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NP 32 China Sea Pilot Vol III 5ed 2004

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NP 32
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notice to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.
Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user with corrections to this
volume from these amendments.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2004 2005 2006 2007
IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS
This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of
Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:
Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s
Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),
Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.
All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
NP 32
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOLUME III
From Zhelang Jiao to Yalu Jiang or Amnok Kang, north coast of Luzon,
coasts of T’ai−wan, west coast of Korea
FIFTH EDITION
2004
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM NATIONAL HYDROGRAPHER
ii
Crown Copyright 2004
To be obtained from Agents
for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright for some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner
First published as China Pilot 1855. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition 1858. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1861. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1864. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First published as China Sea Directory Volume III 1874. Second Edition 1884. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1894. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1904. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First published as China Sea Pilot Volume V 1912. . . . . . Second Edition 1926. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First published as China Sea Pilot Volume III 1937. . . . . Second Edition 1954. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
PREFACE
The Fifth Edition of China Sea Pilot has been prepared by A. C. Gratton−Cooper, Commander Royal Navy, and M. Mazhuvanchery,
Master Mariner. The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the
appropriate information obtained by and assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be
included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners where appropriate. If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notices
to Mariners are and how to use them.
This edition supersedes the Fourth Edition (1982), which is cancelled.
Information on currents and ice has been based on data supplied by the Met Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
Local Port Authorities
Port Handbooks produced by Port Authorities
Fairplay Ports Guide 2003−2004
Ports of the World 2004
Whitaker’s Almanack 2004
The Statesmans Yearbook 2004
Lloyds List
Dr D W Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
2nd December 2004
iv
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations viii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlet xiii & xiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.10) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.17) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aids to Navigation (1.24) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.26) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.28) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.45) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.68) 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.77) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
People’s Republic of China (1.80) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Korea (South) (1.86) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Korea (North) (1.93) 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Republic of China (T’ai−wan) (1.98) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Republic of Philippines (1.103) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.110) 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services — summary (1.111) 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.114) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic variation and local anomalies (1.118) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents, tidal streams and flow (1.119) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.125) 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.128) 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice conditions (1.131) 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.135) 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climatic tables (1.160) 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.175) 64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
Taiwan Strait and west and north side of T’ai−wan 67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
Luzon Strait and east coast of T’ai−wan 101. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
South−east coast of China from Zhelang Jiao to Dongyin Dao 123. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
Coast of China from Dongyin Dao to Xiangshan Gang 167. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 6
Coast of China — Xiangshan Gang to Nanhui Zui including Zhoushan Qundao 195. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 7
Coast of China — Chang Jiang and approaches including Huangpu Jiang and Shanghai 231. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS
v
CHAPTER 8
Coast of China from Changjiangkou Beijiao to Chengshan Jiao 265. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 9
Coast of China — Chengshan Jiao to Penglai Tou and Bohai Haixia and approaches 289. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
Bo Hai and south coast of Liaodong Bandao 305. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 11
South−west coast of Korea from Haenamgak to Kunsan Hang 345. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 12
West coast of Korea from Kunsan Hang to Inch’on Hang 375. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 13
West coast of Korea from Inch’on Hang to Amnok Kang 393. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES
Appendix I — Former mined areas 407. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II — Regulations governing the approach and entry of foreign vessels to ports in T’ai−wan 409. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix III — Regulations governing supervision and control of foreign vessels by the People’s Republic of China 411. . . . . . INDEX
Index 418. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 12 m or more in length. They amplify charted detail and contain
information needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended
to be read in conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published in the last weekly edition for each
month. Those still in force at the end of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,
the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Admiralty Maritime Communications is a comprehensive guide on all aspects of maritime communications for the yachtsman and small
craft user. It provides general information on Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), the management of VHF, Maritime
Safety Information, NAVTEX, Inmarsat and Radio Facsimile, and detailed information and procedures for marinas and harbours used by
small craft.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
vii
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Except for submarine exercise areas, details of firing, practice and exercise areas are not mentioned
in Sailing Directions, but signals and buoys used in connection with these areas are sometimes mentioned if significant for navigation.
Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the structure above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
viii
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text.
Directions
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NNE north-north-east
NE north-east
ENE east-north-east
E east
ESE east-south-east
SE south-east
SSE south-south-east
S south
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
WSW west-south-west
W west
WNW west-north-west
NW north-west
NNW north-north-west
Navigation
AIS Automatic Indentification System
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
GPS Global Positioning System
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
Satnav Satellite navigation
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
Offshore operations
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FPU Floating production unit
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SBM Single buoy mooring
SPM Single point mooring
Organizations
EU European Union
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
RN Royal Navy
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Radio
AIS Automatic Indentification System
DF direction finding
HF high frequency
LF low frequency
MF medium frequency
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
Navtex Navigational Telex System
RT radio telephony
UHF ultra high frequency
VHF very high frequency
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
Rescue and distress
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
JRCC Joint Rescue Cooperation Centre
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
SAR Search and Rescue
Tides
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HW High Water
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LW Low Water
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
MSL Mean Sea Level
ABBREVIATIONS
ix
Times
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
UT Universal Time
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
Units and miscellaneous
°C degrees Celsius
DG degaussing
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
ft foot (feet)
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
GRP glass reinforced plastic
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
m metre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MHz megahertz
mm millimetre(s)
MW megawatt(s)
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
Vessels and cargo
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
HSC High Speed Craft
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length overall
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MV Motor Vessel
MY Motor Yacht
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
RMS Royal Mail Ship
Ro-Ro Roll-on, Roll-off
SS Steamship
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
x
GLOSSARIES
Glossary of words Chinese (C) or Korean (K) terms and words used on charts and in this volume of Sailing Directions.
This list includes words in both Pinyin and Wade−Giles forms of spelling; see (1.84).
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ak K mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . am, amsok K rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an K cliff, shore, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an C current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an−chiao C embankment, bank, shore,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . coast, cliff, submerged rocks,
reefs
anjiao C sunken rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ansha C shoal, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ao C bay, cove, inlet, dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ap K cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bandao C peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bando K peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bei C north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bi KC point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bodi C anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bong K mountain, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bu C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bu K city, municipality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cao C channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cha C lock, dam, flood barrier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’am K village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chau C island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chao C bog, marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chedo K island group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chen C town, market town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’eng C city, walled town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chi C obstruction, ledges in a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chihyp K isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chijindu K headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chin K ferry, fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’i C stream, river, head, cape,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . point, mountain, seven
ch’o K islet, reef, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’oe K narrow cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’olloe K shoals, shallows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’n K river, stream, village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ntan K shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’nt’oe K shoal, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chia C cape, bluff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ia C customs barrier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chiang C river, shoal, harbour, port,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inlet, channel, sound
chiang−tao C channel, strait, sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chiao C creek, rock, reef, shoal, islet,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cape, point
ch’iao C bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chien C mountain, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien C shallow, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien−lai C bank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien−t’an C bank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ien−tui C bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’ih C pond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chi−chiang−tao C reach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ching C capital city, isthmus, ford,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ferry
chiu C nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cho, chou, chow C island, bank, sandbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chu K sandbars, shallows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’uan C stream, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chuang C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chüeh C cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chung C middle, centre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chu−tao, ch’üng−to C archipelago, group of islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ch’we K point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cun C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . da C big, great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dae K mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dan K cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dang K temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dao, daozi C island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diatan C patch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ding C top. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dizui C landspit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . do K island, islands, province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dong C east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dong K village, settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . du K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . erh K two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fangbodi C breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . feng C mountain, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fou C port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fu C provincial capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gak K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gang K river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gang C port, harbour, mound, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gangchi C basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gangkou C port, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gap K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gi K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . goajiao C promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . got K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gu K entrance approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . guanchang C square. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gun K county. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gundo K archipelago, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gyo K bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ha C lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ha K river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hae K gulf, sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haegak K headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haegu K estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haehyop K strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hagu K estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai C sea, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haibin C beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haidi C sea wall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai−hsia C strait, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haikou, hai−k’ou C channel entramce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai−pin C seashore, beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haiqu C sea area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hai−wan C bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haixia C strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hang C stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hang K harbour, point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hangdao C fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hang−ku C fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hangmen C pass navigable to ships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hau C inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . he C river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hedao C river channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hei C black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xi
ho C river, waterway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoi C bay, harbour, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoi−hap C channel, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hou C rear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsi C west, mountain, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsia C strait, gorge, lower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsiang C rural area, village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsiao C small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsien C district, district capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hisin C new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsu C island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hsuan C eddies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hu C lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . huang C yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hung C red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hyon K mountain pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ji C village, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jia C headland, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jian C top, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jiang C river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jiao C point, cape, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jie C street. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jin K see chin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jiu C old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ju K see chu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kak K see gak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kan C dry, harbour, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kang C mound, hill, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kang K see gang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kao C high. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kao−chiao C promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kao−juan C plateau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kap K see gap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kau C nine, see also kou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ki K see gi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kiang C see chiang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kiao C see chiao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kiu C bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kok C headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kot K see got. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kou, k’ou, kow C mouth of river, entrance, port,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inlet ravine, gulley
ku C valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ku K see gu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ku−k’ou C ravine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuan C barrier, customs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kun K see gun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kundo K archipelago, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . knhae K coastal waters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuo C country, kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kyo K see gyo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lan C reef, blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lanjiangsha C bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lao C old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . li C gravel, shingle, inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −li K village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liedao, lieh−tao C group of islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lieh−yen C group of rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lin C forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ling C ridge, mountain, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . range, nought, zero
liu C stream, current, six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lo C old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lu C road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luk C six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lyng K mountain, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mal K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . man C see man. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . man K bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maodi, mao−ti C anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . matou C wharf, quay, dock, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . men C gate, pass, passage, channel,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strait
mi K spit, tail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . miao C temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mu C trees, wood, grave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mun C see men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . myoji K anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . myon K township. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . naechang K inner harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam, nan CK south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . namdo K south province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nei C township. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nei C inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nei−ao C basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ng C five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n’i C mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −ni K see −li. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noe K reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nyng K see lyng. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o, ou C see ao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pa C embankment, quay, eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pai C reef, rock, white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pak C north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pakchi K anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pan−tao C see bandao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pando K see bando. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pao C town, village, rampart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’ao−t’ai C port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pat C eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pei C see bei. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peng C creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pi C cape, nose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pi K see bi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . piao C rock, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’ing−chou C level shoals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’o C arm of the sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’o K harbour, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’onae K inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pong K see bong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . po−ti C roadstead, anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pu C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pu K see bu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p’u C inlet, creek, village, town,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rampart
pudo K quay, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puk K north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pukto K north province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qian C front. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qiao C bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qiantan C shoal, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qu C area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qundao C archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qunjiao C reefs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sa K marsh, flat, temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sai C west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saju K sandbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sam C three. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . san C three, new, see also shan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . san K mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . san−chiao−clou C delta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sat’oe K heaped up sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seu C see hsu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha C sandbank, islet, sand, low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandy point
GLOSSARY
xii
sha−chiao C sandspit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha−ch’iu C sand dune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan C mountain, hill, island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shang C upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−hu C coral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−hu−chiao C coral reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−mo C mountain range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−sha C bar, sand−bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shan−tien C mountain summit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shao C small, few. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shap C ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shatan C sandy shoal, sand−flats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha−tsui, sha−tui C sandbank, sandspit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shazhou, shazui C sandbank, sandspit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shek C stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shen C deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sheng C province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sheung C upper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shi, shih C rock, city, municipality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shih−t’ai C ridge of rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shih−ti C swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shu C tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shu−lin C forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shui C water, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shuidao, shui−tao C channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shui−hi C channel, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si C temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s K island, rock, west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ssu C monastry, temple, four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . su C see hsu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sudo K strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sz C four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ta C tower, great, large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’a C pagoda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tae K see dae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tai C big, great, large, see also tui. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tan C flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tan K see dan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’an C banks, flats, rapids, lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’an K shoal, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tang C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tang K see dang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’ang C embankment, pond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tao C island, road, paddy field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’ao C bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tao−tzu C islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tau C cape, point, see also tao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tautze C see t’o−tzu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ti C embankment, dyke, earth,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ground, place, low, bottom
t’ien C arable land, field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tin C paddy fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ting C summit, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’o C stone, rocky eminence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’o−tzu C stone, rocky knob, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t’oe, t’oi K heaped up bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to K see do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tong K see dong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tou, t’ou, t’ou−tzu C cape, headland, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tow C see tou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tsat C seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tsui, tsui−tzu, tsui−wei C cape, point, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . tsuen, ts’un C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tu C ferry, ford. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tu K see du. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tuan C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tui C mound, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tui−tsui C bank, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tun C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tung C east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tungdae K lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uk C grave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wa C swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wai C outer, walled village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wan C bay, gulf, bend in river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wei C headland, tail, walled town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi C west, creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xia C strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xian C county. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiao C small, little. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xin C new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xu C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yai C cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yan C rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yang C ocean, enclosed portion of a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sea, channel
yat C one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ye, y K rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yeh C moorland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yen C embankment, dyke, rock,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reef, cliff
yen’t’an C salt pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yen−tien C salt pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yen−chang C salt works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yi C two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yok K town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ylto K island chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yu, y C island, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yuen C garden, orchard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yunhe, yun−ho C canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhai C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhang C mount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhen C town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhong C middle, central. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhou C shoal, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zhuang C village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zui, zuizi C point, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zulangdi C breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lan Yü
Bashi Chan.
Batan Is.
Lü Tao
NP 32(a)
C
h
a
n
g
J
i
a
n
g
(
Y
a
n
g
t
z
e
)
e
n
W
z
h
o
u
G
n
a
g
Z
h
o
u
s
h
a
n
Q
u
n
d
a
o
W
e
n
z
h
o
u
W
a
n
Continued on
Index NP32(b)
EASTERN
CHINA SEA
W
e
t
u
i
o
W
a
n
S
a
n
d
u
A
o
T' AI - WAN
NP42A
JAPAN PILOT
VOL II
J
i
e
s
h
i
W
a
n
S
h
a
t
n
o
u
NP 30
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOL I
NP 31
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOL II
NP 33
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS PILOT
T
A
I
W
A
N
S
T
R
A
T
I
Taiwan
Banks
P'eng-hu
Ch'un tao
S O U T H C H I N A S E A
LUZON
C. Bojeador
Babuyan Is.
LUZON STRAIT
Balintang Chan.
H
O
N
G
K
O
N
G
C H I N A
China Sea Pilot Vol III
5
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
1754
3805
3805
3804
2947
2946
1199
1761
3236
1760
1962
1968
3489
2412
2412
1968
1759
1204
114°
114°
115°
115°
116°
116°
117°
117°
118° 119°
Longitude 119° East from Greenwich
120° 121° 122°
122°
123°
123°
124°
124°
125°
125°
30° 30°
29° 29°
28° 28°
27° 27°
26° 26°
25° 25°
24° 24°
23° 23°
22° 22°
21° 21°
20° 20°
19° 19°
18° 18°
xiii
Seoul
10
10
10
10
9
9
10
13
12
11
8
11
12
10
6
6
7
7
7
China Sea Pilot Vol III
NP 32(b)
BEIJING (PEKING)
H
a
i
H
e
Tianjin Xingang
BO HAI
Liao He
Bayuquan
P
u
l
a
d
n
i
a
n
W
a
n
Taedong Gang
C H I N A
Jiaozhou Wan
Qingdao Gang
L
I
A
O
D
O
N
G
W
A
N
L
a
o
t
i
e
s
h
a
n
h
S
i
a
u
d
o
B
O
H
A
I
H
A
I
X
I
A
Rongcheng Wan Lianyun Gang
YELLOW SEA
Jeju Do
C
h
a
n
g
J
i
a
n
g
(
Y
a
n
g
t
ze
)
Shanghai
Z
h
h
a
o
u
s
n
Q
u
n
a
d
o
Socotra Rk.
Continued on
Index NP 32(a)
NP 42A
JAPAN PILOT
VOL II
Rizhao Gang 1759
2412
1249
1250
1256
1255
1254
1253
1258
3365
913
1199
2946
3480
3480
2947
1204
117° 118° 119° 120° 121° 122° 123° 124° 125° 126° 127°
41°
40°
39°
38°
37°
36°
35°
34°
33°
32°
31°
30°
29°
28°
117° 118° 119° 120° Longitude 122° East from Greenwich 125° 126° 127°
41°
40°
39°
38°
37°
36°
35°
34°
33°
32°
31°
30°
29°
28°
xiv
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its
hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:-
(a) that no liability whatsoever can be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition
of the international validity of the law or regulation.
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOLUME III
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
Charts 4508, 4509
1.1
1
Area covered. This volume contains sailing directions
for the coastal waters of the E coast of China from
Zhelang Jiao to the Korean border including T’ai-wan. Also
the W coast of Korea and the Luzon Strait including the N
coast of Luzon, and for the sea area contained within the
limits defined below.
For the W coasts of Luzon and Palawan see China Sea
Pilot Volume II. For the Philippines Archipelago see
Philippine Islands Pilot.
Lat N Long E
From Zhelang Jiao:22°39′ 115°34′
SE to Cape Bojeador:18°30′ 120°34′
Thence E along the N coast of
Luzon to Siniguian (Escarpada)
Point:
18°31′ 122°14′
Thence E to:18°30′ 120°30′
Thence N to:26°00′ 120°30′
Thence NE to:30°00′ 126°00′
Thence N to:33°45′ 126°30′
Thence NE to Haenam Gak:34°17′ 126°32′
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Volcanic activity
1.2
1
The whole of the NW part of the Pacific ring from the
Philippine Archipelago to Japan is an area of high seismic
activity. See 1.117.
Ice
1.3
1
Parts of the area covered by this book are affected by
ice. See 1.131.
Mine danger areas
1.4
1
Certain areas within the limits of this volume remain
dangerous due to mines laid in 1941−1945 war and the
Korean War 1950−53. Due to the lapse of time the risk to
surface shipping is now considered no more dangerous than
the ordinary risks of navigation, but a very real danger
remains with regard to anchoring, fishing or any form of
seabed or submarine activity. Details of these areas are
given in Appendix I and in the appropriate chapters. See
also Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners
No 6.
2
Navigational risks. The existence of minefields has
inhibited hydrographic surveying and, therefore, outside the
swept routes there may be many uncharted wrecks and
isolated shoals especially dangerous to deep-draught
vessels.
CHAPTER 1
2
Cables
Overhead cables
1.5
1
Overhead cables are mentioned in the text where the
clearance beneath them may be a hazard to navigation.
Some of these cables carry high voltages and sufficient
clearance must be allowed when passing underneath them.
Mariners are advised that the actual clearance of an
overhead cable may differ from its charted value due to
changes in atmospheric conditions and water levels.
2
For information on safety clearances and the radar
responses to be expected see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Submarine cables
1.6
1
Certain submarine cables have been omitted from some
of the small scale charts that cover the area of this volume;
for details of the cables concerned large scale charts should
be consulted. Mariners should not anchor or trawl in the
vicinity of submarine cables; for further information see
1.45.
Piracy and armed robbery
General information
1.7
1
Reports have been received concerning acts of piracy
against vessels in the vicinity of T’ai-wan Strait when
berthed, at anchor or underway.
2
Ships may be attacked whilst at anchor or underway.
Ships underway are usually approached from the stern but
also from the sides if the ship has a low freeboard.
However, faster vessels with high freeboard have been
threatened. Attacks usually take place under the cover of
darkness, most often between 0100 hours and 0600 hours.
3
Guidance and further information may be found in
Admiralty Notices to Mariners, the Department of Transport
(Environment Transport Regions) Marine Guidance Note
MGN 75 (M) and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
Piracy countermeasures
1.8
1
The International Maritime Bureau operates the Piracy
Reporting Centre at Kuala Lumpur. It is able to receive
reports from vessels about attacks and broadcast warnings
of danger areas within the region. The services of the
centre are free of charge to all vessels irrespective of flag.
2
For details of these services and for information
concerning the steps that should be taken to reduce the risk
of attacks, possible responses to them, and the need to
report attacks, both successful and unsuccessful, to the
authorities of the relevant coastal state and to the ship’s
own maritime administration see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
3
In addition, the IMO recommends that reports
concerning an attack, or suspicious movements which may
lead to one, should be made to the Rescue Co-ordination
Centre of the area concerned.
Piracy warnings
1.9
1
Piracy warnings are issued by the regional Piracy
Countermeasures Centre at Kuala Lumpur (China Sea Pilot
Volume II). The messages broadcast daily through the
SafetyNET. For full broadcast details see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volumes 1(2) and 5.
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
Fishing
Fishing operations
1.10
1
Fishing operations are carried out, virtually throughout
the year, in the areas around the coasts of Korea, China
and Taiwan. Large concentrations of fishing vessels under
sail and power may be encountered particularly in the
Taiwan Strait.
2
Sizes of fishing craft vary from traditional rowing or
sailing boats as little as 3 m in length to modern trawlers
of 15 m or more in length.
Fishing Junks may be met off the coast of China. The
junks may not carry lights but have their smallest sail
forward. They are stoutly built and serious damage could
be incurred by colliding with them.
3
Fishing by traps, seine and drift net, lines. lures and
bottom trawls are used.
Permanent fishing nets are laid in many places within
2 miles of the Korean coasts.
Fishing by fixed nets also takes place. In addition, fish
havens, fish traps and marine or aquaculture farms are very
numerous in the areas covered by this volume.
Caution should be exercised if it is necessary to pass
over a fish haven or to anchor near one.
Fishing for squid
1.11
1
Fishing for squid is carried out in some parts of the east
China sea, from boats of up to 100 tonnes, principally
between July and October. Bright lights may be exhibited
at night to attract the fish.
Fixed net fisheries
1.12
1
Fixed fishing nets are set within 2 miles offshore in
many places off the coasts of Korea. In some cases they
may extend up to 5 miles offshore. Newly set fixed nets,
which are considered hazardous to navigation are published
in Korean Notices to Mariners or promulgated by Radio
Navigational Warnings.
Fish havens, fish traps and marine farms
1.13
1
Fish havens may be encountered on the seabed or on
the surface, generally within 5 mile off the coast. Those on
the seabed may consist of concrete blocks, scrap metal
(including vehicles), or sunken hulks laid in a fixed
position to create a fish environment in coastal waters.
Those on the surface may consist of floating rafts under
which fish are encouraged to feed out of the sunlight. They
are also known as fish aggregating devices (FADS).
Concentration of fishing vessels may be expected in the
vicinity of fish havens, where fish are caught by traditional
methods. Occasionally fish havens may be marked by lights
or light-buoys (special).
2
Fish traps consist of an enclosure of stakes set in a
stream or shallow water as a trap for fishing. Fishing stakes
have been reported well offshore around the area covered
by this volume and mariners should take account of this
when proceeding from one port to another.
3
Marine farms consist of rectangular cages, typically
measuring 30 by 30 m, made in two layers of thick wire
mesh. Fish are bred, fed and harvested in these cages.
Marine farms may be marked by lights or light-buoys
(special). They may be encountered either in deep water or
close inshore. Those in deep water are known to be
CHAPTER 1
3
situated in positions of up to 30 miles offshore, and some
are suspended 20 to 25 m below the surface. They are
frequently moved to safe water before the onset of winter.
Inshore marine farms are more likely to be in permanent
positions and will be shown on the appropriate scale charts.
4
Only permanent fish havens, fish traps and marine farms
considered to be a hazard to navigation are shown
individually on Admiralty charts, details of which are kept
up to date by Notices to Mariners, and only those adjacent
to shipping routes are described in Sailing Directions.
Areas where temporary fish havens and marine farms may
be encountered are indicated by notes on the relevant charts
but are not normally mentioned in Sailing Directions.
Dangerous marine animals
1.14
1
There are many species of venomous and dangerous fish
in the areas covered by this volume.
The Scorpion or stone fish is found in shallow waters
over rocky and weeded seabeds throughout the area. It has
a number of venomous spines along its back which inflict
exceedingly painful wounds.
2
Dangerous catfish are found among the coral reefs of
Luzon. Stingrays are found in shallow waters over muddy
seabeds almost anywhere in the area.
Barracudas and several species of shark inhabit the area
and are found in shallow coral and rocky regions as well
as in more open waters.
3
Moray eels, particularly dangerous during their breeding
season (April and May), are common.
A species of jellyfish, whose sting can cause death, is
found in the coastal waters of Luzon and Palawan. They
appear in great numbers from June to August.
Sea snakes inflicting very toxic bites are common.
Marine exploitation
Oil and gasfields
1.15
1
China has made rapid progress in oil extraction and
refining, and there are probably about 100 oil fields.
Offshore oil resources in Bo Hai (Po Hai) and in the
coastal regions N of Chang Jiang to Shandong Bandao are
being explored. Natural gas is also in production.
2
Vessels must navigate with caution when passing close
to offshore installations and structures. These installations
are usually protected by Safety Zones which may extend up
to 500 m from their outer edges. For further information
see The Mariner’s Handbook and Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 20.
Pipelines
1.16
1
Gas from a damaged oil or gas pipeline could cause an
explosion or some other serious hazard. Pipelines are not
always buried and their presence may effectively reduce the
charted depth by as much as 2 m. Where pipelines are
close together, only one may be charted. Mariners should
not anchor or trawl in the vicinity of a pipeline; they may
risk prosecution if damage is caused. For further
information see The Mariner’s Handbook.
CHARTS
Admiralty charts
1.17
1
All the charts covering this book are published in either
metric or fathom units. Most charts carry a source data
diagram or a source statement indicating the date and scale
of the original surveys used in compiling them. Metrication
of Admiralty charts covering the area of this volume is
well advanced and on-going.
2
Information is taken from British charts, Chinese charts,
United States of America Government charts and from
those of both Korea and the Philippines.
For further details about charts see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Foreign charts
Areas not covered by Admiraltry Charts
1.18
1
In certain areas where Admiralty charts show insufficient
detail for navigation close inshore these Sailing Directions
have been written using foreign charts. These are not
quoted as reference charts in the text, which has been
written on the assumption that mariners wishing to navigate
in these areas will have provided themselves with suitable
charts on which to do so.
2
For those areas not covered by Admiralty charts of
adeqaute scale the foreign chart has been quoted as the
reference chart in the text.
3
Foreign charts may be obtained from the publishing
authorities shown in this volume and in the Catalogue of
Admiralty Charts and Publications. These charts are not
issued by the UK Hydrographic Office nor are they
amended by Admiralty Notice to Mariners.
Publishing Authorities
1.19
1
China:
Maritime Safety Administration,
Ministry of Communications,
11, Jianguomennei Avenue,
Beijing 100736. And:
China Navigation Press
102 Shanghai Road
Tanggu District
Tianjin 300450
Peoples Republic of China.
2
Philippines:
National Mapping and Resource Information
Authority,
Lawton Avenue,
Fort Bonifacio,
Makati City,
Republic of Philippines.
3
Korean:
National Oceanographic Research Institute,
Gukrip Haeyang Josawon, 1−17, 7ga
Hang-dong, Jung-gu,
Inchon 400−800.
4
T’ai-wan:
Chinese Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic
Office,
PO Box 90186
Tso-Ying,
Kao-hsiung,
T’ai-wan R.O.C.
CHAPTER 1
4
Datums
Chart Datum
1.20
1
The change to metric charts covering the area of the
Philippines is in progress. A new chart datum based on
LAT has been introduced. This has resulted in there being
differences in depths and heights of up to 1 m between
charts and Sailing Directions. This will continue until all
charts have been metricated and the two have been
reconciled.
Horizontal datum
1.21
1
Many charts carry a caution on the shift to be applied to
satellite-derived positions before they are plotted. In the
absence of such a caution it should not be assumed that
such a shift is negligible. For further information see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Differences in graduations
1.22
1
Differences in graduations may be apparent when
transferring positions from one chart to another. When in
doubt it is advisable to transfer positions relative to
common charted features rather than to geographical
co-ordinates.
For further information about charts see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Accuracy of charted depths
1.23
1
Many depths contained in the charts of Philippines
waters originate from relatively old surveys or passage
soundings. It should be appreciated that such information is
rarely comprehensive and is certainly not up to date or
comparable with modern surveying standards. Wherever
possible, an indication of the original source and age of
depths data included in charts is given in the title notes and
source diagrams of charts. For further information on the
use of charts see The Mariner’s Handbook.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Buoyage
China and T’ai-wan
1.24
1
China and T’ai-wan have adopted the IALA Maritime
Buoyage System Region A (red to port). Although it is not
charted, it can be assumed that most buoys are fitted with
radar reflectors.
For full details of the system see The Mariner’s
Handbook and IALA Maritime Buoyage System.
Philippines and Korea
1.25
1
The Philippine Archipelago and both N and S Korea
have adopted IALA Maritime Buoyage System Region B
(green to port).
When approaching a channel from seaward, red conical
buoys (or nun buoys), with even numbers, are found on the
starboard side, and black or green can buoys, with odd
numbers, on the port side. The buoys are numbered from
seaward.
For full details of the system see The Mariner’s
Handbook and IALA Maritime Buoyage System.
PILOTAGE
National pilotage
China
1.26
1
Vessels entering or leaving a Chinese port or
manoeuvring within them must be navigated by a
designated pilot and observe all special regulations
promulgated by the competent authority.
T’ai-wan
1.27
1
Pilotage is strictly required for all foreign vessels both
naval and commercial entering and leaving T’ai-wanese
ports. Pilot boats of the “China Pilot Society” carry on
their sterns and at the top of the mainsail the words “you
chao yin shui t’ing” meaning “licensed pilot boat”. They
will fly “H” flag of the International Code of Signals.
Requests for a pilot are made with the internationally
recognised signals.
RADIO FACILITIES
Position fixing systems
Loran
1.28
1
Loran A and C are the only electronic navigation
systems available in the area covered by this volume. The
ground coverage of these systems, however, reach coastal
waters only as follows:
North coast of Luzon.
South and E coasts of T’ai-wan.
Coast of China between latitudes 26°00′N and
37°30′N.
South and part of the W coast of Korea.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Global positioning system
1.29
1
The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS), a military
satellite navigation system owned and operated by the
United States Department of Defense, provides world wide
position fixing.
The system is referenced to the datum of the World
Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and therefore positions
obtained must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of the
chart being used.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Differential Global Positioning System
1.30
1
DGPS compares the position of a fixed point, referred to
as the reference station, with positions obtained from a
GPS receiver at that point. The resulting differences are
then broadcast as corrections to suitable receivers to
overcome the inherent limitations of GPS.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Global Navigation Satellite System
1.31
1
The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System
(GLONASS) is similar to GPS in that it is a space-based
navigation system which provides world wide position
fixing. The system is referenced to the Soviet Geocentric
Co-ordinate System 1990 (SGS–90) and as for GPS
CHAPTER 1
5
positions must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of
the chart being used.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Caution
1.32
1
Satellite navigation systems are under the control of the
owning nation which can impose selective availability or
downgrade the accuracy to levels less than that available
from terrestrial radio navigational systems. Therefore
satellite based systems should only be utilised at the user’s
risk.
Radio stations
1.33
1
For full details on all radio stations which transmit in
the area covered by this volume see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Radio navigational warnings
Long range warnings
1.34
1
The area covered by this volume lies within the limits of
NAVAREA XI long range warning services. NAVAREA XI
warnings are issued by Director, Notice to Mariners
Division, Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department,
Japan Coast Guard, 3−1, Tsukiji 5-Chome Chuo-ku, Tökyö
104−0045 Japan.
For full details of the service and broadcast details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(2).
NAVTEX
1.35
1
NAVTEX is an international automated narrow band
direct-printing broadcast service through 518kHz, used for
the promulgation of urgent and routine navigational and
meteorological information. It is an integral part of the
GMDSS and is also a component of the World-wide
Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS). For full
broadcast details and further information see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volumes 3(2) and 5.
Radio weather reports
METAREA IV warnings/bulletins
1.36
1
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has
established a global service for the broadcast of high seas
weather warnings and routine weather bulletins, through the
Enhanced Group Calling International SafetyNET Service.
METeorological service AREAS (METAREAS) are
identical to the 16 NAVAREAS within the World-Wide
Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS).
2
Each METAREA has a designated National
Meteorological Service responsible for issuing high seas
weather warnings and bulletins. The designated authorities
are not necessarily in the same country as the NAVAREA
co-ordinators. Weather Warnings and routine bulletins are
broadcast through:
3
a) National coast radio stations.
b) SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling International
SafetyNET).
For broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(2).
Meteorological broadcasts by radio-facsimile
1.37
1
The area covered by this volume lies within the
radio-facsimile broadcast coverage area of T’ai-pei Meteo.
For broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio 3 (2).
National weather services
1.38
1
For broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(2).
Internet weather services
1.39
1
Weather information for the area covered by this volume
is available through the Internet.
WEFAX
1.40
1
WEFAX data consists of retransmissions, in near real
time, of processed images derived from satellites, as well
as other meteorological data. WEFAX transmissions contain
images of large sectors of the earth, and are transmitted on
a predetermined 24 hour schedule. Satellite delivered
WEFAX should not be confused with high frequency
weather radio-fax transmissions from coast stations. For
further information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(2).
Automatic Identification Systems
1.41
1
For details of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS)
see the The Mariner’s Handbook and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(5).
Radio medical advice
Medical advice by radio
1.42
1
Medical advice by radio can be requested from the
following Chinese ports in English. Dalian, Quangzhou,
Shanghai, Tianjing, Qingdao.
The message should be addressed Medico ....(name of
coas station). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
International Radio-Medical Centre
1.43
1
Mariners may obtain medical advice by radio from the
International Radio-Medical Centre (CIRM) in Rome. For
further information, and for details of the coast radio
stations see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Distress and rescue
1.44
1
See 1.77.
REGULATIONS
International regulations
Submarine cables and pipelines
1.45
1
Mariners are warned that every care should be taken to
avoid anchoring or trawling in the vicinity of submarine
cables or pipelines on account of the serious consequences
which would result from fouling them.
2
For information on the International Convention for the
Protection of Submarine Cables, together with advise on
the action to be taken in the event of fouling a cable or
pipeline see The Mariner’s Handbook.
CHAPTER 1
6
Pollution
1.46
1
The International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships 1973 was adopted by the International
Conference on Marine Pollution convened by IMO in 1973.
It was modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto
and adopted by the International Conference on Tanker
Safety and Pollution Prevention convened by IMO in 1978.
The convention, as modified by the protocol, is known as
MARPOL 73/78.
2
The Convention consists of 6 annexes. Annex I (Oil),
Annex II (Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk), Annex III
(Harmful Substances carried at Sea in Packaged Form) and
Annex V (Garbage from Ships) are mandatory; Annex IV
(Sewage from Ships) and Annex VI (Air Pollution) are
optional.
For MARPOL 73/78 and Annexes in detail see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
3
In the area covered in this book, pollution of the sea by
oil or mixtures containing oil is prohibited within 50 miles
of the coasts.
Facilities for the disposal of oily waste, where known,
are mentioned under the appropriate port in the text of this
volume.
Traffic separation schemes
1.47
1
A number of TSS have been established within the areas
covered by this volume. Some of these schemes have not
been adopted by the International Maritime Organisation
because they lie wholly within territorial waters
nevertheless the principles for use of routing systems as
defined in Rule 10 of International Regulations for
Preventing Collision at Sea (1972) apply.
National regulations — China
Polution
1.48
1
Any vessel requiring to dispose of rubbish must hoist an
appropriate signal calling for a barge of a truck.
Foreign shipping
1.49
1
Some of the smaller harbours and several of the
anchorages on the coast of China may not necessarily be
open to foreign shipping. In those instances where, for lack
of information, it is not known whether a harbour or
anchorage is open, attention has been drawn to this in the
text by reference to this paragraph. See Appendix 1,
article 13.
Approaching the coast
1.50
1
Non-military vessels of foreign nationality may not enter
internal waters and ports without approval of a competent
authority. However under conditions of emergency when
time is limited they may enter such waters making an
emergency report to the competent authorities whose
directives must be obeyed.
Port entry
1.51
1
Vessels entering or leaving a port and while lying
alongside a berth or at anchor in territorial waters shall fly
a national flag during daylight and display any other flags
deemed appropriate by the Port Authority.
Firearms
1.52
1
All weapons and ammunition on board a vessel shall be
locked under seal by the Harbour Superintendency
Administration upon arrival.
Radio security
1.53
1
Radio telegraph transmitters, radio telephone transmitters,
rocket signals, flame signals and signal guns shall only be
used in emergency and reports made to Harbour
Superintendency Administration.
Quarantine
1.54
1
Foreign vessels calling at Chinese ports are subject to
quarantine examination in accordance with the “Frontier
Quarantine Regulations of the People’s Republic of China.
National regulations — Philippines
Pollution
1.55
1
No garbage or refuse which might impede or obstruct
navigation, or cause an obstruction thereto, shall be thrown
from any vessel or floating craft of any kind into the
waters of any harbour or into navigable waters of any river
or tributary thereto.
Port entry
1.56
1
The Master of every vessel entering or leaving a port
between sunrise and sunset shall cause to be hoisted its
national colours and signal letters, if any. The national
colours shall continue to be flown while the vessel remains
in port.
Quarantine
1.57
1
All vessels entering a harbour shall be considered in
quarantine until boarded by a quarantine officer who then
issues pratique. Until pratique is granted the prescribed
quarantine flag shall be kept flying. No unauthorised person
shall board or disembark from a vessel until the quarantine
flag is lowered.
2
All cases of contagious or infectious deseases occurring
on board while the vessel is in port must be at once
reported in writing to the quarantine officer.
Harbour Master’s orders
1.58
1
The Master of every vessel shall comply with
instructions or directions given by the Philippines Ports
Authority or its duly authorised officers relative to berthing,
mooring and anchoring of the vessel.
Inflammable or explosive cargo
1.59
1
Every vessel arriving in port having on board dangerous
cargo as defined in “Classification of Dangerous Goods”
by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) or the
appropriate agency of the Philippines Government and/or
The United Kingdom Carriage of Dangerous Goods in
Ships (The Blue Book) shall hoist, where it can best be
seen, a red flag not less than 0⋅6 m
2
and by night a red
light visible all round the horizon such that the said signals
shall be exhibited as long as dangerous goods remain on
board.
CHAPTER 1
7
Power vessels engaged in towing
1.60
1
Power driven vessels engaged in towing shall have right
of way over power driven vessels not so engaged, provided
that power driven vessels with draughts greater than 3 m
and so hampered by their draughts shall have right of way
in narrow channels. In complying with this regulation
mariners should have due regard for the fact that vessels
proceeding against the tidal stream are more manageable
than those going with it.
National regulations — T’ai-wan
Military firing ranges
1.61
1
Vessels navigating coastal waters of T’ai-wan shall,
when within 60 miles of Keelung or Kaohsiung ports,
comply with the frequent port radio braodcasts and avoid
passing through the military exercise firing ranges.
Port entry
1.62
1
All foreign vessels having navigational and
communications ability and entering T’ai-wanese ports
except those that have experienced an accident at sea or are
seeking shelter, must first inform the Port Authority before
following official procedures for entering the outer port.
They must await inspection after anchoring in a designated
area.
2
After receiving a request from a foreign vessel as above,
regardless of whether the vessel has had an accident at sea
or is seeking shelter, the Port Authority shall grant
permission to enter the port and at the same time notify the
Combined Inspection Unit who will board the vessel.
3
If a vessel that has had an accident at sea or is seeking
shelter is found to be in the following situations upon
inspection, entry shall be denied:
Dangerous goods on board.
A contagious illness on board.
Vessel has no need to enter the port.
4
Mariners on vessels granted permission to enter the port
and to berth are not allowed to land ashore, regardless of
having suffered an accident at sea or sought shelter, except
having received permission from Immigration.
All on board radio equipment shall be switched off
immediately after entering the port and its use suspended.
National regulations — North Korea
Notices of ETA
1.63
1
The followiong radio precedures should be carried out
for vessels calling at ports in North Korea:
Pilotage is compulsory. All communications are to be
made through the coast radio station nearest to the
port of call.
2
Vessels should send ETA at the pilot station 10 days,
3 days, 24 hours, 12 hours and 4 hours in advance
to the agent (Ocean Shipping Agency of the
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea).
3
The 10 day message should include the following
information:
Vessel’s name, flag and call sign.
ETA and port of call.
Vessel’s details, (draught, grt, nt etc).
Number of crew and their nationalities.
Last port of call.
Present position.
4
The vessel’s position and speed must be sent with the
24, 12 and 4 hour messages.
Approaching the coast
1.64
1
Vessels are to report to their agents the position and
time when crossing the lines joining:
East coast:
42°24′N, 131°10′E.
41°43′N, 132°20′E.
38°00′N, 130°00′E.
38°00′N, 128°45′E.
2
West coast:
39°50′N, 123°20′E.
37°00′N, 123°20′E.
37°00′N, 126°30′E.
Vessels are required to keep 15 miles off the coast and
maintain a constant radio watch until arrival at the pilot
station.
Port entry
1.65
1
Foreign vessels may enter of leave a port in North
Korea during daylight hours only and under safe sea
conditions as acknowledged by the Naval authorities.
The Master of every vessel entering a port must request
a pilot from the harbour control by radio, or other means
of communication, through the vessel’s agent 24 hours in
advance of arrival.
2
A vessel entering or leaving a port shall do so in
accordance with signals displayed by the port signal station.
A vessel entering or leaving a port or manoeuvring
within it and with a pilot on board must display “H” flag
where it can best be seen.
A vessel entering or leaving a port during daylight hours
shall fly her national flag in accordance with usual practice
and the North Korean flag where it can best be seen on a
signal mast.
3
A vessel approaching the harbour limits of any port
shall hoist the quarantine flag.
A vessel approaching the harbour limits of any port
shall hoist her call sign letters.
A naval vessel will escort a merchant ship to a
designated anchorage where quarantine officers of the
Inspection Office of the Border Passage Authority will
complete formalities.
National regulations — South Korea
Traffic separation schemes
1.66
1
Traffic separation schemes have been established around
the entire coast of Korea details of which can be found in
the geographical chapters of this book. The Korean
Authorities advise that the principles for use of these
routing systems as defined in Rule 10 of the International
Regulations for the Prevention of Collision at Sea (1972),
apply. Oil and chemical tankers are prohibited from using
these routes.
Weapons training areas
1.67
1
Mariners are advised that in any Korean waters they
should listen for radio warnings and announcements
concerning weapons training areas and avoid approaching
them during exercises.
CHAPTER 1
8
SIGNALS
China — storm signals
China Sea non-local storm signals code
1.68
1
This code of visual day signals has been in general use
since 1 January 1950 and includes the following symbols:
China Sea non-local storm signals code (1.68)
2
The above symbols are displayed from, the yardarms
and the masthead of a storm signal mast and have the
following significance:
3
One symbol at the masthead indicates the time at
which the centre of the disturbance was in position
indicated, as shown in Table I.
4
Four symbols at one yardarm denotes the position of
the centre of the disturbance. Two upper signals
indicate latitude in degrees the lower two
indicating longitude in degrees. If the longitude is
in excess of 100° the first digit is omitted.
5
Three symbols at the yardarm indicate speed,
direction and intensity of the disturbance as shown
in Table II. The lowest symbol of this hoist
indicates the intensity of the disturbance together
with the degree of accuracy of the position of the
disturbance as indicated in Table III. Thus the
latitude and longitude indicated above are the
co-ordinates of the centre of the circle in which
the disturbance is known to be located and not the
centre of the disturbance itself.
1.69
1
Table I. Single symbol at masthead indicating time of
observation.
Code figure Time GMT
1 0300
2 0600
3 0900
4 1200
5 1500
6 1800
7 2100
8 2400
9 Position deduced from supplementary
data since last warning
1.70
1
Table II. Two upper symbols of a hoist of three indicate
speed and direction of motion.
Code figure Meaning
00 Stationary or moving at 5 kn or less
Speed of advance 10 kn
01 NNE
02 NE
03 ENE
04 E
05 ESE
06 SE
07 SSE
08 S
09 SSW
10 SW
11 WSW
12 W
13 WNW
14 NW
15 NNW
16 N
Speed of advance 15 kn
17 NNE
18 NE
19 ENE
20 E
21 ESE
22 SE
23 SSE
24 S
25 SSW
26 SW
27 WSW
28 W
29 WNW
30 NW
31 NNW
32 N
Speed of advance 20 knots
33 NNE
34 NE
35 ENE
36 E
37 ESE
38 SE
39 SSE
40 S
41 SSW
CHAPTER 1
9
Code figure Meaning
42 SW
43 WSW
44 W
45 WNW
46 NW
47 NNW
48 N
Speed of advance 25 knots or more
49 NNE
50 NE
51 ENE
52 E
53 ESE
54 SE
55 SSE
56 S
57 SSW
58 SW
59 WSW
60 W
61 WNW
62 NW
63 NNW
64 N
Curving
65 NE
66 E
67 SE
68 S
69 SW
70 W
71 NW
72 N
Accelerating
73 NE
74 E
75 SE
76 S
77 SW
78 W
79 NW
80 N
Forming and probable movement
81 NE
82 E
83 SE
84 S
Code figure Meaning
85 SW
86 W
87 NW
88 N
89 Forming movement unknown
90 Filling
91 Filled. No further warnings
92 Passed inland. No further warnings
93 Passed out of area. No further warnings
94−98 Unused.
99 Movement and condition unknown
1.71
1
Table III. Lowest symbol of a hoist of three indicates
intensity.
Code Intensity Radius
Position and ntensity uncertain
0
Tropical depression winds up to 33 knots
1 120
2 60
3 30
Tropical storm winds 34 to 63 knots
4 20
5 60
6 30
Typhoon winds of 64 knots or more
7 20
8 60
9 30
2
Note. If no reliable observations of wind force near the
centre of the storm are available the intensity signalled will
indicate the highest wind force believed to exist in the
storm.
3
The following system of visual storm signals was in use
at Qingdao in 1953, and may be used at other ports in the
Peoples’ Republic of China.
1
In addition the following signals may be used when
wind above force 6, and not connected with a tropical
storm, may reach port within 6 hours.
2
The following signals were formerly displayed from the
Custom House flagstaff at Sand Ao (day signal only),
Ningbo and Zhenhai, and may still be in force. They were
primarily intended as a warrning for small craft in the
harbour:
Meaning By day By night
Probable bad
weather
One black ball One red light
Probable typhoon or
strong gale
One black cross,
or two black balls
Two red lights
CHAPTER 1
10
Storm siginals China (1.71.1)
Storm siginals China (1.71.2)
T’ai-wan
Typhoon signals
1.72
1
Typhoon signals as follows:
Typhoon at sea Typhoon ashore
By day Two yellow flags
in a hoist
Three yellow
flags in a hoist
By night Two green lights
in a hoist
Three green
lights in a hoist
Storm signals
1.73
1
Storm signals as follows:
By day By night Meaning
Black ball White light over
red light
Force 6 to 7
Black cone apex
upwards
Green light over
red light
NW force 8
or greater
Black cone apex
downwards
Two white lights
in a hoist
SW force 8
or greater
Two black cones
apexes upwards
Red light over a
white light
NE force 8
or greater
Two black cones
apexes downwards
White light over a
red light
SE force 8 or
greater
One flag, white
with black border
None Variable and
veering
Two flags, white
with black border
None Variable and
backing
Black cross One green light
between two red
lights vertically
disposed
Typhoon
epicentre at
station or
close by.
Philippines
Storm warning signals
1.74
1
Visual storm warning signals managed by the Philippine
Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomic Service
Administration (PAGASA) in accordance with the
International System of Visual Storm Warning Signals are
displayed from Aparri.
2
Note. All these signals may be displayed either singly or
oi combinations of two or three. When combined, the
following order will always be observed from top to
bottom:
Signal* indicating speed of wind (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 8).
Signal indicating direction of wind (2, 3, 4 or 5).
Signal indicating change of direction of wind (6 or 7).
*It should be noted that signals 2, 3, 4 and 5 indicate
both speed and direction.
North Korea and South Korea
Whistle signals
1.75
1
Whistle signals as follows:
Request Signal
Entering harbour Two long blasts.
Leaving harbour One long blast.
Calling pilot One long blast, one short
blast, one long blast.
Calling lighter for ship One long blast, two short
blasts, one long blast.
Calling cargo lighter One long blast, one short
blast.
Calling launch One short blast, one long
blast.
Recalling all crew members Two short blasts, one long
blast.
Require medical assistance One short blast, one long
blast, one short blast.
CHAPTER 1
11
Emergency (SOS) Three short blasts, two long
blasts, three short blasts.
Getting underway Two short blasts, two long
blasts, two short blasts.
Finished unloading One long blast, three short
blasts.
Storm siginals Philippines (1.74)
Storm signals
1.76
1
The following storm signals are used regardless of wind
direction.
By day By night Meaning
Red ball White light over a
blue light
Force 7 to 8
Red coner
apex up
Two red lights
vertically disposed.
Force 9 to 11
Red cross Blue light between
two red lights
vertically disposed
Typhoon force 12
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
General information
Radio monitoring
1.77
1
The radio watch monitoring international distress
frequencies, which certain classes of ship are required to
maintain when at sea, is one of the most important factors
in the arrangements for the rescue of mariners and other
people in distress at sea.
For general information concerning distress and safety,
including helicopter assistance, see Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Global Maritime Distress and Safety Systems
1.78
1
The Global Maritime Distress System (GMDSS) enables
Search and Rescue authorities on shore, in addition to
shipping in the immediate vicinity of a vessel in distress, to
be rapidly alerted to an incident so that assistance can be
provided with the minimum of delay. The sea area covered
by this volume lies within the Search and Rescue regions
of North-west Pacific.
Details of the GMDSS and the associated coast radio
stations are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
Ship reporting systems
Automated Mutual-assistance VEssel Rescue System
1.79
1
The Automated Mutual-assistance VEssel Rescue
(Amver) system, operated by the United States Coast
Guard, is a maritime mutual assistance organization which
provides important aid to the development and
co-ordination of Search and Rescue (SAR) efforts in many
offshore areas of the world. Participation in the system is
voluntary.
Details are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
CHAPTER 1
12
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
General description
1.80
1
Chung-Kuo, more commonly known as China covers an
area of about 9 560 000 km
2
. Although consisting of mainly
sedimentary rock formations much of the country is
mountainous, especially in the W part and along the SE
coast which, uniquely, consists of various strata of igneous
and undifferentiated plutonic rock. There are several active
volcanoes in the N part of the territory and earthquakes are
fairly frequent, especially in the W part. The Great China
Plain extends from the E coast in a large triangle with its
apex near Baijing and its base along the course of the
Chang Jiang between Shanghai and Yichang. To the W and
NW of the fertile provinces inhabited by the Han, the
Chinese people proper, lie the vast highland and desert
tracts of Tibet, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, where the
indigenous populations are principally Tibetan with Uighur
and Mongol races included.
2
From the SW limits of this volume to the vicinity of
Chang Jiang, 1015 km NE, the high undulating coastline is
broken and fringed by numerous islands, islets and shoals.
From Chang Jiang N to Shandong Bandao (Shandong
Peninsula) the flat featureless coast is fronted by extensive,
unsurveyed area of shifting sandbanks and shoals extending
up to 50 miles offshore. Oil exploration surveys have been
carried out in this area.
3
North of the Shandong Peninsula the coast curves W to
form Bo Hai which is fed by numerous rivers and fringed
with island groups.
History
1.81
1
The People’s Republic of China was proclaimed on 1st
October 1949 by Chairman Mao Tse-tung following the
defeat by Communist forces of the Kuomingtang
government, led by General Chiang Kai-shek, which fled to
the island province of T’ai-wan.
2
Beijing (Peking) was restored to capital status after an
interval of 21 years from 1928 to 1949, during which time
the capital was Nanking (Nanjing) and in October 1971 the
Republic was admitted into the United Nations.
Government
1.82
1
In January, 1975 a new constitution was adopted which
established the leading role of the Communist Party in all
aspects of national life. The post of State Chairman was
abolished and was replaced by the Standing Committee of
the National People’s Congress. This is made up of 140
members and acts as the Collective Head of State. The 21
provinces of China are managed by Local People’s
Congresses and Revolutionary Committees.
Population
1.83
1
In a census conducted in 1990 the population was
1 130 510 638 persons. Although birth rate declined in the
previous 12 years China was forced to relax the rules on
single child families especially if the first born was a girl,
to avoid infanticide. The UN predict that the population
will be 1 366⋅2 million by 2010. Expectations are that
China will lose its status as most populous country to India
by 2040.
Language
1.84
1
The principal N Chinese dialect has been adopted as the
national language of China. It is now generally spoken
throughout the country and is known as Putunghua
(common speech) rather than by its English equivalent of
Mandarin.
2
The written language, being ideographic, and not
phonetic, is common to all dialects and the Chinese
authorities have a continuing policy of introducing
simplified characters. In 1956 all Chinese newspapers and
most books, began to appear with the characters printed
horizontally, from left to right, instead of vertically as
previously.
3
Since the 1st of January 1979, the Chinese authorities
have adopted the Pinyin system in place of the Wade-Giles
system for the romanisation of personal and place names.
This system has largely been used to assist school children
and others in learning the pronunciation of characters in
Putunghiua.
Industry and trade
1.85
1
China is essentially an agricultural nation and is
self-sufficient except in cotton. Some 11% of the land area
is under cultivation. Industry accounts for approximately
49% of GDP and cottage industries persist into the 21st
century. Direct foreign investment has come principally
from T’ai-wan, USA, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and
the UK, these countries being receivers of the country’s
principal exports.
KOREA (SOUTH)
General description
1.86
1
The greater part of the Korean Peninsula, which forms
the territory of Korea (South), the Republic of Korea,
hereafter referred to as South Korea, is separated from
Japan by the Korea Strait. The peninsula consists of
igneous plutonic rock, and extends about 650 km S from
the E seaboard of the Asian continent to form the E side of
Huang Hai (Yellow Sea); it is dominated by a mountain
ridge extending the length of it and sloping towards the
heavily indented W coast. The E coast has only a narrow
alluvial plain separating it from the spinal ridge. There are
few harbours on that side and the rivers are small. The W
coast of the peninsula is fringed by a multitude of islands
which provide shelter for several harbours and anchorages,
but their value is somewhat impaired by the large rise and
fall of tide and the strength of the tridal streams.
History
1.87
1
Korea was united in a single kingdom under the Silla
dynasty from 668. The earliest European description of
Korea was furnished by Hendrik Hamel, a Dutch seaman
belonging to the Hollandia, a vessel of the Dutch East
India Company which was wrecked on Cheju Do in 1653.
In 1797, the E coast was examined by Captain Broughton
in HMS Providence and in 1816 the SW coast was visited
by Captains Maxwell and Hall in HM ships Alceste and
Lyra. In 1866 unsuccessful attempts were made to conclude
treaties with the country and it was not until 1880 that the
first one was made by Japan, this being followed by others,
concluded in 1882 by Great Britain and the United States.
CHAPTER 1
13
2
China, which claimed a vague suzerainty over Korea,
recognised the latters’s independence in 1895. After the
Russo-Japanese war of 1904−05, Korea was virtually a
Japanese protectorate. It was formally annexed on 29th
August 1910. Following the collapse of Japan in 1945,
American and Soviet forces entered Korea dividing the
country into portions separated by the 38th parallel of
latitude. Negotiations between the Americans and the
Russians regarding the future of the country broke down in
May 1946. In 1948 two separate states were proclaimed. In
the south Syngman Rhee, former president of the Korean
government in exile, was elected president of the Republic
of Korea, while in the north, Kim Il-sung was proclaimed
premier of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. In
June 1950 the North Koreans launched an invasion across
the 38th parallel, the resulting war lasting for three years.
3
Syngman Rhee’s authoritarian rule collapsed in April
1960 bringing the country to the brink of civil war. A
military coup in May 1961 led to the dissolution of the
National Assembly, the introduction of martial law and the
establishment of General Park Chung Hee as president for
17 years. Park’s assassination in 1979 threw the country
into a new crisis from which developed a more democratic
constitution which came into force in 1988. In 2000 the
president of South Korea made an historic journey to Korea
(North) which resulted in a warming of relations, relaxing
of border restrictions and the reconstruction of a rail link
severed since 1945.
Government
1.88
1
The 1988 constitution provides for a President, directly
elected for a single five year term, who appoints the
members of the State Council and heads it, and for a
National Assembly with 273 members directly elected for
four years.
Population
1.89
1
South Korea has a total land area of 99461 km
2
divided
into nine provinces and seven metropolitan cities with
provincial status. Seoul, located in the NW of the country
has been the capital of Korea since 1394. It is a modern
metropolis with one of the highest population densities in
the world. The national population in 1995 was 44 608 726
persons and is expected to increase to 49⋅62 million by
2010.
Language
1.90
1
The official language is Korean but the government has
introduced a Romanisation system to convert many words
into English.
Fauna
1.91
1
Tigers, which used to roam almost anywhere in Korea,
are nearly extinct except in the high mountains where a
few remain. They are noted for their size, boldness and
ferocity. Other dangerous animals include leopards and
bears.
2
Fish are abundant, especially on the E and SE coasts.
Whales follow large shoals of sardines and herring that
visit the area.
Industry and trade
1.92
1
The economic growth of the Republic over the past
30 years has been spectacular, advancing the country within
a single generation from one of the world’s poorest nations
to full industrialisation despite its being poor in natural
resources. Manufacturing industry is concentrated primarily
on oil and the petro-chemical industry, chemicals, fibres,
construction, iron and steel, cement, machinery, chips,
shipbuilding, automobiles and electronics. Tobacco is a
semi-government monopoly.
2
Foreign trade is principally with the United States of
America and Japan, Western Europe and the Middle East.
KOREA (NORTH)
General description
1.93
1
The major part of the territory of Korea (North), the
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, hereafter referred
to as North Korea, is of volcanic origin. It is dominated by
the lofty Hamgyong Sunmaek range of mountains and
among the spurs extending W and E from the range are the
Diamond Mountains, so named because of the resemblance
of their serrated peaks to rough diamonds. The N
mountains are thickly wooded with deep valleys and
gorges, but along the coasts they are mostly barren or
covered with coarse bamboo grass, varied by scattered
groves of stunted firs generally no more than 1 m in
height. Streams occupy every gorge and valley, but the
majority are shallow and swift flowing and therefore
navigable only by small craft.
History
1.94
1
Following the collapse of Japan in 1945 Soviet forces
arrived in North Korea, one month ahead of the Americans
and established a Communist-led provisional government.
The Democratic People’s Republic was proclaimed on 9th
September 1948 and Kim Il-sung became premier, purging
all rivals. After attacks lauched by the North upon the
South a demilitarized zone was established along the 38th
parallel. Agreements between North and South Korea,
leaders established a non-aggression pact in 1992 leading to
three further agreements on military, economic and social
co-operation. Poverty in the north is rife and it has been
claimed that starvation has killed some 3⋅5 million since
1995.
Government
1.95
1
The political structure is based upon the Constitution of
27th December 1972. Amendments of April 1992 delete
reference to Marxism-Leninism but retain the Communist
Party’s monopoly role. The Constitution provides for a
Supreme People’s Assembly elected every five years by
universal suffrage. Citizens of 17 years can vote and be
elected. The government consists of the Administration
Council directed by the Central People’s Commitee.
Population
1.96
1
North Korea has a land area of 122 762 km
2
and a
population, in 1993 of 21 213 378 persons estimated to rise
to 23⋅69 million by 2010.
Industry and trade
1.97
1
Indistries include hydro-electric power, cotton, silk and
rayon weaving, chemical fertilizers, automobiles, iron and
CHAPTER 1
14
steel much of which were established by the Japanese
occupiers. Joint ventures with foreign firms have been
permitted since 1984 and in 1992 the law was revised to
permit foreign investors to set up wholly owned facilities in
special economic zones. There is increasing industrial
co-operation between North and South Korea.
REPUBLIC OF CHINA (T’AI-WAN)
General description
1.98
1
T’ai-wan, 36 188 km
2
in area, forms a link in the
volcanic chain which, commencing with New Guinea and
trending N and NE to the Kuril Islands constitutes the
escarpment of the Eurasian plate under which the Pacific
plate is subducted.
2
The island itself, although largely composed of
sedimentary rock formations has been subjected to
considerable volcanic activity. The resulting orogenic uplift
has created a chain of mountains, with peaks up to nearly
4000 m high along the length of the island.
3
To the E of the central range the country is mountainous
and the coastal cliffs are among the highest in the world
presenting in some places an almost sheer drop of more
than 1220 m. On the W side graduating hills descend to a
broad plain intersected by rivers and streams, finally
terminating at the coast in numerous sandbanks and mud
spits. A remarkable feature of this side of the island in the
rapidity with which the land extends seaward.
4
Earthquakes are frequent but, as a rule, little damage is
done.
History
1.99
1
T’ai-wan, christened Ilha Formosa (Beautiful Island) by
the Portuguese, was ceded to Japan by China by the Treaty
of Shimonoseki in 1895. After World War II the island was
surrendered to General Chiang Kai-shek who made it the
headquarters of his crumbling Nationalist Government.
Until 1970 the United States of America fully supported
T’ai-wan’s claim to represent all of China. Only in 1871
did the government of the People’s Republic of China
manage to replace that of Chiang Kai-shek at the UN. In
January 1979 the UN established formal diplomatic
relations with the People’s Republic, breaking off all formal
ties with T’ai-wan. T’ai-wan continues to reject all moves
towards reunification and, although there have been
attempts from mainland China to precipitate direct action
the prospect of confrontation with the USA supports the
status quo.
Government
1.100
1
The ROC Constitution is based on the principles of
Nationalism, Democracy and Social Wellbeing formulated
by Dr. Sun Yat-sen the founding father of the Republic of
China. The Government is divided into three main levels
central, provincial/municipal and county/city, each of which
has well defined powers. Central government consists of
President and National Assembly elected only for
constitutional amendments, and five governing branches
Executive, Legislative, Judicial, Examination and Control.
Population
1.101
1
In 1999 the population was 22 092 387 with an ethnic
split of 84% native T’ai-wnese, 14% mainland Chinese, 2%
aboriginals of Malayo-Polynesian origin.
Industry and trade
1.102
1
Restrictions on the repatriation of investment earnings by
foreign nationals were removed in 1994. Taiwan has the
world’s third largest foreign reserves and one of the world’s
lowest foreign debts. In 1999 the main export markets were
the USA, Hong Kong, Japan, and Western Europe.
Principal exports are machinery, electrical goods, textiles,
vehicles and transport equipment, plastic and rubber
products, clothing and basic metal products.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
General description
1.103
1
The republic consisting of more than 7100 islands is
bounded on the E by the Philippines Sea, on the S by the
Celebes Sea and on the W by the South China Sea. About
460 of the islands exceed 2⋅6 km
2
(1 mile
2
). Eleven islands
have more than 2590 km
2
and contain the majority of the
population. These islands are Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon,
Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay and
Samar.
2
The islands are, for the most part, of sedimentary rock
formation, only the W side of Mindanao being of volcanic
origin. However, because of the subductive plate margin
(Mindanao and Marianas Trenches) where the Pacific
Ocean Plate passes under the Philippines Plate upon which
the Philippine Islands lie, volcanoes, earthquakes, igneous
rock uplifts and orogenic folding have created the island
masses and landscapes familiar today.
3
Luzon in the N, the largest island of the group, is
unique in having a vast central plain that has probably been
the single most important cause of its being so dominant in
the life of the Republic as a whole. The other islands most
with only narrow coastal plains are more difficult to
cultivate.
4
The people of the Philippine Islands are of
predominantly Malay origin. They were part of an
adventurous race which had sailed N from present day
Indonesia, in outrigger canoes to settle here. They subdued
or assimilated earlier inhabitants who had reached the
islands by alternative migratory routes thousands of years
before whose descendants remain extant.
History
1.104
1
The Philippine Islands were discovered by Fernando de
Magallanes (Magellan), a Portuguese navigator in the
employment of Spain, in 1521. They were conquered by
Spain in 1565 and were named Philippines after King
Philip II of Spain. The Spanish influence over 350 years
was profound affecting culture, customs and architecture of
the country. The Roman Catholic religion, introduced by
Spanish friars, remains the predominant faith practiced by
more than 80% of the population. The Philippines is the
only Christian nation in Asia.
CHAPTER 1
15
2
In 1892 the Philippine League was founded by Jose
Rizal to rebel against Spanish rule. Open revolt followed.
In 1897 a treaty was signed guaranteeing reforms within
3 years on the condition that Filipino leaders quit the
islands. Following a war between Spain and the United
States of America, the islands were seceded to the United
States of America on 10th December 1898.
3
On 14th November 1935, the President of the United
States signed a proclamation establishing the new
Philippine Commonwealth, and certifying the election of
the first president, Manuel Quezon. Sections of the
population under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo
refused to acknowledge US domination. An attack was
foiled by US troops causing the Filipinos to resort to
guerilla warfare.
4
On 4th July 1902 William Howard Taft, later to be
President of the United States of America, became the first
civil governor. He and his successors were reluctant to
delegate authority to Filipinos but in 1916 the Jones Act
instituted an elected senate.
5
On 13th January 1933, the congress of the United States
of America passed the Hawes-Cutting Bill granting the
Philippines independence after 12 years while preserving
military and naval bases in the islands. The commonwealth
was formally established on 15th November 1935 with
Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina elected as the first
president. President Quezon was re-elected in 1941.
6
The Philippines were officially at war with Japan shortly
after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 8th
December 1941. By 22nd December the Japanese had a
foothold in Lingayen Gulf and on 9th April 1942, after
heroic resistance, Bataan fell. On 20th October 1944, the
Americans landed at Leyte with General MacArthur and
Sergio Osmeña who had succeeded to the presidency upon
Quezon’s death. The Philippines became a sovereign State
on 4th July 1946.
7
But the new state was faced with internal insurrection.
In central Luzon a Communist-led group of Hukbalahaps,
or Huks were demanding collectivization of farms and the
abolition of tenant farming. Attempts in 1953 to quell this
rebellion were unsuccessful until an election brought
Ramon Magsaysay to power. He attacked the Huks, put
down the rebellion and went ahead with plans to extend
tenant farming.
8
Following Magsaysay’s death Carlos P Garcia became
president and promptly issued an edict out-lawing the
Communist Party. Many of the Huk movement surrendered.
9
Ferdinand Marcos was elected President in 1965 and in
his hands rapid development of the economy brought
prosperity to the Republic. Civil unrest began again during
his second term of office with the Communist New
People’s Army and the Moro National Liberation Front, a
Muslim separatist movement in the S, waging guerilla
warfare. A new constitution was promulgated in 1973
giving Marcos dictatorial powers. This brought about
restlessness among the population led by the church.
President Marcos ended martial law in 1981 and he was
elected to a new six year term. Opposition to his presidency
mounted when, in 1983, Opposition leader Benigno Aquino
was murdered, apparently by a military conspiracy, though
the defendants were subsequently acquitted. Corazon
Aquino stood, somewhat reluctantly, as Marcos’s chief
opponent. She became the first female President. Tardiness
in economic reform threatened her government. In the next
election in 1992, Corazon Aquino declined to stand but
supported the eventual winner, Fidel Valdez Ramos. Islamic
terrorists continued to be troublesome but Ramos’s
economic reforms proved successful and in September 1996
the government signed a treaty with the Muslim Moro
National Liberation Front, the chief insurgent group in
Mindanao.
10
In 1998 Joseph Estrada was elected President and
despite the peace agreement sporadic fighting restarted in
Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. In November 2000
President Estrada was impeached on charges of
embezzlement. Despite winning his case Estrada was forced
to resign by mass popular protest. Gloria Arroyo was
sworn in as President on 20th January 2001.
Government
1.105
1
The Republic of the Philippines was formerly governed
by a constitution adopted in May 1935, and amended in
1940 and in 1946. The president and Vice-President were
elected for a 4 year term but could be elected for a further
term. President Marcos changed the constitution in 1972 by
proclaiming martial law giving himself the offices of both
President and Prime Minister without a fixed term. In 1986
Marcos was deposed and with the new president a new
constitution came into force granting the President a single
6 year term of office.
2
The Philippines Congress consists of a Senate with 24
members, and a House of Representatives with 250
members serving 3 year terms.
3
Local Government. The country is divided into 76
provinces, 61 chartered cities, more than 1500
municipalities and 21 municipal cities. Each province elects
a governor and 3 members of the provincial board. The
municipalities are public corporations, each composed of a
number of barrios. The elected municipal mayor is the
executive official.
Population
1.106
1
A 2000 census gave the total population of the
Philippiness 78 148 516 of which 58% were urban dwellers.
It is disposed as follows:
Luzon 42 810 872
Palawan and the off-lying islands 1 679 030
Visayas 15 524 750
Mindanao 18 133 864
An estimate of the population in 2001 is put at
82 841 518 persons.
Flora
1.107
1
The flora of the Philippines is essentially Malaysian, but
Himalayan elements occur in the mountains of N Luzon,
while a few Australian varieties are found at various
elevations. Much of the land area of the islands is forested
wherein many valuable hardwoods flourish. Dominant
forest species of flora are endemic. Rubber, fruits, nuts,
spices and drugs are yielded from the forests. Palms,
bamboos and rattans are so plentiful that a thriving industry
has grown up around them.
2
Vegetation of the coastal regions, including mangrove
swamps, is practically identical with that of similar areas
throughout the Malay Archipelago.
CHAPTER 1
16
Fauna
1.108
1
Mammals include shrews, rats, mice and bats. Red and
brown deer are found in Basilan, Mindanao, Leyte, Samar
and the Calamian Islands. Timaraus, a small buffalo, are
peculiar to Mindanao. Carnivores are represented by the
mongoose, the binturong, the otter and the civet cat. Flying
Lemurs and tarsiers range throughout the islands from
Basilan to S. Luzon. Only one genus of monkey is found
though this is represented by five species. Reptiles abound
and there are about 750 species of bird.
2
More than 1000 species of marine fauna have been
discovered most of which are edible. The Philippines have
the richest molluscan fauna in the world and many of the
shells are of great beauty. The pearls of the Sulu
Archipelago have attracted an international reputation.
Industry and trade
1.109
1
The economy of the Philippines is predominantly
agricultural, although manufacturing is increasing at a
steady rate. Fishing is a major industry and a main source
of food. Trawling has developed significantly in open water
operations. Fish are abundant with little evidence of
migration but certain areas are seasonal thanks to their
exposure to the NE and SW monsoons.
In 2000 a total of 8243 ships of greater than 100 dwt
entered Philippines ports totalling about 132 000 000 dwt.
PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS AND
ANCHORAGES
1.110
Place and position Remarks
T’ai-wan
1
West coast
Nan Wan
(21°55′N, 120°47′E) (2.29)
Best anchorage on SW side
of T’ai-wan
Hai-k’ou Wan
(22°06′N, 120°42′E) (2.33)
Fishing harbour. Small craft
anchorage.
Kao-hsiung
(22°37′N, 120°18′E) (2.38)
Commercial port. Major
container port
Tso-ying Kang
(22°42′N, 120°15′E) (2.82)
Naval base
Yung-An LNG Terminal
(22°49′N, 120°11′E) (2.84)
Anchorage and berth
Pu-tai
(23°23′N, 120°09′E) (2.88)
Developing commercial
port
Hai-k’ou Yü-kang
(23°42′N, 120°10′E) (2.90)
Anchorage sheltered from
NE monsoon
An-p’ing Kang
(22°59′N, 120°10′E) (2.91)
Commercial and fishing
port
P’eng-hu Kang
(23°35′N, 119°32′E)
(2.108)
Naval, commercial and
fishing port
Mai-liao Kang
(23°47′N, 120°10′E)
(2.127)
Commercial port
T’ai-chung Kang
(24°16′N, 120°30′E)
(2.136)
Large commercial port.
2
North coast
Sha Lung Oil Terminal
(25°09′N, 121°11′E)
(2.204)
Tanker terminal with 2
SPM. Vessels up to
250 000 dwt
T’ai-pei (Tan-shui) Kang
(25°10′N, 121°23′E)
(2.198)
Developing commercial
port
Chi-lung (Keelung) Kang
(25°09′N, 121°45′E)
(2.219)
Large commercial port
Shen-ao Wan
(25°07′N, 121°49′E)
(2.260)
Commercial and fishing
port
Philippines
3
Luzon — north coast
Claveria Bay
(18°37′N, 121°04′E) (3.20)
Commercial port,
anchorages. Ro-Ro facility
Pamplona River
(18°30′N, 121°22′E) (3.21)
Timber loading anchorage
Port Irene
(18°23′N, 122°07′E) (3.24)
Commercial port. Plans to
expand
Port San Vicente
(18°30′N, 122°08′E) (3.25)
Developing port. Typhoon
anchorage
Aparri
(18°21′N, 121°38′E) (3.11)
First port of entry,
commercial port
Luzon Strait
4
Babuyan Islands
Port San Pio Quinto
(18°54′N, 121°51′E) (3.46)
Anchorage sheltered from
NE winds. No commercial
importance
Sabtang
(20°21′N, 121°52′E) (3.58)
Anchorage protected from
SW monsoon
Port Basco
(20°27′N, 121°58′E) (3.61)
Anchorage protected from
NE Monsoon, or Baluga
Bay protected from SW
monsoon
Hsiao-lan Yü
(21°57′N, 121°36′E) (3.70)
Open roadstead choice of
anchorage dependant on
monsoon
T’ai-wan
5
East coast
Kang-k’ou Wan
(21°57′N, 120°51′E) (3.84)
Anchorage
Hua-lien Kang
(24°00′N, 121°38′E)
(3.100)
Largest harbour on E coast.
Commercial and fishing
Su-ao Kang
(24°36′N, 121°52′E)
(3.108)
Naval and commercial port
China
6
South-east coast
Jieshi Wan
(22°45′N, 115°40′E) (4.18)
Fishing port. Anchorge
protected from all but S
winds
Jiazi Gang
(22°51′N, 116°05′E) (4.20)
Fishing port. Anchorage for
small vessels. Ground swell
CHAPTER 1
17
Shenquan
(22°58′N, 116°18′E) (4.21)
Anchorage sheltered from
NE monsoon. Liable to
heavy swell
Guang’ao Wan
(23°12′N, 116°43′E) (4.26)
Anchorage sheltered from
NE monsoon
Shantou Gang
(23°21′N, 116°41′E) (4.27)
Commercial port. Typhoon
anchorage
Zhelin Wan
(23°34′N, 117°03′E) (4.85)
Commercial and fishing
port
Zhaoan Wan
(23°37′N, 117°18′E) (4.88)
Anchorage sheltered from
NE monsoon but
uncomfortable and poor
holding
Dongshan Wan
(23°47′N, 117°33′E) (4.78)
Typhoon anchorage,
working anchorages
Nan’ao Dao
(23°26′N, 117°04′E) (4.97)
Fishing port. Good typhoon
anchorage. Local
knowledge necessary
Xiamen Gang
(24°28′N, 118°07′E) (4.99)
Naval and commercial port
serving major industrial
town
Weitou Wan
(24°32′N, 118°30′E)
(4.150)
Anchorage sheltered from
NE monsoon. Local
knowledge necessary
Quanzhou Gang
(24°52′N, 118°42′) (4.152)
Large commercial port
Xiuyu
(25°13′N, 118°59′E)
(4.199)
Commercial port. Oil
refinery
Fuzhou Gang
(26°04′N, 119°18′E)
(4.270)
Naval, commercial and
fishing port
Sansha Wan
(26°40′N, 119°47′E) (5.7)
Typhoon anchorage Vast
inlet easy of access all
weathers
Fuyao Liedao
(26°57′N, 120°20′E) (5.48)
Good typhoon anchorage
for 1 vessel. Local
knowledge necessary
Wenzhou Wan
(27°55′N, 121°05′E) (5.63)
Seven designated
anchorages
Yueqing Wan
(28°08′N, 121°06′E) (5.75)
Five designated anchorages
Wenzhou Gang
(28°01′N, 120°39′E) (5.81)
Commercial port
Haimen Gang
(28°41′N, 121°26′E)
(5.126)
Large commercial port
Designated anchorages in
river
Xiangshan Gang
(29°40′N, 121°54′E)
(5.175)
Typhoon anchorage
Yushan Liedao
(28°53′N, 121°15′E)
(5.168)
Five designated anchorages
Jiushan Liedao
(29°26′N, 122°12′E)
(5.170)
Six designated sheltered
anchorages
Dongfushan
(30°08′N, 122°46′E) (6.26)
Anchorages sheltered from
NE winds
Shengshan
(30°43′N, 122°49′E) (6.27)
Anchoeage sheltered from
W, N and E winds
Putuoshan
(30°00′N, 122°23′N) (6.41)
Anchorage, good holding
ground. Stone jetty for
small craft
Shangchuanshan
(30°37′N, 122°19′E) (6.44)
Typhoon anchorage
Lao-Hu Shan
(30°04′N, 121°55′E) (6.87)
Anchorage
Ningbo Gang
(29°57′N, 121°43′E) (6.89)
Commercial old and new
ports. Development
Zhoushan
(30°00′N, 122°06′E)
Large commercial port.
Fishing
Changtu Gang
(30°15′N, 122°17′E)
(6.174)
Excellent typhoon
anchorage for medium
sized vessels
Xiluhua Dao
(30°49′N, 122°38′E)
(6.203)
Typhoon anchorage used
for transhipment and
lightening
Jinshan
(30°43′N, 121°20′E)
(6.237)
Commercial port built for
Shanghai Petrochemical
Company. Development
on-going
Zhapu
(30°35′N, 121°05′E)
(6.263)
Large commercial port
Hangzhou
(30°15′N, 120°10′E)
(6.275)
Administrative centre.
Commercial port
Shanghai
(31°24′N, 121°32′E) (7.32)
Commercial port
Changshu
(31°46′N, 120°56’E) (7.95)
Commercial port
Zhangjia Gang
(31°58′N, 120°24′E)
(7.100)
Modern commercial port
Jiangyin
(31°55′N, 120°15′E)
(7.105)
Commercial port
Nantong Harbour
(32°00′N, 120°49′E)
(7.109)
Commercial port
Zhenjiang
(32°13′N, 119°26′E)
(7.125)
Commercial port centre for
marshalling river craft
Nanjing
(32°03′N, 118°46′E)
(7.136)
Commercial port for
tankers
Lianyungang
(34°46′N, 119°28′E) (8.19)
Commercial port for coal
and fishing vessels.
On-going development
Lanshan
(35°05′N, 119°21′E) (8.70)
Commercial port
Rizhao
(35°23′N, 119°34′E) (8.77)
Commercial port largest
coal terminal in China
Qingdao (36°05′N, 120°18′E)
(8.89)
Large commercial port.
CHAPTER 1
18
Longyan
(37°25′N, 122°38′E) (9.18)
Commercial port
Weihai
(37°30′N, 122°07′E) (9.30)
Commercial port, natural
harbour
Yantai Gang
(37°34′N, 121°26′E) (9.66)
Commercial port.
Development on-going
Penglai Lao Gang
(37°50′N, 120°44′E)
(9.120)
Commercial port
Longkou Gang
(37°39′N, 120°16′E)
(10.18)
Commercial port
Laizhou
(37°25′N, 119°57′E)
(10.54)
Commercial port. Fishing
port.
Tianjin
(38°59′N, 117°45′E)
(10.87)
Commercial port serving
Beijing.
Jintang
(39°13′N, 119°01′E)
(10.130)
Commercial port.
Qinhuangdao Gang
(39°54′N, 119°36′E)
(10.144)
Commercial port.
Jinzhou
(40°48′N, 121°04′E)
(10.209)
Commercial port.
Yingkou
(40°41′N, 122°14′E)
(10.234)
Commercial port. Frozen
November to April.
Lüshun Gang
(38°48′N, 121°15′E)
(10.273)
Naval base formerly Port
Arthur. No recent data
Dalian
(38°55′N, 121°40′E)
(10.284)
Commercial port.
Dandong
(39°49′N, 124°09′E)
(10.337)
Commercial port closed to
navigation Nov/March.
On-going development
Korea
7
South-west coast
Mokp’o Hang
(34°47′N, 126°23′E)
(10.87)
Commercial port. On-going
development.
Kunsan Hang
(36°00′N, 126°41′E)
(11.170)
Commercial and fishing
port. Land reclamation
on-going.
Boryeong
(36°27′N, 126°28′E)
(12.16)
Commercial port.
Taesan (37°01′N, 126°20′E)
(12.62)
Commercial port.
Pyongtaek Hang
(37°01′N, 126°46′E)
(12.108)
Commercial port.
Inch’on Hang
(37°28′N, 126°36′E)
(12.140)
Large commercial port.
Haeju Hang
(38°00′N, 124°42′E)
(13.24)
Commercial port.
Nampo Hang (38°44′N,
125°25′E) (13.76)
Large commercial port.
PORT SERVICES — SUMMARY
Docking facilities
China
1.111
1
Xiamen Gang. Floating dock: Xia Chuen No 1.
25000 dwt (4.135).
Shanghai. Shipyard drydocks: No 1. 35000 dwt. No 2.
80000 dwt. Floating dock: 25000 dwt. Qiuxin Shipyard. Dry
dock. No 1. 1000 dwt. Jiangnan Shipyard. Dry docks: No 1.
8000 dwt. No 2. 25000 dwt. No 3. 75000 dwt (7.68).
Huangpu Dry docks: No 1. 15000 dwt. No 2. 25000 dwt.
No 3. 150000 dwt.
2
Nantong. Floating docks Nantong 150000 dwt and
Yuantong 80000 dwt (7.114).
Qingdao. Dry docks: No 1, 15000 dwt; No 2,
20000 dwt; Shipyard, 146 m length, 22 m width; Floating
dock lifting capacity 28000 dwt (8.128).
3
Tianjin. Dry docks: No 1. 30000 dwt. No 2. 3000 dwt.
No 3. 5000 dwt. No 4. 165 m length, 42 m width. Floating
dock: No 1. 15000 dwt (10.117).
Qinhuandao. Dry docks: No 1. 15000 dwt. No 2.
65000 dwt. No 3. 340 m length, 64 m width.
Dalian. Dry docks: No 1. 5000 dwt. No 2. 15000 dwt.
No 3. 365m length 80 m width, building. Semi dry docks:
No 1. 150000 dwt. No 2. 103 m length 76 m width (10.172)
(10.315).
T’ai-wan
1.112
1
Kao-hsiung. Largest 950 m long, 92 m wide, with an
average depth of 14 m and able to be sub-divided (2.66).
Keelung. Largest 265 m in length, 45 m wide and 8⋅7 m
on sill at MHHW (2.219).
Suao. Largest 165 m in length, width 23⋅7 m, sill depth
7⋅7 m at MHWS (3.108).
T’ai-chung Kang. Largest 165 m in length, 28 m in
width and a depth of 6 m (2.136).
Korea
1.113
1
There is no information available for this area. For dry
docks on the S and SE coast of Korea see the S and E
coasts of Korea, E coast of Siberia, and Sea of Okhotsk
Pilot.
CHAPTER 1
19
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
General remarks
1.114
1
Dong Hai (Eastern Sea), Huang Hai (Yellow Sea) and
Bo Hai form one of the largest shelf areas in the world,
with alluvial sediment thickest within about 100 miles of
the coast, overlaying the sedimentary rock of the seabed.
This sediment is carried down from the mountain ranges
within the hydrological cycle and deposited when the flow
of the rivers is slowed by tidal and current influences of
the surrounding seas.
2
Depths on these huge shelf areas show a progressive
increase from the shallow Bo Hai in the N, with depths
generally less than 20 m, into Huang Hai where depths in
excess of 70 m are found, especially on the Korean side
thence to depths of 150 m on the shelf edge. Broad deltas
and alluvial fans occur along the coast of China in the
vicinity of 34°N (the former mouth of Huang He) and in
the vicinity of the mouth of Chang Jiang (Yangtze Kiang).
Swift outflow and large tidal ranges have moulded these
banks of sediment to produce a series of shoals and
troughs, often tens of kilometres in length and several
kilometres in width, extending at right angles from the
land. Off the former mouth of Huang He, because river
outflow is no longer an influence the shoals, moulded by
tides and currents alone, lie parallel to the coast. In
T’ai-wan Strait sediments is principally quatrz sand.
3
A coarsening of the deposited sediment towards the edge
of the shelf suggests conglomerates in that area deposited
by ancient glaciers which, because of ocean current
influences, has not been covered by alluvial deposits of
sand or mud from river outflow.
4
A narrow strip of shallows extends S from T’ai-wan to
Luzon. This is part of the Pacific ring island arc. Of
volcanic origin the ridge has been created by the Pacific
Plate being forced under the Eurasian Plate, a tectonic
subduction that has created the Philippines Trench and,
continuing N, includes the Nansei Shoto Trench.
Submarine volcanic activity
1.115
1
Submarine volcanic activity has been reported in the
following positions 19°45′N, 120°03′E and 26°11′N,
122°27′E.
Volcanic activity
1.116
1
Active volcanoes exist on Babuyan Island (19°32′N,
121°57′E) (3.56) and Kuei-shan Tao (24°51′N, 121°57′E)
(3.118).
Seismic activity
1.117
1
The whole of the NW part of the Pacific ring from the
Philippine Archipelago to Japan is an area of high seismic
activity. The most significant effect of this activity for
vessels at sea is likely to be the seismic sea wave or
tsunami, a Japanese word meaning “harbour wind”. These
waves are caused by earthquakes or submarine volcanic
activity. Vessels near the epicentre of an earthquake may be
affected by shock waves which create the impression of
running aground or passing over a submerged reef.
2
When the progress of a tsunami is constricted by the
bottom configuration or shoreline the height of the wave
increases rapidly causing considerable damage to vessels in
the vicinity or adjoining shore installations. See The
Mariner’s Handbook.
MAGNETIC VARIATION AND
LOCAL ANOMALIES
Local anomalies
1.118
1
A list of places where local magnetic anomalies have
been observed is given in the index under the heading
Magnetic anomalies, local.
CURRENTS TIDAL STREAMS AND FLOW
Currents
General remarks
1.119
1
It is only near the coast of China that currents reverse
their direction in accordance with the direction of the
prevailing monsoon wind. Farther offshore the Japan
current (Kuro Shio), which forms part of the main N
Pacific Ocean circulation, follows much the same course
throughout the year, setting NE off the E coast of T’ai-wan
and across the SE part of Dong Hai (Eastern Sea). Hence
during the NE monsoon this current flows in the opposite
direction to the prevailing wind.
Current diagrams
1.120
1
In the current diagrams 1.120⋅1 to 1.120⋅4, arrows
indicating the predominant direction, average rate and
constancy are shown. These are defined as given below.
Predominant direction. The mean direction with a
continuous 90° sector containing the highest proportion of
observations from all sectors.
2
Average rate of the highest 50% of all observations in
the predominan sector as indicated by the figures in the
diagram. It is emphasised that rates above and below these
shown may be experienced.
3
Constancy, as indicated by the thickness of the arrows,
is a measure of the persistence, e.g. low constancy implies
marked variability in rate and particularly direction of the
current.
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
N
30°
35°
40°
N
KEY
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¾
¾
¾
¼
¼
¼
J
A
P
A
N
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
(
K
U
R
O
S
H
I
O
)
1
1
1
1¾
VARI ABL E
CURRENTS
Predominant surface currents MARCH - MAY (1.120.1)
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >70%
Moderate constancy 30%-70%
Low constancy <30%
CHAPTER 1
20
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
N
30°
35°
40°
N
KEY
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¾
J
A
P
A
N
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
(
K
U
R
O
S
H
I
O
)
VARI ABL E
CURRENTS
Predominant surface currents JUNE - AUGUST (1.120.2)
1
1
/
4
1½
1¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
1
1
/
4
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >70%
Moderate constancy 30%-70%
Low constancy <30%
CHAPTER 1
21
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
N
30°
35°
40°
N
KEY
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
J
A
P
A
N
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
(
K
U
R
O
S
H
I
O
)
VARI ABL E
CURRENTS
Predominant surface currents SEPTEMBER - NOVEMBER (1.120.3)
1½
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >70%
Moderate constancy 30%-70%
Low constancy <30%
CHAPTER 1
22
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
N
30°
35°
40°
N
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >70%
Moderate constancy 30%-70%
Low constancy <30%
KEY
1
1
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
¾
¾
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
¼
½
½
¼
¼
¼
½
1
1
/
4
1
J
A
P
A
N
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
(
K
U
R
O
S
H
I
O
)
Predominant surface currents DECEMBER - FEBRUARY (1.120.4)
CHAPTER 1
23
CHAPTER 1
24
Monsoon currents off the coast of China
1.121
1
There is some variability in the set and strength of the
current even at the height of the SW and NE monsoons, so
that different sets to those shown in diagrams 1.120.1 and
1.120.3 may be experienced at times and, exceptionally, in
the oppopsite direction. The greatest differences occur in
the vicinity of tropical storms or typhoons when the rate of
the current often increases (1.124).
2
During the height of the NE monsoon a current emerges
from the NW side of Huang Hai and flows S as a rather
narrow band along the E coast of China. South of T’ai-wan
Strait the current becomes much broader and is joined from
the E and SE by waters partly derived from the flow to the
E of the Philippines.
3
During the transition from the NE to the SW monsoon,
the currents are mostly weak. The change in the set of the
current flow from S (associated with the NE monsoon) to
N (associated with the SW monsoon) tends to occur about
the end of March to the S of 23°N, and in May or June to
the N of that latitude.
4
Similarly during the transition from SW to NE monsoon,
the reversal of the current seems to take place rather earlier
in the N. To the N of about 27°N, S sets become
established aas early as September and then extend S along
the coast during October.
5
The average rates of the currents are shown in the
diagrams but with occasional rates of 3 to 4 kn being
recorded.
Japan Current (Kuro Shio)
1.122
1
The Japan Current has similarities to the Gulf stream of
the N Atlantic, being a strong, narrow, warm current of
high constancy and forming the NW part of a rather
complex clockwise circulation of the N Pacific. The
W-setting current, in the S part of this clockwise pattern is
known as the North Equatorial Current. This current is
blocked to the W by the Philippine Islands and so divides
into a S setting current and a N-setting current towards
T’ai-wan. As the water flow converges to the SE of
T’ai-wan and sets NE, it becomes the Japan Current. It
becomes somewhat wider with a slightly lower average rate
as it crosses the SE part of Dong Hai, then sets ENE to the
S of Japan.
Currents in Huang Hai
1.123
1
From the limited number of observations available, the
currents are frequently weak and variable in the central
area with a mainly weak S-setting current in the W and
weaker N-setting current in the E. However the constancy
of both of these currents is very low and with an average
rate of kn or less though on some occasions rates of
3 kn have been recorded.
Tropical cyclone derived currents
1.124
1
Generally, only slow moving tropical storms or typhoons
produce currents about 2 kn. They tend to set in the
direction to which the wind is blowing. However, if a
tropical storm is located near a coast higher rates are
possible due to piling up of water against the coastline. See
The Mariner’s Handbook.
SEA AND SWELL
General remarks
1.125
1
For definitions of sea and swell and the terminology
used in describing their characteristics see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Sea conditions
1.126
1
Sea waves generated by wind can vary greatly in
direction particularly during the transitional months between
the NE and SW monsoons. Sea waves are generally lower
than expected in the bays and inlets of Bo Hai and Huang
Hai due to shorter fetches.
2
During the NE monsoon from October to March, waves
are mainly from NNW in Bo Hai and Huang Hai, NNE
over S Dong Hai and predominantly NE towards T’ai-wan.
Between June and August, during the SW monsoon, sea
waves are predominantly from the S over Huing Hai and N
Dong Hai, SSW over S Dong Hai and SW to the S of
T’ai-wan. Strait.
Swell conditions
1.127
1
Diagrams 1.127.1 and 1.127.2 give swell roses for
several areas in January and July. The roses show a
percentage of observations recording swell waves for
various directions and several ranges of wave heights.
2
The predominant directions of swell waves are similar to
those of the sea waves. The frequency of combined sea and
swell heights of 3⋅5 m and over is less than 5% of
occasions in Huang Hai and Bo Hai during the height of
the NE or SW monsoons and even lower during the
transitional months but with autumn being slightly rougher
than spring.
3
Around T’ai-wan in summer the frequency is similar to
those areas farther N but is significantly higher in winter.
By late September the frequency of combined waves of
3⋅5 m and over increases to about 10% over S Dong Hai
and to 15 or 20% in T’ai-wan Strait between December
and February. By late March the frequency decreases
repidly to less than 10% over T’ai-wan Strait.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Salinity
1.128
1
For an explanation of Salinity as applied to sea water
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Density
1.129
1
For an explanation of Density as applied to sea water
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
0
<1
<1
<1
<1
00
<1
<1
0.5-2
2.5-3
3.5-6
6.5-8
>8
2
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the f requency of swel l of di f ferent hei ght s (i n metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Swell distribution JANUARY (1.127.1)
CHAPTER 1
25
0
<1
<1
<1
00
<1
<1
<1
0.5-2
2.5-3
3.5-6
6.5-8
>8
2
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the f requency of swel l of di f ferent hei ght s (i n metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Swell distribution JULY (1.127.2)
CHAPTER 1
26
CHAPTER 1
27
Sea surface temperature
1.130
1
Diagrams 1.130.1 to 1.130⋅4 show the mean sea surface
temperatures for February, May, August and November.
Minimum temperatures occur in February and maximum in
August. The seasonal range is greatest in the N over Bo
Hai and Huang Hai where very cold N and NW winds
from the Asian continent bring the sea surface temperatures
down to near or below freezing in winter. In summer the
mean sea temperature is about 23 to 26°C. Even over the
N part of T’ai-wan Strait there is considerable seasonal
variation of between 14 and 16°C in February to between
27 and 28°C in August.
2
Upwelling of cool sub-surface water may occur locally
in the lee of headland or peninsula in Huang Dai and Dong
Hai. This can result in considerable sea surface temperature
difference over relatively short distances.
3
Variations in the mean sea surface temperature depend
markedly on the strength of the monsoon. The more
extreme conditions are the result of a stronger monsoon.
ICE CONDITIONS
Sea ice conditions
General remarks
1.131
1
In Huang Hai, between the NE coast of China and the
Korean Peninsula, during winter, the fall of sea temperature
with increasing latitude is considerable and ice accordingly
forms along the NW coast of Korea, the N shore of Huang
Hai and the whole of Bo Hai and Liaodong Wan. See
mean sea surface temperature charts 1.130.1 to 1.130⋅4.
2
The duration of sea ice in average years is from the
middle to latter part of November to the end of March,
with the exception of a small area at the mouth of Yalu
Jiang (39°45′N, 124°15′E) or Amnok Kang, where ice
persists through April. The maximum ice cover over the
whole region is in January, but the extent of ice in
February is almost as much.
3
Ice does not normally occur on the N coast of
Shangdong Banado to the E of Bohai Haixia (38°25′N,
121°25′E) but Yantai Gang (Chefoo) (37°35′N, 121°25′E)
has been known to freeze over.
The geographical chapters describe where and when ice
may be encountered in some of the N ports, rivers, inlets
and channels.
For details on operating in ice, and ice accumulation on
ships see the The Mariner’s Handbook.
Bo Hai and Liaodong Wan
1.132
1
The whole shore of Bo Hai and Liaodong Wan is
bordered by a belt of ice varying in extent from December
to March. The port of Qinhuangdao is, however, often ice
free. Most of this coastal ice appears to be navigable by
ordinary vessels in average years, but it must be
emphasised that ice conditions vary greatly from year to
year and ice, difficult to navigate by any but high powered
vessels, may be met with in some years.
2
The central parts of Bo Hai and Liaodong Wan are
mainly ice free, but areas of drift ice may be met at times,
during January to March, and also in the narrowest part of
Bo Hai Haixia. An area of drift ice impassable by any but
ice strengthened vessels may be met in the central part of
the head of Liaondong Wan in January and February.
3
At the entrance to Tianjin Xingang (39°00′N, 117°45′E)
severe frosts and snow accompany N and E gales towards
the end of November. Thin ice then forms rapidly at LW
on the extensive mudflats, and is carried by the flood tide
into the rivers, which become frozen up about the middle
of December. The sea-ice is compacted at this time and
fills the head of Bo Hai within a line drawn SSW from
Caofeidian (38°55′N, 118°30′E), the inmost part near the
entrance to Tianjin Xingang is unnavigable. In January the
unnavigable ice extends farther S along the W shore of Bo
Hai as far as Laizhou Wan creating the largest ice field in
the region. In February the area of unnavigable ice off
Tianjin Xingang is somewhat decreased but the extension
to Laizhou Wan persists. In January the ice field E of Dagu
Lighthouse has been reported to be 0⋅2 m thick and in
February 0⋅5 to 0⋅8 m thick.
4
Throughout the season icebreaker assistance is available
for entry into Tianjin Xingang when required.
Liao He (40°35′N, 122°05′E), which flows into the NE
corner of Liaodong Wan, is frozen over from December to
March: heavy ice occurs over an area off the mouth of this
river in January and February. For further details see
(10.244).
5
Where areas of unnavigable ice occur, as described
above, a belt of lighter ice is found on the seaward side.
North coast of Huang Hai
1.133
1
The coast between Laotieshan Xijiao (38°45′N,
121°08′E) and Yalu Jiang, 160 miles ENE, is bordered by a
belt of ice of varying extent in January and February. This
ice is in the process of formation in December and in the
process of melting in March. Much of it appears to be
navigable by ordinary vessels in average years, but the ice
conditions will vary from year to year. For ice at Dalian
Gang see 10.293.
2
Yalu Jiang (Amnok Kang) is practically closed to
navigation from about the beginning of November to about
the end of April. There is an area of unnavigable ice off its
mouth from January to March inclusive, and lighter ice
persists here until the end of April.
North-west coast of Korea
1.134
1
The ice off the mouth of Yalu Jiang (Amnok Kang)
extends into the N part of the bight between this river and
Changsan Got, 100 miles S. Taedong Gang (38°40′N,
125°15′E) usually freezes over from late December until
the middle of March and is then impassable above
Chinnanp’o; ice forms in the bight off the mouth of the
inlet in December. The maximum amount of ice occurs in
January, but it does not appear, in average years, to form a
continuous belt along the shores of the bight. The ice off
Taedong Gang lasts until about the end of March while that
E of Yalu Jang remains through most of April.
2
In the large bight SE of Changsan Got (38°08′N,
124°40′E), in which the port of Inch’on (12.140) is
situated, ice forms at about the end of December. In
January and February there is a belt of ice along the shore
both N and S of the estuary of Han Gang, that to the S
being the widest. This disappears in March except for a
small area off the river mouth, which persists till about the
end of the month.
3
To the E of Ch’olson Pando (39°40′N, 124°40′E), which
forms the E boundary of Yalu Jiang estuary, the sea-ice,
average years, is navigable by ordinary vessels.
Mean sea surface temperature (C°) - FEBRUARY (1.130.1)
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
20
18
12
14
16
22
24
22
18
20
6
4
2
8
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N
N
CHAPTER 1
28
Mean sea surface temperature (C°) - MAY (1.130.2)
8
10
12
14
10
12
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
26
28
14
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N N
CHAPTER 1
29
Mean sea surface temperature (C°) - AUGUST (1.130.3)
28
29
29
28
26
24
24
26
22
24
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N
N
CHAPTER 1
30
Mean sea surface temperature (C°) - NOVEMBER (1.130.4)
26
24
22
26
24
22
20
16
18
14
10
12
10
16
14
12
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N
N
CHAPTER 1
31
CHAPTER 1
32
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General conditions
1.135
1
The following information on climate and weather
should be read in conjunction with the information
contained in The Mariner’s Handbook, which explains in
more detail many aspects of meteorology and climatology
of importance to the mariner.
2
Weather reports and forecasts, that cover the area, are
regularly broadcast in a number of different languages
including English. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3.
3
The climate is monsoonal with cold NNW and NE
winds prevailing from October to March and warm SW to
SSE winds from June to the end of August. The transition
from the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon occurs
during April and May but may vary a little if E-going
depressions continue in the N part of the area delaying the
process. In contrast the autumn transition period usually
takes just two to three weeks and occurs in September.
4
Generally the wet season lasts from April to September.
Over the N Philippines the annual rainfall amounts to about
2100 mm, about 1200 mm along the E coast of China and
the W coast of Korea, and about 600 mm in the NW
towards Bo Hai. Snow is common in the N in winter.
5
Except for the extreme S of the area the annual
temperature range is high but particularly so in the N of
the area where winters are very cold and the summers hot.
The N part of the area is susceptible to sea fog during late
spring and early summer though, in the SW part it is more
likely between late winter and early spring.
Dust storms are not uncommon in some coastal areas of
Bo Hai in April and May.
6
The entire area is liable to be affected by tropical storms
and typhoons during the main typhoon season (July to
September). The highest frequency of the storms occurs
close NE of Luzon while the NW part of Bo Hai is seldom
affected.
Pressure
Average distribution
1.136
1
The distribution at mean sea level in January, April, July
and September is shown in diagrams 1.136.1 to 1.136.4
and illustrate the typical mean pressure fields for the NE
and SW monsoons. The pressure pattern is dominated by
the Siberian anticyclone in winter creating strong N-NE
monsoon winds due to intense pressure gradients. The
collapse of the anticyclone in spring results in reduced
pressure gradients over the area. In Summer low pressure
covers Asia and the W Pacific anticyclone extends W,
giving rise to relatively weak S and SW winds. In
September the Siberian anticyclone starts to build once
more cause the return of N to NW monsoon winds.
Variability
1.137
1
Occasional large variations from the mean monthly
average are likely due to an intensification or displacement
of the Siberian anticyclone in winter or to a W extension
or intensification of the W Pacific anticyclone in summer.
Variations may also occur due to E-moving depressions,
tropical storms or typhoons or to occasional migratory
anticyclones. Whilst they may cause large variations from
the mean they tend to be short lived and do not seriously
affect the overall dominance of the monsoons.
Diurnal variation
1.138
1
There is a regular diurnal variation with maxima at 1000
(+1⋅2 hPa) and 2200 (+0⋅9 hPa), and minima at 0400
(−0⋅7 hPa) and 1600 (−1⋅3 hPa).
Depressions
Extra-tropical depressions
1.139
1
Extra-tropical depressions of the mid and higher latitudes
affect much of the central and N regions, originating over
China and moving between E and NE, across Dong Hai
towards Japan. Many of these depressions form over S
China between 26° and 32°N whilst others develop farther
N over the Asian continent and then move on a track
between SE and NE. See diagram 1.139.1
2
These depressions are seldom intense whilst over the
land but deepen offshore and usually continue to intensify
as they move towards Japan. In winter they often give rise
to thick cloud, strong to gale force winds and a period of
snow or heavy rain. Korea is less affected than most other
coastal regions but on occasions intense storms move over
Korean waters giving rise to strong winds and heavy snow,
particularly along the S coast. Most of these depressions
form between January and June and are usually most
frequent in April and May, when the boundary between the
N-moving tropical air and the retreating polar air becomes
slow moving over central China. These depressions tend to
move NE and may form every few days resulting in the
N-ward advance of the SW monsoon being significantly
retarded. After a lull in July and August there is an
increase in depression activity from September to
December.
Tropical cyclones
1.140
1
These storms are more frequent over the W part of the
North Pacific Ocean than in any other part of the world,
with an average of about 25 to 30 a year. The majority
form over Guam and Yap islands in the Pacific E of the
Philippines Archipelago. Tropical storms or typhoons may
occur in any month but are rare in winter and spring. Of
those that do form about half recurve N-wards as they
approach the archipelago. In Bo Hai and Liaodong there is
seldom more than one tropical storm affecting the area
each year and this usually occurs during July or August. In
the S of the area the frequency is much greater. The season
can last from April to December with the greatest
frequency occurring between July and September. About
half of the tropical storms that reach the S of the area
continue on a W to NW track at a rate of between 5 and
15 kn towards the Chinese coast where they rapidly fill on
crossing the coastline. Most of the remainder tend to
recurve N at a slower rate before moving away to the NE
at an increasing velocity. Whilst over water with surface
temperatures of 27°C or more, intensification is likely.
Mean barometric pressure (hPa) - JANUARY (1.136.1)
1016
LOW
1018
1020
1022
1024
1026
1028
1030
HIGH
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N N
CHAPTER 1
33
Mean barometric pressure (hPa) - APRIL (1.136.2)
1012
HIGH
LOW
1014
LOW
1015
1015
1014
1014
1016
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N
N
CHAPTER 1
34
Mean barometric pressure (hPa) - JULY (1.136.3)
HIGH
LOW
1002
1004
100
6
1008
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N
N
CHAPTER 1
35
Mean barometric pressure (hPa) - SEPTEMBER (1.136.4)
1008
HIGH
LOW
1010
1010
1014
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
N
N
CHAPTER 1
36
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Typical depression tracks between JANUARY and JUNE (1.139)
N
N
CHAPTER 1
37
CHAPTER 1
38
2
Diagram 1.140.1 shows some typical tropical storm and
typhoon tracks but it should be remembered that individual
tracks of tropical cyclones can be erratic. Some may move
S at times and/or complete a series of loops.
3
Tropical depressions can rapidly intensify into typhoons
with winds reaching 65 to 150 kn and with central
pressures as low as 900 to 950 hPa. Typhoons with wind
speeds between 150 and 200 kn and central pressures
between 876 and 900 hPa are mainly confined to areas E
of the Philippines.
4
The term typhoon is derived from the Chinese tai fong
meaning great wind.
For a full description of tropical storms and typhoons,
and the appropriate avoiding action see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Fronts
Pacific polar fronts
1.141
1
The Pacific polar front lies between 26° and 27°N
between November and February then moves N to about
30° to 32°N by April thence into the N of the area covered
by this volume, in July and August. In the autumn it
moves relatively quickly S towards its winter position.
Diagram 1.141.1 shows the average position of this front,
although it may vary by 1 or 2 degrees of latitude from
year to year. The extra-tropical depressions mentioned in
1.139, usually form on this front in a similar manner to
mid-latitude depressions elsewhere, and with associated
warm and cold fronts. However, as air drawn into the
warm sector is usually of recent dry continental origin, the
warm fronts tend to diffuse with little rain or drizzle. Cold
fronts are usually much more active, sometimes squally and
often with abrupt changes of wind direction during rain or
snow.
2
See The Mariner’s Handbook.
Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
1.142
1
Also referred to as Intertropical Front it represents the
boundary between NE and SW monsoons. The ITCZ is
orientated approximately from NW to SE but is not well
defined. It is of varying width with light variable winds.
The weather along the boundary is often marked by heavy
cumulonimbus cloud and thunderstorms whilst in other
parts there may be a mere isolated thundery cloud.
2
The N-S movement of the ITCZ parallels the polar
front. In January the ITCZ lies S of the equator where N to
NE winds prevail over most of the area. In spring the
ITCZ moves slowly and somewhat erratically N so that by
late June or early July it lies close S of Shanghai with S to
SW monsoonal winds dominating the area. The ITCZ tends
to be deffuse at this time amd may split into two branches.
However, the ITCZ has usually moved S out of the area by
late August.
Winds
Average distribution
1.143
1
Wind roses showing the frequency of wind distribution
for the area in January, April, July and September are
given in diagrams 1.143⋅1 to 1.143⋅4 shows percentage
frequency of winds of force 7 and over in December.
Open sea
1.144
1
The N winds of the winter monsoon last from October
to March and the S winds of the summer from June to
August. During the transitional period (April and May) the
winds tend to be mostly light and variable hardening to a
more N direction in the other transitional period
(September).
Area south of 25 north
1.145
1
The winter monsoon brings persistent NE winds from
mid September to mid April. They average about force 5
with occasional gales but around T’ai-wan winds of force 7
or more have been recorded on about 25% to 30% of
occasions. The summer SW monsoon (June to August)
averages about force 4 though winds of force 7 or more
have been recorded on about 4% of occasions. Winds fall
light and variable at times during late April, May and
between late August and early September. Although gales
are infrequent in summer the presence of a typhoon will
result in winds of between 65 and 150 kn and on rare
occasions with winds between 150 and 200 kn.
Area between 25 and 30 north
1.146
1
When N to NE winds set in September they tend to
predominate from October averaging about force 5 to 6 by
mid winter. Winds of force 7 or more are recorcded on
about 12% to 25% of occasions and with higher frequency
towards the T’ai-wan Strait. Winds fall light and variable
towards the end of April then with S to SW winds,
averaging about force 4, become established in June to last
through most of August. Winds of force 7 and over are
relatively rare between May and August. As in other areas,
however, any typhoons will result in winds of 65 kn or
more.
Area between 30 and 35 north
1.147
1
The winter monsoon (September to March) brings winds
initially in a NNE direction which, by mid winter
predominate from N to NNW averaging about force 4 to 5.
Winds of force 7 and over are reported on between 8% and
12% of occasions during mid winter and on about 5% of
occasions in early and late winter. Off the E coast of China
winds are fairly constant between E and S but in July and
August they tend to come from between SSE and SSW
averaging about force 4. Farther E over Cheju Do
(33°20′N, 126°35′E) and South Korea the winds are more
variable in June, hardening to a SSW direction in July
before becoming less reliable in August when they blow
from NE to SE to SW, averaging about force 3 to 4. Winds
of force 7 or more have been recorded on about 2% of
occasions and are usually indicative of a nearby typhoon.
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Typical tropical storm/typhoon tracks (1.140)
N
N
CHAPTER 1
39
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
N
30°
35°
40°
N
Average position of the Pacific Polar Front and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (1.141)
Pacific Polar Front
ITCZ
Polar Front lies north of area during July and August
ITCZ lies south of area from September to June
I TCZ
ITCZ
ITCZ
JULY
AUGUST
JUNE
A
P
R
I
L
A
N
D
O
C
T
O
B
E
R
N
O
V
E
M
B
E
R
t
o
F
E
B
R
U
A
R
Y
CHAPTER 1
40
2
1
2
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Wind distribution JANUARY (1.143.1)
CHAPTER 1
41
5
3
3
2
1
1
1
3
2
4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Wind distribution APRIL (1.143.2)
CHAPTER 1
42
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Wind distribution JULY (1.143.3)
CHAPTER 1
43
6
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Wind distribution SEPTEMBER (1.143.4)
CHAPTER 1
44
CHAPTER 1
45
Area north of 35 N
1.148
1
During the winter monsoon over Huang Hai, Bo Hai and
Liaodong Wan, winds are predominantly from between N
and NNW averaging about force 4 from early September to
early April. Winds of force 7 or more have been recorded
on about 5% to 10% of occasions in mid winter and on 2%
to 6% of occasions in early and late winter. From June to
August winds predominate from between SE and SW
averaging about force 3. These winds tend to decrease to
light and variable during the transitional period in both
spring and autumn. Winds of force 7 and more occur on
about 1% to 2% of occasions and, although rare, are
usually associated with a tropical storm or a typhoon.
Coastal waters
1.149
1
Winds within 20 miles of the coast usually follow the
general flow of the monsoon winds but are subject to local
variations due to topography, orientation of the coast and
the influence of land and sea breezes. See the Climatic
Tables 1.160 for the percentage frequency of winds from
various directions and the mean winds at a number of
coastal stations.
2
For the effect that topography has on the strength and
direction of the wind see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Land and sea breezes
1.150
1
Land and sea breezes affect all part of the area covered
by this volume, particularly between April and September.
Land breezes are generally weaker than sea breezes and
may enhance or reduce the prevailing monsoonal wind.
Breezes frequently start at rightangles to the coast then
parrallel the coastline during the afternoon.
Storms
Thunderstorms
1.151
1
Thunderstorms are common between April and October
with a maximum occurrance during summer as shown in
the climatic tables. On the S and central coastal regions of
China thunderstorms occur on about 33 to 43 days a year
and in the NW on about 20 to 30 days a year. Over the E
coast of T’ai-wan and its interior thunderstorms are
recorded on about 50 days a year while on the SW coast
of Korea they occur on between 4 and 10 days of the year.
Cloud
1.152
1
In winter the cloudiest parts of the region lie between
23° and 33°N, with average cloud amounts of 6 oktas, and
over NE T’ai-wan with an average of about 6 to 7 oktas.
Farther N average cloud amounts steadily decrease towards
the NNW to about 2 to 3 oktas over Bo Hai and Liaodong
Wan. In latitudes S of T’ai-wan average cloud amounts are
about 6 oktas but in summer these reduce to about 4 to
5 oktas with similar amounts over Bo Hai and Liaodong
Wan. Over Huang Hai and Korea summer cloud is about 5
to 6 oktas. The climatic tables give figures of mean cloud
amounts at a number of coastal stations within the area.
2
The winter monsoon brings cold dry air from the Asian
interior which collects moisture as it moves S over Huang
Hai and Dong Hai. This results in cloudy skies over
T’ai-wan and the SE coast of China. Cloud forms in the N
whenever a depression moves ENE from China dragging
moist S air for a time.
3
Cloud formations in winter are usually over the open sea
rather than over the land but in summer the reverse is true.
Cloud amounts also tend to be much higher on windward
coasts than elsewhere.
Precipitation
Rain
1.153
1
The mean rainfall on the NE coast of T’ai-wan is about
3000 mm about half of it falling on the W coast. Over
Luzon annual rainfall is between 2000 mm and 3000 mm
while over the Chinese mainland amounts vary between
1100 mm and 1500 mm. Farther N towards Shanghai
coastal rainfall steadily decreases until in the area of
Tianjin on the SW coast of Bo Hai the average is about
500 mm. Farther E the average rainfall steadily increases to
about 700 mm over Yingkou and about 1100 mm at both
Inchon and Mokp’o.
2
Winter is a dry season over much of the mainland coast
of China and Korea with the driest period being between
November and January. Summer is conversely wet with
maximum rainfall occurring in the S part in June and in
the N part in July. The driest period in Luzon is April and
the wettest is August. Highest rainfall occurs on wind
facing coasts especially over high ground. This is
particularly so over gthe NE coast of T’ai-wan where the
normal seasonal pattern is reversed with maximum rainfall
in January and a minimum, in some places, in July.
3
The end of the winter monsoon is marked by an
increase in extra-tropical depression activity and consequent
rainfall. This increase continues throughout spring and the
S and central regions followed by a more pronounced
increase in June with the arrival of the warm moist air of
the SW monsoon. Rainfall intensity is highest during
thunderstorms or typhoons with 70 mm being recorded in
one hour during and August thunderstorm and between
200 mm and 300 mm recorded over 24 hours during the
typhoons of August and September.
Hail
1.154
1
Hail is rare.
Snow
1.155
1
Snow is rare S of 27°N where it occurs on average
about once a year between mid January and mid February.
Farther N snowfalls are progressively more frequent. In the
area of Liandong Bandao and Shandong Bandao between
early November and late March snow falls occur on about
20 days being the year’s total. Occasional blizzards,
reducing visibility to less than 100 m, are experienced. See
comments on ice accumulation on ships in The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Fog and visibility
Sea fog
1.156
1
Sea fog is rare, within the limits of the book, between
August and January, the frequency being less than 2%.
Most sea fogs occur between March and July with greatest
frequency during May when occurrances are 10 to 15%
over the coastal waters between Shanghai and Qingdao
thence steadily decreasing to less than 2% in the T’ai-wan
Strait. See diagram 1.156.1.
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
Percentage of frequency of winds force 7 and over DECEMBER (1.148)
10
15
15
30
25
20
CHAPTER 1
46
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
12
6
4
1
1
2
8
10
12
10
8
6
Percentage frequency of fog MAY (1.156)
N N
CHAPTER 1
47
CHAPTER 1
48
Dust and sandstorms
1.157
1
Dust and sandstorms are experienced at times
particularly N of 30N where dust haze can be fairly
extensive in late winter and spring fetching dust from the
Mongolian desert. In the worst cases visibility may be
reduced to a few metres and cause much irritation to eyes
throat and chest.
Air temperature
1.158
1
Over the open sea the mean air temperature in February,
due to the prevalence of N winds originating around the
Siberian anticyclone, varies from 0°C in the N of the
region to about 23°C in the extreme S. In August, as the
result of a warm S airflow the mean air temperature rises
to between 25° and 29°C. The annual temperature range is
therefore much greater in the N than in the S. Throughout
the year the mean air temperature over the open sea is
usually within 1°C of the corresponding sea surface
temperature.
2
In coastal areas during summer, the average of the daily
maxima in the S is between 32° and 34°C. Farther N this
average is between 28° and 30°C. In mid winter the
temperatures range from 28°C in the far S to about 9°C in
the central region decreasing to −3°C in the far N. Extreme
summer temperatures of 40°C have been recorded at some
locations. as shown in the climatic tables. At Yingkou
(40°40′N, 122°15′E) and extreme winter temperature of
−27°C was recorded.
3
Any major departure from the mean air temperature is
usually due to interruptions in the monsoonal airflow.
Variable winds are most likely in spring when depressions
are frequent and where rapid temperature changes are
possible. Such changes are as the result of a warm S
airstream being replaced by the colder N airstream behind a
cold front. Similar but less frequent changes occur during
autumn and winter.
Humidity
1.159
1
As a general rule humidity is inversely proportional to
air temperature, generally decreasing as temperature
increases. Early morning temperatures being normally low
the humidity is at its highest, gradually falling to a
minimum in the afternoon.
2
In the N part of the region during the winter winds are
normally dry and result in relatively low humidity, whereas
in summer months the winds are from S, warm and moist,
giving rise to higher humidity levels. This contrast between
winter and summer is, like the temperature range, less
marked in the S part of the region. (see the Climatic
Tables).
3
The onset of the SW monsoon, usually in June, brings
with it the highest humidity values, high rainfall and high
temperatures on the coast of China S of 35°N, and is
known as Mai-u.
4
The mean humidity over open waters in January is about
68 to 72% in the N and about 77 to 79% in the S. In July
these figures rise to 85 or 87% in the N and 81% in the
extreme S of the region.
CLIMATIC TABLES
1.160
1
The tables 1.161 to 1.174 give the most recent data for
several coastal stations (diagram 1.160) that regularly
undertake weather observations.
It is emphasised that these data are average conditions
and refer to specific locations of observing stations and
therefore may not be fully representative of the conditions
over the open sea or in the approaches to ports.
2
The following comments briefly list some of the
differences to be expected between conditions over the
open sea and the nearest reporting station:
Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea than on land.
Funnelling in narrow inlets can result in a local
increase in wind strength.
Precipitation along mountainous wind facing coasts
can be higher than at sea to windward.
Precipitation in the lee of high ground is generally
less.
Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over
land.
Topography has a marked influence on local
conditions.
1.174
1.171
1.167
1.168
1.173
1.172
1.170
1.169
1.166
1.165
1.164
1.163
1.161
1.162
APARRI
XIAMEN
FUZHOU
DINGHAI
SHANGHAI
MOKP’O
QINGDAO
INCH´ON
LONGKOU
YINGKOU
TIANJIN
T´AI-PEI
SHANTOU
WUHAN
NP 30
NP 42
Location of climatic stations (1.160)
LIMIT OF PIL
OT
130°
125°120°115°110°
130°125°Longitude 120° East from Greenwich115°110°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
20°
25°
30°
35°
40°
CHAPTER 1
49
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
50
1.161
WMO No 47112 INCH’ON (37
°
29
′
N, 126
°
38
′
E) Height above MSL − 70 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1025
2
−5
7
−13
67
51
3
3
22
3
33
7
13
11
7
1
9
15
4
17
3
5
4
10
8
27
25
6
8
0
2
0
February 1023
4
−3
11
−10
68
50
3
3
23
3
31
7
10
8
12
1
12
16
4
11
3
3
3
12
16
31
21
6
9
0
3
March 1020
9
2
16
−4
69
50
4
4
40
5
21
7
11
10
19
3
11
15
3
9
3
5
1
17
23
28
13
6
9
0
3
April
1015
16
8
25
2
68
51
4
4
87
7
13
6
12
15
26
8
9
9
3
5
1
4
5
18
26
34
7
0
6
10
4
1
May 1011
21
13
28
9
73
57
4
4
83
7
10
5
12
12
30
10
9
9
3
4
2
4
3
22
29
32
5
6
8
5
1
June 1007
25
18
30
13
77
63
5
5
108
8
7
4
14
11
31
12
10
5
5
6
2
6
3
19
28
29
6
1
5
7
5
1
July
1006
28
22
33
18
84
73
6
6
285
13
6
6
18
16
30
9
6
3
6
4
4
10
6
29
25
18
5
1
5
7
6
2
August 1008
29
23
33
19
81
68
5
5
252
12
15
7
20
16
18
6
5
5
9
12
5
10
6
16
18
24
8
1
4
6
2
2
September 1013
26
17
30
11
78
59
4
4
152
8
23
10
19
12
9
4
6
7
12
16
5
10
3
11
16
26
13
1
4
6
0
1
1
October
1019
20
11
25
3
74
53
3
3
48
6
23
8
20
11
9
3
8
8
11
11
3
5
4
11
18
32
16
1
4
6
2
1
November 1022
12
4
18
−6
70
53
3
3
50
6
25
9
17
12
11
2
7
10
7
17
4
6
5
15
13
20
19
1
5
8
2
December 1025
5
−2
12
−10
68
51
3
3
20
3
31
12
13
10
9
1
8
12
4
20
2
3
5
14
8
19
27
1
6
7
2
Means
1016
16
9
34*
−13§
73
57
4
4
_
_
20
7
15
12
18
5
8
9
6
11
3
6
4
16
19
27
14
5
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1170
81
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
37
9
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
−18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
51
1.162
WMO No 47165 MOKP’O (34
°
49
′
N, 126
°
23
′
E) Height above MSL − 56 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1025
7
−1
13
−7
71
54
5
4
35
4
37
12
9
8
7
1
3
21
3
42
3
4
2
4
3
6
35
8
12
1
0
February 1024
8
0
16
−6
73
52
4
4
47
5
36
9
10
7
9
2
2
23
3
42
2
2
3
6
6
10
30
8
13
1
March 1020
12
3
19
−2
72
49
4
4
55
6
31
8
10
9
14
2
3
20
3
27
2
2
5
10
8
17
28
8
12
1
April
1016
18
8
25
2
69
49
4
4
96
8
22
7
10
13
18
6
5
16
3
14
2
3
5
19
11
23
24
0
7
11
1
May 1012
22
13
28
9
73
55
5
4
89
7
18
6
12
15
23
6
6
12
2
12
2
3
8
19
12
25
18
0
7
11
0
1
June 1008
26
18
30
14
78
64
6
5
163
9
16
6
12
16
27
6
5
9
2
8
1
5
9
25
13
27
11
6
9
1
July
1007
28
22
33
18
83
72
6
5
210
11
9
3
10
14
41
10
6
6
2
4
2
4
10
35
18
21
6
0
7
10
1
2
August 1008
30
23
34
20
80
66
5
5
155
9
14
8
18
16
24
6
5
6
3
9
3
6
9
24
14
20
13
1
6
9
1
September 1013
27
19
31
13
77
59
4
4
130
8
28
16
17
11
12
2
2
10
2
26
5
4
7
10
10
16
22
6
10
0
1
October
1020
22
13
27
6
72
49
3
3
53
6
32
15
18
8
9
2
1
12
3
35
2
3
3
8
7
16
26
0
6
11
1
November 1023
16
7
22
0
71
50
4
4
51
5
28
11
15
11
14
1
2
13
4
39
3
3
3
7
8
11
26
7
11
2
December 1026
10
2
15
−4
73
53
5
4
28
4
31
13
11
9
13
2
3
16
4
41
3
3
3
7
4
6
33
7
12
1
Means
1017
19
11
34*
−8§
74
56
5
4
_
_
25
9
13
11
18
4
3
14
3
25
2
3
6
15
9
17
27
7
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1112
82
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
12
4
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
−11‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
52
1.163
WMO No 54471 YINGKOU (40
°
40
′
N, 122
°
12
′
E) Height above MSL − 4 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1028
−3
−12
7
−20
71
47
2
2
7
0
34
11
5
8
19
3
2
6
14
41
11
2
2
20
10
5
9
2
5
9
0
1
0
February 1026
1
−8
8
−17
67
43
3
3
8
1
30
10
4
9
23
3
3
8
11
39
7
1
3
22
12
6
11
1
6
10
0
2
0
March 1021
7
−2
15
−9
61
41
3
4
11
1
28
10
3
6
31
6
2
7
8
31
8
1
2
23
18
7
9
1
8
11
April
1014
16
6
24
−1
59
43
4
4
36
4
20
6
3
7
43
8
5
7
3
21
7
1
2
31
20
9
9
1
10
12
0
1
1
May 1010
22
13
28
6
63
48
4
4
48
5
17
8
4
7
41
11
4
6
2
20
5
2
3
30
22
9
10
1
9
11
3
June 1006
26
18
31
13
71
59
5
5
72
6
10
5
5
13
45
12
2
4
3
12
4
2
5
31
24
11
11
1
8
10
0
4
July
1004
29
22
32
18
80
68
6
5
172
10
8
8
8
14
47
10
2
2
2
12
5
4
5
32
24
8
9
1
7
9
5
August 1008
28
21
32
16
82
66
5
5
155
9
23
9
6
14
36
5
2
2
5
28
8
3
2
25
19
7
7
1
6
9
0
4
September 1014
24
14
29
7
76
53
3
3
78
7
25
9
5
12
33
2
2
5
6
30
9
2
1
23
18
6
9
1
6
9
0
4
October
1020
17
7
24
−2
69
48
3
3
42
5
27
10
3
12
28
3
2
6
9
31
8
1
1
25
17
7
8
1
7
10
0
1
1
November 1025
7
−2
16
−11
69
49
3
3
19
2
28
9
4
9
26
3
2
10
8
37
9
2
1
25
11
5
9
1
7
10
1
December 1027
0
−9
8
−17
70
49
2
2
8
1
31
10
5
10
25
2
2
5
10
37
7
3
3
24
9
7
9
2
6
9
0
1
0
Means
1017
15
6
33*
−21§
70
51
4
4
_
_
23
9
4
10
33
6
2
6
7
28
7
2
3
26
17
7
9
1
7
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
656
51
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
7
22
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
−27‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
53
1.164
WMO No 54527 TIANJIN (39
°
06
′
N, 117 10
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1029
2
−7
8
−13
66
40
3
3
2
0
20
6
9
3
5
6
11
8
32
18
5
10
4
12
10
18
16
8
3
6
2
0
February 1026
6
−4
12
−10
62
35
3
3
3
0
17
6
10
4
8
6
11
12
27
16
4
12
7
14
11
17
16
4
3
6
1
0
March 1022
12
2
21
−5
60
34
4
4
7
1
16
7
14
6
14
9
11
8
16
12
3
14
7
19
12
18
13
2
4
7
0
April
1014
21
9
29
3
58
33
4
4
21
3
13
5
14
5
20
15
11
9
7
11
3
12
9
20
17
18
9
2
5
8
0
2
May 1010
26
15
34
10
64
41
4
4
31
4
12
8
15
6
19
12
15
9
6
10
6
14
11
21
16
13
8
2
5
7
0
3
June 1005
30
20
37
14
70
49
4
5
64
6
10
8
17
8
15
13
11
5
14
7
5
22
15
20
11
10
5
4
4
6
0
6
July
1004
31
23
36
19
80
62
5
5
170
10
8
8
17
8
19
8
11
4
17
9
4
21
13
24
12
9
6
4
4
5
8
August 1008
30
22
34
18
81
61
5
5
150
9
11
11
11
4
16
9
9
6
22
9
6
14
8
26
12
14
6
5
3
5
6
September 1015
26
16
32
10
76
49
4
4
45
5
15
8
8
3
16
12
11
9
19
13
4
9
8
23
13
14
10
5
3
5
0
1
3
October
1021
20
9
27
2
72
42
3
3
18
3
15
7
9
4
12
9
10
9
25
15
4
9
6
18
13
18
11
5
4
5
0
1
1
November 1025
10
1
21
−6
71
44
3
3
9
1
15
6
9
3
9
5
12
11
30
16
6
9
4
14
12
18
14
7
3
6
0
3
December 1028
4
−5
10
−10
70
43
3
3
3
0
20
5
7
2
7
7
12
12
30
19
4
6
5
9
12
21
14
10
3
5
0
3
0
Means
1017
18
8
37*
−13§
69
44
4
4
_
_
14
7
12
5
13
10
11
8
20
13
5
13
8
18
12
16
10
5
4
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
523
42
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
11
29
Extreme values _
_
_
41†
−17‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
54
1.165
WMO No 54753 LONGKOU (37
°
37
′
N, 120
°
19
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 years observations, 1983 to 2001
January 1028
2
−5
8
−11
68
55
4
3
18
9
7
3
28
10
8
7
10
25
8
3
1
8
7
38
11
1
6
9
0
1
0
February 1026
4
−4
12
−9
67
51
3
3
16
9
10
3
28
10
4
5
14
28
10
3
1
5
6
34
12
1
6
9
0
1
0
March 1022
10
1
20
−6
63
46
4
3
12
13
8
2
31
12
7
3
12
28
12
3
1
8
6
34
8
8
10
1
April
1015
18
8
27
0
61
47
3
3
12
10
6
2
39
15
8
2
6
24
8
2
3
13
8
35
6
8
10
1
May 1011
23
13
32
7
66
52
4
3
10
8
9
3
32
17
10
2
9
23
11
6
2
13
8
29
6
2
7
9
0
2
June 1006
28
18
34
13
69
56
4
4
7
6
11
4
38
16
7
2
9
30
7
4
3
16
6
27
6
2
7
9
0
4
July
1004
30
22
35
17
80
67
5
4
6
11
11
4
38
11
8
1
11
29
10
6
3
16
6
25
5
2
6
8
0
6
August 1008
29
21
33
17
83
68
4
4
10
12
17
5
30
9
4
1
13
37
11
9
3
10
4
22
4
1
5
8
5
September 1015
25
16
31
10
74
57
4
3
9
11
14
4
29
9
3
4
17
32
14
4
6
3
30
9
1
5
8
2
October
1021
19
11
26
4
68
53
3
4
9
8
12
2
37
11
4
4
13
24
12
2
1
5
7
38
11
6
9
1
November 1025
12
4
20
−3
69
55
4
3
12
9
9
4
37
9
5
7
9
19
12
2
9
10
34
13
1
7
9
December 1028
5
−2
13
−7
68
55
4
3
14
7
8
2
31
12
9
9
8
21
8
2
9
12
33
13
1
7
9
1
0
Means
1017
17
9
35*
−11§
70
55
4
3
_
_
11
10
10
3
33
12
6
4
11
27
10
4
1
10
7
31
9
1
7
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
21
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
−17‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
55
1.166
WMO No 54857 QINGDAO (36
°
04
′
N, 120
°
20
′
E) Height above MSL − 77 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 29 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1028
3
−3
8
−8
71
53
4
4
11
2
46
4
6
3
11
4
6
17
4
41
2
2
5
15
7
7
20
1
9
11
4
February 1026
5
−1
10
−7
72
50
4
4
12
2
38
6
4
6
18
4
7
15
3
31
2
4
9
21
7
5
21
1
9
11
3
March 1022
9
3
16
−3
72
54
4
4
21
3
30
3
6
12
24
4
6
11
5
23
2
5
15
35
5
3
12
9
12
3
April
1016
15
8
22
3
73
58
4
5
36
5
19
2
6
15
36
4
5
11
3
13
2
5
13
52
3
3
10
0
10
12
5
1
May 1011
21
13
28
9
76
63
5
5
51
5
18
2
8
18
33
3
5
9
3
9
2
6
19
50
4
2
9
9
12
6
3
June 1007
24
18
31
15
84
74
6
5
83
6
13
2
8
22
39
2
4
8
2
5
1
7
24
55
3
2
4
8
11
7
3
July
1005
27
22
32
19
88
79
6
5
177
10
13
2
8
21
38
3
4
8
3
6
6
25
52
5
2
4
8
10
6
6
August 1008
28
23
32
18
84
72
5
5
156
8
26
6
11
14
23
3
4
10
4
12
3
7
24
34
6
5
8
1
8
10
1
4
September 1015
25
19
29
14
75
60
4
4
90
6
41
7
7
7
14
5
4
10
4
18
3
7
15
36
4
3
13
8
10
2
October
1021
20
13
25
6
71
54
4
4
47
4
39
6
6
6
11
6
6
13
7
27
1
4
9
30
7
5
17
1
8
10
1
1
November 1025
12
6
20
−3
71
55
3
3
27
3
40
5
4
3
12
9
6
17
3
32
3
3
4
20
10
6
21
1
9
11
2
December 1028
5
0
13
−7
71
54
3
3
10
2
42
6
3
2
12
6
8
20
2
40
1
2
3
13
9
7
23
1
9
11
3
0
Means
1018
16
10
33*
−9§
76
60
4
4
_
_
30
4
6
11
23
5
5
12
4
21
2
5
14
34
6
4
13
1
9
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
721
56
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
41
20
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
−14‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
29
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
56
1.167
WMO No 57494 WUHAN (30
°
37
′
N, 114
°
08
′
E) Height above MSL − 23 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1027
8
1
15
−4
84
64
5
5
41
5
19
18
12
3
3
3
2
5
36
25
17
14
4
7
5
7
9
13
2
4
3
February 1025
11
3
20
−2
83
60
5
6
57
6
17
16
14
2
3
1
2
4
41
22
20
15
4
7
5
7
8
13
2
4
0
1
March 1020
14
7
24
2
84
63
6
6
92
8
19
15
15
6
4
2
5
6
28
20
17
15
7
10
6
8
7
10
3
5
0
1
3
April
1015
21
13
30
6
85
62
6
6
136
8
13
14
19
8
8
4
3
4
26
19
14
13
6
18
9
7
5
9
3
5
0
2
4
May 1010
27
19
34
13
86
63
5
6
165
9
13
16
19
10
10
5
4
5
19
16
13
13
7
16
13
9
6
7
3
5
0
1
3
June 1005
30
23
35
18
88
68
6
6
212
11
10
12
19
11
13
5
6
3
21
13
16
13
6
14
16
10
5
8
3
5
0
4
July
1004
33
26
37
22
87
66
5
5
165
9
7
10
13
13
23
8
4
3
19
8
7
9
5
25
23
11
5
7
4
6
0
0
6
August 1006
33
25
37
21
87
64
5
5
114
7
18
18
21
8
8
2
4
5
15
17
21
13
4
11
11
10
9
5
4
5
5
September 1013
28
21
35
15
84
60
5
5
73
6
18
23
19
4
2
1
3
7
23
22
24
15
5
6
4
8
8
7
3
5
1
October
1020
23
15
31
8
87
59
5
5
74
6
17
15
13
3
2
1
3
4
41
23
17
15
5
5
6
7
9
12
2
4
0
1
1
November 1024
17
8
24
1
86
56
4
4
49
5
16
14
13
2
2
1
3
5
44
24
15
12
5
7
5
6
7
18
2
4
0
2
December 1028
11
3
18
−2
83
57
5
4
30
4
18
15
10
2
1
3
4
46
22
20
11
3
9
5
9
6
14
2
4
0
3
Means
1016
21
13
38*
−5§
85
62
5
5
_
_
15
15
15
6
7
3
4
5
30
19
17
13
5
11
9
9
7
10
3
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1208
63
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
14
27
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
−10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1500
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
57
1.168
WMO No 58362 SHANGHAI (31
°
24
′
N, 121
°
28
′
E) Height above MSL − 4 m
Climatic Table compiled from 10 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1027
8
0
17
−3
80
61
4
4
39
6
23
13
8
6
3
2
11
30
4
22
11
10
7
5
4
13
27
1
6
7
2
February 1026
9
1
19
−3
79
62
5
5
59
7
21
18
15
8
4
2
6
21
5
23
16
11
9
5
3
9
22
2
6
7
4
March 1023
13
5
21
0
83
64
5
6
81
9
18
14
15
17
8
5
7
13
3
19
12
14
15
10
6
10
14
0
6
8
4
April
1018
19
11
27
4
83
64
5
5
102
10
10
11
19
23
12
4
4
11
6
13
10
17
21
14
5
8
11
1
6
8
3
May 1013
24
16
30
10
84
62
5
5
115
10
5
8
21
33
12
3
4
7
7
8
8
23
29
13
3
7
7
2
7
8
5
June 1009
27
20
33
16
89
69
6
6
152
10
5
9
23
31
15
5
4
4
4
8
12
20
25
13
9
6
6
1
6
8
5
July
1007
32
25
36
18
89
72
6
6
128
9
1
5
18
38
26
4
2
3
3
2
4
16
31
26
12
6
1
2
7
8
1
August 1007
32
25
35
22
88
72
5
6
133
8
4
8
24
26
13
4
4
4
13
6
11
22
22
16
10
7
5
1
7
8
2
September 1011
27
20
34
18
85
67
5
6
156
9
18
20
20
12
3
2
5
13
7
19
23
19
13
6
2
5
13
0
6
8
3
October
1018
22
15
29
12
84
63
4
5
61
6
23
18
13
8
3
3
8
18
6
22
17
18
10
5
3
6
18
1
6
8
5
November 1023
17
9
26
6
84
63
5
5
51
5
19
15
10
8
6
4
11
21
6
18
11
12
10
7
5
13
21
3
5
7
5
December 1026
11
2
20
0
80
61
4
4
35
5
20
12
9
7
3
2
12
31
4
19
14
9
10
6
2
11
29
0
5
7
4
Means
1017
20
12
37*
−4§
84
65
5
5
_
_
14
13
16
18
9
3
6
15
6
15
12
16
17
11
5
8
15
1
6
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1112
94
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
43
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
−10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
11
30
11
11
30
10
10
11
18
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
58
1.169
WMO No 58477 DINGHAI (30
°
02
′
N, 122
°
07
′
E) Height above MSL − 37 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1026
10
4
18
−2
81
65
6
5
60
6
33
7
5
1
2
1
6
22
23
33
8
6
3
10
3
10
26
3
5
8
0
1
0
February 1024
10
4
20
−2
81
64
6
6
82
7
38
8
6
2
2
3
17
25
35
9
7
8
10
3
8
19
2
5
9
1
March 1020
13
7
23
1
85
69
6
6
102
7
26
8
9
6
5
1
5
16
24
29
10
8
14
13
3
5
16
3
5
8
0
2
3
April
1016
19
11
26
4
88
68
6
6
115
8
14
6
12
14
14
3
4
10
22
17
8
10
23
18
3
7
12
3
5
8
0
3
3
May 1012
23
16
31
10
91
71
6
6
141
9
13
6
13
22
15
3
4
7
16
16
9
10
25
22
3
5
7
2
5
8
0
2
2
June 1007
27
20
33
15
94
79
7
6
170
10
10
10
13
23
18
3
5
4
16
12
10
13
29
20
2
6
3
3
5
7
0
1
4
July
1006
31
24
35
21
93
76
6
5
106
7
5
4
12
25
33
2
3
2
15
6
6
9
38
28
3
5
3
2
6
9
0
5
August 1007
31
25
35
22
92
73
6
6
148
9
12
8
12
19
24
1
4
3
17
13
13
14
25
24
3
4
5
6
9
0
5
September 1012
27
21
33
16
87
71
6
6
181
10
28
15
11
7
9
2
2
8
17
30
18
14
12
10
1
5
9
2
6
8
0
2
October
1019
23
17
28
11
85
66
5
6
91
7
34
12
8
1
5
1
2
12
26
36
18
12
6
8
1
4
13
2
5
8
0
1
November 1023
18
11
25
4
83
63
5
5
72
6
31
8
5
1
3
1
5
14
32
36
9
9
7
9
2
6
20
2
5
8
0
December 1027
13
6
21
0
80
61
5
5
50
6
29
7
2
1
2
1
4
22
31
35
8
5
5
12
3
8
23
2
5
8
1
Means
1017
20
14
36*
−3§
87
69
6
6
_
_
23
8
9
10
11
2
4
11
22
25
11
10
16
15
2
6
13
2
5
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1318
92
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
11
25
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
−5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
59
1.170
WMO No 58847 FUZHOU (26
°
05
′
N, 119
°
17
′
E) Height above MSL − 85 m
Climatic Table compiled from 18 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2000
January 1024
15
9
25
3
80
63
6
5
47
5
17
7
3
3
3
3
22
20
23
9
7
12
24
12
5
13
8
10
4
6
0
1
February 1022
15
9
26
4
83
68
6
6
87
6
18
6
6
6
3
5
14
15
26
10
6
15
25
9
4
9
9
13
4
6
0
2
1
March 1019
18
11
30
6
87
70
7
6
120
7
11
5
7
9
5
7
16
12
29
7
4
16
30
11
4
12
6
11
3
6
0
2
4
April
1015
23
15
32
8
87
67
7
6
139
8
10
1
7
10
5
6
14
11
36
4
4
19
38
13
4
6
3
9
3
7
2
6
May 1011
27
20
34
15
87
69
6
6
179
10
8
2
5
8
6
6
17
13
36
6
3
20
37
14
5
6
3
7
3
7
4
June 1007
31
23
36
19
91
70
7
6
210
11
5
2
6
15
10
5
19
10
33
3
4
15
42
17
3
6
4
6
3
8
7
July
1006
34
26
38
23
88
61
5
5
138
8
8
3
7
12
9
8
13
9
31
4
8
16
41
16
4
7
3
2
3
9
8
August 1006
34
25
38
23
88
62
5
6
172
10
12
3
5
9
5
5
21
12
27
5
9
22
33
13
5
6
5
2
4
9
8
September 1011
30
23
35
19
82
63
6
6
165
9
20
3
3
2
2
4
20
23
22
11
11
20
25
12
3
11
5
3
4
7
5
October
1017
26
19
32
15
78
58
5
5
47
5
21
6
2
1
1
3
24
26
16
17
14
16
19
11
5
9
5
4
5
7
0
November 1021
22
15
29
8
77
58
5
5
40
4
20
7
2
1
1
3
23
29
14
14
15
14
15
12
5
11
9
4
5
6
0
December 1024
18
11
26
5
78
58
5
5
38
4
17
4
2
1
2
2
25
27
19
9
8
12
18
14
5
14
10
9
4
6
0
Means
1015
24
17
38*
2§
84
64
6
6
_
_
14
4
5
6
4
5
19
17
26
8
8
16
29
13
4
9
6
7
4
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1382
87
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
7
43
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
−2‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
18
18
18
18
30
18
18
18
18
18
18
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
60
1.171
WMO No 58968 T’AI−PEI (25
°
02
′
N, 121
°
31
′
E) Height above MSL − 9 m
Climatic Table compiled from 18 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2000
January 1021
19
15
21
12
84
72
7
6
95
11
3
17
41
8
13
7
5
2
5
6
29
35
4
1
3
6
15
1
5
8
0
February 1020
19
14
26
11
84
75
7
7
141
12
1
17
40
8
11
6
6
4
7
7
26
37
2
1
2
8
14
2
6
8
1
March 1017
21
16
28
12
86
74
7
7
162
13
2
15
40
5
14
6
7
5
7
8
22
30
2
3
3
9
23
2
5
8
2
April
1014
24
19
31
17
85
71
6
7
167
13
2
14
34
13
14
4
6
4
9
9
21
28
4
2
1
12
22
1
5
8
0
3
May 1010
29
24
35
22
82
70
6
7
209
13
2
13
32
14
15
7
6
3
9
10
19
26
3
2
4
13
21
1
5
8
4
June 1007
30
26
36
24
83
69
6
7
280
13
1
6
20
19
20
12
7
2
14
12
12
18
4
2
5
25
22
1
4
8
8
July
1006
33
26
36
25
80
64
4
6
248
12
1
5
16
17
28
15
8
1
10
15
10
14
7
3
5
20
26
4
8
8
August 1006
35
26
35
23
82
66
4
6
277
12
1
5
17
18
30
10
7
3
8
15
13
16
7
5
7
13
23
4
8
0
8
September 1010
32
25
34
22
80
67
5
6
201
10
1
15
28
17
24
7
3
2
4
10
29
29
6
2
7
16
0
5
9
0
4
October
1015
28
24
33
21
81
68
6
6
112
9
2
24
44
8
12
5
1
1
3
5
40
38
3
1
1
2
9
7
10
0
1
November 1019
25
20
30
18
80
69
6
6
76
9
3
21
48
8
11
3
2
1
3
5
34
44
4
2
2
10
7
10
0
December 1022
21
15
27
12
81
69
6
6
76
9
1
18
46
10
13
3
3
2
3
4
35
41
4
2
1
3
10
6
9
0
0
Means
1014
26
21
37*
10§
84
69
6
6
_
_
2
14
34
12
17
7
5
2
7
9
24
30
4
2
3
10
17
1
5
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2044
136
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
39
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
9‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
18
18
18
18
30
18
18
18
18
18
18
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
61
1.172
WMO No 59134 XIAMEN (24
°
29
′
N, 118
°
05
′
E) Height above MSL − 139 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1022
17
10
25
5
81
62
5
4
35
4
17
15
31
3
2
5
10
4
13
7
10
51
6
5
3
8
2
8
5
6
0
3
February 1021
17
10
25
6
83
69
6
6
74
6
14
14
34
2
2
5
11
3
15
7
10
48
7
7
3
7
2
9
6
6
0
5
1
March 1018
19
12
28
7
86
72
7
6
95
8
13
7
36
5
3
5
10
4
17
4
7
43
9
10
4
10
2
10
5
6
7
4
April
1014
23
16
30
10
87
71
7
6
135
9
12
10
24
3
4
8
14
3
22
4
6
37
9
17
5
10
3
10
4
6
0
6
5
May 1011
27
20
32
15
89
74
7
6
161
10
10
10
22
3
5
6
15
5
24
4
5
34
17
22
4
6
1
7
4
6
0
4
3
June 1007
30
24
34
19
93
76
6
6
185
10
8
6
13
5
14
11
25
2
17
1
4
19
20
39
7
6
1
3
4
8
1
5
July
1006
32
25
35
23
92
70
6
5
140
9
7
4
9
5
10
11
35
3
16
2
2
11
24
43
7
9
1
2
4
8
0
6
August 1006
32
25
35
22
92
70
6
5
155
9
14
6
11
3
5
7
27
5
22
3
5
18
27
32
5
8
1
2
4
7
0
5
September 1010
30
23
34
20
83
67
6
5
104
9
25
17
14
2
3
3
13
5
19
7
8
39
15
16
4
6
2
4
5
7
0
4
October
1016
27
20
32
16
76
59
5
4
36
4
36
25
15
1
1
1
6
3
12
11
20
46
10
5
2
3
1
3
6
7
November 1019
24
16
29
11
76
56
5
4
32
4
36
18
14
1
2
6
8
4
12
13
17
46
7
5
2
3
1
5
6
7
0
1
December 1022
20
12
25
7
77
58
5
4
28
3
26
16
21
2
2
5
13
5
10
9
17
46
9
4
2
6
1
7
6
6
0
1
Means
1014
25
18
36*
4§
85
67
6
5
_
_
18
12
20
3
4
6
16
4
17
6
9
36
13
17
4
7
2
6
5
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1180
85
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
28
33
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
1‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
62
1.173
WMO No 59316 SHANTOU (23
°
24
′
N, 116
°
41
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic Table compiled from 18 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2000
January 1021
19
11
25
6
82
61
5
4
30
4
32
33
16
0
1
2
15
13
24
37
11
7
2
3
2
3
4
6
1
0
February 1020
18
12
26
7
84
68
6
6
56
6
18
34
25
1
1
1
1
20
10
21
37
11
9
1
3
1
5
4
6
2
1
March 1017
21
15
28
10
86
72
7
6
82
7
16
30
28
1
3
2
2
19
9
19
33
13
15
2
4
2
4
4
6
0
2
3
April
1014
24
18
31
13
87
72
7
6
155
9
11
28
25
3
3
3
5
1
22
5
14
32
14
19
6
4
1
5
4
6
0
2
5
May 1010
28
22
32
18
89
74
7
6
210
11
12
27
25
2
4
6
8
2
15
4
10
28
17
26
7
5
1
3
4
7
0
5
June 1007
30
25
34
21
91
75
7
6
303
14
7
12
17
3
13
14
14
3
16
1
6
18
13
33
20
7
1
1
5
8
0
7
July
1006
32
26
35
24
91
71
6
6
206
10
8
14
15
2
9
14
19
3
15
2
2
10
17
40
15
12
1
1
4
8
0
7
August 1006
32
26
35
23
91
71
6
6
215
10
15
15
15
3
5
7
18
4
17
2
4
17
17
29
17
12
2
1
4
7
0
7
September 1010
31
24
34
18
87
68
5
5
145
8
26
33
16
2
2
2
7
3
9
5
8
31
16
23
6
7
2
1
5
7
0
0
4
October
1015
28
21
32
16
82
60
4
4
62
4
35
38
15
0
0
2
2
7
6
14
44
17
12
1
3
1
2
5
7
0
1
November 1019
25
17
29
10
83
58
5
4
39
4
39
36
9
0
0
0
1
2
14
10
17
45
15
9
1
1
1
1
4
7
0
December 1022
21
13
28
7
82
58
4
4
29
3
36
33
11
0
1
1
17
14
22
42
8
6
2
2
4
4
6
0
1
Means
1014
26
19
36*
4§
86
67
6
5
_
_
21
28
18
1
4
4
7
2
15
7
13
31
14
19
7
5
1
3
4
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1532
90
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
8
40
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
0‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
18
18
18
18
30
18
18
18
18
18
18
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0500
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
63
1.174
WMO No 98232 APARRI (18
°
22
′
N, 121
°
38
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic Table compiled from 19 to 30 years observations, 1961 to 2001
January 1013
28
21
32
18
88
83
6
6
130
12
2
29
11
4
28
15
5
1
5
5
64
18
3
5
1
1
3
6
8
February 1014
29
21
32
17
86
84
5
5
59
6
5
26
10
3
28
20
2
1
6
10
61
19
1
6
2
2
5
8
0
March 1013
31
22
34
19
85
80
4
4
37
4
1
18
8
3
43
17
3
1
5
8
70
13
2
4
1
1
1
5
8
0
0
1
April
1011
33
24
34
22
84
78
3
3
27
3
0
11
5
3
55
14
4
1
5
10
75
8
2
2
1
1
5
9
0
3
May 1009
33
24
35
23
85
78
4
4
123
11
3
4
2
5
66
13
2
3
2
15
68
4
1
5
3
1
3
1
5
8
0
0
7
June 1008
34
25
35
23
85
76
4
5
162
9
1
1
1
3
74
15
2
1
2
14
61
3
5
11
3
1
2
5
7
10
July
1007
33
24
35
23
85
78
5
5
263
12
2
1
3
62
22
5
2
3
18
51
3
4
13
4
1
5
1
5
7
6
August 1007
32
24
34
22
85
80
5
6
316
14
1
1
2
4
56
25
6
2
4
21
44
3
3
11
9
1
6
1
5
7
0
6
September 1008
32
24
34
22
86
80
5
5
237
11
1
3
3
1
47
33
6
3
3
22
45
7
2
11
6
1
7
4
7
0
6
October
1010
31
24
34
22
86
83
5
6
370
18
5
18
7
2
29
21
7
2
9
14
60
11
3
3
1
2
4
1
5
8
3
November 1012
30
23
33
21
85
84
6
6
326
17
3
34
8
4
16
23
5
2
5
8
68
15
2
3
1
1
1
6
9
0
December 1014
28
21
31
19
87
85
7
6
185
12
2
42
13
3
17
15
3
1
4
5
73
16
2
3
1
1
7
9
0
Means
1011
31
23
36*
18§
86
81
5
5
_
_
2
16
6
3
44
19
4
2
4
12
62
10
2
6
3
1
3
1
5
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2235
129
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
42
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
15‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
30
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Rare
All observations
64
1.175
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
HECTOPASCALS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
NOTES
65
2
.
6
2.6
2
.
1
9
2
.
7
0
2
.
1
1
9
2
.
1
6
9
2
.
1
8
9
2
.
2
0
7
2
.
2
5
2
2.98
2.38
2.219
2.136
2619
1968
1968
2619
3658
3231
2409
1760
1761
1760
3233
3230
3236
3804
2376
2618
3235
1204
2
6
1
9
Chapter 2 - Taiwan Strait and west and north side of T’ai-Wan
T ‘ A I - W A N
C H I N A
Chi-Lung Kang
T’ai-Chung Kang
Kao-Hsiung
T’ai-Pei
Sha Lung
Oil Terminal
T’ai-Nan
P’eng-Hu
Ch’un-Tao
T a i w a n
B a n k s
P’
eng-hu Kan
g-
tao
S
h
e
n
-
a
o
25°
24°
23°
22°
119° 120°
121°
119°
121° 122°
122°
25°
24°
23°
22°
Longitude 120
°
East from Greenwich
66
67
CHAPTER 2
TAIWAN STRAIT AND WEST AND NORTH SIDE OF T’AI-WAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1968
Scope of the chapter
2.1
1
This chapter describes the Taiwan Strait, the W and N
side of T’ai-wan, including the island group of P’eng-hu
Ch’ün-tao (23°30′N, 119°30′E).
It is divided into the following sections:
Taiwan Strait (2.6).
T’ai-wan — SW coast (2.16).
T’ai-wan — NW coast (2.115).
T’ai-wan — N coast (2.185).
Topography
2.2
1
T’ai-wan is a large island situated between South China
Sea and East China Sea lying between the latitudes of
21°54′N and 25°18′N and the longitudes of 120°E and
122°E. It is separated from the coast of China by the
Taiwan Strait which at its narrowest point is some 70 miles
across. A mountain range extends longitudinally through
the island effectively dividing it. T’ai-wan has no major
navigable rivers. P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao (23°30′N, 119°30′E)
lie some 25 miles off the W coast of T’ai-wan and
separated from it by P’eng-hu Kang-tao.
Coastal shoals
2.3
1
Almost the entire W coast of T’ai-wan is extending
seaward and new shoals are continually arising, especially
between the latitudes of 23°00′N and 24°20′N. As there is
often an onshore set, this stretch of the coast should be
given a wide berth.
Sandwaves
2.4
1
Depths in the vicinity of 23°15′N, 117°45′E, on the NW
side of Taiwan Banks, are derived solely from ships reports
which indicate sand waves. Further shoal depths may well
exist. The presence of sand waves has also been reported
(1990) in the vicinity of 24°20′N, 119°30′E. Caution should
be observed when navigating throughout the whole of this
area.
Regulations
2.5
1
Regulations for foreign vessels in Taiwanese waters are
at Appendix II.
TAIWAN STRAIT
General information
Chart 1968
Routes
2.6
1
Main route. From the vicinity of 21°02′N, 117°18′E, the
recommended route connecting Singapore and Hong Kong
with the ports of N China, Korea and Japan, leads NE
through the Taiwan Strait, passing NW of Taiwan Banks
thence to the vicinity of 26°00′N, 120°45′E. See also
Admiralty Ocean Passages for the World.
2
Alternative route. From the vicinity of 21°02′N,
117°18′E, an alternative deep water route leads through
P’eng-hu Kang-tao (2.80) on the E side of the strait.
Depths
2.7
1
On the W side of the strait limiting depths of 20 m exist
in the area NW of Taiwan Banks but see 2.3. Dangerous
wrecks are also charted in this area.
On the E side of the strait, by passing through P’eng-hu
Kang-tao (23°30′N, 119°53′E) (2.80), depths in excess of
30 m may be obtained.
Hazards
2.8
1
Fishing and fish havens. Rich fishing grounds are to be
found in Taiwan Strait in two main areas. The N area lies
mainly between 24°20′N to 26°00′N and should be avoided
because of the great number of fishing vessels. The S area,
lying between 23°00′N to 24°30′N, has peak seasons in
April and May, and August.
2
Large fleets of fishing junks may be encountered off
mainland China W of Taiwan Banks which, at night or in
poor visibility, can be a source of great anxiety (1.10).
3
Traffic. Traffic crossing the Strait between mainland
ports, mainly Xiamen (24°26′N, 118°04′E) and Fuzhou
(25°59′N, 119°27′E), and T’ai-wan has increased
significantly since 1997.
Marine exploitation
2.9
1
Oil exploration and seismic survey work takes place in
Taiwan Strait.
Flow
2.10
1
Currents. In Taiwan Strait the current is complicated by
the effect of the monsoon winds and there can be
appreciable differences in various parts of the strait at
different periods; moreover the surface current is quite
different to the sub-surface current. Generally, the rate of
the current tends to be greater in the E part than in the W
part of the strait.
2
The following table gives an indication of the changes
in current that can be expected but, as it is based on
incomplete information abstracted from various sources, it
should only be used as a guide. Current rates of 2 to 3 kn
are known to occur and, in P’eng-hu Kang-tao (23°30′N,
119°53′E), when combined with the tidal stream can
produce sets of up to 5 kn.
CHAPTER 2
68
Period Position Flow
November to
March
(NE monsoon)
General SW flow
at to 1 kn.
March E part of strait
NNE at to kn.
Central part Anti-clockwise
circulation.
W part
SSW at to kn.
April Central and W
parts
Anti-clockwise
circulation at to
kn.
May to
September
(SW monsoon)
General NNE flow
at to kn.
September to
October
E part of strait NNE.
Central part Anti-clockwise
circulation.
W part
SSW at to 1 kn.
3
Tidal streams. The in-going stream, setting W on to the
coast of China from the Pacific, enters both the N and S
entrances of Taiwan Strait. These two opposing in-going
streams meet on the W coast of T’ai-wan at about latitude
24°30′N; the out-going stream flows out of the strait in the
reverse directions. However, along the NW and SW coasts
of T’ai-wan, inshore tidal streams appear to set in the
opposite direction to those just described. Along parts of
the NW coast of T’ai-wan the NE flowing current is
sufficiently strong at certain times of the year to overcome
the SW setting tidal stream entirely. Details are given in
the relevant sections of the chapter.
Local weather
2.11
1
Fog is most likely to be encountered in Taiwan Strait
between March and early June, averaging 37 days annually.
April is the month with the most frequent occurrence.
Principal marks
2.12
1
Major lights on W side:
Nangpeng Dao Light (white GRP tower, 23 m in
height) (23°16′N, 117°17′E).
Daganshan Light (red 6-sided stone structure, white
stripes, 12 m in height) (23°32′N, 117°41′E).
Gulei Tou Light (white round concrete structure, 23 m
in height) (23°43′N, 117°35′E).
2
On E side:
Kuo-sheng Kang Light (white metal framework tower,
black bands, 33 m in height) (23°06′N, 120°02′E).
Tung-chi Yü Light (white round concrete tower, black
bands, 24 m in height) (23°16′N, 119°40′E).
Chih-tzu Wei Light (white round metal tower, 11 m in
height) (23°34′N, 119°28′E).
Mu-tou Yü Light (white round metal tower, black
bands, 40 m in height) (23°47′N, 119°36′E). It has
been reported that the visibility of the light is
considerably reduced during strong N winds, which
are laden with dust, or spray, covering the lantern.
Other aids to navigation
2.13
1
Racons:
Nangpeng Dao Light (23°16′N, 117°17′E).
Dangangshan Lights (23°32′N, 117°41′E).
Wen-kan Tui Light (23°27′N, 120°01′E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
North-west of Taiwan Banks
2.14
1
The strait has not been fully surveyed and there are a
number of isolated shoals and dangerous wrecks, with
depths over them of less than 20 m.
For detailed directions along the SE coast of China see
Chapter 4.
2
From the vicinity of 21°02′N, 117°18′E, having passed
Pratas Reef and other dangers described in China Sea Pilot
Volume I in the S approach to the strait, the track leads NE,
passing:
NW of Taiwan Banks (22°50′N, 118°20′E), lying in
the middle of the S entrance to Taiwan Strait.
They cover an extensive area with general depths
of less than 18 m. The least depth, 8⋅6 m, is in
position 23°01′N, 118°30′E. It is possible that
lesser depths than charted exist on the banks and
caution should be observed when approaching
them. The least shoal spots on the banks appear to
be steep-to, and heavy overfalls generally indicate
these sudden changes in depth. Large shoals of
fish have been seen on the banks in April and
May. Thence:
To the vicinity of 26°00′N, 120°45′E.
South east of P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao
2.15
1
P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao (23°30′N, 119°30′E) (2.98) lie on
the E side of the strait. An alternative route through the
strait passes through P’eng-hu Kang-tao (2.80), a deep
channel separating P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao from the W coast of
T’ai-wan.
T’AI-WAN — SOUTH-WEST COAST
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1968, 3489
Area covered
2.16
1
This section comprises the SW coast of T’ai-wan from
O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E), the S extremity of
T’ai-wan, to a position WNW of First Entrance (22°37′N,
120°15′E), at the port of Kao-hsiung (22°35′N, 120°18′E).
It also includes P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao (23°30′N, 119°30′E)
(2.98); the ports of Kaohsiung (2.38), An-p’ing Kang
(22°58′N, 120°09′E) (2.91) and Ma-kung Kang (23°34′N,
119°34′E) (2.108) are included.
2
It is arranged as follows:
O’luan Pi to Kao-hsiung (2.19).
Kao-hsiung (2.38).
Kao-hsiung to Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (2.70).
P’eng-Hu Ch’ün-tao (2.98).
CHAPTER 2
69
Topography
2.17
1
Except in the extreme S of T’ai-wan where the foothills
of the central mountain range reach the coast, the SW coast
is low lying. See also 2.20 and 2.71.
Fish havens
2.18
1
Numerous fish havens, including experimental floating
fish farms, some marked by light-buoys and a number of
which are charted, lie within 20 miles of the SW coast of
T’ai-wan S of latitude 23°15′N. The majority lie within
5 miles of the coast. Particular caution should be exercised.
See 1.13 for further information.
O-LUAN PI TO KAO-HSIUNG
General information
Charts 3232, 3230, 1968
Route
2.19
1
From a position SSE of O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E),
the S extremity of T’ai-wan, the coastal route leads WNW
thence NNW and NW for about 66 miles to a position
WNW of First Entrance (22°37′N, 120°15′E) or W of
Second Entrance to the port of Kao-hsiung (22°35′N,
120°18′E).
Topography
2.20
1
The S tip of T’ai-wan is mountainous, with the coast
levelling off in the region of 22°20′N. Liu-ch’iu Yü
(22°20′N, 120°22′E) (2.35) lies 7 miles off the SW coast of
T’ai-wan.
2
Further topographical details are included under the
section on anchorages and harbours.
Depths
2.21
1
This stretch of the coast is mostly steep-to with the
20 m depth contour extending within 2 miles of the shore,
except in the vicinity of Kao-hsiung (22°35′N, 120°18′E)
(2.38) where it extends out to 2 miles.
Dumping grounds
2.22
1
An explosives dumping ground is centred on 22°06′N,
119°46′E; see chart 3489.
Two explosives dumping grounds are centred 4 miles
and 12 miles NNW of the N entrance to Kao-hsiung
(22°35′N, 120°18′E).
Fish havens
2.23
1
The chart is the best guide to the known fish farms. See
also 2.8 for further information.
Prohibited anchorages
2.24
1
Anchorage is prohibited as follows:
An area extending SSW for 5 miles from a point on
the coast close N of the entrance to Fang-shan Hsi
(22°15′N, 120°39′E).
A corridor 1 mile wide in which a submarine cable
and pipeline are laid extends NE, from the NE
side of Liu-ch’iu Yü (22°20′N, 120°22′E) to the
coast of T’ai-wan. Two warning lights are
deployed.
Within the charted dumping ground (2.22) centred on
22°38′⋅5N, 120°10′⋅0E.
Tidal streams
2.25
1
Tidal streams are strong with tide races off Mao-pi T’ou
(21°55′N, 120°43′E).
2
Between Liu-ch’iu Yü (22°20′N, 120°22′E) and the
coast of T’ai-wan to the N the tidal streams appear to set
SE with the in-going tide and NW with the out-going tide,
the maximum rate varying from 1 to 2 kn. Off the W coast
of Liu-ch’iu Yü, however, the tidal stream has frequently
been observed setting N with the in-going tide, but the
surface stream and the stream near the bottom run in
contrary directions. Although at times these two streams
may run in the same direction, the rate of the stream near
the bottom is generally double that of the surface stream.
3
Off the SW and NE extremity of Liu-ch’iu Yü the tidal
streams are strong, attaining a rate of 2 to 3 kn and causing
tide-rips. Tide-rips also occur along the S side of the
submarine canyon about 2 miles N of the island.
Principal marks
2.26
1
Landmarks:
Ta-chien-shih Shan (21°58′N, 120°48′E), 318 m high,
is a chimney-shaped peak and prominent.
Li-lung Shan (22°10′N, 120°44′E), 1061 m high,
nipple-shaped and thickly wooded, is an excellent
landmark when not obscured by cloud; it is the
highest summit of a mountain range extending
6 miles N from Hai-k’ou Wan (22°06′N,
120°42′E).
Wen-chao Shan, a sharp peak 703 m high and situated
2 miles S of Li-lung Shan, is also prominent.
Wan-shou Shan (22°38′N, 120°15′E), 357 m high and
situated 1 miles NNE of First Entrance to the
port of Kao-hsiung (2.38), is the best landmark in
its locality. On N bearings it appears as a truncated
cone with a large white patch on its seaward side.
In clear weather, it can be seen from a distance of
35 miles, when it appears like an island.
2
Major lights:
O-luan Pi Light (white round metal tower with
gallery, 21 m high) (21°54′N, 120°51′E).
Ch’i-hou Shan Light (white 8-sided brick tower, 15 m
in height) (22°37′N, 120°15′E).
Kao-hsiung First Entrance N Breakwater Light (white
round concrete column, 14 m in height)
(22°37′⋅4N, 120°14′⋅9E).
Other aid to navigation
2.27
1
Racon:
Kao-hsiung First Entrance N Breakwater Light
(22°37′⋅4N, 120°14′⋅9E).
Directions
(continued from 3.33 and 3.36)
2.28
1
From a position SSE of O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E),
the track leads WNW for about 13 miles and thence NNW
and NW for about 53 miles, passing (with positions from
22°10′N, 120°30′E):
CHAPTER 2
70
2
SSW of O-luan Pi, the low scrub-covered extremity
of a high promontory extending well seaward to
form the S point of T’ai-wan; a light (2.26) is
exhibited from the SW side of the promontory.
There is strong current and tide-rips off the point.
Waves break heavily against the rock, 11 m high,
close off the E tip of O-luan Pi when the NE
monsoon blows strongly. A partly visible wreck
lies just over 1 mile SSW from O-luan Pi. An
observation light-buoy (special) is moored
2 miles ENE of O-luan Pi, but is liable to be
moved. Thence:
3
NNE of Ch’i-hsing Chiao (21°46′N, 120°49′E), a
group of steep-to above and below-water rocks, the
highest of which is 8 m and upon which the sea
breaks in bad weather. The channel between the
group and O-luan Pi is clear but sometimes the
tide-rips extend across this channel and resemble
seas breaking on a shoal. Thence:
4
SSW of Nan Wan (21°55′N, 120°47′E) (2.29) and
Mao-pi T’ou (19 miles SE), the extremity of
another high promontory with steep precipices
rising almost directly from the sea. An isolated
depth of 17⋅3 m exists 4 miles SW of Mao-pi
T’ou in otherwise deep water. Thence:
5
WSW of Ta-p’ing-ting Chiao (13 miles SE), a
rounded, black and cliffy headland. The coastal
range in the vicinity rises to 197 m and is backed
by a flat plain, extending N and S, thus giving
Ta-p’ing-ting Chiao the appearance of an island
when seen from the N. Heng-ch’un, the principal
town in the S part of T’ai-wan, stands in this
plain. Lao-fu Shan, 6 miles E of Ta-p’ing-ting
Chiao, is 678 m high and the highest summit of a
mountain range on the E side of the plain. Thence:
6
WSW of the mouths of Feng-kang Hsi (10 miles
ENE) and Fang-shan Hsi (9 miles NE); the
former has a village on its S entrance and the
latter has a village on both entrance points. An
area in which anchoring is prohibited (2.24) lies
off the entrance to Fang-shan Hsi. Thence:
7
NE of Liu-ch’iu Yü (12 miles NNW)) (2.35) and
across a corridor in which anchoring (2.24) is
prohibited. For tidal streams in the vicinity if the
island see 2.25. Thence:
8
SW of Tung-kang Po-ti (18 miles NNW) (2.37). A
submarine canyon cuts through the continental
shelf in a general SW direction from Tung-kang
Po-ti to the deeper waters of Taiwan Strait NW of
Liu-ch’iu Yü. Feng Shan, 143 m high and shaped
like the head of a bulrush, stands 4 miles NW of
the roadstead. Between Feng Shan and
Feng-pi-t’ou, a rocky point 24 m high on the coast
1 miles SW, there is a prominent saddle-shaped
hill said to resemble two factory chimneys when
seen from NW and SE. Coral heads, with a depth
of 6⋅1 m over them, lie 1 mile SW of Feng-pi-t’ou.
Thence:
9
SW of Second Entrance (22°33′N, 120°18′E) to the
port of Kao-hsiung (2.38), remaining clear of the
SBMs off the Ta-lin-pu oil terminal (2.65) S of
Kao-hsiung, thence:
10
To a position either W of Second Entrance or WNW
of First Entrance (22°37′N, 120°15′E) to
Kao-hsiung.
(Directions continue for the coastal passage at 2.81
and for entering Kao-hsiung at 2.61)
Anchorages and harbours
Nan Wan
2.29
1
General information. Nan Wan (21°55′N, 120°47′E) is
the bay at the S tip of T’ai-wan lying between O-luan Pi
(2.28) and Mao-pi T’ou (2.28). Most of the shoreline is
rocky, except at the head of the bay where there is a sandy
beach. The hills on the N side of the bay reach their
highest in Ta-shan-mu Shan, 326 m high, which stands
1 mile NW of Ta-chien-shih Shan (21°58′N, 120°48′E)
(2.26). Ta-fou Sha, a pinnacle rock with a depth of 1⋅2 m
over it, lies 7cables offshore and 3 miles WNW of
O-luan Pi Light (2.26). An observation light-buoy is
charted in the E part of Nan Wan; this buoy is liable to
frequent relocation. The fishing port of Ta-peng is situated
at the head of the bay.
2
Anchorage. Ta-pan-le Mao-ti (Ta-pan-lieh Mao-ti), at the
head of the bay, is the best anchorage on the SW coast
protected from all but S winds. The bottom is sandy.
Pai-sha Kang
2.30
1
Pai-sha Kang (21°56′N, 120°43′E), 1 mile NW of
Mao-pi T’ou (2.28), is a small bay with a white sandy
beach that affords shelter during offshore winds. A rock
with a depth of 5⋅4 m lies 5 cables SW of the head of the
bay. Landing may be achieved at a cove 3 miles farther N.
Hou-wan-tzu
2.31
1
Kuei-shan Chiao, 1 miles NNE of Ta-p’ing-ting Chiao
(22°02′N, 120°41′E) (2.28), rises close inland to Kuei
Shan, a dome-shaped hill 77 m high. Hou-wan-tzu, a cove
close S of Kuei-shan Chiao, affords anchorage in depths of
up to 9 m; the entrance is only cable wide between reefs
and local knowledge is necessary.
Ch’e-ch’eng Po-ti
2.32
1
General information. Ch’e-ch’eng Poti is an open
roadstead between Kuei-shan Chiao (2.31) and Ch’e-ch’eng
Chiao (22°05′N, 120°42′E) 2 miles N; the latter point is
sandy, grass covered and fringed by a coral reef which is
usually marked by surf. The roadstead is backed by a low
coast through which flow two rivers that bring down a
considerable amount of silt when in flood.
2
Anchorage can be obtained in depths from 11 to 12 m,
sand and mud, about 5 cables offshore, with gradual
shoaling towards the shore. While sheltered from E winds,
the bay is exposed N and W.
Hai-k’ou Wan
2.33
1
General information. Hai-k’ou Wan (22°06′N,
120°42′E), a reef fringed bay, is entered between
Ch’e-ch’eng Chiao (2.32) and another point 1 miles NNE
on which stands Chien Shan, a sugar-loaf hill 127 m high.
Hai-k’ou, a fishing harbour protected by breakwaters on
which there are light-beacons, is situated in the SE part of
the bay. The harbour has a depth of 0⋅9 m.
2
The harbour is approached between the dangers
extending N of Ch’e-ch’eng Chiao and Shui-keng Sha, a
reef with a least depth of 0⋅9 m, lying in the middle of the
bay.
3
Anchorage may be obtained for small vessels in a depth
of 8⋅2 m, sand, 2 cables WNW of the harbour entrance.
CHAPTER 2
71
Fang Liao Po-ti
2.34
1
General information. Fang-liao Po-ti is an open
roadstead, 7 miles N of Fang-shan Hsi (2.28), off the
coastal town of Fang-liao (22°22′N, 120°35′E), where there
is the fishing harbour of Fang-liao Yü Kang.
2
Anchorage, affording the best shelter on the W coast of
T’ai-wan, even in winter, can be obtained 1 miles NW of
a prominent white bridge spanning a river entrance, 1 mile
SSE of Fang-liao.
Liu-ch’iu Yü
2.35
1
General information. Liu-ch’iu Yü (22°20′N, 120°22′E)
is a well populated island lying 8 miles WSW of Hsin-ta
Kang (2.36); it has two flat-topped hills on its SE side of
which the NE one, 89 m high, is slightly the higher. Cliffs
on the NW side are precipitous. A rock, 8 m high and
resembling a mushroom, lies close off the N point of the
island and is prominent from E and W. A white sandy
beach at the NE extremity of the island is also prominent.
2
A small harbour, enclosed by two breakwaters, is
situated at the NE end of Liu-ch’iu Yü; a light is exhibited
from the head of the N breakwater.
In the bight on the NW side of the island there is a boat
landing near a white house.
3
Prohibited anchorage. See 2.24.
Tidal streams. See 2.25.
Useful mark:
Liu-ch’iu Yü Light (white round concrete tower, 12 m
in height) (22°20′N, 120°22′E).
4
Anchorage, temporary, may be obtained, in a depth of
36 m, 3 cables off the fishing port situated in the middle
of the SE coast of Liu-ch’iu Yü, clear of the prohibited
area. Depths off the NW side of the island are too deep for
anchoring.
Hsin-ta Kang
2.36
1
Hsin-ta Kang (22°25′N, 120°30′E), situated 5 miles NW
of Fang-liao (2.34), is a very shallow boat harbour lying
just within the mouth of Lin-pien Hsi. The corridor (2.24),
in which anchoring is prohibited, lies 1 miles W of
Hsin-ta Kang.
Tung-kang Po-ti
2.37
1
General information. Tung-kang Po-ti (22°28′N,
120°25′E) is the roadstead off the coast of T’ai-wan at the
confluence of two shallow rivers, Tung-kang Hsi and
Kao-ping Hsi, which flow through a fertile plain to enter
the sea 6 miles NNE of Liu-ch’iu Yü (2.35). Deposits
brought down by the rivers form a bar at the combined
entrance. There are generally breakers on the spit extending
from the NW entrance point.
2
The town of Tung-kang stands on the S bank of the
Tung-kang Hsi, where it enters the sea. There is a fishing
port at the town, divided into a N and S harbour, protected
by breakwaters. Chimneys stand about 1 miles E and
4 miles ENE of Tung-kang. Depths at the wharfs inside the
harbour are reported to be 2 to 3 m, with depths in the
entrance channels reported to be 4 to 5 m. Lights are
exhibited at the entrance to the S harbour.
3
Tidal streams in this anchorage have a maximum rate
of about 1 kn.
Anchorage. Because of the great depths in the central
part of the roadstead, the best position to anchor is 1 to
2 miles S to SSW of Tung-kang in depths from 9 to 17 m.
This position provides shelter from NE winds.
KAO-HSIUNG
General information
Charts 2376, 3230, 3232
Position
2.38
1
The city of Kao-hsiung (22°37′N, 120°18′E) lies on the
SW coast of T’ai-wan and the port, to the SW of the city,
extends for some 6 miles SE having developed from an
existing lagoon with a sandbar, now extensively developed,
on the seaward side providing natural shelter. Ta-Lin-Pu
offshore terminals (22°32′N, 120°20′E) (2.65) lie within 3
to 5 miles S of the harbour.
Function
2.39
1
Kao-hsiung, multi-purpose, is the largest port in
T’ai-wan and one of the busiest container ports in the
world. The port handles a substantial part of the island’s
total seaborne trade. The port includes yards for ship
building, repair and breaking.
Port limits
2.40
1
The harbour limit extends out to about 5 miles from the
coast and is shown on the chart; the limit encloses part of
the Ta-Lin-Pu oil complex.
Approach and entry
2.41
1
The port is approached, either from WNW through First
Entrance (22°37′N, 120°15′E), or from W through Second
Entrance, 5 miles SSE. The port is entered between
breakwaters.
Port Authority
2.42
1
Kao-hsiung Port Administration Bureau, No 62 Lin Hai
2nd Road, Kao-hsiung, T’ai-wan, ROC.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
2.43
1
The controlling depth in First Entrance channel is
10⋅5 m through the narrowest part of the entrance; in
Second Entrance the controlling depth is 16 m.
Tidal levels
2.44
1
The tides have a large diurnal inequality at Kao-hsiung,
and often there is only one tide a day.
Mean spring range about 0⋅6 m; mean neap range about
0⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
2.45
1
1.023 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
2.46
1
Vessels of 100 000 dwt can enter port through Second
Entrance. There is a maximum beam limit of 35 m on
vessels entering First Entrance.
CHAPTER 2
72
Local weather and sea state
2.47
1
During the typhoon season, particularly during August
and September, the sea in the approaches to Kao-hsiung
can be rough in the wake of a typhoon. At such times deep
draught vessels may experience difficulty entering harbour
due to the swell.
Arrival information
Port operations
2.48
1
The port operates 24 hours.
When visibility falls to less than 1 mile, vessels of more
than 60 000 gt are not permitted to enter or leave port.
When less than 500 m, all movements in or out of port are
suspended other than with special clearance.
Port radio
2.49
1
There is a radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
2.50
1
Preferably 24 hours or as early as possible through Port
Control, when the check-in process will be completed.
Positions should be passed with reference to Ch’i-hou Shan
Light (22°37′N, 120°15′E).
Outer anchorages
2.51
1
Vessels arriving at Kao-hsiung proceed to the quarantine
and waiting anchorages. The anchorages are entirely open
and exposed. When anchored, master should report in to
port control as this time is used as reference for berth
allocation.
2
No 1 Anchorage lies N of First Entrance (22°37′N,
120°15′E), and is primarily for use of small and medium
size tankers, and vessels carrying dangerous goods awaiting
entry through First Entrance.
3
No 2 Anchorage, in depths from 10 to 34 m, lies
between First and Second Entrances and is mainly for other
vessels waiting to use First Entrance
4
No 3 Anchorage, in depths from 10 to 34 m, lies
between First and Second Entrances and is for bulk carriers
and large container vessels waiting to enter through Second
Entrance.
5
No 4 Anchorage, in depths from 11 to 26 m, lies to the
S and SW of Second Entrance and is mainly for large
tankers or other vessels carrying dangerous cargo.
6
A bunkering anchorage lies S of the SBMs offshore
from Ta-Lin-Pu (22°32′N, 120°20′E). Several areas of foul
ground are charted SW of First Entrance.
7
Small vessels can obtain anchorage in Outer Harbour,
the area to seaward of First Entrance enclosed by the
breakwaters, clear of the fairway in depths from 3⋅7 to
7⋅6 m.
2.52
1
Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring is prohibited as
follows:
In the approaches to First and Second Entrance.
Within 200 m either side of an outfall pipe, the
seaward limits of which are marked by six
light-buoys (lateral).
2
Within 1 miles of the SBMs offshore from
Ta-Lin-Pu (22°32′N, 120°20′E).
Within the harbour in way of two submarine
pipelines, one close inside First Entrance and the
second across the entrance to No 4 Basin, and
within 50 m either side of the Cross Harbour
Tunnel close N of No 117 Berth.
Pilotage
2.53
1
Pilotage is compulsory for most vessels and for all
foreign vessels over 500 gt. Pilotage is available 24 hours
and pilots may board in the anchorages, or, at the entrances
to the fairways as shown on the chart, or for tankers
berthing at the SBMs, in the approaches to the moorings by
arrangement; see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Tugs
2.54
1
A large number of tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
2.55
1
A traffic separation scheme is established in the
approach to the port at First and Second entrance.
2
Vessel Traffic Service, monitoring traffic out to 20 miles
from the coast, is in operation controlled from a tower
located on the N side of Second Entrance. Reporting is
mandatory for vessels of over 500 gt or 50 m LOA; the
initial reporting point is before approaching within 20 miles
of the port. Vessels must maintain constant listening watch
on VHF while within the service area.
3
For the purposes of this service, the port area is divided
into a North and a South Sector, the dividing line being the
sewage outfall between First and Second Entrance to
seaward and, within the harbour, the Ch’ien Chen river
(22°35′⋅1N, 120°17′⋅4E).
4
For full details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Prohibited anchorages. See 2.52.
5
Prohibited area. Passage is prohibited within 1200 m of
the four SBMs situated offshore from Ta-Pin-Lu (22°32′N,
120°20′E) unless under direction of a pilot.
Quarantine
2.56
1
Vessels wishing exemption from quarantine inspection
may request radio pratique within 36 to 4 hours of arrival.
Harbour
General layout
2.57
1
The harbour is aligned NW/SE; No 1 Harbour, the older
and shallower port area lies to the NW, while No 2
Harbour to the SE contains the deeper berths of the larger
container and oil terminals. A fishing industry harbour is
situated near the centre of the port. The mooring buoy
berths lie in No 1 Harbour.
2
Within No 1 Harbour there are two main fairways, one
of which leads ESE to Main Wharf, No 3 and 4 Basins
and the Chung Tao commercial harbour area; the other
leads SE into No 2 Harbour. Kao-hsiung Ho flows into the
harbour at the N end of No 4 Basin. A light-buoy (conical,
red) is moored on the S side of the fairway 5 cables within
First Entrance
Traffic signals
2.58
1
Traffic signals are exhibited from boards, one from
Ch’i-hou Shan Light on the S side of First Entrance and
CHAPTER 2
73
the second on the VTS tower on the N side of Second
Entrance. The letter I (In) indicates permission to enter
harbour, O (Out) indicates permission to leave harbour,
F (Free) indicates no vessels entering or leaving, and
S (Shut) indicates the harbour is closed.
Natural conditions
2.59
1
Tidal streams outside the harbour sets S with the
in-going tide and N with the out-going tide, both tidal
streams being weak and subject to considerable diurnal
inequality.
2
At First Entrance (22°37′N, 120°15′E) tidal streams set
into the harbour on the in-going tide, attaining a rate of
1 kn, and set in the reverse direction on the out-going
tide, attaining a rate of 1 kn; rates can attain 3 kn in certain
circumstances. The tidal stream turns at the times of HW
and LW. Within the harbour, rates of kn may be
experienced.
3
Local weather. Intense tropical storms or typhoons may
affect the port between June and October. Fog may occur
at the port, most usually between November and April.
Principal marks
2.60
1
Landmarks:
Wan-shou Shan (22°38′N, 120°15′E) (2.26).
Ch’i-hou Shan is a flat-topped, cliffy ridge on the S
side of First Entrance (22°37′N, 120°15′E), from
the highest part of which a light (2.26) is
exhibited.
Mast (lattice) stands near Ch’i-hou Shan Lighthouse,
and a similar mast stands on the N side of First
Entrance.
Kao−Hsiung VTS control tower (2.60)
(Original dated 2000)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
2
Tower block (22°36′⋅8N, 120°17′⋅5E), in the shape of
a square-sided space rocket, stands close E of
Eastern Wharf and appears on the port bow when
entering through First Entrance.
VTS control tower, pyramidal base, stands on the N
side of Second Entrance (22°33′N, 120°18′E).
Kao−Hsiung First Entrance (2.60)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
S Breakwater Light
Ch’i−hou Lighthouse
and Lattice mast
CHAPTER 2
74
Kao−Hsiung Second Entrance South Breakwater Light (2.61)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
3
Major lights:
Ch’i-hou Shan Light (22°37′N, 120°15′E) (2.26).
First Entrance N Breakwater Light (22°37′⋅4N,
120°14′⋅9E) (2.26).
Yung-An LNG Terminal Light (22°49′N, 120°12′E)
(2.78).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 2.28)
Through Second Entrance
2.61
1
Traffic separation scheme. From a position about
5 miles W of Second Entrance (22°33′N, 120°17′E), the
track leads E through the inbound lane of a traffic
separation scheme to the vicinity of the pilot boarding
position (22°33′N, 120°15′E), passing N of the entry
restricted area lying about 2miles S.
2
Leading lights:
Front light (white triangle on beacon) (22°33′⋅4N,
120°19′⋅3E).
Rear light (inverted white triangle on beacon) (490 m
ENE from front light).
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding position, the
alignment (079°) of the above lights lead E, passing:
Between the breakwaters of Second Entrance, from
where lights are exhibited. It has a width of
250 m. Three pairs of fixed vertical green lights
are exhibited from the N side of the entrance and
three pairs of fixed vertical reds lights from the S
side. It was reported (2001) that due to
obstructions and, by night, bright background
lights, these lights are no longer in use.
3
A turning area lies close within Second Entrance.
Several light-buoys indicate the edge of the fairway within
the S part of No 2 harbour.
4
Useful marks:
Second Entrance N Breakwater Light (white square
concrete tower, 13 m in height) (22°33′⋅2N,
120°17′⋅6E).
Second Entrance S Breakwater Light (red square
concrete tower, 13 m in height, radar reflector)
(22°33′⋅0N, 120°17′⋅5E).
Through First Entrance
2.62
1
From a position about 5 miles WNW of First Entrance
(22°37′N, 120°15′E), the track leads ESE through the
inbound lane of a TSS to the vicinity of the pilot boarding
position (23°38′N, 120°13′E), passing over an explosives
dumping ground area.
2
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding position the track
leads ESE, passing:
Between the breakwaters of First Entrance, from
where lights are exhibited. The fairway narrows to
122 m 5 cables within the breakwaters. Shoaling is
reported to occur immediately WNW of the head
of S Breakwater. Thence:
Between the narrow entrance from where several
fixed vertical red and green lights are exhibited.
One way traffic is in operation. The best time to
enter is at the end of in-going stream.
3
Useful mark:
First Entrance S Breakwater Light (red round concrete
column, 14 m in height, radar reflector)
(22°37′⋅2N, 120°14′⋅9E).
CHAPTER 2
75
Kao−Hsiung Second Entrance North Breakwater Light (2.61)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
Kao−Hsiung approach to First Entrance (2.62)
(Original dated 1999)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
CHAPTER 2
76
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
2.63
1
There are no anchorage berths within the harbour. There
are in excess of twenty mooring buoys.
Alongside berths
2.64
1
Kao-hsiung has in excess of 120 berths, with most berth
numbers being shown on the chart. The harbour is subject
to silting and depths shown on the chart, or quoted below,
cannot be relied upon. In No 1 Harbour, most berths are
between 150 to 200 m in length, with depths alongside
between 8⋅0 and 12⋅5 m. In No 2 Harbour, the majority of
major berths are between 150 to 350 m in length, with
depths alongside between 10 and 14 m.
Ta-Lin-Pu Oil Terminal
2.65
1
Four lighted SBMs lie offshore from Ta-Lin-Pu
(22°32′N, 120°20′E), all connected by submarine pipelines
laid NE to the shore where a notice marks the point of
landing. An outfall pipe from Ta-Lin-Pu terminates 6 cables
E of No 1 SBM and is marked by three light-buoys
(special). Anchoring and entry restrictions apply, see 2.51
and 2.55 respectively. These berths are not suitable for
ships during periods of bad weather when berthing may not
be possible; when wind speeds reach 35 kn the berths must
be vacated. Known berth details are as follows:
SBM Water depth
(m)
Capacity
(dwt)
Max draught
(m)
1 21 250 000 18
2 29 250 000 −
3 32 300 000 −
4 22 − −
Port services
Repairs
2.66
1
Full repair facilities are available.
Dry docks. No 1 5000 dwt. No 2 1000000 dwt. No 3
100000 dwt. No 4 30000 dwt.
Floating dock Viva Island, 174 m in length, 30 m
internal width has a capacity of 115 000 tonnes.
Other facilities
2.67
1
Hospital and medical facilities; deratting; compass
adjustment; floating cranes with capacity up to 200 tonnes.
Supplies
2.68
1
Fuel oil, fresh water; provisions.
Communications
2.69
1
International airport E of the port.
KAO-HSIUNG TO HAI-K’OU YÜ-KANG
General information
Charts 3232, 3230, 2409, 1968
Route
2.70
1
From a position WNW of First Entrance (22°37′N,
120°15′E), or W of Second Entrance to the port of
Kao-hsiung (22°35′N, 120°18′E), the route leads NNW
thence N for about 68 miles through P’eng-hu Kang-tao, to
a position W of Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (23°42′N, 120°09′E).
Topography
2.71
1
From First Entrance at Kao-hsiung (22°35′N, 120°18′E)
to Wai-sheng Chiao, 65 miles N, the coast is uniformly low
with shoals extending up to 8 miles offshore.
2
The coast from Tso-ying (22°42′N, 120°15′E) (2.82) to
An-p’ing Kang (2.91), 19 miles NNW, consists of an
almost straight sandy beach through which flow some
small, shallow rivers. Close within the beach are lagoons
and marshes separated from the sea by narrow sandbars,
which in places are thickly covered with shrubs and grass.
These sandbars are populated by fishermen whose rafts,
hauled up in rows on the beach, form a characteristic
feature of the coast.
3
From the mouth of Ts’eng-wen Hsi (23°03′N, 120°03′E)
to the N, the coast consists of a sandy beach interspersed
with salt pans and reclaimed ground, which dries for a
considerable distance in places; it is fringed with numerous
elongated sand cays, 0⋅5 to 3⋅0 m high, which are
continually changing; see 2.3. The absence of landmarks
makes it difficult to navigate along this stretch of coast,
which forms the E shore of P’eng-hu Kang-tao (2.80).
4
The mainland coast has few prominent landmarks and
even in clear weather cannot be distinguished at a distance
greater than 10 miles. Objects onshore become obscured by
dust which accompanies the winds peculiar to this locality
and at times the land cannot be seen even at a distance of
5 miles.
Depths
2.72
1
While the 20 m depth contour as charted rarely reaches
beyond 5 miles of the shore over the full length of this
coast, the depths, sandbanks and cays within an area
between 23°00′N and 23°45′N and up to 10 miles off the
coast are subject to continual change.
Coastal shoals
2.73
1
See 2.3.
Fish havens
2.74
1
See 2.8. The chart is the best guide to the known fish
havens.
Prohibited anchorage
2.75
1
Anchoring is prohibited in the vicinity of an submarine
oil pipeline extending ENE to the shore from a group of
six buoys moored 3 miles WNW of the entrance to
Tso-ying Kang (22°42′N, 120°15′E).
Measured distance
2.76
1
A measured distance is established 4 miles NNW of
Tso-ying Kang (22°42′N 120°15′E) as follows:
CHAPTER 2
77
Two pairs of beacons stand at each end N and S of
Nan-liao (Chart 2409).
Distance 1850 m.
Running track 156°−336°.
Tidal streams
2.77
1
In a position 2 miles NW of the entrance to Kuo-sheng
Kang (23°07′N, 120°02′E), tidal streams set N with the
in-going tide at a maximum rate of 2 kn, and S with the
out-going tide; the streams turn at the time of HW and LW
at the entrance to Kuo-sheng Kang.
2
Off Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (23°42′N, 120°09′E) (2.90), the
rate of the S and N-going streams are equal, though neither
has been observed to exceed 4 kn.
See also 2.10 for tidal streams in P’eng-hu Kang-tao.
Principal marks
2.78
1
Landmarks:
Pan-p’ing Shan (22°42′N, 120°18′E), 238 m high.
Lo-ti Shan (22°46′N, 120°15′E), 52 m high and
flat-topped.
2
Hsiao-kang Shan (22°′49′N, 120°20′E), 249 m high
with a flat summit.
Hsing-Ta Power Station twin chimneys (red, white
bands) (22°51′N, 120°11′E), 248 m high and
exhibiting obstruction lights, stand near the coast.
3
Major lights:
Ch’i-hou Shan Light (22°37′N, 120°15′E) (2.26).
Kao-hsiung First Entrance N Breakwater Light (2.26).
Yung-An LNG Terminal Light (white round concrete
tower, 20 m in height) (22°49′N, 120°12′E).
4
An-p’ing Light (white metal framework tower, 22 m
in height) (23°00′N, 120°08′E).
Kuo-sheng Kang Light (23°06′N, 120°02′E) (2.12).
Tung-chi Yü Light (23°16′N, 119°40′E) (2.12).
Mu-tou Yü Light (23°47′N, 119°36′E) (2.12).
Other aids to navigation
2.79
1
Racons:
Kao-hsiung First Entrance N Breakwater Light
(22°37′⋅4N, 120°14′⋅9E).
Wen-kan Tui Light (23°27′N, 120°01′E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.28)
General information
2.80
1
When navigating P’eng-hu Kang-tao (23°30′N,
119°53′E) exercise great caution at all times. See 2.3. If
proceeding along the E side of the channel always keep in
depths greater than 46 m as shoaling within this depth can
be very rapid.
2
A report in 1984 recommended that a vessel navigating
P’eng-hu Kang-tao should keep to the W side of the
channel and use marks in P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao (2.98) for
fixing. The mainland coast has few prominent landmarks
(2.71).
3
With strong winds or heavy seas the shoals on the E
side of the channel are generally indicated by breakers, but
in calm weather they are not easy to discern because of the
muddy colour of the water.
4
When the tidal streams are strong, or there is a heavy
sea, the areas in which depths are less than 18 m become
yellowish and muddy, while those of greater depth are a
mixture of yellowish muddy colour and light blue water; in
depths over 55 m the water is of a deep indigo colour.
Kao-hsiung to hai-k’ou yü-kang
2.81
1
From a position WNW of First Entrance (22°37′N,
120°15′E), or W of Second Entrance to Kao-hsiung
(22°35′N, 120°18′E), the track leads NNW for about
28 miles, thence N for about 40 miles, through P’eng-hu
Kang-tao, passing (with positions from Kuo-sheng Kang
Light (23°06′N, 120°02′E)):
2
WSW of Tso-ying Kang (22°42′N, 120°15′E) (2.82),
a naval port. A group of six buoys are moored
3 miles WNW of the entrance to the port at the
end of a pipeline connected to the shore at
Ho-tzu-liao; a buoy (lateral), lies close N of the
group of buoys. Anchoring in the vicinity of the
pipeline is prohibited (2.75). Thence:
3
WSW of Yung-An LNG Terminal (19 miles SSE)
(2.84). Artificial reefs formed of wrecks lie
between 3 to 4 miles S of the terminal; three
light-buoys mark the area. Thence:
WSW of An-p’ing Kang (10 miles SE) (2.91).
The track then leads N, passing:
4
W of Kuo-Sheng Kang (2.86), from where a light
(2.12) is exhibited close to the S entrance. See
caution at 2.72 for this stretch of coast. Thence:
W of the entrance to Chiang-chun Hsi (5 miles NNE)
(2.87), thence:
E of Tung-chi Yü (23°15′N, 119°40′E) (2.103), from
where a light (2.12) is exhibited, thence:
W of Pu-tai P’o-ti (16 miles NNE) (2.88), thence:
5
W of Wai-shan-ting Chou (23°28′N, 120°00′E), an
extensive drying sand cay upon which there are
shellfish beds. Sand cays fringe the coastal bank
for 9 miles NE from Wai-shan-ting Chou. Wen-kan
Tui Light (black pryramidal framework tower,
32 m in height) is exhibited from a position near
the W end of Wai-shan-ting Chou. The lighthouse
is the only object on the mainland side which
could be identified on radar, at a range of
18 miles. Thence:
6
E of Liu-ch’ih Chiao (23°29′N, 119°45′E), a rock,
steep-to with a depth of 0⋅9 m over it, but is
plainly marked by tide-rips when any stream is
setting. Care must be taken not to be set on to it
by the combined effect of the N-going current and
tidal stream. Thence:
7
Clear of several dangerous wrecks, charted in the N
approaches to P’eng-hu Kang-tao.
The track then leads to a position W of Hai-k’ou
Yü-kang (23°42′N, 120°09′E) (2.90). A dangerous wreck,
mast visible, lies 9 miles WSW of Hai-k’ou Yü-kang.
(Directions continue at 2.126,
and for An-p’ing are given at 2.95)
Anchorages and harbours
Tso-ying Kang
2.82
1
Description. Tso-ying Kang (22°42′N 120°15′E) is a
naval base entered 4 miles N of Kao-hsiung First
Entrance. The harbour is built on the shores of a lagoon.
Access to the harbour is believed to have been improved
and the maximum size of vessel handled may no longer
apply. There is a signal station on the S entrance point.
CHAPTER 2
78
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. The base can
accommodate ships up to 154 m in length and 7⋅3 m
draught.
Outer anchorage can be obtained in depths from 9⋅1 to
14⋅6 m, 5 cables to 1 mile W of the breakwater entrance,
but is not recommended except in offshore winds.
3
Prohibited anchorage area is charted around the port
entrance.
Pilotage is compulsory; pilot boards from a tug about
1 mile W of the breakwater entrance.
2.83
1
Directions. There is no large scale Admiralty chart
coverage of the harbour and the description that follows is
from information available.
Two areas of obstructions are charted, the first lying
close NNW of N breakwater head; the second lying 2 miles
SSW of S breakwater head.
2
A group of six buoys (2.81) lies in the approaches to
the harbour 3 miles WNW of the breakwater entrance. The
harbour entrance is protected by breakwaters extending
nearly 5 cables seaward. The entrance channel, with a
minimum depth of 7⋅9 m, is reduced to a width of 152 m
by a shoal extending from the inner part of the S
breakwater. A conical buoy is moored 2 miles SW of S
breakwater head.
3
Useful marks:
Lights exhibited from the head of each breakwater.
4
Berths. The harbour has about 2400 m of quays with
depths from 5⋅5 to 9⋅4 m alongside; there are several
mooring buoys.
Repairs for boats; floating dock with capacity of
2800 tons.
Other facilities: hospital.
Supplies: fuel oil; provisions; fresh water at most berths.
Yung-An LNG Terminal
2.84
1
Description. Yung-An LNG Terminal (22°49′N,
120°11′E) is situated on an area of reclaimed land 7 miles
NNW of Tso-ying Kang (2.82). The terminal is a sub-port
of Kao-hsiung (2.38).
Maximum size of vessel handled. The terminal is
designed to handle LNG vessels up to 140 000 cubic
metres capacity with a maximum draught of 11⋅8 m.
2
Port operations. Entry and departure is restricted to
daylight hours.
Outer anchorage. An anchorage is established NW of
the terminal.
Submarine gas pipeline is laid between the terminal
and the coast at Tung-hsiao (24°29′N, 120°40′E) (2.178).
Pilotage. Pilots are arranged through Kao-hsiung (2.53)
and board in the vicinity of the anchorage.
Tugs, with fire fighting capabilities, are available.
3
Directions. Approach the terminal passing light-buoys
(conical green) marking the limit of the 10 m depth
contour. Light-buoys (lateral) are moored 1 miles WNW,
and 1 miles WSW, of the breakwater head. A breakwater
extending 4 cables WSW, thence 9 cables NNW, gives
protection to the unloading platform which lies between it
and the terminal. A wave recorder lies 5 cables SW of the
breakwater head, to which it is connected by a submarine
cable.
4
Useful marks:
Yung-An LNG Terminal Light (22°49′N, 120°12′E)
(2.78).
W breakwater head light (red round concrete tower,
15 m in height) (22°49′⋅2N, 120°11′⋅0E).
E breakwater head light (22°49′⋅3N, 120°11′⋅9E).
Unloading platform light (metal pole on control
tower, 1 m in height) (22°49′⋅7N, 120°11′⋅4E).
Dolphins 220 m N and 280 m S each exhibit a
light.
Hsing-ta Kang
2.85
1
Description. Hsing-ka Tang (22°52′N, 120°11′E) is a
fishing port some 3 miles N of the Yung-An LNG Terminal
(2.84).
2
Useful marks:
Chimneys (2.78) of the power station close SSE of
the entrance.
Lights exhibited from the breakwater heads.
3
Berth. A coal discharge jetty for the power station is
situated 1 miles S of the harbour entrance. Light-buoys
(can, red) are moored NNW and S of the jetty.
Tseng-wen Hsi and Kuo-sheng Kang
2.86
1
Description. Tseng-wen Hsi (23° 03′N, 120°03′E) enters
the sea 7 miles NW of An-p’ing Kang (2.91); the mouth of
the river, about 2 cables wide, lies between sand dunes.
Strong SW and S winds produce such high seas that it
is impossible for boats to enter Tseng-wen Hsi or
Kuo-sheng Kang.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. A wreck (2.95) lies 2 miles SSE of the
river mouth. A stranded wreck lies 1 mile NW, and a
dangerous wreck, marked by four buoys, lies 4 miles N,
of Kuo-sheng Kang Light.
3
Useful marks:
Two lights are exhibited from the S entrance to the
river.
Kuo-sheng Kang (23°08′N, 120°03′E), a junk harbour,
is accessed by San-ku Hsi, the common outlet of several
streams that flow between the cays 1 miles NNE of
Kuo-sheng Kang Light (2.12).
Chiang-chun Hsi
2.87
1
The entrance to Chiang-chun Hsi (23°14′N, 120°05′E)
lies between sand cays 7 miles NNE of Kuo-sheng Kang
(2.86). The river should only be used with local
knowledge. Junks load salt inside the river mouth; the river
gives access to Pei-men fishing port.
Pu-tai Commercial Port
2.88
1
Description. Pu-tai (23°23′N, 120°09′E) is a fishing
port. Close W of Pu-tai, a commercial port has been built
on reclaimed land; development is ongoing (1998). The
entrance to Pu-tai lies on the N side of this harbour.
Shellfish cultivation takes place along much of the inshore
coastal area either side of the harbour.
2
The fishing port should only be entered with local
knowledge; it is difficult to enter when the monsoon is
strong. There are reported to be bamboo marker poles
along either side of the channel, which is about 0⋅3 m deep.
3
Controlling depth. A least charted depth of 2⋅7 m
(1998) in the approach channel close to the commercial
port entrance. However the harbour and approach channel
were undergoing further dredging.
4
Outer anchorage can be obtained in the roadstead in
depths from 7 to 9 m clear of the submarine cables that are
laid through the middle of Pu-tai P’o-ti.
5
Harbour. Commercial Port is square in shape with its
entrance on the W side. The entrance is partially protected
CHAPTER 2
79
by a breakwater extending W and thence SW for 3 cables
from the NW corner of the reclaimed land.
Storm signals are exhibited in Pu-tai.
6
Flow. Particular care must be paid to the effect of tidal
streams and currents in Pu-tai P’o-ti, the roadstead W of
the harbour entrances.
7
Directions. The coast in the region is liable to change;
see caution at 2.72. Two dangerous wrecks are charted in
the approaches to the ports. The entrance to the commercial
port is marked by buoys.
8
Useful marks:
Lights exhibited from either side of the entrance to
the commercial port.
Light (white round concrete tower) is exhibited near
the fishing harbour.
9
Berths. Five berths are shown (1998); N1 and N2 at the
E end of the N wall, E1, E2 and E3 from N to S along the
E wall. All berths, except N1 had depths alongside in
excess of 7 m.
Tung-shih Kang
2.89
1
Description. Tung-shih Kang (23°27′N, 120°08′E) lies
4 miles N of Pu-tai Kang (2.88) and is situated on the N
bank of P’u-tzu Hsi.
2
Boats use the narrow and shallow approach channel to
anchor off the town.
Storm signals are exhibited at Tung-shih Kang and from
a position on the coast, 1 mile N.
3
Useful marks:
Water tower (white round 35 m in height) which is
prominent 5 miles E of the town.
Light exhibited from the harbour.
Hai-k’ou Yü-kang
2.90
1
General information. Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (23°42′N,
120°10′E), is an inlet at the town of T’ai-hsi, where
Chia-hu-wei Hsi enters the sea. The coast for 7 miles S
consists of sandhills 5 to 8 m high.
2
Useful marks:
Lights are exhibited from the entrance to a small boat
harbour on the N side of the inlet.
3
Anchorage can be obtained in the roadstead of Hai-k’ou
Po-ti, sheltered from the NE monsoon, about 4 miles W of
T’ai-hsi in depths from 7 to 10 m, sand.
An-P’ing Kang
General information
2.91
1
Position. An-p’ing Kang (22°59′N, 120°10′E) lies some
22 miles NNW from Kao-hsiung (2.38). The town of
An-p’ing is situated N of the port and the city of
T’ai-nan-shih, the oldest in T’ai-wan, to the E.
2
Function. A multi-purpose commercial and fishing port
supporting Kao-hsiung.
3
Topography. The coast is low, flat and marshy;
chimneys in An-p’ing and radio towers in T’ai-nan-shih
may help identify the coastal area.
Limiting conditions
2.92
1
Controlling depth. The least charted depth in the
entrance to the port is 6⋅3 m, although there is reported to
be work in progress (1999) to increase this to 11 m. Silting
may reduce the charted depths.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
6000 dwt can be accommodated; expansion plans would
increase this to 20 000 dwt.
Arrival information
2.93
1
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours.
Outer anchorage. The waiting anchorage is reported to
lie within 2 miles of the signal station on the S side of the
harbour entrance, in depths from 10 to 15 m, and clear of
the submarine cables (below). The roadstead is sheltered
from the prevailing winds of the NE monsoon during the
winter, but is exposed to SW winds which predominate
during the summer and at times becomes untenable.
2
Submarine cables. Disused submarine cables are laid in
the area S of the harbour entrance.
Marine farm. Shellfish beds lie to the N of the harbour
entrance.
3
Pilotage. Pilots are understood to be available from
Kao-hsiung (2.53).
Tugs are available from Kao-hsiung.
Harbour
2.94
1
Development. The port is being developed. More than
twenty berths are under development (1999), a number of
which are planned to have depths alongside of 11 m.
Storm signals are exhibited.
2
Tidal streams within the outer anchorage are weak,
setting S on the in-going tide and N on the out-going tide.
The diurnal inequality is large.
Major light:
An-p’ing Light (23°00′N, 120°08′E) (2.78).
Directions
2.95
1
There is no large scale Admiralty chart coverage and the
description given is from information available.
2
From a position on the coastal route WSW of An-p’ing
(22°59′N, 120°10′E), the track leads ENE passing:
SSE of a dangerous wreck, from where a light is
exhibited, 4 miles WNW of the harbour entrance,
thence:
3
NNE of an observation post, from where a light is
exhibited, 1 miles SSW of the S breakwater
head, thence:
Between the breakwaters, 140 m wide, from where
lights are exhibited, thence:
4
Through the harbour entrance, 145 m wide, where the
channel is aligned 059°/239°. Three sets of
light-beacons stand on each side of the harbour
entrance. Lights are exhibited from beacons on the
N and S wharves of the inner harbour.
Light-beacons mark the passage from the new
harbour to the fishing port area 1 miles NNW.
5
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete column, 13 m in height)
is exhibited from the N breakwater head.
Light (red round concrete column, 13 m in height) is
exhibited from the S breakwater head.
Berths
2.96
1
Nos 3 and 4 berths are 160 m in length with depths of
of 9 m alongside; six other berths are between 80 and
175 m in lenth with depths between 3⋅0 and 7⋅5 m.
CHAPTER 2
80
Port services
2.97
1
Repairs for small vessels only.
Other facilities. Hospitals in T’ai-nan-shih.
Supplies: fresh water; fresh provisions.
Harbour regulations. The dumping of garbage within
the port area is strictly prohibited.
P’ENG-HU CH’ÜN-TAO
General information
Charts 2409, 1760
Description
2.98
1
P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao (23°30′N, 119°30′E), sometimes
referred to as The Pescadores, consists of many islets and
rocks lying 25 miles off the W coast of T’ai-wan. Their
geological formation is mainly a mixture of basalt and
sandstone with outcrops of quartz on the extreme W
shores. The islands are generally flat, no part exceeding an
elevation of 78 m and, as they are similar in appearance, it
is difficult to identify any of them in bad weather; there are
no trees.
2
P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao are divided into two main groups
separated by the 5 mile wide, deep and clear, channel of
Wang-an Kang-tao. The largest islands are in the N group
and enclose the extensive and excellent harbour of
P’eng-hu Kang (2.108). There are numerous minor fishing
harbours around the islands of both groups. The islands in
the S group are mostly of reddish colour.
Hazards
2.99
1
Firing ranges are established around Mao Yü (23°20′N,
119°19′E) (2.102) out to 8 miles SW and 3 miles ENE.
Fish havens. Fish havens are deployed extensively
around P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao; see also 2.8.
Traffic regulations
2.100
1
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited within
an area between the latitudes of 23°25′⋅′5N and 23°33′⋅6N
and the longitudes of 119°23′⋅2E and 119°38′⋅9E,
encompassing a large part of Wang-an Kang-tao (2.98), to
the S and SW of the N group of islands.
2
Restricted area centred on 23°59′⋅0N, 119°40′⋅2E lies
NNE of the islands. The area is understood to be a military
firing area and the restrictions in force are not known;
mariners are advised to avoid the area.
Natural conditions
2.101
1
Tidal streams in the vicinity of the islands of the S
group set N-going on the in-going tide and S-going on the
out-going tide; the streams change 1 hour after HW and
LW. Maximum rates are between 3 and 4 kn, but this is
considerably affected by the monsoon currents.
2
Tidal streams in the vicinity of the dangers E of the N
group run N on the in-going tide and S on the out-going
tide, turning near the times of HW and LW, with a
maximum rate of 2 kn. This rate,is, however, affected by
the N-going current through P’eng-hu Kang-tao, and in a
position 2 miles S of Ch’a-mu Yü (23°32′N, 119°43′E)
the N-going tidal flow may attain a rate of 5 kn, whilst the
S-going flow may not exceed a rate of 1 kn.
3
Local weather. The climate of P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao
resembles that of the S part of T’ai-wan; frost and snow
never occur. Rainfall, (965 mm per year is appreciably less
than on T’ai-wan and concentrated between May and
August, these months being rather sultry. The islands are
not sufficiently high to afford protection and the wind is
always felt strongly. However calm the early part of the
day may be, a wind is practically certain to arise after
midday, generally from NNE from October to April, and S
from May to September.
4
The NE monsoon is very strong from the middle of
September to the beginning of April; during this period the
sky is generally overcast, but very little rain falls. At other
times of the year there are only light winds. Typhoons
sometimes occur between July and early October.
5
Fogs may occur between January and May, and these
are most frequent in March, but they are few in comparison
with those on the coast of China to the W.
P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao — south group
Ch’i-mei Yü, Mao Yü and Hua Yü
2.102
1
General information. Ch’i-mei Yü (23°12′N, 119°25′E),
the S-most island of P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao, rises to 65 m in
its SE part; it is well cultivated. When seen from N or S
the island appears wedge-shaped, with a high prominent
cliff at its NE end, reducing to a low tongue of land at its
NW end. Boats find good shelter N of the NW point
during the summer. There are several dangers within
5 cables of the coast and tide-rips or whirlpools form off
all salient points and also over the bank which lies between
1 and 3 miles NW of the island. A light (white round
concrete tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from
Kuo-lung-tzu, the S point of Ch’i-mei Yü. A
de-commissioned ship lies on the seabed 1 miles SE of
this light to form an artificial reef around which fishing is
prohibited.
2
Mao Yü (23°20′N, 119°19′E), a prominent dome-shaped
islet, 78 m high, lies 8 miles NNW of Ch’i-mei Yü and is
the highest in P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao. Other islets and rocks
extend 1 miles SE of Mao Yü with obstructed channels
between them; tide-rips form in the vicinity of these islets.
A dangerous wreck, position approximate, is charted in the
channel between Ch’i-mei Yü and Mao Yü. Firing ranges
(2.99) extend around Mao Yü.
3
Hua Yü, the NW island of the S group, lies 4 miles N
of Mao Yü. The island is composed mainly of quartz and
thus fairly easy to identify from a distance; it is irregular in
appearance and rises to 55 m in its SW part. A village is
situated on the S coast, but there is little cultivation. A
small bay on the NE coast affords shelter from S winds to
boats. Local knowledge is required. A light (white round
concrete tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited from the
summit of the island.
Hsi-chi Yü and Tung-chi Yü
2.103
1
General information. Hsi-chi Yü (23°15′N, 119°36′E),
5 miles E of Chiao Li-tao (2.104), is 30 m high with cliffs
on its N side and a village on its S side. A dangerous
wreck, position approximate, lies close off the S extremity
of the island.
2
Tung-chi Yü (23°15′N, 119°40′E), saddle-shaped with its
highest point, 47 m high, in the NW part of the island, lies
2 miles E of Hsi-chi Yü. There are sand dunes on the E
and W sides of Tung-chi Yü and a village stands on the W
side. Ch’u-t’ou Yü, 36 m high, is connected to the NW end
of Tung-chi Yü by a reef. A light (2.12) is exhibited from
the summit of Tung-chi Yü.
CHAPTER 2
81
3
Both Hsi-chi Yü and Tung-chi Yü are fringed with
dangers to a distance of 4 cables, with strong tide-rips off
the salient points that are a danger to boats; the passage
between these two islands is highly dangerous and should
not be attempted.
4
There are tide-rips on the rocky bank, with a least depth
of 20 m, 4 miles ENE of Tung-chi Yü.
Chiao Li-tao and Wang-an Lieh-tao
2.104
1
General information. Chiao Li-tao (Chiao Lieh-tao)
(23°16′N, 119°30′E), 4 miles NE of Ch’i-mei Yü (2.102),
consists of two islands of which the S and highest is 60 m
high. Several above and below-water rocks, some of them
high and prominent, extend 1 miles NNW and SSW, and
2 miles SE of the group. There are always strong tide-rips
in the vicinity of Chiao Li-tao.
2
Wang-an Lieh-tao (23°22′N, 119°30′E) lie N of Chiao
Li-tao and is a group consisting of two islands with
numerous off-lying islets and rocks. There are several
villages on the islands, the inhabitants of which live mainly
by fishing. Wang-an Tao, the main island, attains a height
of 52 m in a dome-shaped hill on the NW side of the
island; there is a large stone pillar on the summit.
Chiang-chun-ao Yü close E of Wang-an Tao has a steep
black cliff, 33 m high, at its E extremity which is a very
good landmark. Dangers extend 1 miles SE of this island.
The narrow and intricate channel between the two islands
has strong tidal streams and can only be used by small
vessels with local knowledge.
3
Chiao Li-tao and Wang-an Lieh-tao are separated by
T’ou-chin Kang-tao; although 4 miles wide, the channel has
a navigable width of only 1 miles between the dangers
extending from each side. As the tidal streams are strong
care is required to avoid these dangers.
4
Anchorage can be obtained, during the NE monsoon, in
depths from 11 to 14⋅6 m, sand, off the W coast of
Wang-an Tao, N of the dangers extending 1 miles W of
the S end of the island, and clear of those closer inshore
1 miles to the N. During the SW monsoon, anchorage can
be obtained in depths from 16⋅5 to 18⋅3 m, sand and mud,
E of the N point of Wang-an Tao.
P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao — north group
P’eng-hu Tao and adjacent islands
2.105
1
General information. P’eng-hu Tao (23°34′N,
119°37′E), very irregular in shape and rising to 51 m in its
central part, is the largest island in the N group. It is linked
to the other two main islands of the group by causeways;
N to Pai-sha Tao (2.106) and thence SW to Hsi Yü (2.107)
forming the harbour of P’eng-hu Kang (2.108). Hu-ching
Yü, 2 miles SW of Tieh Chiao, the SW extremity of
P’eng-hu Tao, and the S island of the N group, is 59 m
high, flat-topped, and in two parts joined by a low sandy
isthmus on which there is a village; from a distance N or S
it appears as two islands. Except for the sandy isthmus the
coast consists of steep cliffs, and the headland at the E is
extremity is a good landmark. T’ung-p’an Yü is a flat
topped island 1 mile N of Hu-ching Yü. A shallow spit,
T’ung-p’an-Chou extends 1 miles NW from T’ung-p’an
Yü.
2
Ch’a-mu Yü (23°32′N, 119°43′E), 2 miles SE of
P’eng-hu Tao, consists of two small islets 13 m high. There
are a number of dangers between the islets and Li-cheng
Chiao, the SE extremity of P’eng-hu Tao upon which there
is a stranded wreck, over which tide-rips and whirlpools
form; the area must be avoided. A stranded wreck lies on
the N side of Ch’a-p’o Yü, an islet 18 m high, lying
1 miles E of Li-cheng Chiao. Nan Yen, a steep-to rocky
reef over which there is a least depth of 4⋅5 m, lies
1 miles SW of Ch’a-mu Yü; Liu-ch’ih Chiao (2.80) lies
4 miles SSE. A light (white octagonal brick tower, black
stripes, 13 m high, radar reflector) is exhibited from the
NW islet.
3
Wai-ch’ien Yen, 4 miles NNE of Ch’a-mu Yü, is a
rock with a depth of 1⋅5 m over it; there are always strong
whirlpools near the rock. Between Wai-ch’ien Yen and the
islands of N group, to the W and NW, there are a number
of dangers, on some of which the sea breaks, and the area
should be avoided.
4
Anchorages. Yuan-ting Wan (23°31′N, 119°33′E), on the
SW side of P’eng-hu Tao, affords excellent anchorage in a
depth of 11 m. The sea sometimes washes over the narrow
neck of land at the head of the bay. Care must be taken to
avoid the submarine cables that cross from the bay to
Hu-ching Yü. Anchorage can also be obtained, during the
NE monsoon, NNE of Hou Chiao, the S tip of P’eng-hu
Tao, on the SE side of the island clear of the charted
prohibited anchorage (2.100). An obstruction lies 1 miles
SE of Hou Chiao and there are fish havens in the bay.
5
Anchorage, sheltered in the NE monsoon, can also be
obtained in depths from 11 to 14⋅6 m, mud and sand,
between Li-cheng Chiao and the dangers lying 1 mile SW
of it, taking clear to avoid the submarine cable to the W.
The water is very clear, and the rocks and shoals can be
plainly seen from aloft.
Pai-sha Tao and adjacent islands
2.106
1
General information. Pai-sha Tao (23°40′N, 119°35′E),
39 m high in the N part of the island, is the N of the three
main islands of the N group, linked to P’eng-hu Tao
(2.105) and Hsi Yü (2.107) by causeways. Niao Yü,
2 miles E of Pai-sha Tao, lies on an extensive shoal area,
consisting mainly of drying reefs and rocks, which extend
almost unbroken from the N side of P’eng-hu Tao to a
position 2 miles N of Niao Yü. The island is 22 m high at
its E end and slopes gradually to a sandy beach at its W
end where there is a small village. A deep, narrow channel
penetrates the shoal area to the NW of Niao Yü. A
stranded wreck lies close NE of Ch’u-chao Yü, an islet at
the NE entrance to this channel. I-tung Yen, a shoal with a
depth of 6 m over it, lies 3 miles NNE of Niao Yü.
2
N of Pai-sha Tao, numerous coral reefs an shoals extend
for 8 miles, rendering this part of the N group extremely
dangerous. Chipe Yü (Ch’i-pei Tao) (23°45′N, 119°36′E),
the N island of the group, is 18 m high with a sandy coast;
there is a village on the S side of the island. A shoal area,
on which there are rocks and reefs, extends 3 miles S to
Pai-sha Tao. A pinnacle rock, with a depth of 3 m over it,
lies 1 miles NE of Chipe Yü.
3
Mu-tou Yü, a rock 16 m high, lies at the end of a reef
extending 2 miles N from Chipe Yü; there are several other
above-water rocks on the reef. From Mu-tou Yü, other
dangers extend a further 1 miles N to Ta-yao Chiao, and
4 miles W to 4 miles W including Weng-kung Yen; this
area should be given a wide berth. A light (2.12) is
exhibited from Mu-tou Yü; nearby is a small house
surrounded by a wall.
4
Ku-p’o Yü (23°43′N, 119°33′E), 2 miles NNW of the
N point of Pai-sha Tao, consists of two hillocks connected
by a narrow ridge; the N hillock has a rugged summit,
CHAPTER 2
82
17 m high, with a stone monument on it 5 m in height.
From a distance of 5 miles W the island appears as a row
of four small islets. A light is exhibited from a beacon
standing on a rock 1 miles E of Ku-p’o Yü. K’ung-k’o
Yü is a rock 3 m high lying 3 miles SW of Ku-p’o Yü;
Mao-shu Chiao, 7cables farther S, has a depth of 2⋅7 m
over it.
Hsi Yü
2.107
1
General information. Hsi Yü (23°37′N, 119°30′E),
which rises to over 50 m at its S part, is the W of the three
main islands of the N group, connected to Pai-sha Tao
(2.106) by a causeway. Hsiao-man Yü lies close off the N
end of Hsi Yü to which it is connected by a causeway. The
islet is readily identified by the sharp peak at its W end
which is 28 m high and shows a strata of limestone. There
is a deep, safe channel between the dangers extending
7cables N of Hsiao-man Yü and Mau-shu Chiao (2.106)
7cables farther N.
2
Chih-tzu Wei, a headland 55 m high, is the SW
extremity of Hsi Yü. The S and SW sides of the headland
should be given a berth of 1 mile as there always strong
whirlpools near a pinnacle rock, swept to a depth of 6⋅4 m,
which lies 5 cables SSE of Chih-tzu Wei. A light (2.12) is
exhibited from the headland.
3
Anchorages:
Niu-kung Wan (23°39′N, 119°32′E), between
Hsiao-man Yü and Pai-sha Tao, affords sheltered
anchorage during the SW monsoon to vessels with
local knowledge. The causeway between the
islands crosses the head of the bay.
4
The two bays on the W coast of Hsi Yü, 1 and
3 miles NE of Chih-tzu Wei, afford anchorage in
depths from 8⋅2 to 11 m to small vessels sheltering
from NE winds. Care should be taken to avoid the
submarine cable in the N part of the N bay.
Pi-t’ou Chiao, a drying reef, lies 5 cables W of
Pi-t’ou, a prominent headland, 25 m high, that
separates these bays.
5
Two sandy bays, the E being Hsiao-chih Wan, indent
the coast between Chih-tzu Wei and Tung-pi T’ou,
a steep cliff 64 m high situated 2 miles E and the
SE point of Hsi Yü; these bays afford safe
anchorage, clear of the prohibited anchorage area
(2.100), with NE winds.
P’eng-hu Kang and Ma-kung Kang
General information
2.108
1
Position. P’eng-hu Kang (23°35′N, 119°32′E) is the
natural harbour enclosed by the three main islands of the N
group of P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao. Ma-kung Kang lies in the SE
part of P’eng-hu Kang. The town and inner port of
Ma-kung lie on the W side of P’eng-hu Tao (2.105).
2
Function. The harbours form a combined naval,
commercial and fishing port. There are regular passenger
services to An-p’ing Kang (2.91).
3
Topography. The N group of P’eng-hu Ch’ün-tao is
described from 2.105. P’eng-hu Kang extends 6 miles N
from its entrance and its E side is heavily indented and
fringed with reefs. The former N entrance to the harbour
between Hsi Yü (2.107) and Pai-sha Tao (2.106) has been
closed off by a causeway.
4
The harbour is entered between Tung-pi T’ou (2.107)
and Fou Wen (23°32′⋅5N, 119°31′⋅0E), a drying rock
1 miles SSE from where a light (2.112) is exhibited. A
reef extends 4 cables E from Fou Wen to Chi-lung Yü, an
island 28 m high with a rounded top. Ssu-chiao Yü, a flat
islet 17 m high, lies close off the E side of the entrance
9 cables NE of Chi-lung Yü; from it a steep-to reef extends
2 cables W. Hsi Sha-t’an, a large bank with a least depth of
8⋅9 m over it, lies centrally in the harbour close within the
entrance; this bank extends to the W side of the harbour
where there are lesser depths. Hai-kan Yen, a rock which
dries 3 m, lies at the N end of Hsi Sha-t’an; a light (2.112)
is exhibited from the rock. A buoy (conical, black) is
moored 1 cable SSW of Hai-kan Yen. Ta-tsang Yü, an
island 19 m high, lies in the middle of the NE part of the
harbour and is joined E by a reef to Pai-sha Tao. Chu-sung
Wan lies in the NW part of the harbour; a conspicuous
building stands 2cables N of an uncompleted pier at the
head of the bay. A buoy (conical, black) marks the edge of
the reef that extends 3 cables offshore on the W side of
the harbour, 1 miles NW of Hai-kan Yen.
5
Ma-kung Kang is entered between Feng-kuei-wei Chiao
(23°33′⋅3N, 119°32′⋅5E) and Chin-kuei T’ou, 7 cables NE.
Sha-mao Shan, 44 m high and situated on the S shore
2 miles within the entrance to Ma-kung Kang, is the
highest land in the vicinity and is prominent; a spit, with a
depth of 1⋅1 m, extends 5 cables N from this shore. Close
N of this spit is Tung-chung Chiao, a shoal with a depth of
6⋅1 m over it marked by a light-buoy (can, red); submarine
cables cross the harbour E of this shoal. The harbour is
much restricted by drying reefs in the E part. T’se-t’ien
Tao, formerly an island and now joined to P’eng-hu Tao
through reclamation, and from where a light (2.112) is
exhibited, lies on the S side of the entrance to Ma-kung
inner port and is the site of the naval station and repair
facilities for small vessels.
6
Port limits. The limits of the naval port are charted and
encompass the three main islands of the N group.
Approach and entry. The port may be approached from
SE between Hu-ching Yü (2.105) and P’eng-hu Tao or
from SW between Hsi Yü (2.107) and T’ung-p’an-Chou
(2.105).
Port Authority. See Kao-hsiung (2.42).
Limiting conditions
2.109
1
Controlling depth. There are depths from 6 to 10 m
within Ma-kung inner harbour.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Up to 5000 dwt.
Arrival information
2.110
1
Port radio. The harbour radio network is operated by
the navy who control the port. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours.
2
Outer anchorages. P’eng-hu Kang affords safe
anchorage in the NE monsoon, whilst Ma-kung Kang
affords safe anchorage under nearly all weather conditions.
The islands do not afford shelter during typhoons due to
the low terrain.
3
Anchorage may be obtained in P’eng-hu Kang in depths
from 9⋅2 to 23⋅7 m, sand and mud, about 1 mile N of
Hai-kan Yen (2.108), clear of the charted submarine cable.
Anchorage can also be obtained in Chu-sung Wan (2.108)
in a depth of 8⋅2 m with Hai-kan Yen bearing 165° and the
summit of Ta-tsang Yü (2.108) bearing 081°; do not anchor
N of this position owing to shoal waters and dangers
extending from the N side of the bay.
CHAPTER 2
83
4
The N part of Ma-kung Kang is suitable for anchoring
where depths exceed 10 m, sand. A dangerous wreck is
charted within the entrance to Ma-kung Kang.
Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring is prohibited in the
charted area within the entrance to P’eng-hu Kang where
submarine cables are laid. See also 2.100.
5
Pilotage is undertaken by naval pilots.
Tugs are available and compulsory for berthing.
Harbour
2.111
1
Nets. submarine defensive nets extend from
Feng-kuei-wei Chiao and Chin-kuei T’ou, the S and N
entrances (2.108) to Ma-kung Kang.
Traffic signals. The harbour signal tower stands on
Chin-kuei T’ou, the N entrance to Ma-kung Kang.
2
Storm signals are exhibited from Chin-kuei T’ou and
from another signal tower on the N side of the fishing port
in the SW part of T’se-t’ien Tao (2.108).
Landmarks. Cupola, water tower, and a large concrete
chimney, all situated close NE of Ma-kung, are conspicuous
as are also two chimneys on T’se-t’ien Tao.
Major light. Chih-tzu Wei Light (23°34′N, 119°28′E)
(2.12).
Directions for entering harbour
2.112
1
South-west approach. From a position 2 miles S of
Chih-tzu Wei Light, the alignment (063°) of the following
lights lead between T’ung-p’an-Chou (2.105) and the S side
of Hsi Yü through the centre of the approach fairway.
Front light (23°34′⋅3N, 119°33′⋅4E).
Rear light (0⋅65 mile NE from front light).
2
When Feng-kuei-wei Chiao (2.108) is abeam to
starboard, the alignment (136°), of lightbeacons (not
charted) on the S shore of Ma-kung Kang and on the W
side of Hsi Yü lead into Ma-kung Kang.
3
South-east approach. From a position 1 mile E of
Hu-ching Yü (2.105), the line of bearing 308° of Chih-tzu
Wei Light, passes S of Tung-t’an-li and Tung-t’an, two
shoals patches near the middle of the channel. When Fou
Wen Light (see below) is abeam to starboard course may
be altered to bring the leading beacons into line; then as
for the SW approach.
4
Caution is required in the approach as tidal streams set
in a direction across the axis of the SW approach, and
parallel to the axis of the SE approach, attaining a rate of
3 kn on the out-going (SE-going) and more than 5 kn on
the in-going (NW-going).
5
Useful marks:
Fou Wen Light (red round concrete tower, 13 m in
height) (23°32′⋅4N, 119°31′⋅0E).
Hai-kan Yen Light (white metal framework tower,
8 m in height) (23°34′⋅9N, 119°32′⋅0E).
Nei Kang Light (beacon) (23°33′⋅5N, 119°33′⋅3E).
Berths
2.113
1
No 8 berth is 140 m in length with a depth of 7⋅5 m
alongside. Eight other berths are between 55 to 135 m in
length, with depths alongside mostly between 3⋅5 to 8 m.
There are plans for expansion. The largest berth at the
naval dockyard is 198 m long with an alongside depth of
5⋅5 m. The E part of the inner port provides berths for
fishing boats of all sizes with depths from 1⋅5 to 3⋅7 m.
Port services
2.114
1
Repairs to boats. Dry dock handling shallow draught
vessels up to 1000 tonnes.
Other facilities. Hospital at the naval base.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel oil.
Communications. There is a small military airfield on
the S end of P’eng-hu Tao 1 mile SE of Sha-mao Shan
(2.108).
T’AI-WAN — NORTH-WEST COAST
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1968, 1761, 2412
Area covered
2.115
1
This section comprises the NW coast of T’ai-wan from a
position W of Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (23°42′N, 120°09′E), to
the vicinity of the Inbound Vessel Waiting Area (24°17′N,
120°26′E), at T’ai-Chung Kang. It includes the ports of
Mai-liao kang (23°47′N, 120°10′E) (2.127) and T’ai-chung
Kang (24°16′N, 120°30′E).
2
It is arranged as follows:
Hai-k’ou Yü-kang to T’ai-Chung Kang (2.119).
T’ai-Chung Kang (2.136).
T’ai-Chung Kang to Pai-sha Chia (2.169).
Topography
2.116
1
See 2.120 and 2.253.
Depths
2.117
1
The NW coast of T’ai-wan is relatively steep-to,
between the latitudes 23°45′N and 24°20′N, the 20 m depth
contour is rarely more than 5 miles, and along the
remainder of this part of the coast seldom more than
3 miles offshore.
Fish havens
2.118
1
Numerous fish havens and traps lie within 20 miles of
the NW coast of T’ai-wan. The majority lie within 5 miles
of the coast. Particular caution should be exercised. For
further information see 1.13.
HAI-K’OU YÜ-KANG TO T’AI-CHUNG
KANG
General information
Charts 2409, 3231
Route
2.119
1
From a position W of Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (23°42′N,
120°09′E), the coastal route leads NNE for about 43 miles
to the vicinity of the Inbound Vessel Waiting Area
(24°17′N, 120°26′E), at T’ai-Chung Kang.
Topography
2.120
1
For 50 miles NNE from Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (23°42′N,
120°09′E) (2.90) the coast is low with sand dunes and
CHAPTER 2
84
small hillocks so that there are few noticeable landmarks.
The hills, which in the vicinity of Hai-k’ou Yü-kang are
20 miles inland, gradually approach to within 3 miles of the
coast towards the N end of this stretch. The central
mountain range of T’ai-wan, with peaks over 3000 m, can
only be seen in the forenoons during fine weather.
Fish havens
2.121
1
See 2.118.
Dumping ground
2.122
1
An explosives dumping ground lies 11 miles NW of
T’ai-chung Kang (24°16′N, 120°30′E) (2.136) centred on
24°27′⋅5N, 120°21′⋅0E.
Flow
2.123
1
Off Lu-kang (24°03′N, 120°26′E) (2.135) the S-going
stream is noticeable, but its rate is less than half that of the
N-going stream; off the estuary of Ta-tu Hsi (24°12′N,
120°29′E) there is a N-going stream, but no S-going stream
is apparent.
Principal marks
2.124
1
Landmark:
Huo-yen Shan (24°23′N, 120°43′E) a peak 599 m
high, stands at the S end of a range which extends
N to the coast.
2
Major lights:
Mu-tou Yü Light (23°47′N, 119°36′E) (2.12).
Fang-yuan Light (white octagonal concrete tower,
black stripes, 37 m in height) (23°58′N, 120°19′E).
T’ai-chung Kang Light (on roof of white concrete
silo, 63 m in height) (24°17′N, 120°31′E).
T’ai-chung Kang North Breakwater Head Light (white
round concrete tower, 18 m in height) (24°18′N,
120°29′E).
Other aids to navigation
2.125
1
Racons:
Mai-liao Kang S Breakwater Head Light (23°46′⋅9N,
120°09′⋅2E).
Fang-yuan Light (23°58′N, 120°19′E) (above).
T’ai-chung Kang North Breakwater Head Light
(24°18′N, 120°29′E) (above)
T’ai-chung Kang South Breakwater Head Light
(24°17′⋅5N, 120°29′⋅5E) (2.159).
Directions
(continued from 2.81)
2.126
1
Caution. The whole length of coast extending 50 miles
NNE from Hai-k’ou Yü-kang (23°42′N, 120°09′E) is
fringed with mud and sand flats, which extend up to
3 miles offshore in places, and it should be approached
with great caution, particularly as the tidal streams are
strong.
2
Track. From a position W of Hai-k’ou Yü-kang
(23°42′N, 120°09′E) (2.90), the track leads NNE, passing
(with positions from Fang-yuan Light (23°58′N, 120°19′E)):
3
WNW of Mai-liao Kung-yeh-kang (18 miles SW)
(2.127). A dangerous wreck is charted 8 miles NW,
and two further dangerous wrecks 14 and
15 miles NW, of the N breakwater head at
Mai-liao Kung-yeh-kang. Thence:
4
WNW of Fang-yuan (3 miles S) (2.134). Fang-yuan
Light (2.124) is exhibited from a position close N
of Wang-kung Yü-kang fishing port (2.134). A
dangerous wreck lies 20 miles WNW of the
light. Thence:
5
WNW of Lu-kang (7 miles NE) (2.135).
The track then leads to the vicinity of the Inbound
Vessel Waiting Area (24°17′N, 120°26′E), at T’ai-Chung
Kang. An obstruction lies 5 miles WNW, a dangerous
wreck lies 25 miles W, and a lighted wave recorder buoy
27 miles W, of T’ai-chung Kang N breakwater head.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 2.176,
for entering T’ai-Chung Kang at 2.159)
(Directions for entering Mai-liao Kang
are given at 2.131)
Mai-liao Kang
General information
2.127
1
Position. Mai-liao Kang (23°47′N, 120°10′E), lies on the
W coast of T’ai-wan on the E side of P’eng-hu Kang-tao
(2.80). The port has been constructed between the mouths
of the Hsin-hu-wei Hsi, to the S, and Cho-shui Hsi to
the N.
Function. The port supports the Formosa Plastics Group
and has berths for crude oil, chemicals, coal and salt.
2
Topography. The industrial complex which the port
supports is largely built on reclaimed land and the
chimneys of the complex, many exhibiting obstruction
lights, provide an identifiable feature on an otherwise low
lying coast.
3
Port limits. The port limits extend out to 2cables
from the NW side of the port; SW to the pilot boarding
position, thence E to the coast.
4
Port Authority. The port is administered by the
T’ai-chung Port Administration Bureau (2.136) through
Mailiao Harbour Administration Corporation, Formosa
Industrial Park No 1, Mailiao Yunlin County, Taiwan, ROC.
Limiting conditions
2.128
1
Controlling depth. The least charted depth in the
entrance channel fairway is 17⋅4 m, although it is reported
that the entrance will be dredged to 24 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. The port is reported
to be able to accommodate VLCC with a maximum LOA
of 310 m and draught 19⋅5 m.
Arrival information
2.129
1
Port operations. Entry, departure and berthing takes
place during daylight hours only.
Port radio. There is a port radio station. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
2
Outer anchorages. No 1 and No 2 Anchorages,
quarantine and waiting, are charted NW and SE
CHAPTER 2
85
respectively of the approach channel. No 3 Anchorage (not
charted) is centred on approximate position 23°43′⋅6N,
120°02′⋅0E. The bottom is sand and the holding is reported
to be poor in the strong tidal streams.
3
Pilotage is compulsory; the pilot boarding position is
about 6 cables S of the E end of No 1 Anchorage.
Tugs are available.
A traffic separation scheme is established in the
approach to the port. No details are known.
Harbour
2.130
1
General layout. Mai-liao Kang is an artificial harbour
built on reclaimed land. The harbour is protected by two
breakwaters; the N breakwater extends SW for over
1 miles from the W extremity of the reclaimed ground;
the S breakwater extends N for 7cables from the SW
extremity of the reclaimed area. Within the harbour there
are basins in the N and the SE corners.
2
The W berths (2.132) lie inside the N end of the N
breakwater. The N berths lie at the N end of the harbour,
and include those on either side of a pier extending SSW
from the N wall of the harbour. The E berths are those that
lie on the E side of the harbour, including those on two
finger piers extending NNW from the S end of the E side.
3
Development. Further construction work is taking place
(2001).
Fishing. Many fishing nets and boats are reported to be
found close to the coast in the vicinity of the harbour
approaches and anchorages.
Tidal streams are reported to be strong in the
approaches to the port.
4
Major lights:
Mu-tou Yü Light (23°47′N, 119°36′E) (2.12).
Fang-yuan Light (23°58′N, 120°19′E) (2.124).
Racon:
South Breakwater Head Light (23°46′⋅9N,
120°09′⋅2E).
Directions for entering harbour
2.131
1
Leading lights:
Front light (23°48′⋅1N, 120°10′⋅6E).
Rear light (160 m NE from front light).
2
From the vicinity of 23°44′N, 120°03′E the alignment
(055°) of the above lights situated at the NE corner of the
harbour lead through the centre of the entrance fairway,
passing:
Between the outer anchorages (2.129), and to the
vicinity of the pilot boarding position, thence:
NW of a lighted platform, 1 miles S of N
breakwater head, thence:
3
Between the breakwaters, from where lights (below)
are exhibited. The harbour entrance is 2 cables
wide.
The track then continues to a turning area within the
harbour.
4
Useful marks:
Lights are exhibited from the seaward end of a
seawall extending from the reclaimed land N of
the root of the N breakwater.
5
A light is exhibited from a spur on the inside of the
N breakwater and from the head of the S
breakwater where the harbour entrance is at its
narrowest; a further light (red octagonal concrete
tower, 23m in height, racon) is exhibited from the
head of a spur on the S breakwater.
6
Lights are exhibited from the head of the pier
extending from the N wall inside the harbour, and
from the head of each of the finger piers at the S
end of the harbour.
Berths
2.132
1
Three W and ten E berths (2.130) are numbered from N
to S; the N berths from E to W. All three W berths and N1
and N2 are dolphin berths. Eight berths lie along the E side
of the harbour; berths E 9 and E 10 lie on the SW side of
the two finger piers at the S end of the harbour.
2
W2 and W3 berths (products/crude oil) can accept
vessels with a maximum LOA of 310 m and a draught of
19⋅5 m; N2 berth (chemicals) can take a vessel with
maximum LOA of 220 m and draught 12 m; E3 berth
(coal) can take a vessel with a maximum LOA of 285 m
and draught 14.7 m.
Port services
2.133
1
Supplies. Fuel oil and fresh water are reported to be
available, although the latter may be restricted in quantity.
Communications. Airport at Kao-hsiung (2.69).
Anchorages and harbours
Fang-yuan Po-ti
2.134
1
Fang-yuan Po-ti is the roadstead fronting Fang-yuan
(23°56′N, 120°19), a small town situated 5 miles NNE of
the mouth of Cho-shui Hsi (2.127). A channel leads SW
from the town across the mudflat. A light is exhibited from
the S side of a river estuary 3 miles SSW of Fang-yuan;
Wang-kung Yü-kang, a small fishery harbour, is situated
2 miles N of the town. A light (2.124) is exhibited from
close N of this harbour.
Lu-kang
2.135
1
General information. Lu-kang (24°04′N, 120°25′E) is
situated 10 miles NNE of Fang-yuan (2.134), close NE of
the estuary of Chiu-cho-shui Hsi. Lu-kang Po-ti is the
roadstead seaward of the flats of mud and sand to the NW
of the town.
2
Storm signals are exhibited at the NW end of the town.
Useful marks:
Hill, 254 m high, rises steeply 9 miles E of the town.
Pylons stand on the mud flat 3 miles NNW of the
Lu-kang
Chimney 6 miles NE of the town is conspicuous.
T’AI-CHUNG KANG
General information
Charts 2618 plan of T’ai-chung, 3231
Position
2.136
1
T’ai-chung Kang (24°16′N, 120°30′E) is a large artificial
harbour fronting the town of Wu-ch’i. The city of
T’ai-chung, the third largest in T’ai-wan, lies some 10 miles
SE of the port.
CHAPTER 2
86
Function
2.137
1
T’ai-chung Kang is a multi-purpose major commercial
and industrial port, including a container terminal, that
serves the central region of T’ai-wan. Imports and exports
include petroleum and chemical products, grain, coal, ores,
steel products and cement. A large fishing port is situated
at the N end of the harbour. Further development of the
port is planned.
T’ai−Chung Kang from NE (2.137)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − T’ai−Chung Harbour Bureau)
Approach and entry
2.138
1
The port is approached from SW and entered between
two breakwaters at the N end of the harbour.
Traffic
2.139
1
The port was visited by over 5800 vessels in 2000.
Port Authority
2.140
1
T’ai-chung Harbour Bureau, Wu-ch’i Town, T’ai-chung,
T’ai-wan, Republic of China.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
2.141
1
The depth in the entrance and inner harbour channels is
13 m.
Deepest and longest berth
2.142
1
See 2.164.
Density of water
2.143
1
Density of water is 1.025 g/cm
3
.
Tidal levels
2.144
1
Mean spring range about 4⋅3 m, mean neap range about
2⋅4 m; see Admiralty Tide Tables for further details.
Maximum size of vessel handled
2.145
1
Draught 13 m, 70 000 dwt.
Arrival information
Port radio
2.146
1
There is a port radio station. On approach, contact
should be established at the earliest opportunity. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
2.147
1
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours and 12 hours.
Outer anchorages
2.148
1
A waiting area is established close N of the W side of
the outer anchorage area. When anchored, master should
report in to port control as this time is used as reference
for berth allocation.
2
There are twenty-eight waiting anchorages lying W of
the harbour, SW of South Breakwater. Ten anchorages for
small vessels, less than 120 m in length and 7 m draught,
have depths from 7 to 19 m, ten anchorages for medium
vessels, 120 to 190 m in length and less than 11 m draught,
have depths from 13 to 19 m and eight anchorages for
large vessels have depths from 16 to 19 m. An area of foul
ground, position approximate, is charted within anchor
berth M6.
3
Caution. The seabed is sand in the area of the outer
anchorages; during the NE monsoon when winds exceed
force 6, vessels are liable to drag their anchors. Fishing
nets may be encountered close S of the anchorages.
4
Prohibited anchorages:
Anchoring is prohibited in the waiting area, see
above.
Vessels must not anchor without the permission of the
Port Authority within the sector N of the outer
anchorages that encompasses the approach and
departure lanes.
5
An area in which anchoring is prohibited due to the
existence of wave recorders and submarine cables
extends NNW from North Seawall about 5 cables
N of the harbour entrance.
Anchoring is prohibited in the Main Channel, and
within 200 m of the N and S inner breakwaters
due to the presence of a submarine cable.
Pilotage
2.149
1
Pilotage is compulsory and pilots are available 24 hours.
The pilot boarding position is on the approach to the
entrance and to S, and in the lee of, North Breakwater; the
actual position may be variable dependent on the weather
conditions. In order to avoid delay in bad weather, a pilot
CHAPTER 2
87
can be embarked off Kao-hsiung (2.38) or Chi-lung
(Keelung) Kang (2.219) by prior arrangement.
Tugs
2.150
1
Tugs up to 3400 hp are available.
Traffic regulations
2.151
1
A Traffic separation scheme is established for vessels
entering and leaving the port. The scheme is not IMO
adopted. Vessels arriving at T’ai-chung Kang from N are
requested to remain more than 1 miles W of the N
breakwater head to remain clear of the scheme.
Prohibited anchorage. See 2.148.
Regulations concerning entry
2.152
1
Clearance to enter port must be obtained from the
harbour signal station (2.154).
In the event of a typhoon warning being received,
vessels that have not yet entered port may be directed to
seek shelter elsewhere; tankers, large vessels and vessels
carrying dangerous goods in port may be directed to sail to
seek shelter.
Quarantine
2.153
1
Radio pratique to be requested within 72 hours of
arrival. A vessel without radio pratique requiring a
quarantine inspection may be anchored temporarily in the
turning basin inside the harbour entrance to undergo
inspection.
Harbour
General layout
2.154
1
T’ai-chung Kang is orientated NNE/SSW with its
entrance at the N end. The harbour extends for some
4 miles from N to S. Wu-ch’i fishing port lies at the N
end and is entered before passing the inner breakwaters.
Basins for harbour craft are entered N of the N turning
basin. North Pier lies E of the harbour entrance, with North
Dock to its N and Central Dock to its S. The Oil Terminal
lies close S of the S inner breakwater. From the harbour
entrance, inner channels lead SSW for 2 miles, thence
SW for 1 mile and SSW for a further 7cables to the
Coal Wharf supplying the power station situated at the S
end of the harbour.
Traffic signals
2.155
1
Traffic signals are exhibited from the port control tower
situated between the main channel entrance and the fishing
harbour. Signals other than those in International Code of
Signals that may be used are shown in Appendix II.
Storm signals
2.156
1
Storm signals are exhibited from the port control tower.
Local weather
2.157
1
Strong NE winds prevail from October to March; from
April to September the weather is generally good. The
central mountain range to the E of T’ai-chung provides
shelter to an extent that the port is seldom affected by
severe typhoon conditions, the period being between July
and October. Fog affects the port on an average of 18 days
each year.
Principal marks
2.158
1
Landmarks:
Four chimneys (red and white bands), 250 m high, of
the power station (24°13′N, 120°28′E) at the S end
of the harbour, from which obstruction lights are
exhibited.
2
Major lights:
Fang-yuan Light (23°58′N, 120°19′E) (2.124).
T’ai-chung Kang Light (24°17′N, 120°31′E) (2.124).
T’ai-chung Kang North Breakwater Light (24°18′N,
120°29′E) (2.124).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 2.126)
Seaward to pilot boarding position
2.159
1
From the vicinity of the Inbound Vessel Waiting Area
(24°17′N, 120°26′E), the recommended track leads ENE
within the white sector of a directional light on the elbow
of North Breakwater to the vicinity of the pilot boarding
position as indicated on the chart.
2
The track then continues ENE to a position at the
beginning of the leading lights leading line. Caution must
be exercised when approaching the breakwaters as strong
sets and winds make handling difficult, especially during
the period of the NE monsoon; see also note on chart. It is
recommended to maintain steerage way at all times until
safely inside the harbour. Firm steerage way will also be
required on departure.
3
Useful marks:
South Breakwater Head Light (red round concrete
tower, 19 m in height, racon) (24°17′⋅5N,
120°29′⋅5E).
North Breakwater elbow light (24°17′⋅8N,
120°29′⋅4E).
North Groyne Light (white round concrete tower, red
bands, 12 m in height) (24°19′N, 120°31′E)
Pilot to turning basin
2.160
1
One way traffic is in operation in the main entry
channel and passing is not normally permissable.
Leading lights. From a position at the beginning of the
leading lights leading line, the alignment (114°) of the
following lights leads through Main Channel, 300 m wide,
between the N and S inner breakwaters to the N turning
basin:
CHAPTER 2
88
T’ai−Chung Port control tower (2.160)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − T’ai−Chung Harbour Bureau)
2
Front light (square metal tower, directional light)
(24°17′N, 120°31′E).
Rear beacon (920 m ESE of front light).
Useful marks:
Fishing harbour outer breakwater light (white round
concrete column, 7 m in height) (24°17′⋅6N,
120°30′⋅1E).
3
North inner breakwater light (white round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) (24°17′⋅4N, 120°30′⋅3E).
South inner breakwater light (red round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) (24°17′⋅2N, 120°30′⋅2E).
4
Port control tower, 2 cables NE of N inner breakwater
light; a square building topped by a circular steel
tower (black and white chequers) upon which is a
red and white framework mast structure, is
prominent.
Fishing harbour
2.161
1
Leading lights. From a position in Main Channel, the
alignment (061°) of leading lights, lead into the fishing port
CHAPTER 2
89
between breakwaters from the heads of which lights are
exhibited.
Harbour passage
2.162
1
From the vicinity of N turning basin close inside the
harbour entrance, inner channels, 200 m wide with the
limits marked by light-buoys, lead S to the Coal Wharf at
the S end of the harbour.
Two sets of light-beacons, one at the N end of the
harbour and the second at the S end, aligned 201°/021°,
lead for approximately 2⋅1 miles through Collier Channel.
2
Two further sets of light-beacons, one at the N end of
South Pier and the other close N of Coal Wharf, aligned
231°/051°, lead for approximately 9 cables through the
next section of inner channel and through the S turning
basin.
A set of leading lights on the S end of W Pier aligned
021° astern lead for 6 cables to Coal Wharf.
T’ai−Chung Central Pier from NNE (2.162)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − T’ai−Chung Harbour Bureau)
Directions for leaving harbour
2.163
1
On departure keep to the N of the separation zone until
1 mile clear of the N breakwater head.
Berths
2.164
1
There are numerous berths as indicated on the chart. The
deepest and longest container berths are those on central
pier, with lengths up to 330 m and depths alongside of
14 m. The Coal Wharf berths are 340 m in length, with
depths of 18 m. Berths at the oil terminal are 250 m in
length with depths of 14 m.
Port services
Repairs
2.165
1
Repairs of all types. Ship repair yard.
Dry dock. 10 000 tonne 165 m in length, 28 m in width
and a depth of 6 m.
Slipways for vessels up to 300 tonnes.
Other facilities
2.166
1
Medical facilities and hospitals at Wu-chi and
T’ai-chung.
Supplies
2.167
1
Fuel oil; fresh water; provisions; stores.
Communications
2.168
1
The nearest international airport is to the E of T’ai-pei,
some 120 km to the NE; domestic airpoprt at T’ai-chung.
T’AI-CHUNG KANG TO PAI-SHA CHIA
General information
Charts 2409, 3231, 3658
Route
2.169
1
From the vicinity of the Inbound Vessel Waiting Area
(24°17′N, 120°26′E), at T’ai-Chung Kang, the coastal route
leads NNE for about 57 miles to a position NW of Pai-sha
Chia (25°03′N, 121°04′E).
Topography
2.170
1
The central mountain range of T’ai-wan, with peaks over
3000 m, can only be seen in the forenoons during fine
weather.
Fish havens
2.171
1
See 2.118.
Dumping ground
2.172
1
See 2.122.
Flow
2.173
1
Near Ta-an Kang (24°23′N, 120°32′E) (2.177) the tidal
streams set N with the in-going tide, and S with the
out-going tide; in summer, however, owing to the current
there is a constant N-going flow, with a maximum rate of
about 2 kn with the in-going tide, and 1 kn with the
out-going tide.
2
About 5 miles offshore, in the vicinity of latitude
24°35′N, the current always sets N with considerable
strength, but is weakened during the S-going, in-going,
tidal stream and reinforced during the N-going, out-going,
tidal stream. Approaching nearer the coast the rate of this
current is gradually reduced and within 2 miles of the shore
it is almost overcome by the S-going tidal stream.
Principal marks
2.174
1
Landmark:
Huo-yen Shan (24°23′N, 120°43′E) (2.124).
2
Major lights:
T’ai-chung Kang Light (24°17′N, 120°31′E) (2.124).
T’ai-chung Kang North Breakwater Head Light
(24°18′N, 120°29′E) (2.124).
Hsin-chu Aero Light (24°49′N, 120°56′E). This light
may not always be exhibited.
Pai-sha Chia Light (white round brick tower, 28 m in
height) (25°03′N, 121°04′E).
Other aids to navigation
2.175
1
Racons:
T’ai-chung Kang North Breakwater Head Light
(24°18′N, 120°29′E) (above)
T’ai-chung Kang South Breakwater Head Light
(24°17′⋅5N, 120°29′⋅5E) (2.159).
CHAPTER 2
90
Directions
(continued from 2.126)
2.176
1
From the vicinity of the Inbound Vessel Waiting Area
(24°17′N, 120°26′E), at T’ai-Chung Kang, the track leads
NNE, passing (with positions from Hsin-chu Aero Light
(24°49′N, 120°56′E)):
2
WNW of Ta-an Kang (24°23′N, 120°32′E) (2.177),
thence:
WNW of Tung-hsiao (24°29′N, 120°40′E) (2.178),
thence:
3
WNW of a submarine seawater pipeline (24°34′N,
120°42′E), extending 1 mile WNW from the coast;
a light-buoy (can, red) marks its outer end. A light
exhibited from high ground just over 1miles
ESE of the root of the pipeline. Thence:
4
WNW of Hou-lung Po-ti (16 miles SSW) (2.179),
thence:
WNW of Chung-kang Po-ti (11 miles SSW) (2.180),
thence:
5
WNW of Yen-shui Kang (5 miles SSW) (2.181),
remaining clear of Kuo Kang Oilfield, centred on
24°47′N, 120°40′E and comprising wells,
platforms, pipelines and buoys, which has been
abandoned, thence:
6
WNW of Chiu-kang Po-ti (3 miles NNW) (2.182),
thence:
WNW of Hung-mao Kang (5 miles NNE) (2.183)
and K’an-t’ou-t’so Kang (11 miles NNE) (2.183),
thence:
7
To a position NW of Pai-sha Chia (15 miles NNE),
the NW point of T’ai-wan. There is a grassy
sandhill 19 m high on Pai-sha Chia, but the coast
is almost straight and the point does not project. A
light (2.124) is exhibited from Pai-sha Chia.
(Directions continue at 2.197)
Anchorages and harbours
Ta-an Kang
2.177
1
Ta-an Kang (24°23′N, 120°32′E), 7 miles NNE of
T’ai-chung Kang (2.136) is a boat anchorage off the village
of Ta-an; stakes indicate a channel across the coastal bank.
A light is exhibited from the N entrance to a river estuary.
Wu-chia Yü-kang, a fishing harbour, lies 5 cables N; a light
is exhibited from the N mole.
2
Ta-chia Hsi and Ta-an Hsi flow through an extensive
delta area to enter the sea 3 miles S and 2 miles N of Ta-an
Kang; both rivers are spanned by railway bridges about
3 miles inland. Ta-chia, a town 3 miles SE of Ta-an, is
situated between two prominent hills; T’ieh-chen Shan to
the N is a thickly wooded, square hill 234 m high; Peng
Shan to the S is 177 m high and reddish brown on its S
face.
Tung-hsiao
2.178
1
Description. Tung-hsiao is a small town on the S slope
of Hu’t’ou Shan (24°30′N, 120°41′E), a hill 93 m high and
resembling the head of a tiger; from it a range of hills
extends along the coast to the entrance to Hou-lung Hsi
(2.179), 7 miles NE. Close SW of the town is the mouth of
Nan-shih Hsi which can be entered by boats at HW.
Between Ta-an Kang, 7 miles SSW (2.177) and the
mouth of Nan-shih Hsi lie the fishing ports of Sung-pai
Yü-kang (24°26′N, 120°36′E), Hai-an Yü-kang (24°27′N,
120°38′E) and Yuan-li Yü-kang (24°28′N, 120°38′E); lights
are exhibited from the entrance to the latter two harbours.
2
Submarine pipeline. A submarine seawater pipeline, the
end marked by light-buoys extends 8 cables NW from a
power station on the coast at Tung-hsiao. Anchoring is
prohibited in way of the sea water pipeline.
3
The power station is the terminal for a submarine gas
pipeline extending from Yung-An LNG Terminal (2.84).
Hou-lung Po-ti
2.179
1
Description. Along the coast between Tung-hsiao
(2.178) and Hou-lung Po-ti (24°38′N, 120°43′E), 8 miles
NNE, are the fishing harbours of Hsin-pu Yü-kang
(24°33′N, 120°41′E), Pai-sha Yü-kang, 1 miles farther
NNE, and Nan-kang Yü-kang, 1 miles NE of Pai-sha
Yü-kang.
2
Storm signals are exhibited from the fishing harbour of
Lung Kang Yü-kang at the village.
3
Anchorage. Hou-lung Po-ti, situated off the mouth of
Hou-lung Hsi, affords open anchorage in depths from 7⋅3
to 14⋅6 m. The river mouth is occupied by a sandbank
which dries 0⋅4 m, but boats can enter at HW; posts are
erected on both sides of the entrance. Hou-lung, a town
situated on the N bank of Hou-lung Hsi, lies 2 miles up
river. Pei-tzu-tao Shan, an isolated hill 112 m high on the S
side of the river mouth, is fairly prominent. Three white oil
tanks and an iron bridge situated W of the village at the
foot of the hill are also prominent.
Chung-kang Po-ti
2.180
1
General information. Chung-kang Hsi (24°40′N,
120°50′E) flows into the sea 5 miles NE of Hou-lung Hsi
(2.179); a narrow changing passage allows boats to cross
the bar at the river mouth at half-tide. Chung-kang town is
1 mile inland on the N side of the river. I-pao Shan, 63 m
high, and a sharp summit, 53 m high with red cliffs,
1 miles W of it, are prominent landmarks on the S side
of the anchorage (see below).
2
Wai-pu Yü-kang, a fishing harbour, lies 3 miles WSW
of the entrance to Chung-kang Hsi; lights are exhibited
from the moles at the entrance to the harbour. A further
fishing harbour lies 2 miles NE of the river entrance;
lights are exhibited from the moles at the entrance.
3
Anchorage, temporary, in Chung-kang Po-ti can be
obtained 7cables outside the bar, in a depth of about
9 m; this anchorage gives shelter from the S winds, but the
holding ground is poor.
Yen-shui Kang
2.181
1
General information. Yen-shui Kang (24°45′N,
120°54′E), 6 miles NE of Chung-kang Hsi (2.180), is a
small harbour formed by the entrance to a small river; a
channel across the drying coastal bank can be used by
boats at half-tide. Hsiang-shan, a village 5 cables N of
Yen-shui Kang, is the terminal for a submarine pipeline
from Kuo Kang Oilfield (2.176). A light-buoy (special) is
moored about 2 miles WNW from the village.
CHAPTER 2
91
Chiu-kang Po-ti
2.182
1
General information. Chiu-kang Po-ti (24°52′N,
120°54′E), 6 miles N of Yen-shui Kang (2.181), is a
roadstead off the combined estuary of T’ou-ch’ien Hsi and
Feng-shan Hsi, to the N; the single channel across the
coastal bank to the estuary is suitable only for boats at
half-tide. Chiu-kang village stands near the entrance to
T’ou-ch’ien Hsi; the red brick building of its Customs
office is fairly prominent. Keng-tzu-k’ou Shan, a
flat-topped, grassy hill 126 m high, 2 miles NE of
Chiu-kang, is prominent. The town of Hsin-chu is situated
2 miles SE of Chiu-kang. A light (2.124) is exhibited
occasionally from the airfield 1 miles NW of Hsin-chu.
2
A fishing harbour is situated close S of the estuary.
Breakwaters extend out to 5 cables from the coast; lights
are exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters and within
the harbour.
Yung-an Yü-kang (K’an-t’ou-t’so Kang)
2.183
1
Yung-an Yü-kang (K’an-t’ou-t’so Kang), a fishing
harbour, lies 5 miles NE of Hung-mao Kang (24°55′N,
120°58′E), at the entrance to She-tzu Hsi. Breakwaters
extend from the N side of the river entrance; lights are
exhibited from the breakwater heads.
Hung-mao Kang
2.184
1
Hung-mao Kang (24°55′N, 120°58′E), a small harbour
lies at the mouth of a river 2 miles N of Keng-tzu-t’ou
Shan.
T’AI-WAN — NORTH COAST
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1968, 1761, 3658
Area covered
2.185
1
This section comprises the N coast of T’ai-wan from
Pai-sha Chia (25°03′N, 121°04′E), to Fu-Kuei Chiao
(25°18′N, 121°32′E), and includes the port of Chi-lung
Kang (25°09′N, 121°45′E) (2.219).
2
It is arranged as follows:
Pai-sha Chia to Fu-Kuei Chiao (2.189).
Fu-Kuei Chiao to Chi-Lung Kang (2.207).
Chi-Lung Kang (2.219).
Chi-Lung Kang to San-tiao Chiao (2.252).
Topography
2.186
1
See 2.120 and 2.253.
Depths
2.187
1
The N coast of T’ai-wan is relatively steep-to and the
20 m depth contour is rarely more than 3 miles offshore.
Fish havens
2.188
1
Numerous fish havens and traps lie within 20 miles of
the N coast of T’ai-wan. The majority lie within 5 miles of
the coast. Particular caution should be exercised. See 1.13.
PAI-SHA CHIA TO FU-KUEI CHIAO
General information
Charts 3658, 3235
Route
2.189
1
From a position NW of Pai-sha Chia (25°03′N,
121°04′E), the coastal route leads NE for about 30 miles to
a position N of Fu-Kuei Chiao (25°18′N, 121°32′E).
Topography
2.190
1
The coast for 12 miles ENE of Pai-sha Chia (25°03′N,
121°04′E), consists mostly of low sandhills. Between the N
entrance point to T’an-shui Kang (25°11′N, 121°24′E), and
Fu-kuei Chiao, 10 miles NE, low hills rise gradually inland
to a mountain range. Ta-t’un Shan (25°11′N, 121°31′E),
1088 m high, is the most W peak of the inland range.
Fish havens
2.191
1
See 2.118.
Prohibited anchorage
2.192
1
Anchoring is prohibited within a corridor 6 cables wide
of a submarine cable extending NNE from the coast close
N of T’ai-pei (Tan-shui) Kang (25°11′N, 121°24′E).
Dumping ground
2.193
1
An explosives dumping ground is centred on 25°12′⋅5N,
121°17′⋅5E.
Flow
2.194
1
The rate of the current does not appear to exceed 2 kn
N of Pai-sha Chia (25°03′N, 121°04′E).
2
Between T’ai-pei (Tan-shui Kang) (25°11′N, 121°24′E)
and Fu-kuei Chiao, 10 miles NE, the tidal streams set NE
for 7 hours on the out-going tide, and SW for 5 hours on
the in-going tide. The SW-going stream has a maximum
rate of about 2 kn; the NE-going stream attains a rate of
3 kn opposite T’ai-pei Kang, increasing to 5 kn off
Fu-kuei Chiao. During the SW monsoon the NE-going
stream may attain even greater rates.
Principal marks
2.195
1
Landmarks:
Chimney (white) on the coast 2 miles E of
Nan-k’an Kang (25°07′⋅5N, 121°14′⋅5E).
Radar domes (two, obstruction lights) stand on the
summit of Chu-tzu Shan (25°13′⋅0N, 121°33′⋅5E),
1102 m high.
2
Major lights:
Pai-sha Chia Light (25°03′N, 121°04′E) (2.124).
Tan-shui Kang Entrance Light (white square metal
tower, 32 m in height) (25°11′N, 121°25′E).
Fu-kuei Chiao Light (white octagonal concrete tower,
black bands, 14 m in height) (25°18′N, 121°32′E).
Yeh-liu Pan-tao Light (white concrete column on
tripod, 11 m in height) (25°13′N, 121°41′E).
Wan-jen-tui Pi Light; Chi-lung Kang (white round
brick tower, 11 m in height) (25°09′N, 121°44′E).
CHAPTER 2
92
Other aid to navigation
2.196
1
Racon:
Wan-jen-tui Pi Light (25°09′N, 121°44′E).
Directions
(continued from 2.176)
2.197
1
From a position NW of Pai-sha Chia (25°03′N,
121°04′E) (2.176), the track leads NE, passing (with
positions from Tan-shui Kang Entrance Light (25°11′N,
121°25′E)):
2
NW of Sha Lung Oil Terminal (12 miles WSW)
(2.204). A major airfield is situated 2 miles inland
of the Taoyuan Refinery on the coast. Thence:
NW of T’ai-pei (Tan-shui) Kang (25°11′N, 121°24′E)
(2.198) and across the prohibited anchorage
corridor (2.192). A 17 m patch, position doubtful,
lies 11 miles NNW.
3
Thence the track leads to a position N of Fu-kuei Chiao
(10 miles NE), the N point of T’ai-wan, which is low with
a rocky shoal extending 2 cables from it. A light (2.214)
is exhibited from the point. There is a small beach between
rocks on the W side of the point were landing can be
effected in calm weather. At other times, Fu-kuei Chiao
should be given a wide berth as N and NE winds cause
strong tide races and heavy seas off the point which are
extremely dangerous to small vessels.
(Directions continue at 2.216)
T’ai-pei (Tan-shui) Kang
General information
2.198
1
Position. T’ai-pei (Tan-shui) Kang (25°10′N, 121°23′E),
on the N coast of T’ai-wan, is close to the mouth of
Tan-shui Ho, some 8 miles NNW of T’ai-pei, the island’s
capital; Tan-shui Kang fishing port is situated about 1 mile
N. The town of Tan-shui (25°10′N, 121°26′E) stands on the
N shore of the river about 1 mile inside the entrance.
2
Function. Tan-shui Kang was the river port within the
estuary of Tan-shui Ho and the seaport for T’ai-pei. With
the development of Chi-lung Kang (2.219), it was allowed
to silt up and is now suitable only for shallow draught
vessels. Tan-shui Kang fishing port consists of an outer and
an inner basin protected by breakwaters and is situated on
the N point of the river entrance. Both the outer and inner
breahwaters are marked by lights. The port is suitable as a
typhoon shelter for small vessels. See development at
2.201.
3
Port limits. T’ai-pei Kang limits are from the coast at
25°07′⋅7N, 121°20′⋅0E, thence NNW to 25°09′⋅6N,
121°18′⋅7E, ENE to 25°11′⋅3N, 121°22′⋅1E, and SE to the
coast at 25°09′⋅8N, 121°23′⋅9E. Tan-shui Kang is as
charted.
4
Approach and entry. The port is approached and
entered from NW. (tbc)
5
Port Authority. Chi-lung Port Administration Bureau,
No 1 Chung-Cheng Road, Chi-lung, T’ai-wan, ROC.
Limiting conditions
2.199
1
Controlling depth. The project depth in the early stage
of port construction was reported to be 7⋅5 m.
2
For Tan-shui Ho, least charted depths across the bar are
2 to 3 m. However depths in the entrance change every
time the river is in flood; the bar is inclined to have less
water in winter, the depths being 0⋅3 to 0⋅9 m less than
those in summer. Typhoons also appear to affect the depths
on the bar considerably.
3
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels of less than
140 m LOA (1997).
4
Local weather. Wind conditions not greater than force 5
(1997).
Arrival information
2.200
1
Port operations. Daylight hours only. Operations will be
suspended if visibility falls below 300 m.
Port radio is in operation. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained NW of
the port, clear of the entry/departure lane. The bottom is
reported to be mainly sand and not good holding in bad
weather. Also, off Tan-shui Ho, the best anchorage is
1 miles WNW of the river entrance in a depth of 12⋅8 m,
mud; this position is, however, entirely exposed and vessels
must be prepared to get underway immediately.
Prohibited anchorage. Within the entry and departure
lane for the port.
2
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilot boards in the vicinity of
25°10′⋅6N, 121°21′⋅3E, a position close SW of the charted
mooring buoy.
Tugs are available.
Local knowledge. The entrance channel to Tan-shui Ho
is liable to change, and the channels within the bar are
shallow and intricate; no attempt should be made to enter
the river without local knowledge.
Harbour
2.201
1
General layout. From the vicinity of 25°09′⋅6N,
121°23′⋅7E, a sea wall and breakwater extends NW for a
distance of 8 cables from the coast.
2
Development. T’ai-pei Kang is being developed as a
subsidiary port to Chi-lung Kang (2.219) to alleviate the
pressure on that port by handling a portion of the general
cargo, bulk goods and container traffic from the N part of
the island. The first container berth may not be ready
before 2005.
3
Close SW of the S entrance point a new commercial
port, T’ai-pei Kang, is under construction (2002) through
reclamation seawards. The new port is being constructed to
the SW of the breakwater mentioned above; the first phase
comprising reclaimed land extending 9 cables SW from the
seawall in the centre of which is a basin. Another
breakwater encompasses the SW side of the harbour
construction. Light-buoys mark the seaward limits of the
area under constructon.
4
Storm signals are exhibited at Tan-shui (2.198).
Tidal streams off the port are reported to set SW on the
in-going tide and NE on the out-going tide at rates of 1 to
1 kn.
5
During floods the rate of the tidal stream in Tan-shui Ho
is considerably increased, and there is a strong eddy along
the N bank between a position 1 miles within the
entrance and a position 1 mile farther up river. With heavy
squalls the stream is converted into whirlpools, and at the
river junction, 1 mile below T’ai-pei, a powerful torrent is
formed which rushes towards the harbour mouth churning
up mud and sand from the river bed, creating an extremely
dangerous situation for craft at anchor.
6
Climatic table see 1.170.
CHAPTER 2
93
Landmark:
Kuan-yin Shan (25°08′N, 121°25′E), 2 miles S of
the river entrance, is a prominent peak 615 m high,
and a good mark for making the harbour.
7
Major lights:
Pai-sha Chia Light (25°03′N, 121°04′E) (2.124).
Tan-shui Kang Entrance Light (25°11′N, 121°25′E)
(2.214).
Fu-kuei Chiao Light (25°18′N, 121°32′E) (2.214).
Directions for entering harbour
2.202
1
From a position NW of the port the track leads SE,
passing:
NE of the end of an outfall pipeline, marked by eight
light-buoys (special) in the vicinity of 25°12′N,
121°22′E, thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck (25°11′N, 121°22′E),
thence:
NE of a stranded wreck lying 8 cables WSW of the S
breakwater head, thence:
Between the S breakwater head and Shuan Chou, a
shoal patch, close S. There are several light-buoys
(lateral) to the NE and NNW of the breakwater
head (2.201) on the NE side of the harbour.
2
Within the river entrance the channel favours the middle
of the river. Above Tan-shui, the navigable channel is on
the W side of the river. An overhead cable spans the river
about 1 miles above Tan-shui, and a bridge a farther
1 miles above the cable.
3
Useful marks:
North breakwater light (green metal pole, 3 m in
height) (25°10′⋅3N, 121°22′⋅9E).
South breakwater light (red metal pole, 3 m in height)
(25°09′⋅5N, 121°22′⋅7E).
Light (red square metal framework, 13 m in height) is
exhibited from Hui wharf at Tan-shui.
Berths
2.203
1
Moorings. Several mooring buoys lie in the river
entrance close to Tan-shui Kang Entrance Light.
2
Anchorage berths may be obtained in the river off
Tan-shui town, but space is limited and, owing to the sandy
bottom, craft are liable to drag; they should moor with
anchors up and down stream. Under no circumstance
anchor S of the centre of the stream, or seaward of a
position 2 cables within the entrance.
3
Alongside berths. There are reported (1997) to be two
8000 dwt berths operational, with a total length of 340 m.
Anchorages and harbours
Sha Lung Oil Terminal
2.204
1
Description. Sha Lung Oil Terminal (25°09′N,
121°11′E) consists of two SPM, both lighted, lying at the
seaward end of submarine pipelines extending 2 miles
NNW and NW from the Taoyuan Refinery on the coast.
An observation light-buoy (special) is moored 1 miles E
of No 1 SPM.
2
Port Authority. See Chi-lung Kang (2.219).
Port operations. The terminal operates year round but
delays can be expected in winter due to the NE monsoon.
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours.
Outer anchorage. Anchoring, if delayed, is not
recommended, although lying at drift about 10 miles
offshore is satisfactory.
3
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited within
1000 m of the SPMs or within 600 m of the pipelines.
Pilotage is compulsory and is available in daylight
hours, except 1 hours either side of LW. A tug acts as the
pilot boat and boarding takes place about 1 mile NW of
No 2 SPM. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Tugs are available.
Berths. The terminal can accommodate tankers up to
250 000 dwt with a maximum draught of 27⋅4 m.
Nan-k’an Kang
2.205
1
Nan-k’an Kang (25°07′⋅5N, 121°14′⋅5E), is a fishing
port close S of a river mouth. A light is exhibited from the
harbour. There is a mooring buoy 3 cables N of the
harbour entrance, and a pinnacle rock, with a depth of
3⋅3 m over it, lies 1 mile NE of the entrance.
Hsü-t’so Kang
2.206
1
Hsü-t’so Kang (25°05′N, 121°10′E), a small harbour at
the mouth of Shuang-hsi-k’ou Hsi, is suitable only at HW.
A stranded wreck lies on the coast 1 miles WSW.
FU-KUEI CHIAO TO CHI-LUNG KANG
General information
Chart 3658
Route
2.207
1
From a position N of Fu-Kuei Chiao (25°18′N,
121°32′E), the route leads SE for about 14 miles to a
position E of Yeh-liu Pan-tao (25°13′N, 121°42′E) in the
vicinity of the NNW end of Entrance Fairway off Chi-lung
Kang (25°09′N, 121°45′E).
Fish havens
2.208
1
See 2.118.
Dumping ground
2.209
1
An explosives dumping ground is centred 1 miles SSW
of Hua-ping Yü (25°25′⋅5N, 121°56′⋅3E).
Submarine volcano
2.210
1
In April 1916, steam was observed rising from the sea
about 40 miles NNE of P’eng-chia Yü (25°38′N, 122°04′E).
In June 1927, some patches of discoloured water, with
tide-rips, were seen in the same position; in 1931 and
1937, however, vessels passing the vicinity did not observe
anything unusual. According to a report of a fisherman a
discoloured patch, about 1 mile in diameter, is frequently
observed in spring and summer, about 1 miles NW of this
position. Mariners navigating in the area should exercise
caution.
Marine exploitation
2.211
1
An area of oil exploration lies in the vicinity of
25°36′N, 121°53′E.
Local magnetic anomalies
2.212
1
A local magnetic anomaly was reported (1938) in the
vicinity of Hua-ping Yü (25°25′⋅5N, 121°56′⋅3E) (2.264).
2
In 1979 a vessel reported experiencing a brief, but
marked, effect on the compass in a position 25°29′⋅8N,
CHAPTER 2
94
122°24′⋅5E, 20 miles ESE of P’eng-chia Yü (2.264),
causing the vessel to swing 5° to 7° either side of her
course. This position lies 3 miles N of a charted depth of
29 m, reported in 1978.
Flow
2.213
1
See 2.194.
Principal marks
2.214
1
Landmarks:
Radar domes (25°13′⋅0N, 121°33′⋅5E) (2.195).
Tower (red and white framework) (25°17′N,
121°35′E).
2
Major lights:
Fu-kuei Chiao Light (25°18′N, 121°32′E) (2.195).
Yeh-liu Pan-tao Light (25°13′N, 121°41′E) (2.195).
Wan-jen-tui Pi Light (25°09′N, 121°44′E) (2.195).
Other aid to navigation
2.215
1
Racon:
Wan-jen-tui Pi Light (25°09′N, 121°44′E).
Directions
(continued from 2.197)
2.216
1
From a position N of Fu-Kuei Chiao (25°18′N,
121°32′E) (2.197), the track leads SE, passing (with
positions from Chi-lung Tao Light (25°12′N, 121°47′E)):
NE of a tower (12 miles WNW) (2.214). Chu-tzu
Shan (2.214) lies 4 miles SSW. Thence:
2
NE of Shih-tzu-t’ou Pi (8 miles WNW) (2.217),
thence:
NE of Yeh-liu Wan (6 miles WNW), thence:
NE of Yeh-liu Pan-tao (5 miles WNW) (2.218), from
where a light (2.214) is exhibited.
3
Thence the track leads to a position E of Yeh-liu Pan-tao
(25°13′N, 121°42′E), in the vicinity of the NNW end of
Entrance Fairway off Chi-lung Kang (25°09′N, 121°45′E).
(Directions contiue at 2.257)
Anchorages and harbours
Shih-tzu-t’ou Pi
2.217
1
Description. Shih-tzu-t’ou Pi (25°14′N, 121°39′E) is a
cliffy point 7 miles SE of Fu-kuei Chiao (2.197); the
coast between is rocky. There is a round-topped hill, 75 m
high, 4 cables S of the point; a reef, with rocks awash,
extends 8 cables E. Chu-tai Yü, two conspicuous rocks, the
higher 23 m, stand on the reef 2 cables E of the point.
A small harbour S of the point affords refuge to small
vessels.
Local knowledge is required.
Chart 2619 plan of Approaches to Chi-lung
Yeh-liu Wan
2.218
1
Description. Yeh-liu Wan (25°13′N, 121°40′E), entered
between Shih-tzu-t’ou Pi (2.217) and Yeh-liu Pan-tao,
3 miles SE, has a long sandy beach. Yeh-liu Pan-tao is a
steep, narrow sandstone point projecting 1 mile NE, with
rocks extending 2 cables farther seaward and a similar
distance from its SE side. A light (2.214) is exhibited from
the point.
2
There is a large fishing port at Yeh-liu in the SE corner
of the bay, close to the root of Yeh-liu Pan-tao, and a small
fishing harbour 3 cables E on the E side of the point.
3
Prohibited area. Entry is prohibited to a corridor
7 cables wide and out to 1 miles from the shore within
the centre of Yeh-liu Wan where submarine cables
terminate ashore.
Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels in the bay,
clear of the restricted area.
CHI-LUNG KANG
General information
Chart 2619
Position
2.219
1
Chi-lung (Keelung) Kang (25°09′N, 121°45′E), on the N
coast of T’ai-wan, lies some 15 miles NE of T’ai-pei
(2.198). The city of Chi-lung, also commonly known under
the spelling Keelung, is situated at the head of the harbour.
Function
2.220
1
Chi-lung Kang is the major harbour in the N of the
island. The port is multi-functional and one of the world’s
larger container ports; container handling is the primary
function, with bulk and general cargo of secondary
importance.
Topography
2.221
1
Chi-lung Tao (25°12′N, 121°47′E) (2.216), lies in the
NE approach to Chi-lung Kang, 2 miles NE of
Wan-jen-tui Pi, the W entrance point to the harbour; on the
seaward side of the point are several patches of
perpendicular stratified cliffs. The harbour is sheltered by
wooded hills on the W, S and E sides and by three islands
on the NE. Ho-p’ing Tao (25°09′⋅6N, 121°45′⋅5E), the
largest island at the entrance, is joined to NE shore of the
harbour by a bridge, and joined W and N, respectively, by
reclamation to T’ung-p’an Yü and Chung-shan-tzu.
Traffic
2.222
1
In 2001 the port was visited by a total of 9 600 ships.
Port Authority
2.223
1
Chi-lung Port Administration Bureau, No 1 Chung-Cheng
Road, Chi-lung, T’ai-wan, ROC.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
2.224
1
The least charted depth within the main channel of the
Outer Harbour (2.237) is 14 m, although this channel is
now reported (2000) to be dredged to 15⋅5 m. Little silting
takes place in the harbour.
Deepest and longest berth
2.225
1
Berth W19 (2.245).
Tidal levels
2.226
1
Mean spring range about 0⋅7 m, mean neap range about
0⋅1 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables for further details.
CHAPTER 2
95
Maximum size of vessel handled
2.227
1
Up to 274 m LOA.
Local weather and sea state
2.228
1
North winds create a heavy sea in the harbour approach.
On departure, irrespective of prevailing weather conditions,
vessels may encounter heavy swells immediately on passing
the breakwaters. The ship should be secured accordingly.
Arrival information
Port radio
2.229
1
There is a port radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
2.230
1
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours.
Outer anchorages
2.231
1
The W anchorage area, with good holding, lies between
Entrance Fairway and Yeh-liu Pan-tao (25°13′N, 121°42′E)
(2.218); the better anchorage being W of longitude
121°43′E, although there are several wrecks in this area
and extensive fish havens. Vessels anchored here are not
much affected by tidal streams and generally lie head to
wind, an advantage in the NE monsoon. The water E of
longitude 121°43′E contains a number of foul areas and
two unlit buoys, some resulting from lost anchors.
2
The E anchorage area lies between Exit Fairway and
Shen-ao Wan (25°07′N, 121°49′E) (2.260). A large part of
this area is occupied by fish havens.
See also under Quarantine below.
3
Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring is prohibited as
follows:
Within an arc extending to seaward of the harbour
entrance due to submarine cables; trawling is also
prohibited in this area.
Within Entrance and Exit Fairways, or the separation
zone between the lanes; waiting is also prohibited
in these areas.
Within the main channel of the Outer Harbour.
Pilotage
2.232
1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 grt and
available 24 hours. The pilot boarding position is charted
1 miles NNW of the harbour entrance. Container vessels
and vessels carrying dangerous goods are, weather
permitting, required to take a pilot farther out.
Tugs
2.233
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
2.234
1
Vessel Traffic Service, with coverage out to 20 miles,
operates from T’ung-p’an Yü (2.219) on the E side of the
harbour entrance. Contact should be made as early as
practicable. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
2
A Traffic separation scheme is in operation for entry
and departure from Chi-lung. The Entrance Fairway, 700 m
wide, leads 170° through position 25°12′⋅6N, 121°44′⋅0E.
This scheme is not IMO adopted; the principles for the use
of routeing system defined in Rule 10 of International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) apply.
Vessels should not stop or anchor in the Fairway.
Prohibited anchorages. See 2.231.
Regulations concerning entry
2.235
1
Clearance must be obtained from port control before
entering the harbour; outbound vessels have right of way
over those entering.
2
In the event of a typhoon warning being received,
vessels that have not yet entered port may be directed to
seek shelter elsewhere; tankers, large vessels and vessels
carrying dangerous goods in port may be directed to sail to
seek shelter.
Quarantine
2.236
1
The quarantine anchorage is on the E side of Outer
Harbour clear of the main fairway, in depths from about 7
to 13 m. The anchorage is usually congested and
precautions are necessary to prevent swinging on to other
vessels on a change of wind direction. There area several
obstructions and a dangerous wreck charted within this
anchorage.
Harbour
General layout
2.237
1
Chi-lung Kang Outer Harbour extends S from the
entrance for 8 cables, thence the Inner Harbour extends SW
for just over 1 mile. On the W side of Outer Harbour,
Huo-hao Ao and Hsien-tung Ao are two basins lying N and
S, respectively, of No 1 Pier. On the E side of Outer
Harbour is the entrance to the fishing port which lies on
the S side of Ho-p’ing Tao (2.219); the E entrance to this
port is through Pa-ch’ih Men, a narrow passage SE of
Ho-p’ing Tao. The passage is spanned by a bridge and is
suitable only for boats.
2
There is a boat harbour at the NE of Inner Harbour,
containing berths E15 to E17; there is a conspicuous
building with a flagstaff on the S side of this boat harbour.
Niu-ch’ou Kang, which extends for 3 cables, is a basin
extending NNW from the W side of Inner harbour.
Traffic signals
2.238
1
Traffic signals for control of entry, are exhibited from
the station on the E side of the harbour entrance; see
Appendix II for details.
Tidal streams
2.239
1
Tidal streams off Chi-lung Kang have a maximum rate
of 2 to 3 kn, with the E going stream stronger in winter
and W-going stream stronger in summer, They set as
follows:
LW + 0100 W-going stream begins.
LW + 0700 E-going stream begins.
2
Just off the harbour entrance the streams have a
maximum rate of 1 kn and set as follows:
HW − 0130 SW-going stream begins.
LW − 0130 NE-going stream begins.
3
A counter-current has been reported to run just outside
the breakwater entrance. Between the breakwaters streams
are less than 1 kn; inside Chi-lung Kang they are
negligible.
CHAPTER 2
96
Local weather
2.240
1
Severe tropical storms and typhoons may affect the port
between July and October; they occur most often during
August and September. Fog occurs on average 25 days per
year, most frequently between March and July, when
seasonal winds are weak.
Principal marks
2.241
1
Landmarks:
Chi-lung Tao (25°12′N, 121°47′E) (2.216).
Chimneys (three on power station, obstruction lights),
each about 200 m high, and stand close SW of
Ta-shan Pi (25°09′⋅8N, 121°43′⋅8E), a point
8 cables W of the W outer breakwater head. A
large white building stands nearby to the chimneys.
2
Kuang Hua observation tower (blue round concrete
tower, broad top, red roof, 26 m in height)
(25°09′⋅4N, 121°44′⋅7E).
Old lighthouse (white square concrete tower) on
summit of Ch’iu-tzu Shan (25°08′⋅9N, 121°44′⋅1E),
133 m high.
3
Hsien-tung Shan (25°08′⋅9N, 121°44′⋅5E), 58 m high,
rises close W of No 2 Pier.
Statute (white) (25°08′⋅1N, 121°44′⋅5E), stands on the
hillside 1 miles S of Kuang Hua observation
tower.
4
Major lights:
Yeh-liu Pan-tao Light (25°13′N, 121°41′E) (2.195).
Wan-jen-tui Pi Light (25°09′N, 121°44′E) (2.195).
Pi-t’ou Chiao Light (25°08′N, 121°55′E) (2.214).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 2.216)
2.242
1
From the vicinity of the NNW end of Entrance Fairway
off Chi-lung Kang (25°09′N, 121°45′E), the track leads
SSE, through Entrance Fairway, passing:
WSW of a dangerous wreck (25°12′N, 121°44′E),
thence:
WSW of Hsin Lai (25°12′⋅0N, 121°44′⋅5E), a rocky
shoal with a depth of 18 m over it, thence:
WSW of an obstruction (25°11′N, 121°44′E), thence:
2
To the vicinity of the pilot boarding position as
indicated on the chart, thence:
WSW of Outer E breakwater head extension
(25°09′⋅9N, 121°44′⋅8E), from where a light (white
round concrete tower, 12 m in height), is exhibited,
thence:
Between the breakwaters, 275 m in width, from where
lights are exhibited. One-way traffic is in operation
through the harbour entrance. Thence:
Into the harbour.
3
Clearing mark. The alignment 117° of a hill, 121 m
high, on Pi-t’ou Chiao (25°08′N, 121°55′E) (2.216), with
the SW point of Chi-lung Tao (25°12′N, 121°47′E) (2.216),
passes about 1 cable NE of Hsin Lai.
4
Useful marks:
Chi-lung Tao Light (25°12′N, 121°47′E) (2.216).
Outer W breakwater light (red octagonal concrete
tower, 11 m in height) (25°09′⋅6N, 121°44′⋅7E).
Outer E breakwater light (white octagonal concrete
tower, 11 m in height) (25°09′⋅7N, 121°44′⋅8E).
W inner breakwater light on Kuang Hua observation
tower (25°09′⋅4N, 121°44′⋅7E).
E inner breakwater light (white concrete column, 7 m
in height) (25°09′⋅5N, 121°44′⋅9E).
Harbour
2.243
1
A light-buoy (can, red) marks the NE limit of the 10 m
contour off the S of No W19 berth.
2
On the E side of the harbour, two light-buoys mark the
S side of the approach to the fishing port; a light (white
round concrete tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited from the
N entrance point to the port.
Directions for leaving harbour
2.244
1
From the harbour the track leads NNE through Exit
Fairway, 700 m wide, passing:
A submerged wave recorder lying 3 cables NNE of
the E breakwater extension head; it is connected to
the shore within the harbour by a submarine cable.
WNW of An-t’ou-pao Shih-tai, a spit of gravel and
rock extending 1 miles SW from Chi-lung Tao
(25°12′N, 121°47′E) (2.216) and on it there are
strong tide races; it should not be crossed. A
stranded wreck lies on the spit.
2
Clearing mark. The line of bearing 238° of Wan-jen-tui
Pi Light (25°09′⋅4N, 121°44′⋅4E) (2.195), and just open
NW of the E entrance point of Chi-lung Kang, clears SE of
the spit.
Berths
Moorings
2.245
1
There are three mooring buoys within Inner Harbour
used by passenger/cruise ships.
Alongside berths
2.246
1
There are fifty-seven berths, of which 40 are for
commercial use. Berths are numbered from S to N
separately on the E and W sides of the harbour. Presently
naval berths are interspersed around the port; the longer
term intention is to consolidate these within Niu-ch’ou
Kang (2.237).
2
The longest and deepest berths are those at the container
terminals. Berths 16 to 26 on the W side are between 157
to 325 m in length, with depths between 11 to 14⋅5 m;
Berths 8 to 11 on the E side are between 200 to 240 m in
length with depths of 12 m alongside. Charted depths may
differ from those shown below due to further harbour
dredging.
Port services
Repairs
2.247
1
Major repairs can be undertaken.
Dry docks. No 1 30000 dwt. No 2 150000 dwt. No 3
5000 dwt.
Other facilities
2.248
1
Hospitals at Chi-lung and T’ai-pei; deratting; compass
adjustment; floating cranes.
Supplies
2.249
1
Fuel oil; fresh water; provisions; stores.
CHAPTER 2
97
Communications
2.250
1
Nearest international airport 65 km WNW from T’ai-pei.
Harbour regulations
2.251
1
The discharge of waste or oil overboard within the
harbour is forbidden.
CHI-LUNG KANG TO SAN-TIAO CHIAO
General information
Chart 3658
Route
2.252
1
From a position E of Yeh-liu Pan-tao (25°13′N,
121°42′E), in the vicinity of the NNE end of Exit Fairway
off Chi-lung Kang the route leads E and SE for about
23 miles to a position E of San-tiao Chiao (25°01′N,
122°00′E).
Topography
2.253
1
The coast from Chi-lung Kang (25°09′N, 121°45′E) to
Shen-ao Wan, 4 miles ESE, is fringed with rocks and reefs;
from Shen-ao Wan to San-tiao Chiao, 12 miles SE, the
coast is mostly mountainous. Chi-lung Shan (25°07′N,
121°51′E), a prominent round-topped mountain 586 m high,
rises steeply from the coast 1 miles ESE of Shen-ao Wan.
Further topographical detail is included under the
sub-section on anchorages and harbours.
Flow
2.254
1
See 2.194.
Principal marks
2.255
1
Landmarks:
San-tiao Chiao (25°01′N, 122°00′E) rises to a plateau,
on the S side of which is a sharp peak 165 m
high; another hill 5 cables SW of this peak rises to
207 m, and P’ing-feng Shan, 5 cables farther W,
rises to 444 m.
2
Major lights:
Yeh-liu Pan-tao Light (25°13′N, 121°41′E) (2.195).
Wan-jen-tui Pi Light (25°09′N, 121°44′E) (2.195).
Pi-t’ou Chiao Light (white round concrete tower,
12 m in height) (25°08′N, 121°55′E).
San-tiao Chiao Light (white round concrete tower,
16 m in height) (25°01′N, 122°00′E).
Other aid to navigation
2.256
1
Racon:
Wan-jen-tui Pi Light (25°09′N, 121°44′E).
Directions
(continued from 2.216)
2.257
1
From a position E of Yeh-liu Pan-tao (25°13′N,
121°42′E), in the vicinity of the NNE end of Exit Fairway
off Chi-lung Kang the track leads initially E, passing (with
positions from Chi-lung Tao Light (25°12′N, 121°47′E)):
2
N of Chi-lung Tao, a precipitous, black, rocky island
182 m high. A light (white octagonal concrete
tower, black stripes, 12 m high) is exhibited from
Chi-lung Tao; Hsiao Ch’i, an islet 30 m high, lies
close of its NW side.
The track then leads SE, passing:
3
NE of Chi-lung Tao, thence:
NE of Pa-tou Kang (2 miles S) (2.259), thence;
NE of Shen-ao Wan (4 miles SSE) (2.260). The
lights of a mine near to a 749 m summit, 1 miles
SE of Chi-lung Shan (25°07′N, 121°51′E) (2.253),
are visible on clear nights for a distance of
30 miles. Thence:
4
NE of Pi-t’ou Chiao (8 miles ESE), a steep cliffy
headland 121 m high that appears as an island
from a distance. A light (2.214) is exhibited from
the point.
5
Thence the track leads to a position E of San-tiao Chiao
(25°01′N, 122°00′E) (2.214), the NE cape of T’ai-wan from
where a light (2.214) is exhibited. A tide-race extends for
about 1 miles offshore and the cape should be given a
wide berth. Vessels should remain well clear of the lighted
oceanographic observation platform 6 miles NNE of
San-tiao Chiao.
(Directions for the E coast of T’ai-wan
are given at 3.82)
Anchorages and harbours
Mao-ao Wan
2.258
1
Mao-ao Wan (25°01′N, 121°59′E), a cove of the NW
side of San-tiao Chiao (2.214), affords shelter in W winds.
Pa-tou Kang
2.259
1
General information. Pa-tou Kang (25°09′N, 121°47′E),
a large fishing port, lies midway between Chi-lung Kang
and Shen-ao Wan. The harbour is protected by breakwaters
with an entrance width of 100 m; lights are exhibited from
the heads of the breakwaters and from the heads of some
of the inner breakwaters. Depths within the harbour range
from 3 to 17 m and there are five dock areas. Extensive
fish havens and fishing grounds lie offshore.
2
Useful mark:
Chien-shan Pi Light (yellow beacon) (25°25°09′⋅6N,
121°64′⋅3E) on the head of the breakwater
extending E from Ho-p’ing Tao (2.219).
Chart 2619 plan of Approaches to Chi-lung and plan of Shen-Ao
Shen-ao Wan
2.260
1
Description. Shen-ao Wan (25°07′N, 121°49′E) is a
small bay entered from NE between Fan-tzu-ao Pi, the N
entrance point, and Ling Hsing Mole, the S entrance point,
from where a light is exhibited. A fish haven lies within
500 m radius from the shore, 3 cables E of the mole.
2
The town of Shen-ao lies on the W side of the bay,
where there is a large fishing harbour. A light is exhibited
from the head of the NE breakwater of this harbour.
Considerable quantities of ore are exported and there is a
tanker terminal in the SE part, close to which are some
mooring buoys.
Port operations. During the NE monsoon, operations
may terminate due to rough seas when the wind exceeds
force 6.
Pilotage. The oil company’s mooring master acts as
pilot and boards 1 mile NE of the entrance to the bay.
3
Directions. From a position NE of the bay, the
alignment (226°) of the following lights lead into the centre
of the bay. Light-buoys, (conical, red) are moored in the W
and S parts of the bay:
CHAPTER 2
98
Front light (25°07′⋅6N, 121°48′⋅7E).
Rear light (95 m SW of front light).
4
Anchorage, sheltered from all winds except NE, can be
obtained in the centre of the bay in depths from 11 to
14 m.
Berth. Tankers up to 36 000 dwt can berth on dolphins
at the oil terminal where there are depths alongside of
13 m; small tankers secure alongside a wharf fronting a
reclaimed area close SE of the terminal with a depth
alongside of 8 m.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Chart 3658
Pi-t’ou
2.261
1
General information. Pi-t’ou, situated 1 mile SW of
Pi-t’ou Chiao (25°08′N, 121°55′E) (2.216) is a small
fishing village with a boat harbour.
2
Anchorage, temporary, may be obtained for small
vessels in a small bay on the E side of the promontory,
1 mile S of Pi-t’ou Chiao. It is exposed to E winds; local
knowledge is necessary and care must be taken to avoid a
rock which dries 1⋅2 m lying near the middle of the
entrance to the bay.
Lung-t’ung Nan-k’ou
2.262
1
Lung-t’ung Nan-k’ou (25°06′⋅0N, 121°54′⋅5E), where
there is a yacht harbour, lies between Fo-tsu-mao Pi,
7cables NNE and Ao-ti Pi (2.263), just over 2 miles
SSE. The harbour, in which there are depths from 2 to 3 m,
is protected by breakwaters on the NE and SE sides. Lights
(poles) are exhibited from the breakwater heads.
Light-buoys (lateral) are moored in the approach. A lighted
observation buoy is moored 2 cables NE of the harbour
entrance.
Ao-ti
2.263
1
Ao-ti (25°04′N, 121°55′E), situated 5 cables SW of Ao-ti
Pi, a rocky point, is a small fishing village with a boat
harbour. Outside the entrance there is a rock with a buoy
(lateral) moored close S of it. Huo-yen Shan rises to 153 m
close W of Ao-ti Pi.
Adjacent islands
Hua-ping Yü
2.264
1
Hua-ping Yü (25°26′N, 121°56′E), lying 19 miles NE of
Chi-lung Kang (2.219), is a rugged rock 47 m high with
black, perpendicular sides, and surrounded by numerous
pointed rocks. A reef, on which the sea usually breaks,
extends 1 cable from its W side. A depth of 20 m was
reported (1986) to lie approximately 3 miles NW of the
rock; in 1952 the Chinese warship Chung-chuan reported
striking a shoal about 9 miles NW of Hua-ping Yü.
Mien-hua Yü
2.265
1
Mien-hua Yü (25°29′N, 122°06′E), lying 9 miles NE
of Hua-ping Yü, is a rocky islet with three rounded peaks
of which the E-most rises to 55 m. The S and E coasts
have precipitous cliffs, and the N coast is low and rocky
with a small cove. P’ing-feng Yen, a prominent pointed
rock 43 m high, lies close off the E side of the islet. In
1926 Tensei Maru, with a draught of 7 m, touched an
obstruction of unknown character 9 cables S of the summit
of Mien-hua Yü.
P’eng-chia Yü
2.266
1
Description. P’eng-chia Yü (25°38′N, 122°04′E),
8 miles N of Mien-hua Yü, has two rounded peaks of
which the E-most rises to 142 m and is slightly the higher.
A light is exhibited from the summit. The island is covered
with grass and rushes but is almost treeless; there are a few
houses on the W coast inhabited by fishermen. Mountain
sheep are bred on the island.
2
Ch’ang Lai, 1 miles S of P’eng-chia Yü, is a rocky
shoal with a depth of 16 m over it. A depth of 23 m was
reported (1986) to lie 25 miles E of P’eng-chia Yü.
Major light. P’eng-chia Yü Light (white round brick
tower, 26 m in height) (25°38′N, 122°04′E).
NOTES
99
T ’ A I - W A N
L U Z O N
See diagram 3a
See diagram 3b
1968
3236
3804
3805
1204
26°
25°
24°
23°
22°
21°
20°
19°
18°
26°
25°
24°
23°
22°
21°
20°
19°
18°
119° 120° Longitude 121° East from Greenwich 123° 124°
119° 120° 121° 122° 123° 124°
Chapter 3 - Luzon Strait and east coast of Taiwan
100
101
CHAPTER 3
LUZON STRAIT AND EAST COAST OF T’AI-WAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3804, 3236
Scope of the chapter
3.1
1
This chapter covers the N coast of Luzon, Luzon Strait
and islands therein and the E coast of T’ai-wan.
It is divided into the following sections:
North coast of Luzon (3.4).
Luzon Strait (3.27).
T’ai-wan — E coast (3.72).
Depths
3.2
1
The N coast of Luzon and E coast of T’ai-wan are, for
the most part, steep-to, with the 20 m depth contour close
to the coasts. Luzon Strait, with the exception of a few
isolated shoals, is deep.
2
Caution. See note on Chart 3489; many depths in the
area of Luzon Strait are from miscellaneous lines of
passage soundings or old leadline surveys. The existence of
uncharted shoals cannot be discounted.
Buoyage
3.3
1
The Philippines is implementing IALA System, Region
B, although the extent of implementation in N Luzon is not
known. The IALA System, Region A (red to port), is in
use in T’ai-wan.
NORTH COAST OF LUZON
General information
Chart 3804
Route
3.4
1
From a position WNW of Cape Bojeador (18°30′N,
120°34′E), the NW extremity of Luzon, the coastal route
leads ENE for 23 miles, thence E for about 89 miles to a
position NE of Siniguian (Escarpada) Point (18°31′N,
122°14′E).
Topography
3.5
1
The N coast of Luzon from Cape Bojeador (18°30′N,
120°34′E) in the W to Siniguian Point at the E end is some
100 miles in length. The land is generally high for about
40 miles from the W end with mountains reaching the coast
about midway along this section. The land is again high at
the E end of the N coast. In between is an area of low
land, with occasional hills, through which flows Cagayan
River, the largest in Luzon. Aparri (18°21′N, 121°38′E)
(3.11), the only port of any commercial importance, stands
at the mouth of this river. Between Aparri and Matara
(Batulinao) Point, 27 miles E, the coast is low and sandy.
Depths
3.6
1
Except in the bight E of Aparri (18°21′N, 121°38′E), the
N coast of Luzon is steep-to.
Natural conditions
3.7
1
Current. Off the N end of Palaui Island (18°33′N,
122°08′E), the current is strong and erratic.
Tidal streams off the N coast of Luzon follow the
general trend of the coast, setting W with the rising tide
and E with the falling tide. During the SW monsoon there
is an eddy stream close inshore. Off Dialao Point (18°38′N,
120°47′E), streams are strong with eddies and whirlpools.
2
Local weather. On the N coast of Luzon the NE
monsoon is experienced from October to March, during
which the wind blows predominantly from N to NE, but
occasionally from NW. The NW winds as a rule are
stronger and often accompanied by cloudy weather and
rain. In April, land and sea breezes are well marked, and
from June to September S winds prevail. Squalls
accompanied by thunderstorms are frequent in summer.
Principal marks
3.8
1
Major lights:
Cape Bojeador Light (white octagonal tower and
dwelling, 20 m in height) (18°31′N, 120°36′E).
Pata Point Light (small white dwelling, 6 m in height)
(18°37′N, 121°09′E).
Cape Engaño Light (grey granite tower, white lantern
and dwelling, red roof, 14 m in height) (18°35′N,
122°08′E).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume II)
Cape Bojeador to Mayraira Point
3.9
1
From a position WNW of Cape Bojeador (18°30′N,
120°34′E) (China Sea Pilot Volume II), the track initially
leads ENE, passing (with positions from Pata Point Light
(18°37′N, 121°09′E)):
NNW of Negra Point (30 miles WSW) (3.18), the W
entrance point to Bangui Bay (3.18), thence:
2
NNW of Dialao Point (21 miles W), low wooded and
fringed by a narrow coral reef and a white sandy
beach; a light is exhibited from the point. A
prominent reddish-coloured ridge, 183 m (600 ft)
high, backs the point running parallel to the coast
and almost bare of trees; this is the only
reddish-coloured ridge in the vicinity. Thence:
3
NNW of Mayraira Point (17 miles W), the N
extremity of Luzon. A rocky spit, with a depth of
3⋅3 m (10 ft) at its outer end, extends 7cables
NE from the point; heavy tide-rips occur off the
spit which should be given a wide berth.
Chapter 3a - Luzon Strait
B a s h i C h a n n e l
B a b u y a n C h a n n e l
B a l i n t a n g C h a n n e l
L U Z O N
B
a
l
u
g
a
n
B
a
y
Basco
Apari
9
8
9
989
989
3545
3545
3545
P.S. Vicente
P.S. Vicente
Musa Bay
3804
3804
38053805
1204
3.37
3.32
3
.34
3
.
4
3.65
3.49
120°
122°
120°
121°
122°
19°
20°
21°
19°
20°
21°
Longitude 121° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 3
102
CHAPTER 3
103
Mayraira Point to Siniguian Point
3.10
1
From a position NNW of Mayraira Point the track leads
E, passing:
N of Pasaleng Bay (12 miles WSW) (3.19), thence:
N of Claveria Bay (5 miles E) (3.20), thence:
2
N of Pata Point, from where a light (3.8) is exhibited.
The point rises to a knoll 55 m (181 ft) high;
tide-rips occur off the point. A small river, with a
reported depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) over the bar, enters
the sea close E of the Pata Point. Thence:
3
N of the entrance to Pamplona River (14 miles SE)
(3.21) and Abulug River (3.22), thence:
N of Aparri (31 miles SE) (3.11).
4
The track continues E, passing (with positions from
Cape Engaño Light (18°35′N, 122°08′E)):
N of Buguey (25 miles SW) (3.23), thence:
N of Port Irene (Casambalangan) (12 miles S) (3.24)
and Port San Vicente (5 miles S) (3.25), thence:
N of Cape Engaño and Palaui Island (3.26), thence:
5
To a position NE of Siniguian (Escarpada) Point
(18°31′N, 122°14′E), the NE extremity of a grey,
rocky promontory, with a serrated summit, which
forms the NE point of Luzon. A bank, with depths
from 9⋅1 to 18⋅3 m (30 to 60 ft), sand and rock, on
which tide-rips occur, extends 3 miles N of
Siniguian Point.
(Directions continue for the E coast of Luzon
in Philippine Islands Pilot and for the
passage N to Taiwan at 3.36)
Aparri
Chart 989
General information
3.11
1
Position. Aparri (18°21′N, 121°38′E) is situated on the
E entrance point of Cagayan River. The town of
Camalaniugan lies on the E bank of the river 6 miles from
the entrance and the village of Lal-lo on the same bank is
11 miles from the entrance.
Function. Aparri is the principal port in N Luzon and a
port of entry. Logs and lumber are exported from the port.
2
Topography. Linao Point is the W entrance point of
Cagayan River; on it stands the village of Linao, and Linao
River flows out close SE of the point.
Cagayan River, with an entrance 1 miles wide, is the
largest river is Luzon. The river is inaccessible to
ocean-going ships, but small sea-going vessels can navigate
as far as Camalaniugan, and boats as far as Lal-lo.
3
Port limits. The harbour is defined as the part of the
river between the sea and Camalaniugan.
Port Authority. Philippine Ports Authority, Port
Management Unit. Aparri, Cagayan, Luzon, Philippines.
Limiting conditions
3.12
1
Controlling depth. The channel over the entrance bar
usually has depths from 4⋅3 to 5⋅2 m (14 to 17 ft), but the
depths are continually changing; shoaling is reported to
have taken place. Within its entrance the river is
predominantly shallow with general depths of less than 3 m
(10 ft), and several drying sandbanks. There are some deep
channels with depths from 5⋅5 to 7⋅3 m (18 to 24 ft).
Vessels with a draught of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) can proceed as far as
Lal-lo.
2
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅1 m; mean neap
range about 0.4 m; see also Admiralty Tide Tables.
Abnormal levels. At times freshets occur, causing the
river to rise rapidly, when precautions should be taken
against the strong currents and debris brought down with
them.
3
Local weather and sea state. Tide-rips occur off the
river mouth. During the NE monsoon the entrance bar is, at
times, impassable and ships are obliged to seek shelter at
Port San Vicente (3.25). Vessels caught within the bar have
had to wait for a week or more for suitable conditions.
Arrival information
3.13
1
Notice of ETA required is 48 hours.
Outer anchorage. The best anchorage outside the bar is
in a depth of 18⋅3 to 21⋅9 m (10 to 12 fm), sand and mud,
with Aparri church tower bearing 180° and Linao Point
Light (3.15) bearing 241°. The anchorage is very exposed
to N winds.
2
Pilotage is compulsory; 24 hours notice required. Ships
awaiting a pilot should keep 1 to 2 miles N of the church
at Aparri. The white pilot launch displays the letter P at the
bow, as well as the pilot flag.
Tugs are available.
Quarantine. There is a quarantine officer at the port.
Harbour
3.14
1
Storm signals are exhibited at Aparri. For further
information see 1.74.
Climatic table see 1.173.
Landmarks:
The town of Aparri is very prominent.
The seaward end of the unfinished breakwater.
Silo situated 6 cables SE of the head of the
breakwater (above).
Aluminium-coloured oil tank stands on the shore at
the NW end of the town.
Directions for entering harbour
3.15
1
Shoals at the entrance are marked by stakes and
makeshift navigation aids.
Useful mark:
Linao Point Light (white round metal tower, 9 m in
height) (18°22′N, 121°36′E).
Berths
3.16
1
Mooring berth. There is a sea berth between two
mooring buoys lying at the seaward end of a submarine
pipeline which extends 7cables NNE from the prominent
oil tank (3.14) at Aparri.
2
River anchorage. The usual anchorage for vessels
drawing 3⋅0 to 4⋅3 m (10 to 14 ft) is in the E channel off
the town of Aparri. Vessels drawing 4⋅3 to 6⋅1 m (14 to
20 ft) anchor in the W channel opposite the town.
However, as depths and channels in the river are constantly
changing, advice on anchoring must be obtained from the
pilot.
3
Alongside berth. There is a marginal wharf and jetty
with a total length of 725 m NW of the town, but these are
silted and require dredging.
Port services
3.17
1
Repairs. Minor repairs.
Other facilities: hospital; deratting.
Supplies: fuel oil in small quantities; limited provisions;
other marine supplies are scarce.
CHAPTER 3
104
Anchorages and harbours
Bangui Bay
3.18
1
General information. Bangui Bay (18°34′N, 120°43′E)
is entered between Negra Point and Dialao Point (3.9),
9 miles NE. Negra Point, black and rocky, has a large
black rock, 1⋅5 m (6 ft) high, close off the point; the coast
for 2 miles E consists of rapidly eroding cliffs off which
there are some boulders. Blanca Point, 1 miles E of
Negra Point, has a group of white rocks lying close off it.
2
The coast of the bay is low and fringed with a sandy
beach from Blanca Point to Burayoc Point, 7 miles ENE;
a detached shoal, with a least depth of 2⋅4 m (7 ft) over it,
lies 7 cables SW of the latter point.
3
The village of Bangui, situated at the head of the bay, is
hidden by trees but the red roof of the school is visible
above them from most directions. A few supplies and a
limited amount of petrol can be obtained.
4
Anchorage. The bay affords anchorage sheltered from S
winds, and a small cove, between Burayoc Point and
Sugiab Point, 1 mile N, offers shelter for boats in NE
weather.
Pasaleng Bay
3.19
1
Description. Pasaleng Bay (18°36′N, 120°56′E) lies
between Mayraira Point (18°39′N, 120°51′E) (3.9) and
Baket-baket Point, 10 miles ESE. Dos Hermanos are two
prominent rocky cones, close offshore, 1 mile SE of
Mayraira Point. There are a number of high above-water,
and below-water pinnacle rocks, in the vicinity and strong
tide-rips occur.
2
Pasaleng Bay, between Nuang Point, the E entrance
point of Baugan Bay (18°38′N, 120°52′E), and Puac Point,
7 miles ESE, is deep and affords little shelter. Except at its
head, where the village of Pasaleng stands on the shore,
mountains rise steeply from the shore of the bay. The
highway along the mountainside makes a distinguishable
line. Madamba Rock 8 m (25 ft) high, and 3 cables
offshore, lies 5 cables W of Puac Point.
3
Baket-baket Point, 3 miles NE of Puac Point, is bold and
heavily wooded; it lies at the NE end of Caraballo
Mountains. A pinnacle rock with a depth of 4⋅6 m (15 ft)
over it, lies 5 cables N of the point; heavy tide-rips occur
in this vicinity.
4
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Madamba Rock have
been observed to attain rates of 2 to 3 kn at springs.
Anchorage for small vessels, protected from SW winds,
can be obtained in Baugan Bay in a depth of 16⋅5 m
(54 ft).
Claveria Bay
3.20
1
Description. Claveria Bay (18°37′N, 121°04′E) is
entered between Lacay-lacay Point, the rocky extremity of
a small peninsula, in the W and Centinela Point, a rock
headland 50 m (165 ft) high, situated 2 miles ENE;
tide-rips occur off this point. Cabicungan River, which
flows into the E part of Claveria Bay, has a bar on which
the sea usually breaks; tide-rips form off its entrance.
2
Taggat (18°36′⋅8N, 121°02′⋅8E), on the W side of the
bay, has a pier, 100 m in length, at the root of which are
two large and prominent oil tanks. Near the coast 5 cables
SE of the pier, there is an airstrip 7cables long at the W
end of which red and blue lights are occasionally exhibited
from a mast; 2 cables farther W stands a conspicuous
hangar from where a fixed light is exhibited.
3
Claveria, standing on the W side of Cabicungan River,
can be identified by the metal roof of the school. Timber is
exported.
Port Authority. Philippine Ports Authority, Port
Management Unit, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines.
4
Port operations. Berthing takes place 24 hours.
Port radio. There is a port radio service. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required is 72 hours.
5
Outer anchorages:
Anchorage can be obtained, in fine weather,
2 cables ENE of the pierhead at Taggat, in a
depth of 37 m (20 fm); during the monsoon it is
advisable to anchor 6 cables from the pierhead in
about 65 m (36 fm).
6
Anchorage can be obtained 4 cables N of Claveria, in
depths from 18 to 27 m (10 to 15 fm), sand.
The S-most of two small coves at the E end of
Claveria Bay affords fair protection from the NE
to boats.
7
Pilotage is available.
Tugs are available.
Quarantine officers are stationed at the port.
8
Berths. There is reported to be 868 m of quayage
supporting eleven berths. The N 80 m of quay has a depth
alongside of 13 m (43 ft) and has a Ro-Ro facility; the
remaining berths between 8⋅5 and 10⋅5 m (28 to 34 ft)
alongside. Six of these are container berths 104 m in
length. There is a privately owned wharf with an alongside
depth of 6⋅1 m (20 ft).
Repairs can be effected.
Supplies: fuel oil.
Pamplona River
3.21
1
Description. Pamplona River (18°30′N, 121°22′E) enters
the sea 14 miles SE of Pata Point (3.9); a sandbar and mud
flats encumber the entrance. The town of Pamplona stands
on the W bank of the river 2 miles inland; it is connected
to the railway system.
2
It is reported that there is a depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over
the bar and the river can only be entered in good weather.
Logs and timber are loaded off the mouth of the river
between March and June.
3
Tidal streams in the anchorage are strong and the
out-going stream from Pamplona River causes a confused
sea at its mouth.
4
Anchorage, good, can be obtained 8 cables N of the
end of a long low sandspit at the mouth of the river, in a
depth of 18 m (60 ft). Do not proceed into lesser depths
than this, or anchor E of the extremity of the sandspit.
Abulug River
3.22
1
Description. Abulug River (18°27′N, 121°27′E) enters
the sea 6 miles ESE of Pamplona River (3.21). Between
these two rivers the sea breaks heavily on a sandbank
5 cables from the coast. The town of Abulug stands on the
E bank of the river close within its entrance. Ships work
cargo at anchor off the river entrance.
2
It is reported that there is a depth of 3 m (10 ft) over a
sandbar and mud flats which encumber the entrance to the
river; entry should only be attempted in good weather.
3
Useful mark:
The church tower of Ballesteros, a town about
4 miles ESE of Abulug, is prominent from
seaward.
CHAPTER 3
105
4
Tidal stream. The out-going tidal stream is strong and
causes a confused sea off the mouth of the river.
Buguey
3.23
1
General information. Buguey (18°23′N, 121°50′E) is a
coastal town situated 12 miles ESE of Aparri (3.11); it
stands on the N bank of Buguey River which enters the sea
4 miles farther E. The school, which has a white metal
roof, and the old stone church are prominent. The river
entrance can be identified by the village of Minanga, which
stands on its W entrance point. A branch of the river joins
Cagayan River at Aparri and is navigable by boats.
Port Irene
3.24
1
Description. Port Irene (Casambalangan) (18°23′N,
122°07′E) is a bay at the head of which stands a village. A
rocky shoal extends 5 cables from the S shore of the bay.
Matara (Batulinao) Point is the E entrance to the bay and is
the extremity of a spur of the mountain range and rises to
an elevation of 61 m (200 ft) 5 cables inland. The point is
fringed by reefs and foul ground to a distance of 1 mile. A
light is exhibited from the E side of the bay, 1 miles E of
Matara Point.
2
There are reported (2000) to be plans to develop Port
Irene into an international transhipment centre.
Tidal streams off Matara Point have been observed to
have a rate of about kn, with a slight tidal race near the
reef line.
3
Anchorage can be obtained in depths from 12⋅2 to
13⋅7 m (40 to 45 ft), good holding, mud, with Gosangan
(Puerto) Point (18°30′N, 122°07′E) (3.26) bearing 356° and
a 648 m (2125 ft) high peak, 3 miles E of the bay, bearing
101°.
Berth. A T-shaped jetty extends 60 m SE from an area
of reclaimed land on the NE side of the bay, with a
berthing capacity for four vessels.
4
Other facilities. Medical facilities at Santa Ana, a town
near the coast about 3 miles N of Port Irene.
Supplies are available.
Chart 3545
Port San Vicente
3.25
1
Description. Port San Vicente (18°30′N, 122°08′E), lies
between the coast of Luzon and the S coast of Palaui
Island. It is the only thoroughly protected harbour in N
Luzon available as a refuge during typhoon weather, but
the holding ground is poor. It is used by vessels awaiting
suitable conditions on the bar to enter Aparri (3.11). The E
approach to Port San Vicente is narrow, tortuous and
obstructed with reefs and should not be attempted.
2
Outer Harbour is situated S of Pugo Moro (San Vicente)
Island, which lies on an extensive drying reef that extends
7cables from the S side of Paluai Island; New Orleans
Point, the S extremity of Pugo Moro Island, is a prominent
green bluff. A light (white concrete column, 9 m in height)
is exhibited on the extremity of the reef extending
3 cables from the E side of Pugo Moro Island.
3
Nulton Point, a low point on the coast of Luzon, is
situated 7 cables ENE of New Orleans Point. An
abandoned T-headed pier, the head of which is reported to
be in ruins, extends cable WNW of Nulton, and an
L-headed pier extends a similar distance N from a position
close E of the point. There is a small naval station at the
root of the latter pier. A detached reef, with a depth of
0⋅9 m (3 ft), lies 2cables WSW of Nulton Point
4
Inner harbour, a small cove between the NE side of
Pugo Moro Island and the S side of Paluai Island, is
practically landlocked and serves as an excellent refuge for
small vessels; its shores are fringed with reefs which
greatly restrict the space available. Inner Harbour is entered
between the light-structure on the reef E of Pugo Moro
Island and the reefs extending from Morgan Point, 4 cables
NE.
5
Tidal streams at the entrance to Inner Harbour attain a
maximum rate of 3 to 4 kn; the rising tide sets NE and the
falling tide SW.
6
Directions. From a position 7 cables S of Palaui
Island, the recommended track leads E on to the alignment
037° of Rona Islet (18°31′⋅6N, 122°09′⋅4E), 8 m (25 ft)
high, and Escucha Islet (18°33′⋅5N, 122°10′⋅8E) (3.26).
This alignment can then be followed to the anchorage in
Outer Harbour.
7
Small vessels can enter Inner Harbour from the outer
anchorage by keeping the E tangent of Morgan Point in
line with the highest part of Escucha Islet bearing 037°;
this leads close W of the shoal patch off Nulton Point.
Local knowledge is required.
8
Useful mark:
Light (18°28′N, 122°09′E), exhibited from Palauig on
the Luzon coast 2 miles S of Nulton Point.
9
Anchorage may be obtained as follows:
In Outer Harbour with Escucha Islet and Rona Islet
in line, bearing 037°, and the extremity of
Gosangan Point (18°30′N, 122°07′E) (3.26) bearing
277°, in a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft), mud. This
anchorage is exposed to W and SW winds.
In the middle of Inner Harbour small vessels can
anchor in a depth of 7⋅3 to 8⋅2 m (24 to 27 ft),
mud, about 2cables NNW of the light.
10
Berth. It was reported (1995) that the head of the
L-headed pier E of Nulton Point was to be extended
making the alongside berth 222 m long.
Adjacent island
Palaui Island
3.26
1
General information. Palaui Island (18°33′N, 122°08′E)
is 297 m (976 ft, charted as 1007 ft) high, very rugged, and
heavily wooded. Gosangan (Puerto) Point, the SW
extremity of the island, is a high wooded bluff. The W side
of the island is bold and rocky with narrow sand beaches
in some of the bays. From the E side of Palaui Island a
drying reef extends 1 miles E; near its outer edge lie
Escucha Islet, 18 m (60 ft) high and wooded, and Cent
Islet, 3 m (10 ft) high.
2
Cape Engaño, the N point of Palaui Island, is the
extremity of a peninsula projecting 5 cables WNW and
enclosing Engaño Cove on its SW side. The peninsula is
mostly wooded with some part of the hills on the NW side
covered with grass. A light (3.8) is exhibited from the
summit of a hill above Cape Engaño. Dos Hermanos are
two islets, lying close NE of the cape, of which the S-most
is 46 m (150 ft) high; several above-water rocks lie
7cables E of the islets. Gran Laja, 1 mile NE of the NE
point of Palaui Island, is a low rock on which the sea
breaks; the seabed is very irregular for 2 miles E of it.
3
Anchorage. With local knowledge, small vessels can
obtain good anchorage in Engaño Cove, in a depth of
34⋅7 m (19 fm), protected except from NW and W winds.
The cove should be entered with a framework beacon at
the head of the cove bearing 114°; anchor when about
2cables from the beacon.
T ‘ A I - W A N
Su-Ao Kang
Hua-Lien Kang
Lan Yü
Lü Tao
Chapter 3b - T’ai-wan east coast
3235
3658
1761
2618
2618
2618
3234
3804
3233
1204
3
.
7
5
3
.
9
1
3.100
3.108
121°
22°
123°
Longitude 122
°
East from Greenwich
121°
123°
122
°
23°
24°
25°
22°
23°
24°
25°
106
CHAPTER 3
107
LUZON STRAIT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3804
Area covered
3.27
1
This section describes Luzon Strait (20°30′N, 121°00′E),
a wide expanse of water between the N coast of Luzon and
the islands and dangers off the S end of T’ai-wan (2.2).
The strait contains two groups of islands, namely, Babuyan
Islands (19°00′N, 121°30′E) (3.30) and Batan Islands
(20°40′N, 121°50′E) (3.31).
There are three main channels through the straits, all of
which are wide and deep and many of the main shipping
routes from ports in the central and N Pacific pass through
them; see Admiralty Ocean Passages for the World. The
section is arranged as follows:
Cape Bojeador to T’ai-wan (3.32).
Siniguian Point to T’ai-wan (3.34).
Babuyan Channel (3.37).
Balintang Channel (3.49).
Bashi Channel (3.65).
Depths
3.28
1
In addition to shoals described in the text there are a
number of depths of less than 183 m (100 fm) in the strait,
the positions of which can best be seen from the chart. The
mariner should treat them circumspectly bearing in mind
the volcanic nature of the area, and the fact that many of
them have not been surveyed; see also caution at 3.2.
Natural conditions
3.29
1
Currents. During the SW monsoon a N current, with a
rate of 1 to 3 kn in open areas, is reported to prevail in
Luzon Strait. Near the islands this current is diverted, and
in the channels between the islands it becomes erratic.
During this period, however, the current can be expected to
flow in a NE direction, but it is not constant and, should
the wind be light or moderate, it is liable to set in various
directions. In early April 1980, MV Hampshire experienced
a N set of 2 kn about 35 miles SSW of the S point of
T’ai-wan.
2
During the NE monsoon the current sets in a general W
direction through Luzon Strait.
Tidal streams through Luzon Strait set in a general W
direction on the rising tide, and E on the falling tide. They
attain a maximum rate of 5 kn at the NE and SW ends of
the Batan Islands group (3.31).
3
Tidal streams amongst the islands are greatly confused;
inshore and offshore tidal streams are frequently in opposite
direction under similar tide and weather conditions. Strong
eddies and races are found near the islands and shoals.
Groups of islands in Luzon Strait
Babuyan Islands
3.30
1
Babuyan Islands (19°00′N, 121°30′E), a group of five
islands and their adjacent islets and rocks, lie between 15
and 60 miles N of the N coast of Luzon; they are part of
the Philippine Republic. The channels between the islands
are deep and safe, and their coasts are generally steep-to.
Batan Islands
3.31
1
Batan Islands (20°40′N, 121°50′E), situated in the
middle of Luzon Strait, form a chain of islands and islets
extending 52 miles in a N to S direction; they are separated
from other island groups by Balintang Channel (3.49) to
the S and Bashi Channel (3.65) to the N.
2
The larger islands are high and of volcanic origin; the
smaller islands are generally low and of coral formation.
The principal islands, Sabtang (3.57), Batan (3.59) and
Itbayat (3.62), are particularly mountainous and well
watered by small rivers. Earthquakes are frequent and
typhoons are, at times, extremely severe in this area. The
main industry is raising cattle, hogs and goats. The islands
are part of the Philippine Republic.
CAPE BOJEADOR TO T’AI-WAN
General information
Chart 3804
Principal marks
3.32
1
Major lights:
Cape Bojeador Light (18°31′N, 120°36′E) (3.8).
Pata Point Light (18°37′N, 121°09′E) (3.8).
O-luan Pi Light (21°54′N, 120°51′E) (2.26).
Passage directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume II)
3.33
1
From a position WNW of Cape Bojeador (18°30′N,
120°34′E), the NW extremity of Luzon, the track leads
NNE for about 195 miles to a position SSE of O-luan Pi
(21°54′N, 120°51′E) (2.28), noting a shoal patch (21°28′N,
120°43′E) (3.69), and passing ESE of Ch’i-hsing Chiao
(21°46′N, 120°49′E) (2.28).
(Directions continue for T’ai-wan W side at 2.28
and T’ai-wan E side at 3.82)
SINIGUAN POINT TO T’AI-WAN
General information
Chart 3804
Route
3.34
1
From a position NE of Siniguian Point (18°31′N,
122°14′E), the route leads NNW, for about 205 miles to a
position SSE of O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E).
Principal marks
3.35
1
Landmark:
Mount Pangasun (19°32′N, 121°57′E), on Babuyan
Island (3.56), rises to a height of 1090 m (3569 ft),
but it is often obscured by clouds.
Major lights:
Cape Engaño Light (18°35′N, 122°08′E) (3.8).
O-luan Pi Light (21°54′N, 120°51′E) (2.26).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume II and )
3.36
1
From a position NE of Siniguian Point (18°31′N,
122°14′E), the track leads NNW, passing:
CHAPTER 3
108
ENE of Didicas Rock (19°05′N, 122°12′E) (3.42),
thence:
ENE of Babuyan Island (19°32′N, 121°57′E) (3.56),
thence:
WSW of Balintang Islets (19°58′N, 122°09′E) (3.53),
thence:
WSW of Sabtang Island (20°19′N, 121°52′E) (3.57),
thence:
ENE of Ch’i-hsing Chiao (21°46′N, 120°49′E) (2.28),
To a poasition SSE of O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E)
(2.28).
(Directions continue for T’ai-wan W side at 2.28
and T’ai-wan E side at 3.82)
BABUYAN CHANNEL
General information
Chart 3804
Route
3.37
1
From a position WNW of Cape Bojeador (18°30′N,
120°34′E), the NW extremity of Luzon, the route leads
generally E for about 123 miles through Babuyan Channel,
a major shipping route, to a position NE of Siniguian Point
(18°31′N, 122°14′E).
Topography
3.38
1
For topography on the N coast of Luzon see 3.5. For
topography of the islands in the vicinity see 3.43, 3.45 and
3.47.
Depths
3.39
1
Except for the dangers mentioned in directions the
channel is deep.
Natural conditions
3.40
1
Tidal streams in Babuyan Channel appear to set into it
from both ends on the in-going tide, though their precise
meeting place is unknown. Eddies and tidal races are
numerous. A plainly marked tide-rip, N of which the
broken water appeared as a line of breakers, has been
observed between Cape Bojeador (18°30′N, 120°34′E) (3.9)
and Fuga Island (18°52′N, 121°21′E) (3.43).
2
Current. The N-going current from Cagayan River
(18°22′N, 121°37′E) (3.11), when in flood, can be felt up
to 20 miles N of its mouth; see also 3.29.
Principal marks
3.41
1
Major lights:
Cape Bojeador Light (18°31′N, 120°36′E) (3.8).
Pata Point Light (18°37′N, 121°09′E) (3.8).
Cape Engaño Light (18°35′N, 122°08′E) (3.8).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume II)
3.42
1
From a position WNW of Cape Bojeador (18°30′N,
120°34′E), the NW extremity of Luzon, the track leads
ENE, passing (with positions relative to Mayraira Point
(18°40′N, 120°51′E)):
NNW of Mayraira Point.
Thence the track leads E, passing:
N of Pata Point (17miles E) (3.10), thence:
S of Barit Island (25miles ENE) (3.43), thence:
S of Fuga Island (27 miles ENE) (3.43), thence:
S of Camiguin Island (57 miles ENE) (3.45), thence:
N of Cape Engaño (18°35′N, 122°08′E) from where a
light (3.8) is exhibited, and:
2
S of Guinapac Rocks (18°59′N, 122°06′E), 6 miles
ENE of Nagayaman Point, consist of two
tower-like rocks, 96 and 66 m (316 and 215 ft)
high, with another rock, 6 m (20 ft) high, close N
and with foul ground extending 5 cables farther N;
heavy tide-rips form in the area. A below-water
rock, on which USS Charleston was wrecked, lies
2 miles N of the N Guinapac Rock; it is marked
by breakers. There is a safe channel between the
rocks and Camiguin Island. Thence:
3
S of Didicas Rock, 8 miles NE of Guinapac Rocks,
is a conical volcanic islet about 244 m (800 ft)
high, which appeared in 1952 as the result of an
eruption; in 1969 the volcano was still active.
Formerly there was a group of high rocks in this
position. There are heavy tide-rips in the vicinity.
The track then continues to a position NE of Siniguian
Point (18°31′N, 122°14′E) (3.10).
(Directions continue for the E coast of Luzon
in Philippine Islands Pilot and for the
passage N to Taiwan at 3.36)
Fuga Island and adjacent islets
General information
3.43
1
Description. Fuga Island (18°52′N, 121°21′E), the SW
island of the Babuyan Island group (3.30), is 208 m (682 ft)
high and hilly except in the vicinity of Kiking Point, its E
extremity, where the island is low.
2
Barit Island, 16 m (52 ft) high, is a wooded islet lying
5 cables W of Pagpasakyan Point, the W extremity of Fuga
Island. Mabaag Island, 4 cables NNE of Barit Island, is a
low wooded islet with a steep-to fringing reef.
3
Marine reserve. The waters within a distance of
2 miles of Fuga Island and adjacent islets are declared a
marine reserve and fishing within the area is prohibited.
4
Anchorage. In calm conditions, temporary anchorage
can be obtained on the S side of Fuga Island, but the
bottom is irregular.
Musa Bay
3.44
1
Description. Musa Bay (18°52′N, 121°16′E) lies
between the W end of Fuga Island and the E sides of Barit
Island and Mabaag Island. Villa Vicenta, on the E shore of
the bay 5 cables N of Pagpasakyan Point, is a small
settlement from which cattle are shipped; there is irregular
communication by sea with Manila and Aparri (3.11).
Tidal streams in the channels and in the vicinity of the
islands of Musa Bay are strong.
2
Directions. The best entrance to Musa Bay is from the
S between Barit Island and Fuga Island. The W entrance,
between Barit Island and Mabaag Island, is deep and
narrow. The N entrance, between Fuga Island and Mabaag
Island, has a depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft), but it is obstructed in
the middle with a rock awash, over which the sea usually
breaks; there are overfalls in the approach to this entrance
and it is advisable not to use it except in case of necessity.
3
Anchorage. Although sheltered from the sea, the
holding ground in Musa Bay is poor and anchorage has
been reported to be unsafe with strong NE winds. The best
anchorage is near the NE side of Barit Island, in depths
CHAPTER 3
109
from 23⋅8 to 29⋅3 m (13 to 16 fm), where the bottom is
rotten coral and sand. The bottom near Fuga Island is very
rocky.
Camiguin Island and adjacent islets
General information
3.45
1
Description. Camiguin Island (18°55′N, 121°55′E), the
SE-most of the Babuyan Island group (3.30), lies with
Geulous Point, its S extremity, 21 miles NW of Cape
Engaño (3.26). The island is wooded and mountainous with
its highest peak, 793 m (2603 ft, charted as 2717 ft),
towards its NE end; the higher peaks are frequently
obscured by clouds. Mount Camiguin, 723 m (2372 ft,
charted as 2336 ft) high, is an active volcano situated at the
S end of the island; there are deep valleys between it and
the lesser peaks around it, so that when first sighted from
the S they appear as separate islands. A fumarol, active at
times, and hot springs are in evidence on the S slope of
Mount Camiguin. On the SE side of the island several high
rocks lie on or close to the narrow, steep-to coral reef
which fringes its shores. A stranded wreck lies 7cables S
of Nagayaman Point, the E extremity of the island.
2
Camiguin Bank, lying between 4 and 8 miles NW of the
NW point of Camiguin Island, has a depth of 20⋅1 m
(11 fm), coral, and is marked by tide-rips.
Port San Pio Quinto
3.46
1
General information. Port San Pio Quinto (18°54′N,
121°51′E), on the W side of Camiguin Island (3.45), lies
between Magasasut Point, situated 4 miles NNW of
Geulous Point (3.45), and Nagpalbosan Point 3 miles
farther N. A prominent yellow and red cliff, about 91 m
(300 ft) high, situated S of the port is a good landmark.
Pinon Island, an islet 34 m (110 ft) high, lies 2 cables W of
Magasasut Point; the passage between is clear. Reefs
extend 1 cables N and S of the islet, and a detached rock,
5 m (15 ft) high, lies 2 cables S of Pinon Island.
Pamoctan Island, 204 m (670 ft) high and steep-to, lies in
the middle of the entrance to Port San Pio Quinto; it is a
good landmark, appearing as a single cone from N and S,
but from W shows two distinct peaks, the N one being the
higher.
2
Port San Pio Quinto affords good shelter with NE winds,
and it is the only place in Babuyan Islands where a large
vessel can lie in reasonable safety, the bottom being less
rocky than in Musa Bay (3.43). There is irregular sea
communication with Aparri (3.11), and the port is of no
commercial importance. Balutubat, a village on the NE side
of the harbour is obscured by trees, but the schoolhouse
near the beach is partly visible from the anchorage.
3
Directions. The anchorage can be approached through
the channel S of Pamoctan Island, which is wide and clear.
If using the N channel, keep fairly close to Pamoctan
Island to avoid a coral patch, with a least depth of 10⋅4 m
(34 ft), lying near mid-channel and which nearly breaks in
heavy weather; and avoid the reefs fringing the NE
entrance point and charted wrecks lying off the NE shore
of the port.
4
Anchorage. The best anchorage is about 1 mile E of the
SE point of Pamoctan Island, in a depth of 27⋅4 m (15 fm),
sand and broken coral. The port is exposed to W winds,
but some protection can be obtained by anchoring in
deeper water close E of Pamoctan Island.
Dalupiri Island
General information
3.47
1
Description. Dalupiri Island (19°05′N, 121°13′E),
7 miles NNW of the NW extremity of Fuga Island (3.43),
has a hilly ridge rising to 275 m (903 ft, charted as 974 ft)
in its S part; it is fringed by a narrow steep-to reef. Irao
Islet, 24 m (80 ft) high, lies 2 miles SSW of the S
extremity of the island. The islet is fringed by shoals for a
distance of 5 cables.
2
Visita, the largest settlement, stands on a small plain on
the E side of Dalupiri Island 3 miles from its S point.
Anchorages
3.48
1
Anchorage may be obtained as follows:
Off the E side of Dapupiri Island, in calm weather,
but the holding ground is poor.
2
On the W side, off the settlement of Banoa, 1 miles
NNW of the S point of the island, but local
knowledge is necessary. There are depths of over
37 m (20 fm) 5 cables offshore. Landing can be
effected through a break in the reef, 2 cables SE of
Banoa.
BALINTANG CHANNEL
General information
Chart 3804
Route
3.49
1
Balintang Channel (19°50′N, 122°00′E), wide and deep,
is frequently used as a main shipping route between the
Babuyan Islands group (3.30) and the Batan Islands group
(3.31), 42 miles N.
From the vicinity of 20°00′N, 120°00′E the route leads
E for about 133 miles to the vicinity of 20°05′N, 122°20′E.
Topography
3.50
1
For topography of the islands in the vicinity see 3.54,
3.56 and 3.57.
Depths
3.51
1
Except for the dangers mentioned in directions the
channel is deep.
Tidal streams
3.52
1
Unusual sets have been experienced (1958) in Balintang
Channel in the vicinity of the islands (3.59); see also 3.29.
Directions
3.53
1
From the vicinity of 20°00′N, 120°00′E the track leads
E, passing:
N of a submarine volcano reported (1982) to exist in
position 19°45′N, 120°03′E, thence:
S of an isolated shoal 20°12′N, 120°44′E, existence
doubtful, reported in 1966, with a depth of 11⋅6 m
(38 ft) over it, thence:
2
N of Calayan Bank, on which there are heavy
tide-rips, lies between 8 and 20 miles NNW of
Panuitan Island (3.54). The least reported (1972)
depth on this bank is 11 m (36 ft) in position
19°39′⋅5N, 121°28′⋅5E. Thence:
CHAPTER 3
110
3
Clear of an isolated shoal (20°06′N, 121°50′E), depth
28 m (15 fm), lying 10 miles S of Sabtang Island
(3.57); a shoal with a depth of 29 m (16 fm) lies
4 miles farther SSE. Thence:
4
N of Balintang Islets (19°58′N, 122°09′E), an isolated
group. The W islet, 164 m (538 ft) high and much
larger than the others, from where a light is
exhibited, lies 25 miles NNE of Babuyan Island
(3.56); it is perforated in a NE and SW direction.
Within 6 cables SE of the larger islet are three
small islets or rocks 13 to 36 m (44 to 117 ft)
high; two other small islets, 103 m (339 ft) and
85 m (279 ft) high, lie within 1 mile E of the
larger islet. These islets, which are reported to be
visible at 30 miles on a clear day, may be passed
on either side at a distance of 2 to 3 miles, but it
should be noted that surveys within the 183 m
(100 fm) line are incomplete. In bad weather the
sea breaks heavily against these islets.
5
Thence the track leads to the vicinity of 20°05′N,
122°20′E.
Calayan Island and adjacent islets
General information
3.54
1
Description. Calayan Island (19°20′N, 121°28′E) lies
with Pine Point (Nagudungan Point), its S extremity,
17 miles ENE of the N end of Dalupiri Island (3.47). It has
several high peaks of which Mount Calayan, near the
centre of the island, rises to a height of 542 m (1780 ft,
charted as 1637 ft); except for a few cultivated areas the
island is densely wooded. The coast consists mostly of
rocky cliffs, undermined by the sea, and fringed by a
narrow coral reef plainly marked by breakers. A small,
steep-to coral reef, on which there is a rock 2⋅5 m (8 ft)
high, lies 7cables offshore, 1 miles W of Pine Point. A
light is exhibited from Pine Point.
2
Panuitan Island, which rises to a height of 146 m
(479 ft, charted as 495 ft) at its N end, lies 2 miles N of
the NE part of Calayan Island; the channel between is deep
and clear except for a rock, with a depth of 1⋅2 m (4 ft),
lying 2cables off the SE side of Panuitan Island. Several
pinnacle rocks lie on the shore reef on the NE side of the
island which is otherwise steep-to; the top and sides of the
island are covered with grass, and the W slope with small
bushes. Wyllie Rocks (19°30′N, 121°31′E), 2 miles N of
Panuitan Island, consist of a large black rock, 5 m (16 ft)
high, with two rocks awash close NE; other shoals and
coral heads lie within 5 cables of them. Violent tide-rips
and swirls occur over Wyllie Rocks, even in calm weather,
owing to strong and irregular currents; they should be
given a wide berth.
3
Tidal streams are quite strong in the vicinity of Calayan
Island and are reported to set in a direction opposite to
those encountered offshore. Heavy tide-rips occur off
several of the salient points which should be given a berth
of at least 1 mile when rounding them.
Calayan
3.55
1
Description. Calayan is a small town, near the middle
of a 4 mile strip of sandy beach, situated 2 miles WNW
of Pine Point (3.54). Its large schoolhouse with a
galvanised roof, and the white stone building of the
Weather Bureau Station, are both prominent. Except during
S or SW winds, boats can land on the beach fronting the
town. The island has a small and irregular trade in cattle
during February to September.
2
Storm signals are exhibited from the Weather Bureau
Station; see 1.68.
Anchorage. The best anchorage is S of the town of
Calayan, about 4 cables offshore, in a depth of 37 m
(20 fm). Small vessels can find partly sheltered anchorage
in Cibang Cove on the NE side of Pine Point.
Babuyan Island
General information
3.56
1
Babuyan Island (19°32′N, 121°57′E), the NE and highest
island of the Babuyan Islands group, lies 23 miles ENE of
Calayan Island (3.54); it is generally steep-to and wooded.
Near the centre of the island stands Mount Pangasun
(3.35). The peak, 864 m (2835 ft) high, 5 cables W of
Mount Pangasun, is an active volcano. Mount Babuyan, at
the W end of the island, is a prominent cylinder cone
679 m (2228 ft) high.
2
Most of the E coast consists of high cliffs and its S
extremity is a steep and rocky headland. Pan de Azucar
Island, a slender pinnacle rock, 32 m (104 ft) high, lies near
the outer end of a reef which extends 5 cables SE from the
S point of the island. Heavy tide-rips occur from 1 to
3 miles off the salient points of the island.
3
San Dionisio, the largest settlement, is a small village
situated at the mouth of a stream on the SW side of
Babuyan Island. The best landing place is at Barugan Cove
on the N coast, but there is no protected anchorage.
Sabtang Island and adjacent islands
General information
3.57
1
Description. Sabtang Island (20°19′N, 121°52′E), the S
island of the group, lies with Ahau Point, its S extremity,
42 miles N of Babuyan Island (3.56). The island is rugged
with numerous steep peaks and serrated ridges; Mount
Alapad, its summit, is 351 m (1158 ft) high. A coral reef
fringes the coast, except in a few places where cliffs are at
the water’s edge. A shoal, depth 17 m (56 ft), was reported
(1977, charted as 1962) 4 miles SW of Ahau Point.
2
Two rocky ledges, with depths of 3⋅3 m (11 ft) and
1⋅8 m (6 ft), lie 9 cables and 1 miles N, respectively, of
Natao Point, the N extremity of the island; in the channel
between these dangers and the point there is a least depth
of 12⋅5 m (41 ft). A light is exhibited from Pachipen Point,
1⋅6 miles NE of Ahau Point.
3
Ibuhos Island (20°19′N, 121°48′E), 1 mile W of Sabtang
Island, is mostly low and strewn with lava rocks; at its S
end a hill rises to a height of 107 m (351 ft). A drying reef
fringes the E side of the island to a distance of 5 cables in
places. Dequey Island, 5 cables W of the of the N end of
Ibuhos Island, is 62 m (202 ft) high at its SE end; strong
tide-rips set N along its SW side. Ibuhos Channel, between
the narrow reefs extending from each island, is deep and
clear.
4
Sabtang Channel, separating Ibuhos Island from Sabtang
Island, is 7cables wide at its narrowest part between the
reefs on each side, and is deep in the fairway.
5
Tidal streams in Sabtang Channel set S on the in-going
tide, with a maximum rate of 3 to 4 kn, and N on the
out-going tide.
CHAPTER 3
111
Sabtang
3.58
1
Description. Sabtang (San Vicente), the principal
settlement, stands on the NE coast of Sabtang Island
2 miles SE of Natao Point (3.57); the church and other
buildings with red roofs and white walls are prominent. A
light is exhibited from the town.
2
There is a gap in the coastal reef, much of which dries,
abreast the church. A bank, with depths of less than 9⋅1 m
(30 ft), extends 3 cables NE from the shore at the SE end
of the town, and a detached 8⋅5 m (28 ft) shoal lies
4 cables ENE of the church.
3
Anchorage. During the SW monsoon good sheltered
anchorage can be had off the town, in depths from 18⋅3 to
21⋅9 m (10 to 12 fm), sand, with the church bearing 225°;
on this bearing depths decrease gradually ⋅
offshore, to 9⋅1 m (30 ft) about 1 cables
offshore.
Batan Island
General information
3.59
1
Description. Batan Island (20°25′N, 121°57′E), the most
important island of the group, lies NE of Sabtang Island
(3.57) from which it is separated by a deep channel 2 miles
wide. The island is mountainous and has several broad
cultivated spots; in its NE part Mount Irada, thickly
wooded and apparently an old volcano, rises to a height of
1009 m (3306 ft). Tumaruk Rock, 39 m (127 ft) high, lies
2 cables off the NE end of the island; there is a radar
conspicuous wreck close offshore, 1 mile NW of this rock.
2
A light is exhibited from Imnajbu Point (20°22′N,
121°58′E) on the SE side of the island, with a further red
obstruction light exhibited from a radio mast close N of the
point.
3
Basco (3.61), the principal town, is situated 2 miles
WSW of the summit of Mount Irada. Anchorage may be
obtained off Basco (3.61). Other anchorages around the
coast of Batan Island are described below.
4
Tidal streams in the channel between Batan Island and
Sabtang Island attain a rate of 5 to 6 kn and set SE on the
rising tide stream and NW on the falling tide. Heavy
tide-rips form off the SE entrance to the channel during the
falling stream at springs.
5
The tidal streams in the vicinity of Batan Islands are
both strong and confused, their direction being much
affected by the configuration of the channels as well as by
the changing monsoons. The islands should therefore be
given a wide berth. See also 3.29.
Anchorages
3.60
1
Mahatao, a village on the W coast, 2 miles SW of
Basco; the church tower is prominent. A passage has been
cut through the coastal reef to admit vessels of up to
50 tonnes; vessels are often hauled up when they arrive in
the SW monsoon. Open anchorage can be obtained off
Mahatao. Local knowledge is required.
2
San Vicente, on the W coast 2 miles SW of Mahatao,
is the landing place for Ivana, which stands on the coast
7 cables farther SW. The church tower at Ivana is
prominent. With local knowledge anchorage may be
obtained off San Vicente, but owing to the reefs, it is very
confined, and is unsafe with N winds.
3
Uyugan, a village on the S coast of Batan Island,
situated 5 cables W of Disiay (Disiai) Point (20°21′⋅0N,
121°56′⋅6E). With local knowledge open anchorage can be
obtained off Uyugan, in a depth of 14⋅6 m (48 ft), with the
church, which is partly obscured by trees, bearing 045°.
4
Mananioy Bay, on the E coast 4 miles NNE of Disiay
Point, affords sheltered anchorage with W winds, but it is
impossible to land here as the coast rises vertically to 46 m
(150 ft).
5
Balugan Bay (20°26′N, 121°59′E), also known as Port
Contra Costa, is the next bay N of Mananioy Bay. Desquid
Point, the S entrance point of the bay, is a prominent black
bluff, on the S side of which dangers extend to 4 cables
offshore; there is also a pinnacle rock, with a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft), lying 1 cables NE of the point. Balugan
Bay affords good, sheltered anchorage during the SW
monsoon, and vessels anchor here when it is too rough to
call at Basco, which is connected to the landing by road.
Port Basco
3.61
1
Description. Basco (20°27′N, 121°58′E) lies at the head
of Baluarte Bay on the W coast of Batan Island. Tamalung
Point is the S entrance point of the bay. The church and
government buildings, with white walls and red roofs, are
prominent. A light is exhibited from a position on the S
side of the town 1 cables ESE from the pier head (see
below).
Local knowledge is required.
Storm signals are exhibited see 1.68.
2
Anchorage may be obtained, in Baluarte Bay in a depth
of 24 m (13 fm), fine coral sand. There is anchorage closer
in for small vessels, in a depth of 10 m (33 ft), fine sand.
The holding ground is good, but the bay affords protection
only from the NE monsoon.
3
Berth. A pier projecting from the NE side of Baluarte
Bay has a berthing length of 18 m at its head and alongside
depths from 3⋅0 to 3⋅7 m (10 to 12 ft).
Other facilities: hospital.
Supplies are scarce.
Communications. Basco has irregular sea
communication with Aparri (3.11) and neighbouring islands,
and a weekly air service to Manila.
Itbayat Island and Diogo Island
General information
3.62
1
Description. Itbayat Island (20°45′N, 121°50′E), the
largest of the Batan Islands group, lies with its S extremity
16 miles NNW of the N part of Batan Island (3.59). Mount
Santa Rosa rises to a height of 277 m (914 ft) at the N end
of the island, and Mount Riposet rises to 229 m (759 ft)
near its SE coast. The island presents a barren aspect from
seaward, but the interior is well cultivated. There is
infrequent sea communication with Manila
2
The coast consists mainly of steep rugged cliffs, devoid
of any beaches or any protected anchorage, but in suitable
weather landing is possible at the following four places:
East coast 1 mile NE of Mount Riposet.
South-west
coast
at Mauyen, close W of the S tip of the
island.
West coast at Mayan, 3 miles SSW of the N end of
the island.
West coast
at Chinapuliran, 7cables SSW of
Mayan.
3.63
1
Diogo Island, 6 miles E of the S end of Itbayat Island
(3.62), is a volcano rising steeply to a height of 547 m
CHAPTER 3
112
(1794 ft); it was reported active in 1903. A reef fringes the
island up to a distance of 3 cables in places, and there are
several smaller islets and rocks off the coast. The outermost
dangers, 23 m (75 ft) and 39 m (128 ft) high, lie,
respectively, 5 cables E of the S point and N point of the
island. A small bank, with a least depth of 16⋅5 m (54 ft),
lies 5 miles SE of Diogo Island. The channel between
Diogo Island and Itbayat Island is deep and clear.
2
Tidal streams in the channel are reported to be strong.
Siayan Island and Mabudis Island
General information
3.64
1
Description. Siayan Island (20°54′N, 121°54′E), 164 m
(543 ft) high, lies 4 miles NNE of Itbayat Island (3.62);
foul ground, on which there are above-water rocks up to
6 m (20 ft) high, extends 2cables from its S and E sides.
The island is surrounded by tide-rips.
2
Mabudis Island, 234 m (754 ft) high, lies 1 miles NNE
of Siayan Island to which it is connected by a shallow
ridge of drying and above-water rocks, including two rocks
18 and 25 m (58 and 83 ft) high. A rock, 18 m (60 ft) high,
lies near the outer edge of a reef that extends 5 cables off
the N point of the island.
3
A shoal, with a least depth of 10⋅7 m (35 ft), lies
4 miles NNW of Mabudis Island. The shoal is a narrow
ridge of sand lying near the middle of the SW side of the
bank, about 2 miles long, with general depths of less than
91 m (50 fm). Except at slack water, heavy tide-rips occur
near the edge of the bank.
4
Tidal streams in the vicinity of the bank set N two
hours after LW and ESE two hours after HW. When the
moon has a high N or S declination the rates occasionally
reach 5 kn.
BASHI CHANNEL
General information
Chart 3804
Route
3.65
1
Bashi Channel (21°30′N, 121°40′E), frequently used as a
main shipping route, is a wide and deep channel between
the Batan Islands (3.31) to the S and Hsiao-lan Yü
(Hsiao-hung-t’ou-yü) (3.70), 53 miles NNW.
2
From the vicinity of 21°25′N, 120°00′E the route leads
E for about 118 miles to the vicinity of 21°25′N, 122°08′E.
Topography
3.66
1
For topography of islands in the vicinity see 3.62 and
3.70.
Depths
3.67
1
Except for the dangers mentioned in directions the
channel is deep.
Principal mark
3.68
1
Major light:
Amianan Island Light (no description) (21°07′N,
121°57′E).
Directions
3.69
1
From the vicinity of 21°25′N, 120°00′E the track leads
E, passing:
Clear of a shoal patch (21°35′N, 120°35′E), the
position of which is approximate, with a depth of
15⋅8 m (52 ft) over it, thence:
2
Clear of a shoal patch (21°28′N, 120°42′E) the
position of which is approximate, with a depth of
23⋅7 m (78 ft) over it, thence:
Clear of a shoal patch (21°32′N, 121°15′E) reported
in 1960 with a depth of 19⋅2 m (62 ft) over it,
thence:
3
Clear of a shoal patch (21°20′N, 121°19′E) reported
in 1960 with a depth of 19⋅2 m (62 ft) over it,
thence:
Clear of a bank (21°35′N, 121°35′E), marked by
heavy overfalls and sometimes discoloured water,
with a least charted depth of 10 m (33 ft) over it,
And:
4
S of Kao-tai Shih (21°44′N, 121°37′E), which is only
about cable in diameter, steep to, with a depth
of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it. A dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies close N of the rock. At LW the
sea probably breaks over Kao-tai Shih, and the
vicinity is generally marked by violent tide-rips
and whirls that extend most of the way to
Ch’i-hsing Chiao (2.28), 45 miles W. As these
indications are not always present, Kao-tai Shih
should be given a wide berth. Thence:
5
N of Amianan Island (21°07′N, 121°57′E), also
known as Y’ami Island, 219 m (719 ft) high and is
the N island of the Batan Islands group (3.31). An
islet, 71 m (232 ft) high, lies 4 cables W of the S
point of the island, and another islet, 9 m (30 ft)
high, lies close off the E point of the island. A
light (3.68), visible only from SSW through to
NW, is exhibited from the N extremity of Amianan
Island. Tide-rips and overfalls occur off the NE
side of the island. North Island (21°04′N,
121°56′E), 263 m (868 ft, charted as 881 ft) high,
lies 2 miles S of Amianan Island. The channel
between is clear. Three rocks, one of them being
41 m (135 ft) high, lie within 2 cables of the E
side of the island. An above-water rock lies close
off its W point, and a rock 2 m (6 ft) high lies
2 cables off the NE extremity of the island.
Tide-rips occur off the S side of the island. In
1982, tide-rips were reported extending 6 miles
NW and SE of position 21°01′N, 121°32′E, some
22 miles WSW of North Island.
6
Thence the track leads to the vicinity of 21°25′N,
122°08′E.
Lan Yü and Hsiao-lan Yü
General information
3.70
1
Description. Hsiao-lan Yü (Hsiao-hung-t’ou-yü)
(21°57′N, 121°36′E), on the N side of Bashi Channel
(3.65), is 173 m (561 ft) high. Rocks fringe its coasts,
except on the N side, and extend 8 cables SSE.
2
Lan Yü (22°03′N, 121°33′E) lies 3 miles NNW of
Hsiao-lan Yü; vessels using the deep channel between these
islands, in which there are tide-rips, should keep to
mid-channel to avoid shoals along the N shore. Lan Yü,
which appears saddle-shaped from N and S, has a number
of steep, densely wooded peaks of which the highest,
CHAPTER 3
113
Hung-t’ou Shan, rises to 547 m (1807 ft) near the centre of
the island. Its coast is mostly rocky with a number of
off-lying, below-water, pinnacle rocks making it unsafe
without local knowledge to approach within 1 mile of the
coast.
3
A light is exhibited from Ch’in-pu-chih Pi, the NW
point of the island. Chien Yen, on the W coast 2 miles S of
the NW point, is a peaked rock 95 m (312 ft) high joined
to the shore by low ground; it appears as an islet from a
distance. K’ai-yüan Kang, a small harbour, enclosed by
breakwaters, is entered 7 cables N of Chien Yen; a light
is exhibited from a point on the coast close S of the
harbour. Tide-rips occur off the NW point.
4
Lo-t’o Yen, an islet composed of several peaked rocks,
44 m (147 ft) high, lies 5 cables E of the NE point of Lan
Yü; there are several remarkable pillar rocks between the
islet and the coast.
5
Caution. Lan Yü is frequently shrouded by low-lying
mist caused by the comparatively high temperature of
Japan Current (Kuro Shio) (1.122), and in winter is
sometimes obscured by rain; caution is required in
approaching the island, especially at night.
Anchorages
3.71
1
Pa-tai Wan (22°01′N, 121°32′E) on the SW coast of Lan
Yü affords anchorage in the NW part of the bay during N
winds; the bottom is fine sand and good holding ground.
Local knowledge is necessary. Ch’ung Yen, a pillar rock
9 m (30 ft) high, lying 4 cables off the NW entrance point
of the bay, makes a useful mark; there are rocky shoals
inshore of it. The best anchorage is 3 cables offshore, in a
depth of 18⋅3 m (60 ft), with Ch’ung Yen bearing 270°, and
the police station, a prominent white building lying
7cables E of the NW entrance point, bearing 027°.
2
Tung-ch’ing Wan (22°03′N, 121°34′E), on the E coast of
Lan Yü, affords safe anchorage to vessels with local
knowledge except during E winds. The best anchorage is
3 cables offshore, between two villages in the NW part of
the bay, in a depth of less than 20⋅1 m (11 fm), sand.
Kuan-tung Shih, a pinnacle rock with a depth of 4⋅4 m
(15 ft), lies 6 cables S of the N entrance point of the bay;
a rocky patch, with a least depth of 6⋅2 m (21 ft), lies
8 cables farther SE.
T’AI-WAN — EAST COAST
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3236
Area covered
3.72
1
This section covers the E coast of T’ai-wan, including
the offlying islands and the principal ports of Hua-lien
Kang (24°00′N, 121°38′E) (3.100) and Su-ao Kang
(24°36′N, 121°52′E) (3.108). The island of Lan Yü
(22°03′N, 121°33′E) is described at 3.70.
It is arranged as follows:
O-Luan Pi to Hua-Lien Hsi (3.75).
Hua-Lien Hsi to San-Tiao Chiao (3.91).
Depths
3.73
1
The entire length of the E coast of T’ai-wan is relatively
steep-to, with the 20 m depth contour seldom more than
1 mile from the coast.
Current
3.74
1
The Japan Current (Kuro Shio) (1.122) flows N,
generally parallel to the coast, at a rate of 1 to 2 kn, but
may exceed 3 kn. Strong onshore sets with rates up to 2 kn
or more can be expected throughout the year, but are likely
between June and August.
O-LUAN PI TO HUA-LIEN HSI
General information
Charts 3233, 3234
Route
3.75
1
From a position SSE of O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E)
(2.28), the S extremity of T’ai-wan, the coastal route leads
NNE for about 132 miles to a position ESE of the entrance
to Hua-lien Hsi (23°56′N, 121°36′E) (3.83).
Topography
3.76
1
The coast from O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E) (2.28) to
Tu-luan Pi, 62 miles NNE, is mostly steep-to and exposed,
with mountains rising directly from the sea. There is a
break in the coastal range in the vicinity of T’ai-tung
(22°45′N, 121°09′E) (3.86) where several rivers flow
through a plain 10 miles wide. Between Ta-wu (22°21′N,
120°54′E), a small town on the coast, and the entrance to
Tai-ma-li Hsi, 16 miles NNE, the coast is remarkably
straight and steep-to.
2
Between Tu-luan Pi (22°52′N, 121°14′E) and the
entrance to Hua-lien Hsi (3.83), 69 miles NNE, the coast is
relatively straight and backed by a coastal range, broken
only off Hua-lien Hsi; in places the coast is very steep-to.
Prohibited area
3.77
1
A prohibited area around each of three floating fish
havens 60 m below the surface exists in the following
positions:
22°39′⋅5N, 121°32′⋅2E.
22°49′⋅1N, 121°25′⋅8E.
22°54′⋅1N, 121°27′⋅0E.
Dumping ground
3.78
1
An ammunition dumping ground is situated off the N
coast of Lü Tao (22°40′N, 121°29′E) (3.87).
Current
3.79
1
See 3.74.
Principal marks
3.80
1
Landmark:
Li-yu Shan (22°45′N, 121°08′E), 75 m high on the W
side of T’ai-tung (3.86), and can usually be
identified at a distance of 15 miles; a light on its
summit is prominent at night.
CHAPTER 3
114
2
Major lights:
O-luan Pi Light (21°54′N, 120°51′E) (2.26).
Lan Yü Light (white round concrete tower, 15 m in
height) (22°05′N, 121°30′E).
Pi-t’ou Chiao Light (white round concrete tower,
33 m in height) (22°41′N, 121°28′E).
Ch’i-lai Pi Light (white 5-sided concrete tower, 13 m
in height) (24°01′N, 121°38′E).
Other aid to navigation
3.81
1
Racon:
Hua-lien West Breakwater Head Light (23°58′⋅5N,
121°37′⋅1E).
Directions
(continued from 3.33 and 3.36)
3.82
1
From a position SSE of O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E)
(2.28), the track leads NNE, passing (with positions from
22°15′N, 121°00′E):
ESE of Kang-k’ou Wan (19 miles SSW) (3.84),
thence:
2
ESE of Ch’u-feng Pi (14 miles SSW), consisting of
high cliffs and visible from a great distance.
Thence:
ESE of Pa-yao Wan (10 miles SSW) (3.85), thence:
3
ESE of Mu-tan Pi (7 miles WSW), with Mu-tan
Wan, a very small bay on the S side of the point.
There is a fishing port on the coast 7 miles N of
Mu-tan Pi; fish havens extends out to 3 miles
offshore from this port. Thence:
4
ESE of Mei-ho (22°41′N, 121°02′E), a small town
situated on the coastal plain that extends 7 miles
NE to T’ai-tung (3.86). Chih-pen Hsi and Li-chia
Hsi enter the sea between 1 and 3 miles NE of
Mei-ho. Thence:
5
ESE of T’ai-tung Kang (22°45′N, 121°10′E) (3.86).
Li-yu Shan (3.80) may be seen some distance off
the coast.
3.83
1
The track continues NNE, passing (with positions from
23°15′N, 121°30′E):
2
WNW of Lü Tao (22°40′N, 121°29′E) (3.87), from
where a light (3.80) is exhibited from Pi-t’ou
Chiao, the NW extremity of the island. This light
has an obscured sector between 274°−338°.
Thence:
3
ESE of Tu-lan Wan (22°50′N, 121°13′E) (3.88). A
least depth of 20 m was reported (1971)
approximately 12 miles E of Tu-lan Wan; breakers
may be experienced in the area up to 5 miles S
and 5 miles NE of this shoal depth. And:
Clear of fish havens. See 3.77. Thence:
4
ESE of Tu-li Pi (16 miles SSW), a small point.
Foul ground extends 6 cables from the shore,
1 miles S of Tu-li Pi. Tide-rips and breakers
have been reported between 3 to 6 miles SE of the
point. The fishing port of Chin-tsun Yü-kang is
entered 4 miles SSE of Tu-li Pi. Thence:
5
ESE of Ch’eng-kung Po-ti (Hsin-kang Po-ti) (12 miles
SW) (3.89), thence:
ESE of San-hsien-t’ai (8 miles SW), an islet 73 m
high with three prominent rocky peaks, from
where a light (white square concrete tower, 7 m in
height) is exhibited. The passage between the islet
and the shore is foul. Thence:
6
ESE of Shih-k’ung Pi (7 miles SW); foul ground
extends 5 cables from the point, thence:
ESE of Chia-tsou-wan Pi (4 miles NW); foul
ground extends 2 cables offshore in the vicinity
of this point. Thence:
7
ESE of the entrance to Hsiu-ku-luan Hsi (12 miles
N); sandbanks and heavy surf prevent even small
boats from entering. Pei-t’ou-hsi Shan, an isolated
hill 249 m high, lies 1 mile NNE of the river
entrance and can be easily identified from a
distance. Shih-t’i Pi is a rocky point on the NE
side of Pei-t’ou-hsi Shan; foul ground extends
5 cables from it and also from a point situated
5 miles N. A fishing harbour, protected by
breakwaters, lies close NW of Shih-t’i Pi. An
isolated above-water rock lies 5 cables offshore
1 mile N of Shih-t’i Pi. Thence:
8
To a position ESE of the entrance to Hua-lien Hsi
(23°56′N 121°36′E), where the coastal range gives
way to the coastal plain; there is a bar at the
entrance on which there is usually too much surf
for boats to enter. Mu-kua Hsi joins Hua-lien Hsi
1 mile within the entrance.
(Directions continue at 3.98)
Anchorages and harbours
Kang-k’ou Wan
3.84
1
Description. Kang-k’ou Wan (21°57′N, 120°51′E) is
entered between O-luan Pi (21°54′N, 120°51′E) (2.28) and
Kang-k’ou Pi, situated 6 miles N.
2
Topography. The bay is backed by wooded hills, except
in the NW corner where Kang-k’ou Hsi enters the sea
through a steep-sided valley; the village of Kang-k’ou
stands on the N bank of the river 7cables within its
entrance.
3
Directions. The bay is fringed by reefs and there are a
few off-lying rocky patches. Two drying rocks, of which
the larger is 8 m high, lie 1 miles N of the E extremity of
O-luan Pi; there is a rocky shoal with a depth of 4⋅2 m
over it lying 7 cables SSE of of these rocks.
4
Anchorage within the bay may be obtained in depths
from 12 to 36 m, sand, with SW winds only.
Pa-yao Wan
3.85
1
General information. Pa-yao Wan (22°07′N, 120°53′E),
entered between Nan-jen Pi to the S and and Kang-tzu Pi
to the N, is a small bay with a sandy beach backed by
prominent sandhills; rivers enter the bay. An islet lies close
off Nan-jen Pi and a rock, 1 m high, lies 3 cables SE of the
point.
2
Anchorage may be obtained for small vessels during
offshore winds in depths from 12 to 18 m, sand.
Chart 3232
T’ai-tung Kang
3.86
1
Description. T’ai-tung Kang (2°45′N, 121°10′E) is
situated off the important town of T’ai-tung; the coast in
the vicinity is steep-to with depths of over 73 m about
7cables offshore. Pei-nan-ta Hsi enters the sea between
the town and the airport. The fishing port of Chia-lu-lan
Kang is situated 3 miles NE of the town.
2
Landing is possible on the beach 5 cables E of
T’ai-tung, but care is necessary as there is a heavy surf.
When there is a strong NE wind, a NW wind arises in the
CHAPTER 3
115
mornings and counteracts the effect of the former, and this
facilitates landing cargo.
3
Tidal streams are affected by the drift caused by the
wind and by Japan Current (Kuro Shio) (1.122), or N-going
current; although there direction is uncertain, the rate is
never great.
4
Anchorage. The best anchorage is on the narrow coastal
bank, in depths from 12 to 24 m with Li-yu Shan (3.80)
bearing 297°.
Storm signals are exhibited from the town.
Other facilities. Hospital.
Communications. Airfield 1 miles NE of the town.
Lü Tao
3.87
1
Description. Lü Tao (22°40′N, 121°29′E), 17 miles ESE
of T’ai-tung (3.86), is volcanic with two peaks, Hou-shao
Shan, 280 m, and A-mei Shan, 274 m high. The island is
grass covered but has only a few trees. Lou-men Yen, a
peaked rock 45 m high with a hole in it, lies 2 cables off
the flat NE extremity of the island; Fei Yen, a rock 2⋅5 m
high, lies 6 cables ENE of Lou-men Yen. Foul ground
extends 3 cables of Pi-t’ou Chiao, the NW extremity of the
island from where a light (3.80) is exhibited; obstruction
lights are exhibited from a mast 9 cables E. An airstrip lies
close S of this light at the NW end of the village of
Nan-liao. A small boat harbour, protected by breakwaters,
is entered 11 cables SSE of the Pi-t’ou Chiao Light. A fish
haven, marked by a light-buoy, lies off the island’s E coast,
and a dumping ground (3.78) off the N coast.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Current. Japan Current (Kuro Shio) (1.122) sets
strongly off Pi-t’ou Chiao and off Fan-sao Pi, the SE point
of Lü Tao, where the current is diverted considerably E;
whirlpools are formed over a wide area.
3
Tidal stream always sets N in Nan-liao Wan.
Anchorage for small vessels may be obtained as
follows:
4
In Nan-liao Wan, about 1 mile S of Pi-t’ou Chiao,
sheltered from NE winds, but the dangerous wreck
near the centre of the bay must be avoided.
5
In a depth of 31 m, sand and rock, about 5 cables
offshore in Chung-liao Wan, between dangers
extending a similar distance offshore 4 cables
and 1 miles E of Pi-t’ou Chiao.
Tu-lan Wan
3.88
1
General information. Tu-lan Wan is entered between
Hou-tzu Pi (22°48′N, 121°12′E), 3 miles NE of T’ai-tung
(3.86), and Tu-lan Pi 4⋅5 cables farther NE.
2
Anchorage. Depths in the bay are too great for
convenient anchorage except on its SW side where, with an
offshore wind, there is anchorage for small vessels in
depths from 10 to 18 m, sand, clear of rocks extending
5 cables offshore.
Chart 3234
Ch’eng-kung Po-ti (Hsin-kang Po-ti)
3.89
1
General information. Ch’eng-kung (Hsin-kang) Po-ti
(23°05′N, 121°22′E) is an open roadstead off the town of
Ch’eng-kung. A reef, on which there are above and
below-water rocks, extends 3 cables S of Mao-hai Pi, the E
entrance point of the bay, to form a natural breakwater. A
spit, with a depth of 2⋅9 m at its outer end, extends
2cables offshore nearly 7 cables SW of Mao-hai Pi. Pai
Chiao, a rock 1⋅5 m high, lies 5 cables offshore, 1 miles
NE of Mao-hai Pi.
2
The fishing port of Ch’eng-kung Yü-kang, with a depth
of 1.8 m at the wharf, and protected by two breakwaters,
each about 1 cable long, is situated close W of Mao-hai Pi;
its entrance is about cable wide. An oil tank and abattoir
on the W side of the harbour are prominent. A light (red
concrete column, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the
head of the E breakwater.
3
Anchorage. Small vessels can obtain shelter from NE
winds, in a depth of 12⋅8 m, sand, 1 cables W of a 2 m
rock at the outer end of the reef extending from Mao-hai
Pi. Larger vessels must anchor farther out. Local
knowledge is required.
Ch’eng-kuang-ao Po-ti
3.90
1
General information. Ch’eng-kuang-ao (23°09′N,
121°24′E), is a small cove and fishing harbour, known as
Hsiao-kang Yü-kang, which provides shelter for boats even
in the NE monsoon, but local knowledge is required as the
narrow entrance and cove are much obstructed with reefs.
Depths in the cove range from 2 to 2⋅4 m.
2
Wu-shih Pi (23°14′N, 121°25′E) lies 4 miles NNE of
Ch’eng-kuang-ao, with Wu-shih-pi Yü-kang within the bay
on its N side.
3
Anchorage, temporary, can be obtained in
Ch’eng-kuang-ao Po-ti, in a depth of 22 m, sand, 5 cables
off the entrance to the cove.
HUA-LIEN HSI TO SAN-TIAO CHIAO
General information
Charts 3234, 3235, 3658
Route
3.91
1
From the entrance to Hua-lien Hsi (23°56′N, 121°36′E)
(3.83), about 2 miles S of Hua-lien, the coastal route leads
NNE for about 70 miles to a position E of San-tiao Chiao
(25°01′N, 122°00′E).
Topography
3.92
1
Between Hua-lien Kang (24°00′N, 121°38′E) (3.100) and
Su-ao Kang (3.108), 38 miles NNE, the coast is steep-to
and backed by a coastal range. From Ch’i-lai Pi (24°01′N,
121°38′E) (3.98) the coastal plain gradually narrows and is
replaced, 10 miles N of the point, by a coastal range rising
precipitously from the sea to elevations of 1220 to 2440 m.
The coastal range continues for another 28 miles N and is
broken only in three places where rivers enter the sea.
Prominent red cliffs are visible at intervals along this
stretch of the coast.
2
From Su-ao Kang a bight extends a further 26 miles
NNE to San-tiao Chiao (2.214), the NE point of T’ai-wan.
Between the mountain ranges running inland at Su-ao and
San-tiao Chiao there is a delta area fed by numerous rivers,
to seaward of which the 200 m line extends well offshore.
The volcanic island of Kuei-shan Tao (3.118) lies near the
middle of the bight.
3
From close N of Pei Chiao (24°36′N, 121°53′E) (3.108)
to T’ou-ch’eng Ch’uan (3.117), 15 miles N, the coast
consists of a sandy beach with sand dunes 6 m high;
behind the dunes there is a broad fertile plain irrigated by
numerous rivers. From T’ou-ch’eng Ch’uan to San-tiao
Chiao, 14 miles NE, the mountains approach the coast,
which is steep and rocky with foul ground extending
3 cables off it in places.
CHAPTER 3
116
Fish havens
3.93
1
Fixed nets and artificial reefs for fishing are established
along the coast in numerous places, not all of which may
be charted; see also 1.13.
Prohibited anchorage
3.94
1
A triangular shaped area, in which anchoring and
trawling are prohibited, lies between Kuei-shan Tao
(24°51′N, 121°57′E) and the coast of T’ai-wan and extends
over 20 miles SE from Kuei-shan Tao. Numerous
submarine cables lie within this area.
Tidal streams
3.95
1
Tidal streams along the coast in the vicinity of Su-ao
Kang (24°36′N, 121°52′E) have a maximum rate of 1 kn,
setting N on the rising tide and S on the falling tide. The
N-going current increases the N-going tidal stream and
diminishes the S-going stream; the centre of the current is
about 20 miles offshore, see 3.74.
2
When proceeding N off the E coast of T’ai-wan, abrupt
changes can be experienced in the rate and direction of
tidal streams after passing San-tiao Chiao (25°01′N,
122°00′E) (2.214).
Principal marks
3.96
1
Landmark:
San-tiao Chiao (25°01′N, 122°00′E) (2.214).
Major lights:
Ch’i-lai Pi Light (24°01′N, 121°38′E) (3.80).
Ho-p’ing Kang W Breakwater Light (24°18′N,
121°45′E).
Pei Chiao Light (white square concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (24°36′N, 121°53′E).
San-tiao Chiao Light (25°01′N, 122°00′E) (2.214).
Other aids to navigation
3.97
1
Racons:
Hua-lien West Breakwater Head Light (3.104).
Pei Chiao Light (3.96), close WNE from light.
Directions
(continued from 3.83)
3.98
1
From a position ESE of the entrance to Hua-lien Hsi
(23°56′N 121°36′E), the track leads NNE, passing (with
positions from 24°15′N, 121°45′E):
2
ESE of Hua-lien Kang (17 miles SSW) (3.100). A
light (3.80) is exhibited from Ch’i-lai Pi, a point
1 miles N of the harbour. Ta-tzu-li Hsi enters the
sea 7 miles N of Ch’i-lai Pi; the bay between is
very deep. Thence:
3
ESE of Nan-shan-chiao Pi (1 miles NW), a rocky
point 8 miles NNE of Ta-tzu-li Hsi; depths along
the coast in the vicinity are great. Close W of the
point there is an isolated peak, 1383 m high, which
is easily identified as it is seldom obscured by
clouds. Ta-ch’ing-shui Hsi enters the sea close S of
the peak. Thence:
4
ESE of Ho-P’ing Kang (3 miles NNE) (3.115),
lying immediately S of Ho-p’ing Hsi, which enters
the sea 3 miles NE of Nan-shan-chiao Pi; the
river is normally a delta of small steams, but after
heavy rains becomes a large estuary. Thence:
5
ESE of Wu-shih Pi (15 miles NNE), a narrow point
projecting from the coast; it has a conical hill,
about 91 m high, on its extremity that appears as
an island when seen from the N. Kuei Shan is an
isolated hill, about 61 m high, on the coast
2 miles SW of Wu-shih Pi; Ta-nan-ao Hsi enters
the sea close S of the hill. Between Wu-shih Pi
and Wu-yen Chiao, 3 miles N, the coast forms a
bay in which there are sandy beaches and depths
from 14⋅6 to 20 m. Thence:
6
To a position ESE of Su-ao Kang (21 miles NNE)
(3.108). A light (3.96) is exhibited from Pei Chiao,
the N entrance point to the harbour. See 3.108 for
dangers off Pei Chiao.
3.99
1
From a position ESE of Su-ao Kang (24°36′N,
121°52′E), the track continues NNE, passing (with positions
from Kuei-shan Tao Light (24°51′N, 121°56′E)):
ESE of Tung-kang K’ou (9 miles SSW) (3.116),
thence:
2
ESE of T’ou-ch’eng Ch’uan (6 miles W) (3.117) and
Kuei-shan Tao (3.118), from where a light is
exhibited. Kuei-shan Tao is covered by the red
sector of San-tiao Chiao Light (25°01′N, 122°00′E)
(2.214). Two circular fish havens, their centres
marked by light-beacons, lie 5 miles ESE and
2 miles ENE, respectively, from the E extremity of
Kuei-shan Tao. An observation light-buoy (special)
is moored 3 miles N of Kuei-chao, the N
extremity of Kuei-shan Tao. Thence:
3
To a position E of San-tiao Chiao (25°01′N,
122°00′E) (2.214).
(Directions continue for T’ai-wan N coast at 2.197)
Hua-lien Kang
Charts 2618 plans of Hua-lien, 3235, 3234
General information
3.100
1
Position. Hua-lien Kang (24°00′N, 121°38′E) is an
artificial harbour to seaward of Hua-lien, a town on the
coastal plain 2 miles NNE of the mouth of Hua-lien Hsi
(3.83). Mei-lun Hsi flows out through the middle of the
town.
Function. The harbour is the largest on the E coast of
T’ai-wan. Exports include cement, gravel, fertilizers, sugar,
timber and paper pulp; it is a base for numerous fishing
craft.
2
Port limits. The harbour limits are shown on the chart
and extend S to the mouth of Hua-lien Hsi and N to
Mei-lun Pi, a point 2 miles NNE of the harbour entrance.
Approach and entry. Hua-lien Kang is approached and
entered from S.
Port Authority. Hualien Harbour Bureau, No 66
Hai-Ann Road, Hualien, T’ai-wan, Republic of China.
Limiting conditions
3.101
1
Controlling depth. The least charted depth in the outer
harbour is 11⋅5 m; charted depths in the inner harbour
generally exceed 7 m, with some lesser depths alongside.
Deepest and longest berth. Berth No 25 on the E side
close inside the harbour entrance is 332 m long with a
charted depth alongside of 16⋅3 m.
2
Tidal levels. MSL 0⋅95 m; mean spring range about
1⋅6 m, mean neap range about 1⋅2 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled. The inner harbour is
restricted to vessels of maximum draught 9⋅1 m and 160 m
CHAPTER 3
117
LOA. Berth No 25 can accommodate vessels of
100 000 dwt.
3
Local weather. The port faces the Pacific Ocean and
and the effects of distant typhoons during the season
between April and November can cause considerable swell
in the harbour; vessels frequently break their moorings and
should therefore arrive with sufficient mooring line for the
conditions. On the approach of a typhoon, vessels will be
required to leave harbour.
Arrival information
3.102
1
Port operations. The port is closed between midnight
and 0500 and prior arrangements should be made for entry
or departure at night. Large vessels may not be permitted
to enter after sunset.
Port radio. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours.
2
Outer anchorage. A quarantine and waiting anchorage
is established about 7 cables SSW of the harbour
entrance. This is an exposed anchorage; the safest period is
from April to June when W winds predominate. At other
times onshore winds bring a swell. Depths in the S part of
the roadstead SE of Hua-lien may change due to the
outflow of river mud and sand. Foul areas are charted E of
the anchorage. Temporary anchorage can also be obtained
about 6 cables SSE of Hua-lien Light (3.104) in depths
from 16⋅4 to 20 m, sand.
3
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited within
1 cable of the leading line between the outer anchorage and
the harbour entrance.
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels over
500 tonnes and available in daylight hours, unless by prior
arrangement. Pilots board in the outer anchorage. In bad
weather pilots may board within the harbour entrance. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs are available.
Harbour
3.103
1
General layout. Both the harbour and the entrance
channel are protected from the E by a long breakwater
extending SSW almost parallel with the coast. The entrance
to the outer harbour is 265 m wide. In the outer harbour,
deep-water berths lie along the W side. The inner harbour
is approached through a channel 100 m wide, marked by
lights on both sides, with a least charted depth of 10⋅1 m in
the centreline of the channel. The inner harbour is quayed
on its W side, and at its N end are two quayed basins
separated by a broad mole. On the E side of the harbour a
basin for fishing vessels and boats has depths from 1.2 to
2⋅4 m.
2
Development. Construction work is in hand (2000) on
the seaward side of this boat basin.
Wave recorders. Several wave recorders are charted
close E of the port and a further recorder 2 cables SSW of
the E breakwater head.
3
Traffic signals. The harbour signal station is on top of
the harbour administration building on the W side of the
entrance to the inner harbour. It is painted white and is
reported to be visible from some distance offshore in clear
weather. The visual signals shown in Diagram 3.103 may
be used to control entry and departure.
Hua Lien Kang − Traffic signals (3.103)
4
Storm signals are exhibited from Hua-lien.
Tidal streams in the anchorage are weak; they slightly
increase or decrease the N-going current offshore. They set
N on the rising tide and S on the falling tide.
Local weather. SW winds prevail from April to October
each year and mainly NNE for the remainder of the year.
5
Landmark:
Mei-lun Shan (23°59′⋅4N, 121°36′⋅4E), an isolated
hill 109 m high, stands close inland of the town
and is a prominent landmark; a radio tower,
3 cables ESE of the hill is also prominent.
6
Major light:
Ch’i-lai Pi Light (24°01′N, 121°38′E) (3.80).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.98)
3.104
1
Approach. The approach to the anchorage is clear of
dangers to the S of the harbour. A rock with a depth of
12⋅6 m over it lies 2 cables E of the East Breakwater
elbow; an area of foul ground lies 5 cables N of this rock
extending 2 cables E from the breakwater.
2
If approaching Hua-lien Kang from N, note should be
taken of the charted dangerous wreck placed as an artificial
fishing reef lying about 9 cables ESE of Mei-lun Pi
(24°00′⋅6N, 121°38′⋅3E) (3.100).
3
Useful marks:
Hua-lien Light (white square metal framework tower,
28 m in height) (23°58′⋅7N, 121°36′⋅3E).
East Breakwater Light (red round concrete column,
11 m in height) (23°58′⋅4N, 121°37′⋅3E).
West Breakwater Head Light (white round column,
11 m in height, racon) (23°58′⋅5N, 121°37′⋅1E).
3.105
1
Entry. Leading lights. The alignment (023°) of the
following lights lead through the outer harbour entrance
and through the centre of the channel into the inner
harbour:
Front light (red triangle on white concrete column,
12 m in height) (23°59′⋅8N, 121°37′⋅8E).
Rear light (white inverted triangle on red concrete
column, 19 m in height) (450 m NNE from front
light).
2
Useful marks:
East Breakwater knuckle light (round metal pole, 2 m
in height) (23°59′⋅2N, 121°37′⋅6E).
West entrance to inner harbour - light (23°59′⋅7N,
121°37′⋅7E).
Boat basin light (red column) (23°59′⋅9N,
121°37′⋅8E).
CHAPTER 3
118
Su-ao Kang looking ESE (3.108)
(Original dated 1984)
(Photograph − “Asian Shipping”)
Berths
3.106
1
There are sixteen berths in the inner harbour, the longest
and deepest being No 8, 220 m in length with a depth
alongside of 10⋅5 m. A further 9 berths are in the outer
harbour, the longest and deepest being No 25, 332 m in
length with a depths of 16.5 m.
2
Alongside depths are reported depths. The port
authorities should be contacted for the latest information.
Port services
3.107
1
Repairs can be undertaken; drydock 180 m in length,
28 m wide and draught 9⋅5 m; slipway for vessels up to
500 tonnes.
Other facilities: hospital; deratting; garbage collection.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Airport N of Hua-lien.
Su-ao Kang
Charts 2618 plan of Su-ao, 3235
General information
3.108
1
Position. Su-ao Kang (24°36′N, 121°52′E) stands on the
N part of the E coast of T’ai-wan; the town of Su-ao
stands on the banks of Ch’uan-t’ou Hsi close W of the
harbour.
2
Function. Su-ao Kang comprises a commercial port on
the W and SW side of the harbour and a naval port in the
N and NE part. It is a protected and well equipped port
with deep-water commercial berths. Imports include logs,
coal, coke and salt; exports include cement, crushed
limestone and marble. The commercial port is under the
jurisdiction of the Chi-lung Port Authority.
3
Topography. Su-ao Kang is entered between Hou-hou Pi
(24°35′N, 121°52′E) and Pei Chiao, 1 miles NNE, and is
the only natural harbour on the E coast of T’ai-wan,
surrounded on three sides by high ground. San-hsien-t’ai,
7cables E of Pei Chiao, is a group of above-water rocks
of which the largest and W is 29 m high. A shoal having a
least depth of 4⋅7 m over it lies 2 cables SW of
San-hsien-t’ai. Mi Tao, another group of above-water rocks,
lie 2 cables NE of San-hsien-t’ai; the two largest in this
group are 11 and 20 m high.
4
Ch’uan-t’ou Hsi flows into the head of the harbour on
its NW side; the mouth of the river is continually changing
and boats can only enter easily at HW. Short breakwaters
extend E either side of the river mouth.
5
Port limits. The harbour limit is an arc, radius 1 mile,
centred on Pei Chiao Light (24°36′N, 121°53′E).
Approach and entry. The main approach to Su-ao is
from SE and the port is entered between protective
breakwaters, the entrance being about 280 m wide.
6
Port Authority. Su-ao Harbour Bureau, 3rd Floor Suao
Port Building, Su-ao, Taiwan, Republic of China.
Limiting conditions
3.109
1
Deepest and longest berth. No 6 berth (3.113).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅2 m, mean neap
range about 0⋅5 m. See also Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. LOA 260 m, draught
14⋅5 m, 80 000 dwt.
Local weather. The port is affected by severe tropical
storms and typhoons, mainly between July and September,
August being the most frequent month. SE winds in the
summer send in a dangerous sea.
Arrival information
3.110
1
Port operations. Berthing and unberthing by day only,
although permission may be given for unberthing at night.
Port radio. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours, with details passed
to Chi-lung Port Authority (2.219).
2
Outer anchorages. Vessels may anchor about 4 cables S
of the harbour entrance to E of the S breakwater in depths
of 24 m. The recognised quarantine anchorage is within the
CHAPTER 3
119
outer harbour, clear of the main fairway, in depths from 19
to 21 m, sand.
3
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels over
500 tonnes and is available in daylight hours only. Pilots
board in the vicinity of the outer anchorage.
Tugs are available.
4
Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring within the inner
harbour is not permitted without permission. Anchoring is
not permitted near the charted underwater cables.
Prohibited area. The N part of the inner harbour is a
prohibited area.
5
Regulations concerning entry. Permission to enter
harbour must be obtained from the naval signal station on
the N shore about 1 cable WNW from Pei Chiao Light
(24°36′N, 121°53′E).
Harbour
3.111
1
General layout. The commercial port lies on the W and
SW side of Su-ao Kang. Nan-fang Wan, entered between
two breakwaters, contains Berths 8 to 13; a fishing harbour
is entered from the S of Nan-fang Wan. The naval port
area lies in Pei-fang Wan, a sheltered bay on the NE side
of the harbour. Additional berths have been built on
reclaimed land W of Pei-fang Wan. The inner part of Su-ao
Kang is entered between the container terminal on the W
side and an inner breakwater extending SW, thence NW
from the E side of Pei-fang Wan.
2
Fishing. There is considerable fishing vessel activity in
the vicinity of the port.
Tidal streams. A weak tidal stream sets into Su-ao
Kang on the rising tide.
Local weather. The prevailing winds from mid
September to early April are NE; in the summer months,
strong onshore winds from SE occur during the day.
3
Major light:
Pei Chiao Light (24°36′N, 121°53′E) (3.96).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.98)
3.112
1
Approach. The approach to the port from SE is clear of
dangers. San-hsien-t’ai (3.108), with adjacent shoal and
rocks, lying 7cables E of Pei Chiao are covered by a red
sector of Pei Chiao Light (24°36′N, 121°53′E). Wave
recorders are charted 5 cables ENE and 6 cables NE from
San-hsien-t’ai.
2
The channel between the dangers extending NE of Pei
Chiao (3.108) and San-hsien-t’ai and adjacent rocks is not
recommended without local knowledge.
3
Useful marks:
N breakwater light (red round concrete tower, 19 m in
height) (24°35′⋅8N, 121°52′⋅4E).
S breakwater light (white round concrete tower, 18 m
in height) (24°35′⋅7N, 121°52′⋅4E).
4
Entry. A directional light (white metal framework tower,
6 m in height), the white sector of which indicates the
harbour approach and entry between the outer breakwaters,
is exhibited from a point on the E side of Chi-hsing Ling
(24°36′⋅3N, 121°50′⋅7E), 230 m high, at the head of the
harbour.
5
Caution. A dangerous wreck lies on the limit of the
white sector 5 cables ESE of the light at the head of the
N breakwater.
6
Inner harbour. Buoys, not charted, are moored along
the N part of the 10 m depth contour at the head of the
harbour. Light-buoys mark the approach to Nan-fang Wan
(3.111) on the W side of the outer harbour, and
light-beacons stand on either side the entrance to Nan-fang
Wan.
7
Useful marks:
Container terminal N point light (white round
concrete column, 11 m in height) (24°35′⋅9N,
121°51′⋅6E).
Inner N breakwater elbow light (red octagonal
concrete column, 19 m in height) (24°35′⋅9N,
121°51′⋅9E).
Berths
3.113
1
There are thirteen commercial berths, including a
terminal for containers. No 6 berth is 290 m in length with
a depth of 15 m alongside. Depths alongside Berths 2 to 7
range between 11 and 15 m; depths alongside berths 8 to
13 are between 8 and 10 m.
2
Alongside depths are reported depths. The port
authorities should be contacted for the latest information.
Port services
3.114
1
Repairs facilities are available; drydock for 10 000 tonne
vessels, length 165 m, width 23⋅7 m, sill depth 7⋅7 m at
MHWS; slipway for 500 tonne vessels.
Other facilities. Hospital.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. International airport near T’ai-pei.
Anchorages and harbours
Ho-p’ing Kang
3.115
1
Description. Ho-p’ing Kang (24°18′N, 121°45′E) is an
artificial harbour lying S of the entrance to Ho-p’ing Hsi
(3.98). Two groups of several unlit buoys lie close offshore
off the E side of the harbour. Details of the port, other than
those below, are not yet available. Work is in progress
(2000) on the N side of the harbour.
2
Controlling depth. A least charted depth in the entrance
channel close to the centre line of the approach is 11⋅7 m
lying close W of the N breakwater head.
3
Pilotage is available in daylight hours only. A pilot
boarding position is established on the extension of the
centre line of the harbour approach about 1 miles S of
the light (3.96) on the head of the S breakwater.
4
Directions. The approach is clear of any dangers. From
the pilot boarding position, the harbour is entered from the
S along a fairway 200 m wide. A directional light on the N
side of the harbour, with a centre bearing of 010°, leads
through the harbour entrance; lights are exhibited from the
heads of the outer breakwaters and from each side of the
inner entrance. The 10 m depth contour on the N side of
the harbour, beyond which the bottom shelves steeply, is
marked by light-buoys; a turning area lies to the S of these
buoys.
5
Berths S1−S5 lie on the W side of the harbour,
numbered from N to S. The deepest and longest berth, N2,
lies on the NE side of the harbour, about 280 m in length
with depths in excess of 13⋅7 m.
Tung-kang K’ou
3.116
1
Tung-kang K’ou (24°43′N, 121°50′E) is the estuary of
Lan-yang Hsi. Although about 1 cable wide with depths
from 0⋅6 to 0⋅9 m, the estuary is subject to change as the
result of floods or action of the sea; boats can enter the
CHAPTER 3
120
river at HW. A flat-topped sand dune on the N side of the
entrance is a good mark.
Chart 3658
T’ou-ch’eng Ch’uan
3.117
1
T’ou-ch’eng Ch’uan (24°51′N, 121°49′E) is another
estuary 8 miles N of Tung-kang K’ou (3.116); boats have
difficulty in entering, even at HW in good weather, due to
strong streams and heavy surf.
Kuei-shan Tao
3.118
1
General information. Kuei-shan Tao (24°51′N,
121°57′E), 6 miles E of T’ou-ch’eng Ch’uan (3.117), is a
steep-to, volcanic island rising to a conical peak 398 m
high. From N and S the island resembles a tortoise with
the pointed summit of Kuei-t’ou An, its E point,
representing the head, and a pebble bank extending from
Kuei-wei An, the W end of the island, representing the tail.
There is a village on the W side of the island and a light is
exhibited from that side.
2
Kuei-luan Yen, 2 miles S of the W end of the island,
is a group of rocks 9 m high. Another isolated rock 1 m
high lies 1 miles SSW of the E end of Kuei-shan Tao.
3
Kuei-shan Tao is an active volcano and white vapour
may be seen issuing from several places on the S coast;
sulphur rising from the seabed S of Kuei-wei An may
cause a whitish discolouration of the water.
4
Anchorage, temporary, can be obtained, in depths of
less than 20 m, about 2 cables N of Kuei-wan An; the tidal
streams here are not appreciable.
NOTES
121
Chapter 4 - South-east coast of China from Zhelang Jiao to Dongyin Dao
Fuzhou
Quanzhou
Xiamen
Shantou
Haitan Haixia
Xinghua Wan
Meizhou Wan
CHINA
J
i
a
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i
G
a
n
g
D
o
n
g
s
h
a
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w
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A
n
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h
.
Jiungangqu Wandumatou
1962
1767
1760
2413
2400
2411
2410
1761
1
9
6
2
1
7
6
7
3449
3449
1786
Q
u
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1754
2410
1372
1204
4
.
1
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4
.
6
3
4
.
1
3
7
4
.
1
8
2
4
.
2
0
6
4
.
2
4
2
4
.
2
9
8
4.257
4.270
4.225
4.216
4.188
4.152
4.99
4.27
854
854
116°
117°
120°
116°
117°
118°
119°
120°
22°
23°
24°
25°
26°
22°
23°
24°
25°
26°
Longitude 118
°
East from Greenwich
122
123
CHAPTER 4
SOUTH-EAST COAST OF CHINA FROM ZHELANG JIAO TO DONGYIN DAO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1968, 1761
Scope of the chapter
4.1
1
This chapter describes the SE China coast between
Zhelang Jiao (22°39′N, 115°34′E) (see China Sea Pilot
Volume I) and Dongyin Dao (26°22′N, 120°30′E) and
includes the major ports of Shantou (23°20′N, 116°45′E),
Xiamen (24°26′N, 118°04′E) and Fuzhou (25°59′N,
119°27′E).
2
It is divided into the following sections:
Zhelang Jiao to Xiamen Gang (4.8).
Xiamen Gang to Niushan Dao (4.136).
Niushan Dao to Dongyin Dao (4.241).
Routes
4.2
1
Coastal. The coastal routeing contained under Directions
in this chapter is based on that recommended by the
Chinese authorities for passage between the main ports
along the coast. In the approach to ports, the routes take
into consideration the existence of any mined or prohibited
areas, and lead to the point from which entry directions,
where available, are given.
Through routes for Taiwan Strait are described at 2.6.
2
Inshore route. The coast of China S of Changjiang Kou
(31°15′N, 122°15′E) (7.75) is fringed by a profusion of
islands and islets providing a multitude of inshore channels
and passages that would undoubtedly be helpful to a small
or low-powered vessel in making a passage against the NE
monsoon. However, it is by no means certain which of
these channels are open for navigation to foreign ships, but
where restrictions are known to exist they are mentioned in
the relevant text.
Depths
4.3
1
All the bays along the coast described in this chapter lie
within the 20 m depth contour. For depths in Taiwan Strait
see 2.7.
Hazards
4.4
1
Fishing. Very large groups of fishing vessels are likely
to be encountered along the coastal passage on the W side
of Taiwan Strait.
Uncharted wrecks. See note on charts concerning
uncharted wrecks.
Pilotage
4.5
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels entering and
departing Chinese ports; ETAs must be sent as required.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Regulations
4.6
1
Foreign vessels entering Chinese ports are subject to
entry and exit procedures and inspection may be carried out
by representatives of the port authorities and those from the
customs, immigration, health and agriculture agencies. Such
inspections are co-ordinated by the port authority. Port
entry procedures may be completed through the ships’s
agent prior to arrival, or within 24 hours of arrival.
2
For signals that may be used in Chinese ports, see 1.68.
For other details concerning the entry and departure of
foreign vessels into and from ports in the People’s Republic
of China, see Appendix III.
Navigation
4.7
1
Buoyage. For information on buoyage see 1.24.
Navigation aids provided and maintained by China have
been and are subject to improvement in recent times. Of
particular note is the increased use being made of racons to
mark salient points. Navigational lights are liable to
alteration without notice and new lights continue to be
established.
ZHELANG JIAO TO XIAMEN GANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1760, 1962
Area covered
4.8
1
This section describes the SE China coast between
Zhelang Jiao (22°39′N, 115°34′E) (China Sea Pilot
Volume I) and Xiamen Gang (24°26′N, 118°04′E), including
that port and the port of Shantou Gang (23°20′N,
116°45′E).
2
It is arranged as follows:
Zhelang Jiao to Biao Jiao (4.10).
Shantou Gang (4.27).
Biao Jiao to Dongding Dao (4.63).
Xiamen Gang (4.99).
Sandwaves
4.9
1
Sandwaves exist in the area N and NW of the Taiwan
Banks; depths in these areas may be less than charted.
CHAPTER 4
124
ZHELANG JIAO TO BIAO JIAO
General information
Chart 1962 (see 1.18)
Route
4.10
1
From a position SSE of Zhelang Jiao (22°39′N,
115°34′E), the coastal route leads ENE, for about 80 miles
to a position SE of Biao Jiao (23°14′N, 116°48′E).
Topography
4.11
1
The coast of mainland China between Zhelang Jiao
(22°39′N, 115°34′E), the W entrance point to Jeishi Wan
(4.18), and Shantou Gang, 80 miles ENE, forms the W side
of the S approach to Taiwan Strait. It is indented by a
number of broad bays most of which afford only indifferent
anchorage during the NE monsoon, although Jeishi Wan is
an exception. Much of the coastline is low and sandy with
scattered isolated hills and ridges.
Depths
4.12
1
Depths along the coastal route generally exceed 20 m
throughout, the shallowest water being in the vicinity of
Taiwan Banks (2.14).
Current
4.13
1
During the monsoons, the current along this stretch of
the coast sets mainly parallel to the coast, but occasionally
onshore sets of considerable strength have been
experienced. There is a particular risk of such dangerous
sets in the vicinity of a typhoon.
Principal marks
4.14
1
Landmarks:
A prominent black hill (22°52′N, 116°09′E), formerly
known as Black Mount, 56 m high, rises from red
sand dunes 4 miles NE of Jiazi Jiao (4.16), and
can often be seen at night.
2
Major lights:
Zhelang Yan Light (white round concrete tower, 30 m
in height) (22°39′N, 115°34′E).
Tianwei Jiao Light (grey 6-sided stone masonry
tower, 6 m in height) (22°45′N, 115°49′E).
Jiazi Jiao Light (white round tower, 17 m in height)
(22°49′N, 116°06′E).
Shibeishan Jiao Light (white round concrete tower,
59 m in height) (22°56′N, 116°30′E).
Biao Jiao Light (white round concrete tower, 16 m in
height) (23°14′N, 116°48′E).
Nanpeng Dao Light (white round concrete tower,
22 m in height) (23°16′N, 117°17′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.15
1
Racon:
Shibeishan Jiao Light (22°56′N, 116°30′E).
DGPS:
Dezhou Dao (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅4E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume I)
Zhelang Jiao to Jiazi Jiao
4.16
1
From a position SSE of Zhelang Jiao (22°39′N,
115°34′E) (China Sea Pilot Volume I), from where Zhelang
Yan Light (4.14) is exhibited, the track leads ENE, passing
(with positions from Shibeishan Jiao Light (22°56′N,
116°30′E)):
Clear of a dangerous wreck (22°25′N, 115°44′E), the
position of which is approximate, thence:
2
SSE of Tianwei Jiao (39 miles WSW), the S
extremity of a promontory rising to a prominent
sharp, rocky summit, 115 m high, standing close
NW of the point. A light (4.14) is exhibited from
the point. A dangerous wreck, and a wreck with a
depth of 16 m over it, lie, respectively 12 and
13 miles SSE from Tianwei Jiao. Xijie Jiao, 14 m
high and rugged with two granite hummocks, lies
3 miles SW of Tianwei Jiao; two underwater rocks,
with depths from 5⋅6 m and 6 m, lie, respectively,
3 cables NNW and 5 cables NW of Xijie Jiao.
Dongjie Jiao, a group of black rocks up to 7 m
high, lies 1 miles SE of Tianwei Jiao; the
passage N of it should not be used. Jieshi Wan
(4.18) lies NW. Thence:
3
SSE of Shuiniuba (Shuinjukan) Jiao (34 miles WSW),
distinguished by a conspicuous mound 22 m high
close NW of it, and situated 5 miles ENE of
Tianwei Jiao (above); the coast between consists of
a sandy plain. Wutou Jiao, with a least depth of
3⋅8 m, lie 1 miles WSW of Shuiniuba Jiao.
Thence:
4
SSE of Hudong Jiao (31 miles WSW); on it there is
a fort and a prominent dome-shaped building
resembling a beehive. An obstruction lies 10 miles
S from the point. Haijia Shan, 214 m high, with
Xiawei Shan, 181 m high, close NE of it, stands
3 miles NNE of Hudong Jiao; both hills are
prominent. A small islet, surrounded by reefs and
rocks, lies about 1 mile SE of Hudong Jiao; one of
these, formerly known as Figure Rock, is peculiar
when seen from E.
5
Thence the track continues to a position SSE of Jiazi
Jiao (23 miles WSW), a prominent point with a rugged
summit from where a light (4.14) is exhibited. Several
islets and rocks extend S and SE and the point should be
given a berth of at least 2 miles. Dongbai Jiao, 11 m
high, is the outer danger and lies 1 miles S of the point;
rocks with depths of less than 5 m over them extend
1 miles ENE of Dongbai Jiao. In 1904, SS Workfield,
drawing 7⋅3 m, reported having struck an obstruction,
probably a rock, lying 4 miles ESE of Jiazi Jiao. A
wreck, with a swept depth of 11 m over it, lies 4 miles
SSE from Jiazi Jiao; a dangerous wreck lies 8 miles E of
the point. Dangerous wrecks, positions approximate, lie
9 miles SE and 13 miles SSE, and a wreck with a safe
depth of 18 m lies 20 miles SE from the point.
Jiazi Jiao to Biao Jiao
4.17
1
From Jiazi Jiao the track continues ENE, passing:
SSE of Geli Yan (22°55′N, 116°27′E), with a depth
of 3⋅2 m over it, lying at the SW edge of an area
of foul ground extending 2 miles SW of
Shibeishan Jiao (below), thence:
CHAPTER 4
125
SSE of Shibeishan Jiao, a prominent cape from where
a light (4.14) is exhibited. Dajin Shan, 114 m high,
rises 2 miles N of the cape. Thence:
2
SSE of Beipaotai Jiao (5 miles NNE). A dangerous
wreck, marked by a light-buoy (isolated danger)
lies just over 2 miles E. A remarkable
dome-shaped tower, and a low square fort, stand
near the E entrance point to Jinghai Gang (4.23)
1 mile W of Beipaotai Jiao. Thence:
SSE of Haimen Wan (12 miles NNE) (4.25) and
Guang’ao Wan (20 miles NNE) (4.26).
3
The track then continues to a position SE of Biao Jiao
(24 miles NE), the steep-to E extremity of the hilly
peninsula forming the E side of Guang’ao Wan (4.26). A
light (4.14) is exhibited from Biao Jiao. A shoal patch with
a least depth of 5⋅3 m lies 4 cables E. Leikou Shan,
7 cables W of Biao Jiao, has a flagstaff on its 142 m high
summit. A dangerous wreck, marked by a light-buoy
(isolated danger) lies 1⋅4 miles ENE from the point. On
occasions, in thick weather, mariners have mistaken
Haimen Jiao (4.25), 10 miles WSW, for Biao Jiao, as they
are very similar each having three distinct high points with
sandy beaches between. The approaches to Shantou Gang
(4.27) lie N.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 4.70,
for an inshore route at 4.72 and for
entering Shantou Gang at 4.51)
Anchorages and harbours
Jieshi Wan
4.18
1
Description. Jieshi Wan (22°45′N, 115°40′E) is entered
between Zhelang Jiao (4.16) in the W and Tianwei Jiao
(4.16) 15 miles ENE. The shores of this bay are densely
populated and in moderate weather the bay and its
approaches are crowded with fishing boats. There are a
number of fishing harbours within the bay, but the channels
leading to these harbour silt up and depths are constantly
changing.
2
A fishing harbour lies in the bay W of Jinxiang Jiao, the
entrance 2 miles NW of the point. Light-buoys and
light-beacons mark the approach and entrance, which has
depths of less than 1 m.
3
Jieshi (22°49′N, 115°49′E) lies some 4 miles N of
Tianwei Jiao, and is approached through an inlet, navigable
by small vessels, with an entrance 1 miles WNW from
the town. There is less than 1 m depth in the entrance.
Training walls extend from either side of the mouth of the
inlet. A pier extends 4 cables W from the coast 1 miles
SSE of this entrance; two light-buoys (lateral) mark the
approach to the pier. A third light-buoy (W cardinal) marks
a rock with a depth of 3⋅5 m lying 3 miles NW of
Tianwei Jiao.
4
Topography. Jin Yu, 37 m high, with a precipitous
rocky summit at its N end, lies on the W side of the
entrance to the bay, 4 miles NE of Zhelang Jiao. Baisha
Jiao, situated 6 miles NNE of Zhelang Jiao, is the NE
extremity of Baisha Bandao, a hilly peninsula connected to
the mainland SW by a narrow sandy isthmus; a number of
drying rocks lie within 5 cables of the shore between these
two points. Chengpu Shan, 534 m high, is the highest
summit of a range which rises from the coast 4 miles NW
of Biasha Jiao.
5
Jinxiang Jiao, 8 miles NE of Baisha Jiao, has a
conspicuous hillock 48 m high. Xi Shan, a well defined
summit 444 m high, rises 1 miles NE of Jinxiang Jiao,
and Jinding Shan, 282 m high, rises 5 miles E of the point.
6
The E part of Jeishi Wan, between Jinxiang Jiao and
Tianwei Jiao, is obstructed with several remarkably
precipitous rocky islets, rocks and shoals which are not
always visible due to the muddy colour of the water.
The head of the bay is mostly flat and swampy, and
through it discharge two rivers.
7
Anchorage, protected from all but S winds, can be
obtained in Jeishi Wan by choosing a berth on either side
of the bay according to prevailing monsoon; however
vessels of deep draught must anchor well out in the bay.
The swell is felt throughout the bay during the NE
monsoon.
8
Light draught vessels can obtain anchorage N of Baisha
Bandao in depths from 5 to 8 m protected from SW winds;
and in the NE monsoon in a position 2 miles NW of
Tianwei Jiao, or in a position 8 cables W of a prominent
block of granite, with an elevation of 18 m, which stands
on a hillock near the shore 3 miles N of Tianwei Jiao;
this position is N of the pier approach light-buoys (see
above). Small vessels of less than 3 m draught can anchor
NW of Jinxiang Jiao.
Hudong
4.19
1
General information. Hudong (22°49′N, 115°57′E) is a
village lying 7cables N of Hudong Jiao (4.16). The
entrance to the river leading to Hudong, accessible by
boats, is 5 cables NW of the point. A light-beacon (9 m in
height) stands on the S side of the entrance.
2
Anchorage, temporary, can be obtained outside the
harbour in 4 to 5 m, sand, during the NE monsoon,
although there is often a swell.
Jiazi Gang
4.20
1
Description. Jiazi Gang (22°51′N, 116°05′E) The walled
town of Jiazi is situated 1 mile N of the W entrance point
where there are two T-shaped piers. The harbour is used
mainly by fishing vessels.
Tidal streams in the anchorage set NE with a rate of
1 kn on the in-going tide, and SE with a rate of 1 kn on
the out-going tide.
2
Directions. From a position W of Jiazi Jiao (22°49′N,
116°06′E), the trcak leads N passing:
W of a mooring buoy 1miles NNW of Jiazi Jiao,
thence:
E of Wujiaopan, lying in the approach to the harbour,
2 m high; other rocks fringe the coast to the NW,
thence:
3
E of the head of a training wall extending 5 cables N,
at which point stands the ruins of a fort; a light
(white round masonry structure, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from the training wall head. Thence:
Over the bar with a depth of 1⋅2 m over it, thence:
W of a light-beacon (isolated danger) standing on
Waiyin Jiao close off the E entrance point.
4
Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels, during the
NE monsoon, S of Wujiaopan in a depth of 9 m, but there
is usually a heavy ground swell.
Shenquan
4.21
1
Description. Shenquan (22°58′N, 116°18′E) is a village
situated 14 miles NE of Jiazi Jiao (4.16); the coast between
is low and sandy. The village is on the E entrance point
where two rivers meet and enter the sea. A sea wall and
breakwater extends E and thence SE for 1 miles from a
CHAPTER 4
126
point near the charted W entrance point of the river across
and S of the village to form a harbour. The entrance is
narrow, shallow and reefs lie close W.
2
Useful mark:
A pagoda stands on a hill 2 miles N of the village.
Shenquan’ao Jiao Light (not charted) (4 m in height)
is exhibited from a point on the coast about
1 miles SE of the E entrance point of the river.
3
Anchorage can be obtained during the NE monsoon, in
a depth of 9⋅4 m, with the pagoda bearing 348°; the
holding is fairly good but there is often a heavy swell.
Yingqishi, a rock with a depth of 1⋅6 m over it, lies in the
SE approach to the anchorage, 4 miles SE of the river
entrance and 1 miles off the coast.
Gangliao Wan
4.22
1
Description. Gangliao Wan is the bay lying N of Geli
Yan (22°55′N, 116°27′E (4.16).
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage, during the NE monsoon, can be obtained, in
a depth of 10 m, 5 cables WSW of Gui Dao, a 20 m high
islet which lies 1 miles NNW of Geli Yan. Anchorage
can also be obtained on the E side of Gangliao Wan.
Zishen Gang
4.23
1
Description. Zishen Gang is a small artificial fishing
harbour in the bay 2 miles NNE of Shibeishan Jiao
(22°56′N, 116°30′E) (4.16). A breakwater partially encloses
the bay in which there is anchorage. Reefs lie in the
approach.
2
Useful marks:
Nanpaotai Light (not charted) (7 m in height) is
exhibited from the E entrance point to the bay;
another light is exhibited from a reef 3 cables SE
of the point.
Leading marks situated on the shore about 2cables
E of Nanpaotai Light assist the approach from SE.
Jinghai Gang
4.24
1
Description. Jinghai Gang is entered 4 miles NNE of
Shibeishan Jiao (22°56′N, 116°30′E) (4.16). The coast is
flat in the vicinity and a rock, 4 m high, lies 3 cables SE
of the entrance. The harbour is shallow, silting occurs, and
it is difficult to enter.
2
Useful mark:
A light (not charted) (white triangular concrete
structure, 11 m in height) is exhibited from
Beipaotai Jiao (4.16).
Haimen Wan
4.25
1
Description. Haimen Wan (23°08′N, 116°35′E) is
entered between a point 5 miles N of Beipaotai Jiao (4.16)
and Haimen Jiao 6 miles farther NE. Haimen Jiang, with
a depth of 2⋅3 m on the bar, flows into the N part of
Haimen Wan; on its E entrance point stands the town of
Haimen.
2
Haimen Gang, a large fishing port, lies within the
entrance where there are anchorages, mooring buoys and
some alongside berths.
Topography. Jiakeng Shan, 1 miles N of Haimen Jiao,
has an artificial mound on its 179 m high summit. Two
pagodas stand on hills 6 miles N and 7 miles NNW of
the same point. Yantou Shan, 347 m high, is situated
11 miles NW of Haimen Jiao.
3
Measured distance is established on the W side of
Haimen Wan as follows:
Two pairs of beacons stand at each end on the W
shore of the bay and a pair of leading beacons
stand close SE of Haimen.
Front (23°08′⋅7N, 116°32′⋅5E)
Rear (23°08′⋅9N, 116°32′⋅3E)
Distance of 3866 m.
Running track 031°−211°.
4
Directions. From a position S of Haimen Jiao (23°10′N,
116°39′E), the track leads NNW, passing:
WSW of Xiaoshi Jiao (Shi Jiao), 5 cables S of
Haimen Jiao, with a least depth of 1⋅7 m, on
which the sea breaks only when there is a heavy
swell.
5
The alignment (341°) of light-beacons standing on the
W side of the entrance lead NNW through the fairway,
marked by light-buoys and light-beacons, into Haimen
Gang.
Useful mark:
Lianhua Feng Light (4 m in height) stands on the
point close S of Haimen.
6
Anchorage. Small vessels sometimes shelter in the bay
during the NE monsoon, but it is not recommended as an
anchorage; however small vessels can obtain anchorage
close off the coast and ESE of the point S of Haimen in
depths from 3 to 5 m.
Chart 854
Guang’ao Wan
4.26
1
General information. Guang’ao Wan (23°12′N,
116°43′E) is entered between Haimen Jiao (23°10′N,
116°39′E) (4.25) and the S extremity of a peninsula
8 miles NE; during the in-going tide there is often a
heavy race off the latter point. At the head of the bay a
narrow and intricate creek leads NW into Shantou Gang
(4.27).
2
Directions. The W shore of the bay must be given a
berth of at least 1 mile to avoid detached rocks lying within
that distance. Passage over the bar at the creek entrance, on
which there is a depth of 2⋅1 m, requires great caution.
Large fishing junks approach the creek on a NE track and
pass close SE of the E of two islets off its entrance.
3
A ruined fort stands on a hill on the E entrance point of
the creek, close S of which a reef extends 3 cables
offshore; several other dangers lie on the E side of the
approach within 1 mile of the shore.
Useful mark:
Huzi Light (white concrete post, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from a point on the coast 1 miles W of
the E entrance point.
4
Shantou LPG Terminal. A jetty extends S from the E
entrance point of the bay. The berth is aligned 120°/300°
with a depth alongside of 12⋅2 m; it is understood there are
plans (2002) to dredge the berth to 14⋅5 m. The maximum
draft accepted is 9⋅9 m. LPG 1 Light-buoy (E cardinal) lies
4 cables SW of the jetty head, from where a light is
exhibited.
5
Other berths lie about 7 cables NW from the LPG
terminal.
CHAPTER 4
127
Anchorage. Secure anchorage can be obtained in the
bay during the NE monsoon. Local knowledge is required.
SHANTOU GANG
General information
Charts 854, 1962
Position
4.27
1
Shantou Gang (23°21′N, 116°41′E) is situated on the
coast of China near the S entrance to Taiwan Strait.
Function
4.28
1
The city of Shantou, with a population of about
1 million (2000), stands on the N bank of the river at a
point where Han Jiang and Rong Jiang meet and reach the
sea; the city lies in the E part of Guangdong Province.
Shantou is a major industrial city, with excellent
communications infrastructure inland, and is a major
transhipment port for the area. Main products handled
include LNG and petroleum, steel products and general
cargo.
Topography
4.29
1
Han Jiang delta, consisting of low sandhills fronted by
extensive sandbanks, forms the N shore of the approach. A
pagoda stands on a hill (23°24′⋅5N, 116°48′⋅9E), 74 m high,
on the coast N of the entrance to Shantou Gang.
The N shore of Shantou Gang, a flat and largely
reclaimed area, curves W for 3 miles from the entrance to
the city of Shantou. The S shore of the harbour, between
the entrance and a hilly promontory opposite the city, is
indented with a large drying bay.
2
Gui Yu (23°20′⋅3N, 116°38′⋅4E), 13 m high, lies on the
S side of the fairway at the W end of the harbour; a light
(4.53) is exhibited from the island. To the W of Gui Yu,
the estuary opens out into a wide basin largely filled with
shallow banks and flats.
Cao Yu, formerly an island 37 m high and now joined to
the mainland by reclamation, lies 5 cables SSW of Gui Yu.
The creek entered SSE of the island leads to Guang’ao
Wan (4.26).
Port limits
4.30
1
The harbour limits pass through the E extremity of
Dezhou Dao (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅3E), and Gui Yu
(23°20′⋅3N, 116°38′⋅4E).
Approach and entry
4.31
1
The port is approached from SSE through a channel
dredged through the estuary bar and entered from SE
passing S of Dezhou Dao (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅3E), on the
alignment of lights.
Port Authority
4.32
1
Shantou Port Affairs Bureau, 1 Shang Ping Road,
Shantou 515011, Guangdong Province, China.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
4.33
1
The outer channel through the estuary bar is 120 m wide
and dredged to 9⋅5 m; the main channel through the
harbour is a similar width and dredged to 8 m.
Vertical clearance
4.34
1
Shantou Bay Bridge (23°20′⋅0N, 116°44′⋅6E) with a
vertical clearance of 46 m.
Deepest and longest berth
4.35
1
Mashan Coal Jetty (4.56).
Tidal levels
4.36
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅3 m; mean neap range about
0⋅5 m; for further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Abnormal levels
4.37
1
Tides can be predicted from Admiralty Tide Tables but
are considerably influenced by the prevailing wind. Thus
with E winds of more than force 3, HW may be expected
later and higher, and LW sooner and higher, than
predictions. With W winds of more than force 3 a reverse
effect can be expected. During the SW monsoon the tidal
rise may be only 0⋅6 to 0⋅9 m for a number of days.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.38
1
Up to 35 000 dwt displacement.
Arrival information
Port radio
4.39
1
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA
4.40
1
Seventy-two hours, with updates thereafter.
Outer anchorages
4.41
1
No 1 anchorage, waiting and quarantine, is centred on
23°17′N, 116°48′E, with a least charted depth of 6⋅6 m, silt.
A dangerous wreck lies 3 cables N of the light-beacon
(23°17′N, 116°48′E) marking the seaward end of the
submerged training wall.
2
Anchorage (not charted) for deeper draught vessels
waiting to enter has been designated to the E and SE of
No 1 anchorage within the following coordinates:
23°17′⋅0N, 116°48′⋅0E.
23°18′⋅0N, 116°48′⋅5E.
23°16′⋅0N, 116°51′⋅5E.
23°16′⋅0N, 116°50′⋅0E.
3
A dangerous wreck, the position of which is
approximate, lies between this anchorage and Niang Jiao
(23°19′N, 116°50′E) (4.29). Another dangerous wreck (see
above) lies WNW of this anchorage.
4
Vessels may also anchor in the area between Cao Yu
(23°15′⋅2N, 116°48′⋅0E) (4.51) and Tiezhen Yu (4.51),
1⋅6 miles NNW, taking care to avoid a dangerous wreck,
position approximate, mast visible, 6 cables N of Cao Yu.
CHAPTER 4
128
Pilotage
4.42
1
Pilotage is available 24 hours, the pilot boards in No 1
anchorage (4.41). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Tugs
4.43
1
Tugs up to 3400 hp are available.
Traffic regulations
4.44
1
Prohibited anchorage. A corridor, just over 1 cable in
width, in which anchoring and fishing are prohibited is
established in the harbour between Dahao Dao and Shantou
at meridian 116°40′⋅7E.
2
Regulations concerning entry. The outer entrance
channel, between Nos 1 and 2 Light-buoys up to, and
including, Dezhou Shuidao (4.52), is designated as
one-way, within which large vessels may not meet or
overtake.
3
Speed limit passing under Shantou Bay Bridge (4.52) is
6 kn and within the inner fairway, W of Mayu Dao (4.52),
the speed limit is 8 kn.
Harbour
General layout
4.45
1
The old port area is that lying along the N bank of the
river fronting Shantou city. In the NW of Dahao Dao, the
large island lying opposite Shantou, is the port area of
Dangshi. Mashan port area is that lying in the NE of
Dahao Dao, on the SW side of Dezhou Shuidao. On the N
bank opposite Mashan is the Zhuchi port area.
Hazards
4.46
1
Local traffic. Local boats carrying sand and stone
operate in the port area and are liable to cut close across
the bows of larger vessels. Short, squat vessels with low
freeboard operate between Nan’ao Dao (23°26′N, 117°04′E)
(4.97) and Shantou carrying scallop shells; they are
low-powered, difficult to communicate with and, if sailing,
often occupy the deep-water channel. They should be
treated with caution.
2
Fishing. Buoys are frequently placed to mark fishing
nets off the SW point of Dezhou Dao (4.52); the nets are
only laid during the out-going stream, but when submerged
the nets can be dangerous to boats swept against them.
Fishing stakes lie off Mayu Dao, the SW limit of which are
marked by light-beacons, see 4.52. Fishing stakes may also
to found elsewhere in the harbour extending to the edge of
the fairway. Fishermen have usually been successful in
claiming damages against vessels colliding with fishing
stakes. Numerous fishing craft may also be encountered in
the deep-water channel of Dezhou Shuidao (4.52),
particularly during the winter months.
Storm signals
4.47
1
Storm signals (1.68) are exhibited from a flagstaff on
the port signal station (23°21′⋅2N, 116°40′⋅3E) when a
typhoon is within 100 miles.
Natural conditions
4.48
1
Tidal streams in Dezhou Shuidao (4.52) set directly
through the channel, except during the out-going stream
when a branch sets along the N side of Dezhou Dao. The
in-going stream attains a rate of 1 kn, and the out-going
stream 4 kn. Eddies form off the N side of Dezhou Dao,
especially on the in-going stream, which makes navigation
difficult when there is much shipping. The in-going stream
sets from LW plus 1 to 2 hours until HW plus 1 to 2
hours, when the out-going stream commences.
2
Off Shantou the in-going stream attains a rate of 2 kn,
and the out-going stream 4 kn. The stream on the S side of
the channel turns earlier than that on the N side. The
in-going steam sets from LW plus 1 hours to HW plus
45 minutes, when the out-going stream commences.
During spring and summer when there are floods in the
upper waters of the Han and Rong rivers, the out-going
flow can reach 6 kn and there is little if any tidal rise.
3
Local weather. Winds are predominantly E to NE from
September to March, and from SW between June and
August. An annual mean of eight tropical cyclones affect
the port, of which one may strike Shantou. Fog may occur
between February and May with a monthly average in
March and April of 4 days.
Climatic table see 1.172.
Principal marks
4.49
1
Landmark:
Xianglu Shan (212 m high) (23°19′⋅3N, 116°40′⋅0E),
prominent.
Major lights:
Biao Jiao Light (23°14′N, 116°48′E) (4.14).
Nanpeng Dao Light (23°16′N, 117°17′E) (4.14).
Dezhou Dao Light (white round concrete tower, 22 m
in height) (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅4E).
Feng Yu Light (not charted) (octagonal concrete
tower, 7 m in height) (23°27′N, 116°55′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.50
1
Racons:
Biao Jiao Light (23°14′N, 116°48′E).
Dezhou Dao No 1 Front light (23°19′⋅6N,
116°45′⋅5E).
DGPS:
Dezhou Dao (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅4E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.16)
Seaward to Dezhou Dao
4.51
1
Caution. During the NE monsoon heavy seas are
experienced over the bar, and in these conditions entry
should be made on the in-going tide and adequate
allowance made for under keel clearance.
Vessels approaching from NE must pass S of Nanpeng
Liedao (23°16′N, 117°17′E) (4.96). See 4.97.
2
Track. From a position SE of Biao Jiao (23°14′N,
116°48′E), the track leads NNW, passing (with positions
from Biao Jiao Light (23°14′N, 116°48′E)):
ENE of Biao Jiao (4.16), and clear of a dangerous
wreck, marked by a light-buoy (4.16) lying
1miles E, thence:
CHAPTER 4
129
3
ENE of Cao Yu (9 cables NNW), 20 m high and
fringed with reefs. The channel S of the islet is
restricted by a patch of foul ground.
The track then leads NW, passing between No 1 and 2
Light-buoys (1 miles NNE).
4
Leading lights:
Front light (white cylindrical concrete structure, red
stripe, 16 m in height, racon) (23°19′⋅6N,
116°45′⋅5E).
Rear light (white cylindrical concrete structure, red
stripe, 41 m in height) (0.87 miles from front
light).
5
From the vicinity of No 1 and No 2 Light-buoys, the
alignment (322°) of the above lights lead through the bar
channel; see 4.33 for depth, passing (with positions from
Biao Jiao Light (23°14′N, 116°48′E)):
6
NE of Tiezhen Yu (2 miles NNW), a large square
rock 9 m high with an area of foul ground, on
which the sea breaks, extending 3 cables SW from
it. Wu Shi, two detached rocky patches with a
least depth of 2⋅4 m, lies 3 cables SE of Tiezhen
Yu. There is a detached depth of 1⋅1 m between
Tiezhen Yu and the shore to the W. Thence:
7
Through No 1 outer anchorage (4.41), thence:
NE of Chijiao Yu (2 miles NNW), 18 m high, from
where a light (4.53) is exhibited, thence:
8
SW of a training wall that extends over 4 miles SE
from a position on the coast 4 cables NE of the E
extremity of Mayu Dao (4.52). The outer section,
1 miles in length, is submerged and ends
5 cables ENE of Chijiao Yu (above);
light-beacons mark the inner and outer ends, and
two light-buoys (special) are moored along the line
of the wall in between. This training wall reduces
silting that might be caused by the tributary of the
Han Jiang that enters the sea NNW of Dezhou
Dao (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅3E) (4.29).
The track continues to a position SW of No 7
Light-buoy (starboard hand).
Dezhou Dao to harbour
4.52
1
Caution. The leading lights through Dezhou Shuidao
may not always be clearly seen at night owing to the
background lights from numerous high rise buildings in the
city.
2
Leading lights:
Front light (white metal framework tower, 14 m in
height) (23°21′⋅5N, 116°42′⋅8E).
Rear light (white metal framework tower, 26 m in
height) (0⋅7 miles from front light).
From a position SW of No 7 Light-buoy, the alignment
(311°) of the above lights lead through Dezhou Shuidao,
passing:
3
NE of Jian Shi (23°19′N, 116°46′E), a rock 8 m high,
from where a light (4.53) is exhibited. There are
several dangers in the bay S of Jian Shi of which
the outermost, Shuan Jiao, 6 cables SSE, is awash.
Xiongi Shan and Shengqi Shan, 5 cables and
1 miles, respectively, WNW of Jian Shi, each
have a mast on their summits. Thence:
4
SW of Dezhou Dao (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅3E), the
seaward of two islands lying in the entrance to
Shantou Gang; Jianshi Jiao, a rocky patch lies
2 cables SE of its SE point. A light (4.49) is
exhibited from the SE summit of the island and a
further light from the SW side. Thence:
5
Beneath Shantou Bay Bridge (4.34), which spans the
channel between the mainland and Dahao Dao
over Mayu Dao. Turbulence is created around the
bridge support and the effective clearance width is
210 m. For speed restriction, see 4.44. It is
advisable to maintain good steerage way at all
times in this passage, particularly on departure.
The tidal stream can be strong and the channel
only 300 m wide in places between the 5 m depth
contours. On passing beneath Shantou Bay Bridge,
the Mashan port area is to port, and the Zhuchi
port area to starboard. Vessels may be leaving
these areas, as well as departing from the main
port area farther up river. Mayu Dao and the
bridge supports obstruct the field of view so that
vessels at either end of Dezhou Shuidao may not
have sight of one another until quite late. And:
6
SW of Mayu Dao, lying 5 cables NW of Dezhou
Dao; rocks extend 1 cables SSE from it. Fuyin
Jiao, a rock with a depth of 6 m over it, lies
3 cables S of Mayu Dao and close SW of the
centreline of the channel. The channel between
Dezhou Dao and Mayu Dao should not be used.
The track then continues to a position between No 1
and 2 Light-buoys (lateral).
7
Leading lights. From a position between No 1 and 2
Light-buoys (lateral), at the NW end of Dezhou Shuidao,
the alignment (283°) of the following lights leads through
the E part of the inner port fairway to a position abeam No
3 Inner Light-buoy. For depth in the main fairway see 4.33:
Front light (white metal framework tower, 46 m in
height) (23°21′⋅2N, 116°40′⋅9E).
Rear light (white metal framework tower on a
structure, 10 m in height) (0⋅7 mile from front
light).
8
A number of light-buoys are moored along the 5 m
depth contour on the S side of the main fairway. Dangshi
Bridge is under construction (2001) between the W part of
Shantou and Dangshi (4.45), at meridian 116°39′⋅6E.
4.53
Clearing marks. The alignment (127°), of light-beacons
on the W side of Dezhou Dao, mark the SW limit of the
rocks (see above) and fishing stakes (4.46) S of Mayu Dao.
1
Useful marks:
Chijiao Yu Light (white concrete structure, 2 m in
height) (23°17′N, 116°47′E).
Outer submerged breakwater beacon (S cardinal)
(23°17′N, 116°48′E).
Inner submerged breakwater beacon (starboard hand)
(23°18′N, 116°47′E).
Jian Shi Light (white concrete pillar, 4 m in height)
(23°19′N, 116°46′E).
Dezhou Dao SW Light (white round metal post, 4 m
in height) (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅3E).
Gui Yu Light (white metal framework structure, 14 m
in height) (23°20′N, 116°38′E).
Side channel
4.54
1
Bei Shuidao, a passage N of Dezhou Dao and Mayu
Dao, has depths of less than 3 m at both entrances and is
subject to silting; it is used by vessels of less than
1000 dwt. The vertical clearance under this part of Shantou
Bay Bridge is 18 m with an usable width of 30 m.
CHAPTER 4
130
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
4.55
1
Anchorages. Eleven designated anchorages are charted
in the river off the city which may be used for waiting,
working or typhoon berths. Anchor berths 1 to 7 may be
referred to as the E anchorage area, and berths 11 to 14 as
the W anchorage area. In most cases the bottom is mud
and the holding good; the bottom quality at berths 11 to 14
is less good and precautions should be taken during strong
in-going streams from the upper reaches. On the approach
of a typhoon ships usually move to the E anchorage area
for better holding ground. With E or SE winds, the water
can be rough at anchor berths 1 to 3. No 2 quarantine
anchorage is in the vicinity of No 4 anchor berth.
Anchorages for tankers are designated.
2
A further five designated typhoon and waiting
anchorages lie in Niutian Yang, the river area W of Gui Yu
(23°20′⋅3N, 116°38′⋅4E) (4.29). Berths 1 to 3 are charted;
No 4 and 5 berth are farther W.
Moorings. A number of mooring buoys lie in the river
off the central and W part of the city.
Alongside berths
4.56
1
The main port areas are described at 4.45 and between
them there over 50 alongside berths distributed on both
banks of the river, with more under construction (2001).
The deeper berths are in, or planned for, the Mashan and
Zhuchi port areas close W of the Shantou Bay Bridge.
2
Details of the deepest and longest berths are listed
below, but it should be noted that the nominal alongside
depths in most cases differ, in some cases considerably,
from those charted due to silting.
Depths are reported depths, the chart and the port
authorities should be consulted.
3
Mashan area. Mashan Coal Wharf 235 m in length with
a depth of 10⋅8 m alongside.
Zhuchi area. Zhuchi Nos 7 and 8 Wharfs, 460 m in
length with a depth of 11⋅5 m alongside. Container berths
under construction.
Old port area. PA Nos 1 and 2 Wharfs, 250 m in
length with a depth of 7⋅5 m alongside.
Dangshi area. Donghai Wharf, 400 m in length with a
depth of 7⋅5 m alongside.
Port services
Repairs
4.57
1
Repairs can be undertaken; slipways.
Other facilities
4.58
1
Hospitals; deratting, compass adjustment; salvage;
floating crane.
Supplies
4.59
1
Fuel oil; fresh water; stores and provisions alongside or
at anchor.
Communications
4.60
1
Airport serves international destinations.
Rescue
4.61
1
Facilities for rescue are based at Shantou.
River above Shantou Gang
4.62
1
There are a number of ports between Shantou and
Rongcheng, about 31 miles above Shantou, including Quxi,
Paotai and Guanbu. The river provides good anchorage for
typhoon shelter and navigational aids are installed. The
river has a depth of between 4 to 7 m as far as Paotai,
21 miles above Shantou, thence there is a depth of more
than 2⋅5 m.
BIAO JIAO TO DONGDING DAO
General information
Charts 1962, 1760, 854 (see 1.18)
Routes
4.63
1
Coastal. From a position SE of Biao Jiao (23°14′N,
116°48′E), the route leads E then NE for about 120 miles
to a position ESE of Dongding Dao (24°10′N, 118°14′E).
Inshore. From a position SE of Biao Jiao (23°14′N,
116°48′E), the route leads generally NE for about 97 miles
to a position SE of Zhenhai Jiao (24°16′N, 118°08′E), NW
of Dongding Dao.
Topography
4.64
1
From Shantou Gang (23°20′N, 116°45′E) to Xiamen
Gang, 100 miles NE, the coast is very irregular and along it
there are a number of low, S pointing, peninsulas forming
large, but mainly shallow indentations. Large islands lie in
the approach to both Shantou Gang and Xiamen Gang, and
several groups of smaller islands and islets fringe the coast,
or lie farther offshore, between these two ports.
Depths
4.65
1
See 4.12.
Natural conditions
4.66
1
Current. See 4.13.
Tidal streams. Caution is necessary in the passage N of
Long Yu (23°24′N, 117°25′E) and Hu Yu as the tidal
streams are strong. In the vicinity of Shi Yu (23°35′N,
117°27′E), streams attain rates of 1 to 2 kn and form
tide-rips. The direction of the tidal stream in relation to
HW at Shantou Gang (4.27) is NE-going from HW plus
5 hours to the next HW minus 1 hour, thence SSW-going.
2
During October, at the W end of Caiyu (Lishi) Liedao
(23°47′N, 117°40′E), the tidal streams set between NE and
ENE on the rising tide with a maximum rate of 1 kn, and
between S and SW on the falling tide with a maximum rate
of 1 kn. In a position 1 miles SE of the islands the tidal
streams set between NW and NNW on the rising tide and
between S and SW on the falling tide; the maximum rate
of both streams is 1 kn.
Navigation and anchoring
4.67
1
Vessels of non-Chinese nationality are not allowed to
proceed or anchor N of Nanpeng Liedao (4.96). This may
no longer be true as there is no mention on Chinese charts
or in Chinese Sailing Directions.
2
Sanbaimen (4.77) appears to be open to foreign
shipping.
CHAPTER 4
131
Principal marks
4.68
1
Landmarks:
Zao Shan (578 m high) (24°06′N, 117°48′E), stands
6 miles NW of Jiaotong Jiao (Jiangjun Tou) (4.70).
Pagoda (12 m in height) (24°24′⋅6N, 118°17′⋅3E),
stands on a 54 m high summit in the SW part of
Jinmen Dao, 2 miles SW of Jinmen.
2
Major lights:
Shibeishan Jiao Light (22°56′N, 116°30′E) (4.14).
Biao Jiao Light (23°14′N, 116°48′E) (4.14).
Nanpeng Dao Light (23°16′N, 117°17′E) (4.14).
Daganshan Light (23°32′N, 117°41′E) (2.12).
3
Gulei Tou Light (23°43′N, 117°35′E) (2.12).
Jiaotong Jiao (Jiangjun Tou) Light (hexagonal stone
column, red and white stripes, 15 m in height)
(24°02′N, 117°54′E).
Yandun Shan Light (white hexagonal concrete
column, 23 m in height) (24°16′N, 118°08′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.69
1
Racons:
Shibeishan Jiao Light (22°56′N, 116°30′E).
Biao Jiao Light (23°14′N, 116°48′E).
Nanpeng Dao Light (23°16′N, 117°17′E).
Daganshan Light (23°32′N, 117°41′E).
Nanding Dao Light (24°08′N, 118°02′E).
2
DGPS:
Dezhou Dao (23°19′⋅6N, 116°45′⋅4E).
Zhenhai Jiao (24°16′⋅1N, 118°07′⋅9E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Directions for coastal route
(continued from 4.16)
Biao Jiao to Xiongdi Yu
4.70
1
From a position SE of Biao Jiao (23°14′N, 116°48′E)
(4.16), the track leads E, passing:
S of Nanda Jiao (23°12′⋅5N, 117°13′⋅6E), at the SW
end of Nanpeng Liedao, consisting of two square
rocks about 5 m high with other rocks in the
vicinity. Qinpeng Dao, 1 mile NE of Nanda Jiao, is
surrounded by rocks, but is sufficiently large to
afford shelter to a boat.
2
The track then leads NE, passing:
SE of Nanpeng Liedao (23°16′N, 117°17′E). Nanpeng
Dao, 87 m high and scrub covered, is the highest
islet and lies near the middle of the group; a light
(4.14) is exhibited from the summit. Dingpeng
Dao, from where a light (white round stone
masonry pile, 4 m in height) is exhibited, lies at
the NE end of Nanpeng Liedao; its N rock is bare
and has a pyramid on it. Poyong Jiao, 1 miles
farther NE, is a pinnacle rock with a depth of
2⋅7 m. Thence:
Clear of a wreck (23°14′N, 117°32′E), with a safe
depth of 18 m, thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (23°21′N, 117°37′E),
thence:
3
SE of Xiongdi Yu (23°32′N, 117°41′E), two islets;
Xiaoganshan, 43 m high, the NW islet has a
remarkable square summit. Daganshan, 61 m high,
from where a light (4.14) is exhibited, is the SW
islet, with a bluff at its S end. The passage
between the islets is reported to be clear.
Dongshan Wan (4.78) lies NW. A light (4.14) is
exhibited from Gulei Tou (4.78), the E entrance
point to Dongshan Wan. Three wrecks, one
dangerous, the first two positions approximate, are
charted 12 miles and two at 20miles SE of
Dagenshan.
(Directions continue for entering
Dongshan Wan at 4.82)
Xiongdi Yu to Dongding Dao
4.71
1
From the above position the track continues NE,
passing:
SE of Bai Yu (Bai Jiao) (23°55′N, 117°52′E), an
isolated rock 18 m high with a large boulder on its
summit; a light (white hexagonal concrete column,
12 m in height) is exhibited from the rock. Thence:
2
SE of Jiaotong Jiao (Jiangjun Tou), the E extremity
of a headland from where a light (4.14) is
exhibited. A dangerous wreck, known to have less
than 4 m over it, is charted 3 miles E of the point;
numerous fishing nets may be encountered within
3 miles of the coast in the vicinity. Thence:
3
SE of Nan Sha (24°06′N, 118°07′E) 4 miles ESE of
Nanding Dao, depths of less than 10 m extend
5 miles NE from it. Nanding Dao, 4 miles NW, is
52 m high with a round top, its S side very steep;
it appears yellowish in colour when seen from a
distance. A light (stone column, black and white
bands, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the island.
4
The track then continues to a position ESE of Dongding
Dao (24°10′N, 118°14′E), 55 m high of basaltic formation,
steep-to, grassy on top and perforated at its S end; there is
also a remarkable mound at each end of the island. A light
(black round brick tower, 19 m in height) is exhibited from
the summit. A dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies
22 miles SE of Dongding Dao. For tidal streams near
Dongding Dao, see 4.119. See also note on chart 1767
concerning unreliability of depths in the vicinity of the
island.
(Directions continue for coastal route at 4.145 and
for entering Xiamen Gang at 4.122)
Directuions for inshore route
(continued from 4.16)
Biao Jiao to Houjiao Yu
4.72
1
Vessels with a draught of not more than 6⋅7 m have
used the following track to avoid much of the heavy sea
caused by the NE monsoon.
From a position SE of Biao Jiao (23°14′N, 116°48′E)
(4.16), the track leads generally ENE, passing (with
positions from Biao Jiao):
2
SSE of a dangerous wreck (1miles ENE) (4.51),
thence:
Clear of unexploded ordnance centred in 23°14′⋅5N,
116°55′⋅3E and an obstruction (23°14′⋅17N,
116°56′⋅01E), and:
3
SSE of Niang Jiao (5 miles NNE), a rock; a
light-buoy (S cardinal) is moored 2cables S of
Niang Jiao. A stranded wreck lies 1⋅9 miles NE.
Thence:
NNW of Ping Yu (11 miles ENE), 14 m high, and:
4
Between the SE point of Nan’ao Dao (20 miles ENE)
(4.97) and Banchao Jiao, a reef (20 miles ENE);
light-beacons are established on both sides of this
passage. A dangerous wreck exists in 23°22′⋅5N,
CHAPTER 4
132
117°07′⋅0E Alternatively, from a position 2 miles
SE of Biao Jiao, a small vessel can take passage
W and N of Nan’ao Dao, but for both passages
see restriction for foreign vessels at 4.67. Thence:
5
NNW of Yan Yan (23 miles ENE), thence:
SSE of Several unexploded bombs and depths charges
charted between 2 and 5 miles off the E side
of Nan’ao Dao, thence:
6
NNW of Banyangdong (Zhisong Yan on chart 1760)
(30 miles ENE), an isolated rock lying 8 miles E
of the E extremity of Nan’ao Dao, has a depth of
5⋅8 m over it. The islets and rocks of Lemen
Liedao lie between 2 to 8 miles S of the island.
Qixing Jiao, a group of rocks, 1⋅5 to 2 m high, lie
4 miles NW of Banyangdong; from E and W
they appear as large boulders some distance apart.
Laoniu Jiao, a detached rock drying 2⋅6 m, lies
3 miles farther NW. Vessels pass N of Laoniu Jiao
when using the channel N of Nan’ao Dao; a light
(white round concrete tower, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from the NE side of the rock. Thence:
7
SSE of Houjiao Yu (23°34′N, 117°22′E), from where
a light (white 4-sided stone pyramid, 2 m in
height) is exhibited. It is the extremity of a small
peninsula, rising to 32 m, situated 2 miles E of
Zhaoan Tou (4.88). There is a conspicuous sand
patch on the side of the hills 1 miles NE of
Houjiao Yu. Fishing stakes may be encountered 2
to 5 miles S of Houjiao Yu.
Houjiao Yu to Yuanzhui Jiao
4.73
1
From Houjiao the track continues ENE, passing:
SSE of Long Yu (23°24′N, 117°25′E), lying 2 miles
E of Houjiao Yu, is 78 m high and perforated in a
NW/SE direction; Hu Yu, 55 m high, lies 2 cables
N. Damao Shan, 2 miles N of Long Yu, is a
conical hill 250 m high with a conspicuous sand
patch on its SE slope. Two dangerous wrecks lie
1miles SE and 5miles SSE respectively of
Long Yu. Thence:
2
SSE of Shi Yu (23°35′N, 117°27′E) and Xiang Yu
(23°36′N, 117°28′E). Shi Yu, lying 2 miles ENE of
Long Yu, is 45 m high; a light (black round
masonry structure, white bands, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from the NW end of the island; a rock,
which dries 3 m, lies 1 cable N of the island. The
passage between Shi Yu and Dongshan Dao,
7cables NW, is clear. Xiang Yu, 1 miles NE of
Shi Yu, is 98 m high and perforated at its NW
end. When seen from N or S its appears elephant
shaped. Thence:
3
SSE of Yuanzhui Jiao (23°40′N, 117°29′E); close
within the point stands the prominent cone-shaped
peak of Sufeng Shan, 273 m high. A light is
exhibited from Jixin Yu, a rock close off the point.
Sujian Wan, the bay SW of Yuanzhui Jiao is
separated from Zhaoan Wan (4.88) by a low sandy
isthmus.
Yuanzhui Jiao to Lishi Hangmen
4.74
1
From Yuanzhui Jiao the track leads NE, passing (with
positions from Shi Yu (23°35′N, 117°27′E)):
SE of Gulei Tou (11 miles NNE), the high, steep-to S
extremity of Gulei Bandao, a 10-mile long
peninsula; the head is joined, 1 mile N, to the
remainder of the peninsula by a narrow neck of
land. A light (4.14) is exhibited from the point.
Gulei Shan, 269 m high, is a very sharp summit
3 miles NNE of Gulei Tou; together with another
peak close SE, it forms a deep saddle. Thence:
2
SE of Lishi Yan (15 miles NNE), 3 miles NE of
Gulei Tou, dries 2⋅2 m. A shoal bank extends
1 miles NNE from Lishi Yan to two peaked
islets about 27 m high; a light (black stone
masonry column, 10 m in height) is exhibited from
Shenglin Yu, the N islet. Local craft use the
passage W of the islets, but great caution is
necessary because of strong eddies. Xingzi Jiao,
5 cables N of these islets, is the extremity of a
rocky eminence, about 21 m high, connected to the
coast by a sandy isthmus; a signal station stands
on the point. Thence:
3
Through Lishi Hangmen (23°48′N, 117°39′E), the
passage between Xingzi Jiao and Caiyu (Lishi)
Liedao to the E, is 7cables wide between the
shoals on each side, and with depths exceeding
15 m through the centree of the fairway. The
passage leads into the S part of Futou Wan (4.92).
Caiyu Liedao consists of a number of barren
islands, islets and rocks extending 4 miles E from
Lishi Hangmen. Hong Yu (23°47′N, 117°43′E) is
83 m high and the largest of the group; Cai Yu,
7cables NE of Hong Yu, is 60 m high and has
rocks and islets extending 6 cables ESE of it. A
light (column, red and white bands, 8 m in height)
is exhibited from Waiying Yu, the islet farthest
from Cai Yu. The bottom in the vicinity of the
islands is uneven and the sea rises rapidly and
overtops immediately a breeze sets in. A further
island and other rocks lie NE of Caiyu Liedao;
Heng Yu, 3 miles NE, has three peaks up to 56 m
(charted as 48 m) high, the top of the island
appearing long and flat. There is shoal water off
the NW side of the island. Overfalls exist in an
area about 1 miles ESE of Heng Yu and
discoloured water may appear. Dongchi Yu, a rock
15 m high, and Xichi Yu, 23 m high, lie 1 mile
and 1 miles WNW of Heng Yu. In 1935, Shuki
Maru struck a submerged obstruction, probably a
rock, in approximate position 23°49′⋅5N,
117°42′⋅6E, about 1 mile W of Xichi Yu. Qingyan
Jiao (Qing Yan), 2 miles NW of Heng Yu, is a
reef the highest part of which dries 2⋅8 m; the E
part of the reef only breaks at LW. For tidal
streams in the area see 4.66.
Lishi Hangmen to Dong Jiao
4.75
1
From Lishi Hangmen the track continues NE, passing:
NW of Feiyu Yan (23°51′N, 117°42′E), 1 miles
WSW of Qingyan Jiao, which dries 1⋅9 m; and
another rock, 7cables farther SW, which dries
0⋅9 m, and other rocks in the vicinity. Thence:
2
About 5 cables SE of Dong Jiao (23°55′N, 117°47′E),
an islet near the extremity of rocky ledges
extending 6 cables E from Da’ou Jiao; a light (red
6-sided stone masonry column, 10 m in height)
stands on the islet. A rock, with a depth of 1⋅4 m,
lies at the S end of a foul area, 3 cables SSW of
Dong Jiao; depths from 3⋅3 m and 2⋅2 m lie,
respectively, 1⋅3 miles SSE and 1 mile ENE of
Dong Jiao. Da’ou Jiao (23°55′N, 117°46′E) is the
CHAPTER 4
133
SE extremity of Liu’ao Bandao, the 8 mile long
peninsula forming the E side of Futou Wan (4.92).
On the S part of the peninsula there are five
smooth, round hills with sandy valleys between, of
which the most remarkable stands on the S
extremity of the peninsula, 1 miles WSW of
Da’ou Jiao. Liu’ao, a walled town, stands on a
98 m high summit 1 miles NW of the point.
Anchorage (4.92) may be obtained off Da’ou Jiao.
Dong Jiao to Zhenhai Jiao
4.76
1
From Dong Jiao (23°55′N, 117°47′E), the track
continues NE to a position 1 mile SE of Jiangjun Tou
(24°02′N, 117°54′E) (4.70). Alternatively a small vessel can
use the passage, formerly known as Blakeney Pass, to pass
inshore of the rocks extending 4 miles NNE of Dong Jiao,
by rounding Dong Jiao (4.92) at a distance of 2cables.
When that islet bears 190° keep it astern on that bearing
until the SE and largest rocky islet (23°56′⋅4N, 117°48′⋅2E)
(see below) bears 090°.
2
Thence the track continues NE to pass between Xie Jiao
(23°57′⋅6N, 117°47′⋅8E) and Lashi Yu, an islet 19 m high,
lying 7cables E of the point. A shoal, with depths from
5⋅8 to 9⋅1 m, extends 1 miles NE, from a position
5 cables NE of Dong Jiao, to Caojiao Qunjiao, a group of
rocky islets 11 to 22 m high; a square pillar of rock marks
the SE and largest of the group. The coast between Dong
Jiao and Xie Jiao consists of low sandhills. Xie Jiao is the
extremity of a prominent headland with several peaks, the
highest of which is 72 m. Fishing stakes are likely to be
encountered to seaward of the point.
3
When Lashi Yu bears 090° alter course N, and the
alignment (237°) astern of the hill (23°55′⋅8N, 117°44′⋅8E),
98 m high on which stands the walled town of Liu’ao
(4.92), with Xie Jiao, leads NE, passing between rocks
awash, 3 cables N of Lashi Yu and a below-water rock,
with a depth of 1⋅8 m over it, 1 mile N of Lashi Yu.
Heiyan Jiao, a point 2 miles NNE of Xie Jiao is dark,
table-topped and rugged; the coast between is low and
sandy. There is a remarkable peaked sandhill, 35 m high,
8 cables W of the point. The sea breaks at half tide on a
drying shoal 6 cables E of the point. Thence:
4
Between the reef extending NW from Nanding Dao
(24°08′N, 118°02′E) (4.71) and the mainland,
thence:
5
SE of Linjin Yu (72 m high) (24°10′⋅5N, 118°01′⋅5E,
of basaltic formation and somewhat steep and
square. It is fringed with shoals and reefs.
Temporary shelter can be obtained under the lee of
Linjin Yu during the NE monsoon. Thence:
6
Between Banyang (Linmengao) Jiao (24°11′⋅3N,
118°04′⋅8E), 3 miles E of Linjin Yu and Quemen
Diantan, 2 miles NE of Linjin Yu and a mile
offshore, a rocky patch with a least depth of 1⋅5 m
at its E end. Banyang Jiao is a reef of pinnacle
rocks, the highest of which dries 2⋅4 m. The sea
breaks on the reef, on which there is a stranded
wreck. A dangerous wreck is charted close off the
E side, with a light-buoy (N cardinal) moored
close N of the wreck. Thence:
7
SE of Dingtai Tou (24°15′N, 118°06′E), a prominent
flat-topped headland with a steep-to hillock at its
extremity. A light (round stone column, black and
white bands, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the
headland. Discoloured and broken water has been
reported to extend a considerable distance from the
coast between Dingtai Tou (24°15′N, 118°06′E)
and Zhenhai Jiao 3 miles NE. Thence:
NE of Erjin Qiantan (24°13′N, 118°10′E).
8
Thence the track continues to a position SE of Zhenhai
Jiao (24°16′N, 118°08′E), a prominent point. A light (4.14)
is exhibited from Yandun Shan, 94 m high, close WSW
from the point. A reef extends 7 cables ENE from
Zhenhai Jiao and should be given a wide berth. Heavy seas
may be encountered in the vicinity of Zhenhai Jiao during
the NE monsoon before half tide.
(Directions continue at 4.146)
Side channel
Channel north of Nan’ao Dao
4.77
1
Description. A channel leads NE between the N side of
Nan’ao Dao (23°26′N, 117°04′E) and the mainland, which
may be used to access Zhelin Wan (4.85).
Directions. From a position SSE of Niang Jiao
(23°19′N, 116°50′E) (4.72) on the inshore route (4.72), the
track leads NE, passing:
2
Through Houjiang Shuidao a channel between Feng
Yu (below) and Nan’ao Dao, thence:
SE of Feng Yu, 90 m high, lying midway between the
W end of Nan’ao Dao and the mainland W. A
light (4.49) is exhibited from the S point of Feng
Yu. Thence:
SE of a rock, with a depth of 1⋅6 m over it, lying
2 miles ENE of Feng Yu; a light-buoy (S cardinal)
marks the rock.
3
The track then leads E, passing:
S of Haishan Dao (Huangmen Dao), 4 miles NE of
Feng Yu, lies close off the mainland; it rises to
140 m near its SE extremity. Islets and dangers
extend 1 miles SSE from Qijiao Tou, the SE
extremity of Haishan Dao; a light (3m in height) is
exhibited from Fu Yu, 42 m high, the highest of
these islets. Thence:
4
S of a stranded wreck (23°31′N, 117°06′E), marked
by a light-beacon (isolated danger), thence:
S of a light (23°31′N, 117°12′E).
Dongshan Wan
Chart 1767
General information
4.78
1
Position. Dongshan Wan (23°47′N, 117°33′E) is entered
50 miles ENE of Shantou Gang (4.27). The town of
Tongling is situated on the W side of the bay at the NE
extremity of Dongshan Dao (23°44′N, 117°32′E) (4.98),
where there is the port of Dongshan Gang, a subsidiary
port of Zhangzhou Gang (4.99).
2
Function. Dongshan Wan is one of the best anchorages
on this part of the coast, affording shelter during a
typhoon. Petroleum, coal, lumber, cement are imported,
while the main exports include salt, silicate and general
cargos. Typhoon shelters for boats are established within
the bay. The larger is on the W side of Tongling.
3
Topography. The W entrance point to Dongshan Wan is
the E extremity of Dongshan Dao. The E entrance point to
Dongshan Wan is Gulei Tou (23°43′N, 117°35′E) (4.72).
4
Ta Yu (23°44′N, 117°33′E) lies in the entrance to
Dongshan Wan, 1 miles WNW of Gulei Tou. The island
is in two parts joined by a sandy isthmus about 6 m high.
A reef extends from Ta Yu to Shuwei Yu, an islet
2cables SE, from where a light (fishing) is exhibited.
CHAPTER 4
134
Wenfeng Tower, dating from the 16th century, octagonal
and 10 m high, stands on the 90 m summit in the SW part
of Ta Yu.
5
Youshui Yan (23°44′⋅6N, 117°33′⋅7E), 33 m high, joined
on the N by a reef to Huyu Dao, lies 7 cables NE of Ta
Yu; Daping Yu, the third islet of this group lies 2 cables
NW. These three islets lie on an extension of the shallow
flats that fill most of Dongshan Wan and through which
flows Zhang Jiang.
6
Port limits. The S boundary of the port extends from
the NE point of Dongshan Dao to the S point of Ta Yu and
thence to Gulei Tou. The N limit is latitude 23°48′N.
7
Port Authority. Dongshan Port Administration Office,
No 2 Shuixian Palace, Da Wo Road, Tongling, Dongshan
Port 363401, Fujian Province, China.
Limiting conditions
4.79
1
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅7 m, mean neap
range about 1⋅5 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
8000 dwt can berth. Vessels up to 10 000 dwt use the
anchorages for shelter.
Arrival information
4.80
1
Port operations. The narrow channel to Dongshan Gang
is unsuitable for entry at night and one way movement
restrictions are in force for larger vessels. Several
navigation aids are established in the port area.
2
Controlling depth. The channel to the wharves at
Dongshan that passes N of Tongling and S of Dumien Dao
(24°45′⋅0N, 117°31′⋅5E), the island, 25 m high, facing the
town, is narrow and is navigable only by vessels with a
draught of less than 7 m.
3
Notice of ETA required is 72 hours with updates
thereafter.
4
Outer anchorage. A waiting and quarantine anchorage
(not charted) is established SW of the entrance to the bay
bounded by the following coordinates:
23°43′⋅3N, 117°32′⋅5E
23°43′⋅3N, 117°33′⋅5E
23°42′⋅2N, 117°33′⋅5E
23°42′⋅2N, 117°32′⋅5E.
5
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels. Pilots board
in the outer anchorage and are available 24 hours.
Tugs. Small tugs are reported to be available.
Local knowledge is required.
Harbour
4.81
1
Fishing. Fishing stakes, nets and boats may be
encountered in a number of places within the bay and may
make anchorage at night difficult.
2
Tidal streams in the approach to Dongshan Wan set NE
on the in-going tide with a rate of 2 kn, and SE on the
out-going at a rate of 2 kn. In No 3 Anchorage N of Ta
Yu (23°44′N, 117°33′E) (4.78), the streams have a rate of
1 kn.
3
Local weather. The port is affected by typhoons on an
annual average of 4 to 5 times, with the greatest frequency
occurring between July and September. Fog affects the port
for an average of 32 days per year, March and April being
the months of greatest frequency. Fog usually forms around
midnight and lasts until noon.
4
Major light:
Gulei Tou Light (23°43′N, 117°35′E) (4.14).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.70)
4.82
1
Approach. From a position SE of Xiongdi Yu (23°32′N,
117°41′E) (4.70), the track leads NW passing (with
positions from Gulei Tou Light):
Either side of Xiongdi Yu, thence:
Across Sujian Qiantan, extending 11 miles SW from a
position 4 miles SSE of Gulei Tou Light
(23°43′N, 117°35′E) (4.14), thence:
2
SW of an isolated patch (3 miles SE) with a least
depth of 8⋅4 m, and:
NE of a dangerous wreck (2 miles SSW), and;
NE of unexploded ordnance (charted as obstruction,
position approximate) (1 miles SSW), thence;
3
NE of a mudbank (1 miles SW) with a least depth
of 6⋅4 m, and Yunnan Yan (3 miles SW), a
pinnacle rock with a least depth of 2⋅2 m. Thence
as required to enter the waiting anchorage (4.80)
on the NW side of the mudbank.
4
Entry. The main entrance channel to Dongshan Wan
passes between Shuwei Yu (23°43′⋅5N, 117°33′⋅6E) (4.78)
and the W side of Gulei Tou, 12 cables E, and gives direct
access to Anchorages 1, 2 and 3 (4.83). The W entrance
between Ta Yu (23°44′N, 117°33′E) and the NE extremity
of Dongshan Dao is narrow and with strong tide-rips; it is
used by smaller vessels.
Berths
4.83
1
Anchorage may be obtained in one of four designated
anchorages established within Dongshan Wan as follows:
Nos 1 and 2 lie to the N of the main (E) entrance in
the water area N through E of Huyu Dao
(23°44′⋅9N, 117°33′⋅8E) (4.78) in depths from 5 to
25 m, mud and sand. A shoal with a depth of
0⋅3 m lies 9 cables N, a shoal with a depth of
3⋅6 m lies 7 cables NE, and a shoal with a depth
of 4⋅1 m lies 9 cables ESE, from the E extremity
of Huyu Dao. No 1 Anchorage contains anchorage
berths Nos 1 to 9; No 2 Anchorage contains berths
Nos 10 to 15.
2
No 3 Anchorage lies between Ta Yu (4.78) and Huyu
Dao in depths from 6 to 30 m, mud and sand. This
anchorage serves as a working anchorage, but a
heavy swell may be experienced. The anchorage
contains designated berths Nos 16 to 19.
3
No 4 Anchorage lies in the vicinity of 23°46′N,
117°30′E and is mainly used by vessels of less
than 500 tonnes as a working anchorage. The
anchorage contains designated berths Nos 20 to 24.
4
Alongside berths. There are eight berths at Dongshan
and others at nearby ports within the bay, mainly for small
vessels. The berth at Dongshan for loading sand, can
accommodate a vessel up to 8000 dwt, with a depth
alongside of 7 m, the general cargo berths can
accommodate vessels up to 5000 dwt and the oil berth a
tanker up to 4000 dwt.
Port services
4.84
1
Repairs, limited can be undertaken.
Other facilities. Medical.
Supplies: fuel, not heavy oil; fresh water; provisions.
CHAPTER 4
135
Anchorages and harbours
Zhelin Wan
4.85
1
Description. Zhelin Wan (23°34′N, 117°03′E) indents
the mainland N of Nan’ao Dao (4.97). The town of Zhelin
stands on the E side of the bay.
In the NW part of the bay is Chaozhou Gang, also
known as Sanbaimen, through which containers and steel
products are imported and general cargo exported.
2
Two jetties lie on the N side of the peninsula
approached through Xiaomen Shuidao, a narrow channel
between the peninsula and Xi’ao Dao (23°34′N, 117°04′E),
an island rising to 96 m in its NW part, lying close NW.
Construction work is taking place (1999) on the SW side
of the peninsula.
3
Except for the entrance channel, the greater part of
Zhelin Wan is shoal; the approaches to the bay contain
many fishing stakes, with shellfish beds in the shallower
and drying parts.
4
Topography. Qing Yu (23°32′⋅5N, 117°03′⋅6E), a barren
rock 42 m high, and Daqi Jiao, the S extremity of a
peninsula just over 1 mile ENE, which rises to 115 m
6 cables NNE of Daqi Jiao and is connected to the
mainland by a low sandy isthmus. A hill (23°34′⋅5N,
117°06′⋅4E), 158 m high and prominent, stands at the SE
end of a range of hills bordering the E side of Zhelin Wan.
5
Tidal streams. In the entrance to Zhelin Wan the
in-going tidal stream sets NNW and continues until about
HW plus 1 hour at Shantou Gang (4.27); the out-going
stream sets S, and continues until about LW plus 1 hour at
Shantou. The maximum rate of both streams is about
2 kn at spring tides. The spring tidal range is 3⋅1 m.
6
Pilotage is available from Shantou (4.42) and the pilot
boards at the outer waiting anchorages.
Major light:
Qing Yu Light (white round masonry pile, 4 m in
height) (23°32′⋅5N, 117°03′⋅7E).
4.86
Directions. See 4.97 for description of the channel N of
Nan’ao Dao.
1
From a position E of Haishan Dao (23°32′N, 116°58′E)
(4.77), the track leads NW for about 8 cables towards a
lightering anchorage through a buoyed channel, with a least
charted depth of 5⋅6 m, passing E of Qing Yu thence
between Nos 1 and 2 Light Buoys (lateral), thence to No 3
Light-buoy (starboard hand) marking a 4⋅2 m shoal. A
conspicuous sand patch (23°34′⋅5N, 117°04′⋅7E) on the E
side of the entrance may be seen on a clear night. The
track then leads NNW on the line of bearing 157° astern
of Qing Yu Light, through Dajinmen Shuidao for 1⋅8 miles
to the anchorage NNW of No 6 Light-buoy (starboard
hand).
2
Anchorages:
No 1 waiting anchorage, in depths from 13⋅5 to 16 m,
is situated S of Nan’ao Dao centred on position
23°21′N, 117°00′E, radius 1 mile.
No 2 waiting anchorage, a rectangular area 3 miles
long by 1 mile wide centred on 23°30′⋅5N,
117°05′⋅0E, lies N of Nan’ao Dao in the
approaches to Zhelin Wan.
Anchorage, which lies E of Xunzhou Dao (23°34′⋅5N,
117°02′⋅0E), and in which there are two mooring
buoys, has depths from 6 to 8 m, mud. The
anchorage is sheltered from winds between NE and
SE.
3
Berths. There are nine berths with depths alongside
between 3 and 4 m, able to accommodate vessels up to
5000 dwt and 120 m LOA.
Dacheng Wan
4.87
1
Description. Dacheng Wan (23°36′N, 117°11′E) lies
between Zhelin Wan (4.85) and Zhaoan Wan (4.88). The
bay is entered between Long Yu (23°34′N, 117°08′E), an
island 39 m high, and Wai Yu (4.88), 6 miles ENE.
2
The NE part of the bay is shallow and there are drying
rocks 11 cables ENE and 2 miles NE from Long Yu.
Gongkou Gang is entered in the NE part of the bay and
provides shelter from E winds for small vessels.
Local knowledge is required.
Zhaoan Wan
4.88
1
Description. Zhaoan Wan (23°37′N, 117°18′E) lies
13 miles E of Zhelin Wan (4.85). The E side of the bay is
formed by the large island of Dongshan Dao (4.98), the
SW extremity of which is Zhaoan Tou (23°34′N,
117°19′E). Gongkou Tou, 5 miles WNW, is the W entrance
point to the bay.
The head of Zhaoan Wan is shallow with extensive
drying flats.
2
Tidal streams in the entrance to Zhaoan Wan turn about
hour before HW and LW at Shantou Gang (4.27), and
attain a maximum rate of 1 kn at spring tides; there is a
considerable diurnal inequality. To the NW of Chenzhou
Dao the tidal streams set NE and SW.
Local knowledge is required to enter the bay.
4.89
1
Directions. From a position S of Wai Yu (23°36′N,
117°14′E), from where a light (white hexagonal concrete
pyramid, 2 m in height) is exhibited, the track leads NNE
on the alignment (019°) of Zhe Jiao (23°38′⋅4N,
117°16′⋅9E), 44 m, reddish and fairly prominent, in line
with a dip in the hills behind, to cross the bar in a depth
of about 4⋅9 m. When the S extremities of Chengzhou Dao
and Xi Yu are aligned 070°, the track leads NE following
the centre line of the entrance channel passing:
2
Between shoal water, marked by discolouration,
which extends a mile from the W side of the
entrance to the bay, and a detached shoal, with a
least depth of 4⋅6 m lying 1 miles WSW of
Chengzhou Dao; with a moderate swell the sea
breaks on this shoal from 2 hours before until
2 hours after LW. Thence:
3
NW of Chengzhou Dao (23°36′N, 117°17′E), an islet
78 m high, several drying rocks lie up to 2 cables
from the E and W sides of the islet, and up to
3 cables SSW. Depths of less than 5 m extend up
to a mile S and SW from Chengzhou Dao; this
shoaling has a tendency to extend farther S. Xi Yu,
an island with several high summits up to 108 m,
lies 7cables ENE of Chengzhou Dao; drying
patches and depths of less than 1 m extend up to
1 miles S from Xi Yu.
4
The track then continues to the anchorage (see below).
Fishing stakes are frequently to be found between
Chengzhou Dao and Zhe Jiao.
4.90
1
Anchorage. Zhaoan Wan affords good shelter during the
SW monsoon, but in the NE monsoon a short, steep sea
arises when the wind is strong and makes the anchorage
uncomfortable; the bottom is soft mud and bad holding
ground. On the approach of a typhoon, shelter should be
CHAPTER 4
136
sought NW of Nan’ao Dao (4.97) or in Dongshan Wan
(4.78).
2
Anchorage can be obtained in a depth of 11 m with the
N extremity of Chengzhou Dao bearing 103°, distant
5 cables. Shallower draught vessels can also anchor farther
inside the bay, in a depth of 4⋅9 m, with Zhaoan Tou in
line with the SW extremity of Xi Yu bearing 168°.
3
With local knowledge, temporary anchorage can also be
obtained in a depth of 5 to 6 m, sand, 5 cables N of
Zhaoan Tou. The bar extending 7cables W from Zhaoan
Tou has a depth of 2 m over it.
Lishi Hangmen
4.91
1
Anchorage may be obtained in Lishi Hangmen (23°48′N,
117°39′E) 2 cables NW of a black, rocky islet (23°47′⋅2N,
117°39′⋅7E), 13 m high, in a depth of 11 m.
Futou Wan
4.92
1
Description. Futou Wan (23°53′N, 117°42′E) lies
between Xingzi Jiao (4.91) and the extremity of Liu’ao
Bandao (4.72), 8 miles NE; the islands and dangers in the
S approach to the bay are described at 4.74. On its N side
the bay leads to Houjiang Gang, an extensive estuary basin,
largely filled by shallow flats. The shifting channels are
narrow and intricate; a light-beacon (starboard hand) stands
near the drying banks on the E side of the entrance. Other
beacons and light-beacons mark the main channel to the
village of Jiuzhen (24°03′N, 117°42′E). The entrance and
the main channel are heavily obstructed with fishing stakes.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage can be obtained within the entrance to
Houjiang Gang in a depth of 18 to 20 m. Anchorage,
sheltered from winds N of ENE, but open to a considerable
swell, can be obtained in depths from 7⋅3 to 11 m, 4 cables
SW of Da’ou Jiao (4.72), or in a depth of 11 m, 9 cables
SW of the same point.
Jiangjun Wan (Ao)
4.93
1
Description. Jiangjun Wan (Ao) (24°01′N, 117°52′E)
lies between Jiaotong Jiao (Jiangjun Tou) (4.70) and a
point, 5 miles WSW; the bay is backed by low red
sandhills. The inshore passage SW of Jiangjun Wan,
including the point at the SW end of the bay, is described
at 4.76.
2
Uncharted wrecks. See 4.4.
Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels in Jiangjun
Wan during the NE monsoon, however the N part of the
bay is shoal.
Fotan Gang
4.94
1
Fotan Gang (24°11′N, 117°57′E) is an extensive drying
inlet entered W of a peninsula with a hill (24°10′N,
117°59′E), 59 m high, upon the summit of which there is
the ruins of a house. The inlet is suitable for boats.
Longjiao (Dingtai) Wan
4.95
1
Anchorage may be obtained in Longjiao (Dingtai) Wan,
on the W side of Dingtai Tou (24°15′N, 118°06′E) which
affords fair shelter for small vessels during the NE
monsoon. A buoy is moored in the NE part of the bay
5 cables NNW of the light on Dingtai Tou.
Adjacent islands
Nanpeng Liedao
4.96
1
Description. Nanpeng Liedao (23°16′N, 117°17′E)
(4.70) is the outermost group of numerous islets and
dangers extending 12 miles SE of Nan’ao Dao (4.97); the
group consists of four islets and several above and
below-water rocks and extend for about 8 miles in a
NE/SW direction.
2
Local weather. Fog is prevalent in these islands, mostly
between February and May, and averages 93 days per
annum.
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Nanpeng Liedao set NE
on the in-going tide and SW on the out-going. Maximum
rates less than 1 kn.
3
Anchorage. There is reported to be good anchorage, in
depths of less than 18 m, in a position 5 cables W of
Nanpeng Dao. See 4.72 for note about anchoring N of
Nanpeng Dao.
Nan’ao Dao
4.97
1
Description. Nan’ao Dao (23°26′N, 117°04′E) lies with
its W extremity 11 miles NE of the entrance to Shantou
Gang (4.27). The island is barren with several prominent
summits of over 500 m, and at its SE point there is a bold
headland rising to an elevation of 117 m.
2
Fisheries provide a livelihood to the greater portion of
the inhabitants of Nan’ao Dao, which is well populated.
Houjiang Wan (23°27′N, 117°01′E), a shallow bay on
the N side of the island, has a harbour protected by
breakwaters in its SE part. A small boat harbour lies on the
E side of Yun’ao Wan (23°24′N, 117°05′E) on the S side
of Nan’ao Dao.
3
Fishing nets and stakes may be encountered off the W
and S ends of the Nan’ao Dao. During the summer months,
fishermen on bamboo rafts may be encountered in the
vicinity of Lemen Liedao; at night these rafts may be lit,
but can be hard to detect. Fishing vessels anywhere in the
vicinity of Nan’ao Dao may be unlit at night.
Unexploded ordnance. See 4.72.
4
Tidal streams N of Nan’ao Dao set parallel to the coast
at a rate of 1 to 3 kn. The stream is E-going from 3 to
5 hours after HW at Shantou Gang until 3 to 1 hour before
the next HW, thence W-going.
Local knowledge is required.
5
Anchorage can be obtained in most of the bays around
Nan’ao Dao, including Shen’ao Wan (23°28′N, 117°05′E);
the bays on the E and S coast offer depths in excess of
5 m, bays on the N coast are shallow and depths are less
than 5 m. During the SW monsoon anchorage can be
obtained in Houjiang Shuidao, in depths from 9 to 11 m,
5 cables NW of Nan’ao Dao, good holding ground; this
anchorage is also suitable during typhoons. Anchorage can
also be obtained in similar depths the channel N of the E
part of the island.
Dongshan Dao
4.98
1
General information. Dongshan Dao (23°40′N,
117°25′E) is a large irregularly shaped island lying between
Zhaoan Wan (4.88) and Dongshan Wan (4.78).
2
Anchorage can be obtained in Gongqian Wan, the bay
W of Houjiao Yu in a depth of 6⋅4 m, mud, with Waibo
Jiao, a 8 m high rock close S of Houjiao Yu, bearing 135°.
This anchorage is sheltered from N winds, but is unsafe
with SW winds. The bay should not be approached within
CHAPTER 4
137
a depth of 9 m after dark as the distance from the land is
deceptive.
3
Anchorage, sheltered from N and E winds, but open to
the swell, can be obtained 5 cables W of Long Yu in
depths from 12 to 16 m, mud.
XIAMEN GANG
General information
Charts 3449, 1767, 1760
Position
4.99
1
Xiamen Gang consists of an outer anchorage area, to the
SW of Xiamen Dao (24°28′N, 118°07′E) (4.101), formerly
Amoy Island, and inner port areas mainly on the W side of
the island, fronting the city of Xiamen. Zhangzhou Gang
faces the SW part of Xiamen Dao across the outer harbour.
Function
4.100
1
Xiamen lies in one of China’s special economic zones
and has grown to become a major industrial city, trading in
most major agricultural, mineral and manufactured products
with a large number of countries world-wide. There is a
naval base and passenger terminals. The port is one of the
largest in China and handles much transhipment across the
Taiwan Strait. Xiamen also has a sizeable fishing harbour.
Zhangzhou Gang handles containers and general cargo.
Topography
4.101
1
The approach to Xiamen Gang is bounded on the SW
by the mainland coast, and to the NE by Jinmen Dao and
Xiaojinmen Dao. These islands are described at 4.147.
Xiamen Dao (24°28′N, 118°07′E) is a large island
bordering the N side of the outer harbour.
Port limits
4.102
1
To the NE the boundary of the port is a line between
the Jimei Liberation Monument (24°34′N, 118°06′E) and
the NE end of the Xiamen Airport runway 2⋅2 miles ESE;
the SE boundary is a line joining Baishi Tou (24°25′⋅5N,
118°07′⋅9E), Qing Yu (24°21′⋅8N, 118°07′⋅4E) and Ta Jiao
(24°21′⋅4N, 118°05′⋅9E). The W limit is the approximate
longitude of 117°58′E from Haicang (24°28′N, 117°58′E)
through Haimen Dao, about 2 miles S, and to the shore S
of the island. These limits are not charted.
Approach and entry
4.103
1
Xiamen Gang is approached and entered from SE. The
deepest approach is through a fairway, marked by buoys,
leading NW from a position 3 miles NE of Dongding Dao
(24°10′N, 118°14′E) (4.70). Foreign vessels enter harbour
through Qingyu Shuidao (24°22′N, 118°08′E).
Port Authorities
4.104
1
Xiamen Port Administration, 127 Dongdu Road, Xiamen
361012, Fujian Province, China.
Zhangzhou Ganguin Building, 95 Yan’an Bei Road,
Zhangzhou 363000, Fujian Province, China.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
4.105
1
The least charted depth (1999) in the main fairway
through Qingyu Shuidao (4.123) as far as Muqian Jiao
(4.130) is 11⋅9 m in a position WNW of Xia No 3
Light-buoy (24°24′⋅2N, 118°06′⋅3E). In the fairway between
Muquin Jiao and Haicang District (4.115), the least charted
depth (1999) is 11⋅5 m.
2
Between Muqian Jiao and latitude 24°31′⋅4N abreast the
N end of the main berths on the W side of Xiamen Dao,
the least charted depth (2001) in the main fairway passing
W of Gulang Yu (4.130) is 8⋅3 m in a position between
Gulang Yu and the Songyu piers.
3
In Zhangzhougang Jingang Hangdao (4.123), the least
charted depth (1999) is 9.4 m; depths between 7 and 9 m
are charted in the turning areas off the Zhangzhou Gang
berths.
The port is generally free from silting.
Vertical clearance
4.106
1
If passing N of Hou Yu (24°28′⋅1N, 118°03′⋅3E),
overhead cables and Haicang Bridge (4.130) span the
fairway; the least vertical clearance is 55 m beneath the
bridge.
Tidal levels
4.107
1
Mean spring range about 5⋅0 m, mean neap range about
2⋅6 m; for further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.108
1
The deep-draught route from sea through Qingyu
Shuidao (4.123) to Haicang District (4.115) is suitable for
vessels up to 100 000 dwt with the tide. Elsewhere vessels
up to 50 000 dwt can be berthed alongside.
Arrival information
Port radio
4.109
1
There is a coast radio station at Xiamen. For details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
4.110
1
Forty-eight hours.
Outer anchorages
4.111
1
No 1 Anchorage, centred on 24°18′⋅8N, 118°10′⋅1E with
depths of 26 m, mud, is established SE of Wu Yu (4.123)
for use by the largest vessels using the port.
2
Nos 3, 4, 5 and 7 Anchorages are charted (presently
covered in 3320(P)/02) to the S and SW of Xiamen Dao;
No 4 Anchorage, the N and E limits of which are marked
by light-buoys (special) is the quarantine and waiting
anchorage. The bottom is mud with good holding, and a
minimum depth of 10 m. No 7 Anchorage is designated for
vessels of less than 1000 dwt carrying dangerous cargoes.
3
The area in the outer harbour S and SW of Gulang Yu
(24°27′N, 118°04′E) (4.130) is a recognised typhoon
anchorage for vessels up to 10 000 dwt.
Caution. See note on chart concerning seabed rocks in
this area.
CHAPTER 4
138
Pilotage
4.112
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels. Pilots are
normally available in daylight hours only and should be
requested 48 hours in advance. The pilot boarding place is
within No 4 Anchorage (4.111). See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs
4.113
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
4.114
1
Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring and fishing are
prohibited in numerous charted cable corridors existing
between islands and the adjacent mainland. These lie
outside the designated anchorages. Prohibited areas also
surround two floating docks, the first in position 24°25′⋅2N,
118°01′⋅2E to the WNW of Zhangzhou Gang (4.99). The
second lies in position 24°30′⋅7N, 118°04′⋅2E.
2
Within Lujiang Shuidao, a corridor 5 cables wide SW of
Hutou Shan is closed to anchoring and fishing.
3
Regulations concerning entry. Vessels over 500 tonnes
and foreign vessels enter port through Qingyu Shuidao
(24°22′N, 118°08′E) (4.123). Vessels below this size,
fishing and sailing vessels should use the waterway passing
W of Wuan (24°19′⋅8N, 118°07′⋅7E) (4.123).
4
Prior clearance should be obtained before entering
Lujiang Shuidao E of Gulang Yu.
Vessels intending to overtake in the main fairways must
seek the prior consent of the vessel to be overtaken.
Harbour
General layout
4.115
1
Xiamen Gang has a number of port areas. Heping
District, within Lujiang Shuidao, together with Dongdu
District (24°29′⋅5N, 118°04′⋅3E) and Goaqi District
(24°32′⋅5N, 118°05′⋅5E) lie on the W side of Xiamen Dao
(4.101). An extensive berthing area has been developed
adjacent to the Huli industrial zone (24°31′N, 118°06′E) to
the N of Haicang Bridge.
2
Songyu District lies on the W bank of the channel
opposite Gulang Yu (24°27′N, 118°04′E) (4.130), with
Paitou District (24°30′⋅3N, 118°03′⋅9E) on the mainland N
of Huoshao Yu. Xinglin District (24°29′⋅5N, 118°02′⋅5E)
lies in the bay W of Goaqi District. Haicang District
(24°26′⋅8N, 118°00′⋅8E) lies W of Xiang Bi (4.130).
Development
4.116
1
Considerable development of Xiamen Gang is
progressing (2002), including the construction of additional
container terminals and reclamation work on the W side of
the harbour.
2
Zhangzhou Gang (24°23′N, 118°03′E) is undergoing port
development, and development is also taking place (2002)
in the vicinity of Yanwei Tou (24°18′⋅4N, 118°07′⋅9E)
(4.122).
A dam is under construction N of Jimei in 24°33′N,
118°05′E. No details are known at present.
Mined danger area
4.117
1
A former mined area is charted in the approach to
Xiamen Gang; see 1.4 and Appendix I.
Fishing
4.118
1
Fishing stakes and nets may be encountered in the
shallower waters in the harbour area.
Natural conditions
4.119
1
Tidal streams. Tidal streams near Dongding Dao
(24°10′N, 118°14′E) (4.70), during the SW monsoon, have
been observed to set N during the rising tide at Xiamen
with a maximum rate of 1 kn, and set SW during the
falling tide, with a maximum rate of 2 kn. About 5 miles
W of Dongding Dao, during the NE monsoon, the tidal
stream is rotary and sets WSW at the commencement of
the falling tide at Xiamen, then SW, then SE for the last
3 hours; during the rising tide the tidal stream sets N.
2
Tidal streams near Shuidao Qiantan (24°16′N, 118°13′E)
(4.122) are rotary, backing from NE to W through N on
the rising tide, and from W to NE through S and E on the
falling tide. The maximum rates are 1 kn in a N direction
3 hours before HW, and 1 kn in a SSE direction 3 hours
after HW.
3
In the outer harbour between Qing Yu (24°22′N,
118°07′E) (4.123) and Gulang Yu (24°27′N, 118°04′E)
(4.130), tidal streams set NW on the in-going stream and
SE on the out-going, in the E part of the outer harbour and
set W and E in that part S of Gulang Yu. The SE-going
out-going stream sets strongly on to Qing Yu.
4
In the channel W of Gulang Yu the streams set N on the
in-going tide and S on the out-going with a maximum rate
of 2 to 3 kn at springs and 1 kn at neap tides.
5
In Lujiang Shuidao (24°27′N, 118°04′E) (4.128), E of
Gulang Yu, tidal streams set NW and SE with rates of 2 to
3 kn. Each stream sets for about 6 hours; in the middle of
the harbour the NW or in-going stream sets from hour
before LW to to hour after HW. During the in-going
stream a strong E set may be experienced in the S
entrance, and a W set may sometimes occur soon after the
out-going stream has commenced in Lujiang Shuidao.
6
Local weather. The peak frequency for typhoons is
between July and September when 3 to 4 a year may affect
the port. Fog may occur from early March to May with S
and SW winds, usually lasting between late afternoon and
early the following forenoon.
Climatic table see 1.171.
Principal marks
4.120
1
Landmarks:
Taiwu Shan (24°20′N, 118°04′E), 560 m high and
often enveloped in cloud during the SW monsoon.
Yunding Yan (24°28′N, 118°09′E), the highest peak
on the SE side of Xiamen Dao (4.101), rises to
339 m and is conspicuous.
2
Major lights:
Yandun Shan Light (24°16′N, 118°08′E) (4.14).
Qing Yu Light (white octagonal tower, red stripes,
10 m in height) (24°22′N, 118°08′E).
Hou Yu Light (white stone tower, red bands, 13 m in
height) (24°28′⋅1N, 118°03′⋅3E).
Other aids to navigation
4.121
1
Racons:
Jiujie Jiao (Jiuzhe Jiao) Light (24°20′N, 118°10′E).
Xiaoqing Jiao Light (24°25′N, 118°03′E).
Muqian Jiao Light (24°26′⋅4N, 118°02′⋅5E).
Hou Yu Light (24°28′⋅1N, 118°03′⋅3E).
CHAPTER 4
139
Haicang Bridge Centre Light (24°29′⋅8N, 118°04′⋅1E).
DGPS:
Zhenhai Jiao (24°16′⋅1N, 118°07′⋅9E).
Directions for approaches — seaward to pilot
(continued from 4.71)
Seaward to Wu Yu — main channel
4.122
1
Recommended approach for deep-draught vessels. From
a position ESE of Dongding Dao (24°10′N, 118°14′E), the
track leads NW through the fairway marked by buoys
(lateral) for about 11 miles, passing (with positions from
Zhenhai Jiao Light (24°16′N, 118°08′E)):
NE of Dongding Dao (8 miles SE) (4.70), from
where a light (4.70) is exhibited, thence:
NE of Zhang 0 Light-buoy (port hand) (8 miles SE),
thence:
2
SW of Zhang 1 Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(6miles SE), Lanbai Qiantan, a small patch with
a depth of 8⋅2 m, over it lies 2miles SW, thence:
NE of Zhang 2 Light-buoy (port hand) (5 miles SE),
thence:
SW of Zhang 3 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (4 miles
ESE), thence:
SW of Shuidao Qiantan (3 miles E), marked by a
light-buoy (starboard hand), thence:
3
NE of Zhang 4 Light-buoy (port hand) (2miles
ESE). Yandun Shan Light (4.68) is exhibited from
Yandun Shan (4.76) close WSW of Zhenhai Jiao
(24°16′N, 118°08′E) (4.76).
SW of Zhang 5 Light-buoy (preferred channel to
port) (3 miles SE).
The track then leads NNE, passing (with positions from
Yanwei Tou (24°18′⋅4N, 118°07′⋅9E)):
ESE of Zhang 6 Light-buoy (preferred channel to
starboard) (2miles SE).
(Directions continue for a channel W of
Wu Yu at 4.124)
Wu Yu to pilot
4.123
1
From a position ESE of Zhang 6 Light-buoy (above),
the track continues NNE, to a position NE of Xia 0
Light-buoy (port hand) (2 miles ENE), thence NW
through Qingyu Shuidao, with Riguan Yan (24°26′⋅7N,
118°03′⋅7E) (4.130) bearing 318°, passing:
NE of Xia 0 Light-buoy (port hand), thence:
NE of Jiujie Jiao (Jiuzhe Jiao) (24°20′⋅2N,
118°09′⋅7E), 2 m high and the SE and higher of
two conspicuous rocks lying close together; Jiujie
Jiao (Jiuzhe Jiao) Light (white column, red bands,
15 m in height) is exhibited from the rock. Thence:
2
NE of Wu Yu, 6 cables W of Jiujie Jiao, consisting of
two hilly parts, each about 65 m high, joined by a
low neck of sand. Wu Yu Light (round concrete
structure, red and white bands) is exhibited from
the S point of the island. The bay on the E side is
shallow with a sandy beach. Thence:
3
NE of Bai Yu, 22 m high with a few shrubs on it,
situated 6 cables NW of Wu Yu. Drying rocks lie
on the bank extending 2cables from its W side.
Thence:
4
NE of Qing Yu (24°21′⋅8N, 118°07′⋅4E), an islet
52 m high, flat topped with a slight depression in
the middle; a light (4.120) is exhibited from the
NE slope of the islet. A rock, awash, and two
below-water rocks lie 3 cables SW of Qing Yu.
When passing between Qing Yu and Wudan Dao
during the out-going stream it is advisable to keep
to mid-channel because of eddies. Thence:
5
SW of Wudan Dao (24°22′⋅5N, 118°08′⋅2E, 16 m
high, with Xia 1 Light-buoy (starboard hand)
moored 2 cables SW; the islet lies 9 cables NE of
Qing Yu and near the extremity of the foul ground
extending 3 cables SW of Sidan Dao. Foul ground
extends a similar distance NW from Sidan Dao.
Sandan Dao, 37 m high, lies close E of Sidan
Dao,. Dadan Dao (24°23′⋅5N, 118°09′⋅8E), 3 cables
NE of Erdan Dao, 51 m high, is almost in two
parts joined by a low neck. Dadan Dao Light
(white metal hut, 3 m in height) is exhibited from
the S part, 87 m high and bold. Foul ground, on
which there is a dangerous wreck, extends 3 cables
E from the S end of Dadan Dao. There is a
shallow bank between these islands and Baishi
Tou, the sandy S point of Xiamen Dao 2miles
NW. The shallow bank also fringes the coast for
2 miles W of Baishi Tou and on it are several
drying rocks and stranded wrecks. Thence:
6
SW of Xia 1−1 Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(24°23′⋅1N, 118°07′⋅4E), thence:
SW of Xia 3 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (24°24′⋅2N,
118°06′⋅2E). A stranded wreck lies 5 cables NW of
Xia 3 Light-buoy; a further wreck with a least
depth of 10 m over it, lies close SW, thence:
7
To the vicinity 24°24′⋅5N, 118°05′⋅2E at the pilot
boarding position in No 4 Anchorage (4.111).
(Directions continue for a passage through
Lujiang Shuidao at 4.129, for a passage W of
Gulang Yu at 4.130, and for a passage to
Zhangzhou Gang at 4.132)
Alternative channel
(continued from 4.122)
4.124
1
An alternative channel for vessels up to 10 000 dwt,
leads NW from the vicinity of Zhang 6 Light-buoy
(24°17′N, 118°10′E), between Wu Yu (24°20′N, 118°09′E)
and the mainland W. The passage is heavily used by
smaller vessels entering and departing Xiamen Gang.
2
From a position ESE of Zhang 6 Light-buoy (preferred
channel to starboard) the track leads NW, passing (with
positions from Wuan (24°19′⋅8N, 118°07′⋅7E)):
NE of Zhang 8 Light-buoy (port hand) (RP), thence:
3
Between Zhang 10 Light-buoy (port hand) (RP), and
Zhang 9 Lightbuoy (starboard hand) 2 cables NE.
Dong Jiao, 6 cables E of Yanwei Tou, dries 3 m
and is surrounded by foul ground; a light (no
description) is exhibited from the reef. Thence:
4
NE of Yanwei Tou (24°18′⋅4N, 118°07′⋅9E), thence:
NE of Zhang 11 Light-buoy (RP), thence:
SW of Wuan, 54 m high, lying midway between Wu
Yu and the mainland to the W. The channel
between Wuan and Wu Yu is not recommended
without local knowledge as it is obstructed with
islets, rocks and reefs; strong tidal streams make
navigation difficult and fishing stakes are charted
in the fairway. And:
5
NE of Qing Jiao (24°19′⋅6N, 118°07′⋅4E) (RP),
thence:
SW of a shoal patch (RP), with a depth of 1⋅6 m over
it, thence:
CHAPTER 4
140
NE of Ta Jiao, from where a light (6 m in height) is
exhibited. Shenan Shan, close SSW of the point, is
128 m high and conspicuous. Thence:
6
Over Dapan Qiantan, a shallow bank extending
3 miles NW of Qing Yu and filling most of the
wide bay bordering the SW side of the outer
harbour. Thence:
7
To the vicinity 24°24′⋅5N, 118°05′⋅2E at the pilot
boarding position in No 4 Anchorage (4.111).
(Directions continue for a passage through
Lujiang Shuidao at 4.129, for a passage W of
Gulang Yu at 4.130, and for a passage to
Zhangzhou Gang at 4.132)
Directions for other approaches
Approach from east
4.125
1
Shallower draught vessels approaching from E may pass
NE of Shuidao Qiantan (24°16′N, 118°13′E) remaining in
depths in excess of 12 m and proceed direct to Xia 0
Light-buoy (24°19′⋅2N, 118°10′⋅8E).
(Directions continue at 4.122)
Approach from south
4.126
1
From the vicinity of 24°01′N, 118°12′E, the track leads
N, passing:
About 2 miles W of Dongding Dao, thence:
2
Between Lanbai Qiantan (see above) and Erjin
Qiantan (24°13′N, 118°10′E) (3 miles SSE), with
a least depth of 4⋅8 m, neither of which are
marked.
3
The track then continues to join the recommended track
in the vicinity of Zhang 5 Light-buoy (preferred channel to
port).
(Directions continue at 4.122)
Approach from south-west
4.127
1
Leading lights on Zhenhai Jiao:
Front light (white conical stone tower, red top, 14 m
in height) (24°16′N, 118°08′E).
Rear light (white conical stone tower, red top, 9 m in
height) (4 cables NNE from front light).
From a position on the inshore route SE of Nanding
Dao the alignment (018°) of these lights leads NNE,
passing:
2
Between Nanding Dao (24°08′N, 118°02′E) (4.70)
and Nan Sha, 4 miles ESE, thence:
ESE of Banyang Jiao (Linmengao) (4.95).
The track then leads NE to join the recommended track
in the vicinity of Zhang 5 Light-buoy (preferred channel to
port).
(Directions continue at 4.122)
Directions for entering harbour
General information
4.128
1
Lujiang Shuidao (24°27′N, 118°04′E) is the narrow
channel separating Xiamen Dao (4.101) and Gulang Yu
(4.130); the controlling factor for entry is likely to be a
vessel’s length rather than draught. This area is also known
as Xiamen Neigang, the inner harbour. The E shore of the
channel, comprising the old harbour area, consists almost
entirely of a built-up waterfront at the SE end of which,
abreast the S entrance, there is an enclosed, drying, boat
harbour.
2
Larger vessels usually enter Lujiang Shuidao during the
daytime, and sometimes leave on clear nights. Ferries and
sampans make frequent crossings within the harbour. It is
difficult to turn round in Lujiang Shuidao, and it is
inadvisable to let go an anchor to assist this manoeuvre
because of submarine cables. There is a turning area off the
Heping berths. Therefore ships arriving during the
out-going stream enter by the S entrance, and those
arriving during the in-going stream use the channel W of
Gulang Yu to enter by the N entrance. Similarly, ships
departing leave the harbour against the prevailing tide.
Pilot to Hou Yu passing through Lujiang Shuidao
4.129
1
From the vicinity of 24°24′⋅5N, 118°05′⋅2E at the pilot
boarding position in No 4 Anchorage, the recommended
track leads NNW, passing:
2
WSW of Youyan Shi (24°26′⋅0N, 118°04′⋅8E), a rock
with a depth of 5 m over it, with Zuoyan Shi close
E, the rock is marked by a light-buoy (W
cardinal). A dangerous wreck and an obstruction
are charted within 5 cables SE of Youyan Shi.
Thence:
3
Clear of a shoal patch with a depth of 7⋅7 m in the
channel midway between Youyan Shi and
Waihuding Jiao. The track then closes the shore of
Xiamen Dao Thence:
4
ENE of Waihuding Jiao, a rocky patch, awash at its
NW end, lying in the middle of the entrance
channel; Zhanfujian, another rocky patch, lies
cable farther WNW. Light-buoys (E and W
cardinal) mark the shoals. Thence:
5
ENE of Zhong Jiao (24°26′⋅5N, 118°04′⋅6E), a rocky
patch, lying 1 cable N of Waihuding Jiao and
marked by a light-buoy (isolated danger), thence:
6
ENE of Neihuding Jiao, three rocky heads, 1 cables
NNW of Zhong Jiao. Huang Jiao, an islet 11 m
high from where Huang Jiao Light (red octagonal
concrete pyramid, 3 m in height) is exhibited, lies
near the extremity of a rocky ledge extending
cable E from the E extremity of Gulang Yu at
the S entrance to Lujiang Shuidao. Thence:
7
WSW of Pang Shi (24°26′⋅8N, 118°04′⋅6E), which
dries 2⋅1 m, lying close off the waterfront on the E
side of the harbour 2 cables NE of Huang Jiao,
thence:
8
ENE of Zhangyu Jiao, a drying reef on the W side of
the harbour, 4 cables NNW of Huang Jiao.
Zhangyu Jiao Light (red octagonal concrete
pyramid, 9 m in height), is exhibited from the reef.
Yao Shi lies cable SE. A beacon marks Goutou
Jiao, a drying reef cables WSW of Zhangyu
Jiao. Thence:
9
ENE of Jiangxin Jiao (24°27′⋅1N, 118°04′⋅1E), a
drying reef 1 cables NW of Zhangyu Jiao.
Jiangxin Jiao Light (red octagonal concrete
pyramid, 9 m in height) is exhibited from the reef.
Numerous drying reefs and banks lie W of
Jiangxin Jiao. And:
CHAPTER 4
141
10
Clear of Cha Shi, lying 1 cables NE of Jiangxin
Jiao, thence:
11
ENE of Hongniu Jiao (24°27′⋅4N, 118°03′⋅8E), lying
on the W side of the entrance 3 cables NW of
Jiangxin Jiao (4.128), thence:
12
ENE of Guanchai Jiao (24°27′⋅5N, 118°03′⋅8E), from
which Guanchai Jiao Light (red octagonal concrete
structure, black band, 10 m in height) is exhibited.
Wuqi Jiao, a drying reef 1 cable WNW of
Guanchai Jiao, lies on the E edge of the dangers
extending from the N point of Gulang Yu. Thence:
13
WSW of Neisha Shi (24°27′⋅6′N, 118°03′⋅9E), with a
depth of 3⋅9 m; a light-buoy (starboard hand) is
moored close W of the rock. To the N of Neisha
Shi, the E side of the entrance is bordered by a
shallow bank, extending up to 2cables from the
coast of Xiamen Dao (4.101), on which there are
several drying reefs. Thence:
14
ENE of No 4 Light-buoy (N cardinal), marking the
extremity of Neituwei Shazui (4.130). When
rounding Neituwei Shazui, care needs to be
exercised as the tidal streams are uncertain near
HW and LW, and the out-going stream sets
directly onto the spit. Thence:
To a position ESE of Hou Yu (24°28′⋅1N, 118°03′⋅3E)
(4.130).
(Directions continue at 4.131)
Pilot to Hou Yu passing west of Gulang Yu
4.130
1
Vessels bound for port areas N of Gulang Yu normally
use the main passage, passing W of the island to avoid
congestion in Lujiang Shuidao.
From the vicinity 24°24′⋅5N, 118°05′⋅2E at the pilot
boarding position in No 4 Anchorage, the recommended
track initially leads NW, passing:
NE of Xia 4 Light-buoy (port hand) (24°25′⋅1N,
118°04′⋅3E), thence:
2
NE of Xiaoqing Jiao (24°25′N, 118°03′E), lying
5 cables offshore. Xiaoqing Jiao Light (red round
GRP tower, white bands, 18 m in height) is
exhibited from the shoal. Thence:
3
Between Xia 5 Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(24°25′⋅1N, 118°04′⋅3E) and Hai No 2 Light-buoy,
5 cables SW. At this position the entrance to the
shallow estuary of Jiulong Jiang lies W, which is
constantly changing. It is entered W of Ji Yu
(24°26′N, 118°00′E), an island 64 m high, lying
towards the W end of the outer harbour. A shoal,
with depths of less than 5 m, extends 1⋅2 miles E
from the island. The river leads to a number of
small ports.
4
The track then leads NNW, on the line of bearing 356°
of Da Yu (24°27′⋅7N, 118°02′⋅7E), passing:
5
ENE of Muqian Jiao (24°26′⋅5N, 118°02′⋅4E), a rock,
lying close off Xiangbi Shazui, a spit with depths
of less than 5 m extending 3 cables SE of Xiang
Bi. Muqian Jiao Light (GRP column, black and
red bands, isolated danger, 17 m in height) is
exhibited from the rock. Songyu, the promontory
N of Xiang Bi, is occupied by the buildings, oil
tanks and piers of an oil company. Thence:
6
ENE of Xiang Bi (24°26′⋅8N, 118°02′⋅2E), a hilly
point on the mainland. A conspicuous chimney lies
W of the point. Thence:
ENE of Songyu piers, thence:
7
WSW of Gulang Yu (24°27′N, 118°04′E), lying close
SW of Xiamen Dao (4.101) from which it is
separated by Lujiang Shuidao (4.128). The S part
of the island is hilly with many houses surrounded
by trees; the N part if flat and heavily built up.
Riguang Yan, 92 m high and prominent with a
blockhouse on top, is the summit of Gulang Yu.
Shenqi Shan, 4 cables E of Riguang Yan, is 73 m
high with a conspicuous signal station and is
prominent, as is a white stone statue standing on
the SE promontory. Waijian Jiao (24°26′⋅4N,
118°04′⋅2E), 20 m high, lies close off the SE end
of Gulang Yu. Yindou Shi, a reef which dries 5 m,
lies 1 cable farther SE. A shoal, with depths of
less than 5 m, extends 2 cables SE of Waijian
Jiao. Qizai Shazui, lying between 2 and 4 cables S
of the W point of Gulang Yu, is a narrow ridge
with a least depth of 3 m. Thence:
8
W of Jiangjun Jiao (24°27′⋅3N, 118°03′⋅2E), 0⋅3 m
high on which stands a beacon, one of several
drying rocks that lie 1 cable W of the NW point of
Gulang Yu.
The track then leads NNE, passing:
9
ESE of Da Yu, 61 m high, lying 2 cables NE of the
extremity of Songyu; the bay N and W of the
island is filled with a drying flat. Da Yu Light
(hexagonal stone column, red and white stripes,
13 m in height) is exhibited from the SE of the
island. Thence:
10
WNW of Niaofen Jiao, a reef partly covered by sand
and drying in places, extends 3 cables N of the
N point of Gulang Yu. Neituwei Shazui, a spit
with depths of less than 5 m, extends 1 cables
farther N; No 4 Light-buoy (N cardinal) marks its
extremity. Thence:
11
ESE of Hou Yu (24°28′⋅1N, 118°03′⋅3E), 18 m high,
lying near mid-channel 4 cables NE of Da Yu; a
light (4.120) is exhibited from the summit. An
overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
57 m, spans the channel E of Hou Yu.
Hou Yu northwards
4.131
1
Leading lights:
Front light (12 m in height) (24°29′⋅5N, 118°03′⋅6E).
Rear light (12 m in height) (260 m N from front
light).
From a position ESE of Hou Yu (24°28′⋅1N, 118°03′⋅3E)
(4.130), the alignment (005°) of these lights through the
fairway to the end of the leading line, passing:
2
W of Manwei Jiao, from where Manwei Jiao Light
(hexagonal stone tower, black and white stripes,
13 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
W of a rock, with a depth of 4⋅1 m, marked by No 5
Light-buoy (starboard hand).
3
The track then leads NNE, passing:
ESE of No 6 Light-buoy (port hand), thence:
ESE of Huoshao Yu (24°29′⋅7N, 118°03′⋅8E), and
WNW of Dongdu port area.
The track then leads N, passing:
4
Under Haicang Bridge (4.105), from where lights are
exhibited from both sides, thence:
W of Niufen Jiao, from where Niufen Jiao Light
(green octagonal concrete pyramid, 11 m in height)
is exhibited.
CHAPTER 4
142
The track then continues to Haitian wharf (24°30′⋅5N,
118°04′⋅5E) and Baoshui dock area (24°31′⋅0N, 118°04′⋅8E)
on the W side of Xiamen Dao. A turning area is
established off Haitain wharf.
5
The fairway continues N to Shihushan Meimatou
(24°31′⋅2N, 118°04′⋅9E), where there is another turning
area, and to the Goaqi port district (4.115). Maluan
Hangdao, in which the fairway is marked by light-buoys, is
entered W of the N end of Baoshui dock area and leads W
to the Xinglin port district (4.115).
6
Small vessels are able to pass beneath the bridges that
span from the NW of Xiamen Dao to the mainland.
Pilot to Zhangzhou
4.132
1
From the vicinity 24°24′⋅5N, 118°05′⋅2E at the pilot
boarding position in No 4 Anchorage, the track leads
WNW through Zhangzhougang Jingang Hangdao to the
berths at Zhangzhou Gang (24°25′N, 118°03′E), passing:
2
NNE of Dapan Jiao (RP), Shinkengyuzi Light (white
column, black bands, 10 m in height) is exhibited
from an island close N, thence:
3
NNE of Xiaoqing Jiao, lying 5 cables offshore
(4.130). Xiaoqing Jiao Light (4.130) is exhibited
from the shoal.
4
Leading beacons. The alignment (302°) of light-beacons
on the coast 5 cables W of Xiang Bi (4.130) lead to a
position SE of Muqian Jiao (4.130). Vessels proceeding to
Haicang District and the Shamen international cargo wharf
(24°26′⋅8N, 118°00′⋅7E), W of Xiang Bi continue WNW
through the fairway, marked by light-buoys.
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
4.133
1
Anchorage berths SW of Gulang Yu are used for
working cargoes; vessels below 5000 dwt can work cargo
in Lujiang Shuidao, taking advice on where to anchor to
avoid submarine cables. There are a number of other areas
N of Gulang Yu suitable for anchoring when seeking
shelter, including W of Huoshao Yu (4.130) and within
Maluan Hangdao (4.130).
2
Mooring buoys lie in several areas of Xiamen as
follows:
Between Da Yu (24°27′⋅8N, 118°02′⋅7E) (4.130) and
Huo Yu.
E of Hou Yu (24°28′⋅1N, 118°03′⋅3E) (4.130), two
buoys with a dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lying between.
3
Within Lujiang Shuidao.
Within the passage W of Huoshao Yu (24°29′⋅7N,
118°03′⋅8E) (4.130).
Within Maluan Hangdao (24°32′⋅5N, 118°03′⋅0E).
The buoys within the last two areas are used for storm
refuge.
Alongside berths
4.134
1
Port areas are described at 4.115. Xiamen Gang has over
70 wharves, with more under construction (2002); the
principal areas are as follows:
Zhangzhou Gang − main wharf 650 m in length with a
depth of 7⋅5 m alongside.
Xiamen Gang. There are 9 berths with lengths up to
1100 m and depths from 6⋅5 to 13 m alongside.
Port services
4.135
1
Repairs. The port has three shipyards and major repairs
can be undertaken.
Drydock 110 m in length, 12 m wide with a depth of
6 m, and several slipways.
2
Other facilities: hospital; deratting; salvage.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. International airport is situated in the
N part of Xiamen Dao.
Rescue facilities are based at Xiamen.
XIAMEN GANG TO NIUSHAN DAO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1968
Area covered
4.136
1
This section describes the SE China coast between
Xiamen Gang (24°26′N, 118°04′E) and Niushan Dao
(25°26′N, 119°56′E), including the ports of Quanzhou Gang
and Meizhou Wan (4.188). Haitan Haixia (25°30′N,
119°39′E), is also described.
2
It is arranged as follows:
Dongding Dao to Quanzhou Wan (4.137).
Quanzhou Gang and Quanzhou Wan (4.152).
Quanzhou Wan to Meizhou Wan (4.182).
Meizhou Wan (4.188).
Meizhou Wan to Niushan Dao (4.206).
Haitan Haixia (4.225).
DONGDING DAO TO QUANZHOU WAN
General information
Chart 1760 (see 1.18)
Routes
4.137
1
Coastal. From a position ESE of Dongding Dao
(24°10′N, 118°14′E), the route leads NE for about 50 miles
to a position ESE of Xiangzhi Jiao (24°46′N, 118°47′E).
Inshore. From a position SE of Zhenhai Jiao (24°16′N,
118°08′E) (4.76), the route leads NE, to a position SE of
Beiding Dao (24°26′N, 118°30′E), it then joins the coastal
route to a position ESE of Xiangzhi Jiao (24°46′N,
118°47′E).
CHAPTER 4
143
Topography
4.138
1
Between Dongding Dao and Quanzhou Wan (24°50′N,
118°50′E), 50 miles NE, the coast is indented by a number
of bays. Jinmen Dao (24°27′N, 118°23′E) (4.147) lies in
the entrance to Xiamen Gang and Weito Wan.
The coast between Weitou Jiao (24°31′N, 118°34′E)
(4.150) and Shenhu Wan (4.151), 10 miles NE, is
comparatively low with sandhills rising to elevations of
91 m, along which there are several small bays, but none
of them afford shelter.
2
Between Shenhu Wan (24°39′N, 118°40′E) and Xiangzhi
Jiao (4.145), situated 8 miles NE, the coast is indented by
several small bays.
Depths
4.139
1
For the greater part of this coastline the 20 m depth
contour lies within 5 miles of the shore or, in the N part,
inshore of the coastal islands.
Fishing nets
4.140
1
Many moored fishing nets and stakes may be
encountered up to 10 miles off this coastline.
Sandwaves
4.141
1
See 4.9.
Tidal streams
4.142
1
Tidal streams along the coast between Weitou Jiao
(24°31′N, 118°34′E) and Shenhu Wan, 10 miles NE, set NE
and SW, their rate and duration varying with the monsoons.
Fishing nets indicate the direction of the streams.
Principal marks
4.143
1
Landmarks:
Pagoda (24°24′⋅6N, 118°17′⋅3E) (4.68).
Boagai Shan (24°44′N, 118°40′E), 209 m high with a
pagoda on its summit, stands 1 miles N of
Shenhu Wan (4.151) and is prominent; close NE of
Baogai Shan, and separated from it by a deep gap
or valley, is a hill of similar elevation with two
peaks.
2
Major lights:
Weitou Jiao Light (black hexagonal brick tower, 17 m
in height) (24°31′N, 118°34′E).
Yongning Zui Light (hexagonal masonry column, red
and white bands, 18 m in height) (24°40′N,
118°42′E).
Xiangzhi Jiao Light (hexagonal brick masonry pile,
red and white stripes, 16 m in height) (24°46′N,
118°47′E).
Dazuo Light (15 m in height) (24°53′N, 118°59′E).
Other aid to navigation
4.144
1
Racon:
Wu (Niao) Yu Light (24°50′N, 118°50′E).
DGPS:
Zhenhai Jiao (24°16′⋅1N, 118°07′⋅9E).
Directions
Coastal route
(continued from 4.71)
4.145
1
From a position ESE of Dongding Dao (24°10′N,
118°14′E) (4.71), the track leads NE for a distance of about
62 miles to a position SE of Dazuo (24°53′N, 118°59′E),
passing (with positions from Dazuo):
Clear of a dangerous wreck (24°10′N, 118°34′E), the
position of which is approximate, thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (41miles SW), reported
in 1993, thence:
2
SE of Beiding Dao, (21 m high) (24°26′N, 118°30′E).
A light (white round brick tower, 17 m in height)
is exhibited from the island. Reefs and shoals, on
which the sea sometimes breaks, extend 1 miles
E of Beiding Dao, and also across the passage NW
of the island. Thence:
Clear of a wreck (34miles SW), thence:
3
SE of Weitou Jiao (31 miles SW), rising to a height
of 24 m and on it there is a pale-coloured beacon,
3 m in height, with the appearance of a chimney,
which does not show up well. The entrance to
Weitou Wan (4.150) lies close SW. A light (4.143)
is exhibited from the point. A rock, with a depth
of 1⋅5 m over it, lies 6 cables SE of Weitou Jiao;
undoubtedly that struck by SS Hang Sang in 1933.
There is another rocky shoal, with a depth of 5 m,
6 cables farther SE of this position. The sea breaks
heavily on the dangers around Weitou Jiao and it
should be given a wide berth. In 1922, SS
Huichow reported having struck an obstruction in
about 24°42′⋅3N, 118°45′⋅8E. Zhong Yu
(24°44′⋅4N, 118°45′⋅9E), 12 m high, lies in the
entrance to a bay NNW of this position; there is a
bell-shaped pagoda on it, but it is not prominent.
Baiyang Yu (24°32′⋅4N, 118°33′⋅1E), from where a
light (8 m in height) is exhibited, is a low flat rock
lying 2 miles NNW of Weitou Jiao; a rock awash
lies 9 cables S of Baiyang Yu. Two dangerous
rocks were reported in 2003 to lie in 24°29′⋅8N,
118°34′⋅5E and 24°33′⋅5N, 118°28′⋅6E. Thence:
4
Clear of a wreck (30 miles SSW), the position of
which is approximate, thence:
Clear of dangerous wrecks (26 and 24 miles SSW),
thence:
5
SE of Shenhu Wan (21 miles SW) (4.151); Yongning
Zui Light (4.143) is exhibited from Yongning Zui
at the N entrance to the bay. Thence:
Clear of two dangerous wrecks (16 miles SSW).
6
The track then continues to a position ESE of Xiangzhi
Jiao (13 miles SW), a headland 122 m high and the S
entrance point of Quanzhou Wan (4.152); dangers extend
2cables NE and 5 cables E from it. A light (4.143) is
exhibited from the headland.
(Directions continue at 4.186 and for entering
Quanzhou Wan are given at 4.170)
Inshore route
(continued from 4.76)
4.146
1
From a position SE of Zhenhai Jiao (24°16′N, 118°08′E)
(4.76), the track leads generally NE, passing:
Across the entrance to Xiamen Gang (4.99), thence:
SE of a light-buoy (special) (24°23′N, 118°24′E),
thence:
CHAPTER 4
144
2
SE of Jinmen Dao (24°27′N, 118°23′E), thence:
SE of Beiding Dao (24°26′N, 118°30′E) (4.145). The
passage between Beiding Dao and Jinmen Dao can
be used.
The track then joins the coastal route.
(Directions continue at 4.145)
Jinmen Dao
General information
4.147
1
Description. Jinmen Dao (24°27′N, 118°23′E), formerly
Quemoy Island, on the NE side of the approach to Xiamen
Gang (4.99), lies 12 miles NE of Zhenhai Jiao (4.76).
Jinmen (24°26′N, 118°19′E), a town on the W side of
Jinmen Dao, is fronted by a wide drying flat. There is a
stone jetty 5 cables NW of the town, but its head dries.
The harbour of Jinmen Gang lies in the channel W of
Jinmen.
2
Xiamendongce Shuidao and Xiaojinmen Shuidao, are
channels passing W and E, respectively, of Huzai Yu (Huzi
Yu), (24°24′N, 118°12′E) 39 m high, lead 7 miles N to
unite with Jinmen Shuidao, the channel through Jinmen
Gang. These channels give access to Xunjiang Gang off the
N side of Xiamen Dao (4.101).
3
Topography. In the island’s E part, Beitawu Shan rises
to 252 m. Mu Yu (24°25′N, 118°27′E), 21 m high, lies
2cables off the SE side of Jinmen Dao.
Liaoluo Tou (24°24′⋅5N, 118°25′⋅5E), the SE point of
Jinmen Dao, consists of a peaked islet connected to the
main island by a reef.
4
Xiaojinmen Dao (24°26′N, 118°15′E), bordering the W
side of Jinmen Gang, is hilly in its part rising to a summit
106 m high; the SW part of the island consists of lower
sandhills and cultivated ground.
5
Local knowledge is necessary.
Prohibited anchorages:
A rectangular area in which anchoring and fishing are
prohibited lies off the SE side of Jinmen Dao as
shown on the chart.
Liaoluo Wan, either side of the oil pipeline.
6
A corridor, 1 cables wide, extending ENE from the
SE part of Dadan Dao (4.101) passing S of Huzai
Yu (4.147) to the S point of Xiaojinmen Dao
(24°26′N, 118°15′E).
7
Restricted and prohibited zones extend around Jinmen
Dao and adjacent islands, the full details of which are not
known.
Mine danger area. A former mined area lies S and SW
of Xiaojinmen Dao. See 1.4 and Appendix I.
8
Tidal streams S of Lialuo Tou (4.147) set W during the
in-going tide and E during the out-going tide. Inshore of
Beiding Dao (4.145), tidal streams set SW and then W
around the S tip of Jinmen Dao on the in-going tide, and
set in the reverse direction on the out-going tide.
Jinmen Gang
4.148
1
General information. Jinmen Gang has general depths
from 11 to 20 m. The harbour is sheltered in all winds and
is available in a typhoon, but with S winds a swell sets in
and renders the anchorage uncomfortable.
2
Directions. From a position about 6 miles E of Zhenhai
Jiao (24°16′N, 118°08′E) (4.76), from where a light (4.14)
is exhibited the line of bearing 005° of a prominent summit
on the mainland seen between the NE extremity of
Xiaojinmen Dao (24°26′N, 118°15′E) and a small islet, 5 m
high and lying close off that point, leads between the
steep-to shallow banks which extend well offshore on each
side of the approach to Jinmen Gang.
3
When a conspicuous pagoda (4.68) bears 100°, alter
course NE into the anchorage. Much of the central part of
the approach and the S part of the anchorage has been
swept to a depth of 7 m. There are numerous shoals and a
dangerous wreck, marked by a buoy on its E side, in or
near the fairway.
4
Caution. The channel N of Jinmen Gang, although
comparatively deep, is obstructed with numerous shoals and
it is inadvisable for vessels to proceed N of a bearing of
297° on the 106 m high summit (4.147) on Xiaojinmen
Dao unless they are of shallow draught.
Liaoluo Wan
4.149
1
General information. Liaoluo Wan entered E of
Niaozui Wei, the W entrance point of Liaoluo Wan has two
rocky islets lying 5 cables E of the point; several shoal
depths lie within 1 miles ESE and ENE of Niaozui Wei.
The bay extends 5 miles E to Liaoluo Tou; the W part of
the bay is foul.
2
Directions. Entry and exit routes leading SE and SSW
are established into Liaoluo Wan, the full details of which
are not yet known.
3
Anchorage, sheltered from N winds, can be obtained in
Liaoluo Wan in a depth of 8⋅5 m, mud and sand, with
Liaoluo Tou bearing 095° and Beitaiwu Shan bearing 015°;
small vessels can anchor closer inshore clear of the oil
terminal. When the NE monsoon is at strength a heavy
swell sets in and the anchorage becomes untenable.
4
Berth. An offshore oil terminal lies in the E part of
Liaoluo Wan with a mooring buoy, 1 miles WNW of
Liaoluo Tou, at the end of a submarine pipeline. Several
obstructions, positions approximate, lie in the E side of the
bay.
Anchorages and harbours
Weitou Wan
4.150
1
Description. Weitou Wan (24°32′N, 118°30′E), entered
between Beiding Dao (4.145) and Weitou Jiao (24°31′N,
118°34′E), a point on the mainland 6 miles NE, is largely
obstructed with reefs, shoals and shallow banks.
2
A channel leads through Weitou Wan to several small
ports under the jurisdiction of Quanzhou Port Authority
(4.152), namely Anhai (24°43′N, 118°27′E), Dongshi
(24°40′N, 118°27′E), and Shijing (24°38′N, 118°26′E),
situated on the Wuma Jiang.
Local knowledge is required to enter Weitou Wan.
Tidal levels. At Shijing, the mean spring range is about
5⋅8 m and the mean neap range about 4.6 m.
3
Landmarks:
Hongjian Shan (24°40′N, 118°20′E), 516 m high, on
the mainland 16 miles NW of Weitou Jiao, with
Yangzi Shan (not charted), 425 m high, 2 miles
ESE.
4
Directions. From a position on the coastal route SE of
Weitou Jiao (4.145), from where a light (4.143) is
exhibited, the track leads NW through a channel up to
5 cables in width, with depths mainly between 5 and 10 m
as far as Xiaobai Dao (24°34′⋅4N, 118°26′⋅5E), 14 m high,
beyond which the channel into Wuma Jiang is shallow and
narrow, and should be entered with the tide.
5
Anchorage. During the NE monsoon there is good
anchorage 5 cables SW of Baiyang Yu, in a depth of 6⋅4 m,
or 7cables W of that islet, in a depth of 9⋅1 m. Care
CHAPTER 4
145
must be taken to avoid a drying rock 1⋅6 miles WNW of
Baiyang Yu.
Shijing. A wharf is situated at Shijiang able to
accommodate a vessel of 1000 dwt.
Shenhu Wan
4.151
1
Description. Shenhu Wan (24°39′N, 118°40′E), provides
working anchorages for Meilin and Shenhu, both ports
under the jurisdiction of Quanzhou Port Authority (4.152).
The shores of the bay are barren, and on its N entrance
point stands the walled town of Yongning.
Depths in the central part of the bay are between 5 to
9 m.
Tidal levels. At Shenhu, the mean spring range is about
5.7 m and the mean neap range about 4⋅6 m.
2
Directions. From a psoition on the coastal route SE of
Da Yu, from where a light (4.130) is exhibited, the track
leads NW into the bay, passing:
NE of Qingzi Yu, a rock 3⋅7 m high surrounded by a
drying reef, 6 cables NE of the S entrance point
from where a light (9 m in height) is exhibited,
thence:
3
NE of Banyang Jiao, with a depth of 0⋅9 m, lying in
the centre of the entrance to the bay. A shoal
patch with a depth of 3 m over it lies 2 cables S of
Banyang Jiao and is marked on its SE side by a
light-buoy (starboard hand). Islets and dangers
extend 9 cables NE from the S entrance point.
And:
SW of a drying rock lies 2cables SW of Yongning
Zui, the N entrance point, from where a light
(4.302) is exhibited.
4
Useful mark:
Light (red masonry square), exhibited from the village
of Shenhu on the S entrance point.
Anchorage may be obtained in the S part of the bay
during the SW monsoon, in depths from 3 to 6 m, mud; the
bay is otherwise unsafe during the SW monsoon.
Anchorage and shelter may be obtained by boats in the
N part of the bay during the NE monsoon, in depths from
2 to 5 m, sand and mud.
QUANZHOU GANG AND QUANZHOU WAN
General information
Charts 1786, 1760 (see 1.18)
Position
4.152
1
Quanzhou Gang (24°52′N, 118°42′), lies about 45 miles
NE of Xiamen and is entered through Quanzhou Wan
(24°50′N, 118°50′E).
Function
4.153
1
It is a major port with imports of grain, coal, fertilisers,
petroleum, electrical appliances and building materials;
exports include lumber, light industrial goods, agricultural
produce and stones.
Chongwu is a significant fishing port. By late 1999,
Quanzhou port areas collectively amounted to some
27 wharves and 39 berths, including six for ships of over
10 000 dwt.
Topography
4.154
1
Quanzhou Gang embraces the combined estuary of
Luoyang Jiang and Jin Jiang. The estuary is greatly
obstructed by islands, banks and reefs and there are
extensive drying flats across the mouth of Jin Jiang.
2
Dazhui Dao (24°50′N, 118°46′E), 1 mile N of Xiaozhui
Dao, is 103 m (charted as 98 m) high with a smaller islet,
Matou Dao, 39 m high, attached to its S side by a sandy
isthmus. Dazhui Men, the N passage into the harbour, is
between Matou Dao and Xiaozhui Dao. A bank with
depths of less than 5 m extends 2 miles SE of Dazhui Dao;
there are frequently overfalls on it.
Quanzhou Shi (24°54′N, 118°35′E), stands on the bank
of Jin Jiang.
Port limits
4.155
1
Within Quanzhou Wan, E limit is the meridian
(118°46′⋅6E) passing through Xiangzhi Jiao Light; N limit
is Luoyang Bridge spanning Luoyang Jiang, and W limit is
the Shunji Bridge spanning Jin Jiang.
Approach and entry
4.156
1
Quanzhou Gang is approached from SE through
Quanzhou Wan and entered between Xiangzhi Jiao
(24°46′N, 118°47′E) (4.145) and the extremity of Chongwu
Bandao, the peninsula forming the N side of the bay,
12 miles ENE.
2
Dazhui Men (see above) is the main entrance, being
wider and with less dangers, but has less water than
Xiaozhui Men, the S passage, which must be used by
deeper draught vessels.
Port Authority
4.157
1
Port Administration Office, Harbour Building, Quanzhou
Bridge, Quanzhou 362000, Fujian Province, China.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.158
1
The least depth through Xiaozhui Men, the S passage, to
the Qixing Jiao and Shihu anchorages (4.177) is 5⋅8 m;
vessels with draughts in excess of 5 m must await the tide
to enter through this passage. The least depth across the
bank through Dazhui Men, the N passage, is 3.6 m (1998).
This bank is reported to get shallower each year. Vessels
with draughts in excess of 3 m must await the tide to enter
through this passage.
Tidal levels
4.159
1
Mean spring range about 6⋅3 m; mean neap range about
5⋅1 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.160
1
Vessels of 20 000 dwt can use Qixing Jiao and Shihu
anchorages, entering through Xiaozhui Men.
Local weather
4.161
1
A heavy swell rolls into the bay when there is any
wind, and Dazhui Men, the N passage, is dangerous at LW
to vessels of more than 3 m draught.
CHAPTER 4
146
Arrival information
Notice of ETA required
4.162
1
Notice of ETA required is 72 hours, with updates
thereafter.
Outer anchorages
4.163
1
Quarantine and pilot waiting anchorage, with depths
from 10 to 14 m, is centred on approximate position
24°47′⋅5N, 118°47′⋅5E. It is 6 cables wide in a N/S
direction and 8 cables wide in an E/W direction.
Alternative quarantine and waiting anchorage is
established in the E of Quanzhou Wan, centred in position
24°52′N, 118°55′E, approximately 5 cables SW of Gui Yu
Light (4.170), in depths of about 10 m.
2
Other anchorages. Anchorage may also be obtained
during the NE monsoon, in depths from 11 to 14 m, mud,
1 miles SSW of Chongwu Light (24°52′⋅6N, 118°56′⋅0E)
(4.176); a swell sets in with SE winds. Care must be taken
to avoid the double headed reef of Nan Jiao and Bei Jiao,
with a least depth of 3.6 m, lying 2 miles SW of the
light.
3
Several further anchorages exist elsewhere within
Quanzhou Wan. Anchorage can be obtained about 1 miles
NW of Dazhou Dao (24°50′N, 118°46′E) (4.152) where
there is smooth water in any weather, in depths of about
4 m; the anchorage is approached by a channel between
Dazhou Dao and the mainland to the N, but the area is
obstructed with numerous fishing stakes; local knowledge is
required.
4
The bay close W of Chongwu (24°53′N, 118°56′E)
(4.152) affords shelter to small vessels from NE winds in
depths from 5 to 6 m, mud and sand. A mooring buoy lies
on the E side of the bay.
5
Small vessels can also obtain anchorage, during the NE
monsoon, in the bay W of Jianfeng Yu (24°52′⋅8N,
118°58′⋅9E) (4.152); the approach is W of a reef which
extends 3 cables S of Jianfeng Yu, acting as a good
breakwater, and a group of rocks extending 4 cables
offshore 1 miles W of Jianfeng Yu.
Pilotage and tugs
4.164
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels. Pilots are
available in daylight hours only and board in the outer
anchorage (above). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Tugs are available.
Local knowledge
4.165
1
Local knowledge is required to enter the estuary.
Harbour
General layout
4.166
1
The main port within Quanzhou Gang is Houzhu Gang
(24°53′N, 118°41′E). Quanzhou inner port lies on the lower
reaches of Jin Jiang and berths exist at Xiangzhi (24°47′N
118°46′E), on the S side of the entrance to Quanzhou Wan,
and at Chongwu (24°53′N, 118°56′E), a walled city lying
on the S side of Chongwu Bandao towards the E entrance
to the bay.
Fishing
4.167
1
Many fishing vessels operate from Chongwu on the E
side of Quanzhou Wan, a number of which may not show
the prescribed lights at night. Such craft are also in the
habit of cutting close across the bows of larger vessels.
Tidal streams
4.168
1
Although the tidal streams at the entrance to Quanzhou
Wan are rotory in an anti-clockwise direction, they usually
set E and W along the coast between Jianfeng Yu
(24°52′⋅8N, 118°58′⋅9E) and Chongwu (24°53′N, 118°56′E).
Within the estuary the tidal streams follow the channels and
are strong, at times reaching 5 kn in Xiaozhui Men.
Principal marks
4.169
1
Landmarks:
Pagoda, conspicuous, with an elevation of 62 m,
stands on the headland 5 cables NE of Shihu
village (24°48′N, 118°43′E).
Dazuo Shan (24°53′⋅7N, 118°58′⋅1E), 110 m high and
very prominent when seen from S and E, and
Dong Shan, 90 m high, 8 cables SSE, appear as
islands when seen from NE.
2
Major lights:
Xiangzhi Jiao Light (24°46′N, 118°47′E) (4.143).
Dazuo Light (24°53′N, 118°59′E) (4.143).
Directions — seaward to pilot
(continued from 4.145)
4.170
1
From a position on the coastal route, ESE of Xiangzhi
Jiao (24°46′N, 118°47′E), the track leads WNW towards
the waiting anchorage and pilot boarding position, passing
(with positions from Dazuo):
S of Gui Yu (24°52′⋅5N, 118°55′⋅2E), an islet close
SW of the town from where a light (stone masonry
column, black and white stripes, 6 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
2
S of Nan Jiao and Bei Jiao (2 miles WSW) (4.163),
thence:
S of Wu (Niao) Yu (24°50′⋅2N, 118°49′⋅6E), a dark
dome-shaped rocky islet 24 m high, lies near the
middle of Quanzhou Wan. Several drying rocks lie
within 5 cables E of the islet, and foul ground
extends 7cables NNE to Dingmen Yu, 12 m
high.
The track then continues to the vicinity of the pilot
boarding position (24°47′⋅5N, 118°47′⋅5E).
3
Useful mark:
Jianfeng Yu (24°52′⋅8N, 118°58′⋅9E), a conical rock
22 m high, lies close off the SE extremity of
Chongwu Bandao, connected to it by a drying
sandy isthmus. The rock is surmounted by a
prominent conical stone-piled tower 6 m in height.
Directions — pilot to Houzha Gang through
Dazhui Men
Pilot to No 5 Buoy
4.171
1
Leading lights:
Front light (Matou Dao) (stone masonry square, black
and white stripes, 7 m in height) (24°49′⋅5N,
118°46′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 4
147
Rear light (Dazhui Dao) (stone masonry square, black
and white stripes, 11 m in height) (410 m NNW
from front light).
2
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding position
24°47′⋅5N, 118°47′⋅5E in the outer anchorage (4.163), the
alignment (342°) of the above lights leads to the end of
the leading line across the outer sandbar, thence W and
NW through a channel marked by leading lights, buoys and
light-beacons passing:
ENE of Donghu (Dongniu) Jiao (4.175), and:
ENE of a rock that dries 1.8 m lying 5 cables SSW of
the front light.
3
When the rear light (see below) on Xiaozhui Dao bears
222°, the track should be altered W, thence WSW, passing
N of Bei Jiao, from where Bei Jiao Light (red
hexagonal concrete structure, 12 m in height) is
exhibited, and:
Clear of a sandbank with a least depth of 2⋅9 m lying
2 cables NNW of Bei Jiao Light and extends
WNW for a further 3 cables, thence:
NNW of No 5 Buoy (safe water).
4
Clearing line. Wu (Niao) Yu Light (4.176) bearing less
than 076° and open S of the front light on Matou Dao
clears S of a reef that dries 2⋅6 m lying 2 cables WSW of
the W extremity of Matou Dao.
No 5 Buoy to Shihu headland
4.172
1
Leading lights:
Xioazhui Dao front light (stone masonry square, black
and white stripes, 9 m in height) (24°48′⋅8N,
118°45′⋅8E).
Rear light (stone masonry square, black and white
stripes, 9 m in height) (390 m ESE from front
light).
2
From a position NNW of No 5 Buoy, mariners should
steer for Bai Yu (24°49′⋅6N, 118°41′⋅8E), 19 m high, on the
alignment 101° (astern) of the above lights on Xiaozhui
Dao, through Qixing Jiao and Shihu anchorages (4.177),
passing:
3
NNE of Qixing Jiao from where Qixing Jiao Light
(red octagonal concrete structure, 8 m in height) is
exhibited, the reef should be given a berth of at
least 1 cables. Tidal streams create turbulence in
the vicinity of Qixing Jiao. Xie Sha, drying
sandbanks on the N side of the channel, are
reported to be extending S and SW.
The track then continues to a position N of Shihu
headland (24°48′N, 118°43′E), and then alters NW.
Shihu headland to Houzhu Gang
4.173
1
Leading marks:
Front (white metal framework towers, black stripes on
stone base, 14 m in height).
Rear (similar construction, 16 m in height).
From the position N of the Shihu headland the
alignment (144°) astern of the above marks on the N side
of the Shihu headland lead NW, passing:
2
NE of Nanwu Jiao, a reef lying 4 cables E of Bai Yu,
from where Nanwu Jiao Light (red square on
octagonal concrete pyramid, 7 m in height) is
exhibited, and:
NE of a 3⋅5 m isolated shoal lying just over 1 cable
NNW of the light-beacon, thence:
SW of No 6 Buoy (starboard hand) marking the 5 m
contour line W of Xie Sha.
3
The channel continues through Beiwu Jiao and Xiutu
anchorages (4.177) passing:
SW of Beiwu Jiao, marked by Beiwu Jiao
Light-beacon (black stone masonry square, 5 m in
height), and:
4
Clear of No 7 Buoy (port hand) lying in the fairway
between the anchorages. Lightering operations are
frequently taking place in Xiutu anchorage and
speed should be moderated accordingly. For
vessels making for the inner port at Quanzhou the
track now alters W, when S of No 7 buoy to make
for Jin Jiang; light-beacons are positioned on the
drying flats of Nanlichuang Tan. Local knowledge
is required.
5
Leading marks:
Front (white metal framework towers, black stripes on
stone base, 15 m in height)
Rear (similar construction) (16 m in height)
From the N end of Xiutu anchorage, the alignment
(000°) of the above marks leads through a dredged
channel 80 m wide with depths from 4⋅6 to 6 m, passing:
E of No 8 Buoy (port hand), thence:
E of No 9 Buoy (port hand).
The track continues through Baiqi anchorage (4.177).
The channel then widens and leads NNW to Houzhu
(24°53′N, 118°41′E).
Useful marks
4.174
1
Chongwu Light (white brick masonry square)
(24°52′⋅6N, 118°56′⋅0E).
Wu (Niao) Yu Light (stone masonry column, black
and white bands, 7 m in height, racon) (24°50′⋅2N,
118°49′⋅6E).
Wuyuewei Light (black hexagonal concrete pyramid,
7 m in height) (24°50′⋅8N, 118°42′⋅9E).
Directions — pilot to No 5 Buoy
passing through Xiaozhui Men
4.175
1
Caution. Mariners must remain within the buoyed
channel in this passage due to the dangers lying close S.
See also tidal streams 4.166. Where draught permits,
Dazhui Men should always be used in preference to this
passage.
2
Leading marks:
Front (white metal framework tower, black stripes, on
stone base, 15 m in height).
Rear (similar construction, 16 m in height).
3
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding position
24°47′⋅5N, 118°47′⋅5E in the outer anchorage (4.163), the
alignment (307°) of the above marks situated on the reef
to the S of the W part of Xiaozhui Dao (4.152) leads
through Xiaozhui Men, the S passage into the harbour
keeping in centre of the channel to a position NE of No 2
Buoy, passing:
4
NE of No 1 Buoy (port hand), thence:
SW of Donghu (Dongniu) Jiao, awash, lying 6 cables
SE of Xiaozhui Dao, and the E danger in the
approach to this passage.
5
Thence the track leads generally WNW, through a
channel 100 m wide, marked by buoys and dredged with
depths in excess of 5⋅8 m, reducing to 80 m between No 2
and 4 Buoys (port hand), passing:
SSW of an isolated 4⋅9 m patch, thence:
SSW of No 3 Buoy (starboard hand), thence:
NNE of No 4 Buoy marking rocks and shoals, and
CHAPTER 4
148
6
SSW of Xiaozhui Dao (24°49′N, 118°46′E),
comprising two small hills connected by a group
of drying rocks, the E-most and largest of which is
12 m high, lie on a reef 2 miles NNW of
Xiangzhi Jiao. Thence:
SSW of No 5 Buoy (safe water). The passage then
continues as for entry through Dazhui Men.
4.176
1
Useful marks:
Chongwu Light (24°52′⋅6N, 118°56′⋅0E) (4.174).
Wu (Niao) Yu Light (24°50′⋅2N, 118°49′⋅6E) (4.174).
Wuyuewei Light (24°50′⋅8N, 118°42′⋅9E) (4.174).
(Directions continue at 4.172)
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
4.177
1
Six designated anchorages are established in the estuary
between the entrance channels and Houzhu Gang. From
seaward these are:
Qixing Jiao anchorage, centred in approximate
position 24°49′⋅2N, 118°44′⋅3E to the NE of
Qixing Jiao (4.172), has depths from 10 to 17 m,
mud and sand.
2
Shihu anchorage, centred in approximate position
24°49′⋅3N, 118°42′⋅9E, to the N of the Shihu
headland (4.166), has depths from 9 to 19 m, mud
and sand.
Beiwu Jiao anchorage, centred in approximate
position 24°50′⋅4N, 118°41′⋅8E to the S of Beiwu
Jiao (4.172), has depths from 5 to 8 m, mud and
sand.
3
Xiutu anchorage, centred in approximate position
24°51′⋅1N, 118°41′⋅5E between Nos 7 and 8
Buoys, has depths from 5 to 8 m, sand and mud.
The anchorage has three mooring buoys in
mid-channel.
Baiqi anchorage, centred in approximate position
24°52′⋅9N, 118°41′⋅3E to N of No 9 Buoy, has
depths from 4 to 6 m, soft mud.
4
Houzhu anchorage, centred in approximate position
24°53′⋅3N, 118°41′⋅1E close off Houzhu, has
depths from 5 to 6 m, soft mud.
Alongside berths
4.178
1
At Houzhu Gang there are six wharfs, the largest of
which can accept vessels of 5000 dwt. Chongwu has a
berth for vessels up to 1000 dwt; vessels of 500 tonnes can
berth at Xiangshi and Quanzhou inner port.
2
An oil jetty, from which lights are exhibited, is situated
on the NW side of the Shihu headland; other details are
not known.
Port services
Repairs
4.179
1
Mechanical.
Other facilities
4.180
1
Hospitals in Quanzhou; deratting exemption certificates.
Supplies
4.181
1
Fuel oil; fresh water, by barge; provisions.
QUANZHOU WAN TO MEIZHOU WAN
General information
Chart 1761
Route
4.182
1
From a position ESE of Xiangzhi Jiao (24°46′N,
118°47′E), the route leads NE for about 17 miles to a
position ESE of Jian (Da) Yu (24°58′N, 119°02′E).
Topography
4.183
1
Between Xiangzhi Jiao and Jian Yu several large bays
indent the coast, with numerous islands close offshore.
Depths
4.184
1
There are charted depths of about 22 m on this route.
Principal marks
4.185
1
Major lights:
Xiangzhi Jiao Light (24°46′N, 118°47′E) (4.143).
Dazuo Light (15 m in height) (24°53′N, 118°59′E)
(4.143).
Jian (Da) Yu Light (hexagonal concrete tower, red
and white bands, 16 m in height) (24°58′N,
119°02′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.145)
4.186
1
From a position ESE of Xiangzhi Jiao (24°46′N,
118°47′E), the track leads NE, passing (with positions
relative to Xiangzhi Jiao):
SE of Dazuo, the extremity of Chongwu Bandao
(4.152), the peninsula forming the N side of
Quanzhou Wan. A light (4.143) is exhibited from
Dazuo. A dangerous wreck lies 2 miles SE of the
point. Uncharted wrecks lie E of the point.
Thence the track leads to a position ESE of Jian (Da)
Yu (24°58′N, 119°02′E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 4.212,
for the inshore route at 4.214 and for
entering Meizhou Wan at 4.195)
Minor harbour
Da Gang
4.187
1
General information. Da Gang (24°55′N, 118°57′E) is
entered between Daoshi Yu (24°53′⋅0N, 118°59′⋅2E), 14 m
high with rocks extending 7cables ENE from it, and the
extremity of a peninsula 3 miles N. Islets and drying
reefs extend up to 1 mile WSW from this point.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Landmarks:
Dazuo Shan (24°53′⋅7N, 118°58′⋅1E) (4.166).
Xiaozhuo Shan (24°57′⋅1N, 119°00′⋅4E), 104 m and
the highest hill on the N side of the bay is brown,
conical and prominent from E of Daoshi Yu, being
the only hill of this shape in the vicinity.
3
Major lights:
Dazuo Light (24°53′N, 118°59′E) (4.143).
Qing Yu Light (24°54′⋅4N, 118°57′⋅4E) (4.120).
4
Directions. From a position E of Da Gang the track
leads W into the bay noting Yusan Jiao, with a depth of
5⋅4 m, lying near the centre of the entrance to the bay.
There are a number of off-lying rocks around the shores of
CHAPTER 4
149
the bay; caution should be exercised due to the possibility
of the existence of uncharted dangers.
5
Anchorage. The bay affords good shelter to small
vessels during offshore winds.
MEIZHOU WAN
General information
Chart 1761, Chinese Chart 14171 (see 1.18)
Description
4.188
1
Meizhou Wan (25°00′N, 119°05′E) lies NE of Quanzhou
Wan (4.152). The bay extends 18 miles NNW, with a very
irregular coastline; much of it dries.
Route
4.189
1
From a position on the coastal route ESE of Jian (Da)
Yu (24°58′N, 119°02′E), the route leads generally NNW for
about 20 miles to the head of the bay.
Depths
4.190
1
Controlling depth. The least charted depth in the
approach channels is 12⋅2 m about 1 miles WNW of
Dazhu Dao Rear Light (25°05′N, 119°02′E) (4.195).
Vessels with draughts up to 13⋅5 m can enter at normal
tides and those with draughts up to 15⋅5 m on spring tides.
Pilotage
4.191
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels and available
in daylight hours only. The pilot boarding place is charted
in the approach to No 3 Light-buoy (25°00′⋅7N,
119°03′⋅6E).
Natural conditions
4.192
1
Tidal streams in Dazhu Hangmen (4.195) attain rates of
4 kn on the in-going tide.
Local weather. In winter months during the NE
monsoon, the wind tends to blow straight down Meizhou
Wan in strength.
Principal marks
4.193
1
Major light:
Jian Yu Light (4.143).
Other aid to navigation
4.194
1
Racons:
The rear light of each pair of approach leading lights
is fitted with a racon.
Directions
(continued from 4.186)
Seaward to pilot
4.195
1
Caution. The approach has been reported to be busy
with coasters and fishing vessels.
From a position on the coastal route ESE of Jian (Da)
Yu (24°58′N, 119°02′E), the track leads initially WNW,
passing (with positions from Jian Yu):
2
SSW of a dangerous wreck (7miles E) the position
of which is approximate, thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (4 miles ENE) the
position of which is approximate, thence:
NNE of Jian Yu, the vicinity of the pilot boarding
position. A light (4.143) is exhibited from Jian Yu.
Pilot to head of bay
4.196
1
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding position, with
No 2 Light-buoy (port hand) abeam, three sets of
light-beacons mark the channel. The initial transit leads
towards Dazhu Dao, an island 85 m high; Dasheng Dao,
41 m high, lies 7cables W.
2
First leading lights:
Front light (25°04′⋅3N, 119°02′⋅4E).
Rear light (3 cables NNW of front light on Dazhu
Dao).
The alignment (349°) of the above lights leads to a
position close NE of No 4 Light-buoy (port hand), passing:
3
WSW of Liuer Jiao (25°01′N, 119°04′E), a rock 6 m
high, one of a group of above-water rocks, lying
near the middle of the entrance to the bay,
3 miles NE of Jian Yu; from it a reef extends
1 mile N to Cai Yu, a rock 29 m high. An isolated
shoal, with a depth of 4⋅3 m, lies 1 miles NNW,
and rocks awash lie 1 mile N and 7cables E of
Cai Yu. Thence:
4
ENE of Huanggan Dao, 69 m high, lying on the W
side of the bay 2 miles WNW of Liuer Jiao; a
light (stone masonry tower, 7 m in height), is
exhibited from its E point. And:
Between Nos 1 and 2 Anchorages (4.201).
5
Second leading lights:
Front light (25°05′⋅6N, 118°59′⋅2E).
Rear light (5 cables NW of front light).
6
The alignment (310°) of the above lights leads through
Dazhu Hangmen to a position between No 5 Light buoy
(starboard hand) and No 6 Light buoy (port hand). A
light-buoy (port hand) marks a drying rock 12 cables N
of the N extremity of Huanggan Dao.
7
Third leading lights:
Front light (25°03′⋅2N, 119°00′⋅9E).
Rear light (close SSE of front light).
8
The alignment (171°) (astern) of the above lights leads
through the centre of the fairway, passing:
Between No 8 Light-buoy (port hand) marking the
SSE end of a narrow drying patch extending
1 miles NNW, and a light-buoy (starboard hand)
marking a rock with a depth of 2⋅5 m.
9
At a position abreast the lightering anchorage (4.201)
and to the S of No 7 Light-buoy (safe water), the fairway
divides. Vessels bound for the Fujian terminal continue
NNW direct to the terminal. No 11 Light-beacon (starboard
hand) (25°10′⋅1N, 118°59′⋅3E) lies 3 cables E of the
terminal berth and marks the 10 m depth contour to the E.
10
Vessels bound for Xiuyu Gang continue N, passing W of
No 9 Light-beacon (starboard hand) (25°09′⋅6N, 119°00′⋅4E)
which marks the 10 m depth contour close E and the
drying banks extending S of Le Yu (25°10′⋅5N,
119°01′⋅0E). When abeam the N end of Huiyu (25°11′⋅0N,
118°59′⋅5E), from which a light (4.197) is exhibited, the
track leads NW to the port area.
4.197
1
Useful marks:
Douwei Light (white hexagonal stone tower, 5 m in
height) (25°03′⋅5N, 119°00′⋅6E).
Wuduo Light (white hexagonal stone tower, 11 m in
height) (25°09′⋅4N, 119°00′⋅7E).
CHAPTER 4
150
Huiyu Light (round stone tower, red and white bands,
7 m in height) (25°11′⋅4N, 119°00′⋅0E).
Xie Yu Light (hexagonal stone tower, red and white
bands, 10 m in height) (25°12′⋅2N, 118°58′⋅5E).
Longhu Jiao Light (red concrete cone, 5 m in height)
(25°12′⋅4N, 118°59′⋅9E).
Anchorages
4.198
1
There are several designated and other anchorages in
Meizhou Wan; the holding is reported to be good.
No 1 Anchorage, centred on 25°03′⋅0N, 119°03′⋅2E, lies
E of the initial approach transit (4.195) and extends for
1 miles from N to S; depths in this anchorage range from
7 to 21 m. A light-buoy (pillar, special) is moored in the S
part of this anchorage.
2
No 2 Anchorage lies close W of the initial approach
transit and extends S from abreast the N end of Huanggan
Dao (4.195) for a distance of 1 miles. This anchorage is
for large ocean-going vessels and depths range between 19
to 34 m. An area of fishing stakes lies about 7cables S
of the anchorage.
3
No 3 Anchorage, 3 cables in radius, is centred on
25°01′⋅2N, 119°05′⋅3E, WSW of the S extremity of
Meizhou Dao.
4
Other anchorages. An anchorage for tankers lies within
the bay centred on 25°04′⋅3N, 118°59′⋅4E; the anchorage
extends for 1 mile from N to S and 1 miles from E to W.
Depths range between 6 to 24 m. An area of fishing stakes
lies close S of the anchorage.
5
A lightering anchorage, 2 cables in radius, is centred on
25°07′⋅4N, 119°00′⋅6E; a light-buoy (pillar, special) is
moored in the centre of the anchorage.
In the NE monsoon, with local knowledge, anchorage
can be obtained by vessels between the S extremity of
Meizhou Dao and the rocks awash lying 7cables E of
Cai Yu (4.195), care being taken to avoid another drying
rock 1 miles ESE of Cai Yu.
Xiuyu
General information
4.199
1
Position. Xiuyu (25°13′N, 118°59′E) lies at the head of
Meizhiou Wan.
Function. Oil, coal, cement, grain and general cargo are
handled.
2
Approach and entry. The port is approached through
Meizhou Wan (4.188) from S, and entered through a
buoyed fairway between the peninsular on the N side of Da
Gang (4.187) and the S extremity of Meizhou Dao (4.215)
5 miles NE.
3
Port Authority. Xiaocuo port area in the W part of the
bay is under the jurisdiction of the Quanzhou Port
Authority; see 4.152. The port on the N side comes under
the Administration Office, Xiuyu, Putian City 351158,
Fujian Province. The division of jurisdiction within the bay
is unclear.
Limiting conditions
4.200
1
Controlling depths. See 4.190.
Tidal levels. At Dazhu Dao the spring tidal range is
about 5⋅2 m and the neap range about 2⋅8 m.
Deepest and longest berth. Fujian terminal berth
(4.204).
Maximum size of vessel handled. Fujian terminal −
100 000 dwt, LOA 450 m; otherwise 10 000 dwt.
Arrival information
4.201
1
Port operations. Entry or departure not permitted after
sunset.
Port radio. See under Fujian Refinery Terminal in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
2
Notice of ETA is 72 hours with regular updates
thereafter.
Outer anchorages. See 4.198.
Pilotage. See 4.191.
Tugs are available.
3
Control zone. Within Xiuyu Gang a control zone is
established bounded by the following coordinates:
25°12′⋅3N, 118°59′⋅0E.
25°12′⋅6N, 118°59′⋅4E.
25°13′⋅5N, 118°58′⋅3E.
25°13′⋅0N, 118°57′⋅7E.
4
Vessels are free to transit this zone, but may not anchor,
other than for the purpose of assisting berthing or turning,
or engage in other operations. Mooring buoys (4.204) lie
within this zone.
Harbour
4.202
1
General layout. Within the bay there are port areas on
the W side of the bay, known as Xiaocuo which includes
Fujian refinery terminal (below). Xiuyu Gang lies in the N
part of the bay (25°13′N, 118°59′E). A jetty is situated on
the E side of the bay (25°10′N, 119°01′E) opposite the
refinery terminal.
Directions
4.203
1
The port is approached through Meizhou Wan and
directions for entering are given at 4.195.
Berths
4.204
1
Moorings. There are several mooring buoys off the
Xiuyu port area, the largest of which can accept vessels of
50 000 dwt.
2
Alongside berths:
Fujian refinery terminal berth (25°10′N, 118°59′E),
415 m and aligned N/S, has a reported depth of
12⋅5 m alongside.
Xiaocuo has six berths, the largest of which is able to
take vessels of 10 000 dwt.
3
The largest berth for vessels of 10 000 dwt at Xiuyu
is 213 m with a depth of 9⋅3 m.
Meizhou Dao (25°04′N, 119°07′E). A jetty for
passenger vessels up to 3000 dwt extends W from
the W extremity of the island.
Port services
4.205
1
Other facilities. Floating crane.
Supplies: fresh water; stores; provisions.
Communications. Airport at Xiamen (4.135) about
130 km SW.
CHAPTER 4
151
MEIZHOU WAN TO NUISHAN DAO
General information
Chart 1761 (see 1.18)
Routes
4.206
1
Coastal. From a position ESE of Jian (Da) Yu (24°58′N,
119°02′E), the route leads NE for about 46 miles to a
position SE of Niushan Dao (25°26′N, 119°56′E).
Inshore. From a position ESE of Jian (Da) Yu (24°58′N,
119°02′E), the route leads NE to a position at the entrance
to Haitan Haixia (25°30′N, 119°39′E).
Topography
4.207
1
The off-lying islands of Wuqiu Yu (25°00′N, 119°27′E)
(4.145), 15 miles from the coast, are the only islands
situated far offshore along this stretch of coastline.
Depths
4.208
1
On this route there are depths in excess of 20 m.
Tidal streams
4.209
1
From July to September in a position 8 miles S of
Wuqiu Yu (25°00′N, 119°27′E), the monsoon current sets to
the NE at a rate which varies with effect of tidal stream.
When the spring tidal stream is setting to the SW it is just
sufficient to overcome the current; at other times the
monsoon current predominates. From September to July the
tidal stream is dominant but is greatly affected by the wind.
2
In a position 8 miles E of Wuqiu Yu the tidal stream is
rotary in an anti-clockwise direction. The set is NE at the
beginning of the flood and W at HW; on the ebb its sets
successively SW, S and SE, and finally E at LW.
3
Between Wuqiu Yu and Niushan Dao (25°26′N,
119°56′E), 38 miles NE, the tidal streams set E and W with
a maximum rate of 3 kn; the direction is, however, greatly
influenced by the wind.
Principal marks
4.210
1
Landmarks:
Lufeng Shan (25°13′N, 119°11′E), rising to 309 m, is
the most prominent peak of a high range of hills
on the NE side of Pinghai Wan.
Dongjin Shan (25°25′N, 119°38′E), 385 m (charted as
404 m) high and the highest peak in the S part of
Haitan Haixia, is prominent.
2
Major lights:
Dazuo Light (24°53′N, 118°59′E) (4.143).
Jian Yu Light (24°58′N, 119°02′E) (4.143).
Niushan Dao Light (white octagonal stone masonry
tower, 23 m in height) (25°26′N, 119°56′E).
Dongxiang Dao Light (25°36′N, 119°54′E) (4.246).
Other aids to navigation
4.211
1
Racons:
Wu (Niao) Yu Light (24°50′N, 118°50′E).
Niushan Dao Light (25°26′N, 119°56′E).
Directions for coastal route
(continued from 4.186)
Dazuo to Wuqiu Yu
4.212
1
From a position ESE of Jian (Da) Yu (24°58′N,
119°02′E), the track leads NE, passing (with positions
relative to Wuqiu Yu (25°00′N, 119°27′E)):
SE of Jian (Da) Yu (21 miles W), the entrance to
Meizhou Wan (4.188). Jian Yu Light (4.143) is
exhibited from Jian Yu at the SW entrance to the
bay.
(Directions continue for entering
Meizhou Wan at 4.195)
2
The track continues NE, passing:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (15miles W), thence:
SE of Dading Yu (15 miles W), 19 m high, from
where a light (white stone tower, 12 m in height)
is exhibited, lies 3 miles E of the S end of
Meizhou Dao (25°04′N, 119°07′E). Xiaodian, a
rock which dries 0⋅9 m, lies 3 miles NNW of
Dading Yu, with some rocks between it and
Meizhou Dao. A light (pile) is exhibited 1 miles
SW of Xiaodian. Thence:
3
Clear of a dangerous wreck (8miles W), reported
in 2001, thence:
4
Clear of Wuqiu Yu, 76 m high with a rounded
summit, from where a light (black round tower,
19 m in height) is exhibited. A large fishing village
is situated on the SW side. Xiayu, 49 m high with
sandy hummocks, lies 5 cables SE of Wuqiu Yu;
the island also has a fishing village. A dangerous
rock, position approximate, was reported (1993) to
lie 5 miles SE of Xiayu. A dangerous wreck,
position approximate, lies 22 miles SSE of the
same island. Mariners should note that Wuqiu Yu
is fortified and occupied by troops from T’ai-wan,
while the island is regarded as part of mainland
China; both sides claim and enforce their own
territorial rights to the waters around it.
Wuqiu Yu to Nuishan Dao
4.213
1
From the above position the track continues NE,
passing:
Clear of a shoal patch (5 miles N) with a reported
depth of 9 m over it, thence:
2
SE of Nanri Dao (11 miles NNE), the largest island
of Nanri Quandao (4.216) that front the entrance to
Xinghua Wan (4.216); see also Landmarks at
4.216. Thence:
SE of Shuiluo (18 miles NE), thence:
3
SE of Dongjia Dao (25 miles NNE), 59 m high and
the outer island in the S approach to Haitan Haixia
(4.225); dangers extend 5 cables from its W, N and
E sides to islets and above-water rocks. Shitang
Yan, a rock with a depth of 1⋅6 m, lies 2 miles S
of Dongjia Dao, with a patch of rocks between.
(Directions continue for Haitan Haixia
South-East Entrance at 4.235)
4
The track continues NE, passing:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (33miles NE); a wreck,
position approximate, with a safe clearance of
15 m, lies 5miles SE.
5
Thence the track continues to a position SE of Niushan
Dao, 67 m high and with several rocks extending up to
5 cables from it; the island is the most seaward on this part
of the coast. A light (4.210) is exhibited from the summit.
CHAPTER 4
152
6
During the NE monsoon heavy seas can be experienced
in the vicinity of Niushan Dao, and because of the strong
and irregular current and set of the tidal stream (4.209),
caution is necessary; the island should be given a berth of
at least 7cables.
7
Haitan Qiantan, with a least depth of 8⋅4 m, lies 2 miles
W of Niushan Dao; there is much discoloured water over
the shoal, and at LW there are very heavy tide-rips.
8
Discoloured water was reported (1953) in a position
3 miles SSW, and two dangerous wrecks, positions
approximate, lie within 3 miles SW of the island.
Chunanla Jiao, a shoal, with a depth of 16⋅4 m, lies
1 miles NNW of the island.
(Directions continue at 4.247)
Directions for inshore route
(continued from 4.186)
4.214
1
From a position ESE of Jian (Da) Yu (24°58′N,
119°02′E), the track leads generally NE, inside Nanri Dao
(25°12′N, 119°13′E) (4.303) and Haitan Dao (25°30′N,
119°47′E) (4.220), passing:
NW of Dading Yu (25°02′N, 119°11′E) (4.212),
thence:
2
SE of Jian Yu, 27 m high (25°10′N, 119°16′E) and
from where a light (white round concrete tower,
12 m in height) is exhibited, lies 7cables S of
Pinghai Jiao. A dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 2 miles S of Jian Yu. Thence:
Through Nanri Shuidao, and Haitan Haixia.
(Directions continue at 4.217)
Anchorage
Pinghai Wan
4.215
1
Description. Pinghai Wan (25°10′N, 119°12′E) is
entered W of Pinghai Jiao (25°10′N, 119°16′E); the town
of Pinghai stands close NNW of the point.
Wenjiada Yu (Da Yu), 39 m high, and Xiao Yu, lie
between the N end of Meizhou Dao and the mainland. The
passage between Meizhou Dao and the mainland is
obstructed with reefs and drying patches, particularly at the
W end.
2
Numerous fishing stakes and kelp cultivation may be
encountered in Pinghai Wan; much of the head of the bay
dries.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Prohibited anchorage. Three corridors in which
anchoring and fishing are prohibited extend between
Meizhou Dao and the mainland.
Tidal streams in Pinghai Wan set NW with the in-going
tide, and SE on the out-going tide, at rates between 1 to
2 kn.
Landmark:
Lufeng Shan (25°13′N, 119°11′E) (4.210).
4
Anchorage. During the NE monsoon, anchorage can be
obtained, in depths from 3⋅6 to 9⋅1 m, off Pinghai, but the
holding ground is poor and vessels often drag in strong
winds. Anchorage can also be obtained in depths of 3⋅5 m,
in the W part of the bay.
Xinghua Wan and approaches
General information
4.216
1
Description. Xinghua Wan (25°20′N, 119°25′E), much
of which dries or is obstructed with rocks, indents the
mainland in a NW direction. Jiangyin Gang, on either side
of Jiangyin Bandao (Dao) (25°30′N, 119°19′E), is reached
with the tide. There are some navigation aids in the
channel to the E side of the island. Fishing stakes may be
encountered within Xinghua Wan.
2
The sound is fronted by many islands and islets of Nanri
Qundao (25°14′N, 119°32′E) that extends about 5 miles E
and 4 miles NE from Nanri Dao (25°13′N, 119°29′E)
(4.212). The area consists of islets, rocks and shoals
through which the tidal streams set strongly and is
considered too dangerous for navigation, although local
craft use certain passages. Damai Yu (25°11′⋅5N,
119°35′⋅5E), 83 m high, lies 1 mile E of Nanri Dao; foul
ground extends 6 cables ENE from the islet.
3
Dongsha Yu (25°14′N, 119°39′E), 70 m high, lies
3 miles ENE of NE extremity of Nanri Dao; dangers
extend 6 cables E from it.
4
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring and fishing are
prohibited within a corridor 3 cables wide running NW
from a point (25°14′⋅4N, 119°27′⋅3E) on the NW side of
Nanri Dao to a point 1 mile SSE of Niu Yu (see below),
thence W to the mainland coast; three light-buoys (special)
mark the NE and SW sides of the corridor within Nanri
Shuidao.
5
Tidal streams at Shitang Yan (25°15′N, 119°45′E) set
SW during the rising tide, and NE during the falling tide,
with a maximum rate of 2 kn. Farther NW during the
rising tide, a portion of the tidal stream enters the N side
of Xinghua Shuidao from the South Entrance to Haitan
Haixia (4.225) and divides, one part flowing S across the
channel, and the other part flowing W. At the W end of
Xinghua Shuidao this W-going stream may attain rates of 5
to 7 kn at springs, setting fairly through the passages and
frequently causing overfalls and eddies.
6
Landmarks:
Daqiao Shan (25°12′N, 119°34′E) (not charted),
166 m high, is a prominent pyramid-shaped hill on
the E extremity of Nanri Dao.
Wuhou Shan (25°19′N, 119°09′E), a double peak
326 m high, and Hugong Shan, a conical peak
707 m high situated 8 miles WNW of it, are both
conspicuous to W of Xinghua Wan.
Cao Yu (25°23′⋅8N, 119°09′⋅8E), with a pagoda on it,
is conspicuous.
Directions for Nanri Shuidao
4.217
1
From a position N of Wuqiu Yu (25°00′N, 119°27′E),
the track leads N through Nanri Shuidao, passing (with
positions from Wuqiu Yu):
E of Nanding (9 miles NNW), with a peaked
summit 16 m high, lies 1 miles NE of Luci Dao
(below). In 1904, SS Titania, drawing 5⋅2 m,
reported grounding on a shoal about 1 miles S of
Luci Dao; a rock, with a depth of 6⋅2 m, is charted
2 miles S of the island. Thence:
2
W of Yang Yu (10miles NNE), 49 m high and lies
close off the S point of Nanri Dao to which it is
connected by a reef. Several dangers lie within
1 mile of the SW coast of Nanri Dao, and a
sandbank, with a least depth of 1⋅9 m and marked
by discoloured water, but which is subject to
CHAPTER 4
153
change, lies between 2 and 3 miles SSE of the W
end of Nanri Dao. A dangerous wreck lies
3 miles S of Yang Yu. Thence:
3
E of Chi Yu, (25°13′⋅2N, 119°19′⋅7E), 17 m high,
lying in the middle of the entrance of a shoal bay.
A light-buoy (E cardinal) marks a 4⋅4 m shoal
patch lying midway between Luci Dao (Lusi Yu),
35 m high, (25°07′⋅5N, 119°21′⋅8E), and a point on
the mainland 5 miles NNW; several other shoal
patches of less than 5 m lie between. Lusi Zhou,
consisting of two below-water rocks 2cables
apart, lies 1 miles WNW of Luci Dao; there are
other dangers between. Thence:
4
E of Da Yu (25°15′⋅4N, 119°23′⋅8E), 31 m high, lying
4 miles NE of Chi Yu. A light (7 m in height) is
exhibited from the NW extremity of Nanri Dao,
2 miles ESE of Da Yu, and from the SE
extremity of a reef extending from a point on the
mainland 1 miles WSW of Da Yu. Thence:
5
E of Niu Yu, 1 miles N of Da Yu, which has a
drying reef extending 5 cables S of it.
The track then continues to a position WNW of Dashe
Dao (19 miles N) (4.218).
(Directions continue for Xinghua Shuidao
in reverse at 4.218)
Directions for Xinghua Shuidao
4.218
1
From a position about 5 miles S of Shitang Yan
(25°15′N, 119°45′E), the track leads NW through Xinghua
Shuidao, the E entrance to Xinghua Wan, between the NE
side of Nanri Qundao (4.216) and the next group of islets
to the NE, passing (with positions from Shitang Yan
(25°15′N, 119°45′E)):
SW of Shitang Yan, thence:
NE of Shuiluo (5 miles SW), thence:
2
SW of Hengshan (25°16′⋅8N, 119°43′⋅2E), twin peaks
44 m high sitting on a drying reef, lying on the
NE side of Xinghua Shuidao 2 miles NW of
Shitang Yan; it appears as two islets when seen
from SE. A rock, with a depth of 4⋅4 m, lies
1 mile W of Hengshan, and other dangers lie
between 1 and 1 miles NW of the islet. And;
3
NE of Dongyue Yu, 3 miles WSW of Hengshan,
consisting of three islets the S and largest of which
is 38 m high. A shoal patch with a depth of 3⋅3 m
lies 5 cables ENE of this group. Above and
below-water rocks 1, 3 and 6 miles WNW of
Dongyue Yu mark the NE limit of Nanri Qundao
(4.216).
(Directions continue for Haitan Haixia
S entrance at 4.234)
The track continues NW, passing:
4
Between the dangers fringing the NE side of Nanri
Qundao and those in the vicinity of Jiannang Jiao
(25°19′⋅3N, 119°37′⋅9E), a rock which dries, lying
5 miles WNW of Hengshan; a rock with a depth
of 1⋅7 m lies close W and there is a stranded
wreck on Jiannang Jiao. The tidal streams and
eddies are very strong in the vicinity. A shoal with
a least depth of 8⋅2 m lies about 5 cables SSW of
this reef. And:
5
SW of Ren Yu (25°20′N, 119°36′E), 43 m high, lying
2 miles WNW of Jiannang Jiao and which has a
reef extending over 5 cables SE and S, on which
there are several small islets and drying rocks. A
reef, with a least depth of 2⋅3 m, lies 1 mile SE of
Ren Yu.
6
The track then leads W passing:
Either side of Bai Yu (Baifu), 40 m high and bare,
lying in the middle of the fairway, 2 miles WSW
of Ren Yu. A light (white stone masonry cone,
9 m in height) is exhibited from Bai Yu. A patch,
on which rocks dry 1 to 2 m, lies 1 mile S of Bai
Yu on the N edge of Nanri Qundao. Thence:
7
Between Dashe Dao (25°18′⋅7N, 119°28′⋅8E) and the
rocks off the S side of the islet lying about
7cables N. Dashe Dao, 33 m high, is the largest
and W-most of a group of islets. The NE islet of
the Dashe Dao group is 29 m high, conical, cliffy
and steep-to on its N side; a light (9 m in height)
is exhibited from the islet. Numerous detached
rocks and shoals extend 1 miles SE to within
5 cables of Xiaori Dao, the N island of Nanri
Qundao. Ji Yu a precipitous islet 34 m high, lies
2miles W of Xiaori Dao. Yema Yu (25°20′⋅5N,
119°28′⋅4E), 106 m high, lies 1 mile N of Dashe
Dao; in the channel between there is an islet 26 m
high, with some rocks extending 1 cables from
its S side and a drying reef in the passage N of it.
A beacon (5 m in height) stands on the S edge of
the rocks.
8
The track continues to a position WNW of Dashe Dao.
Anchorages
4.219
1
Anchorage in Nanri Shuidao (4.217) can be obtained, in
depths from 7⋅3 to 9⋅1 m, about 2 miles ENE of Da Yu
(4.217) and clear of the prohibited anchorage corridor.
Small vessels can obtain anchorage in the bays on NW
and SE sides of Nanri Dao (4.303). Local knowledge is
required.
2
During the NE monsoon, good anchorage in Xinghua
Shuidao can be obtained 1 mile E of Ren Yu (4.218) with
an islet (25°20′⋅3N, 119°36′⋅8E) bearing 351°, distant
6 cables, but the bottom is very uneven and there are
dangers, described in 4.218, in the approach.
3
Anchorage can be obtained 2 cables W of the islet about
5 cables S of Yema Yu (25°20′⋅5N, 119°28′⋅4E) (4.218) in
a depth of 20 m, mud, out of the strength of the tidal
stream. In 1936, HMS Dorsetshire anchored 5 cables W of
this position; the bottom here is, however, uneven and the
tidal streams are strong.
4
Xinghua Wan affords anchorage in a typhoon. Vessels
can obtain good anchorage with Bitou Jiajiao (25°25′N,
119°18′E) bearing 066° distant 1 mile in a depth of about
10 m, but mariners should note that depths shoal rapidly
SW of this position, and considerable swell may affect the
anchorage. A rock, with a depth of 0⋅5 m over it, lies
7 cables S of Bitou Jiajiao. The anchorage can be
approached by steering WNW from a position 1 miles W
of Yema Yu. Local knowledge is required.
Haitan Dao
General information
4.220
1
Description. Haitan Dao (25°30′N, 119°45′E) is a large
island bordering the E side of Haitan Haixia (4.225).
Topography. The coast of the island is much indented
and fringed with numerous islets and rocks, and most of
the bays are unsuitable for shelter. Jun Shan (25°36′N,
119°49′E), the highest peak, rises in the NE part of the
island to a height of 435 m.
CHAPTER 4
154
Anchorages
4.221
1
Anchorage can be obtained in Guanyin Ao (4.222) in a
depth of 9⋅4 m, sand, about 2 cables W of Guanyin Jiao,
with the light (4.302) on Niushan Dao (25°26′N, 119°56′E)
bearing 105° and just open S of that point. Small vessels
can anchor about 5 cables farther WNW. Care is necessary
to avoid a rock, with a depth of 0⋅2 m, lying 6 cables
WSW of Guanyin Jiao. These anchorages provide good
holding ground, but during the NE monsoon, a heavy swell
sets in, particularly at certain states of the tide; fishing
stakes may be encountered in the vicinity.
2
Anchorage can also be obtained in the W of two bays
on the S side of Dongxiang Dao (4.224) in a depth of 5 m;
local knowledge is required as there are drying rocks up to
3 cables S of the W entrance to this bay.
Tanan Wan
4.222
1
Tannan Wan is situated between Haitan Jiao (25°24′N,
119°46′E) (4.235) and Guanyin Jiao, 5 miles NE. A chain
of islets lie in the centre of the bay 3 miles NE of Haitan
Jiao; Jiangshan, the largest of these islets, is 68 m high.
Baijiang, lying at the outer end of the chain of islets, is
30m high and has three peaks. Fishing stakes may be
encountered on the W side of these islands. Beiyang
Qiantan, with a depth of 4⋅5 m, was reported by SS
Peiyang in 1895 to lie about 1 mile SE of Baijiang.
2
Guanyin Ao (25°28′N, 119°50′E) lies in the NE part of
Tannan Wan; on its N side stands Xiaoxiong Shan, 72 m
high. The village of Aoqian is situated 5 cables N of
Guanyin Jiao, the E entrance point. Xianshan Dao
(25°27′⋅7N, 119°51′⋅5E), 21 m high, lies on a drying reef
extending 5 cables E from the coast.
Haitan Wan
4.223
1
Haitan Wan (25°31′N, 119°50′E) is a large bay situated
centrally on the E coast of Haitan Dao; there are numerous
islets in it and much of it is foul. At the S entrance, a
group of islets and rocks lie close offshore, between
7cables and 1 miles NNE of Xianshan Dao, with a
dangerous wreck 7 cables N (charted about 7 cables
farther E than its actual position); Bei Yan (25°29′⋅0N,
119°52′⋅6E), the outermost of the dangers, has a depth of
2⋅6 m on it. There are tide races in the vicinity of these
dangers. The N entrance point to the bay rises to a height
of 192 m and is steep-to on its SE side. Bo Yan (25°32′N,
119°53′E), 1 mile SE of the N entrance point, is a steep-to
pinnacle rock which dries 2⋅7 m. Dongdaping Jiao, a rock
with a depth of 2⋅1 m, lies 1 mile SSE of Bo Yan.
Tanlieyan Qunjiao (Tan Lieyan), which dry 3⋅5 m and
4⋅6 m, lie 2 miles NNE of Bo Yan. The mainland point,
1 mile W, consists of a low cliff with a hummock within.
Dou Yan, 1 miles farther NE, is a pinnacle with a depth
of 7⋅3 m.
Changjiang Ao
4.224
1
Changjiang Ao (25°38′N, 119°48′E) is a bay at the NE
end of Haitan Dao; numerous islets and dangers extend
from both entrance points in the approach. Xiang Jiao
(25°40′N, 119°47′E) is the termination of the ridge forming
the NE point of Haitan Dao. The point is 70 m high, rising
to 163 m 1 miles SW.
2
San Zhou (San Lieyan) (25°40′⋅3N, 119°49′⋅3E), lying
1 miles E of Xiang Jiao, consists of three rocky islets, the
highest 52 m. There is no safe passage between Xiang Jiao
and the rocks which extend W of this group. Bandang Jiao,
1 miles NNE of San Zhou, is a rocky reef with above
and below-water rocks.
HAITAN HAIXIA
General information
Charts 1761, 2413 (see 1.18)
Description
4.225
1
Haitan Haixia (25°30′N, 119°39′E), is a narrow passage
separating Haitan Dao (4.220) from the mainland. It affords
typhoon anchorage in its S entrance. The intricate channels
in the central part of the strait are suitable only for vessels
of shallow draught.
Routes
4.226
1
South Entrance and South-East Entrance. The S end
of Haitan Haixia may be entered from Xinghua Shuidao,
through Nankou Shuidao, South Entrance, between Tang Yu
(25°20′N, 119°41′E), and Jiannang Jiao 3 miles W. Or
through Nandongkou Shuidao, South-East Entrance (4.235).
2
From Fenliuwei Yu (25°29′⋅0N, 118°39′⋅4E) (4.237) two
channels lead N through the central part of the strait to its
N entrance. The channel on the W side is considered best
as depths in the N part are greater and the leading marks
reliable. The E channel is wider in its S part and some
navigation aids are provided. Directions below follow the S
part of the E channel before crossing middle ground to the
W channel.
3
North-East Entrance. Guyumen Shuidao (4.238),
leading between Changyu Dao (25°40′⋅8N, 119°38′⋅7E) and
Gu Yu, 5 cables E, is the main channel in general use
giving access to the N end of Haitan Haixia.
Controlling depth
4.227
1
The least charted depth (1999) on the track through
Haitan Haixia is 3⋅5 m in position 25°32′⋅7N, 119°38′⋅8E.
Haitan Haixia should not be used by vessels exceeding
6⋅7 m draught; any delay preventing a vessel taking
advantage of the rise of tide, could result in grounding.
Vessels with draughts over 5 m are recommended to use
routes to seaward of Haitan Dao.
Fishing
4.228
1
Numerous fishing stakes and tackles may be encountered
in Nandongkou Shuidao (4.235) and on the S side of
Haitan Dao; the channels in the N part of Haitan Haixia
are also heavily obstructed. Many fishing vessels use the
passage.
Local knowledge
4.229
1
Local knowledge is required for the central part of the
passage.
Traffic regulations
4.230
1
Prohibited area. Vessels not of Chinese nationality are
prohibited from taking passage through Haitan Haixia.
Prohibited anchorages:
2
A corridor 5 cables wide, in which anchoring and
fishing are prohibited, crosses the S part of Haitan
Haixia between Jigou Dao (25°27′⋅0N, 119°41′⋅5E)
(4.236) and Kemen Dao (4.236), 1 miles SW.
CHAPTER 4
155
3
A corridor, 1 cables wide, in which anchoring and
fishing are prohibited, crosses Haitan Dao 1 mile N
of Da Yu (25°27′⋅2N, 119°39′⋅8E) (4.236).
Tidal streams
4.231
1
Tidal streams enter Haitan Haixia by both N and S
entrances during the rising tide and meet in the central part
of the passage, at about latitude 25°31′N, forming heavy
overfalls in the vicinity which, with strong winds, are
dangerous to boats. During the falling tide the tidal streams
set in the reverse directions.
2
The tidal stream entering Nandongkou Shuidao, the
South-East Entrance, divides N of Cao Yu (25°22′N,
119°43′E), one part flowing NNW into Haitan Haixia, and
the other part flowing SW through South Entrance. In more
open parts of Haitan Haixia the maximum rate is 2 to 3 kn,
but in the narrows (25°27′⋅5N, 119°40′⋅0E) at springs the
maximum rate is 4 to 5 kn.
Principal marks
4.232
1
Landmarks:
Dongjin Shan (25°25′N, 119°38′E) (4.210).
Darang Shan (25°28′N, 119°37′E) is a remarkable
steep hill 294 m high; the hill 6 cables E of
Darang Shan appears wedge-shaped when seen
from N or S.
Niujiao Shan (25°45′N, 119°37′E) is a remarkable
sharp peak 386 m high.
2
Major lights:
Niushan Dao Light (25°26′N, 119°56′E) (4.210).
Dongxiang Dao Light (25°36′N, 119°54′E) (4.246).
Directions
General information
4.233
1
Caution. Although there are navigation aids within
Haitan Haixia, some of these directions are based on old
information and should be treated with caution. Where
depths in the fairway of Haitan Haixia are quoted, these are
from recent Chinese surveys. See also comment concerning
local knowledge at 4.229.
South Entrance
(continued from 4.218)
4.234
1
From a position 1 mile SSE of Jiannang Jiao the line of
bearing 027° of a well defined white triangular patch of
sand (25°26′⋅0N, 119°49′⋅3E), close N of Chu Yu (4.235),
leads through Nankou Shuidao, South Entrance, which is
about 1 miles wide, passing:
2
WNW of Nanlusi Jiao, a drying reef 7 cables W of
the W extremity of Tang Yu, 86 m high of whitish
colour with sandy beaches and isolated hills;
Nanlusi Jiao Light (white round concrete pile,
14 m in height), is exhibited from the S side of the
reef. Thence:
3
ESE of Wan’an Pagoda, (25°21′⋅9N, 119°39′⋅2N),
38 m high, standing on a mainland point at the S
entrance to an inlet almost entirely filled with a
drying flat; the walled village of Wan’an lies close
S of the pagoda. The pagoda is conspicuous when
seen from NE, but only the top part is visible from
S. Thence:
4
WNW of Cao Yu (25°22′N, 119°43′E), close N of
Tang Yu and separated from it by Tangyu
Beishuidao. Cao Yu is the highest island in the
locality and rises gradually on all sides to two
peaks, 209 m high, and is grass covered. Gao Yu,
36 m high, lies close off the N side of Cao Yu.
Dangerous wrecks lie 9 cables WNW, and
13 cables W, from the W extremity of Cao Yu.
Thence:
5
To a position close SW of a light-buoy (starboard
hand) moored 4 cables SW of a 4⋅3 m shoal
(25°23′⋅9N, 119°42′⋅2E) at the junction of Nankou
Shuidao and Nandongkou Shuidao.
(Directions continue at 4.236)
South-East Entrance
(continued from 4.218)
4.235
1
From a position on the coastal route SE of Dongjia Dao
(25°18′N, 119°45′E), the track leads NW, through
Nandongkou Shuidao, South-East Entrance, passing (with
positions from Dongjia Dao):
NE of Dongjia Dao (4.213), thence:
SW of Nan Jiao (6 miles NNE), a reef on which the
sea breaks heavily; it dries 4 m, and:
2
NE of Xiao Jiao, 7 m high (3 miles N), thence:
SW of Haitan Jiao (6 miles N), the rugged sandy
headland forming the S extremity of Haitan Dao
(4.220), from where Haitan Jiao Light (red and
white stone masonry column, 10 m in height), is
exhibited, thence:
3
NE and N of Cao Yu (5 miles NW) (4.234), thence:
SW of Shipai Jiao (25°23′⋅8N, 119°44′⋅4E), a rock
9 m high lying at the edge of the coastal bank
extending from Haitan Dao, 1 miles W of Haitan
Jiao; other above and below-water rocks lie within
1 miles ESE of it. Thence:
4
SSW of Chu Yu (25°25′⋅2N, 119°42′⋅6E), an islet
17 m high lying close off the NE shore of the
channel, 2 miles NW of Shipai Jiao. The islet is
often difficult to identify until close to, and, owing
to its sloping sides and the great tidal range,
appears nearly twice its size at LW. Thence:
5
To a position close SW of the light-buoy (4.234).
Useful marks. Leading lights:
Dawangma Yu front light (25°23′⋅8N, 119°39′⋅9E).
Rear light (1 mile WNW from front light).
The alignment of these lights pass S of the light-buoy.
Main channel — south part
(continued from 4.234)
4.236
1
From a position close SW of a light-buoy (starboard
hand) moored 4 cables SW of a shoal with a depth of
4⋅3 m (25°23′⋅9N, 119°42′⋅2E) at the junction of Nankou
Shuidao and Nandongkou Shuidao, Haitan Haixia is entered
between Chu Yu (25°25′⋅2N, 119°42′⋅6E) (4.235) and
Dongjin Dao 1 miles W, from where Dongjin Dao Light
(10 m in height), is exhibited.
2
The alignment (338°) of Jinxun Jiao light-beacon (see
below) with the light on E side of Fenliuwei Yu
(25°28′⋅9N, 118°39′⋅4E) (4.237) leads through the channel
to a position SW of Da Yu where course should be altered
to pass 2 cables SE of the light-beacon, passing:
3
ENE of Kemen Dao (25°25′⋅0N, 119°39′⋅5E), 64 m
high, lying close off the mainland shore; there are
islets within 7cables E and S of the island,
including Dawangma Yu (25°23′⋅8N, 119°39′⋅9E),
62 m high. Thence:
CHAPTER 4
156
4
WSW of Daojia Yu (25°26′⋅4N, 119°41′⋅1E), an islet
17 m high lying close off the SW end of Jigou
Dao, thence:
5
E of Da Yu (25°27′⋅2N, 119°39′⋅8E), 41 m high and
lying on the W side of the fairway through the
narrows of Haitan Haixia; drying patches and
rocks obstruct the passage W of Da Yu. At its NW
end, Da Yu is connected to another islet by a ridge
of boulders and gravel. Thence:
6
E of Jinxun Jiao, rocks marked by a light-beacon
(isolated danger) 2 cables NE of Da Yu, which dry
6⋅1 m; there is a deep channel between, but it is
not recommended. Care is needed not to be set on
to Jinxun Jiao during the S-going tidal stream.
7
The alignment (135°) astern of the W side of Chu Yu
(25°25′⋅2N, 119°42′⋅6E) (4.235) with the E side of Daojia
Yu leads NW, passing:
8
2 cables SW of a rocky patch, with a least depth of
0⋅8 m, marked by a light-buoy (starboard hand),
close WSW of Ke Yu (25°27′⋅7N, 119°40′⋅4E); at
LW the patch is clearly marked by overfalls. Ke
Yu (25°27′⋅7N, 119°40′⋅4E), an islet 12 m high,
lies on the E side of the fairway through the
narrows; dangers extend 1 cables S of the islet. A
light-buoy (isolated danger), is moored 4 cables
NNW of Ke Yu.
Main channel — central part
4.237
1
When Ke Yu (25°27′⋅7N, 119°40′⋅4E) (4.236) bears 078°
course should be altered N, to pass about 2 cables E of
Fenliuwei Yu (25°28′⋅9N, 118°39′⋅4E), an islet 22 m high
lying 1 miles NW of Ke Yu and marking the junction of
the E and W channels (4.226) at their S end. Reefs and
shoals extend 1 cables N, 3 cables S, and 1 cables SW
from the islet, which should be given a berth of at least
1 cable.
2
The track alters NW to bring the light on the E side of
Fenliuwei Yu bearing 170° astern, and continues NNW on
the bearing, passing:
W of Niaodayu Jiao, an isolated drying reef marked
by a light-beacon, lying 7 cables NNE of
Fenliuwei Yu. Thence:
3
About 2 cables W of a light-beacon (W cardinal),
marking drying rocks, lying 5 cables NNW of
Niaodayu Jiao. The W-most rock, drying 0⋅9 m,
lies 1 cable W of the light-beacon. A narrow bank,
extending N for about 2 miles, with depths of less
than 1 m over it, lies 5 cables W of the
light-beacon.
4
When the cairn on the 10 m rock close NNE of Laoluo
Yu (25°30′⋅5N, 119°40′⋅0E) is in line with the cairn on
Baitou Zhou (14 m high), 9 cables ENE of Laoluo Yu,
bearing 084°, the track should be adjusted to bring the light
on the E side of Fenliuwei Yu bearing 174° astern.
Continue on this track until the light-beacon marking
Panyang Jiao (25°34′⋅0N, 119°40′⋅1E), drying rocks, is in
line with Shipaicao Yu (25°35′⋅1N, 119°40′⋅6E), 14 m high,
bearing 029°.
5
Leading marks:
Niujiao Shan (25°45′N, 119°37′E) (4.232).
West shoulder of Gu Yu (25°40′⋅6N, 119°37′⋅2E)
(4.238).
6
From the previous position with No 2 Light-buoy (port
hand) about 4 cables NNE, the track leads NW across the
middle ground with a least charted depth (4.227) through
the passage on the alignment (352°) of the above marks.
As the latter is not a definitive mark, the bearing of
Niujiao Shan must be carefully kept.
Main channel — north part
4.238
1
Caution. See Fishing at 4.228.
Track. From the above position the alignment (352°) of
the previously mentioned marks (4.237) leads N, passing:
Close E of No 1 Light-buoy (starboard hand), moored
in 25°34′⋅5N, 119°37′⋅9E, thence:
W of a rock (25°35′⋅4N, 119°38′⋅1E), with a depth of
2⋅4 m over it, thence:
2
W of Chijiao Yu (25°36′⋅8N, 119°38′⋅3E), a rock
12 m high and flat with a deep embrasure, lying
centrally in Haitan Haixia. A smaller rock, on
which stands a light-beacon, lies 1 cable W of
Chijiao Yu. Banks with depths of less than 2 m
over them extend over 2 miles S from Chijiao Yu
to a position abreast No 1 Light-buoy. Thence:
3
W of a group of rocks, 7cables N of Chijiao Yu,
which are up to 5 m high. Jiao Yu (25°37′⋅6N,
119°39′⋅3E), a rock 15 m high, lies 7cables E of
this group near the edge of a shallow bank which
extends NE to Dalian Dao (4.239).
4
When Jiao Yu bears 089°, the track is altered onto the
alignment (351°) of Gu Yu, and two white pyramidal
beacons on its SE slope, and passing:
5
Midway between Changliang Jiao (25°39′⋅5N,
119°37′⋅0E), a rock 13 m high lying 5 cables E of
the NE end of Yutou Dao, and Qijiemei Jiao, a
drying reef from which a light (red concrete pillar,
15 m in height), 8 cables ESE, is exhibited. Yutou
Dao (25°29′N, 119°35′E), 49 m high, is the
W-most of five islands lying across the N entrance
to Haitan Haixia. Thence:
6
When Changliang Jiao bears 270° the track alters NNE
to pass through Guyumen Shuidao (Guyu Men), the N and
main entrance to Haitan Haixia, passing:
7
ESE of Gu Yu (25°40′⋅6N, 119°37′⋅2E), a small
island 53 m high lying 5 cables NE of Yutou Dao;
its summit, when seen from S, is a boulder painted
white with a black vertical stripe. There is a light
coloured patch on the W shoulder of Gu Yu; a
light (white square concrete tower, 13 m in height)
is exhibited from the NE side of the island. An
overhead cable spans the channel separating Gu Yu
from the islets extending 7 cables NNE from the
NE point of Yutou Dao. And:
8
WNW of Changyu Dao (25°40′⋅8N, 119°38′⋅7E), a
long narrow island lying 5 cables E of Gu Yu; a
dangerous wreck lies 2 cables WNW from the
SW point of the island. Another dangerous wreck,
lies 3 cables NW of the NE point of the island. A
rocky reef extends 7cables NE from Changyu
Dao to Wuzhu Dao, from where a light (black
metal pipe, 2 m in height), is exhibited from the
NE point. Mala Jiao, with a least depth of 0⋅5 m,
lies between 5 to 7 cables NE of the NE
extremity of Wuzhu Dao.
9
The alignment (217°) of Changliang Jiao (25°39′⋅5N,
119°37′⋅0E) with a dip in the hills behind can be used to
lead NE. This alignment needs to be carefully kept as it
passes SE of the S end of a bank with a least depth of 4 m
extending N for 5 cables from a position 4 cables NE of
the NE extremity of Gu Yu. The track continues NE,
passing:
CHAPTER 4
157
10
SE of Ren Yu (25°42′⋅3N, 119°37′⋅3E), 37 m high
and lying 1 miles N of Gu Yu on the W side of
Guyumen Shuidao. Several drying rocks extend
1 mile NE of Ren Yu, and detached shoals, with
depths of less than 3 m extend 1 miles farther
NE, the NE-most marked by No 3 Light-buoy
(isolated danger). This light-buoy also marks the
edge of the channel into Songxia Gang, described
at 4.252. Depths of less than 5 m extend 1 miles
NW of Wuzhou Dao. Thence:
11
NW of Zhupai Yu (25°42′⋅9N, 119°43′⋅3E), 8 m high;
foul ground and shoals extend up to 5 cables N
and 1 mile S from it. Baitou, 15 m high, lies
2 miles E of Zhupai Yu. Its N side is steep-to,
but rocks lie off its other sides.
(Directions continue at 4.248, and for entering
Songxia Gang at 4.252)
Side channels
North part of Haitan Haixia
4.239
1
Xiaolian Dao, 174 m high, lies SE of Changyu Dao
(25°40′⋅8N, 119°38′⋅7E), separated from it by a channel
3 cables wide, in which there are irregular depths from 4 to
22 m. A dangerous rock, position approximate, lies in the
middle of this channel, across which there is an overhead
cable, vertical clearance not known.
2
Dalian Dao (25°39′⋅0N, 119°41′⋅5E) lies 3 cables SE of
Xiaolian Dao; the channel between, which is spanned by an
overhead cable, should not be used for navigation. The
summit of Dalian Dao, 235 m high, is in its SE part. The
channel between Dalian Dao and Haitan Dao, 6 cables SE,
is deep but its NE approach is obstructed by Junshan Dao
(Jun Shan) (25°40′⋅2N, 119°45′⋅1E) and the dangers
extending E and W of it. A light is exhibited from an islet
(25°38′⋅0N, 119°42′⋅6E) near the middle of the channel.
The passage between Junshan Dao and Haitan Dao is
heavily obstructed by reefs and is not used.
Anchorages
4.240
1
Nandongkou Shuidao. Good anchorage can be had, in a
depth of 7⋅3 m, sand, with Chu Yu (25°25′⋅2N, 119°42′⋅6E)
bearing 072° and the W side of Daojia Yu (25°26′⋅5N,
119°41′⋅1E) (4.236) bearing 328°. Anchorage in a similar
depth can also be obtained about 1 mile S of Chu Yu; see
4.228 concerning fishing stakes.
2
Haitan Haixia — south part. Anchorage can be
obtained, in a depth of 11 m, mud and sand, with the W
sides of Daojia Yu and Ke Yu (25°27′⋅7N, 119°40′⋅4E)
(4.236) in line, bearing 155°, and distant 6 cables from the
latter, remaining clear of the prohibited corridor (4.228).
NIUSHAN DAO TO DONGYIN DAO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1761
Area covered
4.241
1
This section describes the SE China coast between
Niushan Dao (25°26′N, 119°56′E) and Dongyin Dao
(26°22′N, 120°30′E), 64 miles NE.
It is arranged as follows:
Nuishan Dao to Dongquan Dao (4.242).
Minjiang Kou and approaches (4.257).
Fuzhou Gang (4.270).
Dongquan Dao to Dongyin Dao (4.298).
NIUSHAN DAO TO DONGQUAN DAO
General information
Charts 1761, 2413 (see 1.18)
Routes
4.242
1
Coastal route. From a position SE of Niushan Dao
(25°26′N, 119°56′E), the route leads NNE for about
32 miles to a position SE of Dongquan Dao (25°58′N,
119°58′E).
Inshore route. From a position at the entrance to Haitan
Haixia, NW of Zhupai Yu (25°42′⋅9N, 119°43′⋅3E), the
route leads generally NNE to the vicinity of Qixing Jiao
(26°05′N, 119°50′E). This route is for small or
low-powered vessels making passage against the NE
monsoon.
Topography
4.243
1
From Niu Jiao (25°45′N, 119°38′E), the coast consists of
sandy beach as far as Nan’aoshan Jiao (Nanao Shan),
9 miles NNE, a prominent islet 29 m high that is joined
to the mainland at LW.
2
The coast for 7 miles N of Nan’aoshan Jiao consists
mainly of sandy beach with several sandy hillocks. Dangers
extend to 1 mile offshore in places.
In the N part of this coastal section, a few isolated
islands lie offshore.
Depths
4.244
1
The least charted depth on the coastal route is 34 m.
Dumping ground
4.245
1
A dumping ground for explosives lies SE of Mazu
Liedao in position 26°03′N, 120°05′E.
Principal marks
4.246
1
Landmark:
Dongjin Shan (25°25′N, 119°38′E) (4.232).
Major lights:
Niushan Dao Light (25°26′N, 119°56′E) (4.210).
Dongxiang Dao Light (round concrete tower, black
and white bands, 16 m in height) (25°36′N,
119°54′E).
Dongquan Dao Light (white round tower, 19 m in
height) (25°58′N, 119°59′E).
CHAPTER 4
158
Directions
Coastal route
(continued from 4.213)
4.247
1
From a position SE of Niushan Dao (25°26′N,
119°56′E), the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
from Niushan Dao (25°26′N, 119°56′E)):
Clear of a shoal (11 miles ESE) with a depth of
20 m over it reported in 1961, thence:
2
ESE of Dongxiang Dao (9 miles N), from where a
light (4.143) is exhibited from the NE extremity. It
is the largest island off the E coast of Haitan Dao.
It is 131 m high and there are several rocks within
5 cables of its E side. Xiaoxiang Dao lies 5 cables
W of Dongxiang Dao; the passages between the
two islands, and between Xiaoxiang Dao and
Haitan Dao, should not be used as they are
obstructed by reefs and fishing stakes and the tidal
streams are strong. The bay SW of these islands is
foul in its E part. Thence:
3
ESE of Dongxiang Yan (25°36′⋅8N, 119°55′⋅6E),
1 miles ENE of Dongxiang Dao, consisting of
two pinnacle rocks with a least depth of 6.6 m
(charted as 4⋅1 m) which have been swept to a
depth of 5⋅1 m. Baibing Dao (Baibing Jiao)
(25°37′⋅2N, 119°50′⋅6E), 1 miles NW of
Dongxiang Dao, is 21 m (charted as 14 m) high;
there are drying rocks within 4 cables NW and SE
of it. Thence:
4
ESE of Shanbai (17 miles NNW), 33 m high, is the
N-most of a group of rocky islets and rocks,
thence:
ESE of Baise Yan (17miles NNW), a pinnacle rock
with a depth of 5⋅4 m over it, thence:
5
ESE of a dangerous wreck (18 miles N), the
position of which is approximate, reported in 1999,
thence:
Clear of a shoal (27 miles NNE) with a depth of
14⋅6 m reported in 1966.
6
The track then continues to a position SE of Dongquan
Dao (25°58′N, 119°58′E), the E island of Baiquan Liedao
group. The group consists of two islands and several islets
and rocks. Dongquan Dao is 117 m high and precipitous.
Islets and dangers lie 7cables NW and 1 mile NE of the
island. A light (4.246) is exhibited from the NE end of the
island. An area containing numerous fishing nets is centred
on 25°53′N, 120°01′E, SE of Dongquan Dao.
(Directions continue at 4.303, and for entering
Minjiang Kou Kou at 4.265)
Inshore route
(continued from 4.238)
4.248
1
From a position NW of Zhupai Yu (25°42′⋅9N,
119°43′⋅3E) (4.238), the track leads NNE, passing (with
positions from Zhupai Yu):
2
ESE of Dongluo Liedao (3miles NW) a group of
islands and rocks lying within 3 miles E of Niu
Jiao (4.258). Dongluo Dao, the largest in the
group, is 59 m high. Shuangpi Dao, 1 mile NW of
Dongluo Dao, is 17 m high and cleft in two. A
light (12 m in height) is exhibited from the NW
half. Thence:
3
WNW of Li Yu (Haitan Shi) (5miles NE), 16 m
high and from where Li Yu (Haitan Shi) Light
(white 6-sided concrete beacon, red stripes, 12 m
in height), is exhibited, thence:
4
Clear of a dangerous wreck, position approximate,
lying 2 miles WNW from Li Yu light, thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck position approximate
lying in 25°54′⋅9N, 119°44′⋅6E.
5
Clear of a dangerous wreck (10 miles N), thence:
ESE of Bozhou Dao (15miles N), from where
Bozhou Dao Light (white concrete square, 10 m in
height), is exhibited. Thence:
6
ESE of Qixing Jiao (23 miles NNE), a drying reef
from which Qixing Jiao Light (white conical
concrete tower, 16 m in height, racon), is
exhibited. Fanzhu Shi, a rock with a depth of
3⋅9 m over it, lies 2cables NNW of Qixing Jiao.
(Directions continue at 4.304)
Songxia Gang
Chart 2413
General information
4.249
1
Position. Songxia Gang lies in the NE part of Fuqing
Wan (26°39′N, 119°32′E).
Function. It is a deep-water port for Fuzhou.
Topography. Other topographical details of islands off
the NW of Haitan Dao are described at 4.239.
2
Port limits. The limits of the port are defined from a
point on the coast 1⋅1 miles SW of Niu Jiao (25°45′N,
119°38′E), thence SE to the NE extremity of Wuzhu Dao
(26°41′⋅6N, 119°39′⋅8E), thence SW to a point (26°37′⋅3N,
119°29′⋅8E) on the W side of Fuqing Wan.
3
Approach and entry. Songxia Gang is approached from
NE between Dougluo Liedao (above) and Zhupai Yu,
3 miles SE, and entered through a dredged channel.
Port Authority. See 4.270.
Limiting conditions
4.250
1
Controlling depth. The least charted depth in the
dredged channel is 7⋅3 m, 11 cables SW of Ren Yu
(25°42′⋅3N, 119°37′⋅3E) (4.238).
Maximum size of vessel handled up to 30 000 dwt. at
HW.
Arrival information
4.251
1
Port radio. See 4.281. For further information see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Outer anchorage. A waiting and quarantine anchorage
is centred on 25°44′⋅2N, 119°40′⋅5E and extends for
1 miles in an ENE/WSW direction, 5 cables in width. The
bottom is mud and sand and with depths between 12⋅8 and
14⋅6 m. Considerable swell may be experienced during
strong winds.
2
Pilotage is mandatory for foreign vessels. Pilots board in
the waiting anchorage.
Tugs are available.
Directions
4.252
1
From a position NE of Li Yu (Haitan Shi) (25°46′N,
119°48′E), the track leads SW, passing (with positions from
Li Yu):
Clear of Li Yu (Haitan Shi) (4.248), thence:
SE of a dangerous wreck (2miles WNW), position
approximate, thence:
2
NW of Zhupai Yu (25°42′⋅9N, 119°43′⋅3E) (4.238),
thence:
CHAPTER 4
159
To the vicinity of the pilot boarding position noting a
shoal (26°44′⋅3N, 119°39′⋅2E) with a least depth of
2⋅9 m over it marked by No 2 Light-buoy (isolated
danger).
3
Leading beacons:
Yutou Dao front beacon (26°40′⋅5N, 119°37′⋅0E on W
side of Gu Yu).
Rear beacon (just over 1 mile SW of front beacon on
NE side of Yutou Dao).
4
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding position, NW of
Zhupai Yu (25°42′⋅9N, 119°43′⋅3E), the alignment (216°)
of these beacons leads through the centre of the dredged
channel, reported to be 175 m in width, with depths in
excess of 13⋅7 m, but see 4.250, for about 1 miles from
the vicinity of the SW end of the outer anchorage to a
position close E of No 3 Light-beacon (starboard hand)
marking the E extremity of a 5 m shoal patch.
5
Leading beacons:
Jidiao Dao front beacon (26°40′⋅5N, 119°35′⋅1E on
NE side of island).
Rear beacon (450 m WSW from front beacon).
From a position close E of No 3 Light-beacon (starboard
hand) (above), the alignment (242°) of these beacons
leads for just over 2 miles to No 4 Light-buoy (starboard
hand).
6
From No 4 Light-buoy, the track leads W into the N
side of Fuqing Wan and the berthing area. No 5 Light-buoy
(starboard hand) marks the 5 m depth contour off the N
entrance point to the bay; No 6 Light-beacon (port hand)
marks the 5 m depth contour N of Jidiao Dao.
4.253
1
Useful marks:
Wuzhu Dao Light (25°41′⋅7N, 119°40′⋅0E) (4.238).
Gu Yu Light (25°40′⋅6N, 119°37′⋅5E) (4.238).
Berth
4.254
1
Yuanhong Wharf; 230 m in length, depth alongside
10 m; berthing capacity 30 000 dwt.
Anchorage
Zhangzhou Wan
4.255
1
Zhangzhou Wan (25°53′N, 119°38′E), about 8 cables SW
of Nan’aoshan Jiao (Nanao Shan) (4.258), provides
temporary shelter for small vessels.
Adjacent island
Chart 2400
Xiquan Dao
4.256
1
Xiquan Dao (25°59′N, 119°56′E), is 194 m high and its
summit consists of three rounded hummocks, on the centre
and highest of which there is a boulder; the SW slopes of
the ridge are strewn with sand and show white in misty
weather when little else of the island is visible.
2
Polang Shi, 18 m high, lies at the outer end of a rocky
ridge which extends 5 cables SW from the W point of the
island; this rock and another rock on the ridge, 13 m high,
are prominent. A stranded wreck lies of the NW side of the
ridge; a dangerous wreck lies 4 cables N of Polang Shi.
Sandbanks, with depths of less than 10 m, extend 3 miles
SW from Xiquan Dao.
3
Anchorage may be obtained, in depths from 6 to 7 m,
off the SW side of Xiquan Dao.
MINJIANG KOU AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 2400, 2411
Route
4.257
1
From a position SE of Dongquan Dao (25°58′N,
119°58′E), the route leads WNW and NW for about
20 miles to the vicinity of Nan No 1 Light-buoy (26°05′N,
119°48′E) at the entrance to Minjiang Kou. Vessels over
20 000 dwt should proceed to the vicinity of No 1
Light-buoy (26°06′⋅4N, 119°48′⋅1E).
Topography
4.258
1
Shafeng Jiao (26°02′N, 119°42′E) (4.266), is the S
entrance point to Minjiang Kou, and in its vicinity wide
sandbanks extend N and NE into the estuary.
Depths
4.259
1
The banks and channels of Minjiang Kou are constantly
changing and buoys are moved accordingly. The depths on
Wailanjiang Sha 26°06′⋅2N, 119°47′⋅3E are subject to
frequent change, particularly after gales.
Vessels up to 9⋅5 m draught can be accepted at HW.
2
On either side of the main channel, the banks dry and
there are heavy rollers in strong winds, but which soon
subside when the gale is over. The water for many miles
outside the river is muddy and discoloured, so that
below-water dangers are not visible unless marked by
breakers.
Pilotage
4.260
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels and is
available during daylight hours. Pilots board in the
Quarantine anchorage (26°07′⋅7N, 119°38′⋅4E), or for
vessels over 20 000 dwt in the vicinity of No 1 Light-buoy
(26°06′⋅4N, 119°48′⋅1E). Pilot vessels are white in colour.
Tidal stream
4.261
1
Off the SE coast of Beijiao Bandao the in-going tide
sets SW, and the out-going tide NE, at rates between 1 to
2 kn. During the in-going tide there is a strong set into
Dinghai Wan and the N side of the approach to Minjiang
Kou.
Traffic regulations
4.262
1
Restricted areas. Passage is prohibited between Baiquan
Liedao (25°58′N, 119°57′E) and Mazu Liedao (26°13′N,
119°58′E), and between the latter group and the mainland
5 miles NW. Mariners are advised to approach Minjiang
Kou passing S and W of Baiquan Liedao. Restricted and
prohibited zones and routeing measures extend around
Mazu Dao and adjacent islands, the full details of which
are not known.
2
Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring is prohibited in a
charted area extending between Mazu Liedao and Baiquan
Liedao, and within a corridor 5 cables wide between the
two main islands of the latter group.
Principal marks
4.263
1
Landmarks:
Niujiao Shan (25°45′N, 119°37′E) (4.232).
Qi Shan (26°00′N, 119°41′E) is a prominent sharp
summit 198 m high. The sand on its E slope
CHAPTER 4
160
reflects the light strongly and often shows brightly
through the mist when little else is visible.
Dinggan Shan, 7 miles W of Shafeng Jiao (26°02′N,
119°42′E), is another prominent summit 627 m
high.
2
Major lights:
Dongxiang Dao Light (25°36′N, 119°54′E) (4.246).
Simu Yu Light (white concrete square, 14 m in
height) (26°14′N, 11949′E).
Yang Yu Light (white 4-sided concrete pyramid, 10 m
in height) (26°22′N, 119°58′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.264
1
Racons:
Qixing Jiao Light (26°05′N, 119°50′E).
Lizhuang Jiao (Rizhuang Jiao) Light (26°05′N,
119°43′E).
Baiyun Shan Front Light (26°05′N, 119°38′E).
Simu Yu Light (26°14′N, 11949′E).
Yang Yu Light (26°22′N, 119°58′E).
Ramark also transmits from Baiyun Shan Front Light.
Directions
(continued from 4.247)
Seaward to outer pilot
4.265
1
From a position SE of Dongquan Dao (25°58′N,
119°58′E) (4.247), the track leads WNW, passing, (with
positions from Dongquan Dao):
SSW of Dongquan Dao, thence:
SSW of Xiquan Dao (2miles W) (4.256).
The track then leads NW, passing:
2
SW of Xipi Shi (6 miles NNW), a group of pinnacle
rocks with a least depth of 3 m. The sea rarely
breaks on them even with strong NE winds, nor is
there any surface disturbance to indicate their
presence. Liuquan Jiao (26°05′N, 119°58′E),
1 miles NNE of Xipi Shi, is a precipitous black
rock 53 m high; dangers extend 4 cables N from it
to Gaojiu Jiao, a rock 9 m high. Beiquan Jiao
(26°07′N, 119°58′E), 2 miles NNE of Liuquan
Jiao, is a prominent black rock 9 m high. Dai Shi,
1 miles N of Beiquan Jiao, is a group of rocky
heads with depths from 1⋅5 to 5⋅5 m; Xie Jiao,
5 cables farther N, is 6 m high. Thence:
3
SW of Qixing Jiao (11 miles NW) (4.248).
The track then leads to the vicinity of Nan No 1
Light-buoy (starboard hand) (26°05′N, 119°48′E), or the
vicinity of No 1 Light-buoy (26°06′⋅4N, 119°48′⋅1E),
depending on size of vessel. See 4.260.
Outer pilot to No 3 Light-buoy
4.266
1
Caution. The charted 265° leading lights no longer
mark the deepest passage.
2
Track. From the pilot boarding position for vessels over
20 000 dwt in the vicinity of No 1 Light-buoy (26°06′⋅4N,
119°48′⋅1E), or the vicinity of Nan No 1 Light-buoy
(starboard hand) (26°05′N, 119°48′E), the track leads
WNW, through a channel marked by light-buoys (lateral)
and leading lights, passing:
3
NNE of Lizhuang Jiao (Rizhuang Jiao) (26°04′⋅5N,
119°43′⋅4E), from where Lizhuang (Rizhuang) Jiao
Light (white conical stone tower, 18 m in height,
racon), is exhibited, a black pinnacle rock about
1 m high situated near the edge of drying banks on
the S side of the entrance channel. Thence:
4
To a position SE of No 3 Light-buoy, from where the
track leads NW.
Clearing bearing. The line of bearing 292° of Yulou
Shan (26°11′N, 119°35′E), just open N, of the N side of
Chuanshi Dao (26°08′N, 119°40′E) (4.269), passes 5 cables
N of Qixing Jiao (4.248).
No 3 Light-buoy to inner pilot
4.267
1
Leading lights:
Xifeng Shi front light (concrete tower, red and white
bands, 9 m in height) (26°08′⋅0N, 119°38′⋅3E).
Fudou Shan rear light (white brick structure, 9 m in
height) (1.2 M NW from front light).
The alignment (308°) of these lights leads through a
channel marked by numbered light-buoys (lateral), for
about 1 miles to the Quarantine anchorage (4.284) and
pilot boarding position, passing:
2
NE of Langqi Dao (26°06′N, 119°36′E), the S and
largest island, lying centrally in Minjiang Kou;
Baiyun Shan, the island’s summit, is 275 m high
with a prominent sharp peak. Thence:
3
SW of Chuanshi Dao (26°08′N, 119°40′E); Bajiao
Shan, its summit, is 187 m high and prominent. A
light (4.290) is exhibited near the W point of
Chuanshi Dao. Several training banks extend from
the SW side, and SE from the SE extremity, of the
island. Thence:
4
Close SW of Bajiaowei Jiao, a pinnacle rock with a
depth of 1.1 m lying 3 cables W of the S extremity
of Chuanshi Dao. Thence:
5
NE of Hujiang Dao, close NE of Langqi Dao and
37 m high; Hujiang Dao NE Light (white round
brick structure, 7 m in height), is exhibited from its
NE point. Groynes extend SE from the E side of
the island. Wuzhu Zhou, a low narrow islet,
extends 1 mile WNE of Hujiang Dao. Thence:
6
To the Quarantine anchorage and pilot boarding
position, lying S of Culu Dao (26°09′N, 119°38′E),
close NW of Chuanshi Dao. The island is the
second largest in the estuary and rises to 232 m
towards its NW end. The channel between it and
Chuanshi Dao is partially blocked by a submerged
groyne extending SE from the SE side of the
island and leaving a gap about 1 cable wide
between it and the training bank extending from
the SW side of Chaunshi Dao. The passage
between the islands is used by local craft. A
light-buoy (special) marks the S side of this gap.
The narrow passage between Culu Dao and the
mainland to the W is blocked by a stone barrier.
4.268
1
Useful mark:
Shafeng Jiao Light (no description) (26°02′E,
119°42′E).
(Directions continue for entering
Fuzhou Gang at 4.290)
Alternative entrance
4.269
1
Leading lights:
Baiyun Shan front light (white concrete beacon, red
stripes, 22 m in height, racon and ramark)
(26°05′⋅4N, 119°38′⋅3E).
Rear light (white concrete structure, red stripes, 22 m
in height) (0⋅7 miles from front light).
CHAPTER 4
161
These lights no longer mark the main passage, indeed it
has been reported as not possible to stay on the leading
line owing to the presence of fishing stakes and boats. The
least charted depth (2001) on this line is 3⋅5 m. The
directions given at 4.265 are recommended.
From a position S of Nan No 1 Light-buoy (starboard
hand) (26°05′N, 119°48′E), the alignment (265°) of the
above lights leads WSW, to a position SE of No 3
Light-buoy, crossing Wailanjiang Sha (4.259).
FUZHOU GANG
General information
Charts 2411, 2410
Position
4.270
1
Fuzhou Gang is situated on the Minjiang Kou and
embraces the districts of Mawei and Fuzhou, 8 miles apart;
the city of Fuzhou (formerly Foochow) (26°04′N,
119°18′E) stands on the N bank of the river 33 miles from
the entrance. At Mawei (25°59′N, 119°27′E), where
Minjiang Kou and Wulong Jiang meet, there is sheltered
anchorage and the main berthing facilities. There are other
port districts within the river for national traffic, and the
sea port of Songxia Gang (4.249) to the S.
Function
4.271
1
Fuzhou is the political, economic, cultural and
communication centre for Fujian Province, with an urban
population of over 1.2 million (1997). Mawei is the main
port district for international shipping and has a naval
dockyard and fishing harbour. The principal goods imported
include coal, fertilizers, petroleum, iron and steel, building
materials and grain; exports include stone, sand, cement,
fish and other food products.
Topography
4.272
1
Much of the terrain of the river banks between the
estuary and Mawei (25°59′N, 119°27′E) is mountainous.
Port limits
4.273
1
The E boundary of the port is a line joining the E
extremity of Niutou Shan (26°14′N, 119°40′E), the E side
of Chuanshi Dao (26°08′N, 119°40′E) and Shafeng Jiao
(26°02′N, 119°42′E).
Port Authority
4.274
1
Fuzhou Port Superintendence Administration, 6 Gang
Kou Road, Mawei District, Fuzhou 350015, Fujian
Province, People’s Republic of China.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.275
1
In 1997 it was reported that the harbour authorities
declare a “safe draught” each day.
Vertical clearance
4.276
1
Overhead cable. The least vertical clearance in
Minjiang Kou as far as Mawei is 54 m under overhead
cables spanning the river W of Jinpai Men.
Qinzhou Bridge, a road bridge spans the river at
latitude 25°59′⋅3N, with a vertical clearance (reported) of
about 39 m.
Deepest and longest berth
4.277
1
Qingzhou Wharfs (4.294).
Tidal levels
4.278
1
Mean spring range about 5⋅4 m; mean neap range about
2⋅7 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Abnormal levels
4.279
1
The tide is mainly semi-diurnal with MHWS springs of
6⋅2 m and MHWN neaps of 4⋅9 m. These levels are much
affected by the wind; water level being relatively high
during the NE monsoon and low during the SW monsoon.
Remarkable rises of the water level can occur, as in August
1885 when spring tides rose 7⋅3 m during a typhoon.
Within the river the water level is similarly affected.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.280
1
Vessels of 20 000 dwt and LOA 170 m can reach Mawei
with the tide. Vessels of 1000 dwt can reach the Taijiang
port area on the E side of Fuzhou.
Arrival information
Port operations
4.281
1
Entry to and exit from the port should be in daylight
hours.
Port radio
4.282
Port radio is available. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
4.283
Notice of ETA required is 48 hours, with updates
thereafter.
CHAPTER 4
162
Outer anchorages
4.284
Vessels awaiting the tide before entering Minjiang Kou
anchor in the vicinity of 26°06′⋅5N, 119°50′⋅0E to the NNE
of Qixing Jiao (4.248).
1
The main waiting and quarantine anchorage is within the
main fairway of Minjiang Kou to the S of Culu Dao
(26°09′N, 119°38′E) (4.269) where depths are between 6 to
8 m. A shallow reef with a least depth of 0⋅8 m lies on the
N side of this anchorage close off Culu Dao.
Pilotage and tugs
4.285
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels and is
available during daylight hours. Pilots board in the
Quarantine anchorage in Minjiang Kou; however it is
reported that pilots will board foreign ships outside the
entrance in the vicinity of Nan No 1 Light-buoy (starboard
hand) (26°05′N, 119°48′E). Pilot vessels are white in
colour.
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
4.286
1
Prohibited anchorages. Several corridors in which
anchoring is prohibited are charted as follows:
South side of Culu Dao (26°09′N, 119°38′E).
W side of Jinpai Men (26°08′N, 119°36′E).
Across Minjiang Kou at latitude 25°59′⋅3N.
Harbour
General layout
4.287
1
The harbour is extensive. Positions of the port districts
are as follows:
Guantou 26°08′⋅0N, 119°33′⋅5E
Tingjiang 26°04′⋅5N, 119°30′⋅7E
Songmen 26°02′⋅5N, 119°30′⋅1E
Qingzhou 26°00′⋅5N, 119°28′⋅7E
Choudong SE bank of Minjiang Kou between
Yingqian (25°58′N, 119°28E) and
Gao’an (26°01′N, 119°30′E)
Mawei 25°59′N, 119°27′E
Taijiang 26°03′⋅1N, 119°20′⋅5E
Hazards
4.288
1
Traffic. Numerous small vessels are likely to be found
in the main fairways at any time, and may not give way to
large vessels until the last moment. Local sailing craft
which may not display lights may be encountered at night,
underway or at anchor.
Ferries. Several ferries cross the river between Jinpai
Men and Tingjiang (26°04′N, 119°30′E).
Tidal streams
4.289
1
Tidal streams in the entrance to Minjiang Kou set as
follows:
LW + 0130 to HW + 0130 W-going stream
HW + 0130 to LW + 0130 E-going stream
During the rainy season (April to June) freshets cause
the W-going stream to run for a shorter period, while the
E-going stream begins earlier and sets for longer. Rates are
from 1 to 4 kn. During heavy freshets vessels do not swing
to the W-going stream.
2
Tidal streams in the waiting and quarantine anchorage
(4.284) S of Culu Dao set NW on the rising tide with a
rate of 2 kn, and SE on the falling tide with a rate of 4 kn.
Heavy overfalls occur off Yuxia Jiao, the S point of Culu
Dao. These rates may have been increased by the
construction of a submerged groyne extending SE from the
SE side of Culu Dao and a training bank extending SW
thence NW from the SW side of Chuanshi Dao. In the
channel between Mazuyin Light-buoy and Dieshidui
Light-buoy (4.290) close W of the anchorage, the rate often
exceeds 7 kn.
3
Tidal streams in Jinpai Men (4.290) are strong and set
W through the channel on the rising tide with a branch
setting SW at the W end of the narrows; the falling stream
sets in the reverse direction. During spring tides, or during
a freshet period, the falling stream usually exceeds a rate of
7 kn and creates eddies; a similar rate is experienced in
Min’an Men (4.291). The freshet period is usually March
to June, but can be experienced in July and August.
4
Tidal streams in the Luoxingta and Majiang Anchorages
(4.294) off Luoxing and Mawei set in the direction of the
deep channel as follows:
HW − 0515 In-going stream begins
HW + 0100 Out-going stream begins
Rates are 3 to 4 kn, but during freshets, caused by heavy
rain in the interior, the out-going stream reaches 5 kn, and
sometimes overcomes the in-going stream altogether.
5
Local weather. Tropical storms and typhoons affect the
port on an average of 3 to 4 times a year, with a peak
between mid July to mid August. Fog is experienced on
about 25 days each year between February and June, but
usually disperses early in the day.
6
Climatic table see 1.169.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.268)
Inner pilot to Minjiang Kou
4.290
1
Leading lights:
Xifeng Shi front light (26°08′⋅0N, 119°38′⋅3E)
(4.269).
Chuanshi Dao rear light (brick masonry structure,
black and white stripes, 5 m in height) (26°08′⋅0N,
119°39′⋅5E).
2
From the Quarantine anchorage S of Culu Dao
(26°09′N, 119°38′E), the alignment (091°) (astern) of the
above lights leads through a channel, 120 m wide with
depths from 5 to 7 m, marked by light-buoys (lateral),
passing:
3
Through Fudou Blockade, S of Fudou Shan
(26°08′8N, 119°37′⋅4E), comprising drying rocks
and sunken ships, and lying between Culu Dao
and Wuzhu Zhou; the channel passes through the
centre of this barrier, marked on the N side by
Mazu Ying Light-buoy (starboard hand) and on the
S side by Shangshidui Light-buoy (port hand).
Thence:
4
Between Nangui Dao (26°07′⋅9N, 119°35′⋅9E), 18 m
high, and Beigui Dao, 20 m high, lying on the S
CHAPTER 4
163
and N sides, respectively, of the channel in the E
approaches to the narrows. Thence:
5
Through Jinpai Men, a narrows 1 cables wide
between the N end of Langqi Dao (4.269) and the
mainland. It is best navigated at slack water as
tidal streams (4.287) at other times cause
turbulence. Once passed between Beigui Dao and
Nagui Dao, rising tides can set vessels towards
Pozengtan; fishing stakes are to be found on the N
side of this passage. Vessels should avoid passing
one another in these narrows; vessels going with
the stream have right of way over those against
the stream and should remain clear of the narrows.
Overhead cables (4.275) span the river at the W
end of Jinpai Men. Thence:
6
S of Pozentang, a drying islet on which stands Jinpai
Men Light (4.293), lying close off the N side of
the narrows.
4.291
1
Between Jinpai Men and Mawei the main fairway is
shown on the chart, and passes:
SE of Xiaolusha (26°05′⋅5N, 119°32′⋅3E), marked by
a light-beacon (isolated danger), lying on the bank
bordering the E side of the river, 4 miles SW of
Jinpai Men. Thence:
2
Through Min’an Men (26°03′⋅0N, 119°30′⋅4E), a
narrows entered 6 miles SSW of Jinpai Men and
leading 3 miles in a S direction, with a least width
of 2 cables. A light-beacon (4.293) stands on the
W bank at the N entrance of Min’an Men, and
another light-beacon (4.293) on Niuwei Shan on
the E bank 1 miles farther S. Dayu (26°00′⋅8N,
119°29′⋅4E), 17 m high, lies off the E bank at the
S end of Min’an Men; there is a prominent
building on its SW side. A rocky patch, with a
least depth of 0⋅9 m, lies in mid-channel 2cables
W of Dayu marked by a light-beacon (isolated
danger). A danger area, radius 1 cable, is
established around this light-beacon. Thence:
3
Beneath Qinzhou Bridge (25°59′⋅3N, 119°28′⋅2E)
(4.275). Lights are exhibited to mark the passages
under the bridge. Thence:
4
S of Luoxing (25°59′N, 119°27′E), situated on the N
bank of the river; a hill in this port area has a
prominent pagoda, 28 m in height, on its summit.
Xiaoma Jiao, a rock drying 2⋅4 m, lies in
mid-channel S of Luoxing and is marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger). A dangerous wreck
lies 3 cables WNW of the beacon. Thence:
5
To Mawei (25°59′N, 119°27′E) (4.270), situated
5 cables NW of Luoxing; Dama Jiao, a drying
rocky patch close off Mawei, is marked by a
light-beacon (starboard hand).
4.292
1
The river divides at Mawei and passes either side of
Nantai Dao (26°00′N, 119°20′E), a large island off the E
end of which are situated a number of training walls; the
NW branch leads to Fuzhou. Training walls line either side
of the river for most of the distance to the port area at
Taijiang; an overhead cable with a vertical clearance of
35 m crosses the river at the W end of this port area.
2
Above Mawei, the least charted depth (2001) in the
main fairway of Minjiang Kou is 4⋅2 m just under 2 miles
above Dama Jiao Light-beacon (25°59′⋅1N, 119°26′⋅5E). An
isolated shoal with a depth of 0⋅2 m, marked by a buoy,
lies of the S side of the fairway just under 3 miles above
Dama Jiao Light-beacon. A light-buoy (starboard hand)
marks a stranded wreck off the N bank 5 miles above the
same light-beacon.
3
Caution. Shoals in Minjiang Kou are numerous and
subject to frequent change. The confluence of Minjiang
Kou and Wulong Jiang S of Mawei leads to changes in the
banks and shoals in the vicinity, especially during the flood
season.
4.293
1
Useful marks:
Jinpai Men Light (white pyramidal masonry structure,
10 m in height) (26°08′⋅1N, 119°35′⋅6E).
Wongyu Light (white hexagonal stone masonry
pyramid, 9 m in height) (26°06′⋅5N, 119°32′⋅4E).
Donggaozhai Light (white hexagonal stone masonry
structure, 12 m in height) (26°03′⋅4N, 119°30′⋅4E).
Niuwei Shan Light (white hexagonal stone masonry
pyramid, 9 m in height) (26°02′⋅1N, 119°30′⋅4E).
Chouqi Power Plant chimney (red and white bands,
elevation 216 m, obstruction light) (25°59′⋅5N,
119°28′⋅8E) is conspicuous.
Berths
Anchorage berths
4.294
1
Designated anchorages are as follows:
Wuzhukou Anchorage — No 5.
Guantou Anchorage — Nos 6 to 12.
Tingjiang Anchorage — Nos 14 to 18.
2
Yingquian Anchorage area lies in the vicinity of
Yingqian No 4 Light-buoy (S cardinal) moored
close ENE of a stranded wreck. Depths are from 8
to 15 m, mud and sand.
Luoxingta Anchorage lies in the river S of Mawei; a
dangerous wreck lies within this anchorage. The
bottom is mud.
3
Both Yingquian and Luoxingta Anchorages provide
shelter from all strong winds, but holding ground is poor
and dragging can occur during freshets.
Majiang Anchorage lies off Mawei Shipyard (25°59′⋅8N,
119°26′⋅5E).
Mooring berths
4.295
1
There are mooring buoys in the river off Tingjiang, off
the E bank NNE of Dayu (26°00′⋅8N, 119°29′⋅4E), and W
of Yingquian No 1 Light-buoy.
Alongside berths
4.296
1
Numerous alongside berths with a total berthing length
exceeding 7000 m exist within the port areas listed at 4.287
and elsewhere. The principal berths are:
Songmen coal berths — 20 000 dwt capacity
Qingzhou container berths — 15 000 dwt capacity
Mawei general cargo berths — 10 000 dwt capacity
Port services
4.297
1
Repairs. There are a number of shipyards within the
port capable of building and repair work, Mawei Shipyard
is the largest.
Other facilities: hospitals; salvage.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. International airport.
Rescue facilities based at Fuzhou.
CHAPTER 4
164
DONQUAN DAO TO DONGYIN DAO
General information
Charts 1761, 1754 (see 1.18)
Routes
4.298
1
Coastal route. From a position SE of Dongquan Dao
(25°58′N, 119°59′E), the route leads NE for about 39 miles
to a position ESE of Dongyin Dao (26°22′N, 120°30′E).
Inshore route. From a position ESE of Qixing Jiao
(26°05′N, 119°50′E), the track leads generally NE, for
about 22 miles to a position E of Beijiao Bi (Zui)
(26°23′N, 119°57′E). This route is for small or
low-powered vessels making passage against the NE
monsoon.
Topography
4.299
1
In the N part of this coastal section, a few isolated
islands lie well offshore, Dongyin Dao (26°22′N, 120°30′E)
(4.303) being the largest.
Depths
4.300
1
On the coastal routre there are depths in excess of 36 m.
Dumping ground
4.301
1
See 4.245.
Principal marks
4.302
1
Major lights:
Dongxiang Dao Light (25°36′N, 119°54′E) (4.246).
Dongquan Dao Light (25°58′N, 119°59′E) (4.246).
Directions
Coastal route
(continued from 4.247)
4.303
1
From a position SE of Dongquan Dao (25°58′N,
119°58′E), the track leads NE, passing (with positions from
Dongquan Dao):
Clear of dumping ground (7 miles NE) (4.245),
thence:
2
SE of Yingang Jiao (9miles NNE), a pinnacle rock
with a depth of 0⋅3 m over it; the sea seldom
breaks on this rock except at LW. A 10.6 m shoal
lies close WSW of Yingang Jiao. Thence:
Clear of dumping ground (12 miles NE) (4.301), and:
3
SE of Sankuai Shi (16miles NNE), widely spaced
and up to 34 m high, lie between 1 and 2 miles
E of Beigantang Dao; the channel to the W of
them is clear. Daqui (26°15′N, 120°00′E), 96 m
high, with Xiaoqiu, 79 m high almost joining NE
of it, lie close off the N point of Beigantang Dao.
Thence:
4
SE of Xiyin Yan (Xiyin Jiao) (20miles NE), low
and flat, thence:
SE of Xiyin Dao, 112 m high (26 miles NE). Rocks
extend 5 cables SW of Xiyin Dao, and a rock
awash and an islet lie within 3 cables of the N of
the island. Thence:
NW of Dongsha Dao (26°10′N, 120°24′E), a barren
rock 12 m high, thence;
5
To a position ESE of Dongyin Dao (26°22′N,
120°30′E), the most seaward island on the route.
Dongxiao Dao, the larger of the two islands is
152 m high, with steep cliffs, and a village on its
W side; a light (white round tower, 14 m in
height), is exhibited from the E end of this island.
Anchorage (4.306) may be obtained off the islands.
Discoloured water has been reported 4 and
12 miles NNE of Dongyin Dao.
(Directions continue at 5.36)
Inshore route
(continued from 4.248)
4.304
1
From a position ESE of Qixing Jiao (26°05′N, 119°50′E)
(4.248), the track leads generally NE, passing (with
positions from Qixing Jiao):
Across the entrance to Minjiang Kou (4.270), thence:
Clear of Banyang Jiao (26°10′N, 119°49′E), thence:
2
SE of Simu Yu (26°14′N, 119°48′E), a group of islets
and rocks up to 29 m high; a light (4.302) is
exhibited from the E-most islet. Other groups, Tai
Yu and Qing Yu, lie 1 miles NE and N
respectively. Lights are exhibited from each side of
the passage between Qing Yu group and the reefs
off the mainland coast 3 cables NW. Guiwei
(Niutou Shan) (26°14′N, 119°40′E), 38 m high, is
a headland having the appearance of an island. A
pagoda stands on Yunju Shan, 332 m high, 4 miles
WSW of Niutou Shan. Thence:
3
NW of Mazu Liedao a group of islets and rocks,
extending 10 miles in a NE/SW direction, where
anchorage may be obtained (4.307), thence:
4
NW of Gaodeng Dao Gaodeng Dao (26°17′N,
119°59′E), the N island of Mazu Liedao, is 175 m
high; the channel between it and Beigantang Dao
is obstructed with above and below-water rocks.
There are dangers within 7cables E and W of
Gaodeng Dao, and a rock 11 m high lies 1 miles
NE of the island. Thence:
5
SE of Donggujiao Qundao (Dongwu Jiao), 5 miles
SW of Beijiao Bi, a group of rocks with heights
up to 30 m. A light (white hexagonal concrete
structure, 13 m in height) is exhibited from a reef
lying midway between these rocks and the coast to
the N. Huangqi Wan (26°19′N, 119°50′E) is
entered about 2 miles W of Donggujiao Qundao,
between islets and rocks off both entrance points.
Wujiao Qunjiao, an area of foul ground, lies in the
centre of the bay. Thence:
6
To a position E of Beijiao Bi (Zui) (26°23′N,
119°57′E), the NE extremity of Beijiao Bandao, a
rugged peninsula 15 miles long, which borders the
N side of the approach to Minjiang Kou. Yang Yu,
two small islets connected by a sandy shoal, lie
about 5 cables SE of Beijiao Bi; heavy tide-rips
and seas form off them during the NE monsoon. A
light (4.302) is exhibited from the E, and higher,
islet. Xiaoniu Jiao, a rock awash lies 4 cables NNE
of Beijiao Bi, from which a light (black octagonal
concrete tower, 14 m in height) is exhibited.
(Directions continue at 5.37)
Anchorages
Dinghai Wan
4.305
1
Dinghai Wan (26°17′N, 119°45′E) is entered between
Simu Yu (26°14′N, 119°48′E) and Muyu Dao, 61 m high,
4 miles W. The bay is shoal but affords anchorage to
CHAPTER 4
165
small vessels during the NE monsoon. A red mooring buoy
is moored in the NE of the bay; a light-beacon (isolated
danger) stands 4 cables NW of Yuziwei Yu (26°16′⋅4N,
119°47′⋅5E), 19 m high, the islet at the E entrance to the
bay. See 4.261 for tidal stream.
Xixiao Dao
4.306
1
Good anchorage can be obtained, in depths from 7⋅3 to
11 m, with smooth water during the NE monsoon, in a
cove on the S side of Xixiao Dao, the W island of
Dongyin Dao (26°22′N, 120°30′E) (4.303). However the
vicinity is much obstructed by fish-traps and should only
be approached in daylight.
Adjacent islands
Chart 2400
Mazu Dao
4.307
1
General information. Mazu Dao (26°09′E, 119°56′E),
the S of three islands is hilly, cultivated and thickly
populated, and rises in its SW part to the prominent
summit of Yuantai Shan, 246 m high. Huangguan Yu, 45 m
high, is the largest of several islets and rocks close off the
NE end of Mazu Dao.
2
Mazu Haixia, separating the two larger islands of Mazu
Liedao, has a navigable width of 1 mile. Dong Shi,
(26°10′⋅6N, 119°57′⋅8E), a pinnacle rock with a depth of
6⋅4 m over it, lies in the central part of the strait.Jin Yu
(26°11′⋅8N, 119°56′⋅7E) is a small islet 34 m high lying at
the NW end of the strait.
3
Fishing stakes may be encountered on all sides of Mazu
Liedao (26°13′N, 119°58′E) and up to 8 miles E.
4
Anchorage. Hou Ao, a bay on the N side of Mazu Dao,
affords shelter with winds from E, through S, to WNW, in
a depth of 9 m, but it is bad anchorage on account of its
rocky bottom. An obstruction, reported (2002) to be
buoyed, is charted in the centre of the bay.
5
Good holding ground, sheltered from the NE wind and
swell, can be obtained by vessels not exceeding 5⋅5 m
draught with Baiya Jiao, the SW point of Mazu Dao,
bearing 175°, distant 6 cables, and in line with the W
extremity of Xiquan Dao (4.256). Care must be taken to
avoid fishing stakes in the vicinity, and a dangerous wreck
7cables NNW of the anchorage.
Chart 1761
Beigantang Dao
4.308
1
General information. Beigantang Dao (26°13′N,
119°59′E) rises to two prominent peaks the NE and highest
of which, Bi Shan, is 296 m high; the island is well
cultivated and has several villages. Islets and rocks extend
7cables SE from the S point of the island to Yan Shi,
which has a depth of 0⋅9 m over it.
2
Anchorage with good shelter from NE winds can be
had in the NE part of Queshi Wan, the bay on the SE side
of the island, in a depth of 8⋅2 m, mud, with the summit of
Bangshan, the S-most of two islets off the SE extremity of
Beigantang Dao, bearing 126°, distant 5 cables. Care should
be taken to avoid an underwater cable which extends SSW
from the E side of the bay.
5
.
3
1
5
.
5
0
5
.
1
1
1
5
.
1
5
2
5
.
1
2
6
5
.
6
3
5
.
7
5
.
1
6
4
5.7
5.81
5.126
1754
1721
1721
1759
1763
1759
1204
Chapter 5 - East coast of China from Dongyin Dao to Xiangshan Gang
C H I N A
Haimen
Wenchou
Sansha Wan
Dachen Maodi
Jiushan
Liedao
120°
122°
123°
27°
28°
29°
Longitude 121
°
East from Greenwich
27°
28°
29°
120°
122°
123°
121
°
166
167
CHAPTER 5
COAST OF CHINA FROM DONGYIN DAO TO XIANGSHAN GANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2412
Scope of the chapter
5.1
1
This chapter describes the E coast of China between
Beijiao Bi (26°23′N, 119°57′E), and Xiangshan Gang
(29°38′N, 121°48′E), and includes the ports of Wenzhou
Gang (28°01′N, 120°39′E) and Haimen Gang (28°41′N,
121°26′E).
2
It is divided into the following sections:
Sansha Wan (Sandu Ao) to Wenzhou Wan (5.6).
Wenzhou Wan to Xiangshan Gang (5.110).
Routes
5.2
1
For information about coastal and inshore routeing
throughout this chapter see 4.2.
Depths
5.3
1
The 20 m depth contour lies up to 25 miles off the
mainland throughout the coastal area described this chapter;
most of the off-lying islands lie within this distance from
the shore.
Regulations
5.4
1
For regulations about port arrival see 4.6.
Navigation
5.5
1
Buoyage. See 1.24.
Aids to navigation. See 4.7.
SANSHA WAN TO WENZHOU WAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1754, 1759
Area covered
5.6
1
This section describes the coastal routes, anchorages,
harbours, bays and offshore islands from Beijiao Bi
(26°23′N, 119°57′E) to Wenzhou Wan (27°55′N, 121°12′E).
It is arranged as follows:
2
Sansha Wan and approaches (5.7).
Sansha Wan to Nanji (Nanjishan) Liedao (5.31).
Nanji Liedao to Wenzhou Wan (5.50).
Wenzhou Wan and approaches (5.63).
Wenzhou Gang (5.81).
SANSHA WAN AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 1754 (see 1.18)
Description
5.7
1
The extensive inlet of Sansha Wan (26°40′N, 119°47′E),
formerly known by the name Sandu Ao (5.18), one of the
bays within the inlet, is approached through Sandu’ao Kou
(26°32′N, 119°49′E), and entered between Hutou Jiao
(26°26′⋅7N, 119°49′⋅5E) and the extremity of Dongchong
Bandao, a rugged and steep-to peninsula 4 miles NE. The
inlet provides anchorage with good holding in a typhoon.
Strong NE winds send a heavy sea into the entrance. With
E winds, and a strong out-going stream, deep draught
vessels become tide-rode, particularly during the intervals
between heavy squalls.
2
Within its entrance the inlet divides into several arms
and is partially obstructed with a number of islands and
islets.
Sansha Wan is easy of access in all weathers.
Route
5.8
1
From a position on the coastal route ESE of Dongyin
Dao (26°22′N, 120°30′E), the track leads WNW for about
51 miles, through Sandu’ao Kou, which is for the most part
deep, thence N for about 5 miles to a position N of Jigong
Shan (26°34′N, 119°48′E).
Topography
5.9
1
The W side of the entrance channel between the
entrance to Luoyuan Wan (5.17) and Huwei Jiao (26°33′N,
119°48′E), the extremity of a steep-to peninsula 7 miles
NNW, is rugged and indented with several bays mostly
filled with drying mudflats. The peninsula rises NW to
become part of the rugged mountain range which backs this
coast.
2
The E side of the entrance channel is also rugged and
much indented with bays filled with drying mudflats. A
summit, Jianhuangping (26°32′N, 119°51′E), near the
entrance, has a flat top 469 m (charted as 483 m) high, on
which there are several large boulders.
3
The land around the inlet is well cultivated and the hills
are terraced.
Fishing
5.10
1
Numerous large nets may be encountered in Sansha Wan
and its approaches; the W passage at the N end of the
Sandu’ao Kou (5.9) is at times almost completely blocked
by fishing boats and nets. The nets are moored by heavy
CHAPTER 5
168
baskets of stones and the net poles show in groups a few
metres above water; they should be avoided as the mooring
ropes are very strong.
Local knowledge
5.11
1
Local knowledge is required to enter Sansha Wan.
Prohibited areas
5.12
1
Corridors in which anchoring and fishing are prohibited
are established as follows:
From the S extremity of Dongchong Bandao (5.7) S
for 8 cables thence E to Xiyang Dao (5.44),
3 cables wide (charted 12 cables wide).
2
From a position close NE of Niu Jiaozhi (26°31′⋅7N,
119°49′⋅4E) (5.16), WNW across the Sandu’ao
Kou to the opposite shore, 3 cables W.
From a position on the N side of the promontory
1 miles NNE of Niu Jiaozhi NW across
Dongchong Shuidao (5.16) to Jigong Shan,
3 cables wide.
3
From the town of Sandu in the SW of Sandu Dao
(5.18) SSE across Sandu Ao to the opposite shore,
4 cables wide.
From the SW extremity of Sandu Dao WSW for
7 cables to the islet, 2 cables wide.
Natural conditions
5.13
1
Local magnetic anomaly. Local deflection of the
compass is reported to occur in the entrance to Kemen
Shuidao (26°25′N, 119°48′E) (5.17), the passage giving
access to Luoyuan Wan (5.17).
2
Tidal streams at Bijiao Bi (Zui) (26°23′N, 119°57′E)
(4.304) and in the vicinity of Dongluo Dao (5.16) and
Xiluo Dao sometimes attain rates of 3 kn.
Tidal streams at the entrance to Kemen Shuidao set
WSW on the in-going tide at a rate of 2 kn, and ENE on
the out-going tide at a rate of 3 kn.
3
Tidal streams in Sansha Wan turn at the times of HW
and LW and follow the directions of the channels, dividing
where there are islands and setting at a greater rate past
their salient points. In Sandu’ao Kou (5.7) either side of
Heye Jiao (5.16) rates of 4 to 7 kn may be attained, and
heavy tide-rips occur during the out-going stream,
especially off Niu Jiaozhi (5.16).
4
Tidal streams in Xiaomen Shuidao, the passage W of
Jigong Shan (26°34′N, 119°48′E) (5.16), may attain a rate
of 6 to 7 kn at spring tides, and tide-rips and swirls form
off the W extremity of the island.
Tidal levels. The mean spring range in Sansha Wan is
6⋅6 m.
Principal marks
5.14
1
Landmarks:
Bijia Shan (not charted) (462 m high) (26°30′⋅7N,
119°46′⋅6E), a prominent sharp peak, rises from
the coast 5 miles NNW of the entrance to Luoyuan
Wan.
Baima Shan (946 m, charted as 973 m high)
(26°34′N, 119°42′E), the highest peak in the area,
rises 5 miles NW of Bijia Shan.
Yungfeng Shan (26°38′N, 120°01′E), 474 m high, is
fairly conspicuous from the S.
2
Major lights:
Yang Yu Light (26°22′N, 119°58′E) (4.302).
Kuishan Dao Light (no description) (26°29′N,
120°08′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.15
1
Racons:
Yang Yu Light (26°22′N, 119°58′E).
Kuishan Dao Light (26°29′N, 120°08′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.303)
Dongyin Dao to Jigong Shan
5.16
1
From a position on the coastal route ESE of Dongyin
Dao (26°22′N, 120°30′E), the track leads WNW, passing
(with positions from Dongyin Dao):
SSW of Dongyin Dao (4.303), thence:
NNE of Xiyin Dao (15 miles W) (5.49), with fish
traps lying SW. Xiyin Jiao, 5 miles S is low and
flat. Thence:
2
SSW of a dangerous rock (16miles WNW) (5.37),
thence:
NNE of Hei Yan (22 miles W) (5.37), thence:
NNE of Beijiao Bi (28miles W) (4.304), thence:
NNE of Dongluo Dao (26°25′N, 119°55′E), 66 m
high. Fishing stakes extend up to 2 miles NE
from Dongluo Dao. Other islets and below-water
rocks lie in the bay to the SW Thence:
3
SSW of a dangerous wreck (30 miles WNW), thence:
NNE of Zhang Jiao (26°26′⋅3N, 119°53′⋅3E) a rock
which dries 3⋅5 m. Xiluo Dao, 115 m high lies
1miles SW.
4
The track then leads N, passing:
W of Niu Jiaozhi (26°31′⋅7N, 119°49′⋅4E), a point
jutting out close within the entrance of the
channel, it is steep-to. A light (5 m in height) is
exhibited from the point. Thence:
5
E of Heye Jiao (38 miles WNW), a rock near
mid-channel, 6 cables W of Niu Jioazhi, marked
by a light-beacon (isolated danger, 6 m in height).
Passage may also be made W of the rock. A shoal
with a least depth of 7⋅8 m extends 3 cables SSW,
and a shoal area, with depths between 4⋅6 and
11⋅8 m, lies between 4 to 9 cables NNW from
Heye Jiao. Thence:
6
Either side of Jigong Shan (26°34′N, 119°48′E), a
rugged island, lying near mid-channel at the N end
of Sandou’ao Kou. Rocks, some 18 m high and
others awash, extend 4 cables SSE of the island.
Xiaomen Shuidao, the passage W of the island, is
deep and clear, but see 5.13 concerning tidal
streams. Dongchong Shuidao, the passage passing
E of Jigong Shan, is the main channel for large
vessels, although it is reported that Xiaomen
Shuidao is more suitable for vessels with large
turning circles. When entering with the out-going
stream, care is necessary when passing Niu Jiaozhi
and the W extremity of Jigong Shan as the stream
sets strongly on the starboard bow.
7
The track then leads to a position N of Jigong Shan.
8
Clearing bearing. The alignment (336°) of the summit
of Qingshan Dao (26°37′⋅3N, 119°46′⋅4E) (5.18) with the
W extremity of Jigong Shan, clears E of Heye Jiao.
CHAPTER 5
169
Anchorage in the approach to Sansha Wan
Luoyuan Wan
5.17
1
Description. In the approach to Sansha Wan lies
Luoyuan Wan (26°25′N, 119°42′E), entered between Kemen
Jiao (26°26′N, 119°50′E), and Hutou Jiao 1 mile farther
NNW. It affords anchorage in a typhoon. The town of
Luoyuan (26°29′⋅5N, 119°32′⋅5E) lies at its head.
Reclamation work is taking place (2002) in the NW part of
the bay.
2
Magnetic anomaly see 5.13.
Tide rips occur off Kemen Tou (26°25′⋅5N, 119°48′⋅8E),
a prominent headland on the S side of Kemen Shuidao, the
entrance channel. For tidal streams in the entrance, see
5.13.
3
Directions. From a position NE of Kemen Jiao
(26°26′N, 119°50′E), from which a light (4-sided concrete
pyramid) is exhibited, the track leads SW for 4 miles
through Kemen Shuidao, deep and about 1 mile wide
between steep shores. A group of drying rocks, from which
a light is exhibited, lies close off the NW shore of the
channel, 1 mile SW of Hutou Jiao. Dan Yu, two islets 20 m
high and almost joined to each other, lie in mid-channel
2 miles within the channel entrance. Tide-rips occur off
their E end. A light is exhibited from the E islet.
4
At the inner end of Kemen Shuidao, Luoyuan Wan
opens out into a large shallow basin, much of which dries.
The channel then divides, and part of it leads NE of two
islets, Gang Yu (26°24′⋅2N, 119°45′⋅2E) and Niao Yu,
6 cables NW, and thence along the NE shore to an
anchorage A light is exhibited from Gang Yu. The other
part of the channel leads to the S end of the basin where
several islets lie at the edge on an area enclosed by
sea-walls (not charted).
5
Anchorage may be obtained about 1 mile SSW of Gang
Yu in depths from 11 to 12⋅8 m, mud. Anchorage can also
be obtained about 1 miles within the N arm of the
channel in depths from 7⋅3 to 9⋅1 m; smaller vessels can
anchor in this channel within 4 miles NW of this position,
in depths of not less than 7⋅3 m.
Sansha Wan — west part
General information
5.18
1
Description. Sandu Ao (25°38′N, 119°42′E), a bay, is an
extension of Qiandunmen Shuidao, providing access to an
anchorage and the town of Sandu situated on the SW side
of Sandu Dao (26°39′N, 119°42′E) an island. It is a port of
call for coastal shipping, where there are berths and
slipways; storm signals are exhibited. To the W of Sandu
the bay is largely filled with mudflats through which two
creeks, navigable only by small vessels at certain stages of
the tide, lead to the walled town on Ningde (26°39′⋅5N,
119°31′⋅5E).
2
Topography. Sandu Dao (26°39′N, 119°42′E), the
largest island in Sansha Wan, is well populated, wooded
and cultivated. It has several summits, the highest, 460 m,
is situated in the NW part of the island; another summit,
1 miles SE, is 340 m high. On the mainland opposite
Sandu Dao there is a bluff, (273 m high) (26°37′⋅3N,
119°40′⋅2E).
3
Qingshan Dao (26°37′N, 119°47′E), the second largest
island in Sansha Wan, lies 2 miles NW of the inner end of
Sandu’ao Kou. The island has several peaks of similar
elevation, the highest rising to 393 m in its W part.
4
Tidal streams in Qiandunmen Shuidao, SW of Qingshan
Dao (26°37′N, 119°47′E) are strong, and there are tide-rips
and swirls. The out-going stream sets towards the dangers
on the S side of the channel.
Directions
5.19
1
From a position N of Jigong Shan (26°34′N, 119°48′E),
the N end of Sandu’ao Kou the track leads NW in
mid-channel through Qiandunmen Shuidao, passing:
NE of Zhangbi Wei (26°35′⋅1N, 119°46′⋅9E), a point
on the mainland at the SE entrance to this passage
from where a light (5 m in height) is exhibited.
The mainland is much indented with small bays
filled by mudflats. Thence:
2
SW of a rock (26°36′⋅1N, 119°46′⋅5E), with a depth
of 0⋅2 m over it, lying 2 cables SE of the S point
of Qingshan Dao, thence:
SW of Qingshan Dao (26°37′N, 119°47′E) (5.18). A
channel, 3 cables wide between the SE side of
Qingshan Dao and Doumao Dao, an off-lying
island with a smaller islet close NE, affords
anchorage for small vessels, but is obstructed with
fishing stakes. Thence:
3
SW of dangers and foul ground extending 3 cables
from the SW side of Qingshan Dao; the NW-most
of these dangers (26°36′⋅8N, 119°45′⋅2E) are
granite boulders 6 m high from which a ledge of
flat rocks extend 1 cable SW, the outer extremity
being awash. When entering with an out-going
stream care is necessary when passing the dangers
off the W end of Qingshan Dao (5.18), as that
stream sets strongly on the starboard bow. And:
4
NE of an islet, 6 m high, lying 4 cables WSW of
the boulders is the outermost of a group of islets
and rocks extending from the SW side of the
passage. Bijia Shan (419 m high) (26°36′⋅3N,
119°43′⋅3E), not named on the chart, is a summit
on the mainland at the W end of Qiandunmen
Shuidao with three sharp crags. Thence:
5
The track then leads W into Sandu Ao, passing:
Clear of Tietou Jiao (26°37′⋅3N, 119°44′⋅1E), awash
and steep-to, lying 10 cables W of the NW point
of Qingshan Dao; the tidal streams eddy round this
rock at a great rate. See clearing bearing below.
Thence:
6
S of Sandu Dao (26°39′N, 119°42′E) (5.18). From a
point midway along the S side of Sandu Dao, an
extensive mudflat borders the SE side of the
island; an islet, 21 m high, lies on the E edge of
this mudflat. A group of rugged rocks, 2cables
S of the town, dry 6⋅1 m and have a rounded
boulder, 1 m high, on their S edge; shoal depths
extend 2 cables W from them. The channel
between the SW extremity of Sandu Dao and an
islet, 43 m high, lying 7 cables WSW leads to the
creeks through the mudflats in the shallow NW
part, NW of Sandu Dao.
7
The track then leads to the anchorage (below). The
in-going tidal stream tends to keep a vessel in the middle
of the channel.
CHAPTER 5
170
Clearing bearing. The alignment (126°) of the SW side
of Qingshan Dao with the NE point of Jigong Shan
(26°34′N, 119°48′E), passes 2 cables NE of Tietou Jiao.
Anchorage
5.20
1
Anchorage can be obtained between the S side of Sandu
Dao (5.18) and the mainland in depths from 9 to 22 m. The
best position is about 5 cables SE of Sandu in depths from
14⋅6 to 18⋅3 m, with the SW extremity of Sandu Dao (5.18)
just open N of the group of rocks lying S of the town
bearing 293°, and the summit (26°38′⋅6N, 119°41′⋅2E) on
the S side of Sandu Dao bearing 043°.
Berth
5.21
1
A jetty is situated 1miles SSE of Sandu.
Sansha Wan — east part
General information
5.22
1
Description. The E part of Sansha Wan, a large bay,
provides anchorage in Guanjing Yang. A channel from
Guanjing Yang leads ENE and NE to Dongwu Yang, an
extensive basin fringed by mudflats in the NE part of
Sansha Wan; there are depths of over 5 m in the S central
part of this basin, but the area has been only partially
surveyed.
2
Topography. Between a point (26°35′⋅2N, 119°50′⋅5E)
on the NW side of Dongchong Bandao (5.7) and another
point Pu-lo-wu Jiao, 4 miles NE, the SE shore of Sansha
Wan is slightly indented and has a number of wooded
spurs descending steeply to the shore from the mountain
range close inland. Several other islets lie on the extensive
mudflat which fills the wide bay S and E of this group.
3
Dongan Dao (26°41′N, 119°56′E), 276 m high, is an
irregular shaped island lying on the extensive mudflats
extending from the N shore of the inlet. An overhead cable
with a vertical clearance of 23 m spans the narrow passage
W of Dongan Dao.
Directions
5.23
1
From a position N of Jigong Shan (26°34′N, 119°48′E),
the N end of Sandu’ao Kou, the track leads initially ENE
in mid-channel through Guanjing Yang, passing:
NNW of Pu-lo-wu Jiao (25°37′N, 119°54′E), thence:
2
SSE of Leijiang Dao (53 m high) (26°39′N,
119°55′E), an irregular shaped island, lying near
mid-channel; the passage either side of the island,
and the dangers extending 1 mile W from it, are
clear. Thence:
Clear of a group of islets (26°38′⋅3N, 119°55′⋅7E)
lying between 1 to 2 miles ENE from Pu-lo-wu
Jiao.
3
The track then leads NE, passing:
NW of a former island, 73 m high in its SW part,
1 mile SE of Dongan Dao, now joined by
reclamation to the mainland, thence through
Damen Shuidao, a channel between this island and
Dongan Dao. Jinzi Shan (26°42′⋅1N, 119°59′⋅5E), a
summit on the E side of Damen Shuidao, is 349 m
high and prominent. Thence:
4
NW of a rock, 4 m high, lying 7cables ESE of the
S extremity of Dongan Dao, the fairway of the
channel is clear.
Anchorage
5.24
1
The best position in which to ride out a typhoon within
Sansha Wan is in Guanjing Yang (26°38′N, 119°52′E)
7cables W of Pu-lo-wu Jiao, in a depth of about 22 m.
Anchorage can also be obtained 5 cables N of the same
point.
Sansha Wan — north part
General information
5.25
1
Description. The N part of Sansha Wan is reached by a
channel leading NW between Qingshan Dao (26°37′N,
119°47′E) (5.18), and a point on the mainland 3 miles
NE. Above Qingshan Dao the channel divides leading W
into Qingshan Shuidao (5.27) and then above Sandu Dao
dividing again, a channel leading NW into Jiguan Shuidao
(5.28), and NNW into Baima Gang (5.29) and N into
Yantan Gang (5.30).
2
The channel narrows to a width of 9 cables where it
passes between the E end of Sandu Dao (5.18) and Baipao
Dao. Up to this point the channel is deep, but beyond it
shoals rapidly.
3
Topography. The NE side of the channel is indented by
a wide, shallow bay with off-lying islands and shoals, and
backed by an imposing mountain range. Hong Shan
(26°45′N, 119°50′E), the highest part of the range, is 797 m
(charted as 773 m) high with three distinct summits.
Directions
5.26
1
From a position N of Jigong Shan (26°34′N, 119°48′E),
the N end of Sandu’ao Kou, the track leads initially NE in
mid-channel through Guanjing Yang, passing:
SE of a shoal patch with a depth of 3⋅9 m over it
lying SE of the E extremity of Qingshan Dao, the
track then leads NW, passing:
2
NE of the E extremity of Qingshan Dao, thence:
NE of a rocky shoal from where a light is exhibited,
thence:
Between the E end of Sandu Dao (5.18) and Baipao
Dao, 168 m high, 1 mile NE, from where a light is
exhibited.
Qingshan Shuidao
5.27
1
Qingshan Shuidao leads SW between Qingshan Dao and
Sandu Dao (5.18), but it is much restricted by the mudflats
and shallow bank, with depths of less than 5 m, extending
SE from the latter island to within 5 cables of Qingshan
Dao. The channel is further restricted by a patch of foul
ground, from where a light is exhibited, at the extremity of
this bank, and an islet off the N side of Qingshan Dao.
Jiguan Shuidao
5.28
1
Jiguan Shuidao, a narrow and intricate channel leads
NW, between Futou Jiao (26°42′⋅4N, 119°43′⋅6E), the SE
extremity of a high promontory and the shallow banks on
the W side of Sandu Dao (5.18), to a basin in the NW part
of the inlet; the channel closely follows the SW side of the
promontory.
Baima Gang
5.29
1
Baimamen Shuidao is entered between the extremities of
Tai Jiao (26°43′⋅7N, 119°44′⋅1E) and Baima Jiao 6 cables
NE, two high promontories, and leads NW into Baima
CHAPTER 5
171
Gang (26°46′N, 119°43′E), a shallow basin through which
a narrow channel has been cut by a river entering its N
end. Above Baima Gang, the river is navigable by small
vessels for some 13 miles to Saiqi (26°58′N, 119°40′E).
Several light-beacons aid navigation. Local knowledge is
required.
Yantian Gang
5.30
1
The E channel in the N part of Sansha Wan, leading to
Yantian Gang (26°46′⋅5N, 119°46′⋅5E), is entered between
the drying mudflats extending 1 miles SE of Baima Jiao
and Bibaobi Jiao, another point 2 miles farther SE; the
channel is nearly 1 mile wide for 3 miles within its
entrance, with depths of more than 7⋅4 m in the fairway.
2
The channel divides into two arms at Lianhua Yu
(26°46′⋅2N, 119°46′⋅9E), an islet 19 m high; that to the E
becoming gradually absorbed into the drying mudflats; that
to the N into Yantian Gang narrows and is almost blocked
by mudflats 2 miles NNW of Lianhua Yu, but a channel,
with depths from 1⋅8 to 2⋅7 m continues NE for a farther
6 miles.
3
From the central part of Sansha Wan, this E channel can
be approached through a narrow but deep passage between
Baipao Dao (see above) and Changyao Dao (26°41′N,
119°48′E), 211 m high in its NW part.
SANSHA WAN TO NANJI LIEDAO
General information
Chart 1754
Routes
5.31
1
Coastal. From a position ESE of Dongyin Dao
(26°22′N, 120°30′E), the route leads NE for about 71 miles
to a position ESE of Nanji Liedao (27°28′N, 121°04′E).
2
Inshore. From a position E of Beijiao Bi (26°23′N,
119°57′E) the route leads generally NE for about 85 miles
to a position WNW of Nanji Liedao (27°28′N, 121°04′E).
This route is for small or low-powered vessels making
passage against the NE monsoon.
Topography
5.32
1
The inlet of Sansha Wan (26°40′N, 119°47′E) is
described at 5.9. The mainland coast from the entrance to
Sansha Wan (5.7) for 5 miles NE is very rugged. The coast
from Lütou Wei (Shi Jiao) (26°39′N, 120°08′E) (5.37) to
Shacheng Gang (5.40), 35 miles NE, is very broken and
indented, with numerous off-lying islands and dangers.
Depths
5.33
1
Depths along the coastal through route exceed 30 m
until the approach to Wenzhou Wan (27°55′N, 121°12′E).
Caution. Many inshore areas along the coast between
Sansha Wan (26°40′N, 119°47′E) and Shacheng Gang
(27°10′N, 120°24′E) have only been partially surveyed.
Principal marks
5.34
1
Landmark:
Heding Shan (989 m high) (27°19′⋅2N, 120°27′⋅3E),
has a remarkable, sharp conical summit.
2
Major lights:
Yang Yu Light (26°22′N, 119°58′E) (4.302).
Kuishan Dao Light (26°29′N, 120°08′E) (5.14).
Jiabei Light (white concrete cone, 12 m in height)
(26°43′N, 120°10′E).
3
Xitai Shan Light (white tiled hexagonal concrete
structure, 24 m in height) (27°01′N, 120°42′E).
Dingcao Yu Light (white stone masonry cone, 9 m in
height) (27°15′N, 120°34′E).
Pingyang Zui Light (white hexagonal stone masonry
column, 10 m in height) (27°29′N, 120°41′E).
4
Ping Yu Light (27°25′N, 121°04′E).
Beiji Dao Light (red conical concrete structure, 20 m
in height) (27°38′N, 121°12′E).
Donggua Yu Light (white concrete square, 13 m in
height) (27°38′N, 121°03′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.35
1
Racons:
Kuishan Dao Light (26°29′N, 120°08′E).
Liu’er Dao Light (26°35′N, 120°06′E).
Jiabei Light (26°43′N, 120°10′E).
Xitai Shan Light (27°01′N, 120°42′E).
2
Yuan Yu Light (26°22′N, 119°58′E).
Xiaoyu Shan Light (26°56′N, 120°17′E).
Wang Jiao Light (27°09′N, 120°33′E).
Jiaobei Dao Light (27°21′N, 120°38′E).
Lizhi Shan Light (27°41′N, 120°55′E).
3
DGPS:
Shitang (28°16′N, 121°37′E).
Directions for coastal route
(continued from 4.303)
5.36
1
From a position ESE of Dongyin Dao (26°22′N,
120°30′E) (4.303), the track leads NE, passing (with
positions from Ping Yu Light (27°25′N, 121°04′E)):
ESE of Sishuang Liedao (26°40′N, 120°21′E) (5.58),
thence:
ESE of Taishan Liedao (32 miles SSW) (5.59); a light
(5.53) is exhibited from Xitai Shan. Thence:
2
ESE of Qixing Dao (25 miles SSW), a group of
rocky islets 7 miles NE of Taishan Liedao; Xingzi
Dao, the SW and largest islet is 61 m high and
split in two. The above-water rocks at the N end
of the group are low and have a number of rocks
awash within 5 cables E and 1 mile W of them,
and it is therefore recommended that this group be
given a wide berth. Discoloured water has been
reported to the SE of the group. Lie Yan, 15 m
high, lies 3 miles NW of Qixing Dao. Thence:
3
ESE of Ping Yu Light (5.53) and Nanji (Nanjishan)
Liedao (close N) (5.60). A group of three
dangerous wrecks lie between 10 and 11 miles S
and SSW of Ping Yu Light; a further dangerous
wreck, position approximate, lies 10 miles SW
from the light.
4
The track then leads to a position ESE of Nanji Liedao
(27°28′N, 121°04′E).
(Directions continue at 5.55)
Directions for inshore route
(continued from 4.304)
Beijiao Bi to Lütou Wei
5.37
1
From a position E of Beijiao Bi (26°23′N, 119°57′E)
(4.304), the track leads generally NE passing:
SE of the entrance to Sansha Wan (5.7) and:
NW of Hei Yan (26°23′N, 120°05′E), a black rock
38 m high. Floating stakes attached by ropes to
CHAPTER 5
172
fish traps may be encountered W and SW of the
rock. A dangerous rock, with an obstruction about
5 cables SE, lies 6 miles ENE; the position of this
rock is stated to have been passed over on several
occasions without any indication of shoal water
having been seen. Thence:
2
SE of Xiyang Dao (26°30′N, 120°03′E), where
anchorage (5.44) may be obtained. A dangerous
wreck (not charted) lies 7 cables N of the N
extremity of the island. Xiaoxiyang Dao (26°33′N,
120°00′E), 2 miles NW of Xiyang Dao, is a small
island 86 m high joined by a sandy isthmus to an
islet, 104 m high, on its N side. The channel on
the SE side of Xiaoxiyang Dao is clear, but fishing
stakes may be encountered. Thence:
3
NW of Kuishan Dao (26°30′N, 120°08′E), rising to a
cone 236 m high, is the outer island of a group
lying on the N side of the approach. A light (5.53)
is exhibited from the S point of the island.
Banyang Jiao, with a depth of less than 1⋅8 m over
it, lies 1 mile SE of Kuishan Dao; a dangerous
wreck lies a farther 3 miles SE. Thence:
4
Through Xiaoan Shuidao (26°36′N, 120°07′E), the
channel between Fuying Dao and Lütou Wei,
2 miles NW, is deep and clear but fishing stakes
may be encountered. During the NE monsoon the
sea is very high N and W of Fuying Dao and
particularly outside the NE entrance to Xiaoan
Shuidao when the tide sets against the wind.
Thence:
5
NW of Fuying Dao (26°35′N, 120°08′E), lying with
its SW end 3 miles NE of Xiyang Dao; the
channel between is clear. Maci Dao (5.45), lies
7cables S of the SW end of Fuying Dao, where
anchorage (5.45) may be obtained. Nigu Yu, 220 m
high, lies close off the SE side of Fuying Dao to
which it is joined by a shallow ridge. Liu’er Dao,
an isolated rock 18 m high, lies 7cables NW of
the W end of Fuying Dao; a light (white
hexagonal concrete structure, 9 m in height, racon)
is exhibited from the rock. And:
6
SE of Changcao Yu (Cao Yu) (26°37′N, 120°06′E)
(5.47), where anchorage may be obtained, lies on
the N side of the channel 2 miles SW of Lütou
Wei; the passage NW of this island, in which there
is a rock 4 m high, should not be attempted. A
conspicuous bolder (Sphinx Head) (26°38′⋅6N,
120°02′⋅1E), 461 m high, is situated 3 miles NW
of Changcao Yu.
7
The track continues to a position SE of Lütou Wei (Shi
Jiao) (26°39′N, 120°08′E), a steep-sided headland. Between
Lütou Wei and Haiwei Jiao is a bay with Bijia Shan, an
island 207 m high, near its head.
Lütou Wei to Nanji Liedao
5.38
1
From the above position the track continues NE,
passing:
NW of a dangerous wreck (26°38′N, 120°13′E), the
position of which is approximate, thence:
SE of Haiwei Jiao (Dajin Jiao) (26°43′N, 120°09′E)
5 miles S of Changbiao Dao; some islets lie 1 mile
SE of the point. A light (5.53) is exhibited from
Jiabei, the NE islet. The bay between contains a
number of islets and dangers. Thence:
2
SE of a dangerous wreck (26°53′N, 120°15′E), lying
1miles SE of Bei’ao Dao, 139 m high, the
largest of a group of islets lying within 2 miles S
of Sansha Jiao; a light-beacon stands on an area of
foul ground on the N side of this group, 4 cables
S of Sansha Jiao. Thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (26°55′N, 120°25′E), the
position of which is approximate, reported in 1997,
and:
3
SE of Dayu Shan (26°57′N, 120°21′E), the largest
island of Fuyao Liedao (5.48) with a height of
541 m, lies E of Xiaoyu Shan from which it is
separated by a narrow passage in which the least
depths of 6 m are found in the approach to the
NW entrance; heavy squalls from the high land,
strong eddies, and the existence of fishing stakes
make this passage less desirable than the others. It
is suitable only for small vessels. Local knowledge
is required. Fishing stakes are also to be found
along the whole N side of Dayu Shan. The
mainland coast between Dayu Shan and Donggua
Yu 8 miles NNE is indented by three irregular
bays which have not been fully surveyed. Thence:
4
NW of Xixing Dao (26°59′N, 120°28′E), the NW
islet which is 53 m high, where anchorage may be
obtained (5.49) and Dongxing Dao, which together
with their off-lying rocks, form a small group
known as Qixing Liedao 5 miles ENE of Dayu
Shan (5.38). Dongxing Dao, the E islet, is 68 m
high. Thence:
5
SE of Ri Yu (Riyue Yu) (27°01′⋅5N, 120°25′⋅1E),
60 m high with a reef extending 2 cables E of it,
lies 3 miles NW of Xixing Dao. Three dangerous
wrecks, lie within 2 miles NE and NW of the
rock. The NE-most wreck has a swepth depth of
7⋅3 m over it; the NW-most wreck a swept depth
of 4⋅7 m; and the wreck 1 miles NE of Ri Yu
has not been located by sweeping. Thence:
6
SE of Donggua Yu (27°06′N, 120°25′E), an island
separated from the mainland by only a narrow boat
channel in the centre of which there is a small
islet, thence:
7
SE of a rock lying 7cables SE of Beiguan Dao
(27°10′N, 120°31′E) (5.40), linked to the mainland
1 mile NW by a chain of rocks and islets. A
dangerous wreck, position approximate, reported in
1995, lies 1miles farther SE. Fishing stakes
obstruct the S part of the passages between the
rocks and islets. Wang Jiao, an above-water rock,
with a rock awash close NW of it, lies 1 mile E of
the S point of the island; a light (white stone
masonry cylinder, 13 m in height, racon) is
exhibited from Wang Jiao. A 2 m shoal
(27°08′⋅2N, 120°30′⋅4E), lies 10 cables SW of
the S point of Beiguan Dao. Jixingwei Dao, an
islet with a rock awash off its E end, lies close off
the E extremity of the island. Thence:
8
SE of Beiguan Dao (27°10′N, 120°31′E) lies 4 miles
ENE of Fuijian Tou; Nanguan Dao, from where a
light (stone masonry column, black and white
bands, 10 m in height) is exhibited from Dongbi
Tou, the SE extremity, lies midway between.
9
NW of Shangma’an Dao (Shangmaanshan) (27°27′N,
120°58′E) (5.60).
The track then leads to a position WNW of Nanji
Liedao (27°28′N, 121°04′E).
(Directions continue at 5.56)
CHAPTER 5
173
Anchorages and harbours
Funing Wan
5.39
1
Description. Funing Wan (26°52′N, 120°06′E), entered
between Changbiao Dao (26°48′N, 120°09′E) and Sansha
Jiao, a point 7 miles NNE, is shoal and has a number of
islets and rocks in it. The town of Xiapu (26°54′N,
120°01′E) stands at the head of the bay. The village of
Sansha (26°55′⋅0N, 120°12′⋅5E), close W of the N entrance
point, is a fishing centre. A bay, which mostly dries, on the
E side of the village has several jetties. A light is exhibited
from the head of a breakwater extending ESE for 275 m
from the E side of the bay; a light-buoy (starboard hand) is
moored cable SSE of the breakwater head marking the
W end of a drying patch in the centre of the bay.
2
Fishing stakes will be found NE and up to 2 miles SE
of the Haiwei Jiao.
3
Anchorages. With local knowledge, sheltered anchorage,
during either monsoon, can be obtained in depths from 3 to
4 m between the N end of Bijia Shan and a small sandy
cove to the W; great care is necessary as the bay may
contain uncharted dangers.
4
Good anchorage can be obtained off Sansha in a depth
of about 12 m with the N entrance point of the bay bearing
043° distant 3 cables. In 1931, HMS Sepoy, after passing
5 cables N of Bei’ao Dao on a W course, approached the
anchorage off Sansha, steering 003°, with an islet close
inshore, having a ruined castle on its summit, just on the
port bow.
Shacheng Gang
5.40
1
Description. Shacheng Gang (27°10′N, 120°24′E), is
entered between Fujian Tou, a steep-to promontory, and the
SE extremity of a high peninsula 9 cables N; a line joining
these points is the harbour limit. The entrance is sheltered
by the islands lying to the E. The inlet is narrow and
winds through mountainous terrain in a general NW
direction for some 13 miles, and then appears to expand
into a wide, unsurveyed basin. The harbour affords shelter
in a typhoon. The town of Shacheng stands on the NW
side close within the entrance.
2
Depths in the fairway through the entrance are generally
deep, but irregular, and several shoal depths from 9⋅1 to
12⋅8 m have been reported.
3
Fishing nets may be encountered in the harbour
approaches and entrance at any time of the year; the
harbour itself is greatly obstructed by nets and bamboo
moorings laid for sampans.
4
Local knowledge is required.
5
Directions. From a position on the inshore route SE of
Donggua Yu (27°06′N, 120°25′E), the track leads NW,
passing:
6
Clear of a dangerous wreck (27°07′N, 120°28′E)
reported in 1991, thence:
NE of Fujian Tou, a steep-to promontory, from where
a light (white stone masonry column, 9 m in
height) is exhibited, and
7
Close off the W side of the SW point of the
peninsula on the N side of the entrance is an islet,
formerly named Bate Islet, with a drying reef
extending 2 cables NW from it. An islet, formerly
named Tree Islet (27°11′⋅2N, 120°23′⋅4E) lies in
the middle of the inlet at the edge of a mudbank
which extends from the E side of the harbour; the
fairway passes W of this islet. Another islet,
Kin-sho (27°13′⋅5N, 120°23′⋅0E) lies near the
middle of the fairway and has a reef 1 cables off
its E side; 4 miles higher up the inlet, the
fairway is almost obstructed by another islet which
also has dangers lying 2 cables off its E side.
8
Anchorages. Good anchorage can be obtained during
the NE monsoon, by vessels with a draught of less than
4⋅6 m, between Beiguan Dao (27°10′N, 120°31′E) (5.38)
and Nanguan Dao; care must be taken to avoid a 2 m shoal
SW of Beiguan Dao and a dangerous wreck, not charted,
lying 5 cables S of Dongbi Tou.
9
Anchorage can also be obtained off the W side of
Nanguan Dao in depths from 12⋅8 to 16⋅5 m. Depths shoal
rapidly close N of this anchorage and the bay farther N is
very shallow.
10
Within the harbour, anchorage can be obtained NE of
Bate Islet in a depth of 26 m, clear of an 8⋅2 m shoal
reported (1908) to lie in the fairway 7 cables NW of the
islet. Small vessels can anchor from 2 to 6 cables SE of
Tree Islet in depths from 5⋅8 to 9⋅1 m, mud.
11
Berths. Ten piers within the harbour are able to
accommodate vessels up to 1000 dwt.
Dayu Wan
5.41
1
Dayu Wan the N-most and larger of two bays is entered
between Dingcao Yu (27°14′⋅6N, 120°33′⋅2E), an island
103 m high lying close off the coast, and Dayu Jiao,
8 miles NNE. To the NW of a line between Dingcao Yu
and Dayu Jiao, depths are less than 5 m and much of Dayu
Wan dries. Dangers extend 2cables S of Dayu Jiao, and
Jiaobei Dao, a small islet, lies 1 miles S of the point; a
light (black hexagonal stone masonry column, 10 m in
height, racon) is exhibited from the islet. Guanshan Dao
lies in the middle of the entrance to Dayu Wan; an area out
to 3 cables from the NW coast of the island dries. A
light-beacon stands 6 cables N of Guanshan Dao.
Charts 1721, 1759 (see 1.18)
Aojiang Kou and Feiyunjiang Kou
5.42
1
Description. Pingyang Zui (27°28′⋅5N, 120°41′⋅0E),
from where a light (5.34) is exhibited, is the NE extremity
of a bold headland on the S side of a bay through which
Ao Jiang reaches the sea. Pipa Shan lies close inshore
2 miles NW of Pingyang Zui; from it a chain of small
islets extends 6 miles NE. A light (metal framework tower
on white stone masonry square, 5 m in height) is exhibited
from Shangtou Yu (27°33′⋅4N, 120°43′⋅0E) and from Si Yu
(Tou Yu) (metal framework tower on white stone masonry
square, 3 m in height) (27°35′⋅1N, 120°44′⋅9E).
2
To the W of the chain of islets the coast recedes to form
a bay which mostly dries and is obstructed with fishing
stakes and several stranded wrecks. Light-buoys mark the
channel through Aojiang Kou which is navigable with the
tide by vessels drawing up to 3 m. On the N side of
Aojiang Kou, a light (4 m in height) is exhibited from
Yangyu Shan (27°35′⋅6N, 120°38′⋅9E). There are towns on
both banks of the river within the entrance, where there are
over 40 berths; anchorage and fuel can be obtained.
3
Feiyunjiang Kou (27°40′N, 120°43′E) is entered 10 miles
NNE of Pipa Shan; there are depths of less than 1 m across
the bar which is liable to change. Light-buoys in the
channel are moved accordingly. Nanlou Jiao, with a depth
of 1⋅4 m over it, lies 1 mile SSW of Chitou Shan (5.62) in
the direct approach to Feiyunjiang Kou. Vessels with a
draught of 3⋅7 m can ascend Feiyun Jiang at HW for
5 miles and anchor off the town of Rui’an Shi (Ruian), an
important commercial and fishing port, which stands on the
CHAPTER 5
174
N bank and where there are over 20 berths. A bridge spans
the river a short distance below the town; the vertical
clearance beneath the bridge is not known.
4
Prohibited anchorage. A corridor in which anchoring is
prohibited crosses the river close S of Rui’an Shi above the
bridge; beacons on each shore mark the limits.
Anchorage. See 5.62.
Minor anchorages
5.43
1
Small vesselst may obtain anchorage off the islands N of
the entrance to Sansha Wan given from 5.44 to 5.49. Local
knowledge is required.
Adjacent islands
Xiyang Dao
5.44
1
Anchorage during the NE monsoon can be obtained off
the N part of a bay on the W side of Xiyang Dao
(26°30′N, 120°03′E) 221 m high, in depths from 2 to 10 m,
mud. Fishing stakes may be encountered N and S of the
island. Anchorage is not recommended in winds greater
than force 4 from SW to NW. Mariners should note there
is a dangerous wreck (not charted) in the N part of the
bay; the S part lies within a cable corridor where anchoring
is prohibited (5.12).
2
An inlet on the N side of Xiyang Dao provides good
shelter during the SW monsoon, in depths from 2 to 5 m,
mud. Larger vessels can anchor off the mouth of the inlet.
A fishing vessel anchorage is found on the S side of
Xiyang Dao, sheltered from NE winds; in S winds a swell
sets in and the bay is untenable. A steep-to rock 8 m high
stands in the centre of the entrance to the bay and can be
passed on either side.
Maci Dao
5.45
1
Anchorage may be obtained in an inlet on the W side of
Maci Dao (26°32′N, 120°08′W), 257 m high, in depths
from 2 to 4 m, mud. It provides shelter from winds from
NE to SE.
Fuying Dao
5.46
1
General information. Fuying Dao (26°35′N, 120°08′E),
has two remarkable peaks near its NE end, the higher
being 365 m. An inlet in the centre of the NW side of the
island provides temporary shelter from NE winds; care
should be taken to avoid fishing nets when entering and
departing.
Anchorage. In the NE monsoon, good anchorage can be
obtained in a depth of 12⋅8 m, mud, SW of Fuying Dao
sheltered from the E swell by Maci Dao (above), and Nigu
Yu (5.37).
Changcao Yu
5.47
1
Changcao Yu (Cao Yu) (26°37′N, 120°06′E), is 52 m
high. In the NE monsoon small vessels can obtain sheltered
anchorage off a sandy bay on the mainland coast 1 miles
NW of Changcao Yu.
Fuyao Liedao
5.48
1
Description. Fuyao Liedao (26°57′N, 120°20′E) is a
group of islands extending 9 miles E from Sansha Jiao
(5.39). Huofengmen Shuidao, a narrow passage somewhat
obstructed by rocks in the S entrance and with a least
depth of 6⋅6 m in the fairway near the S entrance, separates
Huofeng Dao, the W island rising to 155 m in its NW part,
from the mainland. There are several light-beacons through
the passage, which is used by small vessels. Local
knowledge is required. A bar, with a least depths of 3 m,
extends N from the NE extremity of the W island. Several
jetties extend from the mainland side of the passage.
2
Xiaoyu Shan (26°56′N, 120°18′E) is separated from
Huofeng Dao by Chubimen Shuidao, a passage 7cables
wide; a group of low rocks restrict the S entrance of this
passage to a width of 5 cables. The main passage passes
NE of Zhupai Dao, the N-most of these rocks. A
conspicuous light-beacon (white concrete square, 9 m in
height) stands on Zhupai Dao. A light (white hexagonal
concrete structure, 9 m in height) is exhibited from the W
extremity of Xiaoyu Shan. This passage is frequently used
by vessels drawing 5 m.
3
Tidal streams in Chubimen Shuidao set S on the rising
tide, and N on the falling tide, at rates of 1 to 2 kn.
4
Anchorages. There is good typhoon anchorage for one
vessel in the S part of Huofengmen Shuidao in a depth of
16⋅5 m.
Good anchorage is reported about 1 mile W of Dayu
Shan (5.38), sheltered from winds from NE to SE, where
the depths are about 5 m, mud and sand.
HMS Sepoy obtained good anchorage with the E point
of Dayu Shan bearing 180°, distant 1 mile, in a depth of
about 7 m.
Xixing Dao
5.49
1
In the NE monsoon, anchorage can be obtained off
Xixing Dao (26°59′N, 120°28′E), in a depth of 11 m, mud,
2 cables off the SW side; the alignment (058°) of white
masts, lead towards the anchorage.
There is also anchorage NW of the same islet in a depth
of 12⋅8 m; the anchorage is defined by the intersection of
two pairs of marks, surmounted by shapes, situated E and
W of a disused lighthouse.
NANJI LIEDAO TO WENZHOU WAN
General information
Charts 1721, 1754, 1759
Routes
5.50
1
Coastal. From a position ESE of Nanji Liedao (27°28′N,
121°04′E), the route leads NE and N, for about 31 miles to
a position NE of Hutou Yu (27°50′N, 121°15′E).
2
Inshore. From a position WNW of Nanji Liedao
(27°28′N, 121°04′E) the route leads generally NE for about
32 miles to a position NE of Hutou Yu (27°50′N,
121°15′E). This route is for small or low-powered vessels
making passage against the NE monsoon.
Topography
5.51
1
Between Shacheng Gang (27°10′N, 120°24′E) and the S
approach to Wenzhou Wan (27°55′N, 121°12′E) (5.63)
50 miles NE, the coast in the S part is very broken and
backed by a coastal range; in the N part the mountains
give way to coastal plains in the vicinity of Ao Jiang
(5.42) and Feiyun Jiang (5.42).
CHAPTER 5
175
Depths
5.52
1
Depths along the coastal through route exceed 30 m
until the approach to Wenzhou Wan (27°55′N, 121°12′E).
Principal marks
5.53
1
Landmark:
Heding Shan (27°19′⋅2N, 120°27′⋅3E).
Major lights:
Dingcao Yu Light (27°15′N, 120°34′E) (5.34).
Pingyang Zui Light (27°29′N, 120°41′E) (5.34).
Ping Yu Light (27°25′N, 121°04′E) (5.34).
Beiji Dao Light (27°38′N, 121°12′E) (5.34).
2
Donggua Yu Light (27°38′N, 121°03′E) (5.34).
Hutou Yu Light (white 4-sided concrete pyramid, 8 m
in height) (27°50′N, 121°15′E).
Beiyuan Yu (Yuan Yu) Light (white conical masonry
structure, 10 m in height) (27°56′N, 121°13′E).
Xialangdang Dao (Xialangtang) Light (white concrete
structure, red stripes, 9 m in height) (28°04′N,
121°32′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.54
1
Racons:
Kuishan Dao Light (26°29′N, 120°08′E).
Liu’er Dao Light (26°35′N, 120°06′E).
Jiabei Light (26°43′N, 120°10′E).
2
Xitai Shan Light (27°01′N, 120°42′E).
Yuan Yu Light (26°22′N, 119°58′E).
Xiaoyu Shan Light (26°56′N, 120°17′E).
Wang Jiao Light (27°09′N, 120°33′E).
Jiaobei Dao Light (27°21′N, 120°38′E).
Lizhi Shan Light (27°41′N, 120°55′E).
3
DGPS:
Shitang (28°16′N, 121°37′E).
Directions
Coastal route
5.55
1
From a position ESE of Nanji Liedao (27°28′N,
121°04′E), the track leads NE, passing (with positions from
Ping Yu Light (27°25′N, 121°04′E)):
SE of Beiji (Beijishan) Liedao (13 miles NNE)
(5.61).
2
The track then leads N and continues to a position about
3 miles NE of Hutou Yu (26 miles NNE), from where a
light (5.53) is exhibited.
(Directions continue at 5.117 and for
Wenzhou Wan at 5.67)
Inshore route
5.56
1
From a position WNW of Nanji Liedao (27°28′N,
121°04′E), the track leads generally NE passing:
Between Beilong Shan (27°40′N, 120°58′E) (5.62)
and Donggua Yu, 4 miles SE, thence:
NW of Tie Jiao, 23 m high, thence:
NW of Niu Jiao (27°45′N, 121°06′E), thence:
2
NW of Nance Dao (27°46′N, 121°08′E), 182 m high.
It is separated from Beice Dao, close N by a very
narrow passage blocked by a barrier of fixed
fishing nets, and has a number of dangers within
2 miles S and SW of it. Dongce Dao, 178 m high
and close E of Nance Dao, is the SE island of this
group with a number of islets within 2 miles SE
of it; a light (white 4-sided concrete pyramid, 9 m
in height) stands on Xiawu Jiao, the outermost
islet, 3 m high. And:
3
SE of Daqu Dao (Daqushan) (27°47′N, 121°05′E),
239 m high, is the S-most and largest of the three
islands extending 2 miles S of the W end of
Dongtou Dao (Dongtoushan). The SE side of the
island is cliffy.
4
The track then leads through Dongbei Men (27°47′N,
121°08′E), a deep passage, or instead, with local
knowledge, a small vessel can use Dongtou Xia (27°52′N,
121°08′E) (5.68). The track for Dongbei Men leads ENE,
passing:
SSE of the S extremity of Banping Dao. Heiniu Wan
(5.78), lies 2 miles W, and:
5
NNW of Beice Dao, the N-most of a group of four
islands. Beice Dao has a spit, on which there are
depths of less than 5 m, extending 6 cables W
from it. A light (white hexagonal stone masonry
pyramid, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the N
point of the island.
6
The track then leads NE, passing:
SE of Dongtou Dao (27°50′N, 121°09′E) (5.64), and:
NW of Chi Jiao (27°40′N, 121°02′E). Dazhu Yu
(Dazhushan) lies close SE, thence:
SE of a rocky patch with a depth of 3 m over it,
thence:
SE of of Ao Jiao, and:
7
NW of Yuan Yu and Bi Yu. By night a vessel may
prefer to proceed seaward ogf theese dangers
passing SE of Dazhu Yu and E of Hutou Yu
(27°50′N, 121°15′E) (5.64).
The track then leads to a position NE of Hutou Yu
(27°50′N, 121°15′E).
Alternative route
5.57
1
An alternative route from Shangma’an Dao (above)
passes SE of Donggua Yu (27°38′N, 121°03′E), with that
island bearing 248° astern, the track passes SE of Beibai
Yu (27°43′N, 121°11′E) (5.61), taking care to avoid a
dangerous wreck 1⋅4 miles ESE of the islet. The track then
leads to a position NE of Hutou Yu.
(Directions continue at 5.118 and for
Wenzhou Wan at 5.67)
Adjacent islands
Sishuang Liedao
5.58
1
Description. Sishuang Liedao (26°40′N, 120°21′E) is a
group of islets and rocks lying 9 to 14 miles E of Lütou
Wei (5.37). The S danger of the group is Nanquan Dao
(26°37′⋅5N, 120°19′⋅5E), 47 m high; a wreck (not charted)
lies S of this rock within the 20 m depth contour.
Nanshuang Dao, 1 miles NE of Nanquan Dao, is 185 m
high; Dongshuang Dao, 2 miles farther NE is 104 m high
and has a reef, marked by breakers, 2cables E of its NE
point. Beishuang Dao, 140 m high and the largest in the
group, lies 4 miles NE of Nanquan Dao.
CHAPTER 5
176
2
The W-most islets of the group range in height between
37 and 105 m.
Fishing. There are fishing stakes to the N of Beishuang
Dao and heavy concentrations of fishing nets will be
encountered in the area between the islets, particularly in
the spring months.
Tidal streams, which are weak in the vicinity of the
islands, set W on the rising tide and E on the falling tide.
3
Anchorage may be obtained in a small cove on the SW
side of Beishuang Dao, which affords shelter to small
vessels from NE winds in depths of over 5 m, mud. There
is a mooring buoy in the cove. Local knowledge is
required.
Anchorage may be obtained in an inlet on the W side of
Dongshuang Dao affording shelter from NE winds in
depths of over 5 m, mud. Local knowledge is required.
Also in inlets on the NE and S sides of Nanshuang Dao
affording shelter to small vessels from prevailing winds.
Taishan Liedao
5.59
1
Description. Taishan Liedao (27°00′N, 120°42′E),
consists of two islands and a number of rocks. Dongtai
Shan, the SE island, has a table top summit 168 m high.
Rocks up to 29 m high extend for 5 cables from the NE
point of Xitai Shan, the NW island; a light (5.53) is
exhibited from the NW part of the island. Nanchuan Yu, a
small islet 63 m high, lies 5 cables S of the same island.
Above and below-water rocks extend 2 miles W of Xitai
Shan, and Beibanyang Jiao, a reef awash, lies 4 miles
NW of the island
2
Nan Yu, a rocky islet 90 m high, lies 2 miles SSW of
Dongtai Shan; a shoal patch of 11⋅6 m lies 2 miles SW of
Nan Yu. Xian’e Jiao (26°51′⋅5N, 120°32′⋅5E), 9 miles
WSW of Nan Yu, is 4 m high.
Fishing. Fishing stakes may be encountered in the
passage between Dongtai Shan and Xitai Shan.
Nanji (Nanjishan) Liedao
5.60
1
Description. Nanji Dao (Nanjishan) (27°28′N,
121°04′E), 228 m high in its W part, is the largest island of
Nanji (Nanjishan) Liedao; several islets lie within 2 miles
of its NE and SW sides. A light (5.53) is exhibited from
the S point of Ping Yu, an islet on the S side of Nanji
Dao.
2
Xiama’an Dao (Xiamaanshan), 88 m high, 3 miles SW
of Nanji Dao, lies at the SW edge of a considerable area of
foul ground. Shangma’an Dao (Shangmaanshan) is a small
conical islet lying 4 miles W of Nanji Dao; a rock, 8 m
high, lies 7cables farther W. A light (white round stone
column, black bands, 10 m in height) stands on the summit
of Shangma’an Dao.
3
Lüying Jiao (Luo Yan) (27°20′⋅5N, 120° 59′⋅0E),
7 miles SW of Nanji Dao, is 38 m high and appears as
two islets. Several dangerous wrecks lie within 7 to 8 miles
SSE of Lüying Jiao
4
Fishing stakes have been observed extending about
5 miles E from the E side of Nanji Liedao.
Tidal streams in the vicinity of the islands set NW on
the rising tide, and SE on a falling tide, at rates of about
1 kn.
5
Anchorage may be obtained for small vessels in Nanji
Gang, a bay on the SE side of Nanji Dao, in depths of
about 13 m, but a swell rolls in during the NE monsoon
and also with SE winds. Two bays on the NW side of the
island afford anchorage with calmer conditions, and are
frequented by local craft.
6
Anchorage can also be obtained, in depths of about 9 m,
off the SW side of Nanji Dao, where the coast is steep-to.
Berths. There are jetties on the S side of the N-most
bay.
Beiji (Beijishan) Liedao
5.61
1
Description. Beiji Dao (Beijishan) (27°38′N, 121°12′E),
122 m high, is the largest island of Beiji (Beijishan) Liedao
and lies 10 miles NE of Nanji Dao (5.60); a light (5.53) is
exhibited from a position close to the island’s summit.
Several islets, close together, lie within 1 mile SE of the
island, and other islets and rocks lie within 3 miles W
and 2 miles NW of Beiji Dao. Beibai Yu (Beibai), an
islet 31 m high, lies 4 miles N of Beiji Dao, and from it
a chain of islets and rocks extend 3 miles WSW.
2
Fishing. Many fishing nets are liable to be encountered
in the vicinity of Beiji Liedao.
Tidal streams in the vicinity of the islands set W on the
rising tide at about kn, and E on the falling tide at a rate
of about 1 kn.
Anchorage can be obtained in a bay on the NW side of
Beiji Dao, or in the bays formed by the SE side of Beiji
Dao and the islets close SE. Local knowledge is required.
Dabei Liedao and adjacent dangers
5.62
1
Description. Beilong Shan (27°40′N, 120°58′E), rising
to 202 m, is the E-most and largest island of Dabei Liedao,
a group of islands that extend W for 11 miles to
Feiyungjiang Kou (5.42). A light (white stone masonry
cone, 9 m in height) stands on the SW point of Beilong
Shan; a light (white concrete cone, 5 m in height) stands on
Lusi Jiao, an islet close off the N point of the island. A
chain of islets and rocks extend 2 miles from the W side
Beilong Shan.
2
Donggua Yu (27°38′⋅3N, 121°03′⋅3E), 4 miles ESE of
Beilong Shan, has a noticeable bluff at its W end, from
where a light (5.53) is exhibited. Islets and foul ground
extend 5 cables NW from Donggua Yu, and a rock with a
depth of 5 m lies 5 cables S of the islet.
3
Tongpan Shan, 4 miles NW of Beilong Shan, is the N
island of Dabei Liedao. A light (white round concrete
structure, red bands, 9 m in height, racon) is exhibited from
Lizhi Shan (27°41′N, 120°55′E), 2 miles SE of Tongpan
Shan.
4
Chitou Shan (27°39′N, 120°49′E), 135 m high, is the S
island of the W group forming Dabei Liedao; from it a
number of islands and islets extend 3 miles NNW to
within 2 miles of the coast, the largest of which is
Fenghuang Shan (27°41′N, 120°50′E), 183 m high. A light
(white 4-sided concrete pyramid, 3 m in height) is exhibited
from Nanchi Tou, the S point of Chitou Shan. A
light-beacon (isolated danger) marks Fenghuangdan, a rock
lying 4 cables SW of Shanggan Shan, the NW island of
the W group.
5
Tidal streams in the vicinity of the islands set NW on
the rising tide at a rate of about 1 kn, and SE on the
falling tide at about 2 kn.
6
Anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained, off the SW
side of Beilong Shan, in a depth of 12⋅8 m.
CHAPTER 5
177
Vessels awaiting the tide to enter Feiyun Jiang (5.42)
anchor off the SW of Fenghuang Shan within Hengdong
Shuidao, the passage between this island and Chitou Shan,
in depths from 2 to 4 m, mud; this anchorage provides
shelter from winds from NE to E.
7
Small vessels can obtain sheltered anchorage during the
NE monsoon, on the SW side of the group of islets
extending 2 miles SE of Tongpan Shan, in depths from 6⋅4
to 7⋅3 m. Local knowledge is required.
WENZHOU WAN AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 1721, 1763, 1759
Description
5.63
1
Wenzhou Wan (27°55′N, 121°05′E), lies across the
approach to Ou Jiang (5.81). The bay is obstructed with the
islands of the Dongtou Liedao group (5.67), through which
there are a number of channels. The river leads to the
important coastal trade centre of Wenzhou.
2
Wenzhou Wan is entered between Hutou Yu (25°50′N,
121°15′E) (5.67) and Nanpanshan Yu (5.118) 10 miles N.
Dongtou Yang is the sea area E of Wenzhou Wan.
Topography
5.64
1
West side. Dongtou Dao (Dongtoushan) (27°50′N,
121°09′E) is the largest island of Dongtou Liedao, which
extend W and NW for some 13 miles from Hutou Yu
(27°50′N, 121°15′E) (5.67). Dongtou Dao is irregular
shaped and 225 m high The town of Dongtou stands in the
centre part of the island.
Banping Dao (Banmianshan), 146 m high, lies close off
the S side of Dongtou Dao; an overhead cable spans the
narrow channel between.
2
North-east side. Luxi Dao (28°00′N, 121°11′E), a large
island 3 miles NW of Beiyuan Yu (Yuan Yu), rises to a
height of 233 m in its W part. Three islets, the E and
highest 37 m high, lie close together 3 cables SSE of the
S point of Luxi Dao; another group of islets and rocks,
including Cao Yu, lie close S and E of the E part of the
island.
3
North side. Damen Dao (27°58′N, 121°05′E) (5.80) is a
large, mountainous island bordering the N side of the
entrance channel to Ou Jiang.
Traffic regulations
5.65
1
Prohibited area. Entry is prohibited to an area close N
of Niyu Dao (Niyushan) (27°52′N, 121′03′E) (5.68), as
indicated on the chart.
2
Prohibited anchorages. A number of corridors, in
which anchoring and fishing are prohibited lie within
Wenzhou Wan and Dongtou Liedao, the positions of many
of which may best be seen from the chart. Additional
corridors (not charted) are as follows:
Dongtou Xia (5.68). From a position (27°50′⋅9N,
121°09′⋅0E) on the N side of Dongtou Dao NW to
a position (27°53′⋅1N, 121°07′⋅3E) on the SE side
of Zhuangyaun’ao Dao, 3 cables wide.
3
From the NW extremity of Zhuangyaun’ao Dao NW
to Qingshan Dao (27°55′⋅0N, 121°06′⋅5E), 3 cables
wide.
Heiniu Wan (5.78). From a position (27°49′⋅1N,
121°06′⋅8E) on the SW side of Dongtou Dao SW
for 1⋅2 miles, thence S for 2 miles, 2 cables wide.
Principal marks
5.66
1
Major lights:
Hutou Yu Light (27°50′N, 121°15′E) (5.53).
Beiyuan Yu Light (27°56′N, 121°13′E) (5.53).
Directions
(continued from 5.55 and 5.56)
5.67
1
From a position NE of Hutou Yu Light (27°50′N,
121°15′E), the line of bearing 309° of Dong Tou Light
(below) (27°58′N, 121°08′E) leads NW, passing (with
positions from Hutou Yu Light):
2
NE of Hutou Yu, the E-most island of Dongtou
Liedao (below); the island is 100 m high with
several islets extending 7 cables W and NW from
it. This group resembles Dazhu Yu (Dazhushan)
and its surrounding islets, 1 miles SW, and they
may be confused in thick weather. A light (5.53) is
exhibited from the summit of Hutou Yu. Dazhu
Yu, 79 m high, has foul ground, on which there
are several islets and rocks, extending 5 cables S
from its SW end. Thence:
3
NE of Dongtou Dao (3 miles WNW) (5.64). A
number of dangers lie within 7cables of the E
end of the island. Thence:
4
NE of Dasanpan Dao (4 miles WNW), lying off the
N end of Dongtou Dao. Baiwa Tou, a rock lies
close of the NE end of Dasanpan Dao from where
Baiwa Tou Light (white 4-sided concrete pyramid,
4 m in height) is exhibited. Huangan Dao, 5 cables
NW of Dasanpan Dao from which it is separated
by Sanpan Men (5.68), has a steep cliff on its E
side rising within to the summit of the island,
98 m high, with a prominent mound on it. Foul
ground extends 5 cables WSW of the island.
Thence:
5
SW of Beiyuan Yu (Yuan Yu) (6 miles N), 33 m high
and the SE-most of a group of islets lying on the
NE side of the approach to Ou Jiang; a light
(5.53) is exhibited from the summit. Dashan Yu
(Dashan), the largest islet of the group, lies
4 cables NW of Beiyuan Yu and from it a chain of
islets and rocks extends 7cables NE. Thence:
6
NE of Laoshu Yu (Laoshuweiba) (6 miles NW),
29 m high and the extremity of a narrow tongue of
land forming the NE extremity of Zhuangyuan’ao
Dao (Zhuangyuanao) (27°53′N, 121°08′E), 231 m
high. It is an irregular shaped island close NW of
Huangan Dao (5.67) from which it is separated by
foul ground and mudflats; two mounds close
together on its summit are prominent from E.
Thence:
7
NE of Dabijia Yu (Bijia Jiao) (27°55′⋅3N,
121°09′⋅8E), a remarkable, steep, jagged, dark
brown islet, 42 m high at its NE end; at a distance
it has the appearance of being split in the middle.
Yuan Yu (Yuanyu Jiao), 4 cables SW of Dabijia
Yu, is a brown, rocky islet, 18 m high.
(Directions continue for Yueqing (Leqing) Wan at 5.76)
When Dabijia Yu is aligned 235° with Yuan Yu, course
can be altered W into Bei Shuidao (5.81), passing:
8
N of Qingshan Dao (27°55′⋅0N, 121°06′⋅5E), 227 m
high and remarkable in appearance. From its E, N
CHAPTER 5
178
and W sides it rises gradually in long spurs until
nearly halfway to the summit, where it then rises
abruptly, the sides being rocky; on the S side the
ascent is more gradual and there are two shoulders
of lesser elevation. An islet, 47 m high, lies
2 cables E of Qingshan Dao; the passage
between is foul. Chongshan Shazui, a bank which
dries in places, extends 3 miles W from
Qingshan Dao. And:
9
S of Dong Tou, the E end of Damen Dao (5.80) from
where Dong Tou Light (white round concrete
structure, 10 m in height), is exhibited, thence:
To the pilotage and waiting anchorage (5.92).
(Directions continue at 5.104)
Side channels
Dongtou Xia
5.68
1
Description. Dongtou Xia (27°52′N, 121°08′E), with
extensive drying mudflats on both sides and only 3 cables
wide in places, lies between Dongtou Dao (5.64) to the S
and Zhuangyuan’ao Dao (27°53′N, 121°08′E) (5.67) and
Niyu Dao (below) to the N. It is approached through
Sanpan Men. The channel is suitable only for shallow
draught vessels.
Vertical clearance. An overhead cable, with a vertical
clearance of 39 m, spans Sanpan Men (below).
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. From a position NE of the entrance, the
track leads SW, passing:
NW of Dasanpan Dao (5.67), thence:
Through Sanpan Men, which is deep, however within
the entrance depths shoal quickly to less that 7 m;
at the W end of the channel there is a bar with a
depth of only 3⋅2 m. A light (3 m in height) is
exhibited from the NW point of Dasanpan Dao
(5.67).
3
NW of Meihua Jiao, a rock 2 cables W of the W
end of Dongtou Dao (5.64). A light (black
hexagonal concrete column, 12 m in height) is
exhibited from the rock. Thence:
4
SE of Niyu Dao (Niyushan) (27°52′N, 121′03′E), an
irregular shaped island lying 7cables SW of
Zhuangyuan’ao Dao (5.67); near its centre it rises
to a height of 330 m. The coastal bank fronting the
mainland extends to within 5 cables of the SW end
of Niyu Dao and on it are several islets and rocks,
the positions of which can best be seen from the
chart; there are a number of fishing stakes in the
vicinity. To the NW lies the shallow entrance to
Oujiang Nankou (5.81), the S arm of the river.
Anchorage can be obtained in Sanpan Men (27°52′N,
121°09′E), during the SW monsoon, off the N side of
Dasanpan Dao.
Sanpan Gang
5.69
1
Description. Sanpan Gang (27°52′N, 121°10′E), a
narrow boat channel, with depths of less than 2 m at the
SW end, lies between Dongtou Dao (5.64) and Dasanpan
Dao close N.
2
Overhead power cables, with a least vertical clearance
of 31 m, span the channel.
Anchorage. No 1 Anchorage (5.78).
Berth. Jetties on the N side of Dongtou Dao.
Shen Men
5.70
1
Shen Men (27°52′⋅3N, 121°05′⋅8E), a deep but narrow
channel which has depths of less than 2 m across its N
approach, separates the SW end of Zhuangyuan’ao Dao
(27°53′N, 121°08′E) (5.67) from Shenmenshan Yu lying
close SW. A light (white brick masonry square, 3 m in
height) is exhibited from the SW point of Zhuangyuan’ao
Dao; a light (white brick masonry square, 4 m in height) is
exhibited from a rock close N of Shenmenshan Yu. An
overhead cable spans the channel. Tidal streams in the
narrows are strong.
Nan Shuidao (Chongshan Shuidao)
5.71
1
Nan Shuidao (Chongshan Shuidao) is a channel between
the N sides of Zhuangyaun’ao Dao and Niyu Dao (5.68),
and the S side of Qingshan Dao and Chongshan Shazui
(5.67); several light-buoys mark the fairway through the
channel. An islet (27°54′⋅6N, 121°07′⋅4E), 10 m high and
fringed by foul ground, lies in the middle of Nan Shuidao
3 cables SE of Qingshan Dao; several above and
below-water rocks lie within 5 cables of the S shore of the
channel, which becomes shallow in its W part with general
depths of less than 5⋅5 m.
Da Men
5.72
1
Da Men separates the islands of Damen Dao (27°58′N,
121°05′E) (5.80) and Xiaomen Dao (5.76) to the NW. The
channel, entered from its E end through Huangda Xia
(5.76), is narrow and dries in places at its W end; Damen
Gang lies within. Overhead cables, with a least vertical
clearance of 27 m, span Da Men; fishing stakes obstruct its
E end, and an area enclosing fish traps lies at the SW end,
close W of Damen Dao.
Xiao Men
5.73
1
General information. Xiao Men is the channel between
Xiaomen Dao (28°00′N, 121°04′E) (5.76) and several islets
close N. The E part of the channel is deep and is entered
at its E end from Huangda Xia (5.76). The W end of the
channel shoals steeply and is obstructed with fishing stakes.
2
Berth. A jetty for liquid products, with a depth
alongside in excess of 20 m, lies on the N side of Xiaomen
Dao 2 cables W of Laoshu Wei, the N extremity of the
island.
Shatou Shuidao
5.74
1
Shatou Shuidao (28°00′N, 121°00′E) lies between the
mudflats fronting the mainland shore and two groups of
islets lying close N of Xiaomen Dao (5.76). It is shoalest
at its NE end, where there are depths in the fairway of less
than 3 m. Several light-buoys mark the N side of the
passage.
Yueqing Wan (Leqing Wan)
Chart 1721
General information
5.75
1
Description. Yueqing Wan (Leqing Wan) (28°08′N,
121°06′E), is entered between Wenzhou Jiao (27°58′⋅9N,
120°57′⋅4E) and Dayan Tou 11 miles ENE. The bay affords
one of the best anchorages for refuge on the coast of
Zhejiang Province.
2
The W side of Yueqing Wan is fronted by an extensive
shallow bank, a large part of which dries, but the E side is
CHAPTER 5
179
comparatively deep. Off the NW part of Yuhuan Dao
(below), the bay becomes an inlet extending 15 miles NNE
and is much obstructed with islets, drying banks and
shoals, through which narrow and shallow channels lead to
its head, giving access to several small harbours;
light-beacons mark the channels on the E side of the bay.
3
Topography. Yuhuan Dao (28°06′N, 121°12′E), rising to
361 m, is joined to the mainland NE by an embankment.
Fishing. Yueqing Wan is heavily obstructed with fishing
nets and stakes all year, and especially close to the
entrance to the bay.
Tidal streams at the mouth of Yueqing Wan set W on
in-going tide, and E on the out-going stream tide, at rates
of 1 to 1 kn.
Directions
(continued from 5.67)
5.76
1
From a position NE of Dabijia Yu (Bijia Jiao)
(27°55′⋅3N, 121°09′⋅8E) (5.67), the track leads NW,
passing:
SW of Baimutian Anjiao, a rocky patch with a depth
of 2⋅1 m over it, lying 6 cables SSW of the S point
of Luxi Dao (28°00′N, 121°11′E) (5.64).
Through Huangda Xia (27°59′N, 121°08′E), deep and
clear, marked by light-buoys, a channel between
Luxi Dao and Damen Dao, 1 miles W. Thence:
2
SW of Hengzhi Shan (28°01′N, 121°09′E), 123 m
high, lying near the extremity of a bank, with
depths of less than 6 m, extending 2 miles NW
of Luxi Dao. A stranded wreck lies on Yusan Jiao,
a rocky patch close off the W point of Hengzhi
Shan, from where a light (round concrete structure,
9 m in height) is exhibited. A rocky patch, with a
depth of 1⋅1 m, lies 2 cables E of the E end of
Hengzhi Shan. Thence:
3
NE of Xiaomen Dao (28°00′N, 121°04′E), a pagoda
stands on the summit.
The track then leads N into Yueqing Wan.
Useful mark:
Dayan Tou Light (white square masonry structure,
3 m in height) (28°02′N, 121°09′E).
Anchorages
5.77
1
Anchorages in Yueqing Wan are sheltered in typhoon
winds. Five designated anchorages are established (not
charted); Nos 1, 2 and 3 Anchorages lie in the N part of
Yueqing Wan, N of the W point (28°08′N, 121°08′E) of
Yuhuan Dao. A lighter anchorage lies between this point
and latitude 28°06′⋅3N, with depths from 12 to 20 m, mud.
2
No 5 Anchorage, with depths mostly between 10 and
14 m, mud, is established W of Damai Yu (28°05′N,
121°09′E) between latitudes 28°03′⋅5N and 28°05′⋅9N and
W to longitude 121°06′⋅6E. Fishing stakes lie within this
anchorage.
3
The area between the S side of Yuhuan Dao (28°06′N,
121°12′E) and Luxi Dao also forms a sheltered anchorage,
but mariners should note a cable corridor extending NNE
from Luxi Dao to Yuhuan Dao in which anchoring is
prohibited, as indicated on the chart.
Anchorages and harbours
Designated anchorages in Dongtou Liedao
5.78
1
Seven designated anchorages are established within this
island group as indicated on the chart:
No 1 — in Sanpan Gang (27°52′N, 121°10′E) (5.69).
No 2 and 3 — in Dongtou Xia (27°52′N, 121°08′E)
(5.68).
No 4 — NW of Daqu Dao (27°47′N, 121°05′E)
(5.64).
No 5 — between the SW part of Dongtou Dao
(27°50′N, 121°09′E), and the islets to the S.
No 6 — in Heiniu Wan (27°48′N, 121°07′E) (see
below).
No 7 — between Dongtou Dao (27°50′N, 121°09′E),
and Banping Dao (5.64).
Heiniu Wan
5.79
1
Description. Heiniu Wan (27°48′N, 121°07′E) between
Daqu Dao and Banping Dao, 2 miles ENE. The bay is
entered from E through Dongbei Men (5.56); vessels with
light draught can enter from the S.
Prohibited anchorage. See 5.65.
2
Anchorages. Good anchorage may be obtained in No 6
Anchorage, with depths between 8 and 30 m, sheltered by
Dongtou Dao to the N, but open to S and SW winds which
bring in a heavy swell; the bay gives shelter in a typhoon.
There is a mooring buoy in the N part of the bay. The NE
part is shallow.
3
Small vessels can obtain sheltered anchorage in deep
water off the SW end of Dongtou Dao in No 4 Anchorage.
Adjacent island
Damen Dao
5.80
1
Damen Dao (27°58′N, 121°05′E), a large, mountainous
island borders the N side of the entrance channel to Ou
Jiang; the steep ridge running the length of the island has
several high peaks. A peak, 2 miles W of Dong Tou, the E
extremity of the island, rises abruptly to an elevation of
337 m with a boulder on its summit, and is prominent.
Yandun Shan, 5 cables NNW of this peak, rises to 392 m
and is the highest point of the islands in the approaches to
Ou Jiang. The S side of Damen Dao between Dong Tou
and the S point (27°56′⋅6N, 121°05′⋅5E) of the island,
3 miles WSW, is bold and cliffy.
2
A small bay 5 cables WSW of Dong Tou affords shelter
to small vessels in the NE monsoon, but a heavy swell sets
in. A small bay close E of the S point (27°56′⋅6N,
121°05′⋅5E) of the island affords shelter for small vessels
off its E entrance point.
WENZHOU GANG AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 1763
Position
5.81
1
Wenzhou Gang (28°01′N, 120°39′E) is the harbour of
the city of Wenzhou which stands on the S bank of Ou
Jiang, 17 miles within the entrance. Vessels of about
20 tonnes can ascend the river for about 30 miles above
Wenzhou, and smaller craft can ascend for double that
distance.
Function
5.82
1
The city is a major economic and political centre in the
S of Zhejiang Province, with a population in 1998
approaching 600 000.
CHAPTER 5
180
Topography
5.83
1
For topography of the approaches see 5.64.
Port limits
5.84
1
The dividing line between the inner and outer harbour
areas is a line between Wenzhou Jiao (27°58′⋅9N,
120°57′⋅4E) and the E end of Lingkun Dao. The outer port
area includes much of Yueqiing Wan (5.75) and the
anchorages therein.
Approach and entry
5.85
1
The port is approached through Wenzhou Wan and
entered through Bei Shuidao (27°56′N, 121°07′E); thence a
buoyed channel leads to Oujiang Beikou.
Port Authority
5.86
1
Port Administration Office, 138 Maxingzeng Street,
Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang Province, China.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
5.87
1
The least charted depth (1998) in Oujiang Beikou is
4⋅2 m in the main fairway SW of Damen Dao (5.80). In
the river, charted depths between 3 and 4 m lie in the
fairway close off the SE of Qidu Tu (28°00′N, 120°46′E)
and in the fairway off the Jiangbei training wall
(28°02′⋅1N, 120°40′⋅4E).
2
Depths in Ou Jiang are liable to change; see also note
on chart. The port authorities should be contacted for the
latest information.
Limiting draught
5.88
1
Vessels drawing up to 4.6 m can enter Oujiang Beikou
and proceed to Wenzhou Gang at neaps; vessels drawing
5⋅5 m can do so at springs. See also Regulations
concerning entry at 5.92.
Vertical clearance
5.89
1
An overhead cable and Wenzhou Great Bridge span the
main fairway of Ou Jiang from the NE side of Qidu Tu
(28°00′N, 120°46′E); the least vertical clearance beneath
the bridge is 31 m. Where the bridge, which spans Qidu Tu
and both branches of the river, spans SW of Qidu Tu over
the Zhuangyuanqiao port district (5.98), the vertical
clearance is 13 m.
Mean tidal level
5.90
1
At Wenzhou Gang the mean spring range is about 4⋅2 m,
mean neap range about 2⋅2 m. For further details see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.91
1
Vessels of 10 000 dwt drawing 9 m can reach the
Longwan port district (5.98) at spring tides.
Arrival information
Port radio
5.92
1
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA
5.93
1
Send ETA 72 hours in advance, with daily updates
thereafter.
Outer anchorages
5.94
1
A waiting and quarantine anchorage lies S of Damen
Dao (27°58′N, 121°05′E), as indicated on the chart, in
depths from 7⋅4 to 9⋅3 m, mud with good holding. The
anchorage is sheltered from winds between NW and NE,
but a heavy swell sets in with winds between NE and SE.
No 30 Light-buoy (special) is moored near the centre of
the anchorage. Mariners should note that prohibited
anchorage corridors (see below) lie immediately W and S
of this anchorage, and that shoal depths of less than 3 m lie
within 5 cables of the SW corner. See also 5.78.
Pilotage
5.95
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels and is
available during daylight hours. Pilots board in the waiting
anchorage.
Tugs
5.96
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
5.97
1
Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring and fishing are
prohibited in a number of cable corridors within Ou Jiang.
Prohibited anchorage corridors lie N of Qidu Tu (28°00′N,
120°46′E), E of Yangfushan port district (28°01′N,
120°41′E) and between the city of Wenzhou (28°01′N,
120°39′E) and Jiangxin close N. These are indicated on the
chart.
2
Regulations concerning entry:
Draught. Vessels with draughts greater than 4 m must
await the tide before entering Oujiang Beikou.
Speed in the river W of Longwan Tou (27°58′⋅2N,
120°48′⋅1E), is 10 kn with the stream, and 8 kn
against; W of Yangfusan wharf (28°01′⋅4N,
120°42′⋅3E), the limit is 8 kn with the stream, and
6 kn against.
3
Traffic direction. Vessels over 1000 dwt may not
overtake when passing above or under-water
construction work, or in the restricted parts of the
river. Vessels of this size may not meet in these
sections; vessels with the stream have right of way.
Vessels should avoid overtaking, but where
necessary, the overtaking vessel must obtain
permission of the vessel to be overtaken, and that
vessel shall yield right of way until passed.
Harbour
General layout
5.98
1
There are five port districts (1998). The old port district
is that fronting the city of Wenzhou. To the E on the S
side of the river are Yangfushan district (28°01′N,
120°41′E), Zhuangyuanqiao district (27°59′N, 120°46′E)
CHAPTER 5
181
and Longwan district (27°58′N, 120°48′E). Qili district
(28°00′N, 120°53′E) lies on the N bank of the river
between Panshi and Huanghua.
Ferries
5.99
1
Ferries cross Ou Jiang in several places between
Huanghua and Wenzhou city. Numerous small vessels may
be encountered in the river going with the stream, often
heavily laden and with low freeboard, and some without
lights at night.
Storm signals
5.100
1
Storm signals are exhibited from a mast at Huanghua.
Tidal streams
5.101
1
The in-going stream near Qingling Yu (27°56′⋅6N,
121°04′⋅7E), has a maximum rate of 2 kn, the out-going
stream 2 kn. Above Qingling Yu the water changes from
clear and salt to muddy and brackish. Off the SW end of
Damen Dao the tidal stream is rotary and changes from
in-going to out-going gradually through N, and from
out-going to in-going through S; slack water lasts but a few
minutes.
2
In Wenzhou Gang the average duration of the in-going
is 4 hours, and that of the out-going, 7 hours; the tidal
streams continue for 38 minutes after the times of HW and
LW.
Freshets
5.102
1
During the freshet period of April to July, and after
heavy rains, the out-going stream sometimes sets for a
whole day at a rate of up to 6 kn, and for short periods
may attain 7 kn.
During freshets and a typhoon, buoys are liable to be
swept from their charted positions.
Local weather
5.103
1
Fog occurs on an average of 18 days per annum, usually
between November and April, with most frequency in
March and April.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.67)
Pilot to Wenzhou Jio
5.104
1
Caution. The navigable channel, both in the estuary of
Ou Jiang above the waiting anchorage and within the river
itself, is subject to frequent, and at times very rapid,
change. Buoys and beacons mark the navigable channel and
these are altered as necessary to conform with these
changes.
2
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding position N of
Qingshan Dao (27°55′⋅0N, 121°06′⋅5E) (5.67), the track
leads NW through the fairway, marked by buoys (lateral),
passing:
S of Damen Dao (5.80), and:
Between Damen Dao and the drying banks that
extend W for 4 miles from Qingshan Dao,
thence:
3
S of Qingling Yu (27°56′⋅6N, 121°04′⋅7E), an islet off
the S side of Damen Dao, has a pointed summit
45 m high.
S of Xiawuxian Zuitou (Huangda Zui), a point
4 cables SE of the SW extremity of Damen Dao
from where Xiawuxian Zuitou (Huangda Zui)
Light (white metal framework structure) is
exhibited.
4
The track then leads NW, passing:
Between Lingkun Qiantan (Wenzhou Qiantan)
27°55′N, 120°59′E), the drying bank extending SE
from Lingkun Dao (5.81), and Gao Sha (Sanjiao
Sha), the drying banks lying between the NW part
of Damen Dao and Wenzhou Jiao (27°58′⋅9N,
120°57′⋅4E) (5.81).
5
The track continues to a position SW of Wenzhou Ji o
(27°58′⋅9N, 120°57′⋅4E), and Lingkun Dao, a low
cultivated island surrounded by a seawall, 2 miles WSW. A
dyke connects the W extremity with the island with the
mainland 1 miles WSW, closing Oujiang Nankou, the
silted up S entrance of the river that passes S of Lingkun
Dao, the deepest part of the river follows the N bank
through Oujiang Beikou. Wenzhou Jiao Light (white round
concrete structure, 6 m in height) is exhibited from
Wenzhou Ji o. Small and medium size vessels may enter
and leave the river at Wenzhou Jiao using Shatou Shuidao
(28°00′N, 121°00′E) (5.68).
Wenzhou Jio to Wenzhou
5.105
1
From the above position the track leads W, passing:
S of Huanghua, a town on the N bank 1 miles
WNW of Wenzhou Jiao, and Qili port district
(5.98), where there is a power station.; this section
of the river, along which the shore is low, is not
buoyed, although there are several light-beacons on
the N bank; see 5.106. Thence:
2
S of the wall town of Panshi (28°00′N, 120°49′E),
7 miles W and berths at Panshi. From Panshi,
light-buoys again mark the fairway. The S shore of
the river is low, flat and cultivated and, like the N
shore, is generally fronted by a sea wall. Thence:
S of Panshi Jiao, a rock with a depth of 2⋅1 m over
it, thence:
3
N of Longwan Tou (27°58′⋅2N, 120°48′⋅1E), from
where Longwan Tou Light (white round concrete
structure, 6 m in height) is exhibited. Strong tidal
streams and eddies may be experienced in the
vicinity of Longwan Tou. Berths at the Longwan
port district lie E and W of Longwan Tou. Vessels
proceeding to the Zhuangyuanqiao port district
(5.98) continue W, passing clear of a dangerous
wreck, the position of which is approximate
4 cables S of Qidu Tu, a large island occupying
the centre of the river. Otherwise passage in the
river S of Qidu Tu is prohibited.
4
The track then leads N, passing between Longwan Sha
and another drying bank extending up to 4 cables ESE
from the SE part of Qidu Tu, keeping in the deepest part
CHAPTER 5
182
of the main channel along the E bank of the river, under
an overhead cable, with a vertical clearance of 35 m, and
the NE span (28°00′⋅9N, 120°46′⋅9E) of Wenzhou Great
Bridge (5.87).
5
After passing beneath the bridge, the track leads to the
opposite bank and leads WNW following the N side of
Qidu Tu, passing:
NNE of Qidu Zui, the NW point of Qidu Tu from
where Qidu Zui Light (6 m in height) is exhibited,
the track continues W, passing:
6
SSW of Laohu Yan dyke, to the S bank of the river
and the Yangfushan port district (5.98). Strong
tidal streams and eddies may be experienced W of
Qidu Zui. Laohu Yan dyke is marked by two
light-beacons (special, 6 m in height) and projects
6 cables S from the N shore 5 cables NW of Qidu
Zui.
7
The track then leads W, passing:
S of Yangfushan Sha (28°02′N, 120°42′E), thence:
S of the Jiangbei training wall, marked by four
light-beacons (special) extending 8 cables ESE,
from 28°02′⋅1N, 120°40′⋅4E, thence:
N of Wenzhou.
8
The track continues to a position S of Jiangxin Yu
(28°01′⋅8N, 120°38′⋅5E), an islet lying in mid-channel off
the W part of the city; from it a narrow bank, much of
which dries, extends nearly 1 mile E parallel to the shore
and close N of the berthing area. Xiang Yan Jetty, 160 m
long, extends SE from the E end of the islet; a light
(5.106) is exhibited from its head.
Useful marks
5.106
1
Qili Light (white square metal framework structure,
12 m in height) (27°59′⋅9N, 120°52′⋅8E).
Cangxia Light (white square metal framework
structure, 9 m in height) (27°59′⋅9N, 120°51′⋅0E).
Mati Shan Light (6 m in height) (28°00′⋅3N,
120°47′⋅4E).
Xiang Yan Jetty Light (red round concrete structure,
8 m in height) (28°01′⋅7N, 120°38′⋅7E).
Shizi Jiao Light (grey square stone structure, 7 m in
height) (28°01′⋅7N, 120°38′⋅4E).
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
5.107
1
Vessels anchor in the river between Huanghua and
Panshi (5.104) in depths from 5 to 13 m, both to work
cargo and for refuge, where the holding is good. Mooring
buoys off Panshi are for vessels of 10 000 dwt.
Anchorage may be obtained in No 3 Anchorage as
indicated on the chart W of Longwan Tou; and in No 4
Anchorage off Zhuangyuanqiao port district (5.98).
(Charting to be confirmed on NE 1763).
A mooring buoy is on the N side of river off Wenzhou
city.
Alongside berths
5.108
1
Wenzhou Gang has a large number of berths within Ou
Jiang between Huanghua and the city, including one for up
to 20 000 dwt vessel at Qili district and two for up to
10 000 dwt vessels at Longwan. Wenzhou old port has
berths for vessels up to 3000 dwt. The principal berths are:
Port district Length (m) Depth (m)
Qili − Panshi coal wharf 180 −
Longwan wharf 353 8⋅0
Petroleum Corporation wharf 143 6⋅4
Zhangyuan Fuel Corporation
coal wharf
110 5⋅6
Yangfushan coal wharf 185 7⋅0
Yangfushan coal and coke
wharf
118 9⋅3
No 5 wharf − old port 90 7⋅0
Port services
5.109
1
Repairs available; shipyards and dry docks for small
vessels.
Other facilities: hospitals; deratting.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel oil; provisions.
WENZHOU WAN TO XIANGSHAN GANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1721, 1759, 2412
Area covered
5.110
1
This section describes the coast and offshore islands
from Wenzhou Wan (27°55′N, 121°12′E) to Xiangshan
Gang (29°40′N, 121°50′E). It is arranged as follows:
Wenzhou Wan to Sheshan Dao (5.111).
Haimen Gang and approaches (5.126).
Sheshan Dao to Dawenchong (5.152).
WENZHOU WAN TO SHESHAN DAO
General information
Charts 1721, 1759
Routes
5.111
1
Coastal. From a position NE of Hutou Yu (27°50′N,
121°15′E), the coastal route leads NE for about 53 miles to
a position E of Sheshan Dao (28°32′N, 121°55′E).
Inshore. From a position NE of Hutou Yu (27°50′N,
121°15′E), the inshore route leads NE for about 51 miles to
a position W of Sheshan Dao (28°32′N, 121°55′E). This
CHAPTER 5
183
route is for small or low-powered vessels making passage
against the NE monsoon.
Topography
5.112
1
The coast between Wenzhou Wan (27°55′N, 121°05′E)
(5.63) and Haimen Gang, 50 miles NNE, is very irregular,
with several inlets, and fronted by numerous off-lying
islands and rocks.
Depths
5.113
1
The 20 m depth contour lies parallel to the general line
of the coast over this section and about 15 to 20 miles
offshore. The majority of the off-lying dangers lie within
this depth contour and some dangerous wrecks and
obstructions.
Mine danger area
5.114
1
A former mined area lies NE of Wenzhou Wan
(27°55′N, 121°05′E). See 1.4 and Appendix I.
Principal marks
5.115
1
Major lights:
Beiyuan Yu Light (27°56′N, 121°13′E) (5.53).
Xialangdang Dao Light (28°04′N, 121°32′E) (5.53).
Luo Yu Light (white 6-sided stone masonry column,
red stripes, 8 m in height) (28°16′N 121°44′E).
2
Dachahua Dao Light (white 6-sided stone beacon,
11 m in height) (28°39′N, 121°47′E).
Dongji Dao (Dongjishan) Light (white round stone
masonry tower, 10 m in height) (28°43′N,
121°56′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.116
1
Racons:
Beiyuan Yu Light (27°56′N, 121°13′E).
Luo Yu Light (28°16′N 121°44′E).
Dachahua Dao Light (28°39′N, 121°47′E).
Beiyu Shan Light (28°53′N, 122°16′E).
2
DGPS:
Shitang (28°16′N, 121°37′E).
Directions
Coastal route
(continued from 5.55)
5.117
1
From a position NE of Hutou Yu (27°50′N, 121°15′E),
the track leads initially NE, passing, (with positions from
Luo Yu Light (28°16′N 121°44′E)):
SE of Beiyuan Yu (27°56′N, 121°13′E) (5.67), thence:
SE of a dangerous wreck (28°02′N, 121°22′E),
position approximate, reported in 1999, thence:
2
SE of Xialangdang Dao (Xialangtang) (16 miles SW)
a small islet with another islet 42 m high, lying
close NW; a light (5.53) is exhibited from
Xialangdang Dao. Thence:
Clear of a former mined area (5.156), thence:
SE of a dangerous wreck (28°10′N, 121°38′E),
position approximate, reported in 1997. An
extensive area of fishing stakes may be
encountered NW of the wreck. Thence:
3
SE of Yisuan Dao (Yisuanshan) (5 miles SW), from
where a light (no description) is exhibited. Shuiniu
Jiao, a reef drying 4⋅9 m, lies 2 cables NE of the
islet. Sansuan Dao (5.118), lies 1 miles NW of
Yisuan Dao, with Ersuan Dao (Ersuanshan), 102 m
high, between. Thence:
4
SE of Daqi Jiao and Xiaoqi Jiao (1 miles SW), two
groups of above and below water rocks, thence:
SE of Luo Yu, an islet from where Luo Yu Light
(5.115) is exhibited. An obstruction, position
approximate, lies 15 miles ESE of the islet.
Thence:
5
SE of Xia Yu, 144 m (charted as 133 m) high, is
inhabited and the S islet of the S part of the
group, known collectively as Yangqi Dao. The islet
has cliffs on all but its N side and a prominent
yellow streak on its SE side. A remarkable stack,
45 m high, stands close off the S point of Xia Yu.
Zhong Yu and Shang Yu, 104 m high, lie 3 cables
and 1 mile, respectively, NW of Xia Yu; the
passage between them and Xia Yu is largely
obstructed by foul ground. Shang Yu has a number
of rocks off its NE and SE points. Nüxin Jiao,
which dries 3⋅6 m, lies 1 mile WSW of Shang Yu
with Lianzi Jiao, a rocky islet 4 m high, 6 cables
farther SW. Thence:
6
SE of Xiadachen Dao (Xiadachenshan), 228 m high,
the S-most of the two larger islands of the central
part of Taizhou Liedao; Zhu Yu, an islet 56 m
high, lies 4 cables W of the SW end of Xiadachen
Dao; the passage between is dangerous. Other
islets lie close S and SW of Zhu Yu, and foul
ground extends 1 cables E and 2 cables N of
its E end. Zhu Yu Light (white square masonry
structure, 9 m in height) is exhibited from the N
side of Zhu Yu. Xiaojiaotou Jiao is the N islet of
three that extend nearly 1 mile N from the E end
of Xiadachen Dao, the S-most islet being joined to
the E end by reclamation. Xiaojiaotou Jiao Light
(no description) is exhibited from Xiaojiaotou Jiao.
And:
7
NW of a dangerous wreck (28°24′N, 122°03′E),
position approximate, thence:
8
SE of Shangdachen Dao (Shangdachenshan), 207 m
high, lying N of Xiadachen Dao from which it is
separated by Dachen Shuidao, a channel about
7cables wide, where anchorage (5.120) may be
obtained. Foul ground extends 2 cables from the
NW, N and E sides of Shangdachen Dao. Several
islets lie within 5 cables S and 1 mile SW of the
island, the outer danger being Yumu Jiao, a reef
with a depth of 3⋅8 m over it, which lies 1 miles
SW of the SW extremity of Shangdachen Dao. A
dangerous wreck, existence doubtful, lies 1 mile
SSE of Yumu Jiao. The N part of Taizhou Liedao
comprise Sheshan Dao, 67 m high with two rocky
CHAPTER 5
184
islets close S; the islet lies 2 miles NE of the N
end of Shangdachen Dao. The channel between is
deep.
The track then continues to a position SE of Sheshan
Dao (28°32′N, 121°55′E).
(Directions continue at 5.160)
(Directions for entering Haimen Gang
are given at 5.145)
Inshore route
(continued from 5.56)
5.118
1
From a position NE of Hutou Yu (27°50′N, 121°15′E),
the track leads NE, favouring the N side of the passage,
passing:
SE of Beiyuan Yu (5.67), thence:
SE of Cao Yu (27°56′N, 121°13′E), from where a
light (white square concrete structure, 4 m in
height) is exhibited, thence:
2
SE of Nanpanshan Yu (Nanpanshan), 60 m high, lying
1 miles ENE of the E point of Luxi Dao (5.64);
Beipanshan Yu (Beipanshan), from where a light
(white square masonry structure, 4 m in height) is
exhibited, lies 2cables NE of Nanpanshan Yu
with three small islets between. Thence:
3
SE of Huangmen Shan (28°03′N, 121°15′E) (5.122),
and Nanpai Shan 1 miles ENE, lying close off
the S side of Yuhuan Dao; the islets are,
respectively, 136 m and 108 m high. The passage
NW of Huangmen Shan is about 1 cable wide and
has a least depth of 12⋅4 m; that N of Nanpai Shan
is 1 cables wide with a least depth of 7⋅8 m.
Thence:
4
SE of Kanmen Tou (28°04′⋅3N, 121°17′⋅4E) (5.122),
from where a light (white brick masonry square,
4 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
5
Between Qian Shan (28°03′⋅5N, 121°24′⋅5E) and Dalu
Shan, 1 miles N, 230 m high and the highest
island in the vicinity. Qian Shan, 88 m high, is the
N-most of a group of three islets, close together,
lying farthest SE from the entrance to Xuanmen
Wan (5.123). A light (white conical masonry
structure, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the W
end of Qian Shan. Several dangerous wrecks lie E
of Dalu Shan. Thence:
6
NW of Pishan Dao (28°05′N, 121°30E), the largest of
the group of islands lying farthest offshore from
Aiwan Wan (5.124); the island, 176 m high with
several rocks and islets within 5 cables of its
shores, lies 1 miles NW of Xialangdang Dao
(5.117). Xiaopishan lies 1 mile WNW of Pishan
Dao. Anchorage (5.124) may be obtained off
Pishan Dao. Thence:
7
SE of Dadongjing Dao (28°08′N, 121°29′E), lying
2 miles NW of Pishan Dao, a light (10 m in
height) is exhibited from Dadongjing Dao. A
dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies
1 miles SW of the island, and two dangerous
wrecks, positions approximate, lie close together
2 miles ENE of the islet. Thence:
8
SE of Wailongyan Jiao (28°12′⋅6, 121°33′⋅2E), a flat
rock about 5 m high, from where a light (white
conical masonry structure, 13 m high) is exhibited
A rock awash lies close SE. Aiwan Wan (5.124)
lies NW. Neilongyan Jiao, 12 m high, lies 1 mile
NNW. Thence:
9
NW of a dangerous wreck, position approximate,
lying 1 mile WSW of Sansuan Dao, thence:
NW of Sansuan Dao (Sansuanshan), (28°14′N,
121°38′E), 113 m high, thence:
Niushan Dao (28°17′N, 121°41′E), 164 m high, is the
largest of a group of islets; it is separated from
Latou Shan, 7cables farther NW, by Diaobang
Shuidao (Diaobang Men). A dangerous wreck,
position approximate, lies in the N approach to
Diaobang Shuidao 12 cables NW of Latou Shan. A
light (white hexagonal stone masonry column, 9 m
in height) is exhibited from the NW point of
Niushan Dao. Thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck, position approximate,
reported in 1999, thence:
10
SE of Xietou Dao (Heshangtou) (28°21′N, 121°40′E).
A dangerous wreck, position approximate, reported
in 1998, lies 1miles E. The coast for 14 miles
NNW is fringed by a shallow, and partly drying,
bank extending up to 6 miles offshore and on
which there are a considerable number of rocks
with heights up to 243 m. Reclamation has joined
some of the inshore islets to the mainland. Several
light-buoys and a light-beacon mark underwater
dangers. Thence:
11
SE of Jigu Shan (28°23′N, 121°43′E), cone-shaped
and 230 m high, with a broad yellow stripe on its
SE side which is an excellent landmark.
The track then leads N, passing:
12
E of Gui Yu (28°24′N, 121°43′E), 70 m high, with a
rock, 6 m high, 3 cables NNE of it, thence:
E of Mati Jiao (28°27′N, 121°41′E), a rock awash,
marked by a light-buoy (E cardinal). Liyubei Jiao,
a drying rock lies 3 miles farther NNW, is
marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger).
Thence:
13
To a position W of Sheshan Dao (28°32′N,
121°55′E).
(Directions continue at 5.161 and for entering
Haimen Gang are given at 5.145)
Taizhou Liedao
Chart 1721 and plan of Dachen Maodi, 1759
General information
5.119
1
Description. Taizhou Liedao (28°28′N, 121°53′E) a
group of islands lie off the SW approach to Taizhou Wan
(5.128). The village of Dachen stands in the centre of
Xiadachen Dao (Xiadachenshan).
Anchorages (5.120), in Dachen Shuidao (5.117), a
channel between the N and S islands of the group, are used
by vessels waiting to enter Haimen Gang (5.126).
2
Topography. Xia Yu (5.117) is the S islet of the S part
of the group.
Xiadachen Dao (5.117) is the S-most of the two larger
islands of the central part of Taizhou Liedao.
Shangdachen Dao (Shangdachenshan) (5.117), lies N of
Xiadachen Dao.
3
Fishing nets and stakes are prevalent in the areas around
Taizhou Liedao, and particularly across the W part of
Dachen Shuidao where they may be encountered year
round.
Submarine cables are laid across Dachen Shuidao.
4
Tidal streams in the central part of Dachen Shuidao set
SW at 1 kn on the in-going stream, and NE at 1 kn on
the out-going. In the SW end of the channel N of Zhu Yu,
CHAPTER 5
185
the in-going stream sets NW at 2 kn, and the out-going SE
at 1 kn.
5
Directions for anchorage. Foreign vessels using the
anchorages (below) should approach Dachen Shuidao from
a position on the coastal route SE of Sheshan Dao
(28°32′N, 121°55′E), thence the track leads SW in a
fairway 500 m in width, free of known dangers, between
28°29′⋅2N, 121°55′⋅5E and 28°27′⋅6N, 121°52′⋅8E.
6
Useful mark:
Gangpian Jiao Light (white conical stone tower, 9 m
in height) (28°28′⋅5N, 121°52′⋅3E).
Designated anchorages
5.120
1
There are designated anchorages in Dachen Maodi as
indicated on the chart, where the bottom is mud. These
anchorages are sheltered from winds between NW and NE,
and between SW and SE. A swell is experienced with SE
winds.
No 2 Anchorage, in two parts, is the W-most; the S
part centered on (28°27′⋅4N, 121°52′⋅5E) has depths
between 10 and 19 m. The quarantine and pilot boarding
facility is for vessels intending to enter Haimen Gang
(5.126).
2
No 3 Anchorage, for shallow draught vessels, lies in a
bay on the SW side of Shangdachen Dao, as indicated on
the chart.
No 4 Anchorage lies in the central part of Dachen
Shuidao, with depths from 22 to 25 m.
No 5 Anchorage lies in a bay at the NW end of
Xiadachen Dao.
Other anchorage
5.121
1
Anchorage can also be obtained in a bay in the SW part
of Xiadachen Dao, in depths from 7 to 9 m. Also off a bay
on the W side of Shangdachen Dao, in depths from 3 to
7 m.
Anchorages and harbours
Kanmen Wan
5.122
1
Description. Kanmen Wan (28°04′N, 121°15′E), a bay
on the SE side of Yuhuan Dao (5.75), is approached
between Huangmen Shan (28°03′N, 121°15′E) (5.118), and
Nanpai Shan 1 miles ENE, lying close off the S side of
Yuhuan Dao. A substantial fishing port is situated in the E
part of the bay.
2
Directions. From a position on the inshore route (5.118),
the track leads NW, passing:
NE of Beipanshan Yu (5.118), thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck, position approximate,
reported in 1993, thence:
3
Between Huangmen Shan and Nanpai Shan (5.118).
A rock, which dries 2⋅3 m, lies in the entrance
4 cables off the W end of Nanpai Shan, and a
1⋅5 m shoal patch lies 2cables S of the same
islet.
4
Anchorage. Kanmen Wan affords sheltered anchorage
for small vessels, but the space is limited as the head of
the bay is shoal.
Xuanmen Wan
5.123
1
Description. Xuanmen Wan (28°07′N, 121°19′E), is a
shallow bay entered between Kanmen Tou (5.118), the SE
point of Yuhuan Dao (5.75), and Zhaitou Jiao, 5 miles
NE; drying flats extend across the whole of the inner part
of the bay.
2
Ji Shan (Jiguanshan), 88 m high, lies in the entrance to
Xuanmen Wan, 2 miles WNW of Dalu Shan. The passages
between Ji Shan and Yang Yu (Yangyu Dao), 7cables
NE, and between the latter and Zhaitou Jiao, are foul.
3
Vertical clearance. An overhead cable, with a vertical
clearance of 28 m, spans the passage between Ji Shan and
Yang Yu.
Fishing stakes may be encountered in the approach to
Xuanmen Wan.
4
Local knowledge is required.
Useful marks:
A light (2 m in height) is exhibited from the W end
of Chongdan Yu, an islet 21 m high, lying
1 miles W of Zhaitou Jiao.
A light (5 m in height) is exhibited from the summit
of Yang Yu.
Anchorage can be obtained between Ji Shan and Dalu
Shan in depths from 5 to 7 m.
Aiwan Wan
5.124
1
Description. Aiwan Wan (28°15′N, 121°30′E), is entered
between Duan’ao Zui (28°10′⋅4N, 121°23′⋅2E) and Lutou
Zui (Liudou Zui), 11 miles ENE; the bay is generally
shallow with a drying flat extending about 2 miles
offshore.
2
Topography. Maocao Shan, 84 m high, is the S-most of
a group of islets lying close offshore 2 miles NNE of
Duan’ao Zui. Luoxing Shan, 113 m high, lies 7cables W
of Lutou Zui and is readily identifiable; Xiaoluoxing Shan
lies close W of it. A number of islets and rocks lie in an
area between 2 miles WNW and NW of Lutou Zui.
3
Fishing nets and stakes may be encountered anywhere
in the vicinity of the coast.
Tidal streams in Aiwan Wan set NW on the in-going,
and SE on the out-going, tide at a rate of 1 kn.
4
Directions. From a position on the inshore route (5.118)
the track leads into the bay noting Wailongyan Jiao
(28°12′⋅6N, 121°33′⋅2E) (5.118).
5
Anchorage, sheltered from NW to NE winds, can be
obtained in Aiwan Wan, NW of Neilongyan Jiao, in depths
from 4 to 5 m, mud. But the bay is otherwise exposed.
6
With local knowledge, small vessels can obtain
anchorage in the bay 1 miles E of Lutou Zui, in a depth
of 3 m, and on the N side of Pishan Dao (5.118), an island
in the S approach to Aiwan Wan, in about the same depth.
Anchorage can be obtained in the bay on the S side of
Pishan Dao, in a depth of 9 m, but mariners should note
foul ground extending about 4 cables SSW from the E
entrance point of this bay.
Dagan Wan
5.125
1
Description. Dagan Wan (28°27′N, 121°38′E), lies
6 miles N of Xietou Dao. The bay is shallow. The village
of Songmen, where there are several jetties for small
vessels, lies 3 miles W of Xietou Dao.
2
Fishing. The bay is obstructed by fishing nets, and
fishing stakes exist in the area extending E as far as
Taizhou Liedao (5.119).
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorages. Small vessels can obtain anchorage in
Dagan Wan, in depths from 2 to 4 m, mud, and in the bays
N and NW of Xietou Dao.
CHAPTER 5
186
HAIMEN GANG AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 1759
Position
5.126
1
Haimen Gang (28°41′N, 121°26′E) is situated within the
estuary of Jiao Jiang. Taizhou Shi (charted as Haimen), a
city with a population of about 430 000 in 1998, stands on
the S bank of the river; Qiansuo stands on the N bank.
Function
5.127
1
Haimen Gang is an important transhipment centre lying
in the central coastal area of Zhejiang Province. Principal
exports include processed foods, tools, chemical, medical
and health products, while the main imports are petroleum,
fertiliser, coal, cement, steel and machinery.
2
The rivers of Ling Jiang, from N, and Yongning Jiang,
from S, converge into Jiao Jiang at Sanjiang Kou (28°42′N,
121°19′E). These rivers are navigable by small vessels with
the tide. Linhai Shi (28°51′N, 121°07′E) is reached by Ling
Jiang, along which a number of light-beacons are
established at intervals, some 26 miles above Haimen Gang.
Huangyan (28°39°N, 121°15′E) is reached by Yongning
Jiang some 14 miles, above Haimen Gang.
Topography
5.128
1
Taizhou Wan (28°39′N, 121°38′E), fronted by numerous
islands in the approaches to the bay, indents the mainland
coast between Langji Shan (28°32′N, 121°37′E) and the
island of Baisha Shan, 84 m high, lying 10 miles N; Langji
Shan, a former island, is joined by reclamation to the
adjacent mainland. The coast around the bay is generally
low and marshy with drying flats extending up to 4 miles
offshore.
2
On the S side of Jiao Jiang entrance there is a cliffy
point 53 m high from which a ridge, 90 to 145 m high
extends 3 miles W; a light (5.141) is exhibited from the
shore below this point. A pagoda stands on Taihu Shan
(28°40′⋅4N, 121°27′⋅1E), close SE of the city. On the N
side of the entrance, a range of hills rises to 221 m
1 miles NNW of Zhong Shan, a summit 96 m high; a
pagoda stands on Xiaoyuan Shan 2 cables WSW.
Port limits
5.129
1
Port limits extend W from a line crossing the river
estuary at approximately the meridian of 121°28′⋅5E to
Sanjiang Kou (28°42′N, 121°19′E).
Approach and entry
5.130
1
Haimen Gang is approached from E through Taizhou
Wan in a channel leading through the flats at the head of
the bay, to the entrance to Jiao Jiang and entered across a
shallow bar.
Port Authority
5.131
1
Taizhou Port Administration Office, Harbour Office
Building, Jiang Bin Road, Jiao Jiang District, Taizhou
318000, Zhejiang Province, China.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
5.132
1
The least charted depth on the bar in the fairway is
1⋅8 m. The maximum draught in the channel is 6⋅8 m.
Data compiled by the Port Authority indicate that
vessels with a draught of 6 m may enter the port with the
tide on 240 days of the year, and those with draughts of
6⋅5 m on 180 days.
Tidal levels
5.133
1
Mean spring range about 4.9 m; mean neap range about
2⋅2 m. Tidal heights at the port are affected by rainfall
inland.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.134
1
Vessels of 10 000 dwt can enter the port in a lightened
state with the tide.
Swell
5.135
1
Swell may affect the bar during E winds and reach
heights of 2 m.
Arrival information
Port radio
5.136
1
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2)
Notice of ETA required
5.137
1
Send ETA 72 hours in advance, with updates thereafter.
Outer anchorages
5.138
1
No 1 Anchorage, waiting and quarantine, is centred on
28°39′⋅7N, 121°46′⋅3E, extending for 1 mile from N to S
and 1 miles from E to W, with depths from 7 to 9 m,
mud, good holding. A stranded wreck marked by a
light-buoy (isolated danger), lies within the S part of this
anchorage 8 cables NW of Dachahua Dao.
No 2 Anchorage is described at 5.120.
2
Lightering anchorages. A lightering anchorage is
established N of Toumen Dao (5.126) centred on
28°43′⋅3N, 121°47′⋅7E, radius 5 cables, in depths from 8⋅4
to 13 m, mud. A short term lightering anchorage is
established close NW of No 1 Anchorage centred on
28°40′⋅7N, 121°45′⋅1E, extending 7cables from N to S
and 1 mile from E to W, in depths of about 8 m, mud.
3
Other anchorages. With local knowledge, good
anchorage for small vessels can be obtained off the N and
S sides of Toumen Dao, and off the W side of Dongji Dao
(Dongjishan) (5.161). Anchorage can be obtained off the S
side of Dongji Dao during the NE monsoon, but there is
usually a heavy swell.
4
Laji Gang (Jinmen Wan) (28°46′N, 121°52′E), lying
between Tian’ao Dao and Que’er’ao Dao (5.126) also
provides anchorage in depths from 6 to 8 m, mud.
See fishing at 5.142.
Pilotage
5.139
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels and available
24 hours. Pilots board in either No 1 or 2 Anchorages
(5.138). See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
CHAPTER 5
187
Tugs
5.140
1
Tugs are available.
Harbour
General layout
5.141
1
The harbour is divided into four port districts. Qiansuo
port district lies on the N bank of the river, and includes
the Taizhou Power Plant. The Foreign Trade port district
lies on the S bank in the area of the entrance, with Haimen
port district farther E. Shanpu port district lies farther up
river.
Fishing
5.142
1
Fishing stakes and nets are found in Taizhou Wan, and
in the vicinity of No 1 Light-buoy all year.
Local weather
5.143
1
Typhoons, though infrequent, can affect the port, most
usually between July and September. Fog affects the port
on an average of 28 days per year, most frequently between
February and June, and most usually between midnight and
1000.
Principal marks
5.144
1
Major lights:
Dongji Dao Light (28°43′N, 121°56′E) (5.115).
Dachahua Dao Light (28°39′N, 121°47′E) (5.115).
Niutoujing Shan Light (red round concrete structure,
13 m in height) (28°41′⋅1N, 121°27′⋅0E).
Directions for entering harbour
5.145
1
This will depend upon whether the vessel is in No 1 or
2 Anchorage. Directions are given initially from No 2
Anchorage to No 1 Anchorage, followed by directions from
a position seaward on the coastal route.
No 2 Anchorage to No 1 Anchorage
5.146
1
From a position in the S part (28°27′⋅4N, 121°52′⋅5E) of
No 2 Anchorage in Dachen Maodi, the track leads NE,
using the directions in reverse at 5.119. When SE of
Sheshan Dao the track leads N to the vicinity of 28°38′⋅6N,
121°56′⋅2E.
(Direcitions continue within 5.147)
Seaward to No 1 Anchorage
5.147
1
Foreign vessels bound for No 1 Anchorage and the pilot
boarding position should use these directions.
From a position on the coastal route, about 22 miles E
of Dachahua Dao (28°39′N, 121°47′E), the track leads W,
passing:
Clear of two dangerous wrecks, position approximate
lying between 14and 16miles E of Dachahua
Dao, and:
2
N of a dangerous wreck (28°35′N, 122°05′E), the
position of which is doubtful, thence:
Through a fairway 500 m wide between 28°38′⋅6N,
121°56′⋅2E and the vicinity of Dachahua Dao
(28°39′N, 121°47′E), 31 m high, from where a
light (5.115) is exhibited, thence:
3
N of Baijia Shan (28°37′⋅0N, 121°51′⋅6E) (5.161),
thence:
S of H1 Light-buoy (starboard hand) moored
7 cables S of Liangmao Yu (28°39′⋅7N,
121°49′⋅8E), 64 m high; a rock, with a depth of
1 m over it, lies 3 cables S of Liangmao Yu.
Thence:
4
N of Yijiangshan Dao (28°36′N, 121°49′E), consisting
of two islands very close together, of which
Beiyijiang Shan, the N one, is 129 m high. Small
vessels can pass, and anchor, between the islands.
5
S of Toumen Dao (Toumenshan) (28°41′⋅4N,
121°47′⋅0E), inhabited and rising to a sharp cone
205 m high, lies 4 miles NNW of Yijiangshan
Dao. Foul ground extends 7cables S and and W
of Tian’ao Dao, and a similar distance N of Chang
Yu. Que’er’ao Dao (Jiangerao), 188 m high and
with two islets and some rocks extending 2 miles
SW from it, lies 1 miles NW of Tian’ao Dao.
Other islets lie on the coastal bank W of
Que’er’ao Dao.
6
The track then leads between Liangmao Dao and
Xiaochahua Dao, 16 m high, 2 miles WSW and lying
close NNE of Dachahua Dao, direct to No 1 Anchorage; a
shallow ledge extends 1 cable NNE from Xiaochahua Dao,
and a steep-to islet, 13 m high, lies 4 cables NNE of
Xiaochahua Dao.
7
Useful marks:
Toumen Dao Light (white conical stone beacon, 9 m
in height) (28°42′N, 121°49′E).
Xiaozhu Shan Light (white stone tower, black bands,
10 m in height) (28°43′N, 121′45′E).
No 1 Anchorage to harbour
5.148
1
Caution. Within the river, Changsun Barrier, which dries
about 2⋅5 m at LW, extends W in the centre of the channel
for 1⋅6 miles from longitude 121°25′⋅2W.
2
Jiao Jiang is a shallow river with a bar across the
estuary; the entrance is about 5 cables wide at its narrowest
point. Entry and departure from the port should be made
on a rising tide.
3
From No 1 Anchorage the track leads W to No 1
Light-buoy (pillar, safe water) marking the outer end of the
buoyed entrance channel; three further light-buoys mark the
channel, which extends some 11 miles from No 1
Light-buoy to the entrance. The least depth across the bar
is found between Nos 2 and 3 Light-buoys.
Useful mark:
Chengjiao Dao Light (white stone tower, 10 m in
height) (28°37′N, 121°45′E).
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
5.149
1
There are three designated anchorages within the
harbour, all lying on the N side of the river.
The anchorage for large vessels over 3000 dwt lies in
the narrow part of the entrance S of Zhong Shan (5.128)
centred on 28°41′⋅5N, 121°27′⋅2E, in depths of about 7 m,
hard mud. This anchorage provides shelter in winds up to
force 8 from N, W and S.
2
Anchorage for vessels up to 1000 dwt is centred on
28°41′⋅7N, 121°26′⋅5E in depths from 3 to 7 m, hard mud.
An anchorage for smaller vessels lies farther W, within
which is a mooring buoy.
CHAPTER 5
188
Alongside berths
5.150
1
Haimen Gang has over 40 main wharves. The principal
berths are the Foreign Trade Wharf, 244 m in length with a
depth of 6⋅5 m alongside, and Taidian Coal Wharf for
vessels of 10 000 dwt, 144 m in length with a depth of 8 m
alongside.
Port services
5.151
1
Repairs available; several shipbuilding yards.
Other facilities: hospitals; deratting.
Supplies: fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Airport about 12 km from the port.
SHESHAN DAO TO DAWENCHONG
General information
Chart 1759
Routes
5.152
1
Coastal. From a position SE of Sheshan Dao (28°32′N,
121°55′E), the route leads NNE for about 66 miles to a
position ESE of Dawenchong (29°38′N, 122°13′E).
Inshore. From a position W of Sheshan Dao (28°32′N,
121°55′E), the route leads generally NNE and N, to a
position NE of Que Jiao (29°40′N, 121°54′E). This route is
for small or low-powered vessels making passage against
the NE monsoon.
Niubishan Shuidao provides the latter part of this
inshore route towards Ningbo; it is useful during winter
when N winds prevail and typhoons seldom occur. When a
typhoon is passing in the offing, the high E swell, which is
invariably the precursor, sets in upon the coast, and in
these conditions it should not be used by vessels exceeding
4⋅9 m in draught.
Topography
5.153
1
The coast between Haimen Gang (28°41′N, 121°26′E)
and Xiangshan Gang 64 miles NNE, is very irregular, with
several inlets, and fronted by numerous off-lying islands
and rocks.
2
From Banzhao Liedao (29°14′N, 121°59′E) (5.173) to
the entrance to Xiangshan Gang, 22 miles N, the coast is
mountainous and rugged, with drying flats filling the bays,
and fringed with a coastal bank about 5 miles wide on
which there are numerous islets and dangers. The sea in
the area is heavily discoloured by mud, and below-water
dangers cannot be seen.
3
Between Hua’ao Dao (Dafo Dao) (29°05′N, 121°49′E)
(5.164) and Niubishan Shuidao (5.174), 25 miles N, and
leading to Xiangshan Gang, there are numerous off-lying
sands.
4
Niubishan Shuidao. Liuheng Dao (29°44′N, 121°07′E),
the SW island of Zhoushan Qundao, borders the NE side of
Niubishan Shuidao, and lies N of Meisan Liedao (5.160).
Baotai Gang, a summit 280 m high at the SE end of
Liuheng Dao, is prominent. The SW side of the island,
which is fringed by a shallow bank on which there are
some islets, has several bays almost completely filled by
drying mudflats.
Depths
5.154
1
The 20 m depth contour lies parallel to the general line
of the coast over this section and about 15 to 20 miles
offshore. The majority of the off-lying dangers lie within
this depth contour except Yushan Liedao (28°53′N,
122°15′E) (5.168) and some dangerous wrecks and
obstructions.
There are charted depths in the central part of Niubishan
Shuidao generally exceeding 8 m.
Fishing
5.155
1
Fishing stakes extend as much as 3 miles from Liuheng
Dao into Niubishan Shuidao; they may also be encountered
in the entrance to Xiangshan Gang.
Mined danger area
5.156
1
A former mined area lies NE of Wenzhou Wan
(27°55′N, 121°05′E). See also 1.4 and Appendix I.
Tidal streams
5.157
1
For a description of the tidal streams between a position
10 miles E of Jiushan Liedao (29°26′N, 122°12′E) (5.170)
and Waiyang’an Dao (Dongtinshan) (29°52′N, 122°36′E),
see 5.170.
2
In Niubishan Shuidao off the SW side of Liuheng Dao,
the tidal streams have a rate of 1 to 3 kn and set as
follows:
− 0430 HW Chang Jiang NW-going begins
+ 0130 HW Chang Jiang SE-going begins
3
In Xiangshan Gang, tidal streams have a maximum rate
at springs of of 3 kn in the entrance and 4 kn in the inner
part of the sound. They set as follows:
− 0045 LW Chang Jiang In-going stream begins
− 0045 HW Chang Jiang Out-going stream begins
Principal marks
5.158
1
Landmark:
Zhu Shan (541 m high) (29°34′N, 121°54′E), on the
mainland 7 miles WSW of Dongyu Shan (5.161),
is sharp and precipitous.
Major lights:
Dongji Dao Light (28°43′N, 121°56′E) (5.115).
Beiyu Shan Light (white round tower, red bands,
16 m in height) (28°53′N, 122°16′E).
2
Mituo Dao Light (10 m in height) (29°03′N,
122°01′E).
Waidong Zui Light (white 4-sided stone masonry
pyramid, 11 m in height) (29°26′N, 122°13′E).
Ximopan Jiao Light (round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) (29°35′N, 122°08′E).
Wai Jiao Light (29°41′N, 122°17′E) (6.22).
Other aids to navigation
5.159
1
Racons:
Luo Yu Light (28°16′N 121°44′E).
Dachahua Dao Light (28°39′N, 121°47′E).
Beiyu Shan Light (28°53′N, 122°16′E).
Banyang (Banchao) Jiao (29°16′N, 122°08′E).
Taohua Dao Light (29°46′n, 122°18′E) (Chp 6 ref).
2
DGPS:
Shitang (28°16′N, 121°37′E).
CHAPTER 5
189
Directions for coastal route
(continued from 5.117)
5.160
1
From a position SE of Sheshan Dao (28°32′N,
121°55′E), the track leads NNE, passing, (with positions
from Beiyu Shan Light (28°53′N, 122°16′E)):
Clear of numerous dangerous wrecks, the positions of
which are approximate, lying between Taizhou
Liedao (28°28′N, 121°53′E) and Yushan Liedao
(5.168), NE, for which the chart is the best guide.
Thence:
2
ESE of Nanyu Shan (1miles SW), 127 m high with
a saddle-shaped summit. It is the S-most island of
Yushan Liedao (5.168); rocks lie close off its SE
and NE points. Thence:
3
ESE of Beiyu Shan, has a remarkable cliff at its SE
end on the summit of which Beiyu Shan Light
(5.115) is exhibited. Islets and rocks extend
7cables WSW and 1 mile NE of Beiyu Shan. It
is the largest island in Yushan Liedao (5.168).
Thence:
4
ESE of Wuhu Jiao (5 cables E), consists of a group
of rocks like saw teeth that are easy to identify,
thence:
ESE of Yusan Jiao (2miles N), 13 m high, is so
much undermined by the sea that it bears some
resemblance to a large mushroom. A rock awash
lies 2cables N, thence:
5
ESE of Baimudi Jiao (3miles NE), which dries
0⋅9 m, thence:
Clear of a shoal (15miles NE) with a depth of
13⋅7 m reported in 1935, thence:
6
ESE of Jiushan Liedao (34 miles N) (5.170) and the
entrance to Niubishan Shuidao where anchorage
(5.174) may be obtained. An obstruction lies
23 miles E, and a dangerous wreck 27 miles
ESE, of the NE islet of the group.
7
The track continues to a position ESE of Dawenchong
(29°38′N, 122°13′E), a wooded island lying 2 miles SE of
Lao-Ying Tsui (29°39′N, 122°10′E). A dangerous wreck
lies in 22°37′⋅2N, 122°25′⋅5E.
(Directions continue at 6.24)
Directions for inshore route
(continued from 5.118)
Sheshan Dao to Tantou Shan
5.161
1
From a position W of Sheshan Dao (28°32′N,
121°55′E), the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
from Beiyu Shan Light (28°53′N, 122°16′E)):
ESE of Baijia Shan (28°37′⋅0N, 121°51′⋅6E), 77 m
high (charted as 75 m) and cliffy with a reef at its
E end. The coast between Baisha Shan (28°43′N,
121°39′E) (5.128), and Kuotang Shan (Ketangshan)
10 miles N, is fringed by a drying flat extending
up to 4 miles offshore with a shallow coastal bank
to seaward extending to the off-lying islands of
Dongji Liedao (5.128). Thence:
2
ESE of Dongji Dao (Dongjishan) (28°44′⋅5N,
121°51′⋅5E), 215 m high. It is part of Dongji
Liedao, a chain of islands and dangers, extending
15 miles N from Yijiangshan Dao (28°36′N,
121°49′E) (5.145), across the NE approach to
Taizhou Wan; it is inadvisable to pass between
these islands without local knowledge. Tian’ao Dao
(Gao Dao), 227 m high, with Chang Yu, 82 m
high, almost joined to its NE extremity, lie
2 miles NW of Dongji Dao; both islands are
inhabited. And:
3
Clear of a dangerous wreck (28°45′N, 121°59′E)
position approximate, thence:
ESE of Xiao’eguan Dao (28°50′⋅5N, 121°51′⋅0E),
77 m high, foul ground with two small islets
extends 5 cables from its W end, thence:
WNW of Beiyu Shan from where Beiyu Shan Light
(5.158) is exhibited. It is the largest island in
Yushan Liedao (5.168). Thence:
ESE of a dangerous wreck (29°00′N, 21°57′E),
thence:
4
ESE of Nüying Jiao (16miles WNW), dries 1⋅4 m,
thence:
ESE of Youcaihua Yu (Yuacaihuazhi) (15 miles
WNW), an islet 48 m high, foul ground extends
2cables W from it to another islet, W, thence:
ESE of Mituo Dao (16miles NW), 41 m high from
where a light (5.115) is exhibited, thence:
ESE of Shamao Yu (29°06′⋅2N, 122°01′⋅8E), 33 m
high, and:
5
Clear of a shoal patch (13miles NNW) with a
depth of 6⋅4 m over it, thence:
ESE of Niluo Yu (29°08′N, 122°03′E), 4 miles E of
Nantian Dao, appears as two islets of which the N
part is 50 m high. A dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 12 cables W. Thence:
6
ESE of Tantou Shan (29°10′N, 122°02′E), 1 miles
ENE of Nantian Dao, is an irregular shaped island,
wooded and almost divided in two parts by a low
shingle isthmus; the S part is 224 m high. A
shallow bank on which there are a number of
dangers extends 3 miles W from Tantou Shan to
two islands lying in the entrance to a channel
between the N side of Nantian Dao and the
mainland. Deep, but narrow and intricate, passages
lead N and S of the latter two islands to Shipu
Gang, both spanned by overhead cables; navigation
aids are established in these passages. Banzhao
Liedao (29°14′N, 121°59′E), consisting of three
islets close offshore of which the E-most is 172 m
high, lie 1 miles NW of Tantou Shan.
7
The track continues to a position ESE of Wu Jiao
(21 miles NNW), from where a light (white column, red
bands, 12 m in height) is exhibited, and Jilong Jiao, 41 m
high, lying 1 mile NE of the N point of the island.
Tantou Shan to Xiasi Jiao
5.162
1
From the above position the track leads N, passing (with
positions from Banyang Jiao (29°16′⋅2N, 122°08′⋅2E)):
W of Banyang (Banchao) Jiao, which dries 4⋅3 m and
is marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger, 17 m
in height); fishing stakes may be encountered
about 1 mile S. Thence:
2
E of Sanyue Shan (5 miles WNW), the highest (69 m)
of a group of islets and rocks; other islets lie
inshore and 1 mile S. A light (9 m in height) is
exhibited from Dachan Dao, the S-most of this
latter group. Baimutian Jiao, 1 miles NNE of
Sanyue Shan, dries 0⋅9 m and is marked by a
light-beacon (17 m in height). Thence:
CHAPTER 5
190
3
Between Jiushan Liedao (5.170) (7 miles NNE) and
Damo Shan (10 miles NW), 150 m high,
precipitous and of dark colour; rocks extend
5 cables ENE of it, and other islets and rocks lie
inshore. Paolu Jiao, with a depth of 0⋅6 m over it,
lies near the edge of the coastal bank 3 miles
NNE of Damo Shan; unless there is a heavy swell
the sea only breaks over it at LW. A light-buoy
(pillar, E cardinal) is moored 2 cables E.
4
The track continues to a position about 2 miles E of
Xiasi Jiao (29°30′⋅5N, 122°04′⋅5E) at the S end of
Niubishan Shuidao. Xiasi Jiao consists of four rocky islets,
in two groups of two; a light (10 m in height) is exhibited
from the S-most and highest islet.
Xiasi Jiao to Xiangshan Gang
5.163
1
From the above position the track continues N, passing
(with positions from Xiasi Jiao (29°30′⋅5N, 122°04′⋅5E)):
Clear of a dangerous wreck (2 miles NNE), and:
W of Dongmopan Jiao(7miles ENE), lying 5 miles
N of Jiushan Liedao (5.170). It is a black rock,
5 m high; a drying rock lies 2 cables NW of it.
2
The track then leads NW through Niubishan Shuidao,
passing:
SW of Ximopan Jiao (4 miles NNE), a rugged
black rock 12 m high from where a light (5.158) is
exhibited; there are dangers within 2 cables E and
N of it. Thence:
3
SW of Meisan Liedao (7 miles NNE), a group of
islands and rocks, 2 miles NNE of Ximopan.
Dajiancang Dao, the largest of the group, 158 m
high with a sharp summit, is light coloured,
covered with grass and is the most readily
identified; it has dangers extending 7 cables from
its S side. The islands are separated from Liuheng
Dao (5.112) by a channel 1 mile wide; with a
rock, with a depth of 0⋅1 m over it lying in the
NW part of the channel. Thence:
NE of a rocky area (4miles N), thence:
4
NE Dongyu Shan (7 miles NNW), 125 m high and
light coloured. Its E side is precipitous and the NE
part perforated. A bank, with depths of less than
5 m over it, extends 1 miles SE of the island,
and a chain of islets and rocks extends a farther
3 miles SSE. A light (white hexagonal concrete
tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited from Xiaodong
Yu, an islet close NW of Dongyu Shan. Thence:
5
Clear of several dangerous wrecks (9 to 11 miles
NNW). Thence:
SW of Yaque Jiao (29°43′N, 122°03′E), from where a
light (white concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited. Yaque Jiao consisting of black rocks
from 1 to 19 m high, stands at the entrance to a
channel leading NNE between Liuheng Dao (xref)
and Fodu Dao (xref). Thence:
6
The track then continues to a position SW of Wenzhou
Zhi (29°43′N, 122°00′E), 77 m high.
(Directions continue for inshore route at 6.62)
7
From the above position the track for Xiangshan Gang
continues to a position NE of Que Jiao (29°40′N,
121°54′E), from where a light (white stone masonry square,
5 m in height) is exhibited. The track into Fodu Shuidao
(6.62) continues through the channels NW of Liuheng Dao.
Sanmen Wan
General information
5.164
1
Description. Sanmen Wan (29°02′N, 121°45′E) is a
large estuary extending in a general NW direction for over
20 miles, and contains numerous islands and dangers, and
its inner waters are obstructed by extensive drying banks;
several rivers and streams discharge into the W and N
sides at the head of the bay. Sanmen Wan provides access
to several small ports.
2
Topography. Xiaoniu Zui (Niushan Zui) (29°01′⋅0N,
121°42′⋅5E), the W entrance point to Sanmen Wan, is
situated 6 miles N of Kuotang Shan (5.172); the coast
between is very broken with a number of bays filled with
drying flats. From a position 2 miles ESE of Xiaoniu Zui a
chain of islets and reefs extends 3 miles SE; Sanmen
Dao, a group of islets of which the highest is 55 m, lies at
the SE end of the chain.
3
Hua’ao Dao (Dafo Dao) (29°05N, 121°49′E), lying with
its W extremity 5 miles NE of Xiaoniu Zui, is the E
entrance point of Sanmen Wan. Hua’ao Dao rises to a
conspicuous peak, shaped like a thumb, 308 m high; the
higher parts of the island are wooded. Dajia Shan, 107 m
high and wooded, lies 1 mile SW of the S extremity of
Hua’ao Dao; several rocks lie in the channel between,
which is unsuitable for navigation. A reef and rocky islets
lie within a 5 cables S and ESE from Dajia Shan.
Local knowledge is required to enter Sanmen Wan.
Directions
5.165
1
From a position on the inshore route WNW of Yushan
Liedao (28°53′N, 121°15′E) (5.168), the track leads
generally WNW and NW, passing (with positions from
Beiyu Shan Light (28°53′N, 122°16′E)):
NNE of Dongji Liedao (20 miles SW) (5.128),
thence:
2
Clear of a dangerous wreck (20 miles W), reported
2000, the position of which is approximate, thence:
SSW of Caoxiejin Yu (29°00′N, 121°54′E), a
steep-sided islet divided into three parts the highest
of which is 26 m; a light (10 m in height) is
exhibited from the N part. A dangerous wreck lies
3 miles E of Caoxiejin Yu.
3
The track then leads NW, passing:
Either side of Sanmen Dao, the greater depths being
on the NE side. Ping Jiao (28°59′⋅3N, 121°44′⋅2E),
from where a light (6 m in height) is exhibited,
stands in the middle of the channel on the W side
of Sanmen Dao, and can be passed on either side.
Thence:
4
Clear of Yang Jiao (29°03′⋅2N, 121°43′⋅3E), an
above-water rock marked by a light-beacon (8m in
height).
Anchorages
5.166
1
Within Maotou Shuidao, anchorage can be obtained in
depths from 6 to 10 m about 7cables WSW of Xiawan
Shan.
2
A designated lightering anchorage, open to foreign
shipping, is established at the NW end of the channel
centred on 29°06′⋅8N, 121°39′⋅0E, in depths from 12 to
24 m, mud.
CHAPTER 5
191
3
Anchorage can also be obtained, in depths from 5 to
9 m, about a 5 cables S of Shepan Dao (Shepanshan)
(29°09′N, 121°35′E), a rocky island rising to 98 m at its W
end. It is approached through Maotou Shuidao, a channel
close to the W side of Xiawan Shan (29°05′⋅3N,
121°4′⋅8E); Tianwan Dao, 195 m high, lies close NNW of
Xiawan Shan.
Jintiao Gang
5.167
1
Description. Jiantiao Gang, a subsidiary port of Haimen
Gang (5.126), is approached through an inlet on the W side
of Sanmen Wan, the entrance to which is about 2 miles
NW of Xiaoniu Zui (29°01′⋅0N, 121°42′⋅5E) (5.164); the
harbour limit lies across the entrance. A number of
light-beacons are situated on the N bank of the inlet. The
town of Jiantiao (29°02′⋅5N, 121°37′⋅5E), where there are
several jetties, lies about 3 miles above the entrance.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Controlling depth. The least charted depth on the
approach, found between 2 to 2 miles above the entrance,
is 3⋅4 m, and vessels drawing less than 3 m can use the
port at all states of the tide.
3
Vertical clearance. An overhead cable, with a vertical
clearance of 19 m, spans the channel at longitude
121°36′⋅6E.
4
Anchorages and several mooring buoys lie in the inlet
above Jiantiao. This inlet provides the best shelter within
Sanmen Wan for vessels able to enter.
Yushan Liedao
Chart 1759
General information
5.168
1
Description. Yushan Liedao (28°53′N, 121°15′E), is a
group consisting of three inhabited islands and several
rocky islets lying 27 miles ESE of the entrance to Sanmen
Wan (5.164). Five designated anchorages lie among the
islands.
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorages
5.169
No 1 Anchorage lies within the bay on the N side of
Beiyu Shan. This bay is shallow and the entrance is
obstructed by drying reefs.
1
No 2 Anchorage lies on the W side of Beiyu Shan
within the bay formed by that island and the islets
extending WSW; the shores are steep-to and there are
depths between 8 to 20 m, mud. The holding is good with
shelter from winds from NE to SE.
No 3 Anchorage lies on the S side of Beiyu Shan and
the islet WSW; rocks lie offshore and local knowledge is
required. Depths are about 20 m, mud, and temporary
shelter is afforded from winds from NW to N.
2
No 4 Anchorage lies on the N side of Nanyu Shan;
there is a drying rock near the centre of the bay forming
this anchorage. Depths are 5 to 10 m, mud, and shelter is
afforded from S winds.
No 5 Anchorage is within the bay on the W side of
Nanyu Shan; the shore is steep-to and the 30 m depth
contour is found within 2 cables of the head of the bay.
Jiushan Liedao
Chart 1759 plan of Jiushan Liedao
General information
5.170
1
Description. Jiushan Liedao (29°26′N, 122°12′E) is a
group of islands, islets and rocks lying 8 miles E of Damo
Shan (5.161). Jigu Shan (29°22′⋅7N, 122°13′⋅4E), the SE
and highest island of the group, is precipitous on its S and
E sides, wooded, and has a 165 m summit which when
seen from E and W appears as a sharp and well defined
cone; rocks extend to an islet 2 cables off its E side.
Several other islets lie within 1 miles WNW of Jigu
Shan.
2
Wenchong Shan (29°24′⋅3N, 122°10′⋅5E), 2 miles NW
of Jigu Shan, is the SW island of the group; it is wooded
and has a sharp summit 155 m high. Fenshui Jiao, awash,
is the outermost of several rocks which extend 6 cables S
from the W end of Wenchong Shan. Hei Jiao, two rocky
heads with a depth of 2⋅3 m over them, lie 6 cables W of
the same end of the island.
3
Nanjiu Shan (29°26′N, 122°12′E), the largest island of
the group lies NNE of Wenchong Shan from which it is
separated by Wenchongshan Men, a narrow passage. The
island’s highest summit, 179 m (charted as 162 m), is
situated at its SW end. A bank with a depth of less than
5 m over it extends 1 mile from the NW side of the island.
A light (5.115) is exhibited from Waidong Zui, the E
extremity of Nanjiu Shan; a further light (white conical
concrete structure, 9 m in height) is exhibited from Aiqi
Shan, an islet joined by a drying bank to the W side of the
island.
4
Guanchuan’ao Dao, 105 m high, is the NW island of the
group and lies 1 mile NW of Nanjiu Shan; Shuang Shan,
58 m high, lies between. Foul ground extends 5 cables E of
Guanchuan’ao Dao. Daqing Shan (29°27′⋅3N, 122°15′⋅E)
lies at the E end of a chain of islets and rocks extending
3 miles E from Guanchuan’ao Dao; it is wooded and has a
fairly sharp summit 92 m high and is a useful landmark
from E; a light (white stone masonry structure, 3 m in
height) is exhibited from the summit. A dangerous wreck
lies 6 miles ENE of Daqing Shan.
5
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Jiushan Liedao are
rotatory clockwise with a maximum rate of 3 kn and, so far
as the conformation of the islands will allow, set as
follows, with times of HW from Chang Jiang:
− 0400 to − 0100 HW Between W and N
− 0100 to + 0200 HW Between N and E
+ 0200 to + 0500 HW Between E and S
+ 0500 to − 0400 HW Between S and W
6
Between a position 10 miles E of Jiushan Liedao and
Waiyang’an Dao (Dongtingshan), 30 miles NE, the tidal
streams have a rate of to 2 kn and set as follows:
− 0400 HW S-going, then changes
through SW to W
+ 0200 HW NW-going, then changes
through N to E to S
7
Fishing stakes lie off the W side of Nanjiu Shan and of
the SW side of Guanchuan’ao Dao.
Anchorages
5.171
1
Designated anchorages have been established around
Nanjiu Shan and Guanchuan’ao Dao.
CHAPTER 5
192
No 1 Anchorage lies between the N side of Nanjiu Shan
and the chain of rocks and islets extending W from Daqing
Shan for 1 miles. Depths are mostly between 10 and
15 m, mud and sand, and the anchorage affords shelter
from SW winds. Care should be taken to avoid Wasikuai
Jiao, a patch which dries 2⋅4 m lying 6 cables W of Daqing
Jiao.
2
No 2 Anchorage lies to the S of the E part of Nanjiu
Shan and affords shelter from W to N winds, in depths
from mainly 5 to 8 m, mud.
No 3 Anchorage lies off the S part of Nanjiu Shan in
depths from 6 to 8 m, mud, and affords shelter from N
winds.
No 4 Anchorage, in the bay on the W side of Nanjiu
Shan, and No 5 Anchorage lying on the bank on the NW
side of the island, are for the most part in depths of less
than 5 m.
3
No 6 Anchorage lies off the S and W sides of
Guanchuan’ao Dao, with depths between 6 and 14 m, mud,
and affords shelter from NE and SE winds.
Anchorages and harbours
Puba Gang
5.172
1
Description. Puba Gang is entered S of Kuotang Shan
(Ketangshan) (28°54′N, 121°41′E), 206 m high. It lies
within an inlet extending 8 miles WNW. A number of islets
and dangers lie within 2 miles NE and 3 miles ESE of
Kuotang Shan. Beize Dao, the NE-most of these islets, is
72 m high.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. Puba Gang can be entered by a 5 cable wide
channel on the S side of Kuotang Shan; much of the inlet
dries. Depths across the seaward end of the channel are
less than 2 m, and within the inlet mainly between 2 to
3 m, with a navigable width of no more than 4 cables.
Anchorage can be obtained in Puba Gang.
Shipu Gang
5.173
1
Description. Shipu Gang (29°10′N, 121°54′E) lies
between Nantian Dao (see below) and the mainland N. The
port is a coastal trading centre.
2
Topography. Gaotang Dao (Jianyang Dao) (29°07′N,
121°50′E), 282 m high, lies on the N side of Sanmen Wan
(5.164) close NE of Hua’ao Dao (Dafo Dao) from which it
is separated by a narrow channel. Nantian Dao
(Niutoushan), 410 m high, is a large island close E of
Gaotang Dao; the narrow channel between is shallow at its
S end with a number of rocks. Nan Shan, 163 m high and
wooded, lies close off the S point of Nantian Dao.
3
Vertical clearance. Overhead power cables span the N
end of the passage, in which there are mooring buoys and
several light-beacons.
Local knowledge is required to enter the channels
leading to Shipu Gang.
4
Fishing stakes lie in an area between 5 miles E and
5 miles S of Niluo Yu, and on the bank extending W from
Tantou Shan. Numerous fishing nets and stakes lie in the
channels giving access to Shipu Gang.
Tidal streams are strong in the narrow channels NE of
Nantian Dao and tide races are experienced in places.
5
Anchorage, indifferent, can be obtained, in depths from
6 to 10 m, mud, between the SW side of Tantou Shan and
the E side on Nantian Dao, but the tidal streams may attain
a rate of 2 kn and there is usually a heavy swell. Shelter
is provided from NE and NW winds. Mariners should note
that a dangerous wreck lies 9 cables WSW of the SW point
of Tantou Shan.
6
Anchorage, providing good shelter, can be obtained in
the channel between Hua’ao Dao (5.164) and Gaotang Dao;
tide-rips occur in the narrow passage between the islands
and there are fishing stakes in the W part of this
anchorage.
Anchorage can also be obtained within the sheltered
waters of Shipu Gang in depths from 5 to 42 m, mud.
Niubishan Shuidao
5.174
1
Anchorage, sheltered from winds between NW, through
N and E, to ESE, can be obtained in a position about
2 miles SSE of the W extremity of Liuheng Dao (5.112),
in depths from 9 to 12 m; see Fishing at 5.155. In fine
weather there is good anchorage anywhere between
Liuheng Dao and the entrance to Xiangshan Gang.
2
With local knowledge, anchorage can be obtained
between Dongyu Shan (29°37′N, 122°02′E) (5.163) and
Xiyu Shan 8 cables WNW, in depths from 10 to 20 m,
mud.
Xiangshan Gang
5.175
1
Description. Xiangshan Gang is entered between Que
Jiao (29°40′N, 121°54′E) (5.163), and Huangnui Jiao, 11 m
high lying on the drying flat 3 miles NW. The sound
extends 25 miles SW, of which the first 11 miles are almost
entirely free of dangers and nowhere less than 1 miles
wide; the inner part is partially obstructed with numerous
islets. The inlet is a well established refuge from storms.
2
Topography. Wugui Shan (29°34′⋅6N, 121°44′⋅4E), 25 m
high, lies in the middle of the fairway 10 miles within the
entrance to Xiangshan Gang; Gangpan Shan, another island
192 m high, lies on the N side of the fairway 3 miles
farther SW. Foul ground extends 5 cables E from the latter
island.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. No formal directions are given, the chart is
sufficient guide.
4
Anchorage can be obtained near the entrance to
Xiangshan Gang, 1 to 2 miles WSW of Que Jiao
(29°40′N, 121°54′E), in depths of about 8 m.
Recommended shelter during a typhoon can be obtained in
a position 29°31′⋅5N, 121°38′⋅2E; the depth is about 9⋅5 m.
There is also good holding in a position 29°30′⋅5N,
121°33′⋅6E, in depths from 8 to 12 m. A number of
mooring buoys are located in the sound in these areas W
of Gangpan Shan (above).
5
Small vessels can obtain good anchorage in a depth of
about 9 m, out of the strength of the tidal streams, in
Baishi Shuidao (29°30′N, 121°36′E) inside some islets
along the S shore of the inlet.
NOTES
193
1199
1199
1199
1759
1592
1602
1124
1124
1204
6.260
6
.
2
32
6
.23
2
6
.
7
7
6.228
6.217
6
.
7
7
6
.
2
2
4
6
.
20
7
6.16
2
6.17
9
6
.1
6
2
6.197
6.207
6
.
18
6.2
9
6.18
6
.
5
1
6
.
2
7
0
6
.
1
9
1
6.263
6.237
6.89
6.128
Chapter 6 - Coast of China - Xiangshan Gang to Nanhui Zui including Zhoushan Qundao
Jinshan
Zhapu
CHINA
Ningbo
Zhoushan
120°
122°
123°
30°
31°
Longitude 121
°
East from Greenwich
30°
31°
120°
30´30´
30´30´
30´
30´30´30´
122°
123°
121
°
194
195
CHAPTER 6
COAST OF CHINA FROM XIANGSHAN GANG TO NANHUI ZUI INCLUDING
ZHOUSHAN QUNDAO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Introduction
Charts 1759, 1199
Scope of the chapter
6.1
1
The area covered by this chapter comprises the coast of
China from Xiangshan Gang (29°38′N, 121°48′E) (5.175)
to Nanhui Zui (30°52′N, 121°53′E), including Hangzhou
Wan and the Zhoushan Archipelago. The description
includes the ports of Ningbo, Zhoushan and Jinshan.
It is divided into the following sections:
2
Offshore route and route N through Zhoushan
Qundao (6.15).
Ningbo and approaches including Zhoushan (6.48).
Other passages through Zhoushan Qundao to
Hangzhou Wan and Chiang Jiang (6.160).
Hangzhou Wan and Qiantang Jiang (6.213).
Routes
6.2
1
Although a number of routes between the islands of
Zhoushan Qundao are described in the text, the Chinese
authorities prohibit foreign ships from passing through the
archipelago other than by the prescribed routes. See 1⋅31.
The Chinese authorities have approved the following
routes for use by foreign vessels:
2
Offshore route (6.18).
Route N through Zhoushan Qundao (6.29).
Main route to Ningbo through Xiazhi Men (6.58).
Routes are also given through the comparatively shallow
bay of Hangzhou Wan, at the head of which is the estuary
of Qintang Jiang leading to the important city of
Hangzhou.
Topography
6.3
1
Zhoushan Qundao extends about 80 miles NE from
Liuheng Dao (29°43′N, 122°07′E) (6.74). It is a
mountainous archipelago consisting of a number of island
groups and associated dangers. The islands are bold and
rugged with hills that often have sharp and well defined
summits. The slopes are usually sterile and covered with
slabs of rock and loose boulders interspersed with rock.
2
There are patches of cultivation in the valleys and
sheltered areas and on the larger islands, such as Zhoushan
Dao (30°04′N, 122°03′E), there are richly cultivated plains
and many densely populated towns. The coasts of the
islands are rocky, generally faced with cliffs and with off
lying pinnacles most of which are above water.
3
S of Zhoushan Dao lies the Peninsula of Xuanshan
Bandao (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.72). This peninsula extends
from Xiangshan Gang to the port of Ningbo in the W.
In the N part of Hangzhou Wan are the ports of Jinshan
(30°43′N, 121°20′E) (6.237), Zhapu (30°35′N, 121°05′E)
(6.263) and the S approach to Chiang Jiang (Yangtze
River).
Navigation
6.4
1
When proceeding amongst the islands of Zhoushan
Qundao, especially in fog, mariners are advised to be sure
of their position as due to the strong tidal streams a vessel
touching ground may heel over at once.
Hazards
6.5
1
Fishing vessels. Large numbers of fishing vessels are to
be found in the vicinity of Zhoushan Qundao. Zhoushan
has one of the largest fishing harbours in China.
2
Fishing stakes. Fishing stakes may be encountered in
most channels and anchorages. Numerous fishing stakes,
may be encountered off the mainland coast. They consist of
long bamboo poles, anchored by stones and carrying a flag;
a sampan is usually in attendance and vessels should not
pass between the sampan and the bamboos.
Natural conditions
6.6
1
Fog. In the vicinity of Zhoushan Qundao the annual
maximum number of days with fog is 60. Fog forms most
frequently during the months of March to July inclusive,
with a maximum during May. It occurs least during
September and October.
2
Tidal streams around and between the islands of
Zhoushan Qundao are strong and sometimes attain a rate of
8 kn in the narrower channels with tide-rips which can be
dangerous for small vessels if there is much wind.
3
The direction of the tidal stream to seawards of the
archipelago is rotary, clockwise, whilst in the passages
between the island, in the entrance to Hangzhou Wan and
close to the mainland, the tidal streams are reversing and
follow the general direction of the coast or channel. When
clear of local influences, the following is a broad guide to
the direction of the tidal stream.
Interval from HW
Chiang Jiang
Stream sets
−0600 to −0400 between S and W
−0400 to HW between W and N
HW to +0300 between N and E
+0300 to +0600 between E and S
4
Sea and swell As a rule the sea is not high amongst the
islands, but the day before the approach of a typhoon, and
during the typhoon, there is a heavy swell. The sea carries
a lot of mud and is especially thick towards the last quarter
of the E, or out-going stream, and below water dangers
cannot be seen. Pinnacle rocks can only be detected by
ripples in the tideway but often there is no indication of
their existence.
Rescue
6.7
1
Shanghai Marine Rescue and Salvage Bureau are
responsible for search and rescue operations in the area
between 23°06′N and 35°05′N. The Bureau operates a large
fleet of vessels including tugs, floating cranes, firefighting
CHAPTER 6
196
vessels and salvage vessels. with rescue stations in
Wenzhou, Fuzhou and Xiamen. During the typhoon season
and at the Chinese new year, additional vessels are
despatched to Ningbo and Liangyungang. For further
information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5
Quarantine
6.8
1
When a vessel departs its previous port, prior to calling
at a Chinese port, it should apply for pratique by radio.
Once the vessel arrives the quarantine officer boards to
carry out an inspection. Before pratique is granted, the
vessel must fly the interco “Q” flag and no crew are
allowed to proceed ashore. See Appendix III.
Traffic Regulations
6.9
1
See Appendix I.
Islands in the archipelago
Zhujiajian Dao
6.10
1
Topography. Zhujiajian Dao (29°54′N, 122°23′E) has a
high peak, Da Shan, clearly visible from seaward, as it
rises midway on the E coast of the island. The E coast of
Zhujiajian Dao is much indented with shallow bays. There
are also a number of remarkable peaks, about 366 m high
at the S end of the island.
2
The S point of the island, Qingshan Jiao (29°50′N,
122°24′N) lies 2 miles NE of Wuzushan. The N end of
Zhujiajian Dao is now joined to the next island W, Chin
Ho Shan, by reclamation. A bridge with a vertical
clearance of 22 m above MSL connects the N part of
Zhujiajian Dao with Zhoushan Dao.
Zhongjieshan Qundao
6.11
1
Topography. Zhongjieshan Qundao (30°12′N, 122°35′E)
consists of four principal islands and several islets and
rocks. All the islands are rocky, precipitous and covered
with grass. With the exception of Xifushan (Hsi-fu Shan)
(30°10′N, 122°43′E) (6.187), they are all inhabited.
Dachangtushan
6.12
1
Topography. Dachangtushan (30°15′N, 122°20′E), the E
and larger island of Changtushan is almost divided into two
by a bay. It is filled with a drying mudflats, indenting its S
side. The highest peak rises on the W of the bay. There is
also a summit on the E extremity of the island. Numerous
islets and rocks fringe the SW side of Dachangtushan. The
small islet (Ing-Longa) 2 miles W of the S extremity of
the island is 29 m high and pyramid shaped. Yuan Shan,
the next islet to the W, is 106 m high and much the same
colour as Dachangtushan. As it lies inshore, it does not
stand out plainly.
2
Xiaochangtushan (30°15′N, 122°16′E) the W and smaller
island of Changtushan is well populated with several
villages on its S side. There is a prominent summit in the
NW part of the island.
Shengsi Liedao
6.13
1
Topography. Shengsi Liedao is the group of islands
WSW of Maan Liedao. Dahuanglong Dao (30°40′N,
122°33′E) (6.206) is the SE island of Shengsi Liedao.
A prominent islet, Wai-pao Jiao lies 1 mile E of the S
point of the island, and is the outer most of several islets
and rocks. Xiaohuanglong Dao, close of the W side of
Dahuanglong Dao has 3 peaks. An islet, Nan-Ting-hsin, the
middle of 3 islets, lies 1 miles SW of Xiaohuanglong
Dao. It is 113 m high and has a high well defined summit
covered with grass.
2
Sijiaoshan Shengsi (30°43′N, 122°28′E), the largest
island in the group, lies with its SE end 1 miles N of
Xiaohuanglongshan. The island has many peaks, the highest
of which rises at its SW end. A slope of white sand on the
shore of the bay at the E end of the island is prominent
and shows in misty weather when little else can be seen.
Qiqu Liedao
6.14
1
Topography. Qiqu Liedao is the NW group of islands
belonging to Zhoushan Qundao and lies W of Chuanhu
Liedao. The group takes the form of two chains of islands
and islets extending 9 miles W and NW from Huxiaoshe
(30°35′N, 122°09′E), the E-most island of the group.
Dayang Shan (30°35′N, 122°04′E) (6.196) is the largest
island of the group and lies 3 miles W of Huxiaoshe The
islands are inhabited by a fishing population.
OFFSHORE ROUTE AND ROUTE NORTH THROUGH ZHOUSHAN QUNDAO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1759, 1199, 1124
Area covered
6.15
1
The area covered by this section comprises the E part of
Zhoushan Qundao from Dawenchong (29°38′N, 122°13′E)
(5.160) to Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.28).
It is arranged as follows:
Offshore route (6.18)
Route N through Zhoushan Qundao (6.29)
Submarine cables and pipelines
6.16
1
Submarine cables and gas pipelines are laid from Nanhui
Zui (30°52′N, 121°53′E) seawards throughout Zoushan
Qundao.
Prohibited areas
6.17
1
Numerous areas exist throughout Zoushan Qundao as
indicated on the chart where anchoring and fishing are
prohibited.
OFFSHORE ROUTE
General information
Charts 1759, 1199, 1124
Route
6.18
1
From a position ESE of Dawenchong (29°38′N,
122°13′E) the route leads initially 41 miles NE to a
position SE of Liangxiongdi Yu (30°10′N, 122°57′E),
thence 35 miles N to a position W of Hai Jiao (30°44′N,
CHAPTER 6
197
123°08′E) and finally 14 miles NNW to a position ENE of
Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E).
Topography
6.19
1
See islands in the archipelago at 6.10.
Dumping ground
6.20
1
An explosive dumping area 2 miles square is centred
3 miles WNW of Hai Jiao (30°44′N, 123°08′E).
Tide rips
6.21
1
Tide rips form off the E end of Huaniaoshan (30°51′N,
122°40′E) (6.28).
Principal marks
6.22
1
Landmarks:
Bijiashan (29°39′N, 122°14′E), an island 117 m high.
A light (white masonry cone, 10 m in height) is
exhibited from the 111 m high summit in the SE
part of the island.
2
Waiyangan Dao (Dontingshan) (29°52′N, 122°35′E),
49 m high, it is cleft in two from N to S, and is
bare and rocky except for some cultivated plots. It
is the outermost islet in the S approach to the
central part of Zhoushan Qundao.
Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.28).
3
Major lights:
Wai Jiao Light (white six sided concrete structure,
15 m in height) (29°41′N, 122°17′E).
Taohua Dao Light (Jianfeng Shan) (white round
concrete tower, black bands, 15 m in height)
(29°46′N, 122°18′E).
4
Waiyangan Dao Light (white round concrete tower,
8 m in height) (29°52′N, 122°35′E).
Huaniaoshan Light (white round tower, black top,
16 m in height) (30°51′N, 122°40′E). A tall
antenna rack near the light is a distinctive mark
from seawards.
Other aids to navigation
6.23
1
Racons:
Taohua Dao Light (29°46′N, 122°18′E).
Zhongkui Dao Light (30°26′N, 122°56′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.160)
Dawenchong to Liangxiongdi Yu
6.24
1
From a position ESE of Dawenchong (29°38′N,
122°13′E) (5.160), the track leads initially NE, passing:
SE of Xiaowenchong Dao (29°39′N, 122°13′E), a
wooded island, thence:
2
SE of Bijiashan (29°39′N, 122°14′E) (6.22). A rock
Ta-Huan, 13⋅1 m high lies 1 cable SE. Thence:
SE of Yuanshan Dao (Xuanshan) (29°42′N,
122°13′E), thence:
3
Clear of a steel pile reported to be in 29°40′N,
122°30′E, 13 m high, marked by a buoy (red
conical) moored close to the danger. An
unexploded depth charge is reported to lie
8⋅2 miles E of the buoy with numerous
obstructions in the vicinity.
(Directions continue for alternative route through
Tiazhou Men at 6.61 and for the main route
through Xiazhi Men at 6.58)
4
The track continues NE, passing:
SE of Shangpan Jiao (29°50′N, 122°26E) 30 m high
and peaked, it lies in the SE approach to Wolf
Bay. Yangjiao Jiao, a reef which dries, lies
2 miles NE. Thence:
SE of Waiyangan Dao (29°52′N, 122°35′E) (6.22)
from where a light (6.22) is exhibited. Liyangan
Dao and Yangjiao Jiao lie 4 miles and 6 miles
respectively WSW of Waiyangan Dao.
(Directions continue for route N through
Zoushan Qundao at 6.36)
5
The track continues NE, passing:
SE of Dongfu Shan (30°08′N, 122°45′E) (6.26),
where anchorage, may be obtained, thence:
6
SE of Sizimei Dao (30°09′N, 122°52′E) consisting of
a group of four islets 24 m high and a rock which
lies 7 cables SE, with a depth of 4⋅3 m over it.
Other below water rocks with breakers in the
vicinity and surrounded by muddy yellow water
were reported in 1945, to lie 3cables ESE of
Sizimei Dao. Another rock with a depth of less
than 1⋅8 m over it, was reported in 1974, to lie
8 cables ENE of Sizimei Dao.
7
Thence the track continues to a position SE of
Liangxiongdi Yu (30°10′N, 122°57′E) consisting of two
islets 25 m high.
Liangxiongdi Yu to Huaniaoshan
6.25
1
From a position SE of Liangxiongdi Yu (30°10′N,
122°57′E), the track leads N, passing:
E of an obstruction (30°23′N, 122°57′E), thence:
W of a wreck (30°22′N, 123°02′E) with a depth of
13 m over it, thence:
2
E of Zhongkui Dao (30°26′N, 122°56′E), in
Langgangshan Liedao. Langgangshan Liedao
consists of a group of three uninhabited barren
islets, precipitous on their E side lying 15 miles
N of Liangxiongdi Yu (30°10′N, 122°57′E), from
72 to 102 m high. Zhongkui Dao, (30°26′N,
122°56′E) the SW islet is the highest. A light
(white round concrete tower, 14 m in height) is
exhibited from the island. Between the first islet,
Xikui Dao, and Zhongkui Dao the middle islet,
there are 2 prominent rocks 20 m and 30 m high.
Thence:
3
E of Dongkui Dao, 3 cables NE of Zhongkui Dao.
(Directions continue for Qu Jiang at 6.183)
The track continues N, passing:
E of a series of obstructions centred in (30°30′N,
122°48′E), thence:
4
E of Dongbanyang Jiao (30°37′N, 122°51′E), 11 miles
NNW of Langgangshan Liedao, a pinnacle rock
which dries 0⋅9 m. It is steep-to, except on its N
side, and sounding gives no warning of its
presence, and even at half tide the sea does not
break over it.
(Directions continue for passages between
Maan Liedao and Shengsi Liedao at 6.202)
5
The track continues N passing:
Clear of a wreck (30°43′N, 122°59′E) with a depth of
19⋅6 m above it, thence:
CHAPTER 6
198
E of Shengshan (30°43′N, 122°49′E) (6.27), thence:
6
W of Hai Jiao (30°44′N, 123°08′E), consisting of 3
islets, the W-most and largest of which is 46 m
high. Foul ground extend 6 cables SE of the islet
and near its extremity lies a rock, drying 3 m on
which the sea breaks heavily; there are also
breakers 7 cables WSW of this rock. An
obstruction with a depth of 8⋅6 m over it, lies
1 miles N of Hai Jiao. A light (white round
stone tower 12 m in height) is exhibited from the
W islet of Hai Jiao.
7
The track then leads NNW passing:
WSW of an explosives dumping ground centred in
30°46N, 123°04′E (6.20), thence:
ENE of Bixiashan (30°47′N, 122°46′E) (6.205),
thence:
8
ENE of Huang Jiao (30°46′N, 122°44′E), a group of
three small islets and numerous rocks in the centre
of Maan Liedao. The centre islet is 54 m high and
precipitous on its S and W sides. Thence:
9
ENE of Chang Hsu, an islet, 1 miles NW, which
has a remarkable needle rock, 6 m high, near its S
end and two pillar rocks, 18 m high, 2 cables
farther S. Another islet, Jilongshan, 1 mile farther
N, is 63 m high, has steep rocky sides and a sharp
summit. Thence:
10
WSW of a dangerous wreck (30°52′N, 122°58′E).
Thence the track continues to a position ENE of
Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.28).
(Directions continue for the offshore route at 7.9 and
for the passage N of Zhoushan Qundao at 6.212)
Adjacent islands
Dongfu Shan
6.26
1
General information. Dongfu Shan (30°08′N,
122°45′E), is an island covered with boulders of porphyritic
rock and interspersed with grass. The S side of the island
is very steep and its E point rises in vertical cliffs, 91 m to
152 m, with three remarkable craggy peaks on the ridge
which connects it to the summit. On the N side of the
summit there is a prominent dome shaped white patch on
the rocks which may sometimes be discerned through mist
on sunny days. A small fishing population exists.
2
Anchorages. There is open anchorage off the SW side
of Dongfu Shan, in depths from 24 to 31 m, sheltered
from N and E winds. The line of bearing 057° of the
summit of the island leads into the anchorage. Anchor on
this line of bearing when the summit of Qingbin Dao
(30°12′N, 122°42′E) bears 327°.
3
There is also open anchorage off the N coast of Dongfu
Shan, in depths from 20 to 26 m, mud and shells, sheltered
from the S and SW, but unsafe with N winds. The line of
bearing 117° of the summit of the island leads into the
anchorage. Anchor on the narrow coastal shelf when about
2 cables offshore. In this position the depths off the
island increase gradually out to a distance 3 cables and then
suddenly increase to 49 m.
4
Landing place. The principal landing place, used by the
fishing boats, is a small cove situated between two
off-lying rocks at the NW extremity of the island where
there is a small village. There is another village at the head
of the bay.
Shengshan and Gouqi Shan
6.27
1
Description. Shengshan (30°43′N, 122°49′E) is the SE
island of Maan Liedao. Its coast, especially on the E side,
is rocky and precipitous. Several peaks are to be found, out
of which one double summit in the N part is considerably
higher than the rest. The highest peak is in the middle of
the island, and 4 cables E of it there is a remarkable
boulder with an elevation of 206 m which is prominent
from N and S. There is a village, with a boat harbour on
the W end of the island.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in Alacrity anchorage lying
between the SW side of Shengshan and the SE side of
Gouqi Shan 1 mile W.
Tidal streams in Alacrity anchorage attain a maximum
rate of 2 to 3 kn, but the farther in a vessel anchors, the
less tidal stream she will experience. It is only near spring
tides that the streams are strong enough to swing a vessel
against a moderate breeze.
3
Directions. The alignment (032°) of the prominent
boulder on Shengshan with the centre of a prominent
beach, leads into the E part of the anchorage. There are no
known dangers in this part, and the depths decrease
gradually towards the shore.
Useful mark:
White tower standing close of a stone dwelling near
the S extremity of Shengshan.
4
Anchorage. There is good shelter from winds from the
E through N to W, in depths from 12⋅8 to 18⋅3 m, stiff
mud. A considerable swell sets into the bay when the wind
is S of E or W. When this occurs at spring tides a vessel
becomes tide-rode and should leave. In a SE gale shelter
can be obtained off the NW side of Gouqi Shan. NW gales
with heavy squalls have been ridden out in the bay on the
E side of Shengshan. The anchorage is filled with
numerous fishing craft and at times they fill out the bay to
a depth of 14⋅6 m.
5
Landing. The only place where landing is always
feasible is in a small cove about midway along the SE side
of Gouqi Shan.
Huaniaoshan
6.28
1
Description. Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E), the N
island of Maan Liedao is covered with rocks and grass and
has a saddle shaped summit. Its coast is rugged and in
many places precipitous.
Tidal streams are strong off Huaniaoshan.
2
Anchorage. Vessels usually anchor, in moderate depths,
in the bay on the N side of Huaniaoshan (30°51′N,
122°40′E). But in spring and late autumn N winds set in
without warning and it may be necessary to leave the
anchorage at short notice. Anchorage in the bay on the SE
side of the island is subject to a heavy swell, and is not a
good anchorage with winds between S and NNE.
ROUTE NORTH THROUGH
ZHOUSHAN QUNDAO
General information
Charts 1759, 1199, 1124
Route
6.29
1
From a position SE of Waiyangan Dao (29°52′N,
122°35′E) the route leads NNW for 18 miles to a position
SSW of Huangxing Dao (30°12′N, 122°38′E), thence N for
14 miles to a position E of Shanxing Shan (30°26′N,
CHAPTER 6
199
122°31′E), thence NW for 17 miles to a position W of
Banyang Jiao (30°38′N, 122°22′E) and N for 10 miles to a
position NNW of Beidingxing Dao (30°45′N, 122°23′E).
Topography
6.30
1
See islands in the archipelago at 6.10.
Prohibited area
6.31
1
Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in an area
extending 1 miles S from a line joining the S points of
Xiaoban Dao (30°12′N, 122°35′E) (6.42) and Huangxing
Dao 3⋅1 miles E.
Tide rips
6.32
1
Tide rips form off the salient points of both
Dahuanglong Dao (30°40′N, 122°33′E) and Xiaohuanglong
Dao, close by. Tide rips also form off the NE point of
Sijiaoshan (30°43′N, 122°28′E) and the islet 7 cables SSE
of that point.
Rescue
6.33
1
See 6.7.
Principal marks
6.34
1
Landmark:
Waiyangan Dao (29°52′N, 122°35′E) (6.22).
2
Major lights:
Waiyangan Dao Light (29°52′N, 122°35′E) (6.22).
Lujiashan Light (white round tower, red bands 40 m
in height) (29°58′N, 122°26′E).
Lihuo Yu Light (white 6-sided structure 15 m in
height) (30°06′N, 122°21′E).
Xiaoguishan Light (black round tower 106 m in
height) (30°13′N, 122°35′E).
3
Fengchao Yan Light (white round concrete mast 10 m
in height) (30°22′N, 122°41′E).
XiaShanxing Shan Light (white 6 sided concrete
structure) (30°26′N, 122°31′E).
Bajieshan Light (30°36′N, 122°25′E) (white tower,
red bands 14 m in height).
Dajishan Light (white 8 sided concrete tower), 92 m
in height (30°48′N, 122°10′E).
Other aids to navigation
6.35
1
Racons:
Banyang Jiao Light (30°38′N, 122°22′E) (6.38).
Lihuo Yu Light (30°06′N, 122°21′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.24)
Waiyangan Dao to Xiaoban Dao
6.36
1
From a position SE of Waiyangan Dao (29°52′N,
122°35′E) the track leads NNW, passing:
2
ENE of Waiyangan Dao (29°52′N, 122°35′E) (6.22),
thence:
ENE of Liyangan Dao (29°52′N, 122°30′E),
Shangpan Jiao (29°50′N, 122°26′E) (6.24) and
Yangjiao Jiao (6.24). Thence:
ENE of Zhujiajian Dao (29°54′N, 122°23′E) (6.10),
thence:
3
ENE of Baishashan (29°56′N, 122°27′E) 152 m high,
with an adjacent island Chaishan (30°35′N,
122°23′E) (6.38) and joined N by a small reef. A
small deep passage, Baisha Shuidao (Iffland
Channel), 7 cables wide separates the two islands
from the NE side of Zhujiajian. Thence:
ENE of Luojiashan (29°58N, 122°26′E) from where a
light is exhibited (6.34). Thence:
4
ENE of Chuan Jiao (29°59′N, 122°31′E) 4 m high,
which lies 4 miles E of Luojiashan and is covered
by the red sector of the light on that island.
Numerous fishing stakes lie from 2 miles SSE to
ENE of Chuan Jiao
ENE of a dangerous wreck in 29°59′N, 122°35′E.
ENE of Hezhong Jiao (30°00′N, 122°26′E), thence:
5
ENE of Putuoshan (30°00′N, 122°23′N), where
anchorage (6.41) may be obtained; it has numerous
temples on it. There is a clear channel between
Putuoshan and the shallow bank extending N from
Zhujiajian Dao (29°54′N, 122°23′E) (6.10) and E
from Zhoushan Dao. Thence:
6
ENE of Hulu Dao (30°01′N, 122°25′E), 88 m high
which lies off the NE end of Putuoshan (6.41)
from which it is separated by a deep channel.
Close S of the island there is a pinnacle rock with
a depth of 5⋅8 m over it, above and below water
rocks lie off the SE, NE and N sides of Hulu Dao.
A rock known as Andrews Rock lies N in
30°03′⋅7N, 122°25′⋅2E marked by tide rips.
Thence:
7
ENE of Xiangluhuaping Jiao (Shalu Rocks) (30°03′N,
122°28′E). Xiangluhuaping Jiao is a scattered
group of four prominent and five lesser above
water rocks, surrounded by foul ground lying
2 miles ENE of Hulu Dao. The rocks are steep
to and sounding gives no warning of their
proximity. The SW and highest rock is sharp,
precipitous and 16 m high. They lie just within the
red sector of Luojiashan Light (6.34). Vessels
passing W of this islet should keep fairly close to
it to avoid Andrews Rock. A light (white square
concrete structure, 3 m in height) is exhibited from
the group.
(Directions continue for passages between
Zhoushan Dao and Daishan Dao at 6.166)
8
The track then continues NNW passing:
ENE of a wreck 5 miles N, thence:
ENE of Wai Ho Hsu (30°03′N, 122°27′E), a grassy
islet with a well defined summit, 46 m high.
Thence the track continues to a position 3 miles SSE of
Xiaoban Dao (30°12′N, 122°35′E) (6.42).
Xiaoban Dao to Shanxing Shan
6.37
1
From a position 3 miles SSE of Xiaoban Dao, the track
leads N, passing:
2
Through Xiaoben Men, between the islets extending
7 cables W off Huangxing Dao (30°12′N,
122°38′E), on the E side and Xiaoban Dao
(30°12′N, 122°35′E) (6.42) on the W. It is the
passage most frequently used by deep draught
vessels passing through Zhongjieshan Qundao, as it
is free from danger and deep throughout. Xiaoben
Dao has three peaks the S-most and highest being
108 m high. A vertical cliff, 78 m high, on the SE
side of the island is prominent from the NE and
SW. Thence:
CHAPTER 6
200
3
E of Xiaoguishan (30°13′N, 122°35′E). Close N of
Xiaoban Dao, it is 61 m high with a remarkable
boulder on its S slope. A pinnacle rock, 4 cables
NW of Xiaoguishan has a depth of 1⋅2 m over it.
The sea never breaks on this rock, but tide rips
usually form when the tidal streams are strong. A
light (6.34) is exhibited from the summit of
Xiaoguishan. Thence:
4
E of a dangerous wreck (30°15′N, 122°35′E), thence:
W of Fengchao Yan (30°22′N, 122°41′E) from where
a light (6.34) is exhibited. There is a flat topped
rock which dries 2⋅1 m, 1 cables SE. A pinnacle
rock with a depth of 2⋅7 m over it lies 4 cables
NNW of Fengchao Yan. Thence:
W of a dangerous wreck (30°24′N, 122°36′E)
reported in 2000.
5
Thence the track continues to a position E of Shanxing
Shan (30°26′N, 122°31′E) 60 m high. It is the E islet of the
Shanxing Liedao group. A light (6.34) is exhibited from the
E summit.
(Directions continue for passage between
Chuanhu Liedao and Qiqu Liedao at 6.195)
Shanxing Shan to Banyang Jiao
6.38
1
From a position E of Shanxing Shan (30°26′N,
122°31′E), the track leads NW passing:
NE of Xiahaishan (30°29′N, 122°24′E) (6.195),
thence:
2
NE of Huangzeshan (30°31′N, 122°20′E) (6.195).
Thence:
Through a two mile wide passage known as Baijie
Xia, thence:
3
NE of Chaishan (30°35′N, 122°23′E), the E islet of
Chuanhu Liedao, on the W side of Baijie Xia. The
islet is 65 m high and precipitous. A remarkable
thumb rock, 31 m high lies close to the S end.
There are tide rips N and S of Chaishan. Thence:
4
NE of Xiachuanshan (30°35′N, 122°21′E), 1 mile W
of Chaishan. This is a group of islands almost
joined to each other. The highest island is 89 m
high. Thence:
5
NE of Shangchuanshan (30°37′N, 122°19′E) (6.44)
7 cables W of Xiachuanshan, 143 m high.
Chuannan Jiao, a steep to pinnacle rock, lying
5 cables SSW of the SW point of Shangchuanshan,
has a depth of 2⋅1 m over it. There is no indication
of this rock except when tide rips occur during
calm weather. Thence:
6
SW of Tuluo Jiao (30°36′N, 122°28′E) a group of
rocks 3 miles E of the S point of Baijieshan. The
highest rock has a sharp summit 18 m high. Tide
rips occur W of the rocks and also off the N sides
of the rocks and also off the N sides of the two
islands 7 cables NW. Thence:
7
SW of Baijieshan (30°37′N, 122°25′E) (6.43). Some
rocks and an islet, 40 m high lie on a shoal
extending 5 cables NW of Baijieshan.
Yingchaoshan, another islet, 63 m high is separated
from the N side of this shoal by a narrow passage
with a depth of 12⋅8 m. Tide rips occur S of
Baijieshan and N of Yingchaoshan. A light (6.34)
is exhibited from the S shoulder of Baijieshan.
Thence:
8
SW of Feng Chiao, a rock, 6 cables W of Baijieshan
with a depth of less than 1⋅8 m over it. Foul
ground extends 1 cables NE from this rock to an
islet 18 m high.
9
Thence the track leads to a position W of Banyang Jiao
(30°38′N, 122°22′E), a black, rugged, rocky islet about
11 m high formerly known as The Button. A light (black
round concrete tower, 19 m in height) is exhibited from the
summit of Banyang Jiao. Vessels are cautioned that prior to
1904, there is no record of any wreck at Banyang Jiao, but
several have happened since. The explanation is that
mariners sometimes fail to appreciate the strength and set
of the cross currents and pass too close to this island,
whereas previously they gave it a wide berth. The
dangerous tide-races through the passage seem to make
vessels unmanageable if they pass too close to Banyang
Jiao.
Banyang Jiao to Beidingxing Dao
6.39
1
From a position W of Banyang Jiao (30°38′N,
122°22′E), the track leads N, passing:
E of Bitaoshan (30°39′N, 122°17′E), 60 m high,
thence:
2
E of Xugong Dao (30°38′N, 122°16′E), it has two
sharp peaks 149 and 130 m high covered with
grass and rocks. There is a village at the head of
the mud filled bay on the W side of the island.
Islets and rocks extend 7 cables NE and SW of
Xugong Dao. Thence:
3
W of Majishan (30°40′N, 122°25′E) (6.47), thence:
E of Yuchi Anshi (30°41′N, 122°18′E) (6.212),
thence:
4
W of a dangerous wreck in 30°41′N, 122°23′E,
reported 2000, thence:
W of Sijiaoshan (30°43′N, 122°28′E) (6.13), thence:
5
W of Niue Jiao (30°44′N, 122°22′E), a black rugged
rock 9 m high.
Thence the track continues to a position NNW of
Beidingxing Dao (30°45′N, 122°23′E) (6.45) and
Waihuangfen (30°46′N, 122°23′E) (6.212).
(Directions continue for route N of
Zhoushan Qundao at 6.212)
Anchorage
Wolf Bay
6.40
1
Wolf Bay entered between Qingshan Jiao (29°50′N,
122°24′E) and Pelican Point, 3 miles NNE, is shoal but
affords anchorage to small vessels in the NE monsoon.
Adjacent islands
Putuoshan
6.41
1
Description. Putuoshan (30°00′N, 122°23′N) affords
anchorage off the S side of the island. The maximum rate
of the tidal stream at neaps is 3 kn. Putuoshan is one of the
Port Districts of Zhoushan Port.
2
Useful mark:
Tiandang (30°00′N, 122°23′E), a 289 m high peak in
the N part of the island.
A temple lies 2 cables NW of the summit. Numerous
temples exist in the S part of the island.
3
Anchorage may be obtained in depths from 22 to 26 m
with good holding. An anchorage centred in 29°57′⋅6N,
122°23′⋅5E with a radius of 2 cables in depths of 14 m,
mud, is intended as an inspection anchorage for the port of
Putuo.
CHAPTER 6
201
4
Berth. A stone jetty at the S end of the island has a
depth of 1⋅8 m alongside, but the pier and its approaches
are usually encumbered with junks.
Xiaoban Dao
6.42
1
Xiaoban Dao (30°12′N, 122°35′E) can provide
anchorage for one small vessel, sheltered from S and SE
winds in a small bay on the NW side, about 3 cables
offshore in 11 to 26 m mud, on the alignment (080°) of the
N point of Huangxing Dao (30°12′N, 122°38′E) (6.183)
with the S point of Xiaoguishan (30°13′N, 122°35′E)
(6.37).
Baijieshan
6.43
1
Baijieshan (30°37′N, 122°25′E), formerly known as
Bonham island, is the SW island of Shengsi Liedao. There
is a village on its N side and a landing place on its W
side. Good anchorage can be found off the SE side in
depths from 11 to 16⋅5 m sheltered from NW winds. There
is indifferent anchorage off the W side of the island, in
similar depths, with the lighthouse bearing 132° distant 3 to
4 cables. The latter anchorage is sheltered from N and NE
winds, but tidal eddies are troublesome.
Shangchuanshan
6.44
1
Typhoon anchorage can be found in a depth of 18⋅3 m
off the S side of Shangchuanshan (30°37′N, 122°19′E) with
the summit of that island bearing 357°, Bitou Jiao
(30°35′N, 122°16′E) (6.38) bearing 275° and just open S of
the SW part of the island. A ship in the W semi-circle of a
typhoon, and unable to make the mouth of Chiang Jiang,
can wait in this anchorage till the storm is past. The tidal
eddies are troublesome, but no swell is felt.
Beidingxing Dao
6.45
1
Beidingxing Dao (30°45′N, 122°23′E) is high and
precipitous on its E side, it is almost joined to islets off its
N and S points. There is good anchorage available in
depths from 7⋅3 to 14⋅6 m, in the channel between
Beidingxing Dao and Sijiaoshan Shengsi (30°43′N,
122°28′E) (6.13), but anchorage off the S side of
Sijiaoshan Shengsi is reported to be unsafe.
Dajishan
6.46
1
Dajishan (30°48′N, 122°10′E), formerly known as
Gutzlaff island, is an isolated islet lying 11 miles NW of
Shengsi Liedao. It is covered with vegetation and appears
cone shaped from the NE. Anchorage can be found in a
depth of 11 m about 4 cables off the landing place, with the
light on Dajishan bearing 064° and just open S of a white
hut on the SW coast of the islet. Care must be taken to
avoid the submarine cables in the vicinity, some of which
are landed in a small cable house on the W side of the
islet.
Majishan
6.47
1
An excellent boat harbour, and a fishing village lie on
the NE side of Majishan (30°40′N, 122°25′E), 110 m high,
which lies 7 cables S of the SW extremity of Sijiaoshan
Shengsi. There are usually many junks here. Tide rips form
off the W end of the island and also S of Waimati Jiao,
7 cables SE of Majishan. In 1995 approval was given for
the construction of a large ore transhipment port on the N
side of Majishan, capable of handling vessels up to
250 000 dwt.
NINGBO AND APPROACHES INCLUDING ZHOUSHAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1199, 1759, 1124, 1429, 1592
Area covered
6.48
1
This section describes the SE approaches to Zoushan
and Ningbo, the N approach to Ningbo across the E side of
Hangzhou Wan and the ports of Zoushan and Ningbo.
It is arranged as follows:
South-east approaches to Zhoushan and Ningbo
(6.51).
North approach to Ningbo and Zhoushan (6.77).
Ningbo (6.89).
Zhoushan (6.128).
Topography
6.49
1
Fodu Dao. (29°44′N, 122°01′E) has a grass covered
range of hills with a well defined summit, 184 m high.
Near its N end there are several villages, and the reclaimed
land is well cultivated.
2
Jintang Dao. (30°01′N, 121°52′E) lies at the junction of
Jintang Shuidao and the NW channel. Its SE and E coasts
are fairly steep-to with a ridge of hills within.
On the E side of Jintang Dao, Ma-an Shan 428 m high,
and Xianren Shan 453 m high are prominent.
Submarine cables
6.50
1
Numerous submarine cables are laid in the area covered
by this section.
SOUTH-EAST APPROACHES TO
ZHOUSHAN AND NINGBO
General information
Charts 1199, 1759, 1124, 1429
Routes
6.51
1
Main route. From the vicinity of a steel pile (29°40′N,
122°30′E), the route leads WNW for 10 miles to a position
in Xiazhi Men Northern Anchorage (29°45′N, 122°31′E) at
the pilot boarding position, thence through Xiazhi Men and
Zhitou Yang to a position E of Yanyxiaomao Dao
(29°53′N, 122°09′E). The route continues generally W to a
position S of Damao Dao (29°57′N, 122°02′E), thence NW
through Jintang Shuidao to a position N of Tuni Zui
(29°57′N, 121°58′E).
2
Alternative route through Tiazhou Men. From the
vicinity of a steel pile (29°40′N, 122°30′E) the route leads
WNW for 9 miles to a position in Xiazhi Men Southern
anchorage (29°40′N, 122°31′E) S of the pilotage boarding
point. The track then leads through Tiazhou Men and
Zhitou Yang to a position E of Yanyxiaomao Dao
(29°53′N, 122°09′E).
CHAPTER 6
202
3
Inshore route. From a position SW of Wenzhou Zhi
(29°43′N, 122′00⋅E) the route leads NNE for about 3 miles,
thence generally NE through Qinglong Men, Fodu Shuidao
and Zhitou Yang to to a position E of Yanyxiaomao Dao
(29°53′N, 122°09′E).
Topography
6.52
1
See 6.49.
Pilotage
6.53
1
Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels. Pilot boards
in Xiazhi Men N Anchorage (29°45′N, 122°22′E) and are
based on Xiazhi Dao (29°45′N, 122°15′E) (6.75). It is
advisable to arrange pilotage for the outward passage at the
same time as for inward pilotage. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals 6(4).
Vertical clearances
6.54
1
Overhead power cables span the channels between the
following points:
Yuanshan Dao (Xuanshan) (29°42′N, 122°13′E) and
Dumianshan, 4 cables SW, with a vertical clearance
of 34 m.
2
Zoumatang (29°44′N, 122°14′E) and Xiazhi Dao
(29°45′N, 122°15′E) with a vertical clearance of
26 m.
Xiazhi Dao (29°45′N, 122°15′E) and Xiaoshuangshan
(29°49′N, 122°14′E) with a vertical clearance of
20 m.
3
Hunishan (29°47′N, 122°11′E) and Dongbailishan
(29°48′N, 122°10′E) with a vertical clearance of
38 m.
Xiazhi Dao (29°45′N, 122°15′E) and Hunishan
(29°47′N, 122°11′E) with a vertical clearance of
13 m.
4
Taohua Dao (29°48′N, 122°16′E) to Xuanbogu Dao
(29°50′N, 122°19′E) and Pangi Dao (29°51′N,
122°19′E) with a vertical clearance of 21 m.
Tidal streams
6.55
1
In the vicinity of Yanyxiaomao Dao (29°53′N,
122°09′E), rates vary from 2 to 6 kn and the meeting of
the various streams causes whirls and eddies, the water
never being at rest. The passage inshore of the island is
deep but has heavy tide rips and strong eddies and should
not be attempted by vessels unable to maintain a speed of
10 kn when there is a spring tidal stream against them. As
a rule of thumb the tidal streams set as follows.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0330 to +0130 NW
+0130 to −0330 SE
2
Qinlong Men. between Fodu Dao (29°44′N, 122°01′E)
and Tingzishan (29°45′N, 121°59′E), Tingzi Men between
Tingzishan and Meishan Dao (29°48′N, 121°59′E), and
Shuangyu Men between Liuheng Dao (29°43′N, 122°07′E)
(6.74) and Fodu Dao (29°44′N, 122°01′E), have streams
with a maximum rate of 3 kn at neaps and 5 kn at springs.
The tidal streams set as follows, with the time of the turn
being slightly advanced or retarded by the prevailing wind.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0245 to +0315 NE
+0315 to −0245 SW
3
Lujia Zhi. In the channel E of Lujia Zhi (29°56′N,
122°18′E) streams have a maximum rate of 3 to 4 kn and
set as follows.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0415 to +0145 N
+0145 to −0415 S
4
Lotou Shuidao. In the narrow part of Lotou Shuidao
(29°55′N, 122°01′E) streams attain a maximum rate of 3 kn
at neaps and 7 kn and there are heavy tide rips. It is
therefore advisable to keep in mid-channel. The tidal
streams set as follows.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0300 to +0300 NW
+0300 to −0300 SE
5
Approaches to Dinghai Gang. In the main channel of
the W approach route which passes between Damao Dao
(29°57′N, 122°02′E) and the next island N, Xixie Zhi,
streams attain a maximum rate of 2 to 3 kn and in the
passage N of Xixie Zhi attain a route of 2 to 5 kn. The
streams follow the general directions of the channels and
set as follows.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0300 to +0230 W
+0230 to −0300 E
6
Jixiang Men between Zhairuoshan (29°57′N, 122°05′E)
and Bijiashan, 1 mile E has streams which attain a rate of
3 to 5 kn and set as follows.
Interval from HW Chang
Jiang
Direction
−0300 to +0230 W
+0230 to −0300 E
7
The tidal streams swirl around Melville Rock
(29°58′⋅5N, 122°05′⋅8E) and Dundas Rock at 3 to 5 kn
making this part of Jixiang Men more difficult to navigate
than that branching NE past Elliot patch (59°58′⋅9N,
122°06′⋅3E), although tidal streams in the latter are also
strong.
The tidal streams also set strongly over The Ledge
(29°58′⋅4N, 122°05′⋅5E), a reef.
8
Daxie Dao. Tidal streams in the passage W of Daxie
Dao (29°55′N, 121°58′E) set as follows.
Interval from HW Chang
Jiang
Direction
−0300 to +0300 NNW
+0300 to −0300 SSE
9
Qili Zhi. Tidal streams in the vicinity of Qili Zhi
(30°00′N, 121°45′E) attain rates of 2 kn at neaps to 6 kn at
springs and set as follows.
CHAPTER 6
203
These times are only approximate as the duration of the
stream is variable.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0230 to +0330 NW
+0330 to −0230 SE
10
Zhenhai. Tidal streams in the river off Zhenhai
(29°57′N, 121°42′E) attain rates of 1 kn at neaps to 3 kn at
springs, and set as follows.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0230 In going stream commences.
+0300 Out going stream commences
Strong winds between N and NW considerably retards
the flow of the out-going tide and causes irregularity in the
normal times of LW.
11
After heavy rain inland the out-going stream often sets
for 12 hours, and vessels do not swing to the ingoing
stream at all, but this does not appreciably affect the time
of HW. Whether in-going or out-going there is a strong set
on the outer banks in the winding part of the channel.
Principal marks
6.56
1
Landmarks:
Wai Jiao (29°41′N, 122°17′E), an island.
Yanyxiaomao Dao (29°53′N, 122°09′E), an island
with a steep, rocky and grass covered round
summit 37 m high.
Zhitou Shan (29°53′N, 122°07′E), 391 m high.
2
Major lights:
Taohua Dao Light (29°46′N, 122°18′E) (6.22).
Dapengshan Light (White round tower 8 m in height)
(30°05′N, 121°49′E).
Qili Yu Light (White 8 sided tower 25 m in height)
(30°00′N, 121°45′E).
Yanyxiaomao Dao Light (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.22).
Wai Jiao Light (29°41′N, 122°17′E) (6.22).
Other aids to navigation
6.57
1
Racons:
Taohua Dao Light (29°46′N, 122°18′E).
Changtiao Zui Light (29°58′N, 121°48′E).
Directions for main route through Xiazhi Men
(continued from 6.24)
Seaward to Yanyxiaomao Dao
6.58
1
From the vicinity of a steel pile (29°40′N, 122°30′E) on
the offshore route the track leads WNW passing:
Through the SW edge of Xiazhi Men Northern
Anchorage (29°42′N, 122°21′E), at the pilot
boarding position (6.53).
2
Thence the track leads NW passing:
NE of Xiazhi Dao (29°45′N, 122°15′E)(6.75), thence:
SW of the S extremity of Taohua Dao (29°48′N,
122°16′E), from where a light (6.22) is exhibited.
Thence:
3
NE of Xiaoshuangshan (29°49′N, 122°14′E), a light
(white 8-sided concrete structure with red stripes,
15 m in height) is exhibited from the island.
Thence:
NE of Dashuangshan 2 cables NW, thence:
4
SW of Xialan Shan (Hsiang Lan Shan) (29°49′N,
122°14′E). A light (white 8-sided concrete
structure with black bands, 10 m in height) is
exhibited from the island. Thence:
SW of Shang-lan Shan (29°49′N, 122°14′E), thence:
NE of Dongbailianshan (29°49′N, 122°11′E) and
Bounty islands, 60 m high, 1 cable E, thence:
5
NE of Barnes Island (29°49′N, 122°12′E), 17 m high
and Kynaston Island, 1 cable W, 50 m high,
thence:
NE of Haliuwangchong Dao (29°50′N, 122°12′E),
42 m high, thence:
NE of Shangliuwangchong Dao, 1 cable NW, from
where a light (white round structure, 14 m in
height) is exhibited, thence:
6
Thence the track continues to a position E of
Yanyxiaomao Dao (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.56) using the
directions at the end of 6.62.
Yanyxiaomao Dao to Liangmaoshan
(continued from 6.61)
6.59
1
From a position E of Yanyxiaomao Dao (29°53′N,
122°09′E) (6.56) the track leads N then W through Lotou
Shuidao passing:
N of Xuanshan Bandao (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.72),
the mountainous peninsula W of Yanyxiaomao Dao
(29°53′N, 122°09′E), thence:
2
S of Changzhi Dao (29°58′N, 122°10′E), two islands
joined by reclamation. A number of other islets
and dangers lie within 1 mile W and NW of
Changzi Dao, and the channels between them,
although deep, should not be used for navigation
as they are narrow and the tide streams attain rates
of 3 to 5 kn. Thence:
3
S of Aoshan (29°57′N, 122°09′E) at the NE end of
Lotou Shuidao, an island with a noticeable peak,
126 m high, in its SW part. a spit, with depths of
less than 5⋅5 m over it, extends 1 mile E of
Aoshan and several islets and shoals lie within
1 mile W and 3 cables S of the W end of the
island. Thence:
4
S of Datongshan (29°56′N, 122°07′E) from where a
light (white 6-sided concrete tower, 10 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
S of Bijiashan (29°57′N, 122°06′E), 41 m high,
thence:
5
S of Zhairuoshan (29°57′N, 122°05′E), 2 miles W of
Aoshan. It has a rocky, precipitous hill, 213 m
high, on its S end. The highest part 264 m high, is
near the middle of the island. Numerous islands
extend 2 miles N of Zhairuoshan to within
7 cables of the coast of Zhoushan Dao. A light
(white round masonry tower 6 m in height) is
exhibited. Thence:
6
Clear of a reported obstruction (29°54′N, 122°04′E),
position approximate, thence:
S of Xiaomaoshan (29°56′⋅6N, 122°03′⋅0E), thence:
N of Baiyashan (29°54′⋅3N, 122°01′⋅8E), thence:
N of Xiaobaiya Jiao (29°54′N, 122°02′E) from where
a light (black concrete cone structure,7 m in
height) is exhibited.
7
Thence the track leads to a position N of Liangmaoshan
(29°54′⋅6N, 122°01′⋅2E) (6.166), thence:
CHAPTER 6
204
Liangmaoshan to Tuni Zui
6.60
1
From a position N of Liangmaoshan, the track leads NW
passing:
NE of Chuanbi Dao (29°54′N, 122°00′E) which lies
on the S side of the narrowest part of Lotou
Shuidao, 1 miles SW of Damao Dao. The island
is 177 m high, and cultivated in patches up to its
summit. Islets and rocks, the nearest of which has
a well defined summit 59 m high, extend 7 cables
E from Chuanbi Dao. Thence:
2
SW of Damao Dao (29°57N, 122°02′E) (6.141). The
highest peak is 328 m high, and rises near the
middle of Damao Dao. A light (white 6 sided
concrete structure, 8 m in height) is exhibited from
Luotou Jiao (29°56′⋅0N, 122°02′⋅0E) at the S end
of Damao Dao. Thence:
3
NE of Daxie Dao (29°55′N, 121°58′E), a large hilly
island with cultivated plains, protected by
reclamation walls and with numerous villages. In
its SE part it rises to a double peak 333 m and
329 m high, the mudflats filling the bay on the N
side of the island are steep-to. A narrow passage S
of Daxie Dao and Chuanbi Dao (29°54′N,
122°00′E) separates the islands from the mainland,
the E part of this passage is encumbered with
islets, rocks and fishing nets, and should not be
attempted. Anchorage (6.105) may be obtained W
and SW of the island.
4
The track then leads to a position NE of Tuni Zui
(29°57′N, 121°58′E), from where a light (white concrete
cone 7 m in height) is exhibited.
(Directions continue for Dinghai at 6.150 and
for Ningbo at 6.116)
Directions for alternative route through
Tiazhou Men
Seaward to Yanyxiaomao Dao
(continued from 6.24)
6.61
1
From the vicinity of a steel pile (29°40′N, 122°30′E) on
the offshore route the track leads WNW passing:
Through the SW edge of Xiazhi Men S Anchorage
(29°42′N, 122°21′E), at the pilot boarding position
(6.53), thence:
NNE of Wai Jiao (29°41′N, 122°17′E) (6.56), thence:
2
NNE of Yuanshan Dao (Xuanshan) (29°42′N,
122°13′E), thence:
SSW of Xiazhi Dao (29°45′N, 122°15′E) (6.75),
thence:
SSW of Zoumatang Dao (29°44′N, 122°14′E), thence:
3
NNE of Mogs Reef (29°43′⋅4N, 122°13′⋅2E) (charted
as Dangerous Rocks), thence:
SSW of Chu-Chia Shan (29°45′N, 122°13′E), thence:
SSW of Changshan (29°45′N, 122°14′E), thence
4
NNE of Liangtan Dao (29°44′N, 122°12′E), thence:
NNE of Liuheng Dao (29°43′N, 122°07′E) (6.74).
NNE of Waimao Shi (29°44′N, 122°10′E), from
where a light (white stone masonry structure, 4 m
in height) is exhibited, thence:
SSW of Jinpenyu Dao (29°46′N, 122°11′E).
5
The track then leads NW passing:
NE of Furenshan (29°46′N, 122°08′E) (6.71), thence:
SE of Mantoushan (29°47′N, 122°10′E) (6.202),
thence:
SE of Duliunshan (29°47′N, 122°09′E), thence:
6
SE of Xibailianshan (29°48′N, 122°10′E).
Between Daqianmen Dao (29°48′N, 122°09′E) and
Liuheng Dao 2 miles SW.
Thence the track continues to a position E of
Yanyxiaomao Dao (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.56) using the
directions at the end of 6.62.
(Directions continue for Ningbo at 6.59)
Directions for inshore route
(continued from 5.163)
Wenzhou Zhi to Yanyxiaomao Dao
6.62
1
From a position SW of Wenzhou Zhi (29°43′N,
122°00′E), the track leads NNE passing:
WNW of Wenzhou Zhi (29°43′N, 122°00′E) (5.163),
and Xiao Fodu 123 m high between which the
tidal streams are very strong. Xiaofodu Dao
(29°43′N, 122°01′E) is presently joined to Fodu
Dao (29°44′N, 122°01′E) (6.49) by two causeways
and a drying mud flat. Numerous fishing stakes
abound in the area.
2
Thence the track leads to a position SE of Tingzishan
(29°45′N, 121°59′E), a large islet 58 m high, with several
smaller islets and rocks extending 6 cables NE of it. A
light (white concrete tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited
from Tingzishan. The track then leads NE through
Qinglong Men, a channel between Tingzishan (29°45′N,
121°59′E) and Fodu Dao (29°44′N, 122°01′E) (6.49) and
then through Fodu Shuidao (29°47′N, 122°02′E) passing:
3
NW of Niushan (29°45′⋅7N, 122°02′⋅1E) and Yefudu
Dao, 1 cable SE, thence:
SE of Meishan Dao (29°48′N, 121°59′E), 149 m high,
a well cultivated and populated large island,
extended by reclamation to embrace several islets,
the reclamation continues in its SE part. Thence:
4
SE of Qinglongshan 72 m high (29°48′⋅0N,
122°01′⋅6E) and Puseshan, 3 cables NE. The islets
have dangers lying within 2 cables SE of them.
Clear of two dangerous wrecks in 29°48′N, 122° 03′E
and 29°48′N, 122°04′E, position approximate,
reported 1996, thence:
5
NW of the NE coast of Liuheng Dao (29°43′N,
122°07′E) (6.74), thence:
NW of Daqianmen Dao (29°48′N, 122°09′E), thence:
SE of two dangerous wrecks (29°52′⋅1N, 122°07′⋅5E),
position approximate.
6
Thence the track continues to a position E of
Yanyxiaomao Dao (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.56) from where
a light (6.56) is exhibited, noting a wreck (29°52′⋅4N,
122°12′⋅2E), with a depth of 35 m over it. A dangerous
wreck, position approximate lies 3miles E of the island.
The passage inshore of the island is deep but should not be
attempted by vessels unable to maintain a speed of 10 kn
when there is a strong tidal stream against them.
(Directions continue for Ningbo at 6.59)
Side channels
Wu-sha Men and Fulimen Shuidao
6.63
1
Description. W-u-s-h-a Shuidao, a channel, leads N
between Taohua Dao (29°48′N, 122°16′E) and Dengbu Dao
(29°52′N, 122°18′E) on the W, and Zhujiajian Dao on the
E, to join the inshore passage. In its N part it becomes
Fulimen Shuidao formerly known as Freemantle Channel.
CHAPTER 6
205
Tidal streams in W-u-s-h-a Shuidao have a maximum
rate of 3 kn and set as follows.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0415 to +0145 NW
+0145 to −0415 SE
2
Directions. From a position SE of Wuzushan (charted as
Wusushan) (29°47′N, 122°22′E), the S, pass either SW or
NE of the island. The track then leads NW passing:
NE of Banchao Jiao (Pan-chao Yen) (29°48′⋅4N,
122°21′⋅3E), an isolated rock. Thence:
SW of Shou-hsien Hsu, 188 m high with a steep and
cliffy coast, it lies 6 cables E of Channel Rocks.
The island is separated from the S part of
Zhujiajian by a pass about 2 cables wide.
3
The track then leads NNE passing:
ESE of Channel Rocks (29°50′N, 122°20′E), two
rocks, awash, near the middle of the S entrance of
the channel. A light (white 8-sided concrete
column, 11 m in height) is exhibited from the N
rock. Thence:
ESE of a shoal patch (29°50′N, 122°20′E) with a
depth of 1⋅1 m over it. Thence:
4
ESE of Ta-Kungku Shan (29°51′⋅7N, 122°20′⋅5E),
thence:
ESE of Ni-Lo Shan (29°52′⋅3N, 122°20′⋅5E), thence:
WNW of Wu-shih Shan (29°52′⋅1N, 122°21′⋅8E),
thence:
WNW of Chia-teng Shan (29°52′⋅8N, 122°21′⋅5E),
keeping clear of the dangers that extend 1 cable S
of the island.
5
The track then leads NNW through Fulimen Shuidao,
about 8 cables wide at its widest, following a mid-channel
course passing:
ENE of Dongshan Dao (Tung-Shan Tao) (29°54′N,
122°20′E) from where a light (white 6-sided
concrete column, 8 m in height) is exhibited.
Thence:
6
The track then leads WNW, passing:
SSW of Lushi Shan. (29°55′N, 122°17′E), 11 m high,
marked by a light buoy (isolated danger).
Clear of a shoal patch (29°55′N, 122°15′E) with a
swept depth of 9 m over it, and clear of a large
shoal area with a depth of 9 m over it, lying about
7 cables S.
7
Clearing bearing. The line of bearing 295° of Lushi
Shan (above), clears the mudflat bordering the N side of
the channel.
Shenjiamen Gang and Menkou Gang
6.64
1
Description. A narrow passage extends inshore from
Lujia Zhi (29°56′N, 122°18′E), 81 m high, close off the SE
end of Zhoushan Dao to Dinghai Gang. The E end of the
passage is marked by a stone beacon standing on a rock
(29°55′N, 122°17′E) which dries 1⋅8 m.
2
The channel leads between the mudflats extending E of
Lujia Zhi and those extending W of Zhujiajian, 1 mile E.
The flat in the N approach to this channel can be crossed
in a least depth of 2⋅7 m. The channel is suitable only for
vessels of less than 3 m draught.
3
Local Knowledge. Good local knowledge is required.
Putuo. Small vessels may obtain anchorage in depths of
10⋅1 m, in the passage off Putuo (29°57′N, 122°18′E), a
town on the Zhoushan Shore opposite Lujiazhi where fresh
provisions may be obtained. This harbour affords shelter in
a typhoon. Depths in the approach to the anchorage
between Lujia Zhi and the next islet Ma Zhi, to the W may
be less than charted. Local knowledge is required. See
1⋅32.
Meishan Gang
6.65
1
Description. Meishan Gang also known as Junk Channel
is a narrow channel leading NE between Meishan Dao
(29°48′N, 121°59′E) (6.62) and the mainland. It is only
suitable for navigation by small vessels, noting Fenshui
Jiao, a group of islets, close inshore, an above water rock
and an islet close S of Meishan Dao.
2
Useful mark:
Duluo Zhi (29°44′N, 121°55′E), 25 m high, with a
round top and covered by grass and scrub lying at
the edge of the coastal mudbank 3 miles S of
Meishan Dao (29°48′N, 121°59′E) (6.62).
Shuangyu Men
6.66
1
Shuangyu Men is the narrow passage between Fodu Dao
(29°44′N, 122°01′E) (6.49) and Liuheng Dao (29°43′N,
122°07′E) (6.74). It is suitable for navigation only by small
vessels.
Tingzi Gang
6.67
1
A narrow passage lies inshore of Tingzishan (29°45′N,
121°59′E). An above water rock lies on the mudbank
extending 5 cables SW of the group.
Anchorages and harbours
East of Jintang Dao
6.68
1
There is good anchorage in depths from 15 to 18 m off
the E coast of Jintang Dao (30°01′N, 121°52′E), partly
protected from the the tidal streams by the rocky NE point
of the island. Vessels should moor with anchors parallel to
the coast, and the W point of Cezishan (30°16′N,
121°56′E) should not be open E of the above rocky point.
See 1⋅32
Waidiaoshan
6.69
1
Anchorage can be obtained in moderate depths, out of
the strong tidal streams, between Waidiaoshan (30°03′N,
121°58′E) and a point 4 miles SE anywhere within 1 mile
of the mudflat fringing the coast of Zhoushan Dao. See
1⋅32.
Xiaoshuangshan
6.70
1
Anchorage may be obtained off the S side of
Xiaoshuangshan (29°49′N, 122°14′E) (6.58). See 1⋅32.
Furenshan
6.71
1
Anchorage may be obtained in the fairway as indicated
on the chart, about 8 cables ENE of Furenshan (29°46′N,
122°08′E) in a depth of 19⋅4 m. See 1⋅32.
Xuanshan Bandao
6.72
1
Description. A mountainous mainland promontory with
Zhitou Jiao, a bold and steep-to extremity. It borders the
NW side of the inshore passage for 7 miles NE of
Meishan Dao (29°48′N, 121°59′E) (6.62) and is well
cultivated and populated.
CHAPTER 6
206
2
Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in
moderate depths SE of Xuanshan Bandao (29°53′N,
122°09′E) between 1 and 6 miles SW of Yanyxiaomao
Dao (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.56). Care should be taken to
avoid the two dangerous wrecks centred in 29°52′⋅0N,
122°07′⋅5E. See 1⋅32.
Adjacent islands
Dawenchong Dao
6.73
1
Anchorage may be obtained between the island chain
extending from Dawenchong (29°38′N, 122°13′E) (5.160),
and the the SE end of Liuheng Dao (29°43′N, 122°07′E)
(6.74) as indicated on the chart. This anchorage is used by
small vessels awaiting a favourable tidal stream before
proceeding through the channels farther NE. See 1⋅32.
Liuheng Dao
6.74
1
Anchorage may be obtained off the N coast of Liuheng
Dao (29°43′N, 122°09′E) in a depth of 24 m mud. Fishing
stakes may be encountered in the vicinity. See 1⋅32.
Xiazhi Dao
6.75
1
Description. Xiazhi Dao (Xiaqi Dao) (29°45′N,
122°15′E) 207 m high lies 2 miles NE of Xuanshan Bandao
(29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.72). Close within its E point there
is a rugged hill, 186 m high strewn with large granite
boulders.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in the wide, shallow bay
on the NE side of Xiazhi Dao (29°45′N, 122°15′E), in a
depth of 7⋅3 m. See 1⋅32.
The narrow cove penetrating the E end of the island for
a distance of 7 cables, affords shelter to small vessels.
Xiaogan Dao
6.76
1
In 1936 HMS Berwick anchored 1 miles SW of
Xiaogan Dao (29°57′N, 122°14′E). The holding ground was
good, but the anchorage was unsheltered and the tidal
streams were sufficiently strong to prevent the ship
swinging to the wind. See 1⋅32.
NORTH APPROACH TO NINGBO AND
ZHOUSHAN
General information
Charts 1124, 1429, 1592
Route
6.77
1
From a position NNW of Xiaowugui (30°39′N,
122°00′E) the route initially leads SSW for 6 miles to a
position W of Tangnao Shan (30°35′N, 121°58′E), thence
SSW for 17 miles to a position E of Yuxingnao Dao
(30°20′N, 121°51′E), thence SSW for 11 miles to a position
WNW of Dawushi (30°13′N, 121°53′E), and then continues
SSW for 14 miles to the vicinity of the pilot boarding
position for Ningbo, E of Qili Zhi (30°00′N, 121°45′E).
Topography
6.78
1
See 6.49.
Pilotage
6.79
1
Pilotage is not compulsory, however pilots for Hangzhou
Wan are available, and it is advisable for large foreign
vessels to take a pilot who boards at Changjiang Kou light
float (7.9).
Prohibited area
6.80
1
Anchoring and fishing are prohibited as indicated on the
chart, due to submarine cables laid from the China coast W
of Qili Zhi (30°00′N, 121°45′E) to Zhoushan Dao
(30°04′N, 122°03′E).
Submarine pipeline
6.81
1
A submarine water pipeline is laid from the China coast
W of Qili Zhi (30°00′N, 121°45′E) to Zhoushan Dao
(30°04′N, 122°03′E).
Vertical clearance
6.82
1
A bridge is under construction from Nanhui Zui
(30°53′N, 121°52′E), to a new port at Dayang Shan,
19⋅5 miles SSE. No vertical clearances are known.
Principal marks
6.83
1
Landmarks:
Dajishan (30°48′N, 122°10′E) (6.46).
Tangnao Shan (30°35′N, 121°58′E), an island.
Qili Zhi (30°00′N, 121°45′E), a bold, rocky islet
27 m high and dark in colour. The N side of the
islet is very precipitous.
Yuxingnao Dao (30°20′N, 121°51′E) (6.84).
2
Major lights:
Qili Yu Light (30°00′N, 121°45′E) (6.56).
Yuxingnao Dao Light (black round tower, 10 m in
height) (30°20′N, 121°51′E).
Dawushi Light (white round concrete structure,
mosaic facing, 11 m in height) (30°13′N,
121°53′E).
3
Dapengshan Light (30°04′N, 121°50′E) (6.56).
Dacaihua Shan Light (white round stone tower, 10 m
in height) (30°07′N, 121°52′E).
Tangnaoshan Light (white round concrete tower 22 m
in height) (30°35′N, 121°58′E).
Dajishan Light (30°48′N, 122°10′E) (6.34).
Directions
Xiaowugui to Yuxingnao Dao
6.84
1
From a position NNW of Xiaowugui (30°39′N,
122°00′E) (6.195), the track leads SSW passing:
WNW of Guidan Anjiao (30°40′N, 122°00′E), a shoal
with a depth of 0⋅7 m over it, marked by a
light-buoy (isolated danger) lying 6 cables N,
thence:
2
Clear of a dangerous wreck (30°39′N, 121°57′E),
reported in 1999, thence:
Clear of a wreck (30°37′N, 121°55′E), with a depth
of 7⋅5 m over it, and:
3
Clear of a dangerous wreck (30°37′N, 121°55′E), the
position of which is approximate.
The track then continues to a position W of Tangnao
Shan (30°35′N, 121°58′E).
(Directions continue to Jinshan at 6.227)
The track continues SSW passing:
CHAPTER 6
207
4
WNW of a dangerous wreck (30°34′N, 121°58′E),
thence:
ESE of a dangerous wreck (30°33′N, 121°49′E), the
position of which is approximate, thence:
WNW of a dangerous wreck (30°30′N, 121°54′),
thence:
ESE of a dangerous wreck (30°25′N, 122°50′E), the
position of which is approximate, thence:
Clear of an obstruction (30°23′N, 121°47′E). A
dangerous wreck, the position of which is
approximate lies 3 miles W. Thence:
5
WNW of Yuxingnao Dao (30°20′N, 121°51′E), a
black rock 19 m high, split in two, the N part
being the smaller, from where a light (6.83) is
exhibited. A shallow patch lies 2 cables NE. A
rock known as Lake Rock, lying 3 cables NE of
Yuxingnao Dao, consists of two pinnacles
2 cables apart, of which the SE and shoalest has
a depth of 4 m over it. The tidal streams may
attain a rate of 7 kn in the vicinity. A dangerous
wreck lies 3⋅2 miles W of Yuxingnao Dao.
Yuxingnao Dao to Qili Zhi
6.85
1
From a position WNW of Yuxingnao Dao (30°20′N,
121°51′E) the track continues SSW passing:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (30°20′N, 121°50′⋅E) the
position of which is approximate reported in 2003,
thence:
2
WNW of Nanda Jiao, a pinnacle rock with a depth of
4⋅7 m over it, lies 7 cables SSW of Yuxingnao Dao
(30°20′N, 121°51′E). A reef with three above
water rocks, the highest 8 m high, lies 1 mile ESE.
Thence:
3
WNW of a wreck (30°19°N, 121°50°E) with a depth
of 9⋅4 m over it. Xiaoyushan (30°18′N, 121°55′E),
lies 4 miles E. Thence:
WNW of a dangerous wreck (30°14′N, 121°52′E),
thence:
4
WNW of Wu Hsu, a group of 5 islets, between 16 to
27 m in height which extend up to 8 cables S from
the N islet (30°14′N, 121°54′E). Depths around the
group are irregular and the tidal streams are strong.
Thence:
5
WNW of Dawushi (30°13′N, 121°53′E), 27 m high,
the largest islet of Wu Hsu, a light (6.83) is
exhibited from the S part.
(Directions continue for passage to Jinshan at 6.231
and in reverse for passages between
Zhoushan Dao and Daishan Dao at 6.168)
6
The track continues S passing:
W of Gualian Shan, (30°11′N, 121°56′E), 48 m high,
rocky and prominent. Thence:
W of the NW point of Zhoushan Dao (30°04′N,
122°03′E).
7
W of a dangerous wreck (30°08′N, 121°49′E), the
position of which is approximate, thence:
W of a dangerous wreck (30°08′N, 121°49′E), thence:
W of Dacaihua Shan (30°06′N, 121°51′E), from
where a light (6.83) is exhibited. Thence:
W of Datiaoguo Shan (30°06′N, 121°50′E) and an
islet 1 mile WSW, thence:
8
W of Dapeng Shan (30°04′N, 121°49′E), a hilly
island, 159 m high, lying close off the NW side of
Jintang Dao. A spit, with depths of less than 5⋅5 m
over it, extends 1 mile S of Dapeng Shan and on
its extremity lies an islet 29 m high. A light (6.56)
is exhibited on the NW end of Dapeng Shan.
Anchorage (6.105) can be found S of Dapeng
Shan.
9
The track then continues to a position NNE of Qili Zhi
(30°00′N, 121°45′E) (6.83) in the vicinity of the pilot
boarding position (30°01′N, 121°46′E). The depths
surrounding the islet are very irregular and, except for the
NW side, are much deeper than the general depths in the
offing. A light (6.56) is exhibited from Qili Zhi.
Considerable shoaling was reported, in 1948, about 7 cables
N of Qili Zhi.
6.86
1
Useful marks:
Duikou Shan Light (30°33′N, 121°42′E) (white round
concrete tower 5 m in height)
Dazhaizi Shan Light (30°23′N, 122°05′E) (white 6
sided column 8 m in height)
Zhongzhu Shan Light (29°58′N, 121°47′E) (no
description)
(Directions continue for Ningbo at 7.58 and
Jinshan at 6.236)
Side channels
Cezi Shuidao
6.87
1
Description. Cezi Shuidao is a passage between
Zhoushan Dao and Jintang Dao.
Directions. From a position S of Cezishan (30°16′N,
121°56′E) the track leads SSE passing:
2
WSW of Cezi Dao, 273 m high, which lies centrally
at the N end of Cezi Shuidao further subdividing
the inshore passage, with channels either side of it.
Thence:
WSW of Waidiaoshan (30°03′N, 121°58′E) (6.69), a
hilly islet 102 m high, lies close off the W side of
Zhoushan Dao (30°04′N, 122°03′E). Niyue Jiao,
2 m high, lies 3 cables S of it.
3
WSW of Banyang Jiao (30°01′N, 121°57′E), 11 m
high, black rugged and steep-to, which lies in the
middle of Cezi Shuidao E of Jintang Shan. A rock,
with a depth of 3⋅6 m over it, lies 3 cables NE,
and a rock with a depth of 1⋅9 m over it, lies
7 cables NNE of Banyang Jiao. Tidal streams in
the channel W of Banyang Jiao attain a rate of 3
to 8 kn and it is advisable to keep in midstream.
Thence the track continues to a position W of Yangluo
Shan (29°59′N, 122°01′E).
4
Anchorage south of Cezi Dao. The alignment (274°) of
the 282 m peak in the N part of Jintang Dao and Lao-Hu
Shan (30°04′N, 121°55′E) leads into an anchorage,
comparatively free of the strong tidal streams off the S
coast of Cezi Dao, in depths from 16 to 27 m. Vessels
should moor to avoid fouling their anchors.
5
Yeyashan Anchorage on the W side of Zhoushan Dao
(30°04′N, 122°03′E), lying between Latitudes 30°01′⋅7N
and 30°00′⋅6N; Longitudes 121°58′⋅4E and 122°00′⋅0E in
depths of 10⋅5 m, mud, serves as the pilot boarding point
for Chinese national vessels using the N route.
Xihou Men
6.88
1
Description. Xihou Men (30°06′N, 121°56′E), W of
Cezishan is generally deep, but there are some shoal
patches in its S part.
CHAPTER 6
208
2
Tidal streams attain rates of 3 kn at neaps to 8 kn at
springs, with hardly any slack water at springs. They set as
follows.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0300 to +0230 NW
+0230 to −0300 SE
3
A period of heavy rain, causing freshets in Qiantang
Jiang, checks the NW going stream and constantly
accelerates the SE-going stream.
The tidal streams whirl and race violently over the
shoaler places, and with N gales there are high overfalls
when the stream is setting SE. In NW gales there is a
severe race with high breaking seas over the shoal patches
in the S part of Xihou Men when the stream is setting NW.
The tidal streams around the W point of Cezishan are very
strong.
NINGBO
General information
Charts 1124, 1199, 1592
Position
6.89
1
Ningbo Gang (29°57′N, 121°43′E) lies at the mouth of
Yong Jiang (Yong Chiang), sometimes known as the Yong
River, which rises in the high ranges of the province of
Zhejiang and enters the sea W of Changtiao Zui (29°58′N,
121°48′E).
Function
6.90
1
The port of Ningbo is the premier port of Zhejiang
province. It has facilities for oil, bulk, chemicals, general
cargo, passengers and containers.
Topography
6.91
1
Zhaobao Shan (Citadel Hill), SW of Hudun Shan, is a
promontory 89 m high with two large temples on its
summit. The land for many miles W of the promontory is
flat.
Zhenhai (Chin-hai) (29°57′N, 121°42′E) extends from
the entrance to Yong Jiang down the W bank; the city is
surrounded by a massive wall and its suburbs extend to
both sides of the river.
Port limits
6.92
1
The limits of Ningbo port extend from Dapengshan light
(30°05′N, 121°49′E) to Xiepuniluoshan (30°03′N,
121°37′E) about 10 miles WSW, thence to the Ling bridge
(29°52′⋅2N, 121°33′⋅3E) on the Yong river. And, a line
joining Tuni Zui Light (29°57′N, 121°58′E) to Tantou
Shan, 431 m high, in the SE part of Jintang Dao.
Approach and entry
6.93
1
The port of Ningbo is approached from the N, through
Hangzhou Wan or from SE through Xiazhi Men, Tiazhou
Men or the inshore passage and entered through Jintang
Shuidao from the E and Ningbo Gang from the W.
Traffic
6.94
1
In 2001, the port was visited by 809 ships and
52 391 983 tonnes of cargo was handled.
Port Authority
6.95
1
Ningbo Port Superintendence Administration, No 42 Yan
Jiang Dong Road, Zhenhai District, Ningbo City.
Ningbo Sea Safety Supervision Bureau of the Peoples
Republic of China, No 415 Ren Min Road, Jiang Bei
District, Ningbo City.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
6.96
1
The least charted depth in the fairway is 3⋅9 m
(29°57′N, 121°43′E).
Vertical clearances
6.97
1
Bridges and overhead power cables span the Yong river
as follows:
Bridges:
2
Zhaobaoshan Great Bridge with an estimated
clearance of about 32 m above MSL, from
Zhaobaoshan (29°57′⋅7N, 121°43′⋅9E) to Jinjishan
3 cables ESE.
3
Yong River Bridge from 29°52′⋅6N, 121°33′⋅4E to the
opposite bank 1 cable ESE, has a clearance of
3⋅0 m above MSL.
4
Jiangxia Bridge from 29°52′⋅4N, 121°33′⋅3E to the
opposite bank cable E, has a clearance of 4⋅3 m
above MSL.
5
Ling Bridge from 29°52′⋅2N, 121°33′⋅3E, with a
clearance of 4⋅8 m above MSL, to the opposite
bank cable ESE.
6
A fifth bridge from 29°52′⋅6N, 121°34′⋅1E to the
opposite bank 0⋅9 cables S. No vertical clearances
are known.
7
Overhead cables:
Overhead power cables with a minimum vertical
clearance of 38 m, between Zhaobaoshan
(29°57′⋅7N, 121°43′⋅2E) and Jinji Shan 6 cables
SE.
8
Overhead power cables near Zhangjianzhe (29°56′⋅9N,
121°41′⋅5E) have a clearance of 46 m above MSL.
Overhead power cables near Wangjiayang (29°55′⋅5N,
121°40′⋅7E) have a clearance of 38 m above MSL.
Deepest and longest berth
6.98
1
Beilun Petrochemical General Factory Berth 1 and
Suanshan Oil Terminal (6.122).
Tidal levels
6.99
1
See information in Admiralty Tide Tables.
Abnormal levels
6.100
1
Strong winds between N and NE usually raise the water
level in the river about 0⋅5 m above normal. In winter,
from December to March, the water level is usually about
0⋅5 m lower than in the summer months of August and
September.
CHAPTER 6
209
Maximum size of vessel handled
6.101
1
Largest vessel handled was Grand Phoenix, an OBO,
LOA 315 m, beam 55⋅73 m, 154 098 grt.
Arrival information
Port operations
6.102
1
When in Yong Jiang vessels must not exceed a speed of
8 kn when travelling upstream and 6 kn downstream. Large
vessels must be at their minimum speed.
2
Vessels can cross the bar and proceed to an anchorage
off Zhenhai (29°57′N, 121°42′E) with a maximum draught
of 6⋅1 m at HW springs, and with a maximum draught of
5⋅6 m at HW neaps. Vessels with an overall length of
110 m, and 5⋅6 m draught, can proceed up river to Ningbo
Gang.
3
Vessels crossing the river must give way to vessels in
the fairway and maintain a distance of at least 200 m from
the stem of vessels travelling in the fairway.
Vessels over 1000 tonnes are prohibited from overtaking
other vessels in designated areas. The location of such
areas may be obtained by application to the port
administration.
4
Towing vessels shall maintain at least 1⋅5 kn while
travelling upstream.
Anchoring is prohibited at bends in the river, or in the
middle of the fairway.
Port radio
6.103
1
There is a port radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2) for details.
Notice of ETA required
6.104
1
ETA should be sent 72, 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(2).
Outer anchorages
6.105
1
West of Jintang Dao. Good anchorage may be obtained
in depths from 9⋅6 to 39 m, mud, off the W coast of
Jintang Dao. A dangerous goods anchorage is centred in
30°01′⋅8N, 121°49′⋅0E, the adjacent anchorage for other
vessels is centred in 30°00′⋅8N, 121°49′⋅0E. See 1⋅32.
2
Daxie Dao. In good weather, anchorage may be
obtained W of Daxie Dao (29°55′N, 121°58′E), outside the
entrance bar to the passage separating that island from the
mainland, in depths from 13 to 22 m, mud.
Good anchorage, sheltered from all directions, can be
found within the passage SW of Daxie Dao, in depths from
14⋅6 to 27⋅4 m, but it is necessary to moor.
3
From a position 1 miles SSE of Hunagniu Jiao enter
the passage with the 112 m summit (29°53′⋅1N, 121°56′⋅1E)
in line with the 475 m high summit, 2 miles SSE, bearing
155°, to cross the bar in a depth of 8⋅7 m. This alignment
has to be followed closely. See 1⋅32.
4
Qili Zhi. There is good anchorage 1 mile E of Qili Zhi
(30°00′N, 121°45′E) (6.83). The anchorage is located
between Latitudes 30°01′⋅8N and 29°59′⋅18N; Longitudes
121°47′⋅30E and 121°46′⋅30E, in depths from 5 to 18 m,
mud and sand. Due to the strong tidal streams experienced
locally, mariners are advised to exercise caution while
anchored in the area. See 1⋅32.
5
Dapeng Shan. The narrow channel between the spit and
islet extending S of Dapeng Shan (30°04′N, 121°50′E) and
the NW coast of Jintang Dao, provides an anchorage
(Tao-Chu Chiang) for small vessels in a typhoon. There are
depths from 5⋅8 to 10⋅4 m in mid-channel from the S
entrance as far as the E point of Dapeng Shan, where the
the channel is obstructed by a ridge of rocks. The 160 m
peak central part of the island has gun emplacements on it.
6
The N entrance of to the channel is shoal. There is
room for several small vessels drawing not more than
4⋅9 m, but it is necessary to moor. The tidal streams attain
a rate of 3 kn, and at spring tides there are numerous
eddies in the channel, when the surging of a vessel at her
moorings tends to strain her cable. See 1⋅32.
Submarine cables and pipelines
6.106
1
There are numerous submarine cables and pipelines laid
in the area. The majority are indicated on the chart,
however the chart does not cover the full extent of the
Yong River.
Pilotage
6.107
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours. River
pilots board at Qili Zhi pilot station (30°01′N, 121°46′E).
However if weather conditions are unfavorable, pilots ask
the master to navigate the vessel into the Yong River
estuary in order to allow them to board the vessel safely.
2
For further details see the relevant Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs
6.108
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
6.109
1
Vessel Traffic Service is in operation.
Quarantine
6.110
1
Ningbo Sanitary Quarantine station of the Peoples
Republic of China. No 67 Xin Ma Road. Ningbo City.
Customs and Excise
6.111
1
Ningbo Customs of the Peoples Republic of China. No
131 Chang Chun Road. Ningbo City.
Ningbo Import and Export Commodity Inspection
Bureau of the Peoples Republic of China. No 144 Liu Ding
street, Ningbo City
2
Ningbo Frontier Inspection Station of The Peoples
Republic of China. No 67 Xin Ma Road, Ningbo City.
Harbour
General layout
6.112
1
The port of Ningbo is divided into three port districts
for ease of administration and usage, as follows:
Beilun Port District (29°56′N, 121°52′E), handles
large oil, container and ore vessels.
2
Zenhai Port District (29°58′N, 121°43′E) is used
mainly for coal, containers, chemicals and general
cargo. Zenhai also has the new passenger terminal
of Ningbo.
3
Ningbo Old Port, located 21 miles up the Yong River
from Zenhai, at the confluence of three rivers, the
Yong River, Yao River and the Fenghua River. It
handles general cargo and passenger vessels.
CHAPTER 6
210
Development
6.113
1
A container terminal is being built on Daxie Dao
(29°55′N, 121°58′E) (6.60). Pier construction is in progress
at Daxie Dao with some subsea activity. Mariners are
advised to exert caution.
Principal marks
6.114
1
Landmarks:
Qili Zhi (30°00′N, 121°45′E) (6.83).
Hunagniu Jiao (29°57′⋅9N, 121°54′⋅0E). A light
(white 6 sided concrete structure, 15 m in height)
is exhibited.
2
Changtiao Zui, (29°58′N, 121°48′E), a light (white six
sided concrete structure with red stripes 16 m in
height) is exhibited.
Zhaobaoshan (29°57′⋅7N, 121°43′⋅2E), 79 m high on
the E bank of Yong Jiang.
3
Major lights:
Qili Yu Light (30°00′N, 121°45′E) (6.56).
Dapengshan Light (30°04′N, 121°50′E), (6.56).
Other aids to navigation
6.115
1
Racons:
Qili Yu Light (30°00′N, 121°45′E).
Huangniu Jiao Light (29°57′⋅9N, 121°54′⋅0E).
Directions for approaches
(continued from 6.60)
Tuni Zui to Qili Zhi
6.116
1
From a position NE of Tuni Zui (29°57′N, 121°58′E)
from where a light (6.60) is exhibited the track leads
generally W through Jintang Shuidao passing:
2
N of a wreck (29°57′⋅7N, 121°56′⋅7E), position
approximate, thence:
N of a dangerous wreck (29°57′⋅5N, 121°56′⋅3E),
thence:
3
Clear of a shoal patch (29°57′⋅9N, 121°56′⋅0E), with
a depth of 14⋅2 m over it. another dangerous wreck
lies 1 mile S of the shoal patch. Thence:
S of Huangniu Jiao (29°57′N, 121°54′E), from where
a light (white 6-sided concrete structure 15 m high)
is exhibited. Thence:
S of Shuang Jiao (29°58′N, 121°51′E), thence:
N of Beilun Shan (29°56′N, 121°50′E), 18 m high.
4
The track then leads WNW through Jiao Men, passing:
NNE of Suanshan Oil Terminal (29°57′N, 121°48′E),
thence:
NNE of Yaggongshan Zui (29°58′⋅0N, 121°47′⋅6E), a
49 m high headland and Sipenyitang Jiao, a shoal
patch with a depth of 0⋅5 m over it, 1 cables N.
Thence:
5
SSW of Dahuangmang Dao (29°58′N, 121°48′E),
from where a light (white 6-sided concrete
structure with red stripes, 16 m high) is exhibited,
thence:
SSW of an islet (29°58′⋅5N, 121°48′⋅1E) and
Xiaohuangmang Dao, cable N. Thence:
6
NNE of Zhongmezhu Dao (29°58′⋅3N, 121°47′⋅6E),
from where a light (no description) is exhibited,
thence:
NNE of Waizhi Shan (29°58′⋅3N, 121°46′⋅4E), 16 m
high and Dayounu Jiao 2 cables NW. Thence:
7
NNE of a 1⋅7 m shoal patch in 29°58′⋅5N,
121°46′⋅3E.
Thence the track leads a position NNE of Qili Zhi
(30°00′N, 121°45′E) in the vicinity of the pilot boarding
position (30°01′N, 121°46′E).
Directions for Yong Jiang
(continued from 6.85)
Entrance to Jhangjianzhe Leading Lights
6.117
1
Hudun Shan Entrance Leading Lights:
Front light (red and white metal framework tower,
20 m in height) (29°58′⋅4N, 121°44′⋅1E).
Rear light (red and white metal framework tower,
31 m in height) (2⋅47 miles WSW of the front
light).
2
From a position at the entrance to Yong Jiang, about
6 cables ENE of Changtiao Zui, (29°58′N, 121°48′E), a
black rocky promontory rising to 34 m high, the alignment
(260°) of these lights lead WNW over the entrance bar to
the end of the leading line, thence through the channel
marked by lights, lateral buoys and leading lights passing:
3
NNW of the breakwater 1 cable W of Changtiao Zui
and Yong Jiang S Spur Dyke. A light (red
framework tower on a concrete base) is exhibited.
Further lights are exhibited on the dyke. Thence:
4
SSE of the Yong Jiang N Spur Dyke. A light (white
8 sided structure 6 m in height) is exhibited.
Thence:
5
NNW of Li Shan (29°58′⋅2N, 121°44′⋅6E), 72 m high,
with a lookout tower on its summit on the S side
of the channel 1 mile W of Changtiao Zui. A
creek, navigable by small vessels, enters the sea
close by a fort on the E side of the hill.
Thence the track leads SW, passing:
6
SSE of Hudun Shan (Fu San) (29°58′N, 121°43′E),
on the N side of the channel, W of Changtiao Zui,
dark, precipitous and rocky, a shallow spit extends
ENE of the islet. The entrance bar of mud
commences about E of Hudun Shan and extends
up river, depths on it are liable to change. The
track then leads ENE, marked by lights, lateral
buoys, and leading lights.
7
Under Zhaobashan Great Bridge (29°57′⋅7N,
121°43′⋅4E), thence:
SE of Zenhai Docks, thence:
8
NE of Jinji Shan (Kin-ki Hill), 94 m high,
(29°57′⋅4N, 121°43′⋅8E) on the E side of the river
with a mound on its summit, a fort stands on a
reef extending NW from the foot of the hill. Chen
Shan, 194 m high, is 1⋅8 miles SW of Jinji Shan.
Thence:
9
NW of Jiangnandatou Light (29°56′⋅9N, 121°43′⋅1E)
(red metal framework structure).
The track then leads WSW to the beginning of the
leading line of Jhangzianzhe leading lights.
Jhangjianzhe Leading Lights to Meixu Bay
6.118
1
Jhangzianzhe Leading Lights. The alignment (276°)
of the following lights lead W to the end of the leading
line:
Front light (structure, 14 m in height) (29°55′⋅52N,
121°40′⋅97E).
Rear light (structure, 17 m in height) (1 cable W of
front light).
CHAPTER 6
211
The track then alters to follow the deepest part of the
channel to the beginning of the next leading line.
2
Wangjiayang Leading Lights. The alignment (199°)
ahead and (019°) astern of the following leading lights
lead SSW to the end of the leading line:
Front light (structure, 14 m in height) (29°55′⋅72N,
121°40′⋅97E).
Rear light (structure, 17 m in height) (2 cables SSW
of front light).
3
Front light (structure, 14 m in height) (29°56′⋅82N,
121°41′⋅32E).
Rear light (structure, 17 m in height) (1 cable NNE of
front light).
The track then alters to follow the deepest part of the
channel to the beginning of the next leading line.
4
Qingshuipu Leading lights. The alignment (261⋅9°)
ahead and (081⋅9°) astern of the following lights lead W
past Shiqiao grain station to the beginning of Meixu bay:
Front light (Structure, 15 m in height) (29°55′⋅10N,
121°39′⋅06E).
Rear light (Structure, 18 m in height) (1⋅4 cables W
of the front light).
5
Front light (Structure, 15 m in height) (29°55′⋅30N,
121°40′⋅70E).
Rear light (Structure, 18 m in height) (1⋅4 cables W
of front lights).
The track then alters to follow the deepest part of the
channel to the beginning of the next leading line.
6
Leading Lights. The alignment (031°) astern of the
following lights lead to a position N of Meixu Bay
(29°53′⋅5N, 121°38′⋅0E):
Front light (structure, 15 m in height) (29°54′⋅99N,
121°39′⋅01E).
Rear light (structure, 18 m in height) (1⋅2 cables NNE
of front light).
7
The track then alters to follow the deepest part of the
channel to the beginning of the next leading line.
Meixu Bay to Ningbo Old Port
6.119
1
Lijiaan Leading Lights. The alignment (333°) ahead
and (248°) astern of the following lights lead to Ningbo
Old Port:
Front light (structure, 14 m in height) (29°54′⋅65N,
121°37′⋅58E).
Rear light (structure, 17 m in height) (1⋅8 cables SSE
of the front light).
2
Front light (structure, 14 m in height) (29°54′⋅56N,
121°37′⋅45E).
Rear light (structure, 17 m in height) (2 cables ENE
of the front light).
Ningbo Old Port extends from 29°54′N, 121°36′E to
upstream of the Ling Bridge (29°52′⋅2N, 121°33′⋅3E). The
channel has depths from 4 to 5 m and is free of dangers.
3
Useful marks:
Neiyou Shan (29°58′⋅5N, 121°44′⋅6E), 30 m high
located on the W bank of the Yong River.
Directions for Suanshan Tanker Terminal
6.120
1
Suanshan Oil Terminal Leading Lights. The alignment
(283°) of the following lights lead WNW to Suanshan Oil
Terminal:
Front light (white metal framework tower with red
stripes, 72 m in elevation) (29°57′⋅4N, 121°48′⋅1E).
Rear light (white metal framework tower with red
stripes, 91 m in elevation) (2⋅67 m WNW of front
light).
Berths
Anchorage berths
6.121
1
Ningbo Old Port. Vessels moor in mid-stream in depths
from 6⋅4 to 9⋅1 m. As the total width of swinging room is
only about 183 m it is advisable to have a taut moor, with
four shackles on the upstream cables and three shackles on
the downstream cable.
2
Vessels arriving on the in-going stream proceed to a
position above their berth and then turn with the aid of an
anchor underfoot before coming to their mooring. Vessels
over 91 m long must use their engines when swinging to
the tide. A quarantine anchorage and anchorage for vessels
with dangerous cargoes are situated, respectively, 4 and
3 miles below the city as indicated on the national chart.
3
There are six mooring buoys in the Yong River. These
can be used only for vessels up to 100 dwt. Details can be
obtained from the administration on request.
Alongside berths
6.122
1
General information. Alongside depths are reported
depths. The port authorities should be contacted for the
latest information.
Beilun (29°56′N, 121°52′E), eight piers with depths
from 10⋅8 to 23 m alongside, can accommodate vessels up
to 100 000 dwt.
2
Suanshan Oil Terminal, situated W of Beilun, has a
T-shaped pier with a berth 1395 m long at its head, and a
depth of 20 m alongside.
Zenhai (29°58′N, 121°43′E), situated on the N bank of
the Yong River has 16 berths including 7 chemical berths
in depths from 2⋅1 to 7⋅5 m alongside.
3
Ningbo Old Port is located 21 miles up the Yong River
from Zenhai. There are seven wharves with a total frontage
of 1194 m, and alongside depths from 3⋅7 to 7⋅3 m
alongside. The maximum berth length is 108 m. A
passenger terminal exists and can handle up to 3000
passengers.
Port services
Repairs
6.123
1
Repairs can be carried out.
Other facilities
6.124
1
Hospitals:; Deratting can be carried out; Deratting and
Deratting Exemption Certificates are issued.
Supplies
6.125
1
Fuel oil; diesel; provisions; stores; fresh water.
Communications
6.126
1
Airport; ferry communication with Shanghai and
principal ports in Zhoushan Qundao; launch service to
Yuyao and Zhenhai.
Rescue
6.127
1
See 6.7.
CHAPTER 6
212
ZHOUSHAN
General information
Charts 1124, 1126
Position
6.128
1
Zhoushan (30°00′N, 122°06′E) is situated at the
intersection of China’s N-S coastal route and the Yangtze
river, in Zhejiang province.
Function
6.129
1
Zhoushan has several important deep water ports with
storage facilities for oil, containers and break bulk. It is
also the centre of the important fishing industry in
Zhoushan Qundao. The principal port of Zhoushan, Dinghai
(30°00′N, 122°06′E), is a walled city, with a population of
about 40,000, situated 5 cables inland from Dinghai Gang.
2
Canals form the principal means of transport in the
neighbourhood and a canal, about 10 m wide almost
encircles the city. A coastal embankment, 6 m high,
prevents the encroachment of the sea on to the rice fields
within.
Topography
6.130
1
See islands in the archipelago at 6.10.
Port limits
6.131
1
The port of Zhoushan administers an extremely large
area extending from (30°40′N, 122°33′E) (6.13) in the N to
Aoshan (29°57′⋅5N, 122°09′⋅0E) in the S.
2
However the principal port of Dinghai, which is
extensively used by large vessels has limits which extend
from Yangluo Shan (29°59′N, 122°01′E) through Panzhi
Dao (29°59′N, 122°04′E), thence through Dongju Dao
(29°58′⋅3N, 122°06′⋅4E) to W of Dongxiezhi (29°59′⋅1N,
122°08′⋅0E).
Approach and entry
6.132
1
Zhoushan port can be approached from the N or from
the SE and entered between the islands lying S of the port.
Traffic
6.133
1
In 2001 the port was visited by 75 vessels and 27 24 944
tonnes of cargo was handled.
Port Authority
6.134
1
Zhoushan Port Superintendence Administration. No 16
Dinghai Port wharf, Zhoushan city.
Zhoushan Port Superintendence Supervision Bureau of
the Peoples Republic of China. No 16 Dinghai Port wharf.
Zhoushan city.
Limiting conditions
Vertical clearances
6.135
1
Overhead cables. Overhead power cables span the
channel as follows:
Ma Zhi (29°56′⋅3N, 122°15′⋅8E) and Zhoushan Dao
(30°04′N, 122°03′E), with a vertical clearance of
43 m.
Changzhi Dao (29°58′⋅0N, 122°10′⋅0E) and Zhoushan
Dao (30°04′N, 122°03′E), with a vertical clearance
of 37 m.
2
Aoshan (29°57′⋅5N, 122°09′⋅0E) and Changzhi Dao
(29°58′N, 122°10′E), with a vertical clearance of
33 m.
Songshan (29°58′⋅0N, 122°07′⋅6E) and Changzhi Dao
(29°58′⋅0N, 122°10′⋅0E), with a vertical clearance
of 30 m.
3
Songshan (29°58′⋅3N, 122°06′⋅4E) and Dongju Dao
(29°58′⋅3N, 122°06′⋅4E),with a vertical clearance
of 33 m.
Dongju Dao (29°58′⋅0N, 122°10′⋅0E) and Xiju Dao
(29°59′⋅0N, 122°06′⋅1E),with a vertical clearance
of 40 m.
4
Zhairuoshan (29°57′N, 122°05′E) and Cishan
(29°57′⋅5N, 122°04′⋅0E), with a vertical clearance
of 18 m.
Cishan (29°57′⋅5N, 122°04′⋅0E) to an adjacent island
2⋅2 cables SW, with a vertical clearance of 37 m.
Cishan (29°57′⋅5N, 122°04′⋅0E) to Panzhi Dao,
6 cables N, with a vertical clearance of 22 m.
5
Xiaomaoshan (29°56′⋅6N, 122°03′⋅0E) to Damao Dao
(29°57′⋅0N, 122°02′⋅0E), with a vertical clearance
of 25 m.
Xixie Zhi (29°59′⋅1N, 122°02′⋅4E) to Zhoushan Dao
(30°04′N, 122°03′E), with a vertical clearance of
35 m.
Deepest and longest berth
6.136
1
Panshan Xingzhong Petroleum Transfer Corporation
Aoshan Wharf (6.154).
Tidal levels
6.137
1
See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 4.
Maximum size of vessel handled
6.138
1
In May 1993 the OBO Starlight LOA, 247 000 tonnes
dwt cleaned tanks at Ma Zhi anchorage (6.153).
Arrival information
Port radio
6.139
1
There is a port radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
6.140
1
ETA should be sent 72, 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Outer anchorages
6.141
1
Ma Zhi. Good anchorage may be found off the S coast
of Ma Zhi (29°56′⋅3N, 122°15′⋅8E). In 1936 HMS Berwick
anchored 1 miles SW of Xiaogan Dao (29°57′N,
122°14′E). The anchorage was unsheltered and the tidal
streams were sufficiently strong to prevent the ship swing
to the wind. See 1⋅32.
2
The holding ground is mud with some stone on the E
side of the anchorage, and has become the main anchorage
area in Zhoushan port for vessels awaiting inspection or
carrying out operations.
There is a reef (Ma-nan reef) on the S side of Ma Zhi.
3
Damao Dao. (29°57N, 122°02′E) (6.60), the SW island
in the approach to Dinghai, lies 1 miles W of
Zhairuoshan with several islets between.
CHAPTER 6
213
There is good anchorage in depths from 20 to 22 m,
mud, about 1 miles NNE of Damao Dao (29°57′N,
122°02′E). In this position the tidal streams are not so
strong and set more regularly than mid-channel.
4
In 1932 HMS Cornwall anchored 7 cables ESE and
5 cables ENE of a stone beacon (29°58′⋅8N, 122°02′⋅8E).
In the former position the holding ground, stiff mud and
shells, was good, but both anchorages were uncomfortable
and the tidal streams were strong.
5
Anchorage can be obtained between Nab Rock
(30°00′⋅5N, 122°03′⋅8E), with a depth of 3 m over it, and
Chu Shan, an island, 7 cables ESE, in depths from 29 to
31 m, but it is not recommended as the tidal streams and
the eddies are strong.
6
Jixiang Men (Melville Channel). Anchorage may be
obtained NE of the N end of Jixiang Men (Melville
Channel) in the outer anchorage (29°59′⋅4N, 122°06′⋅5E).
Anchorage may also be obtained NW of Cap Rock
(29°59′⋅2N, 122°06′⋅5E), for large vessels in depths of
22 m. Tidal Streams in this position are fairly steady and
there are few eddies, but to the W of the anchorage the
bottom is very uneven and heavy swirls and eddies occur.
7
Diangdengshan. This anchorage is centred in 29°51′⋅6N,
122°13′⋅0E with a radius of 5 cables in depths of 30 m,
mud and sand and is intended for large oil tankers.
Submarine cables
6.142
1
Numerous submarine cables are laid in the area.
Pilotage
6.143
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours. The pilot
boards in Xiazhi Men Anchorage (29°46′N, 122°20′E) for
the SE approach and in Qili Zhi Anchorage (30°01′N,
121°46′E) for the N approach. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4).
Tugs
6.144
1
Tugs are available.
Quarantine
6.145
1
Quarantine is enforced in accordance with the
regulations of The Peoples Republic of China (6⋅3).
Zhoushan Sanitary Quarantine station of the Peoples
Republic of China. No 67 Huan Cheng Dong Road,
Dinghai District. Zhoushan City.
Zhoushan Plants and animals quarantine station of The
Peoples Republic of China. No 67 Huan Cheng Dong
Road, Dinghai District, Zhoushan City.
Customs and Excise
6.146
1
Zhoushan Customs of the Peoples Republic of China.
No 67 Huan Cheng Dong Road, Dinghai District, Zhoushan
City.
Zhoushan import and export commodity inspection
bureau of the Peoples Republic of China. No 67 Huan
Cheng Dong Road. Dinghai District. Zhoushan City.
Harbour
General layout
6.147
1
Zhoushan Port consists of eight port districts as follows:
Dinghai Port district including the area from Yangluo
Shan (29°59′N, 122°01′E) in the W to Aoshan
(29°57′⋅5N, 122°09′⋅0E) in the E.
2
Shenjiamen Port district including the islands of
Putuoshan (30°00′N, 122°23′N) (6.41), Zhujiajian
(6.10), Xiaogan Dao (29°57′N, 122°14′E), Ma Zhi
(29°56′⋅3N, 122°15′⋅8E), Lujia Zhi (29°56′N,
122°18′E) and Dengbu Dao (29°52′N, 122°18′E).
3
Laotangshan Port district including the area W of
Yangluo Shan (29°59′N, 122°01′E) to Jintang Dao
(30°01′N, 121°52′E).
Gaoting Port district including the islands of Daishan
Dao (30°17′N, 122°09′E), Xiaochangtushan
(30°15′N, 122°16′E) (6.12), Dachangtushan
(30°15′N, 122°20′E) (6.12) and Xiushan Dao
(30°10′N, 122°10′E).
4
Sijiao Port district includes the islands of Shengsi
Liedao.
Qushan Port district.
Luhuashan Port district.
Yangshan Port district.
Fishing
6.148
1
Shenjiamen (29°56′⋅8N, 122°17′⋅5E) has a large
concentration of fishing vessels and is an important fishing
port. Mariners are advised to proceed with caution as there
are a large number of nets in the vicinity.
Principal marks
6.149
1
Landmarks:
Zhairuoshan (29°56′⋅8N, 122°04′⋅8E), (6.59).
Xiaoliangmen Shan (29°57′⋅0N, 122°03′⋅6E), an
island, a light (white stone block, 4 m in height) is
exhibited from the summit.
2
Yeyashan (Xiaotuanji Shan) (29°57′⋅6N, 122°05′⋅7E),
a light (white stone masonry cone, 8 m in height)
is exhibited from the summit.
Ma Zhi (29°56′⋅3N, 122°15′⋅8E) (6.153).
3
Waiyuan Shan (29°56′⋅4N, 122°13′⋅8E), an island, a
light (white round concrete structure) is exhibited
from the summit.
4
Shilaoshuweiba (Shuilaoshu Shan) (29°55′⋅1N,
122°17′⋅7E), a light (isolated danger mark on black
6 sided tower, red band, 16 m in height) is
exhibited.
5
Waichang Jiao (29°56′⋅7N, 122°08′⋅1E), a light (6
sided concrete column, black and white stripes,
20 m in height) is exhibited from the summit.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 6.60)
Tuni Zui to Dinghai Gang
6.150
1
From a position NE of Tuni Zui (29°57′N, 121°58′E)
from where a light (6.60), is exhibited, the track leads E
passing:
S of Yangluo Shan (29°59′N, 122°01′E), from where
a light (white round stone structure, 8 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
N of Damao Dao (29°57N, 122°02′E) (6.141), thence:
CHAPTER 6
214
2
About 4 cables S of Xixie Zhi (29°59′⋅1N,
122°02′⋅4E), from where a light (white stone
masonry square, 5 m in height) is exhibited.
The track then leads NNE through Xiezhi Men passing:
WNW of Panzhi Dao (29°59′N, 122°04′E) and an
island 2 cables E of its S extremity, thence:
WNW of two mooring floats on the W side of Panzhi
Dao.
3
Thence the track continues to a position 4 cables E of
Xixie Zhi Light and then leads NE passing:
SE of two dangerous rocks in 29°59′⋅8N, 122°02′⋅7E
and 30°00′⋅2N, 122°03′⋅0E.
Thence the track continues to a position 2 cables WNW
of the N extremity of Panzhi Dao and then leads E
passing:
4
N of the N extremity of Panzhi Dao, thence:
S of Chu Shan (30°00′N, 122°04′E). There is a deep
channel each side of this bank.
The track then leads NNE through the E entrance
passing:
WNW of Chu Shan (30°00′N, 122°04′E) keeping
clear of the bank extending 4 cables from it.
5
The track then continues to a position N of Middle
Ground (30°00′⋅3N, 122°05′⋅1E), with a least depth of
0⋅3 m over it, lying in the W entrance to Dinghai Gang.
6
The track then leads W passing:
N of Parrys Rock (30°00′⋅3N, 122°06′⋅1E), which
dries 1⋅2 m, thence:
S of a mudbank fringing the coast of Zhoushan Dao
(30°04′N, 122°03′E).
Thence the track leads into Dinghai Gang.
Alternative route
6.151
1
West entrance. From a position S of Chu Shan
(30°00′N, 122°04′E), the track initially leads SE passing
NNE of Panzhi Dao (29°59′N, 122°04′E), to a position S
of Middle Ground (30°00′⋅3N, 122°05′⋅1E). The track then
leads through the channel on the SE side of Middle Ground
passing:
2
WNW of Xiaowukuishan (29°59′⋅8N, 122°05′⋅5E), the
island on the SE side of the entrance. Caution must be
exercised against being set on to the W extremity of the
island during the SE-going tidal stream.
Thence the track continues to Dinghai Gang.
Useful mark:
Joss Hill (30°00′⋅5N, 122°06′⋅0E), 40 m high,
conspicuous.
Directions for berths
(continued from 6.58)
Seaward to Aoshan
6.152
1
Leading beacons. From a position E of Yanyxiaomao
Dao (29°53′N, 122°09′E) (6.56), the alignment (353°⋅5) of
the following beacons lead NNW to the Aoshan Oil Piers
at the end of the leading line.
Front beacon (structure, topmark; cone, apex
downwards) (29°57′⋅1N, 122°08′⋅8E).
Rear beacon (structure, topmark; cone, apex upwards)
(4 cables NNW of front beacon).
Berths
Anchorage berths
6.153
1
Dinghai Gang inner anchorage (30°00′⋅4N, 122°05′⋅8E)
affords anchorage in a depth of 11 m with Chu Shan
(30°00′N, 122°04′E) bearing 130° distant 3 cables. This is
the best anchorage, but it is occasionally encumbered by
junks, although they usually anchor on the W side of
Middle ground (30°00′⋅3N, 122°05′⋅1E). The tidal streams
and eddies are very strong and it is usually necessary to
moor.
Alongside berths
6.154
1
Alongside depths are reported depths. The port
authorities should be contacted for the latest information.
Zhoushan port has numerous berths. The principal ones
for large vessels are as follows:
Panshan Xingzhong Petroleum Transfer Corp. Aoshan
Wharf (29°57′N, 122°08′E), 329 m in length with
a depth of 21 m alongside with three berths.
2
Laotangshan First stage Wharf (30°00′N, 122°07′E),
130 m in length with a depth of 10⋅5 m alongside.
Laotangshan Second stage Coal Unloading Berth
(30°00′N, 122°08′E), 186 m in length with a depth
of 11⋅5 m alongside.
Port services
Repairs
6.155
1
Two drydocks, 250 and 176 m long with depths of 23
and 7 m are capable of taking vessels of 60 000 and 20 000
tonnes respectively.
Other facilities
6.156
1
Hospitals; Deratting and Deratting Exemption
Certificates issued, garbage reception facililities for dry and
food waste only, fumigation, ballast and slops can be
received with prior notice by barge only.
Supplies
6.157
1
Fuel oil; fresh water, stores.
Communications
6.158
1
Airport.
Rescue
6.159
1
See 6.7.
CHAPTER 6
215
OTHER PASSAGES THROUGH ZHOUSHAN QUNDAO TO HANGZHOU WAN AND
CHIANG JIANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1199
Area covered
6.160
1
This section comprises the waterways through Zhoushan
Qundao, from Dawenchong (29°38′N, 122°13′E) to
Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E).
2
It is arranged as follows:
Passages between Zhoushan Dao and Daishan Dao
(6.162).
Qu Jiang (6.179).
3
Passage between Chuanhu Liedao and Qiqu Liedao
(6.191).
Passage between Maan Liedao and Shengsi Liedao
(6.197).
Passage N of Zhoushan Qundao (6.207).
Submarine cables
6.161
1
Submarine cables are laid from Jinshan Zui to
Tanxushan (30°36′N, 121°37′E) (6.218) via Dajinshan
(30°33′N, 121°49′E), from Nanhui Zui (30°52′N, 121°53′E)
to Dayang Shan (30°35′N, 122°04′E), from Tangnao Shan
(30°35′N, 121°58′E) to seaward NW, and from Dayang
Shan to the SW.
PASSAGES BETWEEN ZHOUSHAN DAO
AND DAISHAN DAO
General information
Chart 1124, Chinese Chart 13361 (see 1.18)
Routes
6.162
1
Main route south of Xiushan Dao. From a position
ENE of Xiangluhuaping Jiao (30°03′N, 122°28′E) the route
leads NW to a position NE of Lihuo Yu (30°06′N,
122°21′E), thence W to a position N of Liangmaoshan
(30°07′N, 122°09′E), thence NW to a position NE of
Xiaowushi (30°12′N, 122°01′E), thence WNW to a position
NNW of Dawushi.
2
Alternative route north of Xiushan Dao. The route
follows the main route to a position NE of Lihuo Yu,
thence WNW to a position N of Changtu Sankuai Shan
(30°12′N, 122°15′E), thence W to a position SE of
Dajiaoshan (30°13′N, 122°09′E), thence SW to a position
SE of Shizong Shan Nan Yu (30°12′N, 122°04′E).
Tidal streams
6.163
1
Tidal streams in Guan Men between Xiushan Dao and
Zhoushan Dao are strong and set as follows:
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Stream sets
−0300 to +0300 W
+0300 to −0300 E
Principal marks
6.164
1
Landmarks:
Guanshan (30°12′N, 122°11′E) (6.168).
Yeyadan Shan (30°13′N, 122°12′E), an island,
6 cables SW of Guanshan.
Min Jiao (30°12′N, 122°11′E), an island.
2
Lihuo Yu (30°06′N, 122°21′E) (6.166).
Zhongzishan (30°07′N, 122°10′E) (6.166).
Xiaoyuanshan (30°08′N, 122°08′E) (6.166).
Nanpu Wuhu Jiao (30°15′N, 122°07′E), an island.
Dawushi (30°13′N, 121°53′E) (6.85).
3
Xiaochangshan (30°10′N, 122°06′E) (6.166).
Laitou Shan (30°09′N, 122°07′E) (6.166).
Changtu Sankuai Shan (30°12′N, 122°14′E) (6.166).
Liangmaoshan (30°07′N, 122°09′E) (6.166).
Major light:
Lihuo Yu Light (30°06′N, 122°21′E) (6.34).
Other aid to navigation
6.165
1
Racon:
Lihuo Yu Light (30°06′N, 122°21′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.36)
Main route south of Xiushan Dao
6.166
1
From a position ENE of Xiangluhuaping Jiao (30°03′N,
122°28′E) (6.36) the track leads NW passing:
NE of Xiangluhuaping Jiao (30°03′N, 122°28′E),
thence:
SW of a wreck with a depth of 14⋅6 m over it.
2
NE of Lihuo Yu (Liqian Yu) (30°06′N, 122°21′E), an
isolated island with a steep and cliffy E shore from
which a light (6.34) is exhibited. Eaves Rock, 8 m
high, lies 1 miles SW, with a clear passage
between. The passages between Eaves Rock and
the two islets lying within 1 miles of it should
not be attempted. Huangtoshan, the W-most of
these two islets has a well defined summit.
(Directions for the route N of Xiushan Dao
are given at 6.168)
The track then leads generally W passing:
3
N of Lianghengshan (30°05′N, 122°17′E), which lies
on the shallow coastal bank, part of which dries
extending from the N side of Zhoushan Dao
(30°04′N, 122°03′E). It has two prominent hills,
each about 180 m high, its E side is very steep
and grass covered. The W side of the island is
cultivated. There is no safe passage between the
island and Zhoushan Dao (30°04′N, 122°03′E),
however the passage between Lianghengshan and
the islet NE is deep. Other islets lie close N and
1 mile NW of Lianghengshan. Thence:
4
Clear of Fosset Rock, steep to, 7 cables N of
Liangsheshan, with a depth of 6⋅4 m over it. When
the tidal streams are setting strongly the rock is
marked by tide-rips. A rock 1 m high, lies 5 cables
SE of Fosset Rock. Thence:
5
N of Tiao-Men Shan (30°06′N, 122°13′E), 3 Miles W
of Lianghengshan, it is cultivated and has a temple
surrounded by a wall on its 116 m high summit.
CHAPTER 6
216
The bays SE and W of this island are filled with
mudflats. Thence:
6
N of the NE coast of Zhoushan Dao (30°04′N,
122°03′E), thence:
S of Zhongzishan (30°07′N, 122°10′E), a shoal patch
extends from 1 cable E to 2 cables SW with a
drying rock at the SW extremity. A light (white
stone block, 4 m in height) is exhibited from the
island. Thence:
7
N of Liangmaoshan (30°07′N, 122°09′E) from where
a light (white stone tower 4 m in height) is
exhibited.
6.167
Thence the track leads NW through Guan Men passing:
1
NE of an island (30°06′N, 122°09′E), 63 m high,
thence:
NE of an island 2 cables NW, 50 m high, thence:
NE of Xiaoyuanshan (30°08′N, 122°08′E) from where
a light (white round concrete structure) is
exhibited. Thence:
2
SW of Xiushan Dao (30°10′N, 122°10′E), a large
hilly island, 205 m high, thence:
SW of Niangniang Reef (30°08′⋅5, 122°08′⋅9E), a
rock lies 4 cables NW, with 2⋅6 m over it. Thence:
3
NE of Dani Jiao (30°08′N, 122°07′E) from where a
light (red and black striped 6-sided concrete
column, 12 m in height) is exhibited. Thence:
NE of Laitou Shan (30°09′N, 122°07′E), a light
(white 6-sided concrete column, 10 m in height) is
exhibited from the islet. A rock lies 1⋅5 cables E.
Thence
4
SW of Xiaochangshan (30°10′N, 122°06′E), a light
(white stone tower, 4 m in height) is exhibited
from the island, thence:
SE of Zhizhong Shan (30°12′N, 122°04′E), thence:
SE of of Shizong Shan Nan Yu (Yeya Shan)
(30°12′N, 122°04′E). A light (white round
structure, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the
island. Thence:
5
NE of Changbai Dao (30°11′N, 122°10′E) (6.178),
thence:
NE of Xiaowushi (30°12′N, 122°01′E), from where a
light (no description) is exhibited.
6
The track then leads generally WNW passing:
NNE of Gualian Shan (30°11′N, 121°56′E) (6.85),
thence:
Clear of a shoal patch 1 cable NE of Wu Hsu (6.85)
with a depth of 0⋅2 m over it, thence:
NNE of Dawushi (30°13′N, 121°53′E) (6.85).
7
Thence the track leads to a position WNW of Dawushi.
Alternative route north of Xiushan Dao
(continued from 6.166)
6.168
1
From a position NE of Lihuo Yu (30°06′N, 122°21′E),
the track leads WNW, passing:
NNE of Jiaobeishan, (30°11′N, 122°19′E), a double
rock, covered with grass on top 23 m high, thence:
2
NNE of Xiaojiaobei Shan (30°11′N, 122°18′E) from
where a light (white round structure, 8 m in
height) is exhibited. Thence:
NNE of Laili Shi (30°11′N, 122°15′E) an underwater
rock dangerous to navigation, thence:
3
NNE of a group of islets and rocks (30°12′N,
122°15′E), two rocks, awash, with depths of 1⋅2
and 4⋅8 m over them respectively lie within 1 cable
NW. Two shallow patches 2⋅1 and 3⋅5 m
respectively lie within 3 cables E. Thence:
4
NNE of Wen-ch’ung Shan (30°12′N, 122°15′N), 31 m
high, a precipitous islet with a broken, barren mass
of rocks, 12 m high, extending 2 cables SE from
it. Ryder Rock, a pinnacle rock with a depth of
1⋅5 m over it lies 3 cables farther E, a rock with
2⋅7 m over it, which dries lies at the N extremity
of the islet.
5
The track then leads to a position N of Changtu Sankuai
Shan, an islet 8 cables WNW from where a light (white
round structure, 8 m in height) is exhibited. Another islet,
24 m high and two rocks, awash, lie within 1 cable N. Two
other islets, 14 and 22 m high lie within 1 cable E.
Thence the track leads generally W through Guishan
Hangmen passing:
6
S of Qiaomaigezi Shan (30°13′N, 122°14′E) from
where a light (white brick structure, 4 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
S of Jiangnan Shan, 1 cable NE, consisting of two
islets 69 and 72 m high, joined by a narrow strip
of land and surrounded by a mud flat. A narrow
channel divides it from Qiaomaigezi Shan. Thence:
N of an island, (30°13′N, 122°12′E), 30 m high, a
rock which dries lies 1 cable NE, thence:
7
N of an island (30°12′N, 122°12′E), with a 50 m
peak at its E end. A 1⋅5 m shallow patch lies
1 cables W. Thence:
N of Min Jiao, Hanlinshi E Rock (Wangcan reef)
(30°12′N, 122°11′E) from where a light (white
6-sided concrete column, 15 m in height) is
exhibited. Two rocks, awash, lie 1 cable W.
Thence:
8
N of Xiushan Dao (30°10′N, 122°10′E), thence:
S of Guanshan (30°12′N, 122°11′E), with a prominent
dome-shaped summit, Paotaishan, 182 m high,
(30°12′N, 122°11′E). A light (black round concrete
structure 6 m in height) is exhibited from the S
extremity of the island.
9
The track then continues to a position SE of Dajiaoshan
(30°13′N, 122°09′), lying centrally in the channels S of
Daishan. It consists of two hills, 72 and 105 m high,
connected by a low, narrow isthmus. A light (white brick
masonry square, 4 m in height) is exhibited from Dongshan
Zui, the SE extremity of the island.
10
Thence the track leads SW passing SE of an island
(30°13′N, 122°07′E), 50 m high, and then to a position SE
of Shizong Shan Nan Yu (30°12′N, 122°04′E).
(Directions continue for Dawushi at 6.167)
Minor side channels
6.169
1
There are several channels between the numerous rocks
and islets between the S side of Daishan Dao (30°17′N,
122°09′E), and the islands of Changbai Dao (30°11′N,
122°10′E) and Xiushan (30°10′N, 122°10′E) to the S.
These channels are narrow, intricate and deep, and local
knowledge and adequate power to combat the tidal streams
are necessary.
Passages between Daxizhai Dao and
Dachangtushan
6.170
1
The passages through the numerous islets lying between
Daxizhai Dao (30°13′N, 122°29′E) and Dachangtushan
(30°15′N, 122°20′E) (6.12), 3 miles WNW should not be
attempted as there are many dangers and the tidal streams
CHAPTER 6
217
are strong. Daxizhai Dao and Dongzhai Dao, 1 mile W, are
separated by a narrow passage (Hall Pass).
2
The three passes, Hall pass, Brenan pass and Zhizhi
Men, are all available to vessels with adequate power, but
are seldom used except by junks; the route through
Xiaoban Men (6.37) being the one usually taken.
Balfour Passage
6.171
1
Balfour Passage with depths from 12⋅8 to 44⋅0 m lies
between Shanxing Liedao (30°26′N, 122°31′E) and Qushan
Dao 1⋅6 miles to the W. The passage has a least width of
3 cables. A 0⋅5 m high rock lies on the W side of the
passage. A rock with a height of 23 m high, a 53 m high
islet lies close W of the latter rock. When navigating the
passage keep fairly close to the 0⋅5 m high rock on the W
side.
Channel west of Changtushan
General information
6.172
1
Description. A channel, Chu-hsü Chiang (30° 15′N,
122°14′E), leads N between Changtushan and the large
island of Daishan Dao, 1 miles W. It is deep in the
fairway with a mud bottom and is a useful route through
the central island chain N of Zhoushan Qundao, but needs
careful navigation. On its E side it leads past the entrance
to Changtu Gang (6.174). The channel fairway and its S
approach have been examined by sweeping. The W side of
the channel is indented by bays filled with drying mudflats.
2
Tidal streams. In the channel W of Changtushan attain
a maximum rate of 4 to 5 kn, and set as follows
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Stream sets
−0300 to +0300 N
+0300 to −0300 S
3
Tidal streams around Jiaobeishan are strong and variable,
and low powered vessels should give it a berth of 5 cables.
Directions
6.173
1
From a position about 5 cables N of Jiaobeishan
(30°11′N, 122°18′E) (6.168), the track leads WNW passing
(with positions from Jiaobeishan):
SSW of Hsiao − chiao-pei, a rock, 8 m high,
(5 cables WNW). It has a gap in the middle which
is prominent when seen from SE or NW. Thence:
2
SSW of Brenan Rock a steep-to pinnacle, (1 miles
NNE), with a depth of 3⋅7 m over it. Ryrie Rock,
another steep-to pinnacle, (2 miles W), has a depth
of 6⋅4 m over it. Neither of these rocks give any
visible indication of their existence. Thence:
3
NNE of Wen-ch’ung Shan (30°12′N, 122°15′E)
(6.168), Another islet, Changtu Sankuai Shan
(30°12′N, 122°15′E) (6.168), 26 m high, lies
7 cables to the WNW of Wen-ch’ung Shan.
Thence:
4
Midway between Wen-ch’ung Shan and a patch with
a depth of 5⋅6 m over it lying 1 mile NNE, thence:
5
SSW of the dangers (2 miles NW) extending
1 miles SW of the W end of Dachangtushan.
Black Rocks (30°13′N, 122°17′E), a group of
thirteen rocks, lie with the highest rock, 9 m high,
1 mile S of the W end of Dachangtushan. The
outer three rocks cover.
6
Thence the track continues to a position S of the W
extremity of Dazhuxu (Ta-chu Hsü) (30°17′N, 122°14′E),
and then leads NNW passing:
7
WSW of the summit of Ta-yuan Shan (30°13′N,
122°16′E) an islet, with a well defined summit
89 m high, lying close off the SW extremity of
Dachangtushan. It has dangers extending 8 cables
from its SE, SW and NW sides. The island S of it
has a curious gap when seen from the SW.
Thence:
8
WSW of Baylis Rock (30°14′⋅3N, 122°14′⋅8E) with a
depth of 1⋅2 m over it which lies on the E side of
the fairway, 3 cables W of the SW point of
Xiaochangtushan (30°15′N, 122°16′E) (6.12).
Thence the track leads ENE passing:
9
SSW of a 6 m high rock (30°14′⋅4N, 122°15′⋅0E)
close off the SW point of Xiaochangtushan
(30°15′N, 122°16′E) (6.12), thence:
SSW of Mitchell Rock (30°16′N, 122°15′E), also on
the E side of the fairway, with a depth of 1⋅2 m
over it, 2 cables W of the NW point of
Xiaochangtushan (30°15′N, 122°16′E) (6.12). A
2 m high rock lies 7 cables NW. Thence:
10
SSW of Xiaozhu Yu, 36 m high, 3 cables E of
Dazhuxu, thence:
NNW of the NW side of Xiaochangtushan (30°15′N,
122°16′E) (6.12), thence:
SSE of Daxhuzu (30°17′N, 122°14′E), thence:
SSE of Xiaozhu Yu, 6 cables E.
Thence the track leads NNE into Qu Jiang.
Changtu Gang
6.174
1
Description. Changtu Gang (30°15′N, 122°17′E), the
narrow, landlocked harbour formed by the strait separating
Xiaochangtushan (30°15′N, 122°16′E) (6.12) and
Dachangtushan (30°15′N, 122°20′E) (6.12), affords
anchorage for several medium sized vessels, in depths from
9⋅1 to 23⋅8 m. It is an excellent typhoon refuge, and is the
best in the approaches to Chang Jiang.
2
Limiting conditions. The harbour can be used by
vessels drawing not more than 7⋅3 m, vessels drawing up to
4⋅9 m, provided they are moderately short can enter by
either entrance, but larger vessels must use the W entrance
as the E entrance has a sharp turn where it is difficult to
handle vessels of any size in the strong tidal streams.
Vessels more than 61 m in length enter or leave Changtu
Gang at slack water. Shorter vessels can enter or leave at
any state of the tide.
3
Tidal streams set in the direction of the strait forming
Changtu Gang with maximum rates of 2 to 3 kn at springs,
except in the W entrance where they may reach 5 kn. The
tidal streams set as follows:
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Stream sets
−0300 to +0300 N
+0300 to −03000 S
4
Directions for west entrance. From a position W of
Changtushan the track leads ENE passing:
5
SSE of a rock (30°14′⋅0N, 122°15′⋅3E), 2 m high.
The navigable channel abreast of this rock is only
about 1 cables wide.
Thence the track leads to a position SE of the rock
(above), and thence the line of bearing 226° astern of the
rock leads NE, passing:
CHAPTER 6
218
6
About cable NW of a rocky point on the N shore,
7 cables NE, thence:
NW of the N shore, which is mud and steep-to, until
clear of a rock, which dries 3⋅0 m, lying close
within the SE entrance point. Thence a
mid-channel course can be steered to the
anchorage.
7
Directions for east entrance. From a position W of the
N extremity of Duozishan (30°17′N, 122°22′E) (6.184) the
track leads SE to the E entrance to Changtu Gang passing:
NE of The Hornets (6.184), 7 cables W of Duozishan
(30°17′N, 122°22′E), thence:
NW of the bluff NW point of Dachangtushan
(30°15′N, 122°20′E) (6.12). The entrance lies close
W and is difficult to identify, it is about 3 cables
wide with a least depth of 5⋅8 m in the fairway.
8
Thence the track leads to a position NW of the SE
extremity of Xiaochangtushan (30°15′N, 122°16′E) (6.12),
where the channel is only 1 cables wide. Great care and
attention is required when negotiating the sharp bend.
9
The track then leads generally SW maintaining a
mid-channel course up to the harbour.
Numerous fishing boats and nets will be encountered
before reaching the best anchorage. These are usually very
much in the way, with nets stretching half-way across the
harbour abreast a temple on the S shore. In May, June and
July as many as 2300 fishing boats have been counted in
the harbour at one time.
Minor harbour
Port Gaoting
6.175
1
Port Gaoting lies on the SE side of Daishan Dao
(30°17′N, 122°09′E). It is one of the main fishing harbours
of the Zhoushan area. The port is under the authority of
Zhoushan Port (6.128). The harbour has about 44 berths
including some for vessels up to 1000 dwt.
Adjacent islands
Daxizhai Dao
6.176
1
Description. Daxizhai Dao (30°13′N, 122°29′E) lies
1 mile W of Dongzhai Dao from which it is separated by a
narrow passage. Daxizhai Dao has two summits with a
saddle between.
2
Tidal stream. To avoid the strong tidal stream setting
SE through the gap between Daxizhai Dao and the islet off
its W point, the summit of Xiaoxijiaoshan (30°14′N,
122°27′E) should not be opened W of Daxizhai Dao.
3
Anchorage can be obtained, sheltered from N and E
winds off the SW side of. There is a depth of 18⋅3 m
5 cables offshore, shoaling gradually to 1⋅8 m close in, the
bottom is soft mud.
4
Harbour. There is an excellent boat harbour on the N
side of Daxizhai Dao (30°13′N, 122°29′E) with a depth of
5⋅5 m in its entrance, shoaling to 1⋅8 m at its head, it is
sheltered from E, through S to WNW. There is also good
anchorage in depths from 18 to 26 m, mud off this harbour.
Nanyuanshan
6.177
1
Good anchorage may be obtained between Nanyuanshan
(30°13′N, 122°19′E) and Dachangtushan (30°15′N,
122°20′E) (6.12) in depths from 2⋅8 to 8⋅0 m, mud.
Changbai Dao
6.178
1
Description. Changbai Dao has a central range of hills
with a well defined summit, 242 m high in the NE part of
the island. Changbai Shuidao between Changbai Dao and
the N end of Zoushan Dao is nearly 7 cables wide, but has
some rocks in it, one of which has a depth of 2⋅9 m.
2
In 1934 fishing stakes were found to extend from the SE
side of Changbai Dao. A light (no description) is exhibited
from the SW extremity of the island.
3
Anchorage. Good anchorage can be found SE of
Changbai Dao (30°11′N, 122°02′E) in depths from 5 to
16 m, mud. Shelter can be found from NW and S winds.
QU JIANG
General information
Chart 1199
Route
6.179
1
From a position E of Zhongkui Dao (30°26′N,
122°56′E) the route leads WSW for 20 miles to a position
S of Fengchao Yan, thence W for 50 miles through Qu
Jiang, a clear channel 6 to 8 miles wide, to a position E of
Yuxingnao Dao (30°20′N, 121°51′E).
Topography
6.180
1
See islands in the archipelago at 6.10.
Tidal streams
6.181
1
Daishan. Tidal streams in the channels S of Daishan
attain a maximum rate of 5 kn at neaps and 8 kn at springs
and set as follows:
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Stream sets
−0300 to +0300 W
+0300 to −0300 E
Principal marks
6.182
1
Landmarks:
Zhongkui Dao (30°26′N, 122°56′E) (6.25).
Shanxing Shan (30°26′N, 122°31′E) (6.37).
Xiaoguishan (30°13′N,122°35′E) (6.37).
2
Major lights:
Xiashanxing Shan E end light. (30°26′N, 122°31′E)
(6.34).
Xiaoguishan Light (30°13′N,122°35′E) (6.34).
Directions
(continued from 6.25)
Zhongkui Dao to Dongzhai Dao
6.183
1
From a position E of Zhongkui Dao (30°26′N,
122°56′E) (6.25), the track leads WSW, passing:
NNW of a wreck (30°22′⋅7N, 123°02′⋅0E) and an
obstruction 3⋅8 miles W, thence:
2
NNW of Xifushan (30°10′N, 122°43′E) (6.187),
thence:
NNW of Qingbin Dao, 134 m high, lying 6 cables
NNW of Xifushan (30°10′N, 122°43′E) (6.187)
with a number of rocks and islets between.
3
The track then leads to a position N of Fengchao Yan
(30°22′N, 122°41′E) (6.37), from where a light (6.34) is
CHAPTER 6
219
exhibited, and then continues generally W through Qu
Jiang, passing:
S of an dangerous wreck 4⋅7 miles NW, thence:
4
S of Shulanghu Dao (30°26′N, 122°27′E) (6.186) and
associated islands, thence:
S of Shanxing Shan (30°26′N, 122°31′E) (6.37),
thence:
5
N of Huangxing Dao (30°12′N, 122°38′E), 198 m
high, it lies W of Miaozihu Dao from which it is
separated by a deep passage 1 mile wide. Dangers
extend 1 miles SE from Huangxing Dao to the
barren precipitous islet of Caizishan (30°10′N,
122°40′E) in the S approach to this passage.
Thence:
6
N of Xiaoguishan (30°13′N, 122°35′E) (6.37), thence:
N of Xiaoban Dao (30°12′N, 122°35′E) (6.42),
thence:
7
N of Hewett Islands (30°13′N, 122°33′E), a group of
islets and rocks, the largest 68 m high, lie NW of
Xiaoban Dao (30°12′N, 122°35′E) (6.42) from
which they are separated by Brenan Pass, a
passage 7 cables wide. Thence:
8
N of Dongzhai Dao (30°13′N, 122°31′) separated
from Hewett Islands by Zhizhi Men (6.170).
Dongzhai Dao to Yuxingnao Dao
6.184
1
From a position N of Dongzhai Dao (30°13′N, 122°31′)
the track continues W passing:
N of Daxizhai Dao (30°13N, 122°29′E) (6.176),
thence:
N of Dachangtushan (30°15′N, 122°20′E) (6.12),
thence:
2
N of Duozishan (30°17′N, 122°22′E), 71 m high, lies
midway along and 4 cables off the N coast of
Dachangtushan. The Hornets, a rocky reef drying
2⋅4 to 3 m, lies 7 cables W of Duozishan. Thence:
N of Qushan Dao (30°26′N, 122°22′E) (6.190),
thence:
N of Xiaochangtushan (30°15′N, 122°16′E) (6.12),
thence:
3
N of Daishan Dao (30°17′N, 122°09′E), 1 miles W
of Xiaochangtushan, which consists of itself and
Shuanghe Shan now joined by reclamation. The
highest summit, Moxin Gang, 256 m high, rises in
the SE part of the island, but is not prominent.
Daishan is a town near the SE corner of the
island. Thence:
4
N of Devils Rock (30°19′⋅8N, 122°13′⋅6E), a black
conical rock, 19 m high, close off the NE point of
Daishan, thence:
5
N of Yanwo Dao, also known as Castle Rock
(30°21′N, 122°10′E), the outermost islet of a chain
extending from the N side of Daishan, precipitous
on its N side and prominent. Tidal streams in the
vicinity attain a rate of 4 to 6 kn at springs and it
is advisable to give the rock a berth of at least
5 cables. Thence:
6
N of Primmer Rock, 1 miles E of Yanwo Dao
which has a depth of 1⋅5 m over it, and is usually
marked by tide rips, thence:
7
N of two islands Xikenshan and Donggenshan also
known as Hughes Islands, (30°20′N, 122°06′E),
which lie 1 miles apart at each end of a bank
with depths of less than 5⋅5 m over it, parallel to,
and 7 cables off the NW side of Daishan. There is
a navigable passage between these islands and
Daishan. Thence:
8
S of a dangerous wreck (30°24′⋅9N, 122°11′⋅4E),
thence:
S of Zhaizishan (30°23′N, 122°05′E), 4 miles NNW
of Daishan, consists of two islets close together,
43 m high. The depths around it are irregular.
Thence:
9
N of an islet, Xiapa Jiao (30°21′N, 122°03′E), 14 m
high, 2 miles SW of Zhaizishan, thence:
S of Baimutian Jiao (30°26′N, 122°04′E), 2 miles N
of Zhaizishan, consisting of two pinnacles
1 cables apart, the shoalest of which is awash,
thence:
10
N of Dayu Shan (30°18′N, 121°57′E). It rises to a
ridge with several well defined peaks of similar
height. The highest peak, 150 m is at the N end.
Thence:
11
N of Huang Jiao (30°21′⋅6N, 121°55′⋅8E), thence:
N of Lengfanshan, 5 cables SSW, thence:
N of Dazhishan (30°20′N, 121°53′E) and an island
1 cable NW, thence:
12
N of Xiaoyu Shan (30°18′N, 121°55′E), 1 miles W
of Dayoushan, has a hill in its centre 123 m high.
A chain of islets and rocks extends 2 miles NW to
Dazhishan, 57 m high.
13
The track continues to a position E of Yuxingnao Dao
(30°20′N, 121°51′E) (6.84).
Passage between Shanxing Shan and
Shulanghu Dao
6.185
1
Shanxing Shan (30°26′N, 122°31′E) (6.37) and the islets
extending WNW of it are separated by a deep passage
7 cables wide from Shulanghu Dao (30°26N, 122°27′E)
(6.186) and two islets, Haiheng Tou, 99 m high and
Xiaoshulang, 99 m high which lie SE and close S of
Shulanghu Dao. Vessels occasionally use this passage but
the recommended route is E of Shanxing Liedao.
Adjacent islands
Shulanghu Dao
6.186
1
Topography. Shulanghu Dao (30°26N, 122°27′E), an
islet with a high summit, and of a light colour is the largest
island of Shanxing Liedao.
2
Fishing. There is a large fishing village situated on the
shore on the SW side of Shulanghu Dao (30°26N,
122°27′E) (6.186), and at certain seasons fishing vessels are
quite numerous. As many as 1 200 have been sighted at
one time from the anchorage.
3
Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in depths
from 9⋅1 to 12⋅8 m with the W extremity of Shulanghu
Dao bearing 334°, distant 7 cables and also SE of
Xiaoshulang (30°24′N, 122°28′E) in depths from 9⋅1 to
11 m.
Xifushan
6.187
1
Description. Xifushan (Hsi-fu Shan) (30°10′N,
122°43′E), uninhabited, 116 m high is the E island of
Zhongjieshan Qundao (30°12′N, 122°35′E). It lies 2 miles
NW of Dongfu Shan with a deep passage between.
2
Anchorage can be obtained for one vessel in a depth of
18⋅3 m, mud, with the summit of Xifushan (30°10′N,
122°43′E) bearing 147°, distant 5 cables. in this position an
islet (Ballard Islet) (30°11′N, 122°39′E) is just open S of
CHAPTER 6
220
Miaozihu Dao, bearing 271°, and the E extremity of
Qingbin Dao and the W extremity of an islet (Carles Islet)
are in line bearing 357°.
3
There is also anchorage, sheltered from N and E winds,
in the entrance to a bay on the SW side of Miaozihu Dao,
in depths from 11 to 12⋅8 m, mud, with an islet (Kliene
Islet) (30°12′N, 122°39′E) in line with the W entrance
point of the bay, bearing 324°. A rock, drying 3⋅7 m and
steep-to, lies in the middle of the bay, other rocks extend N
from it to the shore.
Ing Longa
6.188
1
Anchorage can be obtained NE of Ing Longa (30°13′N,
122°20E), in depths from 5⋅5 to 11⋅0 m, mud, sheltered
from W, through N to ENE.
Donggenshan
6.189
1
Anchorage, sheltered from winds from E, through S to
SW, can be obtained between Donggenshan (30°20′N,
122°06′E) (6.184) and Castle Rock in depths from 7⋅3 to
18⋅3 m, but the tidal streams attain a rate from 3 to 5 kn.
Qushan Dao
6.190
1
Description. An island with a high peak on the SW part
of the island and a temple surrounded by a wall on the
summit, Qushan Dao (30°26′N, 122°22′E) is cultivated and
has a large population, principally inhabiting the N and W
parts, where there are numerous villages. The coasts are
indented by a large number of bays filled with drying
mudflats.
2
Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in
moderate depths off almost any part of Qushan Dao
(30°26′N, 122°22′E) and shelter can thus be obtained from
any direction; anchorage near the SW point of the island,
however is not recommended as the tidal streams there
attain a rate of 5 to 6 kn at springs. Anchorage in a
typhoon can be had W of the promontory protruding about
midway along the N coast of the island, sheltered by the
islands lying farther N.
PASSAGE BETWEEN CHUANHU LIEDAO
AND QIQU LIEDAO
General Information
Chart 1199
Route
6.191
1
From a position E of Shanxing Shan (30°26′N,
122°31′E) the route leads NW to a position NE of
Huangzeshan (30°31′N, 122°20′E), thence W to a position
N of Xiaoqushan (30°31′N, 122°15′E), thence NW to a
position NE of Xiaowugui (30°39′N, 122°00′E) through a
deep clear passage 6 miles wide separating Qiqu Liedao
(30°52′N, 121°53′E) from the W islands of Chuanhu
Liedao.
Topography
6.192
1
See islands in the archipelago at 6.10.
Principal marks
6.193
1
Landmarks:
Ximaan Dao (30°34′N, 122°06′E), an island.
Huxiaoshe (30°35′N, 122°09′E) (6.14).
Bodaozui Dao (30°37′N, 122°08′W), an island.
Xiaoyangshan (30°38′N, 122°03′E) (6.195).
Xugong Dao (30°38′N, 122°16′E) (6.39).
Banyang Jiao (30°38′N, 122°22′E) (6.38).
2
Major light:
Xiashanxing Shan E end light. (30°26′N,
122°31′E) (6.34).
Other aid to navigation
6.194
1
Racon:
Banyang Jiao Light (30°38′N, 122°22′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.37)
Shanxing Shan to Xiaowugui
6.195
1
From a position E of Shanxing Shan (30°26′N,
122°31′E) (6.37), the track leads NW, passing:
NE of Xiahaishan (30°29′N, 122°24′E), a rocky and
barren island, thence:
NE of a shoal (30°31′N, 122°22′E) with a depth of
4⋅2 m over it.
2
Thence the track leads to a position NE of Huangzeshan
(30°31′N, 122°20′E), grass covered, inhabited, with a
summit 154 m high and then leads E passing:
N of Xiaoqushan (30°31′N, 122°15′E), an island with
a high peak in the central part.
3
Thence the track leads NW passing:
NE of Ximaan Dao (30°34′N, 122°06′E), 77 m high,
from where a light (white round concrete tower,
5 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
4
SW of Chaishan (30°35′N, 122°23′E) (6.38), thence:
SW of Xiachuanshan (30°35′N, 122°21′E)(6.38),
thence:
SW of Bitou Jiao (30°35′N, 122°16′E), precipitous,
with a sharp double summit 30 m high. A rock
with a depth of 0⋅9 m over it, lies 2 cables S of
Bitou Jiao. Thence:
5
NE of Huxiaoshe (30°35′N, 122°09′E), 81 m high,
and the E-most island of the group which lies
6 miles W of Bitou Jiao (30°35′N, 122°16′E)
(6.38), thence:
NE of Dayang Shan (30°35′N, 122°04′E) (6.196), the
third largest island of the group, thence:
SW of Shangchuanshan (30°37′N, 122°19′E) (6.44),
thence:
6
SW of Xugong Dao (30°38′N, 122°16′E) (6.39),
thence:
NE of Bodaozui Dao (30°37′N, 122°08′W), the NE
island of the group which lies 1 miles NNW of
Huxiaoshe (30°35′N, 122°09′E), thence:
7
NE of Xiaoyangshan (30°38′N, 122°03′E), which has
three peaks of nearly equal elevation, about 139 m,
thence:
NE of Chiang-chun-mao, a remarkable pinnacle 64 m
high situated 7 cables SE of Xiaoyangshan. There
are several other islands in the vicinity without any
distinguishing features.
8
Thence the track continues to a position NE of
Xiaowugui (30°39′N, 122°00′E), the NW islet of Qiqu
CHAPTER 6
221
Liedao. A light (white concrete column, black bands, 11 m
in height) is exhibited from Xiaowugui.
(Directions continue for Dajinshan at 6.222)
Adjacent island
Dayang Shan
6.196
1
Description. Dayang Shan is covered with grass and
cultivation and has two prominent peaks, that in the S part
of the island being 202 m high, and that on the W
extremity being 189 m high. The principal village is
situated on the head of the bay on the E side.
2
Anchorage. Good anchorage can be found off the bay
on the E side of Dayang Shan (30°35′N, 122°04′E), in
depths from 7⋅3 to 11 m.
3
Directions. When approaching the anchorage, the line of
bearing 337° of the highest peak of Xiaoyangshan
(30°38′N, 122°03′E), passes 3 cables E of Huini Jiao, a
reef, 5 cables SE of Dayang Shan with a depth of 0⋅6 m
over it. The track then continues N, passing E of the S
entrance point of the bay into the anchorage
PASSAGE BETWEEN MAAN LIEDAO AND
SHENGSI LIEDAO
General information
Chart 1199
Route
6.197
1
From a position E of Dongbanyang Jiao (30°37′N,
122°51′E) (6.25) the route leads NW for 16 miles through a
passage not less than 5 miles wide between Shengsi
Liedao and Maan Liedao, to a position NE of Waisi Jiao
(30°45′N, 122°30′E), thence W for 7 miles to a position
NNW of Beidingxing Dao (30°45′N, 122°23′E).
Topography
6.198
1
See islands in the archipelago at 6.10.
Tide rips
6.199
1
Heavy tide rips are to be found in fresh winds off the
SE end of Maan Liedao. Tide rips also occur off the S and
W sides of Huang Jiao (30°46′N, 122°44′E). There are tide
rips in the passage through the centre of the chain and
precipitous rocks that extend 1 miles NE of Damaohung
(30°45′N, 122°26′E). Tide rips occur between Chang Hsu,
an islet, 1 miles NW of this group and the islets
extending 1 mile NW of it.
Principal marks
6.200
1
Landmarks:
Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.28).
Bixiashan (30°47′N, 122°43′E) (6.205).
Major lights:
Huaniaoshan Light (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.22).
Nandingxing Light (no description) (30°39′N,
122°31′E).
Other aid to navigation
6.201
1
Racon:
Nandingxing Light (30°39′N, 122°31′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.25)
Dongbanyang Jiao to Beidingxing Dao
6.202
1
From a position E of Dongbanyang Jiao (30°37′N,
122°51′E) (6.25) the track leads WNW passing:
SSW of Shengshan (30°43′N, 122°49′E) (6.27),
thence:
SSW of Gouqi Dao (30°42′N, 122°46′E) (6.27),
inhabited and one of the larger islands of Maan
Liedao, the N group of islands in Zhoushan
Qundao. Thence:
2
NNE of Dahuanglong Dao (30°40′N, 122°33′E)
(6.206), a light (white stone square, 3 m in height)
is exhibited from Changshan Zui, the SE extremity
of the island. The NE extremity also exhibits a
light (no description), Daqianzui Tou, the NW
extremity exhibits a light (white 6 sided column,
8 m in height). Thence:
3
SSW of a shoal (30°43′N, 122°42′E) with a depth of
7⋅6 m over it, thence:
NNE of Xibanyang Jiao (30°43′N, 122°40′E), a black
rocky islet 7 m high, 4 miles W of Gouqi Shan,
thence:
4
NNE of Waibaimutian Anjiao (30°43′N, 122°34′E)
2 miles E of Sijiaoshan Shengsi (30°43′N,
122°28′E) (6.13). It is a pinnacle with a depth of
2⋅7 m over it. The sea never breaks on this rock
and it is not marked in any way except by
tide-rips in calm conditions. Thence:
5
SSW of Peng Jiao, 2 miles N of Xibanyang Jiao. A
vertical rock 20 m high like a milestone, thence:
SSW of Tainanshan (30°45′N, 122°39′E), thence:
SSW of Xiasanhengshan (30°46′N, 122°39′E),
consisting of two islets 28 and 31 m high joined
by a drying mud flat, thence:
6
SSW of Shangsanhengbei Dao (30°46′N,122°38′E),
consisting of three islets close together, thence:
SSW of Mantoushan, the most prominent of the four
islets lying W of Xiluhua Dao. It has a conical
summit. 49 m high. The two S islets lie together
on a shoal bank with rocks between. Thence:
7
NNE of Sijiaoshan Shengsi (30°43′N, 122°28′E)
(6.13), thence:
NNE of Pai-Mou Chiao, a rock with a depth of 0⋅2 m
over it, which lies 7 cables NE of the NE point of
Sijiaoshan Shengsi. Thence:
8
NNE of Wai Jiao (30°45′N, 122°30′E) 6 m high, lies
2 miles N of the E part of Sijiaoshan Shengsi. Foul
ground extends 2 cables from its E side. Thence:
NNE of Damaohung (30°45′N, 122°26′E) (6.212).
NNE of Jinjishan (30°45′N, 122°27′E) (6.212),
thence:
9
SSW of Maoshan (30°50′N, 122°35′E) (6.212),
thence:
NNE of Waisi Jiao (30°45′N, 122°30′E), 41 m high,
the outer group of the islet chain extending NE of
Damaohung, thence:
10
SSW of Zuzushan (30°47′N, 122°40′E), 78 m high,
2 miles N of Peng Jiao, thence:
SSW of Qiuzishan, 2 cables farther N, with a
prominent boulder, 53 m high, which is 1 cables
NE of its 64 m high summit. There are a number
of above and below water rocks in the passage
between Qiuzishan and Dongkushan, 6 cables N.
Thence:
CHAPTER 6
222
11
SSW of Luhuashan which consists of two islands
joined by a rocky ledge which can only be crossed
by boats at HW and slack tide. Dongluhua Dao
(30°49′N, 122°38′E) is the E island and lies
5 cables NW of Dongkushan. Xiluhua Dao the W
island has a summit with a tower adjacent. The sea
breaks on a 6⋅2 m patch lying 3 cables N of the
N point of Dongluhuasan.
12
Thence the track leads W to a position NNW of
Beidingxing Dao (30°45′N, 122°23′E).
(Direction continue for the route N of
Zhoushan Qundao at 6.212)
Anchorages and harbours
Luhuashan Maodi
6.203
1
Description. Luhuashan Maodi is a designated
anchorage about 2 miles wide extending between 5 cables
and 4 miles S of Dongluhua Dao (30°49′N, 122°38′E)
(6.202) and Xiluhua Dao. It is used to lighten vessels
before proceeding up Chang Jiang. The anchorage is under
the jurisdiction of Fangang Harbour Master
2
Pilotage and tugs For further details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signal Volume 6(4).
Landmark. Look-out Tower (30°49′⋅5N, 122°37′⋅2E) on
Xiluhua Dao at the rear of Fangang village is conspicuous.
Directions. A clear approach to the anchorage can be
made from the SW. See 6⋅25 for dangers in the SW
approach to the anchorage.
3
Anchorage can be had sheltered from all winds except
from S and can be used for shelter on the approach of a
typhoon. The bottom is thick mud giving excellent holding
ground. In strong S winds it is advisable to anchor to the
N of Xiluhua Dao (30°49′N, 122°38′E).
Parts of the anchorage, particularly the centre section,
are subject to strong tidal streams, the strongest being on
the outgoing tide.
4
It was reported in 1994 that the N end of the anchorage
was occupied by two transhipment vessels, a bulk carrier to
the W and a crude oil tanker to the E. The anchorage is
also used for the transhipment of LPG. Vessels with LPG
are not allowed to anchor within 1⋅1 miles of the
transhipment bulk carrier.
5
Other facilities. Medical facilities in Shanghai.
Supplies: freshwater by barge from Fangang; provisions.
Xiluhua Dao
6.204
1
Good anchorage can be found in the bay on the W side
of Dongluhua Dao (30°49′N, 122°38′E) (6.202) and N of
Xiluhua Dao. Local knowledge is required.
Adjacent islands
Bixiashan
6.205
1
Description. Bixiashan also known as Yamaodong
(30°47′N, 122°46′E), has a saddle shaped summit 158 m
high. A chain of islets and rocks extend 2 miles NW and
1 miles SE. There is a narrow boat passage between
Bixiashan and the next islet SE.
2
Anchorage, good, may be obtained in depths from 7⋅3
to 11 m mud, in the bay formed between the S side of
Bixiashan and the W side of the islet close SE. The
anchorage is sheltered from winds between E and NW.
Dahuanglong Dao
6.206
1
Description. Dahuanglong Dao (30°40′N, 122°33′E) is
the SE island of Shengsi Liedao. The S and SE coasts of
Dahuanglong Dao are bold and rugged. There is a fishing
village at the head of the bay on the SE side of the island
and another near its N point.
2
Anchorage. Small vessels of appropriate draught may
obtain anchorage between Xiaohuanglong Dao and the NW
part of Dahuanglong Dao (30°40′N, 122°33′E), sheltered
except from N winds, but numerous fishing stakes may be
encountered in the area.
PASSAGE NORTH OF
ZHOUSHAN QUNDAO
General information
Chart 1199
Route
6.207
1
From a position ENE of Huaniaoshan (30°51′N,
122°40′E) the route leads WSW for 37 miles to a position
NNW of Xiaowugui (30°39′N, 122°00′E).
Topography
6.208
1
See islands in the archipelago at 6.10.
Vertical clearance
6.209
1
Bridge (6.82).
Principal marks
6.210
1
Landmarks:
Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.28).
Maoshan (30°50′N, 122°35′E), 29 m high.
Beidingxing Dao (30°45′N, 122°23′E) (6.45).
Xiaojishan (30°42′N, 122°02′E), an islet.
Xiaowugui (30°39′N, 122°00′E) (6.195).
Dajishan (30°48′N, 122°10′E) (6.46).
2
Major lights:
Huaniaoshan Light (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.22).
Dajishan Light (30°48′N, 122°10′E) (6.34).
Other aid to navigation
6.211
1
Racon:
Huaniaoshan Light (30°51′N, 122°40′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.25)
Huaoniaoshan to Xiaowugui
6.212
1
From a position ENE of Huaniaoshan (30°51′N,
122°40′E) (6.28) the track leads WSW passing:
NNW of Maoshan (30°50′N, 122°35′E) (6.210),
which lies 1 miles NNW of Mantoushan
(29°47′N, 122°10′E) (6.202) and is the NW islet of
Maan Liedao. Maozhua Jiao, 3 cables W of
Mantoushan, dries 2⋅7 m. A light is exhibited
(white square stone block, 3 m in height) on
Maoshan. Thence:
2
NNW of Damaohung (30°45′N, 122°26′E), 50 m high
which lies 2 cables N of Jinjishan, with a group
of rocks in between. Puyu Jiao, 5 cables N of
Damaohung is a group of rocks up to 2 m high,
they are surrounded by tide rips. Thence:
CHAPTER 6
223
3
NNW of Jinjishan (30°45′N, 122°27′E) 130 m high,
separated from the N point of Sijiaoshan Shengsi
(30°43′N, 122°28′E) (6.13) by a narrow boat
channel. There is a good boat harbour inshore of a
small islet, 36 m high close off the E point of the
island. Thence:
NNW of Beidingxing Dao (30°45′N, 122°23′E)
(6.45).
(Directions continue for route N through
Zoushan Qundao at 6.39 and for passage between
Shengsi Liedao and Maan Liedao at 6.202)
4
The track continues WSW passing:
NNW of Waihuangfen (30°46′N, 122°23′E), the outer
islet of a group of four islets lying 5 cables NW of
Beidingxing Dao. Tide rips form off the N end of
the group. Thence:
5
NNW of Yuchi Anshi (30°41′N, 122°18′E) a pinnacle
rock with a depth of 4⋅8 m over it, lying 1 miles
NNE of Xugong Dao. The sea does not break on
it and the only indication is when it is marked by
tide rips in calm weather. Numerous fishing stakes
abound E of Yuchi Anshi. Thence:
6
SSE of Dajishan (30°48′N, 122°10′E) and Zaoqian
Dao, a rock lies 4 cables N of Dajishan, 13 m
high. A rock 1 cable SE dries 1⋅8 m. A light (6.34)
is exhibited from Dajishan. Vessels can
communicate with Dajishan by the International
Code of Signals. Storm signals are hoisted at the
flagstaff near the lighthouse. A wreck lies 3 miles
SW. Thence:
7
SSE of Xiaojishan (30°42′N, 122°02′E), a precipitous
islet, 43 m high, 3 miles NNE of Xiaowugui. Its
N end is broken up into several rocks 9 to 12 m
high. Drying rocks lie 3 cables N of the islet. A
dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies 3 miles
NW of Xiaojishan.
8
Thence the track leads to a position NNW of Xiaowugui
(30°39′N, 122°00′E) (6.195), keeping well clear of Guidan
Anjiao (6.84), which lies 7 cables WNW. A dangerous
wreck, reported in 1999, lies in 30°40′N, 121°57′E and two
dangerous wrecks, position approximate, lie centred in
30°38′N, 121°55′E.
(Directions continue for Jinshan at 6.222)
HANGZHOU WAN AND QIANTANG JIANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1199, 1124, 1759
Area covered
6.213
1
The area covered by this section comprises of the
comparatively shallow bay of Hangzhou Wan which
extends from W of a line drawn between Nanhui Zui
(30°53′N, 121°52E) and the mouth of Yong Jiang, 55 miles
S, to the estuary of Qiantang Jiang.
2
In the S part of Hangzhou Wan, there are generally
depths from 5 to 8 m. In the N part of the bay these
depths increase to 6⋅4 m up to 11 m, however in 1994 less
water was reported in the N part of the Bay. At the head
of the bay is the estuary of Qiantang Jiang, and about
20 miles up river is the important city of Hangzhou.
3
It is arranged as follows:
Xiaowugui to Jinshan (6.217).
Tangnao Shan to Jinshan (6.224).
Dawushi to Jinshan (6.228).
Ningbo to Jinshan (6.232)
Jinshan (6.237)
Jinshan to Rambler Island including Zhapu (6.260).
Qintang Jiang (6.270).
Pilotage
6.214
1
Pilotage in Hangzhou Wan is optional but recommended
for large foreign vessels. Pilot boards near Chang Jiang
Kou light vessel (31°02′⋅3N, 122°21′⋅5E).
Submarine cables
6.215
1
S
ubmarine cables have been laid from Jinshan Zui to
Tanxushan (30°36′N, 121°37′E) (6.218) via Dajinshan
(30°33′N, 121°49′E), from Nanhui Zui (30°52′N, 121°53′E)
to Dayang Shan (30°35′N, 122°04′E) (6.196), from
Tangnao Shan (30°35′N, 121°58′E) to seaward NW, and
from Dayang Shan to the SW.
Rescue
6.216
1
See 6.7.
XIAOWUGUI TO JINSHAN
General information
Charts 1199, 1124
Route
6.217
1
From a position NNW of Xiaowugui (30°39′N,
122°00′E) the route leads W for about 29 miles to a
position E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E).
Topography
6.218
1
Nanhui Zui. (30°52′N, 121°53′E), the N entrance point
to Hangzhou Wan is also the S entrance point to Chang
Jiang. It is formed by alluvial deposits from the river, and
is probably extending E. Reeds grow up quickly and hold
the mud deposited by the in-going stream.
2
A mile inside the HW line an embankment 2 m high,
follows the coast N and W from the point, outside the
embankment there are numerous hamlets and the land is
well cultivated. About 6 miles W of the point there are a
number of mounds of mud, 3 to 4 m high. The N shore of
Hangzhou Wan, for 43 miles WSW of Nanhui Zui
(30°52′N, 121°53′E), is low and fronted by a mudbank
which dries out as much as 1 miles in places.
Natural conditions
6.219
1
Tidal stream S of Nanhui Zui (30°52′N, 121°53′E)
attain a rate of 3 kn at neap tides and 6 kn at spring tides,
and set parallel to the coast as possible.
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
Direction
−0520 W−going stream begins
+0100 E−going stream begins
CHAPTER 6
224
Principal marks
6.220
1
Landmarks:
Yuxingnao Dao (30°20′N, 121°51′E) (6.84).
Xiaowugui (30°39′N, 122°00′E), (6.195).
Tangnao Shan (30°35′N, 121°58′E), an island.
Dabaishan (30°34′N, 121°43′E) (6.222).
Tanxushan (30°36′N, 121°37′E) (6.222).
Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E), an island, 100 m
in height.
2
Major light:
Tangnaoshan Light (30°35′N, 121°58′E) (6.83).
Other aid to navigation
6.221
1
Racon:
Xiapanshan Light (30°30′N, 121°19′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.195)
Xiaowugui to Jinshan
6.222
1
From a position NNW of Xiaowugui (30°39′N,
122°00′E) (6.195), the track leads W passing:
N of Guidan Anjiao (6.84), 7 cables WNW, a
dangerous wreck, reported in 1999, lies in
30°′40′N, 121°57′E and two dangerous wrecks,
position approximate, lie centred in 30°38′N,
121°55′E. Thence:
2
N of Dabaishan (30°35′N, 121°43′E), 80 m high, is
the largest of a group of islets and rocks that
extend 19 miles SSW of Nanhui Zui (30°52′N,
121°53′E). There is a shoal extending 4 cables to
to the W and 7 cables to the E. A wreck lies
5⋅2 miles ESE of Dabaishan, another lies 6 cables
N of the N islet (Xiaobai Shan) (30°35′N,
121°43′E), 37 m high. Thence:
3
N of Tanxushan (30°34′N, 121°43′E), 71 m high and
cliffy, lies 5 miles WNW of Dabaishan, and is the
largest of another group of islets and rocks that
extend 3 miles SW of it. Mudflats extend for
around 2 cables around Tanxushan. Fishing stakes
may be encountered between this group and the N
shore of Hangzhou Wan. Thence:
N of Yehangpan Dao (30°34′N, 121°34′E), 44 m high
and the islet 1⋅1 miles SE.
4
Thence the track leads to a position S of Dajinshan
(30°33′N, 121°49′E), and then leads SW passing:
NW of Buoy 0 (safe water) (30°38′⋅0N, 121°18′⋅0E).
5
Thence the track leads to the quarantine anchorage
(30°38′N, 121°18′E) E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E).
(Directions continue for Jinshan at 6.254)
Minor harbour
Luchaogang
6.223
1
Port Luchao, located at the mouth of Nanhui Zui
(30°52′N, 121°53′E) is developing as a passenger terminal
and fishing harbour. It has a 180 m long wharf with depths
of 6 m alongside capable of docking vessels up to
5000 dwt. Fishing stakes are to be found in large quantities
in this area. A light (red metal framework tower, 11 m in
height) is exhibited from the wharf.
TANGNAO SHAN TO JINSHAN
General information
Charts 1199, 1124
Route
6.224
1
From a position W of Tangnao Shan (30°35′N,
121°58′E), the route leads WNW for about 28 miles to a
position E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E).
Principal marks
6.225
1
Landmarks:
Xiaowugui (30°39′N, 122°00′E) (6.195).
Tangnao Shan (30°35′N, 121°58′E), an island.
Dabaishan (30°35′N, 121°43′E) (6.222).
Tanxushan (30°36′N, 121°37′E) (6.222).
Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220).
2
Major light:
Tangnaoshan Light (30°35′N, 121°58′E) (6.83).
Other aid to navigation
6.226
1
Racon:
Xiapanshan Light (30°30′N, 121°19′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.84)
Tangnao Shan to Jinshan
6.227
1
From a position W of Tangnao Shan (30°35′N,
121°58′E) the track leads WNW passing:
NNE of a dangerous wreck (30°30′⋅3N, 121°54′⋅7E),
thence:
2
NNE of a dangerous wreck (30°33′⋅2N, 121°49′⋅0E),
thence:
NNE of Dabaishan (30°35′N, 121°43′E) (6.222),
thence:
3
NNE of Tanxushan (30°36′N, 121°37′E) (6.222),
thence:
SSW of Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220).
Thence the track leads to the quarantine anchorage
(30°38′N, 121°18′E) E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E).
(Directions continue for Jinshan at 6.254 and
for Zhapu at 6.267)
DAWUSHI TO JINSHAN
General information
Chart 1199
Route
6.228
1
From a position WNW of Dawushi (30°13′N, 121°53′E)
the route leads NW for about 32 miles to a position E of
Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E).
Principal marks
6.229
1
Landmarks:
Yuxingnao Dao (30°20′N, 121°51′E) (6.84).
Donghuoshan (30°14′⋅9N, 121°43′⋅0E).
Dabaishan (30°35′N, 121°43′E) (6.222).
Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220).
2
Major Light:
Dawushi Light (30°13′N, 121°53′E) (6.83).
Yuxingnao Dao Light (30°20′N, 121°51′E) (6.83).
CHAPTER 6
225
Other aid to navigation
6.230
1
Racon:
Xiapanshan Light (30°30′N, 121°19′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.85)
Dawushi to Jinshan
6.231
1
From a position WNW of Dawushi (30°13′N, 121°53′E)
(6.85), the track leads NW passing:
NE of Donghuoshan (30°14′⋅9N, 121°43′⋅0E) and the
islet 1 mile N. Thence:
2
NE of Qizibami Liedao, centred in 30°15′⋅9N,
121°36′⋅2E. Dachangtasan, the SW islet, is 23 m
high, and has an extensive patch of foul ground N
of the islet, with drying rocks surrounded by soft
mud and quicksand. Thence:
3
SW of Yuxingnao Dao (30°20′N, 121°51′E) (6.84), a
light (6.83) is exhibited, thence:
SW of a number of wrecks and obstructions centred
in (30°22′⋅5N, 121°47′⋅8E), thence:
SW of Yehangpan Dao (30°34′N, 121°34′E) (6.222),
thence:
4
NE of Xiapanshan, (30°30′N, 121°19′E), 19 m high.
A shoal patch, with a depth of 4⋅6 m over it, lies
2 miles E. Xiapanshan and Shangpanshan are
part of the Wangpanshan group which lies in the
middle of Hangzhou Wan, 16 miles WSW of
Tanxushan. Thence:
SW of Dajinshan Dao(30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220).
5
Thence the track leads to the quarantine anchorage
(30°38′N, 121°18′E) E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E).
(Directions continue for Jinshan at 6.254, for
Zhapu at 6.267 and for Rambler Island at 6.262)
NINGBO TO JINSHAN
General information
Chart 1199
Route
6.232
1
From a position NNE of Qili Zhi (30°00′N, 121°45′E)
(6.83) the route leads NW to a position SW of Qizibami
Liedao, centred in 30°15′⋅9N, 121°36′⋅2E. Thence NNW to
the quarantine anchorage (30°38′N, 121°18′E) E of Jinshan
(30°43′N, 121°20′E).
Topography
6.233
1
From the entrance to the Yong Jiang (29°58′N,
121°43′E), for about 12 miles NW, the coast is partly hilly,
and partly flat, cultivated land which is protected from the
sea by an embankment. The coast is fronted by a drying
mudbank 1 miles wide.
Principal marks
6.234
1
Landmarks:
Tanxushan (30°36′N, 121°37′E) (6.218).
Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220).
Xiapanshan (30°30′N, 121°19′E) (6.227).
Major light:
Qili Yu Light (30°00′N, 121°45′E) (6.56).
Other aid to navigation
6.235
1
Racon:
Xiapanshan Light (30°30′N, 121°19′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.85)
Qili Zhi to Jinshan
6.236
1
From a position NNE of Qili Zhi (30°00′N, 121°45′E)
(6.83) the track leads NW passing:
NE of Xiepuniluoshan (30°03′N, 121°37′E), 68 m
high, which lies on the coastal plain 7 miles NW
of the entrance to Yong Jiang, thence:
2
NE of Fulungshan, a bluff headland 4 miles NW of
Xiepuniluoshan, 280 m high with a temple on the
summit. From the headland, W into the estuary,
the land is low, cultivated and fronted by a broad
mudbank. Thence:
SW of Donghuoshan (30°14′⋅9N, 121°43′⋅0E), 61 m
high, thence:
3
SW of Xihuoshan, the E islet (30°15′N, 121°38′E),
46 m high, 3 miles W of Donghuoshan, a rocky
islet (Huang Chiao), 8 m high lies 7 cables N,
thence:
SW of Qizibami Liedao (6.231), centred in
30°15′⋅9N, 121°36′⋅2E.
4
The track then leads NNW passing:
WSW of a number of wrecks and obstructions
centred in 30°22′⋅5N, 121°47′⋅8E, thence:
5
WSW of Yehangpan Dao (30°34′N, 121°34′E)
(6.222), thence:
ENE of Xiapanshan, (30°30′N, 121°19′E) (6.227),
thence:
WSW of Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220).
6
Thence the track leads to the quarantine anchorage
(30°38′N, 121°18′E) E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E).
(Directions continue for Jinshan at 6.254 and
for Zhapu at 6.267)
JINSHAN
General information
Chart 1199
Position
6.237
1
Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E) is located on reclaimed
land 21 miles NE of Zhapu on the N coast of Hangzhou
Wan and a distance of 70 miles from Shanghai. The
position of the terminal is approximate.
Function
6.238
1
Jinshan terminal was designed and constructed for the
transportation of raw materials necessary for the production
of the Shanghai Petrochemical Company Ltd and its
products.
Approach and entry
6.239
1
Jinshan is approached through Hangzhou Wan, from any
of the numerous channels through Zoushan Qundao and
entered W of Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E).
CHAPTER 6
226
Traffic
6.240
1
In 2001 the port was visited by 18 vessels and handled
213 328 tonnes of cargo, the terminal can handle 2⋅5 million
tonnes of crude oil every year.
Port Authority
6.241
1
Shanghai Petrochemical Co. Ltd, c/o Jinshan Terminal,
Administration office, Jinshanwei, 200450, Shanghai, China.
Limiting conditions
Deepest and longest berth
6.242
1
Coal landing stage (6.255).
Local weather and sea state
6.243
1
The typhoon season starts from July and ends in
September. Generally SE in direction typhoons can blow
from one to three days. Care should be exercised by
mariners in Hangzhou Wan during the Typhoon season.
owing to the shallow depths and extremely large fetch in
the bay.
Arrival information
Port operations
6.244
1
Jinshan terminal is presently part of Shanghai port.
Port radio
6.245
There is a port radio station. For details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
6.246
1
The state agent is required to be given ETA’s 72, 48 and
24 hours prior to arrival at the pilot station. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Outer anchorages
6.247
1
Quarantine anchorage is located between Latitudes
30°38′N and 30°′41′N; Longitudes 121°19′E and 121°21′E,
in depths of 12⋅9 m.
2
Prohibited anchorage. An area 5 cables wide in which
anchoring and fishing are prohibited extends from
Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220) to Jinshanzui,
4 miles E, and thence to Tanxushan (30°36′N, 121°37′E)
(6.218). See Chinese Chart 13319.
Pilotage
6.248
1
For pilotage in Hangzhou Wan see 6.214. Harbour
pilotage is compulsory and pilot boards from the quarantine
anchorage (30°38′⋅0N, 121°20′⋅3E).
Tugs
6.249
1
Tugs are available at Zhapu.
Quarantine
6.250
1
Quarantine is enforced in accordance with the
regulations of The Peoples Republic of China, See 6.8.
Quarantine inspector boards at the quarantine anchorage
(30°38′⋅0N, 121°20′⋅3E).
Customs and Excise
6.251
1
Available at Zhapu, for details see 6.265.
Harbour
General layout
6.252
1
The berths lie SW of the town of Jinshan (30°43′N,
121°20′E), and are approached through a buoyed channel.
Development
6.253
1
There is a great deal of development activity in Jinshan
owing to its extensive links with Shanghai and the
hinterland. A large container terminal was reported (1998)
to be under construction. At least two large chemical plants
in the new Caojing chemical Zone have been established,
for which increased port facilities are planned. The
reclamation of 25 square kilometres more is planned.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 6.222, 6.227, 6.231 and 6.236)
6.254
1
From the vicinity of the quarantine anchorage (30°38′N,
121°20′E) the track leads WSW through a channel marked
by buoys (lateral) to the berths.
(Directions continue for Zhapu at 6.267)
Basins and berths
6.255
1
Alongside depths are reported depths. The port
authorities should be contacted for the latest information.
Jinshan has three berths for chemical cargoes, the
longest 185 m in length with depths from 4⋅7 to 8⋅5 m.
There is a coal landing stage (1998), 285 m in length with
a depth of 11⋅7 m alongside.
Port services
Repairs
6.256
1
None.
Other facilities
6.257
1
Hospitals at Zhapu.
Supplies
6.258
1
Supplies are available at Zhapu.
Communications
6.259
1
The nearest international airport is Pudong International
airport at Shanghai.
JINSHAN TO RAMBLER ISLAND
General information
Chart 1199
Route
6.260
1
From a position E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E) the
route leads WSW for about 22 miles to a position E of
Rambler Island (30°26′N,120°58′E).
CHAPTER 6
227
Principal marks
6.261
1
Landmarks:
Dajinshan Dao (30°41′N, 121°25′E) (6.220).
Rambler Island (30°26′N,120°58′E) (6.279).
Chenshan (30°35′N, 121°06′E), a hill, 158 m high.
Caiqishan (30°35′N, 121°07′E), an island.
Waipushan (30°35′N, 121°08′E), an island.
Directions
(continued from 6.231)
Jinshan to Rambler Island
6.262
1
From a position E of Jinshan (30°43′N, 121°20′E) the
track leads WSW, passing:
NNW of Yehangpan Dao (30°34′N, 121°34′E)
(6.222), thence:
2
NNW of Xiapanshan (30°30′N, 121°19′E) (6.227),
thence:
NNW of Shangpanshan (30°30′⋅5N, 121°17′⋅9E) and
the shoal patch, with a depth of 4⋅6 m over it,
2 miles E of Xiapanshan (6.227), thence:
SSE of Waipushan (30°35′⋅9N, 121°08′⋅4E).
(Directions continue for Zhapu at 6.267)
The track continues WSW, passing:
3
SSE of Zhapu (30°35′N, 121°05′E) (6.263). A drying
mudflat fringes the coast between Zhapu and the
walled city of Haiyan, 8 miles SW. The edge of
the flat is steep-to and sounding gives no warning
of its proximity. Thence:
4
SSE of a dangerous rock (30°28′N, 120°59′E), the
existence of which is doubtful, thence;
SSE of the town of Haiyan (30°31′N, 120°56′E),
thence:
SSE of a shoal with 4⋅6 m over it. Baitashan
(30°27′N, 120°58′E) lies 1⋅7 miles E.
5
Thence the track leads to a position E of Rambler Island
(30°26′N, 120°58′E) (6.279).
Zhapu
General information
6.263
1
Position. Zhapu (Chapu) (30°35′N, 121°05′E), an old
walled city, formerly known as Hangchow, with a
population of 53,000 people (1998), stands on the coast
13 miles SW of Zinshan.
2
Function. The port serves the hinterland of Zhejiang
province and Shanghai. It has extensive equipment capable
of handling a variety of cargoes, and craft of most types
including river steamers, passenger craft and tankers.
Principal cargoes handled are general cargo, breakbulk,
containers and petroleum products.
3
Topography. Zhapu can be identified by a ridge of
wooded hills, extending along the coast for 3 miles E of
the city of which Chenshan (6.261) is the highest. and also
by some islets lying close off the coast protecting the
anchorage from the E.
4
Port limits. Zhapu port comprises the N coast of
Hangzhou Wan between 121°16′E and 120°54′E. The
combined length of coastline under Zhapu port is nearly
72⋅6 miles.
5
Traffic. In 2001 the port was visited by 37 vessels and
handled 245 766 tonnes of cargo.
Port Authority. Jiaxing Zhapu Port Superintendence
Administration. Hu Hang Road. Zhapu Town, Pinghu City.
Zhejiang Zhapu Port Superintendence Supervision
Bureau. No 7 Haitang Street, Zhapu town.
Limiting conditions
6.264
1
Depths. The least depth of 8 m is in Qiantang Jiang Kou
(30°30′N, 121°04′E), elsewhere average depths of 12 m
may be found. Depths from 22 to 44 m may be found in
Zhapusan Men (30°35′N, 121°08′E).
Deepest and longest berth. Zenshan Crude Oil New
Wharf (6.268).
2
Local weather and sea state. The typhoon season starts
from July and ends in September. Generally SE in direction
typhoons can blow from one to three days. Care should be
exercised by mariners in Hangzhou Wan during the
Typhoon season. owing to the shallow depths and
extremely large fetch in the bay.
Arrival information
6.265
1
Port radio. There is a port radio station. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for details.
Notice of ETA required. The state agent is required to
be given ETA’s 72, 48 and 24 hours prior arrival at the
pilot station. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
2
Outer anchorages:
Joint inspection anchorage, located between Latitudes
30°33′⋅36N and 30°34′⋅18N; Longitudes 121°05′⋅32
and 121°05′⋅00, in depths of 11⋅4 m, mud.
Awaiting berth anchorage is located between Latitudes
30°34′⋅51N and 30°34′⋅27N; Longitudes 121°04′⋅39
and 121°05′⋅29E, in depths of 12⋅7 m, mud.
3
Chenshan anchorage, centred in 30°34′⋅6N,
121°14′⋅0E with a radius of 5 cables in depths of
13 m, silt.
Haiyan anchorage, situated 2 miles SE of Haiyan
(30°31′⋅0N, 120°56′⋅1E) in depths from 3 to 5 m,
mud.
4
Submarine cables and pipelines. See 6.215.
Pilotage. For pilotage in Hangzhou Wan see 6.214.
Harbour Pilotage is compulsory and pilot boards at the
Joint Inspection Anchorage (6.265).
5
Tugs. Tugs are available at Chenshan and at Jiaxing
power plant wharf.
Quarantine is enforced in accordance with the
regulations of The Peoples Republic of China. See 6.8.
6
Customs and Excise. Jiaxing Customs of the Peoples
Republic of China. No 882, Yue Xiu Nan Road, Jiaxing
City.
Jiaxing Commodity Inspection bureau of the Peoples
Republic of China. No 903, Yue Xiu Nan Road, Jiaxing
City.
Harbour
6.266
1
General Layout. Zhapu is divided into three zones,
from E to W, Dushan port zone, Zhapu port zone and
Haiyan port zone. Of the three only Zhapu port zone is
currently open to foreign vessels (1998).
2
Fishing. The area SE of Dabaishan (30°34′N, 121°43′E)
is charted as containing numerous fishing stakes.
Tidal streams are extremely strong with a highest
recorded rate of 4⋅5 kn. Usually setting E-W, both the
out-going and in-going streams tend to be equally strong
with rates of up to 3⋅8 kn.
CHAPTER 6
228
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 6.262)
6.267
1
Leading lights:
Front light (pillar with cone − apex upward) 20 m in
height (30°35′⋅5N, 121°05′⋅6E).
Rear light (pillar with cone − apex downward) 26 m
in height (about 1482 m distant NNW of front
beacon).
2
From a position SSE of Waipushan (30°35′⋅9N,
121°08′⋅4E), the alignment (331°) of the above lights
leads towards the berths, passing:
WSW of Caiqishan (30°35′N, 121°07′E), thence:
3
Clear of a shoal patch with 10 m over it marked by a
buoy (Isolated danger) (30°34′⋅5N, 121°06′⋅0E).
Berths
6.2680
1
Alongside depths are reported depths. The port
authorities should be contacted for latest information.
Zhapu port zone. There are numerous wharves ranging
from 100 m in length with a depth of 11⋅3 m alongside, for
general cargo. Some of these are not purpose built wharves
but barges moored alongside.
2
Zenshan Crude oil wharf has wharves ranging from
360 m in length with depths from 11⋅0 to 13⋅0 m alongside.
Dushan port zone. Jiaxing power plant has two wharves
with a length of 300 m, and depths of 14 m.
Haiyan port zone. Duchuantou has one berth capable of
taking vessels of 3000 dwt (1998).
Port services
6.269
1
Repairs. None
Other facilities. Hospitals.
Supplies: fuel oils; provisions; fresh water.
2
Communications. The nearest international airport is
Pudong International Airport, Shanghai.
Rescue. See 6.7.
QINTANG JIANG
General information
Chart 1199
Route
6.270
1
From a position E of Rambler Island (30°26′N,120°58′E)
the route leads through the estuary of Qintang Jiang
keeping to the deepest water for about 50 miles to
Hangzhou (30°15′N, 120°10′E).
Local knowledge
6.271
1
Local knowledge is required.
Natural conditions
6.272
1
Tidal Bore. The bore of Qiantang Jiang is probably one
of the largest in the world and occurs on every tide.
although on neaps it is only 0⋅6 to 0⋅9 m high, and is
neither so dangerous and spectacular as at springs when it
frequently exceeds a height of 3 m, it is probably always
dangerous on account of its speed. At springs it is at its
most formidable and navigation is impossible.
2
There is no place on the river where boats can be
secured safely 2 hours after HW. All traffic between
Hai-ning (30°25′N, 120°32′E) and Hangzhou (30°15′N,
120°10′E), some 20 miles upriver, begins soon after the
bore has passed and ends 2 hours after HW, a period of 3
to 4 hours.
3
At spring tides the bore originates in the vicinity of the
longitude 120°46′E, and about 1 to 2 hours after LW at
Rambler island (30°26′N, 120°58′E). In still weather it can
sometimes be heard at Hai-ning (30°25′N, 120°32′E) half
an hour after its formation.
4
At first the bore is in two parts, the main part moving
W across the sandbanks on the N side of the estuary, and
the other part moving NW across the banks on the SW
side of the estuary. About 4 miles from Hai-ning these parts
combine to form a continues white line some 2 miles in
length.
5
As the river narrows so the bore increases both in height
and in speed of advance. On the S bank of the estuary, for
about 5 miles inside the mouth, the stream starts to set
strongly outwards about an hour before HW at Hai-ning.
6
About 2 miles from Hai-Ning, the in-going stream from
the SE forces its way through the other to hit the sea wall
on the N shore. It rebounds into the river where it causes
violent waves to form several hundred metres behind and
twice as high as the front of the bore. These waves travel
S or SW, gradually subsiding on to the back of the bore.
7
As the bore passes Hai-ning, about 2 hours after its start,
it is a nearly straight line across the river, 2⋅5 to 3⋅5 m high
at springs and travelling at 12 to 13 kn. Its front is a
uniform cascade of bubbling foam with a slope of between
40° to 70°, the highest and steepest part being over the
deep channel of the river.
8
The N end sets along the sea wall and the S end, setting
over the gently shelving sandbank, tapers off into breakers
which die away some 5 cables behind the bore. The height,
speed and appearance are maintained for about 15 miles
above Hai-ning, after which the height gradually decreases.
9
At springs the bore passes Hangzhou about 3 hours
after its start, soon after which it breaks up and disappears.
At neaps it probably disappears before reaching Hangzhou.
10
Behind the bore the river rapidly, though unevenly, fills
up to the level of the crest. at Hai-ning, at springs, the
water level rises 4⋅0 m in the quarter hour after the passage
of the bore. At HW, about 2 hours later, the level has
risen a total of 5⋅8 m. After HW the tide goes out rapidly,
reaching mean level after about 2 hours and nearly LW
after about 5 hours. The out-going stream continues to set
until the arrival of the next bore, the river being at its
lowest level throughout the 2 hours preceding the bore.
11
Thus at Hai-ning the in-going stream lasts about 3 hours
and the out-going stream about 9 hours. At Hangzhou the
in-going stream lasts about 1 hours. The rise being almost
entirely in the bore.
12
Because of its speed of advance the bore is always
dangerous. In general, an increase in the range of the tide
and a strong wind between N and E in Zhoushan Qundao,
tend to make the bore arrive earlier and to increase its
height and its speed of travel.
Principal marks
6.273
1
Landmarks:
Xiapanshan (30°30′N, 121°19′E) (6.227).
Rambler Island (30°26′N,120°58′E) (6.279).
Baitashan (30°27′N, 120°57′E), an island.
Directions for entering harbour
6.274
1
There are no formal directions for Qiantang Jiang. The
national chart is the best guide.
CHAPTER 6
229
Hangzhou
General information
6.275
1
Position. Hangzhou (Hang-Chou) (30°15′N, 120°10′E) is
situated on the N bank of Qiantang Jiang, 50 miles above
Rambler Island (30°26′N,120°58′E).
2
Function. It derives its importance chiefly from the fact
that it is the capital of Zhejiang province, and as such is a
political, administrative, educational and social centre,
rather than a commercial or industrial centre, although it
taps the trade of Qiantang Jiang valley, a large portion of
the goods brought down that river are transhipped and
taken by inland waterway to Shanghai. A port is now being
developed for inland waterway trade.
Limiting conditions
6.276
1
Controlling Depth. The channels leading to Qiantang
Jiang have a depth of 2⋅5 to 5⋅6 m with a width of 400 to
1500 m. The channels leading to the Grand Canal area have
a depth of between 2⋅5 and 3⋅0 m with a width of 70 to
130 m.
2
Abnormal water level. In the Grand Canal area the
highest water level is 5⋅22 m and in the Qiantang Jiang
area the peak level over the years is 9⋅49 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Qiantang Jiang can
handle ships to about 500 dwt and the Grand Canal area
can accept ships up to 300 dwt.
Harbour
6.277
1
General Layout. The port consists of two areas,
Qiantang Jiang area is bounded by Zouhpu and Qibaoduan
with an overall length of 27 miles. The Grand Canal area is
bounded by Ziyi bridge and Sanbaoi ship lock with an
overall length of about 16 miles.
2
Development. It is planned to build a terminal near the
Neiheyi Bridge to handle dangerous cargo and a
transhipment wharf in Xiecun village.
Berths
6.278
1
There are about 200 berths in the port with a total
length of 8284 m.
Qiantang Jiang
6.279
1
Safe navigation for ocean-going vessels ends near
Rambler Island (30°26′N, 120°58′E), which lies close off
the N shore of Hangzhou Wan, 4 miles S of Haiyan.
2
Small vessels with a draught of not more than 0⋅9 m can
proceed up Qiantang Jiang to Hangzhou. However the bore
of Qiantang Jiang is probably one of the largest in the
world and boats should not proceed up river until half-tide
when they will, if able to make 4 kn with a 3 kn minimum
in-going stream, reach Hai-ning on the N bank 28 miles
above Rambler Island, before HW at that place.
The best plan is for boats to ground on the S bank of
the river 3 miles W of the town, as the junk shelters on the
sea wall are hard.
3
The bore having passed, proceed to Hangzhou as soon
as the boat is afloat, taking advantage of the following
in-going stream, and keeping to the N bank. The distance
from the grounding place to a safe position just E of
Hangzhou is 18 miles.
4
Junks take three days to reach Hangzhou from Zhapu
anchorage and shelter firstly in a bay (Bore Shelter Bay),
which lies on the N bank of the estuary about 13 miles
above Rambler Island, and secondly at the grounding place
off Hai-ning.
5
The return journey form Hangzhou to Zhapu anchorage
cannot be safely accomplished in fewer than three tides in
any boat. Leave Hangzhou immediately the bore has passed
and secure at, or opposite Hai-ning.
6
After the next HW proceed to Bore Shelter Bay, and at
the following HW proceed to Zhapu. Navigation between
Bore Shelter Bay and Zhapu is not safe in strong winds, on
account of the violent overfalls. Boats should not proceed
at night except with a pilot.
1204
7
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7.32
Shanghai
CHINA
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Chapter 7 - Coast of China - Chang Jiang and approaches including Huangpu Jiang and Shanghai
116°
117°
118°120°121°
122°123°119°115°114°113°
116°
Longitude 117° East from Greenwich
120°121°
29°
30°
31°
32°
29°
28°
28°
122°123°119°115°114°113°
30°
31°
32°
230
231
CHAPTER 7
COAST OF CHINA — CHANG JIANG AND APPROACHES INCLUDING
HUANGPU JIANG AND SHANGHAI
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1968, 1761
Scope of the chapter
7.1
1
The chapter describes Chang Jiang (Ch’ang Chiang) also
known as Yangtze Kiang, and its estuary, which extends
between Nanhui Zui (30°53′N, 121°52′E) and
Changjiangkou Beijiao (Cape Nelson) (31°42′N, 121°52′E)
49 miles N. It also covers the area E as far as the limits of
the book (1.1).
2
It is arranged as follows:
Offshore route — Huaoniaoshan to Changjiangkou
Beijiao (7.4).
Shanghai and approaches (7.10).
Chang Jiang including Nantong, Nanjing and other
ports on the Chang Jiang (7.73).
Rescue
7.2
1
See 6.7.
Regulations
7.3
1
See Appendix I.
OFFSHORE ROUTE — HUAONIAOSHAN TO CHANGJIANGKOU BEIJIAO
General information
Charts 1602, 2412, 1199
Route
7.4
1
From a position ENE of Huaniaoshan (30°51′N,
122°40′E), the route leads N for about 50 miles to a
position E of Changjiangkou Beijiao (31°42′N, 121°52′E).
Prohibited area
7.5
1
An area prohibited for anchoring and fishing extends
from Nanhui Zui (30°52′N, 121°53′E), seawards to N of
the islands of Zhoushan Qundao.
Submarine cables
7.6
1
Numerous submarine cables extend seaward in this area,
their positions are shown on the chart.
Principal marks
7.7
1
Landmarks:
Huaniaoshan (30°51′N, 122°40′E).
Jigu Jiao (Amherst Rocks) (31°10′N, 122°23′E).
Sheshan Dao (31°25′N, 122°14′E).
2
Major lights:
Huaniaoshan Light (30°51′N, 122°40′E) (6.28).
Jigu Jiao Light (white round GRP tower with red
bands, 9 m in height) (31°10′N, 122°23′E).
Sheshan Dao Light (black round tower, white
dwelling, 17 m in height) (31°25′N, 122°14′E).
Other aid to navigation
7.8
1
Racon:
Jigu Jiao Light (31°10′N, 122°23′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.25)
7.9
1
From a position ENE of Huaniaoshan (30°51′N,
122°40′E) (6.28) the track leads N, passing:
E of a dangerous wreck, position approximate, in
30°56′N, 122°40′E, thence:
W of a dangerous wreck, position approximate, in
30°59′N, 122°48′E, thence:
E of Anchorage No 2 centred in 31°00′N, 122°33′E.
2
E of Changjiang Kou Light-float (red hull, name on
both sides) (31°06′N, 122°28′E), thence:
(Directions continue for Shanghai at 7.25 and 7.27)
The track continues N, passing E of Anchorage No 1
centred in 31°08′N, 122°34′E.
(Directions continue for Shanghai at 7.23)
3
The track continues N, passing:
E of Jigu Jiao (31°10′N, 122°23′E), thence:
W of an obstruction (31°10′N, 122°47′E), thence:
W of an obstruction (31°13′N, 122°46′E), position
approximate, thence:
W of an obstruction (31°17′N, 122°48′E), thence:
4
E of Sheshan Dao (Shaweishan) (31°25′N, 122°14′E),
a small islet 60 m high, with steep sides. From
NNE the islet appears flat-topped with the highest
part to the E. From E it appears as a peak and
from about 5 miles SE it appears as two islets, the
W being the smaller. Sheshan Dao is seldom
sighted by vessels entering Chang Jiang from the
S. A light (7.7) is exhibited. Thence:
5
E of three dangerous wrecks centred in 31°34′N,
122°19′E, thence:
E of a patch (31°39′N, 122°29′E) with a depth of
18 m over it.
Thence the track continues to a position well E of
Changjiangkou Beijiao (31°42′N, 121°52′E).
(Directions continue at 8.16)
CHAPTER 7
232
SHANGHAI AND APPROACHES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1602
Area covered
7.10
1
This section describes Changjiang Kou, the estuary of
the Chang Jiang River, also the approaches to and port of
Shanghai.
The section is arranged as follows:
Approaches to Shanghai (7.14).
Shanghai (7.32).
Description
7.11
1
Changjiang Kou, lying between Nanhui Zui (30°52′N,
121°53′E) and Changjiangkou Beijiao 49 miles N is divided
into three main channels, Nancao Shuidao, Beicao Shuidao
and Beigang Shuidao by a number of low-lying, highly
cultivated and well populated islands, and a series of shoals
and drying mud and flats.
Depths
7.12
1
Beicao Shuidao maintained by regular dredging forms a
deep water channel for vessels unable to use Nancao
Shuidao due to their draught. Nancao Shuidao has changing
depths ranging from 4⋅5 m to 8⋅0 m, no information is
available regarding the frequency of dredging in the
fairways.
2
It was reported in 1995 that vessels with a draught in
excess of 9⋅5 m use Beicao Shuidao. Vessels with draughts
from 9⋅7 to 10 m can only transit the Chang Jiang during
spring tides by using a routine reported in 1997 as follows.
The pilot boards 2 hours before HW and depending upon
the vessels draught adjusts speed to arrive at No 261
Light-buoy (31°11′N, 122°10′E), by the Beicao anchorage,
at HW.
Dumping grounds
7.13
1
There are three official dumping grounds situated SE of
Jiuduan Sha (31°06′N, 122°10′E), E of Hengsha Dao
(31°18′N, 121°50′E) and N of the line connecting O11
Buoy (31°26′N, 121°31′E) and O12 Buoy (31°25′N,
121°30′E).
APPROACHES TO SHANGHAI
General information
Charts 1602, 1603
Routes
7.14
1
Beicao Shuidao. From Anchorage No 1 (31°08′N,
122°34′E), the route leads through the W bound traffic lane
of the TSS thence through a channel marked by buoys
(lateral) to a position at the the mouth of the Huangpu
Jiang (31°24′N, 121°31′E).
2
Nancao Shuidao — main channel
. From Anchorage
No 2 (31°00′N, 122°33′E), the route leads through the
WNW bound lane of the TSS thence through a channel
marked by buoys (lateral) and joins Nangang Shuidao.
3
Nancao Shuidao — alternative channel. From
Anchorage No 2 (31°00′N, 122°33′E), the route leads W
for 19 miles to a position N of Nanzhi Light-float
(30°59′N, 122°11′E), thence NW for 16 miles through a
channel marked by buoys (lateral) to a position N of
Jiuduan Light-float (31°08′N, 121°56′E), where it joins
Nancao Shuidao main channel.
Topography
7.15
1
The SW shore of Nangang Shuidao, from Nanhui Zui
(30°52′N, 121°53′E) to the entrance of Huangpu Jiang
(31°24′N, 121°31′E), 38 miles NNW is low, well wooded,
cultivated and partly embanked.
Fishing
7.16
1
There are usually large numbers of fishing craft and
fishing nets, indicated by their bamboo framework supports,
in the vicinity of Jigu Jiao (31°10′N, 122°23′E). It is
almost impossible to avoid them at night, and the locality
should be given a wide berth.
Notice of ETA required
7.17
1
Time of arrival should be signalled on departure from
the last port and repeated 48 hours and 24 hours prior to
arrival. Vessels intending to navigate Beicao Shuidao
should report when at least 4 miles from Changjiang Kou
Lanby (31°06′N, 122°26′E) giving their name and ETA at
the Lanby. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Pilotage
7.18
1
Pilotage for both entering and leaving Shanghai is
compulsory. The pilot boarding position is arranged by the
pilots using VHF communications. Two or three pilots may
embark, together with harbour authority officials.
2
Pilots for Nantong (32°00′N, 120°49′E) (7.109),
Zhangjia Gang (31°58′N, 120°24′E) (7.100), Zhenjiang
(32°13′N, 119°26′E) (7.125), and Nanjing (32°05′N,
118°44′E) (7.136) board in the vicinity of 31°28′N,
121°28′E at the N end of Baoshan Shuidao.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Traffic regulations
7.19
1
Entry regulations. Vessels are not permitted to enter the
estuary unless permission has been given by the Harbour
Authority.
2
Vessels inward bound using Beicao Shuidao should
exhibit a black cylinder by day or two all-round violet
lights in a vertical line by night until reaching No 274
Light-buoy. Outward bound vessels should exhibit the same
signal between No 20 Light-buoy and No 261 Light-buoy.
3
Vessels with a draught of less than 4 m shall use Nanzhi
Hangdao to enter, exit or pass Shanghai Port. Vessels with
a draught of less than 8⋅5 m are not permitted to navigate
in Beicao Shuidao within two hours of HW at Hengsha
Dao (31°18′N, 121°50′E).
4
Only vessels which cannot use the channels in Nancao
Shuidao because of their draught may navigate in Beicao
Hangdao. In the narrow section of Beicao Hangdao,
between No 261 Light-buoy (31°11′N, 122°10′E) and
No 274 Light-buoy (31°16′N, 121°53′E), overtaking and
stopping are prohibited and speed should be reduced.
5
It is reported (1997) that vessels are not permitted to
pass each other, with preference being given to inbound
laden vessels, and that speed has to be adjusted to maintain
a separation between vessels of 1 mile. Vessels requiring to
use the deep water channel through Yuanyuansha Hangdao
CHAPTER 7
233
between hour before and 1 hour after HW should apply
for permission in advance.
6
Traffic separation scheme. TSS’s are in operation
between Changjiang Kou Light-float (31°06′N, 122°28′E)
(7.9), Nancao Light-vessel (31°03′N, 122°16′E), Nanzhi
Light-float (30°59′N, 122°11′E) and the mouth of the
Huangpu Jiang (31°24′N, 121°31′E).
7
Vessel Traffic Service. A compulsory VTS is in
operation. The VTS Wusong centre monitors all traffic on
the Chang Jiang up to Huangpu Jiang. See Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
8
Prohibited area. Navigation is prohibited within a
500 m radius of Changjiang Kou Lanby (31°06′N,
122°28′E).
Natural conditions
7.20
1
Local magnetic anomaly. There is a local magnetic
anomaly between No 201 Buoy (31°20′N, 122°20′E) and
No 203 Buoy (31°21′N, 122°07′E) in Beigang Shuidao.
Tidal streams in the approach to Chang Jiang are
rotatory clockwise and have rates varying from 1 kn at
neaps to 4 kn at springs. They set as follows:
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
(Luhuashan, Luhuadao)
Direction
−0600 to −0300 between SE and WSW
−0300 to HW between WSW and NNW
HW to +0300 between NNW and ENE
+0300 to +0600 between ENE and SE
2
This is a broad guide only and it should be borne in
mind that prevailing winds and weather, and freshets in the
river, can modify the direction and rate of the streams and
also the times of HW and LW.
Tidal streams in Nangang Shuidao are rotary at the
entrance and set as follows:
Interval from HW
Chang Jiang
(Luhuashan, Luhuadao)
Direction Rate
(kn)
Neaps
Rate
(kn)
springs
−0600 to −0400 SSW to SW 1
2
−0400 to −0200 SW to WNW 1
2
−0200 to HW WNW to N 1 3
HW to +0200 N to ENE 1 3
+0200 to +0400 ENE to E
1 3
+0400 to +0600 E to ESE 1
2
3
There is a dangerous set on to the S bank at the river
entrance from about HW +0500 to +0700, and during
strong N winds this set persists well within Nangang
Shuidao. In the same area, with fresh S winds, the tidal
streams after HW set N of E much longer then in calm
weather. With a fresh N wind the reverse is the case.
4
During NE winds the tidal streams set NW for a longer
period and the water level is higher than usual. During SW
winds the reverse is true.
Tidal streams within Nangang Shuidao are mainly
reversing and turn quickly with only a short period of slack
water. When at strength they follow the direction of the
channel. They set as follows:
Interval from HW
Wusong Kou
Direction
−0530 In-going stream commences
−0030 Out-going stream commences
5
Maximum rates at the narrow part of the channel
(31°07′N, 122°00′E) are:
Interval from HW
Wusong Kou
Rate (kn)
at neaps
Rate (kn)
at springs
−0430 to −0330 (in-going) 2 3
+0130 to +0330 (out-going)
3
6
6
Between the narrow part of the channel and the entrance
of Huangpu Jiang (31°24′N, 121°31′E) the rates of the tidal
streams tend to be less, attaining a maximum of about 3 kn
on the in-going stream and 5 kn on the out-going stream.
Principal marks
7.21
1
Offshore marks:
Nanzhi Light-float (red hull, name on both sides)
(30°59′N, 122°11′E).
Nancao Light-vessel (no description) (31°03′N,
122°16′E)
Changjiang Kou Light-float (31°06′N, 122°28′E)
(7.9).
2
Major lights:
Jigu Jiao Light (31°10′N, 122°23′E) (7.7).
Sheshan Dao Light (31°25′N, 122°14′E) (7.7).
Hengsha Dao Light (white four sided concrete tower,
56 m high) (31°18′N, 121°51′E).
Other aids to navigation
7.22
1
Racons:
Nanzhi Light-float (30°59′N, 122°11′E).
Nancao Light-vessel (31°03′N, 122°16′E).
Changjiang Kou Light-float (31°06′N, 122°28′E).
Jiuduan Sha E Light (31°06′N, 122°10′E).
Jiuduan Light-float (31°08′N, 121°56′E).
Niupi Jiao Light (31°08′N, 122°15′E).
Jigu Jiao Light (31°10′N, 122°23′E).
Beicaozhong Light (31°14′N, 122°00′E).
Directions for Beicao Shuidao
(continued from 7.9)
Anchorage No 1 to Hengsha Dao
7.23
1
From the vicinity of Anchorage No 1 (31°08′N,
122°34′E) the track leads through the W bound lane of the
TSS thence through a channel marked by buoys (lateral),
passing:
2
N of Changjiangkou Light-float (31°06′N, 122°28′E),
thence:
S of Jigu Jiao (Amherst Rocks) (31°10′N, 122°23′E),
a group of large rocks the largest of which is 12 m
high. A light (7.7) is exhibited from the rocks.
3
SW of Niupi Jiao (Ariadne Rocks) (31°08′N,
122°15′E), awash, marked by VQ Light-buoy. An
obstruction, the base of a former light-beacon lies
5 cables SW of Niupi Jiao. Thence:
4
NE of Jiuduan Sha, a bank which dries in places and
is constantly changing, borders the NE side of
Beicao Shuidao for about 18 miles from the
entrance. A light (square metal framework, 7 m
high), is exhibited from the SE end of Jiuduan
Sha.
CHAPTER 7
234
5
The track then leads to the vicinity of No 265 Buoy
(31°14′N, 122°05′E). A training wall marked with lights
commences here and extends on either side of the track.
Hengsha Qiantan, a bank which dries in places lies N of
the N training wall and extends some 20 miles ESE.
Thence the track leads WNW through Changjiangkou
Shenshuihangdao, a channel marked by buoys (lateral),
passing:
6
SSW of Beicao anchorage (31°15′N, 122°02′E),
thence:
NNE of Beicaozhong Light (yellow cross on yellow
round structure), thence:
NNE of a dangerous wreck (31°15′N, 121°57′E).
7
Thence the track leads to a position SSW of Hengsha
Dao (31°20′N, 121°51′E), the SE of the alluvial islands on
the NE side of Nangang Shuidao. There is a conspicous
jetty, 730 m long, close W of the S point of Hengsha Dao.
In 1993 this jetty was reported as no longer used. A traffic
control tower is constructed close to the root of the jetty.
Hengsha Dao to Huangpu Jiang
7.24
1
From a position SSW of Hengsha Dao (31°20′N,
121°51′E), the track leads generally NW through the
buoyed channel of Yuanyuansha Hangcao passing:
SW of Hengsha East Anchorage (31°17′N, 121°50′E),
thence:
NE of the S training wall, thence:
SW of the Tanker and Dangerous Cargo Anchorage
(31°18′N, 121°49′E), thence:
2
SW of the S entrance (31°19′N, 121°48′E) to
Hengsha Tongdao, which separates Changxing Dao
(31°23′N, 121°43′E) from Hengsha Dao (31°20′N,
121°51′E), thence:
SW of Hengsha West Anchorage (31°18′N,
121°47′E), thence:
3
SW of Chanxing Dao (31°23′N, 121°43′E), the next
island NW of Hengsha Dao, which has been
created by reclamation between a number of
islands that extended for some 11 miles NW. The
process of reclamation, by the building of stone
dykes, was in progress a farther 4 miles NW of
Changxing Dao. Thence:
4
NE of the N extremity (31°18′N, 121°45′E) of the S
training wall.
(Continued from 7.27)
The track continues NW, passing NE of the Lanby in
31°19′N, 121°42′E. The channel at this point is united with
Nangang Zhihangdao. Thence:
5
SW of a shallow patch in 31°21′N, 121°42′E, thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck, position approximate in
31°20′N, 121°41′E, thence:
SW of No 1 to 11 anchorages, which extend from
31°20′N, 121°41′E to 31°25′N, 121°31′E, thence:
6
NE of the berths at Waigaoqiao (Beishenjiazhai),
2 miles SE of the entrance to Huangpu Jiang
(31°24′N, 121°31′E). A series of deep-water
berths, including container facilities, start at
31°19′N, 121°39′E and continue to the mouth of
the Huangpu Jiang. Shanghai Waigaoqiao
Shipbuilding Co, a shipyard which has recently
(2003) constructed the biggest dry bulk carrier
built in China is part of the facilities in
Waigaoqiao.
7
The track then leads to the mouth of the Huangpu Jiang
(31°24′N, 121°31′E).
(Directions continue for the river passage at 7.92 and
for entering Huangpu Jiang at 7.58)
Directions for Nancao Shuidao — main
channel
(continued from 7.9)
Anchorage No 2 to Jiuduan Light-float
7.25
1
From the vicinity of Anchorage No 2 (31°00′N,
122°33′E), the track leads through the WNW bound lane of
the TSS thence through a channel marked by buoys
(lateral), passing:
2
N of Nancao Light-vessel (31°03′N, 122°16′E) (7.21)
and then leads W through the buoyed channel of
Nancao Hangdao passing:
N of a dangerous wreck (31°02′N, 122°15′E), thence:
S of an obstruction (31°05′N, 122°11′E), thence:
S of Jiuduan Sha. A light (31°07′N, 122°10′E) (7.23)
is exhibited from the SE edge of the mud bank.
3
Thence the track leads to the vicinity of No 5
Light-buoy (31°03′N, 122°08′E), and then leads WNW
passing:
NNE of an obstruction (31°02′N, 122°07′E), thence:
SSW of an obstruction (31°07′N, 122°07′E), position
approximate, thence:
4
SSW of Jiuduan Sha, which continues parallel to the
fairway, thence:
SSW of an obstruction (31°10′N, 122°02′E), thence:
SSW of a wreck (31°07′N, 122°00′E) with a depth of
5⋅5 m over it.
5
Thence the track continues to a position N of Jiuduan
Light-float (metal pillar beacon, on red hull, name on both
sides) (31°08′N, 121°56′E).
Jiuduan Light-float to Nangang Shuidao
(continued from 7.27)
7.26
1
From a position N of Jiuduan Light-float (31°08′N,
121°56′E) the track leads NW passing:
SW of an obstruction (31°12′N, 121°57′E), thence:
SW of two dangerous wrecks centred in 31°12′N,
121°56′E, thence:
SW of a wreck (31°09′N, 121°54′E) with a depth of
3⋅7 m over it, thence:
2
NE of an obstruction (31°09′N, 121°52′E) with a
depth of 4 m over it, thence:
NE of an obstruction (31°10′N, 121°51′E) with a
depth of 5 m of water over it, thence:
SW of a stranded wreck (31°13′N, 121°53′E), thence:
SW of a stranded wreck (31°12′N, 121°51′E), thence:
3
Clear of a wreck (31°12′N, 121°49′E) with a depth of
7⋅6 m over it, thence:
Clear of a wreck (31°13′N, 121°49′E) with a depth of
7⋅7 m of water over it, thence:
Clear of a wreck (31°13′N, 121°48′E) with a depth of
3⋅6 m over it, thence:
4
Clear of an obstruction (31°14′N, 121°48′E) with a
depth of 7⋅9 m over it, thence:
Clear of two wrecks centred in 31°14′N, 121°48′E
with depths from 8 and 5 m, respectively, over
them.
Thence the track leads to a position NE of the Lanby in
31°19′N, 121°42′E and joins Nangang Shuidao.
(Directions continue at 7.24)
CHAPTER 7
235
Directions for Nancao Shuidao — alternative
channel
(continued from 7.9)
Anchorage No 2 to Nancao Shuidao
7.27
1
From the vicinity of Anchorage No 2 (31°00′N,
122°33′E), the track leads through the SW traffic lane of
the TSS, thence through a channel marked by buoys
(lateral), passing:
S of a stranded wreck then a dangerous wreck
(30°58′N, 122°21′E), thence:
2
Thence the track leads to a position N of Nanzhi
Light-float (30°59′N, 122°11′E) (7.21) and then leads NW
passing:
NE of Tongsha Shazui, a bank with depths of less
than 5⋅5 m, which extends about 18 miles NE of
Nanhui Zui (30°53′N, 121°52′E), thence:
NE of three stranded wrecks centred in 30°59′N,
122°09′E, thence:
3
NE of a wreck with a least depth of 1⋅8 m over it,
which lies 3 miles W of Nanzhi Light-float, and
a dangerous wreck 1⋅6 miles WSW, thence:
SW of a dangerous wreck, position approximate, in
30°59′N, 122°10′E, thence:
NE of two dangerous wrecks centred in 30°58′N,
122°04′E, thence:
4
SW of three dangerous wrecks, positions approximate,
centred in 31°00′N, 122°09′E, thence:
Clear of a wreck with a depth of 3⋅8 m over it, in
31°01′N, 122°07′E, thence:
NE of two dangerous wrecks, positions approximate,
centred in 31°01′N, 122°06′E, thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck, position approximate, in
31°00′N, 122°04′E, thence:
5
SW of an obstruction (31°02′N, 122°07′E), thence:
NE of two dangerous wrecks, positions approximate,
centred in 31°02′N, 122°03′E, thence:
NE of a wreck (31°03′N, 122°02′E) with a depth of
4⋅8 m over it and a dangerous wreck, position
approximate, 1 cable SW, thence:
6
Clear of an obstruction (31°04′N, 122°01′E) with a
depth of 5⋅2 m over it, thence:
Clear of a wreck (31°04′N, 122°01′E) with a depth of
4⋅1 m over it, thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck, position approximate, in
31°05′N, 121°58′E, thence:
NE of an obstruction (31°04′N, 121°57′E), thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck, position approximate,
31°06′N, 121°54′E, thence:
7
NE of Zhongjun Light-beacon (31°07′N, 121°54′E)
and Shangjun Light-beacon, 4 miles NW, which
mark the edge of the coastal bank and the S limit
of Nanzhi Hangdao. Other aids to navigation are
positioned at intervals along, but within, the N
edge of Tongsha Shazui. On this bank there are
usually long rows of fishing stakes with nets
attached.
Thence the track leads to a position N of Jiuduan
Light-float (31°08′N, 121°56′E) and joins Nancao Shuidao.
(Directions continue at 7.26)
Beigang Shuidao
General information
7.28
1
Description. Beigang Shuidao is a channel, marked by
buoys, beginning in the vicinity of No 201 Buoy (31°20′N,
122°20′E). It lies between Chongming Qiantan, a bank
which dries in places extending ESE of Chongming Dao
(31°30′N, 121°42′E) and Tongsha Qiantan, a similar bank
extending ESE from Hengsha Dao (31°20′N, 121°51′E).
The channel is changeable, shallow and is used only by
small vessels or by fishing craft.
2
In 1993 it was reported that Chongming Dao had been
designated a transit base for the New Pudong and Shanghai
harbours. On the E of the island, several 10 000 ton berths
are to be constructed.
Local knowledge is required.
Directions
7.29
1
A channel leads NW between Changxing Dao and the S
side of Chongming Dao. Donwang Jiao, the SE extremity
of Chongming Dao, is low, covered with grass and reeds
and protected by embankments.
Useful mark:
Surveying beacon (tripod, framework topmark) on the
coast 13 miles WNW of the point.
Berth
7.30
1
A jetty 122 m long, with small beacon at its head close
to the beacon mentioned above.
Anchorages
Changjiangkou Maodi
7.31
1
Changjiangkou Maodi (30°58′N, 122°15′E), divided into
two anchorages, North (31°09′N, 122°34′E) and South
(31°00′N, 122°33′E) is the anchorage used by vessels
awaiting the tide to enter Chang Jiang, or awaiting
instructions. Its limits are indicated on the chart. The
anchorages have depths from 13⋅5 to 21⋅8 m, mud, silt and
sand, and although exposed the holding ground is good.
SHANGHAI
General information
Charts 1602, 1603, 1601, 1619
Position
7.32
1
Shanghai Gang consists of that portion of Huangpu
Jiang (Huang-p’u chiang) between Wusong Kou (31°24′N,
121°32′E), its junction with the Chang Jiang, and Minhang
Power Station, 36 miles above its entrance.
Function
7.33
1
The port of Shanghai is one of the largest in the area
and has facilities for oil, bulk, chemicals, general cargo,
passengers and containers.
2
Shanghai (31°15′N, 121°30′E), the most important centre
for foreign and domestic trade and the largest industrial
city in China, covers about 7 miles of the W bank of
Huangpu Jiang. In 1975 it had a population of over
10 million. Surrounding the city core, a dozen industrial
satellite communities ease congestion and within municipal
limits 200 agricultural communes provide the city with
most of its food. On the E side or Pudong (P’u-tung) side
of the river, opposite the city, are many of the wharves and
warehouses, engineering and shipbuilding yards and
industrial buildings.
3
As the harbour is mainly under the shelter of the city
buildings, work is rarely affected by typhoons. The port is
CHAPTER 7
236
always crowded with all kinds of local craft, both
underway and moored.
Topography
7.34
1
Huangpu Jiang, with a total length of 60 miles, is
narrow and winds through an alluvial plain. Long sections
of its banks are protected from freshets by embankments.
The bank on the W side of the river is sometimes referred
to as the Shanghai side, and that on the opposite bank as
the Pudong (P’u-tung) side.
Approach and entry
7.35
1
Shanghai is entered through buoyed channels in the
estuary of the Chang Jiang river. The inner port of
Shanghai is entered through the Huangpu River.
Traffic
7.36
1
In 2001, the port was used by 1 887 ships with a total
of 103 380 609 dwt.
Port Authority
7.37
1
The harbour superintendents office (31°21′N, 121°29′E)
is situated on the W bank of the river 2 miles above
Wusong Kou Signal Station (31°24′N, 121°30′E). The
addresses are as follows:
2
Shanghai Port Superintendence Administration. No.
13 Zhong Shan Dong Yi Road, Shanghai City.
Shanghai Port Superintendence Supervision Bureau of
the Peoples Republic of China. No 9 Zhong Shan Dong Yi
road, Shanghai City.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
7.38
1
Depths in Huangpu Jiang are subject to continual
change, but the river can be entered by any vessel whose
draught permits passage through Nangang Shuidao.
Vertical clearance
7.39
1
The following bridges and cables span Huangpu Jiang.
Bridges:
Yangpu Bridge (31°15′N, 121°32′E), a large
suspension bridge, with an estimated clearance of
about 48 m.
Nanpu Bridge (31°13′N, 121°30′E) with an estimated
clearance of about 44 m.
Xupu Bridge with an estimated clearance of about
46 m.
Fengpu Bridge with an estimated clearance of about
28 m.
2
Overhead power cables:
Wujing with a clearance of 39⋅8 m.
Minhang power plant with a clearance of 28 m.
Deepest and longest berth
7.40
1
Baoshan No 2 Berth, Shanghai Container Terminal (7.67)
Maximum size of vessel handled
7.41
1
The largest vessel to berth at Shanghai is the container
vessel P&O Nedlloyd Tasman, 5468 TEU.
Arrival information
Port operations
7.42
1
Pilots have found that the handling of deep draught
ships in Huangpu Jiang is facilitated by taking them up
with the in-going stream, turning and berthing bows down
river. At the top of the spring tides, however, it is prudent
to time entry to avoid turning on the full strength of the
in-going. As soon as HW has made, the strength of the
stream decreases and turning can be effected with safety.
The SS Laurentic, with an overall length of 213 m is
reported to have turned around in Shanghai harbour.
2
When leaving harbour, deep draught vessels should sail
at the very commencement of the in-going stream, even if
this entails anchoring outside Huangpu Jiang to await the
next in-going tide before making the passage through Nan
Shuidao.
Port radio
7.43
1
There is a port radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
Notice of ETA required
7.44
1
ETA should be sent 72, 48 and 24 hours to the state
agent, or through the local agent to the state agency prior
to the vessels arrival at the pilot station. See Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Outer anchorages
7.45
1
Beicao Shuidao Anchorage, centred in 31°15′N,
122°02′E with depths from 5⋅4 to 7⋅6 m, mud, serves as a
waiting anchorage for large vessels waiting for the tide or
stopped due to bad visibility.
2
Hengsha Anchorage, meant for vessels waiting for the
tide or awaiting berthing instructions, consists of three
areas, Hengsha East anchorage is bounded by No 15
Light-buoy (31°17′N, 121°51′E) on the E and No 17
Light-buoy (31°17′N, 121°49′E) on the W. The Tankers and
Dangerous Cargoes anchorage is bounded by No 17 Buoy
on the E and extends until 31°18′N, 121°48′E on the W,
Hengsha West anchorage extends from 31°18′N, 121°48′E
on the E to No 19 Light-buoy (31°18′N, 121°46′E) on the
W, with depths from 5⋅7 to 12⋅9 m, mud and sand.
3
Quarantine anchorages. Anchorages No 1 to 6 serve as
quarantine anchorages for vessels arriving from foreign
ports. The anchorages are bounded by Q2 Light-buoy
(31°21′N, 121°41′E), No 25 Light-buoy (31°20′N,
121°41′E), Q1 Light-buoy (31°22′N, 121°39′E),
Q3 Light-buoy (31°22′N, 121°39′E), No 29 Light-buoy
(31°23′N, 121°36′E) and Q4 Light-buoy (31°23′N,
121°36′E) with depths from 5⋅7 to 12⋅6 m, mud and sand.
However, it must be borne in mind that depths and
positions of buoys are liable to change. Vessels are liable to
drag in these anchorages and it is necessary to use not less
than 6 shackles and be vigilant.
For tidal streams in these anchorages see 7.56.
4
Baimaoshan Shuidao Anchorage (31°33′N, 121°24′E)
for large vessels is situated about 4 miles S of the town
of Chongming (31°38′N, 121°24′E). The anchorage is
bounded by Q31 Light-buoy, Q32 Light-buoy, Q33
Light-buoy and Q34 Light-buoy with depths from 10 to
24 m. The remains of a dam lie close to the NW corner of
the anchorage. See the note on changing depths on chart