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NP 44 Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot 8ed 2006

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NP 44
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notices to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.
Sub−paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this volume.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2006 2007 2008 2009
IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS
This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of
Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:
Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s
Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),
Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.
All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
NP 44
MALACCA STRAIT AND
WEST COAST OF
SUMATERA PILOT
Malacca Strait and its northern approaches,
Singapore Strait and its approaches, the west coast of Sumatera,
and Cocos Islands
EIGHTH EDITION
2006
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
ii
Crown Copyright 2006
To be obtained from Agents for the
Sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright of some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner.
Formerly contained in:
China Sea Directory Vol I First published 1867. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China Sea Directory Vol I Second edition 1878. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China Sea Directory Vol I Third edition 1886. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China Sea Directory Vol I Fourth edition 1896. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China Sea Directory Vol I Fifth edition 1906. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . China Sea Pilot Vol I First edition 1916. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatra Pilot First edition 1924. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malacca Strait Pilot Second edition 1934. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malacca Strait Pilot Third edition 1946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malacca Strait Pilot Fourth edition 1958. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot Fifth edition 1971. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot Sixth edition 1987. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot Seventh edition 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
PREFACE
The Eighth Edition of the Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot has been prepared by Captain J. A. Attwater, Master Mariner,
and contains the latest information received in the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office to the date given below.
This edition supersedes the Seventh Edition (2003), which is cancelled.
Information on climate and currents has been based on data provided by the Met Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have
been consulted:
British:
Fairplay World Ports’ Guide 2006
Whitaker’s Almanack 2006
Statesman’s Yearbook 2006
Indonesian:
Indonesian Charts
Malaysian:
Malaysian Charts
Singapore:
Singapore Port Information 2006/2007
Tanker Safety in the Malacca and Singapore Strait 2001
United States:
United States NGA Publication No 160 − Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean 3rd Edition 2004
United States NGA Publication No 174 − Sailing Directions (Enroute) Strait of Malacca and Sumatera 9th Edition 2004
Dr D W Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
6th April 2006
iv
PREFACE
The Seventh Edition of the Malacca Strait and West Coast of Sumatera Pilot has been completed by Lieutenant Commander G H Rayner,
Royal Navy, and Captain R P Stanage, RD, FRIN, Master Mariner, and contains the latest information received in the United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office to the date given below.
This edition supersedes the Sixth Edition (1987) and Supplement No 5 (1999), which are cancelled.
Information on climate and currents has been based on data provided by the Meteorological Office, Bracknell.
The following sources of information, other than United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have
been consulted:
British:
Lloyds Ports of the World 2002
Fairplay Port Guide 2002
Lloyds Maritime Guide 2002
Whitaker’s Almanack 2002
Statesman’s Yearbook 2002
French:
SHOM Instructions Nautique (Vol III, IV) 1995
Indonesian:
Indonesian Sailing Directions Volume I 1980
Indonesian Ports Information 1994
Indonesian Harbour Information 1983
Indonesian Oil Terminals & Harbours Volume I and II 1997
Indonesian List of Lights 2000
Indonesian Tourist Board−Sumatera 1998
Handbooks of Port Authorities
Indonesian Charts
Malaysian:
Handbooks of Port Authorities
Malaysian Charts
Singapore:
Singapore Tide Tables and Port Facilities 2003
Tanker Safety in the Malacca and Singapore Strait 2001
Singapore Charts
Thailand:
Geographical names on Thai Charts
United States:
United States HO Publication Nos 160 and 174 − Sailing Directions for Strait of Malacca and Sumatera 2000
Background Notes for Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore
Dr D W Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
16th January 2003
v
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations ix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossaries xi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlets xvii−xviii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.6) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routes (1.12) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.15) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aids to navigation (1.24) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.27) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.31) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.39) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.60) 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.69) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piracy and armed robbery (1.70) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
Republic of Indonesia (1.75) 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kingdom of Thailand (1.83) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federation of Malaysia (1.91) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Republic of Singapore (1.101) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cocos (Keeling) Islands (1.109) 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.115) 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services—summary (1.116) 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.124) 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents and tidal streams (1.131) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea level and tides (1.141) 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.143) 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.146) 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.154) 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate information (1.170) 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.183) 55. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
Malacca Strait —Through route to the approach to Singapore Strait 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
North−west approach to Malacca Strait 75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
North−west entrance to Malacca Strait. East coast of Sumatera from Tanjung Jamboaye to Pulau−pulau Karimun 95. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
Malacca Strait, Northern approach—Eastern shore 133. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 6
Malacca Strait—Eastern shore. Pulau Pinang to Tanjung Piai 169. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 7
Singapore Strait and approaches 213. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
CHAPTER 8
Port of Singapore 239. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 9
Johor Strait and Sungai Johor 285. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
Passages off west coast of Sumatera from Ujung Raja to Pulau Nias North Channel or to Singkel 309. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 11
Passages off west coast of Sumatera from Pulau Nias North Channel to Selat Siberut, and from Singkel to Ayerbangis 339. . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 12
Passages off west coast of Sumatera from Selat Siberut to Selat Sunda 371. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 13
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 409. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES AND INDEX
Appendix I—The Maritime and Port of Singapore Authority Act 1996 (Extracts from) 415. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II—Malaysian Navigation and Port Regulations (Extracts from) 419. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix III—Former mined areas 423. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix IV—Extracts from navigation in Thai Territorial Waters Act 1913 (amended 1992) 424. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 426. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 gt or more. They amplify charted detail and contain information
needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended to be read in
conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published quarterly. Those still in force at the end
of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
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the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Submarine exercise areas are mentioned in Sailing Directions. Other firing, practice and exercise
areas maybe mentioned with limited details. Signals and buoys used in connection with these areas maybe mentioned if significant for
navigation. Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
viii
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the object above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
ix
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text:
AIS Automatic Identification System
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
°C degrees Celsius
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DF direction finding
DG degaussing
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
DW Deep Water
DSC Digital Selective Calling
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
E east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost)
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
ENE east-north-east
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
ESE east-south-east
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
EU European Union
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FPU Floating production unit
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
ft foot (feet)
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GPS Global Positioning System
GRP glass reinforced plastic
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HF high frequency
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
HSC High Speed Craft
HW High Water
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
JRCC Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LF low frequency
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LMT Local Mean Time
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length overall
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LW Low Water
m metre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
MF medium frequency
MHz megahertz
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
mm millimetre(s)
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
MSI Marine Safety Information
MSL Mean Sea Level
MV Motor Vessel
MW megawatt(s)
MY Motor Yacht
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Navtex Navigational Telex System
NE north-east
NNE north-north-east
NNW north-north-west
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
NW north-west
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
PEL Port Entry Light
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
PWC Personal watercraft
ABBREVIATIONS
x
RCC Rescue Co−ordination Centre
RMS Royal Mail Ship
RN Royal Navy
RoRo Roll−on, Roll−off
RT radio telephony
S south (southerly, southward, southern,
southernmost)
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SAR Search and Rescue
Satnav Satellite navigation
SBM Single buoy mooring
SE south-east
SPM Single point mooring
sq square
SS Steamship
SSE south-south-east
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
SWATH small waterplane area twin hull ship
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
UHF ultra high frequency
UKC under keel clearance
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
UN United Nations
UT Universal Time
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VHF very high frequency
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
W west (westerly, westward, western,
westernmost)
WGS World Geodetic System
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WNW west-north-west
WSW west-south-west
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
xi
GLOSSARIES
Words occasionally found on charts and in Sailing Directions
INDONESIAN, MALAY AND SINGAPORE
Word Language English Word Language English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . air, ayer I water, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alangan I, M river bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alur I, M river or sea channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alur pelayaran I passage, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anak ayer M small stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . api I fire, flame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . api api M type of mangrove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arus I, M current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer M stream, water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer masin M salt water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bagan M landing place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baharu M new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bandar I, M port, trading town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barat I, M west, western. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baru I new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batang M river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batu I, M rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batuan I, M rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . besar I, M large, great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beting I, M shoal, bank, sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . biru I, M blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bukit I, M hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burong M bird. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . busong M islet, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . changkat M hill, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chetak M shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dalam M deep, depth, inside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . danau I, M lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . darat M land, the interior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dolok I mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gelong M channel over a bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gili M islet, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gosung, gusung I, M shoal, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . gunung, gunong I, M mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . hijan, hijau I, M green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hili I hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitam, hitan I, M black, dark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hulo I island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hutan I, M jungle, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . indano I stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jalan I, M road, course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jambatan I, M quay, mole, bridge, gangway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jene I river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jeram M rapids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kaler M north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kali I, M river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kampong, kampung I, M village. . . . . . . . . . . karang I, M coral, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kecil, kechil I, M small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kepulauan I archipelago, group of islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . keramat M shrine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kering M dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kidul I, M south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kilaba I coconut palm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kota I, M town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kramat I holy place, shrine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuala I, M river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kubang M water hole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kulon M west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuning I, M yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . labuan, labuhan I, M anchorage, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . lama M old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . larangan M prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laut I, M sea, seaward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lebar I broad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lumpur I, M mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lurah I valley, ravine, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malang M rock, reef, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mas M golden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mendara I, M minaret, watch tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . merah I, M red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muara I, M river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nabu M reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . neghri, negeri I, M town, state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nusa I, M island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pabean I custom house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . padang M open space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paja I marsh, swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pancang I, M pile, stake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pangkalan I, M landing, place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . panjang I, M long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pantai I, M coast, sloping, beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parigi, perigi I, M well, spring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parit M ditch, stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasanggrahan I, M rest house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasir, pasie I sand, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pegunungan I mountain range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pelabuhan I roadstead, anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . permatang M sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pisang I, M banana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pohon, pokok M tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponchak M summit, peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . praja I, M town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prau, prahu I, M boat, small craft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pulau, pulo, pulu I, M island. . . . . . . . . . . . . pulau−pulau I, M group of islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pura M city, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . putih, puteh I, M white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ras I, M head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rawa, rawah I, M marshy ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rawang M swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rendah I, M low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riam, rijam I, M waterfall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rimba, rimbah I, M virgin jungle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rombu I beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rumah I, M house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sawang M narrows, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selat I, M strait, channel, narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selatan I, M south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sumber M spring of water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sumur M well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sungai, sungei I, M,S river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . taka, takat I, M shoal, reef, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tanah I, M land, country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tanjong, tanjung S,I, M point, headland, promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . tasek, tasik I, M lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . telaga I pond, small lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . teluk I, M bay, bight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tenang M calm, smooth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tepi laut M coast, sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . terumbu M dangerous hidden shoal, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which dries
xii
terusan I, M connecting channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thandi I shrine, monument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timor, timur I, M east, eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tinngi I, M high, lofty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tinjau M lookout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . titiyan M mole, jetty, footbridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tohor M shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tokong M rocky treeless islet, large rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tor I mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . toro I cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tua I, M old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tukun I, M sunken rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ture I point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ujung I, M cape, headland, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ularat I area, district. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ulak I eddy, whirlpool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utara I, M north, northern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wai I, M river, stream, creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wetan I, M east, eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indonesian abbreviations used: Gu−Gunung, Hj−Green, Kr−Karang
M−red, Pu−Pulau, S−Sungai, Tg−Tanjung
Numerals
satu 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tiga 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . empat 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lima 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enam 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tujoh 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . delapan 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sembilan 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sepuluh 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sa−belas 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua−belas 12 etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua−puloh 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua−puloh−satu 21 etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sa−ratus 100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua−ratus 200 etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sa−ribu 1,000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua−ribu 2,000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enam−ribu lima−ratus empat−puloh tiga 6,543. . . . DUTCH
The following Dutch words, with their English equivalents, are occasionally found on British charts and on the charts of the Republic of Indonesia,
where the Dutch words have not yet been replaced by Indonesian words.
Dutch English Dutch English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . archipel archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baai bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bosch wood, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buiten outer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . droogte shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eiland island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eilanden islands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eilandje islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . geul channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . groot, groote great, large. . . . . . . . . . . . heuvl hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoek cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoofd headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . huk cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kaap cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klein, kleine little, small. . . . . . . . . . . . meer lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . midden middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nieuw new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noord north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ondiepte shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oost east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oud old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reede roadstead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rif reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riffen reefs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rood red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rots rock, rocky, islet, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . steen small rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . straat strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vaarwater channel, navigable water or fairway,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . passage
wit white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zand sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zandplaat sandbank, sand cay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . zuid south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zwart black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
SUMATRAN DIALECTS
The areas within which these words are used are shown in brackets
Native English Native English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aroih (Acehnese) strait. . . . . . . . batee (Acehnese) rock, stone. . . . . . . . benting (Acehnese) fort. . . . . . gedang (Acehnese) great. . . . . . . gle (Acehnese) mountain. . . . . . . . . . goso (Nias) reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . krueng (Acehnese) river. . . . . . . lho (Acehnese) bay. . . . . . . . . . lugu (Simeulu) inlet. . . . . . . . . . nusa (Mentawai) island. . . . . . . . . pasar (Bengkulu) village. . . . . . . . tekong (Acehnese) reef. . . . . . . THAI
Thai English Thai English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . akhan building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ao gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ao kwang bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ban house; village (if with place name). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bot church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chawak pak nam estuary. . . . . . . . . chom nam submerged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . chong channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chong khaep strait. . . . . . . . . . . . chong kwat laeo swept channel. . . . . . . . . chong thang rua doen pass, passage. . . . . dan truat rok quarantine. . . . . . . . . . . . din mao clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fai light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fai nam leading light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ham prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hen dai chat conspicuous. . . . . . . . . . . . hin pakarang coral. . . . . . . . . . . . hin phut reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hup khao valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . keben cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khao hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khap samut peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . khlon mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khlon rim thale creek. . . . . . . . . . khlong canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khon spar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khot shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khot hin rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khruang mai bon yot topmark. . . . . khwa mu starboard hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khwam−luk depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . khwam−sung height. . . . . . . . . . . klom spherical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ko island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ko lek islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krachom beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krapong can. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krasae nam current. . . . . . . . . . . . . kruat gravel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kruat kon yai shingle. . . . . . . . . . . kruay conical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leam (hlaem) headland. . . . . . . . . . . laem yai cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lamthan stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lek small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mae nam river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mai lek number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . met metre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mu ban village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mu ko archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muang town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . muang tha port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . naew hin phut ridge. . . . . . . . . . . nai inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nakhon city. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam khun flood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam long ebb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam khun−long tide. . . . . . . . . . noen hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noi little. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nok outer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nok wit whistle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pa mai woodland, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pan chan crane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . phun thi antarai foul ground. . . . . . . . . phun thi ham prohibited area. . . . . . . . . . . phun thi khut dredged area. . . . . . . . . . . plong fai chimney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pluak hoi shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . praphakhan lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . pratu nam lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . radap nam tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . radap sung elevation. . . . . . . . . . . . . rakhang bell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rong channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rua ap pang wreck. . . . . . . . . . . . . rua chuay chiwit lifeboat. . . . . . . . . sai sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sai mu port hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sairen siren. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sanyan mok fog signal. . . . . . . . . . . . sao phuk rua dolphin. . . . . . . . . . . . saphan bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saphan thiap rua jetty. . . . . . . . . si dam black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si daeng red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si khao white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si khiao green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si luang yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . si nam ngoen blue. . . . . . . . . . . tha rua harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tha rua kham fak ferry. . . . . . . . . tha thiap rua pier. . . . . . . . . . . . tha thiap rua yai wharf. . . . . . . . . thang khao entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . thi chot rua yai berth. . . . . . . . . . thia thot samo anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . thi tun bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thit nua north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thit tai south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thit tawan ok east. . . . . . . . . . . . thit tawan lok west. . . . . . . . . . . thun buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thun fai light−buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thun phuk rua mooring buoy. . . . . . . . . . . u loi floating dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u rua dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wa fathom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wat temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yai (hyai) great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . yot laem peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yot sung klong laem promontory. . . . . . xiv
STANDARDIZATION OF ORTHOGRAPHY
The Indonesian and Malaysian Governments have adopted a single orthography for what is virtually a common language (Malay but
called Bahasa Indonesia within Indonesia). This volume has been written in the new orthography, however, there will be a delay before all
charts show the common interpretation and as a consequence of this the changes are given below:
Malaysia Indonesia Common orthography
CH TJ C
J DJ J
SH SJ SY
KH CH KH
GH G GH
NY NJ NY
Y J Y
E (2nd Syllable) I (2nd Syllable) I
O (2nd Syllable) U (2nd Syllable) U
’ K K
INDONESIAN PRONOUNCIATION
Indonesian orthography normally allows for unequivocal interpretation of the pronounciation. The stress usually falls on the
penultimate vowel; an exception to this rule occurs when the penultimate syllable contains e, in this case the stress falls on the last syllable.
For example taman (park) is pronounced táman, and teman (friend) is pronounced temán, the accent illustrates the stress.
Vowels:
Front unrounded Central unrounded Back rounded
High
i
u
Middle
é
e o
Low a
i is sounded like the English ee in see, but shorter. Like i in pit in closed syllable [i]. Indonesian spelling shown as i.
é is like the English e in pet or like a in make but shorter. Indonesian spelling e.
a is like the English a in father but much shorter. Indonesian spelling a.
e is like the English a in sofa. Indonesian spelling e.
o is like the English o in coat but shorter; or like aw but shorter. Indonesian spelling o.
u is like the English oo in food. In closed syllables like oo in book. Indonesian spelling u.
Diphthongs:
éy similar to the English ay as in pay. Indonesian spelling ai.
ow similar to the English ow as in mow. Indonesian spelling au.
oy similar to the English oy as in boy. Indonesian spelling oi.
Consonants:
Labial Apico dental Palatal Dorso velar Glottal
Voiceless stop P t c k ’
Voiced stop b d j g
Sprirant f s sy kh h
Nasal m n ny ng
Liquids w r,l y
The following individual letter pronounciation should be noted:
b similar to b in the English rub; example batu (stone). Indonesian spelling shown as b.
p similar to p in lip; example asap (smoke). Indonesian spelling p.
d similar to d in red; example jihad (holy war). Indonesian spelling d.
t similar to t in let but without puff of air; example tujuh (seven). Indonesian spelling t.
g similar to g in dog; example gaji (wage) or in final position similar to k as bedug (drum). Indonesian spelling as g.
GLOSSARY
xv
k similar to k in like but without puff of air; example kabar (news). Indonesian spelling k.
j similar to j but without the zh sound; example jalan (street). Indonesian spelling j.
c similar to ch in church but without the sh sound; example cari (to seek). Indonesian spelling c.
m similar to m in main; example minta (to want). Indonesian spelling m.
n similar to n in noon; example nama (name). Indonesian spelling n.
ny similar to ny in canyon; example nyanyi (to sing). Indonesian spelling ny.
f similar to f in fan; example fihak (side). Indonesian spelling f or v.
s similar to s in send; example sumur (well). Indonesain spelling s.
sy similar to sh in shoot; example syuker (thanks). Indonesian spelling sy.
z similar to z in zeal; example zat (substance). Indonesian spelling z.
ng similar to ng in singer; example dengan (with). Indonesian spelling ng.
l similar to l in leave. Tongue more advanced than English l (hill); example lima (five). Indonesian spelling l.
r similar to r in very or rr in butter. Sometimes trilled strongly; example roda (wheel) or kiri (left). Indonesian spelling r.
w ranges between v in vane and w in wane. Example wasit (referee) or lawan (opponent). Indonesian spelling w.
y similar to y in you. Example yang (the one that). Indonesian spelling y.
h similar to h in hope. Example hal (thing). Indonesian spelling h.
kh voiceless velar spirant similar to the sound made by a mild clearing of the throat. Often pronounced h or k. Example akhir (end).
Indonesian spelling kh.
’ produced by holding one’s breath for a fraction of a second and then releasing it: the glottal stop. Example baik (fine) or
tunjukkan/tunju’kan (point). Indonesian spelling k or ’ as shown in rakyat/ra’yat (people).
NOTES
xvi
2780
1312
2781
2781
2760
2785
3941
3942
3943
0406
Aus 606
2777
830
2760
830
1353
1358
2779
2760
Mariners' Routeing Guide 5502
400
96°
96°
97°
97°
98°
98°
11° 11°
12° 12°
13° 13°
N. Keeling I. Aus 607
S. Keeling I. Aus 607
COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS
Chapter 13
10°10°
9°
8° 8°
7° 7°
6° 6°
5° 5°
4° 4°
3° 3°
2° 2°
1° 1°
0° 0°
1° 1°
2° 2°
3° 3°
4° 4°
5° 5°
6° 6°
7° 7°
8° 8°
9°
94°
94°
95°
95°
96°
96°
97°
97°
98°
98°
99° 100°
Longitude 100° East from Greenwich
101° 102° 103°
103°
104°
104°
105°
105°
106°
106°
BAY OF BENGAL PILOT
NP 21
Nicobar
Islands
Mu Ko Similan
Chong Pak Phra
THAILAND
2
2
2
2
3
5
5
6
6
4
4
3
M
A
L
A
C
C
A
S
T
R
A
I
T
P. Berhala
P
.
J
a
r
a
k
K
o
L
a
n
t
a
Y
a
i
Perak R.
P E N I N S U L A R
M A L AY S I A
SEE CHINA SEA
PILOT VOL I
NP 30
10
11
11
10
P. Simeulu
P. P. BANYAK
Nias
Pulau Nias North Channel
Pulau Nias Great Channel
See
Index Chart
NP 44(b)
I N D I A N
O C E A N S
e
t
l
a
S
b
i
e
u
t
r
12
12
12
P. Sipura
Siberut
P. Pagai Utara
P. Pagai Selatan
INDONESIA
PILOT VOL I
NP 36
S U MAT E R A
Malacca Strait Pilot
P. Enggano
S
E
L
A
T
S
U
N
D
A
JAWA
INDONESIA
PILOT VOL I
NP 36
NP 44(a)
K
o
T
a
r
u
t
a
o
U
.
M
a
s
a
m
m
u
k
a
P. P. BATU
T. Cukubalimbing
xvii
103°
103°
104°
Longitude 104° East from Greenwich
50´
50´
10´
10´
20´
20´
30´
30´
40´
40´
50´
50´
10´20´
20´
30´
30´
40´
40´
50´
50´
S. Batu Pahat
6
2
4
7
7
4
S. Benut
PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
CHINA
SEA
PILOT
VOL I
NP 30
CHINA
SEA
PILOT
VOL II
NP 31
M
A
L
A
C
C
A
S
T
R
A
I
T
P. Pisang
9
9
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
T. Piai
J
O
H
O
R
S
T
R
A
I
T
M
a
i
n
S
t
r
a
i
t
SINGAPORE I.
SINGAPORE
S
I
G
N
A
O
P
R
R
E
S
T
A
I
T
I. Penawar
T. Penyusop
SOUTH
CHINA
SEA
Rangsang
P. Tebing Tinggi
T. Medangkaluar
Kundur
INDONESIA
PILOT
VOL I
NP 36
INDONESIA
PILOT
VOL I
NP 36
INDONESIA
PILOT
VOL I
NP 36
P. Karimun Besar
7
S
e
l
a
t
Du
r
i
a
n
P
h
i
l
l
i
p
C
h
a
n
.
Sugi
C
o
m
b
o
l
Bulan
S
e
l
C
o
m
b
o
l
Batam
Rempang
Galang
Selat
Riau
Bintan
Mendol
Malacca Strait Pilot
NP 44(b)
1°
50´
50´
40´
40´
30´
20´
10´
1°
50´
50´
40´
40´
30´
20´
10´
Pelawan
T. Berakit
4040
4039
4038
4041
4042
4043
2403
3947
3831
1358
3833
3831
3949
3948
1358
3949
3948
1312
0406
3947
1358
Mariners' Routeing Guide 5502
Mariners' Routeing
Guide 5502
xviii
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its
hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:
(a) that no liability whatever will be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of the details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no
recognition of the international validity of the law or regulation.
MALACCA STRAIT AND
WEST COAST OF
SUMATERA PILOT
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
Chart 4707
1.1 1
Area covered. This volume contains Sailing Directions
for Malacca Strait, Singapore Strait and the W coast of
Sumatera, and includes Cocos (Keeling) Islands, contained
within the limits defined below:
Lat N Long E
2
From the E coast of Peninsular
Malaysia:
1°34′ 104°15′
Thence E to:1°34′ 104°34′
Thence S to vicinity of Tanjung
Berakit:
1°14′ 104°34′
Thence WSW along the
N coast of Pulau Bintan to
Tanjung Sebong:
1°07′ 104°15′
Thence W across Selat Riau
and through Pulau Batam to
Tanjung Pinggir:
1°09′ 103°55′
3
Thence N to:1°11′ 103°55′
Thence W to Pulau Berhanti:1°11′ 103°53′
Thence SW to:1°07′ 103°46′
Thence SSW to Tanjung Jerih:1°02′ 103°45′
Thence S to:1°00′ 103°45′
Thence W to Tanjung Rambut:1°00′ 103°27′
Lat N Long E
4
Thence WNW through Pulau
Karimun Besar to Pelawan:
1°03′ 103°19′
Thence SW to Tanjung
Medangkaluar:
0°53′ 103°10′
Thence SW to the E entrance of
Selat Ayer Hitam:
0°50′ 103°03′
Thence SW to the E entrance of
Selat Panjang:
0°39′ 102°59′
Lat S Long E
5
Thence SSE across Sumatera to
Tanjung Cukubalimbing:
5°55′ 104°33′
Thence S to:15°00′ 104°33′
Thence W, including Cocos
(Keeling) Islands (12°S 97°E) to:
15°00′ 90°00′
Lat N Long E
6
Thence N to:6°00′ 90°00′
Thence E to:6°00′ 94°00′
Thence ENE to the NW entrance
point of Chong Pak Phra:
8°12′ 98°17′
Thence along the W coasts of
Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia,
including Johor Strait,
to the E coast of Peninsular
Malaysia in position:
1°34′ 104°15′
CHAPTER 1
2
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Coastal conditions
General
1.2 1
Malacca Strait is the main channel of water exchange
between Indian Ocean and South China Sea. On the bottom
of the strait strong tidal currents occur, causing sandwaves
to form. See 2.28 for details.
2
Strong tide−rips occur in Singapore Strait. See 7.22 for
details.
Off the W coast of Sumatera mud is the most dominant
sediment and depths are less liable to change than those in
Malacca Strait.
Navigation amongst coral
1.3 1
See The Mariner’s Handbook giving recommendations
applicable to certain areas covered by this book.
Former mined areas
1.4 1
Certain areas within the limits of this volume are still
considered dangerous due to mines laid in the 1939–1945
War. Details of these areas are given in Appendix III and
they are also referred to in the geographical chapters, see
also The Mariner’s Handbook.
Tsunamis
1.5
1
As a result of catastrophic damage caused by the
tsunami of 26th December 2004, ports may still be closed,
and depths, seabed, topography and buoyage not as charted.
Mariners are therefore urged to contact local authorities for
the latest information.
A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean is under
development. See also 1.130.
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
Traffic
1.6 1
Traffic is heavy in both Malacca and Singapore Straits.
Precautionary areas and IMO−adopted TSS have been
established (2.22) through the Straits between Permatang
Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) and the entrance to South
China Sea in the vicinity of Horsburgh Light. High
concentrations of traffic may be expected in these areas and
in the approaches to many of the ports covered by this
volume. For further details see 2.10 and 2.12.
2
Mariners’ Routeing Guide (chart 5502) includes
Passage Planning Charts which show the routes through the
TSS in Malacca Strait and Singapore Strait. The chart gives
information on the many factors affecting transit including
the STRAITREP reporting sectors, guidance for transit and
advice for deep−draught vessels.
Fishing
Fishing stakes and traps
1.7 1
On most of the sandbanks fronting the shores of
Malacca Strait and probably off many parts of the coast
mentioned in this book, particularly off the mouths of
rivers, fishing stakes and enclosures will be encountered in
depths from 5 to 10 m, and sometimes in greater depths.
The enclosures, known as seros and jermals on the
Indonesian coasts, are constructed of wooden poles firmly
driven into the bank, and interlaced with branches etc.
These form a considerable danger at night to vessels
navigating near the depths mentioned.
2
The enclosures last many years and are good landmarks
for making the river mouths to those with local knowledge,
especially off the E coast of Sumatera, where there are, on
the whole, few prominent objects.
Fishing stakes extend all around Pulau Pinang (5°23′N
100°15′E) and are described in 5.253.
3
Farther S off the Malaysian coast and on Permatang
Angsa are situated enclosures, 9 to 12 m square, for
trapping fish, having a solid platform well above HW, and
consisting of poles strengthened by cross beams on which
there may be a hut.
The platform is usually at the apex of a V formed by
poles embedded in the mud, which nearly covers at HW.
These platforms are generally found in depths up to 10 m,
rarely in greater depths, and are therefore useful in defining
the shallow water.
4
The arms of the V may extend up to 5 cables from the
apex, which usually points towards the direction of the
in−going stream.
Single spars anchored to the bottom and showing above
water a slender extension, which sometimes carries a palm
frond, may, however, be encountered farther offshore up to
the 30 m depth contour. Small craft lie to these during the
strength of the stream and catch fish which are attracted by
the eddies from the spar.
Fish aggregating devices
1.8 1
Fish aggregating devices have been moored at a number
of places off the E and W coasts of Peninsular Malaysia in
depths up to 30 m. The devices are marked by buoys
(special; topmark X). Mariners should keep well clear.
Marine farms
1.9
1
Numerous marine farms, consisting of floating or fixed
structures, are located in the coastal waters of Thailand
described in this volume. See 5.4 and notes on the charts
for further details.
Marine exploitation
General
1.10 1
Movable drilling rigs may be encountered off the coasts
and in the open waters covered by this volume. Buoys and
light−buoys, associated with the drilling operations, are
frequently laid in the vicinity of the rigs. The positions of
these rigs and buoys are frequently changed, and where
known, are promulgated by NAVAREA XI radio
navigational warnings; see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(2). Permanent platforms, structures and buoys are
charted.
Oil and gas fields
1.11
1
Production platforms and associated structures, including
tanker moorings, storage tankers and platforms on
pipelines, generally exhibit Mo (U) lights, aircraft
obstruction lights, and audible fog signals. Unauthorised
navigation is prohibited within 500 m of all structures,
including storage tankers which can swing about their
moorings. Tankers manoeuvring in the vicinity of platforms
and moorings should be given a wide berth.
For further information see The Mariner’s Handbook.
CHAPTER 1
3
ROUTES
Approach and entry to Malacca Strait
1.12
1
Malacca Strait may be approached from W through
Great Channel from the Indian Ocean, passing S of Great
Nicobar (6°45′N 93°50′E), and thence by passing either N
of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E), where the deepest water
will be found, or through one of the following two deep
passages which are described fully in Chapter 3.
2
Between Pulau Rondo and Pulau We (11 miles SE)
(3.19), or:
Through Selat Benggala (3.40), between Pulau We
(5°50′ N 95°18′ E) and Pulau Breueh (11 miles
SW), thence through Alur Pelayaran Malaka
(3.52), between Pulau We and the N extremity of
Sumatera. For choice of route, see 3.11.
3
Approach from N, from Andaman Sea, leads through the
central portion of the N part of Malacca Strait, passing
either side of Pulau Perak (5°42′N 98°56′E) and Pulau
Jarak (3°59′N 100°06′E).
Malacca Strait and Singapore Strait
1.13
1
Malacca and Singapore Straits together form the main
seaway used by vessels from Europe and India bound for
Malaysian ports, ports on the E coast of Sumatera,
Singapore and ports farther NE. They provide the shortest
route for vessels trading between Persian Gulf and Japan.
IMO−adopted TSS have been established (2.21) through
Malacca Strait between Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom
Bank) and through Singapore Strait to the entrance to
South China Sea in the vicinity of Horsburgh Light, a
distance of about 250 miles. Rules for vessels navigating
through the Straits are given at 2.18.
2
Depths in the routes vary between 20 m and about 23 m
but there are many areas of sandwaves and depths are
liable to change. Designated routes for deep−draught
vessels are laid down and are shown on the charts. Tidal
streams are strong. Aids to navigation are difficult to
maintain and may be unreliable. There is considerable
fishing activity, often adjacent to port entrances.
3
These factors, together with the density and
concentration of traffic, make navigation through the Straits
difficult, particularly for deep−draught vessels. The long
passage through the Straits demands long periods of
vigilance to maintain the required safe standard of
navigation.
West of Sumatera
1.14
1
The direct route from ports in the W part of Bay of
Bengal to Selat Sunda (Sunda Strait), or ports on the W
coast of Australia, passes S of Nicobar Islands then leads
off the W coast of Sumatera passing W of the outlying
islands and island groups of Pulau Simeulu (2°40′N
96°00′E), Pulau Nias (1°10′N 97°30′E) and Pulau−pulau
Batu (60 miles SE), Pulau Siberut (1°20′S 98°53′E) and
Pulau−pulau Mentawai (extending about 200 miles farther
SE), Pulau Mega (4°00′S 101°02′E) and Pulau Enggano
(5°25′S 102°15′E). This route outside of the island groups
is described in detail, and in sequence, in Chapters 10, 11
and 12.
2
A route passing inside the island chains, together with
the coastal route from Ujung Raja (5°32′N 95°11′E) to
Tanjung Cukubalimbing (5°55′S 104°33′E) are also both
described in Chapters 10, 11 and 12.
CHARTS
Admiralty charts
General
1.15 1
Most of the charts covering the area of this volume are
published in metric units. Just a few charts remain using
fathom and feet units, mostly of the W coast of Sumatera,
and these will be replaced by metric charts in due course.
Accuracy of charted depths
1.16
1
Many depths contained in the charts of Indonesian
waters originate from relatively old surveys or passage
soundings. It should be appreciated that such information is
rarely comprehensive and is certainly not up−to−date or
comparable with modern surveying standards.
Wherever possible, an indication of the original source
and age of the depth data included in charts is given in the
title notes and Source Diagrams of charts.
2
In particular, depths originating from Netherlands
surveys prior to 1930 may be shoaler than charted due to
uncertainties in their reduction for tidal ranges. Similarly,
Admiralty charts referenced to LAT may be affected
throughout, no matter what source has been used. Such
depth reductions could be as much as 0⋅1 to 0⋅6 m in
Indonesian waters described in this volume.
3
Due regard must always be given to achieve adequate
under−keel clearance, especially in waters that have not
been recently surveyed.
Foreign charts
General
1.17
1
For certain smaller ports and/or navigational areas where
coverage by British Admiralty charts alone is considered
inadequate, larger scale charts produced by the local
country concerned may have been used to compile
additional information for these Sailing Directions. If this
has been the case, the British Admiralty chart reference for
the text concerned will be succeeded by (see 1.17). Foreign
charts are not normally quoted as reference charts in the
text which has been written on the assumption that
mariners wishing to navigate in those areas will have
provided themselves with suitable charts with which to do
so.
2
Foreign charts may be obtained from the publishing
authorities listed below and in the Catalogue of Admiralty
Charts. These charts are not issued by the UK
Hydrographic Office, nor are they corrected by Admiralty
Notices to Mariners.
3
Indonesia:
Dinas Hidro−Oseanografic,
Jalan Pantai Kuta V No 1,
Ancol Timur,
Jakarta 14430,
Indonesia.
4
Malaysia:
Hydrographic Directorate,
Navy Headquarters,
Ministry of Defence,
Jalan Padang Tembak,
50634 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.
CHAPTER 1
4
5
Singapore:
Hydrographic Department,
Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore,
460 Alexandra Road,
PSA Building #20−00,
Singapore 119963.
6
Thailand:
Hydrographic Department,
Royal Thai Navy,
222 Thanon Rim Tang Rod Fai Kao,
Bangkok 10260,
Thailand.
1.18
1
Indonesia. A comprehensive set of charts covering the
Indonesian waters described in this volume is published by
the Dinas Hidro−Oseanografic Service Centre. In some
cases these charts are of a larger scale and more recent
date than the equivalent British Admiralty charts, though
they are not necessarily compiled from more recent
information.
2
The large scale plans of harbours, bays and anchorages
are based, with the exception of the SW coast of Sumatera,
on comparatively modern Indonesian Government charts.
The SW coast of Sumatera is largely based on old
Netherlands’ surveys. For accuracy of charted depths see
1.16.
1.19
1
Malaysia. The Hydrographic Department of the Royal
Malaysian Navy publish a number of charts of the W coast
of Peninsular Malaysia and more are due to be published.
The charts are compiled from British Admiralty surveys,
commercial surveys and Royal Malaysian Navy surveys.
The shifting nature of bars fronting some of the rivers
should be borne in mind when assessing the reliability of a
chart, taking into consideration the date of the latest
sources.
1.20
1
Singapore. A chart series covering the waters around
Singapore is published jointly by the Maritime and Port
Authority, Singapore Hydrographic Department and the
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. The charts are
principally based on surveys undertaken by the Maritime
and Port Authority.
1.21
1
Thailand. A full series of charts covering the Thai
waters described in this volume is published by the
Hydrographic Department of the Royal Thai Navy. The
series includes a number of large scale charts of smaller
ports not available within British Admiralty coverage.
Datums
1.22 1
Vertical datum. The vertical datum used for the
reduction of soundings on British Admiralty charts, equates
approximately to the LAT. Indonesian charts adopt a water
level datum decreased to Low Water Springs (LWS) which
indicates the lowest water level over a six−month period.
For an explanation of LAT, and other datums in use, see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Horizontal datum. British Admiralty and Singapore
charts of Singapore and Singapore Strait use WGS 84
Datum. Revised Kertau Datum is used on the Malaysian
side of Malacca Strait. Revised Kertau Datum differs from
WGS 84 Datum by about 1 cable. Around the coasts of
Sumatera, British Admiralty charts are derived mainly from
Indonesian charts the datum of which is unknown. Charts
that use the Revised Kertau Datum on the Malaysian side
and the unknown datum on the Indonesian side have a note
drawing attention to the discrepancy.
3
Many charts carry a note of the corrections to be applied
to satellite−derived positions, where they are known. On
charts where the correction is not known, it should not be
assumed that such a correction is negligible. For further
information see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Elevations. On British Admiralty charts, elevations are
usually given above MHWS or MHHW; Indonesian charts
generally adopt MSL as their datum, unless stated as
otherwise on the chart.
Orthography
1.23
1
Throughout this volume every effort has been made to
use the correct orthography from the most up−to−date
sources. Within the Indonesian archipelago, variations in
language and dialect often produce variations of a place
name. In recent years the Indonesian authorities have begun
to standardize generic forms of words on their charts. Some
variation does remain when a name is of more than one
word which may, or may not, be combined into a single
word; care may therefore be necessary when using the
index to this volume.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Buoys
1.24 1
The IALA Maritime System Region A is in force for the
area contained within the limits of this volume. However,
in some areas, obsolete systems may still be in use.
For further details on buoyage, including illustrations,
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
2
Caution. In Indonesian waters, lights, light−buoys and
light−beacons are unreliable, being frequently irregular or
extinguished, and buoys are often missing from, or off,
their station.
Daymarks
1.25 1
Caution may be required when evaluating the
descriptions of some landmarks given in this volume such
as remarkable trees, the colour and shape of buildings etc,
particularly in more remote areas. New buildings may have
been erected and old trees or houses destroyed so that
marks, which may at one time have been conspicuous on
account of their isolation, shape or colour, may no longer
exist or may now be difficult to identify.
2
Some charts in use in the area may still have features
incorrectly charted relative one to another, because modern
land surveys have not been conducted.
For further information on the use of charts see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Ocean Data Acquistion System
1.26
1
Ocean Data Acquisition System buoys (ODAS) some
unlit, may well be encountered in deep water, beyond the
200 m depth contour. Mariners should not moor to them,
nor pick up drifting buoys; vessels fishing should keep well
clear. See The Mariner’s Handbook for details of buoys
including their charting.
CHAPTER 1
5
PILOTAGE
General
1.27
1
Details of pilotage services available at individual ports
are given within the text at the description of the port and
in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Through route
1.28 1
Pilots are not available for the passage through Malacca
and Singapore Straits.
Malaysia and Singapore
1.29 1
Pilots are available at or near the principal ports of the
Republic of Malaysia and at Port of Singapore.
Indonesia
1.30 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all the ports of the Republic
of Indonesia at which pilots are available.
Local pilotage. For local fishermen claiming local
knowledge of places along the W coast of Sumatera see
10.144.
RADIO FACILITIES
Electronic position fixing systems
1.31 1
Full details of the electronic position fixing systems
available are given in the relevant Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2. Systems with specific relevance to the
area covered by this volume are listed below.
2
Global positioning system. Attention is drawn to 1.22,
and to notes on the charts, concerning the corrections to be
applied to satellite−derived positions. Differential GPS data
is broadcast from Pulau Satumu Light (Raffles Light)
(1°10′N 103°44′E) at Singapore.
Loran. Skywave coverage of Loran C Pacific Ocean
Chain is limited to just the N fringe of Malacca Strait near
to the Thailand coast.
Other radio aids to navigation
1.32 1
Full details of the radio aids to navigationoutlined below
are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Individual stations and services which may be of assistance
to the mariner are listed as necessary within the text of
these volumes.
Racons are fitted to many light−structures, light−floats
and buoys.
Radio stations
1.33
1
For full details of all radio stations which transmit in the
area covered by this volume, see the Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 1 (2).
Radio navigational warnings
1.34 1
Long range Navigational and Meteorological Warnings
for NAVAREA XI, which include the waters of Malacca
and Singapore Straits, are broadcast from Tokyo (JNA) the
co−ordinator for the area. For details of navigational and
meteorological warnings, see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 3 (2).
Coastal navigation warnings are broadcast in English at
scheduled times from coast radio stations. (1.33).
1.35
1
Navtex, which fulfils an integral role in the GMDSS
(1.69), is an automated direct−printing service, broadcast on
518 kHz, for the promulgation of navigational and
meteorological warnings to ships. It has been developed to
provide a low cost, simple means of receiving marine
safety information onboard ships at sea and in coastal
waters. Navtex service is available from:
Singapore (1°18′N 103°50′E).
Pinang (5°25′N 100°21′E).
Mandatory ship reporting system
1.36
1
STRAITREP is a traffic monitoring system in Malacca
and Singapore Straits, which also issues warnings to
vessels.
For information see 2.23 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Radio weather reports
1.37 1
Full details of radio weather services, including diagrams
of forecast areas, are given in Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 3 (2).
Piracy reports
1.38
Piracy warning are received and issued by the Piracy
Reporting Centre at Kuala Lumpur and by the SafetyNET
System; see 1.73. and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volumes 1 (2) and 5 for further information.
REGULATIONS
Port regulations
Singapore and Malaysia
1.39 1
Extracts from the regulations for the Port of Singapore
and the ports of Peninsular Malaysia are contained in
Appendices I and II, respectively.
Traffic separation
1.40 1
Traffic separation schemes in Malacca Strait and
Singapore Strait, as outlined in 2.21 and 7.3, are
IMO−adopted and Rule 10 of International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) applies.
Submarine cables and pipelines
1.41
1
Submarine cables. The area within this volume contains
a limited number of submarine cables. Where submarine
cables exist they are shown on the chart. See The
Mariner’s Handbook for information on The International
Convention for the Protection of Submarine Cables, 1884,
as extended by the Convention on the High Seas, 1958.
1.42
1
Submarine pipelines are laid in several places, and
shown on the charts, in particular linking offshore
installations to the shore.
2
Gas from a damaged oil or gas pipeline could cause an
explosion, loss of a vessel’s buoyancy or some other
serious hazard. Pipelines are not always buried and their
presence may effectively reduce the charted depth by as
much as 2 m. They may also span seabed undulations and
CHAPTER 1
6
cause fishing gear to become irrecoverably snagged, putting
a vessel in severe danger. Where pipelines are close
together, only one may be charted. Mariners should not
anchor or trawl in the vicinity of a pipeline.
3
See Annual Notice to Mariners No 24 and The Mariner’s
Handbook for a full description of pipelines.
Pollution of the sea
1.43
4
In the area covered by this volume, pollution of the sea
by oil or mixtures containing oil is prohibited.
Brief details of the International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 (MARPOL 1973)
and the 1978 Protocol to MARPOL 1973 are given in The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Indonesian Government Laws prohibit the discharge of
dirty ballast, refuse, garbage and waste matter into the sea.
The importation of toxic waste into Singapore is
prohibited.
Regulations affecting Indonesian waters
National flag
1.44
1
The Indonesian national flag should be flown at sea
when in Indonesian territorial waters (1.76). It should be
flown not lower than any other flag, and it should not be
smaller than the vessel’s national ensign or any other flag
displayed.
Mine countermeasure vessels
1.45
1
Mine countermeasure vessels are periodically involved in
exercises and operations that are held in sea areas
contained within limits of this volume. The areas are not
shown on British Admiralty charts but where known are
referred to within the chapter text.
Indonesian vessels engaged in mine clearance show the
signals as prescribed in Rule 27 of International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
Closure of ports
1.46
1
Should it become necessary to control the entrance of
ships into, and the movement of ships within, certain ports
under the control of the Indonesian Government, the signals
(Diagram 1.46) will be displayed. They will be disposed
vertically from some conspicuous position in or near the
approaches to the ports concerned and may also be
displayed by an Examination or Traffic Control Vessel
operating in the approaches.
2
Should entry be prohibited, a vessel must proceed, wind
and weather permitting, to the examination vessel
displaying the same signal, stationed at the entrance to the
port.
1.47
1
Permission or refusal to enter will be given after
examination. A vessel is only then allowed to enter
provided she is in charge of a pilot, or is preceded by a
naval vessel or pilot vessel. From the time the signals are
shown all exemptions from taking a pilot cease. Masters of
vessels are to carry out the instructions of the officer from
the examination vessel and are to obey all signals.
2
If a warning shot is fired from the examining vessel, all
vessels in the vicinity of the examination vessel must stop
immediately, in so far as safety permits. Failure to comply
with these regulations may result in danger to the vessel
and the crew. As a general rule, permission to enter at
night will not be granted.
3
If a signal is made from the shore to intimate that
vessels are subject to examination and there is no
examination vessel in the entrance to the fairway, then
vessels must anchor or lie off.
The coming into operation of these regulations at any
particular fairway or harbour will not be announced
beforehand.
Port entry procedures
1.48 1
Appointment of an Agent. Every vessel which is
scheduled to call at a port in Indonesia must officially
appoint an agent; this can be arranged using telex or
facsimile communications. An official letter of appointment,
however, must be mailed direct to the Agent.
2
On obtaining a letter of appointment, the Agent will
arrange Clearance Approval (PKKA), issued by the
Directorate General of Sea Communications. Once
obtained, a copy of the clearance will be forwarded to the
port, or ports concerned.
A vessel failing to obtain PKKA will not be allowed to
sail from Indonesia.
1.49
1
Summary of procedures. A letter of appointment
should be forwarded to arrive at least 5 days prior to the
vessel’s arrival. If an agent has already been appointed, a
telex copy will suffice.
The vessel should supply the following details to the
appointed Agent:
2
Port(s) or terminal(s) to be called at.
Type of commodity and quantity.
Complete details of the vessel.
Crew list.
Copy of loading/discharging arrangements.
3
On receipt of the above, the Agent will confirm the
cargo details and berthing details and any other valuable
information.
Prior to arrival, the Master should forward ETA cables
in accordance with Owner/Charterers instructions.
CHAPTER 1
7
1.50
1
Declaration forms. It is most important that care is
taken in the completion of store lists and personal
declaration forms as the Indonesian authorities are liable to
carry out a detailed check and any discrepancies can lead
to heavy fines.
2
Vessels trading in Indonesian waters should obtain an
Indonesian Health Record Book, and an Indonesian Military
Book, which must be produced to the authorities on arrival
at each Indonesian port. Similarly, Indonesian Harbour
Reports and Health declarations are required in duplicate at
most ports.
Quarantine and Customs regulations
1.51
1
General. Vessels arriving at any port in Indonesia are
subject to Indonesian Quarantine and Customs Regulations.
1.52
1
Quarantine. The following quarantine rules apply:
1.Every vessel arriving from any foreign country is
under quarantine.
2.Every vessel arriving from any harbour and/or
district of Indonesia which has been determined to
have carried a specified quarantine disease, is
under quarantine.
2
3.Every vessel accepting passengers and/or cargo
from any other vessel affected by paragraphs 1
and 2, is under quarantine.
4.Any vessel affected by paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 is
free of quarantine when it has been issued with a
certificate of free pratique.
The Master of a vessel under quarantine is prohibited
from disembarking or embarking people, cargo, plants and
animals, before having obtained a certificate of free
pratique.
1.53
1
Procedures. Vessels destined for Indonesian ports must
apply, well in advance, for Provisional Free Pratique to the
Quarantine Section, Department of Health, Jakarta. This can
be arranged through the appointed Agent; see 1.48.
2
Vessels arriving at an Indonesian port without prior
advice must first call at a Port of Entry to obtain Free
Pratique. Within the limits of this volume only Belawan
(3°47′N 98°42′E) is such a port; other Ports of Entry lying
outside the limits are Tanjungpriok (West Jawa) (6°06′S
106°54′E), Tanjungperak (East Jawa) (7°14′S 112°42′E) and
Ujungpandang (Sulawesi) (5°10′S 119°25′E).
3
Port Health clearance is issued after a vessel’s arrival
and is also valid for departure clearance. If Provisional
Free Pratique is not granted, a Port Health Officer will be
appointed.
1.54
1
Customs. Vessels loading or discharging cargo at an
Indonesian port should obtain a Customs Permit. Copies of
Bills of Lading, Cargo Manifest, Ship’s Stores List,
Personal Effects and Crew List should be delivered to
Customs and Port Administration which will include
Immigration.
2
As stated at 1.50 it is most important that the lists
concerning personal effects, stores and crew are completed
with great care. After a vessel is secure, storerooms are
sealed.
If arriving from a foreign port, the local Agent will
prepare the General Cargo Declaration; if arriving from an
Indonesian port, Form 5B issued at the last Indonesian port
will be retained by the Customs and the Arrival Clearance
is thus granted.
Protection of wildlife
1.55
1
Indonesia has a very extensive system of National Parks,
Nature Reserves and Protected Forests which come under
the jurisdiction of the Directorate−General of Forest
Protection, based in Bogor, W Jawa. Six per cent of the
nation’s land has been set aside for conservation,
particularly of fauna and flora and the protection of
wildlife. Visiting a reserve is only permitted by
arrangement and under strict control; many of the areas of
conservation are not easily accessible.
2
For the purposes of this volume, only those conservation
areas lying in or around coastal areas which are charted
and of direct interest to the mariner, are mentioned.
Photography
1.56 1
Photography of Indonesian harbours and installations is
prohibited.
Cruising yachts
1.57 1
Owners of cruising yachts intending to visit Indonesian
waters must obtain a Sailing Permit. The permit, which is
valid for three months only, may be secured by writing
well in advance to:
PT Pedang Kayra Bhakti,
Wismo Kosgoro, 4th Floor,
Jakarta Pusat,
Indonesia.
2
This company will forward an application form which
should be completed and returned accompanied by the
obligatory fee. A basic route must be stated on the
application form, together with ports of call.
At short notice it is usually possible to obtain a permit
from an Indonesian Embassy.
3
On arrival at, or departure from, any Indonesian port,
the cruising yachtsman is obliged to clear Customs,
Immigration, Harbour Master and Police. At some ports it
is necessary to carry out this procedure, out and in, even if
day sailing from that port.
Malaysia
Marine Parks
1.58
1
Marine parks surrounding a number of islands have been
established in Malaysian waters as a sanctuary for the
protection and conservation of marine eco−systems. The
marine park areas extend to 2 miles from the shore, within
which areas fishing, extractive activities, anchoring on
corals reefs, and disposal of waste or any pollutant is
prohibited; further details may be obtained from the
Malaysian Department of Fisheries.
Cocos Islands
1.59
1
For regulations for entry, quarantine and protection of
endangered species, see 13.44.
SIGNALS
Indonesia
Berthing signals
1.60 1
The following flag signals may still be in use at some
ports and harbours within the Republic of Indonesia in
CHAPTER 1
8
addition to those laid down in The International Code of
Signals:
2
Displayed on shore:
3rd substitute A Your berth is No 1.
3rd substitute B Your berth is No 2.
3rd substitute C Your berth is No 3.
3rd substitute D Your berth is No 4.
3
3rd substitute E Your berth is No 5.
3rd substitute F Your berth is No 6.
3rd substitute G Your berth is No 7.
3rd substitute R You must anchor in the
anchorage area.
Blue flag No communication owing to
bad weather.
4
When two or more vessels are entering harbour at the
same time, the berthing signal for one particular vessel can
be indicated by hoisting the company or national flag of
the vessel below the signal.
5
Displayed onboard:
1st substitute R Ship requires docking.
2nd substitute M Please send motor boat.
3rd substitute J Water flag.
6
1st substitute N Have passenger(s) who has come
directly or indirectly from outside
Indonesia.
2nd substitute V Request rubbish−boat.
3rd substitute Q Onboard, or during the voyage, there
were one or more cases of
contagious disease, or disease that
was thought to be contagious (other
than cholera or yellow fever).
7
The last of these signals must be hoisted when a vessel
enters the limits of the port or anchorage. If the vessel
requires medical assistance, it may display the company
flag above the International Code flag W.
Tidal stream signals displayed on shore
1.61 Day Night Meaning
1
Red flag White light over
red light
In−going stream
Blue flag Red light over
white light
Out−going stream
White flag White light Slack water
Dumping explosives at sea
1.62
1
Vessels employed in dumping ammunition or other
explosives at sea show the following:
By day. A red flag not less than 4 m above the upper
deck.
At night. A red light.
Mariners are requested to keep a safe distance from such
activities.
Surveying vessels
1.63
1
Surveying vessels of the Indonesian government engaged
on hydrographic or oceanographic surveys display the same
signals as prescribed by International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). Vessels should not
pass between surveying boats carrying out a sweep and
should give them a wide berth. These boats show the same
signals as prescribed for the surveying vessel. In some
cases the pair of sweeping boats may be followed by a
third vessel over the sweep; this vessel will only show a
red flag.
For signals and further details see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Malaysia
Port operations
1.64 1
The following signals are in use within the ports in
Peninsular Malaysia. All lights, shapes and signals required
by International Regulations for Preventing Collision at
Sea (1972), and The International Code of Signals will be
recognised within port limits.
Signal Meaning
By day At night 2
Red flag When displayed by a
port service craft or
buoy tender, will
indicate that she is
buoying, sweeping, or
has a diver down, and
vessels must keep well
clear and reduce speed
to dead slow when
passing.
Red flag at
both main
yardarms
Red lights
at both main
yardarms
When shown on a
dredger indicates: Keep
well clear on both sides.
3
Black ball
at one main
yardarm.
Red flag at
other main
yardarm
White light
at one main
yardarm.
Red light at
the other
main yardarm
When shown on a
dredger indicates: Do
not pass on the side of
the red flag or red light.
Singapore
Traffic signals
1.65 1
For traffic signals occasionally shown close N of Raffles
Lighthouse (1°10′N 103°44′E) to warn other vessels that a
VLCC is crossing Main Strait, see 7.66.
Thailand
Thai submarines
1.66 1
Thai vessels display a red triangular flag to denote that
submarines, which may be submerged, are in the vicinity.
Naval signals to merchant vessels
1.67 1
Within Thai territorial waters merchant vessels may be
signalled by Thai naval craft to stop, or to proceed in a
certain direction for the purpose of search.
2
Signals for stopping vessels. By day, signals from
The International Code of Signals will be used by
a naval patrol craft. At night, repeated short and
long flashes will be made by a naval patrol craft,
or a rocket, from which a red flare is ejected, will
be fired. Vessels which do not stop in answer to
these signals will be fired on.
CHAPTER 1
9
3
Signals for directing vessels. A naval aircraft,
making an appropriate signal from The
International Code of Signals, flying low round the
vessel and then proceeding towards a certain
direction, indicates that the vessel must proceed in
the direction indicated. Vessels ignoring this signal
will be warned by a burst of gun fire directed
ahead of the vessel.
Visual storm signals
1.68 1
A system of visual storm signals is in use in Thailand;
for details see China Sea Pilot Volume I.
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
1.69 1
The GMDSS is described, and general information on
distress and rescue is given, in Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 3(2) and 5, The Mariner’s Handbook and
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 4.
Within the limits of this volume, MRCCs are established
at Pelabuhan Klang and at Singapore. The MRCC at
Jakarta (Indonesia Pilot Volume I) covers most of Sumatera
and the MRCC at Krung Thep (Bangkok) (China Sea Pilot
Volume I) covers Thai waters in N Malacca Strait.
2
Maritime Rescue Co−ordination Sub−Centres are
established as follows:
Malaysia
Pinang
Johor
3
Indonesia
Padang
Pekanbaru
Medan
For further details, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
PIRACY AND ARMED ROBBERY
General
1.70
1
The Department of Transport (UK) has brought to the
attention of shipowners, masters and crews, the risk of acts
of piracy on the high seas or armed robbery against ships
at anchor or when underway through a State’s coastal
territorial waters. It has outlined the steps that should be
taken to reduce the risk of such attacks, possible responses
to them and the need to report attacks, both succesful and
unsuccesful, to the authorities of the relevant coastal State
and to the ship’s own maritime administration. Attacks on
vessels by armed thieves can take place in international
waters as piracy or, more commonly, as armed robbery in
the territorial waters of a coastal state. There appears to be
a growing trend towards threats of unprovoked violence.
1.71
1
Ships may be attacked whilst at anchor off port or
whilst underway, which is particularly prevalent in South
East Asian waters. Ships underway are usually approached
from the stern, but also the sides if the ship has a low
freeboard. However, vessels with a high freeboard and
travelling in excess of 17 kn have been boarded. Attacks
usually take place under cover of darkness, most often
between 0100 hours and 0600 hours.
Locations
1.72
1
Reports indicate that the number of attacks on ships
within the limits of this volume is significant, being
particularly high in Malacca Strait and in Indonesian
waters; in recent years there have been an increasing
number of attacks in Singapore Strait. Mariners are warned
to be particularly vigilant in these areas, whether underway,
at anchor or alongside. In 2004 four seafarers were killed
and 34 taken hostage in Malacca and Singapore Straits, and
a further ten taken hostage in 2005.
2
The International Maritime Bureau (1.73) has issued a
general warning for Malacca Strait stating that vessels are
advised to avoid anchoring along the Indonesian coast
unless necessary for urgent operation reasons. Waters off N
Sumatera, Aceh coast and off Belawan are particularly
risky. Pirates heavily armed with guns are known to have
shot at vessels to attempt to stop them. Recent attacks
showed that pirates were attacking vessels further out into
open waters and towards Malaysian waters. Further S in the
strait pirates armed with machetes, knives and small arms
attack vessels that do not maintain an anti−piracy watch.
3
In Singapore Strait pirates attack vessels underway from
several boats at a time.
Although the number of attacks have reduced, vessels
are advised to continue to maintain strict an anti−piracy
watch.
4
Areas where piracy attacks are known to have occurred
between 2003 and 2005 are noted in the geographical
chapters, but mariners are advised to be vigilant in all
waters covered by this volume.
Kuala Lumpur Centre
1.73
1
The International Maritime Bureau (IMB) of the
International Chamber of Commerce has established a
Piracy Reporting Centre (PRC) at Kuala Lumpur in
Malaysia The PRC broadcasts daily warnings of pirate
activity on a world wide basis. The services of the centre
are free of charge to all vessels, irrespective of their flag.
Masters are requested to report all attacks or attempted
attacks to the PRC.
2
For further information, including recommended
precautions and reporting details, see under ‘Piracy and
Armed Robbery’ in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1 (2).
Recommended practices
1.74
1
An International SafetyNET System using INMARSAT
C via the Pacific and Indian Ocean Region satellites may
be used to issue, or receive daily warnings, from the
Singapore Land Earth Station (Singapore LES).
Recommended practices, including anti−attack plans,
reporting, radio procedures and responses are all outlined in
detail in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (2)
together with the telephone, telex and fax numbers and
e−mail address of the Piracy Reporting Centre at Kuala
Lumpur which is fully operational 24 hours a day.
2
The IMO recommends that reports concerning attacks, or
suspicious movements which may lead to an attack, should
be made to the RCC for the area concerned (1.69), see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
CHAPTER 1
10
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
General description
1.75 1
The Republic of Indonesia, covering a total area of
1 904 569 sq km, consists of the islands and island groups
of Sumatera, Jawa, Madura, Nusatenggara, Kalimantan (S
and E coast of Borneo), Sulawesi, Maluku (Moluccas),
Irian Jaya (formerly the W part of New Guinea),
Pulau−pulau Riau, Lingga, Bangka, Belitung, and some
3000 smaller islands and islets. The capital is Jakarta in
Jawa.
Within the limits of this volume, only Sumatera and the
offshore islands are described in the text.
2
Provinces or autonomous districts of Sumatera covered
by this volume are:
Province or Autonomous District Chief town
Aceh Banda Aceh
Sumatera Utara Medan
Riau Pekanbaru
Sumatera Barat Padang
Bengkulu Bengkulu.
Lampung Bandar Lampung
National limits
1.76 1
Territorial sea: 12 miles.
Exclusive economic zone: 200 miles.
Indonesia has ratified the United Nations Convention of
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which came into force on
16th November 1994, and also claims archipelago status.
For further details on archipelagic status, national claims to
maritime jurisdiction and the law of the sea, see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
2
For details on national claims to maritime jurisdiction
see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners
No 12.
History
1.77 1
Knowledge of the first Indonesian kingdoms of the
Classical or Hindu period is very shadowy, gleaned solely
from old stone inscriptions and vague references in ancient
Chinese, Indian and Classical texts. However, the first
specific references to Indonesian rulers and kingdoms are
found in written Chinese sources and Sanskrit stone
inscriptions dating from the early fifth century. Also in the
fifth century, Fa Hsien, a Chinese Buddhist monk who was
shipwrecked on Jawa on his way home from India,
highlighted the feature of Indianised Indonesia − a
combination of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms.
2
In subsequent years Jawa prospered, having the benefits
of a strong agricultural economy and lucrative overseas
trade. During the fourteenth century the Jawanese became
shipbuilders and mariners and, by doing so, controlled the
sea lanes throughout the Indonesian Archipelago.
3
In the sixteenth century, Portuguese traders in the quest
for spices settled in some of the islands of Indonesia but
were ejected by the British, who in turn were ousted by the
Dutch in 1595. From 1602 the Netherlands East India
Company conquered the Dutch East Indies, and ruled them
until the dissolution of the company in 1798. Thereafter the
Netherlands Government ruled the colony from 1816 to
1942, when it was occupied by the Japanese until 1945.
4
The island of Sumatera was first visited by the
Portuguese in 1508 and by the Dutch in 1596. In 1685 the
British established themselves at Bengkulu until 1824 when
the territory was ceded to the Dutch in exchange for
Melaka. Various rights that the British had in Aceh were
ceded to the Dutch in 1871.
5
Indonesia was proclaimed a sovereign independent
republic in 1945. The transfer of sovereignty of the major
part of the colony from the Netherlands to the Republic of
the United States of Indonesia took place in 1949 after
much bitter fighting and negotiations. In 1950 a new
provisional constitution came into force, and the country
named The Republic of Indonesia.
Government
1.78
1
In 1959, by presidential decree, the constitution of 1945
was reinstated and the constituent Assembly dissolved. In
1960, General Sukarno, as President, took control of all
political parties and established the National Front and a
supreme state body called the People’s Consultative
Assembly. The Assembly consists of 500 government
appointees and 500 members of the House of People’s
Representatives (of which 425 are elected and 75 appointed
by the armed forces).
2
A Communist attempt to overthrow the government in
1965 was suppressed by the army, and in 1966 the military
commanders under the leadership of General Suharto took
over the executive power while leaving General Sukarno as
Head of State. The Communist Party was at once outlawed
and the National Front dissolved. In 1967 General Sukarno
handed over power to General Suharto, who, in 1968, was
elected President by the People’s Consultative Assembly.
3
In 1975 the Portuguese withdrew from the province of
East Timor and the smaller enclave of Oecussi, part of the
province of East Timor, which, after much unrest, was
incorporated into the Republic of Indonesia.
4
Until 1998 the military effectively ruled the country
through its political organisation Golkar. However, in May
of that year after a period of continued widespread civil
unrest, together with further disruption by local factions in
East Timor fighting for an independent state within a state,
President Suharto finally resigned and relinquished power.
A civilian government led by President B.J. Habibie was
given the proviso of agreeing to new elections, and
improving the nation’s economic standing in SE Asia and
to conduct discussions on a political settlement for East
Timor by allowing free elections for the province.
5
In September 1999 the United Nations (UN), with the
approval of the Indonesian Government, was given a
mandate to assume the running and security of the province
of East Timor with the aim of setting up an independent
state as agreed to by election.
The province of Aceh in northern Sumatera was one of
the founder provinces of the Republic of Indonesia. In
recent years unrest has grown with a view to independence.
The province has since been made an autonomous district,
but unrest persists and an armed secessionist group, the
Free Aceh Movement (GAM) is active there.
6
In October 1999 President Habibie relinquished power to
President Abdurrahman Wahid and in 2001, after the
impeachment of President Wahid, power was handed to
(Mrs) Megawati Sukarnoputri, the previous Vice−President.
CHAPTER 1
11
Population
1.79 1
At the 2000 census the population of the Republic of
Indonesia was 206 million, and of that Sumatera had a
population of 43 million.
There is religious liberty to all denominations. The
majority of the population is Muslim with minorities of
Christians, Buddhists, Hindus and Animists.
Languages
1.80
1
Although there are more than 350 local languages and
dialects, the official language of the Republic of Indonesia
is Bahasa Indonesia which is based on Malay. The
language has changed rapidly during the past few decades
to meet the needs of a modern nation.
The principal ethnic groups in Sumatera are Aceh,
Bataks and Minangkabaus, each varying much in language,
customs and social conditions.
Physical features
1.81 1
Sumatera, with an area of 435 000 sq km
(167 954 sq miles), is the largest of the islands, except
Borneo, forming part of the Republic of Indonesia. The
Equator passes through about the middle of the island.
2
Pegunungan Bukit Barisan (Barisan Range), a lofty
chain of mountains, extends throughout the whole length of
Sumatera, rising to numerous volcanic peaks, from 2000 to
3000 m high with its highest point at Gunung Kurinci
(3805 m high). The range consists in general of two or
more chains, running parallel with each other, with a valley
between, which is broken up by volcanic massifs, and in it
lies a row of lakes, of which Danau Toba is by far the
largest. The volcanoes, some of which are still active (see
1.129), are mostly close to the W coast, the W slopes
descending steeply towards the ocean and overlooking a
vast alluvial tract of unusual uniformity.
3
This great alluvial plain, generally only a few metres
above the level of the sea, is 600 miles long, and from 60
to 110 miles wide. The SE extremity of the island is little
better than a forest of mangrove growing out of a morass.
A large part of the island is a sterile or intractable
wilderness, and is very thinly populated.
Industry and trade
1.82
1
Indonesia is an agricultural nation involving nearly 70%
of the inhabitants working such products as timber, rubber,
rice, palm oil and coffee. The country is also rich in
natural resources; oil and liquefied natural gas, coal, and
bauxite are principal products, with nickel, tin, silver and
gold to a lesser extent.
2
Exports include oil and liquefied natural gas, coal,
plywood, logs and manufactured goods; major markets
being Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and United
States.
Imports include food, chemicals, capital goods and
consumer goods shipped mainly from Japan, United States
and Thailand.
KINGDOM OF THAILAND
General description
1.83 1
The Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam,
took its present name in 1939. The capital is Krung Thep
(Bangkok). In this volume only a small part of the
Kingdom, the southern province of Phuket, is described.
The area of Thailand is about 513 000 sq km.
National limits
1.84 1
Territorial sea: 12 miles.
Exclusive economic zone: 200 miles.
Thailand employs straight baseline systems along the
coast. For further details on national limits and the law of
the sea, see The Mariner’s Handbook.
2
For details on national claims to maritime jurisdiction
see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners
No 12.
History
1.85
1
The Thais migrated from China to what is now Thailand
in the eighth and ninth centuries. The nation was founded
in the thirteenth century and the limits have varied
considerably since then. It was occupied by Burma in the
seventeenth century, but later, unlike the other countries in
the region, it was not colonised by a European power. In
1782, Chao Phraya Chakkri, a prominent Thai general,
assumed the throne and began a dynasty which continues
to provide the country’s head of state.
Government
1.86 1
The Kingdom of Thailand has been subject to
considerable constitutional changes. Until 24th June 1932,
Siam was an absolute monarchy, but on that date a
bloodless coup d’etat was effected and the country became
a constitutional monarchy.
Since then Thailand has been ruled by a series of
military governments interspersed with brief periods of
democracy. In 1992, mass demonstrations forced a military
government from power and since then the country has
been a functioning democracy.
2
The present constitutional monarchy provides for a
bicameral National Assembly comprising a 500 member
House of Representatives elected by universal adult
suffrage for a term of four years, and a 200 member
Senate directly elected on a non−party basis for a term of
six years. For the purposes of administration, the country
is divided into 76 provinces (changwads).
Population
1.87 1
At the 2000 census the population of Thailand was
nearly 61 million and was increasing at an annual rate of
1%. Thais make up 89% of the population.
The prevailing religion is Buddhism, 95%, with 4%
Muslim and 1% Christian and other religions.
Language
1.88 1
The official language is Thai, although English is widely
used in Government and commercial circles. Regional
dialects exist, and other languages (Khmer, Lao and Malay)
are spoken in areas adjacent to the respective bordering
country.
Physical features
1.89 1
This volume covers the province of Phuket which lies
on the narrow mountainous peninsula in the S of the
country forming the N part of the E shore of Malacca
Strait.
CHAPTER 1
12
The coastline is about 250 miles long between Burma
and the N boundary of the Malaysian state of Perlis, with
Ko Phuket, an island, near the centre of the coast.
The principal town is Phuket, on Ko Phuket.
Industry and trade
1.90 1
A high percentage of the country’s labour force is
employed in agriculture, rice being the most important
crop. Significant amounts of tapioca, rubber, corn, sugar,
fish and fishery products are also produced. A diversifying
manufacturing industry includes computers and electronics,
textiles, shoes, cement, furniture, wood products, canned
food, toys, plastic products, gems and jewelry. Tourism is
also a major industry.
2
Chief exports include rice, processed foods, electrical
appliances and integrated circuits, and vehicles. Principal
imports include machinery and parts, vehicles, electronic
integrated circuits, chemicals, crude oils and fuels, iron and
steel.
The principal industry of the area covered by this
volume is the working of tin which dwarfs all others.
About two−thirds of tin ore exports are from Ko Phuket.
Tourism is an expanding industry on Ko Phuket.
FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA
General description
1.91 1
The Federation of Malaysia comprises the former
Federation of Malaya (now known as Peninsular Malaysia),
Sabah (formerly British North Borneo) and Sarawak (W
Borneo). This volume covers the W coast of Peninsular
Malaysia.
2
Peninsular Malaysia (or West Malaysia) is a
comparatively narrow strip of land lying between Malacca
Strait to the W and South China Sea to the E. The territory
is about 725 km long and 320 km wide at the widest point.
The total area is about 131 600 sq km and is divided into
eleven states. Thailand borders the N limit and at the S
extremity a number of islands comprise the Republic of
Singapore.
3
The eight states falling within the limits of this volume
are:
State Capital Population
(2000 census)
4
(Federal Territory) Kuala Lumpur 1 297 526
Johor Johor Bahru 2 565 701
Kedah Alur Setar 1 572 107
Melaka Melaka 602 867
Negri Sembilan Seremban 830 080
5
Perak Ipoh 2 030 382
Perlis Kangar 198 335
Pinang Georgetown 1 225 501
Selangor Shah Alam 3 947 527
6
The remaining three states of Pahang, Trengganu and
Kelatan are covered in China Sea Pilot Volume I.
The capital is Kuala Lumpur, situated on the W side of
Peninsular Malaysia. In 1999 the new city of Putrajaya
became the administrative capital.
National limits
1.92 1
Territorial sea: 12 miles.
Exclusive economic zone: 200 miles.
Malaysia has ratified the United Nations Convention of
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which came into force on
16th November 1994, and employs straight baselines along
the coast. For further details on national limits and the law
of the sea, see The Mariner’s Handbook.
2
For details on national claims to maritime jurisdiction
see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners
No 12.
History
1.93 1
In the fifteenth century Malacca (now Melaka) was the
centre of a kingdom which extended to cover most of the
land which is now Peninsular Malaysia and parts of
Sumatera. In 1511 the town, which had become a wealthy
entrepôt with trade between merchants from China, Arabia
and India, was captured by a Portuguese fleet under
Alfonso de Albuqerque. This marked the start of European
expansion in SE Asia.
2
The Dutch ousted the Portuguese from Malacca in 1641,
and in 1795 were replaced by the British who had leased
Penang (now Pinang) from the Sultan of Kedah in 1786.
Full European control over the Sultanates of the Malay
peninsula, and Sabah and Sarawak, was not achieved until
the latter half of the nineteenth century. In 1826, the British
settlements of Malacca, Penang and Singapore were
combined by the East India Company into The Straits
Settlements. In 1876, The Straits Settlements became a
Crown Colony under British rule.
3
Peninsular Malaysia was occupied by Japan from 1942
to 1945 during World War II.
After World War II, local communists, almost all
Chinese, expanded their influence and planned for an
armed struggle. A state of emergency was declared in June
1948, and a long bitter guerrilla war ensued until 1960.
4
In 1957, the Federation of Malaya was formed from the
British−ruled territories of the Malaya peninsula with Tunku
Abdul Rahman as prime minister. On 16th September 1963,
the British colonies of Sabah and Sarawak joined the
Federation to form Malaysia.
Singapore withdrew, however, on 9th August 1965 and
became an independent republic.
Government
1.94 1
The constitution, based on that of the former Federation
of Malaya, provides for a strong federal government, but
allows for a degree of autonomy for the thirteen state
governments.
The Supreme Head of the Federation (Yang di−Pertuan
Agong), and a deputy, serve for five years and are elected
by the Rulers of the Malay States from amongst
themselves.
2
The Federal Parliament consists of the Yang di−Pertuan
Agong and two Houses: the Senate (Dewan Negara) and
the House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat). The Senate
is formed from a combination of elected and appointed
members from each state who serve for a 6−year term.
House of Representative members are elected by universal
adult suffrage with a common electoral roll and serve for a
5−year term.
CHAPTER 1
13
Population
1.95 1
In 2001 the population of Malaysia was estimated at
22⋅2 million and was increasing at an annual rate (1999) of
2⋅3% The principal ethnic groups are Malay (58%) and
Chinese (27%), the remainder being of Indian or Sri
Lankan origin, as well as the indigenous races of Sarawak
and Sabah. The distribution of the different groups is very
uneven both within and between Peninsular Malaysia, and
Sabah and Sarawak.
2
The Federal constitution provides for Islam as the
official religion, but there is freedom of worship for
varying proportions of Buddhists, Hindus, adherents of
traditional Chinese religions, Christians and Sikhs.
Language
1.96 1
Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) is the official language.
English is widely used in business. Other languages widely
spoken are several dialects of Chinese, and Tamil.
Physical features
1.97 1
About half of Peninsular Malaysia is covered by tropical
jungle. A central mountain range runs N/S with the highest
mountain, Gunung Tahan, at 2189 m high. Low−lying
coastal plains lie on each side of the range. The W plains
have been largely cleared of tropical forest and are now
planted with rubber trees, coconut and oil palms; they are
well served by road and rail, and contain most of the towns
of the peninsula. The E plains are less well developed.
2
Malay rivers at their sources and in their upper reaches
are quick flowing, often with tortuous rapids and
precipitous gorges. In the lower reaches, the descent is
more gradual and the water takes on a muddy hue from
contamination with the silt of the plains through which they
meander, flowing out ultimately through strips of mangrove
swamp, particularly on the W coast.
3
The two principal rivers of the peninsula are Sungai
Pahang and Sungai Perak. Gunung Tahan, and other peaks
constitute some of the highest territory S of the Himalayas.
The part of the country free from the torrid luxuriance of
forest and jungle has been developed into great
rice−producing areas. Other stretches have been scarred by
the incisions of industry, as in the Kinta valley of Perak
which opens out into the monotonous prospect of
silver−grey silt, the residuum of tin extraction.
4
The coastline of Peninsular Malaysia extends for over
1000 miles. On the W coast, there is a practically unbroken
succession of mangrove and mud flats with infrequent
indentations of bays fringed with coconut palm and the
graceful spires of casuarinas. On the E coast, there are long
unbroken stretches of sand and surf bordered by a littoral
vegetation which lends to beauty probably unparalleled in
the tropics.
5
Langkawi Islands, rising to over 610 m and wrapped in
wild and rugged beauty, lie within the territorial waters off
the N coast of Kedah. Farther S is the island of Pinang,
picturesque in a different way, whose features have been
eulogised by travellers from the earliest histories. The
island of Pangkor was once a Dutch settlement, but little
remains of this history beneath the vegetation which has
long since reclaimed its own.
Flora
1.98 1
The warm humid climate of Peninsular Malaysia, with
its abundant rainfall and lack of a pronounced dry season,
permits the growth of evergreen forest (tropical rain forest)
which is the natural vegetation of the country. More than
half the total area of the country is covered with such
forest composed of at least 2500 species of trees, the
majority of which have at present no commercial value. An
increasing number of the larger trees, however, are now
being utilised because steady development of the sawmill
industry in recent years has permitted the conversions of
many timbers unacceptable to hand−sawers.
2
Most of the important timber trees belong to the family
Dipterocar−paceae, the development of which is at its
highest in the Malay peninsula and the W islands of the
archipelago.
The standard timber for heavy construction is Chengal
(Balanocarpus heimii), and others of importance are Balau
(Shorea spp.) and Merbau (Intsia palembanica).
Medium−heavy timbers of value are Keruing
(Dipterocarpus spp.), Kapur (Dryobalanops aromatica) and
Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis).
3
There are no commercial softwoods in the country, the
few conifers are confined to the high hill forests and their
place is taken by light hardwoods (popularly called
softwoods), the most important of which is Meranti (Shorea
spp.). As well as timber, the forest produces gutta percha,
jelutong gum (a base for chewing−gum), damar and rattans.
4
The natural coastal vegetation consists of mangrove
forest in the tidal swamps; these are extensive on the W
coast of the peninsula and are a valuable source of
firewood and charcoal. On the generally sandy E coast
mangrove is mostly confined to the estuaries, and there is
often a narrow fringe of casuarina trees immediately behind
the beach.
5
Flowering herbaceous plants are relatively few, absent
from the mangroves, and not conspicuous in the lowland
forest. The mountain forests are richer in such species and
include many orchids and pitcher plants, most of the
former being epiphytes.
Fauna
1.99 1
The fauna, dependent on the most luxuriant forest
growth on the earth’s surface, is probably the richest, or at
any rate the most varied, now in existence. The mammals
included anthropoid apes, in the form of gibbons, many
monkeys and the lemur. Noteworthy among the larger
carnivores are the tiger, which is common in some districts,
and the leopard, of which the black variety predominates.
Other animals include the large wild ox, tapir, elephant,
two species of rhinoceros, pigs and deer. Rhinoceros are
now rare throughout the peninsula.
2
Hornbills are perhaps the most characteristic family of
Malaysian birds. Brightly plumaged trogons, bee−eaters,
pittas, woodpeckers and sun birds are common. Pigeon and
snipe abound.
Crocodiles are common and have been seen 30 miles
from land in Malacca Strait. Specimens of over 7 m in
length have been captured in the peninsula. Only a few of
the many Malaysian snakes are poisonous, but those that
are include the black cobra and the hamadryad, which
attain a length of over 4 m. The true sea−snakes are all
very poisonous and common in Malacca Strait; they can be
distinguished from innocuous water−snakes by having their
tail flattened like an oar.
3
The Malay peninsula shows great variety in insect life,
having about 850 species of butterflies. Mosquitoes,
including the malaria−carrying genus Anopheles, are
CHAPTER 1
14
common. Centipedes, scorpions and spiders also exist,
including some of the largest known forms.
Industry and trade
1.100 1
Malaysia has been transformed from an economy based
on agriculture and the export of raw materials, to one with
a significant manufacturing base producing consumer
goods, including electronic components and appliances,
textiles and clothing, cars, semi−conductors, and food
processing. Rubber and tin mining are still important
industries, although they have declined in relation to
manufacturing over recent decades.
2
The chief exports are rubber, tin, palm oil, electronic
and electrical products, LNG, textiles, wood (sawn timber
and logs) and iron ore.
The chief imports are machinery and transport
equipment, foods, manufactured goods, consumer durables
and metal products.
REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE
General information
1.101 1
The Republic of Singapore consists of Singapore Island,
some 42 km by 22 km, and numerous much smaller
adjacent islands. It is joined to the mainland of Peninsular
Malaysia by a causeway and a bridge across Johor Strait.
Port of Singapore (described in Chapter 8) is one of the
largest and busiest ports in the world and extends over
many of the islands forming the Republic of Singapore.
There is a long term programme of offshore reclamation
and development to the SW of Singapore Island.
National limits
1.102 1
Territorial sea: 3 miles.
Fishery zone: 3 miles.
Singapore has ratified the United Nations Convention of
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which came into force on
16th November 1994. For further details on national limits
and the Law of the Sea, see The Mariner’s Handbook
For details on national claims to maritime jurisdiction
see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners
No 12.
History
1.103 1
Sir Thomas Raffles arrived in Singapore in 1819 as an
agent of the East India Company. In 1824 the company
purchased Singapore Island, and by 1825 the city of
Singapore had become a major port.
In 1826 the East India Company formed the Straits
Settlements by the union of Singapore and the
dependencies of Penang (Pinang) and Malacca (Melaka) on
the Malay peninsula. In 1867, these three became a Crown
Colony under British rule.
2
Singapore was occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945
during World War II.
When civil rule was restored Singapore became a
separate crown colony on 1st April 1946, when the former
colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved; Penang and
Malacca being incorporated in the Federation of Malaya.
In 1959, the state achieved complete internal self
government, with Lee Kuan Yew as Prime Minister, and in
1963 the State of Singapore became one of the states of
the newly formed Malaysia.
3
By an agreement entered into by the governments of
Malaysia and the State of Singapore, effective on 9th
August 1965, Singapore ceased to be one of the states of
the Federation of Malaysia and became an independent
sovereign state. By constitutional amendment, the name of
the state was changed to the “Republic of Singapore” and
the legislative assembly was renamed “Parliament”.
Government
1.104 1
The Republic of Singapore is a parliamentary
democracy. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral
Parliament, with 84 members elected by universal adult
suffrage for five years (subject to dissolution) in
single−member constituencies. There is provision for up to
six additional members from opposition parties depending
on their share of the vote. Also, up to nine more members
can be nominated by the government for a 2−year term.
2
The head of state is the President of Singapore who is
directly elected for a 6−year term.
Effective executive authority rests with the cabinet
which is appointed by the President on the advice of the
Prime Minister, who is also appointed by the President.
Suffrage is universal and compulsory.
Population
1.105 In 2002 the population of Singapore was 4⋅16 million
and was increasing at an annual rate of 0.8%. Ethnic
groups are: 76⋅8% Chinese origin, 13⋅9% Malay, 7.9%
Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi or Sri Lankan, and 1.4%
others.
Languages
1.106 1
Malay, Chinese (Mandarin), Tamil and English are the
official languages. Malay is the national language and
English is the language of administration and commerce.
Physical features
1.107 1
Singapore Island covers about 620 sq km and other
islands cover about 47 sq km. These figures are gradually
changing as reclamation continues.
In the N, Singapore Island is joined to Peninsular
Malaysia by a causeway carrying a road, railway and a
water pipeline. To the W, a more recent bridge has been
constructed to create a second crossing point.
2
Johor Strait, which separates Singapore Island from the
mainland is about 7 cables wide.
The highest point of Singapore Island is 177 m high.
The principal urban area, in the S part of the island, is
mainly built on land reclaimed from swamp and sea.
There are seven impounding reservoirs within the
Republic.
Trade and industry
1.108 1
Singapore has limited natural resources and relies on
imports for most of the basic requirements. Historically the
success in economic growth was based on entrepôt trade,
chiefly in raw materials from surrounding countries.
More recently a wide range of manufacturing industries
has been established including: shipbuilding; electrical,
electronic and telecommunications industries; scientific
instruments; pharmaceuticals and oil refining.
CHAPTER 1
15
2
Singapore has also developed as an important
international financial services centre and tourism is
becoming increasingly significant.
Less than one−sixth of the land area is under cultivation.
The main farming activities are pig and poultry farming,
fruit and vegetable gardening, and orchid cultivation.
COCOS ISLANDS
General description
1.109 1
Cocos or Keeling Islands (12°S 97°E) are Australian
External Territories and comprise two groups of low coral
islands, of the atoll type, 15 miles apart, and nearly
600 miles SW of Selat Sunda. The most S and larger group
is inhabited.
National limits
1.110 1
Territorial sea: 12 miles.
Contiguous zone: 24 miles.
Exclusive economic zone: 200 miles.
2
Australia has ratified the United Nations Convention of
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which came into force on
16th November 1994 and employs a straight baseline
system. For further details on national limits and the Law
of the Sea, see The Mariner’s Handbook.
For further details on national claims to maritime
jurisdiction see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners No 12.
History
1.111 1
These islands were discovered in 1609 by Captain
William Keeling in the service of the East India Company,
but were little known before the visit of Captain J.
Clunies−Ross, of the ship Borneo, who partially refitted his
ship here in 1825. Captain Clunies−Ross returned to the
islands in 1827 with some Scottish colonists, but found
them occupied by Alexander Hare, who, with a large
number of Malay followers, had arrived the same year. The
two factions lived on bad terms, and many of Ross’s
colonists left the islands owing to the earlier occupation.
Eventually the influence of Clunies−Ross became the
stronger, and Hare left, deserted by his followers.
2
In 1836, the Cocos Islands were visited by Captain
Robert Fitzroy, who surveyed the group.
In 1857, Captain Stephen Fremantle, in HMS Juno,
formally annexed the group to the British Crown. In 1878
the islands were placed under the Government of Ceylon.
In 1886 they were placed under the Governor of the Straits
Settlements, and Queen Victoria granted all land in the
islands to Clunies−Ross and his heirs, with certain rights
reserved to the crown.
3
In 1903, the islands were annexed to the Straits
Settlements and incorporated in the Settlement of
Singapore. In November 1955, the administration of the
islands was transferred from the Government of Singapore
to the Government of Australia, and named the Territory of
Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
In 1978 the Australian Government purchased the entire
Clunies−Ross interest in the islands, except for the family
residence which was purchased in 1993.
The S group of the islands was surveyed again in
1944–45 and partially re−surveyed in 1983.
Administration
1.112 1
Cocos Islands are administered by The Administrator,
appointed by the Governor−General of Australia.
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act (1955) is the basis of
the Territory’s administrative, legislative and judicial
systems. The laws of the colony of Singapore which were
in force in the islands immediately before the transfer,
have, with certain exceptions, remained in force. They can
be amended, repealed or substituted by ordinances made by
the Governor−General.
Population
1.113 1
At the 2001 census the population was 621, of which
about 85% are Muslim and 15% Christian.
Physical features, flora and fauna
1.114 1
See Chapter 13 for details.
PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS AND
ANCHORAGES
1.115 Indonesia
Sumatera north and north−east coasts
Place and position Remarks
1
Sabang
(5°53′N 95°19′E) (3.34)
Small commercial port
and naval base
Pelabuhan Uleelheue
(5°34′ N 95°17′E) (3.58)
Large anchorage serving
Banda Aceh
Teluk Kruengraya
(5°36′N 95°31′E) (3.111)
Deep anchorage. Quay at
Malahayati for medium
size vessels
Pelabuhan Kruenggeukueh
(5°15′N 97°02′E) (3.141)
Port for bulk fertilizer
and general cargoes
2
Blanglancang (5°13′N 97°06′E) (3.141)
Liquid natural gas
terminal
Teluk Lhokseumawe (5°11′N 97°09′E) (3.164)
The only protected
anchorage on N coast of
Sumatera apart from
Teluk Kruengraya
Kuala Beukah Oil Terminal
(4°53′N 97°57′E) 4.33
Offshore oil terminal
Pelabuhan Langsa and
Kualalangsa (4°32′N 98°01′E) (4.44)
Small port serving Langsa
3
Pangkalan SPM (4°13′N 98°24′E) (4.65)
Oil terminal. Operates in
conjunction with
Pangkalansusu (4.88) and
Pangkalanbrandan (4.94)
Pangkalansusu (4°07′N 98°12′E) (4.88)
Small port
Pangkalanbrandan (4°02′N 98°17′E) (4.94)
Small port
4
Oil loading area Belawan
(3°51′N 98°47′E) (4.126)
Offshore oil terminal
CHAPTER 1
16
Place and position Remarks
Belawan
(3°47′N 98°42′E) (4.127)
Most important
commercial port in
Sumatera. Port for Medan
5
Pelabuhan Kualatanjung
(3°22′N 99°28′E) (4.157)
Serves Asahan aluminium
plant
Dumai
(1°41′N 101°27′E) (4.268)
Important oil loading
terminal and commercial
port
Bengkalis
(1°28′N 102°06′E) (4.303)
Small port; linked with
Sungaipakning
Sungaipakning (1°21′N 102°09′E) (4.303)
Oil loading terminal
6
Lalang Marine Terminal
(1°11′N 102°13′E) (4.325)
SPM oil terminal
Buatan
(0°45′N 101°51′E) (4.335)
Crude oil terminal for
vessels to 5000 dwt in Sun-
gai Siak
Pelabuhan Pekanbaru
(0°32′N 101°26′E) (4.337)
River port in Sungai Siak
for vessels to 90 m LOA
Batuampar
(1°10′N 104°00′E) (7.99)
Developing port and ferry
terminal in Singapore Strait
Sumatera south−west coast and offshore islands
7
Sinabang (2°29′N 96°23′E) (10.100)
Small port, sheltered
anchorage for large
vessels
Lhoknga
(5°28′N 95°14′E) (10.158)
Small port handling
cement cargoes and local
produce
Teluk Calang
(4°37′N 95°35′E) (10.207)
Provides good anchorage
for small vessels
Singkel
(2°16′N 97°48′E) (10.285)
Small commercial port;
forest products and palm
oil exported
8
Gunungsitoli
(1°17′N 97°37′E) (11.86)
Main port for Pulau
Nias
Pelabuhan Pulau Telo
(0°03′S 98°17′E) (11.130)
Provides good anchorage
for small vessels
Sibolga
(1°44′N 98°47′E) (11.218)
An important commercial
port and anchorage;
exports rubber, coffee
and copra
Teluk Bayur
(1°00′S 100°22′E) (12.238)
The most significant
commercial port on
W coast of Sumatera;
exports coal
9
Pulaubaai
(3°55′S 102°17′E) (12.323)
The port for Bengkulu;
important coal export
port
Thailand
10
Phuket
(7°49′N 98°25′E) (5.37)
Small commercial port;
with cruise terminal
Laem Plong
(8°05′N 98°45′E) (5.79)
Deep−water commercial
berth for Krabi
Peninsular Malaysia western side
Place and position Remarks
11
Teluk Ewa
(6°26′N 99°46′E) (5.185)
Commercial port
Pelabuhan Langkawi
(6°18′N 99°50′E) (5.209)
Anchorage; small port at
Kuah (5.226); cruise
terminal at W entrance.
Part of Teluk Ewa
12
Pinang Harbour (5°25′N 100°21′E) (5.292)
Large anchorage and
important commercial
harbour
(berths at Georgetown
and Butterworth)
Port of Lumut (4°14′N 100°38′E) (6.82)
Naval base and
commercial port
Pelabuhan Klang (3°00′N 101°24′E) (6.169)
Major commercial
port complex serving
Kuala Lumpur
Port Dickson (2°31′N 101°47′E) (6.237)
Important oil terminal
operated by
Shell and Esso
13
Pelabuhan Sungai Udang
(2°15′N 102°08′E) (6.281)
Important oil terminal
Melaka Roads (2°12′N 102°15′E),
including Tanjung Bruas (2°13′N 102°09′E) (6.313)
Anchorage only off
Melaka; jetty and
tanker moorings at
Tanjung Bruas
Peninsular Malaysia−Johor Strait
14
Johor Port (Pasir Gudang)
(1°26′N 103°54′E) (9.113)
Important commercial port
and palm oil jetties;
shipyard close N.
Port of Tanjung Pelepas (1°22′N 103°33′E) (9.45)
Expanding Malaysian port.
Republic of Singapore
15
Port of Singapore (1°18′N 103°50′E) (8.5)
Major port complex,
capable of dealing with
all types of large vessels;
extensive refitting and
engineering shipyards.
Port of Sembawang (1°28′N 103°50′E) (9.155)
Important commercial port
with extensive docks
repair and fitting out
berths.
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
16
Port Refuge (12°06′S 96°52′E) (13.31)
Small harbour and
sheltered anchorage
PORT SERVICES—SUMMARY
Docking facilities
1.116 1
Sabang. Naval owned floating dock; capacity
1500 tonnes (3.39).
Pangkalansusu. Floating dock; lift 750 tonnes (4.90).
Dumai. Floating dock; lift 20 000 tons (4.302).
Karimun Sumbawang. Floating dock; lift
65 000 dwt (4.355).
CHAPTER 1
17
2
Phuket. Dry dock, 91 m long, 24 wide (5.49).Pinang.
Lift−dock; capacity 800 tonnes (5.49).
Pinang. A lift dock and a floating dock, maximum
size 800 tonnes, length 61 m (5.326).
Singapore. Fourteen dry docks; maximum size
500 000 dwt. Eight floating docks; maximum size
16 000 dwt (8.346).
3
Johor Port (Pasir Gudang). Two dry docks; maximum
size 450 000 dwt. One shiplift; 50 000 dwt (9.134).
Sembawang. Two dry docks; maximum size
400 000 dwt. Two floating docks; lift 150 000 dwt
(9.171).
Teluk Bayer. Dry dock; maximum size 300 tons
(12.262).
Other facilities
Salvage services
1.117 1
Singapore (8.353).
Compass adjustment
1.118 1
Pinang (5.327).
Lumut (6.105).
Singapore (8.353).
Degaussing
1.119
1
Lumut (6.96).
Deratting
1.120 1
Deratting and deratting certificates:
Lhokseumawe (3.162).
Belawan (4.142).
Dumai (4.302).
Pelabuhan Pekanbaru (4.337).
2
Pinang (5.327).
Pelabuhan Klang (6.218).
Batuampar (7.100)
Singapore (8.353).
Johor Port (Pasir Gudang)) (9.135).
Teluk Bayur (12.262).
Pulaubaai (12.343).
1.121 1
Exemption certificates only:
Banda Aceh (3.65).
Phuket (5.49).
Teluk Ewa (5.190).
Port Dickson (6.267).
Melaka (6.332).
Measured distances
1.122 1
Pinang (5.308).
Kepulauan Sembilan (6.112).
Oily waste reception
1.123
1
Singapore (8.353).
CHAPTER 1
18
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
General remarks
1.124 1
Malacca Strait is the area lying between the W coasts of
Thailand and Malaysia on the NE side and the coast of
Sumatera on the SW side. For limits, see 2.3. It is 805 km
long and widens from 64 km in the S to 257 km in the N.
The narrowest part of Malacca Strait is in the S, between
the coastal plains of Sumatera and Malaysia. Towards the
N, where the strait widens from 80 km to 120 km, there is
a marked morphological break and an increase in water
depth from 40 m to 60 m.
2
Singapore Strait is the area lying between the S coasts
of Malaysia and Singapore Island on the N side and the
islands off the coasts of Sumatera on the S side. For limits,
see 7.6.
Malacca Strait and Singapore Strait are the main
channels of water exchange between Indian Ocean and
South China Sea.
Seabed
1.125 1
The SE half of Malacca Strait is generally less than
50 m in depth.
Strong tidal streams occur on the bottom of the
narrowest part of Malacca Strait, causing large uniform
sandwaves to form at right angles to the current flow. Their
height is between 4 and 15 m, and their wave length is
between 250 and 900 m. In addition there are large long
ridges running parallel with the direction of the tidal
currents. Smaller sandwaves are more symmetrical in form
and have been identified on Permatang Sedepa (One
Fathom Bank). In the central part of Malacca Strait there
are ripple marks 3 to 4 cm in height that are orientated NW
to SE. This unusual direction is attributed to a local
variation in current flow.
2
For details of areas of sandwaves, see 2.7.
Dangerous banks, composed of sand, restrict navigation
in Malacca Strait in the vicinity of Permatang Sedepa (One
Fathom Bank) TSS (2.57) and Permatang Alur Mudah (Fair
Channel Bank) (2.117).
3
Off Sumatera there are numerous shoals that confine a
narrow, deep−water channel, with a maximum depth of
70 m to the northern side of Malacca Strait off Malaysia.
Shoals reach up to 22 m in height and are up to 48 km
long. The shoals are depositional features and are
constructed from the large quantity of sediment supplied by
the local rivers flowing from Sumatera. Sediment transport
paths are to the NW, the prevailing current direction
throughout the year. Some shoals taper away from their
riverine source.
1.126 1
In the NW approach to Malacca Strait depths increase
gradually to the 100 m depth contour, and sand
predominates before the continental slope to Andaman Sea.
Within Malacca Strait, seabed is represented by equal areas
of sand and mud. The sands generally occupy the
current−swept channels off Malaysia where there are also
gravel patches. Muds form the shoal areas off Sumatera
and are also found along the margins of Malacca Strait,
notably on the Sumatera side.
2
Beyond the shelf edge, the bottom is mainly mud with
isolated patches of sand. When W of Dreadnought Bank
(6°40′ 5°46′E) the bottom falls away steeply, reaching
depths over 3800 m in the channel between Sumatera and
Great Nicobar Island.
1.127 1
The SW coast of Sumatera and the outlying islands have
shallow coral fringes beyond which depths increase rapidly.
Between these islands and Sumatera there are three
elongated basins with depths from 500 to 1000 m. Sand is
the dominant bottom type in the shallower water, with mud
and clay predominating in the depths.
2
To seaward of the islands the bottom deepens rapidly to
form a trough over 5000 m deep before levelling out at
over 4000 m. Mud is the main bottom type in the deep
water.
1.128 1
South of Singapore Island, at the SE end of Singapore
Strait, both the bottom topography and nature of the seabed
are complex due to the large number of small islands and
shoals.
All bottom types are found, although sand and mud are
the most common. For sandwaves, see 7.178.
Volcanic activity
Sumatera, west coast
1.129 1
Numerous volcanic peaks from 1525 m to over 3660 m
high are situated in Pegunungan Bukit Barisan (1.81).
The volcanoes, of which some are still active, are
mostly close to the W coast. The principal peaks are:
2
Gunung Marapi (0°24′S 100°26′E) (12.210).
Gunung Kurinci (1°42′S 101°15′E) (12.305), the
highest peak.
Gunung Talang (2°06′S 101°15′E) (12.305).
Kaba (3°30′S 102°38′E) (12.320).
Seismic activity
Sumatera, west coast
1.130 1
Between Meulaboh (4°08′N 96°08′E) and Singkel
(150 miles SE) earthquake shocks are sometimes
experienced.
In the vicinity of Pulau Simeulu (2°40′N 96°00′E),
earthquakes and tsunamis occasionally occur, but minor
shocks are frequent. In 1907, the S coast of the island was
partially submerged due to an earthquake.
2
On 26th December 2004, a very severe earthquake,
caused by the rupturing of the boundary of the fault
between the SE Eurasian and the Indo−Australian plates,
occurred N of Pulau Simeulu, with an epi−centre at
3°17′⋅5N 95°57′⋅5E. The resulting disastrous tsunamis
effected N and W Sumatera, the E coast of Malacca Strait,
and coastlines and islands over a large area of the Indian
Ocean including E Africa; it is estimated that more than
283 000 lives were lost.
A tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean is under
development (2006).
CHAPTER 1
19
3
Pulau−pulau Mentawai (12.8), an island chain, extending
250 miles SE of Pulau Siberut (1°20′S 98°53′E), is of
volcanic formation and earthquakes occur occasionally.
CURRENTS AND TIDAL STREAMS
Currents
General remarks
1.131 1
The area covered by this volume is subject to variations
linked to the reversal of the NE (winter) and SW (summer)
monsoons (1.160), which dominate the Indian sub−continent
and SE Asia. Change is continuous with the advance,
retreat and intensity of each monsoon varying from year to
year.
2
On average the months of greatest change are:
April NE to SW, and:
October SW to NE,
with the progression broadly towards N and NE in the
spring and towards S and SW in autumn.
Currents diagrams
1.132 1
Diagrams (1.132.1 to 1.132.4) show the predominant
currents in the area during the different seasons of the year.
Definitions of the terms used are as follows:
Predominant direction is the mean direction of the
90° section containing the greatest number of
vector representations of all the current
observations in the area.
2
Average rate is the mean, to the nearest ¼ kn, of the
highest 50% of all the observations in the 90°
sector used to define the predominant direction.
Rates above or below those shown may be
experienced.
Constancy is a measure of a current’s persistence.
Low constancy, for example, implies marked
variability in rate and, particularly, in direction.
North−east monsoon current
1.133 1
The W−going drift of the NE monsoon becomes
apparent locally during October and November, quickly
expands in December and is most extensive in January and
February, extending S to near 1°S. The main current is
between about 5° and 7°N throughout its length from N of
Malacca Strait to S of Sri Lanka. Average rates of the
predominant currents are mostly between 1 and 1½ kn and
are strongest and most constant during February.
2
The W−going sets predominate S to near the Equator,
but constancies decrease to less than 50%. North of 1°S,
the sets off the W coast of Sumatera tend towards N or
NW, but constancies are low with much variability. South
of 1°S, the sets are to directions between the S and E and
strongest from November to January. By April the winter
pattern disintegrates as the SW monsoon drift extends its
influence NE and E, generally reversing most of the W sets
of winter.
South−west monsoon current
1.134 1
During May, E to ENE sets become established from Sri
Lanka to the S part of Andaman Sea. The N boundary of
the Equatorial Counter−current which has persisted in a
fragmented form S of the Equator during the N winter,
merges with the SW monsoon current. This produces a
broad band of E−going sets which on approaching the W
coast of Sumatera turn through SE and S and recurve into
the S Equatorial Current near 8°S.
2
During the months of the SW monsoon the situation in
the N approaches to Malacca Strait becomes very complex
with continuous interaction between the E−setting monsoon
current and the NW outflow from the strait. On the
diagram for June–August this shows a weak tongue of W
sets opposing the divergent E sets of the monsoon current.
To the N these turn SE into Malacca Strait and to the S
split into a weak counter−clockwise eddy centred near
position 5°N 93°E and also to the SE along the W coast of
Sumatera.
3
Average rates of the predominant currents in this area
vary from about 1 to 1¼ kn, but there are frequently areas
of rough water with localised increases of rate near 4 to
5 kn. These are sometimes accompanied by rapid reversals
of direction. During October the W sets move to the WNW
of the N part of Sumatera and the weakening E flow of the
SW monsoon prevails.
By November the predominant SE sets to the NE of
Malacca Strait have mostly reversed to NW as the NE
monsoon develops and extends W.
Malacca Strait
1.135 1
The strait, and adjacent waters of South China Sea to
the E, are comparatively shallow and as a result there is
some tidal contribution to the currents of the area. See
current rose for Area C (1.139).
The overall set in the strait is to the NW, but from May
to September there is a tendency for SE sets to prevail in
some N and central parts but any predominance is only
slight.
2
During the NE monsoon the influx at the S entrance to
Malacca Strait is supplemented by S−bound water recurving
W and then NW. During the SW monsoon the supplement
is more direct from the NW−going current from Selat
Karimata (Karimata Strait) (2°S 109°E). Constancies during
the NE monsoon are moderate but in other months are
often below 50% (low category). On average between 50%
and 60% of all current observations in the strait are ½ kn
or less. A very small proportion exceed 2 kn.
South Equatorial Current
1.136 1
The current sets slightly N of W throughout the year in
the area S of Jawa but about the meridian of 100°E it sets
W, later turning slightly S of W. In longitudes W of 100°E
it spans about 15° of latitude, the N boundary being near
7°S. Constancies are moderate to high in the N but
decrease in the S to low. This equatorial current is
supplemented by water moving W to both the N and S of
Jawa during the months of the southern winter (June to
September). In other months currents off the coasts of Jawa
set to the ESE with highest constancies during the months
of December to February.
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Phuket
Pinang
Alor
Setar
Medan
Pelabuhan
Klang
Melaka
Singapore
Padang
S U MAT E R A
MA L AY S I A
Cocos or
Keeling Islands
A
B
C
D
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
- 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
/
4
1
1
/
4
1
1
/
4
1
1
/
2
0%10 20 30
40
50%
The figure within the circle gives the percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots.
The length of each division indicates percentage frequency on the scale:-
Arrows indicate direction of set and are divided according to rate:-
0.5-0.9
1-1.9
2-2.9
3+kn
32
A B C D
32 45 52
52
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Predominant currents and current distribution - DECEMBER - FEBRUARY (NE Monsoon) (1.132.1)
CHAPTER 1
20
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Phuket
Pinang
Alor
Setar
Medan
Pelabuhan
Klang
Melaka
Singapore
Padang
S U MAT E R A
MA L AY S I A
Cocos or
Keeling Islands
A
B
C
D
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
- 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
/
4
1
1
/
2
3
/
4
- 1
1
3
/
4
- 1
1
1
/
4
1
3
/
4
1
1
/
4
3
/
4
- 1
1
1
1
- 1
1
/
4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
The figure within the circle gives the percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots.
The length of each division indicates percentage frequency on the scale:-
Arrows indicate direction of set and are divided according to rate:-
0.5-0.9
1-1.9
2-2.9
3+kn
32
A B C D
49
55
64
46
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Predominant currents and current distribution - MARCH - MAY (1.132.2) CHAPTER 1
21
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Phuket
Pinang
Alor
Setar
Medan
Pelabuhan
Klang
Melaka
Singapore
Padang
S U MAT E R A
MA L AY S I A
Cocos or
Keeling Islands
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
1
1
1
1
1
/
2 1
3
/
4
1
1
/
4
1
- 1
1
/
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
1
1
1
/
4
1
/
2 0%10 20 30
40
50%
The figure within the circle gives the percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots.
The length of each division indicates percentage frequency on the scale:-
Arrows indicate direction of set and are divided according to rate:-
0.5-0.9
1-1.9
2-2.9
3+kn
32
46 64 55
49
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Predominant currents and current distribution - JUNE - AUGUST (SW Monsoon) (1.132.3)
CHAPTER 1
22
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Phuket
Pinang
Alor
Setar
Medan
Pelabuhan
Klang
Melaka
Singapore
Padang
S U MAT E R A
MA L AY S I A
Cocos or
Keeling Islands
A
B
C
D
3
/
4
- 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
/
4
1
- 1 1
/
4
1
1
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
1
/
4
3
/
4
- 1
1
1
- 1
1
/
2
3
/
4
- 1
3
/
4
- 1
1
3
/
4
- 1
1
1
- 1 1
/
4
1
- 1 1
/
4
1
3
/
4
- 1
1
3
/
4
1
1
/
4
1
- 1 1
/
4
3
/
4 - 1 3
/
4
- 1
1
- 1 1
/
4
0%10 20 30
40
50%
The figure within the circle gives the percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots.
The length of each division indicates percentage frequency on the scale:-
Arrows indicate direction of set and are divided according to rate:-
0.5-0.9
1-1.9
2-2.9
3+kn
32
A B C D
46
61 58
48
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Predominant currents and current distribution - SEPTEMBER - NOVEMBER (1.132.4)
CHAPTER 1
23
CHAPTER 1
24
Equatorial Counter−current
1.137 1
The E−going current is most constant well to the W of
the area and just S of the Equator during the NE monsoon.
As already mentioned the N edge merges with the
developing E sets of the SW monsoon. It remains
embedded in the general E flow until September and
October when it becomes more readily identifiable between
the Equator and about latitude 2°N. The S boundary of the
Counter−current is ill−defined for much of the year in the
area covered by this book. In April the latitudinal band of
variable currents between the Counter−current and the S
Equatorial Current is at a minimum width of 2° or 3° of
latitude. A maximum width of 8° to 10° of latitude is
reached during the height of the SW monsoon between
these two main currents but the intervening sets are then
mostly to directions between SW and SE.
1.138 1
To the E of Peninsular Malaysia currents reverse
seasonally with the monsoons. Broadly the current sets SW
along the coast of Vietnam during the period of the NE
monsoon (November to March), circulates
counter−clockwise in Gulf of Thailand then turns SSE
towards Selat Karimata. In April and May with the onset of
the SW monsoon the flow reverses until late September or
early October. During the SW monsoon, sets are generally
to the NW in the S, clockwise round the Gulf and then NE
to N along the Vietnam coast. In central waters of the Gulf,
currents are more variable in direction and rate, particularly
during the mid−season months of April and October.
Current roses
1.139 1
Area A:
Over the year as a whole, W sets predominate, reaching
high constancies in January and February, at the peak of
the NE monsoon. At this time of year about 70% of all
observations show rates above ½ kn. This decreases to near
50% in April when directions are more variable and W sets
are at a minimum. Sets to any direction may occur in all
months but are infrequent to directions between SW and
SE. Rates of 3 kn or more are reached on about 1 % of
occasions.
2
Area B:
Over the year as a whole, 58% of all currents are less
than ½ kn. Sets between W and NW predominate during
the NE monsoon, but they are markedly variable during
April and May. From June to October, sets are mostly to
directions between N and S through E with a few to the W.
Rates are generally low with only a few reaching 2 kn.
3
Area C:
Sets are markedly bi−modal throughout the year with a
slight predominance to NW. Very few sets are to SW or
NE. Rates are mostly less than 1 kn with about 2%
reaching 2 kn; 56% of all currents are less than ½ kn.
4
Area D:
There is a marked predominance of sets between S and
E throughout the year with 50% of all reports less than
½ kn. About 2% reach 2 kn. Little variation occurs during
the year, although there is a slight increase of rates in
November and December.
Tidal streams
General remarks
1.140 1
The tidal streams in Malacca and Singapore Straits are
covered in Chapter 2, as follows:
Tidal characteristics, 2.25.
Flow, 2.27.
For tidal stream characteristics in the vicinity of
Singapore, see 7.22 to 7.27. For tidal flow diagrams,
see 7.26.
For further information and predictions see Admiralty
Tide Tables Volume 3.
SEA LEVEL AND TIDES
Sea level
1.141 1
Meteorological conditions which differ from the average
may cause differences between the predicted and actual
tides. See The Mariner’s Handbook for details.
Tides
1.142 1
Except in Singapore Strait, E of Pulau Iyu Kecil (4.343),
where the diurnal inequality increases rapidly to the E, the
tides in the area covered by this volume are predominantly
semi−diurnal.
In the NW approaches to Malacca Strait, the time of the
tide is about 1½ hours later at Tanjung Jamboaye (3.177)
and Pulau Langkawi (5.166) than at Pulau We (3.13) and
Ko Phuket (5.23), the range being about 1·4 m on the coast
of Sumatera and 2·4 m on the coast of Thailand.
2
In Malacca Strait, the time of the tide gets progressively
later, being about 10½ hours later at Pulau Iyu Kecil than
at Tanjung Jamboaye and Pulau Langkawi. The range
increases to a maximum of 3·7 m at Permatang Sedepa
(One Fathom Bank) (2.61) (rather greater on the coasts to
the NE and SW), then decreases to 1·9 m at Gosong Rob
Roy (2.112), increases again to 2·6 m at the level of Pulau
Pisang (6.370) and finally decreases again in Singapore
Strait to 1·6 m at Horsburgh Lighthouse (7.128). The
progression of these times and ranges can best be seen on
Co−tidal chart 5084.
3
On the SW coast of Sumatera, at Pulau Raya (10.179),
the time of the tide is 2 hours earlier than at Pulau We, but
the range is only 0·2 m. To the SE, the time of the tide
gets earlier and the range increases; on the Equator, it is
1½ hours earlier, with a range of 0·8 m. Still farther SE, the
range is nearly constant but the time again gets later, being
1½ hours later at Tanjung Cukubalimbing (12.371) than on
the Equator.
In Cocos Islands (Chapter 13), the range of the tide is
0·7 m and there is some diurnal inequality.
SEA AND SWELL
General
1.143 1
For definitions of sea and swell, and the terminology
used in describing their characteristics, see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Sea conditions
1.144 1
The sea is frequently smooth or slight in Malacca Strait.
Squalls may give rise to moderate or rough seas for short
periods. The frequency of moderate or higher seas is
highest between May and September and they are
encountered on about 35% of occasions in the NW of the
area, about 13% near the equator, 25% between 5°S and
10°S and 60% between 10°S and 16°S. The lowest
frequency of moderate or higher seas, N of 10°S, usually
occurs in April.
CHAPTER 1
25
Swell conditions
1.145 1
See diagrams 1.145.1 and 1.145.2 for the swell
distribution in January and July. In January, the swell is
frequently low NE in the N but becomes more variable
near the equator and low to moderate SE in the SW of the
area. In the NW of the area in July, the predominant swell
is low to moderate from the SW and in the S of the area
the swell is moderate from between S and SE.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
General
1.146 1
For an explanation of salinity and density as applied to
seawater and the units used to express their values, see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Salinity
1.147 1
Salinity values in the area covered by this volume are
mostly below 34·5.
Minimum values are found in the E part of Malacca
Strait (30), while in the vicinity of Cocos Islands, they rise
to 34·5. There is little variation throughout the year.
Density
1.148 1
Seawater density is low, and typical of an equatorial
region. In August the minimum values 1·020 g/cm
3
are
found in Malacca Strait, increasing S with latitude to
1·023 g/cm
3
.
In February these values may be slightly less.
Sea surface temperatures
1.149 1
Diagrams 1.149.1 and 1.149.2 show the mean sea
surface temperatures for February and August.
Temperatures vary little within the range of 26° to 29°C
with the maximum sea surface temperature occurring in
August. The difference between the mean air temperature
and the mean sea surface temperature is seldom greater
than 1°C.
Variability
1.150
1
Sea surface temperatures rarely exceed 30°C and rarely
vary by more than 1° or 2°C from the mean.
Colour and bioluminescence
Colour
1.151 1
Seawater colours are:
Coastal waters: yellowish green.
Open ocean: greenish blue.
Bioluminescence
1.152 1
Bioluminescence, the production of light by living
organisms, may be grouped into three categories:
Sheet−type, often appearing as a diffuse glow
extending over a large area of the sea surface.
Spark−type, observed as innumerable pulsating points
of light.
Globe−type, appearing as glowing balls of light.
The organisms causing these displays include
microscopic unicellular organisms called protozoa, minute
shrimp−like copepods and jellyfish.
1.153 1
Data is inconclusive as to the types of displays most
frequently observed, although both sheet−type and globe−
type bioluminescence appear to be more frequent than the
spark−type. Most observations occur between April and
October.
Much discoloured water occurs in this region and a high
percentage of the planktonic forms in this discoloured water
can produce bioluminescence. “Phosphorescent wheel”
formations also occur, but are extremely rare.
2
Pyrosoma, a floating colonial sea squirt, which may
extend to a metre or more in length, is occasionally present
in great numbers and is responsible for some displays of
brilliant green light. However its appearance is
unpredictable.
3
Further information on bioluminescence can be found in
The Mariner’s Handbook and The Marine Observer’s
Handbook.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General information
1.154 1
The following information on climate and weather
should be read in conjunction with the information
contained in The Mariner’s Handbook, which explains in
more detail many aspects of meteorology and climatology
of importance to the mariner.
Weather reports and forecasts, that cover the area, are
regularly broadcast in English; for details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 3(2).
General conditions
1.155 1
The climate is hot and humid and with high rainfall.
There is only a weak seasonal or daily contrast, with only
a little more rain and a little less sunshine at the change of
the monsoons. Typhoons are not encountered within the
area covered by this volume but intense tropical storms
may infrequently move W across Gulf of Thailand and Kra
Isthmus to the N of the area, and occasionally a tropical
cyclone may affect the area to the S of around 5°S.
2
Fog is rare although visibility may fall to fog limits in
heavy thundery rain. Any fog patches that may form
around dawn in low−lying areas and estuaries usually clear
soon after sunrise.
Pressure
Average distribution
1.156 1
The average pressure distribution at MSL in January and
July is shown in the accompanying diagrams 1.156.1 and
1.156.2. During the NE monsoon, December to March,
pressure is high over the Asian continent and low over
Australia. During the SW monsoon, May to October, the
pattern is reversed. However, in the area covered by this
volume the day to day and month to month variations are
small, except, when on relatively rare occasions, a tropical
cyclone may affect the area to the S of around 5°S. In
general the annual pressure variation is about 3 to 4 hPa
(mb) in the N and 2 to 3 hPa in the S.
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Swell distribution JANUARY (1.145.1)
0.5-2
2.5-3
3.5-6
6.5-8
>8
2
EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend: Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 0%10 20 30
40
50%
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
CHAPTER 1
26
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Swell distribution JULY (1.145.2)
0.5-2
2.5-3
3.5-6
6.5-8
>8
2
EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend: Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 0%10 20 30
40
50%
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
CHAPTER 1
27
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) FEBRUARY (1.149.1)
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
7
>28
<28
27
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
CHAPTER 1
28
26
2
7
2
8
28
>28
>28
2
8
2
9
29
2
9
>29
>29
28
25
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) AUGUST (1.149.2)
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
CHAPTER 1
29
1
0
1
2
HIGH
<1010
<1010
<1011
HIGH
HIGH
1012
1
01
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
2
Average barometric pressure at mean sea level (hPa) JANUARY (1.156.1)
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10°° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
CHAPTER 1
30
1
0
0
8
1008
1
0
0
9
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
2
HIGH
HIGH
1
0
1
2
<1011
1011
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
3
1
0
1
4
Average barometric pressure at mean sea level (hPa) JULY (1.156.2)
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
CHAPTER 1
31
CHAPTER 1
32
Diurnal variation
1.157 1
There is a regular diurnal variation of about 3 hPa, with
maxima at 1000 and 2200 and minima at 0400 and 1600.
Tropical cyclones
1.158 1
North of equator. Tropical cyclones are not encountered
within the area covered by this volume but intense tropical
storms very occasionally move W across Gulf of Thailand
and Kra Isthmus, to the N of the area, between July and
October.
2
South of equator. Tropical cyclones form and pass
through the area, mainly between 5°S and 20°S. They
occur during the period October to May, and rarely at other
times, and are most frequent between November and April.
The diagrams (1.158.1 to 1.158.8) show recorded tracks
over a 20 year period.
Winds
Average distribution
1.159 1
Wind roses showing the frequency of wind distribution
for the area in January, April, July and October are given
in diagrams 1.159.1 to 1.159.4.
Open waters
1.160 1
North areas. In the N of the area the NE monsoon
blows from December to March with the height of the
monsoon occurring in January. The mean winds during this
period are force 4 in the NW and NE but light and variable
around Singapore and the S part of Malacca Strait. In April
the winds are lighter and more variable across the whole of
the N area before the onset of the SW monsoon in May,
which then continues until October. In the N and NW parts
of the area the strength of the SW monsoon is usually
steadier and stronger than the NE monsoon.
2
Central areas. To the W of Sumatera between about
2°N and 5°S the winds are lighter and more variable
throughout the year but with a slight predominance of
winds from between W and SW.
South areas. The SE trade winds of South Indian Ocean
affect the S part of the area between 10°S and 15°S
throughout the year and extend N to replace the W winds
between 5°S and 10°S from April to early November.
Land and sea breezes
1.161 1
Land and sea breezes affect all parts of the region
although the land breeze is generally weaker than the sea
breeze. In some coastal areas of W Sumatera the land
breeze may be accentuated by down−slope winds off the
high ground just inland from the coast where sudden
squalls may occur.
Squalls
1.162 1
Squalls are a well known feature of Malacca Strait.
Between April and November, squalls known as Sumateras
develop in Malacca Strait in the late afternoon or overnight
and move E to affect the W coast of Malaysia and
Singapore Island. These squalls are usually accompanied by
cumulonimbus cloud, thunderstorms and torrential rain, and
generally last for around 1 to 4 hours. Gusts of 40 to 50 kn
have occasionally been recorded in association with these
squalls. The frequency of these Sumateras is around 6 to 8
in June and August and 3 to 4 in other months between
May and September.
2
South−west squalls may be encountered over the N part
of Malacca Strait during the SW monsoon (May to
October) by day or night, and these tend to be of longer
duration than Sumateras. North−west squalls sometimes
affect this area in November just before the onset of the
NE monsoon over the NE part of the Indian Ocean but
very few occur during the period of the NE monsoon.
Waterspouts are not uncommon in Malacca Strait and, if
practicable, ships are advised to steer a course well clear of
them.
Gales
1.163 1
Winds of force 7 or more are rare over most of the area
to the N of around 5°S. They occur on 1% or less of
occasions but around 2% of occasions in the extreme NW
of the area at the height of the SW monsoon in July. In the
S of the area, between 5°S and 15°S, winds of force 7 or
more occur on around 1 to 2% of occasions but by July
the percentage increases to 6% in the extreme SE and 10%
in the extreme SW.
Cloud
1.164 1
Over the sea areas the average cloud amount in January,
to the N of about 10°S, is around 5 oktas, and 4 oktas to
the S of 10°S. At the height of the SW monsoon in July,
there is a small increase in cloud cover in the extreme N of
the area to around 6 oktas and to 5 oktas in the extreme
SW, but a small decrease to around 4 oktas to the S of
Jawa and Sumatera.
2
In coastal areas there is usually a distinct diurnal
variation with cumulus type cloud forming during the
morning and reaching a maximum around late afternoon. In
addition, cloud amounts are generally greatest on
wind−facing coasts than to the lee of high ground.
Precipitation
General
1.165 1
The mean annual rainfall is abundant and varies in
coastal areas from around 1500 to 4500 mm and exceeds
5000 mm in the mountainous inland areas of W Sumatera.
The highest rainfall occurs on mountainous wind−facing
coasts whilst somewhat drier conditions prevail in the lee.
Whilst there is considerable variability according to locality
and season there are no dry seasons. However, the driest
months in Melaka, Phuket and Pinang are January and
February during the height of the NE monsoon, and in
Banda Aceh during June and July. In Cocos Islands the
driest months tend to be between September and
November.
2
During the transition between the monsoons, March to
May and October to November, rainfall generally reaches a
maximum, the latter being the wettest period, except in
Cocos Islands.
Heavy showers and thunderstorms are responsible for
most of the rain. The thundery showers are usually of short
duration but often torrential. Maximum rainfall in coastal
areas frequently occurs in the late afternoon or early
evening.
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - October 1983-2002 (1.158.1)
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - November 1983-2002 (1.158.2)
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
CHAPTER 1
33
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - December 1983-2002 (1.158.3)
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - January 1983-2002 (1.158.4)
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
CHAPTER 1
34
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - February 1983-2002 (1.158.5)
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - March 1983-2002 (1.158.6)
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
CHAPTER 1
35
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
1992-1995
1996-1999
2000-2002
1988-1991
1983-1987
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - April 1983-2002 (1.158.7)
Tropical Cyclone Tracks - May 1983-2002 (1.158.8)
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
80° 85° 90° 95° 100° 105°
80° 85° Longitude 90° East from Greenwich 100° 105°
15°
20°
0°
5°
10°
15°
20°
CHAPTER 1
36
2
1
7
4
6
12
2
3
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 3
0%10 20 30
40
50%
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Wind distribution JANUARY (1.159.1)
CHAPTER 1
37
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 3
0%10 20 30
40
50%
10
12
11
4
6
14
1
1
Wind distribution APRIL (1.159.2)
CHAPTER 1
38
Wind distribution JULY (1.159.3)
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 3
0%10 20 30
40
50%
<1
4
8
3
3
10
<1
<1
CHAPTER 1
39
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
Wind distribution OCTOBER (1.159.4)
EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 3
0%10 20 30
40
50%
5
9
8
<1
3
9
<1
<1
CHAPTER 1
40
CHAPTER 1
41
Thunderstorms
1.166 1
This is one of the most thundery regions of the world
with thunderstorms occurring throughout the year. In the N
and NE of the area the frequency of thunderstorms falls to
a minimum in January and February, although the variation
from month to month is small along the W coast of
Sumatera. The frequency of thunderstorms in Cocos Islands
is significantly lower; these tend to occur in the first half
of the year.
Fog and visibility
1.167 1
Visibility is generally good except in thundery showers
when visibility may fall to near fog limits. Fog is rare over
the open sea although patchy radiation fog may form on
coasts towards dawn, particularly near marshy areas and
river valleys, but it generally clears soon after sunrise.
2
Haze is most likely between June and November,
tending to be at its most dense between August and
October. When a drought affects NW Australia, the haze is
often particularly thick and it may spread across most of
the region giving a grey tint to the sky and visibility of
around 8 to 10 miles. On rare occasions visibility decreases
to as little as 4 miles.
Air temperature
1.168 1
There is no marked seasonal variation in temperature
over the whole region. Throughout the year the days are
usually hot and, on account of the high humidity, somewhat
oppressive. The mean annual air temperature over the open
sea is between 26° and 28°C, with the lower temperature
during February in the N and during August in the S.
2
In coastal areas the average maximum temperature is
around 32°C and the average daily minimum about 23°C.
Extreme temperatures of 40°C and 17°C have been
recorded at some locations (see the climate information
tables for the mean temperatures at a number of coastal
stations within the area of this publication). The air
temperature of Cocos Islands is largely controlled by the
sea surface temperature and therefore the variation in the
air temperature is small throughout the year.
Humidity
1.169 1
Humidity is closely related to air temperature and
generally decreases as the temperature increases. During the
early morning, when the air temperature is normally at its
lowest, the humidity is generally at its highest, and falls to
a minimum in the afternoon.
2
Over the open sea the average humidity is around 77 to
81% throughout the year and the seasonal variation is
small. In the N half of the area the most humid period is
October to December when the SW monsoon gives way to
the NE monsoon, and lowest during the height of the NE
monsoon between January and March. In the S half of the
area the humidity tends to be marginally higher in the first
half of the year.
3
In coastal areas the daily variation in humidity is much
greater than over the more open waters and averages
around 94% near dawn and 68% in the afternoon. Areas in
the lee of high ground, or affected by land breezes, may
record lower than average values whereas on wind−facing
coasts higher than average values are likely.
CLIMATE INFORMATION
1.170 1
The information which follows gives data for several
coastal stations (Diagram 1.170) that regularly undertake
weather observations. Some of these stations have been
re−sited and so the position given is the latest available.
It is emphasised that the data reflects average conditions
at the specific location of the observation station which
may not totally represent conditions over the open sea or in
the approaches to ports in the vicinity.
2
The following comments briefly list some of the
differences to be expected between conditions over the
open sea and the nearest reporting station (see The
Mariner’s Handbook for further details):
Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea than on land,
although funnelling in narrow inlets can result in
an increase in wind strength.
3
Precipitation along mountainous wind−facing coasts
can be considerably higher than at sea to
windward. Similarly, precipitation in the lee of
high ground is generally less.
Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over
the land.
Topography has a marked effect on local conditions.
LIMITS OF NP44
PINANG
SIBOLGA
PADANG
BENGKULU
COCOS OR KEELING
ISLANDS
SINGAPORE
(CHANGI)
LHOKSEUMAWE
BANDA ACEH
SITIAWAN
MELAKA
Location of climate stations (1.170)
GUNUNGSITOLI
KO LANTA
1.171
1.172
1.173
1.178
1.179
1.180
1.181
1.182
1.174
1.175
1.177
1.176
90°
90°
95°
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich
100°
100°
105°
105°
10° 10°
5° 5°
5° 5°
10° 10°
15° 15°
0° 0°
CHAPTER 1
42
PINANG
LHOKSEUMAWE
BANDA ACEH
SITIAWAN
KO LANTA
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 37ºC
Mean annual minimum = 20ºC
Period maximum = 39ºC
Period minimum = 18ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
17 yr period
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
17 yr period
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in oktas
Annual 0800 local mean= 6;
1400 local mean= 6
0800 local
1400 local
17 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
Less than one day per year
17 yr period
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
46 days per
year
17 yr period
0
5
10
15
20
25
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
136 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0800 local mean 90%;
1400 local mean 71%
0800 local
1400 local
17 yr period
0
5
10
15
20
25
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
136 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
Less than one day per year
17 yr period
WMO No 48566 KO LANTA
7°32'N 99°03'E. Height above MSL - 3 m Climate information for period 1989 - 2005
January
February
March
January
February
March
May, June
July
August
September
May, June
July
August
September
April
April
October
October
November
December
November
December
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
82
67
57
54
54
27
18
22
32
30
43
1.171
PINANG
LHOKSEUMAWE
BANDA ACEH
SITIAWAN
KO LANTA
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 35ºC
Mean annual minimum = 22ºC
Period maximum = 37ºC
Period minimum = 20ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
32 yr period
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
32 yr period
5.5
5.7
5.9
6.1
6.3
6.5
6.7
6.9
7.1
7.3
7.5
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0800 local mean= 7;
1400 local mean= 7
0800 local
1400 local
32 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
Less than one day per year
32 yr period
0
5
10
15
20
25
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
169 days per year
32 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
2030 mm per year
18 yr period
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0800 local mean 91%;
1400 local mean 69%
0800 local
1400 local
32 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
152 precipitation days per year
18 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
Less than one day per year
32 yr period
WMO No 48601 PINANG
5°18'N 100°16'E. Height above MSL - 4 m Climate information for period 1974 - 2005
January
February
March
January
February
March
April
May
June
April
May
June
July
August
September
July
August
September
October
November
December
October
November
December
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
21
44
29
42
0
1
2
2
44
1.172
PINANG
SIBOLGA
LHOKSEUMAWE
A
CEH
SITIAWAN
MELAKA
GUNUNGSITOLI
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 35ºC
Mean annual minimum = 20ºC
Period maximum = 36ºC
Period minimum = 19ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
23 yr period
1008
1009
1010
1011
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
23 yr period
6
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
8
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in oktas
Annual 0800 local mean= 7;
1400 local mean= 7
0800 local
1400 local
23 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
Less than 1 Day per year
23 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
172 days per year
23 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
1837 mm per year
39 yr period
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0800 local mean 97%;
1400 local mean 67%
0800 local
1400 local
23 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 1mm
140 precipitation days per year
39 yr period
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
6 days per year
23 yr period
WMO No 48620 SITIAWAN
4°13'N 100°42'E. Height above MSL - 8 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
67
64
61
61
5
2
2
5
45
1.173
PINANG
SIBOLGA
SIN
(C
H
LHOKSEUMAWE
SITIAWAN
MELAKA
GUNUNGSITOLI
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 36ºC
Mean annual minimum = 21ºC
Period maximum = 38ºC
Period minimum = 20ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
22 yr period
1008
1009
1010
1011
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
22 yr period
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0800 local mean= 7;
1400 local mean= 7
0800 local
1400 local
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
Less than one day per year
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
165 days per year
22 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
1966 mm per year
18 yr period
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0800 local mean 94%;
1400 local mean 66%
0800 local
1400 local
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
148 precipitation days per year
18 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
1 day per year
22 yr period
WMO No 48665 MELAKA
2°16'N 102°15'E. Height above MSL - 9 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2005
January
February
March
January
February
March
April
May
June
April
May
June
July
August
September
July
August
September
October
November
December
October
November
December
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
18
53
55
40
1
2
2
2
46
1.174
PINANG
SIBOLGA
SINGAPORE
(CHANGI)
LHOKSEUMAWE
SITIAWAN
MELAKA
O
LI
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 35ºC
Mean annual minimum = 20ºC
Period maximum = 38ºC
Period minimum = -2ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
25 yr period
1008
1009
1010
1011
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
25 yr period
6
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
8
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0800 local mean= 7;
1400 local mean= 7
0800 local
1400 local
25 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
1 day per year
25 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
131 days per year
25 yr period
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
3448 mm per year
7 yr period
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0800 local mean 91%;
1400 local mean 71%
0800 local
1400 local
25 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
162 precipitation days per year
7 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
Less than one day per year
25 yr period
WMO No 48698 CHANGI
1°22'N 103°59'E. Height above MSL - 5 m Climate information for period 1981 - 2005
April
May
April
May
August
September
October
August
September
October
January
February
March
January
February
March
June
July
June
July
November
December
November
December
Station Wind Distribution -
0900 local
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
0
1
4
3
3
4
0
0
0
0
47
1.175
SIBOLGA
LHOKSEUMAWE
BANDA ACEH
GUNUNGSITOLI
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 37ºC
Mean annual minimum = 18ºC
Period maximum = 43ºC
Period minimum = 15ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
22 yr period
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
22 yr period
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0700 local mean= 6;
1300 local mean= 6
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
1 day per year
22 yr period
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
46 days per year
22 yr period
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
1232 mm per year
17 yr period
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0700 local mean 93%;
1300 local mean 64%
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
112 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
Less than one day per year
22 yr period
WMO No 96011 BANDA ACEH
5°31'N 95°25'E. Height above MSL - 21 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2005
December
January
February
December
January
February
September
October
November
September
October
November
March
April
March
April
May
June
July
August
May
June
July
August
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
35
16
16
17
15
51
59
62
48
1.176
PINANG
SIBOLGA
LHOKSEUMAWE
BANDA ACEH
SITIAWAN
GUNUNGSITOLI
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 3
4
Mean annual minimum = 1
9
Period maximum = 37ºC
Period minimum = 15ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
22 yr period
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
22 yr period
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0700 local mean= 7;
1300 local mean= 6
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
1 day per year
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
110 days per year
22 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
1326 mm per year
17 yr period
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0700 local mean 94%;
1300 local mean 69%
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
114 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
Less than 1 day per year
22 yr period
WMO No 96009 LHOKSEUMAWE
5°14'N 97°12'E. Height above MSL - 87 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2005
January
March
May July
September
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
November
January March
May
July
September
November
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
59
52
61
60
62
55
6
5
9
9
14
11
49
1.177
PINANG
SIBOLGA
LHOKSEUMAWE
BANDA ACEH
SITIAWAN
GUNUNGSITOLI
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 36ºC
Mean annual minimum = 19ºC
Period maximum = 40ºC
Period minimum = 14ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
22 yr period
1008.6
1008.8
1009
1009.2
1009.4
1009.6
1009.8
1010
1010.2
1010.4
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
22 yr period
6
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
8
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0700 local mean= 7;
1300 local mean= 7
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
Less than one day per year
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
104 days per year
22 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
3405 mm per year
17 yr period
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0700 local mean 97%;
1300 local mean 69%
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
177 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
3 days per year
22 yr period
WMO No 96073 SIBOLGA
1°33'N 98°53'E. Height above MSL - 3 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2005
January March May July September
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
November
January
March
May
July
September
November
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
99
99
99
98
9999
48
51
51
49
48
51
50
1.178
SIBOLGA
PADANG
SITIAWAN
MELAKA
GUNUNGSITOLI
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 3
4
Mean annual minimum = 1
4
Period maximum = 38ºC
Period minimum = 10ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
16 yr period
1009
1010
1011
1012
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1011 hPa
16 yr period
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0700 local mean= 7;
1300 local mean= 6
0700 local
1300 local
16 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
1 day per year
16 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
170 days per year
16 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
2316 mm per year
12 yr period
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0700 local mean 97%;
1300 local mean 78%
0700 local
1300 local
16 yr period
0
5
10
15
20
25
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
197 precipitation days per year
12 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
3 days per year
16 yr period
WMO No 96075 GUNUNGSITOLI
1°30'N 97°38'E. Height above MSL - 6 m Climate information for period 1990 - 2005
January
February
March
January
February
March
April
May
June
April
May
June
July
August
September
July
August
September
October
November
December
October
November
December
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
94
94
94
90
9
8
9
11
51
1.179
SIBOLGA
PADANG
MELAKA
GUNUNGSITOLI
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 35ºC
Mean annual minimum = 19ºC
Period maximum = 43ºC
Period minimum = 17ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
22 yr period
1008
1009
1010
1011
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1010 hPa
22 yr period
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0700 local mean= 6;
1300 local mean= 5
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
1 day per year
22 yr period
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
42 days per
year
22 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
2727 mm per year
17 yr period
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0700 local mean 93%;
1300 local mean 70%
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
132 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
Less than one day per year
22 yr period
WMO No 96163 PADANG
0°53'S 100°21'E. Height above MSL - 3 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2005
January
March
May
July
September
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
November
January
March
May
July
September
November
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
96
98
98
98
96
97
13
11
11
11
13
16
52
1.180
PADANG
BENGKULU
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 35ºC
Mean annual minimum = 19ºC
Period maximum = 39ºC
Period minimum = 12ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
22 yr period
1007
1008
1009
1010
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1009 hPa
22 yr period
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0700 local mean= 6;
1300 local mean= 6
1300 local
0700 local
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
Less than one day per year
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
126 days per year
22 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
2143 mm per year
17 yr period
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0700 local mean 95%;
1300 local mean 68%
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
129 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
1 day per year
22 yr period
WMO No 96253 BENGKULU
3°53'S 102°20'E. Height above MSL - 16 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2005
January March May July September
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
November
January
March
May
July
September
November
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
Beaufort force is indicated by:
79
82
85
79
85
85
5
4
5
2
4
5
53
1.181
COCOS OR KEELING
ISLANDS
15
20
25
30
35
40
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean maximum and minimum
temperatures ºC
Mean annual maximum = 31ºC
Mean annual minimum = 23ºC
Period maximum = 33ºC
Period minimum = 21ºC
Mean monthly maximum
Mean daily maximum
Mean daily minimum
Mean monthly minimum
22 yr period
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean sea level pressure in hPa
Annual mean 1012 hPa
22 yr period
4.4
4.6
4.8
5
5.2
5.4
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cloud cover in Annual 0700 local mean= 5;
1300 local mean= 5
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with winds > force 6
1 day per year
22 yr period
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with thunder
3 days per year
22 yr period
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation in mm
1924 mm per year
17 yr period
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Relative humidity %
Annual 0700 local mean 80%;
1300 local mean 73%
0700 local
1300 local
22 yr period
0
5
10
15
20
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Mean precipitation
days > 0.1mm
176 precipitation days per year
17 yr period
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Days with fog
13 days per year
22 yr period
WMO No 96996 COCOS ISLAND AIRPORT
12°11'S 96°50'E. Height above MSL - 4 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2005
January
March
May
July
September
Station Wind Distribution - 0900 local
November
January
March
May
July
September
November
Station Wind Distribution - 1500 local
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
4
The frequency of wind is given by scale:
Beaufort force is indicated by:
Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure
in the circle gives the percentage of calms.
5
6
3
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
54
1.182
55
1.183
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
HECTOPASCALS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
Continued
from diagram
above
Continued
in diagram
below
1358
1353
827
830
1358
2139
3940
3945
3946
3947
2403
1353
5502
3945
5502 Mariners' Routeing Guide
2777
6.169
4.269
0406
0406
2
.
3
6
2.91
2.93
2.81 2.89
2.73
2
.
3
1
2
.
5
0
2
.
4
3
2
.
5
5
56
THAI L AND
SUMATERA
Pulau
Rondo
M A L A Y S I A
S U M A T E R A
2.114
2.103
Permatang
Sedepa
Pelabuhan
Klang
T Ru
Port Dickson
Melaka
Dumai
Pasir
Selatan
PP Aruah
Mudah
Selatan
Chapter
3
Chapter
4
Chapter
5
Chapter
6
Chapter
4
Chapter
6
Ch.
7
NP 21
Bay of Bengal Pilot
100° 101°
Chapter 2 - Malacca Strait - Through route to the
approach to Singapore Strait
Longitude 97° East from Greenwich
5°
6°
7°
8°
9°
4°
3°
5°
6°
7°
8°
9°
4°
3°
95° 96° 97° 98° 99°94°
95° 96°94°
100° 101°
102° 103°
100°
103°
Longitude 101° East from Greenwich
1°
2°
3°
1°
2°
3°
100° 101°
99°
57
CHAPTER 2
MALACCA STRAIT — THROUGH ROUTE TO THE APPROACH
TO SINGAPORE STRAIT
INTRODUCTION
Chart 4707
Scope of the chapter
2.1
1
This chapter describes Malacca Strait as far SE as the
outer approaches to Singapore Strait at Mudah Selatan
Light (1°25′N 103°11′E). Details farther SE and within
Singapore Strait are covered in Chapter 7.
This chapter is divided into the following three sections:
General information (2.5).
Malacca Strait, NW part, through routeing to
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) (2.30).
Malacca Strait, SE part, through routeing − Permatang
Sedepa to Singapore Strait (2.54).
General information
2.2
1
Malacca Strait and Singapore Strait together form the
main seaway connecting the Indian Ocean with the China
Sea.
This seaway is also the shortest route for tankers trading
between the Persian Gulf and Japan.
Distance tables, between Pulau We at the NW extremity
of Sumatera and Horsburgh Light at the E end of
Singapore Strait, are given at the end of the chapter in
diagram 2.124.
2
Chapters 2 and 7 provide general information and
Directions for vessels proceeding through Malacca Strait
and Singapore Strait using the TSS in force in both straits.
Cross references are given where appropriate to other
chapters in this book and to charts and publications
published by The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office.
Area limits and definition
2.3
1
Malacca Strait is defined as the area lying between the
W coasts of Thailand and Malaysia on the NE, and the
coast of Sumatera on the SW between the following limits:
On the NW:
A line from Ujung Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E), the N
extremity of mainland Sumatera, to:
Laem Phra Chao (7°45′N 98°19′E), the S extremity
of Ko Phuket, Thailand.
2
On the SE:
A line from Tanjung Piai (1°16′N 103°31′E), the S
extremity of Malaysia, to:
Pulau Karimun Kecil, 9¼ miles SW, thence:
SW to Pulau Karimun Besar, thence:
W to Tanjung Kedabu (1°06′N 102°59′E).
Positions
2.4
1
Satellite−derived positions. Positions obtained from
satellite navigation systems are normally referred to
WGS84 Datum. The difference between satellite−derived
positions and the positions on some charts in the
Indonesian waters in this chapter cannot be determined.
Mariners are warned that these differences may be
significant to navigation, and are therefore advised to use
alternative methods to obtain positions, particularly when
closing the shore and navigating in the vicinity of dangers.
See notes on charts, also Annual Notice to Mariners No 19.
2
Horizontal datums. Due to the datums in use on the
Malaysia and Indonesian sides of the Strait being
incompatible, bearing and distance vectors on ARCs charts
can not be extended across the boundary of the datums. In
the N part of Malacca Strait the boundary is about midway
between the two coastlines, and SE of Permatang Sedepa it
lies SW of the TSS, except where it crosses one section of
the deep−water route.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 830, 1353, 1358, 2403, 5502
Route
2.5
1
Vessels entering Malacca Strait from W, intending to use
the through route, converge in the vicinity of Permatang
Sedepa (2.80) at the NW end of the narrow part of the
Strait.
2
SE of Permatang Sedepa a sequence of IMO adopted
TSS provide dedicated traffic lanes between the coastal
banks that encumber Malacca Strait, through to the
approaches to Singapore Strait at Mudah Selatan Light
(1°25′N 103°11′E). The continuity of the traffic lanes is
broken at intervals by precautionary areas.
For details of the TSS see 2.21.
Depths and draught
Depths
2.6
1
Depths within the straits are irregular and there are
many areas of sandwaves. See 2.28 for further details on
sandwaves and 2.7 for critical areas. Depths in the main
shipping channel vary from over 70 m to less than 25 m.
Through routes are constricted by local topography and
individual channels are further constricted by sandbanks.
Depths are liable to change over time and due
consideration should be given to the source data diagrams
on the charts, particularly in depth critical areas.
CHAPTER 2
58
2
Dangerous banks, composed of sand, restrict navigation
especially in the following areas:
Both lanes of Permatang Sedepa TSS (2°50′N
100°59′E) (2.55 and 2.73).
Permatang Alur Mudah (Fair Channel Bank) (1°28′N
103°08′E) (2.123), in the NW−going traffic lane
near the SE end of Malacca Strait.
2.7
1
Critical areas due to sandwaves. Surveys in the
separation schemes and routes have shown the following
areas, of significance to the navigation of deep−draught
vessels, to be most subject to sandwaves:
NW and SSW of Permatang Sedepa (2°53′N
101°00′E); see 2.57 and 2.74.
SW of Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E); see 2.83 and
2.95.
S of Muar (2°03′N 102°34′E); see 2.117.
2.8
1
Controlling depths. In general terms the controlling
depths in the fairways of the traffic lanes vary from 20 to
23 m.
Shoaler depths occur over patches and wrecks but these
can be avoided; some of these dangers are marked by
light−buoys. Depths in sandwave areas may be shoaler than
charted.
2
Slightly deeper water can be found in the fairways of
the traffic lanes by picking a track through the charted
depths, but this requires careful navigation.
3
Critical areas are:
In the vicinity of Permatang Sedepa (2°53′N
101°00′E) (2.80), where the SE−going traffic lane
has a charted controlling depth of 22⋅5 m. In the
NW−going lane a track with a least charted depth
of 26⋅5 m may be found.
4
Off Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E) sandwave area
(2.83) where the depths are very irregular.
See 2.19 for under−keel clearance.
Draught
2.9
1
Many vessels using Malacca Strait have a draught
closely approaching the controlling depths, and the factors
affecting changes of draught are critical.
Deep−draught vessels cannot avoid passing over certain
shoal areas in Malacca Strait; it is therefore essential that
an accurate prediction of the tidal height be made.
2
Information on the optimum times of transit for
deep−draught vessels (2.18) may be found on Routeing
Chart 5502.
The use of tidal predictions for the nearest standard or
secondary port may not be sufficiently accurate in
mid−channel and the use of co−tidal and co−range
chart 5084 is recommended.
Hazards
General
2.10
1
As passage through Malacca and Singapore Straits from
Permatang Sedepa to Horsburgh Light entails a run of
about 250 miles, long periods of considerable vigilance are
necessary in order to maintain safe standards of navigation.
Factors, described below, make navigation through the
straits difficult, particularly for deep−draught vessels.
2.11
1
Tidal streams are strong and are influenced by monsoon
currents. See 2.27.
2.12
1
Risk of collision is appreciable due to heavy traffic
using the through route and frequent crossing traffic. Local
fishing craft may also be encountered.
Local traffic, which could be unaware of the
internationally agreed regulations and practices of seafarers,
may be encountered in or near the TSS traffic lanes.
Mariners should be alert to this possibility and should take
any precautions which may be required by the ordinary
practice of seamen or by the special circumstances of the
case.
2.13
1
Aids to navigation are often unreliable, especially in
Indonesian waters.
2.14
1
Lights. Vessels with low freeboard may use security
lights to guard against piracy, however due to their
brilliance, these lights may obscure the vessel’s navigation
lights.
Piracy
2.15
1
Piracy is prevalent in Malacca Strait, including offshore
waters. Details of recommended practices concerning
piracy, radio reports and urgency messages are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (2). For further
details see 1.70 to 1.74.
Submarine cables and pipelines
2.16
1
Submarine cables and pipelines are laid in various places
throughout Malacca Strait, and in its approaches, as shown
on the charts.
For general information see 1.41 and 1.42.
Pilotage
2.17
1
Pilots are not available for passage through Malacca and
Singapore Straits, but may be required for entry to ports in
the Straits, see the relevant section and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Traffic regulations
Rules for vessels navigating through the Straits of
Malacca and Singapore
2.18
1
Definitions.
For the purpose of these rules the following definitions
shall apply:
1.A vessel having a draught of 15 metres or more
shall be deemed to be a deep−draught vessel.
2.A tanker of 150 000 dwt and above shall be
deemed to be a very large crude carrier (VLCC).
2
Note. The above definitions do not prejudice the
definition of “vessel constrained by her draught” described
in Rule 3(h) of International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea, 1972.
2.19
1
General provisions.
1. Deep−draught vessels and VLCCs shall allow for an
under−keel clearance (UKC) of at least 3·5 m at all times
CHAPTER 2
59
during the entire passage through the Straits of Malacca
and Singapore and shall also take all necessary safety
precautions, when navigating through the traffic separation
schemes.
2
2. Masters of deep−draught vessels and VLCCs shall
have particular regard to navigational constraints when
planning their passage through the straits.
3. All deep−draught vessels and VLCCs navigating
within the traffic separation schemes are recommended to
use the pilotage service of the respective countries when
they become available.
3
4. Vessels shall take into account the precautionary areas
where crossing traffic may be encountered and be in a
maximum state of manoeuvring readiness in these areas.
2.20
1
Rules.
Rule 1. Eastbound deep−draught vessels shall use the
designated deep water routes.
Rule 2. Eastbound deep−draught vessels navigating in
the deep water routes in Selat Phillip (Phillip Channel) and
Singapore Strait shall as far as practicable avoid overtaking.
2
Rule 3. All vessels navigating within the traffic
separation scheme shall proceed in the appropriate traffic
lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane
and maintain as steady a course as possible, consistent with
safe navigation.
3
Rule 4. All vessels having defects affecting operational
safety shall take appropriate measures to overcome these
defects before entering the Straits of Malacca and
Singapore.
4
Rule 5. In the event of an emergency or breakdown of a
vessel in the traffic lane, the vessel shall, as far as
practicable and safe, leave the lane by pulling out to the
starboard side.
5
Rule 6 (a). Vessels proceeding in the westbound lane of
the traffic separation scheme “In the Singapore Strait”
when approaching Raffles Lighthouse shall proceed with
caution, taking note of the local warning system, and, in
compliance with Rule 18(d) of International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, avoid impeding the safe
passage of a vessel constrained by her draught which is
exhibiting the signals required by Rule 28 and which is
obliged to cross the westbound lane of the scheme in order
to approach the single point mooring facility (in
approximate position 1°11′⋅42N 103°47′⋅40E) from Selat
Phillip.
6
Rule 6 (b). Vessels proceeding in the traffic separation
schemes when approaching any of the precautionary areas
shall proceed with caution, taking note of the local warning
system, and, in compliance with Rule 18(d) of International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, avoid
impeding the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her
draught which is exhibiting the signals required by Rule 28
and which is obliged to cross that precautionary area.
7
Rule 6 (c). Information relating to the movement of
ships constrained by their draught as referred to in
paragraphs (a) and (b) above will be given by radio
broadcasts. The particulars of such broadcasts are
promulgated by Notices to Mariners. All vessels navigating
in the area of the traffic separation schemes should monitor
these radio broadcasts and take account of the information
received.
8
Rule 7. VLCCs and deep−draught vessels navigating in
the Straits of Malacca and Singapore shall, as far as it is
safe and practicable, proceed at a speed of not more than
12 kn over the ground in the following areas:
9
(a) At Permatang Sedepa Bank (One Fathom Bank)
Traffic Separation Scheme.
(b) Deep water routes in the Selat Phillip and in
Singapore Strait; and
(c) Westbound lanes between positions 1°12′⋅51N
103°52′⋅15E and 1°11′⋅59N 103°50′⋅21E, and
between positions 1°11′⋅13N 103°49′⋅08E and
1°08′⋅65N 103°44′⋅30E.
10
Rule 8. All vessels navigating in the routeing system of
the Straits of Malacca and Singapore shall maintain at all
times a safe speed consistent with safe navigation, shall
proceed with caution, and shall be in a maximum state of
manoeuvring readiness.
Rule 9 (a). Vessels which are fitted with VHF radio
communication are to participate in the adopted ship
reported system.
11
Rule 9 (b). VLCCs and deep−draught vessels navigating
in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore are advised to
broadcast, eight hours before entering the traffic separation
schemes, navigational information giving name, deadweight
tonnage, draught, speed and times of passing Permatang
Sedepa Lighthouse, Raffles Lighthouse and Horsburgh
Lighthouse. Difficult and unwieldy tows are also advised to
broadcast similar information.
12
Rule 10. All vessels navigating in the Straits of Malacca
and Singapore are requested to report by radio to the
nearest shore authority any damage to or malfunction of the
aids to navigation in the Straits, or any aids out of position
in the Straits.
Rule 11. Flag States owners and operators should ensure
that their vessels are adequately equipped in accordance
with the appropriate international conventions and
recommendations.
Traffic separation schemes
2.21
1
Traffic separation schemes are established in Malacca
Strait as follows:
Permatang Sedepa to Pelabuhan Klang:
3°00′N 100°47′E to:
2°44′N 101°10′E.
Pelabuhan Klang to Port Dickson:
2°42′N 101°14′E to:
2°27′N 101°37′E
2
Port Dickson to Tanjung Keling:
2°24′N 101°41′E to:
2°09′N 101°59′E
Melaka to Pulau Karimun Kecil:
2°05′N 102°04′E to:
1°11′N 103°28′E
3
These traffic separation schemes are IMO−adopted and
Rule 10 of International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972) applies.
For general details on traffic separation schemes see the
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Precautionary areas
2.22
1
The individual TSS listed at 2.21 are linked by
precautionary areas adjacent to port approaches on both
sides of Malacca Strait, as follows:
2°43′N 101°12′E, SSW of Pelabuhan Klang.
2°25′N 101°39′E, SW of Port Dickson.
2°05′N 102°00′E, between Melaka and Dumai.
2
Vessels passing through precautionary areas should
proceed with particular caution. See General Provision No 4
of the Rules for Vessels Navigating Through the Straits of
Malacca and Singapore at 2.19.
CHAPTER 2
60
Vessel Traffic Service
2.23
1
STRAITREP. Malacca and Singapore Straits Ship
Reporting System (STRAITREP) is a mandatory ship
reporting system under SOLAS V/11, with the objectives of
enhancing the safety of navigation, protecting the marine
environment, facilitating the movement of vessels, and
supporting SAR and oil pollution response operations. It is
a traffic monitoring system which issues warnings to
vessels but does not control traffic.
2
The following classes of vessel are required to
participate in STRAITREP:
Vessels of 300 gt and over,
Vessels of 50 m or more in length,
Most vessels engaged in towing or pushing,
3
Vessels of any tonnage carrying hazardous cargoes,
Most passenger vessels,
Vessels less than 300 gt or 50 m in length using a
traffic lane or separation zone in a emergency.
The operational area is between 100°40′E and 104°23′E.
There are nine sectors, numbered and named, each with a
VTS Authority.
4
The Singapore Vessel Traffic Information Service
(VTIS), with radar surveillance, forms part of STRAITREP
within the Singapore Strait, see also (7.7).
For further details see Chart 5502 and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Prohibited anchorage
2.24
1
Within the straits of Malacca and Singapore covered by
TSS or precautionary areas, vessels should only anchor in
the appropriate anchorages designated by the three littoral
states of Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Vessels are
advised not to anchor between the landward limit of TSS
(or precautionary areas) and adjacent port limits, however
for Singapore Strait see 7.5.
Natural conditions
Tidal characteristics
2.25
1
The tide is generally semi−diurnal in Malacca Strait with
the diurnal component increasing towards the SE end. In
Singapore Strait the diurnal component starts to increase
rapidly becoming a diurnal tide at about Tanjung Ayam
(1°20′N 104°12′E) on the N coast and Pulau Kapalajerih
(1°02′N 103°47′E) on the S coast.
The HW wave travels through Malacca Strait from NW
to SE into Selat Phillip (7.55) where it meets the diurnal
wave from South China Sea which has passed W through
Singapore Strait.
Tidal heights
2.26
1
The tidal range varies with the locality in Malacca Strait
as follows:
Vicinity of Permatang Sedepa (2°53′N 101°00′E) 3·7 m.
Off Melaka (2°12′N 102°15′E) 1·8 m.
Off Pulau Iyu Kecil (1°12′N 103°21′E) 2·6 m.
2
Between Melaka and Pulau Iyu Kecil the range is
greater on the coast of Sumatera than on the Malaysian
side.
At the W entrance to Malacca Strait the diurnal
inequality is small, but it increases steadily E.
3
Tidal heights and ranges are tabulated in Admiralty Tide
Tables Volume 3. The use of co−tidal and co−range
information given on chart 5084 is recommended.
Flow
2.27
1
The flow in Malacca Strait is considerably influenced by
the prevailing NW−going current which, in the main
channel, has a rate of about ¾ kn, but may vary
considerably (see 1.135).
In the N part of Malacca Strait the general directions of
the tidal streams are:
– 0100 local HW SE−going at maximum rate.
– 0100 local LW NW−going at maximum rate.
2
In the main fairway the spring rates are about 1½ kn,
but in the more restricted channels and inshore waters they
may reach 2½ to 3 kn.
At the S end of Malacca Strait the streams set SE and
NW to and from Selat Durian (1°00′N 103°35′E); they are
not necessarily associated with any particular streams in
Singapore Strait and may meet or separate from the latter S
of Tanjung Piai (1°16′N 103°31′E), the S extremity of
Malaysia. Details are given in 7.23 to 7.27 and on
diagrams at 7.26.
3
The flow is considerably influenced by a NW−going
current which, in the main channel, has a rate of about
¾ kn, but may vary considerably.
For further details, and for the approximate time
differences between HW and LW at Kuala Batu Pahat
(1°48′N 102°53′E) and the time of the maximum rate of
the NW and SE−going streams at various places in Malacca
Strait, see Chapters 4 and 6. Information for positions on
the main route is given at 2.60, 2.86 and 2.109.
Topography of the seabed
2.28
1
Malacca Strait is the main channel of water exchange
between the Indian Ocean and South China Sea. The strong
tidal streams near the seabed cause large uniform
sandwaves on the bottom.
The height of these sandwaves, which form at right
angles to the water flow, can be up to 13 m in the
Permatang Sedepa TSS and varies from 4 to 15 m
elsewhere; their wavelength ranges from 250 m to 900 m.
For critical areas, see 2.7.
2
For additional information on sandwaves see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
In addition, there are also large long sand ridges running
parallel with the tidal streams.
Local weather
2.29
1
Malacca Strait lies within the equatorial region of low
atmospheric pressure and has a typical tropical climate. The
climate of the region is monotonous and the daily changes
are more pronounced than the seasonal variations.
Temperature is almost uniform.
The predominant winds over Malacca Strait are the
monsoon winds (1.160). Typhoons are not experienced.
Gales are infrequent. Waterspouts are rather common and
when practicable a track well clear of them should be
chosen.
2
The most significant squalls are those known as
“Sumatras” (1.162), which occur from April to November.
These storms nearly always develop during the night and
CHAPTER 2
61
normally last 1 to 4 hours. They occur chiefly between
Melaka and Singapore.
“South−westerly” squalls occur in the N part of Malacca
Strait during the SW monsoon (May to October). Usually
they last longer than “Sumatras” and occur day or night.
3
Visibility (1.167) is generally good, but the clearing of
forests by fire, particularly on the Indonesian side of the
strait, may lead to restricted visibility.
Further sea state information and climate information is
given at 1.143 and 1.154.
For weather reports see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3 (2).
MALACCA STRAIT—NORTH−WEST PART—THROUGH ROUTEING TO PERMATANG SEDEPA
(ONE FATHOM BANK) TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEME
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 830, 2777, 1353
Scope of the section
2.30
1
In this section are described:
Approaches from vicinity of the islands off the NW
extremity of Sumatera (6°N 95°E) (2.31).
Passage off the N and E coasts of Sumatera to the
NW entrance of Permatang Sedepa Traffic
Separation Scheme (3°00′N 100°45′E) (2.36).
2
Passage from Andaman Sea through the central N
part of Malacca Strait to the NW entrance of
Permatang Sedepa Traffic Separation Scheme
(2.50).
APPROACHES NORTH−WEST OF
SUMATERA
General information
Charts 830, 2777, 2917
Principal routes
2.31
1
Malacca Strait may be approached from W through
Great Channel from the Indian Ocean, passing S of Great
Nicobar (6°45′N 93°50′E) (see Bay of Bengal Pilot), and
thence by passing either:
N of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E), where the deepest
water will be found, or;
2
Through one of the following two deep passages which
are described fully in Chapter 3:
Between Pulau Rondo and Pulau We (11 miles SE)
(3.19), or:
3
Through Selat Benggala (3.40), between Pulau We
(5° 50′ N 95° 18′ E) and Pulau Breueh (11 miles
SW), thence through Alur Pelayaran Malaka
(3.52), between Pulau We and the N extremity of
Sumatera.
For choice of route, including a note on shoal depths,
see 3.11.
Directions
Principal marks
2.32
1
Landmarks:
Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E), is thickly wooded
and steep−to on its N side. From all directions the
island appears dark in colour and dome−shaped. It
is uninhabited and in 1983 was reported to lie
about 5 cables E of its charted position.
For mountain peaks on Pulau We, Pulau Breueh and
near N coast of Sumatera, see 3.16 and 3.17.
2
Major lights:
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (white
framework tower, 40 m in height).
Breueh Light (5°45′N 95°03′E) (3.21) at the N
extremity of Pulau Breueh.
3
Ie Meule Light (white metal framework tower, 25 m
in height) (5°54′N 95°20′E), exhibited from Ujung
Tapagajah. This light is obscured between bearings
303°–125° (182°) and barely covers Pulau Rondo.
Klah Light (5°53′N 95°18′E) (3.21) in Teluk Sabang.
North of Pulau Rondo
2.33
1
From the vicinity of either 6°10′N 94°40′E or 6°20′N
94°40′E the track leads E, passing (with positions from
Pulau Rondo):
N of the 13 m shoal (reported 1980) (17 miles
WSW), and noting that in recent years a number
of shoals have been reported within the 1000 m
depth contour NW of Pulau Breueh, thence:
2
Clear of a 23 m shoal on a coral and rock bank
(15 miles NW), thence:
Clear of data buoy (unlit) (1½ miles NW), and a
second buoy, 1 mile farther N, thence:
To a position N of Pulau Rondo.
3
Caution. Strong tide−rips exist up to 20 miles NW and
NNW of Pulau Rondo. In 1979, tide−rips were reported
13 miles ENE of Pulau We.
(Directions continue at 2.41)
Between Pulau Rondo and Pulau We
2.34
1
Directions are given at 3.21.
Selat Benggala and Alur Pelayaran Malaka
2.35
1
Directions are given at 3.44 and 3.55, respectively.
OFFSHORE PASSAGE − NORTH AND EAST
COASTS OF SUMATERA
General information
Charts 2777, 3919, 1353, 3920, 3921, 3945
Route
2.36
1
The route from N of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E)
leads about 150 miles ESE to the vicinity of Tanjung
Jamboaye (3.177), thence about 240 miles SE as far as
position 3°04′N 100°40′E in the approaches to the
SE−going traffic lane of the Permatang Sedepa TSS.
For coastal passages along this route, see Chapters 3
and 4.
Topography
2.37
1
North coast of Sumatera. The coast between the N
extremity of Sumatera at Ujung Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E) and
Tanjung Jamboaye, 127 miles E, is inhospitable and has
few prominent landmarks.
CHAPTER 2
62
2
In places the cliffs rise precipitously from the sea to a
considerable height, crowned by dense vegetation. In other
parts there are sandy beaches, or cultivated plains reaching
to the coast, with numerous villages scattered over them.
See 3.106, 3.118, 3.132 and 3.172 for further details.
Inland are several mountain ranges, with prominent
peaks within 12 miles of the coast, affording good fixing
marks. For details see 3.17 and 3.104.
3
North−east coast of Sumatera. The coast between
Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N 97°30′E) and Ujung Tamiang,
69 miles SE, is in alluvial plain, low and marshy, with few
prominent features.
For details of inland mountain peaks, see 4.11 and 4.55.
4
Between Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E) and Tanjung
Tanjung 97 miles farther SE, the coast is low, thickly
covered with vegetation, and consists entirely of an alluvial
formation intersected by numerous small rivers.
Concentration of traffic
2.38
1
The tracks of vessels, in both directions, plying the route
between Pulau Rondo and Permatang Sedepa TSS will tend
to converge off Tanjung Jamboaye.
Large concentrations of fishing vessels, often poorly lit,
are likely to be encountered between Tanjung Jamboaye
and the entrance to Permatang Sedepa TSS.
Marine exploitation
2.39
1
A submarine gas pipeline is laid from an offshore
production platform (5°44′N 97°50′E) (2.46) to the coast at
Blanglancang (5°13′N 97°06′E) as shown on the chart..
Storage tanker, FPSO Langsa Venture is moored in
position 5°18′⋅9N 98°02′⋅8E.
For further information see 1.11, 1.42 and 3.133.
Prohibited area
2.40
1
Entry is prohibited within an area up to 4½ miles from
Pulau Berhala (3°47′N 99°30′E); the limits are shown on
the charts.
Directions
(continued from 2.33)
Principal marks − north coast
2.41
1
Landmarks:
White building (5°35′N 95°40′E) at Lampanaih
village (3.108).
Prominent white storage tanks and flares at
Blanglancang Refinery (5°14′N 97°05′E) (3.154).
2
Ujung Pidie Light (5°30′N 95°53′E) (white metal
framework structure, 40 m in height) standing on
Ujung Pidie, the prominent extremity of a range of
hills sloping steeply to the sea.
3
Major lights:
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32).
Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E) (Ujung Tapagajah
on chart 2777) (2.32).
Ujung Seuke Light (white tower) (5°48′⋅5N
95°22′⋅2E).
4
Ujung Pidie Light, see above.
Blanglancang Leading Lights (5°13′N 97°06′E)
(3.157).
Tanjung Jamboaye Light (white framework tower,
white 8−sided base, 40 m in height) (5°15′N
97°29′E).
Other aids to navigation
2.42
1
Racons:
Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E).
Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Principal marks − north−east coast
2.43
1
Landmarks:
Conspicuous floodlit oil tanks standing about
1½ miles SSE of Ujung Peureula (Ujung
Peureulak) (4°54′N 97°54′E) (4.29).
Pulau Berhala (3°47′N 99°30′E). The main island is
covered with vegetation, and steep−to on its NE
and SW sides. A wooded islet lies close SE of
Pulau Berhala, to which it is connected by a
drying coral ridge. A rocky islet, which shows
white in places, lies 5 cables NW of Pulau
Berhala.
2
Pulau Jarak (3°59′N 100°06′E) (2.52).
Pulau Salahnama (3°21′N 99°43′E) (4.168).
Pulau−pulau Aruah (Kepulauan Aruah on chart 1353)
(2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.69).
3
Major lights:
Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E) (2.41).
Ujung Tamiang Light (4°25′N 98°17′E) (4.48).
Pulau Berhala Light (white metal framework tower
12 m in height) (3°47′N 99°30′E).
Pulau Pandang Light (3°25′N 99°45′E) (4.168).
Pulau Jemur Light (2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.61).
Other aids to navigation
2.44
1
Racons:
Kruenggeukueh Light (5°14′⋅4N 97°02′⋅7E).
Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E).
Tanjung Jamboaye offshore production platform
(5°44′N 97°50′E).
Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E).
2
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Pulau Rondo to Tanjung Jamboaye
2.45
1
From a position N of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E) the
track leads ESE, outside the 50 m depth contour, passing:
NNE of Pulau We (5°50′N 95°18′E) (3.13); Ie Meule
Light (Ujung Tapagajah on chart 2777) (2.32),
stands on the NE end of the island. Tide−rips were
reported (1979) 11 miles NE of the island.
Thence:
NNE of Ujung Bateeputeh (5°38′N 95°37′E) (3.108),
thence:
2
NNE of Ujung Pidie (5°30′N 95°53′E) (2.41), from
where a light is exhibited), thence:
NNE of Blanglancang (5°13′N 97°06′E) (3.141).
3
The track continues ESE to a position NNE of Tanjung
Jamboaye (5°15′N 97°30′E) (3.177), from where a light
(2.41) is exhibited, and noting that shoal patches extend up
to 10 miles WNW of the point.
CHAPTER 2
63
Tanjung Jamboaye to Pulau−pulau (Kepulauan)
Aruah
2.46
1
From a position NNE of Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N
97°30′E) the track leads SE, outside of the 20 m depth
contour, passing:
2
Clear of an offshore production platform (5°44′N
97°50′E) (2.39), from which a light is exhibited,
thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck (5°05′N 97°47′E), thence:
Clear of FPSO Langsa Venture (5°18′⋅9N 98°02′⋅8E)
from which a light is exhibited; see also 1.11.
Thence:
3
NE of a coastal bank which extends 4 miles N from
Ujung Peureula (4°54′⋅0N 97°53′⋅8E) (4.19),
thence:
NE of Kuala Beukah Oil Terminal (4°53′N 97°57′E)
(4.33), thence:
Clear of a dangerous obstruction (reported 1981)
(4°09′N 99°12′E), thence:
Clear of a isolated shoal (4°05′⋅0N 99°22′⋅6E)
(reported 1966), depth 20⋅1 m, thence:
4
NE of Gosong Berhala (3°55′N 99°26′E), a bank
extending 9 miles NW/SE, with a least depth of
11 m over it; a 16 m patch lies 4 5 miles N. The
water is discoloured over these shoals during the
strength of the tidal streams and there are
occasional tide−rips. For additional information see
4.167. Thence:
5
NE of a prohibited area (2.40) surrounding Pulau
Berhala (3°47′N 99°30′E) (2.43), from where a
light (2.43) is exhibited, thence:
SW of Pulau Jarak (3°59′N 100°06′E) (2.52), from
where a light (2.52) is exhibited, thence:
6
NE of Pulau Pandang (3°25′N 99°45′E) (4.165), from
which a light (4.168) is exhibited, thence:
Clear of an unmarked pipe (3°30′⋅2N 100°01′⋅4E)
(reported 2002), position approximate; a further
unmarked pipe is reported to lie 5 miles SSW.
7
The track continues SE to a position NNE of Batu
Adang (2°55′⋅2N 100°35′⋅9E), 5 m in height, and NE of the
20 m depth contour surrounding Pulau−pulau Aruah
(Kepulauan Aruah on chart 1353) (2.69) at the NW
approach to Permatang Sedepa TSS; Pulau Jemur, from
where a light (2.61) is exhibited, lies 3 miles SW of Batu
Adang.
2.47
1
Useful marks:
Kruenggeukueh Light (5°14′⋅4N 97°02′⋅7E) (3.156).
Ujung Peureula (4°54′⋅0N 97°53′⋅8E) Light (4.19).
Kuala Beukah Light (4°52′N 97°55′E) (4.31).
(Directions continue at 2.61)
Anchorages
Pulau Berhala
2.48
1
Caution. Pulau Berhala (3°47′N 99°30′E) (2.41) lies
within a prohibited area (2.40), the extent of which is best
seen on the chart.
There is anchorage on the ridge extending SE from
Pulau Berhala in a depth of 16 m, with the summit of the
island bearing 302°, distant 3¾ cables offshore.
Landing can be made on two small beaches on the S
side of the island; the E beach affords the best landing.
Gosong Berhala
2.49
1
Gosong Berhala (3°55′N 96°26′E) (2.46) provides good
anchorage over sand and mud.
CENTRAL PASSAGE THROUGH
NORTH−WEST PART OF MALACCA
STRAIT
General information
Charts 830, 1353
Route
2.50
1
Permatang Sedepa TSS (3°00′N 100°45′E) may be
approached from Andaman Sea by proceeding through the
central portion of the N part of Malacca Strait, passing
either side of Pulau Perak (5°42′N 98°56′E) and Pulau
Jarak (3°59′N 100°06′E).
Natural conditions
2.51
1
Tidal streams. In the vicinity of Pulau Jarak (3°59′N
100°06′E) (2.52) the streams set SE and NW, at a rate of
about 1½ kn.
Tide−rips have been observed E of the island.
Current. The mainly NW−going current in Malacca
Strait sometimes sets strongly during the NE monsoon
(October to March). See also 1.135.
Wind. During the NE monsoon, winds from N and NE
frequently blow strongly in the N part of Malacca Strait as
far S as about 4°N.
Directions
Principal marks
2.52
1
Landmarks:
Pulau Perak (5°42′N 98°56′E) (chart 3943) is a
steep−to, peaked, barren white rock situated in the
middle of Malacca Strait. Numerous birds inhabit
the rock.
2
Pulau Jarak (3°59′N 100°06′E), a densely wooded
precipitous islet situated 125 miles SSE of Pulau
Perak. It is steep−to, except on the NE side, from
which boulders, some above water, extend 1 cable.
Kepulauan Sembilan (4°02′N 100°33′E) (6.111),
which lie about 25 miles E of Pulau Jarak.
3
Major lights:
Pulau Perak Light (white concrete tower, black bands)
(5°42′N 98°56′E).
Pulau Jarak Light (white metal framework tower, red
bands) (3°59′N 100°06′E).
White Rock Light (4°00′N 100°31′E) (6.114).
Charts 830, 2777, 1353, 3945
Central passage
2.53
1
From NNW the route leads generally SSE across open
water, passing:
WSW of Ko Racha Noi (7°30′N 98°19′E) (5.11),
thence:
WSW of Butang Group (6°32′N 99°15′E) (5.14),
thence:
Either side of Pulau Perak (5°42′N 98°56′E) (2.52),
from which a light is exhibited, thence:
WSW of Pulau Pinang (5°23′N 100°15′E).
2
For offshore passage from Ko Phuket peninsular to
Pulau Pinang, about 200 miles SSE, see 5.5.
CHAPTER 2
64
When SE of Pulau Perak the route continues SSE across
open water, passing (with positions from Pulau Jarak
(3°59′N 100°06′E)):
3
Either side of Pulau Jarak (2.52), from which a light
is exhibited. The route between Pulau Jarak and
Kepulauan Sembilan, 25 miles E (6.116), is
recommended if S−bound during the NE monsoon.
Thence:
WSW of a dangerous wreck (16 miles E), off
Kepulauan Sembilan, thence:
4
WSW of a dangerous wreck (reported 1986) (35 miles
SE), thence:
WSW of a dangerous wreck (45 miles SE).
5
The track then continues SSE to a position NNE of Batu
Adang (2°55′⋅2N 100°35′⋅9E) (2.46) in Pulau−pulau Aruah
(Kepulauan Aruah on chart 1353) in the NW approach to
Permatang Sedepa TSS.
(Directions continue at 2.61)
MALACCA STRAIT − SOUTH−EAST PART − THROUGH ROUTEING, PERMATANG SEDEPA (ONE
FATHOM BANK) TO SINGAPORE STRAIT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1358, 3946, 3947, 5502
Scope of the section
2.54
1
In this section is described the route through the
Malacca Strait TSS from a position about 20 miles NW of
Permatang Sedepa (2°53′N 101°00′E) (2.80) SE to the
approaches to Singapore Strait at Mudah Selatan
Light−beacon (1°25′N 103°11′E). The section is presented
in the following six parts:
2
South east−going traffic lane − Permatang Sedepa to
Pasir Selatan (2°40′N 101°07′E) (2.55).
North west−going traffic lane − Tanjung Ru (2°50′N
101°17′E) to Permatang Sedepa (2.73).
South east−going traffic lane − Pasir Selatan to
Gosong Raleigh (2°07′N 101°53′E) (2.81).
3
North west−going traffic lane − Tanjung Keling
(2°13′⋅0N 102°09′⋅7E) to Tanjung Ru (2.93).
South east−going traffic lane − Gosong Raleigh to
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E) (2.103).
North west−going traffic lane − Mudah Selatan Light
to Tanjung Keling (2.114).
SOUTH EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
PERMATANG SEDEPA TO PASIR SELATAN
General information
Charts 3940, 2139, 3946, 5502
Route
2.55
1
From a position NNE of Batu Adang (2.46) in the
vicinity of 3°02′N 100°40′E, the track leads generally SE
to enter the SE−going traffic lane between 10 and 15 miles
ENE of Pulau Jemur (2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.70).
Two sand ridges, with charted depths of 12 to 20 m
over them, provide a choice of three routes for about
16 miles at the start of the traffic lane. There is deep water
between the ridges and NE of them, but the best route is
towards the SW side of the lane and thence through a gap
in one of these banks marked by two light−beacons
(2°49′⋅0N 100°56′⋅5E) (2.64).
2
Thence the three routes become one, extending over the
full 2½ mile width of the traffic lane for the remaining
14 miles SE to the precautionary area adjacent to the S
approaches to Pelabuhan Klang.
Topography
2.56
1
Pulau−pulau Aruah (2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.69) is
composed of two groups of small islands and some
off−lying rocks, lying on a bank with depths of less than
20 m over it, W of Permatang Sedepa. Reefs surround the
majority of these islands and rocks.
Depths
2.57
1
A controlling depth of 22⋅5 m is charted 1 mile E of the
two buoyant light−beacons (2°49′⋅0N 100°56′⋅5E) through
which it is recommended vessels pass when using the
central or SW route. Deeper water will be found farther NE
of the light−beacons as part of the NE route, but that route
is more shoal at its NW entrance point.
2
Sandwaves occur in the vicinity of the two
light−beacons where the three routes meet and so depths
may be shoaler than charted. As sandwaves may vary in
height over time, attention is drawn to the source data
diagram on the charts. See 2.28 for further information on
sandwaves.
Hazard
2.58
1
In the precautionary area crossing traffic proceeding to
or from Pelabuhan Klang may be encountered. See also
2.10 to 2.15.
Traffic regulations
2.59
1
Rules. For rules affecting navigation in Malacca Strait,
see 2.18 to 2.20. Attention is drawn to the advanced
reporting requirement of Rule 9 (a) for VLCCs and
deep−draught vessels intending to navigate in the Strait.
Vessel Traffic Service. Permatang Sedepa TSS lies
within Sector 1 (Angsa) and Sector 2 (Jugra) of the
STRAITREP mandatory ship reporting system. For further
details see 2.23, chart 5502 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Natural conditions
2.60
1
Tidal streams: see table on the charts for the following
positions:
2°54′⋅0N 100°50′⋅0E (1¼ miles SW of OF
Light−buoy).
2°40′N 101°10′E (close S of the precautionary area
SSW of Pelabuhan Klang).
2
Flow is influenced by the prevailing NW−going current
which has a rate of ¾ kn, but this varies considerably.
At neaps the SE resultant flow may be very weak.
See 1.135 for general remarks on Malacca Strait.
For tidal heights, see 2.26 and chart 5084.
CHAPTER 2
65
Directions
(continued from 2.47 or 2.53)
Principal marks
2.61
1
Landmarks:
Pulau Jemur Light−tower (white metal framework
tower, 24 m in height) (2°53′N 100°34′E)
established on the summit of the islet which is flat
and covered with trees.
Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
2
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower
(white round metal tower, red bands, on concrete
piles; dome shaped roof at base of tower)
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E). Close SSE is the old One
Fathom Bank Lighthouse (disused) (white 8−sided
concrete tower, black bands, on piles).
Major lights:
3
Pulau Jemur Light—as above.
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light—as
above.
Tanjung Ru Light (2°50′N 101°17′E) (6.204).
Bukit Jugra Light (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank)
Light−tower (2.61)
(Original dated 2000)
(Photograph − Marine Department Peninsular Malaysia)
Other aids to navigation
2.62
1
Racons:
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E).
Permatang Sedepa (NW end) Light−beacon (3°00′⋅9N
00°51′⋅9E).
Permatang Sedepa TSS Light−beacon, (SE−going
traffic lane) (2°48′⋅6N 100°56′⋅6E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
North−western part
2.63
1
Before approaching Permatang Sedepa TSS, an accurate
position should be obtained to ensure that the vessel is both
aligned to the correct traffic lane and also to the route
intended in the first part of the SE−going traffic lane, as
there are three possibilities:
SW route.
Centre route.
2
NW route.
Attention is drawn to the under−keel clearance
requirement of 3⋅5 m for deep−draught vessels and
VLCCs (2.19).
Initial position: in the vicinity of 3°02′N 100°40′E.
2.64
1
South−west route. The route leads SE then ESE with
the deepest water being found near the SW edge of the
traffic lane, passing:
NE of Batu Mandi (2°52′⋅1N 100°41′⋅1E), the
steep−to E rock, 1⋅8 m in height, of Pulau−pulau
Aruah (Kepulauan Aruah on chart 1353) (2.69),
thence:
2
SSW of a shoal extending 6 miles SE from its
minimum depth of 15⋅8 m (2°55′⋅7N 100°46′⋅6E),
thence:
SSW of Permatang Sedepa (NW end) Light−beacon
(3°00′⋅9N 100°51′⋅9E) (2.80), thence:
NNE of a buoyant light−beacon (special) (2°48′⋅8N
100°53′⋅9) marking the NW side of al bank with a
least depth of 7⋅2 m.
3
Deep−draught vessels are then advised to pass between
the two buoyant light−beacons (N and S cardinal)
(2°49′⋅0N 100°56′⋅5E) moored 7¼ cables apart, marking a
gap in a shoal ridge, where there is a least charted depth of
22⋅5 m, thence to a position about 5 miles SSE of
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E) (2.61).
(Directions continue at 2.67)
2.65
1
Centre route. The route leads SE between two narrow
shoals, passing:
NE of the 15⋅8 m shoal (2°55′⋅7N 100°46′⋅6E) (2.64),
thence:
SW of a 19·3 m shoal patch (2°57′⋅3N 100°49′⋅2),
thence:
SW of Permatang Sedepa (NW end) Light−beacon
(3°00′⋅9N 100°51′⋅9E) (2.80), thence:
2
SW of OF Light−buoy (special) (2°55′·0N
100°50′·9E), which is liable to drift and marks the
N end of a ridge which extends 7½ miles SE with
a least charted depth of 12·1 m, 2 miles SE,
thence:
As for SW route (2.64).
(Directions continue at 2.67)
2.66
1
North−east route. The route leads ESE thence SE,
passing adjacent to the separation zone, and avoiding the
narrow passage between the buoyant light−beacons
(2°49′·0N 100°56′·5E) (2.64), passing:
SSW of a 19·5 m patch (2°59′⋅8N 100°48′⋅1E) in the
separation zone, thence:
2
NNE of a 19·3 m patch (2°57′⋅3N 100°49′⋅2); a
wreck, depth 22⋅3 m, lies 9 cables WNW. Thence:
SSW of Permatang Sedepa (NW end) Light−beacon
(3°00′⋅9N 100°51′⋅9E) (2.80), thence:
Clear of a wreck, depth 16 m, (2°56′⋅5N 100°50′⋅5E),
thence:
3
NE of OF Light−buoy (special) (2°55′·0N 100°50′·9E)
and the ridge it marks (2.65), thence:
SW of the 20 m patch (2°55′⋅0N 100°54′⋅0) (reported
1975), in the separation zone, thence:
NE of the two buoyant light−beacons (N and
S cardinal) (2°49′⋅0N 100°56′⋅5E).
4
The track then continues to a position about 5 miles SSE
of Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E) (2.61).
(Directions continue at 2.67)
CHAPTER 2
66
South−eastern part
(continued from 2.64, 2.65 and 2.66)
2.67
1
From a position NE of the buoyant light−beacon
(N cardinal, racon) (2°48′⋅7N 100′56′⋅6E), and about
5 miles SSE of Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank)
Light−tower (2.61), the three routes of the NW part of the
SE−going traffic lane join and become a single route,
which leads ESE within the lane, passing (with positions
from the light−beacon):
2
NNE of a shoal which has depths of less than 20 m
encroaching up to 7 cables into the traffic lane
(9 cables SE) and with a least depth of 6⋅0 m
5 cables outside the lane (4¾ miles ), thence:
SSW of a 26⋅3 m wreck (4¼ miles E), lying in the
separation area, thence:
3
NNE of a 3⋅0 m shoal 1¼ miles outside the traffic
lane (8½ miles SE), thence:
NNE of Gosong Pasir Selatan Light (N cardinal
beacon, 10 m in height) (2°40′⋅8N 101°06′⋅6E).
The light marks a detached 5 m patch.
The track continues into the precautionary area
(15 miles SE).
Useful mark
2.68
1
Pulau Tukongsimbang (2°48′N 100°39′E ), precipitous
and the highest islet (38 m) of Pulau−pulau Aruah.
(Directions continue for SE−going traffic lane at 2.87,
and for S approach to Pelabuhan Klang at 6.204)
Pulau−pulau Aruah
Description
2.69
1
Pulau−pulau Aruah (Kepulauan Aruah on chart 1353)
(2°53′N 100°34′E) is the collective name for two groups of
small islands and some off−lying rocks, up to 8 miles apart,
that lie within the 20 m depth contour extending N from
Sumatera.
North−west group of islands
2.70
1
The principal island within the NW group of
Pulau−pulau Aruah is Pulau Jemur (2°53′N 100°34′E), from
where a light (2.61) is exhibited. Fishermen visit Pulau
Jemur to fish and procure turtle in season. Pulau
Kalironggo lies 8 cables NE of Pulau Jemur.
2
A group of five rocky and part wooded islets lie 1 mile
W of Pulau Jemur, these are from N to S:
Pulau Tukongmas (31 m in height).
Pulau Pasir Pandan (20 m in height).
Pulau Sarongalang (27 m in height).
Pulau Labuanbilik (20 m in height).
Pulau Tukongsipotyong, 2½ cables SE of Pulau
Labuanbilik.
3
Off−lying rocks are (positions given from Pulau Jemur
Light):
Batu Adang (3 miles NE) (2.46).
Pertandangan (1¾ miles NE), awash.
Batu Berlayar (3½ miles E), a group of six above
and below−water rocks, the highest 1 m. A
dangerous wreck lies on the NE side, and a
stranded wreck (position approximate) on the SW
edge.
Batu Mandi (7 miles E) (2.64).
Half Tide Rock, which dries 3 m and lies between
Batu Berlayar and Batu Mandi.
South−east group of islands
2.71
1
The islands and rocks of the SE group within
Pulau−pulau Aruah lie 6 miles SE of Pulau Jemur, and
comprise:
2
Pulau Tukongsimbang (2°48′N 100°39′E ) (2.68);
several rocky islets lie around it.
Pulau Tukong, 9 m in height, 1½ miles SSW of
Pulau Tukongsimbang. A 5·5 m patch lies
2¼ miles ESE of Pulau Tukong.
Anchorage
2.72
1
Local knowledge is required within the islands.
Anchorage exists in depths from 11 to 15 m, mud, due
S of Pulau Jemur Light (2.61).
NORTH WEST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
TANJUNG RU TO PERMATANG SEDEPA
General information
Charts 3940, 2139, 3946, 5502
Route
2.73
1
The NW−going traffic lane is entered 14 miles SE of
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light (2°53′⋅3N
100°59′⋅8E) (2.61), and leads generally NW for a distance
of about 28 miles.
Depths
2.74
1
Beting Rhu (2°51′N 101°00′E) (2.80), a shoal patch
2 miles S of the Permatang Sedepa Light, lies within the
traffic lane. The deepest water is to be found in a route S
of the Beting Rhu, but once clear NW of the shoal the
deepest water is on the N side of the traffic lane.
The controlling depth in the NW−going traffic lane is
about 4 miles NW of Beting Rhu where a depth of 26⋅5 m
is charted.
2
Sandwaves occur in the the vicinity of the traffic lane
and so depths may be shoaler than charted. As sandwaves
may vary in height over time, attention is drawn to the
source data diagram on the charts. See 2.28 for further
information on sandwaves.
Concentration of traffic
2.75
1
Heavy traffic can be expected, especially in the vicinity
of Permatang Sedepa (2.80) where the traffic lane narrows.
Fishing vessels in large numbers have been reported in this
area. In the precautionary area crossing traffic proceeding
to or from Pelabuhan Klang may be encountered. See also
2.10 to 2.13.
Traffic regulations
2.76
1
See 2.59.
Natural conditions
2.77
1
See the information at 2.60.
CHAPTER 2
67
Directions
(continued from 2.102)
Principal marks
2.78
1
Landmarks:
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower)
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E); close SSE is the old One
Fathom Bank Lighthouse (disused) (see 2.61).
Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Pulau Jemur Light−tower (2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.61).
2
Major lights:
Bukit Jugra Light (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Tanjung Ru Light (2°50′N 101°17′E) (6.204).
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E).
Pulau Jemur Light (2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.61).
Other aids to navigation
2.79
1
Racons:
Permatang Sedepa TSS Light−beacon, (SE−going
traffic lane) (2°48′⋅6N 100°56′⋅6E).
Permatang Sedepa (NW end) Light−beacon (3°00′⋅9N
100°51′⋅9E).
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Tanjung Ru to Permatang Sedepa
2.80
1
From the entrance to the NW−going traffic lane at a
position 14 miles SE of Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom
Bank) Light (2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E), the route leads WNW,
passing (with positions from the light):
Clear of a wreck, depth 27⋅5 m, (5¾ miles SE),
thence:
NNE of a wreck, depth 26⋅3 m (4¾ miles SSE) on
the edge of the separation zone, thence:
2
Either side of Beting Rhu (Amazon Maru Shoal)
(2 miles S), which has a least charted depth of
8⋅2 m. The route SW of Beting Rhu, width about
1¼ miles, has deeper water. Vessels taking the NE
route, width about 1 mile, will, depending on track,
encounter charted depths of 13 to 18 m when NW
of Beting Rhu. Thence:
3
SSW of Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank), with
a least charted depth of 3⋅0 m and marked near its
SE end by a prominent light−tower (2.61).
4
The track then continues NW passing:
SW of a beacon (isolated danger) (7 cables W),
position approximate, marking a dangerous wreck,
2¼ cables N, position approximate, and a stranded
wreck 1¾ cables farther ENE, both on Permatang
Sedepa. The bank continues NW, close outside the
NE limit of the traffic lane, for about 12 miles,
almost to the end of the lane. There are depths of
less than 10 m NW of the beacon for 4 miles.
Thence:
5
SW of a 12⋅8 m patch (1 mile W) and a 13⋅1 m
patch, 3 cables farther W. Between Beting Rhu and
these shoal patches, the traffic lane narrows and
traffic may converge. Also, close NW of the shoal
patches, the deepest water is found on the NE side
of the traffic lane. Thence:
NE of 20 m shoal depth (6 miles WNW), reported
1975 and lying in the separation zone, thence:
6
Clear of a 19·2 m patch (6½ miles NW), thence:
NE of OF Light−buoy (special) (9 miles WNW)
(2.65), lying in the SE−going traffic lane, thence:
SW of the shoals forming the NW extension of
Permatang Sedepa, marked by a buoyant
light−beacon (white) (11 miles NW), and:
NE of a wreck, depth 23⋅6 m (11½ miles WNW),
lying in the separation zone, thence:
7
NE of the 19·5 m patch (13½ miles WNW) in the
separation zone.
The route for NW−bound vessels then continues in
reverse at 2.46 and for N−bound vessels at 2.53.
SOUTH EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
PASIR SELATAN TO GOSONG RALEIGH
General information
Charts 3946, 5502
Route
2.81
1
From the precautionary area (2°43′N 101°12′E) SSW of
Pelabuhan Klang and close NE of Pasir Selatan, the
SE−going traffic lane leads generally SE, passing through
the precautionary area (2°25′N 101°39′E) SW of Port
Dickson to a position ENE of Gosong Raleigh where
another precautionary area (2°05′N 102°00′E) is established
between Melaka and Dumai.
2
A designated deep−water route leads S, then SE, from
the precautionary area off Port Dickson to avoid the
sandwaves (2.83) off Tanjung Tuan, rejoining the main
traffic lane SE of Gosong Raleigh. See 2.18 and 2.20,
Rule 1, for vessels that should use the deep−water route.
Topography
2.82
1
Except for the diversion of the deep−water route, this
part of the TSS keeps closer to the Malaysian coast, which
is low and often fringed with mangroves; radar ranges
therefore may not be reliable until farther SE near Port
Dickson. There are few distinguishing features, particularly
between Pelabuhan Klang and Port Dickson, see 6.226 and
6.270.
Depths
2.83
1
For most of the route between the precautionary areas
SSW of Pelabuhan Klang and SW of Port Dickson, depths
are greater than 30 m. The least charted depth of 20⋅7 m is
approximately midway between the two precautionary
areas, but it may be avoided, with other depths less than
30 m extending 4 miles farther SE.
2
Between the precautionary area SW of Port Dickson and
the shoal of Gosong Raleigh, the seabed is irregular and
almost entirely of sandwaves, as described in 2.28. Depths
may be shoaler than charted and dangerous to vessels
drawing more than 13⋅5 m. Several unmarked patches, the
positions of which are best seen on the chart, have depths
less than 20 m and there is a least charted depth of 16⋅1 m;
a careful course must be chosen if these patches are to be
avoided.
3
The deep−water route generally has depths greater than
30 m, but there is a least charted depth of 25 m on the E
side of the route in the vicinity of TM Light−buoy (2.91)
and a 29⋅5 m patch close S of the exit from the
precautionary area off Port Dickson.
CHAPTER 2
68
Crossing traffic
2.84
1
In the precautionary areas SSW of Pelabuhan Klang, SW
of Port Dickson and WSW of Melaka crossing traffic
proceeding to or from the Malaysian ports of Pelabuhan
Klang, Port Dickson, Sungai Udang and Melaka, and the
Indonesian ports of Dumai, Sungaipakning and Lalang
Marine Terminal may be encountered, see also 2.12.
Traffic regulations
2.85
1
Rules affecting navigation in Malacca Strait are given at
2.18 to 2.20.
Vessel Traffic Service. This section of the Malacca
Strait TSS lies within Sector 2 (Jugra) and Sector 3 (Cape
Rachado) of the STRAITREP mandatory ship reporting
system. For further details see 2.23, chart 5502 and
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tidal streams
2.86
1
See table on chart 3946 for the following positions:
2°40′⋅2N 101°10′⋅1E (close S of Pelabuhan Klang
precautionary area).
2°06′⋅9N 101°56′⋅7E (3 miles E of Gosong Raleigh).
Directions
(continued from 2.68)
Principal marks
2.87
1
Landmarks on Malaysian coast:
Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Chimneys (2°32′N 101°48′E) of the power station at
Port Dickson (6.257).
Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E) (6.273).
Conspicuous water tower (2°22′N 102°00′E).
Chimneys of the power station at Tanjung Keling
(2°13′⋅4N 102°09′⋅4E) (6.273).
2
Major lights on Malaysian coast:
Tanjung Ru Light (2°50′N 101°17′E) (6.204).
Bukit Jugra Light (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Tanjung Gabang Light (2°41′N 101°29′E) (2.99)
(6.229).
Tanjung Tuan Light (2°24′N 101°51′E) (2.99).
3
Major light on Indonesian coast:
Tanjung Medang Light (2° 07′⋅5N 101° 39′⋅5E) (white
metal tower, 50 m in height).
Other aids to navigation
2.88
1
Racons:
Sepat Light−beacon (2°34′N 101°23′E).
Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2°07′N 101°53′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Pasir Selatan to Gosong Raleigh
2.89
1
From a position in the precautionary area centred on
2°43′N 101°12′E, SSW of Pelabuhan Klang, the traffic lane
leads ESE then SE, passing (with positions from Sepat
Light−beacon (2°34′N 101°23′E)):
NNE of a 3⋅3 m shoal (10 miles WNW), the E
extension of Gosong Pasir Selatan, thence:
NNE of Sepat Light−beacon (N cardinal). A charted
depth of 20⋅7 m lies 2 miles ENE of the
light−beacon.
2
The traffic lane then leads SE, passing:
SW of a shoal bank (2¼ miles E), least depth 20⋅7 m,
thence:
Clear of a 27 m shoal patch (4¾ miles ESE); a 29 m
shoal patch lies 7 cables SE, thence:
NE of Gosong Pyramid, depth 3⋅4 m, (9½ miles SE),
thence:
3
SW of a wreck, depth 16⋅1 m (14½ miles ESE) lying
at the edge of the separation zone and marked
close N by a light−buoy (isolated danger), and:
Clear of a bank, least depth 23 m, 2 miles SSW.
The track continues SE into the precautionary area
(16 miles SE) SE of Port Dickson passing NE of a
light−buoy (E cardinal) marking the SE extension of
Gosong Pyramid.
(Directions for the deep−water route are given at 2.91
and for Port Dickson are given at 6.257)
2.90
1
When clear of the precautionary area the traffic lane
continues SE and enters a sandwave area where depths may
be shoaler than charted (2.83), passing (with positions from
Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2°07′N 101°53′E)):
As required to clear patches of less than 20 m
(20 miles NW) on the NE side of the entrance to
the traffic lane, thence:
2
NE of a 14⋅0 m patch (10 miles NW), close outside
the traffic lane. Isolated patches of less than
20⋅0 m, and a least charted depth of 16⋅1 m, lie
inside the traffic lane in the same vicinity, the
positions of which are best seen on the chart.
Thence:
3
NE of Gosong Raleigh, from where a light (isolated
danger, 13 m in height) is exhibited.
The track continues SE into the precautionary area
(7 miles E) WSW of Melaka.
Deep Water Route
2.91
1
From a position in the precautionary area centred on
2°25′N 101°39′E, SW of Port Dickson, a deep−water route
avoids the sandwave area NW of Gosong Raleigh
Light−beacon and leads S to the Sumatera side of the strait,
passing (with positions from Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon
(2°07′N 101°53′E)):
2
E of a light−buoy (E cardinal) (24 miles NW),
marking the SE extension of Gosong Pyramid,
thence:
W of a 19⋅5 m patch (16½ miles NW) (reported
1970), thence:
W of TM Light−buoy (isolated danger) (15 miles
WNW), moored on the NW side of a 14⋅7 m shoal
patch. Depths of 25 m extend into the deep water
route close W.
3
The route then leads ESE, passing:
NNE of Pulau Burung (15¾ miles W), an overgrown
islet, with several huts and casuarina trees on its N
side, and from where a light (red beacon) is
exhibited, thence:
NNE of a dangerous wreck (14 miles WNW), position
approximate, thence:
4
NNE of Tanjung Medang Light (13¾ miles W)
(2.87), thence
SSW of Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2.90), thence:
To the precautionary area (6½ miles ESE).
Caution. See 2.4 regarding incompatible horizontal
datums which affects the Deep Water Route including some
CHAPTER 2
69
ARCS vectors referenced from Gosong Raleigh
Light−beacon.
2.92
1
Useful mark
Kuala Sepang Besar Inner Light (2°35′⋅0N
101°42′⋅9E) (6.257).
(Directions continue for SE−going traffic lane at 2.110
and for Sungai Udang at 6.295;
directions for Selat Bengkalis and Selat Rupat
are given at 4.263)
NORTH WEST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
TANJUNG KELING TO TANJUNG RU
General information
Charts 3946, 5502
Route
2.93
1
From the precautionary area centred on 2°05′N
102°00′E, WSW of Melaka, the NW−going traffic lane
leads generally NE for about 60 miles, passing through a
precautionary area (2°25′N 101°39′E) SW of Port Dickson,
to a position SSW of Tanjung Ru (2°50′N 101°17′E) where
another precautionary area is established adjacent to the S
approach to Pelabuhan Klang.
Topography
2.94
1
See 2.82.
Depths
2.95
1
Caution. For about 10 miles in each direction from
Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E) along the axis of the
traffic lane, the seabed consists almost entirely of
sandwaves, as described in 2.28. Depths, which may be
shoaler than charted, are very irregular and dangerous to
vessels drawing more than 13⋅5 m, which must pick a
careful course in this area. As sandwaves may vary in
height over time, attention is drawn to the source data
diagram on the chart.
2
Within the traffic lane SW of Tanjung Tuan there are
several unmarked patches with depths less than 20 m, and a
least charted depth in the area of 14⋅0 m, but they may be
avoided.
3
Between the precautionary areas SW of Port Dickson
and SSW of Pelabuhan Klang there are two shoal areas in
mid−fairway with least depths of 19⋅8 m and 22 m, and a
bank on the N boundary with depths less than 20 m,
otherwise depths are generally greater than 30 m.
Crossing traffic
2.96
1
Crossing traffic may be encountered in the precautionary
areas SSW of Pelabuhan Klang, SW of Port Dickson and
WSW of Melaka, see 2.84.
Traffic regulations
2.97
1
See 2.85.
Tidal streams
2.98
1
See 2.86.
Details from the coastal route are as follows:
Off Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E) (6.272).
Vicinity of Port Dickson Fairway Light−buoy (2°30′N
101°43′E), (6.256).
SW of Kuala Langat (2°47′N 101°22′E), (6.228).
Directions
(continued from 2.123)
Principal marks
2.99
1
Landmarks on Malaysian coast:
Chimneys of the power station at Tanjung Keling
(2°13′⋅4N 102°09′⋅4E)) (6.273).
Conspicuous water tower (2°22′N 102°00′E).
Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E) (6.273).
Chimneys (2°32′N 101°48′E) of the power station at
Port Dickson (6.257).
Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
2
Major lights on Malaysian coast:
Tanjung Tuan Light (white round concrete tower,
24 m in height) (2°24′N 101°51′E).
Tanjung Gabang Light (round concrete tower on
piles) (2°41′N 101°29′E).
Bukit Jugra Light (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
3
Major lights on Indonesian coast:
Tanjung Medang Light (2° 07′⋅5N 101° 39′⋅5E) (2.87).
Tanjung Ru Light (2°50′N 101°17′E) (6.204).
Other aids to navigation
2.100
1
Racons:
Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2°07′N 101°53′E).
Sepat Light−beacon (2°34′N 101°23′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Tanjung Keling to Tanjung Ru
2.101
1
From a position in the precautionary area about 8 miles
SW of Tanjung Keling (2°13′⋅0N 102°09′⋅7E), the traffic
lane leads generally NW, passing (with positions from
Tanjung Tuan Light (2°24′N 101°51′E)):
2
SW of a 13⋅6 m patch (7 miles SSE), which extends
close to the NE limit of the traffic lane, thence:
Clear of a wreck, swept depth 23 m (5 miles S),
thence:
S of Tanjung Tuan (6.273), from where a light (2.99)
is exhibited, and:
3
Through an area of sandwaves (2.28), extending from
SSE through to W of Tanjung Tuan, where depths
shoaler than those charted may be encountered.
Within that zone there are several patches with
depths less than 20 m, the positions of which are
best seen on the chart, and a least charted depth of
14⋅0 m (6 miles SW).
The track then leads through a precautionary area off
Port Dickson (centred 12 miles W).
(Directions for Port Dickson are given at 6.257)
4
The track then continues NW, passing (with positions
from Tanjung Gabang Light (2°41′N 101°29′E)):
NW of a light−buoy (isolated danger) (15¼ miles
SE), moored close N of a 16⋅1 m wreck in the
separation zone, thence:
Clear of a 19⋅8 m patch (9½ miles SSE), thence:
SW of Tanjung Gabang Light (2.99).
5
The track then leads WNW, passing:
NNE of Sepat Light−beacon (2.89) (9 miles SW),
thence:
Clear of bank with a least depth of 22 m (9 miles
WSW), thence:
CHAPTER 2
70
SSW of a bank, least depth 15⋅7 m (13 miles WNW),
extending into the NE side of the traffic lane,
thence:
The track then continues into the precautionary area
centred 9 miles SSW of Tanjung Ru Light (6.204)
(5 miles NW).
Useful marks
2.102
1
Conspicuous tree which stands 1½ miles NW of
Kampung Morib (2°45′N 101°27′E) (6.229).
Kuala Sepang Besar Inner Light (2°35′⋅0N
101°42′⋅9E) (6.257).
(Directions continue for NW−going traffic lane at 2.78
and for S approach to Pelabuhan Klang at 6.204,
and for approach to Selat Rupat and
Selat Bengkalis are given at 4.263)
SOUTH EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
GOSONG RALEIGH TO MUDAH SELATAN
LIGHT
General information
Charts 3947, 5502
Route
2.103
1
From a position in the precautionary area centred on
2°05′N 102°00′E, close E of Gosong Raleigh, the SE−going
traffic lane leads generally ESE for a distance of about
80 miles between the coastal banks of Malaysia and the
banks lying offshore from Sumatera, to a position SW of
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E).
Topography
2.104
1
This section of the TSS keeps closer to the Malaysian
coast which is generally low, wooded, featureless and often
fronted by mangroves, making radar ranges less reliable on
some sections of the coast. The Sumatera coast is similarly
low and featureless, but far more distant.
Hazards
2.105
1
See 2.10 to 2.15.
Depths
2.106
1
Between the precautionary area close E of Gosong
Raleigh (2°07′N 101°53′E) and Panjang Utara
Light−beacon, 53 miles SE, depths in the SE−going traffic
lane are greater than 30 m. South−east of Panjang Utara
Light−beacon depths on the NE side of the traffic lane are
generally greater than 30 m, except for two isolated patches
of 29 m and a wreck, swept depth 25⋅5 m, 4 miles W of
Mudah Selatan Light.. South−west of Mudah Selatan Light
there is a controlling depth of 27 m.
Crossing traffic
2.107
1
Crossing traffic may be encountered in the precautionary
area WSW of Melaka, see 2.84.
Traffic regulations
2.108
1
Rules affecting navigation in Malacca Strait are given at
2.18 to 2.20.
Vessel Traffic Service. This section of the Malacca
Strait TSS lies within Sector 3 (Cape Rachado), Sector 4
(Undan) and Sector 5 (Segenting) of the STRAITREP
mandatory ship reporting system. For further details see
2.23 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tidal streams
2.109
1
See table on chart 3947 for the following positions:
2°06′⋅9N 101°56′⋅7E (3 miles E of Gosong Raleigh).
1°37′⋅9N 102°43′⋅5E (3½ miles WNW of Panjang
Utara Light−beacon).
Directions
(continued from 2.92)
Principal marks
2.110
1
Landmarks on Malaysian coast:
Tall chimneys (2°13′N 102°09′E) at Tanjung Keling
(6.273).
Water Islands (2°05′N 102°20′E) (6.303).
Bukit Mor (1°59′N 102°41′E) (6.341).
Bukit Banang (1°49′N 102°56′E) (6.353), and Bukit
Segenting, 3¼ miles SW.
Coastal marks in the vicinity of Pulau Pisang (1°28′N
103°15′E) (6.370).
2
Landmarks off Indonesian coast at the NW entrance to
Singapore Strait, prominent from NW:
Pulau Karimun Besar (1°06′N 103°21′E) (4.343) and
Pulau Karimun Kecil, close NE.
Major lights:
3
Pulau Undan Light (red 8−sided concrete tower on
building, 15 m in height; on summit of island)
(2°03′N 102°20′E).
Tanjung Parit Light (1°32′N, 102°26′E) (4.343).
Bukit Segenting Light (white round concrete tower,
14 m in height) (1°47′⋅5N 102°53′⋅4E).
Panjang Utara Light (white round GRP tower on
piled platform) (1°36′N 102°47′E).
4
Mudah Utara Light (white round GRP tower on piled
platform) (1°37′N 102°57′E).
Panjang Selatan Light (white round GRP tower on
piled platform) (1°23′⋅5N. 103°07′⋅9).
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E) (white round
GRP tower on piled platform).
Pulau Pisang Light (white round tower; 18 m in
height, on the summit of island) (1°28′N
103°15′E).
Pulau Iyu Kecil Light (1°11′⋅5N 103°21′⋅1E) (7.36).
Other aids to navigation
2.111
1
Racons:
Gosong Rob Roy Light−beacon (1°55′N 102°03′E).
Bengkalis Light (1°42′⋅7N 102°24′⋅3E) on the SE
ridge of Gosong Clark.
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Gosong Raleigh to Mudah Selatan Light
2.112
1
From a position in the precautionary area centred on
2°05′N 102°00′E, E of Gosong Raleigh, the traffic lane
leads SE, or ESE if in the deep−water route (2.91), then
ESE, passing (with positions from Gosong Rob Roy
Light−tower (1°55′N 102°03′E)):
NE of Gosong Rob Roy, a bank extending about
10 miles NW/SE, and from where a light (isolated
CHAPTER 2
71
danger, 10 m in height) is exhibited, and NE of a
dangerous wreck, 1¾ miles E of the light−tower.
2
The deep−water route rejoins the main SE−going traffic
lane at a shallow angle NE of Gosong Rob Roy. Disturbed
water and eddies may be encountered in this section of the
traffic lane which may have an effect on the relative
orientation and track of slow moving craft such as fishing
vessels. Thence the track passes:
NE of Gosong Vowler, bank parallel to the traffic
lane with least depths of 9⋅1 m (10 miles ESE).
3
The traffic lane then leads ESE, passing:
Through an area of sandwaves (2.28) (in the vicinity
of 1°50′N 102°25′E), where depths shoaler than
charted may be encountered, thence:
NNE of Gosong Clark (20 miles ESE) consisting of
two ridges parallel to the traffic lane; the SE ridge,
4½ miles farther ESE, is marked by Bengkalis
Light−beacon. Tide−rips exist on the SE ridge and
S of Gosong Clark. Thence:
4
NNE of Panjang Utara Light−tower (1°36′N
102°47′E) (2.110), marking a 14⋅4 m patch at the
NW extremity of Permatang Panjang (Long Bank).
The traffic lane then continues ESE and gradually
narrows, with depths less than 30 m on SW side of the
traffic lane, and passing (with positions from Mudah
Selatan Light−tower (1°25′N 103°11′E)):
SSW of Mudah Utara Light (18½ miles NW) (2.110)
standing on the NE side of NW−going traffic lane,
and:
5
NNE of Permatang Panjang (Long Bank), a narrow
bank with depths of less than 10 m extending
NW−SE for 24 miles and with a least charted
depth of 5⋅3 m (17 miles WNW); a spoil ground
lies off the SE edge of the bank, thence:
Clear of shoal, depth 29 m (18½ miles WNW),
thence:
Clear of a wreck, swept depth 25⋅5 m, (4½ miles W),
thence:
6
SSW of a 29 m shoal patch (reported 1973) lying in
narrow separation area between the traffic lanes,
thence:
NNE of Panjang Selatan Light−tower (3¾ miles
WSW) (2.110), thence:
The track then continues to a position SW of Mudah
Selatan Light−tower (2.110), keeping clear of a 27 m shoal
(reported 1973) 1¼ miles S.
2.113
1
Useful mark
Tanjung Tohor Light (1°51′N 102°42′E) (6.342).
(Directions continue for SE−going traffic lane at 7.36).
NORTH WEST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
MUDAH SELATAN LIGHT TO TANJUNG
KELING
General information
Charts 3947, 5502
Route
2.114
1
From the vicinity of Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N
103°11′E), the NW−going traffic lane leads generally
WNW for a distance of about 80 miles to the precautionary
area centred on 2°05′N 102°00′E, SW of Tanjung Keling.
Initially, the traffic lane is divided into two separate
routes by Permatang Alur Mudah (Fair Channel Bank),
which extends NW from Mudah Selatan Light; the route on
the SW side of the bank being the deeper of the
two (2.117).
Topography
2.115
1
This section of the TSS keeps closer to the Malaysian
coast which is generally low, wooded, featureless and often
fronted by mangroves, making radar ranges less reliable on
some sections of the coast.
Hazards
2.116
1
See 2.10 to 2.15.
Depths
2.117
1
Passage on the NE side of Permatang Alur Mudah
(2.123) is limited by depths of 20 to 21 m where the route
passes over the NW extremity of the bank, SW of Tanjung
Laboh (1°44′N 102°56′E). Deeper water can be found on
the SW side of Permatang Alur Mudah.
NW of Tanjung Laboh, depths are generally greater than
30 m for the remainder of the route, except for a dangerous
wreck 12½ miles WSW and some isolated patches charted
in the sandwave area S and SW of Muar (2°03′N
102°34′E) with a least charted depth of 26 m.
2
Within the sandwave area, depths shoaler than charted
may be encountered. As sandwaves may vary in height
over time, attention is drawn to the source data diagram on
the chart. See 2.28 for further information on sandwaves.
Crossing traffic
2.118
1
Crossing traffic may be encountered in the precautionary
area WSW of Melaka, see 2.84.
Traffic regulations
2.119
1
Rules affecting navigation in Malacca Strait are given at
2.18 to 2.20.
Vessel Traffic Service. This section of the Malacca
Strait TSS lies within Sector 3 (Cape Rachado), Sector 4
(Undan) and Sector 5 (Segenting) of the STRAITREP
mandatory ship reporting system. For further details see
2.23, and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tidal streams
2.120
1
See 2.109.
Directions
(continued from 7.45)
Principal marks
2.121
1
Landmarks on Malaysian coast:
Coastal marks in the vicinity of Pulau Pisang (1°28′N
103°15′E) (6.370).
Bukit Banang (1°49′N 102°56′E) (6.353), and Bukit
Segenting, 3¼ miles SW.
Bukit Mor (1°59′N 102°41′E) (6.341).
Water Islands (2°05′N 102°20′E) (6.303).
Tall chimneys (2°13′N 102°09′E) at Tanjung Keling
(6.273).
2
Landmarks off Indonesian coast at the NW entrance to
Singapore Strait, prominent from NW:
Pulau Karimun Besar (1°06′N 103°21′E) (4.343) and
Pulau Karimun Kecil, close NE.
CHAPTER 2
72
Major lights:
Pulau Iyu Kecil Light (1°11′⋅5N 103°21′⋅1E) (7.36).
Pulau Pisang Light (1°28′N 103°15′E) (2.110).
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E) (2.110).
3
Panjang Selatan Light (1°23′⋅5N. 103°07′⋅9) (2.110).
Mudah Utara Light (1°37′N 102°57′E) (2.110).
Panjang Utara Light (1°36′N 102°47′E) (2.110).
Bukit Segenting Light (1°47′⋅5N 102°53′⋅4E) (2.110).
Pulau Undan Light (2°03′N 102°20′E) (2.110).
2.122
1
Racons:
Gosong Rob Roy Light−beacon (1°55′N 102°03′E).
Bengkalis Light (1°42′⋅7N 102°24′⋅3E) on the SE
ridge of Gosong Clark.
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Mudah Selatan Light to Tanjung Keling
2.123
1
From a position SE of Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N
103°11′E), the traffic lane leads NW, passing (with
positions from the light)
NW of a 27 m shoal (1¼ miles S) (reported 1973),
thence:
Either side of Mudah Selatan Light (2.110); noting
that the traffic lane close SW of the light is just
9 cables wide and has minimal separation from the
SE−going lane, thence:
2
Either side of Permatang Alur Mudah (Fair Channel
Bank); a narrow bank with depths less than 20 m
(extending 22 miles NW) and having a least depth
of 8⋅5 m (4½ miles NW). The route on both sides
of the bank is clear out to the respective separation
zone on each side. A 29 m shoal patch (reported
1973) (3 miles WNW) lies in the narrow separation
area between the traffic lanes, and a second 29 m
shoal patch 3 miles farther WNW. A 10⋅4 m patch
(11 miles NW) is close NE of the inshore traffic
lane separation zone. Thence:
3
Either side of Mudah Utara Light (18½ miles NW)
(2.110), thence:
SW of Tanjung Laboh (24 miles NW) where the
routes either side of Permatang Alur Mudah
combine into one.
4
The traffic lane then leads WNW, passing (with
positions from Tanjung Tohor Light (1°51′N 102°42′E)):
SSW of Bukit Segenting Light (11½ miles ESE)
(2.110), thence:
NNE of Panjang Utara Light (15½ miles SSE)
(2.110), standing on the SW side of the SE−going
traffic lane, thence:
SSW of a bank on the N side of the traffic lane with
a least depth of 16⋅4 m (10 miles SE), thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (7¾ miles SSE), thence:
5
SSW of Tanjung Tohor Light (6.342), thence:
Across a bank (9¼ miles WSW) with least charted
depth of 26⋅5 m; deeper water may be found on
the SW side of the traffic lane, thence:
Through an area of sandwaves (8 miles WSW to
20 miles W) (2.117), thence:
SSW of a 17⋅5 m shoal (10 miles W), lying close
inside the boundary of the inshore traffic zone,
thence:
6
Clear of a 28 m shoal patch (17½ miles W); a 27⋅5 m
shoal lies 1¾ miles farther NW. Deeper water may
be found on the NE side of the traffic lane.
Thence:
SSW of Pulau Undan Light (25 miles WNW)
(2.110).
7
The traffic lane then leads NW, passing (with positions
from Pulau Undan Light (2°03′N 102°20′E)):
Clear of a wreck, depth 30 m (7½ miles SW), marked
on its SE side by a light−buoy (isolated danger),
thence:
8
The track continues NW to the precautionary area, SW
of Tanjung Keling (6.273) (15 miles WNW).
Eddies may be encountered in this NW section of the
traffic lane and they may have an effect on the relative
orientation and track of slow moving craft such as fishing
vessels.
(Directions continue for NW−going traffic lane at 2.99
and for Sungai Udang at 6.295;
directions for Selat Bengkalis and Selat Rupat
are given at 4.263)
*217
*311
*393
*568
*582
*596
*604
*606
*610
*620
*638
*125
*210
*385
*399
*403
*421
*423
*427
*437
*455
*85
*260
*274
*288
*296
*298
*302
*312
*330
*175
*189
*203
*211
*213
*217
*227
*245
9
17
19
23
33
51
8
10
14
24
42
2
6
16
34
4
14
32
10
28
18
14
28
36
38
42
52
70
73
Distance table - Malacca Strait and Singapore Strait (2.124)
Note: Distances for the through route are
given for the E-bound lanes.
*
Distance to be increased by 6 miles if
using the DW Route off Tanjung Medang Pulau We
Pulau Perak
Pulau Jerak
Permatang Sedepa Light
Pulau Iyu Kecil
Singapore W Boarding Ground
Raffles Light
Batu Berhanti Light
Singapore E Boarding Ground "A"
Singapore E Boarding Ground "B"
Johor Boarding Ground
Horsburgh Light
CHAPTER 2
3919
3574
2917
2917
2917 2917
3
5
7
4
3
5
7
4
0406
0406
5°
6°
95° 96° 97°
6°
5°
97°
Longitude 96° East from Greenwich
95°
S U M AT E R A
Chapter 3 - North-west approach to Malacca Strait
See Plan
30´
40´
50´
6°
95° 30´
50´ 20´
10´
6°
30´
40´
50´
Longitude 95° East from Greenwich 30´50´ 20´
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P. Rondo
Sabang
Uleelheue
P.
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P. We
P.
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Chapter
4
Chapter
10
Chapter
2
Aroih R
aya
Bandar Aceh
3.73
3.94
3.96
3.92
3
.
1
1
7
3
.
1
0
5
3
.
1
9
3
.
4
0
3
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5
2
3.98
3
.
1
1
1
3
.
1
1
4
3
.
1
4
1
3
.
1
4
1
3
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1
4
1
3.58
3.70
3.34
3
.
1
3
1
3
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1
7
1
3.86
74
75
CHAPTER 3
NORTH−WEST APPROACH TO MALACCA STRAIT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 830, 2917, 2777
Scope of the chapter
3.1 1
This chapter, which is divided into the following two
sections, describes:
Passages off the NW coast of Sumatera (3.9), and:
Coastal passage along the N coast of Sumatera from
Ujung Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E) to Tanjung
Jamboaye, 127 miles E, (3.102).
Through route
3.2 1
For through route passing N of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N
95°07′E), see 2.33.
Aids to navigation
3.3 1
Aids to navigation are reported to be unreliable in
Indonesian waters.
Topography
3.4 1
Generally the islands off the NW coast of Sumatera are
rugged, mountainous, and covered with dense vegetation.
The N coast of Sumatera between Ujung Masammuka
(5°35′N 95°13′E) and Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N 97°30′E)
has few conspicuous landmarks.
Inland are several mountain ranges, with prominent
mountain peaks. These peaks are mostly situated within
15 miles of the coastline and, under favourable weather
conditions, are visible for considerable distances. They may
be used as fixing marks.
Restricted area
3.5
1
An area in which fishing, and other activities not
connected with innocent passage, are prohibited to foreign
vessels extends from the mainland coast to a line between
the following positions:
1) 5°43′⋅2N 94°46′⋅5E,
2) 5°51′⋅0N 94°46′⋅7E,
2
3) 6°13′⋅5N 94°59′⋅5E,
4) 6°16′⋅0N 95°10′⋅1E,
5) 5°40′⋅4N 96°00′⋅5E,
6) 5°29′⋅0N 96°49′⋅4E,
7) 5°29′⋅2N 97°33′⋅5E,
8) 5°01′⋅0N 98°03′⋅4E,
9) 4°33′⋅8N 98°25′⋅9E
3
Between positions 1 and 2, and positions 3 and 4 the
limit follows a 12 mile normal base line; for further details
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
The prohibited area does not apply to vessels supporting
various offshore and other terminals; for further information
mariners should consult the local authorities.
For the continuation of this area see 10.12.
Marine exploitation
3.6
1
Production platforms, storage tankers and tanker
moorings exist within the area within this chapter.
Unauthorised navigation is prohibited with 500 m of these
structures, see also 1.42.
Piracy
3.7
1
Piracy is prevalent in Malacca Strait, including offshore
waters, and especially significant off the N coast of
Sumatera. Details of recommended practices concerning
piracy, radio reports and urgency messages are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (2). For further
details see 1.70 to 1.74.
Fishing stakes
3.8
1
Fishing stakes exist within the coastal waters described
within this chapter, mainly within the 10 m depth contour;
their positions may change frequently.
PASSAGES OFF THE NORTH−WEST COAST OF SUMATERA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2777, 2917, 830
Principal routes
3.9 1
Malacca Strait may be approached from W through
Great Channel from the Indian Ocean by passing N of
Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E), see 2.33, or through one of
the following two passages:
Between Pulau Rondo and Pulau We (5°50′N
95°18′E), (3.19), or:
2
Through Selat Benggala between Pulau We and Pulau
Breueh (5°42′N 95°04′E) (3.40), and thence
through Alur Pelayaran Malaka (3.52), the
continuation ENE, between Pulau We and the N
extremity of Sumatera in the vicinity of Ujung
Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E).
Minor channels
3.10 1
The following minor channels lead from the Indian
Ocean into Selat Benggala and Alur Pelayaran Malaka:
Aroih Lampuyang (5°40′N 95°08′E) (3.73) between
Pulau Breueh and Pulau Deudab, and:
Aroih Raya (5°35′N 95°10′E) and Aroih Cut (5°34′N
95°13′E) (3.86) between Pulau Deudab and the
NW coast of Sumatera.
Choice of route
3.11 1
Caution. Traffic in both directions between the Indian
Ocean and Malacca Strait TSS converges off the NW coast
of Sumatera in the vicinity of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N
95°07′E) and at Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N 97°30′E).
CHAPTER 3
76
Gunung Seulawaih Agam and Gunung Sulawaih Inong from ENE (3.17)
(Original dated 1952)
White faced cliff
s
Gunung Seulawaih Agam
bearing 255, distant 44 miles
Gunung Seulawaih Inong
2
In the past, the recommended approach was through
Selat Benggala and Alur Pelayaran Malaka, but shoal
patches have been reported, particularly in Alur Pelayaran
Malaka. Very large vessels could find themselves
constricted, especially if meeting similar−sized vessels
bound in the opposite direction.
In recent years a number of shoals, depths 7 m and
greater, have been reported within the 1000 m depth
contour NW of Pulau Breueh.
Main islands
3.12 1
Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E), see 2.32.
3.13 1
Pulau We (5°50′N 95°18′E), the largest island, is
mountainous and covered with luxuriant vegetation. Except
for a few places the coast is rocky, rising sheer from the
sea.
The E and W sides of the island are mostly steep−to.
2
Small villages are scattered all over Pulau We, which is
thinly populated.
Principal industries are pepper growing and fishing.
Sulphur is found in considerable quantities.
Pelabuhan Sabang (3.34) is situated in the NE part of
Pulau We.
3.14 1
Pulau Breueh (5°42′N 95°04′E) is rugged, with several
bays providing anchorage according to the prevailing
monsoon.
There are sandy beaches along most of the S side of the
island.
2
In the S part of the island there is a considerable
expanse of flat land, with villages and coconut plantations
at the foot of the hills. In the NW part there are some
small pepper plantations. The island has few inhabitants.
3.15 1
Pulau Deudab (5°37′N 95°09′E) is hilly and densely
overgrown. Pepper is cultivated. The E coast is rocky and
steep.
The coastline is rocky in places, but elsewhere there are
sandy beaches, chiefly on the W coast.
The S coast between Ujung Bau (5°36′N 95°09′E) and
Ujung Eumpee, the SE extremity of the island, is low with
some dwellings on the coast. The island is fairly thickly
populated.
Mountain peaks
3.16 1
The following charted mountain peaks are visible from
the passages listed in 3.9.
Pulau We:
Kulam (5°49′N 95°17′E), the highest point of the
island.
Leumomate (5°49′N 95°19′E).
2
Pulau Breueh:
Ceumo (5°42′N 95°04′E) the summit of the island.
Sumatera, NW coast:
Gleraya (Gle Leuma) (5°32′N 95°14′E) the highest
part of Paran range of which Ujung Masammuka
(3.44) is the N extremity.
Gle Raja (5°23′N 95°20′E) (10.155).
Principal marks
3.17 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Seulawaih Agam (5°27′N 95°39′E),
cone−shaped and prominent. It can be seen from a
great distance in clear weather. A chain of hills,
undulating and sparsely wooded, form the NW
spur of Gunung Seulawih Agam and extend
towards Ujung Baka (3.106).
Gunung Seulawaih Inong (5°26′N 95°46′E), spherical
summit and prominent.
2
Major lights. The following major lights are visible
from the whole or parts of the main passages (including the
through route) listed in 3.9:
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32).
Klah Light (5°53′N 95°18′E) (3.21).
Ujung Seuke Light (5°49′N 95°22′E) (2.41).
3
Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E) (2.32).
Breueh Light, Menara Suar Guapeu (5°45′N 95°03′E)
(3.21).
Pulau Bunta Light (5°33′N 95°09′E) (3.91).
Other aid to navigation
3.18
1
Racon: Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
PASSAGE BETWEEN PULAU RONDO AND
PULAU WE
General information
Charts 2917, 2777
Route
3.19 1
The route between rocky islets lying 1 mile S of Pulau
Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E) and Ujung Bau, 11½ miles SE,
the NW extremity of Pulau We, is 11 miles wide and deep,
apart from shoal patches (3.22) reported off Ujung Bau.
Topography
3.20 1
For Pulau Rondo see 2.32 and for Pulau We, see 3.13.
Directions
Principal marks
3.21 1
Landmarks:
Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32).
Ujung Bau (5°55′N 95°13′E), the prominent steep−to
NW extremity of Pulau We.
CHAPTER 3
77
Ujung Tapagajah (5°54′N 95°20′E), the prominent NE
extremity of Pulau We.
Kulam (5°49′N 95°17′E) (3.16).
Leumomate (5°49′N 95°19′E).
2
Major lights:
Breueh Light (red round stone tower, broad white
band, 44 m in height) (5°45′N 95°03′E) standing
on Menara Suar Guapeu, the N point of Pulau
Breueh; the light exhibits a flashing white light
between the bearings of 083°−288° (205°) and a
fixed red light between the bearings of 084°−166°
(82°).
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32).
3
Klah Light (white metal framework tower, 13 m in
height) (5°53′N 95°18′E), visible between bearings
109°–192° (83°) in the offing and 109°−087°
(338°) in Lhok Prialaut.
Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E) (2.32) on NE of
Pulau We.
Passage
3.22 1
From a position in the approaches to Selat Benggala,
WSW of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E), the route leads E,
passing (with positions from Pulau Rondo):
Clear of a 13 m shoal (reported 1980) (17 miles
WSW), thence:
N of a 17 m shoal (reported 1984) (12½ miles SW),
thence:
2
S of the reef (extending 1 mile S), steep−to on its
outer edge and upon which stand rocky islets from
20 m to 46 m high, thence:
N of three reported shoals (9 miles SE). However no
trace of these shoals could be found by a vessel in
1980.
3
The track continues E to a position NE of Ie Meule
Light (Ujung Tapagajah on chart 2777) (2.32) (16 miles
SE).
In 1979, tide−rips were reported ENE of Pulau We in
position 5°57′N 95°32′E.
3.23 1
Useful marks:
Radio mast (red light) (5°51′⋅3N 95°20′⋅6S), which
stands on a hill, elevation 316 m, on Pulau We.
Sabang Signal Station Light (5°53′⋅6N 95°18′⋅6E)
(3.32).
(Directions continue for the coastal route off NE coast
of Sumatera E of Ujung Baka at 3.108.
Directions for the through route off NE coast
of Sumatera are given at 2.41)
Anchorage and landing on Pulau Rondo
3.24
1
Anchorage may be obtained during the NE Monsoon in
a depth of 14 m with the SW extremity of Pulau Rondo
(6°04′N 95°07′E) bearing 103° and the NW extremity
bearing 044°.
Tide−rips are strong off the island.
Landing can be made on the lee side of the island
according to season.
Lhok Prialaut and approaches
General information
3.25 1
General description. Lhok Prialaut is the head of the
bight entered between Ujung Bau (5°55′N 95°13′E) (3.21)
and Ujung Tapagajah, 6½ miles E, (3.21).
Pulau Seulakoe (5°54′N 95°15′E) and Pulau Rubiah,
5 cables S, are two islands on the W side of the bight.
There are some wooded hillocks on Pulau Rubiah.
Several sulphur−laden streams are situated near the head
of Lhok Prialaut.
2
Caution. A small former mined area exists between
Pulau Rubiah and the main island, in which it is dangerous
to anchor, trawl or engage in any seabed activity, although
it is open to surface navigation. For details, see
Appendix III.
Tidal streams. In the channel W of Pulau Rubiah the
in−going stream runs at a rate of 3 kn at springs; the
out−going stream is much weaker.
For streams in Teluk Sabang, see 3.29.
Directions
3.26 1
From a position about 3 miles NE of Ujung Bau (5°55′N
95°13′E), entry into Lhok Prialaut can be made in deep
water, passing (with positions from Ujung Bau):
NE of Pulau Seulakoe (2¼ miles ESE), from which
shoal patches extend about 1 cable N and S,
thence:
NE of Ujung Batumeurunrung (4 miles SE), thence:
SW of Ujung Seukundo (5 miles ESE), high and
wooded, thence:
NE of a 7 m shoal patch (4½ miles SE).
2
Clearing bearing. The line of bearing 321°, astern, of
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32), open NE of
Pulau Seulakoe passes NE of the dangers on the SW shore.
Useful marks:
For marks in Teluk Sabang and Pelabuhan Sabang,
see 3.32.
(Directions for Teluk Sabang are given at 3.30)
Anchorages in Lhok Prialaut
3.27 1
Anchorage is usually obtained E of the S end of Pulau
Rubiah (5°53′N 95°15′E) but may also be obtained near the
head of Lhok Prialaut, in depths from 16 to 21 m, close W
of the entrance to Sungai Prialaut (5°50′⋅2N 95°17′⋅7E), the
bar of which dries.
Teluk Sabang and Lhok Kruengraya
Chart 2917, plan of Sabang
General information
3.28 1
Teluk Sabang is entered between Tanjung Lhok Me
(5°53′⋅2N 95°18′⋅7E), a low point, and Pulau Klah, an
island 5 cables S, which is entirely overgrown, except on
its E side. The port of Sabang (3.34) is situated on the N
side of the bay.
Lhok Kruengraya is a small enclosed bay S of Pulau
Klah.
Tidal streams
3.29 1
There is no appreciable stream at the entrance to Teluk
Sabang, nor within the bay.
There is always a set towards the entrance of the bay
off Ujung Masam (5°54′N 95°18′E).
Directions
3.30 1
Teluk Sabang. From a position NW of Ujung Seukundo
(5°52′⋅5N 95°18′⋅0E), the track leads generally E, passing
(with positions from Tanjung Lhok Me (5°53′⋅2N
95°18′⋅7E)):
CHAPTER 3
78
N of a light−buoy (starboard hand) (4½ cables SSW)
moored off the N side of Pulau Klah (3.28),
thence:
2
S of a light−buoy (port hand) (1 cable SSW) marking
shoal water and a dangerous wreck close off the
point, thence:
N of a buoy (starboard hand) (4½ cables S) marking
shoal water NE of Pulau Klah and the entrance to
Lhok Kruengraya.
The track then continues NE to the anchorage or berths
as required.
3.31
1
Lhok Kruengraya. From the SE side of Teluk Sabang
the track leads S then SW through a channel about ½ cable
wide and marked by two buoys (starboard hand), passing
between the reefs extending 1 cable from the shore on the
E side and those lying close off Pulau Klah on the W side,
noting a 5⋅3 m patch lying in mid−channel 1½ cables E of
the SE extremity of Pulau Klah.
3.32 1
Useful marks:
Klah Light (5°53′N 95°18′E) (3.21).
Signal Station (5°53′·6N 95°18′·6E), controlled by the
Indonesian Navy, standing on Peunimpun, a hill
with an elevation of 85 m. A white light, is
exhibited from the signal station mast. A red flare
is occasionally exhibited.
2
Tanjung Lhok Me Light (white metal framework
tower, 14 m in height) (5°53′⋅2N 95°18′⋅7E). The
light is obscured by the land when bearing more
than 132°.
Ujung Seukundo (5°52′N 95°18′E) (3.26).
Anchorages and moorings
3.33 1
Anchorages:
In Teluk Sabang; 3 cables ESE of Tanjung Lhok Me,
depth 42 m, good holding ground, mud.
In Lhok Kruengraya; depth 17 m, sheltered from the
SW Monsoon.
Moorings:
Several are laid in the N part of Teluk Sabang.
Sabang
General information
3.34 1
Position. Sabang (5°53′N 95°19′E) is approached
through Teluk Sabang (3.30). It is well sheltered at all
times.
Function. It is a small commercial port and is also a
free port. Coal, oil and general cargo are amongst the
cargoes handled. It is also a naval base.
Traffic. Approximate figures for cargo handled per
annum are: imports 155 000 tonnes; exports 123 000 tonnes.
2
Port Authority. Dit Jeb Perhubungan Laut, Cabang
Sabang, Sabang, Aceh; there is also a Naval Base
Commander.
Limiting conditions
3.35 1
Deepest berth: Oil jetty (3.38) at Tanjung Lhok Me.
Longest berth: General Quay (3.38).
Maximum size of vessel handled: Maximum length
allowed is 150 m.
Tidal levels: see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3. Mean spring range about 1·4 m; mean neap
range about 0·4 m.
Arrival information
3.36 1
Port operations The port is operating normally
following the tsunami of 26th December 2004 (1.5).
Notice of ETA should be given 10, 3 2 and 1 day
before arrival. For details of Sabang Coast Radio Station
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (2)
Pilotage is compulsory for anchoring and berthing. The
Harbour Master acts as the pilot. For details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tug. A small tug is available if ordered in advance.
Directions
3.37 1
See 3.30.
Berths
3.38
1
Oil jetty, operated by Pertamina, on the SE side of
Tanjung Lhok Me: 15 m in length with a reported
maximum draught of 11 m.
General Quay: 500 m in length with a charted depth of
9⋅4 m, although a reported maximum draught of 11 m.
Naval Base (TNI AL): 180 m in length; depth alongside
9 m at LWS.
PSB Quay: 50 m in length; depth alongside 8 m at LWS.
Port services
3.39 1
Repairs: minor repairs can be undertaken; a naval
owned floating dock, 109 m in length, lifting capacity 1500
tonnes; divers available.
Other facilities: hospital.
Supplies: fresh water available.
2
Landing. The best boat landing is at the E end of
commercial wharf, close to the Harbour Master’s Office.
Communications. Military airport, distant 3 km. Some
commercial flights are available. Daily sea ferry service
with Uleelheue (3.58).
SELAT BENGGALA
General information
Charts 2917, 2777
Route
3.40 1
For a comment on shoals in the W approach to Selat
Benggala see 3.11. The route through Selat Benggala is
deep, apart from a shoal (3.46) lying off the W coast of
Pulau We, and is about 10 miles wide.
It leads between Pulau We (5°50′N 95°18′E) on the E,
and Pulau Breueh (5°42′N 95°04′E) and Pulau Deudab
(close SE) on the W.
Topography
3.41 1
For Pulau We see 3.13.
For Pulau Breueh see 3.14.
For Pulau Deudab see 3.15.
Offshore tide−rips
3.42 1
Strong tide−rips were reported (1973) in the NW
approach to Selat Benggala, 23 miles NW of Pulau Breueh.
CHAPTER 3
79
Natural conditions
3.43 1
Winds. SW and NE winds prevail in the passage
according to the season, and are fairly steady.
Currents. There is usually a NW current from 1 to 2 kn
through the fairway, but nearer the SW shore the flow is
more tidal.
Tidal streams. There is no information on streams in
Selat Benggala, but see 3.89 for streams in Aroih Raya
(5°35′N 95°10′E) and Aroih Cut (1½ miles SE).
Directions
Principal marks
3.44 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Seulawaih Agam (5°27′N 95°39′E) (3.17).
Gunung Seulawaih Inong (5°26′N 95°46′E) (3.17).
Ujung Masammuka (5°35′N 95°13′E), a steep−to bluff
promontory and the NW extremity of Sumatera.
Simereguh (5°47′N 95°19′E) (3.55).
Leumomate (5°49′N 95°19′E).
2
Kulam (5°49′N 95°17′E) (3.16).
Ujung Bau (5°55′N 95°13′E) (3.21).
Major lights:
Breueh Light, Menara Suar Guapeu (5°45′N 95°03′E)
(3.21).
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32).
Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E) (2.32).
Approaches to Selat Benggala
3.45 1
From a position WSW of Pulau Rondo (6°04′N 95°07′E)
(2.32) and clear of a 13 m shoal (reported 1980), 17 miles
WSW, the approach to Selat Benggala leads SE, passing
(with positions from Pulau Rondo):
SW of Pulau Rondo, thence:
NE of a 17 m shoal (reported 1984) (13 miles SW),
thence:
NE of shoals and dangers extending up to 13 miles
NW of Pulau Breueh (20 miles S), which includes
Pulau Benggala (19 miles SSW).
2
It should be noted that:
Although there is clear passage between Pulau
Benggala and the offshore dangers NW of Pulau
Breueh, it is recommended to pass outside them
all.
The water in the vicinity of Terumbu Serang, a rock
awash lying 3 miles S of Pulau Benggala, is
discoloured and the sea breaks at times.
3
The sea breaks over the other dangers off the NW
coast of Pulau Breueh even in moderate weather.
All the dangers are covered by the red sector of
Breueh Auxiliary Light (3.21), between the
bearings 084°–166°.
Selat Benggala
3.46 1
From a position NE of Breueh Light, Menara Suar
Guapeu (5°45′N 95°03′E), the fairway leads SE, passing
(with positions from the light):
SW of a 7 m shoal (reported 1982) (10 miles NE),
lying off the W coast of Pulau We, and:
NE of Ujung Glumpang (2½ miles SE), a salient
point on Pulau Breueh, thence:
2
SW of Ujung Ceuhum (13 miles ENE), the SW
extremity of Pulau We, and:
NE of Ujung Krieve (8 miles SE), a salient point on
Pulau Deudab.
The track then continues SE to a position NE of Ujung
Eumpee (5°36′N 95°11′N) the SE extremity of Pulau
Deudab, from which a light (white GRP tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited.
Useful marks
3.47 1
Sungai Aceh Light (white beacon, 8 m in height)
(5°36′N 95°19′E).
Pulau Buro Light (5°41′N 95°23′E) (3.55).
(Directions continue for
Alur Pelayaran Malaka at 3.55.
Directions are given, for Aroih Lampuyang
and approaches at 3.77,
for Aroih Raya and approaches at 3.91,
and for Aroih Cut and approaches at 3.96)
Anchorages on the south−west side of
Selat Benggala
Lhok Leuenbale
3.48 1
General information. Lhok Leuenbale (5°44′N 95°04′E)
affords good anchorage during the SW monsoon.
Squalls are sometimes violent during the SW monsoon,
but the water is smooth.
Directions. Lhok Leuenbale is entered S of Ujung
Puneus, a steep−to, precipitous point.
2
Anchorage may be obtained close SW of Ujung Puneus
in a depth of 13 m.
Landing. A sandy beach is situated on the NW part of
Lhok Leuenbale, where there are some buildings.
Berth. A small pier at the head of Lhok Leuenbale is
suitable only for small craft.
Lampuyang
3.49 1
Lampuyang (5°40′·5N 95°08′·0E), a village, stands
within Lampuyang, a narrow inlet 6 cables NW of SE
extremity of Pulau Breueh.
Teluk Krije
3.50 1
Anchorage in Teluk Krije (5°39′N 95°10′E) is unsafe.
The head of the bay is foul with under−water rocks.
Pulau Jeuroh
3.51 1
Temporary anchorage may be obtained 2 cables S of
Pulau Jeuroh (5°39′N 95°10′E), an islet, lying on the S side
of the entrance to Teluk Krije.
ALUR PELAYARAN MALAKA
General information
Charts 2917, 2777
Route
3.52 1
Alur Pelayaran Malaka is the continuation ENE of the
main route through Selat Benggala; it leads between Pulau
We (5°50′N 95°18′E) (3.13), and Pulau Buro (5°41′N
95°23′E) (3.56) off the N coast of Sumatera.
CHAPTER 3
80
Topography
3.53 1
For Pulau We, see 3.13.
The N coast of Sumatera E of Ujung Masammuka
(5°35′N 95°13′E) (3.44) to Ujung Pancu, 1 mile SE, is
rocky and steep−to.
Thence the coast to Ujung Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E), the
N extremity of Sumatera, is sandy and low. Some villages
stand on higher cultivated ground amid high coconut palms.
2
Several lagoons lie within the coastline, the most
important of which is Cangkoy (5°33′N 95°17′E), where
Pelabuhan Uleelheue (3.58), the port for Banda Aceh, is
situated.
Natural conditions
3.54 1
Caution. In 1993, eddies, ripples and lightly discoloured
water were reported 2½ miles SW of Ujung Ceuhum, the
SW extremity of Pulau We.
Tidal streams. There is no information on streams in
Alur Pelayaran Malaka, but see 3.89 for streams in Aroih
Raya (5°35′N 95°10′E), and Aroih Cut (1½ miles SE).
The streams off Uleelheue (5°34′N 95°17′E) set E and
W, with a rate of about ½ kn.
Current. The W−going current has a considerable effect
on the resultant flow in both its rate and direction.
Directions
(continued from 3.47)
Principal marks
3.55 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Seulawih Agam (5°27′N 95°39′E) (3.17).
Gunung Seulawaih Inong (5°26′N 95°46′E) (3.17).
Ujung Masammuka (5°35′N 95°13′E) (3.44).
Glelayang (5°33′N 95°13′E).
Simereguh, a prominent dome−shaped peak (5°47′N
95°19′E) on Pulau We.
Buro Light (white beacon, 15 m in height) (5°41′N
95°23′E), on Pulau Buro.
2
Major lights:
Breueh Light, Menara Suar Guapeu (5°45′N 95°03′E)
(3.21).
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32).
Ujung Seuke Light (5°48′⋅5N 95°22′⋅2E) (2.41), on
the SE extremity of Pulau We.
Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E) (2.32).
Pulau Buro Light — as above.
Passage
3.56 1
From a position NE of Ujung Krieve (5°39′N 95°10′E),
the route leads ENE passing (with positions from Pulau
Buro (5°41′N 95°23′E)):
SSE of a 13·7 m patch (reported 1986) (5¾ miles
NW). Karang Berduri, a rock awash over which
the sea breaks, lies 1 mile farther NE. Thence:
2
NNW of a 13 m shoal (reported 1987) (3 miles NW).
A 15 m shoal (reported 1988) lies 5 cables farther
NE. Thence:
NNW of Pulau Buro on which stands Buro Light
(3.55). This cone−shaped islet consists of rocks
and coral, and the sea usually breaks on the
above−water rocks forming the fringing reef and
over which the tidal streams set strongly. Thence:
3
SSE of Ujung Seuke (7 miles N), high, steep−to and
from where a light (2.41) is exhibited.
The track then continues ENE to a position NE of Pulau
Buro.
3.57 1
Useful mark, in addition to those given at 3.47:
Pulau Tuan (5°34′N 95°15′E), a dome−shaped islet,
joined to Ujung Pancu (7 cables WNW) by a ridge
of rocks. There is a burial ground on the summit.
(Directions continue for the coastal route off NE coast
of Sumatera E of Ujung Baka at 3.108.
Directions for the through route off NE coast
of Sumatera are given at 2.41.
Directions are given for Aroih Raya and approaches
at 3.91 and for Aroih Cut and approaches at 3.96)
Pelabuhan Uleelheue and anchorage
General information
3.58 1
Pelabuhan Uleelheue (or Olee Lheue) (5°34′N 95°17′E),
the port for Banda Aceh (3.70), stands on a narrow spit of
sand which separates Cangkoy lagoon from the sea. The
lagoon, which is entered through Kuala Cangkoy, has a
depth of 1 m in the entrance, but is shallow within.
Several passages lead S of Uleelheue.
Limits of the roadstead
3.59 1
The limit of the roadstead is a line joining:
Ujung Masammuka (5°35′N 95°13′E) (3.44), and:
The mouth of Sungai Aceh (5°36′N 95°19′E).
Prohibited anchorage
3.60
1
Anchoring is prohibited, due to submarine cables, within
the charted area at the E end of Uleelheue roadstead.
Local weather
3.61 1
During the SW Monsoon, violent gusts blow from the
valley S of Ujung Masammuka.
During the NE Monsoon, sea and swell are sometimes
so heavy that shore communication is interrupted, and the
sea almost breaks in a depth of 5 m.
Land and sea breezes often blow during both seasons,
but the land breeze does not extend beyond the islands.
The forenoon is generally calm, and is the best time for
landing.
Climate information for Banda Aceh is given at 1.170
and 1.176.
Directions for Uleelheue anchorage
3.62 1
Approach from NE. From the vicinity of 5°36′N
95°18′E (1 mile NW of Sungai Aceh) the alignment (235°)
of the following marks leads towards the anchorage in a
least depth of 9 m:
Pulau Tuan (5°34′N 95°15′E) (3.57) and:
The steep fall on the SE side of Glelayang, 2 miles
WSW, (3.55).
The track passes NW of a light−buoy (port hand)
moored 1½ miles WSW of Sungai Aceh Light (5°36′N
95°19′E) (3.47).
2
A dangerous wreck (5°34′N 95°17′E) lies close inshore,
with a stranded wreck 1 mile farther NE.
CHAPTER 3
81
Caution. It has been reported that some river deltas in
the area are extending seaward and depths may be less than
charted.
Useful marks. See 3.47 and 3.57.
3
Tsunami of 26th December 2004 devastated Banda
Aceh, see 1.5. Numerous wrecks lie within 2 miles of the
entrance of Sungai Aceh. It is reported (2006) that the
destroyed pier is being rebuilt.
Anchorage
3.63 1
Anchorage is recommended off Uleelheue pier, in depths
from 7 to 9 m, black sand.
At the height of the monsoon a good scope of cable is
necessary, and deep−draught vessels should anchor farther
out.
2
There is heavy sea at times in both monsoons, and
smooth water can only be depended on for about two
weeks at the change of the monsoons.
Due to the unreliable weather vessels should have a
second anchor ready and keep engines at short notice.
Alongside berth
3.64 1
There is a steel pier (not charted) which extends 61 m
into the sea, with a depth alongside of 5 m at MLWS.
Maximum size permitted: length 55 m, tonnage less than
500 gt.
Port services
3.65 1
Authorities: Harbour Master; customs; immigration; port
health.
Repairs: none can be undertaken.
Other facilities: hospital at Banda Aceh; deratting
exemption certificates.
Supplies: fresh water; fresh provisions can be obtained.
Communications. Nearest airport is at Lhoknga (or
Lhonga), distant 16 km. Daily sea ferry service with
Sabang (3.34).
Teluk Balohan
General description
3.66 1
Teluk Balohan (5°48′N 95°21′E), on the SE side of
Pulau We, affords deep, but sheltered anchorage. Farther
inshore the holding ground is reported to be poor.
A light is exhibited at the head of the bay where there
is a sandy beach and a small concrete pier.
2
Balohan, a large village, is situated some distance inland
from the head of the bay.
A sulphur mine is situated in this part of the island, and
fumes issue from a small crater near the foot of a hill.
Directions
3.67 1
The entrance to Teluk Balohan lies between:
Ujung Seuke (5°48′N 95°22′E) (3.56) and:
A shoal patch extending seaward from Ujung
Teupinpineung, 1½ miles SW.
Thereafter the chart is sufficient guide.
Side channels, river and anchorages
Kuala Pancu
3.68 1
Kuala Pancu (5°34′N 95°14′E), the mouth of a lagoon
close SE of Ujung Pancu, has a depth of 0·5 m. The
channel leads close to the point. The lagoon is very
shallow and inaccessible for boats.
Pancu village stands on the E shore of the lagoon.
Channel south of Pulau Tuan
3.69 1
The channel S of Pulau Tuan (5°34′N 95°15′E) (3.57) is
suitable only for boats.
Landing can be made on the S side of Pulau Tuan.
Sungai Aceh and Banda Aceh
3.70 1
General information. Sungai Aceh (5°35′N 95°19′E),
entered 2¾ miles NE of Uleelheue, is only navigable by
boats.
Banda Aceh, pronounced Banda Atchey, with a
population of 143 409 in 1990, where the Governor resides,
stands on both sides of the river, 2 miles within the
entrance. Rice and pepper are cultivated.
The approach channel is constantly shifting.
2
Useful mark. Sungai Aceh Light (3.47), on E side of
the entrance.
Tsunami of 26th December 2004 devastated Banda
Aceh, see 1.5. See also 3.62.
Kuala Gigieng
3.71 1
Kuala Gigieng (5°38′N 95°23′E), 4½ miles NE of
Sungai Aceh, leads to Gigieng lagoon situated within low
sandhills.
The lagoon is very shallow, but can be entered by boats.
Anchorage off Pulau Buro
3.72 1
Anchorage may be obtained off the SW side of Pulau
Buro (5°41′N 95°23′E) in depths of between 11 m and
16 m, sand.
Landing can be made on the E and SW sides of the
islet.
AROIH LAMPUYANG AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 2917
General description
3.73 1
Aroih Lampuyang (5°40′N 95°08′E) is the channel,
1½ cables wide, between the SE end of Pulau Breueh and
Pulau Deudab.
It may be approached:
From W, by passing N of Pulau Keureuse (3½ miles
SSW of the entrance), or:
From SW, by passing SE of Pulau Keureuse.
2
Caution. Aroih Lampuyang is not recommended for use
as the tidal streams are irregular, the channel is narrow and
the shoals are unmarked.
Topography
3.74 1
For Pulau Breueh see 3.14.
For Pulau Deudab see 3.15.
Controlling depths
3.75 1
The least charted depth in Aroih Keureuse is 14 m.
The least charted depth in the fairway of Aroih
Lampuyang is 20 m, but there are lesser depths in the W
approach.
CHAPTER 3
82
Tidal streams
3.76 1
Tidal streams in Aroih Keureuse attain a maximum rate
of 5 kn.
The streams in Aroih Lampuyang are irregular but can
occasionally exceed a rate of 5 kn.
Directions
Landmarks
3.77 1
Ceumo (5°42′N 95°04′E) (3.16).
Pulau Keureuse (5°38′N 95°04′E), densely wooded.
Approach through Aroih Keureuse
3.78 1
The passage through Aroih Keureuse (5°39′N 95°03′E)
leads ENE in mid channel, through a fairway 3 cables
wide, passing:
SSE of the SW extremity of Pulau Breueh, thence:
NNW of the shoals extending 4 cables N of the E
end of Pulau Keureuse.
Caution. Tidal streams, see 3.76.
Approach from south−west
3.79 1
The approach to Aroih Lampuyang from SW leads
either side of Pulau−pulau Gepon (5°37′N 95°03′E), a
group of rocks and four wooded islets up to 40 m high.
North−west of Pulau−pulau Gepon. The channel
between Pulau−pulau Gepon and Pulau Keureuse is 5 cables
wide, clear of dangers and the tidal streams are weak.
2
South−east of Pulau−pulau Gepon. The approach SE of
Pulau−pulau Gepon is wide and clear of charted dangers
thence it passes either side of a 10 m patch lying 1½ miles
ENE of the E extremity of Pulau Keureuse.
Entry
3.80 1
Entry from W leads:
S of a 4·5 m shoal on the N side of the fairway,
5 cables W of the entrance, and:
N of a 5 m patch, 3 cables WSW of the entrance.
(Directions for Selat Benggala are given at 3.44
and for Alur Pelayaran Malaka at 3.55)
Anchorages on the west and south sides of
Pulau Breueh
Teluk Meulingge, Lhok Kruet and approaches
3.81 1
General information. Teluk Meulingge (5°43′N
95°02′E) and Lhok Kruet, close S, afford safe anchorage
during the NE Monsoon.
There is a sandy beach at the head of each bay, which
lie within a common bight.
Meulingge, a large village, stands at the head of Teluk
Meulingge.
3.82 1
Directions. Both bays are entered between rocks on
which the sea breaks, extending 2 cables S of Pulau−pulau
Sidom (5°43′N 95°01′E), and Ujung Peungaroih, a
headland 1½ miles ESE.
The narrow channel between Pulau−pulau Sidom and
Pulau Breueh, S of Ujung Sigeude, is clear of dangers, but
a strong current sets through the passage.
2
Anchorage can be obtained in Teluk Meulingge and
Lhok Kruet, in depths from 14 to 16 m. In the SW
Monsoon there is considerable sea and swell.
Lhok Lambaro
3.83 1
General information. Lhok Lambaro (5°40′N 95°03′E)
affords good anchorage during the NE Monsoon.
Directions. The approach to Lhok Lambaro leads S of a
rock, on which the sea always breaks, 1 cable W of Pulau
U (5°40′N 95°02′E), a rocky islet.
Caution. The passage between Pulau U and Pulau
Breueh is not recommended.
Anchorage and landing in vicinity of Pulau Tuandipat
3.84 1
Anchorage. During the NE Monsoon good anchorage
may be obtained W of Pulau Tuandipat (5°40′N 95°06′E),
an islet 30 m high, connected to the S side of Pulau Breueh
by a reef.
Landing can easily be made on the E side of Pulau
Tuandipat.
Anchorage on the north−west side of
Pulau Deudab
Lhok Pasijaning
3.85 1
General information. Lhok Pasijaning (5°38′N 95°08′E)
affords reasonable anchorage in the NE Monsoon.
Directions. See SW approach to Aroih Lampuyang
(3.79).
Anchorage can be obtained off Pasijaning village, in
depths from 11 to 15 m.
Landing can be effected at Pasijaning through a break
in the fringing reef.
AROIH RAYA AND AROIH CUT AND
APPROACHES
General information
Chart 2917
Routes
3.86 1
Aroih Raya (5°35′N 95°10′E) is the channel, about
1½ miles wide between Pulau Deudab to the NW, and
Pulau Bunta and Pulau Batee to the SE.
Aroih Raya is the usual coastal route used by shipping
from the W coast of Sumatera to Sabang (3.34) and
Uleelheue (3.58).
Aroih Cut is the narrow channel between Pulau Batee
and the mainland. It is 2 cables wide.
Topography
3.87 1
For Pulau Deudab see 3.15.
Pulau Bunta (5°34′N 95°10′E) is nearly covered to its
summit with coconut palms. A village stands on its N side.
Pulau Batee, close E, is mostly wooded, but is cultivated
on its S side.
Limiting conditions
3.88 1
Aroih Raya should only be used by power−driven
vessels on account of the strong tidal streams (3.89).
CHAPTER 3
83
Aroih Cut should only be used by small vessels with a
speed of not less than 8 kn. Passage should only be
considered in daylight.
Both channels are deep in the fairway, but in 1983 a
depth of 24 m was reported in Aroih Raya in position
(5°34′N 95°08′E).
Tidal streams
3.89 1
Rates. In Aroih Raya and Aroih Cut, spring rates are:
E−going stream 4 to 5 kn.
W−going stream 5 to 6 kn.
Streams run strongest on the N side of Pulau Batee.
Effects of W−going stream are:
An eddy setting S from Ujung Eumpee (5°36′N
95°11′E).
A strong inset between Pulau Batee and Pulau
Usamlakoh, an islet 2 cables SW (3.95).
Tide−rips
3.90 1
Tide−rips, appearing like breakers, form in Aroih Raya
and Aroih Cut. These are most violent with the wind
against the stream, but are comparatively moderate during
the NE Monsoon.
Caution. These tide−rips are sometimes dangerous to
small vessels.
2
Dangerous eddy. There is an eddy off Pulau Lumpat
(5°35′N 95°13′E), which, combined with the tidal stream
setting between Pulau Bunta and Pulau Batee, causes a
confused sea, which sometimes assumes the character of a
whirlpool.
Directions for Aroih Raya
(continued from 10.156 in reverse)
Principal marks
3.91 1
Landmarks:
Ceumo (5°42′N 95°04′E) (3.16).
Gleraya (5°32′N 95°14′E) (3.16).
Ujung Masammuka (5°35′N 95°13′E) (3.44).
Major light:
Pulau Bunta Light (white metal framework tower)
(5°33′N 95°09′E).
Approach from south
3.92 1
From a position WSW of Ujung Raja (5°32′N 95°11′E)
(10.155), the approach leads generally N, passing (with
positions from Pulau Bunta Light (5°33′N 95°09′E)):
As required to clear an 8·5 m patch (reported 1980)
(2½ miles SW), and a 3 m patch (4 miles WSW),
thence:
To a position at least 1 mile W of the W extremity of
Pulau Bunta, on which stands Pulau Bunta
Light (3.91).
3.93 1
When the N point of Pulau Bunta bears 090°, the track
alters ENE, passing (with positions from Pulau Bunta
Light):
NW of Pulau Bunta, from where a light (3.91) is
exhibited, thence:
SE of stranded wreck, (2¼ miles NNE), on the S
edge of a 3·0 m rocky shoal; these dangers are
usually marked by breakers. Thence:
2
NW of Pulau Batee (3 miles ENE), which is steep−to
on its N side, and:
SE of Ujung Eumpee (4 miles NE) from where a
light (3.46) is exhibited, thence:
The track then continues NE into Alur Pelayaran
Malaka, or N for Selat Benggala.
Approach from west
3.94 1
The deepest water will be found by passing (with
positions from Pulau Bunta Light (5°33′N 95°09′E)):
N of a 3·0 m shoal (4 miles WSW) (3.92), thence:
N of an 8·5 m shoal (reported 1980) (2½ miles SW),
and:
S of a rock, awash (2¾ miles NW), thence:
As at 3.93.
Useful mark
3.95 1
Pulau Usamlakoh (5°34′N 95°11′E), a steep−to islet off
the W end of Pulau Batee, which rises nearly vertically on
its N side.
(Directions for Selat Benggala are given at 3.44
and for Alur Pelayaran Malaka at 3.55)
Directions for Aroih Cut
(continued from 10.155)
Principal marks
3.96
1
Landmarks:
Ceumo (5°42′N 95°04′E) (3.16).
Gleraya (5°32′N 95°14′E) (3.16).
Ujung Masammuka (5°35′N 95°13′E) (3.44).
Major light:
Pulau Bunta Light (5°33′N 95°09′E) (3.91).
Approach from south and south−west
3.97 1
Caution. A good speed must be maintained when
passing through this narrow passage. See 3.88 for limiting
conditions.
The approach track leads on Ujung Raja (5°32′N
95°11′E) (10.155), which is difficult to identify from a
distance.
After rounding Ujung Raja, and with the NE entrance of
Aroih Cut open, the line of bearing 049° of the middle of
this entrance leads in mid−channel passing between:
Cuemo,
bearing 003
Pu We Pu We
Aroih Cut
Pu Keureuse Pu Deudab Pulau Bunta Ujung Masammuka,
bearing 042, 12 miles
Aroih Cut from SW, and Aroih Raya (3.96)
(Original dated 1902)
Aroih Raya
CHAPTER 3
84
2
Ujung Masammuka (5°35′N 95°13′E) (3.44), and:
Pulau Lumpat, an islet, 2 cables NW (3.90).
(Directions for Selat Benggala are given at 3.44
and for Alur Pelayaran Malaka at 3.55)
Approach from east
3.98 1
If W−bound through Aroih Cut, the approach track leads
on a line of bearing 247° of the summit of Pulau Bunta
(3.87).
The track then leads midway between:
Ujung Masammuka (3.44), and:
Pulau Lumpat, an islet, 2 cables NW (3.90).
The track then leads Talong the SE shore of the passage,
especially during the W−going stream.
(Directions continue for the coastal route off
W coast of Sumatera at 10.155)
Anchorages and landing within Aroih Raya
and Aroih Cut
Lhok Alurayeun
3.99 1
Description. Lhok Alurayeun (5°36′N 95°08′E) on the
SW side of Pulau Deudab, affords temporary anchorage, in
depths from 13 to 18 m.
Tidal streams. The E−going stream through Aroih Raya
(3.89) is felt in the anchorage.
Caution. The anchorage is not tenable in W winds.
Landing west of Ujung Eumpee
3.100 1
Landing by boat can be made about midway between
Ujung Eumpee (5°36′N 95°11′E) and Ujung Dungon,
1½ miles W, through a gap in the fringing reef, visible
from seaward.
Between Pulau Bunta and Pulau Batee
3.101 1
Temporary anchorage may be obtained by small craft on
the spit which extends 6 cables N from Ujung (5°34′N
95°10′E), the E extremity of Pulau Bunta.
Caution. The tidal streams (3.89) are strong.
NORTH COAST OF SUMATERA FROM UJUNG BAKA TO TANJUNG JAMBOAYE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2777, 1353
Scope of the section
3.102 1
This section describes the coastal passage off the N
coast of Sumatera, from Ujung Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E) to
Tanjung Jamboaye, 127 miles E.
The section is divided into the following parts:
Ujung Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E) to Ujung Pidie,
28 miles ESE (3.105).
2
Ujung Pidie (5°30′N 95°53′E) to Ujung Raja,
38 miles ESE (3.117).
Ujung Raja (5°14′N 96°28′E) to Lhokseumawe,
41 miles E (3.131).
Lhokseumawe including Kruenggeukueh (5°15′N
97°02′E) and Blanglancang, 4 miles E, (3.141).
Lhokseumawe to Tanjung Jamboaye, 21 miles
E (3.171).
Through route
3.103 1
For offshore routes covering parts of this section, see
2.36; for through routes see 2.50.
Topography
3.104 1
Under favourable conditions the following mountain
peaks, mostly situated within 15 miles of the coastline
between Ujung Baka and Tanjung Jamboaye, may be used
as fixing marks:
Gunung Seulawaih Agam (5°27′N 95°39′E) (3.17).
Gunung Seulawaih Inong (5°26′N 95°46′E) (3.17).
2
Samalanga (5°05′N 96°19′E) and dome−shaped.
Another summit, 3 miles W of Samalanga, has a
waterfall on its NW side.
Gle Goh (5°02′N 96°37′E), resembling an elephant
facing NW.
3
Gunung Geureudong (4°49′N 96°49′E), with two
craters shaped like truncated cones, 2¾ miles apart;
the SW is 2937 m high. Gunung Geureudong is
the W spur of Gunung Panjang, a high tableland
extending 18 miles E.
Ujeuen (4°50′N 97°06′E).
4
Between Ujeuen and Tanjung Jamboaye, there are no
mountain ranges.
For other distant mountain peaks farther S, visible from
the W coast of Sumatera, see 10.143.
UJUNG BAKA TO UJUNG PIDIE
General information
Charts 2917, 2777
Route
3.105 1
The coastal route between Ujung Baka (5°40′N 95°26′E)
and Ujung Pidie, 28 miles ESE, leads in an ESE direction
outside the 50 m depth contour.
Topography
3.106 1
Ujung Baka, the N extremity of Sumatera, is low and
may be identified by a group of casuarina trees close to the
beach.
A shallow lagoon is situated close W of Ujung Baka.
The entrance dries and is generally marked by surf.
2
The coast from Ujung Baka to Ujung Pidie, is generally
hilly, with the hills extending right down to the shore.
The only flat swampy land of significance is on the W
and E sides of Teluk Kruengraya (5°37′N 95°31′E) (3.111),
where the port of Malahayati is situated.
3
Parts of the coast are composed of chalk or sandstone,
and are steep, as at:
Ujung Bateeputeh (5°38′N 95°37′E) (3.108).
CHAPTER 3
85
Ujung Pidie (5°30′N 95°53′E) (3.108).
Elsewhere the coast consists of sloping sandy soil, and
is partly wooded.
4
There are several unimportant rivulets, but most of the
entrances are closed during periods of prolonged drought.
Small villages stand at the mouths of the rivulets.
Natural conditions
3.107 1
Tidal streams near the coast are regular, but the
resultant flow is considerably affected by the W−going
current; the latter is more variable outside the 20 m depth
contour.
Calm weather is more prevalent offshore than nearer
the coast.
Directions
(continued from 3.23 or 3.57)
Principal marks
3.108 1
Landmarks:
Inland mountain peaks; see 3.17 and 3.104.
Ujung Bateeputeh (5°38′N 95°37′E), formed of chalk
and sandstone, falling steeply to the sea. It is
easily identified by a large white patch against a
green background and by a white grave.
2
Conspicuous white building at Lampanaih village
(5°35′N 95°40′E), which is otherwise surrounded
by coconut trees, and with a long row of trees E
of it.
Ujung Pidie Lighthouse (5°30′N 95°53′E) (2.41).
3
Major lights:
Pulau Rondo Light (6°04′N 95°07′E) (2.32).
Ujung Seuke Light (5°48′⋅5N 95°22′⋅2E) (2.41).
Ie Meule Light (5°54′N 95°20′E) (2.32).
Ujung Pidie Light (2.41).
Ujung Baka to Ujung Pidie
3.109 1
From a position NE of Pulau Buro (5°41′N 95°23′E),
the coastal route leads ESE clear of charted dangers outside
the 50 m depth contour, passing (with position from Ujung
Batukapal (5°37′N 95°32′E)):
NNE of a 9·2 m coral patch (2¼ miles WNW),
thence:
NNE of Pulau Rangmanyang (3 cables N), a high
sandstone rock which appears from a distance as a
prau under sail, thence:
2
NNE of Ujung Bateeputeh (5 miles E) (3.108),
thence:
NNE of three detached rocks, off Ujung Blangraya
(18 miles ESE) lying within the 5 m depth contour,
with a depth of 0·5 m over them, and on which the
sea always breaks.
3
The route then continues ESE to a position NNE of
Ujung Pidie (22 miles ESE).
3.110 1
Useful marks:
Ujung Batukapal Light (white beacon, 12 m in height)
(5°37′N 95°32′E) on the summit of Ujung
Batukapal, where there are two remarkable white
cliffs.
Kruengraya Light (white metal framework structure,
15 m in height) (5°35′N 95°30′E).
(Directions continue at 3.120)
Teluk Kruengraya
Chart 2917
General information
3.111 1
Description. Teluk Kruengraya is entered between Ujung
Kareueng (5°39′N 95°27′E) and Ujung Batukapal 5 miles
ESE (3.110).
The port of Malahayati (3.114) and the town of
Kruengraya are situated at the head of the bay, at the E
entrance of Krueng Raya which dries.
2
Topography. The W and S sides of the bay are marshy,
but E of the river the shore is a precipitous cliff.
Tidal streams. See 3.107.
Directions for Teluk Kruengraya
3.112 1
Approach. The deepest water will be found by passing:
E of the 9·2 m coral patch (5°38′N 95°30′E), thence:
W of a 2·5 m shoal marked by a buoy (port hand),
4 cables W of Ujung Batukapal (5°37′N 95°32′E).
The narrow passage between Ujung Batukapal and
Pulau Rangmanyang has a least depth of 5 m in the
fairway but a depth of 3·6 m lies 3 cables W of Pulau
Rangmanyang.
Anchorages
3.113 1
Teluk Kruengraya is inconveniently deep for anchorage
and the bottom on the W side of the bay is foul. However,
Teluk Kruengraya does provide the only anchorage on the
N coast of Sumatera that is usually free from swell in both
monsoons.
The recommended position is at the head of the bay,
3 cables offshore, in a depth of 32 m. Temporary anchorage
may be obtained on the 9·2 m coral patch (3.112).
2
Good anchorage for small vessels may be obtained E of
Pulau Rangmanyang (3.109), in a depth of 11 m, on the
alignment (296°) of the S extremity of Pulau
Rangmanyang, and Pulau Buro (3.56).
Malahayati
3.114 1
General information. The port of Malahayati (5°36′N
95°31′E) is open to overseas trade and comprises one
concrete jetty capable of accommodating one vessel up to
length 80 m, 10 000 dwt, with a draught of 8 m, and
4 cables W a tanker jetty at Kruengraya.
Population is dense in the vicinity of Teluk Kruengraya,
but farther E there are fewer inhabitants.
2
Port Authority Dit Jeb Perhubungan Laut, Cabang
Malahayati, Malahayati, Aceh
Port operations The port is open following the tsunami
of 26th December 2004 (1.5).
Notice of ETA should be sent 96 and 24 hours before
arrival.
3
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 150 gt, for
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Berths.
Malahayati T−headed jetty is 100 m in length, with a
depth alongside of 6·7 m at MLWS. There is a
mooring dolphin on each side of the jetty head.
The connecting bridge extends 100 m from the
shore to the T−head.
Kruengraya −Pertimina tanker jetty.
4
Repairs: none can be undertaken.
Other facilities: hospital at Banda Aceh.
CHAPTER 3
86
Supplies: limited water and fresh provisions available;
fuel by road tanker.
Communications. Nearest airport is at Blang Bintang,
40 km distant.
Anchorage and landing places
Chart 2777
Anchorage
3.115 1
Anchorage is not recommended off the coast between
Ujung Baka and Ujung Pidie in depths less than 15 m; the
bottom is mostly rocky especially off the headlands. See
also 3.113 for anchorage in Teluk Kruengraya.
Ujung Blangraya
3.116 1
Description. Landing can be made E of Cure, a village
which stands 5 cables ESE of Ujung Blangraya (5°32′N
95°50′E) (3.109), where there is a lagoon.
Casuarina trees and a few houses stand in the vicinity.
Dangers. See 3.109 for three detached rocks off Ujung
Blangraya.
Useful mark. Ujung Matale(5°33′N 95°46′E), a high
point.
UJUNG PIDIE TO UJUNG RAJA
General information
Chart 2777
Route
3.117 1
The coastal route between Ujung Pidie (5°30′N 95°53′E)
and Ujung Raja, 38 miles ESE, leads in an ESE direction
outside the 50 m depth contour.
Topography
3.118 1
The coast from Ujung Pidie (3.108) to Ujung Raja
(3.121) consists of a narrow strip of sand covered by
brushwood and occasional groups of trees.
Within the coast the ground is swampy, but not far
inland it becomes undulating, and is cultivated, fertile and
thickly populated.
2
Small fishing villages are scattered along this coast.
Sigli (5°23′N 95°57′E), the principal town, is described
in 3.123.
Tidal streams
3.119 1
The streams set E and W, but the resultant flow is
considerably affected by the W−going current.
Directions
(continued from 3.110)
Principal marks
3.120 1
Landmarks:
Inland mountain peaks; see 3.17 and 3.104.
Gle Banggalang (5°10′N 96°26′E) has a fairly flat top
and a light green patch on its NW side.
Major light:
Ujung Pidie Light (5°30′N 95°53′E) (2.41).
Passage
3.121 1
From a position NNE of Ujung Pidie (5°30′N 95°53′E),
the coastal route leads ESE clear of charted dangers outside
the 50 m depth contour, passing (with positions from Ujung
Pidie):
NNE of Ujung Meureudu (27 miles ESE) (3.129),
thence:
2
To a position at least 5 cables NNE of Ujung Raja
(38 miles ESE) a low point, which although
steep−to, should not be approached in depths of
less than 15 m on account of the fringing reef.
There is a clump of trees on the point.
3.122 1
Useful mark:
Sigli Light (beacon, 8 m in height) (5°23′N 95°57′E).
(Directions continue at 3.134)
Pelabuhan Sigli
General information
3.123 1
General description. Pelabuhan Sigli (5°23′N 95°57′E),
the headquarters of a Government Officer, is situated at the
SE mouth of Krueng Baro (3.124), the principal river on
this part of the coast.
Pelabuhan Sigli affords good, but open anchorage.
The buildings of Sigli are visible some distance from
seaward, as the coastal vegetation in the vicinity is clear.
The land is very fertile and is thickly populated.
Directions for Pelabuhan Sigli and Krueng Baro
3.124 1
Anchorage can be obtained in depths from 13 to 15 m,
mud, 8 cables offshore, with:
Ujung Pidie (3.108), bearing 323° and Sigli flagstaff,
bearing 243°.
Krueng Baro. The SE entrance is marked by stakes and
has a depth of 0·5 m. The channel is continually changing
in depth and direction. The river is navigable by light craft
only for 2 miles above the entrance.
The NW entrance to Krueng Baro dries.
2
Useful marks:
Sigli flagstaff (5°23′N 95°57′E).
Clump of high casuarina trees on the beach at Sigli.
Services
3.125 1
Repairs: none can be undertaken.
Other facilities: medical assistance available.
Supplies: fresh water and provisions in small quantities.
Anchorages and landings
Krueng Tiro
3.126 1
General information. Krueng Tiro enters the sea at
Kuala Leleubeue (5°19′·5N 96°02′·6E), 6 miles SE of
Pelabuhan Sigli (3.123).
Directions. The river can be navigated by boat far into
the interior, and is of significance to local trade.
Anchorage may be obtained off Kuala Ieleubeue, in
depths from 15 to 18 m, but the coast is steep−to farther E.
CHAPTER 3
87
Kuala Nyong
3.127 1
General information. Kuala Nyong (5°17′·1N
96°06′·8E), the E mouth of Krueng Topin Raya, has a
depth of 1 m. There is a lagoon within.
Directions. At times Kuala Nyong can be navigated; at
other times only the W mouth of Krueng Topin Raya can
be used.
2
Useful mark. Near the E side of the entrance a ridge of
hills, covered by pepper plantations, reaches nearly to the
coast.
Anchorage may be obtained off Kuala Nyong, in a
depth of 14 m.
3.128 1
Interior. Krueng Topin Raya trends 2 miles W from its
E mouth parallel with the coast, and thence SW. Pusong
village is situated on the coast at the bend of the river.
Krueng Meureudu
3.129 1
General information. Krueng Meureudu is situated at
Ujung Meureudu (5°16′N 96°16′E), a low sandy point with
a few trees on it. The river is prominent in the rainy
season.
2
Approaches. Mud and sandbanks lie in the entrance to
Krueng Meureudu, which leads to the village of Meureudu,
8 cables inland.
Breakers occur at times in the entrance. The river is
only accessible to small craft.
Krueng Samalanga
3.130 1
General information. The entrance to Krueng
Samalanga (5°13′·0N 96°21′·9E) is 2½ cables wide within
its mouth. The river water is fresh almost to the entrance.
The village of Samalanga stands 1 mile within the
entrance.
Dangers. There are heavy breakers off the entrance
during the NE monsoon.
The outlets of the lagoon E of Samalanga dry.
2
Anchorage may be obtained 1 mile off the mouth of
Krueng Samalanga, in depths from 22 to 27 m, but this
anchorage is untenable at times during the NE monsoon.
UJUNG RAJA TO LHOKSEUMAWE
General information
Charts 2777, 3919 (see 1.17)
Route
3.131 1
The coastal route between Ujung Raja (5°14′N 96°28′E)
and Lhokseumawe, 41 miles E, leads in an E direction
outside the 50 m depth contour.
Topography
3.132 1
The coast between Ujung Raja (3.121) and the harbour
installations of Kruenggeukueh and Blanglancang (3.141) is
generally low, sandy and wooded, with higher land close
within it.
Between Ujung Raja and Ujung Peusangan (22 miles E),
the low grassy plain is interspersed by groves of trees.
There are many villages along this coast, but landmarks
are scarce. The promontories are all low and not so sharply
defined as those W of Ujung Raja.
Restricted area
3.133
1
A restricted area is established, in the approaches to
Kruenggeukueh and Blanglancang. the limits of which are
shown on chart 3574. It extends up to about 3 miles
offshore and includes the various moorings, anchorages and
an SPM and associated pipeline.
2
A submarine gas pipeline extends NNE across the area,
then generally NE to an offshore production platform
(5°44′N 97°50′E) (2.46); a restricted zone in which
anchoring and fishing are prohibited within 1 mile of the
pipeline extends about 20 miles from the shore.
For information on submarine pipelines, see 1.42.
Directions
(continued from 3.122)
Principal marks
3.134 1
Landmarks:
Inland mountain peaks (3.104).
Gle Banggalang (5°10′N 96°26′E) (3.120).
Gle Ran (5°09′N 96°36′E), which is steep on its E
side, and shows best from NW, whence it appears
as a large square horn, with steep sides.
2
Gle Mongmong (5°10′N 96°46′E), is prominent, with
a forest on its summit, containing many tall trees.
Landmarks at Blanglancang (3.154).
Major lights:
Blanglancang Leading Lights (5°13′N 97°06′E)
(3.157).
Other aid to navigation
3.135
1
Racon: Kruenggeukueh Light (5°14′⋅4N 97°02′⋅7E)
(3.156).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Ujung Raja to Ujung Peusangan
3.136 1
From a position NNE of Ujung Raja (5°14′N 96°28′E)
(3.121), the coastal route leads E clear of charted dangers
outside the 50 m depth contour, passing (with positions
from Ujung Raja):
N of red rocks (1 mile SE) close off the fringing reef,
thence:
2
N of a 9 m shoal (2 miles E), thence:
N of the coastal bank off Kuala Jeumpa (11 miles E),
which lies within the 10 m depth contour up to
1 mile from the coast. Although the depth contour
is steep−to, depths within are shallow and irregular.
Ujung Peusangan to Lhokseumawe
3.137 1
The coastal route continues E, passing:
N of Ujung Peusangan (5°16′N 96°50′E), a low sandy
point, with a few casuarina trees close E, thence:
N of Karang Agamagam (7¾ miles farther E), a
dangerous reef lying 6 cables offshore, and which
should not be approached within the 20 m depth
contour, thence:
CHAPTER 3
88
2
N of the approach to Kruenggeukueh harbour (5°15′N
97°02′E), thence:
N of the Restricted Area (5°15′N 97°05′E) (3.133),
thence:
3
The track then continues E to a position N of
Lhokseumawe Light (white framework tower, 14 m in
height) (5°12′N 97°08′E), which stands close NW of a
steep−to sandy promontory with high trees.
Useful mark
3.138 1
Kruenggeukueh Light (5°14′⋅4N 97°02′⋅7E) (3.156).
(Directions continue for the coastal route
E of Lhokseumawe at 3.175.
Directions are given for Kruenggeukueh at 3.154
for Blanglancang at 3.157,
and for Lhokseumawe anchorage at 3.164)
Anchorages
Anchorage east of Ujung Peusangan
3.139 1
General information. The bottom between Ujung
Peusangan (5°16′N 96°50′E) (3.137) and the reef Karang
Agamagam (3.137) is mostly hard sand and small stones,
with coral in places, and the holding ground is indifferent.
Anchorage can be obtained in the bight between Ujung
Peusangan and Karin Agamagam, in depths from 9 to
13 m.
Local knowledge is required.
Kuala Ceurape
3.140 1
General information. Kuala Ceurape (5°16′N 96°51′E),
the mouth of Kreung Peusangan, is situated 1 mile ESE of
Ujung Peusangan.
The lower reach of Kreung Peusangan is named Kreung
Blangme.
Anchorage may be obtained off Kuala Ceurape, in a
depth of 11 m, but there are dangerous sandbanks off the
entrance.
LHOKSEUMAWE INCLUDING
KRUENGGEUKUEH AND BLANGLANCANG
General information
Chart 3574 plans of Kruenggeukueh, Blanglancang, and
approaches to Kruenggeukueh and Blanglancang
Position
3.141 1
The port of Lhokseumawe comprises the adjacent
harbours of:
Kruenggeukueh (5°15′N 97°02′E).
Blanglancang (5°13′N 97°06′E).
Two mooring areas lie close offshore between the two
harbours:
A SPM (fixed structure) (5°15′·3N 97°04′·1E).
Blanglancang (Arun) Terminal (5°14′·5N 97°04′·4E).
2
The anchorage and berths of Lhokseumawe and Hagu,
4 miles SE of Blanglancang, are described separately at
3.164.
Functions
3.142
1
Kruenggeukueh handles bulk fertilizer and general
cargoes.
Blanglancang handles general cargo, LNG and LPG.
Blanglancang (Arun) refinery produces LNG, LPG and
condensate (a type of naptha).
The SPM and Arun Terminal are used for loading
condensate.
Traffic
3.143
1
In 2004, 278 vessels totalling 8 902 741 dwt used these
ports.
Port Authorities
3.144
1
Lhokseumawe Harbour Office, Jl Pelabuhan,
Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Sumatera.
Kruenggeukueh Port Authority, c/o Lhokseumawe
Harbour Office.
Blanglancang Port Authority (including Arun Terminal),
PO Box 22, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Sumatera.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
3.145 1
Kruenggeukueh: 9⋅3 m.
SPM: 48 m.
Blanglancang (Arun) Terminal: 30 m.
Blanglancang: 13⋅5 m.
Density of water
3.146
1
Density: 1·025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.147
1
Kruenggeukueh: 15 000 dwt, length 175 m, draught
9·5 m.
SPM: 280 000 dwt, length 350 m, draught 59 m.
Blanglancang (Arun) Terminal: 100 000 dwt, length
275 m, draught 35 m.
Blanglancang: 100 000 dwt, length 290 m, draught
12·5 m (LNG berths).
Arrival information
Port operations
3.148 1
The ports are operating normally following the tsunami
of 26th December 2004 (1.5).
Notice of ETA
3.149 1
ETAs should be sent 96, 72, 48 24 and 6 hours before
arrival.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Waiting anchorages
3.150 1
Off Kruenggeukeh:
In a depth of 39 m about 9 cables NNW of the
harbour entrance.
At Condensate Tanker Anchorage (5°16′⋅3N
97°03′⋅2E), 1½ miles NE of the harbour entrance.
2
Off Blanglancang:
At Chemical Tanker Anchorage (5°14′⋅2N 97°07′⋅9E),
1¾ miles ENE of the harbour entrance.
The holding ground is reported to be poor.
For Teluk Lhokseumawe roadstead (5°11′N 97°09′E),
see 3.169.
CHAPTER 3
89
Pilotage and tugs
3.151 1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 gt. The pilot
boards at the waiting anchorages (3.150) or at the outer
light−buoy (safe water) (5°16′N 97°07′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs (also fitted for fire fighting) and mooring boats are
available for all berths.
Traffic regulations
3.152
1
Prohibited area is established within 500 m of the SPM
(fixed structure) and pipeline, as shown on the chart.
Restricted area. See 3.133.
Harbours
General layout
3.153
1
Kruenggeukueh consists of an enclosed artificial
harbour protected by breakwaters (see 3.158). See 3.156 for
leading lights.
Blanglancang SPM is the major condensate loading
facility located 1 mile offshore (see 3.159).
2
Blanglancang Terminal (Arun Marine Terminal) is a
multi−buoy mooring system used for loading condensate
(see 3.160).
Blanglancang consists of an enclosed artificial harbour
protected by breakwaters extending up to 2½ cables from
the shore (see 3.161).
Directions
Principal marks
3.154 1
Landmarks:
Prominent white storage tanks (5°14′N 97°05′E) at
Blanglancang refinery. Tanks W of the water
intake jetty (3.160) are low with flat tops; E of the
jetty they are higher and have dome tops.
2
Gleraya (5°11′N 97°06′E) (3.168).
Blanglancang Leading and Berthing Light−beacons
(3.157); their size and colour markings are most
prominent.
Major lights:
Blanglancang Leading Lights (3.157).
Other aid to navigation
3.155
1
Racon: Kruenggeukueh Light (5°14′⋅4N 97°02′⋅7E)
(3.156).
For further details see the relevant Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 2.
Approach and entry to Kruenggeukueh
3.156 1
Leading lights. From the vicinity of 5°18′N 97°03′E,
the alignment (200°) of the following lights leads through
the middle of the approach channel and harbour entrance:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on white beacon,
12 m in height) (5°14′·6N 97°01′·8E).
Rear light (white triangle, point down, on white
beacon, 15 m in height) (130 m SSW).
2
Useful marks:
E Breakwater Head Light (red framework structure)
(5°15′·1N 97°02′·1E).
W Breakwater Head Light (green framework
structure, 8 m in height) (5°15′·2N 97°01′·9E).
Kruenggeukueh Light (white beacon) (5°14′⋅4N
97°02′⋅7E).
SPM and light (5°15′⋅3N 97°04′⋅0E) (3.159).
Approach and entry to Blanglancang
3.157 1
Leading lights. From the vicinity of 5°19′N 97°09′E,
the alignment (205°) of the following lights leads SSW
through the middle of the approach channel and into the
harbour passing clear of a light−buoy (safe water) moored
2 miles NE of the entrance:
2
Front light (orange triangle, point up, on white
beacon, black bands, 36 m in height) (5°13′N
97°06′E).
Rear light (orange triangle, point down, on white
beacon, red bands, 43 m in height) (157 m SSW
from front light).
Berthing lights:
3
The alignment of light (295°) assists berthing at the
LNG terminals in the W of the harbour:
Front light−beacon (orange triangle, point up, on
white beacon, black bands, 38 m in height)
(5°13′·5N 97°05′·4E).
Rear light−beacon (orange triangle, point down, on
white beacon, red bands, 44 m in height) (171 m
WNW of front beacon).
The rear light−beacon exhibits a sectored light, as shown
on the chart.
4
Useful marks:
E Breakwater Light (red beacon, 8 m in height)
(5°13′·5N 97°06′·4E).
W breakwater light (green beacon, 8 m in height)
(5°13′·6N 97°06′·1E).
Berths
Kruenggeukueh
3.158
1
Four berths handle fertiliser, the longest AAF−B with a
maximum of LOA 300 m, depth alongside 10⋅0 m. The
Public Berth is maximum LOA 80 m, depth 10⋅
SPM
3.159
1
An SPM (fixed structure) (5°15′·3N 97°04′·0E), is
connected to the refinery SSW by a submarine pipeline, see
also 1.42. It is used by tankers of between 40 000 and
280 000 dwt, (maximum length 350 m), for loading
condensate.
Blanglancang (Arun) Terminal
3.160
1
Tanker of 30 000 to 100 000 dwt, (maximum length
275 m), are secured to a multi−buoy mooring about
6 cables NNW of the refinery.
Loading of condensate is by two submarine pipelines
laid from the refinery, see also 1.42.
2
A light−buoy (port hand) (5°14′·8N 97°04′·9E) is
moored off the NE side of the mooring buoy pattern.
A cooling water intake and a jetty (5°13′·8N 97°05′·4E)
each extend 2 cables NNE between the refinery and
Blanglancang. The jetty is no longer used for berthing
ships.
CHAPTER 3
90
Leading Light−beacons (205)
a
a
W Breakwater Light
Blanglancang from a position 2 miles NW of the harbour entrance (3.157) − View in two parts
Berthing Light−beacons (295)
(Original dated 1996)
Tank farm extends west
a
a
Blanglancang
3.161 1
Two LNG berths are situated on the NE and SW sides
of the W part of the harbour; maximum size at each berth
LOA 290 m, 100 000 dwt, draught 12⋅5 m.
2
One LPG berth is situated in the E part of the harbour,
maximum size LOA 255 m, 60 000 dwt, draught 12⋅5 m.
Cargo berth is situated in W dock. Berth 400 m in
length, depth alongside 6 m MLWS. (Maximum permitted
length 160 m).
Port services
3.162 1
Repairs. Minor repairs possible.
Other facilities. Waste oil disposal is not available;
deratting and deratting exemption certificates can be issued;
medical facilities are available in an emergency, hospital
facilities at Lhokseumawe (3.170).
Supplies. Fresh water is available at Blanglancang and
Kruenggeukueh; fuel is available by road tanker.
Communications. Local airports at Lhokseumawe
(30 km) and Malikussaleh (40 km). International airport at
Medan (360 km).
Hagu Baratlaut
General information
3.163 1
Description. Hagu Baratlaut (5°13′N 97°07′E), 5 cables
SE of Blanglancang, is connected by a swampy and
shallow passage with Lhokseumawe (3.164).
There are villages at intervals along the banks of the
passage which is suitable only for small craft. It has a
depth of 0⋅1 m in the entrance, and of 3·5 m within, in
places.
Lhokseumawe and Hagu
Charts 3574 plan of Approaches to Kruenggeukueh and
Blanglancang, 3919
General information
3.164 1
Position and function. Lhokseumawe (5°11′N 97°09′E)
is the headquarters of a Government Officer, and is an
important trading station.
Teluk Lhokseumawe affords anchorage, and, apart from
Teluk Kruengraya (3.111), is the only protected anchorage
on the N coast of Sumatera. Cargo vessels, awaiting berths
at Blanglancang, often use this anchorage.
2
Topography. Lhokseumawe is easily identified by a
remarkable ridge of hills, 2 miles W of the town, which is
clear of trees, disclosing light green grass. Topography of
the coast E of Lhokseumawe is given at 3.172.
3
Limits of the Teluk Lhokseumawe roadstead are:
A line drawn 090° seaward for 11 cables from a post
charted in position 5°11′·3N 97°08′·8E;
Thence S to a line drawn 090° for the same distance
from Pusong, 1¼ miles SSW, the point S of
Lhokseumawe.
Tidal levels
3.165
1
See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3.
Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range about
0.6 m .
Pilotage
3.166
1
Pilots board at the anchorage (3.169).
For further details and information on port operations
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
CHAPTER 3
91
Natural conditions
3.167
1
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Lhokseumawe are weak.
The flow is affected by the W−setting current along the
coast.
Local weather. During the SW monsoon, the roadstead
is well sheltered, but confined, and depths increase rapidly
offshore.
During the NE monsoon a rough sea can be caused by
fresh winds blowing against the tidal stream.
Climate information for Lhokseumawe is given at
1.170 and 1.177.
Directions
3.168 1
Approach. The approach to the anchorage is clear of
charted dangers outside the 20 m depth contour; the chart is
sufficient guide.
Useful marks:
Berthing lights at Blanglancang (5°13′·5N 97°05′·4E)
(3.157).
Lhokseumawe Light (5°12′N 97°08′E) (3.137).
Gleraya (5°11′N 97°06′E), the highest part of the
remarkable ridge (3.164).
Anchorage and berths
3.169 1
Anchorage. The best anchorage is in a depth of about
16 m, mud, with the flagstaff at 5°10′⋅8N7°08′⋅8E bearing
280°.
Caution. The following lie near the limits of the
anchorage area (positions given from the flagstaff):
A wreck, non−dangerous, (1¼ miles E), and:
A stranded wreck (5°09′⋅9N 97°09′⋅8E).
2
Berths:
Lhokseumawe − a jetty, 60 m in length, depth 3⋅0 m
for small vessels. Larger ships work cargo at the
anchorage.
Hagu pier (5°11′·7N 97°08′·8E), 20 m in length, with
a depth alongside of 7 m MLWS and a maximum
LOA of 25 m and draught of 6⋅0 m, is a small
tanker jetty owned and operated by Pertamina.
Port services
3.170 1
Repairs: none can be undertaken.
Other facilities: hospital and medical facilities available;
deratting and deratting exemption certificates can be issued,
see 3.162.
Supplies: limited fresh provisions and water available.
Communications: See 3.162.
LHOKSEUMAWE TO TANJUNG
JAMBOAYE
General information
Chart 3919 (see 1.17)
Route
3.171 1
The coastal route from Lhokseumawe (5°11′N 97°09′E)
to Tanjung Jamboaye, about 21 miles E, leads generally
ENE keeping clear of dangers lying up to 8 miles off the
coast.
Topography
3.172 1
The coast between Lhokseumawe and Tanjung Jamboaye
is sandy and is backed by a narrow strip of swampy forest
land, about 1 mile wide. Farther inland, in the W part, it
becomes hilly.
The range of hills (3.164), which trends SE when S of
Blanglancang, recedes away from the coast S of
Lhokseumawe and an extensive plain in the E begins.
Several such plains lie all along the NE coast of Sumatera,
and are widest S of Tanjung Jamboaye.
2
The plains are irrigated by several rivers and their
tributaries which flow into the sea along this stretch of
coast; the principal of these are:
Krueng Keureutoe (5°10′N 97°16′E) (3.180).
Krueng Jamboaye (5°15′N 97°29′E) (3.181).
Caution
3.173 1
It has been reported that within 3 miles of this stretch of
coast, there were numerous bamboo poles marking fish
pots. These should be avoided as they are secured by long
lengths of rope.
Tidal streams
3.174 1
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Tanjung Jamboaye set
SE and NW.
The NW−going stream, being increased by the prevailing
NW current, is stronger and of longer duration than the SE
stream. At springs the former sometimes attain a rate of
3 kn, but in the offing it seldom exceeds 1½ kn.
Nearer the coast W of Tanjung Jamboaye the tidal
streams are weak.
Directions
(continued from 3.138)
Principal marks
3.175 1
Landmark
Water tower (7 cables ESE of Tanjung Jamboaye
Light).
Major light
Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E) (2.41),
which stands 5 cables W of the point.
Other aid to navigation
3.176
1
Racon: Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Lhokseumawe to Tanjung Jamboaye
3.177 1
From a position N of Lhokseumawe anchorage, the
coastal route leads generally ENE, passing (with positions
given from Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E)):
Well NNW of Karang Gatui (12½ miles W), thence:
NNW of Karang Tengah (8 miles WNW), and:
Clear of, depending on draught, Karang Minyak
(9½ miles WNW), thence:
NNW of Karang Timau (6 miles W), thence:
2
To a position N of Tanjung Jamboaye, a low sandy
point, keeping outside the 20 m depth contour to
avoid the spit, with depths of less than 5 m over it,
which extends 2½ miles NW from the point. This
spit is relatively steep−to on its NE side, over
CHAPTER 3
92
which the sea breaks at times. There is a heavy
swell off the point, especially during the NE
Monsoon, and discoloured water has been reported,
see 3.181.
3
Small craft, especially those W−bound, may pass:
Between Karang Timau, and the coast of Sumatera,
thence;
Well N of Karang Gatui.
Useful marks
3.178 1
Lhokseumawe Light (5°12′N 97°08′E) (3.137).
Flare, the position of which is approximate, (5°03′N
97°16′E).
(Directions continue for coastal route
SE of Tanjung Jamboaye at 4.17.
Directions for the through route from
Tanjung Jamboaye to Permatang Sedepa
(One Fathom Bank) are given at 2.46)
Anchorages and landings
General
3.179 1
The bottom consists of sand close inshore; a short
distance off, it is sand, mud and coral; in the offing it is
clay and mud.
Local knowledge is required.
Kuala Keureutoe
3.180 1
Description. Kuala Keureutoe (5°10′N 97°16′E), has an
entrance ¾ cable wide.
The banks of Krueng Keureutoe are low and covered
with brushwood near the entrance, but farther upriver the
banks are higher.
The village of Keureutoe stands 4 miles upriver.
The country in the vicinity is thickly populated and the
land is cultivated.
2
Channel. Krueng Keureutoe runs rapidly. For 7 miles
from its entrance the river is not less than ½ cable wide.
Good anchorage may be obtained off the entrance to
Krueng Keureutoe in a depth of 11 m.
Krueng Jamboaye
3.181 1
General information. Krueng Jamboaye entrance
(5°15′N 97°29′E) is close W of Tanjung Jamboaye Light
(2.41). The river forms the boundary between the Provinces
of Keureutoe and Simpangolim.
The coastline in the vicinity of Tanjung Jamboaye
appears to be slowly receding.
Approach. The sea usually breaks over the bar at HW.
Discoloured water from the river sometimes extends 4 miles
from its mouth.
2
River. Navigation of the river is difficult due to the
tortuous channel and strong current. It is not much used for
trading purposes due chiefly to its shifting and dangerous
bar. Produce is generally taken through an artificial canal to
Simpangolim (4.23) for shipment.
NOTES
93
100°
3°
2°
1°
3°
2°
1°
3°
4°
5°
3°
4°
5°
101° Longitude 102° East from Greenwich 103°
101° 102° 103°
98° 99°
100°
98° Longitude 99° East from Greenwich
M A L A Y S I A
S U M A T E R A
S U M A T E R A
Continued
on diagram
below
Continued
from diagram
above
T
.
J
a
m
b
o
a
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T
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Sungai Ashen
Teluk Aru
Belawan
U
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a
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T
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T
.
S
i
n
a
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M
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Kukukurung
P. P.
Karimun
Sungai Siak
Dumai
Kualatanjung
Pel. Sungaipakning
NP 36
Indonesia Pilot
Vol I
Ch 7
Sungai
Rokan
Selat
Rupat
Bengkalis
Lalang
Chapter 2
Ch
3
Kuala Beukeh
Terminal
3919
3920
3921
3945
3574
3584
3584
3946
3945
3947
3947
3933
3933
5502 Mariners' Routeing Guide
3584
0406
0406
4
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2
0
8
4
.
2
3
4
4
.
2
4
6
4
.
2
5
4
4
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3
3
9
4
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3
0
3
4
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3
6
5
4
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3
7
4
4
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3
6
7
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3
7
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4
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3
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2
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4
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9
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3
4
4.127
4.33
4.157
4
.
1
6
3
4
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1
8
9
4.174
4.70
4.309
4.303
4.303
4.325
4.300
4.220
4
.
2
6
8
4
.
3
4
6
4
.106
Chapter 4 - East coast of Sumatera from Tanjung Jamboaye to Pulau-pulau-Karimum
94
95
CHAPTER 4
NORTH−WEST ENTRANCE TO MALACCA STRAIT
EAST COAST OF SUMATERA FROM TANJUNG JAMBOAYE
TO PULAU−PULAU KARIMUN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1353, 1358
Scope of the chapter
4.1 1
This chapter, which is divided into four sections,
describes the coastal passage from Tanjung Jamboaye
(5°15′N 97°30′E) to the vicinity of Pulau−pulau Karimun
(1°05′N 103°22′E), a direct distance of about 435 miles.
2
The four sections are:
Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N 97°30′E) to Ujung
Tamiang (4.8).
Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E) to Tanjung Jumpul
(4.51).
3
Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N 99°53′E) to Tanjung Sinaboi
(4.186).
Tanjung Sinaboi (2°17′N 101°04′E) to Pulau−pulau
Karimun (4.228).
Through route
4.2 1
For through route from off Tanjung Jamboaye to
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) (2°53′N 101°00′E)
TSS and thence to Singapore Strait Separation Scheme, see
2.46.
Aids to navigation
4.3 1
Aids to navigation are reported to be unreliable in
Indonesian waters.
Positions
4.4
1
Satellite−derived positions. Positions obtained from
satellite navigation systems are normally referred to
WGS84 Datum. The difference between satellite−derived
positions and the positions on some charts in the
Indonesian waters in this chapter can not be determined.
Mariners are warned that these differences may be
significant to navigation, and are therefore advised to use
alternative methods to obtain positions, particularly when
closing the shore and navigating in the vicinity of dangers.
See notes on charts, also Annual Notice to Mariners No 19.
2
Horizontal datums. Due to the datums in use on the
Malaysia and Indonesian sides of the Strait being
incompatible, bearing and distance vectors on ARCs charts
can not be extended across the boundary of the datums. In
the N part of Malacca Strait the boundary is about midway
between the two coastlines, and SE of Permatang Sedepa it
lies SW of the TSS (2.21) and bisects the waters covered
in this chapter.
Piracy
4.5
1
Piracy is prevalent in Malacca Strait, including offshore
waters, and especially significant at Belawan and Dumai.
Details of recommended practices concerning piracy, radio
reports and urgency messages are given in Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 1 (2). For further details see 1.70
to 1.74.
Tidal streams
4.6 1
The streams offshore are largely affected by the wind,
but the NW set prevails.
Nearer the coast, the streams set SE and NW at a rate
of about 1¾ kn, and closer inshore at 2 kn.
In the river mouths, the stream sometimes runs at a rate
of 3 kn, but the rate depends on the width of the river
entrances. For a synopsis on river mouths see 4.12.
2
For tables giving times of maximum rates at various
places off the coast related to HW and LW Kuala Batu
Pahat (1°48′N 102°53′E), see 4.176, 4.188 and 4.233.
Fishing stakes
4.7
1
Fishing stakes exist within the coastal waters described
within this chapter, mainly within the 20 m depth contour;
their positions may change frequently.
TANJUNG JAMBOAYE TO UJUNG TAMIANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1353
Scope of the section
4.8 1
This section describes the coastal passage off the NE
coast of Sumatera from Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N
97°30′E) to Ujung Tamiang, 70 miles SE.
This passage is divided into the following three parts:
Tanjung Jamboaye to Ujung Peureula (Ujung
Peureulak) (4.13).
2
Ujung Peureula (4°54′⋅0N 97°53′⋅8E) to Teluk
Langsa (4.26).
Teluk Langsa (4°35′N 98°06′E) to Ujung Tamiang
(4.45).
Through route
4.9 1
For through route covering parts of this section, see
2.46.
Topography
4.10 1
General. The land between Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N
97°30′E) and Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E), is an
alluvial plain, low and marshy, with few prominent
features.
CHAPTER 4
96
Some small rivers flow into the sea along this stretch of
coast.
4.11 1
Inland mountain peaks. From February to May,
inclusive, the higher inland mountains are only occasionally
faintly visible, but during the remainder of the year they
can usually be seen, especially in the morning. The
following charted peaks may be used as fixing marks:
2
Gunung Sembuang (4°38′N 97°24′E).
Gunung Untung (4°24′N 97°20′E) (15 miles SSW)
and dome shaped.
Mugajah (4°15′N 97°25′E) (chart 2760) with a sharp
peak, visible off the N coast of Sumatera.
3
The following lower hills are situated between the above
mountains and the head of Teluk Langsa (4°35′N 98°06′E):
Gunung Bendahara (4°24′N 97°39′E) standing at the
NW end of Pegunungan Wilhelmina. It has a level
ridge, with a small peak in the middle, it is also
visible off Tanjung Jamboaye.
Gunung Mesjid (4°13′N 97°45′E) (chart 3920), with
two peaks, the higher of which has an elevation of
950 m.
4
The hills NE of the line joining Gunung Bendahara and
Gunung Mesjid, although low, are fairly identifiable; these
include:
Bukit Lengkokeris (4°33′N 97°51′E) (chart 3920).
Bukit Langkahan (4°30′N 97°51′E).
Bukit Datar (4°16′N 98°09′E) (4.63).
Rivers
4.12 1
The mouths of all rivers between Tanjung Jamboaye and
Teluk Langsa are difficult to approach, and have constantly
shifting channels.
Local knowledge is required in order to enter these
channels; they are sometimes indicated by tree trunks.
TANJUNG JAMBOAYE TO UJUNG
PEUREULA
General information
Chart 3919 (see 1.17)
Route
4.13 1
The coastal route between Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N
97°30′E) and Ujung Peureula, 32 miles SE, leads in a SE
direction outside the 20 m depth contour, passing NE of a
dangerous wreck in position 5°05′N 97°47′E (4.19).
Topography
4.14 1
The coast between Tanjung Jamboaye and Ujungcuram,
12 miles SE, is interspersed by the wide, but shallow,
mouths of several rivers and creeks. Casuarina trees and
mangroves form the coastal vegetation.
Tidal streams
4.15 1
See 4.6.
4.16 1
Water movement. During the NW−going tidal stream
between Tanjung Jamboaye and Ujungcuram there is a
distinct division between the muddy water from the rivers
and the clearer water of Malacca Strait extending beyond
the 20 m depth contour.
Directions
(continued from 3.178)
Principal marks
4.17 1
Landmarks:
Water tower (7 cables ESE of Tanjung Jamboaye
Light).
Conspicuous oil tanks (4.29).
Radio mast, position approximate, (4°57′N 97°46′E).
Major light:
Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E) (2.41).
Other aid to navigation
4.18
1
Racon: Tanjung Jamboaye Light (5°15′N 97°29′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Passage
4.19 1
From a position N of Tanjung Jamboaye (5°15′N
97°30′E), the coastal route leads SE outside the 20 m depth
contour passing (with positions from Tanjung Jamboaye):
NE of an obstruction (9¾ miles SE), thence:
NE of Ujungcuram (12 miles SE), which is low, but a
dense wood of casuarina trees on it gives a high
and steep appearance. It gives a good radar
response. Thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck (20 miles SE), thence:
2
NE of an obstruction (21 miles SE), thence:
NE of Gosong Peureula (30 miles SE), a bank
extending 4 miles N and 1½ miles E from Ujung
Peureula, and over which the sea nearly always
breaks.
3
The track continues SE to a position NE of Ujung
Peureula (Ujung Peureulak) (33 miles SE), a low and sandy
point covered with high trees. A light (white metal
framework structure, 10 m in height) is exhibited from a
drying patch 5 cables offshore.
4.20 1
Useful marks:
Tall chimney (4°59′N 97°36′E) (red fixed obstruction
light).
Prominent flare (3 miles S), position approximate,
visible from seaward between the bearings
185°−238° approximately.
2
Idi Light (white metal framework structure, 20 m in
height) (4°57′N 97°46′E).
Bukit Damar (4°54′N 97°46′E), a prominent hill
4 miles S of Idi.
(Directions continue for the coastal route
SE of Ujung Peureula at 4.29)
Anchorage
4.21
1
Anchorage may be obtained off Krueng Idi (4°58′N
97°46′E) (4.24) as follows:
In a depth of 8 m, with the entrance bearing 224°,
and Ujung Peureula (4.19), bearing 131°.
Vessels generally ride comfortably, but during the NE
monsoon they are frequently unable to communicate with
the shore.
CHAPTER 4
97
River entrances
General information
4.22
1
Several rivers reach the sea between Tanjung Jamboaye
and Ujung Peureula, however their mouths are difficult to
approach, see 4.12.
Sungai Simpangolim
4.23 1
General information. Sungai Simpangolim entrance
(5°09′N 97°35′E) is 9 miles SE of Tanjung Jamboaye. The
river connects with Krueng Rusa and Krueng Jamboaye
(3.181). The village of Simpangolim stands 6 miles within
the entrance.
2
Directions. The approach channel, although relatively
deep, is liable to change, as is the river to Simpangolim.
An obstruction lies 2½ miles ENE from the entrance.
Communications. There is regular sea communications
with other ports.
Krueng Idi
4.24 1
General information. The settlement of Idi (4°58′N
97°46′E) stands on the SE side of the entrance to Krueng
Idi. For light, see 4.20.
Idi is the headquarters of a Government Officer.
The inside of the river mouth is used as a prau harbour.
2
Directions. The entrance is approached through the
coastal mud bank by two channels, of which the S is the
deeper. These channels are subject to continual change, and
are marked by stakes.
Supplies: fresh provisions are obtainable.
Communications: regular sea communication with
Simpangolim and other ports in Sumatera; Idi is connected
with the main E coast railway system.
Krueng Peureula
4.25 1
General information. Krueng Peureula entrance (4°53′N
97°53′E) is close W of Ujung Peureula (4.19).
Peureula, a large village 5 miles S of the river entrance,
stands near the point at which the railway from Idi crosses
the river.
Boats can also reach Peureula from sea through Kuala
Leugorayeu (4°46′·2N 97°56′·6E).
2
Directions. In the approach channel to Krueng Peureula
there is a depth of 0·7 m, but inside, where the river is
from 40 to 60 m wide, there is a depth of about 3·5 m.
Anchorage. It is advisable to anchor as near as possible
to the mouth of Krueng Peureula, approaching with Ujung
Peureula bearing W.
UJUNG PEUREULA TO TELUK LANGSA
General information
Chart 3920 (see 1.17)
Route
4.26 1
The coastal route between Ujung Peureula (4°54′⋅0N
97°53′⋅8E) and the outer approaches to Teluk Langsa,
23 miles SSE, leads in a SSE direction outside the 20 m
depth contour.
Topography
4.27 1
The coast between Ujung Peureula and Ujung Perolin,
immediately N of Teluk Langsa, is low and covered with
fairly high trees, intersected by unimportant creeks.
The coastline consists of a sand strip marked by
mangroves, and apart from a few fishing stations, is almost
uninhabited.
Tidal streams
4.28 1
See 4.6 for a general synopsis of tidal streams.
See 4.38 for tidal streams in the approach to Teluk
Langsa.
Directions
(continued from 4.20)
Landmark
4.29 1
Conspicuous floodlit oil tanks (4°52′N 97°54′E),
position approximate, 2 miles S of Ujung Peureula
(4.19).
Passage
4.30 1
From a position NE of Ujung Peureula (4°54′⋅0N
97°53′⋅8E)), the coastal route leads SSE outside the 20 m
depth contour, passing (with positions from Ujung
Peureula):
ENE of Kuala Beukah offshore oil terminal (3 miles
E) (4.33), thence:
At least 4 miles ENE of Ujung Perolin (18 miles
SSE), the SE point of Pulau Perolin, which
although low and sandy is covered with casuarina
trees and is easily identified.
2
The route continues SSE to a position NE of Tanjung
Langsa (23 miles SSE), on the SE side of Kuala Langsa,
the principal channel leading to the port of Kualalangsa.
4.31 1
Useful marks:
Ujung Peureula Light (4°54′⋅0N 97°53′⋅8E) (4.19).
Light (white metal framework tower, 14 m in height)
(4°52′N 97°55′E) in the vicinity of the oil tanks at
Kuala Beukah (4.29). A sectored light is also
exhibited from this structure.
2
For lights within Teluk Langsa, see 4.42.
Tualang Aero Light (white radio tower, orange band,
91 m in height) (4°43′N 97°51′E); reported visible
at 23 miles.
(Directions continue, for the coastal route
SE of Teluk Langsa at 4.48 and for
the approaches to Teluk Langsa at 4.39)
Sungai Bayeuen
General information
4.32
1
Kuala Bayeuen (4°38′N 98°00′E) is situated between the
N extremity of Pulau Perolin (4.30) and the mainland.
Sungai Bayeuen leads to Bayeuen via Sungai
Simpanganeuh a tributary of the main river.
Channel. Sungai Bayeuen is navigable by small vessels.
There is a least charted depth of 2·1 m in the approach, but
shoaler depths have been reported.
2
At Bayeuen (4°36′·5N 97°56′E) the main railway line
spans Sungai Simpanganeuh.
CHAPTER 4
98
The reach of Sungai Bayeuen above its confluence with
Sungai Simpanganeuh is narrow and difficult to navigate
due to numerous tree trunks in it.
Kuala Beukah Oil Terminal
4.33
1
General information. The terminal (4°53′N 97°57′E)
consists of a five point conventional buoy mooring system
situated 3 miles E of Ujung Peureula. A submarine pipeline
(see 1.42), marked near its seaward end by light−buoys
(spar), extends WSW to the shore. The terminal is operated
by Asamera Oil (Indonesia) Ltd. and is used for loading
crude oil.
Limiting conditions. Tankers up to 61 000 dwt and
LOA 220 m may be accommodated in a depth of 17·5 m.
Density of water: 1·025 g/cm
3
.
2
Arrival information. Berthing during daylight only,
unberthing at any time. Port radio operated by Pertamina,
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4). Pilots and
tugs available.
Services: medical services available; no repairs; no fuel;
no fresh water.
Teluk Langsa
General information
4.34 1
Teluk Langsa is entered between Ujung Perolin (4°37′N
98°01′E), the E extremity of Pulau Perolin (4.30), and
Tanjung Langsa, 4½ miles SE.
There are three channels of approach into Teluk Langsa,
which is otherwise obstructed by numerous shoals, between
which there are narrow boat channels.
4.35 1
Alur Birem (4°36′N 98°03′E), leading from NE to the
mouth of Krueng Birem. The channel is not buoyed.
Alur Telukdalam (4°35′N 98°03′E), which leads close
along the W side of Pulau Telagatujoh (4°34′E, 98°03′E).
Apart from a buoy (black conical), the channel is
unmarked.
2
Kuala Langsa (4°34′N 98°05′E), the principal channel,
which leads on the SE side of Pulau Telagatujoh through
Krueng Langsa to Pelabuhan Kualalangsa. This channel is
marked by leading light−beacons, beacons and buoys.
Limiting conditions
4.36 1
The following least depths are charted:
Alur Birem, 2·9 to 3·4 m in the fairway.
Alur Telukdalam, 2·5 m on the outer and inner bars.
Kuala Langsa, 5·2 m. There is 1·7 m close SE of
leading line.
Vessels up to 1000 dwt can reach Kualalangsa.
Pilotage
4.37 1
Pilotage is not compulsory but local knowledge is
required.
Tidal streams
4.38 1
The streams in Teluk Langsa generally follow the
directions of the channels to and from the river mouths.
The streams run strongly sometimes well outside the
10 m depth contour, and with considerable strength in the
river mouths.
Directions
(continued from 4.31)
4.39 1
Landmark. Teluk Langsa itself is easily identified from
seaward by rising ground SW of it, against which Pulau
Telagatujoh (4°34′N 98°03′E) stands out sharply.
4.40 1
Alur Birem. From the vicinity of 4°40′N 98°07′E the
approach track through Alur Birem leads SW, passing:
NW of a buoy (black conical) (4°35′N 98°03′E),
thence:
NW of an obstruction (4°35′N 98°01′E), thence:
To the mouth of Krueng Birem (4°34′N 97°59′E).
2
Krueng Birem is formed by the confluence of Krueng
Biremrayeu, which is narrow and winding, and Krueng
Birempuntong, which is wide and straight.
Both these rivers can be navigated for 4 miles by craft
drawing 2 m.
4.41 1
Alur Telukdalam. From the vicinity of 4°40′N 98°07′E
the approach track through Alur Telukdalam leads SW,
passing:
SE of a buoy (black conical) (4°35′N 98°03′E),
thence:
S through an unmarked channel off the W side of
Pulau Telagatujoh (4°34′E, 98°03′E) thence:
Into Krueng Langsa and on to Pelabuhan
Kualalangsa.
4.42 1
Kuala Langsa. From the vicinity 4°40′N 98°10′E the
track leads SW on the alignment of the leading lights.
Leading lights:
Front light (white triangular topmark point up on
beacon, 10 m in height) (4°33′·5N 98°04′·4E), and:
Rear light (white triangular topmark point down on
beacon, 12 m in height) (7 cables from front).
2
The alignment (220°) of these lights leads across the bar
of Kuala Langsa, passing, (with positions given from the
front light−beacon):
Close to the fairway light−buoy (safe water)
(2½ miles NE), thence:
NW of a 1·7 m patch (1¼ miles NE), thence:
Close SE of light−buoy (starboard hand) (4 cables
NE).
4.43 1
Krueng Langsa. After passing the starboard hand
light−buoy (4.42) the track alters WSW, passing:
NNW of the front light−beacon (4.42), thence:
NNW of Tanjung Langsa (6 cables SW of the front
beacon), which is easy to identify from E.
2
After passing Tanjung Langsa the track alters to the
SSW, then follows Krueng Langsa, passing:
NW of a light−beacon (port hand) (3 cables SW of
Tanjung Langsa), thence:
SE of a light−beacon (starboard hand) off the SE
extremity of Pulau Rawa Rayeu (4°32′·5N
98°02′·5E); this island is difficult to distinguish.
3
Useful marks:
Light (white framework tower, 20 m in height)
(4°31′⋅6N 98°01°⋅1E) in the village of Kualalangsa.
Light−buoy (starboard hand) moored close S of the
village.
Kualalangsa
4.44 1
General information. Kualalangsa (4°32′N 98°01′E) is
situated on the N bank of Krueng Langsa. The harbour is
CHAPTER 4
99
the port of Langsa (4°28′N 97°58′E), which stands 14 km
upriver. A Government officer resides there.
Traffic. In 2005, four vessels totalling 144 345 dwt used
the port.
2
Port Authority Dit Jen Perhubungan Laut, Cabang
Kualalangsa, Kualalangsa, Sumatera.
Roadstead limits are:
Meridian of W extremity of Rawah Cut (4°32′·3N
98°02′·2E).
Parallel of a point on the N bank (4½ cables NE of
the wharf at Kualalangsa).
3
Notice of ETA should be sent 10 days and 72,48 and
24 hours before arrival. It is recommended to be sent via
Jakarta Radio, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
Piracy and armed robbery have occured off Kualalangsa
see 4.5.
Berths. Two in number. Longest and deepest is 100 m
in length with a depth alongside of 8·1 m.
4
Other facilities. Medical facilities available.
Supplies. Provisions can be obtained from Langsa.
Communications: regular sea communication with other
ports in Sumatera; Kualalangsa is connected by steam
tramway with Langsa, the latter is situated on the main E
coast railway.
TELUK LANGSA TO UJUNG TAMIANG
General information
Chart 3920 (see 1.17)
Route
4.45 1
The coastal route between the outer approaches (4°37′N
98°08′E) to Teluk Langsa and Ujung Tamiang 15 miles SE,
leads in a SE direction outside the 20 m depth contour.
Topography
4.46 1
The coast between Teluk Langsa and Ujung Tamiang is
low, covered with fairly high trees, and intersected by a
number of unimportant creeks.
In places there are shallow lagoons behind the strip of
sand bordering the coast.
Except for a few fishing stations the coast is almost
uninhabited.
Tidal streams
4.47 1
See 4.6 and 4.38 for a general synopsis of the tidal
streams and particular streams in Teluk Langsa.
Directions
(continued from 4.31)
Principal marks
4.48 1
Landmark:
Bukit Datar (4°16′N 98°09′E) (4.63).
Major light:
Ujung Tamiang Light (white framework structure,
40 m in height) (4°25′N 98°17′E).
Passage
4.49 1
From a position NE of Tanjung Langsa (4°33′N
98°04′E), the coastal route leads SE outside the 20 m depth
contour, passing (with positions from Tanjung Langsa):
NE of Kuala Rukue (5½ miles ESE) which has near
its entrance point a sparse, but very high casuarina
wood, visible 20 miles from seaward, thence:
NE of the entrance to Sungai Iyu (12 miles ESE)
(4.50).
2
The route continues SE to a position NE of Ujung
Tamiang (15½ miles ESE), which from NW and SE
appears as an islet, and which may be identified by its light
(4.48) and groups of casuarina trees standing on each side
of the mouth of Sungai Tamiang (4°25′N 98°16′E), visible
from a considerable distance.
(Directions continue SE at 4.63)
Sungai Iyu
4.50 1
General information. Sungai Iyu (4°28′N 98°14′E)
discharges on the S side of Tanjung Genteng, which can be
identified by a line of casuarina trees extending 2 miles
NW along the coast.
Sungai Iyu is joined by Sungai Alurbungin, which leads
to Sungai Tamiang at Kelapa, 5 miles from its mouth.
2
Limiting conditions. There is a depth of 0·5 m on the
bar of Sungai Iyu, upon which (January to March) the sea
often breaks.
Vessels drawing 1 m can reach Upah, 18 miles from the
mouth of Sungai Iyu, and, under favourable conditions,
Kualasimpang (4°17′N 98°03′E), 22 miles from the
entrance.
3
Channel and approach. Care must be taken when
approaching the entrance of Sungai Iyu, as the coastal bank
is steep−to for 8 miles NW of Ujung Tamiang (4.49) and
3 miles S of it.
The channel is subject to changes and local knowledge
is necessary for entering the river where a pilot should be
taken at the village of Genteng.
UJUNG TAMIANG TO TANJUNG JUMPUL
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1353, 3920, 3921
Scope of the section
4.51 1
This section describes the coastal passage off the NE
coast of Sumatera from Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E)
to Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N 99°53′E) (130 miles SE).
This passage is divided into the following parts:
Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E) to Teluk Aru (4.61).
Teluk Aru (4°16′N 98°26′E) (4.70).
2
Teluk Aru to Belawan (4.96).
Approaches to Belawan (4.106).
Belawan (3°47′N 98°42′E) (4.127).
Belawan to Tanjung Tanjung (4.146).
Tanjung Tanjung (3°21′N 99°29′E) to Tanjung
Jumpul (4.163).
Topography
4.52 1
General. The coast between Ujung Tamiang and
Tanjung Jumpul, 130 miles SE, is low, thickly covered with
vegetation, and consists of an alluvial formation intersected
CHAPTER 4
100
by numerous small rivers, of which only three are of
importance, leading to berths at Pangkalansusu (4.88),
Pangkalanbrandan (4.94) and the port of Belawan (4.127).
Few of the other rivers are navigable even for small
craft.
4.53 1
In places the coast consists of strips of sandy beach, on
which casuarinas are always to be found. These trees are
markedly distinguishable from the mangrove due to their
darker colour, greater heights and fine needle−like foliage.
Many can be seen from a distance of 20 miles in clear
weather.
Where the mangrove grows the ground is inundated, and
the mangroves extend back many hundreds of metres,
within them the ground is marshy in places, but mostly the
land is firm with tall trees and tobacco cultivation.
4.54 1
Inland mountains and hills. In clear weather some
mountains, and lower hills inland, may be seen from a
distance above the trees along the coast.
4.55 1
Peaks. The following peaks are visible under favourable
conditions:
Mugajah (4°15′N 97°25′E) (4.11).
Gunung Langsa (4°08′N 97°46′E).
Gunung Segama (4°04′N 97°48′E) which is
twin−peaked.
Gunung Ulubesitang, 1868 m high, (3°57′N 97°53′E)
with a similar−shaped peak as Gunung Gayo.
4.56 1
Between the above mountains and the coast there are no
remarkable peaks. However, farther W and SW are:
Gunung Bandahara (3°45′N 97°47′E) which is part of
Pegunungan Wilhelmina and easily identifiable
from NE.
Gunung Alas (3°31′N 97°55′E).
4.57 1
Pegunungan Batak. Farther SE is Pegunungan Batak. In
clear weather the following mountain peaks may be seen:
Gunung Sinabung (3°10′N 98°24′E) which shows up
above Pegunungan Batak from NE; it is a
cone−shaped volcano, from which steam is
occasionally emitted.
Gunung Pintau (3°15′N 98°30′E), a flat−topped cone.
Gunung Barus (3°12′N 98°34′E).
4.58 1
About 32 miles ESE of Gunung Sinabung (4.57) are:
Gunung Simbolon (3°01′N 98°54′E) and Gunung
Simarito (1355 m high), 2½ miles E, which
together form a solitary ridge having a serrated
edge. The E side of this ridge slopes gradually to
low land.
Position fixing
4.59 1
The coast SE of Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E)
appears monotonous from seaward, and it is not always
easy to identify the locality without some local knowledge.
Landing
4.60 1
Landing on the coast between Ujung Tamiang and
Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N 99°53′E) is not advisable, other
than by using the river channels. Furthermore it is
impracticable in the event of any sea or swell, which
occurs more frequently during the NE Monsoon (November
to March).
At HW, during calms, landing may be made on the
sandy beaches, but not where mangrove exists, as there the
ground, if any, is all soft mud.
UJUNG TAMIANG TO TELUK ARU
General information
Charts 3574, 3920, 3921
Route
4.61
1
The coastal route SE of Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N
98°17′E) to the vicinity of Pangkalan SPM outer approach
buoy, 13 miles SE, leads outside the 20 m depth contour,
SW of which lie the shallow waters of Teluk Aru.
Topography
4.62 1
The coast between Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E) and
Pulau Kumpai, 11 miles SSW, on the W side of Teluk Aru,
is low and thickly covered with vegetation.
Sungai Serangjaya (4°16′N 98°15′E) (4.79) enters the
sea on the N side of Pulau Kumpai.
Directions
(continued from 4.49)
Principal marks
4.63 1
Landmarks:
Bukit Datar (4°16′N 98°09′E), standing 8 miles
inland; it is the S and highest hill in the vicinity.
Pulau Kumpai (4°13′N 98°14′E) and Pulau Sembilan,
3 miles S, which although low, have tall trees
visible for a distance of 16 miles from seaward.
Major light:
Ujung Tamiang Light (4°25′N 98°17′E) (4.48).
Passage
4.64 1
From a position NE of Ujung Tamiang (4°25′N
98°17′E), the coastal passage leads SE, passing clear of
charted dangers, outside the 20 m depth contour to a
position NE of the buoy (4°15′N 98°24′E) (4.65) leading to
Pangkalan SPM Oil Terminal.
(Directions continue for the coastal route SE at 4.98
and for Pangkalan SPM at 4.68.
Directions are given for Alur Kumpai at 4.76,
for Alur Sembilan, leading to Pangkalansusu, at 4.84
and for Alur Babalan at 4.92)
Pangkalan SPM Oil Terminal
General information
4.65 1
Pangkalan SPM (4°13′N 98°24′E) is approached from
seaward via No 1 buoy (starboard hand non IALA) moored
1½ miles N of the SPM.
The terminal is moored at the extremity of a submarine
oil pipeline (see 1.42), operated by Pertamina, extending
9½ miles NE from the shore, which is marked by buoys
(special).
2
The SPM (lit) and pipeline are enclosed by a restricted
area shown on the chart, the area around the SPM being
marked by light−buoys (special).
Traffic. The terminal is used on a regular basis.
CHAPTER 4
101
Limiting conditions
4.66 1
Maximum size of vessel. The SPM is designed for
tankers up to 150 000 dwt and LOA 275 m. A vessel of
100 000 dwt has used the facility.
Depths in the vicinity vary from 18 to 25 m. Vessels up
to 22 m draught can use the mooring.
Berthing may only take place in daylight, but
unmooring is permitted at any time.
Arrival information
4.67 1
Notice of ETA: 72, 48 and 24 hours in advance, and
10 hours before arrival for the pilots.
Pilotage is compulsory; pilots, stationed at Pelabuhan
Pangkalansusu, are available 24 hours. Pilot boards 2 miles
E of the SPM between the charted wells (4.68);
Tugs are used for berthing, and also for Pelabuhan
Pangkalansusu.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Directions for Pangkalan SPM
(continued from 4.64)
4.68 1
Pangkalan SPM (4°13′N 98°24′E) can be approached
from N or NE passing E of the buoy (non IALA) 1½ miles
N of the SPM, taking care to avoid the well (4°14′⋅5N
98°26′⋅6E) and two further wells 1 mile and 2¼ miles S.
2
It is reported that the approach to the SPM is not
difficult to identify as Teluk Aru presents a very good radar
picture.
However, it is also reported that the SPM itself is
difficult to identify due to the many fishing huts and boats
in the vicinity.
These fishing boats may also interfere with the approach
especially at night, since they show no lights until very
close.
Precaution
4.69 1
When secured to the SPM, steam−turbine vessels will
need to run with very slow speed astern, and with a tug
aft.
TELUK ARU
General information
Charts 3574 plan of Teluk Aru, 3920 (see 1.17)
Description
4.70
1
Teluk Aru, a wide bay, is entered between Ujung
Tamiang (4°25′N 98°17′E) and Tanjung Bedukang, 21 miles
SSE.
The bay is fronted by shallow mud flats extending up to
5 miles offshore, with depths of less than 2 m over them.
Pangkalan SPM (4°13′N 98°24′E), an offshore oil
terminal (4.65), is situated 9½ miles offshore in the outer
approaches to Teluk Aru.
Depths
4.71
1
Much of Teluk Aru has depths of less than 2 m. Three
approach channels (4.75) have least charted depths as
follows:
Alur Kumpai, 2⋅2 m on the bar.
Alur Sembilan, 4⋅5 m on the bar.
Alur Babalan, 0⋅2 m on the bar.
Natural conditions
4.72
1
Tidal streams in Teluk Aru set generally in the
directions of the channels, and attain a maximum rate of
2 kn.
Outside the outer bar of Alur Sembilan the stream sets:
In−going SW.
Out−going NNE.
The out−going stream often continues to run over the
outer bar for some time after the in−going stream has made
in Malacca Strait outside the shoals.
Water density is 1·023 g/cm
3
, approximately.
4.73
1
Weather is normally fair with moderate variable winds
however during the NE monsoon (November to March),
there are often strong NE winds with heavy rain, showers
and thunderstorms.
Principal marks
4.74
1
See 4.63
Approach routes
4.75
1
Three named approach channels in Teluk Aru lead
across shallow bars (4.71) to rivers, waterways and berths
as follows:
Alur Kumpai (4°13′N 98°17′E), which leads to:
Terusan Serangjaya (4.79), or:
Sungai Salahaji (4.80), or:
Sungai Bersitang (4°06′N 98°10′E).
2
Alur Sembilan (4°10′N 98°20′E), the main channel,
which leads to the oil terminal at Pangkalansusu
(4°07′N 98°12′E) (4.88).
Alur Babalan (4°08′N 98°21′E), which leads to the
oil terminal at Pangkalanbrandan (4°02′N 98°17′E)
(4.94).
3
Caution. The buoyage of these channels is subject to
alteration due to changes in the fairways. The buoyage in
Alur Kumpai is non−IALA.
Alur Kumpai
Directions for the approach
4.76
1
From NE, the approach is from the vicinity of Alur
Kumpai No 1 Buoy (non−IALA) (4°14′N 98°19′E), thence
as for 4.77.
From ESE, the line of bearing 287°, of Bukit Datar
(4°16′N 98°09′E) (4.63), ahead, leads:
SSW of the obstructions (4.68) and Pangkalan SPM,
thence:
2
NNE of Alur Sembilan No 1 Light−buoy (4°12′N
98°22′E) (4.84), thence:
To a position about 5 cables WSW of Alur Kumpai
No 1 Buoy (4°14′N 98°19′E), thence as for 4.77.
Directions for the channel
4.77 1
From a position about 5 cables WSW of Alur Kumpai
No 1 Buoy (4°14′N 98°19′E) the track leads SW through
Alur Kumpai passing:
NE of Nos 2 (4°12′N 98°16′E), 4 and 6 Buoys (port
hand), thence:
SE of No 3 Buoy (starboard hand) (4°09′N 98°11′E),
moored close off Ujung Siata (4.80).
CHAPTER 4
102
2
Prohibited Area shown on the chart, encloses the oil
platform and associated wells W of Pulau Sembilan. This
area includes the main channel NE of No 6 Buoy. A
Restricted Area, also marked on the chart, surrounds the
Prohibited Area and covers the whole channel from
3 cables SW of No 4 Buoy.
3
Tide−rips. During fine weather the stony spit which
extends 2½ cables S of the S extremity of Pulau Kumpai
(4°11′N 98°15′E) is marked by tide−rips and by water
discoloration NE of it.
Useful marks:
The village of Pulaukumpai (4°11′⋅4N 98°14′⋅5E),
prominent at the S end of Pulau Kumpai.
Oil platform (4°09′·2N 98°13′·2E), from which a light
is exhibited.
(Directions continue for Terusan Serangjaya at 4.79
and for Sungai Salahaji at 4.80)
Anchorages
4.78 1
The roadstead at Kumpai lies between:
The meridian (98°14′·5E) of the S extremity of Pulau
Kumpai, and:
A line joining the NW extremity of Pulau Sembilan
(4°10′N 98°15′E) and the W entrance point of
Terusan Serangjaya (1 mile NNW).
Good anchorage exists, in depths from 9 to 12 m with
the S extremity of Pulau Kumpai bearing 038°, distant
4½ cables.
Sungai Serangjaya and Terusan Serangjaya
4.79 1
General information. Sungai Serangjaya flows out to
sea on the N side of Pulau Kumpai (4°16′N 98°16′E), but
it is difficult to enter from seaward through this entrance,
which has a least charted depth of 0·7 m on the bar.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions (continued from 4.77). The usual entrance is
from Alur Kumpai through Terusan Serangjaya (4°12′N
98°14′E), where there is a least charted depth of 0·5 m.
However, this passage is only 30 m wide in places, and
navigation is difficult.
Anchorage. See 4.78.
Berths. A small T−head pier at Pulaukumpai suitable for
small craft only.
Sungai Salahaji
4.80 1
General information. Sungai Salahaji joins Sungai
Bersitang at Ujung Siata (4°09′N 98°11′E) and thence runs
out through Alur Kumpai.
Local knowledge is required.
Directions (continued from 4.77). The channel leads
between No 3 Buoy and Ujung Siata (marked by a beacon).
It is about 1 cable wide at this position and is difficult to
round at some states of the tide.
2
Berths. Sungai Salahaji leads to Airputih (4°12′N
98°07′E), a timber loading station, which can be reached
by craft drawing up to 1·5 m.
At Bukittiram (4°12′N 98°09′E), 4 miles from Ujung
Siata, there is a landing stage.
Local knowledge is required.
Alur Sembilan
Approach
4.81 1
General. When approaching Alur Sembilan it is
advisable to keep outside the 20 m depth contour until
either Alur Sembilan No 1 Light−buoy (4°12′N 98°22′E), or
the approach buoy to Pangkalan SPM (4.68) are sighted.
Dangers. Care must be taken to avoid the obstructions
(4.68) E of the SPM, and charted dangerous wrecks in
positions 4°09′⋅7N 98°24′⋅5E (mast), and 4°08′⋅5N
98°23′⋅6E, position approximate.
Tidal levels
4.82
1
In Alur Sembilan, mean spring range is about 2⋅0 m and
mean neap range about 0⋅6 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3.
Crossing the bar
4.83 1
As the distance between the outer and inner bars is
about 10 miles, and as HW is ½ hour earlier on the inner
bar than on the outer, it is recommended to cross the outer
bar on a rising tide passing No 1 Light−buoy at least
½ hour before HW.
Directions
4.84 1
From the vicinity of Alur Sembilan No 1 Light−buoy
(starboard hand) (4°12′N 98°22′E), the track leads SW, then
W, passing:
NW of No 2 Light−buoy (port hand), thence:
SE of Nos 3 and 5 Light−buoys (starboard hand),
thence:
N of Nos 4, 6 and 8 Light−buoys, (port hand), and
into the roadstead S of Pulau Sembilan.
Inner approach channel
4.85 1
From S of Pulau Sembilan the channel to
Pangkalansusu, across the inner bar, is marked by beacons
and light−buoys (starboard hand).
The channel passes S of a Restricted Area (4.77).
Roadstead of Pulau Sembilan and Pangkalansusu
4.86 1
The roadstead of Pulau Sembilan and Pangkalansusu lies
between:
The meridian (98°16′ E) of the SE extremity of Pulau
Sembilan, and:
A line drawn 315°and 135° through the NE extremity
of Kerapu (4°07′N 98°12′E), an islet, and:
A line joining the NE extremity of Pulau Panjang
(4°08′N 98°12′E) and the SW extremity of Pulau
Sembilan.
Pulausembilan
4.87 1
The village of Pulausembilan (4°08′N 98°15′E) stands
on the S side of the island, where there is a Harbour
Master’s office and lookout.
Anchorage is available 3 cables S of the disused
lighthouse (4°08′·1N 98°15′·5E) in a depth of 8 m.
Prohibited anchorages are situated:
In the vicinity of a pipeline (see 1.42) charted close
W of the Harbour Master’s office and;
Within ¼ cable on each side of a submarine cable,
3 cables farther W.
CHAPTER 4
103
Pangkalansusu
4.88 1
General information. At Pangkalansusu (4°07′N
98°12′E) there are several tanker berths and a small general
cargo wharf.
Small tankers operate between the berths and Pangkalan
SPM (4.65).
Port Authority. Adpel Pangkaln Susu, Dit Jen
Perhubungan Laut, Cabang Pangkalan, Pangkalan Susu,
Sumut.
2
Limiting conditions. Vessels up to 142 m LOA and
5000 dwt can be accommodated.
Deepest and longest berth is 200 m in length with a
depth alongside of 6⋅0 m.
4.89 1
Pilotage and tugs. Pilotage is compulsory, for details
see 4.67.
Tidal streams. The out−going tidal stream sets onto the
berths and the in−going stream away from them.
4.90 1
Repairs: minor repairs only can be effected; floating
dock, 750 tonnes capacity, 60 m 13 m (Pertamina).
Other facilities: medical assistance; hospital at
Pangkalanbrandan (4.94).
Supplies: fresh water and fuel are available.
2
Communications: nearest railway station at
Pangkalanbrandan (4.94), 22 km from Pangkalansusu;
nearest airport Polonia (Medan), about 80 km distant.
Sea communications with Pangkalanbrandan and other
ports of Sumatera.
Alur Babalan
General information
4.91 1
Alur Babalan (4°08′N 98°21′E) leads to Sungai Babalan
which is navigable as far as Pangkalanbrandan by vessels
which can cross the bar (4.71). The bottom is stiff mud and
sand.
Directions for the approach
4.92 1
From the vicinity of 4°13′N 98°26′E the track leads SW
through Alur Babalan, passing:
SE of (and parallel to) the restricted area (4.65)
enclosing the pipeline from Pangkalan SPM to the
shore, thence:
NW of the two wrecks (4.81), thence:
NW of fish traps (4°08′N 98°23′E), thence:
SE of Alur Sembilan No 5 Light−buoy (4.84).
2
The track then alters SSW to the entrance of Sungai
Babalan.
Directions for Sungai Babalan
4.93 1
The track within the river leads S, passing:
E of the stone foundation of a beacon (4°04′·5N
98°18′·5E) on the W side of the entrance, thence:
E of a stranded wreck (close S), thence:
E of a dolphin, 1¼ miles SSW, with an oil pipeline
connection.
The channel of Pangkalanbrandan (4°01′N 98°17′E) is
marked by Nos 6, 8 and 10 Buoys (port hand).
Useful mark is a tall derrick (4°04′N 98°18′E).
Pangkalanbrandan
4.94 1
The roadstead lies between:
A line drawn 135° through Tanjung Balai (4°02′N
98°18′E), and:
The meridian of 96°16′E.
Berth. Pertamina pier is 110 m in length with a depth
alongside of 5 m MLWS.
2
Repairs. Small craft up to 10 tonnes (Pertamina).
Other facilities. Hospital.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; fresh provisions available.
Communications: nearest airport Polonia (Medan). Sea
communications with Pangkalansusu.
Sungai Lepan
4.95 1
Entrance to Sungai Lepan (4°04′N 98°22′E) lies E of
the entrance to Sungai Babalan and 1¼ miles W of Tanjung
Bedukang (chart 3921), which is difficult to identify. There
is only 0·3 m MLWS at the entrance.
Directions. Small craft drawing 1·5 m can reach the
railway bridge 6 miles from the entrance at HW.
2
Local knowledge is essential.
Tidal streams. The out−going tidal streams are very
strong in this river.
TELUK ARU TO BELAWAN
General information
Charts 3920, 3921 (see 1.17)
Route
4.96 1
The coastal route from the vicinity of 4°16′N 98°27′E,
in the outer approaches to Teluk Aru, to Nipahlarangan
Light, 25 miles SE (marking the N approach to Belawan)
leads in a SE direction outside the 20 m depth contour.
Topography
4.97 1
The coast between Tanjung Bedukang (4°05′N 98°23′E)
and Nipahlarangan Light is of the same character as that
described in 4.52.
Directions
(continued from 4.64)
Major light
4.98 1
Nipahlarangan Light (white metal framework tower,
40 m in height) (3°54′N 98°41′E) standing close
off Ujung Betingcamar, which is covered with
trees. In 2001 it was reported that the open lattice
structure of the light−tower, which rises well above
the tree line, makes it a less obvious daymark.
Other aids to navigation
4.99
1
Racons:
Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E).
Belawan Channel (Alur Pelayaran Belawan)
Light−beacon (3°52′⋅3N 98°44′⋅2E) .
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Passage
4.100 1
From a position NE of the buoy (4°15′N 98°24′E) (4.65)
leading to Pangkalan SPM Oil Terminal and outside the
CHAPTER 4
104
20 m contour off Teluk Aru, the coastal passage leads SE
clear of charted dangers passing (with positions from
Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E)):
NE of obstructions (25 miles NW) (4.68), thence:
2
NE of two buoys moored 3½ and 6 miles NE of
Tanjung Bedukang (20 miles WNW), thence:
NE of an obstruction (16 miles NW), marked on its S
side by a buoy, thence:
As required to clear a stranded wreck, position
approximate, reported (1999) (14¾ miles N),
thence:
3
NE of Karang Gading (10 miles NW), a hard
bottomed ridge which extends about 8 miles NNW
from the coast at Tanjung Ahu (3 miles NW).
The route then continues SE to a position NE of
Nipahlarangan Light (4.98).
Caution. The NE side of Karang Gading is steep−to and
lies only 1 mile from the 20 m depth contour.
4.101 1
Useful marks:
White beacon (rectangle) (4°02′N 98°27′E) standing
on the W side of the entrance to Sungai Serapuh
(4.102).
Some high casuarina trees on Pulau Pusung (4°00′N
98°32′E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route
SE of the approach to Belawan at 4.152
and for Belawan Channel and
Oil Loading Area at 4.116 )
Sungai Serapuh
General information
4.102 1
The entrance to Sungai Serapuh (4°02′N 98°27′E) is
1 mile SE of Sungai Gebang entrance. The coast between
consists of dark mud and mangroves.
Limiting conditions. Vessels up to 55 m length and
draught of 2·4 m can reach Tanjungpura (3°54′N 98°25′E)
(4.105).
2
Depths. There is a least depth of 1 m at MLWS over the
bar of Kuala Serapuh, and this depth is available to
Tanjungpura.
Local knowledge is required.
Directions
4.103 1
The entrance to Sungai Serapuh may be identified by:
White beacon (4.101) on the W side, and several tall
casuarina trees standing close to the sandy beach
extending E to the entrance of Sungai Langkat
(4°02′N 98°29′E).
For obstruction and buoyage in the approach to Sungai
Serapuh, see 4.100.
A dangerous wreck lies in position 4°05′N 98°28′E.
Channel to Tanjungpura
4.104 1
Silt has closed the mouth of Sungai Langkat, so
Tanjungpura (4.105) can only be reached through Sungai
Serapuh, and thence through Terusan Sangalima into Sungai
Langkat.
The junction with Terusan Sangalima is in position
4°00′N 98°26′E.
Tanjungpura
4.105 1
Tanjungpura (3°54′N 98°25′E) is the headquarters of a
Government officer.
Berth: 80 m in length, with depths alongside of 1·8 to
3·3 m, where the river is 80 m wide.
Repairs: several small slipways; repairs can be carried
out.
2
Supplies: fresh provisions; no fresh water.
Communications: regular sea communications with
other ports in Sumatera; Tanjungpura is connected to the E
coast railway system.
APPROACHES TO BELAWAN
General information
Charts 3584 plan of Belawan and plan of Approaches to
Belawan, 3921
Description
4.106 1
Belawan (3°47′N 98°42′E) (4.127) lies at the entrance to
Sungai Deli and is approached from NE through Belawan
Channel (Alur Pelayaran Belawan), a narrow dredged
channel, about 6 miles in length.
An offshore oil terminal SPM (4.126), is established
3 miles E of the channel.
Topography
4.107 1
The coast in the vicinity of Sungai Deli is mostly low,
muddy and covered with mangroves. Under favourable
weather conditions some inland mountains can be seen
(4.54 to 4.58).
Controlling depths
4.108 1
Belawan Channel , which is 75 m wide at its narrowest
part, is subject to continuous dredging, and depths are
subject to frequent changes.
In 1994, a least depth of 8·5 m MLWS was reported in
the channel and in 2001 it was reported that the dredged
depth between No 1 and No 3 Buoys was 8⋅3 m, see also
note on chart.
2
The maximum permitted draught on any tide is 10% less
than the predicted depth of water.
For deepest berths in Belawan, see 4.132.
Pilotage
4.109 1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of more than 150 gt
and available 24 hours; pilots should be ordered at least
8 hours in advance, see also 4.133.
The pilot vessel, when on station, cruises in position
3°55′N 98°46′E, but may board near No. 2 Light−buoy
(port hand), 1¼ miles WSW.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4).
Traffic regulations
4.110 1
Large vessels are not permitted to enter the channel if
another vessel is already committed in the opposite
direction. Priority is given to out−bound vessels.
CHAPTER 4
105
Dredger operations
4.111 1
Dredger signals. Suctions dredgers in Belawan Channel
show the following signals, in addition to the regulation
marks and lights, indicating the side other vessels should
pass:
4.112 1
Dredger operations. When two dredgers are working
less than 5 cables apart, in the event of a vessel
approaching, the dredger farthest away will cross over to
the same side of the channel as the dredger nearest to the
approaching vessel.
Outlying anchors of dredgers working in the channel are
marked by drums. Vessels are prohibited from passing
between the drums and the dredger.
2
Great care must be taken when passing a dredger on the
bar, as the narrowness of the channel permits very little sea
room.
Outer anchorage
4.113 1
Vessels may anchor in the anchorage (3°55′N 98°46′E)
NE of No 2 Light−buoy at the pilot boarding position
(4.138). Vessels at anchor should take precautions against
piracy, see 4.138.
Prohibited anchorage
4.114 1
Anchorage is prohibited in the following areas:
Within 3¼ cables on each side of the axis of Belawan
Channel to a N limit of 3°55′N.
Within the pipeline area (4.126) indicated on the
chart; between 3°51′N 3°51′·5N, extending from
the coast to the discharging area (3°51′N 98°47′E).
In Pelabuhan Belawan, E of long 98°41′E.
Tidal streams
4.115
1
Tidal streams outside of, and off, the entrance
(3°53′N 98°45′E) to Belawan, set as follows:
Stream Direction Maximum spring rate
In−going SE 2 kn
Out−going NNW 2 kn
2
At neaps there is, at times, no stream at all.
At position 3°50′N 98°44′E near the outer light−beacon,
the stream sets in the direction of the channel and attains
the following rates at springs:
In−going 2 kn or less
Out−going 3 kn or more
Directions for the approach to Belawan Channel
(continued from 4.101)
Principal marks
4.116 1
Landmarks:
Under favourable visibility, the valley between the
mountains of Pegunungan Wilhelmina (4.56) and of
Pegunungan Batak (4.57) is a useful guide.
Other landmarks are:
Conspicuous oil tanks (3°47′N 98°41′E) close E of
Belawan.
2
Two chimneys (red and white bands) and an adjacent
orange painted building SW of the town, reported
to be conspicuous from seaward in the afternoon.
Silo at the cement wharf on the W side of the Citra
Basin (4.140) reported to be the most prominent
object in the port area.
3
Major lights:
Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E) (4.98).
Belawan Channel Light−beacon (green beacon)
(3°52′⋅3N 98°44′⋅2E).
Other aids to navigation
4.117
1
Racons:
Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E).
Belawan Channel Light−beacon (3°52′⋅3N 98°44′⋅2E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Approach from north−west
4.118 1
From a position NNE of Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N
98°41′E) (4.98), the track leads SSE, passing (with
positions from the light):
ENE of a stranded wreck (14¾ miles N) (4.100),
thence:
WSW of a light−buoy (safe water) (8¼ miles NE),
thence:
2
ENE of a 1·6 m wreck (3¼ miles ENE), lying
9 cables W of the outer approach alignment of
Belawan Channel Entrance Leading Lights (4.121)
The track then continues SSE to the pilot boarding area
and outer anchorage (5 miles E).
Approach from north−east
4.119 1
From the vicinity of 4°00′N 98°55′E, 5 miles N of
Gosong Deli, the track leads WSW, passing (with positions
from Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E):
SSE of a dangerous wreck (11¾ miles ENE), noting
the obstruction 1¾ miles NNW. It is reported that
this wreck will probably be passed before the
vessel’s position can be reliably fixed visually or
by radar. Thence:
2
NNW of a dangerous wreck (11½ miles ENE) thence:
SSE of a light−buoy (safe water) (8¼ miles NE),
thence:
The track then continues WSW to the pilot boarding
area and outer anchorage (5 miles E).
CHAPTER 4
106
Approach to the oil terminal
4.120 1
The oil terminal (4.126) may be approached from the
NW (4.118) or NE (4.119) to the light−buoy (safe water)
(3°58′⋅5N 98°47′⋅6E), thence on a S track, passing (with
positions from Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E):
E of the pilot boarding area and outer anchorage
(5 miles E); alternatively direct from the pilot
boarding area, thence:
2
E of a dangerous wreck (4 miles E), position
approximate (reported 1976); No 2 light−buoy (port
hand) lies 3½ miles WNW, thence:
E of a light−buoy (isolated danger) (5 miles ESE).
The track then continues S to the area of oil terminal
(7 miles ESE) keeping E of the extensive coastal bank
5 cables W with depths less than 5 m.
3
From E the oil terminal may be approach directly
crossing Gosong Deli (16 miles E), least depth 7⋅5 m, and
passing clear of a light−buoy (safe water) (9¼ miles ESE),
a dangerous wreck lies 1 mile SSW.
Chart 3584
Belawan Channel
4.121 1
From the vicinity of No 2 Light−buoy (port hand)
(3°54′N 98°45′E) the channel is marked by the alignment
of three pairs of leading lights.
Entrance Leading lights:
Front light. Beacon No I (white triangular topmark
point down, on white hourglass−shaped structure,
black bands; 7 m in height) (3°50′N 98°44′E).
Light−beacon No I from NW (4.121)
(Original dated 1992)
(Photograph − Colin Marsh)
Rear light. Beacon No II (framework tower, black and
white bands, 12 m in height), (5½ cables S of front
light).
2
The alignment (187°) of these lights leads through the
outer part of the channel, passing (with positions from
Beacon No I):
W of No 2 Light−buoy (port hand) (4½ miles N),
thence:
3
E of No 1 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (2¾ miles N),
thence:
E of Belawan Channel Light−beacon (4.116)
(2½ miles N), thence:
4
W of No 4 Light−buoy (port hand) (2 miles N),
thence:
Between No 3 and No 6 Light−buoys (lateral)
(8 cables N), thence:
On to the alignment of leading light beacons IV
and V.
Light−beacon No II from NW (4.121)
(Original dated 1992)
(Photograph − Colin Marsh)
4.122 1
Leading lights:
Front light. Beacon No IV (white framework tower,
5 m in height) (3°48′N 98°43′E).
Rear light. Beacon No V (similar structure, 12 m in
height) (7½ cables SSW of front light).
2
The alignment (200½°) of these lights leads through the
channel, passing (with positions from Light−beacon No I
(3°50′N 98°44′E)):
ESE of No 5 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (3 cables
NW).
3
Caution. Between positions about 3¼ cables NNW
and 5½ cables SW of Light−beacon No I, it is
necessary to keep ESE of the leading line in order
to maintain deep water, as shown on the chart.
Thence:
WNW of No I Light−beacon (4.121), thence:
4
ESE of a beacon (5 cables WNW), thence:
ESE of No 7 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (6 cables
SW), thence:
WNW of No II Light−beacon (4.121), thence:
WNW of No III Light−beacon (1 mile SSW) (4.123).
5
The track continues on the (200½°) alignment to the
intersection of the alignment (040°) of Leading Lights III
and II (4.123).
4.123 1
Leading lights:
Front light. Beacon No III (white tower, 5 m in
height) (3°49′N 98°44′E).
Rear light. Beacon No II (common rear) (4.121)
(5½ cables NE).
2
The alignment (040°), astern, of these lights leads
through the S part of the channel, passing (with positions
from Beacon No III):
SE of No 9 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (5 cables
SW), thence:
CHAPTER 4
107
3
NW of No IV Light−beacon (9 cables SSW) (4.122),
thence:
Between No 11 Light−buoy (starboard hand)
(1¼ miles SW) and the container wharf (4.140).
4.124 1
After passing No 11 Light−buoy, an additional pair of
leading lights continues the track SW towards Ocean Quay.
Leading lights:
Front light (white framework structure, 19 m in
height) on NE corner of Ocean Quay (3°47′·3N
98°42′·1E).
Rear light (white framework structure) (350 m from
front).
2
The alignment (238°) of these lights leads towards
Ocean Quay passing:
NW of Container Wharf (3°47′·7N 98°42′·8E)
(4.140).
SE of Tanjung Belawan (3°48′N 98°42′E), thence:
As required for the vessel’s berth.
3
It is reported that all the channel leading lights (4.121 to
4.124) are well sited and easy to use.
Useful marks
4.125
1
Two lights (white pile) (3°47′⋅5N 98°42′⋅5), at E and
W ends of the T−head of Pertamina Jetty.
Sungai Nunang Light (green beacon, 10 m in height)
(3°47′⋅6N 98°40′⋅9E), on the N bank of the river.
Light−beacon (red triangle topmark point up; 8 m in
height) (3°47′⋅3N 98°40′⋅8E), at the NW corner of
Belawan town.
Offshore oil terminal
4.126 1
An offshore oil discharging terminal comprising four
mooring buoys and a separate SBM (3°51′N 98°47′E) is
connected to the coast 7 miles ESE of Nipahlarangan Light
(4.98) by a submarine pipeline which crosses Belawan
Channel, see 1.42 . A buoy (red conical) is moored about
½ cable E of the SBM. Vessels of between 17 000 dwt and
20 000 dwt with a length between 155 m and 170 m are
handled. The depth within the four mooring buoys is
11·5 m.
BELAWAN
General information
Chart 3584 plans of Belawan and Approaches to Belawan
Position
4.127 1
Belawan (3°47′N 98°42′E), a major port, is approached
through Belawan Channel (4.106).
Belawan town (3°47′N 98°41′E) is situated on the N
side of Pulau Belawan, which lies between two channels as
follows:
2
The N channel leads past Belawan town, and thence
W through Sungai Belawan.
The S channel, Kuala Deli, the natural entrance to
Sungai Deli, leads past Tanjung Perling, then S
towards Medan (4.145).
Function
4.128
1
Belawan is the port for Medan, 11 miles S, and the most
important port in Sumatera. It is the third largest port in
Indonesia. Major exports are rubber, palm oil, pulp and
plywood, with a growing export trade in manufactured
goods; also forest products, tobacco, tea and coffee. It has
substantial passenger movements.
Port limits
4.129
1
Port limits are:
Parallels of 3°46′N and 3°48′N.
Meridians of 98°40′E and 98°43′10″ E.
Traffic
4.130 1
In 2005, 1765 vessels totalling 14 191 602 dwt used the
port.
Port Authority
4.131
1
PT Persero Pelabuhan Indonesia 1, Sumagtera No 1,
Belawan 20411, Indonesia.
Website: www.belawanport.co.id
The Harbour Master’s office is situated at Ocean Quay
(4.140).
Limiting conditions
4.132 1
Controlling depths. As for Belawan Channel ; see
4.108.
Deepest berth: Container Wharf (4.140).
Longest berth: Ocean Quay (4.140).
Maximum size of vessel handled: 245 m LOA, draught
10 m.
Arrival information
Notice of ETA
4.133 1
ETA should be sent 48 hours in advance, and 8 hours
notice for a pilot.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4).
Pilotage
4.134 1
See 4.109.
Tugs
4.135
1
Tugs join between Nos 9 and 11 Light−buoys (4.123).
Port regulations require tug assistance as follows:
Length of vessel Minimum number of tugs
Less than 70 m Not compulsory
Between 71 and 100 m 1
Between 101 and 200 m 2
More than 200 m 3
Traffic regulations
4.136
1
Vessels leaving harbour have priority over those
entering. Large size vessels are not permitted to pass in the
channel. See 4.110 for Belawan Channel.
Harbour
General layout
4.137 1
Belawan is a natural harbour fronting the N entrance to
Sungai Deli on the N and NW sides of Pulau Belawan. It
consists of a quay extending E/W, handling passengers and
general cargo, a tanker jetty to the NE and a container and
CHAPTER 4
108
general cargo wharf farther NE. A roadstead, with quays,
on the W side of the town handles general cargo. Details
of these berths are given in 4.140. Citra Basin (3°47′·2N
98°42′·2E) (4.140), handles general cargo and oil products.
Piracy
4.138
1
Piracy and armed robbery are prevalent in and off
Belawan, see 4.5.
Directions for entering harbour
4.139 1
For Belawan Channel see 4.121.
Berths
4.140 1
Principal berths are:
Container Wharf (3°47′·7N 98°42′·8E); 850 m in
length, charted depth alongside 8⋅0 to 9⋅8 m. The
wharf provides two general cargo berths at the SW
end, each 175 m in length; and two container
berths at the NE end, each 250 m in length.
Pertamina Jetty (3°47′·5N 98°42′·5E), a T−headed
jetty 75 m in length,. depth alongside 10·0 m.
2
Ocean Quay (3°47′N 98°42′E), 1520 m in length and
with charted depths of 6·2 to 10⋅1 m alongside. A
passenger terminal is situated at the E end of the
quay.
Pelabuhan Lama (3°46′·9N 98°40′·7E), has charted
depths alongside of 5⋅0 to 8⋅2 m. A light buoy
(starboard hand) is moored off Pelabuhan Lama.
3
Citra Basin (3°47′·2N 98°42′·2E), with reported
depths alongside of 10 m (although considerably
less is charted) and a reported maximum draught
of 8⋅3 m, has three berths totalling 625 m in length
along its N and NW sides. A berth for coastal
tankers is situated on the SE side of the basin; at
the head of the basin there is a cement factory and
silos.
4
Minor berth. A small T−headed oil jetty (3°47′·1N
98°40′⋅7E), on the W side of Pulau Belawan, has a charted
depth of 4⋅6 m.
Moorings. Four mooring buoys are charted off the NW
and W sides of Belawan between the entrances of Sungai
Nunang (3°47′·6N 98°41′·2E), and Sungai Belawan (1 mile
SW).
Port services
Repairs
4.141
1
Minor repairs only; a dry dock for coasters only; two
slipways for small craft, maximum 100 tonnes.
Other facilities
4.142
1
Port health centre at Belawan; several hospitals at
Medan. Deratting and deratting exemption certificates
issued via Medan. Customs, immigration, quarantine
anchorage. All main quays at Belawan are connected to the
railway system.
Supplies
4.143
1
Fuel at Pertamina jetty or by road tanker, advance notice
must be given.
Limited fresh provisions at Belawan; large quantities
from Medan. Fresh water by pipeline or by barge. Water is
regularly checked, but should be treated before drinking.
Communications
4.144
1
Regular sea communications with other ports in
Sumatera. Belawan is connected with the E coast railway
system via Medan (1 hour journey). Nearest airport,
Polonia (Medan), 28 km distant.
Medan
Chart 3921
General information
4.145 1
Position. Medan (3°35′N 98°40′E), 11 miles S of
Belawan, which can be reached by small vessels via Sungai
Deli, is a large modern city.
It is the seat of Government of the Province of North
Sumatera Utara and the fourth largest city in Indonesia
having a population, of 1 685 972 in 1990.
Communications: see 4.144.
BELAWAN TO TANJUNG TANJUNG
General information
Chart 3921
Route
4.146 1
The coastal route between the approach to Belawan
Channel , in the vicinity of No 2 Light−buoy (port hand)
(3°54′N 98°45′E), and Tanjung Tanjung, about 55 miles SE,
is obstructed by several shallow banks which lie up to
15 miles offshore. These include:
2
Gosong Deli (3°54′N 98°57′E) (4.120).
Gosong−gosong Bunga (3°45′N 99°05′E) (4.154).
Gosong Mati Luar (3°26′N 99°36′E) (4.170).
Other dangerous shoals and wrecks lie closer inshore.
Topography
4.147 1
The coast from Tanjung Perling (3°47′N 98°43′E) to the
entrance to Sungai Serdang, 9 miles SE, consists entirely of
mud and mangroves.
From Sungai Serdang entrance to Tanjung Mengkudu,
17 miles SE, the coast consists mainly of sandy beaches,
with casuarina and other high trees.
2
Thence to and beyond Tanjung Tanjung 27 miles farther
SE, there is again mud and mangroves, succeeded by a
sandy coast with casuarina trees.
4.148
1
Off−lying islands and banks. For Pulau Berhala
(3°47′N 99°30′E), adjacent islets and prohibited area, see
2.40, 2.43 and 2.48. For Gosong Berhala (3°55′N 99°26′E),
see 2.46.
Depths
4.149
1
Depths off the coast are somewhat irregular, and the
bottom contains more stones than farther NW.
Fishing
4.150
1
Fishing stakes are numerous on the banks fronting the
coast; most of these stakes are within the 5 m depth
CHAPTER 4
109
contour, but some fishing enclosures extend to the 10 m
depth contour between the mouth of Sungai Bedagai
(3°31′N 99°14′E) and Teluk Baharu (11 miles SE). These
render inshore navigation difficult at night.
2
Fishing stations of some size are situated at places
along the coast, but little can be seen of them from
seaward.
Unofficial lights are exhibited at some of the entrances
to small rivers along this stretch of coast. The rivers
themselves can only be entered by small craft near HW
(4.60).
Flow
4.151 1
Tidal streams. See 4.115 for details at the entrance to
Belawan Channel.
Current. A strong current is sometimes reported in the
vicinity of Tanjung Tanjung (3°21′N 99°29′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.101)
Principal marks
4.152 1
Landmarks:
Pulau Berhala (3°47′N 99°30′E) (2.43).
Major lights:
Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E) (4.98).
Pulau Berhala Light (3°47′N 99°30′E) (2.43).
Pulau Pandang Light (3°25′N 99°45′E) (4.168).
Other aids to navigation
4.153
1
Racons:
Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N 98°41′E) (4.98).
Belawan Channel Light−beacon (3°52′⋅3N 99°44′⋅2E).
Kualatanjung Pier (3°22′N 99°28′E) (4.160).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Passage outside Gosong−gosong Bunga
4.154 1
From a position NE of Nipahlarangan Light (3°54′N
98°41′E) (4.98) at the outer approaches to Belawan, the
track leads SE, passing (with positions from Tanjung
Sibungabunga Light (3°39′N 98°59′E)):
Clear of two dangerous wrecks (4.119) (19 and
22 miles NNW), thence:
NE of Gosong Deli (13 miles N) (4.120), thence:
2
NE of Gosong−gosong Bunga (9 miles NE) which
consists of two sand ridges running parallel with
the shore. The outer ridge, composed of mud, sand
and shells, is steep−to on its outer side. The
shallowest parts of both ridges are generally
marked by tide−rips, and with any swell, the sea
will break on them. A light−beacon (isolated
danger, 10 m in height) stands in the middle of the
outer ridge. Thence:
3
NE of a dangerous wreck (13 miles E), thence:
Either side of a dangerous wreck (21 miles E),
thence:
NE of Kuala Bedagai Light (white metal framework
structure, 13 m in height) (17 miles SE), thence:
Between Kualatanjung Approach Light−beacon (red
square topmark on beacon, 5 m in height) (3°23′N
99°29′E) at the NW extremity of Gosong Mati
(4.170) and Gosong Mati Luar (4.170), 5 miles
farther NE.
4
The track continues SE to a position about 5 miles NE
of Tanjung Tanjung (3°21′N 99°29′E), which although low
can be identified by its wide sandy beach and high trees.
Passage inside Gosong−gosong Bunga
4.155 1
The inshore passage between the inner ridge of
Gosong−gosong Bunga (4.154) and Gosong Sijenggi is
3½ miles wide.
Tide−rips and water discoloration are frequently
observed between the inner ridge of Gosong−gosong Bunga
and the coast.
Useful marks
4.156 1
Tanjung Sibungabunga Light (white beacon) (3°39′N
98°59′E).
Kualatanjung Pier and Light (3°22′N 99°28′E)
(4.160).
(Directions continue for the coastal route
SE of Tanjung Tanjung at 4.168)
Pelabuhan Kualatanjung
Charts 3584 plan of Kualatanjung, 3921
General information
4.157 1
Position. Pelabuhan Kualatanjung (3°22′N 99°28′E),
close NW of Tanjung Tanjung, consists of two piers, each
extending in a NE direction for about 1¼ miles.
Function. The SE pier serves Asahan Aluminium Plant,
and the NW pier for general cargo and vegetable oil.
2
Traffic In 2005, 85 vessels totalling 1 391 612 dwt used
the port.
Port authority. Adpel Kuala Tanjung, Dit Jen
Perhubungan Laut, Cabang Kuala Tanjung, Kuala Tanjung,
Sumatera, Indonesia.
Limiting conditions
4.158
1
Deepest and longest berth − MNA berth A on NW pier
(4.161).
Tidal levels: mean spring range about 2·3 m; mean neap
range about 0·9 m. For additional information see Admiralty
Tide Tables Volume 3.
Maximum size of vessel handled: 40 000 dwt at NW
pier.
Arrival information
4.159
1
Port radio see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Notice of ETA: 10, 3, 2 and 1 day.
Outer anchorage. A circular anchorage area, of radius
500 m, is centred 9 cables N of the SE pier head.
Pilotage is compulsory.
Tugs are available.
Current. See 4.151.
Directions
4.160
1
Approach. The SE pier, from which a light is exhibited
(racon), is approached by passing NW of Kualatanjung
Approach Light−beacon (3°23′N 99°29′E) (4.154). An
obstruction lies 1¾ cables NNE of the NW end of the jetty.
CHAPTER 4
110
Useful marks. If approaching from E, the following
marks may be useful:
Pulau Pandang and light (3°25′N 99°45′E) (4.168).
Pulau Salahnama and light (3°21′N 99°43′E) (4.168).
Gosong Mati Luar Light−buoy (3°24′N 99°38′E)
(4.170).
Berths
4.161
1
South−east Pier:
A: for aluminium, 200 m long, depth alongside
11·5 m.
B: for aluminium, 150 m long, depth alongside
11·6 m.
C: for general cargo, 80 m long, depth alongside
7·1 m.
2
MNA:
Berth A on T−head, maximum size draught 13 m,
LOA 185 m, 40 000 dwt (reported 2006).
Berth B (not shown on chart) lies about 300 m SW
on berth A for vessels to 7.5 m draught, LOA
100 m and 6000 dwt.
Services
4.162
1
Repairs: available.
Other facilities: medical facilities available.
Supplies: fresh water by pipe; no bunker fuel.
TANJUNG TANJUNG TO TANJUNG
JUMPUL
General information
Charts 3921, 3945 (see 1.17)
Route
4.163 1
The coastal passage between Tanjung Tanjung (3°21′N
99°29′E) and Tanjung Jumpul, at the entrance to Sungai
Asahan, 29 miles SE, leads between Gosong Mati Luar
(3°26′N 99°36′E) and Gosong Mati, 4 miles SW, and passes
on either side of Pulau Salahnama (3°21′N 99°43′E)
(4.168), an offshore island.
Topography
4.164 1
The coast between Tanjung Tanjung and Tanjung Tiram,
9 miles SE, is bordered by a white sandy beach, except for
a bank of mud and mangroves N of the mouth of Sungai
Gambus, 2 miles S of Tanjung Tanjung.
Thence the coast is of the same general character as that
described in 4.52.
Offshore island
4.165 1
Description. Pulau Pandang (3°25′N 99°45′E), is a
thickly overgrown islet. Together with Pulau Salahnama
(4.168), 5 miles SSW, the two islands are also known as
The Brothers.
For details of lights on the two islands, see 4.168.
Pulau Pandang is surrounded by a coral reef with some
above−water rocks on it.
Landing. A breakwater and boat camber, with a depth
of 0·6 m alongside, stand ¾ cable from the S end of the E
side of the islet.
Natural conditions
4.166 1
Tidal streams off Tanjung Tiram (3°14′N 99°35′E) set
SE and NW, and turn about 1 hour after HW and LW,
respectively.
The streams between Tanjung Tiram and Tanjung
Jumpul, 22 miles SE, set SE and NW at a rate of 2 kn. The
streams turn from ¾ to 1 hour after HW and LW,
respectively, in Sungai Asahan (3°01′N 99°51′E) (4.174).
4.167 1
Discoloured water. The strong tidal streams, in
conjunction with rapid changes in depth, form troubled
areas of water, the upper surfaces of which often take the
form of smooth eddying patches, followed by areas of
broken water, giving a strong impression of shoals.
The impression is strengthened by the fact that the
vertical upward movement of the water brings mud from
the bottom, and causes sharply defined areas of
discoloration.
2
Discoloured water is found off the coastal banks and
isolated shoals, as well as off the river mouths.
At some places on the coast a strong bioluminescence is
noticeable off the mud−banks fronting the shore, and where
this bank is broad, it is much accentuated by a high wind,
so that the light given off is said to be the best indication
of the nearness of land.
Directions
(continued from 4.156)
Principal marks
4.168 1
Landmark:
Pulau Salahnama (3°21′N 99°43′E) which is densely
wooded, and its rocky sides rise steeply from the
sea. A light (white metal framework structure,
30 m in height) is exhibited from the island.
Major light:
2
Pulau Pandang Light (white metal framework tower;
12 m in height) (3°25′N 99°45′E) standing on the
summit of the islet. The light is obscured by Pulau
Salahnama, on a bearing of about 023°, when
passing SW of the latter.
Other aid to navigation
4.169
1
Racon: Kualatanjung Pier (3°22′N 99°28′E) (4.160).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Tanjung Tanjung to Tanjung Jumpul
4.170
1
From a position about 5 miles NE of Tanjung Tanjung
(3°21′N 99°29′E), the passage leads ESE clear of charted
dangers and in depths greater than 20 m, passing (with
positions from Pulau Salahnama (3°21′N 99°43′E)):
Between Gosong Mati (10 miles W) and Gosong Mati
Luar (7 miles NW), which is marked at its SE end
by a light−buoy (starboard hand). The water in the
vicinity of Gosong Mati is discoloured when the
stream is running strongly and is sometimes
discoloured over Gosong Mati Luar. Thence:
2
NNE of Beting Neneh (8 miles WSW) and a patch of
similar depths 2½ miles farther ESE, thence:
Either side of Pulau Salahnama from where a light is
exhibited (4.168). An above−water rock lies
1¼ cables N of the islet and another 4½ cables SE
of the S extremity. Thence:
CHAPTER 4
111
NNE of a dangerous wreck (mast) (6 miles SE),
thence:
3
NNE of Gosong Tambuntulang (9 miles SE), the edge
of which is marked by numerous fishing stakes. A
light−beacon (white GRP, 10 m in height) is
established 1 mile NE of Tanjung Tambuntulang
(10½ miles SSE) and a stranded wreck (4.177)
4
NNE of a light−buoy (safe water) (14 miles SE),
marking the outer approaches to Sungai Asahan
(4.177).
The passage continues ESE to a position NE of Tanjung
Jumpul (21 miles SSE).
Caution. Large fish enclosures extend up to 4 miles
from the coast into depths of 7 m in the vicinity of
Tamjungtiram (3°14′N 99°35′E).
4.171 1
Useful marks:
Kualatanjung Approach Light−beacon (3°23′N
99°29′E) (4.154).
Kualatanjung Pier and Light (3°22′N 99°28′E)
(4.160).
2
Light beacons at the entrance to Tanjungtiram
(3°15′N 99°35′E) (4.172).
Bagan Asahan Light (3°01′N 99°51′E) (4.178). The
light is obscured when bearing less than 180°.
(Directions continue for the coastal route SE of
Tanjung Jumpul at 4.193 and for the approach to
Sungai Asahan at 4.177)
Side channel
Sungai Batubara
4.172 1
General information. Sungai Batubara (3°14′N 99°35′E)
is entered on the E side of Tanjung Tiram. The village of
Tanjungtiram stands at the junction of Sungai Batubara and
Sungai Kiri, 5 cables within the entrance.
A customs house stands at Tanjungtiram.
2
Leading lights:
Front beacon (white triangle, point up, on white
beacon).
Rear beacon (white triangle, point down, on white
beacon), (320 m from front).
The alignment (164°) of these lights leads across the bar
at Sungai Batubaru which dries 0·2 m.
3
Useful mark. Tanjungtiram Light−beacon (red square
topmark on beacon, 10 m in height) off the entrance to
Sungai Batubara. An obstruction lies 1 mile NNE of this
light.
Caution. For caution concerning fish enclosures see
4.170.
Communications: regular sea communication with
Pinang.
Anchorages
4.173 1
Pulau Salahnama. Anchorage may be obtained 8 cables
from the NW and SE sides of the islet (3°21′N 99°43′E)
(4.168).
Pulau Pandang. Anchorage may be obtained 8 cables
from both the NW and SE sides of the islet (3°25′N
99°45′E) (4.165).
Sungai Asahan and approaches
General information
4.174 1
Route. Sungai Asahan is entered from N through a
channel leading between Tanjung Napal (3°02′N 99°51′N),
and Tanjung Jumpul, 1½ miles E.
Sungai Asahan leads to cargo terminals for small vessels
at Teluknibung (3°00′N 99°49′E) and Tanjungbalai,
2 miles SSW.
Topography. The coast at the entrance and in the
vicinity is low, muddy and overgrown with mangroves.
Depths
4.175
1
Least charted depth on the bar is 1·0 m.
Arrival information
4.176
1
Local knowledge. Sungai Asahan should only be
entered with local knowledge as the channel is constantly
changing.
Regulations concerning entry: The port may only be
entered in daylight. The port is not open to foreign trade.
2
Tidal streams set as follows:
Direction Remarks
In−going On to the N edge of
Gosong Jumpul (3°05′N 99°55′E).
Out−going Away from this bank.
Off the mouth of Sungai Asahan, the stream sets:
Direction Remarks
In−going Begins 1 hour after LW.
Spring rate 1½ kn.
Out−going
Begins ¾ hour after HW. Spring rate 3 kn.
3
Off Kuala Asahan (3°02′N 99°52′E) the maximum
NW−going rate is 2 hours before HW Kuala Batu Pahat;
the maximum SE−going rate is 2 hours before LW Kuala
Batu Pahat.
Directions for approach channel to Sungai Asahan
(continued from 4.171)
4.177
1
From a position N of Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N 99°53′E),
the track leads S, passing, (with positions from Tanjung
Jumpul):
E of Gosong Tambuntulang (12 miles NNW) (4.170),
on the E side of which lies a stranded wreck
(10 miles NNW), and:
Either side of a light−buoy (safe water) (8 miles
NNW).
2
Leading lights:
Front light (white triangle point up, on white beacon,
9 m in height) (3°01′·7N 99°51′·7E).
Rear light (white triangle point down, on white
beacon, 12 m in height) (8½ cables S of front
light).
3
The alignment (180°) of these lights then leads through
the channel passing (with positions from the front light):
W of Gosong Jumpul (4½ miles NE), which extends
6½ miles N from Tanjung Jumpul (1¼ miles E).
Fishing enclosures, some marked by reflectors,
stand on the W side of the drying portion of
Gosong Jumpul. Thence:
CHAPTER 4
112
4
Close E of a pair of leading lights (1¾ and 2 miles
N) (4.178), thence:
To a position W of Bagan Asahan Outer Bar
Light−beacon (red beacon, 15 m in height)
(3°02′·9N 99°52′·0E) (1¼ miles NNE).
4.178
1
Leading lights:
Front light (triangle, point up on beacon, 9 m in
height) (3°03′·3N 99°51′·6E).
Rear light (triangle point down, on beacon, 12 m in
height) (4 cables N of front light).
2
From a position W of Bagan Asahan Outer Bar
Light−beacon (4.177), the alignment, (356¾°), astern of
these lights leads S to a position 3 cables ESE of Tanjung
Napal (3°02′N 99°51′E) (4.174).
The track then leads SSW on the line of bearing, 198°,
of Bagan Asahan Light (white metal framework tower,
14 m in height) (3°01′·0N 99°51′·4E), to a position 5 cables
NNE of the light, passing:
3
WNW of the Front light (3°01′·7N 99°51′·7E)
(4.177), and:
WNW of a shoal, which dries, 1 cable SSE.
The track then leads S passing between:
Bagan Asahan Light and the Rear light (4.177) and
into Sungai Asahan.
Note Bagan Ashan Light is obscured by trees when
bearing less than 180°.
Directions for Sungai Asahan
4.179
1
Leading beacons stand on the E side of Sungai Asahan
S of the village of Bagan (3°01′N 99°51′E) to assist
passage through several reaches to Tanjungbalai.
These beacons are frequently moved to conform with
changes in the channel.
Two stranded wrecks lie on the river bank S of
Teluknibung.
Teluknibung and Tanjungbalai
General information
4.180 1
Position. Teluknibung (3°00′N 99°49′E) and
Tanjungbalai, 2 miles SSW, are situated 5 and 7 miles,
respectively, along Sungai Asahan, above Bagan (4.179).
Tanjungbalai is the principal town of Asahan district,
where a Government officer and the Sultan of Asahan
reside.
2
Function. Cargo terminals and wharves are situated on
the N bank of the river at Teluknibung and on the W bank
at Tanjungbalai. Shrimp and dried fish are exported.
Port Authority. Tanjungbalai Asahan Port Authority,
Jalan Pelabuhan Teluknibung, Tanjungbalai, Asahan.
Limiting conditions
4.181
1
Least charted depths:
For bar (4.174).
To Teluknibung 0·7 m.
The channel to Tanjungbalai dries.
Deepest berths:
Teluknibung 2·1 m.
Tanjungbalai 0·8 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled:
Teluknibung 500 gt at HW.
Tanjungbalai 15 gt.
Arrival information
4.182 1
No port radio.
Pilotage available but not compulsory.
Directions
4.183
1
See 4.179. Sungai Asahan is navigable by motor
launches to Bandar Pulau, about 40 miles above
Tanjungbalai.
Berths
4.184 1
At Teluknibung:
The terminal wharf, an iron jetty 100 m long, with a
depth of 2·1 m alongside.
At Tanjungbalai:
The terminal wharf, a wooden jetty 72 m long with a
depth of 0·8 m alongside.
The wharves at Teluknibung and Tanjungbalai are
connected with the E coast railway system.
Port services
4.185 1
Repairs: minor emergency repairs only.
Other facilities: no cargo handling equipment; hospital
at Tanjungbalai; emergency port health clinic at
Teluknibung; tide gauge at Teluknibung; customs;
immigration; quarantine.
2
Supplies: fuel and diesel oil available in drums or by
road−tanker; water is available, but should be treated or
chlorinated before drinking; provisions available, but
expensive.
Communications: regular sea communication with
Pinang. nearest airport Polonia (Medan), 20 km distant.
TANJUNG JUMPUL TO TANJUNG SINABOI
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1358, 3945, 3946
Scope of the section
4.186 1
This section describes the coastal passage off the NE
coast of Sumatera from Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N 99°53′E)
to Tanjung Sinaboi (84 miles SE).
The passage is divided into two parts:
Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N 99°53′E) to Tanjung
Pertandangan (4.189).
Tanjung Pertandangan (2°42′N 100°13′E) to Tanjung
Sinaboi (4.208).
Topography
4.187
1
The coastline is mostly low−lying, muddy and bordered
by mangroves.
Peaks (not charted) above 2000 m high, 50 to 60 miles
inland in the Asahan, Kuala and Bila mountain ranges, are
sometimes visible.
CHAPTER 4
113
The offshore islands of Pulau−pulau Aruah (2°53′N
100°35′E), about 25 miles ENE of Tanjung Pertandangan,
are described at 2.69.
Tidal streams
4.188 1
In this section the approximate time differences between
HW Kuala Batu Pahat (1°48′N 102°53′E) and the
occurrence of the maximum rate of the NW−going stream
are as follows:
Position Time interval
Off Pulau−pulau Aruah (2°53′N 100°35′E) (2.60)
– 0130
Off Tanjung Pertandangan (2°42′N 100°13′E) (4.192)
– 0130
Off Tanjung Sinaboi (2°17′N 101°04′E) (4.237)
+ 0230
Off Sungai Rokan (2°07′N 100°44′E) (4.213)
+ 0130
2
The same time differences applied to LW Kuala Batu
Pahat give approximate times of the maximum SE−going
rate.
Slack water occurs 3 hours before the maximum rate.
TANJUNG JUMPUL TO TANJUNG
PERTANDANGAN
General information
Charts 3945, 1358 (see 1.17)
Route
4.189 1
The coastal route from NE of Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N
99°53′E) to a position NE of Tanjung Pertandangan,
29 miles SE, leads in a SE direction outside the 20 m depth
contour.
The large bay between Tanjung Siapiapi (2°57′N
99°59′E) and Tanjung Pertandangan, 20 miles SE, is
obstructed with shoals, between which are several navigable
channels (4.196) leading to the mouths of:
Sungai Kuala (2°45′N 100°00′E).
Sungai Panai (2°40′N 100°07′E).
Topography
4.190 1
The coastline in the bay between Tanjung Siapiapi
(2°57′N 99°59′E) and Tanjung Pertandangan, 20 miles SE,
is low and mostly bordered by mangroves.
Former mined area
4.191 1
Caution. Details of an extensive former mined area in
the approaches to Sungai Kuala and Sungai Panai are given
in Appendix III. Although open to surface navigation,
within the designated area it is dangerous to anchor, trawl
or engage in any seabed activity.
For swept channel in Alur Telukpiai, see 4.201.
Tidal streams
4.192 1
The tidal streams set as follows:
Between Tanjung Siapiapi (2°57′N 99°59′E) and the
drying banks off the mouth of Sungai Panai, 10 miles SE:
In−going Sets in and along the direction of Alur
Telukpiai (2°48′N 100°04′E).
Out−going Sets on to Tanjung Siapiapi.
Off Tanjung Pertandangan (2°42′N 100°13′E):
Out−going Sets E.
Off Tanjung Perapat (2°44′N 100°03′E) and
Tanjung Datu (4 miles SE):
In−going Sets towards the coast.
Out−going Sets strongly NW.
2
For times of maximum rates off Tanjung Pertandangan,
see 4.188.
Rates. The greatest rate outside the 10 m depth contour
is 2 kn, and in the channels and rivers, from 4 to 5 kn.
The period of slack water is very short at springs.
Duration. Outside the banks the streams run for about
6 hours in each direction.
3
Off and within the river mouths, for some time after the
in−going stream has begun, the surface water continues to
run out while an under−current sets inwards.
Farther in:
Out−going stream runs for 7 hours.
In−going stream runs for 5 hours.
The stream turns ½ hour before HW and ½ hour after
LW.
See also 4.188 for general remarks.
Directions
(continued from 4.171)
Major light
4.193
1
Pulau Jemur Light (2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.61).
Passage
4.194 1
From a position NE of Tanjung Jumpul (3°02′N
99°53′E), the coastal passage leads SE outside the 20 m
depth contour, passing (with positions from Tanjung
Siapiapi (2°57′N 99°59′E)):
NE of Gosong Jumpul (8 miles NW) (4.177), which
extends up to 6 miles NE from the coast, thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck (3 miles N), thence:
2
NE of Tanjung Siapiapi and Tanjung Siapiapi Light
(white beacon) (2 miles E), thence:
NE of the mouth of the approach channels to Sungai
Kuala and Sungai Panai (4.196), thence:
Either side of a dangerous wreck, position
approximate, (charted 19 miles ESE).
3
The passage continues SE to a position NE of Tanjung
Pertandangan (18 miles SE), which although low, shows up
well from N on account of its high trees.
CHAPTER 4
114
4.195 1
Useful mark:
Lights in the approaches to Sungai Asahan (4.177).
(Directions continue for the route direct to
Tanjung Sinaboi at 4.215
and for the inshore route at 4.218.
Directions are given for Sungai Kuala at 4.199
and for Sungai Panai at 4.202)
Channels leading to Sungai Kuala and
Sungai Panai
Routes
4.196 1
The following five channels (listed from W to E) lead
from seaward as indicated:
To Sungai Kuala, through:
Alur Kuala (2°50′N 100°02′E) (4.198).
To Sungai Panai, through:
Alur Telukpiai (2°48′N 100°04′E) (4.201).
Alur Panai (2°47′N 100°07′E) (4.201).
Alur Bangsi (2°47′N 100°10′E) (4.201).
Alur Timur (2°42′N 100°09′E) (4.201).
Caution
4.197 1
The channels listed in 4.196 are liable to change both in
depth and direction.
Fishing huts and stakes, some carrying radar reflectors,
stand on each side of the bay around the channels.
For mined area in these channels, see 4.191.
Sungai Kuala and approach
General information
4.198 1
Alur Kuala (2°50′N 100°02′E), an unbuoyed channel,
leads on the W side of the outer bar to the village of
Ledung (2° 45′ N 99° 59′ E), on the N side of the entrance
to Sungai Ledung.
Least charted depth over the bar is 2·5 m.
Local knowledge is required for entry.
Tidal streams. The out−going stream off the mouth of
Sungai Ledung is strong, especially near the time of LW.
Directions
4.199 1
From the vicinity of 3°00′N 100°04′E the track leads
SSW passing 7 cables to 1 mile ESE of the steep−to
mudbank SE of Tanjung Siapiapi (2°57′N 99°59′E).
Clearing marks. Tanjung Ledung (2°45′N 99°59′E),
which is prominent, well open of Tanjung Sibabi (3 miles
NNE).
When Tanjung Ledung bears 211° the track leads on that
bearing of the headland until the customs station at
Simendulang (2°49′N 99°59′E), built on piles close off the
village, bears 270°.
2
Thence the track leads 197°, or as required for
anchorage off Ledung, in a depth of 2 to 3 m.
It is reported that Ledung is difficult to distinguish by
day, but at night the lights of the houses can be made out
and distinguished from lights on the fishing stakes at the
entrance to Sungai Ledung.
Useful marks:
Tanjung Siapiapi Light (2°57′N 100°01′E (4.194)).
Tanjung Ledung Light (2°46′N 99°59′E).
Berth and anchorage
4.200 1
Pier. The pier at Ledung has a customs station at its
extremity, with a depth of 0·5 m in the approach.
Inner anchorage may be obtained off Tanjung
Mengedar (2°39′N 100°01′E) on the E bank of the river,
8 miles above Tanjung Ledung, in a depth of 3 m.
Sungai Panai and approaches
General information
4.201 1
Channels. Alur Telukpiai (2°48′N 100°04′E) is the only
one of the channels (4.196) into Sungai Panai which is in
regular use and may be buoyed.
No directions are available for Alur Panai, Alur Bangsi
or Alur Timur as they are unusable due to strong cross
currents.
Alur Timur, close N of Tanjung Bangsi (2°42′N
100°10′E) (a low mangrove point), is reported to have
moved NW.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Controlling depths are:
Alur Telukpiai 2·0 m.
Within Sungai Panai 1·0 m.
3
Tidal streams. For details see 4.192.
Mine danger. A channel, 200 m wide, has been swept
through the former mined area (4.191).
Caution. A good look−out must be kept for fishing
stakes in the vicinity of the channel.
Directions
4.202
1
From the vicinity of 2°55′N 100°06′E, the approach
track through Alur Telukpiai leads SSW, then S.
When E of Tanjung Perapat (2°44′N 100°03′E), the track
leads SE, passing between Tanjung Perapat and a drying
bank 1 mile E, to a position SW of Gosong Tengah
(2°43′N 100°07′N).
Thence the track leads S into Sungai Panai. Deeper
water will be found close to the bank, passing on either
side of Lumut (2° 34′·5N 100° 07′·0E), an islet covered
with high trees.
4.203
1
Useful mark:
Tanjung Datu Light (white beacon) (2°41′·3N
100°05′·7E).
Rivers above Sungai Panai
Description
4.204 1
At Tanjung Lumbalumba (2°30′⋅5N 100°08′·5E), Sungai
Panai divides into:
Sungai Barumun, to the SE, which leads past
Labuhanbilik (4.205).
Sungai Bila, to the SW (4.207).
Sungai Barumun
4.205 1
Labuhanbilik (2°31′N 100°10′E), on the NE side of the
entrance to Sungai Barumun, is the residence of a
Government officer.
Anchorage may be obtained off Labuhanbilik close to
the Customs Office in charted depths of 3 to 4 m.
Caution. Three dangerous wrecks lie 80 m from the E
shore off Labuhanbilik; a green buoy is moored close E of
them.
Facilities. There is a customs station, a tidal station, a
saw mill and several small piers at Labuhanbilik.
CHAPTER 4
115
Sungai Baramun above Labuhanbilik
4.206 1
An overhead telephone cable, with vertical clearance of
13 m, suspended between masts on each bank, spans
Sungai Barumun 2 miles above Labuhanbilik.
The navigation channel here leads on the W side of the
river.
Motor launches drawing up to 1·8 m can reach
Ayermera, 70 miles above Labuhanbilik.
Sungai Bila
4.207 1
Sungai Bila is shallower than Sungai Barumun (4.205).
There are rubber plantations on the river banks.
The village of Jawijawi (2°30′N 100°07′E) is 2 miles
above Tanjung Berangberangtunggal, the N entrance point
of the river, where there is a customs station.
TANJUNG PERTANDANGAN TO TANJUNG
SINABOI
General information
Charts 3946, 1358 (see 1.17)
Routes
4.208 1
The direct coastal route from NE of Tanjung
Pertandangan (2°42′N 100°13′E) to a position close NE of
Tanjung Sinaboi, 55 miles SE, leads SE over the N part of
the shoals fronting the large bight between these positions.
The inshore passage from Tanjung Pertandangan to a
position 2°14′N 100°35′E, 36 miles SSE, off the entrance to
Sungai Rokan, leads SSE into shallow water in the S part.
2
The inshore passage from the entrance to Sungai Rokan
to NE of Tanjung Sinaboi, about 28 miles E, passes over
shallow water N of the drying coastal bank between these
positions.
Topography
4.209 1
The coast between Tanjung Pertandangan and Tanjung
Sinaboi is mostly muddy, low−lying and uniformly covered
with mangroves.
The only points of identification are the unimportant
river mouths which may be recognised by fishermen’s huts.
Depths
4.210
1
The direct coastal route (4.208) described at 4.217 leads
in a least charted depth of about 8 m across the shoals
extending SE from Pulau−pulau Aruah (2°53′N 100°34′E)
(2.69).
Although deeper water may be charted between the
shoals, and other routes negotiated, mariners are referred to
the chart for comments concerning positions.
2
On the inshore route, there are least charted depths of
about 2 m to a position off Bagansiapiapi (4.220) within
Sungai Rokan.
Offshore banks
4.211 1
The large bight enclosed between Tanjung Pertandangan
and Tanjung Sinaboi is mostly filled by a shallow coastal
bank. The approximate limits of this bank are indicated by
fishing stakes and enclosures as far as the 10 m depth
contour which extends up to 40 miles NW of Tanjung
Sinaboi.
Pasir Selatan (2°35′N 101°09′E) extends over a large
area SW, S and SE. The sands are composed of a large
number of banks with deep channels between them.
Hazards
4.212 1
Fishing boats may be encountered far out to sea and at
night they carry no lights. At times these boats may be
found close S of Pulau−pulau Aruah (2.69).
Numerous huts on piles stand on the coastal bank
between Bagansiapiapi (2°09′N 100°49′E) and Tanjung
Sinaboi.
Former mined area. See caution 4.191 and
Appendix III.
Tidal streams
4.213 1
The stream outside the coastal bank N of Sungai Rokan
entrance sets:
In−going SE.
Out−going NW.
Near the 10 m depth contour the streams set along the
edges of the shoals at a rate from 3 to 4 kn at springs. The
in−going stream runs about 3 hours before to 3 hours after
HW Bagansiapiapi (2°09′N 100°49′E).
2
Except for a short period of slack water, the stream over
the middle of the bank is rotary anti−clockwise and sets,
compared with Bagansiapiapi, as follows:
Time difference Direction
HW E
3 hours after HW N
LW W
3 hours after LW S
3
At neaps:
The N and S−going streams predominate.
The E and W−going streams are hardly perceptible.
The N−going stream runs the longer and at the
greatest rate.
For times of maximum rates off Sungai Rokan (2°07′N
100°44′E), see 4.188.
4.214 1
Off Bagansiapiapi (2°09′N 100°49′E) both the in−going
and out−going streams follow the direction of the mouth of
the river and run at their greatest rate immediately after the
turn of the tide.
For details of the tidal bore in Sungai Rokan, see 4.226.
Directions
(continued from 4.195)
Principal marks
4.215 1
Landmarks:
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower)
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E) (2.61).
Major light:
Pulau Jemur Light (2°53′N 100°34′E) (2.61).
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E) (2.61).
Other aids to navigation
4.216
1
Racons:
Permatang Sedepa TSS Light−beacon (2°48′⋅6N
100°56′⋅6E).
CHAPTER 4
116
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Direct route
4.217 1
The direct route from a position NE of Tanjung
Pertandangan (2°42′N 100°13′E) leads SE passing (with
positions from Pulau Jemur (2°53′N 100°34′E)):
SW of Pulau Sarongalang (2.70) (1 mile SW), the
most SW island of Pulau−pulau Aruah (2.69); a
light is exhibited from Pulau Jemur (2.61), thence:
SW of Pulau Tukong (7 miles SE) (2.71), thence:
NE of the extensive shoal area in the approaches to
Sungai Rokan (40 miles S), thence:
2
The track continues SE through a channel less than a
mile wide N and NE of Tanjung Sinaboi (2°17′N
101°04′E), passing (with positions from Tanjung Sinaboi):
SW of an obstruction (9½ miles NNW), thence:
NE of the coastal bank N of Pulau Sinaboi (3 miles
NW). Pulau Sinaboi, an island just above water, is
covered with low light−coloured undergrowth
which shows up well against the darker growth of
the mainland. Thence:
SW of a shoal bank with drying patches (5 miles N).
The route continues SE to a position about 2 miles NE
of Tanjung Sinaboi, passing either side of a post charted in
that position.
See comment on depths at 4.210.
(Directions continue for the coastal route
SE of Tanjung Sinaboi at 4.239)
Inshore passage from NE of Tanjung Pertandangan to
Sungai Rokan
(continued from 4.195)
4.218 1
Local knowledge is required.
The passage across the banks from NE of Tanjung
Pertandangan to Bagansiapiapi (2°09′N 100°49′E), at the N
entrance to Sungai Rokan, is greatly obstructed by
numerous fishing stakes and large fish enclosures, which
should be given a wide berth.
There is no definite channel as depths are constantly
changing. Passage should only be attempted by small
vessels.
2
The track leads generally SSE passing (with positions
from Tanjung Pertandangan (2°42′N 100°13′E)):
ENE of the mined area (4.191) E of Tanjung
Pertandangan, and:
ENE of the coastal bank fronting Tanjung Pecudian
(12 miles SE), a point fringed with mangroves with
high trees behind it which decrease suddenly when
near the point.
3
ENE of Panipahan Light (white beacon) (17 miles
SE).
Caution. The tidal streams (4.213) are frequently strong
and set across the track, rendering it difficult to keep clear
of obstructions.
Inshore passage from Sungai Rokan to Tanjung
Sinaboi
4.219 1
Local knowledge is required.
No specific directions are available for this passage
which leads seaward of the drying coastal bank extending
up to 6 miles from the coastline N of Bagansiapiapi
(2°09′N 100°49′E).
Numerous obstructions are reported N of Pulau
Alang−Besar (2°11′N 100°39′E) (4.222) and huts stand on
piles on the mud−bank.
Sungai Rokan and Bagansiapiapi
General information
4.220 1
Position. Bagansiapiapi (2°09′N 100°49′E), with a
population of about 2000, fronts the E shore of the mouth
of Sungai Rokan.
Roadstead limits are:
Parallels of 2°05′N, and 2°12′N.
Meridian of 100°41′E and the coast E.
Authorities: Harbour Master; customs; immigration.
Maximum size of vessel
4.221
1
Vessels of 300 gt.
Directions for anchorage
4.222 1
Local knowledge is required.
From a position about 3¼ miles WNW of the NW point
of Pulau Alang Besar (2°12′⋅9N 100°37′⋅8E) , the track to
the anchorage SE of Pulau Alang−Besar (2°11′N 100°39′E),
leads SE, passing:
About 1 mile from the SW side of the island, which
is low and covered with vegetation, thence:
SW of an obstruction (submerged post) 1¼ miles W
of the SE extremity of Pulau Alang−Besar.
A small foul area (lost anchor and cable) is reported
5 miles SE of the SE extremity of Pulau Alang−Besar.
Berth
4.223 1
A wooden pier, 40 m in length, depth alongside 2 m
MLWS. A flagstaff stands at the pierhead.
Port services
4.224
1
Repairs: wooden craft only.
Facilities: Medical Officer at Bagansiapiapi; fresh food
and vegetables are available, but expensive.
Communications: regular sea communication with Jawa
and Singapore; no road transport; by boat on Sungai
Rokan.
River above Bagansiapiapi
4.225 1
Local knowledge is required.
Sungai Rokan above Bagansiapiapi is much encumbered
by banks, and the channels between them are constantly
shifting.
4.226 1
Tidal bore. For 6 days over spring tides, the in−going
stream makes as a bore, and attains a height of 1 m.
It is experienced between Pulau Perdamaron (2°00′N
100°51′E), 6 miles S of Bagansiapiapi, and Tanahputih,
25 miles farther upstream.
It travels at a great rate with a thunderous noise, and
does much damage to small craft.
CHAPTER 4
117
Channel south of Pulau Sinaboi
General information
4.227 1
A narrow channel leads between Pulau Sinaboi (2°18′N
101°01′E) (4.217) and the mainland. The W part of the
channel dries up to 1 m off Sungaibakau.
Sinaboi at the entrance to Sungai Sinaboi, on the SE
side of the channel, is a thriving village covering a
considerable area.
2
Two buildings and two piers stand about 3 cables E of
the village.
The channel to Sinaboi from E should be approached
only by small craft.
TANJUNG SINABOI TO PULAU−PULAU KARIMUN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3946, 3947, 1358
Scope of the section
4.228
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Tanjung
Sinaboi (2°17′N 101°04′E) to Pulau−pulau Karimun,
155 miles SE, at the W entrance to Singapore Strait. Also
covered are the channels between the mainland of Sumatera
and the large islands off its E coast, including the principal
approach to Dumai through Selat Bengkalis and Selat
Rupat.
4.229
1
The routes are presented in seven parts as follows:
Coastal passage from Tanjung Sinaboi (2°17′E,
101°04′E) to Tanjung Medang, 37 miles ESE,
(4.234).
Coastal passage from Tanjung Medang to
Kukuburung, 10 miles SE, (4.247).
Principal approach channel to Selat Bengkalis and
Selat Rupat, (4.254).
2
Dumai and Eastern Approach through Selat Rupat,
(4.268).
Selat Bengkalis and Selat Lalang, (4.303).
Coastal passage from Kukuburung (2°00′N 101°50′E)
to Pulau−pulau Karimun excluding passages
between the islands, (4.339).
Passages between the islands lying South−east of
Pulau Bengkalis (1°30′N 102°15′E), (4.359).
Through route
4.230 1
For Malacca Strait TSS through route, and for the
principal lights and landmarks in the central part of
Malacca Strait, see 2.81, 2.103 and 7.32.
Horizontal datums
4.231
1
For information on incompatible horizontal datums when
using ARCS charts in these waters see 4.4.
Topography
4.232 1
The mainland coast of Sumatera from Tanjung Sinaboi
(2°17′N 101°04′E) to the vicinity of Pulau−pulau Karimun
(1°05′N 103°22′E), 155 miles SE, is low and fronted by a
number of islands through which there are channels leading
to ports within.
Tidal streams
4.233 1
In this section the approximate time differences between
HW Kuala Batu Pahat (1°48′N 102°53′E) and the
occurrence of the maximum rate of the NW−going stream
are as follows:
2
Position Time
interval
Off Tanjung Sinaboi
(2°17′N 101°04′E) (4.237)
+ 0230
N entrance to Selat Rupat (2°00′N 101°21′E) (4.238)
+ 0230
N entrance to Selat Bengkalis (1°37′N 101°55′E) (4.261)
+ 0400
3
Selat Padang
(1°23′N 102°20′E) (4.363)
+ 0500
Selat Asam
(1°03′N 102°28′E) (4.368)
+ 0530
Selat Kungkung
(1°01′N 102°42′E) (4.378)
+ 0600
Selat Ayer Hitam (0°55′N 102°55′E) (4.378)
+ 0630
4
S part of Selat Panjang (0°45′N 102°55′E) (4.372)
+ 0630
Off Tanjung Kedabu (1°06′N 102°59′E) (4.347)
+ 0630
5
The same time difference applies to LW Kuala Batu
Pahat gives the approximate times of the maximum
SE−going rate.
Slack water occurs 3 hours before the maximum rate.
TANJUNG SINABOI TO TANJUNG
MEDANG
General information
Charts 3946, 1358 (see 1.17)
Route
4.234 1
The direct coastal route E from Tanjung Sinaboi (2°17′N
101°04′E) is obstructed by the shoals and deeps forming
the landward extension of Pasir Seletan (2°35′N 101°09′E).
Although deeper water may be charted between the shoals,
the route described in this section leads in shallower water
SE and E off the mainland and N coasts of Pulau Rupat
and Pulau Medang, to Tanjung Medang, a direct distance of
38 miles.
2
The N side of Pulau Rupat and the NW side of Pulau
Medang as far as Tanjung Medang (2°07′N 107°39′E) are
CHAPTER 4
118
fronted by foul ground with many drying patches extending
up to 7 miles offshore.
The route generally used by local vessels is along the
mainland coast for the whole distance from Tanjung
Sinaboi to Dumai (1°41′N 101°27′E) (4.281).
Topography
4.235 1
The coast between Tanjung Sinaboi and Tanjung
Bakautua (2°02′N 101°18′E), 23 miles SE, the NW entrance
point to Sungai Rupat, is uniformly low and overgrown
with mangroves.
Pulau Rupat and Pulau Medang (2°02′N 101°40′E) are
separated by Selat Morong, a very narrow strait. The
greater part of these two islands consists of marsh with
mangrove coasts and high trees within.
Pulau Babi (2°06′N 101°33′E) and Pulau Burung
(5 miles ENE) are two overgrown islets off this coast.
Dangers
4.236 1
Many mud−banks lie between the coastal channel and
the fairway of Malacca Strait TSS; these are the
continuation S and SE of Pasir Selatan (2°35′N 101°09′E).
Gosong Pyramid (2°27′N 101°30′E) (2.89) is the farthest E
of these banks.
Tidal streams
4.237 1
See 4.233, for time intervals.
Along the edge of the coastal bank off Tanjung Sinaboi
and in the inshore channel between this point and Tanjung
Ketam (2°00′N 101°19′E), the stream sets:
SE
Maximum rate 2½ kn.
NW
Maximum rate 3½ kn.
The stream turns by the shore 3 hours after HW and
LW.
For times of maximum rates off Tanjung Sinaboi,
see 4.233.
4.238 1
In the channel (2°07′N 101°22′E), 4 miles NE of
Gosong Bakautua (4.240) the stream sets:
From E to ESE Maximum rate 2 kn.
From W to NW Maximum rate 2 kn.
The irregular outline of the shoals, however, causes
deflections of the stream, so that caution is necessary.
The stream turns by the shore 3 hours after HW and
LW.
For times of maximum rates at N entrance to Selat
Rupat, see 4.233.
Directions
(continued from 4.217)
Major light
4.239 1
Tanjung Medang Light (2° 07′⋅5N 101° 39′⋅5E) (2.87).
From Tanjung Sinaboi to northern entrance to Selat
Rupat
4.240 1
Local knowledge is required.
No specific directions can be given for the inshore
channel which leads SE along the coast from Tanjung
Sinaboi to the N entrance of Selat Rupat (2°07′N
101°18′E).
2
From the vicinity of the post (2°17′N 101°05′E), 2 miles
NE of Tanjung Sinaboi the track leads SE passing:
NE of Gosong Bakautua, which lies parallel to and
1 mile offshore NE of Tanjung Senapies (2°05′N
101°16′E). The shoal is composed of hard sand,
and dries at its SE extremity. And:
SW of a post (2°05′·5N 101°20′·7E).
3
The track then leads S passing E of Tanjung Bakautua
and into Selat Rupat. A drying patch is charted 1½ miles E
of Tanjung Bakautua.
4.241
1
Useful marks:
Sinaboi (2°17′N 101°02′E) and buildings (4.227).
Radio mast and light (1°38′N 101°26′E) within Selat
Rupat (chart 3933).
From northern entrance to Selat Rupat to Tanjung
Medang
4.242 1
Local knowledge is required.
The channel is narrow and nearly dries at its E end in
the vicinity of Busung Asoh.
From a position NE of Gosong Bakautua (4.240) the
track leads E then ESE passing (with positions from
Tanjung Bakautua (2°02′N 101°18′E)):
N of the post (4 miles NE) (4.240), thence:
Close N of Tanjung Mumbul (11 miles E).
2
The track then leads E then NE, passing (with positions
from Tanjung Medang Light (2° 07′⋅5N 101° 39′⋅5E)):
SE of Pulau Babi (6½ miles WSW) and the shoals
extending ENE from that islet, thence:
SE of Busung Asoh (3 miles W), a drying sand flat,
thence:
NW of Pulau Burung (1½ miles W) (2.91).
3
The track continues ESE to a position N of Tanjung
Medang, from where a light (2.87) is exhibited, and clear
of a dangerous wreck, position approximate (2½ miles N).
4.243
1
Another route, farther offshore, leads between the
drying banks NW of Pulau Rupat.
Caution. The route is up to 8 miles off the relatively
featureless shore (4.235). See also notes on the charts
concerning positions and satellite−derived positions and 4.4.
2
From the vicinity of 2°10′N 101°14′E, N of Gosong
Bakautua, the track leads generally E (with positions from
Tanjung Bakautua (2°02′N 101°18′E)):
Over two banks where charted depths of 6 m may be
found and into a channel deeper than 20 m
(10 miles NE).
3
Thence the track leads ENE into open water after
passing:
Between a 3⋅5 m shoal (14 miles NE) and a bank
with drying patches 1½ miles S.
The track leads SSE to a position N of Tanjung Medang
(2 miles ENE) from where a light (2.87) is exhibited.
(Directions continue for the route
SE of Tanjung Medang at 4.250)
Side channel and anchorage
Selat Prepat and Medang
4.244 1
General information. The village of Medang (2°07′N
101°38′E), stands on the E side of the entrance to Selat
Prepat.
This winding river separates the swamp land on the NE
extremity of Pulau Medang from the rest of the island.
CHAPTER 4
119
Anchorage
4.245 1
Good anchorage exists off the mainland coast in the
channel (4.240) SE of Tanjung Sinaboi.
Northern passage of Selat Rupat
4.246 1
Caution. The N passage of Selat Rupat should be used
only with local knowledge.
Topography. Tanjung Ketam (2°00′N 101°19′E), which
is low and sandy, has some houses and coconut palms on
it.
Pulau Payung (1°47′N 101°24′E) and Pulau Mampu
(1½ miles W) are the largest of several islands lying about
14 miles S of Tanjung Ketam.
The islands in the vicinity of Pulau Payung are low.
2
Depths. The shoals which obstruct the N entrance of
Selat Rupat have deep channels between them.
The least charted depth in the channel on the W side of
Selat Rupat is on the bar between the S end of Pulau
Ketam (1°53′N 101°22′E) and the mainland.
Directions. Selat Rupat is entered from N by passing
either side of Gosong Bakautua and E of Tanjung Ketam.
3
The channel, which is marked by a number of
light−beacons (not charted), then leads along the W side of
the passage.
TANJUNG MEDANG TO KUKUBURUNG
General information
Charts 3946, 3947
Route
4.247 1
The coastal route from Tanjung Medang (2°07′N
101°39′E) to the vicinity of 2°00′N 101°50′E, off
Kukuburung, the E extremity of Pulau Medang, leads
generally SE for 14 miles in deep water between the
coastal bank and the E−bound lane of the Deep Water
Route SW of Gosong Raleigh (2°07′N 101°53′E) (2.91).
Topography
4.248 1
The NE shore of Pulau Medang has some sandy beaches
and casuarina.
Tidal streams
4.249 1
See table on chart 3946 for position 2°06′⋅9N
101°56′⋅7E (3 miles E of Gosong Raleigh).
Directions
(continued from 4.243)
Principal marks
4.250 1
Landmarks:
Kukuburung (2°00′N 101°46′E), visible for some
distance from seaward.
Conspicuous house (red roof) (1°56′N 101°47′E) on
the N side of the entrance to Selat Morong.
Major light:
Tanjung Medang Light (2° 07′⋅5N 101° 39′⋅5E) (2.87).
Other aids to navigation
4.251
1
Racons:
Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2°07′N 101°53′E).
Gosong Rob Roy Light−beacon (1°55′N 102°03′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Passage
4.252 1
From a position N of Tanjung Medang and clear of a
dangerous wreck, position approximate, 2½ miles N, the
coastal track leads generally SE off the NE coast of Pulau
Medang, passing (with positions from Tanjung Medang):
2
SW of the adjacent Deep Water Route (3 miles NE)
(2.91), and:
NE of Tanjung Punah (3 miles SE), thence:
NE of a detached drying shoal (6 miles SE).
SE of Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (13¾ miles W)
(2.90), thence:
The track continues SE to a position E of Kukuburung
(10 miles SE) (4.250).
4.253 1
Useful marks:
Morong Light (1°55′N 101°46′E) (4.265).
Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2°07′N 101°53′E)
(2.90).
(Directions continue for the coastal route SE at 4.343
and for principal approach to Selat Bengkalis
and Selat Rupat at 4.263)
PRINCIPAL APPROACH CHANNEL TO
SELAT BENGKALIS AND SELAT RUPAT
General information
Charts 3947, 3933 plan of Selat Bengkalis and Selat Rupat
Route
4.254 1
There is a common and principal approach to:
Selat Bengkalis, leading to Bengkalis (1°28′N
102°06′E), Sungaipakning (1°21′N 102°09′E) and
Lalang Marine Terminal (1°11′N 102°13′E), and;
Selat Rupat, leading to Dumai (1°41′N 101°27′E).
2
The route leads S from the coastal route (4.252) to
Fairway Light−buoy (safe water) (1°54′N 101°51′E), and
thence through a deep and well−buoyed channel.
Topography
4.255 1
For NE shore of Pulau Medang, see 4.248.
The E and S shores of Pulau Rupat are covered with
low trees and brushwood, and inundated at HW. There are
tall trees within.
The whole of the S side of Selat Rupat is low, flat and
densely wooded.
Pulau Bengkalis is uniformly low and covered with
vegetation.
Depths
4.256 1
The common approach channel, to a position 4 miles
SW of Tanjung Jati (1°37′N 102°00′E), has depths greater
than 20 m.
Either side of the channel, coastal banks extend 7 miles
E from the S end of Pulau Rupat and 18 miles NNW from
the W end of Pulau Bengkalis.
CHAPTER 4
120
Caution
4.257 1
See notes on the charts relating to datums and position
fixing.
Pilotage
4.258 1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 105 gt and over for
passage through Selat Rupat and Selat Bengkalis.
The shore pilot station (1°56′N 101°47′E) is situated at
the E entrance to Selat Morong, with which ships should
communicate by VHF. For details see Morong Pilot Station
in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
2
The sea pilot boards vessels in position 4½ miles E of
the shore station as shown on the chart. Vessels waiting for
the pilot should anchor from 3 to 3½ miles E of the pilot
station.
Traffic regulations
4.259 1
Notice of arrival. Ships send their ETA at the pilot
boarding position 96, 24 and 6 hours in advance, notifying
corrections of more than 3 hours immediately.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
4.260 1
Signals. Vessels bound for the oil terminals at Pelabuhan
Dumai or Pelabuhan Sungaipakning must show the
following from time of passing Gosong Raleigh (2°07′N
101°53′E) until arrival at the terminal.
Tidal streams
4.261 1
For times of maximum rates, see 4.233. Off the N coast
of Pulau Bengkalis the tidal streams follow the line of the
ridges, setting:
Direction Spring rate
E to ESE 2 kn
W to NW 3 kn
2
At neaps, both streams are weak off Selat Bengkalis.
Off the E entrance to Selat Rupat, the W−going stream
sets on the coast of Sumatera.
4.262 1
In Selat Bengkalis:
SE−going stream begins 2 hours after LW by the
shore, with a rate up to 2 kn.
NW−going stream begins 2 hours after HW, with a
rate, at times, up to 3 kn.
Directions
(continued from 4.253)
Principal marks
4.263 1
Landmarks:
Kukuburung (2°00′N 101°46′E) (4.250).
Conspicuous house (1°56′N 101°47′E) (4.250).
Major light:
Bengkalis Light (1°28′N 102°06′E) (4.316).
Other aids to navigation
4.264
1
Racons:
Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2°07′N 101°53′E).
Gosong Rob Roy Light−beacon (1°54′N 102°03′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Outer approaches
4.265 1
From the vicinity of 2°00′N 101°50′E, about 5 miles E
of Kukuburung (4.263), the track leads S, passing (with
positions from Kukuburung (2°00′N 101°46′E)):
E of the conspicuous house (3½ miles SSE) (4.250)
at the entrance to Selat Morong, thence:
2
E of Morong Light (beacon, 25 m in height)
(4½ miles S), thence:
Near the pilotage boarding position (1°56′⋅5N
101°51′⋅2E) (4.258).
The track then continues S to a position 4 cables W of
Fairway Light−buoy (safe water) (1°54′⋅1N 101°51′⋅9E).
Principal approach channel
4.266 1
From a position 4 cables W of Fairway Light−buoy (safe
water) (1°54′⋅1N 101°51′⋅9E), the recommended track
through Selat Bengkalis leads S, SSE, and SE through a
channel, marked by light−buoys, about 1 mile wide between
the 20 m depth contours, passing (with positions from
Tanjung Jati Light (1°36′⋅1N 102°00′E)):
2
NE of Beacon D (white metal framework tower, 15 m
in height) (6¾ miles WNW), thence:
SW of Tanjung Jati (6 cables NW); a beacon stands
2 cables NE, thence:
SW of Tanjung Jati Light, thence:
To a position 6 cables NE of a light buoy (starboard
hand) (4½ miles SW) marking a 17⋅6 m shoal patch.
Useful mark
4.267 1
Morong Light (1°55′N 101°46′E) (4.265).
(Directions continue for the deep−water
entrance channel to Selat Rupat at 4.285,
and for Selat Bengkalis SW of Tanjung Jati at 4.316;
directions for the medium depth entrance channel
to Selat Rupat are given at 4.289)
DUMAI AND EASTERN APPROACH
THROUGH SELAT RUPAT
General information
Chart 3933 plans of Selat Bengkalis and Selat Rupat, Dumai
Position
4.268 1
Dumai (1°41′N 101°27′E), a busy commercial port, is
situated on the S side of Selat Rupat, on the mainland
coast of Sumatera.
CHAPTER 4
121
Function
4.269 1
Dumai is principally an important oil loading terminal.
There are also general cargo handling facilities and a
large trade in the export of logs.
Port limit
4.270 1
The E limit of Dumai pilot area is the meridian of
101°30′·0E.
Approach and entry
4.271 1
The E approach to Selat Rupat, and thence to Dumai, is
made from Selat Bengkalis through channels, marked
throughout by light−buoys and buoys, which can be
entered, either (with positions from Tanjung Bakau (1°32′N
101°55′E)):
By rounding the light−buoy (starboard hand) (2 miles
E), or;
By passing S of No 9 Light−buoy (starboard hand)
(3 miles NNW), if draught permits.
Traffic
4.272 1
In 2005, 494 vessels totalling 9 312 816 dwt used the
port.
Port authority
4.273 1
PT (Persero) Pelabuhan Indonesia I Port of Dumai, Jln.
Datuk Laksamana 28814, Dumai.
Website: www.dumai.inaport1.co.id
E−mail: portldmi@dumai.wasantara.net.id
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.274 1
For depths in the common approach channel, see 4.256.
Maximum draught allowed is 16·7 m.
The least charted depths on or close to the
recommended tracks in the approaches and through Selat
Bengkalis is 20⋅1 m, 17⋅4 m in Selat Rupat, and 16⋅0 m in
the approaches to the berths at Dumai.
Deepest and longest berths
4.275 1
Oil: Deepest − Caltex No 1 (4.301); longest Caltex No 2
(4.301).
Cargo: Government Wharf (4.301).
Tidal levels
4.276
1
See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3.
Mean spring range about 2·4 m; mean neap range about
0·8 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.277 1
Caltex Nos 1 and 2 Berths: design capacity
150 000 dwt.
Maximum length: 315 m.
Maximum draught: 16·7 m.
Government Wharf: design capacity 16 500 dwt.
Arrival information
Port radio
4.278 1
Stations are:
Morong Pilot Station.
Dumai.
Caltex Oil Wharves.
Pertamina Refinery Wharf.
For further information Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA
4.279 1
Details are given in 4.259.
Pilotage and tugs
4.280 1
Sea pilotage (4.258).
Harbour pilots for Dumai are embarked in the vicinity
of No 18 Light−buoy (port hand) (1°40′⋅2N 101°37′⋅7E) or
in the Cargo Ship anchorage (4.300).
Tugs are available and are normally stationed near the
oil jetties.
2
Berthing. If vessels are not met on arrival by the
harbour pilot, they should anchor in the recommended inner
anchorage (4.300).
Harbour
General layout
4.281 1
The port of Dumai is formed from a series of jetties
providing alongside berths (4.301) over a 2½ mile
waterfront on the S side of Selat Rupat.
At the W end of the port there is a floating dock and
two mooring buoys.
2
Designated anchorages (4.300) are positioned on the N
side of Selat Rupat opposite the alongside berths.
Piracy
4.282
1
Piracy and armed robbery are prevalent in and off
Dumai, see 4.5.
Tidal streams
4.283 1
In the E part of Selat Rupat, the stream sets:
Directions Rate Duration
E−going 2 kn 4 to 5 hours
W−going 3 kn 7 to 8 hours
2
There is no slack period during spring tides and only a
brief period of slack during neaps; the stream reverses
direction almost immediately.
Local weather
4.284
1
Bad weather is rare and fog is virtually non−existent.
Visibility is normally good except during heavy rain
squalls.
Directions for entering Selat Rupat
(continued from 4.267)
Deep water entrance channel
4.285 1
The entrance to Selat Rupat is made on recommended
tracks, shown on the chart, through a channel marked by
leading light−beacons, and light−buoys (lateral).
CHAPTER 4
122
From a position 6 cables NE of a light−buoy (starboard
hand) (1°32′⋅4N 101°57′⋅1E) the recommended track leads
180° for 5 cables to a position within the white sector
(265¾°−274¼°) of Rear Light C (1°32′⋅2N 101°54′⋅6E)
(4.286).
4.286 1
From a position 5 cables ESE of the light−buoy
(starboard hand) (1°32′⋅4N 101°57′⋅1E) the track leads W:
Leading lights:
Front: A (white metal framework tower, 15 m in
height) (1°32′⋅2N 101°55′⋅0E).
Rear: C (similar structure, 28 m in height) (4 cables
W of front beacon).
2
The track leads on the alignment (268½°) of leading
lights for about 1¾ miles through the deep−water approach
channel in charted depths greater than 20 m, passing (with
positions from the Front A light (1°32′⋅2N 101°55′⋅0E)):
S of a 17⋅6 m patch (2 miles E); the light−buoy
(starboard hand) lies close E, thence:
3
S of S tongue (9 cables ENE) of an extensive bank
with depths less than 20 m, and:
N of No 2 Light−buoy (port hand) (8¼ cables E),
thence:
To a position 7 cables from the Front A light.
4.287 1
The recommended track then leads generally NNW for
about 3¼ miles, through a channel marked by light−buoys
(lateral), in depths greater than 20 m to close WSW of
No 9 Light−buoy (lateral) (3 miles NNW).
4.288 1
Useful mark:
Light−beacon D (1°37′N 101°53′E) (4.266).
(Directions continue for Selat Rupat at 4.292)
Medium depth entrance channel
4.289 1
The entrance channel, which may be used if draught
permits, is indicated on the chart from Selat Bengkalis to
the SE part of Selat Rupat. The least charted depth on this
route is 11·3 m.
From the vicinity of 1°35′⋅1N 101°55′⋅9E the
recommended track leads SW then WNW, to rejoin the
deep−water channel close SW of No 9 Light−buoy
(starboard hand) (1°35′⋅1N 101°54′⋅4E).
Alternative entrance track
4.290 1
From position 1°35′⋅0N 101°56′⋅0E the alignment (200°)
of light−beacons leads across the banks, with a least depth
of about 12 m, to the deep−water channel (4.287).
Leading lights:
Front: A (1°32′⋅2N 101°55′⋅0E) (4.286).
Rear: B (similar structure, 28 m in height) (1¼ miles
SSW of front beacon).
4.291 1
Useful mark:
Light−beacon D (1°37′N 101°53′E) (4.266).
(Directions continue at 4.292)
Directions for Selat Rupat and entering Dumai
(continued from 4.288 or 4.291)
From Beacon D to Tanjung Lebang
4.292 1
From the vicinity of No 9 Light−buoy (starboard hand)
(1°35′⋅1N 101°54′⋅4E) the channel, marked by light−buoys
and buoys (lateral), leads NW thence WNW through the E
part of Selat Rupat.
4.293 1
From a position 3 miles NNW of Light−beacon A
(4.286), close SW of No 9 Light−buoy (starboard hand), the
track leads on the alignment of light−beacons.
Leading lights:
Front: E (white metal framework tower, 18 m in
height) (1°41′·4N 101°48′·2E).
Rear: F (similar construction, 23 m in height)
(1½ cables NW).
2
The alignment (316°) of these lights leads through the
channel, passing (with positions from Light−beacon D
(1°37′N 101°53′E)):
SE of D Light−beacon (4.266), thence:
To a position close SW of No 11 light−buoy (starboard
hand) (1¾ miles WNW).
4.294
1
Thence, the recommended track (304°) leads through the
channel, passing (with positions from Light−beacon E
(1°41′·4N 101°48′·2E)):
SW of a light−beacon (white metal framework tower,
13 m in height) (3 miles SE), thence:
SW of Light−beacon E (4.293), thence:
To a position 1 mile SW of Light−beacon F (1½ cables
NW) (4.293).
2
The recommended track (282°) continues through the
channel to a position close E of No 14 Light−buoy (port
hand) (4¼ miles W) on the 088° (astern) alignment of
leading lights.
4.295
1
Useful mark:
Beacon (1°37′N 101°49′E).
From Tanjung Lebang to Dumai
4.296 1
From a position 3¾ miles W of Light−beacon G, the
track leads W.
Leading light−beacons:
Front: G (white metal framework tower, 18 m in
height) (1°41′⋅5N 101°48′⋅0E).
Rear: F (similar construction, 23 min height)
(1¼ cables E).
2
The alignment (088°), astern, of these light−beacons
leads on the S side of the channel with a least charted
depth of 19⋅8 m, passing (positions given from
Light−beacon G):
3
Close N of Light−buoy No 14 (port hand) (4 miles
W), thence:
N of a Tanjung Lebang Beacon (4¼ miles WSW),
thence:
To a position 7 miles W of Light−beacon G.
4.297
1
Thence, the recommended track leads 249° through the
channel about 3 cables wide, passing (with positions from a
beacon (1°43′·2N 101°39′·5E)):
SSE of the beacon (white) (12 m in height), thence:
Over a 17⋅4 m shoal patch (2¼ miles SSE), thence:
NNW of Tanjung Beruang (3 miles SSE).
The track continues to a position 2¼ miles ESE of
Tanjung Tegoh (3 miles SW)
4.298
1
Thence the recommended track leads 266½° through the
channel, passing (with positions from Tanjung Tegoh)
(1°41′·3N 101°37′·1E)):
N of a two light−beacons (yellow pipes) (12 m in
height) (2 miles SE); a light beacon (white) lies
3½ cables S, thence:
CHAPTER 4
123
Dumai, looking W from Berth No 4 (4.301)
(Original dated 1996)
N of No 18 Light−buoy (port hand) (1 mile SSE) and
Harbour Pilot boarding position (4.280), thence:
2
S of Tanjung Tegoh, thence:
S of a beacon (white, 12 m in height) (2¾ miles
WNW), thence:
To a position 1¾ miles SSW of this beacon (white).
4.299
1
Thence, the recommended track leads 291½° through the
N side of the channel, in a least charted depth of 16⋅0 m,
passing (with positions from three silos (1°40′⋅9N
101°28′⋅8E)):
SSW of Terkul (3¾ miles ENE), thence:
NNE of the E berth (3 cables NE), thence:
To anchorage or berths at Dumai.
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
4.300
1
Anchorages. The following anchorage areas are shown
the chart:
Cargo ship anchorage in mid−channel, NW of the
cargo wharf.
Tankers in ballast and deep−draught loaded tankers in
the N part of Selat Rupat, NW and N, respectively,
of the alongside berths.
2
The holding ground is good, clay.
Anchorage is prohibited in an area shown on the chart
N of the alongside berths.
Mooring buoys. Two are laid 1 mile WNW of Dumai.
Alongside berths
4.301 1
Alongside berths at Dumai (from E to W) are:
Pertamina Product Jetty (four berths): Designed
vessel length 200 m, controlling draught 16·4 m.
Pertamina Wharf (two berths): Designed vessel
length 275 m, controlling draught 17·2 m.
Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) (four berths):
Maximum size LOA 385 m, draught 16⋅7 m. By
permission of the Port Authority draughts may be
increased.
Government Cargo Wharves (two berths): Designed
vessel length 183 m, controlling depth 10·4 m.
2
Notes:
Mooring dolphins are provided at all the jetties and
the Caltex jetties are provided with docking sonar.
Minor berths. Several small Government wharves for
local vessels are situated between 3 and 6 cables W of
Government Cargo Wharves.
Port services
4.302 1
Repairs: floating dock, owned by Pertamina, with a
capacity of 20 000 tonnes.
Dumai, looking E from Berth No 4 (4.301)
(Original dated 1996)
Tanjung Tegoh
CHAPTER 4
124
Other facilities: limited medical; deratting and deratting
exemption certificates can be issued.
Supplies: fresh water and fresh provisions in limited
quantities, no fuel.
Communications: Dumai (Caltex) airstrip; nearest
airport at Pekanbaru (4.337), 180 km distant.
SELAT BENGKALIS AND SELAT LALANG
General information
Charts 3933 plan of Selat Bengkalis and Selat Rupat, 3947
Description
4.303 1
Selat Bengkalis (1°30′N 102°00′E) leads SE then S
between the mainland of Sumatera and the islands of Pulau
Bengkalis and Pulau Padang. Berths in Selat Bengkalis are
at Bengkalis (1°28′N 102°06′E) on the SW side of Pulau
Bengkalis and at Sungaipakning (1°21′N 102°09′E) on the
mainland.
The W entrance to Selat Padang (4.327), which
separates Pulau Bengkalis from Pulau Padang, is situated
5 miles ESE of Bengkalis.
2
Selat Lalang is the continuation of Selat Bengkalis from
the entrance to Sungai Siak (1°15′N 102°10′E) for about
25 miles SSE where it becomes Selat Panjang (chart 1358);
see 4.370. Lalang Marine Terminal is at the N entrance of
Selat Lalang.
Caution. See notes on the charts relating to datums and
fixing position.
Functions
4.304
1
Bengkalis is a small port handling general cargo. A
Government officer resides here.
Sungaipakning is primarily a crude oil loading
terminal but also handles general cargo.
Sungai Siak has several jetties along the river
handling oil and general cargo.
Lalang Marine Terminal consists of a crude oil
loading SPM.
Port limits
4.305 1
Bengkalis roadstead:
Meridians 5½ cables E and W, respectively, of
Government pier (1°28′N 102°06′E), extending up
to 8¼ cables offshore.
Sungaipakning roadstead:
Parallels of 1°22′00″N 1°18′40″N:
Meridian of 102°10′48″E and the coast W, which
includes the anchorage area on the N side.
Traffic
4.306
1
In 2005, 697 vessels totalling 7 508 491 dwt used
Sungaipakning, and three vessels, totalling 337 070 dwt,
used Lalang Terminal.
Port Authorities
4.307
1
Bengkalis: Adpel Bengkalis, Dit Jen Perhubungan Laut,
Cabang Bengkalis, Bengkalis, Riau, Indonesia.
Sungaipakning: Kepala Kantor Pelabuhan, Kanwil
Dephup Prup, Pehan Baru Riau, Sungaipakning, Ridar,
Indonesia.
Lalang: Lalang Terminal Port Authority, Port Office,
Lalang Terminal Port, Indonesia.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.308 1
The least charted depth on or close to the recommended
tracks in the approaches and through Selat Bengkalis is
19⋅8 m.
Deepest and longest berths
4.309
1
Bengkalis: Commercial Pier (4.324).
Sungaipakning: No 1 Oil Wharf (4.324).
Lalang Marine Terminal: (4.324).
Tidal levels
4.310
1
See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3.
Mean spring range about 2·2 m; mean neap range about 0·8
m.
Maximum size of vessels handled
4.311 1
Bengkalis: 750 tonnes.
Sungaipakning: 84 000 dwt, 225 m LOA (4.324).
Lalang Marine Terminal: 140 000 dwt, 16·7 m draught.
Arrival information
4.312 1
Port operations. No berthing is permitted at night, but
unberthing may take place at all times.
Notice of ETA. As for 4.259, addressed to
Pertaminaship Sungaipakning.
Vessels bound for Lalang Marine Terminal should report
to Kondur Petroleum SA their ETA at Morong Pilot Station
(4.258) 72, 48 and 24 hours in advance. For further details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
2
For sea pilotage to Bengkalis, Sungaipakning and
Lalang Marine Terminal, see 4.258.
Harbour pilots are unavailable for Bengkalis. Harbour
pilots for Sungaipakning, where pilotage is compulsory,
meet vessels at the anchorage (4.323). Pilots for Lalang
Marine Terminal board E of Morong (4.258).
Tugs are stationed at Sungaipakning.
Harbour
General layout
4.313 1
Bengkalis has two small piers on the N side of Selat
Bengkalis.
Sungaipakning has two oil wharves on the W side of
Selat Bengkalis, capable of handling large tankers.
2
Sungai Siak (4.328) has some small piers along the river
side.
Lalang Marine Terminal is a SPM moored in Selat
Lalang.
For anchorages see 4.323.
CHAPTER 4
125
Tidal streams
4.314 1
For tidal stream movement in the area generally see
4.233.
At Sungaipakning the stream sets:
Direction Maximum rate Remarks
SE−going
2½ kn at 1½ hours before local HW.
N−going 2 kn
at 1½ hours before local LW.
2
At Lalang Marine Terminal the stream sets:
Direction Maximum rate Remarks
S−going
4½ kn
N−going 3 kn
Local weather
4.315 1
For details of weather and visibility, see 4.284.
Directions
(continued from 4.267)
Principal marks
4.316
1
Landmark:
Radio mast (red and white metal framework structure,
red fixed and flashing obstruction lights, 100 m in
height) at Sungaipakning (1°21′N 102°09′E).
Major light:
Bengkalis Light (tower, 30 m in height) (1°28′N
102°06′E).
Tanjung Jati to Tanjung Balai
4.317 1
From a position in the channel about 3¾ miles SW of
Tanjung Jati (1°36′N 101°59′E), the track leads SE through
Selat Bengkalis passing (with positions from Bengkalis
Light (1°28′N 102°06′E):
NE of a beacon (7 miles W), thence:
NE of the customs house at Bukitbatu (6½ miles W),
thence:
2
SW of Bengkalis Light (4.316), thence:
SW of No 8 Light−buoy (port hand) (5 miles SE),
which marks the spit W of Tanjung Padang and
the W entrance to Selat Padang (4.327), thence:
NE and E of Tanjung Balai Light (white framework
tower, 12 m in height) (6 miles SSE).
3
Then as required for Sungaipakning (4.319), the
approaches to Selat Lalang and Sungai Siak (4.320) and
Lalang Marine Terminal (4.321).
4.318 1
Useful marks:
Beacon on Tanjung Tudung (1°32′·5N 102°01′·3E).
Radio mast (1°28′N 102°07′E) at Bengkalis.
Light at N end of Sungaipakning No 1 Wharf (1°21′N
102°09′E) (4.324).
Tanjung Balai to Sungaipakning
4.319 1
From a position 2 miles E of Tanjung Balai Light
(4.317) the track to Sungaipakning No 1 Wharf leads SSW,
passing (with positions from Tanjung Balai Light (1°22′⋅8N
102°08′⋅8E)):
WNW of a dangerous wreck (2¾ miles ESE), thence:
WNW of the NW end of an 8 m shoal (2¼ miles SE)
which extends 2 miles SSE.
Caution. A dangerous wreck lies 5½ cables E of
Sungaipakning No 2 Wharf.
Tanjung Balai to Sungai Siak and Selat Lalang
4.320 1
From a position 2 miles E of Tanjung Balai Light
(1°22′⋅8N 102°08′⋅8E) the track leads SSE for about
2 miles thence S.
Leading light−beacons:
Front. A (white triangle point up on beacon, 15 m in
height) (1°13′⋅2N 102°11′·5E).
Common rear. B (white triangle point down on
beacon, 18 m in height) (close S).
2
The alignment (180°) of these beacons leads towards the
approach to Sungai Siak and Selat Lalang, passing
(positions given from the front light):
Clear of a dangerous wreck (8¼ miles N), thence:
W of a light−buoy (port hand) (7¼ miles N), thence:
E of a light−buoy (starboard hand) (5¼ miles N),
thence:
W of Tanjung Kelemin (3½ miles NNE).
(Directions continue for Sungai Siak at 4.332)
Approach to Lalang Marine Terminal
4.321 1
From a position 8 cables W of Tanjung Kelemin (1°17′N
102°12′E), the track leads SSE passing ENE of a
light−buoy (starboard hand) (2½ miles SSW of Tanjung
Kelemin).
Track alteration marks:
Front: Light−beacon C (white triangle, point up,, on
beacon 15 m in height) (1°13′⋅1N 102°11′⋅5E)
Rear: Common B (4.320) (close E).
2
The alignment (270°) of these marks indicates a
convenient line from which the track leads S towards
Lalang Marine Terminal SPM (1°11′N 102°13′E).
Mooring buoys (lighted) are moored 9 cables SW and
1¼ miles NNW of the SPM.
A light−buoy (special purpose) is moored 1¾ miles S of
the SPM on the E side of the pipeline, see 1.42.
Charts 3947, 1358 (see 1.17)
4.322 1
Caution. The oil pipeline extends 9 miles S from the
SPM to a complex of lighted platforms in the vicinity of
0°59′N 102°14′E. A light−buoy (special) and a mooring
buoy mark its S end. Anchoring is prohibited in the area of
the SPM and on either side of the pipeline as shown on
chart 3947, see also 1.42.
(Directions for Selat Lalang continue at 4.373)
Anchorages and berths
Anchorages
4.323 1
Bengkalis. Anchorage can be obtained anywhere in the
approach channel from NW, or in Bengkalis, with good
holding ground of mud, sand and stiff clay.
Sungaipakning. The recommended anchorage is charted
1 mile NNE of No 1 Wharf, in a depth of 20 to 40 m, clay,
and is good holding ground, but tidal streams are strong.
Berths
4.324 1
Bengkalis:
Cargo Quay. Reported length 163 m with a depth of
4⋅5 m alongside. Vessels up to 750 gt accepted. A
dangerous wreck, position doubtful, lies off the
pier.
CHAPTER 4
126
Sungaipakning:
No 1 Oil Wharf (1°20′·7N 102°09′·4E), with T−head
305 m long, connected by causeway 213 m in
length to the shore. Tankers up to 85 000dwt,
225 m LOA and 13·7 m draught can be
accommodated. Controlling depth 14·5 m
alongside. A light (post, 2 m in height) is exhibited
from the N end of the jetty head.
2
No 2 Oil Wharf (3 cables S) consists of a central
loading platform 55 m long and 12 m wide. The
platform is flanked on each side by two large
mooring dolphins; the outer dolphins are detached,
but the inner are connected to the platform by
catwalks, 32 m in length. Lights are exhibited from
each end of the jetty head.
A small Government wharf (3 cables N of No 1 Oil
Wharf).
Lalang Marine Terminal
4.325
1
The terminal (1°11′N 102°13′E) is a SPM to which is
secured the 141 000 tonne storage barge. Ladinda, 284 m in
length and painted bright orange. The berth is on the
starboard side of the storage barge.
The Lalang Terminal office and oil testing laboratory are
located on the barge. The terminal is operated by Kondur
Petroleum SA.
2
Vessels in excess of 140 000 dwt and 16·7 m draught on
departure will not be accepted unless prior agreement has
been reached with the Terminal Manager due to depth
limitations in the approach and at the berth.
Mean tidal ranges are about: 2·2 m (springs); 0·8 m
(neaps). For tidal stream see 4.314.
Port services
4.326 1
Repairs: nearest repair facilities are at Dumai (4.302);
minor repairs at local repair shop; slipway for 80 tonne
vessel.
Other facilities: Medical Officer at Bengkalis and
medical facilities at Sungaipakning; customs; immigration.
Supplies: no fuel or provisions; fresh water available at
Bengkalis and Sungaipakning.
2
Communications: regular sea communications from
Bengkalis with other coastal ports; nearest airstrip is Dumai
(Caltex) (4.302), 5 km distant, or Pekanbaru (4.337) airport.
Selat Padang − west entrance
4.327 1
General information. Selat Padang (1°23′N 102°20′E),
the channel between Pulau Bengkalis and Pulau Padang, is
much used by small vessels on passage between Singapore
and Bengkalis.
Directions. The W entrance to Selat Padang is entered
by passing:
N of No 8 Light−buoy (port hand) (1°25′N 102°10′E)
(4.317), thence:
S of Kampastinggi (1°26′N 102°13′E).
For details of Selat Padang, see 4.362.
Sungai Siak
General information
4.328 1
Sungai Siak, about 1 mile wide at its entrance, Kuala
Siak (1°15′N 102°10′E), is navigable only by small vessels.
Local knowledge is required, for pilotage information
see 4.258.
At Siak Sri Indrapura (0°47′N 102°03′E) (4.334),
40 miles from the entrance, the river is about 1½ cables
wide. Above Siak Sri Indrapura navigation of the river is
difficult for vessels exceeding 60 m in length.
2
At Pelabuhan Pekanbaru (0°32′N 101°26′E) (4.337),
90 miles from the entrance, the river is ¾ cable wide.
Pekanbaru is the principal inland trading station between
the E and W coasts of Sumatera. In 1990 the population
was 341 328.
Development. It is reported that considerable work is in
progress throughout Sungai Siak, but especially in the area
of Perawang, 14 miles downstream from Pekanbaru.
4.329 1
Topography. The river banks as far as Siak Sri
Indrapura are mostly low and swampy.
4.330 1
Controlling depths. Least depth (1986) on the bar of
Kuala Siak (1°14′N 102°10′E) was 4·6 m. This depth may
be found as far as Pekanbaru (4.337).
4.331 1
Tidal streams. During the dry season the influence of
the tidal stream is felt above Pekanbaru, and in the wet
season, just below it. The period of slack water is usually
very short.
As far as Siak Sri Indrapura the stream runs:
Springs Neaps
Direction Run Max rate Run Max rate
In−going 5 hours 2 kn 4 hours 1 kn
Out−going 7 hours 3 kn 8 hours
2½ kn
On the upper river; due to seasonal conditions, slack
water may last for the whole 24 hours.
Directions for Sungai Siak
(continued from 4.320)
4.332 1
From the vicinity of 1°18′⋅3N 102°11′·3E, 5 cables SE of
a light−buoy (starboard hand), the track leads SSW.
Leading lights:
Front light: (1°12′·6N 102°09′·7E) (white triangle,
point up, framework tower, 5 m in height), on the
W bank of Sungai Siak.
Rear light: (white triangle, point down, white
framework tower 10 m in height) (1 mile SSW).
2
The alignment (196½°) of these lights leads across the
bar of Kuala Siak, W of Tanjung Layang (1°14′N
102°11′E) passing (with positions from Tanjung Layang):
Between two light−buoys (lateral) (5 cables NW); a
0⋅5 m shoal patch lies close N of the port hand
light−buoy, thence:
E of No 7 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1 mile SW).
A tide gauge (marked in decimetres) close E of the rear
leading−light, indicates the depth on the bar.
4.333 1
When S of No 7 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (4.332)
the track follows the middle of the channel passing E of
Pulau Tengah (1°08′·5N 102°09′·5E), passing:
NE of No 15 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (3 cables N
of Pulau Tengah), thence:
SE of No 17 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (4 cables S
of Pulau Tengah).
2
A tide gauge (marked in decimetres), stands on the S
bank, 8 cables W of Sungaiapit (1°08′N 102°09′E); its
reading, increased by 1 m, indicates the depths in the
channel to the S of Pulau Tengah.
CHAPTER 4
127
Sungai Siak. Berth at Buatan (4.335)
(Original dated 1996)
River details (uncharted)
4.334 1
Siak Sri Indrapura (0°47′N 102°03′E) is the residence
of a Government officer.
There is a small pier, depth alongside 4 m MLWS,
which handles agricultural and fishing products.
4.335
1
Buatan (0°45′N 101°51′E) can be reached by vessels up
to 5000 dwt and 110 m long.
Traffic. In 2005, 185 vessels totalling 215 765 dwt used
the port.
Caution is required to avoid fish traps and flotsam.
2
On the S bank of the river an alongside berth has a
modern concrete quay with two dolphins at its W end.
Behind the quay is a hardstanding area and storage sheds.
A crude oil loading jetty has a depth alongside of 6·5 m.
Depths in the vicinity of the berths are shallow and
channels are liable to shift. Berthing and unberthing is only
undertaken in daylight.
4.336 1
Teluk Lancang (0°47′N 101°45′E) is a village at the
junction of Sungai Mandau and Sungai Siak, about 22 miles
above Siak Sri Indrapura.
Tebing Tinggi (0°36′N 101°36′E) is a village on the
right bank of the river, 38 miles above Siak Sri Indrapura.
Pelabuhan Pekanbaru
4.337 1
General information. The roadstead limits of Pelabuhan
Pekanbaru (0°32′N 101°26′E) are 3 cables on each side of
Government Pier.
Traffic. In 2005, 744 vessels totalling 1 996 567 dwt
used the port.
2
Port authority Pekanbaru Port Authority, Dit Jen
Perhubungan Laut, Ji Saleh Abbas No 3, Pekanbaru, Riau,
Sumatera, Indonesia.
Berths. Three berths; the longest and deepest is 230 m
in length, depth alongside 5 m.
Caltex Wharf in Rumbai, is situated about 2½ miles
below Pekanbaru.
3
Channel. Vessels up to 90 m in length can turn at
Pekanbaru.
Repairs. Minor repairs can be carried out.
Other facilities: Harbour Master; immigration; customs;
quarantine; deratting and deratting exemption certificates
can be issued.
Supplies. Limited provisions, fresh water.
Communications. Regular sea communication between
Pekanbaru and Singapore, calling at Siak. Inland
transportation by bus. International airport 6 km from
Pekanbaru.
River above Pekanbaru
4.338 1
Sungai Siak above Pekanbaru has sharp bends, and is
obstructed with overhanging trees, which makes navigation
difficult.
KUKUBURUNG TO PULAU−PULAU
KARIMUN EXCLUDING PASSAGES
BETWEEN THE ISLANDS
General information
Charts 3947, 1358 (see 1.17)
Coastal route
4.339 1
From the vicinity of 2°00′N 101°50′E, the coastal
passage leads SE between Gosong Rob Roy (1°55′N
102°03′E), Gosong Vowler and Gosong Clark (4.345), to
the NE, and the coastal bank off the N coast of Pulau
Bengkalis to the SW. Then outside the coastal banks, to the
vicinity of Pulau−pulau Karimun about 105 miles SE.
2
This passage leads past the E or NE entrances to the
following channels:
Selat Padang (1°14′N 102°30′E) (4.362).
Selat Asam (1°09′N 102°29′E) (4.367).
Selat Ringgit (1°01′N 102°37′E) (4.375).
Selat Kungkung (1°01′N 102°37′E) (4.377), leading to
Selat Ayer Hitam (4.377).
For a description of these channels and Selat Lalang S
of Sungai Siak (4.328) and Selat Panjang, see .
Through route
4.340
1
For through route of Malacca Strait TSS, from a
position NE of Gosong Rob Roy to the Singapore Strait,
see 2.103.
Topography
4.341 1
The islands off the E coast of Sumatera are low and
marshy.
Pulau−pulau Karimun (1°05′N 103°22′E), however,
consisting of Pulau Karimun Besar, Pulau Karimun Kecil,
and a number of offshore islets, are by contrast mainly
hilly, with fertile soil and well populated.
CHAPTER 4
128
2
The S part of Pulau Karimun Besar is low, with swampy
ground, except for Tanjung Balai (1°00′N 103°26′E). The
surrounding islets are rocky and thickly overgrown.
For description of the S part of Pulau Karimun Besar
and islands S and SE, see Indonesia Pilot Volume I.
Tidal streams
4.342 1
For details of tidal streams in position 1°38′N 102°43′E,
off NW end of Permatang Panjang (Long Bank), see table
on charts.
See 4.233 for additional information on tidal streams.
Directions
(continued from 4.253)
Principal marks
4.343 1
Landmarks:
Conspicuous house (1°56′N 101°47′E) (4.250), at
Selat Morong.
Pulau Iyu Besar (1°11′N 103°21′E), which, with
Pulau Iyu Kecil (5 cables ENE), are known as The
Brothers (7.36).
Gunung Betina (1°07′N 103°21′E) and Gunung Jantan
(1 mile SSW) the prominent peaks of Pulau
Karimun Besar (4 miles S). Pulau Karimun Kecil,
(3 miles SE) is also prominent. A beacon
(trapezoidal daymark) stands close W of the
summit of Gunung Jantan.
2
Major lights:
Pulau Undan Light (2°03′N 102°20′E) (2.110).
Tanjung Parit Light (white metal framework tower,
40 m in height) (1°32′N 102°26′E).
Panjang Utara Light (1°36′N 102°47′E) (2.110).
Bukit Segenting Light (1°47′N 102°53′E) (2.110).
Mudah Utara Light (1°37′N 102°57′E) (2.110).
3
Panjang Selatan Light (1°23′N 103°08′E) (2.110).
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E) (2.110).
Pulau Pisang Light (1°28′N 103°15′E (2.110).
Pulau Iyu Kecil Light (1°11′⋅5N 103°21′⋅1E) (7.36).
Tanjung Rambut Light (0°59′⋅7N 103°26′⋅7E).
Other aids to navigation
4.344
1
Racons:
Gosong Raleigh Light−beacon (2°07′N 101°53′E).
Gosong Rob Roy Light−beacon (1°54′N 102°03′E).
Bengkalis Light (1°42′⋅7N 102°24′⋅3E) on the SE
ridge of Gosong Clark (4.345).
Mudah Selatan Light−beacon (1°25′N 103°11′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Kukuburung to Tanjung Parit
4.345 1
From the vicinity of 2°00′N 101°50′E, the track leads
SE in deep water through a passage about 3 miles wide off
the N coast of Pulau Bengkalis, passing (with positions
from Gosong Rob Roy Light−beacon (1°54′N 102°03′E)):
NE of Selat Bengkalis Fairway Light−buoy (12 miles
W) (4.265), thence:
NE of the NW extremity of the extensive coastal
bank, extending up to 18 miles N of Tanjung Jati
(18 miles SSW), and:
Clear of a 6 m shoal (6½ miles W) thence:
2
SW of Gosong Rob Roy marked by a light−beacon
(2.112), thence:
SW of Gosong Vowler (10 miles SE), thence:
SW of Gosong Clark (20 miles SE) (2.112) and
Bengkalis Light−beacon 4½ miles farther SE.
3
The track continues SE to a position NE of Tanjung
Parit (1°31′N 102°28′E), 2 miles SE of the village of
Muntai; a light (4.343) is exhibited from the point.
(Directions continue at 4.346 and for
the approach to Selat Padang at 4.364.
Directions are given for Selat Kungkung at 4.374)
Tanjung Parit to Pulau−pulau Karimun
(continued from 4.345)
4.346 1
Alternative routes pass either NE and SW of Permatang
Panjang.
North−east of Permatang Panjang. From a position NE
of Tanjung Parit the track continues E then ESE, passing
(with positions from Panjang Utara Light (1°36′N
102°47′E):
N or S Panjang Utura Light (2.110).
2
The track continues ESE passing NNE of Permatang
Panjang (Long Bank) (15 miles SE) (2.112) into deeper
water, and then into the through route (2.112) to a position
SW of Mudah Selatan Light−tower (2.110),
3
South−west of Permatang Panjang. From a position
NE of Tanjung Parit the track continues SE off the N coast
of Pulau Rangsang passing (with positions from Panjang
Utara Light (1°36′N 102°47′E):
SW of Permatang Panjang (15 miles SE), where there
are numerous similar shoals extending to the
coastal banks off Pulau Rangsang.
4
The track continues SE to a position about 5 miles
WSW of Pulau Iyu Kecil Light (1°12′N 103°21′E ) and
thence passing on either side of Pulau Karimun Besar
(1°08′N 103°21′E) (4.343).
4.347 1
Cautions. Numerous charted dangerous wrecks lie to the
SW of Permatang Panjang (Long Bank).
Fishing stakes may be encountered up to 5 miles
offshore between:
Tanjung Kedabu (1°06′N 102°59′E), and:
Tanjung Medangkaluar (0°53′N 103°10′E), the E
extremity of Pulau Rangsang.
Useful marks
4.348 1
Morong Light (1°55′N 101°46′E) (4.265).
Bukit Segenting Light (1°47′N 102°53′E) (2.110).
(Direction for the E going traffic lane
approaching Singapore Strait continue at 7.36,
and for the approaches to
Pulau−pulau Karimun channels at 4.352.
Directions for channels within Pulau−pulau Karimun
are given at 4.354 and 4.357)
Channels within Pulau−pulau Karimun
Charts 3947, 1358, 3833
4.349 1
The principal islands and landmarks of Pulau−pulau
Karimun, including Pulau Iyu Besar and Pulau Iyu Kecil,
are described in 4.341 and 4.343.
CHAPTER 4
129
Charts 3947, 3833
Channel between Pulau Iyu Kecil and Pulau Karimun
Kecil
4.350 1
General information. The channel S of Pulau Iyu Besar
and Pulau Iyu Kecil (The Brothers) (1°12′N 103°21′E), and
N of the island group forming Pulau−pulau Karimun, is
about 1½ miles wide, with a least charted depth of 11 m in
the W approach.
4.351 1
Tidal streams. For details in position 1°14′N 103°19′E,
see table on chart 3947 and Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3.
See also 7.23 for predictions in Singapore Strait.
4.352 1
Directions (continued from 4.348)
From a position about 5 miles WSW of Pulau Iyu Kecil
Light (7.36) (1°12′N 103°21′E ) the track leads E, passing
(with positions from the light):
N of Pulau Tokongbelanda (5 miles SW), a low rocky
islet, thence:
S of a dangerous wreck (4 miles W), thence:
2
N of Pulau Sayuda (3¾ miles SW), an above−water
rock, thence:
N of Tokong Kepaladua, (3½ miles SW), marked on
its SE side by a light−buoy (starboard hand),
thence:
S of a 6·1 m shoal patch (5 cables S), thence:
3
N of Pulau Nangoi, (2 miles SSE), thence:
To a position N and NE of Pulau Karimun Kecil.
(Directions continue for SE−going lane of
Singapore Strait TSS at 7.52)
Channel between Pulau Karimun Besar and Pulau
Assan
4.353
1
General information. A channel, about 5 cables wide at
its narrowest point, separates Pulau Karimun Besar and the
islands to the W. The channel leads past the ship repair
facilities N of Tanjung Semamal (1°04′·5N 103°18′·7E).
4.354
1
Directions. From a position about 2 miles SW of Pulau
Iyu Kecil (7.36) (1°12′N 103°21′E), the track leads initially
SW, then S, passing (with positions from the light):
Between Tokong Kepaladua (3½ miles SW) (4.352),
and a light−beacon (W cardinal), 8 cables SE.
Deeper water can be found by passing NW of
Tokong Kepaladua and SW of Pulau Sayuda
(4.352), 4½ cables WSW of the rock. Thence:
2
E of the NE extremity of Pulau Assan (4 miles SW),
rocky and thickly overgrown, thence:
Between two light−beacons (lateral) (4 miles SSW),
thence:
E of a 9⋅9 m patch (4½ miles SSW), and:
W of a light−buoy (port hand) (4½ miles SSW),
marking an 8⋅1 m patch, thence:
3
The track leads SSW passing:
WNW of a light−beacon (port hand) (5 miles SSW),
marking a 2⋅9 m patch, thence:
ESE of Pulau Mudu (7 miles SSW), rocky and thickly
overgrown, and:
WNW of shipyard facilities (4.355) (6¾ miles SSW),
thence:
4
ESE of a light−buoy (starboard hand) (7¼ miles
SSW), marking shoals off the SE side of Pulau
Mudu, and:
WNW of Tanjung Semamal (7¼ miles SSW).
(Directions continue for the passage
SW of Pulau Karimun Besar and Selat Gelam in
Indonesia Pilot Volume I)
4.355
1
Repair facilities at the PT Sumbawang Shipyard
(1°05′·2N 103°18′·6E), with a 65 000 dwt floating dock and
a 400 metre long repair berth.
Channel between Pulau Karimun Kecil and Pulau
Karimun Besar
4.356 1
General information. A deep channel, 4½ cables wide,
separates Pulau Karimun Kecil (1°09′N 103°24′E), which is
bold and steep−to, from Pulau Karimun Besar.
Tidal streams in this passage attain a rate of 4 kn at
springs.
See 7.23 for predictions in Singapore Strait.
4.357 1
Directions. From a position about 1½ miles SSW of
Pulau Iyu Kecil Light (1°11′⋅5N 103°21′⋅1E) (7.36), the
track leads SE, clear of the dangers listed in 4.352, passing
(with positions from the light):
Through the holding area (2 miles S), the E corner of
which is marked by a light−buoy (special), thence:
2
SW of Pulau Nangoi (2 miles SSE), and:
NE of Pulau Tuntun (2½ miles S), thence:
SW of an above−water rock (3¾ miles SE), close to
the SW coast of Pulau Karimun Kecil, thence:
Either side of Pulau Petera (9 cables farther SE).
(Directions continue for E−going lane of
Singapore Strait TSS at 7.52)
Landings
4.358
1
A jetty (TNI−AL) on the E side of Pulau Baran
(1°07′·0N 103°19′·5E), used by the Indonesian Navy, has a
depth of 5 m at its head.
A jetty extends 2 cables W from the shore from a
position 6½ cables NE of Sumbawang Shipyard (1°05′·2N
103°18′·6E); it has a depth of 0⋅9 m at its head.
2
PT Mgu Jetty, a T−headed jetty, extends 1 cable NW
from the shore, 3½ cables NNE of Pelawan (1°03′N
103°19′E); it has a depth of 5⋅8 m at its head.
PASSAGES BETWEEN THE ISLANDS
LYING SOUTH−EAST OF PULAU
BENGKALIS
General information
Charts 3947, 1358 (see 1.17)
Routes
4.359 1
The most important of the channels leading between the
various islands off the E coast of Sumatera between
Latitudes 1° 30′ N and 0° 40′ N, is Selat Padang (1°23′N
102°20′E) (4.362) between Pulau Bengkalis and Pulau
Padang, which is much used by small vessels trading
between Singapore and Bengkalis (4.303) and Sungai Siak
(4.328).
2
Channels of lesser importance, used only by local
vessels are:
Selat Asam (1°00′N 102°29′E) (4.367), between Pulau
Padang and Pulau Merbau.
Southern part of Selat Lalang (1°00′N 102°16′E)
(4.370) and Selat Panjang (0°46′N 102°46′E)
CHAPTER 4
130
(4.371), between the mainland coast and Pulau
Padang and Pulau Tebingtinggi.
3
Selat Ringgit (1°00′N 102°35′E) (4.375), between
Pulau Merbau and Pulau Tebingtinggi.
Selat Kungkung (1°01′N 102°44′E) (4.377) and Selat
Ayer Hitam (0°55′N 102°56′E), between Pulau
Rangsang and Pulau Tebingtinggi.
Topography
4.360 1
The islands are low and marshy.
Local knowledge
4.361
1
Local knowledge or the national large scale charts are
required.
Selat Padang
General information
4.362 1
Selat Padang is entered either:
From NW, in position 1°25′N 102°12′E, 5 miles ESE
of Bengkalis (4.327), or:
From E, in position 1°14′N 102°31′E, close S of
Tanjung Sekudi (4.365).
2
The channel, about 25 miles in length, has a least width
of 6 cables, except at its SE end where it is reduced to
about 3½ cables between shoals extending from both banks,
with depths from 6 to 11 m in the fairway.
4.363 1
Tidal streams. In Selat Padang, the streams set:
Directions Maximum
spring rate
Remarks
NW−going 2 kn Commences 2 hours after HW.
SE−going 3 kn Commences 2 hours after LW.
For approximate time differences between HW and LW
Kuala Batu Pahat and the maximum rate of the NW and
SE−going streams in the middle of Selat Padang see 4.233.
Directions
(continued from 4.345)
4.364
1
Major lights:
Tanjung Parit Light (1°31′N 102°26′E) (4.343).
Tanjung Sekudi Light (1°16′N 102°30′E).
4.365 1
East approach. From a position about 4 miles NE of
Tanjung Parit (1°31′N 102°28′E), the track leads S passing:
E of Tanjung Sedekip (3½ miles SE), thence:
W of a dangerous wreck, 2½ miles E of Tanjung
Sekudi (16 miles S), and:
To a position E of Tanjung Sekudi.
(Directions continue for Selat Asam at 4.369)
4.366 1
South−eastern part of Selat Padang.
From a position E
of Tanjung Sekudi (1°15′N 102°31′E) the track alters NW
close round the point, thence passes (with positions from
Tanjung Sekudi Light):
SW of the village of Sekudi (5 cables SW), thence:
NE of Pulau Dedap (9 miles NW), a wooded islet,
thence:
NE of a dangerous wreck (12 miles NW).
(Directions for the W entrance to Selat Padang
are given at 4.327)
Selat Asam
General information
4.367 1
From the N, Selat Asam is approached as for Selat
Padang (4.365) and entered W of Tanjung Bohmat (1°08′N
102°29′E).
The channel leads 12 miles S to Merantibunting (0°56′N
102°29′E), where Selat Asam is joined by Selat Ringgit
(4.375), and thence leads 6 miles SW to the junction
(0°54′N 102°24′E) with the S part of Selat Lalang (4.370)
and Selat Panjang (4.371). The shores are steep−to, except
at the junction.
The channel has a least width of 7 cables, with a least
depth of 12 m in the N approach.
4.368 1
Tidal streams. For approximate time differences
between HW and LW Kuala Batu Pahat, and the
occurrence of maximum rates in the middle of Selat Asam,
see 4.233.
Directions for Selat Asam
(continued from 4.365)
4.369 1
From a position E of Tanjung Sekudi (1°15′N 102°31′E)
the track leads SSW passing:
W of Tanjung Bohmat (7 miles S), thence:
In the centre of the channel.
When entering the junction with Selat Lalang and Selat
Panjang, care must be taken to avoid a spit with a depth of
8 m at its outer end, which extends 1 mile S from Tanjung
Mayung (0°55′N 102°23′E), the S extremity of Pulau
Padang.
(Directions continue, for Selat Panjang at 4.373
and for Selat Ringgit are given at 4.376)
Selat Lalang and Selat Panjang
General information
4.370 1
The south part of Selat Lalang leads 25 miles SSE
from Tanjung Layang (1°14′N 102°11′E) (4.332), the E
entrance point of Sungai Siak, to position 0°54′N 102°25′E
where:
It is joined from NE by Selat Asam (4.367), and;
It continues SE as Selat Panjang (4.371).
2
Selat Lalang is at least 2 miles wide between Tanjung
Layang and its junction with Selat Asam, with a least depth
of 8 m in the fairway.
For Lalang Marine Terminal, buoyage and pipeline in
the N part of Selat Lalang, see 4.321, 4.322 and 4.325.
4.371 1
Selat Panjang, leads ESE and E from the junction with
Selat Asam for 40 miles to Tanjung Kebal (0°41′N
103°00′E).
The channel has a width of from 1½ to 3½ miles, but
the navigable fairway at the E end, where it is obstructed
with shoals and islets, is considerably less, and a least
depth of 3 m is charted in the fairway.
The route through Selat Panjang is used only by small
craft.
4.372 1
Tidal streams. In Selat Panjang the streams turn by the
shore from 2 to 2½ hours after HW and LW.
The W and NW−going streams have a maximum rate of
4 kn, being strongest near the E end of Selat Panjang.
The E and SE−going streams have a maximum rate of
3½ kn, and finally set along the coast of Sumatera into
CHAPTER 4
131
Sungai Kampar (0°27′N 103°07′E) (Indonesia Pilot
Volume I).
For times of maximum rates, see 4.233.
Directions
(continued from 4.322 or 4.369)
4.373 1
From a position about 7 miles SSE of Tanjung Layang
(1°14′N 102°11′E), the track leads SE passing:
NE of an 8 m ridge lying in mid channel E of
Makapan village (0°59′N 102°14′E) on the SW
bank.
2
In Selat Panjang, the track near the E entrance leads E,
passing:
S of the shoal (with a least depth of 1 m) 1 mile off
Pulau Panjang (0°46′N 102°50′E), a narrow islet,
thence:
S of the drying bank, 1 mile SW of Pulau Baru
(4 miles E of Pulau Panjang).
(Directions continue in Indonesia Pilot Volume I)
Approach to Selat Kungkung and Selat Ringgit
Directions
4.374
1
From the vicinity of 1°15′N 102°39′E the N approach to
Selat Kungkung leads S passing:
E of a dangerous wreck (1°13′N 102°38′E), mast,
position approximate, thence:
Between the coastal bank, extending up to 7 miles
NW of Tanjung Sampayan (1°10′N 102°45′E) and
a shoal patch (1 mile farther W) extending N to S
with a least charted depth of 1·2 m.
(Directions continue for Selat Ringgit at 4.376)
Selat Ringgit
General information
4.375 1
Selat Ringgit (1°00′N 102°35′E) is a narrow passage,
about 8 miles long, between Pulau Merbau and Pulau
Tebingtinggi.
It is entered from NE about 2 miles SSW of Tanjung
Kungkung (1°03′N 102°37′E) and leads SW to join Selat
Asam.
The fairway has a least width of ½ cable, with depths
from 5 to 12 m.
Directions for Selat Ringgit
(continued from 4.369 or 4.374)
4.376 1
At both ends of Selat Ringgit the track leads close to
the N shore.
Selat Kungkung and Selat Ayer Hitam
General information
4.377 1
Local knowledge is required for Selat Kungkung.
Selat Kungkung (1°01′N 102°42′E), with its continuation
SE, Selat Ayer Hitam (0°55′N 102°56′E), is the passage
separating Pulau Rangsang from Pulau Tebingtinggi.
2
The combined length of the passage from Tanjung
Kungkung (1°03′N 102°37′E), at the NW end, to Tanjung
Mayon (0°49′N 103°03′E), at the SE end, is about
33 miles.
The width is from 7 cables to 2 miles wide. The least
depth within the passage is 8 m.
4.378 1
Tidal streams. For approximate time differences
between HW and LW Kuala Batu Pahat, and the
occurrence of maximum rates in the middle of Selat
Kungkung and Selat Ayer Hitam, see 4.233.
2
Both in Selat Kungkung and Ayer Hitam, the streams
set:
Directions Remarks
NW−going Begins 2 hours after HW. Spring rate 4 kn
SE−going
Begins 2 hours after LW. Spring rate 2½ kn
At neaps both streams are very weak, the NW−going
being the stronger.
(Directions for E entrance to Selat Ayer Hitam
are given in Indonesia Pilot Volume I)
Selatpanjang
4.379 1
Selatpanjang, a village (1°01′N 102°42′E), is situated on
the S bank of Selat Kungkung.
Berths. A T−head pier has two cargo berths with depths
alongside of 7·5 m and 7 m. An oil jetty has a depth
alongside of 6 m. Lights are exhibited at each pier−head.
2
Repairs: small floating dock for local craft.
Other facilities: Medical Officer resides in the village.
Supplies: fresh water; very limited quantities of oil fuel
supplied in drums; provisions and stores are limited and
difficult to obtain.
Communications: regular sea communication with other
ports in Sumatera.
Rivers
4.380
1
Sungai Sudur (1°02′N 102°47′E) and Sungai Suwir flow
into the N and S sides of the passage, at the junction of
Selat Kungkung and Selat Ayer Hitam.
3485
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5.14
5.185
5.209
5.292
A
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THAI L AND
M
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Pinang Hbr
Phuket
Langkawi
Butang Group
NP 21
Bay of Bengal
Pilot
Chapter
6
Tel. Ewa
3941
3942
3943
3944
3941
3941
1366
3732
0406
30´
8°
30´
7°
30´
6°
30´
5°
30´
8°
30´
7°
30´
6°
30´
5°
30´
100°
30´
99°
30´
98°
30´
100°
30´
98°
Chapter 5 - Malacca Strait, northern approach - eastern shore
Longitude 99° East from Greenwich
132
133
CHAPTER 5
MALACCA STRAIT, NORTHERN APPROACH—EASTERN SHORE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 830, 3941, 3942, 3943
Scope of the chapter
5.1 1
This chapter is divided into the following sections:
Offshore passage from 8°00′N 98°00′E off Ko
Phuket, to W of Pulau Pinang (5°23′N 100°15′E)
(5.5).
Coastal passage around Ko Phuket to Ao Phangnga
(8°15′N 98°35′E) (5.22).
Passages within Ao Phangnga (5.83).
2
Coastal passages off W coast of Thailand from Ao
Phangnga to Ko Tarutao (6°37′N 99°39′E) (5.100).
Coastal passages around and within Langkawi Group
(6°20′N 99°48′E) (5.165).
Coastal passage off W coast of Malaysia from
Langkawi Group to Pulau Pinang (5°23′N
100°15′E) (5.229).
Pulau Pinang, Pinang Harbour and approaches
(5.241).
Through route
5.2 1
For through route leading through the central part of the
NW approach to Malacca Strait which passes on either side
of Pulau Perak (5°42′N 98°56′E), see 2.50.
Piracy
5.3
1
Piracy is prevalent in Malacca Strait, including offshore
waters, and has occurred off Malaysian ports. Details of
recommended practices concerning piracy, radio reports and
urgency messages are given in Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1 (2). For further details see 1.70 to 1.74.
Marine farms
5.4
1
Numerous marine farms are located in the coastal waters
of Thailand described in this chapter. The farms may be
floating or fixed structures with associated moorings and
they should be avoided. They are generally marked by
buoys or beacons which may be lit.
OFFSHORE ROUTE FROM KO PHUKET TO WEST OF PULAU PINANG INCLUDING
OFF−LYING ISLANDS
General information
Charts 830, 3941, 3942, 3943
Route
5.5 1
The offshore route from the vicinity of Sembilan Islands
(8°33′N 97°40′E) (see Bay of Bengal Pilot) leads:
W of Ko Phuket (8°00′N 98°20′E) (5.23), thence:
Close to or between Ko Racha Yai (7°36′N 98°22′E)
(5.11) and Ko Racha Noi, 5 miles SSW, (5.11),
thence:
W or E of Butang Group of islands (6°32′N 99°15′E)
(5.14), thence:
W of Pulau Pinang (5°23′N 100°15′E) (5.242).
Depths
5.6
1
The passage W of Ko Racha Noi (7°30′N 98°19′E) is
deep and clear of dangers.
If passing through or E of Ko Racha Yai and Ko Racha
Noi, and/or W or close to Butang Group (5.14), the
following dangers exist:
Hin Daeng (7°09′N 98°50′E) (5.11), lying between
Ko Phuket and Butang Group.
A depth of 9·1 m, position approximate, reported
(1962) in position (6°19′N 99°20′E) (5.11).
Tidal streams
5.7 1
See chart 3941 for the direction of tidal streams off W
coast of Ko Phuket.
In the channels between Ko Racha Yai and Ko Racha
Noi the streams set E and W at a rate from 1 to 3 kn. For
overfalls, see caution at 5.11.
2
The streams W of Butang Group (6°32′N 99°15′E) set
as follows:
Interval from HW Pinang Remarks
+ 0200 to – 0600 NW−going
– 0400 to HW SE−going.
Rates do not exceed 1 kn at springs, and at neaps they
are very weak and irregular.
Current
5.8 1
During the NE monsoon, the current S of Ko Phuket
sets NW, and during the SW monsoon, it sets SE.
After strong W or WNW winds the current S of Ko
Phuket sets E.
In October, N of Malacca Strait, the general set becomes
NW. However, S of Ko Phuket, a SE set probably still
predominates.
Topography
5.9 1
Ko Phuket. See 5.30.
Butang Group. See 5.14.
Directions
Principal marks
5.10 1
Landmarks:
Dome Mountain (6°32′N 99°19′E) (5.16).
Ko Butang (6°32′N 99°10′E) (5.16).
CHAPTER 5
134
Major lights:
Laem Phra Chao Light (7°46′N 98°19′E).
Ko Palai Light (6°30′N 99°11′E) (5.16).
Route west of Butang Group
5.11 1
From the vicinity of 8°00′N 98°00′E the track leads SE
clear of dangers, outside the 50 m depth contour, passing:
SW of Ko Kaeo Noi Light (white concrete tower, 7 m
in height) (7°44′N 98°18′E), standing 1½ miles S
of the S extremity of Ko Phuket, thence:
2
Close W of, or between, Ko Racha Yai (7°36′N
98°22′E), an island high in the SW part and low
on the NE side, and Ko Racha Noi (5 miles SSW),
which comprises two densely wooded steep−to
islands, nearly connected by a reef. The N island
has some rocks off its N extremity; the S island is
of nearly uniform height. A reef extends 1 cable
from the S extremity of the S island. Thence:
3
SW of Hin Daeng.(7°09′N 98°50′E), two isolated
rocks which are reported difficult to distinguish
during the SW monsoon, thence:
SW of Ko Butang (6°32′N 99°10′E) (5.16), the
W−most of Butang Group, thence:
SW of a rock with a depth of 9⋅1 m over it, reported
(1962), position approximate, (6°19′N 99°20′E),
thence:
4
SW of a dangerous wreck (5°56′N 99°49′E); another
dangerous wreck lies 14 miles farther ESE.
Thence:
To the approaches to Pulau Pinang. A dumping
ground for explosives is centred 20 miles W of
Pulau Pinang.
5
Cautions:
There are heavy tide−rips in the passage between Ko
Racha Yai and Ko Racha Noi.
There is often a strong tidal stream in the vicinity of
Hin Daeng.
5.12 1
Useful mark:
Pulau Perak (5°42′N 98°56′E) (2.52).
Route east of Butang Group
5.13 1
From the vicinity of 6°40′N 99°20′E the track leads SE,
passing:
NE of Ko Bitsi (6°34′N 98°21′E), the most E island
of the group, thence:
NE of Ko Hin Ru, the S of two rocks (6 cables S of
Ko Bitsi), thence:
2
SW of Ko Tanga (6°34′N 99°27′E), composed of two
parts connected at LW by a reef. The island is
steep−to on its W side. Ko Tanga Light (white
metal framework tower, 20 m in height) stands on
the S side of the island. The channel between Ko
Tanga and Ko Chuku, 7 cables E (5.147), is free
of dangers but marked by tide−rips. Thence:
3
NE of Ko Ta Lang (6°29′N 99°20′E), a densely
wooded islet, thence:
NE of Hin Takon Chet, a steep−to islet (2 miles E of
Ko Ta Lang).
4
The track continues SE to the approaches to Pulau
Pinang (5°23′N 100°15′E) passing:
NE of the rock (6°19′N 99°20′E) (5.11), thence:
SW of Pulau Langkawi (6°23′N 99°48′E) (5.165).
The coastal passage W of Pulau Langkawi is
described at 5.171. Thence:
5
Clear of the dangerous wreck (5°56′N 99°49′E)
(5.11), noting another dangerous wreck lying
14 miles farther ESE.
(Directions continue for Pinang Harbour
(North Channel) at 5.263 and for the
coastal route W of Pulau Pinang at 5.333)
Butang Group
Topography
5.14
1
Butang Group is well wooded and, from a distance,
appears as one large island. The group is uninhabited
except for a small fishing village at the E end of Ko Lipe
(6°29′N 99°18′E) (5.19).
Tidal streams
5.15 1
Tidal streams off the W side of Butang Group set as in
5.7.
Close W of Ko Adang (6°32′N 99°18′E) streams are
rather irregular but correspond approximately to those given
in 5.7.
2
See also table on the charts for position 6°31′N 99°17′E
off the SW end of Ko Adang.
Between Ko Bitsi (6°34′N 99°21′E) (5.13) and Ko
Tanga, 5½ miles E (5.13), the streams in the passage are
irregular and much influenced by the wind.
Principal marks
5.16 1
Landmarks:
Dome Mountain (6°32′N 99°19′E), the summit of Ko
Adang, is prominent.
Ko Butang (6°32′N 99°10′E), the most W island;
appears as a sharp peak from NE and SW.
Major lights:
Ko Palai Light (white metal framework tower, 20 m
in height) (6°30′N 99°11′E) .
Approach from north
5.17 1
Within Butang Group, anchorage may be obtained close
off the SW extremity of Ko Adang. The anchorage (5.21)
may be approached from N or S.
From the vicinity of 6°40′N 98°13′E, the track leads SE
then S through Alert Passage (6°34′N 99°16′E) the
principal passage through Butang Group, which is about
8 cables wide and deep, passing:
2
E of Ko Rawi, the NW island (6°34′N 99°13′E)
which has a flat summit, and:
W of the NW extremity of Ko Adang (1 mile E)
(5.16).
3
Thence the line of bearing 169° of the W extremity of
Ko Lipe (6°29′N 99°18′E) leads through Alert Passage
clear of dangers, passing (positions given from Dome
Mountain (5.16):
E of Ko Kata (2·9 miles WNW), thence:
E of Ko Burat (2·1 miles W), thence:
To the anchorage; see 5.21.
5.18 1
Useful feature:
A long sandy beach on the W side of Ko Adang
fronted by a coral reef.
Approach from south
5.19
1
From a position SSW of Ko Lipe (6°29′N 99°18′E) the
track leads N passing (with positions from Dome Mountain
(6°32′N 99°19′E):
CHAPTER 5
135
About 5 cables W of the W extremity of Ko Lipe, the
most S island of Butang Group, which has two
summits, the higher at the SE end; thence:
2
About 5 cables W of White Rock (1¾ miles SW), a
white granite boulder; thence:
E of the shoals surrounding Arch Rock (2½ miles
WSW), a rock in the form of an arch which is
easily identified among several islets and
above−water rocks, thence:
To the anchorage, see 5.21.
Side channels
5.20 1
The deep channel between Ko Rawi (6°34′N 99°13′E)
and Ko Butang, close SW, is narrow and is not
recommended.
There is no navigable channel between Ko Butang and
the several wooded islets extending S to Ko Sawang
(1½ miles S), an almost bare rock.
Anchorages
5.21 1
North−east monsoon. Anchorage may be obtained in a
depth of 20 m, sand, about 7 cables NW of the SW
extremity of Ko Adang (6°32′N 99°18′E), with Arch Rock
(5.19) bearing about 235°.
South−west monsoon. The only protected anchorage is
NE of Ko Butang (6°32′N 99°10′E) in a depth of 22 m,
about 4 cables offshore, but the bottom here is irregular and
there is not much swinging room.
COASTAL PASSAGE AROUND KO PHUKET TO AO PHANGNGA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3941
Scope of the section
5.22 1
This section describes, in five parts the following:
Chong Pak Phra (8°12′N 98°17′E) (5.24).
Coastal route W and S of Ko Phuket to Phuket
(5.30).
Phuket and approaches (7°53′N 98°24′E) (5.37).
Coastal route from Phuket to Ao Phangnga, W of Ko
Yao Yai (5.57).
Coastal route from Phuket to Ao Phangnga, E of Ko
Yao Yai (5.69).
Description
5.23 1
Ko Phuket, which is part of Thailand, is separated from
the Malay peninsula by Chong Pak Phra (8°12′N 98°17′E)
(5.24).
Ko Phuket is divided into two monthons (states) of
about equal size: Salang in the N and Phuket in the S.
2
The principal towns are:
Ban Tha Rua (7°58′N 98°22′E), near the E side of
the island.
Phuket (7°53′N 98°24′E) (5.37), on the SE side.
Phuket is also the principal port.
3
The island is rich in tin, and extensive areas of rubber
trees are cultivated. However, tourism is now the principal
source of income.
CHONG PAK PHRA
General information
Chart 3941
Description
5.24 1
Chong Pak Phra separates Ko Phuket from the mainland
and is much used by small craft. The narrow channel is
12 miles long and 4 cables wide at its W entrance (8°12′N
98°17′E). Local people are very superstitious concerning
this strait; its name signifies “Lord’s Mouth”.
The channel is tortuous, difficult and obstructed with
dangers. Shallow and shifting sandbanks front both
entrances.
2
In the SW monsoon the sea breaks entirely across the W
entrance to Chong Pak Phra, but in the NE monsoon it is
generally smooth.
Topography
5.25
1
The land on both sides is mostly low and wooded, but
the points are high. There are hills of moderate elevation
within the N shore.
There are several villages along both shores of the
channel.
Depths
5.26
1
The bar at the W entrance is subject to great changes,
with depths from 1·8 to 5·5 m over it. Within the bar the
channel has depths from 6 to 8 m to Laem Khun (8°10′N
98°21′E). Farther E depths of 2⋅0 to 3·5 m are charted in
the channel.
Tidal streams
5.27 1
The in−going stream sets in from both ends of Chong
Pak Phra, and meets off Laem Khun (8°10′N 98°21′E).
The out−going stream runs out of both entrances.
The stream is very weak in the middle of the strait, but
at the W entrance it sometimes attains a rate of 6 kn; at the
E entrance it is generally half that rate.
Directions
5.28 1
Local knowledge is required for Chong Pak Phra which
should only be used by small craft.
From W the channel leads (with positions from Laem
Khun (8°10′⋅0N 98°20′⋅5E)):
2
Close S of Laem Pak Phra (4 miles NW), the NW
entrance point to Chong Pak Phra, which can be
identified by a conical hill, 61 m in height, close
within. A reef of rocks, only visible at LW,
extends SE from Laem Pak Phra. Thence:
N of Laem Khun, a point on the S side of the
channel, thence:
3
To a position S of Ko Wa Yai (7 miles ESE) which is
the largest of several islets at the E entrance to the
channel.
(Directions for routes E of Ko Phuket
are given at 5.61)
CHAPTER 5
136
Anchorages
5.29 1
Anchorage may be obtained in the following positions:
Within the W bar, in depths of about 9 m, and:
E of the two islets (8°08′N 98°22′E), on the W side
of the fairway, 2½ miles SSE of Laem Khun, in
depths from 6 to 7 m.
Local knowledge is required.
COASTAL PASSAGE WEST AND SOUTH
OF KO PHUKET TO PHUKET
General information
Chart 3941
Topography
5.30 1
The N part of the W coast of Ko Phuket is mainly low
and wooded with hills, from 140 to 334 m high,
immediately within it.
The S part consists of a range of hills, from 300 to
529 m high, densely wooded, and sloping gradually at its N
and S ends. The islands immediately offshore of the SE
extremity of Ko Phuket are also densely wooded.
Tidal streams
5.31 1
The streams between the islands off the S coast of Ko
Phuket set E and W at a rate from 1 to 3 kn.
Directions
Major lights
5.32 1
Laem Phra Chao Light (7°46′N 98°19′E).
Laem Phan Wa Light (metal framework tower)
(7°47′⋅9N 98°24′⋅8E). The light is not at the
highest point of the headland and the framework
tower is not easily seen amongst trees on the
densely wooded hillside.
Ko Taphao Noi Light (7°49′⋅8N 98°25′⋅6E) (5.44).
West of Ko Phuket
5.33 1
From a position SW of the W entrance to Chong Pak
Phra (8°12′N 98°17′E) the coastal route leads S
outside the 30 m depth contour, passing (with
positions from Ko Kaeo Noi Light (7°44′N
98°18′E)):
2
W of Ko Waeo (18 miles N) two islets, 7 cables
offshore; the highest is 15 m in height. Thence:
W of Laem Thai Phao (12 miles N), the W point of
Ko Phuket, thence:
3
W of Laem Phra Chao (1½ miles NNE), the S
extremity of Ko Phuket from where a light (5.32)
is exhibited., thence:
W of Ko Kaeo Noi, an islet from the summit of
which a light (5.11) is exhibited.
The route continues to a position WSW of Ko Kaeo
Noi.
South of Ko Phuket
5.34 1
When clear S of Ko Kaeo Noi (5.33) the route leads E
and NE passing (with positions from Ko Kaeo Noi:
S of Ko Bon (2½ miles ENE), thence:
S of Ko Hi (4 miles E), with a rock close off its SW
extremity, thence:
2
SE of Ko Aeo (6 miles ENE), thence:
NW of Ko Mai Thon (11 miles E), a wooded islet,
the N extremity of which is low and sandy; close
N of it is a rock awash. Thence:
To a position SE of Laem Phan Wa (8 miles ENE),
which is steep−to and from where a light (5.32) is
exhibited.
3
An inshore route around the S extremity of Ko Phuket
passing between Laem Phra Chao (5.33) and Ko Kaeo Yai,
8 cables S, is deep and 6 cables wide. The route may then
be continued E, in depths greater than 10 m, passing
between Ko Hi and Ko Lon (5.36), 2½ miles N.
5.35 1
Useful mark:
Two white pagodas stand on the NW extremity of Ko
Kaeo Yai (7°45′N 98°18′E), close off the S end of
Ko Phuket.
Water tower (7°54′⋅7N 98°17′⋅9E), near Ao Patong.
Hotel (obstruction lights), 1½ miles S of water tower.
(Directions continue for Phuket at 5.44,
for the coastal route N at 5.61 and
for the coastal route E at 5.73)
Passages and anchorages off the west and
south coasts of Ko Phuket
Chart 3941 (see 1.17)
5.36 1
West coast. The several bays on the W coast of Ko
Phuket have suitable anchorage depths, but none affords
any protection during the SW monsoon. Ao Patong (7°54′N
98°17′E) is reported (1997) to have good holding ground.
2
South coast.
Ao Chalong (7°49′N 98°22′E) is a shallow bay
which provides suitable anchorage for small craft.
The bay may be approached by passing E or W of
Ko Lon, the island fronting the bay.
3
Passage W of Ko Lon. A channel between the W
extremity of Ko Lon and a 2⋅3 m shoal patch
6 cables WSW. has a least depth of 5⋅9 m.
Thereafter, a channel with depths greater than 5 m,
but of decreasing width, continues NNE until NW
of Ko Lon where a bar has a limiting depth of
3⋅6 m.
4
Passage E of Ko Lon. The deepest water is on the
NE side of the channel where there is a limiting
depth of about 2⋅5 m, 6 cables W of Laem Phan
Wa (7°47′⋅9N 98°24′⋅8E) (5.34). Marine farms
(5.4) are the vicinity. Thereafter on the NE side of
the channel, depths of 4 m or more continue to the
head of the bay.
5
Offshore island. The sandy bay on the N side of Ko
Mai Thon (7°46′N 98°29′E) (5.34) provides some shelter
during the SW Monsoon in depths from 11 to 13 m.
Local knowledge is required.
PHUKET AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 3941, plans of Phuket and Approaches to Phuket
Position and function
5.37
1
Phuket (7°53′N 98°24′E), stands at the head of Tha Rua
Phuket, a shallow bay on the SE side of Ko Phuket. It is a
substantial−sized town, the seat of local government and a
holiday resort with several multi−storey hotels.
The port of Phuket (7°49′N 98°25′E) lies 4 miles S of
Phuket town on the S side of Tha Rua Phuket. Deep−water
CHAPTER 5
137
berths serve the tin and rubber industries, container traffic
and cruise vessels; up to 450 000 passengers are handled
each year. The former creek leading from Tha Rua Phuket
to the town has silted up.
2
Local fishing craft and some loading lighters use Khlong
Tha Chin (5.54), a shallow channel E of the town.
Some cargo is loaded or unloaded by lighter at working
anchorages in Tha Rua Phuket (5.50) and up to 9 miles NE
of Tha Rua Phuket (5.68). The lighters discharge at
Thaisarco Pier in the Port of Phuket or at the lighter wharf
in Klong Tha Chin.
Topography
5.38
1
Hills in the vicinity of Phuket and the port area are
densely wooded right down to the shoreline.
Approach and entry
5.39 1
The approach to the alongside berths is through a
dredged channel, 120 m wide, entered close E of the
headland at Laem Phan Wa (7°47′⋅9N 98°24′⋅8E).
A turning area marked by light−buoys lies close N of
the berths, beyond which a channel continues NNE to the
Shell Oil Depot and to the S part of Tha Rua Phuket. This
channel is normally used only by vessels approaching and
leaving the oil depot.
Traffic
5.40
1
In 2005, 263 vessels totalling 1 415 809 dwt used the
port.
Port Authority
5.41
2
Fifth Regional Harbour Master Office, Harbour
Department, Phuket Port, Tambol Ao Makam, Amphoe
Muang, Phuket 83000.
Limiting conditions
5.42 1
Controlling depths. In 1988, the channel to Phuket
Wharf was dredged to a depth of 9 m over a width of
120 m, and the turning basin was dredged to 9 m over a
diameter of 360 m. Depths decrease N of the turning basin,
as shown on the plans.
Deepest and longest berths are at Phuket Wharf (5.48).
2
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3. Mean spring range about 2·6 m; mean neap range
about 0·9 m.
Maximum size of vessels handled: up to 20 000 dwt,
180 m long, 25 m beam, 8⋅5 m draught.
Arrival information
5.43 1
Notice of ETA required is 5 days. Phuket Port Control
should be called 3 hours before arrival. For details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Outer anchorage for vessels awaiting a berth is about
8 cables NE of Laem Phan Wa Light as indicated on the
plans.
2
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 50 m LOA.
Pilots are normally available from 0600 to 1800 local time.
The pilot boarding place is in the vicinity of Fairway
Light−buoy (4½ cables ESE of Laem Phan Wa Light).
Tugs. Vessels over 76 m long are required to use a tug,
and vessels over 137 m long are required to use two tugs.
3
Regulations concerning petroleum carrying vessels
within Thai port limits and rivers are given at Appendix IV.
Climate information. See 1.170 and 1.171 for Ko
Lanta, 45 miles ESE.
Directions
(continued from 5.35)
Principal marks
5.44 1
Landmark:
Water Tower (white cylinder supported by a central
column) (7°49′·1N 98°24′·3E).
Major lights:
Laem Phan Wa Light (7°47′⋅9N 98°24′⋅8E) (5.32).
Ko Taphao Noi Light (white concrete tower, 11 m in
height) (7°49′·8N 98°25′·6E).
Phuket Wharf
5.45 1
Entry at slack water is advisable as tidal streams of as
much as 3 kn have been reported.
From a position about 1½ miles SE of Laem Phan Wa
Light (7°47′⋅9N 98°24′⋅8E), the line of bearing 321° of the
water tower (5.44) leads NW to the entrance of the channel
passing (with positions from Laem Phan Wa Light):
NE of Fairway Light−buoy (safe water, can)
(4½ cables ESE), thence:
NE of Laem Phan Wa.
2
Leading lights:
Front Light−beacon B (white mast with white
diamond topmark) (7°49′·4N 98°24′·4E), in Ao
Kham.
Rear Light−beacon A (similar structure) (1½ cables
NNW).
The alignment (332°) of these light−beacons leads NNW
through the outer part of the channel, marked by
light−buoys (lateral), to a position ENE of Phuket Wharf,
the SE and NW extremities of which are marked by lights.
Oil berth − south approach
5.46 1
Entry at slack water is advisable as tidal streams of as
much as 3 kn have been reported.
2
From the vicinity of Phuket Wharf the track continues
N, marked by:
Leading beacons (inner):
Front Beacon C (concrete with topmark) (7°49′·9N
98°24′·6E), at Laem Nam Bo:
Rear Beacon D (concrete with topmark) (1 cable N of
front beacon).
3
The alignment (012°) of these beacons leads through the
turning basin and inner part of the channel, passing:
Between Laem To Khun (7°49′·5N 98°24′·5E) and Ko
Taphao Yai, 5 cables E:
To the vicinity of the oil berth, 1½ cables WNW of the
W extremity of Ko Taphao Yai.
Oil berth − east departure
5.47 1
Leading beacon:
Front Beacon E (concrete, with topmark) (7°49′·7N
98°24′·5E) at Laem To Khun.
The line of bearing, 226° astern, of Beacon E, leads
through the channel, passing (with positions from the
beacon):
2
SE of Beacon C (3 cables NNE) (5.46), thence:
SE of Beacon D (4 cables NNE) (5.46), thence:
SE of Laem Nam Bo (5 cables NE), thence:
CHAPTER 5
138
Close NW of No 5 Buoy (starboard hand) (4 cables
NE), thence:
3
Close SE of No 6 Buoy (port hand) (8 cables NE).
The track continues SW to a position about 7 cables NW
of Ko Taphao Noi Light (7°49′·8N 98°25′·6E) (5.44).
The track then leads SSE passing between Ko Taphao
Yai and Ko Taphao Noi.
(Directions for Tha Rua Phuket are given at 5.51)
Berths
5.48 1
Thaisarco Pier (7°48′·9N 98°24′·6E) at Laem Kluai has
a length of 61 m, width 12 m, is constructed parallel to the
channel and connected to the shore by a rubble causeway.
The pier has a charted depth of 7·6 m alongside, and is
used mainly by lighters.
Phuket Wharf (7°49′·0N 98°24′·5E) consists of a
concrete quay 360 m in length fronting reclaimed land. The
quay provides two berths with a depth alongside of 9⋅4 m.
2
Shell Oil Depot at Laem To Khun (7°49′·7N 98°24′·6E).
Submarine oil pipelines are laid from the moorings to the
depot (not charted), see also 1.42. There is a depth of
7·5 m at the berth.
Vessels over 100 m in length are advised to use the
starboard anchor as an additional mooring aid.
Port services
5.49
1
Repairs: small dry dock, 91 m long and 24 m wide,
used for repair and construction of tin dredgers, situated on
the NE side of Tha Rua Phuket (5.50); minor repairs only
may be carried out; slipway for fishing vessels in Khlong
Tha Chin (5.54).
Other facilities: hospitals at Phuket; deratting exemption
certificates issued.
2
Supplies: fuel and diesel oil available ex barge or road
tanker; fresh water is available; provisions and stores from
Phuket.
Communications: regular sea communication with
Pinang; nearest airport is 20 km away with regular flights
to Bangkok.
Tha Rua Phuket
General information
5.50
1
Tha Rua Phuket is a shallow bay, 2 miles wide, lying
between:
Ko Taphao Noi (7°50′N 98°26′E), and:
Laem Phap Pha (2 miles NNE).
The bay provides a working anchorage for vessels
loading and unloading cargoes through Thaisarco Pier
(5.48) or Khlong Tha Chin (5.54) in the NW corner of the
bay, E of Phuket.
Port of Phuket from SE (5.48) − View in two parts
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright}
Water Tower (5.44) Phuket Wharf
a
a
Leading Light−beacons
a
a
CHAPTER 5
139
Directions
5.51
1
Caution. Depths in Tha Rua Phuket are subject to
frequent change.
Outer approach from SE. From the vicinity of 7°40′N
98°40′E, safe passage to Tha Rua Phuket leads NW,
passing:
SW of Ko Kai (7°45′N 98°37′E) (5.106), thence:
Between Ko Mai Thon (7°45′N 98°29′E) (5.34) and
Ko Dok Mai (3 miles NE) (5.74).
5.52 1
Caution. The track described may also be used as an
exit route for vessels leaving the Oil Loading Platform
(5.47).
Inner approach. From a position about 1¼ miles SE of
Ko Taphao Noi Light (5.44), the recommended track leads
301° as indicated on the plans passing (with positions from
the light):
NE of a 5·2 m rocky patch (4½ cables S) marked on
its N side by a light−buoy (E cardinal), thence:
2
To a position 2½ cables SSW of Ko Taphao Noi
Light.
The recommended track then leads 346° into Tha Rua
Phuket in a least depth of 5·6 m, passing:
Between Ko Taphao Noi and Ko Taphao Yai
(3 cables SW), thence:
As required for the anchorage.
Anchorage
5.53 1
Anchorage may be obtained NW of Ko Taphao Noi
Light (5.44), in depths of 5 to 6 m, mud.
Tha Rua Phuket is open to E and SE winds, when there
is a little surf in the bay.
For working anchorages for larger vessels, see 5.68.
Khlong Tha Chin
5.54 1
Description. Khlong Tha Chin (7°52′·5N 98°25′·2E),
1 mile E of Phuket town, is the fishing port and a lighter
berthing area for Phuket.
Limiting conditions. Depths are liable to change on the
bank in the middle of Tha Rua Phuket.
Least charted depth (1994) is 0⋅8 m close W of Laem
Tukkae (7°52′N 98°25′E) (5.55)
5.55
1
Directions. See 5.51 for approach from S between Ko
Taphoa Noi and Ko Taphoa Yai.
Final approach is through a channel leading N from a
light−buoy (safe water) moored 1¼ miles S of Laem
Tukkae, the promontory which forms the SE entrance point
to Khlong Tha Chin.
2
Laem Tukkae Light is exhibited at the promontory and
two lights are exhibited separately on the NW side of the
entrance.
Fishing boats are moored throughout the length of the
channel.
5.56
1
Berths. A lighter wharf is situated at the head of the W
side of the channel; four lighters can be berthed alongside.
A fisheries depot has been constructed on the E bank.
COASTAL PASSAGE FROM PHUKET TO
AO PHANGNGA, WEST OF KO YAO YAI
General information
Chart 3941
Route
5.57 1
From the approaches to the port of Phuket the route
leads NNE through a fairway about 3½ miles wide, passing
between a number of islands lying off the E coast of Ko
Phuket (8°00′N 98°20′E), and off the W coast of Ko Yao
Yai, about 8 miles E.
The entrance of the W channel (8°08′N 98°31′E) leading
to Ao Phangnga (5.84) is situated at the N end of the
route.
Topography
5.58 1
Ko Yao Yai (8°00′N 98°36′E) is a large island 14 miles
in length. A range of hills extends the entire length of the
island. The E coast is high, bold and steep−to except for
the NE extremity which is low and sandy. Several isolated
islets lie E and S of Ko Yao Yai.
The E coast of Ko Phuket is mainly low and fronted by
a number of offshore islands, see 5.62 and 5.63.
Caution
5.59 1
Marine farms are located in the channel between Ko
Yao Yai and Ko Phuket, see 5.4.
Tidal streams
5.60 1
The streams between the E side of Ko Phuket and Ko
Yao Yai set N and S, at a rate of 2 to 3 kn.
Directions
(continued from 5.35)
Major lights
5.61
1
Laem Phan Wa Light (7°47′⋅9N 98°24′⋅8E) (5.32).
Ko Taphao Noi Light (7°49′⋅8N 98°25′⋅6E) (5.44).
Port of Phuket to Ko Lipi
5.62 1
From a position SE of Laem Phan Wa Light (7°47′⋅9N
98°24′⋅8E), at the approaches to the port of Phuket, the
track leads NNE, passing (with positions from the light):
WNW of Ko Mai Thon (4½ miles SE) (5.34), thence:
ESE of Ko Taphao Noi (2 miles NNE) from which a
light (5.44) is exhibited, thence:
2
ESE of Laem Phap Pha (4 miles NNE), thence:
ESE of Ko Mali (8 miles NNE); Ko Maphrao lies
1½ miles farther WNW, thence:
WNW of Ko Khai Nok (8 miles NE), a sandy islet,
with a wooded bluff on its S side. Ko Khai Nai
lies 2 miles farther ENE. Above−water rocks and
rocky patches lie in the vicinity of both islets.
Marine farms are charted in the vicinity.
3
The track continues NNE to a position SW of Ko Lipi
(11 miles NNE), a conical island.
Ko Lipi to Laem Hia
5.63 1
From a position SW of Ko Lipi (7°57′N 98°31′E), the
track leads N, passing (with positions from Ko Lipi):
W of Ko Lipi, thence:
E of Ko Rang Yai and Ko Rang Noi (4 miles W),
thence:
CHAPTER 5
140
W of Ko Sup (4 miles NNE) formed from two
vertical, steep−to rocks, thence:
2
E of Ko Nakha Noi (5½ miles NW), thence:
E of Ko Nakha Yai (6½ miles NNW), thence:
E of Ko Thanan (9 miles NNW), thence:
E of Ko Wa Noi (10½ miles NNW) lying on the N
side of the E entrance to Chong Pak Phra (5.28).,
3
The track continues N to a position NW of Laem Hia
(9½ miles N), a high steep−to bluff forming the NW
extremity of Ko Yao Yai.
(Directions continue for the W approach
to Ao Phangnga at 5.88 and for
Chong Pak Phra are given at 5.28)
Side channels and anchorages
Ao Tha Rua
5.64 1
Description. Ao Tha Rua (7°58′N 98°25′E) is a bay on
the E coast of Ko Phuket giving access to Ban Tha Rua.
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage may be obtained in a depth of 5·5 m, with:
The N extremity of Ko Rang Yai (7°57′N 98°27′E),
bearing 110°, and:
Ko Maphrao peak, 2 miles SW, bearing 185°.
Directions. When approaching Ao Tha Rua from S, the
track leads E, and thence N of Ko Rang Noi (7°58′N
98°27′E).
Ao Labu
5.65
1
Ao Labu (8°01′N 98°34′E) is a bay in the middle of the
W side of Ko Yao Yai; there are depths from 3 to 5·5 m at
the entrance to the bay. An islet and some above and
below−water rocks lie off the S entrance point. The N part
is clear of dangers.
There are two villages on the shores of the bay.
Chong Pak Phra
5.66 1
The E entrance to Chong Pak Phra (5.24) lies S of Ko
Wa Yai (8°07′N 98°27′E) (5.28), noting Ko Wa Noi close
SE.
Chong Ko Yao
5.67
1
The shallow W entrance to Chong Ko Yao (5.78) lies N
of Laem Hia (8°06′N 98°32′E).
Working anchorages
5.68 1
Anchorages for larger vessels loading and unloading
cargoes for Phuket and other places in the vicinity exist as
follows:
During the NE monsoon, about 2 miles E of Ko Lipi
(7°57′N 98°31′E), in a depth of about 11 m, and:
At other times, about 1½ miles NE of Laem Phap Pha
(7°52′N 98°27′E), in a depth of about 16 m.
2
Care must be taken to avoid tin dredgers operating in
the approaches to these anchorages.
Numerous small lighters are available from Phuket, for
discharge of cargo.
Vessels up to 30 000 dwt have used these anchorages.
COASTAL ROUTE FROM PHUKET TO AO
PHANGNGA, EAST OF KO YAO YAI
General information
Chart 3941
Route
5.69 1
From the vicinity of the approaches to the port of
Phuket (7°49′N 98°25′E), the route leads ENE to the S
extremity of Ko Yao Yai (5.58), thence N for about
18 miles passing E of Ko Yao Yai and between Ko Yao
Noi (8°08′N 98°37′E) and an island group, 3 miles E.
The entrance to the E channel to Ao Phangnga (5.84) is
at the N end of the route.
Topography
5.70 1
Ko Yao Yai is described at 5.58.
Ko Yao Noi is densely wooded.
Caution
5.71
1
Marine farms are located in the channel E of Ko Yao
Yai, see 5.4.
Tidal streams
5.72 1
Streams in the channel E of Ko Yao Noi (8°08′N
98°37′E) set N with the in−going tide and S with the
out−going tide. Rates are 2 to 3 kn. The stream turns at
about the times of HW and LW by the shore. See the chart
for position 8°08′N 98°39′E.
Directions
(continued from 5.35)
Major lights
5.73
1
Laem Phan Wa Light (7°47′⋅9N 98°24′⋅8E) (5.32).
Ko Taphao Noi Light (7°50′N 98°26′E) (5.44).
Laem Phan Wa to Laem Hua Lan
5.74 1
From a position SE of Laem Phan Wa (7°47′⋅9N
98°24′⋅8E) (5.34) the track leadsNE, passing (with positions
from Laem Phan Wa):
SE of Ko Mai Thon (4½ miles SE) (5.34), thence:
SE of Ko Dok Mai (7 miles E), with almost vertical
sides, thence:
2
NW of Ko Kai (12½ miles ESE) (5.106), thence:
NW of Hin Mu Sang (13 miles E), an unmarked
steep−to rocky islet, 2 m in height. A rock with
1⋅5 m over it lies 5 cables N, thence:
To a position E of Laem Hua Lan (12¼ miles ENE)
which is high, bold and steep−to on the E side and
forms the SE extremity of Ko Yao Yai.
3
Inshore route. From an initial position about 3 miles SE
of Laem Phan Wa the track passes NW of Ko Mai Thon
and Ko Dok Mai.
Laem Hua Lan to Ko Ku Du Yai
5.75 1
From a position E of Laem Hua Lan (7°53′N 98°36′E)
the track leads N, passing (with positions from Ko Rang
Nok (8°02′N 98°38′E)):
As required to avoid marine farms (5.71), and:
E of Hin Mu Sang Nua (7¼ miles S) an above−water
rock 2 miles E of Ko Yao Yai, thence:
W of a dangerous wreck (8½ miles SE), thence:
CHAPTER 5
141
2
E of Ko Rang Nok, thence:
W of Ko Ngang (3 miles E), the S of the group of
islands (5.69), thence:
W of Ko Hong (3¾ miles NE), thence:
W of the Ko Pang islets (5 miles NNE).
3
The track then continues N to a position W of two
vertical rocks (9 miles NNE) and SE of Ko Ku Du Yai
(9½ miles N).
(Directions continue for the E approach to
Ao Phangnga at 5.96)
Side channels
Ao Lubaling
5.76 1
Ao Lubaling (7°54′N 98°35′E), a bay 5 cables wide on
the S coast of Ko Yao Yai, is entered between:
Ko Chong Lat Noi on the W side, and:
Laem Hua Lan (5.74) on the E side.
Khlong Lubaloi flows into the head of Ao Lubaling; a
village is situated 1 mile up this river.
Channels through the islands E of Ko Yao Noi
5.77 1
Within the group of islands E of Ko Yao Noi (5.69),
there is a deep water channel between Ko Kaya (8°06′·4N
98°42′·7E) and Ko Ka, 8 cables WSW.
There is also deep water between Ko Hong (8°04′·5N
98°41′⋅0E) and Laem Plong, 3½ miles E.
5.78
1
Chong Ko Yao (8°05′N 98°35′E), a channel with depths
of less than 2 m at its NW end and a least navigable width
of 2½ cables at its E end, separates the NE coast of Ko
Yao Yai from Ko Yao Noi, 1½ miles NE, and Ko Boi Yai,
1½ miles N.
2
The NE coast of Ko Yao Yai is mostly low and sandy.
Ko Yao Noi is densely wooded.
Danger. Hin Klang Rong, a drying rock, lies in the
middle of the channel, 4 cables NNW of the NE extremity
of Ko Yao Yai.
Laem Plong
General information
5.79 1
Position and function. Laem Plong (8°05′N 98°45′E)
provides deep−water berths for the town of Krabi (5.112)
10 miles E. The berths are primarily used for the export of
bulk gypsum, with work in progress on an oil terminal.
2
Traffic. In 2005, nine vessels totalling 90 786 dwt used
the port.
Arrival information
5.80 1
ETA to be sent 72, 48, 24 and 12 hours in advance.
Anchorage may be obtained, in good holding ground,
1 mile W of the berths in a depth of 20 to 27 m.
Pilotage is available during daylight hours only; the
pilot boards in the vicinity of the anchorage.
Tugs are not available.
Berths
5.81 1
There are three berths; two for loading gypsum and one
for oil. Vessels berth starboard side alongside in a depth of
12 m, using the port anchor and securing to seven mooring
buoys. This places vessels adjacent to the loading conveyor
but, as this is in a fixed position, vessels may have to be
moved to make each hold available.
The oil terminal is designed to accommodate tankers up
to 5000 dwt with a draught of 7·0 m.
Port services
5.82 1
Facilities and supplies are not available.
Communications: with Phuket (5.37) by sea from
Krabi (5.112).
AO PHANGNGA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3941
Scope of the section
5.83 1
This section describes in two parts:
Passage through the W side of Ao Phangnga (5.86).
Passage through the E side of Ao Phangnga (5.94).
Description
5.84 1
Ao Phangnga is the extensive bight between Laem Som
(8°08′N 98°26′E), and a point (8°08′N 98°44′E) on the
mainland, 18 miles E.
On the W side of the bight are numerous islands
extending up to 3 miles offshore. The area within is foul.
The E side of the head of Ao Phangnga is bold and
high. A number of islands lie offshore.
Caution. Marine farms are located in Ao Phangnga, see
5.4.
Channels and rivers
5.85 1
Channels lead from the W and E entrances of Ao
Phangnga to the following rivers:
Khlong Krasom (8°19′N 98°29′E), leading to Krasom
town (4 miles N) (5.90).
Khlong Ko Pan Yi (8°19′N 98°31′E), leading to
Phangnga town (9 miles N) (5.93).
Khlong Bo Saen (8°23′N 98°37′E) (5.97).
Khlong Marui (8°23′N 98°40′E), leading to Thap Put,
9 miles upriver (5.97).
WESTERN SIDE OF AO PHANGNGA
General information
Chart 3941
Route
5.86 1
The W approach to Khlong Krasom and Khlong Ko Pan
Yi lies between Ko Phanak (8°11′N 98°30′E) and Ko Boi
Noi, 2½ miles E, thence E of the islands lying off the W
shore.
Tidal streams
5.87 1
Tidal streams are indicated on the chart in position
8°11′N 98°32′E.
CHAPTER 5
142
Directions
(continued from 5.63)
Laem Hia to Ko Raya Ring
5.88 1
From a position NW of Laem Hia (8°06′N 98°32′E), the
NW extremity of Ko Yao Yai, the track leads N, passing
(with positions from Laem Hia):
As required to avoid marine farms (5.84), and:
W of Ko Boi Yai (1½ miles NNE) and of Ko Boi
Noi, 1 mile farther N, with two islets between
them, thence:
2
E of Ko Phanak (4 miles NNW), thence:
E of Ko Yai (6 miles N) and the islets lying close S
and NNW of this island, thence:
E of Ko Khai (8½ miles N).
The track continues N to a position E of Ko Raya Ring
(10 miles N).
Useful mark
5.89
1
Ko Nom Sao Noi Light (white concrete tower, 2 m in
height) (8°19′N 98°31′E).
(Directions continue for Khlong Ko Pan Yi at 5.92)
Channels
Khlong Krasom
5.90 1
Description. The entrance to Khlong Krasom (8°19′N
98°29′E) lies 1 mile NW of Ko Raya Ring (5.88), and is
5 cables wide. The channel leads between several islands
and sandbanks which encumber the entrance.
Krasom town (8°23′N 98°28′E) is situated 4½ miles
from the entrance. A large quantity of tin is exported from
Krasom.
Local knowledge is essential for passage of the channel.
Khlong Ko Pan Yi
5.91 1
Description. The entrance to Khlong Ko Pan Yi (8°19′N
98°31′E) is 1½ miles NE of Ko Raya Ring (5.88).
The shoals in Khlong Ko Pan Yi are usually marked by
a tall reedy grass growing on them, and are therefore easily
avoided.
Climate. There is considerable rainfall between May and
December.
Local knowledge is essential.
5.92
1
Directions (continued from 5.89).
From the vicinity of 8°17′·0N 98°31′·5E, E of Ko Raya
Ring (5.88), the track leads N, passing:
W of Ko Nom Sao Noi (8°18′·5N 98°31′·1E), an islet
from where a light (5.89) is exhibited, thence:
W of Ko Nom Sai Yai, an islet 58 m high 1 cable NE
of Ko Nom Sao Noi, thence:
2
E of a drying shoal, midway between the entrance
points of Khlong Ko Pan Yi, thence:
As required for Phangnga.
3
Anchorage can be obtained close E of Ko Pan Yi,
(139 m high) (8°20′⋅0N 98°30′·4E), on the W side of the
channel, 1 mile within the entrance.
Phangnga
5.93 1
Phangnga town (8°26′N 98°32′E) is situated 8 miles
above the entrance to Khlong Ko Pan Yi and is bordered
by precipitous cliffs about 300 m high. The valley of
Khlong Koi Pan Yi is very fertile.
The town has a population of about 3000. The
inhabitants are mostly Thais, with a few Malays and
Chinese.
EASTERN SIDE OF AO PHANGNGA
General information
Chart 3941
Route
5.94 1
The common estuary of Khlong Bo Saen and Khlong
Marui lies in the NE head of Ao Phangnga. The approach
route is between a number of high islands lying off the E
side of Ao Phangnga.
Tidal streams
5.95 1
Streams in the channel E of Ko Yao Noi (8°08′N
98°37′E) set N with the in−going tide and S with the
out−going tide as shown on the chart. The stream turns at
about the times of HW and LW by the shore.
Directions for approach to Khlong Bo Saen
and Khlong Marui
(continued from 5.75)
Ko Ku Du Yai to Ko Mak
5.96 1
From a position SE of Ko Ku Du Yai (8°11′⋅5N
98°38′⋅5E), the track leads NNW passing (with positions
from Ko Ku Du Yai):
As required to avoid marine farms (5.84), and:
ENE of Ko Ku Du Yai, thence:
WSW of Ko Dua (2 miles N) and of Ko Khlui,
5 cables farther NE, thence:
2
ENE of Ko Sum (2¾ miles NNW) and of Ko Pai,
5 cables farther N, thence:
WSW of Ko Chong Lat (4 miles N), thence:
Between Ko Mak (6 miles NNW) and Ko Ngam,
1 mile farther E, thence:
To the charted anchorage 5 cables NE of Ko Mak.
Ko Mak to Khlong Bo Saen and Khlong Marui
5.97 1
Local knowledge is essential for this passage.
From the vicinity of 8°18′N 98°36′E, in the anchorage
(5.96), the track leads NNE, passing:
2
Between two islets (104 m and 107 m high) (8°21′N
98°37′E), where the fairway is 1 cable wide,
thence:
To the entrances of Khlong Bo Saen or Khlong
Marui.
3
The bar at the entrance to Khlong Marui has a depth of
3·2 m, but within, depths increase to about 5·5 m.
Anchorage and bay
Anchorage
5.98 1
There is a depth of 13 m in the anchorage (5.96),
5 cables NE of Ko Mak (8°17′N 98°35′E).
Ao Luk
5.99
1
Ao Luk (8°15′N 98°41′E) is a shallow bay on the E side
of Ao Phangnga between Laem Taeng (8°13′N 98°43′E), a
bold point, and Laem Sak, 5 miles NW, low, sandy and
covered with trees.
CHAPTER 5
143
COASTAL PASSAGES OFF WEST COAST OF THAILAND FROM AO PHANGNGA
TO KO TARUTAO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3941, 3942
Scope of the section
5.100 1
This section describes, in five parts, the coastal passages
and inshore routes off the W coast of Thailand from the E
approach to Ao Phangnga at Laem Plong (8°05′N 98°45′E)
to the vicinity of Ko Tarutao, about 110 miles SSE. It is
arranged as follows:.
2
Laem Plong to Ko Lanta Yai (7°35′N 99°04′E),
passing either W or E of Ko Phiphi Don (7°45′N
98°47′E) or via an inshore route (5.101):
Ko Lanta Yai to Ko Talibong (7°14′N 99°24′E)
(5.116).
3
Ko Talibong to Ko Tarutao (6°37′N 99°39′E) (5.126).
Coastal passage off the W coast of Ko Tarutao
(6°37′N 99°39′E) and E of Ko Tanga (6°34′N
99°27′E) (5.144).
Coastal passage off the N and E coasts of Ko Tarutao
to Selat Cincin (6°30′N 99°47′E) (5.150).
COASTAL PASSAGE − LAEM PLONG TO
KO LANTA YAI
General information
Chart 3941
Routes
5.101
1
From the vicinity of 8°02′N 98°42′E, about 4 miles SW
of Laem Plong, the route leads generally SSE for about
43 miles to a position SW of Ko Lanta Yai Light (7°28′N
99°06′E).
Directions for three routes are described:
2
W of Ko Phiphi Don (7°45′N 98°47′E), with depths
greater than 20 m (5.106).
E of Ko Phiphi Don, with depths between 15 m and
20 m (5.107).
An inshore route passing NE of Ko Dam Hok
(7°58′N 98°49′E) (5.109).
Topography
5.102
1
For Ko Yao Yai (8°00′N 98°36′E) see 5.58.
Ko Lanta Yai (7°35′N 99°04′E) and Ko Lanta Noi, close
NE of it, are separated from the S side of Ko Klang by a
narrow shallow channel, but from seaward they appear as
one island.
2
The N part of Ko Lanta Yai is mostly flat and low−lying
with several isolated hills. The S part consists of a narrow
ridge of steep hills. All the hills are thickly wooded. The
population of about 2000, live in scattered villages, the
largest of which lies on the SE side.
Caution
5.103
1
Marine farms are established between the island of Ko
Yao Yai and the mainland, see 5.4.
Tidal streams
5.104
1
See arrows on the chart for direction and rate of tidal
streams in the following positions, relative to:
Ko Phiphi Don (7°45′N 98°47′E):
10 miles WNW;
14 miles SSE;
13 miles SE;
11 miles ESE;
Ko Dam Hok (7°58′N 98°49′E)
2 miles E.
Directions
Major lights
5.105
1
Krabi Entrance Light B (8°02′N 98°54′E).
Ko Lanta Yai Light (white concrete tower, 3 m in
height) (7°28′N 99°06′E).
West of Ko Phiphi Don
5.106
1
From the vicinity of 8°04′N 98°42′E, about 2 miles W
of Laem Plong, the track leads S passing (with positions
from the N extremity of Ko Phiphi Don (7°47′⋅1N
98°45′⋅5E)):
E of Ko Ngang (16¼ miles NNW), thence:
W of Ko Samet (12 miles N), thence:
W of a dangerous wreck (9½ miles N), thence:
2
E of Hin Mu Sang Nua (10½ miles NW).(5.75),
thence:
W of Ko Yung (2 miles NNE), thence:
E of a dangerous wreck (6¾ miles W) lying 1 mile E
of Hin Mu Sang (5.74). Thence:
W of Ko Phiphi Don, and:
3
E of Ko Kai (9 miles WSW), wooded and steep−to,
except on its E side, thence:
W of Ko Phraya Nak (6 miles S), 373 m in height,
with two high islets, Ko Bida Nok and Ko Bida
Nai, 1 mile farther S.
4
The track then leads SE passing:
SW of Hin Bida (10 miles SSE), thence:
SW of Ko Ma (12 miles SE), an isolated islet, thence:
Either side of Ko Ha Yai (23 miles SSE), a group of
five outlying islands of a whitish colour, bold and
steep−to, and difficult to distinguish at night on
account of their colour, thence:
To a position SW of Ko Lanta Yai Light (5.105)
(28 miles SE) at the S extremity of Ko Lanta Yai.
(Directions continue for the coastal route S at 5.120 )
East of Ko Phiphi Don
5.107 1
From the vicinity of 8°04′N 98°42′E the track leads
generally SSE passing (with positions from Laem Hang
Nak (8°01′N 98°46′ E), the W headland of Ao Nang):
W of Ko Daeng (1 mile SW). A mooring buoy
(orange) for tourist vessels lies 8 cables NW of Ko
Daeng. Thence:
W of Ko Samet (2½ miles SW), thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (5 miles SSW).
2
The track then continues SSE, passing (with positions
from Ko Mai Phai (7°49′N 98°48′E)):
CHAPTER 5
144
WSW of Ko Ya Wa Sam (8 miles N) and Ko Khom,
2 miles farther SE, which are part of the Hmu Ko
Bada group of islands (5.109), thence:
ENE of Ko Mai Phai.
The track continues SSE to a position WSW of Hin
Kong Nok (5 miles ENE), an isolated rock.
5.108 1
The track then continues SSE, passing (with positions
from Ko Ma (7°37′N 98°52′E)):
ENE of Ko Phiphi Don (10 miles NW), thence:
ENE of Hin Klai (5½ miles NW), a shoal with a
depth of 5·1 m over it, thence:
WSW of Hin Lola (11 miles NE), a rock awash, and
WSW of Hin Ba Seng, a group of rocks awash
2 miles farther SE, thence:
2
ENE of Hin Bida (3 miles WNW), thence:
ENE of Ko Ma (5.106), thence:
ENE of Ko Ha Yai (11 miles S) (5.106).
The track continues SSE to a position SW of Ko Lanta
Yai Light (5.105) (16½ miles SE) at the S extremity of Ko
Lanta Yai.
(Directions continue for the coastal route S at 5.120)
Inshore route
5.109
1
From the vicinity of 8°03′N 98°43′ E, about 2 miles SW
of Laem Plong, the track leads SE, passing (with positions
from Ko Dam Hok (7°58′N 98°49′E) the NE island of
Hmu Ko Bada group):
2
Between Laem Hang Nak (4 miles NW), and rocks
close N of Ko Daeng, 1 mile farther SW, thence:
Clear of a shoal with a depth of 6·1 m over it
(3 miles NW), thence:
Between Ko Dam Hok and Ko Ya Man (1¼ miles
NE).
3
Thence the track leads SSE passing:
ENE of Ko Dam Khwan (1 mile S), thence:
ENE of Ko Khom (2½ miles S) and another islet
3 cables farther NNE, thence:
WSW of Hin Ruru (6 miles ESE) and other dangers
lying in the S approach to Ao Krabi. A light−buoy
(safe water) is moored 1 mile WNW of Hin Ruru.
Thence:
4
Clear of Hin Kong Nok (9 miles SSE) (5.107),
thence:
To a position WSW of the NW extremity of Ko Pu
(7°49′N 98°58′E).
Thence as for the coastal route at 5.108.
Useful marks
5.110
1
The banana−shaped rock (8°01′·0N 98°49′·7E) and
the high point on the E side of Ao Nang (5.111).
Krabi Entrance Light A (8°02′N 98°54′E).
Ko Nok Light (8°02′N 98°55′E) (5.133).
(Directions continue at 5.120)
Side channels, bays and anchorage
Ao Nang and Ao Nam Mao
5.111 1
Ao Nang (8°02′N 98°48′E) has depths of 7·9 m in the
middle. The E side of the bay is formed by a succession of
vertical limestone cliffs about 90 m high and the bay is
backed by moderately high hills.
An above−water rock, which resembles a banana in
shape and is unmistakable, lies close N of a high point,
3¼ miles E of Laem Hang Nak. Both the rock and the high
point are visible from a considerable distance.
2
Caution. A marine farm (5.4) covers a large part of Ao
Nang.
Ao Nam Mao (8°01′N 98°52′E), entered E of Laem
Nang, is a small bay on the N side of Ao Krabi.
Ao Krabi
5.112 1
Ao Krabi is a large bay entered between Laem Nang
(8°00′N 98°51′E) and the NW extremity of Ko Pu,
11 miles SSE.
A channel, with a least charted depth of 0·5 m, leads NE
passing NW of Ko Nok Light (8°02′N 98°55′E) (5.133),
thence to the common estuary of Khlong Chi Lat and Mae
Nam Krabi.
2
Krabi (8°03′N 98°55′E) is situated on the W bank of
Mae Nam Krabi, 1½ miles within the entrance, where there
is a concrete wharf, length 196 m, depth 5 m, which can
accommodate vessels up to 1000 gt. Vessels with a draught
of 4 m can reach Krabi at HW.
Laem Plong (5.79) provides a deep−water berth for
Krabi, 10 miles W of the town.
5.113 1
Khlong Taling Chan flows into the sea 3 miles SE of
the entrance to Mae Nam Krabi.
A channel between the mainland and the N side of Ko
Siboya is entered S of Laem Hin (7°56′N 98°59′E). See
5.114 for details.
Channel East of Ko Pu and Ko Siboya
5.114 1
Description. Ko Klang (7°45′N 99°05′E) close off the
mainland, is separated from the E side of Ko Pu by a
channel (7°48′N 99°01′E) with depths of 7 m in parts of
the fairway, but in its S approach there is a least charted
depth of 3·7 m.
From S, this channel leads N, thence W, along the E
and N sides of Ko Siboya (7°54′N 98°59′E) (5.113).
Dangers in the SW approach are Hin Lola (7°45′N
98°59′E) and Hin Ba Seng, 1¾ miles SE (5.108).
Anchorage
5.115 1
During the NE Monsoon anchorage may be obtained SE
of the S end of Ko Lanta Yai (7°28′N 99°06′E), in depths
from 15 to 20 m, soft mud.
KO LANTA YAI TO KO TALIBONG
General information
Charts 3941, 3942 (see 1.17)
Route
5.116 1
The route from W of the S extremity of Ko Lanta Yai
(7°28′N 99°06′E) leads SE, to pass W of Ko Talibong,
22 miles SE, in clear water outside the 20 m depth contour.
Topography
5.117 1
See 5.102 for W side of Ko Lanta Yai.
The E coasts of Ko Lanta Yai and Ko Lanta Noi are
fronted by several high wooded islands. A narrow channel
lies between these islands and the mainland.
The mainland is fronted by a number of islets and
offshore islands which extend 14 miles SE of which Ko
Talibong (7°14′N 99°24′E), at the S end, is the largest.
CHAPTER 5
145
Caution
5.118
1
Marine farms are located in the coastal waters between
Ko Lanta Yai and Ko Talibong, see 5.4.
Tidal streams
5.119 1
For direction and rates of tidal streams W, S and E of
Ko Lanta Yai, see arrows on the charts.
Directions
(continued from 5.106, 5.108 or 5.110)
Principal marks
5.120 1
Landmarks:
Ko Ngai (7°25′N 99°12′E), the most NW island of
the offshore group mentioned in 5.117.
Ko Talibong (7°14′N 99°24′E).
Major lights:
Ko Lanta Yai Light (7°28′N 99°06′E) (5.105).
Ko Bulaobot Light (7°04′N 99°24′E) (5.130).
Ko Lanta Yai and Ko Talibong
5.121 1
From a position SW of Ko Lanta Yai Light (7°28′N
99°06′E) the track leads SE, passing (with positions from
the light):
SW of Ko Ngai (7 miles SE), thence:
SW of Ko Kradan (13 miles SE), and:
2
NE of Ko Rok Nai (15 miles S) and Ko Rok Nok
(1 mile SW of Ko Rok Nai). Both islands are
wooded and steep−to. Ko Rok Nok is high and
bold at its S extremity; a waterfall exists on the E
side of this island where the water falls almost
from the summit into the sea. Thence:
SW of Hin Nok (a rock, awash), (17½ miles SE).
3
The track continues SE to a position SW of Hin
Samphao Chom (two rocks, awash) (22 miles SE) which
front Ko Talibong.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 5.130)
Side channels and anchorages
Channel and anchorage east of Ko Lanta Noi
5.122 1
Description. A narrow channel with depths from 5 to
9 m, leads between Ko Talabeng (7°38′N 99°09′E), the
high prominent island E of Ko Lanta Noi and the
sandbanks off the mainland. The channel extends as far N
as the charted anchorage.
Tidal streams in the channel E of Ko Lanta Noi set N
and S at rates from 1 to 1½ kn.
2
Anchorage may be obtained, in a depth of 8 m, 2 miles
E of the NE extremity of Ko Lanta Noi, as shown on the
chart.
Mark. Hin Bai, a rock resembling two square sails
standing out of the water, lies 5 cables SE of Ko Kam Yai
(7°35′N 99°09′E).
Anchorage east of Ko Lanta Yai
5.123 1
During the SW Monsoon shallow−draught vessels may
anchor between the E side of Ko Lanta Yai and Ko Po
(7°32′N 99°08′E), in a depth of 5 m.
Channels off the mainland
5.124 1
East of Ko Muk. A narrow channel between areas of
rocks, with a depth of 2 m, leads between Ko Muk (7°22′N
99°18′E), and the mainland. Ko Muk has a low sandy
beach on its SE side. Hin Khai Muk, a rocky shoal depth
2⋅9 m, lies 1½ miles S of the island.
North−east of Ko Talibong. The channel between Ko
Talibong (7°14′N 99°24′E) and the mainland is approached
from W over an extensive sand bar where depths are less
than 5 m. In mid−channel on the bar there is a least charted
depth of 3⋅2 m. Within the bar, channel depths vary
considerably and the E part is obstructed with sandbanks.
The deepest continuous channel through the sandbanks
passes close N and E of Ko Talibong but it is narrow and
therefore local knowledge is essential.
Anchorage south of Ko Talibong
5.125 1
During the NE Monsoon anchorage may be obtained
with the S extremity of Ko Talibong bearing 037°, distant
1½ miles, in a depth of 11 m; a rocky shoal, depth 2⋅5 m,
lies 8 cables NNW of the anchorage.
During the SW Monsoon vessels should not seek shelter
E of this point.
Local knowledge is required.
KO TALIBONG TO KO TARUTAO
General information
Chart 3942
Route
5.126 1
The route from SW of Ko Talibong (7°14′N 99°24′E)
leads SSE to a position NW of Ko Tarutao about 26 miles
SSE, in clear water outside the 20 m depth contour.
Topography
5.127 1
The coastal chain of islands, lying up to 12 miles W of
the mainland, continues in a SSE direction as far as the
islets SW of Ko Bulon Le (6°50′N 99°32′E).
The mainland coast from E of Ko Talibong to E of Ko
Khao Yai (6°50′N 99°42′E) is indented by the following
estuaries or bays:
2
Pak Nam Trang (7°16′N 99°30′E), the common
mouth of Mae Nam Trang and Khlong Palian
(5.132), and:
Pak Nam Li Phung (7°01′N 99°36′E) (5.138).
The approaches to both these estuaries are fronted by
islets, rocks and sandbanks.
Caution
5.128
1
Marine farms are located in the coastal waters between
Ko Lanta Yai and Ko Talibong, see 5.4.
Tidal streams
5.129 1
Off Ko Bulaobot (7°04′N 99°24′E), the stream is rotary,
changing direction regularly anti−clockwise at a constant
rate of less than ½ kn. See table on the chart for position
7°00′N 99°19′E.
The stream between the mainland and the offshore
islands sets towards and away from the coast at a
maximum rate of less than 1 kn. See table on the chart for
position 7°05′N 99°30′E.
CHAPTER 5
146
2
Off Ko Bulon Le (6°50′N 99°32′E) streams are similar,
but the W−going stream is stronger, with a rate over 1 kn.
See table on the chart for position 6°49′N 99°23′E.
Between Ko Bulon Le and the islets immediately S both
streams are generally weak and irregular, but at springs the
following are occasionally experienced:
E−going stream From 3 hours before until HW.
W−going stream From 2 to 5 hours after HW,
setting between NW and SW.
Maximum rate 1½ kn.
Directions
(continued from 5.121)
Principal marks
5.130 1
Landmarks:
Prominent islands in addition to those listed in 5.120
are:
Ko Liang Nua (7°07′N 99°26′E) and Ko Liang Tai
close S. Both these islands are bare and
precipitous.
Hin Changkap (7°04′N 99°27′E) steep−to with two
sharp summits.
2
Ko Phetra (7°02′N 99°29′E), the most remarkable
island in the vicinity, with a chain of peaks, 217 m
high at the N end, and 376 m high at the S end. It
is bare and precipitous, with a sandy beach on the
E side.
3
Ko Bulon Le (6°50′N 99°32′E), thickly wooded with
a flat summit.
Ko Rang Nok (6°48′N 99°32′E) thickly wooded and
conical.
Major Light:
Ko Bulaobot Light (white brick tower, 12 m in
height) (7°04′N 99°24′E).
Ko Talibong to Ko Tarutao
5.131 1
From a position SW of Hin Samphao Chom (7°11′N
99°20′E), the track leads SSE passing (with positions from
Ko Ta Bai (6°58′N 99°29′E)):
WSW of Ko Bulaobot (7¾ miles NW) a sparsely
wooded islet, on which stands a lighthouse (5.130),
thence:
WSW of Ko Tului Noi (3¾ miles NNW) and Ko
Tului Yai (3 miles NW); both are unusual steep−to
pinnacle rocks. Thence:
2
WSW of Ko Ta Bai, a prominent bare precipitous
island with a deep cleft near its summit, thence:
WSW of Ko A Yam, an islet 2 miles SW of Ko
Bulon Le (9 miles SSE). Ko A Yam is thickly
wooded and conical, with two above−water rocks
close W of it. The W rock is bare and white.
3
The track continues SSE to a position W of Laem Mara
(17 miles SE), the N extremity of Ko Tarutao.
(Directions continue for the coastal passage
W of Ko Tarutao at 5.147 and for passage
E of Ko Tarutao at 5.155)
Estuary of Mae Nam Trang and Khlong Palian
General information
5.132 1
Description. Pak Nam Trang, the common mouth
(7°16′N 99°30′E) of Mae Nam Trang and Khlong Palian,
lies in a bay obstructed with rocks and sandbanks.
The entrance is approached either N or SE of Ko
Talibong (7°14′N 99°24′E) (5.120). The deepest approach is
SE of this island.
Local knowledge is essential. River pilots for Mae Nam
Trang (leading to Khlong Trang) are obtained from a
fishing village on the W side of the river mouth.
2
Approach. The approach should only be made by
shallow−draught vessels, as follows:
The N channel (or W approach) should only be used
at HW. For details of this channel see 5.124.
The SE channel (or SW approach) (5.133) has a least
depth of 2 m.
3
Caution. Marine farms may be encountered in the
estuary approaches, see 5.4.
Tidal streams in both channels run at a rate from 1 to
2 kn. See 5.129 for general information on tidal streams.
Directions for the south−west approach
5.133 1
From the vicinity of 7°10′N 99°26′E, the track leads
generally NE through a channel marked by buoys (not
charted), passing:
SE of Ko Talibong (7°14′N 99°24′E) (5.120),
avoiding the dangerous rocks, shoal patches and a
stranded wreck in the approach, thence:
SE of Ko Nok Light (white metal framework tower,
7 m in height) (7°16′N 99°29′E), standing on the
SW end of Ko Nok, an islet.
Then, close E of Ko Nok, the channel divides into Mae
Nam Trang (5.135) and Khlong Palian (5.137).
5.134
1
Useful mark:
Ban Na Klua Nua Light (7°21′⋅5N 99°29′⋅1E) in Pak
Nam Trang.
Mae Nam Trang
5.135 1
Description. Mae Nam Trang (7°20′N 99°30′E), leading
to the town of Kantang and onward to Khlong Trang, has a
general N and S direction and extends about 30 miles
inland. It is narrow and tortuous, with depths from 1 to
7 m in places.
The channel is marked by buoys and beacons.
Depths. The river is reported to be navigable by vessels,
with draught up to 3 m, as far as Kantang, 9 miles
upstream, where there are depths from 1 to 4 m off the
town, and of 2 m draught for 4 miles above Kantang.
5.136 1
Kantang. A T−headed concrete pier, 144 m in length,
depth alongside 5 m, can accommodate vessels up to
1000 gt.
Regular sea communication exists between Kantang and
Pinang.
Kantang is connected with the main railway system in
Malaysia; it is the mainland terminus of the ferry service to
Ko Phuket.
Khlong Palian
5.137 1
Khlong Palian (7°17′N 99°31′E) flows into the sea close
E of Pak Nam Trang (5.132).
The fairway at the river entrance and for some distance
upstream is reported to have depths from 4·2 to 10⋅0 m, but
in the approach, depths are considerably less; see 5.132 for
details.
At ¾ flood, vessels of 3·5 m draught are reported able
to proceed 1½ miles upriver to a fishing village. Vessels of
2 m draught can proceed about 15 miles upriver at HW.
CHAPTER 5
147
Pak Nam Li Phung
General information
5.138 1
Approaches. Pak Nam Li Phung (7°01′N 99°36′E) is a
wide shallow estuary. It can be approached from S or SW
through the offshore islands, fronting the estuary S of Ko
Ta Bai (6°58′N 99°29′E) (5.131).
Caution. The estuary is obstructed with fishing stakes,
and marine farms may be encountered in the approaches.
See 5.4.
2
Tidal streams. Details of the streams in position 6°57′N
99°34′E, are given in a table on the chart. See also 5.129
for additional information.
Landmarks
5.139
1
Landmarks in the outer approach are listed in 5.130 and
5.131.
Directions for approach from south−west
5.140
1
From the vicinity of 6°54′N 99°30′E, the track leads NE
passing (with positions from Ko Kluai (6°58′·5N
99°35′⋅0E)):
NW of Ko Tong Ku (4¼ miles SSW), consisting of
three islets, thence:
SE of Ko Bong Kang (4½ miles WSW), thence:
SE of Hin Layiak (3½ miles W), thence:
2
NW of Ko Kluai, wooded with a flat top, thence:
SE of dangers extending up to 2 miles SE from Ko
Daeng Yai (4 miles NW) and from Ko Daeng Noi,
5 cables farther E, thence:
Close SE of SE extremity of Ko Sukon (7½ miles N),
wooded. There are some villages on Ko Sukon,
which is the only inhabited island on this part of
the coast.
Directions for approach from south
5.141 1
From the vicinity of 6°47′N 99°35′E the track leads N,
passing (with positions from Ko Lama (6°54′N 99°34′E)):
W of Ko Bulon Mai Phai (4 miles SSE), with a
well−defined wooded summit, thence:
E of a rocky shoal with a depth of 3⋅6 m over it
lying 6 cables E of Ko Bulon Le (4¼ miles SSW)
(5.130), thence:
2
W of Ko Don (2¾ miles SSE), with a well−defined
wooded summit, thence:
W of Ko Lama, bare and precipitous, with a rocky
shoal (2·1 m) 4 cables NE of it, thence:
E of Ko Tong Ku (2 miles NW) (5.140), thence:
W of Ko Kluai (5 miles N) and continuing as for
5.140.
Useful marks
5.142 1
Yongsata Light (white metal framework tower, 18 m
in height) (7°07′N 99°40′E), standing on Laem
Yongsata, on the N side of the inner part of Pak
Nam Li Phung.
Ko Taban (7°05′N 99°42′E), 2½ miles SE of
Yongsata Light, is a remarkable limestone islet,
with sheer sides and a flat top. There are three
other similar, but smaller, islets in the vicinity.
Side channels
5.143 1
A wooden pier, used by small vessels at HW, is situated
near a village 2 miles ENE of Yongsata Light (5.142). The
approach channel is shallow and narrow.
A channel, lying in a N direction W of Yongsata Light,
leads to Khlong Suso (7°11′N 99°40′E).
2
Khlong Suso is also approached N of Ko Sukon (5.140)
via Ta Se Channel, marked by light buoys (lateral), and
entered passing a light−buoy (safe water) (7°07′⋅7N
99°32′⋅8E).
WEST COAST OF KO TARUTAO AND
EAST OF KO TANGA
General information
Charts 3942, 3943
Route
5.144 1
The route W of Ko Tarutao (6°37′N 99°39′E) leads SSE
passing E of Ko Tanga (6°34′N 99°27′E).
Topography
5.145 1
Ko Tarutao, 14 miles in length, is densely wooded and
hilly, reaching an elevation of 707 m in the S part.
Two sandy beaches, separated by a steep rocky point,
are situated between Laem Mara, the N extremity of the
island, and West Point (8 miles SSW).
2
From West Point to the S extremity of the island at
Pyramid Point, the coast is mostly steep and rocky.
The only permanent village is on the E side of the
island.
Tidal streams
5.146 1
The streams between Ko Tarutao and Butang Group
(6°32′N 99°15′E) are irregular and much influenced by the
wind; the greatest observed rate off the W coast of Ko
Tarutao is 1 kn.
Directions
(continued from 5.131)
5.147 1
From a position about 10 miles W of Laem Mara
(6°44′N 99°39′E), the N extremity of Ko Tarutao, the track
leads SSE, passing (with positions from Pyramid Point
(6°30′N 99°40′E)):
WSW of Hin Takon Po (11 miles NW), thence:
2
ENE of Ko Chuku (12 miles WNW). See 5.149 for
channel between Ko Chuku and Ko Tanga, close
W, and 5.13 for passage W of Ko Tanga. Thence:
WSW of shoal water extending 5½ miles NW of
Pyramid Point.
The track continues SSE to a position WSW of Pyramid
Point.
5.148 1
Useful marks:
Ko Bulon Le (6°50′N 99°32′E) (5.130)
Ko Tanga (6°34′N 99°27′E) (5.13).
Ko Tanga Light (5.13).
Tanjung Cincin Light (6°26′N 99°39′E).
(Directions continue for the route off the
W coast of Langkawi Group at 5.170
and for Selat Cincin at 5.180)
CHAPTER 5
148
Side channel
5.149 1
The channel between Ko Chuku (6°34′N 99°28′E) and
Ko Tanga, 7 cables W, is free of dangers but marked by
tide−rips.
NORTH AND EAST COASTS OF KO
TARUTAO TO SELAT CINCIN
General information
Chart 3942
Route
5.150 1
From a position about 10 miles W of Laem Mara
(6°44′N 99°39′E), the N extremity of Ko Tarutao, the route
leads E, passing N of Laem Mara; thence SE between Ko
Tarutao and Ko Lela, 2 miles NE; thence S, passing close
E of Ko Tarutao and into Selat Cincin in the vicinity of
6°30′N 99°44′E.
Topography
5.151 1
For a general description of Ko Tarutao, see 5.145.
The E coast of Ko Tarutao is rocky and steep−to, with
several precipitous islets close offshore, but off Talo Wao
(6°37′N 99°42′E) (5.161), the approach is shallower, and
the beach is composed of mud and stones which dry.
Several small islands lie off the SE side of the island.
2
On the mainland, NE of Ko Khao Yai (6°50′N 99°42′E)
(5.155), there are a number of steep hills of moderate
elevation. Two hilly points are situated 4 miles E of the
island. Thereafter, for the 18 miles SE, the coast is low and
consists mostly of mangrove swamps, through which many
rivulets flow into the sea. The entrances to these are much
obstructed by shifting bars of sand.
Depths
5.152
1
Passage E of Ko Tarutao is constrained by shoal water
off the mainland coast. A deep channel leads close to the
islets lying off the E coast of Ko Tarutao, in depths of not
less than 8 m.
Caution
5.153
1
Marine farms may be encountered in the waters around
Ko Tarutao as indicated on the chart. See 5.4.
Tidal streams
5.154 1
Between 2 and 3 miles N of Ko Tarutao the streams set:
Interval from HW Pinang Remarks
– 0400 to HW Between NE and SE
+ 0200 to + 0500 Between NW and SW.
Maximum rate is 1½ kn.
2
Between Ko Tarutao and the mainland the streams set:
Interval from HW Pinang Remarks
+ 0100 to – 0600 NW−going
– 0500 to HW SE−going
3
The spring rate does not normally exceed ¾ kn, except
between Ko Lela (6°44′N 99°42′E) and Ko Tarutao, where
it may exceed 1 kn.
For details of the streams in position 6°45′N 99°44′E,
see table on chart 3942.
Directions
(continued from 5.131)
Principal marks
5.155 1
Islands on the mainland side are:
Ko Khao Yai (6°50′N 99°42′E), densely wooded with
prominent hills.
Ko Ridi (6°47′N 99°47′E), densely wooded.
Ko Yaratot Yai (6°40′N 99°51′E), on which the trees
are conspicuous.
2
Ko Lela (6°44′N 99°42′E), an isolated island near the
middle of the channel. Ko Lela Light (white metal
framework tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from
the summit of the island.
Ko Koi Yai (6°34′N 99°51′E).
5.156 1
Islands off the E and SE coasts of Ko Tarutao are:
Ko Sing (6°33′N 99°43′E).
Ko Belitung Besa (6°31′N 99°42′E), with a
remarkable spire−shaped peak.
Ko Rang Nok to Ko Lela
5.157 1
From a position about 10 miles W of Laem Mara
(6°44′N 99°39′E) the N extremity of Ko Tarutao, the track
leads E, passing (with positions from Laem Mara):
S of Ko A Yam (9 miles WNW) (5.131), thence:
S of Ko Rang Nok (8 miles WNW) (5.130), and an
extensive area of marine farming (5.153) extending
up to 6½ miles E of Ko Rang Nok, thence:
N of Laem Mara.
2
The track then alters SE, passing:
SW of Ko Bulan (5 miles NNE), which lies close SW
of Ko Khao Yai (5.155), thence:
SW of a reef (6 miles ENE), on which stands Ko
Tama, an islet 38 m high.
The track continues SE to a position SW of Ko Lela
(3½ miles E) (5.155). Marine farms are situated NW and
NE of Ko Lela, the extent of which is best seen on the
chart.
Ko Lela to Selat Cincin
5.158 1
From a position SW of Ko Lela, the deep−water route
leads S, close E of the islets off the E side of Ko Tarutao,
passing (with positions from Ko Kaman (6°35′N 99°43′E)):
W of Ko Raet Yai (46 m high) (10 miles NE), the
highest of a group of wooded islets off the
entrance to Khlong Thung Rin, thence:
2
Between Ko Pulao Na (3¾ miles NNW) and the
coastal bank 3 miles E, thence:
Between Ko Klang (2¾ miles NW) and a shoal area
with a least depth of 3·4 m over it, 2½ miles E,
thence:
E of Ko Kolo (2 miles NW).
3
Thence the channel continues S keeping 7 cables
offshore, passing:
W of Ko Kaman, thence:
E of Ko Sing (2¼ miles SSW), thence:
E of Ko Belitung Besa (4 miles SSW) (5.156),
thence:
E of Hin Bai (5 miles SSW), which is square and
resembles a sail, and into Selat Cincin.
Useful marks
5.159 1
Ko Koi Noi (6°35′N 99°50′E).
Ko Panan (6°31′N 99°42′E).
CHAPTER 5
149
Tanyong Po Light (white framework tower, 15 m in
height) (6°37′N 99°57′E).
(Directions for Selat Cincin are given at 5.180)
Side channel and anchorages
Channel east of Ko Khao Yai
5.160 1
Description. A channel, 1½ cables wide, leads NW
between Ko Khao Yai (6°50′N 99°42′E) (5.155) and the
mainland.
A beacon marks both the E side of the channel and also
the entrance to the creek leading NE to the trading village
of Ban Pak Bara (6°51′N 99°44′E).
Talo Wao
5.161 1
Description. Talo Wao is entered between:
Ko Pulau Na (6°38′N 99°42′E) and Ko Klang, lying
1½ miles S.
The bay is exposed to the NE Monsoon, which blows
strongly into it. Petok Wau, a village, stands within the
mouth of a creek abreast Ko Klang. Fishing stakes are
situated in various parts of the bay.
2
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained from 1 to
2 cables NW of the N extremity of Ko Klang in depths of
5·5 m.
Directions. The anchorage should be approached with a
prominent rock, 59 m in height, with some white patches
on its seaward side, (4 cables W of the N extremity of Ko
Klang), on a line of bearing 250°, and anchoring when the
N extremity of Ko Klang bears 130°.
Alternatively, from the above position, steer for the W
extremity of Ko Klang and anchor in a depth of 5 m.
Charts 3942, 3943
Ko Belitung Besa
5.162 1
There is charted anchorage 8 cables NE of Ko Belitung
Besa (6°31′N 99°42′E) (5.156), in a depth of about 9 m.
COASTAL PASSAGES AROUND AND WITHIN LANGKAWI GROUP
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3943, 3485, MAL 5631
Routes around Langkawi Group
5.163 1
The following four routes are described in this section:
Coastal passage off W coast of Langkawi Group
(5.168).
Passage through Selat Cincin off North Coast of
Langkawi Group (5.175).
Coastal passage off E coast of Langkawi Group
(5.191).
Coastal passage off S coast of Langkawi Group
(5.204).
Routes within Langkawi Group
5.164 1
Pelabuhan Langkawi (5.209):
SW approach (5.212).
SE approach (5.219).
Description
5.165 1
The Langkawi Group of islands lying about 15 miles W
of the coasts of Thailand and Malaysia, comprise Pulau
Langkawi (6°23′N 99°48′E) (5.166), which is by far the
largest island, and a number of other islands which are
situated mainly S of Pulau Langkawi.
The strait between Pulau Langkawi and the islands S
provides the anchorage of Pelabuhan Langkawi (6°18′N
99°50′E) (5.209), which can be approached from both SW
and SE.
2
Langkawi Group forms part of the State of Kedah. Kuah
(6°19′N 99°51′E) (5.209) is the principal and only town.
There are several villages on Pulau Langkawi.
Topography
5.166 1
Pulau Langkawi is mountainous, formed and flanked by
towering masses of limestone and densely wooded. The
valleys and plains are well cultivated.
Highest mountains are:
Gunung Raya (6°22′N 99°49′E), the summit of Pulau
Langkawi, may be identified from W by its three
peaks, which are frequently obscured by clouds.
2
Gunung Machinchang (6°24′N 99°40′E), rising
abruptly from the W coast, is a remarkably bold
and precipitous range of mountains. The highest
point is the SW summit, 706 m high.
Port Limits
5.167 1
All ports in the Langkawi Group of islands are enclosed
within the limits as shown on chart 3943.
WEST COAST OF LANGKAWI GROUP
General information
Charts 3943, 3485, MAL 5631
Route
5.168 1
The route from a position NW of Tanjung Cincin
(6°26′N 99°38′E) leads SSE for a distance of about
25 miles, in deep water outside the 20 m depth contour and
within the offshore route described in 5.5.
Topography
5.169 1
For a general description of Pulau Langkawi, see 5.166.
The W coast of Pulau Langkawi from Tanjung Cincin to
Tanjung Belua, 4½ miles S, is rocky and steep−to, with a
few sandy beaches, backed by precipitous hills covered
with jungle.
2
The bay SE of Tanjung Belua to Pulau Rebak Besar
(6°18′N 99°42′E) is backed by low lying land and small
hills. The interior flat country is extensively cultivated, and
there are coconuts grown on the lower slopes.
The islands S of Tanjung Sawa (6°16′N 99°44′E) are
densely wooded and for the greater part have bold rocky,
steep−to coastlines on their W sides.
CHAPTER 5
150
Directions
(continued from 5.148)
Principal marks
5.170 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Raya (6°22′N 99°49′E) (5.166).
Gunung Machincang (6°24′N 99°40′E) (5.166).
Major light:
Pulau Jerkom Besar Light (6°15′⋅4N 99°46′⋅2E)
(5.214).
West of Pulau Langkawi
5.171 1
From a position WNW of Tanjung Cincin Light (6°26′N
99°39′E) the track leads SSE between the offshore route
(5.5) and the coast, passing (with positions from the light):
WSW of Tanjung Cincin, thence:
2
WSW of Tanjung Belua (4½ miles S); a small pier,
2½ cables E, extends SSE from the coast, and
Pulau Borau (5.173) 6 cables farther E, thence:
WSW of Pulau Rebak Besar (9 miles SSE), which is
flat topped, densely wooded and from where a
light (beacon) is exhibited, thence:
3
WSW of Pulau Beras Basah (13 miles SSE), with a
well−defined summit, thence:
WSW of Pulau Singa Besar (15 miles SSE); the
island is hilly and covered with dense jungle. A
light is exhibited from the SE side of the island
(5.218).
4
The track continues SSE to a position SW of Tanjung
Genting, the S extremity of Pulau Singa Besar.
The track then leads SE across open water to a position
N or NW of Muka Head (5°28′N 100°11′E).
(Directions continue for the route W of
Pulau Pinang at 5.333, and for the N approach to
Pinang Harbour at 5.263, and for the S coast of the
Langkawi Group are given at 5.207)
Side channels
5.172 1
For channels in the SW approach to Pelabuhan
Langkawi, on each side of Pulau Singa Besar (6°12′N
99°44′E), see 5.212.
Anchorage and harbour
Telaga
5.173
1
Telaga Harbour Marina (6°22′⋅0N 99°41′⋅0E) is entered
through a channel which lies at the NE end of a bay which
is approached from S between Pulau Borau (6°21′⋅5N
90°40′⋅3E), an island (46 m in height) lying close offshore,
and a point on the E entrance, 8 cables E.
Two breakwaters lie E/W inside the bay with the
entrance channel, depth 3⋅5 m (2004), leading NNE
between the E breakwater and the shore.
2
Useful mark. Tower (6°21′⋅8N 99°41′⋅0E), 30 m in
height on W side of entrance channel.
Anchorage
5.174 1
There is good anchorage for small coasters in the bay
(5.169) SE of Tanjung Belua off Kuala Melaka (6°21′N
99°43′E), during the NE Monsoon. The E of the bay is
protected by four sections of breakwater extending N from
SW end of the airport. Several small villages and hotels
stand in the vicinity.
PASSAGE THROUGH SELAT CINCIN OFF
THE NORTH COAST OF LANGKAWI
GROUP
General information
Charts 3943, 3942, MAL 5631
General description
5.175 1
Selat Cincin (6°30′N 99°45′E) is the channel 4 miles
wide between the S end of Ko Tarutao and the N coast of
Pulau Langkawi. The channel trends SE around the NE
side of Pulau Langkawi and is bounded on the NE side by
the coastal bank off the coast of Thailand.
Topography
5.176 1
For a general description of Ko Tarutao see 5.145 and
of Pulau Langkawi see 5.166.
The N coast of Pulau Langkawi, E of Tanjung Cincin
(6°26′N 99°38′E) to Teluk Toma, 3½ miles E, is rocky with
a few sandy beaches: there are no villages.
Thence to Tanjung Kemarong (6°29′N 99°50′E), the
high N point, there are several islands, including Pulau
Dangli (5.180), in the bight between.
Depths
5.177
1
Depths in Selat Cincin are regular, shoaling gradually
ENE and towards each side, with depths of over 16 m in
the fairway.
Hazards
5.178 1
Fishing stakes, which are moved frequently, are found
all along the N coast of Pulau Langkawi; these are
generally close inshore, but sometimes extend into depths
of 18 m.
Marine farms are likely to exist on the N side of Selat
Cincin, see 5.4.
Tidal streams
5.179 1
Tidal streams in Selat Cincin are irregular and much
influenced by the wind. During the NE monsoon rates up
to 2 kn setting WSW have been experienced.
Under calm conditions the in−going stream sets:
Interval from HW Pinang Remarks
– 0550 to – 0150 E−going
However, with NE wind, and for several days thereafter,
there may be no E set, but merely a slackening of the
W−going stream.
Directions
(continued from 5.148)
Principal marks
5.180 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Raya (6°22′N 99°49′E) (5.166).
Gunung Machincang (6°24′N 99°40′E (5.166).
Major lights:
Pulau Dangli Light (6°26′⋅9N 99°46′⋅7E).
Ko Yao Light (6°28′N 100°04′E) (5.195).
CHAPTER 5
151
North of Pulau Langkawi
5.181 1
From a position WNW of Tanjung Cincin Light (6°26′N
99°39′E) the track leads E, passing (with positions from the
light):
N of Tanjung Cincin, thence:
S of Pyramid Point (4 miles N), the S extremity of
Ko Tarutao, thence:
2
S of Hin Bai (5 miles NE) (5.158), thence:
N of Pulau Dangli (8 miles E), 94 m in height, from
the N end of where a light is exhibited. A
light−buoy (safe water) is moored 1½ miles WNW
of the light. Thence:
3
N of Tanjung Kemarong (11 miles ENE), the N
extremity of Pulau Langkawi, thence:
To a position S of C Buoy (white pillar) (15 miles
ENE) which also marks the approximate boundary
between Thailand and Malaysia.
5.182 1
Useful marks off W coast of Thailand are:
Ko Koi Yai (6°34′N 99°51′E).
Tanyong Po (6°35′N 99°57′E); a light (5.159) is
exhibited 2 miles N of the point.
Ko Tika Yai (6°33′N 99°57′E) the most N and
highest of two islets.
(Directions continue for the channel
E of Pulau Langkawi at 5.195.
Directions for Teluk Ewa are given at 5.188)
Anchorages
5.183 1
General information. There is good holding ground,
mud, throughout Selat Cincin, but there is no shelter except
from S winds. An unpleasant sea is often experienced,
especially during the NE Monsoon.
Tanjung Kemarong. A charted anchorage exists
1½ miles SW of Tanjung Kemarong (6°29′N 99°50′E), in a
depth of 11 m, mud, good holding ground.
5.184 1
Teluk Datai. Sheltered anchorage exists in the middle of
Teluk Datai (6°26′N 99°40′E), in depths of 5 m, mud. The
bay is free of dangers and is backed by a sandy beach.
Teluk Ewa
General information
5.185 1
Position. Teluk Ewa (6°26′N 99°46′E) is situated E of
Tanjung Pesak Seluar.
Function. Langkawi Port at Teluk Ewa is designed to
handle imports of petroleum products, coal and general
cargoes. The major exports are bulk and clinker cement.
2
Port limits cover the whole of the Langkawi Group of
islands, as shown on the chart.
Traffic. In 2005, 288 vessels totalling 2 711 109 dwt
used the port.
Port Authority. Teluk Ewa Port Authority, 07000
Langkawi, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.
Limiting conditions
5.186
1
Deepest and longest berth. Deepest is the bulk cargo
berth; longest is the coaster berth (5.189).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2·5 m; mean neap
range about 0·7 m. For further information see the
Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3.
Maximum size of vessel handled is about 16 000 dwt.
Arrival information
5.187
1
Notice of ETA should be sent 10, 5, 3, 2 and 1 day
before arrival via the vessel’s agents.
Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained in
designated anchorages, with limits as shown on the chart,
as follows (with positions from Pulau Dangli Light
(6°26′⋅9N 99°46′⋅7E):
Name Position Remarks
General Purpose 6 cables W Depths 8 to 10 m
Dangerous Goods
1¾ miles W
Depths 10 to 11 m
Anchorage may also be obtained 2¼ miles NE of the
light.
2
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hrs; boarding
position is close N of the fairway light−buoy (safe water)
1½ miles WNW of the light, for details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs are not available.
Piracy and armed robbery have occurred off Pulau
Langkawi, see 5.3.
Directions
5.188
1
Approach and entry. From the vicinity of the fairway
light−buoy (safe−water), 1½ miles WNW of Pulau Dangli
Light (6°26′⋅9N 99°46′⋅7E), the track leads S between the
anchorage areas (5.187) towards the berths, passing W of
No 1 light−buoy (port hand) (1½ miles WSW). A 2⋅5 m
patch lies 1 cable NW of the W end of the main jetty.
Berths
5.189
1
The port comprises two jetties. A T−shaped jetty extends
about 680 m NNW from the shore providing two dry bulk
cargo berths on its outer face, each 144 m in length with a
depth alongside of 9 m. A general cargo berth and a tanker
berth are on the inner side of the jetty; each is 124 m in
length with a depth of 8 m alongside. A coastal berth
150 m in length, with a depth of 3 m, is at the root of the
main jetty. Petronas tanker T−shaped jetty, extending
6½ cables NNW from the shore, lies 3 cables WNW of the
main jetty.
Port services
5.190
1
Repairs are not undertaken.
Other facilities: deratting exemption certificates only;
medical facilities available; no oily waste disposal facilities.
Supplies: fresh water, limited provisions and stores.
Communications: Langkawi International Airport,
18 km distant.
CHANNEL EAST OF LANGKAWI GROUP
General information
Charts 3943, 3485
General description
5.191 1
The channel between the islands of Langkawi Group and
the mainland coast of Thailand and Malaysia, is the
continuation SE of Selat Cincin (5.175). The channel is
deep on its SW side, where the fairway is about 2 miles
wide.
Selat Kuah (6°17′N 99°51′E) provides the SE approach
to Pelabuhan Langkawi (5.209).
CHAPTER 5
152
Topography
5.192 1
The E coast of Pulau Langkawi is rocky, but there are a
few sandy beaches.
The coast of Thailand and Malaysia S of Pak Nam
Satun (6°30′N 100°05′E) (5.199) is low, but backed by a
few hills from 1 to 4 miles inland.
Border. The Thai/Malaysian border lies 5 miles S of Pak
Nam Satun in approximate latitude 6°25′N.
Caution
5.193 1
Fishing stakes are frequently found SE of Langkawi
Group, usually in depths from 9 to 11 m.
Tidal streams
5.194 1
See 5.179 for Selat Cincin.
See table on charts for position 6°10′·7N 99°53′⋅0E.
Directions
(continued from 5.182)
Principal marks
5.195 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Machincang (6°24′N 99°40′E) (5.166).
Gunung Raya (6°22′N 99°49′E) (5.166).
Pulau Timun (6°19′N 99°55′E); the summit is
prominent from S.
Major lights:
2
Ko Yao Light (white masonry tower, 12 m in height)
(6°28′N 100°04′E) exhibited from the summit of
the island.
Pulau Sigal Light (white daymark on metal pipe)
(6°20′N 99°56′E), exhibited at the N extremity of
Pulau Timun.
Pulau Enggang Light (red metal framework tower,
white bands, concrete base, 11 m in height)
(6°14′⋅6N 99°52′⋅6N) .
East of Pulau Langkawi
5.196 1
From a position S of C Buoy (6°32′N 99°53′E), the
track leads SE in deep water passing (with positions from
Tanjung Dagu (6°24′N 99°55′E)):
NE of Tanjung Langgun (3½ miles NNW), thence:
NE of Pulau Tanjung Dendang (1 mile N), thence:
SW of B Buoy (red pillar) (5½ miles ENE), which
marks the edge of the coastal bank and also marks
the approximate boundary between Thailand and
Malaysia, thence:
2
SW of a dangerous wreck (mast) (4½ miles E),
thence:
NE of Pulau Chorong, 151 m high, (5¼ miles SSE),
the most E island of Langkawi Group.
The track continues SE to a position E of Pulau
Enggang (9½ miles SSW) from where a light (5.195) is
exhibited.
Caution. A dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies
about 8 miles ESE of Pulau Enggang.
5.197 1
Useful marks:
Bukit Wai (6°26′N 100°08′E), N of the entrance to
Kuala Perlis.
Kuala Perlis Light (6°24′N 100°06′E) (5.201).
Kuala Sungai Baharu Light (6°20′N 100°10′E)
(5.203).
Sungai Sanglang Light (white column on piles)
(6°14′⋅9N 100°11′⋅5).
(Directions continue for the coastal route S at 5.232)
Side channels off east coast of Langkawi
Group
5.198 1
There is a narrow channel between the NE coast of
Pulau Langkawi and the two islands of Pulau Langgun
(6°26′N 99°54′E) and Pulau Tanjung Dendang, close SE.
Caution. A dangerous wreck lies in position 6°28′·5N
99°51′E, close to the N entrance of this channel.
Selat Panchor, which leads W into Selat Penarak, is a
narrow channelseparating Pulau Timun (6°19′N 99°55′E)
(5.195) from Pulau Langkawi. It has a least charted depth
of 4 m and is 1½ cables wide at its narrowest point. A
patch which dries 0⋅6 m lies in the E entrance, 2 cables off
the N shore.
For Selat Kuah (6°17′N 99°51′E), see 5.219.
Rivers and bay on east coast
Charts 3942, 3943
Pak Nam Satun
5.199 1
General information. Pak Nam Satun (6°30′N
100°05′E) is entered between the S end of Ko Tammalang
and Laem Puyu, 1¾ miles SE.
The bay is well sheltered by Ko Yao (5.195) and other
islets during the SW monsoon.
2
A light (white metal framework tower, 15 m in height)
stands on Laem Puyu (6°30′N 100°05′E).
The river within Pak Nam Satun has not been surveyed,
but is reported to have a depth of 2 m as far as Satun
town, about 10 miles above the entrance; above the town
the river is shallow.
Communication. There is regular sea communication
with Pinang.
Kuala Perlis
5.200 1
General information. Kuala Perlis (6°24′N 100°08′E)
stands at the entrance to Sungai Perlis and is a ferry
terminal. The river is narrow and tortuous, but small craft
of 1·8 m draught can reach Kangar, the capital of the State
of Perlis, about 5 miles from the river entrance. Craft
drawing 1 m can proceed upriver a farther 3 miles.
Port limits extend 1 mile offshore as shown on the
chart.
5.201 1
Directions: The approach to Kuala Perlis is marked by
Kuala Perlis Light (white beacon) (6°24′N 100°06′E) and a
buoyed channel extending seaward 4 miles WSW from the
river mouth.
5.202 1
Anchorage may be obtained in mid−river E of two islets
in a depth of 5·5 m off Customs Jetty, but care is necessary
at the start of the in−going tide to ensure that the stern
does not touch the mudbanks on each side, as the vessel
swings.
Kuala Baharu
5.203 1
The entrance to the river is marked by Kuala Sungai
Baharu Light (white square concrete tower, 8 m in height)
(6°20′N 100°09′E); the light is used by fishermen.
CHAPTER 5
153
SOUTH COAST OF LANGKAWI GROUP
General information
Charts 3485, 3943
Route
5.204 1
The coastal passage leads ENE off the islands forming
the S side of Langkawi Group.
Topography
5.205 1
Three principal islands form the S part of Langkawi
Group:
Pulau Singa Besar (6°12′N 99°44′E) (5.171).
Pulau Dayang Bunting (6°14′N 99°48′E), with many
high, rugged limestone peaks, the highest part is
nearest the SW end, where there is a flat−topped
ridge.
2
Pulau Tuba (6°15′N 99°51′E), densely wooded.
The S and SE sides of these islands are fringed by a
number of islets of similar character, precipitous and
densely wooded.
Marine park
5.206
1
Payar Marine Park has been established around Pulau
Paya (6°03′⋅8N 100°02′⋅5E), Pulau Kacha and Pulau
Lembu, 4 and 7½ cables ENE, and around Pulau
Segantang, 7 miles WSW, within which fishing is
prohibited.
Directions
Principal marks
5.207 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Machincang (6°24′N 99°40′E) (5.166).
Gunung Raya (6°22′N 99°49′E) (5.166).
Pulau Timun (6°19′N 99°55′E) (5.195).
Major light:
Pulau Jerkom Besar Light (6°15′⋅4N 99°46′⋅2E)
(5.214).
Pulau Enggang Light (6°14′⋅6N 99°52′⋅6N) (5.195).
South of Pulau Langkawi
5.208 1
From a position SW of Tanjung Genting (6°10′⋅7N
99°43′⋅5W) the track leads ENE passing (with positions
from Tanjung Genting):
NNW of a dangerous wreck (15½ miles SSE), thence:
SSE of Pulau Cupu (Pulau Chupak) (5 cables SE),
thence:
2
SSE of Pulau Balar (4½ miles ESE), 88 m in height,
thence:
SSE of Pulau Ujong Buloh (5½ miles ESE), thence:
SSE of Pulau Lima (7 miles E), 52 m in height,
thence:
SSE of Tanjung Rami (8 miles ENE), and:
3
NNW of the marine park (14 miles SE) (5.206) which
surrounds Pulau Segantang, two rocky steep−to
islets, thence:
SSE of Pulau Enggang (10 miles ENE) from where a
light (5.195) is exhibited.
4
The track continues ENE to a position N of the marine
park (20 miles ESE) (5.206) which surrounds Pulau Paya
(5.232), Pulau Kacha (5.233) and Pulau Lembu (5.232).
Caution. A dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies
about 9 miles N of Pulau Paya in position 6°13′N
100°01′E.
(Directions continue for the coastal route S at 5.232
and for the passage E of Langkawi Group
are given at 5.196)
PELABUHAN LANGKAWI AND
APPROACHES
General information
Charts 3485, 3943
5.209
1
Position. Pelabuhan Langkawi harbour (formerly known
as Pelabuhan Bass) (6°18′N 99°50′E) is situated between
the main island of Langkawi Group, Pulau Langkawi, and
the smaller island of Pulau Dayang Bunting close S.
2
Function. Pelabuhan Langkawi is part of the port of
Teluk Ewa (5.185) can provide good anchorage and
complete protection to a large number of vessels of
moderate draught, over a bottom of soft mud, with good
holding ground. An increasing number of cruise vessels use
the general purpose anchorage and cruise terminal at
Tanjung Malai. It is also a busy ferry port..
3
Pelabuhan Kuah (6°18′N 99°51′E) on the E side of the
harbour is a small port and is the residence of the District
Officer. The principal exports are rubber, copra, rice and
salted fish.
Topography. See 5.166 and 5.205.
Port limits. See 5.167.
Approach can be made from:
SW through two major and two minor channels
which lead on either side of Pulau Singa Besar
(6°12′N 99°44′E) (5.212), or:
SE through Selat Kuah (6°17′N 99°51′E) (5.219).
Limiting conditions
5.210 1
Least charted depths are:
SW approach 4⋅3 m
SE approach 3.0 m
Deepest and longest berth is the cruise jetty (5.225) at
Tanjung Malai near Tanjung Sawa, the SW extremity of
Pulau Langkawi.
Harbour
5.211
1
General layout. Alongside berths are at the Cruise
Terminal (5.225) at the entrance to the SW approach.
Pelabuhan Kuah, at the E end of Pelabuhan Langkawi, has
alongside berths for small craft (5.227) and several
designated anchorages (5.226).
Quarantine anchorage lies in the SW entrance at
6°15′⋅0N 99°43′⋅8E in depths of about 22 m.
2
Tidal stream. In Pelabuhan Langkawi the stream sets as
follows:
Interval from HW Pinang Remarks
– 0500 to HW Streams set E and S
through Selat Kuah
+ 0100 to – 0600 Streams set W and N
through Selat Kuah.
The rate does not exceed 1 kn at springs, and at neaps is
weak and irregular.
Details of the streams in position 6°18′·2N 99°50′·5E are
shown in a table on the chart.
CHAPTER 5
154
South−western approach to Pelabuhan
Langkawi
Routes
5.212 1
Main channels. There are two main channels leading to
the SW approach to Pelabuhan Langkawi as follows:
The W channel (6°15′N 99°43′E) leading between
Tanjung Sawa and Pulau Intan Besar (1 mile SSW)
(5.215).
The S channel, through Selat Dayang Bunting (Tyson
Strait), leading E of Pulau Singa Besar (6°12′N
99°44′E) (5.218).
These two channels join NE of Pulau Singa Besar.
5.213 1
Minor channels lead N and E of Pulau Beras Besah
(6°14′N 99°43′E) and lead to the SW inner approach,
through:
Selat Simpang Tiga (6°13′N 99°43′E) (5.217), and:.
Teluk Tok Kaya Alang, a channel 2½ cables wide
between Pulau Beras Besah and Pulau Intan Besar,
4 cables N. There is a least charted depth of
12·2 m in this channel.
Directions
5.214 1
Major light:
Pulau Jerkom Besar Light (white GRP tower)
(6°15′⋅4N 99°46′⋅2E).
5.215 1
West channel. From a position WNW of Tanjung Sawa
(6°16′N 99°44′E) the track leads ESE, passing (with
positions from Tanjung Sawa):
2
SSW of Pulau Rebak Besar (3 miles NW) from where
a light is exhibited (5.171), thence:
SSW of Pulau Tepor (8 cables NW), thence:
Between Tanjung Sawa and Pulau Intan Besar (1 mile
SSW), thence:
3
SSW of the Cruise Terminal jetty at Tanjung Malai
(3 cables ESE) (5.225), thence:
SSW of a 9⋅6 m shoal patch (7½ cables SE); the
deeper water lies S of the shoal, thence:
SSW of Pulau Selang (1 mile ESE), an islet, thence:
Between a buoy (isolated danger) (1¼ miles SE)
moored on the N side of a 2 m shoal, and a reef
(1¼ miles ESE) which dries 0·4 m.
4
Then, when on the alignment (230°) astern, of the NW
extremity of Pulau Singa Besar (6°13′N 99°44′E) with the
SE extremity of Pulau Beras Basah, 1 mile W, the track
leads NE, passing (with positions from Pulau Jerkom Kecil
(6°16′N 99°47′E)):
SE of three shoal patches, least depth 4·3 m, (1 to
1½ miles WSW) lying in the fairway, thence:
5
NW of Pulau Jerkom Besar (8 cables SW), from
where a light is exhibited (5.214).
Caution. The track passes through the quarantine
anchorage (5.211).
5.216 1
The track continues NE on the NW side of the channel
about 5 cables from the S side of Pulau Langkawi, passing
(with positions from Pulau Jerkom Kecil (6°16′N
99°47′E)):
NW of Pulau Jerkom Kecil, 43 m in height, and
several rocks up to 16 m high close N, thence:
NW of a 4·8 m patch (3 cables NE), thence:
2
SE of Pulau Ipoh (1½ miles NNE), a inlet close to
the N shore, and:
NW of the extensive coastal bank (2 miles NE) with
depths less than 5 m.
When Pulau Bumbon Besar Light (6°17′⋅4N 99°51′⋅7E)
(5.223) is open clear of Tanjung Tirai (5.223), 1¼ miles
WNW, the track leads E to the anchorages (5.226) off
Kuah.
5.217 1
Selat Simpang Tiga. From a position SSW of Pulau
Beras Basah (6°13′N 99°43′E) the track leads NNE,
passing:
Between Pulau Beras Basah and the W extremity of
Pulau Singa Besar (5 cables SSE), thence:
Between Pulau Intan Besar (1 mile NNE) and the 2 m
shoal (5.215), 1 mile farther E, thence:
As for the main W channel (5.215).
2
Clearing bearing. The E extremity of Pulau Ular
(6°15′·5N 99°44′·6E), 110 m in height, bearing less than
028°, clears the bank extending from the SE side of Pulau
Beras Basah.
5.218 1
Selat Dayang Bunting (Tyson Strait). From a position
S of Pulau Cupu (6°10′N 99°44′E) the track leads NNE
passing (with positions from Pulau Singa Besar Light
(6°12′N 99°45′E)):
ESE of Pulau Cupu (1¾ miles SW), thence:
Between Pulau Singa Besar Light (white square on
concrete structure) and a shoal with a least charted
depth of 3⋅6 m, 3 cables E, thence:
To a position W of the W extremity of Pulau Batu
Merah (1½ miles NNE).
2
The track then leads N midway between:
Tanjung Pekula (1½ miles NNE) (6°13′N 99°45′E),
the NE extremity of Pulau Singa Besar, and:
Pulau Jong, 3 cables ENE, which from S has the
appearance of a junk under sail, and, like many
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos}
Pulau Intan
Besar
Cruise Vessel
Terminal
Tanjung
Sawa
Approach to Pelabuhan Langkawi from W (5.215)
Pulau
Selang
366 m Peak
CHAPTER 5
155
smaller islets in this vicinity, is undermined at
water level.
3
When W of Pulau Jong, the track continues N, passing:
E of Pulau Singa Kechil (2¼ miles N), a small round
island 97 m high.
The track continues until on the alignment (230°) of the
NW extremity of Pulau Singa Besar with the SE extremity
of Pulau Beras Basah.
4
Thence as for the main W channel (5.215).
Caution. Cross tidal−sets are usually experienced off the
entrance to the various channels within Selat Dayang
Bunting.
South−eastern approach to Pelabuhan
Langkawi
Routes
5.219 1
Selat Kuah (6°17′N 99°51′E) provides the SE approach
to Pelabuhan Langkawi.
Approach may be made via one of the following three
tracks:
Through Selat Kuah passing NE of Pulau Enggang
(6°15′N 99°53′E), the widest channel, or:
2
Through the narrow channel, in deeper water,
between Pulau Enggang and Nyior Setali), 3 cables
SW, directions for which are given at 5.223, or:
Between Nyior Setali and Tanjung Peluru (6°14′N
99°52′E), thence between Pulau Pasir (5 cables NE
of Tanjung Peluru) and the coast of Pulau Tuba.
Depths
5.220
1
A bank, with depths of 1⋅9 m to 4⋅5 m over it, extends
nearly across the entrance of Selat Kuah, leaving a narrow
channel on the W side. For least charted depth see 5.210.
Tidal stream
5.221 1
Details of the stream in position 6°12′N 99°53′E are
shown in the table on the chart.
Directions
5.222
1
Major light:
Pulau Enggang Light (6°14′⋅6N 99°52′⋅6N) (5.195).
5.223 1
Selat Kuah. From a position SE of Pulau Enggang
Light (6°14′⋅6N 99°52′⋅6N) (5.195) the track between Pulau
Enggang and Nyior Setali leads NW, passing (with
positions from the light):
Between Pulau Enggang and Nyior Setali (3 cables
SW), thence;
NE of Pulau Pasir (4 cables W), an islet; a bank with
a depth of 1⋅2 m extends 2 cables NE of the islet.
Thence:
2
The track leads NNW, passing (with positions from
Pulau Bumbon Besar Light (6°17′⋅4N 99°51′⋅7E)):
To a position NE of Pulau Lintang Jalan (1½ miles
SSW).
WSW of a dangerous wreck (4½ cables SW), marked
on its N side by a light−buoy (isolated danger),
thence:
WSW of Pulau Bumbon Besar Light (white daymark
on metal pipe), thence:
3
Through the Dangerous Goods anchorage (8 cables
W) (5.226), and:
WSW of Batu Kuah Light (6¼ cables WNW) (white
round concrete tower, red bands) (not named on
chart), thence:
ENE of Tanjung Tirai (1¼ miles WNW).
The track then continues as required for anchorage
(5.226).
5.224 1
Useful marks:
Pulau Bumbon Kecil (6°16′⋅6N 99°52′⋅3E) 136 m
high.
Pulau Selang Besar (6°12′⋅6N 99°51′⋅7E), 20 m high.
Pulau Selang Kecil (6°13′⋅0N 99°51′⋅7E), 21 m high.
Berths and anchorages
Cruise Terminal
5.225 1
A jetty providing two berths for cruise vessels is situated
at Tanjung Malai, 3 cables E of Tanjung Sawa (6°16′N
99°44′E) (5.169). Depth alongside is 12⋅8 m. The longest
berth is 178 m (or 370 m including dolphins at either end).
A small harbour protected by a breakwater lies 4 cables
NE. The breakwater head is marked by a light
Anchorages at Kuah
5.226 1
The following anchorages, the limits of which are
charted, lie in Selat Kuah; mariners are advised that the
passage through Selat Kuah (5.223) passes through the
anchorages:
Dangerous Goods anchorage;
General Purpose anchorage;
2
Small Craft anchorage; five mooring buoys are laid in
the SE corner of this anchorage.
For quarantine anchorage see 5.211.
Cruise Vessel Terminal at Tanjung Malai, Langkawi (5.225)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
CHAPTER 5
156
Berths at Kuah
5.227
1
A floating jetty, 144 m in length, allowing up to six
small vessels to berth at any one time, is situated
8 cables N of Batu Kuah Light−beacon (5.223).
A T−headed concrete jetty, with a depth alongside of
2 m, is situated 1 cable S of the floating jetty.
2
Guest House Pier is 1 cable S of the concrete jetty. A
rock, with a depth of 0·3 m lies close S of
this pier.
Communications
5.228
1
Regular sea communication is maintained with Alor
Setar (5.235) and Pinang. An international airport lies on
the W of the island.
COASTAL PASSAGE OFF WEST COAST OF MALAYSIA − LANGKAWI GROUP TO
PULAU PINANG
General information
Chart 3943
Route
5.229 1
This section describes the coastal route off the coast of
Malaysia from SE of Pulau Langkawi (6°23′N 99°48′E) to
the seaward end of North Channel leading to Pinang
Harbour, a distance of about 36 miles.
Topography
5.230 1
The coast between the entrance to Sungai Sanglang
(6°15′N 100°12′E) and Pulau Bunting, 24 miles SSE, is low
and wooded. Some hills of moderate elevation stand inland.
The coast between Pulau Bunting and Kuala Muda, NE
of Pulau Pinang, is mainly low, but is dominated by a
range of hills running SW from Gunung Jerai (5°47′N
100°26′E) (5.232).
For N coast of Pulau Pinang, see 5.245.
Marine Park
5.231
1
Payar Marine Park, see 5.206.
Directions
(continued from 5.197 or 5.208)
Principal marks
5.232 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Keriang (6°11′N 100°20′E), a conspicuous
isolated mass of limestone, honey−combed with
caves. It has the appearance, particularly from SW,
of an elephant kneeling with its head to the S. A
small hill stands N of Gunung Keriang.
Pulau Paya (6°04′N 100°02′E), densely wooded and
steep−to, except for part of the NE side.
2
Pulau Lembu (8 cables NE of Pulau Paya), thickly
wooded and steep−to except on its E side. A rock,
awash, lies 1½ cables N of this islet.
Pulau Bunting (5°53′N 100°20′E), a barren islet.
Gunung Jerai (5°47′N 100°26′E), which is
conspicuous. Radio masts stand in the vicinity.
3
Three barren islets lying up to 4 miles offshore W of
Gunung Jerai.
Major light:
Muka Head Light (5°28′N 100°11′E) (5.263).
Coastal passage
5.233 1
From the vicinity of 6°13′N 100°06′E the track leads S,
passing (with positions from Pulau Bunting (5°53′N
100°20′E)):
W of the entrance to Kuala Kedah (14 miles NNW)
(5.235), and:
2
E of Payar Marine Park (20 miles NW) (5.206) which
surrounds Pulau Lembu (5.232). The channels
between Pulau Paya and Pulau Lembu, on either
side of Pulau Kacha (6°04′N 100°03′E), which are
all in the marine park, are not recommended.
Thence:
3
W of a dangerous rock (8½ miles NNW), thence:
W of a dangerous rock (2½ miles N), thence:
E of a dangerous wreck, position approximate,
(17 miles W), thence:
W of Pulau Bunting (5.232), thence:
W of Pulau Songsong (4½ miles SSW) the N−most of
the three barren islets (5.232), thence:
W of Tukun Terendak (5½ miles SSW), thence:
4
W of Pulau Telor (7 miles SSW), barren, thence:
W of Pulau Biden (8 miles SSW), the most S of the
three barren islets, thence:
W of a wreck swept to 9·4 m (17 miles SW).
The track continues S to the vicinity of North Channel
Light−float moored 8 miles N of Muka Head (5°28′N
100°11′E), the NW extremity of Pulau Pinang.
5.234 1
Useful marks:
Kuala Kedah Light (white tower) (6°07′N 100°17′E)
standing on the N side of the entrance to Sungai
Kedah (5.235).
Sungai Sala Light (white concrete mast) (5°58′N
100°21′E) at the entrance to Sungai Sala Besar.
The light is used by fishermen.
2
Kuala Sungai Yan Light (white concrete structure)
(5°49′N 100°22′E).
Sungai Merbok Light (white square tower on piles)
(5°41′N 100°22′E) at Tanjung Dawai (5.239).
Kuala Muda Light (white column on piles) (5°35′N
100°20′E) on the S side of the entrance (5.240).
North Channel Light−float (5°36′N 100°12′N) (5.265).
(Directions continue for the N approach to
Pinang Harbour at 5.263.
Directions for the route W of
Pulau Pinang are given at 5.333)
Rivers and harbours
Sungai Kedah
5.235 1
Description. Sungai Kedah is entered through Kuala
Kedah (6°07′N 100°17′E). The river leads to Alor Setar
5 miles inland where there is a wharf. Alor Setar is the
principal town in the State of Kedah and residence of the
Sultan.
Port limits, shown on the chart, extend approximately
4 miles seaward and are bounded by the meridian 100°13′E
and the latitudes 6°04′N and 6°08′N.
CHAPTER 5
157
2
Local knowledge is required for navigating Sungai
Kedah.
Outer anchorage can be obtained in a depth of about
7 m, 3 miles from the entrance to Sungai Kedah.
Depths. The controlling depth for Sungai Kedah is
0⋅5 m in the channel over the bar.
5.236
1
Directions. The approach from seaward is via a channel
marked by light−beacons and light−buoys (lateral); the
channel entrance being marked by a light−beacon (green
column on piles).
Useful marks:
Gunung Keriang (6°11′N 100°20′E) (5.232).
Kuala Kedah Light (6°07′N 100°17′E) (5.234).
Crown of Kedah, a very tall white monument,
surmounted by a gold coloured crown, stands in
Alor Setar.
5.237
1
Berths in Kuala Kedah:
Two small wooden jetties on the S side of the
entrance to Sungai Kedah, with depths of 1 m
alongside; both jetties are in a poor state of repair.
One jetty is used by the passenger ferry from
Pulau Langkawi to Alor Setar.
2
Berth at Alor Setar:
Ferry Wharf 55 m in length with a depth alongside of
1⋅2 m.
Supplies. Fresh water is available at Kuala Kedah and
Alor Setar.
Sungai Sala Besar
5.238
1
Sungai Sala Besar (5°58′N 100°21′E), is only used by
fishermen.
Sungai Merbok
5.239 1
Description. Sungai Merbok is entered between Tanjung
Dawai (5°41′N 100°22′E), from where a light (5.234) is
exhibited, and Tanjung Perpat, 1 mile WSW.
Depths. There is a depth of 2 m on the bar. Within the
bar there are depths of 4 to 12 m. Craft drawing 1·8 m can
proceed about 3 miles upstream at HW; craft drawing 1 m
can proceed 5 miles upstream.
Charts 1366, 3943
Sungai Muda
5.240 1
Description. Sungai Muda is the boundary between
Kedah State and Seberang Peri. The river is entered at
Kuala Muda (5°35′N 100°20′E) over a sandy bar. A light
(5.234) is exhibited at Kuala Muda.
Fishing villages stand on each side of the low sandy
entrance points. Kota Kuala Muda, a large village, stands
on the N bank, 2½ miles from the entrance, where Sungai
Trus joins the main river.
Depths. The bar dries from 0·6 m to 1·2 m. Small craft
drawing 1 m can enter at half−tide and proceed 4 miles
upstream.
PULAU PINANG, PINANG HARBOUR AND APPROACHES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1366
Scope of the section
5.241
1
In addition to general information this section describes
the following:
North Channel leading to Pinang Harbour (5.254).
South Channel leading to Pinang Harbour (5.268).
Pinang Harbour (5.292).
Coastal passage W of Pulau Pinang (5.330).
General description
5.242 1
Pulau Pinang (5°23′N 100°15′E) is separated from the
mainland of Malaysia by a strait with a least navigable
width of 8 cables which affords sheltered anchorage and
berths for all vessels that can cross the bars at each
entrance.
A road bridge, which imposes restrictions on the use of
South Channel (see 5.274), links the island with the
mainland.
2
Bandar Raya Georgetown (5°25′N 100°21′E), the capital,
which is generally known as Pinang, is situated at the NE
extremity of Pulau Pinang.
The population of Pulau Pinang, in 2000, was 1 313 603.
5.243 1
Pinang Harbour (5.292) in addition to a number of
anchorage areas, provides deep−water berths:
On Pulau Pinang at Bandar Raya Georgetown (5.317).
On the mainland at Butterworth and Perai, (5.320).
Port limits
5.244
1
Pinang Harbour comprises all the waters contained
within the following limits:
The parallels of 5°16′N and 5°29′N.
The meridians of 100°16′E and 100°25′E.
Topography
5.245 1
The N part of Pulau Pinang is mountainous.
A range of hills runs through the centre of the island
decreasing in elevation as it approaches the SW extremity.
Two−thirds of the island is of gentle inclination or level
and, like the hills, it is mostly well wooded.
The W side of the island is low and wooded. The E side
is generally low, with a few undulating hills; the coastal
plain is about 1½ miles wide, highly cultivated and well
populated.
2
Features in the interior include:
Western Hill (5°26′N 100°15′E), the summit of the
island and 834 m high to the top of the trees. Two
slender radio masts, elevation 37 m, stand on
Western Hill.
3
Government Hill (1 mile E of Western Hill),
connected to the lower land E by a funicular
railway.
Mount Elvira (5°23′N 100°15′E), near the centre of
the island.
CHAPTER 5
158
Coastal landmarks and features
5.246 1
For N coast, see 5.263.
For W coast, see 5.331.
For S coast, see 5.275.
Charts 3732, 1366
Approach routes to Pinang Harbour
5.247 1
Pinang Harbour (5°25′N 100°21′E) may be approached
through:
North Channel (5.254) which is preferable at all times
and has the greater depths; or:
South Channel (5.268), which is subject to height and
length restrictions (5.274).
Controlling depths
5.248 1
For North Channel, see 5.256.
For South Channel, see 5.270.
Pilotage
5.249 1
The pilotage district consists of the waters between
Pulau Pinang and the mainland of Seberang Perai, bounded
as follows:
N limit: A line drawn 270° from Sungai Muda entrance
(5°35′N 100°20′E) until it meets a line drawn 033° from
Muka Head Light (5°28′N 100°11′E).
2
S limit: A line drawn 180° from Pasir Pandak (5°16′N
100°11′E), through the middle of Pulau Kendi (5°14′N
100°11′E), thence E along the parallel of Lat 5°14′N, to the
mainland.
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 600 gt; it is also
compulsory for all vessels of 200 gt and over, when
berthing or unberthing.
3
Pilotage boarding positions are given in 5.300.
Pilot motor launches are painted international red, with
word PILOT in white, and show:
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(4).
For Pilotage Office, see 5.298.
Regulations
5.250 1
Small craft. The following is an extract from The
Rules:
“Harbour craft and native sailing craft shall not cross
the bows or otherwise impede the movements of
sea−going vessels under way within the Port
Limits and shall give such vessels as wide a berth
as possible. Provide that this rule shall not relieve
the master or pilot of a sea−going vessel from his
duty to prevent a collision or an accident”.
Pinang Port Commission ferries are classed as harbour
craft and obey this rule.
5.251 1
Petroleum carrying vessels. No petroleum carrying
vessel is permitted within an area bounded by a line drawn:
090° for 3 cables from Fort Cornwallis Light−beacon
(5°25′·3N 100°20′·7E), thence:
180° for 4¼ cables, thence:
270° to ferry terminal (5°24′·8N 100°20′·6E), thence:
220° for 1·3 miles, thence:
310° to shore in position 5°24′·1N 100°19′·6E.
Anchorages
5.252 1
The following anchorages are established:
North Channel (5.260).
Principal anchorage (5.311).
Special anchorages (5.312).
Miscellaneous anchorages (5.314).
Quarantine anchorage (5.315).
Explosive anchorage (5.316).
For prohibited anchorages see 5.302.
Fishing stakes and traps
5.253 1
Caution. Fishing stakes extend all around Pulau Pinang
and the mainland coast within the 10 m depth contour; they
extend nearly 3 miles N of the island, but are not permitted
to encroach farther into the channel across the bar.
The larger fish traps, sometimes with a dwelling on
them, are expensive to construct and are maintained for
many years. Each trap has a licence number.
2
Fish traps cannot be regarded as disused until they are
so rotten that they no longer present a danger to
navigation. In fact, a well−found ship striking a sound fish
trap, would probably break through without damage to
herself.
By law, each fish trap must exhibit a white light at
night, but this cannot be relied upon.
3
Bamboo poles, singly or in groups, marking fish nets or
pots may be encountered over wide areas off the coast, and
if inadvertently rammed, they usually pass along or under
the ship without fouling.
NORTH CHANNEL LEADING TO PINANG
HARBOUR
General information
Charts 3732, 1366
Route
5.254 1
North Channel, between the NE coast of Pulau Pinang
and the mainland, may be approached through a dredged
channel, 183 m wide, marked by light−buoys.
This channel is entered about 1½ miles SE of North
Channel Light−float (5°36′N 100°12′E), is 8 miles long and
leads to the approaches to Pinang Harbour from N. Traffic
is one way only.
Topography
5.255 1
See 5.245 for details of Pulau Pinang.
Controlling depths
5.256 1
There is a maintained depth of 11⋅0 m in the entrance
channel marked by light−buoys N of Pulau Pinang; an
under−keel clearance of 10% of draught is required in the
channel.
CHAPTER 5
159
Caution
5.257
1
Fishing stakes, see 5.253.
Pilotage
5.258 1
See 5.249.
Notice of ETA
5.259
1
See 5.300.
Anchorage
5.260 1
An outer anchorage is charted about 1¾ miles SSW of
North Channel Light−float (5°36′N 100°12′E) (5.265).
Anchoring is prohibited within the indicated cable area
on the NE side of North Channel.
Areas in which there are numerous disused cables are
charted on the SW side of North Channel.
Natural conditions
5.261 1
Tidal streams. At springs, the streams run at a rate
from 2 to 3 kn through the harbour anchorages (5.311), but
less in the approaches.
They continue to run N or S from 1 to 1½ hours after
LW or HW.
See information on charts for details.
2
During the NE monsoon the tidal streams are regular
and set:
Stream Period
S−going 4 hours before, to 2 hours after HW
by the shore.
N−going 2 hours after, to 4 hours before HW
by the shore.
5.262 1
Current. A S−going current of ½ kn has been
experienced off the entrance to North Channel.
In November the current sets round Muka Head (5°29′N
100°11′E) and overcomes the out−going stream sometimes
for 2 or 3 days.
Directions
(continued from 5.13, 5.171 or 5.234)
Principal marks
5.263 1
Landmarks − north coast of Pulau Pinang:
Muka Head (5°28′N 100°11′E), the NW extremity.
Landmarks − within harbour limits on Pulau Pinang:
(positions from Fort Cornwallis Light (5°25′·3N
100°20′·7E) unless otherwise stated):
Fort Cornwallis mast (5°25′·3N 100°20′·7E), close
SW of Fort Cornwallis Light (described below).
2
Prominent tower block building (elevation 235 m; red
obstruction lights) (1 mile WSW).
Government Office (2 cables SSW). This building
may be obscured from N by a taller building close
N, which has a pale green roof and from a
distance has the appearance of a white structure
with black horizontal bands.
Bandar Raya Georgetown − Custom Clock Tower
and Building (235m) from ENE (5.263)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright}
Swettenham Pier
3
Custom Clock Tower (3½ cables SSW), a tall square
grey tower. Tall buildings may obscure this mark
from N.
Two chimneys (aluminium colour) (5°22′·8N
100°19′·0E), at a power station, the roof of which
is also coloured aluminium.
Gelugur Tower (5°21′·3N 100°18′·5E), a white
concrete water−tower, standing on a slight
eminence.
4
Landmarks − within harbour limits on the mainland
(Seberang Perai):
Chimney (red and white bands, red obstruction light)
(5°22′·5N 100°22′·5E) at the power station at
Perai. A jetty projects 3 cables W from the station.
Pinang Bridge (5°21′N 100°21′E) (5.274).
5
Major lights:
Muka Head Light (white granite tower, 14 m in
height) (5°28′N 100°11′E) on the summit of the
headland.
Fort Cornwallis Light (white metal framework tower,
21 m in height) (5°25′⋅3N 100°20′⋅7E), on the NE
bastion of Fort Cornwallis and close NE of Fort
Cornwallis mast (5.263).
North channel to Pinang
5.264 1
Caution. Large numbers of fishing boats may be
encountered in the vicinity of, and NW of, Muka Head
(5°28′N 100°11′E) (5.263).
Clearing marks:
Muka Head Light (5.263) bearing less than 200°,
leads NW of fishing stakes (5.253), N of Pulau
Pinang, and:
2
Fort Cornwallis Light (5°25′N 100°21′E) (5.263)
bearing more than 158°, leads NE of these fishing
stakes.
The mainland coast, being low, does not show up so
well from North Channel as that of Pulau Pinang, thus the
latter will usually appear nearer when in the fairway
between them.
5.265 1
From a position about 8 miles N of Muka Head Light
(5°28′N 100°11′E) the deep−water approach leads SE,
passing (with positions from the light):
Either side of North Channel Light−float (8 miles
NNE) (red hull, white stripes), which is liable to
CHAPTER 5
160
drag out of position during the height of the SW
monsoon, thence:
Through a maintained channel (5.256) marked by
light−buoys (lateral) to a position 2½ miles NE of
Pulau Tikus Light (7 miles E) (5.267).
2
The track then alters SSE, passing (with positions from
Fort Cornwallis Light (5°25′N 100°21′E) (5.263)):
Between Nos 6G and 6R Light−buoys (4¼ miles N),
thence:
Clear of a 9·8 m patch (3½ miles N), thence:
Between Tokong Light−buoy (3 miles N) which marks
an 8⋅2 m patch, and a light−buoy (starboard hand)
close SW.
The track continues as required for anchorage areas
(5.311) or berths in Pinang Harbour.
5.266 1
Route outside buoyed channel. If a track is chosen
clear of and SW of the buoyed channel, care must be taken
to avoid:
A 6·1 m pinnacle rock (5°30′·3N 100°18′·8E), and:
A wreck (5°28′·4N 100°19′·1E), swept to 0·6 m, and
marked on its N side by a buoy (isolated danger).
Less water than charted was reported (1967) SW of the
buoyed channel, see note on chart.
Useful marks
5.267 1
Pulau Tikus Light (white stone column, 7 m in
height) (5°29′N 100°18′E).
Tower standing on Tanjung Tokong (5°27′⋅9N
100°18′⋅6E).
Radio mast (grey framework tower, red obstruction
light) (5°25′·1N 100°19′·7E).
Group of radio masts (5°22′·5N 100°18′·5E). One of
these (elevation 122 m), exhibits a red flashing
light.
SOUTH CHANNEL LEADING TO PINANG
HARBOUR
General information
Charts 3732, 1366, 3944
Route
5.268 1
South Channel (5°13′N 100°15′E) is approached from
SW and passes close SE of both Pulau Pinang and Pulau
Jerejak, a small island off the E coast of Pulau Pinang.
Thence beneath Pinang Bridge (5.274), which provides
some restrictions on vessels bound for the main berths of
Pinang Harbour.
Topography
5.269 1
See 5.245 for general features on Pulau Pinang.
The S coast of the island is indented by a number of
sandy bays.
The following inland hills on the mainland of Malaysia
may be visible (chart 3944).
Bukit Mertajam (5°22′N 100°29′E); this green patch
of wooded ground is a natural park.
Bukit Panchor (5°08′N 100°33′E), a densely wooded
hill.
Controlling depths
5.270 1
Over the bar S of Pulau Pinang: 6·7 m.
Close N of Pinang Bridge: 5·8 m.
Hazards
5.271 1
Fishing nets often extend across the fairway of South
Channel. These are visible on the surface at or near LW
and are marked by three stakes moored vertically, one over
each end of the net and one over the centre.
These show like ordinary fishing stakes. They may be
avoided by passing between the sets of three stakes.
2
Fishing stakes (5.253) must also be avoided. These
frequently extend a considerable distance from the coast
into the fairway.
Pilotage
5.272
1
See 5.249.
Notice of ETA
5.273
1
See 5.300.
Pinang Bridge
5.274 1
Pinang Bridge (Jambatan Pulau Pinang), a road bridge
(5°21′⋅3N 100°21′⋅0E) joins Pulau Pinang with the
mainland of Peninsular Malaysia.
Vertical clearance is 28 m and distance between piers
150 m.
2
Restrictions. South Channel is open day and night with
the following restrictions:
Vessels of 5 m and more in height intending to pass
beneath the bridge must pass under the central
span in the vicinity of 100° 20′·9E and must make
a written declaration to the Port Officer (5.298),
Pinang, at least 12 hours prior to the proposed
passage.
Vessels of more than 28 m in height are prohibited
from passing beneath the bridge.
Pinang Bridge, from N (5.274)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos}
Pulau Jerejak (5.278)
CHAPTER 5
161
3
Restricted area. Vessels of more than 5 m in height or
30 m in length must obtain written permission from the
Port Officer, Pinang, before entering the restricted area, the
limits of which are shown on the chart.
Sector lights, which are visible from N and S of the
bridge, have been established in position 5°21′·3N
100°20′·9E on the bridge. These lights indicate the centre
of the channel beneath the bridge.
Directions
Principal marks
5.275 1
Landmarks:
Pulau Kendi (5°14′N 100°11′E) steep−sided and
densely wooded. A white stone beacon, 3 m in
height, stands on the HW line on the SE point of
this island, and is prominent from E.
Pulau Rimau (5°15′N 100°17′E) and light.
For landmarks farther N within Pinang Harbour, see
5.263.
2
Major light:
Pulau Rimau Light (white metal tower, 17 m in
height) (5°14′·8N 100°16′·6E). This light is
obscured by Pulau Kendi between bearings of 079°
and 085°, as indicated on the charts.
South Channel, outer part
5.276 1
Caution. When approaching from S it is advisable not
to place too much reliance upon radar ranges of Tanjung
Piandang (5°05′N 100°22′E), since, except for the
light−structure (6.17), this is an ill−defined mangrove point
with off−lying fish traps which may give misleading
echoes.
Clearing bearings:
Pulau Kendi (5°14′N 100°11′E) (5.275) should not be
brought to bear less than 350° until Pulau Rimau Light
(5°14′⋅8N 100°16′·6E) (5.275) bears 040°.
5.277
1
From the vicinity of 5°06′N 100°07′E, about 13 miles
SW of Pulau Rimau Light, the track leads NE, passing:
NW of a dangerous wreck (5°05′N 100°09′E),
position approximate, noting two other dangerous
wrecks 2½ miles E and 3½ miles ESE respectively.
The track continues NE to a position NW of a
dangerous wreck (5°07′N 100°13′E) off the N extremity of
Outer Kra Bank.
5.278 1
From the vicinity of 5°09′N 100°12′E, the line of
bearing, 040°, of Pulau Rimau Light (5°14′·8N 100°16′·6E)
(5.275) leads NE, passing (with positions from the light):
SE of Rimau Fairway Light−buoy (safe water)
(4¼ miles SW).
The track then continues NE across the bar of soft mud
(1 to 3½ miles SW), and:
2
SE of a light−buoy (isolated danger) (2½ miles
WSW), thence:
NW of Rimau Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1 mile
SSW), which marks a wreck swept to 4·6 m,
thence:
NW of Great Kra Flat, which is littered with
numerous fish stakes and the remains of wrecked
fishing boats, which are soon broken by the action
of the sea and buried in the soft mud, thence:
3
SE of Pulau Rimau Light, thence:
SE of a dangerous wreck (5½ cables NE), thence:
SE of a wreck (swept to 3 m) (1 mile NE), thence:
Between Rimau 1R Light−buoy (1¾ miles NE) and a
light−buoy (isolated danger), 3½ cables farther SE,
which marks an obstruction in the fairway swept
to 6·4 m. A wreck swept to 5·8 m lies close NE of
the isolated danger buoy. Thence:
4
SE of Rimau 2R Light−buoy (3 miles NE) moored
3½ cables SE of Batu Maung Flat which dries
0·3 m.
The track continues NE to a position S of Pulau Jerejak
(5 miles NNE), from the summit of which a red obstruction
light is exhibited. Beacons stand on the N and S
extremities of the island. A penal centre stands on the NW
side. For dockyard on E side, see 5.326).
(Directions continue for the inner part at 5.281)
At night
5.279 1
Approach. The recommended track for South Channel
approaches from the SSW using Pulau Rimau Light as a
lead, until about 1 mile from it.
Thence the track is altered NE, passing:
NW of Rimau Light−buoy (5.278), thence:
From 2 to 3 cables SE of the light.
2
When past Pulau Rimau Light remain at least 3 cables
clear to the E off Tanjung Teluk Tempoyak until:
The air obstruction light (5°15′·7N 100°16′·7E) at
Bukit Teluk Tempoyak bears 270°, to avoid the
wreck (swept to 3 m) off this point, thence:
As 5.278 above.
(Directions continue for the inner part at 5.281)
Useful marks
5.280 1
Bukit Payong (5°17′N 100°15′E).
Bukit Teluk Tempoyak Besar (5°16′N 100°17′E) close
within Tanjung Teluk Tempoyak, which is steep,
wooded and rocky.
Obstruction lights (red flashing) are exhibited on the
summit of Bukit Payong, and from positions 2 cables SE
and 4 cables NNW of the summit of Bukit Teluk Tempoyak
Besar.
South Channel, inner part
(continued from 5.278 or 5.279)
5.281 1
Cautions. The fairway of the channel from Pulau
Jerejak to beneath Pinang Bridge is indicated by two pairs
of leading lights−beacons (5.282, 5.283) located at the N
extremity of Great Kra Flat, E and ENE of Pulau Jerejak.
These light−beacons must not be confused with each other.
2
The lights of the Great Kra Flat leading−beacons (5.282)
are only visible when on or near the leading line and may
be difficult to distinguish. By day, these leading−beacons
should not be confused with two beacons on the far shore
near Perai (5.325).
5.282 1
Leading light−beacons (Great Kra Flat):
Front beacon (white triangle, point up, with black
stripe, on white metal beacon on piles) (5°20′·3N
100°21′·2E).
Rear beacon (white triangle, point down, with black
stripe, on white metal beacon on piles) (580 m NE
of front).
2
From a position S of the beacon on the S extremity of
Pulau Jerejak (5°18′N 100°19′E), the alignment (044°) of
these light−beacons leads NE, passing (with positions from
the front beacon):
CHAPTER 5
162
3
NW of two light−beacons (special) (2 and 3 miles
SSW), between which there is a drying patch. The
light−beacons are part of a series marking a
submarine cable area where anchoring is
prohibited. Thence:
NW of inner rear light−beacon (1¼ miles SSW)
(5.283), thence:
NW of inner front light−beacon (1 miles SSW)
(5.283).
5.283 1
Leading light−beacons (inner):
Front beacon (white triangle, apex up, black stripe on
white column on piles) (5°19′·4N 100°20′·7E).
Rear beacon (white triangle, point down, black stripe
on white column on piles) (570 m S of front).
2
From a position W of Owen Light−beacon (5°19′⋅8N
100°21′⋅0E), the alignment (185°), astern, of the inner
light−beacons and the white sector (001½°–008½°) of
Pinang Bridge S centre light (5.274) ahead, lead through
the channel, passing (with positions from the front beacon):
3
W of Owen Light−beacon (white column on piles)
(5 cables NNE), thence:
W of Great Kra Flat front leading light (1 mile NNE)
(5.282), thence:
W of Great Kra Flat rear leading light (1¼ miles
NNE) (5.282), thence:
E of Beta Light−buoy (port hand) (1½ miles N)
marking the SE extremity of Syrang Bank, thence:
W of an obstruction (1½ miles N) with a swept depth
of 5·7 m over it, thence:
4
Through the channel beneath the bridge (2 miles N)
(5.274), thence:
E of Alpha Light−buoy (port hand) (5 cables N of the
bridge centre); see caution on chart 3732
concerning shoaling in this vicinity. Thence:
W of Peal Light−beacon (5°22′·2N 100°21′·2E) (green
triangle, white column, on piles), keeping in the
white sector (181½°–188½°) of Pinang Bridge N
centre light (5.274).
5
Thene as required for anchorage areas (5.311) or berths,
passing W of Spithead Light−buoy (N cardinal) (5°23′·3N
100°21′·4E).
Useful mark
5.284 1
Bukit Gedung (5°19′N 100°17′E), on which stands a
mast (red flashing obstruction lights).
Channels on each side of South Channel
Channel north of Pulau Kendi
5.285 1
The channel between Tanjung Gertak Sanggul (5°16′N
100°11′E), the SW extremity of Pulau Pinang, and Pulau
Kendi (5.275), 2 miles S, is not recommended as it is much
obstructed by fish traps.
Western Channel
5.286 1
Description. Western Channel (5°21′N 100°19′E) with
depths from 4 to 12 m, leads generally N along the E coast
of Pulau Pinang. It may be approached from S (S of Pulau
Jerejak) or from N (S of Bandar Raya Georgetown).
Directions for south approach. From the vicinity of
5°17′·7N 100°18′·5E the track leads generally N passing:
2
E of Batu Maung Flat (5°18′N 100°18′E), thence:
W of the S extremity of Pulau Jerejak (5°18′N
100°19′E), marked by a beacon (5.278), where the
channel is only 1 cable wide, thence:
W of the N extremity of Pulau Jerejak, marked by
two beacons, thence:
W of Middle Bank (5°23′N 100°20′E), marked on its
W side by beacons, buoy and light−beacons, and:
3
E of PGB1 Light−beacon (white disc, black column,
on piles) (5°23′⋅0N 100°19′⋅3E), thence:
SE of APC Pier (5°23′·6N 100°19′·6E), thence:
SE of a loading platform (5°23′⋅7N 100°19′⋅8E); a
second loading platform lies 1 cable NE, thence
4
NW of Aston Light−beacon (N cardinal topmark,
white column, on piles) (5°24′·4N 100°20′·8E),
thence:
SW of two light−beacons (metal pillars) (5°24′⋅4N
100°20′⋅4E).
Berths within Western Channel are described in 5.319.
Bridge. See 5.274 for restrictions in vicinity of Pinang
Bridge.
Channel east of Great Kra Flat
5.287 1
Description. A channel with depths of 10 to 12 m leads
from the berths at Butterworth (5°24′ N 100°22′ E), S for
6 miles, passing beneath Pinang Bridge and E of Great Kra
Flat (5°20′N 100°21′E). Farther S the depths decrease until
the channel becomes blocked off Kuala Kerian (5°10′N
100°25′E) (6.16).
2
A dredged section at the N end of the channel provides
access to the deep−water berths at Butterworth (5.321) and
Perai (5.325).
Sungai Perai (5.323) and three minor rivers (5.291) on
the mainland coast S of the bridge, lead from the channel.
5.288
1
Controlling depth: N entrance to the channel, dredged
to 11 m.
Bridge. See 5.274 for restrictions in vicinity of Pinang
Bridge.
5.289
1
Directions. The white sector (166⋅6°−169⋅3°) of a
light−beacon (red triangle, point up, on red beacon, white
bands) (5°22′N 100°22′E), near the head of Perai bulk
cargo terminal jetty (5.325), leads through the dredged
channel.
5.290 1
Useful marks:
Bukit Juru (5°20′N 100°25′E), a jungle covered ridge.
Pulau Gedong (5°17′N 100°23′E), with two
jungle−covered summits. It has a prominent quarry
on its N extremity and steep cliffs on its W side.
2
Pulau Aman (5°16′N 100°23′E), with three
jungle−covered summits.
Bukit Batu Kawan (5°16′N 100°25′E), a
jungle−covered ridge.
Batu Musang (5°16′N 100°24′E), with a prominent
quarry.
Rivers
5.291 1
Three rivers join the channel E of Great Kra Flat
(5.287) and S of Pinang Bridge.
Local knowledge is required.
Sungai Juru (5°21′N 100°23′E). The river is navigable
at HW by craft drawing up to 1·8 m, and at half−tide by
craft drawing 1 m.
CHAPTER 5
163
2
Sungai Jajawi (5°17′N 100°24′E). The entrance is
fronted by a bar, with a depth of 2 m over it, soft mud.
Sungai Tengah (5°13′N 100°25′E). There is a depth of
0·6 m over the bar. Craft drawing up to 1·8 m can enter at
HW, whence it is navigable for 2½ miles; craft drawing
1 m can enter at half−tide.
PINANG HARBOUR
General information
Charts 1366, 3732
Position
5.292 1
Pinang Harbour (5°25′N 100°21′E), previously known as
Penang, is situated between Pulau Pinang (5°23′N
100°15′E) and the mainland of Malaysia.
Function
5.293 1
Pinang Harbour is one of Malaysia’s largest ports and
handles most of the trade of the industrial and agriculture
regions of Northern Peninsular Malaysia.
Main exports are electrical, rubber goods, manufactured
goods and palm oil. Main imports are petroleum products,
iron and steel, and raw sugar.
Topography
5.294
1
For Pulau Pinang see 5.245.
Port limits
5.295 1
See 5.244.
Approach and Entry
5.296 1
The harbour is approached through:
North Channel (5.254), the preferred and deeper
route, or:
South Channel (5.268), which is subject to height and
length restrictions.
Traffic
5.297 1
In 2005, 2667 vessels totalling 30 567 699 dwt used the
port. Numerous ships and fishing vessels, both underway
and at anchor, may be encountered.
Port authority
5.298 1
Pinang Port Commission, 3A−6 Bangunan Sri Weld,
Jalan Pengkalan Weld, 10300 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
Harbour Master’s Office is 5th Floor Government
Offices (5.263).
Pilot Office is at Godown No 5, Swettenham Pier.
Limiting conditions
5.299 1
Controlling depths. For North and South Channels, see
5.256 and 5.270, respectively. For Butterworth Wharves,
see 5.288.
Vertical clearance under Pinang Bridge (5°21′⋅3N
100°21′⋅0E), see 5.274.
Deepest berth. North Butterworth Container Terminal
(5.321).
2
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅9 m; mean neap
range about 0·5 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables Volume 3.
Maximum size of vessel handled. The size of vessels
able to use Pinang Harbour is limited only by their draught.
The largest vessel to use the port was one of 41 940 gt
(1982).
Arrival information
Notice of ETA
5.300 1
Vessels subject to compulsory pilotage (see 5.249)
should communicate their ETA at least 3 hours in advance
of arrival at the following boarding positions:
Approach channel ETA position
North Channel North Channel Light−float (5.265).
South Channel Rimau Light−buoy (5°14′N 100°16′E) (5.278).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
Outer anchorage
5.301 1
See 5.260.
Prohibited anchorages
5.302 1
Anchorage is prohibited in the following areas, which
are indicated on the charts, due to submarine cables:
Outside harbour limits:
NE of North Channel, see 5.260.
N of Pulau Rimau (5°14′·8N 100°16′·5E) as shown
on the chart.
2
Within or bordering harbour limits:
Within the area as shown on the chart, about 4 cables
wide, extending across the harbour from about
1¼ miles S of the entrance to Sungai Perai to the
power station (5°22′·8N 100°19′·0E) on Pulau
Pinang. This area is indicated by beacons and
light−beacons on the mainland, on Middle Bank
(5°23′W, 100°20′E) and on Pulau Pinang; also by:
Cable No 1 Light−buoy (5°22′·6N 100°21′·5E).
Cable No 2 Light−buoy (5°21′·8N 100°21′·5E).
3
An area about 5 cables wide crossing South Channel
close S of Pulau Jerejak (5°19′N 100°19′E) and
the channel E of Great Kra Flat. This area is
indicated by pairs of light−beacons on Batu Maung
Flat (S of Pulau Jerejak), Great Kra Flat and on
the mainland shore about 2½ miles S of Pinang
Bridge.
An area ¼ cable wide on each side of the swing
bridge (5°23′·2N 100°22′·6E) in the entrance to
Sungai Perai.
4
An area 2 cables wide between the coast of Malaysia
at Batu Musang (5°15′·9N 100°24′·4E) (5.290),
and the E side of Pulau Aman, 8 cables W.
Submarine cables which cross Sungai Perai 2½ cables
and 7½ cables above the swing bridge.
Bridge area. See restrictions (5.274) on the use of the
area about 9 cables N and S of the bridge across South
Channel and caution on charts.
Pilotage and tugs
5.303 1
Pilotage. See 5.249.
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
5.304 1
See 5.250.
CHAPTER 5
164
Butterworth from N (5.306)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos}
Chimney at Perai
(5.263)
Butterworth Wharves
Quarantine
5.305 1
For quarantine anchorage see 5.315.
Harbour
General layout
5.306 1
The principal harbour installations are situated on the
mainland in the vicinity of Butterworth (5°24′N 100°22′E)
and Perai, close S.
The port has container, oil and bulk cargo facilities.
Swettenham Pier (5°25′⋅1N 100°20′⋅8E) on Pulau Pinang
handles passenger vessels.
Piracy
5.307
1
Piracy and armed robbery have occurred off Pinang, see
5.3.
Measured distance
5.308 1
Off Seberang Perai there is a measured distance of
1853 m (6080 ft), running on a track of 000°−180°. It is
marked by three pairs of beacons in line bearing 090°, as
follows:
Name
Front
(diamond
topmark)
Rear
(disc
topmark)
Wellesley North
(5°26′·8N 100°22′·6E)
Beacon
(black)
Beacon
(black)
Wellesley Mid
(5 cables S of N beacon)
Beacon
(white)
Beacon
(white)
Wellesley South
(1 mile S of N beacon)
Light−beacon
(white)
(no topmark)
Beacon
(white)
2
It has been reported that the beacons are difficult to
identify.
Note. Wellesley South Light−beacon also indicates
anchorage limits (5.312, 5.313).
Local weather and sea state
5.309 1
Climate information. See 1.170 and 1.172.
Climate is similar to N part of Malacca Strait. See 2.29
for summary and 1.154 for general details.
Directions for entering harbour
5.310
1
For approach and entry through North Channel see
5.254.
For approach and entry through South Channel see
5.268.
Anchorages
Principal anchorage
5.311 1
The principal anchorage is off Bandar Raya Georgetown
(5°25′N 100°21′E) in the narrowest part of the harbour; it
is well sheltered and capable of accommodating a large
number of vessels.
Visiting vessels will be informed of their anchor berth,
prior to arrival, by the office of the Port Officer.
When using this anchorage it should be noted that:
2
There are considerable depths close to Swettenham
Pier (5°25′·1N 100°20′·8E) and depths shoal
gradually towards the mainland.
The SW corner of Man of War Anchorage (5.312)
must be kept clear.
See also remarks for anchorage for foreign−going
vessels (5.314).
Special anchorages
5.312 1
Man of War Anchorage (5°25′·5N 100°21′·3E)
(charted):
The N limit is indicated by the alignment (bearing
090°) of Wellesley South Beacons (5.308).
The S limit is indicated by a light−beacon (5°25′·3N
100°22′·5E) (white disc on beacon), bearing 090°.
An obstruction and two wrecks lie in the W side of Man
of War Anchorage; the W wreck is marked by a light−buoy
(port hand).
5.313 1
Petroleum anchorages:
The principal anchorage, E of Man of War
Anchorage, is charted in position 5°25′·5N
100°22′⋅0 E. Its S limit is indicated by the same
beacon (5°25′·3N 100°22′·5E), as for Man of War
Anchorage (5.312).
Foreign−going vessels carrying petroleum should
anchor as directed by the Port Officer.
2
Petroleum anchorage for small craft is charted in
position 5°23′·3N 100°19′·6E.
For prohibition on petroleum carrying vessels, see 5.251.
CHAPTER 5
165
5.314 1
Other anchorages are established as follows:
Foreign−going Vessels Anchorage: S of the SW
corner of Man of War Anchorage, and E of a line
drawn from above position to Boundary Buoy
(5°24′·9N 100°20′·9E), thence in a 180° direction.
Vessels must moor to swing clear of the line
joining these positions at all states of tide.
2
Local Vessels Anchorage (charted position centred on
5°24′·8N 100°20′·8E): vessels must keep clear of
the indicated (restricted) area leading from Ferry
Light−buoy (special) (5°24′·6N 100°20′·8E) to
Ferry Terminal 2 cables NW. Visiting yachts may
also anchor there.
3
Junk Anchorage charted position 5°24′·5N
100°20′·7E: SW of the approach area to the Ferry
Terminal, and W of line joining Ferry Light−buoy
and the position of Aston Light−beacon (5.286)
(5°24′·4N 100°20′·8E).
Small craft must not anchor elsewhere in the harbour,
except temporarily for navigational reasons, weather, or
other circumstances.
5.315 1
Quarantine anchorage. In charted position, centred on
5°23′·5N 100°20′·7E.
5.316 1
Explosives anchorage. In charted position centred on
5°24′·1N 100°20′·9E. Vessels loading or unloading
explosives are required to moor, and must comply with any
restrictions or conditions that may be imposed by the Port
Officer.
Such vessels must not anchor or berth elsewhere within
the port limits except with the permission in writing of the
Port Officer.
2
Vessels carrying, loading, or discharging explosives must
show:
By day Flat B (International Code) at masthead.
At night Red light at masthead.
Alongside berths
Pulau Pinang side
5.317 1
Swettenham Pier (5°25′·2N 100°20′·8E), T−headed,
366 m in length, with a depth alongside of 9⋅5 m. There is
also a berth, 46 m long with a depth of 3 m, alongside the
W side of the S end of Swettenham Pier which is mainly
used by fishing vessels and lighters. Vessels can berth at all
times, day or night, but they do so at their own risk and
they will be liable for any damage done. Own hawsers
must be used and vessels must be moored to the
satisfaction of the wharf manager.
2
The landing place for boats is on the W side of the pier.
Small craft may use Swettenham Pier and Kedah Pier
close N for landing or embarking personnel or stores, but
are not permitted to wait alongside.
5.318 1
Ferry Terminal comprising two twin−berth ferry
terminals, is situated 3½ cables SSW of Swettenham Pier:
The N is a double−decker terminal.
The S is a twin−berth structure for end−berthing of
ferries carrying passengers and vehicles.
2
Restricted area to the use of ferries is indicated on the
chart between Local Vessel Anchorage and Junk
Bandar Raya Georgetown from 5 cables E of Swettenham Pier (5.317) − View in two parts
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos}
Govt. Office
Building
Building (235m)
Swettenham Pier Clock Tower Fort Cornwallis
Mast and Light
a
a
Pulau TikusMount Erskine
a
a
CHAPTER 5
166
Anchorage, and extends 2 cables SE from the terminals.
Ferry Light−buoy marks the SE extremity of the area.
Exception. Vessels proceeding to the Local Vessel
Anchorage (5.314) N of the restricted area, may enter this
area on the in−going tide in daylight, but must display
International Code Signal SZ to indicate their intention.
5.319 1
Two concrete loading platforms are situated about
1¾ miles SW of Swettenham Pier. Submerged pipelines
extend from the platforms to the shore, see also 1.42.
APC Pier, with two mooring dolphins, is situated
3 cables SW of the S loading platform.
Mainland − Oil berths
5.320 1
Regulation. Berthing is not permitted at night at the
Esso Pier. Night berthing at the Shell Pier is only permitted
during the out−going tide.
Bagan Luar Shell Pier (Berth No 8) (5°23′·9N
100°21′·9E), is a dolphin berth connected with the shore,
with a depth of about 8·2 m alongside. It can accommodate
vessels up to 4000 dwt.
2
Bagan Luar Esso Pier, (Berth No 7) 1 cable S of Shell
Pier, is T−headed, flanked by berthing dolphins 65 m apart,
with mooring dolphins, 120 m on each side of the pierhead
and closer inshore. Depth alongside 8·0 m.
Ships up to 170 m length can be accommodated.
Tidal streams set along the line of this berth.
3
Caltex Pier (Berth No 10) (5°22′·4N 100°22′·0E) at
Perai, consists of a mooring pontoon and berthing dolphins
5 cables offshore. There is a depth of about 10 m alongside,
but loaded tankers must cross the inner bar off Butterworth,
dredged to a depth of 11 m, and where an under−keel
allowance of 0·5 m is recommended.
4
The pier is connected by a submerged pipeline to the
shore NE, where there are prominent oil tanks, see also
1.42.
Large tankers berth on the W side of the pontoon, but
small tankers can berth on either side, dependent on the
tide.
Berths at Butterworth
5.321 1
North Butterworth Container Terminal (5°25′N
100°22′E) at Bagan Tuan Kecil comprises a container
terminal area and pier extending 6¾ cables offshore to a
pier extending about 900 m N/S providing berths on the
W side with depths of about 12 m. The S end of the pier is
marked by a light.
2
Butterworth Wharves (5°23′·3N 100°22′·0E),
approached from N through a channel (5.289), provide six
numbered berths, with dredged depths of 9·0 m alongside
(7⋅9 m to 8⋅8 m charted).
3
Three berths (Nos 4−6) are equipped for container
traffic, berthing space 497 m. No 6 berth, 155 m in length
has roll−on, roll−off facilities.
Three berths (Nos 1−3) are for general cargo, berthing
space 549 m.
4
Palm Oil (Tanker) Pier (Berth No 9) is at the S end of
Butterworth Wharves, at the N entrance to Sungai Perai. It
is 61 m in length, depth alongside 9·0 m and consists of a
concrete platform 34 m long and 15 m wide, connected to
the wharves by a gangway.
5.322 1
Ferry terminals, similar to those at Bandar Raya
Georgetown (5.318), are situated close N of the Ro−Ro
berth at Butterworth Wharves.
Restricted area for ferries is defined as being within a
radius of 183 m from the extremity of the terminals.
Exception. Vessels proceeding to Bagan Luar Esso Pier
(5.320) may enter this restricted area on the in−going tide
in daylight, but must display International Code Signal SZ
to indicate their intention.
Sungai Perai − Berths and general details
5.323 1
Sungai Perai is entered S of a dolphin (5°23′·0N
100°22′·1E), from which a light is exhibited, S of
Butterworth Wharves. The depth over the bar at the
entrance is 3·2 m. Vessels up to 107 m in length and 5 m
draught can enter the river at HW. The white sector
(063°−065°) of a light−beacon (white with red bands,
concrete), 5 cables ENE of the dolphin, leads into the river.
The coastline S of the entrance to Sungai Perai consists
of low mangroves.
2
Perai Wharf, suitable for coasters and lighters carrying
bulk cargo, is situated close within the entrance, along the
S bank of the river and has a total length of 840 m.
The wharf is connected to the railway system.
5.324 1
A railway swing bridge spans the river 5 cables within
the entrance. Traffic signals are exhibited from the bridge.
Details are:
A channel 30 m wide with a depth of 3·7 m exists on
each side of the centre pier when the bridge is
open.
2
With the bridge closed, the vertical clearance is
3·7 m. Lights are exhibited from the side piers of
the bridge and from the dolphins on which it rests
in the open position.
For prohibited anchorage area, see 5.302.
3
The following repair yards are situated on the N side of
the river, above the swing bridge:
Pinang Port Commission Dockyard (5.326).
Hong Leong−Lurssen Shipyard (5.326).
4
A road bridge, with vertical clearance of 3·7 m, spans
the river 9 cables NE of swing bridge.
Craft drawing 2 m can proceed 8 miles upriver to Kota.
A pontoon bridge spans the river in position (5°24′·6N
100°24′·3E) (chart 1366).
Perai
5.325 1
Perai bulk cargo terminal (Berth No 11) (5°22′N
100°22′E) is a T−head concrete jetty extending 6½ cables
W from the shore. The terminal is used for both liquid and
solid cargoes.
The berth on the outer face is 588 m in length with a
depth alongside of 10 m. An inner berth of length 154 m
has a depth alongside of 7·5 m.
For controlling depth in the dredged approach channel,
see 5.288.
Port services
Repairs
5.326 1
Facilities are available. There are a number of small
boatyards for the construction of wooden−hulled vessels
using conventional methods.
The principal repair yards are:
Hong Leong−Lurssen Shipyard (5°23′·9N 100°23′·0E),
at Perai; mechanical lift−dock 61 m long, capacity
800 tonnes.
CHAPTER 5
167
2
Pinang Shipbuilding Corporation (5°18′⋅7N
100°19′·0E), E side of Pulau Jerejak (5.278); small
floating dock, capacity 450 tonnes.
Note. The Pinang Port Commission (Bagan Dalam)
Dockyard at Butterworth (5°23′·6N 100°22′·6E) does not
accept private work.
Hards. Several small landing hards are available.
Divers. No locally based diving firms available. Divers
can be obtained at a short notice from Pelabuhan Klang or
Singapore.
Other facilities
5.327 1
Deratting and deratting exemption certificates can be
issued.
Limited facilities only for: ship chandlery; compass
adjustment; tank cleaning and hull painting.
Security: a private company can provide guards on
vessels as a 24 hour service. Thieves, often armed,
are not uncommon at jetties or at anchor.
Medical: Government and private medical and dental
treatment.
Supplies
5.328 1
Fuel and diesel oil supplied by lighter in the anchorages
or can be obtained from:
Bagan Luar Shell Pier, Bagan Luar Esso Pier, and
Caltex Pier (5.320).
Water is laid on to most piers and can also be obtained
from water boats.
Fresh provisions and stores of all kinds are readily
available.
Communications
5.329 1
Good road, rail, bus, air and ferry services.
Sea communication with other ports in Malaysia and
Indonesia.
Roll−on, Roll−off ferry vessels for passengers and
vehicles operate between terminals at:
Bandar Raya Georgetown (5°24′·8N 100°20′·6E)
(5.318).
2
Butterworth (5°23′·7N 100°21′·9E) (5.322).
The railway station is situated close by Butterworth ferry
terminal.
Bayan Lepas International Airport (5°17′N 100°16′E) is
on Pulau Pinang, 19 km distant from Bandar Raya
Georgetown.
COASTAL PASSAGE WEST OF PULAU
PINANG
General information
Charts 3944, 1366
Route
5.330 1
The coastal route off the W coast of Pulau Pinang leads
in a SSE direction outside the 20 m depth contour.
Topography
5.331 1
For topography of the interior of Pulau Pinang, see
5.245.
The coast S from Muka Head (5°28′N 100°11′E), the
NW extremity of Pulau Pinang, is rocky and backed by
densely wooded hills for 3½ miles.
2
Thence the coastline is mangrove for 7 miles S to
Tanjung Masari (5°18′N 100°11′E) and is backed by a strip
of cultivated land, 2 miles wide.
Thence a rocky headland rises to Bukit Pulau Betong
and terminates in Tanjung Gertak Sanggul, the SW
extremity of the island.
Caution
5.332
1
Fishing stakes, see 5.253.
Directions
(continued from 5.13 and 5.171)
Principal marks
5.333 1
Landmarks:
Muka Head (5°28′N 100°11′E) (5.263).
Bukit Pulau Betong (396 m high to the top of the
trees) (5°18′N 100°12′E).
Major lights:
Muka Head Light (5°28′N 100°11′E) (5.263).
Pulau Rimau Light (5°14′⋅8N 100°16′⋅6E) (5.275).
West of Pulau Pinang
5.334 1
From a position NW of Muka Head (5°28′N 100°11′E)
the track leads generally SSE passing (with positions from
Muka Head):
WSW of Muka Head, thence:
WSW of Batu Kawah Laut (1 mile S), a rock 1 m in
height, thence:
2
WSW of Pulau Betong (9½ miles S), thence:
WSW of Pulau Kendi (14 miles S), (5.275), and:
Clear of two dangerous wrecks, 4 miles and 7½ miles
W, respectively, of Pulau Kendi
The track continues SSE to a position in the approaches
to Pinang SW of Pulau Rimau Light (5°14′⋅8N 100°16′⋅6E).
5.335 1
Useful marks:
Sungai Pinang Light (white square concrete column)
(5°23′·5N 100°11′·5E), a fishing light.
Kuala Jalan Baru Light (white column on piles)
(5°20′·9N 100°11′·6E), a fishing light.
Light (white pillar on rocks) (5°18′·6N 100°11′·6E)
on the coast 6 cables SE of Pulau Betong.
(Directions continue for the coastal route off
W side of Outer Kra Bank at 6.12.
Directions for the through route to
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank)
Separation Scheme are given at 2.52)
1366
3944
3945
3946
3940 2139
3947
1141
2403
1140
1140
3945
2155
2153
1358
1353
792
5502 Mariners’ Routeing Guide
2152
0406
M A L A Y S I A
S U M A T E R A
Tanjung
Piai
Pulau
Undan
Port Dickson
Pelabuhan
Klang Lumut
Pulau Pangkor
Pulau
Pinang
Chapter 6 - Malacca Strait - Eastern shore, Pulau Pinang to Tanjung Piai
P. Terong
Sungai Manjung
Sungai Perak
Melaka
T. Tohor
T. Laboh
Sungai Udang
Chapter
5
Cha
p
ter 2
Chap
ter 2
Chapter
4
Chapter
4
Chapter
4
Chapter
7
Ch 7
6.8
6.33
6.110
6.144
6.225
6.269
6.302
6.337 6.350
6.367
6.160
6.122
6.82
6.58
6.46
6.169
6.237
6.313
6.281
100°
30´
101°
30´
102°
30´
103°
30´
Longitude 102° East from Greenwich
100°
30´
101°
30´
103°
30´
30´
5°
30´
4°
30´
3°
30´
2°
1°
30´
30´
5°
30´
4°
30´
3°
30´
2°
1°
30´
168
169
CHAPTER 6
MALACCA STRAIT—EASTERN SHORE − PULAU PINANG TO TANJUNG PIAI
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1353, 1358
Scope of the chapter
6.1 1
This chapter describes the coastal passage between Pulau
Pinang and the entrance to Singapore Strait at Tanjung Piai;
it is divided into the following four sections:
Pulau Pinang (5°23′N 100°15′E) to Pulau Pangkor
(4°14′N 100°34′E), including Sungai Manjung
(Sungai Dinding) and the port of Lumut, (6.5).
2
Pulau Pangkor to Pelabuhan Klang (3°00′N
101°24′E), including Pelabuhan Klang, (6.106).
Pelabuhan Klang to Pulau Undan (2°03′N 102°20′E)
and the Water Island, (6.222).
Pulau Undan to Tanjung Piai (1°16′N 103°31′E),
(6.333).
Through route
6.2 1
For the through route leading from W of Pulau Pinang
through the Malacca Strait TSS, see Chapter 2.
Piracy
6.3
1
Piracy is prevalent in Malacca Strait, including offshore
waters, and has occurred off Malaysian ports. Details of
recommended practices concerning piracy, radio reports and
urgency messages are given in Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1 (2). For further details see 1.70 to 1.74.
Tidal streams
6.4 1
The approximate time differences between HW at Kuala
Batu Pahat (1°48′N 102°53′E) and the occurrence of
maximum rate of the NW−going stream at various places
off the Malaysian Coast are as follows:
Position Time interval
2
Pasir Utara
(3°05′N 101°00′E) (6.164) – 0130
Off Kuala Sungai Selangor (3°20′N 101°14′E) (6.156) – 0130
Selat Klang Utara
(3°02′N 101°21′E) (6.195) 0000
Pulau Pintu Gedung (2°54′N 101°15′E) (6.196) + 0100
3
Selat Klang Selatan (2°56′N 101°17′E) (6.196) + 0130
NW of Port Dickson (2°31′N 101°47′E) (6.228) + 0200
Off Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E) (6.272) + 0230
Off Melaka
(2°12′N 102°15′E) (6.304) + 0400
4
Off Permatang Kuala (1°46′N 102°49′E) (6.352) + 0500
Off Pulau Pisang
(1°28′N 103°15′E) (6.369) + 0630
5
The same time differences applied to LW at Kuala Batu
Pahat give the approximate times of the maximum rate of
SE−going stream. Slack water occurs about 3 hours before
the maximum rate.
More accurate predictions for some positions off the
coast can be obtained from stations on the charts and from
daily predictions in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3.
PULAU PINANG TO PULAU PANGKOR
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3944
Scope of the section
6.5 1
This section describes the coastal passage off the W
coast of Malaysia from the vicinity of 5°06′N 100°07′E,
SSW of Pulau Pinang, to S of Pulau Pangkor, about
65 miles SSE.
The passage is divided into the following parts:
SSW of Pulau Pinang to W of Pulau Terong, 27 miles
SSE, (6.8).
2
WSW of Pulau Terong (4°43′N 100°37′E) to Pulau
Pangkor, 32 miles SSE, (6.33).
W coast of Pulau Pangkor (4°14′N 100°34′E) and
Pulau Pangkor Laut (6.46).
Approaches to Sungai Manjung (4°15′N 100°35′E)
and Lumut (6.58).
Lumut (4°14′N 100°38′E) (6.82).
Topography
6.6 1
The coastline is composed of mangrove swamps fronted
by shallow banks and backed by hills 10 to 15 miles
inland. South of Tanjung Batu (4°26′N 100°36′E) the
mangroves and banks cease and the hills come down to the
shore.
Fishing stakes
6.7
1
Fishing stakes exist in many of the waters of this area,
particularly within the 10 m depth contour, see notes on
charts.
CHAPTER 6
170
SOUTH OF PULAU PINANG TO PULAU
TERONG
General information
Charts 3944, 1366
Routes
6.8 1
From a position SSW of Pulau Pinang (5°23′N
100°15′E) the coastal route passes WSW of Outer Kra
Bank (4°58′N 100°18′E), in depths greater than 20 m, to a
position WSW of Pulau Terong (4°43′N 100°37′E).
An inshore passage (6.16), used by small local craft,
passes between Outer Kra Bank and Tanjung Piandang
(5°05′N 100°22′E), linking small river ports along the
coast.
Topography
6.9 1
There is practically a continuous strip of mangrove
forest between Kuala Kerian (5°10′N 100°25′E) and
Tanjung Batu (4°26′N 100°36′E), which varies in width
from 5 cables to 7 miles. These mangroves are gradually
extending seaward as the deposits from the muddy creeks
increase the width of the mud−flats.
2
The mangrove coast between Kuala Kerian and Tanjung
Piandang (6 miles SSW), is low and ill−defined. Close
within the mangrove coastline, embankments have been
built, within which the countryside is extensively cultivated
with rice, rubber and coconut.
Caution
6.10 1
For general remarks on fish traps and stakes around
Pulau Pinang see 5.253. For a particular caution affecting
South Channel, SE of Pulau Pinang, see 5.271.
The numerous fish−traps on Outer Kra Bank (4°58′N
100°18′E) give a good radar response, and are situated
from the N end of this bank in a SSE direction towards
Tanjung Hantu (4°19′N 100°34′E) within the 5 m depth
contour.
Tidal streams
6.11 1
At a position 2 miles W of Tanjung Krang (4°47′N
100°35′E) the stream sets:
SE from + 0530 to – 0045 HW Pelabuhan Klang.
Directions
(continued from 5.335)
Principal marks
6.12 1
Landmarks. The following hills, some 10 to 15 miles
inland of the seaward edge of the mangrove coastline, are
frequently visible and may provide the only reliable aids to
navigation by day between Pulau Kendi (5°14′N 100°11′E)
(5.275) at the entrance to South Channel, Pinang, and
Tanjung Hantu (4°19′N 100°34′E) (6.37):
Bukit Mertajam (5°22′N 100°29′E) (5.269).
Bukit Panchor (5°08′N 100°33′E) (5.269).
Gunung Semanggol (4°57′N 100°40′E).
2
Gunung Hijau (4°52′N 100°49′E), which is part of a
long massif and is not readily distinguishable, but
radio masts at Caulfields Hill, 6 cables W of the
summit, can be seen in good visibility. At night
these masts are usually illuminated by very bright
lights visible up to 50 miles distant.
Gunung Bubu (4°41′N 100°49′E), the highest peak in
the area, with a saw−tooth summit.
3
Bukit Segari (4°24′N 100°37′E) (6.37).
Major light:
Pulau Rimau Light (5°14′·8N 100°16′·6E) (5.275).
Coastal route
6.13 1
From the vicinity of 5°06′N 100°07′E, the coastal route
leads SSE, outside the 20 m depth contour, passing (with
positions from Tanjung Piandang Light (5°05′N 100°22′E)):
Clear of four dangerous wrecks charted up to
4½ miles W of the N extremity of Outer Kra Bank
(7 miles W). See caution at 5.276 regarding a lack
of reliance upon radar ranges of Tanjung Piandang.
Thence:
2
WSW of Outer Kra Bank, an extensive bank lying up
to 8 miles offshore. In 1996, less water was
reported in the vicinity of 4°56′·9N 100°15′·6E, as
shown on the chart. Thence:
WSW of a dangerous wreck (mast) (15 miles S).
3
The route continues SSE to a position WSW of Pulau
Terong (27 miles SE).
Clearing bearings
6.14
1
To clear the NW extremity of Outer Kra Bank, see
5.276.
Useful marks
6.15 1
Tanjung Piandang Light (5°05′N 100°22′E) (6.17).
Kuala Kurau Light (5°00′N 100°25′E) (6.17).
Kuala Larut Light (4°47′N 100°33′E) (6.17).
(Directions continue for the coastal route S
of Pulau Terong at 6.37)
Side and entrance channels between Kuala
Kerian and Kuala Kurau
Inshore passage
6.16 1
Local knowledge is required.
Inshore passage between Kuala Kerian (5°10′N
100°25′E) and the approaches to Port Weld, 20 miles SSE,
is suitable only for small craft.
6.17 1
Fishing lights are exhibited as follows:
Kuala Kerian Light (red square on white piled
structure) (5°11′N 100°25′E).
Sungai Chenaam Light (white tower on piles) (5°08′N
100°23′E) exhibited from the entrance to Sungai
Chenaam, a small river.
Tanjung Piandang Light (white metal framework
tower, concrete base, on piles) (5°05′N 100°22′E),
standing close off the mangroves at Tanjung
Piandang.
2
Kuala Kurau Light (white framework tower, concrete
base; 9 m in height) (5°00′N 100°25′E) standing
on the N side of the channel over the bar at Kuala
Kurau.
Kuala Larut Light (black metal framework tower,
white stripes, on piles; 4 m in height) (4°47′N
100°33′E), standing on the N side of the entrance
to Kuala Larut.
CHAPTER 6
171
Sungai Kerian
6.18 1
Sungai Kerian, which is entered at Kuala Kerian (5°10′N
100°25′E), across drying mud−flats with no noticeable
channel, forms the boundary between Seberang Perai and
Perak. A large fishing village stands close within the S
bank.
A light (6.17) is exhibited from a position off the
entrance to Sungai Kerian.
The river is navigable by small craft, not exceeding 2 m
draught, as far as Parit Buntar (5°08′N 100°30′E), 6 miles
from the entrance. Craft drawing 1·2 m can proceed
40 miles above the entrance.
Chart 3944
Kuala Kurau
6.19 1
Description. Kuala Kurau (4°59′N 100°24′E) is
approached from NW by the channel between Tanjung
Piandang and Outer Kra Bank. The bar at the entrance to
Kuala Kurau dries at LW.
The river is mainly used by small local cargo craft and
by local fishing craft.
2
Near HW, craft of 1·8 m draught can reach Bagan Serai
(5°01′N 100°32′E), 15 miles within the entrance. Craft
drawing 1 m can proceed 20 miles above the entrance.
A light (5°00′N 100°25′E) (6.17) is exhibited from the
entrance to the river..
Berths:
3
At the settlement of Kuala Kurau, 2 miles within the
river entrance: a concrete jetty 11 m long, with
depth of 2·4 m alongside.
At Bagan Serai: a wharf with depth of 2·1 m
alongside, sometimes used by vessels up to 75 dwt.
Communications. A ferry (capacity 6 tonnes) links the
estates S of the river with the main road system. A private
ferry links the estates SE of Bagan Serai.
Approaches to Port Weld
Approach channels
6.20 1
Port Weld (4°50′N 100°38′E) (6.30) used by local craft,
is approached by any of the following routes:
Sungai Selinsing (4°54′N 100°33′E) (6.25), from W
through Teluk Selinsing.
Sungai Sangga Besar (4°51′N 100°35′E) (6.26), from
W through Teluk Selinsing is the direct route to
Port Weld.
Sungai Sapetang (4°51′N 100°30′E) (6.29), from S
through Kuala Larut (6.28).
2
Sungai Selinsing may be approached through Sungai
Terusan Gula (6.23) using Kuala Gula (6.22) or Kuala
Kalumpong (6.23).
Local knowledge is required for all these channels.
Tidal levels
6.21 1
See 6.30.
Kuala Gula
6.22 1
Approach. Kuala Gula (4°54′N 100°26′E) is approached
from NW between Outer Kra Bank and the low mangrove
mainland coast. There are depths of over 2 m in this
channel. Across the entrance to Kuala Gula, a bar with a
least charted depth of 0·6 m, lies 2 miles SW of the
entrance to Sungai Gula.
2
Sungai Gula, with a small fishing village at its mouth,
is used principally by fishing boats. It is navigable at HW
by craft of 1·8 m draught for about 7 miles where it joins
Sungai Kalumpong (6.23).
Kuala Kalumpong
6.23 1
Approach. Kuala Kalumpong (4°53′N 100°27′E) is
approached from NW by the same channel as that to Kuala
Gula (6.22), from which it is separated by a tongue of soft
drying mud.
An obstruction (4°52′·5N 100°25′·5E), with a charted
depth of 0·3 m over it, lies 2 miles SW of the entrance to
Kuala Kalumpong.
2
The approach is not easy to distinguish except at LW.
There are no convenient leads.
The entrance, 5 cables wide, is between unmarked
mudbanks with a least charted depth of 0·3 m in the
channel. With local knowledge, a depth of 0·9 m may be
followed into the river, where depths increase.
3
Sungai Kalumpong flows between Pulau Gula (4°55′N
100°30′E) and Pulau Kalumpong, close S and E, both
mangrove forest reserves. It joins Sungai Gula in position
4°55′·5N 100°31′·8E, to form Sungai Terusan Gula.
Sungai Terusan Gula is navigable at HW by craft of
1·8 m draught as far as the junction with Sungai Selinsing,
5 miles farther upstream; thence through Sungai Selinsing
(6.25) to Port Weld.
Teluk Selinsing
6.24
1
Description. Teluk Selinsing (4°51′N 100°30′E) is a
shallow bay which forms the common entrance to Sungai
Selinsing (6.25) and Sungai Sangga Besar (6.26), both of
which lead to Port Weld.
Close N of Teluk Selinsing is Pulau Kalumpong, the W
shore of which is reported to be advancing seaward rapidly.
Topography. The shores of Teluk Selinsing are fringed
with wide drying mudbanks which reduce the widths of the
main channels to 2½ cables each. The extent and shape of
these banks are subject to frequent change.
2
Approach may be made from NW, which is the main
channel, or from S, passing W of Tanjung Nibong (4°50′N
100°33′E) the W extremity of Pulau Sangga Kecil.
The main bar, situated about 2½ miles NW of Tanjung
Nibong, has depths from 0·3 to 0·6 m over it.
6.25 1
Sungai Selinsing (4°52′·5N 100°32′·5E), leads from
Teluk Selinsing to Sungai Terusan Gula (6.23) and thence
to Port Weld (6.30), but the channel is circuitous and little
used.
6.26 1
Sungai Sangga Besar (4°51′N 100°35′E) is the direct
route to Port Weld (6.30) via Teluk Selinsing.
Directions. From Teluk Selinsing the approach is
generally E, leading on Tanjung Kra Puteh, the NW point
of Pulau Sangga Kecil (4°50′N 100°34′E), thence in mid
channel, passing:
2
1½ cables N of Tanjung Kra Puteh, thence:
1½ cables N of Bagan Kuala Sangga Besar, which is
prominent, close E of Tanjung Kra Puteh, thence:
S of Tanjung Hutan Melintang, the SW point of
Pulau Selinsing, a mangrove forest reserve, thence:
CHAPTER 6
172
3
The channel continues to Port Weld passing:
N of a small island (4°50′·2N 100°37′·1E), near the
junction with Sungai Sapetang, thence:
Across a bar with a depth of 0·9 m over it, which lies
between the island and Port Weld. When over this
bar depths increase to more than 3 m.
6.27 1
Sungai Sangga Kecil (4°49′N 100°33′E) is entered S of
Teluk Selinsing, between Pulau Sangga Kecil and Pulau
Sangga Besar. It joins Sungai Sangga Besar.
Kuala Larut
6.28 1
Kuala Larut is a wide estuary entered between Tanjung
Krang (4°47′·5N 100°34′·2E), the SW extremity of Pulau
Sangga Besar, and Tanjung Burong, 2 miles SSE, the NW
extremity of Pulau Terong.
The bar at the entrance has a least depth of 0⋅3 m.
Tidal stream details are at 6.11.
2
Kuala Larut Light stands on the N side of the entrance,
1½ miles WSW of Tanjung Krang.
The navigable channel, the course of which is best seen
on the chart, leads on the S side of Kuala Larut and is
restricted to a width of about 5 cables between extensive
mudbanks which fringe both shores. The channel is
difficult to follow and local craft use their own marks.
6.29 1
Sungai Larut and Sungai Sapetang. Kuala Larut
divides either side of Tanjung Jaha (4°46′·5N 100°36′·8E)
into:
Sungai Larut, leading NE into Sungai Sapetang,
thence N to Port Weld (6.30), and:
Sungai Limau, leading SE to Terong (6.41).
Sungai Larut leads generally NE with the navigable
channel about 1½ cables off the mangroves on the SE
bank.
2
About 1½ miles NE of Tanjung Jaha the channel
divides. On the N side, Sungai Sapetang (4°49′N 100°38′E)
is entered over a bar which dries. This part of the channel
changes frequently and local knowledge is essential.
When within the entrance to Sungai Sapetang the
channel deepens, and depths of 1·8 m can be maintained to
Port Weld.
Port Weld and Taiping
Port Weld
6.30 1
General information. Port Weld (4°50′N 100°38′E) is
used only by small local craft and fishing craft which land
fish for distribution. Exports are charcoal and firewood,
mainly to Pinang.
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3. Mean spring range about 1·8 m; mean neap range
about 0·6 m.
6.31
1
Anchorage. Craft up to 15 m length can anchor abreast
the main front of Port Weld, in depths from 2⋅0 to 2⋅7 m.
Berths. Two concrete T−headed jetties:
Customs Jetty, the most N 27 m long, dries, mud.
Government Jetty, 12 m long, dries alongside, mud.
At HW springs, the top of the jetty is awash. The
jetty is chiefly used by fishing craft.
Other facility. Customs.
Supplies. Small quantities of water and provisions.
Communications. By road and rail with Taiping (6.32).
Taiping
6.32 1
Taiping (4°51′N 100°44′E) is the old capital of Perak
State, and the second largest town of the state.
Trade. Products are rice, rubber, tin and coconuts.
Other facilities. Government offices and military
hospital.
Communications: road and rail with Ipoh and
Butterworth (5.329); small airfield.
PULAU TERONG TO PULAU PANGKOR
General information
Chart 3944 (see 1.17)
Route
6.33 1
The coastal route continues SSE from a position WSW
of Pulau Terong (4°43′N 100°37′E) keeping outside the
20 m depth contour and passing WSW of Pulau Pangkor
(4°14′N 100°34′E) situated off the entrance to Sungai
Manjung.
Topography
6.34 1
From Pulau Terong the mangrove coastline continues S
as far as Tanjung Batu (4°26′N 100°36′E).
South of Tanjung Batu the coastline is either steep with
a rocky shore or consists of sandy beach. This portion is
cut off from E by the Segari Range of hills, (6.37), about
2 miles inland, which are densely wooded.
For Pulau Pangkor see 6.47.
Fishing
6.35 1
Numerous fish−traps and stakes are situated within the
10 m depth contour from W of Pulau Terong towards
Tanjung Hantu, 22 miles S, (6.37).
The area within the 20 m depth contour, which lies
about 8 miles W of Pulau Talang (4°25′N 100°35′E) and
4 miles W of Tanjung Hantu is much used by fishing
vessels.
2
Lines of floating fishing stakes supporting nets may be
encountered anywhere within 10 miles of the coast, but
particularly between Beting Batu Malang (4°23′N
100°32′E) and a line of permanent fish−traps near the 10 m
depth contour, about 4 miles W of this bank.
Tidal streams
6.36 1
For offshore tidal streams, see 6.11.
Directions
(continued from 6.15)
Landmarks
6.37 1
Bukit Segari (4°24′N 100°37′E), the highest and most
N peak of Segari Range. This range,
saddle−shaped, and sometimes known as False
Dindings, is a good landmark from W and SW;
from N it resembles Pulau Pangkor, 8 miles SSW.
2
Tanjung Hantu (4°19′N 100°34′E), a sloping grassy
point, rising to Bukit Tanjung Hantu, 7 cables NNE
of the point.
Bukit Pangkor (4°14′N 100°34′E), the highest point
of Pulau Pangkor.
For landmarks among the inland hills E of Pulau
Terong, see 6.12.
CHAPTER 6
173
Coastal route
6.38 1
From a position WSW of Pulau Terong (4°43′N
100°37′E), the coastal route leads SSE outside the 20 m
depth contour, passing (with positions from Tanjung Hantu
(4°19′N 100°34′E)):
WSW of a dangerous wreck (21½ miles NNW),
position approximate, thence:
WSW of Pulau Talang (7 miles N), a rocky island,
from where a light is exhibited, thence:
2
WSW of Beting Batu Malang, a bank, very shallow
in parts, extending up to 6½ miles NNW.
The track continues SSE to a position W of Tanjung
Hantu (6.37), from where a light (white tower, 6 m in
height) is exhibited.
The coastal route then either continues SSE passing
WSW of Pulau Pangkor, or:
3
For the approach to Sungai Manjung via Alur Barat Laut
(North West Channel), the track continues SE to a position
N of Pulau Tukun Terindak (2¾ miles SW) (6.69), an islet
off the NW extremity of Pulau Pangkor, or:
For the approach to Sungai Manjung via Alur Atara
(North Channel), the track continues E towards Tanjung
Hantu.
6.39 1
Useful marks:
Group of powerful white lights, visible about
50 miles, occasionally exhibited from Gunung
Kledang (4°36′N 101°01′E) (chart 1353).
Kuala Beruas (Bruas) Light (white tower, red bands)
(4°27′N 100°37′E).
(Directions continue for the route
W of Pulau Pangkor at 6.50,
for Alur Atara to Sungai Manjung at 6.65,
and for Alur Barat Laut to Sungai Manjung at 6.69)
Side and entrance channels
Kuala Terong
6.40 1
Description. Kuala Terong (4°39′N 100°35′E) is an
estuary situated between Tanjung Londang, the SW
extremity of Pulau Terong and Pulau Pasir Hitam, a
mangrove forest reserve, 1½ miles S.
The coast is reported to be receding in the vicinity of
Tanjung Londang, and the fringing mudbank is littered with
tree stumps.
There is a concrete jetty at Bagan Pasir Hitam, a fishing
village close E of Tanjung Burong (4°39′N 100°37′E), the
N extremity of Pulau Pasir Hitam.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. Kuala Terong is approached across a bar
3 miles long, with charted depths from 0·3 to 0·9 m over it.
The deeper water is on the S side.
The recommended track across the estuary leads along
the NW coast of Pulau Pasir Hitam, where there are depths
of 1·2 m.
6.41 1
Rivers within the estuary:
Craft of 1·8 m draught can proceed S through Sungai
Tinggi (entered E of Tanjung Burong) to Bagan
Panchor (6.42).
Craft of 1·5 m draught can proceed N at LW through
Sungai Terong to the bar at Sungai Limau (6.29),
where it enters Kuala Larut.
2
Craft of up to 0·9 m draught can:
Cross the bar into Kuala Larut (6.28), or:
Proceed up the small river S of Sungai Terong to
Terong.
Communications. Terong (4°42′N 100°43′E) stands on
the main W coast road. At Bagan Pasir Hitam (6.40) there
is a police station in VHF contact with the main police net.
Kuala Jarum Mas
6.42 1
Description. Kuala Jarum Mas (4°32′N 100°35′E) is an
estuary situated between Tanjung Pasir Ringgit, the S
extremity of Pulau Pasir Hitam (6.40), and a mangrove
point on the mainland, 1¼ miles SE, near Bagan Panchor.
On the SW part of Pulau Pasir Hitam, rapid growth
seaward of the mangrove has been experienced.
Local knowledge is required. Many fishing stakes and
traps encumber the channel.
6.43 1
Directions. The best approach to Kuala Jarum Mas is
between the SW coast of Pulau Pasir Hitam and a drying
bank, 3 miles SW.
Approach can also be made from S, in a least depth of
0·3 m, by passing between the offshore drying bank
(already mentioned) and the mudbanks fringing the
mainland coast.
2
The recommended track leads ESE with Kuala Jarum
Mas Light (white column on piles, 6 m in height) (4°32′N
100°38′E) bearing 105°. A depth of 0·6 m can be
maintained on this track, but with local knowledge, a depth
of 0·9 m has been achieved. The light−structure, which is
not easily distinguishable, stands on the fringe of drying
mud 30 m N of the mangroves.
3
Rivers within the estuary:
Craft of 1·8 m draught can proceed N through Sungai
Jarum Mas to join Sungai Tinggi (6.41).
Craft of 0·9 m draught can, at LW, proceed up Sungai
Panchor (which is entered close E of Bagan
Panchor) to Panchor, 1½ miles upriver.
Sungai Beruas
6.44 1
Description. Kuala Beruas (Bruas) (4°27′N 100°37′E) is
the narrow entrance to Sungai Beruas (Bruas), 2 miles NE
of Tanjung Batu, and is not easily visible from seaward.
The entrance is marked by a light−tower (6.39).
W of the entrance there is a narrow bar, 5 cables wide,
which dries at LW.
2
Although narrow, the river is much used by fishing
boats which land catches 3½ miles upriver at Pengkalan
Bahru (4°28′ ℑ00°38′E), a small town which is on the
route of a main all−weather road.
It is reported that sampans and small craft can navigate
for 60 miles up this river.
Local knowledge is required.
Charts 792, 3944
Channel close west of Tanjung Hantu
6.45 1
Description. A narrow inshore channel leads between
the coast close N of Tanjung Hantu Light (4°18′⋅6N
100°33′⋅6E) (6.38) and a shoal patch of less than 2 m on
Beting Batu Malang (6.38), 6 cables NW.
Directions. The track leads generally S, passing (with
positions from the light):
W of a rock (11½ cables NNE), which dries 2·1 m,
thence:
2
E of a 0·8 m patch (7 cables NW) on Beting Batu
Malang, thence:
Over a bank with depth of 4⋅1 m (2½ cables WNW).
CHAPTER 6
174
The track then continues S to a position W of Tanjung
Hantu, at the N end of Alur Utara which leads to Sungai
Manjung.
(Directions continue for
Alur Utara to Sungai Manjung at 6.65)
WEST COAST OF PULAU PANGKOR AND
PANGKOR LAUT
General information
Charts 792, 3944
Route
6.46 1
The coastal route continues generally SSE passing WSW
of Pulau Pangkor (4°14′N 100°34′E) and Pulau Pangkor
Laut (close SW of Pulau Pangkor).
It should be noted that the harbour limits of Lumut
extend W of these islands, as shown on the chart and as
detailed at 6.85.
Topography
6.47 1
Pulau Pangkor is an island 5 miles in length lying off
the mainland coast and separated from it by Selat Manjung
(Selat Dinding) (6.58).
The island is very hilly and densely wooded, rising to
an elevation of 371 m in the N part.
Piracy
6.48
1
Piracy has occurred off Pulau Pangkor, see 6.3.
Tidal streams
6.49 1
The streams set N and S along the coast off the W side
of Pulau Pangkor.
Directions
(continued from 6.39)
Principal marks
6.50 1
Landmarks:
Bukit Pangkor (4°14′N 100°34′E) (6.37).
Chimney (red obstruction lights) (4°09′⋅6N
100°38′⋅5E), 210 m in height, at power station at
Lekir.
Major light:
Batuan Putih (White Rock) Light (4°00′N 100°31′E)
(6.114).
Coastal route
6.51 1
From a position W of Tanjung Hantu Light (4°18′⋅6N
100°33′⋅6E) (6.38), the route leads SSE passing (with
positions from Pulau Tukun Terindak (4°16′·3N
100°32′·1E)):
WSW of Tanjung Batu Kerbau (6 cables SSE),
thence:
WSW of Tanjung Teluk Batuk (1½ miles S), thence:
WSW of Pulau Mentangor (2½ miles S), thence:
2
To a position SW of Pulau Dua (5 miles S), two
wooded islets, 1 cable apart with deep water
between, off the SW extremity of Pulau Pangkor
Laut.
The coastal route then continues generally S to pass
either side of, or through, the island group of Kepulauan
Sembilan (15 miles S).
3
Alternatively, for South Entrance to Selat Manjung, the
track continues generally E to the LMT pilot boarding
position 8 cables S of Tanjung Terengganu (6.72), the SE
extremity of Pulau Pangkor; for Lekir Bulk Terminal the
tracks leads SE to the LBT pilot boarding position, 3 miles
SW, see 6.61.
6.52 1
Useful marks:
Tanjung Hantu Light (4°18′⋅6N 100°33′⋅6E) (6.38).
Tanjung Terengganu Light (4°11′N 100°35′E) (6.72).
Pulau Katak Light (4°09′N 100°37′E) (6.75).
Bukit Kampung Gedong (4°12′N 100°34′E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route S
of Pulau Pangkor at 6.114, for South Entrance to
Sungai Manjung via Selat Manjung at 6.72,
and for Lekir Bulk Terminal at 6.76)
(Directions for Sungai Perak are given at 6.128)
Side channels
Channel between Pulau Pangkor Laut and Pulau
Pangkor
6.53 1
Description. The channel between the two islands has a
minimum width of 2 cables and is deep.
Tidal streams. SW of Pulau Pangkor, and between this
island and Pulau Pangkor Laut, the streams set SE and NW
at a rate from 2 to 3½ kn at springs.
Directions. From W, the channel is entered between the
N extremity of Pulau Pangkor Laut (4°12′N 100°33′E) and
Pulau Simpan, 3 cables N, the S−most of two islets off
Tanjung Sungai Udang.
2
Thence the track continues generally SE passing:
SW of a sandy beach near the N end of the bay
between Tanjung Sungai Udang and Tanjung
Siapu, 1½ miles SE, thence,
To a position SW of Tanjung Siapu where the deepest
water lies closer to that headland.
3
Prohibited anchorage: between Pulau Pangkor and
Pulau Pangkor Laut as shown on the chart.
Teluk Sekadeh (4°11′·4E, 100°34′·4E) is a slight
indentation in the coast 7 cables ESE of Tanjung Siapu. It
is used by local fishing craft and has a small village at its
head.
Channel east of Pulau Mentangor
6.54 1
The narrow passage (4°13′·6N 100°32′·4E) between the
E end of Pulau Mentangor and the mainland of Pulau
Pangkor has a depth of 2 m at HW, but the channel is foul
and is not recommended, except for small craft in good
conditions.
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorages
Teluk Belanga
6.55 1
Description. Teluk Belanga is entered between Tanjung
Batu Kerbau (4°16′N 100°32′E), the NW extremity of
Pulau Pangkor, and Tanjung Teluk Batuk, 1 mile S.
The bay, which shoals gradually to its head, is much
used by fishermen. It contains several obstructions off the S
cliffs, which are probably the remains of fishing activities.
2
The bay offers good holding ground and an attractive
beach when not in use by local seine−net fishermen.
CHAPTER 6
175
Anchorage is recommended 5 cables NNE of Tanjung
Teluk Batuk in a depth of 8 m.
Labuhan Barat
6.56 1
Description. Labuhan Barat, an anchorage providing
good holding ground, is entered between Tanjung Teluk
Batuk (4°14′⋅7N 100°32′⋅2E) and the W extremity of Pulau
Mentangor, 1 mile SSW.
Pulau Giam, a steep wooded islet in the middle of the
bay, lies 6 cables SSE of Tanjung Teluk Batuk.
2
Anchorage is recommended 2½ cables WNW of Pulau
Giam, in a depth of 9 m; two isolated shoals, 0⋅9 m and
1⋅2 m, lie within 2 cables of the S side of the bay.
Teluk Nipah, between Pulau Giam and Pulau Mentangor,
has several rocky patches and is not recommended as an
anchorage.
Teluk Ketapang
6.57 1
Description. Teluk Ketapang is entered between Pulau
Mentangor (4°14′N 100°32′E) and Tanjung Sungai Udang,
1¼ miles SSE.
The bay provides good holding ground in the deep water
between a series of rocky ridges extending 1 mile S of the
W end of Pulau Mentangor.
Anchorage is recommended 7½ cables WNW of
Tanjung Sungai Udang, in a depth of 25 m.
APPROACHES TO SUNGAI MANJUNG AND
LUMUT
General information
Chart 792
Routes
6.58 1
Three channels lead to the main fairway of Sungai
Manjung (Sungai Dinding) (4°15′N 100°35′E) and thence
to Lumut:
Selat Manjung (6.72), the principal and most commonly
used channel by all except local craft, which leads from
South Entrance, off Tanjung Terringganu (4°11′N 100°35′E)
(6.72), thence close off the E coast of Pulau Pangkor.
2
Alur Utara (6.66), which leads from Tanjung Hantu
(4°19′N 100°34′E) (6.37) to Motts Point (4°15′·4N
100°35′·5E).
Alur Barat Laut (6.69), which leads S of Beting Batu
Malang (4°17′N 100°33′E) (6.38) along the N coast of
Pulau Pangkor (6.59).
All three channels meet at River Passage (4°15′N
100°35′E), 7 cables W of Motts Point, thence Sungai
Manjung leads ESE to Lumut Harbour.
3
Lekir Bulk Terminal (6.103) is approached direct from
the pilot boarding position (6.61) passing S of Pulau
Pangkor.
Topography
6.59 1
Pulau Pangkor (4°14′N 100°34′E) (6.47) is separated
from the mainland by Selat Manjung, about 1 mile wide.
The land within the NE coast of Pulau Pangkor, and
Teluk Belanga (6.55) on the W coast, is low−lying and
cultivated.
Hills rising to elevations of about 330 m stand on each
side of Sungai Manjung in the vicinity of Lumut (4°14′
ℑ00°38′E).
Depths
6.60 1
Draught and length are limited by depths on the bar and
the sharp turn at the entrance to Sungai Manjung. The
controlling depths are:
Over the bar (4°11′⋅0N 100°34′⋅8E) leading from
Selat Manjung and Alur Utara to Sungai Manjung
there is a least depth of 7⋅7 m close E of River
Passage Light−buoy (safe water);
Selat Manjung (6.72), 11·3 m in position 4°11′·8N
100°35′·2E;
2
Alur Utara (6.66), 4·1 m over the bar of Beting Batu
Malang (6.38), W of Tanjung Hantu;
Alur Barat Laut (6.69), least charted depth 4⋅3 m on
leading line, 3 cables N of Tanjung Awang Kecil
Light (4°15′⋅2N 100°33′⋅9E);
The bar (4°15′⋅1N 100°35′⋅5E) of Sungai Manjung
has a least depth of about 8⋅2 m.
3
Lekir Bulk Terminal (6.103) has a minimum depth of
19⋅8 m in the approach to the terminal.
Pilotage
6.61 1
Pilotage is compulsory for Lumut Maritime Terminal and
Lekir Bulk Terminal. The boarding position for Lumut
Maritime Terminal (LMT) is at 4°10′⋅5N 100°35′⋅0E, and
for Lekir Bulk Terminal (LBT) at 4°09′⋅0N 100°33′⋅0E, as
shown on the chart. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorage
6.62 1
Anchorage may be obtained at South Entrance close to
harbour limits, 7 cables S of Tanjung Terengganu (4°11′N
100°35′E), in a depth of 22 m, sand and shells; reported to
be good holding ground; the quarantine anchorage lies
8 cables SSW of the point with depths of about 14 m.
Prohibited area and reclamation area
6.63
1
Entry is prohibited in the area centred about 4°13′·9N
100°35′·3E, as shown on the chart; the area includes Lumut
Naval Base (6.101) and a degaussing range (6.96). This
area extends E as described at 6.93. Within the area W and
S of Tanjung Batu Putih (4°14′·6N 100°35′·6E) many
rocks, shoals, beacons, buoys and platforms exist as shown
on the chart.
Close S of the prohibited area reclamation works are in
progress (2002) in Teluk Muroh.
Tidal streams
6.64 1
See details on the chart.
Directions for approaches to Lumut
(continued from 6.39 or 6.45)
Landmarks
6.65 1
For peaks on Pulau Pangkor, see 6.50 and 6.52.
Marks in the S approach:
Adams Bluff (4°12′N 100°36′E).
Bukit Batu Tiga (4°10′N 100°38′E) the S−most of a
range of hills N of Pulau Katak.
Chimney (red obstruction lights) (4°09′⋅6N
100°38′⋅5E) (6.50)
CHAPTER 6
176
Approaches to Alur Utara
6.66 1
The recommended approach to Alur Utara (North
Channel) from W leads across Beting Batu Malang (6.38)
with Tanjung Hantu Light (4°18′⋅6N 100°33′⋅6E) (6.38) on
a line of bearing 098°.
The bar is mud and sand. For controlling depth, see
6.60.
Channel
6.67 1
Leading lights:
Front. River Rock Light (white tower) (4°14′·6N
100°35′·4E) standing on a bare rock, 2 m high.
Common Rear. Putih Light (820 m SSE from the
front beacon).
From a position in deeper water close W of Tanjung
Hantu Light, the alignment (152°) of these beacons, and at
night the white sector (150¼°−154¼°) of River Rock Light,
leads through the channel, passing (with positions from
Batu Mandi (4°16′⋅0N 100°33′⋅1E)):
2
ENE of a 1·3 m patch (1¾ miles NNE) where Beting
Batu Malang (6.38) approaches closest to the track,
thence:
WSW of Bilik Front Leading Light (1¾ miles NE)
(6.72), thence:
To a position WSW of Lloyd Rock (2 miles ESE), a
pinnacle, awash, marked by Lloyd Rock Light
(white pillar).
Thence as for Sungai Manjung (6.99).
6.68 1
Useful marks:
Bilik Rear Light−beacon (4°18′·4N 100°34′·1E)
(6.72).
Batu Malang (4°17′·9N 100°32′·6E), a smooth rock
0⋅3 m in height.
Batu Mandi Light (4°16′⋅0N 100°33′⋅1E) (6.70).
Tanjung Awang Kecil Light (4°15′⋅2N 100°33′⋅9E)
(6.70).
2
Dinding Light−beacon (4°14′·7N 100°35′·0E) (6.70).
Beacon (white) (4°16′⋅5N 100°35′⋅4E), marking the
harbour limit.
Beacon (white) (4°15′·7N 100°35′·5E).
(Directions continue for Sungai Manjung at 6.98)
Approaches to Alur Barat Laut
(continued from 6.39)
6.69 1
From a position about 3 cables N of Pulau Tukun
Terindak (4°16′⋅3N 100°32′⋅1E), a thinly wooded islet, the
track through Alur Barat Laut (North West Channel) leads
SE, passing (with positions from the islet):
NE of Pulau Tukun Terindak, and:
SW of Beting Batu Malang (6 cables NE) (6.38),
thence:
NE of Pulau Pelanduk (5 cables SE), 25 m in height
and with a disused building standing on its N side.
Channel
6.70 1
Leading lights:
Front. Dinding Light (red square on black and white
chequered tower) (4°14′·7N 100°35′·0E).
Common Rear. Putih Light (8 cables SE from the
front beacon).
The alignment (128°) of these beacons, and at night the
white sector (127°−129°) of Dinding Light, leads through
the channel, passing (with positions from Batu Mandi
(4°16′⋅0N 100°33′⋅1E)):
2
SW of NW3 Light−beacon (2½ cables NNE) marking
the edge of Beting Batu Malang, thence:
NE of Batu Mandi, a reef−fringed rock, from where a
light (framework tower, 7 m in height) is exhibited;
a dangerous rock lies 1 cable farther SE. Thence:
SW of an obstruction with a depth of 3 m (reported
2003) (7¾ cables ESE); NW1 Light−beacon (white
tower) stands ¾ cable ENE, thence:
Over a 4⋅3 m shoal patch (9 cables ESE), thence:
3
NE of Batu Chik (1 mile SE), a 1⋅8 m depth rock and
the outermost of several dangers extending up to
2 cables N of Tanjung Awang Kecil on which
stands a light (white tower), thence:
NE of NW2 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1¼ miles
SE) marking the NE extremity of the dangers
extending E from Tanjung Awang Kecil, thence:
4
To a position S of River Passage Light−buoy (safe
water) (1½ miles ESE).
Thence the track leads E across the bar into Sungai
Manjung, for details see 6.73, or S into Selat Manjung
(6.72).
6.71 1
Useful marks:
Lloyd Rock Light (4°15′·5N 100°35′·2E) (6.67).
River Rock Light (4°14′·6N 100°35′·4E) (6.67).
(Directions continue for Sungai Manjung
and Lumut at 6.98)
Directions for Selat Manjung
(continued from 6.52)
6.72 1
From the pilot boarding position (4°10′·5N 100°35′⋅0E),
Selat Manjung (Selat Dinding) is entered via South
Entrance. The channel is about 3 cables in width between
Pulau Pangkor on the W, and Permatang Timur (East Bank)
and Beting Dinding, both shallow banks, to the E.
Bilik Leading Lights:
Front light (white tower, black bands) (4°17′·4N
100°34′·3E).
Rear light (white tower) (1 mile N of the front light).
2
The alignment (351¼°) of these light−beacons leads
through Selat Manjung, passing (with positions from Muroh
Light (4°13′·3N 100°35′·2E)):
E of Tanjung Terengganu (South East Point) (2 miles
S), from where a light (white round concrete
tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
W of two light−beacons (1½ and 1¼ miles S) on the
W edge of Permatang Timur (East Bank), which
mark a prohibited anchorage area (6.78), and:
3
E of two beacons (1½ and 1¼ miles SSW) marking,
on the Pulau Pangkor coast, the same prohibited
anchorage, thence:
E of Tomb Point (1 miles SSW), thence:
E of Hospital Rock (6 cables SW), from where a light
(white stone column, 2 m in height) is exhibited,
thence:
4
W of Muroh Light (red square on white column on
pile platform) marking the N part of Permatang
Timur and the W limit of an area where entry is
prohibited (6.63), thence:
W of QC Beting Buoy (starboard hand) (8 cables N),
thence:
5
E of Batu Jambol (1¼ miles NW), a rock 4 m in
height on a drying coastal reef, thence:
W of Dinding Light (1½ miles NNW) (6.70), thence:
CHAPTER 6
177
W of Selat Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1⋅5 miles
N), marking the N edge of Beting Dinding, thence:
To a position S of River Passage Light−buoy (safe
water) (2 miles NNW).
6.73 1
A sharp turn to an E track leads into Sungai Manjung,
passing between River Passage Light−buoy (safe water)
(2 miles NNW) and Selat Light−buoy (starboard hand),
5½ cables SSE. Passing close SE of River Passage
Light−buoy leads through the deepest water, 7⋅7 m; an area,
dredged to 7⋅0 m (1985), extends 4½ cables farther SSE to
Selat Light−buoy.
6.74 1
Clearing bearing. The line of bearing 347° of Tanjung
Hantu open E of Batu Jambol (4°14′⋅4N,00°34′·5E) also
passes 2 cables E of Tanjung Terengganu.
Useful marks
6.75 1
Pulau Tukun Perak (Fairway Rock) (4°07′⋅6N
100°33′⋅7 E) (6.115).
Pulau Katak Light (4°09′N 100°37′E) (white brick
tower, 11 m in height).
Batu Gajah Light (white triangle on white post)
(4°13′⋅3N 100°35′⋅9E).
2
River Rock Light−beacon (4°14′·6N 100°35′·4E)
(6.67).
Bukit Pasir Anjing (4°14′⋅3N 100°36′⋅1E).
Bukit Ungku Busu (4°13′⋅4N 100°37′⋅8E).
(Directions continue for Sungai Manjung
and Lumut at 6.98)
Approaches to Lekir Bulk Terminal
(continued from 6.52)
6.76
1
From the pilot boarding position (4°09′N 100°33′E), the
terminal (6.103) is approached on track leading ESE thence
ENE passing, (with positions from Pulau Tukun Perak
Light (4°07′⋅6N 100°33′⋅7E)):
NNE of Pulau Tukun Perak, from where a light is
exhibited (6.115), thence:
2
SSW of PB1 Light−buoy (port hand) (1¼ miles NE),
thence:
Over a narrow ridge with a depth of 19⋅8 m
(1¼ miles NE), thence:
N of SB1 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1¼ miles
ENE), thence:
3
NNW of MB1 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1¾ miles
ENE); a wreck with a depth of 9⋅8 m lies 2 cables
SE.
Thence the terminal can be approached directly.
Anchorage and harbours
6.77 1
At South Entrance; see 6.62.
Prohibited anchorage
6.78 1
Anchorage is prohibited due to submarine cables and a
water pipeline across Selat Manjung in the charted area in
Lat 4°12′N, see also 1.41. The area limits are indicated by:
Two light−beacons and six beacons (white triangular
topmarks), and:
Notice boards marked “CABLE” and “PAIP AYER”
in white letters, indicating the shore ends of
the cable and pipeline, respectively.
Pangkor
6.79 1
General information. Pangkor (4°12′⋅8N 100°34′⋅6E),
the principal town of Pulau Pangkor is situated in the bay
between Tomb Point and Hospital Rock.
Many houses are built on piles driven into the mud.
There are numerous jetties, the most N of which projects
165 m to a T−head, 12 m in length, with a depth alongside
of 6 m.
2
Fresh and frozen fish, rubber and coconuts are exported
to the mainland.
Repairs: small craft may be grounded for inspection and
minor repairs.
Other facilities: police station; post office; frequent
ferry service connects with Lumut.
Kampung Sungai Pinang Kecil
6.80 1
Kampung Sungai Pinang Kecil (4°13′·7N 100°34′·5E),
between Hospital Rock and Batu Jambol, is a thriving
fishing village almost entirely built on piles. There are
numerous jetties, two of which lead to ice factories.
Pulau Katak
6.81
1
General information. Pulau Katak (4°09′N 100°37′E),
is a small island from where a light (6.75) is exhibited
Approach. A shallow passage, about 2 cables wide,
leads between Pulau Katak, and the coast between
Symonds Point (4°10′N 100°37′E) and Tanjung Katak
(7½ cables SE).
2
Danger. A drying rock lies between Pulau Katak and
Symonds Point.
Landing. A small jetty, with steps, situated at the NE
corner of Pulau Katak, has a depth of 0·6 m alongside.
PORT OF LUMUT
General information
Chart 792 Sungai Manjung and Approaches, Sungai Manjung
Position
6.82 1
Lumut (4°14′N 100°38′E) is situated on the S side of
Sungai Manjung.
Function
6.83
1
The principal function of the port is the import and
export of bulk cargoes, although an increasing amount of
containers are handled.
There is a naval base on the W side of Lumut.
Topography
6.84
1
See 6.59.
Port limits
6.85
1
The limits are shown on the chart.
Approach and entry.
6.86
1
Lumut is approached through channels N and S of Pulau
Pangkor which converge at River Crossing, the entrance to
Sungai Manjung; see 6.58.
Traffic
6.87
1
In 2005, 311 vessels totalling 6 757 667 dwt used the
port.
CHAPTER 6
178
Sungai Manjung and Lumut from WNW (6.94)
(Original dated 2001)
Port Authority
6.88
1
Lumut Maritime Terminals Sdn.Bhd, Lot 1 Lumut Port
Industrial Park, Mukim Lumut, Jalan Kg Aceh, 32000
Setiawan, Perak Darul Ridzuan.
The port has a resident Harbour Master.
Limiting conditions
6.89 1
Controlling depths: see 6.60.
Deepest and longest berth. Lekir Bulk Terminal
(6.103), and in Sungai Manjung at Flour Mill Wharf
(6.102).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2·2 m; mean neap
range about 0·8 m. See information in Admiralty Tide
Tables Volume 3.
Density of water: 1·022 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled: 35 000 dwt, length
200 m, draught 9·3 m.
Arrival information
Notice of ETA
6.90
1
ETA should be sent 7 days before arrival, and
application for a berth 72 hours before arrival. For details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorages
6.91
1
At the S entrance to Selat Manjung, see 6.62. For
prohibited anchorage area in Selat Manjung see 6.78.
Prohibited anchorages. In an area indicated on the
chart, 4 cables W of Lumut Pier, due to a submarine cable.
Limits are marked by red notice boards marked “CABLE”
in white letters indicating shore ends of cable.
Also in charted areas 1¾ and 2½ miles NE of Lumut
Pier, due to a submarine power cable and pipeline, see also
1.41.
Pilotage and tugs
6.92
1
Pilotage is compulsory. The boarding position is at the
S entrance to Selat Manjung (6.61).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulation
6.93
1
Entry is prohibited in the charted area E of Dinding
North West Entrance Front Leading Light (4°14′·7N
100°35′·0E), on the S side of the river N of the Lumut
Naval Base, to a position close W of Lumut. This is a
continuation of the area given at 6.63.
Harbour
General layout
6.94 1
Lumut Naval Base is situated within an area close W of
Lumut and within a prohibited area (6.93).
The base is contained within two breakwaters each about
3 cables in length. The entrance, about 1 cable wide, is
marked by a light−beacon at the seaward end of each
breakwater; the depth in the entrance is 5⋅1 m.
Lumut from WNW (6.94)
(Original dated 2001)
Leading Light beacons
CHAPTER 6
179
2
The principal commercial berths are at Lumut Maritime
Terminal, on the S side of the river, and Flour Mill Wharf,
on the N side of the river, 2 and 2¼ miles respectively NE
of Lumut.
A small pier at Lumut is used by coasters at HW.
Ferry
6.95
1
A ferry crosses Sungai Manjung between Lumut Pier
(4°14′·2N 100°38′·0E) and Damat Laut pier 5½ cables N.
Degaussing range
6.96
1
A DG range (4°14′⋅0N 100°35′⋅4E) is established in the
prohibited area charted between the mainland and the shoal
area of Beting Dinding.
Tidal streams
6.97
1
See details on the chart for the position in Sungai
Manjung N of Lumut Pier.
Directions
(continued from 6.68, 6.71 or 6.75)
Landmarks
6.98 1
Batu Beacon (white metal) (4°14′·6N 100°37′·0E)
very prominent on the edge of the drying bank,
1½ cables WSW of Tanjung Batu.
Prominent grain silo (4°16′·0N 100°39′·4E) (elevation
40 m) at Flour Mill Wharf.
Radio mast (red lights) (4°14′·0N 100°37′·8E) at
Lumut.
Chimney (red obstruction lights) (4°09′⋅6N
100°38′⋅5E) (6.50)
Entrance to harbour
6.99 1
Leading lights:
Front light−beacon (white tower, black bands)
(4°14′·1N 100°37′·7E).
Rear light−beacon (white tower) (250 m from front).
From a position SW of Lloyd Rock Light−beacon
(4°15′⋅5N 100°35′⋅2E) (6.67), the alignment (114¼°) of the
leading light−beacons leads into Sungai Manjung, N of the
prohibited area and passing (with positions from Batu
Beacon (4°14′·6N 100°37′·0E)):
2
Close NNE of Dinding Light−buoy (starboard hand)
(1½ miles WNW), thence:
SSW of a buoy (white spherical) (1 mile WNW),
thence:
NNE of a line of mooring buoys (some of which are
lit) (1 mile W), thence:
NNE of the entrance to Lumut Naval Base (3½ cables
SW).
3
When S of Batu Beacon the track alters E, passing:
Between the S extremity of Damar Laut Ferry Pier
(9 cables ENE), and Lumut Pier (11 cables ESE).
After passing Lumut Pier the track alters NE, passing:
NW of Lumut Light−buoy (starboard hand) (6 cables
ENE of Lumut Pier).
4
Thence as required for Lumut Maritime Terminal or
Flour Mill Wharf.
Caution. Small craft may be encountered in the waters
of Lumut and approaches.
Berths
Anchorage and moorings
6.100 1
Anchorage off Lumut Pier (4°14′·2N 100°38′·0E), in
depths from 11 to 13 m.
For prohibited anchorage areas see 6.91.
Moorings. A trot of four mooring buoys (Nos M1 to
M4) is laid near the S side of the river E of Tanjung Batu
Putih (4°14′·6N 100°35′·6E), within the prohibited area
(6.93).
Alongside berths
6.101 1
Lumut Naval Base (4°14′⋅2N 100°36′⋅8E). Numbered
berths are established both sides of the E breakwater, where
there are depths alongside of 6 to 10 m. Numbered berths
on the SE side of the harbour have depths alongside of 4
to 5 m.
Lumut Pier (4°14′·2N 100°38′·0E). T−head, least depth
2 m alongside and 6 m at a distance of 4·5 m from it;
coasters berth at HW. Small craft may be grounded safely
for examination or repairs. A light is exhibited at the
pier−head.
Minor berth for use by tugs and barges is located
1½ miles ENE of Lumut Pier.
6.102
1
Lumut Maritime Terminal (4°15′·3N 100°39′·6E) has a
maintained depth alongside of 10 m at the S berth, and
12⋅0 m (2002) at the N berth, although less water may be
found at times; it is reported (2003) that the N of the two
berth handles vessels to 280 m LOA and 12 m draught.
They are multi−purpose berths designed to handle dry bulk,
break bulk, heavy lift and container cargoes.
On the S side of the terminal is a barge berth 58 m in
length with a depth alongside of 3·5 m. This berth is
designed to handle two barges berthed end on.
2
Flour Mill Wharf (4°16′·0N 100°39′·5E), with a
prominent silo close W, is 244 m in length, with alongside
depths from 9 to 13 m along the outer 183 m of the NE
side. Vessels berth with bows NW.
The S side of the wharf, with depths of 6 m alongside,
is used by coastal tankers.
6.103
1
Lekir Bulk Terminal (4°08′⋅7N 100°37′⋅5E), is an
L−shaped jetty extending SW from an artificial island close
off the mainland. A mooring dolphin, marked by a light,
L4, lies close off the NW end, and a light, L5, stands on
the jetty elbow. The jetty is for the import of coal for the
power station on the island, and also handles bulk dry and
liquid cargoes. The SW side of the jetty is 530 m in length
for vessels with a maximum draught of 20 m; and the NE
side, 250 m in length, for vessels with a maximum draught
of 18 m; vessels up to 180 000 dwt can be handled.
2
An obstruction, with a pipeline extending NNE to the
island, lies 7½ cables ENE of the jetty elbow (chart 3944).
Rivers and channels
6.104
1
Sungai Sempit (4°15′⋅0N 100°36′·5E), a shallow river
used only by local fishing craft, is entered close E of
Tanjung Pasir.
Sungai Manjung, the channel above Flour Mill Wharf
(6.101) varies in width from ¾ cable to 3 cables. The river
is navigable by craft of 2 m draught to the village of
Bharu, 7 miles above Lumut, and by craft of 1 m draught
as far as Segari, 15 miles upriver.
CHAPTER 6
180
Port services
6.105 1
Repairs. Facilities are available.
Other facilities. Hospitals and medical facilities;
compass adjustment may be arranged, where a mooring
buoy is used within Alur Utara.
Supplies. Fuel oil and diesel oil by barge or road tanker;
fresh water ex wharf; provisions and stores available.
Communications. Sea communications with Pinang.
Ferry service with Pulau Pangkor and between Lumut and
Damar Laut.
Airport at Ipoh (4°34′N 101°06′E), with connections to
Kuala Lumpur.
PULAU PANGKOR TO PELABUHAN KLANG
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1353
Scope of the section
6.106 1
This section describes the coastal passage off the W
coast of Malaysia from S of Pulau Pangkor (4°14′N
100°34′E) to the N approaches to Pelabuhan Klang about
55 miles SSE.
The section also includes limited details of the passage
from Angsa Bank Light−buoy (3°20′N 101°00′E) along the
W side of Permatang Angsa to a position 2°53′N 101°11′E,
W of the entrance to Selat Klang Selatan.
2
The section is divided into the following parts:
South of Pulau Pangkor (4°14′N 100°34′E) to
Kepulauan Sembilan, 10 miles S, (6.110).
Sungai Perak (4°00′N 100°45′E) and approaches
leading to Teluk Intan, (6.122).
Kepulauan Sembilan (4°02′N 100°32′E) to the outer
approaches to Pelabuhan Klang, 38 miles SE,
(6.144).
Passage W of Permatang Angsa (3°10′N 101°07′E)
and E of Pasir Utara (3°05′N 101°00′E), (6.160).
Pelabuhan Klang (3°00′N 101°24′E) and approaches
(6.169).
6.107 1
Routes. When S−bound towards Singapore Strait,
passage may be made on either side of, or through
Kepulauan Sembilan.
When S of Kepulauan Sembilan a choice of routes may
be taken so as to pass:
Through the TSS at Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom
Bank), entered in the vicinity of 3°00′N
100°454′E. For details, see the directions for the
NE route given at 2.66. Alternatively:
2
E of Permatang Angsa (3°10′N 101°07′E) through
Selat Klang Utara and Selat Klang Selatan. For
details see 6.144 and 6.169. Alternatively:
Along the W side of Permatang Angsa keeping E of
Pasir Utara (6.160).
Topography
6.108 1
The mainland coast is low and fringed by mangroves. It
is broken by the entrances to Sungai Perak (4°01′N
100°45′E) (6.122) and Sungai Bernam (3°49′N 100°47′E)
(6.152).
There are no prominent inland hills S of Bukit Batu
Tiga (4°10′N 100°38′E).
Tidal streams
6.109 1
The streams are strong in the vicinity of Kepulauan
Sembilan, Permatang Angsa and Permatang Sedepa (One
Fathom Bank). For details see the relevant geographical
sections and information on the charts.
SOUTH OF PULAU PANGKOR TO
KEPULAUAN SEMBILAN
General information
Charts 792, 3944 (see 1.17)
Routes
6.110 1
The coastal route from S of Pulau Pangkor (4°14′N
100°34′E) leads S towards Kepulauan Sembilan (4°02′N
100°32′E).
The various islands and rocks forming Kepulauan
Sembilan are all steep−to and several deep−water routes
may be made through, or E or W of the island group.
For Sungai Perak, entered E of Kepulauan Sembilan
(leading to Teluk Intan), see 6.122.
Topography
6.111 1
Kepulauan Sembilan is a group of uninhabited islands
and rocks, some thickly wooded, lying between:
Latitude. 4°05′N and 3°59′N.
Longitude. 100°30′E and 100°36′E.
These islands and rocks are described in greater detail in
Directions.
Measured distance
6.112
1
On the W side of Kepulauan Sembilan there is a
measured distance:
North limit marks. Beacon on Batuan Hitam (Black
Rock) (6.116) in line, bearing 106°, with a beacon
on the NW side of Pulau Lalang (6.117).
South limit marks. Batuan Putih Light (6.114) in line,
bearing 106°, with a beacon on the N extremity of
Pulau Buloh (6.117).
Distance. 1852 m.
Running track 016°−196°.
Tidal streams
6.113 1
Tidal streams are strong and irregular in the vicinity of
Kepulauan Sembilan.
For details of tidal streams in position 4° 02′ N
100° 37′ E, see table on chart 3944.
Directions
(continued from 6.52)
Major light
6.114 1
Batuan Putih (White Rock) Light (metal framework
tower on concrete base, 12 m in height) (4°00′N
100°31′E). Batuan Putih is reported to be readily
identified on radar.
CHAPTER 6
181
Approach to Kepulauan Sembilan from north
6.115 1
From a position S of Pulau Pangkor (4°14′N 100°34′E),
the route leads S passing (with positions from Pulau Tukun
Perak (Fairway Rock) Light (4°07′⋅6N 100°33′⋅7E)):
Clear of a wreck with a depth of 9⋅8 m (1¾ miles
ENE), MB1 light−buoy (starboard hand), lies
2 cables NW, thence:
2
Either side of Pulau Tukun Perak, on the E side of
which a light is exhibited. A stranded wreck,
position approximate, lies on the N edge of
fringing reef, with a rock awash ½ cable NE.
Continuation S is then dependent on the manner of
passing Kepulauan Sembilan.
Passage west of Kepulauan Sembilan
6.116 1
From a position W of Pulau Tukun Perak (Fairway
Rock), from where a light is exhibited (6.115), the passage
leads generally S, passing:
W of Pulau Nipis (4°03′N 100°33′E), thickly wooded
giving a total height of 45 m, thence:
W of Batuan Hitam (Black Rock) (4°01′N 100°31′E),
an isolated rock with a depth of 2 m, thence:
2
W of Batuan Putih (White Rock) (4°00′N 100°31′E)
from where a light (6.114) is exhibited. A
dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies
9¼ miles WSW of Batuan Putih.
The the track then continues SE to a position S of
Kepulauan Sembilan.
Passage east of Kepulauan Sembilan
6.117 1
From a position E of Pulau Tukun Perak (Fairway Rock)
the track leads generally S, passing (with positions from
Pulau Agas (4°04′⋅7N 100°35′⋅4E)):
W of the mainland coastal bank on which there are
numerous fish traps, and:
E of Pulau Agas, partly wooded, with a large rock,
5 m high, close off its SW extremity, thence:
2
E of Pulau Payong (1 mile SW), partly wooded. A
small wooded islet, 23 m high, lies between Pulau
Agas and Pulau Payong. Thence:
E of Batuan Rosa (1¼ miles S), a dangerous rock,
thence:
E of Pulau Rumbia (3½ miles SW), 136 m in height
and thickly wooded, and the largest and central
island of the group, thence:
3
E of Pulau Lalang (4½ miles SW), comprising two
thickly wooded islets joined by a drying reef. The
N island is 97 m high and in 1993, a beacon
(white framework tower) stood at the NW
extremity. The S island is 72 m high, with an
isolated summit on its SE extremity. Thence:
E of Pulau Buloh (Buluh) (5½ miles SW), with a flat
top and densely wooded.
4
When S of Kepulauan Sembilan, the coastal route
continues SE outside the 20 m depth contour.
Passage through Kepulauan Sembilan
6.118 1
The channels between the islands are deep and the
charts provide sufficient guide.
Within the narrow channel between Pulau Buloh (4°00′N
100°32′E) and Pulau Saga, 5 cables N, attention is drawn to
the following dangers:
Rock awash, 1 cable SW of Pulau Saga, a wooded
islet, the S−most of two islets N of Pulau Buloh.
Two drying rocks and a rock awash within 1 cable of
the N coast of Pulau Buloh.
Landings within Kepulauan Sembilan
6.119
1
Good landing can be made as follows:
Pulau Rumbia (4°02′N 100°33′E) (6.117), in a
number of small sandy bays. In one bay, close S
of the NE extremity of the island, there are a few
huts.
Pulau Lalang (4°00′N 100°33′E) (6.117), on both
sides of the island, on sandy beaches.
Caution
6.120 1
If approaching from S at night, between the mainland
and Kepulauan Sembilan, it is advisable to give Pulau Agas
(6.117) a wide berth, as tidal streams around the islands are
strong and irregular.
Useful marks
6.121 1
Bukit Batu Tiga (4°10′N 100°38′E) (6.65).
Pulau Katak Light (4°09′N 100°37′E) (6.75).
(Directions continue for the coastal route
S of Kepulauan Sembilan at 6.149.
Directions for the approach to Malacca Strait TSS
are given at 2.53 and for Sungai Perak
and approaches at 6.128)
SUNGAI PERAK AND APPROACHES,
LEADING TO TELUK INTAN
General information
Charts 3944, 1353 (see 1.17)
Route
6.122 1
Sungai Perak is approached through Kuala Perak, a wide
shallow estuary, via a buoyed channel leading E from
Fairway Light−buoy (4°03′N 100°40′E).
Sungai Perak is navigable to Teluk Intan (4° 01′ N
101° 01′ E), a distance of about 30 miles.
Topography
6.123 1
Kuala Perak, an extensive shallow mudbank on which
there are several drying patches, lies between:
Pulau Katak (4°09′N 100°37′E), and;
Tanjung Beras Basah (11 miles SE).
Sungai Perak entrance lies between:
Tanjung Kupang (4°00′N 100°46′E), and;
Pasang Api (1 mile S).
2
Apart from Bukit Batu Tiga (4°10′N 100°38′E) (6.65)
the N side of the estuary is low, thickly wooded and
featureless.
Sungai Perak is situated in low country cultivated with
trees. Numerous villages border the river bank.
Limiting conditions
6.124 1
Depths. In 1988, the least charted depth in the buoyed
approach channel was 2·1 m, but depths are liable to
change. In 1989 extensive changes to depths had taken
place within Sungai Perak; depths are as much as 2 m less
than charted.
Vertical clearance. A bridge with vertical clearance of
12·0 m, spans the river in the vicinity of 3°58′·1N
100°58′·5E.
CHAPTER 6
182
2
Size of vessel. Sungai Perak has been navigated by
vessels up to 99 m in length and 1800 gt to Teluk Intan.
The maximum recommended draught then was 4·4 m at
springs and 4·1 m at neaps.
Caution
6.125 1
Numerous fishing stakes and traps are erected in the
approach to Fairway Light−buoy (4°03′N 100°40′E) and
near the borders of the channel.
Pilotage
6.126 1
There are no regular pilots, but the Marine Department,
Teluk Intan will, at 24 hours notice, arrange a pilot. The
pilot boards at Fairway Light−buoy.
Local knowledge is required since depths in the channel
are liable to change.
Tidal streams
6.127 1
For details of the streams in position 4°02′N 100°37′E,
3½ miles W of Fairway Light−buoy, see information on the
chart.
In the channel E of Fairway Light−buoy the streams set
across the channel as follows:
SE with rising tide at Bagan Datuk.
NW with falling tide at Bagan Datuk.
2
At the entrance to Sungai Perak the stream sets:
Interval from HW
Bagan Datuk Pelabuhan Klang Remarks
HW – 0120 Out−going stream
begins
– 0545 + 0410 In−going stream
begins
3
Spring rate about 3 kn. Neap rate 1 kn.
See also table on the chart for details in position
(4° 00′·7N 100° 44′·5E).
The rates at Teluk Intan normally are not appreciably
greater, but are liable to be affected by rains.
Directions for approach to Sungai Perak
Approaches to Fairway Light−buoy
6.128 1
North−west approach. From a position about 1 mile
SW of Pulau Dua (4°11′⋅2N 100°32′⋅3E) (6.51), the track
leads SE passing (with positions from Pulau Tukun Perak
(Fairway Rock) Light (4°07′⋅6N 100°33′⋅7E)):
NE of Pulau Tukun Perak (Fairway Rock) Light
(6.115), thence:
SW of PB1 Light−buoy (port hand) (1¼ miles NE),
thence:
2
SW of SB1 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1¼ miles
ENE); a wreck with a depth of 9⋅8 m lies 2 cables
SE, thence:
NE of Pulau Agas (3½ miles SSE) (6.117).
Thence to Fairway Light−buoy (safe water) (4°03′⋅5N
100°39′⋅5).
6.129 1
South−west approach. From the vicinity of 4°03′N
100°37′E, E of Kepulauan Sembilan, the track to Fairway
Light−buoy (safe water) leads ENE.
Caution. For fishing stakes; see 6.125.
Fairway Light−buoy to Sungai Perak entrance
6.130 1
From Fairway Light−buoy (safe water) (4°03′⋅5N
100°39′⋅5), the track across Kuala Perak leads ENE
passing:
Close N of No 1 Light−buoy (starboard hand)
1¾ miles ENE of Fairway Light−buoy.
Thence the track leads SE, passing (with positions from
Denison Lighthouse (disused) (4°05′N 100°45′E)):
2
NE of No 2 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (3¼ miles
WSW), thence:
SW of No 3 Light−buoy (port hand) (2½ miles SW),
thence:
SW of No 4 Light−buoy (port hand) (4°01′·4N
100°43′·7E), thence:
SW of No 5 Light−buoy (port hand) (1¾ miles SE of
No 4 Light−buoy).
3
When Bagan Datuk Pier and Light (3°59′·6N
100°47′·2E) bear 105° the track leads E and follows the S
curve of the river bank at a distance of about 2½ cables
from it.
Caution. Particular attention should be paid to the tidal
streams.
Useful mark
6.131 1
Pulau Katak Light (4°09′N 100°37′E) (6.75).
(Directions continue for Sungai Perak at 6.135)
Teluk Intan
General information
6.132 1
Teluk Intan (4°01′N 101°01′E) is approached through
Sungai Perak, a distance of about 30 miles from the
entrance. The ports of Bagan Datuk and Teluk Intan are no
longer ports of any significance. Traffic is confined to a
few coastal tankers bringing oil supplies from Port Dickson
to Teluk Intan.
Limits. The harbour extends from Tanjung Kupang
(4°00′N 100°46′E) to Kuala Bidur (4°02′N 101°01′E) above
Teluk Intan.
Port Authority: Marine Department, Jalan Pasar, PO
Box 71, Teluk Intan.
Limiting conditions
6.133 1
Controlling depth: see 6.124.
Vertical clearance. An overhead cable, with vertical
clearance of 12·8 m spans the river at Teluk Intan. See also
6.124.
Deepest berths are:
Bagan Datuk Pier 3 m (6.139).
Railway Pontoon Jetty, Teluk Intan 5 m (6.139).
Tidal levels (Bagan Datuk), see information in
Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3. Mean spring range about
2·5 m; mean neap range about 0·9 m.
2
Local weather. Dense early morning fog is prevalent
over the river, especially after heavy rain the previous
night. Normally such fog is dispersed about 1 hour after
sunrise.
Arrival information
6.134 1
Pilotage: see 6.126.
Regulations. The following special regulations for
Sungai Perak and Teluk Intan are in force:
CHAPTER 6
183
No vessel over 61 m (200 ft) in length and 25 gt or
over shall navigate the river between Teluk Baharu
(Bharu) (3°58′N 100°56′E) and Teluk Intan
between 1900 and 0600 hours without permission,
in writing, from the Harbour Master.
2
Every power vessel shall sound the whistle before
rounding any bend in Sungai Perak, and shall
proceed round such a bend at moderate speed.
All junks and small craft when anchoring in Sungai
Perak must do so well inshore so as to be out of
the way of passing power vessels.
3
No vessel exceeding 25 gt shall proceed beyond
Railway Pontoon Jetty, Teluk Intan. This rule shall
not apply to vessels of war, or vessels belonging
to the Government of Malaysia.
4
No vessel, having a mast of greater height than
12·2 m (40 ft) from step to truck, shall pass under
the overhead cable (6.133) which crosses the river
above Teluk Intan Pier, without lowering or
unstepping such mast.
For Port Regulations, see Appendix II.
Directions
(continued from 6.131)
6.135 1
The following directions are only a guide to the river; in
general, the greatest depths will be found on the concave
sides of the river, and shoaler water off the points.
6.136 1
Bagan Datuk to Tanjung Berambang Panjang. From a
position about 2½ cables off the S river bank, close W of
Bagan Datuk (4°00′N 100°47′E) the track leads across the
river with a light on a mast close S of the root of a pier at
Bagan Datuk, astern, bearing 202°.
The beacon (white diamond topmark) (4°00′·9N
100°47′·7E) also leads on a line of bearing 022°.
When 2 cables off the N bank, the track leads NE
passing NW of the extensive middle ground 1¼ miles
above Bagan Datuk.
2
The track then leads within 1½ to 2 cables of the N
(right) bank until off Kota Setia (Stia) (4°01′·2N
100°52′·2E).
The track then crosses to the W (left) bank along the
line joining Kota Setia Light−beacon and a white beacon in
position 3°59′·5N 100°51′·2E.
When abeam of this beacon, the track leads about
1½ cables off the W bank opposite Tanjung Berembang
Panjang (3°58′N 100°52′E).
6.137 1
Tanjung Berembang Panjang to Teluk Intan.
When the E bank of Sungai Dedap (3°58′N 100°53′E) is
opened up, the track leads in mid−river until off Teluk
Baharu (Bharu) (3°58′N 100°56′E) passing:
N of Dedap Light−buoy (starboard hand) (3°57′·8N
100°53′·0E).
The track continues in mid stream, rounding Tanjung
Siku Undak (3°57′·6N 100°56′·0E), taking care to avoid
shoal water NW of that point.
2
Thence the track leads on the outside of the bend
around Tanjung Tapak Semenang (3°57′N 100°58′E)
crossing from the E bank to the W bank in approx Lat
3°57′·3N.
From Teluk Rubia (3°58′·5N 100°57′·5E), opposite
Tanjung Tok Manda, the track leads in mid−channel. Care
is necessary rounding Tanjung Medan (3°58′·7N
100°58′·8E) which has an islet, with trees 9 m high, lying
2 cables SW.
6.138 1
Thence the track leads close to the E bank and passes
3 cables S of Tanjung Piak (3°59′·2N 100°59′·2E), and S of
Nova Scotia Buoy Light−buoy (port hand).
Thence, in the reach SE of Tanjung Rembia (4°00′·4N
100°59′·1E) the track is indicated by two beacons (white
diamonds), which are difficult to see, in positions:
4°00′·6N 100°59′·2E, N of Tanjung Rembia.
3°59′·7N 100°59′·9E, 2 cables E of Teluk Menintam.
2
This line passes very close to the SW bank, crossing
shoal patches.
Thence the track passes close NW of Shell Light−buoy
(starboard hand) (4°00′·1N 101°00′·4E), marking the shoal
3½ cables NE of Teluk Menintam. Thence to the berths at
Teluk Intan.
Vessels drawing more than 1·8 m should not proceed
above Railway Jetty without local pilots.
Berths
6.139 1
Anchorage. In Sungai Perak as follows:
Off Bagan Datuk Pier (4°00′N 100°47′E), about
2 cables from the S shore in a depth of 6·5 m,
mud.
Off Kota Setia (4°01′·3N 100°52′·2E) in a depth of
5·5 m, mud.
6.140
1
Alongside berths. At Bagan Datuk (3°59′·6N
100°47′·2E) there is a concrete T−head pier, depth
alongside 3 m, suitable for river or local fishing craft only.
At Teluk Intan (4°01′N 101°01′E), from S to N:
Shell Oil Company Jetty: T−head, 20 m long with
two breasting piles; depth alongside 5 m; situated
1¼ miles below the town.
2
Railway Pontoon Jetty: two pontoons, total length
51 m, used by local vessels; situated 4 cables
above Shell Jetty.
Harbour Master’s Jetty at Teluk Intan; depth
alongside 3 m.
Mooring buoys. There are a number of mooring buoys
off Teluk Intan.
Port services
6.141 1
Repairs: small dry dock, 24 m overall length, 90 tonnes
displacement capacity; two slipways for launches up to
15 m length; several privately owned boatyards for wooden
hulled craft; no divers.
Other facilities: Government Hospital.
2
Supplies: limited quantity of bunker and diesel fuel oil
available, and fresh water, at Shell Oil Company Jetty;
plentiful supply of fresh provisions at Teluk Intan, limited
quantities at Bagan Datuk.
Communications. Good road and rail services with
Ipoh, distant 110 km, where there is an airport (6.105).
Above Teluk Intan
6.142 1
Above Teluk Intan, Sungai Perak shoals rapidly and runs
in a general N direction, but craft of 1 m draught can
proceed a farther 45 miles at least. Normally this part of
the river is only used by launches and small craft.
It has been reported that heavy rain may greatly swell
the river, raising level in places up to 6 m above normal,
then falling again equally quickly; the current reaching at
rate from 5 to 6 kn.
After such conditions the shifting nature of the bottom
may lead to a change in the course of the river.
CHAPTER 6
184
6.143 1
Sungai Bidor (4°01′·5N 101°02′·0E) and Sungai Kintu
(4°06′N 101°01′E) are two tributaries which enter Sungai
Perak above Teluk Intan. These tributaries too are used by
launches and local craft.
KEPULAUAN SEMBILAN TO THE OUTER
APPROACHES TO PELABUHAN KLANG
General information
Charts 3945, 2139
General description
6.144 1
From a position S of Kepulauan Sembilan (4°02′N
100°32′E), the coastal route leads SE to the vicinity of
Angsa Bank Light−buoy (3°20′N 101°00′E) marking the N
extremity of Permatang Angsa in the approaches to
Pelabuhan Klang (3°00′ 101°24′E). From this position there
is the choice of the following routes:
2
The approach to Selat Klang Utara described at
6.200, or:
A route used by coasters which leads along the W
and SW side of Permatang Angsa described at
6.160.
Alternatively, an offshore route (2.53) leads SSE towards
the NW entrance of the Malacca Strait TSS.
Topography
6.145 1
The coast between Tanjung Beras Basah (4°00′N
100°43′E) (6.123) and Kuala Selangor, 50 miles SE (6.156),
is low and mainly fringed with mangroves.
Kuala Bernam (3°49′N 100°47′E), leading to Sungai
Bernam (6.152), indents the coast, 12 miles S of Tanjung
Beras Basah.
Depths
6.146
1
Depths greater than 20 m may be found throughout the
route between Kepulauan Sembilan and the pilot boarding
station N of Pulau Angsa (3°11′N 101°13′E).
Fish traps
6.147 1
Standard fish traps (5.253) and fish havens are situated
off and along this stretch of coast and on Permatang
Angsa.
Flow
6.148 1
Current and tidal stream information is given in 2.51
and on the charts.
Directions
(continued from 6.121)
Principal marks
6.149 1
Landmarks:
White Building (3°29′N 101°07′E).
Kuala Selangor Lighthouse (3°20′N 101°15′E)
(6.199).
Major lights:
Batuan Putih Light (4°00′N 100°31′E) (6.114).
Kuala Selangor Light (3°20′N 101°15′E) (6.199).
Pulau Angsa Light (3°11′N 101°13′E) (6.199).
Coastal route
6.150 1
From a position S of Kepulauan Sembilan (4°02′N
100°32′E), the coastal route leads SE outside the 20 m
depth contour to the vicinity of Angsa Bank Light−buoy (N
cardinal) (3°20′N 101°00′E), moored over an obstruction
(former lighthouse) at the N extremity of Permatang Angsa.
Another obstruction lies 11 cables W of the light−buoy.
2
With the exception of a dangerous wreck (reported
1986) (3°38′N 100°34′E), and another dangerous wreck
(10¾ miles SE), there are no other known dangers and the
chart is sufficient guide.
Thence the main route continues ESE and SE in the
approaches to Pelabuhan Klang. The route S, passing W of
the shoals forming Permatang Angsa, is described at 6.160.
Useful marks
6.151 1
Coastal lights:
Sungai Tiang Light (white structure) (3°54′N
100°42′E).
Kuala Bernam Light (3°51′N 100°49′E) (6.152).
Sungai Pulai Light (green platform on white piles)
(3°43′N 100°55′E).
Kuala Sungai Burong Light (white column on piles)
(3°41′N 100°56′E).
2
Kuala Sungai Besar Light (green triangle, point up,
on white concrete column on pile platform)
(3°40′N 100°59′E).
Sungai Sekinchang Light (white structure) (3°30′N
101°05′E).
Tanjung Karang Light (white structure) (3°23′N
101°10′E).
3
Fishing lights:
Sungai Belukang Light (3°51′N 100°45′E) (6.152).
Sungai Tengkorak Light (white concrete column, 9 m
in height) (3°27′N 101°08′E).
(Directions continue for Selat Klang Utara at 6.199
and for the passage W of Permatang Angsa at 6.165)
Sungai Bernam
General information
6.152 1
Description. Kuala Bernam, the estuary of Sungai
Bernam, is used by small coasters and is entered across a
shallow mudbank between Tanjung Lomba Lomba (3°51′N
100°46′E) and Tanjung Sauh, 4½ miles SE.
Sungai Bernam is navigable by craft of 1·8 m draught
for 40 or 50 miles, and by craft of 0·9 m draught for a
farther 40 miles. The river leads to Hutan Melintang
(6.154), a small port, 7 miles within the mouth of Sungai
Bernam.
2
The river forms the boundary between the States of
Perak and Selangor.
Local knowledge is required.
Tidal streams are strong in the river.
Tidal levels. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3. Mean
spring range about 2·9 m; mean neap range about 1·1 m.
3
Useful marks:
Kuala Bernam Light (white round tower on platform)
(3°51′N 100°49′E) on N side of the entrance.
Sungai Belukang (tower) (3°51′N 100°45′E) (fishing).
Bagan Nakhoda Omar (white column on piles)
(3°47′N 100°52′N).
CHAPTER 6
185
Directions
6.153 1
The approach track leads on Kuala Bernam Light
(6.151) bearing about 053°, passing either side of the
light−buoy (safe water) (3°49′N 100°46′E).
Thence the outer bends of the river should be followed,
avoiding the points. The greatest depths are almost
invariably close in where the nipa palms grow and shoalest
where there are mangroves.
Hutan Melintang
6.154 1
Hutan Melintang (3°52′·4N 100°56′·2E) has several
jetties off which vessels usually anchor.
Exports are mainly rubber, palm oil, palm kernels and
copra.
All local craft passing through the port of Hutan
Melintang are required to stop off the Police Station for
examination.
River above Hutan Melintang
6.155 1
Sabak (3°46′N 100°59′E), where a road bridge crosses
the river, is on the E bank, about 9 miles above Hutan
Melintang.
Ulu Bernam Oil Palm Estate (3°45′N 101°10′E) is the
limit of river navigation for motor launches. There is an
airstrip at Ulu Bernam.
Sungai Selangor
Chart 2155
General information
6.156 1
Description. Sungai Selangor is approached through
Kuala Sungai Selangor (3°20′N 101°14′E), a shallow
channel in the coastal mud bank. The town of Kuala
Selangor stands at the river entrance.
Sungai Selangor is usually navigable by small craft for
about 5 miles and occasionally as far as Dampung Siam,
but there is little room to swing there.
2
Depths. There is a charted depth of 0·5 m in the outer
channel of Kuala Sungai Selangor, close N of Kuala Sungai
Selangor Light (3°18′·5N 101°13′·1E) (6.157). Depths
within the entrance are from 1⋅0 to 3·6 m.
Tidal streams are strong. For further information near
the entrance to Kuala Sungai Selangor see 6.192 and
information on chart 2139. For times of maximum rates,
see 6.4.
3
The in−going stream in Sungai Selangor runs for
5 hours, the out−going for 7 hours; the latter sometimes
attains a rate of 5 kn.
Tidal levels. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3. Mean
spring range about 3·9 m; mean neap range about 1·4 m.
Directions
6.157 1
The approach track is with Kuala Selangor Light
(3°20′N 101°15′E) (6.199) bearing 045°, which leads across
the bar, passing about 2½ cables NW of Kuala Sungai
Selangor Light (white column on piles) which stands on the
S side of the entrance.
Kuala Selangor
6.158 1
Anchorage off Kuala Selangor is not good; the bottom
is soft mud and there are strong tidal streams.
A prohibited anchorage area extends ½ cable either side
of a submarine power cable and pipelines crossing the river
6 and 8 cables ESE respectively of Kuala Selangor Light,
see also 1.41.
These landing places are marked by beacons, and the
extremities of the area are also marked by pairs of beacons
(white discs).
2
Berths. A concrete T−headed pier stands 4 cables ENE
of the light. The head is 15 m long, with a depth of 0·6 m
alongside.
A small pier, on the right bank opposite Kuala Selangor,
serves a village and coconut oil factory.
Bridge. A road bridge spans the river 5 cables E of
Kuala Selangor Light.
River above Kuala Selangor
6.159 1
There is no danger for craft of 1 m draught for 5 miles
above Kuala Selangor, except for a mudbank with a depth
of 1 m over it off Teluk Penyamun, about 3 miles above
Kuala Selangor. There is deep water on each side of the
mudbank.
2
The river is tortuous in its course; the banks are low
throughout and lined with attap and mangrove trees. The
bottom is soft mud. The greatest depths are found on the
concave sides.
Above the settlement of Siam (3°22′N 101°19′E) there
are a number of sandbanks, but the river is navigable by
small local craft for a farther 55 miles.
PASSAGE WEST OF PERMATANG ANGSA
AND EAST OF PASIR UTARA
General information
Charts 2139 3945, 3946
Description
6.160 1
A route used by coasters leads from the vicinity of
Angsa Bank Light−buoy (3°20′N 101°00′E) (6.200) along
the W side of Permatang Angsa to a position S of Selat
Klang Selatan, the S entrance to Pelabuhan Klang.
Caution. Depths greater than 10 m are charted on the
route between Permatang Angsa and Pasir Utara, but due
consideration should be given to the Source Data diagram
on chart 2139.
2
It would be dangerous for medium−draught vessels to
use this route as no specific directions or bearings can be
given.
Off−lying banks
6.161
1
Permatang Angsa (3°10′N 101°07′E), composed of mud
and sand, has depths of less than 1 m over it, and dries in
parts at about half out−going tide.
Beting Kepah (3°00′N 101°13′E), which dries, lies on
the S side of Permatang Angsa.
2
Pasir Utara (3°05′N 101°00′E) comprises various
sandbanks and spits lying in a general NW and SE
direction between Permatang Angsa and Permatang Sedepa
(One Fathom Bank) (2°53′N 101°00′E). The shoalest parts
of these sandbanks are:
Batuan Kencing (3°07′N 101°00′E), which dries at its
SE end, and on which the sea breaks.
Beting Angsa (3°04′N 100°57′E).
Permatang Ketam (3°03′N 101°05′E).
A 1·8 m wreck lies 6 miles NW of Beting Angsa.
CHAPTER 6
186
Fishing
6.162
1
Permatang Angsa is covered with fish stakes and traps
as described at 5.253.
Fishing boats are constantly seen on the bank, which is
one of the most important fishing grounds in the vicinity.
Dumping ground
6.163
1
See 6.227.
Tidal streams
6.164 1
Tidal streams over Pasir Utara are strong; see the
information on the charts. For times of maximum rates, see
6.4.
For tidal streams in vicinity of Permatang Sedepa (One
Fathom Bank), see 2.60.
Directions
(continued from 6.151)
Principal marks
6.165 1
Landmark:
Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Major lights:
Kuala Selangor Light (3°20′N 101°15′E) (6.199).
Pulau Angsa Light (3°11′N 101°13′E) (6.199).
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light (2°53′N
101°00′E) (2.61).
Bukit Jugra Light (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Tanjung Ru Light (2°50′N 101°17′E) (6.204).
Other aids to navigation
6.166
1
Racons:
Permatang Sedepa (NW end) Light−beacon (3°00′⋅9N
100°51′⋅9E).
Permatang Sedepa (One Fathom Bank) Light−tower
(2°53′⋅3N 100°59′⋅8E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Inshore passage
6.167 1
Coasters use the channel which leads along the edge of
Permatang Angsa for about 35 miles, from Angsa Bank
Light−buoy (3°20′N 101°00′E) (6.150) between the W side
of Permatang Angsa and the shoals forming Pasir Utara
(6.161), to the vicinity of South Fairway Light−buoy
(2°50′⋅3N 101°15′⋅0E) (6.206) marking the S entrance
channel to Pelabuhan Klang.
A dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies 3½ miles
W of South Fairway Light−buoy.
6.168 1
Useful marks:
Light (white buoyant beacon) (3°01′N 100°52′E), at
the N entrance to Malacca Strait TSS (2.80).
Pulau Ketam Light (red square on white column on
piles) (3°00′N 101°13′E), on Beting Kepah (6.161).
(Directions continue for the coastal route SE
of Selat Klang Selatan at 6.229
and for Selat Klang Selatan at 6.204)
PELABUHAN KLANG AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 2139, 2152, 2153, 2155
Position
6.169 1
Pelabuhan Klang (Port Klang) (3°00′N 101°24′E)
comprises three port areas:
Pelabuhan Utara (North Port) (3°02′N 101°22′E),
Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port) (3°00′N 101°24′E),
also known as South Point, which is controlled
through Pelabuhan Utara.
Pelabuhan Barat (West Port) (2°58′N 101°19′E), the
most recently developed area.
Function
6.170 1
Pelabuhan Klang serves Kuala Lumpur (3°10′N
101°42′E) (charts 3946 or 1358), the capital of Malaysia,
situated on Sungai Klang, about 40 km inland. It is
Malaysia’s principal and busiest, and has all the facilities of
a modern, well−equipped port. It is well−linked to other
parts of the country by a network of roads and rail
connections.
Klang (3°02′N 101°27′E), an important town on the S
bank of Sungai Klang, is the centre of a rich rubber and
palm oil producing district.
Principal imports are iron, steel, machinery, fruit and
general goods.
2
Principal exports are rubber, palm oil, manufactured
goods, timber, grains and cars.
Facilities include the loading and discharge of bulk
liquid cargoes, including latex, palm oil, coconut oil,
petroleum products and fuel oils.
There are extensive facilities for containers.
Passenger vessels call regularly at the dedicated cruise
terminal in Pelabuhan Barat (West Port).
Topography
6.171 1
The islands lying off Pelabuhan Klang (3°00′N
101°24′E) are formed of black mud and are densely
wooded with mangrove trees and bushes, being in most
parts swampy at HW.
The creeks and channels which separate and intersect
them are not much used except by small local craft.
Although the mainland coast and the islands are mainly
low, a number of small hills are situated on the NW side
of Selat Klang Utara.
Port limits
6.172 1
The port limits and pilotage district limits of the
combined ports of Pelabuhan Klang are shown on chart
2139.
Approach and entry
6.173 1
From N via Selat Klang Utara (6.200).
From S via Selat Klang Selatan (6.206).
Traffic
6.174 1
In 2005, 9237 vessels totalling 198 573 585 dwt used the
port.
CHAPTER 6
187
Port Authority
6.175 1
Port Klang Authority (Lembaga Pelabuhan Klang), Mail
Bag Service 202, Jalan Pelabuhan, 42005 Port Klang,
Selangor, Malaysia.
Website: www.pka.gov.my
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
6.176 1
The controlling depths are in the dredged channels in
the approaches:
From N, at N end of Selat Klang Utara, 11⋅3 m
(2002) over a width of 153 m.
From S, at S end of Selat Klang Selatan, 15·0 m over
a width of 365 m.
At Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port), 9 m (2002) in the
channel immediately W of the port, over a width
of 210 m.
Deepest berths
6.177 1
At Pelabuhan Utara (North Port): Break bulk berths
Nos 12 and 13 (6.214).
At Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port): Liquid bulk berths
Nos 1 and 2 (6.216).
At Pelabuhan Barat (West Port): Bulk cargo and
containers berths Nos B1 to B12 (6.217).
Tidal levels
6.178 1
See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3. Mean spring range
about 4·2 m; mean neap range about 1·4 m.
Density of water
6.179 1
Density: 1·020−1·025 g/cm
3
. Heavy monsoon rains and
the state of the tide have a considerable effect on the
density.
Maximum size of vessels handled
6.180 1
Pelabuhan Utara (North Port)
Vessels of 80 000 dwt at Container Berths Nos 9 and
10.
Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port)
Vessels of 40 000 dwt at Berths Nos 1 and 2.
Pelabuhan Barat (West Port)
Vessels of 115 000 dwt, LOA 348 m at Container
Berths B7 to B12.
Local weather
6.181
1
Visibility is normally good in the approaches. However,
fog, mist and haze, brought about on occasions by forest
fires or pollution, can reduce visibility to 1 mile. Also
heavy rain squalls can restrict visibility for periods of
several hours.
Arrival information
Vessel Traffic Service
6.182 1
A VTS with full radar surveillance is maintained for the
control of shipping The system is linked to the Malacca
Straits Surveillance System. A mandatory ship reporting
system is in operation.
For full details, and list of reporting points, see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA
6.183 1
At least 7 days initial notice is required, stating point of
arrival and draught.
Vessels must confirm, at least 2 hours prior to arrival,
through an agent, the ETA at:
Pulau Angsa Light (3°11′N 101°13′E), or:
Pintu Gedong Light−buoy (2°51′N 101°15′E).
2
On departure requests for pilotage should be made
1 hour before, or 1½ hours in the case of vessels departing
from Pelabuhan Barat (West Port) or Kapar Power Station
Berth (6.214).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorages
6.184 1
Northern Approach:
Vessels awaiting berthing instructions should anchor
about 5 cables E of the pilot boarding ground
(6.186).
Southern Approach:
Vessels awaiting berthing instructions should anchor
about 5 cables W of South Fairway Light−buoy
(2°50′⋅3N 101°15′⋅0E) (6.206).
Prohibited anchorages
6.185 1
Prohibited anchorage areas are established as indicated
on the charts off the wharves and approaches.
Anchoring is also prohibited in the dredged channels,
and between the pilot boarding positions and the dredged
channels, except, in emergency, for manoeuvring purposes,
and for surveying or any other works, upon obtaining
permission from the relevant authority.
The W boundary of the prohibited anchorage area off
the wharves at Pelabuhan Klang (South Port) is indicated
by Nos 16 and 17 Light−beacons (2°59′⋅0N 101°23′⋅7E) in
line bearing 168°.
Pilotage and tugs
6.186 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels LOA 28 m and
over, and any vessel if so required by the Port Authority,
and is available 24 hours. Pilot launches are painted blue
and white with the word PILOT on the superstructure.
Boarding positions:
Northern approach: 8 cables N of Pulau Angsa Light
(3°11′N 101°13′E) (6.199).
2
Southern approach: 5 cables NE of South Fairway
Light−buoy (2°50′⋅3N 101°15′⋅0E) (6.206).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs are available. Vessels up to LOA 145 m must take
one tug; over this length, two tugs.
Traffic regulations
6.187
1
All vessels navigating within the harbour limits shall
navigate at a speed of not more than 12 kn. However, when
passing the berths at West Port, North Port or South Port,
speed shall not exceed 8 kn.
CHAPTER 6
188
Harbour
Pelabuhan Utara (North Port)
6.188 1
Pelabuhan Utara (North Port) (3°02′N 101°22′E) fronts
the E side of Selat Klang Utara, S of the mouth of Sungai
Puloh in Lat 3°03′N.
There are 2 miles of almost continuous wharfage, with
deep−water container berths in the middle and S end, with
a Ro−Ro ramp at the S extremity.
2
The N end is primarily for liquid bulk, general cargo
and timber although some container traffic is also handled.
The coal and oil jetty at Kapar Power Station lies
4½ miles NW.
Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port)
6.189 1
Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port) (3°00′N 101°24′E) is
situated on the E side of Sungai Klang (6.219).
With the growth of North Port and West Port, it has lost
its previous importance, although it still deals with a
considerable coastal and export trade. It is fronted by
1 mile of continuous wharfage.
Pelabuhan Barat (West Port)
6.190 1
Pelabuhan Barat (West Port) (2°58′N 101°19′E) is the
most recent port development covering 3½ miles of the E
side of Selat Klang Selatan; 1½ miles of this development
is continuous wharfage. The port handles general cargoes,
containers, liquid and dry bulk cargoes. There is a cruise
terminal berth (2°59′⋅2N 101°20′⋅2E) at the N end of West
Port.
Fishing
6.191 1
Fishing stakes extend into deep water on each side of
Selat Klang Utara and are continually being shifted, but are
generally within the 5 m depth contour. They are mostly of
bamboos; the platforms from which the nets are suspended
are always above HW, being marked by tall bamboos and
small flags.
2
Fishing boats are occasionally seen on Permatang Angsa.
At times they also frequent the N approach to Selat Klang
Utara and lay their drift nets across the channel. These nets
are marked by wooden floats and have a boat at each end
of the net.
Tidal streams
6.192 1
Tidal streams run everywhere with considerable strength,
but do not exceed 3 kn as a general rule, the maximum rate
being attained about close to HW and LW at Pelabuhan
Klang.
They generally set parallel with the wharves in both
straits, but there is often an inset at the entrances to creeks
and channels.
Additional information on tidal stream direction and
mean spring rates is shown on the relevant large scale
charts.
6.193 1
Selat Klang Utara. For tidal streams in position
3°19′N 101°07′E, W of Selangor Light, see information on
chart 3945.
6.194 1
Off Pulau Angsa (3°11′N 101°13′E):
Interval from HW
Pelabuhan Klang
Remarks
+ 0145 (at springs)
+ 0115 (at neaps)
N−going stream begins
– 0515 (at springs)
– 0445 (at neaps)
S−going stream begins
There is a period of slack water for about 1 hour at
springs and 1½ hours at neaps.
6.195 1
Within Selat Klang Utara:
Interval from HW
Pelabuhan Klang
Remarks
+ 0215 (at springs)
+ 0245 (at neaps)
N−going stream begins
– 0415 (at springs)
– 0400 (at neaps)
S−going stream begins
There is a period of slack water for about 1 hour.
For times of maximum rates within Selat Klang Utara,
see 6.4.
6.196 1
Selat Klang Selatan.
South of Pulau Pintu Gedung (2°54′N 101°15′E):
Interval from HW
Pelabuhan Klang
Remarks
+ 0230 N−going stream begins
– 0300 (at springs)
– 0330 (at neaps)
S−going stream begins
Slack water period is ¾ hour at springs and 1 hour at
neaps.
2
Caution. A strong set exists into and out of Selat Che
Mat Zin (2°55′N 101°16′E).
For times of maximum rates off Pulau Pintu Gedung and
within Selat Klang Selatan, see 6.4.
6.197 1
South of Tanjung Sarang Lang (3°00′N 101°20′E):
Interval from HW
Pelabuhan Klang
Remarks
+ 0200 (at springs)
+ 0230 (at neaps)
N−going stream begins
– 0400 S−going stream begins
Slack water period is 25 minutes at springs and
40 minutes at neaps.
6.198 1
Pelabuhan Selatan.
After heavy rains, when Sungai
Klang is full, the streams become very confused, especially
for about 2 hours after the E−going stream begins.
Directions for Selat Klang Utara
(continued from 6.151)
Principal marks
6.199 1
Landmarks:
Kuala Selangor Lighthouse (white round metal tower
on masonry base, 27 m in height) (3°20′N
101°15′E), standing on Bukit Selangor. Two radio
masts (elevation 100 m, red obstruction lights)
stand 1 cable NE of the lighthouse.
2
VTS Tower (28 m in height, red obstruction light)
(3°11′N 101°13′E), standing on Pulau Angsa close
CHAPTER 6
189
Pulau Angsa from NE (6.199)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Pulau Selatan VTS Tower and Lt Ho
to the lighthouse (white round tower, 11 m in
height); Pulau Selatan (32 m high) stands close
SSE of Pulau Angsa.
Bukit Jeram (3°15′N 101°18′E). A meteorological
station (small building, white roof), with staff
(black ball and triangle) at N end, stands on the
summit.
Three chimneys (red and white bands, red obstruction
lights, 178 m in height) at a power station (3°07′N
101°19′E).
3
Coal and Oil Jetty serving the power station.
Major lights:
Kuala Selangor Light—as above.
Pulau Angsa Light—as above; the light is partially
obscured by the obstruction light on the VTS
Tower between the bearings of 323½°−010½°
(047°).
Approaches to Selat Klang Utara
6.200 1
When approaching Selat Klang Utara from NW,
soundings provide a good guide. The bottom is soft and
unlikely to damage any vessel touching; the water is
invariably smooth.
From a position NW of Angsa Bank Light−buoy (3°20′N
101°00′E) (6.150), the route continues generally SE in
deeper water towards Selat Klang Utara, passing:
2
NE of Angsa Bank Light−buoy, thence:
SW of a 5⋅1 m patch (3°23′⋅4N 101°03′⋅6E), thence:
NE of a light−buoy (starboard hand) (3°18′⋅0N
101°05′⋅0E), marking the NE edge of Permatang
Angsa (6.161) thence:
NE of Penyu Light−buoy (starboard hand) (3°15′⋅0N
101°10′⋅0E), also marking the edge of Permatang
Angsa. On the opposite side of the channel to
Permatang Angsa an extensive mudbank fronts the
mainland coast. Discoloured water marks the edges
of these banks. Thence:
3
SW of No 1 Light−beacon (white column on piles)
(3°13′⋅8N 101°12′⋅8E), marking Batuan Penyu, a
steep−to, underwater rock; an obstruction is charted
about 1 cable SW of the rock, and:
NE of a stranded wreck (1½ miles WSW of Batuan
Penyu), which lies on the E edge of a drying patch
on Permatang Angsa, thence:
To the vicinity of the pilot boarding place 8 cables N
of Pulau Angsa (3°11′N 101°13′E) (6.199).
Entry
6.201
1
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding place 8 cables N
of Pulau Angsa (3°11′N 101°13′E), the track leads SE,
passing (with positions from Pulau Angsa):
Through a channel, dredged to 11⋅3 m (2002) and
153 m wide, (entered 1½ miles SE) marked by
light−buoys (lateral), thence:
SW of Coal and Oil Jetty (7½ miles SE) (6.199).
Lights are exhibited at the N and S extremities of
the jetty head. Thence:
2
The buoyed channel continues SE to a position NE of
Tanjung Bakau (10 miles SE) where the track leads SSE,
then S, through North Port, passing:
E of Elbow Light−buoy (starboard hand) (3°02′·4N
101°21′·0E) and Tiram Light−buoy (starboard
hand), 1¼ miles farther S, which mark the shoal
Selat Klang Utara, E side (6.199)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Power station chimneys Coal and Oil Jetty
CHAPTER 6
190
water extending up to 8 cables E from Pulau
Klang.
3
Thence the track leads SSE to the inner approach to
South Port (6.209), or SSW to West Port and the through
passage via Selat Klang Selatan (6.206).
Useful marks
6.202 1
The following islets are prominent in a group of four
islets and some rocks. The islets are reddish in colour and
covered with scrub; the sea breaks on the rocks at LW:
Pulau Besar (3°13′⋅4N 101°16′⋅7E), the largest islet of
the four.
Pulau Anak Angsa, 1 cable N.
Pulau Jemor, 5 cables SE.
Pulau Tekukor, 1¼ miles S.
6.203
1
The following lights and beacons are useful for fixing:
Kuala Sungai Selangor Light (3°18′·5N 101°13′·1E)
(6.157).
Kuala Sungai Buloh Light (white column on piles)
(3°15′N 101°17′E).
Batuan Mandi No 2 Beacon (white masonry structure,
staff and ball topmark; 9 m in height) (3°11′·7N
101°16′·1E). The rock dries 3 m.
Beacon (white round structure; white disc) (3°04′N
101°20′E), marking port limit.
No 9 Beacon (white round structure; white disc)
(3°01′·2N 101°20′·3E).
(Directions continue for
Pelabuhan Klang (South Port) at 6.209)
Directions for Selat Klang Selatan
(continued from 2.68, 2.102 and 6.168)
Principal marks 6.204
1
Landmarks:
Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E), thickly wooded and,
being the only hill near the coast, is easily
identified. When seen from NW or W it is of an
oblong shape sloping at both ends, but from S it
appears conical. Bukit Jugra Light−tower and a
second tower (very close by and of similar size)
are located 5 cables SW of the summit. Bright
white lights have been reported on the summit, but
these have no navigational significance.
West Port Tower Block (2°57′⋅0N 101°18′⋅5E).
2
Major lights:
Tanjung Ru Light (white round GRP tower on piled
platform) (2°50′N 101°17′E).
Bukit Jugra Light (white round concrete tower, 25 m
in height) (2°50′N 101°25′E).
Other aid to navigation
6.205
1
Racon: No 1 Light−beacon, Batuan Penyu (3°13′⋅8N
101°12′⋅8E).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
West Port Tower Block at Pelabuhan Barat
(West Port) (6.204)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Approaches to Selat Klang Selatan
6.206 1
From a position in the precautionary area centred on
2°43′N 101°12′E (2.89) the track leads NNE, crossing the
NW−going traffic lane if appropriate, to a position on the
alignment of leading lights, see also 2.12.
Leading lights:
Front. Tanjung Mahang Light−beacon (white triangle,
point up, on white framework tower, concrete
base) (2°54′·9N 101°16′·1E).
Rear. Light−beacon (white triangle, point down, on
white framework tower, concrete base), (200 m N
of the front light).
Tanjung Mahang Leading Light−beacons (0112°),
open starboard of track (6.206)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
2
From the vicinity of South Fairway Light−buoy (safe
water) (2°50′⋅3N 101°15′⋅0E) the alignment (011½°) of
these light−beacons leads N for about 4 miles through the
CHAPTER 6
191
Selat Klang Selatan. Approaching the berths at Pelabuhan Barat (West Port) from SW (6.207)
(Original dated 2000)
West Port Tower Block (6.204)
(Crown Copyright)
dredged channel, marked by light−buoys (lateral), to a
position about 8½ cables S of the front leading light where
the track alters NE to enter Selat Klang Utara.
6.207 1
Within Selat Klang Selatan the shores are relatively
steep−to and little difficulty should be experienced. Pulau
Che Mat Zin, on the NW side, is a forest reserve and
Pulau Indah, on the SE side, is composed of forest
reserves, coconut and rubber plantations.
2
From a position about 8½ cables S of Tanjung Mahang,
the track leads generally NE, in mid channel, passing (with
positions from Tanjung Mahang):
SE of First Point No 28 Light−beacon (red diamond
on white column on piles) (6 cables NE), thence:
3
NW of No 27 Light−beacon (green triangle, point up,
on white column on piles) (1½ miles NE), thence:
As required for the berths at West Port, which extend
over a 3 mile length of the Selat Klang Selatan E
shore.
6.208
1
The track continues NE, passing (with positions from
Star Cruise Terminal (2°59′⋅2N 101°20′⋅2E)):
SE of No 25 Light−beacon (red disc on white column
on piles) (1¾ miles SW), thence:
NW of Star Cruise Terminal; lights are exhibited at
each end of the berth; a 9⋅2 m shoal patch lies
1 cable W of the jetty, and:
SE of Beacon C (6 cables NNW), thence:
2
SE of Tanjung Sarang Lang No 24 Light−beacon
(white rectangle on metal framework tower, 25 m
in height) (9 cables NNE), thence:
NE of the National Hydrographic Centre Jetty
(7 cables NE), a T−shaped jetty extending
2½ cables NW from the shore, the head marked at
each end by lights, thence:
SE of Sinar Jaya Wreck Light−buoy (E cardinal)
(1¼ miles NNE), marking a dangerous wreck,
thence:
3
NW of Tail Light−buoy (N cardinal) (1¾ miles NE).
Thence the track leads N to the berths at North Port and
for continued through passage to Selat Klang Utara, or
SSE, then E, to South Port (see below).
Directions for Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port)
(continued from 6.203 or 6.208)
6.209 1
Caution. Tidal conditions govern movement of all
tankers over 100 m in length within Pelabuhan Klang
(South Port). For berthing details see 6.215.
6.210 1
Leading lights:
Front light−beacon (No 20A) (white concrete column)
(2°59′·7N 101°21′·8E).
Rear light−beacon (No 19A) (white concrete column),
(145 m SSE from front).
From a position N of Tail Light−buoy (N cardinal)
(3°00′⋅4N 101°21′⋅3E) the alignment (154°) of these lights
leads SSE through a channel, dredged to 9 m (2002), to a
position W of Tanjung Harapan Light−beacon (white GRP
tower) (3°00′ 101°22′E).
2
Thence the track is ESE and E through a dredged
section on the S side of the channel, passing (with
positions from Tanjung Harapan):
S of Sungai Agas Light−buoy (port hand) (7 cables
ESE). East of the light−buoy the dredged channel
is covered by the white sector (082°−088°) of
South Port Light (building) (1¾ miles ESE).
Thence:
3
S of Beacon No 10 (triangle, point up, on white
framework tower) (1¼ miles E) at Tanjung Sungai
Agas, close W of the entrance to Sungai Klang
(6.219), thence:
N of a light−buoy (starboard hand) moored 1½ cables
NNE of Tanjung Balai No 18 Beacon (1½ miles
ESE), thence:
As required for berthing at South Port.
6.211 1
Useful marks:
Light beacon (2°54′⋅0N 101°14′⋅8E), position
approximate.
Signal Station (3°00′·1N 101°23′·5E).
No 14 Light−beacon (white metal mast, 26 m in
height) (2°59′·9N 101°23′·6E).
No 15 Beacon (white disc) (2°59′·3N 101°23′·7E).
Anchorages
Pelabuhan Utara (North Port)
6.212 1
Charted anchorage areas:
DWP Anchorage (North) (3°04′N 101°21′E);
maximum LOA 200 m; maximum draught 10 m.
DWP Anchorage (South) (3°02′N 101°21′E) (not
permitted for tankers); maximum LOA 180 m;
maximum draught 9 m.
DWP Anchorage (Reserve) (3°01′N 101°21′E);
maximum LOA 120 m; maximum draught 8 m.
This anchorage is for coastal tankers, feeder
container vessels, cargo vessels unable to anchor at
North Shore Anchorage (6.213), car carriers
awaiting berth and any other vessels as required.
CHAPTER 6
192
Pelabuhan Utara (North Port) from SW (6.214)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Tanjung
Sarang Lang
No 24 Light−beacon
2
Charted special anchor berths:
SPA (3°05′⋅4N 101°19′⋅7E); Lay−up and explosives
anchorage.
SPB (3°05′⋅0N 101°19′⋅9E); LASH operations and
ship to ship transfers.
SPC (3°03′⋅2N 101°21′⋅4E); LASH feeder operations.
SPD (3°03′⋅2N 101°21′⋅2E); Container and Ro−Ro
ships awaiting berths.
SPE (3°03′⋅1N 101°20′⋅6E); Foreign tugs and barges.
Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port)
6.213
1
Charted anchorage areas:
North Shore Anchorage (2°59′⋅8N 101°22′⋅8E) for
coastal vessels, but not tankers; Maximum LOA
90 ; maximum draught 4 m.
Small Craft Anchorage, N of North Shore Anchorage.
Berths
Pelabuhan Utara (North Port)
6.214
1
A continuous wharf provides 18 berths, numbered 8 to
25 from S to N.
Containers: Berths Nos 8 to 11 and Nos 19 to 21;
longest are Nos 9 and 10 Berths, each 320 m in
length with a depth alongside of 13·2 m.
Break bulk: Berths Nos 12 to 18; longest is No 15
Berth at 244 m with a depth alongside of 12⋅5 m,
and the deepest Nos 12 and 13 at 15⋅0 m.
2
Tankers: Berths Nos 22 and 23; each 213 m in length
with a depth alongside (No 22) of 11·5 m.
Dry bulk: Berths Nos 24 and 25; each 213 m in
length with a depth alongside of 12·0 m.
On the S side of Sungai Puloh entrance (3° 03′·0N
101° 21′·6E) there are cement jetties for the use of coasters.
3
Coal and Oil Jetty (3°06′·6N 101°18′·7E) at Kapar
Power Station − Coal Jetty 335 m in length, depth
alongside 14·5 m; Oil Jetty 245 m in length, depth
alongside 14·5 m. Vessels, maximum draught 13⋅0 m, berth
at slack water, starboard side alongside. Pelabuhan Selatan (South Port)
6.215 1
Vessels over 160 m in length, and tankers over 100 m in
length, are usually berthed port side to on the out−going
tide and only when tides are suitable.
6.216 1
Tankers: Three berths, Nos 1 to 3, all 177 m long;
deepest are Nos 1 and 2 Berths with a depth
alongside of 10⋅5 m.
Bulk wheat: No 4 Berth; length 146 m; depth
alongside 9⋅0 m.
2
Coastal traffic: Four general cargo berths, Nos 5 to
7A; longest and deepest is No 5 Berth, length
106 m, depth alongside 6⋅0 m.
Lighterage wharves C and SA are on N bank of the
entrance to Sungai Aur (2°59′·4N 101°23′·8E).
The berths below are within Sungai Klang and are
approached through a channel, leading 5 cables N inside
the entrance, marked on its W side by light−buoys:
Berths at Pelabuhan Barat (West Port) from SW (6.217)
(Original dated 2002)
West Port Tower Block (6.204)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
CHAPTER 6
193
Pelabuhan Barat (West Port); Cruise Terminal, Cement Jetty and LPG Terminal (6.217)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph MV Doulos)
3
Jetty (3°00′·4N 101°23′·5E), T−shaped, on E side of
Sungai Klang, with a depth alongside of 9 m.
Terminal (1 cable N of the jetty), a concrete pile with
two dolphins.
Both these berths are part of the Asa Niaga Barter Trade
Complex.
Pelabuhan Barat (West Port)
6.217 1
Star Cruise Terminal (2°59′·2N 101°20′·2E): three
berths (one outer, two inner), longest and deepest
is 200 m in length (350 m between dolphins) with
a depth alongside of 12·4 m.
Cement Jetty: one berth 285 m in length, depth
alongside 12⋅0 m.
Slag Jetty: one berth 250 m in length, depth alongside
13⋅5 m.
2
Tankers: three berths; longest and deepest is 320 m in
length with a depth alongside of 14⋅0 m.
Dry bulk: two berths, B1 and B2, each 200 m in
length with a depth alongside of 15⋅0 m.
Break bulk: four berths, B3 to B6, each 200 m in
length with a depth alongside of 15⋅0 m.
Containers: six berths, B7 to B12, each 300 m in
length with a depth alongside of 15⋅0 m.
Port services
6.218
1
Repairs can be undertaken, and Muhibbah Shipyard has
a dry dock for vessels to LOA 80 m. Divers are available.
Other facilities. Deratting and deratting exemption
certificates can be issued; hospital and medical facilities
available; oily waste disposal via barge.
Supplies. Fuel and diesel oil from barge or wharf; fresh
water from wharf or by barge to anchorages; provisions
and stores readily available.
2
Communications. Regular sea communication with
Pinang, Singapore and other regional and international
ports. Rail services to Klang and Kuala Lumpur. Subang
(Kuala Lumpur) International Airport is about 70 km
distant.
Rescue. A MRCC is situated at the port.
River and side channel
Charts 2152, 3946
Sungai Klang
6.219 1
Description. Sungai Klang (3°01′N 101°23′E) is narrow
and tortuous. The river banks are covered with palms and
mangroves for about 30 or 40 miles into the interior.
Depths. The river can be navigated at HW by craft up
to 2 m draught, and at LW by craft up to 1 m draught, for
10½ miles to Klang (3° 02′ N 101° 27′ E).
2
Anchorage. A launch and yacht anchorage area is
charted off Tanjung Kubu (3°00′·0N 101°23′·5E). See also
6.213.
Bridge. A road and rail bridge spans the river 1 mile
above South Port and carries the railway from North Port
to Klang. The bridge is of concrete on pile foundations;
small craft can pass under it between the piles.
Charts 2153, 2152
Selat Lumut
6.220 1
Description. Selat Lumut (2°56′N 101°21′E) is the
narrow channel separating the SE side of Pulau Indah
(Lumut) from the mainland and which provides an
alternative route to Pelabuhan Klang (South Port).
Local knowledge is required. The channel has a least
width of 1¼ cables and has not been surveyed in detail.
Although craft of up to 3 m draught appear capable of
navigating the channel, it is used by small local craft only.
Vertical clearance. A bridge with a vertical clearance
15⋅5 m crosses Selat Lumut close SW of South Port.
6.221 1
Directions. The SW approach to Selat Lumut is from
the vicinity of the dredged channel (6.206) at the S end of
Selat Klang Selatan and it is entered between Tanjung Buas
Buas (2°53′N 101°17′E) and Tanjung Selat Lumut, 5 cables
S.
Within the channel, the general rule of keeping to the
outside of the bends and avoiding the points should be
followed.
2
Pulau Tonggok is a small wooded island, 15 m high, in
mid−channel near the N end, 1¼ miles SW of South Port.
The best depths are E of Pulau Tonggok. A wreck, marked
by a light−buoy (isolated danger) lies 2½ cables SW of the
bridge, on the E side of the channel E of Pulau Tonggok.
CHAPTER 6
194
PELABUHAN KLANG TO PULAU UNDAN AND WATER ISLANDS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3946
Scope of the section
6.222 1
This section describes the coastal passage off the
mainland coast of Malaysia from Selat Klang Selatan
(2°50′N 101°15′E), the S approach to Pelabuhan Klang, to
Pulau Undan, 81 miles SE.
The passage is within the Inshore Traffic Zone of the
Malacca Strait TSS. Attention is drawn to the restrictions
on the use of Inshore Traffic Zones in Rule 10 of
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972).
2
The section is divided into the following six parts:
Selat Klang Selatan to Port Dickson, 38 miles SE,
(6.225).
Port Dickson (2°31′N 101°47′E) (6.237).
Port Dickson to Tanjung Keling, 32 miles SE, (6.269).
Pelabuhan Sungai Udang (2°15′N 102°08′E), (6.281).
Tanjung Keling (2°13′⋅0N 102°09′⋅7E) to Pulau
Undan, 15 miles SE, (6.302).
3
Melaka (2°12′N 102°15′E) including Tanjung Bruas,
(6.313).
For the through route of the Malacca Strait TSS leading
close SW of this passage, see 2.81 and 2.93.
Caution
6.223
1
In the vicinity of Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E), the
seabed consists almost entirely of sandwaves as described
in 2.83 and depths may be shoaler than charted. See also
6.271 and details on chart 3946.
Tidal streams
6.224 1
Tidal streams set in a general SE or NW direction off
the Malaysian coast. Spring rates off Tanjung Tuan are up
to 2½ kn in each direction. See also 6.4.
SELAT KLANG SELATAN TO PORT
DICKSON
General information
Charts 2139, 3946, 1140
Route
6.225 1
From the entrance to Selat Klang Selatan (2°50′N
101°15′E), the coastal route leads SE within the Inshore
Traffic Zone of the Malacca Strait TSS for a distance of
34 miles, passing SW of Beting Sepang (2°33′N 101°40′E)
(6.258), to the vicinity of Fairway Light−buoy at the outer
approaches to Port Dickson.
Alternatively, when E of Tanjung Gabang (2°41′N
101°29′E), an inshore route to Port Dickson passes between
the mainland and a shoal 1 mile NE of Beting Sepang.
Topography
6.226 1
Apart from Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204), the
coast as far as Kuala Sepang Besar, 6 miles NW of Port
Dickson, is low and partially fringed with mangroves.
Between Tanjung Gabang (2°41′N 101°29′E) and Kuala
Sepang Besar, the thickly wooded coast is fringed by a
sand and mudbank through which a few rivulets discharge.
Dumping ground
6.227 1
A dumping ground for explosives lies within 1 mile
radius of an area centred in position 2°49′·5N 101°12′·0E.
Tidal streams
6.228 1
Off the coastal bank SW of Kuala Langat (2°47′N
101°22′E), the stream sets:
Interval from HW
by the shore
Remarks
– 0430 to – 0400 SE−going stream begins:
Spring rate 1¾ kn
Neap rate ½ kn.
+ 0130 to + 0200 NNW−going stream begins:
Spring rate 2 kn
Neap rate 1 kn.
For times of maximum rates off Port Dickson (2°31′N
101°47′E), see 6.4.
Directions
(continued from 6.168)
Principal marks
6.229 1
Landmarks:
Bukit Jugra (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Conspicuous tree standing 1½ miles NW of the
settlement of Morib (2°45′N 101°27′E); the village
is prominent.
Chimneys (2°32′⋅0N 101°47′⋅5E) of the power station
at Port Dickson (6.257).
2
Major lights:
Tanjung Ru Light (2°50′N 101°17′E) (6.204).
Bukit Jugra Light (2°50′N 101°25′E) (6.204).
Tanjung Gabang Light (2°41′N 101°29′E) (2.99).
Tanjung Tuan Light (2°24′N 101°51′E) (6.273).
Other aid to navigation
6.230
1
Racon: Sepat Light−beacon (2°34′N 101°23′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Passage
6.231 1
From the vicinity of South Fairway Light−buoy
(2°50′⋅3N 101°15′⋅0E) (6.206), the track leads SE, passing
(with positions from Tanjung Gabang Light (2°41′N
101°29′E)):
SW of Tanjung Ru (15 miles NW), from where a
light (6.204) is exhibited, thence:
2
Depending on draught, NE of a 15·7 m shoal
(13 miles WNW), thence:
SW of a dangerous wreck (9½ miles NW), marked on
its SW side by a light−buoy (isolated danger),
thence:
SW of Tanjung Gabang Light (6.229). The point itself
is not easily identified.
3
The coastal route continues SE, passing:
Depending on draught, clear of the shoals within the
20 m patch which extends up to 6 miles W of
Beting Sepang (14 miles SE). Tide−rips and eddies
are charted SE of the 20 m patch. Thence:
SW of Beting Sepang (6.258), thence:
CHAPTER 6
195
To the vicinity of Fairway light−buoy (safe water)
(17 miles SE) at the outer approach to Port
Dickson.
6.232 1
Useful marks:
Kuala Langat Light (white concrete column) (2°48′N
101°24′E).
Kampung Batu Laut (2°41′N 101°30′E), a prominent
village.
Sepat Light−beacon (2°34′N 101°23′E) (2.89).
Kuala Sepang Besar Inner Light (2°35′·0N
101°42′·9E) (6.257).
2
Kuala Sepang Besar Outer Light (2°33′N 101°44′E)
(6.259).
Pulau Arang Arang Light (2°31′N 101°48′E) (6.262).
(Directions continue for the
coastal route SE of Port Dickson at 6.273
and for main approach to Port Dickson at 6.257.
Directions for NW approach to Port Dickson
are given at 6.260)
Rivers
Charts 3946, 2139
Kuala Langat
6.233 1
Description. Kuala Langat, which dries in places is the
common mouth of Sungai Ayer Hitam (2°49′N 101°21′E),
a small rivulet, and Sungai Langat, 3 miles E.
Sungai Langat leads W of Bukit Jugra (2°50′·5N
101°25′·5E) (6.204) and the palace of the Sultan of
Selangor stands on the E side of the hill. North−west of
Bukit Jugra the river divides and a second mouth opens
NW into Selat Lumut (6.220) while the river continues in a
general E direction.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Depths. Small craft with a draught of 1·8 m are reported
to be able to reach Jugra, at the foot of Bukit Jugra. There
are considerable depths off Jugra where the granite face of
the hill is close to the river bank.
Tidal streams. See 6.228 for tidal streams off the
entrance. The streams are strong in the river.
6.234 1
Directions. The recommended time of entry is 1 hour
before HW on a track of 060°, with Bukit Jugra ahead.
When SE of the E bank of the entrance to Sungai Ayer
Hitam (6.233), the track should be altered gradually E, so
as to bring the W side of the entrance to Sungai Langat
fine on the starboard bow passing clear of the dangerous
wreck marked by a light−buoy (6.231).
2
Thence the track leads about 3 cables off Tanjung
Tongkah, crossing the bar on a heading of about 060°.
If approaching Kuala Langat from SE, the edge of the
coastal bank off Morib (2°45′N 101°27′E) (6.229) is
difficult to see and should be given a wide berth.
Anchorage may be obtained off Jugra village, but there
are snags on the river bottom.
Charts 1140, 3946
Sungai Sepang Kecil
6.235 1
Description. The entrance to Sungai Sepang Kecil
(2°36′·6N 101°41′·3E) is 2 miles WNW of Kuala Sepang
Besar Inner Light (6.257).
The river, entered over a bar with a depth of 0·3 m
(1 ft), is navigable for 2 miles as far as a road bridge.
Landmark. A chimney (2°37′·8N 101°41′·2E),
practically obscured by trees, but noticeable at times by its
smoke, stands 1¼ miles N of the river entrance.
Local knowledge is required.
Sungai Sepang Besar
6.236 1
Description. Sungai Sepang Besar (2°35′N 101°43′E) is
entered through Kuala Sepang Besar, a narrow channel;
Kuala Sepang Besar Inner Light (6.257) is exhibited from
the W entrance point.
The river is approached over a bar with a depth of
0·3 m (1 ft) and is navigable by craft of 1·8 m draught for
10 miles as far as Sepang Road Bridge (2°42′N 101°45′E).
Within the bar depths increase to 11 m.
Sungai Sepang Besar forms the boundary between the
States of Selangor and Negeri Sembilan.
Local knowledge is required.
PORT DICKSON
General information
Charts 3946, 1140
Position
6.237
1
The berths at Port Dickson are off Tanjung Kamuning
(2°31′·3N 101°47′·5E), a headland. The town stretches
along the coast in the direction of Tanjung Tuan, 7½ miles
SSE.
Function
6.238 1
Port Dickson is an important oil terminal operated by
Shell and Esso, and is a minor port for general cargo. It
serves Seremban, the principal town of the State of Negeri
Sembilan. A District Officer resides at Port Dickson.
Between Port Dickson and Tanjung Tuan there are long
stretches of sand which provide excellent bathing, and the
area is one of the health resorts of Malaysia.
Port limits
6.239 1
Limits are:
Parallels of 02°33′⋅2N and 02°30′⋅0N.
Meridians of 101°43′⋅0E and 101°50′⋅0E.
Approach and entry
6.240 1
The principal approach to Port Dickson is N from
Fairway Light−buoy (2°30′N 101°43′E), passing between
Beting Sepang and a sand ridge lying SW of Port Dickson,
thence SE between the sand ridge and the coastal shallows.
Approach may also be made through the inshore route
NE of Beting Sepang (6.258), or by crossing the sand ridge
SW of Port Dickson (6.261).
Traffic
6.241 1
In 2005, 751 vessels totalling 14 035 667 dwt used the
port.
Port Authority
6.242 1
Marine Department, Pejabat Pelabuhan, 71000 Port
Dickson.
CHAPTER 6
196
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
6.243 1
Least charted depth in the recommended approach is
17 m (56 ft), 1½ miles N of Fairway Light−buoy (2°30′N
101°43′E). However, a route with charted depths greater
than 20 m (65 ft) may be found in the channel from
Fairway Light−buoy to the SBM (6.265).
Least charted depth on the recommended track across
the sand ridge (6.261) is 6⋅7 m (22 ft).
Deepest and longest berths
6.244 1
Alongside:
New Shell Jetty (2°32′·0N 101°46′·9E); draught
10·5 m (6.264).
Moorings:
Shell/Esso SBM (2°31′·3N 101°47′·1E); draught
14·9 m (6.265).
Offshore mooring (2°30′⋅2N 101°45′⋅3E) in charted
depths of 27 m (90 ft) (6.266).
Tidal levels
6.245 1
See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3. Mean spring range
about 2·5 m; mean neap range about 0·8 m.
Density of water
6.246 1
Density: 1·020 g/cm
3
average.
Maximum size of vessel handled
6.247 1
Alongside at New Shell Jetty (6.264); 10·5 m draught.
At SBM (6.265): 260 m length, 14·7 m draught,
112 750 dwt.
Local weather and sea state
6.248 1
Wind. Strong local winds known as “Sumateras” occur
during the period May to October. Winds between SW and
NW are of short duration (1 to 4 hours), with velocities
between 40 and 50 kn. Followed shortly after onset by
heavy rains. See also 1.162.
Swell. During the SW Monsoon there is a continual
swell and rough sea at the anchorage. At other times an
appreciable swell may also be experienced.
Arrival information
Port operations
6.249 1
Control of port operations is delegated to Shell and Esso
who also operate a privately owned radio station. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for details.
Notice of ETA
6.250 1
Notice should be given 96 and 24 hours in advance.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for
details.
Outer anchorage
6.251 1
Specified anchorages, as shown on the chart, are
positioned NE of Fairway Light−buoy (2°30′N 101°43′E) as
follows:
Anchorage Centred on
Quarantine 2°30′⋅5N 101°43′⋅2E
Petroleum 2°30′⋅5N 101°44′⋅0E
LPG and Product Tanker 2°31′⋅8N 101°44′⋅7E
Prohibited anchorage
6.252 1
Prohibited anchorage area is shown on the plan
extending 1 mile W from N of Tanjung Kamuning (6.237),
thence generally S and E to Pulau Arang Arang, then N to
Railway Jetty (6.264). Anchoring is also prohibited within
50 m of the pipeline route between the offshore oil terminal
(6.266) and the shore, see also 1.42.
Pilotage and tugs
6.253 1
Pilotage is not compulsory, but the use of oil
installations is conditional on the employment of Shell or
Esso Pilots.
The pilot will board 1 mile N of Fairway Light−buoy or
at the outer anchorage (6.251), as advised by VHF, see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4) for details.
Tugs are not available. Launches will take mooring
lines.
Regulations concerning entry
6.254 1
For general information see the Malaysian Navigation
and Port Regulations at Appendix II.
Passage is prohibited between the SBM (2°31′·3N
101°47′·1E) and the shore ENE.
Harbour
General layout
6.255 1
Port Dickson comprises:
Alongside berths at three jetties extending from the
shore and one detached berth (6.264).
A SBM owned jointly by Shell and Esso and
operated by Shell (6.265).
An offshore oil terminal (6.266).
Tidal streams
6.256 1
In the vicinity of Fairway Light−buoy (2°30′N 101°43′E)
and the outer anchorage the streams set across the
approach, as follows:
Interval from HW
Port Dickson
Remarks
– 0330 to + 0245 SE−going
+ 0315 to – 0445 NW−going
For tidal streams in the vicinity of the berths see
information on the chart.
2
An eddy forms close inshore on the W side of Tanjung
Kamuning (2°31′·3N 101°47′·5E), which sets in the
opposite direction to the stream 5 cables W of the point,
and results in confused condition S of the point.
CHAPTER 6
197
Port Dickson from the SBM berth, 7 cables SW of the power station chimneys (6.257) − View in two parts
(Original dated 1999)
Power station chimneys
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
Esso jetty (6.264)
a
a
Tanjung Kamuning
a
a
Directions
(continued from 6.232)
Principal marks
6.257 1
Landmarks:
Three chimneys (red and white horizontal bands) of
the Power Station (2°32′·0N 101°47′·5E), in the N
part of Port Dickson. Elevation of highest chimney
is 117 m.
Chimneys (red and white bands, and flare) at Shell
(2°32′·0N 101°48′·6E) and Esso (1 mile E)
refineries. Flares may be extinguished at times.
2
Oil tanks (2°31′·3N 101°47′·7E), N of Shell Jetty,
which are prominent from W and S.
Major lights:
Kuala Sepang Besar Inner Light (white square on
metal framework tower) (2°35′⋅0N 101°42′·9E).
Tanjung Tuan Light (2°24′N 101°51′E) (6.273).
Main approach
6.258 1
From Fairway Light−buoy (safe water) (2°30′N
101°43′E) the track leads N between Beting Sepang
(Bambek Shoal) and the sand ridge W of Port Dickson.
Leading bearing. The line of bearing, 358½°, in the
white sector (346°−011°) of Kuala Sepang Besar Inner
Light (2°35′⋅0N 101°42′⋅9E), leads N passing (with
positions from the light):
2
E of Beting Sepang (Bambek) Light−buoy (port hand)
(3 miles SSW), marking the E side of Beting
Sepang, thence:
W of Channel Light−buoy (starboard hand) (2¼ miles
SSE), marking the NW extremity of the sand
ridge, thence:
The track continues E and SE into the inner channel.
Inner channel
6.259 1
From a position about 1½ miles S of Kuala Sepang
Besar Inner Light the track leads E then SE, passing (with
positions from Kuala Sepang Besar Outer Light (2°32′·9N
101°44′·0E)):
N and NE of Channel Light−buoy (7 cables W)
(6.258), thence:
2
NE of Kuala Sepang Besar Outer Light (green
triangle on white metal framework tower), thence:
NE of No 2 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1¾ miles
ESE).
When about 2 miles from Pulau Arang Arang (2°31′N
101°48′E) (6.261), the track is as required for berthing.
At night, when No 2 Light−buoy is abeam, the track to
the berths off Port Dickson leads within the white sector
(307°–316°), astern, of Kuala Sepang Besar Inner Light.
Alternative approach from north−west
6.260 1
From the vicinity of 2°35′N 101°40′E, an unmarked
deep approach channel leads SE passing between:
The shoal (2°34′N 101°41′E), 1¼ miles NE of Beting
Sepang (6.258), and:
The edge of the mainland coastal bank, 1¼ miles NE.
The channel is 8 cables wide between the charted 20 m
depth contours. When clear of this channel the track for the
inner channel (6.259) should be followed.
CHAPTER 6
198
Approach for small vessels
6.261 1
Small vessels whose draught permits may approach the
anchorage (6.263) NE of Pulau Arang Arang, from WSW
by crossing the sand ridge SE of Port Dickson.
Leading bearing. Once clear of the Offshore Oil
Terminal moorings (6.266), 2½ miles WSW of Port
Dickson, the line of bearing 070° of the head of Railway
Jetty (2°31′·2N 101°47′·9E) leads ENE across the sand
ridge, passing (with positions from the jetty head):
2
SSE of a 4·6 m (15 ft) shoal (1½ miles WSW),
thence:
SSE of No 3 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (1¼ miles
WNW), thence:
Arang Light−beacon from NNW (SBM berth) (6.261)
(Original dated 1994)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
About 2 cables NNW of Arang Light−beacon (isolated
danger mark on white buoyant beacon) (7 cables
SW) marking the NW side of a rock awash.
3
When NW of Pulau Arang Arang (3 cables SSW), the
track leads E, passing:
Between the head of Shell Jetty (1½ cables W) and
the reef N of Pulau Arang Arang, thence:
S of Railway Jetty, from which a light (red column
and platform on black metal pile) is exhibited, and:
N of a beacon (white sphere topmark) (2 cables S)
marking the NE extremity of the reef surrounding
Pulau Arang Arang.
4
Thence the track leads ESE towards the coaster and
small craft anchorage E of Pulau Arang Arang, on the
alignment (292°), astern, of the head of Shell Jetty and
Tanjung Kamuning.
Useful marks
6.262 1
Pulau Arang Arang Light (white metal framework
tower) (2°30′·9N 101°47′·7E) on the SW side of
the island. Visible between bearings (289°−138½°),
otherwise obscured by trees.
Tanjung Kamuning (2°31′·3N 101°47′·5E) (6.237).
2
Kuala Lukut Fishing Light (white platform on
concrete pile) (2°33′·7N 101°47′·7E).
Light (2°31′·8N 101°47′·3E) at the seaward end of
power station (6.257) intake.
Sungai Chuah Fishing Light (white square concrete
tower) (2°36′·3N 101°45′·3E).
Bukit Kramat (2°35′ N 101°47′ E) (6.268).
Anchorages and berths
Anchorages
6.263 1
For outer anchorages see 6.251.
Temporary anchorage may be obtained 6 cables NNE of
No 2 Light−buoy (2°32′·2N 101°45′·5E), in a depth of 22 m
(12 fm).
Small vessels may anchor NE of Pulau Arang Arang
(2°31′⋅ 0N 101° 47⋅7′ E), clear of both the prohibited
anchorage and a charted submarine cable, in depths from
6⋅4 to 9⋅0 m (21 to 30 ft), but the holding ground is poor.
Alongside berths
6.264 1
Esso Jetty (2°31′·5N 101°47′·2E), a detached jetty 67 m
in length. Vessels with a maximum length of 110 m,
draught 10·4 m, 19 500 dwt, can berth on each side of the
jetty. Vessels can berth at any state of the tide by day and
at night.
2
Shell Jetty (2°31′·2N 101°47′·7E), comprises two berths
for coastal tankers. The largest is 51 m in length, and is
capable of handling tankers up to 153·4 m in length,
draught 6·4 m, 5500 dwt. Vessels movements are normally
during daylight hours. Vessels up to 122 m in length,
requiring to swing, are handled on in−going tide only.
3
New Shell Jetty (2°32′·0N 101°46′·9E), extending WSW
from the shore for 1 mile, provides three berths at its
T−head. Berths Nos 1 and 3 each accommodate vessels up
Pulau Arang Arang from NW (SBM berth) (6.261)
(Original dated 1994)
Pulau Arang Arang Light (6.262)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
CHAPTER 6
199
New Shell Jetty from S (6.264)
(Original dated 1999)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
to 14 000 dwt and 10·5 m draught; Berth No 2 (inner) is
suitable for vessels up to 7500 dwt and 7·5 m draught.
Railway Jetty (2°31′·2N 101°47′·8E), 46 m in length,
depth alongside 8 m. Small vessels can berth alongside, but
the berth is uncomfortable due to swell and strong tidal
streams.
Single buoy mooring
6.265 1
Shell/Esso SBM (2°31′·3N 101°47′·1E) (yellow
light−buoy, 12 m diameter) connected by submarine oil
pipelines to the shore 1½ cables N of Tanjung Kamuning.
Another submarine pipeline is laid to the buoy from New
Shell Jetty (7½ cables N). See also 1.42.
A light−buoy marks shoal water 2½ cables ENE of the
SBM.
2
Size of vessel: draught 14·9 m; LOA 260·3 m;
100 000 dwt.
Berthing. There are no night restrictions. Vessels up to
30 000 dwt may berth at any state of tide. Vessels above
30 000 dwt may only berth on the NW−going (out−going)
tidal stream. Engines must be at short notice at all times
and put on standby on the approach of “Sumateras”
(6.248).
Offshore oil terminal
6.266
1
Six conventional mooring buoys, laid 2½ miles WSW of
Port Dickson, form an offshore terminal connected by
submarine pipeline to the shore 2 miles E of Port Dickson.
see also 1.42.
Port services
6.267 1
Repairs. No facilities exist; divers obtained from
Pelabuhan Klang.
Other facilities. Deratting exemption certificates can be
issued; hospital and medical facilities.
Supplies. Fuel and diesel oil; fresh water ex jetty or by
lighter with capacity of 150 tonnes; provisions and stores.
Communications. Nearest airports are: Kuala Lumpur
distant 112 km; Melaka distant 96 km.
River
Kuala Lukut Besar
6.268 1
General information. Kuala Lukut Besar (2°34′·5N
101°47′·5E) is 3 miles N of Port Dickson. The village of
Kuala Lukut is at the river mouth.
Sungai Lukut Besar is entered over a bar with a depth
of 0·3 m (1 ft) and is navigable by craft of 1·8 m draught at
HW for a distance of about 4 miles.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Useful marks:
Bukit Kramat is situated close W of the entrance to
Sungai Lukut Besar; it makes a good landmark on
an otherwise featureless stretch of coast.
Sungai Chuah Light (2°36′·3N 101°45′·3E) (6.262).
Kuala Lukut Light (2°33′·6N 101°47′·8E) (6.262).
PORT DICKSON TO TANJUNG KELING
General information
Chart 3946
Routes
6.269 1
From the vicinity of Fairway Light−buoy (2°30′N
101°43′E), at the entrance to Port Dickson, the coastal
route leads SE in the Inshore Traffic Zone of the Malacca
Strait TSS, to a position SW of Tanjung Keling (2°13′⋅0N
102°09′⋅7E).
From the berths at Port Dickson, a narrow inshore
channel, suitable only for small vessels, leads SE then S
between the shoal ridge SW of Port Dickson and the
mainland coastal shoals, to join the coastal route SW of
Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E).
Topography
6.270 1
The coast between Port Dickson and Tanjung Tuan is
composed of long stretches of sand as described in 6.238.
Inland, hills range SE about 20 miles from the coast.
Between Tanjung Tuan and the entrance to Sungai
Linggi, 7 miles ESE, the coast is partially composed of
mangrove. Between Sungai Linggi and Tanjung Keling the
coast consists mostly of irregular rocky points interspersed
with small sandy beaches.
2
From Tanjung Tuan the low wooded coast of Sumatera,
distant 20 miles, can be seen. Malacca Strait is narrower
here than at any other part NW of Melaka (2°12′N
102°15′E).
The refinery and berths at Sungai Udang and the
installations at Tanjung Bruas fringe the coast up to 4 miles
NW of Tanjung Keling.
Depths
6.271
1
Caution. For about 10 miles in each direction from
Tanjung Tuan, along the axis of the fairway, the seabed
consists almost entirely of sandwaves as described in 2.83.
Depths, which may be shoaler than charted, are very
irregular and dangerous to vessels drawing more than
13·5 m, which must pick a careful course in this area. See
also notes on the chart.
CHAPTER 6
200
Tidal streams
6.272 1
Off Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E) the stream sets:
Interval from HW
Pinang
Remarks
+ 0300 to + 0400 SE−going stream begins,
spring rate 2 to 2½ kn.
– 0300 to – 0200 NW−going stream begins,
spring rate 2 to 2½ kn.
For times of maximum rates off Tanjung Tuan, see 6.4.
Directions
(continued from 6.232)
Principal marks
6.273 1
Landmarks:
Chimneys, flares and oil tanks at Port Dickson. See
6.257 for details.
Tanjung Tuan (2°24′N 101°51′E), a steep prominent
bluff, which is higher than the adjacent coast and
appears as an island from a distance. A lighthouse
(white round concrete tower, 24 m in height)
stands on the bluff.
2
Prominent white house (1½ miles NE of Tanjung
Tuan).
Water tower (2°22′N 102°00′E).
Bukit Terendak (2°18′N 102°06′E).
Two tall black chimneys (2°13′⋅4N 102°09′⋅4E) of
Melaka Power Station at Tanjung Keling. The
power station is a glass−fronted brick building
flanked by palm trees near the foreshore.
Major light:
Tanjung Tuan Light—as above.
Other aid to navigation
6.274
1
Racon: Pelabuhan Sungai Udang SBM (2°11′⋅7N
102°06′⋅8E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Coastal route
6.275 1
From the vicinity of Fairway Light−buoy (2°30′N
101°43′E) off Port Dickson, the coastal route leads SE,
passing (with positions from Batu Mandi (2°22′N
101°57′E)):
SW of the sand ridge extending NW from Tanjung
Tuan, thence:
2
SW of Tanjung Tuan (6½ miles WNW) from where a
light (6.273) is exhibited. There are considerable
depths about 1 mile off the point. Thence:
SW of a 7·6 m obstruction (reported 1965) (5 miles
WNW), thence:
Clear of a wreck with a safe clearance of 10 m over
it (4½ miles SW), thence:
3
SW of Batu Mandi, a rock awash, marked by Kuala
Linggi Outer Light−beacon (white round concrete
beacon), thence:
Clear of an 8·5 m rocky patch (3 miles S), thence:
SW of Batu Tengah (2 miles ESE), marked by a light
and consisting of three rocks just above−water,
thence:
4
SW of Telok Gong Light (yellow column on piles)
(5¾ miles ESE), thence:
SW of Pulau Batu Besar (9 miles SE), marked by a
light−beacon (white structure), and the foul area
off Tanjung Panchor (10 miles SE) (6.278), thence:
SW of Sungai Udang Fairway Light−buoy (safe
water) (12 miles SE), thence:
5
SW of a SBM (14 miles SE) and clear of a 16 m
patch (reported 1975), 2 miles farther SW.
The route continues SE to a position SW of Tanjung
Keling (15 miles SE) (6.273). Tanjung Bruas Light (orange
concrete column on pile structure) is exhibited 3 cables
SSW of Tanjung Keling.
6.276
1
Useful marks:
Kuala Linggi Inner Light−beacon (2°24′N 101°58′E)
(6.280).
Kuala Sungai Baru Light−beacon (white square on
beacon) (2°21′N 102°02′E).
Two uncharted white towers, about 34 m high, stand
2 miles ENE of Pulau Batu Besar (2°16′N
102°04′E) (6.275).
(Directions continue for the coastal route
SE of Tanjung Keling at 6.305 and for
the approaches to Melaka Roads at 6.326.
Directions for Pelabuhan Sungai Udang
are given at 6.295)
Tanjung Tuan (Cape Rachado) Lighthouse, bearing 030°, distant 3 miles (6.273)
(Original dated 1970)
(
Photo
g
ra
p
h − HMS H
y
dra
)
CHAPTER 6
201
Side channels
Charts 3946, 1140, 1141
Inshore passage from Port Dickson to Tanjung Tuan
6.277 1
Local knowledge is required.
A narrow unmarked channel, 3 cables wide, with depths
from 11 to 24 m in the fairway leads SE from a position
about 6 cables SW of Pulau Arang Arang (2°31′N
101°48′E) (6.261), for 7 miles to a position close N of
Tanjung Tuan.
2
This channel leads between the sand ridge off Port
Dickson, least charted depth 1·2 m (6.261), and a number
of rocky shoals off the mainland coast, the positions of
which can best be seen on the chart.
This channel should only be used by small vessels.
Inshore passages E and SE of Pulau Batu Besar
6.278 1
Local knowledge is required.
Description. The passage between Pulau Batu Besar
(2°16′·5N 102°04′·3E) (6.275) and the mainland coast is
obstructed with rocks, some above water.
There is no safe track through this area, and the sea is
discoloured with numerous tide−rips, which do not
necessarily coincide with the shoals.
2
Dangers. Foul ground, on which are numerous
below−water, drying and above−water rocks, extends in a
SW direction from Tanjung Panchor (2°16′N 102°06′E) for
a distance of about 1¼ miles.
Other dangers lie up to 5 cables S of Tanjung Panchor.
Deep channels, up to 2 cables in width, lead between
these dangers, but these should only be used by small craft.
Anchorages
Off the entrance to Sungai Linggi
6.279 1
Good anchorage exists in a depth of 16 m, mud, off
Sungai Linggi (2°23′N 101°58′E) (6.280) with:
Tanjung Tuan Light bearing 292°, and:
Kuala Linggi Inner Light−beacon in the river
entrance, bearing 075°.
River
Sungai Linggi
6.280 1
Local knowledge is required.
Description. Sungai Linggi (2°23′N 101°58′E) is entered
across a bar, with a depth of 0·9 m over it, and with rocks
on each side of the entrance.
The river is navigable at HW by craft drawing 1·8 m as
far as Pengkalan Kempas (2°26′N 102°01′E) 8 miles
upriver, or for 13 miles by craft drawing 0·9 m.
2
Directions. The track leads NE passing:
NW of Batu Mandi Light−beacon (6.275), thence:
NW of the S entrance point, thence:
Close NW of Kuala Linggi Inner Light−beacon (white
round concrete structure) (2°24′N 101°58′E), in the
river entrance. The rock on which the beacon
stands covers when there is a depth of 3·0 m on
the bar.
3
Depths decrease rapidly in the approach.
From the entrance there is no difficulty for craft with a
draught of 2·4 m for 5 miles, where there is anchorage, in a
depth of 7 m, with plenty of room to swing.
PELABUHAN SUNGAI UDANG
General information
Charts 3946, 1141
Position
6.281 1
Pelabuhan Sungai Udang (2°15′N 102°08′E) is situated
about 8 miles WNW of Melaka, close W of Tanjung
Keling.
Note. The facilities at Tanjung Bruas, which lies within
Melaka port limits, are described with Melaka in 6.313.
Function
6.282 1
The port is an important oil terminal, opened in 1994,
managed and operated by the Sungai Udang Port Sdn Bhd
(SUPSB), a subsidiary of Petronas. The port serves a
nearby refinery of Petronas Penapisan (Melaka) Sdn Bhd
(PPMSB), handling crude oil and various petroleum
products including LPG.
Topography
6.283
1
See 6.270.
Port limits
6.284 1
The limits are shown on the charts.
Approach and entry
6.285 1
The alongside berths are approached via a channel
1½ miles N of Fairway Light−buoy (safe water) (2°12′·3N
102°04′·5E) and entered through a dredged channel
(6.297).The SBM lies 2¼ miles ESE of Fairway
Light−buoy.
Traffic
6.286 1
In 2000, the port was used by 1000 vessels and
17 400 000 tonnes of cargo were handled.
Port Authority
6.287 1
Sungai Udang Port Sdn Bhd (SUPSB), Bangunan
Pentadbiran, Persiaran Penapisan, 76300 Sungai Udang,
Melaka, Malaysia.
Limiting conditions
6.288 1
Controlling depth. The maintained depth in the dredged
channel is 15⋅0 m; the least charted depth in the approach
channel (6.297) is 18⋅7 m .
Deepest and longest berths. Alongside, No 1 and No 2
Berths (6.299).
Tidal levels. See Tanjung Keling in Admiralty Tide
Tables Volume 3. Mean spring range about 1·8 m; mean
neap range about 0·6 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled.
Alongside:
120 000 dwt; 297 m length; 17·3 m draught.
SBM: 300 000 dwt; 347 m in length; 22 m draught.
CHAPTER 6
202
Arrival information
Vessel Traffic Management System
6.289 1
A VTMS with radar surveillance is operation, and all
vessel movements require permission of Port Control. For
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA
6.290 1
ETA should be sent on sailing from previous port and
72, 48, 24 and 12 hours before arrival.
Outer anchorages
6.291 1
Anchorage may be obtained in designated anchorages,
with limits as shown on the chart as follows, (with
positions from the jetty N Dolphin Light (2°15′⋅2N
102°07′⋅0E)):
2
Name Position Remarks
Ocean Petroleum
3½ miles SSW
Depths 19 to 31 m
Coastal Petroleum 3 miles SW Depths 16 to 34 m
Liquid Petroleum
Gas
2¼ miles WSW
Depths 24 to 37 m
General Purpose
1½ miles W
Depths 20 to 30 m.
lighterage operation
for dry cargoes
3
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring within the port limits,
outside the designated areas, is strictly prohibited.
Pilotage and tugs
6.292 1
Pilotage is compulsory, within port limits, which
includes the designated anchorages. Pilots board at Fairway
Light−buoy (safe water) (2°12′·3N 102°04′·5E).
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
6.293 1
When proceeding towards Fairway Light−buoy:
a) Vessels approaching from the NW must not enter
the port limits.
b) Vessels approaching from the S must not enter
either the port limits or Melaka Port limits (6.315).
2
Berthing and unberthing will be carried out as follows:
a) Coastal berths − 24 hours.
b) Ocean berths − Daylight berthing, 24 hours
unberthing.
c) LPG − Daylight movements only.
c) SBM − Daylight movements only.
Harbour
General layout
6.294 1
Pelabuhan Sungai Udang consists of a jetty extending
1500 m from the shore culminating in a T−head 2100 m in
length, with a branch extending from the SE side, which
provides six designated berths for oil tankers, one berth for
LPG tankers, and a dry cargo berth for vessels to 5000 dwt.
A marine support craft berth is located on the S side of the
main jetty.
A SBM, about 3 miles S of the jetty, has an oil pipeline
landing on the shore close S of the jetty, see 1.42.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 2.92 and 2.123)
Landmarks
6.295 1
Two tall chimneys (2°13′⋅4N 102°09′⋅4E) of Melaka
Power Station (6.273).
Other aid to navigation
6.296 1
Racon: Pelabuhan Sungai Udang SBM (2°11′·7N
102°06′·8E).
For further details see See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Approach
6.297 1
From a position in the precautionary area, centred
12 miles SW of Tanjung Keling (2°13′⋅0N 102°09′⋅7E),
between sections of the SE−going (2.89) and NW−going
(2.123) traffic lanes and Deep Water Route (2.91) as
appropriate, Fairway Light−buoy (safe water) and pilot
boarding position (2°12′·3N 102°04′·5E) can be approached
on a NE track crossing the respective traffic lanes and
keeping clear of a 16 m shoal patch (reported 1975) 2 miles
SSW of the fairway buoy.
2
From the inshore traffic zone (6.275) Fairway
Light−buoy may be approached from between SE and NW
(via S) keeping clear of the shoal patch.
3
Entry. From a position about 1½ miles NW of Fairway
Light−buoy (safe water) and pilot boarding position
(2°12′·3N 102°04′·5E), the track leads NE between Coastal
Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Gas anchorages (6.291) to
a dredged approach channel entered between Nos 1 and
2 Light−buoys (lateral), 7 cables WSW of the jetty N
Dolphin Light (2°15′⋅2N 102°07′⋅0E).
The 300 m wide approach channel is marked by light
buoys (lateral), and leads to a 500 m wide berthing basin.
4
Both the approach channel and berthing basin are
dredged to 19⋅1 m (2001).
SBM may be approached from the pilot boarding
position passing S of Ocean Petroleum anchorage (2°12′⋅3N
102°05′⋅5E) and N of the 16 m shoal patch (above).
6.298
1
Useful marks:
Pulau Batu Besar Light (2°16′⋅5N 102°04′⋅3E)
(6.275).
Tanjung Bruas Light (2°12′⋅7N 102°09′⋅5E) (6.275).
Sungai Udang Oil Terminal N Dolphin Light
(2°15′⋅2N 102°07′⋅0E).
Sungai Udang Oil Terminal S Dolphin Light
(2°14′⋅3N 102°07′⋅8E).
Berths
Alongside berths
6.299 1
The total berth length of 2100 m provides:
Four coastal tanker berths for vessels up to 140 m in
length and 8·1 m draught.
Two ocean tanker berths for vessels up to 297 m in
length and 17·3 m draught.
One LPG berth for vessels up to 116 m in length and
7⋅5 m draught.
One dry bulk berth for vessels up to 105 m in length
and 5⋅5 m draught.
Moorings
6.300 1
2°11′⋅7N 102°06′⋅8E, see 6.288.
CHAPTER 6
203
Coast from Tanjung Keling to Melaka (6.305) − View in two parts
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Pulau Upeh (WNW)
a
a
a
a
Sungai
Melaka (NE)
Bukit St.
Paul
Port services
6.301 1
Repairs. Minor repairs of an urgent nature only; divers
available from Port Klang.
Other facilities. Hospital facilities; oily waste disposal.
Supplies. Fresh water; provisions and stores.
TANJUNG KELING TO PULAU UNDAN
General information
Charts 1141, 3946, 3947
Routes
6.302 1
The coastal route from close SW of Tanjung Keling
leads SE, within the Inshore Traffic Zone of the Malacca
Strait TSS, towards Water Islands, 13 miles SE where there
is a choice of routes.
Passing in deep water, either:
SW of Pulau Undan (2°03′N 102°20′E), the S island
of the group, or:
2
Between Pulau Undan and Pulau Nangka, 1½ miles
N.
Also, in shallower water through several channels within
the Water Islands group.
For through route passing SW of Tanjung Keling and
Pulau Undan, see 2.103.
Topography
6.303 1
Several isolated tall buildings, uncharted, stand at
intervals along the low coast between Tanjung Keling and
Melaka. A group of tall buildings (white, red roofs,
uncharted) front the shore at Melaka, E of the entrance to
Sungai Melaka.
The country inland of Melaka (2°12′N 102°15′E) is
formed of undulating hills. Gunung Ledang (2°22′N
103°36′E) (chart 1358), with a triple peak, 1275 m high,
stands 24 miles ENE of Melaka.
2
The coast and land near the town are low and wooded.
Reclamation work, including an island and a connecting
bridge to the mainland, is in progress (2006) inshore of
Pulau Jawa (2°10′⋅7N 102°15′⋅1E).
For Water Islands see (6.309).
Tidal streams
6.304 1
See information on the charts. Maximum spring rate off
Melaka is 2 kn. For times of maximum rates off Melaka,
see 6.4.
Directions
(continued from 6.276)
Principal marks
6.305 1
Landmarks:
Chimneys (2°13′N 102°09′E) at Tanjung Keling
(6.273).
Pulau Upeh (2°11′·6N 102°12′·3E), a densely wooded
islet, with a prominent hotel on its NE side.
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) close NNE of a
disused lighthouse, overgrown by trees, on the S
side of Bukit St Paul (2°11′·6N 102°15′·1E). Two
tall buildings (white, not charted) are close NW.
2
Two buildings (elevation 35 m) (2°11′·3N 102°16′·0E)
(red obstruction lights); when seen from seaward
the buildings appear as one. The remains of an old
Dutch fort stand on Bukit St John, close N of the
buildings.
Pulau Besar (2°07′N 102°20′E), and Pulau Undan
(2°03′N 102°20′E) (6.310), the most prominent of
Water Islands (6.309).
Major light:
Pulau Undan Light (2°03′N 102°20′E) (2.110).
Other aid to navigation
6.306 1
Racon: Pelabuhan Sungai Udang SBM (2°11′·7N
102°06′·8E).
For further details see See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Passage offshore of Pulau Undan
6.307 1
From a position SW of Tanjung Keling (2°13′⋅0N
102°09′⋅7E), the track leads SE, passing (with positions
from Pulau Upeh (2°11′·6N 102°12′·3E)):
SW of Beting Keling shoals (3 miles WNW), which
extend up to 7 cables S of Tanjung Keling, with a
least depth of 0·6 m over them. Tanjung Bruas
CHAPTER 6
204
Light (2°12′·7N 102°09′·5E) (6.275) marks the NW
danger, thence:
SW of two dangerous wrecks (2¼ miles WNW),
thence:
2
SW of Pulau Upeh (6.305), thence:
SW of Beting Melaka (6 cables SSE), with shoal
water extending 2 cables farther S, thence:
SW of Beting Duyong (4 miles SE), a shoal patch
lying 5 cables S of Pulau Panjang. The islet stands
on a reef marked by a light−beacon (white) at its
W end, and a beacon (red stone, spherical cage
topmark; 7 m in height) at its E end. Thence:
SW of Pulau Hanyut (9 miles SE), thence:
To a position SW of Pulau Undan (12 miles SE)
(6.310).
6.308 1
Useful marks:
Melaka West and East Breakwater Head Lights
(concrete column; 4 m in height) (2°11′⋅3N
102°14′⋅7E).
Kuala Melaka Light (red square on white piled
structure) (2°11′⋅2N 102°14′⋅6E).
Batu Gelama Light (2°10′⋅4N 102°14′⋅9E) 6.327.
Bukit Sebukor (63 m in height) (2°14′N 102°16′E).
2
Bukit Bruang (2°15′N 102° 17′E) (6.326).
Bukit Punggor (38 m in height) (2°10′N 102°19′E).
Pulau Serimbun (33 m high) (2°07′·3N 102°19′·0E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 6.341)
Water Islands and passages
General information
6.309 1
Water Islands are seven islands or islets, the largest of
which is Pulau Besar (2°07′N 102°20′E) with an
approximate height to the tree tops of 100 m, extending to
6 miles SSW of the Malaysian coast.. There are a number
of passages between the islands and the coast, many
encumbered with drying banks, shoals and rocks.
Local knowledge is required for all the passages.
Directions
6.310 1
Between Pulau Undan and Pulau Nangka. There is
clear passage between Pulau Undan (2°03′N 102°20′E), a
small island, with an approximate height to the tree tops of
55 m, and from where a light (2.104) is exhibited, and
Pulau Nangka, 1½ miles N. Shoal water extends 2 cables N
and E from Pulau Undan and 4 cables NW from Pulau
Hanyut (1¾ miles WNW of Pulau Nangka).
A 12·2 m pinnacle rock lies 1½ miles ENE of Pulau
Undan.
2
Between Pulau Besar and Pulau Dodol. The passage
between Pulau Besar (6.309) and Pulau Dodol, 1 mile S, is
entered S of Batuan Pulau, 1 mile W of Pulau Besar. The
passage is obstructed on its S side by Lansdown Rock,
lying 4 cables NNE of Pulau Dodol. Tide−rips exist close N
and E of Lansdown Rock.
Between Pulau Besar and mainland. The channel
between Pulau Besar and the mainland is foul and rocky,
but it may be used by small craft.
6.311 1
Useful marks:
Bukit Sebukor (2°14′N 102°16′E) (6.308).
Bukit Bruang (2°15′N 102° 17′E) (6.326).
Bukit Punggor (2°10′N 102°19′E) (6.308).
Pulau Serimbun (2°07′·3N 102°19′·0E) (6.308).
Kuala Umbai Light (green triangle on white concrete
tower) (2°09′⋅2N 102°20′⋅2E).
Anchorage
6.312
1
Anchorage inshore may be obtained in the bay on the
SW side of Pulau Besar (2°07′N 102°20′E), 4 cables S of
the W point of the island, in depths from 13 to 14·5 m.
MELAKA ROADS AND TANJUNG BRUAS
General information
Charts 1141, 3946, 3947
Position
6.313 1
Melaka Roads, lying within Melaka harbour limits, front
the mainland coast between Tanjung Keling (2°13′⋅0N
102°09′⋅7E) and Water Islands, 12 miles SE. They are
frequently visited by cruise vessels.
Also inside the Melaka harbour limits are the oil
moorings and jetty at Tanjung Bruas, close W of Tanjung
Keling, as well as the small commercial harbour at Melaka
(2°12′N 102°15′E).
2
Pelabuhan Sungai Udang, which although under the
administration of Melaka Port Authority, has its own
defined port limits and is described separately at 6.281.
Function
6.314 1
Tanjung Bruas Oil Moorings (6.329) supply the power
station at Tanjung Bruas and are connected to it by a
submarine pipeline see also 1.42.
Tanjung Bruas Jetty, owned by the Government and
operated by the Marine Department, is used for general
cargo purposes.
2
At Melaka, cargo is loaded and discharged at the
anchorage in Melaka Roads into lighters and unloaded at
the quayside.
The town, in two parts connected by several bridges, is
the seat of Government for the State of Melaka.
Port limits
6.315 1
The limits of Melaka are shown on charts 3946 and
3947.
Traffic
6.316 1
In 2005, 123 vessels totalling 2 096 342 dwt used the
port.
Port Authority
6.317 1
Melaka Port Authority, Pelabuhan Tanjung Bruas,
Tanjung Kling, 76400 Melaka.
Limiting conditions
6.318 1
Controlling depths. Tanjung Bruas Jetty 9 m.
Melaka town:
Channel 0·6 m.
Limiting draught 1·5 m MHWN.
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3. Mean spring range about 1·8 m; mean neap range
about 0·6 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Tanjung Bruas Jetty:
125 m length; 7000 gt; draught 5·2 m.
CHAPTER 6
205
Arrival information
Anchorages
6.319 1
Off Melaka, vessels should anchor as convenient 1 to
2 miles offshore keeping clear of the dangerous wreck
(mast), 1¼ miles WSW of the breakwater head lights
(2°11′⋅3N 102°14′⋅7E) (6.308).
A recommended anchorage for medium sized vessels is
1½ miles offshore in a depth of 11 m with:
The disused lighthouse on Bukit St Paul (6.305),
bearing 038°, and:
Pulau Panjang Light (6.307), bearing 122°.
2
The holding ground is good, the bottom is chiefly mud,
with some sand in greater depths.
Smaller vessels usually lie closer in, off the river
entrance.
6.320 1
Quarantine anchorage is charted with centre 1¼ miles
SE of Tanjung Keling.
Explosives anchorage is charted SE of Quarantine
anchorage. Its NE corner is Pulau Upeh (2°11′·6N
102°12′·3E).
Both these anchorages are exposed, but the holding
ground consists of mud and is good. The bottom is
irregular, with numerous tide−rips.
6.321 1
Prohibited anchorage area is charted about 1 mile S
and W of Tanjung Keling.
Pilotage and tugs
6.322 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels. At least 4 hours
notice should be given to Melaka Port Authority, for details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
The W boarding position is 2¾ miles WSW of Tanjung
Keling; the E boarding position is 5 miles SSE of the same
point.
Tugs are available.
Regulations
6.323 1
Regulations for Port of Melaka (including Tanjung Bruas
Jetty) are contained in:
Port (Malacca) Rules.
Federation Port Rules 1953 (Appendix II).
Harbour
General layout
6.324 1
Tanjung Bruas, 5½ miles WNW of Melaka, has a jetty
and tanker moorings (6.329).
At Melaka there are quays on both sides of the river
about 3 cables within the breakwater heads, where lighters
are discharged or loaded.
Natural conditions
6.325 1
Tidal streams at Tanjung Bruas Oil Moorings may
attain a rate of 4 kn at springs.
For Melaka, see 6.304 and information on the charts for
position 2°10′⋅4N 102°14′⋅1E.
In Sungai Melaka the out−going stream occasionally
runs at a rate from 3 to 4 kn after heavy rains.
2
Local weather. Melaka experiences hot and sunny
weather nearly all the year round. Temperatures waver
between 32°C during the day and 24°C at night. Humidity
is high. The onset of the monsoon season between May
and September brings heavy rainfall to this coast.
Climate information. See 1.170 and 1.174.
Directions
(continued from 6.276)
Landmarks
6.326 1
Chimneys at Melaka Power Station (2°13′⋅4N
102°09′⋅4E) (6.273).
Pulau Upeh (2°11′·6N 102°12′·3E) (6.305).
Radio mast at Bukit St Paul (2°11′·6N 102°15′·1E)
(6.305).
Two buildings (2°11′·3N 102°16′·0E) (6.305).
2
Bridge (2°11′⋅5N 102°14′⋅9) over the mouth of Sungai
Melaka.
Bukit Bruang (2°15′N 102°17′E) (Chart 3946) an
isolated hill.
Bukit Sebukur (2°14′N 102°16′E) (6.308).
Approach to the anchorages off Melaka
6.327 1
Caution. There are numerous fishing stakes off the
coast, but these are clear of the usual approach tracks.
From west. From a position SW of Tanjung Keling
(2°13′⋅0N 102°09′⋅7E) (6.273) and clear of the facilities at
Pelabuhan Sungai Udang, the track leads E passing at least
2 miles S of Tanjung Keling and 1 mile S of Pulau Upeh
(2°11′⋅6N 102°12′⋅3E) (6.305), to clear offshore dangers.
When Bukit St Paul bears less than 055°, an appropriate
approach to the anchorage (6.319) may be made.
2
From south−east. From a position SW of Pulau Undan
Light (2°03′N 102°20′E) (2.110) the track leads generally
NNW, passing (with positions from the light):
WSW of Pulau Hanyut (2½ miles NW), thence:
WSW of Pulau Panjang (8 miles NW) (6.307) noting
Beting Duyong, an isolated shoal patch, 5 cables S,
thence:
Melaka. Bukit St. Paul bearing 048°, distant 12 miles (6.326)
(Original dated 2002)(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Bukit St. Paul
CHAPTER 6
206
3
WSW of a 1⋅8 m shoal patch, 3 cables S of Batu
Gelama (9 miles NW), a rock which covers at HW
and which is marked by a light−beacon (white
round concrete tower; 4 m in height).
The track then continues NNW to the anchorage (6.319).
Useful marks
6.328
1
Melaka West and East Breakwater Head Lights
(2°11′⋅3N 102°14′⋅7E) (6.308).
Berths and moorings
Tanjung Bruas
6.329 1
Tanjung Bruas Government Jetty (2°12′·9N
102°09′·2E), has an outer berth of length 115 m, depth 9 m,
and an inner berth of length 110 m, depth 6 m. The outer
berth can accommodate vessels up to 125 m in length. The
jetty head is connected to the shore by bridging 2¼ cables
long.
2
Tanjung Bruas Oil Moorings (2°13′N 102°09′E),
consists of a pair of head and stern mooring buoys from
which lights are exhibited. They are owned by the National
Electricity Board (NEB) of Malaysia, and used solely for
the discharge of fuel oil for the power station.
Berthing arrangements are made by the National
Electricity Board. A private pilot and private mooring boats
are used.
3
The submarine pipeline, whose flexible seaward end is
marked by a conical buoy, is landed close S of a patent
slip and landing spur. The pipeline and two storage tanks
are owned by Petronas (National Oil Company). See also
1.42.
Melaka
6.330 1
The quays on each side of the river, with shallow water
alongside, are situated 3 cables within the breakwaters.
They are used principally by lighters.
Government Jetty (concrete public quay) is situated on
the E bank of Sungai Melaka.
Landing places
6.331 1
Boat landing from Melaka Roads may only be made at
Tanjung Bruas Jetty or at Government Jetty at Melaka
(6.330).
The concrete landing spur at Melaka Power Station
(6.273) is for craft belonging to National Electricity Board
only. During NW gales, boatwork here is dangerous and
should not be attempted.
Port services
6.332 1
Repairs. Minor above−water emergency hull repairs
only; full hull repairs to wooden boats only; the slipway at
Tanjung Bruas is for the use of mooring boats belonging to
National Electricity Board; divers can be obtained from
Port Klang.
Other facilities. Hospital and medical facilities are
available; deratting exemption certificates can be issued.
2
Supplies. Fuel available ex road tanker; water only
obtainable at Tanjung Bruas Government Jetty
(25 tonnes/hour); all types of fresh and dry provisions
available.
Communications. Batu Berendam (Melaka) Airport is
9 km distant, with daily flights to Kuala Lumpur
International Airport.
Daily sea communication with Singapore and
occasionally with other ports.
PULAU UNDAN TO TANJUNG PIAI
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3947
Scope of the section
6.333 1
This section describes the coastal passage from Pulau
Undan (2°03′N 102°20′E) and Water Islands to Tanjung
Piai (1°16′ ℑ03°31′E), the S extremity of Malaysia,
85 miles SE. This is the NW entrance point to Singapore
Strait.
The passage generally follows the coastal bank off the
mainland coast of Malaysia, within the Inshore Traffic
Zone of Malacca Strait TSS. Attention is drawn to the
restrictions on the use of Inshore Traffic Zones in Rule 10
of International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at
Sea (1972).
2
The section is divided into the following three parts:
Pulau Undan to Tanjung Tohor, 25 miles SE, (6.337).
Tanjung Tohor (1°51′N 102°43′E) to Tanjung Laboh,
15 miles SE, including Kuala Batu Pahat, (6.350).
Tanjung Laboh (1°44′N 102°56′E) to Tanjung Piai,
45 miles SE, (6.367).
Through route
6.334 1
For through route of Malacca Strait TSS leading close
SW of this passage, see 2.103 and 2.114.
Topography
6.335 1
The Malaysian coast covered by this section is low,
thickly wooded and monotonous. A few hills stand inland.
Pulau Pisang (1°28′N 103°15′E) (6.370) is the largest of
a group of four islands lying off the mainland coast.
Tidal streams
6.336 1
Tidal streams set in a general SE or NW direction off
the Malaysian coast.
For details, the relevant parts of this section and
information on the chart should be consulted.
PULAU UNDAN TO TANJUNG TOHOR
General information
Chart 3947
Routes
6.337 1
The coastal route from the vicinity of Pulau Undan
(2°03′N 102°20′E) to Tanjung Tohor, 25 miles SE, leads
within the Inshore Traffic Zone of Malacca Strait TSS,
clear of the coastal bank SW of the wide bay fronting
Kuala Muar (2°03′N 102°32′E), the entrance to the small
port of Muar (6.345).
CHAPTER 6
207
An inshore route (6.343), suitable only for small craft,
leads SE from between Pulau Besar (2°07′N 102°20′E) and
the mainland.
Topography
6.338 1
The coast between Tanjung Pinang (2°08′N 102°23′E)
and Tanjung Tohor is low, thickly wooded, and fringed by
a mudbank.
Kuala Muar, at the narrow entrance to Sungai Muar, the
largest river in Johor, forms the only break in the coastline.
Sungai Kesang enters the sea 5 miles NW of Kuala
Muar. This small river forms the boundary between the
States of Melaka and Johor.
Depths
6.339
1
Sandwaves, as described at 2.83 and as indicated on the
chart, form part of the seabed in this section of the strait;
depths may be shoaler than charted in their vicinity.
Tidal streams
6.340 1
For direction and mean rates of the stream 3 miles S of
Tanjung Tohor (1°51′N 102°43′E), see information on the
chart.
Directions
(continued from 6.308)
Principal marks
6.341 1
Landmarks:
Pulau Undan (2°03′N 102°20′E) (6.310).
Bukit Mor (1°59′N 102°41′E), an isolated, densely
wooded hill.
Major lights:
Pulau Undan Light (2°03′N 102°20′E) (2.110).
Bukit Segenting Light (1°47′⋅5N 102°53′⋅4E) (2.110).
Coastal route
6.342 1
From a position SW of Pulau Undan (2°03′N 102°20′E),
the coastal route leads ESE, outside the 10 m depth
contour, passing:
SSW of Tanjung Ketapang (2°02′N 102°33′E), at the
entrance to Sungai Muar (6.345). A radio mast
(red obstruction light) stands 1 mile NE of the
point. Thence:
To a position SSW of Tanjung Tohor (1° 51′ N
102° 43′ E), a low point covered with jungle. A
light is exhibited 5 cables SW of the point.
Inshore route
6.343 1
The inshore route between Pulau Besar (2°07′N
102°20′E) and the mainland, which should only be used
with local knowledge by small craft, leads SE passing on
either side of a 0·6 m shoal (2°06′N 102°23′E), upon which
lies a stranded wreck.
Caution. Numerous fishing stakes stand within the 10 m
depth contour between Water Islands and Tanjung Tohor.
Useful marks
6.344 1
Kuala Muar Light (metal framework tower on
concrete piles) (2°03′⋅4N 102°03′⋅2E). The light is
obscured between the shore and bearing 011°.
Parit Jawa Light (red square on white column on
piles) (1°57′N 102°38′E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 6.353)
Muar and Sungai Muar
Chart 3947 (see 1.17)
General information
6.345 1
Description. Muar (2°03′N 102°34′E), standing on the E
side of the narrow entrance to Sungai Muar, is a small
commercial harbour used by coasters and small craft.
Sungai Muar, the largest river in the State of Johor, flows
into the sea through Kuala Muar between Tanjung Agas
and Tanjung Ketapang. The river is very tortuous, but craft
of 1·8 m draught can ascend to Bukit Kepung, a distance of
about 60 miles, or occasionally farther. Craft of 0·9 m
draught can ascend as far as Sungai Palung, a distance of
109 miles.
2
Function. Exports are rubber and palm oil. Imports
include fuel and manufactured goods.
Port limits are charted as:
E entrance point of Sungai Kesang (2°06′·0N
102°29′·5E), thence:
SW to 2°00′·4N 102°24′·6E, thence:
SE to 1°55′·4N 102°31′·5E, thence:
NE to the coast in position 1°59′·6N 102°35′·2 E.
3
Port Authority. There is no port authority and the port
is administered by The Marine Department, PO Box 139,
Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
Limiting conditions
6.346 1
Depths. The bar has a least depth of 1·2 m over it, soft
mud.
Vertical clearances:
A bridge spans the river 1 mile ESE of Kuala Muar
Light. The vertical clearance under the navigational
span is 6·7 m at HW. The passage through the
bridge is marked by red and green lights.
2
An overhead power cable, with vertical clearance of
12 m, spans the river 3¼ miles N of Muar.
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3. Mean spring range about 1·8 m; mean neap range
about 0·6 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled: 500 gt.
Arrival information
6.347
1
Anchorage may be obtained 3½ miles WSW of Kuala
Muar Light (2°03′⋅4N 102°03′⋅2E) (6.344) in depths of 7 m,
thick mud, with good holding ground.
Smaller vessels may anchor off the entrance to Sungai
Muar, in depths of about 4 m.
Pilotage is not available; local knowledge is required.
Directions
6.348
1
Directions. From a position about 3 miles W of Kuala
Muar Light, the approach track leads E, passing (with
positions from Kuala Mala Light (2°03′⋅4N 102°03′⋅2E):
Clear of an obstruction with a depth of 0·6 m over it;
Kual Mar 1G Light−beacon (green column on
piles) lies 6 cables SSW of the obstruction, thence:
Between Kuala Mar 2R Light beacon (red column on
piles) (2 miles W) and a light−buoy (starboard
hand) 2½ cables SE, thence:
N of the inner light−buoy (2°03′·3N 102°32′·8E),
thence:
CHAPTER 6
208
SW of Kuala Muar Light (6.344), thence:
2
As required for Muar, or continued passage of Sungai
Muar.
At the NE end of Muar, near the E bank, there is a
dangerous rock (2°03′·1N 102°34′·3E), marked by a buoy.
Berth and services
6.349 1
Wharf: 25 m long; depth alongside about 2 m.
Repairs: facilities for small craft only.
Facilities: hospital.
Supplies: diesel fuel oil (light) in small quantities;
piped water in small quantities at jetty; fresh
provisions.
Communications: airport at Johor Bahru, 80 km
distant.
TANJUNG TOHOR TO TANJUNG LABOH
General information
Chart 3947 (see 1.17)
Route
6.350 1
The coastal route from Tanjung Tohor (1°51′N
102°43′E) to Tanjung Laboh leads SE for 15 miles, within
the Inshore Traffic Zone of Malacca Strait TSS, passing
either side of Permatang Kuala (1°46′N 102°48′E).
Topography
6.351 1
The coast between Tanjung Tohor and Tanjung Laboh is
quite featureless; it is backed by dense jungle, and bordered
by mangroves through which numerous creeks run. Of
these only Sungai Batu Pahat (1°49′N 102°54′E) is
navigable by anything but small boats.
In addition to Bukit Banang (6.353), hills in the vicinity
of Sungai Batu Pahat include Bukit Penggaram (1°50′N
102°58′E) and Bukit Soga (1½ miles NNW).
Tidal streams
6.352 1
See information on charts.
Directions
(continued from 6.344)
Principal marks
6.353 1
Landmarks:
Four radio masts (red obstruction lights) which stand
near the summit of Bukit Banang (1°49′N
102°56′E). A number of bright white lights, visible
for a considerable distance from seaward, may
occasionally be exhibited from buildings near the
radio masts. Bukit Segenting, 3¼ miles SW, is also
prominent.
2
Major light:
Bukit Segenting Light (1°47′⋅5N 102°53′⋅4E) (2.110)
which stands on the summit of the hill on the S
side of the entrance to Sungai Batu Pahat.
Panjang Utara Light (1°34′N 102°47′E) (2.110).
Mudah Utara Light (1°37′N 102°57′E) (2.110).
Passage south−west of Tompok Tohor
6.354 1
A track SW of the banks of Tompok Tohor (1°48′N
102°44′E) and Permatang Kuala, 3 miles E, leads in deeper
water than NE of the banks, but is adjacent to the
NW−going traffic lane of Malacca Strait TSS.
From a position SSW of Tanjung Tohor (1°51′N
102°43′E) the track leads ESE, passing (with positions from
Tanjung Tohor Light)::
2
SSW of Tompok Tohor (3½ miles SE), thence:
SSW of a dangerous wreck (7 miles SE), position
approximate, on Permatang Kuala, a bank marked
at its NW end by a light−buoy (W cardinal)
(5½ miles SE), thence:
As required to clear Permatang Laboh (13 miles SE).
The track continues ESE to a position SSW of Tanjung
Laboh (15½ miles ESE).
Passage north−east of Tompok Tohor
6.355 1
A track NE of the banks of Tompok Tohor and
Permatang Kuala (6.354), leads in less water than a track
SW of the banks.
Caution. There are numerous fishing stakes within the
10 m depth contour on the bank extending SE from
Permatang Kuala to the shore between Tanjung Segenting
(1°47′N 102°54′E) and Tanjung Laboh, 4 miles SE. It is
therefore advisable to navigate in this vicinity during
daylight only.
2
From a position about 1 mile SSW of Tanjung Tohor
Light (1°51′N 102°42′E), a track leads ESE, passing (with
positions from the light):
SSW of the coastal bank on which there is a
dangerous wreck (3½ miles ESE), position
approximate, and:
NNE of Tompok Tohor (3½ miles SE), thence:
3
NNE of Permatang Kuala (6.354). Thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (10 miles ESE), off Kuala
Bata Pahat, thence:
NNE of Permatang Laboh (13 miles SE), thence:
To a position SSW of Tanjung Laboh (15½ miles
ESE).
Useful marks
6.356 1
Pulau Sialu Light (white masonry tower, 15 m in
height) (1°47′N 102°53′E). Pulau Sialu (6.361) is
reported to be readily identified on radar.
Sungai Ayam Fishing Light (white metal framework
tower on concrete piles) (1°45′N 102°56′E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route SE at 6.370)
Batu Pahat and Sungai Batu Pahat
General information
6.357 1
Position. The town of Batu Pahat (1°51′N 102°56′E) is
on the E bank of Sungai Batu Pahat, 5 miles from the
entrance. The small commercial port is also known as
Kuala Batu Pahat.
Function. Batu Pahat is the principal town of the
district. Trade is mainly barter from nearby ports in
Indonesia, comprising the import of fuel, timber and
provisions, and the export of rubber, copra and palm oil.
On the E side of the entrance to Sungai Batu Pahat there is
a stone quarry (6.362).
2
Approach is from SSW through Kuala Batu Pahat
(1°48′N 102°53′E) which leads to the narrow entrance of
Sungai Batu Pahat, situated between Tanjung Api Api
(1°49′N 102°53′E) and Tanjung Telaga, a low rocky point,
1¼ miles S. The approach channel leads across the bar
close W of Pulau Sialu Light (6.356).
CHAPTER 6
209
Port Authority. There is no Port Authority and the
harbour is administered by the Marine Department, PO
Box 139, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
Limiting conditions
6.358 1
Controlling depth on the bar is 0⋅3 m, soft mud. Within
the river there are depths from 2·5 to 5⋅0 m as far as Pasir
(6.365).
Tidal levels: see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 3. Mean spring range about 2·4 m; mean neap range
about 0·8 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled: 800 dwt.
Arrival information
6.359 1
Port radio: none available.
Outer anchorage: in any convenient depth SW of Pulau
Sialu (1°47′N 102°53′E).
A recommended berth is about 1½ miles SW of the
islet, in a depth of 7·3 m, where it is clear of fishing stakes
and the holding ground is good.
Small craft may anchor in the river, as detailed in 6.362.
2
Pilotage is not compulsory. A local qualified pilot is not
available, but an experienced guide can be obtained from
the District Marine Office, Batu Pahat.
Harbour
6.360 1
Layout. There are wharves at Batu Pahat, all of which
dry.
Two piers are situated at Tanjung Telaga (6.357).
Tidal streams. See information on the chart in position
1°46′·4N 102°52′·4E.
The in−going stream begins 1 hour before LW and runs
until 1 hour before HW. Spring rate 1 kn.
Directions
6.361
1
Local knowledge is required.
Caution. Large fishing stakes lie in the approach.
From a position SW of Pulau Sialu (1°47′·3N
102°53′·1E), the line of bearing 027° of the river entrance
leads over the bar close W of Pulau Sialu and into the
river channel, passing:
2
Between the E shore in the vicinity of the 19 m hill
(1°48′·4N 102°54′·0E), and a white beacon (pole,
platform and cylinder), 1½ cables off the same
shore, marking the W side of the channel.
Thence the track leads N, passing:
3
E of a similar white beacon, 3 cables W of Tanjung
Api Api.
When ½ cable from the N shore the track leads
generally E keeping close to the NW bank until one−third
of the way along the first reach, whence it trends to the
opposite bank.
Berths
6.362 1
Anchorage. Small craft of suitable draught can anchor
in the river abreast Batu Pahat in position (1°51′·0N
102°55′·5E), in a depth of 4·5 m.
Alongside berths at Batu Pahat. There are three
wharves, all of which dry, as follows:
Marine Wharf: T−head, 23 m long.
Government Wharf: 55 m long.
Government Wharf: 29 m long.
2
Piers. There are two stone piers close S of Tanjung
Telaga (1°47′·7N 102°53′·4E) used for loading stone from
the quarries close to the point.
Caution. Numerous pieces of rock have been deposited
in the channel by blasting from the quarries.
Port services
6.363 1
Repairs: none are undertaken.
Other facilities: hospital.
Supplies: small quantities available.
Communications: good roads to Melaka, Kuala Lumpur
and Johor Bahru; sea communication with Singapore.
River above Batu Pahat
6.364 1
A road bridge spans the river in the N part of Batu
Pahat, with a vertical clearance of 3·7 m at HW.
The navigational channel under the bridge is marked on
each side by red and green lights.
Above Batu Pahat depths increase slightly, but the river
is much narrower. Two miles above the town Sungai Batu
Pahat divides; the W branch forming Sungai Simpang Kiri
and the E branch forming Sungai Simpang Kanah.
6.365 1
Sungai Simpang Kiri is navigable by craft of 1·8 m
draught for 18 miles to Pasir. Depths in the river average
5·5 to 7·5 m, but it is narrow and in some places the width
is less than 18 m.
At Parit Sulung (1°59′N 102°53′E), 8 miles above the
junction, the river is spanned by a high bridge.
6.366 1
Sungai Simpang Kanah is navigable by craft of 1·8 m
draught for 12 miles to the village of Tanjung Semberung
(1°52′ ℑ03°04′E).
About 5 cables below Tanjung Semberung the river
divides: Sungai Simpang Kanah trends N and Sungai
Semberung trends NE.
Sungai Simpang Kanah is navigable by craft of 1·8 m
draught as far as Yong Peng (2°01′N 103°03′E), 22 miles
distant. Its banks are low and thickly wooded.
TANJUNG LABOH TO TANJUNG PIAI
General information
Charts 3947, 3833 (see 1.17)
Route
6.367 1
The coastal route from Tanjung Laboh (1°44′N
102°56′E) to Tanjung Piai, 45 miles SE, the S extremity of
Peninsula Malaysia and mainland Asia, leads SE within the
Inshore Traffic Zone of Malacca Strait TSS, passing either
side of Pulau Pisang (1°28′N 103°15′E) (6.370) and clear
of the TSS extending from Pulau Pisang into Singapore
Strait.
Topography
6.368 1
The coast between Tanjung Laboh and Tanjung Piai, is
low and thickly wooded, it is almost entirely bordered with
mangroves.
The coastline is remarkably featureless and few places
can be identified. Numerous small rivers and creeks flow
into the sea along this stretch of coast.
CHAPTER 6
210
Tanjung Piai from S (6.372)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − MV Oxfordshire)
Lighthouse (6.372)Control Tower (6.370)
Tidal streams
6.369 1
See information on charts.
Caution. Between Pulau Kukup (1°19′N 103°26′E)
(6.372) and Tanjung Piai, 6 miles SE, the E−going stream
sets strongly towards the coastal bank and the W−going
stream sets across the channel towards Permatang Panjang
(Long Bank) (1°20′ ℑ03°07′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.356)
Principal marks
6.370 1
Landmarks:
Gunung Pulai (1°36′N 103°33′E), upon the summit of
which stands a group of radio masts. Bright white
lights are occasionally exhibited near this group
visible from a considerable distance to seaward.
Radio mast (red obstruction light) (1°29′·2N
103°23′·4E), at Pontian Kechil (6.378). The
obstruction light is reported visible from a
considerable distance.
2
Pulau Pisang (1°28′N 103°15′E), thickly wooded and
of rocky formation, is the highest of a group of
four prominent islets, lying 7 miles off the
Malaysian coast. A beacon (trapezoidal daymark)
stands on the W side of Pulau Pisang.
Control tower (white and surmounted by a radar
scanner), standing 1 mile N of Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E).
3
Pulau Karimun Besar (1°06′N 103°21′E) (4.343), and
Pulau Karimun Kecil, close NE, both of which are
prominent when approaching the W entrance to
Singapore Strait from NW.
Major lights:
Bukit Segenting Light (1°47′⋅5N 102°53′⋅4E) (2.110).
Mudah Utara Light (1°37′N 102°57′E) (2.110).
Pulau Pisang Light (1°28′N 103°15′E) (2.110).
4
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E) (2.110).
Panjang Selatan Light (1°23′N 103°08′E) (2.110).
Pulau Iyu Kecil Light (1°11′⋅5N 103°21′⋅1E) (7.36).
Other aids to navigation
6.371 1
Racons:
Tanjung Piai Light (1°16′N 103°31′E).
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Passing south−west of Pulau Pisang
6.372
1
Deep water within the Inshore Traffic Zone is confined
to a narrow strip adjacent to the separation zone defining
the NE−going lane of Malacca Strait TSS.
From a position SSW of Tanjung Laboh (1°44′N
102°56′E), the track leads generally SE, passing (with
positions from Tanjung Laboh):
2
Clear of Tompok Kores (2 miles S and 3 miles SE),
thence:
SW of a dangerous wreck (12½ miles SE), thence:
The track continues SE, passing (with positions from
Pulau Pisang Light (1°28′N 103°15′E):
SW of a dangerous wreck (7 miles NW), position
approximate, thence:
3
SW of Pulau Tunda and Pulau Kamudi, the W islands
of the group around Pulau Pisang (6.370), thence:
SW of a 4⋅6 m wreck (1 mile SW), thence:
SW of a light−buoy (isolated danger) (2½ miles SSE),
marking an obstruction close N; a dangerous
wreck, position approximate, lies 5 cables farther
SE and the bank extends 2 miles farther SE with a
depth of 2⋅4 m, 1 mile SE of the wreck, thence:
4
SW of Pulau Kukup (13 miles SE), low, flat and
thickly wooded; its SW side is very steep−to.
Thence:
To a position SW of Tanjung Piai (1°16′N 103°31′E),
a broad tongue of low land having high trees on
its W side and low, bright green mangroves on the
E side. Tanjung Piai Lighthouse (round concrete
tower on piles) stands 6 cables SW of the point.
The coastal bank between Pulau Kukup and
Tanjung Piai is very steep−to and its limits are
marked by numerous fishing stakes. See also
caution (tidal streams) at 6.369.
Passing north−east of Pulau Pisang
6.373 1
Local knowledge is required.
The channel, about 7 cables wide, which leads SE on the
NE side of Pulau Pisang and Pulau Sauh, close E, has a
least charted depth of 10·7 m.
Useful marks
6.374 1
Bukit Nyamok (1°45′N 103°23′E) (chart 1358), 172 m
high, a distinctive wedge−shaped hill, which is
distinguishable under favourable weather conditions
at a distance at 20 miles.
Parit Botak Light (green triangle, point up, on white
column on piles) (1°42′N 103°05′E).
Sungai Rengit Light (1°39′N 103°08′E).
2
Sungai Benut Light (1°35′N 103°16′E) (6.377).
CHAPTER 6
211
Kukup Inner Light (red square on white column on
piles) (1°18′⋅7N 103°26′⋅6E).
Kukup Outer Light (green triangle, point up, on white
column on piles) (1°17′⋅7N 103°26′⋅7E).
Pengkalan Penghulu Light (green triangle, point up,
on white pile structure) (1°17′⋅2N 103°28′⋅8E).
(Directions continue for the
E−going traffic lane from Tanjung Piai at 7.52.
Directions for Tanjung Pelepas are given at 9.61)
Rivers and harbour
General information
6.375 1
The entrance channels to the rivers and small streams
along this stretch of coast are usually marked by stakes or
rough wooden beacons, but these cannot be relied on.
Local knowledge is required.
Sungai Senggarang
6.376 1
A bar fronts Kuala Senggarang (1°43′N 103°04′E), the
entrance to Sungai Senggarang. Within the bar the river is
navigable by craft of 0⋅9 m draught at all states of tide to
Senggarang, 3 miles above the entrance.
Useful mark:
Parit Botak Light (1°42′N 103°05′E) (6.374).
A considerable number of fishing craft are based at
Senggarang where fuel is available. The village lies on the
main coast road.
Sungai Benut
6.377 1
The entrance to Sungai Benut (1°36′N 103°16′E), the
largest river along this part of the coast, can be identified
by day by the light−structure (white metal framework tower
on concrete pile) on the E side of the entrance.
The bar has a depth of 0·6 m over it, but depths in the
river range from 1·2 to 4·3 m as far as Benut, 3 miles
above the entrance. There is a concrete wharf at Benut,
with a depth of 3·7 m alongside.
Communication by sea with Singapore is frequent.
Sungai Pontian Besar and Sungai Pontian Kechil
6.378
1
Description. Sungai Pontian Besar (1°30′N 103°23′E)
and Sungai Pontian Kechil, 1½ miles S, are frequently
visited by small vessels from Singapore.
They are not navigable beyond the villages situated at
the entrances, and both have depths of 0·3 m on the bar.
Each river has a light at its entrance:
2
Sungai Pontian Kechil Fishing Light (metal
framework tower) (1°29′N 103°23′E), with a radio
mast (6.370) close N.
Sungai Pontian Besar Light (white column on piled
platform) (1°30′N 103°22′E).
Pontian Kechil is the more important village and is
almost a small town.
Services: diesel oil and petrol available; hospital; good
road connections with Batu Pahat and Johor Bahru.
Pulau Pisang
6.379 1
Landing can be effected at a stone pier on the SE side
of Pulau Pisang (6.370); the pier dries.
Kukup
6.380 1
Kukup (1°19′N 103°27′E), the port limits of which are
shown on the chart, and where there is a Customs Post, is
a terminus for high speed ferries from Singapore; it is also
connected by road with Pontian Kechil (6.378).
A narrow deep channel, about 2 cables wide, which can
be used by small craft, leads between Kukup on the
mainland and Pulau Kukup (6.372), close W.
2
The channel N from Malacca Strait to the area of deep
water is indicated by light−beacons as shown on the charts.
For tidal streams at the S end of the channel, see 6.369.
Local knowledge is required.
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3833
3947
4039
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24032403
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3937
4042
4043
4041
3831
5502 Mariners' Routeing Guide
0406
SINGAPORE
JOHOR
(MALAYSIA)
JOHOR
Pulau Batam
Pulau Bintan
Pulau
Karimun
Besar
Pulau
Pisang
Mudah
Selatan
Light
NP36
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Changi
Horsburgh
Light
NP31
China Sea
Pilot
Vol II
NP36
Indonesia
Pilot
Vol I
212
Batuampar
Chapter
4
Chapter
6
Chapter
2
Chapter
9
Chapter
9
Chapter
8
Tanjung
Pelepas
104°
103°
103°
Longitude 104° East from Greenwich
50´10´20´30´40´40´30´20´10´
50´20´30´40´40´30´20´10´
1°
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30´
1°
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Chapter 7 - Singapore Strait and Approaches
213
CHAPTER 7
SINGAPORE STRAIT AND APPROACHES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3947, 2403, 5502
Scope of the chapter
7.1
1
This chapter describes the fairway through Singapore
Strait, outside the limits of Port of Singapore (7.6), together
with a description of the adjacent shores, dangers, channels
and anchorages.
The strait is traversed by TSS established from the NW
approach to, and thence through, Singapore Strait, to the
waters of South China Sea and vice−versa. The continuity
of the lanes is broken at intervals by precautionary areas.
For a description of these schemes see 7.3, together with
the associated diagram, and 7.4.
Routes
7.2
1
As Singapore Strait is so constrained the through route
(Chapter 2) may be considered to be the same as the
coastal route, and is therefore described in this chapter to
avoid duplication. The strait is about 60 miles in length, the
fairway is relatively deep but the traffic lanes are narrow in
places.
Caution. Mariners are warned that local traffic, which
could be unaware of internationally agreed regulations and
practices of seafarers, may be encountered in or near TSS.
7.3
1
Traffic Separation Schemes exist between:
Melaka and Pulau Karimun Kecil:
2°05′⋅0N 102°04′⋅0E to
1°11′⋅0N 103°28′⋅0E.
Singapore Main Strait:
1°08′⋅0N 103°45′⋅0E.
2
In Singapore Strait, off Pulau Sakijang Bendera (St
John’s Island):
1°11′⋅5N 103°51′⋅6E.
In Singapore Strait, off Changi and Pulau Batam:
1°14′⋅9N 103°59′⋅0E.
At Horsburgh Lighthouse area:
1°20′⋅0N 104°22′⋅0E.
3
These TSS are IMO−adopted and Rule 10 of
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972) applies. An inshore traffic zone exists between
Tanjung Piai (1°16′N 103°31′E) and Pulau Pisang (1°28′N
103°15′E) on the N side of the W−going lane departing
Singapore Strait.
4
For an overall view the routes, within traffic separation
lanes, plying through both Malacca and Singapore Straits
are best shown on the Mariners Routeing Guide (Chart
5502) for these straits. A brief view of the Singapore Strait
traffic lanes, including the precautionary areas, is shown in
the accompanying diagram.
For further details on TSS in general see Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 17. 7.4
1
Precautionary areas. The following precautionary areas
have been established within the TSS:
At the SE end of Malacca Strait, E of Pulau Karimun
Kecil/S of Tanjung Piai − 1°11′N 103°31′E.
S of Singapore’s Jong Fairway − 1°11′N 103°50′E.
S of East Keppel Fairway − 1°12′N 103°53′E.
N of Tanjung Babi − 1°15′N 104°05′E thence E to
1°17′N 104°14′E.
2
Vessels passing through precautionary areas between
lanes should be aware of the possibility of meeting crossing
traffic including ferries.
Anchorages
7.5
1
For vessels proceeding through Singapore Strait there are
transit, transhipment and emergency anchorages as follows:
Tanjung Balai Karimun Anchorage, (1°05′N
103°29′E) (7.60) in the W entrance to Singapore
Strait S of the SE traffic lane;
Nipa Transit Anchorage (NTAA) (1°07′N 103°38′E)
in W approaches to Main Strait see 7.59;
2
For E−bound traffic temporary anchorage in an
emergency may be obtained to the S of the traffic
lanes between Pulau Karimun Kecil (1°09′N
103°24′E) and Batu Berhanti (1°11′N 103°53′E)
see 7.61 and 7.101;
For E−bound traffic anchorage may be found in outer
part of Teluk Jodoh (1°10′N 103°58′E), see 7.101.
3
For W−bound traffic temporary anchorage in an
emergency may be obtained in a limited amount of
clear water between the N of the traffic lanes and
the limits of Port of Singapore; see 7.76 and
7.158.
See also the rules for emergency anchorage within
Singapore Strait (2.24).
For vessels bound for Port of Singapore details of
anchorages are at 8.49.
Area limits
7.6
1
Singapore Strait is defined as the area lying between the
S coasts of Malaysia and Singapore Island on the N side
and the islands off the coast of Sumatera including Pulau
Batam and Pulau Bintan on the S side. Its W boundary is
defined by an imaginary line joining Tanjung Piai (1°16′N
103°31′E) with Pulau Karimun Kecil, 9¼ miles SW, thence
to Pulau Karimun Besar, and Tanjung Kedabu (1°06′N
102°59′E); its E limit is defined as an imaginary line
joining the SE extremity of Malaysia at Tanjung Penyusop
(1°22′N 104°17′E) to Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E),
7¾ miles ESE, thence to Pulau Koko (1°14′N 104°35′E),
an islet, which lies off Tanjung Berakit (1°14′N 104°34′E),
the NE extremity of Pulau Bintan.
7.7
1
Area sectors. Within the limits of this chapter vessels
transiting the straits will pass through four of nine sector
areas as shown on the Mariners Routeing Guide:
Johor VTIS (Straitrep−Sector 6), which covers the SE
end of Malacca Strait adjoining Singapore Strait.
Singapore West VTIS (Straitrep−Sector 7).
Singapore Central VTIS (Straitrep−Sector 8).
Singapore East VTIS (Straitrep−Sector 9)
2
Full coverage of the Vessel Traffic Information Service
(VTIS) is given within Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4). Reporting points are shown on the charts.
SECTOR 9
VTIS EAST
SECTOR 8
SECTOR 6
PIAI
DW
See
8.12 See
8.14
SINGAPORE ISLAND
Pulau Batam
Pulau Bintan
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Pulau
Karimun
Besar
Pulau Iyu Kecil
(The Brothers)
Pulau Pisang
Batuampar
Mudah Selatan
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Eastern
Bank
SECTOR 7
Singapore Strait - Traffic lanes (7.3)
104°
Longitude 104° East from Greenwich
50´10´20´30´40´40´30´20´10´
50´20´30´40´40´30´20´10´
1°
10´
20´
30´
1°
10´
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30´
214
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 7
215
Controlling depths and draughts
Depths
7.8
1
In the E−going deep−water route. The following least
depths are charted:
21⋅5 m, 1 mile NW of Karang Banteng Light−beacon
(1°09′⋅4N 103°48′⋅8E).
21⋅2 m, 2 cable NW of Batu Berhanti Light−buoy
(isolated danger) (1°11′⋅8N 103°52′⋅5E).
2
In the E−going ordinary lane. The following least
depths are charted:
14⋅9 m, 6 cables W of Karang Banteng Light−beacon.
14⋅3 m, close S of Batu Berhanti Light−buoy.
In the W−going lane:
3
Depths of less than 20 m front Raffles Shoal (7.13),
situated on the NE side of the lane WNW of
Raffles Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E).
A 20 m coral patch and a 19⋅9 m patch lie 1½ miles
NW and 1¾ miles NNW respectively of Karang
Banteng.
More exact details on controlling depths are given for
each separate waterway.
4
Caution. Depths within the straits are irregular. In the
interests of safety it is recommended to have a vessel’s
depth/echo sounder switched on and monitored throughout
the passage. This instrument is often the first means of
indicating that a vessel may be standing into danger.
Draughts
7.9
1
Deep−draught vessels, those vessels defined in the rules
(see 2.18) as having a draught in excess of 15 m, cannot
avoid passing over certain shoal areas in Malacca and
Singapore Straits; it is therefore essential that an accurate
prediction of the tidal height be made. The use of co−tidal
and co−range chart 5084 is recommended.
2
Deep−draught vessels and vessels of VLCCs status shall
allow for an under−keel clearance of at least 3⋅5 m at all
times during the entire passage. However, in an area about
12 miles NE of Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) it is
recommended that deep−draught vessels obtain an
under−keel clearance of 4 m due to the effect of an E swell
off Eastern Bank (1°31′N 104°31′E).
Hazards
Risk of collision
7.10
1
Risk of collision exists at any stage of the transit
through Malacca and Singapore Straits when the traffic is
heavy but in particular in those areas where the traffic
lanes narrow and when passing through the precautionary
areas (7.4). Weather conditions such as heavy rain or, in
recent years, man−made smoke haze from forest fires
emanating from the Indonesian side of the straits can be
considered additional hazards.
Crossing traffic
7.11
1
Crossing traffic is one of the major hazards encountered
within Singapore Strait. Crossing points are shown on the
chart and are designated as precautionary areas (7.4).
Crossing traffic leading N out of Selat Durian (see
Indonesia Pilot Volume I) or S from the W part of Johor
Strait may be encountered at the W end of Singapore
Strait. Crossing traffic leading N from Selat Riau (see
Indonesia Pilot Volume I) towards Port of Singapore and
vice−versa may be centrally encountered off Singapore
Island.
2
Between the waters of Selat Durian and Selat Riau
numerous ferry services, linking Indonesian ports with
Singapore, cross the strait using the nominated crossing
points.
Vessels crossing should communicate their intentions by
VHF/Radio using the reporting procedure through VTIS,
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Towing traffic
7.12
1
Of particular concern within Singapore Strait is the
number of tugs and tows. Tending to be slow moving, tows
often have difficulty maintaining a particular course
especially in compliance with Rule 10 of the collision
regulations. Since 2000 it has been reported that tows are
restricted to daylight operations only.
Off−lying banks and shoals
7.13
1
In the NE approach to Singapore Strait, Eastern Bank
(1°31′N 104°31′E) (7.183) has a least reported (1964) depth
of 7 m situated on its SE side. Ramunia Shoals (7.183),
6 miles SW of Eastern Bank and 6 miles N of Horsburgh
Light (1°20′N 104°24′E), is a collection of shoal patches
over which there is a least depth of 6⋅4 m.
A number of off−lying banks and shoals lie within the
confines of the TSS for Singapore Strait which the mariner
should be aware of.
2
Raffles Shoal (1°11′N 103°41′E), 4 miles in length and
about 5 cables wide, lies WNW of Raffles Lighthouse and
on the NE side of the NW−going traffic lane. Depths over
the shoal vary between 12⋅4 and 15⋅0 m, grey sand and
broken shells but there are depths of less than 20 m
fronting it. The NE edge of the shoal is marked by
light−buoys (special) (8.16) On the SW side of the traffic
lane in this location Kent Rocks, over which there are
depths of less than 2 m, fringe the waterway.
3
A rocky shoal patch (1°18′N 104°19′E), with depths of
16⋅5 m and 17⋅0 m, over it, lies on the separation area
between the E and W−going traffic lanes and extending
into the W−going lane.
Sandwaves
7.14
1
Sandwaves are in evidence in the NE approaches to
Singapore Strait, see 7.178.
Fishing
7.15
1
Fishing stakes are numerous off the coasts of Singapore
Island, the adjacent islands and mainland.
There is also the added hazard of small fishing boats,
sometimes formed into large concentrations, which may be
found in and around the traffic lanes particularly in the W
part of Singapore Strait.
Piracy
7.16
1
Piracy is prevalent in Singapore Strait, especially in
Selat Phillip (Phillip Channel), and vessels should exercise
extra vigilance in these waters. For information on
preventative methods and reporting see 1.70 to 1.74.
For marine police related matters within Singapore
waters, see 8.9.
CHAPTER 7
216
Pilotage
Singapore Strait
7.17
1
There are no facilities for vessels transiting Singapore
Strait.
Vessels bound for Port of Singapore
7.18
1
For details on pilotage see 8.60; for details on boarding
grounds, positions and requirements see 8.62.
Details of port limits, anchorages and prohibited
anchorages are described in Chapter 8.
Rules and regulations for passage through
Malacca and Singapore Straits
General
7.19
1
The rules and regulations which apply to vessels
navigating in both Malacca and Singapore Strait are fully
given at 2.18.
Definitions
7.20
1
For definitions of deep−draught vessels and vessels of
VLCC status, see 2.18. See also 7.9.
Areas of reduced speed
7.21
1
The W−bound traffic lane between Batu Berhanti Light
(1°11′N 103°53′E) and North Nipa Light (1°10′⋅3N
103°39′⋅7E) is of particular concern. It is recommended
that, in this area, vessels adopt an appropriate speed
consistent with safe navigation.
For deep−draught vessels, however, and those vessels
designated VLCCs by the rules, the areas where reduced
speeds are specified are given at 2.20.
Natural conditions
Charts 3833, 3947, 3831
Tidal streams
7.22
1
Tidal streams in Singapore Strait can be strong and set
in either direction, especially in the vicinity of Batu
Berhanti Light−buoy 1°11′⋅8N 103°52′⋅5E, where rates of 4
to 6 kn may be experienced. However, the general direction
of streams lie parallel to the direction of the traffic lanes.
2
Tidal streams exhibit daily characteristics:
There is only one strong E−going stream. It attains
maximum rate prior to LLW (see diagrams 7.26).
The W−going streams attain two maximum rates;
each occurs prior to HW.
3
Tide−rips. Due to strong tidal streams, and the uneven
and rocky nature of the bottom, violent eddies and tide−rips
occur in the fairway in the vicinity of Batu Berhanti (see
above). When the streams are running strongly in the E
part of the strait, particularly during the E−going stream
which usually reaches much greater rates than the W−going
stream, tide−rips, eddies and patches of discoloured water
occur off the shoals near Horsburgh Light (1°20′N
104°24′E)
4
Eddies and tide−rips also occur over a shoal 5½ miles
SW of the light and in areas about 1¼ miles SSE and NW,
respectively, of this shoal.
7.23
1
Predictions. The relationship between the streams in
different parts of Singapore Strait varies with astronomical
conditions. The actual daily times and rates must be
obtained from the tables of tidal streams in Admiralty Tide
Tables Volume 3, where predictions are given for the
following positions in the vicinity of the through routes:
2
Off Pulau Iyu Kecil (The Brothers) Light (1°12′N
103°21′E).
N approach to Selat Durian (1°00′N 103°34′E).
Selat Phillip (Phillip Channel) (1°06′N 103°44′E).
Main Strait, off Karang Banteng (Buffalo Rock)
(1°09′⋅4N 103°48′⋅8E).
Batu Berhanti (1°11′N 103°53′E).
Off Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E).
3
Predictions at various salient points for the expected
times of transit are shown on the charts. See 7.22.
For details of currents and tidal streams on the
Indonesian side of the strait see Indonesia Pilot Volume I.
Tidal heights
7.24
1
Tidal heights in the vicinity of Singapore have the
following characteristics:
The two daily HWs are of approximately equal
height.
The two daily LWs differ appreciably in height.
7.25
1
Tidal ranges. The tidal range varies with the locality in
Singapore Strait as follows:
Off Pulau Iyu Kecil (1°12′N 103°21′E) the range is
2⋅6 m.
Off Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) the range is
1⋅6 m.
Tidal heights and ranges are tabulated in Admiralty Tide
Tables Volume 3. The use of co−tidal and co−range
information given on chart 5084 is recommended.
Tidal flow
7.26
1
At the SE end of Malacca Strait the streams flow SE
and NW to and from Selat Durian (Indonesia Pilot
Volume I). They are not necessarily associated with any
particular streams in Singapore Strait and may meet or
separate from the latter S of Tanjung Piai (1°16′N
103°31′E), the S extremity of Malaysia.
7.27
1
East−going stream. Between Selat Phillip and
Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) the ENE−going stream
flows for 9 hours and begins about the time of HW
Singapore which precedes the LLW at Singapore. After
reaching maximum rate it is followed by:
Maximum N rate in the passage between islands on
the S side of Singapore and subsequently;
A strong set from Selat Durian towards Malacca
Strait.
2
West−going stream. Between Horsburgh Light and Selat
Phillip the stream is divided into two periods. The
maximum rates being separated by weak streams usually
flowing W, but which may for a short time flow weakly E.
During the two periods. the streams flow as follows:
First period, SW towards the S side of Singapore
Strait, thence S through the passages between the
islands.
3
Second period, W through the entire length of
Singapore Strait towards Malacca Strait.
SINGAPORE I.
BINTAN
BATAM
S
e
l
a
t
D
u
r
i
a
n
(1)
Main Str.
Horsburgh Lt
S
e
l
a
t
R
i
a
u
SINGAPORE I.
BATAM
S
e
l
a
t
D
u
r
i
a
n
(2)
Main Str.
Horsburgh Lt
S
e
l
a
t
R
i
a
u
BINTAN
SINGAPORE I.
BINTAN
BATAM
S
e
l
a
t
D
u
r
i
a
n
(3)
Main Str.
Horsburgh Lt
S
e
l
a
t
R
i
a
u
SINGAPORE I.
BINTAN
BATAM
S
e
l
a
t
D
u
r
i
a
n
(4)
Main Str.
Horsburgh Lt
S
e
l
a
t
R
i
a
u
SINGAPORE I.
BINTAN
BATAM
S
e
l
a
t
D
u
r
i
a
n
(6)
Main Str.
Horsburgh Lt
S
e
l
a
t
R
i
a
u
SINGAPORE I.
BINTAN
BATAM
S
e
l
a
t
D
u
r
i
a
n
(5)
Main Str.
Horsburgh Lt
S
e
l
a
t
R
i
a
u
Stronger maximum E-going
Turns to E-going
Turns to W-going
Minimum W-going
(Occasionally weak E-going)
Second maximum W-going
First maximum W-going
T
u
r
n
i
n
g
t
o
E
a
s
t
T
u
r
n
i
n
g
t
o
W
e
s
t
W
e
a
k
W
e
a
k
a
n
d
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
W
e
a
k
Tidal flow in Singapore Strait (7.26)
The diagrams give the sequence of events, commencing with the beginning of the E-going streams off Horsburgh Lighthouse under average astronomical conditions. The relationship between the streams in different parts of the strait varies with astronomical conditions, the actual times of commencement and of maximum rates in the different parts on any particular day must be ascertained from the daily predictions of tidal streams - off Horsburgh Lighthouse - in Admiralty Tide Tables Vol 3.
104°
104°
1°
1°
45´
45´
15´
15´
15´
30´
30´
15´
104°
1°
1°
45´
45´
15´
15´
30´
30´
15´
104°
104°
1°
1°
45´
45´
15´
15´
15´
30´
30´
15´
104°
104°
1°
1°
45´
45´
15´
15´
15´
30´
30´
15´
104°
104°
1°
1°
45´
45´
15´
15´
15´
30´
30´
15´
104°
104°
1°
1°
45´
45´
15´
15´
15´
30´
30´
15´
104°
15´
CHAPTER 7
217
CHAPTER 7
218
Diagram 7.26 shows the sequence of events. It should
be used in conjunction with the predictions in Admiralty
Tide Tables Volume 3.
Local weather
7.28
1
See 8.76. Thunderstorms occur between monsoons
April−May and October−November. During periods of
heavy rain, which can occur at any time of day or night,
visibility is severely restricted. Additionally, at certain times
of the year, the clearing of forests by fire, particularly on
the Indonesian side of the strait, may also lead to restricted
visibility.
SINGAPORE STRAIT AND APPROACHES − WESTERN PART
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3947, 2403
Scope of the section
7.29
1
In this section is described Singapore Strait TSS through
the NW approach to and within the W part of Singapore
Strait, as follows:
East−going traffic lane from SW of Mudah Selatan
Light (1°25′N 103°11′E), which lies SW of Pulau
Pisang (1°28′N 103°15′E), to NE of Pulau
Karimun Kecil, 20 miles SE.
2
West−going traffic lane from SW of Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E) to a position NE of Mudah
Selatan, 20 miles NW.
East−going traffic lane from a position 8 miles ESE
of Pulau Karimun Kecil (1°09′N 103°24′E) to NW
of Helen Mar Reef Light, 23 miles E of the island.
West−going traffic lane from SE of Raffles
Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E) to a position
6½ miles SE of Tanjung Piai, 9 miles WNW.
3
Also described are side channels and anchorages, within
the limits of this volume, S of the E−going lane off the
Indonesian Coast from Tanjung Rambut (1°00′N 103°27′E)
to Helen Mar Reef (21 miles ENE), including the N
entrance to Selat Durian (Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
Precautionary area
7.30
1
A precautionary area is situated S of Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E), as shown on the charts; the area is
about 6½ miles in length. See also 7.4.
Vessel Traffic Information Services
7.31
1
Vessels E−bound and passing Pulau Karimun Kecil will
already be using the Straitrep reporting system
(Sector 6−Piai) under Malaysian control (7.7) but will need
to change to that under Singapore control (7.7) on entering
Sector 7 and the start of the Singapore Strait passages.
Masters should consider traffic and weather carefully at
this time with a special regard to information passed by the
VTIS on deep−draught vessels either transiting or leaving
the TSS and vessels crossing in the precautionary areas.
2
Vessels W−bound on passing Tanjung Piai (1°16′N
103°31′E) should change to VTS operated by Malaysian
control (Johor).
EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE − MUDAH
SELATAN TO PULAU KARIMUN KECIL
General information
Charts 3947, 3833
Route
7.32
1
The E−going lane from the vicinity of Mudah Selatan
Light (1°25′N 103°11′E), 6½ miles SW of Pulau Pisang,
leads SE for about 20 miles to a position NE of Pulau
Karimun Kecil, as shown on the charts.
Controlling depths
7.33
1
23⋅0 m, least depth over a charted wreck lying
6¼ miles SE of Mudah Selatan Light.
24⋅2 m, least depth over a charted wreck lying
12½miles SE of Mudah Selatan Light.
Traffic regulations
7.34
1
See 7.31.
Precautionary area
7.35
1
See 7.4.
Directions
(continued from 2.113 and 4.348)
Principal marks
7.36
1
Landmarks:
Pulau Karimun Besar (1°06′N 103°21′E) and Pulau
Karimun Kecil (4.343), 1 mile NE, on the
Indonesian coast, both of which are prominent in
the approach from NW.
Pulau Iyu Besar (1°11′N 103°21′E), which, with
Pulau Iyu Kecil (5 cables ENE), are known as The
Brothers.
2
Gunung Pulai (1°36′N 103°33′E) (6.370).
Radio mast (1°29′N 103°23′E) (6.370).
Pulau Pisang (1°28′N 103°15′E) (6.370).
Control tower (6.370), 1 mile N of Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E) (6.372).
3
Major lights:
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E) (2.110).
Panjang Selatan Light (1°23′N 103°08′E) (2.110).
Pulau Iyu Kecil Light (white metal framework tower,
13 m in height) (1°11′⋅5N 103°21′⋅1E). This light
is obscured between bearings 055° to 325° (90°),
and by Pulau Iyu Besar.
Pulau Pisang Light (1°28′N 103°15′E) (6.370).
CHAPTER 7
219
Pulau Iyu Kecil and Pulau Iyu Besar (The Brothers) from NNE (7.36)
(Original dated 1988)
Other aids to navigation
7.37
1
Racons:
Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N 103°11′E).
Tanjung Piai Light (1°15′⋅5N 103°30′⋅6E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
East−going route
7.38
1
From the a position SW of Mudah Selatan Light
(1°25′N 103°11′E) in the E−going traffic lane, the route
leads SE for a distance of about 20 miles to a position
about 2½ miles NE of Pulau Karimun Kecil, passing:
NE of a 13⋅1 m patch (1°20′N 103°12′E) situated at
the S end of a narrow shoal SW of the lane,
thence:
2
SW of a wreck (1°20′N 103°15′E) over which there
is a least depth of 23 m, thence:
Clear of a wreck (1°16′N 103°20′E) over which there
is a least depth of 24⋅2 m, thence:
NE of a 21⋅1 m patch (1°12′N 103°22′E) situated
9 cables NE of Pulau Iyu Kecil, and:
3
SW of a 20⋅4 m patch (1°13′N 103°24′E) in the
separation zone, thence into the precautionary area
(7.4) E of Pulau Karimun Kecil.
Vessels bound for Tanjung Pelepas or Singapore,
Western Boarding Ground, should cross the W−going traffic
lane in the precautionary area E of Pulau Karimun Kecil as
shown on the charts, keeping clear of wreck, depth 23 m
(sounding doubtful) (1°11′⋅5N 103°32′⋅5E), see also 7.4.
(Directions continue E−bound at 7.52.
Directions for Tanjung Pelepas are given at 9.61;
for the W approach channels to
Port of Singapore see 7.74)
WEST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE − TANJUNG
PIAI TO MUDAH SELATAN
General information
Charts 3833, 3947
Route
7.39
1
From a position about 3 miles SW of Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E), within the W−going lane, the route
leads WNW for 4 miles, thence NW for 16 miles into
Malacca Strait.
Controlling depth
7.40
1
24⋅5 m, charted in 1°14′N 103°29′E and 1°22′N
103°15′E.
Traffic regulations
7.41
1
See 7.31.
Inshore Traffic Zone
7.42
1
An inshore traffic zone which extends from Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E) to Pulau Pisang (1°28′N 103°15′E), as
shown on the charts, lies on the NE side of the W−going
traffic lane.
Principal marks
7.43
1
See 7.36.
Directions
(continued from 7.73)
Other aids to navigation
7.44
1
See 7.37.
West−going route
7.45
1
From a position about 3 miles SW of Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E), from where a light (6.372) is exhibited,
the route leads WNW for 4 miles thence NW, passing:
2
NE of a 20⋅4 m patch (1°13′N 103°24′E) within the
separation zone, thence:
SW of Pulau Kukup (1°19′N 103°26′E) (6.372),
thence:
NE of a wreck (1°20′N 103°15′E) close outside the
separation zone, over which there is a least depth
of 23 m, thence:
3
SE of a dangerous wreck (1°26′N 103°17′E), position
approximate, lying on the SE end of a shoal
extending SE from Pulau Pisang on the NE side of
the lane. Thence:
Either side of Mudah Selatan Light (1°25′N
103°11′E) (2.110), situated at the S end of
Permatang Alur Mudah, an elongated shoal.
4
Useful marks:
Light−beacon (starboard hand) (1°18′N. 103°27′E)
standing in the S approach to the port of Kukup
(6.380). A similar light−beacon stands 2¼ miles
ESE of the first beacon and NW of Tanjung Piai.
(Directions continue NW at 2.121)
EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE − PULAU
KARIMUN KECIL TO HELEN MAR REEF
General information
Charts 3833, 4039
Route
7.46
1
From a position NE of Pulau Karimun Kecil (1°09′N
103°24′E) the traffic lane leads SE for a short distance into
CHAPTER 7
220
a precautionary area E of the island. The E−going traffic
lane then continues SE, from a position about 8 miles ESE
of the island for about 7½ miles to a position SW of a
light−buoy (S cardinal) (1°03′⋅6N 103°38′⋅8E) (7.53).
2
The route, which divides into a deep−water route on the
NW side and a general E−going route on the SE side, then
leads NE for about 9 miles through Selat Phillip (7.55), as
shown on the charts and in diagram 7.3.
Controlling depths
7.47
1
Deep−water route:
23⋅6 m (1°03′N 103°38′E) situated near the W
entrance channel.
23⋅4 m (1°04′N 103°40′E) near the N edge of the
lane.
General route:
21⋅5 m (1°05′N 103°44′E); there is a depth of 17⋅9 m
close SE.
2
Within 4 cables of the SE side of the general NE−going
route there are several patches over which there is a least
depth of 13⋅8 m.
Traffic regulations
7.48
1
The vessel TSS lies within Sector 7 of the Singapore
VTS authorities. See 7.31. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Precautionary area
7.49
1
See 7.4.
Special crossing traffic area
7.50
1
This special crossing area lies SE of Raffles Lighthouse;
for details and signals shown, see 7.66.
The crossing area is shown on the charts.
Submarine cables and pipeline
7.51
1
Submarine cables have been laid across the traffic lanes
at a position about 9¼ miles S of Tanjung Piai (1°16′N
103°31′E), as shown on the chart.
A submarine cable extends W/E through Singapore Strait
lying close S of the E−going traffic lane as shown on the
chart.
2
Submarine pipelines. Submarine gas pipelines cross
both the deep water and general traffic lanes of Selat
Phillip in a position 2 miles WSW of Helen Mar Reef
(1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E), as shown on the chart.
For details and further information concerning submarine
cables and pipelines, 1.41 and 1.42 and The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Directions
(continued from 7.38, 4.352, 4.357 or 6.374)
Principal marks
7.52
1
Landmarks:
Pulau Karimun Besar (1°06′N 103°21′E) and Pulau
Karimun Kecil (4.343), 1 mile NE, are particularly
prominent from NW and SE.
Control Tower (1°17′N 103°31′E) (6.370).
Raffles Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E) (7.69).
Tower (7.69), standing close N of Raffles Lighthouse.
2
Major lights:
Pulau Iyu Kecil (1°12′N 103°21′E) (7.36).
Tanjung Rambut Light (0°59′⋅7N 103°26′⋅7E)
(Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
Pulau Jangkat (0°58′N 103°43′E) (Indonesia Pilot
Volume I).
Sultan Shoal Light (1°14′⋅4N 103°38′⋅9E) (7.69).
3
Pulau Takong Kecil Sector Light (white metal tower,
30 m in height) (1°06′N 103°43′E); the deep water
route is clearly in the white sector (136°−065°) of
the light.
Raffles Light, see above).
Sakijang Light (1°13′N 103°51′E) (7.109).
Pulau Takong Kecil Light Structure from S (7.52)
(Original dated 1988)
(Photograph − Colin Marsh)
Takong Light beacon
Other aids to navigation
7.53
1
Racons:
Light−buoy (S cardinal) (named as Durian Strait
Light−buoy in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2) (1°03′⋅6N 103°38′⋅8E) at the entrance to
Selat Phillip.
Takong Light situated 4 cables S of Pulau Takong
Kecil (1°06′N 103°43′E).
2
Helen Mar Reef Light (1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E).
Raffles Light (1°09′⋅4N 103°44′⋅4E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
West approach to Selat Phillip
7.54
1
From a position about 2½ miles NE of Pulau Karimun
Kecil the E−going traffic lane initially leads SE for a short
distance into a precautionary area 7.4 thence continues SE
for about 7½ miles to the entrance to Selat Phillip (7.55),
passing:
2
NE of Tanjung Balai Karimun Anchorage, a cargo
transhipment area (1°05′N 103°29′E) (7.60),
thence:
SW of shoal patches extending 10 miles W of Pulau
Takong Kecil (1°06′N 103°43′E) (7.55), thence:
Close S of a light−buoy (S cardinal) (see below) if
using the deep−water route.
3
The SE end of the SE lane is marked by turning points
as follows:
Light−buoy (S cardinal) (1°03′⋅6N 103°38′⋅8E), and:
Light−buoy (safe water) (6¼ cables SSE) which also
marks the division between the deep−water route
to the N and the general route leading NE through
Selat Phillip.
4
Useful marks:
Light (isolated danger) (1°02′N 103°28′E) standing
off the NE side of Pulau Karimun Besar.
CHAPTER 7
221
Nipa Light (1°09′N 103°39′E) (7.73).
Pulau Cula Light (1°02′N 103°43′E) (7.56).
(Directions continue for the
E−going deep−water route at 7.55
and for the general route at 7.56)
Selat Phillip − Deep Water Route
(continued from 7.54)
7.55
1
From a position close S of a light−buoy (S cardinal)
(1°03′⋅6N 103°38′⋅8E), the deep−water route through Selat
Phillip, previously known as Phillip Channel, leads NE for
about 9 miles to a position 1¼ miles NW of Helen Mar
Reef (1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E), passing:
2
SE of the S end of a bank (1°05′N 103°41′E) over
which there are depths of less than 20 m, 2 cables
NW of the lane, thence:
SE of Takong Light (S cardinal buoyant beacon)
(1°06′N 103°43′E), thence:
3
NW of a light−buoy (isolated danger) moored
4½ cables E of Takong Light, thence:
SE of a coral patch (1°07′N 103°44′E) over which
there is a least depth of 11⋅6 m, thence:
NW of Helen Mar Reef, which consists of two drying
reefs; a light (white tower, black base) is exhibited
from the E reef; a stranded wreck lies 2¾ cables
NNE of the light with a dangerous wreck, position
approximate, 1 cable farther SE.
4
Useful marks:
Pulau Takong Kecil (1°06′N 103°43′E), a thickly
wooded islet, from where a light (7.52) is
exhibited, with a red cliff showing on its S
extremity, standing on a reef. Pulau Takong Besar,
an islet similarly wooded, lies 5 cables N.
Karang Banteng Light−beacon (1°09′⋅4N 103°48′⋅8E)
(7.91).
Gusong Light−beacon (1°11′⋅1N 103°47′⋅6E) (7.112).
(Directions continue at 7.88.
Directions for the Shell SBM are given at 8.197)
Selat Phillip − General east−going route
(continued from 7.54)
7.56
1
From a position S of the light−buoy (safe water) (1°03′N
103°39′E) (7.54), the general E−going route leads NE,
passing:
NW of Pulau Cula (1°02′N 103°43′E), a bare rock of
yellowish colour, with a flat summit and vertical
sides. A light (white beacon) is exhibited from the
rock. Thence:
2
NW of a 17⋅9 m patch (1°05′N 103°44′E); see also
7.47 concerning shoal patches close SE of the
traffic lane. Thence:
SE of the light−buoy (isolated danger) (7.55), thence:
NW of Helen Mar Reef (7.55).
Useful marks: see 7.55.
(Directions continue at 7.91; for the W approach
channels to Port of Singapore see 7.74)
Side channels
Selat Durian
7.57
1
The N entrance to Selat Durian (Indonesia Pilot
Volume I), an important channel leading into Singapore
Strait from S, is situated between Tanjung Rambut
(0°59′⋅7N 103°26′⋅7E) and Pulau Jangkat, 16 miles E.
Lights are exhibited from both positions.
2
Vessels leaving the Durian channel are required to report
their intended movements from the reporting point (0°58′N
103°36′E) before entering (see 7.58) or crossing the traffic
lanes in the precautionary area S of Tanjung Piai (1°16′N
103°31′E), 7.4.
Channels leading NE into the E−going lane
7.58
1
Vessels leaving Selat Durian and desiring to filter into
the E−bound traffic lane are recommended to pass W and
N of Pulau Cula (1°02′N 103°43′E) (7.56); the passage E
of it is obstructed by a dangerous wreck and with less
water reported (2004).
2
For channels situated E of a line joining Tanjung Jerih
(1°02′N 103°45′E) and Pulau Labon Besar, 4½ miles NE,
see Indonesia Pilot Volume I.
The channels S of Helen Mar Reef (1°07′⋅4N
103°46′⋅5E) (7.55) are not recommended as the area is
foul.
Anchorages
Transit anchorage
7.59
1
Nipa Transit anchorage (NTAA), in W approaches to
Main Strait, is centred on 1°07′N 103°38′E with limits as
shown on the chart, and depths of 16 m to 29 m. NTAA is
designated as an emergency anchorage, and a temporary
anchorage for vessels proceeding for repairs, or for
bunkering and storing. The Transit Anchorage Control,
which is reportedly operated by Indonesian authorities in
Pelabuhan Sambu (Indonesia Pilot Volume I), should be
advised 24 hours before arrival and on approaching the
anchorage.
Cargo transhipment anchorage
7.60
1
Tanjung Balai Karimun Anchorage, a cargo transhipment
area (1°05′N 103°29′E) lies SW of the SE−going traffic
lane between Pulau Karimun Kecil and the entrance to
Selat Phillip. It is marked by two light−buoys (special). A
dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies in the NE part,
and a second dangerous wreck lies 6 cables outside of the
SW boundary. Two shoals areas, reported 1985, are charted
in the NW part.
The transhipment area is administered from the port of
Tanjungbalai Karimun (0°59′N 103°26′E) (Indonesia Pilot
Volume I).
Emergency anchorage
7.61
1
In cases of emergency, there is a limited amount of clear
water to the S of the traffic lanes where temporary
anchorage may be obtained. The availability of clear water,
however, diminishes approaching Helen Mar Reef
(1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E), but there is room available to
anchor clear of the lane should it be necessary.
WEST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE − RAFFLES
LIGHTHOUSE TO TANJUNG PIAI
General information
Charts 3833, 4040, 4039, 4038
Route
7.62
1
From a position about 1¼ miles S of Raffles Lighthouse
(1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E) (1°10′N 103°44′E), within the
W−going lane, the route leads generally WNW through
Main Strait for about 5½ miles.
CHAPTER 7
222
From the vicinity of 1°11′N 103°40′E (N of North Nipa
Light) the route then leads WNW for about 4½ miles
thence through the precautionary area S of Tanjung Piai
(1°16′N 103°31′E) as shown on the charts.
Controlling depths
7.63
1
20⋅9 m in mid channel, 1½ miles SW of Raffles
Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E), but there are
lesser depths fronting Raffles Shoal (7.13), and SE
of it, along the NE side of the lane, and a number
of charted wrecks.
Traffic regulations
7.64
1
See 7.48.
Precautionary area
7.65
1
See 7.4.
Special crossing traffic area − signals
7.66
1
Traffic signals are occasionally shown from a tower
(7.69) standing close N of Raffles Lighthouse, to warn
other vessels, particularly those in the W−going traffic lane,
that a VLCC is crossing Main Strait from the deep−water
route bound for the Shell SBM (1°11′⋅5N 103°47′⋅5E)
(8.185).
Traffic signals:
By day − Black cone, point up, over black cylinder.
By night − A white isophase light exhibited every 10
seconds in the form of an X.
2
Vessels approaching Raffles Lighthouse from either E or
W should keep a good lookout for these signals and should
avoid impeding the passage of the VLCC by reducing
speed or stopping, and should in no circumstances cross
ahead of such a vessel.
Submarine cables and pipelines
7.67
1
Submarine cables have been laid across the traffic
lanes, generally orientated N−S, about 6 miles SE of
Tanjung Piai (1°16′N 103°31′E), as shown on the chart.
Submarine pipelines. Submarine gas pipelines cross
Main Strait at a position about 3½ miles W of Raffles
Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E), as shown on the chart.
2
For details and further information on submarine cables
and pipelines, see 1.41 and 1.42 and The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Tidal streams
7.68
1
It has been reported that tidal streams in the vicinity of
the reef surrounding Pulau Nipa (1°09′N 103°40′E) were
variable and might reach a rate of 3 kn during the in−going
period after sustained NW winds, and set SE at the S end
of the reef.
Directions
(continued from 7.113)
Principal marks
7.69
1
Landmarks:
Raffles Lighthouse (white round tower, 29 m in
height) (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E) (chart 4036);
standing above trees on Pulau Satumu.
Conspicuous Signal Station (metal framework tower),
elevation 47 m, standing close N of Raffles
Lighthouse.
2
Prominent chimneys (1°17′N 103°44′E), surmounted
by lights (8.97), situated at Seraya Power Station
at the E end of Jurong Island.
Sultan Shoal Lighthouse (conspicuous white round
tower on 2−storey dwelling, 21 m in height)
(1°14′⋅4N 103°38′⋅9E); the lighthouse stands on
Sultan Shoal (8.94), a small shoal lying close W of
Tremasek Fairway. A conspicuous tower, elevation
49 m, stands close E of the lighthouse.
3
Chimney (1°20′N 103°38′E) (8.87).
Port Office (1°22′N 103°33′E) (9.61).
Control Tower (1°17′N 103°31′E) (6.370).
Pulau Karimun Besar (1°06′N 103°21′E) and Pulau
Karimun Kecil (4.343), 1 mile NE, particularly
prominent from SE.
4
Major lights:
Raffles Light — as above.
Pulau Takong Kecil Light (1°06′N 103°43′E) (7.52).
Sultan Shoal Light — as above.
Pulau Jangkat (0°58′N 103°43′E) (Indonesia Pilot
Volume I).
Pulau Iyu Kecil (1°12′N 103°21′E) (4.343).
Raffles Light from S (7.69)
(Original dated prior to 2003)
Other aids to navigation
7.70
1
Racons:
Raffles Light (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E).
Helen Mar Reef Light (1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E).
Sultan Shoal Light (1°14′⋅4N 103°38′⋅9E).
Nipa Light (1°09′N 103°39′E).
Tanjung Piai Light (1°15′⋅5N 103°30′⋅6E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Main Strait
7.71
1
From a position about 1¼ miles S of Raffles Lighthouse
the W−going lane leads generally WNW for about
5½ miles to a position N of North Nipa Light (N cardinal
buoyant beacon), passing (with positions from Raffles
Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E)):
2
NNE of Pulau Pelampong (3 miles SW), a low islet
situated at the SE end of a drying reef, thence:
SSW of a wreck (1¾ miles W), with a depth of
19⋅5 m, thence:
CHAPTER 7
223
NNE of the shoals of Kent Rocks (3½ miles WSW)
(7.13) fringing the SW side of the lane; Kent
Rocks are usually marked by tide−rips, and:
SSW of Raffles Shoal (3 miles WNW) (7.13).
3
The track continues NW to a position N of North Nipa
Light (4¾ miles WNW), three light−buoys (special) mark
the N boundary of the traffic lane.
Vessels bound for berths in the W part of Singapore
should proceed to Western Boarding Ground pilot stations
A or B (see 7.74) as required.
7.72
1
From a position N of North Nipa Light (1°10′⋅3N
103°39′⋅7E), the track then leads WNW for about 4½ miles
to the precautionary area (see 7.4) and a further 7 miles
through the area to a position SW of Tanjung Piai Light,
passing (with positions from Tanjung Piai Light (1°15′⋅5N
103°30′⋅6E):
2
Clear of a wreck (7¾ miles ESE) with a depth of
23⋅9 m, thence:
SSW of Western Boarding Ground A (PWBGA)
(6 miles ESE)
SSW of a wreck (5¼ miles ESE), depth 25 m, thence:
Clear of a wreck (6½ miles SE) with a depth of
28⋅9 m, thence:
3
Clear of wreck, depth 23 m (sounding doubtful)
(4½ miles SSE), thence:
SSW of Tanjung Piai Light (6.372), thence:
SSW of a light−buoy (special) (1½ miles SW).
The track then leads into the next sector (6) of the
traffic lanes to a position about 3 miles SW of Tanjung Piai
Light.
7.73
1
Useful marks:
Pulau Senang (1°10′N 103°44′E) (8.141).
Pulau Pawai (1°11′N 103°44′E) with a remarkable
summit 43 m high, and is bare except for a clump
of trees.
2
Nipa Light (white beacon, 10 m in height) (1°09′N
103°39′E), exhibited from the N end of the drying
reef on which Pulau Nipa, an above−water sand
cay, stands at its S end.
Serebut Light (1°15′N 103°42′E) (8.157).
Chimneys standing on Tuas View (1°18′N 103°37′E)
(8.87).
(Directions continue at 7.44)
Side channels
West sector approach channels to Singapore
7.74
1
For the approach channels and fairways within the limits
of Port of Singapore leading from the following pilot
boarding positions to points within the W sector of the
port, see below:
Western Boarding Ground A (PWBGA) (1°12′⋅9N
103°36′⋅1E) leading:
N within the port limits to Tuas Jetty (1°17′N
103°37′E) (8.89).
2
Western Boarding Ground B (PWBGB) (1°12′⋅0N
103°39′⋅5E) leading to:
Temasek Fairway (1°15′N 103°39′E) (8.93). This
fairway generally leads NNW giving access to the
W sector anchorages, Tuas Bay (1°18′N 103°39′E),
West Jurong Channel (1°17′N 103°40′E) and berths
on Jurong Island. Or:
3
Sinki Fairway (1°15′N 103°43′E) (8.124) leading NE
to Selat Sinki, giving access to the oil berths of
Pulau Busing (1°14′N 103°45′E) and West Keppel
Fairway (1°15′N 103°47′E).
For pilotage details and further information see 8.60.
Other channels
7.75
1
Johor Strait − W part (1°20′N 103°38′E), together
with its approaches, is described from 9.7.
The channel leading N to Tanjung Pelepas (1°22′N
103°33′E) from SE of Tanjung Piai is described at
9.45.
Pilot boarding positions:
2
Johor Strait − Western Boarding Grounds A and B
(8.62).
Tanjung Pelepas − 1°15′N 103°32′E (9.56).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Anchorage
7.76
1
Except for the area adjacent to Raffles Shoal, unless
vessels have adequate draught to cross it, there is sufficient
space to the N of the traffic lane and between it and the
limits of Port of Singapore to effect an emergency
anchorage.
See also the rules for emergency anchorage within
Singapore Strait (7.5).
Landing
Chart 4036
Pulau Satumu
7.77
1
A jetty extends over the fringing reef into deep water,
about 2 cables E of Raffles Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N
103°44′⋅4E) on the E side of Pulau Satumu. A prohibited
area surrounds the island within 300 m of the lighthouse,
see 8.29.
SINGAPORE STRAIT − CENTRAL PART
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2403
Scope of the section
7.78
1
In this section is described the Singapore Strait TSS
through the S approaches to, and central part of, Singapore
Strait, as follows:
East−going traffic lane from NW of Helen Mar Reef
(1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E) to a position NE of Karang
Banteng (1°09′⋅4N 103°48′⋅8E). Thence through
the traffic lane NW of Batu Berhanti (1°11′N
103°53′E), and thence from a position NE of Batu
Berhanti to a position about 4 miles NW of
Tanjung Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E).
2
West−going traffic lane from a position about 5 miles
NW of Tanjung Babi to a position NE of Batu
Berhanti. Thence through the traffic lane NW of
Batu Berhanti and thence from a position NNE of
Karang Banteng to a position SE of Raffles
Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E).
CHAPTER 7
224
3
Also described are the side channels, harbours and
anchorages associated with this portion of the strait off the
Indonesian coast between Helen Mar Reef and Tanjung
Babi (20 miles ENE).
Topography
7.79
1
The central part of Singapore Strait from Pulau Labon
Besar (1°06′N 103°47′E) to Tanjung Pinggir, 9 miles ENE,
is fronted by a number of islands lying off the NW side of
Pulau Batam, which are described in Indonesia Pilot
Volume I.
The N coast of Pulau Batam, E of Teluk Jodoh (1°10′N
103°58′E) (7.94), is hilly as far as Tanjung Sabang on the
W side of the entrance to Selat Riau but there are no
prominent summits. The headlands are rugged and the
edges of reefs are generally steep−to and are marked by
fishing stakes.
Precautionary areas
7.80
1
This part of the strait, S of Singapore Island, is
intersected by two precautionary areas. The SW area, about
1¼ miles in length, is established adjacent to the S end of
Singapore’s Jong Fairway, and the NE area, about 1¾ miles
in length, is established adjacent to the S end of East
Keppel Fairway, as indicated on the charts.
2
Caution. Crossing traffic and ferries may be encountered
here. Vessels proceeding in the E−going lane bound for
either the Southern Boarding Ground (PSBG) (8.62) or the
Eastern Boarding Grounds (PEBG) (8.62) should use the
precautionary area NE of Karang Banteng or that N of
Batu Berhanti, respectively, as shown on the chart, to cross
the lanes.
Submarine cables
7.81
1
Disused submarine cables (1°15′N 104°00′E) lie across
the traffic lanes N of Tanjung Sengkuang; they are best
seen on chart 4041. See 1.41.
EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE − HELEN
MAR REEF TO TANJUNG BABI
Charts 3833, 3831, 4041, 4042
Route
7.82
1
The E−going lane, which is divided by a Deep Water
Route on the NW side and a general route on the SE side,
leads NE from a position NW of Helen Mar Reef
(1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E) for a distance of about 4 miles to the
first of two precautionary areas, thence resumes ENE for a
farther 2¼ miles to a position NNW of Batu Berhanti Light
(1°11′N 103°53′E).
2
When NNW of the light, the two routes combine on
passing through the second precautionary area as shown on
the charts. The E−going lane continues ENE for 4 miles
thence E for a farther 5½ miles to a position 4 miles NW
of Tanjung Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E).
Controlling depths
7.83
1
See 7.8.
Traffic regulations
7.84
1
The vessel TSS lies within Sector 8 of the Singapore
VTS authorities. For further details see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Precautionary areas
7.85
1
See 7.80
Submarine cable and pipeline
7.86
1
A submarine gas pipeline lies parallel to, and between
5 cables to about 1 mile S of, the E−going traffic lane, as
shown on the charts. In the area between 2 miles ENE of
Helen Mar Reef (1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E) to the 104°00′W the
pipeline is marked in various positions by light−buoys
(special).
2
A submarine cable extends W/E through Singapore Strait
lying close N of the gas pipeline
For details and information concerning submarine cables
and pipelines see 1.41 and 1.42.
Tide−rips
7.87
1
Violent eddies and tide−rips occur NW of Batu Berhanti
Light (1°11′N 103°53′E); they are also in evidence in the
vicinity of 1°15′N 104°03′E, at the E end of the traffic
lanes.
Directions
(continued from 7.55)
Principal marks
7.88
1
Landmarks:
Raffles Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E) (7.69).
Radio Masts (1°15′N 103°50′E) (8.79) standing on
Sentosa.
Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) Building (1°16′N
103°48′E) (8.79). A conspicuous tower stands
6½ cables NW.
Prima Building (1°16′N 103°49′E) (8.267).
Tower (1°13′N 103°51′E) standing on Pulau Sakijang
Bendera (8.228).
2
OUB Centre Building (1°17′N 103°51′E) (8.267), the
highest of the city buildings.
Control Tower (1°22′N 103°59′E) standing at Changi
Airport (7.109).
Conspicuous white oil tanks standing on Pulau Sambu
(1°10′N 103°54′E) (Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
Conspicuous radio towers (1°07′N 103°57′E) standing
SE of Tanjung Pinggir (Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
3
Major lights:
Raffles Light, see above.
Pulau Takong Kecil Light (1°06′N 103°43′E) (7.52).
Sakijang Light (1°13′N 103°51′E) (7.109).
Aeronautical Beacon Light, on Pulau Sakijang
Pelepah (1°13′⋅4N 103°51′⋅2E) (7.109).
4
Amber Light (1°18′N 103°54′E) (7.109).
Bedok Light (1°19′N 103°56′E) (7.109).
Changi Light (1°19′N 104°02′E) (7.109).
Pulau Nongsa Light (metal framework structure, 40 m
in height) (1°12′N 104°05′E).
CHAPTER 7
225
Other aids to navigation
7.89
1
Racons:
Takong Light (1°06′N 103°43′E).
Raffles Light (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E).
Helen Mar Reef Light (1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E).
Karang Banteng Light−beacon (1°09′⋅4N 103°48′⋅8E).
Batu Berhanti Light (1°11′N 103°53′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Main Strait − Deep Water Route
7.90
1
From a position 1¼ miles NW of Helen Mar Reef
(1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E) the Deep Water Route continues
generally NE for about 4 miles, until the SW or first of two
precautionary areas (7.80) is reached, passing (with
positions from Karang Banteng Light−beacon (1°09′⋅4N
103°48′⋅8E):
2
NW of a stranded wreck (2¾ miles WSW), thence:
NW of a 19⋅2 m shoal (8¼ cables NW) marked on its
SE edge by Buffalo Rock Light−buoy (isolated
danger); the buoy is liable to damage, thence:
NNW of Karang Banteng Light−beacon (7.91).
3
On passing through the first precautionary area the
traffic lane then generally leads ENE for about 2¼ miles
until it reaches the NE or second precautionary area where
it joins with the general E−going route off Batu Berhanti
(1°11′N 103°53′E), passing:
4
NNW of Batu Berhanti Light−buoy (isolated danger)
(1°11′⋅8N 103°52′⋅5E), which is liable to damage,
moored over a 14⋅3 m shoal patch; a 21⋅2 m patch
lies close NW. Batu Berhanti Light (7.91) is
exhibited from the reef 8½ cables SSE of the
light−buoy.
5
Useful marks:
Gusong Light−beacon (1°11′⋅1N 103°47′⋅6E) (7.112).
Sebarok Light (1°12′N 103°48′E) (7.112).
Tembakul Light (1°13′N 103′52′E) (8.268).
Pulau Belakangpadang Light (1°10′N 103°53′E)
(Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
(Directions continue for the general
E−going traffic lane at 7.92;
for S and E approach channels leading to
Port of Singapore see 7.114)
Main Strait − General east−going route
(continued from 7.56)
7.91
1
From a position about 7 cables NW of Helen Mar Reef
(1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E), the E−going traffic lane initially
leads NE for a distance of 4 miles until the SW or first of
two precautionary areas (7.80), situated off the S side of
Singapore Island, is reached, passing (with positions from
Karang Banteng Light−beacon (1°09′⋅4N 103°48′⋅8E):
2
NW of a stranded wreck (2¾ miles WSW); a
dangerous wreck, position approximate, lies 1 cable
SSE, thence:
NW of a shoal area (2 miles SW), close SE of the
lane, over which there is a least depth of 11⋅2 m,
thence:
3
Clear of a 14⋅9 m shoal patch (6 cables W), thence:
NW of Karang Banteng (Buffalo Rock), which is
steep−to and marked by a light−beacon
(N cardinal), and:
SE of Buffalo Rock Light−buoy (isolated danger)
(8¼ cables NW) (7.90).
4
On passing through the first precautionary area the
traffic lane leads ENE for about 2¼ miles until it reaches
the NE or second precautionary area where it joins with the
Deep Water Route, passing:
SSE of Batu Berhanti Light−buoy (7.90) moored
8½ cables NNW of Batu Berhanti (1°11′N
103°53′E), the most W of two rocky drying reefs,
2½ cables apart, which extend close to the SE
limit of the traffic lane. A light (white beacon, red
band, 10 m in height) is exhibited from Batu
Berhanti.
5
Useful marks:
Pulau Belakangpadang Light (1°10′N 103°53′E)
(Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
Pulau Anaksambu (1°10′N 103°53′E) with Pulau
Sambu close SE (Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
(Directions continue at 7.92; for
S and E approach channels leading to
Port of Singapore see 7.114)
East−going traffic lane − Batu Berhanti to Tanjung
Babi
(continued from 7.90 or 7.91)
7.92
1
From a position NNW of Batu Berhanti Light (1°11′N
103°53′E), E−going traffic initially passes through the
precautionary area (7.80) situated N of Batu Berhanti.
When NE of Batu Berhanti, the traffic lane then resumes
on an ENE track for about 4 miles, thence generally E for
a distance of about 5½ miles to a position NW of Tanjung
Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E), passing:
2
NNW of Tanjung Sengkuang (1°11′N 104°01′E), the
NE point of a headland extending N from Pulau
Batam. A radio mast, surmounted by lights, stands
1 mile SW of the point. Thence:
SSE of Changi Naval Base (1°19′N 104°02′E) (8.34).
The traffic lane continues ENE to a position NW of
Tanjung Babi and the W limit of an extended precautionary
area (7.120).
3
Caution. A dangerous wreck (1°13′⋅3N 103°57′⋅7E), lies
1¼ cables S of the E−going traffic lane, and is marked by
four light−buoys (cardinal), the N buoy with racon. Salvage
operations will be proceeding and mariners should keep a
wide berth.
Useful marks:
Pulau Belakangpadang Light (1°10′N 103°53′E)
(Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
4
Sebarok Light (1°12′N 103°48′E) (7.112).
Keta Light (1°18′N 103°58′E) (7.113).
Batuampar Light (1°10′N 104°00′E) (7.100), situated
NE of the port.
Tower (red and white bands, red obstruction lights),
standing on the summit of Bukit Anakair (1°11′N
104°01′E), N of Batuampar.
(Directions continue at 7.128)
Side channels
Pulau Sambu − Selat Bulan
7.93
1
Pulau Sambu (1°10′N 103°54′E), on which a large oil
terminal operates, is situated off the entrance to Selat
Bulan, and is described in Indonesia Pilot Volume I together
with associated pilotage, buoyage and anchorages.
The pilot boarding position lies 6¾ cables SW of Batu
Berhanti Light−beacon (1°11′N 103°53′E) (7.91) and may
be approached direct from the general E−going route (7.91)
passing N of a dangerous wreck 1 mile WSW of the
CHAPTER 7
226
light−beacon. Two obstructions lie 5 and 6½ cables W of
the wreck.
2
Selat Bulan is a navigable strait for small or
medium−sized vessels which forms part of the shortest
route between Palembang (Indonesia) and Singapore.
Teluk Jodoh
7.94
1
Teluk Jodoh, a wide bay, frequented by small and
medium−sized vessels, is entered between Tanjung Pinggir
(1°09′N 103°55′E) (Indonesia Pilot Volume I), the NW
point of Pulau Batam, and Tanjung Sengkuang (7.92),
7 miles ENE. Tanjung Uma (1°09′N 104°00′E) is the NW
extremity of a small peninsula separating two small rivers
in the SE corner of the bay.
2
Caution. An extensive area of dredging has been carried
out over several years W and NW of Batuampar (1°10′N
104°00′E). Owing to the nature of survey data it is possible
that depths shoaler than charted may exist.
Less water was reported (2002) in the N approaches in
S of Teluk Jodoh.
Teluk Tering
7.95
1
Teluk Tering (1°11′N 104°03′E) is the bay entered
between Tanjung Sengkuang and Tanjung Kapur, 3 miles E.
The shores are fringed with reefs. Some rocks, which
dry, lie from 7 to 9 cables E of Tanjung Sengkuang.
Several rivulets flow into the bay, but they are barely
navigable for small craft.
7.96
1
Blian (1°08′N 104°04′E), a small port and town, is
situated at the S end of Teluk Tering.
Entry to the port is by means of leading lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on beacon)
(1°08′⋅4N 104°03′⋅7E).
Rear light (similar structure, point down) situated
close S.
2
On the alignment (178°) of the lights, the track leads S
between channel light−beacons to the alignment of the
inner set of leading lights:
Front light (white triangle, point up, on beacon)
(1°08′⋅6N 104°03′⋅7E).
Rear light (similar structure, point down) situated
close NNE.
3
On the alignment (207°) of the lights, astern, the track
leads SSW to the port.
There are no tugs and pilotage is not available.
Passage south−east of Pulau Nongsa
7.97
1
The passage between Pulau Nongsa (1°12′N 104°05′E),
which is the larger of two islets standing on a reef, and
Pulau Batam, is about 4 cables wide, with general depths of
over 10 m. However, a shoal patch within the fairway has a
least depth of 6⋅7 m over it. Pulau Nongsa Light (7.88) is
exhibited from a position at the S end of the reef.
2
The track generally leads NE passing:
Clear of the shoal patch, thence:
NW of Terumbu Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E) a shoal over
which there is a least depth of 1⋅5 m.
Sungai Nongsa
7.98
1
Sungai Nongsa (1°12′N 104°06′E), a river suitable only
for small craft, is entered between drying reefs 2 cables W
of Tanjung Babi, the N extremity of Pulau Batam. The
entrance is marked by channel beacons. In the approach
channel there are depths of 0⋅5 m, and from 1⋅8 to 2⋅0 m
within. Nongsa, a village, lies on the W side of the
entrance.
2
A yacht marina lies close W within the headland
forming Tanjung Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E) and close E of
the entrance to Sungai Nongsa. The marina entrance is
marked by channel beacons. Terumbu Babi (7.97) lying off
the entrance is the main danger.
Batuampar
Charts 3833, 3831, 3937 plan of Batuampar
General information
7.99
1
Description. Batuampar (1°10′N 104°00′E), a small port
and town, is situated on the E side of Teluk Jodoh. It
consists of Pertamina Basin, a rectangular−shaped basin,
about 300 m in width; McDermot Basin, a second basin
lies 3 cables N. Within Pertamina Basin are quays on three
sides, between about 300 and 610 m in length, with charted
depths of about 5 m alongside; a ferry terminal lies at the
SE corner of the basin.
Traffic In 2005, 679 vessels totalling 791 425 dwt used
the port.
2
Controlling depths. Least charted depth with both
basins is 4⋅6 m. It is reported (1997) that vessels with
draught of 10⋅4 m have used Pertimina Basin. It is
recommended that further information is obtained from port
authorities.
Notice of ETA should be sent 10, 3, 2 and 1 day before
arrival via the agent.
Pilotage and tugs. Tugs available for the Pertamina
berths, and the pilot reportedly boards from a tug.
7.100
1
Directions for Pertamina Basin. From a position about
1 mile N of the N point of Pulau Bokur (1°09′⋅0N
103°58′⋅4E), the line of bearing (090°) of the Pertamina
Basin Light (triangle, point down, on white beacon, racon)
leads into the basin passing (with positions from Pertamina
Basin Light (1°10′⋅0N 104°00′⋅3E)):
2
3¼ cables N of a light−beacon (white) (1 mile WSW)
marking the N edge of a separated reef which
dries to 0⋅8 m, thence:
Through a channel marked by light−buoys (lateral).
3
Directions for McDermott Basin. From a position
about 6¾ cables N of the N point of Pulau Bokur the line
of bearing of 092° of Batuampar Light (white beacon)
(1°10′⋅3N 104°00′⋅5E), leads into the basin passing (with
positions from Pertamina Basin Light):
Close S of a light−buoy (port hand) (8 cables WNW),
thence:
Passing through the entrance (5 cables NW), ¾ cable
wide, between reclaimed land; a reef which dries
0⋅2 m extends ¼ cable W of the S entrance head.
4
Facilities. Deratting and deratting exemption certificates
can be issued.
Supplies. Fresh water and limited provisions are
available.
Anchorage
Charts 3833, 3831, 4041, 4042
7.101
1
Emergency anchorage is limited to an area S of the
traffic lane until E of Batu Berhanti (1°11′N 103°53′E) but
should be avoided in the vicinity of the charted submarine
gas pipeline and cable (7.86).
2
For large vessels, there is ample water in the outer parts
of Teluk Jodoh (7.94) but well clear of a dangerous wreck
CHAPTER 7
227
(1°13′⋅4N 103°57′⋅7E) (7.92), a second dangerous wreck
(1°11′⋅0N 103°57′⋅4E), position approximate, and the gas
pipeline and cable; anchorage for lesser−draught vessels
may be obtained farther E, off the entrance to Teluk Tering.
WEST−GOING TRAFFIC − SOUTH OF
JOHOR SHOAL TO RAFFLES
LIGHTHOUSE
General information
Charts 3831, 4042, 4041, 4040, 3833
Route
7.102
1
The W−going traffic lane leads W from the vicinity of
1°16′N 104°03′E near the W limit of a precautionary area
S of the entrance to Kuala Johor, for about 4 miles, thence
the route generally leads WSW for about 16 miles to a
position S of Raffles Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E)
passing through two precautionary areas as shown on the
charts.
Topography
7.103
1
In the area where the traffic lanes narrow, the group of
islands that front the W−going traffic lane lying SE of
Pulau Sentosa (1°15′N 103°50′E) including Pulau Sakijang
Pelepah and Pulau Sakijang Bendera is described in
Chapter 8; Batu Berhanti, on the SE side of the lanes is
described at 7.91. For a description of the islands SE of
Batu Berhanti see Indonesia Pilot Volume I.
Controlling depths
7.104
1
A 20.0 m shoal 5½ cables S of Gusong Light−beacon
(1°11′⋅1N 103°47′⋅6E), on the N limit of the lane.
Shoals with depths of 19⋅6 m and 19⋅9 m lie just outside
the traffic lane, respectively 1½ cables SSW and 2¾ cables
ESE of the light−beacon.
Hazard
7.105
1
This portion of the strait is open to the use of towing
vessels and their tows; see 7.12.
Traffic regulations
7.106
1
See 7.84.
Precautionary areas
7.107
1
See 7.80. Heavy local traffic may be encountered
crossing within the precautionary areas situated at the ends
of each of the traffic lanes within Sector 8.
Special crossing traffic area
7.108
1
This special crossing area lies SE of Raffles Lighthouse;
for details and signals shown, see 7.66.
The crossing area is shown on the charts.
Directions
(continued from 7.147)
Principal marks
7.109
1
Landmarks:
Bukit Pengerang (1°23′N 104°06′E) (9.188).
Conspicuous radio mast (1°24′N 104°03′E) (9.188)
standing on Pulau Tekong.
Control Tower (1°22′N 103°59′E), elevation 86 m,
white column−shaped structure surmounted by a
white radar dome, standing at Changi Airport;
visible from a considerable distance. A graphic of
the tower is shown on charts 4043 and 4044.
2
Bedok Lighthouse (red hut on 25−storey apartment
block, 76 m in height) (1°19′N 103°56′E).
Tower (1°19′N 103°57′E), elevation 51 m, rising
above coastline buildings.
White oil tanks standing on Pulau Sambu (1°10′N
103°54′E) (Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
OUB Centre Building (1°17′N 103°51′E) (8.267), the
highest of the city buildings.
3
Conspicuous tower (1°13′N 103°51′E) standing on
Pulau Sakijang Bendera (8.228) with radio masts
close NW.
Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) Building (1°16′N
103°48′E) (8.79).
Raffles Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E) (7.69).
4
Major lights:
Changi Light (white round tower, on piles) (1°19′N
104°02′E).
Bedok Light — as above.
Amber Light (yellow round concrete tower) (1°18′N
103°54′E).
Pulau Nongsa Light (1°12′N 104°05′E) (7.88).
5
Sakijang Light (black wooden framework tower, 11 m
in height) (1°13′N 103°51′E) exhibited from the
summit of Pulau Sakijang Pelepah.
Aeronautical Beacon Light, exhibited from a tower
close NNW of Sakijang Light.
Pulau Takong Kecil Light (1°06′N 103°43′E) (7.52).
Raffles Light, see above.
Other aids to navigation
7.110
1
Racons:
Batu Berhanti Light (1°11′N 103°53′E).
Karang Banteng Light−beacon (1°09′⋅4N 103°48′⋅8E).
Helen Mar Reef (1°07′⋅4N 103°46′⋅5E).
Raffles Light (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅6E).
Takong Light (1°06′N 103°43′E).
2
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
West−going route
7.111
1
From the vicinity of 1°16′N 104°03′E (S of the Johor
Shoal) the W−going traffic lane initially leads W for a
distance of about 4 miles thence WSW for 6 miles until the
NE or first of two short precautionary areas (7.80) off the
S side of Singapore Island is reached, passing:
2
S and SSE of a series of special purposes and
holding anchorages for Port of Singapore. A great
number of vessels may be seen here at anchor at
any one time. Thence:
SSE of Mano Light−buoy (isolated danger) (1°15′N
103°55′E) thence into the precautionary area.
3
On passing through the first precautionary area the
traffic lane continues WSW for a distance of 2¼miles until
the second precautionary area is reached, passing:
SSE of Pulau Sakijang Pelepah (Lazarus Island)
(1°13′⋅4N 103°51′⋅3E) (8.206), the middle and
highest of a group of three islands, from where
lights (7.109) are exhibited.
CHAPTER 7
228
7.112
1
On passing through the second precautionary area, and
from a position 1½ miles SE of the SE end of Pulau
Sebarok (1°12′N 103°48′E), the W−going traffic lane
continues WSW, for about 5½ miles, to a position S of
Raffles Lighthouse (1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E), passing:
SSE of Sebarok Light (red square on red metal
framework tower on red concrete base) (1°12′N
103°48′E) (chart 4036) exhibited from Monggok
Sebarok, a small reef, thence:
2
SSE of Gusong Light−beacon (green triangle on green
buoyant beacon) (1°11′⋅1N 103°47′⋅6E), and:
NNW of the light−beacon (isolated danger) (1°10′N
103°48′E) (7.90), distant at least 5 cables, thence:
SE of Raffles Lighthouse (7.69).
7.113
1
Useful marks:
Tanjung Setapa Light (1°21′N 104°08′E) (9.97).
Frontier Light (yellow round tower on yellow pile cap
on piles) (1°18′⋅9N 104°03′⋅7E).
Keta Light (yellow triangle, point up, on yellow metal
tower on piles) (1°18′N 103°58′E).
2
Outer Shoal Light (1°15′N 103°52′E) (8.268).
Port Operations Centre (1°16′N 103°51′E) (8.267)
with a conspicuous tower close NE.
Pulau Seringat Light (1°14′N 103°52′E) (8.268).
Tembakul Light (1°13′N 103°52′E) (8.268).
(Directions continue at 7.69; for the E and S approach
channels leading to Singapore see 7.114)
Side channels to Singapore and Johor
East sector approach channels to Singapore
7.114
1
For the approach channels and fairways within the limits
of the Port of Singapore leading from the following pilot
boarding positions to points within the E and S sector of
the port, see below:
Eastern Boarding Ground B (PEBGB) (1°15′⋅6N
103°57′⋅4E) leading to:
Eastern Fairway (1°16′N 103°57′E) (8.298), Corridor
(8.279), Marina Bay (1°17′N 103°51′E) and E
sector anchorages.
2
Eastern Boarding Ground A (PEBGA) (1°13′⋅5N
103°53′⋅4E) leading to:
East Keppel Fairway (1°14′N 103°52′E) (8.260). This
fairway gives access to the berths within Keppel
Harbour and Tanjong Pagar Terminal (1°16′N
103°51′E). Or:
Southern Fairway (1°12′N 103°50′E) (8.200) with
Sisters Fairway (1°13′N 103°51′E) in the S.
3
Gusong Boarding Ground (PGBG) (1°10′⋅5N
103°46′⋅9E), for vessels from E bound for
anchorages in Sudong Sector (8.54) or Raffles
Reserve Anchorage (ARAFR) (8.52).
Southern Boarding Ground (PSBG) (1°11′⋅7N
103°49′⋅7E) leading to:
4
Jong Fairway (1°12′N 103°49′E) (8.208). This
fairway gives access to the oil berths at Pulau
Sebarok (1°12′N 103°48′E) and Pulau Bukom,
farther N and Western Petroleum Anchorages
(AWPA and AWPB) (8.52).
West Keppel Fairway (1°15′N 103°47′E) (8.234)
giving access to Pasir Panjang Fairway (1°16′N
103°47′E) and Cruise Bay (1°16′N 103°49′E).
5
East Jurong Channel (1°17′N 103°44′E) (8.165)
which gives access to Pasir Panjang Terminal and
Johor Port.
For pilotage details and further information see 8.60.
Other channels
7.115
1
The channels of Kuala Johor and the E part of Selat
Johor leading to the port of Johor are described at 9.72.
Pelabuhan Calder, together with its E approach channel, is
described at 9.191.
2
Pilot boarding position:
East Johor Strait Boarding Ground (PJSB) (1°17′⋅7N
104°06′⋅4E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Anchorages
7.116
1
For anchorages within Port of Singapore, E sector, see
8.55.
SINGAPORE STRAIT − EASTERN PART
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3831
Scope of the section
7.117
1
Within this section is described the Singapore Strait TSS
through the NE approaches to, and including the E part of,
Singapore Strait, as follows:
An extended precautionary area situated N of Tanjung
Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E), thence ENE and NE
through the E−going traffic lane at Horsburgh
Light (1°20′N 104°24′E).
2
West−going traffic lane from a position about
2½ miles NW of Horsburgh Light, SW thence
WSW to the W limit of that lane. Thence through
the precautionary area to the traffic lane S of Johor
Shoal.
Also described are the side channels and anchorages
associated with the Indonesian side of the strait to the S,
and the Malaysian coast to the N.
Topography
7.118
1
Indonesian coast. The E part of Singapore Strait from
Tanjung Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E) to Tanjung Sading,
18 miles E, is formed by the N coasts of Pulau Batam
(7.79) and Pulau Bintan situated, respectively, on the W
and E sides of the N entrance to Selat Riau (1°09′N
104°13′E) (7.131), which is an important channel.
2
Pulau Bintan, like most of the other islands in Singapore
Strait, is covered with trees, and except for the inland hills
of Gunung Bintan Kecil and Gunung Bintan Besar
(Indonesia Pilot Volume I) the land is not high.
7.119
1
Malaysian coast. The N shore of the E part of
Singapore Strait is formed by Johor State, on the E side of
Kuala Johor.
Pulau−pulau Lima (1°22′N 104°18′E) (7.150),
comprising several islets, rocks and dangers, lie up to
2½ miles E of Tanjung Penyusop (1°22′N 104°17′E).
CHAPTER 7
229
2
The coast between Tanjung Ramunia (1°22′N 104°16′E)
and Tanjung Penyusop is composed of a number of low
poorly defined hills, most of them red in colour due to
bauxite mining (7.155), and their shape changes as the
mining progresses. For inland hills, see 7.181.
Precautionary area
7.120
1
An extended precautionary area, 12 miles in length, is
established between the E end of the TSS in Singapore
Strait (longitude 104°03′⋅5E), NW of Tanjung Babi, where
it is about 2½ miles wide, and the W end of the TSS at
Horsburgh Light area (longitude 104°14′⋅9E), where it is
about 3¼ miles wide, as shown on the charts.
Disused dumping grounds for explosives exist as charted
in two areas within the precautionary area.
Submarine cables
7.121
1
Submarine cables (1°15′N 104°04′E) have been laid
across the precautionary area NNW of Tanjung Babi. See
1.41. For further information see The Mariner’s Handbook.
EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
NORTH−WEST OF TANJUNG BABI TO
HORSBURGH LIGHT
General information
Charts 4042, 3831
Route
7.122
1
On passing through the extended precautionary area
(7.120) N of Tanjung Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E), the E−going
lane from the vicinity of 1°16′N 104°15′E, at the E end of
the precautionary area, leads E for 5 miles, then NE for
5 miles to a position NW of Horsburgh Light, as indicated
on the charts.
Controlling depths
7.123
1
30⋅3 m (1°16′N 104°08′E) in the precautionary area.
21⋅7 m (1°18′N 104°19′E) close to the N limit of the
lane. There are depths of less than 20 m in the
separation zone close N and NE; the area has
strong tide−rips (7.127).
Traffic regulations
7.124
1
The vessel TSS lies within Sector 9 of the Singapore
VTS authorities. For further details see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(4).
Precautionary area
7.125
1
See 7.120.
Submarine pipeline
7.126
1
A submarine gas pipeline, shown on the charts, lies
generally parallel with the Indonesian coast in this area. In
this section it is unmarked. See 1.42; for further
information on submarine pipelines see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Tidal streams
7.127
1
See 7.22 to 7.27 and diagrams.
Tide−rips and eddies may be encountered in the vicinity
of a 16⋅5 m rocky patch (1°18′N 104°19′E) close N of the
separation zone and also in the E−going lane 1¼ miles SSE
of this patch.
Directions
(continued from 7.92)
Principal marks
7.128
1
Landmarks:
Gunung Bintan Kecil (1°07′N 104°27′E) (Indonesia
Pilot Volume I).
Gunung Bintan Besar (1°04′N 104°27′E) (chart 2403)
(Indonesia Pilot Volume I).
Horsburgh Lighthouse (white round tower, black
bands; 29 m in height) (1°20′N 104°24′E) standing
on Pedra Blanca, a rock, 7 m high, on the SE side
of Middle Channel. A conspicuous radio tower
(lattice mast, red and white bands), elevation 50 m,
stands close N of the lighthouse.
Horsburgh Light from NE (7.128)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
2
Conspicuous radio mast (1°24′N 104°03′E) (9.188)
standing on Pulau Tekong.
Bukit Pengerang (1°23′N 104°06′E) (9.188).
Major lights:
Changi Light (1°19′N 104°02′E) (7.109).
Bedok Light (1°19′N 103°56′E) (7.109).
Pulau Nongsa Light (1°12′N 104°05′E) (7.88).
3
Pulau Mungging Light (1°22′N 104°18′E) (7.152).
Horsburgh Light — as above.
Tompok Utara Light (1°28′N 104°27′E) (7.181).
Other aids to navigation
7.129
1
Racons:
Pulau Mungging Light (1°22′N 104°18′E).
Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
East−going lane
7.130
1
From a position in the E−going lane, NW of Tanjung
Babi (1°12′N 104°06′E), the route leads E, a short distance,
thence as required through the precautionary area (7.120) N
of the point.
From a position about 1°16′N 104°15′E, at the W end of
the traffic lanes, the route continues between E and ENE
for a distance of about 5 miles, thence NE through Middle
Channel for a further 5 miles to a position NW of
Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E), passing:
CHAPTER 7
230
2
S and SE of a 16⋅5 m patch (1°18′N 104°19′E)
(7.127) close N of the separation zone, thence:
NW of Karang Singa (Carter Shoal) (1°16′N
104°22′E) (7.170), thence:
NW of Karang Selatin (South Ledge) (1°18′N
104°24′E) (7.170), thence:
NW of Middle Rocks, a group of above−water rocks,
lying 6 cables S of Horsburgh Light.
3
The route then continues NE to a position NW of
Horsburgh Light (7.128), distant 1 mile, and a dangerous
wreck (mast) close E. An 8⋅2 m patch extends N from the
light to fringe the traffic lane.
Useful marks:
Tanjung Setapa Light (1°21′N 104°08′E) (9.97).
Karang Galang Light (1°10′N 104°11′E) (7.133).
4
Pulau Tondang Light (1°11′N 104°19′E) (7.136);
Tanjung Tondang, a prominent point, lies close E
of the light.
Tanjung Pergam (1°11′N 104°20′E), a high rocky
point on Pulau Bintan.
Tanjung Berakit Light (1°13′N 104°35′E) (7.168).
(Directions continue E−bound at 7.166.
Directions for South Channel are given at 7.170)
Side channels
North entrance to Selat Riau
7.131
1
General information. In this volume the N entrance to
Selat Riau is described N of a line joining:
Tanjung Butan (1°07′N 104°09′E) on Pulau Batam,
and:
Tanjung Sebong (5½ miles E), on Pulau Bintan.
For Selat Riau S of this line, see Indonesia Pilot
Volume I.
2
Selat Riau is a channel frequently used for vessels
bound from Selat Bangka, Selat Gelasa or Selat Karimata
to Singapore. A 13 m swept channel, orientated N−S,
whose N limits lie at 1°12′N 104°13′E, passes between
Karang Galang (1°10′N 104°11′E) and a 10 m patch,
2¼ miles E.
Depths. Less water than charted is reported (2000 and
2001) in Selat Riau and the N entrance.
7.132
1
Tidal streams in the strait, as a rule, flow strongly only
once a day in each direction. They are predicted in
Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 3. The W−going stream in
the E part of Singapore Strait partly curves round the NW
coast of Pulau Bintan and flows S into Selat Riau; similarly
the E−going stream partly curves round the NE coast of
Pulau Batam and flows S into the strait.
The E−going stream in Singapore Strait is also coupled
with the the major body of the N−going stream from Selat
Riau.
7.133
1
Directions. From the vicinity of 1°12′N 104°13′E, S of
the precautionary area, the track leads S through a swept
channel (see 7.131), passing:
E of Terumbu Betata (1°11′N 104°09′E), a shoal over
which there is a least depth of 0⋅9 m, thence:
Between Karang Galang (1°10′N 104°11′E), which
dries, and is marked by a light (white metal
beacon, black bands, 10 m in height), and:
A 10 m patch (2¼ miles E), thence:
E of a dangerous wreck (1°09′N 104°12′E) marked
by a light−buoy (E cardinal).
2
Useful marks:
Light (white beacon) (1°09′⋅7N 104°08′⋅7E) exhibited
from the coastal reef, 5 cables SE of Tanjung
Bemban.
Beacon (spherical topmark, black and white bands)
standing on Karang Passo (1°08′N 104°10′E).
Pulau Sekerah (1°07′N 104°14′E), an islet, lying close
N of Tanjung Sebong.
3
Caution. Mariners departing Selat Riau for Singapore
Strait should inform the Vessel Traffic Information System,
Singapore, from the charted reporting position E of Karang
Galang, of intended passage and navigate with caution until
safely into the appropriate traffic lane.
(Directions S into Selat Riau, and directions for the
port of Kabil within the strait are given in
Indonesia Pilot Volume I)
Tanjung Tondang to Tanjung Sading
7.134
1
The inshore passage between Tanjung Tondang (1°11′N
104°19′E) and Tanjung Sading, 5 miles ENE, is obstructed
by some offshore shoals. In addition some islets and rocks
lie off the coastal reef. Small craft are able to make the
passage along this coast between Bandar Bentantelani and
villages fronting the shoreline in an unnamed bay 2½ miles
E of Tanjung Tondang, thence proceeding farther E into .
2
Small craft bound for Bandar Bentantelani (7.135) from
NE usually pass NW of a group of dangerous rocks
including Karang Said and Karang Lagoi, lying 1½ miles N
of Tanjung Said (1°11′N 104°21′E), the W headland of the
bay lying 2½ miles E of Tanjung Tondang previously
mentioned. Karang Manjang, a shoal patch, lies in the
approaches to the bay, 1 mile NNE of Tanjung Said.
3
Clearing mark. The line of bearing 227°, or less, of
Pulau Tondang Light (1°11′N 104°19′E) (7.136) passes NW
of the dangerous rocks.
Harbours
Bandar Bentantelani
7.135
1
General description. Bandar Bentantelani (1°10′N
104°19′E), a small town and port, lies on the E side of
Teluk Sebong, a bay, on the NW coast of Pulau Bintan.
The reef−fringed bay, which is backed by a wooded shore
and contains numerous islets and shoals, is entered between
Tanjung Sebong (1°07′N 104°14′E) and Tanjung Tandong,
a rugged and overgrown point, 5½ miles NE. The port
consists of a concrete−constructed wharf with a single
N−facing berth for large vessels or two berths for smaller
vessels. There is a least depth of 1⋅5 m alongside. It is used
by local Indonesian vessels and vessels engaged in trade
with Singapore.
2
Sungai Sebong Kecil, a small river, discharges into the
sea off the port; Sungai Sebong discharges into the sea
1 mile S of it. In 1997 a ferry wharf was being constructed
on the N entrance point to Sungai Sebong Kecil to link
with Bandar Bentantelani.
7.136
1
Directions. The port is best approached from NE
through a marked channel; there is a least depth of 1⋅9 m
in the channel fairway. Lights (starboard hand) are
exhibited from the reefs on the S side of the channel and
lights (port hand) from Pulau Panjang, an islet 7 cables NW
of the port, and Pulau Tondang, 1¼ miles NW of the port.
A light−beacon (port hand) also stands 2 cables SSW of
Pulau Panjang.
CHAPTER 7
231
2
Vessels approaching from WSW should give Jangkat
Netscher (1°09′N 104°15′E), an underwater rock, a wide
berth; from W, a dangerous rock (1°10′N 104°16′E), should
be similarly avoided.
Pulau Batubesar
7.137
1
Pulau Batubesar (1°10′N 104°09′E) comprises two islets
on the edge of the fringing reef along the E coast of Pulau
Batam. A small marked (lit) channel lies in the vicinity of
the islets. Works are in progress (2002) developing a port
on the mainland W of Pulau Batubesar, entered by a
marked channel close N of Batubesar, and a second
channel 7 cables S.
WEST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
HORSBURGH LIGHT TO SOUTH OF
JOHOR SHOAL
General information
Charts 3831, 4042
Route
7.138
1
The W−going route from a position NW of Horsburgh
Light, distant 2¼ miles, leads SW for 3½ miles thence
WSW for 5¼ miles into the E part of the precautionary
area (7.120) N of Tanjung Babi.
Controlling depths
7.139
1
16⋅5 m rocky patch (1°18′N 104°19′E) charted in the
lane close N of the separation zone.
21⋅6 m (1°18′N 104°16′E).
Traffic regulations
7.140
1
From a position NW of Horsburgh Light, and in the
W−going traffic lane, vessels are required to report to
Singapore VTIS − Sector 9. See 7.7.
Precautionary area
7.141
1
See 7.120.
Submarine cables
7.142
1
Submarine cables, and a series of disused cables, run
through part of the traffic lane and the precautionary area
as shown on the charts. See 1.41.
Tidal streams
7.143
1
See 7.22 to 7.27 and diagrams.
Tide−rips and eddies are very much in evidence in an
area NW of the rocky shoals (1°18′N 104°19′E) situated in
the separation zone.
Discoloured water occurs over the uneven bottom area
(1°18′N 104°15′E) during the E−going stream, as shown on
the chart.
Directions
(continued from 7.185)
Principal marks
7.144
1
Landmarks:
Horsburgh Lighthouse (1°20′N 104°24′E) and
conspicuous radio tower close N (7.128).
Bukit Tuatau (1°30′N 104°15′E) (7.181).
Bukit Pelali (1°24′N 104°12′E) (7.181)
Bukit Pengerang (1°23′N 104°06′E) (9.188).
Control Tower (1°22′N 103°59′E) (7.109).
2
Major lights:
Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) (7.128).
Pulau Mungging Light (1°22′N 104°18′E) (7.152).
Changi Light (1°19′N 104°02′E) (7.109).
Pulau Nongsa Light (1°12′N 104°05′E) (7.88).
Bedok Light (1°19′N 103°56′E) (7.109).
Other aids to navigation
7.145
1
Racons:
Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E).
Pulau Mungging Light (1°22′N 104°18′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
West−going route
7.146
1
From a position about 2¼ miles NW of Horsburgh Light
(1°20′N 104°24′E), the W−going lane leads SW, thence
WSW for a total of nearly 9 miles, passing:
SE of a dangerous wreck (1°21′N 104°20′E), outside
of the lane, position approximate, thence:
2
SE of Falloden Hall Shoal (1°21′N 104°19′E) (7.150),
on which there is a stranded wreck. The water
over these shoals becomes very disturbed and
discoloured when the tide is running often giving
the impression of less water than actually exists.
Thence:
3
NNW of a 16⋅5 m shoal patch (1°18′N 104°19′E)
(7.127) close N of the separation zone, thence:
SSE of a rocky patch (1°21′N 104°17′E), marked by
Lima Light−buoy (7.153), thence:
Depending on draught, clear of a 21⋅6 m patch
(1°18′N 104°16′E) lying in the fairway.
4
From a position at the W end of the traffic lane (1°18′N
104°15′E) the route leads between W and WSW as
required through the precautionary area (7.120) to enter the
W−going lane S of Johor Shoal (1°19′N 104°03′E).
7.147
1
Useful marks:
Bukit Bangsai Kunyit (1°24′N 104°15′E).
Pulau Lima (1°22′N 104°18′E) (7.149).
Bukit Raja (1°22′N 104°14′E).
Tower (1°11′N 104°01′E) (7.92).
(Directions continue W−going at 7.109,
Directions for East Johor Strait are given at 9.93)
Side channels
North Channel to Kuala Johor
7.148
1
An inshore coastal passage leads parallel to the W−going
traffic lane between the passages exiting North Channel
(1°25′N 104°21′E) and Kuala Johor, 18 miles WSW. The
passage, which virtually lies within the port limits of Johor,
generally leads W or E for a distance of about 13 miles
linking either Selat Lima (7.149) or the passage E of
Pulau−pulau Lima (7.187) with Kuala Johor (9.72), Johor
Port Pilots (9.81) or Johor General Purpose Anchorage
(9.122).
2
Caution. Whilst vessels are able to use this coastal
passage, the waterway off the S coast of Johor is restricted
in width and small craft may be encountered close inshore.
CHAPTER 7
232
Depending on the circumstances it may be safer when
W−bound to use the W−going traffic lane for this short
passage.
Selat Lima
7.149
1
General information. Selat Lima is the narrow channel
between Tanjung Penyusop (1°22′N 104°17′E), the SE
rocky extremity of the mainland of Johor State and Pulau
Lima, 6 cables SE, the W island of Pulau−pulau Lima (see
below).
Caution. The bottom in the vicinity of Pulau−pulau
Lima is irregular, and the dangers are numerous. The
passages should only be used with local knowledge.
7.150
1
Topography. Pulau−pulau Lima, are a group of islands
and rocks which include Pulau Mungging (1°22′N
104°18′E) and North Rock, a 10 m high rock, situated
1½ miles N of it. Congalton Skar, a shoal patch, lies
1½ miles ENE of Pulau Mungging; Stork Reef, a drying
reef, lies 9 cables E of the island. Falloden Hall Shoal
(1°21′N 104°19′E), is the SE of a group of rocky shoals
extending 1½ miles SE of Pulau Mungging.
7.151
1
Bombing range. An aircraft bombing range of
approximately 1 mile radius exists around North Rock
(7.150). Live bombs are used and vessels should avoid the
area and proceed with caution in its vicinity.
7.152
1
Directions
Major light: Pulau Mungging Light (white metal
tower, framework base, 8 m in height) (1°22′N
104°18′E).
7.153
1
Passage. From S, the passage leads NNE through Selat
Lima, a waterway with a least depth of 9⋅1 m in the
fairway, passing (positions from Tanjung Penyusop (1°22′N
104°17′E)):
WNW of Lima Light−buoy (isolated danger)
(1¾ miles S) marking a rocky shoal, over which
there is a least depth of 3⋅7 m, thence:
2
ESE of drying rocks situated S of Tanjung Penyusop,
thence:
WNW of Pulau Lima (7.149) with Pulau Besar, a
similar island, close NE, thence:
ESE of a rocky patch (5 cables ENE), thence:
WNW of Pulau Geruda (1 mile ENE), wooded,
thence:
WNW of North Rock (7.150).
3
The track then continues NNE passing E of Tanjung
Punggai (1°26′N 104°18′E) distant 2¼ miles, thence as
required for South China Sea passages.
7.154
1
Adjacent passage. From the vicinity of 1°21′⋅5N
104°17′⋅5E, a narrow passage leads NE, passing NW of
Pulau Mungging (1°22′N 104°18′E) and between it and
Pulau Lima, thence NW of Pulau Peak, reddish and barren,
4 cables NW of Pulau Mungging, thence NW of Whale
Rock, 7 cables farther NE. Jones Reef, over which there is
a least depth of 1⋅2 m, lies 3 cables ENE of Whale Rock.
2
The track then continues NE passing E of Tanjung
Punggai as required. However, a dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 3 miles E of the point and should be
given a wide berth.
Anchorages
Teluk Ramunia
7.155
1
General information. Teluk Ramunia (1°22′N
104°15′E), a shallow, mud−bottomed, bay, is entered
between Pulau Che Kamat (1°21′N 104°14′E), a wooded
and rocky−fringed islet, and Tanjung Ramunia, 1¾ miles
ENE. A bauxite loading berth exists at Kampung Sungai
Rengit, a town on the W side of the bay where there is a
jetty. The ore is produced from mines close inland.
2
Anchorage for ore loading vessels may be obtained off
the entrance to the bay in depths between the 10 and 20 m
depth contours. Smaller vessels may anchor closer inshore;
lighters and shallow−draught vessels may berth at the jetty
to load bauxite for onward offshore loading.
7.156
1
This anchorage lies within the jurisdiction of the
Harbour Master at the port of Johor. It is unfortunately
exposed during the NE monsoon which frequently causes
an unpleasant swell in the bay. The ore berth is connected
by road with Kampung Teluk Ramunia, in the N of the
bay, and with Tanjung Pengelih (1°22′N 104°05′E) (9.189)
where there is a ferry landing connecting with Tanjung
Changi (1°23′N 104°00′E) on Singapore Island.
Johor General Purpose Anchorage
7.157
1
Johor General Purpose Anchorage is charted SW of
Tanjung Setapa (1°21′N 104°08′E). See 9.122.
The shore in this vicinity is fronted by mudbanks.
The area between the shore and the 10 m depth contour
between Tanjung Setapa and Tanjung Bulat (1°21′N
104°14′E) is much obstructed by fishing stakes and traps.
Additional designated anchorages for dangerous cargoes,
petroleum−carrying vessels and quarantine vessels lie NW
of the general purpose anchorage as shown on the chart.
Emergency anchorage
7.158
1
There is a limited amount of clear water to the N of the
W−going traffic lane that may be used for emergency
anchorage. Whilst the water depth is sufficient, space
available between the Johor and Singapore port limits and
the W−bound lane is restricted.
SINGAPORE STRAIT − NORTH−EASTERN APPROACHES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3831, 2403
Scope of the section
7.159
1
Within this section are described the principal routes to
and from South China Sea from the TSS at Horsburgh
Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) through Middle Channel, together
with the secondary channels (South Channel and North
Channel) lying on each side of Middle Channel, as follows:
E−going traffic lane from Horsburgh Light for
5½ miles to the NE extremity of the scheme;
thence from position 1°24′N 104°28′E in a NE
direction to the E limit of this volume (meridian
104°34′E).
CHAPTER 7
233
2
Approach to Singapore Strait from NE, from the E
limit of this volume, to the NE extremity of the
W−going traffic lane (1°25′N 104°26′E); thence
SW in this lane for 5½ miles to a position about
2¼ miles NW of Horsburgh Light.
Also described are the side channels and anchorages
associated with the traffic lanes.
For general information on Singapore Strait see 7.1
to 7.28.
Routes
7.160
1
Middle Channel (1°22′N 104°24′E) lying NW of
Horsburgh Light, is the deep channel recommended for use
by all vessels entering or departing Singapore Strait.
Visibility is generally good and there should be no
difficulty in fixing positions in the E part of the strait and
in the channel beyond Horsburgh Light.
7.161
1
North Channel (1°25′N 104°21′E) (7.186) between
Ramunia Shoals and shoal patches E of Pulau Mungging
(1°22′N 104°18′E) is only recommended with local
knowledge and in daylight.
South Channel (1°17′N 104°26′E) (7.169), situated S of
Horsburgh Light, is not recommended for larger vessels,
and there is no advantage gained from using it.
Traffic regulations
7.162
1
A reporting position on entering Singapore Strait is
situated NW of Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) in the
W−going lane. The TSS lies within Sector 9, Singapore
VTS authority.
Rules and regulations for vessels navigating Singapore
and Malacca Straits are fully given at 2.18.
EAST−GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
HORSBURGH LIGHT TO SOUTH CHINA
SEA
General information
Charts 3831, 2403
Routes
7.163
1
The E−going traffic lane from NW of Horsburgh Light
(1°20′N 104°24′E) leads NE through Middle Channel for
about 5½ miles as indicated on the charts.
Caution. There are depths of 22 m about 2½ miles E of
the lane exit and depths of 24 m between 6 and 12 miles
NE of the lane exit. Thereafter the depths increase
considerably.
Traffic regulations
7.164
1
See 7.162.
Tidal streams and currents
7.165
1
Tidal streams. See 7.22 to 7.27.
Currents. The following sets occur in the NE
approaches to Singapore Strait:
S during the NE monsoon.
N during the SW monsoon.
The rates are largely governed by the strength of the
monsoon.
Directions
(continued from 7.130)
Principal marks
7.166
1
Landmarks:
Gunung Bintan Kecil (1°07′N 104°27′E) (Indonesia
Pilot Volume I).
Gunung Bintan Besar (1°04′N 104°27′E) (Indonesia
Pilot Volume I). From N this hill shows a
saddle−shaped summit.
Horsburgh Lighthouse (1°20′N 104°24′E) (7.128)
together with a conspicuous tower close N.
2
Bukit Tuatau (1°30′N 104°15′E) (7.181).
Bukit Pelali (1°24′N 104°12′E) (7.181); the hill
however, is often obscured by rain clouds.
Major lights:
Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) (7.128).
Pulau Mungging Light (1°22′N 104°18′E) (7.152).
Tompok Utara Light (1°28′N 104°27′E) (7.181).
Other aid to navigation
7.167
1
Racon: Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
East−going route
7.168
1
From a position about 1 mile NW of Horsburgh Light
(1°20′N 104°24′E), the E−going traffic lane leads NE for a
distance of about 5½ miles to the NE limit of the scheme,
passing (positions from Horsburgh Light):
NW of an 8⋅2 m shoal extending a short distance N
of the light, thence:
NW of a shoal (4¼ miles ENE) over which there is a
least depth of 14⋅6 m, thence:
2
NW of Tanjung Berakit (12 miles ESE), a prominent
headland with some trees on it; a light (white
metal framework tower, 32 m in height) stands on
higher ground about 7 cables SW, thence:
SE of Tompok Utara Light (8¼ miles NNE) (7.181).
3
The track then continues as required for South China
Sea (chart 3543).
Caution. A dangerous wreck (1°27′⋅3N 104°37′⋅1E),
position approximate, lies 2 miles E of the E limit of this
volume, see China Sea Pilot Volume II.
(Directions continue for traffic N or NE−bound in
China Sea Pilot Volume I or E−bound in
China Sea Pilot Volume II.
Directions for passing E of Pulau Bintan
are given in Indonesia Pilot Volume I)
South Channel
General information
7.169
1
Description. South Channel generally leads E between
Pedra Branca (1°20′N 104°25′E), on which stands
Horsburgh Light (7.128), and the N coast of Pulau Bintan
between Tanjung Sading (1°12′N 104°24′E) and Tanjung
Berakit, 11 miles E.
It is obstructed with several dangerous rocky shoals, the
bottom is rocky and irregular and it is not recommended
for large vessels.
CHAPTER 7
234
7.170
1
Directions. From the vicinity of 1°17′N 104°18′E and
within the E−going traffic lane, the track leads E into South
Channel, passing:
N of Karang Singa (Carter Shoal) (1°16′N 104°22′E)
over which there is a least depth of 3⋅2 m, thence:
2
Clear of Karang Selatin (South Ledge) (1°18′N
104°24′E), over which there is a least depth of
1⋅8 m; a stranded wreck lies on the shoal. Thence:
S of Middle Rocks (1°19′N 104°25′E) (7.130),
thence:
N of Terumbu Berakit (1°16′N 104°36′E), a
dangerous rock, over which there is a least depth
of 6⋅4 m; a dangerous wreck lies about 5 cables
SSW of the rock. And:
3
Clear of an isolated 8 m rocky patch lying 3 miles N
of Terumbu Berakit.
Clearing marks. The bearing 303° of Bukit Batu
(1°22′N 104°16′E) open SW of Bukit Pelali, 4 miles WNW,
passes between Karang Singa and Karang Selatin.
The alignment (285°) of Horsburgh Light with Bukit
Batu passes N of Terumbu Berakit.
7.171
1
Other passages. If proceeding through South Channel
but farther S, the track leads E from the vicinity of 1°16′N
104°18′E, passing:
N of Karang Said (1°13′N 104°21′E) (7.134), thence:
Clear of Karang Singa (1°16′N 104°22′E) (7.170); a
9⋅1 m patch lies 8 cables SSE of it. Thence:
S of Karang Selatin (1°18′N 104°24′E) (7.170),
thence:
2
N of Karang Tombak (1°14′N 104°26′E), a group of
shoals over which there is a least depth of 4⋅8 m,
thence:
N of Karang Bebek (1°15′N 104°33′E), a coral shoal
over which there is a least depth of 3⋅7 m, which
lies 1 mile N of the fringing reef fronting the coast
of Pulau Bintan, thence:
Clear of Terumbu Berakit (1°16′N 104°36′E) (7.170).
3
If proceeding through South Channel but farther N, the
track leads E passing:
Between Karang Selatin and Middle Rocks, 1½ miles
NNE, thence:
S of a wreck (1°20′N 104°27′E) over which there is a
least depth of 8 m, thence:
Clear of the 8 m patch described at 7.170.
(Directions E of the channel are given in
China Sea Pilot Volume II and E of Pulau Bintan in
Indonesia Pilot Volume I)
Bay
Teluk Sumpat
7.172
1
Teluk Sumpat (1°12′N 104°29′E), a bay, is entered
between Tanjung Sading (1°12′N 104°24′E) and Tanjung
Berakit, 11 miles E. The head and E part of the bay are
fringed by a reef which extends up to 1 mile offshore. The
coastline is wooded throughout. Several villages are found
along the shore; the main industry is fishing.
7.173
1
Sungai Beru, a narrow creek, is only navigable by small
craft for about 2 miles thence only at HW for a short
distance inland on this portion of the N coast of Pulau
Bintan.
2
Buton (1°12′N 104°33′E), a village, lies on the N side
to the entrance of Sungai Beru. The river is best
approached at LW when a break in the coastal reef is
visible; there are depths of 2 m in the channel to the
village. Pulau Sumpat, a rocky, wooded islet, standing
1½ miles W of the river entrance, is a useful mark.
A dangerous wreck lies 3 miles NW of the river
entrance.
NORTH−EAST APPROACH TO SINGAPORE
STRAIT INCLUDING WEST−GOING
TRAFFIC LANE − TO HORSBURGH LIGHT
General information
Charts 3831, 2403, 3543
Routes
7.174
1
The W−going traffic lane from South China Sea is
entered SE of Ramunia Shoals in the vicinity of 1°25′N
104°27′E, and leads SW, through Middle Channel, for
5½ miles, to a position about 2¼ miles NW of Horsburgh
Light (1°20′N 104°24′E).
Topography
7.175
1
The land features of both the coast of Johor (Malaysia)
and Pulau Bintan (Indonesia) are not easily visible from the
approaches to the NE entrance to Singapore Strait. Both
coasts appear low and wooded but their respective
conspicuous high points may not be easily seen in reduced
visibility. However, Horsburgh Lighthouse (7.128), and the
higher radio tower, close N, standing on Pedra Branca, near
the entrance to the strait, are visible in good conditions for
a considerable distance.
2
The Johor coast N of Tanjung Penyusop (1°22′N
104°17′E) contains areas of jungle clearings, with
considerable coastal and riverside populations as far as
Tanjung Penawar, 8 miles N. The coast N of Tanjung
Penawar is rocky, backed by wooded ground through which
several rivers enter the sea.
The coast N of Tanjung Lompat (1°35′N 104°16′E) is
described in China Sea Pilot Volume I.
Controlling depth
7.176
1
29⋅5 m (1°22′N 104°23′E) within the NW side of the
lane. Lesser depths are charted in the approach.
Traffic regulations
7.177
1
See 7.162.
Sandwaves
7.178
1
Sandwaves are in evidence on the seabed in the vicinity
of Ramunia Shoals (7.183) and about 3½ miles N of Jones
Reef (1°22′N 104°19′E) in North Channel. Some instability
of the bottom is probable.
Spoil ground
7.179
1
An area of spoil ground lies 6 miles N of Horsburgh
Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) as shown on the chart.
CHAPTER 7
235
Flow
7.180
1
Tidal streams. See 7.22 to 7.27.
Currents. During the NE monsoon there is a S set;
during the SW monsoon there is a N set.
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume I
and China Sea Pilot Volume II)
Principal marks
7.181
1
Landmarks:
Bukit Pelali (1°24′N 104°12′E), conspicuous for some
distance when not covered by rain clouds.
Bukit Tuatau (1°30′N 104°15′E), a hill, which is
discernible during hazy weather before Bukit
Pelali, when approaching from N. This hill is
considerably higher to the top of the trees.
Horsburgh Lighthouse (1°20′N 104°24′E) (7.128).
Gunung Bintan Kecil (1°07′N 104°27′E) (Indonesia
Pilot Volume I) with Gunung Bintan Besar,
3 miles S.
2
Major lights:
Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E) (7.128).
Pulau Mungging Light (1°22′N 104°18′E) (7.152).
Tompok Utara Light (white round GRP tower on
piled platform) (1°28′N 104°27′E). The light is
exhibited from Ramunia Shoals.
Other aid to navigation
7.182
1
Racon: Horsburgh Light (1°20′N 104°24′E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Approach from north−east
7.183
1
From the vicinity of 1°31′N 104°34′E, the track leads
SW passing:
SE of Eastern Bank (1°31′N 104°31′E). A reported
(1964) 7⋅3 m patch, position approximate, lies on
the SE side of the bank. Thence:
SE of North Patch (1°29′N 104°27′E), reported
(2002) to lie 2½ cables NE, over which there is a
least depth of 6⋅4 m, lying at the N end of
Ramunia Shoals, thence:
2
SE of Tompok Utara Light (1°28′N 104°27′E)
(7.181), marking the SE edge of Ramunia Shoals,
over which there is a least depth of 2⋅7 m, and
which extend about 10 miles SW of North Patch.
These shoals consist of coarse sand and gravel,
and are steep−to, often with deep water in
between. In the S part the area is ridged with
sandwaves, over which the least depth may vary
from time to time, and depths less than charted
may be encountered. The water over Ramunia
Shoals becomes very disturbed and discoloured
when the tide is running, often giving the
impression of less water than actually exists.
Approach from north
7.184
1
If approaching from N, and passing W of Eastern Bank
(1°31′N 104°31′E), the alignment (182°) of the foot of the
E slope of Gunung Bintan Kecil (1°07′N 104°27′E)
(Indonesia Pilot Volume I) and the W summit of Gunung
Bintan Besar, 3 miles S, leads S passing:
About 1 mile E of North Patch (1°29′N 104°27′E)
(7.183), thence:
2
E of Tompok Utara Light (1°28′N 104°27′E) (7.181)
thence into the W−going traffic lane.
In any case, when navigating between the two dangers,
soundings should never be less than 20 m.
West−going traffic lane
7.185
1
From the vicinity of 1°25′N 104°27′E, the W−going
traffic lane leads SW, for about 5½ miles, to a position
about 2¼ miles NW of Horsburgh Light (7.128), passing:
SE of a 5⋅2 m shoal (1°24′N 104°23′E) situated on
Ramunia Shoals.
Useful marks:
2
Tanjung Punggai (1°26′N 104°18′E), a low but
wooded point.
Pulau Kerengga, close S of Tanjung Punggai.
Bukit Bangsal Kunyit (1°24′N 104°15′E), a wooded
hill.
Pulau Geruda (1°22′N 104°18′E) (7.153).
(Directions continue at 7.144)
Side channels
North Channel
7.186
1
General information. North Channel (1°25′N 104°21′E)
which leads S between the dangers lying off the coast of
Johor and Ramunia Shoals (1°27′N 104°27′E) (7.183) is
obstructed at its S end with shoals with depths from 5⋅2 to
10 m over them. Sandwaves exist N of Jones Reef (1°22′N
104°19′E) (7.154).
2
The lack of suitable navigational marks calls for great
care in position fixing to maintain the correct track; a
number of wrecks and dangerous wrecks are charted.
Tidal streams flow N and S in this area and vary in
rate between 1 and 3 kn in each direction.
Local knowledge. The passage should only be attempted
in daylight and with local knowledge; less water than
charted is reported (2002).
7.187
1
Directions. For vessels using the inshore passage of
Selat Lima see 7.153.
From NE, for those vessels using North Channel and the
passage between Pulau−pulau Lima and Ramunia Shoals,
the best track, in depths of not less than 10 m, initially
leads SSW to a position about 2¼ miles E of Tanjung
Punggai (1°26′N 104°18′E) passing WNW of a dangerous
wreck, position approximate, 3 miles E of the point. The
track then leads S for about 2 miles until the bearing 314°
of Tanjung Punggai is reached, thence on this bearing,
astern, to the traffic lanes or coastal passage (7.148)
leading to Kuala Johor, passing:
2
NE of an 8⋅8 m patch (1°23′⋅5N 104°19′⋅9E), thence:
SW of a similar patch, 8 cables E, thence:
SW of a 7⋅3 m patch (1°23′⋅4N 104°21′⋅8E), near the
SW end of Ramunia Shoals.
Vessels proceeding N through North Channel may follow
these directions in reverse order.
CHAPTER 7
236
Bays
Teluk Punggai
7.188
1
Teluk Punggai, a shallow bay, is entered SW of Tanjung
Punggai (1°26′N 104°18′E). Sungai Punggai flows into the
bay 5 cables NW of Tanjung Punggai. The river mouth is
only navigable by small craft at half tide; at LW there is
only a depth of about 0⋅3 m in the channel.
The entrance channel changes position frequently and it
is marked by sticks, which are not properly maintained. A
bridge spans the river near its mouth.
Teluk Penawar
7.189
1
Teluk Penawar, is a shallow bay, entered S of Tanjung
Penawar (1°30′N 104°17′E) from which point underwater
rocks extend up to 8 cables E. Apart from local fishermen
the bay is not commercially used.
NOTES
237
8
.
8
3
8
.
9
3
8
.
1
4
9
8
.
2
7
9
-
8
.
2
9
8
8
.
2
2
2
8
.
2
0
0
8
.
2
0
8
8
.
1
3
7
8
.
2
5
1
8
.
1
2
4
8.100
8
.
1
6
5
8
.
2
4
9
8.208
8
.
2
8
5
9.45
Sing
apore Port Limit
Singapore Port Limit
4038
4033
4030
4040
4039
4040
4041
4031
4032
4034
4035
4036
4041
4043
4037
4041
0406
JOHOR
(MALAYSIA)
SINGAPORE
Jurong Port
Jurong Island
T
u
a
s
V
i
e
w
Pasir Panjang
S
e
n
t
o
s
a
M
a
r
i
n
a
B
a
y
Changi
JOHOR
E
a
s
t
J
o
h
o
r
S
t
r
a
i
t
W
e
s
t
J
u
r
o
n
g
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Tuas
Jetty
W
e
s
t
J
o
h
o
r
S
t
r
a
i
t
Keppel Harbour
P. Bukom
P. Semakau
P. Sebarok
S i n
g
a
p
o
r
e
S
t
r
a
i t
S i n g a
p
o
r
e
S
t r
a i t
S
e
l
a
t
S
i
n
k
i
E
a
s
t
J
u
r
o
n
g
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Tanjung Pelepas
Chapter
9
Chapter
7
Chapter
7
Chapter
9
Chapter 7
104°
50´
40´
30´
104°
50´
40´
30´
20´
20´
10´
Chapter 8 - The Port of Singapore
1
°
10´
1
°
238
239
CHAPTER 8
PORT OF SINGAPORE
SUMMARY OF INFORMATION
Introduction
Charts 2403, 5502
Scope of the chapter
8.1
1
This chapter describes the whole of Port of Singapore,
excluding Johor Strait which is described in Chapter 9. The
chapter is divided into the following five sections:
General information, including limiting conditions,
arrival and harbour information, (8.5).
2
Western approach channels to Port of Singapore and
inner channels in the W sector, (8.81).
Southern approach channels to Port of Singapore and
inner channels in the W sector, (8.183).
South−eastern and E approach channels in the E
sector, (8.258).
Berths and port services, (8.306).
3
For The Port of Singapore Authority Act (Chapter 173)
and The Singapore Port Regulations − 1997 (Extracts
from), see Appendix I.
Through route and fairway of Singapore Strait
8.2
1
As Singapore Strait is so constrained, the TSS through
the strait and the coastal route leading to the approaches
are described in Chapter 7.
Summaries
Information affecting navigation in the approaches to
Port of Singapore
8.3
1
The following headings cover subjects in Chapter 2 and
Chapter 7 which may affect navigation in the approaches to
Port of Singapore:
Traffic rules and regulations (2.18).
Under−keel clearance for the straits (2.19); under−keel
clearance for Singapore waterways (8.12 and
8.307).
Traffic separation schemes (7.3).
Reports (8.40).
Defective navigational aids (2.20).
2
Equipment of vessels (2.20).
General navigational hazards (7.10 and 8.75).
Deep Water Route (7.47).
Overtaking (2.20).
Emergency (7.61).
Speed: VLCC and deep−draught vessels (7.21).
Safe speed − straits (2.20).
Traffic signals near Raffles Lighthouse (7.66).
3
Natural conditions:
Singapore Strait (7.22−7.28).
Singapore (8.76).
Climate information (1.170) and (1.175).
Distance table (2.124).
Summary of General Information (Port of Singapore)
8.4
1
Outline and function
Port of Singapore (8.6).
Port limits (8.8).
Approaches and entry (8.10).
Traffic Separation Schemes (8.11).
Principal channels and fairways (8.12).
2
Western approach channels (8.13).
Southern approach channels (8.14).
South−eastern and E approach channels (8.15).
Principal inner fairways (8.18).
Traffic (8.19).
Port Authority (8.21).
3
Limiting conditions:
Controlling depths (8.22).
Principal berths (8.23).
Limiting height restrictions (8.24).
Prohibited areas (8.29).
Tidal levels (8.35).
Density of water (8.36).
Maximum size of vessel (8.37).
Natural conditions (8.76).
4
Arrival information:
Port operations (8.40).
Port radio stations (8.41).
Vessel Traffic Information Service (8.42)
Arrival procedures (8.44).
Departure procedures (8.48).
Outer anchorages (8.49−8.56).
5
Prohibited anchorages and restricted areas (8.57).
Pilotage (8.60).
Tugs and tug signals (8.67).
Traffic regulations (8.69).
Regulations concerning entry (8.70).
Health clearance (8.72).
Immigration clearance (8.73).
6
Harbour:
General layout (8.74)
CHAPTER 8
240
PORT OF SINGAPORE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3833, 3831
Scope of the section
8.5
1
In this section are described:
The approaches, principal channels and fairways
leading to Port of Singapore.
Limiting conditions that affect the port, arrival
information and harbour layout.
General description
8.6
1
Port of Singapore (1°18′N 103°50′E), which is one of
the busiest ports in the world, is a major port complex
formed within the islands and the mainland mass which
comprise the Republic of Singapore. As reclamation of the
land plays an important part of the strategy in making
Singapore even greater, many of the smaller islands lying
in close proximity to the conurbation are slowly being
joined together to form further areas of expansion.
2
The port has a well−sheltered natural deep−water
harbour and the extensive facilities to cater for all types of
vessels including super−tankers and gas carriers.
Extensive ship repair and building facilities are available.
3
The following are the principal component areas of the
port:
Jurong (1°18′N 103°43′E) (8.175), situated in the W
part, consists of a number of wharves, basins and
repair yards on the N side of West and East
Jurong Channels.
4
Jurong Island (1°16′N 103°42′E) (8.113), situated S
of Jurong, consists of several islands joined into
one island mass by reclamation. It forms the S
side of West and East Jurong Channels. The S side
of the island forms the NW side of Sinki Fairway.
The island contains a large number of oil and
chemical installations and several repair berths.
5
Pulau Bukom (1°14′N 103°46′E) (8.211) together
with Pulau Bukom Kecil and Pulau Ular is a major
oil complex. There are a great number of oil
berths and oil refinery installations. The smaller
island of Pulau Sebarok, 1 mile SE, also contains
an oil refinery and several oil berths.
Keppel Terminal (8.270), Tanjong Pagar Terminal,
Brani Terminal and Cruise Bay (1°16′N 103°49′E)
situated on the S side of the city of Singapore,
consist of a great number of commercial wharves
and a cruise centre.
6
For Sembawang Area (1°28′N 103°50′E) (chart 4044) on
the N side of Singapore Island, see Johor Strait, E part, in
Chapter 9.
8.7
1
An SBM is sited within the area SW of Pulau Sebarok:
Shell SBM (1°11′⋅5N 103°47′⋅4E) (8.185).
Port limits
8.8
1
The Singapore Port Limit is a line surrounding
Singapore Island including the offshore islands and reefs S
and NE of it. The most S limit extends to the parallel of
1°09′N about 5 cables S of Pulau Satumu (1°10′N
103°44′E).
The limit is shown on the charts.
Piracy
8.9
1
Piracy is prevalent in Singapore Strait and vessels
navigating close to the port limits are advised to exercise
extra vigilance. Cases of armed robbery have occurred in
the anchorages off Singapore. In the event of an attack or
suspicious craft vessels should report to Singapore Police
Coast Guard and Singapore Port Operations. For details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4). For
information on preventative methods and reporting see
1.70.
Approaches and entry
Fairways and channels
8.10
1
The various berths within Port of Singapore are
approached through the fairways outlined at 8.12 to 8.15
and entered through the channels described at 8.18. The
fairways are marked, where applicable, in accordance with
IALA Maritime Buoyage (Region A). The direction of
buoyage for lateral marks is given in the text and shown
on the charts.
2
Certain fairways and channels are designated inwards to
the port and outwards from the port and should be used by
vessels of 20 m or more in length.
In the S approach channels (8.14), on each side of The
Sisters (1°13′N 103°50′E) the inward traffic should use
Sisters Fairway and the outward traffic and inward
deep−draught vessels should use Jong Fairway.
Traffic Separation Schemes
8.11
1
Traffic Separation Schemes are in operation in Selat
Sinki, Southern Fairway and Sisters Fairway and are shown
on the large scale charts. These schemes are not
IMO−adopted, but the Singapore Authorities advise that the
principles for the use of the routeing system apply as
defined in Rule 10 of the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
Sinki Fairway is described at 8.124, Southern Fairway at
8.200 and Sisters Fairway at 8.222.
Principal outer channels and fairways
Charts 4038, 4039, 4040, 4041
General
8.12
1
The principal fairways leading into Port of Singapore are
presented in three parts for convenience as follows:
Western approach fairways (8.13)
Southern approach fairways (8.14)
South−eastern and E approach fairways (8.15).
2
For controlling depths see 8.22; the minimum
under−keel clearance for any vessel using any of the
channels and fairways is 0⋅8 m.
For special anchorages which may be entered without a
pilot see 8.16.
AWQI
DW
2
TPGP
TPE
ATPH
AWJ
ALGAS
AVLCC
ASH
ASHA
ASHB
ASSPU
ASUEX
ASPLU
ARAFR
AWPA
AWPB
AWW
DW
Sinki Fairway
West Keppel
Fairway
Sisters
Fai
rway
Tamasek Fairway
Jong Fairway
1B
1A
APPH
P. Sentosa
SI NGAPORE
J OHOR
P. Sudong
P. Busing
P. Bukom
P. Sebarok
P. Senang
P. Pawai
Raffles Lighthouse
P. Sumutu
Jurong Island
Tanjung Pelepas Port Limit
M
a
i
n
S
t
r
a
i
t
S
e
l
a
t
P
h
i
l
i
p
W
e
s
t
J
u
r
o
n
g
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
E
a
s
t
J
u
r
o
n
g
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Serebut
P. Semakau
S
e
l
a
t
P
a
u
h
Karang Banteng
(Buffalo Rock)
Helen Mar
Reef
N. Nipa
P. Nipa
P. Takong
Besar
P. Takong
Kecil
Pulau Cula
Sultan Shoal
T. Piai
Gusong
S
ingapore Por
t
L
imit
Singapore Port Limit
Tanjung Pelepas Port Limit
Johor Bahru Port Limit
SECTOR 8
VTIS CENTRAL
SECTOR 7
VTIS WEST
PILOTAGE AREA A
Port of Singapore and approaches - Western side (8.13)
25´
20´
15´
10´
5´
1°
Longitude 104° 40´
East from Greenwich
25´
20´
15´
10´
5´
1°
50´
45´
40´
35´
50´
45´
35´
CHAPTER 8
241
CHAPTER 8
242
Western approach channels and fairways
8.13
1
Channel to Tuas Jetty (8.83):
From the vicinity of Western Boarding Ground A
(PWBGA) (1°12′⋅9N 103°36′⋅1E) leading N for a
distance of 4½ miles to Tuas Jetty (1°17′N
103°37′E) and thence to West Johor Strait (9.7).
Sinki Fairway (8.124):
2
Inwards: from the vicinity of Western Boarding
Ground B (PWBGB) (1°12′⋅0N 103°39′⋅5E) via
Selat Sinki, 5 miles ENE, thence connecting with
West Keppel Fairway (1°15′N 103°46′E) (8.234)
thence to East Jurong Channel (8.165)
Outwards: from East Jurong Channel generally SW
via Selat Pandan to Sinki Fairway thence to
position the vicinity of Western Boarding
Ground B (PWBGB).
3
Temasek Fairway (8.93):
From 1°13′⋅0N 103°40′⋅0E on the N side of Sinki
Fairway leading NNW for 3½ miles to the
entrance to West Jurong Channel (8.100).
Southern approach fairways
8.14
1
Jong Fairway (8.208):
From 1°12′N 103°49′E to Pulau Bukom, 3 miles NW.
Designated channel leading to Pulau Sebarok and
Pulau Bukom Oil Berths. Leading to West Keppel
Fairway and East Jurong Channel (8.165).
Southern Fairway (8.200):
From 1°12′N 103°49′E to Kusu Island, 3 miles ENE.
Designated channel for inward and outward traffic.
Leading to Jong Fairway or East Keppel Fairway
(8.260).
2
Sisters Fairway (8.222):
From 1°12′⋅7N 103°50′⋅6E to the entrance to Buran
Channel, 1½ miles NNW. Designated for inward
traffic only leading to Western Anchorage (AWW)
(1°14′N 103°49′E).
South−eastern and eastern approach fairways
8.15
1
East Keppel Fairway (8.260):
From 1°13′N 103°53′E to Tanjong Pagar Terminal,
3 miles NNW. Leading to Keppel Terminal (1°16′N
103°50′E) and Brani Terminal.
Corridor Fairway (8.279):
From 1°14′⋅2N 103°54′⋅7E to a position 1½ miles
NW. Leading to Eastern Anchorage (AEW) and
the entrance to Marina Bay.
2
Eastern Fairway (8.298):
From 1°15′⋅5N 103°57′⋅0E to a position about 2 miles
NW. Leading between Eastern Petroleum
Anchorage A (AEPA) and Eastern Holding
Anchorage A (AEHA) on the W side and Laid−up
Vessels Anchorage (AELUV) and Small Craft
Anchorage (ASC) on the E side.
Bunkering, storing and crew change special anchorage
schemes
8.16
1
The Eastern and Sudong Sector anchorages under
these schemes (8.51), may be entered without using a pilot,
see 8.61.
Eastern Bunkering Anchorages A, B and C (AEBA),
(AEBB), (AEBC) (8.56) are adjacent to the W−bound lane
of the TSS in Singapore Strait, and can be approach
directly.
Changi General Purpose Anchorage (ACGP) should be
approached from East Johor Strait, see 9.95, and vessels
should avoid crossing Eastern Bunkering Anchorage A.
2
Sudong Bunkering Anchorages A and B (ASUBA and
ASUBB) (8.54) are adjacent to the W−bound lane of
Singapore Main Strait TSS (7.62) and can be approached
directly from this lane keeping clear of Raffles Shoal
(1°10′⋅7N 103°41′⋅3E) (7.13) The NE edge of the shoal is
marked by Raffles Shoal Light−buoy (special) (1°10′⋅6N
103°41′⋅7E) and Pawai Light−buoy (special) 1½ miles NW.
8.17
1
Cautions. Attention is drawn to the gas pipelines close
W of Sudong Bunkering Anchorage A (ASUBA); mariners
should establish their position prior to anchoring in the
anchorage.
During the W−going tidal stream strong currents may be
expected from Sinki Fairway, Selat Sudong and Selat Pawai
setting vessels towards Raffles Shoal and into the W−bound
TSS of Singapore Main Strait
2
Vessels approaching the bunkering anchorages from W
during the E−going tidal stream will experience a stern
tidal flow. Vessels approaching the port from W are
therefore advised to continue farther E along the E−bound
lane of Singapore Main Strait TSS (7.46), and approach the
anchorages from E stemming the tidal flow, advising VTIS
(8.42) prior to crossing the W−bound lane.
Principal inner channels and fairways
General
8.18
1
The principal inner channels leading to Port of
Singapore are all contained, with the exception of small
craft channels, in the W part of the harbour as follows:
West Jurong Channel (8.100):
From the N end of Temasek Fairway (1°16′N
103°39′E) to Jurong Causeway, 4¼ miles ENE.
Leading to Pesek Basin and Ayer Chawan Basin
(1°17′N 103°42′E).
2
East Jurong Channel (8.165):
From the E end of Sinki Fairway (1°15′N 103°46′E)
or the N end of Jong Fairway to Jurong Causeway,
5 miles NW. Leading to Jurong Terminal (1°18′N
103°43′E), Pasir Panjang Terminal (1°17′N
103°46′E).
3
West Keppel Fairway (8.234):
From 1°15′N 103°46′E to the entrance of Cruise Bay
at Tanjong Rimau (1°16′N 103°48′E), 2¾ miles
ENE. Connects with Jong Fairway, or Sinki
Fairway inward traffic, and with Cruise Bay or
Pasir Panjang Fairway.
Pasir Panjang Fairway (8.249):
From 1°16′⋅1N 103°47′⋅4E to the berths up to 1 mile
NW.
Traffic
Vessels and tonnage handled
8.19
1
In 2005, 57 470 vessels totalling 1 609 349 147 dwt used
the port of Singapore.
ACGP
Singapore Port Limit
AEBA
AWW
AWQI
AEW
AEHC
AEHB
AMOW
ACBTH
AEEL
AEPA
AEHA
ASC
ALUV
AEPB
AEBC
AESPA
AESPB
AESPD
AEBB
Eastern Fairway
Corridor
East Keppel
Fairway
Southern
Fairway
Sisters
Fairway
DW
Johor
Port L
imi
t
5
6
4
3
7
2
SI NGAPORE
J OHOR
Johor Port
J OHOR
PUL AU BATAM
P. Brani
P
.
S
e
n
t
o
s
a
Sakang Bendera
P. Tembakul
Karang Banteng
(Buffalo Rock)
P. Sambu
Batu
Berhanti
Changi
J
O
H
O
R
S
T
R
A
I
T
Bedok
Batuampar
T
.
S
e
t
a
p
a
Pulau Ubin
K
u
a
l
a
J
o
h
o
r
Serangoon
Harbour
Pulau Tekong
PILOTAGE AREA D
PILOTAGE
AREA B
PILOTAGE
AREA C
SECTOR 9
VTIS EAST
SECTOR 8
VTIS CENTRAL
S
i
n
ga
p
or
e
P
o
rt
Li
m
i
t
Port of Singapore and approaches - Eastern side (8.17)
104°
5´
25´
20´
15´
10´
5´
1°
25´
20´
15´
10´
5´
1°
55´
50´
5´
55´
50´
Longitude 104° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 8
243
CHAPTER 8
244
Principal imports/exports
8.20
1
Imports consist of crude oil, chemicals, iron, steel and
manufactured goods.
Exports consist of refined oil products, timber products,
rubber, machinery, textile and manufactured goods.
Port Authority
8.21
1
The Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) Corporation Ltd,
460 Alexandra Road, #15−04 PSA Building, Singapore
119963.
The Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) Marine (Pte)
Ltd, 7B Keppel Road, #09−07 Tanjong Pagar Complex.
Singapore 089055. The Port Master may be contacted at
the Port Operations Centre situated at this address.
Website: www.mpa.gov.sg
LIMITING CONDITIONS
Controlling depths in principal fairways
Charts 4038, 4040, 4041
8.22
1
Controlling depths are given in the following table:
Fairway or Channel Controlling depths
Channel to Tuas Jetty 6⋅9 m
Temasek Fairway 15⋅2 m
West Jurong Channel 12⋅1 m
2
Sinki Fairway − Inwards
(via Selat Sinki)
(to Pulau Busing)
18⋅1 m
Sinki Fairway − Inwards
(via Selat Sinki)
(Pulau Busing to Cyrene Beacon)
16⋅0 m
Sinki Fairway − Outwards
(via Selat Pandan)
14⋅9 m
East Jurong Channel 14⋅9 m
3
Southern Fairway 18⋅2 m− West bound
20⋅0 m − East bound
Jong Fairway 16⋅6 m
Sisters Fairway 13⋅3 m
West Keppel Fairway 14⋅5 m
Pasir Panjang Fairway 10⋅6 m
4
East Keppel Fairway 15⋅2 m−deep channel
13⋅5 m − western side
Corridor 19⋅8 m
Eastern Fairway 15⋅6 m − NE side
12⋅3 m − SW side
Principal berths
8.23
1
References to the deepest berths and controlling depths
may be found at the following locations:
Wharf or berth Remarks
Pasir Panjang Wharves
(1°17′N 103°47′E) (8.310)
Conventional cargo terminal
Wharf or berth Remarks
Pasir Panjang Terminal
(1°17′N 103°46′E) (8.311)
Container terminal
2
Cruise Centre (1°16′N 103°49′E) (8.312)
Cruise terminal regional
ferry terminal
Keppel Terminal
(1°16′N 103°50′E) (8.313)
Container terminal; K23
is a bulk cement berth
Tanjong Pagar Terminal
(1°16′N,103°51′E) (8.314)
Container terminal; T3 is
also a Ro−Ro Terminal
3
Brani Terminal (1°16′N 103°50′E) (8.316)
Container terminal
Jurong Terminal (1°18′N 103°43′E) (8.317)
General cargo, bulk,
cement and multipurpose
cargoes
ExxonMobil (Jurong)
(1°17′⋅9N 103°41′⋅4E) (8.321)
Oil terminals
Esso Terminal−Pesek Basin
(1°17′N 103°42′E) (8.324)
Oil terminal
4
Singapore Refining
(Jurong Island)
(1°18′N 103°42′E) (8.323)
Crude oil terminals
Seraya Oiltanking
(1°17′N 103°44′E) (8.327)
Oil terminal
Gatx Terminal (Jurong)
(1°18′N 103°44′E) (8.328)
Crude oil terminal
Caltex Asia (Jurong)
(1°18′N 103°45′E) (8.329)
Crude oil terminal
5
Shell Tanker Jetty (1°18′N 103°45′E) (8.330)
Oil terminal
Seraya Chemicals
(1°16′N 103°44′E) (8.340)
Petrochemical terminal
Sakra Basin Chemicals
(1°16°N 103°43′E) (8.341)
Petrochemical terminals
Vopak Terminals
(Jurong Island)
(1°15′N 103°43′E) (8.342)
Chemical terminals
6
SembCorp Utilities Terminal
(1°15′⋅2N 103°42′⋅3E) (8.343)
Chemical terminal
Chevron Chemicals
(Jurong Island)
(1°15′N 103°42′E) (8.344)
Chemical terminal
Pulau Busing (1°14′N 103°45′E) (8.335)
Deep water oil terminals
7
Pulau Bukom
(1°14′N 103°46′E) (8.336)
Oil terminals
Pulau Sebarok
(1°12′⋅4N 103°47′⋅7E) (8.337)
Deep water oil terminals
Shell SBM
(1°11′⋅5N 103°47′⋅4E) (8.185)
VLCC mooring point
8
For the maximum size of vessels that may be
accommodated at the main oil and petrochemical berths
see 8.38.
Limiting height restrictions
Cruise Bay
8.24
1
A height restriction area exists in Cruise Bay. The safe
vertical clearance of the aerial cableway (1°16′N 103°49′E)
(8.247) crossing the main channel of the bay is 52 m. The
CHAPTER 8
245
actual clearance is 56 m. The bay is prohibited to vessels
having a height of over 52 m; vessels in excess of 48 m
but not higher than 52 m must obtain permission from the
Port Master (8.40) to enter, remain in or move from
the area.
Bridges
8.25
1
Safe vertical clearances of limiting bridges are as
follows:
Bridge Safe clearance (Actual)
Sungei Jurong
(1°19′N 103°44′E)
7⋅3 (9⋅2) m
Marina Bay
(Benjamin Sheares Bridge) (1°17′N 103°52′E)
9⋅0 (10⋅0) m in both W and
E−going channels
Kallang Basin
(Benjamin Sheares Bridge) (1°18′N 103°49′E)
26 (28) m in the main
channel
2
For vertical clearances of Singapore River bridges see
8.292.
Obstruction Lights for Aircraft Safety
8.26
1
Vessels with heights (above the water) in excess of
75 m, when anchored, moored or berthed in Singapore
waters, should exhibit at their highest point, low intensity
fixed red lights, the intensity to be such that they are
conspicuous against the general background illumination of
the location; if in the W sector vessels should advise
Republic of Singapore Air Force Air Operation Centre via
the Port Master.
Chart 4043
Area south and east of Changi Airport
8.27
1
Vessels over 15 m in height are not permitted to enter,
transit or anchor in a restricted area lying adjacent to the
shore S and E of Changi Airport (1°22′N 103°59′E).
This area includes Eastern Special Purposes
Anchorage B (AESPB) and Eastern Special Purposes
Anchorage D (AESPD) as indicated on the chart.
2
Vessels over 49 m in height are not permitted to enter,
transit or anchor in a restricted area lying S of Changi
Airport and adjacent to the 15 m limit.
This area includes Eastern Petroleum Anchorage B
(AEPB), Eastern Special Purposes Anchorage A (AESPA)
and Eastern Bunkering Anchorage B (AEBB) as indicated
on the chart, see also chart 5502.
3
Whilst at anchor in these areas a vessel’s height must
not be changed to exceed the maximum perishable height.
Vessels over 100 m in height which intend to enter,
leave or move in waters S or E of Changi Airport must
advise the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) at
least 3 days in advance, see note on chart 5502.
Chart 4040
Southern Islands Live Firing Area (SILFA)
8.28
1
In Sudong Explosives Anchorage (ASUEX) (8.54) a
height restriction of 47 m applies, and all vessels should
keep at least 600 m from SILFA as noted on the chart.
Vessels proceeding to Sudong Bunkering Anchorages
(ASUBA and ASUBB) must keep outside SILFA.
Prohibited areas
Charts 4030, 4031, 4032, 4033, 4035, 4040, 4041, 3833
Western Sector
8.29
1
Prohibited areas, the limits of which are shown on the
charts, have been established in the waters surrounding the
following islands or areas:
Jurong Island (1°16′N 103°42′E);
Pulau Bukom, Pulau Bukom Kechil, Pulau Ular and
Pulau Busing (1°14′N 103°46′E);
2
Pulau Satamu within 300 m of Raffles Lighthouse
(1°09′⋅6N 103°44′⋅4E) but outside the limits of the
live firing area (8.28), the S of the area being
marked by Satumu Light−buoy (special).
Pulau Sebarok (1°12′⋅4N 103°47′⋅7E) and extending
SW to within 650 m of Shell SBM.
3
All vessels are prohibited from entering, transiting,
anchoring or mooring within these areas unless specific
permission has been obtained from the Port Master (8.40).
Chart 4033
Tuas Bay
8.30
1
An area (1°17′N 103°40′E) on the SE side of Tuas Bay
is a prohibited area. Vessels using Tuas Approach Channel
should not enter or anchor within its limits, as shown on
the chart, without the permission of the Port Master (8.40).
Chart 4037
Selat Sengkir
8.31
1
The E part of Selat Sengkir (1°15′N 103°50′E), on the S
side of Pulau Brani, is a prohibited area. No passage may
be made without the permission of the Port Master.
Cooper Channel
8.32
1
The channel between Pulau Sakijang Bendera (1°13′N
103°51′E) and Pulau Sakijang Pelepah, close E is
prohibited to all vessels. See 8.232.
Charts 4038, 4040
Tuas Jetty
8.33
1
See 8.86.
Chart 4043
Changi Naval Base
8.34
1
Changi Naval Base (1°19′N 104°01′E) is a prohibited
area, as shown on the chart; no vessels of any description
except those authorized by the Commander, Republic of
Singapore Navy, shall use the area for passage, anchorage
or for other purposes.
Depths within the base have been dredged to 15 m.
CHAPTER 8
246
Tidal levels and density of water
Charts 4040, 4037
Tidal levels
8.35
1
Tidal levels referred to the Datum of Soundings are
shown on the charts, but for informative purposes heights
in metres above chart datum are given for the following
places:
2
Place MHWS MHWN MLWN MLWS
Tanjong Pagar
(1°16′N 103°51′E)
2⋅8 2⋅2 1⋅2 0⋅5
Pulau Bukom
(1°14′N 103°46′E)
2⋅8 2⋅1 1⋅2 0⋅5
Tuas Bay (1°17′N 103°40′E)
3⋅0 2⋅2 1⋅2 0⋅4
Density of water
8.36
1
The density of the water within the limits of Port of
Singapore is usually between 1⋅019 and 1⋅022 g/cm. It is
unaffected by tide and temperature variations.
Variations can occur however, due to periods of heavy
run−off from rain.
Maximum size of vessels handled
Charts 4040, 4041
General and bulk cargo wharves
8.37
1
For alongside maximum lengths and depths, or
maximum draughts if known, see 8.310 to 8.319.
Container vessels up to 7000 TEUs.
2
Maximum size of vessel at Jurong Terminal: up to about
150 000 dwt having a draught of 13⋅0 m.
In 2002, Singapore Cruise Centre handled a vessel of
109 000 gt alongside the terminal.
Oil/petrochemical terminals
8.38
1
ExxonMobil (Jurong) (8.321): 150 000 dwt, having a
draught of up to 13⋅7 m.
Exxon Chemical Jetty (Banyan Basin) (8.345):
22 300 dwt having a length of 155 m and draught of 9⋅2 m.
Esso (Pesek Basin) (8.324): up to 90 000 dwt, having a
length of 270 m and draught of up to 14⋅0 m.
GATX (Jurong) (8.328): 85 000 dwt and draught of up
to 14⋅0 m.
2
Caltex Singapore (Jurong) (8.329): up to 100 000 dwt
with a draught of 13⋅0 m.
Shell Jetty (Jurong) (8.330): 50 000 dwt, having a
length of 205 m and draught 10⋅0 m.
Seraya Oiltanking (Jurong Island) (8.327): up to
200 000 dwt, draught 15⋅0 m.
Seraya Chemical Terminal (8.340): up to 50 000 dwt,
having a length of 216 m and draught of 12⋅0 m.
3
Sakra Basin (8.341): up to 40 000 dwt, draught 10⋅0 m.
Vopak Terminals (Oil berths) (8.338): at Pulau Sebarok
up to 150 000 dwt, draught 16⋅0 m.
Vopak Terminals (Chemical berths) (8.342): on Jurong
Island up to 40 000 dwt, draught 13⋅0 m.
Chevron Terminal (Jurong Island) (8.344): up to
50 000 dwt, draught 13⋅0 m.
4
Pulau Busing (8.335): up to 225 000 dwt, having a
draught of up to 16⋅5 m.
Pulau Bukom (8.336): 135 000 dwt having a length of
245 m and draught of up to 14⋅6 m.
Pulau Sebarok (8.337): 150 000 dwt, having a length of
up to 350 m and a draught of up to 16⋅5 m.
Shell SBM (8.185): vessels up to 359 000 dwt and
draught of up to 22⋅0 m.
Local weather
8.39
1
For local weather see 7.28.
For radio weather reports, see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volumes 3 (2) and 6 (4).
ARRIVAL INFORMATION
Port operations
Charts 4040, 4041, 4043
General
8.40
1
The Singapore Port Operations Service, Port Master, is
divided into six sectors, namely Timor, Keppel, Cruise Bay,
West Jurong, East Jurong and East Johor Strait. each with a
sector control station. For more information of these and
others services of Port Operations, including VHF details,
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
8.41
1
Port radio. The main port radio service is operated
from the port operations centre situated between Keppel
Terminal complex and the Tanjong Pagar complex (1°16′N
103°51′E) with subsidiary stations at Jurong Port (Jurong
Control) and the E part of Johor Strait (Sembawang
Control).
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
2
Coast radio station. A coast radio station is also
operated from the Tanjong Pagar Complex previously
mentioned.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1 (2).
Vessel Traffic Information Service
8.42
1
The Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) maintains a
Vessel Traffic Information Service (VTIS), with radar
surveillance, which is part of the mandatory Malacca and
Singapore Straits Ship Reporting System (STRAITREP)
(2.23) in order to:
2
Improve safety of navigation in Singapore Strait;
Facilitate safety of vessel traffic inward−bound and
outward−bound of Singapore;
Provide navigational information to vessels using
Singapore Strait;
Protect the marine environment.
3
Participation in the scheme is mandatory for all vessels
and tows of 300 gt and/or 50 m in length or more, and all
passenger vessels, intending to enter or depart from Port of
Singapore.
Reporting positions are shown on the charts.
For further details, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4) and chart 5502.
8.43
1
The three port sector areas of the VTIS system are:
VTIS West (STRAITREP Sector 7) − A line joining
Tanjung Piai (1°16′N 103°31′E) with Pulau
Karimun Kecil, 9½ miles SE, to Longitude
103°44′⋅5E;
CHAPTER 8
247
VTIS Central (STRAITREP Sector 8) − Longitude
103°44′⋅5E to Longitude 104°02′⋅1E;
2
VTIS East (STRAITREP Sector 9) − Longitude
104°02′⋅1E to Longitude 104°23′⋅0E, off Horsburgh
Light (7.128).
For further details, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Arrival procedures
Notice of ETA
8.44
1
Passenger vessels, and other vessels of 300 gt or more,
should send their arrival report to the Port Master, Port
Operations, at least 12 hours before arrival. For full details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
8.45
1
Immigration clearance − 6 hours minimum notice
required, for further details see 8.73.
Subsequent movement reports
8.46
1
Vessels of 300 gt of over should send the following
subsequent movement reports:
Clearance report to the appropriate Sector Control
Station when arriving from sea before entering the
port, or before departure from a berth or
anchorage;
2
Underway reports shall be sent when entering the
fairway or passing a reporting position to Port
Operations East when E of 103°51′⋅1E or to the
Port Operations West when W of 103°51′⋅1E;
Arrival report to the appropriate Sector Control
Station after arrival at a berth or anchorage from
sea or another port location.
3
Sector reports are required prior to entering, shifting
within, or departure from the West Jurong, the
Sinki and the Cyrene Sectors.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4), and for reporting positions also see charts.
Defective radio
8.47
1
If for any reason the VHF/radio equipment of a vessel is
or becomes defective, the Master is required to restore it or
cause it to be restored at the earliest practicable time.
While the VHF/radio equipment is defective, the reports
required as detailed at 8.46 are to be sent as soon as
practicable by any means possible.
Departure procedures
8.48
1
Vessel’s information departing from Singapore is
automatically sent to VTIS by Port Operations (8.40) and
no further reporting to VTIS is required.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorages
General information
8.49
1
Vessels from E may also make use of appropriate
anchorages in the Western Sector and vessels from W may
also use anchorages in the Eastern Sector. In all cases they
should first obtain their Health and/or Immigration
Clearances at the appropriate anchorage.
8.50
1
Anchorages are listed from 8.52 to 8.56 and they are
divided into Western, Jurong, Sudong and Eastern Sectors.
Restricted anchorages are marked with an asterisk*;
see 8.58.
Except in an emergency, vessels should not anchor in an
area outside of their appropriate designated anchorage.
Vessels are not to anchor in the approaches to Port of
Singapore without the permission of the Port Master.
8.51
1
Special anchorage schemes. Anchorage under the
bunkering, storing and crew change schemes, which attract
reduced port charges, is available in those anchorages in
Eastern Sector marked by a double asterisk**.
2
The maximum stay in these anchorages is 24 hours for
bunkering or 8 hours for storing and crew change. The
schemes are only applicable to vessels over 20 000 gt and
do not apply to LPG and LNG vessels; vessels must not
work cargo. Vessels proceeding to the designated
anchorages are exempt from compulsory pilotage, see 8.61.
Anchorages will be designated by the VTIS, see 8.42.
Charts 4038, 4040
Western Sector
8.52
1
The limits of the following anchorages are shown on the
charts.
Western Anchorage (AWW):
Centred on 1°14′N 103°49′E. For general purposes
(other than non−gas free tankers, gas and chemical
tankers) such as receiving stores, water, bunkers or
awaiting a berth in W sector of port. Depths 15 to
34 m. A wreck with a depth of 25⋅7 m lies in the
SE part close to the E boundary, and depth of
29⋅9 m, foul, 5¾ cables NNW.
2
Western Petroleum Anchorage A (AWPA):
Centred on 1°14′⋅7N 103°47′5E. For vessels of
10 000 gt or less loaded with petroleum and non
gas−free vessels. Depths 15 to 33 m.
3
Western Petroleum Anchorage B (AWPB):
Centred on 1°13′⋅7N 103°48′⋅3E. For vessels greater
than 10 000 gt loaded with petroleum and non
gas−free vessels, and oil tankers requiring
immigration clearance. Depths 15 to 22 m. A
wreck with a depth of 19⋅4 m lies close to the SE
boundary. Tankers greater than 50 000 gt are to use
Eastern Petroleum A Anchorage (AEPA) (8.56).
4
Western Quarantine and Immigration Anchorage
(AWQI):
Centred on 1°13′⋅1N 103°49′⋅4E. Vessels requiring
quarantine and immigration clearance. Depths 10
to 32 m.
Pasir Panjang Holding Anchorage (APPH):
Centred on 1°16′⋅0N 103°46′⋅9E. For vessels as
directed by Port Master. Depths 8 to 20 m.
5
Selat Pauh Anchorage (ASPLU)*:
Centred on 1°13′N 103°44′E. For vessels under arrest,
laid−up vessels, or other vessels with prior
permission of the Port Master. Depths 10 to 26 m.
6
Raffles Reserved Anchorage (ARAFR):
Centred on 1°11′⋅5N 103°45′⋅0E. For LASH Ship
operations, vessels requiring emergency repairs and
damaged vessels or as directed by the Port Master.
Depths 11 to 23 m.
CHAPTER 8
248
Jurong Sector
8.53
1
Tuas Petroleum Holding Anchorage (ATPH):
Centred on 1°15′⋅0N 103°37′⋅6E. Used for tankers
waiting to service vessels at anchorages, or
awaiting a berth in Jurong Sector, or as directed by
Port Master. Depths 12 to 22 m.
West Jurong Anchorage (AWJ):
2
Centred on 1°14′⋅6N 103°38′⋅2E. General anchorage
(for vessels other than non−gas free gas and
chemicals tankers), vessels receiving stores, water
or bunkers, under repair or awaiting berth; also for
immigration clearance for tugs and barges. Depths
6 to 25 m. A wreck, depth 19⋅2 m, lies 1 cable
inside the S limit, and a 18⋅9 m foul patch lies in
the middle of the anchorage. Sultan Shoal (8.94),
and a surrounding bank with depth less than 10 m,
lies on the boundary with ALGAS (below).
3
LNG/LPG/Chemical Gas Carrier Anchorage
(ALGAS):
Centred on 1°13′⋅7N 103°38′⋅5E, and marked on its
SE and NW corners by SCE−1A and
SCE−2 Light−buoys (special). For non−gas free gas
and chemicals tankers, and for such vessels and oil
tankers awaiting quarantine clearance. Depths 10 to
23 m; a wreck with a depth of 10⋅7 m lies
1½ cables within the E limit.
4
VLCC Anchorage (AVLCC):
Centred on 1°13′⋅0N 103°39′⋅0E. For loaded VLCCs.
Depths 20 to 32 m.
Sudong Sector
8.54
1
Sudong Holding Anchorage (ASH):
Centred on 1°12′⋅0N 103°40′⋅2E. A temporary
anchorage with prior permission of the Port
Master. Depth 23 m; a wreck with 21⋅1 m of water
lies close inside the E boundary.
2
Sudong Bunkering Anchorage A (ASUBA):
Centred on 1°11′⋅8N 103°40′⋅8E. For vessels taking
bunkers. Depths 22 to 25 m.
3
Sudong Special Purpose Anchorage (ASSPU):
Centred on 1°11′⋅4N 103°41′⋅6E. For VLCCs over
75 000 gt requiring immigration clearance, or
vessels directed by the Port Master. Depths 22 to
26 m.
4
Sudong Explosives Anchorage (ASUEX)*:
Centred on 1°10′⋅8N 103°42′⋅2E. For vessels and
small craft loading or discharging explosives and
IMO Class 1 dangerous goods, or vessels in transit
with such cargo. Depths 20 to 33 m. A height
restriction of 47 m applies and vessels should keep
at least 600 m from Southern Islands Live Firing
Area, see 8.28.
5
Sudong Bunkering Anchorage B (ASUBB):
Centred on 1°10′⋅3N 103°42′⋅8E. For vessels taking
bunkers. Depth 19 to 44 m.
Caution. For directions to Sudong Bunkering
Anchorage A (ASUBA) and Sudong Bunkering
Anchorage B (ASUBB) see 8.16.
Charts 4041, 4043
Eastern Sector
8.55
1
Good anchorage may be obtained in Singapore Eastern
Working Anchorage which collectively includes the
anchorages directly E of Keppel Harbour and those NE of
Eastern Fairway. Heavy squalls during the SW monsoon
occasionally impede vessels bunkering or taking stores.
Ferry services operate in the channels between and to
seaward of the anchorages, see also notes on the charts.
The anchorages are as follows:
2
Eastern Anchorage (AEW):
Centred on 1°16′N 103°53′E. Large anchorage for
general purposes (other than non−gas free tankers,
gas and chemical tankers); vessels taking stores,
water or bunkers. Depths 5 to 24 m; there a
number of charted wrecks and foul areas within
anchorage. In the NW part extending 3 cables from
the shore lies an area, marked by light−buoys
(special), in which works are in progress (2004).
3
Eastern Holding Anchorage A (AEHA):
Centred on 1°15′⋅0N 103°55′⋅5E. For vessels as
directed by Port Master. Depths 46 to 53 m; a
wreck with a depth of 33 m, marked on its N side
by Mano 11a and ACW1 Light−buoys (isolated
danger), lies in the middle of the anchorage, and
wreck with a depth of 42 m lies on the SE
boundary.
4
Eastern Holding Anchorage B (AEHB):
Centred on 1°14′⋅5N 103°53′⋅4E. For vessels as
directed by Port Master. Depths 20 to 41 m. A
wreck with a depth of 10⋅2 m lies close W of
Sirdhana Light−buoy (starboard hand) which marks
the W limit of the area.
Eastern Holding Anchorage C (AEHC):
Centred on 1°15′⋅0N 103°52′⋅0E. For port tankers
which are waiting to service vessels within Keppel
Harbour. Depth 5 m.
5
Eastern Explosives Lighters Anchorage (AEEL):
Centred on 1°17′⋅1N 103°53′⋅7E. For small vessels
loaded with explosives. A wreck with depth of
7⋅3 m lies in the W part..
8.56
1
Small Craft Anchorage (ASC):
Centred on 1°17′N 103°55′E. For harbour tugs,
pontoons, barges and other small craft including
fishing vessels. Depths 15 to 22 m; a wreck with a
depth of 19⋅2 m lies SE of the centre of the area.
Laid−up Vessels Anchorage (AELUV):
Centred on 1°17′⋅0N 103°55′⋅8E. For vessels laid−up
in port. Depths 16 to 30 m.
2
Eastern Petroleum Anchorage A (AEPA):
Centred on 1°15′⋅4N 103°54′⋅9E. For vessels loaded
with petroleum and non gas−free vessels. Depths
21 to 56 m; a wreck with a depth of 37 m lies in
the centre of the area, and a wreck and two
obstructions, depths 21⋅8 to 27⋅3 m, lie in or near
the N corner of the area.
3
Eastern Petroleum Anchorage B (AEPB)*:
Centred on 1°17′⋅7⋅0N 103°57′⋅5E. For vessels loaded
with petroleum and non gas−free vessels. Depths
16 to 31⋅0 m; a height restriction of 49 m applies
in this anchorage, see 8.27.
4
Eastern Special Purposes Anchorage A (AESPA)*:
Centred on 1°16′⋅8N 103°57′⋅2E. For vessels under
arrest, damaged vessels, deep−draught vessels,
vessels requiring repairs and others with prior
permission of the Port Master. Depths 20 to 50 m;
a wreck, depth 34 m, and marked close S by a
light−buoy (isolated danger) lies in the centre of
the E part of the area; a height restriction of 49 m
applies in this anchorage, see 8.27.
CHAPTER 8
249
5
Eastern Special Purposes B Anchorage (AESPB)*:
Centred on 1°18′⋅0N 103°58′⋅0E. For vessels under
arrest, damaged or requiring repairs and others
with prior permission of the Port Master. Depths
11 m to 27 m; a height restriction of 15 m applies
in this anchorage, see 8.27.
Eastern Special Purposes Anchorage D (AESPD)*:
Centred on 1°17′⋅9N 104°59′⋅7E. For vessels under
arrest, damaged or requiring repairs and others
with prior permission of the Port Master. Depths
20 to 35 m.
6
Eastern Bunkering Anchorage A (AEBA)**:
Centred on 1°18′⋅0N 104°04′⋅2E. Consisting of eight
areas. Vessels taking bunkers under the “special
bunkering anchorage scheme”, and vessels with
prior permission of Port Master. Depths 16 to
32 m.
7
Eastern Bunkering Anchorage B (AEBB)* **:
Centred on 1°17′⋅2N 104°00′⋅0E. Consisting of six
areas. Vessels taking bunkers under the “special
bunkering anchorage scheme”, and vessels with
prior permission of Port Master. Depths 29 to
40 m; a height restriction of 49 m applies in this
anchorage, see 8.27.
8
Eastern Bunkering Anchorage C):
Centred on 1°16′⋅4N 103°57′⋅0E. Consisting of two
areas. Vessels taking bunkers under the “special
bunkering anchorage scheme”, and vessels with
prior permission of Port Master. Depths 32 to
51 m.
9
Man−of−War Anchorage (AMOW):
Centred on 1°18′⋅6N 104°04′⋅0E. For visiting
warships. Depths 14 to 17