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NP 43 South and East Coast of Korea, East Coast of Siberia and Sea of Okhotsk Pilot 7ed 2005

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NP 43
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notice to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.
Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user with these amendments.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2005 2006 2007 2008
IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS
This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of
Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:
Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s
Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),
Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.
All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
NP 43
SOUTH AND EAST
COASTS OF KOREA,
EAST COAST OF SIBERIA
AND
SEA OF OKHOTSK
PILOT
Cheju Do and the coast from the south−west point of Korea to the south point
of Kamchatka including Ostrov Sakhalin
SEVENTH EDITION
2005
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
ii
Crown Copyright 2005
To be obtained from Agents
for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright for some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner.
Previous editions:
First published 1913. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd Edition 1927. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd Edition 1937. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th Edition 1952. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5th Edition 1966. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6th Edition 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
PREFACE
The Seventh Edition of South and East Coasts of Korea, East Coast of Siberia and Sea of Okhotsk Pilot has been prepared by
M Lambourne and P C McManaway, Master Mariner. The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to
ensure that this Pilot contains all the appropriate information obtained by and assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or
assessed after that date will be included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners where appropriate. If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for
details of what Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them.
This edition supersedes the Sixth Edition (1983) and Supplement No 8 (2003), which are cancelled.
Information on currents has been based on data supplied by the Met Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
Korea
East Coast of Korea Pilot Publication No. 110 2003
South Coast of Korea Pilot Publication No. 120 2003
Russian Federation
No. 1402 Pilot of Tatarskiy Proliv, Amurskiy Liman and Proliv Laperuza 2003
No. 1407 Okhotsk Sea Pilot 1999
No. 4401 Ports of the Pacific Ocean 1997
No. 4440 Russian Regulated Areas
No. 4441 Trial Courses and Calibration Areas of the Pacific Coast of the Russian Federation 1998
Other publications
Lloyds Register Fairplay Ports and Terminals Guide 2005−2006
Lloyds List Ports of the World 2005
The Statesman’s Yearbook 2005
Whitaker’s Almanack 2005
Dr D W Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
12th May 2005
iv
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations viii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea ice terms and Russian equivalents xii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table for transliteration of Russian geographical names xiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlets facing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.9) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts and orthography (1.21) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aids to navigation (1.25) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Berthing (1.29) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.30) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.31) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.44) 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.64) 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.78) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
Korea (South) (1.84) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Korea (North) (1.93) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Russian Federation (1.101) 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.114) 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services — summary (1.115) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.119) 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local magnetic anomalies (1.123) 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents, tidal streams and flow (1.124) 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea level and tides (1.131) 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.133) 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.136) 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice conditions (1.140) 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.152) 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climatic tables (1.173) 50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.197) 75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
South coast of Korea — Haenamgak to Habaekto and Sori Do including outlying islands and Cheju Do 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
South coast of Korea — Habaekto and Sori Do to Kodu Mal 117. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
East coast of Korea — Kodu Mal to Suwãn Dan including the off−lying island of Ullung Do 171. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
East coast of Korea — Suwãn Dan to Tumen River 203. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 6
Russian Federation — Tumen River to Mys Yelagina 231. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS
v
CHAPTER 7
Russian Federation — Mys Yelagina to Mys Belkina 253. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 8
Gulf of Tartary — west coast 279. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 9
Gulf of Tartary — east coast 299. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
Proliv Tatarskiy — Reka Amur and estuary − Sakhalinskiy Zaliv 317. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 11
South part of Sea of Okhotsk — east and north coasts of Ostrov Sakhalin 335. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 12
Sea of Okhotsk — north−west part 351. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 13
Sea of Okhotsk — west coast of Poluostrov Kamchatka including Penzhinskiy Zaliv 377. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES AND INDEX
Appendix I — Korea — Mines, firing and bombing areas 394. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II − Russian Federation — Regulated Areas 400. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 428. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 gt or more. They amplify charted detail and contain information
needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended to be read in
conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published quarterly. Those still in force at the end
of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,
the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Admiralty Maritime Communications is a comprehensive guide on all aspects of maritime communications for the yachtsman and small
craft user. It provides general information on Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), the management of VHF, Maritime
Safety Information, NAVTEX, Inmarsat and Radio Facsimile, and detailed information and procedures for marinas and harbours used by
small craft.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
vii
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Submarine exercise areas are mentioned in Sailing Directions. Other firing, practice and exercise
areas maybe mentioned with limited details. Signals and buoys used in connection with these areas maybe mentioned if significant for
navigation. Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the structure above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
viii
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text:
AIS Automatic Indentification System
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
°C degrees Celsius
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DF direction finding
DG degaussing
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
DW Deep Water
DSC Digital Selective Calling
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
E east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost)
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
ENE east-north-east
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
ESE east-south-east
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
EU European Union
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FPU Floating production unit
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
ft foot (feet)
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GPS Global Positioning System
GRP glass reinforced plastic
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HF high frequency
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
HSC High Speed Craft
HW High Water
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
JRCC Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LF low frequency
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LMT Local Mean Time
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length overall
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LW Low Water
m metre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
MF medium frequency
MHz megahertz
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
mm millimetre(s)
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
MSI Marine Safety Information
MSL Mean Sea Level
MV Motor Vessel
MW megawatt(s)
MY Motor Yacht
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Navtex Navigational Telex System
NE north-east
NNE north-north-east
NNW north-north-west
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
NW north-west
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
ABBREVIATIONS
ix
PEL Port Entry Light
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
RCC Rescue Co−ordination Centre
RMS Royal Mail Ship
RN Royal Navy
Ro-Ro Roll−on, Roll-off
RT radio telephony
S south (southerly, southward, southern,
southernmost)
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SAR Search and Rescue
Satnav Satellite navigation
SBM Single buoy mooring
SE south-east
SPM Single point mooring
sq square
SS Steamship
SSE south-south-east
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
UHF ultra high frequency
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
UN United Nations
UT Universal Time
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VHF very high frequency
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
W west (westerly, westward, western,
westernmost)
WGS World Geodetic System
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WNW west-north-west
WSW west-south-west
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
x
GLOSSARY
Korean (K) and Russian (R) terms and words found on charts and in the Sailing Directions
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaning
a K mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . am K rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amso K rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an K cliff, shore, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ap K cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bagji K anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baklysh R above−water rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bando K peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banka R shoal, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bar R bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bashnya R tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . basseyn R basin, wet dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bel−yy−aya−oye R white. . . . . . . . . bereg R coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bi K cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bol’sh−oy−oya−aye R great, large. . . . . . bong K mountain peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bryuga R pier, landing stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bu K city, municipality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . budo K quay, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bug K north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bugdo K north province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bugor R hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bukhta R bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burun R breaker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buy R buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cham K village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chedo K see jedo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cheon K river, stream, villa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cheontau K shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cheontoe K shoal bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chern−yy−aya−oye R black. . . . . . . chihyeos K isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chijindu K see jijindu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chin K see jin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cho K islet, reef, bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cholloe K shoals, shallows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chong K see jong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chu K see ju. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chwi K point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dae K mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . damba R jetty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dan K cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dang K temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . derevnya R village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dlinn−yy−aya−oye R long. . . . . . . do K island, islands, province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dok R dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dolina R valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dom R house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dong K village, settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doroga R road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . du K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dyuny R dunes, sandhills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eapreshchennaya R prohibited. . . . . . . . farvater R channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gab K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gal’ka R shingle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gang K river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gavan R harbour, haven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . geunhae K coastal waters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gag K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gi K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glina R clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glubok−iy−aya−oye R deep. . . . . . god K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gora R mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gorod R city, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . greben, gryada R ridge. . . . . . . . . . gu K entrance approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . guba R gulf, bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gun K county. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gundo K archipelago, islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . guriy R cairn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gyo K bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ha K river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hae K gulf, sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haegak K headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haegu K estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . haehyop K strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hagu K estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hang K harbour, point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hyeoon K mountain, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilist−yy−aya−oye R muddy. . . . . . . . jedo K island, group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jihyeob K isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jijindu K headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jin K ferry, fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jong K town, sandy spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ju K sandbar, shallows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kabyel’ R cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kak K see gag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kamen’ R rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kanal R channel, canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kang K see gang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kekur R pillar rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kholm R hill, hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khrebet R ridge, chain of hills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khryashch R pebbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ki K se gi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kolokol R bell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . korga R rocky shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kosa R spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kot K see god. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kovsh R cove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krasn−yy−aya−oye R red. . . . . . . krut−oy−aya−oye R steep. . . . . . . . kryazh R chain of mountains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ku K see gu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kun K see gun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kundo K see gundoe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kunhae K see geunhae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kust svay R dolphin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . kyo K see gyo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laguna R lagoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lëd R ice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lednik R glacier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . li K see ri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liman R estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lotsmanskaya R pilot. . . . . . . . . . . luda, ludka R small rocky islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . lyeong K mountain, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mal K point, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . man K bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . matchta R mast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xi
mal−yy−aya−oye R little, small. . . . . . . . materik R mainland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mel’ R shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . melk−iy−aya−oye R shallow. . . . . . . . mi K spit, tail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol R mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . more R sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . most R bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . myoji K anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . myon K township. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mys R cape, point, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nabyerezhnaya R quay. . . . . . . . . . naehang K inner harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nam K south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . namdo K south province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nasyp R embankment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . navolok R cape, point, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ni K see ri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nizhn−iy−yaya−eye R lower. . . . . . nizk−iy−aya−oye R low, flat. . . . . . . . noe K reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nos R head, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no−yy−aya−oye R new. . . . . . . . . ny K see ly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oblast’ R province. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . obryv R bluff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ogon’ R light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oreshek R shingle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ostrov R island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ostrovok R islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . osyp’ R landside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otlivnoe R ebb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . otmel’ R shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ozero R lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pakchi K see bagji. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pakhta R bluff, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pando K see bando. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parom R ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . perebor, perekat R bar. . . . . . . . . peredn−iy−yaya−eye R front. . . . . . peresheyek R isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . perv−yy−aya−oye R first. . . . . . . . peschan−yy−aya−oye R sandy. . . . . . pesok R sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pi K see bi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pik R peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pirs R jetty, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . plotina R dam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . po K harbour, cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poberezh’ye R coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . poluostrov R peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . pomor’ye R coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponae K inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pong K see bong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . port R port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poselok R village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prilivnoe R flood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prilivy i otlivy R tide. . . . . . . . . . pristan’ R pier, wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prokhod R passage, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . proliv R channel, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . protok R creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pu K see bu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pudo K see budo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puk K see bug. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pukto K see bugdo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rakusha R shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rechka R stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reka R river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reyd R roadstead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ri K village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rif R reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roe K see noe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rukav R arm (of sea), firth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ryeong K see lyeong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sa K marsh, flat, temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saju K sandbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . salma R strait, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . san K mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . satoe K heaped−up snadbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seleniye, selo R settlement, village. . . . . . . . . . . seo K island, rock, west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ser−yy−aya−oye R grey. . . . . . . . . severn−yy−aya−oye R north, northern. . . . . . shar R strait, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shlyue R lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sin−iy−aya−oye R blue. . . . . . . . . skala R rock, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sopka R hillock, mound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sredn−yy−yaya−eye R middle. . . . . . stamik R shoal, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stantsiya R station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . star−yy−yaya−oye R old. . . . . . . strelka R narrow spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sudo K strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sukhoy dok R dry dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . tae K see dae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tamozhnya R custom house. . . . . . . . . . . . . tan K see dan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tan K shoal, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tang K see dang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to K see do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . toe K heaped−up bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . toi K heaped−up bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tolst−yy−aya−oye R thick. . . . . . . . tonk−iy−aya−oye R thin. . . . . . . . tong K see dong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . topovye figury R topmark. . . . . . . . . . tret−iy−’ya−’ye R third. . . . . . . . . . tserkov R church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tu K see du. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tungdae K lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ust’ye R river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utes K crag, cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . verkhn−iy−aya−oye R upper. . . . . . vkhod R entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vnesh−iy−yaya−eye R outer. . . . . . vnutrenn−iy−yaya−eye R inner. . . voda R water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vodopad R waterfall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vorota R gap, gate, entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vostock R east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vtor−oy−aya−oye R second. . . . . . . . vysokiy mys R promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . yakornaya stoyanka R anchorage. . . . . . ye K rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yeo K rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yog K town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yeoldo K island chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yug R south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yuzhn−yy−aya−oye R southern. . . . . . zadn−iy−yaya−eye R rear. . . . . . . zaimka R settlement, farm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zaliv R gulf, bay, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zapad R west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zapadn−yy−aya−oye R western. . . . . . zastruga R long sandy drying shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zavod’ R cove, creek, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zelen−yy−aya−oye R green. . . . . . . zemlya R land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . znak R beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Sea Ice Terms and Russian Equivalents
English Russian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEVELOPMENT
Arctic pack mnogoletniy led or Arkticheskiy pak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bay−ice mnogoletniy led zalivov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice crystals/frazil crystals ledyanoy igly. . . . . . . . . . ice island ledyanoy dreyfuyushchi y ostrov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−rind temnyy nilas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−shelf shel’fovyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−slush ledyanoye salo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medium winter−ice serobelyy led (serobelyy melodik). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . new ice nachal’nyye vidy l’dov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pancakeice blinchatyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . polar ice polyarnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sludge shuga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . slush or sludge ledyandye salo i shuga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . snow slush snezhura. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thick winter−ice belyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . winter−ice zimniy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . young ice molodoy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . young polar ice dvukhletniy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORMS OF FAST ICE
anchor ice/grounded ice stoyak. . . . . . . . . . . bay−ice mnogoletniy led zalivov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fast−ice nepodvizhnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grounded hummock stamukha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . icefoot podoshva pripaya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pack−ice/drift−ice dreyfuyushchiy or plovuchiy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . polar fast−ice nepodvizhnyy polyarnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shore ice pripay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . winter fast−ice zimniy pripay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . young shore ice ledyanoy zabereg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSENESS
close pack−ice/drift−ice splochennyy led. . . . . . . . . . . open pack−ice/drift−ice razrezhdnnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . very close pack−ice/drift−ice ochen’ splochennyy led. . . . . . . very open pack−ice/drift−ice redkiy led. . . . . . . SIZE OF FLOES
bergy−bit krupnyy nesyak or oblomok aysberga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . big ice−floe bol’shiye ledyanyye polya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brash−ice ledyanaya kasha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . growler malyy nexyak or kusok aysberga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−cake melkobityy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−floe/floe ledyanyye polya i krupnyye i’diny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medium ice−floe malyye ledyanyye polya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small ice−cake kuski l’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small ice−floe krupnobityy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vast ice−floe obshirnyye ledyanyye polya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARRANGEMENT
bay/bight bukhta or zaliv vo l’du. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . belt poyasl’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−bar splochennaya kromka. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−edge kromka l’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−field/field of ice skopleniye dreyfuyushchego (plovuchego) l’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice limit granitsa arednogo raspostraneniya l’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . large ice−field/field of ice bol’shoye skopleniye dreyfuyushchego (plovuchego) l’da. . . . . . . . . medium ice−field/field of ice sredneye skopleniye dreyfuyushchego, (plovuchego) l’da. . . . . . . open ice−edge razrezhennaya kromka. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . patch pyatno l’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small ice−field/field of ice maloye skopleniye dreyfuyushchego 1’da. . . . . . . . . stream/strip/string polosa I’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tongue yazyk 1’da. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
English Russian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONSTRUCTION AND SURFACE FEATURES
bare ice bezsnezhnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hummock toros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hummocked ice torosistyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice breccia/ice mosaic smoroz. . . . . . . . . . . . level ice rovnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pressure ice/screw ice deformirovannyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . pressure ridge gryadatorosov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rafted ice nasloyennyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ram ledyanoy taran. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . snow−covered ice zasnezhnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . standing floe ropak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . weathered ice sglazhennyy polyarnyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPENINGS IN THE ICE
crack treshchina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lead/lane kanal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . open water chistaya voda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . polynya polynya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . polynya off the edge of shore ice zapripaynaya polynya. . . pool razved/e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shore lead progalina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shore polynya .pribrezhnaya polynya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tide crack prilivnaya treshchina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STAGES OF MELTING
brash−ice ledyanaya kasha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dried ice obsokhshiy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotten ice gniloy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . snow water on the ice/puddle snezhnitsy. . . . . . thaw holes protaliny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ICE OF LOCAL ORIGIN FOUND AT SEA
bergy−bit oblomok. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brash−ice ledyanaya kasha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . firn snow firn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glacier berg paramidalnyy aysberg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glacier ice gletchernyy led. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . glacier tongue lednikovyy yazyk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . growler .kusok aysberga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iceberg aysberg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice island ledyanoy dreyfuyushchiy ostrov. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−shelf shel’fovyy lednik. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tabular berg/barrier berg stoloobraznyy aysberg. . . . . . . . . . . SKY AND AIR INDICATIONS
frost smoke moroznoye pareniye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ice−blink ledovyy otblesk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . water−sky vodyanoye nebo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv
TABLE FOR THE TRANSLITERATION OF RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES
INCLUDING THE CYRILLIC MORSE CODE
Russian (properly “Great Russian”) is the principal Slavonic language using the Cyrillic alphabet, the latter being largely based on the
Greek, but including some letters of unknown, possibly Eastern, origin.
The rules for pronunciation and accent are so complicated, and contain so many exceptions, that it would be out of place to give them here.
For these and other reasons it has been decided, after full consideration, that Russian words will be spelt, not as they are pronounced, but as they
are written; in fact, a letter-for-letter transliteration has been adopted.
The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN), in agreement with the United States Board of Geographical Names (USBGN),
approved, on 19th May 1948, the use of the following table for the transliteration of Russian, which has the advantage over previous tables of
mechanical applicability.
Notes
1
Seldom initial except in words of non-Russian origin.
2
ye initially, after vowels (a, e, ë,, o, y, , , , ), and after , ; e elsewhere;
when written as ë in Russian, transliterate as yë or ë.
3
is sometimes written as ’ in Russian, but should always be transliterated as ”.
RUSSIAN Cyrillic Morse
Print Script Transliteration Code Symbol
”
2
3
4
4
5
6 7
7
8
9
9
11
8
11
4
OSTROV
SAKHALIN
G
u
l
f
o
f
T
a
r
t
a
r
y
Continued on Index 43(b)
Ostrov Monneron
H O K K A I D ¡
H O N S H U
R
U
S
S
I
A
K
Y
U
S
H
U
S
H
I
K
O
K
U
M
.
P
o
v
o
r
o
t
n
y
y
See Index NP43(b)
Musu Dan
Y8ngh÷ng Man
Sin’Po Hang
TONGJOSON MAN
Suw8n Dan
Kisamun Dan
UII
÷
ng Do
K O R E A
Pingjangmal
NP 42A
JAPAN PILOT VOL ll
NP 42A
JAPAN PILOT VOL ll
NP 42B J
A
P
A
N
P
I
L
O
T
V
O
L
l
l
I
J
A
P
A
N
P
IL
O
T
V
O
L
l
N
P
4
1
South & East Coasts of Korea, East Coast of Siberia, and Sea of Okhotsk Pilot.
NP 43(a)
Longitude East from Greenwich
Chapter Index Diagram
Mys Belkina
N
a
k
s
a
n
M
a
n
Yongch’u Gap
P’ohang
Pusan
SEE CHINA SEA
PILOT VOL III
(NP 32)
1230
3340
1801
2432
885
882
127
3666
3365
3480
2293
2347
2347
2293
0405
4511
4509
4509
4511
35° 35°
40° 40°
45° 45°
50°
50°
125°
125°
130°
130°
135°
135°
140°
140°
145°
145°
xv
R U S S I A
R U S S I A
V
ladivostok
Z
a
l
i
v
S
t
r
e
l
o
k
Z
A
L
V
I
P
E
T
R
A
V
E
L
I
K
O
G
O
Zaliv
U
ssuriyskiy
Ostrov
Askol'd
O
s
tr
o
v
R
ik
o
rd
a
See Index NP 43(a)
H
w
a
D
a
n
Naksan Man
Najin Man
Z
a
l
i
v
V
s
o
t
o
k
P
ro
liv
B
o
s
fo
r
V
o
s
to
c
h
n
y
y
Z
a
l
i
v
N
a
k
h
o
d
k
a
M
y
s
P
o
v
o
r
o
t
n
y
y
6
6
13
13
12
12
12
11
10
9
8
11
13
5
7
7
Penzhinskiy Zaliv
Proliv Tatarskiy
Ostrov Iony.
O
k
ty
a
b
r
's
k
iy
S E A
O F O K H O T S K
SEE
BERING SEA AND
STRAIT PILOT
(NP 23)
SEE
PACIFIC ISLANDS PILOT
VOL III
(NP 62)
SEE JAPAN PILOT VOL I
(NP 41)
OSTROV
SAKHALIN
G
u
l
f
o
f
T
a
r
t
a
r
y
135°
135°
131°
131°
132
132°
133°
133°
42°42°
43°43°
130°
130°
140°
145°
145°
150
Longitude ° East from Greenwich
Longitude ° East from Greenwich
150° 155°
160°
160°
165°
165°
50°50°
55°55°
60°60°
South & East Coasts of Korea, East Coast of Siberia, and Sea of Okhotsk Pilot
NP 43(b)
Continued on Index 43(a)
See Index NP 43(a)
C
h
o
s
a
n
M
a
n
Zaliv Amurskiy POLUOSTROV
KAMCHATKA
4512
4512
4511
3041
3046
3045
3044
884
2432
2432
4509
5554
3340
1230
2128
1230
0405
Chapter Index Diagram
xvi
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its
hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:
(a) that no liability whatsoever can be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition
of the international validity of the law or regulation.
SOUTH AND EAST COASTS
OF KOREA, EAST COAST
OF SIBERIA AND SEA OF
OKHOTSK PILOT
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
Charts 4509, 4511, 4512
Area covered
1.1
1
This volume contains Sailing Directions for the coastal
and offshore waters bordering the S and E coasts of Korea,
the E coast of Siberia and the Sea of Okhotsk. The sea
area covered is defined as being within the following
limits:
Lat N Long E
2
From Haenamgak, the SW point of
Korea:
34°18′ 126°31′
Thence E and NE along the coasts
of Korea and Siberia including
Ostrov Sakhalin, Gulf of Tartary,
Sea of Okhotsk and S along the
W coast of Kamchatka to:
51°00′ 156°45′
Thence W to:51°00′ 154°00′
3
Thence SW to:46°10′ 140°00′
Thence W to the E coast of Ostrov
Sakhalin at position:
46°10′ 143°27′
Thence along the S coast of
Ostrov Sakhalin to:
46°10′ 141°55′
Lat N Long E
Thence W to:46°10′ 140°00′
Thence SW to:37°30′ 131°30′
4
Thence SW to:34°50′ 130°00′
Thence W to:34°50′ 129°15′
Thence SW to:33°00′ 128°00′
Thence W to:33°00′ 126°00′
Thence N to:33°45′ 126°00′
Thence NE to the SW point of
Korea.
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Ice and icebreakers
General information
1.2
1
A general statement on the state of the ice in the various
regions covered by this volume is given at 1.140. For
descriptive terms and illustrations of various kinds of sea
ice, together with remarks on its formation and movement,
consult The Mariner’s Handbook.
Ice accumulation on ships
1.3
1
Rapid ice accumulation on hull and superstructure can
be a serious danger to ships in stormy wintery weather.
CHAPTER 1
2
Gales, accompanied by precipitation and spray at sub-zero
temperatures are encountered over the N part of the area
covered by this volume.
2
The conditions liable to cause these hazards are more
fully explained in The Mariner’s Handbook, together with
appropriate avoiding action.
Ice−breaking services
1.4
1
A number of ice-breakers are maintained in operation
along the Northern Sea Route of which the E terminal is
Vladivostok (43°06′N 131°53′E) (6.98). The most important
task of these vessels is to lead vessels through ice when
required. It is reported that a single ice-breaker can lead a
convoy of 10 ships through ice at an average speed of 5 kn.
2
Requests for ice-breaker assistance must be made to the
port director in harbour and, at sea, to the master of the
ice-breaker. See also 1.61 for regulations governing the
employment of Russian Federation ice-breakers.
Mined areas
Russian Federation waters
1.5
1
Navigation. Mariners navigating in the vicinity of areas
mined during the 1939−45 war are advised:
a).Not to enter the dangerous area in Sakhalinsky
Zaliv; see Appendix II.
b).To avoid anchoring in swept areas. In the absence
of other instructions vessels anchoring off a port in
a dangerous area should do so towards one side of
the approach channel or other authorised
anchorage. To anchor elsewhere may be dangerous.
2
Mine risks. The danger to surface shipping from mines
laid during the 1939−1945 war is decreasing, as the
detonating mechanisms (triggered off in nearly all cases by
a ship’s magnetic field or by its machinery noise) become
inoperative after many years. However, such mines
continue to constitute a risk to ships anchoring, trawling or
carrying out seabed operations and indeed, the explosives
in mines becomes more unstable with age.
3
Degaussing. The Russian Federation authorities
recommend that all vessels entering their ports should have
been degaussed or wiped.
Navigational risks. The existence of minefields has
inhibited hydrographic surveying in them and outside the
swept routes there may be many uncharted wrecks and
isolated shoals especially dangerous to deep-draught
vessels.
Korean waters
1.6
1
Extensive mine laying took place in Korean waters
during the 1950−1953 war. The positions of the areas,
channels and anchorages that have been swept are listed at
Appendix I. Outside these areas dangers to surface
navigation must have diminished greatly due to the lapse of
time, but mariners should not enter the unswept areas
without obtaining routeing instructions from Korean naval
authorities.
Cables
Overhead cables
1.7
1
Overhead cables are mentioned in the text where the
clearance beneath them may be a hazard to navigation.
Some of these cables carry high voltages and sufficient
clearance must be allowed when passing underneath them.
Mariners are advised that the actual clearance of an
overhead cable may differ from its charted value due to
changes in atmospheric conditions, water levels and in
winter by the ice and snow conditions.
2
For information on safety clearances and the radar
responses to be expected see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Submarine cables
1.8
1
Certain submarine cables have been omitted from some
of the small scale charts that cover the area of this volume;
for details of the cables concerned large scale charts should
be consulted. Mariners should not anchor or trawl in the
vicinity of submarine cables; for further information
see 1.44.
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
Traffic
Transit of waters of Korea (North)
1.9
1
All vessels transiting the waters contiguous to the coast
of Korea (North), are advised that:
a).Since 1975, there have occurred sporadic and
hostile acts such as harassments of, shootings on,
and capturing of fishing vessels by North Korean
military vessels.
b).There have been reports that Korea (North) claims
a 12 mile territorial limit.
2
c).By decree effective from 1st August, 1977, Korea
(North) has unilaterally proclaimed a 200 mile
economic zone. According to this decree, the
economic zone will extend from the baseline of
the territorial waters, or to the half-way line of the
sea in waters where the economic zone of
200 miles cannot be fully extended. The decree
stipulates that the North Koreans will exercise
sovereignty over all animate and inanimate
resources within these waters, in the water, and on
and beneath the seabed. Without approval, all
foreigners, foreign vessels and foreign aircraft are
prohibited from any activities such as fishing,
establishing facilities, exploring or developing,
within the economic zone, activities which obstruct
the economic activities of Korea (North), and from
other activities detrimental to the people and
marine resources, including sea and air pollution.
3
d).On 1st August, 1977, Korea (North) announced
the establishment of a military boundary up to
50 miles measured from the outer limits of the
territorial sea E of the Korean Peninsula and to the
boundary line of the economic zone to the W of
the peninsula. Within the military zone (under, in
and over the sea) acts of foreigners, foreign
military vessels and foreign military planes are
prohibited. Civilian ships (excluding fishing boats)
and civilian planes are allowed to navigate or fly
only with appropriate prior agreement or approval.
Also within the military zone, civilian vessels and
civilian planes shall not conduct acts for military
purposes or acts infringing upon the economic
interests of Korea (North).
Russian recommended tracks
1.10
1
Because of the prevalence of unfavourable weather
conditions in the N part of the area covered by this book
CHAPTER 1
3
the Russian Federation authorities have recommended
one-way tracks for the use of shipping as follows:
Route No. 1 − Zaliv Nakhodka approaches to La
Perouse Strait.
2
Route No. 2 − La Perouse Strait to Zaliv Nakhodka
approaches.
Route No. 3 − La Perouse Strait to Chetvertyy
Kuril’skiy Proliv.
Route No. 4 − Chetvertyy Kuril’skiy Proliv to La
Perouse Strait.
3
Route No. 5 − La Perouse Strait to Bukhta
Naga’yeva.
Route No. 6 − Bukhta Naga’yeva to La Perouse
Strait.
Route No. 11 − Zaliv Sovetskaya Gavan’ and Port
Vanino to Mys Syurkum.
4
Route No. 12 − Mys Syurkum to Zaliv Sovetskaya
Gavan’ and Port Vanino.
Route No. 13 − Port Vanino to Port Uglegorsk.
Route No. 13A − Zaliv Sovetskaya Gavan’ and Port
Vanino into Gulf of Tartary.
Route No. 14 − Port Uglegorsk to Port Vanino.
5
Route No. 14A − Tatarskogo Proliv to Zaliv
Sovetskaya Gavan’ and Port Vanino.
Route No. 15 − Zaliv Sovetskaya Gavan’ and Port
Vanino to the S along the W shore of the Gulf of
Tartary.
Route No. 16 − To Zaliv Sovetskaya Gavan’ and Port
Vanino from the S along the W shore of the Gulf
of Tartary.
6
Route No. 17 − Port Vanino to Port Kholmsk.
Route No. 18 − Port Kholmsk to Port Vanino.
Ships should follow these tracks; if forced to deviate
from them they should do so to starboard if safe navigation
permits. Full details of these tracks are given at
Appendix II page 418.
Deep−draught vessels
1.11
1
Many deep-draught vessels navigate through the area
covered by this volume. They are slow to manoeuvre and
special rules pertain under the International Regulations for
prevention of collisions at sea. Mariners are advised to
keep a good lookout. Masters of deep-draught vessels must
be aware of their “under-keel allowance” at all times.
Further information on “under-keel allowance” is available
in the Mariners Handbook and in the Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Fishing
General remarks
1.12
1
Fishing operations are carried out virtually throughout
the year in the sea areas around the coasts of Korea.
Fishing by fixed nets also takes place. In addition, fish
havens, fish traps and marine or aquaculture farms are
numerous in Korean waters and their numbers are
continually being augmented. They may be set in positions
as far as 5 miles offshore and constitute a hazard to
shipping. Warning of new fish traps and marine farms,
considered to be dangerous, will be made by Notices to
Mariners.
2
Caution should be exercised if it is necessary to pass
over a fish haven or to anchor near one.
Fishing for squid
1.13
1
Fishing for squid is carried out generally throughout the
whole extent of the Sea of Japan. Fishing is carried out
from boats of up to 100 tonnes, principally between July
and October. Lights may be exhibited at night to attract the
fish.
Fixed net fisheries
1.14
1
Fixed fishing nets are set within 2 miles offshore in
many places off the coasts of Korea; in some cases they
may extend up to 5 miles offshore. Newly set fixed nets,
which are considered hazardous to navigation, are published
in Korean Notices to Mariners or promulgated by Radio
Navigational Warnings.
Fish havens and marine farms
1.15
1
Fish havens may be encountered on the sea bed or on
the surface, generally within 5 miles of the coast. Those on
the seabed may consist of concrete blocks, scrap metal
(including vehicles), or sunken hulks laid in a fixed
position to create a fish environment in coastal waters.
Those on the surface may consist of floating rafts under
which fish are encouraged to feed out of the sunlight. They
are also known as fish aggregating devices (FADS).
Concentration of fishing vessels may be expected in the
vicinity of fish havens, where fish are caught by traditional
methods. Occasionally fish havens may be marked by lights
or special light-buoys.
2
Marine farms consist of rectangular cages, typically
measuring 20 by 30 m, made in two layers of thick wire
mesh. Fish are bred, fed and harvested in these cages.
Marine farms may be marked by lights or light-buoys
(special). They may be encountered either in deep water or
close inshore. Those in deep water are known to be
situated in positions of up to 30 miles offshore, and some
are attended by service vessels. Whilst normally moored in
a temporary position on the surface, some are suspended 20
to 25 m below the surface. They are frequently moved to
safe water before the onset of winter. Inshore marine farms
are more likely to be in permanent positions and will be
shown on the appropriate scale charts.
3
Only permanent fish havens and marine farms
considered to be a hazard to navigation are shown
individually on Admiralty charts, details of which are kept
up to date by Admiralty Notices to Mariners, and only
those adjacent to shipping routes are described in Sailing
Directions. Areas where temporary fish havens and marine
farms may be encountered are indicated by notes on the
relevant charts; they are not normally mentioned in Sailing
Directions.
Regulated and exercise areas
Russian Regulated Areas
1.16
1
Russian Regulated Areas include all areas where
navigation, fishing or anchoring is prohibited or restricted;
such areas are normally charted and mentioned in Sailing
Directions. Regulated Areas also include areas designated
by the Russian authorities as temporarily dangerous for
navigation; as these prohibitions are for an indefinite period
they are described in the text as prohibited areas; most of
these areas are normally charted.
2
Areas where navigation is periodically prohibited lie
within Russian territorial waters; radio warning is given by
CHAPTER 1
4
PRIP of the date on which such an area becomes
prohibited for navigation.
Areas periodically declared dangerous for navigation
which may also include various firing danger and exercise
areas, lie partly or wholly outside Russian territorial waters;
radio warning is given by PRIP, of the date on which such
an area becomes dangerous for navigation.
3
Changes to Russian Regulated Areas are announced by
PRIP or NAVIP. Similar warnings may occasionally be
broadcast concerning other areas not previously designated
as areas where navigation is periodically prohibited. Details
of PRIP and NAVIP radio broadcasts (1.38) are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (2).
For details of the Russian Regulated Areas within the
area covered by this volume see Appendix II. Attention is
drawn to Laws and Regulations appertaining to Navigation
at the head of page 1.
Exercise areas
1.17
1
There are a number of areas in the coastal waters
covered by this volume in which naval and military
exercises are conducted by Korean and Russian authorities.
Firing and Bombing Exercise Areas along the coast of
Korea, covered by this volume, are listed in Appendix I,
but attention is also drawn to Laws and Regulations
appertaining to Navigation at the head of page 1.
Submarine exercise areas
1.18
1
Mariners may encounter submarines exercising in the
area covered by this volume. The Mariner’s Handbook and
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 8
give general information on the characteristics of
submarines and visual signals used to denote their presence.
Marine exploitation
Oil and gasfields
1.19
1
Offshore exploration and drilling operations take place
off the coasts of Korea and the Russian Federation. A gas
production platform (35°09′N 129°11′E) is situated E of
Ulsan Hang, and production platforms and associated
structures are found off the E coast of Sakhalin; these
platforms and structures generally exhibit morse (U) lights,
aircraft obstruction lights and sound fog signals.
2
Vessels must navigate with caution when passing close
to offshore installations and structures. These installations
are usually protected by Safety Zones which may extend up
to 500 m from their outer edges. For further information
see The Mariner’s Handbook and Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 20.
Submarine pipelines
1.20
1
Mariners are advised not anchor or trawl in the vicinity
of pipelines. Gas from a damaged oil or gas pipeline could
cause an explosion, loss of a vessels buoyancy, or other
serious hazard. Pipelines are not always buried and may
effectively reduce the charted depth by as much as 2 m.
They may also span seabed undulations and cause fishing
gear to become irrecoverably snagged, putting a vessel in
severe danger. See Annual Notice to Mariners No 24 and
The Mariner’s Handbook.
CHARTS AND ORTHOGRAPHY
Admiralty charts
1.21
1
Admiralty charts covering the coastal waters of the area
described in this volume are adequate for use on passage
and entry into the principal ports and harbours. However,
where the Admiralty chart is considered to be of too small
a scale for safe passage, mariners are advised to use the
larger scale charts published by the appropriate foreign
Hydrographic Office (1.23).
Foreign charts
General information
1.22
1
Where British Admiralty charts show insufficient detail
for navigation close inshore these Sailing Directions have
been written using foreign charts. The text has been written
on the assumption that mariners wishing to navigate in
these areas will have provided themselves with suitable
charts on which to do so.
2
Where foreign charts are quoted as reference it must be
noted that they may not be the largest scale charts of the
area, that they are not issued by the United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office and are not corrected by Admiralty
Notices to Mariners. They must therefore be used with
caution.
Publishing authorities
1.23
1
The Hydrographic Offices of Korea (South), the Russian
Federation and the United States of America publish charts
covering areas within this volume. Address’s are as follows.
Korea (South):
National Oceanographic Research Institute
Gukrip Haeyang Josawon, 1−17
7ga Hang-dong, Jung-gu
Inchon 400−800
2
Russian Federation:
Glavnoe Oupravlenie Navigatsii I
Okeanografi
Ministetsva Oborony
8, 11 Iiniya B−34
Sankt Peterburg 199034
Russia
Russian charts are best obtained through a chart agent.
3
United States of America:
National Geospatial − Intelligence Agency (NGA)
4600 Sangamore Road
Bethesda
Maryland 20816−5003
USA
Korean orthography
1.24
1
In the text of this book the McCune-Reischauer system
is used for the transliteration of Korean, although some of
the charts covering the area of this volume were compiled
using the now defunct Republic of Korea Ministry of
Education (MOE) system, which was introduced in 1959
and revised in 1984. In most cases there should be no
difficulty in relating the McCune-Reischauer version of a
name in the text to its MOE (1959) equivalent on the chart,
but in some cases the following conversion table may be of
use (the MOE (1984) system was similar to
McCune-Reischauer):
CHAPTER 1
5
McCune-Reischauer Ministry of Education
(MOE) (1959)
2
p b
p’ p
t d
t’ t
ch j
ch’ ch
tch jj
3
k g
k’ k
ã
eo
wã
weo
yã
yeo
u
eu
ui
eui
4
In 2000 the Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MOCT) of
the Republic of Korea introduced another new
transliteration system, the use of which is actively being
encouraged by the South Korean authorities. It is similar to
the MOE (1959) system in the table above except that the
equivalents of wã and ui are wo and ui rather than weo
and eui.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Lights
1.25
1
Major lights are those with a nominal range of 15 miles
or more. Light-structures only are described in this volume;
for further details see Admiralty List of Lights and Fog
Signals Volume F.
For information concerning aero lights and their
associated navigational caution, see the explanation notes in
the forward to the relevant Admiralty List of Lights.
Landmarks
1.26
1
Caution is necessary when evaluating the descriptions
given in this volume concerning landmarks, such as trees,
and the colour and shape of buildings and other marks.
New buildings may have been erected and old trees or
houses destroyed, so that marks, which may at one time
have been conspicuous on account of their isolation, shape
or colour, may no longer exist or may now be difficult to
identify.
Beacons and daymarks
1.27
1
A beacon is a fixed artificial navigation mark which can
be recognised by means of its shape, colour, pattern or
topmark; it may carry a light, radar reflector or other
navigational aid. Details, where known, are given in the
body of the book.
2
The term daymark refers to a large unlit beacon but the
term is also used to denote a topmark or other
distinguishing mark or shape incorporated into a beacon,
light–buoy or buoy. The lateral system for fixed artificial
aids is based on that used for buoyage.
Buoyage
1.28
1
General remarks. Mariners should not rely on buoys
being in their charted positions at all times. Buoys should
be regarded as warning markers and not as infallible
navigation marks. The position of any buoy may not be as
charted due to storm, collision, current, or undersea features
such as shoals, reefs, or ledges which tend to render the
buoy being easily displaced. Mariners should always
navigate their vessels by visual bearings and radar distances
of fixed shore objects, by soundings, or by the use of
satellite or radio navigation systems whenever possible,
rather than relying on buoys. Due to their widespread use
the term radar reflector is not included in the description of
buoys mentioned in the text.
2
IALA Maritime Buoyage System. The IALA Maritime
System, Region B, is used throughout the coastal waters of
Korea. In the coastal waters of the Russian Federation the
IALA Maritime System, Region A, is in force. For a full
description of the IALA Maritime Buoyage System B
system see either the publication IALA Maritime Buoyage
System or The Mariner’s Handbook.
3
Ocean Data Acquisition Systems (ODAS) light-buoys
may be established in the area covered by this volume.
Permanent buoys are mentioned in the text and shown on
the charts; temporary buoys are promulgated by NAVAREA
XI Radio Navigational Warnings (1.38), for Korean waters,
and NAVAREA XIII Radio Navigational Warnings, for
Russian Federation waters, and Temporary Notices to
Mariners. For details of these buoys see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
BERTHING
1.29
1
Berthing. Care needs to be exercised when berthing.
Many harbours are liable to silting and need regular
dredging. Accordingly, depths may not be as charted.
Mariners should check with port authorities prior to
entering harbour.
Caution also needs to be taken to clarify details of
reported depths alongside as some ports quote depths
measured at a set distance off the quay.
PILOTAGE
General information
1.30
1
Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign vessels entering
the ports described in this volume. Information on pilotage
procedures, including notice required when requesting
pilots, boarding positions, and radio frequencies is given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
RADIO FACILITIES
Electronic position fixing systems
Satellite navigation systems
1.31
1
Information concerning satellite navigation systems and
other electronic fixing systems are contained in Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 2. Satellite navigation systems
are under the control of the owning nation which can
impose selective availability or downgrade the accuracy to
CHAPTER 1
6
levels less than that available from terrestrial radio
navigational systems. Therefore satellite based systems
should only be utilised at the user’s risk.
Differential Global Positioning System
1.32
1
Beacons which transmit DGPS information are
established along the coast of Korea (South). For details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Loran C
1.33
1
Loran C is a long range hyperbolic radio navigation
system using at least three land based radio transmitters
and receivers to allow mariners to determine their position.
The Loran C chains of East China Sea, Russian and
Russian-American cover the area of this volume. Details of
the system are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Other radio aids to navigation
Radio beacons
1.34
1
The regulations for vessels to carry RDF equipment
lapsed in July 2002. Accordingly all reference to radio
beacons has been removed from this book.
Racons
1.35
1
Racons are established along the coasts of Korea and the
Russian Federation. They are fitted to many lighthouses,
light-beacons, light-floats or buoys and are marked on the
appropriate charts. For details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Automatic Identification Systems
1.36
1
Details of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are
given in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Coast radio stations
1.37
1
Coast radio stations are established along the coasts of
Korea and the Russian Federation. For a list of coast radio
stations which are available within or adjacent to the area
covered by this volume, and for details of the services they
provide, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (2).
Radio navigational warnings
Korea
1.38
1
The area covered by Korea in this volume falls within
NAVAREA XI of the Worldwide Navigational Warning
Service, with broadcasts from Tokyo and Guam. For further
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (2).
Russian Federation
1.39
1
Within the system of the Worldwide Navigational
Warning Service the Russian Federation provides the
following:
a).Broadcast of NAVAREA XIII warnings for the
area of Russian Federation responsibility.
2
b).Broadcast of coastal warnings (PRIPS) for the
designated areas of the Russian Federation.
c).Broadcast of NAVIP warnings for NAVAREA
XIII. NAVIPS contain information about dangers to
navigation in the coastal waters of countries other
than the Russian Federation and in the high seas
areas.
3
Area broadcasts are transmitted from Vladivostok in
Russian and English. For further details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 3 (2).
Navtex
1.40
1
Navtex, which fulfils an integral role in the Global
Maritime Distress and Safety System, is an automated
direct printing service, broadcast on 518 kHz, for the
promulgation of navigational and meteorological warnings
to ships. It has been developed to provide a low cost,
simple, means of receiving marine safety information
onboard ships at sea and in coastal waters. It is available
from stations in Korea (South) and the Russian Federation
for the area covered by this volume.
2
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3 (2).
Radio weather reports
Weather warnings and bulletins
1.41
1
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has
established a global service for the broadcast of high seas
weather warnings and routine weather bulletins, through the
Enhanced Group Calling International SafetyNET Service.
METeorological service AREAS (METAREAS) are
identical to the 16 NAVAREAS within the World-Wide
Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS).
2
Each METAREA has a designated National
Meteorological Service responsible for issuing high seas
weather warnings and bulletins. The designated authorities
are not necessarily in the same country as the NAVAREA
co-ordinators. Weather warnings and routine bulletins are
broadcast through:
3
a) National coast radio stations.
b) SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling International
SafetyNET).
For broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3 (2).
Meteorological broadcasts by radio-facsimile
1.42
1
The area covered by this volume lies within the
radio-facsimile broadcast coverage area of Seoul, T’ai-pei
and Tokyo radio-facsimile stations. For broadcast details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (2).
Radio medical advice
1.43
1
Medical advice by radio may be requested from the
International Radio-Medical Centre (CIRM) in Rome. In
addition medical advice may also be obtained via
Vladivostok radio station in Russian or English. For further
information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1 (2).
REGULATIONS
International regulations
Submarine cables and pipelines
1.44
1
Mariners are warned that every care should be taken to
avoid anchoring or trawling in the vicinity of submarine
cables or pipelines on account of the serious consequences
CHAPTER 1
7
which would result from fouling them. See The Mariner’s
Handbook for information on the International Convention
for the Protection of Submarine Cables, together with
advise on the action to be taken in the event of fouling a
cable or pipeline.
Pollution
1.45
1
The International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships 1973 was adopted by the International
Conference on Marine Pollution convened by IMO in 1973.
It was modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto
and adopted by the International Conference on Tanker
Safety and Pollution Prevention convened by IMO in 1978.
The convention, as modified by the protocol, is known as
MARPOL 73/78.
2
The Convention consists of 6 annexes. Annex I (Oil),
Annex II (Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk), Annex III
(Harmful Substances carried at Sea in Packaged Form) and
Annex V (Garbage from Ships) are mandatory; Annex IV
(Sewage from Ships) and Annex VI (Air Pollution) are
optional.
MARPOL 73/78 and Annexes are described in detail in
The Mariner’s Handbook.
Traffic separation schemes
1.46
1
See IMO publication Ships Routeing for general
provisions on ships routeing. Regulations for IMO adopted
schemes are contained in Rule 10 of the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972. All
traffic separation schemes shown on British Admiralty
charts are listed in Annual Notice to Mariners No 17; this
indicates which schemes are IMO-adopted and includes
other relevant information.
2
Some of the traffic separation schemes established
within the area covered by this volume are not adopted by
IMO, nevertheless the principles for using these schemes
are as defined in Rule 10 of the International Regulations
for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972.
National regulations − Korea (South)
Customs
1.47
1
The import and export trade is governed by published
and unpublished government announcements. Imported
commodities are classified under three headings:
Automatic approval.
Automatic approval subject to surveillance. Such
goods require an import licence, issued
automatically but requiring endorsement, by the
Korea Trade Agents Association.
2
Restricted. Goods so classified require an import
licence issued against a certificate of import
recommendation from the designated trade
association of Ministry.
Customs duty is levied on all imported goods except on
those intended for government use and, in some cases, on
goods required for re-export.
Tanker navigation restricted area
1.48
1
A restricted area has been established around Korea
(South) between Ongdo (36°39′N 126°01′E) (China Sea
Pilot, Volume III) on the W coast, and Chãngdongjin Dan
Light (37°41′N 129°03′E), on the E coast. Tankers of 1500
tonnes or more carrying diesel or Low-sulphur Residue
Fuel Oils and tankers of 1500 tonnes or more carrying
noxious liquid material, are restricted from navigating
within this area. Vessels calling at ports within the
restricted area must navigate using the shortest, safest route.
2
Within the area covered by this volume the restricted
area encompasses the waters between the coast and the
outermost point on the following islets:
Tonggãch’a Do (34°14′N 126°36′E) (China Sea Pilot
Volume III).
Chagaedo (34°06′N 126°36′E).
Yãngman Do (Yãkmando on Chart 3365) (34°11′N
127°21′E).
Taeduyãksã (34°15′N 127°32′E).
Chag To (34°25′N 127°54′E).
3
Sejon Do (34°30′N 128°05′E).
Ko Am (34°30′N 128°29′E).
Namyã Do (34°40′N 128°47′E), thence;
to 35°00′N 129°08′E, thereafter:
3 miles off Kanjãl Gap Light (35°22′N 129°22′E).
4 miles off Ul Gi Light (35°30′N 129°27′E).
5 miles off Kuryongp’o Hang (35°59′N 129°33′E),
thence:
4
4 miles off the following lights:
Changgigot Light (36°05′N 129°34′E).
Wãlp’ã Man Light (36°11′N 129°23′E).
Chiku To Light (36°30′N 129°27′E).
Hwamo Mal Light (36°46′N 129°29′E), thence
3 miles off the following lights:
Chukpyãn Light (37°03′N 129°26′E).
5
Imwãn Mal Light (37°14′N 129°21′E).
Chãngdongjin Dan Light (37°41′N 129°03′E), thence
to the coast.
National regulations − Korea (North)
Notices of ETA
1.49
1
The following radio procedures should be carried out for
vessels calling at ports in Korea (North):
Pilotage is compulsory. All communications are to be
made through the coast radio station nearest to the
port of call.
2
Vessels should send ETA at the pilot station 10 days,
3 days, 24 hours, 12 hours and 4 hours in advance
to the agent (Ocean Shipping Agency of the
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea).
The 10 day message should include the following
information:
3
Vessel’s name, flag and call sign.
ETA and port of call.
Vessel’s details, (draught, grt, nt etc).
Number of crew and their nationalities.
Last port of call.
Present position.
4
The vessel’s position and speed must be sent with the
24, 12 and 4 hour messages.
Approaching the coast
1.50
1
Vessels off the E coast of Korea (North) are to report to
their agents the position and time when crossing the lines
joining:
42°24′N 131°10′E.
41°43′N 132°20′E.
38°00′N 130°00′E.
38°00′N 128°45′E.
CHAPTER 1
8
Vessels are required to keep 15 miles off the coast and
maintain a constant radio watch until arrival at the pilot
station.
Port entry
1.51
1
Foreign vessels may enter of leave a port in Korea
(North) during daylight hours only and under safe sea
conditions as acknowledged by the naval authorities.
The Master of every vessel entering a port must request
a pilot from the harbour control by radio, or other means
of communication, through the vessel’s agent 24 hours in
advance of arrival.
2
A vessel entering or leaving a port shall do so in
accordance with signals displayed by the port signal station.
A vessel entering or leaving a port or manoeuvering
within it and with a pilot on board must display “H” flag
where it can best be seen.
A vessel entering or leaving a port during daylight hours
shall fly her national flag in accordance with usual practice
and the North Korean flag where it can best be seen on a
signal mast.
3
A vessel approaching the harbour limits of any port
shall hoist the quarantine flag.
A vessel approaching the harbour limits of any port
shall hoist her call sign letters.
A naval vessel will escort a merchant ship to a
designated anchorage where quarantine officers of the
Inspection Office of the Border Passage Authority will
complete formalities.
National regulations − Russian Federation
Reporting requirements for vessels carrying
dangerous and polluting goods
1.52
1
Failure to inform the nearest Russian Federation
authority of accidental or emergency discharge of polluting
substances, as described in the MARPOL 73/78 convention,
within the economic zone, territorial and internal waters of
the Russia Federation, and failure to note the occurrence in
the ship’s log, carries severe penalties.
Russian Federation merchant vessels and civil aircraft
are instructed to inform Russian authorities of witnessed
infringements of the Russian regulations and of the
international regulations.
2
Within the territorial and internal waters of the Russian
Federation, vessels suspected of infringing the regulations
are liable to be stopped, boarded and inspected. If an
infringement has taken place within those waters the vessel
is liable to be detained.
Preservation
1.53
1
The hunting of marine mammals is subject to stringent
regulations and is forbidden in the vicinity of Mys Lopatka
(50°52′N 156°40′E), the S point of Kamchatka, and of Mys
Kambal’nyy, 14 miles N.
Entry into territorial and internal waters
1.54
1
Foreign naval vessels. Warships intending to enter the
waters of the Russian Federation or to visit Russian ports
should obtain a copy of Regulations for foreign naval
vessels navigating and remaining in the territorial or
internal waters of Russia or visiting Russian ports. These
regulations are published in Russian Annual Notices to
Mariners.
2
Proposals to visit Russian Federation ports should be
forwarded through the Russian Ministry of Affairs not less
than 30 days prior to the suggested visit. This rule does not
apply to warships on which heads of government or heads
of state are embarked, or to ships accompanying them.
3
Ships, whose approach is necessitated by foul weather or
engine failure which threatens the safety of the ship, must
inform the nearest port of the reason for entry, and, if
possible, go to a recognised port open to foreign merchant
vessels or to a point indicated by the vessel sent to aid or
meet it.
4
Foreign naval vessels exercising the right of innocent
passage through the territorial waters of the Russian
federation, for the purpose of traversing those waters
without entering the internal waters or calling at ports of
the Russsian Federation, must use sea corridors or traffic
separation schemes where these have been established or
prescribed.
5
Foreign merchant vessels. Foreign non-military vessels
enjoy the right of innocent passage through Russian
Federation territorial waters in accordance with Russian
Federation laws and international treaties; innocent passage
is effected by crossing them without entering Russia’s
internal waters, or by passing through them en-route to or
from Russian Federation ports open to foreign vessels.
6
While effecting innocent passage vessels must follow the
customary navigational course or course recommended
through sea corridors or in accordance with TSS. The
Master of a foreign non-military vessel which has violated
the rules of innocent passage is accountable under Russian
Federation legislation.
7
For information on ports open to foreign merchant
vessels see 1.55, and for further information concerning
territorial waters see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Russian Federation ports of entry
1.55
1
Foreign merchant vessels are permitted only to call at
one of the recognised ports of entry where Customs
stations are established. In the area covered by this volume
the ports of entry are as follows:
Port Pos’yet (42°39′N 130°48′E) (6.29).
Vladivostok (43°06′N 131°53′E) (6.98).
2
Nakhodka (42°48′N 132°53′E) (7.47).
Port Vostochnyy (42°45′E, 133°04′E) (7.82).
Svetlaya (42°32′N 138°20′E) (8.20).
Vanino (49°05′N 140°16′E) (8.44).
Sovetskaya Gavan’ (49°01′N 140°18′E) (8.68).
Port Nevel’sk (46°40′N 141°51′E) (9.14).
Port Kholmsk (47°03′N 142°03′E) (9.33).
3
Uglegorsk (49°05′N 142°02′E) (9.86).
Portovyy Punkt Shakhtërsk (49°10′N 142°03′E)
(9.97).
Portovyy Punkt Oktyabr’skiy (50°44′N 142°05′E)
(9.112).
Reyd Makar’yevskiy (50°50′N 142°05′E) (9.118).
4
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy (50°54′N 142°08′E)
(9.119).
Reyd Makarova (48°37′N 142°47′E) (11.37).
Reyd Poronaysk (49°13′N 143°08′E) (11.46).
Okhotskiy Morsky Rybnyy Port (59°21′N 143°10′E)
(12.97).
5
Magadan (59°33′N 150°43′E) (12.139).
Preliminary notice of arrival
1.56
1
The owner or Master of a vessel should send
preliminary information concerning his vessel and cargo to
CHAPTER 1
9
the appropriate agency at the port of destination not less
than 12 days (14 days for tankers, gas carriers, and vessels
loaded with liquid chemicals) prior to arrival. In this
preliminary notice the following information is required by
port authorities:
2
1.Name and flag of vessel.
2.Port of departure (last port of call).
3.Vessels draught at bow and stern.
4.Cargo capacity of vessel, volume of holds etc.
3
5.Name and quantity of cargo and its distribution by
hold (tankers, in addition, should indicate type and
disposition of ballast).
6.Requirements for port services.
4
Information concerning a vessels sanitation state must be
reported in accordance with current sanitation, veterinary
and quarantine regulations; see 1.62.
In addition Masters must indicate that the vessel has
certification guaranteeing civil responsibility for damage
from oil pollution.
Notification of ETA
1.57
1
Estimated time of arrival should be forwarded to port of
destination and agency at least 96 hours in advance
followed by confirmation 12 hours before arrival. Oil
tankers should confirm their ETA 72 hours and 12 hours
before arrival.
Other reports
1.58
1
A vessels arrival in port must be registered directly with
the port authority, or with a representative of the Transport
Fleet Maintenance Service, within the first 6 hours in port,
completing sanitation, quarantine, customs and border
formalities.
2
On sailing, the port authority must be informed of
intended departure at least 6 hours in advance; during a
short term anchorage (less than 6 hours) at least 2 hours
notice is required.
Observance of regulations
1.59
1
All foreign vessels, when within territorial or internal
waters of Russia, must observe radio communication,
navigational, port, customs, sanitary and other rules.
In the event of an emergency entry into territorial
waters, or emergency non-observance of rules for
navigation and stay in these waters, foreign vessels must
immediately notify the nearest Russian port authority.
Customs
1.60
1
Before customs inspection commences the Master of a
vessel must complete or present the following information:
1.A general declaration.
2.A cargo declaration.
2
3.A declaration of the crew’s personal effects.
4.Crew lists.
5.Passenger lists.
6.The manifest containing Bills of Lading and list of
documents on the cargo, and other ship’s
documents as required by the customs service.
3
7.A currency and valuables list.
Until the customs inspection is completed no person
may enter or leave the ship.
Operations with icebreakers
1.61
1
General. Russian Federation regulations require that
requests for icebreakers to conduct vessels through ice must
be made, in harbour, to the port director, and at sea to the
master of the icebreaker.
Every vessel to be conducted must have on board
sufficient fuel and provisions, timber, quick-setting cement,
plaster and mats; the ship’s pumps and radio must also be
in working order. If these conditions are not met and also
if the vessel does not have valid certificates of
seaworthiness, the port director or, if at sea, the master of
the icebreaker, has the right to decline to assist the vessel.
2
The time, number and order of vessels following through
the ice, or the time if only one vessel is going, is
determined by the port director, or if at sea, by the master
of the icebreaker.
Vessels following an icebreaker may not overtake one
another.
3
Vessels following an icebreaker must be ready to go full
speed astern immediately.
Vessels being towed through ice must not use their
engines for going ahead without a definite order from the
master of the icebreaker. They must at all times be ready to
cast off the tow on instructions from the master of the
icebreaker, and also to go full speed astern.
4
The order of vessels is usually warships, mail and/or
passenger ships, cargo vessels with priority freight, and
then the remaining vessels depending on their time of
arrival at the ice edge, or readiness to leave harbour.
In the event of damage to a vessel following an
icebreaker, the damaged vessel must make the distress
signals prescribed by the International Code of Signals.
5
Vessels following an icebreaker must be guided by the
signals contained in the International Code, which may be
made by RT, visually, by whistle or on the siren. Except
for the signal Be ready to take (or cast off) tow line, they
must be repeated by each ship in turn, beginning with the
one nearest the icebreaker or vessel making the signal.
6
If the orders of the master of the icebreaker are not
carried out by the master of a vessel under escort, the
master of the icebreaker has the right to refuse to escort
the latter vessel any farther until his instructions have been
executed.
7
Merchant vessels of all flags can use free of charge the
services of the icebreakers of the relevant port authorities
for escort from the edge of the ice into port, from the port
to sea, and within the limits of the port; and also the
tow-rope when its use is deemed necessary by the Master
of the icebreaker.
8
The mooring of ships for loading and unloading
operations, bunkering, docking, etc., is done for payment as
for the use of tow-ropes, etc.
The master of every vessel which requires the assistance
of an icebreaker for passing through ice must declare his
readiness to comply with these regulations.
Health regulations
Quarantine
1.62
1
Vessels arriving at any of the ports covered by this
volume are subject to the national quarantine regulations.
Quarantine is enforced in accordance with International
Health Regulations, 1969. Vessels entering territorial waters
from abroad should hoist the appropriate International Code
signal flag by day, and a red light over a white light at
night, and have no communication with the shore until they
CHAPTER 1
10
have been visited by the Port Health officer and granted
pratique. An international signal code is used for sending
Radio Pratique Messages. This code is part of The
International Code of Signals and is given in Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (2), which also details the
procedure required for Russian ports.
Asian Gypsy Moth
1.63
1
Infestation by Asian Gypsy Moth is prevalent in the Far
East. The examination and issuing of a special certificate,
showing that the vessel is free of Asian Gypsy Moth is
available in the ports of Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Port
Vostochnyy, Port Kholmsk and Vanino. Special
phytosanitary inspectors work on board during a vessels
stay in port to prevent any infestation. Upon completion of
cargo work the certificate is then prepared for issue; this
takes about four hours after completion of cargo work.
2
All vessels that have called at Russian Far East ports,
throughout any time of the year, and are then bound either
for America, Canada, Australia or New Zealand will
require examination against Asian Gypsy Moth and the
issuing of a phytosanitation certificate.
SIGNALS
International signals
International Port Traffic Signals
1.64
1
The International Port Traffic Signals consist of signals
recommended by the International Association of
Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) and other international
authorities in 1982. The system of signalling has been
progressively introduced at ports as circumstances have
permitted. They consist of lights only, shown continuously
by day and night, and are recognisable as traffic signals as
the main signals are always three lights in a vertical line.
The signals may also be used for controlling movements at
bridges and locks.
2
For a description of this system see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Visual storm warning signals
1.65
1
The use of visual storm warning signals in the countries
covered by this volume has been discontinued. Warnings
are broadcast by radio. For further information see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (2).
Korea
Harbour signals
1.66
1
The following sound signals are used in Korean
harbours:
Request Signal
Entering harbour Two long blasts.
Leaving harbour One long blast.
Request Signal
Calling pilot One long blast, one short
blast, one long blast.
Calling lighter for ship One long blast, two short
blasts, one long blast.
Calling cargo lighter One long blast, one short
blast.
Calling launch One short blast, one long
blast.
Recalling all crew members Two short blasts, one long
blast.
Require medical assistance One short blast, one long
blast, one short blast.
Emergency (SOS) Three short blasts, three
long blasts, three short
blasts.
Getting underway Two short blasts, two long
blasts, two short blasts.
Finished unloading One long blast, three short
blasts.
Russia Federation
Traffic signals
1.67
1
The signals below regulate entry and departure of ships
to and from ports in the Russian Federation.
Russia − port traffic signals (1.67)
CHAPTER 1
11
Tidal and water level signals
1.68
1
The following signals are displayed at ports in the
Russian Federation to indicate the height of the water level
above chart datum in units of 20 cm.
Russia − water level signals (1.68)
Dredger signals
1.69
1
Dredgers in the waters of the Russian Federation show
the appropriate shapes or lights from the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). These
signals should be interpreted merely as an indication of the
side on which the dredger proposes to allow the
approaching vessel to pass.
2
The approaching vessel should reduce to the minimum
speed for steerage way by the time she is at a distance of
5 cables from the dredger and one prolonged blast should
be sounded on the siren. The dredger will then, in addition
to showing the above signals, confirm the side on which
she is to be passed in the following manner:
Signal Meaning
One long blast.Leave me on your port hand.
Two long blasts.Leave me on your starboard hand.
Three long blasts.No passage. Wait until clear.
3
If there is no answering sound signal from the dredger
the approaching vessel must assume that there is no free
passage.
The following regulations also apply:
Vessels passing a dredger must not overtake one
another.
Vessels passing a dredger must not tow astern a
hawser or chain on the bottom; nor may she trail
an anchor.
Vessels engaged on special operations
1.70
1
Russian vessels when engaged in surveying operations,
show a blue triangular flag with a rounded point to the fly,
having a white circular disc bearing the figure of a
lighthouse.
2
Russian vessels, with the exception of dredgers, engaged
on special operations in narrow waters, such as cable
laying, maintaining navigational aids and surveying, will
display the appropriate signals from the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). Vessels
approaching such a ship must reduce speed in good time
and, at a distance of at least 5 cables, sound one prolonged
blast. She must not pass the ship engaged on special
operations until such ship has lowered or extinguished the
special signal she is displaying.
3
Vessels engaged on special operations should cease
work, and if possible proceed to the edge of the channel,
when approached by a vessel showing the shape or lights
for a vessel constrained by her draught.
Light-vessel signals
1.71
1
In Russian waters when off station the light-vessel
discontinues its characteristic light and fog signal, and if
possible, will lower its daymark.
2
It will show instead two large black balls, one forward
and one aft, or two all round red lights, one forward and
one aft. In addition it will hoist the international code flags
LO or will fire red and white flares simultaneously at least
every 15 minutes.
Signals between tugs and towed vessels
1.72
1
The following sound signals are used by the vessel
being towed:
Signal Meaning
1 long blast.Tow straight ahead or astern.
2 long blasts.Stop engines.
1 long, 1 short blast.Reduce speed.
1 short, 1 long blast.Increase speed.
1 long, 1 short, 1 long
blast.
Let go, or take up, tow.
1 short blast.Tow to starboard.
2 short blasts.Tow to port.
3 short blasts.Go full speed astern.
3 long blasts, 1 short blast.Tug required.
At least 5 short blasts.Stop immediately.
2
When two tugs are employed one will be directed by the
ship’s whistle and the other by hand whistle signals. All
signals are repeated by the tug or tugs.
Special warning service signals
1.73
1
It may occasionally be necessary to prohibit entry into
certain areas within Russian Federation territorial waters.
For certain coastal areas a warning service has been
established on special warships, guardships, examination
vessels or coastguard stations, which display the signals in
the following diagram.
2
Should entry or navigation into a given area be
unrestricted, and no special signal or instruction regarding
further movements have been made or given by the
guardship or coastguard station, an incoming vessel is free
CHAPTER 1
12
to proceed to her destination, but she must observe such
regulations as may already have been promulgated.
Russia − special warning service signal (1.73)
3
If Russian naval vessels are present and if no special
instructions have been issued for navigation in this area
from the warning service, then mariners must set course in
such a manner as to avoid passing between the naval
vessels.
Frontier guardships
1.74
1
The following signals are shown by frontier guardships
for stopping non-naval vessels within the territorial or
internal waters of Russia. Vessels affected must stop and
remain stopped until permission to proceed is granted by
the guardship.
Russia − frontier guardship signals (1.74)
Signals from naval vessels
1.75
1
The following warning signals may be made by naval
vessels of the Russian Federation to foreign submarines
which are submerged in Russian waters:
Signal; a series of three explosions at 1 minute
intervals followed after an interval of 3 minutes by
a second series of three explosions.
2
Meaning; you have been found within Russian
Federation waters. I demand that you immediately
come to the surface. If you do not do so you will
be fired upon.
Simultaneously a hydro-acoustic signal may be given
which will have the same meaning. The signal will consist
of five dashes, each 3 seconds long, with 3 second intervals
between dashes.
Anchor signals
1.76
1
Vessels using a kedge anchor show, by day, a red flag,
or at night, a white light on the anchor cable at half the
height of the ship’s side. These signals are additional to
those prescribed by the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
Warning signals denoting the presence of submarines
1.77
1
Russian Federation naval vessels display the appropriate
International Code signal to denote that submarines, which
may be submerged, are in the vicinity. In addition, when
possible, the escorting vessel transmits appropriate warnings
by radio or RT on the international frequency of 500 kHz.
2
Vessels are cautioned to give a wide berth to any vessel
making warning signals. If from any cause it is necessary
to approach her, vessels should proceed at slow speed until
the flag signal is lowered or instructions are given her as to
a safe course to steer. A good lookout should be kept
meanwhile for submarines, whose presence may only be
indicated by their periscopes showing above-water.
3
It must not be inferred from the above that submarines
exercise only when in company with escorting vessels.
Submarines on the surface at night carry only one
steaming light, on the superstructure from 3 to 5 m above
the deck. When traffic is heavy they may exhibit one or
two orange quick flashing lights. In restricted waters they
may warn approaching vessels to keep clear by exhibiting a
flashing light on the appropriate side.
4
When Russian Federation submarines are surfacing at
night they may exhibit navigation lights and stream a float
exhibiting a white fixed light before doing so.
The presence of a submerged Russian Federation
submarine may be indicated at night by a coloured smoke
candle or rocket fired from underwater.
5
The indicator buoys which a sunken Russian Federation
submarine may release to indicate its position are painted
red and white in sectors with a black letter H denoting the
bow buoy, or black letter K denoting the stern buoy; in
addition the buoys exhibit a white quick flashing light.
6
When an emergency buoy is seen the accurate position
of the buoy and time of sighting must be reported
immediately to the nearest Russian Federation authority.
Telephone contact should also be established with the
submarine, by raising and fastening the cover of the buoy
and then removing the receiver of a micro-telephone from
its rubber case. A call is made by pressing a button in the
front part of the rubber container. When a reply is received
the button is released and conversation can proceed. It is
important to place no strain on the buoy.
7
Other information concerning Russian Federation
submarines is generally similar to that given in Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
General information
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)
1.78
1
The concept of GMDSS is that Search and Rescue
(SAR) authorities ashore as well as shipping in the
immediate vicinity of the ship, or persons in distress, will
be rapidly alerted to a distress incident so that they can
assist in a co-ordinated SAR operation. The GMDSS
applies to all cargo ships of 300 grt and above, and to all
passenger ships, regardless of size, on international
voyages. For full details of GMDSS, including diagrams of
the Search and Rescue Region (SRR) area boundaries, plus
VHF/MF/HF Digital Selective Calling (DSC) stations and
area frequency coverage, see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5.
CHAPTER 1
13
For additional SAR information see The Mariner’s
Handbook and Annual Summary of Admiralty Notice to
Mariners.
Ship reporting systems
Automated Mutual−assistance VEssel Rescue System
1.79
1
The Automated Mutual-assistance VEssel Rescue
(Amver) system, operated by the United States Coast
Guard, is a maritime mutual assistance organization which
provides important aid to the development and
co-ordination of Search and Rescue (SAR) efforts in many
offshore areas of the world. Participation in the system is
voluntary.
Details are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1 (2).
Korea (South) Ship Reporting System
1.80
1
The Korean Ship Reporting System (KOSREP),
established by the Korean National Maritime Police
Agency, is a voluntary Ship Reporting System. The
approximate service area covered by KOSREP is between
the parallels of latitude 30°N to 40°N and between the
meridians of longitude 121°E to 135° E. The service is
designed to provide up to date information on the
movement of vessels, safety of a ship due to delayed
reporting, and/or assistance in a marine accident.
2
The following types of vessels are encouraged to
participate in KOSREP:
1.International passenger vessels.
2.Vessels of 300 grt and over on international
voyages.
3.Vessels navigating in the KOSREP area for a
period of time greater than 12 hours.
3
4.Vessels not under command, restricted in their
ability to manoeuvre, or constrained by their
draught.
5.Towing vessels with a length of tow greater than
200 m.
6.Vessels carrying dangerous cargo, crude oil, or
chemicals.
4
There are four types of KOSREP report: Sailing plan,
Position report, Deviation report and Final report.
Any inquiries about KOSREP should be addressed to:
Guard and Rescue Division or Computer and
Communication Division Guard and Rescue
Bureau,
Korea National Maritime Police Agency.
1−105, Buksung-Dong, Jung-Gu, Inch’on City,
Republic of Korea (Postal No. 400−201).
5
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1 (2).
Rescue services
Korea (South)
1.81
1
The Korean National Maritime Police Agency
(KNMPA), with its headquarters at Inch’on, is responsible
for co-ordinating search and rescue operations within the
Korean Search and Rescue Region. Twelve Maritime Police
Stations under KNMPA command perform each SAR
operation within their designated part of the Search and
Rescue Region.
2
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
Korea (North)
1.82
1
The Waterways and Lighthouse Department is
responsible for co-ordinating search and rescue operations.
There is a Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre at Razin
Namp’o. For further details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5.
Russian Federation
1.83
1
Emergency SAR operations in the territorial waters of
the Russian Federation are normally carried out by Russian
rescue units. However, vessels whose governments have an
international agreement with the Russian Federation will, in
exceptional circumstances, be given permission to
participate in rescue operations in these waters. Vessels
whose governments are not party to such an agreement
must make an application through their national rescue
coordination centre to the Russian Rescue Coordination
Centre in the area in which they intend to operate. When
inside the territorial waters of Russia, only those ports or
anchorages designated as ‘open’ or those ports specifically
designated by the area Russian Rescue Coordination Centre
may be used.
2
For search and rescue in Russian Federation waters
covered by this chapter there is a Maritime Rescue
Co-ordination Centre at Vladivostok (43°06′N 131°53′E)
(6.98) and Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Sub-centres at
Petropavlovskaya-Kamchatskiy (53°01′N 158°38′E) (Bering
Sea and Strait Pilot) and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
(46°58′N 142°39′E). For further details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 5.
CHAPTER 1
14
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
KOREA (SOUTH)
General description
1.84
1
The greater part of the Korean Peninsula, which forms
the territory of Korea (South), the Republic of Korea,
hereafter referred to as South Korea, is separated from
Japan by the Korea Strait. The country is bounded, to the
N by a demilitarised zone separating it from Korea (North),
to the E by the Sea of Japan, and to the W by the Yellow
Sea. The country has a total land area of 99 461 km
2
.
National limits
1.85
1
South Korea claims a 12 mile territorial sea (TS), a
contiguous zone (CZ) of 24 miles and an exclusive
economic zone (EEZ) of 200 miles. For further information
see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners and
The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.86
1
Korea was united in a single kingdom under the Silla
dynasty from 668. The earliest European description of
Korea was furnished by Hendrik Hamel, a Dutch seaman
belonging to the Hollandia, a vessel of the Dutch East
India Company which was wrecked on Cheju Do in 1653.
In 1797, the E coast was examined by Captain Broughton
in HMS Providence and in 1816 the SW coast was visited
by Captains Maxwell and Hall in HM ships Alceste and
Lyra. In 1866 unsuccessful attempts were made to conclude
treaties with the country and it was not until 1880 that the
first one was made by Japan, this being followed by others,
concluded in 1882 by Great Britain and the United States.
2
China, which claimed a vague suzerainty over Korea,
recognised the latters’s independence in 1895. After the
Russo-Japanese war of 1904−05, Korea was virtually a
Japanese protectorate. It was formally annexed on 29th
August 1910. Following the collapse of Japan in 1945,
American and Soviet forces entered Korea dividing the
country into portions separated by the 38th parallel of
latitude. Negotiations between the Americans and the
Russians regarding the future of the country broke down in
May 1946. In 1948 two separate states were proclaimed. In
the south Syngman Rhee, former president of the Korean
government in exile, was elected president of the Republic
of Korea, while in the north, Kim Il-sung was proclaimed
premier of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. In
June 1950 the North Koreans launched an invasion across
the 38th parallel, the resulting war lasting for three years.
3
Syngman Rhee’s authoritarian rule collapsed in April
1960 bringing the country to the brink of civil war. A
military coup in May 1961 led to the dissolution of the
National Assembly, the introduction of martial law and the
establishment of General Park Chung Hee as president for
17 years. Park’s assassination in 1979 threw the country
into a new crisis from which developed a more democratic
constitution which came into force in 1988. In 2000 the
president of South Korea made an historic journey to Korea
(North) which resulted in a warming of relations, relaxing
of border restrictions and the reconstruction of a rail link
severed since 1945.
Government
1.87
1
The 1988 constitution provides for a President, directly
elected for a single five year term, who appoints the
members of the State Council and heads it, and for a
National Assembly with 273 members directly elected for
four years. The country is divided into nine provinces and
seven metropolitan cities with provincial status.
Population
1.88
1
The total population of South Korea in 2000 was
46 136 101. Seoul, located in the NW of the country has
been the capital of Korea since 1394; with a population of
9 895 000 it has one of the highest population densities in
the world.
Language
1.89
1
The official language is Korean but the government has
introduced a Romanisation system to romanize Korean
words into English.
Physical features
1.90
1
The Korean Peninsula consists of igneous plutonic rock,
and extends about 650 km S from the E seaboard of the
Asian continent to form the E side of Huang Hai (Yellow
Sea); it is dominated by a mountain ridge extending the
length of it and sloping towards the heavily indented W
coast.
2
The E coast has only a narrow alluvial plain separating
it from the spinal ridge. There are few harbours on that
side and the rivers are small. The W coast of the peninsula
is fringed by a multitude of islands which provide shelter
for several harbours and anchorages, but their value is
somewhat impaired by the large rise and fall of tide and
the strength of the tidal streams.
Fauna
1.91
1
Tigers, which used to roam almost anywhere in Korea,
are nearly extinct except in the high mountains where a
few remain. They are noted for their size, boldness and
ferocity. Other dangerous animals include leopards and
bears.
2
Fish are abundant, especially on the E and SE coasts.
Whales follow large shoals of sardines and herring that
visit the area.
Industry and trade
1.92
1
The economic growth of the Republic over the past
30 years has been spectacular, advancing the country within
a single generation from one of the world’s poorest nations
to full industrialisation despite its being poor in natural
resources. Manufacturing industry is concentrated primarily
on oil and the petro-chemical industry, chemicals, fibres,
construction, iron and steel, cement, machinery,
shipbuilding, automobiles and electronics. Tobacco is a
semi-government monopoly.
2
Foreign trade is principally with the United States of
America and Japan, Western Europe and the Middle East.
KOREA (NORTH)
General description
1.93
1
The territory of Korea (North), the Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea, hereafter referred to as North Korea, is
bounded by China in the N, by the Sea of Japan to the E,
by the Yellow Sea to the W, and to the S by a
CHAPTER 1
15
demilitarized zone separating it from South Korea. The
country has a total land area of 122 762 km
2
.
National limits
1.94
1
North Korea claims a 12 mile territorial sea (TS), a
contiguous zone (CZ) of 50 miles and an exclusive
economic zone (EEZ) of 200 miles. For further information
see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners and
The Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.95
1
Following the collapse of Japan in 1945 Soviet forces
arrived in North Korea, one month ahead of the Americans
and established a Communist-led provisional government.
The Democratic People’s Republic was proclaimed on 9th
September 1948 and Kim Il-sung became premier, purging
all rivals. After attacks launched by the North upon the
South a demilitarized zone was established along the 38th
parallel.
2
Agreements between the leaders of North and South
Korea established a non-aggression pact in 1992 leading to
three further agreements on military, economic and social
co-operation. Poverty in the north is rife and it has been
claimed that starvation has killed some 3⋅5 million since
1995. In 1994 Kim Il-sung died with power passing to his
son Kim Jong Il.
Government
1.96
1
The political structure is based upon the Constitution of
27th December 1972. Amendments of April 1992 delete
reference to Marxism-Leninism but retain the Communist
Party’s monopoly role. The Constitution provides for a
Supreme People’s Assembly elected every five years by
universal suffrage. Citizens of 17 years can vote and be
elected. The government consists of the Administration
Council directed by the Central People’s Committee.
Population
1.97
1
The total population of North Korea in 2001 was
22 428 000.
Language
1.98
1
The official language is Korean.
Physical features
1.99
1
The major part of the territory of North Korea is of
volcanic origin. It is dominated by the lofty Hamgyong
Sunmaek range of mountains and among the spurs
extending W and E from the range are the Diamond
Mountains, so named because of the resemblance of their
serrated peaks to rough diamonds. The N mountains are
thickly wooded with deep valleys and gorges, but along the
coasts they are mostly barren or covered with coarse
bamboo grass, varied by scattered groves of stunted firs
generally no more than 1½ m in height. Streams occupy
every gorge and valley, but the majority are shallow and
swift flowing and therefore navigable only by small craft.
Industry and trade
1.100
1
Industries include hydro-electric power, cotton, silk and
rayon weaving, chemical fertilizers, automobiles, iron and
steel much of which were established by the Japanese
occupiers. Joint ventures with foreign firms have been
permitted since 1984 and in 1992 the law was revised to
permit foreign investors to set up wholly owned facilities in
special economic zones. There is increasing industrial
co-operation between North and South Korea.
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
General information
Description
1.101
1
The Russian Federation has a total area of
6 592 849 sq miles and is the largest country in the world,
occupying much of E Europe and all of N Asia. It extends
over 6000 miles from the borders of six countries of
Eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea, on the W, to the Pacific
Ocean on the E, and about 3000 miles S from the Arctic
Ocean to the borders of six countries of Southern Asia. The
Kaliningrad enclave is enclosed by the borders of Lithuania
and Poland. The two principal cities are Moscow, the
capital, and Saint Petersburg, formerly Leningrad.
2
The area covered by this volume forms the E side the
Russian Federation and is specifically part of the land mass
called Siberia. The area extends N of Korea to Udskaya
Guba in the Sea of Okhotsk, and includes Ostrov Sakhalin.
Thence it extends around the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk
to Poluostrov Kamchatka.
National limits
1.102
1
The Russian Federation claims a 12 mile territorial sea
(TS) and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) extending
200 miles seaward from the limits of its territorial sea.
Within this economic zone the Government of Russia
issues regulations in connection with and for the control of
the following:
2
Exploitation and conservation of resources found on
or below the seabed and in the waters above it,
including anadromic fish (those that ascend rivers
to spawn). Catching of anadromic types of fish is
permitted only as a result of inter-governmental
agreement.
Marine scientific research.
3
Pollution of the marine environment; these regulations
are in accordance with the MARPOL 73/78
Convention. There are also regulations for the
inspection of vessels suspected of causing pollution
and there are penalties for infringements; see 1.52.
4
Freedom of passage for ships and aircraft through the
economic zone is assured. For further information see
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners and The
Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.103
1
Cossack explorers and traders, proceeding overland and
down the large rivers of continental Siberia, reached both
Poluostrov Kamchatka and Poluostrov Chukotskiy in the
middle of the 17th century. About the turn of that century
the territory was conquered by the Cossacks and in 1717
the first Russians arrived in Poluostrov Kamchatka by sea.
Thereafter the whole area was colonised and absorbed into
the Russian Empire.
2
Prior to 1917 Siberia was ruled autocratically as part of
the empire by a tsar. On 12th March, 1917, a revolution
broke out, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated and soviets, or
workers’ councils, were set up. Subsequently a struggle for
CHAPTER 1
16
power among the revolutionary factions was won by the
Bolsheviks, or communists. On 31st January 1918, Russia
was proclaimed a Republic of Soviets and on 10th July
1918, the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic, or
RSFSR, or USSR, of which Siberia is a part, was formed.
Other socialist republics were then established in the SW
part of the old Russian Empire and these joined with the
RSFSR on 30th December 1922. In 1985 a new period of
glasnost (openness) and perestroika (reconstruction) was
inaugurated. After an attempted coup in August 1991, the
constituent republics which made up the RSFSR declared
their independence.
3
After the dissolution of the RSFSR in December 1991,
Russia became a republican sovereignty, with a President as
head of a democratic government. It became a founding
member of the Commonwealth of Independent States,
adopting the name Russian Federation. In March 1992 the
federal government concluded treaties with 20 republics
that were part of the former RSFSR. The Council of the
Heads of the Republics is chaired by the Russian President,
its function being to provide interaction between the federal
government and republican authorities.
4
In May 2000 the President signed a decree dividing
Russia into seven federal districts, replacing the previous
structure of 89 regions. The new districts are Central, North
Western, North Caucasus, Volga, Ural, Siberian and
Far-Eastern. The area covered in this book comes within
the Far-Eastern federal district.
Government
1.104
1
According to the 1993 Constitution the Russian
Federation is a democratic federal legally-based state with a
republican form of government. Individuals have freedom
of movement within or across the boundaries of the
Federation; there is freedom of assembly and association,
and freedom to engage in any entrepreneurial activity not
forbidden by law.
2
The state itself is based upon a separation of powers and
upon federal principles, including a Constitutional Court.
The most important matters of state are reserved for the
federal government, including socio-economic policy, the
budget, taxation, energy, foreign affairs and defence. Other
matters, including the use of land and water, education and
culture, health and social security, are for the joint
management of the federal and local governments, which
also have the right to legislate within their spheres of
competence.
3
A central role is accorded to the President, who defines
the basic directions of domestic and foreign policy and
represents the state internationally. The President is directly
elected for a four-year term, and for not more than two
consecutive terms. The President has the right to appoint
the Prime Minister, and may dismiss the government as a
whole.
4
Parliament is known as the Federal Assembly. The
representative and legislative organ of the Russian
Federation it consists of two chambers: the Council of the
Federation and the State Duma. The Council of the
Federation, or upper house, consists of 178 deputies, 2
from each of the 89 subjects of the Federation. The
federation is made up of 21 republics, 1 autonomous
region, 10 autonomous areas, 6 territories, 49 regions and 2
federal cities. The State Duma, or lower house, consists of
450 deputies chosen for a four-year term; 225 of these are
elected from single-member constituencies, the remainder
from party lists by proportional representation.
5
The Council of the Federation considers all matters that
apply to the Federation as a whole, including state
boundaries, martial law and the deployment of Russian
forces elsewhere. The Duma approves nominations for
Prime Minister and adopts federal laws. The capital and
seat of government is Moscow.
Population
1.105
1
In 2001 the total population was 144 664 000. South of
the Amur Delta the inhabitants are descended from
Tunguse and on the W shore of the Sea of Okhotsk are the
same race (Eveni, previously known as Lamuts). Korean
immigrants are found near the frontier of that country, and
Chinese are scattered all along this coast; the natives of the
lower Amur are Nivkhi, previously known as Gilyaks.
2
The basic population of Poluostrov Kamchatka consists
of Uimillani, previously known as Kamchadals, Eveni, and
a few Unarigani, previously known as Aleutians, and
Kurilites, to which must be added Russian colonists who
first came here 2½ centuries ago.
Language
1.106
1
The official language is Russian which uses the Cyrillic
alphabet. In 1970 about half the indigenous population was
fluent in its use, the others speaking only their native
tongue. A script, based on the Cyrillic alphabet, has been
devised for the native languages; these are Chukchi and
Koryak, belonging to the Luoravetlan family, and
Eskimo-Aleut.
Physical features
Western shore
1.107
1
The land S of the Reka Amur Delta is a plateau rising E
to the coast, known as the Sikhote-Alin’ Range, which
presents a steep side to the Sea of Japan; the W slopes
have forests and swamps which greatly impede
communication.
2
The W shore of the Sea of Okhotsk is mountainous,
being closely bordered by the Stanovoy Range (Yablonnoi
or Stavonnoi Mountains), which recedes further inland from
the N shore of the sea, the coast of which is generally low,
and occupied by the deltas of several rivers.
3
Reka Amur, the largest river in the region and the 12th
longest river in the world, has a total length of 2500 miles,
draining about 800 000 square miles, but its basin is more
or less unexplored. The Ussuri and Sungari are affluents of
Reka Amur.
Ostrov Sakhalin
1.108
1
Ostrov Sakhalin extends 520 miles N and S abreast the
coast of Tartary. At the N end of Ostrov Sakhalin there is a
mountainous peninsula averaging from 400 to 500 m high,
but rising to an elevation of 707 m in Gora Tri Brata, the
summit of the peninsula.
2
Between the parallels of 54°N, and 53°N, the island,
except for its central part where it is nearly 300 m high,
consists of low tundra. In this part the N spurs of a
mountain range trend S and attain an elevation of nearly
1000 m, in about 52°N, thence trending SW and
approaching the W coast in the vicinity of Mys Uandi
(51°26′N 142°04′E). To the S of this point this forest-clad
range, known as the Western Range, rises in elevation
considerably and trends close to the coast for about
440 miles S to Mys Kril’on. This range has numerous sharp
CHAPTER 1
17
peaks, the highest attaining an elevation of 1509 m,
10 miles inland of the mouth of Reka Agnevo
(50°34′N 142°07′E).
3
The E mountain range extends from the vicinity of Zaliv
Lun’skiy (51°20′N 143°26′E) in a general S direction for
130 miles to the NE part of Zaliv Terpeniya, and is covered
with dense forest on its lower slopes. The highest parts of
this range are Gora Lopatina, 1573 m high, situated
15 miles WSW of Mys Delil’-de-lya-Kroyera (50°48′N
143°40′E) and Gora Nevel’skago, the summit of Ostrov
Sakhalin attaining an elevation of 2013 m 15 miles S of
Gora Lopatina.
4
The rivers of Ostrov Sakhalin are mostly encumbered by
rapids; the larger ones are obstructed by very shallow bars
and are navigable by small craft for about 10 miles
upstream. Reka Tym and Reka Poronay flow into Zaliv
Nyyskiy on E coast, and into Zaliv Terpeniya, respectively.
Reka Naibuchi, flowing through a fairly populous district
emerges near Starobdubskoye (47°25′N 142°49′E).
Poluostrov Kamchatka
1.109
1
In Poluostrov Kamchatka between 53°N and 54°N is
what is locally known as the Gonalskaya Mokraya Tundra,
a high marshy tableland surrounded on all sides by
mountains, the general elevation of this tableland being
about 200 m.
2
The mountains separating this tableland from the Sea of
Okhotsk consist of a massive range, extending in a N and
S direction, and having flat features. On the E side the
tableland is bounded by Gonalski Range, consisting of
separate heights in fantastic forms, resembling the teeth of
a gigantic saw, from which it is named Gonalski Ostryaki.
On the W side of the peninsula about 120 rivers discharge
into the Sea of Okhotsk.
3
From this tableland also run the principal ranges of the
peninsula, the Kamchatka Range extending in a N and S
direction along the whole length, throwing out numerous
spurs and, in addition to this range, there are several
secondary ones.
4
Poluostrov Kamchatka lies within the Pacific volcanic
zone at the intersection of the Kuril and Aleut arc-shaped
volcanic formations and is thus a centre of volcanic
activity, of which traces abound. Two rows of volcanoes at
about 51°30′N, are a prolongation of the Kuril volcanic arc.
Flora and fauna
Amur Basin
1.110
1
In the Amur Basin (Liman Tatarskiy), pines, firs, cedars
and larches are mixed with such deciduous trees as the
oak, elm, hornbeam, ash, maple, linden and the aspen. In
the alluvial lands, on the banks or on the islands of the
Amur, the vegetation is luxuriant, affording cover for wild
boar, deer and goats.
2
Tigers are found in large numbers in the Amur Basin.
Lemming and other small rodents swarm in vast numbers,
but sables, ermines, gluttons, and foxes are almost
exterminated in some districts.
Ostrov Sakhalin
1.111
1
Extensive forests of deciduous trees, including poplars,
larches, birches and conifers with a small bamboo, cover
the mountain slopes. Nearly the whole surface of the island
is occupied by forests.
2
The tundra region is flat, humid and covered with
lichens and birches. Of about 700 flowering species on the
island, only twenty are peculiar to it. The flora is
somewhat similar to that of the Amur Basin. Alpine
flowers are only found on the crests of mountains.
3
The Manchurian tiger often visits the N part of Ostrov
Sakhalin, crossing over when the strait is ice-bound, and
the bear, wild reindeer and the sable are hunted; cattle and
horses have been introduced by the Russians. Wild fowl
and white hares are plentiful. Venomous reptiles and
dangerous insects are found in the forests.
4
Whales abound in the sea off the S and E coasts of
Ostrov Sakhalin. Formerly owing to the promiscuous killing
of the seals their numbers were greatly reduced; but when
certain measures for their protection were introduced by the
Japanese there was a great increase in their numbers.
Poluostrov Kamchatka
1.112
1
In Poluostrov Kamchatka the principle tree is the birch,
of which four different species are found. The stone birch
covers the mountain slopes to a certain height, and the
white birch grows on the low ground, while the willow and
the poplar occupy the valleys. The mountains, above the
height covered with stone birch, have creeping shrubs of
cedar, alder, and mountain ash.
2
The lower parts are rich in shrubs; currants, raspberries
and other berries grow, and bilberries and blackberries are
found on the mountain slopes and high tundra. The grasses,
growing to a great height, are exceptionally stout.
3
Bears, wolfs, foxes, sables, ermines, weasels, otters,
hares, goats, deer are found, but there are no snakes or
reptiles. The birds include a species of pigeon, and swans,
geese, ducks and various wild fowl inhabit the waters. In
the surrounding seas whales, walrus, seals and sea-lions are
found along with fish consisting of salmon, cod, haddock
and herring.
Industry and trade
1.113
1
The chief industries and trade of the Russian Federation
covered by this volume are extractive ones based on
fishing, lumbering, minerals, petroleum and gas.
PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS
AND ANCHORAGES
1.114
Place and position Remarks
South Korea
1
South coast
Cheju Hang
(33°31′N 126°32′E) (2.29)
Main port of Cheju Do
Sãgwip’o Hang
(33°14′N 126°34′E) (2.62)
Second largest port on
Cheju Do
Tonae Hae
(34°02′N 127°18′E) (2.88)
Good anchorage
2
Wando Hang
(34°19′N 126°45′E) (2.148)
Small commercial port
Yãsu Hang
(34°44′N 127°45′E) (3.51)
Major commercial port
Kwangyang Hang
(34°53′N 127°45′E) (3.82)
Second largest commercial
port in South Korea
3
Samch’ãnp’o Hang
(34°55′N 128°05′E) (3.142)
Medium sized commercial
port
Tongyãng Hang
(34°50′N 128°26′E) (3.193)
Important commercial and
fishing port
CHAPTER 1
18
Place and position Remarks
Okpo Hang
(34°53′N 128°43′E) (3.236)
The site of a large ship-
building complex
4
Chisim Do Oil Terminal
(34°49′N 128°44′E) (3.245)
Offshore oil terminal
Pusan New Port
(35°04′N 128°48′E)
Container port under
construction (2005)
Chinhae Hang
(35°07′N 128°41′E) (3.277)
Medium sized commercial
port with an adjacent naval
harbour
5
Masan Hang
(35°11′N 128′35′E) (3.284)
Major commercial port and
excellent natural harbour
Kohyãn Hang
(34°55′N 128°36′E) (3.333)
A small commercial port
with a large ship-building
complex
Anjãng Hang
(34°57′N 128°26′E) (3.340)
Small commercial port with
an LNG terminal
Pusan Hang
(35°06′N 129°02′E) (3.362)
The largest commercial port
in South Korea
6
East coast
Ulsan Hang
(35°28′N 129°23′E) (4.26)
Major port serving several
large industrial complexes
along with a ship-building
and repair yard
Mip’o Hang
(35°31′N 129°27′E) (4.77)
The site of one of the
largest ship-building
complexes in the world
7
P’ohang Hang
(36°02′N 129°25′E) (4.90)
Important fishing harbour
and commercial port
serving a large steel works
Hup’o Hang
(36°41′N 129°28′E) (4.138)
Small commercial port and
fishing harbour
Samch’ãk Hang
(37°26′N 129°12′E) (4.165)
Commercial port with a
fishing harbour
8
Tonghae Hang
(37°30′N 129°09′E) (4.179)
Commercial port principally
involved in the export of
bulk cement
Muk’o Hang
(37°33′N 129°07′E) (4.186)
Industrial commercial port
exporting coal and cement
Okkye Hang
(37°37′N 129°03′E) (4.193)
Medium sized commercial
port built for the export of
cement
9
Chumunjin Hang
(37°53′N 128°50′E) (4.206)
Small coastal port with a
fishing harbour
Sokch’o Hang
(38°12′N 128°36′E) (4.214)
Commercial port for
medium sized vessels
North Korea
10
Changjãn Hang
(38°44′E, 128°12′E) (5.14)
Naval and fishing port
Kojo Po
(38°58′N 127°53′E) (5.15)
Small naval and fishing
harbour
Wãnsan Hang
(39°10′N 127°27′E) (5.25)
A commercial port with a
naval base
Sãhojin Hang
(39°49′⋅5N 127°38′⋅0E)
(5.38)
Small commercial port
11
Sãngjin Hang
(40°40′N 129°12′E) (5.85)
Important commercial port
Ch’ãngjin Hang
(41°46′N 129°48′W) (5.117)
One of the largest commercial ports on the E
coast of North Korea
Place and position Remarks
Najin Hang
(42°14′N 130°18′E) (5.150)
Medium sized commercial
port with a naval base
Unggi Hang
(42°20′N 130°24′E) (5.177)
Small commercial port
Russian Federation
12
Bukhta Troitsy
(42°39′N 131°06′E) (6.22)
Inlet with some anchorages
and a small harbour
Bukhta Reyd Pallada
(42°36′N 130°49′E) (6.25)
Anchorage roadstead
Pos’yetskyy Reyd
(46°38′N 130°48′E) (6.27)
Anchorage
Slavyanka
(42°52′N 131°23′E) (6.59)
Small commercial port
13
Vladivostok
(43°06′N 131°53′E) (6.98)
Naval base and large
commercial port
Nakhodkinskiy Oil Port
(42°46′N 132°53′E) (7.67)
Large oil terminal
Nakhodka Commercial Port
(42°48′N 132°53′E) (7.47)
Large commercial port with
a naval base
Port Vostochnyy
(42°45′E, 133°04′E) (7.82)
Major commercial port with
coal exporting pier and a
container terminal
14
Ol’ga Port
(43°44′N 135°15′E) (7.150)
A small lumber port with a
good anchorage
Bukhta Yuzhnaya
(43°53′N 135°30′E) (7.153)
Sheltered anchorage; best in
Zaliv Vladimira
Bukhta Severnaya
(43°56′N 135°28′E) (7.155)
Good anchorage
Svetlaya
(42°32′N 138°20′E) (8.20)
Small port within river
mouth
15
Vanino (49°05′N 140°16′E)
(8.44)
Medium sized commercial
port; important town
Sovetskaya Gavan’
(49°01′N 140°18′E) (8.68)
Commercial port with a
large naval base
Zaliv Chikhacheva
(51°28′N 140°50′E) (8.115)
Contains the small timber
port of De-Kastri and an oil
terminal
Port Nevel’sk
(46°40′N 141°51′E) (9.14)
A small fishing and com-
mercial port
16
Port Kholmsk
(47°03′N 142°03′E) (9.33)
Commercial port
Reyd Chekhov
(47°26′N 141°58′E) (9.75)
Open roadstead
Reyd Tomari
(47°46′N 142°03′E) (9.76)
Open roadstead
Reyd Il’inskiy
(47°59′N 142°12′E) (9.77)
Anchorage
17
Zaliv Izyl’met’yeva
(48°53′N 141°56′E) (9.94)
Open roadstead
Uglegorsk
(49°05′N 142°02′E) (9.86)
Commercial port
Portovyy Punkt Shakhtërsk
(49°10′N 142°03′E) (9.97)
A subsidiary port of
Uglegorsk
Portovyy Punkt
Oktyabr’skiy
(50°44′N 142°05′E) (9.112)
Open roadstead
18
Reyd Makar’yevskiy
(50°50′N 142°05′E) (9.118)
Open roadstead
Reyd Aleksandrovskiy
(50°54′N 142°05′E) (9.119)
Roadstead for the important
city of Aleksandrovsk
Sakhalinskiy
CHAPTER 1
19
Place and position Remarks
Port Lazarev
(52°14′N 141°31′E) (10.15)
Small port exposed NE
19
Nikolayevsk
(53°08′N 140°43′E) (10.57)
Important commercial port
and naval base
Mago (53°15′N 140°13′E)
(10.69)
Minor river port; exports
lumber
Komsomol’sk
(50°33′N 136°58′E) (10.71)
River port and important
city
Port Moskal’vo
(53°32′N 142°31′E) (10.84)
Oil terminal
20
Zaliv Mordvinova
(46°53′N 143°22′E) (11.21)
Sheltered roadstead
Reyd Starodubskiy
(47°25′N 142°49′E) (11.27)
Open roadstead
Reyd Vostochnyy
(48°17′N 142°38′E) (11.36)
Small commercial port
21
Reyd Makarova
(48°37′N 142°47′E) (11.37)
Open roadstead
Reyd Poronaysk
(49°13′N 143°08′E) (11.46)
Commercial port; the best
one on the E coast of Ostrov Sakhalin
Zaliv Konstantina (54°02′N 137°27′E) (12.24)
Well sheltered anchorage
22
Zaliv Ayan
(56°27′N 138°09′E) (12.82)
Sheltered anchorage; best
on the NW coast of the Sea
of Okhotsk
Okhotskiy Morsky Rybnyy
Port (59°21′N 143°10′E)
(12.97)
Open roadstead serving an
important town
Zaliv Motykleyskiy
(59°26′N 148°50′E)
(12.148)
Sheltered anchorage
23
Magadan
(59°33′N 150°43′E)
(12.139)
Largest commercial port in
the Sea of Okhotsk
Ol’skiy Reyd
(59°32′N 151°20′E)
(12.151)
Open roadstead
Bukhta Melkovodnaya
(59°14′N 152°14′E)
(12.153)
Anchorage sheltered except
from the W
24
Portovvy Punkt Oktyabr’skiy (52°40′N 156°14′E) (13.14)
Small commercial port
PORT SERVICES − SUMMARY
Docking facilities
1.115
1
Ports with docking facilities and where available, the
size of the largest vessel that can be accommodated, are as
follows:
South Korea
Cheju Hang. One dry dock for vessel up to 500 dwt
(2.35).
2
Okpo Hang. Two dry docks and two floating docks.
The largest can accommodate vessels up to
1 000 000 tonnes (3.242).
Chinhae Hang. One dry dock (3.283).
Kohyãn Hang. Two dry docks and one floating dock;
large vessels accommodated (3.339).
3
Pusan Hang. Five dry docks and one floating dock.
The largest dry dock handles vessels up to
150 000 tonnes (3.401).
Ulsan Hang. Four large dry docks, capable of
accommodating vessels up to 400 000 dwt, and
five floating docks (4.62).
4
Mip’o Hang. Three repair dry docks and six building
dry docks. The largest repair dry dock handles
vessels up to 400 000 dwt (4.83).
P’ohang Hang. Patent slips for vessels up to
500 tonnes (4.119).
Muk’o Hang. Three slipways for vessels up to
300 tonnes (4.192).
5
North Korea
Najin Hang. One dry dock and one floating dock. the
dry dock has a capacity of 10 000 tonnes (5.158).
Russian Federation
Slavyanka. Three floating docks (6.59).
Vladivostok. Several dry docks and floating docks
(6.132).
6
Nakhodka Commercial Port. Seven floating docks
(7.63).
Port Nevel’sk. Dry docking facilities (9.20).
Nikolayevsk. Dry dock and three floating docks
(10.61).
Other facilities
Compass adjustment
1.116
1
Russian Federation
Port Nevel’sk (9.20).
Deratting
1.117
1
South Korea
Cheju Hang (2.35).
Yãsu Hang (3.79).
Masan Hang (3.313).
Pusan Hang (3.402).
Ulsan Hang (4.63).
P’ohang Hang (4.120).
Muk’o Hang (4.192).
2
North Korea
Wãnsan Hang (5.31).
Sãhojin Hang (5.44).
Ch’ãngjin Hang (5.141).
Russian Federation
Vladivostok (6.133).
Nakhodka Commercial Port (7.64).
Vanino (8.65).
3
Port Kholmsk (9.55).
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy (9.119).
Port Lazarev (10.15).
Nikolayevsk (10.61).
Mago (10.69).
Magadan (12.145).
CHAPTER 1
20
Measured distances
1.118
1
South Korea
Tongyãng Haeman (3.184).
Chisim Do (3.229).
Chinhae Man (3.322).
Itãgam (4.70).
2
Russian Federation
Zaliv Amurskiy (6.52), near Vladivostok.
Ostrov Russkiy (6.72), near Vladivostok.
Mys Sysoyeva (6.81).
Mys Povorotnyy (7.112).
3
Mys Gydzhu (8.37).
Magadan (12.142).
CHAPTER 1
21
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
Seabed
South coast of Korea
1.119
1
The S coast of Korea extends NE from Cheju Do
(33°25′N 126°35′E) at the SW end to the Western Channel
of the Korea Strait off Tsushima (34°25′N 129°20′E). The
continental shelf of the Korean coast is narrow, averaging
about 30 km. It is featureless apart from a complicated
plateau-like feature with a depth of 1000 m called the
Korean Plateau or Korean Continental Borderland.
2
The Korea Strait, with the island of Tsushima in the
middle, is approximately 200 km wide. The Western
Channel between the SE coast of Korea and Tsushima is
relatively deeper and narrower than the Eastern Channel
between Tsushima and the N coast of Kyøshø. A steep
trough with a maximum depth of 227 m exists nearer to
Tsushima in the Western Channel.
3
Within the Korea Strait area the shoals off Korea and
Honshø merge, forming a shallow water area from 120 to
140 m deep. The bottom sediments in most of the area off
the S coast of Korea are composed of relic Pleistocene
sands and recent sediments are limited to near-shore areas
with variable thickness. The fine sediments transported, in
suspension, from the Chang Jiang estuary of China cover
the relic Pleistocene sands in the SW part of the area.
Sea of Japan
1.120
1
The E coast of Korea and Siberia extends N from the
Korea Strait to the S end of Ostrov Sakhalin and
incorporates the W part of the Sea of Japan extending from
the Siberia coast to the oceanic area just beyond the
Yamato Rise. The Sea of Japan has an area of
978 000 km
2
, a maximum depth of 3742 m, and an average
depth of 1752 m.
2
There are three basins within the Sea of Japan. The
Japan Basin in the N, over 3000 m deep, the Yamato Basin,
2500 to 3500 m deep, in the SE, and the Tsushima Basin,
1500 to 2500 m deep in the SW. South of the Yamato and
Tsushima Basins lies a shallow continental shelf
approximately 120 m deep. Off the Siberian coast of the
Sea of Japan there is a narrow continental shelf from where
the sea bottom descends to a basin 3000 m deep.
3
The most complicated seabed topography in the S part
of the Sea of Japan. Here, the main geological feature is
the Yamato Rise which is formed by the Yamato Bank and
the North Yamato Bank, the tops of which reach nearly
200 m underwater with an enclosed basin situated between
them. Between the Yamato Rise and the slope off Honshø
is the Honshø Basin with depths of about 3000 m. In the
SW part of the sea is the shallower Tsushima Basin.
4
The character of the seabed is coarse to medium sand
containing a good deal of broken shell. Pumiceous gravel
and brownish broken and probably fossilised shells are
distributed over part of the seabed.
Sea of Okhotsk
1.121
1
The Sea of Okhotsk is located in the NW Pacific
between the Asian coast and the Kuril Islands chain and
Poluostrov Kamchatka. The surface area is approximately
1⋅6 million km
2
, with an average depth of 821 m and a
deepest point of 3374 m in the Kuril Basin.
2
In the Sea of Okhotsk the major morphological zones of
bottom relief are the shelf, consisting of the continental and
island shoal of Sakhalin, the continental slope on which lie
particular under-sea rises, troughs and islands, and a
deep-water depression.
3
The shelf zone, from 0 to 200 m deep has a width of
180 to 250 km and occupies about 20% of the sea area.
The continental slope, wide and gently sloping in the
central part of the basin, with depths from 200 to 2000 m,
occupies about 65% of the sea area. The N and W parts
are shallow and slope to the Deryugin Basin with a
maximum depth of 1700 m.
4
Several rises and troughs occur in the continental slope
area where the depths sharply change. The slopes to the
Kuril Basin are in the order of 8 to 10°. On the W side of
the Kuril Basin, the Hokkaidë-Sakhalin slope is dissected
by numerous submarine canyons that cross deep-sea
terraces. The N slope is generally smooth with four
identifiable spurs.
5
The floor of the deep-water basin represents a plane
abyssal valley, with the deepest basin being located in the
S part of the sea accounting for 8% of the sea area. The
Kuril Archipelago farther to the S is a natural threshold
separating the sea basin from the ocean.
6
Sediments over the NE Sakhalin coast are predominantly
of fine to medium sands. Fine sands are prevalent in water
depths of less than 20 m but further offshore medium sands
are dominant. The proportion of silt in the sediments is
generally low but reaches approximately 6% in a shallow
strip close to the shore. Coarser and more gravely
sediments occur in the 25 to 45 m depth range.
Volcanic activity
1.122
1
There is volcanic activity in the areas adjacent to the
area covered by this volume, and in particular around
Japan. The islands of Japan lie at at the point where three
tectonic plates meet. These are the Eurasian Plate, the
Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate. The frictions and
movements between these three plates make Japan highly
susceptible to earthquakes and consequently tsunamis. The
main areas of seismic activity are on the Pacific side of
Japan where the deep ocean trenches are formed by the
subduction of one plate below the edge of another,
periodically causing major earthquakes.
2
Although the main areas of seismic activity are on the
Pacific side of Japan, seismic events of significant
magnitude are likely to occur near Honshø, the main island
of Japan, and also to the W of the islands of Japan.
LOCAL MAGNETIC ANOMALIES
1.123
1
Remarks. Local magnetic anomalies, resulting from
local geological conditions, are experienced in the
following areas. Details of the anomalies are given in the
body of the book. Local anomalies are shown on Russian
charts as the actual variation observed at the positions
given.
2
Korea
West-south-west of Hwangjedo (2.95).
Taegudu (2.135).
South-west of Paek Sã (3.21).
North-west of Paek Sã (3.39).
Pusan Hang (3.385).
CHAPTER 1
22
North Korea
Musu Dan (5.81).
3
Russia
Between Mys Krasnaya Skala and Mys Nizmennyy
(7.128).
Between Mys Nizmennyy and Mys Yuzhnyy (7.142).
Between Bukhta Innokentiya and Mys Mapatsa
(8.38).
Sovetskaya Gavan (8.76).
Mys Datta (8.93).
4
Mys Bychiy (8.93).
Mys Syurkum (8.93).
Bukhta Datta (8.99).
Zaliv Chikhacheva (8.118).
Ostrov Monneron (9.21).
Mys Kitovsi (9.105).
Mys Mosiya (9.105).
North-north-east of Mys Mosiya (9.105).
5
Mys Furugell’ma (9.105).
Reyd Shirokaya Pad’ (9.109).
Ostrov Reyneke and Mys Litke (10.96).
Poluostrov Lisyanskogo (12.120).
Tauyskaya Guba (12.133).
Mys Kambal’nyy (13.11).
CURRENTS, TIDAL STREAMS AND FLOW
Currents
General
1.124
1
The three main circulations described in this volume are
those of the Sea of Japan, Gulf of Tartary and Sea of
Okhotsk. Seasonal changes are evident in these circulations
as illustrated in diagrams 1.124.1 to 1.124.4.
Currents diagrams
1.125
1
In the current diagrams 1.124.1 to 1.124.4, arrows
indicating the Predominant Direction, Average Rate and
Constancy are shown, which are defined as follows:
Predominant Direction is the mean direction within a
continuous 90 sector containing the highest
proportion of observations from all sectors.
Average rate is the highest 50% of all observations in
the predominant sector as indicated by the figures
in the diagram. It is emphasised that rates above
and below those shown may be experienced.
Constancy, as indicated by the thickness of the
arrows, is a measure of its persistence; e.g. low
constancy implies marked variability in rate and,
particularly, the direction of the current.
Tsushima Current
1.126
1
The origin of this current is a warm water flow of
Pacific origin that sets NE towards Kyushu and Tsushima.
To the S of Cheju Do (33°25′N 126°35′E) it subdivides
with the weakest stream flowing N into the Yellow Sea and
the stronger flow turning NE to pass either side of
Tsushima into Sea of Japan where it becomes the Tsushima
Current. During the summer months, the flow through
Korea Strait reaches a maximum with an average rate of
about 1 kn. Water passing to the N of Tsushima diverges at
the NE end of Korea Strait with one branch setting E to
pass N of Okhi Shoto (36°10′N 133°15′E), and which
eventually rejoins the Tsushima Current. The second branch
moves N along the E coast of Korea to become the East
Korean or Doson (Toson) Current. During the winter
months this current sometimes reverses direction as the
Liman Current extends S.
2
Currents within the central part of Sea of Japan are
variable as a result of the Tsushima and Liman Currents. In
the E part of Sea of Japan, towards the W coast of
Hokkaido and through La Perouse Strait, the surface flow
is controlled by the Tsushima Current. This current sets NE
along the W coast of Hokkaido and where it occasionally
generates an anti-clockwise eddy on its W flank.
Liman Current
1.127
1
The Liman Current has its origins in the neighbourhood
of Proliv Nevelskogo, at the N end of Gulf of Tartary. It is
a cold current which sets SSW along the Siberian coast and
then sets E into Sea of Japan. The extent to which it
penetrates SSW depends on the season but for much of the
year it is limited to about 40°N. However, in winter it
continues further SSW down the E coast of Korea before
recurving towards the E.
Sea of Okhotsk
1.128
1
To the E of La Perouse Strait the current sets mainly to
the SE then NE to parallel the Kuril Islands. Observations
are sparse over the open waters in the N but weak
anti-clockwise circulations are indicated. Off the SW coast
of Kamchatka, S sets predominate but the constancy is low
in winter and spring.
Tropical cyclone derived currents
1.129
1
Generally only slow moving tropical storms or typhoons
produce currents of around 2 kn, and which set in the
direction to which the wind is blowing. However, if a
tropical storm is located near a coast then higher rates are
possible due to the piling up of water against the coastline.
See The Mariner’s Handbook.
Tidal streams
1.130
1
There is a great variety in the tidal streams along the
shores covered by this volume. The summary which
follows describes their main features. Local conditions such
as headlands, islands offshore and constricted or shallow
channels may increase the rates of the streams and alter
their direction from those generally applicable to the shore
off which details of the streams are required. Details of the
local streams are given in the body of the book for all
places where reliable information is available; reference
should always be made to this detailed information.
2
Throughout the area, as along most of the shores of the
Pacific Ocean, the diurnal inequality of the streams, as of
the tides, is large. When the moon’s declination is high, N
or S, one stream of the day in each direction is increased
in rate and duration and the other streams in each direction
correspondingly decreased. In some localities this inequality
is so pronounced that there is only one stream in each
direction per day lasting 12½ hours or so for many days
each month.
3
Especially in those areas where the tidal streams are
weak, the effect of the currents may be more important
than those of the streams. Reference should be made to the
description of the currents (1.124).
4
The summary gives the general direction and maximum
spring rate of the stream flowing during the rising tide
(in-going stream); the stream during the falling tide
Weak counter-clockwise
circulations, 1
/
2
knot or less.
Currents variable
S E A O F O K H O T S K
S E A
O F
J A PA N
1
3
/
4
<
1
/
2
1
3
/
4
1
1
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
Probable direction when
observation count is low
KEY
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Predominant currents - MARCH to MAY (1.124.1)
CHAPTER 1
23
Weak counter-clockwise
circulations, 1
/
2
knot or less.
Currents variable
S E A O F O K H O T S K
S E A
O F
J A PA N
<
1
/
2
1
3
/
4
1
1
/
2
2
1
/
4
1
1
1
1
3
/
4 - 1
1
1
1
1
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
Probable direction when
observation count is low
KEY
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Predominant currents - JUNE to AUGUST (1.124.2)
CHAPTER 1
24
CHAPTER 1
25
Weak counter-clockwise
circulations, 1
/
2
knot or less.
Currents variable
S E A O F O K H O T S K
S E A
O F
J A PA N
1
3
/
4
1
1
/
2
1
1
/
2
2
1
/
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
/
4
- 1
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
Probable direction when
observation count is low
KEY
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Predominant currents - SEPTEMBER to NOVEMBER (1.124.3)
1
1
/
2
1
1
/
4
1
1
/
4
1
1
/
4
1
1
1
1
1
2
Weak counter-clockwise
circulations, 1
/
2
knot or less.
S E A O F O K H O T S K
S E A
O F
J A PA N
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
Probable direction when
observation count is low
KEY
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Predominant currents - DECEMBER to FEBRUARY (1.124.4)
CHAPTER 1
26
CHAPTER 1
27
(out-going stream) is in the reciprocal direction and
generally flows at the same maximum rate. The streams do
not, in general, turn at HW or LW; the detailed information
under the various localities gives the times of turn of the
streams relative to local HW or to the time of HW at a
Standard Port predicted in Admiralty Tide Tables, if this
information is known.
5
Along the S coast of Korea, among the islands offshore
and in the N half of Korea Strait the in-going stream sets
W at 1 to 2 kn, increasing to 5 kn among the islands. In
general, the rates diminish E; off Pusan Hang the in-going
stream sets SW at 1 kn. Along the E coast of Korea the
in-going stream sets S but diminishes rapidly in strength as
one goes N and becomes negligible N of Ulsan Man. The
tidal streams are generally negligible all along the coasts of
Korea and the Russian Federation as far as Gulf of Tartary.
6
Along both shores of Gulf of Tartary the in-going stream
sets N at a rate which increases gradually to about 2 kn at
the head of the gulf except for a short stretch of coast at
the S end of Sakhalin where it sets SE into La Perouse
Strait (Sãya Kaikyo). In the narrower channels of Proliv
Nevel’skogo at the N end of Gulf of Tartary the in-going
stream sets N and attains 4 to 5 kn.
7
The in-going stream also sets N along the E coast of
Sakhalin and the W coast of Poluostrov Kamchatka into the
Sea of Okhotsk at rates which, except in Penzhinskiy Zaliv,
do not exceed 1 kn. Along the N shore of the Sea of
Okhotsk the in-going stream sets N into Penzhinskiy Zaliv
at the NE corner of the sea, and W or SW towards
Shantarskiye Ostrova at the SW corner of the sea. The
in-going stream also sets W along the S shore from
Sakhalinskiy Zaliv towards Shantarskiye Ostrova. These
streams along the shores of the Sea Okhotsk are strong,
increasing from 2 to 5 or 7 kn both in Penzhinskaya Guba
and along Shantarskiye Ostrova.
8
In Proliv Kuril’skiy the in-going stream sets NW at 4 to
5 kn; the streams decrease up the E coast of Kamchatka
and the in-going stream off Mys Shipunskiy, on the W
coast of Kamchatka, sets NW at about 1½ kn.
SEA LEVEL AND TIDES
Tides
General remarks
1.131
1
On the S coast of Korea the tides are semi-diurnal, but
on rounding the SE corner of Korea the diurnal inequality
increases.
On the coast of the S part of Kamchatka, the E coast of
Ostrov Sakhalin and in Sakhalinksiy Zaliv the tides are
mainly diurnal.
2
On the NW shore of the Sea of Okhotsk the tides are
semi-diurnal. In Penzhinskiy Zaliv, which forms the NE
part of the Sea of Okhotsk, the tides are predominantly
diurnal.
Tidal ranges
1.132
1
On the S coast of Korea the spring ranges about 3⋅0 m
at the W end, decreasing to 1⋅0 m at the E end. Rounding
the SE corner of Korea the ranges decrease, being less than
0⋅5 m throughout the E coast of Korea and the Russian
Federation as far N as the Gulf of Tartary, at the head of
which the range increases to about 2⋅0 m.
2
On the coast of the S part of Kamchatka, the E coast of
Ostrov Sakhalin and in Sakhalinsky Zaliv the range is
about 1⋅0 m. On the NW shore of the Sea of Okhotsk the
ranges are mostly from 2 to 3 m, though as much as 5⋅0 m
can be found among Shantarskiye Ostrova. In Penzhinskiy
Zaliv the range at the head is as much as 7⋅0 m.
SEA AND SWELL
General
1.133
1
For definitions of sea and swell, and the terminology
used in describing their characteristics, see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Sea conditions
1.134
1
Sea waves generated by the wind can be very variable
in direction but particularly during the transitional months
between the NE and SW Monsoons. Sea waves are
generally lower than expected in the bays and inlets but
become fully developed over the more open waters of the
Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk.
2
During the winter months sea waves are mainly from
the NW in the S and central areas and from the NE, in any
ice-free waters, in the extreme NE of the area. In the
summer months, sea waves are predominantly from
between S and SW in the S but more variable in central
and N areas.
Swell conditions
1.135
1
Diagrams 1.135.1 and 1.135.2 give swell roses for
several areas in January and July. The roses show the
percentage of observations recording swell waves for
various directions and several ranges of wave height.
2
The predominate directions of the swell waves are
similar to those of the sea waves. Heights are generally low
to moderate in winter and low in summer. Heavy swells of
3⋅5m and over are uncommon in summer, except in the
vicinity of the occasional typhoon or tropical storm that
may affect the area to the S of 50°N. In winter, swells of
3⋅5m and over occur on around 5 to 10% of occasions in
the ice-free open waters, particularly in the S part of Sea of
Okhotsk.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Salinity
1.136
1
For an explanation of salinity as applied to sea-water,
see The Mariner’s Handbook. The unit of measurement is
the Practical Salinity unit(s).
There are marked differences between the salinity
characteristics of the sea areas covered in this volume. The
Sea of Japan has a largely uniform isohaline structure with
a shallow surface layer of lower salinity forming in the
summer months. Salinity values in the Sea of Japan range
from 33⋅70 in September to 34⋅20 in February.
2
In the Sea of Okhotsk there is a persistent surface layer
of lower salinity caused by icing during the winter months
and high monsoon rains in the summer. High rainfall and
river run-off lead to local low salinity masses forming in
coastal regions adjacent to rivers in the spring and summer,
particularly in the region to the NW of Ostrov Sakhalin
where values range from 31⋅40 in September to 32⋅00 in
February. The area to the SE is oceanic in nature with
surface salinity gradually decreasing from 34⋅50 in the S to
32⋅50 in the N.
0.5-2
2.5-3
3.5-6
6.5-8
8+
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the f requency of swel l of di f ferent hei ght s (i n metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Swell distribution - JANUARY (1.135.1)
CHAPTER 1
28
0.5-2
2.5-3
3.5-6
6.5-8
8+
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the f requency of swel l of di f ferent hei ght s (i n metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Swell distribution - JULY (1.135.2)
CHAPTER 1
29
CHAPTER 1
30
Density
1.137
1
For an explanation of density as applied to sea-water,
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Density in the Sea of Japan generally increases towards
the mainland. This is largely the result of lower
temperatures adjacent to this coast. Sea of Japan values
vary from 1⋅0239 g/cm
3
in summer to 1⋅0272 g/cm
3
in
winter. Values in the Sea of Okhotsk range from
1⋅0239 g/cm
3
in summer to 1⋅0267 g/cm
3
in winter.
Areas of low density can be expected adjacent to all
rivers, particularly those on the Sea of Okhotsk coast where
very high river run-off is experienced in the spring and
summer. Density in the SE area shows the general global
oceanic trend with density of 1⋅0243 g/cm
3
in the S
gradually increasing towards the N to 1⋅0265 g/cm
3
.
Sea surface temperatures
1.138
1
Diagrams 1.138.1 to 1.138.4 show the mean sea surface
temperatures for February, May, August and November.
Minimum temperatures occur in February and maximum in
August, and with the mean sea surface temperature falling
to sub-zero in N waters between January and March. There
is generally a steady rise of sea surface temperature in
April and with a much sharper rise in May. In these waters
sea surface temperatures slowly decrease during September
and October but with a more rapid fall in January and
February.
2
The sea is usually slightly warmer than the overlying air
from October to February and colder from May to August.
The sea surface temperature may fall several degrees (°C)
below the mean monthly sea surface temperature during
prolonged spells of very cold N winds in winter but
frequent E-moving depressions may result in sea surface
temperature rises of between 1° and 3°C above the mean.
3
The onset and cessation of the monsoon seasons can
vary considerably in some years and with a corresponding
lag or advance of the increase in sea surface temperatures
in spring and summer and the decrease in autumn and
winter.
Ice accumulation
1.139
1
In certain weather conditions, ice accumulates on the
hulls and superstructures of ships navigating the more N
waters covered by this volume, and can be a very serious
danger to their stability. Details of the causes and the
recommended course of action are given in The Mariner’s
Handbook.
ICE CONDITIONS
General information
Remarks
1.140
1
For descriptive terms and illustrations of different kinds
of ice together with remarks on the formation and
movement of sea ice, ice accumulation on ships, navigation
in ice and arctic survival see The Mariner’s Handbook.
2
The following description of the state of ice in the
various regions covered by this volume is based on the
monthly sea ice concentrations for the period of 20 years
between January 1984 and December 2003. Diagrams
1.140.1 to 1.140.4 show the level of ice concentration for
November, December, January, February, March, April,
May and June.
Korea
South Korea
1.141
1
There is normally in winter time some sea ice in
specific locations in the N part of the E coast of South
Korea but it does not cause serious obstruction to
navigation.
North Korea
1.142
1
During winter along the E coast of North Korea ice is
always present in low or very low concentrations except in
the area of Kyãngsãng Man (41°35′N 129°45′E), a large
bay open to the E near the town of Ch’ãngjin, where
concentrations in the range of 40 to 50% have been
observed.
East coast of the Russian Federation
and Sea of Okhotsk
Ice season
1.143
1
In the NW part of the Sea of Okhotsk, in Zaliv
Shelikova and in the Strait of Tartary the ice season
normally starts in November and lasts until June, although
in exceptional cases freezing begins in October and ice
remains in some particular places until July. The average
duration of the ice season is around 240 days. Extremely
long seasons lasting for 290 days have in the past occurred
in these regions. In the other sectors of the Sea of Okhotsk
and in the Gulf of Tartary the duration of the ice season is
shorter and depends on the location.
November
1.144
1
Ice formation usually begins in November in the Strait
of Tartary, Sakhalinskiy Zaliv, the part of the Sea of
Okhotsk SW of a line joining Mys Aleksandra and Mys
Madzhalinda, which includes Zaliv Akademii, Zaliv
Tugurskiy, Udskaya Guba and the SW half of Shantarskiye
Ostrova, along the NW shore of the Sea of Okhotsk
between Mys Madzhalinda and Zaliv Ayan, Tauyskaya
Guba, Yamskaya Guba, in the inner part of Gizhiginskaya
Guba and in Penzhinskaya Guba. Ice formation may also
occur, in much smaller quantities though, along the N shore
of the Sea of Okhotsk between Zaliv Ayan and Mys
Tolstoy.
2
Close pack may already be formed as early as
November in the N part of the Strait of Tartary, in the E
part of Sakhalinskiy Zaliv, in the inner parts of Zaliv
Akademii, Zaliv Tugurskiy, Udskaya Guba, in the inner
part of Gizhiginskaya Guba and in the N part of
Gizhiginskaya Guba.
3
Very close pack may occur in exceptionally early
seasons at the N entrance of the Strait of Tartary, and at
the head of Gizhiginskaya Guba and Penzhinskaya Guba.
Finally, it should be noted than in some particular locations
in the Sea of Okhotsk where the salinity is lower, such as
near the mouth of a river, freezing often starts in October.
Freezing can however also occasionally begin in October in
areas with no considerable input of fresh water.
December
1.145
1
In December it is normal to find coastal fast ice along
the E coast of Siberia from Bukhta Innokentiya, on the W
shore of the Gulf of Tartary, all the way to Mys
Utkolokskiy, on the W coast of Poluostrov Kamchatskiy;
on the W coast of Ostrov Sakhalin N of Mys Lamanon;
CAUTION
Diagram is based upon extremely
limited data north of 50°N
0
0
0
2
2
4
4
8
6
1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
1
8
1
6
1
4
1
2
1
0
8
6
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) FEBRUARY (1.138.1)
CHAPTER 1
31
CAUTION
Diagram is based upon very
limited data north of 50°N
0
2
4
4
6
6
8
1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
2
2
2
0
1
8
1
6
1
4
1
2
1
0
8
2
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) MAY (1.138.2)
CHAPTER 1
32
CAUTION
Diagram is based upon very
limited data north of 50°N
8
1
0
6
1
4
1
2
1
0
8
6
2
4
2
2
6
1
2
1
6
1
8
1
6
2
0
2
2
2
4
2
6
2
6
2
8
2
8
2
6
2
4
2
2
2
0
1
8
1
6
1
4
1
2
1
0
1
4
8
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) AUGUST (1.138.3)
CHAPTER 1
33
CAUTION
Diagram is based upon
limited data north of 50°N
0
0
2
4
4
4
6
6
8
1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
1
8
2
0
2
2
2
4
2
0
2
0
1
8
1
6
1
4
1
2
1
0
8
2
2
2
4
2
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) NOVEMBER (1.138.4)
CHAPTER 1
34
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - November (1984-2003)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - December (1984-2003) (1.140.1)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 1
35
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - January (1984-2003)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - February (1984-2003) (1.140.2)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 1
36
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - March (1984-2003)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - April (1984-2003) (1.140.3)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 1
37
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
15%
Ice concentration
35%
60%
80%
95%
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - May (1984-2003)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
Average sea ice concentration - June (1984-2003) (1.140.4)
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 1
38
CHAPTER 1
39
and on the E coast of this island in Zaliv Terpeniya and N
of Mys Terpeniya. The belt of ice at the E coast of
Sakhalin extends to the E up to approximately 145°E.
There is also drifting ice in the central part of the Gulf of
Tartary N of 48°N.
2
Close pack is now present in the Gulf of Tartary N of
50°N, on the E coast of Sakhalin N of Zaliv Nabil′skiy, on
the N coast of Sakhalin, in the area SW of a line joining
Mys Aleksandra and Mys Madzhalinda, including
Shantarskiye Ostrova, on the NW shore of the Sea of
Okhotsk between Mys Madzhalinda and Zaliv Ayan, in the
N part of Gizhiginskaya Guba and in almost all of
Penzhinskaya Guba.
3
Very close pack is now found in the Strait of Tartary, in
Sakhalinskiy Zaliv, Zaliv Akademii, Zaliv Tugurskiy,
Udskaya Guba, in the SW half of Shantarskiye Ostrova, at
the head of Gizhiginskaya Guba and in the N half of
Penzhinskaya Guba.
4
In the Sea of Okhotsk away from the shores the
situation concerning drifting ice is as follows: N of 57°N
there is basically no ice between the W coast of
Kamchatka and the longitude of 148°E. From this longitude
the ice concentrations increase W towards the NW shore
(where they have values between 50 and 60%). Between
54°N and 57°N there is no ice between the W coast of
Kamchatka and the meridian 144°E. West of 144°E of this
longitude there is mostly ice of medium concentration; S of
54°N the Sea of Okhotsk is free of ice E of 145°E.
5
There is not yet close pack far away from the shores
(normally the ocean starts freezing from the coast and the
ice belt extends outwards as the season advances).
January
1.146
1
On the E coast of Siberia the ice belt extends down to
Mys Sosunova (latitude 46½°′N) and on the W coast of
Kamchatka down to Mys Lopatka, the S extremity of the
peninsula. There is now ice all around Sakhalin, except in
a relatively small stretch of the W coast around Port
Kholmsk, and the ice pack extends E from the E coast of
the island out to approximately 148°E.
2
In the central part of the Gulf of Tartary there is ice
drift of low concentration N of 47½°N and very close pack
all across the gulf N of 50°N. The Strait of Tartary is
obstructed by consolidated pack.
The extent of the ice cover in the Sea of Okhotsk is
much larger than in the previous month. Roughly speaking,
there is ice W of a line joining the entrance of Zaliv
Shelikova and the E extremity of the NE coast of the
island of Hokkaido.
3
The portion of the Sea of Okhotsk limited in latitude by
the parallels 55°N and 58°N and in longitude by the
meridian 151°E and the vicinity of the W coast of
Kamchatka is free of ice, or, at most, with ice of very low
concentration. There is no ice, or there is only ice of very
low concentration, in the waters whose latitude is in the
range from 50°N to 55°N and whose longitude is between
148°E and the W coast of Kamchatka.
4
Close pack is normally found in the Sea of Okhotsk W
of a line joining Mys Alevina, the E entrance of Tauyskaya
Guba, to the N coast of Sakhalin, and in Zaliv Shelikova S
of 60°N.
Very close pack may be found W of a line joining
Poluostrov Lisyanskogo and the N coast of Sakhalin, along
the E coast of Sakhalin, in Tauyskaya Guba, and in both
arms of Zaliv Shelikova N of 60°N.
5
At this time of year the thickness of the level ice is 40
to 50 cm in Zaliv Shelikova, 30 to 40 cm on the coast of
Kamchatka and 40 to 70 cm in the open sea. Drifting ice
starts to be subjected to strong compression and
hummocking due to the influence of currents and winds.
February
1.147
1
The ice cover continues to grow during February. At this
time of the year ice can be found anywhere in the Sea of
Okhotsk W of a line joining a point on the W coast of
Kamchatka at the latitude of 56°N to the island of Iturup
(one of the Kurils, in the S part of the archipelago). The
SE is thus the only sector of the Sea of Okhotsk free of
ice.
2
North of the latitude 54°N very close pack occurs in the
portion of the Sea of Okhotsk which lies W of the line
joining Mys Tolstoy and the N coast of Sakhalin. South of
54°N the field of very close pack extends to the E up to
approximately 75 miles from the E coast of Sakhalin.
Very close pack also occupies the Gulf of Tartary
approximately N of 49°N, Zaliv Shelikova N of 59°N and
the whole E shore of Zaliv Shelikova down to Mys
Utkolokskiy.
3
Consolidated pack is observed in the Strait of Tartary,
along most of the E coast of Sakhalin. in the NW portion
of the Sea of Okhotsk which lies W of a line joining the N
coast of Sakhalin and Mys Yenkan (including Sakhalinskiy
Zaliv and Shantarskiye Ostrova), in Yamskaya Guba, and in
the portion of Penzhinskaya Guba N of the line joining
Poluostrov Yelistratova and Poluostrov Mamechinskiy.
4
The E and W halves of the central part of the Okhotsk
Sea differ sharply in the character of the ice conditions.
March
1.148
1
In most seasons the ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk
extends to its maximum in March, although this can also
happen in February. In a very severe winter sea ice may
cover up to 99% of the Sea of Okhotsk while in a warm
winter it may cover about 65%. From 1984 to 2003, the
largest ice cover observed was about 95% of the total area.
2
Statistically, the extension of the ice cover in the Sea of
Okhotsk is just slightly larger in March than in February.
In an average March the contour lines are similar to those
of an average February with the exception of the 95%
contour. In fact, the area covered by consolidated pack is
much larger in March than in February; it is approximately
all the portion of the NW Sea of Okhotsk W of a line
joining Mys Alevina and the N coast of Sakhalin.
3
The situation is different in the Gulf of Tartary, where
the retreat of the ice is already visible. There is no longer
very close pack (except near the shores) but just close pack
(restricted to the portion N of 49°N). Consolidated pack
still blocks the Strait of Tartary. In severe winters large
amounts of drifting ice reach the Kuril Islands blocking
some straits.
4
Maximal values of the ice thickness (90 to 160 cm) are
then observed in severe winters in Sakhalinskiy Zaliv and
in the area to the NE of Mys Yelizavety (Northern
Sakhalin). Hummock height in particular bays can reach
1⋅5 to 3⋅0 m but in the open sea it does not exceed 1⋅0 m.
By the severity of the ice conditions, the Sea of Okhotsk is
comparable to the Arctic Seas.
April
1.149
1
The retreat of the ice, initiated in March, continues in
April, with the outer areas of the ice cover melting first. In
CHAPTER 1
40
some areas of the NW part of the Sea of Okhotsk the
break-up of the ice also occurs occasionally near the shore,
originating coastal polynyas.
2
In an average April, ice can be found in the Sea of
Okhotsk W of a line joining the entrance of Zaliv
Shelikova to the central part of the NE coast of Hokkaido
and also in Zaliv Shelikova, from the entrance to the head.
The W coast of Kamchatka S of Mys Utkolokskiy is
already ice-free.
3
In the Gulf of Tartary, ice is now restricted to the
portion N of 50°N near the shores (which is approximately
the latitude of Mys Syurkum on the W and Mys Belkina
on the E) and N of 51°N in the central part, away from the
shores.
4
Close pack and very close pack lie generally W of the
line joining Mys Tolstoy to the N coast of Sakhalin and
along the E coast of Sakhalin N of Mys Terpeniya. There
is also very close pack in the W part of Gizhiginskaya
Guba and in the region of Penzhinskaya Guba N of the
line joining Poluostrov Yelistratova and Poluostrov
Mamechinskiy.
5
Finally, there is still consolidated pack in the Strait of
Tartary and in a relatively small area of the Sea of Okhotsk
S of the line joining Mys Yelizavety and Mys Madzhalinda
(which contains Sakhalinskiy Zaliv and the SW half of
Shantarskiye Ostrova).
May
1.150
1
Most of the Sea of Okhotsk is now free of ice. Between
the latitudes 50°N and 57½°N ice is found roughly W of
144°E; there is still a band of ice on the E coast of
Sakhalin N of Mys Terpeniya extending eastwards up to
144°E. North of 57½°N there is ice between the W shore
of the Sea of Okhotsk and 152°E. Ice can still be found in
the W and N parts of Gizhiginskaya Guba, and in
Penzhinskaya Guba. There is no ice in the central part of
Zaliv Shelikova or in its E shore.
2
All the ice has also disappeared in the Gulf of Tartary,
except possibly in the vicinity of Mys Uandi, but there is
still ice present N of 51½°N, which marks the S entrance
of the Strait of Tartary.
Close pack is still found S of a line joining Mys
Aleksandra to Mys Madzhalinda, thus, still engulfing
Shantarskiye Ostrova, in the inner sectors of Gizhiginskaya
Guba and Penzhinskaya Guba, along the shores of
Sakhalinskiy Zaliv and in the Strait of Tartary.
3
Very close pack is restricted to Zaliv Akademii, Zaliv
Tugurskiy, Udskaya Guba and the SW half of Shantarskiye
Ostrova. Consolidated pack may still remain in the inner
parts of those three bays.
June
1.151
1
In June there is no longer ice in the Gulf of Tartary, in
the Sea of Okhotsk away from the shores and in the central
part of Zaliv Shelikova. There is still ice in the Strait of
Tartary, on the shores of Sakhalinskiy Zaliv, on the E coast
of Sakhalin between Zaliv Nabil′skiy and Mys Yelizavety,
in the inner part of Gizhiginskaya Guba, in the whole
Penzhinskaya Guba, in the Sea of Okhotsk SW of a line
joining Mys Aleksandra to Mys Madzhalinda and along the
shore of the Sea of Okhotsk between Mys Madzhalinda and
Zaliv Ayan.
2
In exceptionally long seasons close pack may still
obstruct the Strait of Tartary (especially the narrowest part),
and may exist on the shores of Sakhalinskiy Zaliv, in the
inner parts of Gizhiginskaya Guba and Penzhinskaya Guba
and in the Sea of Okhotsk SW of the line joining Mys
Aleksandra to Mys Madzhalinda. Very close pack, and, in
specific locations, consolidated pack, can still be present in
this last region where very rarely ice can be preserved until
July.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General information
Introduction
1.152
1
The following information on climate and weather
should be read in conjunction with the information
contained in The Mariner’s Handbook, which explains in
more detail many aspects of meteorology and climatology
of importance to the mariner.
2
Weather reports and forecasts, that cover the area, are
regularly broadcast in a number of different languages
including English; for details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 3 (2).
General conditions
1.153
1
There is a wide range of temperatures and weather from
N to S due to the cold NW to NE monsoon winds in
winter and the warm S to SW monsoon winds in summer.
The winter monsoon season is usually more prolonged than
the summer monsoon, and with relatively short transition
periods in spring and autumn.
2
The cold N winds in winter are usually stronger and
more persistent then the warm S winds in summer. Much
of the weather N of around 50°N can be described as
“Arctic” in winter with large areas of Sea of Okhotsk
affected by ice and snow.
3
Annual precipitation amounts decrease from around
1400 mm over S Korea to about 250 mm along N coasts of
Sea of Okhotsk. Fog is rare in winter but more frequent
from late spring through August.
4
Occasional typhoons or tropical storms may affect the S
of the area in summer. Gales may develop in the vicinity
of active depressions as they move E or NE across the area
and are usually most frequent in spring and least frequent
in summer.
Pressure
Average distribution
1.154
1
The average pressure distribution at mean sea level in
January and July is shown in the accompanying diagrams
1.154.1 and 1.154.2 and illustrate the typical mean pressure
fields for the winter and summer monsoons. The pressure
pattern is dominated by the Siberian anticyclone in winter
(diagram 1.154.1), when the NW to NE cold dry monsoon
winds are at their peak, and with a trough of low pressure
extending WSW across the Kuril Islands from the
semi-permanent Aleutian Low. This trough and Low being
the result of the many lows that transit E to NE across this
region. The collapse of the Siberian anticyclone in spring
results in a weak pressure gradient over the area during
April and May. In summer, low pressure covers Asia and
the N Pacific anticyclone extends W, which gives rise to
relatively weak warm and moist S to SW winds over the
area (diagram 1.154.2). During the autumn transition
period, late September and October, the Siberian High
starts to build once more and with the NW to NE monsoon
winds returning soon after.
1
0
2
8
1
0
2
4
1
0
2
0
1
0
1
6
1
0
1
2
1
0
0
8
1
0
0
4
1
0
0
0
HIGH
LOW
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Mean sea level pressure (hPa) JANUARY (1.154.1)
CHAPTER 1
41
1
0
0
8
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
6
1
0
1
0
LOW
HIGH
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Mean sea level pressure (hPa) JULY (1.154.2)
CHAPTER 1
42
CHAPTER 1
43
Variability
1.155
1
At times there can be large variations from the mean
monthly average. This may be due to an intensification or
displacement of the Siberian anticyclone in winter or a W
extension or intensification of the N Pacific anticyclone in
summer. Variations may also be due to E-moving
depressions, tropical storms or Typhoons and the occasional
migratory anticyclone. Whilst they may cause large
variations from the mean they tend to be short lived and do
not seriously affect the overall dominance of the monsoons.
Diurnal variation
1.156
1
There is a regular diurnal variation of 2 to 3 hPa (mb)
with maxima at 1000 and 2200, and minima at 0400 and
1600.
Depressions
Mid−higher latitude depressions
1.157
1
Depressions of mid and higher latitudes affect the area,
and with the first group originating over China and moving
between E and NE across Sea of Japan, the S part of Sea
of Okhotsk and the Kuril Islands. The higher latitude group
over Siberia move E across Sea of Okhotsk but a few take
a more SE track to Sea of Japan then generally recurve
towards the NE.
2
These depressions are seldom intense whilst over the
land but deepen offshore and usually continue to intensify
as they move E or NE. In winter and spring they often
give rise to thick cloud, strong to gale force winds and a
period of snow or heavy rain in the S. Most of mid-latitude
depressions form between January and June and are usually
most frequent between March and May, when the boundary
between the N-moving tropical air and the retreating polar
air becomes slow moving over central China. These
depressions tend to move NE and may form every few
days and may result in the N-ward advance of the summer
monsoon to be significantly retarded in some years. After a
lull in July and August there is a gradual increase in
depression activity from September to December. On
average three or four mid and higher latitude depressions
transit the area each month between October and April.
Tropical cyclones
1.158
1
Typhoons or tropical storms have usually recurved onto
a NE track by the time they move into S areas, although
the odd storm may continue N, and may have lost much of
their tropical features. As they continue to move E to NE
they become extra-tropical and resemble mid-higher latitude
depressions, and frequently move out of the area with a
rapidly increasing forward speed. They have usually
become extra-tropical by the time they get N of 40°N and
E of 140°E.
2
Diagram 1.158 shows some typical tropical storm and
typhoon tracks, however, it should be remembered that the
track of any individual tropical cyclone can be very erratic.
Typhoons and tropical storms are rare in June and July and
are most likely to occur in August and September. The
frequency of typhoons and tropical storms over Sea of
Japan varies between zero and three per year.
3
The term typhoon is derived from the Chinese tai fung
meaning great wind. For a full description of tropical
storms and typhoons, and the appropriate avoiding action,
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Fronts
Warm and cold fronts
1.159
1
The mid-higher latitude depressions (1.157) have
associated warm and cold fronts. Warm fronts tend to be
diffuse with rain or drizzle but can give rise to heavy rain
in summer in the S, and fall as snow in the N in winter.
Cold fronts are usually much more pronounced, sometimes
squally, often with a sharp wind veer, a sudden drop in
temperature and with a period of snow in winter.
2
See The Mariner’s Handbook for a description of warm
and cold fronts.
Winds
Average distribution
1.160
1
Wind roses showing the frequency of wind distribution
for the area in January, April, July and October are given
in diagrams 1.160.1 to 1.160.4.
Sea of Japan and Gulf of Tartary
1.161
1
Winds between W and N are dominate between
November and March and with an average strength of
force 5. During the transition months of April and October
the winds are more variable but with a slight predominance
of NE winds in the extreme SW of the area and W to SW
winds over the N part of Sea of Japan and Gulf of Tartary.
In summer SW winds predominate in the extreme SW of
the area, and SSW/ NNE winds predominate over the N
part of Sea of Japan and Gulf of Tartary with a mean
strength of force 3 to 4.
2
Strong to gale force winds are possible whenever a
deepening depression tacks E to NE across the area, and
may veer or back from S to SE ahead of a depression to N
to NW to its rear.
Sea of Okhotsk and Penzhinskiy Zaliv
1.162
1
In winter the winds are predominantly NW in the SE
part of this Sea and NE towards Penzhinskiy Zalvia. The
mean strength is around force 5 in the SE and force 4 to 5
in the NE. During the transition month of April the winds
are more variable although still predominantly NE towards
Penzhinkiy. During the summer the winds are significantly
lighter and predominantly from between SE and SW. In
October the winds are variable but with a small
predominance of W winds in the S.
2
Depressions tacking E to NE across the area will show
similar changes in wind direction to that described in the
previous paragraph.
Coastal areas
1.163
1
Winds within 20 miles of the coast usually follow the
general flow of the monsoon winds but are subject to local
variations due to topography, orientation of the coast and
land and sea breezes. See the Climatic Tables (1.173) for
the percentage frequency of winds from various directions
and the mean wind at a number of coastal stations within
the area, and also The Mariner’s Handbook for the effect
that topography has on the strength and direction of the
wind.
2
Coasts exposed to the prevailing winds are seriously
affected by strong persistent winds. The steep mountainous
hinterland can give rise to the sudden onset of violent
katabatic squalls at night, particularly in winter. Funnelling
L
I
MI
T O
F
TR
A
CK
S
P
L
OT
TE
D
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Tracks of tropical cyclones 1944 - 2004 (1.158)
CHAPTER 1
44
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
1
1
1
1
2
2
<1
<1
2
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Wind distribution - JANUARY (1.160.1)
CHAPTER 1
45
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
2
2
5
3
3
3
4
6
7
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Wind distribution - APRIL (1.160.2)
CHAPTER 1
46
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
2
3
3
4
5
7
6
8
14
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Wind distribution - JULY (1.160.3)
CHAPTER 1
47
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
2
3
4
2
2
3
1
6
3
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Wind distribution - OCTOBER (1.160.4)
CHAPTER 1
48
CHAPTER 1
49
in ravines and narrow inlets may also give rise to much
stronger winds than would otherwise be experienced over
more open waters.
Land and sea breezes
1.164
1
Land and sea breezes affect all parts of the region,
particularly between April and September, although the land
breeze is generally weaker than the sea breeze, and may
enhance or reduce the prevailing monsoon wind. The winds
frequently start at right angles to the coast then parallel the
coastline during the afternoon.
Strong to gale force winds
1.165
1
Winds of force 7 or over are usually associated with
mid-higher latitude depressions that move E to NE across
the area or when a relatively rare tropical storm or typhoon
affects S areas, which may then move NE as an
extra-tropical depression. The frequency of winds of force 7
and over, in winter, increases from around 6 to 10% of
occasions in the N part of Sea of Okhotsk to around 10 to
15% near La Perouse Strait and to around 30% towards the
central part of the Kuril Islands. In summer the percentage
frequency of winds of force 7 or more is less than 3%.
2
Over Sea of Japan and Gulf of Tartary, in winter, the
percentage frequency of winds of force 7 or more increases
from around 6 to 10% in the N to 11 to 13% in the S. In
summer the percentage frequency of force 7 or more is
between 2 and 3%.
Cloud
1.166
1
In mid-winter the average cloud cover in the coastal
areas of Sea of Okhotsk is around 4 to 5 oktas but
increases to 6 oktas towards La Perouse Strait and SW
Kamchatka. Along the N and W coasts of Sea of Japan the
average cloud cover in mid-winter is around 2 to 4 oktas.
In mid-summer the cloud increases in all coastal areas to
around 5 to 6 oktas and to about 7 oktas over SW
Kamchatka. See the Climatic Tables (1.173) for the mean
cloud amounts at a number of coastal stations within the
area.
2
Over the waters of Sea of Okhotsk, in mid-winter, cloud
amounts average around 6 to 8 oktas and over the Sea of
Japan 6 to 7 oktas and is about 6 oktas in the area of Cheju
Do. In mid-summer the average amounts over Sea of
Okhotsk is 7 oktas but slightly less in the N. Over Sea of
Japan the average remains at around 6 to 7 oktas but is
about 5 oktas in the area of Cheju Do.
3
Periods of overcast skies occur whenever a depression
tracks E to NE across the area or when a typhoon or
tropical storm affects S areas. Clear skies are most likely to
occur in coastal areas in winter with offshore winds.
Precipitation
General
1.167
1
There is a marked increase in rainfall form around 200
to 350 mm in the NE of the area of Penzhinskiy Zaliv to
600 to 800 mm in central areas of Ostrov Sakhalin and SW
Kamchatka, and to 1200 to 1600 mm in the far S of the
area of South Korea. The wet season is more marked in the
S of the area and lasts from May/June through to
September. In the N of the area, the wet season is less
marked but starts between April and June and generally
lasts until October or November, but in some central areas
rainfall is fairly uniformly spread throughout the year.
Along the coast of SW Kamchatka in summer and autumn
the rainfall is usually more intense than at other times of
the year. Daily rainfall amounts of 100 to 200 mm are not
particularly usual in summer along the Korean coast.
2
Large annual variations in precipitation amounts can
occur in all parts of the area. Recorded amounts in the S of
the area, in July, have varied from 60 to 650 mm and at
Vladivostok, in August, from 20 to 420 mm.
Snow
1.168
1
Snow occurs on between one and two days per month
as far S as Pusan between December and March and
becomes more frequent and widespread further N.
Vladivostok experiences around 24 snow days a year
between October and April, Aleksandrovsk 89 snow days
between October and May and Magdan 117 snow days
between October and May. The N coastal regions
experience substantial snow cover from mid-October to
mid-May which can vary in depth from 250 to over
1000 mm.
Thunderstorms and hail
1.169
1
Thunderstorms, in coastal areas and over the sea, are
rare in the N of the area but in the S of the area the
annual frequency is between 2 and 5 and with most of
these occurring during the summer monsoon months.
Thunderstorms are usually more frequent inland and with
an average of around 14 thunderstorms recorded each year
at Khabarovsk, and again mainly during the summer
months.
2
See the Climatic Tables at 1.173.
Fog and visibility
1.170
1
Sea fog is most common over the open waters in
summer. It occurs on around 17% of occasions in the NW
of the area and 25 to 28% in the NE and central E areas.
Over Gulf of Tartary it occurs between 16 and 19% of
occasions and in the S it steadily falls to around 3% near
Cheju Do. In winter the frequency of fog is around 3 to
5% of occasions in the N and central areas, and less than
1% in the S towards the area around Cheju Do. See The
Mariner’s Handbook for a full description for the different
types of fog.
2
In coastal areas the pattern of fog frequency is similar to
that over the open waters but in areas exposed to the
predominant winds the frequency of fogs are generally
higher than those in sheltered areas. Fog is most common
in summer and least common between September and
February in the S and between October and February in the
N. On clear nights in winter, radiation fogs may occur in
some coastal areas for a few hours around dawn. See the
Climatic Tables at 1.173.
3
Visibility can be reduced to near fog limits in heavy
rain and, in winter, during snowstorms. In winter, over the
waters of Sea of Okhotsk, visibilities of less than 5 miles
occur on between 35 to 40% of occasions in the NW and
SE of this area and around 20 to 25% elsewhere. In
summer the frequency of visibilities less than 5 miles
increases to around 40 to 50% in the S and to around 40%
in the NE but reduces to about 25% in the NW.
4
Over Gulf of Tartary and the N and W parts of Sea of
Japan, the frequency of visibilities of less than 5 miles, in
winter, is between 8 and 12%. In summer the frequency
increases to between 23 to 30% over Gulf of Tartary, to 30
CHAPTER 1
50
to 37% over the N part of Sea of Japan and to around 17%
in the area around Cheju Do.
Air temperature
1.171
1
Over the sea, the mean air temperature in January is
between −6° and −13°C in the N, between −1° and −7°C in
central areas and increasing to between 5° and 9°C in the
far S. In July the mean air temperatures for the same areas
are 8° to 11°C, 10° to 18° and 23° to 26°C respectively.
The ranges in temperatures, between summer and winter,
are greater in coastal areas than over the sea. For example,
the mean maximum temperature in January at Kamenskoe
is −22⋅8°C and at Pusan 8⋅0°C, and in July are 19°C and
27⋅4°C respectively. Extremes of temperatures are also
greater over the land than over the sea with minimum
temperatures of between −24° and −29°C being recorded in
winter in the N and maximum temperatures of between 31°
and 36°C in summer in the S. See the Climatic Tables
at 1.173.
Humidity
1.172
1
Humidity is closely related to air temperature and
generally decreases as the temperature increases. During the
early morning, when the air temperature is normally at its
lowest, the humidity is generally at its highest, and falls to
a minimum the afternoon. This daily variation is greatest
along the coast of Korea and least over N areas. Onshore
winds with long fetch over the sea will be moist and, with
air arriving from the S, may result in sea fog as the air is
cooled to near saturation point as it passes over
increasingly colder seas to the N.
2
In winter, with winds from the N, areas in the lee of
mountain ranges may experience humidities of 60 to 65%
and in some cases as low as 10%. The onset of the
summer S monsoon, usually in June, brings with it the
highest humidity values of 80 to 90%.
3
Humidity data for the N part of Sea of Okhotsk is
sparse but is about 80% over the S part of this sea in
January, 70 to 75% over the N part of Sea of Japan and 65
to 70% in the S. In July the figures are around 90 to 92%
and 86 to 88% respectively.
CLIMATIC TABLES
General information
1.173
1
The tables, which follow, give data for several coastal
stations that regularly undertake weather observations.
Some of these stations have been re-sited and so the
position given is the latest available.
It is emphasised that these data are average conditions
and refer to the specific location of the observing station
and therefore may not be totally representative of the
conditions over the open sea or in approaches to ports in
their vicinity.
2
The following comments briefly list some of the
differences to be expected between conditions over the
open sea and the nearest reporting station. See The
Mariner’s Handbook for further details:
Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea than on land,
although funnelling in narrow inlets can result in
an increase in wind strength.
3
Precipitation along mountainous wind facing coasts
can be considerably higher than at sea to
windward. Similarly precipitation in the lee of high
ground is generally less.
Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over
the land.
4
Topography has a marked effect on local conditions.
KAMENSKOE
MAGADAN
ALEKSANDROVSK-SAKHALINSKIY
ICHINSKIY
UST’-VOYAMPOLKA
OKHOTSK
KHABAROVSK
VLADIVOSTOK
KANGNUNG
P’OHANG
ULSAN
PUSAN
CHEJU DO
ULLUNG DO
WONSAN
SONGJIN (KIMCH’AEK)
CH’ ONGJIN
SENBONG (UNGGI HANG)
PORONAYSK
KHOLMSK
OZERNAJA (ZAPOROZH’YE)
NIKOLAYEVSK-AN-AMUR
OSTROV BOL’SHOY SHANTAR
1.196
1.192
1.191
1.190
1.194
1.193
1.189
1.187
1.186
1.188
1.185
1.184
1.183
1.182
1.181
1.180
1.179
1.178
1.177
1.176
1.175
1.174
1.195
60°
50°
40°
60°
50°
40°
130° 140° 150° 160°
130° 140° 160°
Longitude 150° East from Greenwich
Location of climatic stations (1.173)
CHAPTER 1
51
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
52
1.174 WMO No 47184 CHEJU DO (33
°
31
′
N 126
°
32
′
E) Height above MSL − 23 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1024
9
4
16
−1
67
62
6
6
63
11
40
1
6
4
19
4
12
14
0
38
5
8
1
2
2
19
24
1
9
10
0
0
0
February 1023
10
4
18
−1
67
60
6
5
65
9
29
2
11
4
23
4
12
14
1
39
8
12
0
1
1
19
20
0
8
10
0
0
0
March 1020
13
7
20
1
66
60
5
5
100
11
23
6
22
4
12
4
16
10
3
32
12
17
1
2
1
17
18
0
7
10
0
0
0
April
1016
18
11
25
5
67
63
5
4
91
9
27
10
23
1
2
4
19
11
3
31
12
18
1
1
1
24
12
0
7
9
0
1
0
May 1012
22
15
28
10
72
67
5
4
123
11
28
11
19
2
4
3
23
8
2
30
13
15
1
3
1
25
12
0
6
9
0
1
0
June 1008
25
19
31
14
77
73
6
6
180
12
29
14
26
2
3
4
15
5
2
28
18
18
2
2
5
17
9
1
7
8
0
2
1
July
1007
29
23
34
20
79
73
5
5
202
11
28
18
19
2
4
7
15
5
2
31
17
16
2
3
5
18
7
1
7
9
0
1
1
August 1008
30
24
34
21
78
72
5
5
225
13
27
15
28
3
5
4
13
4
1
27
18
24
3
4
3
14
7
0
6
9
0
0
1
September 1013
26
21
31
14
74
68
5
5
173
9
21
11
37
3
6
3
11
5
3
34
18
28
1
2
1
9
7
0
6
8
0
0
1
October
1019
21
15
26
9
69
61
4
4
64
6
24
6
26
5
17
4
10
5
3
41
13
19
0
1
1
10
15
0
6
9
0
0
0
November 1023
16
11
23
5
67
60
5
4
71
9
27
3
16
6
26
4
9
8
1
38
12
13
1
1
1
19
15
0
7
9
0
0
0
December 1025
11
6
19
1
68
62
5
5
56
10
32
2
7
7
24
4
11
12
1
43
5
8
2
2
1
20
19
0
8
9
0
0
0
Means
1016
19
14
34*
−2§
71
65
5
5
_
_
28
8
20
4
12
4
14
8
2
34
13
16
1
2
2
18
14
0
7
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1413
121
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
6
5
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
−8‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
53
1.175 WMO No 47159 PUSAN (35
°
06
′
N 129
°
02
′
E) Height above MSL − 70 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1931 to 2005
January 1022
8
0
14
−8
54
45
2
3
41
6
26
8
2
3
2
4
17
36
2
19
7
3
2
0
9
24
36
0
8
10
6
0
0
February 1021
10
2
17
−6
57
47
3
4
53
6
31
12
3
4
0
4
15
27
4
16
10
6
4
6
9
19
26
4
9
10
6
0
0
March 1019
14
6
20
−2
66
52
4
5
78
8
27
14
2
2
2
6
19
25
3
10
11
13
6
15
18
14
13
0
8
10
6
0
0
April
1015
19
11
24
4
72
61
5
5
137
8
26
20
3
2
5
8
17
13
6
8
14
18
8
22
18
7
5
0
8
11
5
1
0
May 1012
22
15
27
10
77
65
5
5
163
9
19
15
7
1
7
13
19
12
7
2
8
19
7
32
24
4
3
1
7
10
4
1
0
June 1008
24
18
28
13
85
76
6
6
209
10
18
22
5
2
10
16
15
5
7
3
15
21
6
31
21
3
0
0
7
11
4
1
0
July
1008
27
22
32
18
90
79
6
6
250
12
16
20
3
1
11
19
19
4
7
3
12
19
6
31
25
4
0
0
7
11
3
2
1
August 1009
29
23
33
19
86
72
5
5
241
11
26
26
4
3
4
11
14
5
7
5
18
21
9
27
16
3
1
0
8
11
2
0
2
September 1013
26
20
31
15
80
66
5
5
121
9
39
22
2
2
3
5
7
11
9
13
23
23
9
16
8
4
4
0
8
10
3
0
0
October
1018
22
14
27
8
70
54
3
4
43
5
35
14
2
4
3
4
6
24
8
14
17
15
6
10
11
14
12
1
8
9
2
0
0
November 1021
17
8
23
0
65
41
3
4
49
5
27
8
4
3
4
5
13
30
6
15
9
9
4
9
12
17
25
0
8
9
3
0
0
December 1023
11
3
18
−5
58
47
2
3
30
4
25
9
2
3
3
4
13
37
4
18
7
6
3
2
11
22
31
0
8
10
5
0
0
Means
1016
19
12
33*
−8§
72
60
4
5
_
_
26
16
3
3
5
8
14
19
6
10
13
14
6
17
15
11
13
1
8
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1415
93
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
49
5
4
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
−12‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
30
21
30
30
30
30
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
54
1.176 WMO No 47152 ULSAN (35
°
33
′
N 129
°
19
′
E) Height above MSL − 36 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1931 to 2005
January 1022
7
−2
14
−8
56
3
44
5
27
5
2
2
2
4
12
30
16
6
1
0
0
February 1021
10
0
17
−6
59
3
45
6
28
9
4
3
3
4
11
25
13
6
1
0
0
March 1019
13
4
21
−3
65
4
66
8
24
10
5
5
6
5
9
18
18
6
1
0
0
April
1015
19
9
27
2
71
4
84
7
14
10
5
9
9
7
9
12
25
5
1
1
0
May 1012
23
13
30
8
76
5
115
9
12
10
6
11
10
5
9
7
30
5
2
1
0
June 1008
26
18
32
13
81
6
199
10
11
14
9
11
10
7
5
7
26
4
3
1
0
July
1007
29
22
35
18
84
6
208
12
8
13
10
10
13
10
5
4
27
4
3
1
1
August 1009
30
23
35
19
82
5
200
11
13
13
8
10
9
7
5
5
30
4
2
0
1
September 1013
26
18
32
12
80
5
123
9
19
14
6
7
4
4
6
11
29
4
2
0
0
October
1018
22
12
27
4
73
4
53
5
20
13
8
5
4
4
9
16
21
4
1
0
0
November 1022
16
6
22
−2
68
3
47
5
28
8
3
4
3
3
9
21
21
5
1
0
0
December 1023
10
1
19
−6
60
3
31
4
25
6
2
3
2
4
13
28
17
6
1
0
0
Means
1016
19
10
35*
−9§
71
4
_
_
19
10
6
7
6
5
9
15
23
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1215
91
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
19
4
3
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
−14‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
30
30
21
30
30
30
30
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
55
1.177 WMO No 47138 P’OHANG (36
°
02
′
N 129
°
23
′
E) Height above MSL − 4 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1023
7
−1
13
−9
51
37
3
3
45
6
4
1
2
0
10
21
59
3
0
12
5
6
0
5
12
54
6
0
6
8
0
0
0
February 1022
9
0
20
−6
55
39
3
4
44
6
10
1
2
0
9
19
53
5
1
15
9
11
1
6
11
39
7
1
6
8
0
0
0
March 1020
13
4
22
−3
58
46
4
4
68
8
16
5
5
1
9
14
44
4
2
16
18
19
3
5
8
27
4
0
6
9
0
0
0
April
1016
19
10
29
2
58
46
4
4
72
7
18
8
5
1
7
17
40
3
1
16
17
19
5
11
7
24
1
0
6
8
0
0
0
May 1012
23
14
32
9
64
54
4
4
103
9
21
9
7
0
9
16
35
1
2
19
18
20
4
9
7
20
2
1
6
8
0
0
0
June 1009
26
18
34
13
72
64
5
5
160
9
29
12
10
0
7
16
24
0
2
21
22
26
3
8
6
12
1
1
6
7
0
1
0
July
1008
29
23
36
18
78
68
6
6
203
12
25
12
8
0
9
17
25
1
3
19
21
17
1
11
12
17
1
1
6
7
0
1
1
August 1010
29
23
35
17
79
68
5
5
219
12
34
12
6
0
9
14
20
2
3
27
20
20
2
9
8
13
0
1
6
7
0
0
1
September 1014
26
19
32
13
75
65
5
5
193
10
37
8
4
0
7
14
25
1
4
32
27
17
1
4
5
12
1
1
6
8
0
0
0
October
1019
21
13
28
6
67
51
3
4
46
6
14
5
3
0
11
19
45
1
2
21
19
19
1
7
9
21
3
0
6
7
0
0
0
November 1022
15
7
22
−1
62
45
3
3
52
5
8
1
2
0
8
23
54
3
1
17
12
11
1
5
10
38
5
1
6
7
0
0
0
December 1024
10
1
17
−6
56
38
3
3
32
5
5
1
2
0
8
19
61
3
1
10
5
5
0
6
11
53
9
1
6
7
0
0
0
Means
1016
19
11
35*
−10§
65
52
4
4
_
_
18
6
5
0
9
17
41
2
2
19
16
16
2
7
9
27
3
1
6
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1237
95
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
2
3
Extreme values _
_
_
41†
−12‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
56
1.178 WMO No 47115 ULLUNG DO (37
°
30
′
N 130
°
52
′
E) Height above MSL − 220 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1931 to 2005
January 1021
5
0
12
−7
72
68
6
7
117
18
9
23
12
2
4
16
22
5
7
8
9
4
0
0
February 1021
6
0
13
−5
72
67
5
6
84
14
9
24
16
1
4
17
18
4
7
9
10
5
0
0
March 1019
9
3
17
−3
71
64
5
6
71
11
6
23
19
2
4
23
13
2
8
10
11
6
0
0
April
1015
15
9
23
2
71
66
5
5
133
8
3
18
11
1
9
34
14
2
8
11
11
7
2
0
May 1012
20
13
26
6
73
68
5
5
171
9
3
14
8
1
10
36
14
3
11
9
9
6
2
0
June 1009
22
16
28
12
82
76
6
6
149
10
2
17
14
2
8
30
11
2
14
8
8
4
3
0
July
1008
25
20
31
16
88
82
6
6
177
11
1
15
10
1
11
36
9
1
16
9
8
5
5
0
August 1010
27
22
32
18
87
77
6
6
198
11
2
26
13
1
9
25
9
1
14
8
8
4
2
0
September 1014
23
18
29
13
79
72
6
6
155
11
5
28
17
2
9
19
9
2
9
8
7
3
1
0
October
1019
19
13
24
6
72
66
5
5
78
9
5
28
21
2
5
16
13
1
9
7
7
2
0
0
November 1021
13
8
20
0
70
65
5
6
113
12
6
22
16
2
5
20
15
4
10
8
9
4
0
0
December 1022
8
3
15
−4
75
66
5
6
131
16
6
20
13
3
4
22
17
5
10
8
8
4
0
0
Means
1016
16
11
32*
−8§
76
70
5
6
_
_
5
21
14
2
7
24
14
3
10
9
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1577
140
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
54
15
2
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
−14‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
30
22
21
30
30
30
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
57
1.179 WMO No 47105 KANGNUNG (37
°
45
′
N 128
°
54
′
E) Height above MSL − 26 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1931 to 2005
January 1022
5
−3
12
−11
49
2
74
6
4
5
3
1
2
42
33
6
4
8
1
0
0
February 1021
7
−1
15
−8
57
3
89
7
8
8
4
2
2
36
25
8
7
7
0
0
0
March 1019
11
3
20
−4
61
4
83
8
9
7
7
2
4
31
24
7
9
6
0
0
0
April
1014
18
9
28
1
59
4
69
7
9
9
10
3
4
28
19
7
11
6
0
0
0
May 1011
22
13
32
7
63
5
86
9
11
11
10
3
4
25
15
6
15
5
0
0
1
June 1008
25
17
33
11
75
6
138
11
14
11
9
3
3
16
11
8
25
5
0
1
1
July
1007
28
21
35
16
80
6
221
15
12
12
9
3
3
15
10
7
29
4
0
1
1
August 1009
28
22
34
16
81
6
279
15
10
12
9
4
4
18
12
6
25
4
0
0
1
September 1014
25
17
32
12
76
5
225
11
9
9
9
3
4
27
19
6
14
5
0
0
0
October
1019
20
12
27
4
66
3
103
7
7
8
9
3
3
35
26
4
5
6
0
0
0
November 1021
14
6
22
−3
60
3
82
7
6
7
6
2
3
37
27
6
6
7
0
0
0
December 1023
8
1
16
−8
53
3
84
5
5
4
3
1
4
44
29
6
4
8
1
0
0
Means
1016
18
10
34*
−12§
65
4
_
_
9
9
7
3
3
29
21
6
13
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1533
108
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
3
4
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
−16‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
30
21
30
30
30
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
58
1.180 WMO No 47055 WONSAN (39
°
10
′
N 127
°
27
′
E) Height above MSL − 36 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1931 to 2005
January 1023
2
−5
9
−13
55
43
33
5
1
0
1
1
2
50
37
4
4
6
12
6
0
3
14
49
8
2
5
7
0
0
0
February 1022
4
−4
12
−10
61
47
26
4
1
2
1
0
6
47
27
5
11
10
19
18
3
1
11
30
6
2
5
9
0
0
0
March 1019
9
1
18
−5
64
50
32
5
4
3
2
2
6
46
28
5
4
9
17
19
1
2
11
33
7
1
5
8
0
0
0
April
1015
16
7
26
0
69
53
45
5
4
3
3
2
10
39
24
6
9
8
22
27
3
3
13
18
6
0
4
8
0
1
0
May 1011
21
12
31
6
75
57
87
8
2
5
6
3
7
39
22
3
13
9
25
25
3
4
11
17
5
1
4
7
0
0
1
June 1009
23
16
32
10
83
64
124
11
4
9
7
2
5
39
18
4
12
6
28
36
2
2
7
17
2
0
4
5
0
0
1
July
1007
26
20
33
14
89
73
244
15
3
11
9
2
7
36
14
5
13
7
32
32
1
5
9
9
3
2
4
6
0
0
1
August 1010
26
21
33
17
88
72
206
13
4
9
6
2
8
37
19
4
11
8
33
37
1
3
7
9
2
0
4
6
1
0
1
September 1015
23
16
30
10
84
62
179
8
1
3
5
2
7
51
22
4
5
6
23
39
3
2
7
14
5
1
4
6
0
0
1
October
1019
18
10
25
2
72
54
64
6
1
1
3
1
10
57
21
4
2
10
25
24
1
1
10
23
4
2
5
7
0
0
0
November 1022
11
3
20
−5
63
49
60
6
1
0
3
2
8
55
24
3
4
9
14
11
2
7
19
30
7
1
5
8
0
0
0
December 1024
5
−2
13
−10
56
45
32
4
1
1
2
3
6
47
30
3
7
6
19
8
2
2
15
39
5
4
5
7
1
0
0
Means
1016
15
8
33*
−13§
72
56
_
_
2
4
4
2
7
45
24
4
8
8
22
24
2
3
11
24
5
1
5
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1132
90
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
2
5
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
−17‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
30
22
21
30
30
30
30
30
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
59
1.181 WMO No 47025 SONGJIN (KIMCH’AEK) (40
°
40
′
N 129
°
12
′
E) Height above MSL − 23 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1021
1
−8
8
−15
66
57
34
5
19
4
3
7
11
3
7
43
3
7
1
0
0
February 1021
3
−6
9
−12
68
58
13
2
16
5
4
9
16
3
5
37
5
8
2
0
0
March 1019
7
−2
15
−7
70
60
12
3
13
4
4
11
25
3
7
27
6
8
2
1
0
April
1014
14
4
24
−2
77
63
33
4
12
6
3
14
31
4
6
16
8
7
3
1
0
May 1011
17
9
27
4
85
70
39
6
14
6
4
16
34
3
3
12
8
6
2
4
0
June 1008
20
14
29
10
91
79
80
8
12
6
4
22
33
2
2
9
10
5
0
4
0
July
1007
24
18
31
13
94
82
127
9
11
5
5
19
33
2
3
10
12
6
0
3
0
August 1009
25
19
31
16
92
79
86
8
12
6
4
15
26
2
5
18
12
5
0
1
0
September 1014
23
15
28
9
85
69
60
6
13
5
3
12
21
2
7
30
7
6
0
0
0
October
1018
17
8
24
1
77
61
32
4
14
4
3
9
23
3
6
32
6
7
1
0
0
November 1021
10
1
18
−8
70
58
37
5
18
3
3
7
16
3
7
39
4
7
1
0
0
December 1022
4
−5
11
−13
64
54
24
5
20
3
2
7
10
3
7
45
3
7
1
0
0
Means
1015
14
6
32*
−16§
78
66
_
_
15
5
4
12
23
3
5
26
7
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
577
65
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
13
13
0
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
−21‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
30
22
21
30
22
30
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
60
1.182 WMO No 47008 CH’ONGJIN (41
°
46
′
N 129
°
48
′
E) Height above MSL − 43 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1022
−1
−9
5
−16
57
54
3
3
10
4
14
6
1
0
1
0
9
26
43
9
7
9
8
14
3
4
15
31
3
3
0
0
0
February 1021
2
−7
7
−13
60
56
3
3
7
2
12
4
2
0
0
0
8
23
51
10
8
9
16
20
2
3
12
20
2
4
0
0
0
March 1018
6
−2
14
−9
60
58
3
4
10
3
9
4
2
2
5
1
9
18
50
7
9
10
20
22
2
1
10
19
2
4
0
1
0
April
1013
13
4
23
−2
65
61
4
5
33
4
5
5
6
6
10
3
5
9
51
7
10
13
22
19
2
3
6
18
2
4
0
3
0
May 1011
17
8
26
3
73
68
5
5
52
8
4
9
12
11
10
4
4
6
40
2
13
14
22
18
2
2
4
23
2
3
0
3
0
June 1009
20
13
28
9
83
76
6
6
89
10
3
10
11
9
11
1
3
2
50
2
14
22
19
17
1
1
2
22
2
3
0
5
0
July
1007
23
18
30
14
87
81
7
6
127
13
2
8
12
8
10
1
3
1
55
2
14
19
20
16
1
1
1
26
2
3
0
4
0
August 1010
25
19
30
15
83
77
6
6
89
10
3
7
8
6
8
1
6
4
57
2
10
21
22
21
1
0
2
21
1
3
0
1
0
September 1015
22
14
28
7
73
67
4
5
62
6
6
4
2
2
4
1
12
12
57
5
8
14
23
23
2
1
4
20
2
3
0
0
0
October
1018
16
7
22
−1
64
58
4
4
31
3
11
3
2
1
1
1
18
20
43
8
7
10
21
22
3
3
8
18
3
4
0
0
0
November 1021
8
0
16
−8
61
56
4
3
22
4
13
5
2
0
1
0
13
24
42
9
8
11
14
17
2
5
10
24
3
4
0
0
0
December 1022
2
−6
9
−13
59
55
4
3
14
4
15
4
1
0
0
1
9
28
42
11
8
6
8
13
3
4
14
33
3
3
0
0
0
Means
1016
13
5
31*
−16§
69
64
4
4
_
_
8
6
5
4
5
1
8
14
49
6
10
13
18
19
2
2
7
23
2
4
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
546
71
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
16
1
Extreme values _
_
_
35
−22‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
61
1.183 WMO No 47003 SENBONG (UNGGI HANG) (42
°
20
′
N 130
°
24
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1931 to 2005
January 1022
−3
−11
5
−17
49
3
4
2
19
0
2
4
3
1
12
54
4
17
0
0
0
February 1020
1
−9
8
−15
51
3
6
2
18
1
2
6
5
2
8
55
3
15
1
0
0
March 1018
5
−4
13
−12
54
4
10
3
17
1
4
11
10
4
8
38
7
11
2
1
0
April
1012
12
2
22
−4
61
5
33
5
7
1
4
14
12
4
11
33
14
10
6
2
0
May 1010
16
8
27
1
74
6
62
8
5
1
8
23
18
4
7
20
13
7
10
3
0
June 1008
19
13
27
9
85
6
116
12
5
2
8
27
18
3
5
16
16
5
14
3
0
July
1007
23
18
29
11
89
7
171
15
5
1
9
23
18
5
5
14
20
4
13
1
1
August 1010
25
18
30
13
85
6
96
10
8
2
8
21
14
3
6
26
12
6
5
0
0
September 1014
22
12
27
4
73
5
80
7
11
1
4
16
10
3
10
41
6
8
1
0
1
October
1018
16
5
22
−2
61
4
31
4
17
1
2
10
10
2
8
45
5
10
1
0
0
November 1021
7
−2
15
−11
54
4
12
4
17
0
2
7
5
3
10
50
6
12
1
0
0
December 1022
0
−8
8
−14
49
3
4
3
16
0
2
5
3
2
11
55
5
14
0
0
0
Means
1015
12
4
29*
−18§
65
5
_
_
12
1
5
14
11
3
8
37
9
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
625
75
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
54
12
3
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
−23‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
16
16
31
31
16
31
31
16
16
16
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
62
1.184 WMO No 31960 VLADIVOSTOK (43
°
06
′
N 131
°
53
′
E) Height above MSL − 183 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1022
−9
−15
1
−22
45
50
3
2
19
4
70
5
1
6
8
2
2
5
1
74
1
1
6
6
3
1
6
2
13
13
2
1
0
February 1020
−4
−11
3
−20
46
52
3
2
12
4
54
6
2
7
19
5
1
5
1
60
3
2
7
13
4
2
9
0
12
11
2
1
0
March 1017
2
−4
10
−12
50
59
4
3
17
5
40
4
0
9
25
12
4
6
0
48
1
1
10
19
7
4
10
0
13
11
1
4
0
April
1013
10
2
19
−3
60
70
5
4
38
8
21
2
1
15
38
15
3
5
0
31
1
1
15
32
7
5
8
0
13
11
2
8
0
May 1010
14
7
23
3
73
83
6
5
65
13
12
3
1
16
48
14
3
3
0
18
1
1
21
38
9
5
6
1
13
11
1
12
1
June 1008
17
11
27
6
83
91
6
5
112
15
8
2
1
14
57
13
3
2
0
11
1
2
17
54
10
1
3
1
12
11
1
16
1
July
1007
21
16
28
7
88
94
6
6
179
18
8
2
1
10
58
14
3
3
1
12
0
1
18
54
8
3
3
1
12
11
1
17
1
August 1009
23
18
28
11
83
91
6
5
153
14
15
3
1
12
50
11
3
4
1
22
1
3
17
40
9
4
4
0
12
11
1
11
1
September 1014
19
13
25
6
70
82
5
4
101
8
29
5
2
5
34
14
5
6
0
35
4
1
8
32
9
3
7
1
12
10
1
3
1
October
1017
12
6
19
−2
62
70
4
3
41
6
35
6
1
7
31
11
3
6
0
43
3
1
8
24
7
3
10
1
13
12
2
2
1
November 1021
2
−3
12
−13
53
58
3
3
30
6
49
3
0
8
22
6
3
8
1
55
2
1
7
15
4
3
13
0
13
13
3
2
0
December 1023
−6
−12
4
−20
48
52
2
2
17
4
65
7
1
6
12
1
1
6
1
71
2
1
5
7
2
3
8
1
12
12
2
1
0
Means
1015
9
3
28*
−24§
64
71
4
3
_
_
34
4
1
10
33
10
3
5
0
40
2
1
12
28
6
3
7
1
12
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
784
105
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
16
75
5
Extreme values _
_
_
33†
−31‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
63
1.185 WMO No 32128 KHOLMSK (47
°
03
′
N 142
°
03
′
E) Height above MSL − 44 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1022
−9
−15
1
−22
45
50
3
2
19
4
70
5
1
6
8
2
2
5
1
74
1
1
6
6
3
1
6
2
13
13
2
1
0
February 1020
−4
−11
3
−20
46
52
3
2
12
4
54
6
2
7
19
5
1
5
1
60
3
2
7
13
4
2
9
0
12
11
2
1
0
March 1017
2
−4
10
−12
50
59
4
3
17
5
40
4
0
9
25
12
4
6
0
48
1
1
10
19
7
4
10
0
13
11
1
4
0
April
1013
10
2
19
−3
60
70
5
4
38
8
21
2
1
15
38
15
3
5
0
31
1
1
15
32
7
5
8
0
13
11
2
8
0
May 1010
14
7
23
3
73
83
6
5
65
13
12
3
1
16
48
14
3
3
0
18
1
1
21
38
9
5
6
1
13
11
1
12
1
June 1008
17
11
27
6
83
91
6
5
112
15
8
2
1
14
57
13
3
2
0
11
1
2
17
54
10
1
3
1
12
11
1
16
1
July
1007
21
16
28
7
88
94
6
6
179
18
8
2
1
10
58
14
3
3
1
12
0
1
18
54
8
3
3
1
12
11
1
17
1
August 1009
23
18
28
11
83
91
6
5
153
14
15
3
1
12
50
11
3
4
1
22
1
3
17
40
9
4
4
0
12
11
1
11
1
September 1014
19
13
25
6
70
82
5
4
101
8
29
5
2
5
34
14
5
6
0
35
4
1
8
32
9
3
7
1
12
10
1
3
1
October
1017
12
6
19
−2
62
70
4
3
41
6
35
6
1
7
31
11
3
6
0
43
3
1
8
24
7
3
10
1
13
12
2
2
1
November 1021
2
−3
12
−13
53
58
3
3
30
6
49
3
0
8
22
6
3
8
1
55
2
1
7
15
4
3
13
0
13
13
3
2
0
December 1023
−6
−12
4
−20
48
52
2
2
17
4
65
7
1
6
12
1
1
6
1
71
2
1
5
7
2
3
8
1
12
12
2
1
0
Means
1012
8
3
25*
−17§
72
70
6
6
_
_
19
2
10
13
12
11
12
11
10
27
1
5
7
10
14
16
15
5
7
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
810
170
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
10
3
Extreme values _
_
_
30†
−24‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
19
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
64
1.186 WMO No 32061 ALEKSANDROVSK-SAKHALINSKIY (50
°
54
′
N 142
°
08
′
E) Height above MSL − 31 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1014
−12
−20
−2
−29
70
69
5
4
31
16
16
11
6
43
3
1
4
14
2
14
8
9
47
4
3
2
12
1
8
8
0
0
0
February 1014
−10
−19
−1
−27
64
69
4
3
26
13
17
9
12
33
6
1
3
15
4
14
9
8
56
2
0
4
6
1
7
8
0
0
0
March 1013
−4
−12
4
−22
62
70
5
4
26
11
20
17
9
14
12
8
4
9
7
12
9
11
50
6
2
3
5
2
8
8
1
0
0
April
1010
4
−3
13
−13
68
75
5
4
32
10
23
13
3
10
17
15
6
8
5
16
7
8
41
12
4
3
4
5
8
7
1
2
0
May 1009
10
2
21
−3
72
82
6
5
42
12
20
7
3
10
19
17
10
11
3
8
6
10
44
14
6
3
3
6
7
6
0
3
0
June 1009
16
8
24
0
74
87
5
5
46
9
23
8
3
6
15
22
12
9
2
10
6
15
37
14
4
2
2
10
7
5
0
4
1
July
1009
19
12
26
6
80
90
6
5
57
9
20
8
3
6
15
20
14
10
4
8
5
16
38
14
4
3
2
10
6
5
0
4
1
August 1010
20
13
26
7
78
88
6
5
85
12
14
11
4
12
26
15
7
5
6
7
5
11
51
17
2
1
2
4
6
6
0
1
1
September 1012
16
9
23
1
76
85
5
4
80
14
9
9
9
29
26
7
3
4
4
5
5
9
56
14
2
5
3
1
7
8
0
0
1
October
1012
8
2
16
−5
73
77
5
5
88
14
13
8
10
31
16
3
7
11
1
9
7
8
45
8
5
8
9
1
9
9
1
0
0
November 1012
−2
−7
7
−17
67
70
6
6
59
17
12
6
8
21
10
4
17
21
1
11
6
5
25
9
3
17
23
1
11
11
1
0
0
December 1014
−10
−16
3
−25
69
70
6
5
64
21
14
8
7
33
3
1
11
22
1
12
6
7
37
1
1
9
25
2
9
9
1
0
0
Means
1011
5
−2
26*
−30§
71
78
5
5
_
_
17
10
6
21
14
9
8
12
3
10
6
10
44
10
3
5
8
4
8
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
636
158
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
14
4
Extreme values _
_
_
30†
−35‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
65
1.187 WMO No 31369 NIKOLAYEVSK−AN−AMUR (53
°
08
′
N 140
°
43
′
E) Height above MSL − 68 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1016
−18
−25
−5
−35
62
59
5
5
50
12
10
2
2
0
1
7
49
18
11
4
2
3
0
1
10
66
6
8
6
7
0
0
0
February 1015
−13
−23
−3
−32
64
55
5
5
27
10
5
1
6
1
0
10
55
10
12
6
2
6
1
1
16
59
5
4
6
8
0
1
0
March 1014
−6
−17
3
−27
66
55
5
6
33
12
4
3
19
2
0
13
45
5
9
10
5
19
4
2
12
39
7
2
6
9
0
1
0
April
1011
3
−7
11
−17
70
60
6
6
29
10
9
4
31
6
2
15
25
4
4
14
8
31
9
1
9
22
5
1
8
11
0
3
0
May 1009
10
1
21
−5
73
64
6
7
54
12
7
6
41
12
2
9
17
2
4
11
7
48
14
2
4
8
4
2
9
11
0
4
0
June 1008
18
8
28
−1
72
63
6
6
50
8
8
6
40
15
3
8
12
2
6
9
9
46
23
1
2
7
2
1
8
11
0
1
1
July
1008
21
12
29
3
77
68
6
6
53
9
6
4
41
17
4
5
9
2
12
7
6
44
30
2
2
6
1
2
7
10
0
1
1
August 1009
21
11
29
3
79
67
6
6
78
13
8
6
29
11
2
7
22
2
13
11
9
30
20
2
6
15
3
4
6
9
0
2
2
September 1012
16
6
24
−3
80
64
6
6
77
13
7
4
26
6
1
9
31
4
12
9
9
22
14
3
8
26
6
3
6
8
0
3
0
October
1012
7
−1
16
−10
78
63
6
6
78
14
7
5
16
2
1
6
45
6
12
10
5
15
3
2
8
42
12
3
7
9
0
3
0
November 1013
−7
−14
5
−26
69
61
5
6
54
15
12
4
8
1
1
4
53
9
8
4
2
7
2
1
7
66
5
6
7
9
0
1
0
December 1015
−16
−23
−3
−33
63
60
5
5
41
14
8
2
4
0
1
7
54
11
13
3
2
4
0
1
10
66
7
7
6
8
0
0
0
Means
1012
3
−6
29*
−36§
71
62
6
6
_
_
8
4
22
6
1
8
35
6
10
8
5
23
10
2
8
35
5
4
7
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
624
142
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
19
4
Extreme values _
_
_
34†
−42‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
66
1.188 WMO No 31735 KHABAROVSK (48
°
30
′
N 135
°
10
′
E) Height above MSL − 76 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1020
−16
−25
−3
−33
59
62
4
4
19
10
8
8
1
3
13
30
22
6
9
9
5
2
7
22
24
12
5
14
6
5
0
1
0
February 1018
−11
−21
−1
−29
57
64
4
3
13
6
11
8
2
2
8
33
22
7
7
11
2
2
4
20
24
19
9
9
7
6
0
1
0
March 1014
−2
−12
9
−22
56
67
4
4
17
7
13
12
3
4
7
31
22
4
4
14
9
3
6
12
22
23
5
6
8
7
0
1
0
April
1010
10
−1
21
−8
53
72
5
5
32
8
12
17
9
2
8
24
21
5
2
12
18
5
8
14
15
18
6
4
8
7
0
1
0
May 1007
18
6
28
−1
54
79
6
5
45
10
10
20
11
4
7
21
21
4
2
9
13
10
9
20
15
16
6
2
9
6
0
1
2
June 1006
24
12
31
4
60
86
5
5
51
8
10
23
8
5
10
16
19
5
4
16
14
8
7
17
16
11
4
7
7
5
0
2
3
July
1006
26
16
32
8
68
92
6
5
101
11
11
25
7
4
10
15
17
7
4
13
18
7
7
17
13
9
8
8
6
5
0
3
4
August 1008
25
15
31
9
73
92
6
5
111
13
9
21
9
2
13
17
21
4
4
15
16
5
3
17
17
15
3
9
6
5
0
4
3
September 1012
19
8
26
1
69
88
5
4
67
9
8
12
8
3
14
21
22
5
7
8
8
6
7
17
19
22
7
6
6
6
0
4
2
October
1014
10
1
21
−7
63
76
5
4
42
8
9
12
4
3
13
29
24
2
4
10
7
4
5
16
25
26
4
3
7
7
0
1
0
November 1017
−4
−11
8
−22
60
66
4
4
21
7
5
5
1
4
12
40
29
2
2
6
3
2
6
13
32
33
2
3
9
8
0
0
0
December 1020
−14
−22
2
−31
58
60
4
3
13
7
10
6
1
3
16
40
17
3
4
9
6
1
2
18
33
20
3
8
8
8
0
0
0
Means
1013
7
−3
32*
−34§
61
76
5
4
_
_
10
14
5
3
11
27
21
5
4
11
10
4
6
17
21
19
5
7
7
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
532
104
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
19
14
Extreme values _
_
_
41†
−37‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
67
1.189 WMO No 32098 PORONAYSK (49
°
13
′
N 143
°
08
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1013
−11
−21
0
−33
58
63
4
4
32
7
52
4
1
0
2
2
7
30
2
57
3
1
1
1
2
4
30
1
6
7
0
1
0
February 1013
−8
−20
1
−30
56
63
4
3
19
7
45
4
2
3
6
3
16
19
2
54
5
1
1
0
2
6
30
1
6
6
0
1
0
March 1012
−3
−13
4
−24
62
67
5
4
38
9
25
6
5
5
20
11
15
12
1
40
4
2
3
6
5
12
26
2
7
6
0
2
0
April
1011
3
−3
12
−11
74
78
6
5
53
9
14
5
9
10
35
6
11
8
2
22
7
8
4
17
10
14
16
2
8
6
0
4
0
May 1011
9
2
20
−3
80
89
6
6
54
11
6
4
9
14
47
9
6
4
1
16
4
7
8
30
7
8
16
4
8
5
0
7
0
June 1010
13
7
25
1
85
93
6
6
58
11
3
5
8
17
55
4
4
2
2
20
5
6
7
27
9
8
14
4
8
5
0
9
0
July
1010
16
11
25
5
89
95
7
6
74
12
2
4
7
20
57
5
2
1
2
14
2
8
13
29
6
8
13
7
7
5
0
9
0
August 1011
19
12
26
6
86
93
6
6
81
13
5
5
8
10
55
8
5
2
2
16
4
4
7
29
6
9
19
6
8
6
0
8
0
September 1013
16
8
24
1
81
90
5
4
103
11
10
3
6
8
34
12
16
8
3
22
3
3
4
18
10
14
21
5
7
6
0
5
0
October
1013
10
1
18
−6
74
82
5
4
100
11
16
4
6
5
19
12
24
11
3
28
3
3
4
8
13
18
18
5
7
6
0
2
0
November 1012
0
−9
8
−21
65
73
4
4
51
9
30
2
2
1
5
13
24
20
3
38
3
1
1
4
10
17
23
3
7
6
0
1
0
December 1013
−9
−18
0
−28
60
65
3
4
33
7
49
5
0
0
0
3
9
33
1
49
2
1
0
0
2
10
35
1
6
7
0
0
0
Means
1012
5
−3
28*
−33§
73
79
5
5
_
_
21
4
5
8
28
7
12
13
2
31
4
4
4
14
7
11
22
3
7
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
696
117
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
48
2
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
−38‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
68
1.190 WMO No 31174 OSTROV BOL’SHOY SHANTAR (54
°
50
′
N 137
°
32
′
E) Height above MSL − 21 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1995 to 2005
January 1018
−14
−25
−4
−36
65
64
4
4
29
8
33
19
9
3
6
2
7
13
8
32
31
6
2
5
3
7
10
4
6
7
0
0
0
February 1016
−13
−27
−5
−36
57
64
4
3
20
3
20
20
10
5
8
2
5
15
15
30
40
5
2
3
5
3
7
5
5
5
0
0
0
March 1014
−7
−20
0
−33
58
71
4
4
29
5
24
14
3
4
8
6
10
14
17
38
39
6
1
1
2
1
7
5
5
7
1
0
0
April
1011
2
−9
9
−20
68
80
5
4
21
7
23
12
1
5
16
14
10
8
11
41
34
5
1
3
2
3
3
8
6
5
0
3
0
May 1010
7
−1
17
−8
75
88
6
6
72
10
25
14
5
2
15
16
8
5
10
51
29
5
1
4
2
1
1
6
6
6
0
4
0
June 1009
14
3
23
−2
74
91
5
5
47
9
17
9
4
2
22
23
11
3
9
35
28
3
3
4
2
3
4
18
5
4
0
7
0
July
1009
17
7
26
1
81
93
5
5
54
9
14
10
3
3
23
22
9
4
12
38
29
3
2
3
1
2
3
19
4
4
0
10
1
August 1010
18
7
24
0
80
94
6
5
83
14
16
11
3
7
18
20
7
4
14
37
33
6
2
0
2
2
5
13
4
4
0
6
1
September 1011
14
3
20
−4
73
88
5
4
52
11
20
16
5
7
11
10
13
10
8
31
36
9
1
3
3
4
8
5
5
6
0
2
1
October
1014
5
−3
15
−13
72
78
6
5
70
13
32
23
9
1
1
3
11
15
5
40
26
3
0
2
2
11
12
4
7
7
1
0
0
November 1013
−6
−13
3
−26
67
69
5
5
40
13
23
16
4
1
2
4
20
25
5
26
13
6
2
1
6
19
25
2
9
9
1
0
0
December 1016
−14
−23
−6
−34
64
64
4
4
21
10
21
13
8
3
5
5
17
22
6
22
17
7
5
4
8
15
19
3
7
7
1
0
0
Means
1013
2
−9
24*
−37§
70
79
5
4
_
_
22
15
5
4
11
11
11
11
10
35
30
5
2
3
3
6
9
7
6
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
538
112
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
32
3
Extreme values _
_
_
32†
−44‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
11
11
11
11
11
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
69
1.191 WMO No 31088 OKHOTSK (59
°
22
′
N 143
°
12
′
E) Height above MSL − 6 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1985 to 2005
January 1014
−19
−24
−5
−32
52
51
4
4
6
4
71
14
1
1
0
1
2
10
0
78
11
1
0
1
1
0
7
1
7
8
0
0
0
February 1012
−15
−22
−4
−30
49
52
5
4
7
5
72
12
2
0
0
0
1
12
1
81
8
1
1
0
0
0
9
0
6
6
0
0
0
March 1013
−7
−18
1
−28
57
64
5
4
10
7
29
10
7
6
9
7
14
14
4
63
8
6
2
2
1
2
14
2
5
5
0
1
0
April
1012
0
−9
6
−18
75
81
6
5
35
9
7
2
8
14
24
25
14
2
4
33
5
9
14
16
4
3
7
9
6
5
0
2
0
May 1011
5
−1
15
−6
83
88
6
6
41
10
4
1
5
22
39
19
5
3
2
18
4
9
20
20
6
4
4
15
7
5
0
4
0
June 1010
11
6
21
0
87
92
6
6
46
11
2
1
6
28
44
15
2
1
1
13
4
12
23
24
6
1
4
13
8
5
0
6
0
July
1009
16
11
23
5
87
92
6
7
67
12
1
1
7
25
33
24
6
1
2
17
4
8
21
22
8
5
4
11
7
5
0
3
0
August 1009
17
10
24
3
85
91
6
6
79
13
6
0
7
17
31
24
8
5
2
20
3
14
18
18
8
3
5
11
7
5
0
3
0
September 1010
12
5
18
−3
80
87
6
5
81
11
10
2
10
16
18
14
15
13
2
36
9
9
12
11
3
5
8
7
7
6
1
1
0
October
1010
2
−5
10
−13
65
71
5
4
58
9
43
11
7
3
4
3
6
21
2
58
13
7
1
1
0
1
16
3
6
7
1
0
0
November 1009
−11
−16
1
−24
55
57
5
4
28
8
63
12
2
1
0
1
1
19
1
66
13
2
1
1
0
0
17
0
7
8
0
0
0
December 1011
−18
−22
−4
−29
51
50
4
4
11
5
70
13
1
0
0
0
1
15
0
77
11
1
0
0
0
1
10
0
8
8
0
0
0
Means
1011
0
−7
25*
−33§
70
74
5
5
_
_
31
7
5
11
17
11
6
10
2
47
8
6
9
10
3
2
9
6
7
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
469
104
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
20
1
Extreme values _
_
_
28†
−37‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
70
1.192 WMO No 25913 MAGADAN (59
°
33
′
N 150
°
43
′
E) Height above MSL − 116 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1012
−15
−19
−4
−27
54
54
5
4
9
7
3
64
25
1
0
1
4
0
2
4
64
25
0
0
1
3
0
3
8
8
1
0
0
February 1010
−13
−18
−4
−25
52
53
5
5
8
5
5
50
33
2
1
1
3
0
5
6
58
30
0
0
2
1
0
3
7
8
1
0
0
March 1012
−8
−14
0
−24
56
57
5
5
16
9
8
39
24
1
1
8
13
1
5
5
56
27
1
2
3
3
0
3
7
8
1
1
0
April
1012
−1
−7
4
−16
66
68
6
5
49
11
3
20
27
2
1
14
29
2
2
4
47
24
2
0
8
9
0
6
8
7
1
2
0
May 1011
5
−1
12
−4
78
82
6
6
37
10
4
7
16
1
2
7
58
3
2
3
26
24
2
1
8
25
3
8
7
5
0
9
0
June 1010
11
5
19
0
81
89
6
6
45
8
1
5
13
1
2
6
66
3
3
4
22
25
3
1
8
29
3
5
8
5
0
11
0
July
1010
15
10
21
7
85
92
6
6
59
13
1
4
9
2
1
13
64
3
3
2
19
23
2
1
12
32
3
6
8
5
0
11
0
August 1009
15
10
21
6
84
89
6
6
80
12
3
11
12
2
2
15
49
3
3
6
26
23
2
1
11
20
2
9
7
5
0
7
1
September 1011
10
5
16
−1
80
82
6
5
76
13
5
19
14
1
2
20
33
2
4
5
44
17
3
1
8
14
0
8
6
6
0
4
0
October
1010
2
−3
9
−11
65
65
5
5
79
14
5
44
23
4
1
9
9
1
4
3
57
25
1
1
5
6
0
2
7
7
0
0
0
November 1007
−8
−12
0
−21
54
54
5
5
49
12
4
56
30
2
1
2
3
0
2
3
56
31
1
1
3
2
1
2
8
8
1
0
0
December 1009
−14
−17
−5
−25
53
53
5
5
16
7
5
57
33
2
0
1
1
0
1
2
58
34
2
1
1
1
0
1
8
8
0
0
0
Means
1010
0
−5
20*
−28§
67
70
6
5
_
_
4
31
22
2
1
8
28
1
3
4
44
25
2
1
6
12
1
5
7
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
523
121
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
45
2
Extreme values _
_
_
25†
−33‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
71
1.193 WMO No 32594 OZERNAJA (ZAPOROZH’YE) (51
°
29
′
N 156
°
29
′
E) Height above MSL − 28 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1005
−9
−15
1
−25
69
71
5
6
25
11
10
34
28
11
9
3
2
2
1
8
31
30
13
9
1
6
1
1
8
8
0
1
0
February 1004
−8
−16
1
−26
69
72
5
5
15
9
22
32
20
8
8
4
1
3
2
22
30
24
5
7
2
5
3
2
7
8
0
0
0
March 1008
−4
−12
3
−21
71
72
5
5
17
10
23
28
18
6
10
4
5
4
2
12
26
25
14
13
5
1
3
1
8
8
0
1
0
April
1009
1
−5
7
−14
81
79
6
5
27
11
33
14
10
2
14
9
9
7
2
21
22
22
8
10
7
7
2
1
9
8
0
1
0
May 1010
6
0
12
−3
87
91
6
6
30
8
37
3
5
2
18
17
7
10
1
22
13
8
4
27
11
6
8
1
10
9
0
3
0
June 1011
10
5
14
1
91
95
6
7
27
9
35
1
1
0
16
14
12
20
1
21
10
6
4
26
13
9
8
3
8
7
0
4
0
July
1010
14
9
19
5
93
96
7
7
50
12
33
2
1
0
20
19
8
15
2
18
7
9
5
27
16
6
10
2
8
7
0
5
0
August 1010
14
9
19
4
92
94
7
7
75
13
34
4
2
0
21
19
8
10
2
15
13
6
5
30
17
7
6
1
9
8
0
4
0
September 1011
12
6
16
1
90
91
6
6
76
13
18
10
6
7
18
18
12
9
2
11
12
9
12
28
10
7
8
3
9
8
0
2
0
October
1008
7
2
11
−5
90
92
6
6
67
16
16
13
15
14
15
9
13
4
1
12
11
20
14
16
7
14
5
1
9
10
0
0
0
November 1004
−1
−6
6
−15
80
82
6
7
77
19
8
18
13
13
10
9
21
8
0
7
12
19
12
12
8
19
10
1
12
11
1
0
0
December 1003
−7
−13
3
−22
73
73
5
5
34
13
9
23
31
13
9
3
10
2
0
8
22
29
12
13
3
9
2
2
9
9
0
0
0
Means
1008
4
0
20*
−19§
80
81
6
6
_
_
17
8
20
4
16
5
11
14
5
15
11
24
4
15
4
10
10
7
13
12
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
726
219
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
49
48
1
Extreme values _
_
_
26†
−24‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
19
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
72
1.194 WMO No 32411 ICHINSKIY (55
°
35
′
N 155
°
35
′
E) Height above MSL − 6 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2005
January 1005
−9
−15
1
−25
69
71
5
6
25
11
10
34
28
11
9
3
2
2
1
8
31
30
13
9
1
6
1
1
8
8
0
1
0
0
February 1004
−8
−16
1
−26
69
72
5
5
15
9
22
32
20
8
8
4
1
3
2
22
30
24
5
7
2
5
3
2
7
8
0
0
0
March 1008
−4
−12
3
−21
71
72
5
5
17
10
23
28
18
6
10
4
5
4
2
12
26
25
14
13
5
1
3
1
8
8
0
1
0
April
1009
1
−5
7
−14
81
79
6
5
27
11
33
14
10
2
14
9
9
7
2
21
22
22
8
10
7
7
2
1
9
8
0
1
0
May 1010
6
0
12
−3
87
91
6
6
30
8
37
3
5
2
18
17
7
10
1
22
13
8
4
27
11
6
8
1
10
9
0
3
0
June 1011
10
5
14
1
91
95
6
7
27
9
35
1
1
0
16
14
12
20
1
21
10
6
4
26
13
9
8
3
8
7
0
4
0
July
1010
14
9
19
5
93
96
7
7
50
12
33
2
1
0
20
19
8
15
2
18
7
9
5
27
16
6
10
2
8
7
0
5
0
August 1010
14
9
19
4
92
94
7
7
75
13
34
4
2
0
21
19
8
10
2
15
13
6
5
30
17
7
6
1
9
8
0
4
0
September 1011
12
6
16
1
90
91
6
6
76
13
18
10
6
7
18
18
12
9
2
11
12
9
12
28
10
7
8
3
9
8
0
2
0
October
1008
7
2
11
−5
90
92
6
6
67
16
16
13
15
14
15
9
13
4
1
12
11
20
14
16
7
14
5
1
9
10
0
0
0
November 1004
−1
−6
6
−15
80
82
6
7
77
19
8
18
13
13
10
9
21
8
0
7
12
19
12
12
8
19
10
1
12
11
1
0
0
December 1003
−7
−13
3
−22
73
73
5
5
34
13
9
23
31
13
9
3
10
2
0
8
22
29
12
13
3
9
2
2
9
9
0
0
0
Means
1008
3
−3
20*
−27§
82
84
6
6
_
_
23
15
12
7
14
11
9
8
1
15
17
17
9
18
8
8
6
2
9
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
520
144
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
20
0
Extreme values _
_
_
31†
−32‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
21
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
73
1.195 WMO No 32252 UST’-VOYAMPOLKA (58
°
30
′
N 159
°
10
′
E) Height above MSL − 7 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1984 to 1998
January 1008
−15
−22
−1
−32
69
70
4
4
8
7
13
6
16
51
6
5
2
1
0
13
5
11
63
4
2
0
1
1
10
10
0
1
0
0
February 1006
−12
−20
−2
−30
73
75
5
5
7
5
15
12
16
48
1
0
1
2
5
12
12
7
62
3
0
1
0
3
8
8
0
1
0
March 1011
−7
−17
1
−27
73
74
5
4
8
6
23
17
20
21
3
1
6
3
6
17
11
13
43
5
2
0
4
5
9
8
0
0
0
April
1012
0
−8
7
−19
80
82
5
4
6
5
24
16
22
11
5
1
7
2
12
15
11
15
43
4
1
5
4
2
7
6
0
1
0
May 1011
5
−1
14
−7
84
89
6
6
3
2
28
12
6
5
5
13
15
8
8
18
7
7
25
12
12
5
2
12
9
7
0
3
0
June 1012
11
4
18
−1
90
95
5
6
9
4
27
4
2
3
4
13
22
12
13
5
3
3
30
18
13
7
4
17
6
5
0
4
0
July
1012
14
8
21
3
87
95
5
6
32
7
26
2
4
1
1
20
19
9
18
7
1
6
29
9
10
9
3
26
5
4
0
3
0
August 1010
14
8
19
3
93
95
6
6
37
7
22
2
4
4
6
27
13
10
12
14
6
1
28
14
11
6
7
13
8
7
0
3
0
September 1013
11
3
16
−5
87
92
6
5
19
9
19
12
17
11
13
8
9
5
6
12
5
9
39
16
4
3
6
6
8
7
0
2
0
October
1008
5
−1
11
−8
88
90
6
6
32
12
16
10
16
27
8
6
8
3
6
6
10
5
36
21
4
5
4
9
9
8
0
0
0
November 1005
−4
−10
3
−22
82
81
6
6
26
11
9
6
6
43
10
9
13
3
1
11
7
1
37
22
2
17
2
1
13
12
0
1
0
December 1007
−11
−18
2
−29
73
73
5
5
11
9
7
4
10
65
11
1
1
1
0
4
4
16
70
4
1
0
0
1
10
10
0
2
0
Means
1010
1
−6
17*
−34§
82
84
5
5
_
_
19
8
12
24
6
9
10
5
7
11
7
8
42
11
5
5
3
8
8
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
198
84
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
21
0
Extreme values _
_
_
25†
−39‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
15
15
6
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
74
1.196 WMO No 25744 KAMENSKOE (62
°
26
′
N 166
°
05
′
E) Height above MSL − 10 m
Climatic Table compiled from observations 1987 to 2005
January 1014
−23
−29
−8
−42
72
72
5
5
33
8
1
19
45
8
1
3
7
1
15
2
19
36
12
2
7
4
3
15
8
9
1
0
0
February 1013
−20
−26
−6
−39
74
76
5
5
17
9
1
33
42
3
1
3
3
1
13
2
33
40
2
0
3
3
0
17
11
12
2
0
0
March 1016
−13
−22
−2
−33
76
72
5
4
13
11
3
32
38
5
3
4
3
0
12
1
22
44
13
5
2
3
0
10
9
8
1
0
0
April
1014
−5
−14
4
−27
81
82
5
4
11
12
6
31
29
1
3
10
3
1
16
6
21
33
7
2
3
8
0
20
8
7
1
0
0
May 1010
6
−2
16
−11
83
91
6
6
9
7
10
31
11
2
6
16
13
1
10
5
21
19
3
3
16
9
3
21
7
5
0
0
0
June 1011
17
5
22
2
69
92
5
5
43
9
5
20
3
5
8
27
25
1
6
2
8
9
3
6
25
26
1
20
7
5
0
0
0
July
1009
19
9
25
4
78
94
5
5
54
10
1
16
4
2
5
31
31
2
8
1
10
4
3
6
22
31
1
22
6
4
0
0
0
August 1008
17
7
23
−1
85
94
6
6
54
12
10
23
8
3
8
22
13
1
12
3
20
10
8
3
20
14
0
22
6
5
0
0
0
September 1012
10
1
15
−9
86
92
6
6
26
8
6
33
15
4
4
13
11
3
11
4
16
22
6
7
16
10
1
18
5
4
0
0
0
October
1011
−2
−8
7
−23
83
83
5
6
25
11
7
32
22
7
3
5
10
2
12
3
26
28
6
1
11
6
1
18
7
6
0
0
0
November 1009
−13
−19
−1
−34
77
74
6
6
20
10
2
26
36
3
3
8
8
1
13
3
30
34
4
2
8
8
1
10
9
10
1
0
0
December 1013
−22
−29
−6
−41
70
67
5
4
15
9
1
20
45
9
2
3
5
2
13
2
18
45
10
0
5
5
2
13
9
9
1
0
0
Means
1012
−4
−12
21*
−45§
78
82
5
5
_
_
4
26
25
5
4
12
11
1
12
3
20
27
6
3
12
11
1
17
8
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
320
116
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
1
1
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
−50‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
75
1.197
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
HECTOPASCALS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
NP 32
CHINA SEA PILOT
VOLUME III
Y9ja
Man
Kumo
Y9lto
Naro
Y9lto
Kamak
Yang
Sori Do
Taeduy9ks9
K9gumdo
2.148
Wando
H
a
e
n
a
m
g
a
k
Ch’9ngsando
Y9s9do
Ch’uja Kundo
K9mundo
Habaekto
Soan Kundo
S O U T H K O R E A
T
u
n
g
n
y
a
n
g
M
a
n
C H E J U D O
Cheju Hang
2.29
Udo
2.62
S9gwip’o Hang
Hwado
Marado
2.132
2.73
2.37
2.23
2.58
2.11
2.11
2.83
2.204
2.93
2.1
19
2.115
2.124
2.211
2.188
2.197
2.162
2.178
2.156
2.171
2
.
4
5
3365
3365
3928
913
127
3391
0405
Longitude 127° East from Greenwich
126°
128°
126°
127127°
128°
33°
34°
35°
33°
34°
35°
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
Chapter 2 - South Coast of Korea - Haenamgak to Habaekto and Sori Do including Cheju Do
76
77
CHAPTER 2
SOUTH COAST OF KOREA — HAENAMGAK TO HABAEKTO AND SORI DO
INCLUDING OUTLYING ISLANDS AND CHEJU DO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3480, 3365, 127
Scope of the chapter
2.1
1
The area covered by this chapter comprises the S coast
of Korea between Haenamgak (34°18′N 126°31′E), the SW
point of the mainland of Korea, and Habaekto
(34°02′N 127°37′E) and Sori Do (34°26′N 127°48′E),
respectively, 55 miles ESE and 64 miles E, together with
the islands lying off this coast, including Cheju Do
(33°25′N 126°35′E) and islands N of it.
2
The chapter is arranged as follows:
Cheju Do (2.8).
South coast − offshore route (2.72).
South coast − coastal route (2.92).
South coast − inshore route (2.130).
Topography
2.2
1
The S coast of Korea, from Haenamgak
(34°18′N 126°31′E) to the vicinity of Pusan (Busan),
135 miles ENE, is much indented by large peninsular
projections, and is fronted by numerous groups of islands,
islets and rocks. Generally speaking, the islands and islets
are steep-to, and there are few below-water dangers.
2
Lying off this coast are Cheju Do (33°25′N 126°35′E),
at the SW end, and Tsushima (34°30′N 129°20′E) (Japan
Pilot Volume II) at the NE end, with many islands nearer
the mainland.
Tanker navigation restricted area
2.3
1
For details of the tanker navigation restricted area along
the S coast of Korea see 1.48.
Former mined areas
2.4
1
For information on former mined areas see 1.6 and
Appendix I.
Fish havens and marine farms
2.5
1
Numerous fish havens and marine farms have been
established in Korean coastal waters. They may be marked
by lit or unlit buoys or beacons. Mariners are advised to
avoid these structures and their associated moorings. For
further information see 1.15.
Tidal streams
2.6
1
The general direction of the tidal streams off the W part
of the S coast of Korea is E-W as follows:
Time Direction
From 5 to 4 hours before to 1 to
2 hours after HW at Luhuadao
(30°49′N 122°36′E)
W-going stream
2
From 2 to 3 hours after to 5 to
4 hours before HW at Luhuadao
E-going stream
The streams turn earlier farther E along the coast.
Between the N side of Kãmundo (34°02′N 127°18′E), and
the S extremity of Kohung Pando, 23 miles N, the rate of
the streams does not exceed 2 kn.
Rescue
2.7
1
For information on rescue services see 1.81.
CHEJU DO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3480, 3365
Area covered
2.8
1
This section describes the coastal waters around Cheju
Do (33°25′N 126°35′E), and its harbours and anchorages. It
is arranged as follows:
West coast − Marado to Aewolgot (2.11).
North coast − Aewolgot to Cheju Hang (2.23).
North coast − Cheju Hang to Kwangcho Ch’ã (2.37).
East coast − Kwangcho Ch’ã to Kaeminp’o Got
(2.45).
South coast − Kaeminp’o Got to Marado (2.58).
Description
2.9
1
Cheju Do is a large island with its N extremity lying
46 miles SSE of Haenamgak, the SW extremity of
mainland Korea. There are only a few indentations, and no
secure anchorages for large vessels. The island is Korean
territory.
2
As the island is formed of volcanic rock, the
water-courses are few and generally dry, except after rain
when they become raging torrents. A few rivers discharge
all year round. The principal rivers flow into the sea near
Cheju Hang (33°31′N 126°32′E), on the N coast, and near
Sãgwi Ri (33°15′N 126°34′E), on the S coast.
3
Except in the vicinity of these rivers, fresh water is
scarce in dry weather. The only other source of fresh water
is springs, most of which rise up between the rocks on the
beach, from which a supply can be obtained at LW; at
other times these springs are covered by the sea.
4
Cheju, mid-way along the N coast, is the principal town
of the island.
Topography
2.10
1
Hallasan (33°22′N 126°32′E), in the middle of the
island, towers far above any summit; it has two peaks. The
W peak, 1929 m high, is a precipitous wall of rock; the E
peak is slightly sloping. A fresh water lake occupies a
crater between the peaks. Dense forest which covers the
lower part of the mountain gives way to stunted growth.
CHAPTER 2
78
WEST COAST — MARADO TO
AEWOLGOT
General information
Charts 3480, 3365, Korean Charts W235, W254, No 248
(see 1.22)
Route
2.11
1
From a position SSW of Marado (33°07′N 126°16′E) the
coastal route, along the W side of Cheju Do, leads initially
NNW for 18 miles, and thence NE, for a farther 16 miles,
to a position NW of Aewolgot (33°28′N 126°19′E).
Depths
2.12
1
For about 5 miles NW of Bunamgot (33°12′N 126°18′E)
the coast is slightly indented and rocky ledges, which dry,
extend 4 cables offshore in places. Thence to the W
extremity of Cheju Do the coast is fringed with rocks but
there are depths of 18 m about 2 cables offshore.
2
The coast from of the W extremity of Cheju Do to
Piyang Do, 7 miles NE, consists of rocky ledges, with
depths of 10 m, at a distance of about 2 cables outside
them. From Piyang Do to Aewolgot, 5½ miles NE, the
coast continues to be fringed with rocky ledges, with
depths of less than 10 m up to 6 cables offshore.
Tidal streams
2.13
1
South−west coast. Tidal streams off the SW coast of
Cheju Do set parallel to the coast as follows:
Time Direction
Two to 3 hours before HW at
Luhuadao (30°49′N 122°36′E)
N-going stream begins
2
Three to 2 hours after HW at
Luhuadao
S-going stream begins
The rate of the tidal stream is strongest in the vicinity of
Marado (33°07′N 126°16′E), where it attains a rate of
about 3 kn.
3
North−west coast. Tidal streams off the NW coast of
Cheju Do set SW/NE as follows:
Time Direction
Three to 4 hours after HW at
Luhuadao (30°49′N 122°36′E)
NE-going stream begins
4
Two to 3 hours before HW at
Luhuadao
SW-going stream begins
The rate of the tidal streams in the vicinity of Piyang
Do (33°25′N 126°14′E) is about 2½ kn.
Principal marks
2.14
1
Landmarks:
Sanbangsan (33°14′N 126°19′E), a dome-shaped
mountain, 389 m high, which rises steeply from
the coast; it is the most prominent feature of the
SW portion of Cheju Do.
Kosan Ak (33°18′N 126°11′E), a rocky peak, 148 m
high, standing at the W end of Cheju Do.
2
Major lights:
Marado Light (white octagonal tower, 11 m in height)
(33°07′N 126°16′E).
Piyang Do Light (white round concrete tower, 5 m in
height) (33°24′N 126°14′E).
Other aids to navigation
2.15
1
Racons:
Marado (33°07′N 126°16′E).
Chagwido (33°19′N 126°09′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.61)
Marado to Chagwido
2.16
1
From a position SSW of Marado (33°07′N 126°16′E) the
track leads NNW, passing (with positions relative to
Marado):
WSW of Marado, which has a vertical rocky face
33 m high on its E side; there are dwellings on the
W side of the island. The island is steep-to except
for reefs extending a short distance from its N and
S extremities. Thence:
2
WSW of Kap’a Do (Gapado on Korean Chart W235)
(3 miles N) (2.18), thence:
WSW of Kwabutan (Gwabutan on Korean Chart
W235) (4 miles NNW), with three rocky heads
which dry about 3 m. The N-most rock is marked
by a light-beacon (isolated danger). Thence:
3
WSW of the coast behind Kwabutan, between
Bunamgot (5 miles N), the SW end of Cheju Do,
and Mosulp’o, 2½ miles NW; this coast is flat and
cultivated. Bunamgot is 138 m high, cliffy and
precipitous. Thence:
WSW of the SW side of Cheju Do, between Mosulpo
and Chagwido.
4
The track then leads to a position W of Chagwido
(13¼ miles NNW), a grassy island 61 m high and cliffy,
lying close off the coast W of Kosan Ak (2.14). The
island, from which a light (white round concrete tower, 5 m
in height) is exhibited, is fringed with foul ground to
seaward; an islet lies between it and Cheju Do.
Chagwido to Aewolgot
2.17
1
From the position W of Chagwido (33°19′N 126°09′E)
the track leads NE, passing (with positions relative to
Chagwido):
NW of a dangerous wreck (1½ miles N), lying
6 cables SW of Yongdang Sanggot (2 miles NNE).
Yongdang Sanggot is marked by a light-beacon (W
cardinal). Thence:
2
NW of Sinchang Ri (2½ miles NNE), from where a
light (white octagonal concrete tower, 11 m in
height) is exhibited, thence:
NW of a point (3¼ miles NNE) where Tumo Hang is
situated; a light is exhibited from the breakwater at
Tumo Hang. Thence:
NW of a fish haven (5½ miles NNE), thence:
3
NW of Piyang Do (7 miles NE) (2.19), from which a
light (2.14) is exhibited. Piyang Do is foul on all
sides except NE. In the foul area W of the islet
there are several above-water rocks, three of which
are prominent; the N rock is larger at the top than
at the bottom and is 1 m high. The middle and
largest rock of the three is brownish, pointed and
11 m high; the S rock is black and pointed.
Thence:
4
NW of Sãbi Yã (7½ miles NNE), the rocky ledge
which extends 8 cables N from Piyang Do. The N
CHAPTER 2
79
end of the ledge is marked by a light-beacon
(N cardinal). Thence:
NW of Unyonggot (9½ miles NE), from which a light
(white round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited. Another light (red round tower, 8 m in
height) is exhibited from the W breakwater of
Younguntong Hang, 1 mile E of Unyonggot.
5
The track then leads to a position NW of Aewolgot
(12½ miles NE), the NW extremity of Cheju Do. A
prominent hill, 172 m high, with an old beacon on it,
stands 1½ miles ESE of the point.
Useful marks:
Suyonggot Light (33°23′⋅4N 126°13′⋅4E).
6
Kwidãk 2 Light-beacon (N cardinal) (33°26′⋅6N
126°16′⋅6E).
Kwidãk Ni Light (white round concrete tower, 13 m
in height) (33°26′⋅8N 126°17′⋅6E).
Kwidãk 1 Light (red round concrete tower, 17 m in
height) (33°26′⋅9N 126°17′⋅6E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 2.28)
Side channel
Korean Chart W218 (see 1.22)
Channel north of Marado
2.18
1
Description. Between Marado (33°07′N 126°16′E)
(2.16) and Kap’a Do (Gapado on Korean Chart W218),
3 miles N, there is a channel free from dangers, except for
some foul ground extending 5 cables S from Kap’a Do;
however, the tidal streams in the channel are strong and
there is generally a tidal race. The approach from the NE is
encumbered by detached reefs, on which there are
above-water rocks, extending 8 cables E from Kap’a Do.
2
Kap’a Do is a flat island with a few inhabitants on it;
two red and white radio masts stand on the island. Kap’a
Hang, a small harbour, is situated on the SE side of the
island.
Useful marks:
Kwangp’ot’an Light-beacon (isolated danger)
(33°10′⋅4N 126°17′⋅5E), marking the edge of the
reefs off the E side of Kap’a Do.
3
Light (white round tower, 8 m in height) exhibited
from the S breakwater of Kap’a Hang.
Donongtang Light-beacon (S cardinal)
(33°09′⋅5N 126°16′⋅5E).
Anchorages and harbours
Korean Chart 262 (see 1.22)
Piyang Do
2.19
1
Description. Piyang Do (33°24′N 126°14′E) is an islet
with a hollow summit, on the edge of which are four
peaks, the highest of which is 114 m high. The islet is
grassy and when seen from a distance is prominent; the S
side is flat and there is a hamlet near its SE extremity. For
information on the foul ground surrounding most of the
islet see 2.17.
2
A narrow channel, with a least depth of 5⋅5 m, leads
between the reef extending SE from Piyang Do and that
extending from Cheju Do; this channel is only suitable for
small local vessels. The drying end of the reef on the S
side of Piyang Do is marked by a light-beacon (S cardinal).
3
Submarine pipeline. A submarine pipeline is laid across
the channel from the S side of Piyangdo Hang, situated on
the SE side of Piyang Do, to a position on the coast of
Cheju Do, 1½ cables SW of Hyãje Hang. For further
information on submarine pipelines see 1.20.
Major light:
Piyang Do Light (33°24′N 126°14′E) (2.14).
4
Useful marks:
Light (red round metal tower, 5 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater at Piyangdo
Hang.
5
Light (white round metal structure, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the breakwater at Hyãje Hang
(33°23′⋅8N 126°14′⋅7E).
Light (white round pipe tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the breakwater at Ongp’o Hang
(33°24′⋅0N 126°15′⋅1E).
6
Anchorages. Large vessels may obtain anchorage in
Piyangdo Myoji between the E side of Piyang Do and
Cheju Do, in depths from 13 to 15 m, sand, or SW of
Piyang Do in depths from 13 to 31 m, over a bottom of
sand and shells. Local knowledge is required for both
anchorages.
7
Small local vessels can anchor 3 cables S of Piyang Do
in depths from 10 to 11 m, over a bottom of sand.
Hallim Hang
2.20
1
Position. Hallim Hang (33°25′N 126°16′E) is situated on
the W coast of Cheju Do, 1¼ miles ENE of Piyang Do.
Function. It is the biggest fishing and commercial
harbour on the W side of Cheju Do.
Topography. The approach to Hallim Hang is fronted
by Piyang Do (2.19).
Outer anchorages. For details of anchoring off Hallim
Hang see 2.19.
2
Harbour. The harbour is protected to the N and W by a
breakwater which extends over 1500 m W and SW from
Chiku Do at its N end; Chiku Do is connected to the shore
by a causeway and boat basin. The S and W side of the
harbour is protected by another breakwater projecting
180 m from the shore. The N part of the harbour is for
fishing vessels; the S part has cargo berths on its SE and S
sides.
3
Major light:
Piyang Do Light (33°24′N 126°14′E) (2.14).
Directions. Hallim Hang is approached from the NW,
passing NE of Sãbi Yã (2.17) and the foul ground
extending N from Piyang Do. When a position is reached
about 6 cables NE of Piyang Do the track leads E into the
harbour passing between the heads of the N and S
breakwaters.
4
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 15 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 7 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater.
5
Berths:
Cargo wharf situated on the S side of the harbour;
length 816 m with depths from 2 to 5 m alongside.
Lighter wharf in centre of harbour; length 515 m with
a depth of 3 m alongside.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
6
Communications. There is a ferry service connecting
Hallim Hang with Piyang Do.
Korean Chart W218 (1.22)
Mosulp’o Hang
2.21
1
Description. Mosulp’o Hang (33°13′N 126°15′E) is a
fishing harbour situated in the outer part of an inlet
CHAPTER 2
80
protected by a rocky ledge; the harbour is protected by a
W breakwater projecting SSE from the rocky ledge.
Mosulp’o, a town, stands at the head of the inlet.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Useful marks:
Light (white round metal tower, 9 m in height)
(33°12′⋅4N 126°15′⋅5E) exhibited from the head of
Mosulp’onam W breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(33°12′⋅7N 126°15′⋅0E) exhibited from the head of
Mosulp’o Hang W breakwater.
3
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(33°12′⋅8N 126°15′⋅0E) exhibited from Mosulp’o
Hang E breakwater.
Mosulbong, a hill 186 m high, standing 1 mile N of
the town.
4
Berths. A lighter wharf is situated in the inner part of
the port; Welfare Wharf and an unloading wharf are
situated in the central part.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Korean Chart W254 (see 1.22)
Chagwido
2.22
1
Description. Small local vessels may obtain anchorage
in a bay on the E side of Chagwido (33°19′N 126°09′E)
(2.16) and temporary anchorage off the coast close S and N
of the island. Neither is a good anchorage. Care needs to
be taken when anchoring as there are several fish havens in
the area.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅1 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅9 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
2
Useful mark:
Kosan Light-beacon (W cardinal) (33°18′⋅7N
126°09′⋅4E) standing in the channel between
Chagwido and the W side of Cheju Do.
NORTH COAST — AEWOLGOT
TO CHEJU HANG
General information
Charts 3480, 3365, Korean Charts W235, No 248 (see 1.22)
Route
2.23
1
From a position NW of Aewolgot (33°28′N 126°19′E)
the track leads ENE clear of any dangers, for 14½ miles, to
a position NNW of Cheju Hang (33°31′N 126°32′E).
Topography
2.24
1
The N coast of Cheju Do, between Aewolgot and Cheju
Hang, consists mostly of piled black lava rocks, and
projecting rocky ledges. There are numerous villages along
the coast, off some of which there are breakwaters
providing shelter for boats.
Tidal streams
2.25
1
Tidal streams off the N side of Cheju Do set parallel to
the coast; 4 miles off Cheju, they set as follows:
Time Direction
Three to 4 hours before HW at
Luhuadao (30°49′N 122°36′E)
W-going stream begins
2
Two to 3 hours after HW at Luhuadao
E-going stream begins
Principal marks
2.26
1
Landmark:
Sarabong (33°31′⋅1N 126°32′⋅7E), a hill with an
octagonal pavilion on its summit; visible from a
long distance.
Major lights:
Hwado Light (white square concrete tower, 7 m in
height) (33°44′N 126°22′E).
2
Sanji Light (white round concrete tower, 18 m in
height) (33°31′⋅3N 126°32′⋅7E), situated on the E
side of the town of Cheju at the foot of Sarabong
(above).
Other aids to navigation
2.27
1
Racons:
Hwado (33°44′N 126°22′E).
Cheju Hang W breakwater (33°31′⋅9N 126°32′⋅4E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.17)
2.28
1
From a position NW of Aewolgot (33°28′N 126°19′E)
the track leads ENE, passing (with positions relative to
Aewolgot):
NNW of the entrance to Aewol Hang (6 cables E)
(2.36), thence:
2
NNW of Kuom Hang (3 miles ENE) from the
breakwater of which a light (white round metal
tower, 9 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
NNW of Kamundong Hang (4¼ miles ENE). A light
(red round metal tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited
from its N breakwater. Thence:
3
SSE of Haeamsã (12 miles N), an above-water rock
which is pointed and steep-to, thence:
NNW of Tonggwi Hang (5 miles ENE); a light (white
round metal tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited
from its E breakwater. Thence:
4
SSE of Hwado (16 miles N), which has a distinctive
flat summit; a light (2.26) is exhibited from the
islet. And:
NNW of Sebaeyã (7 miles ENE) from where a light
(black and yellow concrete tower, 16 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
5
NNW of Iho Hang (7¾ miles ENE); a light (red
round metal tower, 9 m in height) is exhibited
from the harbour. Thence:
NNW of Todu Hang (8 miles ENE). A light (red
octagonal concrete tower, 12 m in height) is
exhibited from a position 1 cable N of the head of
the N breakwater at Todu Hang; a light (white
round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is also
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
6
The track then leads to a position NNW of Cheju Hang
(11¾ miles ENE).
Directions continue, for Cheju Hang at 2.33,
and for the coastal route ENE at 2.42)
Cheju Hang
Chart 3365, plan of Cheju Hang
General information
2.29
1
Position. Cheju Hang (33°31′N 126°32′E) is situated
midway along the N side of Cheju Do.
CHAPTER 2
81
Function. It is the largest commercial port in Cheju Do.
The main exports are livestock, barley, millet, marine
products and eggs; imports include rice, wheat, salt,
petroleum products and cement. Cheju, the principal town
on Cheju Do, in 2002 had a population of about 280 000.
There is also a naval station in Cheju Hang.
2
Topography. Cheju is built on the site of an ancient
castle and extends along the shores of Cheju Hang. Parts of
the surrounding wall of the old town still remain, but the
town now extends well beyond the wall. Two rivers, one
on each side of the town, discharge into the sea.
Several hills, some of them prominent and with old
beacons on their summits rise steeply inland to the E of
Cheju. The most conspicuous of these hills is Hayurak
(2.40).
3
Port Authority. Cheju Port Authority, 918−30
Geonip-dong, Cheju, South Korea.
Limiting conditions
2.30
1
Deepest and longest berth. Wharf No 7 (2.34).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅0 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅8 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
2
Density of water. 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to 20 000
tonnes use the port.
3
Local weather. Strong NW winds are frequent in winter
months. Gales are most frequent in January.
Arrival information
2.31
1
Vessel traffic service. A vessel traffic service is in
operation for Cheju Hang and its approaches. Participation
in the service is compulsory for the following vessels:
Deep sea and coastal vessels over 300 grt.
Vessels carrying dangerous cargo.
Operational towing vessels.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
2
Notice of ETA required. Send ETA 72, 48 and 24 hours
prior to arrival. For further information see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained in the
following areas:
One mile off the W breakwater head in depths of
18 m, over a bottom of rock. This anchorage is
exposed to all winds except from the S, and the
holding ground is bad.
3
Quarantine anchorage, 8 cables WNW of Sanji Light
(33°31′⋅3N 126°32′⋅7E); the limits are shown on
the chart.
No 1 Area, situated 4½ cables NE of Sanji Light,
inside the breakwater under construction. This
anchorage is for vessels of 5000 dwt or less.
4
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards 1 cable ESE of
the head of the W breakwater in position
33°31′⋅9N 126°32′⋅6E. For further details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs. A tug is available.
Harbour
2.32
1
General layout. The harbour is formed by a W
breakwater extending 1 mile NNE from the shore and by
an E breakwater extending 5 cables NNW. Within the
breakwaters the harbour is divided into an outer harbour
and an inner basin; a spur projecting E from the W
breakwater and a wharf extending NW from the SE side of
the harbour separate the two.
2
Development. In 2004 works were in progress
constructing Cheju Phang Breakwater close E of the
harbour entrance. The head of the inner basin on the SW
side of Cheju Hang is also under development.
Climatic table. See 1.173 and 1.174.
Landmarks:
Sarabong (33°31′⋅1N 126°32′⋅7E) (2.26).
Cheju KAL Hotel (33°30′⋅2N 126°31′⋅7E) standing on
a hill in an urban area S of the port. The building
is tall and white, and fully visible at night.
Major light:
Sanji Light (33°31′⋅3N 126°32′⋅7E) (2.26).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 2.28)
2.33
1
From a position about 4 miles NNW of Cheju Hang
(33°31′N 126°32′E) the track leads SSE, clear of any
dangers, to the pilot boarding point (2.31) off the harbour
entrance. Thence the track leads SSW into the harbour,
passing:
2
ESE of the head of the W breakwater, from which a
light (red round concrete tower, 16 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
WNW of the head of the E breakwater from which a
light (white metal column, 8 m in height) is
exhibited.
3
Thence a fairway, the limits of which are marked on the
chart, leads through the outer harbour into the inner basin.
Useful marks:
Light (yellow round metal tower, 8 m in height)
(33°31′⋅7N 126°32′⋅8E) exhibited from Cheju
Phang Breakwater, which is under construction.
4
Light (red round metal tower, 8 m in height)
(33°31′⋅4N 126°32′⋅1E) exhibited from the head of
the W breakwater spur.
Radio tower (33°31′⋅0N 126°31′⋅9E) standing at the
head of the harbour.
Berths
2.34
1
There are alongside berths at seven wharves, numbered
1 to 7 from S to N; the wharves are all situated on the S
and E sides of the harbour.
Wharf No 7 is the deepest and longest, with a length of
195 m and a depth of 11 m alongside.
Port services
2.35
1
Repairs can be carried out. Cheju Hang has a small
shipyard and slipway. There is also a dry dock for vessels
up to 500 dwt.
Other facilities: hospital; Deratting Exemption
Certificates issued; no oily waste reception facilities; no
garbage facilities.
2
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Communications: ferry services to the mainland of
South Korea; international airport 3 km distant.
Minor harbour
Korean Chart 262 (see 1.22)
Aewol Hang
2.36
1
Description. Aewol Hang (33°28′⋅0N 126°19′⋅7E),
situated 6 cables E of Aewolgot, is a small fishing harbour
protected by breakwaters with the entrance open NE. In
CHAPTER 2
82
2002 the SE side of the harbour was being reclaimed to
provide additional alongside berths.
Useful marks:
2
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(33°28′⋅0N 126°19′⋅8E) exhibited from the head of
the N breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(33°27′⋅9N 126°19′⋅8E) exhibited from the head of
the E breakwater.
3
Light (red round metal tower, 5 m in height)
(33°27′⋅9N 126°20′⋅4E) exhibited from Konae
Hang breakwater.
Berth. On the S side of the harbour there is a quay with
charted depths from 2⋅2 to 4⋅5 m alongside.
NORTH COAST — CHEJU HANG
TO KWANGCHO CH’P
General information
Charts 3480, 3365, Korean Charts W235, No 252 (see 1.22)
Route
2.37
1
From a position NNW of Cheju Hang
(33°31′N 126°32′E) the coastal route leads ENE, for about
19 miles, to a position approximately 7 miles N of
Kwangcho Ch’ã (33°31′N 126°54′E).
Topography
2.38
1
The coast to the E of Cheju Hang (33°31′N 126°32′E) is
rugged and fringed by reefs, without any recommended
anchorages for large vessels. Inland the hills rise steeply,
broken only by narrow valleys; the most prominent are
Hayurak (33°29′N 126°43′E) (2.40) and Wolrang Bong,
381 m high, 5½ miles E.
Submarine cables
2.39
1
Mariners are advised that anchoring and fishing are
prohibited along a corridor extending 6 cables either side of
the submarine power cables laid from the vicinity of
Samyangdong Hang (33°32′N 126°35′E), on the N coast of
Cheju Do, generally in a N direction to the vicinity of
34°20′N 126°36′E, on the E side of Haenamgun.
2
For further information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Principal marks
2.40
1
Landmarks:
Sarabong (33°31′⋅1N 126°32′⋅7E) (2.26).
Osungsaeng Ak (33°23′⋅7N 126°29′⋅4E), with an
elevation of 1177 m; it is a sharp peaked, thickly
wooded mountain, and is prominent from NE.
2
Hayurak (33°29′⋅2N 126°43′⋅5E), with an elevation of
394 m. This mountain is the N of two sharp peaks
7½ cables apart, which are useful to vessels
approaching Cheju Do from the NE when Hallasan
(33°22′N 126°32′E) (2.10) is lost in the mist; the S
peak is 405 m high.
3
Major light:
Sanji Light (33°31′⋅3N 126°32′⋅7E) (2.26).
Other aid to navigation
2.41
1
Racon:
Cheju Hang W breakwater (33°31′⋅9N 126°32′⋅4E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.28)
2.42
1
From a position NNW of Cheju Hang (33°31′N
126°32′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
relative to Sanji Light (33°31′⋅3N 126°32′⋅7E)):
NNW of Hwabuk Ri (1 mile ENE), from which a
light (red round concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
2
NNW of Cheju Heating Power Sea Berth (2½ miles
ENE) fronting a point from which lights (yellow
round GRP towers, 4 m in height) are exhibited.
Samyangdong Hang is situated close SW of the
point; a light (red round structure, 8 m in height)
is exhibited from the breakwater of the harbour.
Thence:
3
NNW of Sinchãn Hang (3¾ miles ENE); a light
(white round metal, 6 m in height) is exhibited
from the head of its E breakwater. Thence:
NNW of Kwan Kot (5¼ miles ENE), a point fringed
with rocks. Shinhungkwaggoch Light (white
octagonal concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited from the point. Chochãn Hang is situated
9 cables SW of Kwan Kot; a light (white round
metal tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from its
breakwater. Thence:
4
NNW of a bay at the head of which stands Hamdãk
Ri (6¼ miles ENE); this village stands at the foot
of Saisan Gaku, a sharp peak, 109 m high, and
prominent. Thence:
NNW of Talsã (7¾ miles ENE), from which a light
(white octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited. Talsã is a group of rocks 6 m high lying
about 3 cables offshore N of Pukch’on Ri; near the
N part of this group are two rocks which dry. A
light is exhibited from Pukch’on Ri. Thence:
5
NNW of Tongbok Hang (8¾ miles ENE). A light (red
round metal tower, 9 m in height) is exhibited
from the breakwater at Tongbok Hang. Thence:
NNW of an isolated shoal (9¼ miles ENE), with a
depth of 8⋅2 m over it; its position is approximate.
Thence:
6
NNW of Kimnyong Hang (10 miles ENE); the coast
either side of Kimnyong Hang is fringed with
drying reefs and rocks. A light (white round
concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from
the E breakwater at Kimnyong Hang. Thence:
7
NNW of Haengwãn Hang (13¼ miles ENE); a light
(red round concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited from the head of its W breakwater.
The track then leads to a position approximately 7 miles
N of Kwangcho Ch’ã (18 miles E) (2.52), the NE point of
Cheju Do.
2.43
1
Useful marks:
Light (red round metal tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater at Pyãngdae Hang
(33°32′N 126°51′E).
CHAPTER 2
83
Light (white round GRP tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater at Sehwa Hang
(33°32′N 126°51′E).
2
Light (white round pipe tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater at Hado Hang
(33°32′N 126°53′E).
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 2.49)
Anchorage
Talsã
2.44
1
Talsã (33°33′N 126°42′E) (2.42) provides some shelter
from NW winds but there is not sufficient depth to anchor
large vessels.
EAST COAST — KWANGCHO CH’P
TO KAEMINP’O GOT
General information
Charts 3480, 3365, Korean Charts 235, No 252, W253 (see 1.22)
Route
2.45
1
From a position approximately 7 miles N of Kwangcho
Ch’ã (33°31′N 126°54′E) the coastal route leads initially
SE, for 12½ miles, to a position E of the S end of Udo
(33°31′N 126°57′E). The route then leads SSW, for
19½ miles, to a position SSE of Kaeminp’o Got (33°18′N
126°50′E).
Topography
2.46
1
One of the main features along the E coast of Cheju Do
is the island of Udo. This island, which forms the E side of
Udo Sudo (2.51), is 133 m high at its S extremity; a hill
101 m high stands 4 cables N of it. The N part of the
island is low. There are several villages on the island, the
greater part of which is under cultivation.
2
The coast of Udo consists mainly of heaped-up lava
rocks, but there is a sandy beach, 3½ cables long, on the
W side. The coastal reef extends from 1 to 1½ cables from
the W and N sides of the island and about 5 cables from
the E side.
Submarine cables
2.47
1
Submarine cables are laid from the E side of
Sãngsanp’o (33°27′N 126°56′E) in an E direction and
thence NE to the mainland of Korea. A third cable is also
laid from this bay in a SE direction towards Japan.
In Pangdup’o, the bay close SW of Sãngsanp’o, another
cable is laid from the head of the bay in a SE direction
and thence NE to the mainland of Korea.
2
For further information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Principal marks
2.48
1
Landmarks:
Sãngsan (33°27′N 126°57′E) standing near the SE
end of Sãngsan Pando. It is an extinct volcano
with a remarkable dish-shaped summit; its sides
are almost perpendicular, except for the NW side
which slopes.
2
Suizan (33°26′N 126°54′E), a hill 137 m high, with a
pile of stones on its summit. Matsu Yama,
5½ cables ESE of Suizan, has a wooded summit
51 m high; the N half of this hill is thickly
wooded.
Major light:
3
Udo South Light (white round stone tower, 16 m in
height) (33°30′N 126°58′E).
Directions
(continued from 2.43)
2.49
1
From a position approximately 7 miles N of Kwangcho
Ch’ã (33°31′N 126°54′E) the track leads SE, passing (with
positions relative to Udo South Light (33°30′N 126°58′E):
NE of the N entrance (3 miles NW) to Udo Sudo,
thence:
2
NE of Tuksaeng Got (2 miles N), the N extremity of
Udo Sudo. A light (white octagonal concrete
tower, 13 m in height) is exhibited from Tuksaeng
Got. Thence:
NE of Piyang Do (1¼ miles N), an islet surrounded
by a drying reef. A light (round black tower,
yellow band, 13 m) is exhibited from the E side of
the islet.
3
The track then leads to a position E of Udugot
(2¼ cables S), the S end of Udo. The S extremity of Udo
is a cliff and is steep-to; Udo South Light (2.48) is
exhibited from a position close N of the S extremity of
Udo. Thence the track leads SSW, passing (with positions
relative to Udo South Light):
4
ESE of Sãngsan Du (2½ miles SSW), forming the SE
extremity of Sãngsan Pando. The point is
distinctive, rising steeply to a sharp pointed
summit 72 m high. Sãngsan (2.48) stands behind
the point. Sãngsan Am, an isolated rock, lies close
offshore NE of Sãngsan Du; it is pointed and
prominent when seen from the N. Thence:
5
ESE of Pangdu Pando (4¼ miles SSW); there is a
sharp peak, 33 m high, on the SE side of this
peninsula. One cable SW of this peak there is a
pile of stones on a hill 32 m high. A rocky spit
extends ¾ cable E from the sharp peak, and close
S of this spit is a rock 22 m high. Close to this
rock are other above-water rocks, white with
guano. The sharp peak and these rocks are good
marks. Pangdu Po Light (white octagonal concrete
tower, 7 m high) is exhibited from the middle of
the SE side of Pangdu Pando. Thence:
6
ESE of Chwahatung Got (6¾ miles SSW). Onpyãng
Light (E cardinal) marks a drying reef 4 cables NE
of this point. Thence:
ESE of an obstruction (8 miles SSW), reported in
1951, lying about 1½ miles offshore, thence:
7
ESE of Sinjunggun (11½ miles SSW), a rocky shoal
with a least depth of 10⋅3 m over it, and on which
the sea breaks heavily at times; it is steep-to and
its position can be identified by the sea weed
which shows on the surface. The shoal fronts the
approaches to Pyosãnpo Hang. Thence:
8
ESE of a Kaemin Po (12 miles SW) from which a
light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in height)
is exhibited.
The track then leads to a position SSE of Kaeminp’o
Got (13 miles SSW), the SE-most point of Cheju Do.
2.50
1
Useful marks:
Light (white round metal tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the breakwater at Sinchãn Hang
(33°20′⋅5N 126°51′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 2
84
Kama Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 12 m in
height) (33°18′N 126°49′E) exhibited from the
coast 1¼ miles WSW of Kaeminp’o Got.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 2.61)
Udo Sudo
Korean Chart 226 (see 1.22)
General information
2.51
1
Description. Udo Sudo (33°30′N 126°56′E) lies between
the E side of Cheju Do and Udo (2.46), 1½ miles E. The
channel is 4½ miles long and 1 mile wide at its narrowest
point.
2
Topography. Between Kwangcho Ch’ã (33°31′N
126°54′E), the NW entrance point to the channel, and
Chongdal Pando, a peninsula 6 cables SSE, the coast is
indented by a bay encumbered with drying reefs. Between
the SE extremity of Chongdal Pando and the entrance to
Sãngsanp’o Hang (2.53), 1¼ miles SE, lies another bay
encumbered with rocks and shoals; its shores are indented
by shallow inlets in which lie numerous salt-pans.
3
The E coast of Cheju Do, at the S end of Udo Sudo, is
formed by Sãngsan Pando. Sãngsan Pando is a peninsula
joined to the coast by a 50 m wide sandy isthmus; the NW
part of the peninsula is low, flat and cultivated, but at the S
end stands the extinct volcano of Sãngsan
(33°27′N 126°57′E) (2.48). Sãngsan Ri stands in the central
part of Sãngsan Pando.
4
Siksanbong, a prominent hill 57 m high, of regular
conical shape, stands 7½ cables WSW of the N end of
Sãngsan Pando.
Depths. There are depths from 12⋅0 to 20⋅7 m in the
fairway.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅9 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅7 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
5
Submarine cable. A submarine power cable is laid from
the middle of the E side of Chongdal Pando, across Udo
Sudo in a ENE direction, to the W coast of Udo. For
further information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Ferry. A ferry operates between Sãngsanp’o Hang
(33°28′N 126°56′E) (2.53) and Udo Hang (2.54), on the
SW side of Udo.
6
Tidal streams, with a maximum rate of 3 kn, set
through Udo Sudo as follows:
Time Direction
4 hours before LW at Luhuadao (30°49′N 122°36′E)
NNW-going stream begins
2 hours after HW at Luhuadao
SSE-going stream begins
To the S of Udo, about 6 hours after the time of HW, a
weak tidal stream sets NE.
7
Landmarks:
Chimibong (33°30′N 126°54′E), the summit of
Chongdal Pando; it appears conical from seaward.
Tusanbong (33°29′N 126°53′E), standing 1½ miles
SW of Chimibong, with two peaks. A crater, open
NW, lies between the peaks. The E side of the SE
peak is rocky and precipitous.
8
Four radio towers (33°28′N 126°56′E), each 65 m
high, standing at the N end of Sãngsan Pando.
Sãngsan (33°27′N 126°57′E) (2.48).
Major light:
Udo South Light (33°30′N 126°58′E) (2.48).
Directions
2.52
1
For vessels coming from the NW the track leads initially
S from a position about 2 miles NE of Kwangcho Ch’ã
(33°31′N 126°54′E), passing (with positions relative to Udo
South Light (33°30′N 126°58′E)):
W of Tuksaeng Got (2 miles N), the N extremity of
Udo Sudo, from which a light (2.49) is exhibited,
and:
2
E of the above and below-water rocks extending
4 cables offshore from Kwangcho Ch’ã
(3½ miles NW). Kwangcho Ch’ã is low and when
the wind is against the tidal streams there is a race
off this point. Thence:
3
E of Pongdat’an (3¼ miles NW), an above-water rock
lying 1 cable E of Kwangcho Ch’ã. A light (red
triangle on red octagonal concrete tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited from the rock. Thence:
4
Between Chongdal Pando (2¾ miles WNW) and the
middle of the W side of Udo.
When a position is reached about 1¾ miles SE of
Kwangcho Ch’ã the track leads SE, passing (with positions
relative to Udo South Light):
5
NE of the foul ground and shallow water extending
7 cables E from Chungdungot (2¾ miles W), the
SE end of Chongdal Pando. A light (red triangle
on red round concrete tower, 8 m in height) marks
the E side of this foul ground. Thence:
6
SW of a shoal (1 mile W), with a depth of 3⋅3 m
over it, lying on the W side of the approach to
Udo Hang (2.54), thence:
NE of Awabi Shë (1¾ miles WSW) (not named on
chart), a shoal with a depth of 6⋅0 m over it, lying
in the approach to Sãngsanp’o Hang (2.53),
thence:
7
NE of the head of the E breakwater (1¾ miles SW)
of Sãngsanp’o Hang, from which a light (white
round concrete tower, 15 m in height) is exhibited,
thence:
SW of Udugot (2¼ cables S) (2.49), the S end of
Udo, thence:
NE of Sãngsanam (2½ miles SSW) (2.49) lying off
the SE end of Sãngsan Pando.
8
The track then leads out into the open sea.
Clearing line. The line of bearing more than 176° of
Siksanbong (33°27′⋅8N 126°55′⋅3E) (2.51) open E of
Chongdal Pando, 2 miles N, clears E of the dangers on the
W side of the N entrance to Udo Sudo.
9
Useful marks:
Light (red round pipe tower, 8 m in height) exhibited
from the E breakwater at Chongdal Hang
(33°29′⋅6N 126°54′⋅9E) on the E side of Chongdal
Pando.
10
Light (red round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
exhibited from the coastal reef on the W side of
Udo Hang (33°29′⋅4N 126°57′⋅1E) (2.54).
Sãngsanp’o Hang
2.53
1
Position. Sãngsanp’o Hang (33°28′N 126°56′E) is
situated on the NW side of Sãngsan Pando (2.51).
Function. It is an important fisheries port.
CHAPTER 2
85
Sängsanp’o Hang from N (2.53)
(Original dated prior to 1981)
Controlling depth. There is a least charted depth of
8⋅6 m in the NE entrance to the harbour.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Ships up to
5000 tonnes are berthed.
2
Harbour. Sãngsanp’o Hang is formed by an E
breakwater extending N for 600 m from the NE end of
Sãngsan Pando and by a W breakwater extending 524 m
NE from the mainland. The harbour is further protected by
a detached N breakwater which extends W from a position
approximately 1 cable W of the head of the E breakwater.
3
Within the breakwaters the harbour is divided into a N
outer basin and an inner basin; the inner basin is separated
from Ojorip’o, a shallow inlet to the S, by a causeway with
a lock in it.
Directions. Sãngsanp’o Hang is approached through
Udo Sudo for which directions are given at 2.52. The main
entrance to the harbour is between the head of the E
breakwater and the E end of the N breakwater.
4
Useful marks:
Light (2.52) exhibited from the head of the E
breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 15 m in height)
exhibited from the E end of the N breakwater.
Light (yellow round concrete tower, 15 m in height)
exhibited from the W end of the N breakwater.
Light (yellow round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
5
Berths:
Outer basin. In the outer basin on its S side there is a
quay 701 m long with charted depths of 6⋅0 m
alongside.
Inner basin. Used by fishing vessels, the main
berthing area in the inner basin is on the E side;
total quay length 500 m with depths from 1⋅4 to
3⋅6 m alongside. On the W side of the basin there
is another quay about midway along the W
breakwater; length 195 m with a depth of 4⋅0 m
alongside.
6
Supplies: fuel; water.
Communications. There is a ferry service between
Sãngsanp’o Hang and Udo.
Udo Hang
2.54
1
Udo Hang (33°29′⋅4N 126°57′⋅1E) is a small harbour
situated on the SW side of Udo, opposite Sãngsanp’o
Hang. It serves as the terminal for the ferry from
Sãngsanp’o Hang. The harbour is formed by a breakwater,
120 m long, extending SW from the shore; the inner side is
used for berthing.
Anchorage
2.55
1
Anchorage may be obtained 5 cables SW of Ippi
(33°29′⋅5N 126°56′⋅8E), the SW extremity of Udo, in
depths from 15 to 20 m, over a bottom of sand and shells.
Minor anchorages
Udo
2.56
1
Small local vessels may obtain anchorage in a bay, NW
of Piyangdo (33°30′⋅7N 126°58′⋅6E), on the NE side of
Udo in depths from 4 to 5 m, but there are lesser depths
from 0⋅9 to 3⋅9 m in the entrance with rocks on both sides.
This bay is protected from all winds except those from NE.
Chart 3480, Korean Chart 253 (see 1.22)
Temporary anchorage
2.57
1
Temporary shelter from N winds may be obtained
anywhere along the coast between Chwahatung Got
CHAPTER 2
86
(33°23′⋅5N 126°54′⋅4E) and Kaeminp’o Got, 6½ miles
SSW, but caution must be exercised in anchoring on the
rocky bottom.
SOUTH COAST — KAEMINP’O GOT
TO MARADO
General information
Chart 3480, Korean Charts W235, W253, W254 (see 1.22)
Route
2.58
1
From a position SSE of Kaeminp’o Got (33°18′N
126°50′E) the coastal route leads WSW, for 34 miles, to a
position SSW of Marado (33°07′N 126°16′E).
Tidal streams
2.59
1
Tidal streams off the S coast of Cheju Do set E and W
with a rate from ½ to ¾ kn as follows:
Time Direction
4 to 3 hours before HW at
Luhuadao (30°49′N 122°36′E)
W-going stream begins
2
2 to 3 hours after HW at
Luhuadao
E-going stream begins
Principal marks
2.60
1
Landmarks:
Hallasan (33°22′N 126°32′E) (2.10).
Kogunsan (33°16′N 126°31′E), a hill 396 m high.
Kunsan (33°15′N 126°22′E) with two large rocks on
its summit.
Sanbangsan (33°14′N 126°19′E) (2.14).
2
Major lights:
Nok Do Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in
height) (33°14′N 126°34′E).
Hayejinhwang Light (white round concrete tower,
12 m in height) (33°14′N 126°23′E).
Directions
(continued from 2.50)
2.61
1
From a position SSE of Kaeminp’o Got (33°18′N
126°50′E) the track leads WSW, passing (with positions
relative to Nok Do Light (33°14′N 126°34′E)):
SSE of Taebongkyong Got (9½ miles ENE), a low
rocky point. Taebong Light (white octagonal
concrete tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited from
the point. Thence:
2
SSE of Chigwido (4½ miles E), a small islet 12 m
high which is cultivated. A spit, with a depth of
1 m over it, extends 4 cables NW of the islet. A
light (white hexagonal concrete tower, 12 m in
height) is exhibited from Chigwido. Thence:
SSE of Sam Do (1¾ miles E), lying 2 cables offshore.
The islet has a sharp peak which is prominent
from E or W. The S side of Sam Do is lofty,
precipitous and rocky, and on its N side are a few
trees. Thence:
3
SSE of Nok Do, from which a light (2.60) is
exhibited. Nok Do, which fronts the entrance to
Sãgwip’o Hang (2.62), has steep sides and a flat,
slightly tilted summit which is wooded; the highest
point is at the E end. A pinnacle rock, 29 m high,
lies close off the NE side of Nok Do. Both the
islet and the rock are fringed by dangerous drying
rocks. Thence:
4
SSE of Ho Do (2½ miles WSW); it is steep-to with
precipitous rocky sides and a flat summit. Thence:
SSE of Sebyãl Got (4½ miles W), a low rocky point;
a light-beacon (E cardinal) marks a drying rock
close SE of the point.
5
The track then leads to a position SSW of Marado
(16¼ miles WSW) (2.16). The islets and rocks N of
Marado are described at 2.18.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 2.16)
Sãgwip’o Hang
Korean Chart W244 (see 1.22)
General information
2.62
1
Position. Sãgwip’o Hang (33°14′N 126°34′E) is situated
midway along the S coast of Cheju Do.
Function. It is the second largest international
commercial port on Cheju Do and contains a fishing
harbour. The port serves Sãgwip’o Ri, standing on a hill on
the NE side of the harbour, at the entrance to Yãnã Chon.
Limiting conditions
2.63
1
Deepest and longest berth. Wharf No 3 (2.67).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅2 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅8 m. For further information see the
Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
5000 tonnes are handled.
Arrival information
2.64
1
Outer anchorage. Temporary anchorage may be
obtained outside the harbour according to draught, but there
is no protection from the S; the bottom is sand and mud.
Pilotage is compulsory.
Tugs. None available.
Harbour
2.65
1
General layout. The harbour on its E side is formed by
a breakwater, with reclaimed land inside, extending 4 cables
SE from the mainland and thence 2½ cables SW. The W
side of the harbour is formed by Cho Do, an islet with a
flat summit, connected to the mainland by a causeway; a
breakwater extends 2 cables SSE from the islet.
2
Within the harbour an inner mole extends 1 cable SW
from the E breakwater dividing the harbour into an inner
and outer basin. The head of the harbour is formed by the
mouth of Yãnã Chon.
Landmark:
Sanbai Ho (33°15′N 126°33′E), 153 m high with a
pile of stones on its summit. A radio tower (red
obstruction lights) stands near the summit of this
hill.
Major light:
Nok Do Light (33°14′N 126°34′E) (2.60).
Directions for entering harbour
2.66
1
Approach and entry. Sãgwip’o Hang may be
approached by passing either side of Nok Do (33°14′N
126°34′E), which fronts the entrance to the harbour. The
harbour is then entered between the heads of the E and W
breakwaters.
CHAPTER 2
87
Useful mark:
A prominent waterfall, situated at the mouth of a
river close E of Sãgwip’o Ri, is visible to vessels
approaching Sãgwip’o Hang from seaward between
Sam Do (2.61) and Nok Do; it is 26 m high and
looks like a white pillar from a distance.
Berths
2.67
1
The harbour contains three main wharfs, numbered 1 to
3, along with a government wharf, a fishery wharf and a
passenger ferry wharf. The longest and deepest is No 3
Wharf with a total length of 560 m and depths from 5⋅5 to
6⋅0 m alongside.
Port services
2.68
1
Repairs: minor repairs carried out; there is a slipway on
the NW side of the harbour.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. There is a regular passenger vessel
service between Sãgwip’o Hang and Pusan (Busan).
Minor harbours and anchorages
Korean Chart W235 (see 1.22)
Shelter
2.69
1
Temporary shelter from N winds may be obtained
anywhere along the S coast but the bottom is rocky.
Korean Charts W253, W263 (see 1.22)
Wimi Hang
2.70
1
Description. Wimi Hang (33°16′N 126°40′E) is a small
fishing harbour situated 5 miles ENE of Sãgwip’o Hang
(2.62). The harbour is open to the S, but is protected on its
E side by a 500 m long breakwater, and on its W side by a
190 m long breakwater. Within the harbour, which has
depths of 5 m or less in it, there are berths totalling 760 m
in length for vessels up to 50 tonnes.
2
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water.
Korean Chart W218 (see 1.22)
Hyãngchedo Myoji including Hwasun Hang
2.71
1
Description. Hyãngchedo Myoji (33°13′N 126°20′E) is
entered NE of Bunamgot (2.16). This roadstead is partially
protected by Hyãngche Do, a small islet lying 1¼ miles NE
of Bunamgot; a detached rock, 47 m high, lies close S of
the islet. Foul ground and fish havens lie between
Hyãngche Do and the coast NW. Hwasun Hang is situated
at the head of a small bay at the NW end of Hyãngchedo
Myoji.
2
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅2 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅8 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
Useful marks:
Hayejinhwang Light (33°14′N 126°23′E) (2.60).
Light (red round metal tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater at Daepyãng
Hang (33°14′N 126°22′E).
3
Hwasun Hang Light (yellow round metal tower, 8 m
in height) (33°14′N 126°20′E), exhibited from the
N breakwater.
Light (red round concrete structure, 13 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater at Sagye Hang
(33°14′N 126°19′E).
4
Anchorage. The best anchorage in Hyãngchedo Myoji is
obtained in a depth of about 22 m S of Hwasun Hang, over
a bottom of sand, taking care to avoid the fish havens in
the vicinity. However, this anchorage is exposed to the S
and E winds which quickly raise a heavy sea; it is
protected from N and W. Local knowledge is required.
5
Hwasun Hang (33°14′N 126°20′E). Hwasun Hang is a
fishing harbour protected by a long breakwater on its S
side. The breakwater, L-shaped and 400 m long, extends S
and thence WSW from the coast. In the harbour on its E
side, which was dredged to 7⋅5 m in 2002, there is a quay;
length approximately 200 m.
6
In 2002 it was reported that a new wharf was being
built and that the main breakwater was being extended a
farther 750 m WSW.
SOUTH COAST — OFFSHORE ROUTE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3365, 127
Area covered
2.72
1
This section describes an offshore route, and the islands,
rocks and dangers adjacent to it, from the vicinity of
33°51′N 126°04′E, SE of Ch’uja Kundo, to a position
about 5 miles SSE of Habaekto (34°02′N 127°37′E). The
section is arranged as follows:
Ch’uja Kundo to Yãsãdo (2.73).
Yãsãdo to Habaekto (2.83).
CH’UJA KUNDO TO YOSODO
General information
Chart 3365
Route
2.73
1
From the vicinity of 33°51′N 126°04′E the offshore
route leads initially E for about 28 miles through Cheju
Haehyãp, the strait between Ch’uja Kundo and Cheju Do,
26 miles SSE, passing S of Ch’uja Kundo (33°55′N
126°20′E), and thence ENE for a farther 16 miles, to a
position SSE of Yãsãdo (33°59′N 126°55′E).
CHAPTER 2
88
Principal marks
2.74
1
Major lights:
Sangch’ujado Light (white hexagonal concrete tower,
7 m in height) (33°57′N 126°18′E).
Hwado Light (33°44′N 126°22′E) (2.26).
Other aids to navigation
2.75
1
Racons:
Hwado (33°44′N 126°22′E).
Changsudo (33°55′N 126°38′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume III)
2.76
1
From the vicinity of 33°51′N 126°04′E the track leads
initially E, passing (with positions relative to Changsudo
(33°55′N 126°38′E)):
S of Chãlmyãngso (16½ miles WSW), a conical
shaped rock; it is considered to be the S-most rock
of Ch’uja Kundo (2.77). Oegwakto, Ch’ongdo and
Sudãkto, the S islets of Ch’uja Kundo, lie 2 miles
N 2¾ miles N and 2¾ miles NNE, respectively, of
Chãlmyãngsã. Sudãkto is prominent as its N side
is a cliff 127 m high. Thence:
2
S of Jino Cho (16¼ miles WSW) (not named on
chart), with a depth of 8⋅3 m over it; this rock lies
7 cables SE of Chãlmyãngso and is steep-to. And:
N of Chungnoe (17½ miles SW), a steep-to rock,
thence:
N of Hwado (18 miles SW) (2.28), from which a
light (2.26) is exhibited, thence:
3
S of Pangso (12 miles W), the SE islet of Ch’uja
Kundo from which a light (white round concrete
tower, 11 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
S of Changsudo from which a light (white octagonal
concrete tower, 11 m in height) is exhibited. The
island, 72 m high, has a flat thickly wooded
summit and steep cliffs; it is steep-to.
4
The track then leads ENE to a position SSE of Yãsãdo
(14¼ miles ENE), from the N side of which a light (2.117)
is exhibited. The island is very prominent and appears from
the W as a round hill with a long ridge extending NE, but
from the E it appears flat, and resembles the back of an
ox. There are no trees on its summit. The island is steep-to
except on its N side, where Yãsãdo Hang (2.82) is
situated.
(Directions continue for the offshore route at 2.87)
Ch’uja Kundo
Korean Chart 239 (see 1.22)
General information
2.77
1
Description. Ch’uja Kundo, a group of islands, islets
and rocks, lie about 25 to 30 miles N of Cheju Do, from
which they are separated by Cheju Haehyãp (2.73). Within
Ch’uja Kundo there are two ports, Ch’uja Hang (33°57′⋅5N
126°18′⋅0E) (2.80) and Shinyang Hang (33°56′⋅4N
126°19′⋅7E) (2.81).
2
Topography. Ch’uja Kundo is comprised of four
occupied islands, Sangch’ujado (33°57′⋅5N 126°17′⋅7E),
Hach’ujado (33°56′⋅5N 126°19′⋅4E), Ch’up’odo (33°59′⋅0N
126°19′⋅4E) and Hãnggando (34°00′⋅3N 126°20′⋅8E)
(Hoenggando on Chart 3365), and 38 unoccupied islands
and islets. Hach’ujado, the largest and highest island, is
connected to Sangch’ujado, lying close NW, by a bridge.
3
The NW-most island is Chikkudo (33°59′⋅1N
126°15′⋅0E) and the SE-most Pangso (33°55′⋅0N
126°24′⋅1E); Pangso and the islets S of Hach’ujado are
described in the directions at 2.76. Other islets and rocks
lying N through to E of Ch’uja Kundo are as follows
(positioned from Sangch’ujado Light (33°57′N 126°18′E)):
4
Suryãngdo (1½ miles N), 103 m high.
Kongso (2½ miles N), 4 m high.
Nokso (3½ miles N), 14 m high.
Yãmdo (1¼ miles NNE), 53 m high.
Hukkãmdo (3 miles NE), 110 m high.
5
Kwakto (4¼ miles NE), 46 m high.
Mangdo (5½ miles NE), from which a light (2.98) is
exhibited.
Ududo (4¼ miles ENE), 58 m high.
Ubiam (4¼ miles E), 13 m high.
Local knowledge is required.
6
Tidal streams. In the vicinity of Ch’uja Kundo the tidal
streams set W when in-going and E when out-going as
follows:
Time Direction
2 hours before HW at Luhuadao (30°49′N 122°36′E)
W-going stream begins
4 hours after HW at Luhuadao
E-going stream begins
7
The rate of the tidal streams at springs is about 2¼ kn,
but in the narrow channels between the islands they attain
a rate of 5 kn in some places, producing dangerous
overfalls. When the tidal stream is out-going, eddies are
experienced among the islets SE and S of Hãnggando, and
tide rips are common.
2.78
1
Winds. The prevailing winds are as follows:
Season Direction
Spring E
Summer E and S
Autumn N
Winter W and NW
The strongest winds are from the E and with these
winds bad weather often lasts for a period of ten days.
2
Major lights:
Sangch’ujado Light (33°57′N 126°18′E) (2.74).
Munso Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) (34°00′N 126°20′E), exhibited from an islet
close W of Hãnggando (Hoenggando on Chart
3365).
Directions
2.79
1
There are no specific directions for navigating amongst
the rocks and islands of Ch’uja Kundo.
Ch’uja Hang
2.80
1
Position and function. Ch’uja Hang (33°57′⋅5N
126°18′⋅0E), a fishing harbour, is situated in a small inlet
on the E side of Sangch’ujado.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅5 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅0 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
2
Outer anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage off the
N side of Hach’ujado, 1¼ miles ESE of the entrance to
CHAPTER 2
89
Ch’uja Hang. There are depths from 22 to 26 m, but the
anchorage is not recommended as the bottom is rocky.
3
Directions. The harbour is approached from the ENE,
passing NNW of the N side of Hach’ujado. Then the track
into the harbour leads W, passing (with positions relative to
the head (33°57′⋅5N 126°18′⋅2E) of the N breakwater):
S of the shoals and rocks, some of which are marked
by buoys (starboard hand), extending 6 cables E
from the N breakwater, thence:
4
N of a spit (1½ cables SE), with drying reefs on it,
extending 1½ cables NE from the S entrance point;
the outer end of the spit is marked by a buoy (port
hand) and by Cho Shushi To Light-beacon (green
round concrete tower, 11 m in height).
5
Thence the harbour is entered passing close S of the N
breakwater from the head of which a light (red round
concrete tower, 11 m in height) is exhibited.
Useful marks (positioned from the head of the N
breakwater):
6
Radio masts (4½ cables WNW) standing on hill
backing the head of the head of the harbour.
Monument (1½ cables NW).
Kangmakyã Light-beacon (N cardinal, 11 m in height)
(1½ miles E), exhibited from a rock lying off the
NE end of Hach’ujado.
7
Berths:
Anchorage. Small vessels obtain good anchorage in
Ch’uja Hang in depths from 2 to 4 m. East winds
cause a swell in the harbour, but it is
comparatively calm close offshore.
8
Alongside berths. There is a wharf, 650 m long with
charted depths from 3⋅5 to 4⋅6 m alongside, on the
N side, and a floating pier on the S side of the
harbour. Suitable only for vessels of 100 tonnes or
less.
9
Repairs. For small vessels only.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water.
Communications. There is a regular ferry service
between Wando Hang (34°19′N 126°45′E) (2.148), on the
Korean mainland, and Ch’uja Hang.
Shinyang Hang
2.81
1
Position and function. Shinyang Hang (33°56′⋅4N
126°19′⋅7E), situated on the SE side of Hach’ujado, is
another small fishing harbour.
Outer anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage outside
the harbour in depths from 18 to 20 m, over a bottom of
sand.
2
Harbour. Shinyang Hang is protected by an E
breakwater, 640 m long, and by a S breakwater 295 m long.
The berthing area within the harbour is situated on the N
side at the foot of the E breakwater.
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the S breakwater.
3
Berths:
Anchorage. Inside the harbour there are depths from
2 to 8 m, with good anchoring over a bottom of
mud.
Alongside. Quay on the N side of the harbour; length
525 m with a charted depth of 2⋅3 m alongside.
Used by vessels up to 600 tonnes in size.
4
Supplies: fuel; fresh water.
Minor harbour
Chart 3365
Yãsãdo Hang
2.82
1
Description. There is a small harbour for local vessels
on the N side of Yãsãdo (33°59′N 126°55′E). It is
protected by two breakwaters. A light (white octagonal
concrete tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the head of
the E breakwater and another light (red octagonal concrete
tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the W breakwater.
2
Major light:
Yãsãdo Light (2.117) exhibited from the N side of
the island.
YOSODO TO HABAEKTO
General information
Charts 3365, 127
Route
2.83
1
From a position SSE of Yãsãdo (33°59′N 126°55′E) the
offshore route leads ENE for 36 miles to a position SSE of
Habaekto (34°02′N 127°37′E).
Tidal streams
2.84
1
Tidal streams S of Kãmundo (34°02′N 127°18′E) (2.88),
set W with the rising tide and E with the falling tide. In
the vicinity of Oebi Am, the islets close off the S extremity
of Kãmundo, the tidal streams may attain a rate of 2 kn.
Principal mark
2.85
1
Major light:
Sãdo Light (white round tower, 6 m in height)
(34°00′N 127°19′E) exhibited from the S extremity
of Sãdo, the W-most island of Kãmundo (2.88).
Other aid to navigation
2.86
1
Racon:
Sangbaekto (34°03′N 127°35′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.76)
2.87
1
From a position about 7 miles SSE of Yãsãdo (33°59′N
126°55′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
relative to Sãdo Light (34°00′N 127°19′E)):
SSE of Oebi Am (1 cable S) lying off the S extremity
of Sãdo, from which a light (2.85) is exhibited.
Oebi Am consists of two black rocky cliffy islets,
and a spit, with depths of less than 15 m over it.
Vessels should not close Oebi Am within a
distance of 2 cables. Thence:
2
SSE of Sosambudo (2¾ miles NE) (not named on
chart) from which a light (white octagonal concrete
tower, 13 m in height) is exhibited. Sosambudo is
a group of rugged islands and rocks. The largest
islet has a dome-shaped peak 97 m high at about
its centre. A smaller islet, 78 m high and brownish
in colour, 1¼ cables S of the dome-shaped peak, is
prominent. Huktungso, 41 m high, the N islet of
the group, resembles a fort and is prominent.
Thence:
CHAPTER 2
90
3
SSE of Taesambudo (4¾ miles NE); a remarkable
cone stands on its E side. The island has low steep
cliffs on all sides, and is steep-to. Odongso, with a
rock 8⋅8 m high close off its SE extremity, lies
close S of Taesambudo.
4
The track then leads to a position about 5 miles SSE of
Habaekto (14 miles E). Habaekto consists of three islets
which are unmistakable as they resemble a castle from all
directions. Sangbaekto, 1½ miles NW of Habaekto, consists
of a group of three islets and several pinnacle rocks. The S
of its two W islets is 145 m high and pyramidal in shape; a
light (white square concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited and a racon (2.86) transmits from this islet.
Dongam (not named on chart), the E-most islet of
Sangbaekto, is 40 m high.
5
The summits of Sangbaekto and Habaekto are thickly
covered with shrubs and there are steep cliffs on all sides
of the two groups.
(Directions continue for the offshore route at 3.14)
Kãmundo
Korean Chart 258 (see 1.22)
General information
2.88
1
Description. Kãmundo (34°02′N 127°18′E) is a group
of islands consisting of two large islands Sãdo and Tongdo,
which nearly meet at their N ends, and Kodo a smaller
island lying between their SE ends. Enclosed between Sãdo
and Tongdo is the roadstead of Tonae Hae, well sheltered
and spacious. Kãmun Hang (2.91), a small harbour, is
situated on the S side of Tonae Hae, between Kodo and
Sãdo.
2
The SE entrance to Tonae Hae is the main entrance, and
the only one which can be used by deep-draught vessels;
the entrance consists of a channel, about 5 cables wide,
lying between the S side of Tongdo and the N side of
Kodo, with breakwaters at its W end.
3
The S entrance, S and W of Kodo, is obstructed at its
NW end by a bridge and by Kãmun Hang.
The N entrance, protected by breakwaters, is over the
rocky bar connecting the N ends of Sãdo and Tongdo; the
channel between the rocks and breakwaters on each side is
¾ cable wide. This entrance should only be used by
shallow-draught vessels, and then only in calm weather.
4
Topography. The size and rugged appearance of the
Kãmundo group of islands compared with the numerous
groups and islets in the vicinity, with its thick cover of
shrubby vegetation, renders it easily identifiable; except
from the SE the group has the appearance of being one
island. The outer coasts of these islands are indented and
consist of cliffs with boulders at their foot.
5
Sãdo, the W and largest island of Kãmundo, has several
summits 150 to 185 m high, and rises to 237 m at
Umdalsan, 1¼ miles SSW of Noksangot, its N point from
which a light (2.127) is exhibited. At the SE end of Sãdo,
and connected to it by a low, narrow isthmus, is a
peninsula, 196 m high.
Kodo (34°01′N 127°19′E), 108 m high, lies between the
SE end of Sãdo and Tongdo. Oejangdo, 40 m high, lies at
the SE end of foul ground extending 2½ cables S from the
SE end of Kodo, with No Am, 9 m high, close SW of it.
6
Tongdo, the E island of Kãmundo, is hilly and rises to a
height of 244 m. Panyã, a dangerous rock 7 cables NNE of
the N extremity of Tongdo, is described at 2.127.
Depths:
South-east entrance. There is a least charted depth of
9⋅7 m off the N entrance breakwater.
South entrance. At the S end of Kãmun Hang there is
a least charted depth of 5⋅4 m in the fairway.
North entrance. There is a least charted of 2⋅7 m in
this entrance.
7
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 26 m, spans the N entrance to Tonae
Hae.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅6 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅0 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
8
Tidal streams. Outside Tonae Hae, to the W of Kodo,
the tidal streams are often strong. Inside Tonae Hae the
tidal streams set N when in-going and S when out-going.
They attain a rate of 1¼ to 1¾ kn in the N entrance.
Landmark:
Two stone marks on the E side of Sãdo, 7½ cables
SE of Umdalsan (34°02′⋅4N 127°17′⋅4E).
9
Major light:
Sãdo Light (34°00′N 127°19′E) (2.85) exhibited from
the S extremity of Sãdo.
Directions
2.89
1
Caution. Directions are only given for the SE entrance.
Vessels should also be careful during the fishing season to
avoid fishing nets when entering or leaving Tonae Hae;
these nets are laid between the N side of Kodo and the SW
side of Tongdo.
2
Track. From a position 2¼ miles ENE of Sãdo Light
(34°00′N 127°19′E) the line of bearing 290° of Umdalsan
(34°02′⋅4N 127°17′⋅4E) leads WNW, passing (with
positions relative to Sãdo Light):
NNE of a bank (1⋅3 miles NNE), with a depth of
19⋅5 m over it, marked on its E side by buoy (port
hand), thence:
3
SSW of the SE extremity (1½ miles NNE) of Tongdo,
and:
NNE of Yang Am (1⋅2 miles N), an isolated
below-water rock which is steep-to.
The track then leads W, passing along the N coast of
Kodo (1¼ miles N), and enters the S end of Tonae Hae,
between the head of a breakwater extending 5 cables SSW
from Chwi Mi (2 miles N) and a breakwater extending
1 cable N from the NW end of Kodo.
4
Useful marks:
Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater
extending SSW from Chwi Mi.
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater
extending N from Kodo.
Anchorage
2.90
1
Description. Tonae Hae, with depths from 15 to 18 m in
it, provides anchorage with good holding ground, but
strong E winds cause a swell. The best anchorage is on the
E side of Tonae Hae, between Chwi Mi (34°02′⋅3N
127°18′⋅9E), the SW point of Tongdo, and the N entrance,
over a bottom of mud; the swell caused by SE gales is less
felt here than on the W side.
2
Caution. Care is needed when anchoring to avoid the
fish havens situated along the shores of Tonae Hae.
CHAPTER 2
91
Useful marks:
Light (white hexagonal concrete tower, 12 m in
height) exhibited from the head of the E
breakwater in the N entrance to Tonae Hae.
3
Light (red hexagonal concrete tower, 12 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater in
the N entrance to Tonae Hae.
Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 9 m in height)
(34°03′⋅0N 127°17′⋅9E) exhibited from the head of
a pier adjacent to a village on the NE side of
Sãdo.
Kãmun Hang
2.91
1
Position and function. Kãmun Hang (34°01′⋅4N
127°18′⋅6E), situated between the W side of Kodo and
Sãdo, is primarily a fishing harbour.
Vertical clearances. The bridge forming the S side of
Kãmun Hang has a vertical clearance of 10 m. Close N of
the bridge an overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 30 m, spans the harbour.
2
Useful marks:
Lights exhibited from the bridge.
Light (white concrete column, 7 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the NE breakwater.
3
General layout. The harbour is protected on its S side
by a bridge built over breakwaters. The N end of the
harbour is protected by the NE breakwater extending W
from the NW side of Kodo, and by a secondary breakwater
extending E from the E side of Sãdo. The main berths are
on the E side of the harbour.
4
Berths:
Quay inside the NE breakwater; length 1526 m with
charted depths from 3⋅2 to 7⋅7 m alongside.
Lighters wharf with a length of 818 m; there are also
several floating piers.
Repairs. Minor repairs carried out.
5
Supplies: fuel; fresh water.
Communications. There is a regular ferry service
between Kãmun Hang and Yãsu Hang (3.51).
SOUTH COAST — COASTAL ROUTE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3365, 127
Area covered
2.92
1
This section covers the area along a coastal route,
leading generally ENE, between the outer islands, rocks
and dangers off the S coast of Korea, from the vicinity of
34°06′N 126°19′E, N of Ch’uja Kundo, to the vicinity of
34°15′N 127°48′E, SE of Kanyã Am. It is arranged as
follows:
2
Coastal route S of Soan Kundo (2.93).
Soando Kundo (2.100).
Soando to Hwangjedo (2.115).
Hwangjedo to Kanyã Am (2.124).
COASTAL ROUTE SOUTH
OF SOAN KUNDO
General information
Charts 3365, 127
Routes
2.93
1
From the vicinity of 34°06′N 126°19′E, 10 miles WSW
of Pogilto, the coastal route leads initially ESE, for
10 miles, through the E-bound traffic lane of the TSS, S of
Soan Kundo, thence ENE, for a farther 8 miles, to a
position about 3 miles S of Yegangchi Gak (34°07′N
126°40′E), the S extremity of Soando.
2
A route through the WNW-bound lane of the TSS is
also described.
Traffic separation scheme
2.94
1
A TSS is established in the vicinity of Ch’urunch’o
(34°04′N 126°31′E), S of Soan Kundo. The TSS is not
IMO-adopted.
Natural conditions
2.95
1
Local magnetic anomaly. It was reported (1933) that a
local magnetic anomaly, with a deflection of between 4°
and 5°E, existed in a position 3½ miles WSW of
Hwangjedo (34°11′N 127°05′E), covering an area of about
1 mile.
2
Tidal streams S of Soan Kundo (34°10′N 126°35′E) set
E and W as follows:
Time Direction
4 hours after LW at Luhuadao (30°49′N 122°36′E)
W-going stream begins
4 hours after HW at Luhuadao
E-going stream begins
3
At spring tides there is only a very brief period of slack
water. To the S of Chagaedo (34°06′N 126°36′E) the
W-going stream divides into two parts, one part setting N
into Soan Hang (2.111) and the other passing on both sides
of Chagaedo, past the S extremity of Pogilto and then
setting NW. The E-going stream acts in the reverse way.
The maximum rate is 4½ kn.
Principal marks
2.96
1
Major lights:
Munso Light (34°00′N 126°20′E) (2.78), exhibited
from an islet close W of Hãnggando (Hoenggando
on Chart 3365).
Chagaedo Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (34°06′N 126°36′E) exhibited from the SE
point of the island.
Other aids to navigation
2.97
1
Racons:
Ch’urunch’o (34°04′N 126°31′E).
Changsudo (33°55′N 126°38′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
CHAPTER 2
92
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume III)
Traffic separation scheme — east−bound
2.98
1
From the vicinity of 34°06′N 126°19′E the track leads
initially ESE, passing (with positions relative to Chagaedo
Light (34°06′N 126°36′E)):
NNE of Hãnggando (13¾ miles WSW) (Hoenggando
on Chart 3365), the N-most island of Ch’uja
Kundo (2.77), thence:
2
NNE of Mangdo (12¼ miles SW) the NE-most island
of Ch’uja Kundo; a light (white round concrete
tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the summit
of the island. Thence:
3
Through the E-bound traffic lane, SSW of
Ch’urunch’o (4½ miles WSW), a pinnacle rock
drying 0⋅3 m. In strong winds and with strong tidal
streams the sea breaks over the rock. It is marked
by a light-beacon (isolated danger, 24 m in height)
and a racon (2.97) transmits from it.
4
The track then leads ENE to a position about 3 miles S
of Yegangchi Gak (3¼ miles WSW), the S extremity of
Soando (2.101), passing SSE of Chagaedo (2.99), from
which a light (2.96) is exhibited. Tae So, 13 m high, lies
2 cables offshore close E of Yegangchi Gak, and Ichwicho,
a rock with a depth of 1⋅3 m over it, lies 2½ cables
offshore 1 mile farther NNE.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 2.118)
Traffic separation scheme — west−bound
2.99
1
From a position about 3 miles S of Yegangchi Gak
(34°07′N 126°40′E) the track leads WNW, passing (with
positions relative to Chagaedo Light (34°06′N 126°36′E)):
SSW of a fish haven (3 miles E) lying 8 cables S of
Yegangchi Gak (2.98), thence:
2
SSW of Chagaedo from which a light (2.96) is
exhibited. Chagaedo is the S-most island of Soan
Kundo. The coasts are mostly steep with a few
shingle beaches; the SE and NE points of the
island are cliffy. The island is wooded and forms a
good mark from the S. Pyãngam San, a sharp peak
171 m high and the summit of the island, stands
on the S side. Thence:
3
NNE of Ch’urunch’o (4½ miles WSW) (2.98), thence:
SSW of Yado (4¼ miles WNW), a rocky islet 46 m
high lying SE of the S point of Pogilto (2.101).
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Yado attain a rate
of 3¼ to 4 kn. Thence:
4
SSW of Pojukkak (4½ miles WNW), the S point of
Pogilto; a prominent hill 197 m high stands on
Pojukkak. Thence:
SSW of Midukdo (5¾ miles NW), a group of islets
and rocks lying within a distance of 1 mile off the
W side of Pogilto, thence:
5
SSW of Jãdo (8¼ miles NW), 86 m high, with
Sochodo, 38 m high, lying 2 cables W of its NW
end. Togumdo, another islet 125 m high, lies
1 mile E of Jãdo. Thence:
SSW of a rocky patch (9¾ miles NW), with a depth
of 4⋅6 m over it.
6
The track then leads to the vicinity of 34°07′N
126°21′E.
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
(34°11′⋅4N 126°28′⋅4E) exhibited from the W
extremity of Sãnãpto.
(Directions continue in China Sea Pilot Volume III)
SOAN KUNDO
General information
Korean Chart W219 (see 1.22)
Routes
2.100
1
Soan Kundo (34°10′N 126°35′E) lie S of Haenamgak
(34°18′N 126°31′E), the SW point of the mainland of
Korea, from which they are separated by Hãnggan Sudo
(Hoenggan Sudo on Chart 3365).
2
The main navigable channel through Soan Kundo,
providing access to Soan Hang (34°09′N 126°38′E) (2.111),
leads N and S between Soando (34°09′N 126°39′E) on the
E side, and Pogilto (34°09′N 126°32′E) and Nohwado
(34°12′N 126°35′E) on the W side. This channel is the
only one described with directions; see 2.107.
3
Other channels through Soan Kundo are Changgu Sudo
(34°14′N 126°36′E), providing a NW approach to the N
entrance of the main channel; it leads between the N side
of Nohwado and the S side of Hãnggando (Hoenggando on
Chart 3365) and is 3 cables wide at its narrowest point.
Sadu Sudo (34°10′N 126°33′E), a minor channel leads
between Pogilto and Nohwado.
Topography
2.101
1
Soan Kundo consists of three large islands, Pogilto
(34°09′N 126°32′E), Nohwado and Soando, along with
several smaller islands and rocks. Pogilto, the SW island is
densely wooded and has many sharp peaks. Songjin Bong,
430 m high, standing 1½ miles NE of Pojukkak, the S
point of Pogilto, is the summit of Pogilto. The E part of
Pogilto is indented by several bays but those on the N side
are entirely occupied by mud flats which dry.
2
On Nohwado (34°12′N 126°35′E), N of Pogilto, the hills
vary little in elevation, but, being almost barren, the island
is readily identified from the other two large islands. The
highest hills are Taegok San, 148 m high, standing 9 cables
NE of Namgak Gak (34°11′⋅5N 126°32′⋅8E), the SW point
of the island, and Kudansan, 154 m high, standing on the E
extremity of the island.
3
Norokdo lies on the N side of the W entrance to Sadu
Sudo and is connected to the SW part of Nohwado by a
drying sandbank. This islet has a sharp summit, 139 m
high, and is very prominent.
Nãpdo (34°11′⋅5N 126°30′⋅1E), 154 m high, is the
largest of several islands and rocks lying on a flat which
extends NW from Pogilto and W from Nohwado.
4
Soando (34°09′N 126°39′E) the E island of Soan Kundo,
is divided into two parts N and S by a low narrow neck.
Kahaksan, the summit of the island, 365 m high, stands
near the N end of the S part of the island. Puhungsan, a
prominent rocky peak 227 m high, stands 1 mile S of
Kahaksan. Chãngbyãng Bong, a prominent regular cone
339 m high, stands near the the E end of the N part of
Soando.
5
The S islands and islets of Chagaedo, Yado, Midukdo,
Togumdo and Jãdo are described in the directions for the
coastal route at 2.99. The islands and islets on the N side
of Soan Kundo, including Hãnggando (Hoenggando on
CHAPTER 2
93
Chart 3365) are described in the directions for an inshore
route at 2.132.
Depths
2.102
1
Main channel. There are depths from 9 to 18 m in the
S entrance near Soan Hang (34°09′N 126°38′E). In the N
entrance there is a least depth of 12⋅8 m.
Changgu Sudo (34°14′N 126°36′E). There are depths
from 20 to 30 m in the fairway.
2
Sadu Sudo (34°10′N 126°33′E). There is a least charted
depth of 2⋅5 m in the NW entrance.
Mined area
2.103
1
Soan Kundo lies within an area declared dangerous due
to mines. For further information see 1.6.
Vertical clearances
2.104
1
Main channel. An overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 31 m, spans the S end of the channel between
Tonamgak (34°08′⋅8N 126°37′⋅7E) and the E end of
Pogilto.
A second overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 41 m, spans the N entrance to the channel
from the NW end of Soando to Kudo, 8 cables NW, and
thence, with a vertical clearance of 32 m, to the E end of
Nohwado.
2
Changgu Sudo. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 30 m, spans the channel from the N
side of Nohwado to Hãnggando (Hoenggando on Chart
3365). A second overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 32 m, spans the W end of Changgu Sudo
between the NW end of Nohwado and Masakdo.
3
Sadu Sudo. An overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 34 m, spans the channel from the N side of
Pogilto, over the E end of Changsado (34°10′⋅4N
126°33′⋅7E), to the S side of Nohwado.
Tidal streams
2.105
1
Main channel. In the S entrance tidal streams attain a
rate of 1¾ to 2 kn; in the N entrance they attain a rate of
1½ kn.
Changgu Sudo. The tidal streams set W on the in-going
tide and E on the out-going tide with a maximum rate of
4¼ kn.
2
Sadu Sudo. The tidal streams attain a rate of 2¼ to
2½ kn through this channel.
Principal mark
2.106
1
Major light:
Chagaedo Light (34°06′N 126°36′E) (2.96).
Directions for the main channel
South−west approach
2.107
1
Caution. Care is needed when using this approach as
the channel is obstructed by fish havens and by the
WNW-bound traffic lane of the TSS (2.94), N of
Ch’urunch’o (34°04′N 126°31′E).
2
Track. From a position about 2½ miles W of the SW
extremity of Chagaedo (34°06′N 126°36′E), the track leads
NE along the line of bearing, of not less than 062°, of
Kahaksan (34°09′⋅2N 126°39′⋅4E), open N of Poksaengdo,
passing (with positions relative to Chagaedo Light):
3
NW of Poksaengdo (1½ miles NW). The islet, 73 m
high, has perpendicular cliffs on its S side; a shoal
extends a short distance from its N side. Thence:
SE of Sodo (2¼ miles NW), a small islet 62 m high,
lying close off the SE point of Yechakto, to which
it is connected by a reef. Yechakto has a sharp
summit, 143 m high. Thence:
4
NW of Chagaetoe (1¼ miles N), a shoal of sand and
shells with a least depth of 5⋅8 m over it, and:
SE of Ando (2¼ miles NNW), a saddle-shaped islet.
Kido, an islet lying 5 cables N of Ando, is said to
resemble a horse lying down, head raised and
facing E.
5
The track then leads to a position about 8 cables SE of
Puch’igak (3 miles N), the S point of the E part of Pogilto;
a very prominent rocky hill stands on Puch’igak.
(Directions continue at 2.109)
South approach
2.108
1
Caution. Care is needed when using this approach as
the channel is obstructed by fish havens.
Track. From a position E of the SE extremity of
Chagaedo (34°06′N 126°36′E) the track leads N along the
line of bearing of not more than 009° of the summit of
Kudo (34°12′⋅4N 126°38′⋅1E), open E of Sãamgak, 3 miles
S, passing (with positions relative to Chagaedo Light):
E of Chagaetoe (1¼ miles N) (2.107), and:
W of the W entrance point of Chinsanri Po
(2½ miles NE).
2
The track then leads to a position close E of Tonamgak
(3¼ miles NNE) joining the track leading into the main
channel W of Soando, the directions for which are given at
2.109.
South entrance
(continued from 2.107)
2.109
1
From the position 8 cables SE of Puch’igak the track
leads NNE, passing (with positions relative to Tonamgak
(34°08′⋅8N 126°37′⋅7E)):
WNW of Tonamgak, the W extremity of Soando,
thence:
2
WNW of Soan Hang (3 cables NE) (2.111), and:
ESE of Sãamgak (6 cables N), the E extremity of
Pogilto, which has a prominent square boulder on
it. Pojangsan, a sharp peak 105 m high, stands
4 cables NW of Sãamgak. Thence:
3
Between the shallow flats (1 mile NNE and 7 cables
N) extending W from Soando and E from the E
side of Pogilto.
CHAPTER 2
94
The track then leads N towards the anchorage (2.113)
off Sãkto (1¾ miles N) (2.110).
4
Useful marks:
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater at
Soan Hang (34°09′N 126°38′E).
Light (green octagonal concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater at
Soan Hang.
North approach and entry
2.110
1
From a position E of Kakssiyã (34°13′N 126°39′E) the
track leads SSW, passing (with positions relative to
Kakssiyã):
ESE of Kakssiyã, which dries; it is marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger, 8 m in height).
Thence:
2
WNW of Taeso (9 cables S), a rock lying on a spit
which extends 2½ cables NW from Tamch’osãgak,
the low N extremity of Soando. The rock is
marked by a light-beacon (red round concrete
tower, 11 m in height). And:
3
ESE of Kudo (8 cables SW), with a dome-shaped
summit; both the S side and the summit are
densely wooded. Thence:
ESE of Sogudo (1½ miles SW), thence:
WNW of Senodu (1¾ miles SSW), a point on the W
side of the N part of Soando.
4
The track then leads S, passing (with positions relative
to Kakssiyã):
Between a shoal (2½ miles SSW), with a depth of
4⋅3 m over it, and a low point on the W side of
Soando, thence:
E of Sãkto (2¾ miles SSW), lying close SE of the
islet of Sogdo; the rock is marked by a
light-beacon (E cardinal).
5
The track then leads S to the anchorage (2.113) close
ESE of Sãkto.
Useful marks:
The alignment 263° of the summit of Kudo
(34°12′⋅4N 126°38′⋅1E) with Kudansan, a sharp
summit 154 m high, 1 mile W of Kudo, may be of
help for vessels approaching the N entrance from
the E.
Minor harbour and anchorages
Soan Hang
2.111
1
Position and function. Soan Hang (34°09′N 126°38′E)
is situated on the W side of Soando, close NE of its
W-most point, Tonamgak. It serves as a fishing port.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅9 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
2
Harbour. The harbour is enclosed between a N
breakwater, 475 m long, and a W breakwater, 390 m long.
Lights (2.109) are exhibited from the heads of the
breakwater.
Berth. There is a wharf in the harbour, 120 m long.
Vessels up to 100 tonnes are berthed alongside.
3
Repairs. Minor repairs carried out.
Supplies. Fresh water is available.
Chinsanri Po
2.112
1
Description. Chinsanri Po (34°07′⋅3N 126°38′⋅7E)
indents the SW side of Soando. The bay is entered between
Sangdu Sã, a rock 7 m high lying 1 cable off the E
entrance point of the bay, and Nong Sã, 10 m high, lying
close off the W entrance point.
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain shelter from all except S
winds, out of the strength of the tidal streams, in depths of
7 m in the middle of the bay.
Main channel
2.113
1
Anchorage may be obtained in the middle of the main
channel, in a depth of 16 m, over a bottom of mud, with
Sãkto (34°10′⋅5N 126°37′⋅5E) (2.110) bearing 294°, distant
3 cables. This berth is confined and only suitable for small
vessels.
2
During winter, with strong N winds, this anchorage is
unsafe, and it is better to anchor in the vicinity of Yechakto
(34°08′⋅0N 126°34′⋅1E) (2.107).
Chãngbyãng Po
2.114
1
Description. Chãngbyãng Po is situated on the E side of
Soando and is entered between Puagak (34°08′⋅9N
126°41′⋅0E) and Chãngbyãnggak, 2 miles N. Puagak is a
cliffy point forming the E end of a peninsula; a reef drying
0⋅3 m lies 2 cables E of the point.
2
Anchorage. Temporary anchorage, except in E winds,
may be obtained in the bay.
SOANDO TO HWANGJEDO
General information
Charts 3365, 127
Route
2.115
1
From a position about 3 miles S of Yegangchi Gak
(34°07′N 126°40′E), the S extremity of Soando, the coastal
route leads ENE, for 22 miles, to a position about 5 miles
SSE of Hwangjedo (34°11′N 127°05′E).
Submarine cables
2.116
1
Mariners are advised that anchoring and fishing are
prohibited along a corridor extending 6 cables either side of
the submarine power cables laid across the coastal route
4 miles SE of Soando (34°09′N 126°39′E). For further
information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Principal marks
2.117
1
Major lights:
Chagaedo Light (34°06′N 126°36′E) (2.96).
2
Yãsãdo Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (33°59′N 126°55′E), exhibited from the N
side of Yãsãdo (2.76).
Directions
(continued from 2.98)
2.118
1
From a position about 3 miles S of the S extremity of
Soando (34°09′N 126°39′E) the track leads ENE, passing
(with positions relative to Yãsãdo Light (33°59′N
126°55′E)):
SSE of Pulkundo (12½ miles NW) (2.120), thence:
2
SSE of Ssang Do (9½ miles N), 52 m high, lying
4 cables S of Ch’ãngsando (2.119); the water is
deep N of this islet. And:
CHAPTER 2
95
NNW of Yãsãdo (2.76), from which a light (2.117) is
exhibited, thence:
3
SSE of two above-water rocks (13¾ miles NNE), the
S of which is 20 m high, lying S of a group of
three islets of similar appearance, all thickly
wooded and darker than other islets in the vicinity.
Maemuldo (34°13′N 126°59′E), the W-most islet,
is 126 m high and steep-to except on its N side;
the S side is cliffy and the N sloping. Kudo,
6½ cables E of Maemuldo, is 171 m high and
uninhabited. Songdo, 7½ cables S of Kudo, is
61 m high, cliffy and covered with shrubs; two
above-water rocks, 4⋅5 m high, lie 5 cables ESE of
Songdo.
4
The track then leads to a position about 5 miles SSE of
Hwangjedo (14¼ miles NE), which is fringed with three
islets; Hwangjedo is 79 m high and wooded, and when
viewed from E or W has the appearance of being three
islets. Anmaedo, the SW of the three islets is 94 m high,
and the N-most islet is grassy and 60 m high.
5
A light (white hexagonal metal tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited from the W side of Hwangjedo and another light
(2.125) from the NE side.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 2.127)
Channel west of Ch’ãngsando
Korean Chart W232 (see 1.22)
General information
2.119
1
Description. The channel between Ch’ãngsando
(34°11′N 126°53′E) and the islands to the W, links the
coastal route with an inshore route (2.132), and also
provides a S approach to Wando Hang (34°19′N 126°45′E)
(2.148). There is a least width of three miles in the
channel. Ch’ãngsando is 393 m high at the SE end of the
island. The island is mostly cultivated but the peaks are
bare. There are several villages along its coast.
2
Vessel traffic service. This channel lies within the
coverage of the Wando Vessel Traffic Service. For further
details see 2.142 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Tidal streams. Between Soan Kundo (34°10′N
126°35′E) and Ch’ãngsando the tidal streams set N with
the in-going tide and S with the out-going tide; they attain
a rate of about 2 kn.
Directions
2.120
1
From a position on the coastal route (2.118) about
5½ miles SE of Pulkundo (34°09′N 126°45′E) the track
leads N, passing (with positions relative to Pulkundo):
E of Pulkundo, a flat island. Ba Do is the N of two
islets lying within 2½ cables S of Pulkundo; the S
islet is 8 m high. A rock awash lies close off the
N end of Pulkundo. And:
2
W of the SW extremity (5½ miles E) of
Ch’ãngsando, thence:
W of an above-water rock (5 miles WNW), 22 m
high, lying in the approaches to Ch’ãngsando
Hang (2.121), thence:
W of Chichodo (5½ miles WNW), a small islet 35 m
high lying off the W coast of Ch’ãngsando, and:
3
E of Taemodo (2 miles N), with an irregular serrated
summit, thence:
W of Chang Do (6 miles NE), 49 m high, thence:
E of Somodo (4½ miles N), 121 m high at its E
extremity. A prominent clump of trees stands on
the W side of the island, W of the 121 m summit.
The island is cultivated and a village stands near
its NW point. A reef extends 5 cables SW from
the island; two above-water rocks, the inner 20 m
high, stand on the reef. Somodo Light (white
round concrete tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited
from the NW extremity of the island.
4
The track then leads to a position in a TSS (2.131)
junction, about 2½ miles NE of Somodo Light. The centre
of the junction is marked by a light-buoy (safe water).
Caution. Somodo Light is not visible within the channel
W of Ch’ãngsando.
5
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 7 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater at
Ch’ãngsando Hang (34°11′N 126°51′E) (2.121).
Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater at
Ch’ãngsando Hang.
(Directions continue, for the approaches to
Wando Hang at 2.147, and for the
inshore route E at 2.161)
(Directions for the inshore route
are given in reverse at 2.138)
Ch’ãngsando Hang
2.121
1
Position and function. Ch’ãngsando Hang (34°11′N
126°51′E), situated in an inlet on the W side of
Ch’ãngsando (2.119), is an important base for fishing The
fishing village of Tochong Ni stands on the shore at the
head of the inlet.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅7 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
2
Harbour. The harbour is enclosed within the inlet by
two breakwaters projecting N and S from the shores. There
are several berthing areas within the harbour, the main
wharf having a length of 300 m and able to handle vessels
up to 100 tonnes.
Repairs. Minor repairs available for fishing craft.
Supplies. Fuel available.
3
Communications. Regular ferry service to Wando Hang
(34°19′N 126°45′E) (2.148).
Anchorages
2.122
1
South side of Ch’ãngsando. Anchorage may be
obtained during N winds in a bay (34°10′N 126°52′E) on
the S side of Ch’ãngsando at its W end. The bay has
depths from 5 to 14 m and the best anchorage during N
winds is in a depth of 11 m. A sandy beach lies at the
head of the bay.
2
East side of Ch’ãngsando. On the E side of
Ch’ãngsando there is a shallow bay, with its S entrance
point being formed by Hang Do (34°11′N 126°56′E), 84 m
high. There are depths of 7 m, sand and mud in this bay,
and local craft can obtain shelter here from SW winds.
Anchorage
Hwangjedo
2.123
1
Small vessels may obtain anchorage on the W and E
sides of a reef which connects the S-most islet fronting
Hwangjedo with Hwangjedo (34°11′N 127°05′E) (2.118).
CHAPTER 2
96
There is a depth of 6 m in the bay on the W side of the
reef, and about 15 m in the bay on the E side.
HWANGJEDO TO KANYP AM
General information
Charts 3365, 127
Route
2.124
1
From a position about 5 miles SSE of Hwangjedo
(34°11′N 127°05′E) the coastal route leads ENE between
the offshore islands, rocks and dangers lying off the S
coast of Korea, for 36 miles, to a position about 4 miles
SW of Kanyã Am (34°17′N 127°51′E).
Principal marks
2.125
1
Major lights:
Hwangjedo Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m
in height) (34°12′N 127°05′E).
Sori Do Light (white hexagonal concrete tower, 9 m
in height) (34°25′N 127°48′E), exhibited near
Soryongdan, the S point of the island of Sori Do.
Other aids to navigation
2.126
1
Racons:
Sangbaekto (34°03′N 127°35′E).
Kanyã Am (34°17′N 127°51′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.118)
2.127
1
From a position about 5 miles SSE of Hwangjedo
(34°11′N 127°05′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with
positions relative to Yãngman Do (34°11′N 127°21′E)
(Yãkmando on Chart 3365)):
SSE of Changdo (9½ miles WNW), the largest of the
W-most islands of Ch’odo Kundo (2.128).
Changdo is cliffy, flat-topped and cultivated, with
houses near its NE end. Somado, a small islet, lies
1 mile W of Changdo and is almost joined to it by
a reef; a rock, 3 m high, lies 1 cable S and
Baegsã, 51 m high, lies 9 cables NW of Somado.
Thence:
2
SSE of a black rock (8 miles WNW), 62 m high with
three heads, lying 4 cables S of Wondo; the rock is
steep-to to within 1 cable. Wondo is 174 m high;
the S part of this islet is rugged but its N part is
flat, with a few houses near its N end. Thence:
SSE of the S coast of Ch’odo (5 miles NW) (2.128),
fringed with rocks and islets. Ch’odo Light (white
round concrete, 7 m in height) is exhibited from
the islet lying close off the SE extremity of
Ch’odo. Thence:
3
NNW of Noksangot (7 miles SSE), the N point of
Sãdo (2.88); a light (white concrete column, 9 m
in height) is exhibited from the point. Thence:
NNW of Panyã (6½ miles SSE), an above-water rock
3 m high, lying 7 cables NNE of the N extremity
of Tongdo (2.88). The rock is marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger). Thence:
4
SSE of Yãngman Do (Yãkmando on Chart 3365),
from the N end of which a light (white round
concrete tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited.
Yãngman Do has a flat summit and is thickly
covered with trees; the N part of the island is a
bare conical hill, 133 m high, joined to the S part
by a sandy isthmus and is prominent from E or W.
Thence:
5
NNW of Taesambudo (7 miles S) (2.87), thence:
SSE of Kudo (6¼ miles ENE), the S and highest
island of Kansu Chedo (2.129); Kudo is cliffy
except at its SE point. Thence:
NNW of Mundo (8¼ miles SE), an islet. With the
exception of its summit, it is covered with shrubs.
The islet’s coast, except on its E side, consists of
vertical cliffs which are prominent. At the E
extremity of this islet is a large pointed rock, 19 m
high, which is prominent. Thence:
6
NNW of Munsã (10½ miles ESE), consisting of two
pinnacle rocks lying close together; a rocky shoal,
with a depth of 8⋅5 m over it, lies 8 cables S of
Munsã. Thence:
7
SSE of Taeduyãksã (10 miles ENE), consisting of two
black rocks, the S of which is 27 m high, steep-to,
and marked by a light-beacon (white round
concrete tower, 6 m in height). Kwangdo, 1 mile N
of Taeduyãksã is a cliffy cultivated islet. A rock,
27 m high, lies 4 cables SE of Kwangdo. Vessels
should not approach the N side of Kwangdo within
2 cables.
8
The track then leads to a position about 4 miles SW of
Kanyã Am (25½ miles ENE), a rock marked by a
light-beacon (white hexagonal concrete tower, 18 m in
height); a racon (2.126) transmits from the rock. An ODAS
buoy is moored 5 cables SE of Kanyã Am.
9
Useful mark:
Sangbaekto Light (34°03′N 127°35′E) (2.87).
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 3.15)
Offshore islands
Korean Chart W213 (see 1.22)
Ch’odo Kundo
2.128
1
Description. Ch’odo Kundo (34°15′N 127°15′E) is a
group of islands and rocks. Ch’odo, the largest island of
the group, may be identified by a distinctive long ridge
rising to 339 m and appearing as a sharp peak from N or
S. The hills on the island are bare but there is much
cultivated land. An islet 111 m high, connected to Ch’odo
by a sandy spit, is the N of three islets lying close off the
SW point of the island. Suldaesãm, 68 m high, and 1 mile
offshore, is the E of several islets lying E of the NE part
of Ch’odo.
2
Chunggyãlto, 150 m high, lies 4 cables N of Ch’odo; it
is conical-shaped with cliffy or rocky sides. A navigable
channel leads between this islet and Ch’odo, with a least
depth of 18⋅3 m in the fairway. Yong Sãm, 69 m high, lies
6 cables NE of Chunggyãl To with a small islet close S of
its point.
3
Sangdo, 37 m high, lies 9 cables N of the W extremity
of Yong Sãm and is the N islet of Ch’odo Kundo. Between
Sangdo and Yong Sãm is an islet 66 m high, 5½ cables E
of which is a rock 31 m high. A rock, which dries 0⋅9 m,
lies 1 cable W of the 31 m rock.
The islands of Wondo and Changdo, the W-most islands
of Ch’odo, are described at 2.127.
4
Tidal streams set, through and around these islands, W
on the in-going tide and E on the out-going tide, with rates
of 2 kn at springs.
CHAPTER 2
97
Useful mark:
Ch’odo Light (34°12′⋅8N 127°15′⋅8E) (2.127).
5
Ch’odo Hang (34°13′⋅3N 127°14′⋅5E). This small
fishing harbour is situated on the NW side of Ch’odo. Sãdo
Ri, a large village, stands on the shores of the harbour. A
N breakwater, from the head of which a light (white
octagonal concrete tower, 13 m in height) is exhibited, and
a S breakwater, from the head of which another light (red
round metal tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited, protect the
harbour.
6
Inside the harbour there is a passenger wharf, length
50 m, and a floating stage. Regular ferry services connect
Ch’odo Hang with Kãmun Hang (2.91), S, Nokdong Hang
(2.196), NNW, and Yãsu Hang (3.51) NNE.
Anchorage. On the N side of the SE extremity of
Ch’odo there is a bay with a depth of 8 m in it, which can
be used as a shelter when the wind is from W to NW.
There is a small village at the head of this bay.
Kansu Chedo
2.129
1
Description. Kansu Chedo (34°15′N 127°27′E) is a
group of five islands and rocks. P’yãndo, the central and
largest island of Kansu Chedo, is inhabited; its S coast is
cliffy and there is a sharp peak, 116 m high, at its SW end.
The central part of the island is low-lying, while its N part
rises to a summit, 137 m high. There are a few houses by
the gravel beach on the W side of P’yãndo. A black rock,
21 m high, lies 3½ cables SE of P’yãndo.
2
Sopyãngdo, 64 m high, lies 4 cables N of P’yãndo with
an islet midway between. The S-most island, Kudo
(Galkwiseom on Korean Chart W213), is described at
2.127.
Anchorage. Temporary anchorage for small local vessels
during strong W winds, may be obtained in a bay on the E
side of P’yãndo, in depths from 9 to 11 m; the bottom here
is very rocky.
SOUTH COAST — INSHORE ROUTE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3365, 127
Area covered
2.130
1
This section covers the area in the vicinity of an inshore
route, leading generally E, between the inner islands, rocks
and dangers off the S coast of Korea, and the S coast of
Korea itself, from Haenamgak (34°18′N 126°31′E) to Sori
Do (34°26′N 127°48′E), 64 miles E. The section is
arranged as follows:
2
Inshore route − Haenamgak to Somodo (2.132).
Somodo to Mado Hae (2.140).
Inshore route − Somodo to P’yãng-ilto (2.156).
South approach to Tungnyang Man (2.162).
Inshore route − P’yãng-ilto to Chima Do (2.171).
3
South-south-east approach to Tungnyang Man (2.178).
South-east approach to Tungnyang Man (2.188).
Tungnyang Man (2.197).
Inshore route − Chima Do to Sori Do (2.204).
4
Approaches to Yãja Man and Kamak Yang (2.211)
Yãja Man (2.229).
Kamak Yang (2.237).
Traffic separation scheme
2.131
1
A TSS is established in the vicinity of 34°15′N
126°49′E, SE of Wando. The TSS is not IMO-adopted.
INSHORE ROUTE — HAENAMGAK
TO SOMODO
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Charts W219, W232 (see 1.22)
Route
2.132
1
From a position 1¼ miles WSW of Haenamgak
(34°18′N 126°31′E) the inshore route leads initially SE for
2 miles to a position 1 mile SSW of the SW end of
Hugildo (34°17′N 126°33′E). The route then leads E for
14 miles through Hãnggan Sudo (Hoenggan Sudo on Chart
3365), passing N of the islands of Soan Kundo (2.100),
and thence S of the island of Wando (34°21′N 126°42′E),
to a position, in a TSS junction, about 2½ miles NE of
Somodo (34°14′N 126°46′E).
2
Hãnggan Sudo, the channel between Hugildo and
Baegildo, on the N, and the N islands of Soan Kundo
2 miles S of them, is deep and free from dangers in the
fairway, and is much frequented.
Vessel traffic service
2.133
1
The area covered by this sub-section lies within the
coverage of the Wando Vessel Traffic Service. For further
details see 2.142 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Submarine cables
2.134
1
Submarine power cables are laid cross the inshore route
about 2½ miles SSW of the SW extremity of Wando
(34°21′N 126°42′E); the position of the cables is marked in
places by light-buoys (special). For further information on
these cables see 2.39. A submarine power cable is also laid
between the NE side of Masakdo (34°15′N 126°34′E) and
Hugildo, 1¾ miles N.
2
For further information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Natural conditions
2.135
1
Local magnetic anomaly. In 1930 a local magnetic
anomaly was reported to exist near Taegudu (34°17′N
126°47′E), the SE point of Wando.
Tidal streams in Hãnggan Sudo set E and W as
follows:
Time Direction
2
3 hours before HW at Luhuadao
(30°49′N 122°36′E)
W-going stream begins
3 hours after HW at Luhuadao E-going stream begins
The W-going stream attains a rate of 3½ kn at springs,
and the E-going stream 4½ kn.
Principal marks
2.136
1
Landmarks:
Talmasan (34°23′N 126°35′E), 489 m high, standing
on Tarumasan Sammyaku, a ridge with a very
irregular outline which extends NNE from
Haenamgak.
CHAPTER 2
98
The summit, 644 m high, of Wando (34°21′N
126°42′E).
2
Major light:
Pryongdo Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 6 m
in height) (34°17′N 126°28′E) (China Sea Pilot
Volume III).
Other aid to navigation
2.137
1
Racon:
Pryongdo Light (34°17′N 126°28′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Volume III)
2.138
1
From a position 1¼ miles SW of Haenamgak (34°18′N
126°31′E), the SW extremity of the mainland of Korea, the
track leads initially SE. The point is surmounted by a
pointed hill, 55 m high, with a tower on it; another hill,
165 m high, stands 5 cables NNW of it. The track passes
(with positions relative to Haenamgak):
2
SW of a dangerous wreck (9 cables S), thence:
SW of a large fish haven (8 cables SSE).
Thence when a position is reached about 1 mile SSW of
the SW end of Hugildo (1¼ miles SE), the track leads E,
passing (with positions relative to Yongjãncho Light-beacon
(34°14′⋅5N 126°39′⋅2E)):
3
S of Hugildo (4¾ miles WNW), 184 m high and
wooded. A light (white round concrete tower, 9 m
in height) is exhibited from the SW extremity of
the island. Thence:
N of Masakdo (4½ miles W), 65 m high, thence:
N of Somasakdo (3½ miles W), 21 m high, thence:
S of Tonghwado (3¼ miles NW), 128 m high with a
flat summit; the island is covered with brushwood.
Thence:
4
N of the N point (2 miles WNW) of Hãnggando
(Hoenggando on Chart 3365), from which a light
(white round concrete tower, 5 m in height) is
exhibited. Hãnggando, the N island of Soan Kundo
(2.100), can be readily identified from the E,
appearing as a flat ridge terminating S in a steep
rugged slope which ends in a cliff 122 m high.
Thence:
5
S of Sohwado (3¼ miles NNW), 56 m high with a
sparse growth of brushwood, thence:
N of a fish haven (5 cables NW), thence:
N of Yongjãncho, a pinnacle rock which dries 0⋅2 m;
it is marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger,
17 m high). When the tidal streams are strong
there are heavy overfalls over the rock, but at
slack water it is not easily seen and is, therefore
extremely dangerous. Thence:
6
S of a rock (3½ miles NNE), which dries 4⋅0 m,
fronting the S side of Kaduchimi Gak, the SW
point of Wando. Fish havens lie off the S coast of
Wando in the vicinity of Kaduchimi Gak. Thence:
S of Meeruam (5½ miles ENE), a rock marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger), thence:
7
N of Somodo (6 miles E) (2.120), from which a light
(2.120) is exhibited, thence:
S of a fish haven (6½ miles ENE) lying close S of
Taegudu, the SE extremity of Wando.
The track then leads to a position in the TSS junction
(8 miles E) (2.131), about 2½ miles NE of Somodo Light.
The centre of the junction is marked by a light-buoy (safe
water).
(Directions continue, for the approaches to
Wando Hang at 2.147 and for the
inshore route E at 2.161)
Anchorage
Korean Chart W219 (see 1.22)
Baegil Hang
2.139
1
Description. Baegil Hang (34°18′N 126°34′E) is situated
between the mainland NE of Haenamgak and the islands of
Hugildo and Baegildo.
Depths. There are general depths from 10⋅1 to 31⋅0 m in
Baegil Hang, but a shoal, with a least depth of 1⋅7 m over
it, lies in the middle of the harbour, NW of Baegildo.
There is also a bank, which dries, extending 1 mile ENE
from the NW point of Hugildo, and a bank, with depths of
less than 2⋅0 m over it, extending 2 to 6 cables from the N
side of the harbour; the latter bank is steep-to.
2
Vertical clearances:
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
37 m, spans the channels between the E end of
Hugildo and Baegildo, 4 cables NE, and between
the SE side of Baegildo and Tonghwado, 7 cables
ESE.
The channel between the N end of Baegildo and the
mainland N is also spanned by an overhead power
cable, with a vertical clearance of 35 m.
3
Tidal streams in Baegil Hang attain a rate of 4 kn.
Directions. The safest entrance is from W, passing
between Haenamgak and the W end of Hugildo, but the
harbour may also be entered from the SE between Hugildo
and Baegildo and from the E between Baegildo and the
mainland N; the latter entrance is obstructed on its E side
by the islet of Kyedo (34°18′⋅6N 126°36′⋅6E), and by an
isolated patch, with a depth of 4⋅8 m over it, lying
3½ cables SSW of Kyedo.
4
Useful mark:
Kaldu Hang Light (white rectangular tower, 11 m in
height) (34°18′N 126°32′E).
Anchorage. Small local vessels may obtain anchorage in
Baegil Hang in a depth of 10 m. A good berth is on the
alignment (069°) of the NE tangent of Baegilto with the S
summit of Kyedo, and the SW extremity of Baegilto
bearing 155° in a depth of 9 m where the tidal streams are
weak.
SOMODO TO MADO HAE
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Charts W232, W220, No 261 (see 1.22)
Route
2.140
1
From a position, in the TSS junction, about 2½ miles
NE of Somodo (34°14′N 126°46′E), the route leads initially
N, for 3 miles, and thence NW for 3½ miles through the
channel between Wando (34°21′N 126°42′E) and Shinjido,
passing NE of Wando Hang (2.148) and then into Sã Hang
(34°22′N 126°45′E). A channel from the N end of Sã Hang
then leads into Mado Hae.
Topography
2.141
1
The two main features are the islands of Wando and
Shinjido. Wando is a large island, 644 m high, and wooded;
CHAPTER 2
99
it is separated from the mainland to the NW by a narrow
channel, with a bridge over it. Shinjido, 3½ cables E of
Wando, rises to Sangsan, 324 m high, 2 miles E of
Changhanggot, the W point of the island. The mountain
shows from E as two prominent rounded peaks; it is joined
to the main part of the island by a low neck of land.
Vessel traffic service
2.142
1
Wando Vessel Traffic Service provides maritime traffic
information and navigational warnings. Participation in the
service is compulsory for the following vessels:
All foreign vessels.
Vessels of 300 gt and over.
Towing vessels with length of tow 200 m or more.
2
For further details on procedures and reporting points
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Vertical clearances
2.143
1
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
29 m, spans the channel between Changhanggot (34°20′N
126°45′E) and Wando. Red and white metal towers,
exhibiting obstruction lights, mark each end of the cable.
A bridge, with a vertical clearance of 35 m and from
which lights are exhibited, also spans the channel close N
of the power cable.
2
The S entrance to Mado Hae, between the W extremity
(34°22′N 126°45′E) of Kogumdo and Sahudo, 7 cables NW,
is spanned by an overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 34 m.
Restricted area
2.144
1
In the approach to Wando Hang there is a restricted
area, with a radius of 2¼ cables, centred on Molsã
(34°19′⋅0N 126°46′⋅2E), protecting the construction of a
breakwater.
Pilotage
2.145
1
See 2.150.
Natural conditions
2.146
1
Local magnetic anomaly. See 2.135.
Tidal streams. In the channel between Wando and
Shinjido the tidal streams set N with the in-going tide and
S with the out-going tide attaining a rate from 1½ to 2 kn.
In the narrowest part of this channel, the N-going stream is
reported to begin 4 hours after the time of HW locally, and
to have a rate of 1½ kn.
Directions
(continued from 2.120 and 2.138)
2.147
1
From a position, in the TSS junction, about 2½ miles
NE of Somodo (34°14′N 126°46′E), the track leads initially
N through the appropriate lane, passing (with positions
relative to Sãnbonggak (34°19′N 126°48′E):
E of a fish haven (2½ miles S) lying off the S side of
Taegudu, and:
2
W of a dangerous wreck (3 miles SSE), thence:
E of Taegudu (1¾ miles SSW), the SE extremity of
Wando.
The track then leads to a position about 1¼ miles W of
Talhaedo (2¼ miles SE). This islet, 98 m high, wooded on
its E side and with a pointed summit, lies close W of the S
end of Shinjido, and is connected to it by a shallow bank.
It is prominent when viewed from S due to low land
behind it.
3
Thence the track leads NW, passing (with positions
relative to Sãnbonggak):
NE of an obstruction (9 cables S), thence:
SW of Sãnbonggak, from which a light (white round
concrete tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
4
NE of Molsã (1¼ miles W), marked by a
light-beacon (green rectangle on green beacon,
12 m in height), and surrounded by a restricted
area (2.144), thence:
NE of the main berthing area at Wando Hang
(1½ miles E) (2.148), thence:
5
SW of Ch’ãsangju (1¾ miles NW), with a least
charted depth of 2⋅1 m over it, thence:
NE of the N breakwater (2 miles WNW) of Wando
Hang, from which a light (red square metal
framework tower, 9 m in height) is exhibited.
6
The track then turns to the N and passes under the
overhead power cable (2.143) and bridge spanning the
channel between Changhanggot (2½ miles NW) and
Wando. The track then continues to lead N, passing (with
positions relative to Sãnbonggak):
7
W of the rocks (2½ miles NNW) extending 7 cables
SW from the S extremity of Kogumdo, thence:
E of Changdo (3¾ miles NW), a small islet 35 m
high lying close off the E side of Wando. A rock,
which dries 1⋅9 m, lies 5 cables N of Changdo.
8
The track then leads to the anchorage (2.155) in Sã
Hang, off Taeya Ri (4½ miles NW). To the N of this
anchorage a narrow channel leads between the W extremity
of Kogumdo and Sahudo, 7 cables NW, into Mado Hae.
Mado Hae, a shallow inlet, extends 11 miles N to the
town of Kangjin at its head. A better entrance to Mado
Hae, with deeper water, is through Mado Sudo (34°25′N
126°52′E) (2.169).
Wando Hang
Korean Chart No 261 (see 1.22)
General information
2.148
1
Position and function. Wando Hang (34°19′N 126°45′E)
is situated on the SE side of the island of Wando in a
small bay. Wando town is the seat of local government and
is situated at the head of the bay. Wando Hang was
designated as an international commercial port in 1991.
2
Port limits. The limits of Wando Hang are shown on
the chart.
Approach and entry. Wando Hang is approached from
the S through the TSS (2.131), SE of Wando and is then
entered via the channel between Wando and Shinjido.
Limiting conditions
2.149
1
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅1 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅2 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
Vertical clearances. For information on the overhead
power cable and bridge at the N end of Wando Hang see
2.143.
Arrival information
2.150
1
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards in the vicinity
of 34°18′N 126°49′E, 2 miles ENE of Taegudu.
Tugs. None available.
Vessel traffic service. See 2.142.
CHAPTER 2
100
Harbour
2.151
1
General layout. Wando Hang consists of a bay lying
between Molsã (34°19′⋅0N 126°46′⋅2E) and a point 1 mile
NW from which the N breakwater of the harbour extends
ESE. Chudo, a wooded islet, lies in the S side of Wando
Hang. The main berthing area is on the SE side of the
harbour, W of Molsã.
2
Development. In 2002 the main berthing area was being
extended E to Molsã, from which a breakwater, extending
N, was under construction.
Directions for entering harbour
2.152
1
For directions leading to Wando Hang see 2.147.
Berths
2.153
1
Anchorages. Good anchorage may be obtained by small
local vessels inside Wando Hang. Larger vessels may
obtain anchorage in a depth of 13 m, sand and mud, with
good holding ground, 4 cables NNE of Chudo (34°18′⋅8N
126°45′⋅5E).
2
Alongside berths. On the SE side of the harbour there
are three main quays with a total length of about 1000 m;
there are charted depths from 6⋅1 to 10⋅8 m alongside.
Vessels up to 20 000 tonnes are berthed.
Port services
2.154
1
Repairs. Minor repairs carried out.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel.
Communications. There is a regular ferry service to
Cheju Hang (33°31′N 126°32′E) (2.29).
Anchorage
Korean Chart W220 (see 1.22)
Sã Hang
2.155
1
There is good anchorage sheltered from all winds for
small local vessels in Sãhang, off Taeya Ri, a village on
the E side of Wando, 2 miles NNW of Changhanggot
(34°20′N 126°45′E) in a continuation W of Changjingno.
There are depths of 11 m in the anchorage and the tidal
streams here are not strong. The best approach to this
anchorage, from the E, is through Changjingno, described
at 2.168.
INSHORE ROUTE — SOMODO
TO P’YPNG−ILTO
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Chart W232 (see 1.22)
Route
2.156
1
From a position, in the TSS junction, about 2½ miles
NE of Somodo (34°14′N 126°46′E), the inshore route leads
ENE, for 9½ miles, and thence E, for a farther 2 miles, to a
position about 1¼ miles S of the S extremity (34°19′N
127°02′E) of P’yãng-ilto. This route is much frequented.
Topography
2.157
1
Saeng-ilto (34°19′N 126°59′E) is one of the most
prominent islands in the vicinity of this inshore route; it
has two distinct peaks. Saengsan the N and higher of the
two, 483 m high, is slightly flat, and the S and lower peak
has the appearance of two nipples. Both peaks, as
compared with peaks on other islands, are prominent, being
densely wooded and blackish in colour. Ridges slope
gradually from the summits to the coast on the E side of
Saeng-ilto, but on the W side the slopes are steep and the
coast is somewhat difficult of access.
2
P’yãng-ilto (34°21′N 127°02′E), close NE of Saeng-ilto
is hilly and indented by shallow bays encumbered by
drying mud flats; its summit is a sharp peak 135 m high.
To the S of the route lie the islands of Sodãkudo
(34°17′N 127°00′E) (2.161), Hyongjedo and Tãgudo.
Hyongjedo, lying 8 cables S of Sodãkudo, consists of three
islets close together, which, from a distance appear as a
single island. The N and S islets are thickly covered with
brushwood, and the N and highest islet is 55 m high.
3
Tãgudo, 4 cables SSE of Hyongjedo, is 120 m high at
its N end. When seen from E or W it presents two distinct
peaks; the S part of this island is thickly wooded, and on
the E side of the low part, near the middle of the island,
there is a village.
Vessel traffic service
2.158
1
The area covered by this sub-section lies within the
coverage of the Wando Vessel Traffic Service. For further
details see 2.142 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Depths
2.159
1
The channel between Sodãkudo (34°17′N 127°00′E) and
Saeng-ilto, 1¾ miles NW, has a least depth of 21 m in the
fairway.
Submarine cable
2.160
1
A submarine power cable is laid from the N side of
Ch’ãngsando (34°11′N 126°53′E), across the inshore route
in a NNE direction for 5½ miles, to the S coast of
Shinjido. For further information on submarine cables
see 1.8.
Directions
(continued from 2.120 and 2.138)
2.161
1
From a position, in the TSS junction, about 2½ miles
NE of Somodo (34°14′N 126°46′E), the track leads ENE
through the appropriate traffic lane, passing (with positions
relative to Sodãkudo (34°17′N 127°00′E)):
SSE of Changdo (7 miles E), lying off the S side of
Shinjido (2.141); the islet is 73 m high and
wooded. Thence:
2
NNW of a fish haven (6 miles SW) fronting the N
side of Ch’ãngsando (2.119), thence:
SSE of Mohwangdo (5¼ miles E), from the S side of
which a light (white round concrete tower, 5 m in
height) is exhibited. Mohwangdo is 115 m high
with a sparse growth of brushwood. Thence:
3
Through a fish haven (3¼ miles E), taking
appropriate care, thence:
SSE of the S extremity (2 miles NW) of Saeng-ilto
(2.157).
The track then leads to a position 1 mile S of
Toryongnangdo (1½ miles N), an islet lying off the SE side
of Saeng-ilto; a light (white octagonal concrete tower, 8 m
in height) is exhibited from the S side of the islet.
4
Thence from the position S of Toryongnangdo the track
leads E, passing N of Sodãkudo, to a position about
1¼ miles S of the S extremity (34°19′N 127°02′E) of
CHAPTER 2
101
P’yãng-ilto. Sodãkudo is a conical island on which there
are thickets of brushwood; a light (white round concrete
tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited from the N side of the
island.
5
Useful mark:
Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height)
(34°15′N 127°01′E) exhibited from the NW side of
Tãgudo.
(Directions continue for the inshore route at 2.173)
SOUTH APPROACH TO TUNGNYANG MAN
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Charts W232, W220 (see 1.22)
Routes
2.162
1
From a position on the inshore route (2.156), about
2 miles ESE of Mohwangdo (34°17′N 126°54′E), the route
leads initially N, for 4 miles, to a position off the E
entrance to Changjingno. The route then leads NNE, for a
farther 12 miles, through Changgodo Sudo and between
Kumdangdo (34°26′N 127°03′E) and the mainland,
2½ miles NW, to a position 2 miles W of the W extremity
of Sorokdo (34°31′N 127°07′E).
2
Changgodo Sudo is the main channel of approach from
S to Tungnyang Man (34°34′N 127°04′E) (2.197); it lies
between Shinjido (34°20′N 126°51′E) and Choyagdo on the
W, and Saeng-ilto (34°19′N 126°59′E), P’yãng-ilto and
Kumdangdo (34°26′N 127°03′E) on the E. It is divided into
two channels by Taech’ilgido (34°24′N 126°59′E),
Changgodo and Chilmado. The narrowest part of the
channel is 1½ miles wide and the channel is straight.
3
The side channels of Changjingno (34°22′N 126°50′E)
(2.168), Mado Sudo (34°25′N 126°52′E) (2.169) and
Saengil Sudo (34°20′N 127°01′E) (2.170) are also
described.
Topography
2.163
1
The island of Shinjido (34°20′N 126°51′E) is described
at 2.141. Saeng-ilto (34°19′N 126°59′E) and P’yãng-ilto are
described at 2.157. The other main islands are Kogumdo,
Choyagdo and Kumdangdo.
2
Kogumdo (34°24′N 126°49′E) has several peaks, and
rises to 245 m on its NW side. The S extremity of the
island is thickly wooded. Choyagdo, close E of Kogumdo,
is hilly; Sammunsan, 401 m high, the W and highest peak,
appears as a level ridge, while Kongdaejisan, the E peak
340 m high, is sharp and prominent.
3
Kumdangdo (34°26′N 127°03′E), lying at the N end of
the E side of Changgodo Sudo, is 220 m high; it has
several bare hills.
Principal mark
2.164
1
Landmark:
Chãngwansan (34°32′N 126°55′N), 723 m high, with
a beacon on its summit. It is the highest peak of a
mountain range, which rises precipitously from the
mainland coast, and when seen from the sea
assumes an obtuse triangular shape. The range has
general heights from 300 to 600 m and contains
many bare or rocky peaks.
Directions
Mohwangdo to Choyagdo
2.165
1
From a position on the inshore route (2.156), about
2 miles ESE of Mohwangdo (34°17′N 126°54′E), the track
leads N, passing (with positions relative to Mohwangdo):
E of Mohwangdo (2.161), from which a light (2.161)
is exhibited; a fish haven lies 5 cables ENE of the
island. Thence:
2
E of two small islets (1¼ miles N) lying off the SE
extremity of Shinjido; they are fronted on their E
side by a fish haven. Thence:
W of the W side of Saeng-ilto (3½ miles NE)
(2.157), thence:
E of Kalmado (2½ miles N), 56 m high, thence:
3
E of Hyãldo (3 miles N), lying 5 cables E of the E
extremity of Shinjido. The islet has a pointed
summit, 79 m high, and is fringed by fish havens;
it forms the S entrance point to Changjingno
(2.168) when entering from the E.
4
The track then leads NNE, passing ESE of the SE
extremity (5½ miles NNE) of Choyagdo, on which
Kongdaejisan (2.163) stands. A light (white round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from this point.
Thence the track leads to a position about 1¼ miles
WNW of the W extremity (6¼ miles NE) of P’yãng-ilto
(2.157); a large fish haven lies in the fairway W of this
extremity.
(Directions continue for a passage
E of Taech’ilgido at 2.167)
Main route west−north−west of Taech’ilgido
2.166
1
From the position 1¼ miles WNW of the W extremity
(34°21′⋅6N 126°59′⋅2E) of P’yãng-ilto the track continues
NNE, passing (with positions relative to the N islet of
Changgodo (34°24′⋅7N 126°59′⋅6E)):
WNW of Chãngjado (1½ miles SSW), a wooded islet
39 m high, thence:
2
WNW of Taech’ilgido (1 mile SSE), consisting of two
islets, 33 m high, on which there are some trees.
Two above-water rocks lie 3 cables N of these two
islets. Thence:
3
ESE of Toãduji (2 miles W), a small islet lying on
the S side of the E entrance to Mado Sudo
(2.169); a light (white round concrete tower, 10 m
in height) is exhibited from the N side of the islet.
Thence:
4
WNW of Changgodo, consisting of two islets 35 m
high, thence:
WNW of Chilmado (1¾ miles NNE), 58 m high and
densely wooded. Kodo (2 miles NNE), an islet
36 m high and wooded, lies 3 cables N of
Chilmado; there is foul ground between them, but
the N side of Kodo is steep-to. Thence:
5
ESE of the S end of the island of Noryãkdo
(2½ miles NNW), thence:
WNW of the NW point (3 miles NNE) of
Kumdangdo (2.163); a light (white round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the point.
6
The track then leads to a position 2 miles W of the W
point (7¾ miles NNE) of Sorokdo. A reef, which dries
1⋅7 m, extends 3 cables SW from this point; it is marked by
a light-beacon (W cardinal).
(Directions continue for Tungnyang Man at 2.201)
CHAPTER 2
102
Alternative route east of Taech’ilgido
(continued from 2.165)
2.167
1
Vessels passing through Changgodo Sudo may also use
the channel E of Taech’ilgido (34°24′N 126°59′E). From
the position 1¼ miles WNW of the W extremity (34°21′⋅6N
126°59′⋅2E) of P’yãng-ilto the track leads initially NE,
passing (with positions relative to the N islet of Changgodo
(34°24′⋅7N 126°59′⋅6E)):
SE of Chãngjado (1½ miles SSW) (2.166), thence:
2
SE of Taech’ilgido (1 mile SSE) (2.166), and:
NW of a rocky shoal (1¾ miles S), with a depth of
1 m over it; a light-buoy (isolated danger) marks
the shoal. Thence:
3
NW of Obu Am (1¾ miles SSE), lying at the W end
of Chungdo Sudo (2.187). This rock, which dries
1⋅9 m, is marked by a beacon (isolated danger).
The track then leads generally N, passing:
E of Changgodo (2.166), thence:
4
W of a bank (1¼ miles NE), with depths of less than
10 m over it, extending 8 cables S from Chilmado
to an islet, 35 m high, with shrubs and grass on it.
The track then joins the main route (2.166) 7½ cables
WNW of Chilmado (1¾ miles NNE) (2.166).
Side channels
Korean Charts W220, No 261 (see 1.22)
Changjingno
2.168
1
Description. Changjingno (34°22′N 126°50′E) leads
between the N side of Shinjido (2.141) and the S sides of
Kogumdo (2.163) and Choyagdo (2.163). There are
moderate depths in the fairway, but the W end of the
channel is encumbered with rocks and shoals.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Vertical clearances:
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
38 m, spans the E end of Changjingno from the
NE extremity of Shinjido to the S side of
Choyagdo, 7 cables NNE.
The W end of the channel is also spanned by an
overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
42 m, between the S extremity of Kogumdo and a
point on Shinjido, 5 cables SW.
3
Tidal streams. In Changjingno the tidal streams set W
with the in-going tide and E on the out-going tide; they
attain a rate of 1¼ to 2¼ kn.
Directions. The recommended track leads WNW from a
position about 1 mile E of Hyãldo (34°20′⋅3N 126°54′⋅7E),
on the S approach route (2.165) to Tungnyang Man,
through the E entrance and thence keeps at least 2 cables
off the points on each side, as the bays between the points
are shallow, until a position is reached 5 cables N of the N
extremity of Shinjido.
4
The track then leads WSW, passing NNW of Chiju
(34°21′⋅5N 126°48′⋅6E), an isolated shoal, and NNW of
Chido (34°21′⋅1N 126°47′⋅7E), a small islet. Thence the
track leads SW between the S extremity of Kogumdo and
the NW point of Shinjido, and then W into the S part of
Sã Hang (2.155), avoiding the rocks extending 7 cables SW
from the S extremity of Kogumdo.
5
Anchorage. Changjingno provides shelter from all
winds. Good anchorage may be obtained 2 miles within the
E entrance, in a depth of 24 m.
Mado Sudo
2.169
1
Description. Mado Sudo (34°25′N 126°52′E), the
channel between the N sides of Kogumdo (2.163) and
Choyagdo (2.163), to the S, and the mainland N, leads W
into Mado Hae (2.147). It is intricate, with a least width of
2 cables, and can only be used by small local vessels.
Maryang Hang (34°27′N 126°49′E) is situated at the W end
of Mado Sudo on the mainland side.
2
The main entrance to Mado Sudo is at its E end, N of
Toãduji (34°25′N 126°57′E) (2.166). A secondary channel
between Kogumdo and Choyagdo links Changjingno
(2.168) with Mado Sudo; it is narrow and intricate, with a
least depth of 5⋅0 m in the fairway, and only available for
small local vessels.
3
Vertical clearances:
An overhead power cable spans the middle part of
Mado Sudo, from the NW extremity (34°24′⋅5N
126°52′⋅1E) of Choyagdo to the islet of
Chowando, 8 cables N, and thence to the S
extremity of the mainland, 4 cables ENE. The
cable has a least vertical clearance of 25 m.
4
At the W end of Mado Sudo, between the N point
(34°26′⋅5N 126°50′⋅0E) of Kogumdo and the
mainland, the channel is spanned by a bridge, the
vertical clearance of which is not known, and by
an overhead power cable with a vertical clearance
of 30 m.
5
The secondary channel between Kogumdo and
Choyagdo is spanned by a bridge, the vertical
clearance of which is not known, and by two
overhead power cables on either side of the bridge,
with a least vertical clearance of 25 m.
6
Tidal streams in Mado Sudo set W with the in-going
tide and E with the out-going tide. They attain a rate of
3½ kn.
Directions. There are no specific directions for
navigating Mado Sudo, although attention is drawn to the
following rocks in the E part of the channel (positioned
from Toãduji (34°25′N 126°57′E)):
7
An above-water rock (9 cables W), 4⋅9 m in height,
lying at the W end of a small shoal.
A rock (2¾ miles W), which dries 0⋅7 m; it is marked
by a light-buoy (port hand) moored close N of the
rock.
8
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the E breakwater of Maryang Hang
(34°27′N 126°49′E).
Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the W breakwater of Maryang
Hang.
9
Kkameksãm Light-beacon (S cardinal), 3½ cables W
of Maryang Hang W breakwater.
Maryang Hang. This fishing harbour is protected by
two breakwaters. Within the harbour are two wharves and a
pier. The largest wharf has a length of 170 m. Vessels up to
50 tonnes use the harbour.
Korean Chart W232 (see 1.22)
Saengil Sudo
2.170
1
Description. Saengil Sudo separates Saeng-ilto (34°19′N
126°59′E) (2.157) from P’yãng-ilto (2.157), to the NE. The
channel leads from a position about 1 mile NE of
Sodãkudo (34°17′N 127°00′E), on the inshore route
(2.156), N and thence NW for 6 miles, to join the S
CHAPTER 2
103
approach (2.166) to Tungnyang Man at a position 1¼ miles
WNW of the W extremity (34°21′⋅6N 126°59′⋅2E) of
P’yãng-ilto. Saengil Sudo is about 5 cables wide with
depths from 9 to 20 m, over a bottom of mud, in the
fairway.
2
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 34 m, spans the channel between the E
end of Saeng-ilto and P’yãng-ilto, 6 cables NE.
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. Attention is drawn to a rock, which dries
1⋅4 m, lying on the E side of Saengil Sudo 1 mile NNW of
the S end of P’yãng-ilto.
3
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in height)
(34°19′⋅2N 127°01′⋅1E) exhibited from a small
islet off the E coast of Saeng-ilto.
Radio tower (red and white bands, 30 m in height)
(34°20′⋅2N 126°59′⋅7′E) standing on the N side of
Saeng-ilto.
INSHORE ROUTE — P’YPNG−ILTO
TO CHIMA DO
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Charts W232, W213 (see 1.22)
Route
2.171
1
From a position about 1¼ miles S of the S extremity
(34°19′N 127°02′E) of P’yãng-ilto the route leads initially
E, for 4½ miles, to a position 1 mile S of Sãpto (34°18′N
127°08′E). Thence the route leads NE for 7 miles and then
ENE, for a farther 5½ miles, to a position about 1 mile N
of Chima Do (34°20′N 127°23′E).
Aid to navigation
2.172
1
Racon:
Sãpto Light (34°18′N 127°08′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.161)
P’yãng−ilto to Sãpto
2.173
1
From a position about 1¼ miles S of the S extremity
(34°19′N 127°02′E) of P’yãng-ilto the track leads E,
passing (with positions relative to Sãpto Light (34°18′N
127°08′E)):
S of an islet (3½ miles W), with a height of 66 m,
thence:
2
S of a small above-water rock (2½ miles W), lying
on a bank, with a depth of 7⋅1 m over it, thence:
N of Paeksã (3½ miles SW), 39 m high, thence:
S of Tarangdo (1½ miles W), the highest island of Sã
Kundo; a dangerous wreck lies 4 cables SE of the
island. Sã Kundo is a group of six islets lying off
the SE side of P’yãng-ilto.
3
The track then leads to a position about 1 mile S of
Sãpto, from which a light (white round concrete tower, 4 m
in height) is exhibited and a racon (2.172) transmitted.
Sãpto is 118 m high with a wooded summit. There is a
village on the N side of the island near its W end.
Sãpto to Chima Do
2.174
1
From the position about 1 mile S of Sãpto (34°18′N
127°08′E) the track then leads NE, passing (with positions
relative to Sãpto Light):
NW of Myãngsã (2 miles SSE), 10 m high; a rocky
spit, with a depth of 5⋅4 m over it, extends
3 cables W from the islet. Thence:
2
NW of Sobyãngp’ungdo, 35 m high, and
Taepyãngp’ung. These two grass-covered islets lie
1 cable apart. A light (white round concrete tower,
9 m in height) is exhibited from Taepyãngp’ung; a
flat yellow rock, 5⋅5 m high, lies 2 cables SE of
Taepyãngp’ung. Thence:
3
SE of two dangerous wrecks (1½ miles E and
2½ miles NE), thence:
NW of Tongamdo (3¾ miles E), a flat-topped black
rock 20 m high, thence:
NW of Podun-aji (5½ miles ENE), from which a light
(white round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited. The island is covered with shrubs.
4
The track then leads ENE, passing (with positions
relative to Podun-aji Light (34°18′⋅9N 127°14′⋅4E)):
SSE of the rocks and islets (4 miles NNE) lying off
the SE side of Sisando (2.193). A light (white
round concrete tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited
from the islet 52 m high. And:
5
NNW of Sunggwando (2¾ miles ESE), a red-pointed
rock 69 m high; close E of it is a columnar rock.
Thence:
NNW of Muhakdo (4 miles E), from the N side of
which a light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in
height) is exhibited. The islet is steep-to and from
the S appears as a regular cone; there are some
villages on the E and W sides of the island.
6
The track then leads to a position about 1 mile N of
Chima Do (6¾ miles ENE). A light (white round tower,
17 m in height) is exhibited from the islet; the light is
obscured S between 076° and 279°. Chima Do is steep-to,
saddle-shaped and thickly covered with shrubs.
2.175
1
Useful mark:
Sonjukdo Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (34°18′N 127°21′E), exhibited from the
NW end of Sonjukdo (2.177).
(Directions continue, for the inshore route at 2.210 and
for the SE approach to Tungnyang Man at 2.193)
Anchorages
P’yãng−ilto
2.176
1
Description. Anchorage may be obtained off the inlet
(34°20′N 127°05′E) on the SW side of a peninsula forming
the SE end of P’yãng-ilto. Small local vessels shelter here
during SE winds in depths of about 5 m. A white sandy
beach lies at the head of the inlet.
2
Useful marks:
Lights (octagonal concrete towers, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the N and S breakwaters at Satong
Hang situated on the S side of the inlet.
3
Light (red round concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from a point NW of the N breakwater of
Satong Hang.
CHAPTER 2
104
Sãnjuk Yãlto
2.177
1
Description. Sãnjuk Yãlto (34°17′N 127°23′E), consists
of three small islands, Sonjukdo and Kãmundo (Geokeorido
on Korean Chart W213), with the smallest, So Kãmundo,
between them. Sonjukdo, the W island of the group, is
242 m high and wedge-shaped; a conical-shaped hill, 182 m
high, lies at the NE end of the island. The island is
steep-to except for Panch’o So, a rock 23 m high, lying
close N of its NE extremity.
2
Mog Sã, 44 m high, with an above-water rock 1 cable S
of it, lies 8½ cables W of Sonjukdo. So Kãmundo, 92 m
high and somewhat flat, lies close off the NE extremity of
Sonjukdo. Kãmundo, 7½ cables E of Sonjukdo, is 328 m
high with a sharp double peak; there is a small village at
the S end of the island.
Useful mark:
Sonjukdo Light (34°18′N 127°21′E) (2.175).
3
Anchorage and pier. Anchorage may be obtained by
small local vessels in the bay on the N side of Sonjukdo,
near the middle of the bay, in depths from 6 to 10 m over
a bottom of mud, where it is safe from all winds except
those between NW and NE.
Sãnjuk Ni is situated at the head of this bay, where
there is a small pier at the E end of a gravel beach; it dries
alongside the head of the pier.
SOUTH−SOUTH−EAST APPROACH TO
TUNGNYANG MAN
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Charts W232, W257 (see 1.22)
Routes
2.178
1
From a position on the inshore route (2.156), about
1½ miles N of Tongamdo (34°17′⋅5N 127°12′⋅5E), the route
leads initially NW, for 7 miles, to a position SW of Tãudo
(34°24′⋅7N 127°07′⋅1E). The track then leads NNW, for
5 miles through Kumdang Sudo (34°27′N 127°05′E), and
thence N, for a farther 2½ miles, to a position 2 miles W
of the W point of Sorokdo (34°31′N 127°07′E).
2
A side channel through Chungdo Sudo (34°22′N
127°03′E) (2.187), which separates P’yãng-ilto (34°21′N
127°02′E) from Chungdo and Sindo to the N, is also
described.
Topography
2.179
1
The SSE approach to Tungnyang Man leads between
several islands, the largest of which are P’yãng-ilto
(34°21′N 127°02′E) and Kumdangdo (34°26′N 127°03′E)
described, respectively, at 2.157 and 2.163, and Kãgumdo
(34°27′N 127°10′E).
2
Kãgumdo is thickly covered with trees, in marked
contrast with the mountains and hills of Kohung Pando
(2.198), forming the mainland to the N, which have an
almost bare appearance.
In the E part of this island, there are ranges of wooded
mountains, 354 to 592 m high, which are prominent from
seaward.
3
In the W part of Kãgumdo a range, with heights from
270 to 417 m, slopes gradually SW to the S coast where it
again rises to a sharp bare peak 139 m high.
On the S side of the island, sandy beaches have depths
of over 7 m about 5 cables offshore. Wooded islets and
rocks lie within 1 mile from the SE extremity of Kãgumdo.
Tidal levels
2.180
1
In Kumdang Sudo there is a mean spring range of about
3⋅0 m and a mean neap range of about 1⋅2 m. For further
information see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Local knowledge
2.181
1
Local knowledge is required for navigating Kumdang
Sudo.
Fishing
2.182
1
A fish haven occupies much of the N part of Kumdang
Sudo (34°27′N 127°05′E) and numerous fish traps lie to
the W of the channel 1 mile N of Kumdangdo (34°26′N
127°03′E). For further information see 1.15.
Vertical clearances
2.183
1
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
25 m, spans Kumdang Sudo from the W end of Kãgumdo
to Yonhongdo (34°27′⋅5N 127°05′⋅5E), 2½ cables W, and
then from the S end of Yonhongdo to Chudo, 6 cables SW,
and thence, with a vertical clearance of 20 m, SW for a
farther 7 cables to the E side of Kumdangdo.
2
Overhead power cables, with vertical clearances of 30
and 40 m, also span the channels between Tãudo
(34°24′⋅7N 127°07′⋅1E) and Hyãngjedo, 5 cables NNE, and
the SW side of Kãgumdo, 6 cables farther NNE.
Another overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance
of 28 m, spans the narrow channel between the N end of
Pikyãndo (34°25′⋅0N 127°04′⋅9E) and Kumdangdo to
the W.
Tidal streams
2.184
1
Tidal streams in Kumdang Sudo set NW with the rising
tide and SE with the falling tide, attaining a rate of 3 kn at
springs. The NW-going stream ceases to flow about
40 minutes after the time of HW at Luhuadao (30°49′N
122°36′E) and the SE-going stream commences to make
immediately.
Principal mark
2.185
1
Landmark:
Chãngwansan (34°32′N 126°55′N) (2.164).
Directions
2.186
1
From a position on the inshore route (2.156), about
1½ miles N of Tongamdo (34°17′⋅5N 127°12′⋅5E), the track
leads NW, passing (with positions relative to Puado
(34°22′⋅5N 127°11′⋅8E)):
NE of a dangerous wreck (3½ miles SSW), thence:
NE of Pudo (4¾ miles SW), the NE-most island of
Sã Kundo (2.173); it is 66 m high and wooded,
with a village on its W side. Thence:
2
SW of Puado, 89 m high, conical-shaped and wooded.
An above-water rock lies close S of it. Thence:
NE of Taesado (4½ miles WSW) and Sosado fronting
the E entrance to Chungdo Sudo (2.187). Taesado
is 74 m high and densely wooded; Sosado is 38 m
high, flat and grass-covered. Thence:
3
NE of Shudo (5 miles W), a 36 m high islet fronting
the SE side of Chungdo, thence:
NE of Chungdo (5¼ miles W), which has a flattish
summit 226 m high; its NE part is cliffy. The
CHAPTER 2
105
beaches, except for a stony beach on the N side,
are shelving or sandy.
4
The track then leads NNE through Kumdang Sudo,
passing (with positions relative to Odongdo Light
(34°26′⋅5N 127°05′⋅6E)):
WSW of Tãudo (2¼ miles SSE), 73 m high, lying in
the fairway of the S entrance to Kumdang Sudo;
the islet is densely wooded and prominent.
Hyãngjedo, 80 m high, lies 5 cables NNE of
Tãudo. Thence:
5
ENE of Pikyãndo (1¼ miles SSW), an island lying
close off the SE side of Kumdangdo (2.163),
thence:
WSW of Odongdo, an islet 34 m high and steep-to
lying on the E side of the channel. A light (white
octagonal concrete tower, 14 m in height) is
exhibited from the islet, but it is obscured between
the bearings of 013° and 117°. Thence:
6
Either ENE or WSW of Chuo To (6 cables WNW); it
is recommended to pass WSW of the rock. Chuo
To, 21 m high, is a black steep rock. And:
ENE of the E coast (1¼ miles W) of Kumdangdo,
thence:
7
WSW of Yonhongdo (1 mile N), an island 88 m high,
lying 2½ cables off the W side of Kãgumdo. A
bank, with depths of less than 5 m over it and with
a rock on its N edge, extends 3 cables N from
Yonhongdo. A rock which is dangerous to
navigation lies, on the E side of Yonhongdo, in the
channel between that island and Kãgumdo.
8
The track then leads N into Tungnyang Man to a
position 2 miles W of the W point (4¼ miles N) (2.166) of
Sorokdo (34°31′N 127°07′E).
(Directions continue for Tungnyang Man at 2.201)
Side channel
Chungdo Sudo
2.187
1
Description. Chungdo Sudo leads between the N side of
P’yãng-ilto (34°21′N 127°02′E) and the S sides of
Chungdo and Sindo. The channel is about 5 miles in length
with a least charted depth of 20⋅7 m in the fairway.
Chungdo (2.186) and Sindo are both sparsely wooded.
2
Vertical clearances:
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
26 m, spans Chungdo Sudo between the N point of
P’yãng-ilto and the SW point of Sindo. A tower,
at each end of the cable, exhibits an obstruction
light. Another overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 20 m, spans the channel
between the NE end of Sindo and the S end of
Kumdangdo.
3
The E end of the strait is also spanned by an
overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
31 m, from the S point of Chungdo to the E part
of P’yãng-ilto. Obstruction lights are exhibited
from towers at each end of the cable.
4
Directions. There are no specific directions for passing
through Chungdo Sudo but attention is drawn to the
following dangers in the E and W entrances:
East entrance. A rocky patch, with a depth of 0⋅7 m
over it, lying 1¼ miles W of Sosado (34°21′⋅8N
127°06′⋅2E).
5
West entrance. Obu Am (34°23′⋅3N 127°00′⋅8E)
(2.167), drying 1⋅9 m and marked by a beacon
(isolated danger), and another rock, which dries
1⋅3 m, marked by a beacon (N cardinal), lying
5 cables ESE. An islet, 29 m high, lies on the N
side of the W entrance, 7½ cables NE of Obu Am.
6
The W end of Chungdo Sudo connects with the main S
approach to Tungnyang Man, the directions for which are
described at 2.167.
SOUTH−EAST APPROACH TO
TUNGNYANG MAN
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Charts W213, W257 (see 1.22)
Route
2.188
1
From a position on the inshore route (2.156), about
1 mile N of Chima Do (34°20′N 127°23′E), the route leads
NW, for about 7½ miles, to a position 1 mile SW of
Chukdo (34°26′⋅8N 127°17′⋅5E). The track then leads
NNW, for 4 miles, to the E end of Kãgum Sudo (34°30′N
127°13′E), and thence generally W through the strait, for a
farther 10 miles, to a position 2 miles W of the W point of
Sorokdo (34°31′N 127°07′E).
2
Kãgum Sudo has a least width of 4 cables at its W end
where the main channel passes between Taegodo
(34°29′⋅8N 127°07′⋅7E) on the S side and Sorokdo on the
N side.
Topography
2.189
1
For a description of Kãgumdo (34°27′N 127°10′E),
bordering the S side of Kãgum Sudo, see 2.179.
Depth
2.190
1
There is a least depth of 11 m in the fairway through
Kãgum Sudo.
Vertical clearance
2.191
1
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
27 m, spans the W entrance to Kãgum Sudo from the S
end of Sorokdo to the NW extremity of Kãgumdo,
8 cables S.
Tidal streams
2.192
1
Tidal streams in Kãgum Sudo set NW with the in-going
tide and SE with the out-going tide and attain a rate of
2 kn. The in-going stream ceases to flow about 30 minutes
after the time of local HW and the out-going stream
commences to make immediately, there being no period of
slack water.
Directions
(continued from 2.175)
Chima Do to Kãgum Sudo
2.193
1
From a position on the inshore route (2.156), about
1 mile N of Chima Do (34°20′N 127°23′E), the track leads
NW, passing (with positions relative to Chukdo (34°26′⋅8N
127°17′⋅5E)):
NE of the rocks and islets (4 miles S) lying off the
SE side of Sisando. A light (2.174) is exhibited
from the 52 m high islet. Thence:
2
NE of Sisan Hang (3 miles SSW) situated midway
along the E coast of Sisando; lights (concrete
towers) are exhibited from the heads of the
CHAPTER 2
106
breakwaters in the harbour. Sisando rises to a
summit 173 m high and appears almost round from
any direction. Thence:
3
SW of Chijuk To (5 cables SE), with a summit
consisting of a black hill 203 m high rising steeply
over its S point. Chijuk To, linked to the mainland
by a bridge, is the largest of several islets, and
rocks, lying within about 1 mile S and SW from
the S point of Kohung Pando (2.198). Thence:
4
SW of Naedaido (3 cables S), a small islet, thence:
NE of the N extremity (3 miles SW) of Sisando from
which a light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in
height) is exhibited, thence:
SW of Chukdo, 103 m high.
5
The track then leads NNW, passing (with positions
relative to Chukdo (34°26′⋅8N 127°17′⋅5E)):
WSW of Hyãngjedo (6 cables NNW), a rocky islet
35 m high, with another islet 27 m high close N of
it; between these islets and the coast there is much
foul ground. Thence:
6
WSW of Mangjigak (2½ miles NNW), forming the W
end of a promontory 186 m high, thence:
ENE of an islet (3¼ miles NW), lying close off the E
extremity of Kãgumdo.
7
The track then leads to a position about 5 cables ENE of
Kye Sãm (4 miles NW), the largest islet of a group of
rocks and islets lying 3 cables E of the NE extremity of
Kãgumdo. A light (white hexagonal concrete tower, 12 m
in height) is exhibited from Kye Sãm. Although there is
deep channel SW of this group, the main channel lies NE.
8
Useful marks:
Light (isolated danger, 19 m in height) (34°25′⋅9N
128°13′⋅1E) exhibited from Monyãdo.
Lights exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters at
Pungnam Hang (34°31′⋅1N 127°14′⋅8E).
Kãgum Sudo
2.194
1
From the position 5 cables ENE of Kye Sãm (34°29′⋅5N
127°14′⋅1E) the track then leads WNW, passing (with
positions relative to Kye Sãm Light):
Between Kye Sãm and Kamdung Sã (8 cables N), a
detached rock 4⋅1 m high, thence:
NNE of some rocks (2½ miles W), which dry 0⋅1 m,
lying on the S side of the fairway, thence:
2
SSW of a group of islets, rocks and foul ground,
fronting a small bay (4 miles WNW) on the E side
of the E entrance to Nokdong Hang (2.196). The
SW side of this group is marked by a light-beacon
(S cardinal).
The track then leads SW, passing (with positions relative
to Sorokdo Light (34°30′⋅2N 127°06′⋅8E)):
3
NW of Sanghwado (1¾ miles E) and Hahwado lying
in the middle of Kãgum Sudo; these two islets are
connected to each other by a drying mud bank
which extends 6 cables E of them. Hahwado, the S
islet, is 45 m high and cultivated; its summit is
bare. Thence:
4
SE of the SE coast (8 cables ENE) of Sorokdo.
Sorokdo is 116 m high at its W end and is
separated from the mainland by a narrow channel
on the N side of which lies Nokdong Hang
(2.196). The island, with a small village on it, is
cultivated and its S part is wooded. Thence:
5
NW of Taegodo (8 cables ESE), a small islet 24 m
high; Sogodu Do, 16 m high, lies 2 cables SSW of
Taegodo.
The track then leads W passing (with positions relative
to Sorokdo Light):
Between an islet (1½ cables S), 27 m high lying off
the S extremity of Sorokdo, and the NW extremity
of Kãgumdo, 5½ cables S. Sorokdo Light (white
round brick tower, 7 m in height) is exhibited from
the S extremity of Sorokdo. Thence:
6
S of a reef (1 mile WNW), which dries 1⋅7 m,
extending 3 cables SW from the W extremity of
Sorokdo; it is marked by a light-beacon
(W cardinal).
The track then leads NW for a short distance to a
position 2 miles W of the W point (9 cables NW) of
Sorokdo.
(Directions continue for Tungnyang Man at 2.201)
Anchorages and harbour
Kãgum Sudo
2.195
1
Anchorage. The best anchorage in Kãgum Sudo, with N
winds, is in a position on the alignment (134°) of
Kamdung Sã (34°30′⋅3N 127°14′⋅3E) with Mangjigak,
2 miles SE, and Hãnankaku, the point about 6 cables N of
Kamdung Sã, bearing 063°. There are depths from 8 to
10 m, over a bottom of mud, in the anchorage, but it is not
safe with strong S winds which raise a heavy swell.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Korean Chart No 257-1 (see 1.22)
Nokdong Hang
2.196
1
Position and function. Nokdong Hang (34°31′⋅5N
127°08′⋅0E) is situated on the N side of a narrow channel
which separates the island of Sorokdo from the mainland
N. It is a fishing port and trading centre for agricultural
and marine products.
2
Depths. There are general depths from 10 to 15 m in the
harbour channel.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅2 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅2 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
3
Vertical clearances. Two overhead power cables, with
vertical clearances of 29 and 16 m, span the harbour
channel between Sorokdo and the mainland.
Harbour. A breakwater projecting N from the NE
extremity of Sorokdo protects the harbour at its E end. At
the W end of the channel another breakwater extends S
from the mainland and close SSW of this breakwater a
detached breakwater lies across the W entrance.
4
Useful marks:
Lights exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters of
Nokdong Hang.
Berths. Several wharves and piers are arranged along
the mainland on the N side of the channel, with a total
berthing length of 1174 m. Vessels up to 200 tonnes berth
alongside.
TUNGNYANG MAN
General information
Chart 3365, Korean Chart W257 (see 1.22)
Route
2.197
1
Tungnyang Man extends 26 miles NE from the NW
point of Kumdangdo (34°26′N 127°03′E) and may be
approached either through Changgodo Sudo (2.162),
Kumdang Sudo (2.178) or Kãgum Sudo (2.188).
CHAPTER 2
107
2
Within the bay, from a position 2 miles W of the W
point of Sorokdo (34°31′N 127°07′E) the route leads NNE,
for 10 miles, to a position about 2 miles W of
Yongdunggak (34°39′⋅0N 127°11′⋅8E), and thence NE, for a
farther 7 miles to the head of the bay.
Topography
2.198
1
Several islets lie off the W side of Tungnyang Man
from Noryãkdo (34°27′⋅5N 126°58′⋅0E), at the S end, to
Changgotdo 6½ miles N, with Usando in between; these
islets are joined to the mainland by reclaimed land,
breakwaters and drying mud banks. Along the NW side of
the bay there are several bights, but most of them dry.
Behind the W shore a mountain range rises to heights from
300 to 600 m; many of its rocky peaks are bare.
2
The SE side of Tungnyang Man is formed by the NW
side of Kohung Pando which is connected to the mainland
by an isthmus 1 mile wide. Kohung Pando has several
barren peaks, the highest being P’allyãngsan (34°37′N
127°26′E), 609 m high, on the E side of the peninsula; this
peak is prominent.
Depths
2.199
1
The NW side of the bay is fairly shoal, with depths of
less than 5 m extending up to 2 miles offshore in places.
Depths on the SE side, which is mostly steep-to, are
greater. The bottom everywhere is soft mud. Most of the
bays on the NW side of Tungnyang Man dry but a narrow
channel leads into one or two of them.
Fishing
2.200
1
Fishing nets are laid out from 1 to 2 miles E of the
islets on the W side of Tungnyang Man.
Directions
(continued from 2.166, 2.186 and 2.194)
2.201
1
From a position 2 miles W of the W point of Sorokdo
(34°31′N 127°07′E) the track leads NNE, passing (with
positions relative to Sirogdo (34°35′⋅0N 127°07′⋅7E)):
WNW of Sorokdo (4 miles S) (2.194), thence:
WNW of a drying reef (1½ miles SSW) fringing the
W side of Kohung Pando (2.198), thence:
2
WNW of Sirogdo, 36 m high, and:
ESE of Tungnyangdo (1¼ miles NW) lying in the
middle of Tungnyang Man. The island is 223 m
high and is covered with grass; the W side of the
island is steep-to, but a bank, with depths of less
than 5 m over it, extends 1 mile from its S side
and 1¼ miles from its N side. There is a village at
the S end of Tungnyangdo and another on the NW
side where there is a pier. Thence:
3
WNW of Sinhung (1 mile NE), a rock which dries
3⋅1 m. This rock is marked by a light-beacon
(isolated danger), thence:
WNW of an extensive fish haven (3 miles NE).
Thence when a position is reached about 2 miles W of
Yongdunggak (5¼ miles NE) the track leads NE in the
middle of the fairway to a position about 8 cables SW of
the S extremity of Hakutã Kaku (11 miles). The track then
leads E for a short distance to an anchorage (2.203).
4
Hakutã Kaku is an ochre-coloured promontory which is
cliffy with a flat hill close N of it. On the E side of the
promontory is a large inlet the centre part of which has
depths of less than 4 m.
Anchorages
General information
2.202
1
Anchorage may be obtained anywhere in Tungnyang
Man according to draught; the holding ground is very
good, and the tidal streams are not much felt.
Head of Tungnyang Man
2.203
1
Anchorage may be obtained in the entrance to the inlet
on the E side of the head of Tungnyang Man. The best
position is N of the S entrance point (43°43′⋅1N
127°16′⋅5E) in depths from 13 to 14 m over a bottom of
mud; the S entrance point should not be approached closer
than 2 cables. A buoy (special) is moored in the vicinity of
the anchorage.
INSHORE ROUTE — CHIMA DO
TO SORI DO
General information
Chart 127, Korean Charts W213, No 240 (see 1.22)
Route
2.204
1
From a position about 1 mile N of Chima Do (34°20′N
127°23′E) the inshore route leads generally E for 21 miles,
passing S of the islands lying off the SE side of Kohung
Pando (34°36′N 127°20′E), to a position about 3 miles S of
Soryongdan (34°25′N 127°48′E), the S extremity of Sori
Do.
Topography
2.205
1
The coast N of this inshore route consists of the SE side
of Kohung Pando (2.198), which is much indented, and the
islands and rocks of the Naro Yãlto group (2.217); the
principal islands of Naro Yãlto are Naenarodo (34°30′N
127°28′E) (2.217) and Oenarodo (34°26′N 127°30′E)
(2.217).
Submarine cables
2.206
1
Two submarine cables, one from the coast of Kohung
Pando in position 34°29′N 127°22′E, and the other from
the middle of the W side of Naenarodo (34°30′N
127°28′E), are laid S across the inshore route, as shown on
the chart. These cables continue across Cheju Haehyãp
(2.73) to the E coast of Cheju Do. Both cables, for their
first few miles, are marked by buoys (special).
2
For further information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Tidal streams
2.207
1
Vessels are recommended to give at least a 1 mile berth
to T’anggãn Yã (34°22′N 127°31′E) and Koktu Yã, 2 miles
NNW, because of the strong tidal streams in the vicinity.
The streams 1 mile S of T’anggãn Yã set W with a rate of
2 kn on the in-going tide and E on the out-going tide. The
out-going stream starts 2½ hours after HW at Luhuadao
(30°49′N 122°36′E).
Principal mark
2.208
1
Major light:
Sori Do Light (34°25′N 127°48′E) (2.125).
CHAPTER 2
108
Other aids to navigation
2.209
1
Racons:
T’anggãn Yã (34°22′N 127°31′E).
Kanyã Am (34°17′N 127°51′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.175)
2.210
1
From a position about 1 mile N of Chima Do (34°20′N
127°23′E) the track leads E, passing (with positions relative
to T’anggãn Yã (34°22′N 127°31′E)):
N of Kãmundo (Kãk’ãri Do on Chart 127 and
Geokeorido on Korean Chart W213) (7 miles SW),
thence:
2
N of Tae Bawi (6 miles SSW), a red rock 54 m high
with a single pine tree on its summit. A small
above-water rock lies 1 cable N of Tae Bawi.
Thence:
3
S of Koktu Yã (2 miles NNW), consisting of two
rocky islets, lying close off the S extremity of
Oenarodo (2.217); the SE islet is 87 m high,
wooded, reddish in colour and prominent. A large
fish haven encompasses the waters in the vicinity
of Koktu Yã, extending nearly to T’anggãn Yã. A
dangerous wreck lies between T’anggãn Yã and
Koktu Yã. Thence:
4
S of T’anggãn Yã, from which a light (white
octagonal concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited and a racon (2.209) transmits. T’anggãn
Yã is a conical rock 40 m high; a smaller rock,
3⋅4 m high, lies close off the S side of T’anggãn
Yã. Thence:
5
Across the S approaches to Yãja Man and Kamak
Yang, and S of a small fish haven (12 miles E).
The track then leads to a position about 3 miles S of
Soryongdan (14¾ miles ENE), from which Sori Do Light
(2.125) is exhibited. Soryongdan forms the S extremity of
Sori Do (2.221).
(Directions continue for an inshore route at 3.24)
APPROACHES TO YPJA MAN AND
KAMAK YANG
General information
Chart 127, Korean Chart No 240 (see 1.22)
Route
2.211
1
From a position on the inshore route, about 6½ miles
SW of Soryongdan (34°25′N 127°48′E), the route leads
NNW for 12 miles, passing midway between Naro Yãlto
and Kumo Yãlto, to a position about 1½ miles ENE of
Podolsã (Bodolseo on Korean Chart No 240) (43°32′N
127°32′E).
Wind
2.212
1
During the winter, between Naro Yãlto and Kumo
Yãlto, there are gales from between NW and WSW; though
these gales usually blow strongly during the night, they
tend to moderate towards dawn.
Principal mark
2.213
1
Major light:
Sori Do Light (34°25′N 127°48′E) (2.125).
Other aid to navigation
2.214
1
Racon:
T’anggãn Yã (34°22′N 127°31′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
2.215
1
From a position on the inshore route, about 6½ miles
SW of Soryongdan (34°25′N 127°48′E), the track leads
NNW, passing (with positions relative to Chuin Yã
(Juinnyeo on Korean Chart No 240) (34°27′N 127°34′E)):
WSW of a fish haven (10¼ miles SE), thence:
ENE of another fish haven (2¾ miles SSE), thence:
2
ENE of T’aengmun Am (Taekmundam on Korean
Chart No 240), an isolated rock 5 m high. A buoy
(special) is moored 5 cables SW of the rock.
Thence:
ENE of Chuin Yã (Juinnyeo on Korean Chart
No 240), a below-water rock marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger, 9 m in height),
thence:
3
WSW of two patches (6¼ miles NE), with depths of
6⋅4 and 9⋅9 m over them, lying off the W side of
Kumodo (2.221), thence:
WSW of Kã Sã (6¾ miles NNE), from which a light
(2.244) is exhibited, fronting the S side of Kaedo.
And:
4
ENE of the SE point (3½ miles NW) of Naenarodo
(2.217). Naenarodo Light (white round concrete
tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited from the point.
The track then leads to a position about 1½ miles ENE
of Podolsã (Bodolseo on Korean Chart No 240) (4¾ miles
NNW). Podolsã consists of two white rocks, the N of
which is 35 m high.
2.216
1
Useful marks:
Kumong Am Light (white octagonal concrete tower,
10 m in height) (34°28′⋅2N 127°46′⋅0E).
Hamgumi Light (white round conical tower, 11 m in
height) (34°32′⋅1N 127°41′⋅9E) exhibited from the
W point of Kumodo.
(Directions continue for Yãja Man at 2.234)
(Directions for Kamak Yang are given at 2.244)
Naro Yãlto
General information
2.217
1
Description. Naro Yãlto consists of the islands of
Oenarodo (34°26′N 127°30′E) and Naenarodo, close N,
being separated by Oe Sudo, along with some smaller
islets. Oe Sudo has depths from 6 to 20 m in the fairway,
but its W entrance is spanned by a bridge and the small
island of Sayangdo (34°28′⋅4N 127°26′⋅7E) divides the W
approach into two channels. Nae Sudo, which is also
spanned by a bridge separates the NW side of Naenarodo
from the mainland.
2
There is an anchorage (2.220) on the SW side of
Oenarodo, and Narodo Hang (34°27′⋅5N 127°27′⋅3E)
(2.219), a fishing harbour, is situated at the NW end of the
same island.
CHAPTER 2
109
3
Topography. Oenarodo is 393 m high, with a range of
wooded hills extending from its S end to its summit on
which stands a prominent tower. Taehang Do, 56 m high
and wooded, lies 2½ cables SE of the E extremity of
Oenarodo.
4
Naenarodo, lying close N of Oenarodo, is hilly; the hills
in the S part of the island are barren, but in the N part
they are thickly wooded. There are two bays on the E side
of Naenarodo, the S bay dries out but the N bay has depths
from 0⋅9 to 4⋅1 m.
5
Vertical clearances:
Oe Sudo (34°28′⋅4N 127°28′⋅7E). The bridge
spanning the W end has a vertical clearance of
20 m. A cable, with a vertical clearance of 34 m,
spans the channel alongside the W side of the
bridge. An overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 35 m, spans Oe Sudo, 1½ cables W of
the bridge.
6
Sayangdo (34°28′⋅4N 127°26′⋅7E). The channel
between Sayangdo and Naenarodo, 3 cables NE, is
spanned by an overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 40 m. Another overhead
power cable, with a vertical clearance of 30 m,
spans the channel between Sayangdo and Aedo,
2 cables SSE.
7
Submarine cables:
A submarine power cable is laid SSW and thence S
from the middle of the W side of Naenarodo. For
further information see 2.206.
A submarine power cable is also laid across the
middle part of Nae Sudo (34°31′⋅5N 127°26′⋅2E).
8
For further information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Directions
2.218
1
General remarks. There are no specific directions for
navigating in the vicinity of Naro Yãlto. Local knowledge
is required for the passage through Oe Sudo, as it is
narrow and intricate, and suitable only for small local craft.
2
Useful marks:
Naenarodo Light (34°29′⋅3N 127°30′⋅5E) (2.215).
Sayangdo Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) (34°28′⋅0N 127°26′⋅6E), exhibited from the
S of the island.
3
Saman Light-beacon (W cardinal) (34°29′⋅2N
127°26′⋅5E); a rock, which dries 0⋅6 m, lies
4½ cables WNW of the light-beacon.
Korean Chart No 260 (see 1.22)
Narodo Hang
2.219
1
Position and function. Narodo Hang (34°27′⋅5N
127°27′⋅3E), a fishing harbour, is situated between the E
sides of the islets of Aedo and Ssuksãm, and the NW side
of Oenarodo.
Vertical clearance. An overhead cable, with a vertical
clearance of 29 m, spans the S part of the harbour between
Ssuksãm (34°27′⋅4N 127°27′⋅1E) and Oenarodo to the E.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅1 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further information see Admiralty
Tide Tables.
2
Harbour. The S entrance to Narodo Hang is protected
by a breakwater projecting SE from the S end of Ssuksãm
and by a second breakwater projecting WNW from the W
side of Oenarodo. The N entrance to the harbour is
protected by a short detached breakwater lying off the NE
side of Aedo.
3
Useful marks:
Light (white octagonal metal tower, 13 m in height)
(34°27′⋅2N 127°27′⋅2E) exhibited from the head of
the W breakwater at the S entrance.
Sayangdo Light (34°28′⋅0N 127°26′⋅6E) (2.218).
4
Berths. The main berthing area is the lighters wharf,
576 m long with charted depths from 0⋅3 to 1⋅0 m
alongside, situated on the Oenarodo side of the harbour.
Supplies: fuel; small quantities of fresh water.
Korean Chart No 240 (see 1.22)
Anchorage
2.220
1
Description. Small vessels may obtain anchorage off the
S bay on the SW side of Oenarodo, in approximate
position 34°25′N 127°29′E, on the alignment (149°) of the
SW point of the bay with Koktu Yã, 1¼ miles SSE, in a
depth of 7 m. This anchorage is not safe with winds from
between SSE, through S and W, to NNW.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Kumo Yãlto
Charts 127, 3391, Korean Chart No 240 (see 1.22)
General information
2.221
1
Description. Kumo Yãlto, on the E side of the S
approach to Yãja Man, consists of three main islands and
some islets. The main islands are Sori Do (34°26′N
127°48′E), the S-most, Ando (34°29′N 127°49′E) and
Kumodo (34°31′N 127°45′E), the NW-most. Sori Do is
separated from Ando by Singang Sudo (2.222) and Ando is
separated from Kumodo by Pansãng Sudo (2.223). Kumodo
is separated from the islands at the S entrance of Kamak
Yang (2.237) by Kumo Sudo (2.224).
2
There are several anchorages around the islands, along
with the minor harbour of Ando Hang (2.225), situated on
the W side of Ando.
Topography. Sori Do (34°26′N 127°48′E), the S island,
is hilly and has a prominent pyramidal summit 231 m high,
near its S end. The coasts are mainly bold and cliffy,
though Taeyong Tan, its steep-to S point, is low. Anmado,
57 m high with three white peaks, lies 4 cables W of the
NW point of Sori Do. Kãmdungdo, a rock 14 m high lies
close off the NW end of Sori Do, 6 cables NE of Anmado.
3
Ando (34°29′N 127°49′E) is bold, with undulating hills;
a clump of trees on its summit forms a good mark. The
island is nearly divided into two parts by a narrow isthmus,
on the N side of which is a village. Taebudo, 103 m high
and forming the W side of Ando Hang (2.225), lies
1½ cables off the W side of Ando; Sobudo lies 1½ cables
N of it.
4
Kumodo (34°31′N 127°45′E), the NW and largest island
of Kumo Yãlto is densely wooded. Yongdu San, its summit
near the NW end is 382 m high. Mang San, 344 m high
with a pointed peak, stands near the S end of the island
and makes a good mark.
5
The SW side of Kumodo consists of cliffy points with
bays between. Simpo (2.228), a bay on the SW side of
Kumodo lies 1¼ miles WNW of its SE point.
The NE side of Kumodo is indented and several islets
and rocks lie up to 1¾ miles offshore.
6
Fishing. Numerous fish havens fringe the shores of the
islands and islets of Kumo Yãlto. The largest fish haven
fronts the W entrance to Singang Sudo, in the vicinity of
Kumong Am (34°28′⋅2N 127°46′⋅0E). On the E side of
Kumo Yãlto, an area, in which fish traps are laid, extends
up to 4 miles from the coasts between Soryongdan
CHAPTER 2
110
(34°25′N 127°48′E) and Tolsando Light (34°42′N
127°47′E), 17½ miles N.
7
For further information see 1.15.
Singang Sudo
2.222
1
Description. Singang Sudo (34°28′N 127°48′E) leading
between Sori Do and Ando is deep and clear of dangers in
the fairway, although the W approach to the channel is
encumbered by a large fish haven. The channel itself is
1½ miles long and 5 cables wide at its narrowest point.
2
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 50 m, spans the channel at its
narrowest point.
Tidal streams set W through Singang Sudo with the
in-going tide at a rate of 2¾ kn and E with the out-going
tide at a rate of 2 kn.
3
Directions. Vessels are recommended to keep to
mid-channel through Singang Sudo to avoid foul ground
extending 1 cable from the N side of Sori Do; the edge of
the foul ground is marked by a light-beacon (N cardinal)
(34°27′⋅8N 127°48′⋅3E).
Useful marks:
Kumong Am Light (34°28′⋅2N 127°46′⋅0E) (2.216).
Paekkum Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 9 m
in height) (34°29′⋅8N 127°49′⋅6E) exhibited from
the NE point of Ando.
Pansãng Sudo
2.223
1
Description. Pansãng Sudo (34°29′N 127°48′E), with a
least charted depth of 5⋅6 m in the fairway, is intricate and
narrow; it is only 1 cable wide at its narrowest point. Its
NE approach is encumbered by Chosam Sã, lying 1 mile
WNW of the NE point of Ando.
2
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 44 m, spans the narrowest part of the
channel.
Directions. Pansãng Sudo should not be used.
Kumo Sudo
2.224
1
Description. Kumo Sudo (34°33′N 127°45′E), the
channel separating Kumodo from the islands at the S
entrance to Kamak Yang (2.237), is deep and free from
dangers in the fairway. It has a least width of 3 cables and
depths from 12 to 15 m in its E and W approaches.
2
Traffic regulations. During the period of heavy fog,
from April 1st to July 31st every year, navigation, by
vessels of 100 dwt or more and vessels carrying dangerous
cargoes, is restricted within a precautionary area covering
the approaches to Kumo Sudo. The limits are as follows:
3
34°35′N 127°50′E; 34°30′N 127°50′E;
34°30′N 127°41′E; 34°35′N 127°41′E.
During the period of heavy fog, from April 1st to July
31st every year, navigation, by vessels of 50 dwt or more
and vessels carrying dangerous cargoes, is prohibited
through Kumo Sudo. The limits of the prohibited area are
shown on Chart 3391.
4
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 32 m, spans the channel at its
narrowest point, between the N coast of Kumodo and
Taedurido.
Tidal streams. In Kumo Sudo the tidal streams set W
with the in-going tide at a rate of 4½ kn, and E with the
out-going tide at a rate of 3½ kn.
5
Directions. The W approach to Kumo Sudo is clear, but
attention is drawn to the rocks lying on the S side of the E
approach; Munso (34°32′⋅8N 127°46′⋅7E), a bare rock 20 m
high, 1 mile E of the NE extremity of Kumodo is the
E-most danger.
It is recommended that vessels passing through this
channel should keep in mid-channel and avoid the tide-rips
off the points of Kumodo.
6
Useful mark:
Light (white octagonal tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the S end of Sohãnggando
(34°33′⋅7N 127°46′⋅1E). This islet is flat and low
except at its S end which is 62 m high.
Korean Chart No 240-1 (see 1.22)
Ando Hang
2.225
1
Position and function. Ando Hang (34°28′⋅6N
127°47′⋅9E), a fishing harbour, is situated on the E side of
Ando, between its W shore and Taebudo 1½ cables W.
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 36 m, spans the S entrance to the
harbour.
2
Directions. The harbour may be approached from the N
through Pansãng Sudo (2.223), or from the S passing
between the S end of Taebudo and the W side of Ando.
From the S the harbour is entered between two
breakwaters, one extending E from the SE part of Taebudo,
and the second extending NW from the Ando side.
3
Useful marks:
Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
4
Berths. There are three quays within the harbour. Two
of the quays are situated along the W shore of Ando, with
an approximate total length of 310 m and charted depths
from 2⋅0 to 3⋅2 m alongside; the third quay lies along the E
shore of Taebudo, with a length of about 300 m and
charted depths of less than 2⋅0 m alongside.
5
Supplies. Fuel available during the fishing season.
Korean Chart No 240 (see 1.22)
Anchorages around Sori Do
2.226
1
Ekiho Wan (34°27′⋅0N 127°48′⋅6E). Situated on the NE
side of Sori Do, Ekiho Wan provides anchorage in depths
from 10 to 17 m, over a bottom of mud; it is free of
dangers. The entrance is 5 cables wide, and, except during
SW winds, a heavy swell is experienced. Local vessels call
here regularly.
2
Tomei Ho (34°25′⋅5N 127°47′⋅4E). This inlet on the W
side of Sori Do, 1½ miles NW of the S end of the island,
affords anchorage to local craft in its outer part in depths
from 6 to 12 m. The N entrance point is fronted by drying
reefs, marked by Chãllisã Light-beacon (green round
concrete tower, 11 m in height); the inner part of the inlet
is very shallow.
Anchorages around Ando
2.227
1
Iya Wan (34°28′⋅4N 127°48′⋅6E). Situated on the S side
of Ando, close E of its S extremity, this bay 3 cables wide
affords secure anchorage in depths from 7 to 14 m, except
during S winds. Local knowledge is required.
Paekkum Man (34°29′⋅3N 127°49′⋅4E). This bay on the
E side of Ando is 4 cables wide and affords good
CHAPTER 2
111
anchorage during W winds in depths from 5 to 18 m. Local
knowledge is required.
2
North side of Ando. On the N side of Ando near its W
end is a narrow inlet affording anchorage to local vessels.
The anchorage, over a bottom of mud and shells, is
protected from all winds. Local vessels call here regularly.
Anchorages around Kumodo
2.228
1
Simpo (34°29′⋅5N 127°46′⋅2E). There is good anchorage
for local vessels in Simpo, on the SW side of Kumodo, in
depths from 5 to 15 m, except with SW winds.
Chigpo (34°30′⋅4N 127°44′⋅1E). There is good
anchorage in the outer part of Chigpo, 2 miles NW of
Simpo, with E winds in depths from 7 to 18 m. The inner
part of this bay is shallow; local knowledge is required.
2
Tobo Ho (34°31′⋅1N 127°43′⋅6E). Local vessels may
obtain anchorage in Tobo Ho, close NW of Chigpo, except
with SW winds, in depths from 5 to 11 m over a bottom of
mud.
South-east end. A small bay, situated close N of the SE
extremity of Kumodo, affords anchorage to local vessels in
depths from 5 to 11 m.
3
Usilpo (34°30′⋅3N 127°46′⋅9E), 1¼ miles N of the SE
extremity of Kumodo, is a narrow inlet which can be easily
identified by O Do, 36 m high, lying 1½ cables E of the N
entrance point. Oesamdo (34°30′⋅8N 127°48′⋅8E) is the
outer islet of islets and dangers lying in the E approach to
Usilpo. The N approach is encumbered by Paedosã,
7½ cables N of Oesamdo, and by a drying reef; this reef
(34°31′⋅7N 127°47′⋅0E) is marked by a light-beacon
(isolated danger). A second reef lying close off the E coast
of Kumodo, 1 mile N of Usilpo, is also marked by a
light-beacon (black round concrete tower, yellow band,
13 m in height).
4
Local vessels obtain anchorage in Usilpo in depths from
5 to 10 m, over a bottom of mud. There is a village on the
N side of the inlet and local vessels call here regularly.
YPJA MAN
General information
Chart 127, Korean Charts No 240, W256 (see 1.22)
Routes
2.229
1
Yãja Man (34°45′N 127°30′E) is an extensive inlet
between the E side of Kohung Pando and the W side of
Kodolsan Pando. The bay is entered between Unmyãnggak
(34°35′N 127°31′E), the cliffy E end of Kohung Pando,
and the SW end of Kodolsan Pando, 4½ miles NE. The
entrance is encumbered by several islands; Sã Sudo
(34°37′N 127°31′E), the W channel, is the best of the
channels leading between the islands. The E and W
channels of Chopal Sudo (34°32′N 127°34′W) (2.235) may
also be used to access Yãja Man.
2
From a position about 2 miles ENE of Podolsã
(Bodolseo on Korean Chart No 240) (43°32′N 127°32′E)
the route leads initially NW, for 3½ miles, and thence
NNW through Sã Sudo for a farther 3½ miles; Sã Sudo
has a least width of 3 cables at its N end between the
banks on either side. The route then leads N out into Yãja
Man.
Topography
2.230
1
Nangdo (34°36′N 127°33′E) is the largest of a group of
islands lying in the entrance to Yãja Man. Sangsan, a hill
280 m high, stands on the E side of the island; the sharp
summit, at one time an ancient beacon site, is prominent
from sea. Nangdo village stands near the isthmus which
connects the two parts of the island.
2
The other main islands in this group are Chãkkumdo
(34°38′N 127°31′E), Tunpyãngdo and Chopaldo.
Chãkkumdo, 2 cables NW of Nangdo, is 75 m high at its N
end with a prominent clump of trees on its summit.
Depths
2.231
1
Sã Sudo, the main entrance channel, has depths from
7⋅5 m to 22⋅0 m in the fairway. Inside Yãja Man depths
decrease towards the head of the bay. The inner part of the
bay is filled by a shallow flat, with depths of less than 5 m
over it, which extends 9¼ miles from the head of the bay.
Several islets and rocks lie on the shallow flat.
Vertical clearance
2.232
1
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
38 m, spans the S end of Sã Sudo (34°37′N 127°31′E),
from a point on the W side of Nangdo to Oemaemuldo,
7 cables WSW.
Tidal streams
2.233
1
Tidal streams in the entrance to Yãja Man set N with
the in-going tide and S with the out-going tide with rates
of up to about 3 kn.
Directions
(continued from 2.216)
2.234
1
Caution. A fish haven occupies a large part of Sã Sudo
at its N end and mariners should be aware that there are
numerous fish trap nets set along the W side of the
channel.
Track. From a position about 1½ miles ENE of Podolsã
(43°32′N 127°32′E) the line of bearing 325° of
Oemaemuldo (34°35′⋅7N 127°30′⋅9E) leads NW, passing
(with positions relative to Oemaemuldo):
2
NE of two rocks (3¾ miles SSE), one of which dries
1⋅2 m, and the other with a depth of less than
2⋅0 m over it, thence:
SW of a rocky shoal (3½ miles ESE), with a depth of
4⋅1 m over it, lying 2½ cables WSW of Pudo; this
islet is 52 m high and steep-to off its NW side.
Thence:
3
SW of Mundo (2¼ miles SE), consisting of three
black rocks; they are steep-to and can be
approached to within about 1 cable. Thence:
SW of Mogdo (1¼ miles ESE), a rocky islet, 20 m
high, lying 7 cables WSW of the S extremity of
Nangdo; the W side of this islet is steep-to. A
light (white square concrete tower, 9 m in height)
is exhibited from the S extremity of Nangdo.
4
The track then leads NNW in mid-channel through Sã
Sudo, passing (with positions relative to Oemaemuldo):
WSW of Nangdo Hang (1 mile E), a small fishing
harbour. Lights are exhibited from the heads of the
breakwaters in the harbour. Thence:
5
Between Oemaemuldo, 25 m high, and the W side of
Nangdo, thence:
CHAPTER 2
112
WSW of Up To, a black rock, 13 m high lying
1½ cables off the SW side of Chãkkumdo, thence:
Between the W side of Chãkkumdo and the mainland
to the W.
6
Thence when the alignment (051°) of Yakdo (34°39,4N
127°31′⋅5E) with Sãisan, a hill 297 m high 2½ miles NE, is
reached the track leads N out into Yãja Man, passing W of
Yakdo, a flat treeless islet, 30 m high.
Useful mark:
Light (black concrete tower, red band, 13 m high)
exhibited from the E part of the shallow flat at the
head of Yãja Man.
Side channels
Chopal Sudo
2.235
1
Description. Yãja Man may also be entered through
Chopal Sudo (34°32′N 127°34′W) which is divided into
two channels by the island of Chopaldo. The E channel is
restricted by Taerakdo, a small islet 14 m high lying on the
Kodolsan Pando side of the channel, and by Samcho, a
drying rock at the NE end of the channel; Samcho is
marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger).
2
The W channel is best even though it is reduced in
width to around 370 m in the section between Tunpyãngdo
and Chopaldo by Hongdo, an islet 28 m high lying almost
in mid-channel. The W channel is deep and straight and
easy to use provided close attention is paid to the tidal
streams (2.233).
3
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 23 m, spans the channel E of
Chopaldo, and a second overhead power cable, with a
similar vertical clearance, spans the channel W of
Chopaldo.
Anchorage
Yakdo and vicinity
2.236
1
Description. Good anchorage, during S winds, may be
obtained, between the N end of Chãkkumdo (34°38′N
127°31′E) and Yakdo, 1 mile NNE, in depths from 11 to
20 m. During N or NE winds good anchorage may be
obtained by anchoring close S of Yakdo in a depth of
11 m.
2
Local knowledge is necessary for these anchorages.
KAMAK YANG
General information
Chart 127, Korean Charts No 240, W256, W251 (see 1.22)
Routes
2.237
1
Kamak Yang (34°40′N 127°41′E) is the large bay lying
between the E side of Kodolsan Pando and the W side of
Tolsando. The head of the bay is formed by the S part of
Yãsu Pando. The S entrance to the bay is fronted by
several islands and islets through which the following
channels lead:
Paekya Sudo (34°36′N 127°39′E) (2.244).
Cheri Sudo (34°35′N 127°39′E) (2.247).
Wãlho Sudo (34°34′N 127°42′E) (2.248).
Hãnggan Sudo (34°34′N 127°45′E) (2.249).
2
The recommended route for entering Kamak Yang from
the S, and the only one for which directions are given,
leads through Paekya Sudo (34°36′N 127°39′E). From the
E end of Paekya Sudo the route then leads NNE and N
across the bay, for about 7½ miles, to another narrow
channel which links the NE side of Kamak Yang to Yãsu
Haehyãp.
3
Yãsu Haehyãp, the narrow NE entrance to Kamak Yang
leads through Yãsu Hang (34°44′N 127°45′E), which is
described at 3.51.
Depths
2.238
1
There is a least depth of 12⋅8 m in the fairway through
Paekya Sudo. In Kamak Yang a mud bank, with charted
depths from 2⋅2 to 4⋅3 m over it and on which there are
several islets and rocks, lies from E to W across the middle
of the bay. The narrow channel, at the NE end of Kamak
Yang, has a least charted depth of 5⋅5 in it.
Submarine pipeline
2.239
1
A water pipeline is laid across the N channel, at the NE
end of Kamak Yang, to Yado (34°43′⋅2N 127°42′⋅7E). For
further information on pipelines see 1.20.
Vertical clearances
2.240
1
Paekya Sudo (34°36′N 127°39′E). An overhead power
cable, with a vertical clearance of 35 m, spans the channel
between the N end of Cherido and Paekyado.
Yado (34°43′⋅2N 127°42′⋅7E). An overhead power cable,
with a vertical clearance of 25 m, spans the channel
between the W end of Yado and the mainland to the N.
2
Kuk’dong Hang (34°43′⋅6N 127°43′⋅5E). An overhead
power cable, with a vertical clearance of 30 m, spans the
W end of Kuk’dong Hang, from the mainland to
Taegyãngdo, 2½ cables SSE.
Fishing
2.241
1
Fishing trap nets are numerous in Kamak Yang and its
approaches, with a particularly high concentration off the
W shore of Tolsando (34°39′N 127°46′E).
Tidal streams
2.242
1
In Paekya Sudo the tidal streams set W with the
in-going tide, at a rate of 1 kn, and E with the out-going
tide, at a rate of 1½ kn.
Principal marks
2.243
1
Landmarks:
A 338 m high summit (34°33′⋅4N 127°39′⋅5E) of
Kaedo, and a 330 m peak close NW; both are
pointed and prominent.
2
Paekyado (34°36′⋅7N 127°38′⋅5E) with a pointed peak
286 m high. The island is cliffy and steep-to on its
SE side.
Pongsusan (34°39′⋅0N 127°45′⋅2E), a pointed peak,
416 m high, standing on the W side of Tolsando.
3
Major light:
Paekyado Light (white round concrete tower, 14 m in
height) (34°36′⋅3N 127°39′⋅4E).
CHAPTER 2
113
Directions
Korean Chart No 240 (see 1.22)
Entry through Paekya Sudo
2.244
1
From the position 34°29′N 127°36′E, on the approach
route (2.211) to Yãja Man and Kamak Yang, 4½ miles E of
the SE point of Naenarodo, the track leads initially NNE
along the line of bearing 018° of the S extremity
(34°36′⋅2N 127°38′⋅6E) of Paekyado, passing (with
positions relative to Paekyado Light (34°36′⋅3N
127°39′⋅4E)):
2
WNW of Kã Sã (4 miles S), fronting the S side of
Kaedo. A light (white octagonal concrete tower,
9 m in height) is exhibited from the islet. Thence:
WNW of the W side (2½ miles SSW) of Kaedo,
which is cliffy and the largest of the group of
islands facing the S entrance to Kamak Yang,
thence:
3
Between the E side of Hahwado (1¾ miles SW) and
the SW extremity of Cherido. The S coast of
Hahwado is cliffy and at its E extremity is a
pointed peak, 129 m high, on which there is a
prominent clump of trees. Sanghwado, 4 cables
NW of Hahwado, has a prominent wooded peak,
127 m high, close within its NE extremity.
4
The track then leads into Paekya Sudo on the alignment
(061°) of the SE extremity of Paekyado with Pongsusan
(34°39′⋅0N 127°45′⋅2E) (2.243), 5½ miles NE. Thence the
track leads through the narrow channel on the alignment,
(265°) astern, of the S extremity of Paekyado with a 127 m
high peak (34°36′⋅0N 127°36′⋅4E) at the N end of
Sanghwado, 1¾ miles WSW, until clear of the channel.
Korean Charts W256, W251 (see 1.22)
Paekya Sudo to the north−east end of Kamak Yang
2.245
1
Caution. There are depths of less than 5⋅0 m along this
part of the route; see 2.238.
Track. From the E end of Paekya Sudo (34°36′N
127°39′E) the track then leads NNE, for about 2 miles, and
thence N through Kamak Yang, passing (with positions
relative to Ammogdo Light (34°42′⋅6N 127°41′⋅7E)):
2
Between Odo (2¼ miles SSW), 41 m high and the
SW-most islet in Kamak Yang, and Yo Cho
(2 miles S), which is 48 m high, thence:
E of small drying reef (1½ miles SSW), marked by a
buoy (red, conical), thence:
3
W of another small drying reef (1¼ miles S) marked
by a light-beacon (isolated danger), thence:
W of a small islet (8½ cables S), 19 m high, thence:
Between Chodo (3 cables WNW) and Ammokdo,
from which a light (white round concrete tower,
7 m in height) is exhibited.
4
The track then leads NE and ENE, passing (with
positions relative to Ammogdo Light):
Between the mainland and the N end of Yado (1 mile
NE). A light (red round concrete tower, 7 m in
height) is exhibited from the N side of Yado.
Thence:
Between the N end (1½ miles NE) of Taegyãng and
the mainland. Taegyãng, 92 m high, is the largest
of the islands at the NE end of Kamak Yang.
5
Thence the track leads ENE through Kuk’dong Hang to
a position close S of the bridge (2¼ miles NE) spanning
Yãsu Haehyãp. For information on speed limits through
Kuk’dong Hang see 2.254.
(Directions for Yãsu Haehyãp
are given in reverse at 3.74)
Side channels
Korean Chart No 240 (see 1.22)
Channel north of Paekyado
2.246
1
Description. The channel N of Paekyado (34°36′⋅7N
127°38′⋅5E) has a least depth of 7⋅3 m in the fairway, but it
is narrow and there are no marks for proceeding through it;
it is only used by local craft.
2
Vertical clearance. The channel is spanned by an
overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of 30 m,
from the N end of Paekyado to the mainland close N.
Cheri Sudo
2.247
1
Description. Cheri Sudo (34°35′N 127°39′E) leads
between Kaedo and Cherido, 103 m high at its N end,
2½ cables N of Kaedo, and thence NW of Chabongdo
(34°35′N 127°41′E). This channel has a least depth of
7⋅8 m in the fairway and a least width of 1¼ cables. Small
local vessels, with a draught not exceeding 5⋅5 m, can use
this channel.
2
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 35 m, spans the channel between the
N end of Kaedo and the S end of Cherido.
Useful mark:
Horido (34°35′⋅0N 127°40′⋅7E), an above-water rock
lying E of Cheri Sudo, marked by a light-beacon
(N cardinal).
Wãlho Sudo
2.248
1
Description. Wãlho Sudo (34°34′N 127°42′E) between
Kaedo and Wãlhodo, 3 cables E, connects Kumo Sudo
(2.224) with Kamak Yang. The channel is deep and free
from dangers in the fairway.
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 42 m, spans Wãlho Sudo from the SW
end of Wãlhodo to the E end of Kaedo.
Hãnggan Sudo
2.249
1
Description. Hãnggan Sudo (34°34′N 127°45′E) leads
between the S side of Tolsando and Hwataedo. Its SE end
is divided into two channels by Taehãggando and its N end
is bordered to the N by the island of Songdo. The channel
SW of Taehãggando has a least width of 3 cables and a
least charted depth of 9⋅7 m; the channel NE of
Taehãggando is also 3 cables wide, but has a least charted
depth of 5⋅0 m in it. Hãnggan Sudo is used by vessels
proceeding into Kamak Yang from the E.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Vertical clearances:
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
37 m, spans the channel between the SE end of
Hwataedo and the W end of Taehãggando.
A second overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 28 m, spans the main channel from
the NE end of Hwataedo to Tolsando, 6 cables
ENE.
3
Tidal streams in Hãnggan Sudo set NW on the in-going
tide and SE on the out-going tide. On both the N and S
sides of Songdo the streams set W on the in-going tide;
CHAPTER 2
114
close off the S side of this island the strength of the tidal
streams increases considerably.
Directions. There are no specific directions for
navigating Hãnggan Sudo.
4
Useful marks:
Light exhibited from the S end of Sohãnggando
(34°33′⋅7N 127°46′⋅1E).
Hwataedo Light (green rectangle on green beacon,
12 m in height) (34°34′⋅4N 127°44′⋅6E) exhibited
from the SE side of the island.
5
Taehãggando Light-beacon (W cardinal) (34°34′⋅7N
127°45′⋅2E).
Kumsãng Light-beacon (red octagonal concrete tower,
10 m in height) (34°35′⋅3N 127°45′⋅4E) standing
close off the S coast of Tolsando.
Fishing harbours and anchorages
Kaedo
2.250
1
Local vessels obtain good anchorage, except in S winds,
in Kai Ho (34°33′⋅7N 127°41′⋅2E) the E bay on the S coast
of Kaedo, in depths of about 13 m. The inner part of the
bay, at the head of which stands a village, is encumbered
by a fish haven.
2
Temporary anchorage may be obtained in the outer part
of the W-most bay on the S coast of Kaedo, in depths of
about 8 m. However the head of this bay is shoal. Local
knowledge is required.
Paekya Sudo
2.251
1
West of Paekya Sudo (34°36′N 127°39′E), between
Cherido and Paekyado to the NE, and Hahwado and
Sanghwado to the SW, there is good anchorage. The
anchorage, with moderate depths, is sheltered from all
winds except those from the S.
Tolsan Hang
2.252
1
Description. Tolsan Hang (34°36′⋅9N 127°43′⋅4E) is a
small fishing port situated on the SW side of Tolsando at
the NW end of Hãnggan Sudo (2.249); it is fronted by the
island of Songdo. The port may be approached either from
the E or W by passing N of Songdo; the E approach is
best being deeper and wider.
2
Useful marks:
Hajungdo Light-beacon (red beacon, 10 m in height)
(34°36′⋅7N 127°42′⋅8E) marking the W end of a
drying reef surrounding an islet in the W approach
N of Songdo.
Light (red round metal tower, 7 m in height)
(34°36′⋅8N 127°43′⋅3E) exhibited from the head of
the E breakwater.
3
Beacon (triangular top mark) (34°36′⋅5N 127°44′⋅1E)
marking the edge of a drying spit extending into
the E approach to Tolsan Hang.
Berths. The harbour contains a lighters wharf 465 m in
length.
Repairs. Patent slip available.
Korean Charts No 240, W256 (see 1.22)
Kamak Yang
2.253
1
Local craft obtain good anchorage in an inlet (34°42′⋅3N
127°37′⋅6E) entered 5 miles N of the W entrance point of
Kamak Yang, in its outer part in depths of about 5 m.
Local vessels call here regularly. The village of Hwagyo Ri
stands at the head of the inlet.
2
Sãnso, another inlet, lies at the head of Kamak Yang
2½ miles N of the previously described inlet. Anchorage
may be obtained in the outer part of this inlet in depths
from 2 to 5 m, over a bottom of mud. Local knowledge is
required.
Korean Chart No 251 (see 1.22)
Kuk’dong Hang
2.254
1
Position and function. Kuk’dong Hang (34°43′⋅6N
127°43′⋅5E) is a large fishing port situated adjacent to Yãsu
Hang (34°44′N 127°45′E) (3.51) on the NE shore of
Kamak Yang.
Speed limits. In Kuk’dong Hang high speed craft should
not proceed at more than 15 kn and all other vessels at not
more than 10 kn.
2
Berths. The harbour contains several wharves and piers
totalling up to 2337 m in length; depths alongside range
from 2⋅3 m to 6⋅0 m.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel available.
NOTES
115
SOUTH KOREA
NAMHAEDO
Chinju
Man
Kwangyang
Hang
KPJE DO
Masan
Chinhae Hang
Pusan
Kodu Mal
Chinhae
Man
Namhy9ngje Do
Pungny9 Do
Samch’9np
’o Hang Y9su
Paek S9
Kany9 Am
Ko Am
Sejon Do
Hong Do
Sori Do
Tumi Do
T
o
n
g
y
9
n
g
H
a
n
g
O
k
p
o
H
a
n
g
NP 42A
JAPAN PILOT
VOLUME II
TSUSHIMA
Habaekto
3.362
3.277
3.351
3.226
3.226
3.182
3.316
3.351
3.226
3.284
3
.
1
9
3
3.142
3.82
3.51
3
.
2
3
6
3
.
2
5
0
3
.
2
6
9
3
.
3
1
6
3.203
3.10
3.17
3.17
3.17
3.10
3.10
3.174
3.159
3.136
3.127
3
.
3
1
896
3666
1259
1065
1259
1065
1065
3390
3365
3391
359
0405
35°
30´
35°
34°
34°
30´
129°
128°
129°
Longitude 128° East from Greenwich
30´
30´
30´
30´
Chapter 3 - South Coast of Korea - Habaekto and Sori Do to Kodu Mal
116
117
CHAPTER 3
SOUTH COAST OF KOREA — HABAEKTO AND SORI DO TO KODU MAL
GENERAL INFORMATION
Introduction
Charts 127, 3480
Scope of the chapter
3.1
1
The area covered by this chapter comprises the S coast
of Korea between Habaekto (34°02′N 127°37′E) and Sori
Do (34°26′N 127°48′E) at the W end, and Kodu Mal
(35°09′N 129°11′E), 82 miles NE, together with the islands
lying off the coast.
2
Also included are descriptions of the ports of Yãsu
Hang (34°44′N 127°45′E) (3.51), Kwangyang Hang
(34°53′N 127°45′E) (3.82), Masan Hang (35°11′N
128°35′E) (3.284) and Pusan (Busan) Hang (35°06′N
129°02′E) (3.362).
3
The chapter is arranged as follows:
Habaekto and Sori Do to Kãje Do (3.9).
Kãje Do to Kodu Mal (3.225).
Korea Strait
3.2
1
Korea Strait (Han Guk Haehyãp) (34°00′N 129°00′E),
known as South Korea Strait (Taehan Haehyãp) to the
Koreans and as Tsushima Kaikyo to the Japanese, lies
between the S coast of Korea and the NW coast of
Kyøshø; it is divided into two channels by Tsushima, lying
in about the middle of the strait.
2
Eastern Channel and the island of Tsushima are
described in Japan Pilot Volume II. Western Channel has a
least width of 26½ miles between Hong Do (34°32′N
128°44′E) and the W coast of Tsushima.
Tanker navigation restricted area
3.3
1
For details of a tanker navigation restricted area along
the S coast of Korea see 1.48.
Mined areas
3.4
1
For information on mined areas see 1.6 and Appendix I.
Fish havens and marine farms
3.5
1
Numerous fish havens and marine farms have been
established in Korean coastal waters. They may be marked
by lit or unlit buoys or beacons. Mariners are advised to
avoid these structures and their associated moorings. For
further information see 1.15.
Rescue
3.6
1
For information on rescue services see 1.81.
Natural conditions
South coast of Korea
3.7
1
Tidal streams. Along the S coast of Korea from the S
end of Naro Yãlto (34°25′N 127°30′E) to the S end of
Kãje Do (34°42′N 128°36′E), about 60 miles ENE, the tidal
streams are very weak. South of this area, between the
islands off the coast, the tidal streams set W with the
in-going tide and E with the out-going tide, attaining a rate
from 1 to 1½ kn.
In the narrow channels off the coast between Kãje Do
and Pusan the tidal streams attain rates from 3 to 4 kn.
2
Wind. During the winter, the wind is predominantly NE
in the Korea Strait between the SE side of Kãje Do and
the NW side of Kyøshø, and off the E coast of Korea.
West of Maemul To (34°38′N 128°34′E), the wind is not
felt strongly.
Between Maemul To and Tumi Do, 18 miles WNW, very
light breezes blow during the winter from between NW and
NE. On the S side of Namhaedo (34°48′N 127°55′E),
26 miles W of Kãje Do, W winds blow regularly during
this season.
3
Between Namhaedo and Kumo Yãlto (34°30′N
127°45′E), 16 miles SSW, the prevailing winds during the
winter are W.
Korea Strait
3.8
1
Tidal streams. In Korea Strait the tidal streams set NE
from about 1 hour before HW at Shimonoseki (33°58′N
130°57′E) to about 1 hour before LW there, and then SW
at other times. The average maximum rate is 1 to 1½ kn at
springs and ½ kn at neaps.
2
The diurnal inequality is large and, except when the
moon’s declination is small, this causes one NE stream and
the next succeeding SW stream to be increased in strength.
The two other streams are correspondingly reduced. When
the moon’s declination is large, N or S, these tidal streams
may reach 2½ kn at springs or become hardly appreciable.
The stronger NE tidal streams occur in the afternoon in
spring, about mid-day in the summer, in the forenoon in
autumn and about midnight in winter. This occurrence is
delayed as one moves SW in the Western Channel and
appears to be as much as 4 hours later in the vicinity of
Cheju Do (33°25′N 126°35′E).
3
Current. To the previously mentioned tidal streams must
be added the current (1.126) which sets through the strait
NE at a rate of about 1 kn. In summer, currents of up to
3 kn have been observed. A prolonged spell of NW winds
increases its strength.
CHAPTER 3
118
HABAEKTO AND SORI DO TO KPJE DO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3480, 3365
Area covered
3.9
1
This section describes the coastal and offshore waters
between Habaekto (34°02′N 127°37′E) and Sori Do
(34°26′N 127°48′E) at the W end, to the S end of Kãje
Do, 43 miles NE of Sori Do. It includes descriptions of the
major ports of Yãsu Hang and Kwangyang Hang, along
with the smaller port of Samch’ãnp’o Hang. The section is
arranged as follows:
2
Offshore and coastal routes − Habaekto to Hong Do
(3.10).
Outer approaches to Yãsu Hang and Kwangyang
Hang (3.17).
Inner approach to Yãsu Hang and Kwangyang Hang
(3.31).
Yãsu Hang (3.51).
3
Kwangyang Hang (3.82).
Inshore route − Paek Sã to Tumi Do (3.127).
Samch’ãnp’o Hang and approaches including Chinju
Man (3.136).
Samch’ãnp’o Hang to Nam Man (3.159).
Inshore route − Tumi Do to Pbujido (3.174).
4
Tongyãng Haeman and Kyãnnaeryang Haehyãp
(3.182).
Inshore route − Pbujido to Taebyãngdae Do (3.203).
South−west side of Kãje Do (3.214).
OFFSHORE AND COASTAL ROUTES —
HABAEKTO TO HONG DO
General information
Chart 127
Routes
3.10
1
Offshore. From a position about 5 miles SSE of
Habaekto (34°02′N 127°37′E) the offshore route leads NE
for 51 miles to a position 4 miles SSE of Ko Am (34°30′N
128°29′E), where it joins the coastal route leading NE.
2
Coastal. From a position about 4 miles SW of Kanyã
Am (34°17′N 127°51′E) the coastal route initially leads
ENE for 36 miles, to a position 4 miles SSE of Ko Am
(34°30′N 128°29′E), and thence NE, for a farther
16½ miles through a TSS, to a position 4 miles NNE of
Hong Do (34°32′N 128°44′E).
Traffic separation scheme
3.11
1
A TSS, the limits of which are shown on the chart, is
established in the vicinity of Hongdo Passage, close NW of
Hong Do (34°32′N 128°44′E). The TSS is not
IMO-adopted.
Principal marks
3.12
1
Major lights:
Sori Do Light (34°25′N 127°48′E) (2.125).
Somaemul To Light (white round concrete tower,
13 m in height) (34°37′N 128°33′E) exhibited from
an islet close S of Somaemul To.
2
Hong Do Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (34°32′N 128°44′E) exhibited from the
summit of the islet.
Other aids to navigation
3.13
1
Racons:
Sangbaekto (34°03′N 127°35′E).
Kanyã Am (34°17′N 127°51′E).
Ko Am (34°30′N 128°29′E).
Hong Do (34°32′N 128°44′E).
Pungnyã Do (34°41′N 128°46′E).
2
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.87)
Offshore route
3.14
1
From a position about 5 miles SSE of Habaekto
(34°02′N 127°37′E) (2.87) the track leads NE, passing
(with positions relative to Sangbaekto Light (34°03′N
127°35′E) (2.87)):
SE of a fish haven (11½ miles ENE), thence:
SE of Kanyã Am (19½ miles NE) from which a light
(2.127) is exhibited and a racon (3.13) transmits.
2
The track then continues NE in deep-water, clear of all
dangers, to a position 4 miles SSE of Ko Am (34°30′N
128°29′E), where it joins the coastal route (3.15) leading
NE. A light (3.15) is exhibited and a racon (3.13) transmits
from Ko Am.
(Directions for an outer E approach to Yãsu Hang and
Kwangyang Hang are given at 3.26)
Coastal route
(continued from 2.127)
3.15
1
From a position about 4 miles SW of Kanyã Am
(34°17′N 127°51′E) the track leads initially ENE, passing
SSE of Kanyã Am (19½ miles NE) from which a light
(2.127) is exhibited and a racon (3.13) transmits, to a
position 4 miles SSE of Ko Am (34°30′N 128°29′E). The
track then leads NE, passing (with positions relative to Ko
Am):
2
SE of Ko Am from which a light (white round
concrete tower, 7 m in height) is exhibited and a
racon (3.13) transmits; Ko Am is a black rock
21 m high. Kuk To, a brown island, wooded and
steep-to, lies 3 miles NW of Ko Am; a red
pinnacle rock, 20 m high, lies close S of Kuk To.
From SW, Kuk To is sometimes mistaken for
Hong Do, 14 miles E. Thence:
3
SE of Soguuibi Do (5 miles NE), a black rock with a
flat summit, thence:
SE of Taeguuibi Do (6¼ miles NE), a black conical
rock; it is marked by a light-beacon (isolated
danger, 18 m in height). Rocks, both above and
below water, extend 4 cables E from Taeguuibi Do;
both of these rocks, with discoloured water
between them, are very prominent from a distance.
Thence:
4
SE of Tungga Do (9 miles NE), a black islet lying
1¾ miles off Maemul To; the islet is steep-to
except for a rocky bank, with a depth of 3⋅7 m
over it, lying 2 cables SSW of it. Tungga Do is of
a similar formation to Kaik To (34°39′N 128°32′E)
(3.208) lying 9 cables NNW of Somaemul To.
There is discoloured water between Taeguuibi Do
CHAPTER 3
119
and Tungga Do. Maemul To and Somaemul To are
described at 3.213.
5
The track then leads through the appropriate traffic lane
of the TSS to a position 4 miles NNE of Hong Do
(12½ miles ENE). Hong Do, the SE island of the Korean
Archipelago, is a rugged island; a light (3.12) is exhibited
and a racon (3.13) transmits from it.
(Directions continue for the coastal route NE at 3.233)
Anchorage
Hong Do
3.16
1
Local vessels may obtain temporary anchorage on the W
side of Hong Do (34°32′N 128°44′E) during E winds, and
on the E side of the island during W winds.
OUTER APPROACHES TO YPSU HANG
AND KWANGYANG HANG
General information
Charts 127, 3391
Routes
3.17
1
The following routes are described for the outer
approaches to Yãsu Hang and Kwangyang Hang:
South-west approach. From a position about 3 miles S
of Soryongdan (34°25′N 127°48′E), at the end of
the inshore route (2.204), the SW approach leads
NNE for 15½ miles to a position 3 miles SSW of
Paek Sã (34°38′N 128°00′E) fronting the entrance
to Yãsu Haeman.
2
Main approach from seaward. From the vicinity of
34°13′N 128°05′E, on the offshore route (3.10),
the main approach from seaward leads NNW, for
24 miles, to a position 3 miles SSW of Paek Sã.
East approach. From a position about 2½ miles S of
Ko Am (34°30′N 128°29′E), on the coastal route
(3.10), the E approach leads WNW, for 27 miles,
to a position 3 miles SSW of Paek Sã.
Vessel traffic service
3.18
1
A vessel traffic service is in operation for Yãsu Haeman
and its approaches; the service also covers Yãsu Hang and
Kwangyang Hang. Participation in the service is
compulsory for the following vessels:
Deep sea vessels.
2
Vessels over 300 grt.
Vessels carrying dangerous cargo.
Towing vessels with length of tow 200 m or more.
Tugs and barges engaged in construction works.
3
For details and a list of reporting points see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Fishing
3.19
1
An area, in which fish traps are laid, extends up to
4 miles from the coasts between Soryongdan (34°25′N
127°48′E) and Tolsan Do Light (34°42′N 127°47′E),
17½ miles N. For further information see 1.15.
Submarine cable
3.20
1
A submarine cable is laid from the head of the E bay of
Mokdo Man (34°43′N 128°00′E), on the SE side of
Namhaedo, generally in a S direction through the outer
approaches to Yãsu Hang and Kwangyang Hang, and
thence into the Korea Strait. For further information on
submarine cables see 1.8.
Natural conditions
3.21
1
Local magnetic anomaly. In 1976 a magnetic anomaly,
with compass deviations between 4°W and 20°E, was
reported to lie 1½ miles SW of Paek Sã (34°38′N
128°00′E).
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Sejon Do (34°30′N
128°05′E) attain a rate of 1¼ kn when setting ENE.
2
Between Sejon Do and Kal To, 6 miles NE, the tidal
streams set WSW and E at rates of about 1 kn. Between
Kal To and Yokchi Do, 3½ miles NE, they set W on the
in-going tide at a rate of 1½ kn and E on the out-going
tide at ½ kn.
3
South of Paek Sã the WSW stream has a rate of 1¼ kn
and the SSE stream ¾ kn.
Principal marks
3.22
1
Landmark
Kumosan (34°36′N 127°47′E) rising close within
Kãmagak, the SE extremity of Tolsando. The hill
is 321 m high with a saddle-shaped depression in
it.
2
Major lights:
Sori Do Light (34°25′N 127°48′E) (2.125).
Tae Do Light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in
height) (34°41′N 127°57′E).
Other aids to navigation
3.23
1
Racons:
Kanyã Am (34°17′N 127°51′E).
Ko Am (34°30′N 128°29′E).
Paek Sã (34°38′N 128°00′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.210)
South−west approach
3.24
1
From a position about 3 miles S of Soryongdan
(34°25′N 127°48′E) the track leads NNE, passing (with
positions relative to Soryongdan):
WNW of a dangerous wreck (5 miles SSE), thence:
WNW of another dangerous wreck (2¾ miles ESE),
and:
2
ESE of Soryongdan. Sori Do Light (2.125) is
exhibited from a position 3 cables NW of
Soryongdan. Thence:
WNW of Chak To (5 miles E), a flat-topped islet,
from which a light (4-sided metal tower, 20 m in
height) is exhibited, and:
3
ESE of Paeminal (2¾ miles N), the NE-most point of
Sori Do (2.221), thence:
ESE of the NE-most point (5½ miles) of Ando
(2.221), from which Paekkum Light (2.222) is
exhibited, thence:
WNW of a dangerous wreck (10½ miles NE), thence:
4
WNW of another dangerous wreck (10¾ miles NNE),
the position of which is approximate.
The track then leads to a position 3 miles SSW of Paek
Sã (16¼ miles NNE), which is steep-to; it is a brown, flat,
CHAPTER 3
120
rocky islet. A light (white octagonal concrete tower, 15 m
in height) is exhibited from the islet.
5
Useful mark:
Light (3.25) exhibited from Sejon Do.
(Directions continue, for Yãsu Hang and Kwangyan
Hang at 3.43, and for an inshore route to
Samch’ãnp’o Hang at 3.131)
Main approach from seaward
3.25
1
From the vicinity of 34°13′N 128°05′E the track leads
NNW, passing (with positions relative to Sejon Do
(34°30′N 128°05′E)):
ENE of Kanyã Am (17 miles SW), from which a
light (2.127) is exhibited, thence:
ENE of Chak To (10½ miles WSW), from which a
light (3.24) is exhibited, thence:
2
WSW of Sejon Do, from which a light (white round
concrete tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited. This
islet, from the NW, shows as two curiously shaped
rocky peaks which, from NE, appear in line. Two
caves, with access from the sea, lie at the base of
the peaks. A village stands on the W side of Sejon
Do. Thence:
3
ENE of a dangerous wreck (5¾ miles WNW), thence:
ENE of another dangerous wreck (7 miles WNW), the
position of which is approximate.
The track then leads to a position 3 miles SSW of Paek
Sã (9 miles NNW) (3.24), from which a light is exhibited
and a racon (3.23) transmits.
(Directions continue, for Yãsu Hang and Kwangyan
Hang at 3.43, and for an inshore route to
Samch’ãnp’o Hang at 3.131)
East approach
3.26
1
From a position about 2½ miles S of Ko Am (34°30′N
128°29′E) (3.15) the track leads WNW, passing (with
positions relative to Sejon Do (34°30′N 128°05′E)):
SSW of Kuk To (17½ miles ENE) (3.15), thence:
SSW of Chwasari Do (13¼ miles ENE) (3.30). A
light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from an islet close off the SW point of
Chwasari Do. Thence:
2
SSW of Kal To (6 miles NE), which shows as four
peaks from SE. Its coasts are mostly steep-to with
no dangers beyond 5 cables offshore. A rock 63 m
high, close SSE of Kal To, is prominent from SW.
Thence:
3
NNE of Sejon Do (3.25), from which a light is
exhibited, thence:
SSW of Kudol Sã (7½ miles NNE), from which a
light (white round concrete tower, 14 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
NNE of a dangerous wreck (5¾ miles WNW), thence:
NNE of another dangerous wreck (7 miles WNW),
the position of which is approximate.
4
The track then leads to a position 3 miles SSW of Paek
Sã (9 miles NNW) (3.24), from which a light is exhibited
and a racon (3.23) transmits.
Useful marks:
Hukcho Light (black round concrete tower, red band,
14 m in height) (34°36′⋅4N 128°15′⋅6E).
Yokchi Do Light (white round concrete tower, 13 m
in height) (34°36′⋅9N 128°14′⋅5E).
(Directions continue, for Yãsu Hang and Kwangyang
Hang at 3.43, and for an inshore route to
Samch’ãnp’o Hang at 3.131)
Yokchi Do and Chwasari Chedo
Korean Chart No 224B (see 1.22)
General information
3.27
1
Description. Yokchi Do (34°38′N 128°15′E), along with
associated islands, and Chwasari Chedo (34°34′N 128°21′E)
(3.30) are two groups of outer islands and rocks lying on
the N side of the E approaches to Yãsu Hang and
Kwangyang Hang. The small port of Yokchi Hang
(34°38′N 128°16′E) (3.29) is situated in an inlet on the NE
side of Yokchi Do.
2
Topography. Yokchi Do, 390 m high, is covered with
grass. The SW end of the island is a cliffy peninsula joined
to the island by a low neck of land. The summit of the
peninsula, 181 m high, is round, covered with grass and
prominent. On the hillside on the N side of the peninsula
are some scattered dwellings. The W extremity of the
peninsula is 33 m high. Yokchi Do is nearly steep-to except
on its E side where a bank extends 1¾ miles offshore.
3
Cho Do, 143 m high, and Socho Do, 115 m high, lie off
the E side of Yokchi Do on a bank 5 cables and 1 mile
offshore, respectively. Several rocks, above and below
water, lie off the S coast of Yokchi Do; the outermost is
Hukcho, 3⋅3 m high, from which a light (3.26) is exhibited.
4
Chwasari Chedo is a small group of islands and rocks,
situated 5 miles SE of Yokchi Do. Chwasari Do is the S
and largest island of Chwasari Chedo. Oe Jangdoeg Am,
9⋅4 m high, and Nae Jangdoeg Am, 15 m high, lie 1¼ and
2 miles respectively NNW of the N islet of Chwasari
Chedo. Matano Se, with a depth of 7⋅4 m over it and
steep-to, lies 6½ cables NE of Oe Jangdoeg Am.
5
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 35 m, spans Yokchi Sudo between the
NW side of Yokchi Do (34°38′N 128°15′E) and Hanodae
Do, 7 cables N.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅5 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅9 m. For further information see the relevant
edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
6
Tidal streams in the channels N of Yokchi Do set as
follows:
Tide
Yãnhwa Sudo
Yokchi Sudo
In-going
NW 1¼ kn W 1½ kn
Out-going
SE 1¼ kn E 1¾ kn
7
On the N and E sides of Chwasari Chedo (34°34′N
128°21′E) the tidal streams set W with the in-going tide at
a rate of about 1½ kn and E with the falling tide at a rate
of 1 kn.
Directions
3.28
1
General remarks. Yokchi Hang (3.29), on the NE side
of Yokchi Do, is approached from the ESE through
Yãnhwa Sudo, the channel between the NE side of Yokchi
Do and Yãnhwa Yãlto (34°39′N 128°21′E), and from the
CHAPTER 3
121
WNW through Yokchi Sudo, the channel between the N
side of Yokchi Do and Nodae Kundo 6 cables N.
2
Both channels are clear of dangers, although numerous
fish havens have been established in the S approaches to
Yãnhwa Sudo as well as in the channels themselves.
Useful marks:
Hukcho Light (34°36′⋅4N 128°15′⋅6E) (3.26).
Yokchi Do Light (34°36′⋅9N 128°14′⋅5E) (3.26).
Korean Chart No 231 (see 1.22)
Yokchi Hang
3.29
1
Position and function. Yokchi Hang (34°38′N
128°16′E), situated in an inlet on the NE side of Yokchi
Do, is a national fishery port.
Topography. Tonggwanji San, the summit of the SE
entrance point of Yokchi Hang, is 203 m high and
prominent. Mogae Do, a rocky islet 10 m high with a
grass-covered summit prominent from the E, lies 7½ cables
NW of the NW entrance point of Yokchi Hang.
2
Depths. There are depths from 5 to 20 m in the harbour.
Harbour. Yokchi Hang is a good harbour, free from
dangers. The entrance is 2¾ cables wide; it is open NE but
no swell sets in. Inside, Ipammal, a small promontory, on
the S shore of the harbour, divides it into a SE arm and a
NW arm. The NW arm is protected by a N breakwater
extending 1¼ cables SE from the N entrance point of the
arm, and by a S breakwater extending 1½ cables NNE
from Ipammal. The SE arm is protected by an E
breakwater projecting WNW from the E entrance point of
the arm.
3
Useful marks:
Ok Do, at the head of the SE arm, a low flat and
densely wooded islet 7⋅6 m high, forms a good
mark for entering Yokchi Hang.
Lights (octagonal concrete towers, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the heads of the three breakwaters.
4
Berths:
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain good anchorage
outside the breakwaters in depths from 18 to 20 m,
over a bottom of mud; smaller vessels may anchor
inside the breakwaters.
Alongside. There are two quays at the head of the
NW arm and another quay inside the N breakwater
where vessels up to 500 tonnes may berth.
5
Repairs. There is a dockyard SE of Ipammal able to
repair vessels up to 100 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel available; fresh water and provisions
difficult to obtain.
Communications. There are ferry services to the
mainland.
Korean Chart No 224B (see 1.22)
Anchorage and landing
3.30
1
Yokchi Do. On the W side of Yokchi Do (34°38′N
128°15′E) there are two bays, but they are exposed and are
not recommended as anchorages. A landing place, protected
by a breakwater, lies on the S side of Yokchi Do, in a bay
1 mile W of the SE point.
2
Chwasari Do. There is a small gravel beach on the S
side of Chwasari Do (34°34′N 128°21′E), which is the only
landing place in Chwasari Chedo.
INNER APPROACH TO YPSU HANG AND
KWANGYANG HANG
General information
Chart 3391
Routes
3.31
1
Main route. From a position 3 miles SSW of Paek Sã
(34°38′N 128°00′E) the route leads initially NNW for
6 miles to the No 2 pilot boarding position, 1¼ miles W of
Tae Do, thence generally NW for a farther 5½ miles to a
position about 1¾ miles NE of Uam (34°43′N 127°48′E).
The route then leads NNW, through Yãsu Haeman for
7½ miles, to a position, in the entrance to Kwangyang
Hang, 7 cables ENE of Yãsu Oil Terminal (34°50′⋅6N
127°46′⋅9E).
2
Deep−water route. A deep-water route has been
established in the approaches to Kwangyang Hang. It leads
from a position 2¾ miles SW of Paek Sã through a
designated area (3.37) to the entrance to Kwangyang Hang;
the track is shown on the chart.
Topography
3.32
1
Yãsu Haeman (34°46′N 127°48′E) is an extensive inlet
between Tolsando (34°39′N 127°46′E) and Yãsu Pando on
the W side, and Namhaedo (34°48′N 127°55′E) on the E
side. At Kwangyang Hang, its head, the inlet divides into a
W and E arm. The W arm leads to Kwangyang Man
(34°53′N 127°40′E), and the E arm leads through Noryang
Sudo, the channel N of Namhaedo, into Chinju Man
(34°55′N 127°59′E).
2
Namhaedo is one of the largest of the islands lying off
the S coast of Korea, and it is mountainous. The E and W
portions of the island are connected by a high isthmus,
which is 1½ miles wide. On the S side of this isthmus lies
Aenggang Man (3.48) and on the N side, the S end of
Chinju Man (3.150).
Depths
3.33
1
There is a least charted depth of 20⋅6 m along the
deep-water route leading to Kwangyang Hang. The route
has also been swept to a depth of 18⋅0 m (1968).
Notice of ETA required
3.34
1
Vessels bound for Yãsu Hang (34°44′N 127°45′E) and
Kwangyang Hang (34°53′N 127°45′E) should send an ETA
72, 48, 24 and 12 hours in advance, so that arrangements
may be made for pilots, tugs, anchorage and berthing.
Pilotage
3.35
1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 grt in Yãsu
Haeman and for the ports of Yãsu Hang and Kwangyang
Hang. The pilot boards in the following positions:
Pilot boarding station No 1 (34°44′⋅4N 127°49′⋅4E),
for vessels less than 50 000 grt and draught of less
than 13 m.
2
Pilot boarding station No 2 (34°40′⋅4N 127°55′⋅5E),
for vessels of 50 000 grt or more and draught of
13 m or more.
CHAPTER 3
122
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Vessel traffic service
3.36
1
For information on the Yãsu Haeman Vessel Traffic
Service see 3.18.
Traffic regulations
3.37
1
Designated area. A designated area has been established
in Yãsu Haeman and its approaches, the limits of which
are shown on the chart. A deep-water route (3.31) runs
through this area. Vessels over 200 m in length,
deep-draught vessels, tugs towing and vessels carrying
dangerous cargoes must report to the VTS (3.18) at least
12 hours prior to entering the designated area.
2
Speed. Vessels must not exceed 12 kn in the N part of
the designated area between the latitudes of 34°45′⋅2N and
34°50′⋅7N.
Deep-water route. Vessels which do not need to use the
deep-water route when inward bound should keep to
starboard of the route. Vessels not limited by draught
should avoid vessels of deep-draught using the deep-water
route.
Fishing
3.38
1
Fish traps are laid up to 4 miles from the E side of
Tolsando (34°39′N 127°46′E); the limits of the area in
which they are laid is shown on the chart. Numerous fish
havens have been established along the shores of Yãsu
Haeman.
2
For further information see 1.15.
Natural conditions
3.39
1
Local magnetic anomaly. In 1976 a magnetic anomaly,
with compass deviations between 4°W and 20°E, was
reported to lie 9½ miles NW of Paek Sã (34°38′N
128°00′E).
Tidal streams between Tae Do (34°41′N 127°57′E) and
Yãsu Hang set NW and SE with rates of between 0⋅9 and
1⋅7 kn. In Yãsu Haeman the tidal streams set N with the
in-going tide and S with the out-going tide, attaining rates
of up to 2 kn.
Principal marks
3.40
1
Landmarks:
Kumosan (34°36′N 127°47′E) (3.22).
Pongsusan (34°39′⋅0N 127°45′⋅2E) (2.243).
Statue (34°44′⋅4N 127°45′⋅1E), 14 m in height, at
Yãsu Hang.
Mangunsan (34°50′⋅8N 127°50′⋅7E), with a television
tower (30 m high, red obstruction lights) on its
summit.
2
Chãnghwangsan (34°47′⋅6N 127°51′⋅4E), a barren
peak 395 m high.
A hill (34°45′⋅5N 127°51′⋅3E), 340 m high, which is
prominent from N or S.
Ungbongsan (34°44′⋅0N 127°53′⋅1E), standing on the
SW side of Namhaedo. It shows as a prominent
pointed peak from E and W.
3
Sorisan standing 8 cables E of Ungbongsan. Sorisan,
488 m high, with a tower on its summit, forms
part of a steep mountain range, the S side of
which slopes abruptly to the sea.
Ch’wongsan (34°43′⋅9N 127°58′⋅1E), a prominent
pointed peak 359 m high.
3.41
Major lights:
Tae Do Light (34°41′N 127°57′E) (3.22).
1
Odongdo Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 27 m
in height) (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E).
Other aids to navigation
3.42
1
Racons:
Paek Sã (34°38′N 128°00′E).
Yãsu Oehang Light-buoy (34°41′⋅7N 127°53′⋅0E).
Samgi Light-beacon (34°37′⋅9N 127°48′⋅9E).
Yãsu Oil Terminal Light-buoy (34°50′⋅3N
127°47′⋅1E).
2
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.24, 3.25 and 3.26)
Paek Sã to Yãsu Hang
3.43
1
From a position 3 miles SSW of Paek Sã (34°38′N
128°00′E) the track leads initially NNW, passing (with
positions relative to Odongdo Light (34°44′⋅6N
127°45′⋅0E)):
WSW of Paek Sã (13 miles SE) (3.24), from which a
light is exhibited and a racon (3.42) transmits,
thence:
2
WSW of Tae Do (10 miles SE), from which a light
(3.22) is exhibited. Tae Do is covered with
brushwood and is steep-to except off its NW side.
The track then leads NW, passing (with positions relative
to Odongdo Light):
Clear of a patch (6¼ miles SE), with a depth of
16⋅8 m over it, marked by a light-buoy (isolated
danger), thence:
3
NE of Taedan (5¼ miles SSE), a prominent point
69 m high, backed by several conical hills. A light
(white octagonal concrete tower, 13 m in height) is
exhibited from the point. Thence:
SW of the SW point (4½ miles ESE) of Namhaedo,
the SE side of which is fringed by drying rocks. A
light-buoy (starboard hand) is moored S of the
point. Thence:
4
NE of Oechido (3¼ miles SSE), which is one of the
largest islets lying in a bay on the NE side of
Tolsando, thence:
Tae Do from S (3.43)
(Original dated 1995)
CHAPTER 3
123
NE of a point (2¾ miles SSE), from which Tolsando
Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 9 m in
height) is exhibited.
5
The track then leads to a position about 1¾ miles NE of
Uam (2¼ miles SE). Uam is a white rock, 4 m high,
marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger); the rock is
steep-to.
(Directions continue for Yãsu Hang at 3.73)
Yãsu Hang to the entrance to Kwangyang Hang
3.44
1
From the position about 1¾ miles NE of Uam (34°43′N
127°48′E) the track leads NNW, through a channel marked
by light-bouys (lateral), passing (with positions relative to
Odongdo Light (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E)):
Through pilot boarding station No 1 (2½ miles E),
thence:
2
WSW of Hodusanmal (3½ miles ENE), from which
Pyãngsan Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m
in height) is exhibited. A 125 m high wooded hill
fronting a valley with mountains behind, thus
appearing isolated, stands close inside the point.
Thence:
3
ENE of Yangam (5 cables E), fronting the E side of
Odongdo. This drying reef is marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger). Thence:
WSW of Taemado (4 miles ENE), an islet 17 m high
surrounded by a fish haven; it is connected to
Namhaedo by a reef on which there are some
smaller islets. Thence:
4
WSW of another larger islet (4 miles NE), 35 m high,
thence:
ENE of Tunpyãngtan (2¾ miles N), a rock 4⋅4 m
high, and:
WSW of Samgi (4 miles NE), a steep-to reef with
three heads which dry; the highest is 3 m high.
The reef is marked by a light-beacon (isolated
danger) from which a racon (3.42) transmits.
Thence:
5
ENE of a wave recorder (3 miles N), connected to the
shore by a submarine cable, thence:
ENE of Paekdo (4½ miles N), a rock 22 m high, and:
WSW of the E coast of Namhaedo which is fringed
with numerous fish havens.
The track then leads to the vicinity of No 1 Fairway
Light-buoy, 7 cables ENE of Yãsu Oil Terminal
(6 miles N). Lights (yellow metal towers, 7 m in height) are
exhibited from the N and S ends of the terminal berth.
3.45
1
Useful marks:
Sapo Pier No 1 Light (yellow cross on metal tower,
4 m in height) (34°51′⋅5N 127°46′⋅5E), exhibited
from the head of a small pier.
Sapo Pier No 2 Light (yellow cross on metal tower,
4 m in height) (34°51′⋅7N 127°46′⋅4E).
2
Sangdan Light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in
height) (34°51′⋅4N 127°48′⋅5E), exhibited from the
E-most extremity of Namhaedo.
(Directions continue for Kwangyang Hang at 3.106)
Anchorages and minor bays
Outer anchorages
3.46
1
The following designated anchorages are available in the
outer approaches to Yãsu Haeman:
D-1, a quarantine anchorage, with a radius of
5½ cables centred on 34°39′⋅1N 127°57′⋅9E, and
depths from 26 to 27 m.
D-2, with a radius of 4 cables centred on 34°40′⋅2N
127°53′⋅9E, and a depth of 21⋅5 m.
Mokdo Man
3.47
1
Description. Mokdo Man (34°43′N 128°00′E) comprises
two bays lying between a promontory and a point 2 miles
WNW, on the S side of the E part of Namhaedo. Several
villages stand on the shores of the E bay and a town stands
at the head of the W bay.
2
The W bay is fronted by Mokdo, a steep-to, prominent
pointed islet, lying 6½ cables SE of the W entrance point
of Mokdo Man. Samsodo, an islet 31 m high, lies 5 cables
W of Mokdo.
Useful mark:
Kumsan Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in
height) (34°42′⋅6N 127°58′⋅9E) exhibited from the
W entrance point.
3
Caution. The approaches to the anchorages in Mokdo
Man, and the anchorages themselves, are encumbered by
fish havens.
Submarine cable. A submarine cable lands in the E bay
of Mokdo Man; for further information see 3.20.
4
Anchorage. The W bay of Mokdo Man is sheltered to
some extent from S by the islets and rocks lying SE and S
of the W entrance point but a heavy swell is experienced
here during S winds. Local vessels can obtain temporary
anchorage within the W bay in depths from 4 to 9 m.
5
Vessels may obtain anchorage in the E bay of Mokdo
Man, in depths from 5 to 16 m, sheltered from all winds
except the S.
Aenggang Man
3.48
1
Description. Aenggang Man (34°45′N 127°56′E) is
entered between Ojiamgi, a precipitous point over 100 m
high, and a point 3¼ miles WNW. On the E side of the
entrance lies Nodo, a small island with a wooded summit.
Within the bay towards its head, lies Hasã, a group of
rocks, the highest of which is 10 m high; the two W rocks
of the group are of a brownish colour. Mongyomdo, a
small islet 9 cables NNE of Hasã, is 18 m high and thickly
wooded at its summit.
2
Caution. The entrance to Aenggang Man is encumbered
by fish havens. A patch, which dries 0⋅6 m, lies close S of
the W entrance point; a light-buoy (starboard hand) is
moored close S of the patch.
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in the bay
sheltered from all winds except S, in depths from 7 to
15 m, over a bottom of mud. Vessels should anchor off the
village on the W side of the bay.
Tolsando
3.49
1
Anchorage is obtained by local vessels, except with NE
winds, in the outer part of the bay SW of Oechido
(34°41′⋅5N 127°47′⋅7E); there are depths of 6 m, over a
bottom of mud, in the anchorage.
Yãsu Haeman
3.50
1
The following designated anchorages, servicing Yãsu
Hang, are situated in Yãsu Haeman (positioned from
Odongdo Light (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E)):
CHAPTER 3
124
Area A (1½ miles N). For the use of vessels with a
draught of less than 8⋅0 m.
2
Area B (1¾ miles NNE). For the use of vessels with
draughts between 8 and 11 m.
Area C (1¼ miles ENE). For the use of vessels with
draughts between 11⋅0 and 14⋅5 m.
3
Area W (2 miles ESE). There is a quarantine
anchorage within anchorage area W, with a radius
of 4 cables.
YPSU HANG
General information
Chart 3391, Korean Chart W251 (see 1.22)
Position
3.51
1
Yãsu Hang (34°44′N 127°45′E) is situated at the SE
extremity of Yãsu Pando and is fronted by the N end of
Tolsando.
Function
3.52
1
Yãsu Hang is a major commercial port, fishing port and
a first port of call. Principal exports are cereals, apples and
cocoons; chief imports are general cargo, containers,
cement, and coal. In 2001 the city of Yãsu had a
population of about 325 000.
Port limits
3.53
1
The N limit of the port is defined by a line drawn 030°
from the E side of Odongdo (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E) for
8 cables, thence in the direction 286° to the mainland
shore. The SE limit of the port is a line drawn 238° from
the S side of Odongdo across Yãsu Haehyãp to the N
shore of Tolsando. Thence the S limit is a line drawn from
the NW extremity of Tolsando in a W direction across the
SW end of Yãsu Haehyãp to the mainland shore, close S
of a bridge.
Approach and entry
3.54
1
Yãsu Hang is approached from seaward through Yãsu
Haeman (3.32). The outer harbour of Yãsu Hang is entered
close N of Odongdo (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E); the old inner
harbour is entered through Yãsu Haehyãp, passing S of
Odongdo.
Traffic
3.55
1
The port handles about 2 400 000 tonnes of cargo
annually.
Port Authority
3.56
1
Address. Yãsu Regional Maritime Affairs & Fisheries
Office, 335−1 Sujeong-dong, Yãsu, Chollanam-do, Republic
of Korea.
Website. www.yosu.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
3.57
1
In Yãsu Haehyãp (34°44′N 127°45′W), which forms the
S and W part of Yãsu Hang, there are depths from 6 to
16 m in a 1 to 2 cables wide fairway.
Vertical clearances
3.58
1
Overhead cables. Two overhead cables, with vertical
clearances of 28 and 30 m, span the E end of Yãsu
Haehyãp in the vicinity of 34°44′⋅1N 127°45′⋅1E.
Bridge. The SW end of Yãsu Haehyãp, at its narrowest
point, is spanned by a bridge with a vertical clearance of
20 m. The bridge links the NW end of Tolsando with the
city of Yãsu.
Deepest and longest berth
3.59
1
The deepest berth is Berth 31 at No 3 Wharf (3.76); the
longest berths are Berth’s 11 and 12 at No 1 Wharf (3.76).
Tidal levels
3.60
1
Mean spring range about 3⋅1 m; mean neap range about
1⋅1 m. For further information see the Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Density of water
3.61
1
The density of the water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.62
1
Vessels up to 6000 tonnes are handled in Sin Hang the
outer and N part of Yãsu Hang.
Local weather and sea state
3.63
1
During summer and autumn, E winds predominate,
sometimes raising a heavy swell in Yãsu Hang. In spring,
S winds prevail and in winter W winds.
Outer Harbour (Sin Hang) of Yäsu Hang from NE (3.51)
(Original dated 1997)
CHAPTER 3
125
Gales are frequent during the spring and autumn
transition period between the winter and summer wind
patterns.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
3.64
1
Yãsu Hang is covered by the Yãsu Haeman vessel
traffic service. For further information see 3.18.
Notice of ETA required
3.65
1
See 3.34.
Outer anchorages
3.66
1
See 3.50.
Pilotage
3.67
1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 grt. For
further information see 3.35.
Tugs
3.68
1
Tugs are available.
Quarantine
3.69
1
Quarantine authorities must be informed by the agent of
a vessel’s ETA 24 hours before arrival. Free pratique is
automatic if coming from another Korean port. For
quarantine anchorages see 3.46 and 3.50.
Harbour
General layout
3.70
1
Yãsu Hang consists of Sin Hang (34°45′N 127°45′E),
the outer and newer harbour, and Ku Hang (34°44′N
127°44′E), the old harbour lying within Yãsu Haehyãp. Ku
Hang functions mainly as a fishing port.
Sin Hang is protected by a breakwater joining Odongdo
(34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E) to the shore SW and by a
breakwater extending 3 cables NNE from the NW point of
the island.
2
A third breakwater extends E from the shore about
9 cables NW of Odongdo, then SE and ESE. The
commercial berths are situated at three wharves on the N
and S sides of Sin Hang.
Between the commercial berths, on the W side, there is
a L-shaped, detached breakwater situated a short distance
from the shore.
Tidal streams
3.71
1
The tidal streams in Yãsu Haehyãp set W with the
in-going tide and E with the out-going tide. The streams
are strong, attaining a rate of 3¾ kn with the out-going
tide; the rate of the in-going tide is less than the out-going
tide. Eddies occur on the N side of the strait during the
out-going tide, and, with NE winds there is a confused sea.
2
In consequence of the reclamation work that has been
carried out on both sides of the strait, it is reported that the
rate of the tidal streams is increasing; it has also been
reported that at springs the tidal streams have attained a
rate of over 6 kn for about 1 hour. Thus vessels should
enter or leave Yãsu Haehyãp when the stream is slack.
3
Tidal streams in Sin Hang are negligible.
Principal marks
3.72
1
Landmarks (positioned from Odongdo Light (34°44′⋅6N
127°45′⋅0E)):
Two round concrete silos (6½ cables WSW).
Statue (9 cables WSW) (3.40).
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) (1½ miles SW).
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) (1½ miles WSW).
2
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) (2½ miles WNW).
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) (1¼ miles WNW).
Major light:
3
Odongdo Light (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E) (3.41).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.43)
Sin Hang
3.73
1
From a position about 1¾ miles NE of Uam (34°43′N
127°48′E) the track leads NW, passing (with positions
relative to Odongdo Light (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E)):
NE of Yangam (5 cables E) (3.44), thence:
NE of Odongdo, from which a light (3.41) is
exhibited. Odongdo is a wooded flat island, 45 m
high, joined to the mainland by a breakwater.
2
The track then rounds the breakwater extending NNE
from Odongdo and leads SSW into the harbour; a
light-buoy is moored close NNE of this breakwater. Within
the harbour attention is drawn to a rock (3 cables NW),
with a depth of 4⋅8 m over it, on the E side, and to a patch
(7 cables NW), with a depth of 4⋅5 m over it; the patch is
marked by a light-buoy (isolated danger).
3
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(34°45′⋅1N 127°45′⋅7E) exhibited from the head of
the N breakwater.
Lights (N end: white round concrete tower; 8 m in
height. S end: red round concrete tower; 10 m in
height) exhibited from the N and S ends of the
detached breakwater within the harbour.
Yãsu Haehyãp
3.74
1
From a position about 1¾ miles NE of Uam (34°43′N
127°48′E) the track leads W, passing (with positions
relative to Odongdo Light (34°44′⋅6N 127°45′⋅0E)):
N of Uam (2¼ miles SE) (3.43), thence:
2
S of Yangam (5 cables E) (3.44), thence:
S of Odongdo (3.73), thence:
Between the SE extremity of Yãsu Pando (1 mile
SW) and the N side of Tolsando, thence:
Clear of a shoal (1½ miles SW), with a least depth of
3⋅9 m over it.
3
The track then leads SSW and S, passing W of
Changgundo (1¾ miles SW) and thence under the bridge
(1¾ miles SW) connecting Tolsando with Yãsu, into the
NE end of Kamak Yang (2.237). The fishing harbour of
Kuk’dong Hang (2.254) lies close SW of the bridge.
4
Useful marks:
Light (white round GRP structure, 7 m in height)
(34°44′⋅3N 127°44′⋅0E) exhibited from the head a
pier on the NW side of Ku Hang.
CHAPTER 3
126
Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 10 m in
height) (34°44′⋅0N 127°44′⋅2E) exhibited from the
N side of Changgundo.
(Directions for a passage through Kamak Yang
are given in reverse at 2.245)
Basins and berths
Inner anchorage
3.75
1
Although there are no dangers in Yãsu Haehyãp, with
the exception of the shoal, with a least depth of 3⋅9 m over
it, 2 cables NE of Changgundo (34°44′⋅0N 127°44′⋅2E),
vessels are recommended not to anchor W of the S
extremity of Yãsu Pando as the holding ground is not good
and the tidal streams are strong.
Sin Hang
3.76
1
Sin Hang contains three berthing areas as follows:
No 1 Wharf on the N side. Two berths with a total
length of 290 m; depths from 5⋅3 to 6⋅3 m
alongside.
No 2 Wharf on the W side. Consists of one berth
121 m long for domestic vessels; depth of 4⋅8 m
alongside.
2
No 3 Wharf on the S side. Five berths with a total
length of 819 m; depths from 4⋅9 to 6⋅3 m
alongside.
Ku Hang
3.77
1
In Ku Hang several wharves line the N and W shores,
off some of which there are pontoons. Charted depths
alongside vary from 2⋅7 to 3⋅4 m.
It is reported that at the more exposed berths, at times
of HW and LW, the tidal streams make it difficult for
vessels of less than 50 tonnes to secure alongside.
Port services
Repairs
3.78
1
There are several shipyards at Yãsu Hang; minor repairs
can be undertaken.
Other facilities
3.79
1
Deratting and Deratting Exemption Certificates issued;
floating crane with a capacity of 30 tonnes; oily waste
reception facilities available.
Supplies
3.80
1
Fuel oil, fresh water and provisions are available.
Communications
3.81
1
Yãsu Airport, 20 km distant from the port.
KWANGYANG HANG
General information
Charts 3390, 3391, Korean Chart W256 (see 1.22)
Position
3.82
1
Kwangyang Hang (34°53′N 127°45′E) is situated at the
head of Yãsu Haeman and encompasses Kwangyang Man
to the W. The berths at Hadong Power Station (34°57′N
127°49′E), NE of Kwangyang Hang, are also included
within the following description of Kwangyang Hang.
Function
3.83
1
Kwangyang Hang is a major commercial port with
terminals serving the petroleum and steel industries, along
with extensive facilities for handling containers. To the N
of the port, 3½ miles inland, lies the city of Kwangyang,
with a population of about 138 267 in 1999; the city is the
seat of local government.
Topography
3.84
1
Kwangyang Hang is protected to the S by the peninsula
of Yãsu Pando, which extends 6 miles SSE from the
mainland and thence E for 6 miles. The large island of
Namhaedo (3.32) shelters the port from the E. Kwangyang
Man, an extensive basin which forms the main part of
Kwangyang Hang, is entered between Nakpogak (34°51′⋅6N
127°46′⋅5E), the NE extremity of Yãsu Pando, and
reclaimed land, 1½ miles N.
2
The main feature within Kwangyang Man is the island
of Myodo, 247 m high, lying in the E part; to the W of the
West entrance point of Kwangyang Hang from E (3.82)
(Original dated 1997)
CHAPTER 3
127
island the bay is shallow. Myodo is separated from the N
coast of Yãsu Pando by Myodo Sudo, a narrow channel
which is encumbered by several islets and shoals towards
its W end.
Port limits
3.85
1
The port limits of Kwangyang Hang are shown on the
charts.
Approach and entry
3.86
1
Kwangyang Hang is approached from seaward through
Yãsu Haeman (3.32) and is entered between Nakpogak
(34°51′⋅6N 127°46′⋅5E) and Sangdan, 1¾ miles E. Within
the port a system of safety fairways have been established
which lead to the various berthing complexes.
Traffic
3.87
1
In 2002 the port handled 75 889 000 tonnes of cargo,
including 1 125 549 teu’s.
Port Authority
3.88
1
Address. Yãsu Regional Maritime Affairs & Fisheries
Office, 335−1 Sujeong-dong, Yãsu, Chollanam-do, Republic
of Korea.
Website. www.yosu.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
3.89
1
The least charted depths within the fairways and
channels of Kwangyang Hang are as follows:
Fairway No 1 (34°51′⋅4N 127°47′⋅3E); 27⋅0 m in
centre of fairway.
Fairway No 2 (34°52′⋅0N 127°45′⋅6E); 13⋅4 m in
centre of fairway.
Myodo Sudo (34°52′⋅0N 127°44′⋅0E); 8⋅1 m at the W
end.
2
Fairway No 3 (34°52′⋅6N 127°45′⋅5E); 22⋅5 m in the
centre of fairway.
Fairway No 4 (34°52′⋅7N 127°46′⋅1E); 14⋅6 m in the
centre of fairway.
Container terminal approach (34°54′⋅6N 127°42′⋅0E);
14⋅0 m.
3
Channel leading to the HYSCO Berth (34°55′⋅0N
127°35′⋅7E), at the NW end of Kwangyang Man;
5⋅8 m.
Channel leading to the berths at Taeindo (34°56′⋅2N
127°46′⋅1E); 9⋅0 m.
Channel leading to Hadong Power Station (34°56′⋅7N
127°49′⋅4E); 15⋅1 m.
Vertical clearance
3.90
1
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
25 m, spans Myodo Sudo from the S extremity of Myodo
(34°53′N 127°43′E) to Mokdo, 2 cables S, and thence to
the N coast of Yãsu Pando, a farther 3 cables S.
Deepest and longest berth
3.91
1
Honam Oil Refinery Crude Oil Wharf Berth No 2
(34°51′⋅3N 127°46′⋅7E) (3.114).
Tidal levels
3.92
1
Mean spring range about 3⋅2 m; mean neap range about
1⋅2 m. For further information see the relevant edition of
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.93
1
The port can handle bulk carriers of 250 000 dwt, oil
tankers up to 320 000 dwt, container vessels of 12 000 teu
capacity and general cargo vessels up to 20 000 dwt.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
3.94
1
Kwangyang Hang is covered by the Yãsu Haeman
Vessel Traffic Service. For further information see 3.18.
Notice of ETA required
3.95
1
See 3.34.
Outer anchorages
3.96
1
See 3.50.
Pilotage
3.97
1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 grt. For
further information see 3.35.
Tugs
3.98
1
Tugs are available.
Quarantine
3.99
1
See 3.69.
Harbour
General layout
3.100
1
The terminals and berths of Kwangyang Hang are
arranged along the N shore of Yãsu Pando, from Yãsu Oil
Terminal (34°50′⋅7N 127°46′⋅9E) to Chunghung 5½ miles
W, and along the large areas of reclaimed land fronting the
mainland to the N.
2
There are also outlying berthing areas at HYSCO
(34°55′⋅0N 127°35′⋅7E), at the NW end of Kwangyang
Man, at Taeindo (34°56′⋅2N 127°46′⋅1E) in the NNE part
of Kwangyang Hang, and at Hadong Power Station
(34°56′⋅7N 127°49′⋅4E), 5 miles NE of Kwangyang Hang.
Development
3.101
1
In 2004 extensive reclamation work was in progress on
the S side of Kwangyang Man, in the vicinity of the Yãsu
National Industrial Complex (34°50′⋅4N 127°39′⋅5E). A
second container terminal is also being built on the N side
of Kwangyang Hang, close SW of the present one.
Ferry services
3.102
1
A ferry crosses the channel between the S coast of
Myodo (34°53′N 127°43′E) and Yãsu Pando, 8 cables SSE,
passing W of Mokdo and E of Sodangdo. There is also a
ferry service linking Hapo (34°54′⋅4N 127°40′⋅1E), at the
SW end of Kwangyang Container Terminal, with Dodokp’o
on the NW side of Myodo.
CHAPTER 3
128
Tidal streams
3.103
1
Myodo Sudo (34°52′⋅0N 127°44′⋅0E). The tidal streams
in Myodo Sudo flow W on the in-going tide and E on the
out-going tide. The out-going tidal stream is the strongest
with rates from 0⋅5 to 2⋅2 kn.
Taedo Kundo (34°55′⋅5N 127°49′⋅8E). Tidal streams
near the S end of Taedo Kundo set N with the in-going
tide and S with the out-going tide, attaining a rate of 2 kn.
Principal marks
3.104
1
Landmark:
Ponghwasan (34°53′⋅1N 127°42′⋅2E), the 247 m high
summit of Myodo.
Major lights:
Nakp’o Ri Directional Light (white metal post, 35 m
in height) (34°51′⋅8N 127°45′⋅8E) on Yãsu Pando.
Yudumal Directional Light (white metal post, 34 m in
height) (34°53′⋅2N 127°44′⋅4E) on Myodo.
Other aids to navigation
3.105
1
Racons:
Nakp’o Ri Directional Light (34°51′⋅8N 127°45′⋅8E).
Dolphin A Samnam Wharf (34°51′⋅7N 127°42′⋅4E).
Kwangyang Hang Light-beacon (34°52′⋅9N
127°45⋅6E).
2
Yudumal Directional Light (34°53′⋅2N 127°44′⋅4E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Directions for berths north and west of Myodo
(continued from 3.45)
Pohang Steel Company (POSCO) wharves via
Fairway 3 deep−water route
3.106
1
From the vicinity of No 1 Fairway Light-buoy
(34°50′⋅8N 127°47′⋅7E), 7 cables ENE of Yãsu Oil
Terminal, the track leads initially NNW for about 6 cables,
passing ESE of Sangdan (34°51′⋅4N 127°48′⋅5E), from
which a light (3.45) is exhibited.
Thence the white sector (304⋅2°−305⋅8°) of Yudumal
Directional Light (34°53′⋅2N 127°44′⋅4E) (3.104) leads NW
through Fairway No 1, passing (with positions relative to
Nakp’o Ri Directional Light (34°51′⋅8N 127°45′⋅8E)
(3.104)):
2
NE of Honam Oil Refinery Crude Oil Wharf
(9 cables SE) (3.114), thence:
NE of Sapo No’s 1 and 2 Piers (3.114) at Nakpogak
(6 cables ESE). Lights (3.45) are exhibited from
two dolphins, close SSE and NNW of Sapo No 1
Pier. Thence:
NE of LG Caltex Energy Wharf (2 cables E) (3.114).
3
The track then continues through Fairway No 3, marked
by numbered light-buoys (lateral) to a position 1 mile SE
of Yudumal Directional Light (1¾ miles NW). Thence the
track leads NNW, within the white sector (162⋅6°−164⋅2°),
astern, of Nakp’o Ri Directional Light, passing (with
positions relative to Nakp’o Ri Directional Light):
4
ENE of Norangyã (1¼ miles NNW), a rock lying on
the edge of the shoal water extending E from the
E side of Myodo. The rock is marked on its E
side by No 9 Light-buoy (port hand). And:
WSW of an isolated rock (1 mile N) marked by
Kwangyang Hang Light-beacon (red round
concrete tower, 24 m in height), thence:
5
ENE of Yudumal (1½ miles NNW), the E extremity
of Myodo, thence:
ENE of Sansãng (1¾ miles NNW), the NE extremity
of Myodo.
The track then leads to a position about 5 cables NNE
of Sansãng, adjacent to the POSCO Raw Materials Wharf
(3.117).
(Directions continue for Kwangyang Container
Terminal and HYSCO Berth at 3.108)
Alternative route to Pohang Steel Company wharves
via Fairway 4
3.107
1
From the vicinity of No 1 Fairway Light-buoy
(34°50′⋅8N 127°47′⋅7E), 7 cables ENE of Yãsu Oil
Terminal, the track initially follows the directions given at
3.106 until a position is reached about 5 cables NE of Sapo
No 1 and 2 Piers (3.114) at Nakpogak (34°51′⋅6N
127°46′⋅5E).
2
The track then continues NW through Fairway 4,
marked by numbered light-buoys (lateral), passing (with
positions relative to Nakp’o Ri Directional Light
(34°51′⋅8N 127°45′⋅8E) (3.104)):
NE of an isolated rock (1 mile N) marked by
Kwangyang Hang Light-beacon (3.106), thence:
3
SW of a shoal (1½ miles N), with a depth of 5⋅0 m
over it, marked on its S side by No 44 Light-buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
SW of Chijin Do (1¾ miles N), a headland 22 m high
forming the SW end of the reclaimed land on the
E side of Kwangyang Hang.
4
The track then leads to a position about 5 cables NNE
of Sansãng, adjacent to the POSCO Raw Materials Wharf
(3.117).
Pohang Steel Company wharves to Hyundai Steel
Company (HYSCO) Berth
(continued from either 3.106 or 3.107)
3.108
1
From the position 5 cables NNE of Sansãng (34°53′⋅5N
127°44′⋅7E) the track leads WNW, passing:
NNE of the N side of Myodo; light-buoys mark the
edge of the shoal bank fringing the island in
places. And:
SSW of the POSCO steelworks, the wharves of which
extend for 2½ miles in a WNW/ESE direction.
2
The track then leads to a position 4 cables SSW of the
Administration Wharf (34°54′⋅8N 127°42′⋅5E) at the W end
of the POSCO steelworks, from where the berths at
Kwangyang Hang Container Terminal (3.118) are directly
accessible.
3
The track then continues SW through a narrow fairway,
marked by numbered light-buoys (lateral), for 3½ miles to
a position about 3 cables S of land being reclaimed for a
second container terminal, and then generally NW for a
farther 2½ miles, passing between the reclaimed land to the
NE and Songdo to the SW, to the HYSCO Berth
(34°55′⋅0N 127°35′⋅7E) (3.119).
4
Useful mark:
Light (yellow steel pillar, 7 m in height) exhibited
from the S end of the HYSCO Berth.
CHAPTER 3
129
Directions for berths south
and south−west of Myodo
Myodo Sudo
3.109
1
From the vicinity of No 1 Fairway Light-buoy
(34°50′⋅8N 127°47′⋅7E), 7 cables ENE of Yãsu Oil
Terminal, the track initially follows the directions given at
3.106 until a position is reached about 4 cables NE of LG
Caltex Energy Wharf (34°51′⋅8N 127°46′⋅1E).
2
The track then leads W through Fairway No 2 into
Myodo Sudo, which is marked by light-buoys (lateral),
passing (with positions relative to Nakp’o Ri Directional
Light (34°51′⋅8N 127°45′⋅8E)):
N of LG Caltex Energy Wharf (3 cables E) (3.114),
thence:
N of Nakpo Wharf (close N & W) (3.114), thence:
3
N of the entrance (1¼ miles W) to the channel
leading to Honam Hwaryok Coal Pier (3.115)
fronting part of the industrial complex at
Wolnae-ri, thence:
N of the LG Caltex Product Wharf (1½ miles W)
(3.115) extending 4½ cables W, and:
S of Songdo (1½ to 1¾ miles WNW), thence:
4
N of Mokdo (2¼ miles W), thence:
S of Sodangdo (2½ miles W), a small islet, steep-to
on its S side; a bank, with a rock on it which dries
0⋅1 m, extends 4½ cables W from the islet.
Thence:
5
N of Samnan Wharf (2¾ miles W) (3.115), from
which lights (yellow metal posts, 4 m in height)
are exhibited, thence:
N of Usundo (3¼ miles W), forming the NW
extremity of reclaimed land; it is marked on its N
side by No 15 Light-buoy (port hand).
6
The track then leads SSW, through a channel marked by
light-buoys (lateral), for a distance of 1¾ miles to
Chunghung Pier (4½ miles WSW) (3.116).
Channel to Honam Hwaryok Coal Pier
3.110
1
From a position in Myodo Sudo 2 cables NE of the E
end of LG Caltex Product Wharf (34°51′⋅8N 127°43′⋅9E)
the alignment (201°) of the following leading lights leads
2½ cables SSW into a channel, marked by numbered
light-buoys (lateral):
2
Front light (white framework tower, 24 m in height)
(34°51′⋅2N 127°127°44′⋅0E).
Rear light (white framework tower, 27 m in height)
(½ cable SSW from front light).
3
Thence the alignment (180°) of the following second set
of leading lights leads S, for a farther 3½ cables to the coal
pier:
Front light (white metal framework tower, 20 m in
height) (34°51′⋅3N 127°44′⋅2E).
Rear light (white metal framework tower, 26 m in
height) (160 m S from front light).
Directions for berths at Taeindo
and Hadong Power Station
Kwangyang Hang entrance to Pmsudo
3.111
1
From a position, in the vicinity of No 1 Fairway
Light-buoy (34°50′⋅8N 127°47′⋅7E), 7 cables ENE of Yãsu
Oil Terminal, the track leads initially NNE through a
channel marked by numbered light-buoys (lateral), passing
(with positions relative to Umso Light (34°53′⋅2N
127°48′⋅8E)):
2
WNW of Sangdan (1¾ miles S), from which a light
(3.45) is exhibited, thence:
WNW of a rock (1¼ miles S), fronted by a fish
haven, with a depth of 4⋅2 m over it, thence:
WNW of a patch (3½ cables S), with a depth of
5⋅0 m over it.
3
The track then leads N, passing W of Umso, a rock
which dries 2⋅5 m, to a position about 7 cables W of
Pmsudo (1¼ miles NNE). A light (triangle on red round
concrete tower, 9 m in height) is exhibited from Umso.
For vessels bound for the berths at Taeindo (3.121) the
track leads NW for 3 miles through a narrow channel
marked by numbered light-buoys (lateral), between the
reclaimed land SW and the drying flat NE.
4
Useful mark:
Umsudo Light (triangle on red round concrete tower,
9 m in height) (34°54′⋅6N 127°49′⋅5E).
Pmsudo to Hadong Power Station
3.112
1
From the position about 7 cables W of Pmsudo the track
continues N through a channel, marked by numbered
light-buoys (lateral), for a farther 5 cables, and thence
NNE, passing (with positions relative to Byãnwoldo
(34°55′⋅9N 127°49′⋅5E)):
ESE of a large drying flat (8 cables WSW), thence:
2
WNW of Pnanjodo (1 mile S), a group of three small
islets, surrounded by drying reefs, thence:
WNW of Byãnwoldo, the W-most islet of Taedo
Kundo which is a group of islets and reefs lying
on a flat, extending 2¼ miles NE. Taedo is 46 m
high and lies near the middle of the group.
3
The track then leads directly to the berths at Hadong
Power Station (7 cables N) (3.122).
Useful marks:
Light (yellow round concrete tower, 4 m in height)
(34°56′⋅5N 127°49′⋅3E) exhibited from the SW
berth at Hadong Power station.
4
Light (yellow metal post, 5 m in height) exhibited
from the S end of the middle berth at Hadong
Power Station.
Light (yellow metal post, 5 m in height) exhibited
from the N end of the middle berth at Hadong
Power Station.
5
Hadong Hukki Light (34°56′⋅7N 127°50′⋅0E) (3.151).
(Directions continue for the W entrance to
Chinju Man at 3.151)
Berths
Chart 3390
Anchorages
3.113
1
Anchorages north−north−east of Fairway 1.
Anchorages No’s 1 to 6, for vessels from 5000 to
50 000 grt, are situated NNE of Fairway 1. No 1 (34°51′⋅9N
127°47′⋅7E) is the largest, with a depth of 17 m and radius
350 m. Positions and depths of the others are shown on the
chart.
2
Myodo Sudo. This channel contains anchorages No’s 7
to 10. No’s 7 to 9, for vessels up 1000 grt, are situated at
the E end of Myodo Sudo; No’s 10 to 11, for vessels up to
3000 grt, are at the W end. No 9 (34°52′⋅1N 127°44′⋅1E) is
the deepest, with a depth of 13 m. Positions and depths of
the others are shown on the chart.
CHAPTER 3
130
The holding ground is good but the tidal streams are
strong.
3
North−west of Myodo. There are three anchorages, No’s
12 to 14, for vessels up to 3000 grt, NW of Myodo. The
deepest is No 14 (34°54′⋅1N 127°42′⋅3E), with depths from
14 to 16 m. Positions and depths of the others are shown
on the chart.
Hadong Power Station (34°56′⋅7N 127°49′⋅4E). There
is an anchorage area close off the berths, with charted
depths from 16 to 23 m.
North−east part of Yãsu Pando
3.114
1
The following terminals are situated along the NE shore
of Yãsu Pando (positioned from Nakp’o Ri Directional
Light (34°51′⋅8N 127°45′⋅8E)):
Yãsu Oil Terminal (1½ miles SE), used for the import
of crude oil; length of berth 480 m with a depth of
23⋅5 m alongside.
2
Honam Oil Refinery Crude Oil Wharf (1 mile SE).
Consists of two berths, No 2 being the largest;
length 481 m, depth alongside 23⋅5 m, handling
vessels up to 320 000 dwt.
Sapo No’s 1 and 2 Piers (6 cables ESE). No 1 Pier is
the longest with a length of 319 m; there are
charted depths of 16⋅1 m alongside both piers.
Chemicals, petroleum products, salt and containers
are handled.
3
LG Caltex Energy (2 cables E), consisting of two
berths for the handling of LPG; outer berth 333 m
long with a depth of 13 m alongside.
Nakpo Wharf (close N). This terminal, with five
numbered berths, handles fertilizers and chemicals
from vessels up to 50 000 tonnes. The longest
berths are No’s 1-3; length 540 m with depths up
to 14⋅0 m alongside.
Myodo Sudo
3.115
1
The following terminals are situated on the S side of
Myodo Sudo (positioned from Sodangdo (34°52′⋅0N
127°42′⋅8E)):
Honam Hwaryok Coal Pier (1¼ miles SE). The berth,
which handles soft coal, is 185 m long with a
depth of 7⋅4 m alongside.
2
LG Caltex Product Wharf (8 cables ESE). Consists of
seven berths, from 107 to 260 m in length,
handling petroleum products. Depths alongside
vary from 5⋅6 to 13⋅0 m.
Kosmos Wharf (5 cables S); length 110 m with a
depth of 6⋅0 m alongside. Used for loading and
discharging LPG and chemicals.
3
Samnam Wharf (5 cables SW); length 120 m with a
depth of 6⋅5 m alongside. The berth handles nitric
acid.
Chunghung Pier
3.116
1
Chunghung Pier (34°50′⋅6N 127°40′⋅5E), situated on the
S side of Kwangyang Man, contains five numbered berths
each about 300 m in length; depths from 6⋅6 to 8⋅5 m
alongside. The terminal handles chemicals such as ethylene
and soda lye.
Pohang Steel Company (POSCO)
3.117
1
At the Pohang Steel Company complex (34°54′⋅5N
127°44′⋅1E) on the N side of Kwangyang Hang there are
three main wharves, with an Administration Wharf at the
W end, as follows (positioned from Sansãng (34°53′⋅5N
127°44′⋅7E)):
Chijin Wharf (1¼ miles NE), at the E end, aligned
N/S. Consists of two berths, 320 m long with a
charted depth of 10⋅6 m alongside. Used for
general cargo.
2
Raw materials wharf (8½ cables NNE). Five berths
totalling 1800 m in length; depths alongside vary
from 15⋅0 to 22⋅5 m.
Products wharf (1½ miles NW). Ten berths totalling
1980 m in length; depths alongside vary from 7 to
14 m. There is a Ro-Ro berth at the E end of this
wharf.
Kwangyang Hang Container Terminal
3.118
1
Kwangyang Hang Container Terminal (34°54′⋅6N
127°41′⋅0E) is situated on the N side of Kwangyang Man.
It consists of eight berths with a total length of 2550 m;
depths alongside vary from 12 to 15 m.
Hyundai Steel Company (HYSCO)
3.119
1
The HYSCO Berth (34°55′⋅0N 127°35′⋅7E) is situated in
the NW part of Kwangyang Hang. There is a charted depth
of 5⋅8 m off the wharf; no other details known.
Kwangyang Hang LNG Terminal
3.120
1
Kwangyang Hang LNG Terminal (34°53′⋅0N 127°47′⋅5E)
is situated on reclaimed land SE of the Pohang Steel
Company complex. It consists of a pier extending 4 cables
ESE from the shore with a berth at its head with dolphins.
There is a charted depth of 14⋅0 m off the berth.
Taeindo
3.121
1
On the SE side of Taeindo (34°56′⋅2N 127°46′⋅1E) there
is a wharf, aligned N/S, with five numbered berths. There
are chartered depths from 9⋅1 to 9⋅3 m alongside; no other
details known.
Hadong Power Station Terminal
3.122
1
Hadong Power Station Terminal (34°56′⋅7N 127°49′⋅4E)
contains three berths. There are charted depths from 25 to
26 m alongside; no other details known.
Port services
Repairs
3.123
1
There are repair facilities at Yãsu Hang (3.78).
Other facilities
3.124
1
Medical facilities available.
Supplies
3.125
1
Fuel oil, fresh water and provisions are available
provided advanced notice is given.
Communications
3.126
1
The nearest airport is at Yãsu.
CHAPTER 3
131
INSHORE ROUTE — PAEK SP
TO TUMI DO
General information
Chart 3391
Route
3.127
1
From a position 3 miles SSW of Paek Sã (34°38′N
128°00′E) the route leads initially NE, for 7 miles, to a
position about 2 miles NE of Kudol Sã (34°37′N
128°07′E). The route then leads NNE, for a farther
6½ miles, to a position 2½ miles NW of the NW end of
Tumi Do (34°42′N 128°11′E).
Tidal streams
3.128
1
The tidal streams N of a line joining Paek Sã and Kudol
Sã, 6 miles E, set WNW and NE at a rate of ¾ kn.
Principal marks
3.129
1
Landmarks:
Ch’wongsan (34°43′⋅9N 127°58′⋅1E) (3.40).
Kumsan (34°45′⋅3N 127°59′′7E), 666 m high, black
and rocky.
A hill (34°42′⋅8N 128°02′⋅1E), 286 m high, with a
pointed peak and a stone enclosure.
2
Major light:
Tae Do Light (34°41′N 127°57′E) (3.22).
Other aid to navigation
3.130
1
Racon:
Paek Sã (34°38′N 128°00′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.24, 3.25 and 3.26)
3.131
1
From a position 3 miles SSW of Paek Sã (34°38′N
128°00′E) the track leads initially NE, passing (with
positions relative to Paek Sã):
SE of Paek Sã (3.24), from which a light is exhibited
and a racon transmits, thence:
2
SE of two large fish havens (2 miles NE) fronting the
S side of Mijo Kundo which is a group of islets
lying off the SE end of Namhaedo, thence:
NW of Kudol Sã (6¼ miles) (3.26), from which a
light is exhibited.
3
The track then leads NNE, passing (with positions
relative to Paek Sã):
ESE of Kodo (4½ miles NE), the SE islet of Mijo
Kundo. A light-beacon (red round concrete, 15 m
high) stands on a small rock off the S side of the
islet. Thence:
4
ESE of a fish haven (5½ miles NE) fronting the E
islets of Mijo Kundo, thence:
ESE of Tongpajãngmal (5¾ miles NNE), the E point
of the peninsula forming the SE extremity of
Namhaedo; it is 91 m high, precipitous and almost
steep-to.
5
The track then leads to a position 2½ miles NW of the
NW end of Tumi Do (10 miles ENE), a rugged island;
from its summit, which is covered with grass, it slopes
steeply to the coast. There is a village on a gravel beach
on the N side of the island. A steep, black rock 65 m high,
lies close SW of the SE end of Tumi Do.
3.132
1
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in height)
exhibited from the NNW side of Tumi Do.
(Directions continue for the approach to Samch’ãnp’o
Hang at 3.140, and for an inshore route E at 3.178)
Minor harbour and anchorages
Chart 3391, Korean Chart No 260 plan of Mijo Hang (see 1.22)
Mijo Hang
3.133
1
Description. Mijo Hang (34°43′N 128°03′E) consists of
two fishing harbours, N and S, separated by the narrow
neck of the peninsula forming the SE extremity of
Namhaedo. Tongpajãngmal (3.131) is the E point of the
peninsula. The S and largest of the two harbours is
approached through Mijo Sudo.
2
Mijo Sudo lies between the SE side of Namhaedo and
Yedo (34°41′⋅5N 128°02′⋅1E) on the NW side, and Chodo
and Hodo, on the SE side; it has a least width of 3 cables
and a least depth of 21 m in the fairway. A clump of trees
is reported to stand on the summit of Hodo. Chodo,
2 cables N of Hodo and the N islet of Mijo Kundo, is 96 m
high. There is a small village on the W side of Chodo.
3
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 29 m, spans Mijo Sudo between
Chodo (34°42′N 128°03′E) and Namhaedo, 3 cables NW.
Tidal streams in Mijo Sudo set W with the in-going
tide and E with the out-going tide, turning at about the
time of HW and LW. The rate of the streams at the E
entrance is about 1 kn, and at the W entrance about 2 kn.
In the vicinity of the W entrance overfalls occur when the
tidal streams attain their maximum rate.
4
Harbours. The N harbour, Buk Hang, is protected by a
breakwater extending a short distance NW from its E
entrance point. Although there is a depth of 7⋅0 m in the
middle, the shores of this harbour dry out, making it only
suitable for boats.
The S harbour, Nam Hang, is the main harbour and it is
protected by two breakwaters with a narrow entrance
between them. Inside, in the middle of the harbour, there is
a rocky shoal, with a least depth of 0⋅2 m over it.
5
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater of
Nam Hang.
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater of
Nam Hang.
Light (white round concrete tower, 6 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater in Buk
Hang.
6
Berths. The main berthing area in Nam Hang, is on the
N side of the harbour where there are quays with charted
depths from 0⋅5 to 4⋅7 m alongside. There is also another
quay on the E side, with a charted depth of 0⋅9 m
alongside.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel available only for fishing
boats.
Anchorage
3.134
1
Anchorage may be obtained by local vessels in a bay
(34°42′⋅2N 128°01′⋅8E), entered 1½ miles WSW of
Tongpajãngmal (3.131). A village stands on the E side of
CHAPTER 3
132
the head of the bay. There is a depth of 5⋅0 m in the
anchorage; care should be taken when approaching the
anchorage to avoid fish havens and a detached reef which
dries 3⋅1 m lying in the middle of the entrance.
Mijo Man
3.135
1
Description. Mijo Man is entered between
Tongpajãngmal (3.131) and a point 2¼ miles N. The N
harbour of Mijo Hang (3.133) is situated on the S side of
the bay, 4½ cables SW of the island of Mijodo; this island
has a densely wooded summit and is steep-to. Tudo,
another island, lies off the N entrance point; it has a flat
summit and is partly cultivated, but the E end of the island
is wooded.
2
Useful mark:
Light (3.133) exhibited from the breakwater in the N
harbour of Mijo Hang.
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in a depth of
16 m, over a bottom of mud, 3½ cables N of Mijodo, but it
is open to the E. Local knowledge is required.
SAMCH’PNP’O HANG AND APPROACHES
INCLUDING CHINJU MAN
General information
Chart 3391
Route
3.136
1
From a position 2½ miles NW of the NW end of Tumi
Do (34°42′N 128°11′E) the route leads NNW for 8 miles,
passing between the islands S of Samch’ãnp’o Hang, to the
pilot boarding area, 2½ miles WSW of Yulpomal (34°53′N
128°08′E).
Topography
3.137
1
Ch’angsãndo (34°52′N 128°01′E), fronting the SW side
of the approaches to Samch’ãnp’o Hang, is a much
indented island, except on its W side. The bays along the
coast of the island are shallow and are of no use as
anchorages; the E and W portions of the island are joined
together by a low isthmus 1 mile wide.
2
Ch’angsãndo is surmounted by several hills, with
Taebangsan (3.139) on the SW side being the highest.
Kuksabong (34°52′N 128°04′E), on the E side, is 212 m
high with a small shrine in a prominent wood on its
summit.
For a description of Namhaedo (34°48′N 127°55′E) see
3.32, and for Saryangdo, 7 miles ENE, see 3.165.
Tidal streams
3.138
1
Tidal streams on both sides of Suudo (34°50′N
128°08′E) set NW on the in-going tide and SE on the
out-going tide attaining rates from 0⋅5 to 0⋅8 kn.
Principal mark
3.139
1
Landmark:
Taebangsan (34°51′⋅5N 127°59′⋅0E), 468 m high,
standing on the SW side of Ch’angsãndo. A
prominent sharp peak, with a stone enclosure on it,
stands N of Taebangsan.
Directions
(continued from 3.132)
3.140
1
From a position 2½ miles NW of the NW end of Tumi
Do (34°42′N 128°11′E) the track leads NNW, passing (with
positions relative to Changgot (34°50′N 128°05′E)):
WSW of a small fish haven (6¼ miles SE) lying
1¾ miles W of Nammudo (3.178) (Namnudo on
Chart 3391), thence:
2
ENE of Maando (4½ miles S), an islet with a
prominent conical summit, thence:
WSW of a large fish haven (3½ miles SE), thence:
WSW of Chukdo (4½ miles ESE), lying 6 cables
WSW of the S extremity of Sangdo, thence:
3
ENE of Mulgãn Hang (2½ miles SSW), a fishing
harbour protected by breakwaters. A light (red
round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited
from the head of Mulgãn Hang N breakwater; a
light (white octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in
height) is also exhibited from the head of the S
breakwater. Thence:
4
WSW of Suudo (2 miles E), from the W side of
which a light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited; the island is rugged. Thence:
ENE of Changgot, the SE point of Ch’angsãndo
(3.137). A light (white round GRP tower, 7 m in
height) is exhibited from the point. Thence:
5
ENE of Modo (9 cables N), an above-water rock,
lying 8 cables ESE of the entrance to Changp’o
Hang a small fishing harbour. A light (white round
metal tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited from
Changp’o Hang S breakwater and a light (red
round metal tower, 6 m in height) is also exhibited
from its N breakwater. Thence:
6
ENE of a rock (2 miles NNW), with a depth of 2⋅8 m
over it.
The track then leads to the pilot boarding area
(2½ miles N) for Samch’ãnp’o Hang, 2½ miles WSW of
Yulpomal (34°53′N 128°08′E). Yulpomal is a high
precipitous point from which a light (white round concrete
tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited. Ponghwasan, 170 m high
with a tower on its summit, standing 5 cables NNW of
Yulpomal is prominent from a distance.
3.141
1
Useful marks:
Namnudo Light-beacon (34°46′⋅7N 128°12′⋅8E)
(3.178).
Light (red round metal tower, 6 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater in
Chãngnyang Hang (34°51′⋅4N 128°03′⋅7E).
(Directions continue for Samch’ãnp’o Hang at 3.146,
for the SE entrance to Chinju Man at 3.152, and for
an inshore route E to Nam Man at 3.163)
Samch’ãnp’o Hang
Korean Charts No 250, W249 (see 1.22)
General information
3.142
1
Position. Samch’ãnp’o Hang (34°55′N 128°05′E) is
situated on the mainland coast, 15 miles ENE of
Kwangyang Hang (3.82). The town of Samch’ãnp’o is
situated N of the old harbour on the NW side of
Samch’ãnp’o Hang.
2
Function. It is an international commercial port with a
fishing harbour. Chief exports are fish, shell fish and
cocoons; chief imports are coal, for a power station,
general cargo and grain.
CHAPTER 3
133
Approach and entry. Samch’ãnp’o Hang is approached
from the S, passing between the SE extremity of
Ch’angsãndo (34°52′N 128°01′E) and Suudo, and entered
close E of Shinsudo (34°54′N 128°05′E).
3
Port limits. The limits of the port extend E and N of
Shinsudo (34°54′N 128°05′E), the island fronting the port,
as shown on the chart.
Port Authority:
Address. Masan Port Authority, 1−5 Wolpo-dong,
Masan City, Kyungnam Province, South Korea.
Website. www.masan.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
3.143
1
Controlling depth. There is a least charted depth of
15 m in the channel leading to the power station wharf
(3.148).
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
least vertical clearance of 19 m, spans Samch’ãnp’o Sudo
from the N end of Shinsudo (34°54′N 128°05′E) to Sado,
2½ cables N, and thence to Nomal on the mainland, a
farther 4½ cables N.
2
Deepest and longest berth. Power station wharf (3.148).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅7 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further information see the relevant
edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Bulk carriers up to
100 000 tonnes can berth at the power station wharf.
Arrival information
3.144
1
Notice of ETA required. Vessels should send ETA 72,
48 and 24 hours prior to arrival.
Outer anchorage. There is an outer anchorage, which
also serves as a quarantine anchorage, centred 1¼ miles
SSW of the S extremity of Shinsudo (34°54′N 128°05′E).
The anchorage has a radius of 600 m and is suitable for
vessels up to 100 000 tonnes.
2
Submarine pipeline. A submarine pipeline is laid across
the harbour from close E of the N extremity of Shinsudo to
Nomal on the mainland 9 cables N. For further information
on submarine pipelines see 1.20.
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards vessels in the
outer anchorage, 1¼ miles SSW of the S extremity of
Shinsudo.
3
Tugs are available.
Harbour
3.145
1
General layout. Samch’ãnp’o Hang consists of three
parts, an old harbour, a new harbour and a power station
wharf, arranged along the mainland shore E and N of
Shinsudo (34°54′N 128°05′E).
The old harbour, which is used by fishing vessels, is
situated close NW of Nomal (34°55′⋅4N 128°04′⋅4E); it
consists of a basin protected by two breakwaters.
2
The new harbour lies in Samch’ãnp’o Myoji (34°55′⋅4N
128°05′⋅0E), between Nomal and Changdãngmal, 7 cables
ESE, with berths on the N and E sides of the bay.
The power station wharf is situated at the SE end of
Samch’ãnp’o Hang and extends 8 cables SSE from Amgap
(34°54′⋅9N 128°06′⋅1E); the wharf is protected from the S
by a breakwater.
3
Development. Reclamation work was in progress (2002)
on the N side of the new harbour in Samch’ãnp’o Myoji.
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Samch’ãnp’o Hang and
in the SE approach to Chinju Man set, in general NW on
the in-going tide and SE on the out-going tide, turning
about the times of HW and LW by the shore; the interval
of slack water is short. The rate of the streams is weak for
about 30 minutes before and after the times of HW and
LW.
4
The tidal streams attain the following rates:
Location Rate
Sã Sudo (34°53′⋅0N 128°04′⋅0E)
In-going stream 1½ kn;
out-going stream 2¼ kn.
Samch’ãnp’o Sudo
(34°54′⋅8N 128°04′⋅8E)
In-going stream 2 kn and
out-going stream 2¼ kn. In
the narrowest part of this
channel the in-going stream
has a rate of 4¼ kn and the
out-going stream 4½ kn.
5
Channel W of Nukto
(34°55′⋅4N 128°02′⋅2E)
5½ kn.
Taebang Sudo
(34°55′⋅8N 128°02′⋅8E)
In-going stream 5¾ kn;
out-going stream 6½ kn.
Local weather. It is warm in winter and never freezes
or snows. Fog occurs frequently from May to September
with storms occurring most often in August and September.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.141)
3.146
1
Vessels bound for the power station wharf. From the
pilot boarding area for Samch’ãnp’o Hang, 2½ miles WSW
of Yulpomal (34°53′N 128°08′E), the track leads initially
NNE for a short distance to the beginning of the following
leading line:
Front light (black square metal framework tower,
25 m in height) (34°54′⋅7N 128°06′⋅3E).
2
Rear light (similar structure, 33 m in height) (370 m
from front light).
The track then leads NNE on the alignment (025½°) of
these lights through a channel marked by light-buoys
(lateral), passing (with positions relative to the head of the
power station wharf breakwater (34°54′⋅0N 128°06′⋅2E)):
3
ESE of Yangdu (1 mile WSW), a small islet lying off
the E side of Shinsudo; a rock which dries 0⋅5 m
lies ¾ cable E of this islet. Thence:
Close WNW of the head of the power station wharf
breakwater; a light (red round GRP tower, 7 m in
height) is exhibited from the head of the
breakwater.
4
The track then leads directly to the wharf. A light (red
square metal tower, 4 m in height) is exhibited from the
middle of the power station wharf.
3.147
1
Vessels bound for the new and old harbours. From
the pilot boarding area for Samch’ãnp’o Hang the track
leads either through the buoyed channel as previously
described at 3.146, or generally N, passing (with positions
relative to the head of the power station wharf breakwater):
Clear of the light-buoys (lateral) marking the
deep-water channel, thence:
2
E of Yangdu (1 mile WSW) (3.146), thence:
W of the head of the power station breakwater from
which a light (3.146) is exhibited, thence:
E of a light-beacon (E cardinal) (1 mile NW) marking
the edge of a drying reef fringing Chudo, which
lies off the NE end of Shinsudo.
3
The track then leads WNW, passing (with positions
relative to the head of the power station wharf breakwater):
NNE of Chudo (1 mile NW), thence:
CHAPTER 3
134
SSW of Changdãngmal (1¼ miles NW), the SW
termination of an islet 21 m high which is
connected to the mainland close NE by a drying
reef. The S extremity of the peninsula 5¼ cables
ENE of Changdãngmal is a prominent point 37 m
high. Thence:
4
SSW of the head of the breakwater (1¼ miles NW)
extending 2½ cables SW from Changdãngmal. A
light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited from the breakwater.
Vessels bound for the new harbour round the head of
the breakwater and head NNE towards the berths. For
vessels continuing to the old harbour the track continues
WNW, passing (with positions relative to the head of the
power station wharf breakwater (34°54′⋅0N 128°06′⋅2E)):
5
NNE of Sado (1½ miles NW), a small islet which is
prominent, and:
SSW of Hangdo (1¾ miles NW), 23 m high with a
sparsely wooded summit, lying on the NW side of
the new harbour; a light (white round concrete
tower) is exhibited from the islet. Thence:
6
SSW of Nomal (2 miles NW). A prominent war
memorial stands on high ground 1 cable N of
Nomal. Thence:
SSW of the head of the E breakwater of the old
harbour; a light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited from the head of the
breakwater.
7
The track then rounds the head of the E breakwater and
leads into the harbour, passing ESE of a W breakwater. A
light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited from the S end of the W breakwater; another
light (yellow metal post, 5 m in height) is exhibited from
the N end of the same breakwater.
(Directions continue for a route through
Taebang Sudo at 3.153)
Berths
3.148
1
Anchorages. The following designated anchorages, are
available (positioned from Hangdo Light (34°55′⋅4N
128°04′⋅7E)):
No 1 (2½ cables SE), in the new harbour. Affords
good anchorage out of the tidal streams, for
vessels under 3000 tonnes.
No 2 (6 cables S), in Samch’ãnp’o Sudo, for vessels
under 10 000 tonnes.
2
No 3 (6½ cables SW), in Samch’ãnp’o Sudo, for
vessels under 10 000 tonnes.
No 4 (1¼ miles SSE), E of Shinsudo.
Care should be exercised when using No’s 2 and 3
anchorages as the tidal streams are strong and the holding
ground is poor.
3
Anchorage may also be obtained by small vessels in the
bay on the E side of Changdãngmal (34°55′⋅1N
128°05′⋅2E), except during S winds, in a depth of 5 m;
local knowledge is required.
Alongside berths are as follows:
Old harbour (34°55′⋅5N 128°04′⋅2E). Total berthing
length of 918 m, with depths from 2 to 4 m
alongside; used by fishing vessels.
4
New harbour (34°55′⋅3N 128°05′⋅0E). The main quay
on the E side has a berthing length of 492 m with
depths from 5⋅0 to 7⋅5 m alongside; the lighters
quay on the N side has a total berthing length of
679 m, with depths from 3⋅5 to 4⋅0 m alongside.
5
Power station wharf (34°54′⋅5N 128°06′⋅4E). Length
580 m with depths from 13⋅8 to 16⋅5 m alongside.
Port services
3.149
1
Repairs. Available for vessels up to 60 m in length.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel available.
Communications. Regular sea communication with
Yãsu Hang and Busan. Small ferries operate to Masan and
to various islands.
Chinju Man and approaches
Chart 3391, Korean Chart No 250 (see 1.22)
General information
3.150
1
Description. Chinju Man (34°55′N 127°59′E) is a large
bay extending 10 miles N and S between the W side of
Ch’angsãndo (34°52′N 128°01′E) (3.137) and E of the NW
part of Namhaedo (34°48′N 127°55′E) (3.32). The bay is
mainly shoal with depths of less than 5⋅0 m.
Routes. Chinju Man may be approached through Yãsu
Haeman (3.32) and entered from the W through Noryang
Sudo (34°56′⋅7N 127°52′⋅5E), which leads between the N
end of Namhaedo and the mainland to the N; the strait is
2 cables wide.
2
Sã Sudo (34°53′⋅0N 128°04′⋅0E), the channel between
the NE side of Ch’angsãndo and the S end of Shinsudo,
has a least width of 6½ cables at its entrance. The channel
W of Nukto (34°55′⋅4N 128°02′⋅2E) is only 180 m wide
but it is free of dangers; this channel (3.152) along with Sã
Sudo is the recommended one when approaching from the
SE.
3
Chinju Man may also be approached from the SE
through Samch’ãnp’o Sudo (34°54′⋅8N 128°04′⋅8E), lying
between the N end of Shinsudo and the new harbour of
Samch’ãnp’o Hang; the channel has a least width of
3½ cables. Chinju Man is then entered through Taebang
Sudo (34°55′⋅8N 128°02′⋅8E), lying between the islet of
Mogaesãm and the mainland NE; there is a least width of
1¾ cables.
4
Depths. The controlling depths in the channels leading
to Chinju Man are as follows:
Noryang Sudo (34°56′⋅7N 127°52′⋅5E). Least depth of
20 m.
Sã Sudo (34°53′⋅0N 128°04′⋅0E). Least depth of
12⋅8 m in the fairway at its N end.
Channel W of Nukto (34°55′⋅4N 128°02′⋅2E). Depths
from 10⋅4 to 14⋅7 m.
Samch’ãnp’o Sudo (34°54′⋅8N 128°04′⋅8E). Least
depth of 12⋅1 m in the fairway.
Taebang Sudo (34°55′⋅8N 128°02′⋅8E). Least depth of
7⋅1 m in the fairway.
5
Vertical clearances:
Noryang Sudo. The strait is spanned by a road bridge
with a vertical clearance of 27 m. To the W of the
bridge there is an overhead power cable with a
vertical clearance of 42 m. There is also a second
overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
37 m, spanning the W approach to Noryang Sudo
between a small islet (34°56′⋅5N 128°127°50′⋅3E)
and the mainland NE.
6
Channel W of Nukto. This channel is spanned by a
road bridge, with a vertical clearance of 30 m and
on the SE side of the bridge by an overhead
power cable, with a vertical clearance of 18 m. A
second overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 35 m, spans the NW end of the
CHAPTER 3
135
channel from the N end of Ch’angsãndo to the
islet of Shindo, 3¼ cables N.
7
Samch’ãnp’o Sudo. See 3.143.
Taebang Sudo. A road bridge, with a vertical
clearance of 31 m, spans the channel between
Mogaesãm and the mainland NE. There is also an
overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
47 m, spanning the NW end of the channel
between Mado (34°56′⋅3N 128°01′⋅9E) and Chãdo,
2 cables N.
8
Tidal streams in Noryang Sudo set E with the in-going
tide and W with the out-going tide. The streams turn about
1 hour after the times of HW and LW, the period of slack
water being about 20 minutes. The rate of the E-going
stream is 1½ kn and of the W-going stream 3¼ kn. Tidal
streams S of Wado (34°56′⋅4N 127°51′⋅4E) are very strong.
9
For information on tidal streams in the SE approaches to
Chinju Man see 3.145.
Landmarks:
Kumosan (35°00′N 127°52′E), a steep peak, 849 m
high, situated on the N side of Noryang Sudo,
3 miles NNW of the N extremity of Namhaedo.
10
Yãndaebong (34°57′N 127°52′E), a hill 449 m high,
forming the S end of a mountain ridge, which
slopes steeply to the coast.
Directions
(continued from 3.112)
3.151
1
Noryang Sudo. From a position close off the berths at
Hadong Power Station (34°56′⋅7N 127°49′⋅4E), the track
leads NE for a short distance and then generally E, passing
(with positions relative to Hadong Hukki Light (34°56′⋅7N
127°50′⋅0E)):
N of Hadong Hukki, a small islet, 2¾ cables N of
Taedo, from which a light (white metal tower, 7 m
in height) is exhibited, thence:
2
S of Chukdo (3½ cables NE), an islet 24 m in height,
thence:
Under an overhead power cable (4 cables E) (3.150),
thence:
N of a rock (9½ cables ESE) 12 m in height, thence:
N of Wado (1¼ miles ESE) 24 m in height, with a
wooded summit. Wado Light (white round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the N
extremity of the island. Thence:
3
S of Noryang Light (white square tower, 9 m in
height) (1¼ miles E) which stands on a drying
section of the coastal bank, thence:
Beneath another overhead power cable (1¾ miles E)
and a bridge (3.150) from which several lights are
exhibited.
4
Thence the deep-water channel narrows to 2 cables in
width and leads ENE, passing NNW of Okdong Light
(white round concrete tower, 7 m in height) (2¾ miles E)
exhibited from the N extremity of Namhae Do, out into the
NW part of Chinju Man.
3.152
1
Sã Sudo and channel west of Nukto
(continued from 3.141).
2
From the pilot boarding area for Samch’ãnp’o Hang,
2½ miles WSW of Yulpomal (34°53′N 128°08′E), the track
leads NW through Sã Sudo, passing (with positions relative
to the S end of Shinsudo (34°54′N 128°05′E)):
3
Between the S end of Shinsudo and the NE side of
Ch’angsãndo, taking care to avoid the fish havens
in the vicinity, thence:
SW of Adudo (1¼ miles NW), an island 17 m high,
thence:
4
NE of a point (1½ miles NW) forming part of the NE
side of Ch’angsãndo, thence:
SW of a rock (1½ miles NW), 5⋅2 m high, surrounded
by shallow water, thence:
SW of Songdo (2 miles NW), a small islet, thence:
SW of a large fish haven (2¼ miles NW), thence:
5
Under an overhead power cable and a bridge
(2¾ miles NW) (3.150), spanning the passage
between the N extremity of Ch’angsãndo and
Nukto. Several lights are exhibited from the
bridge.
The track then leads out into Chinju Man, passing under
another overhead power cable (3.150) and SW of Shindo
(3¼ miles NW).
3.153
1
Samch’ãnp’o Sudo and Taebang Sudo
(continued from 3.147). Follow the directions given for the
new and old harbours of Samch’ãnp’o Hang at 3.147, until
a position is reached close SSW of the head of the E
breakwater of the old harbour (34°55′⋅5N 128°04′⋅2E). The
track then leads NW, passing (with positions relative to the
head of the E breakwater):
2
NE of Kosãm (4½ cables W), an islet 11 m high
surrounded by a drying reef, thence:
Close NE of a drying reef (7 cables WNW) marked
by a light-beacon (red triangle on round concrete
tower, 15 m in height), thence:
3
Through a channel marked by light-buoys (special)
and under a bridge (9 cables NW) (3.150),
spanning the passage between Mogaesãm and the
mainland NE, thence:
SW of Changsã Light-beacon (green rectangle on
green round concrete tower, 17 m in height)
(1½ miles NW), thence:
4
NE of Mado (1¾ miles NW), an island.
The track then leads W out into Chinju Man, passing
under an overhead power cable (2 miles NW) (3.150)
spanning the passage between Mado and Chãdo, 2 cables
N. Chãdo is 37 m high with a wooded summit; a light
(white round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited
from its S end.
3.154
1
Within Chinju Man. There are no specific directions
for navigating within Chinju Man. However attention is
drawn to Hyanggido (34°57′N 127°58′E), lying in the
middle of the bay. A rock, with a depth of 1⋅6 m over it,
lies 4 cables E of Hyanggido, and a bank of gravel, which
dries 2⋅8 m, lies 4½ cables ESE. Several other rocks lie
WSW of Hyanggido making the whole area around
Hyanggido dangerous.
2
A light (white round tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited
from Hyanggido.
Anchorages
3.155
1
In Chinju Man the only parts with moderate depths, in
which anchorage is possible, lie off the N ends of
Namhaedo and Ch’angsãndo.
Harbours
3.156
1
Sonjin Po. The NE side of Chinju Man is deeply
indented by Sonjin Po which is entered between Sambun
Gap (34°57′⋅5N 128°02′⋅0E), its E entrance point, and
Pit’odo, an island lying 1¾ miles WNW. Sonjin Po is
CHAPTER 3
136
shallow and filled with mud banks, with depths of less than
2 m over them.
2
The inlet contains the harbours of Daepo Hang, E of the
entrance, and Jungang Hang about mid-way along the W
side. The town of Sachon, which is a seat of local
government, stands 1 mile E of the head of Sonjin Po;
there is an airport at Sachon.
3
Chingyo Hang (35°00′N 127°56′E). This is an inlet
which lies in the NW part of Chinju Man and extends
3½ miles N. It contains several small harbours including
Chungpyãng Hang, Sulsang Hang and Yangpo Hang.
Anchorage and minor harbour
Chart 3391
Ch’angsãn Haehyãp
3.157
1
Description. Ch’angsãn Haehyãp (34°50′N 128°02′E) is
the channel which separates Namhaedo (3.32) from
Ch’angsãndo (3.137). It has a depth of 18 m in its E
entrance, but 1½ miles within this entrance the channel
becomes shallow and encumbered with rocks and shoals
and is therefore not recommended even for small vessels.
2
Tidal streams at the E entrance are not strong.
Anchorage. Vessels can obtain anchorage during W or
N winds in the E entrance to Ch’angsãn Haehyãp.
Korean Chart W249 (see 1.22)
Shinsu Hang
3.158
1
Description. Shinsu Hang (34°54′N 128°05′E) is
situated in a bay on the W side of Shinsudo. It is protected
by two breakwaters; the N breakwater extends W and then
SE from the N entrance point, and the S breakwater
extends NNW from the S entrance point.
2
Useful marks:
Pamam Light (isolated danger) (34°54′⋅7N
128°04′⋅0E), marking a drying reef NNW of the
harbour.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Shinsu Hang N
breakwater.
3
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the Shinsu Hang S
breakwater.
Berths. The harbour contains a wharf with a total length
of 540 m; vessels up to 100 tonnes can berth alongside.
Communications. A ferry service connects Shinsu Hang
with Samch’ãnp’o Hang (3.142).
SAMCH’PNP’O HANG TO NAM MAN
General information
Charts 127, 3391, Korean Charts W236, W207 (see 1.22)
Route
3.159
1
From the pilot boarding area for Samch’ãnp’o Hang,
2½ miles WSW of Yulpomal (34°53′N 128°08′E), the route
leads initially E for 5 miles to a position between Myosã
(34°53′N 128°11′E) and the N side of Sangdo, 1¼ miles
SSW. The route then leads ESE, for 8½ miles, between
several islands and islets and through Tongdo Man, to a
position about 1 mile ESE of Pilto Light (34°51′N
128°20′E). Thence the route leads SE through Nam Man,
for 1½ miles, to a position about 1½ cables NE of
Silrammal (34°50′N 128°23′E).
Submarine cable
3.160
1
A submarine cable is laid from the N side of Sangdo
(34°51′N 128°12′E), in a NNW direction for 2 miles, to the
W side of Ando. The N and S ends of the cables are
marked by buoys (special). For further information on
submarine cables see 1.8.
Tidal streams
3.161
1
Tidal streams in the channel between Sangdo and
Tarangmal, 2 miles N, set W with the in-going tide and SE
with the out-going tide, attaining a rate of ¾ kn.
Principal marks
3.162
1
Landmarks:
Chwaisan (34°55′⋅4N 128°11′⋅2E), 396 m high, with
five pointed rocky peaks.
Worambong (34°51′⋅1N 128°11′⋅9E), 400 m high, the
N-most peak on Sangdo.
2
Chilhyãnsan (34°49′⋅9N 128°13′⋅6E), 345 m high,
standing in the NW part of Hado.
Ponghwasan (34°53′⋅7N 128°19′⋅2E), 325 m high,
standing on the peninsula separating Kosãng Man
from Tongdo Man.
Directions
(continued from 3.141)
Samch’ãnp’o Hang to Hadaehodo
3.163
1
From the pilot boarding area for Samch’ãnp’o Hang,
2½ miles WSW of Yulpomal (34°53′N 128°08′E), the track
leads initially E, passing (with positions relative to
Yulpomal):
S of Yulpomal (3.140), from which a light is
exhibited, and:
2
N of Suudo (3 miles S) (3.140), thence:
N of Nonggaedo (3½ miles SSW), a conical island
45 m high, lying midway between Suudo and
Sangdo, thence:
S of a patch (1½ miles ESE), with a depth of 10 m
over it, thence:
3
S of Ando (2¼ miles E), an island consisting of two
densely wooded hills joined by a narrow neck,
thence:
S of Myosã (2¾ miles E), an above-water rock
marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger), and:
4
N of the N coast of Sangdo (3.165); a light (white
round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited
from the N extremity of the island.
The track then leads ESE to a position about 7 cables
SSW of Hadaehodo (5½ miles E), from which Hadaehodo
Light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in height) is
exhibited. Hadaehodo is the S-most of a string of islets
forming the SE side of Charan Man (3.171).
Hadaehodo to Nam Man
3.164
1
From the position 7 cables SSW of Hadaehodo
(34°52′⋅6N 128°14′⋅6E) the track continues ESE, passing
(with positions relative to Pilto Light (34°51′⋅2N
128°20′⋅5E)):
NNE of the NE side of Hado (5 miles WNW)
(3.165). A light (3.166) is exhibited from the N
extremity of Hado. Thence:
2
Clear of an obstruction (3½ miles W), with a depth of
10⋅5 m over it, thence:
CHAPTER 3
137
NNE of Taedo (1¾ miles SW), an island 81 m high,
thence:
SSW of a reef (8 cables NW), which dries 0⋅6 m,
thence:
3
NNE of a wreck (6 cables S), with a depth of 14.3 m
over it, thence:
SSW of Pilto, an island from which Pilto Light
(white round concrete tower, 9 m in height) is
exhibited; a small islet lies 1½ cables SE of Pilto.
Thence:
4
SSW of an islet (8½ cables E), 24 m high; a reef
drying 2⋅7 m and marked by a light-buoy (isolated
danger) lies 1¼ cables of this islet. And:
NNE of the N extremity (9 cables SE) of the
peninsula extending NW from Miruk To (3.183).
5
The track then leads SE in mid-channel through Nam
Man (3.173), passing NE of the peninsula extending NW
from Miruk To and SW of the mainland, to a position
about 1½ cables NE of Silrammal (2½ miles SE). A light
(white square concrete tower, 11 m in height) is exhibited
from Silrammal.
(Directions continue for the W entrance
to Tongyãng Hang at 3.198)
Saryangdo
Korean Chart W236 (see 1.22)
General information
3.165
1
Description. Saryangdo (34°50′N 128°12′E) consists of
the two large islands of Sangdo and Hado. The summits of
both islands consist for the most part of rocky boulders,
and the ridges are black and serrated; many rhododendrons
grow on the hillsides, and in the spring azalea blossom
covers the slopes.
2
Sangdo, the NW island is 400 m high, and is nearly
steep-to except on its SE side. The harbour of Tonji Hang
(34°50′⋅2N 128°10′⋅8E) (3.168) is situated on the W shore
of the island and Chinchon Hang (34°50′⋅4N 128°13′⋅5E)
(3.169) on the SE shore within Saryang Haehyãp. Hado,
the SE island, is 345 m high; Nungyang Hang (34°48′⋅4N
128°14′⋅7E) (3.170), another small harbour, is situated on
the SE shore of Hado.
3
Sangdo and Hado are separated by Saryang Haehyãp, a
narrow channel 2½ miles long. A bar, with a least depth of
3⋅5 m, extends across the channel 1½ miles within the SW
entrance.
Vertical clearances. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 14 m, spans Saryang Haehyãp close
within its NE entrance. A second cable, with a vertical
clearance of 19 m, spans the channel 1 cable farther W.
4
Tidal streams in Saryang Haehyãp set through the
channel from E to W with the in-going tide and from W to
E with the out-going tide at a rate of about ½ kn.
Directions
3.166
1
General remarks. There are no specific directions for
navigating the waters around Saryangdo. Saryang Haehyãp
is only suitable for small local vessels, which when using
the channel keep in the middle whilst crossing the bar.
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in height)
(34°50′⋅5N 128°14′⋅2E) exhibited from the N
extremity of Hado, at the NE entrance to Saryang
Haehyãp.
2
Moksã To Light (red triangle on an octagonal
concrete tower, 10 m in height) (34°49′⋅1N
128°11′⋅9E) exhibited from the E side of the SW
entrance to Saryang Haehyãp.
Korean Chart No 231 plan of Saryang Haehyãp (see 1.22)
Anchorages
3.167
1
Up’op’o (34°49′⋅5N 128°12′⋅4E). Local vessels obtain
anchorage on the S side of the SW entrance to Saryang
Haehyãp, 4 cables within the entrance, in Up’op’o, an
almost landlocked bay. There are depths from 7 to 11 m in
this anchorage which is the best in Saryang Haehyãp.
Landing may be effected on the NE side of the bay, at the
head of which there is a village.
2
Chung−ang Myoji, 1 mile within the SW entrance to
Saryang Haehyãp in the middle of the strait, affords
anchorage to local vessels in a depth of 10 m, over a
bottom of mud. Anchorage may also be obtained near the
NE entrance of Saryang Haehyãp in depths from 9 to
13 m, over a bottom of mud.
Korean Chart W236 (see 1.22)
Tonji Hang
3.168
1
Description. Tonji Hang (34°50′⋅2N 128°10′⋅8E) is
situated on the SW side of Sangdo within Tonjipo a small
bay. The harbour is protected by a breakwater extending
155 m SE from the N shore of the bay.
Directions. When entering the bay care should be taken
to avoid a patch, with a depth of 4 m over it, and other
below-water rocks lying on the S side of the entrance.
2
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater.
Berths. The harbour contains a 100 m long shallow
draught quay and a floating pier, 11 m long and 5 m wide.
Korean Chart No 231 plan of Saryang Haehyãp (see 1.22)
Chinchon Hang
3.169
1
Description. Chinchon Hang (34°50′⋅4N 128°13′⋅5E) is
situated on the SE side of Sangdo within Saryang Haehyãp.
It is a local fishery port with a short breakwater extending
SE on its W side. Several villages surround the harbour,
including that of Kumpyãng Ri, which is the largest.
2
Useful mark:
Light (white round metal tower, 5 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater.
Berths. There are three wharfs, with lengths of 50, 60
and 84 m; each has a floating pier at their outer
extremities.
3
Supplies. Limited provisions are available. Except
during winter, good supplies of fish are obtainable.
Korean Charts W236, No 231 plan of Nungyang Hang (see 1.22)
Nungyang Hang
3.170
1
Description. Nungyang Hang (34°48′⋅4N 128°14′⋅7E),
situated on the SE side of Hado at the head of a bay, is a
national fishery port. The harbour is nearly fully enclosed
by two breakwaters and is well sheltered.
Directions. There are no specific directions for entering
the harbour but attention is drawn to the following features
and dangers in the approaches (positioned from Chamdo
(34°47′⋅7N 128°15′⋅0E)):
2
Chamdo, 60 m high, and the SW and highest of a
group of islets and rocks lying from 2 to 5 cables
SE of Hado. Chamdo is a useful mark on account
CHAPTER 3
138
of a natural vertical stone pillar which stands at
the E end of the summit.
3
A detached rock (7½ cables E), with a depth of 2⋅3 m
over it; it is reported that at LW this rock can be
identified by a change in the colour of the water
over it.
4
Paek Sã (1½ miles ENE), a small isolated rock with a
white summit, 4 m high, and steep-to. The rock is
marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger).
Hwado (5 cables NNE), 44 m high; a dangerous rock
fringes the S side of this islet.
5
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Nungyang Hang W
breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Nungyang Hang E
breakwater.
6
Berths. There are two main quays within the harbour,
with lengths of 233 and 373 m and depths from 1⋅3 to
3⋅5 m alongside.
Communications. A fast ferry operates services to
Samch’ãnp’o Hang (3.142) and Tongyãng Hang (3.193).
Bays and anchorages
Korean Chart W207 (see 1.22)
Charan Man
3.171
1
Description. Charan Man is entered between Tarangmal
(34°54′N 128°12′E), the SE extremity of a bluff headland,
and Pogyomal, an ochre-coloured rocky point 33 m high
3½ miles E. The bay has depths from 7 to 9 m decreasing
gradually to the head of the bay. The shores are much
indented and are fronted by several islets and rocks.
Landing is difficult at the head of the bay during LW.
2
The following islets and rock, which afford some
protection to Charan Man, lie on the SW side of the bay’s
entrance (positioned from Pogyomal):
Hadaehodo (2 miles SW) (3.163).
Sangdaehodo (1½ miles SW), 62 m high; Ogmong
Noe, a rock which dries 1⋅1 m, lies 3 cables E of
Sangdaehodo.
Sãjido (2 miles WSW), 28 m high.
Wado (9 cables WSW), 70 m high.
3
Landmarks:
Chwaisan (34°55′⋅4N 128°11′⋅2E) (3.162).
Charando (34°55′⋅7N 128°13′⋅4E), a low island with a
conical summit 124 m high.
Directions. Although the chart is sufficient guide, local
knowledge is required. Attention is also drawn to an
isolated rock, with a depth of 5⋅0 m over it lying in the
entrance to the bay, 1¼ miles E of Tarangmal.
4
Useful marks:
Myosã Light-beacon (34°52′⋅9N 128°11′⋅4E) (3.163).
Hadaehodo Light (34°52′⋅6N 128°14′⋅6E) (3.163).
Huksã Light-beacon (isolated danger, 13 m in height)
(34°55′⋅7N 128°14′⋅5E), exhibited from an
above-water rock on the NE side of the head of
Charan Man.
5
Anchorages. Vessels of moderate size can obtain
anchorage in the middle of Charan Man in a depth of
8⋅0 m, over a bottom of mud; the holding ground is good
and the anchorage is not subject to heavy swells.
Harbour. The small local fishing harbour of Pogyo
Hang (34°54′⋅3N 128°16′⋅4E) is situated 3½ cables N of
Pogyomal, on the E side of Charan Man. It is protected by
breakwaters and contains two shallow draught quays, 66
and 82 m long, along with some smaller wharves.
Kosãng Man
3.172
1
Description. Kosãng Man (34°56′N 128°19′E), a
shallow bay, is entered between Pogyomal (34°54′N
128°16′E) and Sããam Dan, 2½ miles SE. Kosãng, an
important town at the head of the bay, is a seat of local
government. Nampo Hang (34°57′⋅4N 128°19′⋅3E) is
situated close S of the town.
2
The coast, for 5 cables NE of Pogyomal, is low and
gravelly. Tudo (34°53′⋅5N 128°16′⋅8E), 28 m high, lies in
the fairway of the outer part of the entrance to Kosãng
Man, 5 cables SE of Pogyomal; foul ground extends
2 cables SW, W and N from Tudo. Yujado (34°54′⋅3N
128°18′⋅0E), 38 m high with a thickly wooded summit, lies
1¼ miles NE of Tudo on the side of the narrow channel
forming the inner part of the entrance, close offshore.
3
In the middle of Kosãng Man lie the following three
islets which divide the bay into two parts (positioned from
Yujado):
Pido (1¼ miles NNE), 28 m high.
Updo (1¼ miles NE), 60 m high.
Yãndo (1¾ miles NE), 36 m high.
There are depths of 5 m N of these islets decreasing
gradually to the head of the bay.
4
Caution. Many fishing nets are set within Kosãng Man.
Vertical clearances. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 30 m, spans the channel between Updo
(34°54′⋅5N 128°19′⋅3E) and Yãndo, and a second cable,
with a vertical clearance of 11 m, spans the shallow
channel between Yãndo and the mainland, 2 cables
farther E.
5
Tidal streams near the entrance set NE with the
in-going tide and SW with the out-going tide, with a rate
of up to ½ kn.
Directions. Kosãng Man may be entered by passing
either W or E of Tudo (34°53′⋅5N 128°16′⋅8E). The W
channel between Kwanggi, 2⋅2 m high, the W rock of the
foul ground off Tudo, and the mainland NW, is 4 cables
wide with depths from 7 to 11 m. The channel E of Tudo
is 1 mile wide with depths from 8 to 9 m.
6
There are no specific directions for navigating within the
bay itself.
Useful mark:
Light (red round metal tower, 5 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater at
Nampo Hang.
7
Anchorages. Vessels may obtain good anchorage in the
S half of Kosãng Man, in depths from 5 to 9 m and in the
N part in depths from 4 to 5 m.
Harbour. Nampo Hang (34°57′⋅4N 128°19′⋅3E), a minor
local fishing harbour, is situated at the head of Kosãng
Man. It consists of a breakwater extending 90 m SSW from
the shore, with a 395 m long shallow draught quay. Fresh
provisions may be obtained from the town of Kosãng
nearby.
Tongdo Man
3.173
1
Description. Tongdo Man, entered between Sããam Dan
(34°52′⋅8N 128°19′⋅1E) and Sãkkammal, the W extremity
of Miruk To (3.183) 3 miles S, is divided into two arms by
the peninsula close N of the N end of Miruk To and by a
chain of islets and rocks extending 1½ miles W from this
CHAPTER 3
139
peninsula; Pilto, from which a light (3.164) is exhibited, is
the W-most islet in the chain.
2
Punk Man, the N arm of Tongdo Man, divides into two
smaller inlets, one extending inland towards the E and the
other towards the N; the latter is named Pãpsongpo. A
further three bays, Hogokpo, Yangjipo and Sulwolpo,
indent the N side of the arm to the W of Pãpsongpo.
Hyãngedo, consisting of two islets, lie 5 cables N of the W
entrance point of Pãpsongpo; the S islet is 18 m high and
the N islet 10 m high.
3
A chain of islets extends 1¼ miles ESE from close S of
the promontory separating Yangjipo and Sulwolpo.
Changgudo, the E-most islet in this chain, is 76 m high; the
islet has two summits, on the W of which is a
curiously-shaped rock. Sado, 19 m high, is the middle islet
in the chain and fronts the approach to Yangjipo; two rocks
which dry 0⋅6 m lie 6 cables SW of Sado.
4
Nam Man, with depths from 7 to 9 m, forms the S arm
of Tongdo Man. The E end of Nam Man is connected to
Tongyãng Hang (3.193) by Chungmu Unha, a canal;
directions through Nam Man are given at 3.164.
Caution. Numerous fishing nets are set in Punk Man.
Anchorages. All four inlets on the N side of Punk Man
afford anchorage to vessels in depths of about 6 m, over a
bottom of mud, sheltered except from the S. If anchoring
off Hyãngedo, within Pãpsongpo, particular care needs to
be taken to avoid the fishing nets.
5
Harbours:
Suwol Hang (34°53′⋅1N 128°19′⋅6E), a small fishing
harbour, is situated within Sulwolpo on the N side
of Tongdo Man. The harbour, sheltered by a 126 m
long breakwater, contains a shallow draught quay
100 m long and two wharves.
6
Pyãngnim Hang (34°51′⋅4N 128°23′⋅0E), situated on
the mainland coast, 3½ cables SE of the islet of
Taemanjado, 34 m high. There is a wharf inside
the harbour protected by a breakwater extending
NNE from the S shore. A light (red round concrete
tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the head of
the breakwater.
INSHORE ROUTE — TUMI DO
TO PBUJIDO
General information
Charts 127, 3391, Korean Chart No 224B (see 1.22)
Route
3.174
1
From a position 2½ miles NW of the NW end of Tumi
Do (34°42′N 128°11′E) the recommended route leads
initially E, for 6½ miles, to a position 1 mile SW of
Ch’udo (34°45′N 128°18′E), thence SE, for a farther
6½ miles, to a position 7½ cables SSW of Pbujido
(34°42′N 128°24′E). Then the route leads E for 1¾ miles
to a position about 1¾ miles SE of Pbujido.
2
This route, which passes S of several inshore islands,
islets and rocks, and N of Nodae Kundo and Yãnhwa
Yãlto, is shown on the charts.
Submarine cable
3.175
1
A submarine cable is laid from the N side of Tumi Do
(34°42′N 128°11′E), in a NNE direction for 6 miles, to land
in a small bay midway along the SW side of Hado. The
position of the cable is marked in places by buoys
(special). For further information on submarine cables
see 1.8.
Tidal streams
3.176
1
Nammudo. The channels on the NE and SW sides of
Nammudo (34°46′N 128°14′E) (Namnudo on Chart 3391)
are deep and free from dangers with the tidal streams
setting fairly through at a rate of 1 kn.
2
Ch’udo. Tidal streams in the deep channel between
Ch’udo (34°45′N 128°18′E) and Nodae Kundo, 4½ miles
SSW, set W with the in-going tide and SE with the
out-going tide, attaining a rate of 1¼ kn.
Aid to navigation
3.177
1
Racon:
Kyoboncho (34°42′N 128°19′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.132)
3.178
1
From a position 2½ miles NW of the NW end of Tumi
Do (34°42′N 128°11′E) the track leads initially E, passing
(with positions relative to Kyoboncho (34°42′N 128°19′E)):
N of the N side of Tumi Do (5½ miles W); a light
(3.132) is exhibited from the NW extremity of the
island. Thence:
2
S of Taehodo (5¼ miles NW), a rock 23 m high.
Taehodo is the S-most rock of Nammudo
(Namnudo on Chart 3391), which consists of four
small groups of rocks; there are fish havens in the
vicinity of these rocks. A light-beacon (N cardinal)
marks the NW-most group of rocks. Thence:
N of extensive fish havens (3½ miles WSW) lying up
to 2 miles E of Tumi Do.
3
The track then leads to a position 1 mile SW of Ch’udo
(2½ miles N). The island of Ch’udo appears pointed from
the S, but flat from the E; the summit is sparsely wooded.
The SE end of the island is a steep promontory. The E end
is the termination of a small peninsula, on which there is a
sharp peak 129 m high; a light (white round concrete
tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited from this summit. The
NE side consists of precipitous cliffs.
4
The track then leads SE, passing (with positions relative
to Kyoboncho):
SW of several fish havens (2½ miles NNE) lying off
the SE side of Ch’udo, thence:
NE of Kyoboncho which is marked by a light-beacon
(isolated danger), thence:
5
SW of a small fish haven (2½ miles ENE), thence:
NE of U Sã (3½ miles SE), a dark coloured rock,
15 m high, with a smaller rock close S of it,
thence:
6
SW of Pbujido (4½ miles ESE), an islet with a flat
summit and cliffy sides, thence:
NE of Pokroe (4½ miles SE), a pinnacle rock marked
by a light-buoy (isolated danger); the rock is
steep-to.
7
The track then leads E, passing (with positions relative
to Kyoboncho):
S of a fish haven fronting the S side of Pyãng So
(4¾ miles ESE), a rock 7 m high; the rock is
marked by a light-beacon (green rectangle on
green round tower, 13 m in height). Thence:
CHAPTER 3
140
N of a fish haven (5¼ miles ESE).
The track then leads to a position about 1¾ miles SE of
Pbujido.
3.179
1
Useful mark:
Pudo Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in
height) (34°46′⋅3N 128°22′⋅1E), exhibited from a
small islet 3 cables S of Kolli Do (3.183).
(Directions continue for the inshore route E at 3.208
and for a route N to Tongyãng Hang at 3.186)
Offshore islands
Nodae Kundo
3.180
1
Description. Nodae Kundo (34°41′N 128°15′E) is a
group of islands and rocks lying 7 cables N of Yokchi Do
(3.27). Sangnodae Do (34°40′N 128°15′E) and Hanodae
Do, close S of Sangnodae Do, are the principal islands.
2
Sangnodae Do, the largest island, rises to a flat-topped
peak 202 m high in its E part, but the summit in the W
part, though lower, is sharper; the interior of the island is
covered with brushwood. Chãngsã (34°40′⋅1N 128°13′⋅5E),
a drying rock lies off the SW side of Sangnodae Do,
within a fish haven.
3
Hanodae Do is 95 m high with a dome-shaped summit,
the vicinity of which is densely wooded. There is a village
on the N side of the island; the S side of the island is
steep-to.
4
Mo Do, 30 m high, lies 3 cables SE of Hanodae Do. A
rock, with a depth of 1⋅4 m over it, lies 3 cables E of Mo
Do. Sodubang Sã, the SE danger of Nodae Kundo, lies
8 cables E of Mo Do. Nap Do, 48 m high, with a wooded
summit, lies 1¼ miles ENE of the NE end of Sangnodae
Do; the N part of Nap Do is also wooded. Several rocks
and islets lie within 8½ cables of Nap Do and between that
island and Sangnodae Do.
5
Kãchilrido, the W-most island of the group, is 76 m
high; this round-shaped island has some houses along its E
shore. Several other islets lie between this island and
Sangnodae Do.
6
Submarine cable. A submarine cable is laid from the W
end of Sangnodae Do (34°40′N 128°15′E), in a NW
direction for 2 miles to the E side of Tumi Do (3.131) The
position of the cable is marked in places by buoys
(special). For further information on submarine cables
see 1.8.
7
Useful mark:
Light (N cardinal) exhibited from Saidoyã, a
dangerous rock lying 4 cables E of the E extremity
of Sangnodae Do.
8
Anchorage. Small local vessels obtain anchorage in
depths from 6⋅0 to 14⋅9 m, sheltered from all winds,
between Sangnodae Do and Hanodae Do. The entrance is
obstructed by a fish haven.
Yãnhwa Yãlto
3.181
1
Description. Yãnhwa Yãlto (34°39′N 128°20′E) consists
of two barren islands and several islets and rocks. Yãnhwa
Do, the SE island, is 213 m high near its W end; the E end
of this island is a small peninsula, with a flat hummock
that is prominent. U Do, the NW island with a height of
82 m, has a flat summit; a village stands on its S slope.
Pokroe and U Sã, the dangers NE of Yãnhwa Do and U
Do, are described at 3.178.
2
Chãk Do, 1¼ miles W of U Do, consists of two rocky
islets joined by a sandy spit which occasionally covers. The
ridge on the skyline of Chãk Do is serrated,
yellowish-brown in colour and prominent. The highest point
is 54 m high. Pong Do, lying 4 cables WNW of Chãk Do,
consists of two islets, connected by a drying rocky ledge;
both islets are sparsely covered with brushwood. The S
islet, 96 m high, is the larger; the N islet is 38 m high.
3
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
(34°40′⋅0N 128°18′⋅3E) exhibited from the S end
of Pong Do.
Napjakyã Light-beacon (isolated danger) (34°39′⋅3N
128°20′⋅6E), marking a dangerous rock awash,
close off the SW side of U Do.
4
Anchorage. Good anchorage for vessels may be
obtained in a depth of 8 m in a bay on the N side of
Yãnhwa Do, near its E end.
TONGYPNG HAEMAN AND
KYPNNAERYANG HAEHYPP
General information
Chart 127, Korean Charts No 224B, No 208 (see 1.22)
Route
3.182
1
From a position about 1¾ miles SE of Pbujido (34°42′N
128°24′E) the route leads generally N, for 4½ miles,
between the islands lying off the SW side of Kãje Do
(34°51′N 128°38′E) and the islands S of Miruk To
(34°48′N 128°25′E), to the pilot boarding position in the
vicinity of 34°45′N 128°27′E.
2
The route then continues N through Tongyãng Haeman,
for a farther 5 miles, to a position about 5 cables NE of
Chinsong Mal (34°49′⋅6N 128°26′⋅5E), the SE entrance
point of Tongyãng Hang (3.193).
Topography
3.183
1
Tongyãng Haeman is entered between the SE extremity
of Miruk To and Sogun Mal, the SW extremity of Hansan
Do, 2¼ miles E. The bay extends 7 miles N between Miruk
To and the mainland on the W side, and Hansan Do and
Kãje Do on the E. The N end of Tongyãng Haeman is
connected to Chinhae Man, 1¾ miles N, by Kyãnnaeryang
Haehyãp.
2
Miruk To, the large island S of Tongyãng Hang, is
separated from the mainland by Chungma Unha. The N
part of the E or main part of the island is separated from
the S part by a valley. The N part is the higher and rises to
458 m. The small fishing harbour of Samdãk Hang
(34°47′⋅5N 128°23′⋅0E) is situated on the W side of Miruk
To.
3
Kolli Do (34°46′⋅6N 128°22′⋅1E), with a wooded summit
111 m high, lies close off the SW side of Miruk To. The
local fishery port of Kolli Hang is situated on the NE side
of Kolli Do.
Measured distance
3.184
1
There is a measured distance in Tongyãng Haeman off
Shinjãnp’o marked by similar pairs of beacons.
North pair of beacons (34°47′⋅6N 128°26′⋅4E).
South pair of beacons (34°46′⋅7N 128°26′⋅2E).
Distance. 1689 m.
Running track. 014°−194°.
CHAPTER 3
141
Pilotage
3.185
1
Pilots are available from Tongyãng Hang (34°50′N
128°26′E) (3.193) for the passage through Tongyãng
Haeman. Requests should be made through an agent or
direct to the harbour administration office. The pilot boards
about 6 cables WNW of Kaksusã (34°45′N 128°28′E).
Directions
(continued from 3.179)
Pbujido to Kaksusã
3.186
1
From a position about 1¾ miles SE of Pbujido (34°42′N
128°24′E) the track leads N, passing (with positions relative
to Kaksusã Light-beacon (34°45′N 128°28′E)):
E of Pyãng So (4½ miles SW) (3.178), lying off the
SE side of Pbujido, thence:
2
E of Gan So (4¼ miles SW), a small group of
above-water rocks 4⋅8 m high, thence:
E of Naebuji Do (4 miles SW); the island has a sharp
summit 139 m high and cliffy sides. A small
pebble beach lies on the NW side of Naebuji Do
where boats can land. A rock which dries 0⋅3 m
lies close off the S side of the island. Thence:
3
W of the W extremity of the S part of Pijin Do
(2½ miles S), fronted by a fish haven. Pijin Do
consists of two islands joined together by a sandy
isthmus. Thence:
E of the S end of Ogok To (2 miles SW) from which
a light (white hexagonal tower, 11 m in height) is
exhibited. A fish haven extends 1 mile S from
Ogok To. Yãndae Do, with a wooded summit
219 m high, lies 8½ cables W of Ogok Do with
Manji Do, 99 m high, close WNW. And:
4
W of an islet (1¾ miles SSW) 46 m high with rocks
close S of it, lying 1½ cables off the SW side of
the N part of Pijin Do, thence:
W of a reef (1¼ miles S) extending 1 cable from the
NE point of the N part of Pijin Do, thence:
5
E of a reef (1½ miles SW) extending 2¾ cables NNE
from the N extremity of Ogok To, thence:
W of the W extremity (6 cables SSE) of Yongcho Do.
This island consists of two parts connected by a
low isthmus; the E, and higher part, is 198 m high.
Thence:
6
E of the E side of Hangnim Do (1¾ miles E) which
is divided into two by a narrow, shallow channel.
Hangnim Po (3.190) indents its N side. Cho Do
Light (white round concrete tower, 16 m in height)
is exhibited from the NE extremity of Hangnim
Do.
7
The track then leads to the pilot boarding position about
6 cables WNW of Kaksusã, a rock 10 m high. The rock is
marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger, 13 m in height).
Kaksusã to Tongyãng Hang
3.187
1
From the position about 6 cables WNW of Kaksusã
(34°45′N 128°28′E) the track continues to lead N, passing
(with positions relative to Chinsong Mal (34°49′⋅6N
128°26′⋅5E)):
E of the SE point (4 miles SSW) of Miruk To, which
is nearly steep-to, and:
2
W of Sogun Mal the SW extremity (4 miles SSE) of
Hansan Do, a large irregular shaped island.
Changjakji Hang, a small fishing port, is situated
on the W side of Hansan Do, 7 cables N of the
SW extremity. A light (red round concrete tower,
8 m in height) is exhibited from the breakwater of
the harbour. Thence:
3
W of Hyol Do (3 miles SSE), consisting of two islets.
The S islet is 33 m high and the larger N islet is
49 m high. Foul ground and shallow water extend
NNE from the N end of Hyol Do to the W side of
Hansan Do. A rock, 6 m high, lies 1 cable NNW
of the N islet. Thence:
E of the S entrance point of Shinjãnp’o (2¼ miles S)
(3.201); a below-water rock, with a depth of 0⋅7 m
over it, lies 1 cable off this point. Thence:
4
W of the E extremity (2½ miles SSE) of Hansan Do,
thence:
E of a point (2 miles S) from which foul ground
extends 1 cable E; a rock, 12 m high, lies on the E
edge of this foul ground. Thence:
E of the N entrance point of Mirukp’o (1½ miles S).
Foul ground and shallow water extend 1 cable
SSW from this point; a rock, 6 m high, lies at the
S edge of this foul area. Thence:
5
W of Chug Do (1¼ miles SE), consisting of two
islets joined together by a reef lying on the E side
of the fairway. The S islet is 33 m high and the N
islet 40 m high. Both islets are foul up to a
distance of ¾ cable offshore. And:
E of some rocks (9 cables S) which dry 1⋅6 m. They
are marked by a light-beacon (green round
concrete tower, 17 m in height). Thence:
6
W of Taech’o (1 mile E), a drying rock lying
1¼ cables SW from the SW end of Hwa Do, an
island 115 m high. Taech’o is marked by a
light-beacon (red triangle on red round concrete
tower, 11 m in height). A rock, with a depth of
0⋅5 m over it (1⋅9 m on Korean Chart No 208), lies
2 cables SW of the N extremity of Hwa Do and
1 cable offshore. A bank, with depths of less than
10 m over it, extends 3 cables W from the island.
7
The track then leads to a position about 5 cables NE of
Chinsong Mal and 4½ cables SW of Panghwa Do (1 mile
NE). Chinsong Mal is 27 m high and nearly steep-to E.
Panghwa Do is fringed by a reef which extends 1 cable
offshore; a rock, with a depth of 0⋅5 m over it, lies on a
bank which extends 2½ cables S from the S side of the
island. A light (white square framework tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited from the W end of Panghwa Do.
(Directions continue for Tongyãng Hang at 3.197
and for Kyãnnaeryang Haehyãp at 3.192)
Side channels
North of Pijin Do
3.188
1
Description. There is a narrow channel between the N
side of Pijin Do (34°43′N 128°28′E) and the W end of
Yongcho Do; it is narrowed by shoals on each side to a
width of 1¼ cables, and has a least depth of 10⋅8 m in the
fairway. Fish havens established S of Yongcho Do hamper
the SE approach to the channel. The channel allows access
to the local fishery harbour of Naehang Hang, which is
situated at the N end of Pijin Do.
2
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 38 m, spans the channel.
Tidal streams in this channel set WNW at 1½ kn with
the in-going tide, and ESE at 2½ kn with the out-going
tide.
CHAPTER 3
142
Changgang Sudo and Hansan Sudo
3.189
1
Description. Changgang Sudo (34°45′N 128°30′E) is
situated between the N sides of Yongcho Do and Chukto,
4 cables ESE, and the S sides of Hansan Do and Pongam
Do, close ESE. Changgang Sudo is deep and free of
dangers, but a bank, with a least depth of 2⋅7 m over it,
extends 3 cables N from the E end of Chukto, into the
channel. The SE approach to Changgang Sudo is hampered
by a large fish haven situated E of Chukto.
2
Changgang Sudo allows access to the small fishing
harbour of Pongam Hang, situated at the W end of Pongam
Do, and to the harbours of Uiam Hang and Chindu Hang
on the S side of Hansan Do.
3
Hansan Sudo, the channel separating Hansan Do and
Pongam Do, is very narrow, with a least depth of 4⋅6 m in
the fairway; it is used only by small local boats. There is
also a secondary channel between Yongcho Do and Chukto;
banks, with depths of less than 5⋅0 m over them, extend
from each side of the channel leaving a fairway 2½ cables
wide with a least depth of 8⋅1 m.
4
Vertical clearances:
Changgang Sudo. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 40 m, spans the W end of the
channel between the N end of Yongcho Do and
the S end of Hansan Do.
Hansan Sudo. Two overhead cables, with a least
vertical clearance of 17 m, span Hansan Sudo
between the NW end of Pongam Do and the SE
end of Hansan Do.
5
Channel between Yongcho Do and Chukto. The
channel is spanned by an overhead power cable,
with a vertical clearance of 30 m.
Tidal streams in Changgang Sudo set W at 2¾ kn with
the in-going tide and E with the out-going tide at ¾ kn.
6
Useful mark:
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(34°45′⋅3N 128°30′⋅5E) marking the foul ground
extending 2 cables W from the W extremity of
Pongam Do.
Chodo Sudo
3.190
1
Description. Chodo Sudo (34°45′N 128°25′E) forms an
inner W approach to Tongyãng Haeman. The channel is
situated between the S side of Miruk To and the N sides of
Hangnim Do (3.186), Song Do and Chã Do. Chodo Sudo
has a least width of 2½ cables and is deep and free from
dangers.
2
Caution. When viewed from W take care not to mistake
Chodo Sudo for the channel between Hangnim Do and
Yãndae Do, to the S, which is foul.
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 40 m, spans the E end of Chodo Sudo,
between the SE extremity of Miruk To and the NE end of
Hangnim Do.
3
Useful marks:
Cho Do Light (3.186), exhibited from the NE
extremity of Hangnim Do.
Light-beacon (isolated danger, 10 m in height)
(34°44′⋅7N 128°23′⋅7E), marking a drying rock
4 cables S of the W extremity of Chã Do.
4
Anchorage. Good sheltered anchorage may be obtained
in Hangnim Po (34°44′⋅8N 128°24′⋅9E) in a depth of 13 m,
over a bottom of mud, with the middle peak of Hangnim
Do bearing 186°, distant 2½ cables. Hangnim Hang is
situated in this bay on the W side.
Local knowledge is required.
Chukpa Sudo
3.191
1
Description. Chukpa Sudo (34°49′N 128°29′E), the
channel between Hansan Do and Hwa Do (3.187), connects
the N end of Tongyãng Haeman with Chungnimp’o
(3.224), 3½ miles ESE. There are depths from 22 to 27 m
in this channel which is free from dangers.
Tidal streams in Chukpa Sudo set W with the in-going
tide, at a rate of 1 kn, and E with the out-going tide, at a
rate of 1 kn.
2
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 35 m, spans the channel between the
N end of Hansan Do and the S end of Hwa Do.
Kyãnnaeryang Haehyãp
Korean Chart W238 (see 1.22)
3.192
1
Description. Kyãnnaeryang Haehyãp (34°53′N
128°28′E) is the narrow passage leading from the N end of
Tongyãng Haeman to the S side of Chinhae Man. It is only
1 cable wide and has a least depth of 2⋅6 m. It is used only
by local vessels.
Vertical clearances:
2
An overhead power cable spans the strait, with a
vertical clearance of 42 m, between Ochuigap
(34°52′⋅7N 128°28′⋅3E) and Waesãng, 3½ cables
ESE.
Kãjedaegyo Bridge (34°53′⋅1N 128°28′⋅4E), with a
vertical clearance of 22 m, connects Chongdamal,
on the W side of Kãje Do, with the mainland W.
3
New Kãjedaegyo Bridge, with a vertical clearance of
22 m, spans the strait 530 m N of Kãjedaegyo
Bridge.
Development. In 2003 a third bridge was under
construction to span the S end of the strait, between the N
end of Haegando (34°52′⋅0N 128°28′⋅1E) and the W side
of Kãje Do.
4
Directions (continued from 3.187). From a position
about 5 cables NE of Chinsong Mal (34°49′⋅6N 128°26′⋅5E)
the track leads initially NNE, passing (with positions
relative to Sasã Light (34°51′⋅1N 128°27′⋅7E)):
WNW of Panghwa Do (7½ cables S), from the W
end of which a light (3.187) is exhibited, thence:
5
ESE of Chinhaesã (5½ cables SW), a small islet from
which a light (green round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited, thence:
ESE of Sasã surrounded by foul ground with drying
rocks on it. A light (white octagonal concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the islet.
Thence:
6
ESE of a rock (5 cables N) which dries 0⋅3 m; a
light-buoy (port hand) is moored 1 cable ESE of
the rock. Another rock, with a depth of 4⋅1 m over
it, lies 2 cables SE of the drying rock. Thence:
WNW of Taeryudo (6 cables NNE) and Soryudo, two
islets lying on a drying bank.
7
The track then leads generally N, passing (with positions
relative to Kwangi Hang Light (34°52′⋅7N 128°28′⋅3E)):
E of Haegando (6 cables S), thence:
E of a small harbour at Yãngi (3½ cables SW),
thence:
8
W of a breakwater, from the head of which Kwangi
Hang Light (red round metal tower, 5 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
CHAPTER 3
143
Under an overhead power cable (¾ cable N), thence:
Under Kãjedaegyo Bridge (4 cables N), marked by
lights, thence:
9
Close E a rock (4¾ miles N) marked by
Kyãnnaeryang Light-beacon (green rectangle on
green round concrete tower, 12 m in height). Care
needs to be taken in this area as below-water
rocks, with depths from 0⋅2 to 4⋅2 m over them,
surround the light-beacon. Thence:
10
E of Kyollyu Hang (5½ cables N); lights (round
concrete towers, 8 m in height) are exhibited from
the heads of the harbour’s breakwaters. Thence:
Under New Kãjedaegyo Bridge (7½ cables NNE),
marked by lights.
The track then leads to a position about 2 cables W of
Myãngdungdo (1¼ miles NNE), from which a light (white
round concrete tower, 13 m in height) is exhibited.
(Directions continue for the S end of Chinhae Man,
in the reverse direction, at 3.329)
Tongyãng Hang
Korean Chart W238 (see 1.22)
General information
3.193
1
Position. Tongyãng Hang (34°50′N 128°26′E) is situated
at the NW end of Tongyãng Haeman, between Miruk To
and the S part of Kosãng Pando.
Function. Tongyãng Hang is an important commercial
harbour and fishing port. Tongyãng, on the N shore of the
harbour, is the principal town in this part of South Korea
and is the headquarters of the naval command of three
provinces.
2
Topography. Tongyãng Hang lies in a bay about 1 mile
wide which indents for 2 miles W as far as the E entrance
of Chungmu Unha (34°50′⋅0N 128°24′⋅4E). Several hills
back the N side of the bay. Miruk To forming the S side of
the bay is described at 3.183.
Port limits. The limits of the port are defined to the W,
by a line drawn N/S close E of the W-most bridge
(34°49′⋅9N 128°24′⋅3E) spanning Chungmu Unha, and to
the E by a line drawn NNE from Chinsong Mal (34°49′⋅6N
128°26′⋅5E) to a point on the mainland 1¼ miles NNE.
3
Approach and entry. The main approach to the harbour
is from the S through Tongyãng Haeman; it is then entered
N of Chinsong Mal. The W approach through Chungmu
Unha is only suitable for vessels of less than 300 tonnes.
Port Authority. Tongyãng Branch Office of Masan
Regional Maritime Affairs and Fisheries.
Limiting conditions
3.194
1
Controlling depths. Depths in the main part of the
harbour range from 6 to 10 m. There is a least charted
depth of 2⋅1 m in Chungmu Unha (34°50′⋅0N 128°24′⋅4E).
Vertical clearances:
Two bridges span Chungma Unha. Tongyãng Bridge,
the W bridge, has a vertical clearance of 18 m;
Chungmu Bridge, to the E, has a vertical clearance
of 20 m.
2
Deepest and longest berth. The deepest and longest
berths are situated in Tongho Hang (3.199).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅4 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅9 m. For further information see the relevant
edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
3
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
3000 tonnes may use the port.
Local weather. Tongyãng Hang enjoys mainly good
weather. Even in cold winters it rarely snows or freezes
and weather never prohibits the navigation of small vessels
in the bay.
Arrival information
3.195
1
Notice of ETA required. Vessels should send an ETA
72, 48 and 24 hours prior to arrival.
Outer anchorage. A quarantine anchorage has been
established within a radius of 1½ cables, centred 6 cables
SSE of Chinsong Mal (34°49′⋅6N 128°26′⋅5E).
2
Pilotage. For information on pilotage see 3.185.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
3.196
1
General layout. The berths in Tongyãng Hang are
situated in Tongho Hang (34°50′⋅5N 128°26′⋅3E), Nae Hang
(34°50′⋅6N 128°25′⋅5E) and Sãho Hang (34°50′⋅3N
128°25′⋅2E), along the N shore of the harbour. There is a
shipyard on the S shore of the harbour and Tonam Hang,
close NW of the S entrance point of Chinsong Mal, has
berths and facilities for recreational craft.
2
Tongyãng Hang is sheltered from all winds, but the
anchorage (3.199) is not large and cannot accommodate
many vessels.
Landmarks:
Yãhwang San (34°51′⋅2N 128°25′⋅2E), 175 m high.
Mangilbong (34°50′⋅9N 128°26′⋅4E), 148 m high.
Nammang San (34°50′⋅4N 128°25′⋅8E) consisting of
two summits.
3
Other aid to navigation:
Racon transmitted from No 8 Light-beacon (34°50′⋅2N
128°25′⋅0E).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.187)
3.197
1
East entrance. For Tongho Hang, the E-most berthing
area, the track leads directly NNW, from a position about
5 cables NE of Chinsong Mal (34°49′⋅6N 128°26′⋅5E), to
the entrance to the basin. Lights (round concrete towers,
10 m in height) are exhibited from the heads of the
breakwaters forming the entrance.
2
For the berths in Nae Hang and Sãho Hang the track
leads WNW into the bay, passing (with positions relative to
Chinsong Mal):
NNE of No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) (5 cables
NNW), thence:
3
SSW of Changsã Light-beacon (black round concrete
tower, yellow top, 10 m in height) (7½ cables
NNW), thence:
NNE of Kongjudo (7½ cables NE), a small islet 15 m
high, lying 7½ cables NW of Chinsong Mal; the
edge of the shoal water on the N side of the islet
is marked by a light-buoy (port hand). And:
4
SSW of the head of a breakwater (9 cables NW) from
which a light (red round metal tower, 5 m in
height) is exhibited.
Thence Nae Hang and Sãho Hang are directly
accessible.
3.198
1
Chungmu Unha (continued from 3.164). From a
position about 1½ cables NE of Silrammal (34°50′N
128°23′E) the track leads SE, passing (with positions
relative to Silrammal):
CHAPTER 3
144
Along the N side of Miruk To (3 cables SE) (3.183),
and:
SW of Haemaldangdan (4 cables E).
2
The track then rounds Haemaldangdan and leads
generally NE through Chungmu Unha, a canal 1420 m long
with a least width of 42 m, passing (with positions relative
to Silrammal):
Under Tongyãng Bridge (1 mile ENE) (3.194),
marked by lights, thence:
Under Chungmu Bridge (1¼ miles ENE) (3.194),
thence:
3
Over a road tunnel (1¼ miles ENE), completed in
1932; the first one constructed in Asia.
The track then leads between No 7 Light-beacon (green
rectangle on green concrete tower, 16 m in height)
(1¾ miles ENE) and No 8 Light-beacon (red triangle on red
round concrete tower, 14 m in height) into Tongyãng Hang.
Berths
3.199
1
Anchorage. Large vessels may anchor E of a line
joining Changsã Light (34°50′⋅3N 128°26′⋅1E) with
Kongjudo, 4 cables SW, in depths of about 9 m. Small
vessels can anchor W of the line in depths of about 6 m,
over a bottom of mud.
Tongho Hang (34°50′⋅5N 128°26′⋅3E). Contains several
quays; charted depths alongside from 2⋅8 to 7⋅6 m.
2
Nae Hang (34°50′⋅6N 128°25′⋅5E). This basin is lined
by a continuous quay; charted depths from 1⋅8 to 3⋅9 m
alongside.
Sãho Hang (34°50′⋅3N 128°25′⋅2E). The main wharf is
870 m long, with an alongside charted depth of 7⋅0 m.
Floating piers to the W of the wharf are for passenger
vessels.
Port services
3.200
1
Repairs. There are several ship repair yards in
Tongyãng Hang capable of dealing with vessels up to
5000 tonnes along with patent slips. Sina Shipbuilding
Company, situated on the S side of the harbour, is capable
of constructing vessels up to 10 000 tonnes.
Supplies. Fuel and fresh water are available.
Minor anchorages
Chart 127, Korean Chart No 208 (see 1.22)
Shinjãnp’o
3.201
1
Shinjãnp’o (34°47′N 128°26′E), 1½ miles NNE of the
SE point of Miruk To, affords anchorage to small local
vessels in depths of about 8 m. The small harbour of
Shinjãn Hang is situated in the inner part of the cove.
Hansan Hang
3.202
1
Description. Hansan Hang (34°48′N 128°28′E), entered
close SE of Chug Do (3.187), divides into two arms
5 cables within the entrance. In Tuãkpo, the SW arm, there
is a wharf and two floating piers.
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, on round stone
base, 12 m in height) exhibited from Sodangam, a
rock which dries 2⋅7 m, lying on the W side of the
entrance to Tuãkpo.
2
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain good anchorage,
sheltered from all directions, in depths from 5 to 8 m, in
Tuãkpo.
INSHORE ROUTE — PBUJIDO
TO TAEBYPNGDAE DO
General information
Charts 127, Korean Chart No 224B (see 1.22)
Route
3.203
1
From a position about 1¾ miles SE of Pbujido (34°42′N
128°24′E) the recommended route leads E for 13 miles,
passing S of several inshore islands, islets and rocks, and N
of some offshore islands, to a position about 3 miles ESE
of Taebyãngdae Do (34°41′N 128°38′E). The route is
shown on the charts.
Topography
3.204
1
Kãje Do (34°42′N 128°36′E) extends 21 miles N from
its S point and is 12 miles wide. The island is mountainous,
rising 3¼ miles N of its S point, to Kara San, 581 m high.
The NW side of Kãje Do forms the SE side of Chinhae
Man (3.316).
2
The S side of Kãje Do between Mangsangak (34°42′N
128°35′E) and Saegam Mal (3.235), 3 miles E, consists of
barren cliffs indented by two bays.
Tidal streams
3.205
1
The tidal streams S of Kao Do (34°41′N 128°35′E) set
WNW at 3 kn and SE at 2 kn.
Principal mark
3.206
1
Major light:
Somaemul To Light (34°37′N 128°33′E) (3.12).
Other aid to navigation
3.207
1
Racon:
Pungnyã Do (34°41′N 128°46′E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.179)
3.208
1
From a position about 1¾ miles SE of Pbujido (34°42′N
128°24′E) the track leads E, passing (with positions relative
to Taebyãngdae Do Light (34°41′N 128°38′E)):
S of a fish haven (8¼ miles W) fronting the S side of
Pijin Do (3.186), thence:
2
N of Soji Do (8¼ miles WSW) (3.212), from the E
side of which a light (3.212) is exhibited, thence:
S of Chakdo (7 miles WNW), an isolated rock from
which a light (isolated danger) is exhibited, thence:
S of a fish haven (6 miles W), thence:
3
N of a large fish haven (4½ miles WSW) fronting the
N side of Kaik To, 31 m high. Kaik To consists of
a group of reddish brown pillar-shaped rocks.
From E or W Kaik To shows as five or six
pinnacles, while several of the rocks look like
junks. Thence:
4
N of Pyudo (2¾ miles SW), from the N side of
which a light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in
height) is exhibited. Pyudo is a flat-terraced island
with some cultivated land. And:
S of Kao Do (2¼ miles W), from the S side of which
a light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in
height) is exhibited. The SE side of the island is
CHAPTER 3
145
cultivated. Foul ground extends 1 cable S from
Kao Do’s SW extremity. Thence:
5
S of Taebyãngdae Do, a group of islets and rocks
lying 7 cables SE of Sobyãngdae Do. Taebyãngdae
Do Light (green rectangle on green round concrete
tower, 23 m in height) is exhibited from the
SE-most islet, which at 84 m high is the highest.
The track then leads to a position about 3 miles ESE of
Taebyãngdae Do.
3.209
1
Useful marks:
Mangsangak Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m
in height) (34°42′⋅2N 128°34′⋅6E).
Sãkmun Do Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m
in height) (34°41′⋅6N 128°36′⋅0E).
(Directions continue for the inshore route NE at 3.235)
Side channels
North of Kao Do
3.210
1
Description. There is a narrow channel between the N
side of Kao Do (34°41′N 128°35′E) and Mangsangak,
8 cables N. The channel is deep and free of dangers, but it
is encumbered by a fish haven.
Tidal streams in this channel set NW at 1¼ kn and SE
at 2¼ kn.
2
Useful marks:
Mangsangak Light (34°42′⋅2N 128°34′⋅6E) (3.209).
Sãkmun Do Light (34°41′⋅6N 128°36′⋅0E) (3.209).
South−east of Sobyãngdae Do
3.211
1
Description. There is a deep-water channel between the
S side of Sobyãngdae Do (34°41′⋅8N 128°36′⋅5E) and
Taebyãngdae Do (3.208), 6 cables SE. The channel is free
of dangers.
2
Sobyãngdae Do (34°41′⋅8N 128°36′⋅5E) consists of a
group of rocky islets lying close off the S side of Kãje Do.
Socho Do, the highest islet of the group, is 68 m high.
Sãkmun Do, an islet 59 m high and from which a light
(3.209) is exhibited, lies 2¼ cables SW of Sobyãngdae Do.
3
Tidal streams in the channel attain a rate of 3 kn.
Useful mark:
Taebyãngdae Do Light (34°41′N 128°38′E) (3.208).
Offshore islands
Soji Do
3.212
1
Description. Soji Do (34°39′N 128°28′E), an isolated
island, is 132 m high and wedge-shaped; its W part is
rugged. A light (white round GRP tower, 9 m in height) is
exhibited from the E-most point of the island.
Tidal streams near Soji Do set W on the in-going tide
and E on the out-going tide, with rates of up to 1½ kn.
2
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain temporary anchorage, in
a depth of 10 m in a bay on the N side of Soji Do. This
bay is the only place where landing is possible.
Maemul To and Somaemul To
3.213
1
Description. Maemul To (34°38′N 128°34′E), 4½ miles
E of Soji Do, has a pointed peak 195 m high near the
middle of the island and is prominent. Its coasts are rocky;
the SE coast is steep and cliffy. The W part of the island
which is cultivated, slopes gradually to the sea. Another
pointed, but lower peak NE of the summit may be
mistaken for the summit from N. Several gravel beaches lie
on the NW and SE sides of the island on which a landing
may be affected.
2
The island of Pyudo lies close N of Maemul To. The
channel between the two islands has depths of less than
10 m in the fairway and there is an above-water rock
1 cable SSW of Pyudo. Kaik To, lying 1½ miles W of
Maemul To, and Pyudo are described at 3.208.
3
Somaemul To, 4 cables SW of Maemul To, has a conical
peak, 151 m high, in its S part. The E coast of this island
has precipitous cliffs, but the hills slope down to the W
coast, and there some houses on the hillside. The channel
between Somaemul To and Maemul To is 3 cables wide
and deep. Somaemul To Light (3.12) is exhibited from an
islet close off the S side of the island.
4
Anchorages:
Maemul To. Small vessels may obtain anchorage in a
depth of 11 m in the bay on the SE side of the
island. Local knowledge is needed and care taken
to avoid the foul ground on the NE side of this
anchorage.
5
Somaemul To. Temporary anchorage by small vessels
may be obtained on the NW side of Somaemul To.
Local knowledge is required.
SOUTH−WEST SIDE OF KPJE DO
General information
Korean Charts No 208, No 224B (see 1.22)
Route
3.214
1
From a position on the inshore route (3.208), about
1¼ miles SW of Kao Do (34°41′N 128°35′E), the route
leads generally N, for 5 miles, and thence NW, for a farther
6 miles to Chukpa Sudo (34°49′N 128°29′E), passing
through the channels that lead between the SW side of
Kãje Do and the islands to the W.
Topography
3.215
1
Between Mangsangak (34°42′N 128°35′E), the SW
extremity of Kãje Do, and a point 7 miles NW, the coast of
Kãje Do consists of barren cliffs; several islets lie close off
it. The coast is indented from S to N by Chãguri Man
(3.221), Yulp’o Man (3.222), Kabae Man (3.223) and
Chungnimp’o (3.224).
Fishing
3.216
1
The shores of the SW side of Kãje Do and the adjacent
channels are lined with fish havens and fish stakes. Care is
required when navigating in the vicinity of these havens,
especially in foggy conditions, and even during daytime, if
without local knowledge.
Vertical clearance
3.217
1
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
43 m, spans the channel between the N side of Sãjwado
(34°48′N 128°30′E) and the SW side of Kãje Do, 5 cables
NNE.
Tidal streams
3.218
1
Tidal streams in the channel between Pongam Do
(34°45′N 128°32′E) and the SW side of Kãje Do set N at
1 kn with the in-going tide and S at 1¼ kn with the
out-going tide.
CHAPTER 3
146
Directions
Kao Do to Chãguri Man
3.219
1
From a position on the inshore route (3.208), about
1¼ miles SW of Kao Do (34°41′N 128°35′E), the track
leads NNE, passing (with positions relative to Pongam Do
Light (34°44′⋅8N 128°33′⋅8E)):
WNW of Kao Do (3¾ miles S), from the S side of
which a light (3.208) is exhibited, thence:
2
ESE of Taedãkto (3 miles S), an island 90 m high,
thence:
ESE of Sodãkto (2¾ miles S), 71 m high, with a deep
channel free of dangers between it and Taedãkto
SW, thence:
3
WNW of Mangsangak (3 miles SSE), which is bold
and rises to a height of 193 m 4 cables NE. A
light (3.209) is exhibited from Mangsangak.
Thence:
4
ESE of Changsado (2 miles S). Between Mangsangak
and Changsado the channel is 4 cables wide and
free from dangers. Sodãkto, 1½ cables SW, is
connected to Changsado by a ridge, with a depth
of 8⋅4 m over it.
5
The track then leads N, passing W of a small bay
(2¼ miles SSE) on the S side of which is situated Taepo
Hang. A light (red round concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited from the breakwater at Taepo Hang. The track
then leads to a position W of the entrance to Chãguri Man
(1¾ miles SE) (3.221).
Chãguri Man to Chukpa Sudo and Kyãnnaeryang
Haehyãp
3.220
1
From the position W of Chãguri Man (34°44′N
128°36′E) the track continues N, passing between the E
side of Pongam Do and the SW side of Kãje Do. Pongam
Do Light (white red concrete tower, 13 m in height)
(34°44′⋅8N 128°33′⋅8E) is exhibited from the SE point of
this island. The track then leads NW, passing (with
positions relative to Pongam Do Light):
2
SW of the entrance to Yulp’o Man (1 mile NE)
(3.222), thence:
Between the NE side (7 cables NNW) of Pongam Do
and the SW side of Kãje Do, thence:
SW of the entrance to Kabae Man (1½ miles NNW)
(3.223).
3
The track then leads to a position about 5 cables SW of
Kudo (2½ miles NW) from which a light (white round
concrete tower, 14 m in height) is exhibited. A rock which
dries 0⋅6 m lies close SW of Kudo and shallow water
surrounds the islet.
Thence the track leads N, passing the entrance to
Chungnimp’o (3.224), and thence NW, passing (with
positions relative to Pongam Do Light):
4
Between Songdo (3½ miles NW) and Sandalto
(3¾ miles NNW), thence:
Between the islands (4½ miles NW) fringing the NE
side of Hansan Do and the SW side of Kãje Do.
Thence the track leads either through Chukpa Sudo
(34°49′N 128°29′E) (3.191) to Tongyãng Hang (34°50′N
128°26′E) (3.193), or continues NW into Kyãnnaeryang
Haehyãp (34°53′N 128°28′E) (3.192).
Minor bays and anchorages
Chãguri Man
3.221
1
Description. Chãguri Man (34°44′N 128°36′E) is
entered 1 mile N of Mangsangak. The N side of the bay is
precipitous and rugged, but the S entrance point is low.
There are some small wharves and jetties in the bay.
Anchorage. The bay affords good anchorage to vessels
in depths from 6 to 8 m, over a bottom of mud.
Yulp’o Man
3.222
1
Yulp’o Man (34°46′N 128°35′E), entered 3½ miles N of
Mangsangak, is sheltered and has depths from 5 to 8 m in
it. The SE entrance point is fronted by a rock 6⋅5 m high;
foul ground surrounds the rock. There are fish traps within
the bay.
2
Yulp’o Man, at its head, divides into three coves. Yulpo
Hang is situated in the N cove. The village of Tappo is
situated at the head of the middle cove; a small islet lies in
the middle of this cove. Ssanggun Hang is situated in the S
cove.
Kabae Man
3.223
1
Description. Kabae Man (34°47′N 128°34′E), entered
1 mile NW of Yulpo Man, is a shallow inlet. A spit, with a
least depth of 3⋅3 m over it, extends 2½ cables offshore on
the N side of the entrance. There are jetties along the shore
of the inlet and Kabae Ri, a village, stands at its head.
2
Anchorage. Kabae Man affords anchorage to small local
vessels in depths from 3 to 5 m, with shelter from all
directions.
Chungnimp’o
3.224
1
Description. Chungnimp’o is a large bay entered
between the small islet of Kudo (34°47′N 128°32′E)
(3.220) and the S end of Sandalto, 9 cables N. Sandalto,
236 m high at its N end and 213 m at its S end, is
separated from the NW side of the bay by a channel, with
a least depth of 6⋅4 m, mud.
2
Kãje (34°51′N 128°35′E), a town with tile-roofed
houses, stands on the shore at the NE end of Chungnimp’o.
Kãje Hang is situated in a small inlet fronting the town; a
337 m long breakwater, extending SSW from the shore, and
a small promontory projecting WNW from the shore
protect the harbour. Chungnim Hang is situated in a cove
indenting the W end of the previously mentioned
promontory.
3
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 40 m, spans the channel NW of
Sandalto.
Fishing stakes are encountered in winter off the shores
of Chungnimp’o.
Useful mark:
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height)
(34°50′⋅3N 128°34′⋅9E) exhibited from the
breakwater in Chungnim Hang.
4
Anchorage. Chungnimp’o affords secure anchorage in
depths from 5 to 9 m, over a bottom of mud, with good
holding ground.
CHAPTER 3
147
KPJE DO TO KODU MAL
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 127
Area covered
3.225
1
This section describes the coastal and inshore waters
between the S end of Kãje Do (34°42′N 128°36′E) and
Kodu Mal (35°09′N 129°11′E), 40 miles NE. It includes
descriptions of the major ports of Masan Hang and Pusan
(Busan) Hang. The section is arranged as follows:
2
South-east of Kãje Do to Namhyãngje Do and Kadãk
To (3.226).
Kadãk Sudo (3.250).
Kadãk Sudo to Masan Hang including Chinhae Hang
(3.269).
3
Masan Hang and approaches (3.284).
Chinhae Man (3.316).
Namhyãngje Do and Kadãk Do to Kodu Mal (3.351).
Pusan Hang (3.362).
SOUTH−EAST OF KPJE DO
TO NAMHYPNGJE DO
AND KADPK TO
General information
Charts 127, 1065
Routes
3.226
1
Coastal route − Hong Do to Namhyãngje Do. From a
position 4 miles NNE of Hong Do (34°32′N 128°44′E) the
coastal route leads NE, for 19 miles, to a position SE of
Namhyãngje Do (34°53′N 128°57′E).
From seaward to Kadãk To. From the vicinity of
34°36′N 128°56′E, on the coastal route between Hong Do
and Namhyãngje Do, the route leads NW, for 13 miles, to a
position about 2 miles S of Tongdu Mal (34°59′N
128°50′E).
2
Inshore route to Kadãk To. From a position about
3 miles ESE of Taebyãngdae Do (34°41′N 128°38′E) the
route leads NE for 10½ miles, passing between the SE side
of Kãje Do and Pukyã Do (Pungnyã Do on Chart 127)
(34°41′N 128°46′E), to a position 3 miles E of Chishim Do
(34°49′N 128°49′E). Thence the track leads N, for a farther
8 miles, to a position about 2 miles S of Tongdu Mal.
Topography
3.227
1
Between Saegam Mal (34°42′N 128°39′E) and Sãi Mal,
7 miles NE, the SE coast of Kãje Do is mostly high, bold
and much indented. The E coast of Kãje between Sãi Mal
and Isu Do (3.266), 11 miles N, is similar to the SE coast
in that it is also high, bold and much indented.
Ammunition dumping grounds
3.228
1
Areas. An ammunition dumping ground, the limits of
which are shown on Chart 127, lies close W of
Namhyãngje Do (34°53′N 128°57′E). A second area in
which unexploded ordnance may be found is defined by a
circle, radius 1 mile, centred on Namhyãngje Do.
2
Caution. Mariners are advised that these areas are
dangerous for anchoring, trawling and underwater
operations.
Measured distance
3.229
1
There is a measured distance between Sãi Mal (34°47′N
128°44′E) and the S end of Chisim Do, 1¾ miles N.
North limit. Two beacons in line bearing 292°.
South limit. Two beacons in line bearing 292°.
Distance. 3207⋅2 m.
Running track. 022°−202°.
Natural conditions
3.230
1
Tidal streams between Pukyã Do (Pungnyã Do on
Chart 127) (34°41′N 128°46′E) and Kalgok To, 5 miles
NW, set W and NE at a rate of 2 kn.
Tide-rips. Between Saegam Mal (34°42′N 128°39′E)
and Sãi Mal, 7 miles NE, tide-rips occur off the coast. The
mud in the open bays is stirred up causing patches of
discoloured water.
Principal marks
3.231
1
Major lights:
Sãi Mal Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (34°47′N 128°44′E).
Tongdu Mal (white octagonal concrete tower, 40 m in
height) (34°59′N 128°50′E).
Sã Do Light (35°02′N 128°58′E) (3.356).
Other aids to navigation
3.232
1
Racons:
Pungnyã Do (34°41′N 128°46′E).
Mok To (34°59′N 128°59′E).
Sã Do (35°02′N 128°58′E).
Directions
(continued from 3.15)
Coastal route − Hong Do to Namhyãngje Do
3.233
1
From a position 4 miles NNE of Hong Do (34°32′N
128°44′E) the track leads NE, passing (with positions
relative to Namhyãngje Do (34°53′N 128°57′E)):
SE of a fish haven (17½ miles SW), thence:
2
SE of Yo Do (15½ miles SW), which consists of two
groups of rocks. Namyã Do, the S group, consists
of two rocks, of which the S rock is 17 m high.
Pukyã Do (Pungnyã Do on Chart 127), the N
group, consists of an above-water rock 9 m high
and a rock, which dries 1⋅5 m 2 cables SW of the
above-water rock. A light (isolated danger, 23 m
high) is exhibited from Pukyã Do. Thence:
3
NW of an isolated dangerous wreck (14 miles S),
thence:
SE of a light-buoy (special) (7½ miles SSW).
The track then leads to a position SE of Namhyãngje
Do, which consists of three above-water rocks, the S and
highest of which is 24 m high. The highest rock is very
rugged with steep sides and a wooded summit. The W side
of Namhyãngje Do is marked by a light-beacon (isolated
danger).
4
A reef extends a short distance N from Namhyãngje Do
and a patch, with a depth of 10⋅8 m over it, lies 4 cables
NE with a rock, with a depth of 16 m over it, 7 cables
CHAPTER 3
148
farther NNE. For information on dumping grounds in the
vicinity see 3.228.
(Directions for the coastal route continue at 3.358)
From seaward to Kadãk To
3.234
1
From the vicinity of 34°36′N 128°56′E, on the coastal
route, the track leads NW, passing (with positions relative
to Sãi Mal (34°47′N 128°44′E)):
NE of a light-buoy (special) (8 miles ESE), thence:
NE of Sãi Mal (3.235), from which a light (3.231) is
exhibited, and:
2
SW of Namhyãngje Do (11¾ miles NE) (3.233). For
information on dumping grounds in the vicinity of
Namhyãngje Do see 3.228. Thence:
NE of Chisim Do (1¾ miles N). Two radio towers
stand on the summit of the island near its S end.
Thence:
3
SW of Puk’yãngje Do (14½ miles NE) (3.358),
thence:
NE of Yangjiam Chwi (6½ miles N), from which a
light (white octagonal GRP tower, 8 m in height)
is exhibited. Yangjiam Chwi is a narrow point
47 m high; a light-buoy is moored 6 cables E of
the point. Thence:
4
NE of a fish haven (7½ miles N) lying 1¾ miles E of
Hwang Do, in the approaches to Okpo Hang
(3.236).
The track then leads to a position about 2 miles S of
Tongdu Mal (13 miles NNE) from which a light (3.231) is
exhibited; a surveillance radar is mounted on a white
building near the light. Tongdu Mal, the S point of Kadãk
To, is almost steep-to.
(Directions continue, for Masan Hang and Chinhae
Man at 3.261, and for an inshore route ENE
to Pusan Hang at 3.359)
Inshore route to Kadãk To
(continued from 3.209)
3.235
1
From a position about 3 miles ESE of Taebyãngdae Do
(34°41′N 128°38′E) the track leads NE, passing (with
positions relative to Sãi Mal (34°47′N 128°44′E)):
SE of a group of islets and rocks extending 4 cables
SE from Saegam Mal (7 miles SW); the highest of
these islets is 54 m high. Saegam Mal rises inland
to a blunt conical-shaped hill 275 m high. Thence:
2
SE of Kalgok To (4½ miles SW), an island 128 m
high, lying off the SE side of a small peninsula,
thence:
NW of Pukyã Do (Pungnyã Do on Chart 127)
(6¾ miles SSE) (3.233). An isolated rock, with a
depth of 14⋅8 m over it, lies 1¾ miles WNW of
Pukyã Do. Thence:
3
SE of Pjora Do (1¾ miles SW), 86 m high, and
rugged with dark coloured cliffs; its upper part is
covered with low trees. Above-water rocks extend
1 cable SE from the E end of Pjora Do, and a
rock, awash, lies close S of its SW point. Thence:
SE of Sãi Mal, from which a light (3.231) is
exhibited. The promontory 1 mile NW of the light
is 308 m high (305 m on Chart 1065) at Mang
San.
4
The track then leads N, passing (with positions relative
to Sãi Mal):
E of Chisim Do (1¾ miles N) (3.234), thence:
E of Yangjiam Chwi (6½ miles N) (3.234), thence:
E of a fish haven (7½ miles N) lying 1¾ miles E of
Hwang Do, in the approaches to Okpo Hang
(3.236).
5
The track then leads to a position about 2 miles S of
Tongdu Mal (13 miles NNE) (3.234) from which a light
(3.231) is exhibited.
(Directions continue, for Masan Hang and Chinhae
Man at 3.261, and for an inshore route ENE
to Pusan Hang at 3.359)
Okpo Hang
General information
3.236
1
Position. Okpo Hang (Ogpo Hang on Chart 1065)
(34°53′N 128°43′E) is situated on the E side of Kãje Do,
19 miles SSE of Masan.
Function. The harbour is the site of Daewoo Shipyard,
one of the largest ship-building complexes in the world.
Port limits. The harbour limits are shown on the chart.
Approach and entry. Okpo Hang is approached from
the SE and entered between Yangjiam Chwi (34°53′⋅7N
128°45′⋅1E) and a point 1¾ miles NW.
Limiting conditions
3.237
1
Controlling depths. Within the harbour depths vary
from 10⋅9 to 17.6 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
300 000 tonnes can berth in the harbour.
Arrival information
3.238
1
Outer anchorage. A quarantine anchorage, radius
2½ cables, is situated outside the N breakwater, 1½ miles
WNW of Yangjiam Chwi (34°53′⋅7N 128°45′⋅1E).
Pilotage is controlled by Masan Hang. Pilots board at
the No 5 boarding area (34°56′⋅2N 128°45′⋅9E), 2½ miles N
of Yangjiam Chwi; for vessels of 1000 tonnes or less the
pilot boards at No 6 boarding area within the quarantine
anchorage.
2
Tugs are available.
Harbour
3.239
1
General layout. Okpo Hang is almost entirely enclosed
by two breakwaters extending NW from the SE shore and
SE from the N shore. Inside the harbour four dry docks are
situated on the S side with fitting out and alongside berths
on the E and SE sides.
2
Landmarks:
Ognyã Bong (34°51′⋅2N 128°41′⋅6E), 554 m high,
situated SSW of the harbour.
Kangmang San (34°55′⋅5N 128°41′⋅8E), 363 m high,
situated to the N.
Directions
3.240
1
General remarks. There are no specific directions for
entering Okpo Hang, the chart being sufficient guide.
Useful marks:
Light (3.234) exhibited from Yangjiam Chwi
(34°53′⋅7N 128°45′⋅1E).
2
Light (red round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Okpo Hang S
breakwater.
Light (white round concrete structure, 7 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Okpo Hang N
breakwater.
CHAPTER 3
149
Berths
3.241
1
Anchorage. Vessels may anchor within Okpo Hang in
the NW corner of the harbour in depths from 12 to 15 m,
over a bottom of mud and sand.
Alongside berths. There is over 1500 m of berthing
space on the E and SE sides of the harbour. Depths
alongside vary from 8⋅8 to 14⋅6 m.
Port services
3.242
1
Repairs. All types of repairs carried out. There are two
dry docks and two floating docks, as follows:
No 1 Dock; 530 m long, width 131 m, depth 14⋅5 m
and a capacity for 1 000 000 tonnes.
No 2 Dock; 350 m long with a width of 81 m.
2
Royal Dock No 1, a floating dock.
Royal Dock 2, a floating dock.
One of the floating docks has a capacity for vessels up
to 47 000 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions difficult to obtain.
Minor harbours and anchorages
Korean Chart No 224A (see 1.22)
Tadaepo Man
3.243
1
Description. Tadaepo Man (34°44′N 128°38′E) is
entered between Saegam Mal (3.235) and a point, 2 miles
NE, which is the S extremity of a small peninsula. Suje
Bong, 105 m high, stands on the peninsula. The entrance to
Tadaepo Man is deep with depths decreasing rapidly
towards the head of the bay.
2
Caution. A large fish haven encumbers the approaches
and entrance to Tadaepo Man.
Anchorage. The holding ground in the bay is good but
it is open SE and when there is a swell from NE it sets
into the bay.
3
Tadaetap’o Hang. Situated at the head of the bay is the
small fishing harbour of Tadaetap’o Hang. The harbour is
protected by breakwaters, from the heads of which lights
are exhibited. Within the harbour there is a quay, 300 m
long, and a wharf with a berthing length of 280 m.
Korean Chart W246, plan of Dojangpo (see 1.22)
Tojang Po
3.244
1
Description. Tojang Po (34°46′N 128°41′E) is entered
between Kalgok To (3.235) and Sãi Mal (3.235), 4 miles
NE. On the W side of the bay is Mang Po and on the N
side are Mangchi Po and Kujora Po.
Pjora Do (3.235) lies in the entrance to the bay towards
the NE side. Naejora Do, 130 m high, and lying 5 cables N
of Pjora Do, has two summits, one lower than the other; it
is connected to the NE shore of Tojang Po by a reef.
2
The channel between Pjora Do and Naejora Do is deep
and free from dangers, but vessels entering Tojang Po are
advised to pass S of both these islets.
Useful mark:
Light (round concrete tower 12 m in height)
(34°44′⋅7N 128°39′⋅8E) exhibited from the S side
of Tojang Po.
3
Mangchi Po. This cove is entered 3 miles WNW of Sãi
Mal. The E entrance point of Mangchi Po is the W
extremity of a peninsula 147 m high which is connected to
Kãje Do N by a low isthmus. On the N side of the cove is
an islet, 41 m high, which is connected to the N shore by a
reef; a drying reef, with an above-water rock on it, extends
1 cable E from the islet.
4
The best anchorage in Mangchi Po is 4 cables E of the
islet in depths from 9 to 11 m, over a bottom of mud, on
the alignment (182°) of Kalgok To with the E entrance
point of the cove.
Kujora Po, 1 mile E of Mangchi Po, affords well
sheltered anchorage in depths from 9 to 15 m, over a
bottom of mud. Rocks, drying 0⋅6 m, extend E from the W
entrance point. Local knowledge is required.
5
The fishing harbour of Kujora Hang is situated 3 cables
N of the W entrance point of Kujora Po. It is protected on
its E side by a breakwater extending NE for 300 m; inside
the breakwater there is a quay 595 m long.
Chart 1065
Chisim Do Oil Terminal
3.245
1
Position and function. Chisim Do Oil Terminal
(34°49′N 128°44′E) consisting of a SBM, is situated
between the W side of Chisim Do and the E shore of Kãje
Do. It is used for the discharge of crude oil.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅6 m. For further information see the relevant
edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. In 1991 it was
reported that vessels up to 250 000 dwt with a maximum
draught of 21 m were handled at the terminal.
Anchorage. There is a quarantine and holding anchorage
off Changsungpo Hang (3.247), 2 miles NNE of the SBM.
3
Pilotage. The terminal falls within the Masan Hang
pilotage area. The pilot boards at No 8 boarding area,
3 miles E of Chisim Do.
Berth. The SBM, from which a light is exhibited, is
connected to the shore SW by a submarine pipeline.
Berthing of tankers takes place in daylight hours only.
4
Facilities. There are no facilities for the reception of
dirty ballast.
Supplies. Fuel and fresh water supplied by lighter.
Chise Po
3.246
1
Description. Chise Po (34°50′N 128°43′E), entered
3¼ miles N of Sãi Mal, is 2 cables wide at its entrance; on
the S side of the entrance a breakwater extends NE. The
bay affords a safe haven, deep and free from dangers.
Chisep’o Hang is situated along the SW shore of Chise Po,
fronting the village of Taedong Ri.
2
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in Chise Po
on the N and S sides of the bay in depths from 9 to 14 m,
over a bottom of mud.
Harbour. Chisep’o Hang, a fishing harbour, is fronted
by a detached breakwater; lights (octagonal concrete
towers, 9 m in height) are exhibited from the ends of the
breakwater. Within the harbour there is a quay, 688 m long.
Changsungpo Hang
3.247
1
Position and function. Changsungpo Hang (34°52′N
128°44′E) is a small port used by a large number of fishing
vessels. Changsungpo Ri stands along the shores of the
harbour.
Local weather. Winds blow from E in the spring and
SE in summer; in the autumn they blow from SW and
from N or NE in winter. Most rainfall occurs between
April and June. Fog occurs frequently from April to July
and may cause difficulty leaving and entering when thick.
It sometimes snows in December.
CHAPTER 3
150
2
Landmark:
Radio tower (metal framework, 30 m in height)
standing on the shore at the head of the harbour.
Anchorages. There is a quarantine and waiting
anchorage SE of the entrance to the harbour; the limits are
shown on the chart. Within the harbour there are depths of
less than 4 m but there is good anchorage for vessels under
400 tonnes, over a bottom of mud.
3
Harbour. The harbour lies at the head of a small inlet
and is protected by E and W breakwaters; lights (metal
framework towers on concrete bases, 8 m in height) are
exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters.
Berths. Alongside berths, with a total length of 1089 m,
are arranged along the shores of the head of the harbour.
There are also two floating piers alongside of which vessels
up to 200 tonnes can berth.
4
Repairs. There is a shipyard for vessels up to
100 tonnes.
Supplies. Fuel, fresh water and provisions are available.
Nungp’o Hang
3.248
1
Description. Nungp’o Hang (34°53′N 128°44′E) is a
fishing harbour situated close E of Okpo Hang (3.236). The
harbour, with depths from 2 to 10 m in it over a bottom of
mud, is protected by two breakwaters.
Useful marks:
2
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
3
Berth. The harbour contains a wharf, 680 m long, able
to berth vessels up to 500 tonnes.
Ppo Hang
3.249
1
Description. Ppo Hang (34°56′N 128°43′E), a fishing
harbour, is situated on the NE coast of Kãje Do, 2½ miles
N of Okpo Hang (3.236). The harbour is protected by an
outer breakwater, extending SW from the E entrance point,
and by an inner breakwater.
2
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete structure, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the outer breakwater.
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the inner breakwater.
3
Berth. The harbour contains a wharf, 562 m long, able
to berth vessels up to 100 tonnes.
KADPK SUDO
General information
Chart 1065
Route
3.250
1
From a position about 2 miles S of Tongdu Mal
(34°59′N 128°50′E) the route leads initially NNW through
the TSS in Kadãk Sudo, for 4½ miles, to a position
1½ miles SSW of Kojin Mal (35°03′N 128°48′E). Thence
the track leads NW, for a short distance, to the No 1 pilot
boarding position (35°02′N 128°47′E) for Chinhae Hang
(3.277), Masan Hang (3.284) and Chinhae Man (3.316).
2
This route uses the best and widest channel through
Kadãk Sudo between Pyãngsan Yãlto and Kadãk To, to the
E; it forms the main approach from the SE to Masan Hang
and Chinhae Man, and is deep and free of dangers. The
channel between Chã Do (35°01′N 128°44′E) and
Pyãngsan Yãlto is not recommended as it is obstructed by
a rock, with a depth of 5⋅4 m over it, which lies in the
fairway.
Topography
3.251
1
Kadãk To (35°02′N 128°50′E) rises in an irregular chain
of hills and mountains to Yãndae San (3.259), 2¼ miles N
of its S point. The W coast of Kadãk To is indented by
several coves and bays. The N coast is high, precipitous
and barren.
2
The E side of Kadãk To is cliffy and at Chãnggãri Mal,
its NE extremity, stands Kuksu Bong, a brown hill 137 m
high, connected to the main part of the island by a low
sandy isthmus.
Tidal levels
3.252
1
Kadãk Sudo. Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m; mean
neap range about 0⋅7 m. For further information see the
relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Mined areas
3.253
1
For information on areas swept clear of mines see 1.6
and Appendix I.
Pilotage
3.254
1
For vessels requiring a pilot for the approaches to
Chinhae Hang, Masan Hang and Chinhae Man, the pilot
boards at the No 1 pilot boarding position (35°02′N
128°47′E), as shown on the chart, E of Kadãk To.
Vessel traffic service
3.255
1
Masan Port Traffic Management Service covers the
approaches to Chinhae Hang, Masan Hang and Chinhae
Man. All vessels are required to report to the PTMS. For
details and a list of reporting points see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Traffic regulations
3.256
1
Traffic separation scheme. A TSS is established in
Kadãk Sudo, Chinhae Man and the approaches to Masan
Hang. The TSS is not IMO-adopted. Vessels are
recommended to adhere to the lanes as shown on the chart.
2
Restricted area. A restricted area, in which fishing and
anchoring is prohibited extends across Kadãk Sudo between
the NE side of Kãje Do and the W side of Kadãk To, over
a width of 4 miles.
3
Speed. In Kadãk Sudo speed is restricted to 15 kn
within 12 cables of the turn NE of Pyãngsan Yãlto
(35°01′N 128°46′E).
Cautions
3.257
1
Fishing. Vessels fishing without lights maybe
encountered in the approaches to Chinhae Hang, Masan
Hang and Chinhae Man.
Warning. The South Korean Naval Base Act strictly
prohibits mapping, videotaping, sketching and recording in
the vicinity of Kadãk To.
CHAPTER 3
151
Natural conditions
3.258
1
Tidal streams in Kadãk Sudo set NW on the in-going
tide at a maximum rate of about 2 kn and SE on the
out-going tide at a maximum rate of about 2¼ kn.
Fog. Light fog is frequent between April and June over
the sea off Tongdu Mal (34°59′N 128°50′E). The fog
usually sets in early in the morning and then dissipates by
late morning or during the afternoon; it may also last all
day.
Principal marks
3.259
1
Landmark:
Yãndae San (35°01′⋅6N 128°50′⋅0E), 458 m high,
with a boulder at its summit. On the S side of
Yãndae San there is a group of large prominent
boulders.
Major light:
Tongdu Mal (34°59′N 128°50′E) (3.231).
Other aid to navigation
3.260
1
Racon:
No 4 Light-buoy (35°01′⋅5N 128°47′⋅2E).
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.234 and 3.235)
3.261
1
From a position about 2 miles S of Tongdu Mal
(34°59′N 128°50′E) the track leads NNW through the
appropriate traffic lane, passing (with positions relative to
Tongdu Mal):
WSW of Tongdu Mal (3.234), from which a light
(3.231) is exhibited, thence:
WSW of a small cove (3 cables NNW) situated at the
S end of Kadãk To; there is a white mooring buoy
in the cove. Thence:
2
ENE of Kalsan Do (3¾ miles WSW), a group of
above-water rocks from 10 to 28 m high. The two
S rocks are the highest and are pointed. Paek Sã,
the N rock, is 15 m high and whitish. Kalsan Do
is surrounded by rocky ground. Thence:
3
WSW of Wayang P’o (1¼ miles NNW); there is a
mooring buoy close off its S entrance point.
Thence:
ENE of Ho Do (2½ miles NW), 15 m high, from
which a light (white round concrete tower, 14 m in
height) is exhibited; a reef which dries 0⋅9 m, and
on which there is an above-water rock, extends
1½ cables NW from the light. Thence:
4
ENE of Taejug Do (3 miles NW), one of three islets
which together form Pyãngsan Yãlto. Taejug Do is
the highest and the SE islet of the group.
Chungjug Do, 96 m high, is the middle islet, and
Mibag Do, 54 m high, is the NW islet. And:
WSW of Chãnsutae Mal (2½ miles NNW), the S
entrance point of Chãnsãng Man (3.268).
5
The track then rounds No 4 Fairway Light-buoy (3 miles
NW) and leads NW, for a short distance, passing (with
positions relative to Tongdu Mal):
Clear of a wreck (3¼ miles NW), depending on
draught, with a depth of 13⋅5 m over it, and:
SW of a detached breakwater (4 miles NNW), from
the ends of which lights (rectangular metal towers,
4 m in height) are exhibited.
6
The track then leads to the No 1 pilot boarding position
(3½ miles NW), S of the entrance to Pusan New Port
(3.262).
(Directions continue at 3.274)
Pusan New Port
General information
3.262
1
Position and function. In 2005 Pusan New Port
(35°04′N 128°48′E) was under construction to the N and
NW of Kadãk To. Pusan New Port is intended to be a
major container port able to handle up to 4⋅6 million tonnes
of cargo a year.
2
Topography. The harbour is bordered on its W side by
Yãn Do (35°04′N 128°46′E) (3.274) and Song Do,
1¾ cables N, and to the E by the N end of Kadãk To.
Song Do has an elongated summit 84 m high; there are a
few stunted pine trees on the island.
3
In the middle of the harbour lies Horan Do, an islet
37 m high, 1 mile E of Yãn Do; Ib Do, an islet 57 m high,
lies 4 cables farther E, and Do Do, 29 m high, lies
3½ cables N of Horan Do. All three islets are conical and
lie on shoal ground.
4
Approach and entry. The port is approached from the S
through Kadãk Sudo (3.250) and entered between the NW
end of Kadãk To and Yãn Do, 1½ miles NW.
Port Authority:
Address. Pusan Port Authority, Jungangdong 6 ga,
Junggu, Pusan, Republic of Korea.
Websites. www.portbusan.go.kr & www.pncport.com.
Limiting conditions
3.263
1
Controlling depth. A channel dredged to a depth of
15 m leads N through the entrance to the port and thence
NE between Horan Do (3.262) and Do Do.
Vertical clearance. An overhead power cable, suspended
from towers and with a least vertical clearance of 31 m,
spans the channels between the NW end of Kadãk To,
Horan Do, Do Do, and Chang Mal, 7 cables N of Do Do.
Harbour
3.264
1
General layout. Pusan New Port consists of land
reclaimed from Ungchãn Man, W of Chang Mal (35°05′N
128′47′E), and from the bay E of Chang Mal.
Development. Construction of Pusan New Port
commenced in 2001 and consists of two planned phases.
Phase 1 is of the construction of a North Container
Terminal with a total of nine berths. Phase 2 envisages the
construction of a further four berths at the North Container
Terminal followed by the building of a West Container
Terminal with five berths and a South Container Terminal
with a 11 berths; a conventional wharf is also to be built.
The port is expected to be completed in 2011.
Berths
3.265
1
It is expected that three container berths at the North
Container Terminal will be completed by the end of 2005.
CHAPTER 3
152
Minor harbours and anchorages
Isu Do and vicinity
3.266
1
Description. Isu Do (34°58′N 128°44′E), 77 m high, is
flat, bare and red in colour. There is a village on its W
side. Rocks, which dry, extend ½ cable S from the SW
extremity of Isu Do and Rigo Sho, a rocky shoal lies
1 cable N of the E extremity; a rock, which dries 1⋅1 m,
lies off the N side of the island.
2
Kyãg Do, 16 m high, lies 1 mile NW of Isu Do and
6 cables offshore; it is marked by a light-beacon
(E cardinal). A spit, with a depth of 1⋅1 m over it, extends
2 cables S and W from the islet. A detached rock, with a
depth of 3⋅6 m over it, lies 5 cables S and another rock,
with a depth of 6⋅7 m over it, lies 1 mile NE of Kyãg Do.
3
Vertical clearance. The channel between Isu Do and the
NE side of Kãje Do is spanned by a overhead power cable
with a vertical clearance of 24 m.
Anchorage. Temporary anchorage may be obtained,
sheltered from W winds, in the roadstead between Isu Do
and Kyãg Do.
Taehang Hang
3.267
1
Description. Taehang Hang (35°01′N 128°49′E), situated
in a small bay on the W side of Kadãk To, is a fishing
harbour. The head of the bay is formed by an isthmus,
which appears as a low and shallow valley, connecting the
N and S parts of Kadãk To; the village of Taehang stands
on the isthmus. The harbour is protected by two
breakwaters.
2
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
Berth. Inside the harbour there is a wharf 171 m long
and 10 m wide.
Chãnsãng Man
3.268
1
Description. Chãnsãng Man (35°02′N 128°48′E),
situated midway along the W side of Kadãk To, affords
shelter from the S. There is a fishing harbour at the head
of the bay, with two small wharves.
2
Anchorage. Vessels not exceeding 5 m in draught may
obtain anchorage in Chãnsãng Man. The best anchorage is
on the alignment (242°) of Chãnsutae Mal, the S entrance
point, with the SE extremity of Taejug Do, 1½ miles SW,
in a depth of 5⋅9 m over a bottom of mud.
KADPK SUDO TO MASAN HANG
INCLUDING CHINHAE HANG
General information
Chart 1065
Route
3.269
1
From the vicinity of the No 1 pilot boarding position
(35°02′N 128°47′E), S of the entrance to Pusan New Port,
the route leads initially NW through the TSS, for a distance
of 2½ miles, to a position 8 cables NE of Mangwa Do
(35°02′⋅4N 128°42′⋅9E), where it divides.
2
The W arm of the TSS leads W into Chinhae Man and
is described at 3.326. The NW arm of the TSS continues
past the entrance to Chinhae Hang (3.277), to a position
1 mile NE of Tanang Mal (35°04′⋅2N 128°37′⋅6E), at the S
end of Pudo Sudo.
Vessel traffic service
3.270
1
See 3.255.
Traffic separation scheme
3.271
1
See 3.256.
Principal mark
3.272
1
Landmark:
Chãja Bong (35°08′N 128°44′N), with a remarkable
boulder resembling a martello tower on its summit.
Other aids to navigation
3.273
1
Racons:
No 4 Light-buoy (35°01′⋅5N 128°47′⋅2E).
No 2 Light-buoy (35°02′⋅7N 128°40′⋅4E).
Channel Cho Light-beacon (35°04′⋅5N 128°40′⋅3E).
2
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.261)
No 1 pilot boarding station to Mangwa Do
3.274
1
From the vicinity of the No 1 pilot boarding position
(35°02′N 128°47′E) the track leads NW, passing (with
positions relative to Mangwa Do (35°02′⋅4N 128°42′⋅9E)):
NE of Chã Do (1½ miles SE), a wooded islet with
cliffy sides. Near its SE end stands a remarkable
conical summit 88 m high. The NW side of the
island is cultivated and terminates in a shingle
beach behind which is a village. And:
2
SW of Yãn Do (2¾ miles NE), a rugged island with
a level summit. On the NE side of the island a
village stands on a beach, with a jetty at its N end.
A reef, on which there is a rock 26 m high,
extends 2 cables SSE from the E extremity of the
islet; a breakwater, from which a light (white
rectangular metal tower, 4 m in height) is
exhibited, extends 4 cables SE from the rock.
Thence:
3
NE of Sagun Sã (1 mile SE), which is a group of
rocks, above and below-water; the highest rock,
4 m high, stands in the middle of the group. Sagun
Sã is marked by a light-beacon (isolated danger,
12 m in height).
The track then leads to a position 8 cables NE of
Mangwa Do, a small islet; it appears wedge-shaped except
from SE or NW when it appears conical. The islet is
steep-to within ½ cable.
4
Useful marks:
Sangyu Light-beacon (green rectangle on green round
tower, 14 m in height) (35°01′⋅7N 128°43′⋅0E).
Lights (round metal towers, 5 m in height) exhibited
from the breakwaters at Uho Hang (35°01′⋅7N
128°42′⋅8E).
(Directions continue for Chinhae Man at 3.326)
Mangwa Do to Pudo Sudo
3.275
1
From the position 8 cables NE of Mangwa Do
(35°02′⋅4N 128°42′⋅9E) the track continues to lead NW,
passing (with positions relative to Mangwa Do):
SW of Ung Do (1½ miles N); this small islet has
steep sides and a rounded summit, depressed in the
CHAPTER 3
153
middle and surmounted by a beacon. A rock, 1 m
high, stands on the middle of a reef extending
2½ cables NNE from Ung Do; a light-buoy
(isolated danger) marks the N end of the reef.
Thence:
2
SW of Chori Do (2½ miles NNW), 47 m high and
bare at its W end. A light (white round concrete
tower, 7 m in height) is exhibited from the W end
of the island. No 2 Light-buoy (starboard hand) is
moored 4 cables S of the W end of Chori Do.
Thence:
NE of Cham Do (2½ miles NW) (3.326), which is
steep-to on its N side outside ½ cable offshore,
thence:
3
SW of Channel Cho (3 miles NW), marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger, 12 m in height); at
LW the sea breaks over its two rocky heads which
dry.
The track then leads to a position about 1 mile NE of
Tanang Mal (4½ miles NW) which is the SE extremity of a
peninsular.
3.276
1
Useful mark:
Tokki Sãm Light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in
height) (35°04′⋅6N 128°42′⋅9E) exhibited from the
summit of the islet of Tokki Sãm.
(Directions continue, for Masan Hang at 3.308, and
for entry to Chinhae Man W of Cham Do at 3.327)
(Directions for Chinhae Hang are given at 3.281)
Chinhae Hang
Chart 1065, Korean Chart W204 (see 1.22)
General information
3.277
1
Position. Chinhae Hang (35°07′N 128°41′E) is situated
in Haengam Man, 7 miles SE of Masan Hang.
Function. Chinhae Hang is an international commercial
port. The town of Chinhae, NW of the harbour, is the site
of South Korea’s main naval base and naval academy.
2
Port limits. The S and W limits of the port are defined
by a line drawn from a position close S of Taeil Mal
(35°06′⋅5N 128°41′⋅3E) to Madang Sã, 4 cables WNW,
thence NNW, for a farther 11 cables, to the mainland shore.
Approach and entry. Chinhae Hang is approached from
the S, passing E of Channel Cho Light-beacon (35°04′⋅5N
128°40′⋅3E), and entered between Taeyul To, the NE
entrance point of Haengam Man, and Taeil Mal, 1¼ miles
ESE.
3
Port Authority. Chinhae Port Authority, Masan District
Maritime Authority, 1−5 Wolpo-dong, Masan City,
Kyungnam Province, South Korea.
Limiting conditions
3.278
1
Controlling depths. There is a least depth of 10⋅4 m in
the approach channel leading to the port.
Deepest and longest berth.
Deepest. Pier (3.282) at Taeil Mal (35°06′⋅5N
128°41′⋅3E).
Longest. No 2 berthing area (3.282).
2
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅5 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅9 m. For further information see the relevant
edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water. 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled: LOA 210 m; draught
10⋅0 m; size 20 000 dwt.
Arrival information
3.279
1
Vessel traffic service. See 3.255.
Notice of ETA required. Vessels bound for Chinhae
Hang should send an ETA 72, 48, 24 and 12 hours in
advance, so that arrangements may be made for pilots,
tugs, anchorage and berthing.
2
Outer anchorage. There is a quarantine and waiting
anchorage, the limits of which are shown on the chart,
5 cables NW of Ung Do (35°03′⋅9N 128°42′⋅6E).
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards at the No 1
pilot boarding area (35°02′N 128°47′E), in Kadãk Sudo, or
at No 3 pilot boarding area (35°04′⋅2N 128°42′⋅1E) in the
quarantine and waiting anchorage. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
3
Tugs are available.
Prohibited area. A prohibited area, in which a naval
base lies, encompasses the waters between Hwa Do
(35°05′⋅9N 128°40′⋅3E) and Somo Do, 4 miles NW, and the
shores fronting Chinhae, W of Haengam Man.
Harbour
3.280
1
General layout. The commercial cargo berths are
located at the E entrance point and along the E shore of
Haengam Man. The fishing harbour of Sokchãn lies at the
head of the bay on the NW side. Several villages stand on
the shores of the bay. The naval base of Chinhae is situated
in the prohibited area W of Haengam Man.
Landmark:
Chãja Bong (35°08′N 128°44′N) (3.272).
Directions for entering harbour
3.281
1
General remarks. The following directions are given
for a general route through the N-bound traffic lane W of
Chori Do (35°04′⋅6N 128°41′⋅6E). Although there is a
narrow channel, marked by light-buoys (lateral), for deep
draught vessels along the E side of this lane, deeper water
is to be found in the channel E of Chori Do.
2
Track. From a position about 6 cables SE of Channel
Cho Light-beacon (35°04′⋅5N 128°40′⋅3E) the track leads
N, passing (with positions relative to Channel Cho
Light-beacon):
Between Chori Do (7 cables E) and Channel Cho
(3.275), thence:
3
W of Tokurasam (Douglas Rock) (1 mile ENE), 8 m
high, lying off the N side of Chori Do, thence:
E of a dangerous wreck (6½ cables N), lying in the
S-bound lane of the TSS, thence:
4
E of Totumari Am (1¼ miles N), from which a light
(isolated danger 7 m in height) is exhibited,
fronting the E side of Hwa Do. Totumari Am
consists of a reef on which two rocks 9 m high lie.
Hwa Do is bare with a flat summit. Thence:
5
E of Madang Sã (1¾ miles N), which dries 1⋅8 m;
Madang Sã is marked by a light-beacon (isolated
danger, 13 m in height). Thence:
E of the pier (2 miles NNE) extending SW from Taeil
Mal.
The track then leads NNE through a channel marked by
light-buoys (lateral) to the berths on the E side of the
harbour.
6
Useful marks:
Umji Do Light-beacon (isolated danger, 13 m in
height) (35°04′⋅5N 128°43′⋅0E).
CHAPTER 3
154
Chungjuk To Light (isolated danger, 14 m in height)
(35°08′⋅1N 128°40′⋅9E) exhibited from a drying
rock lying 1¼ cables N of Taejuk To.
Berths
3.282
1
The harbour contains the following four berthing areas
(positioned from Taeil Mal (35°06′⋅5N 128°41′⋅3E)):
Taeil Mal Pier. This consists of a pier, with a dolphin
close off its head, extending 1½ cables SW from
Taeil Mal. It has a length of 250 m with a depth
of 11 m alongside; handles vessels up to
20 000 tonnes.
2
No 1 berthing area (1 mile NNE). Total berthing
length of 588 m, with depths from 2⋅9 to 10⋅1 m
alongside; lumber, soy bean, chemicals and general
cargo are handled. The S part of this berthing area
consists of Fertilizer Factory Wharf, 200 m in
length.
3
No 2 berthing area (1½ miles N). Total length 755 m
long with depths from 8⋅4 to 11⋅2 m alongside.
This area handles lumber, sand, farm products and
general cargo.
4
No 3 berthing area (2 miles N). This area extends
2¾ cables SSE from Sojuk Do, a former islet 22 m
high. Total berthing length of about 500 m with
charted depths of 5⋅9 to 7⋅0 m alongside.
Port services
3.283
1
Repairs. There is a dry dock in a small cove, 1¼ miles
E of Taeil Mal (35°06′⋅5N 128°41′⋅3E). It has a depth of
5⋅9 m over the sill and an entrance width of 21⋅2 m.
Supplies. Fuel and fresh water are available.
MASAN HANG AND APPROACHES
General information
Charts 1065, 1259
Position
3.284
1
Masan Hang (35°11′N 128′35′E) is situated at the NW
end of Pudo Sudo on the mainland coast, 22 miles WNW
of Pusan. Masan Si lies on the W side of Masan Hang and
is divided into Old Masan and New Masan.
Function
3.285
1
Masan Hang is a major international port, with an
excellent natural harbour which is completely sheltered.
The principal imports are ore, oil, timber, scrap metal and
other bulk cargoes; exports include machinery, cars and
steel products. Containers and general cargo are also
handled.
2
Masan Si had a population of 433 465 in 2002.
Topography
3.286
1
Pudo Sudo, entered between Cham Do (35°03′N
128°40′E) and Ung Do 1¾ miles E, is mountainous on both
sides, with barren ridges. The naval port of Chinhae is
situated on the NE side of the channel. The SW and W
side of Pudo Sudo is indented by several small bays with a
village at the head of most of them.
2
Within the entrance to Masan Man, the channel is
5 cables wide between steep and hilly shores. These hills,
which are covered with vegetation in summer, are barren in
winter. The shores are indented by several bays at the head
of which stands villages.
Port limits
3.287
1
The S limit of the harbour is defined by a line drawn
from Sangdae Mal (35°08′⋅5N 128°35′⋅9E) across the
entrance channel to an unnamed point, 7 cables NE.
Approach and entry
3.288
1
Masan Hang is approached from the SE through Kadãk
Sudo (3.250) and Pudo Sudo, and then at the S end of
Masan Man, an extension of Pudo Sudo, entered between
Chibung Mal (35°08′⋅3N 128°36′⋅0E) and a point, 5 cables
SW. The least width in the entrance to Masan Man is
between Chibung Mal and Makkae Do, 3¼ cables W.
Traffic
3.289
1
In 1999 5 685 000 tonnes of cargo was handled.
Port Authority
3.290
1
Address. Masan Port Authority, 1−5 Wolpo-dong, Masan
City, Kyungnam Province, South Korea.
Web site. www.masan.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
3.291
1
There is a least charted depth of 9⋅7 m (35°05′⋅0N
128°38′⋅8E) in the approach channel to Masan Hang, at the
S end of Pudo Sudo. Vessels drawing more than 6⋅5 m, if
bound for No 1 Pier, should approach with caution, as this
is one of the shallowest alongside berths in the harbour.
Vertical clearances
3.292
1
Overhead power cables:2
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
72 m, spans the entra2nce channel between
Noch’ul Mal (35°09′⋅5N2 128°35′⋅4E) and the
shore, 6 cables NE.
2
A second overhead power cable, with a vertical
clearance of 44 m, spans the fairway leading to Sã
Hang Wharf, between a position 2½ cables NW of
Ishim Mal (35°10′⋅4N 128°34′⋅7E) and the W end
of Chã Do, 3¼ cables NE.
3
Bridge. In 2004, 2 cables N of Noch’ul Mal, a bridge
was under construction spanning the channel parallel to the
overhead power cable. Vertical clearance not known.
Deepest and longest berth
3.293
1
Deepest. No 5 Wharf (3.311).
Longest. No 4 Wharf (3.311).
Tidal levels
3.294
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range about
0⋅7 m. For further information see the relevant edition of
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
3.295
1
The density of the water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
CHAPTER 3
155
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.296
1
Vessels of up to 7⋅3 m draught can be berthed in the
anchorages and up to 20 000 tonnes at berths alongside.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
3.297
1
See 3.255.
Notice of ETA required
3.298
1
Vessels bound for Masan Hang should send an ETA 72,
48, 24 and 12 hours in advance, so that arrangements may
be made for pilots, tugs, anchorage and berthing.
Outer anchorages and moorings
3.299
1
Nampo Man. Anchorage, for suitably sized vessels, may
be obtained in Nampo Man (35°04′⋅7N 128°37′⋅3E),
entered S of Hugi Mal. It is sheltered from all directions
except E and has depths from 10 to 11 m over a bottom of
mud.
2
Kolmo Mal. An unnamed inlet entered N of Kolmo Mal
(35°07′⋅1N 128°36′⋅0E) has depths from 7 to 13 m within
the fairway to within 2 cables of its head. Sujãng Ri stands
at the head of the unnamed inlet.
3
Sa P’o. The narrow inlet of Sa P’o (35°08′⋅0N
128°35′⋅6E) is entered close SW of Makkae Do; it leads
into Kusan Hang which is landlocked. Kusan Hang has
depths from 4⋅2 to 7⋅9 m to within 3½ cables of its head;
there are several mooring buoys in the harbour.
Submarine pipeline
3.300
1
A submarine water pipeline is laid across the fairway
between a position 1½ cables NW of Ishim Mal (35°10′⋅4N
128°34′⋅7E) and the SW side of Chã Do, 3 cables NE.
Pilotage
3.301
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours a day. The
pilot boards at the No 1 pilot boarding area (35°02′N
128°47′E), in Kadãk Sudo, or at No 2 pilot boarding area
(35°10′⋅1N 128°35′⋅1E) in the quarantine anchorage
(3.310). For further details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs
3.302
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
3.303
1
Traffic separation scheme. See 3.256.
Prohibited area. See 3.279.
Harbour
General layout
3.304
1
The harbour is divided into No 1 Area and No 2 Area.
No 1 Area lies between the S limit of the harbour and a
line drawn between Ishim Mal (35°10′⋅4N 128°34′⋅7E) and
Kajiduri Mal, 7 cables NE. No 2 Area lies N of the line
drawn between Ishim Mal and Kajiduri Mal. The limits of
the areas are shown on the charts. No 1 Fairway leads
through the No 1 Area dividing at its N end. The NW arm
leads to the W side of the harbour; the N arm becomes
No 2 Fairway and leads through the No 2 Area to the head
of the harbour.
2
Three anchorages and a quarantine anchorage lie in the
No 1 Area. No 2 Area contains five main berthing areas
arranged along its shores, along with several specialist
berths for cement and liquid cargoes. In the middle of the
harbour, N of Chã Do (35°10′⋅7N 128°34′⋅9E), there are
also several anchorage berths.
3
A harbour (35°12′⋅1N 128°34′⋅8E) for small vessels,
fronting the old town of Masan, is situated in the N part of
Masan Hang. It is protected by a detached breakwater,
from which lights (white round concrete towers, 10 m in
height) are exhibited.
Development
3.305
1
In 1998 it was reported that the port was undergoing
expansion with the intention of increasing the number of
berths from 23 to 42, which would include a purpose built
passenger terminal. As part of the project a 13 m deep
channel was to be dredged to allow vessels of 30 000 dwt
to use the port.
Local weather
3.306
1
The weather in Masan Hang is not extreme and is not
affected by the NW seasonal winds in winter. In summer
typhoon precautions may be necessary. Rain occurs most
frequently in the months of June, July and August with an
annual rainfall of 2500 mm, but in winter there is only
300 mm. Fog is fairly frequent in March and April but rare
in August and September.
Principal mark
3.307
1
Landmark:
Muhak San (35°12′⋅7N 128°32′⋅2E), a mountain
762 m high, backing the city of Masan to the NW.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.276)
Tanang Mal to Makkae Do
3.308
1
From a position 1 mile NE of Tanang Mal (35°04′⋅2N
128°37′⋅6E) the track leads NW through the appropriate
traffic lane, passing (with positions relative to Makkae Do
Light (35°08′⋅3N 128°36′⋅0E)):
NE of Kureisser Cho (4 miles SSE), fronting the
entrance to Nampo Man (3.299); the rock is
marked on its NW side by a light-buoy (W
cardinal). And:
2
SW of Pu Do (3¼ miles SE) lying within a
prohibited area (3.279). Pu Do, the largest island
in Pudo Sudo, is darker in colour than the
neighbouring hills and islets and has a few clumps
of trees on it. Thence:
NE of Hugi Mal (3½ miles SSE); a reef, on which
there is a rock 3 m high, extends 1 cable SE from
Hugi Mal. A light-buoy (E cardinal) is moored off
the SE side of the reef.
3
The track then continues to the end of the TSS and then
leads NNE, passing (with positions relative to Makkae Do
Light):
WSW of No 2 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (1¼ miles
SSE) marking the W limit of the prohibited area,
thence:
ENE of Kolmo Mal (1¼ miles S), thence:
CHAPTER 3
156
4
WSW of Nam Do (1¼ miles SE), which has a flat
summit, thence:
WSW of Song Do (1 mile ESE), thence:
ENE of the S entrance point (3 cables S) of Sa P’o
(3.299).
5
The track then leads to a position about 2 cables SE of
Makkae Do, a black rock 17 m high; a light (white round
concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from Makkae
Do.
Makkae Do to the berths
3.309
1
From the position about 2 cables SE of Makkae Do
(35°08′⋅3N 128°36′⋅0E) the track leads initially N, passing
(with positions relative to Makkae Do Light):
Between Makkae Do and Chibung Mal (3½ cables E),
the W extremity of Somo Do. Somo Do is
connected to the mainland by a causeway; a
number of oil tanks stand in the middle of the
island. Thence:
2
E of Sangdae Mal (3 cables NNW).
The track then leads generally NNW through No 1
Fairway, the limits of which are marked on the chart,
passing (with positions relative to Ishim Mal (35°10′⋅4N
128°34′⋅7E)):
ENE of Noch’ul Mal (1 mile SSE), thence:
Under the overhead power cable (1 mile SE) and the
bridge under construction (3.292), thence:
WSW of Wa Do (8½ cables ESE), a small islet.
3
The track then leads to a position 6 cables ESE of Ishim
Mal where the track divides. The NW arm leads through an
unnamed fairway, passing between Ishim Mal and Chã Do,
to the berths on the W side of the harbour. Chã Do is a
treeless island on the summit of which stands an obelisk
(white, 9 m high).
The N arm, No 2 Fairway, leads NNW and N, passing
between Chã Do and Kajiduri Mal, to the berths on the E
and N sides of the harbour.
4
Useful mark:
Radio tower (silver metal structure, red obstruction
light) standing on Ishim Mal.
Berths
Anchorage berths
3.310
1
No 1 Area. The following anchorages lie within the
No 1 Area (3.304) (positioned from Ishim Mal (35°10′⋅4N
128°34′⋅7E)):
A9 (1½ miles SE) with depths from 12 to 13 m, E of
No 1 Fairway.
Quarantine anchorage (3 cables SE), with depths from
9 to 11 m over a bottom of mud, with good
holding. It also serves as a working anchorage.
2
No 2 Area. There are six anchorages, numbered A1 to
A6, N of Chã Do (35°10′⋅7N 128°34′⋅9E), with depths
from 5⋅8 to 7⋅8 m; their positions are shown on the chart.
Alongside berths
3.311
1
There are five main berthing areas in Masan Hang as
follows (positioned from Ishim Mal (35°10′⋅4N
128°34′⋅7E)):
Sã Hang Wharf (7 cables NW). Length 1017 m with
depths from 7⋅0 to 11.5 m alongside; consists of
four berths handling containers and timber.
2
Wharf No 2 (1¼ miles N). Length 385 m with depths
from 3⋅8 to 7⋅3 m alongside; consists of three
berths for coastal cargo.
Wharf No 3 (2¼ miles N at the head of the harbour).
Length 420 m with charted depths from 10⋅5 to
10⋅9 m alongside; handles steel and general cargo.
3
Wharf No 4 (2 miles NNE). Length 1050 m with
depths from 11⋅1 to 11⋅8 m alongside; handles
vehicles and containers.
Wharf No 5 (1 mile NE). Length 420 m with depths
from 10 to 13 m alongside; consists of four berths
handling scrap iron and timber.
4
There are also several specialised berths, including
Sangyong Dolphin (11½ cables NNW), for cement, along
with LG Caltex Dolphin (1½ miles NNE) and Hanil
Dolphin (1½ miles NNE) for liquid cargoes.
Port services
Repairs
3.312
1
Minor repairs carried out; shipyard for the construction
of vessels up to 5000 tonnes.
Other facilities
3.313
1
Hospital; Deratting and Deratting Exemption Certificates
issued; numerous lighters for working cargo.
Supplies
3.314
1
Fuel oil, fresh water and provisions available.
Communications
3.315
1
There is an airport at Kimhae, 75 km distant.
CHINHAE MAN
General information
Chart 1065, Korean Chart W206 (see 1.22)
Description
3.316
1
Chinhae Man (35°00′N 128°33′E), on the W side of the
NW entrance to Kadãk Sudo, is a landlocked basin situated
between the mainland and the NW side of Kãje Do with
moderate depths and few dangers. The main entrance,
which is deep, is divided into two fairways by Cham Do
(35°03′N 128°40′E), which lies 1 mile N of Kwangchi Mal,
the N extremity of Kãje Do.
Routes
3.317
1
Entry south of Cham Do. From a position 8 cables NE
of Mangwa Do (35°02′⋅4N 128°42′⋅9E) the route leads
initially W, for 3 miles, and thence SW, for a farther
3 miles, to a position about 6 cables N of Hwangdãk To
(35°00′⋅7N 128°37′⋅2E).
2
Entry west of Cham Do. From a position about 1 mile
NE of Tanang Mal (35°04′⋅2N 128°37′⋅6E) the route leads
S, for 1½ miles, passing W of Cham Do, thence SW, for a
farther 2½ miles, to a position about 6 cables N of
Hwangdãk To.
3
Tongyãng Fairway to Kajodo Sudo. From a position
about 6 cables N of Hwangdãk To the route leads SW, for
6¾ miles, through Tongyãng Fairway, to a position about
2 cables SE of Pãmbyãg Do (34°55′⋅9N 128°31′⋅9E),
providing access to Kohyãnsãng Man (3.333).
CHAPTER 3
157
4
Kajodo Sudo to Kyãnnaeryang Haehyãp. This route
leads generally SW from a position about 2 cables SE of
Pãmbyãg Do (34°55′⋅9N 128°31′⋅9E) through Kajodo Sudo
(34°55′⋅6N 128°31′⋅5E), for 1 mile, and thence along the
NW coast of Kãje Do, for a farther 2¼ miles, to a position
about 2 cables W of Myãngdungdo (34°53′⋅9N 128°28′⋅9E).
5
Anjãng Fairway. From a position about 6 cables N of
Hwangdãk To (35°00′⋅7N 128°37′⋅2E) the route leads
initially WSW for 7 miles through the fairway, passing
NNW of Kajo Do, to a position about 7 cables N of Pui
Do (34°57′⋅7N 128°29′⋅0E). The route then leads SW, for a
farther 2½ miles, to Anjãng Hang (34°57′N 128°26′E)
(3.340).
Controlling depth
3.318
1
There is a least charted depth of 9⋅4 m in the SW
entrance to Kajodo Sudo (3.329), the narrow channel lying
between the S end of Kajo Do (34°57′N 128′31′E) and
Kãje Do.
Vessel traffic service
3.319
1
See 3.255.
Traffic regulations
3.320
1
Traffic separation scheme. A TSS is established in
Chinhae Man. The TSS is not IMO-adopted. Vessels are
recommended to adhere to the lanes as shown on the chart.
Speed within the TSS is restricted to 15 kn.
Mine hunting area
3.321
1
There is mine hunting area, centred on 35°02′⋅8N
128°35′⋅2E, close offshore of the S side of the peninsula
forming the NE coast of Chinhae Man. It is 1½ miles long
by 5 cables wide. Mariners should exercise caution in the
vicinity.
Measured distance
3.322
1
There is a measured distance between Kwangchi Man
(35°02′⋅4N 128°40′⋅6E) and Hwangdãk To, 3¼ miles SW.
North-east limit marks. Two beacons in line
bearing 152°.
Middle marks. Two beacons on Suyabong Do.
South-west limit marks. Two beacons in line
bearing 152°.
2
Distance. NE section 4075⋅9 m; SW section 1881⋅0 m.
Running track. 062°/242°.
Vertical clearance
3.323
1
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
25 m, spans Kajodo Sudo between Sãngpo Ri (34°55′⋅3N
128°31′⋅6E) and the S end of Kajo Do, 3 cables N. The
cable is supported by red and white metal framework
towers.
Natural conditions
3.324
1
Tidal streams in Chinhae Man set SW on the in-going
tide and NE on the out-going tide; they have rates from 1⋅4
to 2⋅0 kn in the NE part, near Cham Do, and maximum
rates from 2⋅0 to 2⋅6 kn in the SW part, near Kyãnnaeryang
Haehyãp. Within Chinhae Man itself the rate is less than
1⋅0 kn.
2
Local weather. The sea area in Chinhae Man is well
sheltered from winds, with waves seldom exceeding 3⋅0 m
in height. However, during the period from August to
September when typhoons occur, strong winds and large
waves may be encountered.
Aids to navigation
3.325
1
Racons:
No 2 Light-buoy (35°02′⋅7N 128°40′⋅4E).
Paeg Am Light-beacon (35°02′⋅5N 128°37′⋅7E).
Anjãng Fairway No 1 Light-buoy (35°00′⋅3N
128°34′⋅7E).
Anjãng Fairway No 27 Light-buoy (35°58′⋅6N
128°29′⋅3E).
2
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 3.274)
Entry south of Cham Do
3.326
1
From a position 8 cables NE of Mangwa Do (35°02′⋅4N
128°42′⋅9E) the track leads initially W through the TSS,
passing (with positions relative to Mangwa Do):
S of Ung Do (1½ miles N) (3.275), thence:
N of Kadal Mal (9 cables W), the E entrance point of
Kuyãngni Myoji (3.346), thence:
2
N of Kwangchi Mal (2 miles E), the N point of Kãje
Do. The N coast of Kãje Do between Retten Dan
(35°01′N 128°43′E and Kwangchi Mal, 2½ miles
WNW, is high and precipitous. Thence:
3
S of Cham Do (2½ miles NW) and close N of
No 2 Light-buoy (safe water). A rock, marked by a
light-buoy (S cardinal) lies at the S end of a reef
extending 1½ cables SSW from the SW side of
Cham Do. Tide-rips occur off the S end of Cham
Do.
4
The track then leads SW, passing (with positions relative
to Mangwa Do):
NW of the N entrance (2¾ miles WSW) to Chilchãn
Sudo (3.332), thence:
NW of Tãgman Mal (3½ miles WSW), the N
extremity of Chilchãn Do; the S end of Chilchãn
Do is 231 m high. Thence:
5
SE of Paeg Am Light-beacon (4½ miles W) (3.327),
thence:
NW of Suyabong Do (3¾ miles WSW), an islet lying
close off the NW side of Chilchãn Do.
The track then leads to a position about 6 cables N of
Hwangdãk To (5 miles WSW); a light (white round
concrete tower, 7 m in height) is exhibited from the N
extremity of this islet.
(Directions continue, for Tongyãng Fairway at 3.328,
and for Anjãng Fairway at 3.330)
Entry west of Cham Do
(continued from 3.276)
3.327
1
From a position about 1 mile NE of Tanang Mal
(35°04′⋅2N 128°37′⋅6E) the track leads initially S through
the TSS, passing (with positions relative to Tanang Mal):
E of a wreck (4 cables ENE), with a depth of 17⋅4 m
over it, thence:
CHAPTER 3
158
2
E of Songa Do (2½ cables SE) lying at the outer end
of a reef extending 1¾ cables NE from Sili Do,
thence:
E of Sili Do (2½ cables S), a wooded islet. Wonjãng
Hang lies on the N side of the channel between
Sili Do and the mainland NNW; a light (white
round metal tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited
from the head of its W breakwater. Thence:
3
W of Cham Do (1½ miles SE); a light-buoy (3.326)
is moored off the SW side of Cham Do.
The track then leads SW, passing (with positions relative
to Tanang Mal):
SE of Paeg Am (1¾ miles S), a rock 2 m high which
is marked by a light-beacon (green octagonal
concrete tower, 13 m in height), thence:
4
SE of Huk Am (2¼ miles SSW) which is marked by
a light-beacon (isolated danger, 13 m in height). A
reef extends 1 cable SE from Huk Am and a
dangerous wreck lies 2 cables S. Thence:
NW of Suyabong Do (3 miles S).
The track then leads to a position about 6 cables N of
Hwangdãk To (3½ miles S) from which a light (3.326) is
exhibited.
(Directions continue for Anjãng Fairway at 3.330)
Tongyãng Fairway to Kajodo Sudo
(continued from 3.326 and 3.327)
3.328
1
From a position about 6 cables N of Hwangdãk To
(35°00′⋅7N 128°37′⋅2E) the track leads SW through the
Tongyãng Fairway, marked by light-buoys (safe water),
passing (with positions relative to Hwangdãk To):
NW of a wreck (1 mile SW), with a depth of 14⋅4 m
over it, lying in the NE-bound traffic lane, thence:
2
SE of a rock (2¼ miles WSW), with a depth of 2⋅2 m
over it, lying E of Taegwangi Do (3.330), thence:
NW of the W entrance to Hachãng Man (2½ miles
SSW), thence:
SE of Sogwangi Do (3 miles SW), thence:
3
NW of wreck (3½ miles SW), with a depth of 18⋅7 m
over it, thence:
NW of Yechimdo (4¼ miles SSW), from which a
light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
4
SE of Kajo Cho (5 miles SW), a rock with a depth of
1⋅6 m over it. This rock fronts the SE side of
Sinho Mal, the E extremity of the N part of Kajo
Do (3.330). Thence:
Clear of two wrecks (5¾ miles SW), depending on
draught, with depths of 18⋅0 m and 18⋅2 m over
them, and a fish haven.
5
The track then leads to a position about 2 cables SE of
Pãmbyãg Do (6½ miles SW), lying 1 cable E of the S
entrance point of Kullyãng Po; the bay of Kullyãng Po
indents the SE side of Kajo Do.
Useful marks:
6
Ukyo Hang Light (white round metal tower, 5 m in
height) (34°57′⋅6N 128°31′⋅9E) exhibited from the
NE side of Kajo Do.
Sãng P’o Light (34°55′⋅4N 128°31′⋅6E) (3.329).
Korean Charts W206, W204A, W245 (see 1.22)
Kajodo Sudo to Kyãnnaeryang Haehyãp
3.329
1
General remarks. Kajodo Sudo, the narrow channel
between the S end of Kajo Do (3.330) and Kãje Do, is
1 cable wide at its narrowest part; a bank, with general
depths of 3⋅7 m over it, on which there are several islets,
extends across its W end. The fishing harbour of Sãng P’o
Hang (3.347) is situated on its S shore.
2
Track. From a position about 2 cables SE of Pãmbyãg
Do (34°55′⋅9N 128°31′⋅9E) the track leads generally SW
through Kajodo Sudo, passing (with positions relative to
Pãmbyãg Do):
Under an overhead power cable (4 cables SW)
(3.323). Sãng P’o Light (white round concrete
tower, 9 m in height) is exhibited from close N of
the pylon supporting the cable on the Kãje Do
side. Thence:
3
NW of the entrance to Sãng P’o Hang (6½ cables
SSW); lights (round concrete towers, 8 m in
height) are exhibited from the heads of the harbour
breakwaters. And:
SE of a rocky spit (6 cables SW), with a depth of
2⋅4 m over it, extending 1 cable ESE from the S
end of Kado, a small islet.
4
The track then leads SSW for a short distance, passing
between the W side of Sãng P’o Hang and Norusãm
(8 cables SW). Thence the track rounds a light-beacon
(green rectangle on green beacon, 13 m in height) marking
the S end of Norusãm and leads W, passing N of a rock
(11 cables SW), with a depth of 4⋅4 m over it.
5
Once clear of the rock the track then leads SW, passing
(with positions relative to Pãmbyãg Do):
NW of an unnamed point (2 miles SW), thence:
Between a second unnamed point (2¼ miles SW) and
Mi Do, 40 m high; Ho Do, an islet 31 m high, lies
3 cables NW of Mi Do. Thence:
SE of Chi Do (3 miles WSW), an islet 1 mile long
and 136 m high.
6
The track then leads to a position about 2 cables W of
Myãngdungdo (3¼ miles SW), from which a light (3.192)
is exhibited.
(Directions continue for Kyãnnaeryang Haehyãp,
in the reverse direction, at 3.192)
Korean Chart W204A (see 1.22)
Anjãng Fairway
(continued from 3.326 and 3.327)
3.330
1
From a position about 6 cables N of Hwangdãk To
(35°00′⋅7N 128°37′⋅2E) the track leads initially WSW
through Anjãng Fairway, marked by light-buoys (lateral),
passing (with positions relative to Kye Do (34°58′⋅6N
128°30′⋅8E)):
NNW of a rock (3½ miles NE), with a depth of
2⋅2 m over it, thence:
2
NNW of Taegwangi Do (3 miles NE); a reef which
dries 0⋅3 m lies ½ cable E, and two rocks, 1⋅3 and
2⋅7 m high, lie 1 cable SW of Taegwangi Do.
Thence:
3
NNW of Churun Cho (1½ miles NE), a rock with a
depth of 7⋅2 m over it, thence:
NNW of Chwi Do (1¼ miles ENE), which has a
black round concrete beacon on its summit. A
large fish haven is situated between Chwi Do and
the N coast of Kajo Do. Thence:
4
NNW of the N coast of Kajo Do (1 cable SE), the
largest island in the S part of Chinhae Man. A
village stands on an isthmus connecting the N and
S parts of the island. The N part is the higher and
rises to 331 m at Ognyã Bong, the summit, which
has a small clump of trees on it and appears
CHAPTER 3
159
conical from the NE entrance to Chinhae Man.
And:
5
SSE of Podo Bi (2¼ miles N), which is the E end of
a peninsula on the mainland; it rises to Hoam San,
227 m high, 5 cables NW of the point. Thence:
NNW of Kye Do, a small islet lying off the NW side
of Kajo Do, thence:
NNW of a fish haven (5 cables WNW) lying just
outside the fairway.
6
Thence when a position is reached about 7 cables N of
Pui Do (1½ miles SW) the track leads SW through the
buoyed channel to Anjãng Hang (4 miles SW) (3.340),
passing NW of Pui Do.
3.331
1
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
(34°57′⋅0N 128°26′⋅0E) exhibited from the head of
Anjãng Hang Breakwater.
Light (yellow round GRP tower, 4 m in height)
(34°57′⋅0N 128°26′⋅4E) exhibited from the head of
Anjãng Hang Pier.
2
Light (isolated danger, 10 m in height) (34°56′⋅3N
128°26′⋅4E) exhibited from a reef 7 cables SSE of
Anjãng Hang.
Side channel
Korean Charts W204, W204A (see 1.22)
Chilchãn Sudo
3.332
1
Description. Chilchãn Sudo (35°00′⋅0N 128°39′⋅3E), the
channel separating Chilchãn Do from the NW side of Kãje
Do, has a least depth of 8⋅1 m in the fairway. The fairway
is very narrow off the SE side of Chilchãn Do where it
connects with Hachãng Man, 2½ miles S of Tãgman Mal.
Hachãng Man is a landlocked bay at the S end of
Chilchãn Sudo; it is connected to Chilchãn Sudo at its E
end and to Chinhae Man at its W end.
2
Vertical clearances:
Chilchãngyo Bridge (34°58′⋅8N 128°38′⋅9E), with a
vertical clearance of 15 m, spans the S end of
Chilchãn Sudo between the SE extremity of
Chilchãn Do and the NW side of Kãje Do. The
bridge is marked on both sides by lights.
3
An overhead power cable, with a vertical clearance of
16 m, spans the channel close S of the bridge.
Directions. There are no specific directions for passing
through Chilchãn Sudo, the charts being sufficient guide.
Useful marks:
Sobãmbuk To Light-beacon (N cardinal, 14 m in
height) (35°00′⋅1N 128°39′⋅7E).
4
Changansã Light-beacon (green rectangle on a green
beacon, 10 m in height) (34°58′⋅6N 128°38′⋅7E),
marking the reefs S of Chilchãngyo Bridge.
Kohyãn Hang
Chart 1065, Korean Chart W245 (see 1.22)
General information
3.333
1
Position. Kohyãn Hang (34°55′N 128°36′E) is situated
at the head of Kohyãnsãng Man, a large bay in the NW
coast of Kãje Do.
Function. Kohyãn Hang is a commercial port and the
site of Samsung Shipyard.
Port limits. The limits of the port enclose Kohyãnsãng
Man and are shown on the chart.
2
Approach and entry. The harbour is approached from
the SE through Kadãk Sudo (3.250) and entered from the
NE through the Tongyãng Fairway in Chinhae Man.
Limiting condition
3.334
1
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
65 000 tonnes are built at Samsung Shipyard.
Arrival information
3.335
1
Vessel traffic service. See 3.255.
Outer anchorage. A quarantine and waiting anchorage
is situated 5 cables N of Sadudo (34°54′⋅8N 128°33′⋅9E). It
has a radius of 2¾ cables and the limits are shown on the
chart.
2
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours a day.
The pilot boards at the No 1 pilot boarding area (35°02′N
128°47′E), in Kadãk Sudo, or at No 4 pilot boarding area
(34°55′⋅4N 128°33′⋅9E) in the quarantine anchorage. For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
3
Tugs are available from the shipyard.
Harbour
3.336
1
General layout. Samsung Shipyard is built on reclaimed
land at the head of Kohyãnsãng Man, between Chukdo
(34°54′⋅3N 128°36′⋅4E), formerly an island 35 m high, and
the coast SW of it. There are commercial berths S and E
of Chukdo.
Directions for entering harbour
3.337
1
General remarks. Directions for the approach to
Kohyãn Hang are given at 3.261, 3.274, 3.326 and 3.328.
For entry into Kohyãnsãng Man the chart is sufficient
guide.
Useful marks:
2
Light (3.328) exhibited from Yechimdo (34°56′⋅8N
128°35′⋅0E).
Kohyãn Hang Light A (yellow round tower, 4 m in
height) (34°54′⋅8N 128°35′⋅7E) exhibited from the
head of the pier dividing the shipyard into two
basins.
Kohyãn Hang Light B (34°54′⋅3N 128°36′⋅6E)
exhibited from the head of a dolphin pier.
Berths
3.338
1
The shipyard is arranged into two basins as follows:
First basin close W of Chukdo (34°54′⋅3N
128°36′⋅4E). The middle of the basin is obstructed
by Kyul Do, an islet 14 m high; a rock, with a
depth of 4⋅3 m over it, lies 1½ cables NNE of the
islet. The berths in the basin have charted depths
from 6⋅8 to 7⋅4 m alongside.
2
Second basin 6 cables WNW of Chukdo. This basin,
separated from the first basin by a long pier, has
quays with charted depths from 14 to 15 m
alongside.
The docks, S and E of Chukdo consist of four quays,
with charted depths from 6⋅2 to 7⋅5 m alongside. There is
also a dolphin pier extending N from a point 3 cables ESE
of Chukdo, with charted depths of about 10⋅0 m alongside.
Port services
3.339
1
Repairs. Large vessels can be repaired at Samsung
Shipyard. The basin close W of Chukdo contains two dry
CHAPTER 3
160
docks on its S side with a floating dock moored to the N
of Chukdo. The second basin 6 cables WNW of Chukdo
contains a third dry dock, which is the largest, on its S
side.
2
Supplies. Fuel and fresh water are available.
Anjãng Hang
Korean Chart W204A (see 1.22)
General information
3.340
1
Position. Anjãng Hang (34°57′N 128°26′E) is situated
on the SW side of Chinhae Man, 16 miles SW of Masan.
Function. The harbour serves as an LNG terminal for
the Korea Gas Corporation’s Tongyãng LNG Production
Base.
2
Approach and entry. The harbour is approached from
the SE through Kadãk Sudo (3.250) and entered from the
NE through the Anjãng Fairway in Chinhae Man.
Traffic. The terminal has the capacity to handle
5 million tonnes of LNG annually.
Limiting condition
3.341
1
Maximum size of vessel handled. LNG carriers up to
70 000 tonnes can berth at the terminal.
Arrival information
3.342
1
Vessel traffic service. See 3.255.
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours a day.
The pilot boards at the No 1 pilot boarding area (35°02′N
128°47′E), in Kadãk Sudo. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Harbour
3.343
1
General layout. The harbour consists of an enclosed
basin formed by a breakwater to the N and by a causeway
extending ENE on the S side. The LNG berth is situated at
the head of the causeway and there is a quay on the W
side of the basin.
2
The small fishing harbour of Yepo Hang is situated
close SSW of Anjãng Hang, with Chãdo to the E serving
as a breakwater.
Directions for entering harbour
3.344
1
Directions for the approach and entry to Anjãng Hang
are given at 3.261, 3.274, 3.326 and 3.330.
Berths
3.345
1
There are two berths at Anjãng Hang as follows:
LNG terminal at the head of the causeway consisting
of a berth with dolphins; there is a charted depth
of 14⋅6 m alongside.
2
Quay at the head of the enclosed basin; chartered
depth of 7⋅5 m alongside.
Fishing harbours and anchorages
Chart 1065
Kuyãngni Myoji
3.346
1
Kuyãngni Myoji (35°02′N 128°42′E) is a small inlet
situated on the N side of Kãje Do, close W of Kadal Mal.
Vessels, depending on size, may obtain anchorage in depths
of about 7 m, over a bottom of mud.
Korean Chart W245 (see 1.22)
Song P’o Hang
3.347
1
Description. Song P’o Hang (34°55′⋅3N 128°31′⋅5E), a
small fishing harbour with a ferry terminal, is situated on
the S side of Kajodo Sudo. The harbour is protected by
two breakwaters, from which lights (3.329) are exhibited.
Berths. There is a quay on the S side of the harbour,
about 200 m long, with charted depths alongside from 2⋅3
to 6⋅2 m.
Korean Chart W204A (see 1.22)
Wonmumpo
3.348
1
Wonmumpo (34°54′N 128°26′E) is situated at the SW
end of Chinhae Man and is entered between the NW end
of Chido (34°55′N 128°28′E) and a point on the mainland
1½ miles WNW. The inlet has depths from 5 to 14 m in it,
with a reclaimed area on its SW side.
2
A group of islets including Ipdo, 35 m high, Yongdo,
14 m high, and Hyãngjedo, lie on the N side of the
entrance to the inlet.
Tangdong Man
3.349
1
Description. Tangdong Man (34°59′N 128°25′E),
formerly known as Namchon Po, is situated on the W side
of Chinhae Man, 2¼ miles N of Anjãng Hang (3.340). The
inlet, with depths from 5⋅0 to 16⋅4 m in it, provides good
shelter. Tandong Hang lies at its head.
2
Tandong Hang is a small fishing harbour with a
shallow draught quay 55 m long.
Korean Charts W206, W204 (see 1.22)
North−west side of Chinhae Man
3.350
1
Description. The NW part of Chinhae Man is formed
by a large unnamed inlet entered between Podo Bi
(35°01′N 128°30′E) (3.330) and Chã Do, 3½ miles NE. A
number of islands, including Hwa Do, Yang Do, Song Do,
Suu Do and Kye Do, lie in the N part of the inlet. The
fishing harbours of Chindong Hang (35°06′N 128°29′E)
and Kwangham Hang (35°06′N 128°30′E) lie on the NW
shore of the inlet.
2
The NE side of the unnamed inlet forms the N part of
Chinhae Man which is separated from Pudo Sudo to the
NE by a peninsula extending S from the mainland.
Kyãngdu Bong (35°03′N 128°35′E), 173 m high, stands at
the SW end of this peninsula. Chã Do, 192 m high, is
joined to the SW side of the peninsula by a causeway.
3
Tonaepo (34°03′N 128°25′E), a narrow inlet, extends
7 miles SW from the W side of the NW part of Chinhae
Man. That part of Tonaepo within 3 miles of the entrance
has depths of over 10 m making it suitable for shelter
during bad weather. Tongjindaegyo Bridge, with a vertical
clearance of 29 m, spans the inlet 4 cables within the
entrance. The bridge is marked by lights.
4
There are several mooring buoys within the inlet and
there are alongside berths for fishing vessels at Sirak Hang
and Tanghang Hang.
Chindong Hang (35°06′N 128°29′E), situated NW of
Song Do within Unpung Po, is a local fishing harbour
enclosed by two breakwaters. There is a small wharf and
quay in the harbour. Lights (round concrete towers, 8 m in
height) are exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters.
5
Kwangham Hang (35°06′N 128°30′E) is a designated
national fishery port protected by a breakwater to the S. A
light (red round metal post, 5 m in height) is exhibited
CHAPTER 3
161
from the head of the S breakwater; a second light (white
round metal tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited from a
smaller N breakwater within the harbour.
6
There is a 300 m long wharf and in 2003 a second
wharf, 200 m long, was being constructed to the N of the
N breakwater.
NAMHYPNGJE DO AND KADPK DO
TO KODU MAL
General information
Charts 127, 1065
Routes
3.351
1
Coastal route. From a position SE of Namhyãngje Do
(34°53′N 128°57′E) the coastal route leads NE for
20 miles, passing SE of the entrances to the harbours of
Pusan Hang (3.362), to a position SE of Kodu Mal
(35°09′N 129°11′E).
2
Inshore route. From a position about 2 miles S of
Tongdu Mal (34°59′N 128°50′E) the route leads ENE for
20 miles, passing inside some offshore islets and SSE of
the W harbours of Pusan Hang, to a position about
5½ miles SE of Oryuk To (35°06′N 129°08′E), where it
joins the coastal route leading NE.
Topography
3.352
1
From Kadãk To (35°02′N 128°50′E) to Morun Mal, the
S point of a promontory 6 miles E, the coast forms the
mouths of Nakdong Gang (3.361). The river is fronted by
islets and sandbanks; the latter have depths of less than
5 m over them and extend 3 miles offshore.
2
Between Morun Mal and Kodu Mal, 13 miles NE, the
coast is irregular in shape, being indented by the harbours
of Pusan Hang. The area around Pusan Hang is almost
devoid of trees, except on Yãng Do (35°05′N 129°04′E). A
few pines and firs grow around the cemeteries in Pusan Ri.
3
The mountains and hills, are covered to their summits
with grass which in summer is fresh and green, but in
autumn and winter appears brown and barren, with large
outcrops of rocks. The valleys between the spurs of the
hills are cultivated.
Flow
3.353
1
Current. The general direction of the surface current
between Pusan Hang and Tsushima, about 26 miles SSE, is
NE; its rate is constantly changing but usually exceeds
1 kn. The combined flow due to current and tidal streams
attains its maximum rate at about 3 hours after the time of
HW at Pusan Hang and it is weakest about 3 hours after
LW.
2
When the current is weak there is occasionally a SW set
for a short time at about 3 hours before or after the time of
LW at Pusan Hang, especially near the time of spring tides.
Tidal streams. For information on tidal streams in the
vicinity of Pusan Hang see 3.385.
Vessel traffic service
3.354
1
A vessel traffic service is in operation for Pusan Hang
and its approaches; the limits of the area covered are
shown on the chart. Participation in the VTS is compulsory
for the following vessels:
All foreign vessels.
Vessels of 300 gt and over.
Vessels carrying dangerous cargoes.
Towing vessels engaged in towing of 200 m or more
in length.
2
For details and a list of reporting points see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Submarine cables
3.355
1
Submarine power cables are laid from the head of
Suyãng Man (35°08′⋅0N 129°07′⋅0E) in a SE direction, for
10 miles, and thence SW into deep-water. For further
information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Principal marks
3.356
1
Landmarks:
Ch’onma San (35°05′N 129′01′E), a hill 323 m high.
Pongnae San (35°05′N 129′03′E), the summit of
Yãng Do; there are three radio towers, exhibiting
obstruction lights, on the N side of the summit.
2
Kumyãn San (35°10′N 129°05′N), with two summits,
the highest being 427 m high. A tower stands on
the E summit, 414 m high, and an aero light is
exhibited from the same summit.
3
Chang San (35°12′N 129°09′E) (Jang San on Chart
1065), 633 m high, standing NE of Pusan. A
tower, marked by obstruction lights, stands on the
mountain’s summit.
4
Major lights:
Sã Do Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in
height) (35°02′N 128°58′E).
Tadae P’o Breakwater Light (white round concrete
tower, 9 m in height) (35°03′N 128°59′E).
Yãng Do Light (white round metal tower, 34 m high)
(35°03′N 129°06′E).
5
Oryuk To Light (white round concrete tower, 27 m in
height) (35°06′N 129°08′E).
Other aids to navigation
3.357
1
Racons:
Mok To (34°59′N 128°59′E).
Sã Do Light (35°02′N 128°58′E) (3.356).
Kamch’ãn Hang Yudo Light-buoy (35°02′N
129°01′E).
Kamch’ãn Hang W breakwater (35°03′N 129°00′E).
2
Pusan Hang Lanby (35°04′N 129°08′E).
Cho Do Breakwater (35°05′N 129°06′E).
Directions
(continued from 3.233)
Coastal route
3.358
1
From a position SE of Namhyãngje Do (34°53′N
128°57′E) the track leads NE, passing (with positions
relative to Saeng Do (35°02′N 129°06′E)):
SE of Puk’yãngje Do (8¾ miles SSW), from which a
light (white round concrete tower, 19 m in height)
is exhibited. Puk’yãngje Do consists of five
above-water rocks the highest of which is 41 m
high. From a distance they appear as two islets.
Thence:
2
SE of Mok To (6¼ miles SE), an islet 60 m high,
with several above-water rocks on a reef extending
NE and E from the island. A detached rock, with a
depth of 5⋅4 m over it, lies 2 cables WNW of the
CHAPTER 3
162
islet. Mok To Light (white round concrete tower,
9 m in height) is exhibited from the summit near
the S end of Mok To. Thence:
3
SE of Saeng Do from which a light (isolated danger,
24 m in height) is exhibited. Saeng Do, which is
prominent, lies 7 cables S of Yãng Do on a bank,
with depths of 10 m and less over it, which
extends about 1 cable N and S of the islet. Thence:
SE of Sangi Mal (1½ miles N), a steep bold headland
forming the E point of Yãng Do (3.364). Yãng Do
Light (3.356) is exhibited from a position 5 cables
SSW of Sangi Mal. Thence:
4
SE of Oryuk To (3¾ miles NNE), from which a light
(3.356) is exhibited. Oryuk To consists of four
islets lying within 5 cables S of Sungdu Mal. The
S islet of the group is 30 m high, and the next
islet N of it is the highest with an elevation of
68 m. Thence:
SE of Sungdu Mal (4 miles NNE). Usak To, 41 m
high, lies at the S end of foul ground which
extends 1½ cables S from Sungdu Mal. Nong Am,
which dries, lies ½ cable E of Usak To. Na Am,
7 m high, lies 2½ cables W of Usak To. Thence:
5
SE of an area of extensive fish havens (6 miles NE)
fronting the entrance to Suyãng Man.
The track then leads to a position SE of Kodu Mal
(8½ miles NNE). Rocks, which dry 0⋅5 m, extend 5 cables
SW from Kodu Mal; the SW end of this foul ground is
marked by Mipo Light-beacon (isolated danger, 8 m in
height).
(Directions continue for the coastal route NE at 4.19)
(Directions for the harbours of Pusan Hang
are given at 3.388 to 3.393)
Inshore route
(continued from 3.234 and 3.235)
3.359
1
From a position about 2 miles S of Tongdu Mal
(34°59′N 128°50′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with
positions relative to Sã Do Light (35°02′N 128°58′E)):
SSE of Nakdong Po (close W) (3.361), thence:
SSE of Sã Do, from which a light (3.356) is
exhibited. Sã Do, 97 m high, is steep at its S end;
several rocks, the largest of which is 20 m high,
lie within 1½ cables of its NE and W sides. A fish
haven is established between 2 cables S and
3 cables WSW of the S point of Sã Do. And:
2
NNW of Mok To (3 miles SSE) (3.358), from which
a light is exhibited, thence:
SSE of Kyãng Do (7 cables NE), from which a light
(3.388) is exhibited, thence:
SSE of Chadam Mal (1½ miles NE) (3.388), the NE
entrance point of Tadae P’o (3.382), thence:
3
SSE of Kamch’ãn Hang Yudo Light-buoy (2½ miles
E) and Tu Do (2½ miles NE), an islet. Tu Do lies
1½ cables S of Tanggang Mal and a light (white
round concrete tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited
from the middle of it. A light-beacon (3.389)
marks the SW side of the islet. Thence:
4
SSE of Saeng Do (6 miles E) (3.358), from which a
light (3.358) is exhibited. Saeng Do should be
given a berth of at least 2 cables to avoid the
rocky patches, with depths of less than 5 m over
them, surrounding the islet.
5
The track then leads to a position about 5½ miles SE of
Oryuk To (8½ miles ENE), from which a light (3.356) is
exhibited, where it joins the coastal route (3.358) leading
NE.
3.360
1
Useful marks:
Kamch’ãn Hang W breakwater light (35°02′⋅9N
129°00′⋅4E) (3.389).
Kamch’ãn Hang E breakwater light (35°03′⋅1N
129°00′⋅5E) (3.389).
2
North Outer Harbour S breakwater E head light
(35°04′⋅8N 129°06′⋅3E) (3.391).
Oryuk To Breakwater Light (35°05′⋅1N 129°06′⋅3E)
(3.391).
(Directions for the North Harbour of Pusan Hang
continue at 3.391)
Minor bay and river
Chart 1065, Korean Chart W202 (see 1.22)
Nakdong Po and Nakdong Gang
3.361
1
Description. Nakdong Po is situated between Kadãk To
(35°02′N 128°50′E) and Morun Mal, 6 miles E. It extends
N for 3½ miles to the mouths of Nakdong Gang. Nakdong
Gang, which is about 170 miles long, discharges into
Nakdong Po through several channels, in which there are
some low islets. There are clusters of reeds on some of the
islets; others are wooded and cultivated.
2
Landmark:
The remains of a fort stand on a 278 m high hill
(35°07′⋅4N 128°52′⋅3E) on the W side of Nakdong
Gang.
Caution. Depths in Nakdong Po are continually
changing and charted soundings should not be relied upon.
Extensive shoaling has been reported N of a line joining
Morun Mal (35°02′N 128°58′E) and a position, on the E
side of Kadãk To, 1 mile N of the S point of that island.
3
Directions. In the E main entrance channel (36°03′⋅5N
129°55′⋅6E) of Nakdong Gang there is a least depth of
0⋅9 m on the bar and within the bar, for a distance of
11 miles, there are depths of less than 0.9 m. Nakdong
Gang appears to be navigable for small craft for about
100 miles.
4
A W channel marked by light-beacons (lateral) leads
from the vicinity of 35°03′⋅4N 128°52′⋅1E, on the NW side
of Nakdong Po, initially NE and thence N for 1¼ miles,
passing close E of Chinudo (36°04′⋅1N 129°52′⋅4E), an
elongated islet. The channel then continues N, for a farther
1½ miles, passing under a bridge with a vertical clearance
of 5 m, to the small harbour of Shinjãng Phang.
5
Anchorage. Nakdong Po is open to S and SE winds but
vessels may obtain anchorage in a depth of 12 m off the E
side of Kadãk To. Vessels should not proceed into a depth
of less than 9 m because of the sandbanks encumbering the
head of Nakdong Po.
PUSAN HANG
General information
Charts 1065, 1259 plan of Pusan
Position
3.362
1
Pusan (Busan) Hang, the largest port in South Korea, is
situated on the mainland between Morun Mal (35°02′N
128°58′E) and a point (35°09′N 129°09′E) in Suyãng Man,
11¾ miles NE.
CHAPTER 3
163
Function
3.363
1
Pusan Hang is an international commercial port with
several large container terminals, along with shipyards for
the construction of vessels of up to 150 000 tonnes. The
principal imports are cement, grain, machinery, oil, timber,
steel products and containerised general cargo; the principal
exports are machinery, manufactured products and
containerised cargoes.
2
Pusan Si, situated along the shores of the harbour, first
opened to trade in 1876 and has expanded ever since. In
2001 the city had a population of 3⋅786 million. It is the
second largest city in South Korea.
Topography
3.364
1
One of the main features of Pusan Hang is the island of
Yãng Do (35°05′N 129°04′E) which separates North
Harbour from South Harbour. Yãng Do is 4 miles long and
hilly, with Pongnae San (3.356) forming its summit.
Mundol Mal forms the N extremity of the island; two radio
towers, one of which is marked by obstruction lights, stand
2½ cables S of Mundol Mal.
2
The SW coast of the island consists of steep cliffs; the
hills slope gently to its N and NE shores and the NW part
of the island is low. Taekyo Tong, a town, and major
shipyard installations, stand on the NW part of the island.
Port limits
3.365
1
The seaward limits of Pusan Hang are defined by a line
drawn from a point (35°09′N 129°09′E) in Suyãng Man,
SSW for 7½ miles to Saeng Do, thence WSW for 13 miles
to the S point of Kadãk To (35°02′N 128°50′E), and thence
generally NW to a point on the mainland in the vicinity of
35°06′N 128°43′E, close E of the port of Chinhae Hang
(3.277). The limits are shown on the chart.
Approach and entry
3.366
1
Pusan Hang is approached directly from the Korea
Strait. The individual harbours, except for Tadae P’o
(35°03′⋅0N 128°59′⋅2E), are entered through fairways
marked by light-buoys, the limits of which are shown on
the chart. Tadae P’o is entered between Kyãng Do
(35°02′⋅2N 128°58′⋅9E) and Chadam Mal, 9 cables NE.
Traffic
3.367
1
The port is used annually by about 10 500 ships carrying
approximately 46 500 000 tonnes of cargo. In 2003
10 370 000 teu’s of containers were handled.
Port Authority
3.368
1
Address. Pusan Port Authority, Jungangdong 6 ga,
Junggu, Pusan, Republic of Korea.
Website. www.portbusan.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
3.369
1
Controlling depths for the harbours of Pusan are as
follows:
Tadae P’o (35°03′⋅0N 128°59′⋅2E). From 5⋅0 to
12⋅3 m.
Kamch’ãn Hang (35°04′⋅0N 129°00′⋅1E). From 7 to
15 m.
2
South Outer Harbour (34°03′⋅5N 129°02′⋅4E). Depths
in the No 2 Fairway leading through the
anchorages vary from 35⋅0 m, at the S end, to
12⋅0 m, at the N end near the bridge under
construction (2004).
South Inner Harbour (35°05′⋅5N 129°01′⋅8E). From
2 m to 6 m.
3
North Outer Harbour (35°05′⋅4N 129°05′⋅6E). In No 1
Fairway there is a least charted depth of 12⋅0 m at
its NW end.
North Inner Harbour (35°06′⋅7N 129°03′⋅4E). From
5⋅0 to 15⋅5 m.
Suyãng Man (35°08′⋅0N 129°07′⋅0E). From 3⋅6 to
10⋅8 m.
Vertical clearances
3.370
1
South Inner Harbour. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 40 m, spans the S side of the South
Inner Harbour. It is supported by two metal towers,
exhibiting obstruction lights, at each end.
In the S approach to this harbour there is a bridge under
construction spanning the fairway; vertical clearance not
known.
2
North channel. The passage between the North Inner
Harbour and the South Inner Harbour is restricted by two
bridges, with vertical clearances of 6 and 12 m. The
bridges connect the NW side of Yãng Do with the city of
Pusan.
Deepest and longest berth
3.371
1
The deepest and longest berths are located at the
Sinkamman Container Terminal and Kamman Container
Terminal in the North Outer Harbour (3.398).
Tidal levels
3.372
Mean spring range about 1⋅1 m; mean neap range about
0⋅5 m. For further information see the relevant edition of
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
3.373
1
The density of the water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.374
1
Vessels up to 300 m LOA, 12⋅5 m draught and
50 000 dwt are handled.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
3.375
1
See 3.354.
Notice of ETA required
3.376
1
ETA should be sent 72, 48 24 and 12 hours prior to
arrival. VHF contact with Pusan Port Control must be
established 3 hours in advance of arrival. For further details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorages
3.377
1
There are two outer anchorages as follows:
Anchorage E and S of Oryuk To (35°06′N 129°08′E).
The limits, which are shown on the chart, are
defined by a semi-circle, with a radius of
CHAPTER 3
164
11 cables, centred on Oryuk To Light and by the N
limit of the TSS leading into North Harbour. There
are three designated quarantine anchorages within
this area.
2
Anchorage N5, centred 1¾ miles SW of Saeng Do
(35°02′N 129°06′E).
Submarine cables and pipeline
3.378
1
North channel. A submarine power cable is laid across
the channel between the NW end of Yãng Do and the city
of Pusan, between two bridges. There is also a submarine
pipeline laid E of the cable. The use of anchors is
prohibited in the vicinity of the cable and pipeline.
2
Suyãng Man. Submarine power cables are laid from the
head of Suyãng Man (35°08′⋅0N 129°07′⋅0E) in a SE
direction, for 10 miles, and thence in a SW direction into
deep-water.
Note. For further information on submarine cables and
pipelines see 1.8 and 1.20.
Pilotage
3.379
1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 grt and
available 24 hours a day. The pilot boards at No 1 pilot
boarding area (35°04′⋅2N 129°08′⋅8E), for the North
Harbour, or at No 2 pilot boarding area (35°01′⋅7N
129°02′⋅4E), for the South Harbour, Kamch’ãn Hang and
Tadae P’o. For further details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs
3.380
1
There are numerous tugs available.
Traffic regulations
3.381
1
Designated areas. Two designated areas, the limits of
which are shown on the charts, front the approaches to
Pusan Hang North Outer Harbour as follows:
An inner area between the S side of Suyãng Man
(35°08′⋅0N 129°07′⋅0E) and Saeng Do, 5½ miles
SSW, extending E to longitude 129°12′E.
An outer area defined by a semi-circle, with a radius
of 6 miles, centred on the Pusan Hang Lanby
(35°04′⋅0N 129°07′⋅9E).
2
Anchoring, underwater operations and fishing are
restricted in the inner area. Underwater operations are
restricted in the outer area. Large vessels, vessels carrying
dangerous cargoes and tugs with a length of tow of 200 m
or more, must inform the Port Traffic Management Service
(3.354) 12 hours before arrival, giving an ETA for entry
into the designated areas and details of the vessel.
3
These restrictions and requirements are to reduce the
risk of congestion in the approaches to the main harbour of
Pusan Hang.
Traffic separation scheme. There are TSSs in the
approaches to both North Harbour and Kamch’ãn Hang.
The TSSs are not IMO-adopted. Vessels are recommended
to adhere to the lanes as shown on the chart.
4
Speed. The following speed limits apply in Pusan Hang:
Location Type of vessel Limit
Tadae P’o All vessels 7 kn
Kamch’ãn Hang
All vessels 10 kn
South Outer
Harbour
All vessels 8 kn
Location Type of vessel Limit
5
North Outer
Harbour
Over 1000 tonnes 7 kn
North Inner
Harbour
Passenger vessels
below 500 tonnes
12 kn
All other vessels 8 kn
Harbour
General layout
3.382
1
Although Pusan Hang covers an area 22 miles long, and
includes Pusan New Port (3.262) at the W end, for the
purposes of this description the port consists only of the
following five harbours:
Tadae P’o (35°03′⋅0N 128°59′⋅2E). Tadae P’o is the
SW-most harbour and the smallest. It is well
sheltered and contains on its NW side the fishing
harbour of Tadaep’o Hang. The harbour services
the local timber industry with a log pond S of the
fishing harbour. Tadae Ri stands on the N shore of
the harbour.
2
Kamch’ãn Hang (35°04′⋅0N 129°00′⋅1E). This
harbour is formed by peninsulas which separate it
from Tadae P’o, to the SW, and South Harbour, to
the E. It was developed to cope with an increase
in containerised cargo and to supplement the North
Harbour by providing a base for fishing vessels
along with a ship-building complex; the cargo
berths also handle lumber, scrap metal and cement.
The harbour is accessed via No 3 fairway.
3
South Harbour (34°03′⋅5N 129°02′⋅4E). Divided into
inner and outer parts, South Harbour is mainly
used by coastal vessels. The outer harbour contains
only anchorage berths. No 2 Fairway leads through
the South Harbour.
North Harbour (35°06′⋅0N 129°04′⋅4E). This is the
main harbour for Pusan Hang and like the South
Harbour is divided into inner and outer parts. It
contains several large container terminals and
along the NE coast of Yãng Do lie the main
ship-building yards of Pusan Hang The harbour is
accessed via No 1 Fairway.
4
Suyãng Man (35°08′⋅0N 129°07′⋅0E). There is a
berthing area for commercial vessels on the SW
side of Suyãng Man. The W side of the bay is
obstructed by a double-deck road bridge leading to
Pusan Airport. On the E side of Suyãng Gang,
which discharges into the head of the bay, there is
a small harbour for the Pusan Yacht Club.
Development
3.383
1
In 2004 reclamation work was underway extending the S
end of Shinsãndae Container Terminal (35°06′⋅0N
129°05′⋅7E) in the North Outer Harbour; when completed
in 2005 it will provide three more berths for the terminal.
Another container terminal, Pusan East, is under
construction (2004) E of Shinsãndae Container Terminal,
between the N outer breakwater and the mainland.
2
Pusan New Port, for containerised cargo, is also under
construction (2005). This port will be situated N of Kadãk
To (35°02′N 128°50′E). It is described separately at 3.262.
Mined areas
3.384
1
For information on mined areas see 1.6 and Appendix I.
CHAPTER 3
165
Natural conditions
3.385
1
Local magnetic anomaly. A local magnetic anomaly of
10° was reported in 1950 in Pusan Outer Harbour.
Tidal streams. The tidal streams offshore of Pusan
Hang set SW during the in-going tide and NE during the
out-going tide; they turn about 30 minutes before HW and
LW at Pusan.
2
A branch of the SW-going stream sets, at a maximum
rate of ¼ kn, into the N harbour, thence around the N end
of Yãng Do and out into the S harbour. Here it joins
another branch which has set NW along the SW side of
Yãng Do and the combined branches then set S past
Tanggang Mal (35°03′N 129°01′E) to rejoin the main
stream. The reverse happens during the NE-stream.
3
Between Oryuk To (35°06′N 129°08′E) and Saeng Do,
3¾ miles SSW, the SW-going stream attains a maximum
rate of 2 kn, E of Sangi Mal; the NE-going stream attains a
rate of 2½ kn, between Saeng Do and Yãng Do and there
are often overfalls in the vicinity of Saeng Do.
4
In the North Inner Harbour, the tidal streams set SW
through Pusan Hang, with the in-going tide, and NE with
the out-going tide; the maximum rate is 2¼ kn. Strong
streams at their maximum rate are reported to set through
the entrance between the breakwaters.
Fog. This may occur from mid-May to mid-June but is
rarely thick or of long duration. Fog with visibility of
500 m or less occurs about three times a year and lasts
about 3 hours.
5
Wind. Pusan Hang is protected from the cold NW winds
of winter by high mountain ranges and gets the full
advantage of the warm winds coming from the sea S and E
during the summer. From October to May NW winds
prevail and from June to July SE winds prevail. During
August and September NE winds are predominant.
Typhoons. Although within the typhoon belt the port is
affected no more than approximately twice a year by winds
on the fringe of typhoon storms.
6
Precipitation. The wet and dry seasons are distinct. The
wet season is from June to August; the dry season is from
October to March. Snow is rare.
Climatic table. See 1.173 and 1.175.
Principal marks
3.386
1
Landmarks:
Ch’onma San (35°05′N 129′01′E) (3.356).
Pusan Tower (35°06′N 129°02′E), with an elevation
of 118 m, standing close NNW of a monument and
a church.
2
Pongnae San (35°05′N 129′03′E) (3.356).
Myãmang Dae (35°03′N 129°05′E), 198 m high,
standing at the S end of Yãng Do.
Taejong Dae (35°03′⋅5N 129°05′⋅5E), 251 m high,
standing 3½ cables NNE of Myomang Dae.
3
Cho Do (35°05′N 129°06′E) (3.391) an island.
Kumyãn San (35°10′N 129°05′N) (3.356).
Chang San (35°12′N 129°09′E) (Jang San on Chart
1065) (3.356).
4
Major lights:
Sã Do Light (35°02′N 128°58′E) (3.356).
Tadae P’o Breakwater Light (35°03′N 128°59′E)
(3.356).
5
Yãng Do Light (35°03′N 129°06′E) (3.356).
Oryuk To Light (35°06′N 129°08′E) (3.356).
Other aids to navigation
3.387
1
Racons:
Mok To (34°59′N 128°59′E).
Sã Do Light (35°02′N 128°58′E).
Kamch’ãn Hang Yudo Light-buoy (35°02′N
129°01′E).
Kamch’ãn Hang W breakwater (35°03′N 129°00′E).
2
No 15 Light-buoy South Outer Harbour (35°05′N
129°02′E).
Pusan Hang Lanby (35°04′N 129°08′E).
Cho Do Breakwater (35°05′N 129°06′E).
Directions for entering harbours
Tadae P’o
3.388
1
From a position on the inshore route (3.359) about
1½ miles NE of Mok To (34°59′N 128°59′E), the track
leads NNW for 3 miles, passing (with positions relative to
Sã Do Light (35°02′N 128°58′E)):
WSW of Kamch’ãn Hang Yudo Light-buoy (safe
water) (2½ miles E), marking the TSS leading into
Kamch’ãn Hang, thence:
2
ENE of the islet (2½ cables NE) and above water
rocks fronting the NE side of Sã Do (3.359); a
light is exhibited from Sã Do. Thence:
ENE of Kyãng Do (7 cables NE), from which a light
(white octagonal tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited. The islet is fringed by a drying reef,
with some above-water rocks on its NE side; a spit
with depths of less than 5 m over it, extends
1¼ cables from the N end of Kyãng Do. And:
3
WSW of the spit (1½ miles NE), on which there are
drying rocks, extending 1¼ cables SSE from
Chadam Mal; its S end is marked by a
light-beacon (S cardinal 14 m in height). Thence:
WSW of Song Do (1¼ miles NE), a drying rock
fringed on its N side by dangerous rocks; the
drying rock is marked by a light-beacon (starboard
hand, 15 m high).
4
The track then leads N into the harbour.
Useful mark:
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(35°03′⋅4N 128°58′⋅8E) exhibited from the head of
the inner breakwater in Tadae P’o.
Kamch’ãn Hang
3.389
1
From a position on the inshore route (3.359) about
3 miles ENE of Mok To (34°59′N 128°59′E), the track
leads initially NNW to the vicinity of No 2 pilot boarding
position (35°01′⋅7N 129°02′⋅4E), where Kamch’ãn Hang
leading line becomes visible.
2
Kamch’ãn Hang Leading Lights:
Front light (red and white metal tower, 39 m in
height) (35°03′⋅7N 128°59′⋅6E).
Rear (red and white round concrete tower, 7 m in
height) (3 cables NW from front light).
The alignment (314¼°) of these lights leads NW through
the appropriate lane of the TSS (3.381), passing (with
positions relative to Tu Do Light (35°03′N 129°01′E)):
3
NE of Kamch’ãn Hang Yudo Light-buoy (safe water)
(1 mile SSE), thence:
Close SW of Tu Do (3.359); a light-beacon (starboard
hand, 18 m in height) marks the SW side of Tu
Do and a light (3.359) is exhibited from the islet.
Thence:
CHAPTER 3
166
4
Between the heads of the W and E breakwaters.
(3½ cables WNW). A light (white round concrete
tower, 30 m in height) is exhibited from the head
of the W breakwater, and a light (red round
concrete tower, 30 m in height) is exhibited from
the head of the E breakwater.
5
The track then leads NNW and thence N through No 3
Fairway, marked by light-buoys (lateral), into the harbour.
South Harbour
3.390
1
From a position on the inshore route (3.359) about
3 miles ENE of Mok To (34°59′N 128°59′E), the track
leads initially NNW through No 2 pilot boarding position
(35°01′⋅7N 129°02′⋅4E) to the beginning of No 2 Fairway,
1 mile ESE of Tu Do Light (35°03′N 129°01′E).
2
Thence the track leads N through the fairway marked by
light-buoys (lateral), passing (with positions relative to
Tu Do Light):
E of Tu Do (3.359), thence:
E of Tanggang Mal (2¼ cables N), thence:
E of two above-water rocks (8½ cables NNE), the
highest of which is 27 m high, and:
3
W of the SW coast of Yãng Do (2¼ miles NE),
thence:
E of Suo Mal (1¾ miles NNE), forming the SE side
of Song Do which at one time was an island. The
S side of Suo Mal is fringed by a drying reef and
dangerous rocks. Thence:
Under the bridge (2 miles NNE) (3.370) being
constructed in 2004.
4
The track then leads into South Inner Harbour, passing
(with positions relative to Tu Do Light):
W of the E breakwater (2¼ miles NNE) from the
head of which a light (red round concrete tower,
17 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
E of the W breakwater (2¼ miles NNE) from the
head of which a light (white round concrete tower,
14 m in height) is exhibited.
5
Useful marks:
Radio tower (35°04′⋅7N 129°01′⋅1E) from which an
obstruction light is exhibited.
Numerous radio towers, from which obstruction lights
are exhibited, standing on Yãng Do; their positions
are shown on the chart.
North Harbour
(continued from 3.360)
3.391
1
Main entrance. From a position on the coastal route
(3.358) about 5½ miles SE of Oryuk To (35°06′N
129°08′E) the track leads generally NW through the
appropriate lane of the TSS (3.381), passing (with positions
relative to Oryuk To Light (35°06′N 129°08′E)):
2
NE of Pusan Hang Lanby (safe water) (1½ miles S),
thence:
SW of Oryuk To (3.358).
The track then leads through No 1 Fairway in North
Outer Harbour, marked by light-buoys (lateral), passing
(with positions relative to Oryuk To Light):
3
NE of North Outer Harbour S breakwater (1¼ miles
SW). A light (white round concrete tower, 14 m in
height) is exhibited from the E end of this
detached breakwater, and a second light (yellow
round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited
from its W end. Thence:
4
SW of Oryuk To Breakwater (7 cables WSW). A
light (red round concrete tower, 15 m in height) is
exhibited from the S end of this detached
breakwater, and a second light (yellow round
concrete tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited from
its N end. Thence:
5
NE of Cho Do (1¾ miles SW), a small island which
is steep-to on its N and E sides; a hill, 138 m
high, on which there is a radio tower, stands at the
NE end of the island. The W and S sides of the
island have been enlarged by reclaimed land; the
island is connected to Yãng Do by a causeway.
Thence:
6
SW of the S end of Shinsãndae Container Terminal.
The S end of the terminal is built from reclaimed
land extending 4 cables S from a point formerly
known as Mangmi Mal. This point rises N to
176 m and thence to Shinsãn Dae, 174 m high,
2 cables NE. Thence:
7
NE of Sonam Mal (2½ miles W), formerly the NE
point of Yãng Do; it is now partly built up.
Above-water rocks, the highest 5 m high, lie close
NNE of the point. A grey chimney, 50 m in
height, stands 1¼ cables W of Sonam Mal.
Thence:
8
SW of Kamman Container Terminal (2½ miles
WNW) and Sinkamman Container Terminal, and:
NE of Huksãk Am (3¼ miles WNW), a rock 4 m
high, lying at the NE end of an area of foul
ground.
9
The track then leads into North Inner Harbour, passing
(with positions relative to Huksãk Am (35°06′N 129°04′E)):
NE of a detached breakwater (1¾ cables NW)
extending 3 cables NE from Mundol Mal, the N
extremity of Yãng Do. A light (white round tower,
15 m in height) is exhibited from the N end of the
breakwater. And:
10
SW of Uno Se (4¾ cables NNE), a rocky bank lying
at the W end of Sinkamman Container Terminal;
the bank is marked by a light-beacon (red round
concrete tower, 17 m in height). Thence:
NE of Tungmudari Am (3½ cables NW) lying at the
N end of a rocky spit extending 2¼ cables N from
Mundol Mal. It is marked by a light-beacon
(N cardinal).
3.392
1
Secondary entrance. Entry to North Inner Harbour may
also be made from the South Inner Harbour through the
narrow channel separating the N end of Yãng Do from the
mainland, but it is restricted by the low vertical clearances
(3.370) of the bridges spanning the channel.
Useful marks:
Signal station (35°05′⋅5N 129°04′⋅1E) (grey
framework structure, 16 m in height), standing
6 cables NW of Sonam Mal.
2
Numerous radio towers, from which obstruction lights
are exhibited, standing on Yãng Do; their positions
are shown on the chart.
Group of radio towers (35°06′⋅3N 129°02′⋅0E), from
which red obstruction lights are exhibited, 5 cables
W of No 1 Pier.
Silos (grey concrete, 50 m in height) (35°07′⋅2N
129°03′⋅3E) standing on the end of No 5 Pier.
3
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(35°06′⋅7N 129°04′⋅0E) exhibited from the N end
CHAPTER 3
167
of a breakwater on the E side of North Inner
Harbour.
Two chimneys 2 cables N, and four chimneys
4½ cables NE, of Tongmyãng Pier (35°06′⋅5N
129°06′⋅5E).
4
Radio tower (red and white metal framework, 23 m in
height, red obstruction lights), standing on Tung
Bong (35°06′⋅6N 129°07′⋅3E). Two other towers
stand close by.
Suyãng Man
3.393
1
General remarks. Vessels calling at Suyãng Man should
proceed first to Pusan North Harbour to obtain pratique.
Suyãng Man may only be entered during daylight; careful
navigation is required when passing through the fish havens
fronting its entrance.
Track. From the vicinity of No 1 pilot boarding point,
1¾ miles SE of Oryuk To (35°06′N 129°08′E) the track
leads initially N, passing (with positions relative to Oryuk
To Light):
2
E of Oryuk To (3.358), thence:
E of Sungdu Mal (5 cables N) (3.358), thence:
E of Nang Mal (1½ cables N), the S entrance point
of Suyãng Man.
The track then leads NW, passing (with positions relative
to Oryuk To Light):
3
SW of a bank (2½ miles NNE), with a least depth of
4⋅6 m over it, marked at its S end by a light-buoy
(S cardinal). Thence:
SW of an isolated shoal (2½ miles N), with a depth
of 9⋅6 m over it; a light-beacon (yellow round
metal tower, 21 m in height) stands close W of the
shoal.
4
The track then leads either N to the designated
anchorages (3 miles N) as shown on the chart, or W,
passing N of Tongsaeng Mal (2½ miles N), to the berths on
the SW side of the bay.
Useful marks:
Lights exhibited from the bridge spanning the head of
the bay.
5
Mipo Light-beacon (isolated danger, 8 m in height)
(35°09′N 129°10′E).
Light (round metal tower, 8 m in height) (35°09′⋅5N
129°10′⋅3E) exhibited from the NE side of the bay.
Basins and berths
Tadae P’o
3.394
1
Anchorages. There are two designated anchorages on
the W side of the entrance to Tadae P’o as follows
(positioned from Kyãng Do Light (35°02′⋅2N 128°58′⋅9E)):
K3 (3½ cables SE). For vessels up to 20 000 tonnes.
K4 (3 cables NNE). For vessels up to 4000 tonnes.
2
Alongside berths. There is a fishing harbour on the NW
side of Tadae P’o and two commercial berthing areas as
follows:
East side. Quay, about 1100 m long, with charted
depths from 6⋅0 to 10⋅4 m alongside.
3
North side. Contains berths MKD01 and MKD02;
total length about 500 m with charted depths from
4⋅3 to 11⋅4 m alongside.
Kamch’ãn Hang
3.395
1
Anchorage. Anchorage area K-C lies within Kamch’ãn
Hang on the SE side close within the entrance; used by
vessels up to 20 000 tonnes. There are also several mooring
buoys within the harbour.
2
Alongside berths. There are 10 wharves within
Kamch’ãn Hang. Wharves No’s 1 to 4, numbered from N
to S, are situated on the E side and wharves No’s 5 to 7,
along with Hanjin Wharf and Samhan Wharf, on the W
side; the tenth berthing area is at the Centre Wharf
projecting S from the head of the harbour.
3
The berths handle general cargo, refrigerated cargo,
cement, timber, containers, petroleum products and
chemicals. The longest wharves are No’s 2 and 3, both
with a length of 1062 m. The deepest wharf is No 4 with
depths up to 12 m alongside.
South Outer Harbour
3.396
1
The South Outer Harbour contains working and waiting
anchorages divided into areas N-1 to N-4. Within these
areas there are four quarantine anchorages. The limits of
the areas and the positions of the quarantine anchorages are
shown on the chart.
South Inner Harbour
3.397
1
The South Inner Harbour is mainly for the use of fishing
vessels and small craft. There are two piers, with depths
from 4⋅1 to 6⋅7 m alongside, and several wharves, with
depths from 1⋅0 to 4⋅1 m alongside, on the W and N sides
of the harbour.
2
On the E side there are eight mooring buoys and
facilities for the building and repair of small vessels.
North Outer Harbour
3.398
1
Anchorages. The following anchorage areas exist within
the North Outer Harbour (positioned from Sonam Mal
(35°05′⋅2N 129°04′⋅7E)):
O-2 (4 cables N). Up to eight vessels of 3000 tonnes
or less can use this anchorage.
M7 (2¾ cables NE). For vessels up to 10 000 tonnes.
2
M8 (4 cables E). For vessels up to 10 000 tonnes.
M9 (6½ cables ESE). For vessels up to 10 000 tonnes.
M11 (5 cables SE). For vessels up to 10 000 tonnes.
The M10 anchorage (2½ cables ESE), as shown on the
chart, is encumbered by reclamation work (2004).
3
Alongside berths. The following three container
terminals and two piers are situated on the N and E sides
of the North Outer Harbour (positioned from Sonam Mal
(35°05′⋅2N 129°04′⋅7E)):
Sinkamman Container Terminal (1¼ miles NNW),
consisting of Berths E1 to E3; each berth is 350 m
long with charted depths from 13⋅6 to 15⋅0 m
alongside.
4
Kamman Container Terminal (1 mile N). Berths R1 to
R4; each berth is 350 m long with charted depths
from 15⋅0 to 15⋅6 m alongside.
Yãngho Pier (1¼ miles NNE). Berths Q1 to Q3; total
length 530 m, with charted depths from 5⋅0 to
11⋅3 m alongside.
5
Tongmyãng Pier (1¼ miles NNE). Berths D1 to D4
for vessels up 5000 tonnes; depths of about 6⋅0 m
alongside.
CHAPTER 3
168
Shinsãndae Container Terminal (1 mile NE). Berths
S1 to S5; each berth is 300 m long with charted
depths from 13⋅5 to 15⋅5 m alongside.
6
The SW side of the harbour, formed by the E side of
Yãng Do, is fronted by shipyards along with Miwon Quay,
for repairs, Chãnghak Quay and Dongsam Quay for general
cargo, and Hanwha Dolphin for oil products.
North Inner Harbour
3.399
1
Anchorages. Good anchorage may be obtained in this
harbour at all times of the year in depths from 9 to 10 m,
with good holding over a bottom of mud. The anchorages
are as follows (positioned from Tungmudari Am (35°06′⋅2N
129°04′⋅5E)):
E1 (4½ cables W). One vessel up to 5000 tonnes.
E2 (3 cables NW). One vessel up to 10 000 tonnes.
E3 (5 cables NW). One vessel up to 10 000 tonnes.
2
Alongside berths. The inner harbour contains about
48 alongside berths arranged as follows (positioned from
from Tungmudari Am (35°06′⋅2N 129°04′⋅5E)):
Piers numbered from 1 to 8 situated on the W and N
side of the harbour. No 1 Pier (8 cables W) serves
as a passenger terminal; deepest and longest berth
is No 12 with a length of 220 m and depths from
7⋅5 to 8⋅6 m alongside. The head of No 5 Pier
(9 cables N) is a grain terminal; length 371 m with
depths from 10⋅7 to 11⋅4 m alongside.
3
Central wharf (9 cables NE). Berths C1 to C3 with a
total length of 646 m and depths of about 9⋅0 m
alongside; handles containers and general cargo.
Chasãngdae Container Terminal (1 mile N). Berths 61
to 65; total length 1131 m with depths from 10 to
15 m alongside.
4
Uam Container Terminal (1¼ miles NNE). Berths 75
to 76; Berth 76 is the largest with a length of
300 m and a depth of 10⋅0 m alongside.
Yãnhap Pier (8 cables NNE). Consists of U1 Berth
for the handling of steel products; length 200 m
with a depth of 5⋅5 m alongside.
There are also private tanker terminals in this harbour.
Suyãng Man
3.400
1
Anchorages. The following three designated anchorage
areas are situated in the bay (positioned from Tongsaeng
Mal (35°08′⋅0N 129°07′⋅3E)):
S-2 (1 mile NNE). Depths of about 11⋅0 m.
S-3 (5½ cables NNE). Depths from 11 to 12 m.
Unnamed anchorage (1¼ miles NE). Depths of about
11⋅0 m.
2
Alongside berths. The commercial berthing area for
Suyãng Man (35°08′⋅0N 129°07′⋅0E) is situated on the SW
side of the bay and contains the following berths
(positioned from Tongsaeng Mal):
Yongho Wharf (close W). Consists of Berth Q1;
length 210 m with a depth of 10⋅8 m alongside;
handles dangerous cargoes.
3
Tongkuk Steel Company Wharves (2½ cables W).
Total berthing length of 1625 m with depths from
3 to 6 m alongside.
Port services
Repairs
3.401
1
Repairs of all kinds carried out. There are five dry
docks, the largest of which has a capacity of
150 000 tonnes, along with a floating dock for vessels up to
6000 tonnes and numerous slipways.
Other facilities
3.402
1
Several hospitals; Deratting can be carried out, Deratting
and Deratting Exemption Certificates issued; oily waste
reception facilities; garbage reception facilities; three
floating cranes with lifting capacities of up to 100 tonnes.
Supplies
3.403
1
Fuel oil; fresh water; provisions.
Communications
3.404
1
Regular communication by sea with Japan and other
Korean ports. Air communication provided by Pusan
Airport, situated at the head of Suyãng Man (35°08′⋅0N
129°07′⋅0E) on the E bank of Suyãng Gang.
NOTES
169
Suw9n Dan
Chukpy9n Hang
Ch’uksan Hang
P’ohang Hang
Ulsan Hang
Pusan
Kodu Mal
Chumunjin Dan
Sokch’o Hang
Okkye Hang
Tonghae Hang
Muk’o Hang
Yongch’ugap
Samch’9k Hang
Ullung Do
S O U T H
K O R E A
Okpo Hang
M
a
s
a
n
4.214
4.193
4.186
4.165
4.146
4.90
4.26
4.179
4.221
4.207
4.201
4.174
4.160
4.131
4.123
4.66
4.11
4
.
1
4
7
898
898
882
885
882
0405
898
896
2293
3666
1259
1065
1259
1065
127
127
Longitude 129° East from Greenwich
130°
131°
129°
130°
131°
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
35°
36°
37°
38°
35°
36°
37°
38°
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
Chapter 4 - East Coast of Korea - Kodu Mal to Suw9n Dan including Ullung Do
170
171
CHAPTER 4
EAST COAST OF KOREA — KODU MAL TO SUWPN DAN
INCLUDING THE OFF−LYING ISLAND OF ULLUNG DO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3480, 2347, 3666, 882
Scope of the chapter
4.1
1
The area covered by this chapter comprises the E coast
of Korea between Kodu Mal (35°09′N 129°11′E) and
Suwãn Dan (38°41′N 128°22′E), about 215 miles N,
together with the off-lying island of Ullung Do (37°30′N
130°50′E). Also included are descriptions of the ports of
Ulsan Hang (35°28′N 129°23′E) (4.26) and P’ohang Hang
(36°02′N 129°25′E) (4.90).
2
The chapter is arranged as follows:
Kodu Mal to Yongch’u Gap (4.10).
Ullung Do (4.147).
Yongch’u Gap to Suwãn Dan (4.157).
Sea of Japan
4.2
1
The Sea of Japan (Tong Hae) is bounded on the E and
S by the islands of Japan and on the W and N by Korea
and the coast of Far East Siberia. Being surrounded by land
on all sides, it is only accessible by the following
comparatively narrow channels:
From the S by the Korea Strait (34°00′N 129°00′E)
(3.2).
2
From the E by Tsugara Kaikyo (41°30′N 140°30′E),
between Honshu and Hokkaido, and Soya Kaikyo
(46°00′N 142°00′E), also known as La Perouse
Strait, between Hokkaido and Sakhalin. Both straits
are described in Japan Pilot Volume I.
The islets and rocks situated in the S part of the Sea of
Japan, near its W side, are Take Shima (37°15′N
131°32′E), described in Japan Pilot Volume I, and Ullung
Do, described at 4.147.
Topography
4.3
1
The E coast of Korea between Kodu Mal and Suwãn
Dan has few indentations. Although the coast has a
generally uniform appearance, its character changes
suddenly in places, and from being mountainous and rocky
it becomes low and sandy, resuming its former appearance
after a short interval.
Depths
4.4
1
The E coast of Korea is generally steep-to at a short
distance offshore though in places below-water dangers lie
close offshore. By night or during foggy weather, vessels
should not proceed into depths of less than 180 m.
Tanker navigation restricted area
4.5
1
For details of a tanker navigation restricted area along
the E coast of Korea see 1.48.
Former mined areas
4.6
1
For information on former mined areas see 1.6 and
Appendix I.
Fish havens and marine farms
4.7
1
Numerous fish havens and marine farms have been
established in Korean coastal waters. For further
information see 1.15.
Rescue
4.8
1
For information on rescue services see 1.81.
Flow
4.9
1
Current. The current which flows through the W
channel of the Korea Strait (34°00′N 129°00′E) and which
is described at 1.124, flows NE along the E coast of Korea
between Kodu Mal (35°09′N 129°11′E) and Ul Gi, 24 miles
NE. In winter this current is weak, but its strength
gradually increases from about April or May. The S-going
current, except on rare occasions, is not felt along this part
of the coast.
2
Tidal streams between Kodu Mal and Kwanggye Mal,
6 miles NE set SW with the in-going tide and NE with the
out-going tide. The current is greatly affected by the winds
prevailing in Sea of Japan, and that setting NE affects the
flow of the tidal streams which may set as follows:
Direction Duration Rate
3
NE-going stream 9 hours
Maximum 2¾ to
3¾ kn
SW-going stream 3 hours
Under ½ kn
KODU MAL TO YONGCH’U GAP
General information
Chart 3666
Area covered
4.10
1
This section describes the coastal waters between Kodu
Mal (35°09′N 129°11′N) and Yongch’u Gap (37°03′N
129°26′E), 43 miles N. It includes descriptions of the major
ports of Ulsan Hang (35°28′N 129°23′E) and P’ohang
Hang (36°02′N 129°25′E), along with the ship building port
of Mip’o Hang (35°31′N 129°27′E) (4.77). The section is
arranged as follows:
2
Kodu Mal to Ulsan Hang (4.11).
Ulsan Hang (4.26).
Ulsan Hang to P’ohang Hang (4.66).
P’ohang Hang (4.90).
CHAPTER 4
172
P’ohang Hang to Ch’uksan Hang (4.123).
Ch’uksan Hang to Yongch’u Gap (4.131).
KODU MAL TO ULSAN HANG
General information
Charts 3666, 896
Route
4.11
1
From a position SE of Kodu Mal (35°09′N 129°11′E)
the coastal route leads NE for about 26 miles to a position
in the approaches to Ulsan Hang, 8 miles SE of Hwaam
Ch’u (Halaamchu on Chart 3666) (35°28′N 129°24′E).
Topography
4.12
1
From Kodu Mal to Ulsan Hang, 27 miles NNE,
mountain ranges which run parallel to the coast attain
elevations from 300 to 600 m; other ranges slope to the
coast. Trees are extremely rare on this part of the coast and
the mountains are mostly covered with verdure, which
presents a green appearance in summer but in autumn and
winter the mountains show no sign of vegetation.
Depths
4.13
1
Depths along the coast decrease suddenly within a few
cables of the coast, and 2 miles offshore there are depths of
over 55 m. Vessels should keep a prudent distance off this
coast on account of the numerous reefs fringing it.
Submarine cables and pipeline
4.14
1
Submarine cables are laid from the head of a shallow
bay, 1½ miles NE of Kodu Mal (35°09′N 129°11′E) in a
SE direction into deep-water. The N-most cable leads SE
for 1¾ miles from the bay and thence NE along the coast
towards Ulsan Hang before leading out into the Sea of
Japan. For further information on submarine cables see 1.8.
2
Submarine pipeline. A submarine gas pipeline laid from
an offshore platform (35°26′N 130°00′E) in a W direction
to the shore at Nak Kot (35°25′N 129°22′E) crosses the
coastal route in the approaches to Ulsan Hang. For further
information on submarine pipelines see 1.20.
Traffic regulations
4.15
1
For information on a designated area, the limits of
which are shown on the charts, and a vessel traffic service
covering the approaches to Ulsan Hang see 4.40 and 4.46.
Principal marks
4.16
1
Landmarks:
Chang San (35°12′N 129°09′E) (Jang San on Chart
1065) (3.356).
Pongdae San (35°14′N 129°14′E), a pointed hill
228 m high standing W of Kwanggye Mal (4.19).
2
Tarum San (35°18′N 129°13′E), formerly known as
Shu Ho, standing 3 miles NW of Isen Wan (4.23).
This mountain, which is 586 m high, has a summit
formed by several large bare rocks, between which
small trees grow thickly.
3
Taeun San (35°24′N 129°13′E), 742 m high, with
several sharp peaks covered with vegetation at its
summit. The mountain stands 7¾ miles WNW of
Kanjãl Gap and forms the best landmark along this
part of the coast.
4.17
1
Major lights:
Kanjãl Gap Light (white octagonal concrete tower,
17 m in height) (35°22′N 129°22′E).
Hwaam Ch’u Light (white round concrete tower,
44 m in height) (35°28′N 129°24′E).
2
Ul Gi Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 24 m in
height) (35°30′N 129°27′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.18
1
Racons:
Ulsan Hang SBM C (35°25′⋅9N 129°23′⋅3E).
Ulsan Hang detached breakwater (35°28′⋅0N
129°24′⋅0E).
Directions
(continued from 3.358)
4.19
1
From a position SE of Kodu Mal (35°09′N 129°11′E)
the track leads NE, passing (with positions relative to
Kanjãl Gap Light (35°22′N 129°22′E)):
SE of Kyosãkch’u (14½ miles SW) consisting of a
chain of low above-water rocks about 3½ cables
long, lying between 2½ cables and 5 cables
offshore. A wreck, reported in 1968, lies at the SE
end of the chain; it is marked by a light-beacon
(E cardinal, 18 m in height). Thence:
2
SE of Sonjãngni (13¼ miles SW) a detached reef
both above and below-water, with a wreck,
reported in 1969, lying at its S end. The reef is
marked by a light-beacon (E cardinal, 15 m in
height). The small fishing harbour of Songjãng
Hang is situated 8 cables NW of Sonjãngni; lights
(round concrete towers, 10 m in height) are
exhibited from the heads of its breakwaters.
Thence:
3
SE of a rocky patch (12½ miles SW), with a depth of
6⋅3 m over it, thence:
SE of Tong-am Gak, the S entrance point of Taebyãn
Hang (4.21). A spit, with a depth of 5⋅3 m over it,
extends 3 cables SE from the point. Thence:
4
SE of Kwanggye Mal (9 miles SW), a promontory,
dark brown in colour, fringed by scattered
boulders. A reef of below-water rocks lies 2 cables
SSE of Kwanggye Mal. Thence:
SE of the coast lying between Toko Ho (9 miles SW)
(4.22) and Isen Wan (8 miles SW) (4.23). This
coastline consists of reddish-brown cliffs. Thence:
5
SE of Kodong Mal (4¼ miles SW), a low sandy
point. The N and E sides of the point have been
reclaimed to become the site of Korea’s first
nuclear power station. A short distance N from the
point there is a sharp hill 127 m high. A chimney,
from which red obstruction lights are exhibited,
stands on the S side of the hill. Thence:
SE of the coast between Kodong Mal and Kanjãl
Gap, 4¼ miles NE; this coastline is rocky and
fringed with reefs. Thence:
6
SE of Kanjãl Gap (Ganjeolgot on Chart 896) from
which a light (4.17) is exhibited. Kanjãl Gap is a
flat headland of sand and gravel fringed with rocks
which extend 7 cables offshore. Porurakutori, a
pinnacle rock, with a depth of 4⋅9 m over it and
steep-to, lies 5 cables S of Kanjãl Gap. Sekiu Gan,
CHAPTER 4
173
5 cables ENE of the same point, has two heads
with a least depth of 4⋅0 m over them and is
steep-to; the sea breaks over it in rough weather.
Thence:
7
SE of Tae Am (1¼ miles N) which dries 0⋅6 m;
except in calm weather the sea usually breaks over
it. A stranded wreck lies close SSE of Tae Am.
The track then leads to a position in the approaches to
Ulsan Hang, 8 miles SE of Hwaam Ch’u (Halaamchu on
Chart 3666) (7¼ miles NNE) (4.28). A light (4.17) is
exhibited from Hwaam Ch’u.
4.20
1
Useful mark:
Nasa Light (white round tower, 12 m in height) is
exhibited from the head of a breakwater 9 cables
SW of Kanjãl Gap Light.
(Directions continue, for Ulsan Hang at 4.53,
and for the coastal route NNE at 4.74)
Minor harbours and anchorages
Korean Chart No 162 (see 1.22)
Taebyãn Hang
4.21
1
Description. Taebyãn Hang (35°13′N 129°14′E) is a
national fishery port. The harbour is protected by an E
breakwater extending 500 m SSW from the shore. Within
the harbour, towards its head on the E side, an inner
breakwater extends about 150 m SW from the shore.
The harbour affords shelter to vessels up to 100 tonnes
except during S and SW winds. The harbour is used by
many fishing boats during the season between August and
November.
2
Directions. Taebyãn Hang is approached from the SE
and is entered, passing (with positions relative to the head
of the E breakwater):
NE of an isolated patch (1½ cables SSE), with a
depth of 3⋅0 m over it, thence:
NE of a rock (1¼ cables S), with a depth of 1⋅5 m
over it, thence:
3
Between a drying reef (1½ miles SSW) and the head
of the E breakwater. A light (red round concrete
tower, 17 m in height) is exhibited from the head
of the E breakwater.
The track then rounds the head of the breakwater and
leads N into the harbour. The W side of the harbour is
encumbered by foul ground, with a least depth of 1⋅0 m
over it, and by an islet surrounded by drying reefs. An
above-water rock, 1⋅9 m high and marked by a beacon, lies
on the E edge of the foul ground.
4
Useful mark:
Light (red round concrete tower, 13 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the inner breakwater.
Berths. The head of the harbour inside the inner
breakwater contains several quays, with charted depths
from 1⋅5 to 4⋅3 m alongside. A new quay is under
construction (2003) in the outer part of the harbour
between the head of the E breakwater and the inner
breakwater.
5
Repairs. There is a shipyard; capable of repairing
vessels up to 50 tonnes.
Supplies: fresh water; fuel.
Chart 896
Toko Ho
4.22
1
Description. Toko Ho (35°14′⋅6N 129°15′⋅0E), in which
there is a small harbour, is a small inlet situated 1¾ miles
NNE of Taebyãn Hang. Local vessels obtain temporary
anchorage in the inlet, except during E winds. Several
reddish brown rocks extend 2½ cables E from the S
entrance point of Toko Ho.
2
Useful mark:
Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 12 m in
height) exhibited from the breakwater of the small
harbour in the inlet.
Isen Wan
4.23
1
Description. Isen Wan (35°16′N 129°15′E) is 6 cables
wide at its entrance, but its width is reduced by a reef
extending 3 cables S from the N entrance point. The
harbour of Hakri Hang is situated on the S side of the bay,
4 cables within the S entrance, and I-dong Hang is situated
on the N side, 3 cables within the N entrance.
2
Useful marks:
Light-beacon (isolated danger, 11 m in height)
standing on the S entrance point.
Light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater at Hakri
Hang.
3
Chimney (35°16′⋅0N 129°14′⋅6E).
Light (red round concrete tower, 12 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater at
I-dong Hang.
Anchorage. Temporary anchorage is obtained by local
vessels in Isen Wan in depths from 3 to 13 m.
Korean Chart No 180 (see 1.22)
Bay west of Kodong Mal
4.24
1
Description. This large open bay is entered between an
unnamed point, close S of Tongbaek Hang (35°17′⋅3N
129°15′⋅5E), and Kodong Mal 2½ miles NE. The small
fishing harbours of Tongbaek Hang, Sinpyãng Hang and
Munjung Hang are situated on the SW side of the bay;
Wolnae Hang and Kilchãn Po, also small harbours, are
situated on the N side of the bay, respectively, 6 cables NW
and 4 cables NNW of Kodong Mal.
2
Useful marks:
Lights (round concrete towers, 10 m in height)
(35°17′⋅3N 129°15′⋅5E) exhibited from the
breakwaters of Tongbaek Hang.
Light (red round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
(35°17′⋅8N 129°15′⋅7E) exhibited from the head of
the S breakwater of Sinpyãng Hang.
3
Light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in height)
(35°18′⋅3N 129°15′⋅7E) exhibited from the S
breakwater of Munjung Hang.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
(35°19′⋅5N 129°16′⋅7E) exhibited from Wolnae
Hang.
Light (red pipe, 9 m in height) (35°19′⋅5N
129°17′⋅0E) exhibited from Kilchãn Po.
4
Anchorage. Local vessels obtain temporary anchorage in
the bay W of Kodong Mal, except with winds between E
and S, in depths of 11 m, over a bottom of mud; the
anchorage is partially encumbered by a fish haven.
Berth. On the W side of Kodong Mal (35°18′⋅9N
129°17′⋅3E), close by a nuclear power station (4.19), there
CHAPTER 4
174
is a breakwater 80 m in length. On the inner side of the
breakwater is a coastal wall, 110 m long with depths of
5⋅3 m alongside, where vessels of 1000 tonnes can berth.
Chart 896
Shinri Hang
4.25
1
Description. Shinri Hang (35°20′⋅6N 129°19′⋅2E) is
situated on the SW side of a shallow bay 2 miles NE of
Kodong Mal. A breakwater extends NE from the S
entrance point of the bay and a reef extends 2 cables S
from the N entrance point, 4 cables NE of the breakwater;
Sinson Am, an above-water rock 1⋅7 m high, lies at the S
end of the reef.
2
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the breakwater at Shinri Hang.
Anchorage is obtained by local vessels in the bay.
ULSAN HANG
General information
Charts 896, 898
Position
4.26
1
Ulsan Hang (35°28′N 129°23′E), which includes Onsan
Hang and Mip’o Hang, is situated on the E coast of Korea
at the head of Ulsan Man, 28 miles NE of Pusan. Mip’o
Hang (35°31′N 129°27′E), situated on the outer coast E of
Ulsan Hang, although part of Ulsan Man, is described
separately at 4.77.
Function
4.27
1
Ulsan Hang is a major port of South Korea having
amalgamated with Onsan Hang and Mip’o Hang in 1976.
The port imports raw materials for the Onsan and Ulsan
industrial complexes; manufactured products are exported.
Ulsan Hang has the biggest petrochemical complex in
Korea and large amounts of petroleum products are
handled; there is also a large shipbuilding complex at Ulsan
Hang.
2
The city of Ulsan, with a population of 1 055 608 in
2001, is situated about 4 miles upstream from the mouth of
T’aehwa Gang; it is the seat of local government.
Topography
4.28
1
Ulsan Man is an irregular shaped bay with Onsan Hang
on its W side and Ulsan Hang at its head, on the N side.
The rivers of Oehwang Gang and T’aehwa Gang flow into
the NW and N sides, respectively, of Onsan Hang and
Ulsan Hang.
2
The E side of Ulsan Man is formed by a peninsula
which appears ochre in colour. Hwaam Ch’u (35°28′N
129°24′E), the S point of the peninsula, consists of
reclaimed land.
Port limits
4.29
1
The port limits, which encompass Onsan Hang and
Ulsan Hang, are defined by a line drawn SE for 3¾ miles
from a point 5½ cables NE of Hwaam Ch’u, thence S for
1½ miles, and thence W to the mainland shore. The limits
are shown on the chart.
Approach and entry
4.30
1
Ulsan Hang is approached from the SE and entered
through a narrow channel leading between Nakkot
(35°25′N 129°22E) and Hwaam Ch’u, 4¼ miles NNE.
From this channel fairways lead off to the principal
berthing areas.
Traffic
4.31
1
Approximately 24 500 vessels visit the port and
149 600 000 tonnes of cargo are handled annually.
Port Authority
4.32
1
Address. Ulsan Regional Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
Office, 139−9 Mae am-dong, Nam Gu, Ulsan, South Korea.
Website. www.ulsan.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.33
1
Fairways I and II. There is a least charted depth of
11⋅7 m at the junction (35°29′⋅8N 129°23′⋅5E) of Fairway I
with Fairway II.
Fairway III. There is a least charted depth of 21⋅0 m in
this fairway, which leads to Onsan Hang, but depths
alongside the berths within Onsan Hang are less, varying
from 5⋅7 to 13⋅8 m.
Vertical clearances
4.34
1
North end of Ulsan Hang. An overhead power cable,
with a vertical clearance of 60 m, spans Fairway I between
the E end of No 7 Wharf (35°31′⋅0N 129°23′⋅1E) and the
N end of Yãmp’o Wharf, 4½ cables ENE.
2
Changsaengp’o Hang. An overhead power cable, with a
vertical clearance of 41 m, spans the E end of
Changsaengp’o Hang (35°30′⋅0N 129°22′⋅3E). There is also
an overhead pipeline, with a vertical clearance of 1⋅5 m,
towards the NW end of this harbour.
Deepest and longest berths
4.35
1
Offshore. SBM D (35°25′⋅3N 129°231E) (4.57).
Alongside. SK8 Berth (35°28′⋅7N 129°23′⋅5E) (4.59).
Tidal levels
4.36
1
Mean spring range about 0⋅4 m; mean neap range about
0⋅2 m. For further information see the relevant edition of
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
4.37
1
The density of the water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.38
1
Oil tankers up to 350 000 dwt are handled at the SBMs
and up to 150 000 dwt alongside. Dry cargo ships up to
50 000 dwt can berth in Ulsan Hang.
Arrival information
Port operations
4.39
1
Berthing is available as follows:
SBMs. During daylight only, but vessels may unberth
at any time.
CHAPTER 4
175
Onsan Hang. During daylight only at the oil tanker
berths; unberthing is available 24 hours only for
vessels under 10 000 dwt.
2
Ulsan Hang. Berthing during the night is not possible
at many of the berths within Ulsan Hang, but this
depends on the size of vessel. Unberthing is
available 24 hours.
For further details on berthing restrictions the Port
Authority should be consulted.
Vessel traffic service
4.40
1
Ulsan Vessel Traffic Service provides maritime traffic
information and vessel assistance with regard to the safety
of navigation and the protection of the environment.
Participation in the service is compulsory for the following
vessels:
All vessels engaged in international voyages.
2
Vessels of 300 gt and over except for coastal fishing
vessels.
Oil tankers and gas carriers.
Tugs towing barges.
For further details of the limits of the area covered and
reporting lines see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA required
4.41
1
ETA should be sent 72, 48, 24 and 12 hours prior to
arrival at the pilot station and, when within VHF range, at
least 2 hours before. For further details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorages
4.42
1
General information. Anchorage may be obtained in
Ulsan Man, for different sizes of vessel, in designated outer
anchorages, over a bottom of mud. Ulsan Man is easy to
enter and one of the best anchorage areas on the E coast of
Korea. The limits of the anchorages and their designation
are shown on the chart as follows, (with positions relative
to Hwaam Ch’u (35°28′N 129°24′E)):
2
E1 (1 mile SSE) for vessels of 10 000 grt or less.
Attention is drawn to two obstructions which lie in
the S part of this anchorage. The N limit of this
anchorage is also fringed by a rocky spit, with a
least depth of 3⋅3 m over it, extending 3 cables S
from Hwaam Ch’u and Kunch’i Am; a light-buoy
(S cardinal) is moored close S of a 9⋅4 m patch,
WSW of the rocky spit.
3
E2 (2¼ miles SSE) for vessels between 10 000 and
30 000 grt. An obstruction, reported in 1998, lies
in the middle of this anchorage; a prohibited
anchorage area, radius 500 m, the limits of which
are shown on the chart, has been established
around it.
E3 (3¾ miles SSE) for vessels of 30 000 grt or over.
4
These anchorages are exposed to NE winds and during
S winds a heavy swell may occur. Vessels invariably lie
heading SW due to the strong NE-going current which
overcomes any tidal influence.
Caution. Ulsan pilots have reported that several
collisions have occurred involving vessels about to anchor
setting down on to anchored vessels.
Submarine pipelines
4.43
1
Submarine pipelines are laid within Ulsan Man as
follows:
Gas pipeline from Nakkot (35°25′N 129°22E) initially
in a SE direction and thence E and ENE to an
offshore platform (35°26′N 130°00′E).
Sewer outfall, extending E for 8 cables from the shore
close N of Nakkot.
2
Oil pipelines from the shore to each of the SBMs, E
and SSE of Onsan Hang (35°27′⋅0N 129°21′⋅5E).
Sewer outfall extending 2 miles SE from the shore on
the N side of Onsan Hang into Fairway III.
Oil pipeline across the mouth of Oehwang Gang
(35°28′⋅1N 129°20′⋅8E) where it flows into the
NW side of Onsan Hang.
3
For further information on submarine pipelines see 1.20.
Pilotage
4.44
1
Pilotage is compulsory, and available 24 hours, for all
vessels over 500 grt, except those bound for the anchorages
in areas E1, E2 and E3 (4.42). The pilot normally boards at
the No 1 pilot boarding point in the vicinity of 35°24′⋅3N
129°25′⋅3E, or for VLCCs in the vicinity of 35°23′⋅0N
129°26′⋅2E; for vessels at anchor the pilot boards in the
anchorage.
2
The pilot boat is a fast white-hulled craft with “PILOT”
on the superstructure. For further details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs
4.45
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
4.46
1
Designated area. A designated area, the limits of which
are shown on the charts, covers the approaches to Ulsan
Man. Large vessels, vessels carrying dangerous cargoes and
tugs with a length of tow of 200 m or more, must inform
Ulsan Vessel Traffic Service 12 hours before arrival, giving
an ETA for entry into the designated area and details of the
vessel. This requirement is to help reduce the risk of
collision and congestion in the approaches to Ulsan Hang
and Onsan Hang.
2
Restricted areas. Navigation, fishing and anchoring is
restricted within 400 m of the five SBMs moored, E and
SSE of Onsan Hang (35°27′⋅0N 129°21′⋅5E), and in the
areas 50 m either side of the submarine pipelines leading
from the SBMs to the shore. The limits of the restricted
areas are shown on the charts.
Quarantine
4.47
1
Radio pratique is not granted. There are designated
quarantine anchorages in the outer anchorage areas (4.42)
as shown on the chart.
Harbour
General layout
4.48
1
The harbour consists of the two main berthing areas of
Onsan Hang and Ulsan Hang. Onsan Hang (35°27′⋅0N
129°21′⋅5E), situated on the W side of Ulsan Man and
protected by breakwaters, lies in the entrance to Oehwang
Gang; offshore berths, consisting of SBMs, front the
approaches to Onsan Hang. Within Onsan Hang berths are
CHAPTER 4
176
arranged alongside piers on the W side, and alongside
quays in Sanam P’o on the S side.
2
Ulsan Hang is situated on the N side of Ulsan Man and
is divided into two basins; a detached breakwater, situated
SW of Hwaam Ch’u (35°28′N 129°24′E), protects the
entrance. In the outer part cargo berths are arranged along
the W side and within Changsaengp’o Hang, a small inlet
at the NW end of this basin. In the inner part, at the head
of Ulsan Hang, cargo berths are arranged along both the E
and W sides; the NE part of the inner basin is protected
from the flow of T’aehwa Gang by a breakwater on its N
side.
3
The shipbuilding complex of Hyundai Mip’o Dockyard
is situated on the E side of the outer basin, with an
anchorage area and alongside quays to the S of it.
Development
4.49
1
In 2004 reclamation work was in progress on the N, W
and S sides of Onsan Hang; work was also underway on
an extension of Onsan Hang’s S breakwater.
Natural conditions
4.50
Tidal streams outside Ulsan Man, from 1 to 2 miles
offshore, set as follows:
Tide Directions and rate
1
In-going tide
SW 1¼ kn
Out-going tide NE 2 kn
In Ulsan Hang there is usually a weak in-going stream
but after heavy rain this is offset by the out-going flow
from T’aehwa Gang.
Climatic table. See 1.173 & 1.176.
Principal marks
4.51
1
Landmarks:
Namam San, 554 m high, situated 10 miles NW of
Pãmwãl Gap (35°26′N 129°22′E). Munsu San
(35°32′N 129°13′E), 600 m high, lies 1¼ miles N
of Namam San; both these mountains have
prominent sharp summits.
2
Three chimneys (35°29′N 129°23′E), 150 m high, at
Shinp’o.
Pongdae San, 132 m high, standing 5 cables NW of
Shinp’o. On the summit there is a ruined cairn; the
hill appears dome-shaped from a distance.
Port control building and radar station (35°28′N
129°24′E), standing on Hwaam Ch’u.
3
Tongdae San (35°30′N 129°25′E), 116 m high. It has
a chimney on its summit and is very prominent
from E or W. The land rises gradually to 203 m
about 1½ miles N of this hill.
4
Major lights:
Hwaam Ch’u Light (35°28′N 129°24′E) (4.17).
Ul Gi Light (35°30′N 129°27′E) (4.17).
Other aids to navigation
4.52
1
Racons:
Ulsan Hang SBM C (35°25′⋅9N 129°23′⋅3E).
Ulsan Hang detached breakwater (35°28′⋅0N
129°24′⋅0E).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.20)
Caution
4.53
1
In the approaches to Ulsan Hang and its entrance many
small to medium size vessels may be encountered
underway, along with other ships at anchor. At night, it
Ulsan Hang port control tower from NW (4.51)
(Original dated prior to 2003)
CHAPTER 4
177
sometimes becomes difficult to distinguish between the port
sidelights of these vessels and the all-round red light
exhibited by vessels carrying dangerous goods.
From seaward to Ulsan Hang
4.54
1
From a position about 8 miles SE of Hwaam Ch’u
(35°28′N 129°24′E) the track leads initially NW for
4½ miles to the No 1 pilot boarding point (35°24′⋅3N
129°25′⋅1E) at the beginning of the entrance fairway. Then
the track leads NNW through the fairway, passing (with
positions relative to Hwaam Ch’u):
2
WSW of the E3 anchorage area (3¾ miles SSE), and:
ENE of SBM E (special) (3¾ miles SSW) and SBM
D (white light-buoy, blue stripe) (3¼ miles SSW),
thence:
ENE of the entrance to Fairway III (2½ miles S),
which leads NW into Onsan Hang. Directions for
Onsan Hang are given at 4.55. And:
3
WSW of the E2 anchorage area (2¼ miles SSE),
thence:
WSW of an obstruction (1½ miles S) lying in the SW
corner of the E1 anchorage area, thence:
ENE of SBM A (white light-buoy, blue stripe)
(1¼ miles SW), thence:
4
Close WSW of the W end (5 cables SW) of a
detached breakwater. A light (red round tower,
15 m in height) is exhibited from the W end of the
breakwater; another light (yellow round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the E end.
5
The track then leads NNW through Fairway I, marked
by light-buoys (lateral), passing close ENE of Yukong Sea
Berth (1 mile NW), into Ulsan Hang. A light (yellow cross
on yellow square metal tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited
from the S end of Yukong Sea Berth.
6
Useful marks:
Two towers (35°28′⋅9N 129°24′⋅8E). The NE-most
tower has an elevation of 95 m; obstruction lights
are exhibited from the SW tower.
Lights exhibited from Sul To (4.75) and the heads of
the breakwaters at Pang-Pjin Hang (35°29′N
129°26′E) (4.84).
(Directions for Changsaengp’o Hang
are given at 4.56)
Onsan Hang
4.55
1
For vessels bound for the berths in Onsan Hang follow
the directions (4.54) from seaward to Ulsan Hang until a
position is reached 2¼ miles S of Hwaam Ch’u (35°28′N
129°24′E), within the entrance fairway. The track then
leads NW through Fairway III, passing (with positions
relative to Onsan Hang N breakwater light (35°27′⋅1N
129°22′⋅4E)):
2
NE of SBM C (white light-buoy, blue stripe)
(1½ miles SE), thence:
SW of SBM B (white light-buoy, blue stripe)
(7 cables ESE), thence:
NE of Kãmuam (5½ cables SSE), a rocky shoal
marked by a light-buoy (isolated danger), thence:
3
Close NE of the S breakwater extension (3 cables SE)
under construction; a light (white round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the N
corner of this breakwater. Thence:
Close SW of the head of the N breakwater from
which a light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited.
4
The track then leads into the harbour. Attention is drawn
to the rocky shoal patches, with least depths of 0⋅7 and
1⋅7 m over them, respectively, on the N side of the harbour
and in the entrance to Sanam P’o on the S side. These
patches are marked by light-buoys (lateral).
Useful marks:
Chimney (35°26′⋅5N 129°20′⋅5E).
Chimneys (35°27′⋅8N 129°21′⋅5E).
Changsaengp’o Hang
4.56
1
For vessels bound for the berths in Changsaengp’o Hang
follow the directions (4.54) from seaward to Ulsan Hang
until a position is reached 1½ miles NNW of Hwaam Ch’u
(35°28′N 129°24′E), within Fairway I. The track then leads
NW through Fairway II, for a short distance, and thence W
through a narrow entrance marked by light-buoys (lateral)
into Changsaengp’o Hang.
2
When navigating within Changsaengp’o Hang large
vessels should exercise great caution due to shoals, lack of
manoeuvering room and fishing nets.
Berths
Offshore berths
4.57
1
Single buoy moorings. On the W side of Ulsan Mang,
fronting Onsan Hang, there are five SBM berths as follows
(positioned from Pãmwãl Gap (35°26′N 129°22′E)):
SBM A (SK1 Buoy) (1¾ miles NE). For tankers up
to 300 000 dwt; maximum draught 19⋅66 m.
SBM B (SK2 Buoy) (1½ miles NE). For tankers up
to 300 000 dwt; maximum draught 19⋅66 m.
2
SBM C (SK3 Buoy) (1 mile E). For tankers up to
350 000 dwt; maximum draught 22⋅60 m.
SBM D (Ssangyong Buoy) (1 mile SE). For tankers
up to 350 000 dwt; depth of 27 m at the terminal.
SBM E (Korea Oil) (1¼ miles SSE). For tankers up
to 300 000 dwt; depth of 27 m at the terminal.
3
As the SBMs are exposed to S and SE winds, vessels
must always be ready to move. Vessels may also ride up
against the SBMs as the tidal stream changes direction; it
has been reported (1996) that a stern tug remains fast
throughout cargo operations to keep vessels off the SBMs.
Onsan Hang
4.58
1
Onsan Hang contains the following berthing areas
(positioned from Onsan Hang N breakwater light
(35°27′⋅1N 129°22′⋅4E)):
Jung-Il Pier (6 cables SSW). Length 438 m, with a
depth of 11⋅0 m alongside; handles vessels up to
40 000 tonnes.
2
Sanam P’o (9 cables SW). This basin contains six
berths, totalling 1320 m in length, with depths
from 9 to 11 m alongside.
Ssangyong Piers 1 and 2 (7 cables W). Consists of
seven oil tanker berths, with depths from 10⋅5 to
12⋅0 m alongside; handles vessels up to
80 000 dwt.
3
KPIC Terminal (Yuhwa Piers) (1 mile WNW). The
terminal has three piers with berthing lengths from
275 to 391 m and depths from 9 to 12 m
alongside; handles vessels up to 50 000 dwt.
CHAPTER 4
178
Ulsan Hang outer basin
4.59
1
Anchorage berths. The following designated anchorages
are situated in Ulsan Hang (positioned from Hwaam Ch’u
Light (35°28′N 129°24′E)):
M1 to M7 (from 6 cables to 1¼ miles NNW). For
vessels up to 5000 grt; radius 150 m. There are
depths from 9⋅3 to 11⋅9 m in these anchorages,
over a bottom of mainly mud.
2
M9 (7 cables W). For vessels up to 20 000 grt; radius
200 m. There is a depth 17⋅0 m in this anchorage,
over a bottom of mud.
M10 (1 mile SW). For vessels up to 50 000 grt; radius
300 m. There is a depth of 19⋅0 m in this
anchorage, over a bottom of mud.
3
Alongside berths − west side. The following berths are
situated on the W side (positioned from Hwaam Ch’u Light
(35°28′N 129°24′E)):
Yongjam Wharves 1 to 3 (2⋅1 miles NW). These three
berths handle chemical and oil tankers up to
20 000 dwt.
Grain berth (1⋅9 miles NW). Length 185 m with a
depth of 13⋅0 m alongside; berths vessels up to
50 000 tonnes dwt.
4
Yukong Sea Berth, with berths SK8, SK7 and SK6,
and SK5, SK4 & SK3 Piers (from 1 mile to
1¾ miles NW, respectively). The largest berth,
SK8, is situated at the S end; length 400 m with a
depth of 18⋅0 m alongside, for tankers up to
150 000 dwt.
Gas Wharf (1¼ miles NW). Consists of three berths
for gas tankers. Total length 360 m with a depth of
7⋅5 m alongside.
5
Alongside berths − east side. The shore on the E side
is quayed for 1½ miles S from Hyundai Mip’o Dockyard to
Hwaam Wharf on the NW side of Hwaam Ch’u; there are
charted depths from 6⋅7 to 9⋅1 m alongside these quays.
Hwaam Wharf has six numbered berths for vessels up to
4000 dwt; silica sand, scrap metal and steel coils are
handled at this wharf.
Changsaengp’o Hang
4.60
1
The Korea Oil Corporation Refinery stands at the head
of Changsaengp’o Hang (35°30′⋅0N 129°22′⋅3E). Alongside
berths for oil tankers are situated on the W side of the
harbour as follows:
SK1 Wharf, consisting of two numbered berths; total
length 260 m with a depth of 7⋅5 m alongside.
SK2 Wharf. Situated S of SK1, this wharf has five
numbered berths; total length 430 m with a depth
of 8⋅0 m alongside.
Ulsan Hang inner basin
4.61
1
Alongside berths − west side. On the W side is General
Wharf and seven numbered wharves with a coal pier at the
N end. No 6 Wharf is the largest, having a length of
990 m; handles vessels up to 30 000 tonnes. The coal pier
handles vessels up to 40 000 tonnes.
2
Alongside berths − east side. Yãmp’o Wharf and the
Automobiles Wharf are situated on the E side. The
Automobiles Wharf is the largest and deepest, having a
length of 830 m; handles vessels up to 40 000 tonnes.
Port services
Repairs
4.62
1
All types of repairs carried out. The following dry
docking facilities are available:
Hyundai Mip’o Dockyard (35°30′N 129°24′E), with
four large dry docks capable of taking vessels up
to 400 000 dwt.
Dongsung Engineering and Shiprepair Company with
two floating docks; lifting capacity 8500 tonnes.
2
Far Eastern Maritime Services and Engineering
Company with two floating docks; the largest is
256 m long, 51 m wide and 20 m deep.
Hanjin Heavy Industries, situated in Changsaengp’o
Hang, with one floating dock; maximum capacity
120 000 dwt.
Other facilities
4.63
1
Hospitals; oily waste reception; garbage disposal
facilities; Deratting and Deratting Exemption Certificates
issued.
Supplies
4.64
1
Fuel oil and fresh water supplied by barge only;
provisions available.
Communications
4.65
1
Ulsan Airport, 15 km distant.
ULSAN HANG TO P’OHANG HANG
General information
Charts 896, 3666 (see 1.22)
Route
4.66
1
From a position in the approaches to Ulsan Hang,
8 miles SE of Hwaam Ch’u (Halaamchu on Chart 3666)
(35°28′N 129°24′E), the route leads NNE, for 38 miles, to
a position ESE of Saramal (35°59′N 129°34′E), thence N,
for a farther 11 miles, to a position in the outer approaches
to P’ohang Hang, about 6 miles NE of Changgigot
(36°05′N 129°33′E).
Topography
4.67
1
Between Hwaam Ch’u and Changgigot, 38 miles NNE,
the coast is rocky, alternating with sandy beaches, and is
fringed with numerous rocky reefs. There are several
indentations, but no large harbours. Inland, the mountain
ranges run parallel with the coast and attain an elevation of
452 to 745 m.
Submarine pipeline
4.68
1
For information on a submarine gas pipeline see 4.14.
Traffic regulations
4.69
1
For information on designated areas, the limits of which
are shown on the charts, and vessel traffic services
covering the approaches to Ulsan Hang, Mip’o Hang and
P’ohang Hang see 4.46 and 4.108.
Measured distance
4.70
1
There is a measured distance divided into two sections
seaward of Itãgam (35°34′⋅0N 129°28′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 4
179
North limit marks. Two white beacons (35°35′⋅7N
129°27′⋅4E) in line bearing 283°.
Middle marks. Two white beacons (35°33′⋅8N
129°26′⋅5E).
2
South limit marks. Two white beacons (35°32′⋅0N
129°26′⋅8E) in line bearing 283°.
Distance. N section 3689⋅9 m; S section 3078⋅2 m.
Running track. 013°/193°.
Current
4.71
1
Between Hwaam Ch’u and Changgigot the current sets
N with a rate from ½ to 1 kn. It is strongest in summer.
Principal marks
4.72
1
Landmarks:
Muryong San (Buryeu San) (35°36′N 129°13′E),
452 m high, with a flat summit.
Hyoryãng (35°43′N 129°21′E), 691 m high, with a
serrated summit.
2
To’ham San (35°48′N 129°21′E), 745 m high and the
highest peak of a range extending N from
Hyoryãng; blunt and conical in shape. From
To’ham San the range slopes gradually down to
Changgigot (36°05′N 129°33′E).
Offshore mark:
Gas production platform (35°26′N 130°00′E) from
which a light is exhibited.
3
Major lights:
Hwaam Ch’u Light (35°28′N 129°24′E) (4.17).
Ul Gi Light (35°30′N 129°27′E) (4.17).
Songdaemal Light (white square concrete tower, 21 m
in height) (35°48′N 129°31′E).
Changgigot Light (white octagonal brick tower, 26 m
in height) (36°05′N 129°34′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.73
1
Racons:
Ulsan Hang SBM C (35°25′⋅9N 129°23′⋅3E).
Gas production platform (35°26′N 130°00′E).
Ulsan Hang detached breakwater (35°28′⋅0N
129°24′⋅0E).
2
Kyosãkch’o Light-beacon (36°05′⋅5N 129°33′⋅5E).
Directions
(continued from 4.20)
Caution
4.74
1
Vessels should not close this coast to within a distance
of 1 mile as it is fringed with rocks and fronted by
numerous fish havens.
Ulsan Hang to Taebonmal
4.75
1
From a position 8 miles SE of Hwaam Ch’u (35°28′N
129°24′E) the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
relative to Ul Gi Light (35°30′N 129°27′E)):
ESE of a fish haven lying 6 cables E of Sul To
(1 mile SSW); isolated depths of less than 5⋅0 m
extend 3 cables S and SE from the islet, which is
8 m high with a flat top. A light (white round
concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from
Sul To. Thence:
2
ESE of Taeyang Am (1¾ cables SE) lying close off
the SE point of Ul Gi. The peninsula of Ul Gi is
thickly covered with pine trees and, from a
distance S appears as an island. A light (4.17) is
exhibited from Ul Gi. Thence:
3
ESE of the entrance to the N harbour (2 miles NNE)
of Mip’o Hang (4.77). A light (white round
concrete tower, 15 m in height) is exhibited from
the head of the S breakwater in this entrance; a
second light (red round concrete tower, 15 min
height) is exhibited from the head of the N
breakwater. Thence:
4
ESE of Itãgam (4¾ miles NNE), a reef awash at LW
and steep-to; the reef is marked by a light-beacon
(isolated danger, 10 m in height). Thence:
ESE of Rãã Mal (5½ miles NNE), a low point from
which below-water rocks extend 3 cables E; a flat
rock, 2⋅3 m high, lies in the N end of a bay,
3 cables SW of Rãã Mal. Thence:
5
ESE of Ugamal (6¾ miles NNE), a rocky cliffy point
with a flat summit 153 m high; this point is
densely wooded, blackish in colour and prominent
from a distance. Thence:
6
ESE of Tagan Mal (7¼ miles N), close NW of which
is situated the small fishing harbour of Chãngja
Hang (4.85). Lights (N breakwater: red round
concrete tower, 10 m in height; S breakwater:
white round concrete tower, 11 m in height) are
exhibited from the heads of the harbour
breakwaters. Thence:
7
ESE of Sunyãmmal (10½ miles N), a flat cultivated
point 3 m high, thence:
ESE of Upch’ãn Hang (12 miles NNE), a small
fishing harbour from which a light (red round
concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited.
8
The track then leads to a position ESE of Taebonmal
(15¾ miles NNE), a low black rocky point, fringed with
rocks.
Taebonmal to P’ohang Hang
4.76
1
From the position ESE of Taebonmal (35°45′N
129°29′N) the track continues NNE, passing (with positions
relative to Songdaemal Light (35°30′N 129°27′E)):
ESE of Songdaemal, a low rocky point densely
wooded and fairly prominent, and from which a
light (4.72) is exhibited. A rock 4⋅4 m high lies
2 cables SE of Songdaemal; the white sector
(301°−309°) of a second light exhibited from the
SW side of Songdaemal Light covers this rock.
Kamp’o Hang (4.86) is situated in the bay on the
W side of the point. Thence:
2
ESE of Chãngiongmal (4 miles NNE), a black and
rocky point on which there is low, flat cultivated
land. Yangpo Light (white round concrete tower,
9 m in height) is exhibited from the point and
Yangpo Hang (4.87) is situated on its NW side.
Thence:
ESE of Koejãnmal (5½ miles N), a point; Mo Am, a
black rock, 13 m high, lies 2½ cables E of
Koejãnmal and is very prominent from S. Thence:
3
ESE of Sãgmaam (7¼ miles NNE), a detached rock
lying 6 cables ESE of Borei Mal; the rock is 2 m
high and steep-to. Borei Mal is a salient point
fringed by a reef. Mop’o Ri lies in a small bay on
the W side of Borei Mal and Noesong San, a hill,
stands 6½ cables WNW of Borei Mal; its summit
is 208 m high and covered with vegetation. A
CHAPTER 4
180
cairn stands on the summit which is prominent
from a distance. Thence:
4
ESE of Bãram (8¾ miles NNE), a narrow point from
which a chain of above-water rocks extends
3 cables E, thence:
ESE of Saramal (11½ miles NNE) from which a light
(white round tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited.
Kuryongp’o Hang (4.88) is situated close W of
this point.
The track then leads N, passing (with positions relative
to Changgigot Light (36°05′N 129°34′E)):
5
E of Kwangp’ungdae Am (4½ miles S), a point with
two peaks connected to the coast by a narrow neck
of land. A shoal, with a least depth of 2⋅9 m over
it, lies 3 cables E of the point. Samjãng village,
fronted by a sandy beach, stands abreast the small
point. Thence:
6
E of Changgigot, the NE point of a promontory,
which can be identified in clear weather from a
distance of 18 miles. A light (4.72) is exhibited
from the point. Two towers also stand on the point
and a third tower stands 8 cables SW. A rock,
0⋅4 m high, lies at the outer end of foul ground
extending 2 cables N from the NE point. Thence:
7
E of Kyosãk Cho (1 mile NNW), a rock lying
3½ cables N of the N point of the previously
mentioned promontory. The rock is marked by a
light-beacon (green rectangle on round concrete
tower, 20 m in height). Two towers stand on the N
point.
The track then leads to a position about 6 miles NE of
Changgigot.
(Directions continue, for P’ohang Hang at 4.114,
and for the coastal route N at 4.126)
Mip’o Hang
Chart 898 plan of Ulsan and Mip’o
General information
4.77
1
Position. Mip’o Hang (35°31′N 129°27′E) is situated on
the E coast of Korea, 2 miles ENE of Ulsan Hang.
Function. The port is engaged in major shipbuilding. It
has the ability to build vessels up to 550 000 tonnes and
repair vessels up to 400 000 tonnes, with a total repair
capacity of over 2 000 000 tonnes per year.
2
Port limits. The harbour lies within a circle of 1 mile
radius centred 1 cable E of Toransan (35°30′⋅9N
129°26′⋅7E). The limits are shown on the chart.
Port Authority. Mip’o Hang is controlled by the Ulsan
Hang Port Authority. For address and website see 4.32.
Limiting conditions
4.78
1
Controlling depths:
North harbour. Least charted depth of 6⋅8 m on the S
side of the entrance.
South harbour. In the approach to the entrance there
is a least charted depth of 6⋅6 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
550 000 tonnes.
Arrival information
4.79
1
Notice of ETA required. An ETA should be sent 72,
48, 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival at the pilot station and
when within VHF range. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Pilotage is compulsory and available from Ulsan Hang.
For details of Ulsan Hang pilotage see 4.44 and Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
2
Tugs are available.
Harbour
4.80
1
General layout. Mip’o Hang consists of a S harbour, on
the S side of Kanam Mal (35°31′N 129°27′E), 1½ miles N
of Ul Gi, and a N harbour on the N side of Kanam Mal,
forming Hyundai Shipyard. Both harbours are fully quayed
with dry docks on their N and S sides. The N harbour
entrance is protected by breakwaters.
2
Major light:
Ul Gi Light (35°30′N 129°27′E) (4.17).
Directions for entering harbour
4.81
1
South harbour. The S harbour of Mip’o Hang is
approached from the E through a short channel marked by
light-buoys A, B and C (special) and by No 1 Light-buoy
(port hand), marking a rock with a depth of 4⋅6 m over it.
No 2 Buoy (starboard hand) marks a shoal, with a depth of
3⋅2 m over it, N of the entrance channel. The harbour is
then entered between two small breakwaters. Within the
harbour the repair docks and No 2 building dock become
accessible.
2
North harbour. This harbour is also approached from
the E and entered between two breakwaters; lights (4.75)
are exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters. Within the
harbour the quays and building docks are directly
accessible.
Berths
4.82
1
South harbour. Contains several quays, with charted
depths from 5⋅2 to 7⋅6 m alongside, along with two building
docks and three repair docks (4.83).
North harbour. Contains several quays, with charted
depths from 5⋅2 to 10⋅0 m alongside, along with four
building docks (4.83).
Port services
4.83
1
Repairs and shipbuilding. Hyundai Shipyard has three
repair docks and six building docks. The largest are as
follows:
Repair dock No 1, situated on the NW side of the S
harbour; length 380 m, width 65 m, depth 12⋅7 m,
for vessels up to 400 000 dwt.
2
Building dock No 3, the E-most one on the S side of
the N harbour; length 640 m, width 92 m, depth
13⋅4 m, with a capacity of up to 1 000 000 dwt.
The shipyard also has a ship lift, 120 m long and 20 m
wide, able to handle vessels up to 3300 tonnes.
3
Other facility. Hospitals in Ulsan.
Communications. Ulsan Airport, 15 km distant from
Ulsan Hang.
Minor harbours
Pang−Pjin Hang
4.84
1
Description. Pang-Pjin Hang (35°29′⋅0N 129°25′⋅7E),
entered between a point 1 mile NE of Hwaam Ch’u, the E
entrance point of Ulsan Man, and Sul To (4.75) 4 cables
SE, is a major fishing harbour. The harbour is protected by
two breakwaters, one extending ESE from the W entrance
point and the other W from Sul To. Pang-Pjin, situated on
CHAPTER 4
181
the N and W sides of Pang-Pjin Hang, is a large fishing
village.
2
Depths. There are depths from 3 to 8 m inside the
harbour, with a bottom of sand and mud.
Major lights:
Hwaam Ch’u Light (35°28′N 129°24′E) (4.17).
Ul Gi Light (35°30′N 129°27′E) (4.17).
3
Directions for entering harbour. When approaching
Pang-Pjin Hang from S a vessel will first sight Ul Gi. The
houses of the village on the W side of the harbour will
next be made out, and the entrance to the harbour can be
identified when Sul To is seen.
4
Useful marks:
Light (white square metal framework tower, 11 m in
height) exhibited from the head of the NW
breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the SE breakwater.
Light (4.75) exhibited from Sul To.
5
Anchorages. The best anchorage outside the harbour is
3½ cables SSW of the head of the NW breakwater in a
depth of 16 m, over a bottom of sand and mud.
The anchorage inside the breakwater is only available
for vessels not exceeding 500 tonnes.
6
Berths. The harbour contains wharves with a total
berthing length of 924 m along with four jetties capable of
berthing vessels up to 300 tonnes.
Repairs. There are two shipyards capable of building
and repairing vessels up to 200 tonnes.
7
Supplies: fuel; fresh water.
Korean Chart W144 (see 1.22)
Chãngja Hang
4.85
1
Description. Chãngja Hang (35°37′N 129°27′E) is a
small fishing harbour situated 5 miles N of Mip’o Hang
(4.77). There are depths from 3 to 5 m, over a bottom of
sand and mud, inside the harbour which is protected by
two breakwaters.
Useful marks:
Lights (4.75) exhibited from the heads of the
breakwaters.
2
Berths. There are lighter wharves in the harbour with a
total length of 948 m.
Korean Charts W130, W158 (see 1.22)
Kamp’o Hang
4.86
1
Description. Kamp’o Hang (35°48′N 129°30′E) is a
small fishing harbour situated close SW of Songdaemal
(4.76). Kamp’o Ri, a village, stands on the shores of the
harbour.
The harbour is protected by three breakwaters. The S
breakwater extends 1½ cables NE from the S entrance
point, the N extends 2 cables SW from close W of
Songdaemal Light, and the third, a detached breakwater
aligned W to E lies ¾ cable E of the S entrance point.
2
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅2 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Major light:
Songdaemal Light (35°48′N 129°31′E) (4.72).
3
Directions. When approaching Kamp’o Hang,
Taebonmal (35°45′N 129°29′E) (4.75) and the low-lying
land at the mouth of Taejong Chon, 7½ cables SW of that
point, can usually be identified, even when visibility is
restricted. When a vessel is closer in the dense growth of
pine trees on Songdaemal, and soon after the houses of
Kamp’o Ri can be seen.
4
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 7 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
Lights (round concrete towers) exhibited from each
end of the detached breakwater.
5
Anchorages. The best anchorage outside the breakwaters
is 3 cables SE of the head of the S breakwater in a depth
of 18 m, over a bottom of sand, but this anchorage is not
suitable with a heavy swell between E and S. Small local
vessels up to 300 tonnes anchor inside the harbour in
depths from 4 to 8 m, over a bottom of coarse sand.
6
Landing. There are some small piers in the harbour at
which small boats can go alongside.
Korean Chart W130 (see 1.22)
Yangpo Hang
4.87
1
Description. Yangpo Hang (35°53′N 129°31′E) is
situated in a small bay entered between Chãngiongmal
(4.76) and Chãganmal, 7½ cables N. Keien Ri stands on
the S side of the bay and Yangpo Ri on the N side.
A breakwater extends S from Chãganmal; rocky reefs
extend 5 cables NE from its root. The S side of the
harbour, out to Chãngiongmal, is fringed by a rocky reef
extending 2 cables from the shore.
2
Useful marks:
Yangpo Light (35°52′N 129°32′E) (4.76).
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the breakwater.
3
Berths. A pier 300 m long extends E from midway
along the W shore of the harbour. On the N side of the
harbour there is a lighter’s wharf 720 m long.
Korean Chart W147 (see 1.22)
Kuryongp’o Hang
4.88
1
Description. Kuryongp’o Hang (35°59′N 129°33′E), a
small bay on the SW side of Saramal (4.76), is sheltered
by hills and is one of the principal fishing harbours on the
E coast of Korea. The harbour is protected by two
breakwaters extending from the N and S sides of the
harbour.
2
Useful marks:
Light (35°59′⋅5N 129°34′⋅0E) (4.76) exhibited from
Saramal.
Light (white round metal tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
3
Anchorage. Vessels, depending on size, may obtain
anchorage in the harbour in depths from 7 to 8 m, over a
bottom of sand, but there are rocky patches and the holding
ground is poor.
4
Berths. On the inside of the N breakwater there is a
quay 600 m long, with charted depths from 5⋅1 to 7⋅8 m
alongside; berths vessels up to 3000 tonnes. On the N and
W sides of the harbour there are several quays and a pier
220 m long projects SE, opposite the N breakwater.
Korean Chart W146 (see 1.22)
Taepo Hang
4.89
1
Description. Taepo Hang (36°05′N. 129°34′E) is a small
fishing harbour situated 3½ cables WNW of Changgigot.
The harbour is formed by a N and S breakwater; the
CHAPTER 4
182
entrance between the breakwater heads is fronted by a
detached breakwater. The harbour is only sheltered from W
and S winds.
2
Useful marks:
Changgigot Light (36°05′N 129°34′E) (4.72).
Light (white round concrete tower, 7 m in height)
exhibited from the N end of the detached
breakwater.
Light (white round metal tower, 6 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater.
3
Light (red round concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
Berths. The harbour has a cargo landing wharf 210 m
long and several wharves suitable for fishing vessels.
P’OHANG HANG
General information
Charts 3666, 898 plan P’ohang and approaches
Position
4.90
1
P’ohang Hang (36°02′N 129°25′E) is situated at the
head of Yãng-Il Man on the E coast of Korea, 30 miles N
of Ulsan Hang.
Function
4.91
1
P’ohang Hang is an important fishing harbour and
commercial port. The commercial port serves a large iron
and steel plant. P’ohang, fronted by P’ohang Hang,
formerly a small village has developed into a city, with a
population of 517 231 in 2001, owing to the prosperity of
its fishing activities and the development of heavy industry.
2
Principal exports are fish, fish products and steel
products; imports include iron-ore, coal and petroleum.
Topography
4.92
1
The SE side of Yãng-Il Man is high, with black rocky
hills rising fairly sharply. The head of the bay is fronted by
two harbours with white sandy beaches in between; two or
three streams discharge into the bay. Hyãngsan Gang, the
principal stream is navigable for about 2 miles. The NW
shore is backed by hills from about 96 to 115 m high, with
cultivated valleys.
Port limits
4.93
1
The outer limit of the port is defined by a line drawn
from a position 1 mile NW of Talman Gap (36°07′N
129°26′E) E for 3¾ miles, and thence S to the shore at Sul
Mi.
Approach and entry
4.94
1
P’ohang Hang is approached from the NE through
Yãng-Il Man which is entered between Changgigot
(36°05′N 129°33′E) and Talman Gap, a low point fronted
by a small harbour 6 miles WNW.
Traffic
4.95
1
In 2000, the port was visited by 7100 ships and
50 550 000 tonnes of cargo was handled.
Port Authority
4.96
1
Address. P’ohang Regional Maritime Affairs and
Fisheries Office, 58−7 Hanggu-dong, Buk-Gu, P’ohang,
South Korea.
Website. www.pohang.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
4.97
1
P’ohang Old Harbour (Guhang). Least charted depth
of 7⋅0 m in the entrance.
P’ohang New Harbour (Shinhang). Least charted depth
of 19⋅1 m in the entrance fairway.
Deepest and longest berth
4.98
1
No 1 Pier (4.118) in P’ohang New Harbour.
Tidal levels
4.99
1
Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean minimum
range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see the relevant
edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
4.100
1
The density of the water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.101
1
Vessels up to 207 000 dwt, with a LOA of 312 m and a
maximum draught of 18 m can be accommodated.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
4.102
1
P’ohang Hang operates a Port Traffic Management
Service which provides navigational information.
Participation in the service is compulsory for all vessels
except fishing vessels. For further details, including
reporting requirements, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA required
4.103
1
ETA should be sent 72, 48, 24 and 12 hours prior to
arrival at the pilot station and when within VHF range. For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Outer anchorage
4.104
1
There is an outer anchorage area, with a radius of
4½ cables, 3½ miles ENE of Talman Gap (36°07′N
129°26′E). The limits of the anchorage area, which also
contains a designated quarantine anchorage, are shown on
the chart.
Submarine pipeline
4.105
1
A submarine oil pipeline is laid from the shore at Tuho
Dong (36°03′⋅9N 129°22′⋅9E) in a SE direction for
1½ miles to an offshore tanker berth. The seaward end of
the pipeline is marked by a buoy (red can).
2
For further information on submarine pipelines see 1.20.
Pilotage
4.106
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours, although
it may be restricted depending on the size of vessel. The
pilot boards in the following positions:
CHAPTER 4
183
No 1 boarding point (36°06′⋅2N 129°29′⋅8E) for
vessels over 50 000 grt.
No 2 boarding point (36°04′⋅2N 129°28′⋅8E) for
vessels of 50 000 grt or less.
2
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
Tugs
4.107
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
4.108
1
Designated area. A designated area, the limit of which
is shown on the charts, covers the approaches to P’ohang
Hang. Large vessels, vessels carrying dangerous cargoes
and tugs with a length of tow of 200 m or more, must
inform the PTMS 12 hours before arrival, giving an ETA
for entry into the designated area and details of the vessel.
This requirement is to help reduce the risk of collision and
congestion in the approaches to P’ohang Hang.
2
Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited in the
vicinity of the submerged oil pipeline and offshore tanker
berths (36°03′⋅0N 129°24′⋅4E), E of P’ohang Old Harbour.
The limits of the area is shown on the chart.
Traffic separation scheme. A TSS has been established
in the approach to P’ohang New Harbour. This scheme is
not IMO-adopted.
Local weather and sea state
4.109
1
Winds. During the S winds in summer the inner part of
Yãng-Il Man is calm. From November to April NE winds
cause a heavy swell, and small vessels find it difficult to
enter P’ohang Hang. Yãng-Il Man is said to be the least
foggy area on the E coast of Korea.
Ice. Yãng-Il Man is never ice-bound, but there is
sometimes ice in Hyãngsan Gang.
2
Conditions alongside. Vessels berthed in P’ohang New
Harbour may experience difficulty in strong NE winds, or
during the passage of a tropical storm in summer. In these
conditions a heavy and confused swell can develop within
the harbour, despite the breakwaters, leaving vessels
alongside vulnerable to damage.
Harbour
General layout
4.110
1
P’ohang Hang consists of two harbours, P’ohang Old
Harbour (Guhang) (36°02′⋅8N 129°22′⋅5E) and P’ohang
New Harbour (Shinhang) (36°01′⋅3N 129°24′⋅5E), situated
on the W and SW shores of Yãng-Il Man.
The old harbour consists of an outer basin, protected by
breakwaters, and an inner narrow dock. This harbour
contains a ferry terminal and provides berths for small
passenger vessels, coastal cargo vessels and fishing boats.
2
The new harbour, for commercial vessels, is built on
reclaimed land E of the entrance to Hyãngsan Gang and
consists of a large and almost fully enclosed basin. It is
protected on its N and W sides by reclaimed land faced
with a breakwater, and on its E side by a breakwater
extending N for 7 cables from the entrance to a stream.
Development
4.111
1
Yãng-Il Man New Harbour (Shinhang) (36°06′N
129°26′E) under construction in 2004, S of the NW
entrance to the bay, is intended to be the third harbour of
P’ohang Hang. The first stage, to be completed in 2006,
involves the building of four general purpose berths and a
container terminal with another four berths. The second
stage envisages the building of a further eight berths, with
the largest two able to handle vessels up to 50 000 tonnes;
to be completed 2011.
Natural conditions
4.112
1
Current. The current in Yãng-Il Man is generally weak
with a rate of 0⋅4 kn or less. It flows into the bay along the
NW side from Talman Gap (36°07′N 129°26′E), joins the
water discharging from Hyãngsan Gang, and then flows out
of the bay along the SE side towards Changgigot.
Climatic table. See 1.173 & 1.177.
Principal marks
4.113
1
Major lights:
Changgigot Light (36°05′N 129°34′E) (4.72).
P’ohang New Harbour N Breakwater Light (red
octagonal column, 15 m in height) (36°01′⋅6N
129°25′⋅9E).
2
P’ohang New Harbour E Breakwater Light (white
round concrete structure, 13 m in height)
(36°01′⋅3N 129°25′⋅4E).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.76)
From seaward to P’ohang New Harbour
4.114
1
The following directions are for the approach and entry
to P’ohang New Harbour only. From a position NE of
Changgigot (36°05′N 129°34′E) the track leads initially W,
for about 5½ miles, passing N of Kyosãk Cho (36°05′⋅5N
129°33′⋅5E) (4.76), marked by a light-beacon. Thence the
track leads SW, passing (with positions relative to Yãnam
Gap Light (36°04′⋅6N 129°25′⋅1E)):
2
NW of a small fish haven (4½ miles E), thence:
NW of Yongch’u Jwi (4¼ miles ESE), an
above-water rock 2⋅4 m high, lying close off the
promontory forming the E side of Yãng-Il Man,
thence:
3
SE of the S end of the breakwater (2½ miles NE)
under construction in 2004. The construction works
are marked by light-buoys. A light (yellow round
concrete tower, 22 m in height) is exhibited from
the NW end of the breakwater.
4
Then, when a position is reached in the vicinity of No 2
pilot boarding point (4.106), the track either continues SSW
directly to the anchorage berths, or leads S, for about
1½ miles, to a position 2½ miles ENE of P’ohang New
Harbour N Breakwater Light (36°01′⋅6N 129°25′⋅9E), at the
beginning of a leading line.
5
The alignment (241½°) of the following lights then leads
SW through the appropriate lane of a TSS (4.108), marked
by light-buoys (lateral and safe water), to a position about
2½ cables ESE of P’ohang New Harbour N Breakwater
Light (36°01′⋅6N 129°25′⋅9E):
Front light (framework tower, 30 m in height)
(36°01′⋅2N 129°25′⋅4E).
Rear light (framework tower, 70 m in height)
(7 cables SW from front light).
6
Thence the track leads WSW, within the white sector
(262°−265⋅3°) of P’ohang Shinhang Directional Light
(white square framework tower, 69 m in height) (36°01′⋅3N
129°24′⋅0E), through a narrow entrance channel marked by
light-buoys (lateral) into the harbour. Within the harbour
CHAPTER 4
184
there are two detached breakwaters from the ends of which
lights are exhibited.
Useful marks
4.115
1
Shinhang Phang Breakwater Light (yellow octagonal
tower, 14 m in height) (36°06′⋅7N 129°26′⋅4E).
Yãnam Gap Light (white octagonal concrete tower,
14 m in height) (36°04′⋅6N 129°25′⋅1E).
2
P’ohang Old Harbour E Breakwater Light (red round
concrete tower, 14 m in height) (36°02′⋅8N
129°23′⋅1E).
P’ohang Old Harbour S Breakwater Light (white
round concrete structure, 10 m in height)
(36°02′⋅8N 129°22′⋅9E).
3
Light (36°00′⋅3N 129°25′⋅3E) exhibited from a tower,
E of the old entrance to Hyãngsan Gang.
Taedongbae Hang Light (white round metal tower,
7 m in height) (36°03′⋅5N 129°31′⋅9E).
Basins and berths
Anchorages
4.116
1
General remarks. In Yãng-Il Man there are depths
from 15 to 29 m in the entrance decreasing to less than
10 m 7½ cables from the head. The bottom is mostly mud
and sand, with variable holding ground.
Anchorage areas. Designated anchorage areas, with
numbered anchor berths, are arranged as follows
(positioned from P’ohang New Harbour N Breakwater
Light (36°01′⋅6N 129°25′⋅9E)):
2
No 1 Area (2 miles NW). For vessels up to 10 000
tonnes. Depths from 9 to 12 m; holding ground
poor to moderate.
No 2 Area (1¾ miles N). For vessels up to
50 000 tonnes. Depths from 12 to 22 m; holding
ground poor to moderate.
3
No 3 Area (1 mile N). For vessels up to
100 000 tonnes. Depths from 16 to 21 m; holding
ground good.
No 4 Area (1 mile SSE). For vessels up to
30 000 tonnes. Depths from 9 to 15 m; holding
ground poor.
4
No 5 Area (2¼ miles NE). For vessels over
100 000 tonnes. Depths from 22 to 26 m.
These anchorages are exposed to a heavy swell from the
NE in winter, and the berths E of P’ohang Shinhang have
been reported to be dangerous in N winds.
5
Offshore oil berths. Two offshore oil berths (36°03′⋅0N
129°24′⋅4E) have been established at the end of a
submerged pipeline, E of P’ohang Old Harbour, in depths
from 11 to 15 m. The berths each have four mooring
buoys.
P’ohang Old Harbour (Guhang)
4.117
1
The following berthing areas lie within P’ohang Old
Harbour (positioned from P’ohang Old Harbour E
Breakwater Light (36°02′⋅8N 129°23′⋅1E)):
Songdo Pier (4½ cables WNW). This pier separates
the outer basin from the inner narrow dock. It
contains five berths with a total length of 544 m,
with depths up to 7 m alongside. The pier handles
oil and cement cargoes.
2
Ferry terminal (5 cables NW). A ferry service to
Ullung Do (4.147) operates from here.
Dongbin Quay (6½ cables E). For the use of fishing
vessels; total length 1988 m, with depths from 3 to
4 m alongside.
P’ohang New Harbour (Shinhang)
4.118
1
P’ohang New Harbour (36°01′⋅3N 129°24′⋅5E) contains
eight wharves suitable for vessels from 2000 dwt up to
250 000 dwt. The berths handle cargoes of iron-ore, coal,
timber, scrap metal and steel products.
2
No 1 Wharf, situated on the N side of the harbour
1 mile W of P’ohang New Harbour N Breakwater Light
(36°01′⋅6N 129°25′⋅9E), is the largest and deepest. It
consists of four berths, with a total length of 1680 m and
depths from 14⋅8 to 19⋅5 m alongside; capable of handling
vessels up to 250 000 dwt.
Port services
Repairs
4.119
1
Minor repairs carried out; divers available; patent slips
for vessels up to 500 tonnes; three shipyards capable of
building vessels up to 800 tonnes.
Other facilities
4.120
1
Hospitals; Deratting can be carried out, Deratting and
Deratting Exemption Certificates issued; oily waste
reception facilities; garbage disposal facilities.
Supplies
4.121
1
Fuel oil; fresh water; provisions available.
Communications
4.122
1
Regular communication by sea with Ullung Do (4.147);
P’ohang Airport 3km distant.
P’OHANG HANG TO CH’UKSAN HANG
General information
Chart 3666
Route
4.123
1
From a position about 6 miles NE of Changgigot
(36°05′N 129°33′E), in the outer approaches to P’ohang
Hang, the route leads generally N, for about 21 miles, to a
position E of Ch’uksan Hang (36°30′N 129°27′E).
Topography
4.124
1
The coast between Talman Gap (36°07′N 129°26′E) and
Ch’uksan Hang, 24 miles N, is rocky, alternating with
sandy beaches, with several villages. A range of mountains,
6 miles inland, has elevations of over 600 m, with several
prominent sharp peaks; this range is almost treeless but
covered with vegetation. In summer the range appears
green, but in winter it has an ochre colour. From this range
lower ranges extend to the coast.
Principal marks
4.125
1
Landmarks:
Pihaksan (36°10′N 129°12′E), a conical peak 763 m
high. It is very prominent and is also the highest
peak in the S part of the coastal range which then
slopes gradually for 6 miles SE to Toumsan.
CHAPTER 4
185
Hyangnobong (36°16′N 129°15′E), with three sharp
peaks at its summit, the highest of which is 930 m
high. It is easily identified from a good distance.
2
Major light:
Chiku To Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 9 m
in height) (36°30′N 129°27′E), exhibited from the
summit of a peninsula at Ch’uksan Hang (4.130).
Directions
(continued from 4.76)
4.126
1
From a position about 6 miles NE of Changgigot
(36°05′N 129°33′E) the track leads generally N, passing
(with positions relative to Chiku To Light (36°30′N
129°27′E)):
E of O Do (21¼ miles S), a flat rock 3⋅7 m high,
covered with vegetation. A reef, steep-to on its E
side, extends 1 cable E from the rock, and a
dangerous wreck lies 9 cables ESE. Chak Do, a
white rock 6⋅6 m high, stands 3 cables N of O Do.
Thence:
2
E of the S entrance point (19¾ miles S) of Wolp’o
Man (4.127); a light (white round concrete tower,
10 m in height) is exhibited from the S side of this
entrance point. Thence:
E of Kugye Hang (11¾ miles SSW) (4.128) from
which lights are exhibited, thence:
E of Kanggu Hang (10½ miles SSW) (4.129), from
which lights are exhibited, thence:
3
E of Changpo Hang (6¼ miles S), sheltered by a
small breakwater from the head of which a light
(red round metal tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited,
thence:
E of Ch’angp’omal (5 miles S), a sandy point; from S
it appears to project a good distance from the
coast. A light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in
height) is exhibited from rising ground ¾ cable W
of the point. Kobul San, 244 m high, with a ruined
cairn on its summit, stands 1 mile W of
Ch’angp’omal. Thence:
4
E of Taet’anmal (3½ miles S), a black point of rock
and cliffs; it is the most projecting point between
Yãng-Il Man and Ch’uksan Hang. Thence:
E of Yejinmal (2¼ miles S), a hilly point consisting
of boulders. Podo San, 812 m high, is a sharp peak
situated 5¾ miles W of Yejinmal. Thence:
5
E of Chiku To, 78 m high and conical, from which a
light (4.125) is exhibited. The hill is part of a
peninsula connected to the mainland by a narrow
isthmus forming the S side of Ch’uksan Hang; at a
distance it appears to be an island. Pongwhasan,
278 m high, 1¼ miles NW of Chiku To, is the
highest hill in the vicinity and is prominent.
The track then leads to a position E of Ch’uksan Hang
(close NW).
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 4.136)
Minor harbours
Wolp’o Man
4.127
1
Description. Wolp’o Man (36°12′N 129°23′E) has
depths of 9 m, sand in the middle, but the bay lacks shelter
and is not suitable as an anchorage. There is a small
harbour in the bay protected by a breakwater; it has depths
from 2⋅0 to 7⋅4 m inside and can berth vessels up to
50 tonnes.
2
Useful mark:
Light (4.126) exhibited from the S entrance point of
Wolp’o Man.
Korean Chart W150 (see 1.22)
Kugye Hang
4.128
1
Description. Kugye Hang (36°19′N 129°23′E) is a
national fishery port with depths from 2 to 5 m. It is open
to the S but protected to the E by a breakwater extending
350 m S from the shore; close inside the head of the main
breakwater there are two smaller inner breakwaters.
2
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the main breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the E inner breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the W inner breakwater.
3
Berths. There are quays, with a total length of 280 m,
able to berth vessels up to 30 tonnes.
Chart 3666
Kanggu Hang
4.129
1
Description. Kanggu Hang (36°21′N 129°23′E), a
fishing harbour, is situated at the mouth of Osib Chon. An
E breakwater extends 1¾ cables SE from the N entrance
point of Osib Chon with a short spur projecting SSE from
near its root. A W breakwater extends SE from the S
entrance point. Kanggu Dong stands on the N side of the
entrance and Yongdãg Tower, on the E bank, 4 miles up
river.
2
Depths. A sandy bar lies across the mouth of the river
acting as a natural breakwater. Inside the harbour depths
are shallow and subject to silting. Depths inside the
harbour are maintained by dredging.
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
3
Ice. The harbour is ice-bound about once every five
years.
Weather. North-east gales are the worst, accompanied
by very heavy seas.
Useful marks:
Oil tank, 7 m in height, standing 1½ cables NW of
the N breakwater.
4
Light (red round metal tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
Berths. There are wharfs on both banks of the river;
vessels up to 200 tonnes can berth.
5
Repairs. There is a shipyard capable of building and
repairing vessels up to 120 tonnes
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; small quantities of
provisions.
Korean Chart No 137 plan of Ch’uksan Hang (see 1.22)
Ch’uksan Hang
4.130
1
Description. Ch’uksan Hang (36°30′N 129°27′E) is a
national fishery port situated in a concave cove formed by
a peninsula, on which Chiku To (4.126) stands, and by a
hilly point 65 m high to the NW. The entrance to the port
is protected by a N breakwater, extending ¾ cable SE from
Teipao the N entrance point, and by a S breakwater
extending ¼ cable NNW from the peninsula. A reef, with
above-water rocks on it extends ¾ cable NE from Teipao.
CHAPTER 4
186
Ch’uksan Hang from E (4.130)
(Original dated prior to 1981)
2
Depths. There are charted depths from 1⋅8 to 8⋅2 m
within the harbour.
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅1 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Major light:
Chiku To Light (36°30′N 129°27′E) (4.125), exhibited
from the summit of the peninsula at Ch’uksan
Hang.
3
Useful marks:
Two green oil tanks standing on the quay at the head
of the harbour.
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater.
4
Outer anchorage. Local vessels find temporary
anchorage, in a depth of 11 m, over a bottom of sand,
about 1½ cables offshore in a small bay on the S side of
Chiku To, off a river mouth.
Berths. The harbour is faced with several quays able to
berth vessels up to 100 tonnes.
Repairs. There is a shipyard at Ch’uksan Hang able to
build and repair vessels up to 50 tonnes.
5
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
CH’UKSAN HANG TO YONGCH’UGAP
General information
Chart 3666
Route
4.131
1
From a position E of Ch’uksan Hang (36°30′N
129°27′E) the coastal route leads generally N for 33 miles,
passing inside Wangdol-ch’o (36°42′N 129°45′E), to a
position E of Yongch’ugap (37°03′N 129°26′E).
Topography
4.132
1
Between Ch’uksan Hang and Yongch’ugap the coastal
mountain range, extending from 3 to 9 miles inland, rises
to over 900 m. It has several prominent peaks along it.
Caution
4.133
1
The coast between Ch’uksan Hang and Yongch’ugap is
unsuitable for the anchorage of small vessels in rough
weather.
Principal marks
4.134
1
Landmarks:
Ch’ibosan (36°39′N 129°21′E), 810 m high, with
several sharp peaks.
Mallyong San (36°41′N 129°21′E), 406 m high,
brown and barren.
2
Kumjãngsan (36°45′N 129°16′E), a sharp summit
covered with dark trees.
Kumsan (36°59′N 129°20′E), a sharply peaked ochre
coloured mountain, 653 m high.
Ungbong San (37°05′N 129°14′E), 1003 m high, and
covered with dark trees.
3
Major lights:
Chiku To Light (36°30′N 129°27′E) (4.125).
Hup’o Light (white octagonal concrete tower, 11 m in
height) (36°41′N 129°28′E), exhibited from the S
end of Pingjangmal.
Chukpyãn Light (white octagonal concrete tower,
16 m in height) (37°03′N 129°26′E), exhibited
from Yongch’ugap.
Other aid to navigation
4.135
1
Racon:
Wangdol-ch’o Light-beacon (36°43′N 129°44′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.126)
Ch’uksan Hang to Hwamomal
4.136
1
From a position E of Ch’uksan Hang (36°30′N
129°27′E) the track leads N, passing (with positions relative
to Hup’o Light (36°41′N 129°28′E)):
E of Taejin Hang (7¼ miles S) a small harbour
protected by N and S breakwaters. A light (red
metal pole, 3 m in height) is exhibited from the
head of the N breakwater, and a second light
(white round metal structure, 6 m in height) is
exhibited from the S breakwater. Yãnghae Gang,
CHAPTER 4
187
the mouth of which usually dries, discharges into
the sea 7 cables NW of Taejin Hang. Thence:
2
E of Yongdugak (5 miles SSW). The bay S of
Yongdugak has a sandy beach backed by low-lying
land; it thus appears as a deep indentation in the
coast. The bay is entirely exposed and difficult to
approach in bad weather. Thence:
3
E of Pingjangmal from which Hup’o Light (4.134) is
exhibited. Pingjangmal is the SE extremity of a
small peninsula which forms the NE side of Hup’o
Hang (4.138); a dome-shaped treeless hill 55 m
high stands on the peninsula. Ib Am, a pointed
rock 9⋅2 m high lies close E and is connected to
Pingjangmal by a causeway. About 1 mile N of
Pingjangmal there is an ochre-coloured hill 183 m
high with a flat summit. Thence:
4
W of Wangdol-ch’o (12½ miles E), a bank with a
number of dangerous shoals on it. The bank is
4½ miles in extent and has a least depth of 5⋅3 m
over it; the least depth is marked by a light-beacon
(isolated danger). Thence:
E of Ung-ammal (3 miles N). The small harbour of
Chiksan Hang is situated close SW of this point;
lights (round metal towers, 10 m in height) are
exhibited from its breakwaters.
5
The track then leads to a position E of Hwamomal
(5½ miles N), a hilly sandy point 69 m high, from which a
light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited. Kusan Hang is situated 6 cables SW of
Hwamomal; a light (red round metal tower, 3 m in height)
is exhibited from the head of the N breakwater of Kusan
Hang.
Hwamomal to Yongch’ugap
4.137
1
From the position E of Hwamomal (36°46′N 129°29′E)
the track continues to lead N, passing (with positions
relative to Hwamomal):
E of Hasamal (3¾ miles N), a black rocky point
115 m high; there is a prominent conical hill
198 m high 1 mile SW of this point. Sadong Hang,
a small harbour, lies 8 cables NNW of Hasamal;
lights (round concrete columns, 10 m in height) are
exhibited from the heads of its two breakwaters.
Thence:
2
E of Kujiem-ch’o (7¼ miles N), a dangerous rock
lying 7½ cables offshore; it is steep-to and the sea
breaks over it in rough weather. Hyãnjongsan,
1¾ miles SW of Kujiem-ch’o, is a very prominent
mountain with three peaks; the middle peak, 415 m
high, is the highest. Thence:
3
E of Chinmimal (8¼ miles N), a salient point, from
which a light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in
height) is exhibited. The small fishing harbour of
Osan Hang is situated on the S side of Chinmimal;
a light (red round metal tower, 3 m in height) is
exhibited from its N breakwater. Thence:
4
E of Sujãnmal (13¾ miles N), a steep headland 37 m
high, with several rocks close offshore in its
vicinity. Ulchin, a town to the W of Sujãnmal, is
the seat of local government. Thence:
5
E of Tongdae Mal (16½ miles N), a salient point
29 m high and the S entrance point of Chukpyãn
Man (4.144). Tongdae Am, a rock 6 m high, lies
close E of Tongdae Mal and foul ground and a
spit, with above-water rocks on it, extends
1½ cables E from this rock.
6
The track then leads to a position E of Yongch’ugap
(17¾ miles N), which is 35 m high and covered with
bamboos; a light (4.134) is exhibited from the point.
Rocks, above and below-water, extend 1 cable off
Yongch’ugap. Sãngsan, 50 m high with a shrine on its
summit, stands 3 cables NNW of the point; there are also
three radio towers 6 cables WNW of Yongch’ugap.
(Directions continue for the coastal route NE at 4.164)
Hup’o Hang and Chedong Hang
Korean Chart No 137 plan of Hup’o Hang (see 1.22)
General information
4.138
1
Position. Hup’o Hang (36°41′N 129°28′E) is situated in
a small bay on the W side of Pingjangmal (4.136).
Chedong Hang is situated 4 cables NNE of Hup’o Hang, on
the N side of Pingjangmal.
Function. Hup’o Hang is a regional coastal harbour and
fishing port. Cement is imported and lime and products
associated with the manufacture of iron are exported.
Chedong Hang is a private harbour handling lime cargoes.
Limiting conditions
4.139
1
Controlling depths:
Hup’o Hang. There is a charted depth of 8⋅5 m in the
entrance and depths from 2 to 7 m inside the
harbour.
Chedong Hang. There are charted depths from 6 to
8 m within the harbour.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
5000 tonnes use the port.
Harbour
4.140
1
General layout. Hup’o Hang is protected by an E
breakwater, extending 5 cables SSW from Pingjangmal, and
by a W breakwater extending 2½ cables SSE from the
coast. It contains quays along its W, N and NE sides.
Chedong Hang is also protected by two breakwaters;
there is a berthing area on the N side of this harbour.
2
Major light:
Hup’o Light (36°41′N 129°28′E) (4.134).
Directions for entering harbours
4.141
1
General remarks. There are no specific directions for
entering the harbours, the chart being sufficient guide.
Useful marks:
Light (red round metal tower, 6 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Hup’o Hang E
breakwater.
2
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Hup’o Hang W
breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Chedong Hang N
breakwater.
Berths
4.142
1
Hup’o Hang. The main quay on the NE side of the
harbour contains two berths for vessels up to 5000 tonnes;
depths from 2⋅9 to 7⋅0 m alongside. On the W side there is
a passenger terminal for vessels up to 300 tonnes and to
the N other wharves for smaller vessels.
2
Chedong Hang. There is a pier at the head of the
harbour, with a charted depth of 6⋅1 m alongside.
CHAPTER 4
188
Port services
4.143
1
Repairs. There are two shipyards at Hup’o Hang
capable of building and repairing vessels up to 100 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
Communication. There is a regular passenger service by
sea from Hup’o Hang to Ullung Do (4.147).
Chukpyãn Man
Korean Chart No 137 plan of Chukpyãn Hang (see 1.22)
General information
4.144
1
Description. Chukpyãn Man (37°03′N 129°25′E) is a
bay with sandy shores, situated between Tongdae Mal
(4.137) and Yongch’ugap (4.137). There are several houses
along the shores of this bay and Chukpyãn Hang is situated
at the N end, W of Yongch’ugap.
2
Chukpyãn Man affords protection from NW winds but
as heavy swells are experienced it is not a good anchorage.
Local craft take refuge in this bay in rough weather, as
there is no other good anchorage in the vicinity.
Depths. Rocks above and below-water extend in places
1 cable from the shores of Chukpyãn Man, and a bank,
with depths of less than 5 m over it extends from 1 to
2 cables offshore.
3
Major light:
Chukpyãn Light (37°03′N 129°26′E) (4.134).
Directions
4.145
1
General remarks. There are no specific directions for
entering the bay, although attention is drawn to
Hoburamuchiemi-ch’o, a shoal lying 1 mile SSW of
Yongch’ugap; it is steep-to and the sea does not break on it
in calm weather.
2
It has also been reported that a small bay close S of
Chukpyãn Man has, on account of the formation of the
coast, been mistaken for Chukpyãn Man, but on the middle
of the W side of the latter bay, there is a thick wood,
which can be seen from a distance and which resembles an
island; this mark together with Yongch’ugap, enables
Chukpyãn Man to be identified.
3
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 min height)
exhibited from the head of Chukpyãn W
breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of Chukpyãn E
breakwater.
Chukpyãn Hang
4.146
1
Description. Chukpyãn Hang (36°03′N 129°25′E) is a
national fishery port situated on the W side of Yongch’ugap
(4.137). The harbour is formed by two breakwaters; the E
breakwater extends 3 cables SW from the NE shore, with
the W breakwater running SE from the NW shore towards
it. The town of Chukpyãn Ri stands along the shores of the
harbour.
2
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Anchorage. Fair anchorage may be obtained 2¾ cables
S of the E breakwater head, in depths from 5 to 13 m, but
with E or S winds a heavy swell may be experienced.
3
Berths:
General cargo quay on the NW side of the harbour
with berths for two vessels up to 500 tonnes;
length 105 m with depths from 3⋅8 to 3⋅9 m
alongside.
4
Quays along the N and E sides of the harbour; total
length 1234 m with depths from 2⋅2 to 2⋅8 m
alongside.
Repairs. There is a shipyard capable of building and
repairing vessels up to 100 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
ULLUNG DO
General information
Chart 3480, Korean Chart No 143 (see 1.22)
Description
4.147
1
Ullung Do (37°30′N 130°52′E), which is Korean
territory, lies off the E coast of Korea 70 miles ENE of
Yongch’ugap (37°03′N 129°26′E) (4.137). The island has
two main harbours, Chãdong Hang (37°30′N 130°55′E)
(4.155) on the E side, and Hyãnpo Hang (37°32′N
130°50′E) (4.156) on the N side, along with the minor
harbour of Ullung Hang (37°28′⋅9N 130°54′⋅5E) (4.154).
Landing in fine weather may also be effected on the small
shingly beaches which occur at intervals around the island,
but the greater part of the island is inaccessible.
Topography
4.148
1
Ullung Do is mountainous with sharp conical peaks,
most of which are thickly wooded; in the central part of
the island stands Sãnginbong, 984 m high, the prominent
summit of the island. The island is nearly steep-to, but is
fringed by several islets and rocks along its coasts,
principally on its N and E sides. These islets are from 60
to 130 m high and are steep-to. Soundings give no warning
of their vicinity but, with the exception of Chukdo (4.152)
off the E coast, none are more than 5 cables offshore.
Natural conditions
4.149
1
From observations made in 1908, an E current is
experienced in the vicinity of Ullung Do, with a rate of
¾ kn; the rate and direction of this current is much affected
by the wind.
2
Climatic table. See 1.173 and 1.178.
Principal marks
4.150
1
Major lights:
Hyonguangap Light (white octagonal concrete tower,
9 m in height) (37°29′N 130°55′E) exhibited from
Haengnammal.
Wool Mung Do Light (white round concrete tower,
8 m in height) (37°31′N 130°48′E) exhibited from
Taep’ung Gam.
CHAPTER 4
189
Other aid to navigation
4.151
1
Racon:
Ssangjãngcho (37°33′N 130°56′E).
Directions
South−east and east sides
4.152
1
From a position S of Kanryãngmal (37°27′N 130°52′E),
the track leads initially NE, passing (with positions relative
to Kanryãngmal):
SE of an above-water rock, 2⋅4 m high, fronting the S
side of Kanryãngmal. Kanryãngmal, 195 m high
and steep, forms the S point of Ullung Do; a light
(white octagonal concrete tower, 15 m in height) is
exhibited from the point. Thence:
2
SE of Sadong Hang S breakwater (4 cables NNE)
extending 3 cables ENE from the shore; a light
(white round metal tower, 7 m in height) is
exhibited from the head of the breakwater. Thence:
SE of the entrance to Ullung Hang (2¼ miles NE)
(4.154), thence:
3
SE of Haengnammal (3 miles NE), from which
Hyonguangap Light (4.150) is exhibited.
Haengnammal, the SE point of the island, has a
flat summit 116 m high; it is covered with trees
and has cliffy coasts.
The track then leads NNE, passing (with positions
relative to Hyonguangap Light (37°29′N 130°55′E)):
4
ESE of Chãdong Hang (6 cables NNW) (4.155);
lights are exhibited from the heads of its
breakwaters. Thence:
ESE of Chãngdo (8 cables N), an islet 42 m high,
thence:
ESE of Chukdo (2½ miles NNE), a small island.
Chukdo has a flat summit 129 m high, thickly
covered with trees; the island has cliffy coasts.
5
When a position is reached E of Chukdo the track leads
NW, passing (with positions relative to Hyonguangap
Light):
NE of Chukdo (2½ miles NNE), thence:
NE of Kwanumdo (3½ miles N), an islet 94 m high,
thence:
SW of Ssangjãngcho (4¼ miles N), a rocky reef; the
sea breaks over these rocks in rough weather.
Ssangjãngcho is marked by a light-beacon (isolated
danger, 23 m in height).
6
The track then leads to a position NE of Samsãnam
(3¾ miles N), which consists of three pillar-shaped rocks
lying close off the NE extremity of Ullung Do. Chukam,
the central and largest of these rocks is 109 m high.
North and west sides
4.153
1
From the position NE of Samsãnam (37°33′N 130°54′E),
the track leads WSW, passing (with positions relative to
Wool Mung Do Light (37°31′N 130°48′E)):
NNW of the NE extremity (5½ miles ENE) of Ullung
Do, thence:
NNW of Ttanbawi (5 miles ENE) a small islet, 88 m
high, thence:
NNW of an isolated patch (4 miles ENE), with a
depth of 4⋅9 m over it, thence:
2
NNW of Chãnbu Hang (3¾ miles ENE), a small craft
harbour protected by a breakwater; a light (white
round column, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the
breakwater. Thence:
NNW of Hyãlam (2¾ miles NE), an islet 663 m high
lying 3 cables offshore; it has a natural archway
and is prominent. Chu San, 452 m high, a
prominent bare, granite mountain shaped like a
sugar loaf, stands on the coast nearly abreast of
Hyãlam. Thence:
3
NNW of Hyãnpo Hang (1½ miles NE) (4.156); a
light is exhibited from the head of its W
breakwater. Thence:
NNW of Taep’ung Gam, the NW extremity of Ullung
Do; it is a sharp rocky promontory 155 m high.
Wool Mung Do Light is exhibited from a position
4 cables SSE of the N extremity of Taep’ung Gam.
4
The track then rounds Taep’ung Gam and leads S, for
about 4 miles, passing W of the W coast of Ullung Do, and
thence SE, for a farther 5 miles, to a position S of
Kanryãngmal (37°27′N 130°52′E), from which a light
(4.152) is exhibited. There are no particular distinguishing
features along the W and SW coasts of Ullung Do; the
coasts are steep-to with no off-lying dangers.
Harbours
Korean Chart W143-1 (see 1.22)
Ullung Hang
4.154
1
Description. Ullung Hang (37°28′⋅9N 130°54′⋅5E) is
situated in a small cove on the SE coast of Ullung Do and
contains a ferry terminal. The large village of To Dong
stands at the head of the cove; it is the principal village of
the island and is the seat of local government. The entrance
to the harbour is protected by two breakwaters; the NE
breakwater is floodlit.
2
Anchorages. Local vessels may obtain anchorage from
1¼ to 1½ cables off Ullung Hang in depths from 31 to
35 m, over a bottom of sand and rock; the depths off
Ullung Hang increase suddenly to the SE. Alternative
anchorage may be obtained 8 cables SW of Ullung Hang,
off the village of Sadong2, in a depth of 10 m. Both of
these anchorages afford shelter from winds between W
and N.
3
Berths. A ferry terminal quay is situated on the NE side
of the harbour; it is about 80 m in length with depths from
2⋅5 to 5⋅0 m alongside. Vessels up to 1000 tonnes can berth
at this quay.
Facility. Hospital in To Dong.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
Communications. There are regular ferry services to the
Korean mainland.
Korean Chart No 143 (see 1.22)
Chãdong Hang
4.155
1
Description. Chãdong Hang (37°30′N 130°55′E), a
national fishery harbour, is situated on the E side of Ullung
Do. The harbour, which affords the island’s best shelter, is
protected from the E by N and S breakwaters; there are
depths from 2 to 11 m in the harbour.
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
CHAPTER 4
190
Berths. Several quays, mainly used by fishing vessels,
line the shores of the harbour; there are depths from 2 to
3 m alongside. Vessels up to 500 tonnes can berth.
Repairs. Shipyard capable of building and repairing
vessels up to 100 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
Hyãnpo Hang
4.156
1
Description. Hyãnpo Hang (37°32′N 130°50′E), situated
on the N side of Ullung, is a small fishing harbour. The
harbour is formed by a W breakwater extending NNE and
E from the shore, and by an E breakwater extending NW
from the shore. There are depths from 2⋅3 to 12.3 m inside
the breakwaters.
2
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete column, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
Berths. There is a lighters wharf on the SW side of the
harbour capable of berthing vessels up to 100 tonnes;
depths from 2⋅3 to 2⋅5 m alongside.
YONGCH’U GAP TO SUWPN DAN
General information
Chart 882
Area covered
4.157
1
This section describes the coastal waters between
Yongch’u Gap (37°03′N 129°26′E) and Suwãn Dan
(38°41′N 128°22′E), 110 miles NNW. It includes
descriptions of the ports of Samch’ãk Hang (37°26′N
129°12′E) (4.165), Tonghae Hang (37°30′N 129°09′E)
(4.179), Muk’o Hang (37°33′N 129°07′E) (4.186) and
Sokch’o Hang (38°12′N 128°36′E) (4.214). The section is
arranged as follows:
Yongch’u Gap to Samch’ãk Hang (4.160).
Samch’ãk Hang to Chãngdongjin Dan (4.174).
Chãngdongjin Dan to Chumunjin Dan (4.201).
Chumunjin Dan to Pisãn Jang (4.207).
Pisãn Jang to Suwãn Dan (4.221).
Topography
4.158
1
Between Yongch’u Gap and Suwãn Dan the indentations
in the coastline are mostly open E or SE and, as the sea
sets right into them, there are no good anchorages. The
coast consists of steep cliffs in most places, which are
steep-to, but here and there are low hills and sandy
beaches. There are very few off-lying islets and dangers,
and this part of the coast is free from dangers beyond a
distance of 1¼ miles.
2
A range of mountains stretches inland from the whole
length of this coast with scarcely a break; most of the
peaks are densely wooded, but occasionally a prominent
rocky peak may be seen. Close to the coast the hills are for
the most part devoid of vegetation, but the valleys are
cultivated.
Flow
4.159
1
The tidal streams along this part of the coast are very
weak and the predominant water flow is due to the current.
This is variable, depending on the prevailing wind, but
during the summer months the current usually sets NNW
parallel with the coast at rates up to 1½ kn.
YONGCH’UGAP TO SAMCH’PK HANG
General information
Chart 882
Route
4.160
1
From a position E of Yongch’ugap (37°03′N 129°26′E)
the coastal route leads NNW, for about 28 miles, to a
position ENE of Samch’ãk Hang (37°26′N 129°12′E).
Submarine cable
4.161
1
A submarine cable is laid from the head of a shallow
bay, close S of Kangwon Do (37°10′⋅5N 129°20′⋅9E), in an
ENE direction into deep-water. A light-buoy (special)
marks the cable 8 cables from the shore. For further
information on submarine cables see 1.8.
Principal marks
4.162
1
Landmarks:
Ungbong San (37°05′N 129°14′E) (4.134).
Sajil Lyãng (37°07′N 129°18′E), consisting of two
peaks 423 m high, brownish in colour with a few
trees. A 518 m high peak resembling Sajil Lyãng,
but thickly wooded, stands 2 miles SSW of Sajil
Lyãng.
2
Ib Bong (37°11′N 129°14′E), 827 m high and thickly
wooded; its pointed summit is prominent from a
distance.
A mountain (37°18′N 129°10′E), 767 m high. A
second dark mountain, 693 m high with two peaks
shaped like forts, stands 1½ miles NNE of the
767 m high mountain.
3
Kun San (37°24′N 129°08′E), an isolated, prominent,
dome-shaped mountain 508 m high; when seen
from the N it has a somewhat pointed appearance.
Tut’a San (37°26′N 129°00′E), a somewhat
dome-shaped 1364 m high mountain; when seen
from a distance it is prominent.
4
Ch’orok San (37°31′N 129°04′E), 531 m high; it is a
bare reddish-brown mountain with two peaks,
clearly visible at 45 miles.
Major light:
Chukpyãn Light (37°03′N 129°26′E) (4.134).
Other aid to navigation
4.163
1
Racon:
Imwãn Hang E breakwater (37°13′N 129°21′E).
CHAPTER 4
191
Directions
(continued from 4.137)
4.164
1
From a position E of Yongch’ugap (37°03′N 129°26′E)
the track leads NNW, passing (with positions relative to
Yongch’ugap):
ENE of Ponghwa San (5½ miles NNW), thence:
ENE of Kangwon Do (8¼ miles NNW), from which
a light (red round tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
2
ENE of Imwãn Mal (10¾ miles NNW), from which a
light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
is exhibited. Imwãn Mal is a light-brown rocky
point, 31 m high, which rises close inland to a
summit 142 m high. The summit is cultivated, and
on it are the remains of a cairn which are very
prominent. A sharp rock 12 m high at the end of
the point is yellowish brown and shaped like a
peacock’s head. Imwãn Hang (4.172) is situated on
the SW side of Imwãn Mal. Thence:
3
ENE of Kalsan Mal (14¼ miles NNW), which is
high, steep and cliffy; it is prominent for there is
no similar point near it. Sãngsu Am, 1½ miles S
of Kalsan Mal, is 324 m high, dark in colour with
a sharp rocky peak, and is very prominent.
Thence:
4
ENE of Changho Mal (14¾ miles NNW), a bare and
sandy point from which a light (white round
concrete tower, 7 m in height) is exhibited. Taedo,
a group of rocks of which the centre rock is 18 m
high, lies between Kalsan Mal and Changho Mal.
The small fishing harbour of Changho Hang is
situated close W of Changho Mal; lights (round
concrete towers, 10 m in height) are exhibited from
its breakwaters. Thence:
5
ENE of Sail Tan (16½ miles NNW), a black cliffy
point. A 205 m high ochre-coloured hill stands
2½ miles NW of Sail Tan; it has a bare patch near
its summit, making it a good mark visible up to
6 miles. Kungchon Hang, a small fishing harbour,
is situated on the shore 2 miles NNW of Sail Tan.
Thence:
6
ENE of P’i Mal (21 miles NNW), from which a light
(white round concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited. P’i Mal is a black, rocky, cliffy point
66 m high, with an islet 53 m high close off it; the
islet is prominent from N and S. The small fishing
harbour of Tãksan Hang is situated on the S side
of P’i Mal; lights (round concrete towers) are
exhibited from the heads of its breakwaters.
7
The track then leads to a position ENE of Samch’ãk
Hang (25½ miles NNW); lights are exhibited from the
heads of the breakwaters of Samch’ãk Hang.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 4.178)
Samch’ãk Hang
Korean Chart W148 (see 1.22)
General information
4.165
1
Position. Samch’ãk Hang (37°26′N 129°12′E) is situated
4½ miles NW of P’i Mal, on the N side of Osib Chon.
Chongha Ri stands within the NW side of the harbour and
Samch’ãk town stands 1½ miles WNW.
Function. It is an international commercial port, mainly
exporting cement, with a fishing harbour; general cargo and
oil cargoes are also handled.
2
Port limits. The outer limit of the harbour is defined by
a line drawn SE for 5 cables from the vicinity of 27°26′⋅5N
129°11′⋅6E, N of the harbour, then S for 4¼ cables, and
thence WSW to the coast.
Port Authority:
Address. Donghae Regional Maritime Affairs and
Fisheries Office, 606 Song Jeong-Dong, Donghae,
Republic of Korea.
Website. http://donghae.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
4.166
1
Controlling depth. There is a least chartered depth of
8⋅7 m in the harbour entrance channel.
Deepest and longest berth. No 2 Wharf (4.170).
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
8000 tonnes are berthed.
Arrival information
4.167
1
Vessel traffic service. Samch’ãk Hang is covered by the
Tonghae Vessel Traffic Service. For further details see
4.175 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA required. An ETA should be sent 72,
48, 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival at the pilot station and
when within VHF range. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
2
Outer anchorages. There are three designated anchorage
areas, the limits of which are shown on the chart, outside
the harbour as follows (positioned from the head of the E
breakwater):
Section I (2 cables N).
Section II (2½ cables NE).
Quarantine anchorage (1¾ cables E).
3
There are depths from 9 to 19 m in the anchorages, over
a bottom of sand and mud. As the anchorages are exposed
it is advisable to weigh anchor and proceed out to sea if
bad weather is forecast.
Pilotage is compulsory.
Tugs. A tug is available.
Harbour
4.168
1
General layout. The harbour is enclosed by two
breakwaters, with a narrow entrance ¾ cable wide. Inside
there is a large outer basin with three wharves for cargo
vessels, and a N inner basin for fishing vessels.
Landmarks:
2
Kun San (37°24′N 129°08′E) (4.162).
Tut’a San (37°26′N 129°00′E) (4.162).
Ch’orok San (37°31′N 129°04′E) (4.162).
3
Major light:
Samch’ãk Hang Directional Light (white metal tower,
31 m in height) (37°26′⋅3N 129°11′⋅4E).
Directions for entering harbour
4.169
1
The harbour is approached from the E. When a position
is reached about 3 cables SSE of the head of the E
breakwater the track leads NW in the white sector
(319⋅2°−320⋅8°) of Samch’ãk Hang Directional Light
(4.168), passing (with positions relative to the directional
light):
NE of No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) (6½ cables SE),
thence:
2
SW of the head of the E breakwater from which a
light (red round metal tower, 6 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
CHAPTER 4
192
NE of the head of the W breakwater from which a
light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
is exhibited.
3
The track then leads into the outer basin from where the
berths are directly approached.
Berths
4.170
1
There are three wharves in the outer basin for cargo
vessels as follows:
Wharf No 1 on the N side; length 222 m with a depth
of 5⋅0 m alongside.
Wharf No 2 on the W side; length 278 m with
charted depths from 5⋅0 to 8⋅3 m alongside.
2
Wharf No 3 on the S side; length 276 m with charted
depths from 6⋅7 to 8⋅5 m alongside.
Port services
4.171
1
Repairs. There is a shipyard capable of building and
repairing vessels up to 500 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; limited quantities of
provisions.
Minor harbour and anchorages
Korean Chart W137 (see 1.22)
Imwãn Hang
4.172
1
Description. Imwãn Hang (37°14′N 129°21′E) is a
national fishery port, partially protected by Imwãn Mal
(4.164) to the NE. It’s harbour is formed by an E
breakwater extending S and SSW from the N shore, and by
a smaller W breakwater inside the harbour. There are
depths from 2⋅7 to 7⋅9 m inside the breakwaters. Imwãn Ri
stands on the shores of the harbour.
2
Aid to navigation:
Racon transmitted from Imwãn Hang E breakwater.
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
3
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in the bay
outside the harbour in depths from 13 to 20 m over a
bottom of sand and rock. There is shelter here from winds
from the SW, through N to NE, but the bay is completely
open to winds from E and SE. Local knowledge is
required.
4
Berth. There are several wharves in the harbour with a
total length of about 514 m, and a passenger quay capable
of berthing vessels up to 1000 tonnes.
Chart 882
Anchorage north of Sail Tan
4.173
1
There is an open roadstead NNW of Sail Tan (37°19′N
129°18′E) in which temporary anchorage may be obtained
3 cables offshore in depths from 11 to 16 m, over a bottom
of sand.
It has been reported that a vessel obtained anchorage in
the roadstead 1½ miles SE of the 205 m high hill (4.164),
standing 2½ miles NW of Sail Tan; there is shelter from S
winds in this position.
SAMCH’PK HANG TO
CHPNGDONGJIN DAN
General information
Chart 882
Route
4.174
1
From a position ENE of Samch’ãk Hang (37°26′N
129°12′E) the coastal route leads NNW, for about 16 miles,
to a position ENE of Chãngdongjin Dan (37°41′N
129°03′E).
Vessel traffic service
4.175
1
The ports of Samch’ãk Hang (4.165), Tonghae Hang
(4.179), Muk’o Hang (4.186) and Okkye Hang (4.193) lie
within the Tonghae Vessel Traffic Service zone.
Participation in the VTS is compulsory for all vessels
except coastal fishing vessels. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Principal marks
4.176
1
Landmarks:
Tut’a San (37°26′N 129°00′E) (4.162).
Ch’orok San (37°31′N 129°04′E) (4.162).
2
Major light:
Muk’o Light (white round concrete tower, 12 m in
height) (37°33′⋅3N 129°07′⋅1E) exhibited from a
position close within Toho Mal, a cape.
Other aid to navigation
4.177
1
Racon:
Tonghae Hang N breakwater (37°30′N 129°09′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.164)
4.178
1
From a position ENE of Samch’ãk Hang (37°26′N
129°12′E) the track leads NNW, passing (with positions
relative to Muk’o Light (37°33′N 129°07′E)):
ENE of Kwangjin Dan (7 miles SSE), a small point;
just inland there are some remains of a cairn
which are fairly prominent. Thence:
2
ENE of a rocky reef (5¾ miles SSE), with a depth of
5⋅0 m over it; the position of this reef is reported
to be marked by seaweed. Thence:
ENE of the head of the N breakwater (3¾ miles SSE)
of Tonghae Hang (4.179); a light (red round
concrete tower, 8 m in height) is exhibited from
the head of the breakwater. Thence:
3
ENE of Chammullae Ch’o (2¼ miles SE), a rocky
bank. A wreck lies close SW of the S end of the
bank. A light-buoy (special) is moored 2¼ miles E
of the bank. Thence:
ENE of Muk’o Hang (close SW) (4.186), thence:
4
ENE of Hanjin Dan (1¼ miles N), a low point
fringed with rocks. A light (white round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from the point.
A light (red rectangular metal tower, 6 m in
height) is also exhibited from a breakwater close
NNW of Hanjin Dan. Thence:
5
ENE of Malch’ei Ch’o (3 miles N), a reef lying
1 mile offshore, thence:
ENE of Okkye Hang (5 miles NNW) (4.193); lights
(round concrete towers, 10 m in height) are
exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters of
Okkye Hang. Thence:
CHAPTER 4
193
6
ENE of Kumjin Hang (6½ miles NNW) (4.200);
lights (round concrete towers, 10 m in height) are
exhibited from the heads of the breakwaters of
Kumjin Hang. Thence:
ENE of Simgok Hang (7½ miles NNW) situated in a
small indentation of the coast; a light (red
square-sided metal tower, 6 m in height) is
exhibited from its breakwater.
7
The track then leads to a position ENE of Chãngdongjin
Dan (7½ miles NNW), from the N side of which a light
(white round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited.
Chãngdongjin Dan is a rocky cliffy point which, when
seen from a considerable distance either N or S, appears to
project some way from the coast and to be of an unusual
dark blue-green colour. At a distance of 7 miles offshore
detached ochre-coloured patches can be seen on the point.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 4.205)
Tonghae Hang
Chart 882 plan of Tonghae
General information
4.179
1
Position. Tonghae Hang (37°30′N 129°09′E) is situated
on the E coast of Korea, 11 miles SSE of Chãngdongjin
Dan (37°41′N 129°03′E).
Function. It is an international commercial port
principally involved in the export of bulk cement. Imports
include coal, limestone, gypsum and iron-ore. Tonghae Si, a
city with a population of 103 645 in 2000, stands on the
shores behind the harbour.
2
Port limits. The seaward limit of the harbour is defined
by a line drawn E for 2½ miles, from a position on the
shore 1¾ miles NW of the N breakwater light, thence S for
2¼ miles, and thence W to the shore, S of the harbour.
Traffic. In 1999 3 564 000 tonnes of cargo was imported
and 4 079 000 tonnes exported.
3
Port Authority:
Address. Donghae Regional Maritime Affairs and
Fisheries Office, 606 Song Jeong-Dong, Donghae,
Republic of Korea.
Website. http://donghae.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
4.180
1
Controlling depth. There is a least charted depth of
13⋅8 m in the harbour entrance.
Deepest and longest berth. Coal Pier (4.184).
Density of water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
60 000 dwt, with a LOA of 225 m and a maximum draught
of 12⋅5 m can be handled.
Local weather and sea state. The harbour is exposed to
an E swell which, once developed, can prevent berthing.
Arrival information
4.181
1
Vessel traffic service. Tonghae Hang is covered by the
Tonghae Vessel Traffic Service. For further details see
4.175 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA required. An ETA should be sent 72,
48, 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival at the pilot station and
when within VHF range. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
2
Outer anchorages. The following designated
anchorages, the limits of which are shown on the chart, are
available outside the N breakwater:
A1, A2 and A3, for vessels up to 30 000 tonnes.
A4 and A5, for vessels under 10 000 tonnes.
B1, B2 and B3, for vessels up to 50 000 tonnes.
3
Pilotage is compulsory but available only during
daylight hours. The pilot boards approximately 2½ miles E
of the N breakwater in the vicinity of 37°29′⋅3N
129°11′⋅4E. For further details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs are available.
4
Restricted area. The approaches to Tonghae Hang lie
within a restricted area in which anchoring is prohibited.
The inner limits of the area are shown on Chart 882 plan
of Tonghae.
Quarantine. There is a quarantine anchorage, centred
7½ cables NE of the head of the N breakwater; the limits
are shown on the chart.
Harbour
4.182
1
General layout. The harbour is formed behind a long N
breakwater, extending 7½ cables SE, and a S breakwater
extending 1½ cables N from the mouth of the river Chãn
Ch’ãn. Inside the breakwaters the harbour consists of a
small N basin and a large S basin; the S basin is for the
use of cargo vessels.
2
Landmarks:
Kun San (37°24′N 129°08′E) (4.162).
Tut’a San (37°26′N 129°00′E) (4.162).
Ch’orok San (37°31′N 129°04′E) (4.162).
Directions for entering harbour
4.183
1
Tonghae Hang is approached from the E. When a
position is reached 1⋅1 miles ESE of the head (37°29′⋅8N
129°09′⋅0E) of the N breakwater the track leads W for a
short distance and thence WNW, through a fairway into the
harbour, passing (with positions relative to the head of the
N breakwater):
2
SSW of the head of the N breakwater from which a
light (red round concrete tower, 8 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
NNE of the head of the S breakwater (2½ cables
WSW) from which a light (white round concrete
tower, 11 m in height) is exhibited.
3
Useful marks:
Light (yellow GRP pillar, 4 m in height) exhibited
from the N end of Yukong Sea-Berth (37°29′⋅8N
129°08′⋅7E).
Light (white GRP pillar, 6 m in height) exhibited
from the end of a pier (37°30′⋅0N 129°08′⋅2E) in
the N basin.
Berths
4.184
1
Tonghae Hang contains the following berths, the
positions of which are shown on the chart:
Central Wharf, length 270 m, with depths from 10⋅1
to 14⋅0 m alongside.
North Wharf, length 1190 m, with depths from 7 to
13 m alongside.
2
South Wharf, length 1282 m, with depths from 10⋅1
to 13⋅0 m alongside.
Coal Pier, length 270 m, with depths from 13 to 14 m
alongside.
Yukong Sea-Berth for oil cargoes; length 150 m, with
a charted depth of 6⋅5 m alongside.
CHAPTER 4
194
Port services
4.185
1
Repairs. There is a shipyard capable of building and
repairing vessels up to 500 tonnes.
Other facility. There is a hospital in Tonghae Si.
Supplies: fuel, fresh water; provisions available.
Communications. Airport at Kangnung, 40 km distant.
Muk’o Hang
Chart 898 plan of Muk’o
General information
4.186
1
Position. Muk’o Hang (37°33′N 129°07′E) is situated on
the E coast of Korea, 3 miles NNW of Tonghae Hang.
Function. It is an industrial commercial port used for
the export of coal, graphite and cement from the hinterland
of Samch’ãk and Pukp’yãng. Muk’o Hang also contains a
naval station.
2
Port limits. The seaward limit of the harbour is defined
by a line drawn from a position 1¾ cables NE of Muk’o
Light (37°33′N 129°07′E) E for 7 cables, thence S for
1¼ miles, and thence W to the shore.
Traffic. Approximately 70 vessels visit the port and
6 400 000 tonnes of cargo are handled annually.
3
Port Authority.
Address. Donghae Regional Maritime Affairs and
Fisheries Office, 606 Song Jeong-Dong, Donghae,
Republic of Korea.
Website. http://donghae.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
4.187
1
Controlling depth. There is a least charted depth of
8⋅3 m in the entrance to Muk’o Hang.
Deepest and longest berth. No 3 Wharf (4.191).
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Density of water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled. LOA 165 m, draught
8⋅5 m, and 10 000 dwt.
Arrival information
4.188
1
Port operations. Owing to limited manoeuvering room
vessels should not enter or leave with winds exceeding
Force 3. The berthing of vessels is limited to daylight
hours. It is reported that in strong E winds cargo cannot be
worked in the port; also, a scend is sometimes felt at the
berths.
2
Vessel traffic service. Muk’o Hang is covered by the
Tonghae Vessel Traffic Service. For further details see
4.175 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA required. An ETA should be sent 72,
48, 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival at the pilot station and
when within VHF range. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
3
Outer anchorages. There are five designated anchorages
outside the E breakwater, but with little shelter, in depths
from 11 to 25 m. The anchorages, the limits of which are
shown on the chart, are as follows:
A1, A2 and A3, for vessels of 5000 tonnes or less.
B1 and B2, for vessels between 5000 and
10 000 tonnes.
Care should be taken, when using A1 and A2
anchorages, to avoid a rocky shoal, with depth of 5⋅9 m
over it, lying 4½ cables NNE of the head of the E
breakwater.
4
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 300 tonnes and
available between the hours of 0500 and 2200 LT. The pilot
boards vessel in the quarantine anchorage (37°32′⋅2N
129°07′⋅9E) 6 cables ESE of the head of the E breakwater.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
5
Tugs are available.
Quarantine. There is a quarantine anchorage, centred
6 cables ESE of the head of the E breakwater; the limits
are shown on the chart.
Harbour
4.189
1
General layout. The harbour consists of an elongated
inner basin, with cargo berths on the W side, and a smaller
outer basin at the S end, both sheltered by an E breakwater
extending S and SSE for 7½ cables from Toho Mal. The
outer basin is formed by two smaller breakwaters extending
E from the shore.
2
Landmarks (positioned from Muk’o Light (37°33′⋅3N
129°07′⋅1E)):
Three radio towers (metal framework, aluminium
coloured) (1¾ cables SSW) from which obstruction
lights are exhibited.
Two radio towers (4½ cables SW).
Silos (6 cables SSW) at No 3 Wharf.
3
Major light:
Muk’o Light (37°33′⋅3N 129°07′⋅1E) (4.176).
Directions for entering harbour
4.190
1
Muk’o Hang is approached from the E. When a position
is reached 2½ cables SE of the head (37°32′⋅4N
129°07′⋅2E) of the E breakwater the track leads NW for a
short distance and thence NNW, through a safety fairway
into the harbour, passing (with positions relative to the
head of the E breakwater):
2
SW of the head of the E breakwater, from which a
light (red square-sided concrete tower, 11 m in
height) is exhibited, thence:
ENE of the head (2 cables NW) of the outer W
breakwater, from the head of which a light (white
round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited.
3
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the inner W breakwater.
Berths
4.191
1
Muk’o Hang contains the following main berthing areas
(positioned from Muk’o Light (37°33′⋅3N 129°07′⋅1E)):
Central Wharf (4 cables SW); length 133 m, with a
charted depth of 6⋅0 m alongside. Used for general
cargo.
2
No 1 Wharf (Coal Pier) (4½ miles SSW); contains
three berths with a total length of 370 m, and
charted depths from 7⋅3 m to 7⋅6 m alongside.
Used for loading graphite and coal.
No 3 Wharf (6 cables SSW); total length 330 m, with
depths from 8⋅1 to 9⋅0 m alongside. Used for
loading cement.
3
No 4 Wharf (6½ cables SSW); length 140 m, with a
chartered depth of 7⋅0 m alongside. Used for
loading cement.
CHAPTER 4
195
Port services
4.192
1
Repairs: three slipways for vessels up to 300 tonnes;
repairs carried out; divers; shipyard capable of building
vessels up to 500 tonnes.
Other facilities: hospital at Mughojin Ri, close N of the
port; Deratting can be carried out.
2
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions available.
Communications. Airport at Sokch’o, 139 km distant.
Okkye Hang
Korean Chart No 160 (see 1.22)
General information
4.193
1
Position. Okkye Hang (37°37′N 129°03′E) is situated on
the E coast of Korea, 7½ miles NNW of Tonghae Hang.
Function. It is an international commercial port built for
Halla Cement Incorporated, for the export of cement. The
port is directly linked to the cement plant, 5 km distant, by
a belt conveyor system.
2
Port limits. The seaward limit of the harbour is defined
by a line drawn from Kwangp’o (37°37′⋅4N 129°03′⋅2E),
close NW of the port, ENE for 1¼ miles, thence E for
5½ cables, thence S for 1¼ miles S, and thence W to the
shore.
Traffic. The cement works has the capacity to handle up
to 500 000 tonnes of cement annually.
3
Port Authority:
Address. Donghae Regional Maritime Affairs and
Fisheries Office, 606 Song Jeong-Dong, Donghae,
Republic of Korea.
Website. http://donghae.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
4.194
1
Controlling depth. There is a least charted depth of
15⋅0 m in the entrance to the harbour.
Deepest and longest berth. No 1 Wharf (4.198).
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
50 000 dwt are handled.
Arrival information
4.195
1
Vessel traffic service. Okkye Hang is covered by the
Tonghae Vessel Traffic Service. For further details see
4.175 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA required. An ETA should be sent 72,
48, 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival at the pilot station and
when within VHF range. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
2
Outer anchorages. The following designated
anchorages, are available outside the N breakwater
(positioned from the head (37°37′⋅2N 129°04′⋅0E) of the N
breakwater):
No 1 Anchorage (4½ cables NE); for vessels of
10 000 tonnes or less.
No 2 Anchorage (1 mile NE); for vessels of more
than 10 000 tonnes.
3
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards in the vicinity
of 37°37′⋅2N 129°06′⋅5E, 2 miles E of the head of the N
breakwater.
Tugs. There is one tug available.
Harbour
4.196
1
General layout. The harbour consists of one large
rectangular basin protected by a N breakwater, extending
from the shore 2½ cables E and thence 3¾ cables SE to its
head. The SE side of the basin is protected by a S
breakwater, projecting 2½ cables N from the shore. The
cargo berths are arranged along the S and W sides of the
harbour.
Landmark:
Silos (37°37′⋅1N 129°03′⋅5E) on the S side of the
harbour.
Directions for entering harbour
4.197
1
Okkye Hang is approached from the E. When a position
is reached 1¼ miles ESE of the head (37°37′⋅2N
129°04′⋅0E) of the N breakwater the track leads WNW
through a safety fairway for 1 mile and thence NW into the
harbour, passing (with positions relative to the head of the
N breakwater):
2
NNE of No 5 Light-buoy (port hand) (2 cables SSE),
thence:
SW of the head of the N breakwater, from which a
light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
3
NE of the head (2 cables W) of the W breakwater,
from which a light (white round concrete tower,
10 m in height) is exhibited.
Useful mark:
4
Light (yellow round GRP tower, 4 m in height)
exhibited from the oil berth close inside the S
breakwater.
Berths
4.198
1
Okkye Hang contains the following main berthing areas
(positioned from the head (37°37′⋅2N 129°04′⋅0E) of the N
breakwater):
Oil berth (2¼ cables WSW); length 218 m, with a
depth of 7⋅5 m alongside.
2
No 1 Wharf (5 cables W). Consists of two berths with
a total length of 456 m and depths of 15⋅0 m
alongside. Handles vessels up to 50 000 tonnes.
No 2 Wharf (4¼ cables WSW). Length 249 m with a
depth of 12⋅0 m alongside.
3
No 3 Wharf (3 cables SW). Length 168 m with a
depth of 10⋅0 m alongside.
Port services
4.199
1
Repairs. None available.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
Minor harbour
Chart 882
Kumjin Hang
4.200
1
Description. Kumjin Hang (37°39′N 129°03′E) is a
national fishery harbour situated in an open bay 1½ miles S
of Chãngdongjin Dan. The harbour is protected by an E
breakwater extending 500 m S from the N side of the bay;
a shorter W breakwater extends ESE from the W shore
towards the head of the E breakwater.
2
Useful marks:
Chãngdongjin Dan (37°41′N 129°03′E) (4.178).
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
3
Anchorage. Good temporary anchorage may be obtained
in the bay outside the breakwaters in depths from 7 to
CHAPTER 4
196
20 m, over a bottom of sand. The anchorage is sheltered
from heavy seas from the N through W to a little E of S.
Berths. There are wharves in the harbour totalling
343 m in length; vessels up to 100 tonnes can berth
alongside.
4
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
CHPNGDONGJIN DAN
TO CHUMUNJIN DAN
General information
Chart 882
Route
4.201
1
From a position ENE of Chãngdongjin Dan (37°41′N
129°03′E) the coastal route leads NNW, for about 18 miles,
to a position ENE of Chumunjin Dan (37°54′N 128°50′E).
Climatic table
4.202
1
See 1.173 and climatic table for Kangnung (37°45′N
128°54′E) at 1.179.
Principal marks
4.203
1
Landmarks:
Nunghang Bong (37°40′N 128°46′E), 1123 m high;
this mountain is cone-shaped and dark blue. Unless
there are low thick clouds, it is the best landmark
along this part of the coast.
2
Ungye Bong (37°49′N 128°47′E), 531 m high. This
mountain, mostly covered with pines, appears dark
blue from a distance with some ochre patches a
third of the way down its gentle slope from the
summit. It is sometimes difficult to identify within
10 miles.
3
Tapchi San (37°52′N 128°44′E), 510 m high.
Major light:
Chumunjin Dan Light (white round brick tower, 10 m
in height) (37°54′N 128°50′E) exhibited from a
position 2 cables N of the S point of the cape.
Other aid to navigation
4.204
1
Racon:
Chumunjin Hang E breakwater (37°53′⋅2N
128°50′⋅1E).
Directions
(continued from 4.178)
4.205
1
From a position ENE of Chãngdongjin Dan (37°41′N
129°03′E) the track leads NNW, passing (with positions
relative to Chumunjin Dan Light (37°54′N 128°50′E)):
ENE of Anin Dan (12 miles SE), a promontory which
is dark blue and saddle-shaped; the remains of a
cairn on its summit form a good landmark for
vessels approaching from the SE. Aninjin Hang, a
small harbour, is situated 3 cables S of Anin Dan;
lights (metal towers) are exhibited from the heads
of its breakwaters. Thence:
2
ENE of the coast between Anin Dan and the mouth
of Namdae Ch’ãn (9¼ miles SE). This coastline
consists of rocky cliffs and has the appearance of
being a detached island. In fine weather it appears
ochre-coloured but in cloudy weather it is dark
blue, forming a good landmark within 9 miles.
This part of the coast is known as Chukto San.
Thence:
3
ENE of the mouth of Namdae Ch’ãn (9¼ miles SE).
Anmok Hang (named Kangnung Hang on Chart
882) is situated on the N entrance point of the
river; a light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited from its N breakwater. The
village of Namhangjin Ni stands on the S side of
the river mouth. Thence:
4
ENE of Kai Am (6½ miles SE), an islet 5 m high
lying 2½ cables offshore. About 5 cables NE and
1¼ miles NW of Kai Am there are two rocky
shoals, with depths of 6⋅4 and 4⋅6 m, respectively,
over them; the shoals are surrounded by fish
havens. Thence:
5
ENE of the mouth of Sach’ãn Ch’ãn; this river is
reported to be very shallow in winter, and to
freeze. The small fishing harbour of Sach’ãn Hang
is situated on the N side of the mouth of Sach’ãn
Ch’ãn; a light (white round concrete tower, 10 m
in height) is exhibited from the head of its S
breakwater, and another light (red round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from its N
breakwater. Thence:
6
ENE of Sach’ãn Dan (4 miles SE), a small projecting
ochre-coloured point. Close off this point is
Hujang Am, a white rock 11 m high; a drying sand
spit extends 2½ cables SSE of Sach’ãn Dan.
Mariners of large vessels are advised to keep well
offshore in the vicinity of Sach’ãn Dan. Thence:
ENE of Yãngjin Dan (2 miles SSE), a small,
projecting, grassy point; a shoal, with a depth of
7⋅7 m over it, lies 4 cables ENE of this point.
7
The track then leads to a position ENE of Chumunjin
Dan, a prominent cape from which a light (4.203) is
exhibited. Chumunjin Dan shows from the N or S as a
dark blue, low flat peninsula; when within 6 miles light
brown rocks will be seen on the cape which should not be
mistaken for Yãngjin Dan.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 4.212)
Minor port
Korean Chart No 165 (see 1.22)
Chumunjin Hang
4.206
1
Description. Chumunjin Hang (37°53′N 128°50′E) is a
small coastal port, with a fishing harbour at its head. The
port serves Kangnung, the economic centre of the region,
8½ miles SSE; commerce, fishing and agriculture are the
main occupations. The port is protected by an E breakwater
extending 5½ cables S from the N shore, and by a W
breakwater extending 1¼ cables NE from the SW shore. A
short mole inside the harbour extends E from the W shore.
2
Depths. There are general depths from 3 to 7 m in the
port.
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅1 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Major light:
Chumunjin Dan Light (37°54′N 128°50′E) (4.203).
Useful marks:
Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
Light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
3
Light (white round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the inner mole.
CHAPTER 4
197
Outer anchorage. Between Chumunjin Dan and
Yãngjin Dan, 2 miles SSE, there is a roadstead in which
anchorage may be obtained. Except for the reefs, with
depths of less than 2 m over them, which extend 3 cables
SSE from the S side of Chumunjin Dan, the roadstead has
depths from 5 to 11 m at a distance of more than
1½ cables offshore.
4
It is well protected from N winds but is exposed to
swell from the E. The holding ground is mostly sand, but
gradually changes to rock as Chumunjin Dan is
approached.
Berths:
Inside of the E breakwater; length 300 m, with
charted depths from 5⋅4 m to 6⋅6 m alongside.
5
Pier projecting E from a central position on the W
side of the harbour; on the S side of the pier there
are depths of over 5⋅0 m. Vessels up to
1000 tonnes can berth.
Quays N and S of the pier for fishing vessels; depths
from 1⋅8 to 3⋅1 m alongside.
Repairs. There are three shipyards capable of building
and repairing vessels up to 100 tonnes.
6
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
CHUMUNJIN DAN TO PISPN JANG
General information
Chart 882
Route
4.207
1
From a position ENE of Chumunjin Dan (37°54′N
128°50′E) the coastal route leads NNW for 22 miles to a
position ENE of Pisãn Jang (38°13′N 128°36′E).
Topography
4.208
1
From Nunghang Bong (37°40′N 128°46′E) (4.203) the
Taigaurei Sanmaeg range of high mountains extends about
30 miles generally NNW to Sãrak San (4.209), keeping
about 10 miles inland. Several fine mountains and peaks of
this range present a magnificent sight. From Sãrak San the
Sãrak Sanmaeg range extends 10 miles NNW to Ma
San (38°16′N 128°24′E).
2
From Tai Rei (38°11′N 128°26′E) a branch range
extends E towards the coast and has some curiously shaped
peaks. Included in these are Talma Bong (4.209), Ulsanam
(4.209) and Ch’ãngdae San (4.217).
Principal marks
4.209
1
Landmarks:
Sãrak San (38°07′N 128°28′E), 1715 m high, the
highest peak of the Sãrak Sanmaeg range. The
mountain is indigo in colour and, from a distance,
its pointed summit towers above the other
mountains. It forms a good landmark when there
are no low-lying clouds.
2
Chãhang Nyãng (38°10′N 128°26′E), 1332 m high.
Talma Bong (38°11′N 128°30′E), 679 m high. This
mountain has some curiously shaped rocky peaks,
which present a striking appearance.
Tai Rei (38°11′N 128°26′E), 1332 m high.
3
Ulsanam (38°12′N 128°28′E), a precipitous mountain
881 m high. It is very prominent, especially when
the peaks of the Sãrak Sanmaeg range are
obscured by clouds.
4.210
1
Major lights:
Chumunjin Dan Light (37°54′N 128°50′E) (4.203).
Sokch’o Light (white round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) (38°13′N 128°36′E), exhibited from the
summit of Pisãn Jang.
Other aid to navigation
4.211
1
Racon:
Cho Do Light-beacon (38°12′⋅0N 128°37′⋅3E).
Directions
(continued from 4.205)
Chumunjin Dan to Susan Dan
4.212
1
From a position ENE of Chumunjin Dan (37°54′N
128°50′E) (4.203) the track leads NNW, passing (with
positions relative to Chumunjin Dan Light):
ENE of Uamjin Hang (4½ cables NNW), a small
harbour; a light (red square metal tower, 6 m in
height) is exhibited from the head of its
breakwater. Thence:
2
ENE of a rocky patch (1½ miles NNW), which dries
0⋅3 m, lying about 1 cable offshore; the sea usually
breaks over this rock. Thence:
ENE of Namae Dan (3½ miles NNW); although
Namae Dan is low-lying, a dark blue clump of
pine trees standing on the point can be seen from
about 15 miles offshore. Namae Hang, a small
fishing harbour, is situated on the S side of the
point; a light (red round concrete tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited from the head of its E
breakwater. Thence:
3
ENE of an unnamed point (6 miles NNW), on the S
side of which is situated Tongsan Hang; a light
(red rectangular metal tower, 6 m in height) is
exhibited from Tongsan Hang. Thence:
ENE of Cho Do (7¾ miles NNW), a rock 23 m high,
with a white top, thence:
ENE of Kisamun Dan (8¾ miles NNW), a low-lying
inconspicuous point, which projects slightly NE.
Kisamun Dan Light (white round tower, 10 m in
height) is exhibited from the point.
4
The track then leads to a position ENE of Susan Dan
(13½ miles NNW), a rocky precipitous point on the summit
of which there is a cairn; the point is bare of vegetation
except on its W side. Susan Dan Light (white round
concrete tower, 16 m in height) is exhibited from the point;
a tower, with an elevation of 99 m, stands 1½ miles S of
the light.
Susan Dan to Pisãn Jang
4.213
1
From the position ENE of Susan Dan (38°05′N
128°40′E) the track continues to lead NNW, passing (with
positions relative to Chumunjin Dan Light (37°54′N
128°50′E)):
ENE of Osan (14 miles NNW), a small point 5 cables
NW of Susan Dan. The point, 30 m high, when
viewed from a distance, has the appearance of an
islet; it is dark coloured and prominent. Two radio
towers, marked by obstruction lights, stand close
W of Osan. Thence:
2
ENE of Naksan Dan (17 miles NNW). A monastery,
which is prominent from all directions S of E,
stands on the point. Between Susan Dan and
CHAPTER 4
198
Naksan Dan the coast is covered with pine trees;
the pine forest near the coast is very prominent.
Thence:
3
ENE of Mulchi Hang (18¾ miles NNW); a light (red
square metal tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited
from the harbour breakwater. A second light (white
round concrete tower, 10 m in height) is also
exhibited from Mulchi Hang. Thence:
4
ENE of Ongjin Dan (19¾ miles NNW), a slightly
projecting point 48 m high; its cliffs are composed
of ochre-coloured rocks and are prominent. Taep’o
Hang, a small fishing harbour, is situated 6 cables
SW of Ongjin Dan; a light (red round concrete
tower, 11 m in height) is exhibited from its
breakwater. Thence:
5
ENE of Cho Do (21 miles NNW), fronting the
entrance to Sokch’o Hang (4.214). Cho Do is an
islet 26 m high, ochre-coloured and prominent; a
light (white round concrete tower, 15 m in height)
is exhibited from its summit. Detached shoals with
depths of less than 5 m over them lie up to
7½ cables NE, 5 cables NE, 4½ cables ENE and
4½ cables NNW, of Cho Do; the shoals 4½ cables
ENE and 4½ cables NNW are marked by
light-beacons (S cardinal).
6
The track then leads to a position ENE of Pisãn Jang
(22 miles NNW), a small protruding, cliffy cape, 39 m
high, from which Sokch’o Light (4.210) is exhibited; its
summit is covered with pine trees. The SE side of Pisãn
Jang is fringed by above and below-water rocks; the sea
breaks over them in rough weather.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 4.227)
Sokch’o Hang
Korean Chart No 134 (see 1.22)
General information
4.214
1
Position. Sokch’o Hang (38°12′N 128°36′E) is situated
on the E coast of Korea, close SW of Pisãn Jang.
Function. It is an international commercial port for the
use of medium sized vessels, with a fishing harbour.
2
Port limits. The seaward limit of the harbour is defined
by a line drawn from Pisãn Jang (38°13′N 128°36′E), SE
for 1 mile to Cho Do, thence WSW for 6½ cables to the
shore.
3
Port Authority:
Address. Donghae Regional Maritime Affairs and
Fisheries Office, 606 Song Jeong-Dong, Donghae,
Republic of Korea.
Website. http://donghae.momaf.go.kr.
Limiting conditions
4.215
1
Controlling depth. There is a least charted depth of
7⋅6 m in the middle of the entrance to the port, between the
heads of the breakwaters.
Deepest and longest berth. Quay No 1 (4.219).
2
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅1 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see
the relevant edition of Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to
5000 tonnes are handled.
Arrival information
4.216
1
Port radio. There is a port radio station at Sokch’o
Hang. For details of reporting procedures see Tonghae
Vessel Traffic Service in the Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (4).
Notice of ETA required. An ETA should be sent 72,
48, 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival at the pilot station. For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
2
Outer anchorages. There is a quarantine anchorage
about 1¼ miles SE of Cho Do (38°12′N 128°37′E).
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards vessels
2¼ miles SE of Cho Do.
Tugs are available.
3
Restricted area. A restricted area, in which vessels of
100 grt or more are prohibited from passing through, fronts
the NE approach to Sokch’o Hang. The limits are defined
by a line drawn from Pisãn Jang (38°13′N 128°36′E), E for
1⋅1 miles, thence S for 9½ cables, and thence E for 5 cables
to Cho Do.
Harbour
4.217
1
General layout. Sokch’o Hang consists of a new outer
basin protected by breakwaters forming the commercial
port, along with Chãngcho Ho, the old inner basin to the
SW, which is a lake formed by the mouth of a stream;
fishing boats are moored in Chãngcho Ho. The two basins
are linked by a narrow channel with depths from 3 to 4 m
in it.
2
Ferry. Two ferries, attached to wire ropes, cross the
channel linking the outer harbour with Chãngcho Ho.
Landmark:
Ch’ãngdae San (38°11′N 128°34′E), 228 m high. This
hill has a dark green peak, shaped like a round
hat; the wood on its summit resembles a black
chimney and is very prominent.
Major light:
Sokch’o Light (38°13′N 128°36′E) (4.210).
3
Racon:
Cho Do Light-beacon (38°12′⋅0N 128°37′⋅4E).
Directions for entering harbour
4.218
1
Sokch’o Hang is approached from the E, passing S of
the detached shoal (4.213), marked by a light-beacon (S
cardinal), 4½ cables ENE of Cho Do (38°12′N 128°37′E).
When a position is reached about 2 cables S of Cho Do the
track leads NW through a safety fairway to the harbour
entrance.
2
A light-buoy (port hand) marks a shoal, with a least
depth of 6⋅4 m over it, 3 cables SSW of Cho Do.
Useful marks:
Light (red round concrete tower, 8 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the N breakwater.
Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the S breakwater.
Berths
4.219
1
The outer N basin contains two main quays as follows:
Quay No 1, situated on the N side of the basin, with
numbered berths 11 to 14; total length 502 m with
depths from 4 to 8 m alongside. Vessels up
5000 tonnes use these berths.
CHAPTER 4
199
2
Quay No 2, situated on the W side of the basin, with
numbered berths 21 to 25; total length 415 m with
depths from 4⋅6 to 4⋅9 m alongside. Passenger
vessels berth at the N end; the other berths are for
the use of government vessels.
Port services
4.220
1
Repairs. There are several shipyards at Sokch’o Hang
capable of repairing vessels up to 1000 tonnes.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
PISPN JANG TO SUWPN DAN
General information
Chart 882
Route
4.221
1
From a position ENE of Pisãn Jang (38°13′N 128°36′E)
the coastal route leads NNW for 31 miles to a position NE
of Suwãn Dan (38°41′N 128°22′E).
Topography
4.222
1
To the N of Ma San (38°16′N 128°24′E), close to the
coast, there is a range of mountains lower than those to the
W, which, parallel to the coast, extends to the vicinity of
Unggok San (38°25′N 128°24′E). Thence the coastal range
of Koro Sanmaek, with ten prominent peaks, extends NNW
to a position about 4 miles SW of Suwãn Dan (38°41′N
128°22′E).
2
Kongo Sanmaek, a mountain range further inland from
Koro Sanmaek, extends NW from Chak Pong (38°33′N
128°14′E) (4.224). This range has several rugged peaks
from which bare rocks rise vertically.
3
Between Pisãn Jang (38°13′N 128°36′E) and Kãjin Dan,
15½ miles NNW, the coastline is interrupted by several
small points and fronted by numerous above and
below-water rocks. Between Kãjin Dan and Suwãn Dan,
15 miles NNW, the coast is precipitous in places with rocky
cliffs and a few off-lying rocks.
International boundary
4.223
1
The boundary between North Korea and South Korea
reaches the coast 4 miles S of Suwãn Dan (38°41′N
128°22′E).
Principal marks
4.224
1
Landmarks:
Misi Ryong (38°14′N 128°27′E), 1239 m high.
Sinsãn Pong (38°15′N 128°26′E), 1210 m high; from
a distance its sharp rocky summit looks
purplish-black.
2
Unbong San (38°17′N 128°30′E), 286 m high; its
lower part is dun coloured and its upper part deep
green. It is very prominent among lower hills in its
vicinity.
Chukpyãn Pong (38°18′N 128°28′E), 682 m high; it
is a steep isolated pyramidal peak, dark green and
very prominent from any direction.
3
Hyangno Pong (38°20′N 128°19′E), 1292 m high,
rugged, indigo-coloured and hat-shaped.
Unggok San (38°25′N 128°24′E), 397 m high, with
three peaks of which the central is pyramidal.
Chak Pong (38°30′N 128°20′E), 770 m high and dark
green; it slopes gently S but steeply N.
4
Chak Pong (38°33′N 128°14′E), 1046 m high and
dark coloured; similar to the previous Chak Pong
it slopes gently S and steeply N.
Paengma Pong (38°36′N 128°08′E), dark with a
prominent pyramidal summit 1540 m high.
Kumgang San (38°39′N 128°06′E), which has several
peaks; the highest 1633 m high and dark in colour
is a good mark for making Suwãn Dan.
4.225
1
Major lights:
Sokch’o Light (38°13′N 128°36′E) (4.210).
Kãjin Dan Light (white round concrete tower, 11 m in
height) (38°27′N 128°28′E), exhibited from the
summit of Tãktuksan, a small hill with an
elevation of 76 m.
Taejin Light (38°30′N 128°26′E) (white octagonal
concrete tower, 31 m in height).
2
Chãjin Front Leading Light (white square concrete
tower, 35 m in height) (38°33′N 128°25′E).
Chãjin Rear Leading Light (white square concrete
tower, 20 m in height) (38°33′N 128°24′E).
Suwãn Dan Light (38°41′N 128°22′E) (5.12).
Other aid to navigation
4.226
1
Racon:
Chãjin Front Leading Light (38°33′N 128°25′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.213)
Pisãn Jang to Konghyãnjin Hang
4.227
1
From a position ENE of Pisãn Jang (38°13′N 128°36′E)
the track leads NNW, passing (with positions relative to
Kãjin Dan Light (38°27′N 128°28′E)):
ENE of Hyãngje Am (14½ miles SSE), one of a
group of three above-water rocks, the highest of
which is 5⋅1 m high, lying 3 cables offshore; a
rock awash lies close NE of Hyãngje Am. Thence:
2
ENE of Chuk To (12¾ miles SSE), a blue,
dome-shaped rocky wooded islet 26 m high. A
chain of rocks, above-water, extends 1½ cables
ENE from Chuk To, and there is a shoal with a
depth of 2⋅7 m over it, which is steep-to, 7 cables
NE of Chuk To. Tide-rips occur here when the
tidal streams set strongly. A light (red square metal
tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited from the
breakwater at Pongp’o Hang, situated on the coast
WSW of Chuk To. Thence:
3
ENE of the N entrance point of Ayajin Hang
(11¼ miles SSE); a light (white concrete tower,
7 m in height) is exhibited from the point and
lights (round concrete structures, 10 m in height)
are exhibited from the N and S breakwaters of the
harbour. Thence:
4
ENE of Ka Do (10¾ miles SSE), a rock 9 m high
lying 3½ cables off the coast, thence:
ENE of Mumam Hang (9¾ miles SSE) situated on
the S side of an unnamed point; a light (red round
concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from
its breakwater. Thence:
5
ENE of Paek To (8¾ miles SSE), lying 3½ cables
offshore and at the SE end of an area of foul
ground extending 8 cables NW. Paek To consists of
two white pointed rocks lying close together, and
CHAPTER 4
200
is prominent. The W rock, somewhat larger, is
27 m high. A white rock, with a flat summit 16 m
high, lies 3½ cables N of Paek To. Thence:
6
ENE of Chuk To (7½ miles SSE), a small green
island, 32 m high, of which the top is formed by a
round rock. Oho Ri Light (white round concrete
tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from a point
5 cables SSW of Chuk To; Oho Hang is situated
on the S side of this point. A light (red round
concrete tower, 10 m in height) is exhibited from
the head of Oho Hang’s E breakwater.
7
The track then leads to a position ENE of a small
unnamed point (6 miles SSE), on the S side of which is
situated the small craft harbour of Konghyãnjin Hang; a
light (yellow post, 6 m in height) is exhibited from the
harbour.
Konghyãnjin Hang to Suwãn Dan
4.228
1
From the position ENE of the unnamed point (38°21′N
128°31′E) the track continues to lead NNW, passing (with
positions relative to Kãjin Dan Light (38°27′N 128°28′E)):
ENE of Tãkp’o Dan (5¼ miles SSE), a slightly
projecting point 47 m high. Half the face of this
point is thickly wooded and the other half is
barren which has the effect of rendering it
prominent. Kajin Hang is situated on the S side of
Tãkp’o Dan; a light (red square metal tower, 6 m
in height) is exhibited from its breakwater. Kashin
Ni, a village, stands on the N side of Tãkp’o Dan.
Thence:
2
ENE of Kãjin Dan, a projecting point of a deep blue
colour from which a light (4.225) is exhibited.
Hagu Do (Paekto on Korean Chart No 169), a
prominent brown rock 17 m high, stands close E
of Kãjin Dan. The E side of Kãjin Dan is foul up
to 1 cable offshore. Thence:
3
ENE of Chojin Do (2¼ miles NNW), an islet 24 m
high, which is composed of light brown rocks
lying close offshore. The summit is flat and the
whole islet is thickly covered with green grass
during the summer. Although not prominent
offshore the island is easy to identify within
3 miles. Thence:
4
ENE of a small promontory (3¾ miles NNW), on the
S side of which is situated Taejin Hang, a small
fishing harbour. Taejin Light (4.225) is exhibited
from the promontory and lights (round concrete
towers) are exhibited from the heads of the
breakwaters protecting Taejin Hang. Thence:
5
ENE of Chãjin Dan (7 miles NNW), a rocky cliffy
point, from which a pair of leading lights (4.225)
are exhibited. Chã Do, an islet 39 m high
2½ cables N of Chãjin Dan, is composed of dark
brown rock. Dangerous rocks, over which the sea
breaks, fringe the coast 1¼ miles NW of Chã Do.
Thence:
6
ENE of Son Am (12 miles NNW), two rocks 2 m
high, lying 8 cables offshore; they are connected
and steep-to. The sea can usually be seen breaking
over the rocks. Thence:
ENE of Kal To (13¾ miles NNW), situated at the E
edge of an area of foul ground extending ENE
from the N entrance point of Nan Gang (4.230).
Kal To consists of two large ash-coloured rocks
32 m high and steep-to E.
7
The track then leads to a position NE of Suwãn Dan
(15 miles NNW) (5.13), from which a light (5.12) is
exhibited. Between the N entrance point of Nan Gang and
Suwãn Dan the coast is foul.
(Directions continue for the coastal route at 5.13)
Minor harbour and river
Korean Chart No 169 (see 1.22)
Kãjin Hang
4.229
1
Description. Kãjin Hang (38°27′N 128°28′E) is a
national fishery harbour situated on the SW side of Kãjin
Dan (4.228). The harbour is protected by an E breakwater
extending 3½ cables SW from Kãjin Dan; a shorter W
breakwater extends E from the W shore towards the head
of the E breakwater.
Major light:
Kãjin Dan Light (38°27′N 128°28′E) (4.225).
2
Useful marks:
Light (red octagonal concrete tower, 12 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the E breakwater.
Light (white round concrete structure, 9 m in height)
exhibited from the head of the W breakwater.
3
Anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained, with shelter
from N, in depths from 9⋅0 to 11⋅5 m, 2 cables SW of
Koko Do, a bare brown rock, 1 m high, lying on the W
edge of a bank with depths of less than 5 m over it
extending 1 cable SSE from Kãjin Dan; but strong N winds
raise a heavy swell here.
Vessels up to 100 tonnes can anchor safely inside Kãjin
Hang, where there are depths from 3⋅2 to 7⋅5 m, and a
mooring buoy.
4
Berths. There is a pier on the NW side of the harbour,
70 m in length, and wharves around the N side of the
harbour totalling 1051 m in length; vessels up to 500 tonnes
can berth alongside.
Repairs. There are two shipyards on the inside of the W
breakwater capable of building and repairing vessels up to
50 tonnes.
5
Supplies: fuel; fresh water available.
Chart 882
Nan Gang
4.230
1
Description. Nan Gang (38°40′N 128°19′E), a large
shallow river entered 1¾ miles S of Suwãn Dan, flows
through the valley between Koro Sanmaek (4.222) and
Kongo Sanmaek. The banks of the river, on both sides of
the entrance, consist of steep cliffs.
2
Three islets lie in the entrance to the river; the SE islet
Poku Do, 4 m high, is situated 2 cables E of the S entrance
point. Pongsuri stands on the N side of the river mouth.
Anchorage. Local vessels anchor off Nan Gang in
depths from 3 to 10 m.
3
Harbour. Pongsu Hang, a small harbour and fishing
base, lies at the mouth of Nan Gang.
NOTES
201
Unggi Hang
Najin Hang
Tumen
River
Taech’o Do
Ch’9ngjin Hang
Prang Dan
Musu Dan
Y
o
n
g
d
a
e
G
a
p
M
a
y
a
n
g
D
o
H
w
a
n
g
d
a
n
D
a
n
S9hojin Hang
W9nsan Hang
Suw9n Dan
Tongjos9n Man
Y9 Do
N O R T H K O R E A
S9ngjin Hang
5.177
5.150
5.189
5.167
5.145
5.110
5.99
5.79
5.69
5.6
3
5.46
5.34
5.1
0
5.117
5.85
5.38
5.25
884
884
885
882
884
884
2432
885
885
0405
30´
30´
30´
Longitude 129° East from Greenwich
42°
41°
40°
39°
42°
41°
40°
39°
30´
30´
30´
128°
130°
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Chapter 5 - East Coast of Korea - Suw9n Dan to Tumen River
202
203
CHAPTER 5
EAST COAST OF KOREA — SUWPN DAN TO TUMEN RIVER
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 885, 2432
Scope of the chapter
5.1
1
This chapter describes the coastal waters along the NE
coast of Korea, between Suwãn Dan (38°41′N 128°22′E)
and Tumen River (42°18′N 130°42′E), 240 miles NNE.
The chapter is arranged as follows:
Tongjosãn Man (5.6).
Mayang Do to Musu Dan (5.62).
Musu Dan to Tumen River (5.98).
Topography
5.2
1
Although the coast has a generally uniform appearance,
its character changes suddenly in places, and from being
mountainous and rocky it becomes low and sandy,
resuming its former appearance after a short interval.
Depths
5.3
1
The NE coast of Korea, apart from Tongjosãn Man, is
generally steep-to at a short distance offshore, though in
places below-water dangers lie close offshore. By night or
during foggy weather, vessels should not proceed into
depths of less than 180 m.
Former mined areas
5.4
1
For information on former mined areas see 1.6 and
Appendix I.
Orthography
5.5
1
A certain number of the names referred to in this
chapter are not shown on the reference charts. For
identification purposes geographical and relative positions
are used.
TONGJOSPN MAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 882, 885
Area covered
5.6
1
This section describes the coastal route from Suwãn Dan
(38°41′N 128°22′E) to Mayang Do, 79 miles N, including
the bays in Tongjosãn Man. It is arranged as follows:
Suwãn Dan to Yã Do (5.10).
Yãnghung Man and Wãnsan Hang (5.16).
Yã Do to Oeyangdo Dan (5.34).
Oeyangdo Dan to Mayang Do (5.46).
Topography
5.7
1
Tongjosãn Man (39°30′N 128°00′E), the major
indentation on the NE coast of Korea, is usually defined as
lying between Suwãn Dan (38°41′N 128°22′E) and Mayang
Do, 80 miles N. The gulf recedes about 35 miles and has
no obstructions in its approach and central part.
2
Mountain ranges, of which some of the peaks are over
1500 m high, fringe the S and N sides of the gulf; the land
becomes lower N of Yãnghung Man, one of the bays in
Tongjosãn Man, 45 miles NW of Suwãn Dan. Farther
inland the mountain ranges connect with those on the N
side of the gulf.
Prohibited area
5.8
1
Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in an area
extending SW from Nan Do (39°00′N 128°05′E) (5.12) to
the mainland. The area is shown on the chart.
Flow
5.9
1
Tidal streams in Tongjosãn Man are weak; the resultant
flow depends almost entirely on the rate and direction of
the currents.
SUWPN DAN TO YP DO
General information
Charts 882, 885
Route
5.10
1
From a position NE of Suwãn Dan (38°41′N 128°22′E)
the route leads NW, for about 40 miles, to a position ENE
of Yã Do (39°13′N 127°38′E).
Topography
5.11
1
Between Kyegan Mal (38°45′N 128°12′E) and Sawãl
Gag, 10 miles NW, there are rocky cliffs; close to Sawãl
Gag a gently sloping beach fronts the coast.
CHAPTER 5
204
Between Sawãl Gag 38°51′N 128°04′E) and Kusin Dan,
6 miles NW, there is an open bay with a shelving bottom.
Paek Som, a rocky islet 24 m high, stands in the middle of
this bay 7½ cables offshore.
2
From Kusin Dan the coast trends NW for a farther
15½ miles to Amyong Kkut; it is indented by Kojo Po,
4 miles NW of Kusin Dan. About 5 cables NW of Kojo Po
there is a small bay which is exposed to the NE. For about
2 miles NW of the NW entrance point of this bay the coast
is fringed by rocks and reefs extending about 7½ cables
offshore; Sa Do, the highest of these rocks is 17 m high.
Principal marks
5.12
1
Landmarks:
Changadae Dan (38°45′N 128°16′E), 64 m high. It
forms the N end of a peninsula, 113 m high, and is
a good mark from SE appearing as a pile of
numerous black rocks.
2
Song Do (38°48′N 128°11′E), an islet with a flat
summit, 69 m high. It is thickly wooded, appearing
black from a distance, and is very prominent.
Sam Do, 37 m high, 7½ cables SSW of Song Do, and
a third islet, Keeson, 54 m high, about 1 mile
farther SSE.
3
Nan Do (39°00′N 128°05′E), an islet 108 m high with
a pointed peak; it is uninhabited. The E coast is
high and precipitous and the islet makes a good
mark for vessels approaching from the SE.
4
Major lights:
Suwãn Dan Light (white 8-sided concrete tower, 17 m
in height) (38°41′N 128°22′E).
Changadae Dan Light (white 8-sided concrete tower
14 m in height) (38°45′N 128°16′E).
Changjãn Hang Light (white square metal tower,
concrete base, 4 m in height) (38°45′N 128°12′E).
5
Sawãl Gak Light (beacon) (38°52′N 128°03′E).
Ch’ongsãk Dan Light (38°58′N 127°55′E).
Yã Do Light (white 8-sided concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (39°13′N 127°38′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.228)
5.13
1
From a position NE of Suwãn Dan (38°41′N 128°22′E),
which is a low promontory fringed by rocks, rising
gradually inland, the track leads NW, passing (with
positions relative to Nan Do (39°00′N 128°05′E)):
NE of Changadae Dan (17 miles SE) (5.12), from
which a light (5.12) is exhibited. Ma Am, 3 cables
NW of the point, is a rock awash. Thence:
2
NE of Song Do and Sam Do (12¾ miles SSE) (5.12),
thence:
NE of Sol Sãm (8 miles S), an island 64 m high,
thence:
3
NE of Sawãl Gak (8¾ miles), a rocky cliffy point
60 m high; a light (5.12) is exhibited from the
point. Thence:
NE of Nan Do (5.12). Shallow water extends
1½ cables offshore on all sides of Nan Do; beyond
that distance it is steep-to. Thence:
4
NE of Ch’ongsãk Dan (8¾ miles WSW) which is the
SE entrance point of Kojo Po (5.15). It is a long
rocky point, 31 m high, and fairly prominent.
Rocks, above and below-water extend 5 cables E
from this point, the N side of which is fringed
with columns of basalt rocks. Thence:
5
NE of Sam Sãm (9 miles WSW) which consists of
three small rocky islets, the centre one of which,
Dongdog Do, is 64 m high. The islets lie 2½ to
5 cables offshore in the NW approach to Kojo Po.
Thence:
NE of Chogak Ch’o (9½ miles W), which is steep-to,
thence:
SW of an area unsafe for navigation (16 miles N), as
shown on the chart, thence:
6
NE of Amyong Kkut (17¼ miles NW) which is a
black, cliffy, rocky point, 30 m high. From it a low
sandy isthmus, on which there is a green
dome-shaped hill, 31 m high, extends 2 miles SE
to join the mainland. Apryongdan Light (39°07′N
127°44′⋅5E) is exhibited from the W side of
Amyong Kkut. Thence:
7
NE of Kuk To (18¾ miles NW), which is a cliffy
precipitous islet, 41 m high. There are two caves
on the coast of this islet into which boats can
enter. The walls of the caves, consisting of
perpendicular columns of basalt, are 12 m high. A
spit, with a depth of 8⋅4 m over it, extends
2 cables SSW from Kuk To. In misty weather
vessels approaching from SE have sometimes
mistaken Amyong Kkut for Kuk To; the N side of
the latter is, however, perpendicular and can thus
be identified.
8
The track then leads to a position ENE of Yã Do
(25 miles NW) (5.21).
(Directions continue for Wãnsan at 5.21 and for the
coastal route to Hungnam at 5.37)
Anchorages and harbours
Changjãn Hang
5.14
1
Position. Changjãn Hang (38°44′E, 128°12′E) lies in the
SW corner of a bay entered between Changadae Dan (5.12)
and Kyegan Mal, the SE point of a hilly promontory,
3 miles WSW.
Function. Changjãn Ni, in the NW corner of Changjãn
Hang is an important fishing and naval port. The chief
export is hides; the chief imports are buck wheat and
rubber goods.
2
Topography. Dai Dan, on the S side of Changjãn Hang
2 miles SW of Changadae Dan, is a narrow, rocky point,
thickly wooded. Kikchi Bong, an isolated mountain 352 m
high, stands 4 miles S of Changadae Dan and is prominent.
Chãngnyong Dan, a wooded point 45 m high, lies 8 cables
SW of Kyegan Mal; a breakwater extends 300 m SE from
Chãngnyong Dan.
3
Che To and Hyong Do, two wooded islets, 50 and 44 m
high, lie close offshore 2¾ cables N of the N end of
Kyegan Mal. A group of rocks, the highest of which is
Soma Am, 1 m high, lies 6 cables NNW of Hyong Do. A
shoal, with a depth of 1⋅8 m over it, lies 3½ cables NNE of
Hyong Do.
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m, mean
minimum range about 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
4
Wind. Periodically winds blow down from Kumgang
San (38°39′N 128°06′E) (4.224) and are dangerous to
shipping. These winds are strongest in April and May and
in November and December. They usually commence in the
CHAPTER 5
205
afternoon, and are gale force from between SSW and SW;
they then gradually veer, through W and N to E, blowing
with about the same force. These gales usually last from
one to three days; sometimes they begin very suddenly and
only blow for a few hours.
5
Indications of the onset of these winds are shown by the
highest peak of Kumgang San being covered with dark
clouds and rain clouds travelling fast in a NE direction. A
further warning is that sounds, like distant thunder, are
heard in the direction of Kumgang San.
6
Directions for entering harbour. Changjãn Hang is
approached from the N and entered on the line of bearing
222° of a 145 m hill at the head of Changjãn Hang,
1¼ miles SSW of Changjãn Dan, which leads through the
middle of the harbour entrance.
From the entrance the track alters gradually W onto the
alignment (303°) of a 162 m high hill, 1¾ miles NNW of
the 145 m hill, with Kari San, 1½ miles WNW of the
162 m hill. With these marks in line, vessels may anchor as
convenient.
7
Useful mark:
Light (white round concrete tower, 3 m in height)
(38°44′⋅0N 128°11′⋅9E) exhibited from the
breakwater.
Anchorages:
Outer anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage
during E winds 1 mile SSW of Changadae Dan in
about 14 m; the holding ground is poor.
8
Inner anchorage. Small local vessels may obtain
anchorage, with all round shelter, 2 cables W of
the W end of Chãngnyong Dan in a depth of 6 m,
over a bottom of sand. Close E of this position
there are depths of 9 m but the holding ground is
poor. Strong N winds raise a swell in the bay.
9
Berths. Two berths, one dedicated for cruise ships, can
accommodate four vessels of up to 30 000 tons. There are
also several piers which can accommodate vessels of
200 tons; used mainly for landing.
Communications. There is regular communication by
sea with other Korean ports.
Kojo Po
5.15
1
Description. Kojo Po (38°58′N 127°53′E) is entered
between Ch’ongsãk Dan (38°58′N 127°54′E) (5.13) and
Sam Sãm (5.13), 1¼ miles NNW. It is a fishing harbour of
refuge and a naval port, which affords shelter from all
winds except E. Kojo Ri is a small town situated at the SE
end of the bay.
2
Landmark:
Pongdae San, a dome shaped hill, standing 2 cables
within the NW entrance point of Kojo Po. It is
93 m high with a stone-built ancient monument on
it summit.
3
Anchorage can be obtained with the summit of Pongdae
San bearing 330° and Dongdog Do bearing 008° in a depth
of 10 m, over a bottom of fine sand. Small local vessels
can anchor in Chigung Myoji between Sam Do and the
coast SW in depths from 5 to 9 m, over a bottom of sand.
Vessels drawing not more than 4 m can anchor close
inshore off Chigung Ni.
4
Harbour. The harbour is protected by a breakwater,
380 m in length, which extends W from a position
8¾ cables W of the E extremity of Ch’ongsãk Dan. A light
(white square metal tower, 8 m in height) (38°57′⋅6N
127°53′⋅6E) is exhibited from the breakwater head.
Berths. There are no wharfs for handling cargo, but
there are three small piers at which landing can be effected.
Supplies. Provisions can be obtained at Kojo Ri.
5
Communications. There is regular communication by
sea with other Korean ports.
YPNGHUNG MAN AND WPNSAN HANG
General information
Charts 885, 884 plan of Wãnsan and approaches
Route
5.16
1
From a position ENE of Yã Do (39°13′N 127°38′E) the
route into Yãnghung Man leads W through a TSS, passing
between Yã Do, to the S, and Ung Do, to the N, to a
position 2¼ miles NNW of Kalma Gak (39°11′⋅9N
127°28′⋅5E) where the route divides. One route leads S into
Wãnsan Hang, whilst the other leads to the bays on the N
side of Yãnghung Man.
Topography
5.17
1
Yãnghung Man, a large irregular bay, is entered between
Irari Gak (39°09′⋅4N 127°36′⋅4E) and Taegang Got, the S
extremity of Hodo Bando, 8½ miles N. The N part of
Hodo Bando is joined to the mainland N by a sandy
isthmus, on which are some low wooded hills; these hills,
from a distance, appear to be islets.
2
The S side of Yãnghung Man, between Irari Gak, 44 m
high, and Sagurio Gak, 2¼ miles W, is bordered by steep
cliffs. Umi Do, 2 cables NNW of Irari Gak, is 29 m high
and thickly wooded. Hwangt’o Do, 50 m high, is situated
1¼ miles NW of Sagurio Gak.
3
Kalma Bando, the peninsula forming the E side of
Wãnsan Hang (39°10′N 127°27′E), is low except at its N
end where it becomes 73 m high. Kujãkchãn Chãn enters
the SW part of the harbour.
On the W side of Yãnghung Man, where several streams
flow into the bay, stand the towns of Munch’ãn and
Munp’yãng Ni. There is a range of hills inland.
4
The N side of Yãnghung Man is formed by
Changch’igon Man (39°19′N 127°27′E), Songjãn Man
(39°22′N 127°30′E) and Sã Man (39°22′N 127°25′E),
which are three bays separated from each other by Songjãn
Bando, a promontory.
There are a few small villages along the shores of
Songjãn Man, but the surrounding country is mostly hilly
with poor vegetation and few trees. On the W side of the
head of Songjãn Man lies Sã Man a bay also partially
obstructed by islets and shoals; a shallow flat, on which
stand some islets, extends 2¾ miles from the head of the
bay. Yãnghung Gang discharges into Songjãn Man 5 miles
N of Chuhang Mai.
Pilotage
5.18
1
Pilotage is compulsory for entering Yãnghung Man and
Wãnsan Hang. The pilot boards in the waiting anchorage
(5.27).
Traffic separation scheme
5.19
1
A traffic separation scheme has been established through
Yãnghung Man and is clearly marked on the chart. This
TSS is not IMO adopted. As it is not known what
regulations are in force, mariners are advised to follow the
principles for use of a routeing system as defined in Rule
CHAPTER 5
206
10 of The International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972).
Principal marks
5.20
1
Landmark:
Duyu Bong (39°18′⋅9N 127°32′⋅9E) with twin sharp
peaks. These peaks and the islands in the entrance
to the bay make for easy identification from E.
2
Major light:
Yã Do Light (39°13′⋅2N 127°38′⋅3E) (5.12).
Directions
(continued from 5.13)
Approach from seaward
5.21
1
From a position ENE of Yã Do (39°13′N 127°38′E) the
track leads WSW to the waiting anchorage (5.27) and pilot
boarding area, and thence through the appropriate lane of
the TSS (5.19), passing (with positions relative to Kundari
Yãm (39°15′⋅6N 127°33′⋅8E)):
SSE of Ung Do (3 miles ENE) which is a barren
island. A bank, with depths of less than 5 m over
it, extends 1 cable S and a bank, with depths of
less than 10 m over it, extends 2½ cables W from
the island. Thence:
2
NNW of Yã Do (3½ miles ESE), densely wooded
and foul up to 2½ cables offshore; a light (5.12) is
exhibited from the SE side of the island. An islet,
34 m high, lies off the N end of the island, and a
bank, with depths of less than 10 m over it,
extends 1¼ miles SW. Yã Do Ri stands on the W
side of Yã Do. Taeo Do, an islet, lies 5 cables S
of the SE point of Yã Do and a rock, 3⋅9 m high,
lies on the outer edge of a reef extending
1½ cables SSW from the islet. Thence:
3
SSE of Wãrhyãn Am (1 mile SSE), a white rock,
with foul ground and shallow water extending
1½ cables S and 2½ cables S of it. A light is
shown from the rock.
The track then leads W, passing (with positions relative
to Kundari Yãm):
4
S of Kundari Yãm, the E-most of a group of rocks
connected with each other, thence:
S of Anjang Sãm (7 cables WSW) and Morae Yãm
(9 cables WNW), two islets, thence:
N of Sin Do (3 miles SSW), a wooded, hilly island; a
village stands at the W end. A shallow patch, with
a depth of 4⋅0 m over it, lies 3 cables E off the NE
end. Thence:
5
S of Tti Yãm (3¼ miles W), surrounded by foul
ground, thence:
N of Tae Do (3¾ miles SSW), 68 m high, thence:
N of a dangerous wreck (4¼ miles SW), the position
of which is approximate, lying on the S side of the
TSS, thence:
6
N of Kalma Gak (5½ miles SW), the N extremity of
Kalma Bando (5.17); it is cliffy, precipitous and
from a distance appears as an island.
The track then leads to the TSS roundabout 5¾ miles N
of the entrance to Wãnsan Hang (5.25).
5.22
1
Useful marks:
Sokkun Sãm Light (red round concrete tower, black
bands, 17 m in height) (39°17′⋅2N 127°33′⋅9E),
exhibited from the N-most of two white rocks.
Yongjin Light (white square framework tower)
(39°17′⋅7N 127°24′⋅3E), exhibited from a point on
the NW side of Yãnghung Man.
(Directions continue for the bays on the N side of
Yãnghung Man at 5.24)
Entry to Wãnsan Hang
5.23
1
From the TSS roundabout the track leads S, passing
(with positions relative to Kalma Gak (39°11′⋅9N
127°28′⋅5E)):
Close E of a dangerous wreck (1½ miles WSW),
thence:
W of Tae Do (1¾ miles ENE) (5.21), thence:
W of Kalma Gak (5.21).
2
The track then leads to a position E of Changdãk To
(2¼ miles SW), which forms the E end of the breakwater
extending 6 cables from the W shore of the harbour. A
rocky spit extends 2½ cables SE from Chandãk To and a
chain of rocky shoals extends from 4½ to 9 cables farther
SE. A light is exhibited from Changdãk To.
3
Care is required when navigating within the harbour as
several dangerous wrecks and rocks front the approaches to
the berths.
View, in two parts, of entrance to Yängh÷ng Man (5.21)
(Original dated 1912)
Kalma Bando Sin Do,
bearing 289, 4 miles
Tti Yäm bearing 310
Morae Yäm, bearing 320 Duyu Bong, bearing 334
CHAPTER 5
207
Useful marks:
Fishing Harbour Breakwater Head Light (red metal
column, concrete base, 6 m in height) (39°09′⋅4N
127°27′⋅1E).
4
Light exhibited from dolphin (39°09′⋅4N 127°27′⋅8E).
Directions for the bays on the north side of Yãnhung
Hang
(continued from 5.22)
5.24
1
From the TSS roundabout the track leads initially NNE,
through the TSS, passing WNW of Tti Yãm (5.21). Thence
when a position is reached about 2 miles SW of Mangdok
Kot (39°18′⋅3N 127°31′⋅1E) the track leads N, passing
(with positions relative to Mangdok Kot):
W of Sol Sãm (1 mile SSE), standing on the W side
of a bank which connects Morae Yãm with Hodo
Bando (5.17). A light (beacon) (39°17′⋅4N
127°32′⋅0E) is exhibited from the island. Thence:
2
E of Hawpoe Roe, fronting the W side of Mangdok
Kot, the SW point of Hodo Bando, thence:
E of Chuhang Mai (3 miles W), which is very
prominent, forming the S entrance point of
Changch’igon Man; there is an anchorage (5.32) in
the bay. Thence:
3
E of Yãngbango (2¾ miles NW), the NE entrance
point of Changch’igon Man, thence:
W of Changgu Sãm (1½ miles NNE), a rock 16 m
high, thence:
Clear of a dangerous wreck (2 miles NNW), thence:
4
W of Chang’guãk Hang (2¼ miles NNE), in which
there are four mooring buoys, thence:
W of Pangmong Mal (2½ miles NNE), the NW point
of Hodo Bando.
5
The track then leads into Songjãn Man (3¼ miles
NNW), the N part of Yãnghung Man. The E side of
Songjãn Man, is partially obstructed with islets lying on the
coastal bank which extends 9 cables offshore. For
anchoring in Songjãn Man see 5.33.
Useful mark:
Yongjin Light (39°17′⋅7N 127°24′⋅3E) (5.22).
Wãnsan Hang
General information
5.25
1
Position. Wãnsan Hang (39°10′N 127°27′E) is situated
on the S side of Yãnghung Man and is considered to be an
important port on the E coast of North Korea.
2
Function. It is a commercial port and naval base with a
fishing harbour in its S part. Exports include graphite, gold
and cattle; imports include rice, wheat flour, salt and
mineral oils. The port fronts Wãnsan, one of the larger
cities in North Korea; in 1990 it had an estimated
population of 280 000.
3
Port limits. The port limits, shown on the chart, extend
ESE for 3½ miles from the SE extremity of Hodo Bando
(39°20′N 127°33′E), and thence SSE for a farther
10¼ miles, keeping to seaward of Ung Do, Yã Do and
Kuk To, to the E extremity of Amyong Kkut (39°08′N
127°45′E).
4
Approach and entry. Wãnsan Hang is approached
through the TSS leading into Yãnghung Man and entered
close W of Kalma Gak (39°11′⋅9N 127°28′⋅5E).
5
Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by 18 vessels with a
total of 57 950 dwt.
6
Port Authority. Wãnsan Port Authority, Port Office,
Wãnsan, North Korea.
Limiting conditions
5.26
1
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel. Vessels up to 10 000 tons can
be accommodated.
2
Ice. Wãnsan Hang is never ice-bound but, with warm E
winds in spring, drift ice may enter the harbour. Songjãn
Man (39°22′N 127°30′E) is occasionally ice-bound for
about two months but strong winds break up the ice and
drift it into Wãnsan Hang.
Arrival information
5.27
1
Notice of ETA required. An ETA should be sent to the
agent 10 days, 72 hours, 24 hours, 12 hours and 4 hours
prior to arrival. For further information see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
2
Outer anchorage. There is a waiting anchorage for
foreign vessels, outside Yãnghung Man, centred on a
position 4½ miles ENE of Yã Do (39°13′N 127°38′E). The
limits of the anchorage are shown on the chart.
3
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring and fishing are
prohibited in certain parts of the entrance to Yãnghung
Man, and also in Wãnsan Hang. The limits are shown on
the chart.
Pilotage. See 5.18.
4
Tugs are available.
Prohibited area. An area where entry is prohibited
exists in the inner W side of Wãnsan Hang, as shown on
the chart.
5
Quarantine. There is a quarantine station in Kalma
Dong (39°11′⋅8N 127°28′⋅4E), 3 cables S of Kalma Gak.
Harbour
5.28
1
General layout. Wãnsan Hang is sheltered from the E
by Kalma Bando (5.17) but exposed to the N. The only
facilities for ocean-going vessels are situated within the
harbour S of the breakwater, which extends W from
Chandãk To to the shore, alongside the customs wharf
fronting the town.
2
There are several quays and piers for small vessels at
both ends of the wharf. The fishing harbour is located S of
the inner breakwater which extends 1½ cables E from the
W side of the harbour from a position 1 mile SSE of
Chandãk To.
Tidal streams in Wãnsan Hang are negligible.
3
Winds. Westerlies sometimes blow strongly at Wãnsan
and may be persistent; they are very cold in January and
February. In early spring and summer W winds are
sometimes abnormally warm and dry as a result of a local
föhn effect.
Climatic table. See 1.173 and 1.180.
Directions for entering harbour
5.29
1
For directions covering the approach and entry to
Wãnsan Hang see 5.21 to 5.23.
Berths
5.30
1
Anchorage. An anchorage area for foreign vessels has
been established 1½ miles N of Changdãk To (39°10′⋅3N
127°26′⋅6E). Smaller vessels may obtain anchorage inside
CHAPTER 5
208
the breakwater in depths of about 7 m, over a bottom of
sand.
Commercial harbour. The main berthing area is at the
customs wharf, which is 275 m long with depths alongside
from 6 to 8 m. There are other piers available for smaller
craft and fishing vessels.
2
Oil pier. An oil pier lies at the head of the bay; depths
alongside are uncertain. In 1985, it was reported that a
vessel with a draught of 5⋅4 m had barely sufficient
under-keel clearance for berthing.
Port services
5.31
1
Repairs. Three yards capable of minor repairs.
Other facilities: cranes of varying capacities; floating
cranes; hospital; Deratting and Deratting Exemption
Certificates issued.
Supplies. Bunkers and fresh water are available.
2
Communications. Regular by sea with Vladivostok,
Japan and ports in Korea. An airport is located on Kalma
Bando.
Minor anchorages on the north side
of Yãnghung Man
Changch’igon Man
5.32
1
Anchorage can be obtained in Changch’igon Man
(39°19′N 127°27′E) in depths of about 14 m, well S of an
islet which lies on the end of a spit extending 6 cables SSE
from the middle of the N side of the bay.
Songjãn Man
5.33
1
Songjãn Man (39°22′N 127°30′E) affords well-protected
anchorage with good holding ground for large vessels, but
has no commercial importance. There is a good anchorage
in the S part of Songjãn Man, W of Pangmong Mal in
depths from 14 to 16 m, over a bottom of mud.
YP DO TO OEYANGDO DAN
General information
Chart 885
Route
5.34
1
From a position ENE of Yã Do (39°13′N 127°38′E) the
route leads NNW, for 25 miles, to a position about 7 miles
SSE of Oeyangdo Dan (39°48′N 127°40′E).
Topography
5.35
1
The coast between Hodo Bando (39°20′N 128°32′E) and
Yãngã Dan, 18 miles N, is low and sandy. There are
isolated hills a short distance inland along this stretch of
coast. Near Yãngã Dan the land becomes higher and about
2 miles inland a ridge of hills, 406 m high, runs parallel to
the coast.
2
Between Yãngã Dan and Oeyangdo Dan, 11½ miles
NNE, the coast is indented by Hamhung Man (39°43′N
127°36′E); a low sandy beach, on which the sea breaks
during E winds, forms the W shore of Hamhung Man.
Songhwangdangsan Dan (39°39′N 127°32′E), 1¼ miles NW
of Yãngã Dan, is precipitous and densely wooded. Close
inland of Songhwangdangsan Dan, is an isolated dark green
wooded hill (not charted), 31 m high, which is prominent;
when viewed from N it has the appearance of a detached
island.
3
Hwa Do (39°54′N 127°34′E), 59 m high, situated on the
coastal bank 7 miles N of Yãngã Dan, has, in places,
precipitous rocky cliffs; its N and W sides are low and
sandy. On the summit of the island is a small clump of
scrub surrounding a knoll which is prominent from a
distance. Hwa Do is connected to the mainland NW by a
spit on which the sea breaks. A shallow flat extends
8 cables NE from Hwa Do and on it, named from SW are
two islets, Sofwa Do and Sae Sãm.
Principal marks
5.36
1
Major lights:
Yã Do Light (39°13′⋅2N 127°38′⋅3E) (5.20).
Oeyangdo Dan Light (white round concrete tower,
7 m in height) (39°48′⋅4N 127°39′⋅7E).
Directions
(continued from 5.13)
5.37
1
From a position ENE of Yã Do (39°13′N 127°38′E) the
track leads NNW, passing (with positions relative to Paegan
Dan (39°36′N 127°35′E)):
ENE of Hodo Bando (26 miles S) (5.17), a small
peninsula 382 m high, thence:
2
ENE of Kwangsunggotch’i (4½ miles SSW) from
which a light is exhibited, thence:
ENE of a dangerous wreck (11½ miles S) lying
4 miles ENE of Paegan Dan. Paegan Am, a
prominent grey rock 4 m high, forming a good
mark, lies 3¾ cables ESE of this point. Thence:
3
ENE of Yãngã Dan (2 miles NNW), which is 52 m
high, and steep with wooded summits and slopes.
The track then leads to a position about 7 miles SSE of
Oeyangdo Dan, which is a reddish cliffy cape terminating
in two points, the E of which is 40 m high; a light (5.36) is
exhibited from the cape. Oeyangdo Dan, which can be
identified from a distance, has a 58 m hill 2½ cables N and
a 34 m hill 5 cables NNE, both of which are prominent and
from offshore appeared detached from each other.
(Directions continue, for a coastal route ENE at 5.50,
and for Sãhojin Hang at 5.42)
Sãhojin Hang
Chart 885 plan of Hungnam
General information
5.38
1
Position. Sãhojin Hang (39°49′⋅5N 127°38′⋅0E) lies on
the W side of Oeyangdo Dan at the head of Hamhung Man
(5.35) and is exposed SE and SW but sheltered from NE.
Function. Sãhojin Hang serves the industrial town of
Hungnam which has a large chemical complex and metal,
construction materials, textiles and foodstuff industries.
There is also a small fishing industry. The main exports are
chemical products and fertilisers. In 1992, the population of
Hungnam was reported to be 800 000.
2
Port limits. The outer limit of the harbour is defined by
a line drawn from Oeyangdo Dan (39°48′N 127°40′E) to a
point 1 mile S, thence WSW to Sohwa Do (39°45′⋅2N
127°34′⋅7E).
Approach and entry. Sãhojin Hang is approached and
entered through Hamhung Man.
Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by 30 vessels, with a
total of 148 657 dwt.
CHAPTER 5
209
Limiting conditions
5.39
1
Depths. The depths in the bay decrease gradually
towards the head; the bottom is sand.
Deepest and longest berth. No 1 wharf (5.43).
2
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels of up to
10 000 tons and 7⋅6 m draught can be accommodated.
Arrival information
5.40
1
Port operations. Vessels with a draught deeper than
7⋅6 m carry out cargo operations, via barges, in the
anchorage area 1¼ miles SSW of the breakwater.
Notice of ETA required. ETA should be sent to the
agent 10 days, 72, 24, 12 and 4 hours prior to arrival. For
further information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (4).
2
Outer anchorage. A waiting area for foreign vessels
lies 3½ miles SSE of Oeyangdo Dan (39°48′N 127°40′E)
and an anchorage area lies 2 miles W. Both areas are
shown on the chart.
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots board in the waiting area.
Tugs are available.
3
Traffic separation scheme. The port is approached
through a TSS. This scheme is not IMO-adopted. As it is
not known what regulations are in force, mariners are
advised to follow the principles for use of a routeing
system as defined in Rule 10 of the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
Prohibited area. Anchoring is prohibited in the vicinity
of the breakwater light. The limits are shown on the chart.
Harbour
5.41
1
General layout. The harbour consists of a basin with
berths on its three sides protected by a breakwater. There is
a small fishing harbour, 1 mile ESE of the main harbour,
protected by two breakwaters.
Fog. The harbour is fog-bound about twice a year only.
Ice. Thin ice, causing no hindrance to navigation, may
be experienced.
2
Winds. North-west gales raise a heavy sea; in summer S
winds occasionally send in a heavy sea.
Major light:
Oeyangdo Dan Light (39°48′⋅4N 127°39′⋅7E) (5.36).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.37)
5.42
1
From a position about 7 miles SSE of Oeyangdo Dan
(39°48′N 127°40′E) the track leads initially NW, passing
(with positions relative to Oeyangdo Dan):
NE of Hyongje Do (6¾ miles SSW), consisting of
two prominent white rocks 16 and 15 m high,
lying near the S and N ends, respectively, of a
steep-to, rocky shoal, thence:
Through the waiting area (3½ miles S) in which the
pilot boards.
2
Thence from a position about 2¾ miles ENE of Sae
Sãm (4½ miles SW) the track leads N, through the TSS,
passing (with positions relative to Oeyangdo Dan):
W of Sãn Am (3 cables SSW), lying SW of the S
extremity of Oeyangdo Dan; the islet is reddish
brown in colour and prominent. Thence:
W of Oeyangdo Dan (5.37), thence:
3
W of Oegi (1 mile WNW), identified by breakers in
its vicinity; a patch, with a depth of 2⋅1 m over it,
lies 1 cable SE Oegi. Thence:
W of Naegi (1¼ miles), an isolated rock, thence:
W of Taejin Do (1⋅3 miles NNW), which is sparsely
wooded and lies on the coastal bank 1¼ cables N
of Naegi. A tower stands on the summit.
4
The track then leads to a position E of the breakwater
(1¾ miles NE) and WSW of Sojin Do (1½ miles NNW).
Sojin Do, 40 m high, is conical-shaped, thickly wooded and
has the ruins of a temple on its summit. It is connected to
the mainland NE by a causeway and, with Taejin Do, is
prominent.
5
Useful marks:
Sãho Hang Breakwater Lights (39°49′⋅1N
127°39′⋅0E); the light on the N breakwater is
exhibited from a metal post, 3 m in height.
Hungnam Hang Breakwater Light (39°49′⋅3N
127°38′⋅1E).
6
NE Quay Light (39°49′⋅9N 127°37′⋅6E).
Berths
5.43
1
Anchorage. Small local vessels can obtain anchorage,
during the winter when W winds prevail, E of a line
joining Taejin Do (5.42) and Sojin Do (5.42); this
anchorage is protected from N, E and W.
2
Alongside berths. No 1 wharf, 800 m long, is for bulk
and general cargo; No 2, 250 m long, is for small vessels;
No 3, 600 m long, is for general cargo.
3
At Sãho Dong, on the E side of Sãhojin Hang, there is
a customs house, and five wooden piers with depths from
2⋅4 to 3⋅4 m alongside.
Port services
5.44
1
Repairs carried out.
Other facilities: lighters, mechanised cargo handling;
Deratting and Deratting Exemption carried out; hospital.
Supplies. Fresh water available.
2
Communications. Regular by sea with other ports in
Korea. Airport at Yãnp’o, 4 miles SW.
Minor bay
Hamhung Man
5.45
1
Anchorage. During offshore winds vessels can anchor
anywhere in Hamhung Man (39°43′N 127°36′E) (5.35); the
best anchorage is about 1 mile S of Hwa Do in a depth of
15 m. Small local vessels can obtain anchorage in the SW
corner of Hamhung Man, with shelter from winds from SE,
through S to W in depths from 4 to 6 m.
2
River. Kumjin Gang (39°39′N 127°30′E) flows into the
SW side of Hamhung Man, 2 miles W of
Songhwangdangsan Dan. When there is no swell, boats can
enter it; depths within the mouth are from 0⋅6 to 1⋅5 m.
OEYANGDO DAN TO MAYANG DO
General information
Chart 885
Route
5.46
1
From a position about 7 miles SSE of Oeyangdo Dan
(39°48′N 127°40′E) the coastal route leads ENE for
CHAPTER 5
210
30 miles to a position SSE of the SE extremity of Mayang
Do (40°00′N 128°12′E).
Topography
5.47
1
Between Oeyangdo Dan and Pongsu Pando, 25 miles
ENE, the coast is mostly mountainous, with cultivated land
and is thickly populated with many villages.
A bay, between Oeyangdo Dan and Siam Dan, 6½ miles
ENE, has steep rocky points and sandy beaches along its
shores. Between Siam Dan (39°51′N 127°47′E) and Toejo
Man (5.51) 1¼ miles NNE, high steep cliffs form the coast.
2
Between Ansãng Gap (39°53′N 127°53′E) and
Volchanskago Point, 2¾ miles N, the coast is low and
sandy for about 1 mile, becoming high and rocky as the
latter point is approached.
3
Between Haeãjin Dan (39°59′N 127°55′E) and Masan
Dan, 3½ miles NE, the coast is low, sandy and wooded in
places. Sokkun Am, 5 cables E of Haeãjin Dan, and
2½ cables offshore, is a group of above-water rocks the
highest of which is 1 m high. Chuk To, 48 m high, lying
1¼ miles ENE of Haeãjin Do, consists of two cliffy islets
close together. Changgi Do, an islet 12 m high, lies ¾ cable
NW of Chuk To.
4
The coast between Chongyong Dan (40°02′N 128°04′E)
and Pongsu Pando (5.53) 4 miles ESE, is low and sandy
with the exception of Chongyong Dan and a rocky point
1¾ miles E.
Tidal streams
5.48
1
Tidal streams between Ansãng Gap and Pongsu Pando
are very weak and set E at the start of the in-going tide.
Principal marks
5.49
1
Landmarks:
Unju Bong (39°55′N 127°41′E), which is
cone-shaped.
Sunneung San (39°53′N 127°40′E), 429 m high, with
a broad dense wood on its summit.
Samdãk Pong (39°52′N 127°45′E), an isolated peak,
prominent from a distance; it makes a useful mark
for approaching Toejo Man (5.51).
2
Ongnyã Bong, 1¾ miles WNW of Ansãng Gap
(5.50). It has three peaks, and, together with
Ansãng Gap, is a good landmark for identifying
this part of the coast.
3
Major lights:
Oeyangdo Dan Light (39°48′⋅4N 127°39′⋅7E) (5.36).
Mayang Do Light (white 8-sided concrete tower, 8 m
in height) (39°59′⋅7N 128°13′⋅6E).
Directions
(continued from 5.37)
5.50
1
From a position about 7 miles SSE of Oeyangdo Dan
(39°48′N 127°40′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with
positions relative to Ansãng Gap (39°53′N 127°53′E)):
SSE of Siam Dan (5 miles SW); a dangerous wreck
lies 2 miles SW of this point. Thence:
SSE of Jindong Do (2¾ miles WSW), 63 m high and
conical; its E side is cliffy and on its summit there
is a prominent tree. Thence:
2
SSE of Tae Sãm (2 miles WSW), 42 m high and
2½ cables offshore, which is connected with the
mainland NNE by a reef; this reef extends
1½ cables S of Tae Sãm and on this part of the
reef there is a sharp rock, 14 m high. Tae Sãm is
difficult to identify. Thence:
3
SSE of Ansãng Gap which is connected to the
mainland by a sandy peninsula; the S and E sides
of the peninsula have high, precipitous cliffs,
which in most places are steep-to; the cliff
3½ cables WNW of Ansãng Gap is 80 m high.
When seen from a distance Ansãng Gap has the
appearance of being detached. A light (white
6-sided concrete tower, 8 m in height) (39°53′⋅7N
127°53′⋅0E) is exhibited from the E extremity of
the peninsula. Thence:
4
SSE of a large irregular shaped bay (6 miles NE),
entered between Ansãng Gap and Mayang Do, and
at the head of which lies Songyong Man (5.52).
The track then leads to a position SSE of Mayangdo
Dan (17 miles ENE), the SE extremity of the island of
Mayang Do, from which Mayang Do Light (5.49) is
exhibited. A rocky patch, with a depth of 1⋅8 m over it, lies
2¼ cables E of Mayangdo Dan, to which it is connected by
a ridge.
5
Useful marks:
Light (metal framework tower) (39°59′N 127°57′E)
exhibited from Chuk To (5.47).
Light (40°01′N 127°59′E) exhibited off the entrance
to Songyong Man.
(Directions continue at 5.66)
Anchorages and bays
Toejo Man
5.51
1
Description. Toejo Man (39°53′N 127°48′E) is entered
between Siam Dan and Sogidong Dan, 2 miles NE, and is
the best anchorage on this part of the coast. Toejo village,
at the head of the bay, consists of a number of thatched
cottages. Several other villages stand on the shores of Toejo
Man.
2
Topography. The shores of the bay are high, steep and
indented by small bays with sandy beaches at their heads.
A reef extends S from Sogidong Dan, the NE entrance
point of Toejo Man. Ib Am, a prominent white rock, 8 m
high, stands on the reef.
Ice. Toejo Man is never ice-bound, but during
exceptionally cold periods there is thin ice close inshore.
Landmark:
The spur of a thickly wooded hill, ENE of Toejo, is a
good mark for identifying the head of the bay.
3
Anchorage can be obtained in Toejo Man in depths
from 10 to 16 m, mud, where it is sheltered from all winds
except SE; these do not cause much swell. Yãho Myoji,
with a depth of 9 m, mud, affords the best shelter in Toejo
Man; the SE entrance point of this anchorage is on the SW
side of Toejo Man, 1½ cables within the entrance. There is
a sandy beach at the head of Yãho Man where boats can
land.
Supplies. Small quantities of provisions can be obtained
at Toejo village.
Songyong Man
5.52
1
Description. Songyong Man (40°02′N 128°01′E) is
entered between Masan Dan, a low, isolated, terraced hilly
point, and Chongyong Dan, a rocky point 4 miles ENE.
Topography. Kiwa Pau, a black prominent rock 5 m
high, lies close off the middle of the entrance to Songyong
Man; shallow water extends ¾ cable from its NW side, but
in other directions the rock is steep-to. Two islets, the
CHAPTER 5
211
higher 8 m high, stand near the E end of a reef extending
6 cables E from Masan Dan.
2
Local knowledge is necessary for the anchorages in
Songyong Man.
Landmarks:
Yãngkki Bong (40°12′N 127°53′E) an isolated,
conical peak, 11½ miles NNW of Masan Dan.
Ib Bong (40°16′N 127°56′E), with a flat summit.
3
Mukpang San (40°08′N 128°04′E); when viewed from
seaward the mountain has a conical shape.
Useful mark:
Light (40°01′N 127°59′E) exhibited off the entrance
to Songyong Man.
4
Anchorages:
Chãnjin Myoji, on the N side of Masan Dan, affords
sheltered anchorage, except during N winds, in
depths from 7 to 11 m, mud. This anchorage is
sheltered from S by a reef which extends 6 cables
E from Masan Dan. Songyong Man Lighthouse
stands on the reef. There is a sandy beach here
with several small landing stages. Chãnjin Ni, a
village W of the anchorage, maintains
communication by sea with other ports in Korea.
5
Songyong Po, a small bay at the head of Songyong
Man, is used as an anchorage, in depths from 7 m,
sand, by small local vessels. Depths decrease
abruptly N and the anchorage is open SE. The SW
entrance point of Songyong Po is the extremity of
a small peninsula, and the NE entrance point has
high precipitous cliffs; both are thickly wooded
and easily identified. Choku Do, 26 m high,
4 cables from the head of the bay, is thickly
wooded.
Mayang Do and the strait on its north side
Korean Chart 121 (see 1.22)
General information
5.53
1
Description. Mayang Do (40°00′N 128°12′E) lies
2½ miles ESE of Pongsu Pando. It is separated from the
mainland N by a narrow strait, 4 miles long. The strait,
together with the bays on both sides of it, constitutes a
spacious anchorage for large vessels.
Topography. Mayang Do attains an elevation of 179 m
in a sharp peak 1¾ miles ENE of Daegu Dan, the SW
extremity of the island; 1¾ cables SW of this peak is
another sharp peak, 170 m high. The lower part of both of
these peaks has a striking reddish appearance. The N and
W sides of the island are indented; the S and E sides are
cliffy and only slightly indented. The whole island is
cultivated, but there are few woods; the soil is clay. There
are few fresh water streams.
2
The N coast of Mayang Do, is indented by Tosãngni
Man (5.56), Chunghungni Man (5.57) and Munamni Man
(5.58). The N shore of the strait between the NE point of
Pongsu Pando and Saam Dan, 1¾ miles ENE, is low and
sandy with many small piers and jetties; farther E it is
hilly.
3
Pongsu Pando is a prominent headland of which the
summit is a conical peak, 211 m high, appearing as an
island from a distance. A tower on the peak can be seen
even when the hill is covered in snow. There is a
prominent white landslip at the SW point of the headland.
Pongsu Pando is joined to the mainland by a low, sandy
neck.
4
The town of Yuktaedong Ri stands on the coast NE of
Pongsu Pando; the village of Kadun Ji stands 1 mile NE of
the town. Three bays indent the coast between Saam Dan,
(40°02′N 128°12′E) and Saekchak Tan, a promontory 45 m
high, 1¾ miles E.
5
Taegu Do, 37 m high and densely wooded, lies
2½ cables ESE of Usan Dan (40°01′⋅5N 128°12′⋅9E). The S
side of this island is cliffy and fairly prominent; a spit,
with a depth of 1⋅2 m over it, extends 1 cable NW from
Taegu Do. Gogsanam Dan, a headland, stands 6 cables E of
Usan Dan. A detached shoal, with a depth of 1⋅2 m over it
and steep-to, lies 1 cable S of the headland.
Currents and tidal streams. Currents off Mayang Do
are weak and variable; tidal streams are imperceptible.
6
Ice. The strait N of Mayang Do never freezes, but ice
forms in the bays on the N side of Mayang Do in
December and January. Although the ice will bear a man’s
weight it does not impede navigation. Kul Po (5.55), a
shallow landlocked bay on the W side of Mayang Do, is
covered with ice over 0⋅5 m thick for about 4 months.
7
Prohibited area. The coastal waters of Mayang Do, W,
S and E of the island, are prohibited to navigation. The
limits are marked on the chart.
Directions
5.54
1
There are no specific directions for approaching Mayang
Do as the W, S and E sides of the island are prohibited to
navigation.
The strait N of Mayang Do is entered from the W
between Pongsu Pando (5.53) and Gojong Dan, 7½ cables
ENE, which is a gravel point and the NW extremity of
Mayang Do; Eungam Dan, another gravel point with a spit,
with depths of less than 5 m over it, extending 1½ cables
N, lies 4 cables NE of Gojong Dan.
2
The W entrance can be identified by the summit of
Pongsu Pando and the peaks on Mayang Do. This entrance
is rather shallow and partly obstructed by shoals. It should
not be used by large vessels.
The E entrance to the strait lies between Pogulgumi
Dan, the N extremity of Mayang Do, and Gogsanam Dan,
9 cables N. This entrance is free from dangers in the
fairway.
3
Caution. During the fishing season, from June to
September, care should be taken to avoid fishing nets
which are laid off the E side of Mayang Do.
Kul Po
5.55
1
Description. Kul Po (39°59′⋅7N 128°11′⋅0E) on the W
side of Mayang Do, S of Gojong Do (40°00′⋅2N
128°10′⋅2E), is a boat harbour with an entrance that is
almost shut by a low gravel spit extending 5 cables ENE
from the SW side of the bay.
Caution. This harbour lies within a prohibited area
(5.53).
2
Anchorage can be obtained off the entrance to Kul Po
in depths from 9 to 11 m; it is not a good anchorage and
only a short stay is advisable.
Tosãngni Man
5.56
1
Description. Tosãngni Man (40°00′⋅2N 128°11′⋅5E) is
the W-most of the three bays indenting the N coast of
Mayang Do; there are no dangers more than ½ cable off its
shores. Sin Do, an island 38 m high, lies ¾ cable N of the
CHAPTER 5
212
E entrance point of the bay. A channel, with depths from
1⋅3 to 6⋅8 m in it, leads between the island and Mayang
Do.
Anchorage can be obtained by small vessels in depths
of about 12 m, mud.
Chunghungni Man
5.57
1
Chunghungni Man (40°00′⋅0N 128°12′⋅0E) is the middle
one of the three bays on the N coast of Mayang Do. Yo
Am, steep-to and with a depth of 3 m over it, lies
2¾ cables SSW of Shijigan Dan, the E entrance point of
the bay. Igumi, a village, stands on the E side of
Chunghungni Man.
Munamni Man
5.58
1
Description. Munamni Man (40°00′⋅3N 128°13′⋅2E) is
the E-most of the three bays on the N coast of Mayang
Do; it is free from dangers in the fairway but a reef,
extending 1½ cables offshore in places, fringes its shores.
Bungan Ri, 2½ cables within the E entrance to Munamni
Man, is the largest of several villages in the bay. Limited
quantities of fresh provisions can be obtained.
2
Anchorage can be obtained in Munamni Man in depths
of about 15 m, but it is exposed to the N.
Sin’po Hang
5.59
1
Description. Sin’po Hang (40°01′⋅7N 128°12′⋅3E) is
situated on the N side of the strait separating Mayang Do
from the mainland. It is entered between Saam Dan
(40°01′⋅4N 128°11′⋅8E) and Usan Dan, 8½ cables E.
2
It is not a good harbour, although, of all the bays
mentioned above, it provides the best anchorage for small
vessels in N winds. Sin’po town stands at the head of the
bay and is the base of the fishing industry on this coast.
The chief exports are fish, fish oil and millet; the chief
imports are liquor and machine oil.
3
Tidal streams in the bay are weak.
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
4
Landmarks (positioned from Saam Dan (40°01′⋅4N
128°11′⋅8E)):
Hill (2½ miles NNE), 41 m high, standing on the W
side of the bay; a monument and three radio masts
stand on this hill.
Signal mast (4½ cables NNE).
Chimney (1¼ cables NNE).
Chimney (4 cables NNE).
5
Anchorage, protected except from S, can be obtained in
depths of about 7 m, mud and sand.
Facility. A hospital.
Supplies. Limited quantities are available.
Communications. Regular by sea with ports in Japan
and Korea.
Anchorages
Chart 885
Mugye Po
5.60
1
Description. Mugye Po (39°54′N 127°52′E), on the W
side of the peninsula of which Ansãng Gap (5.50) is the
SE extremity, has a low sandy beach at its head.
Depths. A reef extends 1 cable SE from the NW
entrance point of Mugye Po; a rock, 5 m high, lies on the
reef.
Anchorage can be obtained in Mugye Po by small
vessels although it is somewhat open SW. During SW
winds vessels can obtain good anchorage off the NE side
of Ansãng Gap peninsula in depths from 15 to 18 m.
Samho Dong
5.61
1
Description. Samho Dong (39°56′N 127°52′E), the main
village on this stretch of coastline, stands in the SW corner
of a small bay lying between Volchanskago Point, which is
30 m high, and Haeãjin Dan, 124 m high, 3 miles NNE.
There is a pier at the village, E of which lies a sandy
beach. The approach to the beach is very shoal and it is
not a good landing place.
2
Topography. The bay is fronted by Chãnch’o Do, lying
7½ cables NE of Volchanskago Point; it is a small cliffy
islet, 53 m high, surrounded by a reef extending 2 cables
offshore. About 1¼ miles ENE of Chãnch’o Do lies Sãm
Pawi, 8 m high, with some above-water rocks close to it.
Local knowledge is necessary.
3
Anchorage can be obtained anywhere in the small bay
SW of Haeãjin Man in depths from 7 to 15 m, over a
bottom of sand. Small local vessels can obtain anchorage,
except during NE winds, off Samho Dong sheltered from E
by Chãnch’o Do.
Supplies. Small quantities of provisions can be obtained
in Samho Dong.
MAYANG DO TO MUSU DAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 885
Area covered
5.62
1
This section describes the coastal route from Mayang Do
(40°00′N 128°12′E) to Musu Dan (40°50′N 129°43′E),
85 miles NE. It is arranged as follows:
Mayang Do to Hwangdan Dan (5.63).
Hwangdan Dan to Yongdae Gap (5.69).
Yongdae Gap to Musu Dan (5.79).
MAYANG DO TO HWANGDAN DAN
General information
Chart 885
Route
5.63
1
From a position SSE of the SE extremity of Mayang Do
(40°00′N 128°14′E) the route leads NE, for about 22 miles,
to a position SSE of Hwangdan Dan (40°11′N 128°38′E).
CHAPTER 5
213
Topography
5.64
1
Between Songdo Gap (40°02′N 128°19′E) and Yonggo
Dan, 7 miles NE, there is a bay with a white sandy beach.
Between Eungam Dan (40°08′N 128°32′E) and Hwangdan
Dan, 6 miles ENE, the coast is hilly and broken in places
by small valleys.
Principal marks
5.65
1
Landmarks:
Songgot San, 2½ miles NE of Gwaeam Do, which is
44 m high and thickly wooded. The hill stands in
the middle of a white beach and has white cliffs to
seaward. With Gwaeam Do (5.66) it forms a good
mark.
2
Taedãk San (40°19′N 128°24′E); mountain ranges
extend S and SE from this mountain towards the
coast.
Songmae Bong (40°10′N 128°29′E), two prominent
brown, rocky peaks, the higher of which is 395 m
high.
3
Gwan San (40°12′N 128°37′E), 412 m high, with a
prominent pointed peak, backing Hwangdan Dan
(5.66).
Major light:
Mayang Do Light (39°59′⋅7N 128°13′⋅6E) (5.49).
Directions
(continued from 5.50)
5.66
1
From a position SSE of the SE extremity of Mayang Do
(40°00′N 128°14′E) the track leads NE, passing (with
positions relative to Yonggo Dan (40°06′N 128°27′E)):
SE of Songdo Gap (7½ miles SW), a rocky, steep
point with two summits 60 and 68 m high; these
are prominent from a distance where they appear
as two detached islets. The point is thickly wooded
and blackish in colour. A detached, rocky shoal,
with a depth of 6⋅7 m over it, lies 1¾ cables ESE
of Songdo Gap. A light is exhibited from the
point. Thence:
2
SE of Gwaeam Do (5 miles SW), a prominent group
of above and below-water rocks; the W and largest
rock, 3½ cables offshore, is 47 m high with some
trees on its summit. There is a depth of 2⋅7 m in
the channel between the coast and Gwaeam Do.
Thence:
3
SE of Yonggo Dan. The point, which is nearly
steep-to, is 81 m high and cliffy to seaward. It is
prominent from a distance. A light is exhibited
from a position 1¼ miles NW of the point.
Thence:
SE of Eungam Dan (4½ miles ENE), a steep point
317 m high; it can be identified by a brown rock,
35 m high, on its seaward side. A rock, with a
depth of less than 2 m over it, lies 5 cables ENE
of Eungam Dan and 2½ cables offshore.
4
The track then leads to a position SE of Hwangdan Dan
(40°11′N 128°38′E), a steep cliffy point, reddish in colour
and prominent.
(Directions continue at 5.72)
Anchorages and bays
Korean Chart 121 (see 1.22)
Yanghwa Man
5.67
1
Description. Yanghwa Man (40°03′N 128°16′E) is
entered between Saekchak Tan (40°02′N 128°14′E) and
Songdo Gap (5.66), 4½ miles E. Three villages, Sinho Ri,
Huho Ri and Yuko Ri stand on the W, N and E sides of
the bay, respectively.
Topography. Kachung Dan is a small point, 30 m high,
on the SE side of Yanghwa Man, 2 miles WSW of Songdo
Gap. A peak, 125 m high, stands 7½ cables SE of Kachung
Dan; a tower stands on the peak
2
Useful mark:
Tonghodong Light exhibited from Hwira Dan,
1⋅8 miles NNW of Kachung Dan.
Anchorage can be obtained in Yanghwa Man by large
vessels in moderate depths. The bay is exposed S but free
from dangers.
Chart 885, Korean Chart 118−B (see 1.22)
Sinchang Hang
5.68
1
Description. Sinchang Hang (40°08′N 128°28′E) is
entered between Yonggo Dan (40°06′N 128°27′E) (5.66)
and Eungam Dan (5.66), 4 miles NE. The town of
Sinchang stands on the SW bank of Namdae Chon, a
shallow river which flows into the head of the bay,
1¾ miles NNE of Yonggo Dan.
2
In calm weather small boats can enter Namdae Chon but
the position of the river’s mouth and the depths are
constantly changing.
Useful marks:
Dansai Dan, consisting of brown cliffs 27 m high
standing on the sandy N shore of the river.
3
Sinchang Hang Light exhibited from a structure
situated on the N shore of the bay.
Anchorage. Sinchang Hang is open SE and, except with
N winds, a heavy swell sets into the bay. It cannot be
recommended as an anchorage. It was reported in 1930 that
there was less water than charted at the head of the bay.
Berths. A basin, protected by S and W breakwaters,
fronts the village of Sinpung Ni in the NE corner of the
bay. There are berths on the inside of the breakwaters and
at a quay on the NW side of the basin.
4
Communications. The town has communication by sea
with Unggi Hang (5.177) and other ports.
HWANGDAN DAN TO YONGDAE GAP
General information
Chart 885
Route
5.69
1
From a position SE of Hwangdan Dan (40°11′N
128°38′E) the route leads NE, for about 27 miles, to a
position SE of Yongdae Gap (40°28′N 129°04′E).
Topography
5.70
1
The coast between Ch’aho Hang (40°12′N 128°39′E)
and Changdong Mal, 2¼ miles N, consists of cliffs
alternating with gravel beaches. Chak Do, 1 mile S of
Changdong Mal, is a thickly wooded peninsula, 55 m high,
connected to the mainland by a narrow low gravel isthmus.
Yujin Ni, a village, stands on the coast close NW of the W
end of the low gravel isthmus. Between Changdong Mal
CHAPTER 5
214
(40°14′N 128°40′E) and Ch’ongnyong Mal, 4 miles N, the
coast is indented by Iwãn Hang (5.74).
2
The coast between Ch’ongnyong Mal and Deisegi Dan,
11 miles ENE, is partly cliffy and partly low and sandy;
thence to Yongdae Gap, 11 miles farther ENE, there is a
stretch of low sandy beach. There is no landing place,
except at the mouth of Namdae Chon (5.78) which enters
the sea 4½ miles NE of Deisegi Dan. Ranges of mountains
which slope down to the coast extend about 13 miles
inland.
Principal marks
5.71
1
Landmarks:
Nan Do (40°19′N 128°46′E), a grey cliffy islet 62 m
high and steep-to; it is densely wooded and
prominent from a distance. A rock, 35 m high,
stands close off the N end of the islet.
Chudog San (40°25′N 128°37′E), 996 m high and
dome-shaped, like two peaks W of it.
2
Yomsu Dae (40°24′N 128°54′E), a small black, hilly,
point 71 m high, standing on a white sandy beach.
Changdok San (40°30′N 128°35′E), forming, with two
peaks 1482 m high, 2 miles NW of it, a group of
three peaks.
Unju San (40°29′N 128°53′E), consisting of three
grey peaks.
3
Dadog San (40°31′N 128°49′E), with two peaks.
Bongsu San (40°29′N 128°57′E), 207 m high, brown
and treeless with a stone cairn on its summit.
Yãnhwa San 40°37′N 128°54′E). With other peaks on
this range, which extends 6 miles NW of it, this
mountain can be seen from a good distance.
Directions
(continued from 5.66)
5.72
1
From a position SE of Hwangdan Dan (40°11′N
128°38′E) the track leads NE, passing (with positions
relative to Yongdae Gap (40°28′N 129°04′E)):
SE of Chãnch’o Do, an island 124 m high, fronting
the entrance to Ch’aho Hang (5.73); it is densely
wooded and when seen from a distance appears
black. A light (beacon) is exhibited from the S
side of the island. Thence:
2
SE of Changdong Mal (23 miles SW), a treeless point
rising to a wooded summit, 196 m high 5 cables
SW. Gar Am, 3 cables ESE of Changdong Mal is a
prominent greyish rock 11 m high. A rock, 2 m
high, lies at the E end of a reef which extends
7½ cables E and 1 cable W from Gar Am. A reef,
with a drying height of 0⋅3 m, lies 2½ cables SE
of Gar Am. Thence:
3
SE of Nan Do (17 miles WSW) (5.71), thence:
SE of Deisegi Dan (10 miles WSW), a steep point
108 m high. A stretch of white sandy beach close
NE helps to identify the point. Thence:
SE of Ogar Am (8 miles WSW), a rock which is
prominent. Tanchon Hang Light is exhibited from
a position about 7 cables NNE of Ogar Am.
Thence:
4
SE of the entrance to Namdae Chon (6 miles WSW)
(5.78), thence:
SE of Kwae Do (3½ miles WSW), a brown isolated
rock. This rock is prominent from a distance. Two
shoals, with a depth of 5 m over them, lie 3 and
4 cables NW of Kwae Do, respectively.
5
The track then leads to a position SE of Yongdae Gap, a
rocky, cliffy point, 46 m high. A light is exhibited from the
point.
(Directions continue at 5.83)
Anchorages and harbours
Korean Chart 118−B (see 1.22)
Ch’aho Hang
5.73
1
Position. Ch’aho Hang (40°12′⋅0N 128°39′⋅4E) is
entered between Chãnch’o Do (40°11′⋅5N 128°39′⋅6E) and
the mainland 4 cables W.
Function. It is a harbour of refuge and the principal
fishing base in the area. The town of Ch’aho stands on the
W side of the head of the bay.
2
Topography. The E side of the entrance to Ch’aho Hang
is formed by Chãnch’o Do (5.72) and So Do, a treeless
islet 55 m (184 ft) high, which lies close N of Chãnch’o
Do and is joined to it by a drying reef. Haemang San,
44 m (144 ft) high and densely wooded lies about 2 cables
N of Chãnch’o Do North Light (40°12′⋅2N 128°39′⋅6E); Gi
Am, 6 m (21 ft) high, about 2 cables NNW of Haemang
San, lies on the E side of the harbour and is connected to
the mainland E.
3
Depths. Both sides of Ch’aho Hang are fringed by a
reef which, in places, extends 1 cable offshore; 7 cables
within the entrance the navigable channel is only ¾ cable
wide. The channel N of So Do is ½ cable wide and foul; it
can be used only by boats.
4
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range about 0⋅0 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Directions for entering harbour. Ch’aho Hang is
approached from the S. When a position is reached about
7 cables SW of Chãnch’o Do, the alignment (014°) of the
W extremity of Haemang San, 2 cables N of To Bong
(40°12′⋅2N 128°39′⋅6E), with a 100 m (328 ft) high hill,
4¾ cables NNE, leads through the entrance, passing:
5
E of Ib Am, a prominent rock 24 m high, lying close
S of the W entrance point of Ch’aho Hang, thence:
W of Chãnch’o Do and So Do.
Thence when the summit of So Do bears 104°, the track
leads into the harbour on the alignment (349°) of Gangan
Mal, 5½ cables NNW of Chãnch’o Do North Light, with a
131 m (430 ft) high hill, 6 cables N.
6
Useful marks:
Light (40°11′⋅5N 128°39′⋅5E) (5.72) exhibited from
the S end of Chãnch’o Do.
Light (metal column on white triangular metal tower,
20 m in height) (40°12′⋅2N 128°39′⋅6E) exhibited
from To Bong.
7
Anchorage. Ch’aho Hang affords anchorage to moderate
size vessels in depths of about 16 m, mud, in the middle of
the harbour. A recommended anchorage is with Gangan
Mal, the point on the E side of the harbour 5½ cables
NNW of So Do, bearing 047°, distance 1¼ cables, in a
depth of 15 m, mud.
8
Berths. An iron pier, with a depth of 9⋅1 m alongside its
T-shaped head, lies at the S end of the town, 1 mile N of
Ib Am; moderate size vessels can lie alongside. There are
also other berthing facilities midway along the E side of
the harbour; depths are less than 5⋅0 m alongside.
9
Supplies: fuel; fresh water; provisions.
Communications. Regular by sea with Unggi Hang
(5.177) and ports in Japan. The harbour is connected to the
railway.
CHAPTER 5
215
Iwãn Hang
5.74
1
Description. Iwãn Hang (40°17′N 128°39′E) is entered
between Changdong Mal (40°14′N 128°40′E) (5.72) and
Ch’ongnyong Mal, 4 miles N. It is open E and winds from
that direction create a heavy swell in the bay.
Topography. Ch’ongnyong Mal is a brown cliffy point
50 m high. It is sparsely wooded and fairly prominent from
a distance. Sanhoji, a prominent 34 m high hill, stands
1½ miles NW of Ch’ongnyong Mal. The shores of Iwãn
Hang consist of a white sandy beach which is densely
wooded.
2
There are some villages on or near the coast including
Yombun Ri and Songdan Ri, 1¾ and 3¼ miles NW of
Changdong Mal, respectively. Gunsãn, another village,
stands 1¼ miles NW of Ch’ongnyong Mal.
Depths. Sajin Am, with a depth of 8⋅6 m over it, lies
3½ cables SW of Ch’ongnyong Mal.
3
Anchorages & landing. Vessels can obtain anchorage,
during S winds, N of Yombun Ri in depths from 13 to
15 m. There is also an anchorage 7½ cables W of
Ch’ongnyong Mal in a depth of 10 m, over a bottom of
sand. Boats can land on a sandy beach at the S end of
Gunsãn.
4
Communications. There is occasional communication by
sea with Unggi Hang and Japan.
Chart 885
Jag Do and vicinity
5.75
1
Jag Do (40°19′N 128°43′E) is a wooded islet with a flat
summit, 50 m high, lying 6 cables offshore. Abreast Jag Do
a reef extends SSE from the coast to within a short
distance of the islet. Jãgetsu Am, a white rock 15 m high,
stands on the reef.
2
The coast from Jag Do to the W entrance point of
Bunseiri, 1½ miles NE, is fringed by scattered rocks and
reefs between which boats can approach the coast. Bunseiri
is protected by a reef, behind which small vessels can lie
in depths of about 7 m.
3
Rishin, a small bay situated 2¾ miles NE of Jag Do, is
open S but sheltered from the N by high hills and from the
E by Daegu Dan, a projecting grey cliff 53 m high. A
prominent grey cliff stands 2½ miles ENE of Daegu Dan.
Sabujin
5.76
1
At Sabujin (40°24′N 128°55′E), close NE of Yomsu Dae
(5.71), there is an artificial harbour sheltered by two
breakwaters.
Korean Chart 110 (see 1.22)
Yongdae Myoji
5.77
1
Description. Yongdae Myoji (40°28′N 129°03′E) is a
small bay on the W side of Yongdae Gap (5.72). The bay
is open SW and is not a safe anchorage in bad weather
except with NE winds.
Topography. Sparsely wooded hills, with heights of less
than 60 m, lying E of the bay, afford protection from NE.
So Ho, 118 m high, 1¼ miles NW of Yongdae Gap, is a
good landmark for approaching the anchorage.
2
Dangers. A steep-to shoal, with a depth of 5⋅0 m over
it, lies 3¼ cables offshore, 3 cables NW of Yongdae Gap.
The W side of the peninsula, terminating in Yongdae Gap
is foul for a distance of 5 cables. Zãshi Am, 1¼ miles
WNW of Yongdae Gap and 3½ cables offshore, is 0⋅5 m
high; close N of this rock is a shoal, with a depth of 6⋅8 m
over it. Both this shoal and Zãshi Am are steep-to.
3
Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained about
6 cables NW of Yongdae Gap and 3 cables offshore, in a
depth of 10⋅5 m, over a bottom of fine sand.
Harbour. A small harbour protected by two breakwaters
is situated on the E side of the bay, 5½ cables NNW of
Yongdae Gap. A light is exhibited from the head of the N
breakwater.
Minor river
Namdae Chon
5.78
1
Namdae Chon (40°26′N 128°56′E) is a narrow and
shallow river, entered 6 miles WSW of Yongdae Gap; in S
winds it is dangerous to enter. A group of three
above-water rocks, the highest of which is 3 m high, lies
9 cables E of the river mouth; the group is steep-to within
a distance of 2 cables. The town of Dancheon stands on the
N bank of the river, 2½ miles within the entrance.
YONGDAE GAP TO MUSU DAN
General information
Chart 885
Route
5.79
1
From a position SE of Yongdae Gap (40°28′N 129°04′E)
the route leads ENE, for about 43 miles, to a position ESE
of Musu Dan (40°50′N 129°43′E).
Topography
5.80
1
The coast between Yongdae Gap (40°28′N 129°04′E)
and Sajin Dan, 13 miles NNE, is high; it is fringed by
numerous rocks, most of which are steep-to. Between Sajin
Dan and Yujin Dan, 4¼ miles ENE, the coast is indented
by Immyãng Hae.
2
The coast for 4 miles NE of Yujin Dan is high, thence
to Tadong Dan, 8 miles farther NE, it becomes low and
sandy. The coast between Tadong Dan (40°47′N 129°31′E)
and Musu Dan, 9½ miles ENE, is indented by several small
coves.
Natural conditions
5.81
1
Local magnetic anomaly. A local magnetic anomaly
which increases the normal magnetic variation by 2° has
often been experienced in the vicinity of Musu Dan.
Currents and tidal streams. The current off the coast
between Yujin Dan and Nan Do, an island 11 miles ESE,
probably sets S. Between Nan Do and Musu Dan (40°50′N
129°43′E) it may set E or W.
2
From observations made about 2 miles seaward of Yujin
Dan there appeared to be an E set of about 1 kn in that
vicinity, while from observations made about 5 miles
seaward of Nan Do there appeared to be a W set of about
½ kn. The directions and rates of these currents cannot be
relied upon. The irregularity of the current is due to
deflection caused by the islands of Nan Do (5.71) and
Yang Do (5.84), 7 miles NNW.
3
The tidal streams off this coast are practically
imperceptible.
CHAPTER 5
216
Principal marks
5.82
1
Landmarks:
Machol Lyong (40°38′N 129°04′E), standing at the S
end of a mountain range 11 miles WSW of Yujin
Dan. The mountain is a pointed peak, 872 m high.
The mountain range extends NNW with several
other prominent rocky peaks.
2
Hu San (40°43°N 129°17′E).
Yujin Dan (40°39′N 129°18′E); it is prominent from
E and S.
Kwanam Bong (40°43′N 129°19′E), 323 m high,
standing 1¼ miles E of Hu San.
3
Kwanam Bong (40°50′N 129°27′E), 497 m high and
resembling a cockscomb.
Nungsan Bong (40°53′N 129°31′E).
Major lights:
Sajin Dan Light (white 8-sided concrete tower, 8 m in
height) (40°39′⋅6N 129°12′⋅8E).
4
Musu Dan Light (white round concrete tower, 9 m in
height) (40°50′⋅2N 129°43′⋅0E).
Directions
(continued from 5.72)
Yongdae Gap to Yujin Dan
5.83
1
From a position SE of Yongdae Gap (40°28′N 129°04′E)
the track leads NE, passing (with positions from Yongdae
Gap):
SE of Changhang Hyãngje Am (1 mile NE), lying
close off a small rocky point, 35 m high.
Changhang Hyãngje Am consists of two pointed
rocks 18 m high; the E rock is white and
prominent. Thence:
2
SE of Jo Am (1¾ miles NE), which is an isolated
rock, 1⋅7 m high, lying 2 cables offshore, thence:
SE of Majãnhyãnje Am (2¼ miles NE), a brown rock
19 m high, thence:
SE of Dog Am (3½ miles NE) lying 6 cables
offshore. Dog Am is a black rock 2⋅5 m high,
which is steep-to on its E side; this rock is
connected to the mainland W by a reef on which
there is a depth of 1⋅8 m at a distance of 2 cables
offshore. Thence:
3
SE of Samgun Am (7 miles NE), a group of rocks
lying 4 cables offshore; the largest is 4⋅0 m high.
The track then leads to a position SE of Yujin Dan
(16½ miles NE). A dangerous wreck lies off the S side of
the point.
Yujin Dan to Musu Dan
5.84
1
From the position SE of Yujin Dan (40°39′N 129°18′E)
the track continues NE, passing (with positions relative to
Yujin Dan):
SE of Fusan Am (1¼ miles NNE) which is a group
of several above-water rocks lying 3 cables
offshore. The highest of the rocks is 23 m high.
With the exception of these rocks, the coast in the
vicinity is steep-to and there are depths of over
18 m, 7½ cables offshore. Thence:
2
SE of Nan Do (11½ miles ESE), a white, barren,
rocky islet, which resembles a cockscomb from N
and S. Several rocks fringe Nan Do, the two
situated E of the islet being very pointed. The islet
and rocks are steep-to. The islet is noted for
mirage effects which can be expected between
about the middle of May and the end of July.
They occur at about 0900, sometimes disappearing
during the forenoon, but at other times lasting until
about 1600. On such occasions Nan Do may
resemble a lighthouse or a man-of-war; the
changes are very sudden. Thence:
3
SE of Yang Do (27½ miles NE) which are the two
NW, and Kanghui Do the SE, of a group of islets,
separated from each other by shoal water. The W
and largest islet of the group is 70 m high with a
small village on its E side. The E islet of Yang Do
is 47 m high. Both islets have gently sloping hills
and are cultivated. Kanghui Do, 116 m high, the
highest of the group, is steep and uninhabited.
4
The track then leads to a position ESE of Musu Dan
which is the S extremity of a stretch of coast consisting of
high ochre-coloured cliffs which rise to 546 m in
Chimabawi San and slope gradually S ending in cliffs
about 80 m high. A light (5.82) is exhibited from the cape.
A rock, 17 m high, stands close S of Musu Dan.
(Directions continue at 5.104)
Sãngjin Hang and approaches
General information
5.85
1
Position. Sãngjin Hang (40°40′N 129°12′E) lies in the
SW part of Immyãng Hae and is one of the more
important harbours on the NE coast of Korea.
Function. The harbour handles general cargo, timber
and fish products. It fronts the town of Sãngjin which, in
2002, was reported to have a population of about 230 000,
and is a seat of local government.
2
Topography. The land on each side of the entrance to
Immyãng Hae is high; the head of the bay is sandy.
Port limits. The S limit of Sãngjin Hang is a line
joining Sajin Dan (40°39′N 129°13′E) with a beacon
standing 1¾ miles NNW of Yujin Dan.
3
Approach and entry. Sãngjin Hang is approached from
the SSE and entered through Immyãng Hae.
Traffic. In 2003, 10 vessels called at the port totalling
46 713 dwt.
Limiting conditions
5.86
1
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Arrival information
5.87
1
Outer anchorages. Small vessels can obtain anchorage
in a bay on the E side of Immyãng Hae abreast the village
of Yujin which stands 7½ cables NNW of Yujin Dan. This
bay, which has depths from 5 to 9 m in it, is open W but
affords shelter from N and E.
2
Anchorage can also be obtained SW of Dongchon on
the E side of the mouth of Immyãng Chon, 2 miles NW of
Yujin Dan, with shelter from N and E.
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in the
vicinity of the breakwater extending NE from Hanggu Dan
and off the N facing jetty in the S part of the port.
3
Pilotage. For information on pilotage see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Tugs are available.
Quarantine. There is a quarantine station at Sãngjin.
CHAPTER 5
217
Harbour
5.88
1
General layout. The harbour occupies two small bays
separated by Sãngjin Bando, a cliffy tongue of land
connected to the mainland by a low isthmus. A breakwater,
500 m in length, extends NNE from Hanggu Dan
(40°39′⋅6N 129°12′⋅8E), the NE point of Sãngjin Bando;
the main cargo handling berth is situated close W of the
root of this breakwater.
2
A timber storage berth lies on the N side of the estuary
of Hanchãn Chãn to the N of the town and is protected by
two breakwaters. Sãngjin Ohang, the fishing harbour, is
situated in the bay S of Sãngjin Bando and is partially
protected by a breakwater extending ENE from the shore.
3
Ice. The rivers usually freeze during the first ten days of
December and thaw about mid-March; the harbour is
unaffected. Drift-ice rarely reaches the shores of Immyãng
Hae; however thin ice is sometimes seen floating in the
middle of the bay but it does not affect navigation.
4
Winds. During April and May, from about 1100 to
1500, strong S or SSW winds, known locally as the
Sãngjin sand-winds, occur frequently. Abnormally warm
and dry winds sometimes blow down from the mountains
in spring and early summer.
Climatic table. See 1.173 and 1.181.
5
Landmark:
The white cliffs at the foot of Yangpodog, a mountain
314 m high 1 mile N of Yujin Dan (40°39′N
129°18′E), are most prominent and form the best
landmark for a vessel approaching Sãngjin Hang
from S.
6
Major light:
Sajin Dan Light (40°39′⋅6N 129°12′⋅8E) (5.82).
Directions for entering harbour
5.89
1
There are no specific directions for approaching and
entering Sãngjin Hang, although attention is drawn to the
dangerous wreck lying off the S side of Yujin Dan.
Useful marks:
Light (white metal column, 6 m in height) (40°39′⋅4N
129°12′⋅2E) exhibited from the head of the fishing
harbour breakwater.
2
Light (40°39′⋅8N 129°13′⋅0E) exhibited from the head
of the main breakwater extending NNE from
Hanggu Dan.
Light (white metal column, concrete base, 5 m in
height) (40°39′⋅7N 129°12′⋅4E) exhibited from the
head of the S breakwater.
3
Light (red metal column, concrete base, 5 m in
height) (40°39′⋅7N 129°12′⋅4E) exhibited from the
head of the N breakwater.
Light (white metal column, 4 m in height) (40°40′⋅2N
129°12′⋅5E) exhibited from the head of the timber
pond S breakwater.
4
Light (beacon) (40°40′⋅2N 129°12′⋅5E) exhibited from
the head of the timber pond N breakwater.
Berths
5.90
1
Anchorage. Except with W winds, anchorage in Sãngjin
Hang, N of Sãngjin Bando, cannot be considered safe.
However anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 14 m
about 5 cables N of Hanggu Dan (40°39′⋅6N 129°12′⋅8E),
with fair protection from the S.
2
Alongside. There is a deep-water berth, with a least
charted depth of 9⋅2 m alongside, 2 cables W of Hanggu
Dan. The timber storage berth, to the NW of the
deep-water berth, has depths alongside from 1⋅2 to 3⋅4 m.
Port services
5.91
1
Repairs. None available.
Other facilities: lighters; hospitals.
Supplies. Fresh water at the deep-water berth; by barge
at the other berths. Provisions are available, but scarce in
winter.
Anchorages and bays
General remarks
5.92
1
Between Yongdae Gap (40°28′N 129°04′E) and Sajin
Dan, 13 miles NNE, there are no anchorages. Between
Tadong Dan (40°47′N 129°31′E) and Musu Dan, 9½ miles
ENE, there are several small coves, some of which afford
shelter to small vessels.
Yangdo Myoji
5.93
1
Description. Yangdo Myoji (40°46′N 129°32′E) is the
name given to the anchorage situated close N of Yang Do.
Anchorages. It affords anchorage to large vessels with
shelter from S winds, 1¾ cables N of the NE point of the
W islet, in depths from 18 to 22 m.
2
Small local vessels anchor between the two islets of
Yang Do, abreast the village on the W islet, with shelter
from all winds in depths from 1⋅0 to 6⋅5 m.
Shãkã
5.94
1
Description. Shãkã (40°48′N 129°32′E) is entered
between a point 6½ cables NE of Tadong Dan (40°47′N
129°31′E) and Shãkã Dan, a projecting point 42 m high,
6 cables farther ENE. Rocks, both above and below-water,
extend 1¾ cables S and 1¼ cables SE of Shãkã Dan.
2
Anchorage can be obtained in Shãkã by small vessels
3½ cables SW of Shãkã Dan in depths of 15 m.
Communications. There is regular communication by
sea from the anchorage to Unggi Hang (5.177) and other
Korean ports.
Jãngho
5.95
1
Description. Jãngho (40°48′N 129°33′E), entered
between Shãkã Dan (40°48′N 129°32′E) and Bur Am,
5½ cables NE, is a small bay open S.
Topography. The E side of Jãngho is formed by a
promontory 60 m high. Bur Am, the SE point of the
promontory, has a pointed summit, 36 m high. Hyãngje Do
is a group of rocks lying 3½ to 5 cables E of Bur Am. The
two E rocks, the higher of which is 28 m high, are
reddish-brown, rugged and devoid of vegetation. The S and
higher rock is dome-shaped.
2
Depths. A rock, with a depth of less than 2 m over it,
lies 1 cable SE of Bur Am. The channel between the rock
and Hyãngje Do is free from dangers.
Landmarks:
Hyãngje Do and Bur Am are good marks for
identifying the entrance to Jãngho.
Anchorage. Good anchorage can be obtained in Jãngho
by small vessels, sheltered from all but S winds, 3 cables E
of the S extremity of Shãkã Dan and 2 cables offshore in
depths from 10⋅5 to 15⋅0 m.
CHAPTER 5
218
Hwangamdong Myoji
5.96
1
Description. Hwangamdong Myoji (40°50′N 129°35′E),
entered between Bur Am (40°44′N 129°33′E) (5.95) and a
point 3½ miles NE, is a bay open to the SE but it gives
shelter from E and W. Hwangam Dong, a village, stands on
the W side of the bay, 1 mile N of Bur Am.
Topography. Yãm Am, lying in the fairway of the
entrance to Hwangamdong Myoji midway between the two
entrance points, is a light-brown rock 6 m high and
steep-to.
2
Anchorage in Hwangamdong Myoji can be obtained by
large vessels during W and NW winds, 7½ cables NNE of
Bur Am in depths of about 11 m. Small local vessels
anchor in Goho, a small cove 4 miles NE of Bur Am, in
similar depths.
Kalma Po
5.97
1
Description. Kalma Po (40°51′N 129°42′E) is entered
1 mile NW of Musu Dan (40°50′N 129°43′E) (5.84)
between Sangdaebong Dan (40°50′N 129°42′E), 85 m high,
and a point 5½ cables W, 12 m high. Kalma village stands
at the head of the bay.
Topography. Steep hills, from 90 to 230 m high, enclose
Kalma Po sheltering it from all but SW winds.
2
Depths. A rock, with a depth of less than 2 m over it,
lies ½ cable S of the W entrance point. A rock, with a
depth of less than 2 m over, it lies 3¾ cables S of
Sangdaebong Dan and 2¼ cables offshore.
Anchorage. Small local vessels obtain anchorage in the
bay.
MUSU DAN TO TUMEN RIVER
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2432
Area covered
5.98
1
This section describes the coastal waters from Musu Dan
(40°50′N 129°43′E) to the entrance to the Tumen River
(42°18′N 130°42′E), 98 miles NNE. It is arranged as
follows:
Musu Dan to Prang Dan (5.99).
2
Prang Dan to Ch’ãngjin Hang (5.110).
Ch’ãngjin Hang (5.117).
Ch’ãngjin Hang to Taech’o Do including Najin Hang
(5.145).
Taech’o Do to Nan Do (5.167).
3
Chosan Man (5.171).
Nan Do to Tumen River (5.189).
MUSU DAN TO PRANG DAN
General information
Chart 2432
Route
5.99
1
From a position ESE of Musu Dan (40°50′N 129°43′E)
the route leads generally N, for about 38 miles, to a
position E of Prang Dan (41°23′N 129°48′E).
Topography
5.100
1
Between Musu Dan and Prang Dan the coast consists of
rugged rocky cliffs with mountains rising abruptly from it
in a succession of peaks and precipices which extend
inland and attain a height of over 900 m. In some cases the
summits form well defined cones, and in others serrated
tops of wall-like cliffs.
2
There is a distinct contrast of colour in the cliffs on
each side of Poksuk Tan (41°06′N 129°44′E) (5.104).
Those S of the point are reddish-brown, those N of it
whitish-brown. The hills N of Poksuk Tan are lower than
those S of it.
Along this coast lie several bays, but they are small and
exposed to onshore winds during summer.
Depths
5.101
1
The depths offshore between Musu Dan and Prang Dan
are much greater than those SW of Musu Dan, but boulders
and reefs lie 1 cable offshore in places; the reefs are
steep-to.
Flow
5.102
1
There is a S going current at a distance of 2 to 10 miles
off the coast between Musu Dan and Prang Dan; it sets,
for the most part, parallel to the coast at a rate of about
1 kn. Farther offshore the rate increases and, with N winds,
may attain a rate of over 2 kn. North of Musu Dan an eddy
can be expected due to the current being deflected by Nan
Do and Yang Do; see also 5.81.
The tidal streams along this part of the coast are almost
imperceptible.
Principal marks
5.103
1
Landmarks:
Chimabawi San (40°53′N 129°43′E).
Hyãngje Bong (40°57′N 129°38′E).
Kaegi Bong (40°57′N 129°38′E).
Hamae Bong (40°59′N 129°33′E).
Jinjag Bong (41°01′N 129°42′E), 315 m high.
2
Sangung Bong (41°02′N 129°33′E).
Cheung Bong (41°06′N 129°33′E).
Sindo Ryong (41°06′N 129°40′E).
Chima Bong (41°10′N 129°43′E).
Kangnung San (41°17′N 129°43′E).
Muje Bong (41°21′N 129°47′E).
3
Major lights:
Musu Dan Light (40°50′⋅2N 129°43′⋅0E) (5.82).
Song Dan Light (41°12′N 129°44′E).
Prang Dan Light (white round brick tower, 8 m in
height) (41°23′N 129°48′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.84)
5.104
1
From a position ESE of Musu Dan (40°50′N 129°43′E)
the track leads N, passing (with positions relative to
Poksuk Tan (41°06′N 129°44′E)):
E of Mon Gam (14½ miles S), lying close offshore
and prominent; from N or S the rock resembles
two crouching dogs facing each other. Thence:
CHAPTER 5
219
2
E of Mokchin Dan (11½ miles S), which is a point
166 m high; it is a prominent black, rocky cliff
fronting some peaks about 300 m high. Between
Musu Dan and Mokchin Dan, 5 miles N, the coast
consists of high, steep cliffs, ash-coloured and
prominent. Thence:
3
E of Unmandae Dan (10 miles S), which is 114 m
high and prominent; the point resembles the
ram-shaped bow of a vessel. A rock, 4 m high,
stands off the point. A light is exhibited from the
point. Thence:
E of Mo Am (7 miles S), a small peninsula 51 m
high, connected to the coast by a low sandy
isthmus, thence:
4
E of Chãndok Dan (6½ miles S), which is a densely
wooded peninsula of which the summit is 154 m
high and its E point 47 m high. Keibei, a cove
open E but sheltered from S and W, lies on the N
side of Chãndok Dan. The village of Keibei stands
at the head of the cove. Thence:
E of Poksuk Tan, composed of reddish cliffs 87 m
high and prominent, thence:
5
E of Song Dan (6 miles N) which is 51 m high and
densely wooded. It is the NE end of a peninsula
which appears as a detached island from seaward;
its SE end is composed of light brown cliffs. It is
always a good mark because, in winter the trees
on the point are almost black, and in summer the
cliffs on the SE side of the peninsula are white. A
light is exhibited from Song Dan. No Am, 3½ m
high, lies close off the point. Thence:
6
E of Kezdan (13 miles N) from which a light
(beacon) is shown.
The track then leads to a position E of Prang Dan
(17 miles N). Prang Dan is a rocky, steep, treeless point
with a pointed summit 119 m high. Close off the point is a
pointed rock, 15 m high, prominent from seaward. Two
cables SE of the point is a rock 4 m high. Shinho, which is
open E, is a small bay on the SE side of Prang Dan where
small vessels can shelter from N and W winds.
(Directions continue at 5.114)
Anchorages and bays
Pohang Man
5.105
1
Description. Pohang Man (40°59′N 129°44′E) is entered
between Mo Am (40°58′⋅5N 129°44′⋅0E) and Chãndok Dan
(5.104), 1 mile N.
Topography. The S side of Chãndok Dan, cliffy and
prominent, forms the N shore of Pohang Man. Haemangdae
Dan, 41 m high, 6 cables NW of Mo Am, projects from the
head of the bay dividing it into two parts. Chãnsoc Geun, a
7 m high islet, lies 2¾ cables NE of Mo Am and is almost
steep-to. Hu Am, an islet 7 m high, lies 4½ cables NNW of
Mo Am.
2
Depths. Foul ground lies between Hu Am and the S
shore of Pohang Man, 2½ cables SW.
Anchorage can be obtained in Pohang Man by small
vessels, not exceeding 300 tons, with shelter from W and N
winds, in the S part of the bay 1¼ cables S of Haemangdae
Dan in a depth of 10⋅5 m.
Hwangjin Man
5.106
1
Description. Hwangjin Man (41°06′N 129°44′E) is
entered between Poksuk Tan (5.104) and a cliffy point
165 m high, 1 mile NW. It is open to the NE.
Topography. The bay has steep, cliffy shores.
2
Anchorage. Hwangjin Man affords anchorage to small
vessels, with shelter from S or W winds, 7½ cables W of
Poksuk Tan in depths of 13 m, over a bottom of fine sand.
Daeryanghwa Man
5.107
1
Description. Daeryanghwa Man (41°12′⋅5N 129°44′⋅0E)
is entered between Song Dan (5.104) and Ung Dan,
3½ cables NE, and is open E. Daeryanghwa, a village with
a population of about 1500, stands at the head of the bay.
Topography. Song Am, a white, rocky islet 22 m high,
lies close E of Ung Dan. Its summit is sparsely wooded
and as it is the same colour as the coast, it is difficult to
identify from seaward. Ung Am, 3½ cables NNE of Song
Am, is a rocky islet 17 m high lying close offshore.
2
Depths. The coast between Song Am and Ung Am is
fringed with scattered rocks.
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m, mean
minimum range about 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
3
Anchorage. The bay affords anchorage to large vessels,
except during E winds when there is a heavy swell,
3½ cables NW of Song Dan in depths from 11 to 15 m,
sand. Small vessels, not exceeding 300 tons, can obtain
shelter from E winds on the N or S sides of Daeryanghwa
Man, depending on wind direction. For vessels wishing to
work cargo, the S side of the bay is better.
4
Berth. There is a small concrete jetty available for
landing and working cargo.
Communications. There is regular communication by
sea with Ch’ãngjin (5.117).
Dajin Man
5.108
1
Description. Dajin Man (41°16′N 129°45′E) is entered
between Bujãn Man and Hama Dan, 8 cables NNE, and is
open SE. The bay is divided into two parts by Haedo Do,
55 m high with a densely wooded summit; it is a good
landmark for identifying the entrance to Dajin Man. Close
E of Bujãn Dan is a brown pointed rock, 53 m high, which
can be identified by vessels close inshore from a good
distance N and S.
2
Depths. Some detached above-water rocks, the SE of
which is 1½ m high, lie within 1¼ cables SE Haedo Do.
Anchorage can be obtained in the SW bay of Dajin
Man, with shelter from winds between E through N to SW,
3¼ cables N of the end of Bujãn Dan in depths of about
12 m, sand. This anchorage affords better shelter than
Daeryanghwa Man from the frequent E winds of summer
and autumn.
3
The NE bay of Dajin Man is also suitable as an
anchorage for small vessels, but it is not as good as the
SW bay.
Buam Man
5.109
1
Buam Man (41°19′N 129°46′E), entered 4 miles SSW of
Prang Dan, is open E and divided, near its head, into two
arms. Although sheltered from S, W and N winds, Buam
CHAPTER 5
220
Man is subject to a heavy swell and is deep; it cannot be
considered a safe anchorage.
PRANG DAN TO CH’PNGJIN HANG
General information
Charts 2432, 884 plan of Ch’ãngjin
Route
5.110
1
From a position E of Prang Dan (41°23′N 129°48′E) the
route leads N, for about 16 miles, to a position about
10 miles SE of Komalsan Dan (41°46′N 129°51′E), the E
entrance point of Ch’ãngjin Hang. Between Prang Dan and
Komalsan Dan there are several good anchorages and few
off-lying dangers.
Topography
5.111
1
Between Prang Dan and Komalsan Dan the coast is
indented by Kyãngsãng Man; the head of this bay is
mostly sandy, and with the exception of two or three rocky
points, has a whitish appearance. Several rivers enter the
sea in Kyãngsãng Man but they are not accessible to boats.
Myonggan Chon enters the sea 3½ miles NW of Prang
Dan; Jueuron Chon is the largest river.
2
Inland there are high mountain ranges from which spurs
slope to the coast; the valleys are fairly flat with several
villages. The coastline is sparsely wooded.
Flow
5.112
1
There are no regular currents or tidal streams off this
part of the coast. However, irregular currents may set in
any direction for one or more days at a rate of 1 kn or less,
depending on the winds prevailing for the preceding few
days.
Principal marks
5.113
1
Landmarks:
Chinjudãk San (41°30′N 129°37′E), 542 m high and
dome-shaped.
Nakta Bong (41°37′N 129°37′E), 309 m high.
Major lights:
Prang Dan Light (41°23′N 129°48′E) (5.103).
Komalsan Dan Light (white 6-sided brick tower, 14 m
in height) (41°45′⋅7N 129°50′⋅8E).
Directions
(continued from 5.104)
5.114
1
From a position E of Prang Dan the track leads N,
passing across the approaches to Kyãngsãng Man; there are
no dangers in this bay beyond a distance of about 3 cables
offshore. However, except in calm weather the coast is
difficult for boats to approach.
The track then leads to a position about 10 miles SE of
Komalsan Dan (41°46′N 129°51′E) from which a light
(5.113) is exhibited.
2
Komalsan Dan forms the S end of a small promontory
which rises to Komal San, 183 m high, and extends
1¼ miles S from the base of Chãltan Bong, a prominent
peak 570 m high. Komal San is treeless, but when seen
from E is prominent. Komalsan Dan is steep-to and close E
of its E extremity lie two rocks 18 and 23 m high known
as Bubu Am. The 18 m rock is white.
3
Useful mark:
Kyãngsãng (41°40′N 129°40′W), a walled town
situated 3 miles WSW of Oryudong; its walls can
be seen from several miles to seaward.
(Directions continue, for Ch’ãngjin Hang at 5.135
and for the coastal route NE at 5.148)
Minor harbour and anchorages
Pdaejin Hang
5.115
1
Description. Pdaejin Hang (41°23′N 129°47′E), entered
1 mile WNW of Prang Dan, is a small shallow bay open
N. It affords anchorage, except with strong winds between
N and E. The town of Pdaejin, with a population of about
9000, stands on the S side of the bay.
Caution. Fishing nets usually extend some distance
seaward from the E entrance point of Pdaejin Hang.
2
Directions. There are no specific directions for entering
the bay but attention is drawn to the following:
Bagaso Gan, a sharp pointed rock 9⋅0 m high, lying
1¼ cables N of the E entrance point of Pdaejin
Hang.
3
Another rock, 12⋅0 m high, lying ¾ cable S of Bagaso
Gan; between the two lies a rock, with a depth of
less than 2 m over it.
A bank, which extends 2¼ cables from the head of
the bay, with depths of less than 5⋅5 m over it.
4
Useful mark:
Gyodaishin Ko Light (white round metal tower, 6 m
in height) exhibited from the head of a breakwater.
Anchorage. Large vessels may obtain anchorage, in a
depth of 15 m, 3 cables W of the 12⋅0 m rock mentioned
previously.
5
Berths. A boat basin, with depths from 0⋅9 to 4⋅6 m in
it, is situated on the E side of Pdaejin Hang; it is protected
by two breakwaters between the roots of which is a landing
stage on reclaimed land. Several piers extend from the
shore W of the W breakwater.
Supplies. Fresh water is obtainable.
Dogjin Myoji
5.116
1
Description. Dogjin Myoji is an open roadstead fronting
Oryudong, close SE of Ibam Dan (41°41′N 129°44′W).
Dogjin village, 2 miles SW of Oryudong, is the port for
Kyãngsãng (41°40′N 129°40′W) (5.114). The coast S of
Ibam Dan is open and boats can only approach it in calm
conditions.
2
Anchorage may be obtained in Dogjin Myoji by small
local vessels, but as it is open vessels should not anchor
here with strong onshore winds. Vessels anchoring should
take care to avoid the bank, with depths of less than 5 m
over it, which extends 5 cables S and E from Oryudong.
CH’PNGJIN HANG
General information
Charts 2432, 884 plan of Ch’ãngjin
Position
5.117
1
Ch’ãngjin Hang (41°46′N 129°48′W) is situated on the
N side of Kyãngsãng Man and entered W of Komalsan
Dan.
CHAPTER 5
221
Function
5.118
1
Ch’ãngjin, standing on the N shore of Ch’ãngjin Hang,
is an important industrial town with an estimated
population of 660 000 in 1992. The port handles traffic
between Japan and Manchuria and other Korean ports. Iron,
steel, fish products and bean oil are some of the
commodities exported.
Port limits
5.119
1
The seaward limit of the harbour is a line drawn from
Komalsan Dan Light (41°45′⋅7N 129°50′⋅8E), for
5 cables S, and thence WSW for a farther 4¼ miles to the
shore at Pyol Bong.
Traffic
5.120
1
Approximately 8 million tonnes of cargo is handled
annually.
Port Authority
5.121
1
Ch’ãngjin Port Authority, Port Office, Ch’ãngjin, North
Korea.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depths
5.122
1
The approach channels in Ch’ãngjin Hang are deep and
there is a least depth of 18 m to within 2½ cables of Dong
Hang (41°46′⋅7N 129°49′⋅4E), the E harbour.
In the approach channel leading to Sã Hang (41°45′⋅5N
129°45′⋅8E) there is a least charted depth of 10 m off the
head of the entrance E breakwater.
Deepest and longest berth
5.123
1
The deepest and longest berths are in Sã Hang (5.139).
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.124
1
Vessels up to 20 000 tonnes are handled.
Ice
5.125
1
Ice is not a hindrance to navigation. Floes from N
occasionally drift into the vicinity of Ch’ãngjin Hang.
Arrival information
Port operations
5.126
1
The port may only be entered between 0800 and 1600
local time. Vessels leaving must do so at least 1½ hours
before sunset.
Notice of ETA required
5.127
1
Send ETA 10 days, 72, 48, 24 and 4 hours prior to
arrival. The vessel’s ETA at the pilot station must be
passed through the ship’s agent as no VHF contact is
possible. For further information see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Waiting area
5.128
1
There is a waiting area for foreign vessels, as shown on
the chart, in depths from 79 to 95 m, 3 miles S of
Komalsan Dan (41°46′N 129°51′E).
Pilotage
5.129
1
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots board 2¾ miles S of
Komalsan Dan Light (41°45′⋅7N 129°50′⋅8E); closer
approach without a pilot is forbidden. The pilot does not
board before 0800 local time.
Tugs
5.130
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic separation scheme
5.131
1
A TSS has been established in the approaches to
Ch’ãngjin Hang. This scheme is not IMO adopted. As it is
not known what regulations are in force, mariners are
advised to follow the principles for use of a routeing
system as defined in Rule 10 of the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
Quarantine and inspection
2
It is reported (1982) that a Quarantine Officer boards
with the pilot, and also inspectors who carry out an
inspection of the ship, placing seals on such equipment as
cameras, binoculars and radio.
Harbour
General layout
5.132
1
Ch’ãngjin Hang consists of a safe anchorage for large
vessels, protected from NE but open S, along with three
main harbours situated along the N and W shores of the
bay. The three harbours, Dong Hang (41°46′⋅7N
129°49′⋅4E), P Hang (41°46′⋅2N 129°46′⋅6E) and Sã Hang
(41°45′⋅5N 129°45′⋅8E), are protected by breakwaters.
Natural conditions
5.133
1
Current. Observations in 1929 indicate that a S-going
current flows, about 5 miles off Ch’ãngjin Hang, at a rate
of ¼ to ¾ kn. It was reported in 1930 that vessels have
been set in towards the mouth of Susong Chon (41°46′N
129°46′E) especially during E or S winds and during
seasons of thick fog and snow.
2
Wind. The prevailing winds are NW in winter and E in
summer.
Fog. Thick fog, sometimes continuing for several days
and hindering navigation, is often blown in by E winds
from the Japan Sea during the season of fog, from April to
early August.
3
Snowfall, usually light, lasts from early November to
April.
Climatic table. See 1.173 and 1.182.
Principal marks
5.134
1
Landmark:
Ch’ãnma San (41°47′N 129°49′E), a hill, 102 m high,
standing at the head of Ch’ãngjin Hang. Four radio
masts stand on the E side of the hill.
Major light:
Komalsan Dan Light (41°45′⋅7N 129°50′⋅8E) (5.113).
CHAPTER 5
222
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.114)
5.135
1
From a position about 10 miles SE of Komalsan Dan
(41°46′N 129°51′E) the track leads NW, passing (with
positions relative to Komalsan Dan):
Through the waiting and pilot boarding area
(3 miles S), thence:
NE of a shoal (2¼ miles SSW) reported in 1951.
2
The track then leads to the beginning of the TSS
(1¾ miles SW) in Ch’ãngjin Hang. Separate traffic lanes
then lead directly to either Dong Hang (1½ miles NW),
P Hang (3 miles WNW) or Sã Hang (3¾ miles W), the
berthing areas of the port.
3
The traffic lanes are clear of any dangers although
attention is drawn to a wreck (2 miles WNW), with a depth
of 3⋅0 m over it, lying on the edge of the traffic lane
leading from So Hang to Dong Hang. There is also a
stranded wreck lying on the SW side of the entrance to
P Hang.
4
Useful marks:
Radio tower standing close N of Komalsan Dan Light
(41°45′⋅7N 129°50′⋅8E).
Light (red round concrete tower, 11 m in height)
(41°46′⋅6N 129°49′⋅2E) exhibited from the head of
the S breakwater at Dong Hang.
Light (41°44′⋅9N 129°46′⋅1E) exhibited from the head
of the E breakwater at Sã Hang.
Berths
Inner anchorage
5.136
1
An inner anchorage for foreign vessels is located
between the traffic lanes for P Hang and Sã Hang,
2½ miles WSW of Komalsan Dan (41°46′N 129°51′E); the
limits are shown on the chart. South-west winds raise a
heavy sea.
Dong Hang
5.137
1
Dong Hang (41°46′⋅7N 129°49′⋅4E) protected by a
breakwater on its S side is entered from the W. The berths
on the N side of the basin have a total length of about
1000 m with depths from 7 to 9 m alongside. This harbour
is used for handling general cargo and grain.
2
The grain berth on the W side is only 150 m long and
strong moorings are necessary if the stern of a vessel
overhangs the wharf. The small basin on the E side of
Dong Hang is used by fishing vessels.
P Hang
5.138
1
P Hang (41°46′⋅2N 129°46′⋅6E) is used mainly by
fishing vessels. However there is a large shipyard on the
SW side of this harbour. Depths alongside vary from 3⋅8 m
to 5⋅0 m alongside.
Sã Hang
5.139
1
Sã Hang (41°45′⋅5N 129°45′⋅8E), 1 mile SW of P Hang,
handles grain, iron ore, steel and general cargoes. There are
five numbered berths in this harbour with depths from 7 to
10 m alongside.
Port services
Repairs
5.140
1
Shipyard in P Hang (5.138); deck and hull repairs
carried out.
Other facilities
5.141
1
Hospital; lighters; Deratting and Deratting Exemptions
Certificates issued.
Supplies
5.142
1
Fuel; fresh water; limited amounts of provisions.
Communications
5.143
1
There is an airport at Ch’ãngjin Hang. There is regular
communication by sea with other Korean ports and
Vladivostok.
Minor harbour
5.144
1
There is a shallow fishing harbour (41°47′N 129′51′E)
on the E side of the peninsula forming the E side of
Ch’ãngjin Hang. It is partially protected by a breakwater
which extends ½ cable N from the S shore of the harbour.
CH’PNGJIN HANG TO TAECH’O DO
INCLUDING NAJIN HANG
General information
Charts 2432, 884 plans of Ch’ãngjin and Najin
Route
5.145
1
From a position about 10 miles SE of Komalsan Dan
(41°46′N 129°51′E) the coastal route leads NE, for
26 miles, to a position about 10 miles SSE of Taech’o Do
(42°09′N 130°17′E), fronting the E side of the entrance to
Najin Hang.
Topography
5.146
1
Between Komalsan Dan and Chã Am, 6½ miles NNE,
the coast is cliffy in places, with some sandy beaches and
scattered rocks. The coast is almost steep-to with no
off-lying dangers.
2
The coast then trends NNE from Chã Am for 11 miles
to Sajin Dan (41°59′N 130°02′E); it is indented by several
bays. Between Sajin Dan and Hwa Dan, 8 miles NE, the
coast is mostly hilly with a few sandy beaches; Ijin Man is
the NE of two sandy bays which indent this coast.
3
North of Hwa Dan (42°04′N 130°10′E) the coast is
indented by Naksan Man; Nose Dan is the NE entrance
point of this bay. From Nose Dan to Pangjin Man, 3 miles
N and inside the entrance to Najin Man, the coast consists
of rocky points with sandy beaches between and, except for
Ch’okt’ae Am and P’i Do, is steep-to. Pangjin Man is a
shallow cove, open to the E.
Principal marks
5.147
1
Major lights:
Komalsan Dan Light (41°45′⋅7N 129°50′⋅8E) (5.113).
Taech’o Do Light (white square concrete tower, 13 m
in height) (42°09′E, 130°17′E).
CHAPTER 5
223
Directions
(continued from 5.114)
Komalsan Dan to Sulbong Man
5.148
1
From a position about 10 miles SE of Komalsan Dan
(41°46′N 129°51′E) the track leads NE, passing (with
positions relative to Komalsan Dan):
SE of Tachwi Am (1¾ miles NNE), which is a rock
2 m high. The rock lies 2 cables SE of Inji Do, a
prominent black islet 32 m high, lying 2 cables
offshore. Thence:
2
SE of Samhyongje Am (3¼ miles NNE), a group of
three above-water rocks, and Tongdu Am close SE.
These rocks appear white and are prominent.
Thence:
SE of a rock (2¾ miles NNE), which is 0⋅5 m high
and lies close off a gravel beach. Dadando, a
village, stands behind the beach. Thence:
3
SE of Chã Am (6 miles NNE), the S entrance point
of Kidong Man (5.160). Chã Am is a rocky point
with high precipitous cliffs. An above-water reef,
over which the sea breaks in bad weather, extends
1 cable E from the point. Thence:
SE of Kal Tan (9½ miles NNE), which is a prominent
barren, cliffy point 133 m high; it is fringed by
rocks which are steep-to, and the highest of which
is 7 m high. Thence:
4
SE of a small bay (10¼ miles NNE) entered close N
of Kal Tan. There is a rock, 7 m high, lying close
N of the bay’s S entrance point; close NE of this
rock there is a below-water rock, with a depth of
4⋅1 m over it. Yongdu Ho, a lake, flows into the
head of this bay.
5
The track then leads to a position SE of Sulbong Dan
(13 miles NNE), a curiously shaped rocky point, 49 m high,
resembling an elephant’s trunk. Two cables within this
point is Naeyon Bong, a sharp prominent peak, 69 m high,
with a clump of trees on it.
Sulbong Man to Taech’o Do
5.149
1
From the position SE of Sulbong Dan (41°57′N
129°59′E) the track continues NE, passing (with positions
relative to Sulbong Dan):
SE of Sajin Dan (3¼ miles NNE), the E entrance
point of Sajin Man (5.163); it is a rocky
precipitous point with a summit covered in grass.
A reef, with above-water rocks on it, extends
1½ cables S from Sajin Dan; the S rock known as
Chidae Am, is 27 m high, prominent and steep-to.
Thence:
2
SE of a point (5 miles NNE), from which a spit, with
a depth of 2⋅9 m over its outer end, extends
4 cables SE, thence:
3
SE of Kar Am (10¼ miles NE), a detached
dome-shaped rock 4 m high, lying 5 cables S of
the S end of Katansan Bando; it is steep-to. A
rock, with a depth of 2⋅3 m over it, lies 3 cables
W of Kar Am. Five rocks of unusual shape lie
between Kar Am and the S point of Katansan
Bando; the two S rocks are white and prominent.
Thence:
4
SE of Hwa Dan (11 miles NE), the SE point of
Katansan Bando; the point is 91 m high, cliffy,
steep-to SE and prominent. Hwadan San, a
prominent barren hill, is the highest point of
Katansan Bando.
5
The track then leads to a position about 10 miles SSE of
Taech’o Do (18 miles NE), from the S end of which a light
(5.147) is exhibited. Taech’o Do is a prominent island with
a sharp summit. The E side of the island consists mostly of
cliffs but the W side slopes gradually to the sea. The island
is mostly covered with vegetation and is thickly wooded
near the summit.
6
Useful mark:
Ijin Man Light (black round concrete tower, 17 m in
height) (42°05′N 130°08′E) exhibited from the SW
rock on the NE side of Ijin Man (5.165).
(Directions continue, for Najin Hang at 5.154
and for the coastal route NE at 5.169)
Najin Hang
Charts 2432, 884 plan of Najin
General information
5.150
1
Position. Najin Hang (42°14′N 130°18′E) is situated at
the head of Najin Man. The city of Najin stands on the
shores of Najin Hang.
Function. Najin Hang is an important outlet for the
produce of North Korea and Manchuria. The port was the
first in North Korea to be declared a free port. Najin Hang
is also an important fishing station and was reported in
1960 to be an important naval base.
2
Port limits. The seaward limit of Najin Hang is a line
drawn from a headland, 6 cables N of P’i Do (42°08′N
130°12′E), E to the S point of Taech’o Do, thence NE to
Kwaeam Do, thence N to Sãngjãng Dan.
Traffic. Approximately 3 million tonnes of cargo is
handled annually.
Limiting conditions
5.151
1
Controlling depth. Depths in Najin Man are irregular.
In the separation scheme leading to Najin Hang there is a
least charted depth of 13⋅8 m.
Deepest and longest berth. No 3 Wharf (5.157).
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. It has been reported
that vessels up to 15 000 tonnes have been berthed at Najin
Hang.
Arrival information
5.152
1
Notice of ETA required. Send ETA 10 days, 72, 48, 24
and 4 hours prior to arrival. The vessel’s ETA at the pilot
station must be passed through the ship’s agent as no VHF
contact is possible. For further information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
2
Waiting area. There is a designated waiting area for
foreign vessels, 1 mile SE of P’i Do (42°08′N 130°12′E);
the limits are shown on the chart.
Outer anchorage. Small local vessels may obtain
anchorage in Yujin Man, except during SE winds, in depths
from 10⋅0 to 14⋅5 m. The bay is entered between Yãram
Dan and Song Do, 1¼ miles NNE.
3
Prohibited anchorage areas. Vessels are not allowed to
anchor in the vicinity of No 2 Wharf (5.157) and No 3
Wharf; a wreck lies close E of the head of No 2 Wharf.
Anchoring is also prohibited in the small craft basin, NNE
of No 1 Wharf, and in the N part of Najin Hang to the W
of the small craft basin.
CHAPTER 5
224
4
Pilotage is compulsory. The pilot boards in the inner
anchorage area (5.157) close N of the N extremity of
Soch’o Do (42°11′⋅3N 130°17′⋅3E).
Tugs are available.
5
Traffic separation scheme. A TSS has been established
in the approaches to Najin Hang. This scheme is not IMO
adopted. As it is not known what regulations are in force,
mariners are advised to follow the principles for use of a
routeing system as defined in Rule 10 of the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
6
Prohibited area. Navigation is prohibited in the area
between Taech’o Do and Soch’o Do, and Kwaeam Do and
Sãngjãng Dan to the E. The only permitted entrance,
known as South Entrance, to Najin Hang, is through the
TSS W of Taech’o Do.
Harbour
5.153
1
General layout. The berths, consisting of three wharfs,
are situated on the NW side of Najin Hang. A small craft
basin is situated NNE of the N-most wharf.
Signals. There is a signal station situated at the
lighthouse at the S end of Taech’o Do. It is manned during
daylight.
2
Landmarks:
Kwangjang Bong (42°08′N 130°10′E), 357 m high. It
has a fairly sharp peak and is covered with
vegetation. Wol Bong, 8 cables NNE of Kwangjang
Bong, has a sharp conical peak 298 m high.
Kamt’o Bong (42°12′N 130°14′E) standing behind the
W side of Najin Man 1 mile inland. It is densely
wooded and has a green appearance with a sharp
summit 372 m high.
3
Boroji Bong (42°17′N 130°12′E) situated 5 miles
NNW of Kamt’o Bong. Boroji Bong is the highest
peak in a range of mountains NNW of Najin Man,
with a sharp summit.
Suchã Bong (42°14′N 130°20′E), standing on the E
side of Najin Man. It has two peaks; the higher
being 357 m high.
4
Major light:
Taech’o Do Light (42°09′E, 130°17′E) (5.147).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.149)
5.154
1
Caution. If approaching Najin Man in thick weather
great caution is necessary. A SW set may be encountered
and the coast is too steep-to for soundings to give an
effective warning. See also 5.133 regarding a reported
inshore set.
2
Seaward to Oryong Am. From a position about
10 miles SSE of Taech’o Do (42°09′N 130°17′E) the track
leads NW, for about 8 miles to the TSS (5.152), passing
(with positions relative to Taech’o Do Light (42°09′E,
130°17′E)):
SW of the S extremity of Taech’o Do, which is
fringed by drying reefs and fronted by Oji Am; an
isolated patch, with a depth of 8⋅6 m over it, lies
2 cables S of Oji Am. Thence:
3
NE of Ch’okt’ae Am (4¾ miles SW), lying 3½ cables
E of Nose Dan (5.166). Ch’okt’ae Am is a
prominent rock with its summit covered in
vegetation; it is connected to the coast W by a
reef, above and below water.
4
The track then leads NNE through the appropriate traffic
lane, passing (with positions relative to Taech’o Do Light):
ENE of P’i Do (3½ miles WSW), an islet covered
with grass. It has a flat summit and is steep-to on
its E side, but foul ground extends 1 cable S from
it. There is foul ground between P’i Do and the
coast NNW. Thence:
5
WSW of an isolated shoal (1¼ miles WSW), with a
depth of 1⋅8 m over it; its position is approximate.
During the fog season, from the end of April to
the end of July, the shoal is marked by a
light-buoy.
The track then leads to a position about 6 cables W of
Oryong Am (1 mile W), a rock over which the sea breaks;
it is marked by a light-buoy (E cardinal).
5.155
1
Oryong Am to Najin Hang. From W of Oryong Am
the track leads NNE through the inner part of the TSS,
passing (with positions relative to Taech’o Do Light
(42°09′E, 130°17′E)):
ESE of Song Do (2½ miles NW), a prominent rocky
island which is densely wooded. A rocky spit, with
a depth of 1⋅0 m over it, extends 1½ cables SE
from Song Do. Foul ground extends between the N
end of this islet and the mainland. Thence:
2
WNW of the NW side (1¼ miles NNW) of Taech’o
Do which is fringed with drying reefs, thence:
Clear of, or over, depending on draught, a wreck
(2¼ miles NNW), with a depth of 18⋅2 m over it;
another wreck, with a depth of 17⋅6 m over it, lies
3½ cables NNW of the 18⋅2 m wreck. Thence:
3
WNW of Soch’o Do (2¼ miles N) from the S end of
which a light (structure 8 m in height) is exhibited.
Soch’o Do is a dome-shaped islet which appears
saddle-shaped from SE. The islet slopes W and N
but the E side is high with cliffs. Chokkumi Am, a
prominent conical knob, 10 m high, stands on the
N point of the islet. Thence:
4
ESE of Chak Do (3½ miles N), a rocky islet standing
on a bank extending up to about 4 cables from the
W side of Najin Man.
The track then continues NNE for a farther 1¼ miles to
the end of the TSS. Thence the track leads directly to the
berths keeping well clear of the bank (4½ miles NNE),
with depths of less than 6⋅2 m over it, extending 8 cables
from the NE side of Najin Hang and about 1 mile from its
head.
5.156
1
Useful marks:
Lights exhibited from the heads of No 1 Wharf and
No 2 Wharf.
Light (42°14′⋅7N 130°18′⋅4E) exhibited from the head
of Najin Hang; another light is exhibited from a
position 9 cables NNE of this light.
Berths
5.157
1
Anchorage. An inner anchorage area for foreign vessels
is situated close N of Soch’o Do (42°11′⋅3N 130°17′⋅3E);
the limits are shown on the chart.
2
Alongside berths. The commercial harbour, on the NW
side of Najin Hang, contains three wharves which are
numbered 1 to 3 from N to S. No 3 Wharf is the longest
and has a depth of 9⋅5 m alongside. Berthing signals are
displayed from a mast close W of the root of No 1 Wharf.
3
Small vessels can berth at quays between the wharves.
No 2 Wharf is mainly for the use of passenger vessels,
although all the wharves handle various types of cargo such
as lumber, coal, fertilizer and general.
CHAPTER 5
225
Port services
5.158
1
Repairs: shipyard; dry dock with a capacity of
10 000 tonnes; floating dry dock with a capacity of
3000 tonnes.
Other facilities. There are floating cranes with a lifting
capacity of 100 to 150 tonnes.
2
Supplies: fresh water; fuel; provisions.
Communications. There is communication by sea with
other Korean ports.
Minor bays and anchorages
Datan Dong
5.159
1
Description. Datan Dong (41°49′N 129°52′E) is a
village which stands at the head of a small bay 3¼ miles
NNE of Komalsan Dan. The entrance to the bay is
encumbered by Samhyongje Am (5.148) and Tongdu Am.
Landing. Boats can land at Datan Dong when the sea is
calm.
Kidong Man
5.160
1
Description. Kidong Man (41°53′N 129°55′E) is entered
between Chã Am (5.148) and Kal Tan (5.148), 3 miles NE.
The shores, backed by hills and rocky in places, alternate
with sandy beaches. At the head of the bay there are three
villages fronted by a sandy beach, but shallow water
extends 4 cables offshore abreast them.
2
Caution. Fishing nets are laid in the entrance to Kidong
Man from the beginning of March to the end of August.
Anchorage. Temporary anchorage may be obtained by
large vessels in Kidong Man except when it is blowing
strongly from between E and SW.
Korean Chart 121 plan of Sajin Man, Yongjo Man and Ssangpo
Man (see 1.22)
Ssangpo Man
5.161
1
Description. Ssangpo Man (41°57′N 129°59′E), the S of
three bays between Sulbong Dan (5.148) and Sajin Dan
(5.149), is open E; its S entrance point is foul for a
distance of 1 cable offshore. A bank, with depths of less
than 5 m (16 ft) over it, extends 2 cables from the SW side
of the bay.
2
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in depths
from 7 to 20 m (23 ft to 11 fm), over a bottom of fine
sand, in the bay except during strong E winds. Yongjo Man
(5.162) and Sajin Man (5.163) provide better anchorages,
except during August and September when S winds are
frequent.
3
Landing. Small boats can land at Ssangpo Dong on the
S side of Ssangpo Man, and also at Naessangpo Dong on
the W side.
Yongjo Man
5.162
1
Description. Yongjo Man (41°59′N 129°59′E), the
centre bay of the three bays between Sulbong Dan and
Sajin Dan, is also open E and strong E winds raise a heavy
swell. The SW and W sides of the bay are shallow but the
N side is steep-to.
2
Anchorage. Moderate sized vessels may obtain
anchorage in depths from 15 to 20 m (49 to 11 fm) E of
Kwae Do, a bare rock 18 m high, on the SW side of
Yongjo Man, about 2½ cables offshore. This anchorage is
somewhat restricted by Kwae Do but it has good holding
ground in mud. Small vessels can anchor on the inner side
of Kwae Do in depths from 5 to 12 m (16 to 39 ft).
3
River. Pugo Chon discharges into the head of Yongjo
Man; it can be entered by small boats, and just within its
entrance there is a backwater which extends a short
distance N and affords shelter to fishing boats.
Sajin Man
5.163
1
Description. Sajin Man (42°00′N 130°01′E), the N of
the three bays between Sulbong Dan and Sajin Dan, is
open S and the SE winds of spring raise a heavy swell.
Sajin Dong, a small village, stands on the E side of the
bay, 5 cables N of Sajin Dan (5.149).
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Anchorage. Sajin Man is ice free and affords temporary
anchorage to large vessels. Though only open S the SE
winds of spring make it unsafe at that time. Vessels
anchoring should take care to avoid Sujã Am, a rock with
a depth of less than 2 m (6 ft) over it, lying on the NW
side of the bay, 1 mile N of the W entrance point.
3
Communications. There is occasional communication by
sea with other ports in Korea.
Chart 2432
Kashintan Bando
5.164
1
Description. Kashintan Bando (42°03′N 130°04′E), a
peninsula 98 m high, forms the E side of a bay situated
3½ miles NNE of Sajin Dan. Piso Dan, the SW extremity
of Kashintan Bando, is a rocky point 53 m high fringed by
rocks.
2
Kajin Dan, the SE extremity of the peninsula, 7½ cables
NE of Piso Dan, is fringed by rocks which extend 3 cables
from it; Pi Am, 3 m high and the highest rock, lies near
the SE end of the group. There is a sandy beach on the W
side of Kajin Dan.
3
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in the winter
during offshore winds on the W side of Kashintan Bando
in depths from 8 to 15 m (26 to 49 ft), over a bottom of
fine sand, but a short stay only is advisable.
Ijin Man
5.165
1
Description. Ijin Man (42°04′N 130°06′E), which is
entered between Kajin Dan (5.164) and Hwa Dan (5.149),
3½ miles ENE, is open S; its shores are rocky alternating
with sandy or gravel beaches. Foul ground and shallow
water extend a short distance from most of its shores.
2
Two projecting points, with green wooded summits, lie
near the middle of a sandy beach near the head of Ijin
Man. The points, which are prominent, appear from a
distance as islets with trees on them; a rock, 4 m high, lies
at the S end of a line of rocks above water extending
5 cables S from the W-most point.
3
Ijin Dong, a village, stands on the NE side of the bay.
The point immediately S of this village is fronted by
detached rocks, above and below water, which extend
3½ cables offshore.
Directions. There are no specific directions for entering
Ijin Man but attention is drawn to a rock, with a depth of
6⋅9 m over it, which lies in the middle of the bay,
7½ cables SW of Ijin Man Light. Local knowledge is
required.
4
Useful mark:
Ijin Man Light (42°05′N 130°08′E) (5.149).
CHAPTER 5
226
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in the bay in
depths from 11 to 29 m, over a bottom of sand or mud; a
short stay only is advisable.
Chart 884 plan of Najin
Naksan Man
5.166
1
Description. Naksan Man (42°06′N 130°10′E) is entered
between Sasãg Am, an above-water rock lying 8 cables
NNE of Hwa Dan (5.149), and Nose Dan 1 mile NNE.
Nose Dan is a rocky cliff with a pyramidal point 71 m
high, bluish in colour and prominent. The NW side is
cone-shaped and 99 m high. Naksan Man is divided into
two parts by So Do, 54 m high, and Tae Do, 57 m high,
lying 5 cables from the head of the bay to which they are
connected by a rocky flat.
2
Ice. Naksan Dan is reported to freeze in winter.
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage, with good
shelter, in the NE part of Naksan Man in depths from 5 to
20 m over a bottom of sand. Vessels approaching this
anchorage should pass 2½ cables SW of Nose Dan, thus
avoiding a shoal, with a depth of 2 m over it, lying
1 cable S of Nose Dan; this shoal is steep-to.
TAECH’O DO TO NAN DO
General information
Chart 2432
Route
5.167
1
From a position about 10 miles SSE of Taech’o Do
(42°09′N 130°17′E) the route leads NE, for about 10 miles
clear of any dangers, to a position about 8 miles S of Nan
Do (14°14′N 130°32′E), which fronts the entrance to
Chosan Man (5.171).
Principal marks
5.168
1
Landmark:
Suchã Bong (42°14′N 130°20′E) (5.153), standing on
the E side of Najin Man.
Major lights:
Taech’o Do Light (42°09′E, 130°17′E) (5.147).
Nan Do Light (white square tower, 11 m in height)
(14°14′N 130°32′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.149)
5.169
1
From a position about 10 miles SSE of Taech’o Do
(42°09′N 130°17′E) the track leads NE, passing (with
positions relative to Taech’o Do Light):
SE of Taech’o Do (5.149), thence:
2
SE of Kwaeam Do (2 miles NE), from which a light
(structure 5 m in height) is exhibited; a rock,
awash, lies close off the NE end of Kwaeam Do
and fishing nets extend about 5 cables SE from the
islet. Yong Am, a dangerous rock, lies 3½ cables
W of Kwaeam Do. Thence:
3
SE of Sãngjãng Dan (2½ miles NE), a rocky point at
the S end of Yondu Bong, the W side of which
forms the E side of Najin Hang.
The track then leads to a position about 8 miles S of
Nan Do (12 miles NE) (5.176), from which a light (5.168)
is exhibited.
(Directions continue, for Unggi Hang in Chosan Man
at 5.176 and for the coastal route NE at 5.193)
Minor bays
North−east of Sãngjãng Dan
5.170
1
Description. Between Sãngjãng Dan (42°11′N 130°19′E)
and Chujin Dan, 4 miles NE, there are several bays
exposed to S and E winds. There are no off-lying dangers.
Chujin Dan is the S extremity of a wooded peninsula on
which stands the summit of Songbong San, 94 m high.
2
Landing. Small boats can land at the head of the bay
on the W side of Chujin Dan, except when the wind is
blowing from the S.
CHOSAN MAN
General information
Chart 2432, Korean Chart 117 (see 1.22)
Route
5.171
1
From a position about 8 miles S of Nan Do (14°14′N
130°32′E) the track leads NNW, for about 14 miles through
Chosan Man, to Unggi Man where the commercial oil port
of Unggi Hang (5.177) is situated.
Description
5.172
1
Chosan Man, entered between Chujin Dan (42°14′N
130°22′E) and Opo Dan, 10 miles ENE, is an extensive bay
open to the S. Within this bay are several small bays, all of
which are open E, with the exception of Sãsura Hang
(5.188) situated on the E side and close within the entrance
to Chosan Man. The most important harbour in Chosan
Man is that of Unggi Hang at the head of Unggi Man, on
the NW side of the bay.
2
In Chosan Man very heavy seas set in from between E
and SE, and on these occasions vessels should shelter in
Sãsura Hang. The other bays provide suitable shelter during
the strong NW winds of winter.
Topography
5.173
1
The coast on the W side of Chosan Man is backed by a
range of hills about 300 m high, which slope down from
the inland mountain ranges. In the NE part of the bay, the
coast is low and just within are two lakes; there are a few
isolated hills inland which, from a distance, resemble
scattered islands.
Ice
5.174
1
In winter, in Chosan Man, the bays and coves are
occasionally covered by a thin coating of ice.
Principal marks
5.175
1
Landmark:
Songjin San (42°25′N 130°17′E). It is the highest
mountain in the vicinity of Chosan Man and has a
sharp peak.
Major light:
Nan Do Light (14°14′N 130°32′E) (5.168).
CHAPTER 5
227
Directions
(continued from 5.169)
5.176
1
From a position about 8 miles S of Nan Do (14°14′N
130°32′E) the track leads NNW, passing (with positions
relative to Nan Do):
WSW of Nan Do from which a light (5.168) is
exhibited. Nan Do is a prominent islet with an
irregular shaped rocky summit 80 m high. It is
steep-to except on its NE side from which a reef
extends 5 cables NE; two islets, 19 m and 4 m
high, lie on this reef. It is reported that numerous
sea-birds congregate on Nan Do during the
summer. Thence:
2
WSW of a rocky reef on which lie Sãsuk Kun
(1½ miles NNW), Katsu Kan and Tongsuk Kun.
Sãsuk Kun, a sharp rock 8 m high, lies at the W
end of the reef. Katsu Kan, 1 m high, lies
2½ cables E of Sãsuk Kun and 1 cable farther E
there is a below-water rock, with a depth of 4⋅3 m
over it. Tongsuk Kun, a sharp rock 11 m high lies
7 cables E of Sãsuk Kun. Thence:
3
ENE of Kwak Tan (5¾ miles WNW), from which a
light (white square concrete tower, 7 m in height)
is exhibited. Kwak Tan is formed by a high cliff
with a summit covered with grass; a rock, 20 m
high, lies close S of the point. Hwadae Bong,
175 m high, lies 1 mile NNW of Kwak Tan.
Thence:
4
ENE of Pip’a Do (6½ miles NW), which has a flat
summit 47 m high covered in grass; a prominent
rock stands on the summit. Foul ground lies
between Pip’a Do and the mainland NW. And:
5
WSW of Tae Dan (5¾ miles NNW) (Dae Dan on
Chart 2432). Karun Dan, 2 cables W of Tae Dan,
is a low rocky point fringed by a reef, above and
below water, which extends 3 cables S. Ken Kan,
2⋅5 m high, the highest of the rocks on the reef,
lies 2 cables S of Karun Dan.
6
The track then continues NNW through the middle of
Unggi Man to the berths at Unggi Hang (5.177); there are
no dangers in the fairway. There is no difficulty in entering
or leaving Unggi Hang in clear weather. In thick weather
the summit of Songjin San (42°25′N 130°17′E) (5.175)
may sometimes be seen. It should be bourne in mind when
approaching Unggi Hang in the foggy season that the fog
frequently lifts in the afternoon.
Unggi Hang
General information
5.177
1
Position. Unggi Hang (42°20′N 130°24′E), a small port,
is situated on the NW side of Chosan Man at the head of
Unggi Hang.
Function. Opened in 1921, this port mainly handles the
import of crude oil; there is an oil refinery nearby. Soya
beans, timber and fish oil are exported.
2
Topography. There is a wide plain at the head of Unggi
Hang on which the town of Unggi stands. Behind the town
is Yongsu Ho, a lake, which flows into the SW side of the
head of the bay.
Port limits. The SE limit of the harbour is a line drawn
016° from a beacon standing on the S end of Pip’a Do
(42°17′⋅4N 130°24′⋅8E) to Kin Dan on the N shore.
3
Traffic. Approximately 2 million tonnes of oil is handled
annually.
Limiting conditions
5.178
1
Deepest and longest berth. Oil pier (5.182).
Tidal levels. Mean maximum range about 0⋅2 m; mean
minimum range 0⋅1 m. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Oil tankers of up to
200 000 dwt are handled.
2
Ice. The port is generally free from ice during the
winter, although in very cold conditions ice may form
along the coast hindering navigation.
Arrival information
5.179
1
Notice of ETA required. Send ETA 10 days, 72, 48, 24
and 4 hours prior to arrival. The vessel’s ETA at the pilot
station must be passed through the ship’s agent as no VHF
contact is possible. For further information see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (4).
Pilotage. The use of pilots is compulsory for foreign
vessels. The pilot is reported to board from a tug.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
5.180
1
General layout. On the NE side of the harbour there is
a basin enclosed by breakwaters; the entrance between the
heads of the breakwaters is about 1½ cables wide. The oil
terminal is situated on the NW side of the harbour near the
entrance to Yongsu Ho (5.177).
2
Wind and swell. The harbour is particularly subject to
strong winds, predominantly N in winter and blowing down
from Unggi San (42°20′⋅1N 130°26′⋅0E). South winds raise
a very heavy swell in the harbour.
Signal station. A signal station stands on a hill
1½ miles N of the N end of Pip’a Do.
3
Climatic table. See 1.173 and 1.183.
Landmarks:
Pip’a Do (42°17′⋅4N 130°24′⋅8E) (5.176).
Unggi San (42°20′⋅1N 130°26′⋅0E), 406 m high.
Tae Dan (42°18′⋅3N 130°27′⋅1E).
Meteorological observatory; a red brick building
standing 2½ miles NW of Tae Dan.
Directions for entering harbour
5.181
1
General remarks. For directions leading into Unggi
Hang see 5.176.
Useful marks:
Lights (white or red metal columns, 5 m in height)
(42°19′⋅7N 130°24′⋅2E) exhibited from the heads
of the breakwaters on the NE side of the harbour.
Berths
5.182
1
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained by large
vessels in most parts of the bay in depths from 6 to 22 m,
over a bottom of mud or sand, except during the summer
when SE winds are liable to cause a considerable swell.
The holding ground, however, is good so there is little
chance of the anchor dragging even in a heavy swell.
2
Alongside berths:
Quay, 760 m long, situated on the NE side of the
basin on the NE side of Unggi Hang; there is a
CHAPTER 5
228
depth of 1⋅8 m alongside this quay which can
handle vessels up to 5000 tonnes.
Oil pier on the NW side of Unggi Hang. The berth is
formed by a 455 m long dolphin pier structure; it
has a depth of 30 m alongside.
Port services
5.183
1
Repairs. Small repairs effected.
Other facility. Lighters are available.
Supplies: fuel; fresh water.
Communications. There is regular sea communication
with other ports in Korea and Sakhalin.
Minor bays and harbour
Kaidae Man
5.184
1
Description. Kaidae Man, entered between Chujin Dan
(42°14′N 130°22′E) (5.170) and Kwak Tan (5.176),
1¾ miles NE, is open SE and has depths in it of 9 to 27 m
(30 to 15 fm). The shores of Kaidae Man are cliffy and
indented with small coves, but in its NW corner there is a
sandy beach. Kaidae village stands within the sandy beach.
2
Anchorage. Small vessels may obtain anchorage during
E winds E of Song Do (42°15′N 130°22′E), 31 m high,
lying close off the NW side of the bay.
Changjin Man
5.185
1
Description. Changjin Man (42°17′N 130°24′E), the bay
N of Kaidae Man (5.184), is open SE; it is entered S of
Pip’a Do (5.176).
Anchorage, for a short stay, may be obtained in the bay,
except during SE winds.
Taejin Man
5.186
1
Description. Taejin Man (42°20′N 130°30′E), entered
between Tae Dan (5.176) (Dae Dan on Chart 2432) and a
point 3¼ miles ENE, is an open bay exposed to the S and
SE winds of the summer. In other seasons it affords good
shelter. A reef, on the outer end of which there is a rock,
16 m high, extends 2 cables S of the E entrance point to
Taejin Man.
2
Chãk To, 71 m high and wooded, lies 3½ cables S of
the E entrance point to Taejin Man. From a distance it
appears black, but when closer the lower part is seen to
consist of red cliffs which are prominent; it is steep-to.
Directions. There are no specific directions for entering
Taejin Man, but attention is drawn to the following
dangers:
3
Og Am (42°18′N 130°30′E), lying 2½ miles E of Tae
Dan; the rock has a depth of 3⋅0 m (10 ft) over it
and is steep-to.
4
An above-water rock, with a height of 2⋅0 m, lying
5½ cables NW of the E entrance point of Taejin
Man and 1 cable offshore.
Anchorage. Vessels may obtain anchorage in Taejin
Man in all seasons, except during the summer, in depths
from 15 to 20 m (49 ft to 11 fm), over a bottom of mud.
Bay east of Taejin Man
5.187
1
Description. Between the E entrance point (42°19′N
130°32′E) of Taejin Man (5.186) and Hung Dan, 3 miles
ESE, lies a bay rather less exposed to SE winds than
Taejin Man. Its shores are low and sandy, except for Rokyu
San, a prominent hill 50 m