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NP 33 Phillippine Islands Pilot 2ed 2004

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NP 33
RECORD OF CORRECTIONS
The table below is to record Section IV Notice to Mariners corrections affecting this volume.
Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user with corrections to this
volume from these amendments.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2004 2005 2006 2007
IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS
This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of
Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:
Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s
Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),
Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.
All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
NP 33
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
PILOT
The northern and north−eastern coasts of Borneo to the Sabah/Indonesian
border, the Philippine Islands (except for the western coasts of Palawan and
Luzon, between Cape Bulilyan and Cape Bojeador; and the northern coast of
Luzon, between Cape Bojeador and Siniguian (Escarpada) Point), Sulu Sea
and Sulu Archipelago
SECOND EDITION
2004
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
ii
Crown Copyright 2004
To be obtained from Agents
for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright for some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner.
Area formerly covered by Eastern Archipelago pilot and Previous edition of Phillipine Islands Pilot
First published 1890. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd Edition 1902. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd Edition 1911. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th Edition 1923. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5th Edition 1935. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6th Edition 1950. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7th Edition 1963. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1st Edition 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
PREFACE
The Second Edition of the Philippines Islands Pilot has been prepared by Captain W H Walker Master Mariner. The United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavors to ensure that this Pilot contains all the appropriate information obtained by and
assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners
where appropriate. If in doubt, see the Mariners Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them.
This edition supersedes the First Edition (1978), and supplement No 11 (2000) which are cancelled.
Information on meteorology and currents has been based on data supplied by the Meteorological Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
British
Fairplay Ports Guide 2003−04
Ports of the World 2004
Lloyds Maritime Guide 2001−02
Whitaker’s Almanack 2004
Lloyds List
Statesman’s Year Book 2004
Philippines
Philippines Coast Pilot 6th Edition 1995
Handbooks produced by Port Authorities
Philippines Notices to Mariners
Malaysia
Handbooks produced by Port Authorities
Malaysian Notices to Mariners
United States
Sailing Directions (Publication 162) 2001
Physical Geology, Plummer and MacGeary 6th Edition 1993
Dr D W Williams
United Kingdom Hydrographer
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
21st June 2004
iv
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface to the Second Edition (2004) iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations viii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlet facing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.9) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.17) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational aids (1.21) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.26) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.30) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.41) 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.55) 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.61) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
Malaysia (1.63) 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Republic of the Philippines (1.73) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.84) 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services — summary (1.85) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.88) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents, tidal streams and flow (1.90) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.100) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.103) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.107) 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climatic tables (1.119) 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.136) 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
Through routes from the South China Sea to the Pacific Ocean and the Celebes Sea 65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
Calamian Group and Palawan — East side 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
Balabac Strait and Sabah — North and north−east coasts 107. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
Sabah — North−east coast from Sandakan to Cowie Bay 137. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 6
Sulu Archipelago 167. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 7
Basilan Strait — Mindanao − South and south−east parts including Davao Gulf 199. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 8
Mindoro − West side — Verde Island Passage — Tablas Strait — Semirara Islands — Sibuyan Sea
Masbate − West side and south sides — Jintotolo Channel — Visayan Sea — Panay Island
Cuyo East Pass — Panay Strait — Negros − West and north sides 245. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS
v
CHAPTER 9
Luzon − South part — Ragay Gulf — Burias Island — Luzon − South−west part — San Bernardino Strait
Masbate − North−east part — Ticao Island — Samar Sea — Comotes Sea.313. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
Mindanao − North west part — Negros − South−east and north parts — Tañon Strait — Cebu Strait
Comotes Sea − South part — Bohol Sea.379. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 11
Luzon — East coast 441. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 12
Samar — East and south−west parts — Siargao Island — Leyte Gulf — Surigao Strait — Dinagat Sound
Hinatuan Passage and Dapa Channel 479. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 13
Mindanao — East coast.515. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES AND INDEX
Appendix I — Areas dangerous due to mines laid during the war of 1941−45 530. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 531. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 12 m or more in length. They amplify charted detail and contain
information needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended
to be read in conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published in the last weekly edition for each
month. Those still in force at the end of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of Release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,
the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio navigational aids, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Admiralty Maritime Communications is a comprehensive guide on all aspects of maritime communications for the yachtsman and small
craft user. It provides general information on Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), the management of VHF, Maritime
Safety Information, NAVTEX, Inmarsat and Radio Facsimile, and detailed information and procedures for marinas and harbours used by
small craft.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
vii
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Except for submarine exercise areas, details of firing, practice and exercise areas are not mentioned
in Sailing Directions, but signals and buoys used in connection with these areas are sometimes mentioned if significant for navigation.
Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the structure above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
viii
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text.
Directions
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NNE north-north-east
NE north-east
ENE east-north-east
E east
ESE east-south-east
SE south-east
SSE south-south-east
S south
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
WSW west-south-west
W west
WNW west-north-west
NW north-west
NNW north-north-west
Navigation
AIS Automatic Indentification System
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
GPS Global Positioning System
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
Satnav Satellite navigation
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
Offshore operations
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FPU Floating production unit
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SBM Single buoy mooring
SPM Single point mooring
Organizations
EU European Union
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
RN Royal Navy
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Radio
AIS Automatic Indentification System
DF direction finding
HF high frequency
LF low frequency
MF medium frequency
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
Navtex Navigational Telex System
RT radio telephony
UHF ultra high frequency
VHF very high frequency
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
Rescue and distress
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
JRCC Joint Rescue Cooperation Centre
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
SAR Search and Rescue
Tides
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HW High Water
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LW Low Water
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
MSL Mean Sea Level
ABBREVIATIONS
ix
Times
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
UT Universal Time
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
Units and miscellaneous
°C degrees Celsius
DG degaussing
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
ft foot (feet)
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
GRP glass reinforced plastic
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
m metre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MHz megahertz
mm millimetre(s)
MW megawatt(s)
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
Vessels and cargo
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
HSC High Speed Craft
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length overall
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MV Motor Vessel
MY Motor Yacht
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
RMS Royal Mail Ship
Ro-Ro Roll-on, Roll-off
SS Steamship
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
x
GLOSSARY
Glossary of words Philipino (P) or Malay (M) terms and words used on charts and in this volume of Sailing Directions.
Foreign word Language English meaning Foreign word language English meaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . agos P current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alangan M bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anak sungai M rivulet, tributary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anggai M signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angin M wind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anim P six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anja, anjar M anchor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . apat P four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . api M light (lit, fire). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . araw P day, daylight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arus (harus) M current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer M water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer mati M low, water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer pasang M flood tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer rabong M high water (springs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ayer surut M ebb tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bagan M quay, fishing village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baharu, baru M new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baibai P coast, seaboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bahay P house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bakal P iron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . balai P house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bander, bendar M harbour, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banka P boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bapor P ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barat M west, western. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barat daya M south−west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barat laut M north−west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barrio P village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batang M river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bato P rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batu M rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baybay−daget P coast, seashore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bayan P town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baybayan P bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bengawan M river, large stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . besar M large, great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berbukit M hilly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berlabah M anchor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beting M reef, sandbank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bidok M river boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . biru M blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bohangin P sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bondog, bundok P mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buhangin P sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bukit M hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bulan M moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burol P hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burong M bird. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . busong M sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . changkat M low hill, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chetek M shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . daan P road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dagat P sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dalawa, dalwa P two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dali P inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dalum M mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dangkal M shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . danu M lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . darat M landward, the interior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . darung P ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dermaga M wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dua M two. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . empat M four. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enam M six. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gunong M mountain, hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gunong api M volcano. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ggunonganang M mountain range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gusung M shoal, sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . habagat P south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hangganan P boundary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hari M day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . harus M current, tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hijau M green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hilaga P north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hilagang−silangan P north−east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hilagang−kanluran P south−west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hitam M black, dark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hujan M rain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hutan M jungle, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilog P river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilogan P river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ingglelan M England. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isa P one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jambatan M bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jong M sea−going junk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kahui P tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalomoran P west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kampong M village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal M ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal api M steam ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal layer M sailing vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal penumpang M passenger ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal tangki M tanker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kapal udara M airbraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karang M coral, coral reef, atoll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kauit P creek, bend, hook, frequently. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . employed to name a point.
kechil M small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kegunongan M mountainous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kering M dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kidul M south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kota MP city, town, fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuala M estuary, river mouth,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . confluence of two rivers
kubo M hut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kumpit M fast narrow river craft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuning M yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . labuhan, labuan M anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lalim P depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lapan M eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . larangan M prohibited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laut M sea, seaward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lautan M ocean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lebar M broad, wide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . libra P pound weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lima MP five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . linggo P week. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . losak P mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . luk P bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lumpur M mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xi
lunday P boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lungos P narrow headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lupa P land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mababa P low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mamadilim P dark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mahaba P long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maitim P black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malaki P large, great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malam M night. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malang M reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malim M pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . merah M red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . milya P mile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . minuto P minute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maura M estuary, river mouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . munti P little, small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . musim M season. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . musim tenggara M SW monsoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . musim utara M NE monsoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nayon M village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . negri M town, state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nol M zero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . omok M waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . omong M fishing ground mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ongot P cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oras P hour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pagi M morning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pampang P bank of a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . panatag P calm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . panchang M stake, pile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . panjang M long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pantai M beach, coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pantalan P mole, jetty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parit M beach, coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasangit P anchor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pasir M sand, samdy beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paya M marsh, swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pekan M market town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pemayang M large fishing boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pematang M sandhill, dune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pendaratan M landing places, quay, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . perahu M boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pito P seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pohon, pokok M tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . poio P island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puloh M ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pulau M island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pura M city, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . puteh M white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rebas M sparse jungle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . redang M deep swamp, marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rendah M low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . romba M beacon, fisherman’s mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rumah M house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rumbu M fishtrap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saglit P second. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sampan M small boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sampu P ten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandaan P hundred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sasakyang−dagat P ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . satu M one. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . segundo P second. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selat M strait, narows, channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . selatan M south, southern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sembilan M nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . semboyan M signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . silangan P east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . simoy P breeze. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinipete P anchor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . siyam P nine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sungai M river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . takut P shoal, sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . talampakan P fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tali ayer M canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tanah M land, country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tangas P headland (high). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tanjong M cape, point, promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . toan P year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tatlo P three. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . telok M bay, bend in a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tenggara M south−east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . terumbu M rock awash at low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . terusan M canal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tiang M mast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timog P south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timog−silangan P south−east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timog−kanluran P south−west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timor M east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . timor−laut M north−east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tohor M shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tokong M reef, submerged bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tongkang M lighter (for cargo). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tua M old. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tubig P water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tujoh M seven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tuyu P dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ulu (hulu) M upper reaches of a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utan (hutan) M jungle, forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utara M north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . utara−barat M north−west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . walo P eight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yarda P yard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121°
C
E
B
U
NP 32 CHINA SEA PILOT VOL III
NP 31
CHINA SEA
PILOT
VOL II NP 34
INDONESIA
PILOT
VOL II
L UZON
MI NDANAO
PANAY
BOHOL
NEGROS
SABAH
SUL U SEA
M
I
N
D
O
R
O
S
A
M
A
R
L
E
Y
T
E
11
11
12
9
9
3
7
7
7
8
4
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
10
10
13
3
8
8
9
9
9
9
10
12
3806
3808
3810
3804
3805
3807
943
943
3809
3811
967
2576
2575
928
3849
3849
3483
3483
Philippine Islands Pilot
0709
P
A
L
A
W
A
N
19°
18°
17°
16°
15°
14°
13°
12°
11°
115°
10°
9°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
127°126°
125°124°
119°
118°
117°116°
Longitude 121° East from Greenwich
Chapter Index Diagram
19°
115°
116°
117°
118°
119°
120°
121°
122°
123°
124°
125°
126°
127°
18°
17°
16°
15°
14°
13°
12°
11°
10°
9°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
NP33
xii
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its
hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:-
(a) that no liability whatsoever can be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition
of the international validity of the law or regulation.
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS PILOT
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
Charts 943, 967, 2575, 2576, 3483, 3489
Area covered
1.1
1
This volume contains Sailing Directions for the coastal
waters of the Philippines Islands, apart from the W and N
coasts of Luzon and the W coast of Palawan. It includes a
description of the N and NE coasts of Sabah.
For the W coasts of Palawan and Luzon and the NW
coast of Sabah, see China Sea Pilot Volume II. For the N
coast of Luzon see China Sea Pilot Volume III.
The limits of this volume are as follows:
Lat N Long E
From Siniguian Point 18°31′ 122°14′
Thence E along the parallel to
position:
18°31′ 130°00′
Thence S along the meridian to
position:
6°00′ 130°00′
Thence W along the parallel to
position:
6°00′ 127°00′
Thence SW to position:4°00′ 124°00′
Thence W to Pulau Sabetik:4°03′ 117°55′
Thence following its N coast to
the Sabah/Kalimantan border:
4°10′ 117°54′
Thence around the Sabah coast to
Pulau Kalampunian:
7°03′ 116°45′
Thence N along the meridian to
position:
8°20′ 116°45′
Thence E to Cape Buliluyan:8°20′ 117°11′
Lat N Long E
Thence NE along the axis of Pala-
wan Island to Libro Point:
11°26′ 119°29′
Thence N along the meridian to
position:
12°30′ 119°29′
Thence NE to Cape Calavite:13°25′ 120°20′
Thence E to Del Monte Point:13°32′ 120°25′
Thence NE to Cape Santiago:13°46′ 120°39′
Thence NNE along the axis of
Luzon to Siniguian Point:
18°31′ 122°14′
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Volcanic activity and earthquakes
1.2
1
The Philippine Archipelago is located in an area of high
seismic activity (1.89). The most significant effect of this
activity for vessels at sea is likely to be the seismic sea
wave or tsunami, a Japanese word meaning “harbour
wind”. These waves are caused by earthquakes or
submarine volcanic activity. Vessels near the epicentre of
an earthquake may be affected by shock waves which
create the impression of running aground or passing over a
submerged reef.
2
When the progress of a tsunami is constricted by the
bottom configuration or shoreline the height of the wave
increases rapidly causing considerable damage to vessels in
the vicinity or adjoining shore installations. See Mariner’s
Handbook.
CHAPTER 1
2
Navigation amongst coral
1.3
1
The S part of Sulu Sea and areas of the Sulu
Archipelago (6.3) are as yet incompletely surveyed and
these waters should therefore be navigated with caution.
2
In general, navigation in the waters described in this
volume requires particular caution, on account of irregular
and uncertain currents and of the prevalence of coral
formations which may have escaped detection, even in
more recent surveys, and of which sounding probably give
no warning.
Floating hazards
1.4
1
During the rainy season a sharp lookout must be kept
for flotsam. Rafts of vegetation and trees of immense size
have been found floating in many areas but especially off
the S coast of Luzon. Off Maranduque Island (13°25′N,
122°00′E) (9.41) a group of trees floating upright
resembled an island.
2
Trees and logs may also be encountered for a
considerable distance from the coast of Sabah. Driftwood,
roots and other flotsam may be encountered in the vicinity
of Balabac Strait (7°30′N, 117°00′E) (4.7).
Mine danger areas
1.5
1
Certain areas within the limits of this volume remain
dangerous due to mines laid in 1941−1945 war. Due to the
lapse of time the risk to surface shipping is now considered
no more dangerous than the ordinary risks of navigation,
but a very real danger remains with regard to anchoring,
fishing or any form of seabed or submarine activity. Details
of these areas are given in Appendix I and in the
appropriate chapters.
Piracy and armed robbery
General information
1.6
1
Reports have been received concerning acts of piracy
against vessels in the vicinity of East Malaysia and the
Philippine Islands when berthed, at anchor or underway.
Guidance and further information may be found in
Admiralty Notices to Mariners, the Department of Transport
publication Marine Guidance Note MGN 75 (M) and the
relevant Admiralty List of Radio Signals.
2
Attacks on all classes of vessels by armed thieves
frequently occur in the Sulu Sea and adjacent waters.
Attacks can occur also in international waters as piracy or,
more commonly, as armed robbery in territorial waters of a
coastal state.
3
Ships may be attacked whilst at anchor or underway.
Ships underway are usually approached from the stern but
also from the sides if the ship has a low freeboard.
However, vessels with high freeboard travelling in excess
of 17 knots have been boarded. Attacks usually take place
under the cover of darkness, most often between
0100 hours and 0600 hours.
Piracy countermeasures
1.7
1
The International Maritime Bureau operates the Piracy
Reporting Centre at Kuala Lumpur. It is able to receive
reports from vessels about attacks and broadcast warnings
of danger areas within the region. The services of the
centre are free of charge to all vessels irrespective of flag.
2
For details of these services and for information
concerning the steps that should be taken to reduce the risk
of attacks, possible responses to them, and the need to
report attacks, both successful and unsuccessful, to the
authorities of the relevant coastal State and to the ship’s
own maritime administration see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1(2).
3
In addition, the IMO recommends that reports
concerning an attack, or suspicious movements which may
lead to one, should be made to the Rescue Co-ordination
Centre of the area concerned.
Overhead power cables
1.8
1
When navigating in some ports and rivers covered in
this book overhead power cables may be encountered.
Where known these are shown on the chart. Mariners are
warned that some cables may carry high voltages which
may make possible dangerous electrical discharge between
a cable and a ship passing beneath. See The Mariner’s
Handbook.
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
Traffic
Hovercraft
1.9
1
Hovercraft may be encountered off the coast of Sabah.
Information regarding their special characteristics and lights
are given in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Recreational craft
1.10
1
Privately owned vessels under sail and/or power, some
of considerable size, may be encountered in the waters
covered by this book.
Traffic Separation Schemes
1.11
1
The Traffic Separation Schemes in the Philippines are
not IMO adopted, but the Philippines Authorities advise
that the principles for use of the routing system as defined
in Rule 10 of International Regulations for Preventing
Collision at Sea (1972) apply.
Fishing
1.12
1
Sizes of fishing craft vary from traditional rowing or
sailing boats as little as 3 m in length to modern trawlers
of 15 m or more in length. Traps, seine and drift net, lines.
lures and bottom trawls are used. Large concentrations of
vessels may be encountered in coastal waters, and smaller
groups in more open waters where even the occasional lone
fisherman may be found.
2
Large metal cylindrical buoys, about 6 m long and 1 m
in diameter, are reported (1989) to be used as fishing floats
in the Celebes Sea. They are unlit but may be detected on
radar at a distance of about 4 miles.
Submarine exercises
1.13
1
Areas used by the United States Navy in the vicinity of
the Philippine Islands are published in United States
Notices to Mariners. For signals made by United States
submarines, see 1.60 and for other information concerning
submarines see the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices
to Mariners.
CHAPTER 1
3
Marine exploitation
Seismic surveys
1.14
1
Seismic surveys being carried out in connection with oil
exploitation are likely to be encountered in the areas
covered by this volume. Seismic survey methods are
outlined in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Pipelines
1.15
1
Caution. Gas from a damaged oil or gas pipeline could
cause an explosion, loss of a vessel’s buoyancy or other
serious hazard. Pipelines are not always buried and may
effectively reduce charted depths by as much as 2 m.
Where pipelines are close together, only one may be
charted. They may also span seabed undulations and cause
fishing gear to become irrecoverably snagged, putting a
vessel in severe danger. See Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners No 24 and The Mariner’s Handbook.
Accuracy of charted depths
1.16
1
Caution. Many depths contained in the charts of
Philippines and Sabah waters originate from relatively old
surveys or passage soundings. It should be appreciated that
such information is rarely comprehensive and is certainly
not up to date or comparable with modern surveying
standards. Wherever possible, an indication of the original
source and age of the depth data included in charts is given
in the title notes and source diagrams of charts. For further
information on the use of charts see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
CHARTS
Admiralty charts
1.17
1
All the charts covering the areas of this book are
published in either metric or fathom units. Most charts
carry a source data diagram or a source statement
indicating the date and scale of the original surveys used in
compiling them. Metrication of Admiralty charts covering
the area of this volume is well advanced and on-going.
2
Information is taken from British charts, United States of
America Government charts and from those of both the
Malaysian and Philippine Government charts.
For further details about charts see the Mariner’s
Handbook.
Foreign charts
1.18
1
In certain areas where Admiralty charts show insufficient
detail for navigation close inshore these Sailing Directions
have been written using national charts. These are not
quoted as reference charts in the text, which has been
written on the assumption that mariners wishing to navigate
in these areas will have provided themselves with suitable
charts on which to do so.
2
National charts may be obtained from the publishing
authorities shown in this book and in the Catalogue of
Admiralty Charts and Publications. These charts are not
issued by the UK Hydrographic Office nor are they
amended by Admiralty Notice to Mariners.
3
Publishing Authorities.
Malaysian charts may be obtained from:
Royal Malaysian Navy,
Ministry of Defence,
Jalan Padang Tembak,
50634 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia.
4
Philippines charts may be obtained from:
National Mapping and Resource Information
Authority,
Lawton Avenue,
Fort Bonifacio,
Makati City,
Republic of Philippines.
5
United States charts may be obtained through local
agents.
Datums
Chart Datum
1.19
1
The change to a new chart datum based on LAT
(Lowest Astronomical Tide), and the metrication of charts,
which is in progress, has resulted in there being differences
in depths and heights of up to 1 m between charts and
Sailing Directions. This discrepancy will continue until all
charts have been metricated and the two have been
reconciled.
Horizontal Datum
1.20
1
Many charts carry a caution on the shift to be applied to
satellite-derived positions before they are plotted. In the
absence of such a caution it should not be assumed that
such a shift is negligible. For further information see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
2
Differences in graduations may be apparent when
transferring positions from one chart to another. When in
doubt it is advisable to transfer positions relative to
common charted features rather than to geographical
co-ordinates.
3
For further information concerning charts see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
General information
Buoyage
1.21
1
The IALA System has been introduced throughout the
region although some buoys which do not conform to the
IALA System may still be encountered. The system is
described in full in The Mariner’s Handbook and in a
booklet NP735 entitled IALA Maritime Buoyage System.
Unreliable navigational aids
1.22
1
Beacons and buoys. Throughout the region, whilst
efforts are being made to improve matters especially in the
Philippines, light-beacons are unreliable being frequently
irregular or extinguished, and buoys are often missing,
damaged, off station or unlit and may not be the same as
those charted.
Lights
1.23
1
Whilst there is much effort to improve the number and
quality of lights in the region, mariners failing to raise a
CHAPTER 1
4
light when expected are advised to consider the likelihood
of its being unlit.
Buoyage
Sabah
1.24
1
In these waters the IALA Maritime Buoyage System −
Region A (red to port) has been introduced.
Philippines
1.25
1
In these waters the IALA Maritime Buoyage System −
Region B (green to port) has been introduced, although
buoyage of the previous United States System may still be
encountered.
2
United States System. When approaching a channel
from seaward, red conical buoys (or nun buoys), with even
numbers, are found on the starboard side, and black can
buoys, with odd numbers, on the port side. The buoys are
numbered from seaward. See The Mariner’s Handbook.
PILOTAGE
Sabah
General
1.26
1
Pilotage is compulsory for all major ports and offshore
terminals. The Marine Department supplies the pilots to
whom application should be made at least 24 hours in
advance.
Signals
1.27
1
When a vessel requires the services of a pilot the
following signals should be made in accordance with the
International Code of Signals.
By day Flag G
By night Letter G in morse code by flashing
lamp
2
A vessel arriving at night and not immediately requiring
the services of a pilot should display Flag G at daybreak.
When the Harbour Master acts as a pilot, prior notice of
the requirements for his services should be given through
the ship’s agent.
Philippines
General
1.28
Pilotage for entering a Philippines port or anchorage, for
docking and departure at any pier or shifting from one
berth to another shall be compulsory. Exempt are
Government vessels and those of foreign governments
entitled to courtesy; vessels engaged solely in river and
harbour work and daily ferry services between ports.
Further, compulsory pilotage shall not apply in pilotage
districts where optional pilotage is permitted under
Government regulations. The present pilotage districts in
the area covered by this volume are:
1
Batangas (13°44′N, 121°00′E) (8.69).
Cagayan De Oro (8°29′N, 124°39′E) (10.418).
Casiguaran (16°13′N, 122°06′E) (9.135).
Catbalogan (11°47′N, 124°53′E) (9.318).
Cebu (10°18′N, 123°54′E) (10.189).
Davao (7°04′N, 125°37′E) (7.320).
Dumaguete (9°18′N, 123°07′E) (10.56).
2
General Santos (6°06′N, 125°10′E) (7.233).
Iligan (8°14′N, 124°14′E) (10.385).
Iloilo (10°42′N, 122°34′E) (8.380).
Jolo (6°03′N, 121°00′E) (6.122).
Jose Panganiban (14°21′N, 122°40′E) (11.119).
La Union (6°44′N, 126°05′E) (7.361).
Legazpi (13°09′N, 123°45′E) (9.181).
3
Maasin (10°08′N, 122°50′E) (10.314).
Masao (9°01′N, 125°30′E) (10.479).
Masbate (12°22′N, 123°37′E) (9.243).
Masinloc (6°55′N, 122°11′E) (7.53).
Mercedes (14°07′N, 123°00′E) (11.129),
Polloc (7°21′N, 124°13′E) (7.149).
Port Surigao (9°47′N, 125°30′E) (12.201).
Puerto Princesa (9°44′N, 118°44′E) (3.175).
4
Pulupandan (10°31′N, 122°48′E) (8.426).
San Fernando (10°10′N, 123°43′E) (10.187).
Santa Cruz (13°30′N, 122°03′E) (9.54).
Siain − Hondagua (13°57′N, 122°14′E) (11.85).
Tabaco (13°24′N, 123°45′E) (11.227).
Tacloban (11°15°N, 125°00′E) (12.84).
Tagbilaran (9°39′N, 123°50′E) (10.232).
Zamboanga (6°54′N, 122°04′E) (7.26).
5
Principal ports have pilot associations, the chief pilot
usually acting as harbour master.
Signals
1.29
1
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(4). In
addition the following visual signals should be made by a
vessel requiring a pilot.
By day Flag G
By night A blue light exhibited every 15 minutes or
a white light flashed at short intervals just
above the bulwark for about 1 minute.
RADIO FACILITIES
Electronic position fixing systems
1.30
1
Full details of electronic position fixing systems are
given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. Those
with limited applicability in the area covered by this book
are:
2
Loran C. The S, E and N China chains, the Korean
chain and the NW Pacific Ocean chain provide coverage
over most of the area covered in this book, skywave
coverage only.
Satellite navigation systems. For the status, and other
information concerning satellite navigation systems, see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. See also Annual
Summary of Notices to Mariners No 19 concerning satellite
derived positions.
Radio navigational aids
1.31
1
Racons are fitted to some light-structures, light-floats
and buoys, but they are not in common use throughout the
area, especially not in the Philippines.
Radio navigational warnings
1.32
1
Long range warnings. The area covered in this book
lies within the limits of Navarea XI and Hydropac long
range navigational warning services.
UNITED STATES BUOYAGE SYSTEM
LATERAL SYSTEM AS SEEN ENTERING FROM SEAWARD
PORT HAND MARKS STARBOARD HAND MARKS
MID CHANNEL MARKS
JUNCTION MARKS
BUOYS HAVING NO LATERAL SIGNIFICANCE - ALL WATERS
Lighted
Buoy
Can
Buoy
Can
Buoy
Can
Buoy
Conical
Buoy
Lighted
Buoy
Daymark
Daymark
Preferred channel to Starboard Preferred channel to Port
Daymark Daymark
Daymark
Lighted
Buoy
Lighted
Buoy
Special
Purpose
Anchorage
Danger Exclusion
Area
Fish Net Dredging Quarantine
Anchorage
Lighted
Buoy
Conical
Buoy
Conical
Buoy
5
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 1
6
Navarea XI warnings are broadcast through the
SafetyNET system, Japan being the area co-ordinator.
Hydropacs are issued by the United States Geospatial
Intelligence Agency, and are broadcast through Guam and
Honolulu Radio.
For full broadcast details of each of these services see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (2). For further
information concerning Navareas see The Annual Summary
of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
1.33
1
Coastal warnings. Coastal navigational warnings
covering a region or portion of Navarea XI, are issued by
National Co-ordinators and are broadcast in English and
national languages through national coast radio stations. For
full broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(2).
1.34
1
NAVTEX is an international automated narrow band
direct-printing broadcast service through 518kHz, used for
the promulgation of urgent and routine navigational and
meteorological information. It is an integral part of the
GMDSS and is also a component of the World-wide
Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS). For full
broadcast details and further information see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volumes 3(2), 5.
1.35
1
Local navigational warnings cover an area within the
limits of jurisdiction of a harbour or port authority and may
be issued by those authorities. They may be issued in the
national language only and supplement the coastal warnings
by giving information which the ocean-going ship may not
normally require.
Radio weather reports
1.36
1
The World Meteorological Organisation has established a
global service for the broadcast of high seas weather
warnings and routine weather bulletins through the
SafetyNET system.
2
Meteorological service areas (Metareas) are identical to
Navareas. Each Metarea has a designated National
Meteorological Service responsible for issuing high seas
weather warnings and bulletins. The designated authorities
are not necessarily in the same country as the Navarea
co-ordinators.
3
Weather warnings and routine bulletins and facsimiles
are broadcast through national coast radio stations and the
SafetyNET system. For full broadcast details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volumes 3(2), 5.
WEFAX
1.37
1
WEFAX data consists of retransmissions, in near real
time, of processed images derived from satellites, as well
as other meteorological data. WEFAX transmissions contain
images of large sectors of the earth, and are transmitted on
a predetermined 24 hour schedule. Satellite delivered
WEFAX should not be confused with high frequency
weather radio-fax transmissions from coast stations. For
further information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(2).
Piracy warnings
1.38
1
Piracy warnings are issued by the regional Piracy
Countermeasures Centre at Kuala Lumpur (China Sea Pilot
Volume II). The messages broadcast daily through the
SafetyNET. For full broadcast details see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volumes 1(2), 5.
Coast radio stations
1.39
1
For a list of coast radio stations which are available
within or adjacent to the area covered in this book (See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(2)).
Port radio and radar stations
1.40
1
Port radio stations are in operation in many ports and
some pilot vessels can also provide radio services. Full
particulars are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(4).
REGULATIONS
International regulations
Submarine pipelines
1.41
1
In the area covered in this book there are a number of
submarine pipelines linking offshore oil and gas fields with
the shore. Where known, the location of these pipelines,
and whether they carry oil or gas, is shown on the charts.
See (1.15).
Submarine cables
1.42
1
The waters contained within the Philippines Archipelago
are crossed by many submarine cables, the presence of
which are indicated on the charts. Others may be
encountered when navigating in rivers, and are also shown
on charts. Some of the cables may carry high voltages.
See The Mariner’s Handbook for further information
concerning submarine cables and the International
Convention for the protection of submarine cables.
Pollution of the sea
1.43
1
In the area covered in this book, pollution of the sea by
oil or mixtures containing oil is prohibited within 50 miles
of the coasts. See Mariner’s Handbook for information on
the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution
from Ships 1973 (MARPOL 1973) and its protocols.
Facilities for the disposal of oily waste, where known,
are mentioned under the appropriate port in the text of this
volume.
National regulations — Sabah
Marine parks
1.44
1
The government of Sabah has established several marine
parks for the protection of the marine environment and
resources in the waters around the State of Sabah. Within
these parks the following activities are strictly prohibited.
Entering the park without permission from the
Director of Sabah Parks.
Anchoring and fishing.
Discharging any oil, chemicals, sewage, hazardous
substances or pollutants into park waters.
Damaging or removing from the park anything
organic or inorganic, alive or dead.
CHAPTER 1
7
Designated routes
1.45
1
The State of Sabah has instructed vessels registered in
Indonesia or in the Philippines to use designated routes
when entering or leaving Sabah ports. Such vessels are
required to keep within 1 nautical mile of the mid-channel
in such approaches.
National flag
1.46
1
A vessel transiting Sabah waters is required to fly its
national flag or flag of registry during daylight hours.
Firearms
1.47
1
Firearms are not permitted on vessels entering Sabah
waters.
National regulations — Philippines
Harbour regulations
1.48
1
The following are extracts of Philippines Ports Authority
regulations and should be complied with by all vessels.
Port entry procedures
1.49
The Master of every vessel entering or leaving a port
between sunrise and sunset shall cause to be hoisted its
national colours and signal letters, if any. The national
colours shall continue to be flown while the vessel remains
in port.
Quarantine
1.50
1
All vessels entering a harbour shall be considered in
quarantine until boarded by a quarantine officer who then
issues pratique. Until pratique is granted the prescribed
quarantine flag shall be kept flying. No unauthorised person
shall board or disembark from a vessel until the quarantine
flag is lowered.
All cases of contagious or infectious deseases occurring
on board while the vessel is in port must be at once
reported in writing to the quarantine officer.
Harbour Master’s orders
1.51
1
The Master of every vessel shall comply with
instructions or directions given by the Philippines Ports
Authority or its duly authorised officers relative to berthing,
mooring and anchoring of the vessel.
Inflammable or explosive cargo
1.52
1
Every vessel arriving in port having on board dangerous
cargo as defined in “Classification of Dangerous Goods”
by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) or the
appropriate agency of the Philippines Government and/or
The United Kingdom Carriage of Dangerous Goods in
Ships (The Blue Book) shall hoist, where it can best be
seen, a red flag not less than 0⋅6 m
2
and by night a red
light visible all round the horizon such that the said signals
shall be exhibited as long as dangerous goods remain on
board.
Powerdriven vessels engaged in towing
1.53
1
Power driven vessels engaged in towing shall have right
of way over power driven vessels not so engaged, provided
that power driven vessels with a draught greater than 3 m
and so hampered by her draught shall have right of way in
narrow channels. In complying with this regulation
mariners should have due regard for the fact that vessels
proceeding against the tidal stream are more manageable
than those going with it.
Garbage
1.54
1
No garbage or refuse which might impede or obstruct
navigation, or cause an obstruction thereto, shall be thrown
from any vessel or floating craft of any kind into the
waters of any harbour or into navigable waters of any river
or tributary thereto.
SIGNALS
National regulations — Sabah
Berthing signals
1.55
1
Signals assigning berths are displayed at:
Kudat (6°53′N, 116°51′E) (4.79).
Sandakan (5°50′N, 118°07′E) (4.162).
Tidal and water level signals
1.56
1
Signals indicating the state of the tide are displayed at:
Kudat (6°53′N, 116°51′E) (4.79).
Sandakan (5°50′N, 118°07′E) (4.162).
Storm warning signals
1.57
1
No visual warnings are displayed. For information
concerning radio warnings see (1.32).
National regulations — Philippines
Special signals
1.58
1
The following signals are used and recognised at
Philippine ports of entry:
Customs flags:
By day E C H of the International Code of Signals.
By night Three or four short blasts of the whistle and
waving of a light.
Manoeuvring signals:
By day D of the International Code of Signals
By night A red light 1 m vertically below the white
anchor light.
CHAPTER 1
8
Storm warning signals
1.59
1
Visual storm signals managed by the Philippine
Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomic Service
Administration (PAGASA) in accordance with the
International System of Visual Storm Warning Signals are
displayed at the following places in the area covered by
this volume:
2
Baler (15°46′N, 121°35′E) (11.38).
Borongon (11°37′N, 125°28′E) (12.33).
Cagayan De Oro (8°29′N, 124°39′E) (10.418).
Cagayan De Sulu (07°00′N, 118°05′E).
Catarman (12°40′N, 124°36′E) (9.223).
Catbalogan (11°47′N, 124°53′E) (9.318).
3
Cebu (10°18′N, 123°54′E) (10.189).
Coron (12°00′N, 120°12′E) (3.73).
Cotabato City (7°14′N, 124°15′E) (7.183).
Davao (7°04′N, 125°37′E) (7.320).
Dipolog (8°35′N, 123°20′E) (10.31).
Dumaguete (9°18′N, 123°07′E) (10.56).
General Santos (6°06′N, 125°10′E) (7.233).
4
Guiuan (11°02′N, 125°43′E) (12.67).
Hinatuan (8°22′N, 126°26′E) (13.49).
Iloilo (10°42′N, 122°34′E) (8.380).
Jolo (6°03′N, 121°00′E) (6.122).
Legazpi City (13°09′N, 123°45′E) (9.181).
Maasin (10°08′N, 122°50′E) (10.314).
Masbate (12°22′N, 123°37′E) (9.243).
Port Surigao (9°47′N, 125°30′E) (12.201).
5
Puerto Princesa (9°44′N, 118°44′E) (3.175).
Romblon (12°35′N, 122°16′E) (8.216).
Roxos City (11°36′N, 122°42′E) (8.268).
San Jose — Mindoro (12°21′N, 121°04′E) (8.21).
Tacloban (11°15°N, 125°00′E) (12.84).
Tagbilaran (9°39′N, 123°50′E) (10.232).
Virac (13°33′N, 124°16′E) (11.189).
Zamboanga (6°54′N, 122°04′E) (7.26).
Naval vessels
1.60
1
The Mariner’s Handbook and the Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners should be consulted
concerning the characteristics and special signals shown by
naval vessels.
2
Signals by United States Submarines. In cases of
necessity signals by coloured smoke bombs or flames are
made by United States submarines when submerged. It
marks the submarine’s position and is fired from a
submerged signal ejector into the air to a height of about
90 m, from which it descends slowly suspended from a
small parachute. It exhibits a coloured illumination for a
period of about thirty seconds. The colours used and their
meaning are:
3
Yellow:
The submarine is about to rise to periscope depth.
Surface craft should keep clear of the vicinity but
not stop their engines.
Red:
A state of emergency exists within the submarine
which will surface immediately if possible. Surface
vessels should keep clear of the area but stand by
to give assistance after the submarine has surfaced.
4
In the event of repeated red signals, or if the submarine
fails to surface within a reasonable time, she may be
assumed to be disabled. The position should then be
buoyed, a lookout kept for the submarine marker buoy (see
below), and endeavour should be made to establish sonic
CHAPTER 1
9
communication with the submarine and with the United
States Naval Authorities without delay.
5
Submarines are equipped with a marker buoy which is
about 1 m in diameter, painted international orange and
fitted with a telephone for communicating with the interior
of the submarine. A submarine on the bottom in distress
and unable to surface will, if possible, release the buoy. An
object of this description sighted on the surface should be
investigated and the naval authorities informed.
6
Smoke bombs, green in colour, may be fired by
submarines during exercises. These are not signals of
distress.
Supplementary United States Naval distress signals.
While United States Government vessels and aircraft in
distress may exhibit the recognised international distress
signals prescribed in the International Regulations for
Preventing Collision at Sea (1972), they are also equipped
with an additional distress signalling device intended to
supplement the regular distress signals. This apparatus
emits an orange coloured smoke by day and red flames at
night.
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
General information
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
1.61
1
Throughout the waters covered by this book the
principal means of searching for and assisting persons in
distress is via the GMDSS.
The concept of the GMDSS is that Search and Rescue
(SAR) organisations ashore as well as shipping in the
immediate vicinity will be rapidly alerted to a distress
incident and so assist in a co-ordinated SAR operation.
Within the region there are Maritime Rescue Co-ordination
centres (MRCCs) at Lubuan and Manila. Maritime Rescue
Sub-centres (MRSCs) at Kuching (China Sea Pilot Vol II)
and Sandakan (4.162) in Sabah and, in the Philippines, at
Manila and La Union (China Sea Pilot Vol II), Cebu
(10.189), Zamboanga (7.26), Puerto Princesa (3.175),
Batangas (8.69), Iloilo (8.380), and Davao (7.320).
For full details, including diagrams and a list of Digital
Selective Calling (DSC) stations, see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 5.
Medical aid
Medical advice by radio
1.62
1
Within the area covered by this book medical advice by
radio, can be requested from Sabah.
The International Radio Medical Centre (CIRM) is based
in Rome, Italy. Information about obtaining medical advice
by radio is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(2).
CHAPTER 1
10
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
MALAYSIA
History
1.63
1
Malaysia came into being on 16th September 1963, and
at that date consisted of the former Federation of Malaya,
the State of Singapore and the colony of North Borneo
(re-named Sabah) and Sarawak. On the 9th August 1965,
Singapore seceded from Malaysia to become an
independent sovereign state.
2
The constitution of Malaysia is based on that of the
former federation, but includes safeguards for the special
interests of Sabah and Sarawak. The constitutional Supreme
Head of the Federation is elected for a five year term by
the 11 State rulers of peninsula Malaysia and those from
Sabah and Sarawak, from among their number. The official
language is Malay but English is widely spoken.
Population
1.64
1
The national population by UN estimate was 22 710 000
in 1997 of which 4 547 700 live in Sabah and Sarawak. A
1988 census found that 58% of the population was Malay
and 27% Chinese, the remainder being made up from
Indian and Sri Lankan origin and the indigenous races of
Sabah and Sarawak. These races include Kadazans,
principally farmers and the largest section of the
community, Bajaus, living on the coastal fringes and
employed as fishermen, Muruts, hill tribesmen and Suluks,
the seafarers.
Justice
1.65
1
Judicial power is vested in the Federal Court, the High
Court of Malaya, the High Court of Borneo and
subordinate courts, session courts, magistrates courts and
Mukim chiefs courts. The Federal Court comprises the
Lord President (Head of the Judiciary), the Chief Justice of
the High Courts and the Judge of the Federal Court. Its
principal functions are to examine the legality of any law
made by Parliament or a State legislature, to settle disputes
between States or to hear and determine appeals from the
High Courts.
BORNEO
General description
1.66
1
Borneo is the largest island in the Eastern Archipelago.
Chains of mountains traverse the island, the main range
with peaks from 1525 to 1830 m high terminating in Mount
Kinabalu, the highest mountain in Far Asia, 4100 m high,
is situated 111 km S of the N extremity of the island It is
surrounded by a National Park with an area of 275 miles 2
2
Its vast interior consists of dense forest and jungle,
densely populated with wild life but only sparsely
populated by man. Except for a volcanic area in the central
S part Borneo consists of sedimentary rock formations and
is extremely fertile. Marshlands are found near the coast.
3
The area of Borneo is 307 000 miles 2
, the greater part
of which is under the sovereignty of the Republic of
Indonesia. East Malaysian territories of Sarawak and Sabah
extend over and along the NW, N and NE coasts of Borneo
covering an area of 76 458 miles
2
. The independent state
of Brunei, on the NE coast, is surrounded by these
territories but enjoys its own coastline.
Flora
1.67
1
More than 300 types of tree are found in Borneo
including screwpines, casuarinas, tree fern, swamp laurels,
nipa palms, santirai, dipterocarps, rattan, papaya, rambutan,
mangoes, breadfruit and dagger trees. The giant Colocasia,
reaching heights of about 60 m grow in Sabah. Mangrove
forests thrive in swamplands.
2
Fungi and mosses thrive on tree trunks in the rain
forests. In savannah regions, tussock grasses grow to
heights of about 1 m. Lalang grass takes over in poor soil
and in areas of forest clearance. There are hundreds of
flowering plants in Borneo.
Fauna
1.68
1
Mammals found in Borneo include elephant, rhinoceros,
buffalo, deer, honey bear, tapir, tarsier, bat, lemur,
orang-utan, gibbon and other monkeys.
Amongst the reptiles numerous kinds of snake, gecko
and lizard are found. Boas, pythons, vipers and cobras are
frequent. Among the tree snakes are two most unusual, the
flying snake and the “two-headed” snake.
2
Included amongst the 550 species of bird are pelicans,
cormorants, gulls, herons, ibises, spoonbills, ducks, owls,
partridges, quail, parrots, cockatoos, hornbills, and, famous
for providing the nests for birds-nest soup, swifts who
populate limestone caves in Sabah.
SABAH
General description
1.69
1
The State of Sabah is situated at the NE extremity of
Borneo having the Sulu Sea to the NE and the South China
Sea to the NW and the Celebes Sea to the extreme SE.
Sabah comprises an area of about 29 388 miles 2
with a
coastline of 900 miles. Kota Kinabalu is the state capital.
2
Early pirates called Sabah “ the land below the wind!”
because of its lying S of the typhoon region. They could
find shelter when the weather was too rough in the
Philippine Islands. Teluk Marudu (4.70) was a favourite
haunt of these renegades.
History
1.70
1
As early as the 7th Century ships from China traded
with the island but in 1881 the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu
seceded the area of Sabah to the British North Borneo
(Chartered) Company and until 1963, Sabah was known as
North Borneo. On 15th July 1946, after occupation by the
Japanese during World War II, the Company’s sovereign
rights and assets were transferred to the Crown. On 16th
September 1963, North Borneo joined the Federation of
Malaysia and became the State of Sabah.
Constitution
1.71
1
The constitution of Sabah provides for a Head of State,
called the Yang di-Pertua Nagara Sabah. Executive
authority is vested in the State Cabinet headed by the Chief
Minister. The Legislative Authority consists of the Speaker,
32 elected members and not more than 6 nominated
members. Sabah has 16 seats in the Malaysian Government.
CHAPTER 1
11
Industry and trade
1.72
1
The principal exports of Sabah and Sarawak are forest
products, fish and agricultural products. Imports include
machinery, tobacco, provisions, petroleum, metals, rice,
textiles, vehicles, sugar and building materials.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
General information
1.73
1
The republic consisting of more than 7 100 islands is
bounded on the E by the Philippines Sea, on the S by the
Celebes Sea and on the W by the South China Sea. About
460 of the islands exceed 2⋅6 km
2
(1 mile
2
). Eleven islands
have more than 2 590 km
2
and contain the majority of the
population. These islands are Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Luzon,
Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay and
Samar.
2
The islands are, for the most part, of sedimentary rock
formation, only the W side of Mindanao being of volcanic
origin. However, because of the subductive plate margin
(Mindanao and Marianas Trenches) where the Pacific
Ocean Plate passes under the Philippines Plate upon which
the Philippine Islands lie, volcanoes, earthquakes, igneous
rock uplifts and orogenic folding have created the island
masses and landscapes familiar today.
3
Luzon in the N, the largest island of the group, is
unique in having a vast central plain that has probably been
the single most important cause of its being so dominant in
the life of the Republic as a whole. The other islands most
with only narrow coastal plains are more difficult to
cultivate.
4
The people of the Philippine Islands are of
predominantly Malay origin. They were part of an
adventurous race which had sailed N from present day
Indonesia, in outrigger canoes to settle here. They subdued
or assimilated earlier inhabitants who had reached the
islands by alternative migratory routes thousands of years
before whose descendants remain extant.
Flora
1.74
1
The flora of the Philippines is essentially Malaysian, but
Himalayan elements occur in the mountains of N Luzon,
while a few Australian varieties are found at various
elevations. Much of the land area of the islands is forested
wherein many valuable hardwoods flourish. Dominant
forest species of flora are endemic. Rubber, fruits, nuts,
spices and drugs are yielded from the forests. Palms,
bamboos and rattans are so plentiful that a thriving industry
has grown up around them.
2
Vegetation of the coastal regions, including mangrove
swamps, is practically identical with that of similar areas
throughout the Malay Archipelago.
Fauna
1.75
1
Mammals include shrews, rats, mice and bats. Red and
brown deer are found in Basilan, Mindanao, Leyte, Samar
and the Calamian Islands. Timaraus, a small buffalo, are
peculiar to Mindanao. Carnivores are represented by the
mongoose, the binturong, the otter and the civet cat. Flying
Lemurs and tarsiers range throughout the islands from
Basilan to S. Luzon. Only one genus of monkey is found
though this is represented by five species. Reptiles abound
and there are about 750 species of bird.
2
More than 1000 species of marine fauna have been
discovered most of which are edible. The Philippines have
the richest molluscan fauna in the world and many of the
shells are of great beauty. The pearls of the Sulu
Archipelago have attracted an international reputation.
Venomous fish
1.76
1
There are many species of venomous and dangerous fish
in the areas covered by this volume.
The “Scorpion” or stone fish is found in shallow waters
over rocky and weeded seabeds throughout the area. It has
a number of venomous spines along its back which inflict
exceedingly painful wounds.
Dangerous catfish are found among the coral reefs of
Luzon. Stingrays are found in shallow waters over muddy
seabeds almost anywhere in the area.
Barracudas and several species of shark inhabit the area
and are found in shallow coral and rocky regions as well
as in more open waters. Moray eels, particularly dangerous
during their breeding season (April and May), are common.
A species of jellyfish, whose sting can cause death, is
found in the coastal waters of Luzon and Palawan. They
appear in great numbers from June to August.
Sea snakes inflicting very toxic bites are common.
Fishing
1.77
1
For many years due to the use of unsuitable craft fishing
had been confined to shallow, comparatively sheltered
coastal waters. However modernisation and development
have introduced open sea fishing conducted by trawlers.
Fleets of smaller vessels with nets and line, numbering as
many as fifty in a group fish within the 20 m contour. All
the waters encompassing the Philippines may be considered
as potential fishing grounds. Mariners are advised to keep a
good lookout for palisade traps, seine and drift nets, lines
and lures and bottom trawling.
History
1.78
1
The Philippine Islands were discovered by Fernando de
Magallanes (Magellan), a Portuguese navigator in the
employment of Spain, in 1521. They were conquered by
Spain in 1565 and were named Philippines after King
Philip II of Spain. The Spanish influence over 350 years
was profound affecting culture, customs and architecture of
the country. The Roman Catholic religion, introduced by
Spanish friars, remains the predominant faith practiced by
more than 80% of the population. The Philippines is the
only Christian nation in Asia.
2
In 1892 the Philippine League was founded by Jose
Rizal to rebel against Spanish rule. Open revolt followed.
In 1897 a treaty was signed guaranteeing reforms within
3 years on the condition that Filipino leaders quit the
islands. Following a war between Spain and the United
States of America, the islands were seceded to the United
States of America on 10th December 1898.
3
On 14th November 1935, the President of the United
States signed a proclamation establishing the new
Philippine Commonwealth, and certifying the election of
the first president, Manuel Quezon. Sections of the
population under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo
refused to acknowledge US domination. An attack was
foiled by US troops causing the Filipinos to resort to
guerilla warfare. On 4th July 1902 William Howard Taft,
later to be President of the United States of America,
became the first civil governor. He and his successors were
reluctant to delegate authority to Filipinos but in 1916 the
CHAPTER 1
12
Jones Act instituted an elected senate. On 13th January
1933, the congress of the United States of America passed
the Hawes-Cutting Bill granting the Philippines
independence after 12 years while preserving military and
naval bases in the islands. The commonwealth was
formally established on 15th November 1935 with Manuel
Luis Quezon y Molina elected as the first president.
President Quezon was re-elected in 1941.
4
The Philippines were officially at war with Japan shortly
after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 8th
December 1941. By 22nd December the Japanese had a
foothold in Lingayen Gulf and on 9th April 1942, after
heroic resistance, Bataan fell. On 20th October 1944, the
Americans landed at Leyte with General MacArthur and
Sergio Osmeña who had succeeded to the presidency upon
Quezon’s death. The Philippines became a sovereign State
on 4th July 1946.
5
But the new state was faced with internal insurrection.
In central Luzon a Communist-led group of Hukbalahaps,
or Huks were demanding collectivization of farms and the
abolition of tenant farming. Attempts in 1953 to quell this
rebellion were unsuccessful until an election brought
Ramon Magsaysay to power. He attacked the Huks, put
down the rebellion and went ahead with plans to extend
tenant farming.
6
Following Magsaysay’s death Carlos P Garcia became
president and promptly issued an edict out-lawing the
Communist Party. Many of the Huk movement surrendered.
7
Ferdinand Marcos was elected President in 1965 and in
his hands rapid development of the economy brought
prosperity to the Republic. Civil unrest began again during
his second term of office with the Communist New
People’s Army and the Moro National Liberation Front, a
Muslim separatist movement in the S, waging guerilla
warfare. A new constitution was promulgated in 1973
giving Marcos dictatorial powers. This brought about
restlessness among the population led by the church.
President Marcos ended martial law in 1981 and he was
elected to a new 6 year term. Opposition to his presidency
mounted when, in 1983, Opposition leader Benigno Aquino
was murdered, apparently by a military conspiracy, though
the defendants were subsequently acquitted. Corazon
Aquino stood, somewhat reluctantly, as Marcos’s chief
opponent. She became the first female President. Tardiness
in economic reform threatened her government. In the next
election in 1992, Corazon Aquino declined to stand but
supported the eventual winner, Fidel Valdez Ramos. Islamic
terrorists continued to be troublesome but Ramos’s
economic reforms proved successful and in September 1996
the government signed a treaty with the Muslim Moro
National Liberation Front, the chief insurgent group in
Mindanao.
8
In 1998 Joseph Estrada was elected President and
despite the peace agreement sporadic fighting restarted in
Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. In November 2000
President Estrada was impeached on charges of
embezzlement. Despite winning his case Estrada was forced
to resign by mass popular protest. Gloria Arroyo was
sworn in as President on 20th January 2001.
Population
1.79
1
A 2000 census gave the total population of the
Philippiness 78 148 516 of which 58% were urban dwellers.
It is disposed as follows:
Luzon 42 810 872
Palawan and the off-lying islands 1 679 030
Visayas 15 524 750
Mindanao 18 133 864
An estimate of the population in 2001 is put at
82 841 518 persons.
Constitution and Government
1.80
1
The Republic of the Philippines was formerly governed
by a constitution adopted in May 1935, and amended in
1940 and in 1946. The president and Vice-President were
elected for a 4 year term but could be elected for a further
term. President Marcos changed the constitution in 1972 by
proclaiming martial law giving himself the offices of both
President and Prime Minister without a fixed term. In 1986
Marcos was deposed and with the new president a new
constitution came into force granting the President a single
6 year term of office.
2
The Philippines Congress consists of a Senate with 24
members, and a House of Representatives with 250
members serving 3 year terms.
Local Government
1.81
1
The country is divided into 76 provinces, 61 chartered
cities, more than 1500 municipalities and 21 municipal
cities. Each province elects a governor and 3 members of
the provincial board. The municipalities are public
corporations, each composed of a number of barrios. The
elected municipal mayor is the executive official.
Justice
1.82
1
Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, with a
Chief Justice and 14 associated judges. There is a court of
appeal. Every city has a court and every municipality a
municipal judge. All members of the judiciary are
appointed by the President with the consent of the
Commission on Appointments.
Industry and trade
1.83
1
The economy of the Philippines is predominantly
agricultural, although manufacturing is increasing at a
steady rate. Fishing is a major industry and a main source
of food. Trawling has developed significantly in open water
operations. Fish are abundant with little evidence of
migration but certain areas are seasonal thanks to their
exposure to the NE and SW monsoons.
2
Principal products marketed in 2000 included rice
12⋅5 million tonnes; copra 10⋅3 million tonnes; sugar
26⋅3 million tonnes; tobacco 71090 tonnes; forest products
42⋅5 million tonnes; fish 2⋅14 million tonnes; coal
1⋅21 million tonnes; fruits, vegetables, coffee, Manila hemp,
rubber and kapok. Other mined mineral include uranium,
gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese, chromate, iron,
quicksilver, cement, asphalt, sand, gravel and salt.
3
Principal imports are machinery, mineral fuels,
lubricants, base metals, transportation equipment, grains and
dairy products.
In 2000 a total of 8243 ships of greater than 100 dwt
entered Philippines ports totalling about 132 000 000 dwt.
CHAPTER 1
13
PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS AND ANCHORAGES
1.84
Place and position Remarks
Philippines
1
Busuanga Island and vicinity
Illultuk Bay
(12°16′N, 119°52′E) (3.14)
Protected anchorage. Small commercial port.
Gutob Bay
(12°10′N, 119°53′E) (3.16)
Protected anchorage.
Salvacion
(12°08′N, 119°56′E) (3.20)
Protected anchorage.
2
Culion Island and vicinity
Halsey Harbour
(11°46′N, 119°58′E) (3.35)
Typhoon anchorage.
Port Caltom
(12°11′N, 120°06′E) (3.55)
Protected anchorage.
Port Borac
(12°02′N, 120°20′E) (3.59)
Small commercial port.
3
Coron Bay
Coron Harbour
(12°00′N, 120°12′E) (3.73)
Typhoon anchorage. Small commercial port.
Port Uson
(12°00′N, 120°10′E) (3.77)
Good typhoon anchorage.
Port Culion
(11°53′N, 120°01′E) (3.81)
Sheltered anchorage. Small commercial port.
4
Linapacan Island and vicinity
South Bay
(11°24′N, 119°48′E) (3.104)
Well protected anchorage.
5
Palawan — east coast
Shark Fin Bay
(11°07′N, 119°35′) (3.108)
Best typhoon anchorage on
NE coast of Palawan.
Silanga Bay
(10°58′N, 119°38′E) (3.117)
Anchorage and small commercial port.
Calauag Bay
(10°44′N, 119°36′E)
(3.120)
Anchorage and small commercial port.
Cynthia Bay
(10°32′N, 120°00′E)
(3.137)
Typhoon anchorage for
small vessels. Anchorage off the entrance.
Pasco Channel
(10°06′N, 119°13′E)
(3.151)
Typhoon anchorage for
small vessels.
Puerto Princesa
(9°45′N, 118°43′E) (3.161)
Typhoon anchorage. First port of entry. Commercial port.
Aborlan River
(9°26′N, 118°34′E) (3.199)
Small port and commercial
anchorage.
Brooke’s Point
(8°46′N, 117°50′E) (3.208)
Commercial port.
Rio Tuba
(8°30′N, 117°16′E) (3.219)
Commercial port loading of
nickel silicate.
Coral Bay
(8°25′N, 117°22′E) (3.216)
Good typhoon anchorage.
Local knowledge required.
Place and position Remarks
6
Balabac Island and islands in the Sulu Sea
Port Ciego Bay
(8°04′N, 116°59′E) (4.18)
Typhoon anchorage for
small vessels.
Pasig Bay
(7°50′N, 116°58′E) (4.41)
Anchorage for smaller
vessels. Local knowledge is
necessary.
Calandorang Bay (Balabac Harbour)
(8°00′N, 117°05′E) (4.44)
Typhoon anchorage. Sub port of entry.
Gunboat Harbour: Cagayan Sulu Island
(6°59′N, 118°31′E) (4.135)
Anchorage protected during
NE monsoon. Small commercial port. Sub port of entry.
Malaysia
7
Sabah — north and north-east coasts and adjacent
islands
Kudat Harbour
(6°53′N, 116°51′E) (4.79)
Anchorage for medium
sized vessels, Commercial port.
Pulau Jambongan
(6°44′N, 117°23′E) (4.147)
Anchorage N of the W extremity.
Jambongan Harbour
(6°39′N, 117°30′E) (4.158)
Anchorage within the bar.
Sandakan Harbour
(5°50′N, 118°07′E) (4.162)
Large natural harbour.
Commercial port. Oil terminal.
Kuala Kinabatangan Besar
(5°39′N, 118°37′E) (5.12)
Anchorage in 11 m within
the bar.
Bakapit
(4°57′N, 118°35′E) (5.43)
Timber loading port for
smaller vessels.
Lahad Datu
(5°02′N, 118°20′E) (5.46)
Vessels up to 202 m in
length. Anchorages and
alongside berths.
Silam Harbour
(4°57′N, 118°14′E) (5.77)
Good anchorage.
Commercial harbour.
Pulau Bohayan
(4°47′N, 118°18′E) (5.92)
Timber loading anchorage.
Kunak Harbour
(4°41′N, 118°15′E) (5.93)
Bulk Palm oil platform and
timber loading port.
Semporna
(4°29′N, 118°37′E) (5.163)
Anchorage off town.
Timber loading port with
thriving fishing industry.
Wallace Bay
(4°15′N, 117°39′E) (5.192)
Timber loading anchorage
Tawau
(4°15′N, 117°53′E) (5.200)
Commercial port. Oil terminal.
Philippines
8
Sulu Archipelago
Tawitawi Bay
(5°00′N, 119°55′E) (6.41)
Large anchorage protected
from swells.
Port Languyan
(5°16′N, 120°04′E) (6.44)
Excellent anchorage.
Port Bongao
(5°02′N, 119°46′E) (6.45)
Typhoon anchorage. Sub port of entry.
Parang Harbour
(5°55′N, 120°54′E) (6.65)
Anchorage exposed to SW
monsoon. Sub port of entry.
Small commercial port.
CHAPTER 1
14
Place and position Remarks
Banaran Island
(5°02′N, 120°07′E) (6.84)
Exposed anchorage. Local knowledge required.
Laminusa anchorage
(5°33′N, 120°55′E) (6.99)
Anchorage exposed to
strong sets. Good holding ground.
Port Siasi
(5°33′N, 120°49′E) (6.89)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
Dalrymple Harbour
(6°01′N, 121°20′E) (6.107)
Typhoon anchorage.
Jolo Harbour
(6°03′N, 121°00′E) (6.109)
Anchorage open to N and
W. First port of entry.
Commercial port.
9
Basilan Island
Port Holland
(6°33′N, 121°52′E) (6.169)
Anchorage. Sub port of entry. Small commercial port.
Landugan
(6°35′N, 121°49′E) (6.173)
Logging pier.
Amoyloi Reefs
(6°26′N, 122°07′E) (6.190)
Anchorage off Amoyloi village. Local knowledge is
necessary.
Takut Tangug Bay
(6°32′N, 122°13′E) (6.201)
Anchorage for smaller
vessels and small craft.
Basilan (Isabela)
(6°42′N, 121°58′E) (6.210)
Typhoon anchorage. Timber loading port.
10
Mindanao — south-west coast
Caldera Bay
(6°57′N, 121°58′E) (7.11)
Partially protected anchorage. Timex Wharf.
Zamboanga
(6°54′N, 122°04′E) (7.12)
Anchorage. First port of
entry. Commercial port.
Masinloc Anchorage
(6°55′N, 122°11′E) (7.53)
Well sheltered anchorage.
Panubigan Islands
(7°09′N, 122°16′E) (7.63)
Sheltered anchorage for
smaller vessels. Local
knowledge is necessary.
Port Banga
(7°31′N, 122°26′E) (7.65)
Typhoon anchorage for
large vessels.
Busan Bay
(7°28′N, 122°29′E) (7.66)
A good but exposed
anchorage. Local knowledge is necessary.
Suba Nipa
(7°17′N, 122°51′E) (7.77)
Anchorage. Timber loading
port.
Taynabo Point
(7°46′N, 122°41′E) (7.73)
Santa Clara Lumber Pier.
Anchorage
Taba Bay
(7°34′N, 122°48′E) (7.86)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
Port Sibulan
(7°27′N, 122°56′E) (7.100)
Typhoon anchorages.
11
Sulu Archipelago
Malangas
(7°38′N, 123°02′E) (7.112)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
Pamintayan Point
(7°41′N, 123°05′E) (7.113)
Ore loading port.
Margosatubig
(7°35′N, 123°10′E) (7.114)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
Maligay Bay
(7°30′N, 123°15′E) (7.125)
Good anchorage sheltered
from SW monsoon.
Place and position Remarks
12
Illiana Bay
Port Sambulauan
(7°34′N, 123°22′E) (7.134)
Anchorage for smaller
vessels. Local knowledge is
necessary.
Pagadian
(7°49′N, 123°26′E) (7.137)
Anchorage. Increasingly
important port.
Sigayan Bay
(7°43′N, 123°45′E) (7.158)
Anchorage protected from
N winds.
Malabang
(7°35′N, 124°04′E) (7.161)
Anchorage. Small timber
loading port.
Lalabugan Bay
(7°25′N, 124°10′E) (7.163)
Deep water anchorage exposed to W winds.
Polloc Harbour
(7°21′N, 124°14′E) (7.148)
Typhoon anchorage.
Commercial port.
Parang
(7°22′N, 124°12′E) (7.148)
Anchorage for large
vessels. Small commercial port.
Linao Bay
(6°45′N, 124°00′E) (7.191)
Anchorage. Local knowledge is necessary.
Port Lebak
(6°33′N, 124°02′E) (7.177)
Typhoon anchorage.
Commercial port.
Cotabato City
(7°14′N, 124°15′E) (7.183)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Milbuk Harbour
(6°09′N, 124°16′E) (7.202)
Anchorage. Timber loading port.
13
Sarangani Bay
Sapu Bay
(5°56′N, 125°16′E) (7.220)
Deep water anchorage
protected from S and SW
winds.
Canalasan Cove
(5°50′N, 125°12′E) (7.219)
Excellent anchorage well
protected during
SW monsoon.
General Santos
(6°06′N, 125°10′E) (7.222)
First port of entry.
Anchorage.
Important and developing
commercial port.
14
Sarangani Island
Port Tumanao
(5°27′N, 125°28′E) (7.254)
Good anchorage.
15
Davao Gulf
Malalag
(6°36′N, 125°24′E) (7.285)
Protected anchorage. Pier.
Small commercial port.
Tagabuli Bay
(6°48′N, 125°24′E) (7.299)
Restricted but sheltered anchorage.
Santa Cruz town
(6°50′N, 125°25′E) (7.300)
Anchorage. Minor port.
Daliao village
(7°01′N, 125°30′E) (7.302)
Anchorage loading port.
Davao
(7°04′N, 125°37′E) (7.305)
Anchorages. First port of entry. Large commercial port.
Tambongon
(7°15′N, 125°40′E) (7.338)
Anchorage. Timber loading port.
Tuganay Piers
(7°18′N, 125°41′E) (7.339)
Banana loading facility.
Madaum River
(7°22′N, 125°49′E) (7.341)
Hemp loading pier.
CHAPTER 1
15
Place and position Remarks
Maco village
(7°22′N, 125°51′E) (7.342)
Anchorage. Saw mill.
Governor Generoso
(6°39′N, 126°04′E) (7.349)
Mangesite loading anchorage.
16
Apo East Pass
Pandan Bay
(12°51′N, 120°45′E) (8.12)
Anchorage well protected
during SW monsoon.
Mamburao Bay
(13°13′N, 120°35′E) (8.14)
Good anchorage. Small
domestic port. Local
knowledge is necessary.
San Jose
(12°21′N, 121°04′E) (8.21)
Anchorage. Busy domestic port.
17
Verde Island Passage
Lemery
(13°53′N, 120°55′E) (8.67)
Anchorage. Small domesticport.
Calaca
(13°45′N, 121°05′E) (8.68)
Anchorage. New private
port for vessels up to
60 000 dwt.
Batangas Bay
(13°44′N, 121°00′E) (8.69)
Anchorages. Major port complex. Oil jetties.
Abra di Ilog
(13°27′N, 120°43′E)
(8.108)
Anchorage. Small domestic port.
San Teodoro
(13°26′N, 121°01′E) (8.111)
Anchorage exposed to NE
monsoon.
Calapan Bay
(13°25′N, 121°10′E)
(8.116)
Anchorage. Busy domestic port.
18
Tablas Strait — west side
Pola Bay
(13°10′N, 121°28′E)
(8.132)
Anchorages.
Small commercial port.
Pinamalayan
(13°02′N, 121°30′E)
(8.133)
Good anchorage. Small commercial port.
Bongabon
(12°45′N, 121°29′E)
(8.135)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
19
Mindoro — south-east side
Colasi Bay
(12°26′N, 121°25′E)
(8.146)
Anchorage sheltered from
W winds.
Soguicay Bay
(12°22′N, 121°27′E)
(8.148)
Best typhoon anchorage on
the E coast of Mindoro.
20
Mindoro — south side
Ilin Strait
(12°15′N, 121°06′E)
(8.155)
Well protected anchorage.
21
Semirara Islands
Semirara Island
(12°04′N, 121°22′E)
(8.166)
Anchorage. Major coal
exporter. First port of entry.
Pier at Sabang (12°02′N, 121°25′E)
Place and position Remarks
Caluya Island
(11°55′N, 121°33′E)
(8.188)
Anchorage, well sheltered
during NE monsoon.
22
Tablas Strait — east side
Calatrava
(12°37′N, 122°04′E)
(8.185)
Berth. Small commercial port.
Odiongan
(12°24′N, 121°59′E)
(8.186)
Anchorage. Commercial port.
Looc Bay
(12°14′N, 122°00′E)
(8.195)
Excellent typhoon
anchorage. Small commercial port.
23
Romblon Passage
San Augustin (Badajoz)
(12°34′N, 122°08′E)
(8.214)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
Berth
Port Romblon
(12°35′N, 122°16′E)
(8.216)
Typhoon anchorage. Sub port of entry. Developing commercial
port.
24
Romblon Passage
Ibajay
(11°50′N, 122°10′E)
(8.260)
Anchorage. Small
commercial port.
Port Batan
(11°37′N, 122°29′E)
(8.261)
Anchorage exposed during
NE monsoon. Small
commercial port.
New Washington
(11°39′N, 122°26′E)
(8.262)
Anchorage. Small
commercial port, concrete
wharf.
Port Capiz (Culasi)
(11°36′N, 122°42′E)
(8.268)
Important domestic port for
Roxas City.
25
Masbate — south side
Cawayan
(11°56′N, 123°46′E)
(8.303)
Small domestic port.
Milagros
(12°13′N, 123°31′E)
(8.304)
Anchorage. Small domestic port. Concrete pier.
26
Panay — north-east part
Estancia
(11°27′N, 123°09′E)
(8.314)
Anchorage. Small domestic port. Concrete pier.
27
Negros — north part
Cadiz
(10°58′N, 123°18′E)
(8.332)
Anchorage. Small wooden pier.
Himugaan River
(10°55′N, 123°25′E)
(8.333)
Anchorage outside the bar.
River berths for small craft.
Local knowledge necessary.
28
Panay — south-west part, Panay Gulf and Guimaras
Strait
Pandan Bay
(11°43′N, 122°04′E)
(8.345)
Good anchorage but exposed to the SW monsoon.
CHAPTER 1
16
Place and position Remarks
San Jose de Buenavista
(10°44′N, 121°56′E)
(8.348)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete wharf.
Iloilo
(10°42′N, 122°34′E)
(8.364)
Anchorages. Chartered city
and major commercial port.
First port of entry.
Guiuanon Island
(10°23′N, 122°37′E)
(8.409)
Sugar loading anchorage
during the NE Monsoon.
29
Negros — west part
Hinigaran town
(10°16′N, 122°51′E)
(8.416)
Anchorage. Sugar port for
domestic vessels. Concrete pier.
Pontevedra
(10°23′N, 122°52′E)
(8.417)
Anchorage. Mooring buoys
for sugar and Molasses.
Nalunga Island
(10°30′N, 122°43′E)
(8.423)
Anchorage for loading
molasses. Good holding ground.
Nadulao Island
(10°31′N, 122°44′E)
(8.424)
Anchorage for loading
molasses. Good holding ground.
Mambagid River
(10°51′N, 122°57′E)
(8.425)
Anchorage for loading
sugar. Concrete wharf for barges.
Pulupandan
(10°31′N, 122°48′E)
(8.426)
Anchorage. First port of entry. Commercial port.
Bacolod City
(10°40′N, 122°57E) (8.434)
Anchorage. Commercial port. First port of entry. Several private wharves.
Victorias
(10°55′N, 123°04′E)
(8.451)
Anchorage. Commercial
port, concrete berths and
mooring buoys.
30
Tayabas Bay and Bondoc Peninsula — west part
Castañas
(13°52′N, 121°33′E) (9.15)
Anchorage. Minor commercial port.
Lucena
(13°56′N, 121°37′E) (9.16)
Anchorage. Chartered City,
Minor commercial port.
Capulaan (Kapulaan) Bay
(13°53′N, 121°46′E) (9.18)
Anchorage sheltered during
the NE monsoon.
Tagabas Bay
(13°36′N, 122°15′E) (9.33)
Anchorage. Local knowledge is necessary.
Catanauan Bay
(13°35′N, 122°19′E) (9.34)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
Mulanai
(13°31′N, 122°24′E) (9.35)
Anchorage protected during
NE monsoon.
Aurora
(13°21′N, 122°31′E) (9.38)
Anchorage during NE monsoon. Small commercial port.
31
Marinduque Island
Gasan
(13°20′N, 121°51′E) (9.46)
Copra loading at anchorage.
Boac
(13°27′N, 121°49′E) (9.47)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Copra prime export.
Place and position Remarks
Port Balanacan
(13°32′N, 121°52′E) (9.48)
Typhoon anchorage. Small commercial port.
Santa Cruz Harbour
(13°30′N, 122°03′E) (9.54)
Typhoon anchorage.
Commercial port.
Ore loading berth. Sub port of entry.
32
Ragay Gulf
Catabangan Bay
(13°51′N, 122°38′E) (9.90)
Anchorage. Lumber and
copra loading port. Small
pier.
Tagkawayan Bay
(13°56′N, 122°33′E) (9.91)
Timber loading anchorage.
Local knowledge necessary.
33
Burias Island
Port Busin
(13°08′N, 122°59′E) (9.99)
Typhoon anchorage. Local knowledge required.
Small commercial port; pier
at San Pascual.
Port Busainga
(13°07′N, 123°02′E) (9.111)
Limited, well sheltered
typhoon anchorage for
smaller vessels. Local knowledge necessary.
34
Luzon — south-west side
Panganiran Bay
(13°02′N, 123°24′E)
(9.121)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete jetty.
Donsol
(12°54′N, 123°35′E)
(9.122)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port
Port Putiao
(12°53′N, 123°40′E)
(9.123)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Local knowledge necessary.
Port Panlatuan
(12°52′N, 123°40′E)
(9.124)
Excellent typhoon anchor-
age. Local knowledge is
necessary.
Sorsogon Bay
(12°51′N, 123°49′E)
(9.125)
Typhoon anchorages − Castilla, Casiguran, Sorsogon. Casiguran and
Sorsogon also small commercial ports.
Bulan
(12°40′N, 123°52′E)
(9.144)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
35
San Bernardino Strait — west side
Matnog Bay
(12°35′N, 124°06′E)
(9.157)
Anchorage. Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
Port Gubat
(12°55′N, 124°08′E)
(9.161)
Anchorage. Commercial port.
36
Albay Gulf
Batan Harbour
(13°14′N, 124°04′E)
(9.174)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Local knowledge required.
Rapu Rapu
(13°11′N, 124°09′E)
(9.175)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
CHAPTER 1
17
Place and position Remarks
Bacon
(13°03′N, 124°03′E)
(9.177)
Anchorage exposed to NE
monsoon winds. Small commercial port.
Coal Harbour
(13°15′N, 123°55′E)
(9.179)
Typhoon anchorage for
large vessels. Coal mining defunct.
Port Sula
(13°14′N, 123°52′E)
(9.180)
Typhoon anchorage for
small and medium sized
vessels.
Legaspi Port
(13°09′N, 123°45′E)
(9.181)
Anchorage exposed to E
winds. First port of entry.
Centre of hemp production.
37
San Bernardino Strait — south-east side
Pambujan town
(12°34′N, 124°56′E)
(9.222)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Rock causeway concrete
deck.
Bobon
(12°32′N, 124°34′E)
(9.224)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
San Jose
(12°32′N, 124°29′E)
(9.225)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
First port of entry
Lavezares Harbour
(12°33′N, 124°20′E)
(9.227)
Anchorage for any vessels.
Small craft anchorage
untenable during NE monsoon winds.
Laoang Bay
(12°35′N, 124°59′E)
(9.228)
Anchorage sheltered from
all but N and W. Hemp and copra exports.
Laoang Harbour
(12°35′N, 124°59′E)
(9.229)
Numerous piers for smaller
vessels. Local knowledge is
necessary.
38
Masbate — north-east side
Port Barrera
(12°32′N, 123°23′E)
(9.240)
Anchorage. Commercial
port. Local knowledge is
necessary. Concrete pier.
Masbate
(12°22′N, 123°37′E)
(9.243)
Anchorage. Large commercial port.
First port of entry. Two wharves.
39
Ticao Island
Port San Miguel
(12°40′N, 123°36′E)
(9.258)
Excellent typhoon anchorage for small craft.
Taclogon Bay
(12°37′N, 123°43′E)
(9.271)
Anchorage for smaller
vessels. Good holding ground. Limited.
40
Samar — west side
Calbayog
(12°04′N, 124°36′E)
(9.296)
Anchorage. Commercial port. Concrete pier.
Santo Niño Island
(11°55′N, 124°26′E)
(9.304)
Excellent typhoon anchor-
age. Small commercial port.
Place and position Remarks
Cambatutay Bay
(11°54′N, 124°46′E)
(9.317)
Anchorage for smaller
vessels. Local knowledge is
necessary.
Catbalogan
(11°47′N, 124°53′E)
(9.318)
Anchorage. First port of
entry. Small commercial
port. two concrete piers.
Canahauan Islands
(11°49′N, 124°41′E)
(9.330)
Typhoon anchorage. Large
vessels at Port Aguirre;
Smaller vessels off Batgongon Island.
41
Cebu — north-east side
Bogo Bay
(11°05′N, 124°01′E)
(9.387)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete and stone piers.
Borbon
(10°50′N, 124°02′E)
(9.388)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
Port Carmen
(10°35′N, 124°01′E)
(9.389)
Anchorage
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
Danao
(10°30′N, 124°02′E)
(9.390)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
42
Leyte — north-west and west sides
San Isidro
(11°24′N, 124°20′E)
(9.400)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
Villaba
(11°13′N, 124°23′E)
(9.402)
Anchorage and mooring
buoys. Small commercial port.
Stone pier.
Port Isabel
(10°55′N, 124°26′E)
(9.415)
Anchorage.
Large commercial port
serving fertilizer and
smelting industries.
Ormoc City (11°00′N,
124°36′E) (9.422)
Anchorage.
Large commercial port.
Mooring buoys.
43
Mindanao — west coast
Sablayan Point
(12°49′N, 120°46′E) (8.13)
Open anchorage. Small commercial port.
Mangarin Bay
(12°21′N, 121°04′E) (8.21)
Protected anchorage. Small commercial port.
44
Mindanao — north-west side
Panabutan Bay
(7°34′N, 122°07′E) (10.13)
Anchorage.
Lumber exporting port.
Wooden pier.
Port Roxas
(8°31′N, 123°15′E) (10.30)
Coconut oil and copra
exporting port. Concrete pier.
Port Pulauan
(8°38′N, 123°23′E) (10.32)
Anchorage. Concrete pier.
45
Negros — south side
Bacong
(9°15′N, 123°18′E) (10.53)
Ammonium nitrate and
nitric acid import facility.
Concrete pier.
CHAPTER 1
18
Place and position Remarks
Dumaguete
(9°19′N, 123°19′E) (10.56)
Chartered City. Anchorage.
First port of entry. Concrete harbour complex.
46
Tañon Strait
Bais City
(9°34′N, 123°08′E) (10.95)
Anchorage. Sugar exporting
port. Concrete pier. Local
knowledge is necessary.
San Carlos
(10°29′N,123°25′E)
(10.116)
Anchorage. A principal
sugar exporting port.
Anchorages, public and private piers.
Toledo
(10°23′N 123°38′E)
(10.151)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier and Ro-Ro
ramp.
Sangi
(10°23′N, 123°39′E)
(10.153)
Anchorage.
Fertilizer exporting port.
Concrete harbour complex.
Hagnaya Bay
(11°07′N,123°56′E)
(10.169)
Anchorage. Important sugar
exporting port.
47
Cebu Strait
Tinaan Anchorage
(10°11′N,123°45′) (10.185)
Anchorage. Mooring buoys.
Submerged pipeline for
discharging tankers.
Cebu (10°19′N,123°54′E)
(10.188)
Typhoon anchorages.
First port of entry.
Major commercial port. 16 alongside berths.
Tagbilaran
(09°39′N,123°50′E)
(10.232)
Anchorage. Sub port of entry. Small commercial port.
Tubigon
(9°57′N, 123°57′E)
(10.262)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
Talibon
(10°09′N,123°19′E)
(10.268)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
48
Bohol
Jagna Bay
(9°38′N, 124°22′E)
(10.288)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
49
Leyte — south part
Maasin
(10°08′N,124°50′E)
(10.314)
Anchorage. Export of
Hemp and copra. Concrete pier. Port of entry.
50
Mindanao — north side
Jimenez
(8°20′N, 123°51′E)
(10.365)
Anchorage. Copra and
coconut oil exports.
Concrete pier with
dolphins.
Port Ozamiz
(8°09′N, 123°50′E)
(10.372)
Typhoon anchorage.
Chartered city. First port of entry. Commercial port.
Camp Overton
(8°12′N, 124°12′E)
(10.384)
Offshore tanker berth. Port for industrial complex.
Place and position Remarks
Iligan City
(8°14′N, 124°14′E)
(10.385)
Anchorages. First port of entry. Commercial port. Three concrete wharves.
Ro-Ro berth.
Quinalang Cove
(8°17′N, 124°16′E)
(10.397)
Anchorage. Commercial
port with five piers.
Bugo
(8°31′N, 124°45′E)
(10.408)
Anchorage. Small commercial port. 4 pier.
Villanueva
(8°35′N, 124°45′E)
(10.411)
Anchorage. Iron ore.
Vessels of 350 000 dwt.
Sub port of entry.
Cagayan de Oro
(8°29′N, 124°39′E)
(10.418)
Anchorage. Chartered City.
First port of entry. Eleven berths.
Anakan
(8°51′N, 125°09′E)
(10.463)
Anchorage
Small commercial port.
Private timber loading pier
with dolphins.
Nasipit
(8°59′N, 125°20′E)
(10.472)
Typhoon anchorage.
Mooring buoys.
Commercial port.
Container, Ro-Ro and general berths.
Agusan River
(9°01′N, 125°30′E)
(10.479)
Anchorage.
Local knowledge required.
Commercial port.
Development on-going.
51
Luzon — east side
Casiguran Sound
(16°05′N, 121°55′E)
(11.37)
Good typhoon anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Baler Bay
(15°46′N, 121°35′E)
(11.38)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Hook Bay (Polillo Island)
(14°56′N, 121°50′E)
(11.57)
Typhoon anchorage
Polillo (Polillo Island)
(14°45′N, 121°55′E)
(11.59)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port
Port Lampon
(14°40′N, 121°37′E)
(11.60)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port for
copra.
Local knowledge required
for Pulo River.
Atimonan
(14°00′N, 121°55′E)
(11.69)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port for
hemp and copra.
First port of entry.
Hondagua Harbour
(13°56′N, 122°14′E)
(11.76)
Anchorage.
Commercial port.
First port of entry.
Siain
(13°57′N, 122°01′E)
(11.85)
Anchorage.
Developing commercial
port for copra export.
CHAPTER 1
19
Place and position Remarks
Larap Bay
(14°19′N,122°39′E)
(11.112)
Anchorage. Iron ore port.
Fendered concrete pier.
Jose Panganiban
(14°21′N,122°40′E)
(11.119)
Anchorage. Iron ore port.
First port of entry. Concrete
pier.
Malaguit Bay
(14°18′N 122°48′E)
(11.128)
Iron ore loading anchorage.
Butauanan Bay
(14°05′N,123°20′E)
(11.152)
Anchorage.
Timber loading.
Wooden pier.
Lamit Bay
(13°48′N,123°32′E)
(11.154)
Best typhoon anchorage on
this coast.
Anchorage loading
manganese ore/timber.
52
Catanduanes Island
Virac
(13°33′N,124°16′E)
(11.189)
Anchorage. First port of entry. Commercial port. Concrete pier.
53
Lagonay Gulf
Tabaco Bay
(13°24′N,123°45′E)
(11.227)
Anchorage. Port of entry. Commercial port. Concrete pier.
54
Samar — east part
Helm Harbour
(12°20′N, 125°22′E)
(12.17)
Typhoon anchorage. Small commercial port.
Taft
(11°54′N, 125°25′E)
(12.29)
Anchorage exposed to NE
monsoon.
Small commercial port.
Port Burungan
(11°37′N, 125°28′E)
(12.33)
Anchorage. Small commecial port.
Local knowledge is necessary. Concrete pier.
55
Leyte Gulf
Guiuanon Harbour
(11°02′N, 125°43′E)
(12.67)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port
Tacloban
(11°15′N, 125°00′E)
(12.84)
Anchorage. First port of entry. Commercial port. Wharf 664 m long.
56
Surigao Strait
Maligay Bay
(10°01′N,125°30′E)
(12.145)
Typhoon anchorage. Local knowledge required.
Divagate
(9°58′N, 125°35′E)
(12.146)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
57
Hinatuan Passage
Port Surigao
(9°47′N, 125°30′E)
(12.201)
Chartered City. Anchorage.
Commercial port. First port of entry. Ten berths.
Place and position Remarks
Port Nonok
(9°49′N, 125°37′E)
(12.208)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port for
large vessels loading nickel
and cobalt.
Placer
(9°40′N, 125°36′E)
(12.215)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Dapa
(9°45′N, 126°03′E)
(12.223)
Anchorage.
Small commercial port.
Local knowledge required.
58
Mindanao — east part
Tandag
(9°05′N, 126°12′E) (13.12)
Anchorage, small and medium sized vessels.
Small commercial port.
Concrete pier.
Bitaogan Bay
(8°53′N, 126°20′E) (13.13)
Sheltered anchorage. Small
commercial port. Concrete
wharf.
Lianga
(8°38′N, 126°06′E) (13.23)
Anchorage sheltered during
SW monsoon.
Small commercial port.
Mangagoy (Bislig Bay)
(8°18′N, 126°24′E) (13.39)
Anchorage.
Commercial port. First port of entry.
Berths/working anchorages.
Mati
(6°48′N, 126°21′E) (13.93)
Anchorage. Commercial port.
Port of entry.
Berths/working anchorage.
PORT SERVICES — SUMMARY
Docking facilities
1.85
Batangas Dry docks; maximum size 70 000 tons.
Floating docks lifting 2400 and 2750 tons.
Mechanical lift dock 7620 tons (8.94).
Cebu Dry dock; maximum size 35 000 tons.
Floating docks lifting 5000 and 8500 tons.
Seven repair slipways, the largest for vessels
up to 4000 grt. (10.221).
Iloilo Dry dock; maximum size 4500 grt.
Six slipways for vessels up to 4600 dwt.
(8.394)
Other facilities
Salvage services
1.86
1
Port Cebu (10.221).
Iloilo (8.394).
Deratting
1.87
1
Exemption certificates only
Tiwi (Malaysia) (5.200).
Cagayan de Oro (10.418).
Cebu (10.221).
Davao (7.305).
Iloilo (8.394).
Zamboanga (7.12).
CHAPTER 1
20
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
Charts 4507, 4509
Sulu Sea bed
1.88
1
The Sulu Sea lies exclusively within landmasses on the
Philippines Sea Plate. Its seabed is as old as the
surrounding land and has been subject to compressing
stresses. The result is that the Sulu Sea has a huge
variation in depth, particularly in its SE part which may be
considered as a great valley with steep mountains rising on
either side and at both ends. Tubbataha Reefs and the
Cagayan Islands are the pinnacles of this great massif
running NE/SW through the sea. with another, less deep
valley on its NW side. The deep basin of the Sulu Sea has
a temperature at a uniform depth of 732 m (400 fm) of
10⋅3°C. A similar temperature in the South China Sea is
reached at a depth of 366 m (200 fm) and in the Celebes
Sea at a depth of 392 m (180 fm) and in the Pacific Ocean
at a depth of 421 m (230 fm). From this it may be inferred
that the shallow entrances into the Sulu Sea, none of which
reach the depths mentioned, prevent a free interchange of
its waters.
Volcanoes
1.89
1
There are about fifteen active volcanoes in the
Philippines Archipelago extending from the N coast of
Mindanao to the N coast of Luzon.
2
In 1897 Mayon Volcano, located in Albay Gulf, erupted
with devastating results, and again, most recently, it erupted
in February 1993, the 30th such eruption since records
began in 1616. Elsewhere Mount Taal, close S of Manila
erupted in 1911. Hibok-Hibok Volcano has erupted several
times in 1951 and 1952 and the 1991 eruption of Mount
Pinatubo caused massive damage in Central Luzon. More
recent eruptions are mentioned in the geographical chapters.
Seismic activity
3
The Philippine Islands lie on a small tectonic plate
known as the Philippine Sea Plate surrounded by the
Pacific Plate, the Indian-Australian Plate, and the Eurasian
Plate. As the result of the Pacific and Indian Ocean ridges
which construct new crust the seabeds are moved away
from the constructive plate margins to converge on the
Philippines Sea Plate. Land mass plates are thicker than
seabed plates so causing the latter to descend beneath the
landmass forming deep trenches such as those on the E
side of the Philippines, the Marianas and Mindanao
Trenches, which contains some of the greatest depths in the
world. Thus subducted the seabed is subject to great heat
causing it to melt and form magma which rises through the
mantle into a magma chamber. Pressures build up within
the chamber, a very slow process, until it is forced to the
surface in a volcanic eruption. This construction and
destruction of seabed plates means that no part of the
ocean bed is greater than about 150 000 000 years old.
4
Because the Eurasian Plate is drifting SE towards the
Philippines the Philippines Sea Plate has been subject to
tremendous compressing stresses for many millenia. This
has resulted in folding of the sedimentary rock formations
of the area creating mountains and deep valleys and
enclosed seas. It has also caused much faulting and it is
along these lines that tectonic pressures react. Reaching
unendurable pressure the two faces of the fault shift against
one another relieving the pressure but producing an
earthquake which could be centred on a point, called the
focus, as much as 700 km below the surface. The point on
the surface directly over the focus is known as the
epicentre.
5
Earthquakes can cause untold damage such as that in
1824 which wrecked many churches, bridges and homes
leaving a chasm 4 miles in length. In 1863 400 people died
and 2000 were injured in Manila when 46 public buildings
and 1100 private houses were destroyed. The earliest
recorded earthquake happened in 1610 followed by others
in 1645, 1658, 1675, 1699, 1828, 1832, 1852, 1869 and
1880. In 1891 some terrible shocks in the province of
Panga Sinan were suffered as the result of repeated
earthquakes during the period of one month. A more recent
earthquake in August 1968, caused the loss of 270 lives,
much injury and great damage to property in Manila and
the surrounding neighbourhood. Again on 16th July 1990
an earthquake in N Luzon registered 7⋅7 on the Richter
Scale the epicentre being located in the vicinity of
Cabanatuan City, killing 1700 people within a radius of
100 to 200 km and destroying the cities of Dagapan and
Baguio. Very recent earthquakes are mentioned in the
geographical chapters.
CURRENTS, TIDAL STREAMS AND FLOW
General information
1.90
1
In this area, currents of the Pacific Ocean and the
Celebes Sea are constant throughout the year. These
currents are driven by the W current in the open NW
Pacific. They are slightly modified by monsoon reversals.
2
During the presence of tropical cyclones (May to
November) currents are modified by the violence of the
cyclone and the speed of its advance, slower, more violent
cyclones having greater effect on both speed and direction
of the current. Wind driven currents set downwind and are
deflected to the right in the N hemisphere by between 20°
and 45°. Wind blown associated currents can cause changes
of up to 2 kn and more, where coastal profiles are
favourable in deflecting water.
3
Sparse current measurements, recorded for restricted
waters, limit confidence. Current strengths in restricted
waters are likely to be of much lower significance
compared with tidal streams described in this section.
4
Current data shown in diagrams 1 to 4. Diagrams 1
(February − NE monsoon) and 3 (August − SW monsoon)
typify the main monsoon conditions. Diagrams 2 (April and
4 (October) typify the monsoon transitions.
5
Current measurements have been too few to warrant the
use of current roses. Where high current rates are indicated,
changes in speed from the mean are much more likely than
changes in direction.
Elsewhere, low mean current speeds are associated with
changes and reversals in directions from the mean indicated
in the diagrams.
6
Sparse current measurements, recorded for restricted
waters, limit confidence. Current strengths in restricted
waters are likely to be of much lower significance
compared with tidal streams described in this section.
7
Currents shown in diagrams 1 to 4. Diagrams 1
(February − NE monsoon) and 3 (August − SW monsoon)
typify the main monsoon conditions. Diagrams 2 (April and
4 (October) typify the monsoon transitions.
CHAPTER 1
21
El Niño
1.91
In 1982, a scientist named Camilo Carillo reported that
Puruvian fishermen of the port of Paita had coined the term
”Corriente del Nino” or “Current of the Christ Child” in
reference to an invasion of warm waters that occurs around
Christmas and causes a sharp increase in fish catches for a
brief period of time after which there is a sharp decline in
fish stocks.
El Niño has become of major concern to scientists,
policy makers and politicians because of the adverse global
impact of unusual anomalies that resulted from its
1982−1983 event. Many of these phenomena were record
breaking including, the worst hurricane, most intense
rainfall, the warmest winter and so on. Recent observations
indicate that instances of drought in the W equatorial
region of the Pacific including Philippines, Indonesia and
parts of N Australia can be attributed to El Niño when air
pressure increases over the tropical regions of the W
Pacific causing the trade winds to ease or even to change
direction from W to E. A complex dynamical response in
the ocean causes changes in the flow of the equatorial
current system and a change in sea level. Convection levels
rise bringing unusually heavy rains to Central and E Pacific
but leaving the W region unnaturally dry causing possible
drought.
Currents for various areas
Pacific coast
1.92
1
The North Pacific Equatorial Current is a broad W flow
towards the Philippines. It is strongest, at about 1 kn, in the
latitude of Samar, during the NE monsoon. East of Samar
this current diverges into a NW flow along the E coast of
Luzon, a SW current through Surigao Strait and S along
the E and SE coasts of Mindanao.
Celebes Sea
1.93
1
The SW current passing SE of Mindanao is narrow and
has a mean rate of 2 kn, occasionally attaining 3 kn. The
flow turns W at about 1 kn, to cross the N part of the
Celebes Sea where it is disrupted during the SW monsoon
and becomes variable.
2
Well offshore from SE Mindanao, the SW current turns
E to NE to become part of the equatorial counter current.
This current may attain rates of 1 kn.
San Bernardino Strait
1.94
1
The NW current along the E coast of Luzon has a mean
rate of to 1 kn with low current velocities in the various
channels leading to the Sibuyan and Visayan Seas.
Sulu Sea
1.95
1
Currents in the Sulu Sea have a complex seasonal
variation. During the NE monsoon the streams are
SW-going with water leaving the Sulu Sea through Balabac
Strait, Alice Channel and Sibutu Passage having entered
through the Bohol Sea and Panay Gulf. During the SW
monsoon a NE current along the SE coast of Palawan with
a rate of about kn, feeds the passage of water NW
through Mindoro Strait.
2
Along the NE coast of Sabah, currents are weak and
variable during the NE monsoon; at other times a NW
current prevails except during the transition from SW to
NE monsoons during which currents flow into the Sulu Sea
through Balabac Strait attaining rates of about kn SE
along the NE Sabah coast.
Verde Island Passage
1.96
1
After passing S along the W coast of Luzon and
deflecting some of its waters into Manila Bay, Balayan Bay
and Batangas Bay continues along the coast S and E as far
as Malabrigo Point (13°36′N, 121°16′E) where it branches.
The waters from Balayan Bay and Batangas Bay reunite
with the main stream near Verde Island, producing violent
tide-rips and eddies between Escarceo Point and Malabrigo
Point. A branch of this stream follows the trend of Tayabas
Bay passing N and E of Marinduque Island and through
Mompog Pass to reunite with the other branch. This second
branch sets SE along the coast of Mindoro as far as
Dumali Point (13°07′N, 121°33′E), and then E passing S of
Marinduque Island towards Bondoc Peninsula. From there
the combined stream meets that from the Pacific which has
entered through the San Bernardino Strait.
Sibuyan Sea
1.97
1
In that part contained between Masbate Island and
Mindoro the tidal streams are weak, except off Arena Point
(13°14′N, 122°42′E), the SE extremity of Bondoc Peninsula
where they acquire some force from the amount of water
that enters and leaves Ragay Gulf. The stream entering the
Sulu Sea through Mindoro Strait divides at the S extremity
of Mindoro Island, part of it continuing N-wards on the E
side towards Dumali Point (13°07′N, 121°33′E) where it
meets the Verde Island Passage stream. The remainder of
that stream continues SE and divides at the NW extremity
of Panay Island. One branch flows along the N coast of
Panay passing Bulacaue Point (11°36′N, 123°09′E) and
Gigantes Islands (11°38′N, 123°21′E) to the N extremity of
Cebu Island where it turns S to meet the Pacific streams
from Surigao Strait, 6 miles S of the Camotes Islands. It
also flows into Iloilo Strait and Tañon Strait, in both of
which the in-going stream from the S is met off the N end
of Negros and off Tajao Point (10°21′N, 123°35′E). The
other branch turns S from the NW point of Panay, and,
being joined midway by the stream setting E of Cuyo
Islands in-going from Linapacan Strait, continues coasting
Panay and Guimaras Island into Iloilo Strait, until it meets
the other branch previously described.
Balabac Strait
1.98
1
The in-going stream entering the Sulu Sea through
Balabac Strait (7°35′N, 117°10′E) turns NNE along the E
coast of Palawan, and spreads out fan-like to the NE and E
forming the E-going stream between Panay and the Cuyo
Islands including that which sets S of the Cagayan Islands.
It is reported to meet the in-going stream from Surigao
Strait approximately on the meridian of the Cagayan
Islands.
Sulu Archipelago
1.99
1
In Sibutu Passage (4°36′N, 119°28′E), the in-going
stream sets NW. Through the islands of the Sulu
Archipelago it sets strongly but irregularly N and W. The
islands, however, deflect the streams into many local
directions where they are apparently influenced by
monsoon currents. As a consequence times of HW and LW
may be overrun by 2 to 3 hours. Through Basilan Strait
(6°30′N, 122°00′E) the in-going stream passes along the W
General circulation of sea surface currents FEBRUARY (1.92.1)
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
1
1
3
/
4
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
130°
130°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
22
CHAPTER 1
General circulation of sea surface currents APRIL (1.92.2)
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
1
1
1
1
/
4
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
130°
130°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
23
CHAPTER 1
General circulation of sea surface currents AUGUST (1.92.3)
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
3
/
4
2
1
1
/
4
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
130°
130°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
24
CHAPTER 1
General circulation of sea surface currents OCTOBER (1.92.4)
3
/
4
1
1
1
1
/
4
1
1
/
2
1
1
/
4
1
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
/
2
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
130°
130°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
25
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 1
26
coast of Mindanao until it meets the in-going stream from
the Surigao Strait (10°00′N, 125°30′E) midway along the
coast.
Tidal streams
2
Tidal streams are generally semi-diurnal on the E coasts
of Luzon and Samar, the E and S coasts of Mindanao and
the NE coast of Sabah, SW from and including Darvel
Bay. The spring range is generally about 1⋅5 m but
increases to about 2 m on the E and N shores of Moro
Gulf and to about 2⋅5 m at the head of Sibuko Bay.
3
Elsewhere in the area covered by this volume the tide
has a large diurnal component and a range of between 1
and 1⋅5 m.
SEA AND SWELL
Sea conditions
1.100
1
The entire area is under the influence of the NE
monsoon (October to April) during winter. When exposed
to this monsoon coastal areas experience higher seas states
than those in the sheltered SW facing coasts. The highest
sea conditions are reported from the exposed seas near the
N part of the Philippines Archipelago.
1
The occurrence of seas states over 1⋅5 m in height off
the E coast of Luzon is seven times greater than those off
the E coast of Mindanao. Sea states greater than 6 m in
height are reported N of Samar, but not to the S. For about
4% of the time similar high sea states are recorded N of
Luzon. To the E of Mindanao there is a very high
occurrence of sea states lower than 1 m.
2
Winter sea states are low in the sheltered W coasts of
the Philippines Islands. Sea states greater than 1 m are
reported for about 30% of the time.
Rough seas are rare in the Visayan Sea. In Sulu Sea and
Celebes Sea, the sea state remains under 1 m in height
for about 90% of the time.
3
Except around N Luzon, the summer brings a reversal of
the wind conditions. Average sea heights under the
influence of the SW monsoon, remain low along the E
coast of the Philippines. Wave heights remain below 1 m
for about 80% of the time during the SW monsoon.
4
The Sulu Sea has significant areas of open water.
Moderate to rough seas occur about 10% of the time at the
height of the SW monsoon. N-going sea states of less than
1 m are present most of the time in the N coastal areas
of the Celebes Sea. However tropical cyclones can produce
high sea states, particularly in N areas. Tropical cyclones
classified as tropical storms and more particularly typhoons
and super typhoons, produce the most significant and
dangerous sea states. Waves in excess of 13 m have been
recorded.
Swell conditions
1.101
1
Very little swell affects the area during the transition
periods; at other times the NE monsoon generates a more
marked swell than the SW monsoon. Heavy swell is
seldom reported during the SW monsoon.
2
Tropical cyclones generate heavy swell particularly when
they reach the status of tropical storm, typhoon or super
typhoon. The swell development in increased where the
speed of advance of the cyclone stretches the fetch area in
the advancing semi circle.
3
In the N sector of the area, swell is generally from NE
making a heavy swell for 4 to 7% of the time. A swell
from SE to SW forms between June and August. During
these months swell is absent for about 40% of the time
whereas, for the remainder of the year, the absence of swell
occurs for about 25% of the time.
4
In the central sector of the area the incidence of swell is
much lower and the SW swell extends into September.
Heavy swells peak in December with an occurrence of
about 4%. The absence of swell is experienced around 50%
of the time.
5
In the S sector heavy swell is rare. Apart from period
February to April the swell is mainly from S or SW and
for the majority of the time there is no swell recorded.
Overfalls
1.102
1
Overfalls 150 miles in length and between 7 cables to
1 mile wide, may be encountered in Sulu Sea during spring
tides. Breaking waves up to 3⋅3 m in height have been
reported in the overfalls. These overfalls appear to be
generated by tidal action in Sibutu Passage (4°36′N,
119°28′E), where the tides at each end of the passage are
about 4 hours out of phase, resulting in a series of waves
being formed, 6 miles from crest to crest, moving NNW
across the Sulu Sea towards Palawan.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Salinity
1.103
1
The average annual salinity for the Philippines is 34⋅4‰
(parts per thousand). The mean sea surface salinity ranges
from about 33‰ off the NW coast of Luzon in the late
summer to greater than 35‰ in the Pacific, E and N of the
archipelago, in summer and winter. Extreme values of
30⋅5‰ and 35⋅9‰ have been recorded but salinities below
33‰ or above 35⋅5‰ are uncommon.
2
In winter a tongue of low salinity water extends towards
the Philippines from NW of Luzon. Values of 35‰ occur
NE of Luzon. There are salinity values of less than 34‰ in
Bohol Sea, Sibuyan Sea and the E part of Sulu Sea.
3
In summer the low salinity tongue persists NW of
Luzon, with a salinity value less than 33‰. High values of
salinity occur off the E coasts of Luzon and Mindanao,
with values in excess of 35‰.
4
The low salinity values of South China Sea probably
can be attributed to the large quantity of rain falling over
the area from May to October and the large rivers that
empty into the area from the Asian continent.
Density
1.104
1
Values tend to decrease with the increasing temperatures
of summer and increase with the lower temperatures of
winter. The mean surface density of the waters of the
Philippine Archipelago varies from about 1⋅0205 to 1⋅0240.
Maximum density occurs in February, NW of Luzon, with
a value of 1⋅0240. Minimum density of less than 1⋅0220
occurs in the E part of Sulu Sea and in all inland seas of
the archipelago.
2
Summer density values range from 1⋅0205 to 1⋅0225.
The minimum value occurs W of Batan Island (13°15′N,
124°00′E) and the maximum occurs in Visayan Sea,
Camotes Sea and Bohol Sea. The N part of Celebes Sea
does not show any seasonal variations in density, the values
remaining about 1⋅0220.
27
CHAPTER 1
Swell direction is towards the circle centre.
The figure within the circle gives the
percentage of calms
EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from
any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the
frequency of winds of different Beaufort force
according to the legend:
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell distribution - February 1.100.1
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
28
CHAPTER 1
Swell direction is towards the circle centre.
The figure within the circle gives the
percentage of calms
EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from
any direction is given according to the scale:
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the
frequency of winds of different Beaufort force
according to the legend:
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell distribution - October 1.100.2
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CHAPTER 1
29
Sea surface temperature
1.105
1
Highest sea surface temperatures occur around June and
lowest in February. Around the coasts of the Philippines
Archipelago temperatures are fairly uniform during
mid-year at around 29°−30°C. As the South China Sea
cools, during the winter a distinct temperature gradient is
formed between 24°C off the N coast of Luzon to 28°C in
the Sulu Sea, S part.
2
A persistent cold NE monsoon may lower sea
temperatures by as much as 6°C. Likewise an increase of
up to 3°C may be experienced with hot air emerging from
the China land mass.
Bioluminescence
1.106
1
Random reports in coastal waters indicate strong
bioluminescence is most frequently observed in regions of
shallow water between April and October. The displays are
primarily ’milky sea’, ’glowing ball’ or, less frequently,
’wheels’. It is believed that the cause is attributed to the
presence of luminescent plankton. Rust coloured water is
reported in Manila Bay in January which gives a
blue-green luminescence.
In open waters the ’milky sea’ is common at any time
of year.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General conditions
1.107
1
The following should be read in conjunction with the
chapter General Meteorology in Mariner’s Handbook.
Weather reports and warnings for the area are as given
in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Vol 4.
2
The climate of the areas covered by this book is hot and
humid. The two main seasons being the NE monsoon
(October to April) and the SW monsoon (May to
September). The term “monsoon” refers both to the season
and the dominant wind. April/May is the transition period
from winter to summer monsoon. The area N of 10°N
enjoys spells of settled weather with high temperatures in
April under the influence of the “SE Trade Wind” (1.110)
from the W Pacific.
Air Pressure
1.108
1
The mean monthly isobars in the S are almost constant
at 1009 hPa throughout the year. In the N pressure is
higher in the winter (1015 hPa) than in the summer
(1006 hPa). Diagram (1.108) show how the pressure
gradient is reversed from winter to summer under the
influence of the larger seasonal pressure variation on the
Asian mainland. (see World Climatic Charts in the
Mariner’s Handbook).
2
During the transition periods in May and October the
pressure is almost uniform over most of the area. Day to
day fluctuations are greater in the N than in the S and very
steep pressure falls occur in the paths of tropical cyclones.
Diurnal variation
1.109
1
There is a regular diurnal variation of pressure. Maxima
occur at about 1000 and 2200 local time and minima at
0400 and 1600. This underlying fluctuation has a range of
about 3 hPa although at Manila the range is about 3⋅4 hPa.
The following table lists corrections to be applied to the
observed sea level pressure to compensate for diurnal
variation:
Local time 0° — 10°N 10° — 20°N
0000 −0⋅6 −0⋅5
0100 −0⋅1 −0⋅1
0200 +0⋅4 +0⋅4
0300 +0⋅7 +0⋅7
0400 +0⋅8 +0⋅7
0500 +0⋅7 +0⋅5
0600 +0⋅2 +0⋅1
0700 −0⋅3 −0⋅4
0800 −0⋅9 −0⋅8
0900 −1⋅3 −1⋅2
1000 −1⋅4 −1⋅2
1100 −1⋅2 −1⋅0
1200 −0⋅7 −0⋅5
1300 0⋅0 +0⋅1
1400 +0⋅7 +0⋅7
1500 +1⋅3 +1⋅2
1600 +1⋅5 +1⋅3
1700 +1⋅5 +1⋅2
1800 +1⋅1 +0⋅9
1900 +0⋅5 +0⋅3
2000 −0⋅2 −0⋅2
2100 −0⋅7 −0⋅7
2200 −1⋅0 −0⋅9
2300 −0⋅9 −0.8
Values to be added to the observed pressure.
Fronts
1.110
1
Fronts of a type familiar in middle latitudes are not
normally encountered in these latitudes. A convergence
zone between the two monsoons and the atmospheres of
the S and N hemispheres form a diffuse boundary widely
known as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) or
sometimes as the intertropical front.. During the NE
monsoon (October to April) the ITCZ lies S of the equator.
It moves N across the area during the period April to June.
The SW monsoon (May to September) dominates during
the summer before the ITCZ returns S to reach about 5° S
during November.
2
The ITCZ contains cumulus and cumulonimbus cloud
with frequent rain, squalls and thunder. Along the zone the
intensity of the cloud development varies and at times the
characteristic weather features are absent. The opposing
monsoon winds N and S of the zone are generally constant
showing little variation and contrive to develop areas of
2
9
2
9
2
9
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
>
29°C
30
CHAPTER 1
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116°118°120°122°124°126°128°
116°118°120°
130°
130°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116°118°120°122°124°126°128°
116°118°120°
130°
130°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) (1.105)
JANUARY
JULY
1
0
0
6
1
0
0
7
1
0
0
8
1
0
0
9
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
3
1
0
1
4
1
0
1
5
1
0
1
6
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
LOW
LOW
HIGH
HIGH
31
CHAPTER 1
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116°118°120°122°124°126°128°
116°118°120°
130°
130°
4°
6
°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116°118°120°122°124°126°128°
116°118°120°
130°
130°
4°
6
°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Average barometric pressure at mean sea level (hPa) (1.108)
JANUARY
JULY
CHAPTER 1
32
low level convergence to increase the tendency for showers
and thunder.
3
There are year on year changes to the intensity of the
ITCZ which can be a weak feature at times.
Winds
1.111
1
Open sea. The onset and end of the dominant winds of
the monsoon seasons vary with latitude and from year to
year. Most consistent and persistent is the NE monsoon
(October to April) which becomes established between
September and December, continuing to mid-April.
2
By June the SW monsoon is more frequent and by July
established. In September the SW monsoon begins to
retreat S as the NE monsoon advances to around 15°N.
3
A third airstream affecting the Philippines is known as
the “Trade Wind” which blows from between NE and SE.
This is driven by the S flank of the sub-tropical anticyclone
and forms a persistent SE to NE wind which crosses the
warm waters of the NW Pacific. This area is the most
prolific location in the world for the generation of tropical
storms.
4
The transition from NE to SW monsoon is interrupted
by the trade wind. Winds from the NE and SE can bring
generally fine conditions to the area and the strengths are
moderate. The trade winds can have influence from March
to April, but in some years even extend into February or
May.
5
The NE monsoon is consistent in direction but varies in
strength. Wind strengths in excess of force 4 affect the area
N of 15°N for about 40% of the time. This proportion
drops to about 20% S of that parallel.
6
The SW monsoon reaches Sandakan (6°05′N, 118°19′E)
in mid-May and extends steadily N to reach all parts of the
region in July and August. The strength is less than that of
the NE monsoon (October to April) and much less
consistant. Wind strengths of force 7 or above are rare and
force 5 or more is attained for 10% of the time. Over N
Luzon, however, strong winds occur more often and reach
force 7.
7
Coastal areas. Differing considerably from the more
constant flow over the open sea, variations are described in
The Mariner’s Handbook under “Weather near the coast”.
Land breezes, which develop at night, are usually light but
local topography sometimes produces sudden squalls with
considerable hazard to small vessels. Sea breezes form
during the day modifying the strength and direction of the
prevailing wind. The orientation of channels and passages
in relation to wind direction will bring a marked influence
on both the direction and strength of a local wind.
Gales and squalls
1.112
1
Gales are most common N of 15°N, occurring on about
6 days during January over the archipelago and NE of
Luzon up to 10 days in the month where 20% of January
winds reach gale force 7 or over. The gale frequency
decreases to a minimum of about 1% for the S.
2
Gales are most likely in the S and central regions during
October to December,
Squally SW winds (Collas) may persist for a day or two
in some areas with disturbed flows. Winds of up to force 7
may be encountered.. Similar winds (Barat) occur near the
coast of Sabah where typhoons are rare.
Tropical cyclones
1.113
1
The term typhoon originates from the Chinese for
“strong wind” and is now applied to the more severe
tropical cyclones. They are sometimes called “baguios” by
the locals. The violence of these storms varies greatly with
time and place. Rapid developments may occur along the
path and cause severe hazard at sea and havoc ashore. The
main features of tropical revolving storms are described in
greater detail in The Mariner’s Handbook. A difference of
3 hPa below the average pressure may indicate the forming
or the approach of a typhoon.
2
They are categorised as follows:
Tropical depressions with winds in the circulation of
less than 34 kn.
Tropical storms with winds in the circulation of
between 33 and 63 kn.
Note: An additional category of severe tropical storm is
used by some forecasting authorities to cover the range of
wind strengths from 48 to 63 kn. In this case the term
tropical storm is reserved for wind strength 34 to 47 kn.
Typhoon with winds in the circulation estimated at
between 64 and 125 kn.
Super typhoon estimated or measured in excess of
125 kn.
3
Tropical cyclones are given individual names from a
predetermined list agreed between local nations. They are
assigned by the Japan Meteorological Agency (LMA). For
the Philippines a locally assigned name is additionally used.
4
Most of these storms originate well E of the archipelago
in an area bounded by 130°E to 170°E and 5°N to 20°N.
Development can occur in favourable locations near the
archipelago and in the South China Sea.
5
There are two main tracks, the first carries the cyclone
across the archipelago bound WNW, the second curving W
and N of Luzon towards China and Japan. Tropical
cyclones have been recorded making sudden directional
changes, taking elliptical or circular tracks, remaining
stationary for a time and dissipating or developing as slow
moving features. Modern satellite imagery has enabled
regular and accurate assessment of their development to be
maintained and communicated.
6
January, February and March have the least cyclonic
activity with very rare appearances of tropical storms or
typhoons.
By April tropical storms are pushing farther into the
archipelago between 10° and 15°N with the rare typhoon
between 10° and 13°N.
7
In May there is an increase in frequency but these
typhoons generally curve NW N and E of Luzon.
Depressions and storms track W over Luzon, some
re-developing into typhoons in the South China Sea.
During June, July and August the main path of the
tropical storm crosses Luzon. It is rare to have a typhoon S
of 13°N and by August rare to see a tropical depression S
of 16°N. Tropical depressions generally remain N of 10°N.
8
In September the path returns S and can affect areas as
far S as 12°N. Storms are numerous but are confined to
Luzon and points E of the Philippines.
October sees an increase in tropical storms as far S as
11°N and super typhoons have been recorded approaching
the E coast of Luzon.
November brings tropical storms into the Celebes Sea
and S Palawan and the potential for super typhoons to
cross S Luzon.
9
December sees a reduction in numbers of cyclones and
super typhoons are very rare. Typhoons cross the
4
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
2
4
5
1
1
1 1
0
0
33
CHAPTER 1
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
4
°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Wind distribution FEBRUARY (1.111.1)
5 3
1
2
4
9
6
9
18
4
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
34
CHAPTER 1
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6
°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Wind distribution MAY (1.111.2)
3
2 2
3
2
4
2
5
7
35
CHAPTER 1
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
Wind distribution AUGUST (1.111.3)
36
CHAPTER 1
4
0% 10 20 30
40
50%
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
1
1
4
10
0
0
1
3
5
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
116° 118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118° 120° 122° 128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Wind distribution NOVEMBER (1.111.4)
37
CHAPTER 1
RARE
RARE
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS
RARE
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL DEPRESSIONS
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS
ISOLATED
TROPICAL
STORMS
RARE
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS
ISOLATED
TROPICAL
STORMS
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL DEPRESSIONS
WITH ISOLATED
TROPICAL STORMS
RARE
RARE
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL
STORMS
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL
STORMS
TROPICAL DEPRESSIONS
OCCASIONAL
TYPHOONS
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
Tropical Cyclone Occurrence Diagrams (1.113.1)
These diagrams are based on 13 years of tropical cyclone position data (1990 - 2002). The comments indicate the likelihood of encountering the active central circle of a tropical cyclone and what the classification of the intensity is likely to be.
38
CHAPTER 1
RARE
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL STORMS
RARE
OCCASIONAL
TYPHOONS
TROPICAL DEPRESSIONS
RARE
FREQUENT
TYPHOONS
WITH ISOLATED
SUPER TYPHOONS
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL
STORMS
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL STORMS
RARE
FREQUENT
TYPHOONS
ISOLATED
SUPER
TYPHOONS
FREQUENT TYPHOONS
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TROPICAL STORMS
RARE
FREQUENT
TYPHOONS
NEVER
OCCASIONAL TROPICAL STORMS
RARE
FREQUENT TYPHOONS
WITH OCCASIONAL
SUPER TYPHOONS
TYPHOONS
Tropical Cyclone Occurrence Diagrams (1.113.2)
These diagrams are based on 13 years of tropical cyclone position data (1990 - 2002). The comments indicate the likelihood of encountering the active central circle of a tropical cyclone and what the classification of the intensity is likely to be.
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
39
CHAPTER 1
RARE
NEVER
OCCASIONAL
TYPHOONS
TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS
TYPHOONS WITH ISOLATED SUPER TYPHOONS
TROPICAL
STORMS
RARE
NEVER
FREQUENT TYPHOONS
TROPICAL
STORMS
TYPHOONS
FREQUENT
TYPHOONS
OCCASIONAL
SUPER
TYPHOONS
OCCASIONAL
TYPHOONS
RARE
TROPICAL STORMS
TYPHOONS
WITH
SUPER TYPHOONS
ISOLATED
TROPICAL
STORMS
OCCASIONAL TYPHOONS
RARE
TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS
INFREQUENT
TROPICAL
STORMS
RARE
RARE
TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS
TROPICAL
DEPRESSIONS
RARE
RARE
Tropical Cyclone Occurrence Diagrams (1.113.3)
These diagrams are based on 13 years of tropical cyclone position data (1990 - 2002). The comments indicate the likelihood of encountering the active central circle of a tropical cyclone and what the classification of the intensity is likely to be.
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
40
CHAPTER 1
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
20°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
Tropical Cyclone Tracks 1990 - 2002 (1.113.4)
41
CHAPTER I
Tropical Cyclone Tracks 1990 - 2002 (1.113.5)
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
20°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
42
CHAPTER 1
Tropical Cyclone Tracks 1990 - 2002 (1.113.6)
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
20°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
Longitude 122° East from Greenwich
116°
118° 120° 122° 124° 126° 128°
116° 118°
128°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
20°
4°
6°
8°
10°
12°
14°
16°
18°
20°
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
KEY
Jan
May
July
September
October
November
December
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
130°120° 122°118°
18°
16°
14°
12°
10°
6°
8°
4°
18°
16°
14°
12°
10°
6°
8°
4°
124° 126° 128°
130°120° 122°118° 128°
Some abnormal TYPHOON tracks (1.113.7)
43
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 1
44
archipelago as far S as 11°N and tropical storms are known
to cross S Palawan. Luzon is generally free from storms
except in the SE.
10
The speed of movement of the centre varies
considerably averaging about 7 kn over the area covered by
this book. Super typhoons tend to move about 2 kn faster
than less vigorous categories of cyclone. Wind speeds in
excess of 100 kn have been recorded over land and 150 kn
over sea. Wind speeds have been known to reach 200 kn.
Comprehensive cyclone warnings are broadcast by
Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomic Service
Administration (PERGASA).
Cloud
1.114
1
Average cloud amounts over the open sea are greatest in
July with 6 oktas in Sibuyan Sea and Visayan Sea. Over N
Mindanao and N Luzon under the influence of the trade
winds it is at least 3 oktas. The SW monsoon increases
cloud to 6 oktas, but by October this decreases to 4−5 oktas
for most of the area, 4 oktas E of central Luzon and
5 oktas around Mindanao. Minimum cloud cover over
Sabah occurs in April.
2
Cloud amounts along the coast depend on the
topography and wind direction with most cloud created
during onshore winds. Greatest cloud cover occurs in the
SW monsoon. There are plentiful breaks in the cloud cover
during March and April.
3
Cumulonimbus developed over land tends to disperse
over night. Thundery cloud over coastal waters displays
maximum intensity towards dawn.
Precipitation
1.115
1
Rainfall is abundant over the whole area. Dry spells
occur over the N part of the area under influence of the
trade wind in March and April. Annual amounts range
from 1000 to 4000 mm, actual rainfall varying with
locality, topography and exposure to monsoon wind.
2
Some areas have rainfall seasons, others, particularly in
the S are exposed to unrelenting tropical downpours. On
windward coasts, falls of 250 mm in one day are common
even heavier falls are recorded inland.
Both tropical cyclones and violent thunder storms can
create enough rainfall to cause severe flooding.
Fog
1.116
1
Sandakan (6°05′N, 118°19′E), is affected by dawn fogs
which clear quickly. Poor visibility developing along
estuaries in Sabah during the NE monsoon (October to
April). Visibility in heavy rain associated with tropical
cyclones and thunderstorms can decrease to as low as
100 m but more generally 1000 m. This rain can also lower
cloud base to obscure elevated landmarks.
Temperature
1.117
1
High temperatures prevail over the whole region but
greater diurnal and seasonal changes occur in the N. Land
and sea breezes limit maximum temperature. Generally the
minimum temperature is reached around dawn. The NE
monsoon feeds the coolest air to affect the area and the N
coast of Luzon experiences temperatures as low as 15°C.
Humidity
1.118
1
Most places endure high humidity and conditions
become oppressive at times, especially during evening
hours. Humidity reaches 90% around dawn and declines to
70% in the afternoon. Areas of highest rainfall show
highest humidity. Low humidity levels can be found under
the lee of hills and Iloilo (8.364) uniquely, has a dry period
from February to April.
Climatic tables
1.119
1
The following climatic tables give data for coastal and
some inland stations. The data supplied are average for the
periods represented and for the location of the observations.
These data may not represent conditions over the adjacent
open sea or in port approaches.
2
The following comments briefly list some of the
differences to be expected between conditions over the
open sea and the nearest reporting station:
Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea than on land.
Funnelling in narrow inlets can result in a local
increase in wind strength.
Precipitation along mountainous wind facing coasts
can be higher than at sea to windward.
Precipitation in the lee of high ground is generally
less.
Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over
land.
Topography has a marked influence on local
conditions.
1.130
TACLOBAN
1.133
LEGASPI
1.132
VIRAC
1.129
CALAPAN
1.127
SAN JOSE
1.125
CUYO
1.126
PUERTO
PRINCESA
1.120
SANDAKAN
1.121
ZAMBOANCA
1.122
GENERAL
SANTOS
1.123
DAVAO
1.124
HINATUAN
1.135
SURIGAO
1.134
DUMANOUETE
1.131
ILOILO
1.128
MASBATE
14°
13°
12°
11°
10°
9°
127°
126°
125°
124°
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
127°
126°
125°
124°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
14°
13°
12°
11°
10°
9°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
Longitude 121° East from Greenwich
Location of climatic stations 1.119
45
CHAPTER 1
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
46
1.120 WMO No 98618 PUERTO PRINCESA (09
°
45
′
N, 118
°
44
′
E) Height above MSL − 15 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1941 to 2002
January
1010
31
23
32
21
90
68
4
5
38
4
22
27
11
6
7
5
7
9
6
5
10
79
3
0
0
1
2
0
2
4
0
0
0
February
1011
31
23
32
21
89
65
4
5
28
3
24
35
12
4
5
6
5
3
6
4
7
82
3
2
0
1
1
0
3
5
0
0
0
March
1011
32
23
33
22
88
63
4
5
60
4
23
38
6
3
5
10
4
3
8
2
12
82
4
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
0
0
5
April
1009
32
24
34
22
88
63
4
6
42
5
19
31
6
2
8
16
8
3
7
1
2
71
17
3
1
2
2
1
2
4
0
0
3
May
1008
33
25
34
22
89
69
5
6
136
13
9
10
6
2
13
38
6
4
12
1
4
35
23
18
4
10
3
2
2
4
0
0
3
June
1008
31
24
33
23
89
71
5
6
171
15
6
7
2
3
9
43
21
2
7
0
3
6
24
53
3
6
2
3
2
3
0
0
0
July
1008
31
24
33
22
89
72
5
6
181
15
3
3
1
4
13
39
20
4
13
1
0
5
15
54
9
9
1
6
2
4
0
0
0
August
1009
31
24
34
20
88
71
5
6
200
17
4
3
2
2
9
41
27
2
10
1
1
10
11
56
8
6
3
4
2
3
0
0
0
September
1009
31
24
33
22
88
70
5
6
221
17
3
9
6
2
4
30
32
2
12
2
3
8
15
35
6
22
5
4
2
4
0
0
0
October
1009
31
23
33
22
89
72
5
6
207
17
4
19
5
2
6
20
26
4
14
12
7
27
14
19
7
5
6
3
2
4
0
0
0
November
1009
31
24
32
22
89
73
5
6
204
15
10
31
3
2
7
12
16
3
16
3
12
52
12
7
3
7
3
1
2
3
0
0
1
December
1010
30
23
32
21
89
70
5
6
118
10
15
28
4
1
3
15
22
3
9
5
6
68
7
6
1
1
5
1
3
5
0
0
0
Means
1009
31
24
35*
19§
89
69
5
6
_
_
12
20
5
3
7
23
16
4
10
3
6
43
12
21
4
6
3
2
2
4
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1606
135
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
12
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
16‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
9
9
26
26
26
12
9
18
18
9
15
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
47
1.121 WMO No 96491 SANDAKAN (05
°
54
′
N, 118
°
04
′
E) Height above MSL − 13 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1941 to 2002
January
1011
29
24
31
22
88
77
7
7
465
17
14
16
3
3
5
11
8
15
25
60
28
2
0
1
1
4
3
1
3
6
0
1
5
February
1011
30
24
31
22
88
76
6
6
277
14
12
14
3
5
4
12
8
14
28
53
39
2
1
1
0
1
2
1
3
7
0
0
1
March
1011
31
24
32
23
89
73
6
6
208
13
12
11
4
5
10
16
11
10
21
50
42
3
0
0
0
2
3
0
3
6
0
0
4
April
1010
31
24
33
23
89
71
5
6
127
10
8
7
3
7
8
26
16
7
18
46
45
7
0
0
0
0
2
0
4
7
0
0
7
May
1010
32
25
34
23
89
70
5
6
185
10
3
4
1
8
10
33
23
5
13
32
36
12
3
7
2
4
3
1
5
7
0
0
12
June
1009
33
24
34
23
89
69
6
6
188
13
5
4
2
10
14
38
14
3
10
29
23
12
9
16
3
5
1
2
5
7
0
1
11
July
1009
32
24
34
22
88
69
6
6
193
13
1
1
2
9
16
43
15
2
11
22
21
7
10
26
7
5
0
2
4
6
0
0
12
August
1010
32
24
34
22
87
68
6
6
216
13
2
1
1
9
14
39
18
1
15
22
15
6
9
26
11
8
2
1
5
6
0
0
14
September
1010
32
24
34
22
88
68
6
6
241
14
3
1
1
6
13
42
16
2
16
29
17
8
5
17
8
8
4
4
4
7
0
0
17
October
1010
31
24
34
23
89
71
6
6
272
17
8
2
2
8
9
27
18
6
20
35
32
7
5
4
3
6
5
3
4
7
0
1
14
November
1009
31
24
33
23
89
74
6
6
345
18
5
7
3
6
8
18
19
11
23
35
42
4
2
4
3
4
4
2
3
6
0
1
10
December
1010
30
24
32
22
89
76
7
7
465
19
10
13
2
4
4
24
13
9
21
41
33
6
2
2
1
5
6
4
4
6
0
0
6
Means
1010
31
24
34*
22§
88
72
6
6
_
_
7
7
2
7
10
27
15
7
18
38
31
6
4
9
3
4
3
2
4
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3182
171
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
4
113
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
21‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
8
8
27
27
27
13
8
15
8
17
15
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
48
1.122 WMO No 98836 ZAMBOANGA (6
°
54
′
N, 122
°
04
′
E) Height above MSL − 6 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1941 to 2002
January
1009
32
23
33
21
87
72
5
5
52
5
19
13
8
9
9
8
5
5
24
1
4
14
4
23
22
31
1
0
2
4
0
0
1
February
1009
32
24
34
21
87
71
5
5
53
5
20
13
8
6
8
11
6
3
25
2
4
11
6
25
26
24
1
1
2
5
0
0
0
March
1009
33
24
34
22
87
70
4
5
38
5
19
14
8
8
7
8
8
6
22
1
3
14
2
23
29
28
0
0
2
5
0
0
2
April
1008
33
24
35
23
88
73
5
4
53
6
21
10
6
10
5
12
11
3
22
1
3
7
2
21
30
35
1
0
3
5
0
0
3
May
1008
33
25
35
23
88
75
5
4
90
9
30
8
4
8
9
8
12
2
19
2
2
10
5
22
25
32
1
1
2
6
0
0
5
June
1008
32
25
34
23
89
77
5
6
113
12
27
9
3
11
7
13
14
4
12
2
6
8
5
22
16
37
2
2
2
5
0
0
2
July
1009
32
24
34
22
89
76
6
6
126
12
23
8
5
7
2
17
21
3
14
2
3
11
3
18
20
41
1
1
2
6
0
0
2
August
1009
32
24
35
22
88
75
6
6
113
11
24
5
5
9
2
18
18
2
17
2
1
8
5
25
18
39
1
1
2
6
0
0
1
September
1009
32
24
35
23
89
76
6
6
123
12
27
8
3
7
2
20
16
2
15
3
1
5
2
20
16
51
1
1
2
5
0
0
2
October
1008
32
24
35
22
88
76
6
5
155
13
21
9
3
6
3
17
21
2
18
3
4
8
2
12
16
49
4
2
2
5
0
1
3
November
1008
32
24
34
22
89
74
6
4
121
11
19
8
4
13
3
16
15
2
20
3
9
9
3
25
17
32
1
1
2
6
0
0
3
December
1009
32
24
34
21
88
72
5
4
88
9
20
10
5
8
2
15
19
2
19
3
6
17
3
18
27
23
2
1
2
5
0
0
1
Means
1009
32
24
35*
19§
88
74
5
5
_
_
22
10
5
9
5
14
14
3
19
2
4
10
4
21
22
34
1
1
2
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1125
110
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
25
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
16‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
8
26
26
26
14
8
10
8
20
20
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
49
1.123 WMO No 98851 GENERAL SANTOS (06
°
07
′
N, 125
°
11
′
E) Height above MSL − 15 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1982 to 2002
January
1009
33
23
34
22
83
66
5
5
66
8
29
26
2
0
0
0
0
4
39
22
45
3
3
21
3
0
1
2
2
6
0
0
1
February
1009
33
23
35
22
83
67
5
5
70
7
35
19
3
1
1
0
0
3
38
25
37
2
6
23
1
1
2
3
2
6
0
0
1
March
1009
34
23
36
22
81
66
4
5
44
7
30
23
3
2
1
0
0
2
39
21
27
3
7
36
3
0
0
3
2
6
0
0
2
April
1008
34
24
36
22
81
68
4
5
51
8
26
22
5
3
1
0
0
2
41
13
13
2
12
57
0
0
0
3
2
6
0
0
3
May
1009
33
24
35
22
83
73
5
6
103
12
15
14
4
4
2
0
1
0
60
4
5
3
14
64
1
1
2
6
2
6
0
0
4
June
1009
32
23
34
22
86
74
5
6
105
14
9
13
3
2
1
1
1
0
70
4
6
1
11
63
6
1
1
7
1
5
0
0
4
July
1009
31
23
33
21
87
76
6
6
101
13
7
7
2
3
2
2
1
1
75
2
1
1
18
68
3
0
1
6
1
6
0
0
2
August
1009
31
23
34
22
87
75
5
6
82
13
6
7
2
3
5
0
1
1
75
1
2
0
10
72
5
2
2
6
1
6
0
0
2
September
1009
32
23
34
22
86
74
5
6
78
11
3
9
3
1
4
0
0
1
79
2
1
1
12
72
4
1
1
6
1
5
0
0
3
October
1009
33
23
34
22
84
72
4
6
86
11
7
9
5
4
1
1
0
1
72
2
3
1
13
71
4
2
1
3
1
6
0
0
3
November
1008
33
23
35
22
84
68
4
5
88
12
14
17
4
1
3
1
1
2
57
10
11
1
10
58
2
1
0
7
1
5
0
0
3
December
1009
33
23
35
22
85
70
5
5
70
10
22
20
1
0
1
0
0
2
54
13
24
3
8
40
1
0
3
8
2
5
0
0
2
Means
1009
33
23
84
71
5
5
_
_
16
15
3
2
2
1
1
2
58
10
15
2
10
53
3
1
1
5
1
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
944
126
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
30
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
10
10
10
10
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
50
1.124 WMO No 98753 DAVAO AIRPORT (07
°
07
′
N, 125
°
39
′
E) Height above MSL − 18 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1988 to 2002
January
1010
31
23
33
22
86
69
6
6
12
74
14
2
0
0
0
0
1
9
46
27
13
0
6
1
0
1
6
5
5
0
0
2
February
1010
31
23
33
22
85
67
6
6
10
72
17
3
0
0
0
0
2
6
48
27
15
0
5
0
0
2
3
5
5
0
0
2
March
1010
32
24
34
22
83
65
5
6
10
62
22
5
0
0
0
0
1
10
32
30
16
2
14
1
1
1
3
4
5
0
0
4
April
1009
33
24
35
23
81
63
5
5
8
45
27
9
0
1
0
0
1
17
17
25
21
1
28
1
1
1
5
4
5
0
0
8
May
1009
33
25
35
23
82
67
5
6
12
29
18
10
0
5
2
2
1
33
7
11
12
3
52
4
1
0
10
3
5
0
0
16
June
1009
32
24
34
23
84
70
6
6
14
19
12
10
1
8
2
1
2
45
4
7
8
2
63
3
1
0
12
2
5
0
0
13
July
1009
32
24
33
22
84
70
6
6
13
11
8
7
1
16
5
3
2
47
3
3
4
2
75
4
1
0
8
2
5
0
0
12
August
1009
32
24
34
23
83
68
6
6
13
11
5
5
1
21
3
2
1
51
3
2
4
2
79
3
1
0
6
2
5
0
0
13
September
1009
32
24
34
22
83
68
6
6
12
17
5
9
0
12
2
1
1
53
2
4
5
2
73
4
1
1
8
2
5
0
0
12
October
1009
32
24
34
22
83
67
6
6
15
24
11
13
1
5
1
1
2
43
7
8
11
1
56
3
1
0
13
2
4
0
0
15
November
1009
32
24
34
23
83
68
6
6
12
48
17
7
0
3
1
1
3
21
21
20
16
1
25
1
1
1
14
3
4
0
0
10
December
1009
31
24
34
22
84
69
6
6
11
65
18
4
0
0
0
0
2
11
41
26
13
1
11
0
1
1
6
4
5
0
0
5
Means
1009
32
24
84
68
6
6
_
_
39
15
7
0
6
2
1
2
28
19
16
12
1
40
2
1
1
8
3
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
142
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
112
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
10
10
10
10
15
10
10
10
10
10
10
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
51
1.125 WMO No 98531 SAN JOSE (12
°
21
′
N, 121
°
02
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1994 to 2002
January
1012
33
23
35
20
5
5
9
19
62
1
0
1
0
1
7
1
18
33
0
0
12
32
4
0
6
11
0
February
1012
34
23
35
21
3
4
4
18
67
4
2
0
0
0
5
2
11
33
1
0
3
46
4
0
3
12
0
March
1012
35
24
36
22
4
4
6
13
72
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
6
36
3
0
6
41
4
1
10
2
0
April
1010
35
25
37
22
3
4
4
10
60
4
6
2
1
2
11
1
6
29
6
6
11
34
7
0
7
2
0
May
1010
34
25
37
23
5
6
17
11
33
4
6
2
3
3
21
5
3
15
5
9
20
39
3
1
5
9
0
June
1009
33
24
36
23
6
6
13
16
24
12
5
7
4
6
13
1
2
9
10
16
40
19
3
0
5
8
0
July
1008
30
24
33
24
7
6
27
18
12
2
3
7
13
6
12
6
2
2
2
13
24
44
5
2
5
8
0
August
1009
31
24
32
23
6
6
21
15
13
5
10
10
5
4
17
2
0
3
4
10
35
40
4
2
11
8
0
September
1009
31
25
33
22
7
7
20
11
12
5
1
9
8
7
27
4
0
4
3
17
26
41
5
0
7
9
0
October
1009
32
24
33
22
6
6
15
17
25
4
3
3
6
2
25
3
7
6
10
7
18
41
7
1
8
9
0
November
1009
33
24
35
22
5
5
11
24
38
3
2
1
3
2
16
2
10
32
2
5
15
28
5
1
9
11
0
December
1010
32
24
35
21
5
5
11
28
49
1
0
1
0
1
9
4
16
31
4
4
6
28
6
1
7
11
0
Means
1010
33
24
5
5
_
_
13
17
39
4
3
4
4
3
14
3
7
19
4
7
18
36
5
1
7
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
52
1.126 WMO No 98630 CUYO (10
°
51
′
N, 121
°
02
′
E) Height above MSL − 4 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1941 to 2002
January
1011
30
25
31
24
84
76
5
6
18
1
41
51
1
0
0
0
0
2
5
3
97
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
9
0
0
0
February
1011
30
25
31
23
84
74
5
6
19
1
43
42
1
1
1
0
0
4
8
1
98
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
6
9
0
0
0
March
1011
31
25
33
23
83
72
4
5
8
1
41
46
0
0
0
1
0
1
11
2
90
0
0
0
0
1
0
7
6
8
0
0
0
April
1010
32
26
34
23
83
70
4
5
20
2
34
38
1
0
1
1
2
5
18
8
66
0
0
2
3
8
1
12
5
8
0
0
0
May
1009
33
26
35
23
84
72
5
6
201
12
15
13
2
5
14
13
4
5
29
4
30
1
0
3
8
19
1
34
4
7
0
0
2
June
1008
32
26
34
23
85
75
6
7
318
17
6
6
2
5
26
14
6
4
31
4
4
0
1
12
25
11
1
42
4
7
0
0
3
July
1008
31
25
33
23
85
77
6
7
429
22
7
3
3
2
22
32
13
5
13
4
2
0
0
8
43
10
1
32
6
8
0
0
2
August
1009
31
25
34
23
85
76
6
6
373
19
3
4
2
3
24
30
12
5
17
3
3
1
0
7
55
13
2
16
6
9
0
1
2
September
1009
31
25
34
24
86
77
6
7
368
20
5
8
1
2
14
31
16
4
19
4
2
1
1
8
37
25
1
21
6
8
0
0
2
October
1009
31
25
33
24
84
76
6
7
270
14
12
28
3
4
6
11
14
4
18
8
28
0
1
6
10
11
3
33
6
8
0
0
1
November
1010
31
26
33
23
83
76
5
6
140
7
20
52
2
2
3
6
5
5
5
6
75
1
1
1
2
3
1
10
7
10
0
0
0
December
1011
30
26
31
23
84
76
6
6
74
3
25
53
2
3
1
1
3
3
9
4
86
1
1
2
1
2
0
3
7
10
0
0
0
Means
1010
31
25
35*
21§
84
75
5
6
_
_
21
29
2
2
9
12
6
4
15
4
49
0
0
4
15
9
1
18
6
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2229
119
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
13
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
9
9
27
27
27
14
9
16
9
20
26
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1700
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
53
1.127 WMO No 98431 CALAPAN (13
°
25
′
N, 121
°
11
′
E) Height above MSL − 41 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1982 to 2002
January
1013
30
22
33
20
88
80
6
5
7
1
21
23
10
20
3
0
0
22
0
40
47
6
2
1
2
1
1
2
5
0
0
0
February
1014
31
22
32
20
88
79
6
4
5
1
30
17
14
22
3
1
0
12
1
40
49
5
2
0
1
2
0
7
6
0
0
0
March
1013
32
23
33
21
89
74
5
3
6
0
22
31
16
17
2
0
1
11
1
44
46
9
0
0
0
0
0
3
5
0
0
1
April
1011
33
24
34
23
89
72
5
3
6
3
14
27
8
21
4
0
2
21
3
36
43
12
0
2
2
1
1
3
6
0
0
2
May
1009
34
24
35
23
89
72
5
5
11
2
6
4
10
15
12
1
8
42
7
34
24
4
1
3
3
18
6
2
4
0
0
11
June
1008
33
23
35
22
89
77
6
6
10
2
1
2
12
21
9
4
3
46
7
36
22
8
5
0
5
7
10
2
5
0
0
12
July
1007
32
23
34
22
92
79
6
6
10
1
7
2
4
20
10
5
8
43
16
28
8
2
5
2
5
22
12
2
4
0
0
11
August
1008
33
23
35
22
92
81
6
6
13
1
9
7
3
19
7
3
7
44
10
26
15
1
1
1
5
29
12
6
4
0
0
9
September
1008
32
23
36
22
92
83
6
7
11
2
7
5
5
14
11
5
9
42
20
23
12
4
1
0
2
27
11
2
5
0
0
11
October
1009
32
23
34
21
91
85
6
6
12
4
10
13
10
21
9
2
4
27
4
26
37
5
5
2
1
15
5
5
5
0
0
9
November
1011
32
23
33
22
91
85
6
5
12
1
24
17
11
22
5
1
5
14
1
33
54
5
0
1
1
4
1
4
6
0
0
4
December
1012
30
22
33
21
90
85
7
6
12
4
30
20
7
13
1
1
2
22
3
46
32
10
1
1
0
2
5
4
6
0
0
1
Means
1010
32
23
90
79
6
5
_
_
2
15
14
9
19
6
2
4
29
6
34
33
6
2
1
2
11
5
4
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
115
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
71
Extreme values _
_
_
43†
19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
9
9
15
9
20
9
9
9
9
15
15
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
54
1.128 WMO No 98637 ILOILO (10
°
42
′
N, 122
°
34
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1941 to 2002
January
1012
30
23
34
20
87
68
5
5
53
8
27
71
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
23
70
5
0
1
0
1
0
0
7
10
0
0
1
February
1012
32
23
33
22
86
63
4
5
28
5
26
71
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
17
70
12
0
0
1
0
0
0
7
10
0
0
0
March
1011
32
24
32
21
85
59
4
4
37
5
27
69
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
12
70
15
0
0
2
0
1
0
6
9
0
0
0
April
1010
34
25
35
22
85
59
4
5
48
6
23
68
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
7
44
31
1
1
15
1
0
0
6
8
0
0
2
May
1009
34
26
35
23
86
66
4
5
146
13
21
45
1
2
10
9
1
2
9
9
21
21
0
8
39
2
0
0
4
8
0
0
3
June
1009
32
25
35
23
88
70
6
6
263
16
14
28
1
2
18
18
2
2
15
4
14
9
3
9
56
2
0
3
4
8
0
0
5
July
1009
31
25
33
22
86
74
6
7
302
19
7
12
2
3
17
41
3
1
14
6
8
4
0
10
66
3
1
2
5
9
0
0
4
August
1009
31
24
33
23
87
74
6
7
360
19
4
13
1
2
21
42
3
2
12
1
5
2
1
7
76
6
1
1
6
10
0
0
3
September
1009
31
24
34
22
87
75
6
7
290
16
10
18
1
2
19
38
3
1
8
3
4
2
1
7
74
7
1
1
5
9
0
0
3
October
1009
32
24
34
23
88
73
5
6
255
16
14
39
1
2
12
18
3
2
9
15
20
6
2
8
39
4
4
2
4
8
0
0
5
November
1010
31
24
34
22
88
72
5
6
209
14
20
60
0
1
4
5
1
1
8
22
50
6
0
4
13
2
0
3
5
10
0
0
2
December
1011
31
23
33
21
88
70
5
6
131
11
28
64
1
1
1
1
0
1
3
30
61
5
0
2
2
0
0
0
7
11
0
0
0
Means
1010
32
24
36*
21§
87
69
5
6
_
_
18
47
1
1
9
14
1
1
8
12
36
10
1
5
32
2
1
1
6
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2122
148
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
28
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
8
8
27
27
27
16
8
15
8
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1700
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
55
1.129 WMO No 98444 LEGASPI (13
°
08
′
N, 123
°
44
′
E) Height above MSL − 17 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1982 to 2002
January
1013
29
23
31
20
90
76
5
5
328
8
62
16
1
0
0
3
0
10
4
42
53
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
6
0
1
0
February
1013
29
23
32
20
90
76
4
5
236
8
52
21
1
1
0
1
1
15
6
32
54
3
2
0
1
0
2
4
7
0
1
0
March
1013
30
23
31
21
91
74
4
4
196
11
48
32
1
0
0
0
0
8
4
21
73
2
0
0
0
0
0
5
7
0
0
1
April
1011
31
24
33
22
91
72
4
3
158
6
40
39
0
0
2
0
0
13
3
20
70
3
1
2
0
0
1
4
1
0
1
3
May
1010
32
25
34
23
91
71
5
4
175
5
24
21
1
4
11
6
1
27
2
15
49
4
1
12
7
4
6
0
0
0
0
8
June
1009
32
25
35
23
93
73
5
5
208
3
13
19
1
4
13
17
1
29
0
8
52
4
6
10
14
1
5
3
6
0
1
9
July
1008
31
24
34
23
93
74
6
6
251
1
7
8
1
4
17
34
2
26
2
7
28
3
4
16
34
2
4
0
1
0
1
10
August
1008
31
25
34
23
93
74
6
6
230
1
4
2
0
1
19
53
1
19
2
4
13
3
6
20
46
4
2
4
6
0
1
7
September
1008
31
25
33
23
93
75
6
6
258
1
5
3
0
1
17
45
0
28
2
8
15
2
7
18
40
4
4
1
5
0
0
10
October
1009
31
24
33
22
93
77
5
6
324
6
15
15
1
2
5
20
2
34
5
18
40
1
3
8
15
4
6
1
5
0
1
7
November
1010
30
24
33
22
92
79
5
5
446
7
42
22
0
2
1
7
1
18
5
31
48
3
3
2
3
2
3
4
5
0
1
3
December
1012
29
23
31
21
91
79
6
5
441
10
51
25
2
0
0
0
0
12
7
39
49
1
0
1
1
1
1
5
6
0
0
1
Means
1010
30
24
92
75
5
5
_
_
6
30
19
1
2
7
15
1
20
3
20
45
2
3
7
13
2
3
3
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3251
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
8
59
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
8
8
20
8
20
8
8
8
8
20
20
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1700
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
56
1.130 WMO No 98543 MASBATE (12
°
22
′
N, 123
°
37
′
E) Height above MSL − 6 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1982 to 2002
January
1012
30
23
32
21
90
83
5
5
8
21
31
24
6
0
0
0
0
18
11
33
40
9
1
0
0
6
1
3
4
0
0
0
February
1013
31
23
33
21
91
82
5
4
7
14
38
31
7
0
0
0
0
10
7
28
42
18
0
0
0
3
1
3
5
0
0
0
March
1012
32
23
34
21
91
79
5
4
5
9
25
42
13
0
0
0
0
11
4
20
57
16
0
0
0
0
3
3
4
0
0
0
April
1010
34
25
35
22
92
75
3
3
3
7
16
48
13
1
1
0
1
12
6
10
54
24
0
1
0
3
3
3
4
0
0
0
May
1009
34
26
35
24
90
74
4
5
4
1
9
42
18
2
5
6
2
15
3
5
31
27
5
9
5
6
9
3
4
0
0
3
June
1008
33
25
35
23
90
74
5
6
9
4
4
25
21
8
10
5
0
23
7
5
34
21
7
11
10
2
4
3
5
0
1
4
July
1008
33
25
35
24
90
77
6
7
11
1
4
7
7
7
34
15
1
22
9
7
13
4
4
33
16
4
10
3
5
0
0
4
August
1008
33
25
35
23
89
78
6
6
11
2
4
7
4
4
37
16
1
25
10
5
9
2
7
31
19
10
7
4
6
0
0
4
September
1008
32
24
34
22
90
79
6
7
9
3
1
7
4
7
26
16
7
29
16
5
9
6
10
21
14
8
11
3
4
0
0
5
October
1009
33
24
34
22
91
81
6
6
11
16
11
16
6
4
8
4
11
25
22
9
17
12
3
8
5
14
11
2
4
0
1
3
November
1010
32
24
34
22
91
83
5
5
10
19
32
24
2
1
1
3
5
12
12
19
44
11
3
0
2
6
3
4
4
0
0
3
December
1011
31
23
33
21
92
86
6
6
10
20
30
23
5
2
0
2
6
12
17
35
31
5
0
0
0
10
2
4
4
0
1
0
Means
1010
32
24
91
79
5
5
_
_
10
17
25
9
3
10
6
3
18
10
15
32
13
3
9
6
6
5
3
4
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
98
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
2
26
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
8
8
8
8
20
8
8
8
8
8
8
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
57
1.131 WMO No 98642 DUMAGUETE (09
°
18
′
N, 123
°
18
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1976 to 2002
January
1010
29
25
30
23
5
5
115
7
40
16
3
0
0
1
3
23
14
42
34
14
1
0
1
0
7
1
6
7
0
February
1011
29
24
31
23
5
5
68
7
39
21
1
0
0
1
2
23
13
40
30
17
0
0
0
1
10
2
7
9
0
March
1011
30
25
32
23
5
4
48
5
33
29
7
1
0
0
1
16
13
24
37
30
0
3
0
0
5
1
8
6
0
April
1010
31
25
31
23
4
4
42
3
20
37
16
1
1
0
1
5
19
12
26
56
2
1
0
1
1
1
5
3
0
May
1009
32
26
33
25
4
4
103
6
19
28
26
1
1
3
1
0
21
5
21
52
9
6
3
3
0
1
4
7
0
June
1009
32
25
33
24
5
5
135
7
14
12
9
2
0
4
5
7
47
4
14
48
8
11
1
3
3
8
6
4
0
July
1008
32
25
33
24
6
6
138
7
20
6
9
0
6
6
3
7
43
10
2
31
12
19
4
8
4
10
7
5
0
August
1009
32
24
34
23
5
5
98
6
20
13
5
0
5
5
6
8
38
11
10
28
16
14
8
2
4
7
8
6
0
September
1009
31
24
34
23
5
6
128
6
10
9
7
1
4
3
7
9
50
12
11
22
10
17
9
4
7
8
9
5
0
October
1009
31
25
32
23
5
6
188
9
25
7
5
1
3
3
5
17
34
21
9
29
7
10
2
9
5
8
5
5
0
November
1009
31
25
34
23
5
5
142
9
35
19
4
0
1
1
4
14
22
31
24
25
1
6
1
0
9
3
6
6
0
December
1009
30
25
32
23
5
5
122
8
31
16
3
0
1
0
4
24
21
35
27
18
2
2
2
2
7
5
8
0
0
Means
1009
31
25
5
5
_
_
26
18
8
1
2
2
3
13
28
21
20
31
6
7
3
3
3
5
7
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1327
80
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
20‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
10
10
10
25
10
10
10
10
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
58
1.132 WMO No 98446 VIRAC (13
°
35
′
N, 124
°
14
′
E) Height above MSL − 40 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1982 to 2002
January
1013
29
22
30
21
5
5
234
9
24
23
3
2
2
7
8
22
13
30
39
2
2
2
4
4
4
8
8
0
February
1013
29
22
31
22
5
5
173
9
24
23
2
1
2
10
8
21
7
26
48
7
2
3
2
3
2
9
8
0
March
1013
30
22
31
20
4
5
137
8
23
33
0
4
2
7
6
17
2
19
65
9
1
2
2
0
0
12
7
0
April
1012
31
22
33
19
4
4
124
1
19
49
5
3
1
3
7
12
4
11
60
13
6
1
4
0
1
9
8
0
May
1010
32
24
34
23
4
4
170
1
17
39
13
4
2
12
6
6
2
7
47
25
9
6
3
0
1
4
8
0
June
1010
31
25
32
18
5
4
213
4
7
35
14
10
3
9
7
11
0
5
35
39
9
3
2
5
2
6
9
0
July
1008
31
24
33
22
6
6
221
1
3
7
4
8
12
25
20
20
3
2
17
17
15
19
17
7
3
11
8
0
August
1009
31
24
33
22
5
6
178
3
5
3
1
3
17
29
23
16
2
5
10
14
18
22
23
5
1
7
7
0
September
1009
31
24
33
22
6
6
249
4
0
7
2
5
11
34
16
21
8
5
15
6
15
15
25
8
3
8
7
0
October
1009
31
24
31
23
5
6
371
7
4
14
4
3
6
19
17
26
5
6
26
9
11
11
12
15
5
9
8
0
November
1011
30
23
31
23
5
5
452
9
21
18
2
3
2
11
10
24
12
23
34
4
6
2
5
5
9
6
1
0
December
1012
29
23
31
22
5
6
429
6
26
24
1
3
1
8
5
26
10
28
39
6
5
2
3
4
3
5
8
0
Means
1011
30
23
5
5
_
_
5
14
23
4
4
5
15
11
18
6
14
36
13
8
7
9
5
3
8
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2951
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
17‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
10
10
10
20
10
10
10
10
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1700
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
59
1.133 WMO No 98550 TACLOBAN (11
°
15
′
N, 125
°
00
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1982 to 2002
January
1012
29
23
32
18
93
81
5
6
310
38
5
1
1
2
1
5
39
8
16
14
25
15
17
0
1
8
4
6
10
0
0
0
February
1012
30
23
33
21
93
81
5
6
205
30
9
5
3
1
1
5
35
11
8
13
27
15
26
0
0
5
6
2
4
0
0
1
March
1012
30
23
32
17
93
79
4
5
182
30
8
14
4
2
1
5
20
16
6
11
21
14
39
0
3
4
2
1
1
0
0
3
April
1010
32
24
34
21
93
79
4
4
114
24
8
20
9
7
3
2
18
9
3
3
10
25
52
0
1
4
2
6
5
0
0
5
May
1009
32
25
34
23
92
79
4
5
126
11
5
17
15
17
3
3
8
21
3
1
6
28
51
4
4
1
2
1
9
0
1
11
June
1008
32
25
34
21
92
80
5
6
169
11
5
10
9
14
7
10
12
22
5
3
13
18
47
3
3
6
2
1
4
0
1
12
July
1008
32
24
34
16
92
80
6
6
183
14
4
6
5
12
6
9
18
26
9
3
11
22
25
7
10
8
5
2
0
0
1
15
August
1008
32
25
34
23
91
81
6
6
143
12
3
9
6
15
7
12
11
25
7
3
12
15
23
11
17
10
2
6
0
0
1
12
September
1008
32
25
34
21
93
80
6
6
174
16
6
6
4
14
7
12
15
20
7
2
8
23
21
7
17
12
3
3
6
0
1
12
October
1009
31
24
34
20
93
82
5
6
229
20
3
6
4
7
3
14
28
15
10
5
9
12
23
5
16
16
4
7
9
0
1
12
November
1009
31
24
34
20
92
82
5
6
472
22
3
4
5
6
4
9
35
12
14
5
14
13
26
3
7
15
3
12
10
0
1
7
December
1011
30
23
32
16
92
83
5
6
328
30
3
4
3
3
2
6
40
9
19
11
20
15
18
1
4
10
2
2
4
0
1
3
Means
1010
31
24
92
81
5
6
_
_
21
5
9
6
8
4
8
23
16
9
6
15
18
31
3
7
8
3
4
5
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2635
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
8
93
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
8
8
12
8
20
8
8
8
8
12
12
† Highest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
60
1.134 WMO No 98653 SURIGAO (09
°
48
′
N, 125
°
30
′
E) Height above MSL − 55 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1941 to 2002
January
1011
29
23
31
21
89
80
6
7
589
23
13
19
16
10
14
10
4
1
13
13
32
40
6
4
0
1
4
0
5
7
0
3
1
February
1012
29
23
31
22
90
77
6
7
405
19
11
15
17
12
19
9
3
1
13
16
36
35
10
3
0
0
0
0
4
7
0
1
0
March
1011
30
24
31
21
91
77
5
7
398
20
9
19
21
10
14
6
1
1
19
12
42
26
14
2
0
1
0
3
4
6
0
2
0
April
1010
31
24
33
23
90
76
5
7
258
18
7
11
13
13
17
10
2
2
25
26
26
31
8
2
0
4
2
1
3
6
0
0
1
May
1009
33
25
35
23
90
73
5
6
184
12
5
12
13
15
19
11
2
2
21
19
13
32
2
2
4
21
7
0
2
5
0
1
2
June
1009
32
25
34
23
89
71
5
6
112
10
5
3
4
11
29
19
6
4
19
23
12
24
3
1
1
27
8
1
2
5
0
0
2
July
1008
32
25
34
24
88
68
6
6
195
12
2
2
3
4
26
31
17
1
14
17
3
6
2
11
7
50
2
2
3
7
0
0
1
August
1010
33
24
34
21
86
67
6
6
149
11
2
1
1
7
26
30
15
2
16
13
2
4
0
6
6
60
7
2
4
6
0
0
2
September
1010
31
24
33
23
87
68
6
6
197
13
1
1
0
5
27
33
17
1
15
0
0
0
0
0
27
73
0
0
4
7
0
1
3
October
1010
32
24
34
23
88
72
5
7
308
17
3
3
2
6
24
25
13
3
21
33
3
10
1
3
6
33
10
1
3
6
0
1
3
November
1010
30
24
33
22
90
77
6
7
415
20
7
6
8
7
23
19
9
4
17
21
25
28
10
3
0
12
0
1
3
6
0
1
1
December
1010
29
24
31
22
90
80
6
7
653
24
11
13
12
11
14
14
6
2
17
28
31
20
6
1
2
7
5
0
4
6
0
1
0
Means
1010
31
24
35*
21§
89
74
6
7
_
_
6
9
9
9
21
18
8
2
18
18
19
21
5
3
4
25
4
1
3
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3863
199
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
11
16
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
18‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
9
9
25
25
25
14
9
16
16
9
20
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
61
1.135 WMO No 98755 HINATUAN (08
°
22
′
N, 126
°
20
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic table compiled from observations 1982 to 2000
January
1011
30
23
32
21
93
80
6
6
724
24
10
11
6
0
1
2
29
12
29
20
34
25
2
1
0
5
5
8
3
5
0
0
1
February
1011
30
23
32
22
93
79
6
6
247
20
13
10
8
1
3
3
25
13
24
23
34
27
3
1
0
3
4
5
3
6
0
0
2
March
1011
31
24
33
22
91
77
5
5
460
21
7
10
6
1
5
3
24
14
30
16
28
42
4
1
1
1
3
4
3
6
0
0
2
April
1010
32
24
33
22
90
75
5
4
322
20
10
4
7
4
4
4
21
14
32
8
23
49
5
0
1
4
2
8
2
5
0
0
3
May
1009
32
24
34
23
88
76
5
5
295
18
4
2
2
4
8
8
27
10
35
3
8
49
18
3
1
6
2
10
2
5
0
0
10
June
1009
32
24
34
23
89
75
6
6
220
17
3
1
2
3
7
10
37
7
30
4
8
46
20
2
5
8
3
4
3
6
0
0
8
July
1009
33
24
35
23
88
73
6
6
218
17
2
0
0
1
5
15
44
5
28
2
5
32
24
5
13
12
2
5
3
6
0
0
10
August
1009
33
24
35
23
87
73
6
6
199
15
1
0
0
1
6
22
35
8
27
1
5
27
35
5
11
7
3
6
3
6
0
0
9
September
1009
33
24
35
22
87
73
5
5
195
14
0
0
1
1
5
26
35
8
24
1
3
35
32
6
8
8
3
4
3
7
0
0
10
October
1009
32
24
35
23
89
74
5
5
210
16
5
0
2
4
3
11
37
14
24
7
16
40
13
2
3
9
4
7
3
5
0
0
10
November
1009
31
24
34
22
91
78
5
5
371
19
4
3
1
2
3
9
33
15
30
15
21
31
7
0
1
9
5
11
2
5
0
0
5
December
1010
30
24
33
22
92
80
6
6
665
23
6
5
2
1
3
3
32
19
29
17
27
25
6
1
1
7
5
11
3
5
0
0
4
Means
1010
32
24
90
76
5
5
_
_
5
4
3
2
4
10
31
12
29
10
18
36
14
2
4
7
3
6
3
6
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4126
224
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
73
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
19‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
10
10
10
10
20
10
10
10
10
10
10
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
62
1.136
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
HECTOPASCALS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
NOTES
63
3807
3809
967
1338
3810
2576
928
3489
943
3483 3483
943
2575
3808
3811
0704
2.21
2.18
2.6
2.13
2
.3
14°
13°
12°
11°
10°
9°
127°
126°
125°
124°
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
127°
126°
125°
124°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
14°
13°
12°
11°
10°
9°
8°
7°
6°
5°
4°
Chapter 2 - Through Routes
Longitude 121° East from Greenwich
64
65
CHAPTER 2
THROUGH ROUTES FROM THE SOUTH CHINA SEA TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN AND THE CELEBES SEA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3483, 943
Scope of the chapter
2.1
1
This chapter provides general information and directions
for vessels proceeding into and through the Philippines
Archipelago from the South China Sea, Celebes Sea and
the Pacific Ocean.
2
It is arranged as follows:
Verde Island Passage to San Bernardino Strait (2.3).
Mindoro Strait to Celebes Sea — West of Cuyo
Islands (2.6).
Mindoro Strait to Celebes Sea — East of Cuyo
Islands (2.13).
Balabac Strait to Leyte Gulf (2.18).
Balabac Strait to Celebes Sea (2.21).
Routes
2.2
1
Because of the complex nature of routes within
Philippines waters and the fact that some parts are
unusually hazardous in being imperfectly surveyed by lead
and line or remain unsurveyed altogether, mariners are
warned that isolated dangers might exist and that shoals are
liable to form. Navigation in the area can therefore be
difficult, particularly for deep-draught vessels.
2
Vessels bound for China ports from the NW coast of
Borneo should use Palawan Passage (China Sea Pilot
Volume II) in preference to the route on the E side of
Palawan.
VERDE ISLAND PASSAGE
TO SAN BERNARDINO STRAIT
General information
Charts 4490, 4489, 4487, 3370
Topography
2.3
1
The Philippine Archipelago has been subject to high
seismic activity which has created mountainous landmasses
fractured into numerous islands and islets, the majority
densely wooded. Mountain peaks may often be shrouded
with cloud. Coastlines are generally fringed with mangroves
and coral reefs.
Principal marks
2.4
1
Landmarks:
Mount Calavite (13°29′N, 120°24′E) (8.9).
Maricaban Island (13°39′N, 120°52′E) (8.59).
Mount Casapao (13°39′N, 120°55′E) (8.59).
Mount Talipanan (13°28′N, 120°53′E) (8.106).
Mount Malasimbo (13°27′N, 120°54′E) (8.106).
Mount Halcon (13°16′N, 121°00′E) (8.9).
Mount Dumali (13°07′N, 121°31′E) (8.128)
Aguja Point (12°42′N, 123°23′E) (9.104).
Mount Sujac (12°35′N, 124°00′E) (9.142).
Bulusan Volcano (12°46′N, 124′03′E) (9.151).
Sharp Peak (12°47′N, 124°04′) (9.151).
2
Major lights:
Golo Island Light (13°38′N, 120°25′E) (8.59).
Cape Santiago Light (13°46′N, 120°39′E) (8.59).
Escarceo Point Light (13°31′N, 120°59′E) (8.59).
Malabrigo Light (13°36′N, 121°16′E) (8.101).
Baltasar Island Light (13°14′N, 121°49′E) (8.128).
Bugui Point Light (12°36′N, 123°14′E) (8.242).
Bagatao Island Light (12°50′N, 123°47′E) (9.119).
San Jacinto Light (12°34′N, 123°44′E) (9.142).
Totoog Point Light (Capul Island) (12°29′N,
124°08′E) (9.142).
San Bernardino Island Light (12°45′N, 124°17′E)
(9.151).
Ungay Point Light (13°11N, 124°13E) (9.151).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Vol II)
2.5
1
From a position NW of Del Monte Point (13°32′N,
120°25′E) the track leads E for about 30 miles following
the directions given at 8.104 to a position NE of Calapan
Point (13°26′N, 121°12′E).
2
Thence from a position NE of Calapan Point (13°26′N,
121°12′E) the track leads ESE for about 34 miles to a
position SSW of Baltasar Island (13°14′N, 121°49′E) and
continues ESE for about 99 miles to a position SSE of
Aguja Point (12°42′N, 123°23′E).
3
From this position the track leads ENE for about
14 miles to a position NNW of San Miguel Island Light
(12°43′N, 123°35′E).
Thence the track leads SE for about 34 miles passing
(with positions from San Jacinto Light (12°34′N, 123°44′E)
(9.142)):
SE of a bank (5 miles N), reported 1956, with a
depth of 9 m (30 ft) over it, thence:
SE of Agnas Point (11 miles ENE) (9.145).
(Directions continue to Calantas Rock at 9.143, thence to San Bernardino Islands at 9.152, thence to Ungay Point at 9.153).
(Directions for trans-Pacific routes see Ocean Passages of the World)
MINDORO STRAIT TO CELEBES SEA —
WEST ROUTE
General information
Charts 943, 967, 3807, 3809, 3811, 928, 2576, 1868
Route
2.6
1
This sub-section covers the route continued from ports
in the South China Sea (China Sea Pilot Vol II). From a
position SW of Cape Calavite Light (13°27′N, 120°18′E)
the route leads SSW for about 80 miles through Mindoro
Strait and Apo West Pass to a position ENE of Framjee
Bank (12°00′N, 120°32′E) (3.65). From this position the
route leads ESE for about 12 miles to a position SSW of
Leonidas Bank (12°02′N, 120°52′E) (8.19). The route then
leads SSW for about 58 miles thence SSE for about
CHAPTER 2
66
44 miles to a position ENE of Queen of the Sea Bank
(10°24′N, 120°29′E). From this position the route leads
SSW for about 284 miles to a position NE of Normanby
Bank (5°48′N, 119°14′E), from whence it leads SSE for
about 37 miles between the banks lying WSW of Pearl
Bank (5°50′N, 119°42′E) to a position E of Tanjung Terang
Lighthouse (5°25′N, 119°13′E) from whence the route
continues SSE for about 47 miles through Sibutu Passage to
a position ENE of Saluag Island Light (4°35′N, 119°28′E)
(5.19).
Topography
2.7
1
With the exception of the several islands in the Cuyo
and Calamian Groups and a few of those adjacent to the N
part of Palawan, the islands in this waterway are sparsely
populated and practically undeveloped. However forestry is
a growth industry in the islands and cattle, copra, and
almaciga are exported in small quantities. Commercial
fishing is of growing importance.
Depths
2.8
1
Cuyo West Pass between Cuyo Islands and the N part of
Palawan, is about 20 miles wide. General depths within the
Cuyo Islands and the West Pass range from about 27 to
73 m. There are a number of shoals and islets within the
waterway.
Off−lying danger
2.9
1
Piedra Blanca (10°26′N, 121°01′E) is a prominent
white rock lying on the edge of a shoal which extends
5 cables E and 1 miles N from the rock. The shoal is
steep-to.
Principal marks
2.10
1
Landmarks:
Bongao Peak (5°01′N, 119°45′E) (5.19).
Sibutu Hill (4°50′N, 119°30′E) (5.19).
2
Major lights:
Cape Calavite Light (13°27′N, 120°18′E) (8.9).
Apo Island Light (12°40′N, 120°25′E) (8.9).
Ambulong Island Light (12°13′N, 121°01′E) (8.9).
Pearl Bank Light (Zau Island) (5°50′N, 119°44′E)
(6.8).
Langoy Island Light (10°30′N, 120°00′E) (3.134).
Tabbataha Reefs. South Islet Light (white round stone
structure on white square building) (8°44′N,
119°05′E).
Tanjong Terang Light (5°25′N, 119°12′E) (5.7).
Tanjong Labian Light (5°08′N, 119°13′E) (5.33).
Saluag Island Light (4°35′N, 119°28′E) (5.19).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Vol II)
2.11
1
From a position SW of Cape Calavite (13°27′N,
120°18′E) the track leads SSE passing:
ENE of Merope Rock (12°43′N, 120°15′E) over
which seas break, thence:
ENE of Hunter Rock (12°39′N, 120°11′E), thence:
2
WSW of Apo Island (12°40′N, 120°25′E), from
where a light is exhibited (8.10), thence:
ENE of a shoal (12°27′N, 120°19′E), with a depth of
11 m (36 ft) over it, thence:
ENE of Tara Island (12°17′N, 120°21′E) (3.56),
thence:
3
WSW of a shoal (12°17′N, 120°31′E), with a depth
of 20 m (11 fm) over it, thence:
ENE of Bantac Island (12°13′N, 120°23′E) (3.53),
thence:
WSW of a shoal (12°10′N, 120°39′E), with a depth
of 14⋅6 m (48 ft) over it, thence:
ENE of Framjee Bank (12°00′N, 120°32′E) (3.65).
4
From this position the track leads ESE passing:
SSW of Kambal Reef (12°03′N, 120°46′E) and:
NNE of a group of shoals (11°56′N, 120°42′E)
reported 1981 with a least depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft)
over them, thence:
SSW of Leonidas Bank (12°02′N, 120°52′E) (8.19).
5
From this position the track leads SSW passing:
WNW of Coutts Bank (11°50′N, 120°58′E) (8.34),
thence:
WNW of Falmouth Bank (11°47′N, 120°53′E) (8.34),
thence:
ESE of Aguirre Reef (11°43′N, 120°34′E) (3.65), and:
WNW of Areta Shoals (11°39′N, 120°47′E), thence:
6
ESE of Panay Bank (11°32′N, 120°28′E) (3.65),
thence:
WNW of Manamoc Island (11°19′N, 120°41′E)
(8.44), thence:
ESE of Solitario Rocks (11°17′N, 120°20′E), thence:
ESE of Canaron Island (Kanaron on chart 3807)
(11°14′N, 120°16′E) (3.128), thence:
WNW of a shoal (11°02′N, 120°29′E), reported 1939
with a depth of 18⋅3 m (60 ft) over it.
7
From this position the track leads SSE passing:
WSW of Round Island (10°47′N, 120°36′E) (8.50),
thence:
WSW of Santa Filomena Shoals (10°39′N, 120°43′E)
(8.50), thence:
ENE of Queen of the Sea Bank (10°24′N, 120°29′E),
discovered by Captain Smiley commanding Queen
of the Sea in 1868. It is an extensive bank,
steep-to on the S and W sides but on the N and E
sides soundings give warning of approach.
Breakers were reported in 1954, 2 miles W of
the bank.
2.12
1
From this position the track leads SSW passing:
WNW of
Cavali Island (9°18′N, 120°49′E), and
Arena Island both low-lying, tree-covered coral
islets fringed by reefs. Several detached sand cays
lie on the reef S and W of Arena Island. In 1983
it was reported that a prominent white tower stood
on Arena Island. A deep channel lies between the
islands but caution should be exercised when
navigating in the vicinity. The reefs are steep-to,
thence:
ESE of Tubbataha Reefs (8°56′N, 119°50′E) (2.20),
thence:
WNW of Pearl Bank Light (5°50′N, 119°44′E) (6.8).
2
From this position the track leads SSE for about
26 miles passing:
ENE of Sentry Bank (5°42′N, 119°18′E) (5.9), and:
WSW of Talantam Shoal (5°42′N, 119°28′E) (5.9),
and:
WSW of a shoal (5°40′N, 119°25′E), with a depth of
7 m (23 ft) over it, reported 1948, thence:
WSW of a shoal (5°35′N, 119°30′E) with a depth of
13 m (43 ft) over it.
CHAPTER 2
67
3
Thence the track leads to a position ENE of Tanjong
Terang (5°25′N, 119°13′E) from where a light is exhibited
(5.7).
(Directions continue to Sicolan Island at 5.16).
(For routes through the Celebes Sea see Indonesia Pilot volume II)
MINDORO STRAIT TO CELEBES SEA —
EAST ROUTE
General information
Charts 4490, 943, 4484, 3809, 3811, 961
Route
2.13
1
This sub-section covers the route continued from ports
in the South China Sea (China Sea Pilot Vol II). From a
position SW of Cape Calavite Light (13°27′N, 120°18′E)
the route leads SSE for about 85 miles entering Mindoro
Strait and passing through Apo East Pass to a position S of
Ambulong Island Light (12°13′N, 121°01′E) (8.9). From
this position the route leads SSE for about 108 miles to a
position WSW of Nogas Point (10°25′N, 121°55′E) (2.15)
passing through Cuyo East Pass. From this position the
route leads S for about 203 miles through the Sulu Sea to a
position NE of Teinga Island (6°54′N, 121°35′E) from
whence the route leads through Basilan Strait into the
Celebes Sea.
Tidal streams
2.14
1
The route through Cuyo East Pass is generally used
during the NE monsoon (October to March) from Basilan
Strait (7.3) to Mindoro Strait (8.2) taking advantage of the
N-going streams along Panay W coast.
Principal marks
2.15
1
Landmarks:
Mount Calavite (13°29′N, 120°24′E) (8.9).
Mount Halcon (13°16′N, 121°00′E) (8.9).
Matarabis Island (11°08′N, 121°09′E) (8.33).
Mount Matanal (6°37′N, 122°18′E) (6.198).
Mount Sining Capan (6°38′N, 122°12′E) (6.198).
Mount Cobung (6°35′N, 122°11′E) (6.198).
Basilan Peak (6°33′N, 122°04′E) (6.153).
2
Major lights:
Cape Calavite Light (13°27′N, 120°18′E) (8.9).
Apo Island Light (12°40′N, 120°25′E) (8.9).
Ambulong Island Light (12°13′N, 121°01′E) (8.9).
Maniguin Island Light (11°36′N, 121°41′E) (8.343).
Nogas Island Light (10°25′N, 121°55′ E) (8.33).
Little Santa Cruz Island Light (6°53′N, 122°03′E)
(7.9).
Sibago Island Light (6°45′N 122°24′E) (6.198).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Vol II)
2.16
1
From a position SW of Cape Calavite (13°27′N,
120°18′E) the track leads SSE following the directions
given at 8.10, (8.19), (8.34) and (8.35).
2
Thence from a position WSW of Nogas Island (10°25′N,
121°55′ E) the track leads S to a position NE of Teinga
Island (6°54′N, 121°35′E) (6.148) from where the track
leads ESE into the Basilan Strait.
Directions continue to Sibago Island at (7.10)
(For routes through the Celebes Sea see Indonesia Pilot volume II)
Cagayan Islands
Philippines Chart 4356 (see 1.18)
Description
2.17
1
Cagayan Islands (9°40′N, 121°15′E), all wooded and
partly cultivated, lie on the S part of a steep-to and
extensive reef, depths within 1 cable of the reef falling
away to 183 m (100 fm). The islands consist mostly of low,
even hills, the highest, near the W side of Cagayan Island,
the largest in the group, being from 3 to 5 m higher than
the surrounding area and having a smooth ridge extending
nearly its entire length. A rocky bluff from 45 to 60 m
high, extends along the W coast, with a short stretch of
sand beach in the middle where landing is possible at its S
end before the village of Santa Cruz.
2
Calusa Island (9°36′N, 121°00′E), sandy and covered
with coconut trees is fringed by a coral reef. Several
houses stand on the S side of the island but it is not
permanantly inhabited. The passage between Cagayan
Islands and Calusa Island is deep and free of dangers.
3
Tanusa Island and Volata Island, separated from each
other by a narrow, foul channel, lie close N of the N
extremity of Cagayan Island on the same reef. The reefs
surrounding the SW extremity of Cagayan Island extend
NE enclosing a shallow, heavily encumbered bight, the SE
side of which is formed by Dondonay Island, 3 miles in
length and vary narrow. Calalong Island consisting of a
group of low hills with a steep rocky bluff on its S side,
lies within this bight. The channel between the E extremity
of Calalong Island and the SW point of Dondonay Island is
encumbered with dangers. Langisan and Anuling Islands,
barren rocks, lie on the shoal ground joining the NE
extremity of Dondonay Island to the S extremity of
Igcauayan Reef. Manucan Island, separated from Langisan
Island by a deep channel 2 miles wide, lies in the middle
of a drying reef surrounded by shoal ground extending
7 cables W. Manucan Light is exhibited from a white metal
framework tower standing in the centre of the island.
4
Dauisan Reef extends 8 miles N from Tanusa Island
and curving NE and E forms a bight enclosing Igcuayan
Reef, 3 miles long and partly drying. The partly sheltered
waters W of Igcuayan Reef are encumbered with numerous
rocks and coral shoals. Dauisan Reef extends NE thence E
for about 5 miles. From this E extremity shoal grounds
extend SE for about 5 miles completing the bight. In the
middle of this shoal ground lies Cabantayan Reef, drying at
LW. The enclosed waters E of Igcuayan Reef are deep and
much less encumbered though subject to tide-rips.
Boombang Island lies at the NE extremity of a horseshoe
shaped shoal ground forming the NE entrance point into
the bight. It lies on a drying coral reef. Catimongan Shoals
consisting of several patches, with depths from 4 to 15 m
(13 to 49 ft) over them and Sultana Shoals, with a least
depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) over them, extend N for about
15 miles from Boombang Island. There are deep water
channels between the shoal patches. Both these shoals are
steep-to on their W sides, with depths of 183 m (100 fm)
within 5 cables. They are much less steep on their E sides
where shallows may be found up to 5 miles E as shown on
the chart.
CHAPTER 2
68
5
Cagayancillo is a small town, population 4000, standing
on the E side of Cagayan Island, near the SW point.
Local knowledge and the national chart are necessary
because the approach is tortuous and the channel unmarked.
Anchorage exists S of Calalong Island, partly protected
by the barrier reef.
Berth. There is a small pier in front of Cagayancillo
town usable only by small boats at HW.
Supplies including fresh water are scarce.
BALABAC STRAIT TO LEYTE GULF
General information
Charts 967, 943, 1338, 287, 3811, 3810, 3827, 4474, 4476
Route
2.18
1
This sub-section covers the route continued from ports
in the South China Sea (China Sea Pilot Vol II) from the
SW approaches to the Balabac Strait (4.29) passing NW of
Pulau Balambangan (7°17′N, 116°55′E) (4.9), whence the
track leads NE to a position E of Cape Melville Light
(7°49′N, 117°00′E) (4.11). From this position two main
routes, for deep draught vessels, lead into the Sulu Sea.
The N route leading N to pass W and N of Nasubata Reef
(8°01′N, 117°10′E) (4.37), entering the Sulu Sea via North
Channel and the S route leads NE passing in mid-channel
between Roughton Reef (8°01′N, 117°13′E) (4.38) and
Comiran Island via Nasubata Channel to a position SSE of
Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E). The route then leads
ENE for about 358 miles across the Sulu Sea to a position
SSE of Apo Island (9°05′N, 123°16′E) (10.50). Thence the
route leads NE for about 130 miles through the Bohol Sea
to a position SE of Binit Point (9°55′N, 125°17′E) (10.312)
from whence it leads NNE for about 35 miles through
Surigao Strait to Desolation Point (10°28′N, 125°38′E)
(12.154). The track then leads E into the Pacific Ocean.
Principal marks
2.19
1
Landmarks:
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E) (4.11).
Blanca Point (8°31′N, 123°03′E) (10.23)
2
Major lights:
Cape Melville Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E) (4.11).
Tabbataha Reefs. South Islet Light (8°44′N, 119°05′E)
(2.10).
Tagolo Point Light (8°44′N, 123°23′E) (10.23).
Minalulan Point Light (9°07′N, 123°41′E) (10.295).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Vol II)
2.20
1
From a position NW of Pulau Balambangan (7°17′N,
116°55′E) (4.9), the track leads NE to a position E of Cape
Melville Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E). From this position two
main routes, for deep draught vessels, lead into the Sulu
Sea. The N route leads N passing W and N of Nasubata
Reef (8°01′N, 117°10′E) (4.37), entering the Sulu Sea via
North Channel and the S route leads NE passing in
mid-channel between Roughton Reef (8°01′N, 117°13′E)
(4.38) and Comiran Island via Nasubata Channel to a
position SSE of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E) (4.26)
following the directions given at 4.35, 4.37, 4.38 and 4.40.
From this position the track leads ENE passing:
SSE of a patch (8°06′N, 117°49′E) position
approximate, with a depth of 4⋅5 m over it,
reported 1991, thence:
2
NNW of Moyune Shoal (8°03′N, 118°08′E)
surrounded by a group of shoals, The shoal was
reported by SS Mayune in 1897. In 1961, a shoal
with a depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it, was reported
by CS Recorder to lie 6 miles E of Mayune Shoal.
In 1976, a dangerous shoal was reported to lie
8 miles NE of Mayune Shoal. thence:
NNW of Bancoran Island (7°58′N, 118°40′E), a
densely wooded islet lying on an extensive coral
reef from the NW extremity of which shoals,
reported 1962, extend 1 mile N, thence:
3
NNW of Maeander Reef (8°06′N, 119°17′E)
discovered by HMS Maeander in 1849, a sand cay
surrounded by a steep-to reef frequented by
numerous sea birds. In 1945 a reef was reported to
lie 5 miles ESE of Maeander Reef but in 1963 an
unsuccessful search was made for it. In 1977, a
radar conspicuous wreck lay on the N side of
Maeander Reef. Thence:
4
SSE of Tabbataha Reefs (8°56′N, 119°50′E), two
extensive dangerous reefs separated by a channel
4 miles wide. North Islet, a rock covered with
grass and guano, lies near the NE end of the NE
reef, steep-to and enclosing a deep lagoon with no
access. A stranded wreck lies on the E side of the
reef. A sand cay lies on the SW extremity of the
reef. Numerous sand ridges are visible along the
entire length of the reef. South Islet, 2 m high,
Black Rock and some low-lying sand cays are the
only items visible at HW. The base of an old
lighthouse stands on South Islet where Tabbataha
Reef Lighthouse (2.10), reported to be difficult to
identify in daylight, now stands. A stranded wreck
lies on the NW extremity of the SW reef. Another
stranded wreck lies 5 cables NE of the lighthouse.
In 1989 SS Pacific Worker reported that the reefs
appeared to have extended and increased in height.
Large patches of white sand and coral with
numerous palm trees were sighted on the N and
NE extremities of the NE reef and three stranded
wrecks lie on its W side. Jessie Beazley Shoal lies
14 miles NW of North Islet and consists of a
mound of broken coral surrounded by a white sand
cay. The surrounding reef dries over a considerable
distance. Thence:
5
SSE of Apo Island (9°05′N, 123°16′E) (10.50).
From this position the track leads NE passing:
NW of Tagolo Point Light (8°44′N, 123°23′E)
(10.23), thence:
NW of a patch (8°53′N, 123°24′E) with a depth of
12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it (10.342), and:
NW of Silino Island (8°51′N, 123°25′E) (10.342),
thence:
6
SE of Cambalaguio Point (9°06′N, 123°34′E), thence:
NW of a patch (8°59′N, 123°41′E), reported 1976,
with a depth of 33 m (18 fm) over it, thence:
SE of Minalulan Point Light (9°07′N, 123°41′E)
(10.295), thence:
NW of Medano Islet (9°16′N, 124°40′E) (10.448),
thence:
NW of Mambajao Light (9°15′N, 124°43′E) (10.448).
CHAPTER 2
69
7
From this position the track leads NE to a position SE
of Binit Point (9°55′N, 125°17′E) (10.312).
(Directions continue to Kanihaan Island at 12.142,
thence to Desolation Point at 12.154 thence into the Pacific Ocean)
(Directions for trans-Pacific routes see Ocean Passages of the World)
BALABAC STRAIT TO CELEBES SEA
General information
Charts 948, 967, 287, 2576,
Route
2.21
1
This sub-section covers the route continued from ports
in the South China Sea (China Sea Pilot Vol II) from a
position NW of Pulau Balambangan (7°17′N, 116°55′E)
(4.9) the route leads NE to a position E of Cape Melville
Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E) (4.11). From this position two
main routes, for deep draught vessels, lead into the Sulu
Sea. The N route leads N passing W and N of Nasubata
Reef (8°01′N, 117°10′E) (4.37), entering the Sulu Sea via
North Channel and the S route leads NE passing in
mid-channel between Roughton Reef (8°01′N, 117°13′E)
(4.38) and Comiran Island via Nasubata Channel to a
position SSE of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E) (4.26)
following the directions given at 4.35, 4.37, 4.38 and 4.40.
From this position the route leads ESE for about 75 miles
to a position SSW of Bancoran Island (7°58′N, 118°40′E)
from whence it leads SSE for about 130 miles to a position
NE of Normanby Bank (5°48′N, 119°14′E). The route then
leads SSE for about 37 miles between the banks lying
WSW of Pearl Bank (5°50′N, 119°42′E) to a position E of
Tanjung Terang Lighthouse (5°25′N, 119°13′E) following
the directions given in 5.9 from whence the route continues
SSE for about 47 miles through Sibutu Passage to a
position ENE of Saluag Island Light (4°35′N, 119°28′E)
(5.19).
Tide−rips
2.22
1
In 1937 HMS Dorsetshire passed through a heavy
breaking tide-rip 16 miles ESE of Manuc Manucan Island
(7°46′N, 118°26′E), which extended 7 miles in a NE/SW
direction. No bottom at 183 m (100 fm) was, however,
obtained near the S edge of the tide-rip.
Principal marks
2.23
1
Landmarks:
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E) (4.11).
Bongao Peak (5°01′N, 119°45′E) (5.19).
Sibutu Hill (4°50′N, 119°30′E) (5.19).
2
Major lights:
Cape Melville Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E) (4.11).
Pearl Bank Light (Zau Island) (5°50′N, 119°44′E)
(6.8).
Tanjong Terang Light (5°25′N, 119°12′E) (5.7).
Tanjong Labian Light (5°08′N, 119°13′E) (5.33).
Saluag Island Light (4°35′N, 119°28′E) (5.19).
Directions
(continued from China Sea Pilot Vol II)
2.24
1
From a position NW of Pulau Balambangan (7°17′N,
116°55′E) (4.9), the track leads NE to a position E of Cape
Melville Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E) (4.11). From this
position two main routes, for deep draught vessels, lead
into the Sulu Sea. The N route leads N passing W and N
of Nasubata Reef (8°01′N, 117°10′E) (4.37), entering the
Sulu Sea via North Channel and the S route leads NE
passing in mid-channel between Roughton Reef (8°01′N,
117°13′E) (4.37) and Comiran Island via Nasubata Channel
to a position SSE of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E)
(4.26) following the directions given at 4.35, 4.37, 4.38 and
4.40. From this position the route leads ESE passing:
NNE of a shoal (7°54′N, 117°41′E), position
doubtful, and another shoal with a depth of 0⋅9 m
(3 ft) over it lying 5 miles S.
SSW of a submerged rock (7°59′N, 118°03′E)
position approximate, reported 1976, thence:
2
NNE of a shoal (7°41′N, 118°11′E), reported 1996
with a depth of 10⋅4 m (34 ft) over it, whereon in
1996 a vessel grounded on soft coral reefs, thence:
NNE of SW Bank (7°40′N, 118°19′E), an extensive
bank over which the even seabed is visible to a
depth of about 31 m (17 fm) which offers good
anchorage. A shoal, reported in 2000 with a depth
of 6⋅7 m (22 ft) over it, lies 1 miles S of the SE
extremity of the bank, close to another shoal,
reported 1903 to be covered with large boulders.
Thence:
3
NNE of West Bank (7°43′N, 118°21′E) thence:
NNE of Valparaiso Shoal (7°51′N, 118°26′E) reported
to be 2 miles in extent. In 1910 SS Shantung,
drawing 5⋅8 m, reported having touched bottom in
the vicinity of this shoal which is assumed to be
5⋅5 m (18 ft). The coral bottom has been clearly
seen at a depth of 11 m (36 ft). In 1985 a coral
reef extending approximately 4 miles E to W, was
reported to lie 2 miles S of Valparaiso Shoal.
Thence:
4
NNE of San Miguel Islands (7°46′N, 118°26′E),
consisting of four islets among which anchoring is
unsafe. Manuc Manucan Island, barren, covered
with white sand lying on a coral reef at the S
extremity of which is a small islet. There are a
number of coral heads awash on the reef which
extends 1 miles NW from the smaller islet. Two
coral patches with depths of 7⋅6 and 8⋅5 m (25 and
28 ft) over them lie 7 cables WNW, separated by
shallow water, and 1 mile E respectively of the N
extremity of the shoal ground. In 1949, a bank
with depths from 27 to 37 m (14 to 20 fm) over it,
was reported to lie from 7 to 13 miles WNW of
the island. Thence:
5
NNE of Bancauan Island (7°46′N, 118°32′E), the
largest of the San Miguel Islands, steep-to on its
SE side, lying on a coral reef 4 miles NE of
Manuc Manucan Island. It is much eroded and
nearly divided by the sea 2 cables from its NE
point. A small coral islet lies 7 cables N of the
island and is contiguous with it. There are
numerous sand cays and boulders on the
surrounding reef. In 1961 it was reported that
depths of 22 m (12 fm) exists in the channel
separating the two groups of islands.
CHAPTER 2
70
6
NNE of Java Reef (7°50′N, 118°34′E) marked by
water discolouration and reported to dry. There are
strong tide-rips around it. Thence:
SSW of Bancoran Island (7°57′N, 118°40′E) (2.20).
7
From this position the track leads SSE to a position NE
of Normanby Bank (5°48′N, 119°14′E) from whence it
leads SSE passing:
WSW of Pearl Bank Light (5°50′N, 119°44′E) (6.8),
thence:.
ENE of Sentry Bank (5°42′N, 119°18′E) (5.9), and:
WSW of Talantam Shoal (5°42′N, 119°28′E) (5.9),
and:
WSW of a shoal (5°40′N, 119°25′E), with a depth of
7 m (23 ft) over it, reported 1948, thence:
WSW of a shoal (5°35′N, 119°30′E) with a depth of
13 m (42 ft) over it.
8
From this position the track continues SSE for about
3 miles to a position WSW of Tanjong Terang (5°25′N,
119°13′E) (5.7)
(Directions continue for Sibutu Passage at 5.16).
(For routes through the Celebes Sea see Indonesia Pilot volume II)
NOTES
71
3811
3809
1338
948
287
967
2914
2914
2914
3820
3819
3807
967
0704
3.161
Puerto
Princesa
NP 31
China Sea
Pilot
Vol II
Coron I.
Ulugan Bay
Araceli
3
.
2
1
0
3
.
2
0
2
3
.
1
9
1
3
.
1
5
3
3
.
1
4
2
3
.
1
3
2
3
.
1
0
5
3
.
1
2
5
3
.
9
8
3
.
9
0
3
.
6
1
3.66
3
.
3
0
3
.
9
3
.
4
8
12°
11°
10°
9°
8°
12°
11°
10°
9°
8°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
120°
119°
117°
116°
30'30'30'30'
30'30'30'30'30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
Chapter 3 - Calamian Group and Palawan Island - east side
Longitude 118° East from Greenwich
72
73
CHAPTER 3
CALAMIAN GROUP AND PALAWAN ISLAND−EAST SIDE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 967, 3807, 3483
Scope of the chapter
3.1
1
This chapter describes the Calamian (Kalamian) Group
and the E coast of Palawan Island from Dimipac Island
(12°22′N, 119°54′E) to Cape Buliluyan (8°20′N, 117°12′E),
including Dumaran and the Dalanganem islands. It also
includes descriptions of off-lying islands and isolated
dangers as well as areas of safe anchorage and the port of
Puerto Princesa.
2
It is arranged as follows:
Calamian Group (3.7).
Palawan — NE coast and off-lying islands (3.88).
Palawan — E coast (3.130).
Topography
3.2
1
The Calamian Group of islands lie NNE of Palawan
comprising the islands of Busuanga, Culion and Coron
together with numerous lesser islands and islets. All these
islands are mountainous, the highest peaks rising to 600 m
(1970 ft) or more. The lower slopes and valleys are heavily
forested and produce good lumber for building and cabinet
making. The islands are sparsely populated. The climate is
generally hot and unhealthy; intermittent fevers and
cutaneous deseases prevail.
2
Palawan Island
is the fifth largest of the Philippine
Archipelago and forms the western boundary of the Sulu
Sea. The coast is deeply indented by numerous bays and
inlets. The island is sparsely inhabited and much of the
interior remains little known. Mountainous and steep the
peaks, some reaching heights greater than 900 m (2950 ft),
are often shrouded in cloud. However for brief periods at
dawn and dusk this might clear except during bad weather.
There are numerous islands, islets, coral reefs and shoals
extending from 10 to 20 miles offshore.
Depths
3.3
1
Inshore routes along the W coast of the Calamian
Islands have prevailing depths of between 36 and 80 m (20
and 45 fm). However frequent scattered coral shoals with
soundings of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) or more can be found anywhere
in the area. There are shoals of lesser depth closer inshore.
Numerous shoals with depths from 13 to 18 m (42 to
60 ft) over them lie up to 40 miles off the W coast. See
China Sea Pilot Volume II for details of shoals W of
longitude 119°29′E.
Depths N and E of Calamian Group are very irregular
with patches from 13 to 18 m (42 to 60 ft) rising steeply
from greater depths. A good lookout must be kept for
shoals in this locality.
2
Inshore routes along the E coast of this archipelago are
encumbered with shoals and reefs, some of which are
shallow enough to create tide-rips. To seaward of the 90 m
(50 fm) contour the number of these shoals lessens abruptly
and beyond the 180 m (100 fm) contour are rare along the
major part of this route. In the vicinity of the E coast of
the Calamian Islands such dangers extend for about
25 miles to seaward. Off the S extremity of Palawan shoals
with least depths of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over them extend well
beyond the 180 m (100 fm) contour. A good look-out must
be kept for shoals in all the areas covered by this chapter.
Submarine pipeline
3.4
1
A gas pipeline has been laid between the Malampaya
field in the South China Sea and Batangas in S. Luzon.
This pipeline passes through the Linapacan Strait (3.41) as
shown on the chart.
Tidal streams
3.5
1
Between the islands of the Calamian Group the in-going
stream sets SE from the China Sea into the Sulu Sea
turning S along the E coast of Palawan. The out-going
stream reverses this flow.
Typhoon anchorages
3.6
1
Halsey Harbour (11°46′N, 119°58′E) (3.35).
Langcan Bay (10°30′N, 119°55′E) (3.140).
Pasco Channel (10°06′N, 119°13′E) (3.151).
Puerto Princesa (9°44′N, 118°43′E) (3.174).
Coral Bay (8°24′N, 117°16′E) (3.218).
CALAMIAN GROUP
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3819, 3807, 3820, 3483
Area covered
3.7
1
This section covers the waters surrounding the islands of
the Calamian Group. It is arranged as follows:
Busuanga Island — W coast (3.9).
Coron Bay — NW approaches (3.21).
Culion Island — W side (3.30).
Linapacan Strait (3.41).
Busuanga Island — NE side (3.48).
Mataya Reef to Nangolao Island (3.61).
Coron Bay and E approaches (3.66).
Topography
3.8
1
Busuanga Island (12°10′N, 120°10′E), the N-most and
largest of the Calamian Group, forms the SW side of
Mindoro Strait. The coast is fringed with coral reefs and
indented by numerous bays in most of which are islets and
rocks. Thirtyfour miles long and 18 miles at its widest
point the island is mountainous and heavily forested. The
highest peaks are in the SE, of which Mount Tundalara
CHAPTER 3
74
(12°02′N, 120°14′E), is the highest. They are often
shrouded in cloud.
2
Calauit Island is separated from the NW extremity of
Busuanga Island by Ditipac River (3.14).
3
Culion Island, the second largest island of the Calamian
Group, lies SW of Busuanga Island from which it is
separated by a strait. Mount Oltarolo (3.33), the highest
point of the island, rises 5 miles SE of Halsey Harbour
(3.35).
BUSUANGA ISLAND — WEST COAST
General information
Chart 3807
Route
3.9
1
From a position NW of Northwest Rock (12°25′N,
119°53′E) the track leads SSW for about 30 miles to a
position off West Nalaut Island (12°03′N, 119°47′E) (3.12).
Topography
3.10
1
From Elinibinid Point (12°18′N, 119°52′E) the W coast
of Busuanga Island trends S to Talampulan Island (3.13)
then SE to Lusong Island (3.27). The shoreline is irregular
but with few prominent points. Several fertile valleys fall to
the coast and numerous small islets extend from a few
metres to 8 miles offshore as shown on the chart.
Depths
3.11
1
Within the 180 m (100 fm) contour and the scope of this
chapter depths along the W coast of the Calamian Group
range between 46 and 75 m (25 and 41 fm) but the area is
encumbered with numerous coral shoals, as shown on the
chart, some of which are dangerous to navigation.
Principal marks
3.12
1
Landmarks:
Dimipac Island (12°22′N, 119°54′E) (Dimipak Island
on Chart 3807), covered by a few trees and light
vegetation.
2
Malahon (Malajon) Island (12°09′N, 119°49′E), high,
barren and steep-to.
3
West Nalaut Island (12°03′N, 119°47′E), the W-most
island of the Calamian Group, which is
uninhabited, The E part of the island consists of a
low wooded sandspit; the W part is rocky.
Directions
Northwest rock to West Nalaut Island
3.13
1
From a position NW of Northwest Rock (12°25′N,
119°53′E) the track leads SSW, passing (with positions
from Dimipac Island (12°22′N, 119°54′E)):
2
WNW of Northwest Rock (3 miles NNW), dark
appearance, with a flat summit, barren, thence:
3
WNW of Dimipac Island (3.12) 1 miles long and
5 cables wide. The N side is steep and rocky, the
S a shelving beach. It is almost totally surrounded
by a coral reef about 90 m (295 ft) in width. Sail
Rocks (12°33′N, 119°54′E), a group of bare rocks
lies 7 cables N of Dimipac Island. A bank, with a
depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, lies 1 miles NE
of Sail Rocks. Thence:
4
WNW of Pinnacle Rock (4 miles SW), and Lena
Shoal 5 miles WNW of the rock. Midway between
Pinnacle Rock and the coast there is a rock awash.
Vessels are cautioned not to pass inshore of
Pinnacle Rock. Thence:
5
WNW of Elet Island (8 miles SSW) and
Kalampisauan Island, lie close offshore 1 miles S
of the entrance to Illultuk Bay (3.14). Both islands
are rocky and Kalampisauan Island, the S-most,
has steep cliffs. And:
6
Clear of a shoal (10 miles SW), with a depth of
11⋅8 m (39 ft) over it, and a group of shoals
(12 miles SW), with a least depth of 9⋅5 m
(31 ft) over them, thence:
7
WNW of Malahon Island (13 miles SSW) lying
2 miles W of Detobet Point, sharp and rocky with
bare cliffs. Several shoals, with depths from 8⋅2 to
12⋅8 m (27 to 42 ft) over them, lie within 5 miles
W and NNW of Malahon Island. Thence:
8
WNW of Talampulan Island (14 miles S) on which
stands a radio tower (red obstruction lights, red
and white metal structure, 39 m (128 ft) high), near
the N end of the island where a few prominent
white painted buildings and a stone causeway are
sited. A drying reef extends 3 cables NNW from
the island. A rock, 20 m (66 ft) high, lies on a reef
1 cables from the middle of the W side of the
island. It is marked by a buoy (yellow and black
stripes). Thence:
9
WNW of Dabotonoy Island (16 miles S), lying
3 cables S of Talampulan Island. Coral patches,
with depths of 7⋅9 m (26 ft) over them, lie
1 miles E and 5 miles W of the S extremity of
this island. And:
10
Clear of several shoals (19 miles SW), with depths
from 8⋅2 to 12⋅2 m (27 to 40 ft) over them.
11
The track then leads to a position W of West Nalaut
Island (19 miles SSW). A shoal, with a depth of 11⋅9 m
(39 ft) over it, lies 4 miles W of the island along with
another two shoals, with a least depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over
them, 11 miles farther W.
(Directions continue for Culion Island — W coast at 3.34 and for Coron Bay — NW entrance at 3.23)
Illultuk Bay
Philippines Chart 4335 (see 1.18)
General information
3.14
1
Description. Illultuk Bay (12°16′N, 119°52′E) is entered
2 miles S of Elinibinid Point (3.10). It is a well sheltered
inlet about 3 miles long trending E between steep-to
headlands fringed on both sides with drying coral. An islet,
37 m (121 ft) high, lies close S of the entrance.
2
Depths. There are depths of 18 m (59 ft) at the entrance
gradually shallowing through the length of the bay to
drying mud-flats at the E end in the vicinity of Ditipac
River which flows through a narrow isthmus to empty into
the head of Illultuk Bay (3.14) on the W coast and into
Calauit Bay on the E side of Busuanga Island. Boats with
draught less than 0⋅9 m (3 ft) can navigate Ditipac River at
HW.
Local knowledge is required.
CHAPTER 3
75
Berths
3.15
1
Anchorage berth. There is good anchorage 1 miles
within the entrance in depths from 11 to 13 m (36 to 42 ft)
2 cables NE of the S pier.
Alongside berths. There are two privately owned piers
near the entrance to the bay. That on the N side, wooden,
13 m long with a depth of 0⋅6 m at its outer end, lies
2 miles from the head of the bay. The S pier is ruined.
Gutob Bay
Philippines Chart 4350 (see 1.18)
General information
3.16
1
Description. Gutob Bay (12°10′N, 119°53′E) lies E of
and is protected by Detobet Point (3.13). This W protection
continues with Capare Island (12°08′N, 119°52′E), the
largest of a group which forms an enclosing archipelago on
the SW and S sides of the bay. Capare Island is about
3 miles long and about 5 cables wide. Bacbac Island
(12°10′N, 119°53′E), low lying and tree covered, lies on
the E side of Gutob anchorage. Manoloba Island lies
contiguously on the NE side of Capare Island and
Manolebeng Island lies 5 cables E of it. Talampetan Islet,
surrounded by a drying reef lies contiguously with the S
extremity of Capare Island.
2
Depths. The bay has general depths of 7⋅3 to 18⋅3 m
(24 to 60 ft). The channel between the N end of Capare
Island and Bacbac Island has a depth of 11⋅4 m (37 ft) in
it. The waters between and to the S of these islands are
encumbered with dangerous rocks some of which are
awash. The chart is sufficient guide.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Directions for west approach
3.17
1
Passage north of Talampulan Island. From a position
S of Malajon Island (12°09′N, 119°49′E) the track leads E
passing with positions from Detobet Point (12°09′N,
119°51′E)):
N of Talampulan Island (1 mile SSW) passing at least
5 cables off to clear the reef which extends
3 cables from the N end of the island, thence:
S of Detobet Point, barren cliffs sharp and rocky,
surrounded by a coral reef.
2
From this position the track leads NE passing in
mid-channel:
Between a group of three buoys, reported 1965
(5 cables E) (white, red cross topmark).
From this position the track leads NNE in mid-channel
passing W of a patch (1 mile NE), with a depth of 0⋅9 m
(3 ft) over it, from whence it continues directly towards the
anchorage.
3
Useful mark:
A light (white pole 39 m in height) marking the
Loran station, is exhibited from the NW part of
Talampulan Island.
Anchorage
3.18
1
The best anchorage in Gutob Bay can be found between
Bacbac Island and the coast of the peninsular to the W in
depths from 13 to 17 m (42 to 55 ft), mud, well protected
from all winds.
Anchorages and harbours
Busuanga
3.19
1
Description. Busuanga (12°09′N, 119°55′E), a small
settlement, stands on the W bank of the Busuanga River
5 cables within its entrance 2 miles E of Capare Island.
The river is accessible at HW only to small craft.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage exists SW of the settlement in depths from 7
to 15 m (24 to 49 ft), mud. Care must be taken to avoid
rocks with depths of less than 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over them lying
7 cables and 1 mile W of the settlement.
Salvacion
3.20
1
Description. Salvacion (12°08′N, 119°56′E), a small
settlement, is situated 1 miles SSE of Busuanga. The
foreshore dries at LW. A shallow channel separates the
mainland from Salvacion (Denicolan) Island, which fronts
the approach to Salvacion, 5 cables W. A reef extends
mile SSE from the island which is itself 7 cables long.
A large reef lies 1 miles SW of the island with depths of
22 m (12 fm) all round it.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Useful marks:
Green schoolhouse with an iron roof can easily be
identified from the NW.
Church steeple is visible from SW over the tree tops.
Anchorage. There is an anchorage for small vessels
5 cables NW of Salvacion Island.
Berth. A wooden boat pier, 47 m long, lies N of the
settlement.
CORON BAY — NORTH−WEST
APPROACHES
General information
US Chart 91323 (see 1.18)
Routes
3.21
1
Coron Bay (11°54′N, 120°08′E) may be approached
from the W by three routes, namely the channels N and S
of West Nalaut Island (3.12), or via the channel between
Popototan Island (3.25) and Galoc Island (3.26).
Topography
3.22
1
The NW entrance to Coron Bay lies between the S coast
of Busuanga Island and the N coast of Culion Island.
About 40 islands encumber the passage but deep water
surrounds the majority with least depths of 22 m (12 fm) in
the main channel. In several places the channel is only
7 cables wide.
Directions
Passage north of West Nalaut Island
3.23
1
From a position 9 cables NE of West Nalaut Island the
line of bearing 118°, of the summit of North Malbinchilao
Island (12°01′⋅4N, 119°53′⋅4E), ahead, leads ESE, passing
(with positions from North Malbinchilao Island):
NNE of West Nalaut Island (6 miles WNW) (3.12),
thence:
2
SSW of East Nalaut Island (4 miles NW), with two
peaks of almost equal height, steep, rugged and
CHAPTER 3
76
rocky. There is some vegetation. It is surrounded
by a coral reef. Thence:
Clear of a shoal (3 miles WNW), with a depth of
13 m (42 ft) over it, thence:
3
SSW of Maltatayoc Island (1 miles NW), the E end
of which is sandy and the W end steep and rocky.
North Cay and South Cay lie 1 mile and 6 cables
N of Maltatayoc Island. A reef, with a depth of
1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it, connects the two cays. Thence:
4
SSW of a patch (1 miles WNW) with a depth of
16⋅5 m (54 ft) over it.
5
From this position the track leads E, passing:
N of North Malbinchilao Island,, lying 3 cables NE of
South Malbinchilao Island to which it is joined by
a drying reef. There are several boulders from 1 to
11 m (3 to 36 ft) high standing on this reef. Its
coast consists of rocky points with sandy beaches.
And:
6
S of Dicilingan Island (1 miles N), which is heavily
wooded and partly cultivated. The SW end of the
island is steep and rocky; the E side is fringed
with mangroves. An islet, 66 m (215 ft) high, lies
on a drying reef on the N side of Dicilingan
Island, and an islet, 19 m (63 ft) high, stands on
the drying reef and foul ground extending
3 cables from the NE extremity of Dicilingan
Island. Reefs, awash, lie 7 cables N and 5 cables
W of the island.
3.24
1
From this position the track leads ESE passing (with
positions from Pass Island (12°00′N, 119°55′E)):
NE of North Malbinchilao Island (2 miles NW) and
Rat Island, separated by a narrow, tortuous channel
with a least depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft) in it, and:
SW of Malcatop Island (2 miles N), partly
cultivated and fringed on its E side with mangrove
and a coral reef, thence:
2
SW of East Malcatop Island (1 miles N), covered
with mangroves and fringed by a narrow drying
reef, separated from Malcatop Island by a narrow
channel, with a least depth of 16⋅5 m (54 ft) in it,
thence:
NE of a drying reef (1 miles NW), on which lie
some rocks, 1 to 2 m (3 to 5 ft) high.
3
From this position the track continues SE for about
8 cables to a position NNW of Pass Island, rocky and steep
with barren cliffs along the W shore, the E side being low
and wooded with a stretch of beach. The fringing reef
extends 2 cables NE from the E end of the island.
Passage south of West Nalaut Island
3.25
1
From a position S of West Nalaut Island (3.12) the track
leads ESE, passing (with positions from Pass Island
(12°00′N, 119°55′E)):
2
NNE of Popototan Island (4 miles W), home to a few
fishermen. A drying spit extends 1 miles WSW
with two islets, one of which is 40 m (130 ft) high,
and a rock, 3 m (10 ft) high, lie at its extremity. A
rock, 5 m (16 ft) high, lies on a drying reef close
N of the island and a coral patch with a depth of
12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, lies 6 cables NW of this
rock. Thence:
3
SSW of Mangenguay Island (3 miles WNW), sandy,
rock-strewn beaches fringed with a prominent cliff
at its W end. a rock lies on the NW part of the
fringing reef. Thence:
SSW of South Malbinchilao Island (2 miles NW),
steep and rocky on the W side and fringed with
mangroves and a sandy beach on the E side,
thence:
4
SSW of an islet (2 miles WNW), lies on shoal
ground extending 4 cables SSE from South
Malbinchilao Island. Above and below-water rocks
extend 2 cables W from this islet.
5
The track then leads E, passing:
N of Napula Island (2 miles W) (3.26), thence:
S of a drying reef (1 miles NW), on which lie some
rocks, 1 to 2 m (3 to 5 ft) high.
The track then leads to a position about 8 cables NNW
of Pass Island (3.24).
Passage between Popototan Island and Galoc Island
3.26
1
There are no specific directions for this channel. The
track leads generally ENE, passing (with positions from
Pass Island (12°00′N, 119°55′E)):
SSE of Popototan Island (4 miles W) (3.25), and:
NNW of Galoc Island (4 miles WSW) (3.26), close
off the NW extremity of Culion Island (3.8), is
part of the Culion Leper Colony (3.30). It is
fringed by a coral reef. The channel between is
encumbered with numerous reefs and is not
recommended. An above-water rock lies 5 cables
SSW of the SW extremity of Galoc Island. A
shoal, with a depth of 7⋅6 m (25 ft) over it, lies
7 cables SE of the S extremity. Thence:
2
NNW of Napula Island (2 miles W), connected to
Culion Island by a drying coral reef.
The track then joins the inner channel at a position
about 8 cables NNW of Pass Island.
Inner channel
(continued from 3.21 and 3.22)
3.27
1
From a position about 8 cables NNW of Pass Island
(3.24) the track leads E, passing (with positions from Pass
Island (12°00′N, 119°55′E)):
N of Lajo Island, separated from Pass Island by a
strait 5 cables wide, in the middle of which lies a
shoal, with a depth of 7 m (24 ft) over it. The
island is densely wooded and fringed by a narrow
reef. A ruined pier lies on the N side of the E end.
And:
2
S of Calumbuyan Island (1 miles NE), densely
wooded and fringed by a narrow reef. There is a
ruined pier on its SE side.
3
From this position the track leads to a position about
5 cables N of Darab Island (2 miles E) from whence it
leads SE passing (with positions from Manglet Island
(11°59′N, 119°59′E)):
4
NE of Darab Island (1 mile NW), and Dibu Island. In
1966 a ruined pier stood on the N shore of Darab
Island. Between these two islets there is a rock
awash. Thence:
NE of Manglet Island, (3 miles ESE), summits at
both E and W ends, it is steep-to on all sides,
thence:
5
NE of Marily (Marili) Island (5 miles SE), separated
Manglet Island by a channel 5 cables in width, it is
the largest of the islands in this passage. It has a
deeply indented coastline with a narrow
surrounding reef. There is a conspicuous white
sand beach on its E extremity. Thence:
CHAPTER 3
77
6
SW of Lusong Island (5 miles E), 1 miles long
with peaks at each end, its lies contiguously with
Busuanga Island on a narrow coral isthmus. An
islet lies close to its SE extremity together with a
dangerous wreck (mast) and a drying reef close by.
Tide-rips occur around the SE cape. Santa Monica
Island lies 1 mile NE. Thence:
7
NE of Naglayan Island (7 miles SE), and Tending
Island, 5 cables SW separated by a deep channel,
thence:
SW of Tangat Island, (9 miles E), the W coast fringed
with mangroves and fronted by a coral reef; the E
coast rocky with steep, barren cliffs, and:
8
SW of Malpandon Island, (10 miles E). An isolated
rock awash lies 6 cables SW of the N extremity of
Tangat Island. Thence:
9
NE of Chindonan Island, (9 miles SE), the SE-most
of the islands of this passage, heavily wooded and
surrounded by a coral reef. A coral spit extends
WNW from the N side, on which lies Cacayaren
Islet. Thence:
10
SW of Apo Island, (10 miles E), contiguous with
Busuanga Island (3.8). The lower slopes are grass
covered, fringed with mangroves and fronted by a
coral reef. Dibatunan (Batunan) Island is
contiguous with Apo Island on a drying reef.
11
The track then leads into Coron Bay.
Small craft
Concepcion
3.28
1
Description. Concepcion (12°03′N, 119°58′E) is a small
settlement standing on the E side of the mouth of Kiwit
River in a bay encumbered with drying reefs and
submerged rocks. The bay is fronted by Tantangon Island
covered with mangroves. A boat landing dries at LW.
2
Directions. Concepcion can be approached from the S,
passing (with positions from Calumbuyan Island (12°01′N,
119°56′E)):
E of Calumbuyan Island (3.24), thence:
W of the entrance (2 miles ENE) to Dipuyoy River
(3.26), thence:
E of Dicoyan Island (5 cables N), densely wooded
and fringed by a reef. A ruined pier is situated on
the SE shore.
3
Useful mark:
School house with a galvanised iron roof prominent
from seaward but the church is obscured by trees.
Dipuyoy River
3.29
1
Description. Dipuyoy River (12°02′N, 120°00′E) flows
into the head of a bay 2 miles ENE of Calumbuyan Island.
There are depths from 7 to 15 m (24 to 49 ft) in the outer
part of this bay. A dangerous wreck (mast) lies in the
entrance to the bay and a rock, with a depth of less than
1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, lies 2 cables NNE of the entrance. The
ruins of a wooden pier are situated in a cove on the N side
of the bay. Three other ruined piers lie on the E side of the
bight.
CULION ISLAND — W SIDE
General information
Chart 3807
Route
3.30
1
From a position W of West Nalaut Island (12°03′N,
119°47′E) (3.12), the route leads S for 23 miles to the
vicinity of 11°40′N, 119°35′E, off the W entrance to
Linapacan Strait.
Topography
3.31
1
The W coast of Culion Island trends SSE towards
Dicabaito Island (11°38′N, 119°58′E) (3.41), at the entrance
to Linapacan Strait. It is steep-to with rocky projections.
Several small bays indent the coast and a coral reef extends
4 cables offshore.
Culion Reservation
3.32
1
Culion Island has a leper colony which extends to the
smaller islands of Marily, Chindonan, Dunaun, Tambon,
Tampel, Alava, Galoc, Lamud, Burgur, Dibanca and
Inlulucut, all located in the channel between Culion and
Busuanga. It is unlawful for any person to land in the
reservation without permission from the Chief of the Culion
Leper Colony, Bureau of Health.
Principal marks
3.33
1
Landmarks:
Mount Oltaloro (11°44′N, 119°02′E), the highest point
of Culion Island standing near the SE end.
Mount Maus (11°45′N, 119°59′E), which can be
identified by twin peaks when viewed from SW.
Directions
(continued from 3.11)
3.34
1
From the position W of West Nalaut Island (12°03′N,
119°47′E) (3.12) the track leads S, passing (with positions
from West Nalaut Island):
W of Popototan Island (4 miles SE) (3.25), thence:
W of Galoc Island (6 miles SE) (3.26), thence:
W of Culion Island (10 miles SE) off which there are
a number of shoals, with least depths of 8⋅5 m
(28 ft) over them, lying up to 2 miles SE of
Galoc Island. A bank with a depth of 7⋅6 m (25 ft)
over its outer end, extends 7 cables NW from a
point 7 miles SE from the same position. Thence:
2
W of Saddle Rock (18 miles SSE) which fronts the
entrance to Halsey Harbour (3.35).
The track then leads to a position in the vicinity of
11°40′N, 119°35′E off the W entrance to Linapacan Strait.
(Directions continue for Linapacan Strait at 3.44 and for Linapacan Island — W side at 3.93)
Halsey Harbour
Chart 3819
General information
3.35
1
Description. Halsey Harbour (11°46′N, 119°58′E) is the
only safe anchorage on the W side of Culion Island. It
extends 4 miles NE and opens to a full width of
2 miles at the inner end. Both the entrance and the
harbour are restricted by a number of islands, islets and
CHAPTER 3
78
coral reefs. The shores of Halsey Harbour are steep with
depths of 26 to 48 m (14 to 26 fm) in the fairway.
2
The head of the harbour branches into North arm and
East Arm both encumbered with reefs and islets including
Gage Island, Iguana Island, Alligator Island, and an
unnamed island 20 m (65 ft) high, lying close N of Iguana
Island.
3
South Arm, which is narrow and tortuous, is entered
between the SW extremity of Rhodes Island (11°45′N,
119°57′E) and a point on Culion Island, 2 cables SW. An
islet, 41 m (136 ft) high, lies in mid-channel 3 cables
within the entrance.
4
Approach and entry. Halsey Harbour is approached
from the W and entered through Research Channel.
Halsey Harbour may also be entered through South
Channel which is only cable wide between shoals on
either side.
Directions
3.36
1
Research Channel. The N coast of Rhodes Island forms
the S side of Research Channel. From a position WSW of
Saddle Rock (11°46′N, 119°53′E), the track leads W
through Research Channel, which is 8 cables wide at its
narrowest part but the navigable channel is reduced to
5 cables width by shoals on either side, passing:
2
S of that rock which is fringed by a reef, having the
appearance of a saddle when viewed from N or S.
Two rocks awash, lie 4 cables ESE of Saddle Rock
and another lies 1 cables S.
3
From this position the track leads E in mid-channel,
passing:
N of Alava Island (11°44′N, 119°56′E), rocks, 15 and
18 m (50 and 60 ft) high, lie on a reef extending
3 cables S from the S extremity. Foul ground
extends 1 cables W from its NW extremity and
includes some rocks awash. A spit extends
3 cables NE from the N point of the island.
4
The track then leads NE towards North Arm and East
Arm. Small vessels may enter North Arm through the
narrow channel between Gage Island and Iguana Island
with a least depth of 16⋅5 m (54 ft) in the fairway, and
Alligator Island. All these islands are steep-to and fringed
with coral.
5
South Channel. South Channel, between Alava Island
and the mainland, should be entered in mid-channel leading
to the anchorage, avoiding the rocks which lie close E of
the S extremity of Alava Island. The reefs on both sides
can be clearly seen in favourable light. There is a least
depth of 24 m (13 fm) in the fairway.
6
South Arm, which is narrow and tortuous, is entered
between the SW extremity of Rhodes Island and a point on
Culion Island 2 cables SW. An islet, 41 m (136 ft) high, lies
in mid-channel 3 cables inside the entrance.
Anchorages
3.37
1
Halsey Harbour, a designated typhoon anchorage, is
protected from all winds. Anchorages exist in depths from
27 to 33 m (15 to 18 fm), mud, 4 cables SE of Gage Island
(11°47′N, 119°58′E) in depths of 29 m (16 fm), and
4 cables N of the summit of Gage Island in a depth of
24 m (13 fm), mud.
Small craft
3.38
1
Anchorage exists in a depth of 26 m (14 fm) in the
centres of both the N and E arms.
Small craft
Buluang
3.39
1
Description. Buluang (12°14′N, 119°52′E), a small
village, is situated at the head of a cove 5 miles N of
Detobet Point (3.13).
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage for small vessels exists in a break in the
coastal reef abreast of Buluang.
LINAPACAN STRAIT
General information
Charts 3807, 3819, 3820, 3483
Route
3.40
1
From the vicinity of 11°40′N, 119°35′E off the W
entrance to Linapacan Strait, the route leads E for about
15 miles, thence ESE for a farther 30 miles through the
strait to a position NE of Nangalao Island (11°27′N,
120°11′E).
Topography
3.41
1
Seven miles in length and, at its narrowest, 3 miles wide
Linapacan Strait is the deepest, widest and shortest route
passing S of the Calamian Islands from the South China
Sea into the Sulu Sea. It is bounded to the N by Dicabaito
Island (3.44), close off the S extremity of Culion Island
and to the S by Dicapululan Island (11°35N, 119°55′E).
Depths
2
There are depths of between 50 and 100 m (28 and
55 fm).
Tidal streams
3.42
1
In Linapacan Strait the tidal streams attain rates of up to
3 kn. Tide-rips are experienced throughout the strait.
Principal marks
3.43
1
Landmarks:
Malubutglubut Island (11°30′N, 119°41′E), conical
when viewed from the N, grass covered and partly
wooded.
Dicabaito Island (11°39′N, 119°58′E) (3.44).
Mount Oltaloro (11°44′N, 120°02′E) (3.33).
Mount Maus (11°45′N, 119°59′E) (3.33).
CHAPTER 3
79
Directions
(continued from 3.32)
3.44
1
From the vicinity of 11°40′N, 119°35′E the track leads
E, passing (with positions from Dicabaito Light (11°38′N,
119°35′E)):
N of Base Rock (19 miles WSW), thence:
N of a rock (18 miles WSW), 5⋅5 m (18 ft) high
with another rock 4 m (13 ft) high, both lying
close N of Malubutglubut Island (3.43), thence:
N of a rock (15 miles WSW), 27 m (89 ft) high.
2
From this position the track leads ESE passing:
NNE of Dimanglet Island (10 miles SW), two peaks
separated by a low isthmus. of which the red cliffs
of the W and higher peak are conspicuous when
approaching from the W. A rock, 24 m (80 ft)
high, lies 7 cables N of the island with a rock
awash, 4 cables NW of it. A coral shoal, with a
depth of 10⋅5 m (34 ft) over it, lies 2 cables ENE
of the 24 m rock. Thence:
3
NNE of Beacon Rocks (7 miles W), separated from
Pangaldauan Island by a deep channel 8 cables
wide. The island, surrounded by a narrow coral
reef, is rocky with conspicuous cliffs below which
numerous boulders are scattered. A coral shoal,
with a depth of 4⋅9 m (16 ft) over it, lies 1 mile W
of the island. Thence:
4
NNE of Dicapululan Island (3 miles SW), forming
the S side of the narrows, thence:
NNE of Binalabag Island (3 miles SSW), steep-to
with shoals extending 3 cables from its NE side,
over which are depths of 11 m (36 ft), and:
5
SSW of Dicabaito Island (3.45),
NNE of Torres Reef with a depth of 7⋅7 m (25 ft)
over it. Debogso Island, lies 1 miles NW of the
reef. Thence:
6
NNE of Sabino Reef (8 miles S), with a depth of
8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it, thence:
7
SSW of Canipo Island (8 miles ENE) (3.72), thence:
SSW of Tres Reyes (8 miles ENE), a group of four
large rocks with rounded summits, which should
be given a wide berth, thence:
8
NNE of Basco Reef (10 miles SE), and Alipio Reef,
thence:
SSW of Bache Reef (14 miles ESE), a coral head
with a depth of 4⋅6 m (15 ft) over it, thence:
NNE of Loreto Reef (15 miles SE), thence:
9
The track then leads to a position NE Nangalao Island
(11°27′N, 120°11′E) (3.65), 9 cables NW of which is a
shoal, with a depth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it.
10
Useful marks:
Ariara Island (11°32′N, 119°53′E).
Bolina Island (11°35′N, 119°52′E).
Bulawan Point, (11°31′N, 119°49′E).
Damancal Island (11°33′N, 119°53′E).
Dimansig Island (11°33′N, 119°54′E).
Gued Islet (11°31′N, 119°52′E).
Hidong Island (11°30′N, 119°55′E).
Inapupan Island (11°33′N, 119°51′E).
Malbatan Island (11°32′N, 119°55′E).
Manlegad Island (11°33′N, 119°53′E).
Mayokok Island (11°30′N, 119°55′E).
Bacang Bank lying 1 mile E of Hidong Island.
(Directions continue for Linapacan Island — SE side
at 3.128 and in reverse for Culion Island — E side at 3.65)
Anchorages
Dicabaito Island
3.45
1
Description. Dicabaito Island (11°39′N, 119°58′E) is
separated from the S extremity of Culion Island by
Dicabaito Channel with depths from 12 to 18 m (39 to
60 ft) in the fairway. A light (no description) is exhibited
from the S end of the island. Titangcob Island, lies on a
drying reef on its N side.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage, sheltered, approached through Dicabaito
Channel, exists in a small bay on the N side in depths
from 13 to 17 m (42 to 56 ft), sand.
San Miguel
3.46
1
Description. San Miguel village (11°30′N, 119°52′E)
lies on the NE extremity of Linapacan Island overlooking
Patoyo Island. Two peaks surrounded by a wide coastal
plain, lie 1 mile E. The channel is deep and free of
dangers. Tide-rips exist 1 mile E and 7 cables S of Patoyo
Island.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage, sheltered from SW winds, exists off San
Miguel.
Small craft
Binalabag Island
3.47
1
The S side of Binalabag Island (11°35′N, 119°56′E)
(3.44) forms a bay which provides a partially sheltered
anchorage.
BUSUANGA ISLAND — NORTH−EAST SIDE
General information
Charts 3807, 3819
Route
3.48
1
From a position NW of Northwest Rock (12°25′N,
119°53′E), the track leads ESE for about 40 miles to a
position off Mataya Reef (12°01′N, 120°22′E).
Topography
3.49
1
From Calauit Island (3.8) on the NW corner of
Busuanga Island the coast trends ESE to Alonon Point
(12°04′N, 120°20′E) (3.59), 30 miles SE. It is indented with
several bays and is fringed with coral reefs extending, in
places, to 5 cables offshore.
2
A number of islands, islets and shoals lie close to the
coast. Among them Dimaquiat Island (12°14′N, 120°05′E),
and Malpagalen Island, 1 mile ESE, lying on the same reef
which extends 2 miles on an ESE−WNW axis. There is a
deep water channel 2 miles wide between it and Diboyoyan
Island.
3
Apart from a few prominent mountain peaks above
305 m (1000 ft) and two low lying flood plains the W part
CHAPTER 3
80
of the Busuanga N coast is quite featureless. The E part
mountainous with several peaks over 500 m (1640 ft).
About 10 miles offshore an archipelago of small islands
runs parallel to the coast.
4
Cabilauan Island (12°10′N, 120°10′E), lies in a bay
formed by the Coconongan Peninsular and the promontory
of Port Caltom. The island and its off-lying dangers extend
6 miles parallel to and 2 miles off the coast. Dicapadiac,
Dimalanta, Lauit, Liatui and Hadyibulac Islands all lie in
the bay with a number of dangerous shoals.
Depths
3.50
1
Close inshore on the N coast several dangerous shoals
exist as shown on the chart but a track passing between
Coconogon Point (12°14′N, 120°13′E) and the offshore
archipelago has depths between 70 and 135 m (38 and
74 fm).
Principal marks
3.51
1
Landmarks:
Dimipac (Dimipak) Island (12°22′N, 119°54′E) (3.12).
Coconongon Point (12°14′N, 120°13′E), rises sheer,
conical and wooded to the summit of Mount
Coconongon.
Mount Minangas, (12°07′N, 120°12′E), is the highest
and N-most of three peaks fairly close together. It
is the first peak to be seen when approaching
Busuanga Island from the E.
Directions
Northwest Rock to Coconogon Point
3.52
1
From a position NW of Northwest Rock (12°25′N,
119°53′E) the track leads SE, passing (with positions from
Dimipac Island (12°22′N, 119°54′E)):
NE of Northwest Rock (3 miles NW) (3.9), thence:
NE of Sail Rocks (7 miles N) (3.13), thence:
NE of Dimipac Island (3.12), thence:
2
SW of Colocoto Rocks (9 miles NE) consists of four
precipitous black rocks, the highest 65 m (214 ft)
high, all steep sided and undercut by wave action.
A coral shoal, with a depth of 14 m (46 ft) over it,
lies 2 miles SW of Colocoto Rocks. Thence:
3
NE of Tanobon Island (3 miles ESE), densely
wooded. A reef on which there are rocks 7 m
(22 ft) high, extends 7 cables NE. A rock, 1⋅2 m
(4 ft) high, lies 1 miles W and:
NE of Inagtapan Point (3 miles SSE) the E
termination of a ridge extending SW across the N
extremity of Busuanga Island, thence:
4
SW of Dumunpalit Island (12 miles E), wooded and
steep-to with a reef upon which numerous rocks
abound. This reef extends up to 4 cables SE of the
island. A bank with a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) over
it, extends 4 cables NW from the island. Thence:
5
NE of Diboyoyan Island (12 miles SE), rocky and
barren with a small islet standing on the coral reef
extending from the NW end, thence:
6
SW of Nanga Islands (21 miles E), two uninhabited,
wooded islands lying on a rock encumbered reef
Malpagalen Island from NE (3.49)
(Original dated between 1996−2003)
(Photograph − Kevin R. Hamdorf)
CHAPTER 3
81
which extends 5 cables SE from the S island. A
rock, 29 m (95 ft) high, lies 1 mile N of N island.
Two coral shoals with depths of 14⋅6 m (48 ft)
over them, lie 3 miles W of the N island. Thence:
7
SW of Camanga Island (21 miles ESE) (Kamanga
Island on Chart 3807), uninhabited, rocky and
wooded, lying in the centre of a bow shaped coral
reef, encumbered with large rocks, which extends
5 cables either side of the island.
8
The track then leads to a position NE of Coconogon
Point (20 miles SE). A rock, 6 m (20 ft) high, lies
9 cables NW of the point.
Coconogon Point to Mataya Reef
3.53
1
From a position NE of Coconogon Point (12°14′N,
120°13′E) the track leads SE, passing (with positions from
Coconogon Point):
NE of Sinul Island (1 miles SE), lying on the outer
end of a reef extending 1 mile N from Busuanga
Island, thence:
2
SW of Tara Island (9 miles NE), the upper slopes are
brown and barren but in the rainy season acquire a
green lushness. On the lower slopes scattered areas
of cultivation lie amid thick bamboo jungle. A reef
extends 5 cables N from the N point of the island
a prominent rock on it. Another rock lies 1 miles
SSE and 2 cables offshore. Between the two are
several dangerous rocks awash. A shoal with a
depth of 10⋅1 m (33 ft) over it, lies 1 miles N of
the island. The W side of the island is mainly
bordered by a sandy beach whilst the E side is
rocky with steep bluffs. And:
3
NE of Depagal Island (4 miles SE), and Napuscud
Island, lie close along the E shore of the
peninsular terminating with Coconogon Point. The
channel between Depagal Island and Busuanga
Island is foul. One mile E of Depagal Island lies a
shoal with a depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it. Thence:
4
SW of Lagat Island (8 miles ENE), steep, eroded
cliffs show red or yellow through sparse
vegetation. It is surrounded by a narrow coral reef.
A dangerous shoal lies off the S side of the island
and a shoal, with a depth of 2⋅3 m (7 ft) over it,
lies 7 cables N of this island. Thence:
5
SW of Bantac Island (10 miles E), lying
contiguously with Tara Island and separated from
it by a channel 2 miles wide with depths of 31 m
(17 fm) in it, though both sides have dangerous
shallows extend 5 cables offshore. A drying reef
3 cables in length joins Calanhayuan Island to
Bantac Island. Both islands are dark in colour and
wooded. A light is exhibited from the S part of
Bantac Island. Two detached rocks, 12 and 18 m
(40 and 59 ft) high, lie close off the W side of
Bantac Island and 1 miles S of them Rock Island
9 m (30 ft) high. Lubutglubut Island lies 8 cables
farther S. Thence:
6
SW of Butulan Rocks (11 miles ESE), which consist
of two brown, barren rocks, lying 1 miles S of
Lubutglubut Island.
7
From this position the track leads S, passing:
E of a bank (11 miles SE), with a least depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, fronting the approach to
Lungaon village (3.58), thence:
E of Dinaran Island (14 miles E), wooded except at
its summit, the E and N sides of which are fringed
with reefs which extend 8 cables NNE.
8
The track then leads to a position E of Mataya Reef
(15 miles SE), An extensive drying reef of sand and coral
lies E and S of Dinaran Island. There is a narrow, deep
passage between them with dangerous shoals at the S end.
Mataya Island lies 1 miles SE of Dinaran Island. A shoal,
with a depth of 2⋅8 m (9 ft) over it, lies 1 miles SSE of
Mataya Island. It is recommended that vessels remain at
least 2 miles off when passing Mataya Reef.
(Directions continue at 3.65)
Anchorages and harbours
Minuit
3.54
1
Description. Minuit anchorage (12°15′N, 120°01′E) is a
small open bight with depths of 9 to 22 m (30 ft to 12 fm).
It is exposed to N winds but it is partially protected by
some islets, 37 to 65 m (120 to 212 ft) high, situated
1 miles E of Minuit.
There is a ruined wooden pier located in the SW of the
anchorage. The village serves as the headquarters of a
hacienda from which small quantities of copra are exported.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Port Caltom
3.55
1
Description. Port Caltom (12°11′N, 120°06′E) is entered
3 miles S of Malpagalen Island (3.49). It is a sheltered inlet
protected from all but SE winds. A long, narrow, coral reef
extends 4 cables from the head of the port towards the
middle of the entrance with a deep passage on either side.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Useful mark:
A conical brown hill, 173 m (567 ft) high.
Anchorage exists on the N side of the reef in a depth
of 31 m (17 fm).
3
Small craft may anchor inside the entrance to
Pangauaran River 8 cables S of Port Calton in depths from
11 to 20 m (36 ft to 11 fm) mud.
Tara Island
3.56
1
Anchorage exists on the W side of Tara Island
(12°17′N, 120°22′E), in a depth of 31 m (17 fm). In 1954,
a stone pier, partly ruined, was situated in a break of the
reef which also provides good landing.
Minangas Bay
3.57
1
Description. Minangas Bay (12°08′N, 120°15′E) is
entered SE of Napuscud Island (3.53). The entrance can be
identified from a distance by several long reddish-brown
scars where small landslips have occurred, on the E end of
Napuscud Island. The S shore of the bay is fringed with
coral reefs which extend up to 3 cables offshore.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. A patch with a depth of 2⋅3 m (7 ft) over it,
lies in the middle of Minangas Bay 5 cables W of the S
entrance point. A shoal, with a depth of 0⋅5 m (1 ft) over
it, lies 3 cables S of the SW extremity of Napuscud Island.
Both these dangers, which are easily distinguished in
favourable light, may be avoided by keeping 1 cables off
the N shore.
3
Anchorage exists midway between the SW side of
Napuscud Island and Busuanga Island in a depth of 27 m
(15 fm) mud.
CHAPTER 3
82
Lungaon
3.58
1
Description. Lungaon (12°05′N, 120°20′E) is a large
village and fishing headquarters lying on the N shore of a
bay 6 miles SW of Napuscud Island. A shoal, with a depth
of 3⋅7 m (12 ft), over it lies 1 miles offshore. It trends
SSE and is contiguous with Mataya Reef (3.53). The
entrance channel to Port Borac lies between this reef and
Busuanga Island. There is a 3 m (10 ft) shoal in the middle
of this channel 5 cables E of Alonan Point.
Port Borac
3.59
1
Description. Port Borac (12°02′N, 120°20′E) (Port
Borak on Chart 3807) is situated 7 miles SW of Minangas
Bay and W of Dinaran Island (3.53). It is entered 1 mile
SSW of Alonon Point (12°04′N, 120°20′E) which consists
of a succession of high cliffs fringed with coral. The inlet
is 2 cables wide at the entrance with depths from 24 m
(13 fm) decreasing to 6⋅7 m (22 ft) in the middle of the
narrowest part. The inner basin 5 cables long is filled with
mud flats, especially on the W side at the river mouth.
2
Directions. A beacon (metal pipe, 3 m high) marks a
1⋅8 m (6 ft) patch 5 cables S of the N entrance. The
entrance channel is marked by beacons on both sides. All
beacons are reported to be ruined.
3
Berths. There are two abandoned piers at Port Borac.
The N pier is 36 m long with a depth of 2 m alongside; the
other is in ruins.
Small craft
Aran
3.60
1
Description. Aran village (12°07′N, 120°10′E) lies
1 miles SE of Liatui Island. There is a ruined pier. A
beacon (metal pipe, 2⋅4 m high) marks a 0⋅9 m (3 ft) shoal
5 cables NE of this pier. Similar beacons mark the shore
edge E and W of the pier.
MATAYA REEF TO NANGALAO ISLAND
General information
Charts 3807, 3819, 3820, 3483
Route
3.61
From a position E of Mataya Reef (12°01′N, 120°22′E)
the route leads SSW to a position NE of Nangalao Island
(11°27′N, 120°11′E). The mariner is referred to the general
information at 3.5.
Topography
3.62
Coron Island (11°55′N, 120°14′E), separated from the S
coast of Busuanga Island by Coran Passage, is high, rocky,
and precipitous. Ten miles long, the E coast trends S and
from a distance the peaks appear as separate islands. The
Coron Island (3.62)
(Original dated between 1996−2003)
(Photograph − Kevin R. Hamdorf)
CHAPTER 3
83
highest peak, 613 m (2010 ft) high, situated in the middle
of the W coast is clearly visible from the E. There are
several unprotected bays on the E side used only by
transient fishermen. The central part of this coast is
constricted by extensive dangerous reefs.
Depths
3.63
1
Inshore routes along the E coast of the Calamian Islands
have depths from 65 to 100 m (35 to 55 fm) but care must
be exercised to avoid the numerous shoals in the area.
Principal marks
3.64
1
Landmarks:
Delian Island (11°50′N, 120°19′E), rocky, from which
a spit extends 4 cables NE and an islet, 38 m
(126 ft) high, lies off its S extremity. A coral
shoal, with a depth of 6⋅7 m (22 ft) over it, lies
1 miles ENE of the NE extremity. A light (no
description) is exhibited from the S extremity of
Delian Island.
Directions
(continued from 3.53)
3.65
1
From a position E of Mataya Reef (12°01′N, 120°22′E)
the track leads SSW, passing (with positions from Delian
Island (11°50′N, 120°19′E)):
ESE of a shoal (10 miles NNE), with a least depth of
2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it, lying off the SE side of
Mataya Reef. Bocao Point, the E-most point of
Busuanga Island, is situated 3 miles W of this
shoal. A reef extends 2 cables SE from this point
upon which lie two rocky islets, 14 m (45 ft) and
15 m (49 ft) high. And:
2
WNW of Framjee Bank (15 miles NE) Several
banks, with depths from 5⋅5 to 18 m (18 to 60 ft),
lie 11 miles ESE of this bank. Thence:
ESE of Dibatuc Island (7 miles N), sparsely
vegetated and uninhabited, the island forms a good
landmark for entering Coron Passage (3.71),
thence:
3
ESE of an isolated shoal (4 miles NNE), with a
depth of 3 m (10 ft) over it, lying E of several
reefs and dangerous rocks which fringe the E coast
of Coron Island, thence:
Clear of Alpha Shoal (4 miles E), and Magallanes
Shoal 3 miles farther E, thence:
4
ESE of Delian Island (3.64), thence:
WNW of Narvaez Bank (7 miles ESE), thence:
ESE of Beta Shoal (7 miles S), and:
WNW of Aguirre Reef (16 miles ESE), coral,
thence:
5
ESE of a bank (9 miles WSW), with a depth of 11 m
(36 ft) over it, lying 4 miles ESE of Malposo
Island, which consists of two islets. The S and
larger is 90 m (294 ft) high, cone-shaped,
prominent and of reddish appearance. Thence:
WNW of a bank (13 miles SSE), with a depth of
12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, thence:
6
ESE of an isolated shoal (15 miles S), with a depth
of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it, on which a dangerous
wreck was reported (1975). Tuna Reef, lies
3 miles W of the wreck. Another isolated shoal,
with a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, lies 5 miles
ENE of the wreck. Thence:
7
WNW of a patch (20 miles SSE) with a depth of
9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it, lying 3 miles WSW of
Panay Bank.
8
From this position the track leads to a position NE of
Nangalao Island (24 miles SSW), three summits, the
highest, 232 m (760 ft) high, lies in its centre. The shore is
steep and rocky. Tubug Island is joined to its S extremity
by a narrow isthmus.
(Directions continue at 3.128)
CORON BAY AND EAST APPROACHES
General information
Chart 3819, Philippines Chart 4351 (see 1.18)
Description
3.66
1
Coron Bay (11°54′N, 120°08′E) is formed between
Culion Island, Busuanga Island and Coron Island and is
triangular in shape. Around the shores of the bay there are
anchorages at Port Uson (3.77), on the N side, and
harbours at Port Culion (3.81), on the E side, and at Coron
Harbour (3.73) in the E entrance to Port Uson.
Routes
3.67
1
Routes for entering Coron Bay are described as follows:
Main entrance (3.70) lying between Calis Point
(11°49′N, 120°16′E) and Guintungauan Island,
3 miles SW.
Coron Passage (3.71), leading between the N end of
Coron Island (11°55′N, 120°14′E) and the SE
extremity of Busuanga Island.
2
Tampel Pass (3.72), an inshore route leading from
Linapacan Strait.
North−west entrance (3.20) passing between Culion
Island and Busuanga Island.
Topography
3.68
1
The N side of Coron Bay is fringed with islands
fronting Port Uson. The SE coast of Busuanga Island is
dominated by Mount Tundalara (12°02′N 120°14′E). The
peak is often shrouded in cloud. It is grass covered above
the 300 m (1000 ft) contour. Below this level the slopes
and foothills are heavily wooded. They descend to a
narrow alluvial plain, heavily wooded, and fringed by a
wide coral reef.
2
The NE shore of Coron Island is high and steep-to with
deep water to within 1 cable of the shoreline. West of
Limaa Point the coast trends SW and is indented with
numerous bays some of which have conspicuous sandy
beaches.
3
The W coast of Coron Island between Bulolo Point in
the N and Calis Point in the S trends SSE 10 miles. The
shoreline is regular with few inlets or bays. Barren cliffs
rise vertically from deep water. The narrow reef barely is
steep-to.
4
The SW side of Coron Bay is encumbered with
numerous islands and islets the largest of which are
Bulalacao Island (3.70), Chindonan Island (3.27) and
Tambon Island, lying 5 miles NW of Bulalacao Island.
Dibanka (Dibanca) Islands a small group lie between
Tambon Island and the Culion coast.
CHAPTER 3
84
Pilotage
3.69
1
Coron Passage, the NE entrance to Coron Bay, and
Tampel Pass should only be attempted with local
knowledge. Pilots may be obtained from Manila.
Directions
Main entrance
3.70
1
From a position on the coastal route (3.65), SE of
Delian Island (11°50′N, 120°19′E) the track leads ENE
passing (with positions from Delian Island (11°51′N,
120°18′E)):
SSW of Narvaez Bank (7 miles ESE) (3.65), thence:
NNE of Beta Shoal (7 miles S) (3.65), thence:
SSW of Delian Island (3.65), thence:
NNE of a shoal (7 miles SSW), with a depth of 4⋅6 m
(15 ft) over it.
2
From this position the track leads NW, passing (with
positions from Calis Point (11°49′N, 120°15′E)):
NE of Guintungauan Island (3 miles SW),
surrounded by a drying coral reef, thence:
3
SW of Calis Point, the S extremity of Coron Island
deeply undercut by the sea, thence:
4
NE of Bulalacao Island (5 miles SW) (3.86), thence:
NE of a shoal (5 miles W), with a rock awash,
lying on the SE side of Tampel Pass, thence:
5
NE of a drying reef (7 miles WNW) which fronts the
NE side of Tampel Island, hilly and wooded. A
small bay is formed on the N side between Tampel
Island and Tambon Island, wherein lies Sina
(Sinandulan) Island. Thence:
6
SW of Coron Reef (6 miles NNW), awash, lying
1 miles off the W coast of Coron Island, thence:
NE of Animosa Reef (8 miles NW), awash, lying
1 miles ENE of Bayaca Island. A stranded wreck
lies on Animosa Reef. Bayaca Island, fronting the
NE side of Tambon Island, lies on a detached
coral reef. A patch of dangerous rocks lies 5 cables
SSE of Bayaca Island. Tambon Island is heavily
wooded.
7
From this position the track leads to a position, NE of
Piedra Blanca (9 miles NW) (2.9).
(Directions continue for Port Culion at 3.82)
Coron Passage
3.71
1
From a position on the coastal route (3.65), about
6 miles ESE of Dibatuc Island (11°58′N, 120°19′E) (3.65)
the track leads W, passing (with positions from Dibatuc
Island):
S of a shoal (4 miles ENE), with a least depth of
2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it, lying off the SE side of
Mataya Reef, thence:
N of an isolated shoal (3 miles SSE), with a depth
of 3 m (10 ft) over it, thence:
N of a bank (3 miles S), with a least depth of 2⋅1 m
(7 ft) over it.
2
The track then leads NW passing:
SW of Dibatuc Island, passable on either side, thence:
Between the SE coast of Busuanga Island and the NE
coast of Coron Island, favouring the NE side of
Coron Island, thence:
3
Round Limaa Point (4 miles WNW) at a distance of
not less than 0⋅7 cables. A shoal, with a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, lies in the fairway, 8 cables E
of Limaa Point. And:
S of Roja Point (4 miles WNW) from which
dangerous shoals extend up to 6 cables offshore E
of the point.
4
From this position the track leads SW, passing (with
positions from East Maquinit Island (11°59′N, 120°14′E)):
NW of East Maquinit Island, and:
SE of Maquinit Islands (5 cables WNW), two islets
joined to Roja Point by a drying reef, thence:
SE of Coron Point (8 cables W), thence:
5
SE of the entrance (1 miles W) to Coron Harbour
(3.73) which is encumbered with drying reefs and
an isolated shoal (1 miles WSW), with a depth
of 1⋅4 m (4 ft) over it, and:
NW of two islets (1 miles SW), 47 m (154 ft) and
29 m (95 ft) high, thence:
6
SE of a narrow coral reef (2 miles SW), awash,
extending 3 cables SSE from the SE extremity of
Uson Island, thence:
NW of Balolo Point (3 miles SW), a promontory
extending 7 cables N, thence:
7
SE of Cagbatan Island (3 miles WSW), surrounded
by an extensive coral reef. A stranded wreck,
position approximate, lies on the SW side of the
reef. Thence:
SE of Dimanglet Island (9 miles W), two prominent
hills, the higher one a good mark for entering the
bay.
8
From this position the track leads into Coron Bay.
Tampel Pass
3.72
1
From a position on the coastal route SE of Dicabaito
Island the track leads NNE in mid-channel passing (with
positions from Dicabaito Island (11°38′N, 119°59′E):
2
WNW of Tres Reyes Rocks (8 miles ESE) (3.44),
and:
ESE of Dicabaito Island (3.45), thence:
3
ESE of Dipalian Island (5 miles NE),and:
ESE of Calipipit Island (5 miles NE), rocky. A patch
with a depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over it, lies between
the N extremities of these islands. And:
WNW of Canipo Island, (8 miles E), steep-to with
high cliffs. Lapulapu Reef lies 2 miles SE of the
island.
4
From this position the track leads N passing:
W of Calumbagan Island (10 miles ENE), with a
cone shaped peak, and:
E of a bank (7 miles NE), on which there is a
dangerous rock, fronting Gorda Point, thence:
5
W of Ditaytayan Island (9 miles NE), irregular
coastline with three prominent hills surrounded by
a coral reef extending up to 3 cables offshore. One
mile E of the island lies Tres Marias Rocks,
consisting of three rocks of which the N and S
have similar elevations. They lie on a triangular
shaped reef. Mininlai (Mininlay) Island, lies
1 miles E of Tres Marias Rocks.
6
From this position the track leads NE, passing (with
positions from Dicalubuan Island (11°46′N, 120°08′E):
SE of a drying reef (3 miles SW), thence:
SE of a bank (2 miles WSW), with a least depth of
0⋅5 m (1 ft) over it, and:
7
SE of Guinlep Island (3 miles W), and Cheron
Island, lying 9 cables SSW and 7 cables SE,
respectively from Calitan Point (Kalitan Point on
CHAPTER 3
85
BA chart 3819). Several islets and dangers lie
between Calitan Point and Tampel Island. Thence:
NW of a shoal (1 mile SSW) with a dangerous rock
on it, and:
NW of Dicalubuan Island, thence:
SE of Malcapuya Island (1 mile NNW).
8
From this position the track leads through Tampel Pass,
8 cables wide between the reefs on either side, otherwise
clear of dangers in the fairway, passing:
NW of Malaroroi Islets (1 mile NNE), lying close off
Bulog Point, thence:
9
SE of Tampel Island (2 miles N) (3.70), thence:
NW of a shoal (2 miles NE), with a rock awash,
thence:
SE of a drying reef (3 miles NNE) which fronts the
NE side of Tampel Island.
10
From this position the track joins the main route leading
into Coron Bay.
Coron Harbour
General information
3.73
1
Position and function. Coron (12°00′N, 120°12′E), the
principal town of Busuanga Island, stands 1 miles NW of
Coron Point. There is extensive agriculture in the vicinity
and it is an important port of call for inter-island vessels.
Copra and manganese are exported.
2
Topography. Both sides of the harbour are hilly and
heavily wooded. On an extensive coral reef around the E
of Uson Island lies Cabiluaun Island, low and heavily
wooded. The NW end of Coron Harbour is bounded by
Baquit Island.
3
Approach and entry. Coron Harbour is approached
from Coron Passage between Coron Point and the E end of
Uson Island.
4
Traffic. In 1999 more than 53000 tonnes of cargo were
handled in the port from 1211 domestic vessels.
Local knowledge is required.
Storm warning signals are displayed at Coron (1.59).
Directions
3.74
1
Vessels entering the harbour should pass between Coron
Point and two isolated reefs awash in the entrance to the
harbour. North-west of them is a dangerous shoal with a
depth of 2⋅3 m (7 ft) over it.
There is a clear deep water approach of 8 cables to the
anchorage. The pier is approached through a narrow
passage from the anchorage marked by beacons.
2
Caution. Two stranded barges lie 40 m (131 ft) NW of
the pier. An obstruction, with a depth of 0⋅3 m (1 ft) over
it, lies 7 m (23 ft) SE of the pier head, and wrecks lie close
SE and NW of the pier head.
3
Useful marks:
Church spire (white) in the town.
Light exhibited from a yard-arm near the ice house
on the pier.
Light exhibited within the SE entrance to Coron
Harbour.
Berths
3.75
1
Anchorage exists 3 cables SE of the pier in depths from
18 to 22 m (60 ft to 12 fm) mud. It is constricted and
untenable in bad weather. A better protected anchorage
exists 1 mile W of Coron in depths from 11 to 13 m (36 to
42 ft), mud.
2
Berth. A partly ruined wooden pier 123 m long and
12 m wide. A rock causeway 149 m long and 6 m wide is
connected to this damaged pier. Controlling depth alongside
10 m. It is well fendered.
Port services
3.76
1
Other facilities: lighters obtained from Manila by prior
request; dispensary.
Supplies: no fresh water at the pier; limited provisions
and fuel.
Port Uson
General information
3.77
1
Description. Port Uson (12°00′N, 120°10′E) situated
between Uson Island and Busuanga Island is 4 miles in
length and about 1 mile in width. Uson Island, irregular
with undulating, cogon grass covered hills. A narrow reef
fringes the island. Several islets exist about the coast. East
Island, Pedrasa Island, and Vega Island lie along the N
coast of Uson Island and are contiguous with it. Pinas
Island, isolated, lying 2 cables N of the W end of Uson
Island.
2
Three rivers empty into a heavily silted cove at the NW
end of Port Uson. Dianglit Island lies in the entrance to
this cove.
Baquit Island lies on the NE side of Port Uson. On its
NE side at the S end it is connected to Busuanga Island by
impassable mudflats. The N end, a narrow cape, marks the
entrance to Dipulao Cove, a shallow expanse of water into
which four rivers flow.
3
Depths. Port Uson has depths from 13 to 18 m (43 to
60 ft), but extending S from the NW end of Baquit Island a
shoal with depths of 1 m (3 ft) or less constricts the
channel, passing N of Pinas Island, to 2 cables width. An
alternative channel between Pinas Island and Uson Island
with 16⋅5 m (54 ft) is passable by small vessels. It is about
1 cable wide. Both these channels give access to the
entrance into Coron Bay at the W end of Uson Island.
4
Local knowledge is required.
Directions
3.78
1
From a position SE of Dumanglit Island (11°57′N,
120°10′E) the track leads W for about 2 miles to a position
N of a shoal with a depth of 7⋅6 m (25 ft) over it from
whence the track leads NW passing (with positions from
Mount Kulion (12°03′N, 120°05′E)):
SW of a rock awash (5 miles SSE), and:
NE of an isolated patch (6 miles SSE) with a depth
of 2 m (7 ft) over it.
2
From this position the track leads N in mid-channel
passing E of Mayanpayan Island (5 miles SSE), with a
conspicuous sand beach on the SE shore, lying on a coral
reef contiguous with Apo Island, from whence the track
leads NNE in mid-channel passing NW of Pinas Island
(5 miles SE).
Anchorages
3.79
1
The best anchorage in Port Uson is between Uson Island
and Baquit Island, in depths of 15 to 17 m (43 to 54 ft).
There is anchorage S of Dianglit Island but care should be
taken to avoid the rocks lying 1 cables SE of it. These
are good typhoon anchorages.
2
An anchorage for small vessels can be found in Port
Luyucan (11°59′N, 120°07′E), an inlet extending NW from
CHAPTER 3
86
the W side of the W entrance to Port Uson. It lies between
the NE side of Apo Island and Busuanga Island. The
entrance is 0⋅5 cables wide with a depth of 12⋅1 m (40 ft)
in it.
Small craft
3.80
1
Dipulao Bay (12°01′N, 120°10′E), on the NE side of
Port Uson, provides an excellent anchorage for small
vessels. It is almost landlocked.
Port Culion
General information
3.81
1
Port Culion (11°53′N, 120°01′E) is a narrow inlet on the
E side of Culion Island providing a sheltered anchorage for
small vessels. Sebik Island, forms the E side of the inlet.
2
A reclaimed area on the W side of the inlet is enclosed
by a concrete seawall, almost to the edge of the reef. A
row of six concrete piles stand off the wall at a distance of
7⋅3 m lying parrallel to it. A landing consisting of a
wooden pier extends NE from the W side of the
reservation.
A boat harbour, enclosed by two breakwaters, lies close
W of the pier.
Directions
(continued from 3.70)
3.82
1
From a position NE of Piedra Blanca (11°51′N,
120°07′E) (3.70) the track leads WNW, passing (with
positions from Inlulucut Island (11°55′N, 120°03′E)):
NNE of a rocky shoal (2 miles SE), with a depth of
4⋅6 m (15 ft) over it, lying 4 cables N of Dunaun
Island, wooded, attached to Culion Island by a
drying coral reef, thence:
2
SSW of a shoal (2 miles SE), with a depth of 5 m
(16 ft) over it, the S-most of a group of shoals
lying 5 cables to 1 miles NE, as shown on the
chart, thence:
3
SSW of a steep-to reef (1 mile SSE) awash, lying in
mid-channel, on which stands a beacon (white),
thence:
SSW of an isolated coral shoal (5 cables ESE) awash,
lying off the SE extremity of Chindonan Island
(3.27), thence:
4
SSW of Inlulucut Island, lying on a coral reef
extending from the SE extremity of Chindonan
Island, thence:
SSW of Burgur Island (6 cables NW), 8 cables long
with peaks at each end.
5
The track then leads directly to Port Culion. A beacon
marks the edge of the reef on either side of the entrance to
Port Culion.
The piers at Culion Landing should be approached from
NE, berthing port side to. Small vessels can berth alongside
the pier, but larger vessels should use anchors to keep well
off the pier face.
See 3.32 for restrictions on landing.
3.83
1
Useful marks:
Hill, 177 m (582 ft) high, 5 cables W of the port
entrance with prominent buildings including a
hospital.
Radio tower (red obstruction lights)
Culion Leper Colony concrete buildings NW of the
port.
Port Culion Light (pole, 3 m high) (11°53′⋅6N,
120°01′⋅4E) on a fort bastion. This light is not
easily identified at its full range because of
background lighting in the colony.
Light (elevation 10⋅4 m) (11°53′⋅7N, 120°01′⋅1E)
exhibited from a warehouse at the inshore end of
the pier, from the seaward peak of the roof, which
is maintained by the colony.
Anchorage and berths
3.84
1
Anchorage may be found off Port Culion 3 cables NE
of Culion Landing in depths of 27 to 33 m (15 to 18 fm).
Good sheltered anchorage exists in Port Culion in depths of
16⋅5 m (54 ft) but it is necessary to moor as the harbour is
restricted.
2
Berth. A wooden wharf, with a berthing length of 9 m
is situated at the NW entrance point. There is a reported
depth of 6 m alongside.
Port services
3.85
1
Facilities: radio station at Culion Leper Colony.
Supplies: limited provisions; fuel in an emergency; fresh
water at the pier but low pressure makes pumping
necessary.
Anchorage and harbour
Bulalacao Island
3.86
1
Description. Bulalacao Island (11°45′N, 120°10′E),
densely wooded and fringed by a drying reef with several
islets on it. The island lies on the N side of a large
triangular shaped coral reef which extends 10 miles SSW.
Bulog Point is the NW extremity of Bulalacao Island and
marks the W point of entrance into Bayuan Bay which
indents deeply into the N side of Bulalacao Island. There is
a leper colony on the island.
2
The E side of the bay is marked by Mandalala Point
which is surrounded by a coral reef upon which an islet
lies close NW of the point.
3
Anchorage exists in the outer part of the bay in depths
of 11 to 26 m (36 ft to 14 fm).
Small craft
Bayuan Bay
3.87
1
Description. Bayuan Bay (11°46′N, 120°10′E) on the N
coast of Bulalacao Island (3.70) provides anchorage. It is
entered between Bulog Point on the W side and Mandalala
Point to the E. Bayuan Bay has a very heavily indented
shoreline with four coves at its head.
CHAPTER 3
87
Approach to the E coves is hampered by Pinaman Islet
lying on a coral reef that narrows the approach channel to
less than 2 cables.
2
Anchorage exists in the N part of the bay, in depths of
11 to 26 m (36 ft to 14 fm) mud, where they are sheltered
from the SW monsoon (May to September) and are
partially protected from the NE monsoon (October to
March).
PALAWAN—NORTH−EAST COAST INCLUDING OFF−LYING ISLANDS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3820, 3807, 3483
Area covered
3.88
1
This section covers the waters surrounding Linapacan
Island (11°27′N, 119°48′E) and the NE coast of Palawan. It
is arranged as follows:
Linapacan Island — W side (3.90).
Channels between Linapacan Island and Palawan
(3.98).
Primo Reef to Cambari Island (3.105).
Nangalao Island to Cambari Island (3.125).
Topography
3.89
1
Linapacan Island is the largest of a small group of
islands lying between Culion Island and the N extremity of
Palawan Island. It is triangular in shape with a very
irregular coastline consisting almost entirely of a series of
bays with high, steep, rocky points between them. Most of
the bays are bordered with mangrove and fringed by sandy
beaches. Mountainous throughout, the highest peak, in the
S extremity of the island, has an elevation of 331 m
(1086 ft).
2
Palawan Island see 3.2.
LINAPACAN ISLAND — WEST SIDE
General information
Charts 3820, 3807, Philippines Chart 4716 (see 1.18)
Route
3.90
1
From the vicinity of 11°40′N, 119°35′E, off the W end
of Linapacan Strait the route leads S for about 15 miles to
a position E of Cabuli Island (11°26′N, 119°30′E).
Topography
3.91
1
The W coast of Linapacan Island is steep-to, rocky and
heavily indented with numerous bays, the largest of which
is North Bay. The coast is fronted by several smaller
islands and islets.
Principal marks
3.92
1
Landmarks:
Malubutglubut Island (11°30′N, 119°41′E) (3.43).
East Peak (11°18′N, 119°32′E), conical, conspicuous
among lesser peaks.
Directions
(continued from 3.34)
3.93
1
From the vicinity of 11°40′N, 119°35′E, off the W end
of Linapacan Strait, the track leads S, passing (with
positions from Cabuli Island (11°26′N, 119°30′E)):
W of Base Rock (11 miles NE), thence:
2
W of Malubutglubut Island (11 miles ENE) (3.92).
Between Base Rock and Malubutglubut Island are
two rocks 5 and 6 m (15 and 20 ft) high, lying
8 cables and 1 miles N of the N extremity of the
island. Thence:
3
W of Cacayatan Island (9 miles ENE) and Lauauan
Island, lying on a drying reef extending 3 cables
NW Cacayatan Island. Debogso Rock, lies
8 cables SW of the same point. Condut Island
and two islets 14 and 17 m (45 and 55 ft) high, lie
on a bank extending 9 cables SE from Cacayatan
Island. Nanga Island lies between Cacayatan Island
and Malubutglubut Island (3.43) Thence:
4
W of Barselisa Island (8 miles E), fringed by a
drying reef.
5
From this position the track leads to a position E of
Cabuli Island, (Kabuli Island on Chart 3807), flat summit.
A rock awash lies in the restricted channel between Cabuli
Island and Cabuli Point, 1 miles ESE of Libro Point
(11°25′N, 119°28′E).
(Directions continue for Palawan Island — NE part at 3.102)
Side channel
South−east of Malubutglubut Island
3.94
1
Description. There is a channel between Malubutglubut
Island (11°30′N, 119°41′E) and the NW extremity of
Linapacan Island. It is deep except for a 16⋅5 m (54 ft)
patch with probably less water over it, lying 4 cables E of
the S extremity of Malubutglubut Island.
2
Current. A strong current, dependent on the strength
and direction of the wind, sets through the channel.
Anchorages and harbours
North Bay
3.95
1
Description. North Bay (11°29′N, 119°48′E) is the E of
two large bays on the N coast of Linapacan Island. It is
approached between Dimanglet Island (3.71) and
Vanguardia Island (11°32′N, 119°44′E). The entrance,
2 miles wide, is bounded to the E by Bulawan Point and to
the W by a reef fringed headland extending 1 miles
NNW. At its N end lies Alerta Rock. Several less
prominent rocks lie on this reef.
2
The bay is divided into three coves. An old Spanish fort
marks the location of the former village of San Nicholas
situated near the head of the W cove. North Bay is fringed
with reefs which are extensive in the three coves.
Pangititan Island, lies on the E side of the E cove.
Local knowledge. is required.
3
Depths. Several patches, with depths of 10⋅1 to 14⋅6 m
(33 to 48 ft) over them, lie in the middle of the bay. The
general depths in the bay range from 49 m (27 fm) at the
entrance to 23 m (12⋅5 fm) in the coves.
4
Anchorage exists for larger vessels in the middle of the
bay though it is exposed to N winds.
Small craft may anchor in any of the three coves.
CHAPTER 3
88
North West Bay
3.96
1
Description. North West Bay (11°28′N, 119°45′E) is the
W-most of two bays on the N coast of Linapacan Island. It
is approached between Vanguardia Island (3.95) and
Malubutglubut Island (3.93), and is bounded to the E by
Alerta Rock and to the W by the Colaylayan peninsula. On
the E side of the entrance lies a small, grass covered islet.
Its head is divided into two coves both of which are
severely restricted by coral shoals and rocks. The bay is
fringed with coral reefs.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage with good holding ground exists in the bay.
Small craft may anchor in a good and well protected
position in the outer part of the E cove but care must be
taken when entering to avoid the shoals.
Colaylayan Bay
3.97
1
Description. Colaylayan Bay (11°27′N, 119°46′E) lies
1 miles SSE of of Linapacan Island. A wide coral reef
extends 3 cables from the head of the bay restricting its
usefulness as an anchorage.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. It can be approached from NW or SW
passing either side of Cagdanao Island, lying 3 cables W of
the S entrance point. The SW passage is narrower and less
deep. It is extended by Gintu Island, lying 1 miles S of
Cagdanao Island. The channel between Gintu Island and
Linapacan Island is 1 miles wide but narrows to
2 cables near the entrance The area between Gintu Island
and Calibang Island (3.102) (Kalibang on Chart 3807) is
encumbered with islets, rocks and shoals, as shown on the
chart, and should be avoided.
3
Anchorage, well protected, exists for small vessels in
depths of 27 m (15 fm) in the bay.
CHANNEL BETWEEN LINAPACAN ISLAND
AND PALAWAN
General information
Charts 3820, 3807
Route
3.98
1
From a position E of Cabuli Island (11°26′N, 119°30′E),
the route leads SE in mid-channel to a position NE of
Primo Reef (11°15′N, 119°52′E).
Topography
3.99
1
The channels between the S coast of Linapacan Island
and the NE coast of Palawan Island are encumbered with
numerous islands, islets, reefs, rocks and shoals making
navigation difficult. Almost all these islands are steep-to,
high and heavily wooded. They are all surrounded by coral
reefs to a greater or lesser extent. The N coast of Palawan
Island is a narrow peninsular, irregular with frequent bays
and coves all restricted by coral reefs, rocks and shoals.
2
Topographical details of Linapacan Island are contained
in 3.89.
Depths
3.100
1
Depths of 64 m (35 fm) exist in mid-channel off Cabuli
Island (3.93) shallowing abruptly about 2 miles offshore.
Mariners are advised to treat depths of less than 36 m
(20 fm), wherein lie many dangers, with caution.
Principal marks
3.101
1
Landmarks:
East Peak (11°17′⋅7N, 119°31′⋅6E) (3.92).
Batas Island W peak (11°10′N, 119°34′E) densely
wooded, nearly divided into two parts by the bays
indenting the low land between its two peaks. The
N, W and SW coasts are fringed with reefs and
many rocks.
Directions
(continued from 3.93)
3.102
1
From a position E of Cabuli Island (11°26′N, 119°30′E),
the track leads SE passing (with positions from Sidsid
Point (11°23′N, 119°50′E)):
2
NE of Brother Islands (18 miles WNW). The N
island 34 m (110 ft) high, steep-to. The S island
less high, larger and shelving. A shoal with a
depth of 7⋅6 m (25 ft) over it, lies 7 cables SE of
the N island and a shoal, with a depth of 6⋅7 m
(22 ft) over it, lies 2 cables S of the S island.
Thence:
3
NE of Darocotan Island (17 miles W), lying in the
N approach to Darocotan Bay, the SE entrance of
which is Darocotan Point, 2 miles S of the island,
thence:
SW of Calibang Island, (11 miles WNW), bow shaped
with the arms on the N side enclosing Emilia Bay.
A rock awash lies midway along the W coast and
another lies 1 miles ESE island. Tacling Island,
lies close SE of Calibang Island. Thence:
4
NE of Barangonan Island (7 miles WSW), identified
by a barren, double peaked hill in the SW part.
The lower slopes are heavily wooded. South-west
of Barangonan Island lies the larger Iloc Island,
heavily wooded with some cultivation on the S
side. Pinamalayan village stands close to the S
extremity. The NE extremity is underworn by the
sea. The narrow channel between these two islands
is restricted by rocks lying on a spit extending
5 cables N of Iloc Island. Thence:
5
SW of a shoal (6 miles W) with a depth of 8⋅5 m
(28 ft) over it, and:
NE of Dado Rock (6 miles SW), and Dado Bank,
lying 1 miles SE, thence:
6
NE of Bagambangan Island (10 miles SW), heavily
wooded except for a small area of cultivation on
the W side. Between Iloc Island and Bagambangan
Island lie the Maosonan Islands, partially
cultivated. Cone Rock, reddish appearance, lies
7 cables SE of Bagambangan Island. Thence:
7
SW of Goson Reef (2 miles WSW), thence:
SW of Sidsid Point, a landslip 1 miles N of Sidsid
Point is conspicuous. The coast N trends NNE for
6 miles to Patoyo Island (3.46), steep-to with a
few small bays and several off-lying rocks as
shown on the chart. Maapdit and Ile islands lie
close SW of Patoyo Island. Thence:
SW of Benito Shoal (3 miles SSE).
8
From this position the track leads to a position NE of
Primo Reef (7 miles SSE), separated by a deep water
channel, 4 miles wide, from Ubaldo Reef, steep-to.
(Directions continue for Palawan Island — N part at 3.107)
CHAPTER 3
89
Anchorages and harbours
Darocotan Bay
3.103
1
Description. The N extremity of Palawan Island is a
5 mile long peninsula, mountainous and heavily wooded,
which forms the W side of Darocotan Bay. North Hill,
2 miles S of Cabuli Island (11°25′N, 119°30′E), has a flat
summit to the S of which is a ridge rising to an elevation
of 365 m (1200 ft).
2
Darocotan Bay is fringed with reefs and rocks with its S
part foul. The E side of the bay is formed by a short
headland terminating in Darocotan Point. Close to this
point lies a small islet, 47 m (155 ft) high.
3
The entrance to the bay is restricted by Darocotan
Island. A shoal, with a depth of 4 m (13 ft) over it extends
1 mile SE from the S side of the island. Rocks awash lie
on this shoal.
4
The village of Tiniguiban, on the Palawan coast lies
1 miles WSW of Darocotan Island. Copra is exported in
small quantities.
Local knowledge is required.
5
Directions for north approach. From a position on the
coastal route NE of Brother Islands (3.102) the track leads
SSW passing:
W of Darocotan Island in mid-channel, thence:
E of the foul ground extending 5 cables E from the
Palawan coast.
6
Directions for east approach. From a position on the
coastal route E of Darocotan Island the track leads WSW
passing in mid-channel between Darocotan Island and
Darocotan Point. The channel has a least width of 6 cables.
From this position the track leads NW then N into the
anchorage.
Caution. Darocotan Point should not be brought to bear
less than 090°.
7
Anchorage exists opposite Tiniguiban village in a depth
of 14⋅6 m (48 ft), mud. It offers good protection during SW
winds.
South Bay
3.104
1
Description. South Bay (11°24′N, 119°48′E), lies on the
S coast of Linapacan Island and is steep-to throughout.
Two arms are formed by a headland projecting into the
bay. Coral reefs fringe the entire coast of the bay. The NW
arm is restricted by two isolated coral reefs in its centre
and a shoal with a depth of 4⋅5 m (15 ft) over it lying close
to the E side.
2
The head of the NE arm is encumbered with rocks and
coral. The entrance is restricted to a width of 3 cables by
the existence of Octon Island which is attached to the
mainland on the E side of the bay. Close S of Octon island
lies Tondaje Island near to the SE shore. On the W side of
the E shore lies a shoal which extends 8 cables W and
upon which rocks are awash. Goson Reef lies 1 mile SSW
of of this rocky patch. The village of Capitan lies close to
Bubulauan Point (11°24′N, 119°46′E). A rock with a depth
of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it lies W of Bubulauan Point.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. South Bay is entered E of Bubulauan Point.
Vessels should remain in mid-channel until W of Octon
Island thence, passing N of it, enter the NE arm.
Anchorage, well protected, exists in the outer part of
NE arm of the bay in depths of 26 to 33 m (14 to 18 fm),
mud. The inner part is foul.
PRIMO REEF TO CAMBARI ISLAND
General information
Charts 3820, 3807, Philippines Charts 4716, 4317 (see 1.18)
Route
3.105
1
From a position NE of Primo Reef (11°15′N, 119°52′E)
the route leads SSE for about 45 miles to a position ENE
of Cambari Island (10°33′N, 120°06′E).
Caution
3.106
1
The area between Palawan Island and a line drawn from
Binga Island (11°07′N, 119°45′E) to the E extremity of of
Dumaran Island, 36 miles SE, is thickly strewn with
dangers as shown on the chart. It is advisable to follow the
recommended tracks shown on the chart, but even so doing
it is necessary to navigate with caution, and keep a good
lookout.
Directions
(continued from 3.102)
3.107
1
From a position NE of Primo Reef (11°15′N, 119°52′E),
the track leads SSE passing (with positions from Debangan
Island (11°01′N, 119°44′E)):
ENE of Uhaldo Reef (11 miles NNE) (3.102),
thence:
ENE of Binga Island (6 miles N) A 29 m (95 ft)
high, rock lies close NE of Binga Island and
another rock, 9 m (30 ft) high, lies close SE
Thence:
2
ENE of Tejada Reef (10 miles NE) steep-to. In
1958 two shoals were reported with depths of
12 m and 23⋅8 m (39 ft and 13 fm) over them,
lying 2 and 4 miles W respectively. Thence:
WSW of Patterson Reef (25 miles NE) (3.128),
thence:
3
ENE of Filemon Bank, (4 miles ENE), and:
ENE of Hart Reef (15 miles SSE), a 7 mile long and
4 miles wide expanse of dangerous shoal ground
with a least depth of 2 m (7 ft) over it, but with
two coral heads awash on the W side as shown on
the chart, thence:
4
ENE of Dumaran Island (29 miles SSE), densely
wooded, with hills from 120 to 150 m (395 to
490 ft) high.
5
From this position the track leads SSE for about 4 miles
to a position ENE of Cambari Island (35 miles SSE),
barren, overhanging cliffs on its W side.
(Directions continue for Palawan Island — E side at 3.135)
Shark Fin Bay
Charts 3820, Philippines Chart 4317 (see 1.18)
General information
3.108
1
Description. Shark Fin Bay (11°07′N, 119°35′E), lies
between Batas Island and Maytiguid Island, 4 miles S.
Within the bay the coast trends SW then SE towards a
narrow headland projecting NE, forming the W side of
Tanguingul Channel.
2
The bay is fringed with a drying coral reef encumbered
with numerous islets. Macuao Island, lies in the middle of
the bay on a reef 1 miles wide, extending 8 cables NNE,
encumbered with coral reefs, islets and shoals.
CHAPTER 3
90
3
Local knowledge is required.
Directions
3.109
North approach. From a position E of Darocotan Point
(11°21′N, 119°33′E) the track leads S, passing (with
positions from Cagdanao Island (11°10′N, 119°40′E)):
W of Iloc Island (7 miles N) (3.102), thence:
1
W of Binulbulan Island (5 miles NNW), heavily
wooded with three distinct peaks, the highest being
in the N. A rocky islet, 47 m (155 ft) high, lies
1 mile SSE of the S extremity with a 31 m (100 ft)
high islet midway between them. An islet 21 m
(68 ft) high, lies close N of the island.
2
From this position the track leads SE, to a position NE
of Batas Island (3 miles W) (3.101) from whence it leads S
passing:
W of a shoal (1 miles NW) with a depth of 10 m
(33 ft) over it, lying 1 miles NE of Batas Island,
and:
3
W of Deribongan Island (1 miles N), and Cagdanao
Island, lying 1 miles S, thence:
W of Maalequequen Island (9 cables W), lying
1 miles E of Batas Island, thence:
4
W of Pangisian Island (1 miles SE), with cliffs
rising vertically from the water at its NE end
where a pinnacle rock, 47 m (154 ft) high, is
conspicuous. Two rocks, 13 and 23 m (41 and
75 ft) high, lie 7 cables ENE and 9 cables SE
respectively from the SW extremity of the island.
5
From this position the track leads SW, passing:
NW of the Butacan Islands (2 miles SSE), thence:
NW of Miraya Island, (19 miles SSE), from where
a coral head with a depth of 1⋅3 m (4 ft) over it,
lies 4 cables NE.
6
The track then leads to a position about 1 mile S of
Tango Point (5 miles WSW).
(Directions continue for anchorage in Shark Fin Bay at 3.111)
3.110
1
South approach From a position E of Royalist Reef
(10°58′N, 119°38′E), the track leads N passing (with
positions from Malotamban Island 11°05′N, 118°40′E)):
2
W of an isolated coral bank (6 miles S), awash,
and:
E of Negra Point (6 miles SW), the SE extremity of
Maytiguid Island, limestone with steep sides
undercut by the sea. Of similar appearance is
Nabat Island separated from the point by a narrow
but deep channel prone to tide-rips. Maytiguid
Island, fringed with mangroves and reefs, on which
there are several high rocks, forms part of the N
side of Taytay Bay (3.114), and is separated from
the mainland by Tanguingui Channel, narrow and
encumbered with rocks and coral. Thence:
3
W of Dinit Island (4 miles S), farther E of which lie
Casian Island, sharp conical peak near its SW end,
and Debangan Island, close SE. These islands are
separated by a narrow, shallow channel. Several
rocks, from 1 to 5 m (3 to 16 ft) high, lie
1 cables SW of Debangan Island. A small fishing
village is located on the NW coast of Debangan
opposite the larger Casian village lying midway
along the S coast of Casian Island. Thence:
4
W of Maobanen Island, (2 miles S), lightly wooded.
A rocky islet, 28 m (92 ft) high, rises vertically
2 cables from the NE end of the island; a
prominent pinnacle rock, among other rocks which
dry at LW, lie on the NE side of this islet. Thence:
5
W of Calabugdong Island (1 mile E), mountainous
with a conspicuous cliff midway along the rocky E
coast. The W side is fringed with mangroves.
Maqueriben Island, lies close off the NE side of
Calabugdong, and Malotamban Island, lies W of
its S extremity.
6
From this position track leads NNW to pass in
mid-channel between shoal grounds NE Maytiguid Island
and those lying 2 miles off the N extremity of Calabugdong
Island. The track then leads to a position about 1 mile S of
Tango Point (5 miles NW), the S extremity of Batas
Island (3.101).
3.111
1
Tango Point to the anchorage. From a position 1 mile
S of Tango Point (11°08′N, 119°36′E) the track leads WSW
to a position 1 mile E of Macuao Island, surrounded by a
reef extending 8 cables NE. Two isolated and dangerous
rocks lie 1 mile N and 1 miles NNE of the island.
2
From this position the track leads NNW to a position
WSW of Malapari Island, low and covered with
mangroves, connected by a coral reef to the SW side of
Batas Island, from whence the track leads W into the
anchorage.
Anchorage
3.112
1
Anchorage exists in a depth of 17 m (55 ft), mud, 1 mile
SSW of Imorigue Island.
Small craft
3.113
1
Anchorage exists in the bay close to the village of Oton
at the head of Shark Fin Bay.
For small craft Shark Fin Bay can also be entered from
Imorigue Bay via the narrow Talaotauan Channel (11°10′N,
119°32′E), passing W of Talaotauan Island, lying W of
Imorigue Island. It has a navigable width of 1 cable.
Local knowledge is required.
Taytay Bay
General information
3.114
1
Description. Taytay Bay (10°55′N, 119°35′E) lies S of
Maytiguid Island (3.110) between Silanga Point in the N
and Santa Cruz Point in the S. The bay is 9 miles across
the entrance and is encumbered with numerous islands and
islets as shown on the chart.
2
Topography. A range of mountains from Shark Fin
Peak, sharp giving the appearance of a shark’s fin, in the
N, trends S to Omid Peak, in the S then SE to Santa Cruz
Point. A ridge 520 m (1700 ft) to 580 m (1900 ft) high,
extends 3 miles S, ending in a sharp shoulder, 335 m
(1100 ft) high, before sloping down to Mesecoy village.
Mangroves, interspersed with patches of cultivation near the
villages, fringe the coast.
Directions
3.115
1
North−east approach. From a position on the coastal
route ENE of Tejada Reef (3.107) the track leads SW for
about 15 miles to a position SE of Filemon Bank (11°03′N,
119°48′E) from whence the track leads WSW passing (with
positions from Shark Fin Peak (11°03′N, 119°30′E)):
CHAPTER 3
91
SSE of Debangan Island (15 miles ESE), a prominent
wooded peak.
2
From this position the recommended track, as shown on
the chart, leads WSW, passing:
NNW of Binatican Island (16 miles ESE), which has
a coconut plantation near the middle of the island,
and:
3
SSE of Dadaliten Island, (14 miles ESE). A bank
with depths of less than 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it,
extends 5 cables S and 1 miles E of Dadaliten
Island. Thence:
SSE of a patch (13 miles ESE), with a least depth of
0⋅5 m (1 ft) over it, and:
4
NNW of a patch (13 miles ESE), with a depth of
10⋅4 m (34 ft) over it.
From this position the recommended track, as shown on
the chart, leads SW passing:
SE of Nabat Islet (11 miles ESE) (3.110)
SE of Royalist Reef (12 miles SE), an extensive shoal
with depth from 1⋅5 to 14 m (5 to 46 ft) over it,
thence:
5
NW of a coral rock patch (15 miles SE), with a least
depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) over it, lying 1 mile NNW of
Malatpuso Rock on the edge of an extensive area
of shoal water, thence:
6
SE of Apulit Island (10 miles SE), a narrow
limestone formation, the highest point in the
middle slopes gradually towards the N extremity
off which lies a rocky islet 38 m (126 ft) high,
and:
7
SE of a patch (11 miles SSE), with a least depth of
1 m (3 ft) over it, lying at the SE extremity of a
shoal ground encumbering the middle of Taytay
Bay, thence:
8
NW of the Pabellon Islands (13 miles SSW)
consisting of Elephant Island, the N-most and
larger, and Castle Island. Of limestone formation
they are steep to, separated by a narrow,
encumbered deep-water channel, and surrounded
by a number of dangerous detached shoals.
Thence:
9
SE of a shoal (11 miles SSE), with a least depth of
1 m (3 ft) over it, lying at the S extremity of the
shoal ground encumbering the middle of Taytay
Bay.
From this position the recommended track leads into
Taytay anchorage.
Anchorage
3.116
1
Good anchorage exists in Taytay Bay in a depth of 33 m
(18 fm) with Taytay Head (10°52′N, 119°31′E), bearing
273°, and Taytay Fort, an old Spanish fort, prominent from
seaward, situated 2 miles SSE of Taytay Head,
bearing 211°.
Silanga Bay
3.117
1
Description. Silanga village lies under the shadow of
Silanga Peak on the W side of Silanga Bay, 1 miles N of
Silanga Point. Silanga Bay is formed by the coasts of
Palawan and Maytiguid Island. Tanguingui channel enters
in the NW corner. Silanga Bay is edged with coral reefs
and is foul at the head. Maytiguid village lies on the S
bank of an inlet on the E side of the bay.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. From the position E of Royalist Reef
(10°58′N, 119°38′E) the track leads NW passing SW of
Nabat Island (3.115) and NE of the Silanga Islands, two
islets lying 1 miles E of Silanga Point. The track then
leads directly into Silanga anchorage.
3
Anchorage. Anchorage in Silanga Bay exists 1 mile SE
of Silanga village and serves both it and Maytiguid village
on the opposite side of the bay. There is a depth of 26 m
(14 fm), mud.
Communication. Because of its importance as an
exporter of copra and dried fish Maytiguid village has
regular sea communication with neighbouring ports.
Mesecoy Bay
3.118
1
Description. The villages of Polarican, Mesecoy and
Palalong lie on the W side of Mesecoy Bay (11°00′N,
119°38′E) and, although the bay is dangerously encumbered
with reefs, shoals and islets there are two anchorages off
Talacanen Island, 2 miles SW of Silanga Point. The bay
is fringed with mangroves.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. From a position S of Nabat Island (10°59′N,
119°38′E) the track leads W, passing (with positions from
Nabat Island (10°59′N, 119°38′E)):
N of Apulit Island (2 miles SSW) (3.115) thence:
S of Silanga Islands, (2 miles W).
3
The track then leads WSW passing:
SSE of Quimbaludan Island, (3 miles W), and:
NNW of two drying rocks (3 miles WSW).
The track then leads SSE of Talacanen Island (6 miles
WSW), to the anchorages off it.
4
Anchorage exists 5 cables S of Talacanen Island in a
depth of 33 m (18 fm), mud, and 7 cables W of the island.
Taytay
3.119
1
Description. Taytay village is the largest settlement in
Taytay Bay and has a stone jetty which dries at LW. It is a
fishing headquarters and is visited regularly by inter-island
vessels. Copra, cattle and dried fish are exported.
Useful mark:
A light exhibited from the vicinity of Taytay village.
2
Facilities. There is a post office and a radio station as
well as a small dispensary attended by a doctor.
Calauag Bay
General information
3.120
1
Description. Calauag Bay, between Limbangan Point
(10°44′N, 119°36′E) and Pangkang Point 3 miles SE, is
indented by numerous small bays and coves. The NW coast
slopes gently from hills 1 miles inland. The S coast is
steeper with foot hills of 150 m (500 ft) high, rising to
peaks of 329 m (1080 ft) to 463 m (1520 ft) high, 2 miles
inland.
2
Reefs on the NW side extend 3 miles E upon which lie
Ibobor and Cagdanao islands. The E end of the channel
between these two islands is foul. The W end is heavily
restricted by an extensive shoal ground with drying rocks
scattered on it. Babarocan and Tomandang islands lie close
to the head of the bay. All these islands are heavily
wooded. A group of drying rocks and a reef lie in the
middle of the bay.
3
Three small rivers flow into the head of the bay causing
heavy silting in the area.
CHAPTER 3
92
Directions
3.121
1
North−east approach. From a position N of Hart Reef
(10°49′N, 119°52′E) the track leads W for about 5 miles
passing (with positions from Cacbucao Island (10°42′N,
119°50′E)):
S of a shoal (11 miles N), with a depth of 12⋅2 m
(40 ft) over it, thence:
2
N of a shoal (9 miles NNW), with a depth of 5⋅5 m
(18 ft) over it, thence:
S of a rock (12 miles NNW), awash, with another
rock, awash lying 1 miles NNE. These rocks
mark the SE side of a line of dangerous shoals
extending 6 miles on a NNE/SSW axis.
3
From this position the recommended track, as shown on
the chart leads SW passing:
SE of a shoal (11 miles NNW), with a depth of 6⋅4 m
(21 ft) over it, thence:
SE of a shoal (11 miles NW), with a least depth of
4⋅6 m (15 ft) over it, and:
4
NW of a shoal (9 miles NW), with a least depth of
8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it. A patch with a least depth of
2 m (7 ft) over it, lies 2 miles SE. Thence:
SE of a patch (10 miles NW), with a least depth of
3 m (10 ft), over it, and:
5
NW of a patch (8 miles NW), with la least depth of
4 m (13 ft) over it, thence:
SE of a patch (10 miles NW), with a least depth of
4⋅6 m (15 ft) over it, and:
NW of a shoal (8 miles WNW), with a least depth
of 4 m (13 ft), over it.
6
From this position the recommended track, as shown on
the chart, leads SW for 1 mile to a position 3 miles NE of
Calabucay Island (10°45′N, 119°39′E) from whence the
recommended track leads S passing E of the extensive
shoal ground extending 2 miles NE of Calabucay Island to
a position E of the island. The track then leads SSW for
2 miles, passing:
7
WNW of Paly Island (8 miles W). steep-to and
sparsely wooded, showing plainly a peculiar brown
soil. The E slopes are less steep and more thickly
wooded. The coast is rocky with stretches of sand,
shingle and boulders. There is a shoal with a depth
of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it lying 1 miles W of the N
extremity. The waters between Paly Island and
Hart Reef (3.107) are heavily shoal and should be
avoided.
8
From this position the recommended track leads W
passing N of a shoal (10 miles W), with a depth of 1 m
(3 ft) over it, thence in mid-channel passing:
NNW of a patch (11 miles W) with two drying
rocks on it, and:
SSE of Ibobor Island (12 miles W), steep-to on the E
side but fringed by mangroves on the W side, it is
surrounded by dangerous shoal ground.
9
From this position the track leads WSW in mid-channel,
the shoals on both sides marked by drying rocks, towards
the anchorage.
3.122
1
East approach. From a position 7 miles ENE of North
Point (10°39′N, 119°50′E), the N extremity of Dumaran
Island (3.107), the track leads W to a position 1 miles E
of Cacbucao Island, surrounded by shoal waters extending
1 miles W upon which lies a rock 6⋅7 m (22 ft) high.
2
From this position the track leads SW for 2 miles to a
position with North Point, right ahead, distant 5 cables.
Shoal grounds extend 3 miles to NE of North Point,
prominent and terminating in a white cliff, steep-to on its
N and W sides affording good protection during the NE
monsoon (October to March).
3
From this position the track leads around North Point to
a position 5 cables SW of it from where it continues W
passing in mid-channel between two shoals lying 3 miles
W of North Point.
4
From a position clear of these shoals the track leads
WNW continuing in mid-channel to a position 1 miles S
of Paly Island. The track then leads NNW passing W of
Paly island to a position 2 miles S of Calabucay Island
(10°45′N, 119°39′E).
Anchorage
3.123
1
Good anchorage is found NE of Calauag settlement
(10°40′N, 119°34′E) between Babarocon and Tomangdang
Islands in depths of 11 to 15 m (36 to 48 ft), mud.
Small craft
3.124
1
Small craft can approach Calauag Bay from the S
through Dumaran Channel. Directions are given at 3.136.
NANGALAO ISLAND
TO CAMBARI ISLAND
General information
Chart 3820, Philippines Charts 4706, 4716, 4317 (see 1.18)
Route
3.125
1
From a position NE of Nangalao Island (11°27′N,
120°11′E), the track leads SSW for about 16 miles to a
position ESE of Patterson Reef (11°13′N, 120°08′E) from
whence it leads S to a position ENE of Cambari Island
(10°33′N, 120°05′E) (3.107).
Depths
3.126
1
Depths through this waterway are between 44 m and
110 m (24 and 60 fm) though, either side of the track, there
are isolated shoals with depths from 27 m to 33 m (15 to
18 fm) over them. Information on dangerous shoals is given
in the directions.
Principal mark
3.127
1
Landmark:
Mount Dalanganem (10°40′N, 120°15′E), a three
peaked ridge with the S and E slopes barren and
encumbered with large boulders near the base.
Directions
(continued from 3.44 and 3.65)
3.128
1
From a position NE of Nangalao Island (11°27′N,
129°11′E) the track leads SSW passing (with positions from
Debangan Island (11°01′N, 119°44′E)):
ESE of Magranting Island (1 mile S), connected to
Nangalao Island by a coral reef, thence:
ESE of Nanga Island (2 miles SW), and:
2
ESE of Cabulauan Island, (5 miles SW), with a
prominent rounded summit. The N side of the
island is foul. Two rocks, the larger 8 m (25 ft)
high, lie 1 miles S of the island. A patch with a
depth of 6⋅7 m (22 ft) over it lies 3 miles SSE and
CHAPTER 3
93
another with 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over it lies 1 miles E
of the island. Magranting, Nanga and Cabalauan
Islands comprise the Cabulauan Group. All are
sparsely wooded, rocky and mainly steep-to.
Thence:
3
WNW of Salimbubuc Island (9 miles SSE), lying on
the S end of a bank with a least depth of 11 m
(36 ft) over it, and:
WNW of Solitario Rocks (39 miles ENE), thence:
4
WNW of Canaron Island (13 miles SSE), foul
ground with rocks from 8 to 40 m (25 to 130 ft)
on it, extending 7 cables N and a rock 5 m (16 ft)
high lies 5 cables SE of the island. Thence:
ESE of Patterson Reef (14 miles S).
From this position the track leads S passing:
5
W of Maducang Island (36 miles SE), irregular in
shape with two peaks, sparsely wooded. Cauayan
Island, barren, lies 3 miles E of Maducang Island.
A rock awash lies close W of the island. Casirahan
Island, lies 4 miles E of Maducang Island, partly
covered with grass and bush. The SW part is
barren. Thence:
6
W of Nasalet Island (36 miles SE), and another
very small islet lie on a reef extending 7 cables N
from Calandagan Island. The summit of Nasalet
Island is wooded though the lower slopes are
barren, thence:
W of Calandagan Island (37 miles SE) (3.129).
7
The track then leads S to a position ENE of Cambari
Island (13 miles SW).
(Directions continue at 3.135)
Anchorages and harbours
Calandagan Island
3.129
1
Description Calandagan Island (10°40′N, 120°15′E), the
largest of the Dalanganem Group, dominated by Mount
Dalanganem (3.127), is covered with trees and grass.
Tudela village stands in the neck of low land that joins the
two parts of the island.
2
Anchorage exists in fair weather, off the NE side of
Calandagan Island, in depths from 16 to 20 m (53 ft to
11 fm), coral and sand. Another anchorage exists on the
shoal which extends 7 cables S from the S side of the
island, in depths from 7 to 9 m (24 to 30 ft).
EAST COAST OF PALAWAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3807, 967, 4508, 3483, Philippines Chart 4716 (see 1.18)
Area covered
3.130
1
This section describes Palawan Island E side from
Dumaran Island (3.107) to Bugsuk Island (3.214). It is
arranged as follows:
Cambari Island to Flechas Point (3.132)
Flechas Point to South Verde Island (3.142).
South Verde Island to Puerto Princesa (3.153).
Puerto Princesa (3.161).
Puerto Princesa to Rasa Island (3.191).
Rasa Island to Sir James Brooke Point (3.202).
Sir James Brooke Point to Bugsuk Island (3.210).
Topography
3.131
1
The S coast of Dumaran Island (3.107), heavily wooded,
several prominent capes, the shore is fronted by coral reefs
and fringed, in parts, with mangroves.
2
The Palawan coast, trending SW, is indented by five
large bays in which there are numerous islands and islets.
Much of the coastline is steep-to and heavily wooded with
mangroves. There are several prominent peaks in the N
part of the island but it is generally less mountainous than
farther S where peaks over 600 m (2000 ft) are numerous.
CAMBARI ISLAND TO FLECHAS POINT
General information
Charts 967, 3809, 4508
Route
3.132
1
From a position ENE of Cambari Island (10°33′N,
120°06′E), the track leads SW for about 32 miles to a
position SE of Flechas Point (10°22′N, 119°34′E).
Depths
3.133
1
Depths along this route vary from 55 to 82 m (30 to
45 fm) with few exceptions but inshore of the 36 m (20 fm)
sounding dangerous banks and shoals abound.
Principal marks
3.134
1
Landmarks:
Drake Peak (10°30′N, 119°37′E), seldom obscured by
cloud.
Mount Ilian (11°26′N, 119°33′E), seldom obscured by
cloud.
Mount Baring (10°25′N, 119°33′E). Flechas Point is
the termination of a spur from this peak.
2
Major light:
Langoy Island (white round metal tower and
dwelling, 11 m in height) (10°30′N, 120°00′E).
Directions
(continued from 3.128)
3.135
1
From a position ENE of Cambari Island (10°33′N,
120°06′E) (3.107), the track leads SW, passing (with
positions from Maranog Point (10°27′N, 119°48′E)):
SE of Pirata Head (14 miles ENE), the E extremity of
Dumaran Island, thence:
2
SE of Cotad Island (14 miles ENE), and Maraquit
Island, lying close NW of Cotad Island and
connected to Pirata Head by a drying reef. The
channel between Maraquit and Cotad islands has a
least depth of 7⋅5 m (24 ft). Thence:
SE of Mantulali Island (12 miles ENE), two shoals
lie in mid-channel between Mantulali and Cotad
Islands, thence:
3
SE of Langoy Island (11 miles ENE), two isolated
rocks, awash, lie 1 miles SW of Langoy. Another
rock awash lies 2 cables NW of the reef
surrounding the N coast of the island. A shoal,
with a depth of 2 m (7 ft) over it, lies 9 cables
CHAPTER 3
94
WNW of the same reef. All these islands except
Maraquit are steep-to on their seaward sides and
have high, dark cliffs. Thence:
4
SE of the reefs fronting the coast in the vicinity of
Sharp Hill (1 miles NE), a cone, prominent
especially from S. The coast is densely wooded
and fringed with a narrow coral reef. Thence:
5
SE of Maranog Point. West of this point the coast is
low with sand beaches fringed by coral reef.
Dangerous shoals lie up to 2 miles off the entire
SW coast of Dumaran Island.
6
The track then continues SW for about 14 miles to a
position SE of Flechas Point (6 miles SW), steep and
barren. Between Flechas Point and Estuerzo Point,
12 miles NE, the coast is fronted by numerous shoals
with deep channels between them. The outermost of these
dangers, a reef with a dangerous rock on it, lies 9 miles
E of Flechas Point.
(Directions continue for Palawan — E side at 3.146)
Side channel
Philippines Chart 4317 (see 1.18)
Dumaran Channel
3.136
1
Description. Dumaran Channel (10°31′N, 119°43′E) is
1 miles wide between Esfuerzo (Estuerzo) Point and the
W extremity of Dumaran Island. The navigable channel is
much contracted by islands and reefs. South of Esfuerzo
Point there are numerous dangerous shoals. The W side of
Dumaran Island is fringed with mangroves.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions Several recommended approaches are shown
on US chart 92500 the most favourable of which makes an
approach from the S following a track with Piyaui Point,
the SW extremity of Dumaran Island, right ahead.
3
From a position 2 miles S of Piyaui Point (10°27′N,
119°46′E) the track leads WNW for 2 miles, and when
the point bears 045° the track leads N into the Dumaran
Channel, passing (with positions from Esfuerzo Point):
4
W of Dumaran Point (1 miles E), from which
numerous drying reefs and dangers extend 1 mile,
thence:
W of a drying reef (7 cables ENE), and:
W of South Channel Island (1 miles NNE),
connected to the larger South Island, 5 cables E,
by a coral reef. Thence:
W of Maruyogruyog Island (2 miles NNE), almost
attached to the N side of South Island, thence:
E of Capsalon Island (2 miles N), roughly triangular
in shape, flat and planted with coconut trees, from
which a reef extends 1 mile SSE and another
extends 4 cables NW from the NW coast.
5
From this position the track leads NW, passing:
SW of Bivouac Island, (2 miles N), and:
SW of North Channel Island (3 miles N), separated
from Bivouac Island by a narrow foul channel and
a shoal area with rocks awash, extending 1 miles
N of North Channel Island.
6
From this position the track leads N for about 5 miles
to Bay Point and the S entrance to Calauag Bay
(3.120).
Anchorages and harbours
Chart 2914
Cynthia Bay and Araceli
3.137
1
Description. Cynthia Bay (10°32′N, 120°00′E) is
contained between Maroquit, Cotad and Mantulali islands
and the SE extremity of Dumaran Island. It is 1 miles
wide. There are reefs around the entire coastline of the bay,
some drying at LW. Depths of 24 m (13 fm) at the entrance
to the bay shelve to 13 m (42 ft) E of Araceli Reef then
shallow quickly towards the reef at the head of the bay.
2
Araceli town lies on the E shore of Araceli Bay
(10°43′N, 119°59′E) and is partly obscured by coconut
trees. Araceli Bay extends N for 2 miles. It is fringed with
coral and mangrove. The N end of the bay dries at LW.
Local knowledge is required.
3.138
1
Directions. Cynthia Bay is entered between Mantulali
(10°31′N, 120°00′E) and Langoy islands (3.135). The track
leads NNW passing between Baliog Point (10°32′N,
119°59′E) and Araceli Reef, with a depth of 0⋅3 m (1 ft)
over it. A buoy (red, conical), marks the W side of Araceli
Reef.
2
The track then leads NW towards the anchorage SW of
Araceli Point. A dangerous wreck, partly drying, lies
7 cables NW of Araceli Reef.
3.139
1
Useful mark:
A conspicuous rock lies on the reef 3 cables S of
Araceli town.
2
Anchorage. An anchorage, protected by reefs, may be
obtained SW of Araceli Point in depths from 7 m to 9 m
(23 to 30 ft) mud.
There is excellent typhoon anchorage in Araceli Bay for
small vessels in depths of 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft),
constricted by the shoals extending from both sides. Vessels
with draughts up to 3⋅7m (12 ft) may use the channel to
the anchorage.
3
Berth. A ruined stone mole extends SW from Araceli
township to the edge of the reef. Its off-shore end is
submerged at LW. An obstruction exists off its seaward
end. Inter-island vessels usually anchor 3 cables off the
mole.
4
Function. Copra, dried fish and cattle are the chief
exports.
Facilities. There is a dispensary in the town attended by
a doctor.
Supplies. A few provisions and supplies may be
obtained but are scarce. Small quantities of diesel oil,
petrol and kerosene may be obtained from fishing boats in
case of emergency.
5
Small craft. A channel, tortuous and constricted by
drying coral reefs and rocks on both sides, connects the S
part of Araceli Bay with its N part. Three unlit beacons
mark the W side of the channel.
Bays on the south coast of Dumaran Island
3.140
1
Description. Bacaran Bay, Langcan Bay and Calasag
Bay lie on the S side of Dumaran Island (10°33′N,
119°52′E), 4, 6 and 9 miles, respectively, SW of Pirata
Head. The shores of all three bays are fringed with
mangroves between which are short stretches of beach.
Reefs extend a considerable distance offshore, and the
heads of the bays are shallow.
2
Bohol (10°29′N, 119°53′E) lies in Calasag Bay. It is the
largest of several settlements on the shores of the bays on
CHAPTER 3
95
the S coast of Dumaran Island. It is fronted by a coral reef
extending 9 cables to seaward.
3
Directions. All three bays are easily approached though
care must be taken to avoid the shoals and reefs lying
between Langoy Island and Calasag Point. A shoal with a
depth of 4⋅8 m (16 ft) over it, position doubtful, has been
reported 4 miles SE of Calasag Point.
4
Anchorage. Good anchorage exists in each bay,
protected from the NE monsoon (October to March). Good
typhoon anchorage for small craft exists in Langcan Bay
NNW of Langcan Point.
5
Good anchorage exists SW of Bohol in a depth of 6 m
(20 ft), mud.
Dumaran Bay
3.141
1
Description. Dumaran Bay (10°30′N, 119°45′E)
occupies almost all the SW coast of Dumaran Island. It lies
on the E side of Dumaran Channel. The coast is low-lying,
heavily wooded and fringed with mangroves. Coral reefs
and isolated shoals make the bay hazardous to navigation.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions for Dumaran Bay south approach given at
3.136.
3
Anchorage can be obtained in the N part of Dumaran
Bay under the protection of Dumaran Point in a depth of
6⋅8 m (23 ft), mud.
FLECHAS POINT
TO SOUTH VERDE ISLAND
General information
Charts 967, Philippines Chart 4716 (see 1.18)
Route
3.142
1
From a position SE of Flechas Point (10°22′N,
119°34′E), the track leads SW for about 27 miles to a
position SE of South Verde Island (10°04′N, 119°13′E).
Topography
3.143
1
Green Island Bay is a large open bight lying between
Flechas Point (3.135) and Bold Point (3.156), 31 miles SW.
The coast is fairly regular with few prominent points.
Stretches of white sand beach are interspersed with clumps
of mangrove. Several small rivers empty into the bay
which is fronted by a narrow coral reef.
There are numerous banks, reefs, shoals and several low,
flat islands in Green Island Bay which are mostly
surrounded by deeper water. The channels between these
reefs and islands and the coast of Palawan are mostly
narrow and tortuous and should be used only with local
knowledge.
Depths
3.144
1
Within the bay under favourable conditions the bottom
can be seen in depths as much as 15 m (50 ft) and often a
shoal at this depth may be seen at a distance. Soundings
give little warning of shoaling so any sudden change of
depth should be treated with extreme suspicion.
Principal marks
3.145
1
Landmarks:
Stripe Peak (10°12′N, 119°02′E).
Escarpado Peak (10°07′N, 119°09′E).
Directions
(continued from 3.135)
3.146
1
From the position SE of Flechas Point (10°22′N,
119°34′E), the track leads SW, passing (with positions from
Green Island (10°16′N, 119°30′E)):
2
SE of two dangerous rocks (4 miles E and 5 miles
ENE) fronting the coast W of Flechas Point. Bay
Peak, separated from higher peaks N by a deep
valley, stands 6 miles W of Flechas Point, easily
identified at night because of the low land to the
W of it. The highest peak of the Barbacan Range
is a rounded hill 369 m (1210 ft), situated
10 miles W of Bay Peak. It is covered with trees
but a knob on the W side is quite visible. Thence:
3
SE of Green Island, a small, low, wooded islet
distinguishable, at a distance of 7 miles, only by its
tree-tops, lies on a partly drying coral reef
4 miles in length. It is the E-most island in
Green Island Bay. Thence:
SE of a reef (6 miles SW) with dangerous rocks on
it, fronting Johnson Island (7 miles W), surrounded
by a coral reef, distinguishable only by its trees,
thence:
4
NW of Charybdis Shoal, (14 miles S), and:
NW of Constancia Shoal, (19 miles SSW), thence:
5
NW of West Pasig Shoal, (21 miles SW). Pasig
Shoal lies 9 miles ESE of West Pasig Shoal on the
edge of the bank common with Constancia Shoal.
It is steep-to on its E side. All these shoals show
clearly in favourable light. Thence:
6
SE of North and South Verde Islands (18 miles
WSW). lying together on a NNE/SSW axis at the
S extremity of Green Island Bay.
The track then leads to a position SE of South Verde
Island.
(Directions continue at 3.156)
Anchorages and harbours
Taradungan and Tumarbong
3.147
1
Description. Taradungan and Tumarbong villages are
situated about 7 miles W of Flechas Point (10°22′N,
119°34′E).
2
Directions. From a position about 8 miles SE of Flechas
Point the track leads NW between the reefs and shoals
keeping Bay Peak (3.146) right ahead. From a position
2 miles S of Flechas Point the track leads W passing N of
Puerco Island and Reef Island lying on a drying reef
3 miles N of Green Island (3.146).
3
Anchorages exist off these two villages in depths of 5⋅5
to 7⋅3m (18 to 24 ft) mud.
Roxas
3.148
1
Description. Roxas (10°19′N, 119°21′E) is situated
1 miles W of Barbacan Point at the mouth of Barbacan
River (9°59′N, 118°54′E) carrying waters from the
Barbacan Range. The highest point of this range is a round
wooded hill 368 m (1210 ft) high, from which the ridge
descends towards the river emptying into Honda Bay.
2
Cattle and copra are exported and the San Miguel
Brewery has a branch office in Roxas for the purpose of
gathering silica.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. From a position on the coastal route NW of
Charybdis Shoal (10°02′N, 119°32′E) the track leads NW
CHAPTER 3
96
for about 8 miles to a position SW of a shoal with a depth
of 7⋅3 m (24 ft) over it, from whence the track leads NNW
with Stanlake Island (10°15′N, 119°20′E), ahead. From a
position 2 miles SE of the island the track leads NNW with
the summit of the Barbacan Range right ahead, passing:
4
E of a dangerous rock (1 mile N of Stanlake Island),
and:
W of Flat Island (10°16′N, 119°21′E).
From this position the track leads WNW towards Roxas.
Useful mark:
A Light (9 m in height, no description) is exhibited
from Barbacan Point (10°19′N, 119°21′E).
5
Anchorage exists in 5 to 7 m (16 to 23 ft), sand.
Berth. A jetty 157 m long, owned by the Roxas Silica
Company, lies 9 cables W of Barbacan Point. The
controlling depth is reported as 1⋅7 m. Barges loaded with
silica are towed to Manila.
6
Facilities: a post office; medical clinic; dentist.
Supplies: limited foodstuffs; gasoline.
Communications: airstrip at Del Pilar.
Malcampo and Rizal
3.149
1
Description. Malcampo and Rizal villages, stand 4 miles
and 7 miles respectively, SW of Barbacan Point (10°19′N,
119°21′E).
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. For Malcampo follow the directions given
for Roxas (3.148) until a position is reached with W of
Flat Island (10°16′N, 119°21′E) from whence the track
then leads NW to Malcampo.
2
For Rizal follow the directions given for Roxas on a
track leading WNW passing S of Stanlake Island (3.148) to
a position S of Howley Island (1 miles WSW of Stanlake
Island).
From this position the track leads directly into the
anchorage.
3
Anchorages:
Off Malcampo in depths from 5⋅5 to 7⋅3 m (18 to
24 ft), sand.
Off Rizal in depths from 5⋅5 to 9⋅1 m (18 to 30 ft),
mud and sand.
Caramay
3.150
1
Description. Caramay (10°11′N, 119°14′E) stands at the
N end of Caramay Bay 5 miles SSW from Barranca Point
A conical wooded hill, 210 m (690 ft), high and
prominent, lies 2 miles W of Barranca Point. The peaks
3 miles W of Barranca Point are seldom obscured by
cloud while the higher mountains of the Central Range in
the interior are frequently hidden (see 3.2).
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. From a position on the coastal route NW of
Charybdis Shoal (10°02′N, 119°32′E) the track leads NW
towards the N end of Reinard Island which should be
passed at a distance of between 2⋅5 and 5 cables from
whence the track leads towards the anchorage.
When approaching Caramay from S, enter by the South
Channel between Reinard and North Verde Islands (3.146)
taking care to avoid Zabala Reef, awash, lying 1 mile S of
Reinard Island.
3
Anchorage. There is an anchorage, off the village, in
depths of 5 to 11 m (16 to 36 ft), mud.
Facilities: post office.
Pasco Channel
3.151
1
There is excellent typhoon anchorage for smaller vessels
in Pasco Channel (10°06′N, 119°13′E), W of North Verde
Island (3.146), but the approach channel is very narrow and
should not be attempted without local knowledge. The
channel between South Verde Island (3.146) and Palawan is
foul and shallow.
Other name
3.152
1
Shell Island (10°18′N, 119°24′E).
SOUTH VERDE ISLAND
TO PUERTO PRINCESA
General information
Chart 967, Philippines Chart 4716 (see 1.18)
Route
3.153
1
From a position SE of South Verde Island (10°04′N,
119°13′E), the track leads SW for about 33 miles to a
position SE of Bancoabancoan Point Light (9°44′N,
118°46′E).
Topography
3.154
1
From South Verde Island the coast trends WSW into
Honda Bay. This part of the coast is high and fairly
steep-to with mountain peaks up to 366 m (1200 ft) high
within 1 mile of the coast. The slopes are heavily wooded.
2
Babuyan River flows into the N part of Honda Bay
while Tapul River and Bucungan River flow into the W
side. Between Babuyan and Bucungan rivers the coast
becomes less mountainous. Dense woodlands are fringed
with mangroves which, from Addison Point (9°56′N,
118°48′E), front the entire W coast of Honda Bay.
3
Honda Bay is encumbered with islands, islets, cays,
reefs and shoals most of which lie NW of a line drawn
from a position S of South Verde Island to Bancoabancoan
Point, and within the 180 m (100 fm) contour. Most of
these dangers are surrounded by deep water.
Principal marks
3.155
1
Landmarks:
Cleopatra Needle (10°08′N 118°59′E).
Conical Hill (10°01′N, 118°50′E).
Mount Peel (10°01′N, 118°43′E).
2
Mount Airy (9°57′N, 118°41′E).
Mount Herschel (9°54′N, 118°38′E).
Mount Beaufort (9°50′N, 118°37′E).
Thumb Peak (9°48′N, 118°36′E).
Directions
(continued from 3.146)
3.156
1
From a position SE of South Verde Island (3.146) the
track leads SW, passing (with positions from Fondeado
Island (9°56′N, 118°55′E)):
SE of Bold Point (14 miles ENE) identified by
Sharp Peak and Dome Peak, lying 2 to 2 miles
N of the point. These peaks are frequently seen
when the higher mountains are in clouds. Thence:
2
SE of Mangrove Point (9 miles ENE) which has the
only prominent clump of mangroves along this part
of the coast, thence:
CHAPTER 3
97
3
SE of Emmit Point (9 miles ENE), fronted by coral
reefs extending 3 cables from Mangrove Point and
Emmit Point; separated by a sheltered cove,
suitable for small craft. Thence:
SE of Panglima Reef (8 miles E), an extensive
bank, with a least depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) over it, lies
2 miles NW of this reef, and:
4
SE of Pasco Point (7 miles ENE), low with a few
scattered mangroves. A bank, with depths of less
than 11 m (36 ft) over it, extends 2 miles SE
from Pasco Point. Thence:
SE of Fondeado Island (3.158), well wooded, thence:
SE of several shoals (between 3 miles SSW and
7 miles SW), with least depths of 2⋅4 m (8 ft)
over them, fronting the islands in Honda Bay.
5
The track then leads to a position SE of Bancaobancaon
Point (9°44′N, 118°46′E).
(Directions continue for Palawan Island E part at 3.195)
Anchorages and harbours
Tinabog
3.157
1
Description. Tinabog village (10°00′N, 119°00′E) is a
small settlement lying in the mouth of Tinabog River,
1 miles W of Pasco Point. It is not visible from seaward.
2
Directions. Tinabog anchorage can be approached
directly from either side of Panglima Reef though the route
from the S is favoured. A clear channel lies between an
extensive bank NW of Panglima Reef and another bank,
with a depth of 9 m (29 ft) over it lying 4 miles E of
Fondeado Island.
3
Anchorage exists 1 miles SE of the village in a depth
of 20 m (11 fm), mud.
Small craft, may find better protection S of the river
mouth with the reef, awash, SW of the entrance, bearing
270°, distant 5 cables.
Fondeado Island
3.158
1
Directions. Fondeado Island (9°56′N, 118°55′E), is the
largest island in Honda Bay (3.154). It is fringed with coral
reef. The E part of the island is covered with mangroves.
A sandspit extends from the NW point.
2
Several shoals, with depths of 5⋅5 m 9 m (18 to 30 ft)
over them, lie from 1 to 4 miles E and SE of the island,
and depths of 12 to 17 m (39 to 55 ft), lie within
7 miles SE.
3
Anchorage exists 5 cables N of Fondeado Island,
sheltered from the SW by the island and from the NE by
an extensive drying reef, in depths from 16 to 18 m (53 ft
to 60 ft), sand.
Bucungan River
3.159
1
Description. Lying 11 miles W of Fondeado Island,
Bucungan River (9°54′N, 118°43′E) has a well defined red
ridge close to the N side of the entrance. The town of
Bucungan lies 6 miles above the entrance and can be
reached by large launches at HW.
2
Anchorage exists 1 miles ESE of the entrance in
depths of 20 to 24 m (11 to 13 fm) 4 cables NW of Meara
Island (3.158).
Small craft
Tapul Bay
3.160
1
Description. Tapul Bay (9°56′N, 118°47′E), situated at
the head of Honda Bay (3.154), is entered between
Addison Point (9°56′N, 118°48′E) and Bush Island 9 cables
SW, low and covered with mangroves.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. Approaching Tapul Bay it is recommended
to use the passage between the reef surrounding Buquias
Island (9°56′N, 118°51′E), Parunponon Island and
Kalungpang Island to the NE, and that surrounding Meara
Island, Fraser Island and Makesi Island to the SW. All
these islands are low, wooded and surrounded by coral
reefs which show clearly in favourable light. Thence a
channel leads between Bush Island and a drying reef
extending 2 cables S of Addison Point.
3
Anchorage exists in depths from 9 to 11 m (30 to 36 ft),
mud.
PUERTO PRINCESA
General information
Charts 2914, 967
Position
3.161
1
Puerto Princesa (9°45′N, 118°43′E) is situated at the S
end of Honda Bay. It is entered between Bancoabancoan
Point (3.179) and Panagtaran Point, 2 miles S.
Function
3.162
1
As the capital of Palawan province and the island’s
major port Puerto Princesa is a First Port of Entry. It
handles a busy inter-island trade. Principal exports include
veneers, logs and lumber, corn, copra, dried and fresh fish,
meats, casoy seed and cooking oils. Cold storage facilities
are available in the town.
Topography
3.163
1
Puerto Princesa lies on the E side of a large irregular
inlet which extends 6 miles in a NW direction. Many rivers
empty into the inlet most of which rise on the slopes of the
mountain range lying to NW where peaks are often
shrouded in cloud. The coast of the inlet is low-lying and
densely wooded. The N and W sides are shoal. There is a
coral reef extending 3 cables S of Bush Point, a low
promontory extending S from the middle of the N coast of
the bay, and two isolated coral patches SE and SW of it.
Cana Island, which may be identified by its coconut palms,
lies on the SE patch.
Depths
3.164
1
Vinagre Reef with a depth of 0⋅3 m (1 ft) over it lies
1 miles WSW of Tidepole Point. The waters W of a line
drawn from Gedeon Shoal to Long Point, 1 miles N of
the pierhead, are dangerously shoaled and should be
avoided.
Approach and entry
3.165
1
The port is approached from E between Bancaobancaon
Point and Panagtaran Point and entered at a position NE of
Heron Point (9°43′N, 118°44′E).
CHAPTER 3
98
Traffic
3.166
1
In 1999 the port was used by 3321 domestic vessels,
totalling more than 1⋅2 million grt and by 35 foreign vessels
totalling more than 60 000 grt.
Port Authority
3.167
1
Philippines Ports Authority (PPA), Port area, Puerto
Princesa City, Zip code 2901, Palawan, Philippines.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
3.168
1
There is a least depth of 11 m (36 ft) in the inner
harbour.
Deepest and longest berth
3.169
1
The pierhead (3.177).
Mean tidal levels
3.170
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅2 m; mean neap range about
0⋅1 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
3.171
1
1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.172
1
Cruise liner; length 200 m 37 012 grt.
Arrival information
Port radio
3.173
1
It should be noted that Puerto Princesa is not equipped
with VHF radio.
Anchorages
3.174
1
The following anchorages lie within the harbour as
shown on the chart (positioned from Tidepole Point
(9°44′N, 118°44′E):
A1 (8 cables WNW), reported to be for use by
vessels of less than 1000 dwt in a depth of about
20 m (11 fm).
A2 (8 cables SSW) for vessels of more than
1000 dwt, in depth of about 25 m (13⋅5 fm).
Quarantine anchorage (8 cables S).
Quarantine anchorage (1 mile WNW).
Anchorage 2 cables N of the pierhead (9 cables
NNW) in depths from 16 to 18 m (52 to 60 ft),
mud. It is well protected and is recommended as a
good typhoon anchorage.
Pilotage
3.175
1
Pilotage is compulsory. There are two pilot boarding
grounds for all foreign vessels:
Pilot station 1. For vessels of 1000 grt or less
(9°44′⋅0N, 118°43′⋅1E).
Pilot station 2. For vessels over 1000 grt (9°43′⋅3N,
118°43′⋅5E).
2
Requests should be sent to the port authority at least
24 hours in advance by radio through the agent’s office.
The message should include ship’s and company’s
names; flag; type of vessel; length; draft; grt; nature and
volume of cargo for discharge; number of landing
passengers.
Tugs
3.176
1
Tugs are available and arranged through the local agent.
Harbour
General layout
3.177
1
The berthing area of Puerto Princesa is formed of a
large, square concrete apron on concrete piles extending
NW from the NW extremity of the city. Berths are
available on all three sides.
Storm signals
3.178
1
Storm signals are exhibited from a mast at the root of
the pier. See 1.32.
Principal marks
3.179
1
Landmarks:
Table Head, rising 3 miles SSW of Panagtaran
Point, the termination of a gradually ascending
range of hills extending SW (9°41′N, 118°45′E).
Twin spires of the church 2 miles WNW of
Bancaobancaon Point.
White government buildings.
2
Major light:
Bancaobancaon Point Light, (concrete tower, 11 m in
height) (9°44′N, 118°46′E).
Bancaobancoan Lighthouse (3.179)
(Original dated 2000)
(Photograph − Copyright Granted)
CHAPTER 3
99
Directions for entering harbour
3.180
1
Caution. At night when approaching Puerto Princesa the
shore lights of Canigaran village, 1 miles N of
Bancaobancaon Point, are visible some time before those of
Puerto Princesa, which may be confusing.
2
From a position S of Bancaobancaon Point the track
leads WNW to the quarantine anchorage and the pilot
boarding ground passing (with positions from
Bancaobancaon Point):
SSW of a beacon (pole, white triangle) (close W)
standing on the coastal bank. A small pier in ruins
lies nearby. Thence:
3
NNE of Village Rocks (2 miles SW) conspicuous
for their appearance of being a cluster of native
huts, lying 1 cable W of Red Cliff, thence:
NNE of Heron Point (2 miles WSW), a
conspicuous, short spit extending from the SW
shore, planted with coconut palms. Heron Point
marks the N side of the entrance to Abucayan
Inlet (3.189).
4
The track then leads to a position 7 cables SSW of
Tidepole Point (2 miles WNW) from where a light (white
metal framework tower on a white house, 8 m in height) is
exhibited.
5
From this position the track leads N to the pierhead and
inner anchorage, passing (with positions from Tidepole
Point):
E of a shoal (8 cables WSW), with a depth of 5 m
(17 ft) over it. Vinagre Reef, with a rock awash at
its centre, lies 5 cables W of the shoal. Thence:
E of another shoal (1 mile W), with a depth of 1⋅8 m
(6 ft) over it, thence:
W of a dangerous wreck (mast) (6 cables NNW),
lying close S of Princesa Point, thence:
E of a shoal (9 cables NW), with a depth of 3⋅3 m
(11 ft) over it, thence:
E of Gedeon Shoal (1 mile NW), marked on its E
side by a buoy.
6
Useful marks:
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) 3 cables NE of
Tidepole Point.
Water tank (red lights) standing close NE of the root
of the pier.
Group of buildings prominent from seaward,
including a building painted yellow surmounted by
a cupola, standing on the W side of Abucayan
Inlet (9°42′N, 118°43′E).
Berths
Moorings
3.181
1
Three mooring buoys are situated 3 cables WSW of
Tidepole Point.
Alongside berths
3.182
1
The pierhead, 193 m in length with a maximum draft
alongside of 8⋅2 m and lies along the NW side of the port
apron.
2
The NE and SW sides provide berths for smaller
vessels. They have draft limitations of 6 and 5 m
respectively. The outer end of a submerged concrete
landing with a depth of 0⋅6 m (2 ft) over it, lies 2 cables
NE of the pierhead. A small pier lies 1 miles NNE of the
main pierhead.
1
It is reported that an ore loading berth with a depth
alongside of 1⋅8 m is situated 1 miles W of
Bancaobancaon Point.
Port services
Repairs
3.183
1
Machine shop for small repairs, in the penal colony of
Iwahig (3.190); divers.
Repairs can be carried out on board upon receipt of a
“Permit to Repair” issued by Philippines Port Authority for
which there is a small fee.
Puerto Princesa Tidepole Light (3.180)
(Original dated 2000)
(Photograph − Copyright Granted)
CHAPTER 3
100
Other facilities
3.184
1
Provincial hospital; privately owned hospital; private
practicing physicians; drug stores; ballast/slop reception is
not available; garbage disposal.
Supplies
3.185
1
Fresh water; all grades of fuel; kerosene; fresh, dry and
frozen provisions.
Communications
3.186
Airport 1 miles E.
Harbour regulations
3.187
1
Use of VHF radio above a frequency of 161⋅500 Mhz is
strictly prohibited within the port.
No vessel may enter the port without a Notice of Arrival
on an approved form issued by the Philippines Port
Authority.
Small craft
Saguit Inlet
3.188
1
Saguit Inlet (9°41′N, 118°45′E), fringed with mangroves,
is situated on the S side of the entrance to Puerto Princesa.
There is a channel between Village Rocks (3.180), on the
NW side of the entrance to the inlet, and Tabuntabun Point,
the SE entrance point. The channel leads to an anchorage
for small vessels at the head of the inlet.
Abucayan Inlet
3.189
1
Description. Abucayan Inlet (9°42′N, 118°44′E), fringed
with mangroves, is situated close W of Saguit Inlet. The
navigable channel at the entrance to the inlet is only
1 cable wide between the reefs on either side which are
visible in favourable conditions. The entrance to the inlet is
marked by buoys.
2
The inlet widens inside the entrance, but steep-to reefs
extend from either shore. A shoal with a depth of 1⋅2 m
(4 ft) over it, lies on the W side of the inlet, 7 cables SW
of Heron Point; a pile marks its E edge.
Local knowledge is required.
Iwahig River
3.190
1
Iwahig River enters the W side of the port opposite
Puerto Princesa. The river is entered S of River Inlet
(9°44′N, 118°42′E) through a channel marked by beacons.
The river is navigable at HW by craft drawing up to 1⋅5 m
(5 ft). Iwahig village, the site of a penal colony, is situated
4 miles up-river on the N side.
PUERTO PRINCESA TO RASA ISLAND
General information
Charts 287, 967
Route
3.191
1
From a position SE of Bancaobancaon Point (9°44′N,
118°46E) the track leads SW for about 38 miles to a
position SE of Rasa Island (9°14′N, 118°27′E).
Topography
3.192
1
A wide, level plain, densely wooded, rises from the
coast to the mountains. The coast is fringed with
mangroves and coral reef.
Depths
3.193
1
Deep water close S of Puerto Princesa gives way,
7 miles SW of Panagtaran Point (9°41′N, 118°45′E), to a
gradually widening bank on which there are many
dangerous shoals. The edge of the bank is frequently
marked by tide-rips and a strong current may be
experienced in the vicinity which, however, is not
experienced farther offshore or on the bank itself.
Principal marks
3.194
1
Landmarks:
Table Head. (9°38′N, 118°43′E) (3.179).
Central Peak (9°38′N, 118°35′E), high, sharp and
isolated by a deep valley; the most N peak of a
central range.
Anepahan Peaks (9°38′N, 118°27′E), The N peak is
sharp, the S peak flat.
Mount Aborlan (9°31′N, 118°28′E).
Victoria Peaks (9°24′N, 118°19′E). A massive
formation with numerous peaks and deep gorges.
A wide fertile valley separates these peaks from
the Sultan Range, 9 miles farther S.
2
Major light:
Bancoabancoan Point Light (9°44′N, 118°46E)
(3.179).
Directions
(continued from 3.156)
3.195
1
Cautions. Extreme caution is necessary when navigating
this part of the coast. It must be remembered that in such
an area, encumbered with isolated rocks and shoals, all
dangers to navigation may not have been found during
survey.
All the islands mentioned below are very difficult to
identify from seaward because their vegetation blends with
that on the Palawan coast.
2
From a position SE of Bancoabancoan Point (9°44′N,
118°46E), the track leads SW, passing (with positions from
Malanao Island (9°27′N, 118°37′E)):
SE of Table Head (13 miles NNW) (3.179), thence:
SE of Tagbarungis Point (7 miles NNE), itself not
prominent but Central Peak (3.194) rises behind it.
Tagbarungis River discharges 5 cables NE of the
point. Inagawan (Inagauan) village (3.197) lies
1 miles SW. Thence:
3
SE of a patch (4 miles NE), with a depth of 5 m
(16 ft) over it, lying 2 miles SE of Maasin Point,
thence:
4
SE of a patch (3 miles ESE), with a depth of 8⋅7 m
(28 ft) over it, fronting Malanao Island. These two
patches lie on a bank with depths of less than
18 m (60 ft) on it. Malanao Island and Puntog
Island, (1 miles N), lie on the Palawan coastal
reef on the S side of Village Bay. Isaub River
enters the sea close W of Puntog Islands. Thence:
5
SE of Sombrero Island (5 miles SSW), thickly
wooded, composed of sandy clay and surrounded
by a coral reef extending 5 cables from the N end
and 3 cables from the S end. A bank of sand and
CHAPTER 3
101
coral, with a least depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it,
extends 6 miles E of Malanao Island and Sombrero
Island. Thence:
6
SE of Native Point (12 miles SW), low, heavily
wooded and fringed with a coral reef. Arena
Island, lies 2 miles SSE of Native Point. A white
sand and coral spit extends 1 miles from its N
extremity. Two patches with depths of 9⋅4 m
(31 ft), are reported to lie 4 miles and 6 miles
respectively, NE of Arena Island.
7
The track then leads to a position SE of Rasa Island
(17 miles SW), few trees, and is difficult to distinguish
when approaching from seaward. A patch with a depth of
7⋅3 m (24 ft) over it, lies 3 miles SE of Rasa Island and
another patch with a depth of 11⋅9 m (39 ft) over it, lies
6 miles farther SE. The bottom is visible over this latter
patch and there are tide-rips in the vicinity. A patch with a
depth of 6⋅9 m (22 ft) over it, lies 4 miles S of Rasa
Island. Several shoals lie between Arena Island and Rasa
Island.
(Directions continue for Palawan — E side at 3.206)
Anchorages and harbours
Binunsalian Bay
3.196
1
Description. Binunsalian Bay is entered between Bay
Point (9°40′N, 118°45′E) and a point 8 cables SW. Its
shores are fringed with coral but a narrow channel with a
depth of 2⋅4 m (8 ft) leads from the head of the bay into
Turtle Bay which affords excellent shelter for small craft. A
drying coral shoal lies in the middle of Turtle Bay on the
extremity of a sand spit extending from its head.
Local knowledge is required.
Inagawan Village
3.197
1
Description. Inagawan Village lies 1 miles SW of
Tagbarungis Point (9°34′N, 118°40′E) (3.195). Inagawan
River discharges close W of it. There is a depth of 1 m
(3 ft) over the bar at half tide. Small boats can navigate the
river for about 2 miles. The village is not visible from
seaward but its position may be identified by a high, sandy
beach in front of it. It is a station of the Iwahig Penal
Colony (3.190). A good landmark is a well shaped cone
peak made prominent by the surrounding flat country.
2
Directions. From a position on the coastal route SE of
Bancoabancoan Point (9°44′N, 118°46E) the track leads W
passing shoals, with depths from 5⋅5 to 9 m (18 to 30 ft)
over them, lying on a spit extending 3 miles SSE from the
mouth of Inagawan River.
3
Anchorage exists off Inagawan village in fair weather,
in a depth of 9 m (30 ft) mud.
Malanao Island
3.198
1
Description. Malanao Island (9°28′N, 118°38′E), flat
and covered with mangroves, lies 1 mile S of Puntog
Island. A reef extends 3 cables SW from the island. The
channel between Malanao Island and the coast of Palawan
is foul and intricate. A channel close W of Malanao Island
may be used by smaller craft drawing no more than 2⋅5 m
(8 ft).
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. When approaching Malanao Island, steer W
to a position 5 cables S of the S extremity of Malanao
Island passing between two coral patches with depths of
8⋅2 and 8⋅6 m (27 and 28 ft) over them lying 4 cables SE
and 9 cables S, respectively, of the S extremity of Malanao
Island. Thence steer NW to a position 8 cables SE of
Cutter Point and then steer N into the anchorage.
Anchorage for smaller vessels lies between Cutter Point
(9°27′N, 118°35′E) and Malanao Island, in a depth of
6⋅4 m (21 ft).
Aborlan
3.199
1
Description. Aborlan River (9°26′N, 118°34′E) flows
out through two mouths, one on either side of an islet
4 cables in length, situated 1 miles S of Cutter Point. The
N mouth is the deeper channel allowing small craft can
cross the bar over which there is a depth of 1 m (3 ft) at
half tide.
2
Aborlan town is of some importance on account of its
educational and political development for the several tribes
of central Palawan.
Copra, cattle and rattan are exported.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. Approaching Aborlan anchorage on a W
track following the directions for Malanao Island (3.198),
thence, From a position 5 cables S of Malanao Island the
track leads W with the N mouth of Aborlan River right
ahead, passing 4 cables N of a coral reef with extensive
shoal grounds surrounding it, lying 1 miles SW of
Malanao Island. From, this position the track leads directly
into the anchorage.
Anchorage. The usual commercial anchorage is off the
mouths of Aborlan River, in depths of 7 to 9 m (24 to
30 ft).
Facilities: dispensary with a doctor.
Lolo Bay
3.200
1
Description. Lolo Bay (9°21′N, 118°33′E) lies between
the two extremities of Calver Point. A light (no description)
is exhibited from Calver Point. A light yellow sand beach
is easily identified on approach. Maasin River flows out on
the N side of the promontory and Tigman River on the S
side.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage exists NNE of Culver Point in depths of
7⋅3 m (24 ft), and affords good protection during the SW
monsoon (May to September).
Panacan
3.201
1
Description. Panacan Point (9°17′N, 118°27′E), sharp
and low, has a drying sandbank extending 4 cables E of
Casuarina Point. A rock awash lies 5 cables S of the point
and another lies 2 cables SE. Panacan village is situated
close within the mouth of Panacan River near Casuarina
Point.
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage exists 7 cables NE of Casuarina Point.
RASA ISLAND TO SIR JAMES BROOKE
POINT
General information
Charts 967, 287
Route
3.202
1
From a position SE of Rasa Island (9°14′N, 118°27′E),
the track leads SW for about 46 miles to a position SE of
Sir James Brooke Point (8°46′N, 117°50′E).
CHAPTER 3
102
Topography
3.203
1
The coast between Rasa Island and Sir James Brooke
Point is heavily indented by Island Bay. The bay is steep-to
on its W side but low-lying at Bivouac Point and Nariz
Point, the NE and SW extremities of the bay. Shoals and
islets lie up to 16 miles offshore.
Depths
3.204
1
Along this part of the Palawan coast mariners should, if
possible, keep to deep water and exercise caution when
approaching soundings of less than 550 m (300 fm). Inside
this line of soundings shoals dangerous to navigation
maybe encountered.
Principal marks
3.205
1
Landmarks:
Sultan Peak (9°15′N, 118°14′E).
Mount Corumi (9°01′N, 117°55′E), a conical peak.
Mount Calibugon (8°59′N, 117°52′E), a table hill.
Mount Gantung (8°58′N, 117°49′E).
Mount Landargun (8°55′N, 117°48′E).
2
Major light:
Sir James Brooke Point Light (concrete pole on SE
side of a blockhouse, 5 m in height) (8°46′N,
117°50′E) 11 m high.
Directions
(continued from 3.195)
3.206
1
From a position SE of Rasa Island (9°14′N, 118°27′E),
the track leads SW passing, (with positions from Tagalinog
Island (8°53′N, 118°15′E)):
2
SE of Altnacraig Shoal (8 miles NE) bottom visible
and discolouration may be seen up to 1 mile away.
Heavy tide-rips are often encountered in its
vicinity. A patch with a depth of 8⋅2 m (20 ft) over
it and a patch with a depth of 8⋅8 m (29 ft) over it,
lie 5 miles N and 3 miles NW respectively, of
Altnacraig Shoal. A dangerous wreck lies 1 miles
SW of the shoal. Thence:
3
SE of Marabout Shoal (5 miles NE). The ground
between Altnacraig and Marabout shoals has
depths of 16 to 18 m (53 to 60 ft). Thence:
SE of Tagalinog Island, fringed by a reef, and:
4
SE of Pescado Point (13 miles W). Iraray Light (no
description) is exhibited from a position 1 miles
NW of the point. Thence:
SE of Barracuda Reef (7 miles W), lying 5 miles
SE of Pescado Point, thence:
5
SE of Nariz Point (15 miles W), low and covered
with mangroves and with a small hill behind it.
The coast either side of Nariz Point is low and
heavily wooded with few outstanding features, but
inland it rises to the foothills of the Mantalingajan
Range. Caramay River empties close N of Nariz
Point and its bay affords protection for small craft.
Thence:
6
SE of Filantropia Point (19 miles W), fringed with a
reef extending about 3 cables offshore. A shoal
with a depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft) over it, lies 6 miles
SE of Filantropia Point. Small craft may find
protection from the NE monsoon W of the point.
Thence:
SE of a coral patch (18 miles SSW) with a depth of
6⋅7 m (22 ft) over it.
The track then leads to a position SE of Sir James
Brooke Point (9°46′N, 117°50′E) which is low and sandy.
(Directions continue for Palawan — SE part at 3.214)
Anchorages and harbours
Island Bay
3.207
1
Description. Island Bay is entered between Relief Point
(9°10′N, 118°13′E) and Scott Point 11 miles SSW. The
coastline in the vicinity of Relief Point is fairly regular,
low and flat, almost free of mangroves and edged with
sandy beaches. The coast around the rest of the bay is
irregular and moderately steep with several unremarkable,
low-lying points including Ingiaran Point and Scott Point.
2
There are numerous dangerous shoals in the bay. Of the
islands and islets that give the bay its name, Arrecife,
Inamukan and Bessie islands are the largest. The others are
Bangawan, Temple, Pagasinan, Pulaw Talam, Bintaugan and
Gardiner islands. All these islands are low, fringed with
coral and separated by tortuous deep water channels.
The central range of the Mantalingajan Mountains rises
SW of Island Bay.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. From a position on the coastal route SE of
Altnacraig Shoal (3.206) the track leads WNW passing:
NNE of Marabout Shoal (3.206), and:
SSW of Altnacraig Shoal, thence:
Either side of Talakitok Reef (9°00′N, 118°10′E) to a
position 3 miles SSE of Arrecife Island from
which position channels lead directed into the
anchorage.
4
Anchorage exists 6 cables SW of Separation Point
(9°08′N, 118°10′E).
Anchorage for moderate sized vessels exists 2 cables
W of Inamukan Island in a depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft) and for
larger vessels, SE of the island in a depth of 18⋅3 m (60 ft)
mud. This latter anchorage may be subject to occasional
heavy swells.
Crawford Cove situated on the SW side of Island Bay,
is entered S of Ingiaran Point. It extends 1 mile inland and
has a depth of 9 m (30 ft) in the entrance.
Brooke’s Point
3.208
1
Position and Function. The settlement of Brooke’s
Point (8°46′N, 117°50′E), situated close W of Sir James
Brooke Point at the head of Ipolote Bay, is growing in
commercial importance. Rice, copra, cattle and resins are
the chief exports. The town has a sawmill producing
lumber sufficient only for local needs.
2
Traffic. In 1999, a total of 367 domestic vessels used
the port totalling more than 34 000 grt.
3
Pilotage, available but not compulsory.
4
Directions. It is safe to approach Ipolete Bay from most
seaward directions avoiding the shoal 6⋅8 miles SE of the
light with a least depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it. Care should
be taken, when approaching the anchorage, to avoid a
small coral reef close to the light.
5
Useful mark:
Warehouse with a red galvanised iron roof, prominent
from S.
6
Anchorage exists in Ipolete Bay SW of the town in 5⋅5
to 9⋅1 m (18 to 30 ft) mud. It offers good protection during
N to NW winds.
7
Berths. A stone mole stands 5 cables NW of the light
and was reported, in 1965, to have a depth of 0⋅9 m off its
CHAPTER 3
103
seaward end. A small concrete pier N of the light was
ruined in 1962. A reinforced concrete pier, 60 m long and
6 m wide exhibiting a light (no description), has been
constructed elsewhere in the area and there are facilities for
the handling of cement, cool cargo, fertilizer, grain.
livestock, liquid propane gas and forestry products. A
Ro-Ro ramp 15 m wide and 31 m long has recently been
completed. There is an on-going building programme in the
port.
8
Facilities: post office; radio station; health clinic.
Supplies: fuel oil, diesel oil, gasoline; fresh water;
provisions, dry and frozen.
Small craft
Mantaquin Bay
3.209
1
Description. Mantaquin Bay is entered between Bivouac
Point (9°11′N, 118°21′E) and Rasa Island 5 miles ENE.
Emelina Island, lying on the SW side of the bay, is low
and wooded; it is fringed with mangrove. A white sand and
coral spit extends 1 cables from its N end. To the W of
Emelina Island there is a succession of sand beaches on a
low lying coast terminating at Bivouac Point which is
itself, low and inconspicuous.
2
Tando village, 7 cables W of Casuarina Point, is
approached through Mantaquin Bay which gives good
protection from NE winds.
Local knowledge is required.
SIR JAMES BROOKE POINT TO BUGSUK ISLAND
General information
Charts 287, 948
Route
3.210
1
From a position SE of Sir James Brooke Point (8°46′N,
117°50′E), the track leads SW to a position SE of
Wakefield Shoal (8°19′N, 117°52′E) (3.214), thence WSW
to a position SSE of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E).
Topography
3.211
1
The S part of Palawan Island descends gradually from
the peaks of the Mantalingajan Range (3.207) to the low,
wooded, shelving point of Cape Buliluyan (3.216) over a
distance of about 40 miles. This descent is interrupted by
the dome shaped Bulanjao Range (3.213), about midway
between Mount Mantalingajan and Cape Buliluyan, rising
to Escapardo Peak. The coast is heavily indented by San
Antonio Bay and Coral Bay.
2
For the W side of Palawan Island, see China Sea Pilot
Volume II.
Depths
3.212
1
North of a line drawn from Wakefield Shoal to the S
extremity of Bugsuk Island many dangerous shoals exist.
South of this line depths of between 100 and 300 m (55
and 165 fm) prevail. However isolated dangers exist as
shown on the chart. The area should be navigated with
caution.
Principal marks
3.213
1
Landmarks:
Addison Peak (8°48′N, 117°45′E), steep on its E and
W sides and usually clear of cloud, except in the
rainy season (May to December), when higher
peaks are frequently obscured.
2
Mount Mantalingajan (8°49′N, 117°40′E).
Pagoda Cliff (8°43′N, 117°30′E), a remarkable
limestone edifice with a table top summit cleft at
either end to form distinctive pinnacles. There is a
small rock in between these pinnacles visible from
the SE.
3
Escapardo Peak (8°36′N, 117°30′E). The Bulanjao
Range is of a reddish colour, its highest point not
easily distinguishable. Escapardo Peak lies on the
S side of the range and is identified by its rise in
an otherwise smooth slope.
4
Major light:
Sir James Brooke Point Light (8°46′N, 117°50′E)
(3.205).
Directions
(continued from 3.206)
3.214
1
Caution. Vessels having no reason to enter San Antonio
Bay should not close this part of the coast nearer than
8 miles, as navigation among the numerous shoals and reef
of the region is a risk.
2
Track. From a position SE of Sir James Brooke Point
(8°46′N, 117°50′E) the track leads SW, passing (with
positions from Iglesia Point (8°30′N, 117°29′E)):
SE of Wakefield Shoal (25 miles ESE) on which the
Wakefield struck in 1889, coral and sand, steep-to
on its S side.
3
The track then leads WSW, passing:
NNW of a reported shoal (1991) (30 miles SSE),
with a depth of 4⋅5 m (15 ft) over it, thence:
SSE of Wright Shoal, (14 miles SSE), and:
4
SSE of Argyll Shoal (10 miles SSE). In 1892 the
British barque Argyll was lost by striking this
shoal. Thence:
SSE of Dickins Shoal (12 miles S), and:
5
SSE of Ursula Island (9 miles S), low, sandy,
covered with trees and vines. A reef extends
7 cables NE. Landing is possible on the NW side.
6
The track then leads to a position SSE of Bugsuk Island
(20 miles SSW) (4.26), largest of a group of twelve
islands lying on a reef surrounding the S extremity of
Palawan Island. It is flat and densely wooded but with a
few coconut plantations. Bugsuk River divides the island at
HW.
(Directions continue for Balabac Strait — E approaches at 4.59 and for Balabac Strait in reverse at 4.23)
Anchorages and harbours
San Antonio Bay
3.215
1
Description. San Antonio Bay (8°38′N, 117°36′E) is
entered between Seygam Islands, two large clumps of
mangroves on a stretch of coastal reef conspicuous because
of the scarcity of vegetation elsewhere, and Sarap Point
8 miles SSW. The approach is encumbered by the extensive
Heuvo Shoals passage through which should not be
attempted. Egg Reef lying 3 miles S of Seygam Islands
has a small sand cay on it that shifts during storms. Gull
CHAPTER 3
104
Reef lying 1 miles SSW of Egg Island, is steep-to and
dries 0⋅6 m (2 ft). Pirate Island lying 1 miles SE of Sarap
Point, has trees on its NE end and a reef extending
5 cables from its E end.
2
The inner part of the bay is comparatively free of
dangers. Discoloured water from Iwahig River and several
lesser tributaries, flowing into the SW part of the bay,
make these dangers difficult to see. Iwahig River is the
largest in S Palawan with a depth of 0⋅8 m (2 ft) over the
bar but greater depths inside. The coast of San Antonio
Bay is a low, flat plain two miles wide which rises to the
spectacular limestone escarpment of Pagoda Cliff (3.213).
3
Bonobono on the N shore is the most important
settlement.
4
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage. There is anchorage, sheltered from SW
winds, N of Pirate Island in a depth of 29 m (16 fm) mud.
Coral Bay
General information
3.216
1
Description. Coral Bay (8°25′N, 117°22′E) is the area
lying between Iglesia Point and the N end of Pandanan
Island and Bugsuk Island (3.214). The NW side of the bay
is formed by the Palawan coast. The wide alluvial plain of
the N coast narrows abruptly, in the W, to the foothills of
the Bulanjao Range. Low Hock (8°40′N, 117°25′E), is the
most prominent peak of this range. From Escarpado Peak
(3.213), the only other identifiable peak in the range, the
slopes descend in undulating hills to Mount Wangle (SW
Hill) (8°28′N, 117°16′E)
The coastal plain widens again in a gradual descent
towards Cape Buliluyan (8°20′N, 117°12′E) (4.13).
2
Coral Bay is encumbered with numerous shoals, cays,
reefs, islets and islands which encumber the S part of the
bay. The N coasts of Bugsuk and Pandanan Islands have
great reefs extending more than 5 miles offshore much of
which dries at LW. These reefs break the swell from the
Sulu Sea during the NE monsoon, though moderate seas
remain in the bay. Bowen Island, densely wooded, lies on
an extensive reef 7 cables N of Bugsuk Island.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Directions
3.217
1
Caution. Attention is drawn to the area between
Arrecife Island and the N end of Bugsuk Island, 9 miles
SW, which is extremely foul.
2
Directions for east approach. From a position on the
coastal route SE of Wakefield Shoal the track leads WNW
passing (with positions from Dickins Shoal (8°18′N,
117°30′E)):
SSW of a shoal (13 miles ENE) (3.214), thence:
NNE of Wright Shoal (9 miles ENE) (3.214),
thence:
NNE of Argyll Shoal (6 miles NNE) (3.214), thence:
NNE of a shoal (8 miles NNE), with a depth of
5⋅8 m (19 ft) over it.
3
From this position the track leads W passing:
S of Iglesia Point (12 miles N) so entering the N
part of Coral Bay, thence:
N of Arrecife Island (9 miles NNW), with a drying
coral reef extending 1 miles E and 7 cables N.
4
Directions for south−west approach. From a position
W of Bululuyan Point the track leads through a narrow,
deep water, unmarked channel passing between Pandanan
Island and the coast of Palawan.
Anchorages
3.218
1
There is a fair anchorage W of Iglesia Point, during the
NE monsoon (October to March) in depths of 11 to 13 m
(36 to 42 ft), mud, avoiding a 2⋅7 m (9 ft) patch almost in
the centre of the anchorage area.
2
There is a good typhoon anchorage (8°24′N, 117°16′E)
behind the larger of the two Cabugan Islands in a depth of
13 m (42 ft).
Rio Tuba
3.219
1
Position and function. Rio Tuba discharges into Coral
Bay 3 miles W of Iglesia Point (8°30′N, 117°16′E) between
Marantow Point and Okayan Point.
It is reported that anchored vessels load bulk ore (nickel
silicate) off Rio Tuba.
2
Pilotage. Compulsory pilotage is provided from Puerto
Princesa (3.161), requiring at least 24 hours notice of ETA.
The pilot boards from a canoe, about 5 miles NNE of
Ursula Island (3.214). There are several dangerous shoals
between Ursula Island and Arrecife Island, as shown on the
chart.
3
Directions. Refer to Coral Bay (3.216).
Useful marks:
Two large fuel tanks stand on Okayan Point, an
entrance point of the river, and are easily visible
from seaward.
4
Anchorage exists 1 miles NNE of Arrecife Island in a
depth of 31 m (17 fm) mud, bounded by lines joining
Arrecife Island to Marantow Point and Arrecife Island to
Iglesia Point between 1⋅3 and 2⋅2 miles off the island.
5
Berth. Concrete pier extends from the coast close to the
larger of the fuel tanks. It is owned by the Rio Tuba
Nickel Mining Corporation (RTNMC) and can be used by
small craft. In 1976 two range markers and several buoys
were laid in the fairway leading to this pier.
6
Facilities: local health centre; RTNMC hospital.
NOTES
105
Kudat Sandakan
NP 31
China Sea
Pilot
Vol II
948
1338
967
2
87
967
287
1650
1649
950
3728
1654
1868
928
1338
2576
2576
3525
Balabac 2914
0704
4
.
2
0
4
.
2
9
4.46
4
.
5
7
4
.
8
4
.
1
0
6
4
.
7
0
4
.
6
3
4
.
1
1
5
4
.
1
3
9
4
.
1
4
8
4
.
1
3
0
4.162
4.79
118°
8°
7°
6°
5°
8°
7°
6°
5°
117°
116°
Chapter 4 - Balabac Strait and Sabah - north and north-east coasts
Longitude 117° East from Greenwich
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´ 30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´ 30´
118°
116°
106
107
CHAPTER 4
BALABAC STRAIT AND SABAH — NORTH AND NORTH−EAST COASTS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3728, 1654, 948, 287, 1650, 1649, 3483
Scope of the chapter
4.1
1
This chapter describes Balabac Island (8°00′N, 117°00′E)
and the islands and channels of the Balabac Strait; the N
coast of Sabah; the channels S and W of Pulau Banggi
(7°18′N, 117°10′E); the shoal grounds to the E of Pulau
Banggi and Selat Malawali and the Sabah coast from Pulau
Kalampunian (7°03′N, 116°45′E) to Sandakan (5°50′N,
118°07′E). It is arranged as follows:
2
Balabac Strait (4.7)
Sabah — N and NE sides (4.60).
Topography
4.2
1
Balabac Island is densely wooded. Several ranges of
high hills are situated on the S and E sides of the island
and are dominated by Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E).
Irregular in shape, there are dangerous shoal grounds
extending up to 8 miles offshore from the W side. The E
side is more regular and is fairly steep-to.
2
The N coast of Borneo (Sabah) trends E then SE from
Pulau Kalampunian and is heavily indented with bays,
creeks and rivers. Formed of sedimentary rocks during the
Cainozoic period about 23 million years ago, the
hydrological cycle has since eroded the land forming
isolated hills scattered over low and often swampy flats all
densely forested. The entire coast is fringed with coral but
rivers have formed extensive mud flats in their estuaries.
3
The off-lying islands, similarly formed, have the same
general appearance.
Depths
4.3
1
From the South China Sea the bottom shelves gradually
into Balabac Strait (7°30′N, 117°00′E) where depths
continue in excess of 100 m (55 fm) along the E coast of
Balabac Island. On the E side of this channel the ground
shelves quickly towards the 50 m (27 fm) contour. In these
shallows lie most of the islands, dangerous reefs and shoals
described in this chapter.
2
East of Cagayan Sulu Island (7°00′N, 118°30′E) depths
increase rapidly into the Sulu Sea. but in an area contained
between Pulau Banggi (7°18′N, 117°10′E), San Miguel
Islands (7°44′N, 118°30′E) and the NE coast of Sabah,
there are numerous coral reefs, incompletely surveyed or
unsurveyed areas, as shown on the chart, all dangerous to
navigation.
Tidal streams
4.4
1
Tidal streams throughout the area of this chapter depend
upon prevailing winds. In the months of October and
November, after frequent W winds, they may set E
becoming less strong during the ebb. In July, if the weather
has been unusually fine, with light E winds, they set W
with similar rates. In Selat Banggi Selatan tidal streams are
weak but will conform to those experienced in the Balabac
Strait.
2
Along the NE coast of Sabah tides are mainly diurnal
though between Pulau Malawali (4.124) and Sandakan
Harbour (4.162) there appears to be no regular tidal stream.
During the NE monsoon (October to April), there seems to
be a constant NW flow.
3
Tide-rips occur around the S coast of Balabac Island and
the off-lying shoals.
Hazards
4.5
1
In the afternoon, with the sun astern, the outer shoals
and reefs off Balabac Island will generally be seen in
sufficient time to avoid them. However, with the sun ahead,
the outer shoals are difficult to see until close to them.
After heavy rains the reefs are difficult to see because of
water discolouration.
2
It should be borne in mind, that no reliance can be
placed in the positions of sand cays which have no
vegetation on them, the action of the sea frequently causing
them to shift, or even disappear.
Beacons are sometimes difficult to see.
Natural conditions
4.6
1
Typhoons are very infrequent. During the NE monsoon
(October to April) occasional gales of several days duration
may be experienced but at the beginning and end of this
monsoon the winds are less strong. The wet season is from
November to January when the majority of the annual
rainfall (315 centimetres) occurs. Rainfall during the SW
monsoon comes in showers at night or early in the morning
though more extensive rainfall may be experienced in June,
known locally as the second wet season. On 15 June 1884,
5⋅2 centimetres fell in 40 minutes.
2
In the period 1960 to 1990 Sabah experienced 6
deep-seated earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4.
BALABAC STRAIT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 287, 948, 3483
Area covered
4.7
1
This section covers the approaches to Balabac Strait
(8°00′N, 117°00′E) and the channels through it. It is
arranged as follows:
Balabac Strait — W approaches (4.8).
Balabac Strait — N side (4.20)
Balabac Strait — channels passing S of Balabac
Island (4.29).
Balabac Strait — Alternative channels. (4.46).
Balabac Strait — E approaches (4.57).
CHAPTER 4
108
BALABAC STRAIT — WEST APPROACHES
General information
Charts 967, 948, 3728
Route
4.8
1
From a position N of Pulau Kalampunian (7°03′N,
116°45′E), the NW extremity of Sabah, the route leads N
to a position W of Cape Buliluyan (8°20′N, 117°11′E).
Topography
4.9
1
The W coast of Balambangan Island is hilly and rises
sheer to the foothills of Thumb Peak (4.66). Farther N it is
flat and densely wooded with high trees.
The W coast of Balabac Island is heavily indented, low
and, for the most part, fringed with mangroves. It is fronted
with numerous shoals including Gnat Reef, Balabac Great
Reefs and Ada Reef.
Tidal streams
4.10
1
Tidal streams off the W and SW sides of Balabac Island
follow the general directions of the reefs and and attain
rates of 1 to 1 kn.
Principal marks
4.11
1
Landmarks:
Thumb Peak (7°13′N, 116°52′E) (4.66).
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E), the island’s summit
which must not be confused with False Balabac
Peak lying 7 cables SE.
2
Sharp Peak (7°54′N, 116°59′E), prominent cone
shape.
Major lights:
3
Pulau Kalampunian Light (red stone column, white
bands, 15 m in height) (7°03′N, 116°45′E).
Cape Melville Light (yellow, 8 sided masonry tower
and dwelling, 27 m in height) (7°49′N, 117°00′E).
Directions
Pulau Kalampunian to Cape Bulilyuan
4.12
1
Caution. When approaching the W side of Balabac
Island from S, do not approach within 12 miles until
Balabac Peak bears more than 120°.
2
From a position W of Pulau Kalampunian (7°03′N,
116°45′E) the track leads N, passing (with positions from
Tanjung Siagut (7°22′N, 117°00′E)):
W of Tanjung Kalutan (13 miles SW), the SW
extremity of Pulau Balambangan, with several
off-lying islets and rocks extending 7 cables
offshore, the largest of which is Pulau Kalutan lies
5 cables offshore. A reef extends 3 cables W.
Thence:
3
W of Tanjung Timohing (8 miles SW) fringed by a
reef between Tanjung Kalutan and Tanjung
Timohing on which lie a number of small islets,
thence:
W of Tanjung Siagut, the N extremity of Pulau
Balambangan, from which a bank extends 1 mile N
and W. Siagut Shoal, awash, 2 miles W, but with
an extensive bank on a NE/SW axis with a depth
of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it.
4.13
1
From this position the track leads N passing (with
positions from Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E)):
W of Cape Melville (7 miles SSW) (4.11), and:
W of South Western Banks (11 miles SW)
extending 7 miles on a NW/SE axis. The
dangerous wreck close E of this patch is that of
SS. Kowa Maru, which sank in 1932. There are
tide-rips in the vicinity. And:
2
W of Gnat Reef (7 miles SW), a large expanse of
drying reef with a sand cay in its centre littered on
the SW side with the remains of the wreck of SS
Melville, thence:
3
W of the SW extremity of the Balabac Great Reefs
(9 miles WSW), drying, extending 9 miles N.
Lying 2 to 5 miles offshore they form an effective
barrier against the swells of the South China Sea.
Western Shoals, sand and coral, lie 5 miles farther
W. Thence:
4
W of Ada Reef (11 miles NW), drying, from where.
foul ground, with submerged and drying rocks on
it, lies between Ada Reef and Martinez Point,
3 miles E. There is an isolated patch, with a
depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft) over it, lying 4 miles W of
Ada Reef, and another patch with a depth of 5⋅9 m
(19 ft) over it lying 3 miles NW. Thence:
W of North West Shoals (12 miles NNW) (4.52).
5
From this position the track leads to a position W of
Cape Buliluyan (25 miles NNE), low, wooded and
shelving, fronted by mangroves, with depths from 7 to
15 m (23 to 50 ft) close S. The W side of the cape is
fringed with a drying reef which extends from 3 to 5 cables
offshore. A patch with a depth of 4⋅1 m (13 ft) over it, lies
1 cable S of the cape.
For details of the S entrance to Coral Bay see 3.129.
6
For the W side of Palawan N of Cape Buliluyan see
China Sea Pilot Volume II.
(Directions for North Balabac Strait continue at 4.23)
(Directions for the Main Balabac Strait channels S of Balabac Island are given at 4.35)
Side channels
Balabac Great Reefs
4.14
1
A deep water passage lies between Western Shoals
(7°58′N, 116°51′E) and Balabac Great Reefs but there are
several shoals in it with depths from 5⋅0 to 9⋅6 m (16 to
31 ft) over them.
Local knowledge is required.
North West Shoals
4.15
A deep water channel, 1 mile wide, lies between North
West Shoals (8°06′N, 116°57′E) and the coastal reefs of
Ramos Island. It provides access to Bate Channel (4.24)
which leads into the North Balabac Strait (4.20).
Anchorages and harbours
Anchorage south−west of Taritip Point
4.16
1
Description. Between the SE extremity of Balabac Great
Reefs and Balabac Island there is a navigable channel
narrowed to a width of 6 cables by rocks, some awash and
others with unknown depths over them, lying on both sides.
In mid-channel, 1 miles N of the entrance, there is an
isolated reef. Reefs on the Balabac shore extend 1 miles
into the channel in spits or isolated patches between which
CHAPTER 4
109
are coves with clear water. A small peninsular extending W
at the head of the bay has Taritip Point on its S extremity
and Ligas Point on its N extremity which shows up well
when viewed from S or SW. The village of Catungatun lies
7 cables upstream of a river discharging into the bay 1 mile
SE of Taritip Point.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. From a position about 7 miles WSW of
Cape Melville Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E) the track leads NE
into the bay with Sharp Peak (4.11) right ahead passing
(with positions from Cape Melville Light):
NW of a patch (4 miles WSW), with a depth of
5 m (16 ft) over it. A dangerous wreck (4.13) lies
on South Western Banks, thence:
NW of two rocks, awash, lying close off the NW
extremity of Gnat Reef (4.12).
3
From this position the track leads NNW with Taritip
Point right ahead passing in mid-channel into the bay,
avoiding an isolated shoal reef (4 miles NW) close S of
the entrance track.
4
Anchorage exists in deep water 1 mile SW of Taritip
Point.
Catagupan Bay
4.17
1
Description. Catagupan Bay (7°58′N, 116°56′E) lies
between the N part of Great Balabac Reefs and the W
coast of Balabac Island. Drying coastal and detached reefs
encumber the shores of the bay and numerous drying rocks
litter its S end. Gawit Point, situated 2 miles S of
Sigumay Point (8°00′N, 116°57′E) has several small rivers
entering the bay either side of it.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. Catagupan Bay is entered through a channel
passing SW of Ada Reef (4.13) and then through a deep
channel in the reef immediately W of Sigumay Point,
favouring the S side in order to avoid shallows that extend
3 cables from the N side. The track then leads directly
towards Sigumay Point so entering the bay. When
approaching the anchorages care must be taken to avoid a
patch with a depth of 5 m (16 ft) over it, lying close S of
the track.
Anchorage exists 1 mile S of Sigumay Point in a depth
of 14⋅6 m (48 ft), mud.
Alternative anchorage exists 2 miles W of Sigumay Point
in a depth of 25⋅5 m (14 fm), mud.
Port Ciego Bay
4.18
1
Description. Port Ciego Bay (8°04′N, 116°59′E) lies
between Ramos Island and Martinez Point. A spit upon
which there are numerous rocks awash or submerged,
extends 2 miles N from Martinez Point. Padre Point lies
2 miles ENE of Martinez Point. The shores of the bay
between these points are fringed with mangroves, and
drying reefs extend up to 1 miles offshore. Coral reefs,
rocks and shoals make the entrance into the bay and the
entrance to Candaraman Inlet (4.25) passable only through
deep but very narrow channels.
2
Tidal streams flow strongly through the inlet. Violent
whirlpools and eddies occur during spring tides.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. Enter Port Ciego Bay from W, passing
beside the reef extending from the SW side of Ramos
Island and passing SW of Paz Island. The track then leads
N of Paga-paga Island, situated in the W entrance to
Candaraman Inlet. The reefs are easily seen with a rising
tide and at HW, but on a falling tide and at LW they are
often obscured by mud flowing from the numerous
mangrove fringed inlets.
4
Anchorage exists in the inlet E or W of Albay Island
(4.25).
Ramos anchorage
4.19
1
Description. Ramos Island (8°06′N, 117°02′E) provides
an anchorage in the coastal reef 1 miles SW of Cape
Disaster, affording good protection in depths from 7 to
11 m (23 to 36 ft), sand. Timber is sometimes landed here.
Local knowledge is required.
NORTH BALABAC STRAIT
General information
Charts 948, 287
Description
4.20
1
North Balabac Strait (8°10′N, 117°05′E), with a least
width of 2 miles, lies between Bancalan Island, Mantangule
Island and Canabungan Island on the NE side, and Secam
Island, Ramos Island and Candaraman Island on the SW
side, is deep in the fairway.
Topography
4.21
1
All these islands are low-lying, densely wooded and
fringed by coral reefs which are, generally, steep-to.
Currents
4.22
1
Currents attain considerable rates in the narrow part of
the strait. Considerable rates are experienced setting into
the Sulu Sea between September and November, reversing
towards the South China Sea between January and March.
Strong eddies and tide-rips can be experienced during
spring tides.
Directions
(continued from 4.13)
4.23
1
Caution. In the North Balabac Strait making headway
may prove difficult, for a vessel under sail, against the
combined strength of tidal flow and current caused by the
strength of the monsoon. In these circumstances anchorage
should be found outside the strait.
2
From a position W of Cape Buliluyan (8°20′N,
117°11′E) the track leads SE passing (with positions from
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E) (4.11)):
3
NE of Secam Island (15 miles NNW), fringed by a
coral reef extending 1 miles from its NW
extremity and up to 5 cables elsewhere, thence:
4
SW of Bancalan Island (18 miles NNE), low and
densely wooded with coral reefs extending 1 mile
from its W side. The NE side is remarkable for
breakers and discoloured water. Timber is
exported. Thence:
5
NE of Ramos Island (10 miles NNW) with Cape
Disaster at its N extremity, is separated from the N
end of Balabac Island by Candaraman Inlet which
is encumbered with shoals and islets. Ramos Island
is dominated by Martin Hill, situated on the S
side, and two smaller, cliff-faced hills standing
near the middle of the island. The W, N and E
coasts of Ramos Island are low with a drying
coastal reef extending 1 mile SW and 7 cables
from the NW side. Thence:
CHAPTER 4
110
6
SW of Mantangule Island (16 miles NE), fringed by a
coral reef is contiguous with Canabungan Island.
On a reef extending N from the NE extremity lies
Malinsono Island. These islands are flat and
densely wooded. There is a small settlement on the
W side of Mantangule Island. Thence:
7
NE of Sisican Island (10 miles N), planted with
coconut trees. A reef extends 6 cables NNW and
there are boulders and patches with depths of less
than 1⋅8 to 6⋅9 m (6 to 23 ft) over them, lying
within 1 miles of the N extremity of the island.
During spring tides violent whirlpools and overfalls
occur in the N part of the channel between
Sicsican Island and Encampment Point (8°07′N,
117°03′E) on Ramos Island. Thence:
8
NE of Candaraman Island (10 miles NNE), low, flat
and wooded, lying on a steep-to reef.
9
From this position the track leads SE into North Channel
to a position 2 miles N of Nasubata Island (4.37).
(Directions continue for the W approach into Sulu Sea at 4.38)
Side channels
Bate Channel
4.24
1
Description. Bate Channel (8°09′N, 117°00′E) separating
Secam Island from Ramos Island has a least width of
2 miles. There are no dangers near the mid-channel though
a patch, creating broken water, with a depth of 9⋅1 m
(30 ft) over it, lies 1 mile NE of Cape Disaster and another
with a depth of 8⋅7 m (28 ft) over it, lies 1 mile E of the
cape.
Tidal streams in Bate Channel set E during the in-going
stream and W during the out-going stream attaining rates
up to 2 knots.
Candaraman Inlet
4.25
1
Description. Candaraman Inlet is almost blocked by
coral reefs. There are deep, narrow channels with depths of
about 9 m (30 ft) through which strong tidal streams flow.
Heavy whirlpools and eddies are formed during spring
tides.
2
Directions Candaraman Inlet (8°05′N, 117°03′E) is
entered from the W through Port Ciego Bay (4.18) and
from the E between Andeyro Point, the NE extremity of
Balabac Island, and Marinas Point, the SE extremity of
Ramos Island.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage exists E or W of Albay Island, situated
1 miles W of Andeyro Point, in depths from 7 to 13 m
(23 to 43 ft).
West of Bugsuk Island
4.26
1
Description. The area surrounding and between the
islands and islets W of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E)
is a maze of reefs and dangers through which there are
deep and intricate channels with strong tidal streams and
currents. Frequent tide-rips occur. The best channel is N of
Bancalan Island, but it is only 3 cables wide between the
island and the reefs fringing the S side of Patongong Island
4 miles NE. The edges of the reefs are well-defined.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. From a position W of Patongong Island the
track leads E passing S of the reef extending 1 miles W
of the island and avoiding a submerged rock, with a depth
of 3⋅2 m (10 ft) over it, lying 1 mile S of Patongong Island.
Thence the track leads S passing W of a patch, with a
depth of 3⋅2 m (10 ft) over it, lying 1 miles SE of
Patongong Island. The track then leads between Bancalan
Island and the much smaller Patawan Island, lying on a
coral reef 1 mile E.
3
Avoiding a rock awash close to the SE extremity of
Bancalan Island the track leads SSE to enter a deep water
bay through which access can be gained into North Balabac
Strait. This channel between Bancalan Island and
Mantangule Island (4.23) is shallow on its N side with a
least depth of 0⋅5 m (1 ft). The deep water passage
favours the NW extremity of Mantangule Island.
4
By crossing the bay on an E track passing N of
Malinsono Island access can be gained into North Channel.
From a position 5 cables S of the S extremity of the reef
extending S from Pandanan Island the track leads S passing
close W of the reefs fringing Gabung Island and Byan
Island. This channel is encumbered with dangers making it
difficult to navigate. Care must be taken to avoid drying
rocks extending up to 7 cables SW and S of this reef.
Anchorages and harbours
Secam Island
4.27
1
Anchorage exists 7 cables N of the E extremity of
Secam Island (4.23), partially sheltered from SW winds, in
depths from 35 to 37 m (19 to 20 fm), sand and coral. The
reef W affords protection from the swell.
In bad weather a second anchor should be veered in
good time, as squalls, which often succeed each other
rapidly, are often violent.
North of Mantangule Island
4.28
1
Description. The channels leading to these anchorages
(8°10′N, 117°10′E) are intricate and subject to strong tidal
streams with frequnt tide-rips. The best channel is N of
Bancalan Island but it is only 3 cables wide. It should be
used only when the reefs are distinctly visible.
Anchorage exists anywhere in the area between
Pandanan Island, Bancalan Island, and Mantangule Island,
clear of the shoals, in depths of 13 to 27 m (42 ft to
15 fm), mud and sand.
2
In rough weather vessels are recommended to anchor in
the S entrance of the channel leading between Bugsuk
Island and Pandanan Island, or in the channel itself which
is sheltered from the sea but subject to strong winds in
typhoon weather.
During the NE monsoon (October to March) there is
better anchorage SE of Patawan Island, in depths from 16
to 24 m (53 ft to 13 fm). Care must be taken to avoid
shoals E of Bancalan Island and Patawan Island.
3
During the SW monsoon (May to September) there is
anchorage from 1 to 2 miles S of the E extremity of
Patongong Island, in depths of 16 to 27 m (53 ft to 15 fm),
mud and sand.
CHAPTER 4
111
BALABAC STRAIT — CHANNELS PASSING
SOUTH OF BALABAC ISLAND
General information
Charts 948, 287
Route
4.29
1
From the SW approaches to the Balabac Strait, passing
NW of Pulau Balambangan (7°17′N, 116°55′E), the track
leads NE to a position E of Cape Melville Light (7°49′N,
117°00′E). From this position two main routes, for deep
draught vessels, lead into the Sulu Sea. The N route leads
N passing W and N of Nasubata Reef (8° 01′N, 117°10′E)
(4.37), entering the Sulu Sea via North Channel and the S
track leads NE to pass in mid-channel between Roughton
Reef (8°01′N, 117°13′E) and Comiran Island via Nasubata
Channel to a position SSE of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N,
117°18′E).
Topography
4.30
1
The E side of Balabac Island trends NE then N in
regular shape but is indented by several bays. The coast is
steep-to though the foreshore is, for the most part, low with
few reefs. The S part of the island is generally more
undulating with several prominent peaks but the N end is
flat and rather nondescript though there are several
prominent, hills including Steepfall Range stretching NE
from South Bay Hill. This range is composed of several
hills, 245 to 290 m (805 to 952 ft) high. The sides of this
range are steep and present a table top appearance.
Transept Hill 402 m (1319 ft) high, flat topped with a
stepped escarpment on the N side has a more gradual
descent on the S side.
2
The reefs on the E side of the channel are clustered on
a bank marked at its N end by Comiran Island Light.
Nasubata and Roughton Reefs in the N, are extensive,
isolated and steep-to. The channel between Roughton Reef
and Nasubata Reef is 1 miles wide.
Depths
4.31
1
In 1977 MV Gastrana (48 000 tons) draught 10 m (33 ft)
on passage W to E through Nasubata Channel followed a
track with these way points:
(a) 7°46′⋅4N, 117°04′⋅0E (off Cape Melville).
(b) 7°57′⋅4N, 117°12′⋅7E (off Comiran Island).
(c) 8°12′⋅0N, 117°35′⋅5E.
(d) 8°17′⋅5N, 118°16′⋅5E.
2
In 1986 MV East Bridge (170 000 dwt) draught 19 m
(62 ft) on passage W to E through Nasubata Channel
followed a track with these way points:
(a) 7°34′⋅0N, 117°00′⋅0E.
(b) 7°55′⋅8N, 117°09′⋅2E.
(c) 8°00′⋅0N, 117°17′⋅4E.
3
In 1990 MT Stolt Accord (12 467 dwt) draught 5⋅5 m
(18 ft) on passage W to E through Nasubata Channel
followed a track with these way points:
(a) 7°45′⋅2N, 117°01′⋅3E.
(b) 7°56′⋅7N, 117°11′⋅0E.
(c) 8°05′⋅7N, 117°28′⋅8E.
4
Soundings were found to be in general agreement with
those shown on the chart. A least depth of 85 m (46⋅5 fm)
was recorded in position 2⋅8 miles N of Comiran Island.
5
Caution: It is emphasised that these tracks represent
single lines of soundings and lesser depths or shoals may
exist close to the routes.
Hazards
4.32
1
In the afternoon, with the sun astern, outer shoals and
reefs will generally be seen in sufficient time to avoid
them. However, with the sun ahead, these shoals are
difficult to see until close to them. After heavy rains the
reefs are difficult to see because of water discolouration.
Tidal streams
4.33
1
Tide-rips occur around the S coast of Balabac Island and
the off-lying shoals.
Tides through the Balabac Strait depend on prevailing
winds. In the months of October and November, after
frequent W winds, they may set E becoming less strong
during the out-going stream. In July, if the weather has
been unusually fine, with light E winds, they set W with
similar rates.
2
Tidal streams in North Channel and Nasubata Channel
when supplemented by current, may attain rates greater
than 2 knots during the strength of the monsoons, setting
strongly NW towards North Balabac Strait between January
and March and SE between September and November.
Caution. Currents sweep through Nasubata Channel in a
NW direction with considerable velocity.
Principal marks
4.34
1
Landmarks:
South Bay Hill (7°51′N, 117°01′E), the S peak of
Steepfall Range, steep sided and, when viewed
from S, presents a tabletop appearance. The
shoulders fall precipitously to the lowlands.
2
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E) (4.11).
Fuel tank (white) (7°59′N, 117°04′E) standing
2 cables S of Espina Point Lighthouse.
New Banggi Peak (7°18′N, 117°05′E) a rounded peak
in the NW extremity of Pulau Banggi.
3
Major lights:
Cape Melville Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E) (4.11).
Espina Point Light (white concrete tower and
dwelling, 10 m in height) (8°00′N, 117°04′E).
Directions
Balabac Strait — W approach
4.35
1
From a position approximately 20 miles SW of Cape
Melville lighthouse the track leads NE passing (with
positions from Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E)):
NW of Tanjung Siagut (34 miles S), (4.12), and:
SE of Gnat Reef (7 miles SW) (4.13), thence:
SE of Cape Melville (7 miles SSW) from which a
light (4.11) is exhibited, and:
NW of Ray Bank (16 miles SSE) (4.52), thence:
NW of Ellis Shoal (14 miles SE) (4.51).
2
From this position the track leads NNE for about 3 miles
to a position ESE of Timbangan Point the S entrance point
into Dalawan Bay, low, fringed with coral and edged with
mangroves. Transept Hill (4.30) stands 1 miles W of the
point.
4.36
1
Useful marks. The following are reported to be good
radar targets:
Tanjung Timohing (7°17′N, 116°53′E) (4.12).
Pulau Tiga (7°20′N, 117°03′E) (4.54).
(Directions continue for Nasubata Channel at 4.40)
CHAPTER 4
112
Via North Channel
4.37
1
From the position about 3 miles SE of Timbangan Point
(7°53′N, 117°05′E) the track leads N passing (with
positions from Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E)):
2
E of Timbangan Point (3 miles SSE) (4.35), and:
E of Minagas Point (2 miles SE), and:
W of Comiran Island (10 miles E) (4.40) from which
a light (no description) is exhibited, thence:
3
E of Espina Point, (4 miles NNE), the S entrance
mark of Calandorang Bay, dominated by a hill
32 m (105 ft) high (4.34).
4
From this position the track continues N for about
2 miles to a position W of Nasubata Reef (9 miles NE),
isolated and steep-to, on which lie Nasubata Islets, the
larger 27 m (89 ft) high to the tree-tops. These islets are of
sandstone formation the higher one distinctively cleft.
4.38
1
From this position the track leads ENE passing (with
positions from Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E)):
SSE of Candaraman Island (10 miles NNE) (4.23),
thence:
SSE of a patch 11 miles NNE), with a depth of
9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it, the position of which is
doubtful, and:
NNW of Roughton Island, (11 miles ENE), standing
on the extensive isolated Roughton Reef, steep-to
on all but the N coast where shoaling extends
7 cables offshore, thence:
2
SSE of Byan Island, (17 miles NE), one of three
island lying on a coral reef extending 5 miles SW
from the SW extremity of Bugsuk Island, and:
SSE of Gabung Island (18 miles NE), the largest of
these three islands, thence:
SSE of Apo Island, (20 miles NE), the smallest of
the three, lying close to Sebarang village on the S
end of Bugsuk Island where areas have been
cleared for the cultivation of coconut trees. Copra
is exported
3
From this position the track leads E for about 7 miles to
a position ESE of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E) (4.26).
4.39
1
Useful marks. The following are reported to provide
good radar targets:
Lumbucan Island (7°50′N, 117°13′E) (4.51).
Comiran Island. (7°55′N, 117°13′E) (4.40).
SE point of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E) (4.26).
Ursula Island (8°20′N, 117°31′E) (3.214).
Bulanjao Range (8°38′N, 117°23′E) (3.216).
Mantalingajan Range (8°54′N, 117°47′E) (3.207).
(Directions continue for Balabac Strait — E approaches at 4.59 and for E coast Palawan in reverse at 3.214)
Via Nasubata Channel
(continued from 4.35)
4.40
1
From a position 3 miles SE of Timbangan Point (7°53′N,
117°05′E) the track leads NE passing (with positions from
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E)):
SE of Minangas Point (2 miles SE) (4.37), thence:
NW of Lumbucan Island (11 miles SE) (4.51),
thence:
2
NW of Comiran Island (10 miles E), densely wooded,
lying on the NW side of Comiran Danger Bank. In
1971, an islet was reported to lie close W of
Comiran Island. In 1946 the reef at the NE
extremity of the island was reported to extend
7 cables. A shoal with a depth of 2⋅3 m (8 ft) over
it, lies 1 mile SW of the island and another with a
depth of 5 m (16 ft) over it, lies 1 mile E of the
island. Both these shoals are steep-to. Turtles in
great numbers resort here at times.
3
From this position the tracks leads ENE for about
15 miles to a position ESE of Bugsuk Island (8°15′N,
117°18′E), passing SSE of Roughton Reef (11 miles ENE)
(4.38).
(Directions continue for approaches to Balabac Strait
at 4.59 and for Palawan — E coast in reverse at 3.214)
Anchorages and harbours
Pasig Bay
4.41
1
Description Cape Melville Lighthouse (4.11) marks the
E side of the approach channel into Pasig Bay (7°50′N,
116°58′E). There is a coral reef extending 5 cables off this
coast and shallows extending a further 6 cables upon which
there is an isolated reef 1 miles NW of the light. The W
side of the channel is bounded by Gnat Reef (4.13) from
which shoal grounds with a least depth of 2⋅3 m (7⋅5 ft)
over them, extend 5 cables SE to narrow the tortuous,
navigable channel to a width of 3 cables. Pasig Bay,
bounded on the N side by Tingawan Point, is shallow and
partially filled with mudflats. Between Tingawan Point and
Gnat Reef the ground is shoal and encumbered with
numerous coral heads. Mangrove swamps fringe the bay.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage exists for smaller vessels in the entrance to
Pasig Bay in depths from 11 to 15 m (36 to 49 ft).
Clarendon Bay
4.42
1
Description. Clarendon Bay (7°49′N, 117°01′E) is
entered close NE of Cape Melville (4.11), by rounding
Pinaatan Point and passing N of Barong Barong Point. The
shores of Clarendon Bay are largely fringed with mangrove
and there are extensive drying sand and mud flats at its
head. The navigable channel at the entrance has been
reduced to a width of about 2 cables by the reefs on both
shores.
2
Directions. The bay should be entered in mid-channel
approaching from the SE towards the anchorage.
Anchorage exists with Barong Barong Point bearing
SSE distance 4 cables in a depth of 8 to 9 m (27 to
30 ft), mud.
3
Berth. A T-shaped stone jetty, partly submerged at HW,
is situated near the NW corner of the bay almost
exclusively for the landing of stores for Cape Melville
lighthouse.
Dalawan Bay
4.43
1
Description. Dalawan Bay (7°54′N, 117°04′E), entered S
of Minagas Point, lies 5 miles S of Espina Point. It can
be identified by low land extending WNW from the beach
across Balabac Island, separating the highlands of Balabac
Peak from those of Transept Hill. Dalawan Bay is 1 mile
wide across the entrance widening slightly into a circular
CHAPTER 4
113
bay. Shoal waters contract the entrance to a width of
7 cables between the 10 m (33 ft) contours. It is fringed
with mangrove. Drying reefs extend offshore around the
bay. Two white rocks are conspicuous in the SW corner of
the bay. Dalawan River empties into the bay 2 cables
NNW of these rocks, its channel constantly shifting so that
boats can enter only at HW. Buoy Rock, usually dry, lies at
the extremity of the reef extending from Minagas Point. A
spit on the S side dries for 1 cables offshore. A rocky
spit extends 3 cables ENE from the S shore.
2
Directions. Enter Dalawan Bay in mid-channel
approaching at slow speed because of rapidly shelving
soundings around the entire periphery of the bay.
3
Anchorage. Vessels may anchor in the middle of the
bay in a depth of 16 m (53 ft), mud. It affords good shelter
from the SW monsoon.
Charts 2914, 948
Calandorang Bay (Balabac Harbour)
4.44
1
Description. Calandorang Bay is entered between
Sarmiento Point (8°00′N, 117°05′E), fringed with dense
mangroves in the N and Espina Point in the S. Gading
River empties into the NW corner of the bay which is
heavily silted. Mud and sand flats at the head of the bay
dry at LW. Coral reefs extending up to 1 cable fringe both
the N and S shores of the bay. The E half of the bay has
depths of 18⋅2 to 55 m (60 ft to 30 fm) in it. A drying
wreck lies on the N shore 4 cables inside the entrance.
2
Balabac Town lies on the S shore of Calandorang Bay
6 cables within the entrance. An old Spanish fort, covered
with vegetation, stands on a hill immediately W of the
town and a few government buildings stand on the hill
close to Espina Point Lighthouse.
3
Balabac is a Sub Port of Entry administered by the
Bureau of Customs.
4
Directions. Calandorang Bay should be approached and
entered in mid-channel. When Espina Point bears S the line
of bearing 233° of the bluff W of the town leads towards
the anchorage. Proceed at very slow speed towards the
anchorage as the bottom shelves rapidly within the 18 m
(10 fm) contour.
5
Anchorage exists NW of Espina Point but during the
NE monsoon (October to March) more sheltered anchorage
will be found in the N part of the bay. Anchorage is also
available NE of the pier in depths from 7 to 15 m (23 to
49 ft), mud.
6
Berths. A stone pier 90 m long is reported to be in
ruins. A chute loader 359 m long, maintained by Banguet
Consolidated Mining Company, exist with its offshore end
220 m WNW of Espina Point lighthouse. A mooring buoy
is laid 2 cables W of the lighthouse.
7
Other facilities: hospital; post office; radio station.
Supplies: fuels and diesel oils; provisions; fresh water
from a stream piped into town.
Caboang Bay
4.45
1
Caboang Bay (8°01′N, 117°04′E), close N of
Calandorang Bay affords anchorage for small vessels in a
depth of 16 m (52 ft), mud, in its NW corner. The entrance
lies N of Sarmiento Point and is 1 cables wide. The
navigable channel is narrowed to less than 1 cable by
fringing reefs. Mangroves are backed by wooded hills.
BALABAC STRAIT — ALTERNATIVE
CHANNELS
General information
Charts 948, 287
Routes
4.46
1
From a position S of Cape Melville Lighthouse (7°49′N,
117°00′E) (4.11) routes lead E towards the mid-channels in
Balabac Strait and thence, as draft permits, through the
appropriate channel into the Sulu Sea.
It is arranged as follows:
Lumbucan Channel and Comiran Channel (4.51).
Simanahan Channel (4.52).
Middle Channel (4.53).
Main Channel (4.54)
Mangsee Channel (4.55).
Topography
4.47
1
The greater part of Balabac Strait is encumbered by
numerous coral dangers divided into groups, each group
being distinguished by a special name such as Great
Danger Bank. This arrangement distinctly defines the limits
of the various channels between the dangers. Generally
these dangers lie on a N/S axis along the meridian of
117°15′E from Comiran Island to Mangsee Great Reef. The
dangers themselves tend to lie on an E/W axis. Most of the
drying reefs have wooded islets upon them. Islets free of
vegetation are liable to shift in bad weather and therefore
cannot be relied upon. Except for the light exhibited from
Comiran Island navigational aids are sparse.
Depths
4.48
1
The bottom in the Balabac Strait shelves gradually from
about 150 m (490 ft) S of Cape Melville to about 45 m
(150 ft) immediately W of the dangers. The channels
between the dangers substantially maintain this latter depth
throughout, though shallows exist as shown on the chart
and described in the directions.
Hazards
4.49
1
Details of areas dangerous due to mines in the vicinity
of Mangsee Danger Bank, Mangsee Great Reef and N of
Banggi Island are given in Appendix II and in the Annual
Notices to Mariners.
Principal marks
4.50
1
Landmarks:
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E) (4.11)
New Banggi Peak (7°18′N, 117°05′E) (4.34).
2
Major light:
Cape Melville Light (7°49′N, 117°00′E) (4.11).
Directions
Lumbucan Channel
4.51
1
Caution
. Navigation of Comiran Channel lying between
Comiran Island and Lumbucan Danger Bank is not
recommended as there are other and better channels in the
vicinity.
2
From a position S of Cape Melville Light (7°49′N,
117°00′E) the track leads E passing, (with positions from
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E)):
N of Ellis Shoal (14 miles SSE), and:
CHAPTER 4
114
3
S of Lumbucan Island (11 miles SE), fringed by
reefs extend 1 miles WSW and 7 cables ESE. A
stranded wreck lies near the N edge of the reef
NNE of the island. South of the island lies South
Shoal. In 1955 it was reported that a patch, with a
depth of 11⋅9 m (39 ft) over it, lies 5 cables S of
South Shoal.
4
The track continues E to longitude 117°15′E whence it
leads ENE, passing:
NNW of Simanahan Reef (19 miles SE) lying near
the middle of a drying coral bank over a length of
1 mile in an E/W direction, with a drying sand
bank near its centre, thence:
5
SSE of Lumbucan Danger Bank (13 miles ESE),
comprising North East Shoal and East Shoal,
thence:
NNW of Doorly Patches (19 miles ESE).
6
From thjis position the track leads ENE into the Sulu
Sea.
(Directions continue for Balabac Strait — E approaches at 4.59)
Simanahan Channel
4.52
1
From a position S of Cape Melville Light (7°49′N,
117°00′E) the track leads E, passing (with positions from
Balabac Peak (7°56′N, 117°03′E)):
N of Ray Bank (16 miles SSE), thence:
S of Ellis Shoal (14 miles SSE) (4.51).
From this position the track leads ENE passing:
2
NNW of North-west Shoals (19 miles SE) with
dangerous shallows extending 4 miles in an E/W
direction and with a least depth of 2⋅7 m (9 ft)
1 mile W of its E extremity and a depth of 3⋅7 m
(12 ft) 1 miles farther W, thence:
3
NNW of an isolated shoal (19 miles SE), with a
depth of 6⋅9 m (23 ft) over it, thence:
Between North Patches with a depth of 6⋅4 m (21 ft)
over it, and Simanahan Islet, a sandbank lying near
the middle of a coral reef which dries over a
length of about 1 mile.
4
From a position clear of these shoals the track leads
ENE into the Sulu Sea.
(Directions continue for Balabac Strait — E approaches at 4.59)
Middle Channel
4.53
1
Middle Channel lies out of the usual tracks, but may be
used when necessary. Ray Bank, composed of sand and
coral, lies on the N side of the W approach to Middle
Channel.
2
From a position S of Cape Melville Light (7°49′N,
117°00′E) the track leads E passing (with positions from
New Bangii Peak (7°18′N, 117°05′E)):
N of Loxdale Shoal (18 miles NNE), steep-to, lies
off the W end of Mangsee Danger Bank.
3
From this position the track continues E for about
3 miles to a position NW of Salingsingan Island (20 miles
NE), low and wooded, from whence it leads ESE passing:
SSW of a shoal (22 miles NNE) reported in 1991
lying off the S extremity of Middle Shoals. This
large shoal area, with a least depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft)
over it, lies S of Great Danger Bank. Thence:
4
NNE of Salingsingan Island (20 miles NE), thence:
SSW of a sand cay (24 miles NE), the only part of
Great Danger Bank above water, lying near the SE
end of a narrow coral reef, with depths from 5⋅9 to
7⋅3 m (19 to 24 ft) between it and Middle Shoal.
And:
5
NNE of Jessie Shoal (21 miles NE), and:
SSW of South-east Shoals (26 miles NE),
comprising several coral patches close off the SE
extremity of Great Danger Bank.
6
From this position the track then leads E into the Sulu
Sea.
(Directions continue for Balabac Strait — E approaches at 4.59)
Main Channel
4.54
1
Description Main Channel between Mangsee Great Reef
and Pulau Banggi, is 5 miles wide, but the navigable
width is reduced to 1 miles between the charted 20 m
(11 fm) contours on either side.
2
Directions. Main Channel is recommended during the
NE monsoon (October to March).
Caution. Approaching the N end of Pulau Balambangan
do not bring Tanjung Timohing (4.12) to bear more than
220°, nor come within a depth of less than 26 m (14 fm),
until North Hill (7°21′N, 117°11′E), bears 110°; which
bearing leads more than 1 mile outside the dangers off
Tanjung Siagut (7°21′N, 117°00′E) and those extending N
from Pulau Tiga.
3
From a position N of Tanjung Saigut the track leads
ENE passing (with positions from New Banggi Peak
(7°17′N, 117°05′E)):
N of Pulau Tiga (4 miles NW), low, wooded and
surrounded by an extensive coral reef 1 mile wide
having an isolated reef 4 cables SE contiguous
with it. A beacon (metal tripod; black and white
bands; black cone topmark) marks the SE
extremity of the reef. It should not be depended
upon. Thence:
N of Tanjung Samarang (5 miles NE), a sand cay
lying on a reef extending 7 cables NW, thence:
S of the S extremity of Mangsee Great Reef (13 miles
NNE), drying with, usually, a sand cay visible at
HW on some part of the reef. Light green water
discolouration over the reef makes it easily
distinguishable from sufficient distance to permit
safe passage past it. At LW the reef presents a vast
expanse of sand and coral with lagoons in places.
A shoal, with a least depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft) over it,
extends 2 miles SW from the reef. In 1955, a
16⋅5 m (54 ft) patch was reported in the fairway,
2 miles SW of the E extremity of Mangsee Great
Reef.
4
From this position the track leads ENE, passing:
NNW of Louisa Shoal (10 miles NE), a coral reef
with two shoals with depths of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over
them, lying 1 miles N, thence:
5
Clear of a patch (13 miles NE), with a depth of 15 m
(49 ft) over it, reported 1995 by HMS Peacock and
another patch with a depth of 16⋅5 m (54 ft),
reported 1955, lying in mid-channel, thence:
NNW of Maggie Reef (14 miles ENE), consisting of
several submerged rocks and a drying coral reef on
the N side, and:
6
NNW of Black Watch Rock (15 miles NE) reported
to have been struck by the British barque Black
Watch in 1878. The Master of Black Watch
reported that North Mangsee Island was open W
of South Mangsee Island, bearing 010°, and the
CHAPTER 4
115
cay on Banggi Outer North-east Reefs bore 127°.
The position is, however, doubtful. There is a
depth of 10⋅1 m (33 ft) 5 cables E of the assigned
position. From the irregularity of the soundings
near this locality it is possible that coral heads,
other than those indicated on the chart, may exist.
Thence:
7
NNW of Banggi Outer North-east Reefs (16 miles
ENE), a group of reefs separated from Maggie
Reef and Pulau Guhuan, an islet lying on the W
side of a reef 2 miles SW, by a channel 1 mile
wide, with depths of 12⋅8 to 14⋅6 m (42 to 48 ft)
in the fairway. The middle of Banggi Outer
North-east reefs dries and a sand cay lies at the
NE end. South of these reefs are a number of
isolated reefs lying N of Bankawan Reefs some of
which have islets lying upon them including Pulau
Kalangkaman, with Samson Patches lying 2 miles
E, Pulau Balundangan and Pulau Batawan. There
is a narrow tortuous channel through these reefs
leading S into the Selat Banggi Selatan. And:
8
SSE of South Mangsee Island (18 miles NE), low,
flat, wooded, and fringed by a reef, thence:
SSE of Jessie Shoal (21 miles NE) (4.53), thence:
NNW of Kestrel Rock (20 miles ENE), reported
1879, by HMS Kestrel. In 1882, HMS Comus
obtained a depth of 14⋅6 m (48 ft) 1 mile S of
Kestrel Rock. In 1956, a depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft)
was reported close NE of this position. Thence:
9
NNW of a group of rocks (29 miles ENE), awash,
reported 1889 to lie 6 miles E of Kestrel Rock but
its existence is doubtful. In 1922 SS Salangor
reported that there were no indications of this
group after frequent passages close to the position
in all weather conditions.
10
From this position the track then leads ENE into the
Sulu Sea.
(Directions continue for Balabac Strait — E approaches at 4.59)
Side channel
Mangsee Channel
4.55
1
Description. Mangsee Channel (7°31′N, 117°16′E),
separating Mangsee Danger Bank from Mangsee Great
Reef is 1 mile wide at its narrowest part, where depths are
irregular, but it is deep throughout the fairway. The reefs
on the N side are more steep-to than those on the S side.
Loxdale Shoal, steep-to, lies at the W end of Mangsee
Danger Bank.
2
North Mangsee Island (7°31′N, 117°18′E), wooded, from
which reefs and shoals extend 2 miles ESE and 3 miles
WNW. A drying sand cay lies near the E extremity of
these reefs, 1 miles ESE of North Mangsee Island.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. Mangsee Channel is seldom used and should
only be attempted in favourable conditions. In case of
necessity, when approaching from W, and having sighted
Mangsee Islands, the track leads towards South Mangsee
Island, on a bearing 103°. From a position ENE of the NW
end of North Mangsee Island the track leads SE passing in
mid-channel between South Mangsee Island and Mangsee
Great Reef.
Anchorage
Main Channel south side
4.56
1
Description. East of Tanjung Samarang (7°21′N
117°09′E) are two bays with small rivers running into each.
Apart from a narrow boat passage the E bay is blocked
with coral on the outer part of which is a small islet.
Anchorage is available in the entrance to the W bay, in
a depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft).
BALABAC STRAIT — EAST APPROACHES
General information
Chart 287
Route
4.57
1
From a position ESE of the SE extremity of Bugsuk
Island (8°15′N, 117°18′E) the track leads SE for about
43 miles to a position NE of Fearless Shoal (7°23′N,
117°37′E).
Depths
4.58
1
Depths in the first part of this waterway are generally
greater than 100 m (55 fm) throughout but in 1907 SS
Borneo passed over a patch of discoloured water 15 miles
ENE of the sand cay on South-east Shoals. The coral
bottom, with a least depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, was
plainly visible and is named Borneo Bank (7°40′N,
117°40′E). This bank has not been examined so a lesser
depth may exist over it. In 1966 a shoal with a depth of
19⋅2 m (63 ft) over it, was reported 4 miles S of Borneo
Bank.
Directions
(continued from 3.214, 4.38, 4.40)
Bugsuk Island to Fearless Shoal
4.59
1
From a position ESE of Bugsuk Island the track leads
SE, passing (with positions from Comiran Island (7°55′N,
117°13′E)):
NE of Roughton Island, (6 miles N) (4.38), thence:
2
NE of Comiran Island Light (4.40), and:
SW of an isolated shoal (37 miles ENE), reported
1991, position approximate, with a depth of 4⋅5 m
(15 ft) over it, thence:
Clear of an underwater rock (26 miles E) over
which the depth is unknown and the position
doubtful. In 1901 USS General Alava saw no sign
when passing 1 miles from the charted position.
Thence:
3
SW of Viola Reef (27 miles ESE), struck by the
Spanish ship Viola. A search by H.M.S. Nassau in
1872 found no indication of the shoal. Thence:
NE of Borneo Bank (30 miles SE). In 1907 a coral
head with an unknown depth over it, was reported
lying 2 miles W of Borneo Bank. In 1962 and
1979 two coral heads were reported with depths of
CHAPTER 4
116
16⋅5 and 19⋅2 m (54 and 63 ft) over them, lying
3 miles SW of Borneo Bank. Thence:
4
NE of a shoal (34 miles SE) reported in 1927 by SS
Lampoc to have an estimated depth of 9 to 11 m
(30 to 36 ft) over it, lying 3 miles ESE of
Borneo Bank. A shoal with a depth of 19⋅2 m
(63 ft) over it, reported 1966, lies 5 miles SW of
the previously mentioned shoal. Thence:
5
NE of a patch (38 miles SE), with a depth of
20⋅1 m (11 fm) over it, reported in 1962, thence:
Clear of a patch (43 miles SE) with a depth of
25 m (13⋅5 fm) over it, reported in 1995.
6
From this position the track continues SE to a position
about 18 miles NE of Fearless Shoal (40 miles SSE),
position approximate. Borneo Shoal, lies 5 miles W. A
patch with a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, lies 8 miles
NNE and another with a depth of 18⋅3 m (60 ft) over it,
lies 3 miles NW of Fearless Shoal.
(Directions continue for the SE dangers at 4.133)
NORTH AND NORTH−EAST COASTS OF SABAH
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 287, 948, 1654, 3728, 2576, 3483
Area covered
4.60
1
The area covered by this section describes Sabah — N
and NE coasts from Pulau Kalampunian (7°03′N, 116°45′E)
(4.11) to Sandakan Harbour (5°50′N, 118°07′E), including
the islands, islets, shoals and channels in the vicinity.
It is arranged as follows:
2
Selat Banggi Barat (4.63).
Teluk Marudu — N part (4.70).
Kudat harbour (4.79).
Teluk Marudu — S part (4.106).
Selat Banggi Selatan (4.115).
Fearless Shoal to Sandakan (4.130).
Selat Malawali (4.139).
Pulau Jambongan to Sandakan (4.148).
Sandakan Harbour (4.162).
Topography
4.61
1
Although there are several prominent peaks in the area
the land is predominantly low-lying and in some areas
reduced to swampland. The coast is heavily indented and
fringed with dense mangroves. Numerous rivers carry
waters from the central highlands of Borneo and their
mouths are heavily silted. Coral reefs fringe the entire
coastline and surround all the islands and islets in the area
which are densely forested.
Depths
4.62
1
Depths in the routes described in this section are
generally in the range of 20 to 50 m (11 to 27 fm) but
shallower areas exist in Selat Malawali (7°03′N, 117°14′E).
There are large areas of inadequately charted or unsurveyed
waters, as shown on the chart E, of Pulau Banggi.
SELAT BANGGI BARAT
General information
Charts 3728, 948
Route
4.63
1
From the position N of Pulau Kalampunian (7°03′N,
116°45′E) the track leads ENE into Selat Banggi Barat
(7°15′N, 117°02′E) to a position E of Half Channel Patch
(4.67) whence it leads generally NNE into the W approach
to Main Channel (7°26′N 117°15′E) (4.54).
Topography
4.64
1
Selat Banggi Barat separates Pulau Balambangan from
Pulau Banggi. At its narrowest this channel is 2 miles
wide. A chain of islands, reefs and dangers extend 4 miles
SW from Pulau Banggi forming a natural extension of the
island. The W coast of Pulau Banggi is foul with dangers
extending up to 1 miles offshore. The N entrance to Selat
Banggi Barat is encumbered with reefs and shoals but is
passable.
Depths
4.65
1
There is a least depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) in the shallows to
the N of Selat Banggi Barat but apart from Half Channel
Patch lying 9 miles E of Tanjung Kalutan (4.12), with a
depth of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it and steep-to with frequently
breaking water, the approaches and the S part of the
channel are deep and unencumbered.
Principal marks
4.66
1
Landmarks:
Thumb Peak (7°13′N, 116°52′E), cone shaped.
New Banggi Peak (7°18′N, 117°05′E) (4.34).
2
Major light:
Pulau Kalampunian Light (7°03′N, 116°45′E) (4.11).
Directions
4.67
1
Caution. A number of dangers lie in the channel
between Pulau Balambangan (4.12) and the reefs
surrounding Pulau Tiga (4.54). Care is necessary in
navigating this channel which should only be attempted
when the dangers are discernible.
2
From the position N of Pulau Kalampunian Light the
track leads ENE, passing (with positions from Tanjung
Periok (7°15′N, 116°59′E)):
SSE of Pulau Cone (8 miles WSW), the outermost of
three islets extending SE from Tanjung Kalutan the
S extremity of Pulau Balambangan, thence:
3
SSE of Observatory Point (6 miles WSW), off
which lie two small islets close E and SE, and:
SSE of Tanjung Periok, surrounded by dangers
extending 2 miles offshore, not easily discernible
unless the sun is behind the observer. The area is
incompletely surveyed and unless bound for South
Harbour (4.68) this part of the coast should be
given a wide berth. Thence:
4
SSE of Half Channel Patch (2 miles SE), the
channel E of which is 2 miles wide.
From this position the track leads NNE in mid-channel,
passing:
ESE of Tanjung Padang (2 miles NE), and:
CHAPTER 4
117
5
WNW of Tanjung Meniagat (5 miles NE), the NW
extremity of Pulau Banggi, thence:
WNW of Labuan Rock (6 miles NE), with a depth of
2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it.
6
From this position the track leads NE, passing:
SE of Pulau Tiga (7 miles NNE) (4.54), and:
NW of Rifleman Rock (7 miles NE), marking the
end of the narrows. The channel between Pulau
Tiga and Rifleman Rock has depths of 11 to 13 m
(36 to 42 ft) in it, but it is prudent to reckon on no
more than 9 m (30 ft). In 1954 less water was
reported close NW of a line joining Labuan Rock
and Rifleman Rock.
7
From this position the track leads towards Main Channel
(4.54).
(Directions continue for Main Channel at 4.54)
Anchorages and harbours
South Harbour
4.68
1
Description. The entrance to South Harbour (7°13′N,
116°55′E) is situated 3 miles NE of Tanjung Kalutan, the
SW extremity of Pulau Balambangan (4.12). It is a narrow
inlet encumbered on all sides by coral reefs reducing the
navigable channel to about 1 cable width. It is fringed with
mangroves. A coral reef extends 5 cables E from Tanjung
Raha upon which lie Raha Rocks. Together with an isolated
reef lying 1 mile E they form the sides of the approach
channel.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Directions. It is advisable to enter this harbour only
when the reefs are visible.
3
From a position 2 miles S of Tanjung Kalutan the
track leads NE passing not less than 4 cables SE of
Observatory Point (7°12′N, 116°53′E) and its off-lying
dangers. It then leads into the shallows in mid-channel
between the reefs, the edges of which are frequently
marked by breakers. The track then leads round Raha
Rocks until the harbour entrance is opened on a W
heading.
Anchorage exists in a depth of 12⋅5 m (41 ft) NW of
Tanjung Raha, distant 1 cables.
North Harbour
4.69
1
Description. North Harbour (7°16′N, 117°00′E) lies on
the E side of Pulau Balambangan (4.12) between Tanjung
Periok and Tanjung Padang. This bay also known as Teluk
Lung is encumbered with rocks and the coast is fringed
with coral. Mangroves are grouped on parts of the shore.
Foul ground extends 1 miles NE from Tanjung Periok.
Tanjung Padang is surrounded by foul ground so that the
navigable entrance is reduced to about 4 cables width. As
shown on the chart an isolated reef awash lies 1 mile W of
Tanjung Padang just inside the entrance. In 1967, it was
reported that the reefs were marked by six buoys
(spherical, NE side green, SW side red) but these cannot be
relied upon.
2
Directions. It is advisable to enter this harbour only
when the reefs are visible.
From a position E of Half Channel Patch (4.67) the
track leads N with Tanjung Padang right ahead. From a
position 1 miles S of Tanjung Padang when the entrance
will be open the track leads in mid-channel between the
reefs, passing N of the isolated shoals lying between 1 mile
and 1 miles SW of Tanjung Padang.
3
Anchorage exists in a position with the reef, awash, in
transit with Tanjung Padang bearing 080° in a depth of
18 m (60 ft).
TELUK MARUDU — NORTH PART
General information
Charts 3728
Routes
4.70
1
The coastal route leads across the entrance to Teluk
Marudu from a position N of Pulau Kalampunian (7°03′N,
116°45′E) (4.11) to a position about 1 miles NW of Outer
Shoal (7°02N, 117°00′E) (4.122) lying in the entrance to
Selat Banggi Selatan (4.115).
2
The second route leads SE to enter Teluk Marudu
between Tanjung Agung Agung and Cape Mafsie from
which position the route leads S to Pulau Limau Limawan
(6°50′N, 116°52′E)
Topography
4.71
1
Low hills rise from the N end of the peninsula W of
Teluk Marudu to the elevation of Melau Besar, 205 m
(673 ft) high, lying 1 miles W of Pirate Point. The range
rises gradually towards the S such that W of the head of
Teluk Marudu, Mount Cochrane attains a height of 781 m
(2562 ft). The E side of the bay is low-lying with a range
of hills rising near the head of the bay attaining heights of
about 500 m (1640 ft), densely forested. The rivers flowing
into the bay are braided and shift their channels after each
rainy season. They are only accessible by boat after the
beacons have been replaced. Casuarina trees occupy the
greater part of the E shore.
Depths
4.72
1
Teluk Marudu is a wide, clear, deep water bay steep-to
on the NW shore but with extensive silting at the head and
along the E coast where rivers disgorge. Several isolated
shoals lie near the head of the bay.
Principal marks
4.73
1
Landmarks:
Cape Mafsie (6°56′N, 117°01′E), white cliffs. fringed
by an extensive coral reef. Numerous detached,
submerged and drying reefs lie W and NW.
Mount Melau Besar (6°46′N, 116°50′E) a flat, barren
summit.
2
Major light:
Pulau Kalampunian Light (7°03′N, 116°45′E) (4.11).
Directions
Pulau Kalampunian to Outer Shoal
4.74
1
From a position N of Pulau Kalampunian (7°03′N,
116°45′E) (4.11), the track leads E passing (with positions
from Pulau Kalampunian):
N of a dangerous wreck (6 miles SE), position
approximate, lying 1 miles NNE of Tanjung
Tajau (4.75), thence:
S of Tanjung Kalutan (11 miles NE) (4.12).
CHAPTER 4
118
2
The track then continues E clear of all dangers across
the entrance to Teluk Marudu to a position about 1 miles
NW of Outer Shoal (7°02′N, 117°00′E) (4.122) which is
marked by a light beacon.
(Directions continue at 4.121)
Pulau Kalampunian to Pulau Limau Limawan
4.75
From a position N of Pulau Kalampunian (7°03′N,
116°45′E) (4.11), the track leads SE for about 8 miles
passing (with positions from Tanjung Burungas (6°57′N,
117°02′E)):
1
NE of a dangerous wreck (12 miles WNW), position
approximate, lying 1 miles NNE of Tanjung
Tajau. This part of the coast is bordered by rock
and is the site of a village which extends along the
coast towards Tanjung Agung Agung.
2
From this position the track continues SE for about
1 mile to a position NE of Tanjung Agung Agung
(11 miles W) from whence it leads S passing:
W of Tanjung Berungus, the SW entrance point of an
inlet wherein lies the kampong Turung Putih.
Numerous submerged and drying reefs extend NW
from Tanjung Berungus. The outermost danger,
with a depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, lies 3 miles
NW of the point. Thence:
3
W of Cape Mafsie (1 miles S) (4.73). A shoal with
a depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, lies 2 miles W.
Thence:
W of Tanjung Perawan (3 miles S), conspicuous red
cliffs, thence:
4
E of Tanjung Tigasamil, (12 miles WSW), the S
entrance point into Kudat Harbour. A spit extends
5 cables NE upon the extremity of which stands a
light-beacon (red and white, triangular topmark,
apex down on a pile). Thence:
5
W of the entrance to Sungai Benkoka (Bengkoka)
(6 miles S). The entrance is marked by a light
(red beacon, red square topmark. 7 m in height),
thence:
6
From this position the track continues S for about
2 miles to a position E of Pulau Limau Limawan
(12 miles SW), connected to the shore by a drying
causeway. The islet is surrounded by a coral reef, awash at
HW, extending 5 cables E A beacon marks the NE side of
a patch with a depth of 3⋅1 m (10 ft) over it, lying
3 cables NE of the islet.
(Directions continue at 4.110)
Side channel
4.76
1
A safe channel exists between Pulau Kalampunian and
Tanjung Sempangmangayau, the NW extremity of Sabah.
The reefs on either side of this channel are visible and can
be easily avoided by keeping a good lookout from aloft.
There is a depth of 11 m (36 ft) in the fairway which is
2 cables wide.
Small craft
Turung Putih
4.77
1
Turung Putih (6°58′N, 117°03′E) is a small village
situated on the NE side of an inlet entered N of Tanjung
Berungus. The channel between the entrance points is about
6 cables wide between the reefs. In 1955, posts (striped
tops) marked the reef on the NE side.
2
The head of the inlet is encumbered by mudbanks,
which leave a narrow channel towards the NE shore. The
channel is difficult to locate.
Sungai Benkoka
4.78
1
Sungai Benkoka (6°51′N, 117°03′E), the largest river
flowing into Teluk Marudu, is marked on the N side of its
entrance channel by Pulau Benkoka, a small islet 3 miles
S of Tanjung Perawan. The river is 4 cables wide across
the entrance but decreases rapidly to 1 cable width inside.
A light-beacon (green triangle on beacon) marks the NE
side of a patch, with a depth of 3⋅1 m (10 ft) over it, lying
3 cables NE of the islet.
2
The approach channel, between two sandspits, is marked
by beacons, the positions of which are changed as the
channel alters. The depth on the bar is 1 m (3 ft) but depths
increase within. The river is navigable with draught less
than 2 m (6⋅5 ft), to the villages of Pitas and Telaga.
KUDAT HARBOUR
General information
Chart 3525 plan of Kudat
Position
4.79
1
The town of Kudat (6°53′N, 116°51′E) lies on the N
side of Kudat harbour entrance on the W side of Teluk
Marudu.
Function
4.80
1
Erstwhile capital of North Borneo, Kudat’s port
operations have declined together with its strategic
importance. Development of the road system linking it with
Kota Kinabalu (China Sea Pilot Volume II), the present
capital city of Sabah, has caused a decline in general cargo
operations, though some container traffic is handled.
Kudat’s function as an exporter of timber and forest
products continues. Development of the cement industry in
Kudat is expected to revive the port with the export of
silica and limestone. Kudat is an important centre for the
distribution of copra and rubber. In 2002 170 vessels visited
the port handling 150 000 tons of cargo.
Topography
4.81
1
Tanjung Bornugas, formerly the N entrance point to
Kudat harbour has been absorbed within reclaimed land
covering nearly all the sand and coral reef extending E
from the shore between 6°54′N and Gueritz Rock (4.98).
Kudat harbour is a natural bay extending 5 miles inland
surrounded by low wooded hills, the highest of which, on
the S side, rise to an elevation of 140 m (460 ft) The coast
of the bay is heavily indented with mangrove fringed
coves. Sungai Temalang flows into the NW corner of the
bay E of Egeria Bluff. Sungai Dampirit flows into
Lengkabang Bay at the head of Teluk Kudat and Sungai
Pamatadau flows into a small inlet in the middle cove.
Johnstone Bluff is a peninsula leading into the middle of
Teluk Kudat. Mudflats edge the N shore and coral reefs
edge the S shore near the W end of which lies White Rock
8 m (27 ft) high. The water shallows gently from 17 m
CHAPTER 4
119
(56 ft) at the entrance to less than 1 m (3 ft) at the head of
the bay. The entrance into the harbour is restricted by
Sandilands Rock (4.97).
Port limits
4.82
1
The harbour limits are defined by lines joining the
following positions:
6°51′⋅43N, 116°51′⋅30E.
6°52′⋅30N, 116°51′.50E.
6°52′⋅85N, 116°51′⋅64E.
6°53′⋅66N, 116°51′⋅47E.
Approach and entry
4.83
1
The port is approached from Teluk Marudu and entered
between Sandilands Rock (4.97) and Tanjung Tigasamil
(4.75).
Traffic
4.84
1
The port handles about 250 000 tons of cargo a year.
Port Authority
4.85
1
The harbour is administered by the Sabah Ports
Authority, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
4.86
1
Maximum permitted draught for entering the port is
7⋅5 m but alongside the berths draughts are limited to
6⋅4 m.
Deepest and longest berth
4.87
Government wharf (4.101).
Mean tidal levels
4.88
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅3 m; mean neap range about
0⋅1 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
4.89
1
1.025g/cm
3
.
Weather
4.90
1
The driest time of the year is from April to October
during the SW monsoon when fever is most prevalent.
During the rest of the year, especially in December and
January, strong NE winds and heavy rain may hamper
berthing.
Arrival information
Anchorages
4.91
1
Marudu anchorage, about 1 mile S of Tanjung Tigasamil,
is sheltered but depths are liable to seasonal fluctuations of
as much as 0⋅6 m especially during the NE monsoon.
Pilots
4.92
1
Pilots are not compulsory but if required 2 4 hours
notice should be given through the agent. The message
should include arrival draft, pilotage and any other
requirements. Pilots normally board within harbour limits.
Their boats are 9 m (30 ft) and 12 m (40 ft) long and are
equipped with VHF radio.
Tugs
4.93
1
Tugs are not available.
Harbour
General layout
4.94
1
Kudat harbour lies on the N shore of the entrance to
Teluk Kudat. Extensive reclamation over a coral reef to
seaward includes a yacht basin 6 cables N of the entrance
to the harbour and provides an extensive open cargo
storage area. A ferry slip has been built into the S side of
this reclaimed area. Government Wharf provides berthing
for two vessels NW of Gueritz rock (4.98). A flagstaff and
a radio tower stand NE of the wharf. Many of the
buildings are of recent construction.
Natural conditions
4.95
1
Tidal streams in Kudat harbour are weak. The
maximum rate observed over three months was 0⋅5 kn.
Traffic signals
4.96
1
Tidal and berthing information is displayed by signals
from a tower near the root of Government Wharf (6°53′N,
116°51′E) as follows:
Signal Meaning
A cone, apex up Ebb stream
A ball Slack water
A cone, apex down Flood stream
2
Berthing instructions are indicated by displaying the
vessel’s signal letters and, in another hoist, a red and white
chequered flag superior to an International Code pennant,
as follows:
1 Government wharf, seaward face
2 Government wharf, landward face
0 Anchor
3
Notes:
(1) The Answering Pendant should be used to
acknowledge the above signals.
(2) The hoist at half mast indicates that the ship
should be made ready to move. The hoist close
up indicates that the ship should be got under
way.
(3) Red and white chequered flags are employed on
the wharf to indicate bow or stern positions of
the berth.
(4) International Code flag “B” is displayed on the
opposite yard-arm to the berthing signal when a
vessel loaded with inflammable or dangerous
cargo is manoeuvring within the harbour.
Principal marks
4.97
1
Landmarks:
Radio mast (6°53′N, 116°16′E), with an elevation of
21 m (70 ft).
Silver painted water tower 4 cables NW of the radio
tower.
CHAPTER 4
120
Sandilands Rock Light-beacon (starboard hand, green
tripod, 8 m in height) (6°52′N, 116°51′E).
House (6°51′N, 116°51′E), with a red roof on the S
shore.
Directions for entering harbour
4.98
1
From a position about 2 miles WNW of Tanjung
Tigasamil (6°51′N, 116°51′E) the track leads W directly
towards the anchorage, passing (with positions from
Sandilands Rock (6°52′N, 116°51′E)):
N of Tigasamil Spit (6 cables S), marked at its E end
by a light-beacon (port hand, triangular topmark on
pile), and:
S of Sandilands Rock, marked by a light-beacon
(4.97)
N of Tern Rock (7 cables SSW), 1⋅2 m (4 ft) high,
lying 3 cables W of Tigasamil Spit, thence:
2
S of Gueritz Rock (7 cables WNW), marked by a
light-beacon (black and white chequered triangle
on a pile, 5 m in height).
From this position the track leads NW bringing
Residency Point (1miles WNW), right ahead.
3
When a position W of Gueritz Rock is reached,
manoeuvre towards Government Wharf.
Useful marks
4.99
1
Datum Rock, drying 2 m (7 ft), with a beacon, (white
cone topmark apex up), lying 5 cables NW of
Gueritz Rock.
An overhead power cable runs from Residency Point
to a position 1 cable N of the root of Government
Wharf. It affords no risk to ships.
Berths
Anchorage
4.100
1
Anchorage is recommended in a depth of 12 m (40 ft)
mud, 3 cables S of Gueritz Rock (4.98) on a bearing of
353° with the radio mast in transit. Anchorage may be had
nearer the town if draught permits but regulations prevent
anchoring any closer than 3 cables off the head of
Government Wharf. The loading of timber and forest
products is done at anchor.
2
No vessel carrying explosives or hydrocarbons is
permitted to anchor closer than 6 cables from the head of
Government Wharf.
3
If draught permits anchorage for smaller vessels may be
found W of the N bearing of Residency Point but care
must be taken to avoid a rock with a depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft)
over it, lying 7 cables SW of Residency Point.
4
Kudat harbour provides good anchorage during the NE
monsoon (October to March) sheltered from the swell by
the reclaimed land NE of Gueritz Rock (4.98).
Alongside berths
4.101
1
Government Wharf, of open pile construction, extends
99 m SSW thence 102 m SW. The outer half is 12 m wide
and is used for berthing on both sides accommodating
vessels up to 114 m. From the SW extremity a catwalk
30 m long gives access to a mooring dolphin from which a
light is exhibited. There is a depth of 6⋅4 m at both berths.
Loading and discharging is done with ship’s gear.
Port services
Repairs
4.102
1
None.
Other facilities
4.103
1
Hospital; post and telecommunications office; garbage
disposal; no ballast/slop reception.
Supplies
4.104
1
Provisions fresh and dry; diesel oil; fresh water.
Communications
4.105
1
Small airport 3 miles N of Kudat operating regular
services between Kudat, Kota Kinabalu and Sandakan.
TELUK MARUDU — SOUTH PART
General information
Charts 3728, Philippines Chart 4309 (see 1.18)
Route
4.106
1
From the position E of Pulau Limau Limawan (6°50′N,
116°51′E) the route leads S for about 6 miles to a
position W of Barraut Reef (6°43′N, 116°54′E) thence SW
for about 7 miles to a position NW of Tanjung Batu
(6°37′N, 116°51′E) at the head of Teluk Marudu.
Topography
4.107
1
The head of Teluk Marudu closes into a U shape about
6 miles in width trending in a SW direction. Mountainous
on both sides the head of the bay is low-lying where
braided rivers, prone to shifting their channels, empty into
it. Low hills rise from the W shore to an elevation of
183 m (600 ft) and among the prominent peaks is Melau
Besar. Hills rising from the SE shore to an elevation of
about 600 m (1968 ft). All are densely wooded. The coast
SW of Pirate Point is fringed with mangroves.
Depths
4.108
1
Deeper and less hazardous waters lie on the SE side of
Teluk Marudu where depths of 12 m (40 ft) may be found
within 1 mile of the coast. Dangerous shallows extend up
to 2 miles off the NW shore and as much as 4 miles from
the head of the bay. In the centre of the bay depths of
about 20 m are maintained to within 5 miles of the head
of Teluk Marudu.
CHAPTER 4
121
Principal marks
4.109
1
Landmarks:
Melau Besar (6°46′N, 116°50′E) 205 m (673 ft) high
with a flat, barren summit.
Gunong Gumantong (6°45′N, 116°41′E),
Gunong Matunggong (6°43′N 116°47′E), thickly
wooded.
Directions
(continued from 4.75)
Pulau Limau Limawan to Pulau Matunggong
4.110
1
From the position E of Pulau Limau Limawan the track
leads S passing (with positions from Zebra Reefs (6°45′N,
116°57′E)):
E of Pirate Point (6 miles W), low-lying, sandy and
fringed with mangroves. The point is fronted by a
sand beach 1 mile long extending 5 cables to
seaward. Thence:
2
W of Zebra Reefs, a group of several coral patches,
one of which dries. A light-beacon stands 1 mile
NNE of the reef. The coast between Zebra Reefs
and the Benkoka (Bengkoka) River (4.78) is low,
sandy and forested with high casuarina trees.
Several rivers flow through them into Marudu Bay.
Thence:
3
W of a shoal (2 miles W), with a depth of 1⋅4 m
(4 ft) over it whose position is approximate, and:
W of Barraut Reef (3 miles WSW). A rocky shoal
with a depth of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it. A beacon (red
and white bands; spherical topmark) stands on the
S side of the shoal.
4
From this position the track leads SSW towards the head
of the bay passing:
WNW of Ridge Point (5 miles SW), the coast in
this area being fringed by a reef of sand and coral.
Thence:
5
ESE of Brandon Reef (8 miles WSW) consisting of
several large coral patches awash, the outer one
with a depth of 3⋅2 m (10 ft) over it, lies 2 miles
offshore. On the same bearing lies Mount
Matunggong (4.109). Thence:
6
WNW of Tanjung Batu (9 miles SW), a low-lying
point with a river flowing from its S side. The
village of Marasimsim stands 1 mile E of Tanjung
Batu.
7
From this position the track continues SSW for about
5 cables to a position ESE of Pulau Matunggong
(11 miles SW), a small mound, studded with mangroves
and surrounded by low rocks. A light-beacon stands
1 miles E of the island, in the approaches to Tembungo
Oil Terminal.
Anchorages and harbours
Mempakad
4.111
1
Description. Mempakad village (6°41′N, 116°57′E) lies
on the E side of Teluk Marudu. Powell Rock with a depth
of less than 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, lies 7 cables N of
Mempakad.
2
Anchorage exists 3 cables offshore abreast of the
village in a depth of 13 m (42 ft), mud.
Marasimsim village
4.112
1
Description. Marasimsim village (6°37′N, 116°51′E) lies
on the bank of a small river flowing out from the S side of
Tanjung Batu.
Anchorage exists off a shallow bay, for vessels of 6 m
draught in a depth of 9⋅5 m (31 ft) with Tanjung Batu
bearing 060°, distant 8 cables.
Vessels of less draught may anchor with Tanjung Batu
bearing 034°, distant 7 cables, in a depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft),
mud.
Small craft
Sungai Matunggong
4.113
1
Sungai Matunggong (6°39′N, 116°49′E) is entered 1 mile
NW of Pulau Matunggong along a channel which is
marked, at its seaward end, by a light beacon (starboard
hand).
Sungai Marudu
4.114
1
Description A light beacon (port hand) (6°37′N,
116°49′E) marks the approach channel into Sungai Marudu,
the largest of the rivers flowing into the head waters of
Marudu Bay. It is fringed with mangroves and intersected
by small streams. Mud and sand flats extend far to
seaward. The entrance channel is marked with beacons
which are constantly moved as the channel alters. The river
may be ascended for 1 miles at HW. Bandau, a small
town, lies 5 miles up river.
2
Anchorage. For vessels of 4⋅5 m draught there is an
anchorage with Tanjung Batu bearing 104° distance
2 miles, in a depth of 6⋅4 m (21 ft), mud.
Larger vessels should anchor 3 cables NE of this
position in a depth of 10 to 11 m (33 to 36 ft).
SELAT BANGGI SELATAN
General information
Chart 948 1654, 287
Route
4.115
1
Selat Banggi Selatan (Banggi South Channel) (7°07′N,
(117°17′E) leads from the South China Sea to the Sulu Sea.
It is intricate and requires careful navigation. Mariners are
advised to follow the recommended track to avoid the
many dangers that exist either side of it.
2
The route described leads generally E from a position
1 miles NW of Outer Shoal (7°02′N, 117°00′E) (4.122),
for a distance of about 33 miles, to a position NNW of
Fairway Shoal (07°07′N, 117°31′E) (4.124).
Topography
4.116
1
Pulau Banggi (4.64), part of Sabah, has a S coast
fronted by several much smaller islands with deep water
channels between them. In bygone days, these served as
some of the many haunts for pirates in the area.
2
The low-lying land of Pulau Banggi rises to New
Banggi Peak (4.34), the highest point of the island, lying
close to its NW extremity, otherwise, there are few
headlands or peaks of prominence in the area. Off-lying
islets and shoals are generally close to the shores though
the navigable channel of Selat Banggi Selatan is narrowed
by shoals extending 5 miles from the Sabah mainland.
CHAPTER 4
122
3
All the islands, including Pulau Banggi are heavily
wooded and surrounded by coral reefs. which, on the E
coast extend in vast areas 12 miles to seaward.
4
Pulau Malawali, lying mid-way between Pulau Banggi
and the Sabah mainland, is low-lying, heavily wooded and
fringed with coral reefs. Most of these isolated reefs are
steep-to with deep water between them.
Depths
4.117
1
Depths throughout the 33 miles length of this waterway,
along the recommended track, vary between about 25 and
35 m (14 and 19 fm). There is a shallower patch N of the
South Channel Dangers where the depth is 17⋅4 m (9⋅5 fm).
Malawali Eastern Dangers consists of numerous isolated
coral reefs extending up to 10 miles from the E side.
Waters farther E have been inadequately surveyed as shown
on the chart.
2
Caution. Mariners are advised that surveys in the area
have not been carried out to modern standards so that
lesser depths than those charted may exist.
Tidal streams
4.118
1
Tidal streams in Banggi South Channel are weak. A
current of up to 1 kn can be experienced having direction
and rate fluctuations much as that experienced in the
Balabac Strait (4.33).
Dangers
4.119
1
A large number of unnamed shoals indicated on the
charts, lie in the area E of Pulau Banggi. Shoals continue
to be reported in these waters and it is probable that a
considerable number of uncharted dangers exist in the
waters surrounding them. Mariners should give Malawali
Eastern Dangers and Pudsey Dawson Dangers, farther E, a
very wide berth.
2
Although the more shallow reefs and shoals are often
indicated by a light green discolouration of the water over
them, by calm patches when there is a breeze blowing, or
by tidal stream eddies on the surface, too much reliance
should not be placed upon seeing them as the darker coral
is often very hard to distinguish and surface light reflection
may hide them completely. Polaroid glasses, which reduce
this reflection, are an invaluable aid. In, and for some
distance to seaward of large shallow bays, the water is
often opaque, in which case shoals are frequently invisible.
Patches of sand in suspension often give a most convincing
impression of shallow water, an effect that may be
experienced anywhere in these waters, when there is an
appreciable tidal stream, or any sea running.
Principal mark
4.120
1
Landmark:
New Banggi Peak (7°18′N, 117°05′E) (4.34).
Directions
(continued from 4.74)
Caution
4.121
1
Attention to these directions must be supplemented by a
vigilant look-out. The best time for a passage from the W
is with the sun overhead or astern, when there is seldom
difficulty in making out the various dangers. However
Balabac Main Channel (4.54) must be considered a safer
route.
West entrance
4.122
1
From the position 1 miles NW of Outer Shoal (7°02′N,
117°00′E) the track leads initially E for 3 miles and then
NE for 4 miles, passing (with positions from Tanjung
Berungus (6°57′N, 117°02′E)):
N of Outer Shoal (5 miles NNW), the largest of the
most NW of the hazards in the North−west Borneo
Dangers. A light-beacon (green triangle on a five
leg metal structure) marks the NW end of Outer
Shoal. There is a drying patch on its E side.
Heavy tide-rips may give warning of these and
other dangers in the vicinity. Thence:
2
S of Pulau Molleangan Kecil (7 miles N), the
outermost of a chain of islands lying on a reef
extending 4 miles SW from Tanjung Sibauang,
thence:
S of Pulau Molleangan Besar (8 miles N), lying in
the middle of this chain of islands and 1 miles
SW of Tanjung Sibauang. A drying reef, on which
lie three islets, extends 6 cables W from Pulau
Molleangan Besar. Pulau Pandanan, lies 7 cables N
of this island..
3
From this position the track leads NE, passing:
NW of Pearson Rock (6 miles NNE), thence:
NW of Ten Foot Rock (7 miles NNE), thence:
SE of Tanjung Sibauang (9 miles NNE), the SW
extremity of Pulau Banggi, surrounded by a
narrow reef. A shoal with a depth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft)
over it, lies 4 cables SW of Tanjung Sibauang.
4
From this position the track continues NE for about
1 mile to a position SE of Pulau Patanunam (9 miles
NNE) off which a narrow detached reef extends 1 mile NE.
5
Here the recommended track bifurcates with Selat
Banggi Selatan continuing E for vessels proceeding into the
Sulu Sea and SE for the Sabah coastal route via Selat
Malawali.
(Directions continue for Selat Malawali at 4.143)
Pulau Patanunam to Carrington Reefs
4.123
1
From the position SE of Pulau Patanunam (7°06′N,
117°05′E) the track leads ENE passing (with positions from
Pulau Patanunam):
NNW of Petrel Shoals (2 miles SE), a group of
shoals marked at the E end by a light-buoy
(starboard hand). A stranded wreck lies on the
W-most shoal. Thence:
2
SSE of Pulau Pagassan (1 miles NNE) a narrow,
flat island about 1 mile in extent, fringed with
coral and heavily wooded with palms. There is a
small village near its SW extremity. Thence:
3
NNW of the W extremity of South Channel Dangers
(3 miles ESE) which consists of numerous coral
shoals lying on the S side of the recommended
track. The NE shoal lies 4 miles ENE of the W
patch. There is a drying reef 3 cables S. The
S-most shoal, with a depth of⋅1⋅5 m (5 ft) over it,
lies 2 miles ESE of the W patch. The W
extremity of South Channel Dangers is marked
with a light-beacon (red square on pile).
4
Caution. Navigation between the dangers lying within
the triangle contained by joining these three extremities is
inadvisable. Mariners should regard the whole area as
dangerous.
5
From a position NNW of the W extremity of South
Channel Dangers the track leads E passing:
CHAPTER 4
123
S of Pulau Balak (Balak Balak) (3 miles NE), hilly
and undulating, thence:
6
S of Pulau Panukaran (6 miles NE), 2 miles long it
is the largest of the islands S of Pulau Banggi,
heavily wooded, fringed with mangroves and
fronted by a coral reef. Between Pulau Balak and
Pulau Panukaran, lying close to the Pulau Banggi
shore, is Pulau Laksiang (Modom), a small, round
densely wooded island.
7
From this position the track leads E for about 2 miles to
a position S of the W extremity of Carrington Reef
(9 miles ENE) 4 miles long and 1 miles wide. The
majority of this reef dries. Near the W end there is a
narrow channel between two parts of the reef. A patch with
a depth of 3 m (10 ft) over it, patch lies 7 cables WNW of
the W extremity of the reefs.
Carrington Reefs to Fairway Shoal
4.124
1
Caution. It is probable that there are uncharted shoals in
the area E of Pulau Banggi. When navigating off the
recommended tracks in this region, caution must be
exercised and a good lookout kept. Movement by night in
these waters is not recommended.
From a position S of the W extremity of Carrington
Reefs the track leads E, passing (with positions from the
summit of Pulau Malawali (7°04′N, 117°17′E)):
2
N of Pulau Mati (2 miles NW), a wooded islet lying
on a reef extending NW from the NW extremity of
Pulau Malawali, and:
N of Pulau Tanjung (1 miles NNW), an islet lying
on the N extension of the same reef NW of Pulau
Malawali, thence:
3
N of the N extremity of the coral reef surrounding
Pulau Malawali in line with the summit of the
island, densely wooded, sparsely populated but for
several villages along the coast.
4
From this position the track leads ESE passing:
NNE of Tanjung Bukit (3 miles E), the E extremity
of Pulau Malawali. A drying reef lies 2 miles
NNE of Tanjung Bukit and two other isolated reefs
lie from 1 mile to 2 miles farther ENE. A drying
coral spit extends 2 miles ENE, thence:
5
SSE of the South East Banggi Dangers (8 miles NE)
consisting of an extensive group of reefs and
shoals the W end of which is defined by two small
isolated reefs which dry and are steep-to. The E
part of South East Banggi dangers is encumbered
by a number of coral patches with depths from 3⋅2
to 9⋅1 m (10 to 30 ft) over them. Thence:
6
NNW of Malawali Eastern Dangers (6 to 12 miles E)
which comprise a large number of detached and
isolated reefs extending ENE and SE from Pulau
Malawali, thence:
7
NNW of Pulau Straggler (11 miles E), heavily
wooded, lying in the middle of an isolated reef
1 miles long. A patch with a depth of 2⋅1 m
(7 ft) over its N end, lies 1 mile NW. Numerous
dangers lie S of the island. Thence:
8
NNW of Fairway Shoal, (14 miles E). A rock awash
lies on its S side. A patch with a depth of 5⋅9 m
(19 ft) over it, steep to on all sides, lies 2 miles
E of Fairway Shoal. In 1976 a 7⋅3 m (24 ft) shoal
was reported to lie 2 miles NE of Fairway Shoal.
9
From this position the recommended track ceases but
6 miles ENE lies Meander Patch (Maeander on chart 287)
(7°10′N, 117°37′E). Numerous isolated shoals and reefs lie
within 15 miles in various directions as shown on the chart.
A shoal, with a depth of 4⋅1 m (13 ft) over it, was reported
(1983) to lie 4 miles SE of Meander Patch and in 1972 a
dangerous rock was reported 5 miles NE of the same patch.
Side channels
Selat Malawali — E side
4.125
1
Description. There is a passage, with depths of 16 m
(53 ft), or more between Selat Banggi Selatan and Selat
Malawali, with South Channel Dangers (7°05′N, 117°10′E)
and Egeria Rocks on the W side and Pulau Malawali on
the E side. Several shoals lie at the N end of the channel
of which the W-most is a 9⋅4 m (31 ft) patch lying
2 miles NW of Pulau Mati on the NW extremity of Pulau
Malawali. The other patches lie between this and the reef
extending NW from the island. All have less water over
them.
2
Directions. From a position S of the W extremity of
Carrington Reefs the track leads SSE, passing (with
positions from Pulau Mati (7°05′N, 117°16′E):
ENE of a patch (3 miles NW), with a least depth of
3 m (10 ft) over it, thence:
ENE of a drying reef (3 miles NW), and:
WSW of a shoal (2 miles NNW), with a depth of
9⋅4 m (31 ft) over it, thence:
WSW of Pulau Mati, an islet lying on the coastal reef
close NW of Pulau Malawali, and
ENE of Egeria Rocks (2 miles SW), thence:
ENE of a patch (3 miles SSW), with a depth of 6⋅1 m
(20 ft) over it.
3
The track then joins Selat Malawali in a position N of
Passage Reef (7°00′N, 117°17′E).
North of Carrington Reefs and Bankawan Channel
4.126
1
Description. A channel, 6 cables wide, leads between
Carrington Reefs (7°09′N, 117°15′E) and the reefs off
Pulau Banggi. This channel is only suitable for small
power-driven vessels, which may subsequently round
Carrington Reefs and return to Selat Banggi Selatan, or
may proceed into the Sulu Sea either by the passage along
the coastal reef or through Bankawan Channel (7°12′N,
117°22′E).
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. From the position S of Pulau Balak (7°08′N,
117°08′E) the track leads ENE passing (with positions from
Tanjung Perak (7°11′N, 117°15′E)):
SSE of Pulau Laksiang (5 miles W), and:
SSE of the SE extremity of Pulau Panukaran (3 miles
WSW) (4.123), Three small mangrove islets lie on
coral spits 1 mile E of Pulau Panakuran. Thence:
3
SSE of Tanjung Perak, 1 mile S and SE of which lie
dangerous shoals and coral patches. The bay
between Pulau Panukaran and Tanjung Perak is
encumbered with shoals reefs and islets A narrow
boat channel skirts the coastal reef leading to
Sungai Sabul. Another channel, W of that already
described, leads to the mouth of Sungai
Tambilisan.
4
The track then leads to a position N of the N extremity
of Carrington Reefs.
Bankawan Channel, separating Bankawan Reefs from the
South−east Banggi Dangers, is 7cables wide at its
narrowest part and deep in the fairway. There should be no
difficulty navigating the channel though a careful look-out
must be kept for the reefs on either hand. Several wooded
CHAPTER 4
124
islets lie on the Bankawan Reefs including Pulau Bilangan,
Pulau Bankawan, the largest; Pulau Sungur and Pulau
Latoan.
5
From a position NE of Bankawan Channel the track
continues NE passing:
SE of East Banggi Patches (7°15′N, 117°24′E) and:
SE of Outer Latoan Patch (7°18′N, 117°24′E). The
area for 20 miles N and E of Bankawan Channel
contains many isolated shoals, dangerous rocks and
reefs.
Anchorages and harbours
Patanunam Harbour
4.127
1
Patanunam Harbour (7°06′N, 117°05′E) is entered
between Pulau Patanunam and Pulau Banggi. The harbour
is narrow, and deep, with steep-to reefs on either side. It is
about 1 cables wide off the middle of Pulau Patanunam,
but opens to 3 cables wide abreast the drying reef off the
NE end. There is a depth of 13⋅4 m (44 ft) in the harbour.
There is a small wooden jetty extending over the coral reef
with a depth of 1 m at its head, where the reef is steep-to.
2
Vessels of 2000 grt have anchored in the widest part to
load timber off Karakit village.
Mitford Harbour
4.128
1
Mitford Harbour (7°08′N, 117°07′E) has been only
inadequately surveyed. There are numerous coral reefs
within the harbour, but there are clear spaces of
considerable size. The deepest area lies close to the middle
entrance.
Local knowledge is required.
2
There are three entrances:
West Entrance, NW of the reefs fringing Pulau
Pagassan, with depths from 7 to 9 m (24 to 30 ft)
and a width of 1 cable. It is not recommended.
3
Middle Entrance, the principal entrance between
Pulau Pagassan and Pulau Balak, less than 1 cable
wide at its narrowest with depths from 4 to 24 m
(13 ft to 13 fm) in it.
It should be approached between the NE end of the
drying reef NE of Pulau Patanunam and a 1⋅8 m
(6 ft) patch lying 5 cables E of the reef.
4
East Entrance, between the reefs extending from
Pulau Balak and Pulau Lampassan is about
2 cables wide, narrowing to 1 cable within the
entrance. There are depths of 4 to 24 m (13 ft to
13 fm) in it.
5
It should be approached with the SW extremity of
Pulau Laksiang bearing 330° leading between
Pulau Lampussan and a detached coral reef
midway between that island and Pulau Balak. A
patch with a depth of 3 m (10 ft) over it, lies
4 cables S Pulau Lampassan.
6
The recommended track continues passing 1 cable off
the edge of the coastal reef, thence continues in
mid-channel passing close W of a detached drying
reef, 4 cables S of Pulau Laksiang.
7
Anchorage exists in depths from 9 to 13 m (30 to
42 ft), soft mud, NNE of the inner end of Middle Entrance
or East Entrance, but should only be attempted by small
vessels. In 1955, a small charcoal factory stood at Balak
Balak backed by 12 m (40 ft) cliffs at the W end of the
NW side of Pulau Balak.
Small craft
Pulau Balak
4.129
1
A village midway along the E side of Pulau Balak
(7°08′N, 117°08′E) can be approached through a narrow
gap in the coastal reef marked by stakes. There is a small
wooden jetty.
FEARLESS SHOAL TO SANDAKAN
General information
Charts 287, 2576
Route
4.130
1
From a position about 18 miles NE of Fearless Shoal
(7°23′N, 117°37′E) the route leads about 51 miles SE to a
position SW of Muligi Miki (6°52′N, 118°24′E) lying SW
of, and included with the Cagayan Sulu Islands (4.135).
Thence the route leads S to a position NNE of Pulau
Taganak (6°05′N, 118°18′E) in the approaches to Sandakan
Harbour (4.162).
Topography
4.131
1
The Cagayan group of about twelve islands, of which
Cagayan Sulu is the largest, lies in the SW part of the Sulu
Sea 100 miles E of the NE extremity of Borneo. Except for
Bintut Island, Mandah Island and the lesser islets, they are
all inhabited and form part of the Philippines Archipelago.
Cagayan Sulu, triangular in shape, indented by a few
shallow bays, has a large natural harbour (4.135). There are
two freshwater crater lakes near the S coast of the island.
Except for its NW and SE extremities the island is fringed
by a coral reef extending 8 cables off-shore in places. This
reef dries in patches leaving channels for canoes between
the reef and the coast. The lesser islands extend in two
chains, the major one leading N with six islands in a
distance of about 8 miles; the minor chain of two islands
lying 7 and 8 miles SW from the SW side. The remaining
islets are clustered in a group off the W extremity of
Cagayan Sulu.
Depths
4.132
1
An area measuring 20 miles from W to E and 14 miles
from N to S, lying 19 miles ESE of Malawali Island and
centred on (6°55′N, 117°50′E), has not been surveyed and
is reported to contain numerous reefs with depths from 1⋅8
to 3⋅7 m (6 to 12 ft) over them. The area enclosed by
pecked lines should not be entered. Shoals continue to be
reported in these waters and it is probable that a
considerable number of uncharted dangers exist in the
waters surrounding them. Mariners should give Malawali
Eastern Dangers and Pudsey Dawson Dangers, a group of
coral and sand shoals which fringe the unsurveyed area on
its NE and N sides, a very wide berth.
Directions
(continued from 4.59)
Fearless Shoal to Muligi Miki Island
4.133
1
From a position 18 miles NE of Fearless Shoal (7°23′N,
117°37′E) (4.59) the track leads SE, passing (with positions
from Keenapusan Island (7°10°N, 118°25′E)):
SW of a shoal (32 miles NW), reported 1950 to
have a depth of 18⋅3 m (60 ft) over it. Don Juan
CHAPTER 4
125
de Austria Shoal lies 13 miles NE of this shoal
and consists of three patches, two of which were
reported in 1903 by USS Don Juan de Austria, to
have a depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over them. Thence:
SW of a patch (30 miles NW) with a depth of 12⋅8 m
(42 ft) over it. Patches with depths of 18⋅3 m
(60 ft) over them, lie close NW and SE of this
patch. Thence:
2
SW of a patch (27 miles NW) with a depth of 14⋅9 m
(49 ft) over it. Patches with depths of 16⋅5 m
(54 ft) over them lie 3 miles N and NNW of this
patch. Another with a depth of 13⋅7 m (45 ft) over
it, reported 1884, lies 1 miles E of this patch.
Thence:
NE of a shoal (29 miles W), reported 1977, position
approximate, thence:
3
SW of Memnon Shoal (15 miles N), which consists
of coral with patches of sand. There is a least
charted depth of 11 m (36 ft) over it. Heavy
tide-rips mark the edge of the shoal, otherwise it
does not show. Tidal streams over Memnon Shoal,
observed by HMS Egeria in 1891, set between
SSW and NNW at a maximum rate of 1 kn.
Shoals, with depths of 15⋅2 and 18⋅3 m (50 and
60 ft) over them, were reported 1951 and 1980 to
lie 7 miles WSW of Memnon Shoal. Thence:
4
NE of a shoal (27 miles W), reported in 1980 to have
a depth of 10⋅1 m (33 ft) over it, thence:
5
SW of Keenapusan Island, N-most of the Cagayan
Sulu Group, is fringed with coral reefs extending
up to 3 cables offshore. There are coconut
plantations on the N side. North−east Bank and
North−west Bank, separated from the island by
deep channels about 3 miles wide, have least
depths of 7⋅3 m (24 ft) over them. In 1955 a small
unexamined bank with a depth of 25 m (14 fm)
over it, was reported to lie 7 miles N of the island.
In 1977 a patch with a depth of 5⋅8 m (19 ft) over
it, was reported to lie 3 miles farther NW.
Thence:
6
SW of Pamelikan Island, (3 miles S), fringed with a
coral reef with, on the E side, a large rock. A
patch with a depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over it, lies
2 miles NE, and another, with a depth of 12⋅8 m
(42 ft) over it, lies 5 miles WNW of Pamelikan
Island. And:
7
NE of a patch (17 miles SW), reported 1954, with a
depth of 15⋅2 m (50 ft) over it. Another patch, with
a depth of 14⋅6 m (48 ft) over it, reported 1973,
lies 2 miles N of the 15⋅2 m patch. Thence:
8
SW of Bohan Island, (6 miles S), and Mandah Island
lie on the same reef. Mandah, the E island has a
sharp peak and is steep-to. Both islands are
densely wooded. Bisu Bohan, a rock, 17 m (54 ft)
high, lies 1 mile W of Bohan Island. Between
Bohan Island and Pamelikan Island lies Bintut
Island, formed of dark sandstone. Bisu Bintut, a
large rock, lies close E of this islet. A shoal with a
depth of 16⋅5 m (54 ft) over it, lies 6 miles W of
Bintut Island. There are deep channels between
these various islands Thence:
9
SW of Tavotavo Point (9 miles S), the NW extremity
of Bulisauan Island, lying close to the NW
extremity of Caguyan Sulu. A cluster of islets lie
off the S extremity of Bulisauan Island.
10
From this position the track continues SE to a position
SW of Muligi Miki Island and Muligi Diki Island
(17 miles S), separated by a channel which, though clear,
should not be attempted. Both these islands are inhabited
and are planted with coconut trees.
Muligi Miki Island to Sandakan
4.134
1
From the position SW of Muligi Miki Island the track
leads S for about 47 miles to a position NNW of Taganak
Island (6°05′N, 118°19′E) (4.185), passing (with positions
from Mambahenauhan Island (6°32′N, 118°30′E)):
W of a patch (14 miles NW) with a depth of
18⋅3 m (60 ft) over it, and:
E of Monmouth Shoals (24 miles NW), which consist
of five detached shoals, with depths from 4⋅0 to
8⋅2 m (13 to 27 ft) over them and deep water
between, thence:
2
W of Mambahenauhan Island, brown rock with
brushwood and small trees on its summit, steep-to
and can be approached to about 5 cables, thence:
E of Flying Fish Rock (25 miles SW) (4.154),
thence:
E of a patch (25 miles SW), with a depth of 8⋅5 m
(28 ft) over it, lying 1 miles W of Johnston Rock
thence:
E of another patch (27 miles SSW), with a depth of
8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it, and:
3
W of Clotilde Rock (19 miles SSE), steep-to with a
3⋅3 m (11 ft) shoal lying 5 cables SW.
4
From this position the track leads to a position 2 miles
NNW of Pulau Taganak (6°05′N, 118°19′E) in the
approaches to Sandakan Harbour (4.162).
(Directions continue for Sandakan Harbour at 4.185)
Minor harbour
Gunboat Harbour
4.135
1
Description. Gunboat Harbour lies 1 miles W of
Tandatao Point (6°59′N, 118°33′E), the SE extremity of
Cagayan Sulu Island, with a hill 100 m (330 ft) high, close
W. The town of Cagayan de Sulu is situated on the N side
of Gunboat Harbour and is a Sub port of Entry,
administered by the Bureau of Customs. Coconuts, copra
and mats are exported.
2
Directions. Approaching from the W the track leads E
passing in mid-channel between a dangerous rock (6°58′N,
118°28′E), close off the middle of the S coastal reef and
Willcox Bank 8 cables S, steep-to with a least depth of 5 m
(16 ft) over it, lying 1 mile S of the middle of the S coastal
reef reported 1877, by HMS. Growler. The bottom is
distinctly visible.
3
The track continues E until clear of a 3⋅7 m (12 ft) shoal
extending 6 cables S from the W point of Gunboat
Harbour, whence it leads N to the harbour.
The approach from S and E is clear of dangers.
Useful marks:
A Light (white concrete tower, 10 m in height) is
exhibited from high ground close W of Tandatao
Point.
A Radio tower standing about 5 cables NW of the
wharf.
4
Berth. A rock causeway, 238 m in length with a steel
pile wharf 30 m in length, at its seaward end. In 1955 a
depth of 3⋅7 m was reported at the head of the wharf.
Communications: airstrip close to the town.
CHAPTER 4
126
Anchorages
Jurata Bay
4.136
1
Description. The entrance to Jurata Bay (6°59′N,
118°29′E) nearly blocked by coral reefs, lies 3 miles W
of Tandotao Point (4.135). A submerged rock lies 1 mile
SW of the entrance to Jurata Bay.
Jurata village stands on the E side of the bay.
2
Anchorage, safe during the NE monsoon (October to
March), exists abreast of Lake Singuan, the W-most crater
lake, lying close E of Jurata Bay, in a depth of 18 m
(60 ft).
South−west Anchorage
4.137
1
Description. South−west Anchorage, located on the W
side of Cagayan Sulu, offers good protection during the NE
monsoon however swells occasionally set around the point
causing seas to break along the entire edge of the reef so
interfering with island communications.
2
Anchorage exists with Tavotavo Point (7°01′N,
118°25′E) bearing 350°, distance 1 miles, in depths of 16
to 20 m (54 ft to 11 fm), sand and coral.
Lapun Lapun Island
4.138
1
Description. Lapun Lapun Island (7°03′N, 118°27′E),
lies on the N end of a detached reef 3 miles ENE of
Tavotavo Point. The smaller but similar island of
Silimusian, lies 3 cables NW.
2
Anchorage exists in a depth of 33 m (18 fm), 5 cables
W of Lapun Lapun Island.
SELAT MALAWALI
General information
Chart 1654
Route
4.139
1
From a position SE of Patanunam Island (7°06′N,
117°05′E) the route leads ESE passing SW of Pulau
Malawali (7°03′N, 117°17′E), thence following the
recommended track, indicated on the chart, to a position
SSW of Pole Reef (6°45′N, 117°39′E).
Topography
4.140
1
This tortuous inshore route follows the course of deep
water channels between the numerous Islands, islets, cays,
reefs and shoals that make up the dangers along the NE
coast of Sabah. From Tanjung Inarungtung (7°01′N,
117°09′E), 10 miles SE, it is fronted by a bank on which
there are numerous reefs and rocks, awash and submerged,
extending 2 miles offshore. The coast is generally low,
densely wooded and intersected by many streams and
rivers.
2
Tanjung Pegasan (6°54′N, 117°15′E) marks the NW
entrance into Teluk Paitan. Several rivers flow into Teluk
Paitan including Sungai Karangan, Sungai Bonkol and
Sungai Kanibongan. The SE point is Tanjung Buli
Gantungan (4.147), the NW extremity of Pulau Jambongan.
The area has been only partially surveyed and is apparently
shallow. It is encumbered by numerous reefs and islets.
3
The N coast of Pulau Jambongan 3 miles E from
Tanjung Buli Gantungan (4.147), is rocky and backed by a
densely wooded ridge rising steeply to an elevation of
120 m (394 ft). Thereafter it trends ESE for 2 miles fronted
by mangroves and flat coral reefs. A rocky cliff 6 m (20 ft)
high, marks the NE extremity of the island at Tanjung
Ayang. Close S of the point is an area of undulating hills
which, in 1954, had been cleared of jungle and planted
with lallang grass. Farther S the coast is fronted by
mangroves backed by dense jungle. A flat coral reef
extends in all directions around the point for as much as
1 mile. Isolated reefs extend for another 2 miles to seaward.
Reefs and dangers extend 5 miles N and NE from Pulau
Jambongan and 8 miles ENE.
Depths
4.141
1
Depths in this channel fluctuate between 12 and 27 m
(39 ft and 17 fm), but the recommended track is free of
dangers except for a patch with a depth of 6⋅1 m (20 ft)
over it, reported 1999, to be lying in a position SW of
Sandy Cay (6°49′N, 117°37′E), position approximate.
2
The off-lying dangers on either side of Selat Malawali
have been surveyed to a distance of 13 to 20 miles from
the coast. Beyond, there are unexplored regions extending
N to Pudsey Dawson Dangers (7°02′N, 117°44′E) which,
themselves, are included in an inadequately surveyed area,
enclosing an area farther E, where depths of less than 10 m
are known to exist, as indicated on the chart.
Hazards
4.142
1
Light-buoys and beacons are occasionally reported unlit
in Selat Malawali and in routes from this channel to
Sandakan and Tawau.
Directions
(continued from 4.122)
Pulau Patanunam to Pole Reef
4.143
1
From a position SE of Pulau Patanunam (7°06′N,
117°05′E) the track leads ESE, passing (with positions from
Pulau Mandidarah (6°56′N, 117°20′E)):
NNE of Petrel Shoals (15 miles NW), a group with
depths of 3⋅3 to 18⋅3 m (11 to 60 ft) over them.
Petrel Shoals Light-buoy (conical, green) is
moored on the W end of the most E shoal and a
stranded wreck lies on the W end of the shoal
ground. Thence:
2
SSW of the isolated reef at the W extremity of South
Channel Dangers (14 miles NW) marked at its E
end by a light-beacon, thence:
3
SSW of a shoal patch (11 miles NNW) with a least
depth of 1⋅2m (4 ft) over it, marked by a
light-buoy (port hand), lying 1 miles W of Egeria
Rocks. Shoal patches with depths of 9⋅8 and 7⋅3 m
(32 and 24 ft) over them lie 1 miles W and SW
respectively. Thence:
4
NNE of Pulau Silk (8 miles WNW), distinctive red
cliffs. Two small sand cays lie amid the numerous
coral reefs extending 2 miles NE. Thence:
NNE of Passage Reef (5 miles NW), awash, marked
by a light-buoy (conical, green), moored close E,
thence:
SSW of Tanjung Pranggi (5 miles NNW) the S
extremity of Pulau Malawali, fronted by a drying
coral reef and edged with mangroves, thence:
5
NNE of Fly Rock (3 miles NNW), drying, marked
by a beacon on the N side. Numerous drying reefs
lie up to 1 mile S, and the channel separating it
from Tanjung Layak Layak (6°57′N, 117°15′E) is
CHAPTER 4
127
encumbered with reefs. An isolated coral patch
marked by a light-beacon (port hand), lies
1 miles NE. Thence:
6
NNE of Pulau Mandidarah, coconut palm covered and
surrounded by an extensive drying coral reef,
steep-to with numerous scattered drying reefs and
submerged rocks in an area 2 miles E to
5 miles SSE.
4.144
1
From this position the track continues ESE to a position
with Pulau Kukuban (6°56′N, 117°24′E) marked by a
light-beacon (white) right ahead distant 8 cables whence the
track leads SSE passing:
WNW of Pulau Kukuban (4 miles E), numerous
coral reefs and shoals lie on banks close either
side of the recommended track. At its narrowest,
the channel thus created is 1 miles wide and is
marked by light-beacons on Lubani Rock to W
and Sky Rock to E. Merlin Rock, dark coloured,
lies 1 miles SSE. A sand cay on a drying coral
reef, and a drying coral patch, lie 1 miles ESE
and 2 miles SE, respectively, from Pulau
Kukuban. These are easily distinguishable from
high vantage points.
2
From a position 1 mile S of this narrows the track leads
E, passing:
S of Pulau Tigabu (8 miles ESE), a flat, wooded
summit on which stands a tower (metal framework,
12 m in height) the remainder of the island is grass
covered with scrub and palms. A village stands on
the SW side. A detached reefs extend 3 miles
NE from the island.
3
Because of the numerous coral reefs and shoals in the
region N of Pulau Tigabu extending N to the E end of
Selat Banggi Selatan, including Malawali Eastern Dangers,
the area should be avoided.
4.145
1
From this position the track continues E for 3 miles to
a position 5 cables N of Dampier Rock (12 miles ESE), a
shoal with a depth of 4⋅9 m (16 ft) over it, marked by a
light-beacon (isolated danger), whence the track then leads
generally SE passing:
SW of Sipindung Cay (13 miles ESE), a shifting
sand cay with detached dangers extending
2 miles NNE. A shoal with a depth of 4 m
(13 ft) over it, lies 4 cables SW of the cay, marked
by a light-beacon (red can). Thence:
2
NE of Gibson Reef (12 miles ESE), an isolated
coral reef on the ENE extremity of dangerous
ground N of Pulau Jambongan. The charted beacon
was replaced in 1992 by a light-beacon (conical,
green) on a shoal with a depth of 5⋅2 m (17 ft)
over it, lying 8 cables ESE of Gibson Reef.
Thence:
3
SW of Harrison Reef (15 miles ESE), a coral shoal
marked on its S side by a light-beacon (can, red),
thence:
SW of Sandy Cay (18 miles ESE), drying, marked by
a beacon standing 1 cable SW of the cay. Coral
heads extend W and SW from it and the W-most
of the dangers is a patch with a depth of 2⋅7 m
(9 ft) over it. A light-buoy is moored about
3 cables E of this patch as shown on the chart. In
1999 a patch with a depth of 6⋅1 m (20 ft) over it,
was reported to lie on the recommended track SW
of Sandy Cay and, 7 cables farther SW, lies John
Rock, a patch with a depth of 7⋅6 m (25 ft) over it.
Dingle Rock, a patch with a depth of 7⋅6 m (25 ft)
over it, lies 1 miles SE.
4
From this position the track continues SE for about
2 miles, whence it leads SSE for about 2 miles passing:
WSW of Pole Reef. (6°46′N, 117°39′E), which dries,
5 cables NE of the recommended track. A
light-beacon (red lattice top) is moored on the S
part of the reef. Shoals with depths of 2⋅4 and
1⋅5 m (8 and 5 ft) over them, lie 1 mile and
1 miles, respectively, NE of Pole Reef. And:
5
ENE of Leonan Shoal (20 miles ESE), a sand cay
which dries 1 m (3 ft), situated 2 miles WSW of
Pole Reef, lying near the NE end of a chain of
reefs which extend 8 miles NE from the E side of
Pulau Jambongan. A light-beacon stands on the
NE end of the reef.
6
The track then leads to a position about 8 cables SSW
of Pole Reef.
(Directions continue at 4.153)
Small craft channel
Pulau Silk channel
4.146
1
Description. Pulau Silk Channel, with a least depth of
1⋅8 m (6 ft), between Pulau Silk (6°59′N, 117°12′E) and the
mainland. The N side of the channel is marked at its E end
by posts along the edges of the reefs; at its NW end the
channel passes close to the SW side of the island. Pulau
Membatuaan, 6 m (20 ft) high, lies 4 miles ESE of Pulau
Silk. The channel passes within 3 cables of this sand cay.
Pulau Lingisan, a conical rock, 11 m (36 ft) high, lies on
the NE extremity of the extensive reefs around Tanjung
Layak Layak, 1 miles N of Pulau Membatuaan.
2
A cay lies on a reef 1 miles NE of Pulau Silk. Several
underwater dangers exist between the reef and North
Borneo Dangers 3 miles NW.
Anchorage
Pulau Jambongan
4.147
1
Description. There is anchorage, with Tanjung Buli
Gantungan, 156 m (512 ft) high to the tree-tops, the W
extremity of Pulau Jambongan (6°44′N, 117°23′E) bearing
180°, and Tanjung Ayang, the N extremity of the island
bearing 105°, in a depth of 9 m (30 ft), mud. Smaller
vessels may anchor in a position 1 mile farther S in a depth
of 6 m (20 ft).
2
Directions. Approaching from the NW keep to the
recommended track (4.144), as shown on the chart until in
a position with the S extremity of Pulau Tigabu (6°53′N,
117°28′E) bearing 085°, distant 4 miles.
The track then leads SSW directly into the anchorage
passing (with positions from Pulau Tigabu):
WNW of an isolated reef (4 miles SW) marked by
a beacon (red and white), thence:
3
ESE of a detached coral reef (7 miles SW) marked
by a beacon (single pile, conical topmark, black
and white chequers), and:
ESE of Pulau Landayang (8 miles SW) a sand cay
on which there are a few bushes, lying in the
middle of an extensive reef. Numerous detached
drying reefs extend 2 miles NE of the island.
Thence:
WNW of two reefs (7 miles SSW), the W-most of
which is marked by a beacon (red and white).
CHAPTER 4
128
4
From this position the track continues SSW for about
2 miles into the anchorage.
Approaching from the E, steer along the recommended
track passing S of Pulau Tigabu until its S extremity bears
085° thence approach the anchorage as indicated above.
PULAU JAMBONGAN TO SANDAKAN
General information
Charts 1650, 1654, 1649
Route
4.148
1
From a position about 8 cables SSW of Pole Reef
(6°45′N, 117°39′E) the recommended track leads ESE then
SE to Miller Rock (6°34′N, 117°59′E) thence SSE to the
Turtle Islands (6°12′N, 118°08′E), and then to a position
2 miles NNW of Pulau Taganak (6°05′N, 118°19′E) lying
in the approach to Sandakan Harbour (4.162).
Topography
4.149
1
A low, featureless coastline stretches S and E for
13 miles from Tanjung Sumangat (6°38′N, 117°31′E)
forming the W side of Teluk Marchesa. The first two miles
consist of sandy beaches backed by casuarina trees, whence
it becomes mangrove swamp backed by dense jungle. Two
large rivers, Sungai Arbar and Sungai Marmah, enter the
bay SSE of Tanjung Sumangat. There are fishing villages
located near the mouths of these rivers. Bradley’s Clump
(6°30′N, 117°31′E) (4.152), lies 7 miles S of the point. The
coast trends SE to Tanjung Siasib (6°25′N, 117°44′E) with
dense jungle, mangroves and a number of rivers, then
trends S into Teluk Labuk.
2
Turtle Islands are a scattered group lying in the outer
approach to Teluk Labuk. With the exception of Pulau
Bakkungaan Kechil (4.156), Pulau Silingaan (4.156) and
the islands farther SW, the group forms part of the
Philippine Archipelago.
Depths
4.150
1
Depths along the recommended track, as shown on the
chart, vary from 18 to 44 m (60 ft to 24 fm). Numerous
dangers litter the area either side of the recommended track
but predominate on the SW side towards the mainland
where they are clustered in large groups with a few
isolated patches between them. There are areas of deep
water between the groups and some deep but tortuous boat
channels within them. On the NE side of the recommended
track, between it and the uncharted area, lie the Billean
North Dangers with a least known depth of 0⋅9 m (3 ft)
over them. They are fairly steep-to with deep water around
them. Farther SE lie the Billean South Dangers a more
scattered group of coral shoals with a least depth of 2⋅7 m
(9 ft) over them.
Local knowledge
4.151
1
The waters surrounding the dangers mentioned above
should not be entered except with the benefit of local
knowledge.
Principal marks
4.152
1
Landmark:
Bradley’s Clump, (6°30′N, 118°31′E), a jungle-clad
summit.
2
Major light:
Silingaan Island Light (white metal framework tower,
red bands) (6°10N, 118°04′E).
Directions
(continued from 4.145)
Pole Reef to Miller Rock
4.153
1
From a position about 8 cables SSW of Pole Reef, the
track leads ESE, passing (with positions from Pulau Billean
(6°37′N, 117°46′E)):
NNE of Sedgeman Rocks (6 miles NNW). An
alternative route, marked on the chart, leads SSW
of these rocks before rejoining the recommended
track. Thence:
2
NNE of a patch (3 miles NE) with a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, marked on its NE side by a
light buoy (conical, green). This shoal is the NE
extremity of an extensive chain of coral reefs in
the middle of which lies Pulau Billean, coarse
grasses and bushes. Pulau Tegipel, lies in the same
shoal ground 5 miles SW of Pulau Billean.
Harcourt Reef, a drying reef and Mitchell Rocks,
one of which dries 0⋅3 m (1 ft) lie on the SE side
of the Pulau Billean dangers, 4 miles N and
8 miles NE of Tanjung Siasib. Thence:
3
SSW of Sunbeam Rock (7 miles ENE) with a depth
of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it. It forms the SW extremity
of the Billean South Dangers. One and a half
miles NE lies Irene Rock. Paknam Shoal, lies
4 miles ENE. Another shoal with a depth of
8⋅2 m (27 ft) over it, lies 1 miles SSW. Thence:
4
SSW of a shoal (10 miles E), marked by a
light-buoy (can, red), the farthest N of a group of
shoals forming the de Courcy Dangers, with a least
depth of 4⋅3m (14 ft) over them, which extends S
to Pulau Lankayan. A light-beacon (pile, cone
topmark, green) stands on a shoal 7 cables N of
Pulau Lankayan. Thence:
5
SSW of Miller Rock (13 miles ESE). Kechil Reef,
with a least depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it, lies
1 miles ENE.
Miller Rock to Pulau Taganak
4.154
1
From the position SSW of Miller Rock the track leads
ESE for 1 mile thence SSE to a position 2 miles NNW of
Pulau Taganak (6°05′N, 118°19′E) (4.185) lying in the
approach to Sandakan Harbour, passing (with positions
from Pulau Sibauang (6°18′N, 118°00′E)):
WSW of Kestrel Shoal (12 miles N), thence:
2
ENE of Pulau Sibaung, rocky with a few trees. The
most N of the Turtle Islands. Glen Shoal with a
depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it, lies 2 miles NNE of
Pulau Sibauang. Thence:
ENE of Pulau Boaan (4 miles E), a conspicuous,
extinct mud volcano, densely planted with coconut
palms, thence:
3
ENE of Powell Shoal (6 miles E), lying 1 miles NE
of Pulau Boaan, thence:
ENE of Flying Fish Rock (7 miles E), steep-to,
thence:
4
ENE of Pulau Langaan (10 miles SE), surrounded by
an extensive coral reef but landing for boats is
possible through a gap. Johnston Rock, lies
2 miles NE of Pulau Langaan. A detached shoal
CHAPTER 4
129
with a depth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it, lies 1 miles
E of Johnston Rock.
5
From this position the track continues SSE to a position
2 miles NNW of Pulau Taganak (6°05′N, 118°19′E) (4.185)
lying in the approach to Sandakan Harbour (4.162)
(Directions continue for approach to Sandakan harbour at 4.185)
Small craft channels
Teluk Marchesa to Teluk Labuk
4.155
1
An inshore channel, connects Teluk Marchesa (6°40′N,
117°40′E) with Teluk Labuk, 20 miles SE. It leads SE from
the SE side of Teluk Marchesa, passing:
Between Pulau Kuyakkayakan (6°32′N, 117°41′E) and
Pulau Bangkuran, and the mainland coast. The
channel in the vicinity of these islands is marked
by beacons. Thence:
2
Between Mitchell Rocks (6°30′N, 117°44′E) (4.153)
and the Borneo coast, where the channel has a
depth of 7 to 11 m (24 to 36 ft) in it. It is possible
that dangers other than those charted may exist in
the area.
3
A channel, with depths from 9 to 11 m (30 to 36 ft) in
the fairway, leads S between Tanjung Saisib (6°25′N,
117°44′E) and Cranfield Dangers, into Teluk Labuk.
Cranfield Dangers consist of many shoals, with depths of
less that 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over them, lying midway between
Pulau Lankayan (4.153) and Tanjung Saisib.
4
Local knowledge is required.
Teluk Labuk to Sandakan approaches
4.156
1
Turtle Islands Marine Park extends from Pulau
Gulisan (6°09N, 118°03E) to Pulau Bakungaan Kecil
5 miles E, and includes Pulau Silingaan and the extensive
reef 1 mile E of it. The limits of this park are shown on
the chart. For details of the regulations see 1.31.
From a position about 1 miles W of Lihiman (6°14′N,
118°04′E) the track leads SE, passing (with positions from
Lihiman):
2
SW of Pulau Lihiman, conspicuous and planted with
coconut palms, a mud volcano active in 1952. A
rocky islet, 20 m (65 ft) high, with a few trees, lies
5 cables NE. Thence:
3
NE of Turtle Rock (1 miles SW), steep-to and
marked by a green light-beacon (isolated danger).
Thence:
SW of a group of shoals (2 miles SE), with a least
depth of 1 m (3 ft) over them, extending 2 miles
NW from Pulau Bakkungaan Besar, thence:
4
NE of Pulau Silingaan (3 miles S), with trees 31 m
(100 ft) high, from which a light (white metal
framework tower red bands) is exhibited from the
S end of the islet. Thence:
SW of a drying reef (3 miles S), the W side of
which is marked by two light-beacons (port hand),
5
NE of the reefs surrounding Pulau Gulisaan (4 miles
S), an islet 23 m (75 ft) high to the tree-tops. A
light-beacon (starboard hand) stands on the reef to
the N of the islet. Thence:
6
SW of Pulau Bakkungaan Kechil (Little Bakkungaan)
(4 miles SSE). The boundary between Sabah and
Philippines Territorial waters passes between this
island and Pulau Bakkungaan Besar, 1 miles
NNE. Pulau Bakkungaan Besar (Great
Bakkungaan) is closely planted with coconut
palms.
7
The track then continues SE towards the approaches to
Sandakan harbour.
(Directions for Sandakan Harbour continue at 4.185)
Teluk Marchesa
General information
4.157
1
Description. Teluk Marchesa (Marchesa Bay) (6°40′N,
117°40′E), is situated E of Pulau Jambongan and lies
between the chain of reefs extending ENE from the island
to Leonan Shoal (6°44′N, 117°37′E) (4.145) and the chain
of reefs connecting Pulau Billean (6°37′N, 117°46′E)
(4.153) to the coast of Borneo. The bay is from 10 to
12 miles wide. Numerous reefs lie within. Depths in the
entrance vary from 18 to 30 m (10 to 17 fm), mud and
shells, decreasing gradually SW towards the shore. The
principal dangers within the bay are:
2
Claire Rock, 3 miles S of Leonan, being the
outermost of the dangers in the approach to
Jambongan Harbour.
Green Patches, 4 miles SSE of Leonan, with depths
of less than 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over them, and a shoal
close S which dries 0⋅3 m (1 ft).
March Reef, 7 miles S of Leonan, dries 0⋅3 m (1 ft)
but is surrounded by dangers.
Sealark Reef, 8 miles S of Leonan, dries 0⋅3 m
(1 ft).
3
All these dangers, plus a coral patch with a depth of
0⋅6 m (2 ft) over it, and a drying reef, 2 miles ESE and
3 miles SE of Sealark Reef, are usually marked by
unreliable wooden stakes for the benefit of local boat
traffic.
4
There is a flourishing timber trade with headquarters at
Tanjung Sumangat (6°38′N, 117°31′E). Timber is carried by
local craft through inshore channels to Sandakan (4.162)
for export. There is a good landing at Tanjung Sumangat.
Jambongan Harbour
4.158
1
Directions. When approaching Jambongan Harbour
(6°39′N, 117°30′E) along the recommended track continue
until Leonan Light-beacon (4.145) bears 270° distance
1⋅5 miles then, rounding the beacon, steer SW to a position
N of the fairway light-buoy.(safe water) (6°41′N,
117°35′E). Thenceforward the edges of the channel are
marked by buoys and beacons.
2
The entrance to Jambongan Harbour, lies between
Tanjung Sumangat and Tanjung Taroh, both points being
low and heavily wooded. A bar of very soft mud, 2 miles
wide, lies across the entrance. In 1958 a depth of 4⋅6 m
(15 ft) was found over the bar which seems to be quite
stable. Within the entrance the low mangrove coast extends
5 miles SSW to Kuala Paitan lying at the twin entrances
to Sungai Paitan, a river navigated by local craft.
3
A channel, 5 cables wide, with depths from 7 to 18 m
(24 to 60 ft) in the fairway leads along the SE side of
Pulau Jambongan for a distance of about 3 miles. In 1954,
the tidal streams in the narrow entrance to the harbour set
along the line of the channel, with a maximum rate of
1 kn.
CHAPTER 4
130
Teluk Labuk
General information
4.159
1
Description. Teluk Labuk (Labuk Bay) (6°15′N,
117°55′E) is formed by a large coastal indentation between
Tanjung Niug (6°14′N, 117°33′E), and Tanjung Pisau,
19 miles SE.
2
Teluk Labuk is largely encumbered with sandbanks and
mud-flats which render navigation dangerous even for small
boats. The entire, heavily indented coastline of the bay,
heavily wooded with mangrove, is low-lying swampland,
though Quoin Hill and Flat Hill, are prominent on the W
side of the bay. A number of rivers including Sungai
Gum-Gum and Sungai Samawang continue to carry silt
from the interior forming vast mudflats in the bay, many of
which dry at LW. Kuala Labuk, the largest river emptying
into Teluk Labuk enters in the SW corner. The SE side is
fringed by rocks and islets extending to about 1 mile
offshore. A chain of islands and islets extend NE for about
15 miles to Johnston Rock forming the NW archipelago of
the Turtle Islands (4.156). The largest of these islands is
Pulau Libarran lying on an extensive shoal and surrounded
by a 6 cables wide coral reef extending 1 miles at its E
end, lying closest to Tanjung Pisau with a small island,
Pulau Bankawan, on an isolated reef between them.
3
Tidal streams. In the N part of Teluk Labuk, the
in-going stream sets WSW and the out-going stream ENE,
with a spring rate of 1 knot. The out-going stream is the
stronger and runs longer than the flood. Tidal influence is
felt up to 20 miles from the entrance to Kuala Labuk.
Anchorages and harbours
Tanjung Niug
4.160
1
Description. There is an anchorage off Tanjung Niug
(6°14′N, 117°33′E), on the NW side of Taluk Labuk.
Tanjung Niug a well-defined point with a clump of
casuarina trees, forms the S extremity of Pulau Pura-Pura,
an island 2 miles in length closely fronting the NW shore.
It is thinly wooded with sandy beaches on the E shore. The
population of the island live by fishing and the timber
trade.
2
Directions. The anchorage should be approached from a
position E of Kestrel Shoal following a S track leading to a
position WNW of Boaan Island and keeping Pulau Sibaung
on a bearing of not less than 155°. From this position the
track leads SW directly towards the anchorage passing in
mid-channel between the shallows E of Pulau Pura-Pura
and an isolated patch with a depth of 3⋅9 m (15 ft) over it,
lying 5 miles ENE of Tanjung Niug.
3
Anchorage can be found 9 cables SE of Tanjung Niug
in a depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft), in the narrow channel leading
WSW to Sungai Bangaya.
If drawing more than 4⋅6 m (15 ft), the anchorage should
be approached only at HW, due to the difficulty in fixing
positions accurately.
4
The bottom is gently undulating in depths greater than
5⋅5 m (18 ft).
Kuala Labuk
4.161
1
Description. Kuala Labuk lies 21 miles WSW of
Tanjung Pisau (6°04′N, 117°59′E). The tributary of Sungai
Kolapis flows into Kuala Labuk about 5 miles upstream
from the mouth. Kampong Kolapis (5°54′N, 117°37′E), a
small habitation, stands on both banks of Sungai Kolapis.
Beluran (Chart 2576), a government station, where there is
a small hospital, stands 4 miles W of Kampong Kolapis.
The average depth in the river is reported to be 1⋅8 m
(6 ft), but vessels of greater draught have reached Beluran.
A chain of islands, of which Pulau Kanawi (5°59′N,
117°42′E) is the largest lie close to, and follow, the
curvature of the N bank of Kuala Labuk. Casuarina Point,
the N extremity of Pulau Torongohok, the N-most of these
islands, is prominent. Villages exist on Pulau Tetabuan and
on an islet close W of Pulau Linkabo.
2
Tidal streams in Kuala Labuk have been observed to
reach 3 kn. during the out-going stream.
3
Directions. From a position in the approaches to
Sandakan Harbour the track leads W passing (with
positions from Tanjung Pisau (6°04′N, 117°59′E)):
N of Gubbins Rock (12 miles E), with a depth of
2⋅1 m (7 ft) over it, and steep to. A light-beacon
(isolated danger), marks a rock with a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, lying 3 cables S of Gubbins
Rock. Thence:
S of Pulau Libarran (4 miles NE), densely wooded. A
dangerous rock lies close off the SW extremity of
Pulau Libarran. Black Rock, lies near the E
extremity of the reef extending 1 miles E of
Pulau Libarran. White Rock, lies 3 cables WSW
of Black Rock. Thence:
N of Pulau Bankawan (1 miles NE) (4.159).
4
From this position the track continues W to a position
about 2 miles N of Tanjung Pisau on the following leading
line:
5
Leading marks:
Front mark: Pulau Bonting (6°07′N, 118°00′E),
marked by a light-beacon (white pile, red bands)
lying on the W extremity of the coral reef
surrounding Pulau Libarran. There is a rock which
dries 0⋅6 m (2 ft) 2 cables NW and Tree Rock,
lies 4 cables NE of the island.
Rear mark: Pulau Gulisaan, 3 miles NE of Pulau
Bonting, lies 1 miles SSW of Pulau Siligaan with
a light-beacon (green cone on a pile) standing on a
reef 2 cables NW of it.
6
The alignment (058°), astern, of these islands leads SW,
passing:
NW of Tanjung Pisau, the SE extremity of Teluk
Labuk, densely wooded and surrounded by a coral
reef. Close NW of the point lies a small islet.
Some low islets are situated N of Tanjung Pisau.
They consist of clumps of mangroves on the
fringing reef. Thence:
7
NW of Pulau Tikus (1 miles WNW) a wooded
pyramidal islet lying on an isolated coral reef. A
drying rock lies 5 cables N. Thence:
8
SE of Pulau Gusong (10 miles W), consisting of
two small sandy islets that lie at the E extremity
of a large drying sandbank. A least depth of 2⋅7 m
(9 ft) lies SE of Pulau Gusong on the leading line.
Thence:
9
NW of Tanjung Samawang (15 miles SW), where
depths increase to 6 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft). Fishing
stakes may extend to the charted 5⋅5 m (3 fm)
contour off this point and may hinder navigation.
The track then leads directly into Kuala Labuk
10
Anchorage. In 1960, HMS. Houghton anchored in
Kuala Labuk and reported that soundings on passage
generally confirmed the chart. However, caution should be
exercised in the expectation of changes to those soundings.
CHAPTER 4
131
SANDAKAN HARBOUR
General information
Charts 1649, 950
Position
4.162
1
Sandakan Harbour (5°50′N, 118°07′E) is situated on the
NE coast of Sabah. Its entrance is marked on the NW side
by Pulau Berhala (6°52N, 118°09E), a prominent landmark.
Function
4.163
1
Sandakan, the principal town in the State of North
Borneo, and the headquarters of the North Borneo
Company, has a population, recorded in 1985, of 270 000.
As the second port of Sabah it handles extensive trade with
Hong Kong and with Europe. There is also a thriving
coastal trade. Exports consist mostly of forest products,
including coconuts, timber, sago, tobacco, rattan, copra and
rubber. Imports include cloth, hardware, manufactured
goods, rice, crude and other oils, sugar, machinery, flour,
wines and tinned provisions. There are extensive container
handling facilities. Sandakan is a main transhipment port
for the E coast of Borneo, and centre of the Sabah timber
industry.
Topography
4.164
1
Sandakan Harbour entrance is 1 miles wide between
Pulau Berhala and Tanjung Aru, a broad point on the SE
side. The E side of the entrance is formed by a large, low,
densely wooded island separated from the mainland by
Trusan Duyong, a shallow channel. An extensive mud flat
projects to seaward with depths of 5⋅5 m (18 ft), at its NE
extremity. From the entrance the harbour gradually widens
over a distance of about 5 miles leading to a spacious basin
with entrance channels either side of Pulau Bai. The
harbour extends S and W from Pulau Bai for about
10 miles. About thirty rivers and tributaries flow into
Sandakan Harbour causing shallow mudflats over a large
area of the basin. The heavily indented coastline is low
lying and densely wooded lending contrast to the hills
rising on the NE coast of the harbour behind the town.
2
West of Karamunting Oil Jetties (5°48′N, 118°04′E) the
coast is fringed with mangroves. It trends WSW for about
3 miles to Tanjung Buli Kuku, a well-defined bluff
fronted by shallow mudflats which extend up to 7 cables
off-shore. Pulau Timbang fills the N half of this inner
harbour dividing it into two channels, and the majority of
the remainder is heavily silted with mudflats. It has not
been surveyed. The S channel leads into Sekong Bay, an
area also unsurveyed. The N channel leads into North Bay
where least depths of 11 m (36 ft) can be found in the E
part. The W part is composed of unsurveyed mudflats.
Port limits
4.165
1
Port limits are defined by lines joining the following
positions:
5°52′⋅8N, 118°06′⋅1E.
5°53′⋅5N, 118°08′⋅2E.
5°50′⋅5N, 118°14′⋅0E.
Approach and entry
4.166
1
The port is approached from a position 2 miles NNW of
Pulau Taganak (6°05′N, 118°19′E) and entered between
Pulau Berhala and Tanjung Aru.
Traffic
4.167
1
More than 1200 vessels visit the port annually.
Port Authority
4.168
1
The harbour is administered by Sabah Ports Authority,
Pejabat Pengurus Pela Pelabuhan, Peti Surat 1368, 90008
Sandakan, Sabah, East Malaysia.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
4.169
1
The bar, soft mud, 5 miles wide lying 3 to 8 miles
NE of Pulau Berhala Lighthouse. A least depth of 6⋅7 m
(22 ft) was reported in 1984.
Deepest and longest berths
4.170
1
Karamunting Oil Jetties (4.190).
Mean tidal level
4.171
1
Mean spring range 1⋅5 m; mean neap range 0⋅3 m. For
further information see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
4.172
1
1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.173
1
Tanker; length 213 m, 30 000 dwt, draught 11 m.
Local weather and sea state
4.174
1
Tidal streams in Sandakan Harbour turn at the times of
high and low water; the out-going stream attains rates of
up to 2 kn and the in-going stream up to 1 kn. Sudden
squalls are common and may cause concern for ships at
anchor in certain states of the tide. Swells may enter the
harbour during strong NE monsoon winds (December to
April). Lighters are then sometimes unable to lie alongside,
especially during the ebb.
Arrival information
Port operations
4.175
1
Port operating hours are from 0730 to 2200. Work
beyond these hours is subject to prior arrangement and
approval. Vessels may not berth after dark without special
permission, but they may leave the berth having given prior
notice.
2
There is a port radio station at Sandakan. For details see
the relevant Admiralty List of Radio Signals.
Notice of ETA
4.176
1
At least 24 hours in advance through the agent. the
message should include the need for a pilot and the
intended boarding area, eg at the bar light-buoy or within
the harbour.
CHAPTER 4
132
Outer anchorages
4.177
1
Quarantine and explosives anchorages are indicated on
the chart, adjacent to one another on the E side of the
channel SW of Tanjung Aru. Vessels with dangerous
petroleum products on board must anchor S of these areas.
2
Anchorage is prohibited in an area, indicated on the
chart, within a radius of 610 m (2000 ft) from Government
Wharf.
Pilots
4.178
1
Pilotage is not compulsory but if required the Harbour
Master acts as pilot.
Tug
4.179
1
One harbour tug of 636 hp is available.
Quarantine
4.180
1
Free pratique is normally granted by radio prior to
arrival upon receipt of the master’s health confirmation
unless vessel has come from an infected area.
Harbour
General layout
4.181
1
Sandakan Harbour has essentially two complexes
situated on its NW shore. These are Government Wharf,
close to the town, and Sandakan Port, 2 miles SW.
Beyond the prohibited anchorage area there are
designated anchorages for loading timber.
Development
4.182
1
Considerable reclamation is being carried out along the
foreshore in the vicinity of Government Wharf and
Kampong Gelam.
In 1996 it was reported that much under-deck repair was
on-going including protective coatings to reinforced
concrete.
2
Considerable work continues to enlarge the container
park by means of land reclamation and the levelling of a
hill behind the port.
Traffic signals
4.183
1
Tidal signals are displayed from a red and white mast
on the roof of the Customs and Marine Office, near
Government Wharf, as follows:
Cone, point upwards Out-going stream
Cone, point downwards In-going stream
Ball Slack water
2
Berthing signals. are displayed, from the same mast,
inferior to a red and white chequered flag as follows:
Pendant
number
Berth
0 Anchorage
1 Government Wharf inner side
Sandakan (4.181)
(Original dated )
(Photograph − Sabah Ports Authority)
CHAPTER 4
133
Pendant
number
Berth
2 Government Wharf outer side E berth
3 Government wharf outer side W berth.
4 Small launch jetty
9 Karamunting (Pavitt Point) Oil Jetties
3
The berthing flag may also be displayed on the allocated
berth to indicate the position of bow or stern.
Principal marks
4.184
1
Landmarks:
Pulau Berhala (5°52′N, 118°08′E), 180 m (591 ft)
high. The N part of the island is low, the S rising
to two prominent peaks which slope gradually to
the W, but their E faces are imposing sandstone
cliffs; the N-most hill has two conspicuous white
streaks running vertically from top to bottom,
identifying the island.
2
Bukit Mekarah (5°50′N, 118°06′E), steep on the S
and E sides, more gradually sloping elsewhere.
Two radio masts exhibiting red lights stand on the
summit of this hill.
3
Major light:
Berhala Lighthouse (white metal framework tower
20 m in height) (5°52′N, 118°09′E), standing near
the summit of the N hill.
Directions
(continued from 4.154)
Approaches
4.185
1
From a position on the recommended track 2 miles
NNW of Pulau Taganak (6°05′N, 118°19′E) the track leads
SSW passing (with positions from Gubbins Rock (6°03′N,
118°11′E)):
WNW of Pulau Taganak (7 miles ENE), wooded
and conspicuous, surrounded by a steep-to coral
reef. A disused lighthouse, 12 m in height, stands
on the summit of the island. The village and boat
landing are on the S end of the island. And:
2
ESE of Taganak Patches (4 miles NE), with a least
depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over them, Tide-rips occur
occasionally in the vicinity. A patch with a depth
of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over it, lies 2 miles WNW of
Taganak Patches. Thence:
3
ESE of Gubbins Rock (4.161). A patch with a depth
of 2⋅8 m (9 ft) over it, lies 2 miles SSW. Thence:
WNW of a dangerous wreck (7 miles SE).
4
The track then leads to a position close to the fairway
light-buoy (safe water, radar reflector) (5 miles SSE), and
continues SSW for about 4 miles to a position close
abeam of the bar light-buoy (safe water, radar reflector). In
1984 it was reported that less water than charted exists in
this fairway.
Entrance channel
4.186
1
From the position abeam of the bar light-buoy, the track
continues SSW in mid-channel, passing (with positions
from Berhala Lighthouse (5°52′N, 118°09′E)):
ESE of a patch (1 miles NNE), with a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, thence:
2
Between Tanjung Aru (2 miles SE) and Pulau
Berhala, thence:
ESE of Tanjung Papat (1 miles SSW), thence:
ESE of Sim Sim Rock (2 miles SSW) (Atjeh Rock
on Chart 1649) marked by a light-buoy (conical;
red, white and black bands). Working anchorages
exist SW and S of this rock.
3
Vessels bound for Sandakan Port and the timber ponds
W of Pavitt Point (5°49′N, 118°04′E) follow the track
which leads SW, passing (with positions from Pavitt Point):
SE of Allard Bank (8 cables NE) lying in a bay
between Government Wharf and Pavitt Point
(4.190). It is marked just inside the middle of the
10 m (33 ft) contour by two light-buoys (starboard
hand). These buoys also mark the timber
anchorage.
4
NW of Elton Bank (2 miles ESE) an extensive area
of shallow water extending 1 miles NE of Pulau
Bai. A light-beacon (E cardinal) stands on the E
edge of this bank, 1 mile N of the island. Thence:
5
SE of Pavitt Point where Sandakan Port is situated.
There are several isolated shoals about 4 cables SE
of the point, with a least depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft)
over them. Thence:
6
NW of the drying coral reefs and foul ground
(1 miles SE), off the NE end of Pulau Bai,
marked by a light-beacon (port hand), thence:
7
SE of Oyster Rock Light-beacon (starboard hand)
(8 cables SW), marking a patch of rocks, which
dries 0⋅9 m (3 ft). In 1985 it was reported that the
light-beacon was replaced with a light-buoy.
The track then leads into a narrow channel towards
timber ponds W of Pavitt Point. A channel also leads to
Sekong Bay passing close W of Pulau Bai. The N side of
the entrance to this channel is marked by a light-beacon
(port hand) (1 miles SSW).
Sapagaya Bay
4.187
1
A channel passing E of Pulau Bai gives access to
Sapagaya Bay in the SE corner of the harbour. From a
position about 8 cables SSE of Tanjung Papat (5°51′N,
118°08′E) the track leaves the main entrance channel
(4.185) and leads S, passing (with positions from Tanjung
Batu (5°48′N, 117°09′E)):
2
W of a light-beacon (port hand) (7 cables N),
standing 2 cables N of the entrance to Truson
Duyong, thence:
E of the light-beacon (E cardinal) (1 mile W),
marking the E side of Elton Bank, and:
W of Tanjung Batu, thence:
E of the reefs and rocks (1 miles SW), lying close
off the NE extremity of Pulau Bai. They are
marked on their E side by a beacon (white).
3
The track then continues S for 4 miles to the bay.
Borneo Rock lies in mid-channel, 2 miles S of the E
extremity of Pulau Bai, and 5 cables W of Pulau Tigowis.
Several dangerous rocks lie in the shallows close S.
Side channel
West of Pulau Berhala
4.188
1
Description. The channel between Pulau Berhala and the
mainland, through which tidal streams set strongly, is
navigable in its N half, only by light draught vessels. A
buoy (red, conical) is moored on the W side of this
channel. The area between Pulau Berhala and SE of Pulau
CHAPTER 4
134
Nunuyan Darat (Nunuyon on chart 1649) and Pulau
Nunuyan Laut, close NE, has been incompletely surveyed.
2
Local knowledge is necessary.
Berths
Anchorages
4.189
1
There is anchorage anywhere S of Sim Sim Rock in
depths of 13 to 17 m (42 to 55 ft), mud. The holding
ground is good, but it is advisable to lie to a long scope of
cable due to strong tidal streams and the possibility of
sudden squalls.
2
A large number of small craft are usually anchored
within the charted 10 m (33 ft) contour W of Sandakan
town.
A timber anchorage is marked by the buoy off Allard
Bank. Vessels should anchor close NE or E of the buoy.
Alongside berths
4.190
1
Government Wharf, 229 m in length. In 1985 there
were depths of 5⋅8 m alongside the length of the wharf. A
dolphin stands 30 m off each end of the wharf. A light
(white metal column, 2 m in height), stands at the end of
the wharf. Tidal streams alongside this wharf do not turn at
the same time as those in the harbour.
2
Sandakan Port is situated at Pavitt Point and consists
of an island wharf connected to the shore by two access
bridges. The total berthing space available is 548⋅5 m,
consisting of five berths for handling general cargo and
container traffic, with depths alongside from about 6⋅1 to
9⋅4 m. Vessels between 4000 and 20 000 dwt can be
accommodated at the berth.
3
Karamunting (Pavitt Point) Oil Jetties, are situated
2 cables WSW of Pavitt Point. The larger T-headed bulk
jetty projects 247 m SSE from the shore; its head is 79 m
in length. A mooring dolphin stands off each side of the
head with a distance between them of 305 m. In 1989 a
depth of 9⋅4 m was reported alongside this jetty which can
take vessels of 18 000 dwt. This berth is also used for
loading palm oil in bulk.
4
The smaller W jetty, a T-shaped concrete pier, projects
168 m from the shore; its head is 39 m in length. A
mooring dolphin stands off each end of the head with a
distance between them of 134 m.
Port services
Repairs
4.191
1
Small repairs.
Other facilities
4.192
1
Deratting Exemption Certificates only; two hospitals;
quarantine and leper stations are situated on Pulau Berhala;
compass adjustment can be arranged.
Supplies
4.193
1
Marine diesel fuel oils can be obtained from
Karamunting Oil Jetties; all kinds of stores and provisions.
fresh water at Government Wharf at about 20 tons per
hour.
Communications
4.194
1
Sandakan airport 15 km N of the town. An air service
operates between Sandakan, Kudat (4.79) and Kota
Kinabalu.
Weekly passenger/cargo service to Singapore as well as
frequent communication with other ports in Sabah, the
Philippines and Hong Kong.
Harbour regulations
4.195
1
Bathing is dangerous because of numerous crocodiles.
The only safe bathing beach is on Pulau Berhala (4.184).
NOTES
135
5.200
5.183
NP 34
Indonesia Pilot
Vol II
Cowie Bay
Tawau
Lahad
Datu
Kunak
B
a
k
a
p
i
t
&
A
p
p
r
.
1649
950
2099
2099
1852
1681
1680
1678
1686
928
1868
0704
5.4
5.4
5.16
5
.
3
0
5
.
3
8
5
.
7
3
5
.
8
0
5
.
4
6
5
.
1
2
0
5
.
1
2
6
5
.
1
3
8
5
.
1
2
2
5.86
5.46
5.169
5.172
5.172
5
.
1
4
9
5
.
9
3
5
.
8
6
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
30´
119°
118°
6°
5°
4°
30´
30´
30´
6°
30´
30´
119°
118°
5°
4°
Chapter 5 - Sabah - north-east coast from Sandakan to Cowie Bay
Longitude 118° 30´
East from Greenwich
136
137
CHAPTER 5
SABAH — NORTH−EAST COAST FROM SANDAKAN TO COWIE BAY
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2576, 3483
Scope of the chapter
5.1
1
In this chapter are described the Dent Peninsula between
Sandakan (5°50′N, 118°07′E) and Teluk Darvel and the E
coast of Sabah to Tanjung Batu (4°04′N, 117°55′E), the SE
extremity of Pulau Sebatik, which marks the approximate
border between Sabah and Kalimantan and the S limits of
this book.
2
It is arranged as follows:
Sandakan to Sibutu Passage (5.3).
Teluk Darvel and approaches (5.28).
Sibutu Passage to Cowie Bay including Teluk Sibuko
(5.168).
3
For information on Kalimantan see Indonesia Pilot
Volume II.
Topography
5.2
1
The Dent peninsula, between Sandakan and Teluk
Darvel, is composed of alluvial sediments carried down
from the volcanic region in the S of Borneo Island. The
area is covered with dense jungle consisting mainly of
casuarina trees from 45 to 55 m high. Several large rivers
flow into the Sulu Sea from the N coast. The land around
them is swamp. Lesser streams flow from the highlands on
the S side of the peninsula into Teluk Darvel.
SANDAKAN TO SIBUTU PASSAGE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1649, 928, 1868
Area covered
5.3
1
This section covers the waters on the N and E coasts of
Sabah between Sandakan and Tanjung Terang and the
Sibutu Passage from the Sulu Sea into the Celebes Sea.
It is arranged as follows:
Sandakan to Tanjung Terang (5.4).
Sibutu Passage (5.16).
SANDAKAN TO TANJUNG TERANG
General information
Charts 1649, 1868, 928
Routes
5.4
1
Offshore route. From a position NNW of Pulau
Taganak (6°05′N, 118°19′E) the route leads ESE to a
position NE of Normanby Bank (5°48′N, 119°14′E).
Thence it leads SSE between the banks lying WSW of
Pearl Bank (5°50′N, 119°42′E) to a position about 15 miles
E of Tanjung Terang (5°25′N, 119°13′E).
2
Inshore route. From a position in the approaches to
Sandakan Harbour SSW of Pulau Taganak the route leads
ESE, passing inside the offshore dangers lying N of
Tanjung Unsang (5°27′N, 119°10′E), to a position E of
Tanjung Terang.
Depths
5.5
1
Because the rivers continue to bring down much silt
from the highlands the N coast of the Dent peninsula
between Sandakan and Tanjung Terang is fringed with
mudflats which carry into the offshore shallows for up to
3 miles. Soundings in this area are very regular, being
almost totally free of obstructions. Safe water exists well
inside the 36 m (20 fm) contour.
Tidal streams
5.6
1
Tidal streams between Sandakan and Pulau Tambisan
(5°27′N, 119°07′E) are weak, rarely reaching 1 kn.
Principal marks
5.7
1
Landmarks:
Bukit Bulud Napa (Kinabatangan Hills on Charts
1868 & 2576) (5°35′⋅4N, 118°22′⋅4E), which from
seaward appear as a long range with a distinct
peak at the W end. (See views on charts 1868 and
2576).
Bukit Lawa Lawa, (Aguja Peak on Charts 1868 and
2576) (5°37′N, 118°30′E), which, from the E,
appears as a double cone.
Bukit Kretam, (Notch Hill on charts 1868 and 2576)
(5°29′N, 118°35′E), has a sharp escarpment on the
E side of its summit.
Mount Hatton (5°15′N, 118°42′E), the most prominent
peak on this coast appearing sharp from all
directions.
Ragged Hill (5°16′N, 118°35′E), appears from the E
as two cones.
2
Major lights:
Teluk Dewhurst (white metal framework tower, red
bands, 24 m in height) (5°39′N, 118°36′E).
Tanjung Terang, (white metal framework tower, 23 m
in height) (5°25′N, 119°13′E).
Directions for offshore route
(continued from 4.154)
Pulau Taganak to Normanby Bank
5.8
1
From the position NNW of Pulau Taganak (6°05′N,
118°19′E) the track leads ESE for about 62 miles to a
position NE of Normanby Bank (5°48′N, 119°14′E),
passing (with positions from Benrinnes Reef (5°51′N,
118°45′E)):
2
SSW of Baguan Island (23 miles WNW), densely
wooded and lying on a coral reef. There is a
CHAPTER 5
138
possible landing place for small craft on the S side
of the island over the narrowest part of the reef.
Laurel Rock lies 4 miles NE of Baguan Island. In
1937 it was reported that the passage between
Baguan Island and Laurel Rock was clear, but it is
not recommended. In 1907, SS Progress struck a
pinnacle rock with a depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it,
lying 2 miles NW of Baguan Island. Thence:
3
NNE of Benrinnes Reef (5.10), thence:
NNE of Pegasus Reef (6 miles SE), from which a
light (5.10) is exhibited, thence:
4
NNE of Sunday Bank (24 miles E) with a least
depth of 11 m (36 ft) over it, reported in 1965, to
lie on the W part of the bank, thence:
NNE of Normanby Bank (28 miles E), coral,
steep-to.
5
From this position the track continues ESE for 6 miles
to a position NE of Normanby Bank.
(Directions continue for Sulu Archipelago — N side at 6.9)
Normanby Bank to Tanjung Terang
5.9
1
From the position NE of Normanby Bank (5°48′N,
119°14′E) (5.8) the track leads SSE, passing (with positions
from Tanjung Terang (5°25′N, 119°13′E)):
ENE of Sentry Bank (16 miles NNE), an extensive
bank of sand and coral, and:
2
WSW of Talantam Bank (21 miles NE), reported by
SS Offenbach in 1907. As the bottom is clearly
visible it is probable that there is less water over
this shoal. There are heavy overfalls and tiderips
around Talantam Bank when the wind is against
the tide, sometimes extending as far as the eye can
see, resembling broken water. Thence:
3
WSW of a shoal (19 miles NE) with a depth of
7⋅3 m (24 ft) (7 m (23 ft) on Chart 928) over it,
reported in 1948, thence:
WSW of two shoals (20 miles ENE), with depths of
13 m (42 ft) and 19⋅2 m (63 ft) over them, reported
in 1993 and 1951 respectively.
4
The track then leads to a position E of Tanjung Terang.
(Directions for Sibutu Passage continue at 5.20)
(Directions continue for the approach to Teluk Darvel at 5.34)
Directions for inshore route
Pulau Taganak to Tanjung Terang
5.10
1
From a position SSW of Pulau Taganak (6°05′N,
118°19′E) in the approaches to Sandakan the track leads SE
for about 70 miles, passing (with positions from Teluk
Dewhurst Light, (5°39′N, 118°36′E)):
SSW of Benrinnes Reef (15 miles NNE), with a depth
of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over it, reported in 1953 by SS
Benrinnes and:
2
NNE of Nymphe Reef (6 miles NNE), with a depth
of 0⋅3 m (1 ft) over it, coral and sand, seldom seen
because of the discoloured waters flowing from
Sungai Kinabatangan. In calmer weather it is
marked by rippling but it breaks in heavier
weather. Royalist Rock, with a depth of 1⋅8 m
(6 ft) over it, steep-to coral, lies 1 miles SSW of
Nymphe Reef. Thence:
3
SSW of Pegasus Reef (15 miles NE), with a least
depth of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it, steep-to on its S side.
The reef, composed of coral with patches of sand
can be discerned from aloft by discoloured water.
Pegasus Reef Light-beacon (nine legged metal
structure 14 m in height) stands on the N side of
the reef. Thence:
4
NNE of Magpie Bank (21 miles ESE), an extensive
bank of rotten coral. In 1956, a depth of 9 m
(30 ft) was reported lying off the SW side of the
bank. In 1979, a 9⋅4 m (31 ft) patch was reported
to lie about 1 miles NE of Magpie Bank in the
fairway between it and Sunday Bank. And:
5
SSW of Gem Reef (32 miles E), coral and sand,
marked by a light-buoy (isolated danger, radar
reflector) on the S side. Thence:
6
NNE of Rene Shoal (34 miles E), with a least depth
of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, coral and sand, reported in
1969, to lie on the S part of the shoal, and:
NNE of Pulau Tambisan (33 miles ESE), W part of
the island cleared of trees. The foreshore is
covered with coconut plantations. The island is
occasionally visited by the District Officer from
Lahad Datu. Tanjung Unsang, an unremarkable
point, lies 3 miles ESE of Pulau Tambisan.
7
From this position the track continues ESE to a position
E of Tanjung Terang Lighthouse (5.7).
(Directions continue for Sibutu Passage at 5.20)
(Directions continue for the approach to Teluk Darvel at 5.34)
(Directions continue for routes through Sulu Archipelago at 6.24)
Small craft channel
Teluk Tangusu
5.11
1
A narrow channel leads from Teluk Tangusu (5°26′N,
119°04′E), W of Pulau Tambisan, between the island and
the mainland. Both ends are fouled with least depths of
4⋅7 m (15 ft) in the W and 2 m (7 ft) in the E end. The
narrowest part is about 2 cables wide between the reefs
fronting both sides of the channel. A rock with a depth of
1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it, lies 1 mile SW of the SW extremity of
Pulau Tambisan and a detached 0⋅9 m (3 ft) patch lies
2 miles W of the same point.
Minor rivers
Sungai Kinabatangan and Teluk Dewhurst
5.12
1
Description. Kuala Kinabatangan Besar (5°39′N,
118°37′E) is the principal entrance to Sungai Kinabatangan.
It is marked on its E side by Driftwood Point, wooded and
from a distance of 15 miles to seaward appearing as a
well-defined point. Teluk Dewhurst Lighthouse (5.7) marks
the W entrance. This entrance is 6 cables wide with depths
of 7 to 9 m (23 to 30 ft). It was reported in 1933 that a
depth of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) was found over the bar but a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) has been recorded since. The main branch of
this river turns W 5 miles from the mouth. It has been
examined and depths of 7⋅3 to 11 m (24 to 36 ft) were
CHAPTER 5
139
found in the succeeding 6 miles. During this survey no
villages were found though a number of boats were met
with. Kuala Kinabatangan Kechil, a secondary mouth,
discharges 4 miles NW. Teluk Dewhurst trends S for
about 3 miles off the main channel and depths of 3⋅7 m
(12 ft) or less are to be found therein.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. Vessels drawing more than 2⋅4 m (8 ft)
should not attempt to cross the bar without a boat ahead,
because tides are much influenced by winds rendering the
times of HW uncertain.
Sungai Segama
5.13
1
Description. Kuala Segama (5°31′N, 118°48′E), the
mouth of Sungai Sagama is about 5 cables in width with a
depth of 4⋅6 m (15 ft) over sand and mud. A small islet lies
in mid-stream about 2 miles within the entrance. It is
surrounded by mudflats splitting the river into E and W
channels. Beyond the island a number of tributaries flow
into the main stream, much of which is heavily silted.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. When entering the river it is recommended
to send a boat ahead as tidal heights are irregular (5.12).
Sungai Maruap
5.14
1
Description. Kuala Maruap (5°24′N, 118°56′E), the
mouth of Sungai Maruap (Marowop on Chart 1868) is
about 7 cables wide with depths of 5⋅5 to 9⋅1 m (18 to
30 ft) between the entrance points. There are depths of
3⋅2 m (11 ft) over the bar in the approach but caution is
necessary because the sea breaks on it during NE winds.
Pulau Evans lies 3 miles within the entrance, where the
river divides into several branches.
Other name
5.15
1
Confusion Hill (5°31′⋅8N, 118°25′⋅1E).
SIBUTU PASSAGE
General information
Charts 1868, 928, Philippines Chart 4515 (see 1.18)
Route
5.16
1
From a position about 15 miles E of Tanjung Terang
(5°25′N, 119°13′E) the track leads about 48 miles SSE
through Sibutu Passage to a position ENE of Sicolan Island
(4°36′N, 119°28′E).
Topography
5.17
1
Sibutu Passage (4°50′N, 119°40′E), separates the islands
fronting Teluk Darvel from the Tawitawi Group (6.36) of
the Sulu Archipelago. The islands on both sides,
Philippines territory, are low-lying and densely wooded.
Although, for the most part, they are fringed with coral the
sides of the passage are steep-to and free of obstructions.
The islands of the Sibutu Group are mostly inhabited and
cultivated. Fishing is the most important industry. They are
frequently visited by fishermen from Borneo.
Tidal streams
5.18
1
Close attention must be paid to the tidal streams in
Sibutu Passage which set NNW and S at rates of between
2 and 5 kn. At times the S-going stream attains rates of
6 kn, this phenomenon probably occurs between October
and December when tidal flow is enhanced by current.
Information available seems to be rather unreliable but
indications are that the streams set according to the
tabulated times. In more open waters the rates are likely to
be reduced by as much as 50% of the tabulated values.
2
Off the NW coasts of Sanga Sanga Island and Bongao
Island the NNW stream is deviated to a NE or E direction
by the influence of the Borneo coastal currents.
3
As a general rule, slack water occurs within 1 or 2 hours
of HW or LW, but the S-going stream has been known to
run continuously, at greater or lesser rates, for several days.
In September 1914 a constant S set was experienced with a
mean direction of 160°, at an average rate of 1 kn.
During the SW monsoon (May to September) the
streams set N and S, and turn several hours after HW and
LW close inshore.
4
In 1872, HM Surveying Ship Nassau reported that the
tidal streams in the main channel were constant in
direction, setting 317° and 182°, but were uncertain in
duration. They occasionally set for as much as 10 hours at
a time, probably influenced by the winds and changes in
the moon’s declination, as do the tides on the S coast of
Mindanao Island.
Principal marks
5.19
1
Landmarks:
Bongao Peak (5°01′N, 119°45′E), the highest of
several peaks in the S part of Bongao Island which
are prominent from all directions.
Sibutu Hill (4°50′N, 119°30′E), conical.
2
Major lights:
Tanjung Terang Light, (5°25′N, 119°13E) (5.7).
Saluag Island Light (elevation 29 m) (4°35′N,
119°28′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.9 and 5.10)
5.20
1
In 1921, the master of SS Pharos reported:- “When
approaching from the N it is advisable to make Pearl Bank
(5°50′N, 119°42′E) by day. In any case navigation of
Sibutu Passage is quite safe at night after passing Pearl
Bank as Sibutu Hill and Bongao Island are conspicuous
even on the darkest nights.”
2
When approaching Sibutu Passage from the S, the best
time to approach is at dawn when rain is less frequent than
at any other time of day.
3
From a position about 15 miles E of Tanjung Terang
(5°25′N, 119°13′E) the track leads SSE to enter Sibutu
Passage, passing (with positions from Saluag Island Light
(4°35′N, 119°28′E)):
WSW of Sanga Sanga Island (33 miles NNE),
densely wooded and steep-to on its W side. The
coast consists of a high coral bank interspersed
with numerous sandy beaches. The island is
cultivated in places. There is an airstrip close to
the SW coast. Thence:
4
WSW of Bongao Island (30 miles NNE) (5.19),
thence:
ENE of Sibutu Hill (14 miles N) (5.19). The coast
consists mostly of upraised coral broken in places
by sandy beaches. The island is low, densely
wooded and flat, 16 miles long and the S part is
surrounded by a coral reef extending 4 miles
from the S extremity. It is steep-to on all sides.
CHAPTER 5
140
There is an airstrip 2 miles NW of Sibutu Hill.
The domes of village mosques on the NW side of
the island, as shown on the chart, are visible from
Sibutu Passage though vegetation may hinder the
view. Thence:
5
WSW of Simunul Island (28 miles NE), steep-to, low,
flat and cultivated. There is a shallow lagoon
inside the fringing coral reef on the NE side of the
island but the entrance is obscured by trees
growing in the water. Several villages are situated
along the N coast. Thence:
6
WSW of Manuk Manka Island (25 miles NE),
cultivated from which drying coral extends on the
SW and NE sides. The channel between Simunul
and Manuk Manka islands is clear of dangers and
deep, but tide-rips, heaviest during the ebb, occur
frequently. In 1964, tide-rips and overfalls were
reported SW of Manuk Manka Island within an
area extending about 10 miles S and W of the W
extremity of the island. Thence:
7
ENE of Sicolan Island (6 cables N), separated from
the small islet of Sicolan Coloh by a channel
7 cables in width. Salaug Island lies 6 cables S of
it. Salaug Lighthouse (5.19) stands on Salaug
Island.
8
From this position the track leads S into the Celebes
Sea.
For a description of the routes through the Celebes Sea
see Indonesia Pilot Volume II.
(Directions continue for the route into Sibuko Bay at 5.176 and for Sibutu Passage to Kinapusan Island at 6.77)
Side channels
Simunul Channel
5.21
1
Description. Simunul Channel (4°55′N, 119°52′E),
separating Simunul Island from Tiji Tiji Reef (6.77) is
1 miles wide at its narrowest point. The channel is deep
and the shores steep-to so that anchorage is impossible
anywhere in the channel. Several channels leading into
Tawitawi Bay are described in (6.41).
2
Tidal streams. are shaped by the course of the channel
but generally follow those in the Sibutu Passage.
Philippines Chart 4515 (see 1.18)
Tumindao Channel
5.22
1
Description. Tumindao Channel, W of Sibutu Island is a
deep water channel with a least width of 1 miles to the
W of which lies an extensive reef lying parallel to Sibutu
Island. A chain of low, flat-topped islands with many
villages on them lie on the E side of this reef which
contains two lagoons. Omapoy Island, wooded, is the
N-most island lying on the NE part of Omapoy Reef.
Sipangkot Island lies 5 cables S of Omapoy Island. The N
and E edges of Omapoy Reef are well-defined and steep-to
but the S side, bordering North Lagoon, is irregular with
numerous breaks leading into the centre of the reef.
2
Tumindao Island is about 8 miles long, low, flat and
wooded. It lies on the NE arm of Tumindao Reef bordering
Tumindao Channel where it is steep-to. Its W coast is
irregular. A number of small islands and islets extend S
from the S extremity of Tumindao Island including Sitankai
Island (5.27), Gusi, Asibi, Dakula and Buli Nusa Islands.
3
Tumindao Reef extends another 5 miles S from the
S-most of these islets and forms the N coast of South
Lagoon. The bow-shaped South Reef, steep-to on its S
edge, forms the S boundary of the lagoon.
4
Tidal streams. In 1892, HM Surveying Ship Egeria
observed the flood stream in the Tumindao Channel to set
S and the ebb to set N at a rate of 3 to 4 kn, and the
stream to turn at HW and LW by the shore.
Meridian Channel
5.23
1
Description. Meridian Channel (4°45′N, 119°17′E)
between Meridian Reef and Andulinang Reef to the W and
the reef on which Tumindao Island lies, has depths from
113 to 229 m (62 to 125 fm) and its sides are steep-to. The
channel is about 20 miles long with a least width of about
1 miles.
2
Andulinang Island (4°46′N, 119′15′E) on the W side of
the channel is, 27 m (89 ft) high to the tree-tops. A rock
9 m (30 ft) high stands close N of this island.
3
Meridian Reef, 12 miles in length, is separated from
Andulinang Reef by a channel 5 cables wide, with depth of
13 to 15 m (42 to 49 ft). A sand cay, which dries 1⋅2 m
(4 ft), lies near the S end of Meridian Reef.
4
Middle Reef, with a sand cay near its N extremity, lies
1 mile S of Meridian Reef. There is a depth of 12⋅8 m
(42 ft) in the channel between them but it is too narrow to
be used safely as tidal streams set strongly through it.
5
Frances Reef, close S of Middle Reef, is the most S of
the chain of reefs edging Meridian Channel. The E side of
the reef is steep-to but there is a long drying sand cay on
the W side. The channel between Middle Reef and Frances
Reef is narrow and foul.
6
Tidal streams in Meridian Channel set at rates of
between 2 and 4 kn. The S-going tidal streams off the edge
of the bank SW of Frances Reef set SE at rates frequently
up to 3 kn.
Anchorages
Salaug Island
5.24
1
Description. Salaug Island (4°35′N, 119°29′E) lies on
the reef contiguous with Sibutu Island. The reef is steep to
and anchorage is not recommended as strong currents
sweep around the island. In any case care must be taken to
prevent dragging after the turn of the stream.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage can be found in a limited area with depth of
27⋅4 to 34⋅7 m (15 to 19 fm) with Salaug Lighthouse
bearing 350° distance 1 miles.
North Lagoon
5.25
1
Description. The entrance to North Lagoon (4°51′N,
119°19′E) lies in the NW side of the reef in the N
approaches to Meridian Channel. There are strong tidal
streams in the entrance to the lagoon. It gives access
through Kabusan Channel to Tumindao village on the W
side of Timindao Island.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage. There is excellent anchorage in the lagoon
with uniform depths from 16 to 18 m (53 to 60 ft) in its N
part.
South Lagoon
5.26
1
Description. A narrow channel leads from the W into
South Lagoon from a position near the S end of Meridian
CHAPTER 5
141
Channel. South Lagoon (4°31′N, 119°21′E), in which there
are depths from 13 to 22 m (43 ft to 12 fm), consists of
two basins connected by a deep channel. The E basin,
1 cable wide, can be entered through a narrow access from
Tumindao Channel but the preferred channel, 2 cables
wide, is from Meridian Passage. Both these channels have
depths of 7⋅3 m (24 ft). A channel in the SW part of the
reef is impassable. South Reef forms the S side of the
lagoon.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage, safe, exists in the E basin.
Small craft
Sitankai Island
5.27
1
Sitankai Island (4°40′N, 119°24′E) is of some
importance as a trading centre for the Bongao District of
the Tawitawi Group. There is a landing on the edge of the
reef E of the island, which may be used at all states of the
tide.
2
At Sitankai village there is a concrete pier, with a depth
of 4 m alongside.
Sitankai is a Sub Port of Entry for the Philippines.
TELUK DARVEL AND APPROACHES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 928, 1680
Area covered
5.28
1
This section covers the coast from Tanjung Terang
(5°25′N, 119°13′E) to the Darvel Peninsula (4°57′N,
118°30′E), Teluk Darvel, the islands and channels therein,
and the ports of Lahad Datu (5°00′N, 118°20′E), Silam
Harbour (4°17′N, 118°14′E), Kunak (4°42′N, 118°15′E) and
Semporna (4°29′N, 118°37′E). It is arranged as follows:
2
Tanjung Terang to Tanjung Tungku (5.30).
Teluk Darvel − N side (5.38).
Lahad Datu (5.46).
Silam Harbour and approaches (5.73).
Lubok Sabanan and approaches (5.80).
Approaches to Kunak (5.86).
Kunak Harbour (5.93).
Teluk Darvel − S side (5.116).
3
Passage N of Pulau Gaya (5.126).
Alice Channel (5.131).
Inshore routes N, E and S of Pulau Bumbum (5.138).
Trusan Tando Bulong (5.149).
Topography
5.29
1
The entire area of Teluk Darvel is heavily wooded.
Forest descends to the shore line and is, in places, almost
impenetrable. Mountain ranges surround the bay with
numerous peaks between 156 to 915 m (500 and 3000 ft)
high. Rivers flow into Teluk Darvel through the many bays
and creeks that indent the coastline but very few are
navigable for boats beyond a short distance. The entire
coastline, as well as the many islands, are fringed with
coral. Extensive coral shoals abound on the SE corner.
2
The waters of the bay, including the channels between
the islands, are deep and largely free of hazards.
TANJUNG TERANG
TO TANJUNG TUNGKU
General information
Charts 928, 1680
Route
5.30
1
From a position E of Tanjung Terang Lighthouse
(5°25′N, 119°13′E) (5.7) the route leads S to a position E
of Hardy Patch (5°15′N, 119°18′E) (5.34), thence generally
SW to a position SE of Tanjung Tungku (5°00′N,
118°52′E).
Topography
5.31
1
The coast between Pulau Tambisan (5°27′N, 119°07′E)
(5.10) and Dent Haven (5.37), 12 miles SSE, is low,
swampy, covered with dense jungle and fringed with a
narrow strip of coral which is steep-to. Farther S the coast
continues to be low-lying and swampy. Trending SW the
swamp gives way to hard sandy beaches closely backed by
easily penetrated jungle. Occasional open spaces offer
grazing to deer. There are several small streams on this part
of the coast.
Tidal streams
5.32
1
Tidal streams between Dent Haven (5°16′N, 119°16′E)
and Tanjung Labian 10 miles S, set strongly N and S at
rates between 1 and 3 kn. They are variable in both
strength and direction. In 1882, the stream was observed
occasionally to run strongly in one direction for 1 to
2 days, and then swing to the opposite direction for a day,
without apparent reason. At other times the streams
changed approximately at HW and LW by the shore.
2
Farther W on the N shore of Darvel Bay the tidal
streams are weaker, and set W and E at a rate of 1 kn
during springs.
3
Frequent sharply defined tide-rips occur between Gem
Reef (5°35′N, 119°08′E) (5.10) and Sibutu Passage (5.16);
they have the appearance of shoal water.
Principal marks
5.33
1
Major lights:
Tanjung Terang (5.19).
Tanjung Labian (white metal framework tower, 26 m
in height) (5°09′N, 119°13′E).
Tanjung Tungku (white metal framework tower, 24 m
in height) (5°00′N, 118°52′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.9 and 5.10)
5.34
1
From a position E of Tanjung Terang Lighthouse
(5°25′N, 119°13′E) (5.19), the track leads SSE passing
(with positions from Tanjung Labian (5°09′N, 119°13′E)):
ENE of Hull Rock (9 miles NNE), which sometimes
breaks, lies on a bank of hard sand. There is a
channel 5 cables wide between Hull Rock and the
coastal bank, which is not recommended. A patch
with a depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it encumbers
the channel. Thence:
2
ENE of Hardy Patch (8 miles NNE) a coral shoal
marked by strong tiderips and usually discoloured
water. Passing vessels may avoid Hardy Patch by
CHAPTER 5
142
keeping outside of the charted 50 m contour (20 fm
contour on chart 1868) which lies about 1 miles
E of it.
3
From this position the track then leads SSW for about
10 miles to a position WNW of Tanjung Labian (5.33), low
and difficult to identify
4
Thence the track leads WSW for about 25 miles to a
position SSE of Tanjung Tungku. The coast between these
two points is low but rises gradually towards the W to a
wooded ridge from 120 to 155 m (394 to 508 ft) high,
about 1 miles inland.
5
As the edge of the bank S of Tanjung Tunku does not
always show clearly on account of water discolouration
from Sungai Tungku (5.36), and as the marks for fixing the
positions are distant, it is advisable to keep a distance of at
least 1 mile S of the point when passing.
(Directions continue for Teluk Darvel — N side at 5.42)
(Directions continue for Alice Channel at 5.136)
Minor rivers
Sungai Sabahat
5.35
1
Sungai Sabahat (5°04′N, 119°02′E) (Teloh Sibet on
Chart 1868), a small river, the mouth of which dries, is
marked by a stand of nipa palms 11 miles WSW of
Tanjung Labian. A red cliff, 24 m (80 ft) high, lies 1 mile
farther W.
Sungai Tungku
5.36
1
Sungai Tungku, which rises 12 miles N of Tanjung
Tungku (5°00′N, 118°52′E), flows through a gap in the
Bagahak Range and enters the bay close W of Tanjung
Tungku. There is a depth of 0⋅3 to 0⋅6 m (1 to 2 ft) on the
bar. Lapasan village stands on the E bank 7 cables within
the entrance.
Minor harbour
Dent Haven
5.37
1
Description. Dent Haven is entered between Reef Point
(5°16′N, 119°16′E) and Mangrove Point, the N extremity of
an island fringed with mangroves, 2 miles S. Dent Haven is
about 2 miles wide.
2
The S part, close inshore, is foul and several patches lie
within 8 cables N of Mangrove Point. Three brackish
rivulets flow into the bay; the two N streams dry across
their entrances. There is a boat shelter inside the spit by
the S rivulet in deep water; the entrance is through a
narrow channel in the reef. Bathing in the rivulets is
dangerous because of alligators. There are no villages in
Dent Haven, the coastline being the barrier to a great
swamp.
3
Tidal streams. Between Pulau Tambisan and Dent
Haven tidal streams set at rates from 2 to 3 kn. In Dent
Haven they set N 3 hours before HW and S 3 hours before
LW. It appears probable that this is an eddy.
Directions. Approaching from the N, the extremity of
the land S of Mangrove Point should not be brought to
bear less than 217° until the S end of the long sandy beach
in the bay N of Alfred Point, 7 cables WNW of Mangrove
Point, bears 265°. Alfred Point may then be steered
towards to reach the anchorage.
4
Anchorage may be found in depths of 6⋅4 to 7⋅3 m (21
to 24 ft), sand and mud, anywhere in Dent Haven clear of
the charted shoals.
TELUK DARVEL — NORTH SIDE
Chart 1680
Route
5.38
1
From the position NNW of Tanjung Tungku (5°00′N,
118°52′E) the route leads W towards a position S of
Armstrong Reef (4°56′N, 118°26′E) (5.42).
Topography
5.39
1
West of Tanjung Labian, the N side of Teluk Darvel is
clear of off-lying dangers, except for Howard Shoal
(4°54′N, 118°40′E) and Kinabalu Shoal 6 miles W, but
there are numerous islands and coral reefs in the W and S
parts of the bay.
2
The hills on the N side of Teluk Darvel are densely
wooded, low and undulating, presenting few features. They
terminate in the Bagahak Range. There is a considerable
area of apparently flat country W of Bagahak Range
drained by Sungai Silibukan (5.71).
Tidal streams
5.40
1
Tidal streams in Teluk Darvel set S and W with the
in-going stream, N and E with the out-going stream. These
directions are modified by the trend of the land and reefs
in particular localities.
Along the N shore the in-going stream sets W and the
out-going stream sets E at a rate of 1 kn during springs.
The streams appear to turn approximately at the times of
HW and LW by the shore.
Principal marks
5.41
1
Landmarks:
End Hill (5°10′N, 118°54′E), the NE termination of
the Bagahak Range (shown on Chart 2576 only).
Gunong Bagahak (5°01′N, 118°44′E), falls steeply on
its N and E sides, and is prominent from these
directions. It slopes gradually on its S and W
sides. It is frequently obscured by cloud.
The Remarkable Shoulder (4°58′N, 118°36′E), most
prominent from the S.
2
Major lights:
Tanjung Bagahak, (white metal framework tower
11 m in height) (4°57′N, 118°38′E).
Pulau Katung Kalungan, (metal framework tower
37 m elevation) (4°55′N, 118°16′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.34)
5.42
1
From the position SSE of Tanjung Tungku (5°00′N,
118°52′E) the track leads W, passing (with positions from
Shoal Point (4°55′N, 118°31′E)):
S of Howard Shoal (9 miles E), coral, thence:
2
S of Tanjung Bagahak (8 miles E) a low mangrove
point 1 miles W of a spur of the Bagahak Range
with a summit 289 m (948 ft) high, close inland
and prominent from both E and W. The coast for a
distance of 2 miles E and 4 miles W of Tanjung
Bagahak is fringed with steep-to coral reefs
extending 7 cables offshore. Three narrow channels
CHAPTER 5
143
lead through the reefs with depths of 9 to 18 m
(30 to 59 ft) in them. Thence:
3
S of Kinabalu Shoal (3 miles ESE), steep-to, and:
S of Shoal Point, the SE extremity of Darvel
Peninsula, low-lying, flat and swampy, fronted by
mudflats and covered with trees from 30 to 35 m
(98 to 115 ft) high. Deep mangrove creeks
intersect the peninsula. Shoal Point should be
given a wide berth as depths decrease suddenly
from 20 m (65 ft) to 5 m (16 ft) SE of the point.
Soundings give little warning. Thence:
4
S of Tanjung Malandong (3 miles W), the SW
extremity of the Darvel Peninsula.
The track then leads to a position S of Armstrong Reef
(5 miles W), a small, steep-to coral reef which dries 1⋅5 m
(5 ft). Armstrong Reef Light-beacon (green framework
tower, elevation 8 m) marks the SW side of the reef.
Another beacon stands on the NE side.
(Directions continue for Lahad Datu at 5.64, for Silam
Harbour at 5.75, for Lubok Sabanan at 5.83, and for Kunak at 5.89)
Anchorages and harbours
Charts 1680, 1678
Bakapit
5.43
1
Description. Bakapit (4°57′N, 118°35′E), is a timber
loading port situated on the NW side of Teluk Basilan. The
bay itself is heavily silted, edged with extensive coral reefs
and fringed with mangroves. Tanjung Bakapit lies on the
SW extremity of the bay from where reefs extend 2 cables
S. There is a pier on the E side of the port suitable for
small vessels. A slipway exists SW of the port, for the
small tugs used for hauling logs. Teluk Basilan is used as a
log pond.
2
Mean tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m;
mean neap range about 0⋅1 m. For further information see
the relevent Admiralty Tide Tables.
3
Directions. From the position S of Tanjung Bagahak the
track leads NW to a position SE of Turner Patch, with a
depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, lying 1 miles S of Teluk
Basilan. Approaching Teluk Basilan from the S care must
be taken to avoid Websper Patch, which has been swept to
a depth of 10⋅3 m (34 ft), lying 1 miles SSW of Tanjung
Bakapit.
4
Should a pilot be required he will board in the vicinity
of Turner Patch.
5
From this position the alignment (000°) of two beacons
(4°57′N, 118°35′E), on the E reef of Teluk Basilan, leads
N, passing (with positions from the front beacon)
E of Sandford Rock (6 cables SSW), thence:
Between Brantian Reef (3 cables SSW) marked on
its E extremity by a beacon (red and white
chequers, cone topmark apex down, 4 m in height),
and Ireton Patch 2 cables E.
From this position the track leads NNW towards the
berth.
6
Anchorage. There is good anchorage 1 mile S or
1 miles SW of Tanjung Bakapit, SW of Sandford Rock in
depths of 37 m (20 fm), mud.
7
Caution. Vessels carrying explosives or dangerous
petroleum must not anchor in the approach fairway within
7 cables of the Brantian Reef beacon.
8
Facilities: none.
Everest Bay
5.44
1
Description. Everest Bay (4°57′N, 118°34′E) lies W of
Tanjung Bakapit. About 8 cables wide between the entrance
points the bay narrows rapidly to a creek into which two
small rivers empty. The N part of the bay is filled with
drying flats of coral, sand and mud. Both sides of the bay
are fringed with coral reefs up to 1 cable wide, but the S
central part of the bay has depths from 9 to 20 m (30 ft to
11 fm). There is a continuation of the chain of off-lying
shoals and reefs that encumber the entrance to Teluk
Basilan, but deep water channels are clear between them.
2
Directions. Although deep channels exist between the
Dunbar Patches, the Coronation Patches which have depths
of 2⋅7 to 4⋅6 m (9 to 15 ft) over them, lying in the middle
of the approaches to Everest Bay, and Polly Rocks and
Middle Reef lying to the E of the entrance, the safest
channel is that passing W and N of Tambak Reef.
3
Approach from the SW on a track leading NE, passing
(with positions from Tanjung Tambak (4°57′N, 118°34′E)
SE of Dampier Reef (4 cables SSW) which is
unmarked but which dries 1⋅8 m (6 ft) at LW,
thence:
Between Tambak Reef and the shoals lying off the
reef surrounding Tanjung Tambak which is
recognisable by a patch of dead mangroves
showing up white. This channel is about 1 cables
wide. Thence:
SE of an isolated reef (2 cables ESE), thence:
NW of the N-most shoal (4 cables ESE) of
Coronation Patches.
4
The track then leads to the anchorage.
Anchorage will be found 5 cables E of Tanjung Tambak
in a depth of 18 m (60 ft), mud.
Chart 1680
Kennedy Bay
5.45
1
Description. Kennedy Bay (4°56′N, 118°33′E) which
lies between Tanjung Tambak and the Darvel Peninsula has
not been thoroughly examined. Several small rivers empty
into it over mud and coral flats. Two isolated coral reefs lie
in the N part of the bay, and another which dries 0⋅3 m
(1 ft) lies in the SW approaches 1 miles ENE of Shoal
Point.
2
Directions. When entering Kennedy Bay, the track leads
towards the summit of the 102 m (327 ft) hill, on the NW
side of the bay bearing 315°, and leads 5 cables SW of
Turner Patch (4°56′N, 118°35′E) directly to the anchorage.
3
Anchorage exists where Shoal Point bears 235° and
Tanjung Tambak bears 075°, in a depth of 18 m (60 ft)
mud.
LAHAD DATU
General information
Chart 1680, Malaysian Chart 8502 (see 1.18)
Position
5.46
1
Lahad Datu (5°02′N, 118°20′E) is situated on the NW
shore of Teluk Darvel.
Function
5.47
1
Lahad Datu is the major port of shipment for the
produce of the area of Teluk Darvel including timber, palm
oil, copra and cocoa. The principal imports are rice,
CHAPTER 5
144
foodstuffs, provisions, machinery and building materials.
There are basic facilities for tankers. The town is the
headquarters of the district and there is an extensive area
under commercial cultivation.
Topography
5.48
1
Telukan Lahad Datu is a large natural harbour with an
entrance restricted between the E extremity of Pulau Sakar
and the mainland. The coast is heavily indented with
creeks, bays and river mouths. Mudflats have formed in the
W and E of the harbour as the result of silt carried down
by the largest of the rivers. Coral reefs front parts of the
coastline including the port area. Isolated reefs exist within
the harbour. They are steep-to and well marked thus
causing little difficulty to the mariner. The entire coastline,
except for the port and town areas, is heavily wooded.
Port limits
5.49
1
Harbour limits are contained in the area N of a line
joining the following points:
4°55′⋅4N, 118°27′⋅8E.
4°56′⋅6N, 118°17′⋅5E.
Approach and entry
5.50
1
The port is approached through Teluk Darvel and
entered 2 miles W of Armstrong Reef (5.42).
Traffic
5.51
1
The port handles about 1 000 000 tonnes of cargo
annually.
Port Authority
5.52
1
Sabah Ports Authority, Jalan Tun Fuad, Tanjung Lipat,
88617 Kota Kinabalu.
Lahad Datu Port, Traffic Superintendent’s Office,
P.O.Box 143, 91107 Lahad Datu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Limiting conditions
Mean tide levels
5.53
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m; mean neap range about
0⋅3 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density
5.54
1
1⋅025 g/cm
3
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.55
1
The longest vessel handled is 202 m with a maximum of
9⋅75 m draught.
Arrival information
Notice of ETA
5.56
1
Initial ETA should be sent 7 days in advance of vessel’s
arrival followed by a further ETA 36 hours prior to arrival.
Additionally the message should include arrival drafts,
pilotage, and any other requirements.
Outer anchorage
5.57
1
There is an outer anchorage N of Pulau Sakar in depths
of 13 to 25 m (43 ft to 14 fm) with good holding ground.
Pilotage
5.58
1
Pilotage is not compulsory but should one be required
then, in addition to the notices of ETA already sent, contact
should be established as soon as possible with the pilots on
VHF 16.
Tugs
5.59
1
Tugs are available if requested well in advance.
Quarantine
5.60
1
A message should be sent from the vessel advising last
port of call and whether vessel is healthy. Pratique is
normally granted by radio. If a vessel is arriving from an
infected area instruction will be received to proceed to a
quarantine anchorage.
Harbour
General layout
5.61
1
Lahad Datu has two wharves with godown facilities.
Private operators maintain the bulk oil storage facilities.
The working berths extend along the N shore but logging
ponds have been created W of the town. The bay can
provide sheltered anchorage during either monsoon.
Development
5.62
1
Since 1996 Lahad Datu has been undergoing
development up to major port status. New construction has
been going on E of the harbour on the shores of Kampong
Ipit, which includes the provision of three new berths on a
T-shaped pier with the main berth reported to have a depth
alongside of 13 m making it capable of accepting vessels
up to 40 000 dwt. A container park has been created.
Principal mark
5.63
1
Landmark:
The summit of Pulau Sakar (4°58′N, 118°21′E), rising
near the centre of the S side of this heavily
wooded island.
CHAPTER 5
145
Lahad Datu (5.61)
(Original dated )
(Photograph − Sabah Ports Authority)
Directions for entering Lahad Datu
(continued from 5.42)
5.64
1
Note: The topmarks on beacons in the approach to
Lahad Datu are coloured according to the IALA Maritime
Buoyage System (Region A).
2
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the track leads NW for about 3 miles to
a position SW of Armstrong Reef thence the track leads N
passing (with positions from Tanjung Sakar (4°59′N,
118°23′E)):
E of Crook Reef (3 miles SW), a drying reef lying
1 mile S of the summit of Pulau Sakar.
3
The track then leads NNE, passing:
WNW of the shoal water and drying mud flats
extending up to 1 miles from the entrance
(4 miles ESE) to Sungai Silibukan, thence:
4
E of Tanjung Sakar Light-beacon (6 cables ENE).
The zinc roofed houses of Lahad Datu are visible
as soon as they open clear of Pulau Sakar.
The track then leads NW towards the port, passing:
SW of a drying reef (2 miles NE), marked on its SW
side by a light-beacon, thence:
5
NE of Terumbu Balasu (1 miles NW), a small coral
reef, which dries 1⋅5 m (5 ft). Its NE extremity is
marked by a beacon (metal, red and white; cone
topmark, apex down). Terumbu Balasu
Light-beacon (red and white chequers, can
topmark) stands close NNE of the reef.
6
The track then leads to a position NNE of the E-most of
the Voorwyk Reefs (3 miles NW). Voorwyk reefs consist of
three reefs including Gosungan, the N-most; Voorwyk and
the S-most Tinggeri. Gosungan and Voorwyk reefs are
marked with beacons (tripod, red and white, can topmark)
and Tinggeri is marked by a single beacon on its S side
(metal, black and yellow, cone topmark, apex up). All are
steep-to with deep channels between them. Voorwyk reefs
Light-beacon (pile, can topmark, red, 5 m in height) stands
close NE of Tinggeri Reef.
Anchorages and berths
Inner anchorages
5.65
1
Caution. Anchorage is prohibited in the fairway of the
approach or within 1200 m (7 cables) of the pierhead for
vessels carrying explosives or dangerous petroleum cargoes.
2
Anchorage for larger vessels exists between the Voorwyk
Reefs and the mainland. There are depths of about 13 m
(43 ft), mud. The W end of the anchorage area is
encumbered by Bersheskerk Reef, a coral patch with a
depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) over it, lying between Gosungan Reef
and the N shore. It is marked on its S side by a beacon
(red and white cylindrical topmark).
3
Vessels to a maximum length of 90 m may anchor in
depths of 9 m (30 ft) mud, between the Voorwyk Reefs and
three small isolated reefs lying on the 5 m (16 ft) depth
contour which trends S from the town pierhead. (5°01′N,
118°20′E) Grey Reef, lying 5 cables S of the pierhead is
CHAPTER 5
146
marked with a beacon (red and white; cone topmark, apex
down). The E-most of the reefs lying between Grey Reef
and the pierhead is also marked by a beacon (tripod, red
and white, can topmark).
Berths
5.66
1
Government Wharf. A coral mole extends 309 m
(1014 ft) SE from the SW corner of Lahad Datu.
Government Wharf and the Customs shed are situated at
the seaward end of this mole. The wharf 96 m in length, is
17 m wide at the head and has a least depth alongside of
4⋅6 m.
2
A light (white wooden framework tower, 6 m in height)
is exhibited from the head of the wharf.
3
Sabah Port Authority Wharf. Situated about 2 miles E
of the town, is an L-shaped jetty extending S from the
shore. The berthing face is 90 m long, 12 m wide with a
depth alongside of 9⋅75 m. Mooring dolphins are sited off
each end of the pier. Vessels up to 25 000 dwt may be
accepted.
Port services
Repairs
5.67
1
Small workshop for emergencies.
Other facilities
5.68
1
Hospital with resident medical officers.
Supplies
5.69
1
Fresh provisions; fresh water subject to advance notice;
bunkering if ordered in advance.
Communications
5.70
1
Lahad Datu airport is situated 5 cables E of the town.
Daily services to all principal towns in Sabah and Sarawak.
There is a weekly sea service to Sandakan, Tawau and
other ports in Sabah.
Small craft channels
Sungai Silibukan
5.71
1
Description. Sungai Silibukan and Sungai Segama
(Seganen on Malaysian Chart 8502) (4°58′N, 118°28′E)
converge 1 miles within their common entrance on the
NW side of Darvel Peninsula. The entrance is 5 cables
wide and may be identified by a clump of trees, 40 m
(130 ft) high, on the NW entrance point, somewhat higher
than the dead level of the trees around it. The W side of
the shallow spit extending W from the river entrance is
very steep-to, but mariners are, nonetheless, advised to give
it a wide berth.
2
In 1891 Sungai Silibukan was explored by the boats of
HM Surveying Ship Egeria as far as Teluk Bukan Estate,
4 miles above the junction of the two rivers. The river is
18 m (68 ft) wide, with a depth of 2 m (6⋅5 ft) at the estate,
but levels are subject to seasonal changes. Tidal influences
are felt as far upstream as the estate. HM Surveying Ship
Egeria also explored Sungai Segama for a distance of
about 3 miles where a landing stage was found.
Trusan Sakar
5.72
1
The channel (4°59′N, 118°19′E) between Pulau Sakar
and the mainland W, is less than 1 cable wide in places,
with a least depth of 0⋅3 (1 ft) (Malaysian Chart 8502). It
is used at HW, but a rock which dries 0⋅6 m (2 ft) lies on
the E side 7 cables within the S entrance and 55 m (180 ft)
W of the SW point of an islet at a turning point in the
channel. Two drying rocks lie on the E side of Trusan
Sakar, about 3 cables within the S entrance.
SILAM HARBOUR AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 1680
Route
5.73
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the route leads WNW for about 10 miles
to the entrance to Silam Harbour.
Principal marks
5.74
1
Landmarks:
Mark Hill (4°59′N, 118°12′E), well-defined summit.
Gunong Silam (4°58′N, 118°10′E), a flat topped
wooded mountain, the highest in the region,
separated from Mark Hill by a steep ridge.
Directions
(continued from 5.42)
5.75
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the track leads WNW for about 10 miles,
passing (with positions from Tanjung Tumunong Hallo
(4°56′N, 118°12′E)):
Between Misan Misan Reef (5 miles NE), awash and
sometimes difficult to discern, and Pulau Katung
Kalungun from which a light (5.41) is exhibited,
lying 1 mile SSW. A group of islets and reefs lie
between Misan-Misan Reef and Pulau Sakar.
Thence:
2
NNE of Gusong-dilaut Reef (4 miles E), awash. It is
the N-most of a chain of three isolated reefs
including Wanderer Reef and Adams Reef lying to
the SW. Thence:
SSW of Pulau Baik (4 miles NE), densely wooded
with a remarkable conical summit. A light-buoy
(starboard hand) is moored near the extremity of a
reef extending NW from Pulau Baik.
3
From this position the track continues WNW to a
position NNE of the Saddle Island Group (2 miles ENE), a
small archipelago extending WNW along the S side of
Silam Harbour, of which Pulau Laila, is the largest. Giffard
Islet lies close off the SE extremity of Pulau Laila, and
Nipa Nipa lies off the NW extremity between Pulau Laila
and Pulau Saddle. Pulau Saga lies W of the N extremity of
Pulau Saddle. There is a boat channel between Pulau Laila
and Nipa Nipa.
Clearing marks
5.76
1
The alignment (330°) of the W extremity of Pulau
Saddle (4°56′N, 118°13′E) in line with Mark Hill,
2 miles NW, clears SW of Adam’s Reef (4°54′N,
118°14′E).
The alignment (024°) of the E extremity of Giffard
Islet (4°55′N, 118°14′E) in line with the NW
CHAPTER 5
147
extremity of Pulau Baik, 1 miles NNE, clears W
of Adam’s Reef.
2
The alignment (290°) of Wise Hill, situated 1 mile N
of Silam Pier, in a line with Mark Hill clears N of
the detached reefs N of Pulau Baik and S of
Woodhall Reefs.
Anchorages and harbours
Silam Harbour
5.77
1
Description. Silam Harbour (4°57′N, 118°14′E) lies in
the NW corner of Teluk Darvel. The approaches are
encumbered with numerous reefs and islets forming an
archipelago around it through which there are deep water
channels. The coast is indented by numerous creeks with
small rivers flowing into the harbour. Silam village stands
at the head of the bay the NW side of which is much
encumbered with reefs. Tidal streams in Silam Harbour are
very weak and appear to turn at about HW and LW by the
shore.
2
Directions. The anchorage off Silam village may be
approached from a position S of the Saddle Group by
passing in mid-channel between Pulau Saddle and Pulau
Tabun, lying 5 cables NE of Tanjung Tumunong Hallo
(4°56′N, 118°12′E) close S of which lies Pulau Saranga.
The channel W of these islands is foul.
3
Anchorages. The anchorage off Silam village is over a
very uneven seabed of sand and several coral heads, with
depths of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over them, in the S part of the
harbour. Larger vessels should anchor outside these patches
in depths from 27 to 29 m (15 to 16 fm).
Soai Soaium Bay
5.78
1
Description Soai Soaium Bay (4°59′N, 118°14′E) in the
N part of Silam Harbour, is 4 cables wide at the entrance
where numerous coral heads encumber it. The head of this
bay is shallow and used as a logging pond. Logging
facilities, including a 10 ton crane stand near the head of
the bay where there is also a conspicuous fuel tank. There
is a jetty with a depth of 1 m alongside.
2
Directions. Follow the directions (5.75) for entering
Silam Harbour to a position SSW of the light-buoy moored
near the NW extremity of Pulau Baik. From this position
the track leads N rounding this buoy, distance about
3 cables, and leads towards Woodhall Reefs, which are
marked by a beacon on the W side, lying 7 cables N of
Pulau Baik.
3
Anchorage exists in depths from 33 to 37 m (18 to
20 fm) in the area N of Pulau Baik Light-buoy and W of
Woodhall Reefs. The NE and NW limits of this area are
marked by beacons.
Small craft
Teluk Giong
4
Description. Teluk Giong (4°58′N, 118°18′E), a large
creek extending 1 miles N is situated 1 mile W of the S
entrance to Trusan Sakar. Pulau Jani lies close within the
entrance and may be passed on either side but the W
channel is the deeper, with a least depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) in
the middle.
Other name
5.79
1
Kissing Hill (4°59′N, 118°15′E).
LUBOK SABANAN AND APPROACHES
General information
Chart 1680
Route
5.80
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the route leads W for about 15 miles to
Lubok Sabanan (4°52′N, 118°10′E).
Topography
5.81
1
The coast between Tanjung Tumunong Hallo (4°56′N,
110°12′E) and Lubok Sabanan trends SSW, is heavily
indented with small bays, fronted by numerous isolated
reefs and fringed with mangroves. Several small isolated
reefs lie about 2 miles offshore extending in a SW chain
from the SW extremity of Pulau Sakar, all of which are
steep-to with deep water channels between them. It is
imprudent to navigate within these hazards. A spit of sand
and mud extends 7 cables NE from Tanjung Batai, a low
mangrove-covered point which is the S entrance to Lubok
Sabanan. The spit is steep-to but should not be approached
closely as the water is muddy. Sungai Tingkayu, too
shallow for boats, enters the sea close S of the point.
Principal marks
5.82
1
Landmarks:
Gunong Skertchley (4°47′N, 118°03′E) (Chart 2576),
broad and flat-topped.
Mount Beeston (4°56′N, 117°55′E) (Chart 2576), a
wooded peak from which extends a spur running
ESE towards the N side of Lubok Sabanan.
Stewart Peaks (4°55′N, 118°06′E) (Chart 2576), lying
7 cables apart about half way along the spur.
Directions
(continued from 5.42)
5.83
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the track leads W for about 15 miles,
passing (with positions from Little Reef (4°51′⋅5N,
118°15′⋅8E)):
2
N of Pulau Tabawan (8 miles SE), showing sharply
from all directionss it is higher than the other
islands in the group and easily identified when
approaching from the E. A deep water bay,
3 cables wide, lies on the SW side of the island
with depths of 24 to 37 m (13 to 20 fm) in its S
part. Thence:
3
N of Pulau Bohayan (4 miles SSE), densely wooded
except for the SW peninsula, its shores are
steep-to, except for an 8⋅8 m (29 ft) shoal close off
the NW extremity of the island. Thence:
4
N of Pulau Maganting (2 miles SSE), with a
well-defined summit is the N-most of the Bohayan
Group and has a steep-to N coast with a sandy
beach in the middle. A small coral reef, awash,
lies 3 cables S of the island. Nichols Reef, a small
coral patch awash, lies 2 miles WSW of Pulau
Maganting. Thence:
N of Little Reef, thence:
5
S of Wanderer Reef (3 miles NNW), which together
with Adams Reef lies 1 mile SW of Pulau Katung
Kalangun (5.41), thence:
S of Kiddle Reefs (4 miles NW), consisting of two
drying reefs in a line NW/SE. Two patches 20 m
CHAPTER 5
148
(11 fm) and 16⋅8 m (55 ft) lie 1 and 1 miles
respectively SSE of Kiddle Reef. Thence:
6
S of Moorhen Reefs (4 miles WNW), a group of
four small reefs lying in the entrance to Lubok
Sabanan.
From this position the track leads WNW into the bay.
Clearing mark
5.84
1
The alignment (297°) of the NE extremity of Pulau
Sabankat (4°33′N, 118°40′E) (5.121) in line with Gunong
Tanna Batu (14 miles NW) clears NE of Bulipatuid Shoal
(4°30′N, 118°47′E).
Anchorage
Lubok Sabanan
5.85
1
Description. Lubok Sabanan (4°52′N, 118°09′E) is
entered between Tanjung Bangkuruan, a small, prominent,
wooded knoll; and Tanjung Batai. The entrance is 2 miles
wide but restricted to less than 1 miles by mudflats and
isolated coral reefs. Six small rivers flow into the bay
which has extensive mudflats fronting its entire coastline. It
is fringed with mangroves.
2
Anchorage. South−west of Tanjung Bangkuran in depths
of 9 to 15 m (30 to 49 ft), mud.
APPROACHES TO KUNAK
General information
Charts 1680, 1686
Route
5.86
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the route leads SW for about 5 miles to a
position NW of the N extremity of Pulau Tabawan (4°49′N,
118°21′E), whence the track leads SSW, as indicated on the
chart.
Topography
5.87
1
The coast NW of Kunak is a low-lying alluvial plain
backed, very closely inland, by a range of mountains and
hills. Numerous braided rivers, including Sungai Matarid
and Sungai Madai, carry the waters away from these
heights. Both the plain and the mountains are heavily
wooded. The shore is fronted by mud flats with patches of
coral.
Principal marks
5.88
1
Landmarks:
Gunong Madai (4°44′N, 118°08′E), is the most
remarkable mountain in the vicinity. The slopes are
densely wooded, but on the summit there are some
low trees. It is of limestone origin with bare cliffs
showing up white in places. The mountain shows a
perfect cone from E but from the N appears as a
sharp peak standing on shoulders of similar
elevation.
2
Gunong Mostyn (4°40′N, 118°09′E).
Cook Hill (4°39′N, 118°16′E).
Gunong Hewett (4°34′N, 118°17′E).
Gunong Sigalong (4°28′N, 118°20′E).
3
Gunong Siagil (4°28′N, 118°26′E), conical, falling
steeply to the plain below on all sides.
Gunong Tanna Batu (4°40′N, 118°27′E), a sharp
conical peak lying close to the centre of Pulau
Timbun Mata.
Directions
(continued from 5.42)
5.89
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the track leads SW for about 5 miles to a
position NW of the NW extremity of Pulau Tabawan (5.83)
from whence it leads SSW, passing (with positions from
Dawson Rock (4°45′N, 118°20′E)):
ESE of Pulau Bohayan (3 miles NNW) (5.92) and:
2
WNW of Pulau Silumpat (3 miles ENE), separated
from Pulau Tabawan by an unobstructed channel
2 cables wide. The well-wooded island is nearly
divided into two parts, having a low isthmus in the
middle, where a fishing village is located. Thence:
3
ESE of Pulau Malundangan (2 miles NW),
separated by a narrow channel from Pulau
Bohayan. The channel is deep but obstructed by a
small reef surmounted by a mole, which dries
1⋅5 m (5 ft). There is a village with a small landing
stage located on the N end of the island. Thence:
4
WNW of Pudsey Reefs (1 mile NE), two isolated
reefs. The N one (4°46′N, 118°21′E), horseshoe
shaped, dries 0⋅3 m (1 ft). The S reef, also drying
0⋅3 m (1 ft), lies 1 miles S, thence:
5
ESE of Pulau Majinkil (2 miles NW), apart from the
summit, is clear of trees and sparsely cultivated.
Pulau Bakubang lies close S and is contiguous
with Pulau Majinkil. Also contiguous with Pulau
Majinkil is a small islet, 10 m (33 ft) high to the
tree-tops, lying on a drying reef 4 cables W of its
W extremity. Thence:
6
WNW of Dawson Rock marked by a beacon (can
topmark, red and white chequers, 5 m in height),
standing on the N side. In 1980 this beacon was
reported missing,.thence:
7
ESE of Normanhurst Reef (2 miles W), a drying,
crescent shaped reef. Sheppard Reef which dries
0⋅6 m (2 ft) is a small pinnacle lying 1 miles W
of Normanhurst Reef. It is marked by a beacon
(spherical topmark, red, white and black bands 5 m
in height).
8
From this position the track continues SSE for about
1 mile to a position ESE of Rashleigh Reefs, coral which
dries 0⋅6 m (2 ft). There are two reefs lying on the same
bank, the E one of which is marked by No 1 Light-beacon
(starboard hand, elevation 7 m). The W reef is marked by a
beacon (can topmark).
Useful mark
5.90
1
Bukit Kunak (4°42′N, 117°14′E) lies 1 mile NW of
Kunak. Its lower slopes have been cleared and are covered
with lalang grass near the coast. A mosque with a
prominent white dome, stands close NE of Bukit Kunak.
There is a fishing village W of the mosque.
(Directions continue for Kunak Harbour at 5.107)
Small craft channel
Sungai Matarid and Sungai Madai
5.91
1
Sungai Matarid and Sungai Madai (4°44′N, 118°12′E)
have a common mouth. An islet 27 m (89 ft) high to the
CHAPTER 5
149
tree-tops, lies 1 miles E of the river mouth. Extensive
reefs front the entrance.
2
A low coastal ridge from 85 to 120 m (279 to 394 ft)
high runs parallel with the coast for 2 miles NNW of the
river mouth.
3
In 1960 Sungai Matarid was found to be tidal and
navigable for a distance of about 1 miles with depths
from 0⋅3 to 4⋅3 m (1 to 14 ft). The river is the easiest
approach to the birds’ nest caves in Gunong Madai. Sungai
Madai appeared to be silting up.
Anchorages and harbours
Pulau Bohayan
5.92
1
General information. The bay (4°47′N, 118°18′E) is
formed by the S coast of Pulau Bohayan and the adjacent
Pulau Malundangan, Pulau Majinkil and Pulau Tanah. It is
a timber loading port for Lahad Datu (5.46). The offices of
of the loading company are sited on the SW peninsula of
Pulau Bohayan.
2
Tidal streams around the Bohayan Group are variable,
but usually negligible except after strong winds, when they
follows the direction of the prevailing wind.
3
Directions. From the position NW of the NW extremity
of Pulau Tabawan (5.89) the track leads SW to a position
ESE of the S extremity of Pulau Malundangan (5.89)
whence the track leads W in mid-channel between Pulau
Malundangan and Pulau Majinkil. When the W extremity
of Pulau Boyahan bears 000° alter on to that line of
bearing and enter the bay.
4
Approaching from the N, pass 4 cables W of the NW
point of Pulau Bohayan from where the track leads SW
between Pulau Bohayan and Pulau Magranting (5.83) and
passes NW of Pulau Tanah (4°47′N, 118°17′E). The island
is covered with trees and scrub. A reef 4 cables long
surmounted by a stone mole, which dries 1⋅5 m (5 ft) lies
between Pulau Tanah and Pulau Bohayan. Lawler Reef
(4°46′⋅7N, 117°14′⋅8E) which dries, is a small steep-to
coral ridge, 1 mile SW of which lies Pulau Tagabua, a
narrow wooded islet lying 2 miles off the mainland.
There are deep but narrow passages either side of the reef.
After rounding the S extremity of Pulau Tanah the track
leads N into the anchorage.
5
Useful marks:
A prominent gabled house on the SW extremity of
Pulau Bohayan.
Transit beacons situated on W extremity of Pulau
Boyahan below the gabled house, exhibiting green
lights.
Transit beacons situated 1 cables E, yellow,
exhibiting red lights.
6
Note: These lights are exhibited when a vessel is
expected or when a vessel lies in the anchorage.
Anchorage. The recommended anchorage is 5 cables S
of the gabled house. It can safely accommodate vessels up
to 8 000 tons.
7
Facilities. A village stands on the N side of the
peninsula where there is a small hospital. A jetty with a
depth of 3 m alongside lies below the gabled house.
8
Communications. There is a daily ferry service to
Lahad Datu and thence to other ports in Sabah.
KUNAK HARBOUR
General information
Charts 1686, 1680
Position
5.93
1
Kunak Harbour (4°41′N, 118°15′E) is situated on the
SW shore of Teluk Darvel.
Function
5.94
1
Kunak port was specially developed for the handling of
bulk palm oil produced on two privately owned estates. It
also serves the hinterland with the loading and unloading of
essential commodities. Its function as a timber handling
port is declining. Timber, tobacco and hemp are exported.
Topography
5.95
1
The coast in the vicinity of Kunak Harbour is low-lying
and indented with numerous small bays. It is densely
wooded though areas have been cleared for cultivation. The
coast is fronted by a coral reef and shoal grounds littered
with small, isolated coral reefs, extend up to 2 miles
offshore to E of Kunak.
Traffic
5.96
1
Approximately 170 000 tonnes of cargo handled
annually.
Port Authority
5.97
1
Sabah Ports Authority, Locked Bag 2005, Tanjung Lipat,
88617 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. The port operates
under the control of the Port Manager at Tawau.
Limiting conditions
Mean tidal levels
5.98
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range about
0⋅4 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.99
1
Vessels up to 28 000 dwt can berth at the palm oil jetty.
Arrival information
Notice of ETA
5.100
1
ETA should be sent 7 days prior to arrival followed by
an update 36 hours in advance. Draft and pilotage
requirements should be included in this message.
Outer anchorage
5.101
1
Anchorage off Rashleigh Reefs (4°44′N, 118°17′E) is
reported as good holding ground.
Pilotage
5.102
1
Vessels are required to call at Lahad Datu to embark and
disembark the pilot. Customs and immigration formalities
will be completed there. Requests for pilot should be made
at least 24 hours in advance through the agent. The pilot
launch will also carry the mooring crew. The pilot may
remain on board throughout the vessels stay in Kunak.
Tugs
5.103
1
Tugs are not available.
CHAPTER 5
150
Harbour
General layout
5.104
1
A coral reef in the harbour area extends up to 7 cables
offshore. On the N extremity of it is situated the palm oil
loading berth, the terminus of a pipeline, extending out
over the coral, from the town of Kunak. At right-angles to
this and extending SE from the town is an old rubble jetty
with timber ponds at its seaward end.
Hazard
5.105
1
There are numerous fish traps, constructed of heavy
logs, in the approaches to Kunak.
Principal marks
5.106
1
Landmarks:
Mount Wullerstorf (4°28′N, 118°09′E), with a conical
summit, slopes steeply E to the plains below, but a
range of mountains from 645 to 512 m (2116 to
1680 ft) high, the latter elevation being a
remarkable cone, stretches 5 miles NNW of
Mount Wullerstorf.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.89)
Caution
5.107
1
The edges of the reefs are usually clearly visible,
particularly if polaroid glasses are worn, but there are
certain conditions in which they do not show.
A number of these reefs are marked with beacons
(conical topmarks, black and white chequers or cylindrical
topmarks, red and white bands) in accordance with IALA
system A.
In 1980 it was reported that the beacons on East Greep
Reefs were destroyed.
Berthing starboard side to palm oil jetty
5.108
1
From the position ESE of Rashleigh Reefs, the track
leads WSW passing 2 cables off Rashleigh Reef and West
Rashleigh Reef to a position NW of North Greep Reef
No 2 Light-beacon (red pile elevation 5 m). From this
position the track leads SSW passing not less than 2 cables
NW of Greep Reef. When No 4 Light-beacon (red pile,
elevation 5 m), standing on the SW extremity of Greep
Reef bears not more than 130° the track leads S passing in
mid-channel between two shoals with depths of 9 and
10⋅3 m (30 and 34 ft) respectively. No 3 Beacon, marking
the coastline reef 2 cables W of the berth should be almost
right ahead and when 1 cables N of it steer towards the
berth.
Berthing port side to palm oil jetty
5.109
1
From the position ESE of Rashleigh Reefs the track
leads along a line of bearing of 210° from Mount
Wullerstorf (5.106) as shown on the chart. When in a
position in mid-channel between Merrett Reefs, a group of
seven detached reefs lying on shoal ground contiguous with
the mainland, and Lloyd Reefs, a group of four small
detached reefs lying 1 mile NE of Kunak marked by No 9
Light-beacon, follow a W track passing in mid-channel
between Lloyd Reef and Budge Reef which is marked by
No 7 Beacon (can topmark, red and white chequers). From
this position follow a NW track to clear No 5 Beacon
standing 1 cables E of the berth and proceed towards the
berth.
Kunak old jetty
5.110
1
From the position ESE of Rashleigh Reefs the track
leads along a line of bearing of 210° from Mount
Wullerstorf (5.106) as shown on the chart. From the
position in mid-channel between Merret Reefs and Lloyd
Reefs the track leads SW passing:
2
NW of Michael Shoal, with a depth of 1⋅2 m (4 ft)
over it, lying 1 mile SE of Lloyd Reef, thence:
NW of Batt Reef, a small isolated coral head,
steep-to on its NW side, lying 8 cables SSE of
Lloyd Reef, thence:
NW of Collins Reef, two coral heads lying on an
isolated and steep-to shoal, 1 mile S of Lloyd
Reef. Collins Reef is marked by a beacon. Thence:
SE of James Reef, a group of detached reefs, marked
by beacons and divided into two groups by a
narrow channel.
3
From this position the track leads generally NW towards
the berth.
Directions for leaving harbour
Departure from palm oil jetty
5.111
1
From a position N of the berth the track leads ENE
passing in mid-channel between Greep Reef and Lloyd
Reef from whence it leads to a position NW of McKinlay
Reef. McKinlay Reef (4°43′N, 118°19′E) has drying
patches of coral at its NE end off which lies a detached,
rocky pinnacle, awash; and drying patches of sand at its
SW end. A beacon (can topmark, red and white chequers)
marks the SW extremity. From this position the directions
given in 5.89 can be followed in reverse.
Berths
Palm oil jetty
5.112
1
The bulk palm oil loading berth consists of a raised
concrete loading platform, 9 m
2
, standing on the edge of
the reef and at the extremity of a steel approach jetty
120 m long and 3 m wide, which is connected to a coral
bund 730 m in length and 7 m wide, the whole
surmounting the coral reef NNE of Kunak. Palm oil is
loaded at the rate of about 200 tons per hour.
2
A concrete mooring dolphin stands 107 m either side of
the loading platform. Three rubber fendered mooring piles
stand 6 m off the platform, 38 m apart in line bearing 266°.
There is a least depth of 10⋅7 m alongside these piles.
Kunak old jetty
5.113
1
This rubble built jetty is 315 m in length and there is a
depth of 3⋅7 m alongside. A prominent timber derrick
stands on a spur on the S side of the jetty for servicing the
timber ponds S and E of it.
Port services
Other facilities
5.114
1
Small slipway is situated on the N side of Kunak old
jetty; hospital in Kunak.
Communications
5.115
1
Private airstrip at Mostyn, 8 miles SW of Kunak.
CHAPTER 5
151
TELUK DARVEL − SOUTH SIDE
General information
Charts 1680, 1681
Route
5.116
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the track leads SE then S between the
reefs to a position about 2 miles WSW of Pulau Sabangkat
(4°34′N, 118°40′E) in the N approaches to Semporna
(4°29′N, 118°37′E).
Topography
5.117
1
The SW and S sides of Teluk Darvel are hilly and
densely wooded. Peaks reaching heights of up to 690 m
(2265 ft) rise within 5 miles of the coast. Numerous rivers
flow from the entire length of the coastline causing heavy
silting in Trusan Sigalong between Pulau Timbun Mata and
the mainland but only minor problems elsewhere. Pulau
Timbun Mata is a large island, densely wooded and
mountainous. It rises from a low W point to Mount Tanna
Batu, near its centre. The N coast of Pulau Timbun Mata
should not be approached within a depth of 40 m (22 fm)
as the bays which indent this coast are encumbered with
reefs and the approaches are foul. Islets, rocks and coral
reefs lie along the entire Sabah coastline between it and the
islands extending up to 11 miles off-shore. The E extremity
of the S coast is littered with many large coral reefs with
deep water channels between them.
Natural conditions
5.118
1
Tidal streams. in Teluk Darvel set S and W with the
in-going stream and N and E with the out-going stream.
These directions are modified by the trend of the land and
reefs in particular localities.
Along the S shore the in-going stream sets W and the
out-going E and NE; the rate is not very great.
2
The streams appear to turn approximately at the times of
HW and LW by the shore.
Tidal streams in the area of Pulau Sibuan were found to
be strong.
3
Magnetic anomaly. A local magnetic anomaly with
variations of up to 20° was experienced by HMS Brighton
while anchored 3 cables W of Pulau Sibuan (5.120).
Principal marks
5.119
1
Landmarks:
Gunong Tanna Batu (4°40′N, 118°27′E) (5.88).
Gunong Sigalong (4°28′N, 118°20′E) (5.88).
Mount Connor (4°24′N, 118°35′E), an extinct volcano
with ridges extending SSW and WNW.
Directions
(continued from 5.42)
Armstrong Reef to Pulau Tatagan Tatagan
5.120
1
From the position S of Armstrong Reef (4°56′N,
118°26′E) (5.42) the track leads SE for about 15 miles,
passing (with positions from Pulau Adal (4°45′N,
118°31′E)):
2
NE of Pulau Tabawan (8 miles WNW) (5.83),
thence:
NE of Learmonth Reef (6 miles W), which dries
0⋅3 m (1 ft) and usually shows up clearly. A
beacon (spherical topmark, red and white bands)
stands near the NW extremity of the reef. Thence:
NE of Pulau Bankawan (2 miles WNW), Pulau
Gatahan, and Pulau Bakungan, are three wooded
islets lying on reefs which are nearly joined in a
bow shape. Thence:
3
NE of Pulau Batik (4 miles SW), and densely
wooded, separated from the N extremity of Pulau
Timbun Mata, by a channel 2 cables wide, with a
depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) in the middle, thence:
4
NE of Pulau Adal, prominent, conical and wooded. A
shoal with a depth of 11⋅9 m (39 ft) over it, lies
1 miles N of Pulau Adal. Thence:
NE of Pulau Balusuan (4 miles SSE), with a
grassed, treeless summit, lying 1 miles off the
NE coast of Pulau Timbun Mata. No attempt
should be made to pass S of Pulau Balusuan.
5
The track then continues SE for 1 mile to a position NE
of Pulau Tatagan Tatagan (5 miles SSE), lying on a
coastal reef contiguous with Pulau Timbun Mata.
(Directions continue for a route N of Pulau Gaya at 5.129)
Pulau Tatagan Tatagan to Pulau Sabangkat
5.121
From the position 1 mile NE of Pulau Tatagan Tatagan
the track leads SSE for a distance of about 10 miles,
passing (with positions from Mount Sirongol (4°38′N,
118°35′E)):
1
WSW of Church Reef (5 miles ENE), awash, almost
circular, isolated reef steep-to on all sides, thence:
WSW of Pulau Sibuan (4 miles E), lying on the S
end of a detached reef which is steep-to on all
sides. Two prominent trees, 30 m (98 ft) high,
grow close together in the centre of the island. In
1963 HMS Brighton (5.118) anchored 3 cables W
of Pulau Sibuan in a depth of 58 m (190 ft).
Thence:
2
ENE of Tanjung Sirongol, the E extremity of Pulau
Timbun Mata, lying at the foot of Mount Sirongol.
The headland is surrounded by a semi-circle of
detached coral reefs, steep-to on the E side. A
shoal with a depth of 5⋅9 m (19 ft) over it, lies
1 miles S of Tanjung Sirongol.
3
From this position the track continues SSE passing about
1 mile W of an extensive reef (5 miles SE) steep-to with
several isolated reefs close to and contiguous with the NW
extremity. A central bow-shaped lagoon is littered with
coral heads. Thence the track passes:
4
ENE of Pulau Larapan (4 miles SSE), with a village
stnading on the W side. In 1997 No 17
Light-beacon (red can topmark) was established on
the S extremity of the reef surrounding Pulau
Larapan.
The track then leads to a position about 2 miles WSW
of Pulau Sabangkat (6 miles SE), lying on the SW
extremity of an extensive reef on the E side of the channel.
(Directions continue for Trusan Tando Bulong
at 5.154 and for Ligitan Channel at 5.143)
Small craft channels
Trusan Sigalong
5.122
1
Description. Trusan Sigalong (4°37′N, 118°26′E)
separates Pulau Timbun Mata from the mainland of Sabah.
The coast on both sides of the channel is deeply indented
and fringed with mangroves. It is both narrow and tortuous.
CHAPTER 5
152
Its least width is 6 cables. There is a least depth of 2⋅1 m
(7 ft) in the channel but dangerous shallows can be found
throughout its length. Brai Hill (4°36′N, 118°25′E), is a
remarkable pyramidal-shaped mountain, rising on the E side
of the entrance to Sungai Sipit which, together with Sungai
Pagagau, flows into Trusan Sigalong draining the land E of
Mount Hewett. In 1891 a survey showed Sungai Sipit to be
navigable only by canoes.
2
Pulau Selangan, wooded, lies in the middle of the E
entrance to Trusan Sigalong, the deeper channel passing N
of it. Pulau Puno Puno lies 1 mile NNW of Pulau
Selangan.
Local knowledge is required.
3
West approaches. The coastwise channel via Trusan
Sigalong and between the various reefs E of Kunak are
recommended only for small craft. Merret Reefs (4°42′N,
118°18′E), Paul Reefs and Margetts Reef should all be
given very wide berths. Numerous reefs including Janet
Reef, Richard Shoal, Nicola Shoal, Michael Shoal, Batt
Reef (5.110), Hiller Reef and Collins Reef all lie SW of
Merret Reefs and should, likewise, be avoided.
4
East approaches. From a position ENE of Tanjung
Sirongol (5.120) the track leads S towards Pulau Larapan
until Pulau Selangan, is in line with a small islet, 21 m
(69 ft) high, lying 7 cables SSW of Tanjung Timban Mata
on a bearing of 252°. This line of bearing leads through
the fairway into the E reaches of Truson Sigalong.
5
From a position E of Tanjung Timbun Mata the track
leads SW, passing (with positions from Tanjung Timbun
Mata (4°35′N, 118°33′E):
NW of Pulau Silawa (1 miles SE), a small islet
separated from the NE extremity of Pulau Bait by
a narrow passage, and:
SE of Tanjung Timbun Mata, the SE extremity of that
island which is a mountain spur bordered with
trees at the water’s edge and with a few trees on
the upper slopes. Thence:
6
In mid-channel between the small islet 7 cables SSW
of Tanjung Timbun Mata and Pulau Bait. This
small islet lies on the E extremity of a long
narrow reef in the middle of which lies Pulau
Mata Pahi. Two small islets lie W of Pulau Mata
Pahi, but on the same reef. Pulau Bait is
flat-topped and wooded, with a single prominent
hill, 91 m (299 ft) high, at its W end.
7
The track then leads WNW through the fairway in
Trusan Sigalong, passing between Pulau Selangan and
Pulau Mata Pahi. Alternatively vessels may continue SW
towards the N entrance of Sungai Pegagu (4°33′N,
118°31′E).
Sungai Pegagau
5.123
1
Description. Sungai Pegagau (4°30′N, 118°29′E) flows
into the SE part of Trusan Sigalong 3 miles SW of the SW
extremity of Pulau Bait; the river drains the country E of
Gunong Siagil. Pulau Papahag, heavily wooded, lies in the
estuary of Sungai Pagagau forming the main channel to the
E and a lesser stream to the W.
2
The river entrance E of Pulau Papabag is nearly 1 mile
wide with a least depth in the fairway of 6⋅4 m (21 ft). A
rock, with a depth of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it, lies 5 cables SW
of Pulau Bait, and may be avoided by rounding the SW
point of that island at a distance of 2 cables. Depths of 7 m
(23 ft) exist for some distance within. In 1891, boats from
HM Surveying Ship Egeria ascended the river for a
distance of about 5 miles. Apart from a sounding of 1 m
(3 ft) over the bar, no other snags or obstructions were
found. Both banks were bordered with nipa palms.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorages and harbours
Pulau Batik Kulambu
5.124
1
Description. Pulau Batik Kulambu (4°42′N, 118°24′E),
lies close off the NW side of Pulau Timbun Mata. It is
densely wooded and steep-to. A small islet lies between
these two islands. A channel between it and Pulau Batik
Kulambu is encumbered with reefs but the S channel, about
1 cable wide, is suitable for small craft. Hambly Reef
(4°41′N, 118°22′E) is the SW extremity of the deep water
bay formed by Pulau Batik Kulambu and the NW coast of
Pulau Timbun Mata. A small distinctive islet 64 m (210 ft)
high to the tree-tops, lies 1 mile S of Hambly Reef and,
midway between it and Merrett Reefs, encumbering the W
approach to Trusan Sigalong lie Walton and Gregson reefs,
the former awash, the latter a drying pinnacle. The channel
between Hambly Reef and Pulau Batik Kulambu, leads to
the anchorage and is 9 cables wide.
2
Anchorage exists in the bay in depths of more than
37 m (121 ft), mud, NW of a patch of coral with a depth
of 15⋅5 m (51 ft) over it, lying in the middle of the bay.
Tanjung Timbun Mata
5.125
1
Description. The bay W of Tanjung Timbun Mata
(4°35′N, 118°33′E) is encumbered with reefs, but depths of
between 1 and 2 m (3 and 6 ft) have been found in the
fairway, 8 cables WNW of the S extremity of Tanjung
Timbun Mata.
2
Anchorage, out of the tidal streams, which has not been
closely examined, exists with the S extremity of Tanjung
Timbun Mata bearing 080°, distant 5 cables, in depths of
11 to 13 m (36 to 43 ft).
3
Anchorage with Tanjung Timbun Mata bearing 267°,
distant 5 cables was found, in 1892, by HM Surveying Ship
Egeria in a depth of 22 m (72 ft), mud.
ROUTE NORTH OF PULAU GAYA
General information
Chart 1680
Route
5.126
1
From a position 3 miles NE of Pulau Tetagan
(4°39′⋅8N, 118°32′⋅4E) the route leads ESE for about
21 miles to a position NNE of Pulau Mataking (4°35′N,
118°57′E).
Principal marks
5.127
Landmark:
Radio mast (elevation 353m (1158 ft)) standing on the
S part of Pulau Bohaydulong.
1
Major light:
Pulau Mataking Light (white metal framework tower,
24 m in height) (4°35′N, 118°57′E).
CHAPTER 5
153
Other navigational aid
5.128
1
Racon:
Pulau Mataking (4°35′N, 118°57′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.120)
5.129
1
From a position 3 miles NE of Pulau Tatagan Tatagan
(4°40′N, 118°32′E) the track leads ESE to a position NNE
of Pulau Mataking, passing (with positions from Pulau
Mantabuan (4°38′N, 118°47′E)):
NNE of Church Reef (9 miles WNW) (5.121), and
NNE of Pulau Sibuan (8 miles W) (5.121), thence:
NNE of Pulau Maiga (6 miles WSW), which lies on
the SW edge of a detached reef lying in the
channel between Pulau Gaya Reef and the
extensive reef W of it, thence:
2
SSW of Richards Reef (6 miles NW), consisting of
a group of reefs, large parts of which dry, thence:
NNE of Pulau Gaya (2 miles SW), with two slightly
lower peaks close to it presenting a remarkable
outline, especially when seen from N and E.
Another prominent peak 388 m (1273 ft) high,
stands on the E part of Pulau Gaya. The land
between being low causes Pulau Gaya to appear as
two islands from some directions. Thence:
3
SSW of Fremantle Shoal (6 miles NNW), thence:
NNE of Pulau Mantabuan, lies on the S end of a
detached reef. A shoal with a depth of 8⋅2 m
(27 ft) over it, lies 1 mile SE of Pulau Mantabuan.
Thence:
NNE of a reef (1 miles E) that dries 1⋅5 m (5 ft),
thence:
4
NNE of Pulau Pom Pom (5 miles SE), thence:
NNE of Pulau Kapale (8 miles SE), lying on a
shoal spit. An islet with a few bushes on it lies on
the same reef close N of Pulau Kapale.
5
The track then leads to a position NNE of Pulau
Mataking Kechil (9 miles E). A narrow drying ridge of
sand connects Pulau Mataking Kechil to Pulau Mataking
(5.141).
(Directions continue for Alice Channel at 5.136)
Anchorage
Pulau Tetagan
5.130
1
Description. Pulau Tetagan (4°36′N, 118°43′E), partly
cleared at its summit, lies close S of the SW extremity of
Pulau Gaya. There is a village at its N end.
A lagoon full of shoal patches, lies in the reef extending
from the NW side of Pulau Gaya. The lagoon on the S
side of Pulau Gaya is fairly clear in the middle, with
depths from 13 to 29 m (43 ft to 16 fm). The entrance S of
Pulau Tetagan is less than 1 cable wide, with a depth of
6⋅4 m (21 ft) in it. In 1986 less water was reported in the
entrance to the lagoon.
2
Anchorages. There is anchorage in a depth of 18 m
(59 ft), sand, out of the tidal streams, E of the village.
Anchorage may also be had outside the lagoon, with Pulau
Tetagan bearing 036°, distant 5 cables, in a depth of 18 m
(59 ft), but the tidal streams run strongly.
ALICE CHANNEL
General information
Charts 928, 1681
Route
5.131
1
From a position SSE of Tanjung Tungku (5°00′N,
118°52′E) the track leads SSE through Alice Channel, for a
distance of about 42 miles, to a position SE of Pulau
Ligitan (4°10′N, 118°53′E).
Description
5.132
1
Alice Channel is wide and deep. The boundary between
the Republic of the Philippines and East Malaysia passes
through this channel.
Tidal streams
5.133
1
Tidal streams in Alice Channel are strong, especially in
the N part where rates of 2 to 2 kn have been recorded.
The flood sets S and W, the ebb N and E. In the S part of
Alice Channel the tidal streams cause heavy overfalls and
whirls. Caution is necessary in approaching the S end of
Ligitan Reef as fixing marks are distant. Foul ground and
shallow water extend W for about 2 miles from the SW
extremity of the reef over which the sea does not generally
break. The area should be given a wide berth.
Principal marks
5.134
1
Landmarks:
Hood Hill (4°26′N, 118°37′E) (5.153).
Mount Connor (4°24′N, 118°35′E) (5.119).
2
Major lights:
Pulau Mataking Light (5.127).
Si Amil Light (white metal framework tower, red
bands, 11 m in height but with an elevation of
107 m) (4°19′N, 118°53′E).
Other navigational aid
5.135
1
Racon:
Pulau Mataking (4°35′N, 118°57′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.34)
5.136
1
From a position SSE of Tanjung Tungku (5°00′N,
118°52′E) the track leads SSE through Alice Channel,
passing (with positions from Pulau Boheian (4°28′N,
118°56′E)):
WSW of Panguan Island (15 miles NNE) which
fronts the W side of Alice Reef (5.137), thence:
2
ENE of Pulau Mataking (6 miles NNE) (5.141),
thence:
ENE of Pulau Timba Timba (5 miles N), with a bank
drying 0⋅9 m (3 ft), on its S side. Pulau Timba
Timba lies on a reef extending 7 miles S.
Thence:
ENE of Boheian Island, lies near the S end of the
same extensive reef upon which lies Pulau Timba
Timba. A shoal with a depth of 11⋅3 m (37 ft) over
lies 8 miles ENE of Pulau Boheian. Thence:
3
ENE of Pulau Si Amil (10 miles SSW) (5.141),
densely wooded, the NE-most island of the Ligitan
Group. A sandy spit extends from its W side and a
reef, marked by a beacon (black and white;
CHAPTER 5
154
diamond-shaped topmark), on its outer edge,
extends 2 cables W from the NE extremity, leaving
a passage 2 cables wide between it and the reef
extending from Pulau Danawan close SW. A bank
with depths of less than 9 m (30 ft) over it follows
the edge of the reef extending SSE from Pulau Si
Amil. Seas break heavily over this bank along
which tide-rips and heavy overfalls occur. The
water in the vicinity is considerably discoloured
and, as the edge has not been fully examined, it
should not be approached.
4
From this position the track continues SSE to a position
SE of Pulau Ligitan (18 miles S), covered with bushes
and scrub. A light (white metal framework tower, red
bands, 10 m in height) is exhibited from Ligitan Reef.
(Directions continue for Teluk Sibuko at 5.176)
Dangers between Alice Channel
and Meridian Reef
Description
5.137
1
Purdie Patches lying on the W side of the N entrance to
Meridian Channel (4°51′N, 119°15′E) consist of a series of
small detached sand and coral banks, with depths of 14⋅6
to 16⋅5 m (48 to 54 ft) over them. Chambers Knoll, coral,
lies 2 miles SW of Purdie Patches. Farther SE and
marking the NE side of the entrance to Alice Channel is
Alice Reef, steep-to except on its N end. Panguan Island
(4°42′N, 119°02′E), wooded, lies 1 mile W of the S
extremity of Alice Reef and is the W-most of these
dangers. Bajapa Reef, which lies SSE of Alice Reef,
encloses a lagoon. The reef dries in patches. A coral and
sand shoal with a depth of 11⋅4 m (37 ft) over it, lies
5 miles S of Bajapa Reef.
2
Between these reefs and Meridian Reef lie a number of
islets, isolated reefs and patches including Blake Reef
(4°44′N, 119°13′E), 1 miles E of which lies Maranas
Island. Siluag Island, flat topped, lies 4 miles W of Blake
Reef. A patch with a depth of 13⋅7 m (45 ft) over it, lies
1 miles NNE of Siluag Island. Bulu Bulu Island has a
coral patch with a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, lying
7 cables N. The islands mentioned in this paragraph are all
planted with coconut palms.
3
Riddells Reef (4°37′N, 119°09′E), 3 miles in length
has two drying sand cays at its S end. A coral shoal, with
a depth of 5 m (16 ft) over it lies 1 miles N of the N
extremity of Riddells Reef. Payne Rock, awash, lies in the
middle of a narrow shoal of sand and coral, 4 miles SE
of Riddells Reef. James Patch lies 3 miles S of Payne
Rock and another patch with a depth of 14⋅6 m (48 ft) over
it, lies 2 miles SSW of Payne Rock.
4
Cautions. The S edge of the bank on which all these
dangers lie falls steeply to great depths and is clearly
marked by tide-rips and overfalls, which give the
appearance of shoal waters. Attention is drawn to the
incompletely surveyed area (charted) S of a line joining
Bajapa Reef, Bulu Bulu Island and Saluag Island.
5
Directions. The channel W of a line joining Blake Reef,
Bulu Bulu Island and Payne Rock and E of Riddells Reef
is 2 miles wide at its narrowest part. This channel is the
more direct route through these reefs. The tidal streams
here do not attain the same strength as in the channels W.
The channel W of Silaug Island and Riddells Reef and E
of Bajapa Reef has a least width of 1 miles. Siluag Island
can be passed on either side. The tidal streams run at a
considerable rate in this channel, and they should be well
considered before using this route. These two channels are
too deep for anchoring.
6
Anchorages. Excellent anchorage exists on the W side
of Meridian Reef, in depths of 15 to 27 m (49 ft to 15 fm)
for a distance of 1 miles from the reef. The E side of the
reef is steep-to.
Anchorage can be had E of Bulu Bulu Island in depths
of 24 to 31 m (13 to 17 fm), sand.
There is convenient anchorage in every part of the
channel W of Meridian Reef and Frances Reef, and E of
Blake Reef, Payne Rock and James Patch.
INSHORE ROUTES NORTH, EAST,
AND SOUTH OF PULAU BUM BUM
General information
Charts 1680, 1681, 2576
Route
5.138
1
From a position 2 miles WSW of Pulau SabankatLarapan
(4°34′N, 118°40′E) the track leads E then SE for a distance
of about 13 miles to a position 4 miles E of Tanjung Panto
Panto (4°27′N, 118°45′E), the E extremity of Pulau Bum
Bum, whence the track leads S then E via the Ligitan
Channel for a distance of about 24 miles to a position
1 mile S of Pulau Gusungan (4°19′N, 118°33′E).
Topography
5.139
1
The SE part of Teluk Darvel and the area E of Pulau
Bum Bum are heavily encumbered with numerous reefs,
some of them quite large and most steep-to with deep
water passages between them. The islands are mostly small
and wooded. The Ligitan Group of reefs and islets extends
over a distance of 17 miles in an E/W direction. An
extensive reef, which dries 0⋅3 to 0⋅6 m (1 to 2 ft) in
patches on its S side, lies on the E side of the group.
Tidal streams
5.140
Tidal streams in Ligitan Channel run at a rate of about
1 kn during springs.
Principal marks
5.141
1
Landmarks:
Hood Hill (4°26′N, 118°37′E) (5.153).
Mount Connor (4°24′N, 118°35′E) (5.119).
2
Major lights:
Pulau Mataking Light (4°35′N, 118°57′E) (5.127).
Si Amil Light (4°19′N, 118°53′E) (5.134)
Other navigational aids
5.142
1
Racons:
Pulau Mataking (4°35′N, 118°57′E).
Pulau Sipadan (4°07′N, 118°38′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.121)
Pulau Sabangkat to Ligitan Reefs
5.143
1
From a position in the channel WSW of Pulau
Sabangkat (4°34′N, 118°40′E) the track leads E then ESE
to a position E of Pulau Bum Bum, passing (with positions
from Pulau Sisipan (4°29′N, 118°41′E)):
S of Pulau Sabangkat (4 miles NNW) (5.121),
thence:
CHAPTER 5
155
2
S of Pulau Selakan (5 miles N), lies close to the SE
extremity of the same reef, thence:
N of Pulau Sisipan, a small islet lying in the middle
of the reef extending along the N coast of Pulau
Bum Bum, thence:
3
N of Pasalet Reef (2 miles NE), awash. It is
separated from the reef N of Pulau Bum Bum by a
deep channel 7 cables in width.
4
From this position the track continues E for about
2 miles to a position W of the NW extremity of Baturua
Reef from whence the track leads SE, passing (with
positions from Tanjung Panto Panto (4°27′N, 118°45′E)):
Between Baturua Reef (5 miles NE), which dries in
patches and Bulipatuid Shoal 2 miles SW. This
shoal should not be crossed as there may be less
water than indicated on the chart. Tidal streams
run very strongly around Baturua Reef, and care is
necessary in rounding it. Pulau Puan, a flat-topped,
wooded island, lies on an extensive reef E of
Baturua Reef. The channel between them is deep
but only about 6 cables wide.
5
From a position E of Bulipatuid Shoal the track leads S,
passing:
E of Tanjung Panto Panto, the SE limit of Teluk
Darvel which slopes gently from the flat top of the
island to the surrounding coral reef extending
1 miles E from Tanjung Panto Panto. The area is
heavily wooded with mangrove. A bow-shaped
island lies on the reef NW of the point. Thence:
6
E of Pulau Omadal (2 miles SSE) lies on the NE
extremity of Beaufort Reef, sand and coral drying
in patches. Two shoals with depths of 5⋅5 and
6⋅4 m (18 and 21 ft) over them lie respectively
2 miles E and 1 miles SE of Pulau Omadal.
Thence:
W of Webb Shoal (8 miles ESE) has not been closely
examined and therefore should not be crossed.
7
From this position the track leads SSW for about 4 miles
passing between two shoals with depths of 11 and 16⋅5 m
(36 ft and 54 ft) over them lying 4 and 5 miles NE of
Pulau Si Amil (5.136). The track then leads WSW into the
Ligitan Channel.
5.144
1
Clearing mark. The alignment (297°) of the NE
extremity of Pulau Sabankat (4°33′N, 118°40′E) (5.121)
with Gunong Tanna Batu, 14 miles NW, clears NE of
Bulipatuid Shoal.
Ligitan Channel
5.145
1
Note: Ligitan Channel, between Beaufort Reef and
Creach reef on the N, and Ligitan Group on the S, is
1 miles wide at its W entrance. There are patches with
depths of 11 to 18 m (36 to 60 ft) over them, in the E part
of the channel and, except for Collins Patch, no known
dangers exist in Ligitan Channel. Depths are very uneven
N and NW of Mabul Island and shallower parts of the
banks should be avoided.
2
Caution. Mariners should proceed with caution within
the area as depths may be significantly shallower than
charted.
3
Entering the Ligitan Channel the track leads WSW
passing (with positions from Mabul Island (4°15′N,
118°38′E)):
SSE of a shoal (11 miles ENE), reported in 1960,
thence:
NNW of Cust Reef (6 miles E), awash, lying on the
S side of the Ligitan Channel. The N side of Cust
Reef is foul and should not be approached within
depths of less than 18 m (60 ft). A light-beacon
(port hand, 5 m in height), stands on the N side of
the N reef. A larger reef lies close SE of Cust
Reef, separated from it by a narrow channel. The
edges of this reef have not been closely examined,
but all sides appear to be foul to a distance of
5 cables. The channel E of this reef is 2 miles
wide, but although no detached patches were
found, the survey of this portion of the Ligitan
Group was insufficient to justify entry into this
channel and other passages between the reefs.
Thence:
Clear of a shoal (4 miles NNE), reported in 1960,
with a depth of 14⋅6 m (48 ft) over it, thence:
4
NNW of Pulau Kapalai (3 miles SE), sandy with
bushes and scrub, lying on the NE part of a
detached reef which dries 1 m (3 ft). The passage
between Pulau Kapalai and the foul ground SE is
1 miles wide but is obstructed by a patch with a
depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it. It is probable that
other patches with less depths over them may exist
in this channel. A shoal with a depth of 14⋅6 m
(48 ft) over it, lies 1 miles NNW of Pulau
Kapalai. Thence:
SSE of Creach Reef (5 miles N), thence:
5
NNW of Mabul Island, densely wooded, lying at the
N end of Mabul Reef. It is the W-most island of
the Ligitan Group. Thence:
6
NNW of Collins Patch (1 miles NW). Another
patch with a depth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it, lies
7 cables NW of Pulau Mabul. The banks on which
these patches lie should not be crossed unless there
is some necessity for doing so, as depths over
them are uneven, and shallower spots may exist
despite the area having been closely examined.
7
From this position the track continues WSW for a
distance of about 3 miles to a position about 1 mile SSE of
Pulau Gusungan Light-beacon (5.157).
(Directions continue for inshore route
to Cowie Harbour at 5.177)
Side channels
Silipag Passage
5.146
1
Description. Silipag Passage (4°23′N, 118°42′E) is a
channel between Pulau Bum Bum, Creach Reef and
Beaufort Reef. It is entered between Tanjung Panto Panto
and Pulau Omadal and flows out into Ligitan Channel. The
least depth in the channel is 14⋅5 m (48 ft) and the bottom
is sand. Throughout its length Silipag Passage is clear of
obstructions except for a drying rock lying midway along
the E side of Creach Reef and close to it. The bay between
Tanjung Panto Panto and the SW point of Pulau Bum Bum
has depths of 1⋅8 to 3⋅7 m (6 to 12 ft) but is fouled by
numerous coral patches. There is a village on the NW
extremity of Pulau Omadal close W of which is an access
for canoes through an opening in the reef. It was reported
in 1992 that a buoy is moored close off the SE edge of the
reef.
2
Anchorage. In 1886, HMS Satellite (1420 tons)
anchored in Silipag Passage, 1 cables N of the village on
Pulau Omadal. The holding ground was good but tidal
streams run at considerable rates in springs.
CHAPTER 5
156
Mabul Passage
5.147
1
Description. Mabul Passage, W of Mabul Island
(4°15′N, 118°38′E), is the channel between Ligitan Group
on the E, and Ligitan Reefs on the W. It is 3 miles wide,
but obstructed in the middle by a shoal with a depth of
6 m (19 ft) over it. The deepest part of the passage lies E
of this shoal in depths from 13 to 15 m (42 to 49 ft) right
through.
2
Directions. The alignment (356°) of the W extremity of
Pulau Sipangau (4°22′N, 118°36′E) in line with Mount
Sirongol (Chart 1680), 15 miles N, leads through Mabul
Passage.
Anchorage
Pulau Danawan
5.148
1
Description Pulau Danawan (4°18′N, 118°52′E), is
wooded and flat-topped. A cliff 17 m (56 ft) high is
situated on the E point of the island, below which the
island can be approached, where the fringing reef is
narrowest. The village, however, stands on the W side of
the island.
2
Anchorage can be had on the E side of the island,
1 cables offshore, in a depth of 29 m (16 fm), protected
by Pulau Si Amil.
TRUSAN TANDO BULONG
General information
Charts 1680, 1681
Route
5.149
1
From a position about 2 miles WSW of Pulau Sabangkat
(4°34′N, 118°40′E) the route leads SSW into Trusan Tando
Bulong, thence SSE and SW through Trusan Tando Bulong
to a position NW of Pulau Gusungan (4°19′N, 118°33′E).
Topography
5.150
1
Trusan Tando Bulong, between Pulau Bum Bum and
Creach Reef on the E and the coast of Borneo, has a least
navigable width of 3 cables. The edges of the reefs on
either side are occasionally difficult to discern especially S
of Hood Hill. Numerous islets and inlets exist on both
sides of the channel. All the islets lie inside the fringing
reefs. The inlets are much encumbered with coral. On the
W side of the N entrance the land is flat and low-lying but
hills rise steeply from the W shore to an extensive
mountain range. The W shore of Pulau Bum Bum, known
as Kubong, consists of upraised coral rising steeply to a
flat top. The SE shore of Trusan Tando Bulong is edged by
Creach Reef, an extensive flat of sand and coral which
dries in patches, extending 7 miles SW from the SW
extremity of Pulau Bum Bum.
Depths
5.151
1
Depths between 20 and 37 m (11 and 20 fm) exist in the
navigable channel throughout Trusan Tando Bulong,
although there are lesser charted depths of 11 to 14⋅6 m (36
to 48 ft) in the SW part.
Tidal streams
5.152
1
Tidal streams in Trusan Tando Bulong set N and S at
rates of about 3 to 4 kn at springs. They are strongest in
the N part of the channel W of Pulau Bum Bum. In
September 1967, rates of only 1 kn were observed during
springs in two mid-stream positions, one E of Semporna
and the other N of Tanjung Emparan Kajang.
Principal marks
5.153
1
Landmarks:
Lok Bakong Hill (4°26′N, 118°36′E), remarkably
conical in shape.
Hood Hill (4°26′N, 118°37′E), the E-most summit of
the range.
Mount Connor (4°24′N, 118°35′E) (5.119).
Directions
(continued from 5.121)
Note
5.154
1
Trusan Tando Bulong and its N approach are marked by
light-beacons or unlit beacons as indicated on the chart,
moored close to the edges of the reefs. Those on the W
side (red, red can topmarks), those on the E side (green,
green cone topmarks, apex upwards).
2
Fishing stakes, small and frequently moved, are useful in
discerning the reefs but do not always extend to the very
edge.
3
The only known dangers close outside the reefs on
either side of the S part of Trusan Tando Bulong, are two
small coral patches on the E side, one is NW of Pulau
Sipangao and the other W of the S end of Pulau
Nusatonga.
North approach to Semporna
5.155
1
From a position about 2 miles WSW of Pulau Sabangkat
(4°34′N, 118°40′E) the track leads SW for 2 miles to No
15 Light-beacon (two black spheres in a vertical line on a
black beacon, red band) standing on the E side of a patch,
with a depth of 5⋅2 m (17 ft) over it, lying in the N
entrance to Trusan Tando Bulong.
2
Thence the track leads into Trusan Tando Bulong, a
distance of approximately 17 miles, passing in mid-channel
(with positions from No 15 Light beacon (4°31′N,
118°37′E):
E of Tanjung Tabu Tabu (1 miles WSW), the NW
entrance point, low-lying and covered with
mangroves. A coral reef extends about 5 cables N
and E and a number of isolated coral heads litter
the shoal waters close E of Tanjung Tabu Tabu.
These should be given a wide berth. No 16
Light-beacon (red, red can topmark) marks the
edge of the reef just N of its E extremity. The E
extremity is marked by a beacon. A bay, almost
closed by coral, lies S of Tanjung Tabu Tabu and a
long, narrow coral patch edges the W side of
Trusan Tando Bulong as far S as Semporna.
Thence:
3
WSW of Tanjung Manimpa (1 miles SSE), the NW
point of Pulau Bum Bum. The NW edge of the
coastal reef surrounding Tanjung Manimpa is
marked by three beacons (green, can topmarks).
Detached reefs lie 2 miles NNE from Tanjung
Manimpa. The unsurveyed area S of these reefs
CHAPTER 5
157
and along the N coast of Pulau Bum Bum is
studded with coral reefs.
4
From this position the track continues in mid-channel for
about 1 mile to Semporna passing ENE of No 14
Light-beacon (red, red can topmark) (2 miles S).
5.156
1
Useful marks:
Customs warehouse, office and three privately owned
godowns stand near the head of the causeway. In
certain light conditions the seaward godown is
conspicuous.
Semporna to Pulau Gusungan
5.157
1
From Semporna (4°29′N, 118°37′E) in Trusan Tando
Bulong the track leads in mid-channel, passing (with
positions from the summit of Hood Hill (4°26′N, 118°37′E)
W of a beacon (green, green cone topmark, apex up),
(2 miles NNE) thence:
Between No 13 Light-beacon (red, red can topmark)
(2 miles NNE) and a beacon on the E side (green,
green cone topmark, apex up),. thence:
2
W of Daisy Islet (2 miles NNE), the largest of a
group of islets lying on the reef, and:
E of an inlet (1 mile NNE) about 5 cables wide at the
entrance, heavily encumbered with coral. Kampong
Tampi Tampi stands on the S entrance point of this
inlet. Kampong Samar Samar stands on the
opposite bank.
3
From this position Trusan Tando Bulong trends in a
wide bend towards the SW. The coral reef fronting the W
shore widens, the foreshore narrowing towards the slopes
of Hood Hill. The track continues in mid-channel, passing:
4
NW of Tanjung Emparan Kejang (2 miles SE), the
SW extremity of Pulau Bum Bum where the
navigable channel narrows to its least width of
2 cables, thence:
Between No 5 Light-beacon (green, green cone
topmark apex up) and No 6 light-beacon (red, red
can topmark) marking the E and W sides of the
channel respectively. A wooded islet, 24 m (80 ft)
high to the tree-tops, lies 1 miles ESE of No 5
Light-beacon.
5
From this position the track continues in mid-channel
passing NNW of No 4 Light-beacon (green, green cone
apex up) to a position S of No 2 Light-beacon (white,
white cone apex up) from whence the track continues in
mid-channel, passing:
NW of Pulau Sipangao (4°22′N, 118°36′E), densely
wooded,. thence:
6
NW of Pulau Nusatonga (4 miles SSW), with two
peaks, the higher of which, in the S part, stands
127 m (415 ft) high, and:
NW of Pulau Manampili (6 miles SSW), with peaks
at each end of the island, the higher 105 m (345 ft)
high. A mooring buoy is located 3 cables SW of
the SW extremity of Pulau Manampili. These three
islands lie on the NW side of Creach Reef, the
edge of which is marked with two unlit beacons.
And:
7
SE of Tanjung Tutop (4°21′N, 118°33′E), the W
entrance point to the S end of Trusan Tando
Bulong. Teluk Tagassan a small inlet, 1 mile wide,
is entered on the N side of Tanjung Tutop. The
entrance is narrowed considerably by a reef on the
S side and mud flats on the N side. Kampong
Pakalangan stands on the N side of the entrance.
8
From this position the track leads SW to a position NW
of Pulau Gusungan (8 miles SSW), 1 m (3 ft) high, a
small islet on the NW extremity of an isolated reef lying
close off the SW extremity of Creach Reef. The SE end of
this reef is marked with a light-beacon (green tripod).
9
From the position NW of Pulau Gusingan vessels may
continue SW to join the route leading from Friedrich
Haven to Hand Rock (4°08′N, 118°11′E).
Entering Trusan Tando Bulong from the south
5.158
1
When entering the S end of Trusan Tando Bulong from
Ligitan Channel, it is possible to pass NE of Pulau
Gusungan (4°19′N, 118°33′E), on the alignment (309°) of
the W extremity of Tanjung Tutop, with the N summit of
Double Hill, which shows on the skyline as indicated on
the chart. It leads in mid-channel between the reefs, the
edges of which are best visible with the sun astern.
2
When approaching from the SW, the alignment (066°) of
the NW extremity of Pulau Menampili (5.157) with the SE
extremity of Pulau Nusatonga leads NW of Pulau
Gusungan into the S entrance of Trusan Tando Bulong.
Small craft channels
South of Pulau Bait
5.159
1
Description. The channel between Pulau Bait (4°33′N,
118°33′E) (Langas Island on Chart 1681) and the coast of
Borneo is 5 cables wide and clear of dangers with a least
depth of 6⋅1 m (20 ft) at its W end. It connects the mouth
of Sangai Pegagau with the anchorage for timber loading
vessels S of Pulau Larapan (5.121).
2
Directions. Vessels should remain in mid-channel and
avoid a rock, with a depth of 0.9 m (3 ft) over it, lying
5 cables SW of Pulau Bait by rounding the SW point at a
distance of 2 cables.
Semporna
5.160
1
An unsurveyed channel, leads inside the reef close past
Semporna, with outlets to the main channel 1 miles N
and 5 cables S of the town. Local knowledge is required.
Anchorages
Lok Bakong
5.161
1
Description. Lok Bakong (4°25′N, 118°36′E) lies in the
N part of an inlet on the W side of Trusan Tando Bulong.
It extends NNW for 1 miles, whence it divides into two
arms, Lok Bakong and in the W Kuli Babang. The
entrance to the inlet is 1 cables wide between the reefs,
with a depth of 14⋅6 m (48 ft) which shoals to 5⋅5 m
(18 ft), 7 cables within.
2
Anchorage. Excellent anchorage for small craft exists
within the inlet, but it must be entered when there is still
light enough for the reefs to be seen.
Pulau Gusungan
5.162
1
Description. Pulau Gusungan (4°19′N, 118°33′E) lies on
the SE side of the S entrance to Trusan Tando Bulong, on
the NW end of an isolated coral reef which partially dries.
The SE end of this reef is marked by a light-beacon
(starboard hand, 5 m in height).
2
Anchorage, exists for larger vessels NW of the island in
depths of 16 to 18 m (54 to 60 ft) mud.
CHAPTER 5
158
Semporna
General information
5.163
1
Position. Semporna (4°29′N, 118°37′E), lies on the W
bank of Trusan Tando Bulong 2 miles within the N
entrance. It is the headquarters of the local district
administration. It is the market town for a wide area. In
1967, the inhabitants of out-lying islands were being
encouraged to re-settle in and around Semporna, where
large tracts of land were being cleared for the cultivation of
oil-palm. In 1975 the population was about 24 000.
2
Function. The principal exports are log timber, copra
and seaweeds. A thriving fishing industry exists. Otherwise
the ports exists only to serve the needs of the local
population.
3
Port limits, as indicated on Chart 1681, are contained
between a line drawn E from No 16 Light-beacon to the
opposite shore of Trusan Tando Bulong and, in the S by a
line drawn E/W from a position 5 cables N of No 6
Light-beacon.
4
Port Authority. Sabah Ports Authority, Locked Bag
2005, Tanjung Lipat, 88617 Kota Kinabalu. There is no
harbour master at Semporna. The day to day running of the
port is carried out by a wharfinger but the District Officer
acts as Port Officer.
Limiting conditions
5.164
1
Mean tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m;
mean neap range about 0⋅4 m. For further information see
the relevent Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Draught limitation of
7 m and a maximum length of 100 m alongside.
Arrival information
5.165
1
Notice of ETA should be sent 7 days prior to arrival
supplemented by an update 36 hours in advance. The latter
message should include arrival draughts and any
requirements. Pratique is normally granted by radio upon
receipt of the master’s confirmation of last port of call and
the crew being healthy.
2
Pilots. There is no pilot at Semporna.
Anchorages and berths
5.166
1
Caution. Vessels carrying explosives must not anchor in
Trusan Tando Bulong S of latitude 4°30′N or in the
approach to the fairway. Vessels with dangerous petroleum
on board must not anchor within 305 m of the wharf at
Semporna.
Vessels loading timber usually anchor SW of Pulau
Larapan (5.121).
2
There is anchorage 2 cables off the reefs off Semporna.
the holding ground is mud and sand over coral.
3
A coral causeway 2 cables SE of Semporna extends
NE across the reef to deep water. A concrete wharf, 46 m
in length and 12 m wide, with a least depth of 9 m
alongside, stands at the head of the causeway. There are
dolphins situated 30 m from each end of the wharf.
Port services
5.167
1
Repairs. None.
Other facilities: hospital; medical dispensary run by a
doctor; police; radio communication with Tawau.
Supplies: small quantities of provisions, but expensive;
small quantities of diesel fuel (light) oil; fresh water.
2
Communications: airstrip 2 miles SW of Semporna
from which a twice weekly light aircraft service goes to
Kota Kinabalu.
SIBUTU PASSAGE TO COWIE HARBOUR INCLUDING TELUK SIBUKO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 928, 1681, 2099
Area covered
5.168
1
This section covers the waters S of Sibutu Group and
the waters between Ligitan Channel and Cowie Harbour.
It is arranged as follows:
Sibutu Passage to Ligitan Group (5.169).
Teluk Sibuko (5.172).
Cowie Bay (5.183).
Tawau (5.200).
SIBUTU PASSAGE TO LIGITAN GROUP
General information
Charts 928, 1681
Route
5.169
1
From a position ENE of Sicolan Island (4°36′N,
119°28′E) the track leads SW, passing S of Sibutu Group,
to a position SE of Pulau Ligitan (4°10′N, 118°53′E).
Principal mark
5.170
1
Major light:
Saluag Island (elevation 29 m) (4°35′⋅4N, 119°28′⋅0E).
Directions
(continued from 5.20)
5.171
1
From the position ENE of Sicolan Island (4°36′N,
119°28′E) the track leads SW for a distance of about
60 miles, passing (with positions from Pulau Ligitan
(4°10′N, 118°53′E)):
SE of Saluag Island (43 miles NE) (5.24), and:
2
SE of South Reef (34 miles NE), and:
SE of Frances Reef (28 miles NE) (5.23).
The track then leads to a position SE of Pulau Ligitan
(5.136).
(Directions continue at 5.176)
TELUK SIBUKO
Charts 1681, 2099
Routes
5.172
1
Inshore route. From the position about 1 mile S of
Pulau Gusungan Light-beacon (5.157) the track leads W for
CHAPTER 5
159
about 8 miles to Friedrich Haven (4°16′N, 118°25′E) then
SW for about 17 miles. to a position off Darby Bank
(4°08′N, 118°11′E).
2
Offshore route. From the position SE of Ligitan Island
(4°10′N, 118°53′E) the track leads W for about 50 miles to
a position S of Hand Rock (4°08′N, 118°11′E)
Topography
5.173
1
Teluk Sibuko is the area off the coast of Borneo
between Tanjung Panto Panto (4°27′N, 118°45′E) and the E
extremity of Pulau Bum Bum and Pulau Mandal, 71 miles
SW. That part of Teluk Sibuko S of latitude 4°03′N is
described in Indonesia Pilot Volume II.
2
The N side of Teluk Sibuko consists of extensive
mountain ranges interspersed with valleys where long,
braided rivers carry away flood waters. The whole is
heavily forested. The coast is, for the most part, fairly
regular and low-lying, edged with mangroves and fronted
by mud and sand flats. Numerous offshore reefs lie mostly
within the 183 m (100 fm) contour and are surrounded by
shallows making approach hazardous. Shallows E of Tawau
harbour are reported to be extending towards the E.
Principal marks
5.174
1
Landmarks:
Double Hill (4°25′N, 118°27′E), a saddle-shaped
mountain in a ridge lying NE/SW 8 miles W of
Mount Connor (5.119).
Tanjung Nagos (Point Delconte on Chart 1681)
(4°21′N, 118°25′E), which rises inland to a height
of 366 m (1200 ft). The surrounding coast is low
and backed by mangroves.
2
Mount Pock (4°25′ N, 118°23′ E), the W side of
which falls steeply to a flood plain in which flows
Sungai Kumpong.
Mount Wullerstorf (4°28′N, 118°09′E) (5.106).
Mount Andrassy (4°20′N, 117°58′E), a rounded
summit. A television mast (red obstruction lights),
76 m (249 ft) in height, stands at an elevation of
629 m (2064 ft) on Mount Andrassy.
3
Mount Magdalena (4°30′N, 117°55′E) (Chart 2576), is
the centre of a mountain system on the N side of
Teluk Sibuko. Densely wooded it presents a sharp
peak from all points of views.
Mount Putri (4°14′N, 117°59′E).
4
Major light:
Batu Tinagat Lighthouse (round metal framework
tower) (4°13′N, 117°59′E), on the S slope of
Mount Putri at an elevation of 99 m.
Other navigational aid
5.175
1
Racon:
Pulau Sipadan (4°07′N, 118°38′E).
Directions for offshore route
(continued from 5.136 and 5.171)
5.176
1
From a position SE of Ligitan Island (4°10′N, 118°53′E)
the track leads W, passing (with positions from Horn Reef
(4°16′N, 118°26′E)):
S of Pulau Kapalai (16 miles ESE) (5.145). and:
S of Pulau Sipadan (15 miles SE), lying on the NW
side of a steep-to reef frequently visited by large
numbers of turtles. Pulau Sipidan Lighthouse
(white metal framework tower, red bands 22 m in
height), stands near the S extremity of the island.
Thence:
2
S of Darby Bank (15 miles SW), (5.179).
From this position the track continues W for about
3 miles to a position S of Hand Rock (4°08′N, 118°11′E).
(Directions continue for Cowie Bay at 5.186)
Directions for inshore route
(continued from 5.145)
Pulau Gusungan to Friedrich Haven
5.177
1
From a position about 1 mile S of Pulau Gusungan
Light-beacon (5.157) the track leads W passing (with
positions from Tanjung Nagos (4°20′N, 118°25′E)):
N of Ligitan Reefs (9 miles SE to 5 miles S), a series
of detached reefs with shallow water between
them, lying up to 7 miles S of the coast of Borneo.
The banks on which these reefs lie is very steep-to
on the S side. Patches, which dry 1⋅2 m (4 ft), lie
on the middle reef. Thence:
2
S of Pulau Silungan (2 miles ESE), wooded, thence:
N of Horn Reef (3 miles S), the W-most of the
Ligitan Group marked by a light-beacon (red
tripod 4 m in height) standing on the N extremity.
A beacon (large concrete base, spherical topmark)
stands 1 miles SSE of the light-beacon. A coral
patch with a depth of 4⋅6 m (15 ft) over it, lies
2 cables N of Horn Reef Light-beacon.
3
From this position passing S of Tanjung Nagos (Point
Delconte on Chart 1681) the track leads SW into Friedrich
Haven, passing:
SE of Pulau Kalumpang (Kumpong Kumpong)
(3 miles W), densely wooded, lying in the
entrance to Sungai Kalumpang (Kumpong), thence:
NE of Erzherzog Reef (5 miles SSW), is separated
from the W-most reef of the Ligitan Group by a
deep channel, 6 cables wide. A small detached reef
lies 5 cables NE of Erzherzog Reef.
4
The track then leads to a position SE of Friedrich Reef
(4°14′N, 118°21′E) with a sand cay on its NW side, which
dries 2 m (7 ft).
5.178
1
Clearing mark. The alignment (291°) of the N
extremity of Pulau Silungan (4°19′N, 118°27′E) with a
peak 328 m (1076 ft) high, 1 miles NW of Tanjung
Nagos, clears N of the E part of Ligitan Reefs.
Friedrich Haven to Hand Rock
5.179
Note: All these dangers are covered by the red sector of
Batu Tinagat Light (4°13′N, 117°59′E).
1
From the position SE of Friedrich Reef (4°14′N,
118°21′E) the track leads SW, passing (with positions from
Saddle Hill (4°18′N, 118°12′E)):
Between Chance Rock (8 miles SE), with a depth of
2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it, and a shoal with a depth of
7⋅4 m (24 ft) over it, lying 2 miles SE of Chance
Rock. An obstruction, with a least charted depth of
4⋅3 m (14 ft) over it, lies about 1 mile NE of
Chance Rock. Thence:
2
SE of Lehnert Reef (5 miles ESE), which dries 0⋅6 m
(2 ft) near its S end. A beacon (single-pile, yellow;
cone topmark, apex up, black and yellow) stands
on the S end of this reef. Both Chance Rock and
Lehnert Reef are sometimes difficult to see due to
muddy water. Thence:
CHAPTER 5
160
3
NW of Roach Reefs (9 miles SE), consisting of two
reefs, 3 cables apart. The larger E reef dries 0⋅9 m
(3 ft), thence:
SE of Egeria Shoal (6 miles SE), a small coral
patch with a depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it. A small
reef, nearly awash, lies 7 cables NNW of Egeria
Shoal. Thence:
4
SE of Heel Reef (5 miles SE), a steep-to small patch
of rotten coral and mud, which dries 0⋅6 m (2 ft).
Heel Reef Light-beacon (red can topmark on a
metal beacon 6 m in height), stands on the reef.
Thence:
NW of Alert Patches (9 miles SSE), consisting of
three coral patches, with a least depth of 7⋅3 m
(24 ft) over them, extending 3 miles SW from the
light-beacon standing on the N extremity of the
middle and largest patch, thence:
5
NW of Darby Bank (11 miles S), with a depth of
11 m (36 ft) over it, coral which is the outermost
danger in the approaches to Tawau.
The track then continues SW to a position SE of Hand
Rock, (4°08′N, 118°11′E), awash. Hand Rock Light-beacon
(red can on a beacon 7 m in height), stands on the rock. A
steep-to rocky shoal with a depth of 0⋅3 m (1 ft) over it,
lies 3 miles NNE of Hand Rock.
6
Caution. Less water was reported in 2000, as shown on
the chart about 2 miles ESE of Hand Rock.
(Directions continue for Cowie Harbour at 5.186)
Small craft channels
Sungai Kalumpang
5.180
1
Description. The main channel of Sungai Kalumpang
(Kumpong) (4°20′N 118°21′E) lies on the E side of Pulau
Kalumpang. A village stands on the N side of this island.
The W channel, narrow and very shallow is unsuitable for
navigation. Depths from 0⋅9 to 1⋅2 m (3 to 4 ft) were found
over the bar of Sungai Kalumpong, by HM Surveying Ship
Egeria, but within the entrance there were depths of 2⋅7 to
11 m (9 to 36 ft). The river encloses a narrow island
2 miles above the entrance.
2
In 1891, a boat from HM Surveying Ship Egeria
ascended the river for 8 miles, at which point the water
was brackish. Further progress was obstructed by foliage.
The depth at this point was recorded as 3⋅7 m (12 ft). The
river is edged with mangroves and Nipa palms.
Sungai Balung
5.181
1
Description. The entrance to Sungai Balung (4°18′N
118°11′E) lies 10 miles W of Pulau Kalumpang. The coast
between is low and edged with mangroves. A narrow reef
lies 1 mile offshore midway between these two rivers.
Saddle Hill, with a second peak in the E of 101 m
(330 ft) high, lies on the E side of the entrance into Sungai
Balung.
2
Sungai Balung is 0⋅7 cables wide at the entrance,
increasing to 2 cables within the entrance. The entrance lies
between two banks of sand and mud. The E bank dries for
a considerable distance but the narrow channel remaining
has depths of about 2⋅7 m (9 ft). It rises in the heights of
Mount Wullerstorf (5.106). In 1892 this braided river was
ascended for 6 miles by a boat from HM Surveying Ship
Egeria, where the river was 27 m (89 ft) wide with a depth
of 2⋅7 m (9 ft). There were depths from 5 to 9 m (16 to
30 ft) in the lower reaches where mangrove swamps extend
about 1 miles from either bank. Thereafter the banks were
lined with nipa palms.
Anchorage
Friedrich Haven
5.182
1
Description. Friedrich Haven (4°16′N, 118°23′E), lies
between Ligitan Reefs, Erzherzog Reef, Friedrich Reef and
the S side of the Borneo coast. The channel is 1 mile wide
between the charted 9 m (5 fm) contours N of Horn Reef.
2
Tidal streams set at a rate of 0⋅7 kn.
Directions. When approaching the anchorage from the
SW the alignment (055°) of the NW extremity of Pulau
Silungan, with the summit of Mount Connor leads between
Egeria Shoal and Roach Reef (5.179) and close NW of
Friedrich Reef, which will generally be seen on
approaching it.
3
Anchorage. There is anchorage in Friedrich Haven with
the NW extremity of Pulau Silungan in line with Mount
Connor and the summit of Pulau Kalumpang bearing 324°,
in a depth of 11 m (36 ft).
COWIE BAY
General information
Chart 2099
Route
5.183
1
From the position S of Hand Rock (4°08′⋅4N,
118°10′⋅5E) the route leads WNW for about 28 miles to a
position 5 miles E of Adolphy Point (4°16′N, 117°39′E).
Topography
5.184
1
Cowie Bay is the extensive area W of Tawau and
Tanjung Saima. A shallow delta lies at the head intersected
by a labyrinth of creeks, lined with mangroves, into which
many rivers flow, the principal being Sungai Kalabakan.
The bay has been surveyed as far as the limits of
navigation, 12 miles beyond Tawau, above which the bay is
blocked by numerous mudflats. However deep, but
intricate, channels lead over the flats from the various
rivers. There are no distinguishing features in Cowie Bay
and the depths everywhere are regular, the bottom being
soft mud.
2
A high mountain backbone extends SSE from Mount
Magdalena (5.174) for 15 miles, terminating in Chinaga
Timor, (Tinagat on Chart 2099), 1 miles NNW of Batu
Tinagat (5.174). A secondary watershed branching from the
main backbone of Mount Lucia (5.185) curves E and
terminates in Mount Wullerstorf (5.106). The principal
landmarks may be readily identified but summits over
915 m (3000 ft) are frequently obscured by cloud. Those of
lesser elevation are usually visible.
3
Pulau Sebatik is separated from the coast of Borneo by
a strait from 3 to 5 miles wide. A channel 5 cables wide
separates the island from Serudong Delta on the NW side.
A range of densely wooded hills and mountains traverses
the island throughout its length. The boundary between
Sabah and Indonesia lies on the parallel of 4°10′N and
passes approximately through the centre of Pulau Sebatik.
A beacon (stone) on the edge of the mangrove swamp
which is edged by a hard sandy beach, marks the E end of
the boundary line and another stone marks the same
boundary on the W shore. For information on Kalimantan
see Indonesia Pilot Volume II.
CHAPTER 5
161
Principal marks
5.185
1
Landmarks:
Mount Andrassy (4°20′N, 117°58′E) (5.174).
Quoin Hill (4°25′N, 118°01′E) standing prominently
in the plain E of the main mountain ridges.
Mount Bombalai (4°23′N, 117°53′E).
Mount Tiger Tree (4°26′N, 117°50′E).
Mount Antoinette (4°10′N, 117°45′E) (Chart 2576).
Mount Lucia (4°28′N, 117°57′E) (Chart 2576).
Kukusan, (4°17′N, 117°52′E), conspicuous
pyramidal-shaped hill 2 miles NNW of Tawau.
Mount Putri (4°14′N, 117°59′E) (5.174).
Gunong Gemok (4°19′N, 117°52′E).
2
Major light:
Batu Tinagat Lighthouse (4°13′N, 117°59′E) (5.174).
Directions
(continued from 5.179 and 5.176)
5.186
1
Caution. When approaching Cowie Bay from S care
must be taken when rounding Dutch Spit, especially when
the NW-going tidal stream is setting.
From the position S of Hand Rock (4°08′N, 118°11′E)
the track leads WNW into Cowie Bay, passing (with
positions from Batu Tinagat (4°13′N, 118°00′E)):
2
SSW of English Spit (8 miles E), the SE extremity
of the bank extending 5 miles offshore between
the mouth of Sungai Balung (Sungai Burong on
Chart 2081) and Batu Tinagat. An obstruction with
a depth of 2⋅9 m (9 ft) over it, reported in 1959,
lies 2 miles SW of English Spit. Thence:
3
NNE of Dutch Spit (9 miles SSE), the E extremity
of a bank, with depths of less than 5⋅5 m (18 ft)
over it, extending 5 miles E from Ujung Batu,
the E extremity of Pulau Sebatik remarkable for a
2 mile stretch of red cliffs 6 to 24 m (20 to 80 ft)
high, along the shore. A detached shoal with a
depth of 5 m (16 ft) over it, lies 1 mile N of Dutch
Spit. Cornelis Peak (4°07′N, 117°53′E) (Puncak
Cornelis on Chart 2099), 168 m (550 ft) high,
prominent from any bearing greater than 225° but
less so from other directions, stands 4 miles NNW
of Ujung Batu. Thence:
4
SSW of Batu Tinagat, 5 m (15 ft) high, a small, bare
mushroom-shaped rock, lying on the foreshore
which is fronted by a drying mud flat. Sungai
Apas, a river with a depth of 0⋅3 m (1 ft) over the
bar, flows out 5 miles ENE of Batu Tinagat. In
1892 a boat was able to ascend for 1 mile.
Between the river mouth and Batu Tinagat a shoal
awash, lies about 1 miles offshore. Thence:
SSW of Batu Tinagat Lighthouse (5.174), thence:
SSW of Swirl Patch (2 miles WSW), a coral patch
with a least depth of 4 m (13 ft) over it. There are
swirls and eddies in the vicinity of the patch when
the tidal streams are running. Thence:
5
NNE of Tanjung Saima (7 miles SW), low and
bordered with mangroves. It is not easily
identified. A sandbank which dries 1⋅2 m (4 ft),
lies 5 cables N of the point. Thence:
Between Moysey Shoals (6 miles W), with a least
swept depth of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) over them, lying
1 miles SE of Tawau, and a shoal, reported in
1986 with a depth of 10⋅4 m (34 ft) over it, lying
2 miles S of Tawau. Thence:
SSW of Heherr Point (12 miles WNW), low and
wooded and fronted by a mud flat. Heherr Point
marks the S entrance point into Sungai Merotai
Kecil (5.189).
6
From this position the track continues WNW for a
distance of about 3 miles to the entrance to Coal Mine
Reach and the limits of navigation at the head of Cowie
Bay.
Useful marks
5.187
1
A conspicuous radio tower exhibiting a red light stands
5 miles WNW of Batu Tinagat.
Wicks Rock, awash, lies 7 cables NW of the head of
NW wharf. A light-beacon (black, elevation 4 m), stands on
this rock.
(Directions continue for Wallace Bay at 5.196)
Small craft channel
Chart 2576
Sungai Kalabakan (Kalabakang)
5.188
1
Description. Sungai Kalabakan (4°22′N, 117°34′E)
flowing into the NW part of Cowie Bay was explored by
boats from HM Surveying Ship Egeria, in 1892. The river
was ascended for a distance of 22 miles until progress was
barred by rapids.
2
Mangrove swamps extend 3 miles from the coast where,
higher up, the banks are lined with nipa palms. The river
was found to vary in width from 27 to 37 m (89 to 121 ft)
with depths from 4 to 9 m (13 to 30 ft). The river is very
sharply braided with many acute bends. Farther upstream
the banks become higher with hard ground upon which the
occasional huts stand in partially cleared areas. The water
in these higher reaches was fresh with a current running at
about kn.
Anchorages
Chart 2099
Sungai Merotai Kecil
5.189
1
Description. Sungai Merotai Kecil, discharging N of
Heherr Point can be ascended for about 3 miles at HW but
in 1984 it was reported that the coast between Morell Bluff
(4°17′N, 117°52′E) and Heherr Point had extended to
seaward about 4 cables.
2
Anchorage. There is anchorage off the mouth of the
river in a depth of 13 m (43 ft), where timber ships are
loaded.
Sungai Simandalan
5.190
1
Description. Sungai Simandalan runs for 7 miles in a
general NW direction to Caution Point (4°19′N, 117°33′E)
beyond which it unites with the waters of Sungai
Kalabakan. The shores are bordered with mangrove and are
generally steep-to. There is no difficulty in proceeding as
far as Rendezvous Point 6 miles above Adolphy Point,
with a least depth of 10 m (33 ft) in the fairway, and tidal
streams do not exceed 1 kn. There is a guide bank SE of
Caution Point.
2
Directions. Approach the N end of Coal Mine Reach as
described in (5.196) until 1 mile E of the front beacon of
the leading line from which position keep to the
mid-channel on a SW track until the same beacon bears
NW then steer to pass 2 cables S of Adolphy Point which
leads in mid-channel to avoid closing with Llewellyn Bank,
CHAPTER 5
162
extending 7 cables offshore from the W side of the entrance
to Sungai Simandalan between Tanjung Agas and Griffith
Point. This mid-channel passage should then be maintained.
3
Anchorage. There is barely room for a moored
medium-sized vessel to swing in Long Reach, where the
banks are 1 cables apart, in a depth of 18 m (60 ft). In
1910, HM Surveying Ship Merlin (1070 tons) lay to a
single anchor in mid-channel, 2 cables SE of Caution Point.
Chart 2576
Sungai Serudong
5.191
1
Description. Sungai Serudong is entered between Doris
Point (4°14′N, 117°37′E), 2 miles SW of Tanjung Agas
and Monk Point. There is a least depth of 6⋅7 m (22 ft) in
the entrance. The shores of the river are lined with
mangrove and are generally steep-to. At Merlin Point
(4°15′N, 117°31′E), 6 miles upstream the river narrows to
1 cables width. Vessels of any size should not proceed
above Merlin Point. At Dingle Point, 2 miles above Merlin
Point, the river is reduced to 1 cable’s width, thence it
narrows rapidly and is blocked by mudflats, with a depth
of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it. Launches can ascend the river for a
further 3 miles at half tide.
2
Trusan Merlin is a narrow winding channel connecting
Sungai Serudong to Sungai Simandalan. It has a least depth
of 9⋅6 m (31 ft) in the fairway, near the S end. The
navigation of this channel should present no difficulty to a
manoeuvrable vessel but there is little room for vessels to
pass one another. Caution Point (5.190) should be rounded
at a distance of 70 m to avoid a bank extending from the
opposite shore. Proceeding S care should be taken to avoid
confusing the entrance to Deceive Creek for the main
channel of Sungai Serudong.
3
Directions. The directions given in (5.196) should be
followed until the sawmill in Wallace Bay bears E, thence
the track leads SW passing NW of Coal Mine Reach
Light-tower (white metal framework tower) (4°14′N,
117°38′E). The conspicuous chimney of a disused coal
depot stands close NW of the light-tower, where there is
also a disused jetty. Thence round Doris Point at a distance
of 2 cables. Above Doris Point a mid-channel course
should be followed.
4
Anchorage. It is possible to moor E of Merlin Point in
a depth of 16 m (53 ft). In 1910, HM Surveying Ship
Merlin lay to a single anchor in mid-channel, 2 cables NW
of Merlin Point, where there was sufficient swinging room.
Wallace Bay
Chart 2099
General information
5.192
1
Description. Wallace Bay (4°15′N, 117°39′E) is located
on the E side of Coal Mine Reach which separates Pulau
Sebatik from the Malaysian mainland in the W. Coal Mine
Reach is entered between Grassy Point (4°16′N, 117°40′E),
a grassy opening of flat land fronted by clay cliffs, 8 m
(27 ft) high, and Adolphy Point, the SW extremity of a
peninsula of land forming the N side of Sungai
Simandalan.
Function. Wallace Bay is the loading port for the
Bombay Burmah Timber Corporation.
Limiting conditions
5.193
1
Mean tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅1 m;
mean neap range about 0⋅7 m. For further information see
the relevent Admiralty Tide Tables.
Arrival information
5.194
1
Pilots require 48 hours notice of arrival. Vessels entering
Cowie Bay for the purpose of proceeding to Wallace Bay
must anchor between 5 cables and 1 mile off the W end of
Tawau port area for clearance by customs and immigration
authorities. Vessels will be cleared between 0600 and 2200
provided advance notice of arrival is given.
Tidal streams
5.195
1
In Coal Mine Reach the out-going stream commences
1 hour after HW by the shore and attains a rate of 2 kn
at springs. The in-going stream commences 1 hours after
LW by the shore and attains a maximum rate of 2 kn at
springs.
2
Both streams may attain a rate of 3 kn off Grassy
Point and Drake Point.
Details of tidal streams at the anchorage are given in a
table on Chart 2099.
Directions
5.196
1
Caution. Soundings give little warning, especially
between the entrance points of Coal Mine Reach, where the
channel is only 5 cables wide. The shoals in the vicinity of
Grassy Point, Adolphy Point and Agas Point vary
considerably due to silt brought down by heavy rains and
subsequent attrition by tidal streams.
The approaches to Coal Mine Reach lead across the set
of the tidal streams, to which attention must be given.
Maintain a least distance of 1 mile off Pulau Sebatik
until the following leading line is reached:
Beacon (4°17′N, 117°40′E).
Adolphy Point Light (white triangle on metal
framework tower) (4 cables W of beacon).
2
The alignment (264°) of these marks leads W passing S
of Pilot Bank, with depths of less than 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over
its outer end, until the conspicuous sawmill (or its light) at
Wallace Bay shows clear of Grassy Point. From this
position the track leads WSW to bring Coal mine Reach
Light-tower on to a bearing of 222°. The track then
continues along that bearing to bring the sawmill (or its
light) to bear S whence the track leads SSW into the
anchorage.
Useful marks
5.197
1
A light is exhibited from the large zinc-sheeted saw
mill, at Wallace Bay, 1 mile SW of Grassy Point.
The conspicuous chimney of a power station stands
close ENE of the sawmill.
Anchorage
5.198
1
There is good anchorage in Wallace Bay for vessels
loading timber, 2 cables offshore, opposite the timber
ponds, in depths of 15 to 17 m (49 to 56 ft). But the
anchorage is subject to infrequent but often very severe
squalls which funnel down Coal Mine Reach.
CHAPTER 5
163
Port services
5.199
1
Other facilities. There are facilities for loading both
logs and sawn timber into ocean-going ships.
Supplies. Small quantities of light diesel fuel.
Communications. There are frequent boats running
between Wallace Bay and Tawau.
Light aircraft and helicopters can land on the company’s
sports field.
TAWAU
General information
Chart 2099 with plan of Tawau
Position
5.200
1
The town and port of Tawau (4°15′N, 117°53′E) extends
E along the N shore of Cowie Bay.
Function
5.201
1
The port handles bulk palm oil, crude oil and general
cargo. There are large coconut, rubber and hemp estates in
the developed area within 10 miles of the town, all of
which are major exports. Timber continues to be the
principal export.
Topography
5.202
1
The town of Tawau stands on a coastal plain on either
side of which low hills rise close to the coast and peaks
rise to an elevation of more than 1000 m (3280 ft) within
8 miles N of the town. All the slopes are heavily wooded.
Kampongs extend along the coast E of Tawau for a
distance of about 15 miles.
2
Reclamation has considerably altered the coastline
between Kuala Tawau, which enters the sea 4 miles W of
Batu Tinagat Lighthouse, and a position 5 cables SE of
Wicks Rock. A number of high buildings stand within the
port area on the reclaimed land W of Kuala Tawau.
Port limits
5.203
1
Port limits are embraced by a line drawn from Batu
Tinagat to the boundary mark on Pulau Sebatik between
Malaysia and Indonesia. Thence W and N of Burs Point
(4°10′N, 117°38′E) to include all the waterways draining
into Cowie Bay and Coal Mine Reach.
Approach and entry
5.204
1
Tawau is approached through the entrance to Cowie Bay.
Traffic
5.205
1
Approximately 3 500 000 tons of cargo are handled
annually.
Port Authority
5.206
1
The port is administered by Sabah Ports Authority, PO
Box No 335, 91007 Tawau.
Limiting conditions
Deepest berth
5.207
1
S.P.A. Jetty (5.223).
Mean tidal levels
5.208
1
Mean spring range about 2⋅7 m; mean neap range about
0⋅7 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
5.209
1
1⋅025 g/cm
3
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.210
1
Length 202 m, draught 9⋅75 m.
Local weather
5.211
1
Afternoon breezes from the SW may make departure
difficult.
Arrival information
Port operations
5.212
1
The master of every vessel arriving in the port or
berthed anywhere within the port shall cause to have the
national flag and signal letters flown between 0800 and
sunset every day until the vessel has departed the port.
2
International code flag “N” is used to indicate the
vessels intended berth and marks the required position of
the bow of the ship.
Notice of ETA
5.213
1
ETA should be sent 7 days in advance and again
48 hours in advance giving details of draught, pilotage
requirements, any other requirements.
Port radio
5.214
1
There is a port radio station at Tawau. Marine control
should be called as soon as vessel is within VHF range to
establish berth availability.
For further details see the relevent Admiralty List of
Radio Signals.
Outer anchorages
5.215
1
The following anchorages are indicated on the chart:
Quarantine anchorage, 2 miles NE of Tanjung
Saima.
Explosives anchorage, 1 miles NW of Tanjung
Saima.
Petroleum anchorage, 4 miles NNW of Tanjung
Saima.
2
A disused spoil ground lies 4 miles WNW of Tanjung
Saima. However, in 1989 it was reported that material from
the reclamation works at the oil jetty off Tanjung Batu was
being dumped in this area.
Anchorage is prohibited within a radius of 3 cables of
the wharves.
Pilots
5.216
1
Pilotage is not compulsory but if required notice should
be given 48 hours in advance. The pilot will board within
port limits.
Quarantine
5.217
1
Pratique is normally granted by radio on receipt of the
master’s message confirming last port of call and that the
crew are healthy. If, however, the vessel is arriving from an
infected area it should anchor in the quarantine anchorage.
CHAPTER 5
164
Harbour
General layout
5.218
1
Two general cargo wharves project approximately 100 m
SW from the shore. There is an oil jetty able to
accommodate tankers of 30 000 dwt and a palm oil jetty.
Tidal streams
5.219
1
Tidal streams in the approaches to Tawau are affected by
freshets, which may affect tidal predictions. These streams
may run very differently to those indicated on the chart.
2
Off Tawau the SE-going stream commences hour after
HW by the shore, with a maximum rate of 2 kn; the
NW-going stream commences hour after LW by the
shore, with a maximum rate of 1 kn at springs.
Development
5.220
1
Sabindo Development is an area of land reclaimed for
industrial use. Further land has been reclaimed close W of
Kuala Tawau. There is on-going development.
Directions
5.221
1
The port is approached by following the directions given
in (5.186) until a position is reached between Moysey
Shoal and the charted 10 m (33 ft) patch 1 miles SSW
whence a NW track leads towards the port.
2
Useful marks
Two conspicuous towers stand 1 mile NNW of
Morrell Bluff, itself a conspicuous black rock lying
1 miles NNW of the S.P.A. oil jetty. Log ponds
surround Morrell Bluff.
Berths
Anchorage
5.222
1
There is anchorage for any size of vessel in the area
contained between the Petroleum anchorage and the
prohibited area surrounding the wharves.
Alongside berths
5.223
1
Of the two general cargo wharves projecting
approximately 100 m from the shore, the NW wharf
provides four berths, with two access piers and a large
covered storage area. It has a total berthing length of
457 m, with depths of 5 to 8 m alongside. Vessels up to
16 000 dwt can be accommodated. The SE wharf has a
single pier with a total berthing length of 275 m. No 2
Berth has a depth of 7⋅5 m and can accommodate general
cargo vessels up to 10 000 dwt. Mooring dolphins stand off
each end of the SE wharf.
2
A Malaysian Naval base is situated 4 cables N of the
general cargo wharves. The jetty extends 1 cables W from
the shore. Parallel and less than 1 cable N, is the Marine
Police jetty.
3
The S.P.A. Jetty for the handling of bulk palm oil is
situated at Tanjung Batu. The jetty extends 975 m SW from
the shore. The T-shaped head is 73 m in length which
includes a breasting dolphin at each end. A mooring
dolphin stands 85 m from the centre of the jetty head at
either end. In 1989 a controlling depth of 9⋅75 m was
reported alongside. Vessels up to 30 000 dwt can be
accommodated. A tank farm is sited near the root of the
S.P.A. Jetty in which there are 3 x 500 tonne, 2 x
2000 tonne and 4 x 1000 tonne tanks.
4
A pair of mooring buoys are situated 1 and 2 cables
NW of the NW wharf.
Port services
Repairs
5.224
1
Minor repairs can be undertaken.
Other facilities
5.225
1
Hospital; deratting exemption certificates.
Supplies
5.226
1
Fresh water by pipeline on the wharves but rationing
may occur from time to time; fresh provisions in limited
quantities; diesel fuel in limited quantities at the S.P.A.
Jetty.
Communications
5.227
1
Tawau airport, by means of which repatriation is
possible via Singapore, is situated 1 miles N of the port.
NOTES
165
Isabella
6.210
Port Holland
6.169
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928
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25762576
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6
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6.109
6
.
1
0
0
6
.
2
6
30´
30´
30´
123°
122°
120°
119°
Chapter 6 - Sulu Archipelago
Longitude 121° East from Greenwich
5°
6°
30´
30´
30´
5°
6°
30´30´
30´
30´
7°
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
30´
7°
30´30´30´
30´
6.7
6
.
1
4
6
.
2
0
6
.
3
5
6
.
3
6
.
5
9
6
.
5
3
6
.
7
3
6
.
8
5
6
.
1
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2
6
.
1
8
3
6
.
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7
6
6
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1
4
1
6
.
1
5
6
6
.
1
9
6
166
167
CHAPTER 6
SULU ARCHIPELAGO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 928, 2576, 943, 3811
Scope of chapter
6.1
1
This chapter describes the routes NW and SE of the
Sulu Archipelago together with the routes between the
numerous islands. The archipelago consists of a chain of
more than 300 islands stretching over a distance of about
220 miles between Alice Channel (5.131) and the Basilan
Strait (7.3). These islands, reefs and banks form several
groups including:
2
Pangutarang Group (6.7).
Tawitawi Group (6.35).
Tapul Group (6.59).
Jolo Group (6.100).
Pilas Group (6.138).
Sameles and Tapiantana Groups, (6.176).
Basilan Island (6.156).
3
The chapter is divided into the following sections:
North−west part of Sulu Archipelago (6.3).
South−west part of Sulu Archipelago (6.31).
North−east part of Sulu Archipelago (6.135).
Tide−rips
6.2
1
The bank upon which Sulu Archipelago lies is steep-to,
falling away quickly to great depths in both the Sulu and
Celebes Seas. This sudden change of depth gives rise to
tide-rips and overfalls along the edges of the banks which
can be dangerous to small craft.
NORTH−WEST PART OF SULU ARCHIPELAGO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 928
Area covered
6.3
1
Described in this section are the islands and banks of
the Pangutarang Group from Pearl Bank to Favourite bank
including Pangutarang Passage.
It is arranged as follows:
North−west of Pangutarang Group (6.7).
Pangutarang Passage (6.14).
Tanjung Terang to Aguirre Shoal (6.20).
South−east of Pangutarang Reef (6.26)
Topography
6.4
1
Doc Can Island, Laparan island, Cap Island and
Deatobato Island, together with Pearl Bank, form the W
extremity of Pangutarang Group. They are of atoll
formation, mostly wooded with mangroves and various
other types of trees from 11 to 15 m high. The islands
themselves do not exceed a height of 1⋅5 m. They are
uninhabited, but are frequented by bands of roving Moros.
Tidal streams
6.5
1
Between the islands of the Pangutarang Group tidal
streams set about hour earlier than tabulated times for
the Basilan Strait in Admiralty Tide Tables. The streams set
generally NNW and SSE in the directions of the various
channels at rates of about half of those tabulated.
2
Tidal streams between Pearl bank and Doc Can island
set NNW and SSE and may attain a rate of 6 knots. N of
Pearl Bank the SE-going stream divides, one part setting E
of the bank, and the other part setting W of the bank.
Tide-rips occur in the channel between Pearl Bank and Doc
Can Island being especially heavy at the edge of the shoal
extending NW from Doc Can Island (5°52′N, 119°56′E).
3
On the W side of Doc Can Island the streams follow the
general direction of the 37 m contour. The stream entering
the Sulu Sea 4 miles SW of Doc Can Island was observed
to set NW. West of the island it sets N and, N of the
island, it sets NE. The streams from the Sulu Sea take
approximately the reverse direction. Inside the 183 m
contour, S of Doc Can Island, the stream was observed to
set ESE.
4
Slack water between Pearl Bank and Cap Island usually
occurs during the period 1 hour either side of local HW or
LW. This may vary up to as much as 3 hours either way.
Moderate tide-rips may be expected in bad weather over
strong tidal streams at the edges of all banks. They have
been observed off the W side of Cap Island and S and W
of Deatobato Island.
5
The N edges of Pangutarang Reef (6°30′N, 120°50′E)
and Favourite Bank are often marked by heavy tide-rips,
especially during the NE monsoon (October to March) or
when the wind is against the stream. It is not advisable for
vessels to cross this bank as the distance saved on the
present trade routes is very small. Tidal streams over this
bank are strong and irregular, but generally set N and S.
Typhoon anchorages
6.6
1
There are no typhoon anchorages over the various banks
adjacent to the islands of the Pangutarang Group, but
recommended anchorages, dependant on wind direction and
sea state, are mentioned.
NORTH−WEST OF PANGUTARANG GROUP
General information
Charts 1868, 928
Route
6.7
1
From the position NE of Normanby Bank (5°48′N,
119°14′E) the route leads ENE for about 66 miles to a
position NNW of the NW entrance to Pangutarang Passage
(6°15′N, 120°26′E). Thence the track continues ENE for
about 58 miles to a position NNE of Favourite Bank
(6°40′N, 121°04′E).
CHAPTER 6
168
Principal marks
6.8
1
Major lights:
Pearl Bank Light (Zau Island), (red round metal
tower 17 m in height) (5°50′N, 119°44′E).
North Ubian Island Light, (white concrete tower 10 m
in height) (6°10′N, 120°28′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.8)
Pearl Bank to Pangutarang Passage
6.9
1
From the position NE of Normanby Bank (5°48′N,
119°14′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
from Deatobato Island (5°53′N, 120°04′E)):
NNW of Pearl Bank (22 miles W) (6.11), awash but
with scattered wooded islets 11 to 18 m high. Pearl
Bank Light (6.8) is exhibited from the E side of
the bank. Thence:
2
NNW of Doc Can Island (8 miles W) (6.12), marked
by a prominent cone-shaped, evergreen tree about
18 m high, standing at the SW end of the island,
thence:
3
NNW of Laparan Island (5 miles W), is a large coral
atoll reef overgrown with trees. A narrow coral
reef 1 m high, lies from to cable from the S
and SE sides of the island. Drying coral reefs
extend up to 3 cables offshore on the E, N and W
sides. A detached clump of mangrove, resembling
an island, lies 1 cables off the NW side. The
island’s lagoon is extensive but encumbered with
shoals and scattered clumps of mangrove. Small
boats may pass over the reef at HW, preferably on
the E side. Thence:
4
NNW of Deatobato Island (6.13), thence:
NNW of Cap Island (5 miles NNE) (6.13), thence:
NNW of Sail Rock (10 miles ENE), has the
appearance of a sailing vessel from a distance. A
rock awash lies 1 cables SW, and another with a
depth of 1⋅5 m over it, lies 1 cables E of Sail
Rock. Thence:
NNW of Malicut Island (23 miles ENE), low with
distinctive trees including coconut palms.
5
From this position the track leads ENE for about 5 miles
to a position NNW of North Ubian Island (6.8) lying SW
of the entrance to Pangutarang Passage. North Ubian Light
(6.8) is exhibited from the NE side of the island.
(Directions continue for Pangturang Passage at 6.18)
Pangutarang Passage to Favourite Bank
6.10
1
From a position NNW of North Ubian Island the track
leads ENE, passing (with positions from Tubigan Island
(6°26′N, 120°47′E)):
NNW of Pangutarang Island (15 miles SW), densely
wooded, thence:
NNW of Kulassien Island (5 miles W), consisting
of a mangrove swamp with a small area of dense
forest on the N and W sides. The island is fringed
with coral and is steep-to on its N side. Thence:
2
NNW of Tubigan Island, planted with coconut palms.
The E part consists of a mangrove swamp and a
salt-water lagoon. Depths of less than 5⋅5 m extend
7 cables NW of the N extremity of Tubigan Island.
Thence:
NNW of Pangutarang Reef (13 miles ENE),
occupying the SW part of an extensive bank which
lies from 1 to 28 miles NE of Tubigan Island. It
is marked by breakers. There are several shoals in
this reef.
3
The track then continues ENE for about 18 miles to a
position NNE of Favourite Bank (20 miles NE).
(Directions continue for Pilas Group — N side at
6.148 and Pilas Group — W side at 6.140)
Anchorages and harbours
Philippines chart 4516 (see 1.18)
Pearl Bank
6.11
1
Description. Pearl Bank (5°50′N, 119°40′E) is an
extensive shoal of atoll formation the N and S sides of
which are steep-to, however drying shoals mark the outer
limits. A chain of low coral islets lie along the E, SE and
S sides, the most prominent of which are Zau Island and
Lahangan Island on the E side and Taja Island on the W
side. There is a narrow coral barrier reef, 1 m high, along
the S side. Tahau Lagoon, situated within the Pearl Bank
atoll, has depths of 0⋅4 to 14⋅6 m in it. The entrance,
suitable only for small craft, lies 1 miles NNW of
Sicalangcalang Island near the S extremity of the bank.
2
Local Knowledge is required.
A detached shoal with a depth of 2⋅7 m over it, lies
1 miles off the W side of Pearl Bank.
Directions. When approaching Pearl Bank the higher
SW islands of the Pangutarang Group, Doc Can Island
(6.12) and Laparan Island (6.9) will be sighted at a
distance of 10 to 12 miles. Pearl Bank may be identified by
the long chain of low islands along its SE edge, except
when approached from NE or SW, and by Pearl Bank (Zau
Island) Lighthouse (6.8). Pearl Bank should be approached
with caution and passed on the E side unless the visibility
is such that the position can be frequently checked, as tidal
streams are strong and irregular in the vicinity.
3
Anchorage can be found anywhere on the banks NE
and W of Pearl Bank in depths from 13 to 25 m, coral and
sand.
Doc Can Island
6.12
1
Description. Doc Can Island (5°53′N, 119°56′E) (6.9),
is sub-divided by two distinctive features. A large lagoon
lies in the W half, with a drying entrance situated between
the barrier reefs on the S side. The E side of the lagoon
consists of scattered salt ponds and mangrove. The E half
of the island is solid ground of coral and sand. A reef
extends about 3 cables off-shore on the N side and a few
short stretches of beach lie along the NW side. A shoal spit
with a least depth of 7⋅7 m over it, extends NW from the
middle of the N shore and two isolated patches with depths
of 9⋅1 m and 6⋅4 m over them, lie 7 cables N and 1 miles
NW of the W extremity of the island.
2
Directions. The narrow channel between Doc Can Island
and Laparan Island, about 2 cables wide, is suitable only
for small craft though currents through it are strong.
Approach from the N on a SSE track, and from the S on a
N track and, when in the channel, be guided by the edges
of the reefs which are easily seen.
3
Anchorage. There is anchorage available on the S and
the NW sides of Doc Can Island in depths from 10 to
22 m, sand and coral.
CHAPTER 6
169
4
Anchorage is not recommended on the E side of
Laparan Island due to strong tidal streams and poor
protection.
Deatobato and Cap Islands
6.13
1
Description. A large part of the interior of Deatobato
Island (5°53′N, 120°04′E) is submerged at HW. The coast
is fringed with coral and sand beach, from which, on the
W, N and NE sides, coral reefs extend from to cable
from the HW line. A spit with depths of 2 to 7 m over it,
extends 3 miles NNW from Deatobato Island. A shoal with
a depth of 5⋅9 m over it, lies about 4 cables S of the island.
2
The coastline of Cap Island, except for short stretches of
sand and coral beaches at the N and S ends, consists of
mangrove covered at HW, with coral reefs extending up to
1 cables offshore. An extensive lagoon is situated within
Cap Island to which there are two entrances, both on the E
side of the island.
A patch with a depth of 10⋅4 m over it, lies 2 miles W
of the N extremity of Cap Island.
3
Directions A channel leads SSE between Laparan Island
and Deatobato Island passing between a shoal patch with a
depth of 9⋅6 m over it and a shoal with a depth of 6⋅9 m
over it, lying ENE of Laparan Island, thence WSW of
Deatobato Island
4
Another channel leads SSE between Deatobato Island
and Cap Island passing at least 1 mile WSW of Cap Island
and ENE of a shoal with a depth of 1⋅8 m over it lying
close NNW of Deatobato Island The S part of Deatobato
Island should be given a berth of at least 1 mile.
5
Anchorage. There is anchorage off the E and NE sides
of Deatobato Island and off the E side of Cap Island, but
anchorage is not recommended off the W sides of these
two islands due to strong tidal streams and poor protection.
PANGUTARANG PASSAGE
General information
Charts 928, Philippines chart 4517 (see 1.18)
Route
6.14
1
From a position NW of North Ubian Island (6°10′N
120°27′E) the route leads SE for about 15 miles to a
position SW of Pangutarang Island (6°18′N, 120°33′E)
thence ESE in mid-channel for about 20 miles to a position
WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N, 120°50′E).
Topography
6.15
1
Pangutarang Passage lies between North Ubian Island
(6°09′N, 120°26′E), Tikul Island and Usada Island on the S
side and Pangutarang Island and Pandukan Island on the N
side. It is 5 miles wide and very deep.
Although the islands bordering the passage are low, the
characteristic clumps of trees form excellent landmarks.
Tidal streams
6.16
1
Tidal streams run fair with the channel and attain a
maximum rate of 4 kn. Over the extensive bank extending
SW from North Ubian Island and Usada Island (6.18) the
tidal streams are strong, setting NW and SE, but both rate
and direction are modified by the numerous shoals in the
area.
Principal mark
6.17
1
Major light:
North Ubian Island Light, (6°10′N, 120°28′E) (6.8).
Directions
(continued from 6.9)
6.18
1
Note: This passage is generally used by vessels on
passage between Sandakan (5.4) and Jolo (6.109).
From the position NW of the NW entrance to
Pangutarang Passage the track leads SE, passing (with
positions from Malicut Island (6°06′N, 120°23′E)):
2
SW of Pangutarang Island (15 miles NE), (6.19).
From this position the track leads ESE passing:
NNE of North Ubian Island (5 miles ENE), a low
islet bounded by a narrow coral reef. The shoreline
is fringed with mangrove except for two short
stretches on the N coast. There is a shallow lagoon
in the NE part of the island accessed through a
channel in the E shore. Soang Buna, a small Moro
village stands on the W side of the lagoon.
Launches can enter at HW but the channel is
encumbered by growing coral. Thence:
3
NNE of Ticul Island (6 miles ENE). There is a
clear channel between Ticul and Pangutarang
Islands with depths from 11 to 18 m. It is about
6 cables in width. Thence:
4
NNE of Usuda Island (10 miles E), low and sandy,
the greater part of the island consists of mangrove,
with a narrow strip of solid land on the E side. It
is fringed with coral. A shoal with a depth of
8⋅7 m over it, lies 1 miles NW of the N
extremity of Usada Island. This is the only
offshore danger in Pangutarang Passage. Thence:
5
SSW of Panducan Island (18 miles ENE), low and
sandy, the N half consisting of mangrove, the S
half distinctively wooded in dense groups. The
island, lying on the SW extremity of an extensive
shoal which extends 43 miles NE to Favourite
Bank, is bordered with a coral reef extending
about 5 cables offshore. Heavy tide-rips are
experienced all over this shoal ground.
6
From this position the track continues ESE to a position
WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N, 120°50′E) (6.30).
(Directions continue for SE side
of Pangutarang Group at 6.24)
Side channel
Philippines chart 4517 (see 1.18)
East side of Pangutarang Island
6.19
1
Description. This deep water channel 2 miles wide at
its narrowest point, leads S between Panguturang Island, on
the W, and Pandacan Island (6°17′N, 120°39′E) and
Kulassian Island on the E side of the channel S and N
extremities respectively. Both sides of this channel are
steep-to to the extent that anchorages cannot be had
anywhere. Between these two island the great shoal contour
follows a N trend.
Pangutarang Town standing in the middle of the E side
of Pangutarang Island has a prominent church spire. There
is a rural health centre. An L-shaped wooden boat landing
provides berthing for the launches that call three times a
week from Jolo.
2
Topography The N side and parts of the E side of
Pangutarang Island are fringed with coral backed by low
CHAPTER 6
170
cliffs. There is one long stretch of mangroves on the E
side. A shoal with a depth of 6⋅4 m over it, lies between
Panducan and Kulassian islands over which there are
tide-rips. Heavy tide-rips occur across the N end of this
channel.
Pangutarang Town standing in the middle of the E side
of Pangutarang Island has a prominent church spire.
Tidal streams. Attention is drawn to the notes on tidal
streams at (6.16).
3
Directions. From a position NNE of the N end (6°23′N,
120°36′E) of Pangutarang Island the track leads S keeping
in mid-channel throughout, passing:
W of Kulassian Island (6.10). Heavy tide-rips occur
across the N end of this channel. Thence:
W of a shoal with a depth of 6⋅4 m over it, lying
between Panducan and Kulassian Islands over
which there are tide-rips, thence:
E of Panguturang Island, thence:
W of Panducan Island.
The track then continues S in Pangutarang Passage
(6.14).
4
Berth. An L-shaped wooden boat landing provides
berthing for the launches that call three times a week from
Jolo.
Facilities: rural health centre.
TANJUNG TERANG TO AGUIRRE SHOAL
General information
Charts 1868, 928
Route
6.20
1
From a position E of Tanjung Terang Lighthouse
(5°25′N, 119°13′E) (5.19) the route leads ENE for a
distance of about 90 miles to a position WSW of Aguirre
Bank (6°07′N, 120°50′E) (6.30).
Topography
6.21
1
A group of nine islands and numerous dangers lie
between the Pangutarang Group to the N and the Tawitawi
Group to the S. The N side of this group is fringed with
mangroves, strewn with rocks and boulders or bounded by
coral reefs. The numerous shoals which lie between these
islands may be visible in favourable weather by discoloured
water, but reliance should not be placed upon this. The
bottom consists of coral, rock and sand.
Tidal streams
6.22
1
Tidal streams set in various directions near the islands
and shoals of this group, but in unobstructed areas the
streams set NNW and SSE, the rate seldom exceeding 2 kn.
In the vicinity of Sail Rock (6.24) the tidal streams set N
and S at a rate of 3 to 4 kn, and are semi-diurnal in
character. Slack water usually occurs about 1 hour after
HW or LW.
Principal marks
6.23
1
Major lights:
Tanjung Terang, (white metal framework tower 26 m
in height) (5°25′N, 119°13′E) (5.19).
Pearl Bank (Zau Island),(5°50′N, 119°44′E) (6.8).
North Ubian Island, (6°10′N, 120°28′E) (6.8).
Jolo Mole, (white metal framework tower 18 m in
height) (6°04′N, 121°00′E).
Directions
(continued from 5.10)
6.24
1
From the position E of Tanjung Terang the track leads
ENE passing (with positions from Deatobato Island
(5°53′N, 120°04′E)):
SSE of Talantam Bank and the two shoals situated
8 and 9 miles SSE (5.9), and:
SSE of Pearl Bank (22 miles W) (6.9), thence:
SSE of Doc Can Island (8 miles W) (6.9), thence:
SSE of Laparan Island (5 miles W) (6.9), thence:
SSE of Deatobato Island (6.9), thence:
2
NNW of Bilangan Island (14 miles SSE), a lone tree
stands prominent among numerous others of less
elevation. A drying coral reef lies 1 mile W of
Balangan island. The channel between the island
and the reef has a least depth of 14⋅6 m in it,
(6.21). Thence:
3
NNW of Walan Island (16 miles SE), low with a
few scattered trees remaining after extensive
felling. A small area of this island is under
cultivation A shoal with a depth of 1⋅8 m over it,
lies 2 miles NW of Walan Island. Thence:
SSE of Datubato Islands (13 miles E), a group of
islets on an extensive, almost circular reef, thence:
4
SSE of Tablas Shoal (16 miles E), with a least depth
of 5⋅8 m over it, sand and coral which can
generally be seen. The S side of the shoal is
steep-to. Thence:
5
NNW of Dammai Island (20 miles ESE), coral atoll
with an extensive shallow lagoon bounded by
mangrove swamp in its S part. Small boats may
enter at HW through the entrance located in the
middle of the NE side of the island. Dammai
Island lies on a shoal extending W and S over a
distance of about 9 miles. Singaan and Disaan
Islands lie at opposite ends of a reef bordering the
SE side of this shoal S of Dammai Island. Thence:
6
SSE of Tubalubac Island (20 miles ENE) one of a
group of islands including Basbas Island and
Cunilan Island, all of which lie on a bank which is
shoal and should not be crossed without the
benefit of local knowledge. Thence:
SSE of Apo Lambu Reef (23 miles ENE), with a
depth of 2⋅1 m over it, and:
7
SSE of Basbas Island (26 miles ESE) densely
wooded. On the summit is a prominent
umbrella-shaped palm tree. Thence:
SSE of Cunilan Island (7 miles E), low but with
distinctive trees and coconut plantations on it.
8
From this position the track continues ENE for 17 miles
to a position WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N, 120°50′E)
(6.30).
(Directions continue for Panguturang Passage in
reverse at 6.18, for Cabucan Island — N part at 6.30,
for Tapul Group — N part at 6.62 and
for Jolo Island — N side at 6.103)
Adjacent islands
The island group north of Tawitawi
6.25
1
Description. Anchorages in this area cannot be
recommended for refuge in severe weather as little
protection is provided. In moderate weather several of the
islands provide a lee. The bottom in these anchorages is
coral or coral sand with occasional boulders.
2
Local knowledge is required.
CHAPTER 6
171
Anchorages may be found off Bambannan Island
(5°37′N, 120°17′E) (6.62), or Bilangan Island (5°42′N,
120°13′E) (6.24) and, in moderate weather, anchorages NE
or SW of Dammai Island (5°48′N, 120°25′E) (6.24).
SOUTH−EAST OF PANGUTARANG REEF
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.26
1
From the position WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N,
120°50′E) the route leads NE for a distance of 30 miles to
a position E of Teomabal Bank (6°20′N, 120°51′E).
Topography
6.27
1
North of Jolo Island are a group of islands all of which
from 12 to 15 m high to the tree-tops. are covered with
mangroves and fringed with coral.
Many shoals and hazards exist between the islands on
the route but a deep water channel passes between Cabucan
Island (6.30) and Pangasinan Island (6.103).
Tidal streams
6.28
1
Tidal streams off the N coast of Jolo set W and E at a
rate of about 2 kn.
Principal marks
6.29
1
Landmarks:
Mount Tumatangas (6°00′N, 120°58′E), standing near
the W extremity of Jolo Island. It has a rounded
peak when viewed from the N and at a distance of
about 45 miles has the appearance of an island.
2
Mount Bahu (6°02′N, 121°06′E), a cone-shaped peak
steeper on the W side.
Mount Dahu (6°01′N, 121°04′E), a peak at its W end
sloping gently to a second peak on the E end.
Both sides fall away steeply.
3
Major light:
Jolo Mole Light (6°04′N, 121°00′E) (6.23).
Directions
(continued from 6.18, 6.24, 6.62, 6.103)
Aguirre Bank to Teomabal Bank
6.30
1
From the position WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N,
120°50′E), the track leads NE, passing (with positions from
Tubigan Island (6°26′N, 120°47′E)):
NW of Aguirre Bank (18 miles S), sand and coral,
steep-to, thence:
2
NW of Cabucan Island (18 miles SSW), the largest
of the group. It is uninhabited. Palliagan Island,
small and wooded, lies on a small reef close off
the NE Point of Cabucan Island. and:
3
SE of Pantocunan Island (13 miles S), The edge of
the fringing reef is steep-to. Thence:
SE of Teomabal Island (7 miles SE), lying on the
SW end of a shoal with a least depth of 7⋅8 m
over it, is low and consists of a coral and sand
beach fringing a mangrove swamp, the centre of
which is a large lagoon. There are some prominent
trees on the island’s E side, thence:
4
NE of Bubuan Island (18 miles SE), uninhabited,
thence:
NE of Minis Island (20 miles SE), uninhabited, the
NE-most of the small group of islands, thence:
SE of Teomabal Bank (11 miles ESE).
5
From this position the track continues NE for about
8 miles to a position E of Teomabal Bank (6°24′N,
121°00′E).
(Directions continue for Jolo Island — N and NE sides
at 6.145 and for Pilas Group — W side in reverse at 6.140)
SOUTH−WEST PART OF SULU ARCHIPELAGO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 928
Area covered
6.31
1
Described in this section are the islands, banks and
channels of the Tawitawi Group (5°10′N, 120°10′E), the
Tapul Group and the Jolo Group from Sibutu Passage to
the E extremity of Jolo Island.
It is arranged as follows:
Tanjung Terang to Babannan Island (6.35).
Sugbai Passage (6.53).
2
North-west of Tapul Group—Bambannan Island to
Aguirre Bank (6.59).
South-east of Tawitawi Group—Sibutu Passage to
Kinapusan Islands (6.73).
Kinapusan Islands to Kamawi Island (6.85).
Aguirre Bank to Sibarut Bank (6.100).
Jolo Harbour (6.109).
Topography
6.32
1
Although the islands of the SW part of the Sulu
Archipelago are of volcanic origin, all except Jolo Island
are extinct. Jolo Island itself has not suffered an eruption
for well over 100 years though it continues to be listed as
active.
Tidal streams
6.33
1
Tidal waves enter the Sulu Archipelago from the
Celebes Sea. In the area E of Tawitawi Island cotidal lines
(lines joining point of simultaneous tides) run
approximately NE and SW, the wave progressing towards
the NW.
2
Generally the tidal streams E of Tawitawi Island set NW
in the in-going and SE in the out-going streams. This
direction will vary in different passages and channels; for
example in the Tapaan Passage the in-going sets NNW and
the out-going SSE setting fair with the trend of the shoals.
3
Observations indicate that the in-going to the E of
Tawitawi Island meets the in-going through Sibutu Passage
(5.16) off Tongehatan Point (5°51′N, 120°11′E). In the
open water areas E of Tawitawi Island tidal flow seldom
exceeds 2 kn, but in the passages between Tawitawi Island
and the Tapul Group rates of 6 kn may be experienced.
Typhoon anchorage
6.34
1
Dalrymple Harbour (06°02′N, 121°19′E) (6.107).
CHAPTER 6
172
TANJUNG TERANG TO BAMBANNAN
ISLAND
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.35
1
From a position E of Tanjung Terang the route leads
generally E for about 50 miles to a position S of
Bambannan Island (5°37′N, 120°16′E).
Topography
6.36
1
Tawitawi Group of islands extend from Bongao Island
(5°01′N, 119°45′E), NE for about 58 miles to Babuan
Island and Maniacolat Island. Tawitawi Island is by far the
largest of the group. It is mountainous being of volcanic
origin. The islands of the group are mostly wooded. The N
coast of Tawitawi Island is clear of dangers except for the
shoals surrounding the Tataan Islands (6.38). Along the N
coast the island is densely forested with remarkably high
trees and bordered with ranges of low hills.
Principal marks
6.37
1
Landmarks frequently obscured by cloud:
Thumb Hill (5°05′N, 119°52′E), seen from all
directions as the frustrum of a cone. A prominent
tree on the summit is visible for a distance of
20 miles.
Mount Sibankat (5°10′N, 119°58′E), with a distinctive
caldera shaped summit. It is the middle and
highest of three peaks ranged across the middle of
the island.
2
Mount Balak Sampan (5°12′N, 120°04′E), appears
conical when viewed from E or W.
Mount Bud Bas (5°17′N, 120°07′E), a sharp-coned
summit with a small plateau on its W side.
Mount Bud Batua (5°19′N, 120°11′E), a sharp
wooded peak.
Major light:
Tanjung Terang Light (5°25′N, 119°13′E) (5.19).
Directions
(continued from 5.9 and 5.10)
6.38
1
From the position E of Tanjung Terang (5°25′N,
119°13′E) the track leads generally E to a position S of
Bambannan Island (5°37′N, 120°17′E) passing (with
positions from Kang Tipayan Diki Island (5°28′N,
120°11′E)):
N of Sanga Sanga Island (33 miles SW) (5.20),
densely wooded, thence:
N of the Tataan Islands (21 miles SW), densely
wooded and fringed with coral reefs, thence:
2
N of Kang Tipayan Diki and Kang Tipayan Dakula
Islands, coral formation heavily wooded. Shallow
salt water lagoons encumbered with mangroves lie
in the interiors of both these islands. Their
entrances dry. A coral reef fronts Kang Tipayan
Diki Island on the NE side and a sand beach lies
along the S side but Kang Tipayan Dakula is
surrounded by a reef. A shoal with a depth of
0⋅5 m over it, and a deep water channel either
side, lies midway between the islands.
3
From this position the track continues E for about
4 miles to a position S of Bambannan Island (11 miles NE).
Useful marks:
The NW edges of coral reefs fringing the Tataan
Islands (6.38) are bounded by coral barrier reefs
and, except for a shallow area between Tinagta
(6.39) and Sipayu Islands at the SW end of the
group, are dry except at HW. They form an
excellent navigational aid when approaching the
islands.
(Directions continue for Sugbai Passage at 6.56
and for the Tapul Group — N side at 6.62)
Side channel
Tataan Pass
6.39
1
Description. Tataan Pass lies between the reefs of the
Tataan Islands and the Tawitawi mainland. Sipayu Island
(5°10′N, 119°51′E) is the SW-most island of the group
lying 7 cables NE of Bugat Lapit Point. It is separated
from the other islands of the group by a channel heavily
encumbered with shoals. The remaining islands of the
group are all lying on the barrier reef which trends NE
parallel to the Tawitawi coast. These islands, Cabankauan
the largest, Basun Dakulo, Basun Sibi Sibi and Tinagta are
low and wooded. There is a village on Cabankauan Island.
The remains of an abandoned settlement with an old pier
and a Spanish garrison lie near the head of a small bight
3 miles W of Bacung Point. Two reefs, 3 cables
offshore, front the cove. The S coast of Tataan Pass
consists of coral and mangrove.
Local knowledge is required for all but the E and W
entrances.
2
Directions. There are five channels leading into Tataan
Pass, the W-most of which leads close N of Bugut Lapit
Point (5°09′N, 119°50′E) with a depth of 12⋅8 m in it.
When entering Tataan Pass by this W channel steer for the
S side of Sipayu Island on an E heading and when Bagut
Lapit Point is abeam steer to pass 1 cables S of the
island. This track then leads past a patch with a depth of
7⋅6 m over it, lying 7 cables W of Sipayu Island. When
abeam of the island proceed into Tataan Pass.
3
A second channel lies close W of Tinagta Island. It is
less than 2 cables wide between the reefs, with a depth of
11 m through it and enters at the widest part of Tataan
Pass.
4
Basun Channel, close E of Basun Sibi Sibi Island, has a
least depth of 29 m and leads into the N side of Tataan
Pass. Two low, wooded islets lie on the reef on the E side
of Basun Channel. This channel is not recommended as the
edges of the reefs on either side are difficult to distinguish.
5
Nusu Tacbu Channel, with a least depth of 10⋅1 m in the
fairway. leads through the barrier reef into Tataan Pass,
1 mile E of Basun Channel. The edges of the reef on either
side are easily seen under favourable light, but care must
be taken to keep in mid-channel at the S end to avoid
shoals on either side.
6
The E entrance to Tataan Pass lies between Bacung
Point (5°14′N, 120°00′E) and the E end of the barrier reef.
The least depth in the channel is 12 m. It is entered on a
W track which trends WSW passing Bacung Point to keep
in mid-channel about 1 cables off the Tawitawi coast until
entered in Tataan Pass.
7
Anchorage. Tataan Pass provides excellent anchorage in
depths from 18 to 27 m, coral, sand and mud.
CHAPTER 6
173
Small craft channel
Manalik Channel
6.40
1
Description. Manalik Channel (5°08′N, 119°49′E) lies
between Sanga-Sanga Island and Tawitawi Island. It is
5 miles long and a width that varies from 1 mile to about
45 m at its narrowest point. The least depth in the fairway
is 1⋅4 m near Carmen Point, on the E side 1 miles from
the entrance. The channel is tortuous with several sharp
narrow turns.
2
Tidal streams in this channel attain a rate of 5 kn.
3
Directions. The passage W of Takut Mataha Reef is
deeper but it has several sharp turns and is split by a small
coral reef that dries at LW. It has depths of about 16⋅5 m
and may be used when entering from the W. The passage
E of the reef has a least depth of 5⋅5 m but is without
sharp turns and so is favoured by lighter-draughted vessels
coming from E.
4
Anchorage. Manalik Channel widens into a large bay,
the major part of which is foul. Anchorage in the channel
may be found near the centre of the bay in a depth of 7 m.
The bottom is mainly coral with mud in deeper water.
Anchorages and harbours
Tawitawi Bay
6.41
1
Description. Tawitawi Bay (5°00′N, 119°55′E) is a large
area of water between the S coast of Tawitawi Island and
the off-lying reefs and islands which includes Bongao
Island, the summit of which is prominent from all
directions being the highest in the area. Bongao Channel
separating Bongao Island from Sanga Sanga Island is
encumbered with shoals and seldom used. Sangasiapu
Island, a flat coral islet, 3 m high lies on a reef 5 miles SE
of Bongao Island. Both Sangasiapu and Laa islands are
planted with coconuts. A beacon marks the E edge of the
reef surrounding Sangasiapu Island. A large part of the W
end has depths from 22 to 37 m and is clear of all dangers.
The E end is encumbered with shoals among which are
navigable channels.
2
Directions. There are four channels leading into
Tawitawi Bay of which the NW is the most important.
Approaching from Sibutu Passage the track leads ENE
passing not less than 1 mile S of Tampat Point, the SW
extremity of Bongao Island, so avoiding the shallows which
extend S from the S side of the island. The track then
leads clear of the shoal with a depth of 10 m over it, lying
3 miles ESE of Tampat Point. Thence, from a position S
of Matos Point, the S extremity of Papahag Island, the
track leads E into the bay.
3
Sangasiapu Channel, straight and deep, lies midway
between the reef on which Sangasiapu Island and Laa
Island lie. This channel is marked with beacons on either
side
Leading beacons:
Front beacon (4°55′N, 119°46′E).
Rear beacon (4°55′N, 119°50′E).
The alignment (205°) astern of these two beacons leads
through the channel.
4
Laa Channel lies between Laa Island (4°56′N, 119°58′E)
and Tijitiji Reef. It is 1 mile wide. A bank with a depth of
less than 5⋅5 m over it, extends 2 miles N and NE from the
drying part of Tijitiji Reef. A buoy (conical, red and black
bands) marks the W side of a shoal with a depth of 5⋅5 m
over it lying 1 miles SE of Laa Island. A white sand cay
marked by a beacon lies between this shoal and the N
extremity of Tijitiji Reef.
5
Both Sangasiapu and Laa channels have been swept to a
depth of 9 m and may be used to enter Tawitawi Bay in
good visibility. The tidal streams set NE and SW at a rate
of about 3 kn.
Balseyro Channel (4°53′N, 119°55′E) lying between
Tijitiji Islands and Tijitiji Reef, has a least depth of 7⋅3 m
near its N end, but this channel is not recommended as the
tidal streams are strong.
Malum River
6.42
1
Malum River (5°05′N, 119°54′E) entered 1 mile NE of
Marukal Point, is 5 cables wide at its mouth, but inside it
narrows to a width of 30 m, which is maintained for about
3 miles. It is infested with crocodiles. The country becomes
more rugged E of the river.
2
Anchorages. There is anchorage, protected from the
swell, anywhere in Tawitawi Bay where there is sufficient
swinging room. The bottom is generally mud or sand. The
tidal streams do not run at rates of more than 2 kn.
3
Luuk Sula, an inlet bordered with mangroves is entered
between Patong point and Malaka Point (5°04′N, 119°53′E.
It provides good anchorage in depths from 7 to 11 m, mud.
Two drying reefs lying about 4 cables ENE and NNE of
Patong Point, give protection from S. These reefs,
discernible at all times, may be avoided by keeping to the
N shore. A beacon (concrete; white cylindrical topmark)
marks a shoal E of Makala Point.
4
Lubican Island, 1 miles E of Marukal Point, is
connected to the S side of Tawitawi Island by a drying
mud and sand reef. The island is low, flat and partly
cultivated. Paragan Island, 5 cables NE of Lubican Island,
is fringed by a coral reef that almost closes the narrow
channel separating it from Tawitawi Island but there is
anchorage in Parangan Bay between the island and Bunay
Bunay Island, in depths from 15 to 18 m, mud. This
anchorage is rather more exposed than that at Luuk Bay,
but it is nearer to Balimbing village.
Batu Batu Bay
6.43
1
Batu Batu Bay (5°04′N, 119°53′E) is entered between
Malaka Point and Marukal Point. A beacon (wooden; white
diamond topmark) stands close inshore NW of Marukal
Point. There is a small wharf on the E side of the bay at
Batu Batu. A light (wooden tripod) is exhibited from the
pier. There is a depth of 6⋅4 m at the head of the bay.
Small craft
Port Languyan
6.44
1
Description. The coast between the NE end of Tataan
Island reef and Port Languyan (5°16′N, 120°04′E) is free
of dangers except for a patch with a depth of 7⋅6 m over it,
lying 7 cables N of Bacung Point. It is fringed with coral
and mangrove and is wooded to the HW line. The
entrance, flanked by Point Bubuaan and Point Languyan, is
difficult to recognize until close inshore. The port forms an
L-shape with the first reach of about 5 cables trending S
and the second reach trending E for about the same
distance. The whole is less than 1 cable in width and
fringed with mangroves. Depths range between 11 and
14⋅5 m but a shoal with a depth of 7⋅8 m over it, lies about
5 cables off the entrance.
CHAPTER 6
174
2
Directions. When entering vessels should keep in
mid-channel and in the port area approach the desired
anchorage.
Anchorage exists in a depth of 12⋅8 m near the turn of
the channel.
Port Bongao
Chart 927 plan of Port Bongao
General information
6.45
1
Port Bongao (5°02′N, 119°46′E) situated on Dila Point,
is one of the few ports in Sulu Archipelago. The town has
a settlement built on stilts. It has a constabulary
headquarters.
Pilotage
6.46
1
Pilotage at Port Bongao is compulsory with at least
3 days notice required by the Jolo Pilots Association.
Directions
6.47
1
Enter Tawitawi Bay following the direction given in
6.41 and when S of Matos Point (5°02′N, 119°48′E) steer
to enter Aguada Bay on a NW track keeping Port Bongao
Light ahead. The narrow approach channel to Port Bongao,
entered through Aguada Bay, lies between the reefs
extending E from Bongao Island and W from Papahag
Island, with a least depth of 5⋅8 m in it. Several charted
dangers lie in the fairway.
2
Chongos Bay (5°02′N, 119°49′E) is entered from S
passing E of Maangit Point, the E extremity of Papahag
Island, densely wooded with sand and coral on the S and
SW coasts and bordered by mangrove on the N coast,
giving a berth of about 2 cables until Panihugan Point on
the N side of the channel, bears W. Approach Port Bongao
from Chongos Bay through Sanga Sanga channel, where
the least depth is 11⋅3 m, keeping to the mid-channel to
avoid shoals extending from the shores on either side. At
its narrowest part this channel is cable wide between the
shoals. The safe track through this channel will lead
directly to the anchorage NW of Bongao Wharf.
Anchorages
6.48
1
Anchorage, exists Aguada Bay, in a depth of 13 m, sand
and coral, 8 cables SSE of the light and 7 cables W of
Matos Point, the S extremity of Papahag Island. It is
exposed to the S.
Another anchorage is located 2 cables N of Port Bongao
Light-tower, in a depth of 13 m as shown on the chart.
There is anchorage in Chongos Bay S of Malasa Point
(5°03′N, 119°48′E), in a depth of 22 m, mud but it is
exposed to the SE.
Pandan Bay, N of Chongos Bay, offers another
anchorage near its head in a depth of 20 m.
Berths
6.49
1
There is a concrete wharf 15 m long with a depth of
4⋅3 m alongside, connected to the shore by a narrow
causeway on the NW side of Dila Point, but there is little
manoeuvring room on the approach.
A wooden T-shaped pier 14 m long, with a depth, in
1989, of 3⋅5 m alongside, is situated 2 cables SW of Port
Bongao Light. Two concrete posts stand on a short
causeway leading to the pier.
Port services
6.50
1
Other facilities: post; radio station; hospital.
Communications. Sanga Sanga airstrip situated 2 miles
WNW of Bongao with twice weekly flights to Zamboanga.
Small craft
6.51
1
Anchorage exists NW of Bongao Wharf in depths from
4 to 9 m.
Small craft
US Chart 72150 (see 1.18)
6.52
1
Moco Cove (5°14′N, 120°00′E), a shallow indentation
on the N coast of Tawitawi Island 1 miles E of Bacung
Point providing sheltered anchorage. The coast is fringed
with coral and mangrove.
2
Maranang Bay (5°14′N, 120°02′E) is a shallow
indentation on the N coast of Tawitawi Island providing
sheltered anchorage. The coast is fringed with coral and
mangrove.
3
Tarinen Point (5°21′N, 120°12′E), the N extremity of
Tawitawi Island, is steep-to and clear of dangers. It is
bordered with coral and mangroves and is wooded to the
HW line. Three small coves provide shelter.
SUGBAI PASSAGE
General information
Chart 928
Description
6.53
1
Description. Sugbai Passage (5°24′N, 120°30′E) lies E
of Tawitawi Island, 4 miles wide and encumbered with
numerous shoals. It is entered between Cacatan Island and
Sugbai Island and leads between the islands into the
Celebes Sea.
Topography
6.54
1
Between Sugbai Passage and the E side of Tawitawi
Island are numerous islands and islets with channels
between them some of which are navigable and provide
safe anchorage. The islands on the E side separate Sugbai
Passage from Tapaan Passage (6.63).
Tidal streams
6.55
1
There is no reliable tidal information for Sugbai Passage
but it is probable that the streams set about the times
CHAPTER 6
175
tabulated for the Basilan Strait Admiralty Tide Tables. In
the narrower straits rates are likely to be as tabulated and
in more open waters to be about half that rate. Heavy
tide-rips are experienced in unfavourable weather conditions
anywhere in Sugbai Passage. These are generally heaviest
where the depths increase or decrease abruptly.
Directions
(continued from 6.38)
6.56
1
From the position S of Bambannan Island (5°37′N,
120°17′E) the track leads generally SE, passing (with
positions from Bambannan Island (5°37′N, 120°17′E)):
2
NE of Tumbagaan Island (14 miles S), partially
wooded. There are rocky cliffs on its E and W
ends and at points along the N coast. A
well-defined hill 122 m high stands on the E end
of the island. A lagoon with a depth of 0⋅3 m over
its entrance, is situated at the W end of the N side.
Several villages stand along the coastline. Boso
Dohonan, two rocks, lie 5 cables SE of the S
extremity of Tumbagaan Island. Another rock 1 m
high, lies 5 cables S of the same point. Thence:
3
Between two shoals (12 and 12 miles SSE) with
depths of 11 m and 11⋅4 m respectively over them,
thence:
SW of Cacatan Island (13 miles SSE), flat and
forested, from which a spit extends from the N
side. The coast is fringed with coral and sand.
Thence:
4
NE of Basbas Island (not named on chart) (18 miles
S), densely wooded, is separated from the N
extremity of Tawitawi Island by Basbas Channel.
A very prominent umbrella shaped palm tree
stands on the summit of the island. A village
stands on the W side of the island. Thence:
5
NE of Sugbai Island (14 miles SSE), with twin
peaks densely wooded. Rocky cliffs front the N
and E sides. A large lagoon with no entrance, is
situated on the S side of the island which is
uninhabited. The E half of the island appears as a
flat ridge but the W slopes gradually towards the
W shore where there is a prominent hill. Thence:
6
SW of a shoal (17 miles SE) with a depth of 10⋅5 m
over it, thence:
NE of Pandanan Island (20 miles SSE), and:
NE of Calupag Island (not named on chart) (22 miles
S), 84 m high, being the only island in the vicinity
not densely wooded. A small islet 6 m high lies
3 cables N of Capalug Island.
NE of Tancolaluan Island (22 miles SSE). Twin
rocks 1 m high, lie 2 cables W of the island.
Thence:
7
SW of Mid-Channel Bank (17 miles ESE), sand and
coral with a least depth of 1⋅8 m over it which
with shoals of greater depth are often difficult to
distinguish. A rock, awash, lies in the middle of
the bank. Thence:
8
SW of Maniacolat Island (20 miles SE), densely
wooded with a prominent peak appearing conical
from all directions except E and W. A village
stands on the E shore where a prominent spire is a
useful mark. The island is steep-to except on the S
shore. Thence:
9
SW of Bubuan Island (23 miles SE). A shallow
lagoon lies in the middle of the island. A narrow
entrance on the W side, has a depth of 2 m in it.
A steep rocky cliff rises on the E point of the
island but the remainder is low-lying swamp
covered with mangrove. Coconuts are cultivated
along the E and SE shores. Laum Babua, the only
village, stands on the S side of entrance to the
lagoon. Thence:
10
NE of Magpeos island (25 miles SSE), steep, rocky,
heavily wooded, rising to a sharp cone. A reef
encumbered with rocks up to 8 m high extends
1 cables from the E side of the island. Twin
pinnacle rocks, 4 m high lie close W of the SW
extremity of the island. Thence:
NE of Tagao Island (26 miles SE), steep-to on the N
and W sides the coast elsewhere is fringed with
coral and sand, thence:
11
NE of the Kinapusan Islands (33 miles SE),
consisting principally of Tabauan Island,
Bintaualan Island and Kinapusan Island, all of
which are low and densely wooded. All three
islands are populated. Fishing is the chief
occupation.
12
From this position the track continues SE into the
Celebes Sea.
(Directions for routes through the Celebes Sea refer
to Indonesia Pilot Volume II)
Anchorages and harbours
Tabalunga Island
6.57
1
Description. Tabulunga Island (not named on chart)
(5°19′N, 120°13′E), separated from the E side of Tawitawi
Island by Himba Channel which is foul and intricate.
2
Anchorage can be had 5 cables N of the N extremity of
Tabulunga Island. There is a depth of 14⋅6 m in the fairway
of Basbas Channel as far S as the anchorage.
Tabauan Island
6.58
1
Description. Tabauan Island (5°13′N, 120°35′E) lies on
a partially drying reef which extends 1miles from its S
side. Nusa Island lies on the SE edge of the reef and Licud
Tabauan Island lies close off the S side of Tabauan Island.
Directions. The channel between Loran Island (6.78)
and Tabauan Island is 2 miles wide, with a least depth in
the fairway of 11⋅3 m, but a depth of 18 m can be followed
by keeping to the W side of the channel. The edges of the
reef on either side dry at various stages of the tide, except
SE of Manote Island. This channel is preferable to the
others leading through this chain of islands. The high
ground on Loran Island is a good landmark.
2
Anchorage. There is fair anchorage in a depth of 24 m,
with the W extremity of Guitong Village on the N side of
Tabauan Island, bearing 160° distant 7 cables.
NORTH−WEST OF TAPUL GROUP —
BAMBANNAN ISLAND TO AGUIRRE BANK
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.59
1
From a position S of Bambannan Island (5°37′N,
120°17′E) the route leads NE for about 45 miles to a
position WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N, 120°50′E) (6.30).
CHAPTER 6
176
Topography
6.60
1
A group of nine islands and numerous dangers lie
between the islands described in 6.9 and Tawitawi Islands.
They extend from Bambannan Island to Dammai Island,
12 miles NE. They are of coral atoll formation, about 2 m
high and densely wooded with trees from 18 to 30 m high.
The S side of these islands, except for Biligan Island, are
fringed with steep coral or coral sand beaches which
provide good landing for boats. The other sides are fringed
with mangrove and strewn with rocks or bounded by coral
barrier reef.
2
The Tapul Islands, a group of four large and several
smaller islands lying between Tapaan Passage and Jolo
Island, 30 miles NNE, are rugged, fertile and well
cultivated.
Principal marks
6.61
1
Landmarks:
Gorro Peak (5°32′N, 120°51′E), near the centre of
Siasi Island, has a prominent clump of dark trees
at its summit.
Mount Biubugnan (5°41′N, 120°49′E), the summit of
Lugus Island (6.94) covered with tall grass
contrasting with the surrounding hills all of which
are tree covered to the peaks.
Mount Dakut (5°44′N, 120°54′E), covered with tall
grass to the summit, the lower slopes being
wooded.
2
Major lights:
Jolo Mole Light, (6°04′N, 121°00′E) (6.23).
North Ubian Island Light, (6°10′N, 120°28′E) (6.8)
Directions
(continued from 6.38)
6.62
1
From a position S of Bambannan Island (5°37′N,
120°17′E) the track leads NE, passing (with positions from
Tubalubac Island (5°59′N, 120°25′E)):
2
SE of Bambannan Island (22 miles SSW). About
1 mile in diameter, the interior is planted with
coconut palms. The shores are bordered with coral,
rocks and boulders, except the N shore where
mangroves grow to the HW line. The island is
settled by Moros but the water supply is brackish.
Lahatlahat Island, Walan Island and Dassan Island
lie on the same bank extending 7 miles NE from
Bambannan Island. Thence:
3
SE of Mamanuc Island (19 miles SSW). Coconut
Palms grow on its SW side. The N and NE shores
are coral-bound but the S side is a steep sandy
beach. Thence:
4
SE of Dasaan Island (15 miles S), low and wooded,
lying on the same reef and contiguous with
Singaan Island. There is a narrow channel between
these two islands but recommended for use only
by local small craft. Thence:
5
SE of Dammai Island (11 miles S) (6.24), thence:
SE of Tubalubac Island (6.24), thence:
SE of Apo Lambu Reef (3 miles E) (6.24), thence:
SE of Basbas Island (6 miles ENE) (6.24), thence:
NW of Sulade Island (24 miles SE), (6.70), thence:
6
SE of Cunilan Island (9 miles NNE) (6.24), thence:
SE of Usada Island (12 miles NNE) (6.18)
From this position the track continues NE for about
5 miles to a position WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N,
120°50′E).
(Directions continue for Pangutarang Reef — S side at 6.30)
Side channels
Tapaan Passage
6.63
1
Description. Tapaan Passage (5°30′N, 120°40′E) lies on
the NW side of a group of islands, the principal of which
are Cacatan Island (6.56), Maniacolat Island (6.56) and
Bubuan Island (6.56). It is 7 miles wide between Bubuan
Island on the W and Tapaan Island on the E but two shoals
lie in the fairway with a clear passage on either side of
them. It is a convenient passage for sailing vessels as the
tidal streams which attain rates of 3 to 7 kn, set fairly
through it. In light winds a vessel might anchor to await
the change of tide. There is, however, no reliable tidal
information for Tapaan Passage but it is probable that tidal
streams set about the times tabulated for Basilan Strait in
Admiralty Tide Tables.
2
Directions. Entering Tapaan Passage from NW the track
leads generally SE passing in mid-channel, (with positions
from Maglumba Island (5°28′N, 120°36′E)):
Between Crest of the Wave Shoal (5 miles N), sand
and coral, distinguishable by tide-rips and water
discolouration, and Parangan Islands (3 miles
NNW), two islets the E-most 27 m high, conical
and grass-covered, the other, low and flat-topped,
with a reef extending E, thence:
3
NE of Maglumba Island, lying close off the NE
extremity of Maniacolat Island upon which is a
prominent spire. And:
NE of Bubuan Island (3 miles SSW), (6.56), thence:
In mid-channel between Tapaan Shoal (4 miles SE)
and Tapaan Island (5°28′N, 120°44′E), the
SW-most of the Tapul Group. It is low with a
shallow lagoon protected from the W by a steep-to
barrier reef. Bullasan Point is its N extremity.
4
From this position the track continues SE into the
Celebes Sea.
(Directions continue for routes through Celebes Sea in Indonesia Pilot Volume II)
Passage South−west of Jolo Island
6.64
1
Description. A passage leads SE for about 25 miles
between Jolo Island and the islands of the Tapul Group.
Bunga Point (5°55′N, 120°53′E), the SW extremity of Jolo
Island is fringed with coral extending up to a mile offshore
as it does along the S coast of the island which is
otherwise clear of dangers. Waters in the channel are deep
and free of dangers. Any shoals lie with the direction of
the channel and are steep-to.
2
Tidal streams. Tidal streams follow the direction of the
coast and attain rates of 5 kn in the narrower channels. In
the channel between Jolo Island and Tapul Group, the
streams set NW and E at rates slightly less than the
tabulated values for Basilan Strait in Admiralty Tide Tables.
The starting times and maximum rate of the NW-going
stream are tabulated but the maximum stream in the E
direction occurs 1 hours before the tabulated times.
3
Tidal streams between Sulade Island and Jolo Island set
NW and SE attaining a rate of 5 kn. Those between Pata
Island and Taluc Island set NW and SE, and attain a rate
CHAPTER 6
177
of 2 kn. The streams between Pata Island and Dongdong
Island set in similar directions, and attain rates of 3 kn.
4
Directions. From a position NNW of Sulade Island the
track leads generally SE, passing (with positions from Taluc
Island (5°44′N, 120°00′E)):
NE of Sulade Island (14 miles NW) (6.70), thence:
5
SW of Cabalian Point (10 miles NNW), the W limit
of Maimbung Bay (6.71) off which lies Batolaqui
Bank with a drying rock 5 cables S of Cabalian
Point, thence:
6
SW of Teomabal Island (7 miles N), low and fringed
with coral. A large lagoon, which nearly dries is
entered through the fringing reef on the NE side.
Teomabal Island lies on the NW end of a bank
extending 5 miles SE with a least depth of 6⋅9 m
(on Chart 927). Tide-rips break over this bank.
Another, more extensive bank lies parallel but
2 miles SW with a least depth of 13⋅7 m over it.
Thence:
7
SW of Patian Island (3 miles E). There is a lake on
the island. Lumbian Island, also with a lake, lies
close E of Patian Island. Garcia Shoal with a depth
of 6⋅4 m over it, lies 2 cables SW of Lumbian
Island. Thence:
8
NE of the extensive reef on which lie Taluc Island at
the NW extremity and Cabingaan Island at the SE
extremity. These two islands are low-lying and
almost entirely covered with mangrove. Sibabag, a
Moro settlement built on piles on the reef, lies
midway between the two islands. A boat passage
leads to the settlement from the E side of the reef.
Clumps of mangrove grow on the reef between the
islands. And:
9
SW of Pata Island (5°49′N, 121°10′E). The high parts
of the island are covered with tall grass, the lower
slopes are wooded with some patches of cultivated
ground. A coral reef extends 2 miles from the E
side of the island.
10
From this position the track continues SE for about
21 miles to a position SSE of Kamawi Island (5°49′N,
121°13′E) thence continuing SE into the Celebes Sea..
(Directions continue for routes through Celebes Sea in Indonesia Pilot Volume II)
Parang Harbour
General information
6.65
1
Parang Harbour (5°55′N, 120°54′E), 1 miles ESE of
Bunga Point, fronts the town of Parang which is the largest
on the S coast of Jolo Island. It is the business centre of
the most populated section of the island. Parang is built on
piles over the water. It is a Sub Port of Entry. Parang
Island lies on a bank. 4 cables SE of Bunga Point.
Directions
6.66
1
Approach from the NW is direct and free of hazards
passing in mid-channel between Bunga Point, the SW
extremity of Jolo Island and Sulade Island (6.70).
Approaching from the SE follow the directions given in
(6.64) in reverse.
Anchorage
6.67
1
There is anchorage in a depth of 16 m, coral sand,
3 cables offshore, with the prominent galvanised iron roof
of a store bearing 010° and Tubingant Point, 3 miles SE of
Bunga Point, bearing 130°. The anchorage is exposed to
the SW monsoon (May to September) Fish traps may be
encountered close to the anchorage.
Berths
6.68
1
Parang Pier is an L-shaped concrete structure, 12 m
wide, which extends 38 m WSW and then 75 m NW. A
rock causeway leads to the pier. Pile clusters stand at
intervals along the inner leg and one third of the way to
the pierhead. Depths alongside are reported to be 9⋅8 to
11⋅3 m on the S side of the outer leg and 4⋅3 to 5⋅8 m on
the N side. Depths alongside the pilings of the S side of
the inner leg are reported to be 6⋅1 to 9⋅6 m and 1⋅2 to
3⋅0 m on the N side.
2
A group of buoys is laid about 3 cables S of Parang
Pier.
Anchorages and harbours
Pandami Island
6.69
1
Description Pandami Island (5°33′N, 120°45′E), low and
sandy, is planted with coconut palms. The channel between
this island and the much larger Lapac Island (6.88) is foul
at its N end.
2
Anchorage exists in depths from 13 to 22 m, sand and
coral, S and W of Pandami Island.
Sulade Island
6.70
1
Description. Sulade Island (5°50′N, 120°47′E) swampy,
2 miles across consisting of sand and coral surrounding a
shallow lagoon into which boats can pass through a
channel on the S side at HW.
2
Anchorage. There is anchorage protected from the NE
monsoon (October to March), over the bank extending from
the W side of the island in depths of 10⋅5 m, coral sand.
Chart 927
Maimbung Bay
6.71
1
Description. Maimbung Bay (5°53′N, 121°00′E) is
bounded on the W side by Cabalian Point and on the E
side by Putic Point. The bay is about 8 miles wide forming
a rough triangle with the township of Maimbung in the
N-most corner standing on piles on the banks of Maimbung
River which has a depth over the bar of 0⋅3 m. Mount
Matatal stands 1 miles NNW of the town. Mount Talipao
stands 8 miles ENE of Cabalian Point A prominent
building with a dome stands close S of Maimbung town.
The smaller townships of Maratsan, Lerong, and, close to
Putic Point, Bangcowan, stand along the coast which is
fronted by a narrow coral reef. Batoliqui Bank, coral with
drying patches and extensive shallows with depths of 3⋅3 to
9⋅1 m over them lie close SE of Cabalian Point separated
by a narrow channel with a depth of 11 m in the fairway.
Dry Bank and Marban Bank are the largest of a group of
isolated shoals encumbering the approaches to Maimbung.
The E side of the coast is covered with mangrove but the
W side, cultivated with coconut palms, is backed by dense
woodlands over the flanks of Mount Tukay, Mount
Mabigtang and Mount Silangan. Depths in the bay vary
between 18 and 47 m.
2
Tidal streams. inside the shoals of Maimbung Bay are
negligible, but in the offing the streams are strong and
irregular. The streams set E and W, and change from
between and 2 hours after the times of HW and LW by
the shore.
CHAPTER 6
178
3
Directions. Two channels lead to the anchorage off
Maimbung Town. The E and better channel, about 4 cables
wide, leads between Marban Bank and the E shore of the
bay. An isolated patch with a depth of 8⋅8 m over it lies
2 cables NNE of Marban Bank, and another shoal with a
depth of 9 m lies 4 cables NNE of the same bank.
Passage in a least depth of 13 m can be taken either side of
this latter shoal directly into the anchorage.
Local knowledge is required to navigate the W channel
between Marban Bank and Dry Bank.
4
Anchorage. There is anchorage anywhere in Maimbung
Bay. But the usual anchorage is 6 cables S of the town in
a depth of 12 to 18 m, coral sand, with the middle of Dry
Bank bearing 230°. Smaller vessels may anchor directly off
the mouth of Maimbung River in a depth of 13 m, mud
and sand.
5
Anchorage may also be obtained on the E side of Patian
Island, (6.64) lying 1 miles S of Putic Point in depths
from 16 to 18 m but local knowledge is required.
These anchorages give good shelter during the NE
monsoon (October to March), but are exposed to heavy
squalls during the SW monsoon (May to September).
Chart 928
Tutu Bay
6.72
1
Description. Tutu Bay (5°53′N, 121°10′E) is bounded
on the W side by Putic Point (6.71) and on the E side by
Tutu Point. The N part of Tutu Bay is encumbered with
shoals and reefs There are several villages on the shore of
Tutu Bay including Kulay-Kulay and Karungdong. The bay
is about 9 miles wide forming a rough circle with the
chain of islands and islets that bound its S side. These
include Villamil Rock, steep-to, lying 7 cables S of Putic
Point. Damocan Island is separated from Pata Island (6.64),
the largest of this chain, by a deep water channel 5 cables
wide. Contiguous with Pata Island, on the same coral reef,
but separated from it by a narrow channel through dense
mangrove, lies Kamawi Island. Tanquique Rock lies on the
edge of the reef S of Kamawi Island. The E-most island of
the chain is Dongdong Island, low, sandy and, in parts,
planted with coconut palms. It is separated from the NE
side of Pata Island by a deep, clear water channel 5 cables
wide between the shoals on either side. Tambulian Island
lies 7 cables NNW of Dongdong Island. It is fringed by a
drying reef which extends 4 cables from the SE side.
2
Anchorage. There is anchorage anywhere in Tutu Bay,
clear of the shore reefs and Serantes Shoal with a least
depth of 2⋅7 m over it, lying 5 cables from the W shore of
the bay, 2 miles NE of Putic Point. Another shoal with a
depth of 3⋅7 m over it, lies in the middle of a small bay
NE of Mabojok Point. Small craft may anchor in the bay N
of Tutu Point but the fringing coral reefs extend 6 cables
offshore. There is a landing at Pangdan-Pangdan, a village
close N of Tutu Point.
SOUTH−EAST OF TAWITAWI GROUP —
SIBUTU PASSAGE TO KINAPUSAN ISLAND
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.73
1
From a position ENE of Salaug Lighthouse (4°35′N,
119°28′E) the route leads ENE for about 71 miles to a
position SSE of Kinapusan Islands (5°13′N, 120°40′E).
Topography
6.74
1
The S coast of Tawitawi Island is flat, fringed with coral
and bordered with mangrove. The chain of reefs, islands
and islets enclosing Tawitawi Bay (6.41) form an almost
continuous barrier with six channels between them. At the
SE end of Tawitawi Island the chain continues E for about
20 miles with numerous islands and islets lying on five
isolated but contiguous reefs terminating at the SE end of
Sugbai Passage (6.53).
Tidal streams
6.75
1
The S side of the entire barrier reef falls away steeply to
great depths giving rise to tide-rips where inter-island
passages meet this sudden change in depth. These occur
most notably in Sibutu Passage (5.16), and around the
Kinapusan Islands at the SE end of Sugbai Passage.
2
Tidal streams among the shoals and islands on the S
side of Tawitawi Bay set NW with the in-going stream, but
deviate to conform to definite channels. The streams are
weak and irregular SE of Tawitawi Bay.
3
In the passages W of the Kinapusan Islands tidal
streams flow parallel with the axes of the channels, but N
of these passages they are deviated W with the N-going
stream. In the area between the Kinapusan Islands and
Tagao Island, the streams set WNW and ESE.
Principal marks
6.76
1
Landmarks:
Mount Sibankat (5°10′N, 119°58′E) (6.37).
Mount Baliungan (5°10′N, 120°13′E), is the summit
of Baliungan Island (6.82).
2
Major light:
Saluag Island Light (4°35′N, 119°28′E) (5.24).
Directions
(continued from 5.20)
Sibutu Passage to Mantabuan Island
6.77
1
From the position ENE of Salaug Lighthouse (4°35′N,
119°28′E) the track leads ENE passing (with positions from
Mount Baliungan (5°10′N, 120°13′E)):
SSE of Manuk Manka Island (31 miles SW) (5.20),
thence:
SSE of Tijitiji Reef (25 miles WSW), the greater part
of which dries, is separated from the E side of
Simunul Island by Simunul Channel 1 miles wide
and deep, the edges of which can easily be seen.
And:
2
SSE of Tijitiji Islands (20 miles WSW) is a chain
of islets, low, flat, and of coral formation with an
abrupt coastline. It is densely wooded though some
trees have been cleared for cultivation, thence:
3
SSE of Bilatan Island (16 miles SW), low, flat and
densely wooded and of coral formation. It lies on
an extensive reef that extends 6 miles SW and
4 miles N. The island is settled though the only
fresh water supply is from puddles in the interior.
Biloc-Biloc Reef is a continuation of the reef N of
Bilatan Island and forms the S side of Balimbing
Channel. Dulangdulang Rocks, 4 m high, marks
the NW edge of of the reef, and are good
landmarks for entering the channel from W. The N
and E edges of the reef are steep-to and
well-defined. A rock awash, lies on a spit 7 cables
W of the rocks. Thence:
CHAPTER 6
179
4
SSE of Basibuli Reef (11 miles WSW), an isolated
reef with a deep channel into Tawitawi bay on
either side of it. Basibuli Islets are a group of
coral rocks lying near the middle of this reef.
Panam Pangan Island, small and sandy, lies on the
NE side of the reef. These uninhabited islets are
covered with trees and vegetation. Mundi Rocks,
two small coral rocks, 5 m high, lie on the edge of
the reef 2 miles NNE of Panam Pangan Island.
Thence:
5
SSE of Banaran Island (9 miles SW) (6.84)
From this position the track continues ENE to a position
SSE of Mantabaun Island (8 miles S), where most of the
villages lie along the N coast. The island is well cultivated.
Mantabuan Island to Kinapusan Islands
6.78
1
From the position SSE of Mantabaun Island the track
continues ENE passing (with positions from Mount
Baliungan (5°10′N, 120°13′E)):
SSE of Latuan Island (5 miles SSE), low, flat and
covered with dense forest inland with a fringe of
coconut palms along the shore. The island is
surrounded by a coral reef drying at LW. On the S
and E sides the reefs are steep-to. Thence:
2
SSE of Secubun Island (6 miles SE), a heavily
populated island that is low, flat and widely
cultivated. Extensive coral reefs surround the
island and dry at LW. On the N side a barrier reef
looks like a broken wall along the edge of the
reef. Thence:
3
SSE of Tandabato Island (5 miles ENE), densely
wooded. The coasts are fringed with mangrove and
coral reefs. The island is inhabited by Moros in a
village standing on the E side. Tandabato Island is
separated from Tawitawi Island by Gallo Malo
Channel, which is encumbered with shoals.
Thence:
4
SSE of Tandubas Island (7 miles E), which is low,
flat and mostly cultivated. Coconut palms line the
shore but the interior is cultivated with edible
crops. Tandubas and Secubun Islands are
contiguous, lying on the same reef. The channel
between them is narrow and shoal and can only be
used by small local craft at HW. Thence:
5
SSE of Taruk Island (8 miles NE), thickly wooded, is
separated from Tandubato Island by a channel with
a depth of 2⋅4 m in it. There are extensive reefs in
the NW entrance to the channel and off the N side
of the island.
6
SSE of Tacutboata Reef (11 miles E), which dries
0⋅6 m, and:
7
SSE of Bacutcut Bank (13 miles E), drying at LW.
Numerous rocky islets and sand cays are scattered
near the edges of the bank. A lone cluster of
rocks, 4⋅6 m high, lie in the centre of the bank.
Numerous rocks and islets lie on Bacutcut Bank
including Tabuan Island, the largest of a group of
rocks and islets near the SE end, Lijatlijat Rocks,
1 m high, near the N extremity and Celandet Islets
6 to 15 m high on the NE edge. Panolean Islets,
the highest 15 m high, lie at the S extremity.
Thence:
8
SSE of South Ubian Island (17 miles E), fringed by a
coral reef. Several islets, 2 m high, lie on the SE
edge of the reef. The island is the best cultivated
and the most densely populated in the vicinity. The
W side of the passage between Bacutcut Bank and
South Ubian Island has a least depth of 7⋅8 m. The
reefs on either side can usually be distinguished.
9
SSE of Loran Island (18 miles E), inhabited and
cultivated. Manote Island, lies on the reef
extending 6 cables from the S side of Loran Island.
Rocks about 1 m high, lie on the fringing reef at
the NW end of Loran Island. There is a least
depth of 5 m in the fairway, which is 2 cables
wide between South Ubian Island and Loran
Island.
10
From this position the track continues ENE for about
6 miles to a position SSE of Kinapusan Islands. (6.56)
(Directions continue for Tapul Group — SE side at 6.88)
Side channels
Salang Channel
6.79
1
Description. Latuan Island (5°04′N, 120°16′E), Secubun
Island and Tandubas Island are separated from Mantabuan
Island by Salang Channel. The channel is 1 mile wide, with
a least depth of 11 m in the fairway, but several patches,
with depths of 7⋅6 to 9⋅1 m over them, lie at the inner end.
Sebahan Bahan Channel
6.80
1
Description. Sebahan Bahan Channel (5°06′N,
120°16′E) lies between Latuan Island and Secubun Island.
It is narrow and tortuous with a least depth of 22 m. The
tidal streams are strong but the reefs on either side are
easily seen.
Cambacamba Channel
6.81
1
Description. Cambacamba Channel (5°12′N, 120°23′E)
lies between Bacutcut Bank (6.78) and the reef surrounding
Calaitan Islands. It is 2 miles long and 1 cables wide at
its narrowest part. It has a depth of 16⋅5 m. This channel is
considered inferior to that of South Ubian Island for deeper
draught vessels.
Tidal streams in the channel set at a maximum rate of
6 kn.
2
Directions. To enter from the N pass between
Tandungan and Pasegan Guimba or between the two
Pasegan Islands. The W side of the channel should be
favoured near the N entrance and the centre near the S
entrance. Tide-rips are experienced at the S entrance. This
channel should not be navigated at night.
Small craft channels
6.82
1
Baliungan Island (5°10′N, 120°12′E), is fringed with
mangroves. It is separated from Tawitawi Island by
Mlariguina River, a channel, which is reported to have
depths of 5⋅5 m. Mount Sipusok, 324 m high, is the summit
of Baliungan Island, located on the E side. The W side of
the island is low.
Cava Island, and three other islets, lie on the edge of the
reef extending from the E side of Baliungan Island.
2
Salang Salangan Channel (5°14′N, 120°21′E) lies
between Tandungan (Dundangan) Island, 116 m high near
CHAPTER 6
180
the W end, which is heavily wooded. and Naunghn Island,
152 m high, flat-topped and heavily wooded. Villages stand
on the E and W sides. The channel is narrow with a safe
depth of 2 m. There are submerged rocks in the channel
and in its E approach. An Islet 53 m high, lies off the W
end of the channel.
3
Calaitan Channel (5°12′N, 120°21′E) separates the
Calaitan Islets from Tandungan Island. The channel is
navigable only by craft with less than 2 m draught.
4
Bintaualan Island and Kinapusan Island (5°13′N,
120°40′E) lie on the same reef separated from Tabauan
Island reef by a channel 1 mile wide, with a depth of 5⋅5 m
in the fairway. Many islets, 1 to 2 m high, lie on the edge
of the reef surrounding these islands.
Anchorages and harbours
Tandugan Channel
6.83
1
Description. Tandugan Channel (5°14′N, 120°19′E)
between Taruk Island and Tandubato Island on the W, and
Calupag Island, Naunghn Island and Tandugan Island on
the E, has a least width of 3 cables. There are numerous
reefs on either side of the fairway. The channel provides
shelter from heavy seas during the SW monsoon (May to
September).
2
A channel leads from Tandugan Channel into the E side
of Tawitawi Bay passing close S of Tandugan Island. It is
narrow and very intricate.
The NW-going tidal stream meets the N-going stream
through Tandugan Channel at about the latitude of the N
extremity of Tandugan Island.
3
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage can be had anywhere in Tandugan Channel
but it is restricted to vessels with a maximum draught of
6 m (19 ft).
Banaran Island
6.84
1
Description. Banaran Island (5°02′N, 120°07′E) lies S
of Tawitawi Island on the W end of a reef extending
8 miles E, together with the smaller islands of Sasa and
Mantabaun, provides an anchorage. However the island is
low and affords little protection from the wind. A narrow
barrier of coral rock extends along the S side of the reef
which is steep-to.
Local Knowledge is required for both routes as this part
of Tawitawi Bay is encumbered with numerous shoals
rising abruptly from depths of 9 to 18 m to within 1 m.
Some of these shoals dry at LW.
2
Directions. When approaching these anchorages,
Tawitawi Bay should be entered by the channel between
Basibuli Island and the NW end of Banaran Island
following the mid-channel.
There is good anchorage NW of Banaran Island in
depths of 11 to 13 m, hard Bottom, or in 22 m, sand, NE
of the same point. The latter anchorage is protected from
the swell.
This anchorage may also be approached from the N
through Balimbing Channel (5°05′N, 119°58′E) where a
least depth of 7⋅3 m exists.
KINAPUSAN ISLANDS
TO KAMAWI ISLAND
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.85
1
From a position SSE of Kinapusan Island (5°13′N,
120°40′E) the route leads ENE for about 48 miles to a
position SSE of Kamawi Island (5°49′N, 121°13′E).
Topography
6.86
1
Lapac Island close W of, and contiguous with Siasi
Island, has two peaks, conspicuous from most points of the
compass, with a steep valley between them. Approaching
from the S however, they appear as a single cone and
should not be confused with Siasi peak, similar in
appearance but higher. Siasi Peak is surmounted by a
remarkable clump of dark trees. The lesser peak on the N
part of Lapac Island should not be mistaken for the peak
on the W end of Lugos island 8 miles farther N.
Principal marks
6.87
1
Landmarks:
Gorro Peak (5°31′N, 120°51′E) (6.61).
Mount Biubugnan (5°41′N, 120°49′E) (6.61).
Mount Dakut (5°44′N, 120°54′E) (6.61).
Directions
(continued from 6.78)
6.88
1
From the position SSE of Kinapusan Island (5°13′N,
120°40′E). the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
from Gorro Peak (5°31′N, 120°51′E)):
SSE of Tapaan Island (8 miles SW) (6.63), thence:
SSE of Lapac Island (5 miles W) with two
prominent peaks, Mount Lapac, the S peak and
Mount Sigangang the N peak, separated by a deep
valley. A rock that dries 1 m at LW, lies close off
Mimul Point, the S extremity of Lapac Island.
Several villages stand on the W coast of Lapac
Island. Lapac village stands on the E side. Luangat
Point (6.93), the N extremity of Lapac Island.
Busluc Point, 5 cables W of Luangat Point may
easily be identified by the large rocks of which it
is formed. Thence:
2
SSE of Manubul Island (5 miles SW), low and
mangrove covered lying near the S end of a reef
extending more than 3 miles from the S extremity
of Lapac Island. Manubul village, a large fishing
community, stands on the NE side. Thence:
SSE of Siasi Island, separated from the E side of
Lapac Island by a channel 3 cables wide leading to
Siasi town (6.89). The outer edge of the reef S of
Basbas Point, the S extremity of Siasi Island dries
1⋅5 m at LW. Thence:
3
SSE of a reef (6 miles SE) extending 4 miles from
the E and SE sides of Siasi Island upon which
there are numerous low, thickly wooded,
uninhabited islands and islets. Near the edge of
this reef where it dries from 1⋅2 to 1⋅8 m are the
following charted islands. Kansina Island, Paturuan
Island, Pangana Paturuan Island, Parangan Island
Sumbasumba Island, Putainga Island and Punongan
Island. Thence:
CHAPTER 6
181
4
SSE of Cabingaan Island (14 miles NE) (6.64),
thence:
SSE of Pata Island (25 miles NE) (6.64).
From this position the track continues ENE for 4 miles
to a position 20 miles SSE of Kamawi Island (5°49′N,
121°13′E).
(Directions continue in reverse for Jolo Island — N and NE sides at 6.145)
Port Siasi
Chart 927 Plan of Port Siasi
General information
6.89
1
Description. Siasi town (5°33′N, 120°49′E) is situated
on the W side of Siasi Island on the bank of the channel
between Siasi Island and Lapac Island (6.88) It is the seat
of government for the Tapul Group of islands. The town
has a Chinese community reflected in the style of a number
of the buildings. Copra and shell are the principal exports.
Limiting conditions
6.90
1
Depths. A depth of 9 m exists in the channel between
Siasi Island and Lapac Island. The S part of the channel is
only 1 cable wide between the reef off Manubul Island
(6.88) and the extensive reef which dries 0⋅6 m, off the SW
part of Saisi Island. Navigation of the south part of this
channel is restricted to smaller vessels.
Arrival information
6.91
1
Pilotage is compulsory with at least 3 days notice to
Jolo Pilots Association.
Local knowledge is required.
Harbour
6.92
1
General layout. The Town and harbour of Siasi stand
on the E shore of the channel about 1 miles inside the N
entrance, on a small promontory extending into the channel
about 3 cables. The berthing wharf extends NW from the
NW extremity of this promontory.
2
Tidal streams in the channel between Lapac Island and
Siasi Island attain a maximum rate of 5 kn., setting S and
N. During the SW monsoon (May to September) the
S-going stream is weak but with strong winds, the direction
of the streams may vary.
Directions
6.93
1
West approach. From a position S of Bambannan Island
(5°37′N, 120°17′E) the track leads E, passing (with
positions from Paragan Islands (5°30′N, 120°34′E)):
N of a shoal (8 miles WNW), with a depth of 11 m
over it, thence:
N of a shoal (5 miles NW), with a least depth of
13 m over it, reported in 1994, thence:
2
N of Crest of the Wave Shoal (5 miles NE) (6.63),
thence:
S of a shoal (8 miles NE), with a depth of 14⋅6 m
over it, thence:
S of a shoal (9 miles NE), with a depth of 18⋅3 m
over it, thence:
3
N of Sirun Island (11 miles ENE), wooded and
fringed with a reef that extends 2 cables from the
W side. A shoal with a depth of 10⋅5 m over it,
lies 1 miles NNE of Sirun Island.
From this position the track leads E for about 4 miles to
a position 1 miles N of Luangat Point (5°34′N,
120°48′E), the N extremity of Lapac Island. It is rocky and
steep-to, and may be identified by the small hill close S of
it.
6.94
1
North approach. From a position WSW of Aguirre
Bank (6°07′N, 120°50′E), the track leads S, passing (with
positions from Sulade Island (5°50′N, 120°47′E)):
W of Sulade Island (6.70), thence:
W of Bolipongpong Point (10 miles S), the SW
extremity of Lugus Island (6.61). There are several
crocodile infested brackish lakes on the island. An
extensive drying coral reef extends 1 miles E
from Lugus Island. Gondra Island, wooded, lies
close S of Lugus Island. The narrow channel
between Lugus Island and Tapul Island has a least
depth of 5⋅8 m in the fairway S of Tabunan Point,
the SE extremity of Tapul Island, but the tidal
streams in the channel attain rates of up to 6 kn.
Tapul Island is covered with grass to its summit,
the lower slopes being wooded. Coral reefs fringe
the S end of the island. Thence:
2
E of a shoal (10 miles S), with a depth of 11⋅4 m
over it, thence
E of Lugus Shoal (11 miles S), sand and coral,
thence:
W of Langon Shoal (13 miles S), sand and coral.
3
From this position the track continues S for about
2 miles to a position 1 miles N of Luangat Point (6.93).
6.95
1
East approach. From a position SSE of Kamawi Island
(5°48′N, 121°13′E) the track leads WNW, passing (with
positions from Laminusa Island (5°33′N, 120°55′E)):
SSW of Cabingaan Island (10 miles NE) (6.64). A
shoal with a depth of 14⋅6 m over it, lying
4 miles SSW of the SW extremity of Cabingaan
Island. Thence:
2
SSW of Paquia Island (9 miles NNW), is separated
from the W side of Cabingaan Island by a deep
channel about 2 cables wide. The W coast of
Paquia Island is fringed with coral and a spit, with
a depth of 3 m over it, at its outer extremity,
extends 1 miles SSE from the island. A large
Moro cemetery is situated at the N end of the
island. There is a shoal with a depth of 18⋅4 m
over it, lying 3 miles SSW of the S extremity of
Paquia Island. Sibabag, a Moro settlement built on
piles on the reef, lies midway between the two
islands. Thence:
3
NNE of Laminusa Island, low and covered with
mangroves. Laminusa village and a coconut
plantation stand on the NW point. A drying reef
extends 4 cables from the E side of the island.
North Gusun Reef, parts of which dry, lies within
7 cables of the N side of Laminusa Island. Gusun
Reef, which dries, sand and coral, usually
distinguishable, lies midway between the SW side
of Laminusa Island and Siasi Island. The passage
between them is narrow but clear of dangers.
Thence:
CHAPTER 6
182
4
NNE of Bambagan Reef (3 miles NW), a cay 1 m
high, lies 5 cables off the NE side of Siasi Island
and 1 mile S of Tara Island. Kadyajan Shoal, with
a depth of 4 m over it, lies 2 miles ESE of Tara
Island.
5
NNE of Tara Island (4 miles NW), is separated
from the N end of Siasi Island by a channel
2 cables wide, with a least depth of 14⋅6 m in
the fairway, but there is a depth of 7⋅3 m in the E
approach. A lagoon, protected on the N side by
foul ground, lies on the N side of Tara Island with
depths of 16 to 31 m in it. On the foul ground lies
Tincalan Island, 1 m high, which from a distance
resembles a canoe under sail. Thence:
6
NNE of Taratara Island (5 miles NW), lying close
NW of the NE point of Tara Island. Channels
either side of Taratara Island lead into the lagoon
but they are narrow and tortuous, suitable only for
launches.
7
From this position the track then leads WSW, passing
SSE of Sungu Shoal (7 miles NW) with a depth of 5 m
over it, then leading for about 2 miles to a position
1 miles N of Luangat Point (6.93).
6.96
1
Entering Siasi. From the position 1 miles N of
Luangat Point the track leads SE with Busbus Point ahead.
When in a position 7 cables NW of Busbus Point alter
course to bring the radio mast at Port Siasi to bear 170°.
The track continues along that line of bearing until Alican
Point is abeam. From this position continue in mid-channel
favouring the W side to avoid the shallows on the E side
until Port Siasi is reached.
2
Useful mark. A light is exhibited from a mast 5 m in
height standing at the root of the marginal wharf.
Berths
6.97
1
Anchorage berth. There is anchorage in mid-channel
SW of Siasi Pier, in depths of 11 to 15 m.
Alongside berth. A government pier 29 m in length
with a width of 12 m has a reported depth alongside of
5⋅4 m. A wooden marginal wharf 38⋅4 m long with depths
alongside of 1⋅8 to 4⋅3 m is situated S of government pier.
Port services
6.98
1
Facilities: public market; radio station maintained by the
Bureau of Telecommunications; post office; dispensary with
a government physician.
Supplies: food supplies in limited quantities; beef is
plentiful if sufficient notice is given; no gasoline or oils.
Communications. Regular small boat services are
maintained with Jolo, Zamboanga, Bongao and Sitankai.
Anchorage
Laminusa anchorage
6.99
1
Description. Laminusa anchorage (5°33′N, 120°55′E) is
well sheltered. The reef on the SW side of the anchorage
partially dries and is steep-to, but it is not easily
distinguished and should be approached with caution.
2
Tidal streams are very strong at springs, setting W and
N through the anchorage and in the reverse direction.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Anchorage may be obtained with good holding ground
between Laminusa Island and the reefs extending from the
E extremity of Siasi Island. There are depths from 11 to
16 m, sand.
AGUIRRE BANK TO SIBARUT BANK
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.100
1
From a position WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°07′N,
120°50′E) the route leads E for about 14 miles to Marongas
Island (6°07′N, 120°57′E) thence ENE for about 25 miles
to a position 7 miles WNW of Sibarut Bank (6°13′N,
121°31′E)
Topography
6.101
1
The N and NW coasts of Jolo Island are fringed with
steep-to coral reefs and the land rises in wooded slopes to
Mount Tumantangas (6.29) in the E and Mount Bahu
(6.29) in the N. The land is sparsely wooded.
A deep open bay lies SE of Igasan Point. Its shores are
composed of sand and coral beaches, with an occasional
stretch of mangrove. There are several villages along the
shores of this bay, but all trade passes through Jolo.
Eseo Bank, with a depth of 4⋅6 m over it, lies 1 mile
offshore at the head of the bay.
Principal marks
6.102
1
Landmarks:
Mount Tumantangas (6°00′N, 120°58′E) (6.29).
Mount Bahu (6°02′N, 121°06′E) (6.29).
Major light:
Jolo Mole Light (6°04′N, 121°00′E) (6.23).
Directions
(continued from 6.24)
6.103
1
From a position WSW of Aguirre Bank (6°97′N,
120°50′E) the track leads E, passing (with positions from
Minis Island (6°12′N, 121°03′E)):
S of Aguirre Bank (13 miles WSW) (6.30), thence:
N of Tulian Island (14 miles SW), cultivated, The
channel between Tulian Island and Jolo Island is
clear of dangers and is deep on the W side.
Busson Rock, awash, steep-to on its W side, lies
2 cables NW of Tulian Island. Matos Shoal with a
depth of 7⋅3 m over it, lies 2 miles S of Tulian
Island. Thence:
2
S of Cabucan Island (9 miles WSW) (6.30), thence:
S of Marongas Island (7 miles SW) (6.106), thence:
Between Pangasinan Island (9 miles WSW), and
almost entirely covered with mangrove. The S and
W coasts are fringed with sand. A 6⋅4 m shoal lies
7 cables NE of the E extremity of Pangasinan
Island, and Daingapic Point (7 miles SSW),
steep-to and fringed with coral.
3
From this position the track leads ENE, passing:
SSE of Hegad Island (3 miles SW), consisting of
barrier reef and mangrove swamp, thence:
SSE of Minis Island (6.30), thence:
4
NNW of Bancungan Island (10 miles SE). Except
for the S slopes, wooded. Bacungan Island lies
5 cables E of Igasan Point. A rock 6 m high, lies
at the outer end of a spit, 2 cables from the NW
point of the island. The channel between Bacungan
CHAPTER 6
183
Island and Jolo Island has depths from 29 to 33 m
Thence:
5
NNW of Panganaa Island (11 miles SE), wooded,
steep, rocky and uninhabited. A small flat rock of
a red colour lies close off the E side of this islet.
Thence:
NNW of Gujangan Island (15 miles ESE), Two
prominent hills are separated by a narrow strip of
low-lying land so that when seen from a distance
they appears as islands. The island is steep-to,
except on the E side, where an extensive drying
coral reef fronts a lagoon. Thence:
6
NNW of Capaul Island (23 miles SE) (6.105).
From this position the track continues ENE for about
3miles to a position 7 miles WNW of Sibarut Bank
(Directions continue for Jolo Island — NE and E sides
in reverse at 6.145 and for Sameles and Tapiantana
Groups — N sides at 6.186)
Side channels
Lahat−Lahat Passage
6.104
1
Description. Lahat-Lahat Island (6°11′N, 120°57′E) is
situated between Cabucan and Bubuan Islands. Concas Reef
with a least depth of 3⋅7 m over it lies between Bubuan
Island (6.30) and Lahat-Lahat Island so that Lahat Lahat
Passage passes either side of it. There are depths of 13 to
18 m in each of these narrow passages, but there is a patch
with a depth of 9⋅1 m in the S entrance to the W channel.
2
There is also a narrow channel between Lahat-Iahat
Island and the NE side of Cabucan Island. An 8⋅2 m shoal
lies 6 cables NW of the N extremity of Bubuan Island.
Canas Island (6.167), separated from Basilan Island by a
deep, narrow channel, lies 1 mile NW of Lahat-Lahat
Island.
Chars 927 plan of Dalrymple Harbour and Capaul Channel
Capual Channel
6.105
1
Description. Capual Island (6°02′N, 121°24′E),
separated from Jolo Island by Capual Channel is low and
wooded on the N and W sides. The coast is mostly fringed
by sandy beaches interspersed with coral ledges. A ledge,
with a depth of 3 m over its outer end, extends 4 cables N
from the NW point of the island. Capual Channel has a
least width of 2 cables and is deep with a sand and coral
bottom. Its E end is deep and free of hazards but the W
end is encumbered with a shoal with a depth of 5⋅8 m over
it. Shoals extending out from either side of the channel
make it both narrow and tortuous. Goitya Shoal with a
least depth of 2⋅7 m over it lies 1 mile NW of Capual
Island. A shoal with a depth of 5⋅5 m over it lies 5 cables
NE of Goitya Shoal. Another shoal with a depth of 3⋅2 m
over it, lies 5 cables SW of Goitya Shoal.
2
Tidal streams are strong.
Anchorage exists anywhere in Capual Channel off the S
side of Capual Island, but the area N of Lahing-Lahing
village, near the W end of the channel, seems to offer the
best protection.
Anchorages and harbours
Marongas Island
6.106
1
Description. Marongas Island (6°07′N, 120°57′E), 64 m
high at its W extremity, is elsewhere low and covered with
mangrove which borders a lagoon almost dividing the
island into two parts.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage can be found 1 cable off the coasts of
Marongas Island and Pangasinan Island (6.103) in depths of
11 to 22 m, but tidal streams are strong.
Dalrymple Harbour
6.107
1
Description. Dalrymple Harbour (6°01′N, 121°20′E) is
formed by Tulayan Island and the coast of Jolo Island.
Tulayan Island 161 m high, which is a good landmark
when approaching from the N or E, has a cone-shaped
peak. Much of the slope has been cleared of timber and
cultivated. The E and S shores are sand beach but the W
and N shores are steep and rocky. There is no fresh water
on the island. Several shoals lie between Tulayan Island
and the S shore of Dalrymple Harbour with depth of 3⋅3 to
5⋅5 m over them.
2
The SW extremity of Tulayan Island lies 5 cables NE of
Baverstock Point and between them lies White Passage, the
W entrance into Dalrymple Harbour. The width of this
passage is reduced by the bank extending N from
Baverstock Point, and numerous isolated shoal patches.
Entering by White Passage vessels should keep 2 cables
from the W and S sides of Tulayan Island but this channel
should not be used without the benefit of local knowledge.
3
Tando Bato village stands 3 cables S of Bavistock Point
and is connected to Jolo by a good road. A stone mole has
been made unusable by the ruins of a wooden pier close
beside it.
Grey Entrance, 1 miles wide between Martin Bluff and
Petley Point, which is fronted by a drying coral reef, is the
safest approach to Dalrymple Harbour.
4
Directions. Approach Dalrymple Harbour from a
position 5 cables E of Noble Point (6°02′N, 121°20′E) the
NE extremity of Tulayan Island from whence the track
leads S. Maintain a distance of 5 cables off Martin Bluff,
the E extremity of Tulayan Island to keep in mid-channel
between a shoal with a least depth of 5⋅5 m extending
3 cables SE of Martin Bluff and a shoal with a least depth
of 4⋅6 m over it lying 9 cables E of Martin Bluff.
When in a position E of Balseiro Point, the S extremity
of Tulayan Island, approach the anchorage on a W heading.
5
Anchorage. The best anchorage in Dalrymple Harbour
is SE of Tulayan Island in depth of 14⋅6 to 20 m coral
sand, but it is exposed to the NE. During strong NE winds
better protection can be found under the lee of the island.
Smaller vessels can anchor closer to Jolo Island.
Patotol Bay
6.108
1
Description. Patotol Bay (6°00′N, 121°22′E), a
landlocked bay, is entered from the Capaul Channel (6.105)
1 miles ENE. This E entrance between Bulicutin Island
and Jolo Island, is narrow and tortuous between reefs,
mudbanks and shoals on either side of the channel. The W
entrance, approached from a position N of Petley Point, has
a least depth of 3⋅7 m in it, and is clear of obstructions.
Bulicutin Island is low and swampy with a coconut grove
at the E end. Patotol Bay is surrounded by swamp fronted
on all sides by mudflats. The entrance channel, reduced by
swamp and coral, is about 90 m wide.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Tidal streams through these channels attain a maximum
rate of 2 kn.
CHAPTER 6
184
3
Anchorage. There is anchorage just inside the entrance,
in depths of 9 to 11 m, mud. Depths of less than 5⋅5 m
extend 4 cables from the head of the bay.
JOLO HARBOUR
General information
Chart 927 plan of Jolo Anchorage
Position
6.109
1
Jolo Harbour (6°03′N, 121°00′E) is situated in a bight
between Belan Point to W and Daingapic Point to NE.
Function
6.110
1
Jolo is the capital of Sulu Province which comprises the
whole of the Sulu Archipelago. It is a Customs Port of
Entry for foreign vessels. Principal imports include rice,
foodstuffs and barter goods. Copra, hemp and small
quantities of fruit are the main exports.
Topography
6.111
1
The bight in which Jolo Harbour stands is low and
fronted by mudflats and coral. Mountains rise steeply from
the foreshore. The harbour is open to N and W but the
coastal bank falls away steeply. The approach is free of
hazards. The town is well laid out and partially surrounded
by a stone wall visible from seaward. The business district
is located SW of the town outside the wall. Part of the
town is built on a long pier situated 1 cables W of the
town.
Port Limits
6.112
1
Jolo Harbour limits are contained within lines drawn
from Belan Point towards the SW extremity of Marongas
Island (6.106) extending only so far as it is intersected by
another line drawn W from Daingapic Point.
Approach and entry
6.113
1
Vessels approaching Jolo from N and E especially those
coming from Zamboanga enter Jolo Harbour between
Daingapic Point and Pangasinan Island (6.103). Vessels
from Sandakan and points W approach through Pangutaran
Passage (6.14).
Traffic
6.114
1
A total of 5456 vessels visit the port annually.
Port Authority
6.115
1
The port is administered by the Philippines Port
Authority, Port Management Unit, Jolo, Sulu, Philippines.
Limiting conditions
Deepest and longest berth
6.116
1
A concrete pier extending from a concrete causeway
(6.128).
Mean tidal levels
6.117
1
Mean spring range about 0⋅6 m: mean neap range about
0⋅3 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
6.118
1
1⋅025g/cm
3
.
Arrival information
Port operations
6.119
1
Entry is permitted only between sunrise and sunset.
Notice of ETA
6.120
1
Notice of ETA should be given 3 days in advance.
Outer anchorages
6.121
1
Foreign vessels entering Jolo port should anchor 4 miles
NW of the pier to await instructions.
Jolo anchorage, situated NE of Belan Point, is open N
and W and because the coastal bank is steep and tidal
streams strong, it is not a good anchorage. During the NE
monsoon (October to March) it may be necessary to shelter
under the lee of Marongas Island (6.106). Care must be
taken to avoid the fishtraps 2 cables NE of Belan Point.
Pilotage
6.122
1
Requests for pilotage which is compulsory, should be
communicated three days before arrival. The pilot will
board about 4 cables NW of the pier.
A customs launch assists in berthing and unberthing
provided sufficient notice is given.
Quarantine
6.123
1
Vessels subject to quarantine inspection are boarded by a
quarantine officer at the dock.
Harbour
General layout
6.124
1
A concrete pier extends from a causeway which projects
from the N gate of town. From the NE end of the NW
berthing face of this pier an L-shaped wharf extends NW,
then NE. From the SW corner of the berthing face a wharf
extends NW then SW at right-angles with a further
extension from its seaward end extending SE to enclose a
protected basin for small craft on the SW corner of the
pier.
Storm signals
6.125
1
Storm signals (see 1.59) in accordance with the
International System of Visual Storm Warning Signals are
exhibited from the weather station. See Mariner’s
Handbook.
Principal marks
6.126
1
Landmarks:
Dome of a concrete mosque, 20 m high (6°03′N,
121°00′E).
White cross, 28 m high (6°03′N, 121°00′E).
CHAPTER 6
185
Radio mast (6°03′N, 121°01′E) (two fixed red
obstruction lights), 91 m high.
2
Major Light:
Jolo Mole Light (6°04′N, 121°00′E) (6.23).
Directions for entering harbour
6.127
1
Enter the port from a position NW of Jolo Lighthouse
keeping it right ahead on which line of bearing enter the
harbour. When 5 cables from the lighthouse steer SW
towards the anchorage or for the approach to Jolo Pier. The
approach channel is about 2 cables wide between shoals on
either side. The pier should be approached from W, as
there is shoal water off its NE end.
Basins and berths
Anchorage
6.128
1
The usual anchorage for vessels not intending to proceed
alongside Jolo Pier, is NW of Jolo Lighthouse, in depths
from 22 to 26 m. Merchant ships must anchor to the W of
a line drawn 351° from the lighthouse. Warships and
vessels of the Philippines Transport Service anchor E of
this line.
Alongside berths
6.129
1
The NW seaward face of the pier is 88 m long and in
September 1989 was reported to have a depth alongside of
10⋅6 m.
The NE side is 78 m in length with depths from 3 to
9 m, the deeper water being at the N corner. The NE face
is unusable due to a sunken vessel alongside.
The SW side is 49 m long with depths of 4⋅5 to 12⋅2 m
alongside, the deeper water being at the W corner.
The SW side of the NE pier 78 m long has depths of 3
to 9 m, the deeper water being at the seaward end.
2
A private jetty has been constructed, on the NE side of
the pier, which can accept vessels with a maximum draft of
6 m. There is an associated oil depot close NE of the town.
Port services
Repairs
6.130
1
Machine shops for minor repairs.
Other facilities
6.131
1
Sulu Provincial Hospital; private doctors and dentists; no
facilities for oily waste disposal; garbage disposal; Ro-ro
berth; post office; telephone; and telegraph.
Supplies
6.132
1
Fresh water at the pier but is rationed during the dry
season; diesel oil; gasoline; kerosene and lubricating oils;
fresh provisions; ice plant and cold storage facilities.
Communications
6.133
1
Jolo Airport lies close E of the town. There is a regular
service to Manila.
Small craft
6.134
1
Anchorage has been established 1 miles NNE of Jolo
Lighthouse.
2
A small craft basin has its entrance on the SW side of
the pier which has a controlling depth of 3 m. There are
landings on its NE and NW sides.
NORTH−EAST PART OF SULU ARCHIPELAGO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 928
Area covered
6.135
1
This section covers the waters at the NE end of Sulu
Archipelago between the E coast of Jolo Island and the
Basilan Strait between the Sulu and Celebes Seas.
It is arranged as follows:
Pilas Group — west side(6.138).
Jolo — north−east and east sides (6.141).
Pilas Group — north side (6.146).
Pilas Channel (6.149).
Basilan Island — south−west side (6.156).
Basilan Island — south−west side (inshore route)
(6.163).
Tapiantana Group — south−west side (6.176).
Sameles and Tapiantana Groups — north sides
(6.183).
Samales Group — south−east side (6.192).
Tapiantana Group and Basilan Island — south−east
sides (6.196).
Basilan Island — north−west side (6.202).
Basilan City (Isabela) (6.210).
Basilan Island — north side (inshore route) (6.234).
Topography
6.136
1
The NE part of Sulu Archipelago, separated from
Mindanao by Basilan Strait, consists of groups of
mountainous islands, a few islets of atoll formation and
large areas of shoal ground. Generally the islands are
surrounded by coral and coral debris and are steep-to with
deep water channels between them.
Typhoon anchorage
6.137
1
Isabela (06°42′N, 121°58′E) (6.210).
PILAS GROUP — WEST SIDE
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.138
1
From a position NNE of Favourite Bank (6°40′N,
121°04′E) the route leads S for about 28 miles to a position
E of Teomabel Bank (6°24′N, 121°00′E).
Natural conditions
6.139
1
Tide−rips. Favourite Bank and the bank E of it, on
which Brutus Reef and the Pilas Group lie, rise sheer from
CHAPTER 6
186
the depths of the Sulu Sea. This abrupt change of depth
causes tide-rips and swirls in the channel between them,
especially during the NE monsoon (October to March), or
when the wind is against the stream.
Directions
(continued from 6.10)
6.140
1
From a position NNE of Favourite Bank (6°40′N,
121°04′E), the track leads S, passing (with positions from
Salkulakit Island (6°41′N, 121°23′E)):
E of a shoal (16 miles WNW), with a depth of
9⋅1 m over it, thence:
W of Brutus Reef (5 miles NW), thence:
2
W of Lakit Islands (1 mile NW), a group of three
islets between 11 and 24 m high, small and rocky,
thence:
W of Salkulakit Island, 18 m high, thence:
E of Favourite Bank (19 miles W), thence:
W of Mindoro Shoals (7 miles SSE), thence:
3
E of Pangutarang Reef (26 miles WSW) (6.10).
From this position the track continues S for about
9 miles to a position E of Teomabal Bank (6°24′N,
121°00′E)
(Directions continue for passage NE and E of Jolo Island at 6.145 and 6.148)
JOLO ISLAND — NORTH−EAST
AND EAST SIDES
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.141
1
From the position E of Teomabal Bank (6°24′N,
121°00′E) the route leads SE for about 28 miles to a
position NE of Bitinan Island thence the track leads S for a
distance of about 33 miles to a position 20 miles SSE of
Kamawi Island (5°49′N, 121°13′E).
Topography
6.142
1
Jolo Island, being of volcanic origin, is composed of a
series of mountains, hills and valleys, the highest of which
is Mount Tumatangas (6.29). These mountains and hills are
covered with grass and trees, though some are cultivated to
their summits.
Tide−rips
6.143
Tide-rips are experienced around the SE part of Jolo
Island because of the abrupt depth change into the Celebes
Sea.
Principal marks
6.144
1
Landmarks:
Mount Bahu (6°02′N, 121°06′E) (6.29).
Mount Baybay (5°59′N, 121°24′E).
Tandu Peak (5°58′N, 121°25′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.140)
Teomabal Bank to Sibarut Bank
6.145
1
From a position E of Teomabal Bank (6°24′N, 121°00′E)
the track leads SE, passing (with positions from Sibarut
Bank (6°13′N, 121°31′E):
SW of Pabunuan Shoal (16 miles NNW), with a
depth of 3⋅7 m over it, coral, sand and shells,
thence:
SW of Halcon Rock (15 miles NNW), drying,
steep-to and breaks in all but calm seas. There are
tide-rips and strong irregular tidal streams in the
vicinity of Halcon Rock and Pabunuan Shoal. The
water is very clear and the bottom can usually be
seen at a depth of about 18 m. Thence:
2
SW of Sibarut Bank, sand and rock, thence:
NE of Bitinan Island (8 miles SSW), a steep,
wooded hill rising at its S extremity. The N part of
the island is low-lying.
3
From this position the track leads S, passing (with
positions from Kamawi Island (5°49′N, 121°13′E)):
W of Manungut Island (22 miles NE), the higher of
two hills rising in the N part of the island, thence:
E of Capaul Island (17 miles NE) (6.105), and:
W of Bangalao Island (22 miles ENE), low, with
two small islets lying on the E side and a bank
extends 2 miles N of the island. A village stands
on the W side. Thence:
4
W of Simisa Island (22 miles ENE), low with a
shallow inlet on the NW side of the island. A
steep-to coral and sand beach lies on the SE side.
Thence:
E of Tandican Point (11 miles NE), the NE point of
Pitago Bay. The bay N of Tandican Point is filled
with drying coral reefs. Thence:
5
E of Karangdato Point (5 miles NE), the SW point of
Pitago Bay. There is a landing for small boats in a
break in the fringing reef of Pitago Bay. Thence:
E of Kamawi Island (6.72)
6
From this position the track continues S to a position
20 miles SSE of Kamawi Island.
(Directions continue for Tapul and Tawitawi Groups —
SE sides in reverse at 6.88)
(Directions for routes through the Celebes Sea
refer to Indonesia Pilot Volume II)
PILAS GROUP — NORTH SIDE
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.146
1
From a position NNE of Favourite Bank (6°40′N,
121°04′E), the route leads ENE for about 32 miles to a
position NE of Teinga Island (6°54′N, 121°35′E).
Topography
6.147
1
Pilas Islands are a group lying W and NW of Basilan
Island. The group lies on two extensive banks, the N of
which trends N and E for about 30 miles from the E side
of the channel between Favourite Bank (6°40′N, 121°04′E),
and Brutus Reef. The S bank, smaller, extending S for
about 20 miles from the middle of the N bank. A number
CHAPTER 6
187
of isolated shoals exist in the channel between these two
banks some of which have islets on them.
Directions
(continued from 6.10)
6.148
1
From a position NNE of Favourite Bank (6°40′N,
121°04′E), the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
from Mindoro Shoal (6°35′N, 121°27′E)):
NNW of Brutus Reef (12 miles NNW), thence:
NNW of Griffin Rocks (12 miles NNW), lying on
the outer edge of the bank, thence:
2
NNW of Kaludlud Island (11 miles N), low, flat and
densely wooded. A bank with depths of less than
5⋅5 m over it, extends 2 miles W from Kaludlud
Island. Thence:
NNW of Dassalan Island (10 miles N), has a sand
beach on the E coast and another at the S end.
Sand beaches mark the entrance to a lagoon on the
W side. The lagoon can be entered by small boats
at HW. There are a number of coral heads in this
entrance. Coconut plantations stand on the S side
of the island. Thence:
3
NNW of Sangboy Islands (16 miles NNE), each
with a wooded hill in the N part frequently visible
when the high land of Basilan Island is obscured
by cloud. Both islands are low in the S part. The
coasts are sandy except for the N parts which are
rocky. Settlements on the islands have established
a number of coconut plantations. Swirl Reef, with
a depth of 4⋅1 m over it, lies 5 cables WSW of the
W extremity of Sangboy Islands. Thence:
4
NNW of Teinga Island (21 miles NE), densely
wooded. It is surrounded by a well-defined reef.
There are a few inhabitants. A patch with a depth
of 10⋅5 m over it, lies 2 miles NE of Teinga
Island.
5
From this position the track continues ENE for about
6 miles to a position NE of Teinga Island (6°54′N,
121°35′E) at the W entrance to Basilan Strait.
(Directions continue for Pilas Channel at 6.154 and
for Basilan Strait at 6.208. Directions continue
for Mindanao — NW side at 10.10)
PILAS CHANNEL
General information
Charts 928, 961
Route
6.149
1
From a position NE of Teinga Island (6°54′N,
121°35′E), the route leads S for about 26 miles to a
position 1 mile W of Mataja Island Lighthouse (6°34′N,
121°41′E).
Description
6.150
1
The channel separating the two groups of the Pilas
Islands has a least width of about 1 miles, and is deep
and clear of dangers. Pilas Channel, situated 10 miles W of
Basilan Island, on the W, and Mataja Island and
Balukbaluk Island, on the E, is 3 miles wide, deep and
clear of dangers. The channel E of Mataja Island is
2 miles wide, deep and clear of dangers.
Topography
6.151
1
The islands of the Pilas Group are mostly clustered to
W of Pilas Island, by far the largest of the group. They lie
on two banks with four of the smaller islands located on an
isolated bank W of the main group.
Tidal streams
6.152
1
Tidal streams in the channels through Pilas Group are
reported to attain a rate of 6 kn at springs and set N and S,
but it is also reported that streams set about hour later
and at rates slightly less than half those tabulated for
Basilan Strait in Admiralty Tide Tables.
Principal marks
6.153
1
Landmarks:
Basilan Peak (6°33′N, 122°04′E), frequently obscured
by cloud.
Pangasahan Hill (6°36′N, 121°50′E), prominent from
all directions.
Directions
(continued from 6.148)
6.154
1
From a position NE of Teinga Island (6°54′N,
121°35′E), the track leads S, passing (with positions from
Pangasahan Island (6°37′N, 121°47′E)):
E of Teinga Island (20 miles NNW) (6.148), thence:
W of Balukbaluk Island (6 miles NW), 160 m (526 ft)
high, near the N end. The S part of the island is
low with a lagoon in the interior. Basilan Point,
8 miles E, is heavily wooded and fringed with a
narrow strip of coral and sand backed by
mangrove swamp. Bagbagon River entrance 1 mile
SW can be entered by small craft. Sibakel Island
5 miles SSE, 37 m high, is uninhabited and heavily
wooded. A bank with depths of less than 8 m over
it extends 7 cables N from Sibakel Island.
Pangasahan Island 6 miles SE, has a patch with a
depth of 5⋅5 m over it, lying 1 mile NNW of the
island.
2
E of Pilas Island (10 miles W), consists in the N of
two hills 173 and 149 m high, standing quite close
together. The rest of the island’s interior is almost
submerged at HW. There are two lagoons entered
from the E side but the channels are nearly dry.
The island is heavily wooded and the coastal
mangrove projects in places well below LW line.
Tagutu Island, lies 7 cables SE of the E extremity
of Pilas Island. Tamila Rock, 1 m high, lies
5 cables NW of the N extremity of Pilas Island.
Tiguilban and Tinutungan Islands are islets lying
close W of the S part of Pilas Island. Two shoals,
with depth of 3⋅7 and 4⋅0 m over them, lie 5 miles
WSW and 3 miles SW respectively, of Panducan
Point, the S extremity of Pilas Island. Thence:
From this position the track continues S for about
5 miles to a position 1 mile W of Mataja Island Lighthouse
(red framework tower, 15 m in height) standing on the SE
extremity of Mataja Island, heavily wooded, from which a
spit with a depth of 2⋅7 m over its outer end, extends
8 cables. There is a lagoon on the W side. A shoal with a
depth of 7⋅3 m over it, lies 2 miles SSW of the
lighthouse.
(Directions continue for Basilan Island — SW part at 6.162)
CHAPTER 6
188
Anchorage
Manangal Island
6.155
1
Description. Manangal Island (6°38′N, 121°35′E), the
SW extremity of the island is an excellent landmark when
approaching from N or S, but is not easily identified from
W due to high land in the E.
2
Tidal streams are weak.
Directions for north approach. When approaching from
N pass close E of Tamila Rock (6.154) from whence the
track leads SSW passing between the NW extremity of
Pilas Island and Puju Reef lying close off the N extremity
of Saloro Island (6°40′N, 121°34′E). This channel is deep
and clear of dangers.
3
Clearing mark. The alignment (203°) of the W
extremity of Tabilunay Island (6°39′N, 121°34′E), 2 cables
NW of Manangal Island, in line with the SE extremity of
Siringo Island (6°38′N, 121°34′E) clears the NW side of
Pilas Island by 2 cables.
4
Directions for S approach. Approaching from S pass E
of Pasigpasilen Island (6°35′N, 121°34′E) from whence the
track leads N passing E of Mamannak Island and W of a
shoal with a depth of 10⋅5 m over it. There are channels
passing both E and W of Manangal Island. The W channel
2 cables wide has a depth of 15 m in it and is clear of
hazards. The track leads in mid-channel between Siringo
Island and Manangal Island and thence between Tabilunay
Island and Manangal Island. Approach the anchorage when
clear of the shoals extending 4 cables N from both these
islands. The E channel is restricted by a shoal with a depth
of 5 m over it. Vessels should pass about 1 cable E of the
SE extremity Manangal Island to avoid this shoal, from
whence the track leads in mid-channel with a least depth of
9⋅8 m in it, entering the anchorage round the N extremity
of Manangal Island.
Anchorage. The best anchorage is in the bay between
Pilas Island, Manangal Island and Saloro Island in depths
from 9 to 11 m, protected from wind and sea except over a
narrow SW sector. There are several other fine weather
anchorages in other parts of the Pilas Group.
BASILAN ISLAND — SOUTH−WEST SIDE
General information
Charts 928, 961
Route
6.156
1
From a position W of Mataja Island Lighthouse (6°34′N,
121°42′E) the route leads SSE for a distance of about
15 miles to a position N of Mandi Rock (6°14′N,
121°48′E).
Topography
6.157
1
The shores of the SW side of Basilan Island are largely
bordered by a low belt of sand and coral debris over which
mangroves swamps have formed. Several rivers flow
through the swamps to the sea. There are no large rivers.
Many of the small rivers can only be entered at HW or are
impassable due to fallen trees a short distance within their
mouths. The foothills rising inland towards the mountains
of the interior are heavily wooded. Numerous islands lie on
isolated shoals extending 7 miles offshore.
Tide−rips
6.158
1
Abrupt changes of depth give rise to swirls and tide-rips
especially on the W side of the island group.
Depths
6.159
1
The islands off the SW coast of Basilan Island lie on
steep-to shoals between which there are deep water
channels clear of hazards.
Tidal streams
6.160
1
Tidal streams are irregular and often attain a rate of over
3 kn, setting N and S along the coast.
Principal marks
6.161
1
Landmarks:
Basilan Peak (6°33′N, 122°04′E) (6.153).
Pangasahan Hill (6°36′N, 121°50′E) (6.153).
Mount Mohaji (6°34′N, 121°57′E).
Abongabong Peak (6°30′N, 121°59′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.154)
6.162
1
From a position W of Mataja Island Lighthouse (6°34′N,
121°42′E) the track leads SSE, passing (with positions from
Goreno Island (6°33′N, 121°50′E)):
2
WSW of Sicagot Island (5 miles WNW),
uninhabited and heavily wooded. A shoal with a
depth of 5⋅5 m over it lies 4 cables SE of Sicagot
Island. Thence:
WSW of Langas Island (4 miles W), heavily
wooded. A patch with depth of 1⋅2 m over it, lies
2 cables S of Langas Island. A patch with a
depth of 2⋅7 m over it, lies 2 cables N of Langas
Island. A shoal with a depth of 7⋅3 m over it, lies
2 miles W of the island. And:
WSW of Dalauan Island (3 miles WSW), heavily
wooded, and:
3
WSW of Pandak Island (3 miles WSW), heavily
wooded, and:
WSW of Tamuk Island (5 miles S). A shoal with a
depth of 8⋅5 m over it. Thence:
WSW of Cancuman Island (6 miles S), on which
there is a prominent tree amid a coconut
plantation.
4
From this position the track continues SSW for about
4 miles to a position 5 miles N of Mandi Rock (6°14′N,
121°48′E) (6.180)
(Directions continue for Tapiantana Group — SW side
at 6.180 and for Tapiantana Channel at 6.186)
BASILAN ISLAND — SOUTH−WEST SIDE
(INSHORE ROUTE)
General information
Chart 961
Route
6.163
1
From a position WSW of Mangal Point (6°25′N,
121°57′E) (6.191) the route leads NNW for about 16 miles
to a position E of Balukbaluk Island (6°41′N, 121°42′E)
Topography
6.164
1
Refer to 6.157.
CHAPTER 6
189
Principal marks
6.165
1
Landmarks:
Basilan Peak (6°33′N, 122°04′E) (6.153).
Pangasahan Hill (6°36′N, 121°50′E) (6.153).
Mount Mohaji (6°34′N, 121°57′E).
Abongabong Peak (6°30′N, 121°59′E).
Directions
6.166
1
From a position WSW of Mangol Point (6°25′N,
121°57′E) the track leads NNW passing (with positions
from Pandak Island (6°32′N, 121°47′E)).
WSW of Lahat-lahat Island (9 miles SE) (6.104)
lying at the NW end of of a coral reef 5 cables
off-shore, thence:
WSW of Canas Island (8 miles SE), separated from
Basilan Island by a deep, narrow channel. Canas
Shoal lies 5 cables W of Canas Island. Thence:
2
ENE of Cancuman Island (6 miles SSE) (6.162),
thence:
ENE of Tamuk Island (4 miles SSE) (6.162),
thence:
WSW of Takela Island, (2 miles E), low,
uninhabited and covered with mangrove. A reef
with a depth of 7⋅3 m over it extends 2 cables N
from the N extremity of the island. Thence:
3
WSW of Goreno Island (3 miles ENE), low,
uninhabited and covered with mangrove. A reef
with a depth of 0⋅5 m over it lies close off the NE
side of Goreno Island and a shoal with a depth of
8⋅7 m over it, lies 5 cables N of the island. And:
ENE of Pandak Island, lightly wooded, low and
uninhabited, thence:
4
ENE of Tengolan Island (2 miles N), lightly wooded,
low and uninhabited, thence:
ENE of Kaluitan Island (1 miles SE), uninhabited
and heavily wooded. A bank with depths from 4⋅0
to 8⋅2 m over it, extends 1 mile SE from Kaluitan
Island. Thence:
5
WSW of Pangasahan Island (5 miles N) close to the
W extremity of Basilan Island and separated from
it by Pangasahan Channel.
6
From this position the track continues NNW to a
position E of Balukbaluk Island (10 miles NW)
(Directions continue for Basilan Island — NW part at 6.202)
Small craft channels
Canas Channel
6.167
1
Description. Canas Channel (6°28′N, 121°55′E) lies
between Canas Island, a small mangrove island, and
Basilan Island. The channel is deep and narrow giving
access to Canas River. Canas Shoal with a depth of 4⋅6 m
over it, lies 5 cables W of Canas Island.
2
There is a deep water channel between Lahatlahat Island
1 miles SE, and Basilan Island giving access to Libug
River and Binambongan River. The channel is 4 cables
wide but an above-water rock lies 2 cables SW of Libug
River mouth. A coral reef extends 1 miles SE of
Lahatlahat Island.
3
Berth. A privately owned wooden pier with a berthing
face of 7⋅3 m and a depth alongside of 3⋅6 m lies on the E
side of Canas Channel.
Pangasahan Channel
6.168
1
Description. Pangasahan Island (6°37′N, 121°47′E) is
separated from Basilan Island by Pangasahan Channel, a
narrow, tortuous passage with a least depth of 7⋅6 m at the
N end. Pangasahan River flows into the N end. The
channel provides good shelter.
2
Berth. A wooden wharf is situated close W of the
mouth of Pangasahan River. The berthing face is about
110 m long, with depths of 7⋅6 m at the SE and 1⋅8 m at
the NW end.
3
Communications: regular launch service to Zamboanga,
Isabela and Jolo; airstrip 2 miles NNE of Pangasahan
Island.
Port Holland
Charts 927 plan of Port Holland, 961
General information
6.169
1
Position and function. Port Holland (6°33′N, 121°52′E)
is a well protected timber port of growing importance
situated at the S end of Maluso Bay to which occasional
foreign vessels call to load timber.
2
Topography. Maluso Bay is 3 miles wide at its
entrance NW of Port Holland. The shores consist of a
narrow ridge of sand and broken coral. Shoal water, with
coral heads awash, extends 6 cables from the head of a
small bay into which Maluso River flows.
Arrival information
6.170
1
Outer anchorage. There is anchorage in the outer part
of Maluso Bay, in depths of 9 m and more. It is clear of
strong tidal streams.
Pilotage is optional, but is recommended to mariners
without local knowledge. A pilot from Isabela (6.210) will
board off Little Gounan Island (6°33′⋅2N, 121°51′⋅5E) if
advance notice is given.
Radio communication is maintained with Port Basilan
(Isabela).
2
Tugs. The Basilan Lumber Company has two tugs in
Port Holland and several launches are available if needed.
Harbour
6.171
1
Tidal streams. The Basilan Lumber Company reports
that currents along the face of the wharf lag about hour
behind the tides and have a maximum strength of 2 to
3 kn, strongest in the out-going stream which sets SW
against the face of the wharf. On the in-going stream the
tidal currents set NE and off the face of the wharf.
2
Hazard. Some of the rivers along the coast NW and SE
of Port Holland are used for logging operations and
launches towing rafts of logs are frequently met with.
Directions for entering harbour
6.172
1
Caution. Port Holland wharf may be approached N or S
of Great Gounan Island, wooded and partly cultivated. A
CHAPTER 6
190
number of privately maintained buoys (oil drums, large
white numbers) mark both approaches.
The N approach should be used during the period of
rising tide, and the S approach when the tide is falling.
However, the N approach should only be used with the
benefit of local knowledge, due to the absence of good
leading marks and shoal waters extending off the mouth of
Maluso River.
2
A bank with depths of 8⋅5 to 11⋅0 m over it, fronts the
middle part of the bay, 8 cables offshore.
3
North approach. From a position about 5 cables NW of
Little Gounan Island, low and covered with small trees, the
track leads ENE in mid-channel passing between the island
and a reef, with a depth of 8⋅5 m over it lying 3 cables N
of the island. A wreck (mast) lies 1 mile farther NNW.
4
Thence follow the buoyed channel to the wharf leaving
Numbers 2 and 4 buoys (red) to starboard and the spar
buoys (black) to port.
5
South approach. The track then leads NE for about
1 miles to the S entrance between Great Gounan Island
and the small peninsula forming Port Holland, in
mid-channel, with a least depth of 11⋅9 m in it, passing:
S of No 1 Buoy (black), moored close S of the
island, thence:
N of Number 2 Buoy on the S side of the channel,
thence:
N of No 4 Buoy close off Port Holland.
Berths
6.173
1
Anchorage. The recommended anchorage lies in
mid-channel N of the wharf, in depths of 11 to 22 m but
swinging room is limited.
2
Berths. There is a wooden wharf with a berthing face of
61⋅3 m suitable for medium sized vessels and a T-shaped
pier 18 m long, both owned by The Basilan Lumber
Company. A row of dolphins extends from the wharf to the
pier and 27 m beyond it, giving a total berthing face of
137 m. Mooring lines are run to pile clusters E of the
wharf and to the small boat landing.
A T-headed pier, with a berthing length of 15 m, and
depths from 4 to 5 m alongside, is situated at Landugan, a
logging camp 4 miles NW of Port Holland.
Port services
6.174
1
Repairs. Minor welding and machine repairs at the
timber mill.
Other facilities: hospital is in Isabela (6.210);
ambulance service; dispensary at the Basilan Lumber
Company’s headquarters 6 km inland.
2
Supplies: no stores; no fresh water, but it can be
obtained from Zamboanga (7.12) in an emergency.
Communications. Occasional sea communication with
Cebu (10.188) Manila (China Sea Pilot Vol II) and a
weekly service with Zamboanga (7.12).
Small craft
6.175
1
Anchorage, sheltered, in Port Holland but it is exposed
to S and W winds.
Landing 64 m W of the pier with a depth of 3 m
alongside.
Canabungan River which empties into the N part of
Maluso Bay, is wide.
TAPIANTANA GROUP — SOUTH−WEST SIDE
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.176
1
From a position N of Mandi Rock (6°14′N, 121°48′E)
the route leads SE for about 30 miles to a position E of
Eguet Point (6°04′N, 121°57′E).
Topography
6.177
1
Tapiantana Group (6°20′N, 122°00′E) lies between
Sameles Group and Basilan Island. The six islands of the
group lie on a bank extending SW for about 18 miles from
the S coast of Basilan Island. There are deep water
channels between the islands most of which are steep-to.
Depths
6.178
1
The SE sides of the banks on which these islands lie fall
away to the great depths of the Celebes Sea. Depths W of
the group are irregular, but no dangers have been found.
Natural conditions
6.179
1
Tidal streams. Tidal streams between Tapiantana Group
and Sameles Group set N and S, and the rates are about
three-quarters of those tabulated for Basilan Strait in
Admiralty Tide Tables. In open waters to the W of these
groups the direction is NW and SE, and the rates are
slightly less than half those tabulated. The streams in the
channels between the islands of Tapiantana Group are
irregular in direction.
2
Tide−rips. The abrupt change in depth on the SE sides
of the banks falling away into the Celebes Sea causes
tide-rips and overfalls in waters S of the group.
Directions
(continued from 6.154 and 6.162)
6.180
1
From a position 5 miles N of Mandi Rock (6°14′N,
121°48′E) the track leads SE, passing (with positions from
Dipolod Island (6°09′N, 121°52′E)):
NE of Mandi Rock (6 miles NW) lying on a
steep-to bank, thence:
2
SW of Papabat Shoal (8 miles N), white coral sand,
thence:
NE of Tatalan Island (4 miles NNW), heavily
wooded. Tatalan Island Light-beacon (white
concrete 9 m in height), stands at the S extremity
of the island. Thence:
3
SW of Limawan Island (10 miles NNE) from which
a bank with depths from 4⋅6 to 13⋅7 m over it,
extends 7 cables SSE. The remainder of the
coastline is fringed by sandy beach except for
some rocky ledges on the NW side. Three small
villages stand on the E side of the island. The E
and S slopes are cultivated, the W slopes are
heavily wooded. And:
4
NE of Bucutua Island (3 miles W), heavily wooded.
The E coast of the island is clear of dangers.
Shoal patches with depths from 5⋅8 to 11⋅0 m over
them, lie about 1 mile offshore. The channel
between Bucutua Island and Tatalan Island is deep
and clear of dangers in the fairway; it is generally
used by vessels on passage from SE Mindanao
CHAPTER 6
191
ports. Mamad Island, lies 1 miles W of Bucutua
Island. The island is wooded but the lower slopes
are covered with coconut palms. Thence:
5
SW of Tapiantana Island (10 miles NE). The flat
summit of Mount Bancaobancao in the W part of
the island which is well cultivated. The E part is a
mangrove swamp from which a coral reef extends
1 miles E. Tolonpisa Island is a narrow sand and
coral spit marking the S edge of the reef. Haluluko
Island, consisting of mangrove, lies on the reef off
the NE side of Tapiantana Island. A small spit of
broken coral and sand marks the NE edge of the
reef. And:
6
NE of Bulan Island (2 miles SW), heavily wooded.
A black rock, 67 m high stands off the NE
extremity of the island. Dipolod Island, and Little
Dipolod Island, lie 1 miles off the NE side of
Bulan Island. Both are wooded. A patch with a
depth of 7⋅6 m over it, lies 2 cables W of
Dipolod Island. Thence:
7
NE of Tongguil Island (8 miles S) (6.182), low, flat
and densely wooded. Sagui Point, the N extremity,
is low and fringed with a coral reef. The SW side
is fronted by a barrier reef with several narrow
entrances to a shallow lagoon. The S and SE
coasts to Eguet Point are steep-to, the 100 m
contour lying 2 cables off the coast.
8
From this position the track continues SE for about
5 miles to a position E of Eguet Point (6°03′N, 121°57′E).
(Directions continue for Tapiantana Group — SE side
and for Basilan Island at 6.199. Directions continue
for Sulu Archipelago — SE side in reverse at 6.195)
Small craft channel
Philippines chart 4540
Ton Sandungan Channel
6.181
1
Description. Ton Sandungan Channel (6°08′N,
121°50′E) separates Bulan Island (6.180) from Bucutua
Island (6.180). It is narrow, with a least depth of 0⋅9 m just
inside the SW end. A least depth of 2⋅1 m exists through
the NE entrance. Both shores are bordered with mangrove.
The channel provides good protection.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage exists off the NE entrance in depths from 14
to 18 m, loose coral and sand. This fair anchorage is well
out of the strong tidal streams which set amongst these
islands, and is the best in the vicinity.
Anchorage
Tongguil Island
6.182
1
Description. The N side of Tongguil Island is fringed
with a coral reef which, in the mid part, dries and extends
to 1 mile offshore. A bank with depths of less than 5⋅5 m
over it, lies within 2 miles of the middle of the N side.
Gumila Reef, which dries, lies 4 miles W of Eguet Point.
Culatculat Reef and Bulisulat Reef lie close offshore
between these positions, separated from the coastal reef by
a deep channel.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage exists in the considerable area N and E of
Gumila Reef, with little or no tidal stream.
SAMALES AND TAPIANTANA GROUPS —
NORTH SIDE
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.183
1
From a position NNW of Capual Island (6°02′N,
121°24′E) (6.105) the route leads ENE for about 60 miles
to a position SE of Kauluan Island (6°27′N, 122°13′E).
Topography
6.184
1
The Samales Group of islands lie on a bank which
extends 25 miles from a position 4 miles E of Jolo Island
(6.101). They are sparsely populated, mostly with
fishermen. Small quantities of Copra are exported.
Tapiantana Channel between Tapiantana Group (6.177) and
Basilan Island (6.157), is clear of dangers, Bihintinusa
Island is separated from Basilan Island by Bihintinusa
Channel (6.186).
2
The S coast of Basilan Island is bordered by a mangrove
swamp, through which several rivers discharge. Some of
these rivers can be entered by small boats.
Tidal streams
6.185
1
Tidal streams in Bihintinusa Channel and Tapiantana
Channel are strong and set E and W. At times there is an
eddy close inshore. In Tapiantana Channel the streams set
slightly earlier and at rates about three-quarters of those
tabulated for Basilan Strait in Admiralty Tide Tables. There
are tide-rips on the bank between Saluping Island and
Bihintinusa Island. Tidal streams in the channels between
the islands of the Sameles Group are strong. A rate of
3 kn. has been observed between the NW extremity of
Tungguil Island (6.180) and Mamad Island (6.180).
Overfalls and tide-rips, dangerous to small craft, may be
expected near shoals and where there is a decided change
in depth.
Directions
(continued from 6.103)
Capual Island to Mandi Rock
6.186
1
From a position NNW of Capaul Island (6°02′N,
121°24′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
from Mandi Rock (6°14′N, 121°48′E)):
NNW of Sibarut Bank (17 miles W) (6.145),
thence:
NNW of West Bolod Island (12 miles W), heavily
wooded and steep-to except on its S side, thence:
2
NNW of East Bolod Island (11 miles WNW),
heavily wooded with a dome shaped summit. The
channel between E and W Bolod Islands in
1 miles wide, deep and clear of dangers. A bank
with a least depth of 5⋅5 m over it, lies from
4 cables to 1 miles SE of East Bolod Island. A
spit with a depth of 4⋅1 m over it, extends 3 cables
N from East Bolod Island. Tirana Rock, 1 m high
and steep-to, lies 5 cables N of East Bolod Island.
Seas seldom break in its vicinity. Thence:
3
From this position the track continues ENE for about
8 miles to a position N of Mandi Rock (6.180)
CHAPTER 6
192
Mandi Rock to Kauluan Island
(continued from 6.154 and 6.162)
6.187
1
From the position N of Mandi Rock, the track continues
ENE, passing:
NNW of Sungu Shoal (6 miles W), where two
patches with depths of 8⋅2 m and 8⋅7 m over them,
lie 9 and 6 cables respectively E, thence:
NNW of Tatalan Island (2 miles E) (6.180), and:
SSE of Tamuk Island (13 miles N) (6.162), thence:
SSE of Cancuman Island (13 miles NNE) (6.162),
thence:
NNW of Linawan Island (9 miles ENE) (6.180),
2
NNW of Bubuan Island (12 miles NE). The summit
of Mount Bulutbulibato situated on the W side of
the island, is heavily wooded. The E and S sides
of Bubuan Island consists of extensive mangrove
swamp. Coral reefs fringe the island extending
5 cables E on the E side. The island is inhabited.
3
NNW of Saluping Island (15 miles ENE) (6.189),
and:
SSE of Bihintinusa Island (17 miles ENE) low and
fringed by coral reef. Shoal ground with a least
depth of 2⋅3 m over it extends 2 miles E from
Bihintinusa Island. Bihintinusa Channel, 7 cables
wide, has a least depth of 10⋅7 m in it. The strong
currents which flow through the channel make
anchoring dangerous. And:
4
NNW of Timbungan Island (16 miles ENE) (6.189),
thence:
SSE of Amoyloi Reefs (23 miles ENE) (6.190),
thence:
SSE of Kauluan Island (28 miles ENE).
5
From this position the track continues ENE for about
5 miles to a position 5 miles E of Kauluan Island so
entering the Moro Gulf.
(Directions continue for Tapiantana Group — SW part at 6.180)
Small craft channel
Kauluan Channel
6.188
1
Description. Kauluan Channel (6°28′N, 122°12′E) lies
between Kauluan Island and Basilan Island. The channel is
cable wide in places and tortuous. There is a least depth
of 5⋅8 m in the S entrance but depths increase to 18 m
inside. The channel is bordered by coral reef with several
projecting points that narrow the channel to about 90 m.
2
Directions. The better approach is from N through
Bojelebung Channel (6.201). There are several other
channel through the reefs but they are narrow, tortuous and
in many cases blocked by fish traps.
Anchorage can be had in mid-channel in depths from
22 to 27 m, sand.
Anchorages
Saluping and Timbungan Islands
6.189
1
Caution. Heavy tide-rips, which sometimes have the
appearance of breakers, frequently occur in the S entrances
of the channels leading to these anchorages.
2
Description. Saluping Island and Timbungan Island
(6°20′N, 122°02′E) lie on the same extensive coral reef. A
chain of disconnected coral islets lies on the outer edge of
the reef. Saluping Island is low, flat and cultivated.
Timbungan Island is a coral and sand ridge with mangrove
on the inshore side.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Anchorage exists between Saluping Island and Bubuan
Island in a depth of 15 m. It is protected from S by
Tapiantana Island. Anchorage can also be had 7 cables N of
the NW extremity of Tapiantana Island in similar depths. It
is protected from N by Bubuan Island. Balas Shoal lies
5 cables S of the SE side of Bubuan Island. Thence:
Chart 927 plan of Amoyloi Anchorage
Amoyloi
6.190
1
Description. Amoyloi Reefs (6°26′N, 122°07′E) consist
of two drying reefs lying 5 cables offshore. An islet 1 m
high, lies on the NW extremity of the E reef and shifting
sand cays lie on the N side of the W reef. A shoal with a
least depth of 2⋅7 m over it, lies between the W extremity
of the W reef and Basilan Island.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. Approach through the channel W of the W
reef which is about 1 cable wide between the shoals on
either side.
Approach through the E channel, 7 cables wide, which
leads S of a patch with a depth of 10 m over it, lying N of
the E extremity of the E reef, thence between a patch with
a depth of 2⋅1 m over it, lying close N of the E reef, and
another patch with a depth of 5 m over it, lying 2 cables
farther NW.
3
Anchorage can be had off Amoyloi village (6°26′N,
122′07′E) in depths from 27 to 37 m.
Small craft
Chart 928
Mangal River
6.191
1
Description. Mangal River mouth (6°25′N, 121°58′E)
lies 1 mile E of Mangal Point, the S extremity of Basilan
Island. The point is a densely wooded strip of sand 3 m
high on the E side of which, distant 6 cables, is a wooden
pier with a depth of 3 m at its head. Mangal village lies
inside the entrance. There are depths from 1⋅8 to 3⋅7 m
inside the bar. It is navigable for a distance of about
1 mile. The best channel over the bar is near the W side.
Mangroves extend 3 cables upstream then gives way to
steep wooded cliffs from 30 to 60 m high.
SAMALES GROUP — SOUTH−EAST SIDE
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.192
1
From a position SSE of Kamawi Island (5°49′N,
121°13′E) the track leads NE for about 50 miles to a
position E of Eguet Point (6°03′N, 121°57′E).
Topography
6.193
1
For the Samales Islands see 6.184.
Outlying feature
6.194
1
A rock (5°30′N, 122°08′E), the existence of which is
doubtful, is charted 34 miles S of Eguet Point.
CHAPTER 6
193
Directions
(continued from 6.145)
6.195
1
From a position 20 miles SSE of Kamawi Island the
track leads NE, passing (with positions from Simisa Island
(5°57′N, 121°34′E)):
SE of Simisa Island (6.145), thence:
SE of Sipac Island (6 miles NE), low and
uninhabited. The W-most of a group of named and
unnamed islands lying on an extensive coral reef.
Suligan Shoal, with a depth of 5⋅9 m over it, lies
in the channel between Simisa Island and Sipac
Island. Thence:
2
SE of Balanguingui Island (8 miles NE), low,
uninhabited and the largest of the group which
include Dawildawil Island, and Bunotpasil Island
which is low, lies NW of this group, from which it
is separated by a deep narrow channel. Mamanoc
Island lying on an isolated bank 2 miles N of
Bunotpasil Island, is low and fringed by a coral
reef which extends 1 cables from a sandy beach
on the SE side. Thence:
3
SE of Parol Island (11 miles NE) low and planted
with coconut trees. It is mostly fringed by a coral
reef. On the SW side, near to Parol village there is
a steep-to sandy beach, but a patch with a depth of
4⋅9 m over it, lies 2 cables offshore. Several
shoals with depths from 6⋅4 to 9⋅1 m over them,
lie at the NW end of the channel between Parol
Island and the group SW. Thence:
4
SE of Tongguil Island (6.182).
From this position the track continues NE for about
10 miles to a position 5 miles E of Eguet Point (6°04′N,
121°57′E).
(Directions continue for Tapiantana Group — SE side
and Basilan Island — SE side at 6.199 and for Tapul
Group — SE side in reverse at 6.88)
TAPIANTANA GROUP AND BASILAN
ISLAND — SOUTH−EAST SIDES
General information
Chart 928
Route
6.196
1
From a position E of Eguet Point (6°03′N, 121°57′E) the
track leads NNE for about 46 miles to a position E of
Sibago Island (6°45′N, 122°24′E).
Topography
6.197
1
Basilan Island, separated from Mindanao Island by the
Basilan Strait, is mountainous and densely wooded. Further
detail in 6.157.
Principal marks
6.198
1
Landmarks:
Basilan Peak (6°33′N, 122°04′E) (6.153).
Mount Cobung (6°35′N, 122°11′E), cone shaped,.
heavily wooded.
Mount Matanal (6°37′N, 122°18′E), heavily wooded.
The E slopes descend steeply to Matanal Point the
E extremity of Basilan Island.
Mount Sining Capan (6°38′N, 122°12′E), heavily
wooded.
2
The higher peaks are frequently obscured by cloud.
Major light:
Sibago Island Light (galvanised metal tower, 23 m in
height) (6°45′N, 122°24′E) on the summit of the
island.
Directions
(continued from 6.195)
Eguet Point to Kauluan Island
6.199
1
From a position E of Eguet Point (6°04′N, 121°57′E) the
track leads NNE passing (with positions from Kauluan
Island (6°27′N, 122°13′E)):
ESE of Tolonpisa Island (17 miles SW) (6.180),
thence:
ESE of Timbungan Island (13 miles WSW) (6.189),
thence:
ESE of Amoyloi Reefs (6 miles W) (6.190).
2
From this position the track continues to a position E of
Kauluan Island (6°28′N, 122°13′E).
Kauluan Island to Sibago Island
(continued from 6.187)
6.200
1
From the position E of Kauluan Island (6°28′N,
122°13′E) the track continues NNE passing:
ESE of Takippamasilaan Island (3 miles NNW), a low
and narrow ridge of sand and coral lying at the SE
end of Takippamasilaan Reef, the greater part of
which is always covered, but it dries at the N end,
where there are two sand cays, 1 m high. A sand
cay lies on the S end of the reef, on the N side of
Bojelebong Channel (6.201). Thence:
ESE of Matanal Point (11 miles NE), the E
extremity of Basilan Island, thence:
2
From this position the track continues NNE for about
7 miles to a position SE of Sibago Island (20 miles NE),
covered with vegetation. Sibago Island Light (6.198) stands
on the summit of the island.
(Directions continue in reverse for Basilan Island —
North side (inshore route) at 6.239)
Anchorages
Charts 927, plan of Bojelebung Channel 961
Takut Tangug Bay
6.201
1
Description. Takut Tangug Bay (6°32′N, 122°13′E) lies
between Takippamasilaan Island in the S and Matanal Point
in the N. The coast is fronted by a coral reef and by
mangrove behind which the steep slopes are heavily
wooded. An extensive shoal with depths from 0⋅3 to 11⋅0 m
over it, extends SW across Takut Tangug Bay, leaving a
narrow but deep channel at the NE end of the inner part of
the bay providing access to several coastal villages. The
entrance to the channel is less than 1 cable wide at its
narrowest part but there are depths of 22 to 31 m in it.
2
In the S part of the bay the shoal ground closes the
coast with drying coral reefs and sand cays but between
Bojelebung River and Kauluan Island a narrow deep water
channel follows the line of the coast to the N entrance to
Kauluan Channel (6.188). Bojelebung is the principal town
on the E coast of Basilan Island and stands on the coast
close N of the river entrance. Access to the river is through
Bojelebung Channel, a deep water passage 2 cables wide
between the offshore reefs and shoals.
3
Directions. When approaching Bojelebung Channel, a W
track with Grassy Hill, situated 6 cables S of the town,
CHAPTER 6
194
ahead leads through the mid-channel and into the
anchorage.
Anchorage. Anchorage can be found in depths from 29
to 31 m, sand and mud, 2 cables offshore E of
Bojelebung River mouth.
Anchorage, best approached from N, may also be found
in the channel W of Takippamasilaan Reef, 6 cables S of
the W sand cay on the N end of the reef, in depths from
22 to 27 m, sand.
There is good anchorage in depths from 18 to 37 m,
coral and sand, in the channel at the N end of the bay.
4
Small craft. Anchorage exists in a depth of 3⋅7 m off
the mouth of Kandiis River at the N end of Takut Tangug
Bay. Kandiis River can be ascended for about 1 mile in
depths of 2 m but the channel is subject to blockage by
fallen trees.
NORTH−WEST OF BASILAN ISLAND —
INSHORE ROUTE
General information
Chart 961
Route
6.202
1
From a position E of Balukbaluk Island (6°41′N,
121°42′E) (6.154) the route leads NE for about 6 miles
thence ENE for about 10 miles to a position N of
Malamaui Island (6°44′N, 121°58′E).
Topography
6.203
1
The coast is heavily wooded and fringed by a narrow
strip of coral and sand backed by mangrove swamp in
places. Malamaui Island is well cultivated with many
coconut plantations but the valuable timbers for which the
island was noted have been all but cleared.
Depths
6.204
1
West of Pamelukan Bank (6°43′N, 121°54′E) there is a
long shoal stretching E/W for about 4 miles, which has two
patches of 6⋅9 m over them lying 2 miles W and
3 miles WSW from the bank. There are also several
banks NW of Malamaui Island with depths from 11 to
14⋅6 m over them.
Tide−rips
6.205
1
Strong and irregular currents which give rise to tide-rips
are found in the vicinity of the shoal grounds.
Principal marks
6.206
1
Landmarks:
Balukbaluk Island Peak (6°42′N, 121°43′E) (6.154).
Pangasahan Hill (6°36′N, 121°50′E) (6.153).
Other navigational aid
6.207
1
Aero radiobeacon:
Zamboanga, Mindanao (6°55′N, 122°02′E).
Directions
(continued from 6.166)
6.208
1
From a position E of Balukbaluk Island (6°41′N,
121°42′E)) the track leads NE, passing (with positions from
Lampinigan Island (6°41′N, 121°53′E)):
NW of Basilan Point (2 miles WSW) (6.154), thence;
2
From this position the track continues NE for 1 mile
thence it leads ENE passing:
NNW of Lampinigan Island, covered with coconut
trees. There is a landing with a depth of 2⋅7 m
alongside, at Lampinigan village, in a bay on the S
side of the island.
NNW of Pamelukan Bank (2 miles NE) (6.204).
3
From this position that track continues ENE for about
4 miles to a position N of Malamaui Island (6 miles ENE),
separated from Basilan Island by Isabela Channel (6.212).
The island is largely covered with coconut plantations.
Malamaui Island Light-tower (concrete tower, 10 m in
height), stands on the NE extremity of the island.
Panigayan village stands near the SW end.
(Directions continue for Basilan Island — N side at 6.239)
Anchorage
Chart 961
San Rafael Bay
6.209
1
Description. San Rafael Bay close E of Balatanai Island
(6°41′N, 121°55′E) has three rivers flowing into it, the
largest of which is Gumalarang River in the SW corner.
The village of Baaba stands in the middle of the head of
the bay on the W bank of the Maligi River. The bay is
heavily silted with least depths of 0⋅3 m over it. The coast
rises steeply to the foothills, all of which are densely
wooded.
2
Directions. Pamelukan Bank with a depth of 1⋅2 m over
it, marked by tide-rips, is the only danger in approaching
San Rafael Bay from N. If there is insufficient light to
make out Balatanai Island and the high land behind it, it is
advisable to pass W of Pamelukan Bank and steer towards
Lampinigan Island (6.208), which can usually be easily
distinguished and safely approached.
3
Anchorage. The best anchorage is off San Rafael Bay,
E of Balatanai Island.
Small craft may anchor S of Lampinigan Island.
PORT BASILAN (ISABELA)
General information
Chart 961
Position
6.210
1
The port of Basilan (6°42′N, 121°58′E), the seat of
Government of Basilan Island, is located on the NW coast
of Basilan Island about 1 miles E of the W entrance to
Isabela Channel. Basilan City (Isabela) fronts the port.
Function
6.211
1
The principal exports are timber, logs, plywood veneer,
coconut oil copra pellets and rubber.
Topography
6.212
1
Isabela Channel is a deep, narrow strait between
Malamaui Island and Basilan Island. Both sides of the
CHAPTER 6
195
channel are lined with mangroves except for sand spits at
each end The sides of the channel are almost vertical coral
with mangroves growing nearly to the edge which is
steep-to enough to permit vessels to close within a boat’s
length of it. Kalut Island, lying in a bay on the NW side of
Isabela Channel is separated from Malamaui Island by a
narrow, tortuous channel with a least depth of 9 m in it. An
overhead power cable was reported (1991) to cross this
channel with a vertical clearance of about 26 m under it.
2
Moro Island, low and heavily wooded with trees and
scrub lies at the W end and is generally visible at a
distance of about 7 miles. A drying reef lies 2 cables SE
of Moro Island. It is nearly always covered with driftwood
and well marked by tide-rips.
Approach and entry
6.213
1
The port is approached through Malamaui Road and
entered S of Moro Island at the W entrance to Isabela
Channel. If not taking a pilot the port may also be
approached through the NE entrance to Isabela Channel
may be approached from either end, but it is preferable to
enter against the tidal stream to avoid turning in the
channel.
Deepest and longest berth
6.214
1
Basilan Lumber Company Wharf (6.228)
Mean tidal levels
6.215
1
Mean spring range about 0⋅7 m: mean neap range about
0⋅1 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
6.216
1
1⋅025g/cm
3
.
Port Authority
6.217
1
Philippines Ports Authority, Port Management Unit,
Isabela, Basilan Island, Philippines.
Arrival information
Outer anchorages
6.218
1
Malamaui Road, W of the W entrance to Isabela
Channel provides safe anchorage for vessels of all sizes.
The holding ground is good and protected from strong
winds.
Pilotage
6.219
1
Pilotage in and out of Isabela is not compulsory but is
recommended for foreign vessels who may engage him
with prior notice. The pilot will board 1 mile W of Moro
Island.
Tugs
6.220
1
Two tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
6.221
1
Entry during daylight only.
Harbour
General layout
6.222
1
The Philippines Ports Authority Wharf which extends N
from the town is situated on the E bank of Aguada Grande
River. There is a passenger terminal and an open storage
area. Two privately owned wharves lie on the W bank of
Aguada Grande River, 1 and 2 cables W of the PPA
wharves. On the N side of Isabela Channel 2 cables N of
the PPA wharf is the former Constabulary Landing, and a
wooden wharf connected to the shore by a stone causeway.
A small drydock is situated near this wharf.
Development
6.223
1
The area E of the PPA wharf extending to the ruins of
the SW pier of the old Santa Clara Lumber Company
Wharf is reported as having been reclaimed and an ore
transit shed is being constructed.
Tidal streams
6.224
1
The NE-going stream in Isabela Channel sets at a rate of
4 to 5 kn and for a much longer period than the SW stream
and at a rate 1 kn less. Heavy tide-rips may be encountered
at the channel entrances when the wind is against the
stream.
2
Close W of Malamaui Island, a N or S set is
experienced with the rate diminishing as the distance from
the island increases. Tidal streams set across the channel S
of Moro Island so care must be taken not to be set on to
the reefs SE of the island.
Principal marks
6.225
1
Landmarks:
Chimney 2 cables W of the town.
2
Two radio towers exhibiting red obstruction lights,
6 cables and 1 mile ENE of the chimney.
Malamaui Island Lighthouse (concrete tower, 10 m in
height) (6°45′N, 121°59′E) stands on the NW side
of the N entrance to Isabela Channel.
Directions for entering harbour
6.226
1
West approach passing north of Moro Island. From a
position 2 miles NNW of Pamelukan Bank the track leads
SSE for about 3 miles to a position 1 miles WSW of
Moro Island and about 1 mile from the Basilan Coast
avoiding a shoal with a depth of 2⋅7 m over it, lying
5 cables N of the E extremity of San Rafael Bay. Thence:
2
The track leads ENE passing N of Moro Island. The NE
point of the island should be given a wide berth as the
tidal streams appear to set towards the reef which extends a
short distance from that point.
3
The alignment (067°) of the leading beacons on
Malamaui Island leads through the channel N of Moro
Island.
Front beacon (white triangle) (6°42′⋅7N, 121°57′⋅2E).
Rear beacon (white triangle) (6°42′⋅8N, 121°57′⋅3E).
From a position 1 cable N of the N extremity of Moro
Island the track leads ESE towards the prominent chimney
thence into the port area.
4
West approach passing south of Moro Island. The
track leads E with the prominent chimney right ahead
keeping to the mid-channel to clear the shoals.
Note: Both W channels are well marked by buoys and
beacons. The N channel is wider and has greater depth, but
it has a sharp turn.
CHAPTER 6
196
5
North−east approach. Usually used by local craft, it is
entered by passing about 1 cables E of Malamaui Island
Lighthouse (6.208) from whence the track leads in
mid-channel to a position 1 cable SE of the NE extremity
of Kalut Island. Continue in mid-channel for about
1 miles into the port area.
6
Note: Attention is drawn to the ruins lying on a shoal
cable E of the PPA wharf.
Berths
Anchorages
6.227
1
The best anchorage in Isabela Channel is in mid-channel
close N of the PPA Wharf in a depth of 14⋅6 m, coral and
sand.
There is good anchorage N of Kalut Island, but the
swinging room is limited so that larger vessels may be
required to secure hawsers to mangroves on shore.
Alongside berths
6.228
1
Basilan Lumber Company Wharf, close W of the
prominent chimney, has a berthing face 192 m in length,
with depths of 10 to 12 m alongside. Dolphins extend the
line of the wharf 183 m SW and provide a berth for ships
loading logs.
2
Basilan Lumber Company Tanker Wharf lies 1 cable
E of the prominent chimney. It is L-shaped with a berthing
face of 64 m in length with a depth of 6 m alongside.
3
Philippines Port Authority Wharf, which extends N
from the town, is situated on the E bank of Aguada Grande
River. There is a passenger terminal and an open storage
area.
4
Santa Clara Lumber Company Wharf lies E of the
PPA Wharf and has a berthing face 76 m long with a depth
of 8⋅5 m alongside.
American Rubber Company Wharf, is 64 m long with
a depth of 7⋅9 m alongside.
5
Western Mindanao Lumber Company Dolphins
consists of 10 dolphins fronting the company log pound.
There are depths of 9 m at a distance and 7⋅3 m alongside.
Port services
Repairs
6.229
1
Minor repairs, including welding.
Other facilities
6.230
1
Hospital; dispensary; private clinics.
Supplies
6.231
1
Limited quantities of provisions; fresh water piped to
Basilan Lumber Company Wharf; fuel oils at Basilan
Lumber Company Tanker Wharf.
Communications
6.232
1
Airstrip 3 miles ENE of Isabela.
Small craft
6.233
1
The shores of Malamaui Road on the W side of
Malamaui Island (6°44′N, 121°58′E), are low and bordered
by coral reefs. Abreast the streams there is usually
sufficient depth over the reef at HW to permit entry. It is
advisable to land at these points otherwise surf may
damage a boat attempting to land elsewhere.
2
There are two boat landings in Isabela Channel both on
Malamaui Island opposite Isabela as follows:
Former Constabulary Landing, a pier 1 mile ENE of
Moro Island (6°43′N, 121°57′E), with an iron
roofed shed near its inshore end, 5 m in length,
with a depth of 1⋅5 m alongside.
Wooden wharf, 1 cables E of the pier, has a
berthing face 55 m in length, with depths of 2⋅1 m
at the NE end and 6⋅1 m at the SW end. The
wharf is connected to the shore by a stone
causeway. A small drydock is situated near the
wharf.
BASILAN ISLAND — NORTH SIDE
(INSHORE ROUTE)
General information
Chart 961
Route
6.234
1
From a position N of Malamaui Island (6°44′N,
121°58′E), the route leads E for about 10 miles thence SE
for about 15 miles to a position NE of Matanal Point
(6°38′N, 122°20′E).
Topography
6.235
1
The N coast of Basilan Island is bordered by a
succession of mangroves and of sand and broken coral
beaches.
Depths
6.236
1
Depths fluctuate considerably between the N coast of
Basilan Strait and Luzon Reef. Numerous shoals in the area
rise abruptly to less than 18 m. In the waters fronting Look
Sambang Bay, E of the reef, depths generally decrease but
gradually deepen farther E until clear of the entrance to
Basilan Strait they fall away sharply to the great depths of
the Celebes Sea.
Tidal streams
6.237
1
For information on tidal streams see 6.224.
Principal marks
6.238
1
Landmarks. The higher peaks are frequently obscured
by cloud:
Basilan Peak (6°33′N, 122°04′E) (6.153).
Mount Cobung (6°35′N, 122°11′E) (6.198)
Mount Matanal (6°37′N, 122°18′E) (6.198)
Mount Sining Capan (6°38′N, 122°12′E) (6.198)
Coco Island (6°44′N, 122°15′E), densely wooded.
Little Coco Island, covered with vegetation, lies
2 cables NW of Coco Island. There is a
navigable channel between them.
Major light:
Sibago Island Light (6°45′N, 122°24′E) (6.198).
Directions
(continued from 6.208)
6.239
1
From a position N of Malamaui Island (6°44′N,
121°58′E), the track leads E, passing (with positions from
Buajan Hill 6°41′N, 122°08′E)):
CHAPTER 6
197
N of the entrance to Isabela Channel (9 miles WNW),
the W side is marked by Malamaui Island Light
(6.225), thence:
S of Luzon Reef (7 miles WNW). There are strong
tidal streams N and S of Luzon Reef which give
rise to tide-rips. And:
2
N of Butapare Point (5 miles NW), on the W side
of a bay encumbered with shoals and rocks awash.
Thence:
N of Calagusang Point (2 miles N). Shoals
extending 2 miles N from this point have tide-rips
over them.
From this position the track continues E for about
1 miles thence it leads SE passing:
3
SW of Coco Island (7 miles ENE) (6.238).
From this position the track continues SE for about
7 miles to a position NE of Matanal Point (6.201)
(Directions continue in reverse for the Basilan Island
— SE side at 6.200)
(Directions for routes through the Celebes Sea
see Indonesia Pilot Volume II)
Look Sambang Bay
General information
6.240
1
Look Sambang Bay (6°41′N, 122°10′E) on the NE coast
of Basilan Island serves as a port for inter-island shipping
handling cattle, timber, rice, corn, hemp and copra.
Lamitan, the port of call, is one of the most important
municipal districts of Basilan Island. The town is situated
on the S bank of Gubauan River, 1 mile inland.
Anchorage
6.241
1
There is good anchorage in a depth of 18⋅3 m 2 cables
NW of Kalibato Point. It is clear of dangers and outside
the typhoon belt so can be considered safe. The American
Rubber Company (ARCO) ships considerable quantities of
logs which are towed in rafts. The stevedores from
Zamboanga (7.12) are proficient in handling these logs.
Berths
6.242
1
Alongside berth. A small pier, with a berthing face
12⋅2 m long, with a depth of 6⋅4 m alongside, is situated at
Kulibato Point, on the SE side of Look Sambang Bay.
Port services
6.243
1
Repairs. None.
Other facilities. ARCO maintains a small clinic;
hospitals at Isabela and Zamboanga.
Supplies: none.
NP 34
Indoonesian Pilot
Vol II
Zamboanga
957 Polloc
Cotabato
General
Santos
415
Davao
P. Lebak
Milbuk Hr.
Talomo B.
P
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n
S
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415
415
415
38103810
2575
957
957
961
3811
2576
957
415 Malita
415 Lais
957
957
928
0704
7.305
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7.222
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7.183
7.148
7
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7.12
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6
4
30´
30´30´
30´30´
30´
30´
30´
Chapter 7 - Basilan Strait - south and south-east coasts of Mindanao including Davo Gulf
Longitude 124° East from Greenwich
7°
8°
6°
5°
30´
30´
30´
7°
8°
6°
5°
30´
127°
126°
125°
124°
123°
122°
30´30´
30´
30´
30´
127°
126°
125°
123°
122°
198
199
CHAPTER 7
BASILAN STRAIT — SOUTH AND SOUTH−EAST COASTS OF MINDANAO INCLUDING DAVAO GULF
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3811, 2575, 943
Scope of the chapter
7.1
1
This chapter describes the routes S and SE of Mindanao
Island. It is arranged as follows:
Basilan Strait (7.3).
North coast of Moro Gulf (7.42).
Moro Gulf to Davao Gulf (7.193).
Davao Gulf (7.271).
Topography
7.2
1
Mindanao Island, the second largest of the Philippine
Islands, is indented by deep gulfs and bays. Iligan Bay
(10.353) on the N and Illana Bay (7.127) on the S, nearly
divide the island in two. The isthmus between them is only
7 miles wide at its narrowest point.
2
Mindanao is mountainous with a number of volcanos on
the island continuing to be classed as active. Hibok-Hibok
Volcano on Camiguin Island close off Mindanao’s N coast
erupted as recently as 1952. Mount Apo (7.296), a volcano
situated 20 miles WSW of Davao on the S side of the
island, is probably the highest point of the Philippines
Islands.
3
Mindanao is drained principally by two large rivers,
Agusan River (10.479), which rises near Davao Gulf and
flows N into Butuan Bay on the N coast, and Rio Grande
de Mindanao (7.183), which drains an extensive plain with
several large lakes and rivers, entering Illana Bay through
an expansive delta near Bongo Island (7°19′N, 124°02′E).
Mindanao has a hot and humid climate influenced by
the monsoons. It lies outside the typhoon region.
BASILAN STRAIT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 961, 928
Area covered
7.3
1
Described in this section are the islands and banks of
the Basilan Strait from Teinga Island (6°54′N, 121°35′E) to
Sibago Island (6°46′N, 122°24′E as well as the port of
Zamboanga. It is arranged as follows:
Teinga Island to Sibago Island (7.6).
Zamboanga (7.12).
Topography
7.4
1
Basilan Strait separating the SW end of Mindanao from
Basilan Island, has a least width of 8 miles. Santa Cruz
Islands lying on Santa Cruz Bank divide the strait into two
navigable channels.
Traffic regulations
7.5
1
A coastal reporting station, operated by the Philippines
Navy, applies to all vessels, including pleasure craft and
seaplanes on the water, transiting the Basilan Strait around
Zamboanga. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Vol 6(4)
TIENGA ISLAND TO SIBAGO ISLAND
General information
Chart 961
Route
7.6
1
From a position NE of Teinga Island (6°54′N, 121°35′E)
the route leads about 40 miles ESE to a position SSW of
Sibago Island (6°46′N, 122°24′E).
Tidal streams
7.7
1
Tidal streams in Basilan Strait, when setting W, flow
through the various passages in directions between W and
N. Near the shoals and islands they follow the edges of the
reefs, setting W and E at a rate from 2 to 3 kn at neaps
and from 5 to 6 kn at springs. In November and December,
however, the streams have been observed to set in the
reverse direction, and sometimes to set in the same
direction for 24 hours, generally E-going, although there
have been two HW and two LW in the same day.
2
The turn of the tidal streams takes place later in Basilan
Strait than at Zamboanga. The change begins first on the
coast of Mindanao, then in the strait, and finally on the
coast of Basilan Island where the rates are about half those
given.
3
The N channel of Basilan Strait, although narrower, is
generally preferred by sailing vessels, as it offers the
advantage of an anchorage off the coast of Mindanao in
case of calm, thus avoiding being carried away in the tidal
stream.
CHAPTER 7
200
4
Tidal streams 7 cables off San Ramon (7°00′N,
121°55′E) (7.10) set N and S at a rate of about 1 kn, and
off Dumagasa Point 5 miles N, they set in a similar
direction at a rate of about 0⋅7 kn. Tiderips occur close to
the coast between San Ramon and Caldera Point 3 miles
SE.
5
Admiralty Tide Tables give daily predictions in Basilan
Strait off Zamboanga. It is reported that off the N coast of
Basilan Island the tidal streams commence rather later than
given.
Depths
7.8
1
Numerous isolated shoals, over which there are strong
and irregular currents giving rise to tide-rips, encumber the
N shore of Basilan Island but the mid-channel is clear and
free of dangers.
Principal marks
7.9
1
Landmarks:
Mount Matanal (6°37′N, 122°18′E) (6.198).
Mount Sining Capan (6°38′N, 122°12′E) (6.198).
Mount Cobung (6°35′N, 122°11′E) (6.198)
Basilan Peak (6°33′N, 122°04′E) (6.153).
2
Major lights:
Little Santa Cruz Island Light (white framework
tower, 16 m in height) (6°53′N, 122°03′E) on the
summit of the island.
Sibago Island Light (6°45′N 122°24′E) (6.198).
Directions
(continued from 6.148)
7.10
1
Caution. It has been reported that radar positions
obtained from the N shore of Basilan Strait plot about
2 cables farther N than those obtained from the S side.
2
From a position about 7 miles NE of Teinga Island
(6°54′N, 121°35′E) the track leads ESE passing, (with
positions from Little Santa Cruz Island Light (6°53′⋅2N,
122°02′⋅5E)):
SSW of San Ramon (9 miles NW), which is the site
of a penal colony, the buildings are prominent both
by day and by night, as many lights are kept on
all night. A monument stands on the coast in the
middle of the colony. Thence:
3
SSW of Caldera Point (6 miles NW), a sandy point,
with a coconut plantation. A prominent black
chimney, 17 m high, and a large conveyor, marked
by lights, stands on the point. Thence:
SSW of Santa Cruz Bank (2 miles W), coral, lying
with its N edge, 1 miles SW of the SW end of
Mindanao. The shallowest, detached part of the
bank, with depths of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it, is situated
near the S edge 2 miles W of Great Santa Cruz
Island. Thence:
4
SSW of Little Santa Cruz Island, low. flat and
wooded. A drying reef extends 5 cables from both
the E and W extremities of the island, and a bank
with depths of 1⋅2 to 3⋅7 m (4 to 12 ft) over it,
extends 1 miles NW from the drying reef at the
W end. A wreck, reported (1997) to be a danger
to navigation, lies in a position close E of the
island. Thence:
5
SSW of Great Santa Cruz Island (1 miles SE), low,
flat, wooded and fringed by a narrow reef, lies on
the E part of Santa Cruz Bank, thence:
SSW of President Shoal (3 miles SW), lying on the S
edge of Santa Cruz Bank, S and SE of Great Santa
Cruz Island. There is a shoal with a depth of
18⋅3 m (60 ft) over it, lying 2 miles SE of
President Shoal. Thence:
6
NNE of Luzon Reef (6 miles SSE) (6.239), thence:
SSW of Tictauan Island (6 miles E), low, covered
with mangroves, except for narrow strips of sand
beach at the E and W ends. A small village stands
at the E end around which a few coconut palms
grow. A drying reef extends 2 cables from the E
end. Thence:
NNE of Coco Islands (15 miles SE) (6.238).
(Directions continue for the E side of Sacol Island at 7.49)
7
From this position the track continues ESE for about
8 miles to a position SSW of Sibago Island (6.198) thence
into the Celebes Sea.
(For routes through the Celebes Sea refer to Indonesia Pilot volume II)
Minor harbour
Caldera Bay
7.11
1
Description. Caldera Bay (6°57′N, 121°58′E) is a small
port lying 7 miles NW of Zamboanga. The bay is sheltered
from NE monsoon and partly protected from W winds and
sea by Caldera Point (7.10). Close E of this point stands
the small town of Recodo which can be identified by its oil
tanks and buildings. A black chimney and a water tank are
prominent but are obscured by trees when approaching
from W.
2
Tidal streams are reported to be strong and to set on to
Caldera Point.
Pilots are embarked off Zamboanga (7.26). Berthing and
unberthing is reported to be difficult during SW monsoon
(May to September). Vessels usually berth at the start of
the E-going stream.
Tugs. Not available.
Anchorage can be had in the middle of the bay in
depths from 11 to 15 m, sand.
3
Berths. Timex Wharf, a T-shaped concrete wharf fitted
with fenders and bollards, projects 32 m E from Caldera
Point. The wharf is 96 m long, with a reported depth of
11 m alongside. Vessels up to 183 m in length can use this
berth.
4
Note. Vessels berthing at Timex Wharf should lie
heading N, using both anchors. Head and stern lines are
secured to wooden posts ashore.
5
There are two small wooden piers in the inlet. The outer
one in ruins, where the remaining piles are visible at all
states of the tide. The inner pier with a length of 27⋅4 m
and with depths from 0⋅6 to 2⋅4 m (1964) at its offshore
end, has a railway connection with the other sections of a
factory preparing desiccated coconut. This pier is used only
by launches loading for Zamboanga.
6
Other facilities: The patent slip and boat landing, on
the N side of the inner basin, can accommodate launches.
CHAPTER 7
201
Zamboanga (7.12)
(Original dated between 1996−2003)
(Photograph − Kevin R. Hamdorf)
ZAMBOANGA
General information
Charts 961, 957 plan of Zamboanga
Position
7.12
1
Zamboanga (6°54′N, 122°04′E) is the principal town and
capital of the Province of Zamboanga stands near the S
extremity of Zamboanga Peninsula.
Function
7.13
1
The port lies on a major trade route and in 2000 was
visited by 13 242 domestic vessels and 191 foreign-going
vessels. Nearly 1⋅3 million tonnes of cargo was handled.
Copra, rubber and timber comprise the main exports. There
are container and passenger facilities. Ferries link
Zamboanga with Basilan Island. Zamboanga is a Customs
Port of Entry
Topography
7.14
1
The coast E of Zamboanga trends ESE. It is low and
consists of mangroves fringed with a narrow reef drying at
LW. To the W of the city the coast consists of sand
beaches with rocky bluffs. It is low and wooded.
Zamboanga itself is largely obscured by palm trees but
there are several prominent radio masts and other
landmarks.
Port limits
7.15
1
Zamboanga Port limits are contained within lines drawn
N from the E point of Little Santa Cruz Island (6°53′N,
122°03′E) to the Mindanao coast and E from the same
point to a position of intersection with a line drawn S from
the E side of Hondo River mouth (6°54′N, 122°05′E).
Approach and entry
7.16
1
The port is approached from the W on an ESE track and
keeping to the mid-channel between the coast of Mindanao
and Santa Cruz Bank. It is entered 1 mile NNE of Little
Santa Cruz Island Light (6°53′N, 122°03′E).
From the E the port is approached on a WNW track
keeping to the mid-channel between the Mindanao coast
and Great Santa Cruz Island. It is entered 1 mile S of
Hondo River mouth.
Port Authority
7.17
1
The port is administered by the Philippines Ports
Authority, Port Management Office, 7000 Zamboanga City,
Mindanao, Philippines.
Limiting conditions
Deepest and longest berth
7.18
1
New Quay (7.29).
CHAPTER 7
202
Mean tidal levels
7.19
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m: mean neap range about
0⋅3m. See Admiralty Tide Tables
Density of water
7.20
1
1.025g/cm
3
Maximum size of vessel handled
7.21
1
27909 dwt, draught 8⋅1 m.
Local weather and sea state
7.22
1
In the vicinity of Zamboanga the prevailing winds in
January are from the E and NE with clear weather. From
February to April this general situation continues with
occasional shifts of wind into the NW which are generally
of short duration. During May and June the winds blow
from SE though towards the end of June SW squalls occur.
Bad weather sets in from July to September but in the
latter part of the year the winds settle back into the N and
NE.
2
During the period July to September heavy seas run and
these are increased when the in-going tide sets against the
wind. The approach of these storms is generally foretold by
the coast of Basilan Island being hidden by masses of
flying cloud. Sangboy Islands to the W are also lost to
view. Bad weather is certain if, at the same time, it is
cloudy and threatening to the NW.
Arrival information
Port radio
7.23
1
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals.
Notice of ETA required
7.24
1
Notice of ETA should be given at least 24 hours in
advance.
Outer anchorages
7.25
1
Anchorage off Zamboanga is not good. The narrow bank
that forms it is very steep, and in depths of over 22 m
(12 fm) the bottom is hard and uneven. Many vessels have
lost anchors here.
There is anchorage anywhere outside the 18 m (10 fm)
contour S of Main wharf, but the usual anchorage is
2 cables SSE of the E end of the wharf, in a depth of
29 m (16 fm). This anchorage is much exposed to W and
SW gales which raise heavy seas.
2
Quarantine anchorage has been established in an area
joined by the following points:
6°53′⋅67N, 122°03′⋅43E
6°53′⋅20N, 122°03′⋅55E
6°52′⋅93N, 122°04′⋅30E
6°53′⋅33N, 122°03′⋅58E
1) All vessels arriving and bound for the port of
Zamboanga subject to quarantine inspection shall
anchor within this area, fly the quarantine flag and
await inspection.
2) A vessel subject to quarantine may not be allowed
to leave the anchorage until given pratique by the
Quarantine Medical Officer.
Pilotage
7.26
1
Pilotage is compulsory for all foreign-going ships and
for domestic vessels of more than 500 grt. Minimum
advance notice of 24 hours should be given to Zamboanga
Harbour Pilots Association.
Pilots will board vessels approaching from W off Little
Santa Cruz Island and off Rio Hondo for vessels
approaching from E. During bad weather the pilot will
board 1 mile off Zamboanga Wharf.
Tugs
7.27
1
Tugs not available.
Quarantine
7.28
1
A quarantine officer is stationed at Zamboanga. Vessels
awaiting clearance usually anchor (7.25) close off the pier.
Harbour
General layout
7.29
1
New Quay is the SSW face of a concrete apron on
which stands a transit shed and a passenger terminal shed.
The T-head Pier is an extension of this face projecting ESE
which forms the seaward side of a basin. It lies almost
parallel to Marginal Wharf on the landward side of the
basin. Between these two wharves a finger pier projects
from the middle of the concrete apron.
Storm signals
7.30
1
Storm warning signals displayed in accordance with the
International System of Visual Storm Warning Signals are
exhibited from a mast near the Customs house, 300 m
(985 ft) N of the pier. See The Mariner’s Handbook.
Natural conditions
7.31
1
Tidal streams. At Zamboanga there are generally two
HW and two LW in the lunar day, but at equinoctial
quartering and when the moon has high declination, there
may be but one HW. HHW and LLW follow the moon’s
upper transit in S declination and the lower transit when in
N declination.
2
In November and December tidal streams have been
observed to set in the reverse direction, and sometimes to
set in the same direction for 24 hours, generally E-going,
although there has been two HW and two LW on the same
day. With these exceptions the turn of the tidal streams at
Zamboanga takes place with slight differences at the hours
of HW and LW given in Admiralty Tide Tables. Close to
the pier at Zamboanga the flow is reported to be mainly W.
3
On Main Wharf there is an illuminated current indicator.
Principal mark
7.32
1
Major light:
Little Santa Cruz Island Light (6°53′N, 122°03′E)
(7.9).
Directions for entering harbour
Approach from west
7.33
1
From a position NE of Teinga Island (6°53′N, 122°03′E)
the track leads ESE passing (with positions from Little
Santa Cruz Island (6°53′N, 122°03′E)):
CHAPTER 7
203
SSW of San Ramos (9 miles NW) (7.10), thence:
SSW of Caldera Point (6 miles NW) (7.10), thence:
NNE of Santa Cruz Bank (7.10).
From this position the route leads in mid-channel
between Little Santa Cruz Island Lighthouse and Baliwasan
Wharf (2 miles NNE) which is the pilot boarding position.
Approach from east
7.34
1
From a position NNE of Coco Island (6°44′N, 122°16′E)
the track leads WNW passing (with positions from Little
Malanipa Island (6°53′N, 122°18′E)):
SSW of Malanipa Island, wooded, with a prominant
village standing on its SW side. Little Malanipa
Island, wooded, lies on a bank extending 5 cables
E from the S extremity of Malanipa Island.
Thence:
SSW of Great Sand Bank (3 miles W), fine sand,
extending 4 miles W from the W side of
Malanipa Island, thence:
2
SSW of Tictauan Island (9 miles W) (7.10), thence:
NNE of President Shoal (13 miles W) (7.10), thence:
In mid-channel between Great Santa Cruz Island and
Hondo River mouth (12 miles W) which is the
pilot boarding position.
Useful marks
7.35
1
Main Wharf Light (hut mounted on metal supports,
9 m in height) exhibited from the head of the
wharf.
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) (6°54′N,
122°05′E).
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) 6°55′N, 122°05′E).
Radio tower (6°55′N, 122°04′E).
Directions for berth
7.36
1
The approaches to the berths at Zamboanga are deep
and clear of dangers. Proceed with caution when going
alongside New Quay, especially during the W-going tidal
stream, to avoid the shoal area with a depth of 4⋅9 m
(16 ft) over it, near the W end of the wharf. A coral patch
with a depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, lies 1 cables ESE of
the SE corner of the pier.
2
Approach to the berth should always be made against
the tidal stream.
There is a heavy swell and surge alongside during strong
SW winds
Departure should be timed for slack water.
Berths
Alongside berths
7.37
1
New Quay 320⋅44 m long with a controlled depth of
10 m alongside.
Main Wharf, a T-headed Pier 178 m long and 18 m wide
with a controlled depth of 7 m alongside. Recently
refurbished.
Ferry Pier 41⋅4 m long and 20 m wide with a controlling
depth of 5 m alongside.
Finger Pier 54 m long and 9 m wide.
Marginal Wharf (piled) 284 m long with an apron 35 m
wide.
Port services
Repairs
7.38
1
Limited facilities of a machine shop; Patent slip for
vessels of 20 tons.
Other facilities
7.39
1
Hospitals.
Supplies
7.40
1
Fresh stores, especially meat and fish; diesel oil,
gasoline, kerosene and lubricating oils are available on
request but bunker oils requires 24 hrs advance notice;
fresh water at the quay, the port’s fresh water tank has a
capacity of 1050 m
3
.
Communications
7.41
1
Airport.
NORTH COAST OF MORO GULF
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3811
Area covered
7.42
1
Described in this section are the islands and banks in the
waters between Sibago Island (6°45′N, 122°24′E) and
Quidapil Point (6°49′N, 123°57′E). It comprises:
Coco Island to Angosto Shoal (7.45).
Angosto Shoal to Arayat Shoal (7.55)
Sibuguey Bay — W Side (7.59)
Sibuguey Bay — N side (7.67)
Sibuguey Bay — SE side (7.74)
Sibuguey Bay — E side (7.78)
Arayat Shoal to Tambulian Point (7.88).
Arayat Shoal to Acha Rock (7.94).
Dumanquillas Bay (7.108).
Tambulian Point to Acha Rock (7.118).
Illana Bay — offshore route (7.126).
Illana Bay — W side (7.127).
Illana Bay — NE side — Pagadian Bay to Polloc
Harbour (7.143).
Tugapangan Point to Tagata Point (7.164).
Tagata Point to Malatuna Point (7.171).
Topography
7.43
1
The N coast of Moro Gulf is fractured and rugged. It is
deeply indented by several extensive bays, all encumbered
with numerous islands and shoals. Generally the off-lying
islands are low and heavily wooded. Coral reefs fringe
most of the coastline which is bordered with mangroves.
Typhoon anchorages
7.44
1
Masinloc Anchorage (6°55′N, 122°10′E) (7.53).
Port Banga (7°31′N, 122°26′E) (7.65).
Port Sibulan (7°29′N, 122°54′E) (7.100).
Maligay Bay (Dumanquillas Bay) (7°30′N, 123°15′E)
(7.125).
CHAPTER 7
204
COCO ISLAND TO ANGOSTO SHOAL
General information
Chart 961, 3811
Route
7.45
1
From a position NNE of Coco Island (6°44′N, 122°15′E)
the route leads NE for about 17 miles to a position WNW
of Angosto Shoal (7°00′N, 122°25′E)
Topography
7.46
1
The SE part of the Zamboanga Peninsula is low and
thickly wooded with mangroves which fringe a narrow reef
that dries at LW. The area is drained by Masinloc River
which empties into Tictauan Channel (7.50). Tictuan and
Sacol Islands are the largest of a group lying on the SE
extremity of Zamboanga Peninsula. A number of small
islands and reefs encumber the waters N and E of Sacol
Island.
Depths
7.47
1
The islands and reefs of the area are generally steep-to,
the waters surrounding them being of regular depth
shallowing slightly towards the N end of the route.
Principal marks
7.48
1
Landmarks:
Sacol Hill (6°59′N, 122°16′E), rising on the E end of
Sacol Island.
Lanhil Island (6°46′0N, 122°22′E), densely wooded.
Mount Matanal (6°37′N, 122°18′E) (6.198).
2
Major light:
Sibago Island Light 6°45′N 122°24′E) (6.198).
Directions
(continued from 7.10)
7.49
1
From a position NNE of Coco Island (6°44′N, 122°15′E)
the track leads NE, passing (with positions from Sinonog
Islands (6°57′N 122°20′E)):
WNW of Lanhil Island (11 miles SSE) (7.48),
thence:
ESE of Little Malanipa Island (5 miles SSW) (7.34),
thence:
2
ESE of Sacol Island (3 miles W), low in the W part
and consisting mostly of mangrove swamp, it is
dominated by two hills situated in the E part Sacol
Hill, the higher being 238 m (781 ft) high. From a
distance these hills appear as islands. Thence:
ESE of Sinonog Island, fringed by a coral reef which
extends 3 cables ENE. A patch of black and white
sand with a depth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it, lies
1 miles E of Sinonog Island. And:
3
WNW of Tulnalutan Island (2 miles NE). A reef
upon which lies a small islet, extends 3 cables
from the E side of the island. Roldan Rock lies
4 miles WNW of Tulnalutan Island.Thence:
4
From this position the track continues NE for about
3 miles to a position WNW of Angosto Shoal (7°00′N,
122°25′E), coral and sand.
(Directions continue for N part of Moro Gulf at 7.58 and for Sibuguey Bay at 7.62)
Tictauan Channel and channel west of Sacol Island
US Chart 92214 (see 1.18)
General information
7.50
1
Description. Tictauan Channel leads between Tictauan
Island (6°53′N, 122°08′E) (7.10) and the SE end of
Zamboanga Peninsula 8 cables NW. A channel then
continues NNE between Sacol Island and Zamboanga
Peninsula. The N end of this channel is encumbered with
shoals and a rock. Although the channel is sometimes used
as a temporary anchorage it is generally not recommended
because of very strong currents. Tictauan Shoal with a
depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it, sand and coral, lies in the
middle of the channel, 2 miles E of Mariqui Point (7.51).
2
Masinloc River flows into Masinloc Anchorage W of the
S extremity of Sacol Island opposite Pangaypuyan Island
which lies close off the SE extremity of Sacol island. It has
a least depth over the narrow bar of 0⋅9 m (3 ft). Although
Masinloc village stands on the S side of the river mouth it
is of little commercial significance.
3
Several shoals in the N entrance to Masinloc Anchorage
divide it into two channels. The W channel, 3 cables
wide, with a depth of 10 m (33 ft), and the E channel is
5 cables wide, with a least depth of 11 m (36 ft). An
above-water rock lies 3 miles WNW of the N point of
Sacol island where several other shoals encumber the area.
A patch with a depth of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it, lies in the E
channel, 2 miles from the same point.
Local knowledge is required.
Tidal streams set SW and NE, turning at the same time
as off Zamboanga.
Directions
7.51
1
From a position SW of the SW end of Tictauan Island
the line of bearing 050° of the SW end of Balabac Island
(6°55′N, 122°10′E) leads in mid-channel passing (with
positions from Balabac Island):
SE of a shoal patch (2miles SW), sand and coral,
with a depth of 5 m (17 ft) over it, thence:
2
Clear of Tictauan Shoal (1miles SW), sand and
coral, lying in the middle of the channel, 2 miles
ENE of Mariqui Point (6°53′N, 122°06′E). It is
usually marked by tide-rips.
SE of Balabac Island.
The track then leads NNE keeping in mid channel,
passing:
Through Masinloc Anchorage (5 cables E) (7.53),
thence:
WNW of Pangapuyan Island (1miles E), thence:
ESE of Taluksangay (2miles NNE) a village, where
anchorage may be obtained, thence:
3
WNW of an above-water rock (6 miles NNE).
Shoal patches lie NE and SW of the rock. And:
ESE of a bank extending from the shore in the
vicinity of Manichan (6miles NNE), a village,
thence:
WNW of a shoal patch (7miles NNE) with a depth
of 2⋅1 m (7 ft) over it, thence:
WNW of Roldan Rock (10miles NE) (7.49).
7.52
1
Alternative passage. After passing Taluksangay, a
village (mentioned above), the track continues NNE
keeping about 5 cables off the coast of Sacol Island
passing:
CHAPTER 7
205
2
ESE of a shoal patch (6miles NNE), with a depth
of 4⋅8 m (16 ft) over it, thence:
WNW of shoal patch (7miles NNE), with a depth
of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it, thence:
ESE of a shoal (7 miles NNE), with a depth of 2 m
(7 ft) over it, thence:
3
WNW of a patch (9 miles NE), with a depth of
14⋅6 m (48 ft) over it.
From this position the track continues NNE for about
1 mile to a position WNW of Roldan Rock (7°02′N,
122°17′E).
Masinloc Anchorage
7.53
1
Description. Masinloc Anchorage (6°55′N, 122°11′E) at
the mouth of Masinloc River is formed by the channel
between Sacol Island and Tictauan Island, and the SE part
of Zamboanga Peninsula. This channel is 5 cables wide at
its narrowest part and deep in the fairway. It is an
extension of Tictauan Channel.
Anchorage exists anywhere in the area in depths of 11
to 22 m (36 ft to 12 fm), completely sheltered from wind
and sea.
Taluksangay
7.54
1
Anchorage may be obtained as indicated on the chart,
4 cables ESE of Taluksangay Point (6°57′N, 122°11′E),
about 3 miles from the channel mouth, in mid channel, in a
depth of 20 m (11 fm). This anchorage is well sheltered.
ANGOSTO SHOAL TO ARAYAT SHOAL
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.55
1
From a position WNW of Angosto Shoal (7°00′N,
122°25′E) the route leads ENE for about 36 miles to a
position SSE of Arayat Shoal (7°16′N, 122°58′E).
Depths
7.56
1
The 183 m (100 fm) contour trends across the route in a
NE direction crossing it at a position about 12 miles NE of
Angosto Shoal where the depths fall away sharply to about
915 m (500 fm) within 4 miles S of Arayat Shoal. Around
this shoal the depths rise abruptly to 18 m (60 ft) within
1 mile which, like most of the shoals along the route, is
steep-to.
Principal marks
7.57
1
Landmark:
Sacol Hill (6°59′N, 122°16′E) (7.48).
Major light:
Sibago Island Light 6°45′N 122°24′E) (6.198).
Directions
(continued from 7.49)
7.58
1
From a position WNW of Angosto Shoal (7°00′N,
122°25′E) the track leads ENE passing (with positions from
Seboto Point (7°17′E, 122°49′E)):
SSE of a shoal (23 miles WSW) (7.56), with a
depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over it, thence:
2
SSE of a shoal (21 miles WSW) (7.56), with a
depth of 10⋅4 m (34 ft) over it, thence:
SSE of a shoal (19 miles WSW) (7.56), with a depth
of 2⋅1 m (7 ft) over it, thence:
SSE of a shoal (18 miles WSW), with a depth of
9 m (30 ft) over it, thence:
SSE of a shoal (16 miles WSW), with a depth of 4 m
(13 ft) over it, thence:
NNW of a shoal (16 miles SW) (7.56), with a depth
of 4⋅9 m (16 ft) over it, thence:
SSE of a shoal (13 miles WSW), with a depth of
7⋅7 m (25 ft) over it, and another shoal, lying
2 miles NNW, with a depth of 5⋅1 m (17 ft) over
it, thence:
3
SSE of Lutangan Island (2 miles SE), low, densely
wooded, lying on the SE edge of a partly drying
reef extending 1 miles from the S side of Seboto
Point, the S extremity of Olutanga Island (7.76).
The SE side of Lutangan Island is bordered by
low cliffs and a sandy beach. The E extremity is
steep-to. Several dangerous shoals are contained
between lines joining Lutangan Island to Taguisian
Point and thence to Arayat Shoal. These shoals can
be identified at a distance by discoloured water
and when directly over them the bottom can be
easily seen.
4
From this position the track continues ENE for about
7 miles to a position SSE of Arayat Shoal (9 miles ESE).
(Directions continue for SE side of Sibuguay Bay at 7.76 and for offshore route Arayat Shoal to Tambulan Point at 7.88)
SIBUGUEY BAY — WEST SIDE
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.59
1
From a position WNW of Angosto Shoal (7°00′N,
122°25′E), the route leads NNE for about 35 miles to a
position ESE of Bagolibud Point (7°35′N, 122°30′E).
Topography
7.60
1
Sibuguey Bay is an extensive body of water lying E of
Zamboanga Peninsula. It is 36 miles wide between the
entrance points of Sacol Island and Lutangan Island. From
Sacol Island the bay extends about 52 miles in a NNE
direction. The shores on both sides are very irregular and
indented with small bays and coves, most of which are
foul, and numerous rivers beside which stand a few
villages. Small islands, encumber the coast but they are
generally clear of dangers on their seaward sides. Mudflats
extend up to 2 miles to seaward of the larger river
estuaries. The remainder of the coast is fringed by coral
reefs.
Principal marks
7.61
1
Landmarks:
Sharp Peak (7°26′N, 122°15′E), prominent at the
extremity of a ridge extending W from Tungauan
Bay. It is often obscured by cloud. Another peak
with a lower elevation lying S of Sharp Peak
shows well but should not be confused with it.
Mount Taguite (7°18′N, 122°17′E), the highest hill on
the W coast of Sibuguey Bay. It has steep and
CHAPTER 7
206
symmetrical slopes which are entirely wooded. The
peak is a smoothly rounded dome.
Mount Silingan (7°46′N, 122°29′E), with three
prominent peaks and a lesser one rising from its N
shoulder, the highest and central of which is Quipit
Peak. Matanog Peak lies NE of Quipit Peak.
Directions
(continued from 7.49)
7.62
1
From a position WNW of Angosto Shoal (7°00′N,
122°25′E), the track leads NNE passing, (with positions
from Tigburacao (Tigburakao) Island (7°21′N, 122°26′E)):
ESE of Pitas Island (18 miles SSW), lying 1 miles
NE of Malasugat Point which is low, wooded and
fringed with a narrow reef. Mulasugat Bay SW of
the point is nearly blocked with reefs. Pitas Island
is the S-most of the Panubigan Group (7.63).
Thence:
ESE of a shoal (5 miles S), with a depth of 8⋅5 m
(28 ft) over it, steep-to coral, and:
ESE of Mount Taguite (10 miles WSW) (7.61).
Taguite Bay lies NE of Mount Taguite. It is
shallow and almost completely blocked with
mudflats. Taguite Island, wooded, lies in the
middle of the bay. Thence:
2
ESE of Taguite Point (7 miles WSW), the S extremity
of Vitali Island, which is separated from the
mainland by a shallow passage. The island is
densely wooded except near Vitali Point, the N
extremity of the island, where the low hills are
covered with grass. A red roofed house on Vitali
point is prominent from all directions except S. A
small, low, wooded islet lies on the coastal reef
1 miles SSW of Vitali point and a steep-to rock,
awash, lies 6 cables SSE of the same point.
Thence:
3
ESE of White Rock (7 cables WSW), and:
ESE of Tigburacao Island, the SE-most of the
Tigbauan Islands, a group of twenty islands low,
flat and densely wooded. Two large, prominent
pinnacle rocks, the higher of which is 12 m (39 ft)
high, lie 5 cables SE of Tigburacao Island. They
appear as one when viewed from SW. Thence:
4
ESE of Gatusan Islands (1 miles NE), the S island
of which is 35 m (117 ft) high. The N island is
about 15 m (49 ft) high. Both are wooded and
fringed with rocks. Thence:
ESE of Bacungan (Bakungan) Island (2 miles N),
the largest of the Tigbauan Group. The land rises
sharply from sea level. A rock awash lies 4 cables
SW of the island. The channel between is deep
and clear. And:
5
ESE of Lapinigan Island (4 miles NW), densely
wooded, the island has the appearance of a cone
when viewed from S, with a steep slope on the E
side. There is a least depth of 5 m (16 ft) in the
channel between the island and Vitali Island. A
shoal with a depth of 4 m (13 ft) over it, lies
7 cables E of Lapinigan Island. Thence:
6
ESE of Camugan Island (5 miles NW), lying on the
same reef as Cabog Island and Palucugan Island
all of which are densely wooded, thence:
ESE of Basan Reef (5 miles NW), a dangerous,
detached, drying, coral reef, the N and E sides of
which are steep-to. The S and W sides are foul.
Banks of white sand have formed on the two
higher parts of the reef and, except at HW, are
visible for a considerable distance. Thence:
7
ESE of Bangaan Island (9 miles NNW), sparsely
wooded, lies in the middle of the entrance to Port
Banga (7.65). There is a navigable channel either
side of Bangaan Island, but a rocky ledge covered
at HW, extends 4 cables from the SW extremity
of the island. A ruined wharf is situated on the N
end of the island. Thence:
8
ESE of Linguisan Point (9 miles N), the SW
extremity of a peninsula, low and wooded, fringed
by a reef which extends 2 cables offshore. E of the
point there is a coral shelf which extends up to
3 cables offshore. Rocks litter the E extremity of
this shelf. A dangerous, drying, detached, coral
reef lies 1 mile SE of the SE extremity of the
peninsula. Thence:
9
ESE of Panabulan Islet (11 miles NNE), lying on a
reef contiguous with that on the E side of the
peninsula forming the E shore of Port Banga
(7.65).
From this position the track continues NNE for about
3 miles to a position ESE of Bagolibud Point (7°35′N,
122°30′E) a densely wooded narrow neck of land the NE
extremity of the peninsula forming the SE side of Port
Banga. A shoal with a depth of 0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it, lies
1 miles S of the point, off the entrance to Loclabuan Bay,
a small inlet on the N side of which stands a prominent
hill 74 m (244 ft) high and densely wooded.
(Directions continue for the N part of Sibuguey Bay at 7.71)
Anchorages and harbours
Panubigan Islands
7.63
1
Description. The Panubigan Islands (7°09′N, 122°16′E),
a group of about twenty small islands and rocks lying off
the coast between Malasugat Point and Lawigan Point,
6 miles N, are generally high and well wooded.
Kabungan Island, is the largest and highest of the group.
They all lie within 2 miles of the coast.
2
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. The preferable approach is from the E
passing N of Buguias Island which route is apparently free
of dangers.
Anchorage. Sheltered anchorage may be found between
these islands. The anchorage area formed by Kabungan,
Buguias and Lambang Islands has depths of 12⋅8 to 16⋅5 m
(42 and 54 ft) and has been used by Coast Survey vessels.
It is recommended for small vessels.
Tungauan Bay
7.64
1
Description. Tungauan Bay (7°27′N, 122°23′E) is
entered between Vitali Point (7.62) and Linguisan Point,
7 miles NNE. Hills from 75 to 150 m (246 to 492 ft) high,
separated by deep, winding valleys, stand near the coast.
Cone Hill is situated 5 miles WNW of Vitali Point. The
seaward side of the hill is covered with tall grass,
providing a sharp contrast against the surrounding tree
foliage. It is a good mark for approaching the bay from E.
CHAPTER 7
207
2
There are extensive mud flats off the W shore of
Tangauan Bay and the sea bed is mainly mud becoming
sandy in depths greater than about 18 m (60 ft).
Tigbucay Bay is a small inlet on the N side of
Tungauan Bay situated on the W side of Tigbucay Point. It
is deep and clear of dangers, but the N part is very
shallow.
3
Anchorage. There is anchorage anywhere in Tungauan
Bay, in a depth of 18 m (60 ft), mud, N of the parallel of
Basan Reef (7.62).
Philippines chart 4651 plan of Port Banga (See 1.18)
Port Banga
7.65
1
Description. Port Banga (7°31′N, 122°26′E) is entered
between Tigbucay Point and Linguisan Point. It is 2 miles
wide across the entrance but Bangaan Island (7.62) divides
the entrance into E and W channels. The W channel is
deep and clear of hazards and is only 2 cables wide at its
narrowest part. The E entrance is encumbered with two
shoals which narrow the deep water entrance to about
2 cables. The bay, fringed with coral reefs on both sides,
provides good, sheltered anchorage in all winds. It is
navigable for about 2 miles from the entrance for larger
vessels and nearly to the head of the bay for smaller
vessels. Lampinigan Island, densely wooded, lies on the
NW side of Port Banga. A coral patch with a depth of
0⋅9 m (3 ft) over it, lies on the SE side of the harbour
5 cables SSE of Lampinigan Island. Except for this danger
the SE shore is without hazard.
2
Directions for west entrance. From a position 5 cables
S of Tibucay Point the track leads NNE in mid-channel
passing (with positions from Linguisan Point (7°30′N,
122°26′E)):
ESE of Tigbucay Point (2 miles WSW), the E
entrance point into Tigbucay Bay, a small silted
cove, thence:
3
WNW of Buchu Point (1 miles SSW), the SW
extremity of Bangaan Island from where a reef
extends 5 cables SW, thence:
WNW of the NW extremity of Bangaan Island.
From this position the track leads E to a position N of
Dandulit Point from whence it leads NE into the bay.
4
Directions for east channel. From a position 1 miles
S of Linguisan Point the track leads NNW for about
1 miles passing (with positions from Linguisan Point
(7°30′N, 122°26′E)):
ENE of Languisan Point at a distance of at least
5 cables.
5
WSW of a shoal (5 cables WSW), with a depth of
7⋅3 m (24 ft) over it, and:
WSW of a shoal (3 cables W) with a depth of 8⋅5 m
(28 ft) over it, and:
ENE of Dandulit Point (9 cables WSW), the NE point
of Bangaan Island.
From this position the track leads NE into the bay.
6
Anchorage can be had almost anywhere in Port Banga
but the deepest water is between Bangaan Island and a line
drawn E from Lampinigan Island, where depths from 13 to
20 m (43 ft to 11 fm) can be found.
Chart 3811
Busan Bay
7.66
1
Description. Busan Bay is entered between Bagolibud
Point and Calug Point (7°28′N, 122°29′E), low and narrow
with a coral reef extending SE 5 cables from the point. The
shoreline of the bay is mostly fringed by a narrow reef, the
widest part of which, awash at LW, extends about 1 miles
from the SW shore of the bay. This part of the bay is
entirely filled with coral reefs. Sudac Islet, a clump of
mangroves, lies on the reef 1 miles offshore. Padugan
Islet, 6 m (20 ft) high, lies on the reef 3 cables W of
Bagolibud Point. Tatal Rocks, from 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 ft)
high, lie 1 miles N of Bagolibud Point and are contiguous
with it lying on a common drying reef. These rocks are
prominent from seaward. Lalim Point is a small peninsula
extending about 5 cables NE sub-dividing the S side of the
bay.
2
Tupilac Hill, situated 3 miles N of Calug Point, is the
most prominent feature in the vicinity of Busan Bay. It is a
conical, grass-covered hill which, against the wooded
background, is visible for a considerable distance. Three
other grass-covered hills lie SW of Tupilac Hill together
with numerous low, grass-covered hills situated around the
SW shore of the bay.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. Diligan Island divides the entrance into two
channels, the N and widest of which is about 1 mile at its
narrowest. Approaching from N or NE enter by the N
channel giving the island a berth of at least 3 cables thence
follow a SW track into the middle of the bay.
Approaching from E pass through the channel S of
Diligan Island in mid-channel between the island and
Bagolibud Point thence the track leads WNW favouring
Diligan Island shore to clear the bank extending NE from
Lalim Point. This track leads directly to the anchorage.
4
Anchorage anywhere in Busan Bay is exposed to NE
winds but good anchorage exists between Lalim Point and
the reefs extending from the SW corner of Busan Bay, in a
depth of 11 to 13 m (36 to 42 ft), mud.
SIBUGUEY BAY — NORTH SIDE
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.67
1
From a position ESE of Bagolibud Point (7°35′N,
122°30′E) the route leads NE for about 15 miles to a
position SW of Ticauan Point (7°45′N, 122°45′E).
Topography
7.68
1
This part of the coast is indented with numerous small
bays and inlets and, on the W side, it rises steeply to the
peaks of a mountain range of which the highest is Mount
Silingan (7.61). Grass covered hills line the SW shore and
they are separated from the mountains by a valley trending
W from Calug Point. The hills contrast well with the
foliage background. Mudflats have formed at the mouths of
the rivers draining this part of Mindanao, notably Sanito
River, Kabasalan River and Siay River.
Depths
7.69
1
Maximum depths in the area of about 55 m (30 fm)
shelve gently towards the coast. The 18 m (10 fm) contour
follows closely the trend of the coast extending no more
than 1 mile offshore. Outside this contour the area is free
of dangers.
CHAPTER 7
208
Principal marks
7.70
1
Landmarks:
Sharp Peak (7°26′N, 122°15′E) (7.61).
Mount Taguite (7°18′N, 122°17′E) (7.61).
Mount Silingan (7°46′N, 122°29′E) (7.61).
Mount Sibuguey (7°36′N, 122°49′E), usually visible
from all directions within the bay. The peak is
formed of a short ridge extending N/S with several
peaks of lesser elevation on the E side of it.
Directions
(continued from 7.62)
7.71
1
From a position ESE of Bagolibud Point (7°35′N,
122°30′E) the track leads NE, passing (with positions from
Buluan Island (7°41′N, 122°33′E)):
SE of Calug Point (4 miles SSW) (7.66), thence:
SE of Laboyoan Point (1 miles NW), covered with
mangroves, lying at the confluence of two rivers.
It is fringed with coral reefs which extend about
5 cables SE. A rock awash, lies off the edge of the
reef 1 mile SSW of Laboyaon Point. Buluan River
discharges 1 miles NNE of Laboyoan Point and
Buluan village stands on the S side within the
river entrance. And:
2
SE of Buluan Island, a sharp, densely wooded peak.
A channel 2 cables wide with depths from 14 to
18 m (46 to 60 ft) in the mid-channel, lies between
Buluan Island and Laboyoan Point. Buluan Island
is the largest and most prominent in the N part of
Sibuguey Bay. The E, S and SW sides are fringed
with coral. Thence:
3
SE of Madiaop Point (4 miles NNW), fringed with
mangroves and numerous rocks awash, thence:
SE of Saro Point (5 miles NE), consisting of low
cliffs it marks the E limit of the low, irregular,
grass-covered hills extending SW towards Madiaop
Point, thence:
4
SE of Bacalan (Bakalan) Point (6 miles NE), 3 m
(10 ft) high, composed of low cliffs covered with
small trees and brushwood. The E part is edged
with a gravel beach. It is part of a swampy island
lying in the mouth of Sanito River The small port
town of Ipil (7.72) stands 2 miles up-river.
Thence:
SE of Taynabo Point (9 miles NE) (7.73).
5
Useful mark:
A densely wooded hill 211 m (693 ft) high, situated
2 miles N of Taynabo Point, has two similar
shaped peaks, the SW being the higher.
Anchorages and harbours
Ipil
7.72
1
General information. Ipil (7°46′N, 122°37′E) is a small
town with a population in 1990 of 56 000, standing on the
S bank of the Sanito River. The port stands 1 miles S
of the town.
Berth. A berth 320 m long and 4⋅5 m wide is a rock
causeway with a limiting depth at its seaward end of 4 m.
Taynabo Point
7.73
1
Description. Taynabo Point (7°46′N, 122°41′E), the
most prominent point at the head of Sibuguey Bay, is
connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus of
mangroves. There is a sand beach on the SE side but
otherwise the island is covered with grass and brush. The
inner part of the bay between Bacalan Point and Taynabo
Point is composed of drying mud flats. Several small
streams flow into the mangroves at head of the bay. Coba
Islet, wooded, lies on the mud flat 1 miles NE of Bacalan
Point situated 4 miles WNW of Ticauan Point.
2
Three small bays are divided by Banco Point, sharp and
densely wooded, and Tando Point, low cliffs rising to an
elevation of 64 m (210 ft). There are villages standing on
the shores of the bays and on Taynabo Point. Numerous
rocks awash, lie off the S end of Tando Point and a rock
5 m (16 ft) high, lies 2 cables S of the same point.
3
Directions. A reef with a depth of 0⋅3 m (1 ft) over it,
marked by buoys (red can), lies 1 miles S of Tando
Point. A clear channel 6 cables wide, with a depth of
16⋅5 m (54 ft) in the fairway, leads between the rock 5 m
(16 ft) high, and the reef.
4
Useful marks: Naga light (no description) is exhibited
from a shoal 1 miles E of Taynabo Point.
A light (no description) is exhibited from the top of a
prominent green warehouse standing close to the root of
the pier.
Anchorage. There is anchorage 3 miles S of Taynabo
Point in a depth of 44 m (24 fm).
5
Berth. The Santa Clara Lumber Company maintains a
privately owned wooden pier (7°47′N, 122°41′E), 132 m in
length with a depth of 9 m alongside its offshore end which
has a berthing length of 9 m. It should be approached on a
N track, passing 5 cables E of the reef and, when this reef
is abeam steer directly towards the berth. Vessels should
berth port side to, using the starboard anchor.
6
Facilities: small hospital.
Supplies: Limited provisions..
Communications: airport is 6 miles W of the pier.
SIBUGUAY BAY — SOUTH−EAST SIDE
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.74
1
From a position SSE of Arayat Shoal (7°16′N,
122°58′E) the route leads W for about 12 miles to a
position SSW of Seboto Point (7°17′N, 122°49′E) thence it
leads WNW for about 9 miles to a position W of East
Circe Shoal (7°18′N, 122°42′E).
Topography
7.75
1
Olutanga Island lies immediately S of the peninsula
forming the E side of Sibuguey Bay. It is separated from
the mainland by Port Sibulan (7.100) and by the Canalizo
Strait (7.84). The island is low, flat, generally fringed with
mangroves and heavily wooded in the interior. A prominent
single tree, visible from all directions, stands on a densely
wooded ridge N of Cangan (Kangan) Point on the S side
of the island. In 1990 the island’s municipal population was
17 200 persons.
Directions
(continued from 7.58)
7.76
1
From a position SSE of Arayat Shoal (7°16′N,
122°58′E) the track leads W, passing (with positions from
Cangan Point (7°19′N, 122°54′E)):
CHAPTER 7
209
S of Lutangan Point (4 miles SW).
From this position the track continues W for about
4 miles to a position SSW of Seboto Point (5 miles
WSW), bordered by a white sand beach. A village stands
on the point.
2
The track then leads WNW passing:
SSW of a shoal (8 miles WNW) with a depth of
12⋅8 m (42 ft) over it, steep-to, thence:
SSW of East Circe Shoal (12 miles W), steep-to on
its N side.
3
From this position the track continues WNW for about
2 miles to a position W of East Circe Shoal.
(Directions continue for Sibuguey Bay — E side at 7.82)
Minor port
Philippines chart 4652 plan of Port Sibulan (see 1.18)
Suba Nipa
7.77
1
Description. Suba Nipa is a timber port situated on the
S coast of Olutanga Island (7.75) 1 mile N of Silagui
Island (7°17′N, 122°51′E) which lies on the same reef as
Lutangan Island. Salagui Island is low and covered with a
few trees. Low brown cliffs rise on the S and E sides. A
small rocky islet 6 m (20 ft) high, covered with brush, lies
2 cables E of Silagui Island.
2
A drying coral patch lies 2 cables NE of the islet.
Pilotage is available.
Tug is available.
3
Local knowledge is required.
4
Directions. From a position SSE of Arayat Shoal
(7°16′N, 122°58′E) the approach track leads NW for about
8 miles steering to keep a conspicuous tree (7°20′N,
122°52′E) right ahead. When in a position 1 mile S of
Cangan Point (7°19′N, 122°54′E), a prominant projection
4 miles NE of Sebato Point, the track leads W between the
reefs for about 1 mile to the anchorage.
5
Anchorage. There is good anchorage for small vessels
in a pocket of the reef 7 cables NNE of Silagui Island, in a
depth of 15 m (50 ft).
6
Berth. There is a privately owned pier 670 m in length
and 15 m wide with a depth alongside of 11 m. It can take
vessels up to 10 000 grt. The pier is well protected. A light
is exhibited from a mast, 13 m high close to the pier.
7
Repairs: minor repairs.
Facilities: small hospital; stevedores are embarked at
Zamboanga.
Supplies: available.
SIBUGUEY BAY — EAST SIDE
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.78
1
From a position W of East Circe Shoal (7°18′N,
122°42′E) the route leads N for about 26 miles to a
position SW of Ticauan Point (7°45′N, 122°45′E).
Topography
7.79
1
The W side of Olutanga Island (7.75) is fringed by a
narrow belt of mangrove which is intersected by a number
of small streams. The coastal reef extends about 5 cables
offshore but there are numerous detached reefs, some of
which dry at LW, extending up to 2 miles offshore.
2
The peninsula forming the E side of Sibuguey Bay is
comparatively low-lying except for the range of mountains
extending E from Mount Sibuguey (7.70), N of which
numerous rivers empty into the bay.
Depths
7.80
1
Dangerous shoals, some of which dry at LW, extend up
to 5 miles offshore particularly within the the rugged and
deeply indented areas of Locsico Bay and Taba Bay.
Principal marks
7.81
1
Landmarks:
Mount Sibuguey (7°36′N, 122°49′E) (7.70).
Mount Silingan (7°46′N, 122°29′E) (7.61).
Directions
(continued from 7.76)
7.82
1
From a position 2 miles W of East Circe Shoal (7°18′N,
122°42′E) the track leads N, passing (with positions from
Labatan Hill (7°31′N, 122°48′E)):
E of West Circe Shoal (16 miles SSW), steep-to,
thence:
W of numerous shoals lying W of Deal Point
(9 miles S), the W extremity of Olutanga Island
(7.75). Tambanon River and Gandaan River
discharge into Sibuguey Bay S of Deal Point. A
depth of 2⋅4 m (8 ft), lies over the bar into
Gandaan River and can be found up to 2 miles
upstream. Tambanon River is encumbered with
drying reefs. Thence:
2
W of a shoal (10 miles SW), with a depth of 9 m
(30 ft) over it. A number of shoals with lesser
depths over them lie 2 miles E of this shoal.
Thence:
W of Lipari Island (7 miles S), s small mangrove
island lying less than 5 cables offshore surrounded
by a wide reef. When viewed from W it appears
to be part of Olutanga Island (7.75) but there is
foul ground between them. Thence:
W of a shoal (8 miles SSW) with a depth of 3 m
(10 ft) over it, coral, thence:
3
W of the W entrance into Canalizo Strait (5 miles S)
(7.84), thence:
W of Pandalusan Island (7 miles WSW), wooded. A
coral reef awash extends 2 cables SW of the island
and another, nearly awash, extends the same
distance E. A bank with a least depth of 2⋅7 m
(9 ft) over it, near its extremity, extends 1 miles
E. Thence:
E of North−west Rock (8 miles W), awash. It is
difficult to distinguish so vessels should keep well
over towards Pandalusan Island and not attempt to
pass W of North−west Rock. Thence:
4
W of Cabog (Kabog) Islands (2 miles N), lie
3 cables N of Cabog Point. The islands are
mangrove covered and lie close together on the
same reef which extends almost completely across
the mouth of Taba Bay (7.86). A coral reef awash
and steep-to, lies 4 miles W of Cabog Point and
a white coral sand cay which dries 1⋅8 m (6 ft) lies
on the N part of the reef. Its shape and position
change with every storm. Thence:
5
W of Patan Point (4 miles N), about 2 cables E of
its extremity. The S slope of the hill is covered
with tall grass, but other parts are densely wooded,
CHAPTER 7
210
as is the lowland E. Low cliffs form the S side of
the point. The coastline for about 6 miles N and S
of Patan Point is obscured by mangroves. Thence:
W of Tayoman Point (10 miles N)
6
From this position the track leads N for about 8 miles to
a position SW of Ticauan Point (14 miles N).
(Directions for N part of Sibuguey Bay continue in reverse at 7.71)
Useful mark
7.83
1
Labatan Hill (7°31′N, 122°48′E), 134 m (440 ft) high,
dome-shaped and densely wooded, being the only hill S of
Mount Sibuguey, is easily identified.
Small craft channel
Philippines Chart 4652 plan of Port Sibulan (see 1.18)
Canalizo Strait
7.84
1
Description. The W entrance to Canalizo Strait (7°26′N,
122°48′E) only 91 m (300 ft) wide between the coral heads,
is obscured by the narrow belt of mangroves lying along
this stretch of coast. The channel, 2 miles long has a
maximum width of 2 cables. It is tortuous and foul. A
depth of 2 m (7 ft) can be found throughout the length of
the strait and dangers are marked by locally maintained
stakes. The N side of the E entrance, in Tumabung Bay, is
marked by Lapinigan Island (7.100) and is easy of access.
2
The channel is used by launches plying between
Zamboanga and Alicia.
Local knowledge is required.
Minor ports
Philippines Chart 4606
Pamandian River
7.85
1
Directions. Pamandian River (7°42′N, 122°48′E), with a
depth of 1⋅5 m (5 ft) at the bar and greater depths within,
Siay River, Kabsalan River, Ley River and Batu River all
flow into a bay entered between Tayoman Point (7°40′N,
122°47′E) and Ticauan Point. Between these two points the
coastline is fronted by extensive mud flats which dry and
are steep-to. It may be approached at a distance of 1 mile
except off the mouth of Siay River. Siay River, the largest
in the area, flows into Sibuguey Bay 3 miles N of Tayoman
Point. A clear but narrow and tortuous channel, with a least
depth of 2⋅4 m (8 ft) in it, winds through the mud flats of
the bay to the mouth of the river where Cabut Island forms
the W side of the river mouth. The river can be ascended
for about 3 miles. Timber is floated down stream.
Kabsalan is the headquarters of the Goodyear Rubber
Plantation Company.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. Kabsalan River has a common outflow with
Siay River. The inner part of the river above the mouth is
wide and apparently deep. Local small vessels of 1⋅8 m
(6 ft) draft enter and ascend about 2 miles in the main
channel thence a farther 5 cables up a side channel entering
the E channel to the dock on the N side of the stream
about 8 cables from Kabalasan.
3
Berth. A wooden wharf, with a berthing face of 28⋅3 m,
is maintained and operated by the company.
Facilities: post office at Kabsalan; dispensary with an
attending physician.
Supplies: limited; no fresh water.
Philippines Chart 4651 plan of Taba Bay (see 1.18)
Taba Bay
7.86
1
Description. Taba Bay (7°34′N, 122°48′E) is entered
between Cabog Point (7.82) and Patan Point (7°36′N,
122°47′E) (7.82). The navigable N entrance channel,
3 cables wide off Patan Point, is safe at any state of the
tide, specially at LW when the edges of the dangerous reefs
on either side are easily seen.
2
Depths in the entrance channel are from 22 to 29 m (12
to 16 fm) for a distance of 1 miles. Within, they decrease
gradually to 9 m (30 ft). The head of the bay is shallow
with drying mud flats in the SE corner. Suong Island lies at
the head of the bay. Like the shores of the bay it is
mangrove-covered and is therefore not easily distinguished.
Bagalamatan, the principal village, stands on cliffs 10 m
(32 ft) high, on the E shore 2 miles SE of Patan Point. In
1990 the population was about 24 700 persons. The small
village of Tando Patao stands about 5 cables SE of Patan
Point.
3
Directions. From a position 4 miles SW of Tayoman
Point (7°40′N, 122°47′E) the track leads SE, passing (with
positions from Patan Point (7°36′N, 122°47′E)):
NE of a marker (7 cables SW), lying on the N
extremity of a reef extending N from Cabog
Islands, thence:
SW of Paton Point, thence:
SW of a marker (2 cables S), marking the reef
extending SW from Paton Point, thence:
4
SW of a marker (8 cables SE) marking a small drying
reef, usually distinguished by water discolouration,
thence:
NE of a marker (1 mile S), marking the NE side of a
reef extending N from Cabog Islands, thence:
SW of a small drying reef (1 miles SE), marked by
a marker 1 cable N. The reef is usually
distinguished by water discolouration.
5
Thence the track leads to a position in the middle of the
bay, 1 mile N of Cabog Island.
The SW entrance into Taba Bay between the reefs
surrounding Cabog Point and Cabog Islands has a least
depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it. The channel is marked by
beacons. Local knowledge is required.
6
Anchorage can be had anywhere in the bay W and S of
Suong Islet in depths from 11 to 14⋅5 m (36 to 48 ft).
Berths. Payao village stands 7 cables SE of Tandu
Patao. There is a landing stage lying 137 m S of a ruined
pier. It consists of an unpaved causeway 145 m long and
10 m wide with 9⋅5 m wide stair landing and, at its
offshore end, a wooden deck extension on concrete piles
with a controlling depth of 5 m.
7
Lumarao, a small barrio close SE of Cabog Point, is the
former headquarters of the Hercules Lumber Company the
site of which is marked by the ruined buildings and a pier.
Anchorage
Philippines Chart 4606 (see 1.18)
Locsico Bay
7.87
1
Description. Locsico Bay (7°28′N, 122°48′E) is entered
between the W entrance to Canalizo Strait (7.84) and
Talaid Point, 3 miles NW. Its shores are bordered with
mangroves and fringed with coral reefs. Talaid Point is
fringed by a reef which extends 1 mile SW. The main part
of the bay is encumbered with detached coral reefs drying
in parts at LW. A reef extends S from the point at the head
of the bay, dividing it into two parts.
CHAPTER 7
211
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage exists for smaller vessels 1 mile SE of
Talaid Point.
ARAYAT SHOAL TO TAMBULIAN POINT
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.88
1
From a position SSE of Arayat Shoal (7°16′N,
122°58′E) the route leads ENE for about 30 miles to a
position SSE of Tambulian Point (7°22′N, 123°27′E).
Topography
7.89
1
The coast between Olutanga Island (7°21′N, 122°51′E)
(7.75) and Baganian Peninsula is deeply indented forming a
large bay along the N coast of which are three smaller
bays. Except for Olutanga Island the region is mountainous.
The entire land area is heavily wooded. A number of rivers
flow into the various bays. All the bays are encumbered
with detached coral shoals.
Depths
7.90
1
The 180 m (100 fm) contour follows generally the shape
of the bay extending up to 8 miles off the W and NW
sides then closing the coast on the E side to a distance of
less than 1 mile in places. There are several shoal areas
outside the contour but none more than 3 miles from it.
Principal marks
7.91
1
Landmarks:
Mount Kaladis (7°35′N, 122°57′E).
Mount Tarranosa (7°33′N, 123°08′E).
Mount Flecha (7°26′N, 123°24′E), flat topped and
wooded.
Mount Botetian (7°29′N, 123°11′E).
Directions
(continued from 7.58)
7.92
1
From a position SSE of Arayat Shoal (7°16′N,
122°58′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
from Mount Botetian (7°29′N, 123°11′E)):
SSE of Liscum Bank (18 miles SSW), thence:
SSE of Paniquian (Panikian) Island (11 miles SE),
sandy and wooded. The fringing reef extends
3 cables S from the island, with a sand spit
extending 7 cables farther S. A prominent wooded
islet 14 m (46 ft) high to the treetops, lies on a
reef 2 cables SE of the island.
2
SSE of Flecha Point (15 miles SE), low and densely
wooded. The coast to the NW is mainly composed
of a rocky ledge 5 m (16 ft) high, interspersed with
stretches of sand. The point is fringed by a
steep-to coral reef.
3
From this position the track continues ENE for about
3 miles to a position SSE of Tambulian Point.
(Directions continue for Tambulian Point to Acha Rock
at 7.123 and for Illana Bay — W side at 7.132)
Anchorage
Paniquian Island
7.93
1
There is exposed anchorage over the spit extending from
the S side of the island, in depths of 9 to 15 m (30 to
50 ft). The bottom is usually visible in the anchorage.
ARAYAT SHOAL TO ACHA ROCK
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.94
1
From a position SSE of Arayat Shoal (7°16′N,
122°58′E) the route leads N for about 18 miles to a
position ENE of Acha Rock (7°28′N, 123°05′E).
Topography
7.95
1
The E side of Olutanga Island is indented by several
bays, the largest of which, Pongca (Pongka) Bay lies
between two peninsulas terminating in Sarva and Taguisian
Points (7.99).
Depths
7.96
1
A coral reef fringes the entire coast of Olutanga Island
(7.75) and, in the shallows extending up to 4 miles
offshore, there are a number of dangerous detached shoals.
Numerous charted shoals lie within the area contained
between lines drawn from Dumanquilas Point (7°28′N,
123°10′E) to Breeches Shoal (8 miles SSW), Breeches
Shoal to Lapat Point (7°28′N, 123°00′E) and from a
position 2 miles N of Lapat Point to Dumanquilas Point.
These shoals are generally small and steep-to, several
having live coral on them. At times they are difficult to
distinguish because of silt carried down by the rivers
during heavy rains.
Tidal streams
7.97
1
In the open channels entering Dumanquilas Bay tidal
streams seldom exceed 1 kn, but they are considerably
stronger near the shoals in the approaches. Eddies are
formed in the vicinity of the shoals and may be avoided by
passing about 1 mile clear of the shoals.
Principal marks
7.98
1
Landmarks:
Mount Tarranosa (7°33′N, 123°08′E) (7.91).
Mount Botetian (7°29′N, 123°11′E) (7.91).
Directions
(continued from 7.58)
7.99
1
Caution. Mariners should exercise great caution in the
vicinity of the numerous shoals described in 7.96.
From a position SSE of Arayat Shoal (7°16′N,
122°58′E) the track leads NNE passing (with positions
from Sarva Point (7°20′N, 122°57′E)):
ESE of Arayat Shoal (4 miles SSE) (7.58), and
ESE of a coral patch (6 miles SE) with a depth of
11 m (36 ft) over it, thence:
WNW of Liscum Bank (9 miles SE) (7.92), thence:
ESE of Sarva Point, surrounded by a coral reef and
numerous dangerous detached shoals extending up
to 3 miles SE, thence:
CHAPTER 7
212
2
WNW of a coral head (7 miles E) with a depth of
6⋅5 m (21 ft) over it, steep-to, (7.96), thence:
ESE of Taguisian Point (2 miles NE). Cliffs at the
SE extremity mark the N entrance point into
Pongca Bay (7.95). Taguisian Point is a long,
narrow peninsula, densely wooded and with a
white sand beach. The cliffs do not show up well
from seaward but large trees grow up to the top
edge of the cliffs and present a definite and abrupt
profile when seen from NE or SW. A coral reef
extends 3 cables SE and S from the point.
Pongca Bay is heavily encumbered with coral,
rocks, and shoals some of which dry at LW. These
rocks and shoals are dark in colour and, except for
the larger ones, are not usually visible at HW.
Pongca Bay affords no anchorage.
3
WNW of Breeches Shoal (10 miles E), an extensive
rocky coral shoal, thence:
WNW of coral head (10 miles ENE), with a depth
of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it (7.96). Three shoals with
depths from 6 to 18 m (21 to 60 ft) lie from 1 to
3 miles N and NE from this coral head. And:
ESE of another coral head (10 miles NNE), with a
depth of 2⋅4 m (8 ft) over it, (7.96). A shoal with a
depth of 13⋅7 m (45 ft) over it, lies 1 miles W of
this coral head. Thence:
4
ESE of Acha Rock (11 miles NE), with a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it and steep-to.
From this position the track continues NNE for about
1 miles to a position in mid-channel between Acha Rock
and Triton Island (7°30′N, 123°08′E) at the entrance to
Dumanquilas Bay.
(Directions continue for Dumanquillas Bay at 7.111)
Port Sibulan
Philippine charts 4606, 4652 plan of Port Sibulan
General information
7.100
1
Description. Port Sibulan (7°27′N, 122°56′E), is a large
irregular body of water lying between the NE coast of
Olutanga Island and Mindanao. It is entered between
Taguisian Point (7.99), and Lapat Point, low and densely
wooded with cliffs 6 m high bordering part of its S
extremity. The bay indents for about 8 miles NW. Middle
Reef, 2 miles long in a NW/SE direction, lies in the
middle of the entrance to Port Sibulan. Its SW edge is
marked by a buoy. The waters NE of Middle Reef as far
NW as Pandan Reef are heavily encumbered with
dangerous shoals but a channel 4 cables wide with a least
depth of 6⋅7 m (22 ft) in it, separates Pandan Reef from the
E shore. Sumangul Point, 3 miles S of Pandan Reef
terminates in a narrow headland planted with coconut trees.
It is separated from Olutanga Island by a shallow isthmus.
Reefs extend from the E side of this point up to 1 mile
offshore. Lapinigan Islands are two densely wooded islands
lying at the W side of Tumalung Bay marking the E
entrance into Canalizo Strait (7.84). A bank with a depth of
1⋅3 m over it, extends 6 cables SE from the E island.
2
Landmarks:
Prominent tree on Letayan Island
Tegolting Point, densely wooded but with conspicuous
reddish-brown cliff 12 m high on the E side.
Directions
7.101
1
Caution. Port Sibulan should only be entered under
favourable conditions during daylight. The Olutanga Island
side of the channel is preferred.
From a position ESE of Tanguisian Point (7.99) the
track leads NW passing, (with positions from Lapat Point
(7°28′N, 122°59′E)):
2
NE of Tanguisian Point (5 miles S), thence:
NE of Comot Point (4 miles SSW), thence:
NE of Cambulong Point (4 miles SW), surrounded
by a reef 5 cables wide. The 18 m (60 ft) depth
contour passes very close to the seaward edge of
this reef. and:
SW of Middle Reef (2 miles SW), (7.100), thence:
NE of Arena Point (4 miles WSW). Sibulan village
stands close W of Arena Point.
3
From this position the track continues NW passing
SW of Sibulan Reef the only isolated danger in the
channel, and:
Sibulan Island densely wooded, steep-sided with
prominant yellow cliffs on the E side, lying on the
reefs between Arena point and Sumangal Point
(7.100)
4
From this position the track leads NNE passing:
WSW of Taledom Rock (5 miles W), dark coloured
with bushes on its summit. It is prominent from all
directions except N. Thence:
ENE of Pandan Reef (3 miles NW) (7.99).
5
From this position the track leads N for about 2 miles
into the anchorage.
Coayan Bay
7.102
1
Description. Coayan Bay, entered between Comot Point
and Cambulong Point, which has not been thoroughly
examined. The head of the bay is shallow. An Islet, 9 m
(30 ft) high, lies close SE of Cambulong Point. A rock 5 m
(16 ft) high, lies close off the S entrance into Coayan Bay.
Tumalung Bay
7.103
1
Description. Tumalung Bay, is entered between
Sumangul Point (7.100) and Marek Point (7°28′N,
122°52′E). The entrance channel is 7 cables wide narrowing
to 5 cables in the channel. Depths in the bay are very
irregular with numerous patches of sand and coral in the N
part and extensive mud flats in the S part.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Anchorage exists SW of Sumangul Point in depths from
9 to 18 m.
Tantanang Bay
7.104
1
Description. Tantanang Bay (7°31′N, 122°54′E), is
entered between Kaladis Point, a red cliff, and Tantanang
Point, terminating in cliffs 5 m high at the foot of which
are numerous drying rocks.
2
Anchorage, sheltered, exists in depths of 14⋅5 to 18 m
(48 to 60 ft) almost anywhere in the bay.
Saong Bay
7.105
1
Description. Saong Bay (7°30′N, 122°52′E) is entered
between Marek Point and Tantanang Point. Mangrove and
coral fringe the shores and extend up to 5 cables from the
S side of the entrance. Panagan River flows into this bay.
CHAPTER 7
213
Alicia
7.106
1
Description. Alicia (7°31′N, 122°56′E) is situated on the
E side of the head of Port Sibulan. It is a small town and
the site of a sawmill. Launches from Catobato and
Zamboanga make regular calls for passengers, timber and
light domestic cargo. Occasional foreign vessels call to load
timber.
Directions. The chart is sufficient guide.
2
Anchorage is available almost anywhere off the port in
Tantanang Bay (7.100).
Berths. A government owned T-headed wooden pier has
a berthing space 15 m in length, with a depth alongside of
5⋅5 m.
The lumber company’s private pier is reported to have a
depth alongside of 5⋅2 m.
Balangan Bay
7.107
1
Description. Balangan Bay (7°28′N, 122°59′E), entered
between Lapat Point and Letayan Island, from the S
extremity of which a reef extends 1 miles SE, has a least
depth of 18 m in the fairway. There is good anchorage,
providing shelter from all except S and SE winds, 5 cables
NE of Letayan Island, in a depth of 15 m (49 ft), mud.
DUMANQUILAS BAY
General information
Chart 3811, Philippines Chart 4650 (see 1.18)
Route
7.108
1
From a position ENE of Acha Rock (7°28′N, 123°05′E)
the route leads NNW for about 5 miles to a position off
Labucan Point thence N for about 8 miles to a position W
of Cabog Island (7°41′N, 123°06′E).
Topography
7.109
1
Dumanquilas Bay (7°32′N, 123°05′E), is entered
between Lapat Point (7.100) and Dumanquilas Point which
is the S extremity of a high, bold peninsula. The bay is
irregular in shape with a number of smaller bays within. It
is surrounded by heavily wooded hills and mountains. At
the head of the bay Kumalarang River with its several
tributaries empty over mud flats extending about 2 miles
from the delta. Islands, islets, shoals and patches litter the
whole area of the bay but most of them are steep-to with
deep water channels between.
Principal marks
7.110
1
Landmarks:
Mount Botetian (7°29′N, 123°11′E) (7.91).
Mount Tarranose (7°33′N, 123°08′E) (7.91).
Mount Palug (7°43′N, 123°04′E) (7.91).
Directions
(continued from 7.99)
7.111
1
From a position ENE of Acha Rock (7°28′N, 123°05′E)
the track leads NNW to a position off Labucan Point,
passing (with positions from Igat Point (7°36′N,
123°06′E)):
WSW of Triton Island (7 miles SSE), wooded and
rocky. It is steep-to on the S side, but slopes on
the N side. A spit extends 3 cables NNE from the
island and shoal patches lie between the island and
the coast of Mindanao. Thence:
2
WSW of Labucan Point (5 miles S), steep-to. The
coast trending N to Buca Point and Carabuca Point
may be passed at a distance of 5 cables though
tide-rips are experienced off Labucan Point.
Thence:
WSW of Buca Point (3 miles S). A shoal with a
depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft) over it, lies 1 mile SSW of
Buca Point. Thence:
3
WSW of Carabuca Point (2 miles S), from this
point the coast trends E and becomes increasingly
steep-to.
From this position the track leads N passing:
E of a coral shoal (2 miles SSW), with a depth of
5⋅1 m (16⋅5 ft) over it, thence:
4
W of a coral patch (1 miles SSE), and a white sand
patch drying at LW. Is steep-to on its E side but
extends 2 cables SW from the drying patch. And:
E of Tigabon Island (3 miles WSW), clear and
steep-to on the E side, forested with heavy timber
and coconut palms elsewhere, thence:
5
E of Tangcocoloan Rocks (2 miles SW), steep-to. At
HHW, waters break over these rocks. And:
E of Lamuyong Island (3 miles WSW), densely
forested, the middle of three islands lying on a
bank contiguous with the W shore. The islets of
Malibak and Bacolog lie on the bank close to the
mainland. Thence:
6
E of Lambang Lambang Island (3 miles WSW), the
N-most and smallest of the group. Bugsok Rock,
awash on a small boulder strewn reef, lies
2 cables WSW of Lambang Lambang Island.
Thence:
W of Igat Point, is the W extremity of Igat Island
which is heavily wooded. The island is separated
from the mainland by a narrow channel at its SE
extremity. Thence:
7
E of Nipa Nipa Islands (1 miles WNW), are three
densely wooded islands lying in the middle of the
channel leading into the inner part of
Dumanquillas Bay. A coral head with a depth of
0⋅5 m (1⋅5 ft) over it, lies 4 cables NW of the NW
extremity of Nipa Nipa Islands. Thence:
E of a coral head (2 miles NNW) with a depth of
2⋅1 m (7 ft) over it, steep-to on all sides, thence:
8
W of Putili Island (2 miles NNE), densely forested
and steep-to but the island should be given a berth
of at least 1 mile to clear the shoal with a depth of
0⋅5 m (2 ft) over it, lying 8 cables SE of it.
Thence:
E of Lapinigan Island (3 miles NNW), wooded. A
rock with a depth of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it, lies
6 cables S of the island.
9
From this position the track continues N for about
1 miles to a position W of Cabog Islands, two small
islands covered with coconut palms. A patch with a depth
of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it lies in the middle of the channel
between these two islands.
(Directions continue for Malangas Bay at 7.112)
Minor ports
Malangas
7.112
1
Description. Malangas (7°38′N, 123°02′E) is situated in
Malangas Bay on the NE side of Dumanquilas Bay. The
port is the shipping point for coal mines and logging in the
CHAPTER 7
214
Sibuguey District. In 1999 the port handled 18 474 tons of
cargo in 312 ship visits, all of which were operating in the
domestic trade.
2
Directions. (continued from 7.111). From the position E
of Tangcocoloan Rocks (7°35′N, 123°04′E), the track leads
NW, passing (with positions from Igat Point (7°36′N,
123°06′E)):
NE of Tangcocoloan Rocks (2 miles SW) (7.111),
thence:
NE of Lambang Lambang Island (3 miles WSW)
(7.111),
SW of Nipa Nipa Island (1 miles WNW) (7.111)
thence:
NE of a shoal (3 miles W) with a depth of 7⋅7 m
(25⋅5 ft) over it, thence:
3
SW of Igai Point (2 miles WNW), a low, cultivated
headland marking the NE entrance point into
Malangas Bay. Shoals extend 4 cables E from the
point but along the coast SW of it the land is
steep-to and can be passed at a distance of less
than 2 cables.
From this position the track continues NW for about
1 mile to the anchorage in Malangas Bay.
4
Useful marks:
Schoolhouse with a metal roof standing on a hill N
of Malangas.
Concrete floor of the coal storage.
Pier.
5
Anchorage in Malangas Bay exists in depths from 11 to
14 m (36 to 50 ft), mud. Smaller vessels may anchor farther
in toward the head of the bay, but caution should be
exercised as the area has very limited swinging room.
6
Berth. An L-shaped government owned concrete pier is
situated 3 cables SE of Malangas and is reported to be
45 m long but the largest vessel accommodated was 94 m
overall length, with a draft of 7 m and a dwt of 5000
tonnes. This pier has a wooden ramp to facilitate the
loading of coal.
Supplies. Small quantities of provisions; fresh water at
the pier.
Pamintayan Point
7.113
1
Description. Pamintayan Point (7°41′N, 123°05′E), lies
1 miles W of Cabog Islands on the S extremity of a
peninsula extending from the foot of Mount Palug. The
shores and the slopes of the mountain are all heavily
wooded. Pamintayan Point is the shipping point of ores
from the Samar Mining Company.
2
Berth. A 140 m concrete pier with fender piles lining
the offshore end where there is a depth of 9⋅1 m alongside.
A concrete and wooden pier lies NW of the ore loader.
It is 6⋅7 m long and lies along the end of a causeway 40 m
in length. There is berthing space of 17⋅7 m in a depth of
4⋅6 m.
Directions. For directions through Dumanquilas Bay (see
7.111).
Margosatubig
7.114
1
Description. Margosatubig (7°35′N, 123°10′E), lies in
the middle of the S side of Igat Bay. It is a town with a
population of about 46 500 persons that was formerly a
centre for the timber trade, but now the port handles only
domestic traffic. Igat Bay about 4 miles long is entered
between Igat Island and Latas Island, 4 miles NNE. Latas
Island is infested with large brown bats. Except on the E
side, the Bay is surrounded by steep hills all heavily
wooded. On the E side are areas cleared for cultivation.
2
Directions. (continued from 7.111) From the position E
of Nipa Nipa Island (7°37′N, 123°05′E) the track leads E,
passing (with positions from Igat Point (7°36′N,
123°06′E)):
N of Igat Point (7.111), thence:
S of Putili Island (2 miles NNE) (7.111), thence:
S of the shoal (2 miles NE) (7.111).
3
From this position the track leads SE into Igat Bay
passing:
NE of East Talusen Bay (2 miles ESE) formed
between the SE extremity of Igat Island and the
mainland. It gives access to the narrow channel
separating the two headlands. Thence:
4
SE of Bato Manoyak Point (4 miles ENE), low and
densely fringed with mangroves which extend for
1 mile N and 2 miles S of the point. Four small
rivers empty into Igat Bay in the vicinity of the
point over a mudbank the greater part of which
dries at LW. A drying coral reef lies on the edge
of the bank 6 cables SW of Bato Manoyak Point.
From this position the track continues SE for about
1 miles to Margosatubig anchorage.
5
Useful marks:
Light (privately maintained, 4 m in height) is exhibited
from the head of Municipal Wharf.
Hospital stands on a hill SW of the town.
6
Anchorage exists off Margosatubig in depths from 22 to
24 m (12 to 13 fm), mud, 5 cables to seaward of the W
wharf and 5 cables NNE of the point of land W of the
town. A patch with a depth of 6 m (25 ft) over it lies
1 cables NNW of the point.
7
Berths. Municipal Wharf, is a stone causeway 40 m
long and 12 m wide with a pier where the controlling depth
of 10 m. There is a pier 30 m long on the seawall with a
controlling depth of 5 m.
Facilities: Small local hospital with limited equipment.
Supplies: Small quantities of provisions are available;
fresh water is laid on to Municipal wharf.
Small craft
Batu Manoyak Point
7.115
1
Labao Inlet, is situated 8 cables N of Batu Manoyak
Point (7°38′N, 123°10′E). It is navigable at HW for about
5 cables to Song Lupa and is entered between Bahal Point
(7°38′N, 123°09′E) and Tamilan Point 1 mile E.
Gapul Creek which flows out 4 cables SE of Batu
Manoyak Point is navigable for about 1 mile at HW.
Lapuyan River, which flows out close S of Gapul
Creek can be entered at HW and ascended for about
1 miles.
Kumalarang River
7.116
1
Description. Kumalarang River is the largest river in
Dumanquilas Bay emptying into the head of the bay. It is
navigable for a distance of about 3 miles within the
entrance. There are two approach channels of which the E
channel is preferred. The W channel follows close along
the W shore of the bay.
Bualan River
7.117
1
Description. Buluan River empties into the head of
Dumanquilas Bay about 1 miles E of Kumalarang River.
CHAPTER 7
215
The channel follows close along the E shore of the bay and
is navigable for about 1 mile.
TAMBULIAN POINT TO ACHA ROCK
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.118
1
From a position SSE of Tambulian Point (7°22′N,
123°07′E) the route leads NW for about 25 miles to a
position ENE of Acha Rock (7°28′N, 123°05′E).
Topography
7.119
1
Throughout its length the Baganian Peninsula is
traversed by a mountain range the summit of which is
Mount Flecha (7.122), flat topped and wooded, situated
4 miles N of Flecha Point, the S extremity of the
peninsula. The N part of the peninsula is low and only
about 2 miles wide. The SW coastline is heavily indented
by Maligay Bay.
Depths
7.120
1
Depths decrease from about 732 m (400 fm) to about
55 m (30 fm) over the route which does not cross the
180 m (100 fm) contour until 6 miles SE of Acha Rock.
Inside this contour the mariner should be alert to a number
of dangerous coral heads as shown on the chart.
Tidal streams
7.121
1
Refer to 7.130.
Principal marks
7.122
1
Landmarks:
Mount Flecha (7°26′N, 123°24′E) (7.91).
Mount Botetian (7°29′N, 123°11′E) (7.91).
Directions
(continued from 7.92)
7.123
1
From a position SSE of Tambulian Point (7°22′N,
123°07′E) the track leads NW, passing (with positions from
Mount Botetian (7°29′N, 123°11′E)):
SW of Tambulian Point (17 miles SE), low and
wooded, prominent only from a NE or SW
direction, thence:
SW of Flecha Point (15 miles SE) (7.92), thence:
SW of Paniquian Islands (11 miles SE) (7.92), thence:
(Directions continue for Maligay Bay at 7.125)
SW of Dumanquilas Point, a bold headland SW of
Mount Botetian, thence:
SW of Triton Island (2 miles WNW) (7.111).
2
From this position the track continues NW for about
1 miles to a position ENE of Acha Rock (7°28′N,
123°05′E).
(Directions continue for Maligay Bay at 7.125)
Anchorages
Philippines Chart 4606 (see 1.18)
Baganian River
7.124
1
Description. Baganian River flows out through
mangroves at the head of a small bay between Flecha Point
(7°22′N, 123°24′E) and Tambulian Point, 3 miles ENE.
Anchorage. There is anchorage 2 cables SE of a
pierhead at the mouth of Baganian River in depths of 38 to
42 m (21 to 23 fm), coral sand.
Anchorage may also be found SW of Mount Flecha in a
depth of 37 m (20 fm), over a sandy bottom which extends
1 mile SW of Flecha Point in depths from 18 to 37 m (10
to 20 fm).
2
Both these anchorages are insecure in unfavourable
weather.
Philippines Chart 4652 plan of Maligay Bay (see 1.18)
Maligay Bay
7.125
1
Description. Maligay Bay (7°30′N, 123°15′E) is entered
between Dumanquilas Point and the mouth of the Barabuan
River 6 miles E. The W and N sides of the bay consist of
a series of rocky points interspersed with mangroves. The
E shore is fringed with drying coral reefs which extend up
to 1 mile offshore. An extensive series of shoals with
depths from 3 to 11 m (10 to 36 ft) over them, white sand
and coral, extend 3 miles W from the E shore, with deep
narrow channels between them. Maculay Island wooded
and rocky, lies on the shore reef in the NW part of the bay.
A patch with a depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it. Lunqui
Island, wooded and rocky, lies on the shore reef 1 miles
ENE of Maculay Island.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. (continued from 7.123) From a position SW
of Paniquian Islands (7°23′N, 123°20′E) the line of bearing
(312°) of Mount Botetian (7°29′N, 123°11′E) leads to a
position S of the entrance into Maligay Bay.
From a position about 1 miles SE of Dumanquilas
Point the line of bearing (010°) of the peak of Maculay
Island (7°31′N, 123°13′E) leads in mid-channel between
Dumanquilas Point and the reefs extending from the E side
of the bay.
From a position 1 miles S of Maculay Island the track
leads ENE into the anchorage area.
3
Anchorages exists. in depths from 9 to 27 m (30 ft to
15 fm) in an area 5 cables wide close N of the W-most
bank in the entrance to the bay.
There is good anchorage over a small sandy area in
depths from 26 to 29 m (14 to 16 fm), 3 cables NE of
Maculay Island, with the E extremity of the island bearing
185°, and the N extremity bearing 255°.
Another anchorage farther NE can be found in depths of
37 to 46 m (20 to 25 fm), mud.
These are the only sheltered anchorages against the SW
monsoon (May to September) for deep draught vessels.
Anchorage can be found in the inlet in the NE corner of
the bay, in depths from 18 to 24 m (10 to 13 fm), mud, but
CHAPTER 7
216
the entrance between the reefs on either side is only
cable wide.
4
Small craft may find protected anchorage between the
reefs cable N of Lunqui Island (7°32′N, 123°15′E), in
depths from 9 to 18 m (30 to 60 ft).
ILLANA BAY — OFFSHORE ROUTE
Chart 3811
Passage directions
(continued from 7.92)
7.126
1
From a position SSE of Tambulian Point (7°17′N,
123°29′E) the route leads SE for about 37 miles to a
position W of Tagata Point (6°54′N, 123°57′E).
(Directions continue at 7.176)
ILLANA BAY — WEST SIDE
General information
Charts 3811
Route
7.127
1
From a position SSE of Tambulian Point (7°22′N,
123°07′E) the route leads NNE for about 23 miles to a
position ESE of Tagalo Point (7°44′N, 123°29′E).
Topography
7.128
1
The E side of Baganian Peninsula is more irregular than
the W side. Slopes rise gradually towards Mount Flecha
(7.91). The area is densely wooded but sparsely populated.
The coast is fringed with a coral reef which dries at LW
and which, from a point N of Limbug Cove, widens until
E of Pisan Island where it extends about 2 miles offshore.
Farther N the reefs are small, detached, steep-to with deep
water channels between them.
Depths
7.129
1
The 180 m (100 fm) contour lies within 1 mile of the
coast of Baganian Peninsula but N of Limbug Cove it
follows the trend of the coast extending up to 3 miles from
it. Waters in the middle of Illana Bay are extremely deep
and the bottom rises steeply on approaching the coast.
There are very few offshore hazards outside the 180 m
(100 fm) contour.
Tidal streams
7.130
1
Tidal streams turn at HW and LW at all the ports on the
coast between Zamboanga (6°54′N, 122°04′E) (7.12) and
Pollac (7°21′N, 124°14′E) (7.148). Off the coasts with a
rising tide the streams set N, NW and W according to local
land configuration.
2
Tidal streams in the vicinity of Flecha Point (7.92) and
in Illana Bay set at a considerable rate, especially the
E-going stream, and cause a heavy sea when there is any
wind. When bound for anchorages on the E side of Illana
Bay there is frequently a set to the S. Care should be
exercised when coasting off the S end of Baganian
Peninsula.
Principal marks
7.131
1
Landmarks:
Mount Flecha (7°26′N, 123°24′E) (7.91).
Mount Iniaoan (7°49′N, 123°56′E), conical and well
wooded.
Directions
(continued from 7.92)
7.132
1
From a position SSE of Tambulian Point (7°22′N,
123°07′E) the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
from Ticala Islet (7°37′N, 123°28′E)):
ESE of Tambulian Point (14 miles S) (7.123),
thence:
ESE of Tambatan Point (11 miles S), low and
inconspicuous except from N and S directions,
thence:
ESE of Rios Rock (6 miles S), isolated dangerous
reef about 8 cables in extent, the only out-lying
danger on the W coast, thence:
2
ESE of Sagayaran Island (8 cables S), wooded and
fringed by partly drying reefs. Ticala Islets are
three wooded islets lying 8 cables N of Sagayaran
Island. The highest of these islets is 56 m (184 ft)
high.
3
From this position the track continues NNE for about
6 miles to a position ESE of Tagalo Point (7°44′N,
123°29′E).
(Directions continue for Pagadian at 7.140 and for Illana Bay — NE side at 7.147)
Anchorages and harbours
Philippines Chart 4652 plan of Limbug Cove (see 1.18)
Limbug Cove
7.133
1
Description. Limbug Cove (7°28′N, 123°24′E) is entered
3 miles NW of Tambatan Point. Reefs extending on both
sides of the entrance reduce the navigable channel to a
width of cable. The cove is fringed with reefs leaving an
anchorage basin about 4 cables wide. A small wooden
privately owned boat landing lies on the E shore near the
head of the cove. A patch with a depth of 6⋅8 m (22⋅5 ft)
over it, lies on the SW side of the cove about 2 cables
offshore. A barren bluff, which shows white in sunlight lies
6 cables SE of the E entrance and is a useful mark when
identifying the entrance.
2
Directions. From a position S of Rios Rocks (7°31′N,
123°28′E) (7.132) the track leads W for about 6 miles to a
position N of the barren bluff. From this position the track
leads SW passing in mid-channel between the reefs of the
entrance. Clear of the narrows, approach the anchorage on
a S track.
3
Anchorage exists for smaller vessels in the cove, in a
depth of 18 to 25 m (10 to 14 fm), mud.
Philippines Chart 4652 plan of Port Sambulauan (see 1.18)
Port Sambulauan
7.134
1
Description. Port Sambulauan (7°34′N, 123°22′E) is
entered between Gasacan Point, low and fringed with reefs
which extend 1 mile E, and Pisan Point, the S extremity of
Pisan Island, fronted by drying reefs extending 2 miles E,
which forms the NE side of the bay. Port Sambulauan is a
(7.132) narrow and tortuous break in the reefs. The
navigable channel is 3 cables wide at the entrance
between the reefs on either side and is reduced to
CHAPTER 7
217
1 cables width by reefs and detached rocks. The water is
usually a dirty yellow, which renders these dangers difficult
to see except at LW when most of them dry. Bacayauan
Hills situated 8 cables SW of Gasacan Point are useful
marks for identifying the entrance. The NE hill is lightly
wooded; the SW hill, grass covered. Sambulauan Hill
stands at the head of the bay, although of much less
elevation than the hills in the background it stands out
prominently on a clear day being distinctively covered with
tall grasses.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Tidal streams follow the course of the channel
producing eddies in the entrance.
Directions. From a position SW of Rios Rock (7°31′N,
123°28′E) (7.132) the track leads NW to a position 2 miles
E of Gasacon Point when the higher of the Bacayauan
Hills bears 270°. From this position the track leads WNW
in mid-channel between the reefs passing SW of Pisan
Point.
3
Anchorage. There is a contracted anchorage, for smaller
vessels serving the needs of Dinas town, near the head of
the bay in depths from 7 to 9 m (24 to 30 ft), mud.
Chart 3811
Malubug Bay
7.135
1
Description. Malubug Bay entered between Pisan Point
(7°34′N, 123°23′E) and Malubug Point, 6 miles NE, is
encumbered with reefs, the greater part which are awash,
leaving narrow channels between them. The entire shoreline
is composed of mangroves. Panaldan River and Tuludan
River flow into the SW and NW corners, respectively, of
Malubug Bay. Their deltas are a network of small streams
through the mangroves. Pisan Island, which forms the SW
side of Malubug Bay is low and separated from Mindanao
by Dinas River and Panaldan River on the W and N sides
respectively. Kalipapa and Dansalan are two small villages
standing on the N shore of the bay.
2
Directions. From a position ESE of Rios Rocks (7°31′N,
123°28′E) (7.132) the track leads NW for about 7 miles
directly to the anchorage passing in mid-channel between
Sagayaran Island (7°37′N, 123°28′E) and the E-most reef
encumbering Malubug Bay.
3
Anchorage, protected, exists 2 cables W of the W
extremity of Sagayaran Island, in a depth of 29 m (16 fm),
mud. This is the best anchorage in the vicinity.
Philippines Chart 4606 (see 1.18)
Tucuran
7.136
1
Description. The town of Tucuran stands at the mouth
of a river of the same name which outflows into the N side
of Pagadian Bay, 1 miles NW of Calibon (Kalibon) Point
(7°50′N, 123°36′E) (7.139). The sea in the area is often
much discoloured by muddy waters from the river.
Anchorage. There is anchorage off Tucuran from 1 to
2 cables offshore, in a depth of 37 m (20 fm), mud. This
anchorage should be approached with caution as depths
shoal suddenly.
Pagadian
Philippines Chart 4652 plan of Pagadian Bay (see 1.18)
General information
7.137
1
Position and function. Pagadian (7°49′N, 123°26′E), the
capital of Zamboanga del Sur, stands on the NW shore of
Pagadian Bay between the mouths of Pagadian River and
Telapatan River. In 2000 there was a population of
1 438 000 persons. Its importance as a port is increasing
especially in the domestic trade. In 1999 a total of 2 049
ships visited the port providing a cargo throughput of
60 526 mt. A total of 428 959 passengers used the port.
2
Topography. Forming the NW part of Illana Bay,
Pagadian Bay is about 9 miles wide between Tagalo Point
and Calibon Point and extends about 5 miles NW. It
includes Dupulisan Bay. The land on the W side of
Pagadian Bay rises gradually towards the mountains, while
the land on the N side is a low, flat valley drained by
several rivers. It is the richest and best cultivated area of
land on the shores of Illana Bay. The entire coast of
Pagadian Bay is fringed with coral and mudflats.
3
Depths. The seabed rises quickly in the approaches to
Pagadian Bay where the 180 m (100 fm) contour crosses
the mouth of the bay as close as 1 mile off the entrance.
Depths within Pagadian Bay shelve gently from the contour
into the bay until, off the port they are generally about
27 m (15 fm). A number of isolated reefs encumber the
entrance to Pagadian Bay.
4
Approach and entry. Pagadian Port is approached from
Illana Bay and entered from ESE between off-lying shoals.
Limiting conditions
7.138
1
Deepest and longest berth. Wharf (7.141).
Maximum size of vessel handled. LOA 69 m, draught
5 m, 2095 dwt.
Arrival information
7.139
1
Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained in
Dupulisan Bay but this is generally confined to vessels not
intending to visit Pagadian.
2
Vessels visiting the port may obtain anchorage midway
between Dumagok Islet (7°47′⋅7N, 123°26′⋅1E), lying close
off the W shore, and Lampaqui Islet, 1 mile N, in a depth
of 26 m (14 fm), mud.
3
Landmark:
Calibon (Kalibon) Point (7°50′N, 123°37′E) rises
steeply to an elevation of over 300 m (984 ft) and
is covered with tall grasses and small trees, the
only hill of this description on the N shore of
Illana Bay. Its colour makes it distinctive.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 7.132)
7.140
1
From the position ESE of Tagalo Point (7°44′N,
123°29′E) the track leads NW passing (with positions from
Dupulisan Point (7°46′N, 123°27′E)):
NE of Tagalo Reefs (5 miles ESE), consisting of
two patches, each with a depth of 4 m (13 ft) over
it, separated by a deep channel about 5 cables
wide. The channel between the W reef and Tagalo
Point is deep and free of dangers. Thence:
2
SW of Boca Reefs (2 miles NE), a chain of reefs in
the middle of the entrance to Pagadian Bay. Parts
of the reefs dry at LW, parts are awash and the
remainder have depths of 0⋅3 to 5⋅5 m (1 to 18 ft)
over it. The channel NE of Boca Reefs has a shoal
with a depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it lying 7 cables
NE of Boca Reefs. Another detached shoal with a
depth of 0⋅4 m (1⋅5 ft) over it, lies 1 mile N of
Boca Reefs. There is deep water between these
shoals. The main channel to Dupulisan Bay and
CHAPTER 7
218
Pagadian Bay lies between the SE end of the reefs
and Tagalo Point. Thence:
3
NE of Dupulisan Point, standing out clear of the
surrounds which are indented by small inlets and
encumbered by reefs Small streams flow out
through mangroves. The land behind the point
rises to a peak of 185 m (705 ft) high, all of which
is heavily wooded. Thence:
4
SW of Suanbato Point, low, flat and covered with
mangroves. The point shows up well from E but is
not easily identified from S. It is fringed with reefs
which extend 6 cables S. A detached patch with a
depth of 1⋅3 m (4⋅5 ft) over it, lies 3 cables farther
S. Thence:
NE of Dumagok Islet (1 miles NNW), steep-to and
wooded. It may be safely passed on its E side at a
distance of 2 cables. A patch with a depth of
1 m (3 ft) over it, lies 6 cables SSE of the islet. A
light is exhibited from this islet.
5
From this position the track leads about 1 miles NNW
towards the wharf passing in mid-channel between an
isolated reef which dries at LW, and a reef with a depth of
0⋅3 m (1 ft) over it, lying 8 cables and 1 miles
respectively, WSW of Suanbato Point.
Berth
7.141
1
The reinforced concrete wharf with a berthing length of
157⋅8 m and a width of 8 m has a 5-pile timber cluster
fendering system. There is a controlling depth of 6 m
alongside. A light is exhibited from a mast (10 m in height)
in front of the cargo shed. A stone landing in ruins extends
SW from the position of this light.
2
Supplies: fresh provisions; fresh water; stores.
Other facilities: six hospitals, one is Government
owned; post office and three radio-telegraph offices.
Other name
7.142
1
Balangasan village (7°49′N, 123°25′E).
ILLANA BAY — NORTH−EAST SIDE
PAGADIAN BAY TO POLLOC HARBOUR
General information
Chart 3811
Route
7.143
1
From the position ESE of Tagalo Point (7°44′N,
123°29′E) the route leads SE for a distance of 40 miles to
a position S of Tugapangan Point (7°24′N, 124°09′E).
Topography
7.144
1
The shoreline is indented with numerous bays, coves
and river mouths separated by bold points. Small villages
are scattered along the coast. Mountains rise abruptly from
the lowlands of the NW reaching elevations of more than
305 m (1000 ft) within 2 miles of the coast. Mount Iniaoan
(7.146) dominates the skyline. East of this range lies the
valley of Mataling River, which nearly dries at its mouth.
The low lands, bordered with trees and bushes, continue SE
to the delta of Mindanao River. A few unremarkable hills
lie in this lowland which rises to the summits of the Butig
Range 15 miles inland.
Tidal streams
7.145
1
Tidal streams set NW and SE parallel with the coast.
Refer to 7.130.
Principal marks
7.146
1
Landmarks:
Mount Iniaoan (7°49′N, 123°56′E) (7.131).
Major light:
Polloc Harbour Light (7°21′N, 124°13′E).
Directions
(continued from 7.132)
7.147
1
From the position ESE of Tagalo Point (7°44′N,
123°29′E) the track leads ESE, passing (with positions from
Sigayan Point (7°42′N, 123°46′E)):
SSW of Dugolaan Point (7 miles NW), surmounted
by a hill 102 m (335 ft) high, clear and steep-to
forms the NW point of Caromata (Karomata) Bay
(7.157), thence:
SSW of Semaruga Point (2 miles NW), a small,
well wooded promontory separating Caromata Bay
from Sigayan Bay (7.158). It is connected to the
mainland by a low isthmus. It is clear of dangers
and steep-to. Thence:
2
SSW of Sigayan Point, wooded and steep-to. A reef
with a depth of 6⋅7 m (22 ft) over it, lies 5 cables
S of the point. There is a deep channel between
them. Thence:
SSW of Selungan Point (3 miles E), rising to a peak
113 m (370 ft) high, 3 cables inland. Between
Sigayan Point and Selungan Point the coast is
bordered mostly by a sandy beach, within which
there is an extensive valley, partly cultivated. Good
anchorage exists between 1 and 2 miles W of
Selungan Point. Thence:
SSW of Magapu Point (7 miles E), consists of 3
prominent, steep-to headlands rising 2 cables
inland, to an elevation of 333 m (1091 ft) high. A
rocky islet 12⋅5 m (41 ft) high, with a few trees on
it, lies 5 cables W of the point. Subuan River
flows out 2 miles E of Magapu Point. Its bar can
be crossed only by very small boats.
3
SW of Lapitan Point (13 miles ESE), low, flat and
mostly covered with cogon grass. The shore is
rocky with low, rocky bluffs. Close inland the land
rises to an elevation of 122 m (400 ft) and then
slopes gradually to the background mountains.
Tuka village stands on a bluff near the E side of
Tuka Bay, lying 1 mile N of Lapitan Point.
Thence:
SW of Buford Reef (19 miles SE), with a depth of
3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, and steep-to. A patch with a
depth of 5⋅8 m (19 ft) over it, lies 6 cables N of
Buford Reef. Salauang Point, 4 miles NE, is low,
sandy and covered with trees. It is fringed by a
reef which extends 5 cables offshore. The land for
a distance of about 3 miles inland is low and
wooded but then rises to lesser mountain peaks.
Thence:
SSW of Pinatayan Shoal (24 miles SE), steep-to,
thence:
SSW of Matimus Point (26 miles SE) (7.162), and:
NNE of Utara Point (26 miles SSE) (7.148), the NE
extremity of Bongo Island, high at the SW end
and densely wooded. Reefs extend 5 cables from
CHAPTER 7
219
the NE, N and NW sides and shoal ground, with a
least depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it, extends another
2 miles N from the NW side. Because of these
dangers the NW side and Utara Point should be
given a wide berth. Several islets lie up to 1 cable
from the SE side of Bongo Island including
Limbayan Islet, cable S of Salatan Point the S
extremity of Bongo Island. Thence:
4
SSW of Tugapangan Point (29 miles SE), rocky with
low bluffs and covered with grass and trees. The
point is steep-to and may be rounded at a distance
of 2 cables. A pinnacle rock lies lies close S of
the point.
From this position the track continues ESE for about
1 miles to a position S of the same point.
(Directions continue for Illana Bay — East side
at 7.176 and for Polloc Harbour and Parang at 7.152)
Polloc Harbour and Parang Anchorage
Charts 3811, 957 plan of Polloc and Parang
General information
7.148
1
Position and function. Polloc Harbour (7°21′N,
124°14′E) is situated on the E side of Polloc Island. It has
the largest port facility on Mindanao and handles all types
of cargo.
Parang (7°23′N, 124°15′E), situated NE of Polloc within
the same bay, is a frequent port of call for interisland
vessels. Two foreign vessels a month call there to load logs
and plywood.
2
Topography. The N shore is indented by Quidamak Bay
(7°25′N, 124°13′E) and Sugat Bay (2 miles E), the latter
being encumbered, particularly on the S side, by dangerous
shoals. Polloc Harbour is a well sheltered bay, easy of
access and with considerable depths. It is protected from W
winds by Bongo Island 8 miles W of Marigabato Point.
3
Approach and entry. Polloc Harbour is entered between
Lalayanga Point (7°22′⋅7N, 124°14′⋅8E) and Tugapangan
Point, 3 miles SW.
Port Authority. Philippines Port Authority, Port
Management Office Polloc, Polloc, Parang Maguindanao,
Philippines.
Arrival information
7.149
1
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours in advance.
Outer anchorages. Quarantine anchorage (7°22′N,
124°14′E) in the centre of the harbour.
Anchorage can also be found in the N part of Polloc
Harbour in Quidamak Bay, on the E side, in a depth of
15 m (50 ft), mud. Quidamak village stands on the N shore
of the bay.
2
Pilotage and tugs. Pilotage is compulsory requiring
24 hours notice. Tugs are available through the office of a
private shipping company.
Tidal streams
7.150
1
Tidal streams in Polloc Harbour set E on the N shore
with the rising tide and follow the bend of the coast S and
W. The ebb stream sets in the reverse direction.
Harbour
7.151
1
General layout. The reef on the E side of Polloc Island
has been built over and now forms the port area completed
in 1980. Two transit sheds stand parallel to the main wharf
and behind them is a large area of open stowage for
containers. The total port area which is administered by
Philippines Ports Authority is 1 230 353 m
2.
2
Tidal streams in Polloc Harbour set E on the N shore
with the rising tide and follow the bend of the coast S and
W. The ebb stream sets in the reverse direction.
3
Landmarks:
Mole extends 1 cable N from the shore 1 miles ESE
of Polloc.
Tower 43 m (141 ft) high, standing 1 cable ENE of
the root of the mole.
Plywood factory dominates this part of the shore.
Major light:
Polloc Harbour Light (7°21′N, 124°13′E) (7.146).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 7.147)
7.152
1
From a position at least 1 mile S of Tugapangan Point
(7°24′N, 124°09′E) the track leads ESE for about 5 miles to
the quarantine anchorage, passing (with positions from
Tugapangan Point):
SSW of shoal patches (4 miles E) with a least depth
of 2⋅1 m (7 ft) over them.
From this position the track leads directly to the
quarantine anchorage as indicated on the chart, or E to
Parang anchorage or SE towards Polloc anchorage.
Anchorage berths
7.153
1
Parang Anchorage (7°22′N, 124°15′E), close W of
Parang as indicated on the chart. There is a good
anchorage for large vessels 2 cables W of the pierhead in
depths of 26 to 27 m (14 to 14⋅5 fm).
Polloc Anchorage, located S of the quarantine
anchorage as indicated on the chart.
Alongside berths
7.154
Parang. An L-shaped concrete pier had reported depths
of 12⋅5 to 9⋅1 m alongside the SW face in 1987 and 6⋅1 to
5⋅2 m alongside the NE face.
Polloc. Berthing facilities consist of a reinforced
concrete wharf 400 m long with a controlling depth of
10⋅5 m and an auxiliary wharf 67 m long with a depth
alongside of 3 m.
Port services at Parang
7.155
Other facilities: dispensary with a doctor in attendance;
garbage disposal.
Supplies: fresh water is piped to the pier, stores and
provisions from Cotabato.
Port services at Polloc
7.156
1
Supplies: fresh water by road tanker.
Anchorages and harbours
Caromata Bay
7.157
1
Description. Caromata Bay is entered between Dugolaan
Points (7°48′N, 123°41′E) (7.147) and Semaruga Point
(7.147). A dangerous chain of detached reefs with a least
depth of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) over them, extends from 1 miles
NW of Semaruga Point for a distance of 7 miles NW to
connect with the coastal reef SE of Calibon Point. These
reefs are steep-to on their seaward sides. There are several
channels between the reefs and under favourable conditions
CHAPTER 7
220
vessels can proceed inside them. Dato Rock, lies close to
the shore 1 mile N of Semaruga Point. One and 2 miles
farther N of the point are two coral patches close to the
shore, otherwise the inside channel is clear of dangers. The
town of Karomatan stands at the head of the bay and is the
site of an agricultural college.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage exists in a depth of 37 m (20 fm), mud.
Sigayan Bay
7.158
1
Description. Sigayan Bay (7°43′N, 123°45′E), is entered
between Sigayan Point (7.147) and Samaruga Point,
2 miles NW. The shores of the bay rise gradually to an
elevation of 30 m (98 ft), and then sharply to a ridge 300 m
(984 ft) high.
2
Anchorage, well protected from N winds, exists near
the head of the bay, in a depth of 37 m (20 fm), sand.
Subuan River
7.159
1
There is anchorage in a depth of 37 m (20 fm), off the
mouth of Subuan River, or close W of Magapu Point.
Philippines Chart 4652 plan of Port Baras (see 1.18)
Port Baras
7.160
1
Description. Port Baras (7°39′N, 124°01′E), is 8 cables
wide at its entrance, lying close N of Ibus Island. There are
considerable depths in the middle of the bay, but the head
and the E side are shallow. Ibus Island, is high in the S
part, but low in the N with a sandy beach.
2
Anchorage exists in the middle of the entrance in
depths from 24 to 31 m (13 to 17 fm), mud, 3 cables N of
Ibus Island.
Malabang
7.161
1
Description. Malabang (7°35′N, 124°04′E), 3 miles
NW of Salauang, is a small timber loading port. The town
stands 8 cables inside Malabang River which is only
navigable by small boats. Two prominent white houses
stand on the beach abreast the town. Dos Hermanos Peaks,
two rounded peaks, 7 cables apart, are connected by a
saddle. Lalabuan River, which nearly dries is situated
3 miles S of Malabang. Lalabuan village stands on its N
bank. A rocky point with some off-lying, drying rocks lies
close NW of the entrance.
2
Directions. From a position on the coastal route about
10 miles SSW of Lapitan Point (7°39′N, 123°59′E), the line
of bearing 055° of the NW peak of Dos Hermanos Peaks
leads into the anchorage passing (with positions from
Lapitan Point):
NW of Buford Reef (9 miles SSE) (7.147), thence:
SE of a shoal (5 miles SE) with a depth of 5⋅8 m
(19 ft) over it, lying 2 miles W of the entrance to
Malabang River.
From this position the track leads into the anchorage.
3
Useful mark:
Radio tower (7°35′N, 124°04′E).
Anchorage exists 3 to 4 cables S of a large storehouse
painted black, standing on the beach S of the river
entrance, in depths from 22 to 27 m (12 to 15 fm), mud.
4
An alternative anchorage for timber loading vessels
exists W of Lalabuan River mouth, 3 miles S of Malabang,
in depths from 55 to 59 m (30 to 32 fm), mud.
Supplies: petrol and provisions available in limited
quantities.
Other facilities: doctor.
Communications: airstrip.
Philippines Chart 4654 (see 1.18)
Tetian Bay
7.162
1
Description. Tetian Bay is entered N of Matimus Point
(7°27′N, 124°08′E), wooded,. the N shore is low and sandy
and the E shore is composed alternately of sandy beaches
and rocky points. Barrel Rock, the highest of three rocks
lying cable N of Matimus Point is steep-to. Matimus
River, the mouth of which nearly dries, flows into the head
of the bay. Matimus village stands at the river mouth.
2
Directions. Tetian Bay can be approached passing N or
S of Pinatayan Shoal and entered N of Matimus Point
passing Barrel Rocks at a distance of at least 1 cables.
Anchorage exists in the N part of the bay in a depth of
29 m (16 fm), mud.
Lalabugan Bay
7.163
1
Description. Lalabugan Bay (7°25′N, 124°10′E) lies
between Matimus Point and Tugapangan Point. Two small
inlets are situated in the NE and SE parts of the bay, at the
head of which are sandy beaches and a few houses. The
land between these inlets and to the NE of them, is
covered with grass and trees. Two shoals with depths of
0⋅3 m (1 ft), and 7⋅3 m (24 ft) over them, lie 1 mile SSE
and S respectively of Matimus Point. The N inlet is
encumbered on all sides with mudflats extending up to
2 cables offshore. The deep water in the middle of the inlet
is very restricted.
2
Anchorage can be had anywhere in the bay or in the S
inlet but the water is deep and the anchorage exposed to all
W winds.
TUGAPANGAN POINT TO TAGATA POINT
Route
7.164
1
From a position SSW of Tugapangan Point (7°24′N,
124°09′E), the route leads SSW for about 32 miles to a
position S of Tagata Point (6°54′N, 123°57′E).
Topography
7.165
1
From Tagata Point the coast trends NNE indented by a
few small bays and numerous river mouths. The coast is
mountainous and steep-to. The mountains are generally
covered with tall grasses and bushes. The coast is bordered
with trees overhanging beaches of rock, sand and gravel.
The area is sparsely inhabited. In the N part of the route
the mountains give way to the alluvial flood plain of the
delta of Mindanao River bordered on its N side by the
mountains of the Nuling Ridge.
Offshore hazard
7.166
1
Bongo Shoal (7°22′N, 123°59′E), lies 6 miles W of
Utara Point. Another shoal with a depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft)
over it, lies 1 mile W of Bongo Shoal. Both these shoals
are steep-to.
Principal marks
7.167
1
Landmarks:
Mount (Binaka) Binaca (6°57′N, 124°01′E), is the
highest mountain on the coastal ridge. Its summit
CHAPTER 7
221
is wooded but its sides are covered with tall
grasses, bushes and clumps of trees.
Mount Blik (6°58′N, 124°13′E), lies at the N end of
the higher, inland range.
Mount Cabalata (7°09′N, 124°09′E), sugar-loaf shaped
and grass covered.
Timaco Hill (7°13′N, 124°10′E), densely wooded,
prominent due to the low-lying land surrounding it.
Its W side 15 m (49 ft) high, is rocky and rugged.
Directions
7.168
1
From a position SSW of Tugapangan Point (7°24′N,
124°09′E), the track leads SSW, passing (with positions
from Mount Blik (6°58′N, 124°13′E)):
ESE of Utara Point (26 miles NNW) (7.147).
ESE of Salatan Point (22 miles NNW), the S
extremity of Bongo Island (7.147) thence:
2
WNW of Timaco Hill (15 miles N) (7.167), and:
WNW of Linek (13 miles N), a small barrio standing
near the beach and consisting of several nipa
houses. The coast towards Tapian Point is fringed
with a narrow, steep-to coral reef awash at LW.
Thence:
3
WNW of Tapian Point (14 miles NW), low, sandy
and wooded. Tapian Reef, lies 8 cables NW of the
point with a deep channel between them. Thence:
WNW of Manangula Point (13 miles NW) (7.170),
thence:
WNW of Tenotungan Point (14 miles WNW) (7.169),
thence:
WNW of Logung Point (15 miles W), a grass
covered knoll 97 m (318 ft) high, thence:
From this position the track continues SW for about
5 miles to the position WNW of Tagata Point (6°54′N,
123°57′E).
Useful mark: A lighthouse (metal tower 9 m in height)
(7°15′N, 124°11′E) stands on the S side of the Cotabato
entrance.
(Directions continue for Illana Bay E side at 7.176)
Anchorage
Tenotungan Point
7.169
1
Description. Tenotungan Point (7°03′N, 124°00′E) is
distinguished by the several scattered houses of Tubuan
village which are visible from a distance between the
coconut trees on the point.
Anchorage for small vessels exists between the point
and a shoal with a depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over it, lying
7 cables N, in depths from 18 to 22 m (60 ft to 12 fm),
sand, abreast a short stretch of sandy beach.
Small craft
Manangula Point
7.170
1
Manangula Point (7°06′N, 124°02′E) where there is a
large coconut plantation, is low and forms the N bank of
Matabal River which can be entered at half tide. However
the bar at the entrance frequently changes, specially during
the rains.
TAGATA POINT TO MALATUNA POINT
General information
Chart 3811, 2575
Route
7.171
1
From a position WNW of Tagata Point (6°54′N,
123°57′E) the route leads S for a distance of about
37 miles to a position W of Malatuna Point (6°19′N,
124°07′E)).
Topography
7.172
1
A number of bays indent this part of the coast into
which numerous rivers flow, Tran Grande River (6°43′N,
124°01′E) being the largest. The land, which rises steeply
to a range of mountains, is densely wooded and the coast
is fringed with a narrow, steep-to coral reef.
Depths
7.173
1
There are several off-lying dangers to seaward of the
180 m (100 fm) contour but otherwise the seabed falls
away steeply to great depths.
Tidal streams
7.174
1
A weak N current is experienced off this coast, but there
is a counter-current in the reverse direction close off the
coastal reef.
Principal marks
7.175
1
Landmarks:
Mount Korobong (Corobong on chart 2875),
(6°50′N, 123°59′E), covered with tall grasses.
Mount Syniop (6°28′N, 124°03′E), conical in shape,
densely wooded. This and other peaks in the
coastal range tend to merge with the higher
mountains of the interior.
Directions
(contined from 7.126)
7.176
1
Caution. Mariners not calling at Basiauang Bay or Port
Lebak are advised to keep 5 miles offshore to avoid
Donauang Shoals.
2
From a position WNW of Tagata Point (6°54′N,
123°57′E) the route leads S passing (with positions from
Donauang Island (6°28′N, 124°02′E)):
3
W of Quidapil Point (22 miles N), steep and rocky
prominent from N or S. It appears as an Island
when first seen from these directions. It is formed
by a narrow ridge 107 m (350 ft) high, covered
with grass and bushes. Thence:
4
W of Linao Point (18 miles N), the N entrance
point into Linao Bay, has large detached rocks
lying on a drying coral reef. Sadam Bay, lying
NW of Linao Point is almost entirely fringed by
coral and mangrove. Small boats may land in
rough weather through a break in the reef on the
W side of the bay. Huidobro Reef, consisting of
both live and dead coral on the edge and white
sand spots in the middle, lies 1 miles SW of
Linao Point. It is usually seen from a safe distance
because of discolouration. There is a deep water
channel between it and the mainland. Thence:
W of Kalingmomo Point (15 miles N), is the S
entrance point to Linao Bay (7.191), thence:
CHAPTER 7
222
5
W of Donauang Shoals (2miles N), a chain of
shoals lying parallel to the coast, with depths of 3
to 8 m (10 to 27 ft) over them, extending 4 miles
NNW. These reefs are steep-to and there is a deep
channel with a least width of 7 cables separating
them from the mainland. Thence:
W of Donauang Island, densely wooded, a useful
mark from N or S, is separated from the mainland
by a deep, narrow channel leading to Basiauang
Bay wherein small boats can find shelter on the N
or S sides. Its great depth precludes safe
anchorage, thence:
W of Tuna Point (5miles SSE), a prominent rocky
point, with a narrow rocky shelf on which there
are several drying rocks.
From this position the track continues S for about
3 miles to a position W of Malatuna Point (6°19′N,
124°07′E).
(Directions continue for the Central South Coast at 7.201)
Port Lebak
Chart 957
General information
7.177
1
Position and function. Port Lebak (6°33′N, 124°02′E) is
entered between Lebak Point in the N and Nara Point,
1 mile SSW. It provides the best protected anchorage in this
part of Mindanao. Timber and plywood are exported. Logs
are loaded from a timber pond in the bay E of Lebuk
Point. Several foreign-going vessels call monthly to load
plywood and timber.
Kalamansig, a town on the N shore of Port Lebak has a
concrete pier at which it handles about 370 ships a year
with a throughput of about 28 000 tonnes of cargo and
62 500 passengers.
2
Topography. Lebak Point is fronted by a coral spit
extending 3 cables SSW. Lebak Islet, stands on the seaward
end of this spit. There is a deep channel 1 cable wide,
between the coast and two rocks awash, lying 2 cables
NW of the rocky point 1 mile N of Lebuk Point.
3
Tubotubo Islet, lies close to the outer end of a drying
coral spit extending 3 cables NW from the S side of the
bay. A small islet lies on the spit between Tubotubo Islet
and the S shore.
Arrival information
7.178
1
Pilotage and Tug. Pilotage not compulsory. A tug is
available
Harbour
7.179
1
General layout. A wooden pier is connected by rail to a
logging camp several miles inland. The Santa Clara
Lumber Company has a plywood factory standing E of this
pier. Red lights are exhibited from the head of the pier and
from the highest part of Tubotubo Islet when a vessel is
expected.
2
A floating pipeline berth providing oil discharge
facilities is available at the outer end of the pier.
3
Landmark:
Radio mast (red and white) (6°33′N, 124°03′E) stands
on the N shore near Kalamansig.
Directions for entering harbour
7.180
1
Free of hazard the bay can be entered without difficulty.
The surrounding country is low, flat and wooded but a
mountain range rises 4 miles inland lying parallel with the
coast.
From a position on the coastal route the track leads E
passing N of the N-most of the Donauang Shoals (7.176)
with positions from Lebak Point (6°33′N, 124°02′E))
S of Lebak Islet (2 cables SW) thence:
N of Tubotubo Islet (6 cables SE) (7.177),
2
From this position the track SE for about 4 cables
towards the anchorage and the pier.
3
Useful mark:
A light (white metal and GRP tower 10 m in height)
is exhibited at Kalamansig (6°33′N, 124°03′E) SW
of the radio mast.
Berths
7.181
1
Anchorage in depths from 29 to 33 m (16 to 18 fm),
mud, exists E of Tubotubo Islet (7.177) or, in depths from
26 to 29 m (14 to 16 fm), NE of Lebak Islet.
2
Alongside berth. A wooden pier projects 217 m NW,
from a point close to Lebak village. It has a reported depth
of 12⋅8 m alongside at its seaward end but gradually shoals
to a depth of 4⋅6 m at a point about 40 m from its root.
3
At Kalamansig there is a pier 165 m long, 9 m wide
with a reported (1989) controlling depth of 8 m.
4
A floating pipeline berth provides oil discharge facilities
at the outer end of the pier.
Port services
7.182
1
Other facilities: post office; radio station at Kalamansig;
privately owned hospital for emergency cases at Lebak
Cotabato
Chart 957 plan of Mindanao River Cotabato Entrance
General information
7.183
1
Position. Cotabato City stands on the S side of
Mindanao River, 5 miles from its N entrance. The city is
located on an extensive plain of the same name, with
several large lakes in it.
2
Function. Cotabato City (7°14′N, 124°15′E), the capital
of the province of the same name is of considerable
importance as the centre of trade for Mindanao valley and
the surrounding coastal area. Rice, corn and copra are the
more important products. Its importance as a port is,
however, declining in favour of the developments in the
more accessible Pollac Harbour (7.148).
3
Topography. Rio Grande de Mindanao, the longest in
Mindanao, having formed a large delta, empties through
two main channels, connected by several small channels,
into Illana Bay draining the plain. The fertile valley
traversed by this river is about 30 miles wide and is
separated from the N part of Sarangani Bay by a low
divide.
4
Traffic. In 1999, 1 449 domestic vessels called at the
port servicing a cargo throughput of 33 563 tons. There
were no calls by foreign vessels. Nearly a quarter of a
million passengers used the port.
Limiting conditions
7.184
1
Controlling depths. The bar at Cotabato entrance, (N
entrance), is subject to change, especially after freshets but
CHAPTER 7
223
small vessels drawing 2⋅4 to 2⋅7 m (8 to 9 ft) can cross the
bar and enter the river at HW and reach Cotabato, 5 miles
upstream.
Arrival information
7.185
1
Outer anchorage for vessels not entering the river can
be had about 1 mile NW of Panalisan Point, on the N side
of the entrance, in depths of 9 to 37 m (30 ft to 20 fm). It
should be approached with caution as depths shoal very
suddenly. The anchorage is not recommended for large
vessels nor during the SW monsoon (May to September).
2
Pilotage. Local knowledge is required for crossing the
bar and navigating the river. Local launch captains can be
hired from Cotabato for pilotage service.
Landmarks:
Provincial building at Cotabato.
Cotabato Provincial Hospital standing on Cotabato
Hill 56 m (185 ft) high.
Harbour
7.186
Seismic activity. The strongest earthquake to strike
Cotabato occurred on 17 August 1976. The recorded
intensity was between 8 and 8⋅5 on the Richter scale. It
raised a 6 m (20 ft) tsunami which surged inland deluging
Cotabato.
1
Tidal streams in the river are strong. It has been
reported that the out-going velocity is about 2 kn and the
in-coming about 0⋅5 kn. Tidal streams set strongly off the
wharf at Cotabato. As the river is narrow considerable
difficulty is experienced in turning with an out-going
stream.
Directions for entering harbour
7.187
1
Caution. Near the mouths of Rio Grande de Mindanao,
and sometimes well out to sea numerous masses of floating
grasses resembling small islands can be found. Floating
debris of all kinds including logs and large tree trunks are
discharged from the river. Discoloured water from the river
can extend well offshore as far as Bongo Island (7.147)
and Polloc Harbour. There are a number of wrecks in the
river.
2
Useful mark:
Light (metal tower 9 m in height) (7°15′N, 124°11′E).
Berths
7.188
1
A concrete wharf 360 m long with a controlling depth of
2 m fronts the town.
Port services
7.189
1
Repairs: minor.
Other facilities: hospital; post office; radio
telecommunications.
Supplies: fresh water by road tanker; diesel; gasoline;
kerosene in limited quantities; fresh supplies are plentiful;
ice.
Communications: airport 3 km S of the city.
Small craft
7.190
1
The S entrance to Rio Grande de Mindanao, lying
between Bulusan Point (7°11′N, 124°10′E) around which
lies a steep-to coral reef extending up to 5 cables offshore,
and Gardoqui Point, is narrow and has a depth over the bar
of 0⋅9 m (3 ft). A drying bank extends 5 cables W of the
entrance. The land in the vicinity is low and covered with
coconut trees and bushes. This entrance is used to reach
Tamontaca village 5 miles upstream.
2
Using the N or main entrance, Mindanao River may be
ascended for about 27 miles to the village of Peidu
Pulangui.
Anchorages and harbours
Linao Bay
7.191
1
Description. Linao Bay (6°45′N, 124°00′E) is entered
between Kalingmomo Point and Linao Point, 3 miles
NNW. The shores of the bay consist of sand and hard mud
with trees and bushes growing to the HW line. Two reefs
with depths of 2⋅3 and 3⋅6 m (7 and 12 ft) over them, lie in
the NE part of the bay. Another reef with a depth of 1⋅2 m
(4 ft) over it, lies close to the NW corner of the bay.
2
Kalingmomo village stands at the entrance to Tran
Grande River close S of Kalingmomo Point. Small boats
may enter the river at any state of the tide.
Local knowledge is required.
3
Directions. Approaching Linao Bay from the N vessels
should give Huidobro Reef, a wide berth. Linao Bay should
be entered on a NE track keeping to the mid-channel.
4
Anchorage. Vessels calling at Mati, in the N part of
Linao Bay, usually anchor SW of the village and E of the
shoals, in depths from 13 to 20 m (42 ft to 11 fm), mud,
however in heavy SW weather the swell tends to render the
anchorage uncomfortable.
Tuna Bay
7.192
1
Description. Tuna Bay (6°23′N, 124°03′E), is entered S
of Tuna Point (7.176). The W shore is fringed with coral.
An Islet 6 m (20 ft) high, lies close off the mangrove
swamp at the N end. The E shore is bordered mostly by
sandy beach. A patch with a depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) extends
about 1 cable W of the middle of the E shore.
2
Anchorage exists, for medium sized vessels, near the
head of the bay in depths from 33 to 37 m (18 to 20 fm),
mud. It is open to S winds, a heavy swell setting in during
the SW monsoon (May to September).
MORO GULF TO DAVAO GULF
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2575
Area covered
7.193
1
Described in this section are the islands and banks in the
waters from Malatuna Point (6°19′N, 124°06′E) on the E
side of Moro Gulf to the entrance to Davao Gulf (6°07′N,
125°42′E) including Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Islands and
Sarangani Strait. It is arranged as follows:
Malatuna Point to Maculi Point (7.196).
Maculi Point to Balanting Point (7.209).
Sarangani Bay (7.214).
General Santos (Dadiangas) (7.222).
CHAPTER 7
224
Sarangani Strait (7.248).
Sarangani Strait to Calian Point (7.259).
Topography
7.194
1
The coast between Malatuna Point and the entrance to
Sarangani Bay is backed by high, densely wooded
mountains, with summits from 2 to 4 miles inland. The
coast is steep-to with occasional stretches of coral. There
are a number of offshore shoals and hazards all within the
183 m (100 fm) contour. Sarangani Islands consist of small
undulating hills. They are entirely fringed with coral reefs.
Tidal streams
7.195
1
The current around this coast, little affected by tides or
weather, sets generally SE at a rate of to 1 kn. There is
an inshore counter current.
MALATUNA POINT TO MACULI POINT
General information
Chart 2575
Route
7.196
1
From a position W of Malatuna Point (6°19′N,
124°06′E) the route leads SE for about 26 miles to a
position SW of Maculi point (6°07′N, 124°19′E).
Topography
7.197
1
The reefs along this stretch of coast are separated from
the coast and from each other by deep water channels
which are clear of dangers, but these reefs are difficult to
distinguish due to discoloured waters emptying from the
rivers in the vicinity. Refer to 7.194.
Depths
7.198
1
The 183 m (100 fm) contour follows closely the trend of
the coast and is about 2 miles offshore. All these shoals
and reefs are steep-to on their seaward sides and most have
deep water channels between them and the coast.
Natural conditions
7.199
1
The SW monsoon is felt strongly along this stretch of
coast. The wind blows moderate to fresh and varies in
direction between SE and SW arising between 2 and
4 hours after sunrise and subsiding shortly before sunset.
Principal mark
7.200
1
Landmark:
Pola Point (6°09′N, 124°16′E) is a rocky bluff
showing up well from W and SE.
Directions
(continued from 7.176)
7.201
1
Caution: The general direction of the coast should be
followed at a safe distance of about 5 miles. The outer
dangers extend to about 2 miles offshore.
2
From a position W of Malatuna Point (6°19′N,
124°06′E) the track leads SE, passing (with positions from
Palimban Point (6°12′N, 124°11′E)):
SW of Malatuna Point (8 miles NW), easily identified
from NW and SE by an islet, 24 m (79 ft) high,
lying close off it, thence:
SW of Taytayan Island (5 miles NNW), wooded on
its summit, and separated from the mainland by a
narrow channel too shallow to be used by any
craft, thence:
3
SW of Cadiz Point (4 miles NNW). A chain of
reefs from 5 cables to 1 miles offshore W of
Cadiz Point extend SE to a position off Pola Point
(7.200) and continue across the entrance to Milbuk
Harbour. These reefs lie on the charted 183 m
(100 fm) contour and are steep-to. A shoal with a
depth of 3 m (10 ft) over it lies at the N end of
the chain. Canipan Reef lies 1 miles SSW of
Cadiz Point, and a shoal with a depth of 6⋅7 m
(22 ft) over it lies 1 miles S of the same point.
There is a channel, 1 mile wide, between these two
dangers. Thence:
4
SW of Palimban Point, low and unremarkable, lying
5 cables N of Palimban River on the S bank of
which stands Palimbang village, thence:
SW of Pola Point (5 miles SE) (7.200), a headland
on the W side of Milbuk Harbour (7.202).
5
From this position the track continues SE for about
5 miles to a position SW of Maculi Point (6°07′N,
124°19′E).
(Directions continue at 7.212)
Milbuk Harbour
Chart 957 plan of Milbuk Harbour
General information
7.202
1
Position and function. Milbuk Harbour (6°09′N,
124°16′E) lies 1 mile E of Pola Point. It is a timber
exporting port.
2
Topography. Milbuk stands on the S bank of Milbuk
River at the head of an open bay. The river flows through
a valley between rounded hills. Drying reefs extend from
either side of the bay leaving a narrow deep water channel
to the town. The entrance to the bay is encumbered with
shoals with deep water channels between them.
Arrival information
7.203
1
Pilotage. There are no pilots at Milbuk but a coastal
pilot can be obtained from Zamboanga. It is recommended
that a pilot be employed as entry can be dangerous because
the leading beacons are difficult to distinguish and channel
buoys uncertain. A launch meets the vessel at the entrance
and indicates the anchorage.
Regulation concerning entry
7.204
1
Customs. Milbuk is in the Davao Customs District.
Customs officials board at Parang
Harbour
7.205
1
General layout. A ruined pier extends S from the town
of Milbuk. Vessels load at anchor.
Current. Strong tidal streams have been reported
especially on the in-going, when it sets E across the
entrance to Milbuk Harbour at rates from 2 to 4 kn.
Directions for entering harbour.
7.206
1
Navigational aids. Lights are only occasionally
exhibited from the marks and buoys mentioned below.
CHAPTER 7
225
Leading marks. The alignment (005°) of the following
beacons at the head of Milbuk Harbour leads through a
channel through the reefs marked by buoys (white) moored
9 cables S and SSW of the front beacon, towards the
harbour entrance:
2
Front beacon (pole; white triangular topmark, point
down) (6°10′N, 124°16′E).
Rear Beacon (white triangle mounted on a tree on the
skyline (800 m N of the front beacon) reported
difficult to distinguish.
3
From a position with Pola Point bearing 285° the track
leads NNE into the anchorage passing W of a buoy (white)
moored on the W side of an isolated shoal with a depth of
2⋅4 m (8 ft) over it, situated 4 cables SSE of the front
beacon.
Berths
7.207
1
Anchorage exist cable SSE of the ruined pierhead in
a depth of 13 m (42 ft). Alternative anchorage can be found
farther out in depths of 16 to 18 m (52 to 60 ft), 1 cable
SW of the isolated shoal on the leading marks. The holding
ground, however, is reported to be poor.
Port services
7.208
1
Other facilities: radio station operated by the timber
mill.
MACULI POINT TO BALANTING POINT
General information
Chart 2575
Route
7.209
1
From a position SW of Maculi Point (6°07N, 124°19′E)
the route leads ESE for about 50 miles to a position SSW
of Balanting Point (5°52′N, 125°04′E).
Topography
7.210
1
Refer to 7.194.
Principal marks
7.211
1
Landmarks:
Pinol Point (6°06′N, 124°23′E) has a prominent
yellow cliff face 21 m (69 ft) high.
Two conical peaks (6°02′N, 124°36′E), 518 and
552 m (1700 and 1810 ft) high prominent when
seen from W or SE. Lying N of Bacud Point
(7.212) they are readily identified when seen clear
of the higher mountains of the interior.
2
Major light:
Tinaca Point Light (white concrete tower 11 m in
height) (5°33′N, 125°20′E).
Directions
(continued from 7.201)
7.212
1
From a position SW of Maculi Point (6°07N, 124°19′E)
the track leads ESE, passing (with positions from Tampuan
Point (5°53′N, 125°05′E)):
SSW of Pinol Point (43 miles WNW) (7.211).
Maguling Point lies 1 miles SE of Pinol Point,
Thence:
SSW of Pagang Point (35 miles WNW), a sharp
rocky point with a prominent white scar on the SE
side. The foreshore between Maguling Point and
Pagang Point is low and flat with numerous rivers
flowing out, some of which can be entered by
boats at half tide. Two beacons (pole; white
triangular topmark, each 13 m in height), stand
near the coast 3 and 5 miles NW of Pagang Point.
Thence:
2
SSW of Bacud Point (29 miles W), a rocky cliff,
rising to a flat-topped peak, 232 m (761 ft) high. A
rock 8 m (26 ft) high, stands on the fringing reef.
1 cable offshore. Thence:
SSW of Bacud Reef (26 miles W), steep-to, and:
3
SSW of Buca Point (24 miles W). A light is exhibited
from position (5°58′N, 124°41′E). Thence:
SSW of Bual Point (15 miles W), low and wooded.
A long building, prominent from S, stands at
Pananag, 2 miles ESE of Bual Point. A beacon
(pole; white triangle, 3 m in height), stands on the
beach near the building. It is a guide for
anchoring. Thence:
4
SSW of Matil Point (10 miles W), low and flat, coral
rock and sand, with trees to within cable of its
end. Hills rise abruptly to an elevation of 610 m
(2000 ft). A conspicuous white cross stands
between Matil point and Taliak Point in position
(5°53′N, 124°59′E). Thence:
5
SSW of Taliak Point (3 miles WSW), the hills are
lower and more rounded than those farther W. A
chain of shoals, with depths from 2⋅7 to 7⋅3 m (9
to 24 ft) over them, lie about 7 cables S of the
point. A shoal with a depth of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it,
extends 5 cables S from Kamang Point which lies
7 cables E of Taliak Point. There is a deep water
channel between them. Thence:
6
SSW of Balanting Point (2 miles SW), a
conspicuous cliff, thence:
7
From this position the track continues ESE for about
5 miles to a position S of Balanting Point (5°52′N,
125°04′E).
(Directions continue for Sarangani Bay at 7.218)
Anchorages
Kiamba
7.213
1
Description. Kiamba (5°59′N, 124°37′E), is a small
town 1 mile E of Bacud Point on the W bank of Dual
River. The concrete pier E of the town is maintained by the
municipality. It has a wooden extension and is used only
by boats and launches.
2
Anchorage. Inter-island vessels calling at the port
usually anchor S of the town in depths of 9 to 27 m (30 ft
to 15 fm), mud.
SARANGANI BAY
General information
Chart 2575
Route
7.214
1
From a position S of Balanting Point (5°52′N,
125°04′E), the route leads NNE for about 25 miles to a
position SE of Makar Cove (6°05′N, 125°10′E).
CHAPTER 7
226
Topography
7.215
1
Sarangani Bay (6°00′N, 125°10′E), entered between
Tampuan Point and Sumbang Point, is 6 miles wide and
about 16 miles long in a NE direction. Near the entrance
the land rises steeply from the shore. On the E side the
shore is irregular and the hills are heavily wooded. On the
W side the shore is generally straight and regular, the hills
being covered by grasses or cogon. Only the lower slopes
are heavily wooded. At the head of the bay the land is
alluvial and so generally low and flat, rising gradually to
the hills and mountains of the interior. Siloway River, the
largest in Sarangani Bay has a number of tributaries
flowing into the head of the bay.
Depths
7.216
1
Because of the great depths in Sarangani Bay many of
the bays around its shores offer poor anchorage. No
dangers exist more than 5 cables offshore.
Principal mark
7.217
1
Landmark:
Mount Matatutum, (6°22′N, 125°05′E), prominent but
often concealed in clouds.
Directions
(continued from 7.212)
7.218
1
From a position S Balanting Point (5°52′N, 125°04′E)
the track leads NNE, passing with positions from London
Point (5°59′N, 125°07′⋅1E)):
ESE of Taliak Point (9 miles SSW) (7.212), thence:
ESE of Balanting Point (8 miles SSW) (7.212),
thence:
ESE of Tempuan Point (7 miles SSW) (7.212).
2
WSW of Sumbang Point (9 miles SSE), marked by
a prominent white cliff 15 m (49 ft) high. South of
the point the coast is fringed by a narrow coral
reef strewn with boulders drying at LW. Trees
along the coast grow down to the HW line. There
is a prominent white cliff N of Tango Point
3 miles NNE of Sumbang Point. Thence:
3
ESE of Tampat Point (4 miles SSW), the S entrance
Point to Linao Cove. A white triangle stands on
the hill about 1 mile W of the point. Thence:
WNW of Tango Point (8 miles SE), the N entrance
Point to Canalasan Cove (7.219), thence:
4
ESE of London Point close SE of which is a shoal
with a depth of 5⋅9 m (19 ft) over it, thence:
WNW of Lun Point (10 miles ENE), shallow water
extends 3 cables W of the point.
5
From this position the track continues NNE for about
1 miles to the pilot boarding ground off Makar Cove.
(Directions continue for berths
at General Santos at 7.241)
Anchorages
Philippines Chart 4653 plan of Canalasan Cove
Canalasan Cove
7.219
1
Description. Canalasan Cove (5°50′N, 125°12′E), on the
E side of Sambung Point is the best anchorage in
Sarangani Bay providing excellent shelter during the SW
monsoon (May to September). The W side of the cove near
Sumbang Point is steep, gradually decreasing E to low flat
land at its head. The E and S shores are fringed with
mangrove. Reefs extend about 2 cables in places around the
cove. Glan village stands at the head of the cove on the
SW bank of Glan River. It is a port of call for some
inter-island vessels The outer end of a concrete pier is
destroyed so that only launches can go alongside the
improvised platform at the N end. A light is exhibited from
the roof of the shed covering this platform.
2
Directions. Vessels should approach from N and W to
avoid shoal ground NE of the pier.
Anchorage. There is anchorage 1 cable NW of the
pierhead in depths of 16 to 18 m (54 to 60 ft), mud.
Supplies: limited quantities of supplies are available.
Other facilities: postal and radio offices; a small
dispensary served by a physician.
Philippines Chart 4653 plan of Sapu Bay
Sapu Bay
7.220
1
Description. Sapu Bay (5°56′N, 125°16′E), is a small
deep cove about 6 cables wide. The bay is protected from
S and SW winds but because of the deep water close
inshore, it offers very limited anchorage.
2
Anchorage. Vessels may anchor NW of the entrance to
Big Sapu River, in the SE corner of the bay, between 2
and 3 cables W of the reefs N of the river entrance, in
depths from 42 to 80 m (23 to 43 fm), mud. Smaller
vessels may anchor closer in where the 18 m (10 fm)
contour closes to within 1 cable of the E shore.
Chart 2575
Lago Cove
7.221
1
Description. Lago Cove (6°04′N, 125°16′E) provides
anchorage in a depth of 37 m (20 fm), close inshore but the
area is very restricted as the bottom drops away abruptly
from the beach.
GENERAL SANTOS (DADIANGAS)
General information
Chart 957
Position
7.222
1
General Santos (6°06′N, 125°10′E), formerly Dadiangas,
is a city on the NW shore of Sarangani Bay, on the E side
of the mouth of Siloway River.
Function
7.223
1
Considered as the first modern port in the Philippines
General Santos is an important shipping centre for the
surrounding area. The principal products are cattle, fish and
rice. It handles general and bulk cargoes, Ro-Ro and
container ships as well as breakbulk. It has been reported
that considerable development of the fishing industry and
the building of a new wharf have been proposed.
Topography
7.224
1
Refer to 7.215
Port limits
7.225
1
The limits of the port extend over the whole of
Sarangani Bay N of a line drawn from Tampauan Point
(5°53′N, 125°05′E) to Sumbang Point (6 miles ESE), the
entrance points into the bay.
CHAPTER 7
227
Approach and entry
7.226
1
The port is approached from the SSW and entered
between Tampauan Point and Sumbang Point.
Port Authority
7.227
1
The port is administered by the Philippines Ports
Authority, General Santos City, Mindanao, Philippines.
Limiting conditions
Deepest and longest berth
7.228
1
Makar Wharf (7.237).
Density of water
7.229
1
1.025g/cm
3
Maximum size of vessel handled
7.230
1
Largest vessel to enter General Santos was 195 m long
10⋅00 m draught, 24 397 dwt.
Arrival information
Notice of ETA
7.231
1
Notice of ETA should be forwarded not later than 24 hrs
before arrival.
Outer anchorage
7.232
1
A quarantine anchorage has been established about
1 miles ESE of Siloway River mouth.
Pilotage
7.233
1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels of foreign registry
and for domestic vessels of more than 50 grt. The pilot will
come out from General Santos in a white launch flying the
International Code Signal, and board 1 mile from Dole
Wharf. If the berths are occupied, the pilot will anchor the
vessel. The launch may also be used as a pusher tug.
Tugs
7.234
1
Tugs are available.
Quarantine and Immigration
7.235
1
General Santos is a Port of Entry for Davao.
Immigration officials come from Cotabato and health
officials from Davao or Cagayan de Oro.
Prohibited area
7.236
1
Anchorage is prohibited in an area shown on the chart
within 5 cables of Makar Wharf.
Harbour
General layout
7.237
1
The Port of General Santos, sited at Makar, has a
reinforced concrete wharf, Makar Wharf. There has been
considerable development of the port in recent years both
to the NE and to the SW. The complex now includes
several berths which can accommodate large vessels.
Several warehouses and an open storage transit area stand
on the apron.
Seismic activity
7.238
1
March 6th 2002 an earthquake measuring 6⋅8 on the
Richter scale killed 8 people, injured hundreds more and
wrecked many buildings in General Santos and a number
of surrounding towns. Tremors were felt in Zamboanga.
Tidal streams
7.239
1
The tidal streams, though normally slight, can set
strongly across the end of Dole Wharf.
Principal marks
7.240
1
Landmarks:
Mount Matatutum, (6°22′N, 125°05′E) (7.217).
Bauyan City Hall (6°07′N, 125°10′E) marked with
red letters.
Church spire (6°07′N. 125°11′E) before which stand
three oil storage tanks.
Radio mast, 1 cables W of City Hall exhibits red
obstruction light.
Directions for berths
(continued from 7.218)
7.241
1
Numerous fish traps are moored in Sarangani Bay.
Vessels berth alongside the SE side of Dole Wharf; the
NW side being fouled by a reef. With a N wind a vessel
will be berthed port side to; with a S wind starboard side
to. It is usual, when berthing starboard side to, to use the
port anchor. Berthing is possible both day and night.
Berths
Anchorages and moorings
7.242
1
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage. A recommended anchorage has been
established, as shown on the chart, near the head of the
bay. Other recommended anchorages are established off the
mouth of Siloway River. All these anchorages are located
near the edge of the deep water shelf.
2
Two mooring buoys have been established off General
Santos as shown on the chart.
Alongside berths
7.243
1
Berths. Makar Wharf (6°06′N, 125°10′E), reinforced
concrete, includes a berth 261 m long, one of 300 m length
and one of 27 m length with a 22 m extension for Ro-Ro
vessels. Another wharf of 152 m completes the present
complex. There are depths of 8⋅5 to 11 m alongside and a
dredged area, with similar depths, extends about 50 m from
the berths. Several warehouses and an open storage transit
area stand on the apron.
2
Dole Wharf (6°05′N, 125°09′E) constructed of concrete
piles, extends 1 cable NE from the shore. The SE side of
the head of the wharf is 139 m in length and is between 12
and 18 m wide. The wharf is well fendered. A light is
exhibited from the seaward end of this wharf. In 1995 it
was reported that a coastal vessel had sunk 20 m from the
wharf.
CHAPTER 7
228
Port services
Other facilities
7.244
1
Hospitals; post office and radio communications; garbage
disposal
Supplies
7.245
1
Bunkering can be arranged.
Communications
7.246
1
Buayan airport situated 6 km E of the city.
Rescue
7.247
1
Coastguard station in the port.
SARANGANI STRAIT
General information
Chart 2575
Route
7.248
1
From a position S of Balangting Point (5°52′N,
125°04′E) the route leads SE for about 18 miles to a
position S of Tinaca Point (5°33′N, 125°20′E) from whence
it leads ENE to a position NNW of Olanivan Island
(5°31′N, 125°29′E).
Topography
7.249
1
Sarangani Islands, consisting of Tinina Balut Island,
Sarangani Island and Olanivan Island, are separated from
the mainland by Sarangani Strait, a deep channel 5 miles
wide. Tinina Balut Island is volcanic in origin and
mountainous, the coast bordered by reefs which extend up
to 3 cables offshore from the N and E sides. Manamil
Islet, lies close off the SW extremity. Two hot springs are
situated close inshore on the NW side of the island.
Sarangani Island is low with undulating hills. The entire
coast bordered by reefs which extend over 5 cables from
the NE side. Panguil Bato Point is the S extremity of the
island. A small islet lies on the E side of the island
2 miles NNE of this point.
Tidal streams
7.250
1
Tidal streams in the vicinity of the Sarangani Islands are
strong. Through Sarangani Strait the in-going stream sets
W and the out-going stream sets E. On the E side of
Sarangani Island the in-going stream sets S with a velocity
of about 3 kn. These tidal streams are deviated by the
complexity of the contours and abrupt changes of depths.
Heavy tide-rips are experienced both N and S of Sarangani
Island and S and W of Balut Island.
Principal marks
7.251
1
Landmarks:
Dome Peak (5°37′N, 125°20′E), often visible when
higher mountains are obscured by cloud.
Saddle Peak (5°44′N, 125°24′E), might appear as an
island when seen from great distance.
Tinina Balut Island (5°24′N, 125°23′), a volcano from
which smoke often appears, stands in the centre of
the island. Another volcano, of lesser elevation,
stands SW of Mount Balut. A light is exhibited
from the SW point of Tinina Balut.
Directions
(continued from 7.212)
7.252
1
From a position SSW of Tinaca Point (5°33′N,
125°20′E) the track leads E, passing (with positions from
Mount Balut (5°24′N, 125°23′)):
S of Balangonan Cove (10 miles N) (7.256), which
affords poor anchorage, but Malavinuan Cove
(7.256), 1 mile farther E provides sheltered
anchorage. The reef fringing the coast extends
2 cables offshore. There are no dangers outside this
well defined reef. Thence:
2
S of Bukid Point (10 miles NNE), low and sloping
the point is fringed with with a narrow, steep-to
reef, thence:
N of Lajan Point (3 miles ENE) (7.257), thence:
3
N of Tiain Point (6 miles NE), steep-to and easily
identified by a prominent grey cliff, thence:
N of Batulayol Point (8 miles NE) (7.258), the N
extremity of Sarangani Island, thence:
4
From this position the track continues E for about
1 miles to a position N of Olanivan Island (5°31′N,
125°29′E), a small, flat cay with trees, fringed by a reef.
There is a deep channel 5 cables wide, between the reefs
fringing Olanivan Island and the NE side of Sarangani
Island. A light is exhibited from Olanivan Island.
(Directions continue for Davao Gulf W side at 7.264)
Channel between the Sarangani Islands
Philippines Chart 4653 Plan of Port Tumanao
General information
7.253
1
Description. The channel between Tinina Balut Island
(5°25′N, 125°26′E) and Sarangani Island is 1 miles wide
and deep in the fairway, but reduced to a width of about
7 cables by the reefs extending from either side.
2
Tidal streams attain considerable rates causing strong
eddies on both sides of the channel and heavy tide-rips at
each end of it.
Anchorage
7.254
1
Description. Port Tumanao (5°27′N, 125°28′E), is
entered 6 cables SSE of Tiain Point. The entrance is
3 cables wide but the navigable channel is reduced to
1 cable width. The N side of the entrance may be
identified by a prominent white mark on a rocky bluff.
2
Anchorage. Good anchorage exists in a depth of 27 m
(15 fm), 1 cables from the head of the bay, or in a depth
of 51 m (28 fm) in mid-channel, 5 cables from the head.
CHAPTER 7
229
Philippines Chart 4653 plan of Port Bolay (see 1.18)
Small craft
7.255
1
Port Bolay (5°26′N, 125°27′E), is entered 2 miles S of
Tiain Point. The entrance is 1 cable wide. There is
anchorage at the head of the bay in a depth of 9 m (30 ft).
Anchorages
Malavinuan Cove
7.256
1
Description. Balangonan Cove and Malavinuan Cove
(5°34′N, 125°22′E) are two small indentations on the coast
exposed to S winds. They afford good shelter during the
NE monsoon (October to April).
Anchorage. Vessels usually anchor in Malavinuan Cove
in depths from 22 to 29 m (12 to 16 fm). Balangonan Cove
affords poor anchorage.
Lajan Point
7.257
1
Description. Lajan Point (5°25′N, 125°25′E) on the NE
side of Tinina Balut Island is low and covered with
mangrove. The point is fringed with coral reefs extending
about 2 cables offshore. Shoal patches with depths from 5
and 6⋅9 m (16 and 23 ft) over them, lie 7 cables SE and
1 miles S respectively, of Lajan Point.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage exists from 5 cables to 1 miles S and SE
of Lajan Point in depths from 9 to 37 m (30 ft to 20 fm)
with good shelter from SW and NE storms, but it is
encumbered with shoals.
Philippines Chart 4653 plan of Port Patuco (see 1.18)
Port Patuco
7.258
1
Description. Port Patuco (5°28′N, 125°28′E) is entered
1 mile SSW of Batulayol Point, the N extremity of the
island. The entrance, which may be identified by a red cliff
2 cables N of it, is 2 cables wide, but the navigable
channel, with a least depth of 9 m (30 ft), is cable wide
between the reefs.
2
Anchorage. Sheltered anchorage in the port, in a depth
of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) at the head, or in a depth of 12⋅8 m (42 ft),
5 cables inside the entrance.
SARANGANI STRAIT TO CALIAN POINT
General information
Chart 2575
Route
7.259
1
From a position N of Olanivan Island (5°31′N,
125°29′E), the route leads NNE for about 26 miles to a
position WNW of Banos Point (5°55′N, 125°40′E), thence
the route leads N for about 15 miles to a position E of
Calian Point (6°07′N, 125°42′E).
Topography
7.260
1
This stretch of coast is generally clear though narrow
reefs project from the points fringing the shore at intervals.
The coastline comprises several gently curving shallow
bights where landings on sand and boulder beaches are
possible. Fresh water is obtainable from small streams. The
coastal hills are high and heavily timbered to the peaks
with patches of hemp and coconut plantations or cogon
grasses on the slopes. Farther N the coast becomes
generally rocky but with occasional sand beaches backed
by areas of cultivation. There are no dangers more than
5 cables offshore.
Tidal streams
7.261
1
Tidal streams set S and N, the latter is weaker. There
are strong tidal races and violent eddies off Banos Point.
Tidal streams off Calian Point are weaker than those off
Banos Point.
Depths
7.262
1
The seabed falls away steeply descending to great depths
within 1 mile of the coast. Tide-rips are frequent.
Principal mark
7.263
1
Landmark:
Saddle Peak (5°44′N, 125°24′E) (7.251).
Directions
(continued from 7.252)
Olanivan Island to Banos Point
7.264
1
From a position N of Olanivan Island (5°31′N,
125°29′E), the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
from Sharp Peak (5°50′N, 125°30′E)):
ESE of Port Holland (13 miles SSW) (7.266), thence:
ESE of Butulan Cove (12 miles SSW) (7.267),
thence:
ESE of Malalan Point (4 miles SSE) (7.268),
thence:
2
From this position the track continues NNE for about
12 miles to a position ESE of Banos Point (5°55′N,
125°40′E), a prominent peaked ridge, the lowest and
S-most of the peaks being 89 m (292 ft) high. A patch with
a depth of 11⋅3 m (37 ft) over it, lies 5 cables SSW of
Banos Point.
(Directions continue for Davao Gulf W —
side at 7.269)
Anchorages and harbours
Camalian Cove
7.265
1
Anchorage. Camalian Cove (5°35′N, 125°25′E),
provides a deep but poor anchorage.
CHAPTER 7
230
Philippines Chart 4653 plan of Port Holland (see 1.18)
Port Holland
7.266
1
Description. Port Holland 2 miles NNE of Camalian
Cove, provides good anchorage close inshore. It offers
protection to smaller vessels during NE and SW monsoons.
Philippines Chart 4653 plan of Butulan Cove (see 1.18)
Butulan Cove
7.267
1
Description. Butulan Cove, lying immediately N of
Silacay Point (5°37′N, 125°26′E), is semi-circular in shape
and deep in the middle. It is affected by ground swell
particularly when seas set across the coastal current.
Chart 2575
Malalan Point
7.268
1
Description. Malalan Point (5°45′N, 125°31′E) is a safe
anchorage during the SW monsoon (May to September) S
of the point, about 5 cables offshore, in a depth of 24 m
(13 fm).
Directions
(continued from 7.264)
Banos Point to Calian Point
7.269
1
From a position ESE of Banos Point (5°55′N, 125°40′E)
the track leads NNE, passing (with positions from Lone
Tree Peak (6°02′N, 125°35′E)):
ESE of Culaman (6 miles SE), a barrio standing at
the N end of a 2 mile stretch of sand beach
extending N from Banos Point, thence:
ESE of Luayan Point (7 miles E), conical hill steep,
rocky and prominent from E. Between Luayan
Point and Calian Point is a long sand beach
backed by a steep ridge.
2
From this position the track continues N for about
6 miles to a position E of Calian Point (9 miles NE),
bold, rocky and marked by streaks of barren cliff.
(Directions continue for Davao Gulf — W side at 7.278)
Small craft
Lapuan village
7.270
1
Lapuan village, 1 miles N of Calian Point, has a small
craft basin in poor condition. Launches from Davao call
occasionally.
DAVAO GULF
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2575, 415
Area covered
7.271
1
Described in this section are the islands and banks in the
waters of Davao Gulf from Bakad Point to Cape San
Agustin. It comprises:
Davao Gulf — W side — Calian Point to Tubalan
Head (7.274).
Davao Gulf — W side — Tubalan Head to Colapsin
Point (7.281).
Davao Gulf — W side — Colapsin Point to Davao
Harbour (7.293).
Davao Harbour (7.305).
Davao Gulf — N part (7.334).
Davao Gulf — E side — Cape San Agustin to Bais
Point (7.343).
Davao Gulf — E side — Pangasinan Point to Hijo
River (7.364).
Depths
7.272
1
Davao Gulf, entered between Calian Point (6°07′N,
125°42′E) and Cape San Agustin, 30 miles ENE, is
occupied in the N part by Samal Island and Talikud Island.
Depths in the greater part of the gulf are considerable. The
dangers which fringe the W shore do not extend more than
1 miles, and those on the E side, between Sigaboy Island
and Arena Point, situated 23 and 42 miles, respectively, N
of Cape San Agustin, lie up to 3 miles offshore.
Tidal streams
7.273
1
The in-going tidal stream sets W past Cape San Agustin
moving directly towards the Mindanao shore between
Banos Point and Calian Point. On this shore the stream
divides, one branch of the current setting S towards the
Sarangani Strait, the other, slightly weaker, setting N into
Davao Gulf. Out-going streams, reportedly less strong, set
in reverse directions.
DAVAO GULF — WEST SIDE — CALIAN
POINT TO TUBALAN HEAD
General information
Chart 2575, 415
Route
7.274
1
From a position E of Calian Point (6°07′N, 125°42′E)
the route leads NNW for 25 miles to a position WSW of
Tubalan Head (6°30′N, 125°36′E).
Topography
7.275
1
This stretch of coast is steep-to and consists of a
succession of rounded rocks and sandy beaches. Small
villages are found in the bays and they are backed by
cultivation and coconut plantations. There are no dangers
more than 1 miles offshore.
Tidal streams
7.276
1
Refer to (7.273).
CHAPTER 7
231
Navigation
7.277
Caution. Fishing floats, rafts of timber about 6 m (20 ft)
long and about 2 m (7 ft) wide often marked by a palm
frond, can be encountered almost anywhere in Davao Gulf.
They may not be lit at night. A good lookout is
recommended.
Directions
(continued from 7.269)
7.278
1
From a position E of Calian Point (6°07′N, 125°42′E)
the track leads NNW passing (with positions from Quilapii
Point (6°20′N, 125°39′E)):
ENE of Lawa (8 miles SSW), a village particularly
visible from seaward at night because of the
electric lighting. Lawa has a small dock for
launches and small craft. Thence:
2
ENE of Talagutong (4 miles SSE), standing in a small
bay the S extremity of which is marked by a light
no description) in position (6°15′N, 125°41′E),
thence:
ENE of Quilapii Point, 8 cables N of which stands
the village of Lais, thence:
ENE of Malita Point (5 miles NNW) (7.279).
3
From this position the track continues NNW for about
5 miles to a position ENE of Tubulan Head (6°30′N,
125°36′E).
(Directions continue for Davao Gulf — NW side at 7.284)
Minor port
Malita
7.279
1
General information. Malita (6°24′N, 125°37′E) is a
town where hemp and copra are loaded into inter-island
vessels. It is situated on a low point of land from which a
pier extending ENE is reported to be in ruins.
Anchorage exists SE of the pier on a narrow bank
cable in width, with depths from 11 to 18 m (36 to
60 ft). The 37 m (20 fm) contour curves to within
1 cables of the shore. Anchorage NE of the pier is not
recommended because of fouling from the river.
2
Other facilities: post office and radio communications;
doctor attends to minor medical cases.
Supplies: plentiful fresh water; ice in small quantities;
diesel oil and gasoline in small quantities.
Small craft
Lacaron
7.280
1
Lacaron village (6°27′N, 125°35′E) has a small pier with
a depth of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) alongside. There is regular launch
service to Davao, Lapuan, Lais and Malita.
DAVAO GULF — WEST SIDE — TABALAN
HEAD TO COLAPSIN POINT
General information
Chart 2575
Route
7.281
1
From a position ENE of Tubulan Head (6°30′N,
125°36′E) the route leads NW for about 14 miles to a
position NE of Colapsin Point (6°38′N, 125°26′E).
Topography
7.282
1
This stretch of coast is by far the most rugged and
heavily indented in Davao Gulf. Numerous sharp peaks
between 183 and 430 m (600 and 1410 ft) high range along
the coast about 3 miles inland. Farther inland are a number
of higher peaks separated from one another by deep
valleys. These peaks attain heights up to about 1200 m
(3940 ft) and are often obscured by cloud. From seaward
all they appear to coalesce into a great range making
individual summits difficult to identify. The entire area is
heavily wooded.
Principal mark
7.283
1
Major light:
Malalag Bay Light (Colapsin Point) (elevation of
74 m) (6°38′N, 125°26′E).
Directions
(continued from 7.278)
7.284
1
From a position ENE of Tubulan Head (6°30′N,
125°36′E) (7.291) the track leads NW, passing (with
positions from Mount Monkiaua (6°34′N, 125°29′E)):
NE of Sigarin Point (4 miles ESE), the SE entrance
point to Basiauan Bay (7.292), descends in a
gentle slope notched by five hills and ends in a
bluff 24 m (80 ft) high. The point is fringed by a
coral reef with foul ground extending 2 cables
farther to seaward. Thence:
2
NE of Sibalatan Point (2 miles E), the NW entrance
point into Basiauan Bay (7.292), terminates in a
ridge 61 m (200 ft) high with a curving
embankment extending S. The point is easily
recognised from NE. A coral reef with foul ground
to seaward extends 2 cables from the point. A
shoal with a depth of 3⋅7 m (12 ft) over it, lies
1 miles NW of the point. Thence:
3
NE of Kulungan Point (2 miles N), easily identified
as a sharp, barren, yellow bluff extending some
distance N. Monkiana and Kulungan Bays lie SE
of the point. Monkiana Bay is deep and clear but
exposed to the NE. Kulungan Bay is encumbered
with shoals.
4
From this position the track continues NW for about
4 miles to a position NE of Colapsin Point Light (7.283) is
exhibited from the point which is well wooded. This stretch
of coastline is bold and rocky with sand beaches separated
by cliffs. A coral shoal with a depth of 6⋅4 m (21 ft) over
it, lies 6 cables NNE of Colapsin Point. A coral reef
extends 1 cables N from the point.
(Directions continue for Colapsin Point to Davao Harbour at 7.297 and for entering Malalag Harbour at 7.288)
Malalag
Philippines Chart 4656 plan of Malalag (1.18)
General information
7.285
1
Position and Function. Malalag (Bolton), (6°36′N,
125°24′E) situated in Malalag Bay is a port of call for
inter-island steamers. Vessels often call from Davao to load
corn, hemp and copra. Molasses and general cargo are
handled at the pier. Malalag Bay lies on the SW side of the
peninsula of which Colapsin Point (7.283) is the N
extremity.
CHAPTER 7
232
Malalag village is situated on the S side of the mouth of
Balasinon River which discharges on the SW side of
Malalag Bay. The lesser Malalag River discharges close W
of the village and is marked by a beacon (triangular) on
the E side of its entrance.
2
Topography. The W shore of the bay is fronted by
mudflats leaving a navigable deep water channel about
1 mile wide between them and the shoals lying about
1 mile SW of Colapsin Point.
Approach and entry. The port is approached and
entered through Malalag Bay between Colapsin Point
(6°38′N, 125°26′E) (7.284) and Piapi Reef 1mile NW.
Arrival information
7.286
1
Outer anchorage may be found 2 cables N of Bolton
Reef Light-beacon in a depth of 18 m (60 ft). This
anchorage is exposed to N winds which sweep down the
gulf. S winds can also raise a sea in this anchorage.
Principal marks
7.287
1
Landmark:
Mount Piapi (6°38⋅7N, 125°22⋅8E), densely wooded.
Major light:
Colapsin Point Light (6°37′⋅9N, 125°25′⋅6E) (7.283).
Directions for entering harbour
7.288
1
From a position NE of Colapsin Point (6°38′N,
125°26′E), the track leads WSW passing with positions
from Colapsin Point:
NNW of a shoal (5 cables NE) with a depth of
6⋅4 m (21 ft) over it, thence:
NNW of Colapsin Point (7.287), thence:
SSE of Piapi Reef (1 miles NW). A patch with a
depth of 2⋅7 m (9 ft) over it, lies close NE of the
reef. A light-buoy marks the E side of Piapi Reef.
And:
NNW of Bolton Reef (1 miles WSW),
From this position the track leads SSE passing:
2
Either side of Bolton Reef, steep-to. It divides the
approach into two channels of which trhe wider W
channel is preferred. Bolton Reef Light-beacon
(white concrete, 5 m in height), marks the reef.
Shoal patches extend about 2 cables off the W
side of Colapsin Point. A coastal shoal bank
extends up to 8 cables E from the W side of
Malalag Bay. Thence:
3
WSW of an islet, 50 m (164 ft) high, lying close to
the E shore 1 miles SW of Colapsin Point,
thence:
ENE of Malalag River (2 miles WSW), marked by
a beacon (triangular) on the E side of the entrance.
A light is exhibited close W of the entrance,
thence:
ENE of a dangerous wreck lying 5 cables NNW of
Port Malalag Light, thence:
ENE of Port Malalag Light (6°36′⋅3N, 125°23′⋅9E),
cable NNW of the pier.
4
From this position the track continues SSE for about
1 mile to the anchorage or to the berth. At the heasd of the
bay a spit extends 5 cables NNW from a low headland. At
the extremity of the spit an islet, marked by a beacon
(triangular) lies on a narrow coral reef.
Berths
7.289
1
Anchorage. A protected anchorage for medium sized
vessels can be found NE of the pier in depths from 29 to
35 m (16 to 19 fm), mud.
2
Alongside. Malalag pier, concrete, extends NE from a
position 9 cables ESE of Malalag River beacon.
Port services
7.290
1
Supplies are scarce.
Communications. Regular sea services with
neighbouring ports, especially Davao.
Anchorages and harbours
Philippines Chart 4656 plan of Port Tubalan (1.18)
Port Tubalan
7.291
1
Description. Port Tubalan (6°30′N, 125°35′E) is entered
N of Tubalan Head, a high promontory, steep-to and clear
on its E and NE sides. The isthmus connecting it with the
mainland is low, giving the head the appearance of an
island from a distance. A light (no description) is exhibited
from the head. Botak Point, 7 cables N, is the N entrance
point into the bay. It is steep-to and rocky rising abruptly
to a height of about 110 m (361 ft).
There are considerable depths in the middle of the bay
but the shore is fringed with coral reefs and shoals. Basol
Islet lies on the reef in the SE part of the harbour.
2
Directions. Port Tubalan should be approached on a
WSW track to pass in mid-channel between the entrance
points.
Anchorage. The best anchorage in Port Tubalan is on
the W side about 2 cables off-shore in a depth of 37 to
45 m (20 to 25 fm), mud. Another anchorage exists in the
SE part of the bay with Basol Islet bearings 115° distance
2 cables, in depths from 40 to 44 m (22 to 24 fm), mud.
Philippines Chart 4656 plan of Kumassie (1.18)
Basiauan Bay
7.292
1
Description. Basiauan Bay (6°32′N, 125°31′E) is entered
between Tambalan Point and the coast W of it. Horseshoe
shaped. It is fringed with mangroves, coral reefs and
mudflats extending up to 2 cables offshore. Basiauan
village, standing on the SW side, is surrounded by a
coconut plantation.
2
Directions. Basiauan Bay should be approached on a N
track and entered in mid-channel.
Anchorage, sheltered from all but N and NNE winds,
exists at the head of the bay NE of the village, in depths
from 26 to 29 m (14 to 16 fm) mud.
COLAPSIN POINT TO DAVAO HARBOUR
General information
Charts 2575, 415
Route
7.293
1
From a position NE of Colapsin Point (6°38′N,
125°26′E) (7.283), the route leads NNE for about 25 miles
to a position E of Dumalag Point (7°02′N, 125°34′E).
Topography
7.294
1
The coast between Malalag Bay and Davao harbour is
low but rises rapidly inland to a mountain range
CHAPTER 7
233
culminating in Mount Apo (7.296). This stretch of coast is
densely wooded and intersected by numerous streams.
2
Samal Island on the E side of the approach to Davao
Harbour is separated from the mainland by Pakiputan
Strait. The island is wooded, sparsely inhabited with no
villages on its E side, partly cultivated principally on the
NE side and steep-to. It is clear of dangers.
Depths
7.295
1
Depths in the gulf are considerable shallowing abruptly
to the 183 m (100 fm) contour within 1 to 2 miles of the
coast. There are no dangers to seaward of this contour.
The coast is fringed with reefs extending in places up to
1 miles offshore. The middle of the W coast is fringed by
a reef extending 5 cables offshore with several detached
shoals in the vicinity.
Principal marks
7.296
1
Landmark:
Mount Apo (6°59′N, 125°16′E), a cone with steep
slopes. There is a crater in the summit. On the S
side 300 m below the summit is part of a former
crater that appears to have been blown away.
Sulphur streams issue from a number of fissures.
Mount Apo, classified as an active volcano, and
the surrounding peaks are continuously cloud
covered from March to June.
2
Major light:
Colapsin Point Light (6°38′N, 125°26′E) (7.283).
Directions
(continued from 7.284)
7.297
1
From a position NE of Colapsin point (6°38′N,
125°26′E) the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
from Santa Cruz (6°50′N, 125°25′E)):
ESE of Umbakanan River (10 miles SSW) and
Padada River, the largest in the area, flowing out
1 miles farther N. Padada village stands on the N
bank 5 cables inland. A prominent clump of
mangroves forming an island at LW, lies on the
coastal reef midway between the mouths of these
two rivers. Thence:
2
ESE of Digos Reefs (5 miles S), extending to
1 miles NE and SE of Digas Point, dry 0⋅6 m
(2 ft). The channel between these reefs and the
mainland is 1 cables wide with depths from 13
to 24 m (42 ft to 13 fm). Digos Outer Reef, which
dries 1⋅2 m (4 ft), lies 1 miles SSE of Digos
Point. It is steep to on its E and S sides, but foul
ground extends 5 cables on its W side. A number
of shoals lie up to 5 cables S and W of this reef.
Digos Point is low, flat and wooded, fringed with
mangroves. Digos Islet, a white coral sand cay,
1 m (3 ft) high, covered with bushes, lies on a reef
1 mile S of Digos Point. Thence:
ESE of Tagabuli Bay (2 miles SSW) (7.299),
thence:
ESE of Santa Cruz Point (7.300), low and wooded.
The coast between these two points is fringed by a
reef covered with white coral sand which can be
seen from considerable distance. A wide area of
cultivated land backs the foreshore. Thence:
3
ESE of Malusi Point (3 miles NE), low, rounded, but
distinguished by a prominent white tank standing
on the point. Shoals with a least depth of 0⋅9 m
(3 ft) over them extend 2 miles NE from Malusi
Point. There is a deep channel between them and
the shore. Thence:
4
ESE of Tagulaya Point (6 miles NE), wooded and
fringed by a gravel beach. A broken chain of sand
and coral shoals fronts Astorga, a small village
about 2 miles NE of Malusi Point. The remainder
of the LW area is composed of fine sand beach
which is used as a road. The mountain sides in
this vicinity are furrowed by deep valleys. Thence:
5
ESE of Darong (7 miles NE), a village identified by
a large green house with a galvanised iron roof,
visible for a distance of about 10 miles, thence:
ESE of Sirawan (10 miles NE), a village standing
on the S side of Sirawan River entrance. The river
has a depth of 1⋅8 m (6 ft) over the bar but it is
not navigable above about 5 cables. And:
WNW of Linosutan Point (16 miles ENE), the SW
extremity of Talikud Island, oval in shape, about
4 miles long and 2 miles wide, and densely
wooded. The island is sparsely populated due
principally to a lack of fresh water. Talikud Strait
separates the island from Samal Island (7.294).
Talikud Island Lighthouse (round concrete tower,
elevation of 10 m) stands on this point. A rocky
patch with a depth of 4 m (13 ft) over it, lies
1 miles SE of the lighthouse. Thence:
6
ESE of Daliao (12 miles NNE) (7.302), a barrio near
the mouth of a river of the same name. Daliao
Reefs are two coral reefs lying 5 cables SSE of
Daliao and extending 1 mile S. The N reef dries
and a rock, awash, lies on the N end of the S reef.
There is a deep channel cable wide between
Daliao Reefs and the coast.
WNW of Dadaotan Point (16 miles ENE), the NW
extremity of Talikud Island, thence:
ESE of Dumalag Point (15 miles NE), low and
densely wooded. A shoal with a depth of 9⋅4 m
(31 ft) over it lies 6 cables SSE of Dumalog Point,
and another shoal with a depth of 7⋅3 m (24 ft)
over it lies 3 cables ESE of the same point.
7
From this position the track continues NNE for about
1 miles to Davao Pilot boarding ground (7°02′N,
125°39′E).
(Directions continue for Pakiputan Channel at 7.326)
Anchorages
Digos River
7.298
1
Description. Digos River (6°44′N, 125°23′E) on the N
bank of which stands Digos village, flows out 1 mile S of
Digos Point (7.297). A prominent warehouse with a
galvanised iron roof stands on the beach 2 cables S of the
river mouth.
Local knowledge is required to navigate within these
reefs and for the anchorages.
2
Directions for the anchorages. From a position 1 mile
S of Digos Outer reef the track leads W passing:
S of a shoal with a least depth of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) over
it, lying 5 cables WSW of Digos Outer Reef.
From this position the track leads NW for about 1 mile
to a position W of the same shoal.
From this position the alignment (005°) of the leading
marks leads towards the anchorage:
Front point (Digos Island) (6°44′⋅5N, 125°23′⋅2E).
Rear Point (Digos Point) (1 mile N). Passing:
CHAPTER 7
234
ESE of a coral spit extending 3 cables offshore, lying
5 cables S of Digos River mouth.
3
From this position the track leads N into the S
anchorage.
From this position the track leads NE for about 5 cables
passing in mid-channel between Digos Island and a shoal
with a depth of 4⋅9 m (16 ft) over it, lying 5 cables E of
the island. Thence it leads WNW into the N anchorage.
4
Anchorage berths. There is anchorage 2 cables SW of
Digos Islet, in depths from 22 to 27 m (12 to 15 fm) with
the warehouse bearing 317°, or 2 cables N of the islet in
depths from 20 to 22 m (11 to 12 fm) with the warehouse
bearing 250°.
Alongside berth. A concrete pier 27 m in length with a
controlling depth of 5 m provides for coastal traffic.
Tagabuli Bay
7.299
1
Description. The entrance to Tagabuli Bay (6°48′N,
125°24′E) is difficult to identify. Foul ground extends up to
1 miles offshore. The bay is 4 cables wide at the entrance
where the S point is covered with mangrove. It extends
1 mile W with the shores and the head of the bay fringed
with drying coral reefs.
2
Anchorage. There is anchorage in the middle of
Tagabuli Bay, protected from all but ESE winds, in depths
from 29 to 37 m (16 to 20 fm), mud. There is a width of
2 cables between the reefs on either side.
3
Small craft A T-shaped pier on a rock causeway, lies
on the S shore of Tagabuli Bay.
Santa Cruz
7.300
1
Description. Santa Cruz town (6°50′N, 125°25′E), partly
visible from seaward, stands on Santa Cruz Point. It is the
shipping point for agricultural products, including copra,
hemp, rice and corn, for the nearby villages. A prominent
warehouse with a galvanised iron roof is visible from
seaward. Two prominent patches of tall grasses at
elevations of 183 and 243 m (600 and 800 ft), lie 1 miles
N of Santa Cruz Point and a similar patch from 365 to
455 m (1200 to 1500 ft) high, lies 3 miles WNW of the
point.
2
Anchorage. Vessels calling at the port usually anchor
about 2 cables offshore SE of the warehouse in depths from
13 to 36 m (43 ft to 20 fm) sand. Better protected
anchorage exists in a cove about 1 mile NE of Santa Cruz,
in depths from 31 to 33 m (17 to 18 fm), mud, between a
reef which dries 0⋅6 m (2 ft), lying 4 cables offshore, and
the coast, protected from all but SE winds.
3
Supplies: diesel oil; gasoline; lubricating oils in small
quantities; fresh water.
Malipano Bay
7.301
1
Description. Malipano anchorage (7°00′N, 125°43′E) is
well protected by Malipano Islet, lying 2 cables offshore
together with its surrounding rocks and reefs. The entrance
is difficult of access, with a width of only cable between
the charted contours of 5⋅5 m (18 ft) on either side. There
are several submerged reefs in the approach. Four buoys
mark a pearl farm in Malipano anchorage. There are two
piers abreast the anchorage.
2
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorage. Smaller vessels anchor with the E extremity
of Malipano Islet bearing 304° and the alignment (225°) of
a small islet close off the S end of Malipano Islet and the
extremity of Talikud Island (7.297).
Daliao
7.302
1
Description. Daliao village (7°01′N, 125°30′E) is the
headquarters of a large plantation and its numerous houses
are visible for a distance offshore. A conspicuous white
warehouse stands near the beach. Large vessels call
regularly for hemp but the greater bulk of the export is
sent to Davao for transshipment.
2
Anchorage. The usual anchorage is ESE of a ruined
pier at Daliao in depths from 13 to 18 m (42 to 60 ft),
mud. This anchorage is exposed to E winds. A mooring
buoy has been established in the anchorage.
Talamo Bay
7.303
1
Description. Talamo Bay (7°02′N, 125°33′E), in which
there are considerable depths and no dangers, is situated
between Dumuy Point and Dumalag Point. Talomo and
Matina are small towns standing at the mouths of
respective rivers with the same names within the bay. The
coast of the bay is bordered by a sandy beach with very
little coral. At Talamo there is a prominent warehouse and
a ruined pier.
2
Anchorage There is anchorage SW of the ruined pier, in
depths from 18 to 37 m (60 ft to 20 fm), mud.
Pohun Point
7.304
1
Description. The bay between Pohun Point and Binulin
River (7°04′N, 125°42′E) offers good anchorage off the
town of Samal. There is a stone landing for launches and
small craft. A shoal with a depth of 8⋅2 m (27 ft) over it,
lies 7 cables SSE of Pohun Point and a rock with a depth
of 1⋅2 m (4 ft) over it, lies 6 cables E of the point. A
number of submerged rocks and shoal patches lie up to
3 cables from the head of the bay.
2
Anchorage. The only good anchorage off Samal Island
is found in the bay in depths 16 to 22 m (53 ft to 12 fm),
mud.
DAVAO HARBOUR
General information
Chart 415 and plan of Port of Davao
Position
7.305
1
Davao (7°04′N, 125°37′E), the capital of the Province of
Davao, lies on the N bank of Davao River at the S
entrance to Pakiputan Strait. The port of Davao extends
along the W coast of Pakiputan Strait as far N as Lasang.
Function
7.306
1
The city is of great importance as the chief commercial
centre of S. Mindanao. It is a First Port of Entry and a
quarantine station. Davao is the centre of a large hemp
producing area and is the leading port for the shipment of
Manila hemp. Copra and timber are also exported in
quantity. In 2000 the population was 1 905 917 persons.
Topography
7.307
1
The area SW of Davao City is mountainous with an
active volcano rising to about 1220 m (4000 ft) but the city
stands on a fertile alluvial plain. Both the plain and the
mountains are thickly wooded. The coast is indented with a
number of creeks and numerous river mouths of which
Talamo River and Davao River are the largest. There are
CHAPTER 7
235
occasional coral outgrowths along the coast which is
otherwise steep-to, the 183 m (100 fm) contour closing to
within 4 cables of the coast.
2
Talikud Island on the E side of the approach is thickly
wooded as is the larger Samal Island, the W coast of which
forms the E side of Pakiputan Strait, 5 cables wide and
deep in the fairway apart from a 17⋅4 m (57 ft) patch close
within the N entrance, nearly 1 mile WNW of Arboles
Islet. The W shore is fringed by a broad sand flat, which
dries, and is steep-to. The E side of the strait is planted
with coconut trees. The beach consists of white sand and
broken coral. Several detached rocky shoals lie on the W
side of the S entrance to the strait.
Depths
7.308
1
The waters of Davao Gulf shallow quickly in the
approaches to the port but its depth continues to preclude
anchoring until well within port limits at the approach to
Pakiputan Strait.
Tidal streams
7.309
1
Tidal streams in Pakiputan Strait are reported to set N
with the in-going stream and S with the out-going stream,
at a rate of about 2 kn. Sometimes, however, the stream
sets S with both in-going and out-going tides. These
directions cause sets at right-angles to the N and S faces of
Santa Ana Pier.
Port limits
7.310
1
Davao Harbour is bounded on the S side by a line
drawn E from Dumalag Point (7°02′N, 125°35′E) to the W
coast of Samal Island (7.294); on the N by a line running
from Bassa Point (7°12′N, 125°42′E), the N extremity of
Samal Island (7.294), to the mouth of Lasang River on
Mindanao, and on the W and E sides by the coasts of the
mainland and Samal Island respectively.
Approach and entry
7.311
1
Davao Port is approached through Davao Gulf thence
between Santa Cruz Point (6°50′N, 125°25′E) and Talikud
Island 17 miles ENE. The port is entered between Dumalag
Point (7°02′N, 125°35′E) and Samal Island 8 miles E.
Traffic
7.312
1
In 2000, 282 vessels made 1 109 calls moving a total
cargo of 11 680 082 tonnes.
Port Authority
7.313
1
The port is administered by Philippines Ports Authority,
PO Box 502, Sasa Wharf, Davao City 9501, Philippines.
Limiting conditions
Deepest and longest berth
7.314
1
Sasa Wharf Old Quay (7.328).
Mean tidal levels
7.315
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range about
0⋅5 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables
Density of water
7.316
1
1⋅025g/cm
3
Maximum size of vessel handled
7.317
1
Largest vessel to enter Davao was USNS Mercy, hospital
ship of 69 360 dwt.
Arrival information
Notice of ETA
7.318
1
Minimum notice of ETA is 36 hours.
Outer anchorages
7.319
1
There is anchorage in a depth of 22 m, mud,
approximately 2 cables SE or NE of the head of Santa
Ana Pier (7°05′N, 125°38′E).
A recommended deep water anchorage, shown on the
chart, lies about 1 mile from Santa Ana pier in a depth of
37 m (20 fm).
Pilotage
7.320
1
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots board in position 7°02′N,
125°39′E, about 3 miles SE of Santa Ana Wharf. The pilot
launch has a black hull and white superstructure, with the
word “Pilot” painted on the sides of the hull. Flag “H” is
displayed. The pilot launch usually assists when berthing at
Santa Ana.
Tugs
7.321
1
Tugs are compulsory for all port movements.
Quarantine
7.322
1
Vessels subject to quarantine and customs inspection are
boarded by the appropriate officers at Santa Ana anchorage
where formalities are completed.
Harbour
General layout
7.323
1
Davao Port extends along the W shore of Pakiputan
Strait and includes the sub ports of Lagaspi, Mati, Santa
Ana and Sasa. They provide about 1260 m of quay length
as well as numerous private wharves. Bulk, container and
Ro-Ro facilities are available at Government wharves at
both Santa Ana and Sasa. Many private wharves also
provide comprehensive facilities.
Storm signals
7.324
1
Storm signals displayed in accordance with the
International System of Visual Storm Warning Signals are
exhibited both day and night from the Customs House. see
The Mariner’s Handbook.
Principal marks
7.325
1
Landmarks:
Radio tower (obstruction lights) (81 m in height),
(7°05′N, 125°37′E).
Monument (white stone 25 m in height), close SW of
Santa Ana Lighthouse. Often mistaken for the
lighthouse.
CHAPTER 7
236
Directions for entering harbour
7.326
1
Leading marks:
The alignment (019°) of the leading marks on Linao
Point and Arboles Island leads towards the pilot boarding
ground:
Front mark, Linao Point (7°07′N, 125°40′E).
Rear mark, Arboles Islet (3 miles NNE).
2
From the vicinity of Davao Pilot boarding position
7°02′N, 125°39′E the track leads NNE for a distance of
2 miles on the alignment of the above marks, passing (with
positions from Santa Ana Light (7°05′N, 125°38′E)):
WNW of Pohun Point (7.304) (3 miles ESE), thence:
ESE of Santa Ana Light (concrete tower, elevation
11 m). Numerous dangers lie ENE of the light.
3
Line of bearing. From this position the track continues
for about 2 miles in mid-channel on the line of bearing
013° of Sasa Light (no description) (7°07′N, 125°40′E),
passing:
WNW of Linao Point (2 miles E), thence:
ESE of shoals ENE of Santa Ana Light.
4
From this position the track continues through Pakiputan
Strait, keeping to the deepest water, to a position W of
Linao Point (3 miles NE). Thence NE for about 1 miles
to a position NE of Lanang Point (3 miles NE) from
which Sasa Light is exhibited. The track then leads N for
about 4 miles passing:
5
E of a shoal bank (4 miles NE) with a least depth
of 0⋅6 m (2 ft) over it, extending W from the E
side of the strait, thence:
W of a shoal bank (5 miles NE) with a least depth of
0⋅3 m (1 ft) over it, extending W from the E side
of the strait, thence:
E of Panacan Light (no description) (5 miles NNE),
thence:
6
W of Arboles Islet (6 miles NE), the summit of a
coral reef with a few mangroves on it. The islet is
covered at HW but the surrounding reef is covered
with bright coral sand and shows up well even in
depths of 4 to 5 m (13 to 16 ft). The most
dangerous shoal in the N part of Pakiputan Strait
consists of several drying coral heads, lying
1 miles S of Arboles Islet and 4 cables W of
Samul Island. A submerged rock lies on the edge
of the reef 8 cables NW of the islet. A patch with
a depth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) over it, lies 1 mile N of
the islet. A narrow channel with depths from 13 to
16 m (42 to 53 ft) in it, lies between Arboles Islet
and Samul Island. A can buoy is moored 2 cables
NE of Arboles Islet.
7
From this position the track continues N keeping to
mid-channel to a position W of Bassa Point (7°12′N,
125°42′E) from whence the track leads into the N part of
Davao Gulf.
(Directions continue for Davao Gulf N part at 7.336)
Berths
Anchorage berths
7.327
1
The best anchorage in Pakiputan Strait, during N or S
winds is 1 mile NNE of Linao Point, where there is a
moderate depth close to the narrow fringing reef of Samal
Island.
Anchorage may also be had 1 mile SW of Linao Point
in depths from 11 to 14 m (36 to 46 ft).
Anchorage may be obtained 6 cables E of the conveyor
pier at Ilang (7.328) in depths from 21 to 29 m (11 to
16 fm).
Alongside berths
7.328
1
Santa Ana Wharves. (7°04′N, 125°37′E) Two
government piers with four berths extending about 85 m E
from the shore. The position of the N pier may be seen
from the chart, the S pier is reported to be situated about
2 cables farther S. Depths of 5 to 7 m (16 to 23 ft) were
measured at the N berth in 1992. The controlling depth is
reported as 4 m (13 ft).
Mariners are cautioned that the dolphins at the N pier
are in poor condition and create a hazard during berthing.
2
Sasa Wharf (7°08′N, 125°40′E), which is government
owned, is situated at Lanang Point. the old quay 515 m in
length and 18 m wide, has four berths. The new quay,
410 m long and 35 m wide, has two general berths and one
Ro-Ro berth. The wharf is aligned 006°/186° and the
controlling depth, reported in 1990, is 10⋅6 m. Several
prominent warehouses and storage tanks stand on Sasa
wharf.
Mariners are cautioned that the S end of the wharf is
fouled by pylons which stand proud of the berthing face.
3
Mati Wharf (7°09′N, 125°39′E). A reinforced concrete
general purpose quay 81 m long, 12 m wide with a
controlling depth of 6⋅5 m alongside.
4
Shell Pier (7°08′N, 125°39′E), situated 1 cable SW of
Sasa Marginal Wharf, is a T-shaped finger pier, 40 m long
with a berthing face of 30 m. The reported depth alongside
is 8 m. There are mooring dolphins on the shore so that
vessels up to 152 m in length can berth at the pier.
Generally vessels berth starboard alongside at HW.
5
Macleod Pier, Stanvac Pier, Caltex Pier (7°08′N,
125°39′E), situated 1 cable SW of Sasa Marginal Wharf,
are respectively, 27 m, 17 m and 10 m wide at their
berthing faces, with reported controlling depths of 9⋅3 m,
9⋅7 m and 7⋅0 m alongside.
6
Ilang (7°11′N, 125°39′E), 3 miles N of Lanang point
there is a conveyor pier 135 m in length and a T-shaped
pier with a berthing head 55 m long. The controlling depths
are 8⋅8 m and 10⋅0 m alongside these piers.
7
Tibungho (7°12′N, 125°39′E), the site of a cement
works and a saw mill standing I mile NNW of Ilang. There
is a continuous line of berths extending from Tibungho to
Ilang and farther S to include Tefasco Wharf. The complex
contains a conspicuous school with a tin roof near the
beach.
Port services
Repairs
7.329
1
Minor ship repairs; machine shops in Davao capable of
welding and casting; small slipway for launches only.
Other facilities
7.330
1
Hospitals; Deratting but no fumigation facilities.
Supplies
7.331
1
Fresh provisions; fresh water by road tanker or by water
boat with 60 tons capacity; fuel oils.
Communications
7.332
1
International airport at Bangoy, 7 km NE of Davao.
CHAPTER 7
237
Small craft
7.333
1
Description. Davao River, with low, swampy banks is
edged at its mouth by sandy beaches. It meanders through
a low valley carrying flood water from the mountainous
interior entering Davao Gulf 1 mile S of Santa Ana Light
(7°05′N, 125°38′E). The mouth of the river is obstructed
by a shoal and the bar has a depth of 0⋅5 m (1 ft),
making it of little value to navigation. The channel at the
entrance changes frequently in freshets.
Local knowledge is required.
DAVAO GULF — NORTH PART
General information
Route
7.334
1
From a position W of Bassa Point (7°12′N, 125°42′E)
the route leads NE for about 13 miles to a position about
1 miles off Hijo River (7°22′N, 125°50′E).
Topography
7.335
1
The W coast of Davao Gulf between the N entrance to
Pakiputan Strait and the head of the gulf is generally low,
flat and densely wooded. The country inland is a large
alluvial plain through which a number of rivers flow to
empty into the head of the gulf. To the W the plain rises to
a mountain range the S end of which culminates in Mount
Apo (7.296).
Directions
(continued from 7.326)
7.336
1
From a position W of Bassa Point (7°12′N, 125°42′E)
the track leads NE, passing (with positions from Little Cruz
Island (7°12′N, 125°46′E)):
SE of Bunawan River (7 miles NW) (7.337),
thence:
2
SE of Lasang River (6 miles NW), navigable only
by small boats drawing 0⋅9 m (3 ft) which can
ascend several miles inland. The township of
Lasang stands 1 mile NW of the entrance. Thence
SE of Tuganay River and Tagum River (8 miles
NNW) (7.340), the latter being more important
having greater depths over the bar and within,
thence:
3
SE of Mansaca Point (9 miles N), low and heavily
wooded. Dangerous shoals surrounding this point
extend up to 1 mile offshore.
From this position the track continues NE for about
3 miles to a position about 1 miles off the entrance to
Hijo River (11 miles NNE).
4
Useful mark: There is a conspicuous chimney close
NW of Bunawan River the river entrance.
(Directions continue for Davao Gulf — E side in reverse at 7.348)
Anchorages and harbours
Bunawan River
7.337
1
Description. Several timber ponds have been established
along the coast between Tibungko and Bunawan River
(7°14′N, 125°41′E). Boats drawing 1 m can ascend the
river for several miles but the entrance channel is difficult
to discern because of the shifting bar.
Anchorage can be found E of the ruined pier (shown on
the chart) in depths from 15 to 27 m (48 ft to 15 fm).
Tambongon
7.338
1
Description. Tambongon (7°15′N, 125°40′E), a timber
loading port, situated 1 miles NE of Bunawan lies on the
N extremity of Davao Port limits. A prominent grey
building stands at the root of a ruined stone mole marked
at its outer end by the remains of the piling. A stranded
wreck lies E of the ruined pier.
2
Pilot and officials are boarded at Davao.
Anchorage with good holding ground can be had
5 cables S of the pier in depths from 18 to 37 m (60 ft to
20 fm).
Tuganay Piers
7.339
1
General information. Tuganay piers serve the area
around Panabo (7°18′N, 125°41′E), the district
headquarters, and provide facilities for the loading of
bananas.
Fish traps occupy most of this bay in which concrete
dolphins have been constructed for mooring lines.
Tidal streams. It is reported that there is a NNE tidal
set at HW with a rise and fall of about 1 m. After heavy
rains there is a strong outflow setting off the land.
2
Directions. Vessels proceeding to these berths take a
pilot at the boarding ground off Dumalag Point (7°02′N,
125°35′E) and undergo clearance at anchor off Davao City.
At the berth two pilot launches assist with running lines to
the dolphins. Vessels usually berth port side to with the
starboard anchor in readiness.
Anchorage. Holding ground off the piers is reported to
be poor.
3
Berths. Tuganay Piers (7°18′N, 125°43′E), are reported
to be well fendered with rubber and timber designed to
facilitate side door loading of reefer vessels. The piers
extend ESE from the shore and are separated by a small
bay that shallows abruptly back to the village.
4
The S pier consists of a concrete apron with a berth on
the E face about 167 m in length. A large warehouse, of
corrugated steel with enclosed sides but open ends,
occupies the centre of the apron.
The N pier, T-shaped, has a berth on the E face about
150 m long. Another warehouse of similar cons