W), surmounted by two rocks
which appear like fingers of unequal size.
Nui Hon Chao 1503 m (4930 ft) in height, (3 miles
WNW).
Hon Giup 1128 m (3700 ft) in height, (7 miles NE),
with a double conical summit.
3
On the Hon Gom peninsula, the following mountains are
prominent, with positions from Mui Ganh (12°34′N,
109°26′E):
Mont Chauve, (7 cables N).
Le Doigt (Le Doit), 317 m (1039 ft) in height,
(3 miles N).
Hon Nhon (Hon Thon), 450 m (1475 ft) in height,
(8 miles NNW).
4
Major lights:
Mui Dinh Light (11°22′N, 109°01′E) (5.129).
Mui Rach Trang Light (white round tower, black
bands, 14 m in height) (12°12′N, 109°20′E).
Cap Varella Light (white masonry tower, 17 m in
height) (12°54′N, 109°28′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.133)
5.156
1
From a position abeam Mui Dinh (11°22′N, 109°01′E),
the track continues N for a further 92 miles, to a position
abeam Cap Varella (12°54′N, 109°28′E), passing (with
positions from Mui Rach Trang Light (12°12′N, 109°20′E)
(5.155)):
E of Vung Phan Rang (11°33′N, 109°05′E) (5.185),
thence:
2
E of Mui Da Vaich (29 miles SSW), which rises
steeply from the sea with cliffs that are wooded to
the edge; it forms the E extremity of a range of
mountains which attains its greatest elevation in
Nui Vung Gang, 4 miles WNW of the point. On
Nui Vung Gang there is an isolated rock or knob
which resembles that on Cap Varella (see below).
Nui Chua, 765 m (2482 ft) high and cone shaped,
stands 1 mile E of Nui Vung Gang. Rocher
Varella, which is prominent, stands close S of Mui
Da Vaich. Thence:
3
E of Grande Passe (24 miles SSW) (5.159), the
approach to Vinh Cam Ranh (5.157). Hon Chut
(25 miles SSW) (5.161), from where a light
(grey masonry tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited,
lies on the SW side of Grande Passe. Thence:
E of Îles des Pêcheurs (9 miles S) (5.172), thence:
4
E of Mui Rach Trang, the E extremity of Hon Tre,
distant about 20 miles, from where a light (5.155)
is exhibited; and E of Baie de Nha Trang (5.171).
Thence:
E of Mui Ganh (23 miles NNE). Hon Trau Nam
(5.203) lies 1 miles E of the point, with Baie de
Ben Goi (5.199) to the NW of it. Thence:
E of Hon Doi (28 miles NNE) (5.203), thence:
5
E of Cap Varella (12°54′N, 109°28′E), the E
extremity of Vietnam, which consists of steep cliffs
rising to four rocky peaks. On the summit of Nui
Da Bia, the summit of Cap Varella, which lies
3 miles W of Cap Varella Light (5.155), there is
a prominent rock which resembles a pagoda. There
is a signal station at Cap Varella, with which
vessels can communicate by the International Code
of Signals either by day or at night, and from
where storm signals are displayed.
(Directions continue at 5.224)
Vinh Cam Ranh
Chart 3883
General information
5.157
1
Position. Vinh Cam Ranh is a large sheltered bay in
position 11°53′N, 109°10′E.
5.158
1
Function. Vinh Cam Ranh is one of the finest harbours
on the coast of central Vietnam, and offers secure
anchorage to all types of vessels throughout the year. It is
also developing as a commercial port with alongside berths.
5.159
1
Topography. Grande Passe, the approach to Vinh Cam
Ranh, is entered between Dao Tagne (11°50′N, 109°15′E)
in the N and Mui Ca Tien, 2 miles WSW. Vinh Cam
Ranh is entered via Le Goulet, the inner end of Grande
Passe, which lies between Mui Hon Lan (11°53′N,
109°12′E) in the N and Mui Sopt, 7 cables SW.
2
At the N side of Grande Passe lies Dao Tagne, an island
divided into two parts by low land with palm trees on it.
The coast of Dao Tagne is indented, and composed of large
boulders, some of which lie close offshore; the summit is
situated on the SW side of the island. An islet, with a rock
awash 1 cable NE of it, lies close off the SE extremity of
Dao Tagne, and Hon Kho Ngoai (11°50′N, 109°16′E) lies
2 cables E of this islet. Mui Ca Tien (11°48′N, 109°12′E) is
the SE extremity of a peninsula joined to the mainland by
a narrow neck of land.
3
At the inner end of Grande Passe, Mui Hon Lan, on the
N side of Le Goulet, is fairly steep-to. On the S side of Le
Goulet, Mui Sopt is the N extremity of a range of
mountains, of which Mui Da Vaich (11°44′N, 109°14′E)
(5.156) is the E extremity.
5.160
1
On the NE side of Grande Passe, the coast is cliffy
between Mui Cam Linh (Cam Ranh Point) (11°52′N,
109°17′E), the E extremity of a mountainous peninsula of
which the summit is Nui Ao Ho (Nui Thanh Xuong), and a
point 1 miles SSW. Some islets lie close off the last
mentioned point, of which Hon Giang is the nearest to the
point, and Hon Deo, the outermost; Hon Deo lies on the
NE side of a rocky shoal. Between Hon Deo and Mui Cha
Da, the S end of a small peninsula 100 m (329 ft) high,
1 miles WSW, there is a bay with a sandy beach at its
head. Dao Tagne lies S of Mui Cha Da, and is separated
from it by Cua Be, which is 1 cable wide with shallow
below-water rocks on either side, and leads into Baie de
Binh Ba; local knowledge is required if Cua Be is to be
used.
2
Baie de Binh Ba is entered between Mui Nam, the NW
extremity of Dao Tagne, and Mui Hon Lan, 2 miles NW.
The S side of the bay is formed by a bay in the N coast of
Dao Tagne. A rock lies 1 mile SE of Mui Nam and
CHAPTER 5
175
1 cables offshore; a small jetty extends NW from the
coast of Dao Tagne 1 miles ESE of Mui Nam on the E
side of the bay; a below-water rock lies close S of the head
of the jetty, and a conical buoy is moored close off the
jetty. Ap Binh Ba is located at the head of the bay.
3
The NE side of Baie de Binh Ba lies between Mui Cha
Da and Mui Hon Lan. Hon Xay, connected to the mainland
by a bank 100 m wide, which dries, lies 2 miles ESE of
Mui Hon Lan. Two short piers extend SW from the head
of the bay between Mui Cha Da and Hon Xay, and have
depths of 7⋅9 m and 10⋅4 m at their heads; a mooring buoy
is laid 3 cables W of Hon Xay, and another islet lies
2 cables NW of Hon Xay and 100 m offshore. Mui Bai
Choi projects a short distance from the coast midway
between the latter islet and Mui Hon Lan. A T-headed pier
extends 3 cables SE from the shore close E of Mui Bai
Choi; four mooring buoys are laid near its head. Mui Hon
Lan is the NW entrance point of the bay.
5.161
1
On the SW side of Grande Passe, 1 miles N of Mui
Da Vaich (11°44′N, 109°14′E) (5.156), the coast is indented
by two small bays divided by a narrow neck of land. The
entrance to the S bay, Bai Thung, is 2 cables wide, and that
of the N bay, composed of two smaller bays, Bai Hon, the
E part, and Bai Hoi, the W, is 7 cables wide. Hon Chut,
bare and rocky, lies 2 miles NNW of Mui Da Vaich, and
is connected to the mainland by a below-water ridge; the
passage over the ridge has Hon Sam on its E side, and
several above-water rocks lie close SSE of Hon Chut, with
drying coral reefs between them. Hon Salacco, rocky, lies
3 cables NW of Hon Chut; a rocky ledge extends 1 cable
SE from the S extremity of the islet. Basse Salacco
(Salacco Shoal) lies 4 cables NNE of Hon Salacco, and a
below-water rocky patch lies 4 cables SW of Hon
Salacco. Rocher Hon Ty (Rocher Hon-Ti), a below-water
rock, lies 6 cables W of Hon Salacco and 3 cables from
the mainland. Bai Ca Tien is entered between a point on
the mainland 5 cables W of Rocher Hon Ty, and Mui Ca
Tien (above). Hon Trung, composed of dark rock, with its
summit covered with brushwood, lies 5 cables NE of Mui
Ca Tien; a rock awash lies in mid-channel between the
two, 3 cables W of the latter.
2
On the W side of Grande Passe is Mui Bai Hom,
1 miles NNW of Mui Ca Tien (above); Bai-Tun Rock, a
below-water rock, lies 3 cables NE of Mui Bai Hom.
Between Mui Bai Hom and Mui Sopt (11°52′N, 109°12′E),
2 miles N, there are two bays separated from one another
by Mui Bai Nan, a small peninsula which is joined to the
mainland by a narrow neck of land; above-water rocks lie
on the bank fringing the shores of these bays. Hon Lo Ong
Gia (Hon Lo-Hongia), a group of above-water rocks, lies
6 cables NE of Mui Bai Nan; rocks, awash, lie within a
distance of 3 cables SSE of Hon Lo Ong Gia.
5.162
1
Vinh Cam Ranh is surrounded by mountains. Entered via
Le Goulet, the bay opens to NNE and the SW, being
broader in the SW. Lagune de Thuy Trieu, at the N end of
the bay, is separated from the bay by a causeway 6 miles N
of Mui Hon Lan (11°53′N, 109°12′E); the lagoon is not
navigable.
2
Pointe Bai Sau lies on the E side of the N part of the
bay, 1 miles N of Mui Hon Lan. A sandbank, which dries
for about 3 cables from the shore, and is steep-to on its S
side, extends about 8 cables W from the point; in 1948 this
bank had extended farther W than charted. Cam Ranh
village and several concrete causeways and piers are
situated S of Pointe Bai Sau. Pointe de la Pagodé lies
1 miles S of Pointe Bai Sau. Nui Trong, a bare yellow
sand-hill, stands 1 miles ENE of Pointe Bai Sau. A
causeway, 1 miles NNE of Pointe Bai Sau, extends
2 cables W from the shore, and a pier, approached via a
dredged channel with spoil grounds on either hand, extends
4 cables W from it.
On the W side of the N part of the bay, Mui Con Ke
lies 3 miles NNW of Mui Hon Lan.
3
In the SW part of the bay, on the E side, Mui Ong Dinh
lies 3 miles SW of Mui Hon Lan; Îlot Ba Ninh lies close
offshore, 1⋅4 miles SW of Mui Ong Dinh. On the W side,
Anse de Ba Ngoi, which is shallow, lies to the W of Cam
Lam, a point 3⋅3 miles WNW of Mui Hon Lan; a coral
bank, which dries, extends 4 cables S from Cam Lam, and
a black tower with white bands stands on Banc de Da Bac,
a bank nearly awash, 1 mile S of Cam Lam. Rocher Da
Do, an above-water white rock, lies close offshore, 9 cables
NE of Cam Lam; Rocher Da Nau, a below-water rock, lies
8 cables SE of Rocher Da Do, and there are three patches
of mangrove on the edge of the coastal bank 7 cables,
1 mile and 1 miles, respectively, NE of Rocher Da Do, all
about 2 cables offshore. Cam Lam village is situated on
Cam Lam point, and the village of Dinh Tra Long is
situated at the head of Anse de Ba Ngoi, where the shore
bank is narrow. There are port facilities at Cam Lam,
which is now generally referred to as Ba Ngoi (5.166).
5.163
1
Approach and entry. Vinh Cam Ranh is entered from
the SE via Grande Passe (5.159) and Le Goulet (5.159).
Port Authority. For Ba Ngoi: Port Authority of Nha
Trang, 3 Tran Phu Street, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa, Vietnam.
Limiting conditions
5.164
1
Depths. Le Goulet (5.159) has depths of 22 m (12 fm)
in the fairway, and within Vinh Cam Rahn there are depths
of 9 to 18 m (33 to 60 ft).
Mean tidal levels. MHHW 1⋅7 m; mean MLLW 0⋅7 m.
Tide is usually diurnal. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3
under Cam Ranh.
Arrival information
5.165
1
Port operations. The Harbour Entrance Control Post is
situated 1 cable N of the S extremity of Mui Hon Lan
(11°53′N, 109°12′E) (5.159); the Harbour Master can be
contacted on VHF. Anchorage positions (5.165) are
allocated by the Harbour Master.
Notice of ETA: 48 hours, and confirmed 4 hours prior to
arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
2
Anchorages. Various anchorage areas are established on
either side of Grande Passe, in Baie de Binh Ba, and W,
NW and N of Mui Sopt (5.159) in Vinh Cam Ranh, and
are allocated depending on draught; see 5.165.
3
Pilotage is compulsory; the pilot boarding place is at the
outer end of Grande Passe in a position 1 miles N of
Hon Chut Light (11°46′⋅9N, 109°13′⋅5E) (5.156). Pilots
board during the hours of daylight only.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
5.166
1
General layout. See 5.162 for a description of the
whole bay. Ba Ngoi is the name given to the port area at
Cam Lam on the W side of Vinh Cam Ranh. There is a
rail-head at Ba Ngoi. There is a customs office at Cam
Lam.
CHAPTER 5
176
There are berths for tankers and other vessels on the E
side of the N part of the bay (5.169); the names given to
these berths are not known.
2
Storm signals are displayed at Ba Ngoi, 9 cables NNE
of the head of the T-headed pier (5.169).
Tidal streams. In Vinh Can Ranh, at springs, the flow
inside the bay and at the entrance is less than 1 kn.
Directions
5.167
1
Direct and easy of access, Vinh Cam Ranh harbour is
approached via Grande Pass and entered through Le
Goulet. A dangerous wreck (2 miles NE from Hon Chut
Light) lies at the seaward end of Grande Passe close NE of
a shallow patch charted as 13⋅7 m (45 ft); see chart.
There are leading lights and light beacons, not shown on
the chart, in the N part of Cam Rahn Bay.
5.168
1
Useful marks, with positions from Mui Hon Lan
(11°53′N, 109°12′E) (5.159), in Grande Passe:
Hon Chut Light (6 miles S) (5.156).
White square building, conspicuous (3 miles SE), on
the summit of Dao Tagne.
Old lighthouse, conspicuous (on the point).
Harbour Entrance Control Post, prominent white
building (1 cable N of S extremity).
2
In Vinh Cam Ranh:
Ba Ngoi Pier Head Light (white round concrete
tower, black bands) (3 miles W).
Pointe Bai Sau Light (white conical tower, black
band, 8 m in height) (1 miles N). Two towers
(red lights) and a radio tower (red lights) stand,
respectively, 1⋅7 miles ENE, 4 cables SE, and
7 cables SE of the light.
Villa Barthélémy, prominent (1 miles N).
Berths
5.169
1
Anchorages. See 5.165.
Alongside berths. At Ba Ngoi, a T-headed pier extends
seaward from a causeway at the S end of Cam Lam point;
the 90 m long T-head of the pier can accommodate vessels
up to 107 m LOA, and draught 6 m. Vessels up to
15 000 dwt moor to buoys in depths of 8⋅2 m.
2
In the N part of Vinh Cam Ranh, on the E side, there
are several causeways and piers mainly used by coastal
vessels, including a concrete pier for tankers, 5 cables S of
Pointe Bai Sau, having a length of 160 m, and a depth
alongside of 12⋅8 m; the pier is connected to a causeway,
and a mooring dolphin is situated close seaward of the pier.
A pier close S can accommodate deep sea vessels. A
channel (5.162), dredged to 9⋅2 m, marked by
light-beacons, leads to a pier head, landing craft ramps and
basin N of Pointe Bai Sau.
Port services
5.170
1
Facilities: deratting exemption certificates issued.
Supplies: fuel available by truck or barge at Ba Ngoi;
fresh water available alongside or by barge at Ba Ngoi;
provisions available.
Nha Trang
Chart 3883
General information
5.171
1
Position. Baie de Nha Trang (12°14′N, 109°12′E) lies to
the W of the island of Hon Tre (12°12′N, 109°17′E).
Function. Nha Trang is an anchorage port with one
quay for general cargo.
2
Topography. Hon Tre (12°12′N, 109°17′E) is densely
wooded and there are steep cliffs in places. There are three
mountain ranges on the island, connected by low isthmuses.
From Mui Rach Trang (12°12′N, 109°20′E) (5.156) a ridge,
on which there are some islets and above-water rocks,
extends about 7 cables ESE; the highest of these islets is
Hon Noc, and the outermost above-water rock is steep-to.
3
On the S side of Hon Tre, 1 miles W of Mui Rach
Trang, two bays indent the coast; Vung Dam Chinh in the
E leads ENE, and Vung Dam Lom in the W leads N. On
the N side of Hon Tre, Vung Dam Tre, divided into two
parts by a small projection on its SW side, is entered
between Mui Tré (12°13′N, 109°19′E), 2 miles NW of Mui
Rach Trang, and Mui Sake, 4 miles W.
4
Mui Bo Co, the N extremity of Hon Tre, lies nearly
3 miles WNW of Mui Tre. Vung Dam Lia, entered between
Mui Bo Co and Mui Lang, 1 miles WSW, is divided into
two by a projection on its SW side. Rocher Noir, an
above-water rock, lies 2 cables off the NW end of Hon Tre;
Mui Nam (12°13′N, 109°14′E) is the W extremity of Hon
Tre.
5
There are two villages on Hon Tre, but the approach to
them is obscured by fishing stakes during the fishing
season.
Several islands lie in the SE approaches to Baie de Nha
Trang close S of Hon Tre. Hon Mung lies 2 miles SW of
Mui Rach Trang; Rocher Rond, an above-water rock, lies
close off the E end of Hon Mung, and another above
water-rock lies close off its NE side, 5 cables NW of
Rocher Rond.
6
Hon Mot, wooded, lies 1 miles WNW of Hon Mung;
it is separated from the SW side of Hon Tre by a channel
1 cables wide. Roche du Lion, a below-water rock, lies
3 cables W of Hon Mot. Hon Tam (5.178), lies 9 cables
W of Roche du Lion, and Hon Mieu lies 7 cables NW of
Hon Tam; there are two villages on Hon Mieu.
5.172
1
Further to the S lie Îles des Pêcheurs; Hon Ngaoi
(12°00′N, 109°20′E), steep and sharp, with a white cairn on
its summit, is the S islet of the group. Roche Vulcan, a
below-water rock, lies 5 cables N of Hon Ngaoi, and Hon
Noi, the largest of the group, on the summit of which there
is also a white cairn, lies 2 miles N of Hon Ngaoi. Banc de
Castlereagh lies between 1 and 4 miles W of Hon Noi
and 3 miles offshore; Banc de Thuy Trieu, on which there
are several shallow heads, lies 5 miles NW of Hon Noi;
Banc de Tondu lies 1 miles farther NW.
2
In the E approaches to Baie de Nha Trang, N of Hon
Tre, lie Hon Cau and Hon Dung (12°16′N, 109°22′E)
(5.179). Hon Cha La (5.179) lies in the NE of the E
approaches, 4 miles NNE of Hon Cau. Grand Banc
(5.179) lies near the middle of the approaches, 3 miles W
of Hon Dung. Île Tortue (5.179) lies 2 miles W of Grand
Banc.
5.173
1
Baie de Nha Trang lies between Mui Chut (12°13′N,
109°13′E) in the S and Mui Cay Ga, 5 miles NNE, in the
CHAPTER 5
177
N. The mouth of the Song Cai divides the shoreline into
two; between Mui Chut and the S entrance point of the
Song Cai, 3 miles N, the SW shore of the bay is fronted by
a narrow sandy beach, backed by sand-hills.
2
The village of Chut stands close W of Mui Chut.
Between the N entrance point of the Song Cai and Mui
Cay Ga, 3 miles NE, there is a bay. Hon Cut Chim lies
1 mile E of the N entrance point of the Song Cai; and Hon
Do, covered with bushes, lies on the outer edge of a
coastal reef, which dries, extending 2 cables offshore
5 cables NE of the N entrance point of the Song Cai.
3
The mouth of the Song Cai is about 1 cable wide, and
the river is obstructed by a bar, 3 cables wide, S of its
entrance. Cu Huan, a fishing village, is situated on a low
strip of sand which extends 3 cables S from the S entrance
point of the river; the town of Nha Trang is situated along
the shore of the bay S of Cu Huan. Thon Cu Lao, a large
village in a clump of coconut trees, is situated on the N
bank of the Song Cai, just within the mouth.
5.174
1
Approach and entry. Baie de Nha Trang is approached
from seaward either from the SE, and S of Hon Tre, or
from E, and N of Hon Tre.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 25 port calls with a total of
757 295 dwt.
Port Authority. Port Authority of Nha Trang, 3 Tran
Phu Street, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa, Vietnam.
Tidal levels.
5.175
1
MHHW 1⋅8 m; MLLW 0⋅8 m. Tide is usually diurnal.
See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3 under Nha Trang.
Arrival information
5.176
1
Port operations. The Harbour Entrance Control Post is
situated close S of Mui Chut (12°13′N, 109°13′E). The
Harbour Master can be contacted on VHF. Anchorage
positions are allocated by the Harbour Master.
Port radio. There is a coast radio station at Nha Trang.
See also 5.176, and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volumes 1(2) and 6(4).
2
Notice of ETA: 48 hours, and confirmed 4 hours prior to
arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Anchorages. During the SW monsoon there is
anchorage in Baie de Nha Trang, S of the town, with a
holding ground of sand and mud.
3
Vessels carrying dangerous cargo anchor NW of Hon
Mot (12°10′N, 109°17′E), in depths of 20 m (65 ft); other
vessels anchor within 5 cables of the quay in depths of
15 m (50 ft).
For anchorages on the N and S sides of Hon Tre, see
5.192.
4
Pilotage is compulsory. There are two pilot boarding
places; the first, for vessels entering from the SE, is
1 miles SSW of Hon Mot (12°10′N, 109°17′E). The
other, 2 miles NNE of Mui Chut (12°13′N, 109°13′E), is
for vessels entering N of Hon Tre. Pilots board during
daylight hours only.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
5.177
1
General layout. Baie de Nha Trang is a natural harbour.
The few facilities are described after 5.181.
Landing may easily be made on the beach near the
entrance of the Song Cai, and, with local knowledge,
having crossed the bar, the river is navigable by boats for a
distance of 30 miles. Khanh Hoa, the capital of the
province, is situated 7 miles from the river mouth.
Storm signals are displayed.
2
Natural conditions:
Flow in the bay is weak and is governed by the
current rather than the tidal stream; see 5.175. In a
position 1 mile NNE of Hon Bac (12°20′N,
109°19′E) the flow sets SSW on the falling tide,
attaining a rate 1 kn 3 hours after local HW with a
range of tide of 1⋅2 m; it then turns clockwise
without becoming slack and sets ESE at kn near
LW. See also 5.122.
3
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.159.
Major light:
Mui Rach Trang Light (12°11′⋅6N, 109°19′⋅8E)
(5.155).
Directions
5.178
1
From south. After passing NE of Îles des Pêcheurs
(12°02′N, 109°19′E) (5.172), proceed to the S pilot
boarding place (5.176) and ENE of Mui Dong Ba
(12°08′N, 109°14′E), which rises steeply from the sea.
Local knowledge is required if passing between Îles des
Pêcheurs and the coast.
From the S pilot boarding place, Baie de Nha Trang is
entered between Mui Chut (12°13′N, 109°13′E) and Mui
Nam, the W extremity of Hon Tre, passing (with positions
from Mui Chut):
2
Clear of Hon Tam (2 miles SE), which has no well
defined summit, and can be passed on either hand.
Roche du Lion (5.171), close W of Hon Mot
(5.171), is to be avoided. The anchorage for
vessels carrying dangerous goods (5.176) lies N of
Roche du Lion. The bay 2 miles W of Hon Tam is
encumbered with coral reefs; an above-water rock
lies on the outer edge of a reef in the middle of
the bay. Thence:
3
NE of Hon Mieu (6 cables SE) (5.171), thence:
NE of Mui Chut, from which a light (tower on
yellow house, 15 m in height) is exhibited. A
pipeline extends 4 cables NE from a position on
the shore on the N side of Mui Chut; three
mooring buoys lie near the seaward end of the
pipeline. Thence:
4
SW of Mui Nam (1 miles NE). The SW side of
Hon Tre from abreast Hon Mot to Mui Nam,
3 miles NW, is clear of dangers. Thence:
Direct to the allocated berth.
5.179
1
From east. Baie de Nha Trang is approached from
between Mui Ban Thang (12°24′N, 109°21′E) (5.193) in
the N, and the NE extremity of Hon Tre in the S. The bay
is entered between Mui Cay Ga (12°18′N, 109°15′E),
which rises steeply from the sea to several peaks, and Mui
Bo Co (5.171), on the NW side of Hon Tre, 4 miles SSE,
passing (with positions from Mui Cay Ga):
2
Clear of Hon Cha La (8 miles ENE) and Hon Bac
(4 miles ENE) in the NE, and Hon Cau
(7 miles E) and Hon Dung (7 miles ESE) in
the E. Hon Cha La, high and rocky, is bare except
for some scrub on its summit, on which is a
prominent boulder. Hon Bac is an islet with rocks
close off its NW and E sides. Hon Cau is bare,
and in the offing resembles a ruined castle; two
above water rocks lie, respectively, 1 and 2 cables
off its S end. Hon Dung, high and prominent, is
CHAPTER 5
178
steep-to and bordered at the base of its cliffs by a
narrow ridge of shingle; there is slight vegetation
on this islet, and a framework tower on its summit.
Hon Dung can be safely approached on its W side
to a distance of 2 cables. Thence:
3
Clear of Grand Banc (2 miles E). Depths on this
bank are very irregular. The main entrance channel
from E lies S of the bank. Thence:
N of Mui Bo Co (4 miles SSE), thence:
S of Île Tortue (8 cables S), which resembles a
tortoise. Its E side is clear of danger, but a coral
reef, which dries, extends 2 cables W from this
islet. Thence:
4
To the E pilot boarding place (3 miles SSW)
(5.176), thence:
Direct to the allocated berth.
5.180
1
Caution. Submarine cables run from the shore (4 miles
SW), and between Hon Tre and Grand Banc; see chart.
Useful marks, with positions from Mui Chut (12°13′N,
109°13′E):
Radio tower (4 miles SE), on the summit of Hon
Mot.
2
Tank, red and white chequers (1 miles NW).
Statue of Buddha (red light), prominent (3 miles
NW). The statue, situated above a temple on the
summit of a hill, is floodlit.
Berths
5.181
1
Anchorages. See 5.176.
Moorings. The offshore pipeline berth (5.178) NE of
Mui Chut can accommodate tankers of up to 20 000 dwt,
and draught 10⋅7 m.
Alongside berths. There is a quay 172 m long with a
depth alongside of 8⋅5 m; vessels of more than 160 m LOA
put bow and stern lines to buoys.
2
There is a pier 58 m long, with depths alongside of 3 to
6 m, situated 5 cables NW of Mui Chut, used by barges
and small vessels.
Landing may be effected at Cauda, a village 2 cables S
of Mui Chut, which has a jetty.
Port services
5.182
1
Other facilities: deratting exemption certificates issued.
Supplies: fuel available by truck or barge; fresh water
available at alongside berths or by barge; provisions
available.
Communications: by air; domestic flights from Nha
Trang.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3883
Mui Dinh
5.183
1
General information. Thon Son Hai, a village, is
situated on the N side of the mouth of a river, 3 miles N of
Mui Dinh (11°22′N, 109°01′E) (5.133). See also 5.4
concerning tidal streams.
5.184
1
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon, large vessels may
obtain anchorage off a small bay close N of Mui Dinh.
Care must be taken to avoid Bancs du Lutin, consisting of
three shallow heads, which lie 7 cables N of Mui Dinh and
3 cables offshore, also Banc Nouvelle (Basse Nouvelle),
which lies 2 miles N of Mui Dinh and 1 mile offshore. The
anchorage is in a position with the NE extremity of Mui
Dinh bearing 157°, in depths of 15 m (49 ft); farther
inshore the bottom is foul.
Vung Phan Rang
5.185
1
General information. Vung Phan Rang (Baie de Phan
Rang) is entered between the mouth of the Song Kinh Dinh
(11°32′N, 109°02′E) and Hon Do, 6 miles ENE, the E
entrance point. Hon Do is a low peninsula joined to the
mainland by a narrow neck of land; on the W side of the
peninsula the coastal bank, composed of sand, dries.
2
At the entrance to Vung Phan Rang, Bancs du
Châteaurenault lie at the W extremity of a bank which
extends 3 miles WSW from Hon Do; the bank is marked
by a light-buoy moored on its SW end. Plateau de Corail
extends 7 cables to 1 miles SW from Hon Do, and Banc
du Haiphong lies 3 miles WNW of Hon Do and 5 cables
offshore.
3
The Song Kinh Dinh is not navigable. It is fronted by a
coral ledge which dries in places; the town of Phan Rang,
where there is a prominent church, is situated 3 miles NW
of the river mouth. A coral bank, which dries, extends
1 mile E from a point 7 cables N of the mouth of the Song
Kinh Dinh; some villages are situated a short distance
inland from the point and there is another prominent
church, with a red brick tower, 5 cables N of the point.
4
Two mountains stand at the head of Vung Phan Rang;
Nui Ca Du and Nui Quit, 355 m (1165 ft, charted as
1098 ft). Da Tram, a hill, stands close W of Ninh Chu, a
town located on the W entrance point of the Song King
Dinh. Ninh Chu is an important fishing centre, salt being
obtained from Dam Nai, a lagoon 1 miles N of the town;
there is a jetty at Ninh Chu. The village of Khanh Hoi
stand on the E entrance point of the river, opposite Ninh
Chu.
5
Storm signals are displayed at Ninh Chu, but are
unreliable.
Fresh provisions can be obtained at Phan Rang.
5.186
1
Anchorage. During the NE monsoon, good anchorage
may be obtained S of Ninh Chu, in depths of 7 m (23 ft),
with good holding ground, but local knowledge is required.
Hon Do
5.187
1
General information. The coast between Hon Do
(11°34′N, 109°07′E) (5.185) and the S entrance point of
Baie de Vung Gang (5.188), 10 miles NNE, slopes steeply
from the mountains inland and is fringed with coral reefs.
Hon Chong is the outermost of a group of islets lying
2 cables E of a point 1 miles NNE of Hon Do; the group
is joined to the mainland by a drying bank. Bai Lua, an
islet, lies close offshore, 4 miles NNE of Hon Chong; a
below-water rock lies 1 miles farther NNE and 5 cables
offshore.
2
Anchorage. Between Hon Do and Hon Chong, 1 miles
NNE, there is a small bay where temporary anchorage may
be obtained, but local knowledge is required. Landing is
impractical. An above-water rock lies close NE of Hon Do.
Baie de Vung Gang
5.188
1
General information. On nearing Baie de Vung Gang
the coast becomes steep-to and the depths are considerable
at a distance of a few cables offshore. Baie de Vung Gang
is entered 2 miles WSW of Mui Da Vaich (11°44′N,
109°14′E) (5.156). The bay is difficult to distinguish on
CHAPTER 5
179
account of the high mountains near it. La Sentinelle, a
small island, lies close to the W shore of the bay,
3 cables NNW of the S entrance point; two rocks, one
above-water and the other which dries, lie 100 m N of La
Sentinelle. To the N of those rocks the bay is divided into
two basins, the outer of which affords protection at all
times. The entrance to the inner basin, 1 cable wide, is
situated 4 cables N of La Sentinelle; some rocks lie close
off Pointe Tortue, the SW entrance point of this basin. The
head of the bay is shallow, and a drying bank extends
1 cable from the SW side of the inner basin. The mouth of
a river, with Thon Vinh Hy on its S side, lies 2 cables NW
of Pointe Tortue; there is a tower W of the village. An
obstruction lies off the mouth of the river. A fishing village
is situated on the NW side of the head of the bay. Hon Da
Tai, elevation 45 m (148 ft, charted as 267 ft), lies 1 miles
E of La Sentinelle and close offshore.
5.189
1
Anchorage may be found in the outer basin, which is
easy of access. Heavy squalls occur at times, but the
holding ground is good.
Mui Lo Gio
5.190
1
General information. Mui Cam Linh (11°52′N,
109°17′E) lies 4 miles S of Mui Lo Gio (11°57′N,
109°17′E). Hon Tai (11°54′N, 109°17′E) is the largest of
some small islets which extend 2 cables offshore, 2 miles
NNW of Mui Cam Linh. Baie de Ba Dai is entered
between Hon Tai and a point 2 miles N; submarine cables
land in the S part of this bay. A ledge, on which there are
some islets and above and below-water rocks, extends
5 cables SSE from the N entrance point of the bay; a
below-water rock lies at the extreme edge of this ledge,
2 cables SSE of Hon Mieu Ngaoi, the largest islet, which
has an elevation of 22 m (73 ft). A bank, on which there
are two islets, extends 7 cables E from the N entrance point
of the bay; the inner islet is Hon Nhan and the E of the
two islets, has an elevation of 16 m (53 ft).
2
Between the N entrance point of Baie de Ba Dai and
Mui Lo Gio, 1 miles NNE, which is bare and rocky, the
coast is steep and cliffy. Anse de la Carcasse is entered
between Mui Lo Gio and Mui Giai Nanh, 1 miles NNW.
Some above-water rocks lie close offshore in the S part of
this bay, and also along its W side. Hon Sop lies 1 mile
NNW of Mui Lo Gio, and Nui Ganh Giang, elevation
145 m (477 ft), lies 1 miles NW of Mui Lo Gio. N of
Mui Giai Nanh (11°58′N, 109°16′E) a narrow neck of land
bordered by low sand-hills close inland, known as Plage de
Thuy Trieu, lies between it and a point 9 miles NNW;
Mui Dong Ba, situated on the W side of the S approach to
Baie de Nha Trang (12°15′N, 109°12′E) (5.171), lies
2 miles farther NNE.
3
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon, anchorage may be
obtained N of Nui Ganh Giang.
Cua Bé
5.191
1
Cua Bé is entered W of Hon Mieu (12°11′N, 109°13′E)
(5.171) and S of a hilly peninsula; Massif du Cua Bé lies
on the SW side of the entrance. Cua Bé is encumbered by
a bank of mud and sand; several streams discharge into it,
one of which is connected with the Song Cai (5.173). Thon
Truong Dong, a village on the N side of the entrance,
5 cables in, is distinguishable by its coconut trees and
pagodas; it can be reached, with local knowledge, by small
craft, via the narrow channel which remains at LW.
2
There are depths of over 11 m (36 ft) between the edge
of the coastal bank of the bay and Hon Mieu.
Anchorage. There is an anchorage, frequented by junks,
W of Hon Mieu; during the SW monsoon this anchorage is
sheltered from the swell which frequently comes from a SE
direction; during the NE monsoon it is sheltered from the
heavy swell by the NW end of Hon Tre (5.192).
Hon Tre
5.192
1
General information. Position 12°12′N, 109°17′E; see
5.171.
Anchorage. On the S side of Hon Tre, during the NE
monsoon, good anchorage may be obtained in Vung Dam
Chinh and Vung Dam Lom (5.171).
2
On the N side of Hon Tre, during the SW monsoon,
with local knowledge, secure anchorage may be obtained in
Vung Dam Tre and Vung Dam Lia (5.171).
Baie de Binhcang
5.193
1
General information. Baie de Binhcang (12°20′N,
109°15′E), with several islands in it, lies N of Baie de Nha
Trang (5.171). A mountainous and wooded peninsula some
12 miles long, with Mui Ban Thang (12°24′N, 109°21′E) at
its E extremity, forms the NE side of Baie de Binhcang
and the SW side of Van Fong Bay (5.194); Hon Heo,
820 m (2689 ft) high, the summit of this peninsula, is
situated near the centre of its SE end, 4 miles W of Mui
Ban Thang.
2
The bay, also known as Vung Thuc, is entered between
Mui Cay Ga (12°18′N, 109°15′E) and Mui Da Chong,
4 miles NE. Hon Cu Lao lies on the SW side of the bay,
3 miles NW of Mui Cay Ga and 7 cables offshore; a
rocky patch, which dries, lies 5 cables SW of it. Hon Thi
lies on the NE side of the bay, 4 miles WNW of Mui Da
Chong and 5 cables offshore; several islets lie WNW of
Hon Thi. NW of the islands the bay is shallow, and at the
head of the bay there is a shallow marshy inlet which is
the common estuary of several rivers. The town of Ninh
Hoa is situated 3 miles above the mouth of the Song Dinh.
3
See also directions at 5.179 for entering Baie de Nha
Trang.
Tidal streams. See 5.122 concerning tidals streams off
Baie de Binhcang.
Anchorage. During either the SW or NE monsoon, good
anchorage may be obtained in the bay in any convenient
depth of less than 18 m (60 ft).
Van Fong Bay (Van Phong Bay)
5.194
1
General information. Van Fong Bay (Van Phong Bay)
(12°31′N, 109°23′E) is being used as a sheltered deep
water anchorage where ship-to-ship transfers of bulk liquid
cargoes may take place. There is a ship repair yard on the
W shore.
2
Mui Bai Chuong, 1 miles SSW of Mui Ban Thang
(12°24′N, 109°21′E), is the S extremity of a short peninsula
which is joined to the mainland by a low neck of land.
Baie Cai Sung, which is foul, is entered between Mui Bai
Chuong and Mui Hon Thi. The main peninsula running
NW forms the SW side of Van Fong Bay, the largest of the
CHAPTER 5
180
bays in this coastal section. The bay leads NW into Baie
de Ben Goi (5.199).
3
Van Fong Bay is entered between Hon My Giang (Thon
My Giang) (12°30′N, 109°19′E), and Mui Co, the SE
extremity of Hon Lon (12°37′N, 109°19′E). The Hon Gom
peninsula forms the NE side of the bay. Mui Ganh
(12°34′N, 109°26′E) is at the S tip of the Hon Gom
peninsula.
5.195
1
On the SW side of the bay, Hon My Giang is connected
to the mainland by a coral ledge which dries; Hon Ko lies
at the outer end of a bank which partly dries, extending
6 cables offshore and 6 cables S of Hon My Giang. Islets
and dangers extend 4 miles E from Hon My Giang. Hon
Hoa is the outermost of these islets, and lies on the SW
side of shoal; a rock which dries, lies 1 cable N of Hon
Hoa. Hon Do (Hon Heo), bare and rocky, lies 9 cables W
of Hon Hoa; an above-water rock lies close N of the E end
of Hon Do, and a coral patch with possibly a lesser depth
than charted over it, lies 6 cables SW of the islet. Hon Qua
(Hon Theo) lies 1 mile W of the N extremity of Hon Do
and 7 cables ESE of Mui Muong, the NE extremity of Hon
My Giang.
2
Vung Cay Ban (Vung Cai Ban), which lies SW of Hon
My Giang, is entered between Hon My Giang and Mui Ban
Thang, 5 miles SSE. Ninh Phuoc (Ninh Tinh) is situated at
the head of the bay; Banc de Deo Ngan, with depths
possibly less than those charted, extends 3 miles N from
Mui Ban Thang; a rock, awash, lies 1 mile NW of Mui
Ban Thang and 4 cables offshore.
3
A bay lying NW of Hon My Giang is entered between
this point and Pointe Hon Khoi, 6 miles NW; Mui My A,
a drying spit at the head of the bay extends 3 cables
offshore, and a below-water coral patch lies in the middle
of the bay, 7 cables offshore. Pointe Hon Khoi is the
extremity of a peninsula of the same name, the summit of
which lies 1 miles W of the point.
5.196
1
Hon Lon, wooded and mountainous, lies on the NE side
of Van Fong Bay; Nui Ba Lon, with a flat summit, stands
near its N end, and Le Tricorne, elevation 393 m (1289 ft,
charted as 1216 ft), stands near its S end. Hon Tai lies
1 miles WSW of Mui Co and 2 cables off the SW side of
Hon Lon; from abreast Hon Tai to Mui Ganh Rong,
4 miles NW, the SW side of Hon Lon is clear of dangers.
Between the latter point and a point 1 miles NW there is
a bay with the village of Ninh Dao situated at its head;
Hon Den lies 7 cables WSW of the NW entrance point of
this bay. Except on its E side Hon Den is fringed by a
rocky ledge, and depths are shoal for 2 cables off its NW
end; a shoal patch lies 3 cables WNW from the islet.
2
Traffic. In 2003, four vessels transferred 389 981 dwt.
Port Authority: Maritime Service Company Inc.,
89 Pasteur Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
5.197
1
Pilotage is compulsory; pilots board at the entrance to
the bay, in the vicinity of position 12°31′N, 109°23′E; see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for details.
Anchorage, and berthing alongside a vessel at anchor, is
normally restricted to the hours of daylight only, whereas
unberthing may be undertaken at any time.
Tugs. A tug is available; other facilities may be
available in an emergency.
5.198
1
Anchorages. There are two designated anchorages, A
and C, within Van Fong Bay. There are no aids to
navigation to mark the anchorages or their approaches, but
it is reported that surveys have been undertaken in respect
of both. They have radii of 1⋅25 miles and are located with
their centres as follows:
Anchorage Position Depth
A 12°34′⋅0N, 109°19′⋅39E 21⋅0 m
C 12°32′⋅5N, 109°21′⋅8
45E 26⋅5 m
2
These and other positions in the lee of Hon Lon afford
shelter during the NE monsoon, but the anchorage is open
to the SE. The bottom is mud.
Baie de Ben Goi
5.199
1
General information. Baie de Ben Goi is entered
between Pointe Hon Khoi (12°35′N, 109°14′E) and the NW
end of Hon Lon (5.196). On the SE side of the bay several
islets lie close off the NW end of Hon Lon; Hon Mai, the
outer islet, elevation 41 m (135 ft, charted as 196 ft), lies
1 miles W of the N extremity of Hon Lon. A detached
patch, which dries, lies 2 cables S of this islet. Banc du
Milieu lies 5 cables W of Hon Mai.
Plateau de la Pérouse, a group of detached shoals with
several rocky heads, lies in the middle of the S part of
Baie de Ben Goi.
2
Vung Hon Khoi forms the SW end of Baie de Ben Goi
and is entered between the N extremity of the Hon Khoi
peninsula (12°35′N, 109°14′E) (5.195) and a point on the
W shore 2 miles NW. A patch of coral lies 2 miles N of
the N extremity of the Hon Khoi peninsula and 1 miles
from the W shore of Baie de Ben Goi. A below-water rock
lies 2 cables E from the shore 7 cables WSW of the E
entrance point, with a similar rock 1 cables farther S.
Midway between the E entrance point and the head of the
bay there is an inlet which dries, and at the head of which
there are some saltings. On the E side of the entrance to
this inlet is a jetty, the S part of which was reported to be
in bad repair some time ago. A dredged channel, the outer
end marked by a buoy, leads into the inlet. Dong Hai
village is situated on the N side of the entrance and there
is a customs office on the S side.
5.200
1
To the NE of the W entrance point of Vung Hon Khoi,
the NW side of Baie de Ben Goi is broken by the mouths
of several rivers, and numerous coral patches, which dry,
and several islets fringed by coral reefs, the largest of
which lies 3 miles NNW of Pointe Hon Khoi, lie on the
coastal bank. A chain of islets lies off this stretch of the
coast, separated from it by Cua Gia, a channel with a least
width of 7 cables between the reefs on either side; Hon
Vung (12°40′N, 109°16′E) is the SW islet of the chain and
lies 4 miles WNW of Mui Co Co, the N entrance point to
Cua Lon. Hon Duoc, Îlot Midi and Hon Bip, connected by
coral reefs, lie 1 to 3 miles NE of Hon Vung; a coral
reef, which dries, extends 3 cables from the NW side of
Hon Bip. Hon Mot lies 5 cables NE of Hon Bip; Hon Mao,
the NE islet of the chain, lies 7 cables NE of Hon Mot.
2
On the E side of Baie de Ben Goi, 1 mile NE of Mui
Co Co, there is a bank on which is a rock which dries,
lying 2 cables offshore. Mui Da Son lies 2 miles NE of
Mui Co Co, and the village of Vinh Giat is situated
1 miles farther NE; Hon Tri lies 7 cables NE of Mui Da
Son
3
At the N end of Baie de Ben Goi, the village of Ninh
Ma is situated at the head of Vung Trau Nam (12°47′N,
109°21′E), a shallow bay.
There are many fishing villages around the coast of Baie
de Ben Goi, where small quantities of fresh provisions may
CHAPTER 5
181
be obtained; Van Gia (Van Ninh) and Tu Bong, both
situated on the NW shore of the bay, are the two largest.
The village of Cao Nem, with a tower standing 1 mile W
of it, is situated 6 miles NNW of Pointe Hon Khoi.
5.201
1
Directions. If entering Baie de Ben Goi via Van Fong
Bay, the alignment (023°) of Nui Da Bia (5.155) with the
summit of Hon Mao (12°44′N, 109°20′E) leads into the
bay, passing fairly close to Hon Mai but in depths of 18 m
(60 ft). For passage E and N of Hon Lon, see 5.203.
5.202
1
Anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained in Baie de
Ben Goi anywhere along the line of bearing in (5.201).
With local knowledge, good shelter may be obtained for
small vessels in Vung Hon Khoi, in depths of 4 m (13 ft),
3 cables N of the buoy marking the outer end of the
dredged channel at Dong Hai, in good holding ground,
avoiding the two rocks 2 cables to the E. Anchorage may
also be obtained farther out, at the entrance to the bay, in
depths of 7 m (23 ft).
Lach Cua Be
5.203
1
General information. To the E and N of Hon Lon
(5.196) there is also passage through to Baie de Ben Goi
(5.199) via Lach Cua Be and its continuation to the NW,
Lach Co Co (5.204), which culminates in Cua Lon. Lach
Cua Be is entered from S between Mui Co, the S extremity
of Hon Lon, and Mui Ganh, 1 miles ENE, and separates
the E side of Hon Lon from the W side of the Hon Gom
peninsula.
2
Between Mui Ganh and Mui Doi (12°39′N, 109°28′E),
5 miles NNE, the SE extremity of a hilly peninsula, the
coast of the Hon Gom peninsula is indented, with rocks,
above and below-water, lying offshore in places. Mui Da
Chon lies 1 miles NNW of Mui Doi. Hon Doi is
separated from Mui Doi by a channel 3 cables wide. Hon
Trau Nam, a group of eight above-water rocks, lies
1 miles E of Mui Gahn; Roche Fortin, a below-water
rock, lies close NW of Hon Trau Nam; and, 2 miles NNE
of Mui Ganh, 6 cables offshore, lies Hon Kho Tran.
3
From Mui Co to Pointe Nord-Ouest, 4 miles NNW, the
E side of Hon Lon is clear of dangers, except for a
below-water rock that lies 1 cable E of the latter point.
Roche du Lion, a below-water rock, lies 3 cables S of Mui
Ganh. The NE side of Lach Cua Be between Mui Ganh
and Pointe Nord-Est, 4 miles NNW, is indented; Vung
Thu is situated midway between these two points. Cua Van
is a bay on the W side of the Hon Gom peninsula entered
between Pointe Nord-Est and Mui Nai Ba Ken, 1 miles
WNW. Hon Ong lies on the E side of Cua Van, 1 mile NE
of Pointe Nord-Est and 2 cables offshore. The E shore of
the islet is mainly foul. To the E of Hon Ong, a drying
bank, with an above-water rock lying close off its W edge,
extends 3 cables from the W side of the Hon Gom
peninsula, leaving a narrow channel between the rock and
the SE side of Hon Ong. Hon Gam lies 4 cables NE of
Hon Ong and 2 cables off the E shore. On the W side of
Cua Van, Hon Do lies 6 cables ENE of Mui Nai Ba Ken,
with a deep channel between it and the shore. The N
shores of Cua Van are indented; Baie Olivier is situated on
the NW side of Cua Van, and Vung Nai at the N end.
Mid-way between these two bays a rock, which dries, lies
2 cables offshore on the edge of the shore bank.
5.204
1
Lach Co Co is the continuation of Lach Cua Be, and is
entered from E between Mui Nai Ba Ken and a point on
the N side of Hon Lon, 6 cables S. On the N side of Lach
Co Co, Baie du Lutin is entered between Mui Nai Ba Ken
and the SE extremity of Hon Sang, 1 mile W. Hon Sang
(12°39′N, 109°21′E) is connected to the W shore of this
bay by a narrow drying coral reef. Vung Ke, a small bay
in which there are several rocks nearly awash, is entered at
the NW end of Baie du Lutin, between the NE extremity
of Hon Sang and a point 3 cables NE. On the S side of
Lach Co Co, on the N side of Hon Lon, Bai Tranh is
entered W of a point situated 1 miles WNW of Pointe
Nord-Ouest. An islet, with an above-water rock reported to
lie 1 cable ESE of it, lies 3 cables E of the N extremity of
Hon Lon and 1 cable offshore. Cua Lon is the W end of
Lach Co Co and leads into Baie de Ben Goi between Hon
Ke, off the N extremity of Hon Lon, and Mui Co Co,
1 miles NNE.
5.205
1
Anchorages:
Cua Van affords land-locked anchorage; Baie Olivier,
in which the bottom is mud, is the most
frequented.
During the NE monsoon, good anchorage may be
obtained in Vung Thu in depths of 12 m (39 ft),
1 cables offshore.
2
With local knowledge, small vessels may make fast to
the trees along the shores almost anywhere in Lach Cua
Be.
5.206
1
Supplies. There are villages in the neighbourhood of
Cua Van where some fresh provisions may be obtained.
Dai Lanh
5.207
1
General information. A small bay is entered 5 cables
W of Mui Da Chon (12°40′N, 109°27′E); an above-water
rock lies 1 cable N of the E entrance point of the bay, and
a rocky ledge extends 1 cables NE from its W entrance
point. Between the latter point and Mui Hon Ngang, the
extremity of a small peninsula 2 miles NW, there is a
sandy bay, the shore of which is cliffy and indented. An
above-water rock, and another rock which dries close E of
it, lie in this bay, 1 miles WNW of Mui Da Chon and
3 cables offshore. The narrow isthmus connecting the Hon
Gom peninsula with the mainland extends 6 miles NNW
from Mui Hon Ngang. It is bordered by a sandy beach on
its seaward side, and the islands of Baie de Ben Goi can
be seen over this isthmus.
2
Hon Giom (12°49′N, 109°22′E) is a small peninsula
connected to the coast by a narrow neck of low land. The
coast is low for 1 miles N of Hon Giom, as far as the
village of Dai Lanh, which is situated a short distance
inland, thence it becomes steep and cliffy. Hon Nua
(12°50′N, 109°24′E) lies 1 miles NE of Hon Giom and
6 cables offshore; it is bordered by perpendicular cliffs on
its E side, which is steep-to, and on the W side there is a
shingle beach and a fishing village.
5.208
1
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon, or in good
weather, anchorage may be obtained off Dai Lanh, W of
Hon Nua.
Vung Ro
5.209
1
General information. Vung Ro lies 2 miles NE of Hon
Nua (5.207). Mui La (12°51′N, 109°25′E) lies 1 miles NE
of Hon Nua, and Mui Ba, the SE extremity of Cap Varella
(5.156), lies 2 miles farther ENE. Between Mui Ba and the
CHAPTER 5
182
E extremity of Cap Varella, some 2 miles N, there are two
small bays separated by Mui Mao.
2
Vung Ro is entered between Mui La and a point
1 miles WNW. The shores of Vung Ro are backed by
high land; reefs extend a short distance from two of the
salient points on the W shore. The E side of the bay is
formed by the peninsula extending S and W from Cap
Varella. There are light-beacons, not charted, on the W side
of the bay.
5.210
1
Berths.
A tanker mooring berth, consisting of four mooring
buoys, lies in the entrance to Vung Ro; the berth,
orientated in an ESE direction, has a least depth of
12⋅8 m (42 ft).
2
A pier, 180 m in length, with depths alongside of 7⋅9
to 11⋅5 m (26 to 38 ft), extends in a SSE direction
from the N side of Vung Ro, 2 miles NNE of Hon
Nua (5.207); the root of the pier consists of a
girder span connected to a rock causeway. A
pontoon pier and two ramps are situated in the
vicinity of the pier.
5.211
1
Anchorage. Vung Ro is one of the safest anchorages on
the coast of central Vietnam and is frequented by junks in
bad weather. Anchorage may be obtained, as convenient, in
the bay; see also 5.208.
CAP VARELLA TO VUNG DA NANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3988
Scope of the section
5.212
1
This section is comprised of the E coast of central
Vietnam from Cap Varella (12°54′N, 109°28′E) to Vung Da
Nang (16°09′N, 108°11′E), and includes the ports of
Qui-Nhon (5.225) and Da Nang (5.263).
Topography
5.213
1
From Cap Varella the trend of the coast is slightly W of
N for about 143 miles, to Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan);
thence NW for a further 70 miles to Vung Da Nang. There
are few dangers offshore, the islands and banks being
contained within the 100 m (50 fm) depth contour. See also
5.2.
Depths
5.214
1
The 100 m (50 fm) depth contour runs within 10 miles
of the coast in the S part, but diverges as the coast trends
NW. The 200 m (100 fm) depth contour is ill-defined along
this section of the coast.
Dumping grounds
5.215
1
A number of dumping grounds for explosives are shown
on the charts.
Flow
5.216
1
See 5.4.
CAP VARELLA TO
MUI BA LANG AN (BATANGAN)
General information
Charts 3988, 3874
Route
5.217
1
From E of Cap Varella (12°54′N, 109°28′E) to NE of
Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan) (15°15′N, 108°56′E) the track
leads in a N direction for about 160 miles.
Topography
5.218
1
The coast along the S part of this section is heavily
indented with bays, while farther N, the coastal bays are
shallow. The coast is backed by mountains. The islands off
the coast are mostly small and close inshore, with the
exception of Cu Lao Ré (15°22′N, 109°06′E) (5.254).
Topographical details for most of the coastal features are
given with the appropriate entry under Minor harbours and
anchorages. For the N most part of this section of the
coast, details are given below.
5.219
1
Between Cap Sa Hoi (14°40′N, 109°05′E) and Mui Ba
Lang An (Batangan), 35 miles N, the coast is backed by
sand-hills of which only two are prominent; one, 176 m
(579 ft) high, stands 5 cables S of the N extremity of Cap
Mia, which lies 10 miles NNW of Cap Sa Hoi; the other,
Nui Diep, 64 m (211 ft) high and wooded, stands 13 miles
NNW of Cap Mia and 1 miles inland. The interior of the
country is mountainous; Nui Da Vach, the highest peak in
this area, rises to an elevation of 1135 m (3724 ft, charted
as 3572 ft), 15 miles W of Nui Diep. The Song Tra Cau
discharges close N of Cap Mia and rocks extend a short
distance from the cape. Song Tra Khuc discharges 2 miles
N of Rocher Noir, 16 miles NNW of Cap Mia; the
village of Quang Ngai is situated on the S side of the river
5 miles above its mouth. Between the mouth of this river
and the mouth of the Song Cho Moi, 4 miles NNE, there is
a shallow bay. Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan) (5.224) lies
immediately to the NE of the mouth of the Song Cho Moi.
Depths
5.220
1
See 5.214.
Mined areas
5.221
1
There is a former mined area, shown on the chart, in
this coastal section. See 5.3.
Tidal streams
5.222
1
In the vicinity of Cu Lao Xanh (13°37′N, 109°21′E) the
stream usually flows S and follows the 100 m (50 fm)
depth contour. It ceases only after periods of fresh S winds.
The island causes the general S-going flow to divide. The
W branch sets at a rate of 1 to 2 kn through the channel
between Cu Lao Xanh and Banc de Pâques, close W; off
Mui Luoi Cay, 12 miles S, it turns W and N along the
CHAPTER 5
183
coast to Hon Dat, 6 miles NW of Cu Lao Xanh, at a
gradually diminishing rate.
2
Near Cu Lao Hon Kho (13°46′N, 109°18′E) the tidal
streams set W on a rising tide and attain a rate of 1 kn.
To the N the flow is generally S-going except during the
SW monsoon, when it is weak and irregular. Between Nui
Ong Co (13°54′N, 109°19′E) and the mainland the average
rate is about 1 kn.
Principal marks
5.223
1
Landmarks: the following mountains have been noted
as prominent, (with positions from Cap Varella) (12°54′N,
109°28′E):
Nui Chap Chai, rising to 390 m (1279 ft) (17 miles
NW);
Nui Hon Chuong, rising to 560 m (1836 ft) (23 miles
NW).
2
Major lights:
Cap Varella Light (12°54′N, 109°28′E) (5.155);
Cu Lao Xanh (Pulau Gambir) Light (truncated black
tower, white bands, 17 m in height) (13°36′⋅8N,
109°21′⋅2E).
Directions
(continued from 5.156)
5.224
1
From a position abeam Cap Varella (12°54′N, 109°28′E)
to a position NE of Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan) (15°15′N,
108°56′E), a distance of approximately 160 miles, the track
leads N, passing (with positions from Mui Yen (13°45′N,
109°17′E)):
E of Cu Lao Xanh (Pulau Gambir) (8 miles SSE)
(5.248), from where a light (5.223) is exhibited.
Thence:
2
E of Mui Yen (5.226). The entrance to Vung
Qui-Nhon (5.225) lies 2 miles WNW of Mui
Yen. Thence:
3
E of Île Nuoc (30 miles N) (5.251). Vung Moi Light
(white house, 6 m in height) is exhibited from a
point on the mainland coast 1 mile W of Île Nuoc.
Thence:
4
E of Mui Ba Lang An (Mui Batangan) (15°15′N,
108°56′E), which is fringed on its N side by reefs
and rocks, above and below-water, which extend
6 cables offshore. Rocher Plat, just above HW, lies
3 miles SSE of the N extremity of Mui Ba Lang
An and 1 miles offshore. Two pinnacles were
reported in 1968 to lie 10 miles ESE of Rocher
Plat, and an obstruction, position approximate, lies
2 miles S of those pinnacles. A shallow patch with
a reported depth of 18 m (60 ft), position
approximate, lies 33 miles E of Mui Ba Lang
An. Mui Ba Lang An should be given a wide
berth. Thence:
5
To a position NE of Mui Ba Lang An and NE of Cu
Lao Ré (5.254), 12 miles NE from Mui Ba Lang
An. A light (white metal tower, black bands, 52 m
in height) is exhibited from the NE extremity of
the island. There is temporary anchorage off Cu
Lao Ré; see 5.254.
(Directions continue for the
E coast of Vietnam at 5.261. Directions continue for
the W coast of Hainan Dao at 7.146
and for the S and E coasts at 7.179)
Qui-Nhon
Charts 3874, 3988
General information
5.225
1
Position. Qui-Nhon (13°46′N, 109°14′E) is situated at
the entrance of Vung Qui-Nhon.
Function. Qui-Nhon is a commercial port, and the bay
provides a secure anchorage for vessels that can cross the
bar. Qui-Nhon is also the principal town of the province of
Binh Dinh.
5.226
1
Topography. Pointe de Gia, a sandspit, is the N
entrance point of Vung Qui-Nhon. To the SW of Pointe de
Gia, there is a bay, the shore of which is low and sandy.
At the SW end of the bay extending for about 1 mile is a
sandy beach backed by sand-hills. Close N of these
sand-hills there is a hill, 3 cables inland.
2
Pointe Sud (5.230), 4 cables S of Pointe de Gia, is the S
entrance point. Between a point 1 miles E of Pointe Sud,
and Mui Yen, 1 mile farther E, is Vung Lang Mai, the NW
shore of which consists of a sandy beach backed by
sand-hills. Mui Yen is a rocky bluff at the mountainous S
end of Presqu’île de Phuoc Mai; Nui Dau Goc Let, the
highest peak on this part of the peninsula, stands 2 miles
NW of Mui Yen. Hon Kho, below-water, lies 2 miles SSE
of Mui Yen.
3
Vung Qui-Nhon is a large, mainly shallow bay lying W
of Presqu’île de Phuoc Mai. The bay has an average width
of about 2 miles, and extends approximately 7 miles N
from its narrow S entrance. The town of Qui-Nhon stands
on Pointe de Gia. Within the bay, depths are shallow
beyond the dredged areas, with drying banks extending in
places from its shores. Numerous streams discharge into the
W of the bay. Les Sept Îlots lie in the middle of the bay,
1 miles NNW of Pointe de Gia.
4
Approach and entry. The entrance to Vung Qui-Nhon
is approached from S and the harbour and bay are entered
through a marked dredged channel across a bar.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 36 port calls with a total of
279 324 dwt.
Port Authority. Port Authority of Qui-Nhon, 2 Phan
Chu Trinh Street, Qui-Nhon City, Vietnam.
Limiting conditions
5.227
1
Controlling depth. The main channel in the approach,
across the bar, and in a large part of the harbour, is
reported to be dredged to a depth of 9⋅4 m (31 ft).
Tidal levels. Tide is usually diurnal. MHHW 1⋅7 m;
MLLW 0⋅8 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3 under
Qui Nhon.
Maximum size of vessel handled: 28 500 grt; draught
9⋅3 m. Arrival information
5.228
1
Port radio. There is a port radio station (5.230) at
Qui-Nhon.
Notice of ETA. ETAs should be sent on departure last
port, thence every 48 hours, and then 72, 36, 24, 12, 6 and
4 hours prior to arrival. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
2
Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained off the
coast to the S, between Mui Yen and Pointe Sud, with
good holding ground, in depths of 7 m or more. This
anchorage is not recommended when the NE monsoon is
strong, as a swell is felt.
CHAPTER 5
184
3
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boarding place is
1 miles S of Pointe Sud. However, during bad weather
the Harbour Master will advise, by VHF, the pilot boarding
place; pilots board during daylight hours only.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
5.229
1
General layout. The dredged approach channel enters
the harbour NE of Pointe de Gia. A shallow basin lies N
of Pointe de Gia. Delong Pier, 7 cables NNW of Pointe de
Gia, extends a short distance into the dredged channel. This
pier is now possibly in ruins.
2
The dredged channel terminates in a turning basin,
5 cables NW of Delong Pier; two other channels, both
marked by beacons and buoys, lead from the turning basin,
one to the N beyond Les Sept Îlots, and one WSW to a
berth on the N shore of an enclosed lagoon N of the town
of Qui-Nhon. Beyond the dredged areas, depths are too
shallow for navigation in anything but small boats.
3
East of Pointe de Gia, from the E side of the main
dredged channel, a channel leads E to some domestic piers
on the mainland shore.
Construction of a wharf to take vessels of 30 000 dwt is
under way (2004). Procurement of a tug and additional
cargo handling equipment is expected in 2004.
Storm signals are displayed (5.230).
Natural conditions:
4
Tidal streams. The general S-going stream, after
passing Cu Lao Hon Kho (13°46′N, 109°18′E),
sends a branch SW towards Hon Roi and Hon Dat
(13°41′N, 109°15′E). On the rising tide, this
branch first turns N, and then NE along the W
shore of the bay S of Qui-Nhon, attaining a rate of
to 1 kn, and finally sets ENE across the bar into
Vung Qui-Nhon. On the falling tide, the stream
running out of Vung Qui-Nhon sets WSW across
the bar and then S parallel to the shore.
5
During the rainy season, which is also the typhoon
season, the stream setting out from Vung
Qui-Nhon is strong. The stream in either direction
across the bar attains a rate of 2 kn with large
tides, and 1 kn with small tides. With large tides
this rate is reached 6 hours after HW and LW
locally. The stream changes direction 2 hours after
HW and LW locally. Inside the bar, the stream
generally follows the channel, but in the curves of
the channel and off the points, difficult eddies may
be found.
6
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.160.
Directions
5.230
1
Approach. The approach to Qui-Nhon is from the E on
a W heading, passing clear of Hon Kho (13°43′N,
109°18′E); submarine cables approach the coast from the
vicinity of Hon Kho, and land 5 miles WNW of it.
Entry. Qui-Nhon harbour is entered from S. There are
leading beacons 3 cables W of Pointe de Gia:
Front beacon (13°46′⋅0N, 109°14′⋅5E);
Rear beacon (2 cables NNW of front beacon).
The alignment (352°) of these beacons leads into the
dredged channel.
2
The dredged channel, about 1 cable in width in places, is
also marked by light-buoys, buoys and beacons, the
positions of which are not known, and leads into the
harbour, passing (with positions from Pointe Sud Light
(14°46′N, 109°15′E)):
W then NW of Pointe Sud (close W), from which a
light (white tower, black bands, 8 m in height) is
exhibited. The port radio station, and a signal
station from where storm signals are displayed,
stand on the point. Thence:
SE then NE of Pointe de Gia (4 cables N), thence:
SW of Bai Tao (9 cables N), thence direct to a berth.
5.231
1
Useful marks, with positions from Pointe Sud Light
(14°46′N, 109°15′E)):
Nui Deo Son (2 miles WNW).
Tower (aero light) (1⋅9 miles W).
Berths
5.232
1
There are five alongside berths, with depths from
8⋅5 to 9⋅3 m, and one buoy berth with 7 m depth.
Port services
5.233
1
Repairs: minor only.
Other facilities: deratting exemption certificates issued;
hospital.
Supplies: fuel and diesel oil available by road at
alongside berths; fresh water available alongside and by
barge at anchorage; provisions available.
Communications: by air; domestic flights from Phu Cat,
35 km from Qui-Nhon.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Cap Varella
Chart 3883, 3987
5.234
1
General information. Mui Nay (12°55′N, 109°27′E),
1 mile N of Cap Varella, has a small bay to the S of it
which has a sandy beach, and into which a stream
discharges. Between Mui Nay and Nui Bai Gok, a hill on
the coast 2 miles NW, there is another bay with a sandy
beach. Hon Co, with a group of rocks, some of which are
awash, lie 1 miles NNE of Nui Bai Gok and the same
distance offshore; Roche Percée, the highest, lies at the SE
end of the group and has a large boulder on its summit.
When abreast of it, a large hole through the boulder can be
seen.
2
Anchorage may be obtained off the bay between Mui
Nay and the point 2 miles NW, in depths of 18 m (60 ft).
With the exception of Hon Co, Cap Varella may be
approached with safety.
Cua Dai Giang
Chart 3987, 3988
5.235
1
General information. Cua Da Nong, the entrance to a
lagoon that connects with the Song Ban Thach, lies
1 miles W of Hon Co (5.234); the coast N consists of
low sand-dunes behind which is a wide plain. Cua Dai
Giang (13°05′N, 109°20′E) lies 13 miles NW of Cap
Varella, and between Cua Dai Giang and Mui Lang,
15 miles farther N, the coast is chiefly low and sandy,
interspersed with rocky points and sand-hills, and with a
CHAPTER 5
185
few islets lying a short distance offshore. The plain within
is well cultivated and is backed by a range of mountains.
2
Cua Dai Giang is accessible by junks, though both
entrance points are foul. A pagoda stands on a mound on
the N entrance point, and there is a tower at Tuy Hoa
(Thuy Hoa) village, 1 miles W. The bar is subject to
change.
Anchorage may be obtained off Cua Dai Giang, in
depths of 16 m (52 ft), but local knowledge is required. The
winds are fairly strong during the greater part of the year.
Lao Chua
5.236
1
General information. Îles Bai Ma Lieng (13°10′N,
109°19′E) lie on a shallow bank which extends 2 miles SE
from a rocky promontory 6 miles NNW of Cua Dai
Giang (5.235). Lao Dua lies near the outer end of this
bank; some above-water rocks lie close off the S side of
this islet, and other rocks, below-water, lie 5 cables SE of
it. Lao Chua (13°11′N, 109°18′E), bare and brown coloured
except during the NE monsoon when there is a little green
vegetation, lies midway between Lao Dua and the rocky
point. The village of Phu Phong is situated in a clump of
coconut trees to the W.
2
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon, anchorage may be
obtained SW of Lao Chua. Local knowledge is required.
During the NE monsoon some shelter is given by Îles
Bai Ma Lieng, but anchorage is not recommended there in
that season.
Phu Son
Chart 3874, 3988
5.237
1
General information. Le Bonnet, a black islet 68 m
(223 ft) high, lies close to the coast 2 miles N of Îles Bai
Ma Lieng (13°10′N, 109°19′E) (5.236), and is connected by
a reef to a projection which separates the sandy beaches on
the coast. Le Trapeze, a prominent black rocky point, lies
5 miles N of Îles Bai Ma Lieng. A reef, which is steep-to
and on which there is a rock, lies from 2 to 3 cables E of
Le Trapeze. Cu Lao Ma Nha, a wooded island, lies
1 miles NE of Le Trapeze and 1 miles offshore; though
uninhabited, it is frequented by fishermen from the
neighbouring coast. The channel between Cu Lao Ma Nha
and the mainland is reduced to a width of 5 cables by
reefs and rocky ledges on both sides, and during the
summer months this channel is blocked by fishing nets.
2
O Lang Dam (13°17′N, 109°16′E), a shallow lagoon, is
entered 2 miles WNW of Cu Lao Ma Nha. The lagoon is
suitable only for boats.
Mui Lang, lying 3 miles NW of Cu Lao Ma Nha, is a
black rocky bluff, bordered by a coral reef and isolated
rocks; Phu Son (13°20′N, 109°17′E), a village, is situated
5 cables W of Mui Lang.
3
Mui Ganh Den (5.238) lies 1 miles N of Mui Lang.
Vung Chao is a small bay midway between these two
points; the coast on either side of the bay is bordered by
detached rocks, and a below-water rocky ledge extends
5 cables W from the N end of Mui Lang. Roche de
l’Illissus, a below-water rock, lies in the middle of the
approach to Vung Chao, 1 miles SE of Mui Ganh Den.
4
Phu Son, lying at the head of a small bay, has a
considerable coasting trade with ports in Kwangtung. There
are numerous pagodas on this coast. Nui Cot Qui (Nui Cot
Cat), a table-topped hill close N of Phu Son, assists in
identifying the bay from seaward.
5
Tidal stream in the entrance to O Lang Dam may attain
a rate of 2 to 3 kn on the falling tide, and is fastest at
half-tide. The in-going stream is weaker.
Anchorage may be obtained in the bay; local knowledge
is required.
Vung Xuan Dai
Chart 3874
5.238
1
General information. Vung Xuan Dai (Baie de Xuan
Day) (13°23′N, 109°16′E), through which Baie de Vung
Chao (5.241) is approached, is open-ended; it lies between
Mui Ganh Den and Mui Luoi Cay at its seaward end, and
Mui Mu U and Dong Tranh, the entrance to Baie de Vung
Chao, at its inner end. The country around these bays is
cultivated, and numerous villages, surrounded by coconut
trees, stand on their shores, which are backed by
mountains. The bays afford shelter to small craft.
2
On the W side of the bay, from Mui Ganh Den, a
cultivated headland and its S entrance point, the shore leads
W then N. Mui Da Tau lies 1 miles W of Mui Ganh
Den. The Song Cai is entered at the head of a small bay
close W of Mui Da Tau; the river mouth is narrow and is
obstructed by a bar with depths of 0⋅6 to 3 m (2 to 10 ft)
over it, and is suitable only for boats. The W entrance
point of the river is the SE end of a sandy spit extending
from the sand-hills which form the W side of Vung Xuan
Dai, as far as Mui Gahn Do, 2 miles NW of Mui Da Tau.
There is a customs office at Mui Ganh Do. Vung Lam, a
shallow bay, is entered between Mui Ganh Do and Mui
Rung, 1 miles WNW; Mui Da Mai lies 1 mile N of Mui
Rung.
3
Between Mui Da Mai and Mui Mu U, 1 mile NNE,
there is a bay, in the middle of which is Hon Nhut Tu
which is connected to the coast by a drying bank 2 cables
wide, dividing the bay into two parts. On the N side, Mui
Luoi Cay is a perpendicular cliff 68 m (228 ft) high. Vung
La is a shallow bay entered 5 cables NW of Mui Luoi Cay;
Hon Mot lies close off the entrance to this bay, and N of
Hon Mot there is a cove. A village stands on the E shore
of the bay. Between Hon Mot and Mui Ganh Tuong,
1 miles W, there are a few above-water rocks lying close
offshore. Roche Bouée, steep-to, lies on the N side of the
fairway 4 cables W of Mui Ganh Tuong. Vung Chua, a
small bay, lies 5 cables NNW of Mui Ganh Tuong, and
Dong Tranh lies 5 cables farther NNW.
4
In the body of the bay, Hon Yen, formed of jagged red
rocks, lies in the entrance, 1 miles NW of Mui Ganh
Den. Roche de l’Octant, below-water, lies 6 cables WSW of
Hon Yen. Lao Ong Xa, grey in colour, lies 4 cables N of
Mui Ganh Do, near the extremity of foul ground which
extends from the S side of Vung Lam; rocks lie close off
the NE end of Lao Ong Xa. Roche du Volga, below water,
lies in mid-channel 5 cables NNE of Lao Ong Xa.
Tidal stream in the entrance to Vung Xuan Dai flow W
on the rising tide, and attains a rate of 1 kn.
5.239
1
Useful marks. From seaward, the entrance to Vung
Xuan Dai can be distinguished by the peaks on the
peninsula which forms the E side of Baie de Vung Chao,
the high cliffs of Mui Mo O (13°28′N, 109°19′E), and the
hills round Mui Vung Trich (2 miles NNW). Two of the
three peaks on the S end of the peninsula are notable;
Vung Nie, the W peak, which is conical, elevation 242 m
(794 ft, charted as 851 ft), and another, 2 miles ENE from
it, elevation 357 m (1173 ft).
CHAPTER 5
186
5.240
1
Anchorages:
During the SW monsoon, anchorage may be obtained
N of Mui Da Tau, in depths of 11 m (36 ft). When
approaching this anchorage pass S of Hon Yen,
taking care to avoid Roche de l’Octant.
2
During the NE monsoon, good anchorage may be
obtained off Vung La, 2 cables W of the E
entrance point, in depths of 12 to 15 m (40 to
50 ft), mud.
Anchorage may also be obtained 5 cables NW of Lao
Ong Xa, in depths of 9 m (30 ft), mud; see chart.
If making for this anchorage care must be taken to
avoid Roche du Volga and the rocks off the NE
end of Lao Ong Xa.
Baie de Vung Chao
5.241
1
General information. Baie de Vung Chao (13°27′N,
109°15′E) is approached via Vung Xuan Dai (5.238), and
entered between Mui Mu U (13°26′N, 109°14′E) in the W,
and Dong Tranh, 1 miles E. Baie de Vung Chao is one of
the most sheltered bays on the coast of Vietnam, but depths
in the deepest parts of the bay are not more than 8⋅2 m
(27 ft), and in the main depths are less than 7 m (23 ft),
with an extensive bank extending from NW shores with
less than 5 m (16 ft) over it. The bay is, therefore, suitable
only for vessels of moderate draught, and there are no
facilities for berthing ships or unloading cargo.
2
On the W side of Baie de Vung Chao, the Song Cau
discharges into the bay, and the town of Song Cau is
situated on the N side of the river mouth; Song Cau is the
chief town of the province of Phu Yen. Boats may land on
the beach fronting Song Cau, and small quantities of
provisions may be obtained in the town. Hon Lo Dam Ca,
a coral patch which dries, lies in the middle of the bay,
1 miles E of Song Cau.
3
On the N side of Baie de Vung Chao there are two
shallow bays, Vung Quan So and Vung Bun, separated by
a small peninsula on which there is a customs office. On
the E side of Baie de Vung Chao, there is another small
bay, Vung Chao, entered between Mui Co Co in the S and
a point 7 cables N; the village of Vung Chao is situated at
the head of Vung Chao. Hon Lo Dam Nai, a detached
coral patch which dries, lies 8 cables NW of Mui Co Co,
and Hon Do lies on the outer edge of this reef, 2 miles
NW of Hon Lo Dam Nai.
5.242
1
Directions. From seaward Vung Xuan Dai is entered on
a WNW track mid-way between its outer entrance points,
and traversed, as the approach to Baie de Vung Chao, by
passing (with positions from Mui Ganh Tuong (13°24′⋅7N,
109°15′⋅9E)):
NNE of Mui Ganh Den (3 miles SSE) (5.238),
thence:
NNE of Hon Yen (2 miles SSE) (5.238), thence:
2
To a position S of Mui Ganh Tuong, and E of the S
extremity of Lao Ong Xa (1 miles SW) (5.238).
Thence, on a NW track:
SW of Roche Bouée (4 cables W) (5.238), thence:
NE of Roche du Volga (1 miles WSW), passing
mid-way between Roche Bouée and Roche du
Volga. Thence, on a N track:
3
Mid-way between Mui Mu U (2 miles WNW) and
Dong Tranh (1 mile NNW), thence;
To an anchorage in Baie de Vung Chao.
5.243
1
Anchorage may be obtained, in the position shown on
the chart, midway between Hon Lo Dam Ca and Mui Co
Co, in depths of 6⋅7 to 7⋅6 m (22 to 25 ft); or, in depths of
5 to 6 m (16 to 20 ft), mud, off the town of Song Cau, in
the position shown on the chart.
Vung Mo O and Vung Trich
5.244
1
General information. Between Mui Luoi Cay (13°24′N,
109°18′E) (5.238) and Hon Tai Ma, 7 cables NE, there are
two small bays separated by a black bluff. Hon Chai lies
2 miles NNE of Hon Tai Ma; a few rocks, some of which
dry, lie close off the coast in places between these points.
Vung Mo O (13°27′N, 109°19′E) is entered between Hon
Chai and the S end of a peninsula, of which Mui Mo O is
the NE extremity; the peninsula has two peaks of equal
elevation, and is connected to the mainland by a sandy
isthmus. Between this peninsula and Mui Vung Trich,
2 miles NNW, there is a sandy bay backed by sand-hills
about 40 m high, with a table-topped hill above them which
is cultivated; the S end of the bay is named Vung Quan
and the N, Vung Trich (13°30′N, 109°17′E). Colline Verte,
a hill which has a notch in its rocky summit, lies 1 miles
SW of Mui Vung Trich and a short distance inland; Mui
Vung Trich is the S end of a peninsula joined to the
mainland by a narrow isthmus of sand.
2
Anchorages:
Temporay anchorage may be obtained during the NE
monsoon in Vung Mo O, but it is not
recommended because the swell is felt, the depth
decreases rapidly, and the holding ground is bad.
During the SW monsoon anchorage may be obtained
in Vung Trich, in a position 2 to 3 cables offshore,
shown on the chart, in depths of 5 to 9 m (16 to
30 ft).
Baie de Cu Mong
5.245
1
General information. Mep Cua Duoi (13°32′N,
109°17′E), lying 1 miles NNW from Mui Vung Trich, is
the N end of a peninsula described at 5.244. It is the S
entrance point of Baie de Cu Mong. The E side of the
peninsula is bordered by rocks lying close offshore, and
rocks extend 100 m from Mep Cua Duoi.
2
The N entrance point of Baie de Cu Mong is Mep Cua
Tren, 2 cables W from Mep Cua Doi. Between Mep Cua
Tren and Mui Ke Ga, 2 miles NNE, there is a bay, the
shores of which are composed of sandy beaches separated
by hilly promontories.
3
Rocks, above and below-water, the outer of which dry,
extend 1 cable ESE from Mep Cua Tren, and a bank
extends 100 m from the E side of the entrance, leaving a
channel 150 m wide. Depths of 11 m (36 ft) in the entrance
become less a short distance within.
The shores of the bay are densely populated, and
bordered by coconut trees. The village of Vinh Hoa is
situated to the S, close inside the entrance, in a group of
palms on the isthmus joining the Mui Vung Trich peninsula
to the mainland. In 1924, during a typhoon, a breach,
1 cable wide with a depth of 1⋅5 m in it, was made in this
isthmus, rendering the anchorage inside unsafe at that time.
4
On the W side of Baie de Cu Mong there is a small bay
with a sandy beach. The NW part of the bay is shallow
and, in places, dries as much as 1 m (3 ft). The N end of
the bay leads into a large lagoon which is suitable only for
small craft, and local knowledge is required. A customs
office stands on the NE shore of Baie de Cu Mong.
CHAPTER 5
187
Mieu Cong Than (Hon Nan) lies near the middle of
Baie de Cu Mong, 1 miles WSW of Mep Cua Duoi, on
the outer edge of a shallow bank extending 5 cables from
the NE shore N of Mieu Cong Than.
5.246
1
Directions. When approaching the bay, steer with the
notch of Colline Verte (5.244) bearing 187° until the rocks
SE of Mep Cua Tren have been passed. Course may then
be altered for the anchorage.
Caution. The flow at times sets strongly in a SE
direction across the entrance.
2
Anchorage. Vessels able to enter the bay may obtain
good anchorage, in depths of 5 m (16 ft), mud, in the
position shown on the chart in Baie de Lo, 7 cables SSW
of Mep Cua Tren.
Vung Mu
5.247
1
General information. Mui Ke Ga (13°34′N, 109°18′E)
is the S extremity of a small peninsula connected to the
mainland by a low isthmus 2 cables wide; Mui Vung Mu,
the NW extremity of the peninsula, lies 8 cables NW of
Mui Ke Ga. Hon Kho lies 1 cables N of Mui Vung Mu,
with rocks, above and below-water, extending 1 cable
farther N. Vung Mu (13°35′N, 109°16′E) is a small bay on
the NW side of the peninsula, with Tuy Lang village at its
head.
2
For a distance of 5 miles NW of Mui Vung Mu the
coast consists of sandhills forming the E side of the lagoon
which extends N of Baie de Cu Mong. Nui Yen Beo, with
a conical summit, stands 3 miles W of Mui Ke Ga.
Anchorage. Vung Mu affords anchorage to the N of the
village, in depths of 18 m (60 ft); Hon Kho should be
given a wide berth.
3
Caution. The bay and the peninsula lie in the SW
corner of a former mined area; see chart and 5.3. Approach
and anchorage should not be attempted without local
knowledge
Cu Lao Xanh
5.248
1
Cu Lao Xanh (Pulau Gambir) (13°37′N, 109°21′E) from
where a light (5.223) is exhibited, has two summits, the
tops of which are bare; the NW hill, elevation 130 m
(425 ft) is the higher. There is a small bay on the SW side
of the island at the head of which is the village of Tanh
Chau. A below-water rock lies 6 cables W of the S
extremity of the island; Les Mamelles, two sharp-peaked
rocks, lie 7 cables SSE of the island and another
above-water rock lies close S of Les Mamelles. Banc de
Pâques, composed of coral, lies 2 miles W of the S
extremity of the island; there is a clear passage on either
side of this bank.
2
Anchorage may be obtained off the village of Tanh
Chau.
Caution. The island lies within a former mined area; see
chart and 5.3. Approach and anchorage should not be
attempted without local knowledge
Hon Dat
5.249
1
General information. Hon Dat (13°41′N, 109°15′E),
covered with brushwood, lies 1 mile offshore. Hon Roi,
connected to the mainland by a shallow ridge, lies 6 cables
W of Hon Dat, the channel between them being obstructed
by a reef on which there are above-water rocks. Rochers
du Crabe, above-water, lie 5 cables N of Hon Roi, and
Rochers de la Tortue, also above-water, lie 9 cables S of
Hon Roi.
2
Between a point on the mainland 2 miles S of Hon
Roi and a point 4 miles farther N, the coast is steep and
mountainous.
Anchorage may be obtained NW of Hon Dat in depths
of 11 to 15 m (36 to 50 ft); local knowledge is required.
Hung Luong
5.250
1
General information. Cu Lao Hon Kho (13°46′N,
109°18′E), connected to the coast by a reef, lies 8 cables
NE of Mui Yen. Between Mui Yen (5.226) and a rocky
promontory 8 miles N, the coast is steep and
mountainous; between this promontory and another rocky
promontory 4 miles NNW, there is a bay, the shore of
which is backed by sand-hills. The village of Hung Luong
(13°53′N, 109°17′E) is situated on the S side of this bay.
There is a conspicuous gap, shown on the chart, between
two hills, respectively, 165 and 140 m (543 and 461 ft)
high, in a position 3 miles N of Mui Yen; Nui Den, the
summit of Presqu’île de Phuoc Mai, lies 2 miles N of this
gap.
2
Nghiem Kinh Chieu, an islet, with another islet close N
of it, lies 2 cables off the coast and 7 miles N of Cu Lao
Hon Kho. Nui Ong Co (13°54′N, 109°19′E), elevation
53 m (174 ft, charted as 316 ft), is a precipitous pyramidal
rock. Nui Ong Can is a group of three islets and some
above-water rocks lying 1 miles E of Nui Ong Co; the
NE islet has an elevation of 34 m (112 ft, charted as
251 ft).
Anchorage. During S winds, anchorage may be obtained
off Hung Luong; local knowledge is required.
Chart 3988
Nuoc Ngot and Île Nuoc
5.251
1
General information. Thanh Hi (14°01′N, 109°15′E),
the N entrance point of the N of two small bays, has an
elevation of 188 m (618 ft); Le Cône, a prominent hill on
the coast, stands 1 miles S of this point. Further inland
Hon Heo 668 m (2193 ft) high, the summit of which is flat
with an isolated rock on it, rises 3 miles W of Thanh Hi;
Nui Ba, also with an isolated rock on it, stands 5 miles
WNW of Hon Heo. Nuoc Ngot (14°08′N, 109°13′E), a
steep promontory with several red granite peaks rendered
prominent by patches of sand on their slopes, lies 7 miles
N of Thanh Hi; this promontory is the S end of a peninsula
which forms the E side of Dam Nuoc Ngot, the entrance to
which is at the S end of the peninsula. The village of Degi,
where there is a customs office, lies on its S side.
2
The coast N of Nuoc Ngot is low and backed by
sand-hills. Hon Trau is a barren granite islet lying 3 miles
E of Nuoc Ngot; two above-water rocks lie 2 cables E of
Hon Trau, with a rock, on which the sea breaks, between
them and the islet.
3
Vung Moi (14°13′N, 109°11′E) is a small bay in which
there is a village, and lies close W of a steep cliff; two
peaks, the E of which is Nui Nhiao (Nui Trop Tri), with a
rounded summit, lie 4 miles W of the village. A ridge
extends 7 cables E from the N end of the steep cliffs of
Vung Moi. Île Nuoc (14°15′N, 109°12′E), with two peaks,
is the largest and NE of a group of black rocky islets lying
on this ridge; there are several above-water rocks between
the islet and the mainland. Rocher Plat, which dries at its
outer end, lies on the same ridge 1 mile S of Île Nuoc.
4
There is a rocky point 2 miles NNW of Île Nuoc;
between this point and the village of Phu Tu, 7 miles
CHAPTER 5
188
NNW, the coast consists of a sandy beach backed by
sand-hills. Close inland is a lake, Dam Tra O. Île Tortue, a
black islet with a reef extending a short distance from its E
side, lies 6 miles N of Île Nuoc.
5
Anchorages. In the bay S of Nuoc Ngot, S of the
entrance to Dam Nuoc Ngot, there is anchorage, in depths
of 15 to 18 m (50 to 60 ft); local knowledge is required.
During the SW monsoon, there is good anchorage under
the lee of the Nuoc group of islets. When making for this
anchorage pass 1 mile N of Île Nuoc in order to avoid the
dangers off it; local knowledge is required.
Useful mark: Vung Moi Light (14°15′N, 109°11′E)
(5.224).
Song Lai Giang
5.252
1
General information. Pointe An Yo (14°27′N,
109°07′E) is the N of two rocky spurs which extend from a
chain of mountains, the summit of which is Cay Giep
standing 5 miles SW of the point. Between Pointe An Yo
and Pointe de Kim Bong, 8 miles NNW, the coast is
sandy. The Song Lai Giang (14°30′N, 109°05′E) discharges
through Lagune d’An Gai, near which is a village
surrounded by palm trees, 4 miles NNW of Pointe An Yo;
Nui Kho, which has a red summit, lies 4 miles NW of
Pointe An Yo and 2 miles inland.
2
Anchorage may be obtained off the mouth of the Song
Lai Giang, in depths of 13 to 15 m (43 to 50 ft), sand;
local knowledge is required.
Song Tam Quan
5.253
1
General information. Between Pointe de Kim Bong
(14°34′N, 109°05′E) and Cap Sa Hoi, 5 miles N, the
coast consists alternately of rocky points and sandy bays.
Cap Sa Hoi is the S end of a mile long peninsula
enclosing a lagoon. The narrow mouth of the Song Tam
Quan lies 5 cables W of Pointe de Kim Bong.
2
A bank extends 2 cables E from the S entrance point of
the river. On the N side of the entrance there is a pagoda
standing on a low hill; between the pagoda and Pointe de
Kim Bong there is a small bay. A bank lies 2 cables S of
Pointe de Kim Bong, and shoals lie 7 cables NNE and E,
respectively, of the same point. Tam Quan village,
surrounded by plantations of coconut palms and areca nuts,
is situated 1 mile within the entrance of the river; some
provisions may be obtained from the village.
There is a customs office on Cap Sa Hoi, 5 miles N of
Pointe de Kim Bong, and the village of Sa Huynh is
situated on the mainland close W of Cap Sa Hoi.
3
Anchorage may be obtained off the mouth of the Song
Tam Quan, in depths of 13 m (43 ft), sand and mud; local
knowledge is required. This anchorage is partly sheltered
from N winds by Pointe de Kim Bong.
Cu Lao Ré
5.254
1
General information. Cu Lao Ré (15°23′N, 109°07′E)
is formed of several craters and peaks which appear
isolated when seen at a distance of 25 miles, except on a N
bearing when the island has a level aspect. The E and
highest peak is 179 m (589 ft) high. A rocky reef, over
which there are overfalls, extends 3 miles from the N side
of the island. There are some villages on the island, which
is well cultivated. A light (5.224) is exhibited from the
island. An air-strip runs in a N-S direction between the
light structure and the summit mentioned above. Banc de
Cu Lao Ré lies 5 miles S of Cu Lao Ré. Cu Lao Bo Bai, a
rocky islet, lies 2 miles NNW of Cu Lao Ré. Banc de
Volta, on which the sea frequently breaks, lies 6 miles
NW of Cu Lao Bo Bai, this bank is frequented by
fishermen during the SW monsoon. Banc de Bantan lies
10 miles W of Cu Lao Bo Bai.
2
Anchorage. Temporary anchorage may be obtained off
Cu Lao Ré, S of the 179 m (589 ft) high summit; during
the SW monsoon, there is better anchorage N of the W
peak of the island, where the sea is not felt. Anchorage off
Cu Lao Ré is always bad as the bottom everywhere is
rocky.
MUI BA LANG AN (BATANGAN) TO
VUNG DA NANG
General information
Chart 3988, 3884
Route
5.255
1
From Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan) (15°15′N, 108°56′E)
to Vung Da Nang (16°09′N, 108°11′E), some 70 miles NW,
the route is coastal.
Topography
5.256
1
Between Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan) and Vung Da
Nam, the coast comprises shallow, mainly sandy, bays. A
number of rivers flow into these bays. Mountains lie some
miles inland along the coast. Cu Lao Cham and its
neighbouring islands lie some 8 miles off the mouth of the
Song Cua Dai (15°53′N, 108°24′E).
Depths
5.257
1
See 5.214. Depth information relevant to a particular
feature is, where appropriate, given with that feature.
Dumping grounds
5.258
1
Explosives and ammunition dumping grounds are shown
on the charts of the area described in this section.
Restricted area
5.259
1
A restricted area, in which entry is prohibited, surrounds
Cu Lao Cham (15°57′N, 108°31′E) (5.276) and includes
Hon Tai and Hon Giai; see chart. The restricted area
extends 1 to 1 miles on the SW side of Cu Lao Cham,
5 to 7 cables on its W side, 7 cables to 1 mile on its NE
side, and 5 cables on its E side.
Principal marks
5.260
1
Landmarks:
Radar domes, conspicuous, on the NW summit of
Ban Dao Tien Sa (16°08′N, 108°16′E), elevation
616 m (2272 ft).
Major light:
Mui Da Nang Light (white round masonry tower, 9 m
in height) (16°08′N, 108°20′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.224)
5.261
1
From a position NE of Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan) and
NE of Cu Lao Ré (15°23′N, 109°07′E), the track leads NW
for 71 miles, to a position NE of the entrance of Vung Da
Nang, passing (with positions from Mui Da Nang Light
(16°08′N, 108°20′E)):
CHAPTER 5
189
SW of two isolated shoal patches, 11 and 18 m (36
and 60 ft) (15°44′N, 109°32′E and 15°49′N,
109°32′E, respectively), reported 1965. The
position of the 18 m patch is approximate. Thence:
2
NE of Mui Nam Tram (52 miles SE), and clear of the
area of volcanic activity NNE, shown on the chart,
reported in 1979. Mui Nam Tram is a hilly
projection and forms the E extremity of a small
peninsula. Thence:
NE of Hon Ong (29 miles SE) (5.276), thence:
3
NE of Cu Lao Cham (14 miles SE) (5.276). The NE
point of the island gives excellent radar response
at 40 miles. A restricted area surrounds Cu Lao
Cham; see 5.259. See also the caution at 5.262.
Thence:
4
NE of Mui Da Nang (1 miles SE), and to a position
NE of the entrance of Vung Da Nang (6 miles
WNW) (5.263). Mui Da Nang is the E extremity
of Ban Dao Tien Sa, a mountainous peninsula
which is joined to the mainland by a low isthmus,
and attains its greatest elevation at Son Tra, near
its centre. A light (5.260) is exhibited from a
position on the coast where it is liable to be
obscured by clouds during the NE monsoon; there
is a signal station near the light, with which
communication may be made by means of the
International Code of Signals, and from where
storm signals are displayed. There are anchorages
(5.279) on the S side of the peninsula; the E side
is steep-to.
5.262
1
Caution. In the sea area within approximately 65 miles
radius of Cu Lao Cham (15°57′N, 108°31′E), several areas
of potential hazard, usually in the form of reductions to
depths, have been reported since about 1960; these are
shown on the chart. The depths between the Cu Lao Cham
group of islands and the mainland SW are irregular, with
patches of 9 to 11 m (30 to 36 ft) in places.
(Directions continue at 6.17)
Da Nang
Chart 3884
General information
5.263
1
Position. Da Nang (16°04′N, 108°13′E) is situated on
the W side of the entrance of the Song Han, which
discharges into Vung Da Nang.
5.264
1
Function. Da Nang is the principal port of central
Vietnam, and is of importance as being the outlet for the
coal mines at Nang Son, 35 miles up river. Rice, cement
and petroleum products are amongst the items imported,
and coal, cinnamon and charcoal are amongst those
exported.
5.265
1
Topography. Vung Da Nang is entered between the N
extremity of Ban Dao Tien Sa (5.261) and a point 4 miles
NW. It can be identified by the high land of Ban Dao Tien
Sa and by Hon Son Cha (5.271), which lies 3 cables NE of
the NW entrance point.
2
The W side of Vung Da Nang is mountainous; Nui Hoi,
cone-shaped, lies 5 miles WSW of the W entrance point of
the bay. Between the W entrance point and Pointe Isabelle,
3 miles SW, there is a bay, the shores of which are
mostly steep-to. Between Pointe Isabelle and Mui Nam O,
3 miles SSW, there are two bays divided by a high
projection; Vung Nam Chon is the N bay, and Vung Kim
Lien the S bay. The Song Cu De discharges into the S end
of Vung Kim Lien. The head of Vung Da Nang is low, and
lies between Mui Nam O and the S entrance point of the
Song Han.
3
On the E side of Vung Da Nang, Roche Canton
(16°10′N, 108°15′E) (5.271) lies 3 cables NW of the SE
entrance point. Hai Quan, the W extremity of Ban Dao
Tien Sa, is joined to the peninsula by a causeway, 3 m
high, on a reef. Between Hai Quan and the E entrance
point of the Song Han, 1 miles SE, there is a shallow
bay. A channel leads ESE across this bay to some slipways
and harbour installations on the E side of the bay.
5.266
1
Approach and entry. Da Nang is approached from
seaward via Vung Da Nang.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 36 port calls with a total of
705 765 dwt.
Port Authority. Port Authority of Da Nang, 1 Bach
Dang Street, Da Nang City, Vietnam.
Limiting conditions
5.267
1
Controlling depth. Depths in the dredged channel
leading into the Song Han are reported to be 13 m; depths
in Da Nang within the river are said to be between 6⋅5 and
9 m. Up-to-date information should be obtained from the
Port Authority.
Deepest and longest berth. At Tien Sa Sea Port (5.272)
on Hai Quan. Maximum allowed draught reported (1998) to
be 10⋅5 m.
Mean tidal levels. MHHW 1⋅2 m; MLLW 0⋅6 m. See
Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3 under Da Nang.
5.268
1
Local weather and sea state. During the NE monsoon,
when fresh breezes prevail, the climate is healthy. In
February, squalls from the N appear, warning of which is
given by the clouds collecting on the mountains to the N.
In April and May, owing to the frequent calms, the heat is
stifling, and, at this time of the year, it is preferable to
anchor well out in the bay, if possible away from the high
land of Ban Dao Tien Sa in order to benefit from any
breeze, In June, land and sea breezes set in which
somewhat temper the heat of the hottest months.
2
Vung Da Nang affords little or no shelter during the NE
monsoon, or during a typhoon; in the latter case the best
anchorages are those off Cu Lao Cham (15°57′N,
108°31′E) (5.276).
Arrival information
5.269
1
Port radio. There is a coast radio station at Da Nang,
and a port radio station.
Notice of ETA. ETAs should be sent 48 and 24 hours
prior to arrival. On the first visit to the port, or if on
charter to the government, additional information
concerning the vessel is required; cargo information is
required if general cargo is carried, and requests for pilots,
berth, fuel and fresh water should be made. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for further information.
2
Outer anchorages. Designated anchorages within Vung
Da Nang are shown on the chart. See also 5.272 and 5.268.
Caution. A disused explosives dumping ground is
charted within Vung Dan Nang, together with two
dangerous wrecks and a foul area within or close to the
designated anchorages.
3
Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited between
the S extremity of Hai Quan and the N end of the detached
CHAPTER 5
190
breakwater protecting the W side of the dredged channel to
the river; see chart.
4
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots board in the vicinity of
position 16°10′N, 108°11′E, as shown on the chart.
Tugs are available. The use of tugs for vessels over
70 m LOA is compulsory.
Harbour
5.270
1
General layout. Vung Da Nang provides anchorage for
the port of Da Nang whilst the alongside berths are mostly
located along the banks of the Song Han. The port area
encompasses both.
Fishing stakes are to be found in numbers around the
shores of the bay, particularly at its head. A tanker mooring
is located at the head of the bay off the N shore of Vung
Kim Lien.
2
Anchorage berths are arranged throughout the bay
according to depth, and the port’s deeper alongside berths
are at Hai Quan, part of the peninsula forming the W
extremity of Ban Dao Tien Sa. From SW of Hai Quan a
short buoyed channel leads ESE across a shifting bar, parts
of which dry, extending 1 miles N from the entrance, and
to a position S of the S extremity of Hai Quan.
3
Thence the dredged channel runs S and through the
entrance to the Song Han. In addition to the detached
breakwater, 1 mile in length, to the W of the dredged
channel, breakwaters extend, respectively, 3 cables NW
from the E side of the river entrance and 5 cables NW
from the W side of the river entrance. Within the entrance,
two inner breakwaters extend 1 cable NW from the E bank
4 and 8 cables from the E entrance point.
4
Within the river, Da Nang, and most of the berths, are
situated on and along the W bank. The Song Han is
navigable by small vessels to the coal mines at Nang Son,
35 miles up river, but local knowledge is required. The
Song Han is also connected by inland waterways with the
Song Cua Dai (5.278) to the S.
Storm signals: see 5.261.
5
Natural conditions:
Tidal streams. During small tides there is no flood
stream at Da Nang; even during large tides the
flow in the bay does not reach kn, and only just
reaches this rate in the river. However, during and
soon after heavy rain, the current in the Song Han
has been observed to attain a rate of 7 to 9 kn.
6
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.161.
Major light:
Mui Da Nang Light (16°08′N, 108°20′E) (5.260).
Directions
5.271
1
Approach. Da Nang is easy of access via Vung Da
Nang, passing (with positions from Da Nang Light
(16°07′⋅2N, 108°13′⋅1E):
NW of Mui Da Nang (7 miles E) (5.261), thence:
SE of Hon Son Cha (5 miles N), a cliffy island
3 cables NE of the NW entrance point of the bay,
from which it is separated by a deep channel. The
E side of the island is steep-to. Thence:
2
NW of Roche Canton (3 miles NE). The rock has two
heads, the N of which dries and the S of which,
close SE, is below-water; the rock is usually
visible. Thence:
NW of an obstruction (2⋅2 miles NNE). A dangerous
below-water rock lies 5 cables ESE of this
obstruction. Thence:
To the pilot boarding place, or an anchorage, as
directed.
3
Entry to the Song Han. If entering the river, there are
leading lights at Hai Quan:
Front light (16°07′⋅1N, 108°13′⋅4E);
Rear light (384 m N of front light).
The alignment (352°) astern of these lights leads along
the dredged channel to the S end of the detached
breakwater.
Thereafter, the dredged channel should be followed until
a position within the river is reached from where the berth
may be approached directly.
4
Useful marks:
Da Nang Light (white masonry tower, 5 m in height)
(16°07′⋅2N, 108°13′⋅1E).
Lights are exhibited at the N end (white tower, 4 m
in height) and S end of the detached breakwater
(5.270).
Light (white metal framework tower, 3 m in height)
(NW end of the breakwater extending from the E
entrance point of the river).
Berths
5.272
1
Anchorages. See 5.269. Large vessels are required to
anchor as directed. Small vessels may anchor E of Hai
Quan, where there is shelter from the NE monsoon; see
also 5.268.
Moorings. The tanker mooring in Vung Kim Lien
(16°08′N, 108°08′E) can accommodate vessels up to
5000 dwt, in a depth of 7⋅6 m (25 ft). A white tank, marked
by a light, stands close to the shore end of the pipeline.
2
Alongside berths. Tien Sa Sea Port, at Hai Quan, has
two piers, each with two berths which can accommodate
vessels up to 182 m LOA, in depths of 9⋅5 m (31 ft); berths
1 and 2 are on the NW pier, and berths 3 and 4 are on the
S pier.
3
Within the river, on the W side, the main wharf is
530 m in length and has depths alongside of 4 to 6 m (13
to 20 ft).
There are other berths within the river at Da Nang,
where there is a total frontage of about 2 miles, but all are
shorter and with less water alongside.
Port services
5.273
1
Repairs: slipways; two dry-docks, maximum capacity
7000 dwt.
Other facilities: hospital, 6 hours notice required for
medical assistance, requirements should be included with
notice of ETA; deratting; garbage disposal facilities
provided by boat when at anchor.
2
Supplies: fuel oil and diesel by road tanker or barge;
fresh water by barge; provisions.
Communications: domestic and international air services
from Da Nang.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3988
Bays north-west of Mui Ba Lang An (Batangan)
5.274
1
General information. Between Mui Ba Lang An
(Batangan) (15°15′N, 108°56′E) (5.224) and Mui An Hoa,
22 miles NW, there are several bays which afford shelter
during the SW monsoon. Vung Nho Na is entered between
Pointe de Go Nhan (15°19′N, 108°53′E) and Pointe de
Phuoc Thien, 1 miles NW. The S side of the bay is
fringed by a reef which extends 3 cables offshore, and a
CHAPTER 5
191
bank extends 5 cables from the head of the bay. Vung Viet
Thanh is entered between Pointe de Phuoc Thien (15°21′N,
108°52′E) and a point 3 miles NW. A bank extends
2 cables from the N shore of the bay; a below-water rock
lies on the N edge of the bank, 7 cables W of Pointe de
Phuoc Thien. The bank is fringed by a reef on its N side
extending 1 cables offshore.
2
Mui Vian Ka lies 1 miles WNW of Mui Nam Tram
(15°25′N, 108°49′E) (5.261), with a bay between. Rocks,
one of which dries, lie 2 cables NNW from Mui Vian Ka,
and a below-water rocky patch lies in the same vicinity.
Vung Dung Quat lies W of Mui Vian Ka, and the Song Tra
Bong discharges into this bay 2 miles SSW of Mui Vian
Ka. Several rocky islets and rocks, above and below-water,
lie off its entrance. The village of Son Tra is situated on
the E bank, just within the entrance; there is a customs
office in the village. To the NW of the mouth of the Song
Tra Bong, for a distance of 5 miles, the shore of the bay
is sandy. Inland the country is mountainous; Nui Chua
stands 14 miles SW of Mui An Hoa.
3
Mui An Hoa (15°31′N, 108°40′E) is the NW point of
Vung Dung Quat, and the N extremity of a projection.
Vung An Hoa is entered between Mui An Hoa and the N
end of the Chu Lai peninsula, 1 miles S. A ledge of
below-water rocks lies 1 mile WNW of Mui An Hoa, and
another below-water ledge lies 5 cables W of the same
point; the sea sometimes breaks on these ledges.
Traffic. (Dung Quat) In 2003 there were 6 port calls
with a total of 71 642 dwt.
5.275
1
Anchorages. The bays below afford anchorage during
the SW monsoon:
Good anchorage may be obtained in the S end of the
sandy bay which lies between Mui Ba Lang An
(Batangan) and Pointe de Go Nhan, 6 miles NW,
in depths of 10 m (33 ft), or farther NW, in depths
of 12 m (40 ft). Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in Vung Nho Na and
Vung Viet Thanh. Local knowledge is required in
each case.
Anchorage may be obtained SW of Mui Vian Ka;
large vessels may anchor in depths of 16 m (52 ft),
and small vessels anchor nearer the shore in depths
of 5 to 7 m (16 to 23 ft). There is also anchorage
7 cables off the mouth of the Song Tra Bong, and
vessels drawing 1⋅8 m (6 ft) may enter the river at
HW and anchor off the customs office at Son Tra.
Chart 3884
Cu Lao Cham
5.276
1
General information. Cu Lao Cham (15°57′N,
108°31′E), inhabited and cultivated, is the largest of a
group of islands; some rocks lie close off the W extremity
of the island, and Hon Nhan lies 1 cable off its N
extremity. The NW and NE sides of the island are steep-to;
on its E side a few rocks lie close offshore. Hon Tai lies
5 cables S of the SE extremity of Cu Lao Cham, and Ran
Manh (Roche d’Entrecasteaux), below-water, lies 8 cables
SW of Hon Tai. Hon Giai is separated from the NW end of
Cu Lao Cham by a deep channel 6 cables wide. A bank
lies from 1 cables to 1 miles SE of Hon Giai; the least
depth over this bank is near the middle of its NE side. Hon
Mo lies 3 cables SSW of Hon Giai. Hon La lies 2 miles
WNW of the W extremity of Cu Lao Cham, and Hon Co
(Hon Ko) and Hon Cu (Hon Ku) lie, respectively, 1 mile
and 1 miles W of Hon La. 2
Hon Ong (15°49′N, 108°41′E), elevation about 200 m
(656 ft, charted as 461 ft), lies 11 miles SE of Cu Lao
Cham and 14 miles offshore.
5.277
1
Anchorages:
During the NE monsoon, good shelter can be
obtained in the bay on the SW side of Cu Lao
Cham. The bay is entered 2 miles NW of the SE
extremity of the island. The village of Tan Hop
Phuong stands at the head of the bay; close S of
the village is a watering place, close off which are
two rocks. Currents in the vicinity of Cu Lao
Cham are feeble and irregular, and are scarcely felt
during the SW monsoon.
2
Anchorage can be obtained off Tan Hop Phuong, in
the position shown on the chart, in depths of 7 m
(23 ft), with good holding ground, sand and mud;
or in greater depths, outside the line joining the
two entrance points.
Small vessels can obtain anchorage on the bank
which extends SE from Hon Giai; there is also
anchorage beyond the S edge of the bank, about
1 miles SSE of the S extremity of Hon Giai.
Note. Cu Lao Cham lies within a restricted area; see
5.259.
Song Cua Dai
5.278
1
General information. Between Mui An Hoa (15°31′N,
108°40′E) and the mouth of Truong Giang, 3 miles W,
there is a small bay. Truong Giang runs parallel with the
shore for some distance NW, and eventually connects with
the Song Cua Dai 26 miles NW; several villages are
situated along the coast. In the interior are several high
mountain ranges; Hon Nui Tau stands 16 miles WSW of
the mouth of the Song Cua Dai.
2
The Song Cua Dai (15°53′N, 108°24′E) is entered
between Mui An Luong, a low sandy point, and Mui Cua
Dai, 1 mile NW, which is higher. A narrow curved sand
cay extends 1 mile E from Mui Cua Dai; to the S of this
sand cay, the Song Cua Dai is fronted by a bar with a
channel through it, in which the depth, about 1⋅5 m (5 ft),
is subject to frequent change. A customs office, not
charted, is situated on Mui Cua Dai, and a tower, not
charted, stands in shallow water 7 cables SSE of the
point.
3
The Song Cua Dai is connected to Vung Da Nang
(5.263) by inland waterways; the towns of Hoi An and
Dien Ban lie 3 and 9 miles, respectively, above the mouth
of the Song Cua Dai. The masts of junks anchored inside
the bar can be seen from seaward.
Anchorage may be obtained outside the bar, in
depths of 15 to 18 m (50 to 60 ft), but the holding
ground is bad.
My Khe tanker berth
5.279
1
General information. Between the mouth of the Song
Cua Dai (15°53′N, 108°24′E) (5.278) and Mui Da Nang
(5.261), 15 miles N, there is a large bay; Tho Son,
prominent, elevation 103 m (339 ft), stands close to the
coast 8 miles SW of Mui Da Nang. Rocher Noir, above
water, 4 miles WSW from Mui Da Nang, lies on a shoal
CHAPTER 5
192
outside the entrance of Baie du Rocher Noir, 5 cables SW
of the E entrance point; a patch of coral, which dries, lies
1 cable W of Rocher Noir, and there are other dangers
inshore of Rocher Noir.
2
Berth. My Khe tanker berth (16°04′N, 108°16′E)
consists of mooring buoys at the head of a pipeline
extending 7 cables ENE from the shore. Baie du Rocher
Noir lies about 1 miles N of the root of the tanker berth;
the stretch of coast between them is known locally as
China Reach. Vessels intending to moor at the tanker berth
should approach the berth between the SE and SW mooring
buoys.
3
Anchorages.
Anchorage may be obtained off Baie du Rocher Noir;
local knowledge is required.
Bai Nam (16°06′N, 108°17′E), a small bay on the S
side of Ban Dao Tien Sa (5.261), affords sheltered
anchorage, in depths of 11 m (36 ft), mud. Local
knowledge is required.
NOTES
193
3884
3884
3988
3989
3990
1965
3875
3875
0904
Chapter 6 - Vietnam - Gulf of Tonkin: Vung Da Nang to Baisungong Jiao
V I E T N A M
CHI NA
Da Nang
Dong Hoi
Vinh
Haiphong
Hanoi
Cam Pha
6.97
Quang Ninh Port
6
.
4
9
6.62
6.64
6.105
6.37
6.27
194
6
.
1
3
6
.
8
4
16°
17°
18°
19°
20°
21°
22°
105° 106° 107° 108° 109°
16°
17°
18°
19°
20°
21°
22°
105° 106° Longitude 107° East from Greeenwich 108° 109°
30´ 30´ 30´ 30´
30´ 30´ 30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
195
CHAPTER 6
VIETNAM — THE GULF OF TONKIN: VUNG DA NANG TO BAISUNGONG JIAO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3488
Scope of the chapter
6.1
1
This chapter comprises the N part of the E seaboard of
Vietnam which borders the W side of the Gulf of Tonkin.
The coast between Vung Da Nang (16°09′N, 108°11′E) and
Baisungong Jiao (21°23′N, 108°12′E), near the seaward end
of the international border between Vietnam and China, is
described, as are the rivers, ports and offshore islands. The
chapter includes the river ports of Hanoi and Haiphong, and
the islands, channels and ports of Archipel des Fai Tsi Long.
2
Those parts of the Gulf of Tonkin not described in this
chapter, the mainland coast of China and coast of Hainan
Dao, are described in Chapter 7.
Gulf of Tonkin
6.2
1
For the purposes of this book, the S entrance to the Gulf
of Tonkin (Gulf of Tongking) is considered to be between
the N entrance point (5.265) of Vung Da Nang on the coast
of Vietnam, in the W, and Jinmu Jiao (18°10′N, 109°34′E)
(7.195), the S extremity of Hainan Dao, in the E.
The Gulf of Tonkin generally maintains an average width
of about 130 miles as it trends NW then NE for some
330 miles to its head.
2
The shores of the Gulf of Tonkin are formed, in the W
and in the N, by the coasts of Vietnam and mainland China;
in the E, by the W coast of Hainan Dao; and at its head, by
the W side of the Leizhou Bandao peninsula. Qiongzhou
Haixia (7.51), which separates Hainan Dao from the Leizhou
Bandao peninsula, links the head of the Gulf of Tonkin with
the South China Sea.
Topography
6.3
1
From Vung Da Nang (16°09′N, 108°11′E) the coast of
Vietnam trends NW for about 235 miles, thence NE for
about a further 175 miles, to position 21°24′N, 108°05′E, the
seaward end of the international border between Vietnam and
China.
2
South of latitude 20°N the coast is mainly straight, low
and sandy, and backed, at varying distances from it, by hills
and high mountains. Numerous rivers enter the sea along this
stretch of the coastline, and there are a few offshore islands,
but they are small and generally close in.
The change of trend of the coast from NW to NE occurs
at about latitude 19°N.
3
North of latitude 20°N the coast is formed of the delta of
the Song Ca (6.58), and to the N of it are the mouths of the
Song Thai Bin (6.63); the river ports of Hanoi (21°03′N,
105°51′E) (6.62) and Haiphong (20°52′N, 106°40′E) (6.64)
are approached, respectively, via the mouths of the Song Ca
and the Song Thai Binh.
4
Farther NE, and to the limit of this chapter, are the
archipelagic islands which include the Archipel des Fai Tsi
Long (6.91), all of which lie within the 20 m (10 fm) depth
contour. The mainland coast in way of the archipelago is
much indented, low, and ill-defined in places, and is backed
by high mountains. The ports of Hon Gai (20°57′N,
107°04′E) (6.97), Cam Pha (21°02′N, 107°22′E) (6.105),
and Port Wallut (21°12′N, 107°34′E) (6.111) are situated
along this stretch of the coast.
Depths
6.4
1
Throughout the Gulf of Tonkin the waters of the middle
of the Gulf are generally deep, the depth decreasing
gradually towards the shores on either side. The bottom is
generally soft, and suitable for anchoring. The chart is the
best guide to depths, and the seabed, in the area.
In the Gulf of Tonkin and off Hainan Dao large patches
of muddy water, resembling banks, are seen at times, but on
examination deep water is almost invariably obtained.
Fishing stakes
6.5
1
Fishing stakes are frequently met at distances of up to
30 miles offshore. They consist of several long bamboo
poles, anchored by large stones, and carrying a flag; a
sampan is usually attached to them, and a vessel should not
pass between the sampan and the bamboos.
Mined areas
6.6
1
Former mined areas are reported to exist in many places
along the E coast of Vietnam. Where known, these are
mentioned in the appropriate places in the directions. For
further details and an assessment of the risks currently
attached to them, see 1.3 and Appendix I.
Currents
6.7
1
Currents. During the NE monsoon (September to May),
water enters the Gulf of Tonkin through Qionzhou Haixia
(7.51) with a W-going current at a mean rate of to 3 kn.
Mainly W-setting currents, occasionally attaining a rate of
2 kn, occur during this period over the N part of the Gulf.
From November to May there is also a NW and N-setting
current near the coast of Vietnam from Mui Da Nang
(16°08′N, 108°20′E) as far as Hon Dau (20°40′N,
106°48′E), its mean rate of kn increasing to 2 kn at times.
This water is thought to be removed by a S and SE-setting
broad current through the middle of the Gulf, but there is
much variability. Between June and August, the flow is
variable but mainly in a counter-clockwise sense with S and
SE sets predominating along the coast of Vietnam. Rates of
flow in excess of 1 kn are rare. See also surface current
diagrams in Chapter 1.
2
Tidal streams. Off the W shore of the Gulf of Tonkin,
the tidal stream sets N on the rising tide at a mean rate of
1 kn and S on the falling tide at a rate of 1 kn.
Regulations
6.8
1
See 5.5 concerning visits to Vietnamese ports.
Buoyage
6.9
1
See 5.6.
CHAPTER 6
196
VUNG DA NANG TO XUY NONG CHAO, INCLUDING HANOI AND HAIPHONG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3488, 3988, 3989, 3990
Scope of the section
6.10
1
This section comprises the E seaboard of Vietnam
between Vung Da Nang (16°09′N, 108°11′E) in the S, and
Xuy Nong Chao (Îles Norway) (20°37′N, 107°10′E) to the
NNW of it.
Topography
6.11
1
See 6.3. Along the section of coast from Mui Chon May
Dong (16°21′N, 108°01′E) to Mui Ron Ma (Mui Ron)
(18°07′N, 106°25′E), some 140 miles NW, the high
mountains backing it lie at a considerable distance inland,
and are often hidden by mist, particularly during the NE
monsoon. This stretch of the coast is known locally as the
Iron Coast.
Depths
6.12
1
The 20 m (10 fm) depth contour closely follows the
coastline, and all the known islands and dangers along this
section of the coast of Vietnam lie within it, or close outside
it. Depths shoal gradually to the shore. See 6.4 for general
information about depths throughout the Gulf of Tonkin.
VUNG DA NANG TO HON MÉ
General information
Charts 3884, 3988, 3989
Route
6.13
1
From a position NE of the entrance of Vung Da Nang
(5.263), the track leads NW within the Gulf of Tonkin to a
position E of Hon Mé (19°22′N, 105°55′E).
Topography
6.14
1
See 6.11. Further coastal detail is given with the
appropriate entry under Minor harbours and anchorages.
Depths
6.15
1
See 6.12.
Principal marks
6.16
1
Landmarks. The main distinguishing features on this
stretch of the coast are the mountains inland. The principal
ones are:
Nui Bai Cay Tat, 672 m (2206 ft) (16°28′N, 107°21′E);
Dong Voi Mep, 1700 m (5579 ft) (16°46′N, 106°43′E);
Morne Cachalot, 543 m, (1783 ft) (16°49′N, 106°53′E);
2
Rao Co, 2234 m (7330 ft) (18°10′N, 105°24′E). From
N this peak presents a remarkable double summit,
but it is often hidden by clouds.
Ru Cua, 458 m (1502 ft), conical and prominent,
stands 1 miles ESE of the E entrance point of Cua
Nhuong (18°16′N, 106°07′E) and 7 cables inland.
3
Major lights:
Mui Da Nang Light (16°08′N, 108°20′E) (5.260);
Cua Thuan An Light (white tower, 18 m in height)
(16°34′N, 107°37′E);
Cua Viet Light (tower on yellow dwelling, 22 m in
height) (16°54′N, 107°12′E);
Cua Tung Light (17°02′N, 107°07′E);
Hon Mé Light (19°22′N, 105°56′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.262)
Vung Da Nang to Mui Ong
6.17
1
From a position NE of the entrance of Vung Da Nang
(5.263), to a position E of Hon Mé (19°22′N, 105°55′E), the
track leads NW for a distance of about 190 miles, passing
(with positions from Hon Co (Île de Tigre) (17°10′N,
107°20′E)):
2
NE of Cua Thuan An (39 miles SSE) (6.21); Cua
Thuan An Light (6.16) is exhibited from the W side
of the entrance to the river. Banc de Thuan An lies
parallel to the coast and about 5 to 7 miles offshore.
In 1965, less water than charted was reported in an
area, radius 3 miles, shown on the chart, close
offshore 12 miles NW of Cua Thuan An. See the
caution at 5.262 concerning areas of potential
hazard. Thence:
3
NE of Cua Viet (17 miles SW) (6.24); Cua Viet Light
(6.16) is exhibited from the SE side of the entrance
to the river. Thence:
NE of Hon Co (Île de Tigre), on the summit of which
is a conspicuous tower. The island is separated from
Mui Lay (below) by a deep and clear channel.
Thence:
4
NE of Mui Lay (Cap Lay), (13 miles WSW), which is
rocky and covered with vegetation; on the S side of
the cape there are some yellowish brown cliffs; on
the N side of the cape the cliffs are red and yellow.
During fine weather the whole range of mountains
W and NW of Mui Lay can be seen. Farther inland
are the jagged peaks of another range, including the
flat-topped Co Roong (59 miles WNW), elevation
1622 m (5321 ft, charted as 5050 ft). Thence:
5
NE of Cua Dong Hoi (45 miles WNW) (6.27), thence:
NE of Cua Giang (17°42′N, 106°29′E) (6.29), thence:
NE of Hon Gio (17°55′N, 106°40′E), elevation 108 m
(356 ft, charted as 270 ft), which is rugged and
steep-to. A shoal patch, reported 1962, lies 5 miles
SE of Hon Gio, and another shoal patch, existence
doubtful, lies 18 miles farther E. Thence:
6
NE of Mui Ong (17°56′N, 106°30′E), which rises to a
summit 1 mile inland. It can be easily identified by
the large red patches on it, and a pagoda. Two other
prominent wooded summits, Ba Coc and Hoanh
Son, stand, respectively, 6 miles and 10 miles WNW
of Mui Ong. Hon La, elevation 111 m (363 ft,
charted as 388 ft), lies 6 cables ESE of Mui Ong,
and Hon Co lies between the two; there is a deep
and narrow channel between the two islands.
Mui Ong to Hon Mé
6.18
1
From a position NE of Mui Ong the route continues NW,
passing (with positions from Hon Matt (18°48′N,
105°57′E)):
2
NE of Mui Ron Ma (Mui Ron) (48 miles SSE), which
is the NE extremity of a high, rocky promontory.
Nui Can San (Ru Can Son), high and prominent,
stands 3 miles SW of Mui Ron. Hon Son Duong
(Hon Tseu), high and wooded, elevation 144 m
CHAPTER 6
197
(474 ft, charted as 450 ft), lies 1 miles SE of Mui
Ron Ma; from E the islet has the appearance of
three pointed hummocks, with a perpendicular cliff
towards the N end, and sloping towards the SW
end. Hon Con Chim, rocky, with two pointed
peaks, elevation 25 m (80 ft, charted as 86 ft), lies
1 miles ENE of Hon Son Duong. Thence:
3
NE of Hon Matt, precipitous except on its S side. Hon
Truan lies 1 miles E of the S extremity of Hon
Matt, and two rocks, one above-water and one
below, lie 1 cables NW of Hon Truan. Roche des
Pêcheurs, below-water, lies 1 miles NW of Hon
Matt. A shoal patch, reported 1968, lies 36 miles E
of Hon Matt. Thence:
4
NE of Cua Hoi (11 miles W) (6.37), thence:
NE of Mui Falaise (Cap Falaise) (22 miles NNW),
which rises steeply to its highest point 5 cables
inland; on its N face there is a broad light-coloured
stripe. Thence:
5
To a position E of Hon Mé (33 miles N), the largest
and NE of a group of precipitous uninhabited islets
which are frequented only by fishermen in summer.
Hon Mé has several wooded peaks, the highest of
which has an elevation of 250 m (820 ft, charted as
800 ft); a light (6.16) is exhibited from near the SE
extremity of the islet. Hon Vat, elevation 126 m
(412 ft, charted as 432 ft), lies 2 cables SSE of Hon
Mé, with Ko King midway between them. Hon
Vang is the largest of several islets and rocks lying
within 5 cables of the W end of Hon Mé. A number
of islets and rocks lie within 3 miles S and W of
the S extremity of Hon Mé.
(Directions continue at 6.56)
Minor harbours and anchorages
General information
6.19
1
During the SW monsoon anchorage may be obtained, in
suitable depths, anywhere off the coast between Vung Da
Nang (16°09′N, 108°11′E) and Mui Lay (17°05′N,
107°07′E), but during the NE monsoon it affords no
anchorage.
Chart 3884
Vung Chon May
6.20
1
General information. From Hon Son Cha (16°13′N,
108°12′E) (5.271), close N of the N entrance to Vung Da
Nang, for 6 miles W as far as the mouth of Dam Lap An,
the coast is rocky; thence to a point 6 miles farther NW, the
coast is low. Mui Chong May Dong (16°21′N, 108°01′E),
2 miles farther NW, is the extremity of a steep and wooded
peninsula, joined to the coast by a sand isthmus. Nui Tron,
the summit of the peninsula, is situated near its SE end,
1 miles from the cape. Mui Chon May Tay lies 4 miles W
of Mui Chong May Dong and Vung Chon May is entered
between these points.
2
The village of Phuoc Hai (Binh An), at the head of Vung
Chon May (16°20′N, 108°00′E), is visible from the offing.
A river discharges into the SE end of the bay, and between
the mouth of this river and Cua Kieng, 2 miles W, there is a
sandy beach. The SW side of the bay is hilly inland.
3
Anchorage, with good holding ground, may be obtained
in the bay, close W of Mui Chon May Dong, the E entry
point, in depths of 7 to 13 m (24 to 43 ft). However, when
the NE monsoon is fairly established this anchorage is hardly
tenable.
Chart 3988
Cua Thuan An
6.21
1
General information. Cua Tu Hien (16°21′N, 107°57′E),
which leads to Dam Cau Hai, is entered 5 cables WNW of
Mui Chon May Tay (6.20). Nui Linh Thai, on which stands
a pagoda, rises close to the coast 2 miles WNW of Cua Tu
Hien. Dam Thuy Tu connects Dam Cua Hai with the Song
Huong. Between Cua Tu Hien and Cua Thuan An, a
distance of about 23 miles, the coast consists of a sandy
beach backed by sand-hills. The siting of villages on the
summit of hills distinguishes this part of the coast from that
N of Cua Thuan An, where the villages are on the sides of
the hills.
2
Cua Thuan An (16°34′N, 107°37′E) is the entrance to the
Song Huong (Rivière de Hué). Hué, 7 miles SSW of the
entrance, is the principal city of central Vietnam; during the
SW monsoon, whilst vessels with draughts of 3 m may
probably enter the river, only vessels with a draught of
1⋅5 m may ascend to Hué.
3
The entrance to the Song Huong is 1 cable wide, and is
fronted by Barre de Thuan An which is 1 mile wide and
subject to great and frequent changes. A barrier, with a
number of openings through it, stretches across the inner end
of Cua Thuan An. The river is much encumbered by
sandbanks and fishing stakes.
4
Aids to navigation in the form of light-buoys, buoys and
leading marks marked the approach to the Song Huong, via
Cua Thuan An, but in 1972 it was reported that these aids to
navigation could not be relied on.
5
There is no regular pilot service, although the services of
a pilot may be possible to obtain. Tidal streams are strong,
both on the bar and in the river. The last of the flood is the
best time to enter Cua Thuan An. The Song Huong is at its
lowest in February, and highest in November.
There is a hospital at Hué.
6.22
1
Anchorage may be obtained outside the bar, in depths of
18 m (60 ft), but it is very insecure during the NE monsoon.
6.23
1
Useful marks:
Cua Thuan An Light (16°34′N, 107°37′E) (6.16);
Prominent church 16 miles NW of Cua Thuan An
and about 2 miles inland, and a stranded wreck
which lies on the coast NE of this church.
Chart 3989
Cua Viet
6.24
1
General information. Between Cua Thuan An (16°34′N,
107°37′E) (6.21) and Mui Lay (17°05′N, 107°07′E) (6.17),
43 miles NW, the coast is bordered by a sandy plain with a
few villages and occasional trees. Cua Viet lies 32 miles NW
of Cua Thuan An.
Cua Viet (16°54′N, 107°10′E) is the entrance to the Song
Thach Han (Han Giang), which leads to Quang Tri, 9 miles
S of the entrance. Quang Tri is the chief town of an
important province, and is linked by inland waterway to Hué
(6.21).
2
Cua Viet is often marked by breakers. There are depths of
1⋅5 m over the bar, which lies 7 cables outside the entrance
and is subject to change. A dredged buoyed channel leads
into the river, and within the entrance the river widens and
deepens, as far as a pagoda situated on the S side, 6 cables
CHAPTER 6
198
from the entrance. Above this there is another bar, and the
river is probably suitable only for boats.
6.25
1
Useful mark:
Cua Viet Light (16°54′N, 107°12′E) (6.16).
Cua Tung
6.26
1
General information. Cua Tung lies 8 miles NW of Cua
Viet (6.24). Cua Tung (17°01′N, 107°06′E), the outlet of the
Song Ben Hai, is sometimes marked by breakers. It is
accessible only to boats drawing 1⋅8 m or less. A light (6.16)
is exhibited from a point on the coast to the N of the
entrance and on the N side of the entrance is a sanatorium
and a village. A church situated on the W bank of the river,
7 cables SW of the entrance, is an excellent mark for making
the entrance.
Dong Hoi
6.27
1
General information. Between Mui Lay (17°05′N,
107°07′E) (6.17) and the mouth of the Dai Giang, 37 miles
NW, the coast is low and sandy, with villages and a few
palm trees in places.
Dong Hoi (17°28′N, 106°37′E), the principal town of the
province Quang Binh, stands on the W bank of Cua Dong
Hoi (Rau Nhat Le), the mouth of the Dai Giang.
2
A rock which dries lies 2 miles NNW of Cua Dong Hoi
and 1 mile offshore. The entrance to Cua Dong Hoi is about
1 cable wide and is fronted by a shallow bank extending
5 cables offshore. Depths in the entrance to the river are
subject to frequent change. Entry should not be attempted
without local knowledge.
3
A cathedral with a tower surmounted by a dome stands
on the W bank, 8 cables within the entrance; rising above
the sand-hills, it is prominent in the offing. On nearer
approach, the belfry of a white chapel on the E bank
opposite Dong Hoi, and the old fort near the W entrance
point, together with the red-roofed houses of the town, will
be seen.
4
Caution. The waters in and around the entrance to Dong
Hoi are reported to have been mined; see 6.6.
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon there is good
anchorage off Cua Dong Hoi. Within the entrance there is
anchorage for small vessels between the cathedral and the
chapel.
Climatic table. See 1.148 and 1.163.
Cua Ly Hoa
6.28
1
General information. Between the mouth of the Dai
Giang (17°29′N, 106°37′E) (6.27) and Pointe Da Nhai,
12 miles NW, the coast is sandy, with low cliffs in places,
and is backed by sand-hills. The first of the low cliffs is
situated 2 miles NW of the mouth of the Dai Giang;
2 miles farther NW there is another cliff, red in colour and
rising to a wooded summit on which stands a pagoda, at the
entrance of a small river. The lower slopes of the mountains
and plain behind this part of the coast are cultivated and the
summits of the mountains are wooded.
2
Cua Ly Hoa (17°38′N, 106°31′E) lies 11 miles NW of the
mouth of the Dai Giang. It has a bar with a depth of 1⋅5 m
over it at HW. A channel is dredged by fishermen after the
NE monsoon, and is suitable only for boats. Within the bar
there are depths of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) off Ly Hoa, a village situated
on the N side of the entrance. Ly Hoa is a fish-curing centre.
Above the village the river becomes shallow and rocky.
3
A rocky point lies 1 miles SE of the river entrance, and
Pointe Da Nhai, 1 miles NW of the river entrance, consists
of two rocky spurs, close together, and bordered by sand; a
small white pagoda stands at the foot of the N spur. The
mountains approach the coast here, and form a promontory,
rendering the point prominent. Ru Hon Bung (Mu Bao) rises
2 miles WSW of Pointe Da Nhai.
Cua Giang
6.29
1
General information. Between Pointe Da Nhai (17°40′N,
106°30′E) (6.28) and Mui Ong (6.17), 16 miles N, the
coast is bordered by sand-hills, within which there is an
extensive plain.
2
The entrance to Cua Giang (17°42′N, 106°29′E), 3 miles
NNW from Pointe Da Nhai, is about 2 cables wide, and is
protected by a bar, also 2 cables wide, and steep-to, which
lies 5 cables off the entrance. Shallow banks extend 6 cables
E from the N entrance point and 3 cables ENE from the S
entrance point; the sea breaks over these banks during strong
winds. Depths in the entrance to the Song Giang are subject
to frequent change. Entry should not be attempted without
local knowledge.
3
There is a wharf at Quang Khe, a village situated on the
S bank of the river 5 cables within the entrance. A ferry runs
from Quang Khe to My Hoa Thuong, a village on the N
bank of the river where provisions may be obtained.
4
The Song Giang is deep as far as the mountains inland,
whence timber is floated down to the mouth.
Caution. The waters in and around the entrance to Cua
Giang are reported to have been mined; see 6.6.
Anchorage may be obtained off Quang Khe, in depths of
11 m (36 ft).
Cua Ron
6.30
1
General information. Between Cua Giang (17°42′N,
106°29′E) (6.29) and Cua Ron, 10 miles N, the coast is low
and sandy, and continues for a further 2 miles NNE.
Montagne de Marbre, which is isolated, lies in the plain 10
miles WNW of Cua Giang.
2
Cua Ron (17°52′N, 106°27′E) can be identified by a
pagoda and some houses. A rocky bank extends 2 miles E
from Cua Ron, near the outer extremity of which is Hon No,
a coral reef which dries and is connected to the reefs
extending S from Vung Chua (17°55′N, 106°30′E) (6.31),
all of which should be give a wide berth. Hon Trot,
below-water, lies on the outer edge of the coastal bank,
1 miles N of Hon No.
3
Both entrance points of Cua Ron are foul. The tidal
streams run strongly through the entrance, but the sea is
broken by the reef extending from the N entrance point. The
channel is subject to frequent change, is suitable only for
junks at HW, and is probably practicable only in the fine
season.
4
The village of Ron, the centre of important salt works, is
situated on the N bank, 5 cables within the entrance; the
village of Canh Duong Xa is situated on the S entrance
point and a ferry plies between the two.
Mui Ong
6.31
1
General information. Between the N end of the sandy
coast extending 2 miles NNE from Cua Ron (17°52′N,
106°27′E) (6.30) and Mui Ong (6.17), 3 miles NE, there
are two bays, separated by Mui Rong, a rocky projection.
The shores of both bays are sandy, and backed by mountains
CHAPTER 6
199
that rise steeply inland; Vung Chua is the N bay. There is a
village, surrounded by vegetation, at the head of Vung Chua.
2
Hon Vung Chua (17°55′N, 106°29′E) lies off the S bay,
3 miles NE of Cua Ron. The passage W and N of Hon
Vung Chua is foul.
Mui Doc, which rises to 263 m (864 ft, charted as 722 ft)
7 cables W of its extremity, lies 1 miles NNW of Mui
Ong; the coast between is rocky. Mui Dao, a low point, lies
2 miles NNW of Mui Doc and another low point lies
5 cables farther NNW.
3
Anchorages:
Vung Chua (17°55′N, 106°30′E), close S of Mui Ong,
affords good holding ground but is exposed to the
swell; it is the only place along this part of the
coast where protection may be obtained during the
NE monsoon.
4
Small vessels may obtain anchorage under the shelter
of the islets close off Mui Ong, with the summit of
Hon Son Duong (Hon Tseu) (18°06′N, 106°27′E)
(6.18) on the line of bearing, of about 342°, seen
between Mui Ong and Hon Co, in depths of 5 to
9 m (16 to 30 ft), mud. Larger vessels should keep
Hon Gio (17°55′N, 106°40′E) open S of the S
extremity of Hon La (6.17), the island 6 cables ESE
from Mui Ong.
5
Anchorage during the SW monsoon may be obtained
N of Mui Ong or off Mui Doc.
Hon Son Duong
6.32
1
General information. The coast NNW of Mui Dao
(17°59′N, 106°29′E) (6.31) is sandy with a few isolated
clumps of trees for 7 miles to the base of Dinh Chua, part of
which forms Mui Ron Ma (6.33). Hon Son Duong (Hon
Tseu) (18°06′N, 106°27′E) (6.18) lies 2 miles SE of Mui
Ron Ma.
2
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained 5 cables S
of Hon Son Duong, in depths of 11 m (36 ft), mud. The
islets and reefs which extend from the extremities of Hon
Son Duong shelter this anchorage, but during the NE
monsoon the swell is considerable.
Mui Ron Ma
6.33
1
General information. Vung Han is entered between the
W extremity of Mui Ron Ma (Mui Ron) (18°07′N,
106°25′E) (6.18) and a point 2 miles WSW. The village of
Vinh Ang is situated at the head of the bay, which is low
and sandy, and may be approached by vessels to within a
distance depending on their draught.
2
Anchorage. The bay affords shelter from E and S winds,
but is open to winds from NE to W, and is suitable for
anchorage only during the SW monsoon.
During the NE monsoon, small craft may find shelter
under a rocky projection on the E side of Vung Han,
3 cables within the entrance. Local knowledge is required.
Cua Khau
6.34
1
General information. Ru Chao Vuong, 349 m (1144 ft)
high, separates Cua Khau from Vung Han (6.33). Between
Cua Khau and a point 9 miles NW, the coast consists of
sandy beaches. Nui Ban Do, two prominent peaks, with Nui
Rut, elevation 83 m (273 ft, charted as 266 ft), 2 miles SE
from them, lie 5 miles NW of Chau Khua and 7 cables
inland.
2
Cua Khau (18°07′N, 106°21′E) is the narrow inlet of a
large lagoon. The entrance is obstructed by a drying bar. The
town of Ky Anh (Ki-Anh) is situated at the head of the
lagoon, which is connected to Cua Nhuong (6.35) by a canal
which is suitable only for sampans.
Cua Nhuong
6.35
1
General information. The stretch of coast 8 miles SE
from Cua Nhuong (18°16′N, 106°07′E) consists of sandy
beaches separated by the cliffs of the coastal hills near the
shore. The latter increase in elevation towards Cua Nhuong,
E of which, for a distance of 1 miles, the cliffs are high
and precipitous. A cultivated plain, on which there are many
villages, extends from Nui Ban Do (6.34) to the foot of the
mountains in the interior. Ru Cua (6.16) stands 1 miles
ESE of the E entrance of Cua Nhuong. A peak, elevation
290 m (952 ft) stands 2 miles SSW of Ru Cua and Nui
Dan stands 5 miles SE of Ru Cua. Ru Cum, 107 m (350 ft)
high, with a pagoda on its E slope, stands close to the coast
2 miles WNW of Cua Nhuong.
2
Cua Nhuong is very narrow, and is obstructed by a bar
with depths of 0⋅3 m (1 ft) on it. Some rocks lie close NE of
the E entrance point. The W entrance point, on which is
situated the village of Nhuong Ban, is low and sandy.
3
Hon En, precipitous and distinguishable by its rectangular
shape, lies 3 miles NE of Cua Nhuong. Hon Man, a ridge
of above-water rocks, lies 3 cables ESE of Hon En; a short
distance SE of these rocks the sea has been observed to
break. In 1860, breakers were reported 2 miles SE of Hon
En and 1 miles from the mainland, but the position is
doubtful.
4
Anchorage may be obtained N of Hon Buc, a group of
grey above-water rocks from 4 to 5 m (13 to 16 ft) high,
which, with numerous other below-water and drying rocks,
lie 1 mile N of the entrance to Cua Nhuong. Local
knowledge is required.
Cua Sot
6.36
1
General information. Between Ru Cum (6.35), 2 miles
WNW of Cua Nhuong (18°16′N, 106°07′E), and Nui Nam
Giai, 13 miles NW, the coast is low, sandy, and bare of
vegetation. Nui Nam Giai is the summit of a ridge
terminating 1 miles S of Mui Sot (18°28′N, 105°56′E),
which is cliffy and connected to the coast by a narrow, low,
sandy isthmus. The coast NNW from Cua Sot is sandy.
Bong Son lies 3 miles W of Mui Lo and 1 mile inland.
2
Mui Lo, the N extremity of Mui Sot, is the E entrance
point to Cua Sot; an above-water rock lies close N of Mui
Lo. The W entrance point, low and sandy, lies 1 miles
WSW of Mui Lo. The entrance is obstructed by a bar with a
least depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, lying 3 cables SW of Mui
Lo. A rock awash lies 6 cables SW of Mui Lo and 2 cables
from the E side of the entrance.
3
Within the bar the depths are greater but the channel
narrows. The village of Kim Doi is situated within the W
entrance point. Above Kim Doi the river widens and divides,
the NW branch being the Song Nghen, and the SE branch
the Song Nai. The town of Ha Tinh is situated on the SE
branch, 9 miles above Kim Doi.
CHAPTER 6
200
Anchorage. Small vessels may obtain restricted anchorage
within the bar. Local knowledge is required.
Cua Hoi
6.37
1
General information. The coast SSE of Cua Hoi is
sandy. Nui Ong (18°33′N, 105°47′E), consisting of four
peaks, is the highest range in the vicinity and stand 2 miles
inland. Hon Matt (6.18) lies 11 miles E of Cua Hoi. Between
Cua Hoi and the mouth of the Song Cua Lo, 5 miles NW,
the coast is low and sandy.
2
Cua Hoi (18°46′N, 105°46′E) is the mouth of the Song
Ca, a river of some commercial importance, on which is
situated Ben Thuy, the port for Vinh, the capital of the
province of Nge An, 2 miles NW.
3
The entrance of the Song Ca is 2 cables wide, and both
entrance points are low and sandy. A shallow bank extends
NE up to 1 miles from both entrance points. The bar,
composed of hard sand and subject to frequent change, is
situated from 7 cables to 1 miles ENE of the entrance.
There are depths of less than 2 m on the bar, which should
not be attempted without a pilot (6.38). Vessels drawing up
to 4⋅5 m may cross the bar; vessels of deeper draught anchor
off (6.38) and discharge their cargo into self-propelled
lighters.
4
Vessels able to cross the bar and enter the river via the
buoyed channel through Cua Hoi may ascend the 10 miles
up river to Ben Thuy, but the channel is subject to frequent
changes. Within the river, the only known dangers are a rock
which dries, lying near the E bank, 4 miles S of the N
entrance point, and a shoal which nearly dries, lying close
off the village of Yen Luu, situated on a bend on the N
bank of the river 2 miles NE of Ben Thuy.
Caution. The waters in and around Cua Hoi are reported
to have been mined; see 6.6.
6.38
1
Arrival information:
Outer anchorages. Small vessels unable to enter Cua
Hoi may obtain good anchorage, sheltered from the
NE winds, under the SW side of Hon Niem, in
depths of 8 m (26 ft); larger vessels may anchor
NW of Hon Niem (6.40). During the NE monsoon,
small vessels may obtain shelter under the SW side
of Hon Matt, in depths of 20 m (11 fm).
2
Pilotage is available at 24 hours notice; see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for details. The
pilot boarding place is approximately 1 miles SE
of Hon Niem (18°48′N, 105°46′E) (6.40).
6.39
1
Harbour:
Storm signals are displayed at Ben Thuy.
Tidal streams. In the channel, with large tides, the
in-going stream lasts 6 hours, and the out-going
stream 18 hours. With small tides there is no
in-going stream. During spates the current is very
strong. Accurate tidal information should be
obtained locally.
At Ben Thuy, slack water is 1 hours after that at Cua
Hoi, or about 1 hour after HW and LW.
2
Tidal signals are displayed from a black framework
mast with a yard and surmounted by an arrow,
situated close W of Vinh River Light (18°46′N,
105°45′E), and also from a similar mast at Ben
Thuy. The signals, displayed by means of cones,
cylinders and balls by day, and white, red and green
lights by night, indicate the height of tide above
chart datum. In addition, a white cone point up
indicates that the tide is rising, and a white cone
point down that it is falling.
6.40
1
Directions (with positions from Vinh River Light
(18°46′N, 105°45′E)). If approaching the pilot boarding
place (6.38) from S, vessels must pass clear of Hon Lon
(Roche Nom) (5 miles ESE), an above-water rock fringed by
rocks on its SW and SE sides. Hon Nho, above-water and
flat, lies 1 mile NW of Hon Lon, and a below-water rocky
patch lies midway between them.
2
If approaching the pilot boarding place (6.38) from E,
vessels must pass clear of Hon Matt, Hon Truan and Roche
des Pêcheurs and their associated dangers (12 miles E)
(6.18), and N of Hon Lon and its associated dangers
(above).
3
Hon Niem (Hon Nieu) (2 miles NE) lies in the N
approach to Cua Hoi and consists of two hills, the higher
and E of which has an elevation of 122 m (401 ft, charted
as 433 ft), and is separated from the other by a low neck;
from a distance, on a S bearing, Hon Niem has the
appearance of two islets.
6.41
1
Berths:
Anchorages. Within the river, there is good anchorage
off Ben Thuy, in depths of 8 m (26 ft). Vessels
drawing 3 m may anchor 100 m off the outer end of
the piers at Ben Thuy.
2
Alongside Berths. There are several piers, and some
mooring buoys, at Ben Thuy. Vessels may lie in
mud at the head of the piers at LW, but there are
depths of up to 3 m at there heads at other times.
6.42
1
Port services:
Repairs: minor only, at Ben Thuy.
Other facilities: hospital at Ben Thuy; deratting
exemption certificates.
Supplies: some fresh provisions.
Cua Lo
6.43
1
General information. Cua Lo lies 5 miles NW of Cua
Hoi (18°46′N, 105°46′E) (6.37). Roche Cua Lo, high, black
and prominent, stands on the edge of the coastal bank
1 cable off a small projection on the coast 1 mile SE of the
S entrance point of the Song Cua Lo. A below-water rocky
patch lies 7 cables E of this rock. Mui Rong, the cliffy N
entrance point to the Song Cua Lo (18°50′N, 105°43′E), lies
5 cables ENE of the S entrance point and is fronted by
drying rocks up to a distance of 7 cables. A hill, elevation
103 m (335 ft) lies 2 cables W of the point.
2
Plateau du Large, a group of rocks, one of which is
above-water, lies 3 miles ENE of Mui Rong. Plateau du
Large is generally visible, or can be distinguished by the
seas breaking over it. Roche St Anne, which dries, lies
midway between Plateau du Large and Mui Rong. A rock,
existence doubtful, is charted 4 miles E of Mui Rong.
Between Mui Rong and Mui Ga (Cap St Anne), 7 cables N,
there is a shallow bay with a sandy beach at its head. Mui
Ga consists of cliffs and is fringed by a reef; a shoal lies
3 cables NE of the cape.
3
Between the N bank of the river and the drying bank
which extends 4 cables N and NE from the S entrance point,
there is a narrow channel, accessible only to boats.
6.44
1
A report has been received of berthing facilities at Cua
Lo:
Position: 18°50′N, 105°42′E.
CHAPTER 6
201
Pilotage is compulsory, day time only. Pilot boards in
position 18°49′N, 105°45′E.
2
Tugs: available.
Berths: two quays, each 160 m in length, maximum
depths alongside 6 and 4 m, to accommodate vessels
up to 100 m LOA, draught 4⋅5 m.
Port services: deratting exemption certificates.
Baie du Brandon
6.45
1
General information. Baie du Brandon affords but little
shelter, as it is open NE and, during the SW monsoon, the
winds are SE. The mountains lie at a considerable distance
from the head of the bay and there are no landmarks near
the coast other than Le Paté, an isolated peak of regular
form which stands 5 miles WSW of the entrance of Cua
Vann. In the S, the NE facing shore of Baie du Brandon is
indented by a number of small bays backed by hills; the
projections which form these bays are steep and cliffy with
rocks lying close offshore. The W shore of Baie du Brandon
is low.
2
Cua Vann (19°00′N, 105°37′E), at the head of Baie du
Brandon, has an entrance, about 2 cables wide, obstructed by
a drying shallow bank. The village of Dien Chau is situated
on the N bank of the river close within the entrance. Large
junks enter Cua Vann, and during the fine season a
considerable number of fishing boats make use of it; these
may be met at distances of 10 to 15 miles offshore.
3
A group of rocks, one of which is above-water, lies on
the coastal bank 3 miles N of Cua Vann and close offshore.
Cua Thoi (19°06′N, 105°40′E), in the N part of the bay,
is obstructed by the coastal bank, which dries, extending
7 cables offshore near the river mouth. A rock which dries
lies in the approach to Cua Thoi, 1 miles SSE of the
entrance.
4
At the entrance to Lach Quen, 2 miles E, above-water
rocks, and drying banks extending from both sides of the
entrance, restrict the width of the entrance channel to 45 m.
A short distance within the entrance there are depths of less
than 1 m. Between Phu Doc, a village on the W side
5 cables within the entrance, and Manh Son, a village on the
E side abreast Phu Doc, the depths increase.
5
Anchorage. It is often possible, during the NE monsoon,
for small vessels to enter Lach Quen and obtain anchorage
off Manh Son in perfect shelter, in depths of about 1 m (3 to
4 ft). Local knowledge is required.
Cua Can
6.46
1
General information. Between Mui Falaise (Cap Falaise)
(19°06′N, 105°44′E) (6.18) and Cap Bouton, 7 miles N, the
coast is low and sandy, except for a group of rocks, some of
which are below-water, which lie for 2 to 3 miles N of
Mui Falaise and close inshore; two rocks are prominent, Hon
Tru being the highest of these.
2
Cap Bouton (19°13′N, 105°45′E) is high and wooded.
Two rocks, the S of which dries, lie together 1 mile ENE of
the cape and 3 cables offshore. A shoal, the existence of
which is doubtful, is charted 7 miles SE of Cap Bouton.
Cua Can (Cua Trap) is entered close W of Cap Bouton.
This shallow estuary, with its narrow channel, is used by
fishing boats.
Charts 3989, 3990
Dao Bien Son
6.47
1
General information. For 7 miles N of Cap Bouton
(19°13′N, 105°45′E) (6.46), the coast is bordered by a range
of hills; thence for a further 5 miles N, the coast as far as
Mui Bang (Cap Bang) (19°26′N, 105°48′E) is sandy. Mui Ta
Lus (Cap Ta Lus), joined to the mainland by a narrow neck
of sand, lies 4 miles N of Cap Bouton. About 5 cables N of
Mui Ta Lus is the S extremity of Ru Truong, a steep cliff,
the summit of which is 1 mile farther N. Rivière de Yen Hoa
discharges close N of this cliff. Dao Bien Son (Bien Son)
lies 2 miles NNE of Mui Ta Lus. Mui Rond, 4 miles NNW
of Dao Bien Son, is the S extremity of the peninsula which
forms the E entrance point of Cua Bang (6.71).
2
In 1966 the charted position of Dao Bien Son (19°19′N,
105°49′E), an island highest at its N end, was reported to be
approximate. Dao Bien Son is joined to the mainland by a
drying bank. Abreast Dao Bien Son, on the mainland, the
coast is bordered by hills, the highest of which is Nui Xuoc,
3 miles inland. A remarkable vertical rock, almost
detached, lies at the SE extremity of Dao Bien Son; foul
ground, the outer end of which dries, extends 3 cables S
from the island.
3
There is a ruined fort on the W side of the N extremity
of the island, and a disused light-tower is situated 2 cables
SE of the fort.
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon good shelter is
afforded in a shallow bay close W of the N extremity of
Dao Bien Son. Good anchorage, with N or NE winds, may
be obtained midway between the entrance points of the bay,
with the ruined fort bearing about 075°, in depths of 5 to
6 m (16 to 20 ft). Local knowledge is required.
Hon Mé
6.48
1
General information. Hon Mé (19°22′N, 105°55′E)
(6.18) and its surrounding isles lie 5 miles ENE of the N
end of Dao Bien Son (6.47).
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained off the SW
side of Hon Mé, between Hon Vang and Hon Vat, in depths
of 7 to 8 m (23 to 26 ft). Anchorage, sheltered from NE
winds, may also be obtained between Hon Vang and the SW
side of Hon Mé, in depths of 13 to 20 m (43 ft to 11 fm).
Local knowledge is required in either case.
HON MÉ TO XUY NONG CHAO
(ÎLES NORWAY), INCLUDING
HANOI AND HAIPHONG
General information
Charts 3990, 1965, 3875
Route
6.49
1
The coastal passage within the Gulf of Tonkin along the
Vietnamese coast continues on a NE track from a position E
of Hon Mé (19°22′N, 105°55′E), to a position SE of Xuy
Nong Chao (Îles Norway) (20°37′N, 107°10′E).
Topography
6.50
1
Between Hon Mé (19°22′N, 105°55′E) and Xuy Nong
Chao (20°37′N, 107°10′E) (6.56) the coast trends NE. From
CHAPTER 6
202
the vicinity of position 20°00′N, 106°00′E a range of
serrated mountains, with only a few prominent peaks,
extends NW for a considerable distance. SW of this range
lies the plain of Thanh Hoa, through which flow the Song
Yen and the Song Ma. The plain is cultivated near the coast,
and studded with villages.
2
Behind the coast, the following peaks may be visible:
Nui Tu Vi (19°26′N, 105°42′E), cone-shaped, which
stands near the S end of a range of mountains
having Nui Cac, 4 miles N, at its N end.
Nui Bom (19°32′N, 105°46′E), elevation 306 m
(1004 ft, charted as 1069 ft).
Nui Truong (19°53′N, 105°56′E), steep and isolated.
Nui Yen Duyen (20°07′N, 105°55′E).
3
To the NE of the serrated range of mountains is an
extensive plain watered by the Song Ca and the Song Thai
Binh. The mouths of the Song Ca intersect the coast
between Hon Ne (19°55′N, 106°00′E) and Cua Tra Ly,
47 miles NE, and the mouths of the Song Thai Binh lie
between Cua Thai Binh, 10 miles NNE of Cua Tra Ly, and
Lach Huyen (20°48′N, 106°55′E) (6.78). Fronting the
mouths of these rivers are extensive coastal banks of mud,
and for a considerable distance inland the coast is low and
flat; see the caution at 6.55.
4
Hanoi (21°03′N, 105°51′E) (6.62) is approached via the
Song Ca, and Haiphong (20°52′N, 106°40′E) (6.64) via Cua
Cam, a mouth of the Song Thai Binh. The rivers are
connected by many creeks and canals.
There are few offshore islands other than Xuy Nong Chao
(Îles Norway) (6.56) and Dao Bach Long Vi (20°08′N,
107°43′E) (6.80).
Depths
6.51
1
Offshore depths are generally in excess of 22 m (12 fm);
greater depths are found SE of Dao Bach Long Vi (20°08′N,
107°43′E). The 18 m (10 fm) depth contour lies mostly
within about 10 miles of the coast.
Tidal streams
6.52
1
Tidal streams information relevant to a particular area is
given with that area.
Major lights
6.53
1
Hon Mé Light (19°22′N, 105°56′E) (6.16).
Ba Lat Light (grey tower, 34 m in height) (20°15′N,
106°36′E).
Hon Dau Light (grey octagonal conical tower, 34 m in
height) (20°40′N, 106°49′E).
2
Dao Bach Long Vi Light (tower on yellow dwelling,
23 m in height) (20°08′N, 107°43′E).
Xuy Nong Chao (Îles Norway) Light (grey round
masonry tower, and dwelling, 30 m in height) (on
Grande Norway (20°37′N, 107°09′E)).
Other aids to navigation
6.54
1
Racon: Ba Lat Lighthouse — as above.
Caution
6.55
1
When approaching the coast:
Trees may appear to rise out of the sea because of the
flat and relatively featureless hinterland.
2
In bad visibility, the proximity of the coastal bank will
become apparent, first by the reddish colour of the
water, and then by breakers.
Vessels should sound continually, and none of the river
mouths should be entered without a pilot.
Directions
(continued from 6.18)
6.56
1
From a position E of Hon Mé (19°22′N, 105°55′E), the
track leads NE for about 95 miles to a position SE of Xuy
Nong Chao (20°37′N, 107°10′E), passing (with positions
from Ba Lat Light (20°15′N, 106°36′E) (6.53)):
SE of Cua Day (33 miles SW) (6.59), a mouth of the
Song Ca, thence:
2
SE of Cua Lac Giang (27 miles SW) (6.61), a mouth
of the Song Ca, thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (48 miles SE), position
approximate. Thence:
SE of Ba Lat Light, and SE of Ba Lat (3 miles NW),
situated at a mouth (6.61) of the Son Ca close N of
which stands a radiobeacon (6.54). Thence:
3
SE of Cua Ba Lat Light (5 miles NNE), position
approximate. A dangerous wreck lies 17 miles ENE
of the light. Thence:
SE of Cua Tra Ly (11 miles N) (6.61), a mouth of the
Song Ca. Thence:
SE of Cua Thai Binh (22 miles N), a mouth of the
Song Thai Binh (6.63). Thence:
4
SE of Hon Dau (27 miles NNE) (6.76), from where
a light (6.53) is exhibited and there is a radiobeacon
(6.54). There is anchorage (6.66) close S of Hon
Dau. Thence:
SE of Cua Nam Trieu (33 miles NNE), the mouth of
the Song Thai Binh which is the principal channel
leading to Haiphong (6.64). Thence:
5
To a position SE of Xuy Nong Chao (Îles Norway)
(39 miles NE), which consist of two main groups of
inaccessible islands and rocks separated by a
channel 1 miles wide. Grande Norway is the
largest of the W group, and Norway Est, the largest
of the E group. These islands are visible for a
considerable distance and make a good landfall;
they should, however, be given a good berth,
especially Norway Est when approached from
between S and NE. A light (6.53), from which a
radiobeacon (6.54) transmits, is exhibited from
Grande Norway.
6
Caution. Numerous sailing fishing vessels may be
encountered in the vicinity; most of them display no
navigation lights at night.
Useful marks
6.57
1
When approaching the coast between Hon Né (19°55′N,
106°00′E) and Cua Tra Ly (47 miles NE), several church
towers situated near villages along the coast are shown on
the chart as being conspicuous. The following are thought to
be particularly useful:
Tower of Saint Pierre, near the coast in Quat Lam
(20°12′N, 106°21′E).
2
Two towers of Thuc Hoa (20°13′N, 106°22′E), which
can be seen from E of Cua Ba Lat (20°20′N,
106°37′E).
Tower at Van Ly (20°08′N, 106°18′E).
CHAPTER 6
203
Two towers at Tra Lu (20°18′N, 106°21′E).
Pointed tower at Hun Vi (20°21′N, 106°31′E).
(Directions continue at 6.89.
Directions for Haiphong are given at 6.68,
and directions continue for Qiongzhou Haixia at 7.62)
Song Ca
Charts 3990, 1965
General information
6.58
1
The Song Ca (Red River) is about 400 miles long and
has its source in the tableland of Yunnan in about position
24°00′N, 101°30′E. It has two main tributaries; the Bo-De
which comes from the SE corner of Yunnan and enters the
Song Ca about 22 miles above Hanoi (21°03′N, 105°51′E),
and Rivière Noire, which also has its source in Yunnan and
enters the S bank of the Song Ca some 37 miles above
Hanoi.
2
From December to May the Song Ca is at its lowest.
About May, the melting snow in Upper Tonkin and Yunnan
causes the river to rise rapidly, frequently washing away the
banks. The annual rise at Hanoi is from 4⋅9 m to 6⋅1 m.
The mouths of the Song Ca are formed of rivers which
discharge into the Gulf of Tonkin between Cua Day
(19°55′N, 106°08′E) and Cua Tra Ly, 44 miles NE.
Cua Day
6.59
1
Cua Day (19°55′N, 106°08′E) is the mouth of the Song
Dai which provides access, mainly via Phu Ly (20°32′N,
105°56′E), between the sea and Hanoi. the Song Dai is
joined to the Song Ca by several canals of which the
principal are the Phu Ly and the Nam Dinh. Vessels drawing
2⋅7 m can reach Hanoi via Phu Ly, but when the river is low
(6.58) vessels cannot proceed beyond Phu Ly.
2
Drying banks extend 8 miles S from both sides of the
entrance to Cua Day. The channel is marked by buoys, but
is subject to change and the buoyage is frequently altered to
conform. Hon Né (19°55′N, 106°00′E) is a good mark when
approaching the entrance. See also the caution at 6.55.
6.60
1
Tidal streams off the entrance to Cua Day normally flow
N on the rising tide and S on the falling tide, but at a
position 6 miles ESE of Hon Né the flow sets S to SW and
attains a rate of kn on the rising tide and 1 kn on the
falling tide; it does not fall below kn. In a position 7 miles
farther NE, at neaps the flow is rotary clockwise running E
at kn at HW, S at 1 kn at half tide, and veering N at kn
before HW.
Cua Lac Giang, Cua Ba Lat and Cua Tra Ly
6.61
1
Cua Lac Giang (20°00′N, 106°13′E) and Cua Ba Lat,
25 miles farther NE, are considered to be impractical for
sea-going vessels. Drying mud banks, some of which are
steep-to on their outer edges, extend up to 6 miles SE from
the shore, and muddy water, having the appearance of banks
of mud, also extends a considerable distance offshore. In
addition, as the cross currents in the vicinity are strong, and
on account of the lack of landmarks, these mouths should be
given a wide berth by passing vessels. See the caution at
6.55.
2
With local knowledge, except in heavy E and SE swells,
the channel through the mud-banks fronting Cua Ba Lat,
marked by buoys, is sheltered by the banks and is suitable
for boats.
Cua Tra Ly (20°29′N, 106°34′E) would appear to be the
easiest access to the main river, but the depths decrease
rapidly within, so that junks and small craft which use it
must tranship their cargoes to smaller craft.
3
Tidal streams, 7 miles E of Cua Ba Lat, set in a N
direction on the rising tide with small tides, at a rate of up
to 1 kn. A little after HW the stream is slack.
Chart 1965
Hanoi
6.62
1
General information. Hanoi (21°03′N, 105°51′E), the
seat of government of Vietnam, stands on the W bank of the
Song Ca, some 75 miles up river, and can be reached by
shallow draught vessels.
2
Above Hanoi vessels of very shallow draught can ascend
as far as Lao-Kai on the borders of Yunnan. The Bo-De
(6.58) is navigable by shallow draught vessels as far as Cho
Bo, where there is communication by boat with Laishan,
200 miles above Hanoi, but from the end of June to the end
of September, navigation is subject to interruption by sudden
violent spates, during which a rate of flow of 7 to 8 kn may
be attained in the narrows.
3
Hanoi is approached from seaward via Cua Day (6.59),
although it has been reported that vessels are now able to
use Cua Lac Giang (6.61) in preference to Cua Day; this
should be confirmed locally prior to arrival.
4
Pilotage. Cua Day should not be entered without local
knowledge, and when proceeding to Hanoi a pilot must be
engaged. Pilots come from Nam Dinh, a town 25 miles N of
the entrance.
5
Tidal streams. The rate of flow in the lower reaches of
the Song Dai and the Song Ca river system is often 2 or
3 kn, and the influence of the tidal stream on the flow is
apparent up river almost as far as Hanoi during the low river
season (6.58), and from the sea to about half way to Hanoi
during the high river season.
6
The rate of flow in the upper reaches of the Song Ca,
above Hanoi, is often 4 to 5 kn in the high river season.
Berths. There are wharves with a frontage of about
850 m and with depths alongside of 6 m.
Port services:
Communications: by air, domestic and international.
Song Thai Binh
Charts 1965, 3875
General information
6.63
1
The Song Thai Binh, with several tributaries and mouths,
has its source in the mountains which lie SW of the Chinese
province of Kiangsi; it flows through the Tonkin plain and
emerges N of the Song Ca (6.58). Canals connect the Song
Thai Binh and the Song Ca, the most important of which are
the Bac Ninh and the Cua Loc which, with Gua Canal
(6.67), enable small vessels to trade between Haiphong and
Hanoi.
2
Hai Duong (20°57′N, 106°19′E), the capital of the
province of the same name, stands on the W bank of the
Song Thai Binh.
CHAPTER 6
204
The mouths of the Song Thai Binh are:
3
Cua Thai Binh (20°38′N, 106°38′E), entered via a
channel which lies between two drying mud-banks
which extend 4 miles ESE from the entrance. The
channel over the bar is rendered dangerous by the
absence of navigational marks. A stranded wreck
lies about 2 miles ESE of the bar. Within the bar
the river is navigable by vessels drawing 2⋅4 m.
4
Cua Van Uc (20°41′N, 106°43′E). The entrance to Cua
Van Uc, 1 mile wide, is obstructed by several drying
banks. The channel leading to the entrance is
buoyed and leads between the drying banks. The
bar extends from 3 to 5 miles SE from the entrance.
Within the bar depths increase.
5
Cua Cam (20°44′N, 106°49′E), formerly the only route
to Haiphong. Owing to silting, it can be used only
by small craft. The entrance has two bars, the outer
one, of hard mud, lies E and N of Mui Do Son
(6.76). The N bar, of soft mud, lies 6 miles NNW
of the same point. The channel from the entrance
joins the main channel to Haiphong (6.68) about
1 miles above the N bar. Cua Lach Tray, leading
to the Song Lach Tray, is entered 5 miles NW of
Mui Do Son (6.76); land to the W of the entrance
is being reclaimed.
6
Cua Nam Trieu (20°45′N, 106°52′E) (6.68), the only
entrance now used by larger vessels bound for
Haiphong.
Lach Huyen (20°48′N, 106°55′E) (6.78).
Tidal streams between Cua Thai Binh and Hai Duong
(6.63), 26 miles up river, attain a rate of to 1 kn on the
out-going stream. In the narrow part of the river between
Hai Duong and Bac Ninh, 10 miles NNW, the rate is from
1 to 2 kn.
Haiphong
Chart 3875
General information
6.64
1
Position. The city of Haiphong (20°52′N, 106°40′E) is
situated on the S side of Cua Cam. It has the appearance of
a European town.
Function. Haiphong is the shipping port for Hanoi (6.62)
and other commercial centres in the N part of Vietnam.
Port limits. The port of Haiphong includes Vinh Ha
Long (20°54′N, 107°04′E) (6.119) with Hon Gai (6.97). The
outer harbour limit of Haiphong is shown on the chart.
2
Approach and entry. Haiphong is approached from
seaward from the Gulf of Tonkin via Cua Nam Trieu
(20°45′N, 106°52′E), a mouth of the Song Thai Binh, and
entered from E via the Cua Cam, which is linked to Cua
Nam Trieu by the Dinh Vu (6.68) (20°51′N, 106°46′E).
3
Traffic. In 2003 there were 424 ship calls with a total of
3 200 947 dwt.
Port Authority. Port Authority of Haiphong, Vietnam
Ocean Shipping Agency, 25 Dien Phu Street, Haiphong.
Limiting conditions
6.65
1
Controlling depth. The depth in the approach channel to
Haiphong is subject to dredging; heavy silting has been
reported. In 1990 it was reported to be not uncommon for
vessels with a draught of 5⋅3 m or over to touch bottom, and
in 1993 it was reported that, because of lack of dredging in
the approach channel, the normal draught at the port was
3⋅1 m, increasing to 5⋅6 m on a high tide.
2
Cautions:
Lightening (6.66) may be required for vessels over
7 000 dwt. Up to date advice as to draught
limitations should be obtained prior to arrival.
The waters in and around the entrance to Cua Nam
Trieu are reported to have been mined; see 6.6.
3
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels of up to
200 m LOA, breadth 26 m and draught 7⋅6 m could berth at
Haiphong, but see above.
Arrival information
6.66
1
Port radio. There is a coast radio station and VHF
facilities at Haiphong.
Notice of ETA. An ETA, with estimated arrival draught,
should be sent at least 48 hours in advance. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for further information.
2
Outer anchorages. Vessels awaiting the tide should
anchor as near to Hon Dau (20°40′N, 106°49′E) (6.76) as
their draught will permit. If there is a heavy swell it is
recommended that vessels drawing up to 5⋅8 m anchor in the
entrance to Baie d’Apowan (20°43′N, 107°02′E) (6.112).
Vessels requiring to be lightened may use the lightening
anchorage in Vinh Ha Long (20°54′N, 107°04′E) (6.103).
Caution. When at anchor, beware of thieves.
3
Pilotage is compulsory. The up-river pilotage is normally
undertaken during the hours of daylight only. Pilots are
stationed on Hon Dau (20°40′N, 106°49′E), the pilot
boarding place being in the vicinity of position 20°40′N,
106°52′E, about 2 miles E of Hon Dau; see chart.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for
further information.
Tugs are available at Haiphong.
4
Regulations concerning entry. The Captain of the Port
of Haiphong should be informed, at the first opportunity, by
radio, of the date and time of arrival.
A customs officer and a police officer will board the
vessel with the pilot, and accompany the vessel to Haiphong.
When navigating in the channel leading through Cua
Nam Trieu and to Haiphong the following regulations apply:
5
During poor visibility the Captain of the Port should
be notified of the time of departure from No 0
Light-buoy, and the vessel’s speed.
Vessels entering with the flood have priority in the
channel.
Vessels with a draught of 3 m or less must navigate
outside the channel, NE of the line of
starboard-hand light-buoys.
6
Vessels must not cross ahead of one another between
No 8 and No 12 Light-buoys.
In Dinh Vu (Canal Maritime), when two vessels are
approaching one another in opposite directions, the
one from seaward must wait and if necessary anchor
until the one from Haiphong has passed through.
7
When dredgers are at work, a vessel’s whistle must be
sounded when approaching. A dredger must not be passed
until she has displayed the signal “Not under control” at half
mast, indicating that the channel is clear, and one of the half
mast, indicating that the channel is clear, and one of the
signals in Diagram 6.66. Vessels passing a dredger must do
so as slowly as possible, and stop if necessary.
CHAPTER 6
205
Haiphong − dredger signals (6.66)
Harbour
6.67
1
General layout. Haiphong is a natural river harbour,
improved by dredging, with widths varying from 275 to
675 m. The city and wharves, including a passenger quay, lie
mainly on the S bank of the river, and mooring buoys for
deeper draught vessels discharging to lighters are also
provided.
2
The mouth of the Song Tam Bac, which is not navigable,
lies close W of the city on the S side of the river. The
entrance to the Ha Ly cutting, which is dredged to 2⋅4 m, is
situated 4 cables WNW of the mouth of the Song Tam Bac.
This cutting leads into the Song Tam Bac which, in turn,
joins the Gua Canal to form the inland waterway to Hanoi.
3
Storm signals. There is a signal station at Haiphong,
shown on the chart, with which vessels may communicate
using the International Code of Signals. Storm signals are
displayed at the signal station flagstaff situated W of the
main wharf.
4
Tidal streams. Off the entrance to Cua Nam Trieu, the
tidal streams generally set NE on a rising tide and follow the
channels. As the tide rises the flow becomes less restricted to
the channels and sets across them in a N direction, at the
same time attaining its maximum rate. At HW locally, the
flow turns anti-clockwise and decreases. On the falling tide,
the flow sets SSW, attaining a rate of nearly kn with small
tides and 1 kn with large tides. At 2 hours before LW locally,
the flow becomes very weak and it turns at LW. The flow is
stronger on the rising tide than on the falling tide, and in the
dredged parts of the channel than over the shallows.
5
In Cua Nam Trieu, 1 mile below the entrance to Dinh Vu
(Canal Maritime), the flow turns about 2 hours after HW
and 1 hours after LW at Hon Dau. With large tides the
out-going flow exceeds 3 kn.
6
At Haiphong in winter, which is the low-river season, the
out-going flow commences 2 hours after HW at Hon Dau
with small tides and 3 hours after HW with large tides, the
maximum rate attained being 1 kn and 2 to 4 kn
respectively. The in-going flow commences 2 hours after
LW at Hon Dau with small tides and 6 hours after LW
with large tides. The maximum rate attained being 1 kn and
2 to 3 kn respectively.
7
In summer, which is the high-river season, the in-going
flow is reduced and the out-going increased in both rate and
duration; there is no in-going flow at all if the tidal range is
less than 0⋅3 m. The out-going flows have been observed to
reach 4 to 5 kn after heavy rain.
8
The in-going stream becomes established slowly; in the
first half hour its rate does not exceed kn and this is
followed by a 1 to 1 hour period of slack water before the
stream is properly established. The out-going stream starts
quickly, beginning in the middle of the river, and attains a
rate of 1 kn in the first hour.
Climate table. See 1.148 and 1.164.
9
Major lights:
Hon Dau Light (20°40′⋅0N, 106°48′⋅7E) (6.53).
Xuy Nong Chao Light (on Grande Norway (20°37′N,
107°09′E)) (6.53).
Racons:
Cua Nam Trieu Front Leading Light (20°45′⋅7N,
106°51′⋅4E).
10
Cua Nam Trieu Rear Leading Light (20°46′⋅6N,
106°50′⋅1E).
Cua Nam Trieu E Bank Front Leading Light
(20°49′⋅8N, 106°49′⋅5E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 6.57)
6.68
1
Approach. When approaching Cua Nam Trieu (20°45′N,
106°52′E) from seaward, caution should be exercised as
soon as the depth becomes less than 30 m (16 fm), especially
at night or in hazy weather. To the E of Xuy Nong Chao
(20°37′N, 107°10′E) the bottom consists of grey mud.
From a position S of Cua Nam Trieu (20°45′N,
106°52′E), vessels may make directly for the pilot boarding
place or anchorage for Haiphong.
2
In hazy weather, if Hon Dau (20°40′N, 106°49′E) (6.76)
is made for on the line of bearing 343°, the bottom will
consist of sand and mud; to the NE of this line of bearing
the bottom is white or grey sand with black speckles; SW of
the same line of bearing, as far as the meridian of Hon Dau,
the bottom is almost all mud, often mixed with shells.
3
Entry. No directions are given for entering Haiphong as
the channel over the bar is subject to change and the
buoyage is altered accordingly. The following is a
description of the route only, which, from No 0 Light-buoy
(20°42′N, 106°57′E), is approximately 19 miles in length:
4
From the vicinity of No 0 Light-buoy the channel over
the bar leads WNW for about 5 miles. It is marked
by light-buoys, and leading beacons are employed.
The bottom of the channel consists of hard muddy
sand with a layer of soft mud above, so it is
necessary to take into account the scend of the sea
before entering the channel. Two wrecks are charted
within 1 mile to the WSW of No 0 Light-buoy.
Spoil ground lies close NNE and SSW of the
buoyed channel. Thence:
5
NNW then WNW along Cua Nam Trieu, marked by
buoys, light-beacons and leading beacons, for about
8 miles, to the entrance to Dinh Vu (Canal
Maritime). Thence:
WNW through Dinh Vu, 7 cables long, with a least
depth of 7⋅9 m, which passes through the middle of
Dao Dinh Vu and links Cua Nam Trieu with Cua
Cam. Thence:
6
W along the Cua Cam for a distance of about 5 miles,
to Haiphong, and a berth, passing S of the entrance
to Van Chau, a branch of the river which connects
the Cua Cam with the Song Bach Dang; see chart.
The banks of Van Chau are covered at HW.
7
Note. Large vessels usually swing upstream, beyond the
port centre area, and then dock with their bows downstream.
Local vessels generally arrange to arrive at Haiphong at slack
water or at the end of the flood stream.
8
Caution. The following should be taken into account
when approaching and entering Haiphong:
Junks and fishing craft, some of which may be unlit at
night, may be encountered.
CHAPTER 6
206
It has been reported that in the channel over the bar
light-buoys may be missing or unreliable, and that,
owing to heavy silting, the aids to navigation and
leads marking Cua Nam Trieu can not be relied
upon.
9
Less water than charted has been reported in Cua Nam
Trieu.
Fishing stakes are positioned close to the limits of the
channel in Cua Nam Trieu.
Useful mark:
Ta Lao Pai (Rocher du Large) Light (white tower)
(20°39′N, 107°05′E).
Berths
6.69
1
Anchorage. Vessels may moor above the Ha Ly cutting,
as close to the N bank as possible in order to keep the
channel clear. The bottom is clay and the holding ground
good, even in heavy squalls.
2
Moorings. There are a number of mooring buoys located
in the river, mainly to the W of the city; see chart. Vessels
up to 15 000 dwt may use these buoys.
3
Alongside berths are available on the S side of the river
in the main port area. These are:
Berth Berthing
length
(m)
Type of berth
Central Area: 1, 2 and
3
390 Bulk cargo
4, 5 and 6 490 General
cargo/passenger (4 and 5)
7 165 General
cargo/containers
8, 9 and 10 490 General cargo/grain
11 155 Refrigerated cargo
Chua Ve Area:
3 wharves
480 General
cargo/containers
Doan Xa Area 300 Ro-Ro/containers
Vat Cach Area 250 Coastal general
cargo/lighterage
Thuy San Area − Fish/general cargo
4
Depth alongside all berths in the main port area and at
Chua Ve Terminal is reported (2004) to be 8⋅4 m.
Port services
6.70
1
Repairs: major repairs; slipways, dry and floating docks
up to 16 000 dwt capacity.
Other facilities: hospital and doctor; deratting; compass
adjusting; oily waste disposal.
2
Supplies: fuel oil and diesel; fresh water alongside and in
the stream; provisions and stores.
Communications: air, domestic services only;
international airport at Noi Bai, 130 km distant.
Harbour regulations: employment of gangway and deck
watchmen compulsory.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Chart 3990
Cua Bang
6.71
1
General information. Between Mui Rond (19°24′N,
105°47′E) (6.47) and Mui Bang, 2 miles NE, there is a
shallow bay, the shores of which are bordered by sand-hills.
The summit of Mui Bang is in the form of a finger
dominating the sandhills. An above-water rock lies 3 miles
N of Mui bang and 2 cables offshore; another rock, which
dries, lies 2 cables SSE of this rock.
2
Mui Rond is the E point of the narrow entrance to Cua
Bang, which is accessible only to boats. Within Cua Bang
there are several villages, the most important of which is
Nhu Ang situated close within the entrance on the W side.
From seaward, a church tower, situated in Ba Lang, a village
on the W side of the peninsula which forms the E entrance
point of Cua Bang, can be seen above the trees.
Lach Yapp
6.72
1
Lach Yapp (19°34′N, 105°49′E), the mouth of the Song
Yen, lies 9 miles N of Mui Bang (19°24′N, 105°48′E)
(6.47). Between Mui Bang and Mui Chao, 18 miles N, there
is a sandy plain.
2
Lach Yapp is narrow, and shallow drying banks, on
which the sea breaks, extend 7 cables from the entrance
points. There is a bar at the outer end of the channel, with
depths of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it. Within the entrance a
mud-bank nearly obstructs the river, leaving only a narrow
channel near the W bank where there are depths of 0⋅6 to
3⋅7 m (2 to 12 ft). The village of Chau Khe is situated on
the S side of the entrance, and the village of Kieh Troc on
the E bank 2 miles N of the entrance.
3
Anchorage. Vessels able to cross the bar may anchor in
the river near the S entrance point. Local knowledge is
required.
Lach Chao
6.73
1
General information. Lach Chao (19°47′N, 105°55′E),
the mouth of the Song Ma, is entered 4 miles NNE of Mui
Chao (Cap Chao) (19°43′N, 105°53′E), a fairly prominent
cape distinguished by a pagoda which stands on its N slope
and is visible from seaward. On each side of the cape there
is a sandy beach, which dries, where landing may be
effected according to the prevailing monsoon. The village of
Sam Son is situated on the coast close N of Mui Chao, from
where a red ball is displayed by day, or a white light is
exhibited at night, from a metal framework mast, when a
typhoon is expected.
2
Lach Chao is fronted by a shallow bar, the depth over
which is subject to change; between the entrance points there
are depths of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) in the fairway.
3
Thanh Hoa, the principal town of the province of the
same name, is situated near the river, 10 miles WNW of the
entrance. The town is served by the port of Le Mon, about
8 miles up river on the S bank, where grain and general
cargoes are handled. The port is accessible by vessels over
500 dwt at HW. Pilotage is compulsory and the pilot boards
off the river entrance. A tug is available. There are reported
to be light-beacons on the approach and in the river. There
are four berths with depths alongside of 5 to 8 m. Fuel,
water and provisions can be supplied with advanced notice.
CHAPTER 6
207
4
Caution. The waters in and around Lach Chao are
reported to have been mined; see 6.6.
Lach Truong
6.74
1
General information. Lach Truong (19°53′N, 105°58′E)
is entered 6 miles E of Lach Chao (6.73), the coast between
being low and sandy with several villages. The entrance,
which is narrow, is accessible at HW to vessels drawing
3⋅4 m, but depths are subject to change, and local knowledge
is required. The river can easily be entered during the NE
monsoon. A below-water rock lies in the middle of the
fairway, 2 cables W of the S entrance point, and Hon Sup,
an islet, lies 1 miles ENE of the same point.
2
Hon Né (19°55′N, 106°00′E) lies 3 miles NE of the
entrance to Lach Truong, near the S edge of the coastal bank
(6.55).
Anchorages.
3
Anchorage may be obtained S of Hon Sup, in depths
of 7 m (23 ft). There is also anchorage in Lach
Truong off the village on the S side, 5 cables within
the entrance, in depths of 3 m (10 ft). Local
knowledge is required.
Temporary anchorage, sheltered from N winds, may be
obtained S of Hon Né, in depths of 7 m (23 ft).
6.75
1
Useful mark:
Nui Truong (19°53′N, 105°56′E) (6.50).
Chart 3875
Baie des Pilotes
6.76
1
General information. Baie des Pilotes (20°42′N,
106°49′E), where there is a customs office, is entered
1 miles SSW of Mui Do Son (Pointe de Do Son), the NE
extremity of the Do Son Peninsule, a high peninsula with
hills at either end, the tip being known as Petit Mirador.
Storm signals are displayed from Petit Mirador.
2
Hon Dau (20°40′N, 106°49′E) lies 6 cables SE of the tip
of the Do Son Peninsule, with a rock which dries, marked
by a pylon, midway between them. A light is exhibited from
Hon Dau (6.53).
The town of Do Son, a watering place of Haiphong, is
situated close N of the bay.
Anchorage. See 6.66.
Port Redon
6.77
1
General information. Port Redon (20°59′N, 106°46′E) is
approached (6.68) via Cua Nam Trieu and is situated on the
E side of the river in the part of Cua Nam Trieu above the
entrance to Dinh Vu (Canal Maritime) (20°51′N, 106°46′E)
known as the Song Bach Dang. To the N of Port Redon, the
Song Bach Dang becomes the Song Da Bach.
2
Port Redon is the terminus of a railway to the coal mines
at Uong Bi, 3 miles NNE. There is a small jetty but vessels
cannot go alongside it. Coal, cement materials and chrome
ore are loaded to vessels from lighters when secured to a
mooring buoy off the port.
3
Tidal streams in the Song Bach Dang reach a rate of
2 kn on the in-going flow.
Anchorage may be obtained in the Song Bach Dang, off
the entrance to the Song Chanh (6.78), in depths of 7 m,
mud and sand. See the cautions at 6.68 concerning
navigation in Cua Nam Trieu.
Lach Huyen
6.78
1
Lach Huyen (20°48′N, 106°55′E) is the E mouth of the
Song Thai Binh. The town of Quang Yen (20°56′N,
106°48′E) is situated on the E bank of the upper part of
Lach Huyen known as the Song Chanh (Song Chang). The
Song Chanh connects with Cua Nam Trieu about 1 miles
W of the town, in the part of Cua Nam Trieu known as
Song Bach Dang (6.77).
2
The bar of Lach Huyen lies from 3 to 4 miles SE of the
entrance. Vessels drawing 4⋅9 m may cross the bar at HW
springs and proceed in deep water to the SE entrance of the
Song Chanh, 1 mile S of Île de la Mangue. However, the
channel across the bar is narrow and open to the sea, and the
marks are distant and often indistinct. Without local
knowledge entry should not be attempted.
3
The Song Chanh is obstructed in places by below-water
rocks and drying patches.
Within Lach Huyen, to the E of Île de la Mangue, is the
S end of a shallow channel which leads into Vinh Ha Long.
Anchorage, for vessels of 4⋅9 m draught, may be
obtained in Son Chanh, 4 miles below Quang Yen.
Useful mark:
Lach Huyen Light (red hut and platform on piles,
14 m in height) (20°49′⋅6N, 106°53′⋅2E).
Grande Norway
6.79
1
A creek on the E side of Grande Norway (20°37′N,
107°09′E) (6.56) affords shelter at HW.
Chart 1965
Dao Bach Long Vi
6.80
1
General information. The summit of Dao Bach Long Vi
(Île Bach Long Vi) (20°08′N, 107°43′E), from where a light
(6.53) is exhibited, is a plateau. The slopes are precipitous in
places and, in others, covered with trees. The island is
fringed by a reef, and a shallow rocky bank extends 7 cables
from its N and S ends. If on passage, the island should be
given a berth of at least 2 miles. Shoals of fish are plentiful
in the neighbourhood and have been mistaken for breakers.
A depth of 11 m (36 ft) exists 26 miles WNW of Dao Bach
Long Vi, with a dangerous wreck 9 miles NNE from this
patch, between Dao Bach Long Vi and Xuy Nong Chao
(Îles Norway). Shoal patches lie 8 miles SE and 15 miles E
of Dao Bach Long Vi.
2
Local weather. See 1.148 and 1.164.
Anchorage, during the NE monsoon, may be obtained
off the S end of Dao Bach Long Vi, in depths of 6 m
(20 ft), with the SW extremity of the island bearing about
335°.
XUY NONG CHAO (ÎLES NORWAY) TO BAISUNGONG JIAO
CHAPTER 6
208
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3990
Scope of the section
6.81
1
In this section is described the most N part of the coast of
Vietnam, from Xuy Nong Chao (Îles Norway) (20°37′N,
107°10′E) to position SSW of Baisungong Jiao, in the
vicinity of the seaward end of the international border
between Vietnam and China, and directions for the coastal
passage off Vietnam are given.
The coastal ports of Quang Ninh Port (Port Courbet)
incorporating Cai Lan and Hon Gai (20°58′N, 107°04′E)
(6.97), Cam Pha (21°02′N, 107°22′E) (6.105), and Port
Wallut (21°12′N, 107°34′E) (6.111), as well as the
anchorages amongst the islands, are also described.
Topography
6.82
1
Between Cua Nam Trieu (20°46′N, 106°52′E) and the
border of Vietnam with China, 80 miles NE, the coast is
fronted by numerous groups of high, rocky islands, most of
which comprise the Archipel des Fai Tsi Long (21°00′N,
107°30′E) (6.91), which lie as far as 20 miles offshore.
Steep mountain ranges run parallel to and back the coast
NW of the archipelago.
Depths
6.83
1
Throughout the area covered in this section depths do not
exceed 55 m (30 fm), and the archipelagic islands lie within
the 20 m (10 fm) depth contour.
XUY CHAO NONG TO BAISUNGONG JIAO
General information
Charts 3990, 3875, 1965
Route
6.84
1
From a position SE of Xuy Nong Chao (20°37′N,
107°10′E) the coastal passage off Vietnam continues on a
NE track for about 50 miles, thence ENE for about 15 miles,
to a position SSE of Baisungong Jiao (21°23′N, 108°12′E).
Topography
6.85
1
See 6.82.
Depths
6.86
1
See 6.83.
Major lights
6.87
1
Dao Bach Long Vi Light (20°08′N, 107°43′E) (6.53).
Xuy Nong Chao Light (on Grande Norway (20°37′N,
107°09′E)) (6.53).
Le Cancrelat Light (white tower, red lantern, 5 m in
height) (20°50′N, 107°17′E).
2
Dao Lo Chuc San Light (yellow square tower, 18 m in
height) (21°14′N, 107°58′E).
Vinh Thuc Light (white tower, 18 m in height)
(21°24′N, 108°00′E).
Bailong Wei Light (21 m in height) (21°30′N,
108°13′E).
Other aids to navigation
6.88
1
See 6.54.
Directions
(continued from 6.57)
6.89
1
From a position SE of Xuy Chao Nong (20°37′N,
107°10′E) (6.56) and clear of the dangerous wreck (6.80)
lying between the islands and Dao Bach Long Vi, the track
continues NE then ENE in clear water for a distance of
about 65 miles, passing:
2
SE of the pilot boarding place (20°44′N, 107°11′E) for
vessels bound for Hon Gai and Quang Ninh Port
(20°58′N, 107°04′E) (6.97), and Cam Pha
(21°02′N, 107°22′E) (6.105), at the entrance to
Passe Henriette. Thence:
SE of Le Cancrelat (20°50′N, 107°17′E) (6.108). A
light (6.87) is exhibited from the islet. Thence:
3
SE of Tche li pai (20°41′N, 107°21′E), the S most
islet of the Archipel des Fai Tsi Long, thence:
SE of Iles Kao Tao (21°00′N, 107°47′E) (6.132),
which lie in the approach to Tsieng Mun (6.125),
the outer approach channel leading to Port Wallut
(21°12′N, 107°34′E) (6.111). Two below-water
obstructions, existence doubtful, lie 5 miles SE of
the islands. Thence:
4
SSE Tai Shan Tao (6.132), which lies 3 miles SE of
Dao Lo Chuc San (Lo Chuc San) (21°14′N,
107°58′E) (6.132), from where a light (6.87) is
exhibited. Thence:
To a position SSE of Baisungong Jiao (21°23′N,
108°12′E), to seaward of the international border
between Vietnam and China.
Useful mark
6.90
1
Weizhou Marine Terminal (20°50′N, 108°37′E) (7.36)
and, at night, the lights it exhibits.
(Directions for Quang Ninh Port (Port Courbet),
Cai Lan and Hon Gai are given at 6.101,
for Cam Pha at 6.108, and for Port Wallut at 6.111.
Directions for Qiongzhou Haixia are given at 7.62,
whilst directions continue for Fangcheng Gang and
Beihai at 7.25 and 7.33 respectively)
ARCHIPEL DES FAI TSI LONG,
INCLUDING QUANG NINH PORT
(PORT COURBET) AND HON GAI,
CAM PHA AND PORT WALLUT
General information
Charts 3990, 1965, 3875
General description
6.91
1
For the purpose of these directions, the Archipel des Fai
Tsi Long is considered to lie between the W extremity of
Dao Cat Ba (20°48′N, 107°00′E) in the W, and the meridian
of 107°38′E in the E.
Archipel des Fai Tsi Long consists for the most part of
steep rocks or islets of marble or limestone from 45 to
100 m high. The islands present many varied forms and have
very distinct summits, some with elevations of over 300 m.
2
From a distance the islands appear as a compact mass. On
nearer approach, sheltered channels between the islets can be
distinguished. Some of the channels, where the water is deep
and clear, are narrow and intricate. The sides of some of the
CHAPTER 6
209
rocks, islets and islands have worn away at the water-line,
and overhang the sea.
3
The archipelago provides the only anchorages for large
vessels along the coast of Tonkin. These anchorages are
practically landlocked, and vessels may work cargo without
interruption, the height of the islands affording shelter even
during typhoons. The only port with extensive alongside
wharfage is the developing (2004) facility at Cai Lan in
Quang Ninh Port (Port Courbet).
4
Quang Ninh Port (Port Courbet) with Cai Lan and Hon
Gai (20°58′N, 107°04′E) (6.97), Cam Pha (21°02′N,
107°22′E) (6.105), and Port Wallut (21°12′N, 107°34′E)
(6.111) are described in this part.
Quang Ninh Port (Port Courbet) lies within Quang Ninh
Province.
Topography
6.92
1
Islands front the entire coastline covered in this section.
See also 6.82.
Depths
6.93
1
See 6.83.
Local knowledge
6.94
1
Local knowledge is required when navigating in Archipel
des Fai Tsio Long.
In fog the services of a pilot are considered essential.
Natural conditions
6.95
1
Tidal streams information relevant to a particular area is
given with that area.
Local weather. In the summer, the heat among the
islands is always greater than in the delta area to the SW,
and to seaward; the temperature may sometimes reach 38°C
in summer, and drop to 7 to 10°C in winter.
From December to March fogs are frequent and persistent.
Caution
6.96
1
Small islets should be given a wide berth in order to
avoid any shallow heads which may not be charted.
Vessels should not pass close to limestone rocks as large
pieces occasionally break off.
Quang Ninh Port (Port Courbet),
Cai Lan and Hon Gai
Chart 3875
General information
6.97
1
Position. Quang Ninh Port (Port Courbet) (20°58′N,
107°04′E) is entered via Cua Luc; Cai Lan is built on
reclaimed land in the NW part, about 1 miles from the
entrance, Hon Gai (Hon Gay) is situated on the E side of
Cua Luc, in the approach to Quang Ninh Port.
Function. Quang Ninh Port handles general and bulk
cargoes, container traffic and exports coal and stone.
Topography. Quang Ninh Port is a shallow bay with
extensive drying flats, in which there are rocks which dry.
2
Approach and entry. Quang Ninh Port is approached
from Vinh Ha Long (20°54′N, 107°04′E) (6.119) and
entered via Cua Luc, consequently, any of the passages
through the islands of Archipel des Fai Tsi Long which lead
to Vinh Ha Long may be used, depending on the size of
vessel. However, the only recommended approach for large
vessels is from seaward, from N of Xuy Nong Chao
(20°37′N, 107°10′E) (6.56) to the pilot boarding place
(20°44′N, 107°11′E) shown on the chart, thence via Passe
Henriette to Vinh Ha Long and across the dredged channel
to Cua Luc.
3
Traffic. In 2003 Quang Ninh Port authority reported 276
ship calls with a total of 1 748 000 tonnes of cargo handled.
Port Authority. Vietnam National Shipping Lines, 6 Le
Thanh Tong Street, Ha Long City, Quang Ninh Province,
Vietnam.
Controlling depth
6.98
1
See 6.102.
Arrival information
6.99
1
Caution. The waters in and around the approaches to
Quang Ninh Port are reported to have been mined; see 6.6.
Outer anchorages. Vessels may anchor in Vinh Ha Long
anywhere in the deep water between L’Index (20°52′N,
107°07′E) (6.101) and Les Marionettes (20°53′N, 107°01′E).
The holding ground is excellent, but vessels anchoring for
long periods should weigh their anchors occasionally to
prevent them being buried. When weighing during the ebb
stream, large vessels should be careful not to approach too
closely to the edge of the extensive bank which limits the N
side of the anchorages.
2
The most frequented anchorages in Vinh Ha Long are at
the N end of Passe Henriette (6.101), close SW of L’Index
(6.101), between it and the N end of Passe de l’Arche
(6.127), in depths of 11 to 16 m, mud; see also 6.101.
A lightening anchorage has been reported (1988) in Passe
Henriette 5 cables E of Le Salacco (20°50′N, 107°08′E).
3
Quarantine anchorage: shown on the chart in position
20°50′N, 107°07′E, 5 cables WSW of L’Index.
Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited in the
vicinity of a submarine cable, shown on the chart, which
crosses Cua Luc, and is marked by notice boards at the
landing places on each side.
4
Pilotage is compulsory. Requests must be made 8 hours
in advance. The pilot boarding place is in position 20°44′N,
107°11′E at the entrance to Passe Henriette, but in bad
weather pilots board some 5 miles farther inside the pass,
in the vicinity of Le Nez (6.101).
5
The movement of vessels in the approach channels is
restricted to the hours of daylight, but it has been reported
that pilotage is available day and night. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(4) under Hon Gai for further
information.
The above also applies to the pilotage of vessels to Cam
Pha, the pilot boarding places being common.
Tugs are available and their use is compulsory.
Harbour
6.100
1
General layout. The main facility is built at Cai Lan on
reclaimed land in the NW part of Quang Ninh Port. The
wharf, currently with four operational berths (2004), is
orientated approximately NW/SE.
There is a single alongside berth at Hon Gai on the E
side of Cua Luc. The remaining berths are at buoys or
anchor within Quang Ninh Port.
2
Development. It is planned to dredge the accesss channel
to 10 m by the end of 2004 and to start construction (2005)
of three further berths to accommodate 40 000 dwt vessels.
Storm signals are displayed at Hon Gai.
CHAPTER 6
210
Le Nez L’Index Le Dragon
(Original dated 2000)
Passe Henriette (6.101). View looking NNW
3
Tidal streams. In Passe Henriette the tidal streams set N
at HW locally with a rate of to kn, gradually turning
W and SW and slackening. The stream sets S in the
direction of the pass, 3 hours after HW, and attains a rate of
from 1 to 2 kn 7 hours after HW. The N flow on the rising
tide attains its maximum rate 4 hours before HW locally.
4
In the anchorage (6.103) S of Cua Luc, the S flow begins
1 hour after HW with both large and small tides. Outside the
entrance the tidal stream is stronger on the E side than on
the W side, and during the out-going stream there is an eddy
which sets N along the jetty at Hon Gai.
5
In Cua Luc, the N-going stream begins 4 hours after LW
locally during small tides and 2 hours after LW during large
tides. The S-going stream begins 1 hour after HW and is the
stronger, attaining a rate of 3 kn after heavy rain; the
N-going stream has a maximum rate of kn at half tide.
Directions
(continued from 6.90)
6.101
1
Approach. The distance from the pilot boarding place
(20°44′N, 107°11′E), shown on the chart, to Hon Gai, is
approximately 15 miles.
From the vicinity of position 20°41′N, 107°12′E the
alignment (338°) of the summit of La Banane (20°53′⋅5N,
107°06′⋅5E) with the notch on the W side of L’Index
(20°52′N, 107°07′E) (6.101) leads through Passe Henriette,
clear of all dangers, passing (with positions from the pilot
boarding place):
2
ENE of La Mauvaise (1 mile WSW). A below-water
rock lies 4 cables N of it. Thence:
To the pilot boarding place, thence:
WSW of L’Orange (2 cables NE). It has been reported
that a white mark on the SE point of L’Orange may
be visible from S, though rather indistinctly, for a
distance of about 5 miles. Thence:
WSW of a below-water rock (1 miles N), marked on
its W side by a red conical buoy. Thence:
3
ENE of the E entrance to Passe des Hydres (3 miles
NNW) (6.129). There are rocks and other dangers
on either hand throughout this section of the route,
including the dangerous wreck close SE of Le
Canot (2 miles NNW); see chart. Le Youyou
(2 miles NNW) should be given a berth of at least
1 cable. In clear weather, a distant summit may be
seen on the leading line. Thence:
4
WSW of the W entrance to Chenal du Ducouedic
(3 miles NNW) (6.129), thence:
Clear of Le Nez (5 miles NNW), which should be
given a berth of at least 1 cable. A below-water reef
extends cable E from Le Nez; the outer end of
this reef is close W of the recommended track. Le
Dragon lies 5 cables NNE of Le Nez, on the E side
of the passage; there is a prominent casemate and
lookout station on it. Thence:
5
ENE of the E entrance to Passe Crochet (6 miles
NNW), thence:
WSW of the lightening anchorage (6 miles NNW)
(6.99), thence:
To the S entrance to Chenal de l’Hamelin (8 miles
NNW) (6.129).
6
From this point Passe Henriette leads NW for about
1 miles to link with the S end of the dredged channel
crossing Vinh Ha Long, passing (with positions from
L’Index Light (20°52′N, 107°07′E)):
Close NE of a dangerous wreck (1 mile S), marked by
a green conical buoy moored close E of it. Thence:
7
SW of L’Index, from where a light (pyramidal tower)
is exhibited. There is a prominent notch half-way
up the steep W side of the island, and a white mark
on the E side. The quarantine anchorage (6.99), and
the most frequented general anchorage area (6.99)
lie SW of L’Index. It is cooler at these anchorages
than farther W. Thence:
8
NE of the N entrance to Passe de l’Arche (1 miles
SW) (6.127), thence:
To a position (1 miles WSW) at the S end of the
dredged channel leading to Cua Luc (20°57′N,
107°04′E).
6.102
1
Entry. From this position, the dredged channel runs in a
NNW direction for about 3 miles, across the shallow part of
the bay. The channel is about 650 m in width and marked
by buoys and light-beacons; the light-beacons have been
reported (1966) to be small and lit only when required. In
2000 it was reported that the channel was dredged to a depth
of 8⋅3 m at LW. At HW vessels drawing 10 m could reach
Hon Gai.
CHAPTER 6
211
2
The SSE to NNW transit of the dredged channel is made,
passing (with positions from Île du Repos Light (20°56′N,
107°06′E)):
SSW of La Reine (2 miles S), an islet. Thence:
ENE of a drying rock (2 miles SW), marked on its S
side by a black and red conical buoy. Thence:
3
WSW of Île du Repos, from where a light (pyramidal
tower) is exhibited. Thence:
To a position SSW of the N entrance to Chenal de
l’Hamelin (1 miles W) (6.129), thence:
Direct to a berth or anchorage; the entrance to Quang
Ninh Port is 2 cables wide.
4
Caution. A power cable spans the entrance to Quang
Ninh Port; 32 m is given as the safe overhead clearance
height for the cable. A ferry plies across the entrance.
Berths
6.103
1
Anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained in Quang Ninh
Port, close inside the entrance, in depths of 15 to 17 m, and
anywhere in the deep water close S of Cua Luc, provided
the approach to Hon Gai is not obstructed. In the deep water
close S of Cua Luc, when the tidal stream (6.100) is against
the wind, the sea is rough for boats. Small vessels are
recommended to anchor off Va Chai, a village on the coast
2 cables SW of the W entrance point of Cua Luc, in depths
of 4 to 8 m, where the tidal streams are weak, and where it
is cooler in the summer.
2
Local knowledge is required when anchoring.
Lighterage berths within Quang Ninh Port can take
vessels up to 45 000 dwt.
Moorings. There are two mooring buoys charted in the
deeper, S part of the bay, but see also the B12 tanker
terminal below.
Alongside berths. At Cai Lan there are five alongside
berths, the three SE berths being the longest at 220 m and
with depth alongside of 13 m. Containers and general cargos
are handled at these berths which can take vessels up to
25 000 dwt.
3
Vessels of up to 12 500 dwt, 200 m LOA, and draught
8⋅5 m can be accommodated at the alongside berth at Hon
Gai, but vessels with draughts in excess of 7 m must be
handled at high water.
4
Tankers up to 20 000 dwt, 185 m LOA, and draught
10⋅5 m can be accommodated at B12 tanker terminal, a buoy
berth on the W side of Quang Ninh Port, about 5 cables N
of Cua Luc narrows.
Port services
6.104
1
Repairs. There is reported to be a facility capable of
handling vessels of up to 5000 dwt.
Other facilities: hospital; deratting exemption certificates.
Supplies: fuel oil and diesel oil by barge; fresh water and
provisions in limited quantities.
Harbour regulations. The employment of gangway and
deck watchmen is compulsory.
Cam Pha
Chart 3875
General information
6.105
1
Position. Cam Pha (21°02′N, 107°22′E) is situated on the
mainland coast, NE of Vung Fai Tsi Long (6.121).
Function. The port functions as a loading facility for the
coal produced at local mines.
2
Approach and entry. Cam Pha is approached from
seaward and via the passages through the islands of Archipel
des Fai Tsi Long. However, the widest, deepest, least
intricate and most frequently used approach is from seaward,
from N of Xuy Nong Chao (20°37′N, 107°10′E) (6.56) to
the pilot boarding place (20°44′N, 107°11′E) shown on the
chart, thence via Passe de La Pérouse, Passe du Casque,
Chenal de la Saône, Chenal du Bourayne and Chenal de
Cam Pha to the port.
3
The channel leading to Cam Pha continues N beyond
Cam Pha towards Tien Yen (6.111) (chart 3990), 17 miles
N, but even at HW is suitable for shallow draught vessels
only.
Traffic. In 2003 there were 71 ship calls with a total of
1 825 460 dwt.
4
Port Authority. Port Authority of Quang Ninh, Cam Pha
Branch, Cuaong Precinct, Cam Pha Town, Quang Ninh
Province, Vietnam.
Arrival information
6.106
1
Caution. The waters in and around the approaches to
Cam Pha are reported to have been mined; see 6.6.
Outer anchorages. It has been reported that there are two
anchorage areas for the use of vessels transferring cargo from
barges. One area, in the vicinity of position 20°55′N,
107°16′E, is for use by vessels of more than 25 000 dwt,
and the other area, in the vicinity of position 20°58′N,
107°20′E, is for use by vessels of less than 25 000 dwt. The
holding ground in both is reported to be good.
2
Anchorage may also be obtained in Chenal de Cam Pha
(20°59′N, 107°22′E), in the N part of the channel, in depths
of 6 to 10 m, with good holding ground, but there is little
swinging room.
Quarantine anchorage: shown on the chart in position
(20°57′⋅5N, 107°20′⋅7E).
3
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boarding places and
requirements are the same as for Quang Ninh Port and Hon
Gai; see 6.99 for details.
Tugs are available.
Tidal streams
6.107
1
Tidal streams at the junction of Passe de La Pérouse
(6.108) and Passe du Casque reach a rate of 1 kn with a
tidal range of 3 m.
In the approach to Cam Pha the tidal streams are strong
and set in the direction of the channel. Abreast the wharf the
S-going stream attains a rate of 3 kn.
Directions
6.108
1
Approach. Directions for the approach to the pilot
boarding place (20°44′N, 107°11′E), shown on the chart, are
given at 6.101.
From the pilot boarding place to Cam Pha, a distance of
approximately 25 miles, the track leads generally NE, passing
(with positions from Le Cancrelat Light (20°49′⋅5N,
107°18′⋅0E) (6.87)):
2
Clear of the islets and the above and below-water
rocks which lie W of the meridian of 107°12′E and
NE of the pilot boarding place, and the below-water
rock 1 miles E of the pilot boarding place; see
chart. Thence:
3
SE of La Mère, an islet, and L’Enfant, a rock
(3 miles WSW), both of which are easy to
identify when approached from S. Thence:
CHAPTER 6
212
SE of Le Turco (1 miles SW), a rock with an islet
lying 4 cables SW of it.
4
From a position close SE of Le Turco, the line of
bearing, 029°, of a beacon (3 miles NNE) on the S
extremity of Cong Dong, leads through Passe de La Pérouse
(Passe du Lapérouse), passing:
WNW of Le Cancrelat, an islet on the SE side of the
outer end of Passe de La Pérouse, which leads to
Cam Pha. A light (6.87) is exhibited from the islet.
Thence:
5
ESE of a below-water rock (1 miles N) at the E
extremity of La Méduse, close W of the fairway,
marked by a red can buoy. Thence:
WNW of L’Encrier (1 miles NNE), upon which
stands a beacon. The channel enters Passe du
Casque between L’Encrier and two small islets
which lie close N of the buoyed below-water rock
just mentioned.
6
The line of bearing, 146°, astern, of the beacon on
L’Encrier leads through Passe du Casque, passing (with
positions from Passe du Casque Islet Light (20°52′⋅5N,
107°17′⋅0E)):
SW of Passe du Casque Islet, from where a light,
position approximate, is exhibited. Thence:
7
NE of Le Casque (4 cables WNW), an island upon the
NE extremity of which stands a beacon backed by a
N-facing white mark. Thence:
Passe du Casque enters Vung Fai Tsi Long (6.121) off Le
Casque, and joins Chenal de la Saône 1 miles farther N.
From a position between Île du Milieu (20°54′⋅5N,
107°15′⋅8E) and Îlot Plat, 1 miles ESE, the route follows
Chenal de la Saône on a NE track for about 6 miles, passing
(with positions from L’Abeille Light (20°58′⋅0N,
107°20′⋅5E)):
8
SE of La Poire and La Pomme (3 miles SW). A
beacon is reported to stand on or near the S
extremity of La Pomme. Île du Chenal, which is
prominent, lies 5 cables SW of La Poire, and the
transfer anchorage (6.106) for vessels over
25 000 dwt lies between Île du Chenal and Île du
Milieu. Thence:
9
NW of the W extremity of Île Rousse (2 miles SW),
from where a light, position approximate, is
exhibited. Thence:
10
SE of Les Aiglons (2 miles WSW). A beacon stands
on the SE extremity of the E islet. L’Aigle
(2 miles E), seen from W, dominates all other
islands and rocks. The transfer anchorage (6.106)
for vessels under 25 000 dwt lies about 1 mile E of
L’Aigle, close S of Le Vautour. Thence:
NW of the quarantine anchorage (6.106) (5 cables
SW).
11
Entry. At this point the Chenal de la Saône continues as
the Chenal du Bourayne (6.127), which leads to the Chenal
de Cam Pha, which, in turn, leads generally NNE to Cam
Pha, passing:
NW of L’Abeille, from where a light is exhibited.
Thence:
12
SE of Les Ours (1 miles NNE), a group of islets
lying on the coastal bank. The SW extremity of a
bank on the SE side of the channel is marked by
No. 0 Buoy (conical, green), 4 cables S of Les
Ours. Thence:
13
Via Chenal de Cam Pha, the N part of which is
marked by light-buoys and leading beacons, (see
chart), to the wharf and inner anchorage.
Note. The lights on the aids to navigation in this part of
the channel are lit only on occasion, or at the request of the
pilot.
These directions are also applicable when outward bound
from Cam Pha. However, the pilot will disembark in the
vicinity of Le Cancrelat (20°49′⋅5N, 107°18′⋅0E).
Berths
6.109
1
There is one wharf situated at the W entrance point of the
port, length 300 m, with a reported depth alongside of 9 m,
but ships have reportedly loaded to 10⋅8 m draught. The
wharf is of concrete and said to be well fendered; it is for
coal loading only.
Port services
6.110
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Other facilities: fuel oil, diesel oil and fresh water
available by barge; hospital.
Harbour regulations. The employment of gangway and
deck watchmen is compulsory.
Minor port
Chart 3990
Port Wallut
6.111
1
General information. Port Wallut (Van Hoa) (21°12′N,
107°34′E), is situated in a small bay about 7 miles W of the
N tip of Île aux Sangliers (21°11′N, 107°40′E) on the N side
of the E extremity of the larger island of Dao Cai Bau (Île
de Ke-bao) (21°11′N, 107°30′E).
It is a port for loading coal, but is reported to be in
disrepair. Cai Bau, a village where there is an outcrop of
coal, is situated on the SE side of Dao Cai Bau and is
connected by railway with Port Wallut.
2
Îles des Pirates lies 1 miles W of the E extremity of the
Dao Cai Bau, about 1 cables N of the N shore. A customs
office and a flagstaff stand at the SW end of Îles des Pirates.
Rade de Tien Yen, which runs along the NE side of Dao
Cai Bau, leads to the town of Tien Yen, 12 miles NNW, but
it is encumbered by rocks and shoals, and local knowledge
is required if proceeding there.
3
Pilotage is compulsory. Arrangements should be made
through Haiphong (6.66).
Tidal streams off Dao Cai Bau begin to run NE about 4
hours before LW and S from 3 to 4 hours after LW locally.
In Kuai Chin Mun tidal streams are strong and attain a rate
of 2 to 2 kn.
4
Directions. Port Wallut is approached from seaward from
the vicinity of a position 5 miles E of the N tip of Île aux
Sangliers (21°11′N, 107°40′E), via Kuai Chin Mun, a
channel passing NE and N of Île aux Singes (21°14′N,
107°41′E), which enters the port from E, passing N of the E
extremity of the Dao Cai Bau.
5
There are depths of more than 5⋅5 m (18 ft) in the fairway
of Kuai Chin Mun, except for a shoal depth of 5⋅2 m (17 ft);
the seaward approaches are encumbered with numerous
shoals and banks; see chart.
Alternatively, Port Wallut may be approached via Tsieng
Mun (6.125), Passe des Bruyères (21°10′⋅5N, 107°35′⋅5E)
and the NE end of Chenal du Duchaffaut; for channel
information see 6.127.
6
Whichever route is chosen, only vessels of shallow
draught should make the passage, and local knowledge is
required.
CHAPTER 6
213
Berths:
7
Anchorage may be obtained at the S end of Rade de
Tien Yen, 5 cables to 1 mile off the SW end of Îles
des Pirates (6.111), in depths of 7 to 12 m (23 to
39 ft), with good holding ground. Anchorage in the
channel farther N is restricted to vessels of under
45 m LOA, but is not recommended on account of
the strong tides and the violence of the squalls from
the mountains.
8
Alongside berth. Stone wharf 60 m in length, depth
alongside 4⋅9 m. During the ebb stream an eddy is
experienced at the wharf.
Port services:
Repairs: minor only.
Supplies: small quantities of fresh provisions.
Anchorages in Archipel des Fai Tsi Long
Chart 3875
Baie d’Apowan
6.112
1
General information. Baie d’Apowan (20°43′N,
107°02′E) lies on the W side of the peninsula forming the S
extremity of Dao Cat Ba (Île de la Cac Ba) and is entered
between Île H and a group of islands, of which Île B is the
largest, about 5 cables W. The bay is shallow; within the
entrance the depths decrease gradually towards the the
village of Apowan, where there is a customs office with a
prominent white tower, situated at the NE end of the bay.
The shores of the bay are indented. There is a stone jetty
near the customs office which can be used by boats at LW,
but care must be taken to avoid the below-water rocks near
it.
2
Numerous fishing junks frequent the bay for eight months
of the year.
Fresh provisions can be obtained at Apowan.
Anchorage. There is anchorage, shown on the chart, off
the W side of Île B, in depths of about 6 m.
3
Vessels may also anchor in Baie d’Apowan, depending on
draught, in very soft mud. Vessels drawing less than 4⋅3 m
may enter between the islets which extend S from Dao Cat
Ba. Local knowledge is required.
Useful mark: fort, prominent, on the summit above
Apowan.
Mouillage de l’Ancre
6.113
1
Anchorage. Mouillage de l’Ancre (20°44′N, 107°05′E)
affords good shelter, and anchorage in depths of 7 m. When
entering this anchorage from S, Roche Forban, which dries,
must be avoided; the deeper water lies to the W of the rock.
The NE entrance is also obstructed by a drying rock.
Tidal streams in Mouillage del’Ancre set N at a rate of
almost 1 kn on the rising tide, and S at a rate of 1 kn on a
falling tide, turning in an anti-clockwise direction. The
stream does not appear to vary in proportion to the tidal
range.
Vung Lan Ha
6.114
1
General information. Vung Lan Ha (Baie de Lan Ha)
(20°45′N, 107°06′E) leads into Entrée Profonde (6.131). On
the W side of the bay are some inlets, in the approaches to
which are numerous islets amongst which secure anchorage
can be found.
Tidal streams in Vung Lan Ha attain a maximum rate
with the S-going stream 3 hours after HW locally, and with
the N-going stream near LW locally.
Baie du Parseval
6.115
1
Anchorage. Baie du Parseval (20°46′⋅5N, 10°05′⋅5E)
affords excellent anchorage in case of a typhoon, in depths
of 5 to 7 m, inside the narrow entrance. Local knowledge is
required.
Port Bayard
6.116
1
Anchorage. Port Bayard (20°47′N, 107°06′E), on the W
side of Entrée Profonde (6.131), at the head of a narrow
irregular inlet, provides excellent shelter in case of a
typhoon, but the entrance is narrow, the width between the
rocks on either side being only about 75 m, and local
knowledge is required. Anchorage may be obtained, in
depths of 5 to 7 m, in Port Bayard.
Rade du Crapaud
6.117
1
General information. Rade du Crapaud (20°49′N,
107°06′E), at the N end of Entrée Profonde (6.131), can also
be entered from E via Passe Henriette (6.101) and Passe
Crochet. It affords the most accessible shelter throughout the
region for large vessels from typhoons.
2
Tidal streams in Rade du Crapaud set as follows:
Local time Direction Rate
LW ESE turning to NE kn
2 hours after LW − Slack
4 hours after LW Turning to W Slack
8 hours after LW W 1 kn
HW SW −
1 hours after HW SE −
6.118
1
Anchorage may be obtained in Rade du Crapaud, in
depths of 13 m, mud, close SW of the wreck with masts
showing (see chart), which lies in the middle of Rade du
Crapaud. The gravel patch with a depth of 8⋅5 m over it,
2 cables WSW of the wreck, should be avoided.
Vinh Ha Long
6.119
1
Anchorage. Vinh Ha Long (Baie de Ha Long) (20°54′N,
107°04′E) lies NE of Dao Cat Ba, at the W end of Archipel
des Fai Tsi Long. Depths in the bay are mostly less than 5 m
except for a small area along the S side of the bay where
vessels can anchor off the N entrances to the various
channels leading into the bay. See also 6.103.
Ti Ma Tao
6.120
1
General information. Ti Ma Tao (Nui Nut) (20°45′N,
107°24′E), a small island, elevation 115 m (charted, on chart
1965, as 294 ft), has Nui Phung Hoang (Fong Wong) 1 mile
NNE of it. Nui Phung Hoang is inhabited.
Anchorage. During the NE monsoon, small vessels may
obtain good anchorage 2 cables NE of Ti Ma Tao, in the
position shown on the chart, in depths of 15 m, mud. Local
knowledge is required. During the SW monsoon this
anchorage is not good.
Vung Fai Tsi Long
6.121
1
General information. Vung Fai Tsi Long (Grande Baie
des Fai Tsi Long) (20°55′N, 107°14′E) is a large relatively
open bay lying within Archipel des Fai Tsi Long E of Vinh
Ha Long (6.119). Depths in the bay are mostly shallow, with
CHAPTER 6
214
a bank with depths of less than 5 m extending across it in a
NE-SW direction for 7 miles.
2
The bay may be entered from several channels; see chart.
See also the directions (6.108) for Cam Pha.
Vung Fai Tsi Long is exposed to NE winds which cause
a sea and swell, somewhat dangerous to boats.
Chart 3990
Dao Cai Bau
6.122
1
Anchorage may be obtained between the SE side of Dao
Cai Bau and the W side of Île aux Bambous (21°08′N,
107°34′E), an island, elevation 238 m (782 ft), 1 miles SE.
Chart 1965
Pak Ha Mun
6.123
1
Tidal streams in Pak Ha Mun (20°58′N, 107°34′E) and
close inside are strong and the sea is rough during the NE
monsoon; see also 6.124.
Anchorage may be obtained inside Pak Ha Mun, about
1 mile NNW, in position 20°59′N, 107°33′E, W of the S
end of Dao Cao Lo (Ile Bamun), between the narrow
sandbank off it and Le Fer à Cheval, the prominent jagged
rocks off Ile de la Table, in depths of 10 to 12 m. A more
sheltered anchorage, with good holding ground, can be
obtained E of the sandbank, in depths of 6 to 7 m (19 to
24 ft), in the entrance to the shallow Anse du Pirate.
Charts 1965, 3990
Chenal de la Surprise
6.124
1
General information. Pak Ha Mun (6.123) is the
entrance to Chenal de la Surprise, which has a least depth in
the fairway is 5⋅8 m (19 ft), and leads to Tsieng Mun
(6.125), about 10 miles NNE.
2
Tidal streams in the S end of Chenal de la Surprise
follow the direction of the channel and turn at HW and LW
locally. The rates decrease when going N from Pak Ha Mun
where the S-going stream attains 1 kn. In the N part of the
channel the stream sets SW from 2 hours after HW locally
and turns at half-tide to run NNE. The falling SW-going
stream attains a rate of 1 kn and at LW locally is 1 kn.
Anchorage may be obtained as convenient in Chenal de
la Surprise; the bottom consists generally of mud, and the
holding is good.
Chart 3990
Tsieng Mun
6.125
1
General information. Tsieng Mun is entered between
Pointe de Tsieng Mun (21°07′N, 107°38′E) and Île Boisée,
8 cables NE, and leads to the NE end of Chenal du
Duchaffaut via Passe des Bruyères (6.127).
2
Tidal streams. In the anchorage about 5 miles SW of
Pointe de Tsieng Mun, with large tides, slack water occurs
between 2 and 1 hours before a HW locally, after which
it sets SSW attaining a rate of kn half an hour after HW.
Slack water occurs again 4 hours after HW when the
stream turns NNE, attaining a rate of kn, 7 hours after
HW locally. On the falling tide preceding higher LW, the
stream sets S, but on the falling tide preceding lower LW,
the stream sets NNE.
3
Anchorage may be obtained a short distance within
Tsieng Mun, where there is excellent shelter, with good
holding ground, in depths of 15 to 18 m (49 to 59 ft).
Shallow draught vessels may obtain better shelter in the N
end of Chenal de la Surprise (6.124), about 5 miles SW of
Pointe de Tsieng Mun.
Channels in Archipel des Fai Tsi Long
Charts 3875, 1965, 3990
General information.
6.126
1
The channels in Archipel des Fai Tsi Long, as well
providing access from seaward to the coastal ports, offer
considerable advantages during the NE monsoon. Several
channels, some of which are linked by subsidiary channels,
lead between the islands in the N of the archipelago and
most can be used by small vessels of shallow draught. There
are few aids to navigation and most dangers are unmarked.
However, most of the channels, but not all the subsidiaries,
have depths of not less than 4⋅3 m (14 ft) in the fairway,
except the N end of Chenal du Duchaffaut (21°01′N,
107°27′E) where there is a bar with a depth of 3 m (10 ft)
over it. This bar can be avoided by proceeding to sea via
Passe des Bruyères and Tsieng Mun.
Descriptions
6.127
1
For ease of reference, the named channels between the
islands of Archipel des Fai Tsi Long are listed below in
alphabetical order. Where appropriate, salient points are
mentioned, and references to their inclusion elsewhere in
these directions are given.
Arche, Passe de l’ (20°51′N, 107°07′E).
Aspic, Passe de l’ (20°51′N, 107°15′E): a narrow channel
with a least depth in the fairway of 8⋅2 m.
2
Tidal streams at the N end of the channel are very
strong.
Bourayne, Chenal du (20°59′N, 107°23′E): the E part of
the channel, which links with Chenal du Duchaffaut, is
sometimes known as Coupure de Bourayne.
Brandon, Chenal du (20°51′⋅0N, 107°13′⋅5E).
3
Bruyères, Passe des (21°10′⋅5N, 107°35′⋅5E): a narrow
channel with a least depth
Автор
ilyasmile
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