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NP 28
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notices to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.
Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this volume.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2006 2007 2008 2009
IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS
This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of
Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:
Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s
Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),
Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.
All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
NP 28
DOVER STRAIT PILOT
South−east coast of England
Bognor Regis to Southwold
and
North−west coast of Europe
Cap d’Antifer to Scheveningen
SEVENTH EDITION
2006
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
ii
© Crown Copyright 2006
To be obtained from Agents
for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright for some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner.
Area formerly covered by part of the
following previous editions:
Channel Pilot Vol I Channel Pilot Vol II
First Published 1856 First Published 1859. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition 1863 Second Edition 1870. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1869 Third Edition 1874. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1874 Fourth Edition 1882. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fifth Edition 1878 Fifth Edition 1888. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sixth Edition 1882 Sixth Edition 1897. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seventh Edition 1886 Seventh Edition 1906. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eighth Edition 1893 Eighth Edition 1917. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ninth Edition 1900 Ninth Edition 1927. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tenth Edition 1908 Tenth Edition 1938. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eleventh Edition 1920 Eleventh Edition 1952. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twelfth Edition 1931 Twelfth Edition 1965. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thirteenth Edition 1947. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourteenth Edition 1957. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North Sea Pilot Vol III North Sea Pilot Vol II
First Published 1858 First Published 1863. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition 1869 Second Edition 1871. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1874 Third Edition 1878. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1882 Fourth Edition 1887. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fifth Edition 1889 Fifth Edition 1892. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sixth Edition 1897 Sixth Edition 1901. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seventh Edition 1905 Seventh Edition 1909. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eighth Edition 1914 Eighth Edition 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ninth Edition 1922 Ninth Edition 1934. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tenth Edition 1933 Tenth Edition 1950. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eleventh Edition 1948 Eleventh Edition 1963. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twelfth Edition 1960. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dover Strait Pilot
First Published 1971. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition 1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Edition Revised 1985. . . . . . . . . . . Third Edition 1994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth Edition 1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fifth Edition 1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sixth Edition 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
PREFACE
The Seventh Edition of the Dover Strait Pilot has been prepared by Captain R S Coles, Master Mariner. The United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the appropriate information obtained by and
assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners
where appropriate. If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them.
This edition supersedes the Sixth Edition (2002), which is cancelled.
Information on climate and currents has been based on data provided by the Met Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
British
Lloyd’s List Ports of the World 2005
Lloyd’s Register Fairplay Ports and Terminals Guide 2005−2006
Lloyd’s Shipping Statistics 2004
Port Handbooks produced by Port Authorities
The Statesman’s Yearbook 2005
French
Instructions Nautiques C2.1 De la Frontière Belge aux Casquets 2002
Netherlands
The Netherlands Coast Pilot HP1, 4th Edition 2001
Chart Nos 1805 & 1807 (2005)
Netherlands Annual Notices to Mariners 2005
Belgium
Chart No 104 (2005)
Belgium Annual Notices to Mariners 2005
General
Port websites produced by Port Authorities
Dr D W Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset TA1 2DN
England
5th January 2006
iv
PREFACE
to the Third Edition (1994)
The Third Edition of the Dover Strait Pilot has been prepard by Commander P. Bell, OBE, BA, Royal Navy, and contains the latest
information received in the Hydrographic Office to the date given below.
This edition supersedes the Second (Revised) Edition (1985) and Supplement No 3 (1991), which are cancelled.
Information on meteorology, currents and ice has been revised from information provided by the Meteorological Office, Bracknell.
The following sources of information, other than Hydrographic Office Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
British
Guide to Port Entry 1989/90
Ports of the World 1991
Lloyds Maritime Guide 1990
Lloyds List
Port Handbooks produced by Port Authorities
French
Instructions Nautiques: de la Frontière Belge aux Casquets 1992
Netherlands
Zeemansgids voor Nederlandse Kust 1993
Vaargids Voor de Nederlandse en Belgische Kust 1989
N.R.ESSENHIGH
Rear Admiral
Hydrographer of the Navy
Hydrographic Office
Ministry of Defence
Taunton
Somerset
England
9th July 1994
v
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface to the Third Edition (1994) iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations ix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary xi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlet facing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.4) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.30) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyage (1.37) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.44) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.56) 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.64) 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.97) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.107) 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
United Kingdom (1.129) 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . France (1.139) 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Belgium (1.146) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Netherlands (1.154) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports (1.163) 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services−summary (1.164) 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.169) 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents and tidal streams (1.171) 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea level and tides (1.182) 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.186) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.189) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice conditions (1.193) 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.196) 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climatic tables (1.225) 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.238) 54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
English Channel to Southern North Sea−Through Routes 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
Bognor Regis to Dungeness 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
Dungeness to North Foreland 91. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
Cap d’Antifer to Cap Gris−Nez 109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 6
Cap Gris−Nez to Oostende 133. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS
vi
CHAPTER 7
Westerschelde and Approaches 157. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 8
Westkapelle to Hoek van Holland and Dutch Inland Waterways 195. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 9
Hoek van Holland to The Rhine 211. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
Hoek van Holland to Scheveningen 229. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 11
Thames Estuary 235. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 12
North Foreland to The Nore and East Swale 249. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 13
Southwold to The Naze 259. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 14
The Naze to Foulness Point 281. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 15
River Thames−The Nore to Richmond 293. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 16
River Medway−The Nore to Maidstone and West Swale 313. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES AND INDEX
Appendix I − United Kingdom Territorial Waters Order in Council 329. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II − Port of London Authority Regulations 333. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix III − Former mined areas 340. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix IV − Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 341. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 342. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 gt or more. They amplify charted detail and contain information
needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended to be read in
conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published quarterly. Those still in force at the end
of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,
the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Admiralty Maritime Communications is a comprehensive guide on all aspects of maritime communications for the yachtsman and small
craft user. It provides general information on Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), the management of VHF, Maritime
Safety Information, NAVTEX, Inmarsat and Radio Facsimile, and detailed information and procedures for marinas and harbours used by
small craft.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
viii
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Submarine exercise areas are mentioned in Sailing Directions. Other firing, practice and exercise
areas maybe mentioned with limited details. Signals and buoys used in connection with these areas maybe mentioned if significant for
navigation. Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the object above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
ix
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text:
AIS Automatic Indentification System
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
°C degrees Celsius
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DF direction finding
DG degaussing
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
DW Deep Water
DSC Digital Selective Calling
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
E east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost)
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
ENE east-north-east
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
ESE east-south-east
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
EU European Union
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FPU Floating production unit
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
ft foot (feet)
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GPS Global Positioning System
GRP glass reinforced plastic
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HF high frequency
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
HSC High Speed Craft
HW High Water
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
JRCC Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LF low frequency
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LMT Local Mean Time
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length overall
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LW Low Water
m metre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
MF medium frequency
MHz megahertz
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
mm millimetre(s)
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
MSI Marine Safety Information
MSL Mean Sea Level
MV Motor Vessel
MW megawatt(s)
MY Motor Yacht
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Navtex Navigational Telex System
NE north-east
NNE north-north-east
NNW north-north-west
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
NW north-west
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
PEL Port Entry Light
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
PWC Personal watercraft
RCC Rescue Co−ordination Centre
RMS Royal Mail Ship
RN Royal Navy
Ro-Ro Roll−on, Roll-off
RT radio telephony
ABBREVIATIONS
x
S south (southerly, southward, southern,
southernmost)
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SAR Search and Rescue
Satnav Satellite navigation
SBM Single buoy mooring
SE south-east
SPM Single point mooring
sq square
SS Steamship
SSE south-south-east
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
UHF ultra high frequency
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
UN United Nations
UT Universal Time
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VHF very high frequency
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
W west (westerly, westward, western,
westernmost)
WGS World Geodetic System
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WNW west-north-west
WSW west-south-west
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
xi
GLOSSARY
French (F) and Dutch (D) terms and words occasionally found on charts and in the Sailing Directions.
Foreign word English meaning
aanlegplaats D berth, n
abri F shelter, n
abrité F sheltered, adj
acht D eight, adj
achter (uit) D astern, adj
aiguille F needle, n
amer F landmark, beacon, n
ankerplaats D anchorage, n
appontement F landing stage, n
anse F bay, cove, n
argile F clay, n
arrière−port F inner port, n
asséchant F drying, adj
aval F downstream,
seaward, adj
avant−port F outer port, n
azur F blue, adj
baai D bay, n
baie F bay, n
bakboord D port (side or hand), adj
baken D beacon, n
balise F beacon n
banc F bank n
barre F bar, n
bas,−se F low, adj
basculebrug D bascule bridge, n
basse F shoal, n
basse mer (BM) F low water, n
bassin F basin, dock, n
bassin à flot F wet basin, n
beloodsen D embark pilot,
Bericht aan Zeevarenden D Notice to Mariners, n
betonning D buoyage, n
binnen D inner adj
blanc,−he F white adj
blauw D blue, adj
bleu,−e F blue, adj
bocht D bay, bight, n
bois F woods, n
bouche F mouth (of a river), n
boue F mud, n
bouée F buoy, n
branding D breakers, n
breed,−tke D broad, adj,
breadth, n
brekers D breakers, n
brisant−s F shoal; breakers, n
brise−lames F breakwater, n
brouillard F fog, n
brug D bridge, n
bruin D brown, adj
buiten D outer, adj
caboteur F coaster, n
cale F ramp, slip, n
canal F canal, channel n
cap F cape, headland, n
carré,−e F square, adj
champ−de−tir F firing range, n
chantier F dockyard, n
château F castle, n
château d’eau F water tower, n
chausée F bank, causeway, n
chenal F channel, n
clocher F steeple, belfry, n
col F neck, mountain pass, n
Foreign word English meaning
colline F hill, n
contre−courant F eddy, n
côte F coast, n
courant F current, tidal stream, n
crique F creek, n
croix F cross, n
dag D day, n
débarcadère F wharf, landing place, n
découvrant F uncovering, drying, adj
détroit F strait, narrows, n
déversoir F weir, n
diep; diepte D deep, adj; depth, n
diepgaande D deep−draught, adj
diepgang D draught, n
digue F mole, breakwater, n
dood (tij) D neap (tide), n
doorvaart D passage, n
dorp D village, n
douane FD customs,
custom−house, n
draaibrug D swing bridge, n
drempel D bar; sill (of lock or
dock), n
drie D three, adj
driehoekig D triangular, adj
drijfbaken D floating beacon, n
droit F right (side), adj
droog D dry, adj
duc d’Albe F piled dolphin, n
duinen D sandhill, dunes, n
dukdalf D dolphin, n
dur,−e F hard, adj
échouage F beaching, n
écluse F lock or a canal,
basin sluice, n
écueil F rock, reef, n
een D one, adj
église F church, n
eiland D island, n
épave F wreck, n
épi F short mole, spur, n
estuaire F estuary, n
étale F slack water, n
étier F creek suitable for small
vessels, n
falaise F cliff, n
flèche F spire, n
fleuve F river, stream, n
forêt F forest, n
fosse F ditch, a deep, n
galets F shingle, n
gat D channel, n
gauche F left (side), adj
gebaggerd vaarwater D dredged channel, n
gebied D area, n
geel D yellow, adj
gemiddeld D mean, adj
geul D channel, n
getij D tide, n
golfbreker D breakwater, mole, n
golfe F gulf, n
goulet F inlet,
narrow entrance, n
grand,−e F great, adj
GLOSSARY
xii
Foreign word English meaning
gravel F gravel, n
grève F sand beach, n
grijs D grey, adj
grint D gravel, shingle, n
groen D green, adj
gronden D grounds, n
gros,−se F coarse, large, adj
groot D great, adj
gruis D gravel, n
guet F watch−house, n
haut,−e F high, tall, adj
haut−fond F shoal, n
hauturier F deep−sea, adj
haven D harbour, port, n
havenbekken D harbour basin, n
havendam D jetty mole, n
havre F haven, n
helling D slipway, ramp, hard, n
hoek D head, headland, n
hoog; hoger D high; higher, adj
hoogwater D high water, n
huis D house, n
ijs D ice, n
île F island, isle, n
îlot F islet, n
ingang D entrance, n
jaune F yellow, adj
jetée F breakwater, jetty, n
jusant F ebb tide, n
kaap D cape, head, n
kade D quay, wharf, n
keersluis D single lock opening,
flood barrage, n
(literally turning lock)
kenbaar D conspicuous, adj
kerk D church, n
kielplaats D careening grid, n
kiezel D pebbles, n
klei D clay, n
klein D little, small, adj
kust D coast, shore, n
laagwater D low water, n
laag; lager D low; lower, adj
lac F lake, n
lamange F inshore pilotage, n
lang D long, adj
large F broad, wide, adj
leidam D groyne, n
licht D light, n
lichtboei D light−buoy, n
ligplaats D berth, n
loods (station) D pilot (station), n
loodswezen D pilotage, n
maison F house, n
marais F swamp, marsh, n
marée F tide, n
meer D lake; reclaimed area, n
meerpaal D dolphin, n
mer F sea, n
méridional, −e F southern, adj
midden D middle, adj
milieu F middle, adj
mistsein D fog signal, n
modder D mud, n
môle F mole, pier, n
molen D mill, n
mond(ing) D mouth, n
Foreign word English meaning
mont, montagne F mount, mountain, n
mort−eau (ME) F neap tide, n
mouillage F anchorage, n
moulin F mill, n
mur F wall, n
musoir F mole, or pierhead, n
nat dok D wet dock, basin, n
nauw D narrows, n
negen D nine, adj
neuf F nine, adj
neuf,−ve F new, adj
nez F nose, promontory, n
nieuwe D new, adj
noeud F knot
noir,−e F black, adj
noord D north
nord F north
nouveau,−el, −elle F new, adj
occidental, −e F western, adj
oever D bank (of canal, river), n
ondiep D shallow, adj
ondiepte D shoal, n
oost D east
oranje D orange, adj
oriental,−e F eastern, adj
oud D old, adj
ouest F west
paal D pile, pillar, n
passe F passage, pass, n
peilschaal D tide gauge, n
pertuis F opening, or strait, n
petit,−e F small, adj
phare F lighthouse, n
pic F peak, n
pierre F stone, n
plage F shore, beach, n
plaine F plain, n
plat D flat, adj, n
plat,−e F flat, level, adj
pleine mer (PM) F high water, n
pointe F point, n
politie D police, n
pont F bridge, n
port F port, harbour, n
presq’île F peninsula, n
punt D point, n
quai F quay, wharf, n
rade F road; roadstead, n
rak D channel, n
raz F race;
violent tidal stream, n
récif F reef, n
rede D roads, roadstead, n
reddingboot (station) D life−boat (station), n
redoute F redoubt, fort, n
ressac F surf, n
rif D reef, n
riool D sewer outfall, n
rivage F shore, n
rive F bank of river, n
rivière F river, n
roche F rock n
rocher F rock generally above
water, n
rond,−e F round, adj
rood D red, adj
rots D rock, n
rouge F red, adj
roux, rousse F reddish, adj
GLOSSARY
xiii
Foreign word English meaning
rug D ridge, n
ruisseau F rivulet, n
sable F sand, n
sablon F fine sand, n
saline F salt water lagoon, n
schelpen D shells, n
schutsluis D lock, n
seinstation D signal station, n
septentrional, −e F northern, adj
sleepboot D tug, n
sluis D lock, n
sommet F summit, n
spring (tij) D spring (tide), n
spuisluis D sluicing lock, n
stad D city, town, n
steengrond D stony bottom, n
steiger D pier, n
steil D steep, adj
stroom D (tidal) stream, n
stroomleidam D training wall, n
stuurboord D starboard, adj
sud F south
tenue F holding ground, n
terre−plein F levelled ground, platform, n
tete F head, n
tien D ten, adj
toren D tower, n
torrent F stream, torrent, n
tour F tower, n
tourelle F small tower, turret, n
traverse F shallow ridge across channel or river, n
twee D two, adj
Foreign word English meaning
uitwatering−sluis D sluicing lock,
sluice gates, n
vaartuig D vessel, n
vaarwater D fairway, channel, n
val F narrow valley, n
vallée F valley, n
vasière F mudbank, n
verboden D prohibited, adj
verkeer D traffic, n
vert,−e F green, adj
vieil,−le, vieux F old, ancient, adj
vier D four, adj
vierkant D square, rectangular, adj
vijf D five, adj
ville F town, n
vis, vissevij D fish, fishery, n
vive−eau (VE) F spring tide, n
vlak, vlakte D flat, adj
vloed D flood, adj, n
vluchthaven D harbour of refuge, n
voor D forward, adj
waterweg D waterway, n
weg D road (ashore), n
wijd D wide, adj
wimpel D pendant, n
wit D white, adj
wrak D wreck, n
zeegat D sea−channel, inlet, n
zes D six, adj
zeven D seven, adj
zuid D south
zwart D black, adj
2613
1408
2656
2675
2675
2450
2451
1406
1610
1504
1183
2449
1872
1205
1630
110
15
5
6
13
11
12
16
14
7
8
9
10
3
2
2
4
2
Europoort
Rotterdam
Southwold
Scheveningen
Fécamp
Dieppe
Le Tréport
Newhaven
Boulogne
Rye
Calais
Ipswich
Zeebrugge
Oostende
Dover
NP 27
CHANNEL PILOT
NP 55
NORTH SEA (EAST)
PILOT
NP 54
NORTH SEA (WEST)
PILOT
Harwich
Sheerness
Ramsgate
Shoreham
Dunkerque
Antwerp
LONDON
48°48°
49°49°
50°
50°
51°
51°
52°
52°
53°
53°
1°
1°
0°
0°
3°
3°
4°
4°
5°
5°
Longitude 1° East from Greenwich
1° 2°
xiv
Dover Strait Pilot
NP 28
Chapter Index Diagram
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its
hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:-
(a) that no liability whatsoever can be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition
of the international validity of the law or regulation.
DOVER STRAIT PILOT
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
Charts 2675, 2182A
Area covered
1.1 1
This volume contains Sailing Directions for the Dover
Strait and its approaches.
The SW limit is a line across the English Channel
joining Bognor Regis (50°46′N 0°41′E) to Cap d’Antifer
(49°41′N 0°10′E).
2
The NW limit is the S and SE coast of England from
Bognor Regis to North Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E), thence
the Thames Estuary to a position 52°18′N 1°38′E on the E
coast of England, close S of Southwold (52°20′N 1°41′E).
3
The N limit is a line crossing the S part of the North
Sea, joining:
52°18′N 1°38′E, thence ESE to
52°10′N 2°30′E, thence E to
52°10′N 4°21′E.
4
The SE limit is the SE coast of the Netherlands from a
position 52°10′N 4°21′E, close NE of Scheveningen, the
coast of Belgium and the N coast of France to Cap
d’Antifer.
The River Thames and River Medway are described, as
well as the estuaries of the River Schelde and Maas and
there is a brief description of the River Rhine.
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Coastal conditions
1.2 1
The area described in this volume presents the mariner
with a generally adverse combination of navigational
factors which are outlined below.
Local topography. The Dover Strait is shallow and only
18 miles wide at its narrowest point. Passage through the
strait is further constricted by a series of narrow banks,
running NE−SW. The seabed is also littered with wrecks
(see 1.169 and 1.170).
2
Natural conditions. There are strong tidal streams
(1.174) in the strait. Sea level may differ from that
predicted (1.182) and in particular may be lower than
expected due to negative tidal surges (1.184). The area is
also subject to gales (1.213) and poor visibility (1.219).
3
Risk of collision. There is a high risk of collision
caused by the density of vessel traffic on passage through
the strait, including deep−draught vessels, and crossing
traffic, including ferries and high speed craft.
Mine danger areas
1.3 1
There are two areas off the N coast of France, which
remain dangerous because of mines laid in the war of
1939−1945. Due to the lapse of time the risk to surface
navigation is now considered to be no more dangerous than
the ordinary risks of navigation but a very real risk still
exists with regard to anchoring, fishing or any form of
submarine or seabed activity. Details of these areas are
given in Appendix III.
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
Regulation of vessel traffic
Chart 5500
Routeing
1.4 1
The main routes from the E part of the English Channel
through the Dover Strait and thence into the S part of the
North Sea all lie within IMO−adopted Traffic Separation
Schemes or Precautionary Areas and Rule 10 of The
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972) applies. The routes are given in outline at 2.2 and
directions for these routes are given at 2.34 to 2.62.
CHAPTER 1
2
2
Running through the traffic lanes of the TSS are
Deep−draught Routes, which run between specific points,
and are considered the most favourable routes to be
followed by vessel with draughts between 20⋅7 and 22⋅5 m.
These routes are described at 2.63 to 2.71.
3
Inshore Traffic Zones are established either side of the
TSS in the Dover Strait and there is also an Inshore Traffic
Zone to the SW of Hoek van Holland. These zones are
mentioned in the appropriate geographical chapters.
4
Mariners’ Routeing Guide (Chart 5500) contains
Passage Planning Charts which show the routes through the
English Channel, Dover Strait and the Southern North Sea
as far as the entrance to Europoort. See 2.2.
Traffic Separation Schemes
1.5 1
In principle TSSs consist of two traffic lanes lying either
side of a separation zone. Traffic in each lane is one-way,
so that opposing traffic is kept apart by the separation
zone. These lanes are shown on the charts with arrows
which indicate the general direction of the traffic flow. The
full width of the lane is available for navigation, subject to
compliance with Rule 10 (b) of the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972), which
requires vessels to proceed in the general direction of the
traffic flow and in so far as is practicable keep clear of the
separation zone.
1.6 1
Rule 10 of the International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972) does not in any way alter the
overriding requirement for vessels to comply with the other
Steering and Sailing rules. In particular, vessels do not, by
virtue of using the traffic lanes in the general direction of
the traffic flow, enjoy any privilege that they would not
have elsewhere.
2
In addition, vessels using the TSS are not relieved of the
requirement to proceed at a safe speed, especially in
conditions of restricted visibility.
1.7 1
Rule 10 (c) of the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) states that:
‘A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing
traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on
a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles
to the general direction of the traffic flow.’
2
To follow this advice low powered vessels and sailing
vessels should therefore not make allowance for the tidal
stream while crossing, if by doing so they will not have a
heading nearly at right angles to the traffic flow.
3
Rule 10 (j) of the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) states that vessels
under 20 m in length and sailing vessels shall not impede
the safe passage of a power-driven vessel following a
traffic lane.
Inshore traffic zones
1.8 1
Regulations for the use of inshore traffic zones are given
in Rule 10 (d) of the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) which states that:
2
‘(d)(i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone
when she can safely use the appropriate traffic
lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme.
However, vessels of less than 20 m in length,
sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may
use the inshore traffic zone.
3
(d)(ii) Notwithstanding subparagraph (d)(i), a vessel
may use an inshore traffic zone when enroute to or
from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot
station or any other place situated within the
inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.’
4
A vessel outbound from a port or pilot station within an
inshore traffic zone is recommended to join the adjacent
traffic lane as soon as possible, as described in
Rule 10 (b)(iii).
5
In the opinion of The United Kingdom’s Maritime and
Coastguard Agency, if a vessel commences its voyage from
a location beyond one limit of the inshore traffic zone and
proceeds to a location beyond its furthest limit, and is not
calling at a port, pilot station, destination or sheltered
anchorage within the inshore traffic zone, then that vessel
should, if it can safely do so, use the appropriate lane of
the adjacent traffic separation scheme unless some
abnormal circumstances exist in that lane. In this context
reduced visibility in the area or the density of traffic using
the lane does not in itself justify use of the inshore traffic
zone.
Ship reporting systems
1.9 1
CALDOVREP. A mandatory ship reporting system
(CALDOVREP) with radar surveillance has been
established in the Dover Strait and is operated by Dover
Coastguard and Gris−Nez Traffic. The area covered lies
between a line drawn from Royal Sovereign Light (50°43′N
0°26′E) through Bassurelle Light-buoy (50°33′N 0°58′E) to
the French coast, and a line drawn from North Foreland
(51°18′N 1°27′E) to the border between France and
Belgium.
2
The system applies to the following vessels:
All merchant vessels of 300 grt and over.
Any vessel under 300 grt not under command or at
anchor in a TSS or an Inshore Traffic Zone.
Any vessel under 300 grt restricted in her ability to
manoeuvre.
Any vessel under 300 grt with defective navigation
aids.
3
Dover Coastguard can accept ship reports by AIS (1.62).
4
MAREP. A voluntary Ship Movement Report System
(MAREP) is in operation for the area between, in the W, a
line joining Bishop Rock Lighthouse (49°52′N 6°27′W) and
Ouessant SW Lanby (48°32′N 5°49′W); and to the NE, by
a line joining North Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E) through
Mid Falls Light-buoy (51°19′N 1°47′E) to the Belgian
coast. This voluntary system applies to the same categories
of vessel as listed under Caldovrep.
5
WETREP. See 1.67.
For further details of the above systems see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Channel Navigation Information Service
1.10 1
The Channel Navigation Information Service provides
safety information to vessels in the Dover Strait area.
See 2.23.
General information on traffic
Traffic
1.11 1
There is heavy crossing traffic, mainly ferries and high
speed craft, between the ports on the SE coast of England
and those on the N coast of France; see 2.13 for details of
the ports used and the likely crossing areas.
CHAPTER 1
3
Vessels constrained by their draught
1.12 1
Mariners are reminded that deep−draught vessels may
not be able to alter course in critical areas without the
danger of running aground. A good lookout must be kept
for vessels constrained by their draught and showing the
signals laid down in Rule 28 of the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
High speed craft
1.13
1
HSC operate in the area covered by this volume.
Mariners are advised to maintain a good lookout. Some
HSC may generate large waves, which can have a serious
impact on small craft and their moorings close to the
shoreline, and on shallow off-lying banks. For further
details see Annual Notice to Mariners No 23.
Fishing
General
1.14 1
Throughout the area covered by this volume fishing
vessels of varying sizes may be encountered. This includes
the Dover Strait TSS where in accordance with Rule 10 (d)
of The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions
at Sea (1972), a fishing vessel shall not impede the safe
passage of any vessel following a traffic lane.
2
Mariners are reminded that fishing vessels in addition to
being hampered may need to make immediate and
unannounced manoeuvres. Every care should be taken
therefore to keep well clear of vessels engaged in fishing.
Methods of fishing employed
1.15 1
General. For a general description of fishing methods
see The Mariner’s Handbook.
2
Oyster fisheries are usually marked by poles or perches
off the English coast, while off the French coast they may
be marked by buoys. Claims for damage to oyster beds
caused by vessels grounding or anchoring can be severe
and every effort should be made to avoid such beds. Oyster
beds, where they are known to exist, are mentioned in the
appropriate geographical chapters and usually shown on the
chart.
Principal fisheries
1.16 1
South and east coast of England. Trawlers fishing
singly or in small groups may be encountered at any time
of the year. Beam trawlers dredge for cockles in the
Thames Estuary, particularly off Southend (51°32′N 0°42′E)
and for scallops along the S coast between Selsey Bill
(50°43′N 0°42′W) and Dungeness (50°55′N 0°58′E). Pair
trawling for Dover Sole occurs in the Bullock Bank area
(50°45′N 1°04′E) in spring.
2
Drift net fishing has declined and is carried out mainly
from small open boats.
3
Crab and lobster pots are laid during the summer
months in many locations. Fixed gill nets may also be laid
at this time off the coast between Selsey Bill and
Dungeness and may be located as far as 12 miles from the
shore in the vicinity of Brighton (50°49′N 0°08′W) and
Hastings (50°51′N 0°35′E). However, the nets only extend
a small distance above the seabed and are not a hazard to
passing vessels.
1.17 1
North coast of France. Inshore fishing vessels may be
encountered, particularly by night, anywhere off the coast.
Groups of trawlers and drifters often operate far offshore,
particularly in the winter months.
Shell fisheries are numerous.
2
There can be a concentration of floating nets within
1 mile of the shore in the vicinity of Cap Gris-Nez
(50°52′N 1°35′E).
The principal fishing ports are Fécamp (49°46′N
0°22′E), Dieppe (49°56′N 1°05′E) and Boulogne-sur-Mer
(50°44′N 1°36′E).
1.18 1
Belgian coast. Pair trawling for sprat and herring is
carried out with the vessels between 80 and 120 m apart. In
addition to the signals required by the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) the
vessels show by day Flag D, International Code, and by
night searchlight beams from each vessel which cross each
other. In emergency to warn approaching vessels the
searchlight beams may be swept horizontally.
2
The principal fishing ports are Oostende (51°14′N
2°55′E) and Zeebrugge (51°20′N 3°12′E).
1.19 1
Netherlands coast. The principal fishing ports are
Vlissingen (51°27′N 3°35′E), Terneuzen (51°20′N 3°49′E),
Stellendam (51°50′N 4°02′E) and Scheveningen (52°06′N
4°16′E).
Fishery limits
1.20 1
British limits are given at 1.132, French limits at 1.140,
Belgian limits at 1.147 and Netherlands limits at 1.155.
Military exercise areas
Naval exercises and firing practices
1.21 1
British waters. Within the waters described in this
volume, British naval exercises are largely confined to
mine counter measures (1.24). Shore batteries and firing
ranges are located at Lydd (3.104), Hythe (4.7),
Shoeburyness (11.10) and Fingringhoe (14.26).
For general information relating to firing practice and
exercise areas see Notice No.5 of Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners. For further details of
practice and exercise areas see Chart Q6401.
1.22 1
French waters. Within the waters described in this
volume there are no designated exercise areas or artillery
firing ranges. However, French warships may be
encountered exercising in any part of their territorial
waters.
In daylight hours a French firing battery displays a red
flag from 1 hour before the exercise until the practice is
completed. Target tugs and range craft also display a red
flag.
2
At night, a French firing battery displays two
horizontally disposed red lights and signal stations in the
vicinity display a single red light. Target tugs display three
red lights vertically disposed and range craft one red light
at the masthead; in both cases these lights are in addition
to the usual navigation lights.
1.23
1
Belgian waters. There is one firing area in Belgium
near Nieuwpoort (51°09′N 2°43′E) (6.137).
CHAPTER 1
4
Minelaying and mineclearance exercises
1.24 1
Mine laying and mine clearance vessels of the four
nations bordering the Dover Strait and South North Sea
exercise periodically in the areas listed in Notice No 10 of
the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. In
addition the limits of Zone NB−01 (Westhinder) and Zone
NBH−10 (Wenduine) are shown on the appropriate charts.
2
French vessels engaged in hydrographic surveying and
mine clearance exercises may be encountered off French
ports. Mine clearance vessels generally operate under
similar conditions to those given in Notice No 10 of the
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Submarine exercises
1.25 1
Notice No 8 of the Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners gives details concerning British
submarines and the warning signals used by them. French
and Netherlands submarines conform in general with these
signals. There are no designated submarine exercise areas
in the waters described in this volume but it should be
noted that submarines exercises are not confined solely to
designated exercise areas. Warnings that submarines are
exercising in specified areas will be announced by MSI
broadcasts.
2
French submarines may be met anywhere in French
waters but are more likely to be encountered off Brest and
Cherbourg (see Channel Pilot).
Marine exploitation
Limits
1.26 1
Continental Shelf Boundaries agreed between the states
bordering the North Sea and the English Channel are
shown on the relevant charts. They define the area in
which states may exploit the natural resources of the
seabed and its sub-soil.
Surveys
1.27 1
Seismic and other survey vessels surveying in
connection with oilfields and gasfields are liable to be
encountered throughout the North Sea. Seismic survey
methods are outlined in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Oilfields and gasfields
1.28 1
Drilling rigs and production platforms for the recovery
of oil and gas are situated throughout the North Sea. Those
in the S part of the area are usually associated with
gasfields and those further N with oilfields. All structures
are protected by safety zones extending to 500 m around
them. Methods of search and production, together with a
full description of the structures, safety zones, their
identification markings, visual signals in use and other
equipments associated with them are given in The
Mariner’s Handbook.
2
Many of these structures are inter-connected and
connected to shore by pipelines.
Within the area described in this volume there is little
activity associated with the hydrocarbon industry. However
to the N of the area there are many oilfields and gasfields,
which are described in the North Sea (East) Pilot and the
North Sea (West) Pilot as appropriate.
Dredging
1.29 1
Dredging for sand and gravel is carried out on the
shallow banks in the S part of the North Sea and in the
English Channel.
CHARTS
British Admiralty charts
1.30 1
Source data. The majority of British Admiralty charts
are based on modern surveys, although some of the
information used is still dependent on early lead and line
work.
2
Those of French, Belgian and Netherlands waters are
compiled from, or are adopted versions of, the government
charts of these nations and are corrected from information
received from the charting authorities of those governments.
Individual source diagrams should be examined to
ascertain the date and scale of the original surveys.
Foreign charts
1.31 1
France. French charts of their own coastline are, in
most cases, on a larger scale than British Admiralty charts
of the same area.
Belgium. A small number of charts covering Belgian
waters are obtainable. This includes Chart 104, a set of
twelve pilot charts covering the River Schelde as far
upriver as the entrance to the Zeekanaal van Brussel naar
de Schelde (7.310).
2
Netherlands. A comprehensive chart coverage of
Netherlands and Belgian waters is maintained.
Netherlands inshore waters charts
1.32 1
The Netherlands Hydrographic Service publishes a series
of charts in pilot form, Officiële zeekaart voor kust-en
binnenwateren, covering the inshore waters of The
Netherlands. These charts are quoted as reference charts in
the text of Chapter 8, which has been written on the
assumption that mariners wishing to navigate in these
waters will have provided themselves with suitable charts
on which to do so.
2
Information on depths in many of the channels is
updated monthly in Netherlands Notices to Mariners.
Publishing authorities
1.33
1
Foreign charts may be obtained from the appropriate
foreign hydrographic offices or from chart agencies in the
main ports of each country. See Catalogue of Admiralty
Charts and Publications for further details.
Foreign charts are not issued by the United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office nor are they corrected by Admiralty
Notices to Mariners.
Datums
Horizontal datum
1.34 1
The majority of British Admiralty and foreign charts for
the waters described in this volume are referred to World
Geodetic System (1984) Datum.
2
Notwithstanding the foregoing, mariners are advised to
check the geodetic datum of any chart in use and apply
any correctional information as might appear in the chart
notes.
CHAPTER 1
5
Vertical datum
1.35 1
The vertical datum used by the four hydrographic
authorities for the reduction of soundings and drying
heights equates to the lowest astronomical tide (LAT) or an
approximation very close to it.
2
On British charts covering British waters elevations are
referred to MHWS. On British charts which have been
adopted from Netherlands, French and Belgian charts MSL
is used, except that on adopted charts of French waters, the
elevations of lighthouses are referred to MHWS.
For a definition of the various tidal levels see Admiralty
Tide Tables Volume 1.
1.36 1
Vertical datum used in Netherlands non-tidal waters.
Chart Datum is usually the normal level at which the water
is maintained and this may be quoted as either Kanaalpeil
(Canal Datum) or NAP (Normal Amsterdam Peil). NAP is
the land levelling datum to which heights on land maps are
referred and approximates to within 0⋅1 m of MSL.
BUOYAGE
General
1.37 The IALA Maritime Buoyage System (Region A) is in
use throughout the area covered by this volume: for full
details see The Mariner’s Handbook. In the inland waters
of the Netherlands a system known as Signi (1.42) is
employed.
1
Direction of buoyage. In United Kingdom waters, the
general direction for lateral markings of buoys is to NE
and N up the E coast of England. In the entrance to the
Thames Estuary, where the main flood streams from the S
and from the N around the British Isles meet, the general
direction of buoyage is inward, ie E to W in the S part and
from NE to SW in the N part. The buoyage symbols on
Chart 2052, which covers the area where doubt could
occur, clearly illustrate the change in direction.
Oceanographical data buoys
1.38 1
Oceanographical data light-buoys and buoys (special),
including Ocean Data Acquisition Systems (ODAS)
Light-buoys, which gather hydrographic and meteorological
data for environmental research purposes, and which may
vary considerably in size, may be encountered anywhere in
the area. Many are laid temporarily only and not charted.
2
ODAS Light-buoys are described in The Mariner’s
Handbook; those that are permanent are shown on the
charts, those temporary are given in Admiralty Notices to
Mariners.
As the buoys have no navigational significance and as
they are liable to be removed or withdrawn at short notice
they are not normally mentioned in the text of this pilot.
All data gathering buoys should be given a wide berth.
British Isles buoyage
1.39 1
Trinity House is the authority responsible for lights and
buoys around the coasts of England, Wales and the Channel
Islands.
2
Light−floats and Lanbys within the area of this volume
are described in the Admiralty List of Lights Volume A. The
smaller buoys are shown on the charts but are not
described in the Admiralty List of Lights.
French buoyage
1.40 1
Details of light-buoys off the coast of France are
published in the French Lists of Lights.
Belgium and Netherlands buoyage
1.41 1
Details of light-buoys off the coasts of Belgium and
Netherlands are published in their respective national Lists
of Lights.
Channel buoys in both the IALA and Signi system are
numbered in sequence, prefixed by an abbreviation of the
channel name, eg ‘HD’ for the buoys in Hollandsch Diep.
2
Buoys marking the junction of two channels are prefixed
by abbreviations of both channel names, eg HD−ZHD at
the junction of Hollandsch Diep and Zuid Hollandsch Diep;
the main channel is given first.
Netherlands Inland Waters
1.42 1
Signi. In Netherlands inland waters the Signi
(Signalisation de Navigation Intérieure) system is used. The
system is illustrated on the accompanying diagram.
2
The main channel buoyage is compatible with the IALA
system. The point where a channel divides is marked by
buoys which indicate whether the main channel is to port
or starboard, or the channels are of equal importance. In
addition supplementary marks are used to indicate
navigable waters which lie outside the main buoyed
channels.
1.43 1
Winter buoyage. Some of the buoyage in Netherlands
inland waters is altered during the winter, or when ice is
forming or breaking up. Light-buoys may be replaced by
buoys and buoys by spar buoys or floating beacons. The
replacements, which have the same characteristics as the
original buoyage, are not mentioned individually in this
volume.
PILOTAGE
General information
1.44 1
Pilotage arrangements and procedures. Relevant
information on pilotage is given under the port concerned.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
In general, pilots will inform the masters of vessels of
the navigational procedures and regulations in local waters
and of any relevant customs, health and national security
regulations.
1.45 1
Signals to be made by a vessel requiring a pilot are laid
down in the International Code of Signals:
By day Flag G.
By night Morse letter G () by light.
In low visibility Morse letter P () by sound.
Pilot vessels may respond by sounding H ().
2
The sound signals are in addition to the normal signals
prescribed by Rule 35 of The International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). In Netherlands and
Belgian waters these signals should be sounded 3 seconds
after the prescribed signal.
NETHERLANDS BUOYAGE (1.42)
THE SIGNI SYSTEM
PORT HAND MARKS STARBOARD HAND MARKS
(When going Upstream, Inland, Away from a Main Channel, etc.)
SEPARATION MARKS
(CHANNELS OF EQUAL IMPORTANCE)
(MAIN CHANNEL TO PORT) (MAIN CHANNEL TO STARBOARD)
(When going Upstream, Inland, Away from a Main Channel, etc.)
SHAPE: Can or Spar Buoy,
Beacon,
or
Perch
(unbound)
COLOUR: Red
Red Cylinder
*TOPMARK:
Red Isophase or
Long Flash
*LIGHT
IDENTIFICATION: First
Letter(s)
of
Channel
Name
and/or
Even
Numbering
e.g. HD4, HD6
SHAPE: Spherical or Spar
Buoy, Beacon,
COLOUR: Red/Green Bands
Red
/Green
Ball
*TOPMARK:
White Fast Isophase
(2 seconds)
*LIGHT
IDENTIFICATION: Initial Letters and No. of Both Channels e.g. A - NM
2
1
SHAPE:
Spherical or Spar
Buoy, Beacon,
COLOUR: Green above Red
Green
Cone
(Point
up),
or
Green
Cone
above
Green
Ball
TOPMARK:
Green Flashing
*LIGHT
As
for
Channels
of
Equal
Importance
IDENTIFICATION:
e.g. VG - HV
1 14
Conical or Spar Buoy,
Beacon,
or
Perch
(bound)
Green
Green
Cone
(point
up)
Green Isophase or
Long Flash
First Letter(s) of
Channel
Name
and/or
Odd
Numbering
e.g. V3, V5 Spherical or Spar
Buoy, Beacon,
Red above Green
Red Cylinder
or Red Cylinder
above Red Ball RedFlashing
As
for
Channels
of
Equal Importance e.g. HV - KG
12 9
*If Fitted
CHAPTER 1
6
CHAPTER 1
7
3
Apart from the lights prescribed by Rule 29 of The
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972), pilot vessels in Netherlands and Belgian waters also
exhibit a white flare at intervals of up to 10 minutes.
1.46 1
Vessels bound for Belgian ports may request a pilot by
displaying the following flag signals, which may be
replaced by light or sound signals:
for Zeebrugge G6
for Nieuwpoort G7
for Oostende G8.
1.47
1
Helicopter Operations. Within most areas described in
these Sailing Directions, the transfer of pilots by helicopter
is normal practice for deep−draught vessels and common
practice for other vessels. For guidance on helicopter
operations see The Mariner’s Handbook and The Guide to
Helicopter/Ship Operations, the latter published by the
International Chamber of Shipping, 30−32 St Mary Axe,
London, EC3A 8ET.
Deep−sea pilotage
1.48 1
The services of a licensed deep−sea pilot may be
obtained from a number of pilotage authorities bordering
the North Sea. The use of a deep−sea pilot is strongly
recommended by IMO for infrequent visitors to the area
and for all vessels constrained by their draught. See 2.20
for details.
Pilotage in British ports
General
1.49 1
Every port of consequence covered by this volume is
designated a Competent Harbour Authority under the
Pilotage Act 1987. It is the authority’s duty to provide
licensed pilots and to decide the circumstances under which
pilotage should be compulsory.
Pilot vessels
1.50 1
Most British pilot vessels have a black hull with the
letter ‘P’ or PILOT painted on the bow or side. A pilot
flag is flown when pilots are embarked.
Pilotage in French ports
General
1.51 1
Pilotage is determined by the length of a vessel and is
laid down for each French port and given in the text of
this volume.
French pilots are licensed by the state.
Pilot vessels
1.52 1
Most French pilot vessels have a black hull with a
narrow white band and, when applicable, an anchor painted
on the funnel. The station letters, in white, are painted
forward and aft on the bulwarks.
Pilotage in Belgian and Netherlands ports
Pilotage regions
1.53 1
Pilotage in Netherlands waters is provided by registered
pilots who are members of the Netherlands Pilotage
Corporation, a professional public body. There are four
regional pilot corporations. Within the area covered by this
volume there is Scheldemonden regional corporation for the
S part of the Netherlands and Rijnmond regional
corporation for the Hoek van Holland area.
Pilotage regulations
1.54
1
For Belgian ports, pilotage is generally compulsory for
all vessels over 80 m LOA and for all vessels, regardless of
length, carrying dangerous or polluting cargoes or which
are empty but not gas−free.
In the Scheldemonden region of the Netherlands Pilotage
Corporation, pilotage is generally compulsory for all vessels
over 75 m in length and in the Rijnmond region it is
compulsory for all vessels over 70 m in length. Length,
known locally as London length, is as defined in the
International Convention on the Tonnage Measurements of
Ships, 1969, and is approximately the length between
perpendiculars.
2
Regardless of the foregoing, pilotage in Netherlands
waters is compulsory for all vessels carrying dangerous or
polluting cargoes or which are empty but not gas−free.
PORT HAND MARKS STARBOARD HAND MARKS
SHAPE: Can or Spar Buoy,
Beacon,
or
Perch
(unbound)
COLOUR: Red/White
Bands
Red Cylinder
TOPMARK:
(If Fitted)
Conical or Spar Buoy, Beacon,
or Perch (bound) Green/White Bands
Green
Cone
(point
up)
(When going Upstream, Inland, Away from a Main Channel, etc.)
SUPPLEMENTARY MARKS
(Indicating the limits of navigable waters outside the main buoyed channels.)
CHAPTER 1
8
Pilotage arrangements for Westerschelde
1.55 1
Westerschelde is served by two pilot stations, Wandelaar
(7.13) and Steenbank (7.14). Belgium provides pilots from
the Wandelaar Pilot Station and Netherlands from the
Steenbank Pilot Station.
2
An international treaty between Belgium and Netherlands
applying to the estuary of Westerschelde, gives both
countries the authority to pilot vessels from sea to Antwerp
or Ghent and vice versa but, with some minor exceptions,
Netherlands pilots conduct vessels to Netherlands ports in
Westerschelde and Belgian pilots conduct vessels to
Oostende, Nieuwpoort and Zeebrugge.
3
For details of pilotage for Westerschelde, including a
description of the pilot boats and shore−based pilotage, see
7.12 to 7.15, and for Europort and Rotterdam 9.3 to 9.8.
RADIO FACILITIES
Satellite navigation systems
1.56 1
The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS), a military
satellite navigation system owned and operated by the
United States Department of Defense, provides world-wide
position fixing. The system is referenced to the datum of
the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and therefore
positions must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of
the chart being used.
2
The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System
(GLONASS) is similar to GPS in that it is a space-based
system providing world-wide position fixing. The system is
referenced to the Soviet Geocentric Co-ordinate System
1990 (SGS90) and positions must be adjusted, if necessary,
to the datum of the chart being used.
3
Differential GPS (DGPS) compares the position of a
fixed point, referred to as the reference station, with
positions obtained from a GPS receiver at that point. The
resulting differences are then broadcast as corrections to
suitable receivers to overcome the inherent and imposed
limitations of GPS. Each of the four coastal states within
the area covered by this volume, operates beacons
transmitting DGPS corrections.
4
Caution. Satellite navigation systems are under the
control of the owning nation which may impose selective
availability or downgrade the accuracy. Therefore satellite
based systems should only be utilised at the user’s risk.
For full details of these systems see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 2.
Radio aids to navigation
1.57 1
Radar beacons (racons) transmit from numerous
locations both fixed and floating, including offshore oil and
gas field installations.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Coast radio stations
1.58
1
For details of all maritime radio stations which operate
in the area covered by this pilot see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 1. The majority of these stations are
operated by national coastguard organisations. Only the
radio station at Oostende (51°11′N 2°48′E) is available for
public correspondence.
Vessel traffic services
1.59 1
The ports described in this volume have either a VTS
or, in the case of smaller ports, a port radio service. For
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Radio navigational warnings
1.60 1
The area lies within the limits of NAVAREA I of the
World−wide Navigation Warning Service; the Area
Co−ordinator is the United Kingdom.
Within the NAVAREA, Coastal Warnings and Local
Warnings may also be transmitted. Coastal Warnings are
promulgated by the National Co-ordinator and usually
cover a distance of 100-200 miles from the coast; they are
transmitted through the network of national coast radio
stations (1.58). Local Warnings cover the area within the
limits of jurisdiction of a Harbour or Port Authority (1.59)
and are intended to supplement the Coastal Warnings by
giving information not normally required by ocean-going
shipping.
2
NAVTEX, an international automated direct-printing
service, broadcasting on 518 kHz, for the promulgation of
navigational warnings, meteorological warnings, and urgent
information to ships, is available. Navtex messages for the
waters described in this volume are broadcast from Den
Helder, Oostende and Niton.
3
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1) and
Notice No 13 of the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices
to Mariners for details.
Radio weather reports
1.61 1
Full details of meteorological services for shipping,
including radio−facsimile weather charts, are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1). See also
Notice No 13 of Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners.
Automatic Identification System (AIS)
1.62
1
See 1.72.
For general information about AIS see The Mariner’s
Handbook and Notice No 17A of the Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
1.63 1
See 1.108.
2
Full details of the Global Maritime Distress and Safety
System (GMDSS) are given in Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5.
REGULATIONS − INTERNATIONAL
Submarine cables and pipelines
1.64 1
A number of submarine cables and pipelines cross the
English Channel and the S part of the North Sea. They are
shown on the charts and, in the case of the pipelines,
which link the offshore oil and gas fields to the shore,
marked with the appropriate legend (oil or gas).
2
Regulations to prevent damage to submarine cables and
pipelines are contained in The International Convention for
the Protection of Submarine Cables 1884, as extended by
the Convention on the High Seas, 1958.
3
Caution. Mariners are advised not to anchor or trawl in
the vicinity of pipelines. Gas from a damaged oil or gas
CHAPTER 1
9
pipeline could cause an explosion, loss of a vessel’s
buoyancy or other serious hazard. Pipelines are not always
buried and may effectively reduce the charted depth by up
to 2 m. They may also span seabed undulations and cause
fishing gear to become irrecoverably snagged, putting a
vessel in severe danger.
4
See Notice No 24 of the Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook for
further details.
Pollution of the Sea
Marpol 73/78
1.65 1
The Mariner’s Handbook gives a summary of The
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978, and
known as MARPOL 73/78.
2
Pollution reports. Under the Convention, a Master has a
duty to report pollution incidents or damage and
breakdowns affecting the safety of his vessel. For further
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1.
Special Areas
1.66
1
Under MARPOL 73/78 designated Special Areas, owing
to their sensitive oceanographic and ecological conditions
and to their maritime traffic, are provided with a higher
level of protection and regulation than other areas of the
sea. The North Sea region, which includes the English
Channel, is regarded as a Special Area in respect of
Annexes I (Oil) and V (Garbage from Ships) and, in
respect of Annex VI (Air Pollution), it is a special SOx
(sulpher oxide) Emission Control Area.
Particularly Sensitive Sea Area
1.67
1
Western European PSSA. The marine and shore
environments of Western Europe are particularly vulnerable
to the risks related to the carriage of goods by sea and
have been granted PSSA status by IMO.
2
A mandatory reporting system in accordance with
Regulation V/11 of The International Convention For The
Safety of Life At Sea 1974 (SOLAS) is established for
certain tankers entering, leaving, or navigating within the
PSSA. The Western European Tanker Reporting System
(WETREP) applies to oil tankers of more than 600 tonnes
dwt carrying a cargo of:
3
Heavy crude oil.
Heavy fuel oil.
Bitumen or tar and their emulsions.
For limits of the area and further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Quarantine
1.68
1
Vessels arriving at any of the ports covered by this pilot
are subject to national quarantine regulations which are
enforced in accordance with The International Health
Regulations 1969. Vessels entering territorial waters from
abroad should hoist the appropriate International Code
signal flag by day, or, a red light over a white light at
night. They must have no communication with the shore
until they have been visited by the Port Health officer and
granted pratique.
2
An international signal code is used for sending Radio
Pratique Messages when required and especially if the
Master is unable to answer affirmatively to the six
questions in the Maritime Declaration of Health or the
vessel has been in an infected area within the last thirty
days. This code is part of The International Code of
Signals and is given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1(1).
3
In normal conditions, vessels, irrespective of flag,
proceeding from one port to another within the European
Community, need not request pratique.
REGULATIONS − EUROPEAN
COMMUNITY
Routeing and traffic
Directive 2002/59/EC
1.69
1
General information. This Directive establishes a
common vessel traffic monitoring and information system
throughout European Community (EC) waters. The
principal provisions are described below. They apply in
general to all commercial vessels over 300 grt but the rules
concerning the notification of carriage of dangerous and
polluting goods applies to all vessels regardless of size.
Caution. These extracts are for reference purposes only
and are not to be regarded as a statement of the applicable
law. The full text of the regulations is the sole authoritative
statement of the applicable law and it is recommended that
it is consulted. The regulations to which the following
refers is Directive 2002/59/EC or the appropriate enabling
legislation drafted by individual member states, which in
the United Kingdom is The Merchant Shipping (Traffic
Monitoring and Reporting Requirements) Regulations 2004,
a copy of which can be obtained from Her Majesty’s
Stationery Office (www.hmso.gov.uk).
1.70
1
Ship reports. All vessels bound for a port within the
EC must report to the port authority at least 24 hours prior
arrival, or, if the voyage is less than 24 hours, no later than
the time of departure from the previous port. The report
shall include the following information:
Name, call sign, IMO or MMSI number.
Port of destination.
ETA and ETD at port of destination.
Total number of persons onboard.
2
Upon receipt of a ship’s report, the port authority will
notify the national coastguard authority by the quickest
means possible. This information will then be pooled in the
European−wide telematic network called SafeSeaNet.
Any amendments to the initial ship report must be
notified immediately.
Mandatory ship reporting systems. All vessels shall
report to the coastguard authority on entering an IMO
adopted mandatory ship reporting system, the report being
made in the recognised format (See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6). The coastguard authority is to be
informed of any changes to the initial report.
1.71
1
VTS. All vessels are to participate in and comply with
VTS systems operated by EC member states and also those
systems operated by member states in conjunction with
co−operating non−member states. This includes those
systems operated by member states outside their territorial
waters but which are operated in accordance with IMO
guidelines.
CHAPTER 1
10
Routeing Schemes. All vessels must comply with IMO
recommended TSS and Deep Water route regulations. (See
IMO publication Ships’ Routeing Guide).
1.72
1
AIS and VDR. All vessels are to be equipped with AIS
and VDR. The systems shall be in operation at all times
except where international rules provide for the protection
of navigational information.
By 2008 individual coastguard stations throughout the
EC are required to be able to receive AIS information and
to relay it to all other coastguard stations within the EC.
1.73
1
Notification of dangerous and polluting goods. All
vessels leaving an EC port are to report dangerous and
polluting goods as specified within the Directive to the
harbour authority. Vessels arriving from outside EC waters
must transmit a report to their first EC port or anchorage
upon departure from their port of loading. If, at the time of
departure, the port of destination in the EC is not known,
the report must be forwarded immediately such information
becomes known. Where practical, this report is to be made
electronically and must include the information described in
Annex 1(3) of the Directive.
2
When a harbour authority receives a dangerous or
polluting cargo report, it shall retain the report for use in
the event of an incident or accident at sea, forwarding it
whenever requested by the national coastguard authority.
1.74
1
Reporting of Incidents and Accidents. Whenever a
vessel is involved with one of the following, the coastguard
authority of the EC coastal state is to be informed
immediately;
(a) any incident or accident affecting the safety of the
ship;
(b) any incident or accident which compromises
shipping safety, such as a failure likely to affect a
ship’s manoeuverability or seaworthiness;
(c) any event liable to pollute the waters or shores of
the coastal state;
(d) The sighting of a slick of polluting material or
drifting containers and packages.
The owner of a vessel, who has been informed by the
master that one of the above has occured, must inform the
coastguard and render any assistance that may be required.
1.75
1
Measures to be taken in the event of exceptionally
bad weather or sea conditions. If, on the advice of the
national meteorological office, the coastguard authority
deems a threat of pollution or a risk to human life exists
due to impending severe weather, the coastguard authority
will attempt to inform the master of every vessel about to
enter or leave port as to the nature of the weather and the
dangers it may cause.
2
Without prejudice to measures taken to give assistance
to vessels in distress, the coastguard may take such
measures as it considers appropriate to avoid a threat of
pollution or a risk to human life. The measures may
include:
(a) a recommendation or a prohibition on entry or
departure from a port;
(b) a recommendation limiting, or, if necessary,
prohibiting the bunkering of ships in territorial
waters.
3
The master is to inform his owners of any measures or
recommendations initiated by the coastguard. If, as a result
of his professional judgement, the master decides not to act
in accordance with measures taken by the coastguard, he
shall inform the coastguard of his reasons for not doing so.
1.76
1
Measures relating to incidents or accidents at sea.
The coastguard authority will take measures to ensure the
safety of shipping and of persons and to protect the marine
and coastal environment. Measures available to EC states
include;
(a) a restriction on the movement of a ship or an
instruction to follow a specific course.
(b) a notification to put an end to the threat to the
environment or maritime safety;
(c) sending an evaluation team aboard a ship to assess
the degree of risk and to help the master remedy the
situation;
(d) instructing the master to put in at a place of refuge
in the event of imminent peril, or, cause the ship to be
piloted or towed.
2
The owner of the ship and the owner of the dangerous
or polluting goods onboard must co−operate with the
coastgurd authority when requested to do so.
1.77
1
Places of refuge. EC states are required to designate
places of refuge where a vessel which has undergone an
accident or is in distress can receive rapid and effective
assistance to avoid environmental pollution.
Pollution of the Sea
Combating oil pollution
1.78
1
All countries which border the North Sea have agreed to
co-operate in combating oil pollution by means of
surveillance and in the pooling of resources in an
emergency incident. Other European Council measures
contributing to the subject include Port State Control
Inspections (Directive 95/21/EC), Port Reception Facilities
for Ship-Generated Waste and Cargo Residues (Directive
2000/59/EC) and The Phasing Out of Single-Hull Tankers
(Directive 417/2002/EC).
Regulation No 417/2002/EC
1.79
1
This regulation establishes a timetable for the phasing
out of all single−hull petroleum tankers of more than
5000 dwt in European waters. Ultimately only double−hull
tankers or tankers of equivalent design will be permitted to
visit European ports and offshore terminals.
The timetable is based upon a vessel’s date of build, its
design and the type of petroleum carried. The schedule for
Category 1 and 2 tankers as defined by this regulation will
complete in 2007 and for Category 3 tankers in 2015.
Measures to enhance maritime security
1.80
1
In compliance with Regulation 725/2004/EC, subject
vessels are required to provide security information, as
required by SOLAS XI−2 and the ISPS Code, to the
appropriate national authority 24 hours prior to arrival.
REGULATIONS − UNITED KINGDOM
Closure of ports
Signals
1.81
1
Should it become necessary to control the entrance of
ships into, and the movement of ships within, certain ports
CHAPTER 1
11
under the control of the Ministry of Defence in the United
Kingdom, the signals described below will be displayed.
They will be shown from some conspicuous position in or
near the approaches to the ports concerned and may also be
displayed by an Examination or Traffic Control Vessel
(1.83) operating in the approaches.
2
The signals and their meanings are:
Entrance to port prohibited:
By day. Three red balls disposed vertically.
By night. Three red flashing lights disposed vertically
and visible all round the horizon.
3
Entrance to port permitted:
By day. No signal.
By night. Three green lights disposed vertically and
visible all round the horizon.
4
Movement of shipping within the port or anchorage
prohibited:
By day. A blue flag.
By night. Three lights red, green, red disposed
vertically and visible all round the horizon.
These lights, when exhibited by Examination vessels will
be carried in addition to their ordinary navigation lights.
Dangerous areas
1.82
1
Masters of vessels are warned that should they approach
the entrance to a port which is being controlled by the
Ministry of Defence, they should not enter a declared
Dangerous Area, or close boom defences, without
permission, nor anchor or stop in a Dangerous Area or
prohibited anchorage unless instructed to do so. Masters are
advised therefore to communicate with any Government or
Port Authority vessel found patrolling in the offing to
ascertain the recommended approach route to the port.
Examination service
1.83
1
Examination Service. In certain circumstances it may
be necessary to take special measures to examine or
establish the identity of individual vessels desiring to enter
ports and to control their entry. This is the function of the
Examination Service, whose officers will be afloat in
Examination Vessels or Traffic Control Vessels. These
vessels will wear the distinguishing flag of the Examination
Service, which is a flag with a blue border and a red and
white centre, together with a Blue Ensign, or exceptionally
a White Ensign.
Examination service special flag
2
If ordered to anchor in an Examination anchorage,
Masters are warned that it is forbidden, except for the
purposes of avoiding an accident, to do any of the
following without the prior permission of the Examination
Officer:
Lower any boat.
Communicate with the shore or any other ship.
Work cables.
3
Allow any person or thing to leave the ship.
The permission of the Immigration Officer must be
obtained before any passenger or member of the crew, who
has embarked outside the United Kingdom, is allowed to
land.
Nothing in the above paragraphs is to be taken as
over-ruling any regulations issued by local authorities at
particular ports or by routeing authorities.
Quarantine
Maritime Declaration of Health
1.84
1
If a vessel’s master is unable to answer affirmatively to
the six questions in the Maritime Declaration of Health or
the vessel has been in an infected area within the last
thirty days, he is required to report to the Port Health
Authority not less than 4 hours nor more than 12 hours
before arrival at that port from a foreign port. For further
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(1).
Regulations to prevent the spread of rabies
1.85
1
Stringent regulations are in force to prevent the spread
of rabies in to the United Kingdom. The following
regulations apply:
The Rabies (Importation of Dogs, Cats and Other
Mammals) Order 1974.
Pet Travel Scheme (Pilot Arrangements) (England)
Order 1999.
Protection of historic features
Protection of historic wrecks in British waters
1.86
1
Wrecks that are considered of historic, archaeological or
artistic importance are protected under The Protection of
Wrecks Act 1973. Within a given area this act prohibits
unauthorised interference with the wrecks, damaging them
or removing any part. Diving or depositing anything on the
seabed, for example anchoring, is also prohibited, without a
special licence.
2
Historic wrecks within the area covered by this volume
are mentioned in the text.
Protection of military wrecks
1.87
1
To prevent the disturbance of the dead, certain wrecks,
post 1900, are protected from interference by The
Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.
REGULATIONS − FRANCE
Pollution of the Sea
Joint Prefectural Order 2002/99 Brest, 2002/58 Cherbourg
1.88 1
General. Tankers and vessels carrying dangerous or
polluting cargoes, which are over 1600 grt, must keep at
least 7 miles from the French coast in the area covered by
this volume, unless within:
The NE-bound lane of the Dover Strait TSS.
The access channels to Boulogne, Calais or
Dunkerque.
1.89 1
Reports. Tankers and vessels carrying dangerous or
polluting cargoes which intend to enter French territorial
waters, or sail from a French port or anchorage, must
inform the appropriate Centre Régional Opérationnel de
Surveillance et de Sauvetage (CROSS); CROSS Gris-Nez
(for ships coming from the North Sea or a port on the S
CHAPTER 1
12
coast of England E of Brighton), CROSS Jobourg (for
ships coming from the S coast of England W of Brighton),
or CROSS Corsen (for ships coming from the Atlantic).
The message must be prefixed SURNAV−FRANCE and
sent 6 hours before entering French territorial waters, or
getting underway if already in territorial waters.
Amendments must be reported immediately.
1.90 1
Damage, defects and assistance. Such vessels within
50 miles of the French coast must report to the appropriate
CROSS any incident which could result in damage to the
vessel or cargo. Any vessel going to the assistance of a
damaged vessel within 50 miles of the French coast is also
required to report to the same authorities. In both cases the
report should be prefixed SURNAV−AVARIES and contain
own vessel details, position and destination. The damaged
vessel should also report her cargo and nature of the
incident.
2
Vessels with defects affecting their ability to manoeuvre
or navigate safely, which are within French territorial
waters, are required to take such action as the Préfet
Maritime may require to ensure the safety of navigation
and avoid pollution.
For further details of signals required by the above
regulations and detailed format see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Vol 6(1).
Single−hulled tankers
1.91
1
Single−hulled tankers more than 15 years old and
carrying heavy fuel oil, tar, asphaltic bitumen or heavy
crude oil intending to enter the French Exclusive Economic
Zone must give at least 24 hours notice to the relevant
MRCC/CROSS. Such access is strictly controlled by the
French authorities.
REGULATIONS − THE NETHERLANDS
Routeing and traffic
Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 1990
1.92
1
See Appendix 4.
Administration
1.93
1
The Netherlands Coastguard is an organization with
broad responsibilities. In addition to SAR responsibilities,
duties include traffic control outside the direct approaches
to major ports, general police supervision, environmental
control, inspection of ships and fishing vessels, customs
inspections and border patrols. Within Netherlands waters
covered by this volume, the coastguard may be contacted
through the traffic centres at Scheveningen (52°06′N
4°16′E), Hoek van Holland (51°59′N 4°07′E) and
Vlissingen (51°26′N 3°35′E) and also the coastguard station
at Ouddorp (51°48′N 3°52′E).
2
For Search and Rescue see 1.120.
Closure of Netherlands ports
Signals
1.94 1
During naval manoeuvres or exercises, or for other
reasons, it may be necessary to prohibit navigation within
Netherlands inlets and harbours, or to allow vessels to enter
only under certain conditions. No previous announcement is
made of the introduction of such prohibitions.
2
When such a prohibition is in force, it is indicated by
day by three red balls disposed vertically or two cones
points together over a ball, and by night by three red lights
disposed vertically or a green over a red over a white light.
When any of these signals are seen, an approaching vessel
must proceed towards the examination vessel, which will
be showing the same signal.
Examination Service
1.95 1
After examination by the examination vessel, a vessel
will normally be allowed to proceed, but only with a
Netherlands pilot onboard or preceded by a Netherlands
warship or pilot vessel.
2
Should a warning shot be fired, the engines of all
vessels near the examination vessel must be stopped
immediately, so far as safety will allow, and no vessel is to
proceed further inward. Non-compliance with these
instructions will expose a vessel and her crew to danger.
Entry at night, under these conditions, will normally be
prohibited.
3
If no examination vessel is found in the entrance to an
inlet or harbour, an approaching vessel is to remain outside
territorial waters. If a particular channel is declared open
for commercial traffic by notice to mariners, an
approaching vessel finding no examination vessel there,
may remain at anchor or hove to until one comes out.
Quarantine
1.96 1
The pilot on boarding will inform the Master of the
Quarantine Regulations and requirements. Provided there
are no diseases onboard the pilot will grant free pratique.
Free pratique cannot be granted by radio prior to arrival.
2
Vessels from a port declared contagious or infected
should on arrival at a Netherlands port display International
Code flags TM by day and two white lights horizontally
disposed by night. Netherlands regulations are based on
The International Health Regulations 1969 but contain
some additional infectious diseases.
3
Contrary to the foregoing, vessels from a port declared
contagious or infected and bound for a Netherlands port in
the Westerschelde or to the Terneuzen−Ghent canal should
show by day International Code flags ZV and by night two
white lights in a vertical line.
SIGNALS
International signals
International Port Traffic Signals
1.97 1
International Port Traffic Signals, which are given in The
Mariner’s Handbook, are in use by most of the ports
described in this volume.
France
Traffic signals
1.98
1
Certain small French ports use a simplified system set
out in the following table:
CHAPTER 1
13
Day signal Night signal Meaning
Red flag Red light Entry prohibited
Green flag Green light Exit prohibited
Red flag over
green flag
Red light over
green light
Entry and exit
prohibited
Patrol craft
1.99
1
French vessels charged with the control of navigation
display a white and blue pennant with the letter P on the
white part. By night they exhibit an all−round blue light.
Storm warning signals
1.100
1
The International System of Visual Storm Warning
Signals are displayed at Fécamp, Dieppe, Ault, Boulogne
and Dunkerque. See The Mariner’s Handbook.
At some points on the coast small craft are warned
when winds above Force 6 are expected. A quick flashing
light indicates that such winds may be expected within
3 hours and an interrupted quick flashing light that such
winds may be expected within 6 hours.
Tidal and water level signals
1.101 1
These signals are given in the French publication
Signalisation Maritime.
The Netherlands
Sluicing signals
1.102 1
In Netherlands waters three red lights in the form of a
triangle, point up, indicate that sluicing is in progress. By
day in addition to the red lights, a blue board with the
word SPUIEN painted on it may also be displayed.
Dredgers
1.103 1
In addition to the signals for dredgers prescribed by
Rule 27 (d) of the International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea, 1972, bucket or suction dredgers without
their own means of propulsion display the following
signals:
Day Night
On the side on which vessels may pass:
Two green diamonds
vertically disposed
Two green lights
vertically disposed
On the side on which vessels may pass without
causing any wash:
Red board over a white
board or a board, upper
half red, lower half white
Red light over a white
light
On the side on which passing is prohibited:
Red ball or board at the
same height as the upper
board on the passing side
Red light at the same
height as the upper light
on the passing side
Signals for vessels navigating stern foremost
1.104 1
Vessels fitted with bow rudders and being navigated
stern foremost when in Nieuwe Waterweg display the
following signal by day:
Two cones, 0⋅6 m in length, displayed at the yardarm
points down.
Storm warning signals
1.105
1
Netherlands waters. Light signals from The
International System of Visual Storm Warning Signals are
displayed by day and night at Vlissingen and Hoek van
Holland. See The Mariner’s Handbook.
Belgium
Strong wind signals for small craft
1.106
1
Belgian waters. When the wind from seaward is Force
4 or over, warning signals are displayed at Nieuwpoort,
Oostende, Blakenberge and Zeebrugge. By day the signal is
two black cones, points together, and by night a violet
flashing light. While these signals are displayed craft under
6 m in length are prohibited from proceeding to sea.
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
General
1.107 1
General arrangements for Search and Rescue (SAR) are
given in The International Aeronautical and Marine Search
and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual published by IMO.
Reference should be made also to Notice No.4 of The
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
1.108 1
The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
(GMDSS) enables SAR authorities on shore, in addition to
shipping in the immediate vicinity of a vessel in distress, to
be alerted rapidly to an incident so that assistance can be
provided with the minimum of delay.
2
Mariners are reminded that active GMDSS receivers
together with a continuous watch on the VHF radio distress
frequency are most important factors in the arrangements
for the rescue of people in distress at sea. Within the
waters covered by this volume, MRCCs and MRSCs
monitor VHF DSC (Channel 70) and VHF Channel 16.
Certain stations also monitor MF DSC (2187⋅5 kHz) and
MF RT frequency 2182 kHz. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
Telemedical Advice Services
1.109 1
Medical advice and, if necessary, assistance can be
obtained by GMDSS communications. For further details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1(1).
United Kingdom
SAR organisation
1.110 1
Her Majesty’s Coastguard Service. The primary role
of the Coastguard Service is the initiation and coordination
of civil maritime SAR within the UK SRR. This includes
the mobilisation, organisation and tasking of adequate
resources to respond to persons either in distress at sea, or
to persons at risk of injury or death on the cliffs or
shoreline of the United Kingdom.
2
In a maritime emergency the Coastguard Service calls on
and coordinates the appropriate facilities such as RNLI
CHAPTER 1
14
lifeboats, RN and RAF rotary and fixed wing aircraft and
ships, as well as merchant ships and commercial aircraft.
It maintains Coastal Response Teams at strategic
locations around the coast and a fleet of inflatable craft for
inshore patrols.
1.111 1
Coastguard network. The UK SRR is bounded by
latitudes 45°N and 61°N, by longitude 30°W and to the E
by the adjacent European Search and Rescue Regions. The
Coastguard maintains close liaison with all countries with
adjoining SRR boundaries.
2
The UK SRR is divided into three Regions with
operational control of each exercised from a Maritime
Rescue Co-ordination Centre (MRCC). Each Region is
further divided into two or three Districts each with a
Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre (MRSC). Within each District
there are a number of Coastguard Sector Bases situated at
strategic locations and manned by a Regular Coastguard
Officer; within each Sector there are a number of
Coastguard Auxiliary Stations and Coastal Response Teams
trained and equipped for cliff rescue, coastal searches and
patrols.
3
The sea area within the limits of this book lie in the
East of England Region, in which Dover is one of two
MRCCs and Thames and London Coastguard are MRSCs.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
1.112 1
Coastguard communications. MRCCs, MRSCs,
Coastguard boats and Coastal Response Teams are fitted
with VHF Radio Channels 0, 6, 10, 16, 67, and 73.
2
It should be noted that radio and telephone traffic to and
from Coastguard Co−ordination Centres is recorded for the
purposes of public safety, preventing and detecting crime
and to maintain the operational standards of HM
Coastguard.
1.113 1
Direction-finding service for use in emergency. The
Coastguard operate a VHF DF service for SAR purposes at
six stations within the area covered by this book.
Station Controlled by Position
Newhaven Solent 50°46′⋅9N 0°03′⋅1E
Fairlight Dover 50°52′⋅2N 0°38′⋅7E
Langdon Battery Dover 51°07′⋅9N 1°20′⋅7E
North Foreland Dover 51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅8E
Bawdsey Thames 51°59′⋅6N 1°25′⋅0E
Shoeburyness Thames 51°31′⋅4N 0°46′⋅7E
2
VHF DF triangulation can be used to establish the
position of a vessel in distress. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
1.114
1
Emergency Towing Vessel (ETV). The Dover Strait
area is patrolled by a tug called Anglian Monarch. This
service is operated in conjunction with the French maritime
administration.
1.115
1
National Coastwatch Institution is a voluntary
organisation which maintains a visual lookout from coastal
vantage points and monitors the VHF radio distress
frequency, reporting incidents to the Coastguard. Within the
limits of this book there are five lookout stations:
Folkstone, Whitstable, Holehaven, Southend and
Felixstowe.
France
SAR organisation
1.116 1
France has five MRCCs or Centres Régionaux
Operationels de Surveillance et de Sauvetage (CROSS).
Their main duties are surveillance of maritime traffic,
including policing IMO−adopted TSSs and Inshore Traffic
Zones, SAR, surveillance of fisheries out to 200 miles and
monitoring of pollution, including tracking vessels carrying
dangerous or polluting cargoes. Within each MRCC region,
lookout stations are established at prominent positions on
the coast. These stations are manned by the French Navy
and operate continuously. They pass urgent signals
concerning the safety of ships, communicating mainly by
VHF radio but they are also able to communicate by light
and flags if required. The lookout stations also display
storm signals (1.100) and inform and direct lifeboats.
2
MRCC Gris-Nez is responsible for the French coast
described in this volume. There are lookout stations at
Dunkerque and Fécamp. Signal stations at
Boulogne−sur−Mer, Ault and Dieppe are manned by day
only.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
1.117 1
Direction-finding services for use in emergency.
CROSS operates a VHF DF service for SAR purposes at
six stations within the area covered by this book.
VHF DF triangulation from adjacent stations can be
used to establish the position of a vessel in distress.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
1.118
1
Emergency Towing Vessel (ETV). The French maritime
administration operates a tug called Abeille Liberté which is
capable of providing emergency assistance throughout the
year in the English Channel and the S part of the
North Sea.
Belgium
SAR organisation
1.119 1
The Belgian Coastguard Service is responsible for
co−ordinating SAR operations from MRCC Oostende
(51°14′N 2°55′E) (6.158). There are MRSCs at Nieuwpoort
(51°09′N 2°43′E) (6.150) and Zeebrugge (51°20′N 3°12′E)
(7.60). For further details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5.
2
In bad weather a coastguard watch is also maintained at:
De Panne (51°05′N 2°36′E)
Middelkerke (51°11′N 2°49′E)
Blankenberge (51°19′N 3°08′E) (7.44).
The Netherlands
SAR organisation
1.120 1
The Netherlands Coastguard (1.93) is responsible for
co-ordinating all SAR operations in The Netherlands Search
and Rescue Region from a JRCC at Den Helder (52°58′N
4°47′E) supported by SAR units of the Royal Netherlands
Navy, the Royal Netherlands Airforce and State Police. For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
CHAPTER 1
15
2
There are Coastguard Traffic Centres at:
Vlissingen (51°37′N 3°35′E) (7.122)
Hoek van Holland (51°59′N 4°06′E) (9.60)
Scheveningen (52°06′N 4°16′E) (10.13)
and a Coastguard station at:
Ouddorp (51°48′N 3°56′E)
1.121
1
Emergency Towing Vessel (ETV). An emergency
towing vessel, the Waker, is based at Den Helder.
Coastguard Rescue Teams
United Kingdom
1.122 1
Coastguard Rescue Teams are located as follows:
Littlehampton (3.17)
Shoreham (3.36)
Brighton (3.70)
Newhaven (3.72)
Birling Gap (3.99)
Eastbourne (3.123)
2
Bexhill (3.125)
Hastings (3.127)
Rye Bay (3.109)
Camber (50°56′N 0°48′E)
Dungeness (3.109)
3
Folkestone (4.14)
Dover (4.41)
Deal (4.93)
Margate (12.17)
Herne Bay (12.45)
4
Whitstable (12.35)
Isle of Sheppey (16.3)
Isle of Grain (16.62)
Southend-on-Sea (15.11)
Canvey Island (15.33)
5
Bradwell (14.45) (Sector base)
West Mersea (14.45)
Clacton-on-Sea (14.10) (Sector base)
Walton-on-the-Naze (14.5)
Felixstowe (13.85) (Sector base)
Aldeburgh (13.15)
Shingle Street (13.27)
Lifeboats stations
United Kingdom
1.123 1
The Royal National Lifeboat Institution maintains a fleet
of over 250 lifeboats of various types at stations around the
coast of the United Kingdom. It is a privately run
organisation supported entirely by voluntary contributions.
2
There are 211 lifeboat stations around the coasts of the
United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. A great
number operate all-weather lifeboats, often supported by
inshore lifeboats, and others operate only inshore lifeboats;
about one half of the inshore lifeboats are permanently on
station, while the remainder are on station only during the
summer.
1.124 1
All-weather lifeboat characteristics:
Length between 12 and 17 m.
Speed 13 kn or more.
Radius of action about 100 miles.
Equipment: radar; DF on 2182 kHz and VHF;
communications on MF (2182 kHz) and VHF
multi-channel RT; Electronic Navigator.
Blue quick flashing light exhibited at night, when on
service.
2
Inshore lifeboat characteristics:
Inflatable or rigid inflatable construction.
Outboard motor(s).
Speed 20 to 30 kn.
VHF multi-channel RT.
1.125 1
Lifeboat stations. Within the limit of this book
all-weather lifeboats are permanently stationed at the
following locations:
Shoreham* (3.36)
Newhaven (3.72)
Eastbourne* (3.123)
Hastings* (3.127)
Dungeness (3.109)
2
Dover (4.41)
Ramsgate* (4.110)
Margate* (12.17)
Sheerness* (16.32)
Walton and Frinton (14.5)
Harwich* (13.98)
Aldeburgh* (13.15)
*Supported by an inshore lifeboat.
3
Inshore lifeboats are permanently stationed at:
Littlehampton (3.17)
Brighton (3.70)
Rye (3.112)
Littlestone-on-Sea (4.12)
Walmer (4.95)
Whitstable (12.35)
Burnham-on-Crouch (14.79)
4
West Mersea (14.48)
Clacton-on-Sea (14.10)
Southend-on-Sea (15.21)
Gravesend (15.21)
Tower Pier (15.21)
Chiswick Pier (15.21)
Teddington (15.21)
France
1.126 1
La Société Nationale de Sauvetage en Mer (SNSM) is
responsible for providing lifeboats. Within the limits of this
volume all-weather lifeboats are stationed at:
Fécamp (5.16)
Dieppe (5.52)
Boulogne-sur-Mer (5.138)
Calais (6.17)
Dunkerque (6.78)
2
Lighter boats, some of which may be inflatables, are
stationed at:
Saint-Valéry-en-Caux (5.43)
Le Tréport (5.80)
Gravelines (6.67)
Belgium
1.127 1
The Sea Rescue Organisation has lifeboats stationed at:
Nieuwpoort (6.150)
Oostende (6.158)
Zeebrugge (7.60)
CHAPTER 1
16
Netherlands
1.128 1
All-weather lifeboats of The Royal Netherlands Lifeboat
Institution are stationed at:
Breskens (7.51)
Noordland (8.26)
Stellendam (8.131)
Hoek van Holland (9.60)
Scheveningen (10.13)
2
Inshore lifeboats are stationed at:
Cadzand (7.29)
Westkapelle (7.3)
Veere (8.107)
Noordland (8.26)
Ouddorp (8.85)
Stellendam (8.131)
Ter Heijde (10.7)
CHAPTER 1
17
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
UNITED KINGDOM
General description
1.129 1
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland is a constitutional monarchy comprising England,
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, but does not include
the Isle of Man or Channel Islands, which are
Dependencies of the Crown. The Sovereign is also Head of
the Commonwealth.
2
The population (2001 Census) of the United Kingdom is
as follows:
Country Population
England 49 138 831
Scotland 5 062 011
Wales 2 903 085
Northern Ireland 1 685 267
Definitions
1.130 1
Great Britain: England, including the Isles of Scilly,
Wales and Scotland; the Shetland and Orkney Islands are
part of Scotland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland: Great Britain, as above, and Northern Ireland.
2
British Isles: Great Britain, The Isle of Man and
Ireland. both the Republic and the North.
British Islands: British Isles, as above, and Channel
Islands.
National limits
1.131 1
Territorial waters. The breadth of the Territorial Sea
adjacent to the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man
extends for a distance of 12 nautical miles, as defined by
the Territorial Sea Act 1987, given in Appendix I, and the
Territorial Sea Act 1987 (Isle of Man) Order 1991. The
breadth of the Territorial Sea adjacent to the Bailiwick of
Guernsey is 3 nautical miles.
2
Baselines to be used for measuring the breadth of the
territorial waters adjacent to the United Kingdom, the
Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are defined in the
Territorial Waters Order in Council 1964 as amended by
the Territorial Sea (Amendment) Order 1998, given at
Appendix I. This 12 nautical mile Territorial Sea limit is
depicted on selected Admiralty charts.
3
See also Notice No. 12 of the Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
1.132 1
Fishery limits. The exclusive fishing limits of the
United Kingdom extend up to 6 nautical miles from the
baselines of the Territorial Sea and for the next 6 nautical
miles fishing is limited to countries with established rights
in accordance with the European Union’s Common
Fisheries Policy. These 6 nautical mile and 12 nautical mile
limits are depicted on selected Admiralty charts. Foreign
fishing rights in these waters are shown on Admiralty chart
Q6385.
2
The Fishery Limits Act 1976 extended British fishery
limits to 200 miles measured from the baselines of the
Territorial Sea, or to such limits as may be specified. This
limit is shown on Admiralty chart Q6353 and is
administered in accordance with the European Union’s
Common Fisheries Policy.
History
1.133 1
During the first four centuries A.D., Britain was a
province of the Roman Empire, which withdrew its
protection in 429. The country then fell into the power of
the Saxon invaders from the continent of Europe. There
followed a period of rivalry for leadership between various
Anglo-Saxon kings and invasion by the Vikings from
Scandinavia. The various kingdoms were joined into one in
the early tenth century and ruled by Saxon kings until the
land was conquered by the Danes in 1016. The Saxon
house was restored 26 years later.
2
Meanwhile in Europe in the Tenth century, a Viking
settlement in Normandy, was becoming a feudatory in
France. It was from this Duchy that the future rulers of
England were to come. In 1066, Duke William of
Normandy laid claim to the English throne, invaded and
conquered the country, and founded the Norman dynasty.
The monarchial system of rulers continued by descent,
though not without dispute for nearly 600 years until 1649
when it was overthrown by Oliver Cromwell, who created
the Protectorate. With his death in 1658, a reaction against
the Protectorate and strife over his successor, resulted in
the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, which has
continued uninterrupted to the present day.
3
The eighteenth century was marked by the gradual
increase in the power of parliament, rise of political parties,
advances in colonisation and trade, and progress of Britain
as a sea power.
4
In the twentieth century self-government was handed
over to the majority of the former colonies, most of which
joined the British Commonwealth of Nations as
independent sovereign states.
In 1973 Great Britain joined the European Economic
Community, now the European Union.
Government
1.134 1
The supreme legislative power is vested in Parliament,
which is divided into two Houses of Legislature, the House
of Lords and the House of Commons, and in its present
form dates from the middle of the fourteenth century,
although in 1999 the House of Lords was reformed to
exclude the majority of hereditary peers and peeresses.
2
The House of Lords is non-elected and consists of life
peers and peeresses, Law Lords, two archbishops, twenty
four bishops of the established Church of England, and, as
an interim measure, 92 hereditary peers and peeresses. The
House of Lords has judicial powers as the ultimate Court
of Appeal for courts in Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
except for criminal cases in Scotland.
3
The House of Commons consists of members
representing county and borough constituencies. Every
constituency returns a single member. In 2005 there was a
total of 659 members; 529 from England, 72 from
Scotland, 40 from Wales and 18 from Northern Ireland.
Suffrage is limited to men and women of 18 years and
above.
4
Executive government is vested nominally in the Crown,
but is exercised in practice by the Cabinet, a committee of
ministers which is dependent on the support of the majority
in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister presides
CHAPTER 1
18
over the Cabinet and dispenses the greater portion of the
patronage of the Crown.
5
In 1997 certain legislative powers were devolved from
parliament in London to a new Scottish parliament in
Edinburgh and a Welsh Assembly in Cardiff.
International relations
1.135 1
The United Kingdom is a permanent member of the
Security Council of the United Nations, and a member of
the Commonwealth, the European Union, the Western
European Union, the Council of Europe, the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development and the North
Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
Coastal features and rivers
1.136 1
Between Bognor Regis (50°47′N 0°41′E) and Brighton,
20 miles E, the coast is low but backed by the South
Downs, a range of hills. The predominant features from
Brighton to Beachy Head (5°44′N 0°15′E) are chalky cliffs,
which give way to a generally low coastline as far as
Folkestone, 40 miles ENE. The coast then curves to the N
and is formed by high chalk cliffs to just N of South
Foreland (51°08′N 1°22′E).
2
Much of the S coast is built up, principally in the region
of Brighton, then Hastings (51°50′N 0°34′E) and finally
between Folkestone and Deal, close N of South Foreland.
The coast either side of the Thames Estuary, which lies
to the W of a line joining North Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E)
and The Naze, 30 miles NNW, and the continuation of the
coast N to Southwold (52°20′N 1°41′E), is low.
1.137 1
The principal river on the SE coast of England is the
River Thames (15.2), which leads to the Port of London.
River Medway (16.2), which also flows into the Thames
Estuary, leads to Sheerness, Chatham and Rochester.
Harwich Harbour (51°57′N 1°18′E) is formed by the
confluence of River Stour, leading to Manningtree, and
River Orwell, leading to Ipswich.
2
A number of smaller rivers flow into the sea along the
SE coast of England and several small ports have been
located at their estuaries. However, apart from River Colne
(14.23) and River Blackwater (14.43) these rivers are not
navigable by sea-going craft above their entrances.
Industry and trade
1.138 1
The United Kingdom is more dependent than most
countries on its foreign trade.
2
Major industries are iron and steel, heavy engineering
and the processing of imported goods such as wool, cotton
and tobacco. In recent years with the decline of some of
the traditional industries, the United Kingdom has had to
rely on technical skill and scientific inventiveness and a
new range of industries has developed including motor
vehicles, aircraft, nuclear power equipment, instruments,
man-made fibres and chemical products as well as electrical
goods and machines. Considerable quantities of crude oil
are imported to be refined into petroleum products.
3
The production of oil and gas from offshore fields
mostly in the North Sea plays an important part in the
country’s industry and technology.
The country is intensively farmed, mainly for home
consumption but an important export trade in agricultural
products has been established. A considerable fishing fleet
has in recent years declined due to declining fish stocks
and the resulting imposition of fishing quotas by the
European Union.
FRANCE
General description
1.139 1
France is the largest country in Western Europe and lies
on the W coast of the continent between the parallels of
42°40′N and 51°05′N.
The population is 58 520 000 (1999 census), of which
3⋅26 million are resident foreigners, mainly Algerians,
Moroccans and Portuguese.
National limits
1.140 1
Territorial waters of France extend for a distance of
12 miles from the baselines, which are formed by straight
lines along some parts of the coast.
Fisheries jurisdiction extends to 200 miles from the
baselines.
For further information see Notice No. 12 of the Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
History
1.141 1
France, descended from the Roman province of Gaul,
may be said to have come into being in 987 when Hugh
Capet, ruler of the western Franks became King of France.
Medieval France was a feudal monarchy which grew in
strength, reaching its apogee in the reign of Louis XIV
(1643−1715).
2
The French monarchy was overthrown by the Revolution
of 1789−1792, and the First Republic came into being,
lasting until 1804. The period had a notable achievement in
the introduction of the metric system of weights and
measures, since adopted by most countries throughout the
world.
3
In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor, and for
the next ten years continued his career of conquest, which
at one time made him master of the greater part of
mainland Europe. After the Napoleonic wars, the monarchy
was restored in 1815 and lasted until the revolution of
1848, when it gave way to the Second Republic. Louis
Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was elected
President and later ruled as Napoleon II until the
Franco-Prussian war of 1870, a period known as the
Second Empire.
4
The Third Republic (1871−1940), which came into
existence in 1871 and lasted until 1940, was a period of
comparative calm and prosperity marred only by World
War I from 1914 to 1918. During the German occupation
of France in World War II from 1940 to 1944, Marshal
Petain ruled France as a dictator. After the liberation of
Paris in 1944, a provisional government was formed under
General de Gaulle.
5
Following a referendum, The Fourth Republic was
established in 1944. Its constitution, however, gave rise
political instability and France had 26 governments in
14 years. In 1958 General de Gaulle was temporarily
invested with dictatorial powers and invited to reform the
Constitution, introducing the Fifth Republic.
Government
1.142 1
Under the constitution of the Fifth Republic, France is
governed by a President elected by universal suffrage for a
period of 7 years. He may assume special powers in an
CHAPTER 1
19
emergency, dissolve Parliament and submit disputed
legislation to a referendum.
2
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and is
responsible to Parliament, consisting of a Senate and a
National Assembly.
There is a constitutional Council which supervises
elections and referenda, and must be consulted before the
President assumes emergency powers.
3
For administrative purposes the country is divided into
95 Departments, in each of which the Government is
represented by a resident Préfet. The Departments are
divided into Arrondissements (sous-préfectures) or
Municipal wards, and further sub-divided into Cantons,
which contain a number of Communes or parishes with
local administrative authority. Each Commune is presided
over by an elected mayor or municipal council.
4
The coastal departments within the area covered by this
volume are:
Nord
Pas de Calais
Somme
Seine Maritime
For administrative purposes the N and W coasts of
France are divided into two maritime regions, Préfet
Maritime de la Manche with headquarters in Cherbourg and
Préfet Maritime de l’ Atlantique with headquarters in Brest.
The seaward limits of their respective areas of juridiscation
are not precisely defined. Préfet Maritime de la Manche
extends from the North Sea adjacent the Belgian border to
a line across the English Channel between Land’s End
(50°02′N 5°40′W) and Baie du Mont Saint−Michel
(48°38′N 1°34′W). Thence Préfet Maritime de l’Atlantique
extends W and S as far as the Spanish border.
The policing of coastal waters, pilotage and fisheries
come under the jurisdiction of the Préfets Maritimes.
5
Language. The principal and official language of the
country is French, which has numerous regional dialects.
International relations
1.143 1
France is a permanent member of the Security Council
of the United Nations, and a member of the European
Union, the Western European Union, the Council of
Europe, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. It
is also the focus of the French Community which formally
links it with its former colonies in Africa.
Coastal features and rivers
1.144 1
The coast between Cap d’Antifer (49°41′N 0°10′E) and
Cap Gris-Nez, 90 miles NE, is composed of grey or white
chalk cliffs about 90 m high, but broken by valleys in
which the ports are situated. N of Cap Gris-Nez as far as
the Belgian border, 40 miles ENE, the coast becomes lower
and is mainly sandy backed by dunes.
2
There are no rivers of major significance to sea-going
vessels within the area. The more important of the small
rivers are Rivières De Valmont, Somme, Canche, La Liane
and Aa. There are ports at the mouths of some of these
rivers and some connect with the inland canal system.
Industry and trade
1.145 1
France is nearly self-sufficient in agriculture, producing
chiefly dairy products, cereals, potatoes, sugar−beet, early
vegetables, fruit and hops. The wine industry is among the
largest in the world and forestry is also important.
The fisheries meet the country’s needs.
2
Coal, iron ore, bauxite, uranium, potash and sulphur are
mined but not in sufficient quantities to meet the
requirement for these materials. Natural gas is an important
provider of energy, but there are only small quantities of
hydro-carbons. Electricity is produced by a mix of thermal
and nuclear powered stations, with a few hydro-electric
power stations.
3
Imports are mainly of the basic materials, but also of
machine tools and other manufactured products. Exports are
of agricultural products, luxury goods and manufactured
products. Because of her comparative self-sufficiency
France is less dependent on foreign trade than her
neighbours.
BELGIUM
General description
1.146 1
The Kingdom of Belgium, known as Belgique in French
and België in Flemish, lies between France to the SW, the
Federal Republic of Germany to the E and The Netherlands
to the N. The Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, a small
independent country with close economic, lies on the SE
border of Belgium.
2
The population of Belgium is 10 355 844 (2002
estimate). It is constitutionally united but consists of two
races: the Flemings of Germanic origin in the N part of the
country and the Walloons, of Latin origin in the S part of
the country.
National limits
1.147 1
Territorial waters of Belgium extend for a distance of
12 miles from the LW line.
Fisheries jurisdiction extends to 200 miles.
For further information see Notice No. 12 of the Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
History
1.148 1
Belgium has been ruled by many other nations during its
2000 years of history, including Rome, Spain, Austria and
France. After the Peasant’s revolt in 1798, Napoleon
introduced a more liberal regime of occupation and during
this period the Schelde was opened and there began the
revival of the port of Antwerp. In 1815, at the conclusion
of the Napoleonic Wars, Belgium and Holland were
amalgamated into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
under William of Orange, who took the title William I. The
amalgamation was unpopular and faced mounting
opposition until in 1830 there was a revolution and
Belgium demanded independence.
2
The London Conference of 1831 recognised Belgium as
an independent and “perpetually neutral” state, although the
Dutch did not accept the situation until 1839, when by the
Treaty of London, signed by Great Britain, Prussia, Russia,
Austria and Holland, the independence and neutrality of
Belgium was formally guaranteed. However in August
1914, this treaty was violated when German troops
marched into Belgium.
3
After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles granted
reparations to Belgium in the form of the E cantons of
Eupen, Malmédy and Monesnet.
4
In 1940 Belgium was again invaded and overrun by
Germany. The whole of Belgium was occupied and King
Leopold III became a German prisoner. Belgium suffered
heavily in the war and after it Leopold III did not return to
CHAPTER 1
20
the country. Following a referendum in 1950 he abdicated
in favour of his son who in 1951 became King Badouin I.
5
The governments in exile of Belgium, Luxembourg and
Netherlands formed the Benelux Union in 1944. Since then
the capital, Brussels, has become the ‘capital of Europe’, as
the headquarters of the European Union, NATO and other
international organisations.
Government
1.149 1
The legislative power is vested in the King, the Senate
and the Chamber of Representatives. The Senate consists of
elected members, partly directly and partly indirectly. The
number elected directly is equal to half the number of
members of the Chamber of Representatives. Indirectly
elected senators are nominated by the provincial councils
on the basis of one for every 200 000 inhabitants. At
present there are 51 provincial senators. The Chamber of
Representatives is elected solely by adult suffrage on a
basis of one member per 40 000. The present membership
is 212.
2
Constitutional legislation culminating in 1986 has led to
the establishment of three regions of considerable
autonomy, Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia with regional
councils dealing with territorial matters, planning, roads,
regional development, water, energy, welfare services,
education etc.
3
There are nine provinces, each under a governor, and
589 communes.
Language. The official languages are Flemish and
French. The so-called language frontier runs roughly E−W
about 15 miles S of Brussels, with Flemish, a variation of
Dutch, spoken N of the line and French to the S. Brussels
has Flemish and Walloon communes and is officially
bilingual, but French predominates.
International relations
1.150 1
Belgium is a member of the United Nations, the
European Union, the Western European Union, the Council
of Europe, Benelux Economic Union, the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development and the North
Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
Coastal features and rivers
1.151 1
The coast of Belgium, which fronts the province of West
Flanders, is 42 miles in length. The polders near the coast
cover almost 500 square kilometres (200 square miles) in
area and are protected from flooding by dykes. The coast
itself is flat with excellent beaches and seaside resorts.
There are several coastal ports, of which Zeebrugge is the
largest.
1.152 1
The two principal rivers are the Schelde and the Maas,
both of which rise in France, flow through Belgium, where
they are known as the Scheldt or Escaut and the Meuse,
and have their estuaries in the Netherlands. Antwerp lies on
the Scheldt.
2
The Meuse and its tributary, the Sambre, divide Belgium
into two distinct areas, to the W a land generally flat and
fertile and to the E the tableland of the Ardennes, which is
for the most part infertile.
3
There is an extensive system of inland waterways,
chiefly supplied by the Scheldt and Meuse and their
tributaries, which link with the French and Dutch canals.
The more important waterways, used by sea-going vessels,
are:
4
Boudewijnkanaal (7.87), linking Zeebrugge with
Brugge.
Terneuzen-Gent Canal (7.229) linking Terneuzen to
Gent.
Zeekanaal van Brussel naar de Schelde (7.310), which
links Antwerp to Brussels.
Schelde-Rijnverbinding (8.114), linking Antwerp to
Volkerak and thence the Maas waterways.
Industry and trade
1.153 1
Belgium is a manufacturing country, which imports
much of its food. The coal, iron and steel industries have
declined and the chemical industry, including plastics, have
largely taken their place. Textiles, car assembly, brick
making, glassware, food, drink and tobacco are other
important industries. A large percentage of the world’s
diamonds are cut, polished and processed in Antwerp.
THE NETHERLANDS
General description
1.154 1
The Kingdom of The Netherlands known nationally as
Nederlanden, consists of the Netherlands, Aruba and
Nederlandse Antillen. The Netherlands are bounded by the
sea to the N and W, Belgium to the S and the Federal
Republic of Germany to the E. The population is
16 105 000 (estimated 2002). The Dutch people originated
from a mixture of Frisians, Saxons and Franks, with a later
mixing with some Germans and the addition of refugee
elements of other nations.
2
The capital is Amsterdam but the seat of government is
at The Hague.
National limits
1.155 1
Territorial waters of The Netherlands extend for a
distance of 12 miles from the baselines, which are formed
by straight lines along some parts of the coast.
Fisheries jurisdiction extends to 200 miles.
For further information see Notice No. 12 of the Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
History
1.156 1
Prior to the Romans, Frisians occupied mound
settlements in the lowlands, unprotected from the sea. The
country was ruled in succession by the Romans, the Franks,
Burgundy and Spain. Independence from Spain was gained
in 1648 and the Republic of the United Netherlands was
formed.
2
The seventeenth century was a golden age of maritime
discovery and trade and a period of great importance for
the port of Amsterdam. The Dutch East India Company
was founded in 1602. Throughout the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries there was maritime rivalry with
England and relations between the two countries alternated
between conflict and association.
3
The Netherlands were under French domination from
1795 to 1813. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815,
the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Belgium was
established, until Belgium became a separate kingdom in
1830 (see 1.148).
4
The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I,
although suffering economically, but were occupied by the
Germans in World War II from 1940 to 1945. In 1944 the
government in exile formed the Benelux Union with
CHAPTER 1
21
Belgium and Luxembourg and following the war there was
a massive resurgence of industry and maritime trade.
Government
1.157 1
The Kingdom of The Netherlands is a constitutional and
hereditary monarchy. The Crown is established as the
executive authority with the legislative authority vested in
the Crown and Parliament, or Staten-Generaal, which
consists of two chambers.
2
The First Chamber, Eerst Kamer, has 75 members
elected by the local government Provincial States. The
Second Chamber, Tweede Kamer, has 150 members elected
by adult suffrage.
3
For local government the country is divided into 12
Provinces and 647 municipalities. The Provinces have their
own representative body, Provincial State, and each
municipality a Burgomaster and Corporation.
Language. The chief language is Dutch, a West
Germanic language of Saxon origin. English is widely
spoken.
International relations
1.158 1
The Netherlands is a member of the United Nations, the
European Union, the Western European Union, the Council
of Europe, Benelux Economic Union, the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development and the North
Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
Coastal features and rivers
1.159 1
The coastline is low and backed by dunes and high
dykes, behind which lie alluvial plains. The flat aspect is
relieved by church spires, windmills and high modern
buildings. Much of the land is below sea level and
protected by massive sea defences. It is drained by
pumping surplus water into canals at a higher level, which
run into the sea through sluices at LW.
2
About 8000 square kilometres of land has been
reclaimed since the twelfth century, in particular the closing
off and reclamation of much of the Zuider Zee, see North
Sea (East) Pilot. In the S Netherlands the Delta Plan
(1.160), has sealed off the estuaries of the Rhine and Maas,
except for the navigable channel to Rotterdam.
1.160 1
The Delta Plan was conceived in order to increase the
defences of the Netherlands archipelago against flooding
from the sea. In general the plan envisaged building dams
linking the islands in the S and forming a large inland lake,
with sluice gates being used to release the outflow from the
Maas and part of the Rhine. Secondary dams, inland of the
main outer line of dams, were also required to control the
rivers and help reduce the strength of the tidal streams
during the construction of the main outer dams. A fresh
water reserve would be formed, which would be useful for
agriculture and secure river navigation, especially between
Antwerp and the Rhine.
2
The severe gales and spring tides of early 1953, which
resulted in the most serious flooding in the history of the
Low Countries and the death of 1835 people, accelerated
the execution of the plan, which was completed in 1987,
much as originally conceived. The main exception was that
Oosterschelde was left open to about 75% of the original
tidal influence, as a compromise on environmental grounds
to allow the estuarine wildlife to be preserved.
3
The dams and dykes will withstand a North Sea water
level more than 1 m in excess of that reached during the
floods of 1953.
For details of the dams see 8.2.
1.161 1
The two principal rivers in the area covered by this
volume are the Schelde (Scheldt) and the Maas (Meuse).
Westerschelde (7.113), which lies partly in Belgian and
partly in Dutch territory, is the estuary of the Schelde. The
Maas, which also discharges much of the Rhine, flows into
the sea through the Nieuwe Waterweg (9.60) at the Hoek
van Holland, but also discharges water through sluices in
the dams of the Delta Plan. Apart from Scheveningen, the
Netherlands ports covered in this volume are all situated on
the river estuaries.
2
There is an extensive system of inland waterways, over
5000 km in length, which carry a significant proportion of
all inland freight and which link with the Belgian and
German inland waterways. The more important waterways,
used by sea-going vessels, are:
3
Kanaal door Walcheren (8.102), linking Vlissingen
with Middelburg and Veere.
Terneuzen-Gent Canal (7.229) linking Terneuzen to
Gent.
4
Kanaal door Zuid Beveland (8.109), linking
Hansweert with Wemeldinge.
Schelde-Rijnverbinding (8.114), linking Antwerp to
Volkerak and thence the Maas waterways.
Industry and trade
1.162 1
The Netherlands has few natural resources and her
industry mainly processes imported materials, although oil
and gas production from both onshore and offshore fields
are now important. The main products are steel, other
metals, transport equipment, chemicals, oil, electronic
equipment and textiles.
2
Farming is important and products include cereals, roots,
cattle and pigs, poultry, dairy products, vegetables and
bulbs. Fishing is also important.
3
The Netherlands trades mainly with her partners in the
European Union and has an important transit trade,
transhipping goods from sea-going vessels to inland
waterway craft, bound for inland ports in both the
Netherlands and Germany.
Banking and tourism are also important.
PRINCIPAL PORTS
1.163 England
1
South coast
Littlehampton (3.17)
(50°48′N 0°33′E)
Small commercial port
Shoreham (3.36)
(50°50′N 0°15′E)
Commercial port
Newhaven (3.72)
(50°47′N 0°04′E)
Small commercial port
and ferry terminal
Rye Harbour (3.112)
(50°56′N 0°46′E)
Small commercial port
Dover (4.41)
(51°07′N 1°20′E)
Principal cross-Channel
ferry terminal and large
commercial port
Ramsgate (4.110)
(51°20′N 1°25′E)
Ferry terminal and small
commercial port
CHAPTER 1
22
2
Thames Estuary
Whitstable (12.35)
(51°22′N 1°02′E)
Small commercial port
Canvey Island and Thames
Haven (15.33)
(51°30′N 0°30′E)
Large oil and gas
terminals
Port of London
Tilbury Docks (15.55)
(51°27′N 0°21′E)
Large dock complex
3
River Medway ports
Sheerness (16.32)
(51°26′N 0°45′E)
Commercial port and
ferry terminal
Isle of Grain (16.62)
(51°26′N 0°42′E)
Container and bulk
terminal
Chatham Docks (16.64)
(51°24′N 0°33′E)
Dock complex
Rochester (16.95)
(51°23′N 0°31′E)
Small commercial port
4
East Coast
Felixstowe (13.85)
(51°57′N 1°19′E)
Large container port
Harwich (13.98)
(51°57′N 1°17′E)
Commercial port and
ferry terminal
Ipswich (13.121)
(52°03′N 1°10′E)
Commercial port and
ferry terminal
France
5
North coast
Fécamp (5.16)
(49°46′N 0°22′E)
Small commercial port
Dieppe (5.52)
(49°56′N 1°05′E)
Commercial port and
ferry terminal
Le Tréport (5.80)
(50°04′N 1°22′E)
Small commercial port
Boulogne (5.138)
(50°44′N 1°36′E)
Commercial port and
important fishing port
6
Calais (6.17)
(50°58′N 1°51′E)
Principal cross-Channel
ferry terminal and
commercial port
Gravelines (6.67)
50°59′N 2°08′E)
Small commercial port
Dunkerque, Port Ouest
(6.90)
(51°02′N 2°10′E)
Important tanker terminal,
container terminal and
ferry terminal
Dunkerque, Port Est
(6.105)
(51°03′N 2°21′E)
Large commercial port
Belgium
7
Nieuwpoort (6.150)
(51°09′N 2°43′E)
Small commercial port
Oostende (6.158)
(51°14′N 2°55′E)
Commercial port and
ferry terminal. Fishing
port
Zeebrugge (7.60)
(51°20′N 3°12′E)
Large commercial port
and ferry terminal
Brugge (7.87)
(51°14′N 3°13′E)
Commercial port
Gent (7.239)
(51°04′N 3°45′E)
Large commercial port
Antwerp (7.289)
(51°14′N 4°25′E)
Very large commercial
port
Brussels (7.319)
(50°52′N 4°22′E)
Commercial port
Netherlands
8
Vlissingen (7.122)
(51°27′N 3°35′E)
Small commercial port
Vlissingen Oost
(Sloehaven) (7.149)
(51°28′N 3°41′E)
Large commercial port,
tanker and container
terminal
Breskens (7.51)
(51°28′N 3°41′E)
Small commercial port
Terneuzen (7.205)
(51°20′N 3°49′E)
Large commercial port
Europoort and Maasvlakte
(9.41)
(51°57′N 4°08′E)
Very large commercial
port, tanker and container
terminal
Rotterdam (9.84)
(51°55′N 4°28′E)
Very large commercial
port
Dordrecht (9.116)
(51°49′N 4°40′E)
Commercial port
Scheveningen (10.13)
(52°06′N 4°16′E)
Small commercial port
and fishing port
PORT SERVICES−SUMMARY
Docking facilities
1.164 1
Ports with docking facilities and, where available, the
dimensions of the largest vessel that can be accommodated
are given below.
England
2
Shoreham. Small dry dock for vessels up to 50 m LOA
(3.58).
Ramsgate. Patent slip up to 500 tonnes, and two
slipways (4.127).
Ipswich. Slipway up to 750 tonnes (13.139).
Port of London:
Gravesend. Two slipways up to 950 tonnes (15.54).
Charlton. Three slipways and gridiron. The latter for
vessels up to 1230 tonnes (15.96).
Rochester. Patent slip and gridiron. The latter for vessels
up to 900 tonnes (16.98).
France
3
Dieppe. Dry dock up to 120 m LOA. Ship-lift up to
310 tonnes (5.72).
Boulogne. Two gridirons (only suitable for fishing
vessels) and two slips, the larger up to 2200 tonnes (5.163).
Calais. Dry dock up to 150 m LOA (6.41).
Dunkerque. One floating and two dry docks. The largest
dock for vessels up to 289 m LOA and 170 000 dwt
(6.130).
Belgium
4
Oostende. Two patent slips. The largest up to
1000 tonnes (6.178).
Gent. Two dry docks. The largest dock is 130 m in
length (7.241).
Antwerp. Six dry docks. The largest for vessels up to
200 000 dwt (7.307).
CHAPTER 1
23
Netherlands
Vlissingen Oost. One floating and two dry docks. The
floating dock for vessels up to 90 000 dwt (7.173).
Terneuzen. Floating dock for stern gear and bow
thrusters up to 420 tonnes (7.228).
5
Hansweert. Two small slipways and two floating docks.
The largest floating dock is 110 m long (7.282).
Port of Rotterdam. Many dry docks and floating docks;
largest dry dock at Botlek up to 500 000 dwt (9.100).
Dordrecht. Five slipways, the largest for vessels up to
118 m LOA and four floating docks for sterngear only
(9.127).
Scheveningen. Two slipways up to 1100 tonnes (10.35).
Other facilities
Compass adjustment
1.165 1
Littlehampton (3.26).
Dover (4.71).
Fécamp (5.34).
Dieppe (5.72).
Calais (6.41).
2
Dunkerque (6.130).
Vlissingen (7.147).
Terneuzen (7.241).
Rotterdam (9.101).
Scheveningen (10.36).
Deratting
1.166 1
Deratting and Deratting Exemption Certificates
issued:
England
Littlehampton (3.26)
Shoreham (3.58)
Newhaven (3.92)
Folkestone (4.31)
Dover (4.71)
2
Felixstowe (13.97)
Harwich (13.110)
Ipswich (13.139)
London (Chapter 15)
Rochester (16.98)
France
3
Boulogne (5.164)
Calais (6.42)
Dunkerque (6.131)
Belgium
Antwerp (7.308), also arranges for deratting at other
Belgian ports.
Netherlands
4
Hellevoetsluis (8.145)
Port of Rotterdam (9.101), at Europoort/Maasvlakte,
Maasluis, Botlek, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, and Rotterdam.
Dordrecht (9.128)
1.167 1
Exemption certificates only issued at:
England
Whitstable (12.44)
France
Dieppe (5.72)
Belgium
2
Nieuwpoort (6.157)
Oostende (6.179)
Zeebrugge (7.86)
Brugge (7.89)
Netherlands
Vlissingen (7.147)
Terneuzen (7.241)
Measured distances
1.168 1
Within the area covered by this volume there is a
measured distances at:
River Thames, Long Reach (15.70)
CHAPTER 1
24
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
Charts 2675, 2182a
General
1.169 1
Dover Strait, which has a least width of only 18 miles
between Dover (51°07′N 1°20′E) and Cap Gris-Nez,
contains a number of dangerous banks lying NE−SW in
mid-channel. These banks are composed of coarse sand and
broken shells.
2
The whole area is shallow and depths rarely exceed
40 m and may reduce over the banks to less than 10 m.
Depths do gradually increase to the N of the Dover Strait
but do not exceed 50 m in the area covered by this volume.
Seabed
1.170 1
Many wrecks of vessels, mostly sunk in the two World
Wars, lie in the Dover Strait, the S part of the North Sea
and the Thames Estuary. Least depths have been found
over the known wrecks, but new wrecks have been found
in recent surveys, and the strong tidal streams cause
scouring and changes of depths.
2
Sandwaves encroach in some places into the traffic lanes
in the S part of the North Sea and these are of significance
to deep−draught vessels. These sandwaves lie SW or NE of
Sandettié Bank (51°14′N 1°57′E), off the S end of South
Falls (51°14′N 1°44′E) (2.16) and off Long Sand Head
(51°46′N 1°37′E) (11.39).
CURRENTS AND TIDAL STREAMS
Currents
General movement
1.171 1
In the whole of the area covered by this volume by far
the greatest part of the water movement is tidal.
If the water movement is averaged over a long period,
thus removing the alternating tidal flow, there is a small
NE flow through the Dover Strait. From observations taken
from light vessels in the area, the average speed of the
residual current does not exceed 6 miles per day.
2
Underlying the oscillatory and rotary tidal streams there
is a weak and complex counter-clockwise circulation within
the North Sea. Along the E coast of England the flow is S,
and at the entrance to the Thames Estuary the circulation
recurves and joins the NE flow along the coasts of
Belgium and the Netherlands. These sets are very weak
compared with the tidal stream rates, and are therefore of
little importance even to low-powered vessels.
Strong wind effect
1.172 1
With persistent strong winds, the wind-driven induced
currents may approach, or even exceed, the rate of tidal
streams. Persistent W or SW gales can produce an
observed overall movement as high as 35 miles over a
period of 24 hours through the Dover Strait. The resultant
flow is the vector sum of:
2
The wind-driven current
The tidal stream
Any other current which may be present
Currents accompanying surges
1.173 1
Strong currents occur during and after positive and
negative surges and can greatly reinforce the tidal stream or
reduce its effect. Accurate current observations are not
possible during storm surges, but currents running at
several knots may occur. See 1.183.
Tidal streams
General
1.174 1
Data for predictions should be obtained from information
on the charts, in the Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1 and
the following Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlases:
The English Channel
Dover Strait
Thames Estuary, with co-tidal chart
North Sea Southern Portion.
2
Time references in the tidal stream information in this
volume are given in four figure groups, where the first two
figures are hours and the second two figures minutes.
References preceded by a minus (−) sign are intervals
before HW and those preceded by a plus (+) sign are
intervals after HW.
Offshore streams
1.175 1
Proceeding through the central part of the English
Channel, Dover Strait and thence the S part of the North
Sea, the fairway narrows and the rotary streams in the W
become gradually more rectilinear. Within the fairway the
streams generally follow its direction.
2
Where the E−going and W−going streams meet or
separate, the streams are weak and irregular or slack. These
areas or lines of slack water move progressively in a
NE−SW direction as the streams change as follows:
Interval from
HW Dover
Positions of slack water
3
−0600 Shoreham (50°50′N 0°15′E) to
mid-channel (50°15′N 1°00′E), thence
Cap d’Antifer (49°41′N 0°10′E).
Vicinity of South Falls Head (51°28′N
1°50′E).
−0500 Beachy Head (50°44′N 0°15′E) to
Dieppe (49°56′N 1°05′E).
Area NW of Scheveningen (52°06′N
4°16′E).
4
−0400 Hastings (50°51′N 0°35′E) to Baie de
Somme (51°14′N 1°32′E).
−0300 Dungeness (50°55′N 0°59′E) to
Embouchure de la Canche (50°53′N
1°35′E).
−0200 Hythe (51°04′N 1°05′E) to Boulogne
(50°44′N 1°36′E).
CHAPTER 1
25
5
−0100 Ramsgate (51°20′N 1°25′E) to West
Hinder (51°32′N 2°34′E) thence
Oostende (51°14′N 2°55′E).
HW Newhaven (50°47′N 0°04′E) to
mid−channel (50°15′N 1°00′E) thence
Cap d’Antifer.
Vicinity of South Falls (51°20′N
1°47′E) and Schouwenbank (51°47′N
3°24′E).
+0100 Beachy Head to Dieppe.
Area off Hoek van Holland (51°59′N
4°03′E).
6
+0200 Hastings to Baie de Somme.
+0300 Rye Bay (50°54′N 0°46′E) to
Embouchure de l’Authie (50°23′N
1°32′E).
+0400 Hythe to Embouchure de la Canche.
+0500 Goodwin Sands (51°15′N 1°35′E) to
Dunkerque (51°04′N 2°21′E).
+0600 Vicinity of Sandettié Bank (51°14′N
1°57′E).
1.176 1
The rates of stream vary with the width of the channel
and are at their strongest in the narrowest parts. Spring
rates may be up to 4 kn in the Dover Strait but where the
channel is wider the rates rarely exceed 2½ kn.
1.177 1
The shoals and banks generally lie in the direction of
the streams and cause no appreciable eddies. However
tide-rips occur over these shoals and very heavy seas
develop in bad weather, particularly near springs, with
strong winds blowing against the stream.
Coastal streams
1.178 1
North coast of France. From Cap d’Antifer (49°41′N
0°10′E) to Cap Gris-Nez, 90 miles NE, there is little
difference in the times the streams begin compared with the
times they begin in mid-channel. The streams off Cap
d’Antifer begin about 4 hours earlier than off Cap
Gris-Nez.
1.179 1
South−east coast of England. Between Selsey Bill
(50°43′N 0°47′E) and Royal Sovereign Shoals, 45 miles E,
the difference at which the streams begin is about 1 hour.
Between Royal Sovereign Shoals and Dungeness the
difference at which the streams begin is about 4 hours, a
much greater change of time with distance and this can be
of advantage to vessels on passage, see 3.5.
2
To the E of Dungeness, as far as South Foreland,
20 miles NE, there is little change in the times at which the
streams change.
Streams in the Thames Estuary
1.180 1
Water enters the Thames Estuary from the NE, S and E
and leaves in the same directions. The streams a few miles
offshore are more or less rotary, but when strongest run N
and S in the general direction of the coast. Off North
Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E), the streams begin about
1¾ hours earlier than in the middle of the estuary. Between
Orford Ness (52°05′N 1°35′E) and the middle of the
Thames Estuary there is little or no change at which the
streams begin.
2
The spring rates of the streams do not generally exceed
2 kn, except off North Foreland where they are about 3 kn.
When there is a S−going stream off the Thames Estuary
the tide is rising locally and at Dover and when there is a
N−going stream the tide is falling locally and at Dover.
3
Near the land the streams are rectilinear, running in the
direction of the coast, but the times at which they begin
may differ considerably from the times a few miles
offshore.
Streams in the south part of the North Sea
1.181 1
Midway between England and The Netherlands the
streams are nearly rectilinear. At −0515 HW Dover the
stream begins setting from the North Sea to the Dover
Strait and runs in the reverse direction from +0100 HW
Dover, with spring rates in each direction up to 2 kn.
2
At the NE entrance to the Dover Strait the SW−going
stream begins at +0515 HW Dover, and the NE−going
stream begins at −0100 HW Dover, with spring rates in
each direction of 3 kn.
SEA LEVEL AND TIDES
Sea level
Predicted and actual tidal levels
1.182 1
Meteorological conditions which differ from the average
will cause differences between the predicted and actual
tidal levels. Such variations are mainly caused by strong or
prolonged winds and by unusually high or low barometric
pressure and result in surges which raise or lower sea level.
2
A strong wind blowing with the tidal stream will tend to
increase the height of tide and prolong the flood stream,
while a wind blowing with the ebb stream will have the
opposite effect. Winds blowing against the stream will have
the opposite effect to those blowing with the streams.
3
Seiches are short period oscillations in sea level and
may be caused by abrupt changes in meteorological
conditions, such as the passage of an intense depression.
Small seiches occur from time to time around the coasts of
the British Isles, especially during the winter months.
For further information see The Mariner’s Handbook and
Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1.
Storm surges
1.183 1
Winds from the NW and N drive water into the North
Sea and raise its level in the S part. If these winds are of
storm force and accompanied by an intense depression
moving slowly across the N part of the North Sea, a wave
known as a storm surge travels down the North Sea raising
sea level in extreme cases as much as 3 m. If the peak of
the surge coincides with HW severe flooding can result, as
happened in the Thames Estuary and on the Netherlands
coast in January 1953.
2
A system exists for giving advance warning of storm
surges to the emergency services responsible for low-lying
areas on the E coast of England.
Negative surges
1.184 1
Negative surges result in abnormal lowering of sea level
and are less foreseeable than storm surges since not only
may they occur in this area as the result of storms, but also
because of abnormally high barometric pressure. They are,
perhaps, of more importance to deep−draught vessels, since
they may lower sea level by as much as 2 m, and because
they are more frequent in tidal estuaries and shallow water.
CHAPTER 1
26
2
In February 1968 a deep and complex depression over
Iceland moved swiftly S until W of Ireland, causing
persistent strong to gale force S winds over the whole of
the North Sea. As a result the level of the North Sea was
0⋅5 m or more below the predicted level for 24 hours, with
the lowest level 1⋅8 m below that predicted.
3
A warning service to give advance notice of negative
surges operates between September and April. See Annual
Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners for details.
Tides
Tidal ranges
1.185 1
In the area covered by this volume the tide is
predominantly semi-diurnal.
2
To the SW of Dover Strait the tidal range on the coast
of France is greater than that on the coast of England. For
example the neap and spring ranges at Shoreham (50°50′N
0°15′E) are 2⋅9 and 5⋅7 m respectively and at Dover
(51°07′N 1°20′E) are 3⋅2 and 6⋅0 m, while those at Dieppe
(49°56′N 1°05′E) are 4⋅9 and 8⋅5 m and at Calais (50°58′N
1°51′E) are 3⋅9 and 6⋅5 m.
3
To the NE of Dover Strait, in the S part of the North
Sea, the tidal ranges become progressively less. At Margate
the neap and spring ranges are 2⋅5 and 4⋅3 m respectively,
at Harwich (51°57′N 1°18′E) 2⋅3 and 3⋅6 m, reducing to
1⋅5 and 1⋅9 m at Hoek van Holland (51°59′N 4°03′E).
4
Tidal predictions for the English Channel, the S part of
the North Sea and the Thames Estuary are given in
Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1.
The following provide co-tidal and co-range information
for the open sea:
Chart 5058 British Isles and adjacent waters
Chart 5057 Dungeness to Hoek van Holland
Chart 5059 Southern North Sea
NP 249 Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-tidal
Charts: Thames Estuary
Chart 5500 Mariners’ Routeing Guide English
Channel and Southern North Sea.
SEA AND SWELL
1.186 1
For general information on sea and swell see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Sea conditions
1.187 1
Dover Strait, and the sea areas on either side, have a
very distinctive sea disturbance with the area to the W of
the Dover Strait greatly affected by rough to very rough
seas with SW to W gales. During these periods, conditions
on both sides of the English Channel can cause serious
problems for cross-Channel traffic as there is only limited
natural shelter available along most of the coastlines.
Berthing and handling difficulties are often increased when
the gale force winds veer to the NW. Gales from other
directions are infrequent.
2
Strong winds from the NE and SW are greatly increased
by funnelling through the Dover Strait and give rise to
higher seas on the Dover to Calais route than would be
inferred from the gradient wind speed. This effect appears
to be greater with NE winds. Storm surges only add to the
problem and cross-channel traffic is liable to be restricted
or discontinued due to the resultant high seas.
3
In coastal waters from Dover to Harwich, strong winds
from between NE and SE can give rise to rough to very
rough seas with dangerous breakers in the vicinity of the
extensive sandbanks. Similarly, strong N to NW winds
result in similar conditions along the coast from Oostende
to the Hoek van Holland.
4
Whenever a strong tidal stream is running in the
opposite direction to a strong to gale force wind, the height
and steepness of the waves are increased. This is noticeable
in the shallower waters of the Dover Strait with a strong
SW or NE wind. However, when the tide turns, the height
and steepness of the waves will, on most occasions, be
much reduced.
5
Rough seas may develop in any month but are most
frequent between October and March, and tend to persist
for several days. However, lengthy periods of relatively
quiet weather can also occur throughout the year with only
slight to moderate seas.
Swell conditions
1.188 1
Diagrams 1.188.1 to 1.188.4 give swell roses for
January, April, July and October. The roses show the
percentage of observations recording swell from a number
of directions and for various ranges of wave height.
2
In the area to the W of the Dover Strait, persistent
strong to gale force winds, from between W and SW,
generate a moderate to heavy swell. Equally, to the N of
the Dover Strait, similar winds from between NW and NE
result in a considerable swell, although, they tend to be
slightly lower than those experienced in the W of the area.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Density
1.189 1
The mean density of the offshore area covered by this
volume is slightly greater in winter (1⋅0273 g/cm
3
) than in
summer (1⋅0257 g/cm
3
). Densities a little lower than these
figures occur off the coasts of France, Belgium and the
Netherlands.
Salinity
1.190 1
The mean salinity of the offshore area covered by this
volume is about 34⋅5 to 34⋅75, with little seasonal
variation. The higher values are on the English side of the
Dover Strait, while off the coasts of Belgium and the
Netherlands the salinity is slightly less, about 33⋅0.
Sea surface temperature
1.191 1
The mean sea surface temperatures for February, May,
August and November are shown in diagram (1.191).
Sea surface temperatures are generally at their lowest in
February and highest in August. The mean sea surface
temperature increases from about 7⋅0°C in February to
around 16⋅5°C in August.
Variability
1.192 1
Day to day sea surface temperature variations are
negligible but a gradual rise of a few degrees frequently
occur during spells of settled warm weather. Similarly, a
decrease of 2° to 3°C is possible with prolonged cold E
winds in winter. Shallow coastal waters tend to be slightly
warmer than the open sea in summer and a little colder in
winter.
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0°
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Swell distribution - JANUARY (1.188.1)
CHAPTER 1
27
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0°
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Swell distribution - APRIL (1.188.2)
CHAPTER 1
28
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0°
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Swell distribution - JULY (1.188.3)
CHAPTER 1
29
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0°
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Swell distribution - OCTOBER (1.188.4)
CHAPTER 1
30
1
1
1
0
12
6
7
8
<10
1
2
1
0
11
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
15
16
15
12
14
16
9
10
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
20
19
13
14
15
16
<16
6
7
8
11
1
1
1
1
9
10
>11
10
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
14
7
7
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
1
1
2
1
3
6
6
5
<5
8
9
9
8
6
<6
<6
20°
5°
20°
15°
10°
5°
0° 5°
60° 60°
50° 50°
AUGUST NOVEMBER Mean sea surface temperature (°C) (1.191)
20°
20°
15° 10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5°
0°
5°
5°
60° 60°
50°
50°
20°
20°
15° 10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5°
0°
5°
5°
60°
60°
50° 50°
FEBRUARY MAY 20°
20°
15° 10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5° 0° 5°
5°
60° 60°
50°
50°
CHAPTER 1
31
CHAPTER 1
32
ICE CONDITIONS
Sea ice
1.193 1
Ice forms in the shallow waters around the coastline in
severe winters. Floes, 2 m in diameter and 0⋅15 m thick,
were reported in 1963 over many parts of the area covered
by this volume. The coastal area NE of Calais (50°58′N
1°51′E) is most likely to be affected, as in the severe
winters of 1929 and 1947.
2
The risk of ice forming is highest from mid-January to
early March.
Ice accumulation
1.194 1
In certain weather conditions ice accumulates on hulls
and superstructures and can be a serious danger to vessels.
This hazard may develop in the extreme NE of the area.
Details of the causes and the recommended course of
action are given in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Ice reporting
1.195 1
Details of ice reporting and icebreaker services in the
waters of the Netherlands and Germany are given in the
North Sea (East) Pilot.
2
Ice reports are included in radio navigational warnings
issued by Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and
Denmark. Reports are made in the Baltic Code, the details
of which, and the lettered subdivision of the reporting
areas, are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 3(1).
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General
General information
1.196 1
The following information on climate and weather
should be read in conjunction with the information
contained in The Mariner’s Handbook which explains in
more detail many aspects of meteorology and climatology
of importance to the mariner.
2
Weather reports and forecasts, that cover the area, are
regularly broadcast in a number of different languages; see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1) for details.
Weather pattern
1.197 1
The area covered by this volume generally enjoys a mild
maritime climate, although the sudden arrival of continental
air from between E and S can give rise to cold or very
cold conditions in winter and dry or thundery conditions in
summer. N winds, originating in the Polar regions,
frequently give rise to showers and bright spells. Gales are
infrequent between May and September and most frequent
in mid-winter.
2
Rainfall is plentiful and frequent, and well distributed
throughout the year with generally the driest months from
February to June. It is frequently cloudy in all seasons with
coasts obscured, at times, by low cloud and rain.
3
Sea fog is most common in winter with a W airflow
over the English Channel. Similarly, land fog is most
frequent in the autumn and winter around dawn and may
occasionally extend out to sea in settled conditions.
Visibility is generally good although marginally worse than
that experienced in the W half of the English Channel.
Pressure
Average distribution
1.198 1
The average pressure distribution at mean sea level in
January, April, July and October is shown in diagram
1.198.
The dominant features of the pressure field are the NE
extension of the Azores anticyclone, the frequent E−moving
mobile depressions that affect the British Isles and the W
extension of the Asiatic anticyclone.
Variability
1.199 1
It is stressed that diagrams 1.198 depicts the average
pressure distribution and that the actual pressure pattern can
be significantly different from the mean for long periods,
due to the numerous mobile depressions that affect the
area. When intense depressions affect the area, pressure
changes of around 10 hPa (mb) in 3 hours have frequently
been recorded. On occasions, especially in winter, when a
high cell becomes established over N Europe, the synoptic
chart may show high pressure to the N and relatively low
pressure to the S.
Diurnal variation
1.200 1
The diurnal variation is small, about 0⋅2 to 0⋅6 hPa (mb)
amplitude, but is nearly always masked by pressure
changes due to the mobile depressions that affect the area.
Anticyclones
The Azores anticyclone
1.201 1
This anticyclone is centred about 35°N in summer and
moves S in winter to around 30°N. In summer, a ridge of
high pressure often extends NE from the anticyclone
towards France and central Europe. This ridge can bring
settled weather conditions to the area covered by this
volume while forcing E−moving mobile depressions
further N.
The Asiatic anticyclone
1.202 1
The Asiatic anticyclone develops in winter over Siberia
and, on occasions, a ridge may extend W to NW Europe.
When this occurs cold or very cold dry E winds can affect
the area and last for several weeks. At the same time,
mobile depressions are prevented from approaching the area
until the ridge recedes.
Depressions
Atlantic depressions
1.203 1
The area lies to the S of the main low pressure belt of
the northern hemisphere. Depressions, that form over the W
North Atlantic, frequently move NE towards the Icelandic
area with secondary depressions forming to their rear.
These secondary depressions, often in a family of three to
five, frequently move E with increasingly S tracks to affect
the area covered by this volume. The intervals between
depression can be as short as 24 hours or as long as 2 to 3
days. Depressions can develop into large scale features
spanning several hundred miles and give rise to gale force
winds, especially in the late autumn and winter.
1
00
2
1004
1
0
0
4
1006
1008
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
4
1
0
1
6
1010
1010
1012
1014
1016
1018
1010
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
4
1
0
1
6
1
0
1
8
1
0
20
1000
1002
1004
1006
1008
1010
1012
1014
1016
1018
1006
20°
20°
15° 10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5° 0° 5°
5°
60° 60°
50° 50°
20°
20°
15° 10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5° 0° 5°
5°
60° 60°
50° 50°
OCTOBER
Mean barometric pressure (hPa) (1.198)
APRIL 20°
20°
15° 10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5°
0°
5°
5°
60°
60°
50° 50°
JULY JANUARY
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5°
20°
60° 60°
50° 50°
20°
15°
10°
5°
0°
5°
CHAPTER 1
33
CHAPTER 1
34
Polar depressions
1.204 1
Polar depressions generally develop in cold N airstreams
in the Norwegian Sea area, bringing snow or frequent
wintry showers to the area as they move S in winter.
Fronts
Polar Front
1.205 1
The polar front is the most important front in the region
and plays a dominant role in the weather throughout the
year. It marks the boundary between the cold air to the N
and warm moist air to the S. In winter its mean position, in
the E North Atlantic, is 40°N 40°W to the English
Channel, but moves N in summer to lie 45°N 40°W to the
central North Sea. The majority of the mobile depressions
that affect the area originate in the polar frontal zone over
the W North Atlantic.
2
For a detailed description of the formation, structure and
weather associated with frontal depressions see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Arctic Front
1.206 1
The arctic front’s mean position, in winter, is to the N
of Scandinavia but vigorous depressions over the
Norwegian Sea, or Scandinavia, occasionally cause the
front to move S towards the region; together with the
characteristic showery conditions that frequently occur in
the arctic air behind it. The arctic front is of negligible
importance to the region in summer.
Warm and cold fronts
1.207 1
Warm and cold fronts are generally active in the area
and are responsible for much of the bad weather in the
region. Warm fronts usually approach the area from
between SSE and NW in summer and SW and W in
winter. Cold fronts generally approach the area from
between NE and SW (through NW) and may bring a
sudden shift of wind together with strong winds and
squally conditions.
Winds
Average distribution
1.208 1
Wind roses showing the frequency of winds of various
directions and speeds for January, April, July and October
are given in diagrams 1.208.1 to 1.208.4
Variability
1.209 1
Due to the frequent mobile depressions that affect the
area, there are often marked variations in both wind speed
and direction during any set period of time. However, in
late winter and early spring, when a high pressure cell may
become established over central and NE Europe, E to NE
winds may persist for several days but can occasionally,
most frequently during the spring, last for two to three
weeks.
Open sea
1.210 1
In the area covered by this volume, the predominant
winds are from between SW and NW, although there is an
increase in the frequency of N to NE winds between
February and May. Winds from the SW and NE are
generally higher in the Dover Strait, than the gradient wind
speed would indicate, due to the funnelling effect and can
result in very rough seas in the narrowest sector. Persistent
winds from either of these two directions can cause
problems for cross-Channel traffic.
2
The English coast between Selsey Bill and Dover is very
exposed to strong winds between SE and SW and good
shelter is not readily available. Rough seas are not
uncommon in English coastal waters N of Dover, including
the Thames Estuary, with strong winds between NE and SE
and can give rise to hazardous conditions that may persist,
especially in late winter and early spring, for several days.
Similarly, strong N winds frequently cause rough seas
along the coast from Cap d’Antifer to Hoek van Holland.
Land and sea breezes
1.211 1
Sea breezes are most evident with calm or light wind
conditions in late spring, summer and early autumn and can
reach 10 kn at times. Land breezes seldom exceed 5 kn and
are more common on calm winter nights. Depending on the
direction of the prevailing wind, these breezes may
reinforce or moderate the strength of the wind.
Squalls
1.212 1
Violent squalls are relatively infrequent, however, they
are more common when one or more of the following
occur: N winds in winter, passage of an active cold front
and thunderstorms.
Gales
1.213 1
Diagram 1.213 gives the percentage frequency of winds
with force 7 and over in January and July. The frequency
of Gales (force 8 or over) shows little variation over the
area but they are often more severe over the S North Sea
with N winds. Force 5 to 6 winds from the SW and NE
can result in gale force winds in the narrowest part of the
Dover Strait due to the funnelling effect but generally only
persist for relatively short periods. The average number of
days per month with gales over the sea area is as follows:
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
4 3 3 2 1 0
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
0 0 1 2 3 4
2
SW to W gales are most frequent in December and
January and N to NE gales in February and March.
Cloud
1.214 1
The average cloud cover over the sea is 4 to 5 oktas in
summer and 6 oktas in winter. However, on any particular
day the actual cloud amount can be very different from the
mean. Clear skies are most common with E or SE winds
from the continent; long bright intervals can also occur
with NW winds. Cloud tends to disperse at night over the
land but there is little diurnal variation at sea. The coastline
may be obscured at times by low cloud associated with
moist onshore winds.
Precipitation
1.215 1
The climatic tables (1.225) give the average amounts of
precipitation for each month at several coastal stations and
the mean number of days in each month when significant
precipitation is recorded.
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
21
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Wind distribution - JANUARY (1.208.1)
CHAPTER 1
35
<1<111
1
1
1
2
2
222
21
1
1
3
11
3
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0°
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Wind distribution - APRIL (1.208.2)
CHAPTER 1
36
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
11
1
1
1
1
1
22
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Wind distribution - JULY (1.208.3)
CHAPTER 1
37
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1<1<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
0°
2°2°4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich8°10°12°
0°
2°2°4°
4°6°8°10°12°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
58°
50°
52°
54°
56°
Wind distribution - OCTOBER (1.208.4)
CHAPTER 1
38
>5%
5%
2%
2%
2% >5%
5%
<25%
25%
>30%
30%
30%
>30%
30%
25%
20%
15%
20%
>35%
35%
30%
25%
25%
20%
25%
<20%
JANUARY Percentage frequency of winds Beaufort force 7 or over (1.213)
JULY 20°
20°15°
15°
10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5°
0°
0°
5°
5°
60°
60°
50°
50°
20°
20°15°
15°
10°
Longitude 10° West from Greenwich
5°
0°
0°
5°
5°
60°
60°
50°
50°
CHAPTER 1
39
CHAPTER 1
40
Rain
1.216 1
At sea rain can be expected on about 15 to 18 days per
month in winter and on about 10 to 11 days in summer,
however, the quantity and duration can vary significantly
from one day to the next.
2
At coastal stations rainfall amounts vary according to
their exposure to the prevailing winds and the proximity of
high ground. The annual average rainfall over the whole of
the area is around 680 mm with slightly lower amounts
along the English coast N of Dover and marginally higher
on continental coasts. Prolonged wet and dry spells are
possible and may occur at any time of the year.
3
Monthly averages show little seasonal variation, although
October to December tend to be wettest months with
February to May the driest.
Thunderstorms
1.217 1
Thunderstorms frequently develop over France and The
Low Countries during hot summers and may move slowly
into the area covered by this volume. Hence, one or two
thunderstorms per month are likely from May to September
with associated squalls and isolated waterspouts. During the
rest of the year thunderstorms are rare.
Snow
1.218 1
The majority of snow falls at irregular intervals between
December and April with the greatest frequency in the
months of January, February and March. On average there
are 10 days of snow−fall per year but it seldom lies for
long near sea level. Snow−falls are usually light but on
occasions heavy falls can occur.
Fog and visibility
Open sea/Coastal areas
1.219 1
Sea fog (visibility less than 1 km) is most common with
moist SW winds. In January the frequency of fog over the
sea is generally less than 2 per cent in the SW of the area
but increases to about 5 per cent in the extreme NE and, in
July, it is around 3 per cent over the whole of the area.
The average number of days with fog for a number of
coastal stations is given in the climatic tables.
2
When an anticyclone becomes established over the area
mist and haze can become extensive and any fog forming
over land may occasionally drift over the sea, although it
frequently clears by mid-morning. See The Mariner’s
Handbook for a description of Sea Fog and Radiation Fog.
3
The percentage frequency of occasions when the
visibility is in excess of 5 miles is, in January, about 75 per
cent in the SW of the area and 55 per cent in the extreme
NE. By July the percentage frequency increases to around
80 per cent over the whole of the area covered by this
volume.
Air temperature
General information
1.220 1
In general the coldest time of the year is January and
February and the warmest is July and August. Because of
the numerous frontal depressions that affect the area, with
frequent changes in airstream, the temperature can be
extremely variable from one day to another, particularly in
winter. High pressure over N Europe can give rise to
exceptionally cold spells in winter and warm spells in
summer.
Open sea/Coastal areas
1.221 1
In January, the mean air temperature over the sea is
about 9°C in the SW of the area and around 5⋅5°C in the
extreme NE and, in July, around 16°C over the whole of
the area. Air frost is rare between May and October but is
more common during the winter months with a peak in
January of around 8 days per month in the S of the area
and about 10 to 12 days in the N.
2
Air temperatures along the English and continental
coastlines are generally more variable than over the open
sea. The extremes of air temperature often being associated
with E winds from the continent.
Humidity
General information
1.222 1
Humidity is closely related to temperature and generally
decreases as the air temperature rises. During the early
morning, when the air temperature is normally at its lowest,
the humidity is generally at its highest, and falls to a
minimum in the afternoon.
Open sea
1.223 1
In winter the mean humidity is about 79 to 82 per cent
and, in summer, around 84 per cent with comparatively
small variations from one month to the next.
Coastal areas
1.224 1
There are often relatively large fluctuations in humidity
along the coast depending on the exposure of the locality
to the prevailing wind and its distance from the open sea.
In general, areas exposed to SW winds will have higher
humidity than those in the lee of high ground. Winds from
the NW or SE often give the lowest humidity with, on
occasions, values of 20 per cent or less.
CLIMATIC TABLES
1.225 1
The climatic tables which follow give data for several
coastal stations which regularly undertake weather
observations.
2
It is emphasised that the data relates to average
conditions and refers to the specific location of the
observing station. Therefore it may not be representative of
the conditions to be expected over the open sea or in the
approaches to ports in the vicinity. The following
comments list some of the differences to be expected
between conditions over the open sea and those at the
nearest reporting station. For further details see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
3
Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea with more
frequent gales than on land, although funnelling in
narrow inlets and off exposed headlands can result
in an increase in wind strength.
4
Precipitation along hilly, wind−exposed coasts can be
considerably higher than offshore. Similarly,
precipitation in the lee of high ground is generally
less.
Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over
the land and in the lee of high ground.
Topography has a marked effect on local conditions.
CHAPTER 1
41
Limit of NP 28
Limit of NP 28
ROTTERDAM
VLISSINGEN
OOSTENDE
DUNKERQUE
BOULOGNE
DIEPPE
NEWHAVEN
LANGDON
BAY
MANSTON
LONDON
SHOEBURYNESS
WALTON ON NAZE
1.231
1.235
1.234
1.233
1.232
1.237
1.236
1.226
1.228
1.229
1.230
1.227
49°49°
50°50°
51°51°
52°52°
53°
53°
1°
1°
0°
0°
3°
3°
4°
4°
5°
5°
Longitude 1° East from Greenwich
1° 2°
Location of climatic stations (1.225)
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
42
1.226 WMO No 03880 NEWHAVEN (50
°
47
′
N 0
°
03
′
E) Height above MSL − 5 m
Climatic Table compiled from 10 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1992
January 1018
7
3
11
−3
86
80
6
6
86
13
17
11
5
2
11
17
28
3
8
11
12
7
2
11
17
33
2
5
14
15
4
2
|
February 1018
7
3
11
−2
86
77
6
6
52
10
17
13
14
4
8
14
18
1
11
11
16
14
9
10
13
22
2
5
12
14
2
3
|
March 1016
9
4
13
−1
88
79
6
7
63
11
18
7
5
6
9
13
27
2
14
8
7
6
6
13
20
32
2
6
11
13
1
5
|
April
1014
12
6
17
1
87
71
5
6
54
9
18
18
5
6
10
12
19
2
9
8
15
9
9
11
16
25
2
4
12
13
1
2
|
May 1016
15
9
21
4
85
73
5
6
47
9
21
16
7
8
7
16
13
1
12
10
14
7
10
16
21
19
|
3
10
12
|
3
1
June 1017
18
11
23
7
87
76
6
6
51
8
21
14
3
4
6
18
24
2
8
7
12
5
5
10
28
31
1
3
10
12
|
2
1
July
1015
20
14
25
10
86
76
5
5
49
7
13
8
8
5
10
20
25
2
9
3
6
7
8
10
31
33
|
3
10
12
|
3
1
August 1017
20
14
24
10
87
75
5
5
58
8
18
7
5
5
6
22
28
2
9
2
5
3
5
11
28
43
1
2
10
13
|
2
1
September 1017
18
12
22
8
87
73
6
6
69
9
20
8
5
2
6
13
31
2
13
9
6
6
7
8
20
39
2
2
11
13
1
2
1
October
1015
15
10
18
4
86
76
6
6
95
11
20
9
7
4
10
15
28
2
6
8
10
11
8
12
20
29
2
2
12
14
2
1
1
November 1015
11
6
15
0
87
79
6
6
104
12
30
6
5
5
8
12
23
2
9
17
10
7
5
10
15
26
3
7
12
12
2
2
|
December 1018
8
4
12
−2
86
82
6
6
87
12
19
12
5
1
12
19
23
2
8
14
9
7
4
9
22
27
2
7
13
13
2
2
|
Means
1017
13
8
26*
−4§
87
76
6
6
_
_
19
11
6
4
9
16
24
2
9
9
10
7
7
11
21
30
2
4
11
13
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
815
119
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
16
29
6
Extreme values _
_
_
33†
−5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
10
30
10
10
30
10
10
10
10
10
10
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
43
1.227 WMO No 03779 LONDON (51
°
31
′
N 0
°
06
′
W) Height above MSL − 20 m
Climatic Table compiled from 11 years observations, 1995 to 2005
January 1016
9
4
14
−1
89
70
6
6
48
15
7
14
12
5
11
24
20
8
0
6
14
12
4
8
27
19
10
0
8
10
|
2
1
February 1018
10
4
15
−1
87
62
6
6
37
13
11
8
8
2
6
28
28
9
0
10
9
7
5
6
27
24
12
0
8
10
1
1
1
March 1017
12
6
18
1
86
56
6
6
36
13
8
13
15
5
8
21
21
11
0
7
13
13
5
8
19
23
11
0
8
10
|
1
1
April
1014
15
7
22
2
79
50
6
6
47
14
11
15
13
7
11
16
19
8
0
13
11
15
6
9
22
15
10
0
8
9
0
|
2
May 1015
18
10
26
5
78
50
6
6
44
12
14
19
14
4
6
18
17
8
0
11
16
14
7
9
20
14
12
0
8
9
|
|
2
June 1016
21
13
30
9
82
51
6
6
51
12
11
7
7
5
9
22
23
16
0
11
3
10
4
10
24
20
17
0
8
9
0
0
2
July
1015
23
15
30
11
81
50
6
6
33
11
11
12
8
3
6
19
29
11
0
10
8
7
4
8
22
25
15
0
7
8
0
0
3
August 1016
24
16
32
11
79
50
5
5
52
12
13
9
16
5
10
16
19
11
0
7
9
12
7
9
24
20
12
0
6
8
0
|
4
September 1015
20
13
26
9
81
55
5
6
48
12
10
14
15
7
9
15
19
10
0
11
8
15
4
12
19
22
10
0
7
9
0
1
1
October
1013
16
10
21
6
85
60
6
6
69
15
5
7
17
7
12
23
23
7
0
6
5
14
6
14
24
22
9
0
8
10
1
1
|
November 1013
12
7
16
2
88
68
6
6
70
17
8
6
9
9
11
18
25
13
0
9
6
7
7
10
21
26
14
0
7
8
|
1
2
December 1015
9
4
14
−1
88
73
6
6
58
16
7
17
16
4
8
21
22
5
0
6
15
18
4
8
18
21
9
0
8
9
1
2
|
Means
1015
16
9
31*
−2§
84
58
6
6
_
_
10
12
12
5
9
20
22
10
0
9
10
12
5
9
22
21
12
0
8
9
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
593
162
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
9
19
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
−5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
44
1.228 WMO No 03796 LANGDON BAY (51
°
08
′
N 1
°
21
′
E) Height above MSL − 117 m
Climatic Table compiled from 11 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 2005
January 1016
7
3
11
−3
89
85
6
6
71
13
7
5
13
3
16
23
20
12
2
9
9
9
3
14
29
16
10
1
15
16
7
6
1
February 1018
7
3
12
−2
87
80
6
6
60
10
11
5
5
3
8
25
21
19
3
12
8
6
2
8
31
18
14
1
15
15
6
5
|
March 1017
9
4
15
0
86
77
6
6
49
10
13
9
12
4
6
23
15
13
4
11
19
9
3
6
34
9
8
2
13
14
4
7
|
April
1014
12
6
18
1
79
72
6
5
44
10
17
11
11
5
12
21
11
7
4
11
21
7
3
10
36
5
5
3
13
14
2
4
1
May 1016
15
9
21
4
78
75
6
5
47
8
21
15
7
3
10
26
8
6
5
15
23
8
2
6
36
5
2
3
12
13
1
4
2
June 1016
17
11
24
8
82
78
6
6
43
8
12
6
10
3
8
36
9
13
2
8
10
10
2
7
47
6
8
2
10
12
1
5
2
July
1016
20
13
26
10
81
78
6
5
68
8
12
8
9
1
8
33
13
10
7
7
14
7
3
8
47
7
4
3
10
12
|
5
1
August 1016
21
14
27
10
79
73
5
5
69
9
12
12
11
5
9
25
12
8
6
7
18
12
2
8
41
7
3
1
10
12
1
3
2
September 1015
18
12
22
8
81
75
5
6
66
9
12
5
11
5
13
20
16
15
3
6
12
10
4
10
33
12
12
2
12
13
2
2
2
October
1014
15
9
18
5
85
77
6
6
82
12
7
2
12
4
17
20
23
13
2
6
8
8
3
17
33
14
7
3
15
15
5
2
2
November 1014
10
6
15
1
88
82
6
6
105
13
8
3
8
4
17
16
23
21
2
11
4
7
3
15
22
20
15
3
15
14
5
2
2
December 1015
7
3
12
−2
88
86
6
6
74
13
7
9
18
5
10
15
18
16
1
7
12
14
5
11
16
20
13
3
16
15
6
5
|
Means
1016
13
8
26*
−3§
84
78
6
6
_
_
11
8
11
4
11
23
16
13
3
9
13
9
3
10
33
12
9
2
13
14
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
778
123
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
40
50
15
Extreme values _
_
_
31†
−5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
11
11
11
11
30
11
11
11
11
11
11
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
45
1.229 WMO No 03797 MANSTON (51
°
21
′
N 1
°
21
′
E) Height above MSL − 44 m
Climatic Table compiled from 11 years observations, 1995 to 2005
January 1016
8
3
13
−3
88
82
6
6
49
20
7
6
13
6
25
22
14
9
0
8
9
11
7
18
23
15
10
0
11
12
2
6
1
February 1018
8
3
14
−3
87
76
5
6
42
17
8
5
4
8
13
26
20
17
|
11
5
6
5
16
24
18
15
|
12
13
2
3
|
March 1017
10
4
17
−2
86
72
5
5
36
16
10
8
9
9
13
20
18
13
0
14
9
13
9
11
17
14
14
0
11
12
1
4
|
April
1014
13
6
20
0
82
66
5
5
47
16
15
10
10
11
12
17
13
12
0
16
17
11
10
15
18
7
6
0
11
12
|
3
1
May 1016
16
9
23
4
81
67
5
5
57
15
18
15
7
8
12
16
13
12
0
12
23
10
10
14
19
7
5
0
10
11
|
3
2
June 1017
19
11
27
7
79
65
5
5
28
10
10
6
6
12
10
21
15
20
|
10
9
10
12
12
25
9
12
0
10
11
|
1
2
July
1016
22
13
28
9
81
64
5
5
57
13
14
8
6
8
10
19
19
17
0
9
12
10
13
15
22
8
11
0
9
11
|
2
2
August 1016
23
15
29
10
84
61
4
4
54
12
13
7
9
12
10
16
16
18
0
11
13
18
13
9
20
5
11
0
9
11
|
2
2
September 1016
19
12
24
7
86
67
5
5
47
13
9
8
10
8
16
18
14
17
|
9
13
14
10
15
16
10
14
0
10
11
|
3
2
October
1013
15
9
20
3
88
73
5
5
87
20
5
2
11
10
20
23
21
8
|
7
5
11
9
18
24
16
10
|
11
12
2
3
1
November 1013
11
5
15
0
89
80
5
5
87
21
5
3
5
10
25
23
15
15
0
8
3
5
8
25
18
19
15
|
10
10
1
2
1
December 1015
8
3
13
−2
89
85
6
6
60
20
6
8
15
8
16
20
15
11
|
6
9
15
8
15
16
20
10
|
11
11
1
5
|
Means
1016
14
8
29*
−4§
85
71
5
5
_
_
10
7
9
9
15
20
16
14
|
10
11
11
10
15
20
12
11
|
10
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
651
193
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
9
37
14
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
−6‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
46
1.230 WMO No 03693 SHOEBURYNESS (51
°
33
′
N 0
°
50
′
E) Height above MSL − 3 m
Climatic Table compiled from 11 years observations, 1995 to 2005
January 1016
8
2
13
−4
88
80
5
4
35
17
9
6
9
7
18
25
13
10
2
10
8
9
6
14
24
15
11
1
10
11
1
2
|
February 1017
9
2
14
−4
87
72
4
5
33
15
11
2
4
6
10
29
22
15
2
10
8
9
5
8
28
20
13
0
10
12
2
2
|
March 1017
10
4
16
−2
86
69
5
5
31
15
11
10
10
5
8
19
18
18
3
9
11
18
8
10
21
13
10
0
10
11
1
2
|
April
1014
13
5
19
−1
82
66
4
4
36
12
17
10
10
9
13
17
11
12
1
11
9
22
13
15
17
7
6
0
10
11
|
1
0
May 1016
16
8
23
2
81
65
4
3
32
13
14
16
11
4
11
21
10
11
1
7
12
26
11
13
20
7
6
0
9
11
0
1
0
June 1017
20
11
27
6
79
61
4
4
34
12
11
5
10
8
10
23
15
17
|
8
3
18
12
13
23
12
10
|
9
11
|
|
|
July
1016
22
13
28
9
81
61
4
4
31
11
11
6
10
5
9
23
20
14
1
4
4
19
16
10
22
16
9
|
8
10
|
1
2
August 1016
23
14
29
9
84
59
3
3
41
10
14
5
16
7
9
16
18
13
2
8
3
26
16
8
22
11
7
0
8
11
0
1
1
September 1016
19
11
24
6
86
63
4
4
48
13
14
8
9
9
13
15
16
13
2
9
6
19
10
13
20
13
8
1
9
11
|
1
|
October
1014
15
9
20
2
88
69
4
4
59
18
7
2
9
8
17
22
20
12
3
5
4
13
8
19
23
17
11
|
10
12
1
2
0
November 1012
11
5
16
−1
89
78
4
4
58
18
10
2
3
9
20
19
22
14
2
11
3
4
9
16
22
17
16
2
9
10
|
2
0
December 1015
8
3
13
−2
89
83
4
5
52
18
11
6
12
7
14
17
18
11
3
12
10
14
5
11
19
14
13
3
10
10
1
3
0
Means
1015
14
7
29*
−5§
85
69
4
4
_
_
12
7
9
7
13
20
17
13
2
9
7
16
10
12
21
14
10
1
9
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
490
172
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
6
18
4
Extreme values _
_
_
32†
−7‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
47
1.231 WMO No 03696 WALTON ON NAZE (51
°
51
′
N 1
°
17
′
E) Height above MSL − 6 m
Climatic Table compiled from 10 to 30 years observations, 1963 to 1992
January 1017
6
2
10
−4
83
78
6
6
47
11
6
5
7
4
11
29
18
13
8
7
7
4
4
16
22
20
12
9
12
12
1
2
0
February 1017
6
2
11
−3
88
78
6
6
31
8
8
10
14
5
12
18
15
8
11
8
16
11
7
14
16
15
8
7
12
13
2
3
|
March 1015
9
3
14
−1
87
75
6
6
44
10
4
6
6
7
13
19
22
12
10
4
12
6
11
18
15
20
11
4
11
11
|
2
|
April
1014
11
5
16
0
85
67
5
6
39
9
10
18
7
8
14
10
14
12
7
7
21
10
13
19
8
11
7
4
11
11
|
1
|
May 1016
15
8
20
3
85
72
5
5
38
8
11
22
10
6
13
9
6
14
9
9
24
13
13
20
8
6
6
2
9
11
|
2
1
June 1016
18
11
23
6
85
71
6
6
43
8
12
19
3
3
15
15
12
12
10
5
21
10
15
17
11
9
7
5
9
10
|
1
1
July
1017
20
13
25
9
84
72
5
5
46
7
7
14
7
6
11
19
16
11
10
3
14
14
12
22
13
13
7
2
9
11
|
1
1
August 1016
20
14
25
9
86
66
5
5
44
7
7
12
5
3
17
19
17
13
8
3
10
10
13
26
15
13
7
4
9
11
|
1
1
September 1017
18
12
22
7
86
70
5
6
45
7
10
8
3
5
10
21
19
14
10
6
7
8
8
21
18
17
11
5
9
10
|
1
1
October
1015
14
9
19
3
86
73
6
6
49
9
6
4
7
9
15
23
15
13
8
7
8
9
7
21
19
15
8
6
11
11
1
1
1
November 1014
10
5
15
−1
88
80
6
6
56
11
8
3
6
8
12
21
17
15
11
7
6
4
8
16
19
15
13
12
10
10
1
2
0
December 1018
7
3
12
−2
85
81
6
6
49
11
5
3
4
8
18
27
15
14
7
4
5
6
7
12
27
17
10
13
11
10
1
2
0
Means
1016
13
7
26*
−5§
86
74
6
6
_
_
8
10
6
6
13
19
15
13
9
6
13
9
10
18
16
14
9
6
10
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
531
106
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
7
19
6
Extreme values _
_
_
31†
−5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
10
30
10
10
30
10
10
10
10
10
10
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
48
1.232 WMO No 07040 DIEPPE (49
°
56
′
N 1
°
06
′
E) Height above MSL − 38 m
Climatic Table compiled from 32 years observations, 1974 to 2005
January 1018
8
3
13
−5
87
80
6
6
76
16
5
3
12
6
45
17
6
5
1
6
7
12
5
28
20
15
6
1
12
12
4
2
|
February 1018
8
3
14
−4
88
76
6
6
49
14
8
5
11
7
38
16
8
6
1
8
13
12
7
15
18
17
9
1
11
12
3
2
|
March 1017
10
5
18
−1
88
76
6
6
50
15
7
8
9
4
29
19
15
8
2
9
20
5
4
11
14
24
13
|
11
11
2
3
|
April
1014
12
6
21
0
88
74
6
5
59
14
9
17
8
5
23
12
14
10
1
17
21
8
3
10
7
22
12
|
10
11
2
2
|
May 1016
15
9
25
4
90
77
6
5
49
14
11
23
10
4
13
13
15
9
1
15
28
9
2
8
5
19
13
|
9
10
1
2
1
June 1017
18
12
27
7
90
77
6
5
53
13
15
14
7
4
10
12
24
13
|
16
20
6
3
5
7
27
17
|
9
10
1
1
1
July
1017
20
14
28
9
88
77
5
5
54
13
11
17
6
2
12
12
23
16
1
16
28
4
1
3
4
26
22
|
9
10
|
2
1
August 1016
21
14
30
9
90
74
5
5
56
13
9
13
6
2
16
15
24
13
1
19
20
5
1
4
5
26
21
|
9
10
|
2
1
September 1016
19
12
26
6
90
72
6
5
64
15
9
9
9
3
33
19
8
8
2
17
18
6
3
10
10
21
15
|
10
10
1
2
|
October
1014
16
9
22
3
89
74
6
6
81
17
7
2
9
7
47
16
5
6
1
7
11
12
7
23
16
13
10
1
11
11
3
2
|
November 1015
11
6
17
−1
89
79
6
6
81
20
8
4
6
6
49
14
5
7
1
8
6
11
6
28
19
12
8
2
11
11
2
2
|
December 1016
8
4
14
−3
88
82
6
6
79
17
6
4
12
7
44
15
7
5
2
6
3
16
6
29
20
9
8
1
11
11
4
1
|
Means
1016
14
8
31*
−7§
89
76
6
5
_
_
8
10
9
5
30
15
13
9
1
12
16
9
4
14
12
19
13
1
10
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
751
183
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
23
23
5
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
−16‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
49
1.233 WMO No 07002 BOULOGNE (50
°
44
′
N 1
°
36
′
E) Height above MSL − 74 m
Climatic Table compiled from 22 years observations, 1984 to 2005
January 1017
7
3
11
−4
89
83
6
6
65
17
6
9
11
14
26
13
13
6
2
10
11
7
10
23
20
12
5
1
13
14
6
2
|
February 1018
7
3
12
−3
85
78
6
6
42
12
10
12
8
14
21
13
13
7
2
12
15
5
6
20
21
14
6
1
13
13
5
3
|
March 1017
9
5
16
−1
88
77
6
6
49
14
11
10
9
11
18
18
14
7
3
15
11
5
5
14
31
14
7
|
11
12
3
3
|
April
1014
12
6
20
1
86
72
6
5
59
13
14
16
6
8
20
16
10
9
2
20
15
3
3
10
28
14
8
1
11
12
1
2
|
May 1016
16
9
25
5
88
73
5
5
44
12
17
18
8
6
12
21
9
8
1
24
18
4
1
8
23
12
8
1
10
11
1
2
1
June 1017
18
12
26
9
89
75
6
5
43
12
13
11
6
3
14
27
16
11
1
18
11
2
2
7
37
15
9
0
10
11
1
2
1
July
1017
20
14
28
11
88
74
6
5
60
11
11
10
5
4
15
28
17
10
1
14
10
2
2
5
38
19
9
|
10
12
|
2
1
August 1016
21
15
29
12
88
72
5
5
39
10
11
9
8
6
14
25
18
9
1
15
12
3
1
4
38
18
8
|
9
11
1
1
1
September 1016
18
13
24
9
87
73
6
5
63
13
13
11
7
11
17
15
14
10
2
14
13
5
4
10
25
19
9
1
10
12
2
1
1
October
1014
15
10
20
5
87
74
6
6
75
15
8
9
12
21
19
10
13
7
1
10
12
9
8
19
20
16
6
1
12
12
4
1
1
November 1015
10
6
15
0
87
81
6
6
89
17
9
7
8
23
21
9
13
9
2
9
10
6
15
19
15
15
10
1
12
12
4
1
1
December 1016
8
4
13
−3
88
84
6
6
73
16
9
11
13
16
19
12
12
5
3
8
12
10
10
22
15
13
8
2
12
13
5
2
|
Means
1016
14
8
30*
−6§
88
76
6
5
_
_
11
11
8
11
18
17
14
8
2
14
12
5
6
13
26
15
8
1
11
12
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
701
162
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
33
22
7
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
−12‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0600
1500
1200
1200
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
50
1.234 WMO No 07010 DUNKERQUE (51
°
03
′
N 2
°
20
′
E) Height above MSL − 17 m
Climatic Table compiled from 22 years observations, 1984 to 2005
January 1017
7
3
13
−4
88
81
6
6
54
16
5
6
11
9
34
18
12
5
1
7
9
10
9
25
21
12
6
1
13
14
5
3
|
February 1018
8
3
13
−3
87
77
6
6
42
12
7
6
10
9
28
17
13
9
1
9
11
8
6
20
19
19
9
|
13
14
4
3
0
March 1017
10
5
17
0
89
76
6
6
47
15
8
8
9
10
20
20
17
8
1
15
12
4
5
14
21
20
9
|
13
14
3
2
|
April
1014
12
7
20
2
87
72
6
5
44
13
14
13
7
9
21
11
14
11
1
29
13
4
4
11
13
16
9
0
12
14
1
1
|
May 1016
16
10
24
6
88
73
5
5
42
12
25
17
5
6
12
11
13
10
1
37
15
2
2
9
10
15
10
0
11
13
1
2
1
June 1017
18
13
26
9
88
72
6
5
47
12
18
9
4
4
15
16
19
14
1
26
11
1
2
10
17
22
12
|
11
13
1
1
1
July
1017
21
15
27
12
89
73
6
5
66
11
15
12
2
4
16
17
22
11
1
25
11
2
1
8
21
22
10
|
11
13
1
1
2
August 1016
21
16
29
12
89
71
5
5
53
11
10
14
4
7
20
14
18
13
|
24
14
2
1
8
19
21
11
0
10
13
1
1
2
September 1016
19
13
25
9
89
71
6
5
61
13
10
9
8
11
22
15
15
10
|
20
11
4
5
13
17
19
12
0
11
13
1
1
1
October
1014
15
10
21
5
87
73
6
6
63
15
5
5
11
14
32
13
12
7
1
9
10
9
11
20
17
13
9
1
12
13
2
2
1
November 1015
11
6
16
0
88
81
6
6
68
16
5
4
10
12
36
13
11
9
1
6
7
9
11
26
15
14
9
2
12
12
3
3
1
December 1016
8
4
14
−3
88
83
6
6
63
16
4
6
13
10
33
16
11
6
1
5
7
11
11
27
16
13
9
1
13
14
4
4
|
Means
1016
14
9
30*
−6§
88
75
6
5
_
_
10
9
8
9
24
15
15
9
1
18
11
5
6
16
17
17
10
|
12
13
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
650
162
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
27
24
9
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
−13‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
51
1.235 WMO No 06408 OOSTENDE PIER (51
°
14
′
N 2
°
55
′
E) Height above MSL − 15 m
Climatic Table compiled from 22 years observations, 1984 to 2005
January 1017
6
3
13
−3
84
81
6
6
44
13
5
6
14
6
35
16
14
5
|
8
7
12
4
28
20
15
7
0
16
17
7
6
|
February 1018
7
3
12
−2
83
76
5
5
29
9
4
4
18
6
23
19
15
7
1
8
9
12
6
14
24
19
9
|
16
17
5
6
|
March 1017
9
5
16
−1
85
76
5
5
34
11
6
9
10
6
21
18
22
9
|
14
13
4
3
12
17
31
7
|
15
16
4
4
1
April
1015
12
7
19
2
83
72
5
5
38
11
15
13
11
4
18
16
16
7
1
27
17
3
4
8
12
20
9
|
14
15
3
3
1
May 1017
15
10
23
4
83
73
5
4
32
10
20
17
8
4
11
15
18
7
1
35
17
3
1
7
6
23
7
|
13
15
2
3
1
June 1017
18
13
26
8
82
71
5
5
43
10
17
10
6
3
10
18
25
9
1
27
12
2
3
3
7
36
9
0
13
14
2
2
1
July
1017
20
15
28
10
83
72
5
4
44
9
12
9
8
2
11
19
29
9
|
24
11
2
2
5
8
39
9
|
13
14
2
2
3
August 1016
21
16
28
9
84
71
5
4
46
9
11
10
7
6
17
18
22
9
|
23
12
2
2
5
9
35
12
0
12
14
2
2
2
September 1017
18
13
24
6
84
71
5
5
53
11
9
5
11
7
23
16
17
10
1
19
12
4
3
11
11
30
10
|
13
15
2
3
2
October
1015
15
10
20
5
86
74
5
5
47
12
4
5
15
9
33
17
12
5
0
8
8
11
8
21
18
19
6
|
14
15
4
4
1
November 1015
10
6
15
−1
85
80
6
6
64
14
4
3
13
9
35
15
12
8
|
5
8
10
9
28
16
15
10
|
14
15
3
5
1
December 1017
7
4
13
−3
86
83
6
6
48
13
4
5
20
6
31
14
13
7
|
5
5
19
6
24
18
18
6
|
15
16
5
5
|
Means
1016
13
9
29*
−6§
84
75
5
5
_
_
9
8
12
6
23
17
18
7
|
17
11
7
4
14
14
25
8
|
14
15
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
522
132
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
41
45
13
Extreme values _
_
_
33†
−12‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
52
1.236 WMO No 06310 VLISSINGEN (51
°
27
′
N 3
°
36
′
E) Height above MSL − 8 m
Climatic Table compiled from 10 to 40 years observations, 1941 to 1992
January 1016
5
1
10
−5
88
84
6
6
59
12
4
13
6
7
25
25
15
6
|
5
12
7
4
21
24
18
8
|
14
16
3
4
|
February 1016
5
1
12
−4
87
79
5
6
47
9
5
23
12
5
15
20
14
7
|
7
21
13
5
12
16
20
6
|
13
15
2
4
|
March 1014
9
3
15
−1
89
75
5
5
43
9
6
10
8
8
18
23
20
7
|
10
7
8
8
12
16
28
10
|
12
14
1
4
|
April
1014
12
5
19
1
85
73
5
5
42
9
7
17
12
6
18
17
16
7
|
15
14
9
5
9
9
28
11
|
11
13
|
2
1
May 1015
16
9
23
5
85
67
5
5
47
9
13
13
13
7
10
17
15
12
|
28
7
10
3
7
7
22
16
|
10
13
|
2
2
June 1016
19
11
26
8
85
66
5
5
52
8
14
11
7
7
9
19
21
11
|
24
5
6
1
3
11
31
17
|
10
12
|
1
2
July
1016
20
14
27
11
85
67
5
5
71
10
7
10
9
7
11
21
25
10
|
15
4
10
3
5
13
33
16
|
10
12
|
1
3
August 1016
21
14
27
11
86
68
5
5
72
10
6
9
8
7
12
25
24
9
|
13
5
6
4
7
11
38
16
|
10
12
|
1
2
September 1016
19
12
25
8
87
70
5
5
76
12
5
8
7
6
16
30
18
9
|
14
6
7
5
10
14
33
11
|
11
13
1
1
1
October
1015
14
9
21
3
87
77
6
5
69
11
4
9
12
11
24
22
12
6
|
7
9
12
8
15
22
20
7
|
13
14
2
2
1
November 1014
10
5
15
−1
88
82
6
6
77
12
4
12
7
10
21
25
12
9
|
6
9
9
10
21
17
18
10
|
13
13
2
3
|
December 1016
6
2
11
−4
89
84
6
6
63
12
5
10
6
7
28
21
16
8
|
4
15
3
7
25
22
16
8
|
13
14
2
4
|
Means
1015
13
7
30*
−7§
87
74
5
5
_
_
7
12
9
7
17
22
17
8
|
12
10
8
5
12
15
26
11
|
12
13
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
718
123
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
14
29
14
Extreme values _
_
_
34†
−14‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
40
40
40
40
30
10
10
10
40
40
40
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
0.1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0600
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
53
1.237 WMO No 06344 ROTTERDAM AIRPORT (51
°
57
′
N 4
°
27
′
E) Height above MSL − −4 m
Climatic Table compiled from 20 to 32 years observations, 1974 to 2005
January 1016
6
2
12
−7
91
83
6
6
71
16
4
8
8
7
28
25
15
6
1
4
10
8
6
22
24
18
9
|
11
12
2
4
1
February 1017
6
1
12
−7
91
77
5
6
59
13
6
15
16
8
20
18
10
6
1
5
18
15
7
19
17
14
5
|
11
12
2
4
|
March 1015
10
3
16
−4
92
73
6
6
59
15
5
10
12
7
20
22
17
6
|
8
11
8
6
15
22
20
10
|
11
13
1
3
|
April
1014
13
5
21
−2
92
66
5
5
45
12
14
19
9
7
14
14
13
10
|
17
15
8
4
9
11
18
18
|
10
12
|
2
1
May 1016
17
8
26
2
88
64
5
5
51
11
12
20
12
7
12
14
13
10
|
19
13
11
4
10
10
19
15
|
10
11
|
2
2
June 1016
20
11
28
5
89
67
5
5
66
13
11
13
8
4
11
19
20
15
|
17
8
6
4
6
12
28
19
|
9
11
|
2
3
July
1016
22
13
30
8
89
67
5
5
72
13
10
12
9
5
10
17
22
16
|
12
11
7
2
4
12
29
22
|
9
11
|
2
2
August 1016
22
13
30
8
92
66
5
5
67
12
8
12
8
5
15
21
19
12
|
10
10
8
2
10
12
31
17
|
9
10
|
2
3
September 1016
19
11
24
5
93
72
5
5
93
16
6
9
5
9
20
23
17
10
|
9
7
6
4
14
20
28
12
|
9
11
|
3
2
October
1014
15
8
20
0
92
76
6
5
75
15
4
6
10
11
28
19
14
6
1
8
8
11
7
21
19
18
9
|
10
11
1
3
2
November 1015
9
5
15
−3
91
83
6
6
81
16
5
7
7
7
31
23
16
5
|
7
8
7
6
25
23
15
8
|
10
11
1
4
2
December 1015
7
3
13
−6
91
86
6
6
76
16
5
8
10
7
28
24
14
5
1
5
7
10
7
23
23
17
7
|
11
11
1
4
1
Means
1016
14
7
31*
−10§
91
73
5
5
_
_
7
12
10
7
20
20
16
9
|
10
10
9
5
15
17
21
13
|
10
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
815
168
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
8
35
19
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
−17‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
32
32
32
32
32
32
20
32
32
32
20
20
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
CHAPTER 1
54
1.238
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
HECTOPASCALS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
NOTES
55
Outer Gabbard
V
a
rn
e
F3
W
e
s
t
H
i
n
d
e
r
S
a
n
d
e
t
t
i
é
D
e
ep Water
R
ou
te N
P 55
Noord Hinder
Junction
Noord
Hinder
Steenbank
Chapter 7
Cap Gris-Nez
Les Ridens
Wandelaar
Chapter 7
NE Spit
Chapter 11
Sunk
Chapter 11
North
Foreland 2.50
2.71
2.41
2.69
2.56
2.35
F R A N C E
Greenwich
B E L G I U M
E N G L A N D
The NE deep draught route (2.69) and the SW deep draught route (2.71) follow the routes through the TSS, except when shown
2451
2450
1630
2449
1205
0°
0°
1°
Longitude 1° East from Greenwich
2°
2°
3°
3°
52° 52°
51° 51°
30´ 30´
30´30´
30´ 30´ 30´
30´ 30´
Chapter 2 - English Channel to Southern North Sea -Through routes
56
57
CHAPTER 2
ENGLISH CHANNEL TO SOUTHERN NORTH SEA−THROUGH ROUTES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Introduction
Charts 2675, 2182A, 5500
Scope of chapter
2.1 1
This chapter provides general information and directions
for vessels proceeding through the approaches to the Dover
Strait, the strait itself and the S part of the North Sea.
2
Passage through the area is affected by the local
underwater topography, which governs draught (2.9 to
2.11), hazards and dangers (2.12 to 2.19), and natural
conditions (2.27 to 2.33). The combination of these factors
is often adverse and together with the high volume of
vessel traffic in the area, has led to the imposition of a
number of traffic regulatory measures, which govern the
selection of routes. These are described in outline at 2.21
to 2.26.
Routes
2.2 1
Mariners’ Routeing Guide (Chart 5500) contains
Passage Planning Charts which show the routes through the
TSS’s which lead through the English Channel, Dover
Strait and Southern North Sea as far as the entrance to
Europoort. These charts also refer to tables on the guide
which give further information on routeing, regulations,
pilotage and maritime radio services. The routes to be
followed in accordance with the traffic regulatory measures,
which are approved by IMO, are outlined in 2.3 to 2.6 and
detailed in the directions contained in this chapter.
2
The Mariners’ Routeing Guide is maintained in date by
Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
The IMO has adopted a recommendation that all vessels
navigating in the English Channel and Dover Strait should
carry the latest edition of Chart 5500 or other equivalent
guide.
2.3 1
NE-going route. The NE-going route approaches the
Dover Strait from the SW and runs along the SE side of
the strait. From a position S of Greenwich Light-float
(50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W) it leads between Bassurelle (50°37′N
1°05′E) (2.38) and Vergoyer (50°33′N 1°15′E) (5.126), NW
of Sandettié Bank (51°14′N 1°57′E) (2.40) for
deep−draught vessels, or, SE of Sandettié Bank for vessels
not constrained by draught, and finally NE to the Noord
Hinder Junction Precautionary Area (51°57′N 2°53′E)
(2.54). In all the distance is about 170 miles. For directions
see 2.38 to 2.40 and 2.53 to 2.54.
2
It is recommended that the DW Route NW of Sandettié
Bank is only used by vessels with a draught of 16 m or
more. The main lane for NE−bound traffic SE of Sandettié
Bank must be followed by all vessels whose draught is less
than 16 m and allows them to use it safely.
2.4 1
West Hinder TSS to Wandelaar Pilot Station (51°22′N
2°43′E) (7.13). The TSS runs 20 miles E from its junction
with the Dover Strait TSS, NE of Sandettié Bank (51°14′N
1°57′E) to the pilot station. See 2.47.
2.5 1
SW-going route. The SW-going route approaches the
Dover Strait from the N and runs more or less parallel to
the NE-going route, but on the NW side of the strait, from
Noord Hinder Junction Precautionary Area (51°57′N
2°53′E) (2.54), passing close NW of the DW route to the
NW of Sandettié Bank (51°14′N 1°57′E) (2.6), either side
of The Varne (50°58′N 1°20′E) (2.61), NW of The Ridge
(50°53′N 1°20′E) (2.39) and Bullock Bank (50°45′N
1°05′E) (2.62) to a position N of Greenwich Light-float
(50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W). See 2.59 to 2.62.
2.6 1
Deep−draught routes follow the NE-going and
SW-going traffic lanes except that they run through specific
points, known as waypoints. The NE-going deep−draught
route (2.63), which is recommended by the Netherlands
authorities, passes to the NW of Sandettié Bank (51°14′N
1°57′E), through that part of the TSS which is designated a
DW route by IMO. The SW-going deep−draught route
(2.63), which has no formal standing, passes SE of The
Varne (50°58′N 1°20′E).
2.7 1
Inshore Traffic Zones which lie between the TSS and
the coast on both sides to the S and E of Cap Gris-Nez
and Dover are described in the appropriate coastal chapters.
2.8 1
For further information on routeing and traffic measures
see 1.5 to 1.10, the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices
to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.
Controlling depths and draught
Controlling depths
2.9 1
Depths in the routes described in this chapter are critical
for deep−draught vessels. There are a number of shoals and
wrecks with depths less than 20 m over them, but these can
be avoided by using the deep−draught routes (2.69, 2.70
and 2.71).
2
The controlling depth on the NE-going deep−draught
route is 26⋅5 m in the vicinity of Waypoint I (51°21′⋅9N
1°58′⋅5E) (2.69) at the N end of the Sandettié DW Route.
3
The controlling depth on the SW-going deep−draught
route is considered to be 23⋅5 m on an isolated wreck
(50°58′N 1°22′E), which is swept to that depth and lies
close SE of The Varne. However, where the contour of the
South Falls shoal continues SSW across the SW−going lane
of the Dover Strait TSS, depths of about 25 m are almost
unavoidable. Moreover this is an area of sandwave activity
(2.16).
Draught
2.10 1
Vessels up to a draught of 22 m, in favourable
conditions 22⋅55 m, can use the NE-going deep−draught
route. A deepest draught is not stipulated for the SW-going
route, however in both cases recommended under-keel
clearances for each leg of the deep−draught route are given.
For advice on under-keel allowances see 2.66 and 2.68.
CHAPTER 2
58
2.11 1
Height of tide. Deep−draught vessels may have to make
use of the height of tide in order to have a safe under-keel
clearance in areas where depths are critical. This applies
particularly to SW-bound vessels in the area between The
Varne (50°58′N 1°20′E) and The Ridge (50°53′N 1°20′E).
Hazards and dangers
Risk of collision
2.12 1
There is a high risk of collision, particularly in poor
visibility, in the Dover Strait and the adjacent waters. Apart
from vessels in transit through the area in the TSS, there is
regular cross-Channel ferry traffic, including HSC, which is
at a peak in the summer months, coinciding with
concentrations of fishing vessels and recreational craft.
Crossing traffic
2.13 1
The main ferry ports on the English coast are Dover
(51°07′N 1°20′E) (4.41) and Ramsgate (51°20′N 1°25′E)
(4.110). Ferries from these ports run principally to Calais
(50°58′N 1°51′E) (6.17), Dunkerque, Port Ouest (51°02′N
2°10′E) (6.90) and Oostende (51°14′N 2°55′E) (6.158).
Much of the crossing traffic is therefore concentrated in the
gap between Sandettié Bank (51°14′N 1°57′E) (2.40) and
The Ridge, 20 miles SW (2.39) but it should be noted that
ferries on passage between Ramsgate and Oostende may
cross South Falls Bank in the vicinity of Mid Falls Light
−buoy (51°18′⋅6N 1°47′⋅0E) and Sandettie Bank in the
vicinity of Sandettie E Light−buoy (51°14′⋅9N 2°02′⋅6E).
There is also cross-Channel traffic between the ports in the
Thames Estuary, and Harwich (51°57′N 1°18′E) (13.55) to
Zeebrugge (51°20′N 3°12′E) (7.60) and Vlissingen
(51°27′N 3°35′E) (7.122). This crossing traffic tends to
concentrate in the vicinity of Foxtrot 3 Light-float
(51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E) (2.51) and the gap between the N end
of Sandettié Bank and Fairy W Light-buoy, 6 miles NNE.
2
Caution. Ferries and other vessels may alter course near
the limits of the TSS in order to cross the TSS at right
angles in accordance with the International Regulations for
Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). See 1.6.
Areas to be avoided
2.14
1
To avoid hazard to important navigational aids, a
circular Area to be Avoided has been established around
each of the following buoys:
CS4 Light-buoy (51°08′⋅7N 1°34′⋅0E) (radius
3 cables)
2
Foxtrot 3 Light-buoy (51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E) (radius
3 cables)
Noordhinder Light-buoy (52°00′⋅0N 2°51′⋅1E) radius
5 cables).
Off-lying banks
2.15 1
Navigation is restricted by a series of shallow banks
which lie NE-SW in mid channel. These banks are
composed of coarse sand and broken shells.
Sandwaves
2.16 1
In some places sandwaves encroach into the traffic lanes
and may be of concern to deep−draught vessels. Little is
known about the seasonal and long term changes in
amplitude or lateral movement of these waves. See also
The Mariner’s Handbook.
2
The areas known to be most subject to sandwaves and
of significance to deep−draught vessels are:
NE end of Sandettié Bank (51°18′N 2°05′E) (2.40)
towards Fairy Bank, 8 miles NE (7.5).
3
In an area 2 to 5 miles NW of NE end of Sandettié
Bank.
In the vicinity of 51°33′N 2°14′E, about 16 miles
NNE of the NE end of Sandettié Bank.
Off the SW end of South Falls (51°14′N 1°44′E).
Off the SW end of Sandettié Bank.
4
Sandwaves have also been found SW of Bassurelle
(50°37′N 1°05′E) (2.38) in the vicinity of 50°31′N 0°56′E
and 50°29′N 0°59′E.
Wrecks
2.17 1
Within the Dover Strait TSS the least depth over most
wrecks dangerous to navigation has been established by
wire sweeping. However it should be borne in mind that no
chart is infallible and previously undetected wrecks could
occur. Furthermore the action of tidal streams or currents
may cause wrecks hitherto covered by sandbanks to
become uncovered or cause deep scouring into which
wrecks may capsize. The latter normally results in an
increase in depth over the wreck but depths may also
decrease for the same reason.
2
For depth criteria for dangerous and non−dangerous
wrecks see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Power cables
2.18 1
Power cables, shown on the charts, cross the approaches
to the Dover Strait, and the strait itself, in several places,
in particular between Folkestone (51°05′N 1°12′E) and
Sangatte, 22 miles ESE. See also 1.64 and The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Fishing
2.19 1
See 1.14 to 1.20.
Pilotage
Deep−sea pilots
2.20 1
Licensed deep−sea pilots for ports in NW Europe,
including the British Isles and The Baltic, should be
requested through the various pilotage agencies based in
the British Isles or other European countries. The use of a
deep−sea pilot is strongly recommended by IMO for
infrequent visitors to the area and for all vessels
constrained by their draught.
2
These pilots may be embarked before reaching the
complex traffic schemes in the Dover Strait and the S part
of the North Sea, in which case embarkation normally
takes place off Brixham (50°24′N 3°30′W) or Cherbourg
(49°38′N 1°38′W). Arrangements can also be made through
the pilotage agencies to embark deep−sea pilots by
helicopter off Cherbourg.
3
Deep−sea pilots often have to travel long distances to
their point of embarkation and as much notice as possible
should be given to the pilotage agency of the requirement
for a pilot. Similar arrangements can be made by outward
bound vessels and those coasting from port to port in the
area.
4
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1) and Chart 5500.
CHAPTER 2
59
Regulation of vessel traffic
Chart 5500
Routes and traffic management
2.21 1
The TSSs and precautionary area, which constrain the
routes outlined in 2.2, are continuous from the Greenwich
Light-float (50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W) to a position 13 miles NE
of Noordhinder Light-buoy (safe water) (52°00′N 2°51′E).
The measures are all adopted by IMO and Rule 10 of The
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
applies. They are summarised on the chart and the areas in
which the schemes apply are shown on the charts. See 1.5
to 1.10 for a general description of the operation of the
schemes.
2
Caution. Shipping lanes in the area covered by this
chapter are among the busiest in the world and pose
serious problems for the safety of navigation. TSSs and
other measures have been introduced to alleviate these
problems, but their existence does not imply that the area
has been adequately surveyed, and the existence of
sandwave areas (2.16), where depths may be less than
charted, should be taken into account by Masters of
deep−draught vessels.
Mandatory ship reporting system
2.22 1
A mandatory ship reporting system (CALDOVREP) has
been established in the area between Bassurelle Light-buoy
(50°33′N 0°58′E) and Sandettié Bank (51°15′N 2°00′E).
See 1.9.
For details see Chart 5500 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1).
Channel Navigation Information Service
2.23 1
The Channel Navigation Information Service (CNIS)
provides a radio safety service by scheduled broadcasts or,
on request, to individual vessels on passage through the
Dover Strait. The area covered by the service extends from
the Greenwich Light-float (50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W) to the
latitude of Noordhinder Light-buoy (52°00′N 2°51′E) and
vessels within the area should listen to the appropriate VHF
broadcasts. Radar surveillance is provided by stations at
Saint Margaret’s Bay (51°09′N 1°24′E) and Cap Gris-Nez
(50°52′N 1°35′E) and covers some 110 miles of the Dover
Strait. The limits of the area surveyed by radar are shown
on Chart 5500.
2
Broadcasts are made by Dover Strait Coastguard and
Cap Gris-Nez VTS and comprise navigational and traffic
information of immediate interest together with the
movements of vessels which appear to be acting in
contravention of the rules governing the scheme. The latter
may be identified by AIS, aircraft, helicopters or surface
vessels and subsequently reported to Flag States.
3
For further details see Chart 5500 and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Radio navigational warnings
2.24 1
In addition to the CNIS (2.23), Coast Radio Stations
broadcast Maritime Safety Information (MSI). For details
see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1) and
Chart 5500.
French regulations for tankers and vessels carrying dangerous cargoes
2.25 1
See 1.88.
Special reporting requirement for deep−draught vessels bound for Europoort
2.26
1
Vessels exceeding 20⋅7 m draught bound for Europoort
are required to report to Central Traffic Control (HCC)
Rotterdam 48 hours prior to arrival off Cherbourg. A
Netherlands pilot for Eurogeul may be embarked by
helicopter off Cherbourg and thereafter vessels must not
pass a position 5 miles SW of Bassurelle Light-buoy
(50°37′N 1°05′E) unless informed that tidal conditions in
the vicinity of Twin Light-buoy (51°32′N 2°23′E) are
normal.
Natural conditions
Tidal streams
2.27 1
The rates of the tidal streams vary depending on the
width of the English Channel and are greatest in its
narrowest part, so that in the Dover Strait itself spring rates
up to 4 kn occur, but in the wider parts of the Channel
rates of 2½ kn are rarely exceeded.
2
In the S part of the North Sea the tidal streams tend to
set obliquely across the shoals. The streams do not
necessarily change at local HW or LW and are often at
their greatest rate at local HW. See 1.175 to 1.181 for
further details.
3
The wind has a considerable effect on the strength and
direction of the tidal streams see 1.172.
2.28 1
Tidal streams in the Dover Strait and adjacent waters are
given in the following:
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: The English Channel.
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait.
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern
Portion.
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-tidal Charts:
Thames Estuary.
See also information on the charts.
2.29 1
East-going stream advantage. Vessels E-bound between
Greenwich Light-float (50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W) and Les
Ridens (50°45′N 1°18′E) (2.38) can take some advantage
from the E-going stream, see 3.5 for details.
Tidal heights
2.30 1
Accurate predictions of tidal heights offshore are
difficult to obtain, particularly in the S part of the North
Sea, because the range varies from about 6 m near Dover
to almost zero in the vicinity of Brown Ridge (52°35′N
3°20′E), 115 miles NE of Dover.
2
Co-tidal charts are based on good information close
inshore, but offshore such information is poor and the
co-tidal charts less reliable. Because co-tidal charts and
coastal tide gauges have been used to obtain the tidal
heights used in the reduction of soundings of charted
depths offshore, such depths may be subject to errors of an
unknown magnitude, possibly as much as 1 m.
3
The following Admiralty co-tidal and co-range charts are
available:
CHAPTER 2
60
5057 Dungeness to Hook of Holland
5058 British Isles and adjacent waters
5059 Southern North Sea.
Tidal data in critical areas
2.31 1
The approximate times of HW and the mean tidal ranges
in some critical areas are:
Area Time of HW Mean range (m)
f
from Dover
Neaps Springs
The Varne
(50°58′N 1°20′E)
At HW 3⋅8 6⋅6
SW of Sandettié
(51°14′N 1°57′E)
+0020 3⋅0 5⋅5
N and NE of
Sandettié
+0040 2⋅6 4⋅5
N of Noordhinder
(51°37′N 2°34′E)
+0140 1⋅7 2⋅7
2
For further details see chart 5057.
Storm surges
2.32 1
Positive and negative surges are caused by strong and
prolonged winds and by unusually high or low barometric
pressure, see 1.183. In the S part of the North Sea such
surges may result in rises of 3 m or more above predicted
tidal heights or falls of 2 m or more below them.
2
In the Dover Strait and S North Sea areas, negative
surge warnings are broadcast by Coast Radio Stations and
Navtex whenever it is estimated that actual tidal level may
be 1 m or more below the predicted level. This information
is broadcast by the Channel Navigation Information Service
also. See 2.23.
Weather
2.33 1
Winds increase in strength by being funnelled through
the Dover Strait, leading to a rough sea in the area.
Weather. For full details of weather see 1.196 to 1.224.
DIRECTIONS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2675, 2182A
2.34 1
The general information pertinent to all routes is given
in 2.2 to 2.33 and only information specific to a given
route, such as principal marks, is given prior to the
directions themselves.
2
The directions are divided as follows:
NE-going traffic lane, Greenwich Meridian to
Sandettié Bank, 2.38 to 2.40.
West Hinder TSS, 2.47.
NE-going traffic lane Sandettié Bank to Noord Hinder
Junction Precautionary Area, 2.53 to 2.54.
3
SW and W-going traffic lane Noord Hinder Junction
Precautionary Area to Greenwich Meridian, 2.59 to
2.62.
NE-going Deep−Draught Route, 2.69 and 2.70.
SW-going Deep−Draught Route, 2.71.
NORTH EAST-GOING TRAFFIC LANE -
GREENWICH MERIDIAN TO SANDETTIÉ
General information
Charts 2675, 2451, 1892, 323
Route
2.35 1
From a position S of Greenwich Light-float (50°24′⋅6N
0°00′⋅1W) the NE-going traffic lane of the Dover Strait
TSS, which is shown on the charts, leads 105 miles in a
generally NE direction to a position NE of Sandettié N
Light-buoy (51°18′N 2°05′E).
Principal marks
2.36 1
Landmarks on the coast of France:
Mont Lambert (50°43′N 1°39′E) (5.154).
Boulogne Cathedral (50°43′⋅6N 1°36′⋅9E).
Colonne de la Grande Armée (50°44′⋅5N 1°37′⋅0E).
Mont de Couple (50°52′N 1°43′E) (6.15).
Cap Gris-Nez Lighthouse (white tower, black top,
31 m in height) (50°52′⋅1N 1°35′⋅0E).
Dover Patrol Monument (50°55′⋅5N 1°42′⋅6E) (6.13).
For marks further NW which may be identified from
the vicinity of Sandettié Bank see 6.4.
2
Major lights:
Greenwich Light-float (red hull, ‘Greenwich’ in
white, light−tower amidships, 12 m in height)
(50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W).
Berck-Plage Light (50°23′⋅9N 1°33′⋅6E) (5.130).
Le Touquet Light (50°31′⋅4N 1°35′⋅5E) (5.130).
Cap d’Alprech Light (50°42′N 1°34′E) (5.130).
Boulogne, Digue Sud Light (50°44′⋅5N 1°34′⋅0E)
(5.154).
3
Cap Gris-Nez Light—as above (5.171).
Calais Main Light (50°57′⋅7N 1°51′⋅2E) (6.35).
Sandettié Light-float (red hull) (51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E).
Dunkerque Light (51°02′⋅9N 2°21′⋅9E) (6.54).
4
For principal marks and major lights on the coast of
England see 2.57.
Other aids to navigation
2.37
1
Racons transmit from:
Greenwich Light-float (50°24′⋅6, 0°00′⋅1W)
Bassurelle Light-buoy (50°32′⋅8N 0°57′⋅7E).
Vergoyer Nord Light-buoy (50°39′⋅7N 1°22′⋅2E).
Varne Light-float (51°01′⋅3N 1°23′⋅9E).
MPC Light-buoy (51°06′⋅1N 1°38′⋅2E).
Sandettié Light-float (51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E).
Directions
(Continued from directions given in the Channel Pilot)
Charts 2450, 2451
Greenwich Meridian to Les Ridens
2.38 1
From a position about 6 miles S of Greenwich
Light-float (50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W) (2.36), at the W end of
Dover Strait TSS, the route follows the NE-going traffic
CHAPTER 2
61
lane, which is 4 miles or more wide and shown on the
chart, 56 miles in a generally ENE direction, passing:
2
SE of Bassurelle (50°37′N 1°05′E) a sandy shoal
running 8 miles NE-SW. Depths are likely to
change over the shoal and eddies occur in bad
weather, particularly with wind against stream
which raises a dangerous sea. Bassurelle
Light-buoy (port hand) (50°33′N 0°58′E) is
moored at the SW end of the shoal. And:
3
NW of Vergoyer (50°33′N 1°15′E) (5.126), a shoal
running along the SE side of the traffic lane which
is marked by Vergoyer SW Light-buoy (W
cardinal) at its SW extremity, by Vergoyer Ouest
Light-buoy (starboard hand) and Vergoyer
Nord−Ouest Light-buoy (starboard hand) both on
its NW side and Vergoyer Nord Light-buoy (N
cardinal) at its NE extremity, thence:
4
To a position SE of Les Ridens (50°45′N 1°18′E)
marked at its SE corner by Ridens SE Light-buoy
(E cardinal). Les Ridens consists of shoals of sand,
gravel and shells over which strong eddies occur
and the sea breaks heavily. The area should be
avoided.
5
Caution. Sandwaves exist SW of Bassurelle, see 2.16.
Charts 1892, 323
Les Ridens to Sandettié Bank
2.39 1
From a position SE of Les Ridens (50°45′N 1°18′E)
(2.38), within the NE-going traffic lane, the route follows
the traffic lane 30 miles in a generally NNE direction to a
position E of the S end of Sandettié Bank, passing:
2
WNW of ZC1 Light-buoy (special) (50°45′N 1°27′E)
which is moored on the S entry point of the
Boulogne Approach Channel, shown on the chart,
thence:
3
ESE of The Ridge or Le Colbart (50°53′N 1°20′E), a
dangerous steep-to shoal, which runs 10 miles N-S
and should not be crossed, even at HW. The sea
breaks heavily over the shoal particularly with
wind against stream. The shoal is marked at its S
extremity by Colbart SW Light-buoy (S cardinal)
and at its N extremity by Colbart N Light-buoy (N
cardinal). Thence:
4
WNW and NW of ZC2 Light-buoy (special pillar)
(50°54′N 1°31′E), thence:
SE of MPC Light-buoy (special) (51°06′⋅1N
1°38′⋅2E), thence:
5
To a position between Sandettié Light-float
(51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E) (2.36) and Ruytingen SW
Light-buoy (starboard hand), 4½ miles S.
Chart 323
Sandettié Bank
2.40 1
Sandettié Bank may be passed on either side. The main
NE-going route keeps SE of Sandettié Bank and should be
used by all vessels that can safely navigate in that part of
the channel having regard to their draught. The DW route
passes NW of Sandettié Bank and is for the use of those
vessels, which because of their draught, cannot navigate
safely to the SE of the bank. It is recommended that the
DW water route should only be used by vessels with a
draught of 16 m or more. The two routes merge again NE
of Sandettié Bank. For a description of the DW route
passing NW of the bank see 2.70.
2
From a position between Sandettié Light-float
(51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E) (2.36) and Ruytingen SW Light-buoy
(starboard hand) 4½ miles S, the route runs 19 miles NE to
a position NE of the bank, passing:
3
SE of Sandettié Bank (51°14′N 1°57′E), a shoal
running 15 miles NE-SW, marked at its SW
extremity by Sandettié Light-float (2.36), and on
its E side by Sandettié E Light-buoy (port hand).
And:
4
NW of Out Ruytingen (51°08′N 2°05′E) (6.3), which
lies along the SE boundary of the traffic lane and
is marked on its NW side by Ruytingen SW
Light-buoy (starboard hand), Ruytingen W
Light-buoy (N cardinal), Ruytingen NW
Light-buoy (starboard hand) and Ruytingen N
Light-buoy (N cardinal), thence:
5
W of the entrance to the E-going traffic lane
(51°17′N 2°10′E) of the West Hinder TSS (2.47),
thence:
6
To a position between Sandettié N Light-buoy (N
cardinal), moored at the N end of Sandettié Bank,
and Hinder 1 Light-buoy (isolated danger).
(Directions continue for passage NE at 2.53 and
for West Hinder TSS at 2.47)
WEST HINDER TSS TO WANDELAAR
PILOT STATION
General information
Charts 323, 1873
Route
2.41 1
From the vicinity of Hinder 1 Light-buoy (isolated
danger) (51°21′N 2°11′E) the West Hinder TSS leads
20 miles in a generally E direction. Wandelaar Pilot Station
lies in the precautionary area at the E end of the TSS.
Least charted depth
2.42 1
Depths of less than 20 m exist within the West Hinder
Precautionary Area (51°22′N 2°43′E). There is a least
charted depth of 15⋅4 m in position 51°21′⋅5N 2°43′⋅0E.
However depths are subject to change and the latest
information should be requested from the pilot.
Pilotage
2.43 1
Pilots are embarked at Wandelaar Pilotage Station for
Westerschelde, Zeebrugge, Oostende and Nieuwpoort. For
details see 7.12 to 7.15.
Traffic regulations
2.44 1
For details of Traffic Separation Schemes see 1.5.
West Hinder TSS leads into the area covered by the
VTS for Schelde and Estuaries. See 7.16 for details.
CHAPTER 2
62
Principal marks
2.45 1
Offshore marks:
Westhinder Light (red pile, 23 m in height)
(51°23′⋅3N 2°26′⋅3E).
Oostdyck Radar Tower (51°16′⋅5N 2°26′⋅8E) (6.54).
Major lights:
Nieuwpoort Light (51°09′⋅3N 2°43′⋅8E) (6.54).
Oostende Light (51°14′⋅2N 2°55′⋅8E) (6.54).
Oostdyck Radar Tower (2.45)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Flemish Region−Coast Division)
Other aids to navigation
2.46 1
Racons transmit from:
Oostdyck Radar Tower (see above).
Westhinder Light − as above.
KB Light-buoy (51°21′⋅0N 2°42′⋅8E).
Directions
(continued from 2.40)
2.47 1
The West Hinder TSS is only 2 miles wide for the
greater part of its length and contains two traffic lanes,
separated by a narrow separation zone, with the E-going
lane to the S of the W-going lane. From its W end, S of
Hinder 1 Light-buoy (isolated danger) (51°21′N 2°11′E),
the TSS leads 18 miles in a generally E direction, to the
West Hinder Precautionary Area (51°22′N 2°43′E) and the
Wandelaar Pilot Station, passing:
2
S of a buoy (port hand) which marks an obstruction
lying in approximate position 51°19′⋅4N 2°13′⋅8E
just inside the S limit of the separation zone,
thence;
3
NW of Bergues Bank (51°17′N 2°22′E) (6.62),
marked on its NW side by Bergues Light-buoy
(starboard hand) and Bergues N Light-buoy (N
cardinal), thence:
4
SE of Fairy Bank (51°24′N 2°20′E) (7.5), marked at
its SE extremity by Fairy S Light-buoy (S
cardinal), thence:
5
S of Westhinder Light (51°23′⋅3N 2°26′⋅3E) (2.45),
standing at the S end of Westhinder (7.6). WH
Zuid Light-buoy (S cardinal) is moored 6 cables S
of the light-structure on the N boundary of the
TSS. Thence:
6
N of Oost Dyck (51°15′N 2°25′E) (6.62), marked at
its N end by Oost−Dyck Light-buoy (N cardinal)
and OD1 Light−buoy (N cardinal) moored about
2 cables W of it, thence:
7
Between AN Light-buoy (port hand) (51°23′⋅5N
2°36′⋅9E) and AZ Light-buoy (starboard hand),
2 miles S of AN Light-buoy, which are moored on
the N and S boundaries of the TSS respectively,
thence:
8
N of Kwinte Bank (51°16′N 2°38′E) (6.148), marked
at its N end by KB2 and KB Light-buoys (both
N cardinal), moored on the S boundary of the West
Hinder Precautionary Area, thence:
9
To the vicinity of Wandelaar Pilot Station (51°22′⋅2N
2°42′⋅9E) (7.13), 2 miles W of SWA Light-buoy
(W cardinal).
10
Caution. WH Zuid Light-buoy should be given a wide
berth due to strong tidal streams in its vicinity.
2.48
1
Mariners intending to proceed SW through the Dover
Strait TSS are advised to pass N of Foxtrot 3 Light-float
(51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E) (2.51).
(Directions for Westerschelde continue at 7.35,
for Oostende at 6.145 and for Nieuwpoort at 6.148)
Anchorage
2.49 1
Westhinder anchorage area (51°25′N 2°37′E) lies on the
N side of West Hinder TSS close to its E end.
NORTH EAST-GOING TRAFFIC LANE −
SANDETTIÉ TO NOORD HINDER
JUNCTION
General information
Charts 2449, 1630
Route
2.50 1
From its SW entry point between Hinder 1 Light-buoy
(isolated danger) (51°21′N 2°11′E) and Foxtrot 3
Light-float, 7 miles WNW, the Noord Hinder South TSS
runs 30 miles NE to the Noord Hinder Junction
Precautionary Area.
Major light
2.51 1
Foxtrot 3 Light-float (red hull, ‘Foxtrot 3’ in white)
(51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E).
Other aids to navigation
2.52
1
Racons transmit from:
Foxtrot 3 Light-float—as above.
Noordhinder Light-buoy (safe water) (52°00′⋅1N
2°51′⋅1E).
CHAPTER 2
63
Foxtrot 3 Light-float (2.51)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1008)
Directions
(continued from 2.40)
Sandettié to Noord Hinder Junction
2.53 1
From a position NE of Sandettié Bank (51°14′N 1°57′E)
(2.40) the NE-going lane, which is about 4 miles wide and
shown on the charts, leads 33 miles to Noord Hinder
Junction Precautionary Area (2.54), passing:
2
Between Foxtrot 3 Light-float (51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E)
(2.51) and Hinder 1 Light-buoy (isolated danger),
7 miles ESE, where the routes either side of
Sandettié Bank merge (see 2.40), thence:
3
W of Fairy Bank (51°24′N 2°20′E) (7.5) and clear of
Fairy W Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°24′N
2°09′E), which marks a patch, with a depth of
18⋅9 m over it, about 2½ miles W of the bank,
thence:
4
NW of the unnamed bank in position 51°29′N
2°17′E, E of which lies a wreck marked by
Garden City Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°29′N
2°18′E), thence:
NW of Twin Light-buoy (special) (51°32′N 2°23′E),
marking the SE boundary of the TSS, thence:
5
To the boundary between the TSS and Noord Hinder
Junction Precautionary Area, marked at its S
corner by NHR-SE Light-buoy (starboard hand).
Birkenfels Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°39′N
2°32′E) marks a wreck close SE of the SE
boundary of the TSS.
Noord Hinder Junction Precautionary Area
2.54 1
Noord Hinder Junction Precautionary Area is centred
approximately on 51°57′N 2°53′E, and extends about
25 miles NE-SW and 16 miles SE-NW. Noordhinder
Light-buoy (safe water) (52°00′⋅1N 2°51′⋅1E) (2.52) is
moored 3 miles NNW of the centre. The area is the focal
point for the following traffic schemes:
2
Noord Hinder South TSS (2.50), which runs SW from
the area to the Dover Strait TSS.
Noord Hinder North TSS which runs NE from the
area towards the Texel TSS.
3
Off Friesland TSS system which runs NNE towards
Scandanavia and the Baltic and NE towards
Deutsche Bucht. Within the system are two DW
routes which are mandatory for certain vessels
carrying dangerous and polluting cargoes to
German North Sea ports (see North Sea (East)
Pilot).
4
Maas West Outer TSS (9.10), which leads E towards
Europoort.
Eurogeul (9.36), which runs E from the Eurogeul
Approach Area (9.35) on the E side of the
junction, thence through the centre of the Maas
West Outer TSS towards Europoort.
5
Caution. Vessels should proceed with caution where the
traffic flows merge. A circular area, 1 mile in diameter,
shown on the chart, is established around Noordhinder
Light-buoy. Unless circumstances dictate otherwise, the area
should be avoided and passed on the port side.
(Directions continue for Eurogeul and Maas West
Outer TSS at 9.34. For Noord Hinder North TSS and
Off Friesland TSS system see North Sea (East) Pilot)
Anchorages
2.55 1
For details of anchorages in Noord Hinder Junction
Precautionary Area see 9.40.
SOUTH WEST-GOING TRAFFIC
LANE-NOORD HINDER JUNCTION TO
GREENWICH MERIDIAN
General information
Charts 1406, 2449, 2451, 2675
Route
2.56 1
The combined SW-going traffic lane of the Noord
Hinder South TSS and Dover Strait TSS runs 130 miles in
a generally SW direction from the boundary with Noord
Hinder Junction Precautionary Area (2.54) in position
51°50′N 2°32′E to a position NNW of Greenwich
Light-float (50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W).
Principal marks
2.57 1
Landmarks on the coast of England:
Richborough Power Station (51°19′N 1°21′E) (4.105).
Dover Patrol Memorial (51°09′N 1°24′E) (4.89).
Windmill (51°09′N 1°23′E) (4.89).
South Foreland Lighthouse (disused) (51°08′N
1°22′E) (4.89).
2
For marks at Dover see 4.61.
Radio mast (51°07′N 1°15′E) (4.38).
Motel at Folkstone (51°05′N 1°11′E) (4.25).
Radio Mast (51°06′N 1°05′E) (4.10).
Dungeness New Lighthouse (50°54′⋅8N 0°58′⋅5E)
(3.108).
Dungeness Nuclear Power Station (50°55′N 0°58′E)
(3.108).
3
Major lights:
Noordhinder Light-buoy (52°00′⋅1N 2°51′⋅1E) (2.51).
Foxtrot 3 Light-float (51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E) (2.51).
North Foreland Light (51°22′⋅6N 1°26′⋅6E) (4.132).
Sandettié Light-float (51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E) (2.36).
CHAPTER 2
64
East Goodwin Light-float (51°13′⋅3N 1°36′⋅4E) (4.89).
South Goodwin Light-float (51°08′⋅0N 1°28′⋅5E)
(4.89).
4
For lights at Dover see 4.61.
Varne Light-float (51°01⋅3′N 1°23′⋅9E) (4.38).
Folkstone Breakwater Light (51°04′⋅6N 1°11′⋅7E)
(4.10).
Dungeness Light—as above.
Royal Sovereign Light (50°43′⋅5N 0°26′⋅1E) (3.108).
Beachy Head Light (50°44′⋅1N 0°14′⋅4E) (3.98).
Greenwich Light-float (50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W) (2.36).
5
For principal marks and major lights on the coast of
France see 2.36.
Other aids to navigation
2.58
1
Racons transmit from:
Noordhinder Light-buoy (52°00′⋅1N 2°51′⋅1E).
Foxtrot 3 Light-float (51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E).
Sandettie Light-float (51°09′⋅4N 2°47′⋅1E).
East Goodwin Light-float (51°13′⋅3N 1°36′⋅4E).
Inter Bank Light-buoy (51°16′⋅5N 1°52′⋅2E).
MPC Light-buoy (51°06′⋅1N 1°38′⋅2E).
Varne Light-float (51°01′⋅3N 1°23′⋅9E).
Greenwich Light-float (50°24′⋅6N 0°00′⋅1W).
Directions
Charts 1630, 2449
Noord Hinder Junction to Foxtrot 3 Light-float
2.59 1
Vessels entering the Noord Hinder South TSS from
Maas West Outer TSS (9.10) should pass N of Noordhinder
Light-buoy (52°00′⋅1N 2°51′⋅1E) (2.51), in order to keep
clear of deep−draught vessels bound for Europoort.
2
From the boundary with Noord Hinder Junction
Precautionary Area (2.54) in position 51°50′N 2°32′E the
SW-going traffic lane, which is about 4 miles wide and
shown on the charts, runs 33 miles SW to a position NW
of Foxtrot 3 Light-float, passing:
3
SE of NHR-S Light-buoy (special) (51°51′N 2°29′E),
which is moored on the NW side of the boundary
between the TSS and Noord Hinder Junction
Precautionary Area, thence:
4
To a position in the traffic lane NW of Foxtrot 3
Light-float (51°23′⋅9N 2°00′⋅5E) (2.51).
Charts 323, 1892
Foxtrot 3 Light-float to The Varne
2.60 1
From the start of the SW-going traffic lane of the Dover
Strait TSS, NW of Foxtrot 3 Light-float (51°23′⋅9N
2°00′⋅5E) (2.51), the lane leads 30 miles SW to a position
NE of The Varne (2.61), passing:
2
ESE of South Falls (51°22′N 1°47′E) a long narrow
shoal running 15 miles N-S. The E side of the
shoal is marked by Mid Falls Light-buoy (port
hand) and the S extremity, known as Tail of the
Falls by S Falls Light-buoy (S cardinal). Both
buoys are moored on the W boundary of the TSS,
and:
3
WNW of F2 Light-buoy (special) (51°20′N 1°56′E),
Inter Bank Light-buoy (special), 4½ miles SSW,
and F1 Light-buoy (special), a further 7 miles
SSW, which all mark the separation zone, thence:
4
Between CS4 Light-buoy (special) (51°09′N 1°34′E)
and MPC Light-buoy (special), 3¾ miles SE,
which mark either side of the SW-going traffic
lane, and clear of the Area to Avoid (2.14) centred
on CS4 Light-buoy, thence:
To a position NE of The Varne (50°58′N 1°20′E).
5
Caution. The immediate vicinity of S Falls Light−buoy
should be avoided. The light−buoy has been damaged by
vessels which have been set down onto it by tidal streams.
The Varne
2.61 1
The Varne (50°58′N 1°20′E) is a dangerous narrow shoal
running 8 miles NE-SW, which is marked at its NE
extremity by Varne Light-float (4.38), on its SE side by E
Varne Light-buoy (E cardinal), on its NW side by Mid
Varne Light-buoy (W cardinal) and at its SW extremity by
S Varne Light-buoy (S cardinal). The shoal is steep-to, with
strong tide rips in its vicinity, and, in bad weather, a heavy
sea breaks over it. The shoal should not be crossed but
may be passed on either side. The SW deep−draught route
(2.71) passes SE of The Varne, between this shoal and The
Ridge (50°53′N 1°20′E) (2.39), which is marked at its N
extremity by Colbart N Light-buoy (N cardinal).
Charts 1892, 536, 2450, 2451
The Varne to Greenwich Meridian
2.62 1
From a position clear S of The Varne the SW-going
traffic lane of the Dover Strait TSS continues 55 miles SW
and WSW to the English Channel, where the TSS ends,
passing:
2
Between CS3 Light-buoy (special) (50°52′N 1°02′E)
and Bullock Bank Light-buoy (N cardinal), 6 miles
SE, which mark either side of the traffic lane.
Bullock Bank runs 6 miles SW from Bullock Bank
Light-buoy and is generally marked by strong tide
rips and should be avoided. Thence:
3
SE of CS2 Light-buoy (special) (50°39′N 0°33′E),
where the lane rounds to the WSW, thence:
Between CS1 Light-buoy (special) (50°34′N 0°4′W)
and Greenwich Light-float, 9½ miles SSE, (2.36),
passing at least 2½ miles N of the latter to remain
in the traffic lane.
4
Caution. The immediate vicinity of CS3 Light-buoy
(50°52′N 1°03′E) should be avoided. The light-buoy has
been damaged by vessels which have been set down onto it
by tidal streams.
(Directions continue for passage W
in the Channel Pilot)
DEEP−DRAUGHT ROUTES
General information
Charts 2450, 2451, 323, 1630, 5500
Routes
2.63 1
The Netherlands authorities have selected a route within
the NE-going traffic lane of the Dover Strait and Noord
Hinder South TSS as being the most favourable for vessels
with draughts between 20⋅7 m and 22⋅6 m. The route is
described in detail in a Deep−Draught Planning Guide
(HP8), published by the Netherlands Hydrographer, which
should be consulted when the route is used by vessels of
these draughts.
2
There is no official deep-draught guide for a SW-bound
passage. A track which may be followed by very large
vessels runs from Sullom Voe (North Coast of Scotland
Pilot) to the English Channel (Channel Pilot). This track,
having merged with the Off Friesland TSS system (North
CHAPTER 2
65
Sea (East) Pilot), enters the Noord Hinder Junction
Precautionary Area (2.54) and then follows the SW-going
traffic lanes of the Noord Hinder South and Dover Strait
TSS (2.59 to 2.62).
3
Neither route is endorsed by the British authorities in
every detail. Both routes are shown on Chart 5500 (2.2).
Guidelines for the North−east route
2.64 1
The following are the general recommendations from the
Netherlands Deep−Draught Planning Guide for vessels
undertaking the NE route:
In order to maintain an accurate track, position fixing
should be by DGPS and or radar. Both should be
functioning correctly before the passage is
undertaken.
2
The route width is 1 mile, that is 5 cables on each
side of the selected route. In some places a part of
the route width overlaps the adjoining separation
zone or line. Vessels should not normally enter a
separation zone or cross a separation line.
Included in the Guide is a table giving the path
widths of large vessels for differences in the angle
between course steered and course made good.
3
Tidal stream set and rate along the route should be
calculated in advance to help maintain track and
initiate the turn to the next course correctly.
4
Tidal levels for the passage should be predicted in
advance, so that the available searoom is known in
any emergency. However predicted tidal levels may
vary from actual levels, see 2.30 to 2.32.
In accordance with IMO Resolution A486, it is
strongly recommended that a certified deep−sea
pilot with VLCC experience is employed (2.20).
5
A communications programme should be prepared in
advance giving positions from where messages
need to be transmitted and the information
required. For details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1).
Controlling depths
2.65 1
See 2.9
Under-keel allowance
2.66 1
General. A British study in 1986 showed that an
under-keel allowance of 9⋅5 m is necessary between
Vergoyer N Light-buoy (50°40′N 1°22′E) and ZC2
Light-buoy (50°54′N 1°31′E) for a 22 m draught vessel, in
SW storms.
2
Since the selected route was planned, large sandwaves
have been found SW of Bassurelle (50°37′N 1°05′E) in the
vicinity of 50°30′⋅5N 0°55′⋅0E; see chart 2451 for the latest
information on depths and positions.
2.67 1
Factors in determining under-keel allowance. The
under-keel allowances recommended (2.68) take into
account the following factors:
2
The vessel’s course for each leg of the route.
The vessel’s movement due to storm waves and
swell.
Uncertainties in charted depths (see 2.30) and vessel’s
draught.
The risk of negative surges (see 2.32).
Squat of 1 m at a speed of 12 kn.
3
The allowance should be increased by 0⋅7 m if vessel
speed is 18 kn, but may be reduced by 0⋅6 m if speed is
6 kn.
4
These allowances only apply on the normal heading for
the leg of the route concerned. If a vessel has to make a
large alteration of course, bringing storm waves or swell
more on to the beam, then the quoted allowances may be
insufficient and other measures, such as a reduction in
speed, may be required to maintain an adequate clearance.
5
The allowance is applied to stationary draught, so that a
vessel drawing 20 m with an under-keel allowance of 7 m
to be applied requires a depth of water of at least 27 m.
The required depth will only be realised on certain parts of
the route by the addition of the height of tide. See 2.30 to
2.32.
6
For further information see The Mariner’s Handbook and
Notice No 15 of the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices
to Mariners.
2.68 1
Recommended under-keel allowances. The British
authorities recommend the following under-keel allowances
for deep−draught vessels proceeding through the Dover
Strait at 12 kn:
NE-bound vessels
Between positions
Vessel
Heading
Allowance
(m)
Towards B 072° 6⋅2
B to C 059° 6⋅0
C to D 048° 6⋅1
D to approx 50°44′N 018° 9⋅5
Approx 50°44′N to E 018° 7⋅6
E to approx 51°00′N 035° 5⋅7
Approx 51°00′N to F 035° 5⋅1
F to approx 51°06′N 021° 5⋅3
Approx 51°06′N to G 021° 5⋅1
G to approx 51°13′N 048° 5⋅1
Approx 51°13′N to H 048° 6⋅4
H to I 026° 5⋅0
I towards J 049° 6⋅0
SW-bound vessels
21 to 21A 220° 6⋅0
21A to approx 51°14′N 204° 5⋅1
Approx 51°14′N to 22 204° 5⋅3
22 to approx 51°04′N 228° 5⋅3
Approx 51°04′N to 23 228° 6⋅3
23 to 24 204° 6⋅1
24 to 25 222° 7⋅6
25 to approx 50°51′N 235° 7⋅3
Approx 50°51′N to 26 235° 7⋅1
26 towards 27 239° 7⋅1
2
Waypoints 20 and 21 were not covered by the study,
however an allowance of 6⋅1 m has been recommended
between these two waypoints in winds up to force 7, 7⋅0 m
in force 8 and 8⋅4 m in force 9.
Waypoints A to M are given at 2.69 and waypoints 21
to 27 at 2.71.
CHAPTER 2
66
Directions
Deep−draught route for north-east bound vessels
2.69 1
The route selected by the Netherlands authorities
consists of a series of waypoints, which follow the
NE-going traffic lane, described at 2.38 to 2.40, 2.53 and
2.54, with the exception that waypoints F to I lead
deep−draught vessels to the NW of Sandettié Bank
(51°14′N 1°57′E). See 2.70.
2
The route passes through the following positions:
A 50°19′⋅3N 0°01′⋅9E
B 50°29′⋅7N 0°58′⋅6E
C 50°35′⋅1N 1°13′⋅0E
D 50°40′⋅1N 1°21′⋅4E
3
E 50°53′⋅9N 1°28′⋅6E
F 51°04′⋅6N 1°40′⋅6E
G 51°10′⋅1N 1°44′⋅0E
H 51°15′⋅6N 1°53′⋅6E
I 51°21′⋅9N 1°58′⋅5E
4
J 51°33′⋅7N 2°20′⋅2E
K 51°47′⋅5N 2°36′⋅2E
L 51°52′⋅9N 2°44′⋅8E
M 51°57′⋅2N 2°51′⋅4E
Pilot (H) 52°00′⋅0N 3°00′⋅0E
N 52°02′⋅6N 2°41′⋅2E
5
Vessels going to the long term anchorage, DW1
(52°06′N 2°47′E), proceed from waypoint K across the
SW-bound traffic lane to waypoint N.
(Directions continue for Eurogeul and
Maas West Outer TSS at 9.34)
Passage north−west of Sandettié Bank
2.70 1
From waypoint F (51°04′⋅6N 1°40′⋅6E), 6 miles SW of
Sandettié Light-float (51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E) (2.36), the route
leads 21 miles NW of Sandettié Bank (2.40) through
waypoints G and H thence to I, passing:
2
Between Sandettié SW Light-buoy (W cardinal)
(51°10′N 1°46′E), marking the SW extremity of
Sandettié Bank, and F1 Light-buoy, 1½ miles
NNW, marking the separation zone, thence:
3
NW of Sandettié WSW Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(51°12′N 1°51′E), thence:
4
Between Sandettié W Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(51°15′N 1°54′E) and Inter Bank Light-buoy
(special), 2 miles NW, thence:
5
Between MDW Light-buoy (S cardinal) (51°19′N
1°59′E) and F2 Light-buoy (special), 2½ miles
WNW, marking the separation zone. There is a
charted depth of 21⋅5 m (2005), 4 cables NNE of
MDW Light-buoy. Thence:
6
To waypoint I (51°21′⋅9N 1°58′⋅5E), whence the route
continues NE to waypoint J, rejoining the route
passing SE of Sandettié Bank.
7
Caution. Account should be taken of the proximity of
vessels using the NE-going DW route NW of Sandettié
Bank to vessels using the SW-going lane of the Dover
Strait TSS. IMO recommend that vessels using the DW
route NW of Sandettié Bank avoid overtaking.
Deep−draught route for south-west bound vessels
2.71 1
The SW-going deep−draught route consists of a series of
waypoints, numbered 1 to 29, of which 1 to 18 and 28 to
29 fall outside the limits of this volume. Waypoints 19 to
27 follow the SW-going traffic lane of the Noord Hinder
South and Dover Strait TSS, described at 2.59 to 2.62.
2
The route passes through the following positions:
19 51°57′⋅7N 2°37′⋅8E
20 51°50′⋅6N 2°30′⋅3E
21 51°34′⋅5N 2°08′⋅2E
21A 51°22′⋅8N 1°52′⋅5E
22 51°11′⋅4N 1°44′⋅3E
3
23 51°00′⋅9N 1°25′⋅0E
24 50°57′⋅5N 1°22′⋅4E
25 50°54′⋅7N 1°18′⋅7E
26 50°45′⋅1N 0°57′⋅0E
27 50°36′⋅5N 0°33′⋅9E, thence to
28 50°20′⋅2N 0°49′⋅7W, which is outside the limits of this volume.
(Directions continue for passage W
in the Channel Pilot)
NOTES
67
3.112
3.72
3.36
3.70
3.17
31
.
0
3
.
2
7
3
.59
3.102
3
.
9
3
Dover Strait
Traffic Separation Scheme
I
n
s
h
o
r
e
T
r
a
f
f
i
c
Z
o
n
e
Bognor
Regis
Littlehampton
Shoreham
Brighton
Newhaven
Beachy
Head
Rye
Dungeness
ENGLAND
S
h
o
r
e
h
a
m
H
r
.
Br
i
g
h
t
o
n
M
a
i
r
n
a
SovereignHr.
1652
1652
2154
536
1991
536
536
1892
2044
1991
2
0
4
4
1
9
9
1
1205
0°
Meridian 0° of Greenwich
1°
1° 51°51°
30´30´
40´40´
50´
30´
30´
30´
30´
20´
20´
40´
40´
10´
10´
40´
40´
20´
20´
50´
50´
10´
10´
50´
Chapter 3 - Bognor Regis to Dungeness
68
69
CHAPTER 3
BOGNOR REGIS TO DUNGENESS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1652, 536
Scope of Chapter
3.1 1
This chapter describes the coastal passage from Bognor
Regis (50°47′N 0°41′W) to Beachy Head, 36 miles E,
thence to Dungeness a further 30 miles ENE, together with
the ports of Littlehampton (3.17), Shoreham (3.36),
Newhaven (3.72) and Rye (3.112). Most of the route runs
through the Inshore Traffic Zone, which lies E of
Shoreham (50°50′N 0°15′W) and to the N of the Dover
Strait Traffic Separation Scheme. The latter and the
approaches to it from the W are described in Chapter 2.
Regulations for the use of Inshore Traffic Zones are given
at 1.8.
Topography
3.2 1
The coast between Bognor Regis and Brighton, 20 miles
E, is low and fronted mainly by a shingle beach. The
South Downs a range of chalk hills lie 7 miles inland from
Bognor Regis but merge with the coast at Brighton. In
good visibility they are seen from seaward before the coast
itself.
2
The coast trends ESE from Brighton 15 miles to Beachy
Head and is predominantly high chalk cliffs with occasional
breaks between them.
3
Rounding Beachy Head the coast is low and desolate,
broken only by the town of Eastbourne. 10 miles ENE of
the head rising ground, on which the two towns of Bexhill
and Hastings stand, is reached. Three miles ENE the coast
is again low and featureless until Dungeness a further
12 miles E.
4
The coastal towns are conspicuous from seaward both
by day and night, in the latter case from the glare of their
town lights.
Off-lying bank
3.3 1
Royal Sovereign Shoals (3.109) (50°45′N 0°26′E) lie up
to 8 miles E of Beachy Head and on the direct track
between the head and Dungeness.
Fishing
3.4 1
An offshore scallop fishing ground extends from a line S
of Selsey Bill (50°43′N 0°47′W) to a line S of Rye
(60 miles E) in a band 15 miles wide. Fishing vessels may
be encountered anywhere in this area, which includes the
entire W part of the SW-going traffic lane of the Dover
Strait Traffic Separation Scheme and the waters W of it.
2
There are trawling grounds seaward of the 20 m depth
contour off Rye Bay (50°53′N 0°47′E).
See also 1.14.
Tidal streams
3.5 1
Between Selsey Bill (50°43′N 0°47′W) and Royal
Sovereign Shoal, 45 miles E, there is approximately two
hours difference in the times at which the streams start to
run. Farther E there is a similar time difference over
25 miles. This can be put to advantage by a vessel
proceeding E from Selsey Bill commencing at the start of
the E-going stream (+6 hours HW Dover). At 10 kn the
vessel arrives at Royal Sovereign Light (50°43′N 0°26′E) 2
hours after the start of the E-going stream, but continuing
E the vessel arrives off Dungeness just as the E-going
stream starts to run. This stream can then be carried
another 5 or 6 hours into the North Sea. At slower speeds
vessels will lose the E-going stream before reaching Royal
Sovereign Light, while at higher speeds vessels will
overtake the start of the E-going stream.
2
These circumstances only apply inshore. In mid-channel
a time difference of 4 hours occurs over 50 miles and off
the French coast over 75 miles.
3.6 1
The E-going stream generally sets NE towards the bays
between Selsey Bill and Dungeness, but the W-going
stream sets SW clear of the land. The E onshore set is of
little consequence to E bound vessels, but could have a
considerable effect on W bound vessels proceeding against
it.
3.7 1
To the N of the line between Selsey Bill and Beachy
Head the tidal streams are much weaker than off the points.
They are shown on the charts and in the Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: English Channel.
Cautions
3.8 1
In poor visibility vessels unsure of their position should
remain to seaward of the 30 m depth contour between
Outer Owers (50°40′N 0°41′W), 5 miles SE of Selsey Bill,
and Beachy Head. This precaution keeps vessels well clear
of Owers. Outer Owers and the shoals off Bognor Regis
are described in the Channel Pilot.
3.9 1
There are numerous wrecks along the coast, in particular
between Beachy Head and Dungeness, and up to 9 miles
offshore.
CHAPTER 3
70
BOGNOR REGIS TO SHOREHAM HARBOUR
BOGNOR REGIS TO LITTLEHAMPTON
General Information
Chart 1652
Route
3.10 1
From the vicinity of 50°40′N 0°36′W, SSE of Bognor
Regis the route leads 4½ miles ENE to a position SSE of
Littlehampton.
Topography
3.11 1
The coast is low between Bognor Regis and
Littlehampton. The 10 m depth contour lies generally about
4 miles offshore and from it depths decrease gradually
towards the coast, although patches with less than 10 m
over them extend up to 5 miles from the coast.
Fishing
3.12 1
Lobster pots are laid in the vicinity of Kingmere Rocks
(50°44′N 0°28′W) (3.24). See also 3.4.
Rescue
3.13 1
There is a coastguard station at Littlehampton, which
keeps a daylight only watch, near the root of East Pier
(3.24). Coast rescue equipment is maintained. See 1.122 for
details of stations.
An inshore lifeboat is stationed at Littlehampton. See
1.123 for details of lifeboats.
Principal marks
3.14 1
Landmarks:
Building (50°47′N 0°41′W).
Water tower (50°48′N 0°40′W).
Spire (50°51′N 0°33′W).
For marks at Littlehampton see 3.23.
Directions
(Directions for passage W are given in
the Channel Pilot)
3.15 1
Having passed S of Owers Light-buoy (50°39′N
0°41′W), see Channel Pilot, the coastal route leads
4½ miles NE to a position SSE of Littlehampton Harbour
passing:
SSE of Bognor Regis (50°47′N 0°41′W). The dangers
fronting the town are described in the Channel
Pilot.
2
Inshore passage. The inshore passage from Bognor
Regis to Littlehampton is encumbered by unmarked rocks
and ledges and should only be undertaken by small craft in
good visibility and with a favourable tide.
3.16 1
Useful mark:
Copse (50°54′N 0°29′W) on the skyline of Rackham
Hill. A deep break in the downs formed by the
valley of the River Arun is 2 miles W of the hill.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 3.33 and
for Littlehampton at 3.24)
Littlehampton
Charts 1652, 1991 plan of Littlehampton Harbour
General information
3.17 1
Littlehampton Harbour (50°48′N 0°33′W), situated at the
mouth of the River Arun, is a small commercial and
yachting port. The town of Littlehampton, population about
50 500, lies on the E bank of the River Arun, 1 mile from
the harbour entrance. In 2004 the port was visited by 26
vessels with a total deadweight of 36 334 tonnes.
2
River Arun is navigable at HW by vessels of less than
23 m in length and draught 1⋅8 m as far as Arundel,
3 miles N of Littlehampton. Depths range from 1⋅2 to
3⋅6 m. It is not advisable to lie aground at Arundel due to
the steep slope of the river banks.
3
Port authority: Littlehampton Harbour Board, Harbour
Office, Pier Road, Littlehampton BN17 5LR.
Limiting conditions
3.18 1
Controlling depths. The bar, which extends from West
Pierhead to 3 cables S of the harbour entrance, dries 1 m.
The channel also dries between West Pier and the training
wall to the E until 2 cables N of West Pierhead where it
deepens to 1 to 2 m.
2
Vertical clearance. The footbridge (3.20) has a
navigation span 22 m wide formed by two fendered piers,
which are marked by lights at their extremities indicating
the channel. When closed the clearance is 3⋅6 m. Boards
showing the height of tide are fitted on both sides of the
footbridge.
3
There is a fixed roadbridge, vertical clearance 3⋅6 m,
4 cables above the footbridge and a rail bridge, vertical
clearance 3⋅0 m at Ford midway between Arundel and
Littlehampton. Overhead cables span the river, but their
vertical clearance is in excess of the bridges.
4
Longest berth. United Marine Aggregates (UMA) wharf
upstream of the footbridge has a length of 140 m.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 5⋅5 m; mean neap
range about 2⋅7 m. See Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Length 70 m; draught
4⋅6 m (HW Springs), 3⋅8 m (HW Neaps); 2000 dwt; vessels
take the ground at LW.
5
Local weather. The harbour cannot be entered during
strong winds from the SE when there are dangerous
overfalls off East Pierhead seaward of the lighthouse. There
are also overfalls and breaking seas on the bar at springs
during the out-going stream if the wind is between SE and
SW, force 5 or more.
Arrival information
3.19 1
Port radio is only manned when vessels are expected.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Notice of ETA required is 12 hours.
Anchorage, shown on the chart, may be obtained
2 miles S of the harbour entrance, in depths of 5 m, stiff
blue clay. The anchorage offers reasonable shelter,
particularly from the W and SW where The Owers
(50°40′N 0°40′W) acts as a natural breakwater.
2
Small craft may anchor nearer the harbour entrance,
clear of the leading line, according to the wind.
Pilotage is compulsory for all merchant vessels. Pilots
board in the anchorage or within 2 miles of the entrance.
CHAPTER 3
71
Gasholder
West Pier Training Wall
Littlehampton Harbour Entrance (3.17)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
In SW winds vessels should stand on to embark the
pilot as the sea rapidly subsides as the entrance is
approached.
3
Regulations concerning entry. When the pilot boat flies
a white over red flag by day or exhibits a white over a red
light by night it indicates that a ship is about to enter or
leave harbour and all boats should keep clear. A ship may
signal one long blast followed by by two short blasts, with
the whistle or siren, to give warning of her approach. On
hearing the signal all boats should keep clear of the
fairway, in particular the narrows at the harbour entrance.
Harbour
3.20 1
General layout. The harbour is formed by the lower
reaches of the River Arun. A footbridge with an opening
central section crosses the river at the N end of the
harbour. There are two commercial berths on the E bank
above the footbridge; below the footbridge both banks of
the river are occupied by pontoons and berths for
recreational craft.
3.21 1
Bridge signals are exhibited from a column on the W
pier of the footbridge as follows:
Signal Meaning
Red flashing light Bridge about to open or be closed
Green flashing light Bridge open
2
Requests for the bridge to be opened must be made on
the previous working day by 1630. These signals do not
apply to craft able to pass under the bridge.
3.22 1
Tidal streams are strong between the piers and can
reach 6 kn. The in-going stream continues until about 1½
hours after HW at springs and 30 minutes after HW at
neaps. The out-going stream continues until 4 hours before
HW.
2
After heavy rain the out-going stream is increased and
the in-going stream correspondingly reduced and in extreme
conditions the out-going stream may run continuously. In
these conditions the tidal height may be maintained or
exceeded.
Tide gauges are situated at the heads of East Pier and
West Pier and at Town Quay.
3.23 1
Principal marks:
Gasholder (50°49′N 0°33′W).
Building (50°48′N 0°32′W).
Building (50°48′N 0°31′W) with tower.
CHAPTER 3
72
Directions
(continued from 3.16)
3.24 1
Leading lights
Front light (black metal column) (50°48′⋅1N
0°32′⋅5W).
Rear light (white concrete tower) (64 m NNW of
front light).
2
From the vicinity of (50°43′N 0°30′W) the alignment
(346°) of these lights leads to the harbour entrance, passing
(with positions from the front light):
WSW of Kingmere Rocks (5½ miles SSE), which
extend 2¾ miles ESE. An oceanographical data
light−buoy (special) is moored close NW of the
Rocks. Thence:
Littlehampton Leading Lights (3.24)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
3
WSW of a tide and meteorological station (tubular
steel pile surmounted by small platform) (2½ miles
SE), thence:
WSW of a light-buoy (special) (2 miles SSE) marking
the seaward end of an outfall which runs nearly
2 miles SSE from the shore close E of the harbour
entrance, thence:
4
To the harbour entrance (2 cables S), which is formed
by West Pier, 2 cables in length, and a low training
wall, covered at half tide. The latter terminates at
its shore end in East Pier on which stand the
leading lights. There is a light (black metal
column) and a tide gauge at the head of West Pier.
A light-beacon (starboard hand) marks the head of
the training wall and its length is marked by seven
iron posts (diamond topmarks). The sands either
side of the harbour entrance dry up to 5 cables
offshore.
5
Cautions. Winkle Island, a hard bank of stones and
shells lies about 4 cables ENE of the training wall beacon.
The bank is liable to change and small craft to the E of the
entrance should keep S of the line of bearing 090° from
the beacon.
6
The tidal stream sets W over the training wall from 2
hours before to 4 hours after HW and is particularly strong
off East Pierhead while the in-going stream is running.
It is advisable to wait for a clear channel before entering
harbour.
Littlehampton Roads − Tide Gauge (3.24)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
Berths
3.25 1
There are two commercial berths on the E bank above
the footbridge (3.18).
Port services
3.26 1
Repairs of a minor nature only.
Other facilities: deratting and exemption certificates
issued; compass adjustment; hospital at Worthing (5 miles
E); medical facilities; reception of oily waste.
Supplies: fuel and water by arrangement with Harbour
Master; fresh provisions.
2
Harbour regulations.
Boats crossing the harbour are required to keep clear
of vessels proceeding up and down the harbour
with the exception of the ferry to which other craft
give way at all times.
3
Boats navigating against the tide on approaching
sharp bends in the river are to allow boats
navigating with the tide to round and pass clear.
There is a speed limit over the ground of 6½ kn in
the river
LITTLEHAMPTON TO SHOREHAM
General information
Chart 1652
Route
3.27 1
From the vicinity of 50°42′N 0°30′W, SSE of
Littlehampton Harbour the coastal route leads 10 miles
ENE to a position S of Shoreham Harbour.
Topography
3.28 1
The low coast between Littlehampton and Shoreham is
backed by the South Downs, a few miles to the N, with
Chanctonbury Ring, a clump of trees on the highest part of
the downs the dominant feature.
CHAPTER 3
73
2
The towns of Littlehampton, Goring by Sea, Worthing
and Lancing spread along the coast with little or no break
between them.
The 10 m depth contour lies 3 to 4 miles offshore and
from it depths decrease gradually towards the coast.
Racing marks
3.29 1
Buoys (special) are laid along much of the coast as
racing marks from April to October.
Rescue
3.30 1
There is a coastguard station at Shoreham. Coast rescue
equipment is maintained. See 1.122 for details of stations.
An all-weather lifeboat and an inshore lifeboat are
stationed at Shoreham. See 1.123 for details of lifeboats.
Tidal streams
3.31 1
Tidal streams are given on the chart and in the
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: English Channel.
Principal marks
3.32 1
Landmarks:
Heene Church (spire) (50°49′N 0°23′W).
Chanctonbury Ring (50°54′N 0°23′W) (3.28). The
valley of the River Adur (3.53), 3 miles E, forms a
deep break in the downs, which distinguishes the
Ring from Rackham Hill (3.16).
2
Gasholder (50°49′N 0°22′W).
Buildings (50°49′N 0°20′W) at E end of Worthing.
For marks at Littlehampton see 3.23, and for marks at
Shoreham see 3.51.
Major light;
Shoreham High Light (50°50′N 0°15′W) (3.51).
Directions
(continued from 3.16)
3.33 1
From a position SSE of Littlehampton (50°48′N 0°33′W)
the route leads ENE to a position S of Shoreham Harbour,
passing (with positions from Worthing Pier (50°48′N
0°22′W)):
SSE of Kingmere Rocks (6 miles SW) (3.24), thence:
SSE of a light−buoy (special) (3½ miles ESE),
thence:
To a position S of Shoreham harbour.
3.34 1
Useful marks:
Highdown Hill (50°50′N 0°27′W) surmounted by a
clump of trees, has two chalk pits on its W slope
and another, larger pit on its SE slope.
Goring by Sea Church (spire) (50°49′N 0°25′W).
There is a gasholder 4 cables NE.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 3.67 and
for Shoreham at 3.52)
Worthing
3.35 1
Worthing, population about 96 000, is situated 6 miles E
of Littlehampton. The town is low-lying, distinguishing it
from Brighton, which stands on a cliff.
There is no harbour or safe roadstead, but in suitable
conditions vessels call at Worthing Pier, an iron esplanade
structure, with a pavilion at its outer end. The pier extends
1½ cables from the shore and is lighted at its head.
Worthing Pier from SE (3.35)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
SHOREHAM
General information
Charts 1652, 2044
Position
3.36 1
Shoreham Harbour (50°50′N 0°15′W), lies at the mouth
of the River Adur, 5 miles E of Worthing (3.35).
Function
3.37 1
Shoreham is a medium sized port handling general
cargo, timber, seaborne aggregates, quarried stone and slag,
as well as oil, grain and scrap. The population of
Shoreham-by-Sea and Southwick is about 32 000.
Approach and entry
3.38 1
The port is entered from S through a dredged channel
which lies between breakwaters. Shoreham lies on the W
limit of the Inshore Traffic Zone which runs E and N to
South Foreland. See 1.8 for details of regulations
concerning Inshore Traffic Zones.
Traffic
3.39 1
In 2004 the port handled 826 vessels with a total
deadweight of 1⋅1 million tonnes.
Port Authority
3.40 1
Shoreham Port Authority, Harbour Office, Albion Street,
Southwick, Brighton BN42 4ED.
Limiting conditions
3.41 1
Controlling depths. There is a maintained depth of
1⋅9 m on the leading line and in the approach to the locks
leading to The Canal. Silting may take place rapidly
throughout the tidal part of Shoreham Harbour and depths
indicated on the chart only hold good immediately after
dredging has taken place. The Harbour Master should be
consulted for the latest information.
After prolonged W winds a shifting bar is liable to form
at the harbour entrance.
2
Deepest and longest berth is the combined Power
Station and Fishersgate quays with a frontage of 406 m and
depth alongside of 7⋅5 m.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range 5⋅7 m; mean neap range
2⋅9 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1.
3
Maximum size of vessel handled. Eastern Arm can
accommodate vessels up to 120⋅0 m LOA, beam 20⋅0 m
and draught up to 6⋅7 m depending on the tide and subject
CHAPTER 3
74
Shoreham Harbour Entrance (3.38)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Rear Light
to the Harbour Master’s approval. The maximum size of
vessel that can enter the Canal is limited by the size of the
Prince Philip Lock to 106⋅0 m LOA (over 103 m subject to
the Harbour Master’s approval), 16⋅4 m beam and 6⋅7 m
draught depending on tide. Western Arm can take vessels
up to 82⋅3 m LOA, 14⋅3 m beam and 5⋅5 m draught
depending on tide.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
3.42 1
A VTS is maintained for the control of shipping. For
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Notice of ETA required
3.43 1
Notice of 24 hours is required together with details of
the vessels dimensions.
Outer anchorage
3.44 1
Anchorage may be found between 1 and 3 miles off the
harbour in depths between 4 and 10 m, sand over clay and
chalk initially then sand and shingle with patches of chalk
further offshore.
2
A recommended anchorage, shown on the chart, is
2 miles S of the harbour entrance in a depth of 7⋅5 m with
the High Light (3.51) bearing 004°.
Caution. An unmarked wreck with swept depth of 3⋅3 m
lies in position 50°48′⋅4N 0°15′⋅5W. A light−buoy (special)
is moored 1½ cables ESE of it.
Pilotage and tugs
3.45 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels carrying dangerous
cargoes and other vessels over 50 m in length.
Pilots board within 2 miles of the harbour entrance from
4 hours before HW until tidal conditions after HW make
entry into harbour unsafe. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
One tug is available.
Local knowledge
3.46 1
Conditions in the harbour entrance depend on the state
of the tide at the time of entry. Mariners unfamiliar with
the port should not attempt to enter without a pilot.
Harbour
General layout
3.47 1
The port extends about 3 miles E-W with only a narrow
strip of land between it and the sea. The entrance, just W
of the centre of the port, leads to Western Arm, which is
formed by the lower reaches of the River Adur, and
Eastern Arm, which leads to the locks that give access to
The Canal, a non-tidal wet basin. Vessels take the mud at
LW in both the Eastern and Western Arms but remain
afloat in The Canal.
CHAPTER 3
75
Power Station
Shoreham Eastern Arm and Canal (3.47)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Traffic signals
3.48 1
Station Signal Meaning
Middle Pier
(50°49′⋅7N
0°14′⋅9W)
O c c u l t i n g
amber light,
visible
to seaward
Vessel manoeuvring or
about to leave port.
No vessel may enter.
Lifeboat House
(160 m NNW
of Middle Pier)
Occulting red
light, visible
over East Arm
Vessel about to enter
port or leave West
Arm. No other vessel
to navigate in East
Arm.
2
Lifeboat House Occulting red
light, visible
over West Arm
Vessel about to enter
port or leave East
Arm for sea or pass
from East Arm to
West Arm. No other
vessel to navigate in
West arm.
3
Small vessels, that is vessels less than 20 m in length
and less than 2 m draught, may navigate in the restricted
areas above providing they do not hinder the movement
of the major vessel.
3.49 1
Lock signals. International Port Traffic Signals No 2
and No 5 (see The Mariner’s Handbook) control vessels
using both Prince George Lock and Prince Philip Lock.
Signal No 2 indicates that vessels are not to approach the
lock from the direction which the signal is visible and
Signal No 5 indicates that vessels may approach the lock.
The signals are displayed from both ends of the locks.
Tidal streams
3.50 1
The W-going stream begins 2 hours before local HW
and flows for about 6 hours. This stream is deflected SW
by East Breakwater, across and into the entrance and can
attain 2 kn at springs. The SW-going stream is then
deflected into the harbour and diverted NE from the head
of West Pier towards the head of East Pier, causing a
marked set between the pierheads. The set is strongest from
1 hour before local HW until HW slack, after which it
decreases until finally overcome by the out-going stream
about 1 hour after local HW.
2
Within the harbour the in-going stream sets almost
entirely up Western Arm, with little change in rate except
where the arm narrows at Soldier’s Point (3 cables NNW of
West Pierhead), where it can attain 4 kn at springs.
CHAPTER 3
76
In Eastern Arm there is practically no stream at all, even
at the height of the in-going stream.
Principal marks
3.51 1
Landmarks:
Lancing College Chapel (50°51′N 0°18′W).
Lancing College Chapel (3.51)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
Chimney (50°52′N 0°18′W) at cement works. The
chimney is only visible between 320°−020° and
conspicuous 335°−014°.
Tower and flagstaff (50°50′N 0°16′W) of Saint
Mary’s Church.
High Light (50°50′N 0°15′W), (grey round stone
tower, 12 m in height).
Power station chimney (50°50′N 0°14′W), 103 m in
height.
Shoreham Harbour − Power Station (3.51)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
2
Major light:
High Light—as above.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.34)
Chart 2044
3.52 1
Shoreham Harbour Leading Lights:
Front light (white square building with orange top) on
head of Middle Pier (50°49′⋅7N 0°14′⋅9W).
Rear light: High Light (3.51) (190 m N of front
light).
Shoreham Harbour − Leading Lights (3.52)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − Shoreham Port Authority)
Front Light Rear Light
The alignment (355°) of these lights leads through the
harbour entrance, passing (with positions from the front
light):
2
W of a long sea outfall (8 cables E) which runs
1½ miles S from the shore. The seaward end is
marked by a light-buoy (S cardinal), thence:
E of an unmarked wreck (1½ miles SSW) swept to a
depth of 3⋅3 m; a light−buoy (special) is moored
1½ cables ESE of it. Thence:
W of the buoy (S cardinal) (4 cables SE), which
marks the seaward end of a short outfall extending
S of the Eastern Arm seawall, where its inner end
is marked by a beacon (special), thence:
3
Through the harbour entrance (2½ cables S), which
lies between West Breakwater head, on which
stands a light (red concrete column, 3 m in height)
and East Breakwater head, 122 m NE, which is
also lighted (green column, 3 m in height). A
dredged channel, 90 m wide, leads N. Thence:
4
E of West Pier (1 cable SSW) with a sector light (red
to seaward, otherwise white) at its head. The pier
runs 1 cable N and is extended a further cable N
by a training wall marked by beacons and a
light−beacon at its extremity. Thence:
5
W of East Pier (1 cable SE) with a sector light (green
to seaward, otherwise white) at its head, thence:
To a position close S of the front leading light from
whence direct approach may be made to either
Western or Eastern Arm. Middle Pier runs in a SE
direction from the N shore and divides the harbour
between the two arms.
6
Cautions: Due allowance should be made for the
increased strength of the W-going stream close off the
breakwaters. Within the breakwaters vessels should keep up
to the W to counteract the set towards East Pier. The best
time to enter harbour is at HW slack, noting the eddy on
CHAPTER 3
77
Shoreham Harbour Entrance (3.52)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − Shoreham Port Authority)
W Breakwater
W Pier Leading lights E Pier E Breakwater
the in-going tide that runs down East Breakwater and the
W side of Middle Pier. See 3.50 for details of the tidal
stream.
7
Dredging is frequently in progress in the harbour
entrance and in both Eastern and Western Arms.
Racing marks, spherical buoys (special), are laid close
inshore to the W of the harbour entrance, between May
and September.
3.53 1
The River Adur continues W and is spanned by a foot
bridge, 1 mile W of the entrance which has a sliding
central span, marked by lights, permitting small craft to use
the wharves on the N bank which front the town itself.
When closed the bridge has a vertical clearance of 3⋅3 m.
Norfolk Bridge, which carries the main road and has a
vertical clearance 3⋅4 m, spans the river 2 cables W of the
footbridge. A railway bridge spans the river a further
1½ cables NW.
3.54 1
Useful marks:
Sompting Abbotts (spire) (50°50′N 0°21′W) large
grey building set in trees (chart 1652).
Lancing Grove (50°51′N 0°19′W) (chart 1652).
Sompting Church (tower) (50°50′N 0°19′W) (chart
1652).
Radio mast (50°50′N 0°15′W) high intensity red
obstruction lights.
Berths
Eastern Arm
3.55 1
Eastern Arm runs 3 cables E to a locked extension, The
Canal. Two beacons (port hand) mark the edge of Kingston
Beach which runs ENE from Middle Pier. There are 4
berths with a total frontage of 540 m. Largest berth is
Outer Lay-by Wharf on the S side of the arm, which is
260 m long with a depth alongside of 1⋅6 m. Vessels take
the bottom, soft mud, at LW. A Ro-Ro link span berth is
situated at the E end of Outer Lay-by Wharf.
The Canal
3.56 1
Commercial vessels enter the Canal through Prince
Philip Lock (3.41), which is manned from 4 hours before
HW to 3 hours after HW on each tide. Small craft use
Prince George Lock, N of Prince Philip Lock. It is open
over HW and LW and will accept craft up to a maximum
beam of 5⋅5 m.
2
The Canal itself runs 1½ miles E from the entrance
locks. It has two turning basins. There is a maintained
depth of 7⋅5 m in the W end of The Canal, reducing to
7⋅0 m at the E end. There are 21 berths with a total
frontage of 3632 m.
3
Depths at the berths vary and are given on the chart, but
may be less than shown and the Harbour Master should be
consulted for the latest information.
Western Arm
3.57 1
Western Arm is the natural arm formed by the course of
the River Adur and runs W for about 1 mile. Between
West Pier and Soldier’s Point (2 cables NW), groynes
extend from the SW shore. The groynes on the bend at
Soldier’s Point are marked by red beacons and
light−beacons. There are several commercial berths on the
N bank of Western Arm with alongside depths of 1 m or
less: the S bank is not used commercially. Vessels take the
bottom, soft mud, at LW. Maintained depths in the channel
decrease from 1⋅8 m at the E end to 0⋅5 m at the W end.
These depths may be reduced by silting.
Port services
3.58 1
Repairs. There is a dry dock, close N of Prince George
Lock, which can accommodate vessels of up to 50 m in
length, 9⋅4 m beam and 5 m draught. Minor ship and
engineering repairs can be undertaken.
2
Other facilities: deratting and exemption certificates
issued; hospitals at Brighton (10 km) and Worthing
(10 km).
Supplies: all fuel oils; water; provisions and other
supplies.
CHAPTER 3
78
SHOREHAM TO BEACHY HEAD
SHOREHAM TO NEWHAVEN
General information
Chart 1652
Route
3.59 1
From a position S of Shoreham (50°50′N 0°15′W) the
route through the Inshore Traffic Zone leads 11 miles E to
a position S of Newhaven.
Topography
3.60 1
East of Shoreham the low coast gives way to white
cliffs, which are 20 to 30 m high to the E of Brighton,
some 4 miles from Shoreham. The town of
Shoreham-by-Sea runs into Southwick, thence
Portslade-by-Sea to Hove, Brighton and finally Kemp Town
so that the coast for some 7 miles is built-up. The towns
contain many churches, hotels and tower blocks of flats but
few stand out. The white cliffs are discernable to the E of
Brighton, and are only broken by small gaps, 2 to 3 miles
E of Kemp Town, which are not easily identified. The tops
of the cliffs are largely built-up as well and the various
localities are difficult to place from seaward.
2
The foreshore consists of chalk ledges and patches of
coarse sand. The gradient offshore increases to the E so
that the 10 m depth contour which is 3 miles offshore at
Shoreham is only 5 cables offshore at Newhaven.
3
There are no landing places between Brighton and
Newhaven. A promenade fronts the cliff for 3 miles E of
Kemp Town with steps to the beach at intervals. Numerous
groynes project from this promenade but they do not cross
the drying line.
Hazards
3.61 1
Fishing. Lobster pots are frequently laid up to 5 cables
offshore between Brighton and Newhaven. See 3.4 for
details of fishing in the area.
2
Recreational marks. During the period March to
October buoys (special) are laid up to 2½ cables off
Brighton, to mark power boat lanes and also areas between
the lanes which are prohibited to power boats. Several
light-buoys (special) are laid permanently up to 2 miles
offshore between Shoreham and Rottingdean, 7 miles ESE,
as racing marks.
Inshore Traffic Zone
3.62 1
From Shoreham (50°50′N 0°15′W) to the E the inshore
waters described in this chapter lie within the English
Inshore Traffic Zone. It is bounded to the S by the Dover
Strait TSS, see Chapter 2. Regulations concerning the use
of the Inshore Traffic Zone are given at 1.8.
Historic wreck
3.63 1
An historic wreck (50°48′⋅6N 0°06′⋅6W) enclosed by a
restricted area lies close W of Brighton Marina. See 1.86
concerning regulations for such wrecks.
Rescue
3.64 1
There is a coastguard station at Newhaven and a
VHF/DF station controlled by MRSC Solent. Rescue
equipment is maintained. See 1.110 for details of stations
and 1.113 for details of VHF/DF stations.
An all-weather lifeboat is stationed at Newhaven. See
1.123 for details of lifeboats.
Tidal streams
3.65 1
See information on the chart and in the Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: English Channel.
Principal marks
3.66 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Shoreham see 3.51.
Television tower (50°49′N 0°07′W) on the summit of
a hill at the E end of Brighton.
Brighton Television Tower from S (3.66)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
Building (50°49′N 0°06′W) block of flats, painted
pink, near the E end of Kemp Town.
2
Windmill (50°48′N 0°04′W) painted black at
Rottingdean.
Windmill at Rottingdean from S (3.66)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
Television tower (50°47′N 0°02′E) on the highest part
of the coast.
Major light:
High Light (50°50′N 0°15′W) (3.51)
CHAPTER 3
79
Directions
(continued from 3.34)
3.67 1
From a position S of Shoreham-by-Sea (50°50′N
0°15′W) the coastal route leads 11 miles E to a position S
of Newhaven, passing (with positions from Brighton
Marina (50°49′N 0°06′W):
S of a light-buoy (S cardinal) (5 miles WSW) which
marks the seaward end of a sewer outfall, thence:
2
S of West Pier (2 miles W) which extends 1 cable
seaward. The pier is derelict but is being restored.
A number of dangerous underwater obstructions lie
within 20 m of its seaward end, the most
dangerous of which dries 1 m. Vessels should not
approach within 75 m of the structure. A
light-buoy (port hand) is moored 1 cable S of the
pier. Thence:
3
S of Marine Palace Pier (1½ miles W) which extends
3 cables seaward. Two lights are exhibited from
the head of the pier. It is prohibited to berth on
the pier. Lights for the use of fishermen are
occasionally exhibited 3 and 6 cables E of the pier.
Thence:
S of Brighton Marina (3.71). The two piers and the
marina are radar conspicuous. Thence:
S of a light−buoy (special) (2 miles SSW), one of a
group of five racing marks for recreational craft.
4
S of Black Rock Ledge (5 cables SSE) which extends
from the cliffs and gives rise to irregular depths
out to the 5 m depth contour 4½ cables offshore.
The ledge lies within the red sector (260°−295°) of
Brighton Marina East Breakwater Light (3.71).
Thence:
5
S of a light-buoy (special) (3 miles SE) which marks
the seaward end of a sewer outfall. Initially the
outfall is contained in a concrete groyne which
runs 1½ cables from the cliff. This is 1 m high at
its seaward end and marked by a beacon (cage
topmark). Thence:
6
Across the Greenwich Meridian. An obelisk (4 miles
ESE) which marks the meridian stands on the cliff
at Peacehaven. Thence:
7
S of Burrow Head (5½ miles ESE) on which stands
the coastguard station. The highest point of the
coast in the vicinity, elevation 88 m, is 6 cables
WNW. It is surmounted by a television mast
(3.66). Thence:
To a position S of Newhaven (6 miles ESE).
3.68 1
Clearing bearing. The line of bearing 107° of Beachy
Head Old Lighthouse (50°44′N 0°13′E) open S of Seaford
Cliff (4 miles WNW of the lighthouse) passes S of Black
Rock Ledge and its associated shoals.
3.69 1
Useful marks:
Block of flats (50°49′N 0°09′W), elevation 101 m.
Roedean School (50°49′N 0°05′W) a rambling
building with two spires.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 3.99 and
for Newhaven at 3.90)
Brighton
General information
3.70 1
Apart from the marina, there are no landing places at
Brighton (50°49′N 0°08′W). The population of Brighton is
about 125 000 and that of Hove about 68 000.
Temporary anchorage may be obtained, in depths of
more than 5 m, 3½ cables SSW of the head of West Pier
(3.67) or 3 cables SSW of Marine Palace Pierhead (3.67).
2
Rescue. An inshore lifeboat is stationed in Brighton
Marina.
Helicopter landing sites are situated at Preston
Barracks, 1½ miles NNE of Marine Palace Pier and near
the Sussex County Hospital, 5 cables ENE of Brighton
Marina.
Chart 1991 plan of Brighton Marina
Brighton Marina
3.71 1
General information. Brighton Marina (50°49′N
0°06′W) is protected by two curved breakwaters, West
Breakwater, 630 m long, and East Breakwater, 1220 m long.
It consists of an outer tidal harbour and an impounded
inner harbour entered through a three gate lock system.
Brighton Marina from SW (3.71)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
2
Directions. The entrance faces SE and lies between the
heads of the breakwaters on which stand lights (East
Breakwater, white pillar, green bands; West Breakwater,
white round structure, red bands). The entrance channel,
which curves to the E, is marked by light-buoys and buoys
(port and starboard hand). International Port Traffic Signals
Nos 1, 2 and 2a are shown at the outer and the inner end
of the entrance channel, see The Mariner’s Handbook for
details of signals. The entrance channel is dredged to 2⋅0 m
but winter gales may cause shoaling mainly on the E side.
Within the outer harbour depths are between 1⋅5 and 3⋅0 m.
The inner basin is entered through locks on the E side of
the marina, which are reported to fill and empty rapidly.
The main lock is 100 m long, 10 m wide and depth at sill
of 1⋅8 m. It is manned between 0800 and 2000 daily or by
arrangement. The minimum depth in the inner basin is
2⋅4 m and yachts up to draught of 3⋅0 m can be accepted.
3
There is a port radio.
CHAPTER 3
80
Newhaven Harbour Entrance from S (3.75)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
NEWHAVEN
General information
Charts 1652, 2154
Position
3.72 1
Newhaven Harbour (50°47′N 0°03′E) is situated at the
mouth of the River Ouse, in the NW part of Seaford Bay
and close E of Burrow Head (3.67).
Function
3.73 1
The harbour is used commercially and as a cross
Channel ferry terminal with services to Dieppe. The town
of Newhaven, population about 11 500, lies mainly on the
W bank of the River Ouse, about 5 cables N of the
entrance.
Port limits
3.74 1
The W boundary of the port is formed by the
breakwater thence a line to a point 90 m S of the
breakwater head. The S boundary is a line of bearing 075°
from this point to the intersection with the coast.
Approach and entry
3.75 1
The approach to Newhaven is from S through a
maintained channel protected to the W by a breakwater.
The channel leads N between piers which form the
entrance, thence to the harbour, which is a continuation N
of the maintained channel.
2
Caution. High speed ferries with speeds of up to 40
knots may be encountered in the approaches to the port.
Traffic
3.76 1
In 2004 there were 1312 calls by ferries and HSC and
382 calls by other commercial vessels.
Port Authority
3.77 1
Newhaven Port and Properties Ltd, Newhaven Harbour,
Newhaven, East Sussex BN9 0BN.
Limiting conditions
3.78 1
Controlling depth. The entrance channel is dredged to
6⋅0 m and the S part of the harbour as far as the ferry
berths is dredged to 5⋅5 m. Owing to silting these depths
may not be maintained, particularly on the E side of the
entrance channel. The Harbour Master should be consulted
for the latest information.
CHAPTER 3
81
2
Deepest berth is No 1 Ro-Ro Berth and longest berth is
East Quay. See 3.91.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range 6⋅1 m; mean neap range
3⋅1 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1.
3.79 1
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 158 m and
draught 7⋅6 m. Larger vessels take the bottom, soft mud,
at LW.
Arrival information
Port radio
3.80 1
A port radio service is maintained. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Notice of ETA required
3.81 1
Twelve hours notice of ETA is required.
Outer anchorages
3.82 1
Good anchorage may be obtained, as indicated on the
chart, in a depth of about 5⋅5 m in Seaford Road on the
alignment (109°) of the foot of Seaford Cliff with Beachy
Head Old Lighthouse (3.98) and Seaford Church (tower)
bearing 055°.Alternatively, vessels may anchor in a
position 1½ miles SW of the head of the W breakwater in
a depth of about 14 m.
2
The anchorages are clear of the track of cross−channel
ferries using Newhaven and are sheltered from winds from
the ESE through N to NW.
Pilotage and tugs
3.83 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 49 m in
length. Pilots board by arrangement about a mile to the SW
of the breakwater. In severe weather the pilot boat leads in
keeping 100 m from the breakwater. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
One tug is available.
Regulations concerning entry
3.84 1
No vessel may enter or leave harbour, or any dock,
lock or basin in contravention of the traffic signals
(3.86) indicating that entry or departure is
forbidden, or without the authority of the Harbour
Master.
2
No vessel may be navigated so as to interfere in any
manner with the arrival or departure of an
advertised passenger steamer.
3
When navigating in the harbour N of an imaginary
line drawn across the entrance channel from the
head of West Pier a speed limit of 5 kn may not
be exceeded. In any other part of the harbour no
vessel may proceed at a speed exceeding 8 kn.
4
Dredgers must be passed at a low speed and on the
side indicated by the signals prescribed for the
dredger (which are in accordance with The
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions
at Sea).
Harbour
General layout
3.85 1
From the entrance the harbour runs 9 cables NNW.
Initially the harbour is about 100 m wide, narrowing at its
N extremity to about 30 m. A swing bridge, which allows
vessels of up to 14⋅2 m beam to pass through, is situated
8 cables inside the entrance.
In the S part of the harbour the dredged depth is 5⋅5 m,
reducing considerably N of No 2 Ro-Ro berth (3.91) to
less than 1 m.
2
Quays used by ferries and commercial vessels form the
greater part of the E bank. There are jetties and landing
stages for small craft on the W bank as well as a marina
complex in Sleeper’s Hole, 2½ cables inside the entrance.
Traffic signals
3.86 1
Entry and departure are regulated by International Port
Traffic Signals, see The Mariner’s Handbook, which are
exhibited from a mast near the head of West Pier.
2
Traffic signals, with red lights only, are displayed from
masts at East Quay and the NW corner of No 2 Ro-Ro
Berth.
Before leaving a berth vessels must request permission
to proceed from Newhaven Radio Port Control (3.80) on
VHF or by telephone.
3.87 1
Bridge signals controlling traffic through the swing
bridge are exhibited from a tower (6 m in height), on the E
side of the river close downstream of the bridge as follows:
Signal Meaning
Green flashing light Bridge opening or closing.
Red fixed light Vessels may pass from N to S.
Green fixed light Vessels may pass from S to N.
2
Bridge openings are arranged by prior contact with Port
Control. The bridge control station may be contacted on
VHF, callsign Bridge Control. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Natural conditions
3.88 1
Tidal streams to the S of the entrance are given on
Chart 1652 and in the Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas:
English Channel.
2
At the entrance both the in-going and out-going tidal
streams attain a rate of 2 kn at springs. The in-going stream
begins at about −0545 HW Dover and the out-going stream
about +0100 HW Dover. The rate of the streams increases
in the N of the harbour.
Climatic table. See 1.225 and 1.226.
Principal marks
3.89 1
Landmarks:
Newhaven Lighthouse (concrete tower, 14 m in
height) (50°46′⋅6N 0°03′⋅5E) on the head of
Newhaven Breakwater.
East Pier Light (white metal framework tower with
three green bands, 12 m in height) (50°46′⋅8N
0°03′⋅6E).
Coastguard station and lookout (50°47′N 0°03′E)
close N of Burrow Head (3.67), with prominent
radio mast.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.69)
3.90 1
From a position about 2 miles S of Newhaven (50°47′N
0°03′E) the route leads N thence NNW through the
dredged channel, passing (with positions from East Pier
Light (50°46′⋅8N 0°03′⋅6E) (3.89)):
CHAPTER 3
82
2
W of the seaward end of an outfall (1¼ miles SSE),
which extends 1½ miles S of the coast from a
position 3 cables ENE of East Pier Light, thence:
WSW of a rock (4 cables SSE) with a least depth of
5⋅2 m over it, thence:
3
To the seaward end of the approach channel
(3½ cables S), centreline 349°, which is 122 m
wide, thence:
4
ENE of the head of Newhaven Breakwater (2½ cables
SSW) passing about ½ cable off. A lighthouse
(3.89) stands on the head of the breakwater. The
concrete breakwater is 4 cables long and curves SE
from the coast 2 cables W of the harbour entrance.
It is readily identified from seaward. Thence:
5
To the harbour entrance (1½ cables NNW), which is
formed by W and E piers, having lights at their
outer and inner ends. Within the entrance the
channel narrows to 60 m and the lights on the
inner ends of the piers help vessels to maintain the
centreline.
Thence vessels continue in mid−channel until their berth
or swinging circle.
Berths
3.91 1
The major berths lie on the E side of the harbour and
from S to N are:
East Quay, 510 m long, depth alongside 4⋅5 m
increasing to 5⋅0 m at No 1 Ro−Ro berth.
2
Railway Quay with No 2 Ro-Ro berth, depth 4⋅5 m,
at its S end.
North Quay above the swing bridge.
Berths on the W side of the harbour are used by small
craft.
Port services
3.92 1
Repairs to hull and engine can be made.
Other facilities: deratting and exemption certificates
issued; Port Medical Officer available; hospital at Brighton
(8 miles W); disposal of garbage and oily waste.
Supplies: all fuel oils; water; provisions.
NEWHAVEN TO BEACHY HEAD
General information
Chart 1652
Route
3.93 1
From a position S of Newhaven (50°47′N 0°03′E) the
coastal route leads 7 miles E to a position S of Beachy
Head.
Topography
3.94 1
The coast from Newhaven to Beachy Head runs 8 miles
ESE. The coast is predominantly composed of white chalk
cliffs, which culminate in Beachy Head. The foreshore is
mainly rocky ledges and shingle which dry at LW and
which are strewn with boulders that have fallen from the
cliffs above.
2
The depths between Newhaven and Beachy Head are
steep−to, the 10 m depth contour being located about
5 cables offshore. See 3.97.
Traffic regulations
3.95 1
A speed limit of 8 kn is imposed between Newhaven
and Seaford Head, 2½ miles ESE, up to 200 m offshore.
The seaward limit is marked by buoys (white spherical)
from April to October. A water ski lane, marked by buoys
(white spherical) where the speed limit does not apply, is at
the SE end of this area.
Rescue
3.96 1
There is a coastguard station at Birling Gap (50°44′N
0°12′E). Coast rescue equipment is maintained.
See 1.122 for details of stations.
Natural conditions
3.97 1
Tidal stream, which is rectilinear, is given on the chart
and in the Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: English Channel.
Overfalls are caused in bad weather by a ridge of
uneven ground with depths of less than 20 m extending
1½ miles SSE from Beachy Head.
Principal marks
3.98 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Newhaven see 3.89.
Barn (50°46′N 0°08′E), 8 cables E of Seaford Head.
Beachy Head old lighthouse (circular grey tower,
14 m in height, disused) (50°44′N 0°13′E). The
lighthouse stands near the summit of Belle Toute
cliff, 1 mile W of Beachy Head.
Watch tower (radio tower) (50°44′N 0°15′E) on
Beachy Head.
Beachy Head Lighthouse (disused) from SW (3.98)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
CHAPTER 3
83
2
Major light:
Beachy Head Light (white round tower, red band,
43 m in height) (50°44′⋅0N 0°14′⋅5E). The
lighthouse stands on drying rocks, which extend
from the foot of the cliff below the head. Power
cables, marked by red spheres, run from the
lighthouse gallery to the cliff top close N.
Beachy Head Lighthouse from SW (3.98)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Directions
(continued from 3.69)
3.99 1
From a position S of Newhaven Harbour (50°47′N
0°03′E) the coastal route leads 7 miles E to a position S of
Beachy Head, passing (with positions from Beachy Head):
S of Seaford (5½ miles WNW). There are numerous
groynes, the larger marked by beacons (red cage),
on the coast fronting the town. Thence:
2
S of Seaford Head (5 miles WNW). It is chalky, but
rust-streaked, with a patch of green on the cliff
face just below the summit. It can be confused
with Beachy Head but the latter is readily
identified by the disused lighthouse and the watch
tower (3.98). Thence:
3
S of Hope Point (4 miles WNW), which is 4 cables
SW of Cuckmere Haven at the mouth of
Cuckmere River. The haven entrance is
encumbered by a shingle bank and the entrance is
foul for some distance offshore. The landing is
poor other than at HW and with offshore winds.
There is an obstruction 3½ cables ESE of Hope
Point. Thence:
4
S of Birling Gap (1½ miles WNW). The Seven
Sisters, a range of undulating chalk cliffs, form the
coast between Cuckmere Haven and Birling Gap.
Thence:
5
To a position S of Beachy Head, which is remarkable
when seen from the W due to the uniform
convexity of The Seven Sisters. There is a rocky
bank, with depths less than 5 m, extending up to
5 cables offshore between Birling Gap and Beachy
Head. Head Ledge, a narrow ridge of sandstone
which partly dries, extends 3 cables SE from the
shore below the watch tower.
6
Caution. In bad weather Beachy Head should be given
a berth of 2 miles to avoid the overfalls (3.97).
Beachy Head and Head Ledge from E (3.99)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
Useful marks
3.100 1
Hotel (50°44′N 0°12′E) at Birling Gap.
Water tower (grey) (50°46′N 0°12′E), prominent from
the W and standing on high ground.
(Directions continue at 3.109)
Anchorage
3.101 1
Anchorage, in offshore winds, may be found all along
this part of the coast in depths between 10 and 16 m in
fine sand, broken shells and mud. The usual anchorage is
in Seaford Road (3.82).
BEACHY HEAD TO DUNGENESS
General information
Chart 536
Route
3.102 1
From a position S of Beachy Head (50°44′N 0°15′E) the
route through the Inshore Traffic Zone leads 7½ miles E,
then 24 miles ENE to a position SSE of Dungeness.
Topography
3.103 1
The coast trends NE from Beachy Head and falls away.
The town of Eastbourne (3.123) extends from 1½ to
4 miles NE of the head and is the dominant feature on this
part of the coast. The coast then runs ENE, but slightly
indented forming Pevensey Bay, and is generally low and
desolate, though inland somewhat higher, verdant and
mostly featureless, until Bexhill (3.125), 8½ miles NE of
CHAPTER 3
84
Eastbourne, is reached. The coast rises again with the twin
towns of Saint Leonards and Hastings (3.127), 2½ miles E
of Bexhill, standing on higher ground. E of Hastings the
coast is composed of steep yellow-brown cliffs broken at
intervals by grassy slopes, in particular at Ecclesbourne
Glen. Fairlight Down is the highest point and to its E the
ground falls gradually in undulating fields and wooded
hillocks to Rye, 5½ miles ENE of Fairlight Down. Rye
stands at the head of Rye Bay. From Rye to Dungeness the
coast runs ESE and is completely flat and featureless.
Romney Marsh lies to the E of Rye with Dungeness at its
SE extremity.
2
Offshore the 20 m depth contour, which closes to within
a mile of Beachy Head, is up to 8 miles from the coast.
Within the 20 m depth contour there are numerous shoal
patches of which the Royal Sovereign Shoals (3.109) are
the most significant. As Dungeness is approached the 20 m
depth contour again closes the coast and is only 2 cables
off the point itself.
Firing danger area
3.104 1
Lydd Firing Range lies between Rye and Dungeness. A
low square building (50°56′N 0°50′E) with a radar scanner,
just seaward of several white houses, marks the W
extremity of the range. Dengemarsh observation tower,
shown on the chart 4¼ miles ESE of the house, marks the
E extremity of the range. Two other lookout positions on
the coast are also shown on the chart.
2
There is a danger area inland of these towers, which
also extends 3 miles to seaward. The seaward part of the
danger area may be patrolled by range safety craft. Vessels
may pass through the danger area, but should endeavour to
comply with any directions given by the range safety craft.
Red flags (day) and red fixed lights (night) are exhibited
when firing is taking place.
Restricted areas
3.105 1
Restricted area of 100 m radius enclosing an historic
wreck, lies offshore from Saint Leonards close to Bopeep
Rocks (50°50′⋅8N 0°31′⋅4E) which dry.
A second historic wreck (50°53′⋅4N 0°41′⋅8E) enclosed
by a restricted area of 75 m radius lies off Cliff End.
See 1.86 for regulations concerning such wrecks.
Rescue
3.106 1
There are coastguard stations at Eastbourne, Bexhill,
Hastings, Rye and Dungeness. Coast rescue equipment is
maintained at all stations. Fairlight is a VHF/DF station
remotely controlled by Dover MRCC, see 1.113. For details
of stations see 1.122.
2
All-weather lifeboats are stationed at Eastbourne
(Sovereign Marina), Hastings and Dungeness. Inshore
lifeboats are stationed at Rye, Eastbourne and Hastings. For
details of lifeboats see 1.123.
Tidal streams
3.107 1
Tidal streams throughout the area are rectilinear. The
streams are given on the chart and in Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: English Channel.
Principal marks
3.108 1
Landmarks:
Building (50°45′N 0°17′E) block of flats.
Gasholder (50°47′N 0°18′E).
Dome (50°52′N 0°21′E) of Isaac Newton telescope at
Herstmonceux.
Hotel (50°51′N 0°33′E).
Fairlight Church (tower) (50°53′N 0°39′E).
2
Dungeness Nuclear Power Station (50°55′N 0°58′E)
marked by red lights. It has been reported by
vessels approaching from the SW that power
cables running inland in a WNW direction and
shown on the chart, paint prominently on radar
prior to the low coastline, which only paints on
close approach.
Dungeness and Power Station from SW (3.108)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
3
Dungeness Lighthouse (disused) (2½ cables W of
Dungeness New Light).
Dungeness New Lighthouse (black round tower, white
bands and lantern, floodlit, 43 m in height)
(50°54′⋅8N 0°58′⋅5E).
Dungeness New Lighthouse (3.108)
(Original dated 2000)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
4
Water tower (50°57′N 0°57′E), dark grey, surmounted
by a grey tank. When approaching from the E care
must be taken not to confuse it with either of the
two Dungeness lighthouses.
5
Offshore mark:
Royal Sovereign Light (white tower, red band,
standing on helicopter deck supported by concrete
column) (50°43′⋅5N 0°26′⋅1E).
CHAPTER 3
85
Royal Sovereign Light from SW (3.108)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
6
Major Lights:
Beachy Head Light (50°44′⋅0N 0°14′⋅5E) (3.98).
Royal Sovereign Light—as above.
Dungeness Light—as above. The light is partially
obscured between the bearing 078° and the shore.
Directions
(continued from 3.100)
3.109 1
From a position S of Beachy Head (50°44′N 0°15′E) the
coastal route leads 7½ miles E, then 24 miles ENE to a
position SSE of Dungeness, passing (with positions from
Royal Sovereign Light (50°43′⋅5N 0°26′⋅1E)):
2
S of Holywell Bank (6 miles WNW) a sandy flat with
depths of less than 5 m over it, which extends
8 cables offshore between Head Ledge (3.99) and
Wish Tower, 2 miles NE. Boulder Bank, 1 mile N
of Holywell Bank, is a ledge of large rocks which
dry, close offshore near Wish Tower. A light−buoy
(special) used as a yacht racing marker is moored
in position 50°45′⋅5N 0°18′⋅0E. Thence:
3
S and SSE of Royal Sovereign Light (3.108), which
stands on Southern Head, a small rocky patch
1½ miles S of Royal Sovereign Shoals, the
principal shoal in the group of rocky patches of
that name. Royal Sovereign Buoy (port hand) is
moored S of the shoal. The other significant shoals
lie W of Royal Sovereign Shoal and from the W
are Elphick Tree, Horse of Willingdon, Kinsman’s
Nab, the SW extremity of Long Shoal, and Long
Shoal close W of the N part of Royal Sovereign
Shoals. Several shoal patches lie between Horse of
Willingdon and Southern Head. The shoals, which
straddle the direct route between Beachy Head and
Dungeness, have strong eddies over them at
springs, especially Royal Sovereign Shoal and
Horse of Willingdon. The sea breaks heavily over
the shallower heads in bad weather. A light−buoy
(special) used as a yacht racing marker is moored
in position 50°45′⋅5N 0°21′⋅8E. Thence:
4
Depending on draught clear of Shingle Bank (5 miles
E), with depths of less than 15 m over it. An area
of the bank which is being dredged for gravel is
marked by buoys (special). A ridge extending
7 miles NE eventually merges with the coastal
bank. Thence:
5
SSE of Rye Bay (50°53′N 0°47′E), which lies
between Fairlight (50°52′N 0°40′E) and Dungeness
12 miles ENE, thence:
6
SSE of Stephenson Shoal (50°53′N 0°53′E), a narrow
ridge of sand in the E part of Rye Bay which runs
WSW from Dungeness. The shoal is covered by
the red sector (057°−073°) of Dungeness Light
(3.108). Thence:
7
To a position SSE of Dungeness (50°55′N 0°59′E) on
which stands a light (3.108). The point is steep-to
on the SE side but elsewhere there is a flat shingle
beach which is advancing seaward. Outfalls
marked by a light-buoy (S cardinal) are 3 cables
SW of the lighthouse.
8
Caution. The water expelled from these outfalls causes
turbulence, which could be hazardous to small craft
navigating close inshore.
3.110 1
Clearing bearing:
The alignment (271°) of Fairlight Church Tower
(50°53′N 0°39′E) with the summit of Fairlight
Down (1 mile W) passes over the W edge of
Stephenson Shoal with a depth of 10 m.
Useful marks
3.111 1
Five Martello towers running NE along the shore
from Langney Point (50°47′N 0°20′E) for a
distance of 1½ miles. The tower on Langney Point
is surmounted by a small flagstaff. The most NE
tower is virtually hidden among houses around
Pevensey Bay (3.103).
2
Stranded wrecks (50°47′N 0°20′E) 3½ cables NNE of
Langney Point.
White windmill (50°49′N 0°18′E).
Martello tower (50°49′N 0°23′E), an isolated tower
guarding Hooe Level.
Radio mast (50°56′N 0°57′E).
(Directions continue at 4.11)
Rye Harbour
Charts 536, 1991 plan of Rye Harbour
General information
3.112 1
Position. Rye Harbour (50°56′N 0°46′E), lies at the
mouth of the River Rother, 1½ miles SE of the town of
Rye.
Function. It is one of the oldest ports in England, which
declined due to siltation but has since revived. It is now a
small commercial and fishing port and a yachting centre.
The population of Rye is about 4500.
2
Topography. The harbour lies at the head of Rye Bay
(3.109). Depths decrease gradually towards the head of the
bay. Either side of the harbour entrance the land is flat and
devoid of features.
The town itself lies 2 miles inland and is built on a
sandstone rock, which rises above the surrounding marshes
and is encompassed by the Rivers Rother, Brede and
Tillingham.
CHAPTER 3
86
3
Approach and entry. The harbour is approached from
SSE and then through the entrance which lies between two
training walls.
Rye Harbour Entrance (3.112)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Traffic. In 2004 the port handled 47 vessels with a total
deadweight of 72 000 tonnes.
4
Port Authority. Environment Agency − Southern
Region, Harbour Office, New Lydd Road, Camber, Rye,
East Sussex, TN31 7QS.
Limiting conditions
3.113 1
Controlling depth. At HW springs the depth over the
sand bar at the entrance is 5⋅2 m, but changes in the bar of
0⋅5 m can occur within 2 days. Similar depths are available
in the harbour.
Deepest and longest berth is Rye Wharf (3.121).
2
Tidal levels: Rye approaches, MHWS 7⋅8 m; MHWN
6⋅0 m; no data available on LW levels.
Rye Harbour, MHWS 5⋅4 m; MHWN 3⋅6 m; harbour
dries at LW.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 85 m and
draught 4⋅5 m at HW springs.
Local weather. Strong SW winds cause the sea to break
heavily on the bar.
Arrival information
3.114 1
Port radio. A service is operated during working hours
or when a vessel is expected. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Notice of ETA required is 24 hours.
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 30 m in length.
Pilots board at Rye Fairway Light-buoy (safe water),
2 miles SE of the harbour entrance or as instructed.
2
Local knowledge. It is recommended that the first visit
is made in daylight.
Traffic regulation. Large vessels have right of way in
accordance with Rule 9 of The International Regulations
for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). See also Traffic
Signals (3.116).
Harbour
3.115 1
General layout. It is 3 miles by river from the entrance
to the town of Rye with navigable widths decreasing from
30 m to 20 m after about 1 mile from the entrance. Rye
Harbour, in which is located the main commercial berth,
Rye Wharf, is 1 mile inside the entrance. Rye Marine
Wharf, a disused commercial berth, is 5 cables farther
upstream. The jetties on the E bank are used by small
craft. There are also quays and moorings for small craft at
Rye itself.
3.116 1
Traffic signals are displayed from the Harbour Office
signal mast (50°56′⋅3N 0°46′⋅0E) using the The
International Port Traffic Signals, see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
2
In addition a yellow flashing light exhibited from the
Harbour Office and repeated from the N end of Admiralty
Jetty indicates the movement of a large vessel into, within
or out of the harbour.
When these signals are shown other vessels should
navigate so as to avoid impeding large vessels, see 3.114.
3.117 1
Tide gauge. There is a tide gauge for use by day on the
lighted beacon on the E side of the harbour entrance.
3.118 1
Tidal streams are weak near the shores of Rye Bay. and
the times at which the streams begin in all parts of the bay
are not known.
2
The tidal streams are strong in the entrance to Rye
Harbour. The in-going stream begins about −0520 HW
Dover and the out-going at HW Dover. The in-going
stream is stronger than the out-going, attaining 3½ kn at
springs and up to 5 kn on occasions.
Directions for entering harbour
3.119 1
From a position SE of Rye Harbour (50°56′N 0°46′E)
the route leads 4½ miles NW to the vicinity of Rye
Fairway Light-buoy, passing (with positions from the
harbour entrance):
2
SW of Stephenson Shoal (5 miles SE) (3.109), thence:
NE of Boulder Banks (4½ miles SW), several shoals
of sand and gravel, thence:
3
NE of Tower Knoll (3½ miles SW) a sandy spit,
thence:
To the vicinity of Rye Fairway Light-buoy (safe
water) (2 miles SE).
4
An alternative route from the SE leads towards the
harbour entrance across the W end of Stephenson Shoal, in
a depth of 7⋅3 m on the alignment (308½°) of Rye Harbour
Church spire (50°56′⋅3N 0°45′⋅4E) with Rye Church spire
(1 mile NW).
5
Caution. There are numerous gill nets in Rye Bay
which are usually marked by dan buoys.
CHAPTER 3
87
3.120 1
The track then leads through the harbour entrance and
into Rye Harbour, passing (with positions from No 11
Beacon (50°56′⋅3N 0°45′⋅9E)):
NE of Western Arm (7 cables SE) a groyne extension
of the W training wall, with a dolphin (wooden
tripod, 9 m in height), from which a light is
exhibited, at its head, thence:
2
Between the E and W training walls (5 cables SE),
forming the harbour entrance, which is initially
42 m wide but narrows to 30 m. Both training
walls are covered at HW. The W training wall is
about 7 cables in length and constructed of steel
piling. It projects further seaward than the E
training wall and is marked by beacons (red
wooden piles) and light-beacons. The head of the
E training wall is marked by a light-beacon (green
triangle on metal structure, 5 m in height) and
thence a number of beacons and light-beacons. It
runs for 2½ cables into East Pier, a stone and steel
piled retaining wall marked by beacons and
light-beacons (green triangle on wooden piles). A
road, which also covers at about half tide, runs
along the top of the E training wall. Thence:
3
To Rye (1½ miles NW) following the River Rother
which is marked on either side by beacons,
light-beacons and withies.
4
Caution. The E-going stream in Rye Bay, which forms
the in-going stream into the harbour, produces an eddy NE
of the W training wall which sets W to the head of East
Pier before being diverted upriver. It is prudent not to leave
harbour at the strength of the in-going stream, but wait till
it eases 1 hour before HW. The best time to enter harbour
is 1 hour either side of HW.
Berths
3.121 1
Rye Wharf, 154 m in length, can take vessels up to
85 m LOA and draught 4⋅5 m at HW springs. Vessels take
the mud at LW.
2
Strand Quay, at Rye, can take vessels 20 m in length
and draught 2⋅7 m at HW springs. The berth is not
available commercially and may only be used by
arrangement with the Harbour Master.
3
Rye Fish Market Quay is 270 m in length and provides
berths for about 20 small fishing craft.
Port services
3.122 1
Facilities: hospital at Hastings (15 miles W).
Supplies: marine diesel, petrol and water at Rye
Harbour; provisions at Rye.
Coastal towns, harbours and anchorages
Chart 536
Eastbourne
3.123 1
The seaside resort of Eastbourne (50°46′N 0°17′E),
population about 95 000, lies NE of Beachy Head and may
be identified by the large buildings and hotels fronted by
promenades.
2
There is a pier, 295 m long, from which lights are
exhibited. Landing steps on the NE side of the pier should
be approached from the NE to avoid a shoal close seaward
of the pierhead.
Eastbourne Pier from SE (3.123)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
3
A beacon (cylinder) marks the seaward end of an outfall
at Langney Point (50°47′N 0°20′E) (3.111). A second
outfall extends 1¾ cables SSE from Langney Point to
diffusers over which there is a depth of 10⋅5 m.
4
An inshore lifeboat is permanently stationed at
Eastbourne, 7 cables NE of the pier.
Soverign Harbour
3.124 1
General information. Sovereign Harbour (50°47′⋅3N
0°20′⋅0E) lies close N of Langney Point and is protected by
two breakwaters, each about 250 m long. There is an Outer
Harbour, which is tidal, and four inner basins reached
through either of two locks, each 45 m in length, on the W
side of the Outer Harbour.
Sovereign Harbour (3.124)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
2
Directions. The marina can be identified by a Martello
Tower (50°47′⋅2N 0°19′⋅9E) on which there is a light
(concrete tower, 7 m in height) and is approached from
seaward through a channel dredged annually to 2⋅0 m.
From the fairway light-buoy (safe water) (50°47′⋅4N
0°20′⋅7E), the line of bearing (258°) of the directional light
(51°47′⋅2N 0°19′⋅7E), white sector (256⋅5°−261⋅0°), leads
through the entrance which is formed by the heads of two
breakwaters. Within the entrance a channel, marked by
light-buoys and buoys (port and starboard hand), leads to
the outer harbour.
3
The channel and outer harbour are liable to silting. The
harbour master should be consulted for the latest
information.
CHAPTER 3
88
There is a port radio station. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Bexhill
3.125 1
General information. The red brick houses of Bexhill
(50°51′N 0°29′E), population about 39 000, stand on rising
ground and make the town prominent from seaward. The
old town, surrounded by trees, lies on a hill about 5 cables
inland.
The coast E of Bexhill rises gradually to form a
whaleback shaped sandy cliff, Galley Hill. A second similar
cliff is close E.
3.126 1
Offshore there are several shoals. Pevensey Shoal is
2½ miles S of the coast with an oceanographical data
light−buoy (special) moored 1 mile WSW. Overfalls occur
about 1¾ miles WSW of the shoal. Coxheath Shoal,
comprising three rocky heads is 1 mile offshore with Oyster
Reef lying between it and Cooden Ledge which fronts the
shore. At the E end of the town Bexhill Reef, which dries
in places, extends 5 cables offshore. Drying rocky ledges,
including Jenny’s Stool front much of the town.
2
An outfall, marked at its seaward end by a light-buoy
(special), extends 1¼ miles from the shore at the E end of
the town.
Saint Leonards and Hastings
3.127 1
General information. The adjacent towns of Saint
Leonards and Hastings (50°51′N 0°34′E), population about
88 500, stand on high ground. They are separated by a
valley with buildings on each side, which rises to an
elevation of 60 m. A promenade fronts the towns.
2
Hastings Pier (50°51′N 0°34′E), centrally located and
from which lights (white hut, 3 m in height) are exhibited,
extends 1½ cables from the shore. Pleasure craft use the
landing stages at the pierhead and there are steps on the E
side near the pierhead. A dangerous wreck, position
approximate, lies 3 cables SE of the pierhead.
3
There is a helicopter landing site near Hastings Hospital,
2½ cables NW of the pier.
3.128 1
Off-lying shoals. Hastings Shoal (50°50′N 0°36′E) lies
8 cables S of the breakwater at Hastings.
Four Fathoms Sand Ridge (50°49′N 0°39′E) lies 4 miles
S of Hastings and extends NE merging into the shoal bank
bordering the shores of Rye Bay (3.109). Depths over the
ridge are irregular, with the least depth being over Fairlight
Knoll at the NE extremity of the ridge.
3.129 1
Leading lights. The alignment (356¼°) of the following
lights assists fishing vessels beaching:
Front light (white metal column, 8 m in height)
(50°51′⋅3N 0°35′⋅4E) standing on the beach.
Rear light (white, 5-sided tower, 6 m in height)
(357 m from front light), standing on West Hill.
2
The lights stand close W of a stone breakwater, which
extends 1¾ cables offshore and gives some protection to
fishing vessels from the S and W winds. The breakwater,
which has a light (mast, 4 m in height) at its head, is in
poor repair. Two large concrete groynes are 2 and
2¾ cables E of the breakwater. A light is exhibited from
one of the groynes.
Anchorages
3.130 1
Anchorage is available as follows:
Eastbourne Bay (50°46′N 0°19′E) in depths of 9 m,
sand and mud, good holding ground and clear of
an unmarked dangerous wreck 5 cables SE of
Eastbourne Pier. The recommended position,
shown on the chart, is 132° from the pierhead
(3.123) 8 cables. The anchorage is sheltered from
the W, through N to NE.
2
Off Hastings, but the anchorage is open and not
recommended except in fair weather. The best
anchorage, in depths of about 6 m, sand and mud,
is 6 cables S of Hastings Pier (50°51′N 0°34′E).
3
West Road (50°54′N 0°54′E) in depths of 8 m, fine
sand over clay and mud, good holding ground,
provides shelter between N and E. The
recommended position, shown on the chart, is
within Stephenson Shoal (3.109) 250° from
Dungeness New Light (3.108) 3 miles. Small craft
may lie closer inshore, but must be prepared for a
sudden shift of wind. The anchorage lies within a
firing danger area (3.104).
4
Caution. Anchoring in Pevensey Bay (3.103) is not
recommended as the wind tends to back S in bad weather
and the sea rises rapidly. The anchorage in Eastbourne Bay
is more sheltered and the holding ground better.
NOTES
89
4.14
4.41
4.110
4.101
4
.6
4
.74
4
.
1
28
4
.32
E N G L A N D
F R A N C E
Ramsgate
Richborough Port
Dungenes
s
Do v e r St r a i t
Tr a f f i c Se p a r a t i o n
Sc h e me
I
n
s
h
o
r
e
T
r
a
f
f
i
c
Z
o
n
e
South Foreland
North Foreland
Broadstairs
Folkestone
Dover
1607
1991
323
323
1828
1698
1892
1827
1827 & 1828
1827
1205
1828
1°
1° Longitude 1° 30´ East from Greenwich
30´20´
20´
10´
10´
30´
50´40´
30´
20´ 20´
10´ 10´
50´
51°
51°
50´
50´
90
Chapter 4 - Dungeness to North Foreland
91
CHAPTER 4
DUNGENESS TO NORTH FORELAND
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1892, 323
Scope of Chapter
4.1 1
This chapter describes the coastal passage from
Dungeness (50°55′N 0°59′E) to South Foreland, 21 miles
NE, thence to North Foreland, a further 14 miles NNE,
together with the ports of Folkestone (4.14), Dover (4.41)
and Ramsgate (4.110).
Topography
4.2 1
The direction of the coast alters NE of Dungeness to
form a large bay with Folkestone, 13 miles NE, at its E
entry point. The shore of the bay is low-lying, but at
Folkestone the interior hills join the coast which becomes
cliffy. Shakespeare Cliff (4.39) is the W of the prominent
chalk cliffs which lie either side of Dover, 5 miles NE of
Folkestone. The chalk cliffs continue just beyond South
Foreland, whence the coast is lower as far as Pegwell Bay
(4.101). Ramsgate is close E of Pegwell Bay and the coast
is again cliffy to North Foreland, 3 miles N of Ramsgate.
2
Between Dungeness and Dover the 20 m depth contour
is up to 3 miles offshore, but with no off-lying shoals. To
the NE Dover there are a number of dangerous off-lying
shoals, principally the Goodwin Sands (4.76), which dry,
and lie up to 7 miles from the coast.
Wrecks
4.3 1
The area between Dungeness and South Foreland, up to
6 miles offshore, is littered with wrecks, most of which
have been wire swept to obtain their least depth.
Many of the wrecks are well proud of the seabed and
deep−draught vessels should avoid the area.
Cross-Channel ferry traffic
4.4 1
Ramsgate and Dover are ferry terminals and there is
considerable cross-Channel traffic, in particular from Dover,
where ferries and high speed craft enter and leave from
both the E and W entrances often at a considerable speed.
2
Vessels passing Dover should keep at least 1 mile off the
Southern Breakwater and should call Dover Port Control
(4.48) giving their ETA at 3 miles from the port. They
should then maintain listening watch for broadcasts of
harbour movements.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details.
Traffic regulations
4.5 1
The route as far as South Foreland runs through the
Inshore Traffic Zone, which lies to the NW of the Dover
Strait TSS. Regulations for the use of the Inshore Traffic
Zone are given at 1.8.
2
The Channel Navigation Information Service (2.23)
provides information on the area covered by this chapter.
Radar surveillance is maintained for the area between
Dungeness and Saint Margaret’s Bay (51°09′N 1°23′E),
2½ miles NE of Dover.
DUNGENESS TO DOVER
DUNGENESS TO FOLKESTONE
General information
Chart 1892
Route
4.6 1
From a position SE of Dungeness (50°55′N 0°59′E) the
coastal route leads through the Inshore Traffic Zone
13 miles NE to a position SE of Folkestone.
Firing danger area
4.7 1
There is a rifle range close SW of Hythe (51°04′N
1°04′E), which has a danger area extending 2 miles to
seaward. Red flags (day) and red lights (night) are
displayed at a lookout position at the E end of the range
and near Dymchurch Redoubt, 2 miles SW, when firing is
taking place. There is a radar scanner at the Redoubt. The
danger area may be patrolled by range safety craft and
while vessels may transit the area, they should endeavour
to comply with instructions given by these craft.
Rescue
4.8 1
There is a Coastguard station at Folkestone, where coast
rescue equipment is maintained. For details of stations see
1.122.
An inshore lifeboat is stationed at Littlestone-on-Sea
(50°59′N 0°58′E). For details of lifeboats see 1.123.
Tidal streams
4.9 1
Close inshore the tidal streams follow the land so that
the E-going stream sets N close inshore in East Road,
4 miles NNE of Dungeness, then turns E towards
Folkestone, while the W-going stream sets W from
Folkestone and then S towards Dungeness. The streams are
weak in both directions.
See also information on the chart and in the Admiralty
Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait.
CHAPTER 4
92
Principal marks
4.10 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Dungeness see 3.108.
Water tower (50°57′N 0°57′E) (3.108).
Radio Mast (flashing red lights) (51°06′N 1°05′E)
standing on Tolsford Hill.
Radio Mast (red lights) (51°07′N 1°15′E).
2
Major lights:
Dungeness Light (50°54′⋅8N 0°58′⋅5E) (3.108).
Folkestone Breakwater Light (tower, 13 m in height)
(51°04′⋅6N 1°11′⋅7E) at the head of the breakwater.
Varne Light-float (51°01′⋅3N 1°23′⋅9E) (4.38).
3
Dover Admiralty Pierhead Light (51°06′⋅7N 1°19′⋅7E)
(4.61).
Dover Southern Breakwater W Head Light (51°06′⋅8N
1°19′⋅8E) (4.61).
Dover Southern Breakwater Knuckle Light (51°07′⋅0N
1°20′⋅5E) (4.61).
Directions
(continued from 3.111)
4.11 1
From a position SE of Dungeness (50°55′N 0°59′E) the
coastal route leads 13 miles NE to a position SE of
Folkestone, passing (with positions from Hythe (51°04′N
1°04′E)):
2
SE of Swallow Bank (7½ miles SSW), covered by the
red sector (196°−216°) of Dungeness Light. Roar
Bank, a ridge of sand, is 2 miles N of Swallow
Bank. Thence:
SE of Dymchurch (4 miles SW) a village. Dymchurch
Wall, an embankment to protect Romney Marsh,
runs 2 miles NE from the village to Dymchurch
Redoubt. Thence:
3
SE of Hythe Flats (1 mile SE), a shallow bank
fronting the coast between Dymchurch and
Sandgate, 2 miles E of Hythe. A sewer outfall
extends 1½ miles SSE across the flat from Hythe.
Thence:
To a position SE of Folkestone.
4.12 1
Useful marks:
Tower (50°59′N 0°58′E), square, red brick,
Littlestone-on-Sea.
Six Martello towers standing near the coast between
Dymchurch (51°02′N 1°00′E) and Hythe, 4 miles
NE.
Two green domes (51°05′N 1°10′ E) of hotels
standing on the cliffs, 1 mile W of Folkestone.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 4.39 and
for Folkestone at 4.26)
Anchorages
4.13 1
East Road (50°58′N 1°02′E) is sheltered from the SW
through W to N. The recommended anchorage is N of
Swallow Bank (4.11) and E of Roar Bank, depths 12 to
18 m, in the red sector of Dungeness Light, bearing about
211°.
Sandgate Road, off Sandgate (51°04′N 1°08′E), is
sheltered in offshore winds. There is good holding ground,
mud and clay, in depths of 11 to 15 m. An oceanographical
data light−buoy (special) is moored in position 51°03′⋅5N
1°08′⋅3E.
FOLKESTONE
General information
Chart 1991 plan of Folkestone Harbour
Position
4.14 1
Folkestone Harbour (51°05′N 1°12′E) is situated
13 miles NE of Dungeness.
Function
4.15 1
The harbour, a former cross-Channel ferry terminal, is
now used mainly by fishing vessels.
In 2004 the port was used by 15 commercial vessels
with a total deadweight of 76 541 tonnes.
2
The population of Folkestone is about 46 000.
Port Authority
4.16 1
Folkestone Harbour Company Ltd, Folkestone Harbour,
Folkestone CT20 1QH.
Limiting conditions
4.17 1
Controlling depths. The Ferry Terminal has a
maintained depth of 5 m. The Outer and Inner Harbours
dry.
Caution. In 2005 it was reported that depths within the
maintained area around the Ferry Terminal were between
0⋅1 and 5⋅0 m; the least depths being in the N part.
Deepest and longest berth. Ferry Terminal (4.29).
Maximum size of vessel handled. LOA 130 m and
beam 22 m.
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 6⋅5 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅6 m.
Local weather. During E gales it is dangerous to enter
Outer Harbour.
Arrival information
Port radio
4.18 1
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details.
Outer anchorage
4.19 1
The anchorage off Folkestone is exposed and only used
by vessels waiting to enter harbour. The best holding
ground is in depths of 12 to 18 m, clay and sand.
A recommended anchorage is 205° from Folkestone
Breakwater Light 2 cables, which is also on the alignment
of the light with Copt Point (4.26).
It has been reported that vessels anchored 7 cables S of
the breakwater have dragged over an apparently rocky
bottom.
Prohibited anchorage
4.20 1
Four cross-Channel submarine power cables, buried to
1⋅5 m, converge to land 2 cables W of Copt Point.
Vessels are warned not to anchor or trawl in their
vicinity and on no account cut them should they be fouled
in any way.
CHAPTER 4
93
Folkestone Harbour (4.22)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Pilotage and tugs
4.21 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 50 m except
those exempt by law. Pilots should be requested from
Folkestone Port control giving 24 hours notice of ETA.
There are no tugs at Folkestone. Tugs can be ordered
from Dover giving 24 hours notice.
Harbour
General layout
4.22 1
The harbour comprises the ferry terminal and quite
separately an Outer and Inner Harbour. The ferry terminal
lies on the N side of a breakwater which runs 2½ cables
from the shore in a generally ESE direction. Outer and
Inner Harbour lie at the head of a bay and are protected to
the E by East Pier. The two harbours are divided from one
another by a railway bridge.
Traffic signals
4.23 1
International Port Traffic Signals Nos 2 and 3, see The
Mariner’s Handbook, are displayed from the mast at the
head of the breakwater. These signals control vessels
entering and leaving the harbour and, when displayed,
ensure that traffic is one-way.
Tidal streams
4.24 1
Off the head of Folkestone Breakwater the tidal streams
set as follows:
Interval from HW Dover Remarks
−0155 ENE-going stream begins.
+0320 WSW-going stream begins.
The spring rate on the ENE-going stream is 2 kn and on
the WSW-going stream 1½ kn.
2
When the stream sets ENE an eddy runs W along the
coast from Copt Point and sets strongly towards the head
of South Quay, on the S side of the entrance to Outer
Harbour.
During both streams the current sets S along the NE
side of the breakwater, except for the initial 30 minutes at
the start of the ENE-going stream, when its direction isN.
Principal marks
4.25 1
Landmark:
Motel (51°04′⋅7N 1°11′⋅1E), conspicuous from the E.
Major light:
Folkestone Breakwater Light (51°04′⋅6N 1°11′⋅7E)
(4.10).
CHAPTER 4
94
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.12)
Approach to Ferry Terminal
4.26 1
Leading lights:
Front light (yellow triangle, point down) (51°′ 04⋅7N
1°11′⋅4E) on The Hard.
Rear light (yellow triangle, point up) (100 m WNW
of front light).
2
The alignment (295°) of these occasional lights leads
from seaward to the Ferry Terminal, passing (with positions
from front leading light):
SSW of Copt Rocks (6 cables NE), a drying ledge
composed of sandstone rocks extending 3 cables E
from Copt Point. An unmarked wreck with a depth
of 6⋅6 m over it lies 4 cables ESE of Copt Point.
Thence:
3
SSW of a light−buoy (port hand) (4 cables E)
marking the end of a submarine outfall. Mole
Head Rocks, which fringe much of the bight
between Copt Point and the ferry terminal, lie
about 1 cable inshore of the buoy. Thence:
4
SSW of a buoy (special) (1½ cables ENE) moored at
the SW end of Mole Head Rocks.
Approach to Outer Harbour
4.27 1
The line of bearing 304° of South Quay Head
(51°04′⋅7N 1°11′⋅4E) leads in the fairway, close NNE of
the Ferry Terminal and S of Mole Head Rocks (4.26),
whence direct approach to the entrance can be made. The
entrance is 38 m wide and lies between the heads of South
Quay and East Pier. A light (metal column, 2 m in height),
stands on the head of East Pier.
2
Caution. The harbour entrance faces NE and the turn to
line up for the entrance is sharp and requires considerable
care.
Useful mark
4.28 1
East Cliff Martello Tower (51°05′⋅1N 1°11′⋅9E), above
Copt Point.
Berths
Ferry Terminal
4.29 1
There are three berths along the NE side of the
breakwater with a maintained depth of 5 m alongside. No 1
Berth, a lay−by berth at the outer end, and No 3 Berth, a
Ro−Ro berth at the inner end, are both 110 metres in
length.
Caution. See 4.17.
Harbour
4.30 1
Outer Harbour dries but at HW springs has depths of
about 5 m over the greater part. The South Quay has a
berth 78 m in length capable of handling heavy lift cargoes.
Inner harbour, to the W of the railway bridge, has
depths of 3⋅5 m at HW springs, but access is limited by the
low clearance available under the railway bridge.
Port services
4.31 1
Facilities: helicopter landing sites at the Royal Victoria
Hospital and St Martin’s Plain Camp; deratting and
exemption certificates issued.
Supplies: marine diesel at The Stade; water; fresh
provisions.
FOLKESTONE TO DOVER
General information
Chart 1892
Route
4.32 1
From a position SE of Folkestone (51°05′N 1°12′E) the
coastal route leads through the Inshore Traffic Zone 6 miles
NE to a position SE of Dover.
Topography
4.33 1
The coastline between the two ports is mainly formed
by cliffs. The chalk cliffs of Dover become apparent 1 mile
SW of the town.
Traffic regulations
4.34 1
Vessels passing within 1 mile of Dover should report
their ETA at a range of 3 miles from the port and maintain
listening watch for broadcasts of harbour movements. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Cross-Channel ferry traffic
4.35 1
See 4.4.
Submarine cables
4.36 1
A number of submarine cables cross this area.Vessels are
warned not to anchor or trawl in their vicinity and on no
account cut them should they be fouled in any way (see
The Mariner’s Handbook for details of regulations).
Rescue
4.37 1
Dover Coastguard Station is the MRCC for the Dover
SAR region with its headquarters situated at Langdon
Battery (51°08′⋅0N 1°20′⋅5E) close N of the port. See 1.110
for details of stations. It is also the control centre for the
Channel Navigation Information Service (2.23). There is a
VHF/DF station at Dover controlled by the MRCC, see
1.113.
2
An all-weather lifeboat is stationed at Dover, see 1.123
for details of lifeboats.
Principal marks
4.38 1
Landmarks:
Radio mast (red obstruction lights (51°07′N 1°15′E)
near Hougham.
Samphire Hoe an embankment approximately 1500 m
long (51°06′N 1°16′E) at the foot of Shakespeare
Cliff (4.39). The ends of the embankment are
marked by lights.
For marks at Folkestone see 4.25 and at Dover 4.61.
2
Major lights:
Dungeness Light (50°54′⋅8N 0°58′⋅5E) (3.108).
Folkestone Breakwater Light (51°04′⋅6N 1°11′⋅7E)
(4.10).
Varne Light-float (red hull, light-tower amidships)
(51°01′⋅3N 1°23′⋅9E).
CHAPTER 4
95
3
Dover Admiralty Pierhead Light (51°06′⋅7N 1°19′⋅7E)
(4.61).
Dover Southern Breakwater W Head Light (51°06′⋅8N
1°19′⋅8E) (4.61).
Dover Southern Breakwater Knuckle Light (51°07′⋅0N
1°20′⋅5E) (4.61).
Directions
(continued from 4.12)
4.39 1
From a position SE of Folkestone (51°05′N 1°12′E) the
coastal route leads 6 miles NE to a position SE of Dover,
passing (with positions from Dover Harbour Western
Entrance (51°07′N 1°20′E)):
SE of Copt Point (5 miles WSW) (4.26), thence:
2
SE of Abbot’s Cliff (3 miles WSW), thence:
SE of Samphire Hoe (4.38) (2 miles WSW), thence;
SE of Shakespeare Cliff (1½ miles W), which is the
first chalk cliff W of Dover and appears conical
when seen from the E, thence:
To a position SE of Dover Harbour.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 4.91 and
for Dover at 4.62)
Anchorage
4.40 1
There is good holding ground in East Wear Bay which
lies between Abbot’s Cliff (4.39) and Copt Point. The shore
of the bay is flat and covered with large stones which
make landing difficult at LW. However the bay is only
sheltered from the W by Copt Point and Copt Rocks, and
should only be used as a temporary anchorage.
The best berth is in the middle of the bay in depths of
about 9 m.
DOVER HARBOUR
General information
Chart 1698
Position
4.41 1
Dover (51°07′N 1°20′E) has a large artificial harbour,
easily identified by the large breakwaters which protect it.
Function
4.42 1
The harbour is the principal cross-Channel ferry terminal
and an important commercial and cruise liner port. The
Tidal Harbour and Inner Docks contain a large yacht
marina.
The population of Dover is about 37 500.
Port limits
4.43 1
The limits of the harbour extend 1 mile to seaward of
the breakwaters.
Approach and entry
4.44 1
The harbour is approached directly from seaward and
entered through Eastern or Western Entrance which lie at
either end of Southern Breakwater. Normal entry for
conventional ferries, commercial vessels and cruise liners is
through the Eastern Entrance.
Traffic
4.45 1
In 2004, 14⋅3 million passengers, 2.5 million cars,
2⋅0 million commercial vehicles and 128 000 coaches were
handled by the ferry terminal. In the same year the port’s
cargo terminal imported more than 263 000 tonnes of fresh
produce.
Port Authority
4.46 1
Dover Harbour Board, Harbour House, Dover, Kent
CT17 9BU.
Limiting conditions
4.47 1
Controlling depths. Depths in the Eastern Entrance and
in the approach to Eastern Docks exceed 10 m; depths in
the Western Entrance and the approach to Admiralty Pier
exceed 8 m.
2
Depths within the harbour are liable to change and the
Harbour Master should be consulted for the latest
information on depths. Silting mainly affects the central
part of Outer Harbour (4.56), while a deep scour occurs
from Eastern Entrance along Southern Breakwater.
3
Deepest and longest berth. Admiralty Pier and
Extension (4.70).
Maximum size of vessel handled. The maximum size
of vessel handled is length 300 m and draught 10⋅0 m.
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range 6⋅0 m; mean neap range
3⋅2 m.
Tidal streams. Entry for commercial and cruise vessels
exceeding 180 m LOA is limited to the period between
HW−3 hours and HW due to adverse tidal streams in both
entrances. See 4.60.
4
Local weather and sea state. Gales from the SW and
W raise a scend in the harbour which renders berths
alongside Prince of Wales Pier (4.67) and Eastern Arm
(4.66) untenable.
There is smooth water in the lee of Eastern Arm during
E gales.
Arrival information
Vessel Traffic Service
4.48 1
A VTS with full radar surveillance is maintained for the
control of shipping, covering the harbour and extending
3 miles to seaward of the breakwaters.
Vessels passing within 1 mile of Dover should report
their presence at 3 miles from the port and maintain
listening watch for broadcasts of harbour movements.
2
The Port Control Signal Station is situated near the head
of Eastern Arm (51°07′N 1°21′E). Port Control is assisted
by a patrol launch, which has “Harbour Patrol” painted on
its side. The launch is able to relay messages to and from
Port Control and vessels must comply with any instructions
from the launch. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1) for details.
4.49 1
Traffic signals. International Port Traffic Signals Nos 2
and 5 (See The Mariner’s Handbook) are used to control
vessels entering and leaving Outer Harbour. Movement
through the entrances is one way only, so that when a
signal permits a movement in one direction, a signal
prohibiting movement is shown in the opposite direction.
2
Signals for the Eastern Entrance are displayed from the
Port Control Signal Station and for the Western Entrance
CHAPTER 4
96
from the signal station at the head of Admiralty Pier
Extension.
Vessels entering or leaving Outer Harbour must also
receive specific permission to do so from Port Control,
even though the respective traffic signals are shown in their
favour.
Notice of ETA required
4.50 1
ETA should be sent 6 and then 2 hours in advance,
requesting instructions.
Pilotage and tugs
4.51 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all passenger carrying vessels
and other vessels over 80 m in length and for those vessels
over 20 m in length (fishing vessels 47⋅5 m) which are
hampered, sub-standard or carrying dangerous substances in
bulk.
The pilot boards 3 miles E of Dover Harbour Eastern
Entrance. Vessels should not approach any closer to the
harbour entrances unless specifically instructed by Dover
Port Control.
2
It should be noted that the pilot boarding position lies
outside the E limit of the inshore traffic zone of the Dover
Strait TSS.
3
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
4.52 1
The following are extracts from the Harbour Bye-laws:
Traffic Signals. The master of a vessel shall, whilst
the vessel is underway within 400 yards of the
Eastern or Western Entrance to the harbour or is
underway within the harbour, obey the traffic
control signals set out (4.49) as and when
displayed from time to time at the Eastern or
Western Entrance to the harbour or at the various
positions within the harbour.
2
No vessel may enter or leave the harbour or docks
without permission. No person shall take or
attempt to take any vessel into or out of the
harbour or docks without the permission of, or in
disobedience to the directions of the Harbour
Master by the traffic control signals (4.49) or
otherwise, and then only in the proper order and
succession appointed by the Harbour Master,
having regard to other vessels about to enter or
leave the harbour or docks.
3
No vessels are to enter or manoeuvre within the
restricted area enclosing Eastern Docks, as marked
on the chart, without the specific permission of
Dover Port Control.
Speed of vessels. The Master of a vessel inside the
harbour shall not navigate the vessel at a speed
exceeding eight knots unless, in the case of
pleasure speed boats, consent in writing of the
Harbour Master has previously been obtained.
4.53 1
Anchoring. The Master of a vessel shall not anchor
the vessel in the approaches to the Eastern or
Western entrance to the harbour in such a position
as to obstruct the free passage of any other vessel
through either of these entrances.
2
The Master of a vessel shall not without the
permission of the Harbour Master anchor the
vessel in the Fairway, viz. outside a line formed by
the south end of the Eastern Arm and the south
end of the Prince of Wales Pier.
3
The Master and crew of a vessel in the Harbour shall
moor, anchor, place, load, unload or move such
vessel in accordance with the directions of the
Harbour Master. When any such vessel has been
moored, anchored or placed in any berth or place,
no person shall move or attempt to move or cause
the vessel to be moved therefrom without the
permission, except in case of emergency, or
contrary to the directions of the Harbour Master.
Vessel speed
4.54
The speed of approach of cross−channel ferries and high
speed craft through the harbour entrances should be
carefully regulated in order to prevent surges that can
endanger vessels already moored alongside; an effect which
is most marked at low water. At the Eastern Entrance the
speed of entry of all vessels except high speed craft should
not exceed 12 kn. However, in adverse weather conditions
it may be necessary for a vessel to maintain a greater
speed of approach but Port Control must be advised in
advance.
Separate regulations regarding approach courses and
speeds for HSCs are in place.
Approach sectors
4.55
The approach sectors charted outside the two harbour
entrances contain the greatest concentrations of the daily
scheduled movements of ferries and HSCs. Dover Harbour
Board advise small craft to navigate with caution within
these sectors and to keep a good lookout.
Harbour
General layout
4.56 1
The harbour is formed by Admiralty Pier and its
extension, Southern Breakwater and Eastern Arm. Together
they enclose an area over a mile wide extending 7½ cables
offshore. Outer Harbour, in which there is an anchorage
(4.69), is the greater and central part of the harbour.
Fairway, a clear area lies between the anchorage and
Southern Breakwater. 2
Eastern Docks in the NE part of the harbour contain the
ferry and cargo terminals.
Inner Harbour, which is divided from Outer Harbour by
Prince of Wales Pier, lies on the SW side of the harbour. It
provides access to Western Docks, which contain Granville
and Wellington Docks, both non-tidal.
3
Admiralty Pier with its extension has three berths for
cruise ships.
Historic Wreck
4.57
1
There is a restricted area (51°07′⋅6N 1°20′⋅7E) of radius
150 m, abutting the N end of Eastern Arm, which contains
an historic wreck. See 1.86.
Prohibited area
4.58
1
An area to which entry is prohibited, of radius 50 m, is
centred on 51°07′⋅3N 1°20′⋅7E as shown on the chart. It
CHAPTER 4
97
Dover Harbour from NE (4.56)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − Dover Harbour Board)
contains a current meter connected to the S end of Eastern
Arm by a submarine power cable.
Dock signals
4.59 1
International Port Traffic Signals (see The Mariner’s
Handbook), exhibited from the W side of the entrance to
Wellington Dock, control exit and entrance to the dock. An
amber flashing light gives warning of the opening of the
swing bridge at the entrance to the dock.
Natural conditions
4.60 1
Tidal streams. The complex nature of tidal streams in
Dover Harbour can best be seen by reference to the twelve
diagrams on the chart. Eddies off the breakwater heads may
give rise to turbulence in the entrances.
Climatic table. See 1.225 and 1.228.
Principal marks
4.61 1
Landmarks:
Spire (51°07′⋅6N 1°18′⋅8E).
Building (51°07′⋅5N 1°18′⋅9E).
Dover Castle (51°07′⋅8N 1°19′⋅3E), stands on top of
the cliff overlooking the harbour.
Dover Castle Church (tower) (close SE of castle).
Three radio masts (red obstruction lights) (51°08′⋅3N
1°20′⋅1E) (Chart 1892).
(Photograph − Dover Harbour Board)
Dover Castle − Church Tower and Keep from S (4.61)
(Original dated 1999)
Langdon Battery (51°08′⋅0N 1°20′⋅6E).
Clock tower (51°08′⋅7N 1°19′⋅5E) (Chart 1892).
2
Major lights:
Dover Admiralty Pierhead Light (white tower, 22 m
in height) (51°06′⋅7N 1°19′⋅7E).
Dover Southern Breakwater W Head Light (white
tower 21 m in height) (51°06′⋅8N 1°19′⋅8E).
Dover Southern Breakwater Knuckle Light (white
tower, 16 m in height) (51°07′⋅0N 1°20′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 4
98
Dover Harbour Eastern Entrance from E (4.63)
(Original dated 1999)
(Photograph − Dover Harbour Board)
Eastern ArmSouthern Breakwater
Port Control
Building
Western
Heights
Radio
Mast
(382)
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.39)
Approach to Dover
4.62 1
From a position SE of Dover the approach to Dover
Harbour (51°07′N 1°20′E) is clear and free from dangers.
Caution. A good lookout must be kept for conventional
ferries, HSC and pleasure craft.
Eastern Entrance
4.63 1
Eastern Entrance, 204 m wide, lies between the head of
Eastern Arm, on which stands the Port Control Signal
Station (4.48) having a light mounted on a radar reflector
and the N head of Southern Breakwater, on which stands a
light.
2
During periods of reduced visibility high intensity strobe
lights are exhibited from the breakwater heads. These lights
are aligned so that on an approach course of approximately
265° their intensity is similar.
Allowance must be made for the tidal stream (4.60)
when entering and, on leaving, once the vessel is exposed
to the tidal stream outside the breakwater.
3
Caution. A prohibited area lies close N of the entrance.
See 4.58.
Western Entrance
4.64 1
Western Entrance, 225 m wide, lies between the head of
Admiralty Pier Extension and the SW head of Southern
Breakwater. Lights stand on both heads (4.61). Wreck
Light−buoy (N cardinal) (51°06′⋅8N 1°19′⋅7E) marks
dangerous wrecks extending more than ¾ cable NW of the
SW extremity of Southern Breakwater (4.56).
During periods of reduced visibility, a high intensity
strobe light is exhibited from the light at the head of
Admiralty Pier Extension.
Allowance must be made for the tidal stream (4.60)
when entering and, on leaving, once the vessel is exposed
to the tidal stream outside the breakwater.
Fairway
4.65 1
From the two entrances there is a clear approach to both
Eastern and Western Docks via the Fairway but noting the
dangerous wrecks (4.64) extending more than ¾ cables NW
of the SW extremity of Southern Breakwater.
Berths
Eastern Docks
4.66 1
Ferry Terminal. 8 Ro-Ro berths, numbered 2 to 9,
alongside Piers A to F, and one HSC berth. High intensity
lights are exhibited from the heads of the piers in low
visibility. Berths 8 and 9 are the largest and can
accommodate vessels of length 220 m, beam 28⋅5 m and
draught 8⋅5 m.
2
Dover Cargo Terminal is capable of accommodating
vessels up to 200 m in length and 8⋅5 m draught.
3
Eastern Arm has three berths with alongside depths
between 8 and 9 m. The inner berth is a Ro−Ro berth
connected to the cargo terminal.
Western Docks
4.67 Inner Harbour at the entrance to Western Docks has
Admiralty Pier on its S side and Prince of Wales Pier on
its N side.
1
Admiralty Pier with its extension has an overall length
of 1100 m. Located here are Cruise Terminals Nos 1 and 2
each having a berth length of 342⋅5 m and a maintained
depth 10⋅0 m. Cruise Terminal 3 at the seaward end of
Admiralty Pier Extension can accommodate cruise vessels
up to 180 m LOA and draught 9⋅0 m. However, silting is
liable to occur and the Port Authority should be consulted
for the latest information.
2
Western Catamaran Terminal lies at the root of Prince of
Wales Pier on the W side and is used as a terminal for
HSC. A sector light (occasional) is displayed to aid
berthing.
There is 400 m of berthing available on the E side of
Prince of Wales Pier in depths ranging from 1 m at the
inner end to 7 m at the outer end but it may only be used
by special arrangement with the Harbour Master.
4.68 1
Tidal Harbour is approached from Inner Harbour
through a channel dredged to 5⋅0 m and gives access to
two non−tidal basins, Granville Dock and Wellington Dock.
All three provide marina facilities for recreational craft.
The Dredger and Tug Haven which lies on the S side of
Tidal Harbour is used by harbour service craft.
Anchorage
4.69 1
There is an anchorage area in the Outer Harbour (4.56),
as indicated on the chart, lying parallel to and inshore of
the Fairway. The area, which is suitable for vessels up to
100 m LOA, has a maintained depth of 8 m but depths are
CHAPTER 4
99
Dover − Western Entrance and Docks (4.64)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Wreck light buoy
liable to change. The holding ground is fairly good,
although caution is required in strong winds. The inner
limit of the anchorage area is marked by a row of buoys
(special) and has West Light−buoy (special) and East
Light−buoy (E cardinal) at the extremities.
2
Vessels should not anchor outside the designated
anchorage area.
Port Services
Repairs
4.70 1
Major repairs afloat can be undertaken.
Other facilities
4.71 1
Hospital with helicopter landing site; compass
adjustment; deratting and exemption certificates issued;
facilities are available for the reception of oily wastes;
helicopter landing sites at the military barracks in the town.
Supplies
4.72 1
All types of fuel; water at all berths; fresh provisions.
Communications
4.73 1
There are frequent passenger and car ferries, HSC and
Ro-Ro freight services to the ports of Calais, Boulogne and
Dunkerque.
DOVER TO NORTH FORELAND
DOVER TO RAMSGATE INCLUDING
GOODWIN SANDS
General information
Charts 323, 1828
Routes
4.74 1
From a position SE of Dover (51°07′N 1°20′E) the
coastal route (4.91) leads 10 miles NE to the E of Goodwin
Sands, thence a further 10 miles N to a position E of
Ramsgate.
2
Also described is an inshore buoyed route (4.93) through
The Downs and Gull Stream. Kellet Gut (4.96), an
alternative to Gull Stream, is not recommended as it is
subject to constant change and is not buoyed.
Topography
4.75 1
At South Foreland (51°08′N 1°23′E), 1½ miles NE of
Dover, the coast trends to the N as far as Pegwell Bay,
CHAPTER 4
100
11 miles N (4.101), whence the coast swings abruptly E for
2 miles to Ramsgate.
Chalk cliffs continue N from Dover to just S of Deal
(51°13′N 1°24′E), thereafter the coast is low.
Outlying danger
4.76 1
The dominant feature offshore is Goodwin Sands, which
lie on the E side of The Downs (4.93) and Gull Stream
(4.93) and parallel to the coast from South Foreland to
Ramsgate. Goodwin Sands are moved by the tidal streams
and their form can be altered extensively as a result. There
are large drying patches on the sands along their E and N
borders, which lie up to 6 miles from the coast. Apart from
The Downs, where a patch of deeper water extends
between the coast and the S part of the sands, the 20 m
depth contour lies to the E of Goodwin Sands.
Depths
4.77 1
Depending on the precise route taken depths in excess
of 30 m can be maintained on the coastal route, which lies
E of the Goodwin Sands.
2
The inshore route through The Downs and Gull Stream
(4.93) has a least depth (2003) of 6⋅7 m, 2 cables WSW of
Goodwin Fork Light−buoy (51°14′⋅3N 1°26′⋅8E). Although
depths in the past have been less than presently charted,
accretion due to the ebb tidal flow is balanced by erosion
following storms and the resulting system appears to be
stable and self-regulating. The chart should be consulted for
the latest information on depths.
Cross-Channel ferry traffic
4.78 1
See 4.4.
Movement reporting
4.79 1
Vessels passing within 1 mile of Dover should report
their ETA at a range of 3 miles from the port and maintain
listening watch for broadcasts of harbour movements. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Submarine cables
4.80 1
See 4.36.
Wrecks
4.81 1
The area around the Goodwin Sands is littered with
wrecks, as indicated on the charts. Some of the wrecks are
visible depending on the state of the tide.
Local knowledge
4.82 1
There is constant movement of the Goodwin Sands and
only Gull Stream and the E edge of Goodwin Sands are
surveyed at regular intervals. Recent local knowledge is
required to navigate other minor channels which may have
changed since the survey on which the current chart is
based.
Traffic regulations
4.83 1
The E boundary of the English Inshore Traffic Zone
(3.62) extends S from South Foreland, close E of Dover.
See also 4.4.
The coastal route described below lies close NW of the
main SW-going traffic lane of the Dover Strait Traffic
Separation Scheme (2.2).
4.84 1
Historic wrecks, shown on the charts within their
restricted areas, are situated as follows: 51°12′N 1°30′E;
51°15′N 1°30′E, with a second wreck 1 cable N and a third
1 mile N.
See 1.86 for regulations concerning such wrecks.
Rescue
4.85 1
There is a Coastguard station at Deal (51°14′N 1°24′E).
Coast rescue equipment is maintained. For details of
stations see 1.122.
All-weather and inshore lifeboats are stationed at
Ramsgate and inshore lifeboats at Walmer (51°13′N
1°24′E). For details of lifeboats see 1.123.
Helicopters (SAR) are stationed at Manston, which is
close to Ramsgate.
Tidal streams
4.86 1
Clear of the Dover Strait the E-going stream becomes
N-going and the W-going stream becomes S-going. The
streams set strongly along the coast between South
Foreland (51°08′N 1°23′E) and Deal, 5 miles N, as follows:
Interval from HW
Dover
Remarks
−0150 N-going stream begins
+0415 S-going stream begins
2
Off Pegwell Bay the streams are weak.
4.87 1
The streams in the vicinity of The Downs (51°13′N
1°27′E) Gull Stream (51°17′N 1°29′E) and Goodwin Sands
are strong. Around Goodwin Sands they are dangerous
because they set onto the banks.
Information on the tidal streams is given on the chart
and in the Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait.
4.88 1
Cautions: S of South Sand Head (51°09′N 1°29′E)
between −0100 and +0300 HW Dover, the N-going stream
sets strongly towards and across the S part of the sands
along its length.
It has also been reported, but not substantiated, that E of
the Goodwin Sands the N-going stream sometimes sets NW
with considerable velocity.
Both sets are strong near HW when the sands are
covered and therefore especially dangerous.
Principal marks
4.89 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Dover see 4.61.
South Foreland Lighthouse (disused) (white square
castellated tower, 21 m in height) (51°08′N 1°22′E)
standing on the summit of the headland. An old
lighthouse stands 2 cables ENE and at a lower
level.
CHAPTER 4
101
South Foreland Lighthouse (disused) from S (4.89)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
2
White windmill (2½ cables NE of South Foreland
Lighthouse).
Beacon (51°09′⋅0N 1°23′⋅1E), which marks a cable
landing.
Dover Patrol Memorial (51°09′N 1°24′E) a stone
monument.
Water tower (51°12′N 1°23′E).
(Photograph − Dover Harbour Board)
Dover Patrol Memorial from SE (4.89)
(Original dated 1999)
3
For marks at Richborough Port see 4.105 and Ramsgate
see 4.124.
Major lights:
For lights at Dover see 4.61.
Varne Light-float (51°01′⋅3N 1°23′⋅9E) (4.38).
4
South Goodwin Light-float (red hull, light-tower
amidships) (51°08′⋅0N 1°28′⋅5E).
Sandettié Light-float (51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E) (2.36).
East Goodwin Light-float (red hull, light-tower
amidships) (51°13′⋅3N 1°36′⋅4E).
North Foreland Light (51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅7E) (4.132).
Other aids to navigation
4.90
1
Racons transmit from:
East Goodwin Light-float—as above.
NE Goodwin Light-buoy (51°20′⋅3N 1°34′⋅2E)
(4.133).
Directions
(continued from 4.39)
Coastal route, east of Goodwin Sands
4.91 1
Goodwin Sands should be given a wide berth when
passing to the E. From a position SE of Dover Harbour
(51°07′N 1°20′E) the coastal route leads 12 miles NE to the
E of Goodwin Sands, thence a further 7 miles N to a
position E of Ramsgate, passing (with positions from South
Sand Head (51°10′N 1°30′E)):
2
SE of South Foreland (4½ miles WSW), a bold
headland on which stands a disused lighthouse
(4.89). The headland is faced with irregular chalk
cliffs which have layers of flint in horizontal lines.
Thence:
3
SE of South Goodwin Light-float (1½ miles SSW)
(4.89) and SW Goodwin Light-buoy (S cardinal)
(1 mile SSW), marking the S extremity of South
Sand Head, the S point of South Calliper. Depths
around the head are subject to large sandwave
action. Thence:
4
NW of CS4 Light-buoy (special) (3 miles ESE) which
marks the NW side of the Dover Strait TSS. The
light-buoy is in an area to be avoided as it has
been damaged by vessels set down on it by the
cross tidal stream and it should therefore be given
a wide berth. Thence:
5
SE of South Calliper (centre 3½ miles NE) the S part
of Goodwin Sands, which stretches 7½ miles NNE
from the South Sand Head and is marked on its
SE side by S Goodwin Light-buoy (port hand) and
SE Goodwin Light-buoy (port hand). Thence:
To a position E of East Goodwin Light-float (4.89)
which is moored 6 miles NE of South Sand Head.
4.92 1
The route then continues N, passing (with positions from
North Sand Head (51°19′N 1°33′E)):
W of Tail of the Falls (8 miles SE) (2.60) which is
marked by South Falls Light-buoy (S cardinal),
thence;
2
E of the NE entrance to Kellet Gut (2½ miles SSE)
(4.96) which separates the two halves of Goodwin
Sands. E Goodwin Light-buoy (E cardinal) is
moored E of the entrance. Thence:
3
E of Goodwin Knoll (1 mile S) close to the N
extremity of Goodwin Sands, thence:
E of North Sand Head, the N extremity of the
Goodwin Sands, thence:
To a position E of Ramsgate.
CHAPTER 4
102
4
Caution. Because of the occasional rapid movements of
the sands (4.76) the buoyage may be altered, sometimes
without notice.
(Directions continue at 4.133 and
for Ramsgate at 4.125)
Inshore route
4.93 1
The Downs and Gull Stream, its continuation NE, form
the channel bounded to the W by the banks fronting the
coast between South Foreland and North Foreland and to
the E by Goodwin Sands. Medium draught vessels bound
from the Channel to the Thames Estuary generally use it in
preference to passage E of Goodwin Sands.
2
From a position SE of Dover Harbour (51°07′N 1°20′E)
the inshore route leads 5 miles NE, thence 4 miles N
through The Downs to the SW entry point of a buoyed
channel, which leads a further 6 miles NE through Gull
Stream to a position E of Ramsgate, passing (with positions
from the Dover Patrol Memorial (51°09′N 1°24′E)):
3
SE of South Foreland (1 mile SSW) (4.91), thence:
SE of Saint Margaret’s Bay (5 cables SSW). A
beacon (red and white, diamond topmark) marks
the landing place of submarine cables. Thence:
4
W of Trinity Bay (4½ miles NE), which lies close W
of South Calliper (4.91) and at the SW entry point
of Kellet Gut (4.96), thence:
E of Deal Bank Light-buoy (port hand) (3¾ miles
NNE) marking Deal Bank. A pier (lighted) extends
from the shore at Deal and an outfall marked by a
light-beacon extends 3 cables offshore 1 mile N of
the pier.
4.94
1
The route continues N, passing (with positions from
Ramsgate South Breakwater Light (51°19′N 1°25′E)):
To the SW entry point of Gull Stream (5 miles S),
which lies E of Downs Light-buoy (port hand) and
in the vicinity of Goodwin Fork Light-buoy (S
cardinal), thence:
2
Through Gull Stream (3 miles SE). The fairway,
which is marked by light-buoys, leads NE. Gull
Stream is bordered to the W by Brake, which has
drying patches, and to the E by the NW edge of
the Goodwin Sands which extend SW to Fork. In
2003, it was reported that the shoals E and SSW
of N Goodwin Light−buoy (51°17′⋅9N 1°30′⋅2E)
were continuing to migrate W towards the buoyed
channel, making the sides of the channel steep−to.
A sand bar, subject to sandwave action, lies near
the NE end of Gull Stream. Thence:
3
To the NE entrance of Gull Stream (4 miles E),
which lies between Gull Light-buoy (E cardinal)
and Goodwin Knoll Light-buoy (starboard hand),
marking the N extremity of Goodwin Knoll (4.91).
Useful marks
4.95 1
Wreck (mast) (51°11′⋅1N 1°31′⋅5E).
Walmer Castle (51°12′N 1°24′E) surmounted by
flagstaff.
Cupola (on church) (51°13′N 1°23′E).
Hospital (51°13′N 1°23′E).
Deal Castle. (51°13′N 1°24′E). A cupola stands 1
cable SSW.
Sandown Castle (51°14′N 1°24′E) in ruins.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 4.133 and
for Ramsgate at 4.125)
Side channels
Kellet Gut
4.96 1
Kellet Gut (51°15′N 1°32′E) leads 4½ miles NE from
Trinity Bay (4.93) to a position SE of Goodwin Knoll. The
passage is bordered by drying patches of the Goodwin
Sands and is subject to constant change. Local knowledge
is required.
Ramsgate Channel
4.97 1
Ramsgate Channel (51°17′N 1°24′E) leads 4 miles in a
generally N direction from The Small Downs (4.100) to
Ramsgate Road (4.119), close S of Ramsgate Harbour. The
channel lies between Sandwich Flats fronting the coast,
which continue N into Pegwell Bay (4.101) and to the E,
Brake (4.93) and Cross Ledge, which has a small drying
patch marked on its W side by B2 buoy (starboard hand).
Local knowledge is required.
Anchorages
The Downs
4.98 1
Holding ground is not good in parts of The Downs
(51°13′N 1°27′E), in particular S of Goodwin Fork
Light-buoy. Recommended anchorages are:
2
On the W side of the charted anchorage (51°13′N
1°26′E) for large vessels in depths of 12⋅5 m with
South Foreland Lighthouse (51°08′N 1°22′E) (4.89)
bearing 208° and Deal Castle (51°13′N 1°24′E)
bearing 290°.
3
In depths of 12⋅5 m with Walmer Castle (51°12′N
1°24′E) (4.95) bearing 298°, 12 cables as indicated
on the chart.
Trinity Bay
4.99 1
Trinity Bay (4.93) provides better anchorage to The
Downs in NE winds in a depth of 21 m with Deal Castle
bearing 280°, 3¼ miles. Tidal streams can be strong at the
SW end of Kellet Gut, see 4.87.
The Small Downs
4.100 1
The Small Downs (51°15′N 1°26′E) provides anchorage
for small vessels of less than 5 m draught in a position
shown on the chart, 1¾ miles NE of Deal. This anchorage
is more sheltered and the holding ground better than The
Downs, but care should be taken to avoid the wreck and
shallow patches in the E of the area. The latter are part of
a small sandwave area extending S from Brake (4.93).
Richborough Port and Sandwich
Chart 1827 plan of Pegwell Bay and the River Stour
General information
4.101 1
Position. Richborough Port (51°18′N 1°21′E) is situated
on the NW bank of the River Stour, and Sandwich, which
lies on the S bank, is 3 miles farther upriver. The river
flows into Pegwell Bay through drying flats of mud and
sand.
2
Function. Richborough Port is not in commercial use at
present. Sandwich, population about 4000, is used mainly
by recreational craft.
Port Authority. Sandwich Port and Haven
Commissioners, The Quay, Sandwich, CT13 9EN.
CHAPTER 4
103
Limiting conditions
4.102 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel across
Pegwell Bay dries.
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 3⋅3 m; mean neap range
about 2⋅3 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to about
20 m in length and draught 3 m can reach Sandwich at HW
spring tides.
Pilotage
4.103 1
Pilotage in River Stour is not compulsory.
Harbour
4.104 1
Tidal streams. Precise information on the streams in the
River Stour is not available.
The in-going stream probably begins at −0450 HW
Dover, following the channel across the flats initially then
inwards to Shell Ness (51°19′N 1°22′E) (4.106) from all
directions.
2
The out-going stream probably begins at +0200 HW
Dover and runs across the flats towards Ramsgate initially,
then following the channel as the flats dry.
4.105 1
Principal marks:
Richborough Power Station Chimney (51°19′N
1°21′E)
Three cooling towers (close N and W of
power station).
Directions for entering harbour
4.106 1
From a position about 8 cables E of Shell Ness
(51°19′N 1°22′E), in the vicinity of a buoy (safe water;
seasonal), the route is W across Pegwell Bay following the
channel which is marked by beacons.
2
The channel leads N of Shell Ness at the entrance to the
River Stour thence 7 cables SW to the wharf at
Richborough Port.
The river, which is tortuous for the 3 miles to Sandwich,
is not marked above Richborough Port. The Barbican
Swing Bridge at Sandwich has a vertical clearance of 1⋅7 m
when closed. It can be opened on request by contacting
Burgess Engineering. The river can be navigated by small
craft for a further 12 miles to Fordwich but there are air
draught restrictions.
Useful mark
4.107 1
Windmotor (51°18′⋅8N 1°20′⋅2E).
Berths
4.108 1
Richborough New Wharf is the only berth at
Richborough. The wharf is 670 m in length and dries at
LW.
Sandwich Town Quay (51°16′⋅5N 1°20′⋅6E) on the S
bank just below the swing bridge has berths for craft up to
18 m in length. Depth alongside is about 0⋅9 m.
Supplies
4.109 1
Marine diesel fuel is available at Richborough Port by
road tanker.
RAMSGATE
General information
Chart 1828, 1827 and 1827 plan of Ramsgate Harbour
Position
4.110 1
Ramsgate (51°20′N 1°25′E) is situated 3 miles S of
North Foreland.
Function
4.111 1
Ramsgate is a cross-Channel ferry terminal. Royal and
Inner Harbours are used primarily for recreational craft.
The population of Ramsgate is about 38 000.
Approach and entry
4.112 1
The approach is from the E through a maintained
channel 2½ miles long which is marked by light-buoys.
Traffic
4.113 1
Ramsgate handles about 20 ferry arrivals and departures
daily.
Port Authority
4.114 1
Thanet District Council, Port of Ramsgate, Kent CT11
9LQ.
Limiting conditions
4.115 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel has a
maintained depth of 7⋅5 m but lesser depths exist in the
turning basin and alongside Nos 2 and 3 berths. There are
depths of less than 3 m in the entrance to Royal Harbour.
The Harbour Master should be consulted for the latest
information on depths.
After severe NE gales sand may build up in the entrance
to Royal Harbour. Dredging is carried out when necessary.
2
Deepest and longest berths. Ro-Ro berths Nos 2 and 3
(4.126).
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range 4⋅6 m; mean neap
range 2⋅6 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Port of Ramsgate,
length 164 m and draught 6⋅5 m at HW; Royal Harbour,
length 70 m and draught 4⋅5 m at HW.
Arrival information
Port Information Service
4.116 1
A Port Information Service is maintained for the control
of shipping. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Traffic signals
4.117 1
International Port Traffic Signals Nos 2 and 3 (see
The Mariner’s Handbook for details), regulating the
movement of vessels to and from the Royal Harbour, are
exhibited from the Port Control Building on the East Pier.
The Royal Harbour Seaward signal applies to vessels
entering the harbour limits from seaward. The Royal
Harbour Exit signal applies to vessels in the Royal
Harbour.
2
A Ferry Movement Signal (orange flashing light) is
exhibited from the Port Control Building on the East Pier
CHAPTER 4
104
when a ferry is manoeuvring. Whilst the signal is exhibited,
no vessel may enter the harbour limits, leave the Royal
Harbour, or move within the Port of Ramsgate without
permission from the VTS.
Notice of ETA required
4.118 1
Vessels over 20 m in length are required to give 1 hour’s
and then 30 minutes, notice of their ETA at Point Romeo to
Ramsgate VTS. Point Romeo is an arc of 2½ miles radius
centred on the channel entrance buoys, as shown on the
chart.
Outer anchorage
4.119 1
There is good anchorage for small vessels, in depths of
about 3 m, in Ramsgate Road (51°19′N 1°25′E) with winds
between WNW and NNE, but winds between S and E,
coupled with a strong tidal stream produce a cross sea
which makes for an uneasy anchorage. The recommended
anchorage, which is indicated on the chart, is 3 cables S of
the E end of South Breakwater.
Pilotage
4.120 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 80 m in
length and all vessels carrying petroleum products. The
compulsory pilotage area extends 3 miles from West Pier
Light (51°19′⋅6N 1°25′⋅5E) between the bearings 065° and
145°.
Within Royal Harbour pilotage is compulsory for all
vessels over 50 m in length.
2
Requests for pilots should be sent 12 hours in advance
and confirmed 2 hours before arrival at the pilot boarding
position. The pilot boarding point, shown on Chart 1828, is
3 miles ENE of the harbour entrance. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Tugs
4.121
1
A tug with a bollard pull of 19 tonnes is available. A
minimum of three hours notice should be given if the tug
is required.
Harbour
General layout
4.122 1
The harbour is artificial and enclosed by breakwaters.
South Breakwater, which protects the harbour to the S,
extends 3½ cables E from the reclaimed land forming the
ferry terminal. East Pier with its extension, North
Breakwater, protects the harbour to the E and extends
3 cables S from the coast. The harbour is in two parts; to
the S, the Port of Ramsgate, with ferry berths at its W end;
to the N, Royal Harbour. East Bank, which dries sand and
mud, lies in the E half of Royal Harbour. The W extremity
of the bank is marked by a light-buoy (starboard hand).
Inner Harbour to the NW of Royal Harbour is entered
through dock gates.
Ramsgate Harbour Entrance from E (4.122)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
CHAPTER 4
105
Natural conditions
4.123 1
Tidal streams off Ramsgate Harbour set as follows:
Interval from HW Dover Direction
0000 to +0500 NE
+0600 to −0100 SW
See also Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait, and
information on the charts.
Climatic table. See 1.225 and 1.229.
Principal marks
4.124 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Richborough see 4.105.
Building (51°19′⋅9N 1°24′⋅9E).
Buildings (51°20′⋅1N 1°25′⋅4E).
Granville Hotel (51°20′⋅1N 1°25′⋅6E).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.92 and 4.95)
4.125 1
From a position E of the harbour entrance (51°19′⋅5N
1°25′⋅6E), the alignment (270°) of the leading lights leads
through the approach channel, 110 m wide marked by
light-buoys, and the harbour entrance, which both lie in the
white sector (269°−271°) of the directional light.
2
Leading lights:
Front directional light (black triangle point up, orange
stripe, on white mast) (51°19′⋅5N 1°24′⋅8E) on SW
corner of the Port of Ramsgate.
Rear light (black triangle point down, orange stripe,
on white mast) (2½ cables W of front light).
3
The approach channel passes (with positions from the
harbour entrance):
S of the wrecks (3 miles E), marked by RA
Light-buoy (S cardinal) thence:
N of East Brake shoal (21 miles E), marked by East
Brake Light-buoy (port hand) 1½ cables E, thence:
N of North Brake shoal (1½ miles ESE) thence:
4
N of Quern (4½ cables ESE), a shoal which dries at
its W extremity and is marked on its N side by
North Quern Light-buoy (N cardinal), thence:
S of Dike (2½ cables NE) a chalk flat which extends
S from the coast close E of the harbour. No 5
Light-buoy (S cardinal) is close E of the S
extremity of Dike. Thence:
5
To the harbour entrance where the channel is 110 m
wide and lies between the heads of South
Breakwater and North Breakwater. A light stands
on the head of North Breakwater (green pillar and
platform with wind generator) and also on the
head of South Breakwater (red pillar and platform
with wind generator). Direct approach can be made
to the ferry berths, 3 cables W and WNW. The
entrance to Royal Harbour is 1½ cables NW and
lies between the heads of East and West Pier, on
which stand lights. It is 63 m wide facing SSW.
Harbour Light-buoy (starboard hand) marks a bank
extending S from East Pier head. The buoy may
be moved as the bank changes.
6
Caution. Although the harbour can be entered at any
state of the tide, care is necessary as the stream runs
strongly across the entrance. In particular it has been
reported that the NE-going stream produces an eddy off the
head of South Breakwater, which runs SW taking vessels
onto the breakwater.
Berths
4.126 1
Port of Ramsgate. There are three Ro-Ro berths on the
W side of the port: No 1 Berth, the most northerly, is out
of use.
No 4 Berth is a small berth for aggregates.
Royal Harbour. The greater part of Royal Harbour is
given over to recreational craft. Commercial Jetty, near the
entrance to Inner Harbour, can accept vessels up to 70 m in
length with a depth alongside of 2⋅0 m.
Inner Harbour is a marina.
(Photograph − Air Images)
Ramsgate Royal Harbour (4.126)
(Original dated 2002)
Port services
4.127 1
Repairs. Minor repairs can be undertaken. There are
three slipways in the NE corner of Royal Harbour; the
largest, a patent slip, can accommodate vessels of up to
58 m in length and 9⋅7 m beam.
Other facilities. Oily waste disposal.
Supplies. Marine fuels by barge or road tanker; water at
the quays; fresh provisions.
Communications. There are regular freight and
passenger ferry services to Ostend.
RAMSGATE TO NORTH FORELAND
General information
Chart 1828, 323
Route
4.128 1
From a position E of Ramsgate (51°20′N 1°25′E) the
coastal route leads 3½ miles N to a position E of North
Foreland.
Topography
4.129 1
To the N of Ramsgate the coast is again formed by
cliffs, which in the vicinity of North Foreland are nearly
perpendicular and rise in places to a height of 37 m. North
Foreland is recognised as the S entry point to the Thames
Estuary (Chapter 11).
2
The 20 m depth contour runs parallel to and 8 miles off
the coast.
CHAPTER 4
106
North Foreland from NE (4.128)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Submarine cables
4.130 1
Submarine cables run from the coast between Ramsgate
and North Foreland across the Channel to the Dutch and
Belgian coasts.
Tidal streams
4.131 1
Between Ramsgate (51°20′N 1°25′E) and North Foreland
the tidal streams set as follows:
Interval from HW
Dover
Remarks
−0140 NE-going stream begins
+0420 SW-going stream begins
2
Tidal streams are given on the chart and in the
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait and the
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Thames Estuary. See
also 4.86.
Principal marks
4.132 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Ramsgate see 4.124.
North Foreland Lighthouse (white octagonal tower,
26 m in height) (51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅7E) stands on
rising ground, 1½ cables from the cliff edge. A
conspicuous radio mast stands close NNE of the
lighthouse.
2
Major lights:
East Goodwin Light-float (51°13′⋅3N 1°36′⋅4E) (4.89).
North Foreland Light—as above.
Other aid to navigation:
Racon transmits from NE Goodwin Light-buoy
(51°20′⋅3N 1°34′⋅2E) (4.133).
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
North Foreland Lighthouse from NE (4.132)
(Original dated 1998)
CHAPTER 4
107
Directions
(continued from 4.92 and 4.95)
4.133 1
From a position E of Ramsgate (51°20′N 1°25′E) the
coastal route leads 3½ miles N to a position E of North
Foreland, passing (with positions from North Foreland
Lighthouse (51°23′N 1°27′E)):
Clear of NE Goodwin Light-buoy (E cardinal)
(5 miles ESE) which is moored 2 miles NNE of
North Sand Head (4.91), thence:
2
E of Broadstairs Knolls (1½ miles SE), which are the
outermost patches on the flats extending from the
coast between Ramsgate and North Foreland.
Broadstairs Knoll Light-buoy (port hand) is
moored on the E side of patches. Thence:
3
To a position E of North Foreland and Elbow. The
latter is a sandy ridge which forms the NE
extremity of the shoals off North Foreland. The
ridge is marked on its NE side by Elbow
Light-buoy (N cardinal).
(Directions continue at 11.82, 11.84 and 12.14)
Broadstairs
Chart 1827 plan of Broadstairs
4.134 1
Broadstairs (51°21′N 1°27′E), 1¼ miles N of Ramsgate,
has a small harbour which dries at half tide. The harbour
lies on the W side of a pier which extends 100 m S from
the shore. A light is exhibited from its S extremity. From
the pier a breakwater, which is covered at HW and marked
by a beacon at its head, extends 100 m E.
2
Preacher’s Knoll, 1¼ cables SSW of the pier is fronted
by rocks on which stand two beacons.
5.14
5.16
5.80
5.43
5.52
5.104
5.138
5
.
7
5.35
5
.
9
7
5
.
7
3
5
.
1
24
5
.172
5
.
173
5.134
I n s h o r e
T r a f f i c
Z o n e
Cap d'Antifer
Yport
Fécamp
Cap Gris-Nez
Le Tréport
S.-Valéry-en-Caux
Dieppe
Baie de
Somme
Rivière Authie
Étaples
Boulogne
E N G L A N D
F R A N C E
Do v e r St r a i t
Tr a f f i c Se p a r a t i o n Sc h e me
1892
438
2451
2147
2147
1354
1354
2146
2449
1205
0°
0°
1°
Longitude 1° East from Greenwich
51°
51°
50°50°
30´ 40´
40´ 50´ 10´ 20´
10´
10´
20´
20´ 30´ 30´
30´30´
40´40´
50´50´
30´ 40´
40´40´
50´50´
10´10´
20´20´
40´
50´
50´
Chapter 5 - Cap d'Antifer to Cap Gris-Nez
108
109
CHAPTER 5
CAP D’ANTIFER TO CAP GRIS-NEZ
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2613, 2451
Scope of chapter
5.1 1
This chapter describes the coastal passage from Cap
d’Antifer (49°41′N 0°10′E) to Cap Gris-Nez, 90 miles NE,
which lies to the S and E of the Dover Strait Traffic
Separation Scheme. The ports of Fécamp (5.16), Dieppe
(5.52), Le Tréport (5.80) and Boulogne (5.138) are also
described.
Topography
5.2 1
The coast between Cap d’Antifer and Cap Gris-Nez
forms a large bight, which runs initially ENE and gradually
alters to the N.
2
From Cap d’Antifer to Ault (50°06′N 1°27′E), a small
town 56 miles ENE, the coast consists of grey and white
cliffs with an elevation up to 90 m. These cliffs are broken
by valleys where the ports are situated. Initially the coast is
steep-to, but from Pointe d’Ailly (49°55′N 0°57′E),
36 miles ENE of Cap d’Antifer, to Ault the coast is fronted
by banks and shoals which extend up to 10 miles offshore.
Apart from the valleys, the marks along this part of the
coast are difficult to identify by day.
3
Cap d’Alprech (50°42′N 1°34′E) is 36 miles N of Ault.
This stretch of coast is low and backed by sand dunes,
broken by three wide valleys through which the Rivière
Somme (5.105), Rivière Authie (5.132) and Rivière Canche
(5.134) flow. The mouths of these rivers are obstructed by
banks of shifting sand, which dry and extend a
considerable distance offshore.
4
Between Cap d’Alprech and Cap Gris-Nez, 10½ miles
N, the coast is mainly high and steep-to except for some
detached shoals up to 3 miles offshore.
Weather
5.3 1
The coast between Cap d’Antifer and Ault is open to the
SW through N to NE and in strong winds from these
directions cannot be approached, nor is there any safe
anchorage. Of the ports along the coast, Dieppe is the only
one where entry is assured in bad weather.
Traffic regulations
5.4 1
The Dover Strait TSS (1.5) lies to the NW of the coastal
route described in this chapter.
The coastal route N of 50°30′N as far as Cap Gris-Nez
forms the French Inshore Traffic Zone. For regulations
concerning the use of this zone see 1.8.
Tidal streams
5.5 1
In the area described in this chapter the tidal streams set
more or less parallel to the coast. Between Cap d’Antifer
and the Baie de Somme, 60 miles ENE, the maximum rates
decrease gradually from 2¼ to 1¾ kn. Further N the rate
increases to reach about 4 kn off Cap Gris-Nez.
2
The E-going stream (in-going) is generally stronger, but
of shorter duration, than the W-going stream (out-going),
except off Le Tréport in the vicinity of Banc Franc-Marqué
(50°06′N 1°22′E) where the rates of the streams are similar
and the stream itself mainly rotatory.
3
See also Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: The English
Channel, Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait, and
information on the charts.
With strong S winds the NE-going stream is
strengthened and the SW-going stream consequently
weakened so that at neap tides the SW-going stream may
be virtually non-existent.
Sea level
5.6 1
In the Baie de Somme, close N of Ault (50°06′N
1°27′E), the sea level may be raised by up to 0⋅5 m by
onshore winds and at Boulogne (50°44′N 1°35′E) it may be
raised by up to 0⋅4 m. Offshore winds may lower the sea
level by similar amounts.
CAP D’ANTIFER TO DIEPPE
CAP D’ANTIFER TO FÉCAMP
General information
Charts 2146, 2613
Route
5.7 1
From a position WNW of Cap d’Antifer (49°41′N
0°10′E) the route leads 10 miles ENE to a position WNW
of Fécamp.
Topography
5.8 1
Between Cap d’Antifer and Fécamp the coast is
composed of white chalk cliffs, interspersed with the
following valleys which show as breaks in the cliffs:
Étretat (49°43′N 0°12′E) (5.12); Vattetot (49°44′N 0°16′E);
Vaucottes (49°44′N 0°18′E); Yport (49°44′N 0°19′E) (5.14)
and Grainval (49°45′N 0°21′E).
2
The 20 m depth contour lies about 2 miles off the coast.
Rescue
5.9 1
There is a lookout station at Fécamp. Rescue equipment
is maintained. See 1.116 for details of French stations.
The Société Nationale de Sauvetage au Mer (SNSM)
maintains an all-weather lifeboat at Fécamp.
CHAPTER 5
110
Tidal streams
5.10 1
Tidal streams set around Cap d’Antifer as follows:
Interval from
HW Dover
Remarks
−0530 NE-going stream (in-going) begins,
setting NNE, NE and ENE towards
Fécamp.
+0040 SW-going stream (out-going) begins,
setting WSW, SW and SSW towards
Cap de la Hève (49°31′N 0°04′E).
2
Between Cap d’Antifer and Roc Vaudieu, 3 miles NE, an
eddy known locally as “Les Hardiers”, runs E during the
whole of the W-going stream, extending up to 1 mile
offshore.
A second eddy runs W during the E-going stream, E of
Pointe du Chicart (49°45′N 0°18′E).
See also information on the chart and in Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: The English Channel.
Principal marks
5.11 1
Landmarks:
Cap d’Antifer Lighthouse (49°41′⋅1N 0°10′⋅0E) (see
Channel Pilot).
Monument (49°43′N 0°13′E) in the form of a spire,
occasionally illuminated at night in the summer. A
small church stands close W.
Pylon (49°44′⋅4N 0°18′⋅4E).
For marks at Fécamp see 5.31.
2
Major light:
Cap d’Antifer Light—as above.
Fécamp, Jetée Nord Light (49°46′N 0°22′E) (5.31).
Directions
(Continued from the Channel Pilot)
5.12 1
From a position WNW of Cap d’Antifer (49°41′N
0°10′E) the route leads 10 miles ENE to a position WNW
of Fécamp, passing (with positions from Cap d’Antifer):
NNW of Étretat (2 miles ENE) a small town at the
head of sandy bay, thence:
2
NNW of Yport (6½ miles ENE) (5.14), thence:
NNW of a wreck (5 miles NE) with a depth of 4 m
over it, and:
Clear of a dangerous wreck, the position of which is
doubtful (6½ miles NNE), thence:
To a position NNW of Fécamp.
5.13 1
Useful marks:
Water tower (49°41′⋅8N 0°11′⋅9E).
L’Aiguille (49°42′⋅5N 0°11′⋅6E), a pointed detached
rock 51 m in height.
Roc Vaudieu (49°43′⋅2N 0°13′⋅6E), a detached rock
26 m high.
Aiguille de Belval, a detached rock (¾ mile ENE of
Roc Vaudieu).
(Directions continue for Fécamp at 5.32 and for
coastal route at 5.42)
Yport
5.14 1
Yport (49°44′N 0°19′E), a small town where landing can
be made, stands close SE of Pointe du Chicard. A small
stone jetty, on which stands a beacon, projects from the
shore.
5.15 1
Leading lights:
Front light (white metal mast, green top; 7 m in
height) (49°′ 44⋅4N 0°18′⋅6E). A house stands
4 cables E of the front light structure.
Rear light (white pylon, green top, on house; 6 m in
height) (30 m SSE of front light).
The alignment (166°) of these lights leads to the best
place on the beach for landing boats.
FÉCAMP
General information
Chart 1354 plan of Fécamp
Position
5.16 1
Fécamp (49°46′N 0°22′E) is situated in a valley close S
of Pointe Fagnet.
Function
5.17 1
The small port is used commercially, by fishing vessels
and by recreational craft.
The population of Fécamp is about 22 000.
Approach and entry
5.18 1
The port is approached directly from seaward through a
dredged channel which lies between two breakwaters which
project from the shore.
Traffic
5.19 1
In 2004 the port handled 173 vessels with a total
deadweight of 401 567 tonnes.
Port Authority
5.20 1
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Fécamp, Palais
Consulaire, 8 Rue Bailly, (PO Box 126), 76400 Fécamp.
Limiting conditions
5.21 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel is dredged to
between 1⋅5 and 1 m, but silts rapidly. Within the port there
is a depth of 1 m in the approaches to the two non-tidal
basins. The Harbour Master should be consulted for the
latest information on depths.
Deepest and longest berth is on the S side of
Arrière-port (5.33).
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range 7⋅1 m; mean neap range
4⋅0 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 105 m, beam
17 m and draught 7 m (springs), 5⋅5 m (neaps). Entry of
vessels over 100 m in length must be agreed with the
Harbour Master. Vessels entering Bassin Freycinet are
limited in length to 100 m and beam 17 m.
5.22 1
Local weather. After a WNW wind of Force 6 to 7 a
bar forms between the breakwaters at the harbour entrance;
in these circumstances entry may be impossible.
2
With a swell from the W steering in the approaches to
the entrance is difficult and it may not be possible to enter
the harbour. There can also be a strong scend in the
entrance channel but this reduces progressively in
Avant-port and then Arrière-port.
CHAPTER 5
111
Winds from the ENE through S to WSW may result in
reduced visibility, particularly in cold weather.
Arrival information
Port radio
5.23 1
A port radio station is maintained. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Traffic signals
5.24 1
International Port Traffic Signals Nos 1, 2 and 5 (see
The Mariner’s Handbook) are used to regulate entry and
departure. These signals are shown by day and night from
the flagstaff at the root of Jetée Sud, and at other positions
within the port (5.29).
When there is no main message exhibited vessels less
than 45 m in length may use the channel without
restriction.
Notice of ETA
5.25 1
Twenty four hours notice of ETA is normally required or
at least 12 hours before the HW for entry, or on leaving
the previous port, if closer than 4 hours sailing.
Outer anchorage
5.26 1
The coast in the vicinity of Fécamp is exposed and
anchoring is not recommended.
Pilotage
5.27 1
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 45 m in length
moving within the harbour and the pilotage area, which
extends 2 miles from the harbour entrance.
Pilots normally board 1 mile WNW of the entrance from
about 2 hours before HW. The pilot launch has a red hull
and white trim and can also assist vessels berthing.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Harbour
Layout
5.28 1
Avant-port lies S of the entrance channel and gives
access in its SE corner to Bassin Bérigny, which is
non-tidal. Arrière-port lies at the end of the entrance
channel and gives access via Bassin de Mi-Marée to Bassin
Freycinet, which is non-tidal. There are berths for
recreational craft in Avant-port. Bassin Freycinet is used
commercially.
Dock and storm signals
5.29 1
Entry and departure to the docks is regulated by
International Port Traffic Signals 1, 2 and 5 (see The
Mariner’s Handbook). These signals are exhibited, day and
night, from yellow striped towers at the entrances to Bassin
Bérigny and Bassin Freycinet. A yellow light (5.24) to the
right of the principal signal indicates that the dock gates
are open.
2
In the absence of any signals, entry and departure is
unrestricted for vessels not subject to compulsory pilotage.
Storm signals are displayed by day (1.106).
Fécamp from NW (5.28)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
CHAPTER 5
112
Tidal streams
5.30 1
Off the jetties forming the entrance the NNE-going
stream commences at about 4 hours before HW Fécamp
and runs to HW Fécamp. At springs the rate may reach
2⋅9 kn. The SSW-going stream commences 30 minutes after
HW Fécamp. Its rate is weaker than the NNE-going stream.
Thus the NNE-going stream runs strongly across the
entrance to Fécamp, but the SSW-going stream is weak.
2
About 150 m within the entrance both the in-going and
out-going streams run at 1 kn at springs and ½ kn at neaps.
There is little stream in the S part of the harbour.
Details of the tidal stream in the anchorage are given in
the table on the chart.
Principal marks
5.31 1
Landmarks:
Water tower (49°45′⋅0N 0°23′⋅4E) standing on high
ground.
The Abbey (square tower with pointed roof)
(49°45′⋅4N 0°23′⋅0E).
2
Spire (49°45′⋅6N 0°22′⋅1E).
TV mast (49°45′⋅9N 0°22′⋅6E).
Signal station (49°46′⋅1N 0°22′⋅2E), white disused
light-tower surmounted by a blockhouse, standing
on top of the sheer cliff at Pointe Fagnet (5.16).
3
Major light:
Jetée Nord Light (grey tower, red top, 14 m in height)
(49°46′⋅0N 0°21′⋅9E).
Pointe Fagnet − Signal Station and Chapel from NW (5.31)
(Original dated 2003)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Statue
Signal Station
Directions
(continued from 5.13)
5.32 1
Entry is only recommended at the end of the in-going
stream, about 30 minutes before HW, when the NNE-going
stream is weak, see 5.30.
Leading lights:
Head of Jetée Sud (grey tower, green top; 10 m in
height) (49°45′⋅9N 0°21′⋅9E).
Root of Jetée Nord (red circle on white mast, red top;
7 m in height) (230 m E of front light).
2
The alignment (082°) of these lights, which may be
difficult to distinguish against the town lights at night,
leads from the W to a position several hundred metres
from Jetée Sud, whence course should be adjusted towards
ENE to pass close N of the head of Jetée Sud noting the
NNE-going stream across the harbour entrance (5.30). This
approach allows for the yaw as the bows enter slack water,
while the stern is still in the current, which aligns the
vessel with the entrance channel.
3
The harbour entrance lies between Jetée Nord and Jetée
Sud and is 70 m wide. Jetée Nord stands on drying rocks,
which border Pointe Fagnet. To the S of the entrance there
is a shingle beach.
4
The entrance channel leads to both Avant-port and
Arrière-port from whence direct approach can be made to
the dock gates of the two non-tidal basins. The dock gates
are normally operated from 2 hours before HW to HW for
Bassin Freycinet, and from 1½ hours before to ¾ hour
after HW for Bassin Bérigny.
Berths
5.33 1
Avant-port has depths of less than 1 m. Grand Quai is
150 m in length. The remainder of the berthing is taken up
by a marina.
Arrière-port is entered through a passage 40 m in width
with a depth of 1⋅5 m. On the S side of Arrière-port there
is a berth, 190 m in length, with a depth alongside of
between 5 and 7m. The remainder of Arrière-port is used
by fishing vessels and recreational craft.
2
Bassin Bérigny is entered from Avant-port through dock
gates which are 16⋅5 m wide, with a sill depth of 1⋅3 m.
There is about 500 m of quayside, with a maximum depth
alongside of 7⋅2 m at Quai Sadi Carnot on the N side of
the basin. The E part of the dock and its SW corner are
given over to recreational craft.
3
Bassin Freycinet is entered from Arrière-port, thence
Bassin de Mi-Marée, through dock gates which are 18 m
wide, with a sill depth of 0⋅8 m. There is 450 m of
quayside, with a depth alongside of about 6 m at Quai de
Verdun on the S side of the basin.
Port Services
5.34 1
Repairs of a minor nature can be carried out.
Other facilities: compass adjustment; hospital.
Supplies: marine diesel by road tanker; water at the
quays; fresh provisions.
FÉCAMP TO DIEPPE
General information
Chart 2451, 2147
Route
5.35 1
From a position NNW of Fécamp (49°46′N 0°22′E) the
route leads 31 miles ENE to a position NNW of Dieppe.
Topography
5.36 1
Between Fécamp and Dieppe the coast consists of high
sheer chalk cliffs divided by the following valleys, which
show as breaks in the cliffs and often form sandy beaches
where they enter the sea: Saint-Pierre-en-Port (49°48′N
0°29′E), with the valleys of Les Grandes Dalles and Les
CHAPTER 5
113
Petites Dalles, separated by a high cliff and lying 1¼ and
1¾ miles ENE; Veules-les-Roses (49°53′N 0°48′E); Saint
Aubin-sur-Mer (49°54′N 0°53′E); Quiberville (49°54′N
0°56′E), the widest and deepest valley in the vicinity and
through which the Rivière la Saâne discharges;
Varengeville-sur-Mer (49°55′N 0°59′E), with a church
belfry close W; Pourville (49°55′N 1°02′E).
2
The coast is bordered by rocky ledges and drying rocks
which extend up to 4 cables offshore in places.
Initially the 20 m depth contour lies within 2 miles of
the coast, but as Dieppe is approached the offshore gradient
decreases and the 20 m depth contour then lies about
5 miles off the coast.
Off−lying banks
5.37 1
Les Écamias are two groups of scattered banks formed
by Grands Écamias (49°59′N 0°59′E), least depth 12 m,
and Petits Écamias (50°02′N 0°58′E), least depth 11 m. The
banks lie to seaward of the general line of the 20 m depth
contour and consist of sand, gravel and shell, which are
dangerous in heavy seas.
Submarine cable
5.38 1
Anchoring, dredging and trawling are prohibited in an
area 11 miles in length, 3 cables either side of a submarine
cable extending NW from Dieppe (49°56′N 1°05′E).
Rescue
5.39 1
There is a lookout station at Saint-Valéry-en-Caux and at
Dieppe. Rescue equipment is maintained. See 1.116 for
details of French stations.
A lifeboat is stationed at Dieppe and an inshore lifeboat
is stationed at Saint-Valéry-en-Caux.
Tidal streams
5.40 1
An eddy runs W close inshore between Pointe d’Ailly
(49°55′N 0°58′E) and Pourville (2½ miles E) during the
first 3 hours of the E-going stream.
See also information on the charts and the Admiralty
Tidal Stream Atlas: The English Channel.
Principal marks
5.41 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Fécamp see 5.31.
Water tower (49°50′N 0°38′E).
Paluel nuclear power station (49°51′N 0°38′E), which
has four towers. A pylon, marked by obstruction
lights, stands close SW of the power station.
2
Pylon, 128 m in height (49°52′N 0°44′E).
Water tower (49°53′N 0°50′E). The belfry at
Sotteville-sur-Mer shows above the surrounding
wood 2 cables SW of the water tower.
Water tower (49°54′N 0°55′E). A church stands close
SE.
3
Pointe d’Ailly Lighthouse (white square tower, green
top, 24 m in height) (49°55′⋅0N 0°57′⋅6E).
For marks at Dieppe see 5.67 and 5.77
Major lights:
Jetée Nord Light (49°46′⋅0N 0°21′⋅9E) (5.31).
Pointe d’Ailly Light—as above.
Paluel Nuclear Power Station from NW (5.41)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Pointe d’ Ailly Light from W (5.41)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Directions
(continued from 5.13)
5.42 1
From a position NNW of Fécamp (49°46′N 0°22′E) the
route leads 31 miles ENE to a position NNW of Dieppe,
passing (with positions from Pointe d’Ailly (49°55′N
0°57′E)):
Clear of three dangerous wrecks (23¾, 25¼ and
25¾ miles WSW), thence:
CHAPTER 5
114
2
NNW of a light-buoy (N cardinal) (13 miles WSW),
which marks the N limit of the prohibited area
surrounding the cooling water pipelines serving
Paluel power station. The entrance to the channel
leading to the power station is protected by two
short breakwaters. Thence:
NNW of Saint-Valéry-en-Caux (10 miles WSW)
(5.43), thence:
3
NNW of Pointe de Sotteville (5 miles WSW), which
is bordered by Les Gabes de Sotteville, enormous
drying blocks of sandstone extending up to
2½ cables offshore. A stranded wreck, containing
explosives, lies about 1¼ miles WSW of the point.
Thence:
4
NNW of Raz de Saint-Michel (3½ miles WSW), a
strong eddy over a rocky bank which extends
1 mile NNW from the entrance to the valley of
Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer, thence:
5
NNW of Roches d’Ailly Light-buoy (N cardinal),
marking an area of wreckage 1¼ miles NNW of
Pointe d’Ailly. Pointe d’Ailly has white vertical
cliffs and a rounded summit on which stands a
lighthouse (5.41). It is bordered by large blocks of
sandstone, the Roches d’Ailly, which dry and
extend 5 cables offshore. Thence:
6
Clear of Grands Écamias (4 miles N) (5.37), thence:
NNW of D1 Light-buoy (E cardinal) (3 miles NE),
which marks the E side of a wreck lying 2½ miles
WNW of the entrance to Dieppe, thence:
To a position NNW of Dieppe (5 miles ENE).
(Directions continue for Dieppe at 5.68 and
for coastal route at 5.78)
Saint-Valéry-en-Caux
Chart 2451 (see 1.31)
General information
5.43 1
Position. Saint-Valéry-en-Caux (49°52′N 0°43′E) is
situated 15 miles ENE of Fécamp.
Function. The port is used by coasters and is also a
yachting centre. The population of the town is 5800.
2
Topography. The port lies in a narrow valley. Ridens de
Saint-Valéry, banks of sand and gravel with a depth of
1⋅3 m over their extremity, extend 7 cables offshore and
5 cables E of the harbour entrance. A detached patch with
0⋅6 m over it lies 8 cables ENE of the harbour entrance.
Port Authority. There is a port manager, but the port is
administered from Fécamp.
Limiting conditions
5.44 1
Controlling depths. The bar, which extends 1 cable
seaward from the heads of the jetties, dries.
Deepest and longest berth. Quai du Havre (5.50).
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 7⋅8 m; mean neap range
about 4⋅7 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 50 m, beam
8 m and draught 4⋅5 m (springs), 3⋅0 m (neaps).
Weather. The sea breaks heavily over the bar in W
winds, but entry into harbour is possible in E winds. The
channel changes after bad weather.
Arrival information
5.45 1
Anchoring is limited to vessels waiting to enter harbour
and is only prudent in good weather or in winds from
between S and SE. There is a recommended anchorage in
49°53′⋅2N 0°41′⋅7E.
Pilotage is not compulsory.
Harbour
5.46 1
Layout. The port consists of Avant-port which is tidal
and leads directly to a wet dock, Bassin à Flot.
Saint−Valéry−en−Caux from NW (5.46)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
5.47 1
Tidal streams to the seaward of the port set as follows:
Interval from HW
Dieppe
Remarks
−0605 ENE-going stream begins
−0045 WSW-going stream begins
2
The spring rate on the ENE-going stream is 2¾ kn and
on the WSW-going stream is 2 kn.
Off the jetty heads the streams set as follows:
−0535 E-going (flood) stream begins.
0000 W-going (ebb) stream begins.
3
The spring rate on the E-going stream is 2½ kn and on
the out-going stream 2 kn.
There is a slight eddy, known as La Sciade, which runs
W during the E-going stream. The eddy sets NNW along
Jetée Est, dividing at the head of the jetty into an in-going
stream and a W-going stream across the harbour entrance.
5.48 1
Principal marks:
Water tower (49°52′N 0°42′E).
TV tower (49°52′N 0°44′E).
Directions
5.49 1
A bank of shingle across the entrance forms a bar and
the channel is partially obstructed. Local knowledge is
required to enter harbour.
CHAPTER 5
115
Dieppe Harbour Entrance from N (5.54)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
The harbour entrance is 60 m wide and lies between the
head of Jetée Est and Jetée Ouest, which projects further to
seaward than Jetée Est. A light (white, green top, 12 m in
height) stands on the head of Jetée Ouest. There is also a
light (white mast, 6 m in height) on the head of Jetée Est.
Berths
5.50 1
Avant-port dries, bottom mud. Quai d’Amont on the E
side is 100 m in length.
2
Bassin à Flot is entered through dock gates 9 m wide,
with a sill depth 3⋅3 m above chart datum. The dock
bottom is 3⋅5 m above chart datum and depth in the basin
is generally between 2⋅5 and 3⋅5 m. The dock gates are
open from 2h15m hours before to 2h15m hours after HW
during the day. In strong SW winds there is a scend in
Avant-port which may make it necessary to leave the dock
gates open to avoid damage to them. There are berths at
Quai du Havre and Quai Est but the greater part of the
basin is taken up by a marina.
Port services
5.51 1
Repairs to small craft only. There is a slip for craft up
to 4 tonnes.
Supplies: water at the quays; marine diesel by road
tanker.
DIEPPE
General information
Chart 2147
Position
5.52 1
Dieppe (49°56′N 1°05′E) lies in the mouth of a valley,
5 miles E of Pointe d’Ailly.
Function
5.53 1
The port is mainly used as a cross-channel ferry
terminal, but also handles commercial and fishing vessels.
There are berths for recreational craft.
The population of Dieppe is about 36 600.
Approach and entry
5.54 1
The port is approached directly from seaward and
entered through a maintained channel, which is protected
by breakwaters.
Traffic
5.55 1
In 2004, apart from ferries, the port handled 91 vessels
with a total deadweight of 652 292 tonnes.
Port Authority
5.56 1
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Dieppe, 4
Boulevard du General de Gaulle, (PO Box 62),
76202 Dieppe.
Limiting conditions
5.57 1
Controlling depth. There is a maintained depth of 5⋅0 m
in the entrance channel.
Deepest and longest berth. Quai de Maroc in the
Bassin de Paris (5.71).
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 8⋅5 m; mean neap range
about 4⋅9 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 160 m, beam
23 m and draught 8 m (springs). Vessels approaching the
maximum dimensions should consult the Harbour Master
prior to arrival.
3
Weather. In strong W winds the swell rounds Pointe
d’Ailly, 5 miles W of the harbour entrance, and breaks on
the beach. In strong winds from the NW through to NE the
CHAPTER 5
116
sea is rough at the harbour entrance during the out-going
stream and there may be a swell in Avant-port.
Climatic table see 1.225 and 1.232.
Arrival information
Port radio
5.58 1
A port radio station is maintained at Dieppe, see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Traffic signals
5.59 1
International Port Traffic Signals (see The Mariner’s
Handbook) are used to regulate the entry and departure of
vessels. Vessels departing the port normally have priority.
These signals are exhibited from:
The signal masts at the root of Jetée Ouest (the
principal station).
2
The station on the end of the pontoon at the entrance
to Avant−port.
The stations at the entrances to Arrière-port and
Bassins Duquesne and du Canada.
5.60 1
Dredgers. When dredgers are operating, or the channel
is obstructed, a yellow light is displayed at the same level
and to the right of the main signal.
Ferries. A green light above and to the right of the
main signal indicates the entry of a ferry, and a red light,
similarly displayed, a ferry departure.
Notice of ETA
5.61 1
Vessels exempt from pilotage must give 24 hours’ notice
of their ETA. In addition all vessels must give notice of
their ETA to the Harbour Master’s Office in the working
hours preceding the tide on which they are to enter. Delays
of 2 hours or more must be reported at least 3 hours before
the time of the original ETA.
Anchorage
5.62 1
The anchorage for vessels waiting to enter Dieppe is in
the vicinity of D1 Light-buoy (E cardinal) (49°57′N
1°01′E), bottom sand and shingle or sand and shells, good
holding ground. There are wrecks close W, 6 cables N and
3 cables SE of the light-buoy.
2
A recommended anchorage, shown on the chart, is
4 cables ENE of the light-buoy.
The anchorage is exposed to winds from the W through
N to NE and in such conditions vessels may find it
preferable to lie to or seek shelter elsewhere.
Pilots and tugs
5.63 1
Pilotage is compulsory within 4 miles of the jetty heads
for all vessels, except vessels less than 50 m in length,
which are both equipped with VHF and not carrying
dangerous substances. Vessels requiring a pilot should give
5 hours notice of their ETA off Dieppe to the pilot station
Seine-Rouen-Dieppe, amending their ETA if delayed by
2 hours at least 3 hours before the time of their original
ETA.
2
Pilots board 2½ cables NW of D1 Light-buoy. Vessels
should not attempt to enter the port if the weather prevents
the pilot boarding.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
5.64 1
Fishing vessels and small craft are prohibited from
navigating in the approach to the port when the entry or
departure signals are displayed. If already in the approaches
they should maintain their course and clear the area as
soon as possible.
2
Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in the triangular
area, shown on the chart, which extends 1 mile from the
harbour entrance.
Harbour
Layout
5.65 1
The entrance channel leads to Avant-port which gives
direct access to Arrière-port through a passage 37 m wide,
which is spanned by Pont Colbert, a swing bridge. Bassin
Duquesne is entered through a lock in the SW corner of
Avant-port. Arrière-port leads through a lock to Bassin du
Canada which in turn leads to Bassin du Paris.
Tidal streams
5.66 1
Off Dieppe the tidal streams set as follows:
At the anchorage
Interval from HW Dieppe
Remarks
−0500 ENE-going (in-going) stream
begins.
+0015 WSW-going (out-going)
stream begins.
The spring rate on the ENE-going stream is 1⋅6 kn and
on the WSW-going stream 1⋅2 kn.
4 cables off the entrance
−0500 E-going stream begins.
+0040 W-going stream begins.
2
The spring rate on the E-going stream is 2 kn and on
the W-going stream 1½ kn. The LW slack period is less
than the HW slack period. In good weather the tidal stream
does not exceed ½ kn between 1 hour before and HW, even
at springs. With W winds HW may be up to 45 minutes
late and with SE winds up to 20 minutes early.
3
At other times the tidal streams run strongly across the
harbour entrance.
Within the harbour the tidal streams run directly inwards
and outwards, there are no eddies.
For details of the tidal streams see information on the
chart and Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: The English
Channel.
Principal marks
5.67 1
Nôtre Dame de Bon Secours (49°56′⋅0N 1°05′⋅4E) a
chapel with a large belfry, standing on the cliffs
close S of Pointe de Femme Grosse. A light (red
and white structure, 4 m in height) stands in front
of the chapel.
Radio mast (49°55′N 1°08′E).
CHAPTER 5
117
Dieppe-Inner Harbour from NW (5.65)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Directions
(continued from 5.42)
General
5.68 1
The port is only accessible to larger vessels from
2 hours before to 1 hour after HW. The best time to enter
harbour is at HW when the streams are slack. If entering
harbour at any other time then due allowance must be
made for the tidal stream sweeping across the entrance. See
5.66.
Approaches
5.69 1
Direct approach can be made from seaward to the
harbour entrance (49°56′⋅3N 1°05′⋅1E), which lies between
the heads of two converging jetties. The head of Jetée
Ouest projects about 200 m further to seaward than the
Jetée Est. A light (white tower, green top, 7 m in height)
stands on the head of the Jetée Ouest and a light (white
metal tower, red top; 10 m in height) stands on the head of
Jetée Est. Within the entrance the maintained channel
gradually narrows to 75 m and leads to Avant-port and
thence the remainder of the port. The channel is lined with
quays from the roots of the jetties.
Useful marks
5.70 1
Château de Dieppe (49°55′⋅5N 1°04′⋅3E), a castle
standing halfway up the cliff at the W end of
Dieppe.
Saint Jacques (tower) (49°55′⋅6N 1°04′⋅8E).
Signal station (49°56′⋅0N 1°05′⋅3E) white house near
Pointe de Femme Grosse.
Berths
5.71 1
Terminal Multivrac, SE of Jetée Est, has a quay 100 m
in length, with a depth alongside of 6 m.
Terminal Transmanche, dredged to 6 m, is a Ro-Ro
berth used by cross−channel ferries and can accept ships up
to 175 m in length. Vessels lie on 3 dolphins which are
well fendered.
2
Strong winds from the NE and E give rise to a heavy
swell in the outer harbour.
Avant-port has a maintained depth of 4⋅5 m. Jehan
Ango Marina is situated on the NW side and is protected
from the swell by a special pontoon at the entrance to
Avant−port. The remainder of Avant-port is used by fishing
vessels.
Château de Dieppe from NE (5.70)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
CHAPTER 5
118
3
Arrière-port is dredged to a depth of 4 m. There is a
swinging circle of 180 m diameter in the S part of
Arrière-port.
4
Bassin Duquesne is entered from Avant-port through
Jehan Ango lock, which is 15 m wide and sill depth 3⋅5 m
and operated from 2 hours before to 1 hour after HW. It is
reserved for fishing vessels and recreational craft.
5
Bassin du Canada, entered from Arrière-port through
Amiral Rolland lock, 23 m wide and sill depth 1 m, has
two quays each 150 m in length. The lock is operated from
2 hours before to 1 hour after HW and can accept vessels
drawing 8 m at springs and 7 m at neaps.
6
Bassin de Paris is entered from Bassin du Canada and
has two quays, Quai de Norvège 683 m in length and Quai
du Maroc 600 m in length. There is a Ro-Ro berth in the
NW corner of the dock. Depths are generally 8⋅0 m.
Vessels over 80 m in length using this basin and Bassin du
Canada have to turn in Arrière-port.
Port services
5.72 1
Repairs of all types can be carried out. There is a dry
dock on the W side of Arrière-port, which can accept
vessels up to 120 m in length, beam 17 m and draught 6 m.
There is also a ship lift, capacity 310 tonnes including
cradles.
2
Other facilities: hospital; deratting exemption
certificates issued.
3
Supplies: marine fuels by road tanker; water at the
quays; fresh provisions and other supplies.
4
Communications. There are regular cross-Channel
services.
DIEPPE TO BAIE DE SOMME
DIEPPE TO LE TRÉPORT
General information
Chart 2147
Route
5.73 1
From a position NNW of Dieppe (49°56′N 1°05′E) the
route leads 14 miles ENE to a position NNW of Le
Tréport.
Topography
5.74 1
Between Dieppe and Le Tréport the coast consists of
high sheer chalk cliffs, divided by the following valleys
which show as breaks in the coastal cliffs:
Belleville-sur-Mer (49°58′N 1°10′E); Berneval (49°58′N
1°12′E); Penly (49°59′N 1°13′E); River Yéres (50°02′N
1°19′E) the widest valley in the vicinity, close E of Mont
Jolibois a round treeless summit on the coast rising above a
vertical cliff.
2
The coast is bordered by a rocky bank extending up to
5 cables offshore, which dries in places.
The 20 m depth contour lies as much as 12 miles
offshore.
Danger area
5.75 1
Details of the former mined area NE of Ridens de
Dieppe (50°06′N 1°06′E) in which it is dangerous to
anchor, trawl or engage in any seabed activity, but which is
open to surface navigation, are given at Appendix III.
Tidal streams
5.76 1
See information on the chart and the Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: The English Channel.
Principal marks
5.77 1
Landmarks:
Water tower (49°56′N 1°07′E).
Radio mast (49°55′N 1°08′E).
Major lights:
Pointe d’Ailly Light (49°55′⋅0N 0°57′⋅6E) (5.41).
2
Jetée Ouest Light, Le Tréport (50°03′⋅9N 1°22′⋅2E)
(5.92).
Ault Light (50°06′⋅3N 1°27′⋅2E) (5.102).
Cayeux-sur-Mer Light (50°11′⋅7N 1°30′⋅7E) (5.102)
(Chart 2451).
Directions
(continued from 5.42)
5.78 1
From a position NNW of Dieppe (49°56′N 1°05′E) the
route leads 14 miles NE to a position NW of Le Tréport,
passing:
2
Clear of a wreck, marked by Daffodils Light-buoy (W
cardinal) (50°02′⋅5N 1°04′⋅1E), and clear of a
second wreck 2 miles ENE, marked by Berneval
Light-buoy (W cardinal). Thence:
3
NW of Ridens de Belleville (49°59′N 1°09′E), a
group of shoal patches. The E-most patches front
Penly nuclear power station off which there is an
area prohibited to navigation, shown on the chart
and marked at its NE and NW extremities by
Penly 2 and Penly 1 Light-buoys (special). A
narrow channel between breakwaters leads to the
power station. Thence:
Penly Nuclear Power Station from SW (5.78)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
4
SE of Ridens de Dieppe (50°06′N 1°06′E), patches of
sand and gravel, and:
NW of Ridens de Neuvillette (50°01′N 1°14′E), a
group of narrow sandbanks which extend up to
1¾ miles offshore, thence:
CHAPTER 5
119
5
Clear of an unmarked wreck (50°03′⋅7N 1°12′⋅0E)
with a least depth of 4⋅9 m over it, thence:
NW of Roches du Muron (50°03′N 1°19′E), where
the drying rocky bank extends 3½ cables offshore,
thence:
6
To a position NW of Ridens du Tréport (50°06′N
1°18′E), which lie 3 miles NW of the entrance to
Le Tréport.
Useful marks
5.79 1
Mast (obstruction light) (49°58′N 1°14′E).
Ferme de Neuvillette (50°00′N 1°15′E), which lies in
the middle of a dark wood.
Flocques church (50°02′N 1°22′E) which is round and
pointed and surrounded by trees.
(Directions continue for Le Tréport at 5.93 and
for coastal passage at 5.103)
LE TRÉPORT
General information
Chart 1354 plan of Le Tréport
Position
5.80 1
The town of Le Tréport (50°04′N 1°22′E) is situated on
the SW side of the port in a valley formed by the mouth of
La Bresle. The smaller town of Mer-les-Bains lies on the
NE side of the port.
Function
5.81 1
The port is used by fishing vessels, small commercial
vessels and recreational craft. The population is about
6600.
Traffic
5.82 1
In 2004 the port handled 122 vessels with a total
deadweight of 421 545 tonnes.
Port Authority
5.83 1
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie du Tréport, 2 Quai
de la Republique, PO Box 5, 76470 Le Tréport.
Limiting conditions
5.84 1
Controlling depths. The channel leading to the harbour
entrance and, within the harbour, the channels leading to
Port de Commerce and Port de Pêche et de Plaisance dry
2 m. Less water may exist; the Port Authority should be
consulted for the latest information.
Deepest and longest berth. Port de Commerce (5.95).
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 8⋅5 m; mean neap range
about 5⋅0 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 115 m, beam
16 m and draught equal to the height of tide minus 2 m. If
the Avant-port has suffered siltation the acceptable draught
may be less.
Le Tréport − Harbour Entrance from NW (5.80)
(Original dated 2003)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
CHAPTER 5
120
3
Local weather. Strong onshore winds give rise to a
heavy scend in Avant-port.
Arrival information
Port radio
5.85 1
The port radio is operated from 3 hours before to
3 hours after HW. For details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1).
Traffic signals
5.86 1
International Port Traffic Signals are shown from the
radar mast at the root of Jetée Est.
The following signals, shown from a position 100 m W
of the entrance to the Port de Pêche et de Plaisance,
indicate the state of the lock leading to that basin:
Signal Meaning
3 vertical green lights Lock open
3 vertical red lights Lock closed
Anchorage
5.87 1
Anchorage may be obtained 3 miles NW of the harbour
entrance, in an area shown on the chart, in depths of 8 to
15 m, bottom sand and shells. The anchorage should only
be used by vessels waiting to enter the port and is not
tenable in strong onshore winds.
Prohibited anchorage
5.88 1
A sector, shown on the chart, in which anchoring and
fishing is prohibited, extends 1 mile NW from the harbour
entrance.
Pilotage
5.89 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels longer than 45 m.
Vessels requiring a pilot should set VHF watch 3 hours
prior to HW. The pilot boards 1½ miles NW of the harbour
entrance at a position shown on the chart.
2
If bad weather prevents the pilot from boarding, vessels
under 45 m in length may still enter harbour at the time of
slack water (about 30 minutes before HW), being governed
by the Traffic Signals (5.86).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details.
Harbour
Layout
5.90 1
The port consists of Avant-port, which leads to Port de
Commerce (Bassin à Flot). Port de Pêche et de Plaisance, a
wet dock to the S of Port de Commerce, is also approached
from Avant-port; it is used by fishing vessels and at the E
end there is a marina.
Tidal streams
5.91 1
Tidal streams off Le Tréport set as follows:
At the anchorage
Interval from HW Dieppe Remarks
−0605 NE-going (in-going) stream
begins.
−0030 WSW-going (out-going)
stream begins.
The spring rate on both streams is 2½ kn.
Close off the jetty heads
−0600 E-going stream begins.
0000 W-going stream begins.
The spring rate on both streams is 1 kn.
2
East of Le Tréport the streams change direction and run
parallel to the coast.
Principal marks
5.92 1
Landmarks:
Radio Tower (50°04′⋅1N 1°24′⋅2E).
Saint-Jacques spire (50°03′⋅6N 1°22′⋅5E), which
shows above the houses.
2
Statue (50°04′⋅4N 1°23′⋅5E) of Notre-Dame de la
Falaise.
Major light:
Jetée Ouest Light (white tower, green top, 14 m in
height) (50°03′⋅9N 1°22′⋅2E).
Directions
(continued from 5.79)
5.93 1
From a position 1 mile NW of Le Tréport the route
leads SE to the harbour entrance, thence through Avant-port
to Port de Commerce, passing (with positions from the
harbour entrance (50°04′N 1°22′E)):
NE of Les Granges (3½ cables W), a detached patch
of drying rocks. Les Haumes, a second patch of
drying rocks, lie 2 cables WSW of Les Granges.
Thence:
2
Through the harbour entrance, which is 60 m wide
and formed by the heads of two breakwaters,
bordered by drying banks of sand, shingle and
mud. Within the breakwaters the channel narrows
to 30 m. A light (5.92) stands on the head of Jetée
Ouest and a second light (white column, red top,
7 m in height) stands on the head of Jetée Est.
There is a groyne extending ½ cable NW from the
shore close SW of Jetée Ouest. Thence:
3
To the dock entrance (3 cables ESE) following the
channel through Avant-port, which curves from SE
to E. The N side is formed by a stone dyke, which
is marked by buoys. The lock is 19 m wide and
the sill is 2 m above chart datum. It is operated
from 1½ hours before HW to HW. Craft bound for
Port de Pêche et de Plaisance divert to the SE
from the main channel. The lock gate for this
basin is open 3 hours either side of HW.
4
The recommended approach to the harbour entrance is
on the line of bearing 112° of the light-tower on the head
of Jetée Est and open left of the light-tower on the head of
Jetée Ouest, giving due allowance for any cross-tidal
CHAPTER 5
121
Le Tréport − Approach to Port de Commerce from Avant-Port (5.93)
(Original dated 2003)
(Photograph − Crown Copyright)
stream as the bow of the vessel enters the shelter of the
breakwaters.
5.94 1
Useful marks:
Pylon (lights) (50°02′N 1°24′E) (Chart 2147).
Grain silo (50°03′⋅8N 1°23′⋅0E).
Cross (illuminated) (50°03′⋅6N 1°22′⋅1E).
Berths
5.95 1
Avant-port. All the quays dry between 4 and 5⋅5 m,
bottom soft mud. There is a heavy swell in Avant-port
when the wind is strong from seaward.
Port de Commerce. There is 850 m of quays, providing
8 berths in a depth of 4⋅5 m.
2
Port de Pêche et de Plaisance is approached through a
lock which is 28 m in length and 9⋅5 m wide. There are a
number of pontoons, those closest to the lock are reserved
for fishing vessels, the remainder provide 150 berths for
recreational craft.
Port services
5.96 1
Repairs of a minor nature only can be undertaken.
Supplies: water at the quays in Port de Commerce and
at Quai François Premier (S side of Avant-port); marine
diesel at Quai Bellot (N side of Avant-port), elsewhere by
road tanker.
LE TRÉPORT TO BAIE DE SOMME
General information
Chart 2147, 2451
Route
5.97 1
From a position NW of Le Tréport (50°04′N 1°22′E) the
route leads 9 miles NNE to a position W of ATSO
Light-buoy (safe water). The buoy may be moved if
required by changes in the banks fronting the Baie de
Somme.
Topography
5.98 1
The white coastal cliffs, intersected by small valleys,
continue NE of Le Tréport as far as Ault, 4 miles NE,
whence the coast is low and lined with sand dunes to the S
entrance point of the Baie de Somme. A few woods stand
out above the cliffs, but NE of Ault the woods recede from
the coast.
2
The gradient of the sea bottom offshore is slight and the
10 m depth contour is up to 6 miles from the coast.
Off−lying banks
5.99 1
Quemer (50°17′N 1°20′E) and Bassurelle de la Somme
(50°13N, 1°20E) are two banks of sand and shells, which
extend 9½ miles offshore and run NE to join the coastal
bank fronting the Baie de Somme. Numerous shoals and
charted wrecks lie between them and the coast. In bad
CHAPTER 5
122
weather the sea breaks heavily over these banks, which
should then be avoided.
Danger area
5.100 1
See 5.75.
Tidal streams
5.101 1
As the Baie de Somme is approached the NE-going
stream close inshore becomes an in-going stream with a
mean rate of 2½ kn. To the SW the rates are weaker and at
Ault attain a rate of only 1¼ kn.
Principal marks
5.102 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Le Tréport see 5.92.
Ault Lighthouse (white tower, red top, 28 m in
height) (50°06′⋅3N 1°27′⋅2E).
Ault Light from W (5.102)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Major lights:
Pointe d’Ailly Light (49°55′⋅0N 0°57′⋅6E) (5.41).
2
Jetée Ouest Light, Le Tréport (50°03′⋅9N 1°22′⋅2E)
(5.92).
Ault Light—as above.
Cayeux-sur-Mer Light (white tower, red top, 32 m in
height) (50°11′⋅7N 1°30′⋅7E).
Berck-Plage Light (50°23′⋅9N 1°33′⋅6E) (5.130).
Directions
(continued from 5.79)
5.103 1
From a position NNW of Le Tréport (50°04′N 1°22′E)
the route leads 9 miles NNE to a position W of ATSO
Light-buoy (safe water), passing:
Clear of Banc Franc-Marqué (50°06′N 1°22′E),
thence:
WNW of a large area of obstructions, as shown on
the chart, extending up to 3⋅5 miles N and NW of
Ault Light (5.102), thence:
Clear of a group of four unmarked wrecks about
3 miles WSW of ATSO Light−buoy, thence:
2
To a position W of ATSO Light-buoy (safe water)
(50°14′N 1°28′E), marking the outer edge of the
Bancs de Somme (5.105).
The dangers on Bancs de Somme (5.106) are covered by
the red sector of Ault Light (5.102) bearing 175° or more.
(Directions continue for Baie de Somme at 5.112 and
for coastal passage at 5.131)
BAIE DE SOMME
General information
Chart 2451 (see 1.31)
Route
5.104 1
A buoyed channel, liable to change, leads E through the
Baie de Somme (50°14′N 1°32′E) from the vicinity of
ATSO Light-buoy (safe water) (50°14′N 1°28′E).
Topography
5.105 1
The Baie de Somme is entered between Pointe du
Hourdel (50°13′N 1°34′E) and Pointe de Saint-Quentin,
3 miles NNW.
Either side of the Bay, which is the estuary of the
Rivière Somme, the coast is low and lined with sand
dunes. Woods stand in the background on higher ground to
the South.
2
The bay faces W and is filled with drying sand banks,
the Bancs de Somme, which extend about 1½ miles to
seaward of the general line of the coast.
Dangers
5.106 1
The Bancs de Somme are subject to change both in
position and height. When there are onshore winds the sea
is very rough over the banks and they should be avoided.
The outer banks consist of fine shifting sands. If a
vessel grounds on them the tidal streams tend to wash
away the sand from the extremities of the vessel causing
her to capsize or break her back.
Pilotage
5.107 1
There is no pilot station in the Baie de Somme, but
unlicensed local pilots are available. Because of the
frequent changes in the sand banks, the assistance of such
a pilot is most strongly advised.
2
In good weather the pilot boards in the vicinity of ATSO
Light-buoy. In bad weather, when the pilot boat cannot
cross the bar, vessels which can see the pilot vessel should
pass between S1 Light−buoy (starboard hand) and S2 Buoy
(port hand) moored on the drying bank at the entrance to
the channel and then follow the pilot boat. The boat flies
flag P by day or, by night, makes four flashes on a light at
regular intervals.
3
In very bad weather entry into the Baie de Somme
should not be attempted.
Caution. In 2002 it was reported that S2 Buoy was
missing.
Local knowledge
5.108 1
Local knowledge is required to enter the Baie de
Somme.
Prohibited area
5.109
1
The drying banks in Baie de Somme are the site of
mussel beds and, apart from the marked channels, are
prohibited to power−driven vessels.
CHAPTER 5
123
Tidal streams
5.110 1
Tidal streams run as follows:
Interval from HW Dieppe Remarks
At ATSO Light-buoy
(50°14′N 1°28′E)
−0400 In-going (NNE) stream
begins.
+0130 Out-going (SSW) stream
begins.
The spring rate on the in-going stream is 2¾ kn and on
the out-going stream 2½ kn.
Off the entrance
−0400 In-going stream at its
minimum.
−0130 In-going stream at its
maximum, setting NE.
+0200 Out-going stream at its
minimum.
+0500 Out-going stream at its
maximum, setting SW.
The mean rate on both streams is 2½ kn.
2
Off the entrance to the Baie de Somme the tidal streams
are rotary anti-clockwise, and appear to attain their
maximum rate as the drying banks are either just covered
or just about to be uncovered. The in-going stream begins
in the entrance and outer channels soon after local LW and
off Pointe du Hourdel about 30 minutes later. The in-going
stream only begins at Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme (50°11′N
1°38′E) some 2½ hours before local HW, when the
in-coming tide reaches the channel off the town. The
out-going stream probably begins at local HW in the
entrance and outer channels, some 15 minutes later off
Pointe du Hourdel and 30 minutes later off
Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme.
3
The streams, in particular the in-going stream, are
probably strong in the outer channels and off Pointe du
Hourdel, but weak off Saint-Valéry-sur Somme.
See also Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: The English
Channel, and information on the chart.
Caution
5.111 1
If a vessel is unable to make one of the ports in the
Baie de Somme before HW, then it is recommended to
proceed at once to seaward of the banks. Anchoring in the
shelter of a bank or point is not safe because the holding
ground among these shifting sands is poor. See also 5.109.
Directions
(continued from 5.103)
5.112 1
The entrance channel, which crosses the drying sands
forming the Baie de Somme lies to E of ATSO Light-buoy
(safe water) (50°14′N 1°28′E). The channel is marked by
buoys and light−buoys (lateral) which are moved as
necessary. A light−buoy (W cardinal) E of Pointe du
Hourdel (50°13′N 1°34′E) marks the bifurcation of the
channel to Le Crotoy and Saint−Valéry−sur−Somme.
2
Caution. Detailed directions cannot be given because of
the changing nature of the channel. In 2002 it was reported
that the first channel buoy, S1 Light−buoy (starboard hand),
was moored ESE of ATSO Light−buoy and that its partner
S2 Buoy (porthand) was missing.
5.113 1
Useful mark:
Pointe du Hourdel Light (white tower, green top,
18 m in height) (50°12′⋅9N 1°34′⋅0E).
Harbours within the Baie de Somme
Le Hourdel
5.114 1
The harbour at Le Hourdel (50°13′N 1°34′E) consists of
a small drying basin situated between the S side of Pointe
du Hourdel (5.105) and a breakwater 300 m in length lying
parallel to and 100 m off the coast. It is used mainly by
fishing vessels and is accessible to craft drawing 3⋅0 m
(springs) and 2⋅4 m (neaps). The berths are on shingle,
which dries 5 m.
Le Crotoy
5.115 1
General information. Le Crotoy (50°13′N 1°38′E), has
a small harbour used by fishing boats and recreational
craft. The harbour is formed by a creek protected to the W
by a promontory on which stands the town. It is accessible
to craft drawing up to 2 m through a channel marked by
buoys (lateral: numbers prefixed by C).
2
Harbour. A light (white pylon, 11 m in height) stands at
the S extremity of the quay, which dries 6 m, on the W
side of the harbour. It is used by fishing vessels.
The E side of the harbour is occupied by a marina with
about 150 berths, which is protected to the S by a
breakwater, with a light at its W end.
Repairs can be made to wooden-hulled boats. Fuel oil
can be obtained by prior arrangement. There is a
yacht club.
Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme
5.116 1
General information. Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme (50°11′N
1°39′E), is a small port on the S shore of the Baie de
Somme, some 2½ miles ESE of Pointe du Hourdel. The old
walled town stands on a wooded hill behind the port.
The port is used mainly by recreational craft.
5.117 1
Limiting conditions. The approach channel dries 5⋅8 m
and remains dry until the in-coming tide reaches it, about
2 hours before HW.
Mean tidal levels: MHWS 10⋅0 m; MHWN 8⋅0 m.
Vessels up to 50 m in length and draught 3⋅6 m (springs)
can be accepted.
5.118 1
Arrival information. For pilotage see 5.107. Local
knowledge is required to enter the port.
5.119 1
Harbour. The harbour on the E side of the town, is
orientated N-S and is 1700 m long and 60 m wide. The E
side of the harbour is bordered by a mole and the W side
by an embankment and a quay. There is a marina with
dredged depths of about 1⋅5 to 2 m in the S part of the
harbour.
5.120 1
Directions. From the bifurcation of the channel E of
Pointe du Hourdel (5.112) the channel, which is marked by
light−buoys and buoys (lateral; numbers in continuation of
the sequence begun in Baie de Somme), continues 3 miles
SE to the harbour, passing;
CHAPTER 5
124
NE of a training wall which covers at HW extending
1 mile NW from the S bank close W of
Saint−Valéry−sur−Somme. The outer end of the
wall is marked by a light−beacon (starboard hand)
(50°12′⋅3N 1°35′⋅9E) and thereafter by three
additional light−beacons (starboard hand) in
succession. Thence;
NE of an embankment fronting Saint−Valéry−sur
−Somme, from the seaward end of which is
exhibited a light (white pylon, green top; 7 m in
height) (50°11′⋅5N 1°37′⋅7E), and;
SW of a detached training wall that covers and which
lies parallel to the embankment. Some groynes
reach towards the channel from the wall and it is
marked by beacons (port hand).
Thence the channel leads S into the harbour passing W
of the head of the mole, from which a light is exhibited
(white pylon, red top; 6 m in height) (50°11′⋅2N 1°38′⋅7E).
5.121 1
Berths. There are up to four berths for commercial
vessels on the quay. The berths dry 5⋅8 m, bottom mud.
5.122 1
Supplies: fuel by road tanker; water; fresh provisions.
Canal de Somme
5.123 1
Canal de la Somme can accept vessels up to 45 m in
length, beam 8 m and draught 3⋅4 m. The canal is entered
at the S end of the Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme Harbour
through a lock, 260 m in length and 50 m wide. The lock
gates are 8⋅5 m wide and are operated for about 2 hours at
HW. There is a speed limit on the canal of 6 km per hour
by night. An early prolonged blast must be sounded by
vessels to request the opening of the one lifting bridge and
four swing bridges over the canal between Saint-Valéry and
Abbeville.
2
Abbeville (50°06′N 1°51′E), a small town and former
commercial port, is about 12 km SE of
Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme. From Abbeville to the city of
Amiens, a distance of 47 km, the canal is crossed by fixed
bridges with a vertical clearance of about 3⋅7 m.
BAIE DE SOMME TO CAP GRIS-NEZ
BAIE DE SOMME TO
BOULOGNE-SUR-MER
General information
Chart 2451
Route
5.124 1
From a position W of ATSO Light-buoy (safe water)
(50°14′N 1°28′E) the route leads 31 miles N to a position
W of Boulogne.
Topography
5.125 1
The coast is low and sandy and bordered by dunes from
Pointe de Saint-Quentin (50°16′N 1°33′E), the N entrance
point to the Baie de Somme, as far N as Cap d’Alprech a
brown cliff which is 2 miles SW of the entrance to
Boulogne Harbour. The coast is broken by the estuaries of
Rivière Authie (5.132) and the Rivière Canche (5.134). The
two estuaries are encumbered by drying sandbanks
extending seaward, which are shifting and dangerous.
Inland between Baie d’Étaples and Cap d’Alprech, 10 miles
N, there are some remarkable hills which are visible from a
distance.
Off−lying banks
5.126 1
Vergoyer is a narrow sand bank, which runs 15 miles
NE from the vicinity of 50°26′N 1°02′E. It lies about
5 miles to seaward of Bassure de Baas and runs parallel to
it. The E side of the bank is steep-to and the sea breaks
over the bank in bad weather.
2
Bassure de Baas runs 35 miles NE thence to the N
from the vicinity of 50°22′N 1°05′E, about 18 miles W of
Baie de l’Authie, to a position 7 miles N of Cap d’Alprech
where it is only 1½ miles offshore. It is a narrow shifting
shoal composed of sand and shells, with charted depths of
less than 5 m. There is a break in the shoal, some 2 miles
wide, to the W of the entrance to Boulogne and 4 miles S
of the N extremity of the shoal.
3
In strong winds from the S through W to N the sea
breaks over the shoal and depths are liable to change. The
sea is less on the N part of the shoal than to the W of it
and heavier in the channel between the shoal and the coast.
4
Caution. Numerous unmarked wrecks lie between
Bassure de Baas and the coast as shown on the chart.
5
Battur (50°24′N 1°22′E), a shoal of sand, gravel and
shells, is about 9 miles long and lies parallel to the SW end
of Bassure de Baas and about 1 to 1½ miles closer to the
shore. Depths are greater than over Bassure de Baas,
nevertheless the sea breaks heavily on the shoal in strong
winds from the W.
Inshore traffic zone
5.127 1
The part of this route which lies N of 50°30′N 2 miles S
of Baie d’Étaples, as far as Cap Gris-Nez, forms the
French Inshore Traffic Zone of the Dover Strait Traffic
Separation Scheme. For regulations concerning the use of
this zone see 1.8.
Rescue
5.128 1
There is a lookout station at Boulogne. Rescue
equipment is maintained. See 1.116 for details of French
stations.
A lifeboat is stationed at Boulogne.
Tidal streams
5.129 1
See information on the chart and the Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: The English Channel.
Principal marks
5.130 1
Berck-Plage Lighthouse (white tower, red bands,
green top, 45 m in height) (50°23′⋅9N 1°33′⋅6E).
The lighthouse stands on Pointe du Haut-Banc
(5.131).
Le Touquet Lighthouse (orange octagonal tower,
brown band, white and green top, 56 m in height)
(50°31′⋅4N 1°35′⋅5E).
2
Major lights:
Jetée Ouest Light, Le Tréport (50°03′⋅9N 1°22′⋅2E)
(5.92).
Ault Light (50°06′⋅3N 1°27′⋅2E) (5.102).
CHAPTER 5
125
Berck-Plage Light—as above.
Le Touquet Light—as above.
Cap d’Alprech Light (white tower, black top, spiral
outer stairs, 17 m in height) (50°42′N 1°34′E).
Cap Gris-Nez Light (50°52′⋅2N 1°34′⋅9E) (5.171).
Directions
(continued from 5.103)
5.131 1
From a position W of ATSO Light-buoy (safe water)
(50°14′N 1°28′E) the coastal route leads 31 miles N to a
position W of Boulogne, keeping to the E of Vergoyer
(5.126), which lies along the boundary of the Inshore
Traffic Zone, clear of Bassure de Baas and Battur (5.126)
and passing (with positions from Le Touquet Lighthouse
(50°31′N 1°36′E)):
W of Pointe de Saint-Quentin (5.105) (16 miles S),
the N entrance point to Baie de Somme, thence:
2
W of Baie de l’Authie (9 miles SSW) the mouth of
Rivière Authie (5.132), which lies between Pointe
de Routhiauville and Pointe du Haut-Banc on
which stands a light (5.130). The estuary is
encumbered by a drying bank of sand and broken
shells which is subject to constant change through
the action of the tidal streams and weather. The
bank extends 1½ miles seaward of the line joining
the entrance points. Thence:
W of drying banks which extend 1 mile seaward of
the entrance to Baie d’Étaples (5.136), thence:
3
E of Vergoyer E Light-buoy (E cardinal) (11 miles
WNW), marking the NE side of Vergoyer (5.126),
and Vergoyer N Light-buoy (N cardinal) (12 miles
NW) marking the N extremity of Vergoyer and
which lies on the boundary between the Traffic
Separation Scheme and the Inshore Traffic Zone.
Thence:
W of Cap d’Alprech (10½ miles N) a brown cliff, on
which stands a lighthouse (5.130). The cape is
bordered by rocks, which dry and extend 1 cable
offshore. Thence:
4
Clear of Ophélie Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(13 miles NNW) (5.156), and:
E of ZC1 Light-buoy (special) (14½ miles NNW),
which is moored at the S entry point to Boulogne
Approach Channel. Thence:
To a position W of Boulogne.
(Directions continue for Boulogne-sur-Mer at 5.155
and for coastal passage at 5.172)
Minor harbours
Chart 2451 (see 1.31)
Rivière Authie
5.132 1
Rivière Authie (50°22′N 1°33′E) is only used by local
fishing boats, which are of light draught and specially
constructed to ground on shifting sands. A small channel,
which dries and is marked by buoys, leads to the entrance
to Rivière Authie along the NE side of Baie de l’Authie
(5.131).
2
Information regarding tidal streams off Baie de l’Authie
is not available, although they probably run much as off
Baie d’Étaples (see 5.135), beginning about 45 minutes
earlier.
5.133 1
Caution. Baie de l’Authie is very dangerous and should
be avoided during onshore winds, especially during the
in-going tidal stream, which sets into the estuary at a
considerable rate.
Prohibited area. The drying banks in Baie de l’Authie
are the site of mussel beds and, apart from the marked
channels, are prohibited to power−driven vessels.
Étaples
5.134 1
General information. Étaples (50°31′N 1°38′E),
population about 11 000, is a small fishing port at the head
of Baie d’Étaples on the N bank of Rivière Canche. Craft
with a draught of 3 m (springs) and 1 m (neaps) can enter
the river. There is no pilotage station, but due to the
frequent changes in the approach channel, the services of a
local, unlicensed pilot are recommended.
5.135 1
Tidal streams off the entrance to Baie d’Étaples on the
10 m depth contour set as follows:
Interval from HW Boulogne Remarks
−0345 In-going stream begins,
setting N.
+0230 Out-going stream begins,
setting S.
The spring rate on both streams is 1¾ kn.
2
Further to seaward the streams set about 1 hour later.
Information regarding the tidal streams in the estuary is not
available.
5.136 1
Directions. Baie d’Étaples is entered between Pointe du
Touquet (50°32′N 1°35′E) and Pointe de Lornel, 1½ miles
N. A stranded wreck lies 1¾ miles W of Camiers Light
(50°32′⋅9N 1°36′⋅4E) in the vicinity of the entrance to the
buoyed channel. It is marked by Mérida Buoy (W
cardinal).
2
The channel dries to 5 m. The position of the entrance
and of the channel itself changes frequently and the
entrance may lie outside the white sector of Camiers Light
(red pylon, 11 m in height). No 1 Light−buoy (starboard
hand) (50°33′⋅1N 1°34′⋅5E) and Canche 2 Light−buoy
(starboard hand) mark the entrance and thereafter the
channel is marked by buoys (lateral). The inner end of the
channel is contained between training walls that cover at
high water and which are marked by beacons (lateral). The
N training wall extends 900 m farther N of the S wall and
its outer extremity is marked by a light−beacon (lateral).
Additional buoys within the training walls mark the limit of
the navigable channel.
The optimum time for entry is 1 hour before HW. Night
entry is not recommended.
3
Useful mark
Two stone groynes, which cover at HW, close SE of
Pointe de Lornel (50°33′⋅6N 1°35′⋅0E), the outer
being marked by a light−beacon (W cardinal) and
the inner by two beacons (special).
5.137 1
Harbour. There is a quay, 300 m in length, which dries
6⋅5 m. Fishing boats normally lie on the sandy shore either
side of the quay. There is a marina with depths alongside
the pontoons of about 1 m.
Repairs: hull and engines; boat hoist, 130 tonne.
Supplies: water; marine diesel.
CHAPTER 5
126
BOULOGNE-SUR-MER
General information
Charts 1892, 438
Position
5.138 1
Boulogne-sur-Mer (50°44′N 1°36′E) is situated at the
seaward end of the valley of La Liane Fleuve, 2½ miles
NE of Cap d’Alprech (Chart 2451).
Function
5.139 1
The port is the principal fishing port of France and is
also used by commercial vessels. The population is about
50 000.
Approach and entry
5.140 1
The main approach for vessels to seaward of the
Bassure de Baas (5.126) is from the W through the break
in the N part of the shoal. It is also possible to approach
Boulogne from the N through Rade d’Ambleteuse (5.173).
The entrance to the harbour is between the heads of two
breakwaters, Digue Carnot and Digue Nord, and thence
through a mostly unmarked dredged channel to the berths.
Traffic
5.141 1
In 2004, apart from fishing vessels, the port handled 190
vessels with a total deadweight of 1⋅0 million tonnes.
Port Authority
5.142 1
Service Maritime des Ports de Boulogne-sur-Mer et
Calais, 96 Boulevard Gambetta, 62200 Boulogne-sur-Mer.
Limiting conditions
5.143 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel in Rade
Carnot, the outer harbour, has been dredged to a depth of
5 m, but there are lesser depths in the channel leading to
Rade Carnot Ro−Ro berth and in the entrance to Avant
Port. The Port Authority should be consulted for the latest
information.
Deepest and longest berth. Quai de l’Europe in the
Darse Sarraz-Bournet (5.161).
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 7⋅7 m; mean neap range
about 4⋅6 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled in the outer harbour is
length 230 m and draught 11⋅0 m (springs) or 10⋅5 m
(neaps). The inner harbour can accept vessels up to 135 m
in length, draught dependent on the state of the tide. Larger
vessels may need tug assistance.
Arrival information
Vessel Traffic Service
5.144 1
A VTS is maintained for the control of shipping. For
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Notice of ETA
5.145 1
Vessels should give 12 hours notice of their ETA at the
roads, confirming 2 hours prior to their arrival. The
message should also contain the vessel’s dimensions, any
requirements for pilotage (5.147) and last port of call.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Anchorages
5.146 1
There is anchorage for vessels midway between the
break in Bassure de Baas and Digue Carnot on the S side
of the harbour entrance, but clear S of the Tanker Channel
(5.148). The anchorage is shown on the chart.
In adverse weather conditions it is advisable to seek
shelter off the English coast.
Pilots and tugs
5.147 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 50 m in
length, except French fishing vessels, vessels employed by
the harbour and local administration and warships. The
pilotage area extends 4 miles from the entrance to the port.
2
Pilots board 1½ miles W of the harbour entrance at a
position shown on the chart. In adverse weather conditions,
when boarding is not possible, vessels should remain in the
vicinity of outer anchorage and await instructions. On no
account should vessels attempt to enter Rade Carnot
without instructions. Anchorage within Rade Carnot is
forbidden.
3
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
5.148 1
An approach channel, shown on the chart, extends
4½ miles WNW from Boulogne Harbour entrance to the W
boundary of the French Inshore Traffic Zone. The N limit
of the channel is the line of bearing 287° from the light at
the head of Digue Nord and the S limit is the line of
bearing 277° from the light at the head of Digue Carnot.
2
All tankers must use this channel, except that tankers
coming from Dunkerque or Calais are only required to use
that part of the channel to the E of a line between
Boulogne Approaches Light-buoy (S cardinal) (50°45′⋅3N
1°31′⋅1E) and Ophélie Light-buoy, 1½ miles S. Tankers
must report before entering the access channel and maintain
VHF watch thereafter.
3
Tankers within the channel are regarded as vessels
restricted in their ability to manoeuvre and show the
appropriate shapes and marks.
Vessels are prohibited from anchoring or stopping in the
approach channel.
Harbour
Layout
5.149 1
The port consists of an outer harbour protected by
breakwaters, Digue Nord and Digue Carnot. There are
berths in the S part of the outer harbour in Rade Carnot
and Darse Sarraz-Bournet. The N part of Rade Carnot
between the coast and Digue Nord is reserved for use by
pleasure craft, as shown on the chart.
2
A channel leads ESE from outer harbour to Avant Port,
which is principally used by fishing vessels. Avant Port
gives access to two wet docks, Bassin Loubet used by
fishing vessels and commercial vessels and Bassin
Napoléon used by recreational craft. The impounded dock
of Bassin Frédéric-Sauvage is approached through Port de
Marée, the SE extension of Avant Port.
Traffic signals
5.150 1
International Port Traffic Signals regulating entry and
departure are exhibited from masts situated at:
CHAPTER 5
127
Boulogne from SSW (5.149)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
The E entrance point to Darse Sarraz-Bournet for the
outer harbour.
The NW and SE ends of Jetée Sud-Ouest.
The central control tower stands near the inner end of
Jetée Sud-Ouest.
2
Dredger signals. A yellow light level with the top light
of the main traffic signal indicates that dredgers are
operating in the channel.
3
Lock signals. A green light authorises passage through a
lock and a red light prohibits passage. These signals are
shown from the control station for the entrance lock to
Bassin Loubet and at both ends of Sas Jean Samson lock
which leads to Bassin Napoléon.
Sluicing
5.151 1
Two blue lights displayed horizontally on the E side of
the entrance to Pont Marguet (50°43′⋅4N 1°36′⋅0E) indicate
that the sluice gates are open. When displayed, vessels in
Port de Marée should double up their moorings.
Tidal streams
5.152 1
Tidal streams set as follows:
Interval from HW Boulogne Remarks
6 cables W of Digue
Carnot Light-tower
−0150 N-going (in-going) stream
begins.
+0330 S-going (out-going) stream
begins.
The spring rate on both streams exceeds 4 kn.
2
100 m SW of Digue Carnot
Light-tower
−0300 N-going stream begins.
+0300 HW slack
+0400 NW-going stream rotates
anti-clockwise to SSW.
The spring rate on the N-going stream is 2¾ kn and on
the SSW-going stream 1¾ kn.
3
Close E of Digue Nord
−0145 As the breakwater covers a
NNE set is established.
+0030 Stream sets towards Avant
Port.
+0240 Stream sets WSW.
The spring rate of the stream setting towards Avant Port
is 2½ kn.
4
Off the head of Jetée
Sud-Ouest
−0300 Clock-wise rotation in Rade
Carnot
5
−0130 Slack water, thence SW set.
N-going eddy along inner
side of Jetée Sud-Ouest
may occur.
+0230 to −0600 Weak out-going stream
between jetties and general
outflow to harbour
entrance.
−0600 to −0300 Eddies in Rade Carnot.
The maximum rate on the SW set is 1½ kn.
6
The streams outside the harbour may be strengthened
and prolonged by winds blowing in the same direction.
CHAPTER 5
128
Climate
5.153 1
For climatic table see 1.225 and 1.233.
Principal marks
5.154 1
Landmarks:
Mont Lambert (50°43′N 1°39′E) on which stands a
fort, television mast and a signal tower.
Tower (51°43′⋅6N 1°34′⋅3E) on cement works.
2
Boulogne Cathedral Dome (50°43′⋅6N 1°36′⋅9E).
Colonne de la Grand Armée (50°44′⋅5N 1°37′⋅0E).
Colonne de la Grande Armée (5.154)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Major light:
Digue Carnot Light (white tower, green top, 22 m in
height) (50°44′⋅4N 1°34′⋅1E) at the head of Digue
Carnot.
Boulogne-sur-Mer. Northern Extremity of
Digue Carnot from NW (5.154)
(Original dated 1992)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Directions
(continued from 5.131)
Recommended times for entry
5.155 1
Recommended times of entry are:
Outer harbour. Vessels with a draught over 9 m
should enter at about HW or within 2 hours either
side of HW. However, because of the strong tidal
streams both outside and in the Rade Carnot
during this period, vessels exceeding a length of
180 m which need to maintain speed and
manoeuvrability should, depending on their
draught, enter either about 3 hours before or about
1 hour after HW.
2
Inner harbour. The most favourable time to enter the
inner harbour is 2 hours before HW when the tidal
stream is slack. It should be noted that the tidal
stream sets SW between 1 and 1½ kn outside the
main entrance between the two breakwaters,
impeding the entry of vessels over 100 m in
length.
3
These vessels wishing to enter on a given tide should
arrive no later than 3 hours before HW.
Approaches
5.156 1
From a position W of the harbour entrance (50°44′⋅6N
1°34′⋅2E) within the Approach Channel (5.148) the track
leads E, passing (with positions from the harbour entrance):
2
Through the gap in Bassure de Baas (2 miles W)
(5.126), which is marked on its N side by
Approches Boulogne Light-buoy (S cardinal).
Ophélie Light-buoy (starboard hand) marks a
wreck lying in the S part of the gap. Thence:
3
Clear of an unmarked dangerous wreck (8 cables W),
thence:
4
To the harbour entrance, lying between the heads of
two breakwaters, on which stand lights Digue
Nord Light (red tower, 4 m in height) and Digue
Carnot Light (5.154). Digue Carnot, which protects
Rade Carnot, the outer harbour from winds
between S and NW, is covered in part at HW.
CHAPTER 5
129
Digue Nord, which extends W and then SW from
Pointe de la Crèche, 2¼ miles NNE of the root of
Digue Carnot, is submerged at its outer part except
for its head.
5
The line of bearing of 111° of Boulogne Cathedral
Dome (50°43′⋅6N 1°36′⋅9E) leads through the gap in
Bassure de Baas in depths not less than 11 m.
6
Caution. The in-going stream is strong in the vicinity of
Digue Carnot head and in bad weather there may be a
heavy sea in the entrance.
Rade Carnot
5.157 1
From the harbour entrance the approach channel leads S
thence SSE between RC1 Light-buoy (starboard hand) and
RC2 Light-buoy (port hand) to the entrance to Darse
Sarraz-Bournet, a large basin 1000 m in length and 200 m
wide. Lights stand at the E entrance point (white pylon, red
top, 7 m in height) and the W entrance point (white pylon,
green top, 7 m in height) of the basin. There is a swinging
area, 250 m wide, between the two light-buoys.
2
Clearing line.
Front: Gare Maritime Head Light (grey octagonal
pylon, green top, 9 m in height) (50°43′⋅7N
1°35′⋅7E).
Rear: Quai Gambetta Light (grey building, red top,
43 m in height) (560 m from front).
The alignment (123°) of these lights marks the limit of
shoal ground in the N part of Rade Carnot. Vessels entering
Rade Carnot and Avant Port should keep S of the
alignment.
3
A white mark on Digue Carnot, 300 m S of Digue
Carnot Light, provides a useful mark for vessels when
departing Avant Port. By keeping the mark on a safe
bearing, shoals in the N and S parts of Rade Carnot can be
avoided.
5.158 1
The alignment (197°) of the following lights leads from
the approach channel to the Ro-Ro berth situated between
Digue Carnot and Darse Sarraz-Bournet:
Front light (outer dolphin of berth) (50°43′⋅6N
1°34′⋅0E).
Rear light (red mast, white band, 15 m in height)
(488 m SSW of front light).
Avant Port
5.159 1
The entrance to Avant Port is a narrow, dredged channel
which lies between the heads of two jetties on which stand
lights, Jetée Nord-Est (red tower, 10 m in height), a
wooden jetty, and Jetée Sud-Ouest (white column, green
top, 13 m in height), constructed of stone and cement.
2
Caution. A prohibited area as shown on the chart lies
close SW of the head of Jetée Sud-Ouest.
Useful marks
5.160 1
Fort de l’Heurt (ruin) (50°42′⋅5N 1°33′⋅6E) a
blockhouse on a patch of drying rocks on the edge
of the coastal bank.
Fort du Mont de Couppe (50°42′⋅6N 1°34′⋅4E),
standing close to the coast.
2
Two radio masts (red and white lights) (50°43′N
1°38′E).
Boulogne-sur-Mer. Entrance to the Inner Harbour
from NW (5.159)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Belfry (square tower) of Town Hall (50°43′⋅5N
1°36′⋅8E).
Four windmotors at the root of Digue Carnot
(50°43′N 1°34′E).
Berths
Outer harbour
5.161 1
Darse Sarraz-Bournet: Quai de l’Europe on the W side
of the basin, 775 m in length, depth alongside less than
10 m; mineral quay in the SE corner of the basin, 240 m in
length, depth alongside 10 m. The latter quay is disused
and it is planned (2005) to develop a Ro−Ro terminal on
the site.
Rade Carnot: Ro-Ro berth with a large area for parking
vehicles.
Inner harbour
5.162 1
Avant Port: Jetée Nord-Est has a berth 150 m in length;
on the W side there is a berth for tankers less than 110 m
in length; ferry port on the spur of Gare Maritime has
515 m of quays providing three Ro-Ro berths.
2
100 m to 120 m in length enter 2½ hours before HW
to 1 hour after HW.
120 m to 135 m in length, have to pass straight
through the lock when both gates are open
simultaneously, which depends on the height of the
tide.
There are two commercial berths, one of which is a
Ro-Ro berth, and some berths for fishing vessels.
3
Bassin Napoléon, which is entered through Jean Samson
lock about 3 hours either side of HW, is used by
recreational craft.
Port de Marée is the SE extension of Avant Port. The
E side, Quai Gambetta, is used by fishing vessels and the
W side, Quai Chanzy by recreational craft.
CHAPTER 5
130
Boulogne-sur-Mer. Gare Maritime from NW (5.162)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
4
Bassin Frédéric-Sauvage is separated from Port de
Marée by a dam with a sill 3⋅45 m above chart datum.
Access is through a lock 22 m in length and 6 m wide.
Pont de l’Entente Cordiale at the S end of the basin blocks
access to La Liane Fleuve (5.138). Within the basin there is
a marina.
Port services
Repairs
5.163 1
There are several repair yards specialising in the repair
of fishing vessels and coasters. There are two gridirons and
two slipways. The largest slipway has a lifting capacity of
2200 tonnes, and can handle vessels of length 96 m and
beam 15 m.
Other facilities
5.164 1
Deratting and exemption certificates issued; two
hospitals.
Supplies
5.165 1
Fuel oils by road tanker or from fuelling berths in Avant
Port (5.162); water at the quays; fresh provisions.
BOULOGNE-SUR-MER TO CAP GRIS-NEZ
General information
Chart 1892
Route
5.166 1
From a position W of Boulogne (50°44′N 1°36′E) the
route leads 7½ miles N to a position W of Cap Gris-Nez.
Topography
5.167 1
Between Pointe de la Crèche, which is on the N side of
Boulogne Harbour, and Cap Gris-Nez, 7½ miles N, the
coast consists of dark red cliffs with grassy summits,
interspersed with beaches and dunes.
The N part of the Bassure de Baas (5.126) lies 2 miles
offshore, with Rade d’Ambleteuse (5.173) lying between it
and the shore.
Inshore traffic zone
5.168 1
The route lies in the French Inshore Traffic Zone of the
Dover Strait TSS (1.5), which terminates to the W of Cap
Gris-Nez. For regulations concerning the use of this zone
see 1.8.
Ferry channel
5.169 1
By agreement between the ferry companies and the local
fishermen, ferries normally use a channel running parallel
to the coast between Cap Gris-Nez and Boulogne. The
channel limits are shown on the chart.
Tidal streams
5.170 1
At a position 1 mile NW of Cap Gris-Nez the tidal
streams set as follows:
Interval from HW Dover Remarks
−0200 NE-going stream (in-going)
begins.
+0345 SW-going stream (out-going)
begins.
The spring rate of both streams is 4¼ kn.
2
See also information on the chart and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: Dover Strait.
CHAPTER 5
131
Principal marks
5.171 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Boulogne see 5.154.
Major lights:
Cap d’Alprech Light (50°42′N 1°34′E) (5.130) (Chart
2451).
2
Digue Carnot Light (50°44′⋅4N 1°34′⋅1E) (5.154).
Cap Gris-Nez Light (white tower, black top, 31 m in
height) (50°52′⋅2N 1°34′⋅9E).
Varne Light-float (51°01′⋅3N 1°23′⋅9E) (4.38).
Directions
(continued from 5.131)
West of Bassure de Baas
5.172 1
From a position W of Boulogne (50°44′N 1°36′E) the
route leads 7½ miles N to a position W of Cap Gris-Nez
(50°52′N 1°35′E), passing W of Approches Boulogne
Light-buoy (S cardinal), Bassure de Baas (5.126) and the
light-buoy marking the N end of the shoal. The track is
parallel to, and W of that described at 5.173.
East of Bassure de Baas
5.173 1
Rade d’Ambleteuse runs 3 miles N-S and lies inshore of
Bassure de Baas. It provides an approach to Boulogne from
the N, passing E of Bassure de Baas Light-buoy (N
cardinal). Several wrecks, shown on the chart, lie within
1 mile of the entrance to Boulogne Harbour and the
passage is not recommended at LW for vessels of medium
draught or greater. The ferry channel (5.169) runs through
Rade d’Ambleteuse.
2
From a position W of Boulogne (50°44′N 1°36′E) the
route leads 7½ miles N initially through Rade d’Ambleteuse
to a position W of Cap Gris-Nez, passing (with positions
from Cap Gris-Nez (50°52′N 1°35′E)):
E of Approches Boulogne Light-buoy (S cardinal)
(7¼ miles SSW), thence:
3
W of Pointe aux Oies, (5 miles S), with drying rocks
up to 3 cables offshore. Ambleteuse village stands
on the coast 1¼ miles N of the point, with Fort
Mahon on the beach fronting the village. Thence:
4
E of Bassure de Baas Light-buoy (N cardinal)
(4 miles SSW), which marks the N extremity of
Bassure de Baas (5.126), thence:
W of Pointe du Riden, which is steep-to and marked
by a beacon, thence:
5
To a position W of Cap Gris-Nez on which stands a
lighthouse (5.171). A radar station on the cape
provides coverage for the Channel Navigation
Information Service (2.23).
5.174 1
Leading marks. The alignment (180°) of the W
extremity of Digue Carnot (50°43′⋅6N 1°33′⋅8E) and Cap
d’Alprech Lighthouse (1⋅6 miles S) (5.130) (Chart 2451)
leads through Rade d’Ambleteuse.
At night the line of bearing 180° of Cap d’Alprech
Light, and open W of the lights on Digue Carnot, also
leads through Rade d’Ambleteuse.
Useful marks
5.175 1
Water tower (50°46′⋅7N 1°37′⋅2E).
Fort Mahon (50°48′⋅3N 1°36′⋅0E), a circular fort
standing on the foreshore.
Water tower (50°48′⋅9N 1°37′⋅6E).
2
Belfry (50°49′N 1°36′E) at Audresselles which can be
distinguished by the red roofs of the houses in the
village.
Belfry (50°51′N 1°39′E) standing on the skyline, in
the village of Audinghen.
(Directions continue at 6.14)
Cap Gris-Nez from W (5.171)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Radar Tower
CROSS
Dover Strait
Traffic Separation Scheme
Wandelaar
.
6.146
6.158
6.17 6.67
6.90
6.104
6.7
6
.
1
4
5
6
.
1
4
8
6
17
6
.
5
6
6
.
58
6
.
6
0
6
.
6
2
6.150
BELGIUM
Oostende
Nieuwpoort
FRANCE
Cap Gris-Nez
Calais
Gravelines
Dunkerque
Port Ouest
Dunkerque
Port Est.
1874
1873
1350
1351
1351
1892
323
1872 &
1873
1872 &
1873
1205
1350
1872
2°
Longitude 2° East from Greenwich
3°
3°
51°51°
30´
30´
40´
40´
40´
40´
50´
50´
50´
50´
50´
50´
10´
10´
10´20´
20´
30´
30´
10´
10´
20´
20´
Chapter 6 - Cap Gris-Nez to Oostende
132
133
CHAPTER 6
CAP GRIS-NEZ TO OOSTENDE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2449
Scope of Chapter
6.1
3
This chapter describes the coastal passage from Cap
Gris-Nez (50°52′N 1°35′E) to Oostende, 55 miles ENE and
the alternative approaches to the ports of Dunkerque and
Oostende, all of which lie ESE of the Dover Strait TSS
(2.3). The ports of Calais (6.17), Dunkerque, which consists
of two separate harbours Port Ouest (6.91) and Port Est
(6.105), and Oostende (6.158) are also described.
Topography
6.2 1
The coast between Cap Gris-Nez and Cap Blanc-Nez,
6 miles NE forms a bight, with sand dunes in the SW part
and cliffs to the NE. These cliffs continue for a further
2 miles to Sangatte (50°57′N 1°45′E), whence the coast
curves ENE and is low and skirted by sandunes as far as
Oostende.
2
Between Cap Gris-Nez and Calais, 12 miles ENE, the
coastal bank extends up to 3½ miles offshore. From Calais
to Oostende the coast is fronted by the Bancs de Flandre
(6.3), which extend more than 12 miles offshore.
Bancs de Flandre
6.3 1
Apart from Sandettié Bank (2.40) lying centrally in the
Dover Strait, the Bancs de Flandre form several lines of
banks. Offshore these banks are long and narrow and trend
to the NE, diverging from the inner banks, which run ENE
along the line of the coast. The banks are composed of fine
grey and black sand and are generally steep-to on the
inshore side and slope gradually to seaward.
2
The outer line of banks, consisting of Out Ruytingen, In
Ruytingen and Bergues Bank, run 26 miles NE from a
position 7 miles N of Calais. The Dyck Banks, 2 to 3 miles
inshore of Ruytingens, run 31 miles NE from a position
4½ miles NNE of Calais and consist of Dyck Occidental,
Dyck Central, Dyck Oriental and Oost Dyck. Inshore of the
Dycks the Ratel Banks, which run 19 miles NE from a
position 4½ miles NNE of Port Ouest, consist of In Ratel,
Binnen Ratel and Buiten Ratel. Banc Breedt, which dries in
its central part, runs parallel to In Ratel and Binnen Ratel
and lies about 5 cables inshore of them joining with Binnen
Ratel at its NE extremity.
3
Thence there are a number of inner banks, many of
which are extensions of the coastal bank and border the
coastal routes and are mentioned, with their buoyage, as
appropriate in the Directions. There is also a route through
the outer banks, which is described at 6.62.
4
The sea breaks heavily on the shoalest parts of the Banc
de Flandre with wind against the tidal stream. These shoals
lie on a coastal bank composed of sand, gravel and broken
shells, which extends off the N coast of France and the
coast of Belgium.
5
Caution. The shape and position of these banks are
liable to change and no reliable position can be obtained by
soundings.
Approach to Bancs de Flandre
6.4 1
Marks on the low coast to the E of Calais are difficult
to identify. The Bancs de Flandre fronting this part of the
coast, also lie along the SE side of the Dover Strait TSS,
which is marked by a series of light-buoys. When
approaching the banks from the N and W course should be
shaped for one of these buoys.
2
In clear weather from the vicinity of Sandettié Bank
(51°13′N 1°55′E) (2.40), which lies in the centre of the
NE-going lane of the Dover Strait TSS, it is possible to
identify the following landmarks:
3
On the French coast:
White cliffs at Cap Blanc-Nez (50°56′N 1°43′E)
(6.14).
Calais Main Light (50°57′⋅7N 1°51′⋅2E) (6.35).
4
Calais Hotel de Ville (tower) (50°57′⋅2N 1°51′⋅3E).
Power station (51°01′N 2°09′E) (6.54).
Dunkerque Lighthouse (51°03′N 2°22′E) (6.54).
Building (51°02′⋅3N 2°22′⋅7E) (6.54) (Chart 323).
5
On the English coast:
Dover Castle (51°08′N 1°19′E) (4.61).
White cliffs at South Foreland (51°08′N 1°22′E)
(4.91).
Fishing
6.5 1
In the vicinity of the outer banks, and in particular
Sandettié Bank, trawlers may be found fishing in pairs,
about 100 m apart, and connected by a distance line.
Tidal streams
6.6 1
For details of the offshore tidal streams see information
on the charts and Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover
Strait.
CHAPTER 6
134
CAP GRIS-NEZ TO CALAIS
CAP GRIS-NEZ TO SANGATTE
General information
Chart 1892
Route
6.7 1
From a position ENE of Cap Gris-Nez (50°52′N 1°35′E)
the route leads 8 miles NE to a position NW of Sangatte,
and close W of the Calais Approach Channel. The route
lies within the Inshore Traffic Zone of the Dover Strait
TSS and should only be used by vessels of less than 20 m
in length. Larger vessels should remain within the
NE−going lane of the TSS.
Topography
6.8 1
The cliffs fall away close E of Cap Gris-Nez and the
coast is low and sandy in the S part of the bight which lies
NE of the cape and extends 6 miles NE to Cap Blanc-Nez.
The chalk cliff resumes 2½ miles S of Cap Blanc-Nez and
forms the coast for a distance of 4 miles to Sangatte. The
cliffy coast is bordered by rock flats, but where the coast is
sandy it dries up to 5 cables offshore.
2
A coastal sandbank with depths less than 10 m fronts
most of the coast to just S of the Calais Approach Channel
(6.37). The bank extends up to 1¾ miles offshore.
Fishing
6.9 1
Large concentrations of drift net fishing vessels may be
encountered off Cap Gris-Nez during December and
January.
Restricted anchorage
6.10 1
Four cross channel submarine power cables, spaced
5 cables apart and buried to 1⋅5 m converge and land at
two points near Sangatte (50°57′N 1°45′E). The cables are
protected by an area, extending 4½ miles NW of Sangatte
and shown on the chart, in which vessels over 50 m in
length are prohibited from anchoring. All vessels are
warned against anchoring or trawling in the vicinity of the
cables and on no account to cut the cables should they be
fouled.
Rescue
6.11 1
There is a coastguard station at Calais and rescue
equipment is maintained.
A lifeboat and salvage tug are stationed at Calais. See
1.114.
Tidal streams
6.12 1
For details of the tidal streams see information on the
charts and Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait.
Principal marks
6.13 1
Landmarks:
Cap Griz-Nez Lighthouse (50°52′⋅1N 1°35′⋅0E)
(5.171).
Dover Patrol Monument (50°55′⋅5N 1°42′⋅6E), which
stands on the summit of Cap Blanc-Nez.
For marks at Calais see 6.35.
2
Major lights:
Cap Gris-Nez Light as above.
Calais Main Light (50°57′⋅7N 1°51′⋅2E) (6.35).
Calais Jetée Est Light (50°58′⋅4N 1°50′⋅5E) (6.35).
Varne Light-float (51°01′⋅3N 1°23′⋅9E) (4.38).
Directions
(continued from 5.175)
6.14 1
From a position WNW of Cap Gris-Nez (50°52′N
1°35′E) and ESE of ZC2 Light-buoy (special) marking the
SE side of the Dover Strait TSS, the route leads 8 miles
NE to a position NW of Sangatte, passing (with positions
from Cap Gris-Nez):
2
NW of a dangerous wreck (1¾ miles NNE) which
lies off the Banc à la Ligne. The bank, composed
of sand and shells, extends 3 miles NE of Cap
Gris-Nez and 1¾ miles offshore and is formed by
a counter current which runs E from the cape. The
depth and position of the bank are liable to
change. Wissant (3 miles ENE), a fishing village,
which can be distinguished by its houses, is on the
coast inshore of the NE end of the bank. Thence:
3
W of Abbeville Light-buoy (W cardinal) (4 miles
NNE), which is moored close W of a wreck,
thence:
4
NW of La Barrière (4 miles NE), which is an
extension NE of the Banc à la Ligne and of
similar composition. The sea breaks heavily on the
bank in bad weather. Les Gardes, a drying rock
5 cables offshore and the most seaward of the
out-lying rocky flats, lies inshore of the NE part of
the bank. Thence:
5
NW of Les Quénocs Light−buoy (N cardinal) (6 miles
NE) marking an isolated reef over which there is a
least depth of 2⋅1 m and on which there is a wreck
which dries. Les Quénocs are 1¼ miles NW of
Cap Blanc-Nez. The cape shows a very white cliff
to seaward and consists of several rounded grassy
summits, with the Dover Patrol Monument
surmounting the highest point. Le Rouge Riden,
two shallow detached reefs lie between Les
Quénocs and Cap Blanc-Nez. Thence:
6
To a position NW of Sangatte a village which can be
distinguished by a square belfry.
6.15 1
Useful mark:
Mont de Couple (50°52′N 1°43′E). The summit
slopes steeply on the S side.
(Directions continue for Calais at 6.36 and
for Dunkerque at 6.56)
Anchorage
6.16 1
There is anchorage, shown on the chart, for small
vessels in a deep between La Barrière and Les Gardes
(6.14), in depths of 6 to 11 m, sand and mud.
CALAIS
General information
Charts 1892, 1351
Position
6.17 1
Calais (50°58′N 1°51′E) is situated 4 miles ENE of
Sangatte (6.14).
CHAPTER 6
135
Function
6.18 1
The port is the most important cross-Channel ferry
terminal on the French side of the Dover Strait. It also
handles a considerable number of commercial vessels.
The population of Calais is about 104 900.
Topography
6.19 1
The coast either side of Calais is low and sandy and
bordered by dunes.
Offshore the coast is fronted by a number of banks
which lie at the SW extremity of the Bancs de Flandre
(6.3).
Approach and entry
6.20 1
The approach to Calais is from the W along an approach
channel running 4 miles E, virtually parallel to the coast, to
an entry channel, which lies between breakwaters.
Traffic
6.21 1
During the summer months there are about 50 ferry
sailings a day from the port. In 2004, apart from ferries,
the port handled 554 vessels with a total deadweight of
1⋅7 million tonnes.
Port Authority
6.22 1
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Calais, 24
Boulevard des Allies, PO Box 199, F−62104 Calais.
Limiting conditions
6.23 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel, which has
been swept for obstructions, has depths greater than 10 m
except close E of CA2 Light-buoy where the Ridens de la
Rade has encroached about 1½ cables S into the channel.
The harbour entrance is dredged to 9 m.
Deepest and longest berth is in the Bassin Est (6.40).
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 6⋅5 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅9 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 245 m,
draught dependent on height of tide.
Arrival information
Vessel Traffic Service
6.24 1
A Vessel Traffic Service Scheme with radar surveillance
is in operation. Vessels report on entering the VTS area
whose limits are the restricted anchorage area NW of
Sangatte (6.10) and a line joining the NE point of the
restricted anchorage, RCW Light-buoy, RCE Light-buoy
and Walde Light.
2
Tankers and vessels with dangerous cargoes are required
to report before entering the approach channel (6.28) or the
waiting area (6.63).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Notice of ETA
6.25 1
Forty eight hours notice of ETA is required, with
confirmation 12 and 2 hours before arrival. The initial
message should also contain details of the vessel’s
dimensions, tug requirements and hazardous cargo carried.
Anchorages
6.26 1
Tankers and vessels carrying dangerous cargoes waiting
to enter Calais are required to anchor in the S part of the
waiting area, shown on the chart, which is 4 miles NW of
Calais and shared with Dunkerque (6.63). This anchorage is
recommended for other large vessels also.
2
The recommended anchorage for small vessels is located
between the meridians of 1°47′E and 1°48′E and between
the Ridens de Calais and Ridens de la Rade. The holding
ground, sand and shells, is reported to be good.
Anchoring is not recommended in the vicinity of Calais
Approche Light-buoy (W cardinal) (50°59′N 1°45′E).
3
In strong N winds, vessels unable to enter Calais may
seek shelter off the SE coast of England, either in The
Downs (4.98) or Dungeness (4.13).
Prohibited anchorage areas. Anchoring is prohibited in
an area which includes the buoyed fairway extending
1 mile W of the harbour entrance and the turning area
which lies close N of it: limits of this area are shown on
the chart. In addition, anchoring is prohibited in the
designated approach channel (6.28).
Restricted anchorage area. See 6.10.
Pilots and tugs
6.27 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 50 m in
length within the pilotage area which extends 3½ miles
from the harbour entrance.
In good weather the pilot boards about 7 cables N of
Calais Approche Light-buoy, as shown on the chart. In bad
weather the pilot may board small vessels closer inshore in
the vicinity of CA2 Light-buoy but care must be taken not
to drift down onto the buoy.
2
Tankers or vessels carrying dangerous substances are
prohibited from proceeding beyond Calais Approche
Light-buoy without a pilot embarked.
In extreme weather the Pilot Office will instruct ships on
the optimum time and position for boarding.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details of pilotage.
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
6.28 1
Approach channel. An approach channel, shown on the
chart, extends W from the harbour entrance. The N limit of
the channel is a line joining the head of Jetée Est, CA6,
CA4, CA2 and Calais Approche Light-buoys. The S limit
is a line joining the head of Jetée Ouest and the positions
50°57′⋅6N 1°42′⋅3E and 50°59′⋅2N 1°38′⋅7E. The approach
channel is mandatory for tankers and vessels carrying
dangerous cargoes and is recommended for all other vessels
approaching from W and from N of the Ridens de Calais.
Vessels without pilots must request permission to proceed
in the buoyed fairway when passing Calais Approche Buoy,
or, in the case of ferries, on passing CA2 Light−buoy.
2
Tankers within the channel are regarded as vessels
restricted in their ability to manoeuvre and show the
appropriate shapes and lights as defined in The
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972).
All vessels are prohibited from anchoring or stopping in
the approach channel except in an emergency. If a vessel
should anchor in an emergency, the VTS must be informed
immediately.
CHAPTER 6
136
Calais from NW (6.29)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
3
Speed limits. The following speed limits apply:
Avant-port and Bassin Est, 10 kn.
Arrière-port, 8 kn.
Other basins, 5 kn.
Harbour
Layout
6.29 1
Avant-port forms the entrance channel and lies between
Jetée Est and Jetée Ouest. Bassin Est runs ENE for 1200 m
from the SE end of Avant-port. Arrière-port is entered from
Avant-port through a channel to the SW of Quai de la
Marée, which lies at the S end of Avant-port. Bassin
Carnot, used commercially, is entered through Écluse
Carnot to the SE of Arrière-port and Bassin Ouest is
entered through a dock gate to the SW of Arrière-port.
2
The SW end of Bassin Carnot, called Bassin Arrière,
provides access through two parallel locks to Bassin de
Batellerie and thence to the Canal de Calais to Saint-Omer
and the French canal system as a whole. Vessel dimensions
are limited to height 3⋅5 m, draught 2⋅0 m and length
38⋅5 m.
Traffic signals
6.30 1
Entry and departure are controlled by International Port
Traffic Signals 1, 2, 4 and 5 exhibited from the head of
Jetée Est, the N side of the entrance to Bassin Est, on the
W side of the entrance to Arrière-port, and for small craft
on Quai de la Colonne. The International Port Traffic
Signals ae described in The Mariner’s Handbook.
2
Ship movements are also subject to authorization by the
Harbour Master on VHF. Small craft are only allowed to
use the entrance channel when Signal No 4 is displayed,
otherwise they must keep clear of the channel.
Dock signals
6.31 1
Dock signals. The following signals, exhibited from
both ends of Écluse Carnot (50°57′⋅8N 1°51′⋅4E), control
access to the lock:
Signal Meaning
Two horizontal green lights Entry to lock from
Arrière-port or dock
permitted.
Two horizontal red lights Entry to lock from
Arrière-port or dock
prohibited.
Green light Entry to Arrière-port or
dock from lock permitted.
Red light Entry to Arrière-port or
dock from lock prohibited.
2
Generally vessels exit the dock before other vessels
enter.
Vessels should sound two blasts to request permission to
enter Bassin Carnot.
Vessels should sound four blasts to request permission to
enter Bassin Ouest through the dock gate.
6.32 1
Storm signals are displayed by night only from the
signal tower by the Harbour Master’s Office.
Natural conditions
6.33 1
Tidal streams. At a position 5 cables NW of the jetty
heads the in-going stream runs ENE, beginning 2¾ hours
before HW Calais and the out-going stream runs WSW,
beginning 3½ hours after HW Calais. At springs the
maximum rate on the in-going stream is 3 kn and on the
out-going stream is 2 kn.
CHAPTER 6
137
2
Off Calais the E-going stream runs at its greatest rate
about HW Calais and is of shorter duration but appreciably
stronger than the W-going stream.
Close to the jetty heads the slack water periods, which
last 15 minutes in good weather, are 2½ hours after HW
Calais (HW slack) and 3½ hours before HW Calais (LW
slack). These times can be advanced by 30 minutes in
strong W winds and retarded by 30 minutes in strong E
winds.
3
There is probably little or no stream between the jetties
or in the harbour.
See also the information on the chart and Admiralty
Tidal Stream Atlas: Dover Strait.
6.34 1
Weather. During fresh winds from the WSW, through N
to ENE the sea is very heavy in the harbour entrance,
sometimes making entry impossible. In such conditions
there may be a strong swell within the harbour.
Principal marks
6.35 1
Landmarks:
Notre Dame Church (50°57′⋅5N 1°51′⋅2E) with a
spire.
Hôtel de Ville (tower) (50°57′⋅2N 1°51′⋅3E) with a
very pointed roof.
Major lights:
Calais Main Light (white 8-sided tower, black top,
51 m in height) (50°57′⋅7N 1°51′⋅2E).
Jetée Est Light (grey tower, red top, 10 m in height)
(50°58′⋅4N 1°50′⋅5E).
Directions
(continued from 6.15)
General
6.36 1
The most favourable time to enter harbour is at slack
water (see 6.33). When entering the channel between the
breakwaters allowance should be made for the cross tidal
stream, so that when the bows are in the shelter of the
breakwaters the influence of the tidal stream on the stern of
the vessels will align the vessel with the axis of the
channel.
Approach channel
6.37 1
From a position NW of Sangatte (50°57′N 1°45′E) the
route leads 5 miles E through the approach channel to a
position close W of the harbour entrance, passing (with
positions from Sangatte Light (white pylon, black top, 8 m
in height) (50°57′⋅2N 1°46′⋅5E)):
N of Le Rouge Riden (3 miles W) (6.14), which lies
in the green sector (065°−089°) of Sangatte Light,
thence:
N of Sangatte (1¼ miles WSW) (6.14), thence:
2
Between CA2 Light-buoy (port hand) and CA1
Light-buoy (starboard hand) (7 cables NNW) at the
W end of the approach channel. CA2 Light-buoy
is moored close to the W extremity of Ridens de
la Rade and its junction with the SW extremity of
Ridens de Calais. Ridens de la Rade extends along
the N side of the approach channel. The buoy
should be given a wide berth because of
significant shoaling in its vicinity. See 6.23.
Thence:
3
The approach channel continues E passing S of CA4
and CA6 Light-buoys (port hand) which mark the
N boundary of the channel. The sea breaks heavily
on Ridens de la Rade in strong winds from the N
and E and the bank is liable to change in bad
weather. Thence:
To a position close NW of the harbour entrance
(2¾ miles ENE).
Harbour entrance
6.38 1
From a position close NW of the harbour entrance
(50°58′⋅3N 1°50′⋅4E) the route leads SE through the
harbour entrance, lying between the heads of Jetée Est and
Jetée Ouest, converging breakwaters 230 m apart at the
entrance. The protected channel between the breakwaters,
which forms Avant-port, extends 4 cables NW from the
coast. Lights stand at the heads of both breakwaters (Jetée
Est (6.35) and Jetée Ouest (white tower, green top, 12 m in
height)). Auxiliary lights are mounted on the light-towers
and, if requested, these may be switched on in conditions
of poor visibility.
2
From Avant-port there is direct access to Bassin Est to
the E, the ferry berths grouped around the Gare Maritime
to the S, and to Arrière-port. The line of bearing 142° of
Calais Main Light (6.35), and seen between the light-towers
at the heads of the breakwaters, leads through the entrance
to Arrière-port, which is dredged to 7⋅2 m. A flashing light
is exhibited from the outer end of Quai de Marée in
conjunction with a fog horn during restricted visibility.
Useful marks
6.39 1
The breakwaters at Calais (50°58′⋅3N 1°50′⋅4E).
Water tower (50°57′⋅4N 1°49′⋅0E).
Calais Main Light (50°57′⋅7N 1°51′⋅2E) (6.35).
Red and white chimney (elevation 78 m) 50°58′⋅0N
1°52′⋅7E).
Basins and berths
6.40 1
Bassin Est is 1200 m long and 200 m in width. There
are three major berths and a Ro-Ro terminal on the N side
of the basin, the former being capable of taking vessels up
to 245 m in length, with a depth alongside of 12⋅5 m.
There are a number of minor berths for port service craft
on the S side and a berth for high speed ferries at the E
end.
2
Cross-Channel ferry berths. There are eight berths for
cross-Channel ferries, which are situated either side of the
Gare Maritime, berths 5 to 8 on the NE side at the SE end
of Avant-port and berths 1 to 4 along Quai de la Gare
Maritime on the N side of Arrière-port.
3
Arrière-port has only one other berth Quai Paul-Devot
besides the ferry berths. The quay can accommodate
vessels up to 190 m in length and has a depth alongside of
9 m. It is not a comfortable berth due to the continuous
ferry traffic.
4
Bassin Carnot is entered through Écluse Carnot at the
SE end of Arrière-port. The lock is operated from 3 hours
before to 1 hour after HW Calais and possibly up to
3 hours after HW Calais by request. It is 133 m in length,
21 m in width with a sill depth 1⋅78 m below Chart Datum.
There are 1700 m of quays in the dock, providing 15 berths
including three Ro-Ro berths. The dock has a maintained
depth of 7⋅7 m and can accept vessels up to 150 m in
length and beam 19⋅5 m. Vessels over 115 m in length have
to canal through the lock.
5
Bassin Ouest is entered through a dock gate, which is
17 m wide and has a sill depth of 2 m above Chart Datum.
CHAPTER 6
138
The lock gate can be operated from 2 hours before to
1 hour after HW and the dock can accommodate vessels up
to 110 m in length and beam 16 m. There is a maintained
depth of 7⋅9 m in the dock, which is mainly used by small
craft but has a tanker berth on its S side.
Port services
Repairs
6.41 1
Major repairs can be carried out. There is a dry dock at
the S end of Bassin Carnot which can accept vessels up to
150 m in length, 19 m beam and 6⋅0 m draught.
Other facilities
6.42 1
Hospital; reception of oily wastes by road tanker;
deratting and exemption certificates issued.
Supplies
6.43 1
Water at the quays; all marine fuels by road or rail
tanker; fresh provisions; supplies.
Communications
6.44 1
There are frequent ferry services to Dover. There is
access to the French canal system. See 6.29.
CALAIS TO DUNKERQUE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 323, 1350
Area covered
6.45
1
This section describes the route from Calais (50°58′N
1°51′E) to Dunkerque, 18 miles ENE.
It is arranged as follows:
Approaches to Dunkerque (6.46)
Dunkerque (6.78)
Dunkerque − Port Ouest (6.90)
Dunkerque − Port Est (6.104)
APPROACHES TO DUNKERQUE
General information
Charts 323, 1350, 1873, 1892
Routes
6.46 1
There are three approach routes to Dunkerque. The main
approach is from the W, through the Passe de l’Ouest
(6.56) which leads to the entrance to Port Ouest. There is a
coastal route which approaches Dunkerque from the E,
through the Passe de Zuydcoote (6.60). Finally there is an
approach route to the port from the NE (6.62), known as
Route des Bancs de Flandre, for which the use of a pilot
(6.85) is strongly advised.
Topography
6.47 1
The coast either side of Dunkerque is low-lying, sandy
and backed by dunes. The coastal bank, on which lie a
number of stranded wrecks, dries up to 1 mile offshore.
Further offshore the Bancs de Flandre (6.3) front the coast.
Depths
6.48 1
The Passe de l’Ouest is dredged to 22 m, reducing to
20 m off the entrance to Port Ouest. The Chenal
Intermédiare, which leads to Port Est has charted depths in
excess of 12⋅5 m, but this depth is subject to change and
the Port Authority should be consulted for the latest
information on depths.
Least depth on the coastal approach from E is 3⋅7 m
(2005) in Passe de Zuydcoote (6.60) but depths are subject
to change.
2
In general depths in excess of 11 m can be maintained
on the approach from the NE, except in the Passe du Dyck
and Passe du Haut-fond de Gravelines, where depths are
less than 9 m. Deeper draught vessels, after the Passe de
Ruytingen, may continue to the WSW remaining N of
Dyck Occidental and round Dyck Light-buoy thence joining
the Passe de l’Ouest.
Danger area
6.49 1
Details of the former mined area off Dunkerque, in
which it is dangerous to anchor, trawl or engage in any
seabed activity but which is open to surface navigation, are
given at Appendix III.
These dangers do not exist in the E and W approach
channels to Dunkerque.
Prohibited area
6.50
1
Entry is prohibited into an area, the limits of which are
shown on the chart, fronting Gravelines nuclear power
station. This area lies adjacent to the western breakwater of
Dunkerque Port Ouest (6.90).
Rescue
6.51 1
There is a coastguard station at Dunkerque and rescue
equipment is maintained.
A lifeboat and rescue tug are stationed at Dunkerque
and a lifeboat at Gravelines.
Tides and tidal streams
6.52 1
In the banks off the coast the tidal streams are more or
less reciprocal in direction and follow the line of the
principal channels. Near the shore, in the vicinty of the
harbour entrance, at the end of the in-going stream the
stream turns away from the land, while at the end of the
out-going stream turns it towards the land.
2
The tidal streams are strong in the narrow channels
between the banks, but diminish rapidly in strength where
the number of banks are fewer and the channels wider. On
the banks themselves the tidal streams are weak as they are
in the channels which cut across the line of the banks (eg
Passe de Zuydcoote). There are therefore wide variations in
the tidal streams from one position to another.
3
The tidal streams attain their maximum strength off
Dunkerque, 2½ kn or more, where the banks are close
together and are weaker both to the E, 1½ to 2 kn off
Bray-Dunes, and to the W, 1¾ to 2¼ kn off Gravelines.
4
Off Gravelines and Dunkerque Port-Est the E-going
stream is strongest at the time of local HW and the
W-going stream 5 hours before local HW. The duration of
slack water off Dunkerque is about 15 minutes, but may
CHAPTER 6
139
increase to 20 minutes during W winds and reduce to
10 minutes in E winds. Slack water occurs 2 hours before
and 4 hours after local HW. The duration of the E-going
stream is appreciably less than the duration of the W-going
stream and it is probable that its rate is greater than that of
the W-going stream.
5
The timing and strength of the tidal streams may differ
significantly because of the meteorological conditions. At
springs the predicted strength of the tidal stream may be
exceeded by 25% and at neaps by as much as 40% and the
timing of slack water may vary by 2 hours.
Winds from the NE may cause the actual tidal height to
be up to 0⋅3 m less than predicted, while winds from other
directions may cause it to increase by up to 0⋅5 m.
6
Two buoys, which indicate the direction of the tidal
stream, are moored, one 1 mile WNW of the entrance to
Port Ouest and the other 4 cables WNW of the entrance to
Port Est. Seen from the N they show by day the side
painted black and by night a white light over an orange
light when the stream is E-going. When the stream is
W-going they show their white side (day) or two white
lights (night).
7
Information on the tidal streams in the Bancs de Flandre
is given on the charts and in the Admiralty Tidal Stream
Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
Climate
6.53 1
See 1.225 and 1.234.
Principal marks
6.54 1
Landmarks:
Approach from the west:
Spire (51°00′N 2°07′E) at Petit-Fort-Philippe.
Grey and white water tower (50°59′N 2°08′E) at
Gravelines.
Nuclear power station chimneys (51°01′N 2°08′E) all
60 m in height and grouped in three pairs at
Gravelines.
2
Group of five silos (51°02′⋅5N 2°16′⋅7E).
At Dunkerque:
Windmotors on N bank of Canal des Dunes (51°02′N
2°14′E).
Two chimneys (51°03′N 2°20′E) at Dunkerque Port
Est.
3
Building (51°02′⋅3N 2°22′⋅7E). The spire of the Hôtel
de Ville Dunkerque, which bulges in the middle
and has a very pointed roof, stands close SW.
Dunkerque Jetée Ouest Light (white tower, brown
top, 36 m in height) (51°03′⋅6N 2°21′⋅0E).
Approach from the east:
4
Belfry (51°04′N 2°31′E) behind the waterfront casino
at Bray-Dunes.
Water tower (51°04′N 2°29′E) behind the waterfront
sanatorium at Zuydcoote.
Water tower (51°03′N 2°27′E) with numerous
chimneys of a factory close E.
Approach from the north−east:
5
Oostdyck Radar Tower (51°16′⋅5N 2°26′⋅8E) (red
tower, three white bands at top, 15 m in height. A
second cylindrical tower supporting a helipad
stands alongside it and the two are joined by an
aerial walkway.)
Major lights:
Approach from the west:
Sandettié Light (51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E) (2.36).
Calais Jetée Est Light (50°58′⋅4N 1°50′⋅5E) (6.35).
Calais Main Light (50°57′⋅7N 1°51′⋅2E) (6.35).
6
Jetée du Clipon (51°02′⋅6N 2°09′⋅8E) (6.100).
Jetée du Dyck (51°02′⋅3N 2°09′⋅8E) (6.100).
At Dunkerque:
Dunkerque Jetée Est Light (white pylon, red top, 8 m
in height) (51°03′⋅6N 2°21′⋅2E).
7
Dunkerque Light (white tower, black top, 56 m in
height) (51°02′⋅9N 2°21′⋅9E).
Approach from the east:
Oostende Light (51°14′⋅2N 2°55′⋅8E) See 6.144.
Nieuwpoort Light (red round concrete tower, white
bands) (51°09′⋅3N 2°43′⋅8E).
Other aids to navigation
6.55
1
Racons transmit from:
Oostdyck Radar Tower − see above
Dyck Light−buoy (51°03′⋅0N 1°51′⋅8E).
Directions
Approach from the west
(continued from 6.15)
6.56 1
Sangatte to Dunkerque Port Ouest. From a position
NW of Sangatte (50°57′N 1°45′E) the route runs 7½ miles
NE to a position S of Dyck Light-buoy (port hand; racon),
whence the route runs 10 miles E through the Passe de
l’Ouest, following the buoyed channel for the latter part, to
a position NW of the harbour entrance. There are a number
of wrecks in the fairway, as shown on the chart. The route
passes (with positions from Pointe de Walde (50°59′⋅0N
1°55′⋅0E)):
2
NW of Ridens de Calais (4 miles WNW) a bank of
sand and broken shells, which lies along the SE
boundary of the waiting anchorage area (6.63). The
bank is liable to change during gales and the sea
breaks heavily on it in bad weather, particularly
when the wind is against the tide. The bank is
marked at its SW end by Calais Approche
Light-buoy (W cardinal) and on its NW side by
Ridens Light-buoy (N cardinal). Thence:
3
Clear of RCW Light-buoy (N cardinal) (6½ miles
WNW), which is moored in the SW of the waiting
anchorage area, thence:
4
S of Dyck Light-buoy (port hand) (4½ miles NNW),
which is moored at the W extremity of Dyck
Occidental. The bank runs 9 miles ENE and is the
most SW of the Dyck Banks (6.3). The approach
to Passe de l’Ouest lies between the Dyck
Light-buoy and, 1 mile to its SE, RCE Light-buoy
(starboard hand), which also lies at the E end of
Ridens de Calais. Two buoys (special), one moored
close SE and the other close SW of RCE
Light-buoy, together with the light-buoy form a
distinctive radar target. Thence:
5
Clear of DKA Light-buoy (safe water) (3¾ miles
NNE), which marks the start point of the Passe de
l’Ouest, thence:
6
To the entrance to the buoyed channel (5 miles NE)
which lies between DW6 Light-buoy (port hand)
and DW5 Light-buoy (starboard hand). Thereafter
the channel, which is about 4 cables wide, is
indicated by numbered light-buoys marked DW,
CHAPTER 6
140
even numbers to the N of the channel and odd
numbers to the S. As far as the entrance to Port
Ouest the channel lies between the coastal bank to
the S and Haut-Fond de Gravelines (8½ miles
ENE), on which there is an area of wreckage.
Thence:
7
To a position NW of the entrance to Port Ouest.
6.57 1
Useful marks
Pointed belfry (50°58′⋅7N 2°02′⋅6E) of Oye-Plage
Church (Chart 2449).
Square belfry (51°00′N 2°06′E) at Grande
Fort-Philippe.
(Directions for Port Ouest continue at 6.99)
6.58 1
Chenal Intermédiare leads 8½ miles E from a position
NW of the entrance to Port Ouest to the Rade de
Dunkerque and a position N of the entrance to Port Est.
DKB Light-buoy (W cardinal), 4 cables NW of the entrance
to Port Ouest, marks the division between the entrance
channel to Port Ouest and the Chenal Intermédiare. A
recommended track through the channel, which is marked
by numbered light-buoys (port and starboard hand) prefixed
DW, is shown on the chart. The channel is bounded on its
S side by the Banc de Mardyck, and its continuation E the
Banc de Saint-Pol and on its N side by the Banc de
Snouw, which runs 5 miles E thence Banc Braek lying N
of the entrance to Port Est.
2
Caution. An unmarked dangerous wreck lies in
approximate position 51°04′⋅1N 2°20′⋅6E.
6.59 1
Useful mark at Dunkerque:
Signal station (51°03′⋅4N 2°20′⋅3E) a large tower at
the root of Jetée Ouest, Dunkerque.
(Directions for Port Est continue at 6.119)
Approach from the east
6.60 1
From a position at the SW end of Westdiep (6.146),
close E of E12 Light-buoy (S cardinal) (51°08′N 2°31′E)
the route, which is marked by light−buoys (lateral; numbers
prefixed E) leads S and then SW for 3½ miles through
Passe de Zuydcoote and then 4½ miles WSW through
Passe de l’Est to a position N of the entrance to Port Est,
passing (with positions from the entrance to Port Est
(51°04′N 2°21′E)):
2
E of E12 Light−buoy (S cardinal) (7½ miles NE)
marking the SE side of Banc Smal, thence:
W of E11 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (7 miles ENE)
moored at the W extremity of Trapegeer, a shoal,
thence:
SE of E10 Light−buoy (port hand) (6½ miles ENE)
marking the E extremity of Banc Hills, thence:
NW of E9 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (5¾ miles
ENE), thence:
3
SSE of E8 Light−buoy (port hand) (5 miles ENE)
where Passe de Zuydcoote meets Passe de l’Est.
Thence the track leads WSW to a position N of the
entrance to Port Est passing;
4
SSE of Banc Hills (3¾ miles ENE) which dries in
places, thence:
NNW of coastal sandbanks fronting the suburb of
Malo−les−Bains (2 miles ESE), thence:
SSE of a light−buoy (S cardinal) (8 cables NNE)
moored 1½ cables S of a wreck near the E end of
Banc Braek (6.58).
6.61 1
Useful marks, approach from the east:
Casino (51°03′⋅0N 2°23′⋅3E) on the foreshore at
Malo-les-Bains.
Rosendael Church (belfry) (51°02′⋅5N 2°24′⋅2E).
(Directions for Port Est continue at 6.119)
Approach from the north−east
6.62 1
From a position about 3 miles SE of Westhinder Light
(51°23′N 2°26′E) and clear of the West Hinder TSS, the
route leads 26 miles in a generally SW direction through
the Bancs de Flandre to a position at the W end of the
buoyed approach channel through the Passe de l’Ouest,
passing:
2
Between Oost Dyck (51°15′N 2°26′E) and Bergues
Bank (51°17′N 2°22′E). Oost Dyck runs 13 miles
SSW from Oost Dyck Light-buoy (N cardinal) and
OD1 Light−buoy (N cardinal) at its N extremity
and is marked on its W side by Oost Dyck W
Light-buoy (W cardinal). Oostdyck Radar Tower
(6.54) stands in the middle of the bank. Bergues
Bank runs 6 miles SSW from Bergues N
Light-buoy (N cardinal) at its N extremity and is
marked at its S extremity by Bergues S Light-buoy
(S cardinal). Thence:
3
Through the Passe de Ruytingen (51°10′N 2°10′E),
which lies between In Ruytingen and Out
Ruytingen (51°08′N 2°04′E) and which is marked
at its NE end by Ruytingen E Light-buoy (N
cardinal) and at its SW end by Ruytingen SE
Light-buoy (E cardinal). Thence:
4
Through the Passe du Dyck (51°06′N 2°06′E) which
lies between Dyck Occidental and Dyck Central
and which is marked on its W side by Dyck−Est
Light-buoy (E cardinal). Thence:
5
W of Haut-Fond de Gravelines (6.56) and through the
Passe de Haut-Fond de Gravelines (51°04′N
2°04′E), which lies W of Haut-Fond de Gravelines
Light-buoy (W cardinal), thence:
6
To join the buoyed channel through the Passe de
l’Ouest and continue E following the Directions at
6.56 and 6.58 to positions off Port Ouest or Port
Est as required.
(Directions continue for Port Ouest at 6.99, for
Port Est at 6.119 and for Gravelines at 6.73)
Anchorages
6.63 1
West approach. There is an anchorage and waiting area
to the SW of Dyck Light-buoy (51°03′⋅0N 1°51′⋅8E) and it
is recommended that large vessels and vessels constrained
by their draught use the services of the pilot in order to
anchor here. The recommended anchorage for deep−draught
vessels, which is within the waiting area, is 255°, 5 miles
from the buoy. Tidal streams within the area are rectilinear
and vessels are advised to anchor at slack water, which
occurs 2½ hours before and 3 hours after HW Calais. They
should avoid anchoring at the time of HW when the rate of
the tidal stream may reach 3 kn. Care should be taken to
keep clear of wrecks and obstructions in the area. If there
is any doubt the VTS (6.83) should be consulted for more
precise information.
6.64
1
Vessels intending to enter harbour after local HW, that is
getting underway at about local HW when the stream is
E-going and the vessel therefore heading W, should use the
port anchor with N winds and the starboard anchor with S
CHAPTER 6
141
winds. Vessels intending to enter harbour before local HW,
that is getting underway at LW when the stream is W-going
and the vessel heading E, should use the starboard anchor
with N winds and the port anchor with S winds. If
conditions alter between the time of anchoring and getting
underway then the slack water period should be used to
change to the appropriate anchor. This advice is most
pertinent for vessels fitted with a bulbous bow, especially
when the wind direction is well established.
6.65
1
Vessels at anchor in the waiting area must be ready to
manoeuvre at all times and must maintain a permanent
VHF radio watch.
6.66
1
East Approach. Anchorage may be obtained in
Westdiep in depths from 9 to 16 m, clear of the cables
shown on the chart. There is some protection from seaward
provided by Banc Smal and Nieuwpoort Bank.
2
Small vessels waiting to enter Port Est can anchor
outside the Avant-port, E of the meridian passing through
Dunkirk Light (51°02′⋅9N 2°21′⋅9E) but W of the former
mined area as shown on the chart.
Gravelines
Chart 1350, 323
General information
6.67 1
Position. Gravelines (50°59′N 2°08′E) lies on the banks
of the Rivière Aa, 1 mile SE of the coast. The small towns
of Grand-Fort-Philippe and Petit-Fort-Philippe lie on the W
and E banks of the river respectively, near the mouth of the
river.
Function. The port is used by fishing vessels and
recreational craft. It gives access to the French canal
system.
2
The population of the town is about 12 000.
Approach and entry. The port is approached from the
Passe de l’Ouest, thence through the entrance to the Rivière
Aa, which is formed by two jetties, thence the river itself
to Gravelines.
Port Authority. Conseil General, Department Du Nord,
Port de Gravelines, PO Box 325, F−59820 Gravelines.
Limiting conditions
6.68 1
Controlling depths. Sandbanks, variable in height and
position, form a bar, which dries about 1 m, off the
entrance and between the jetties.
Longest berth. Bassin Vauban (6.76).
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 5⋅5 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅6 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled in Bassin Vauban is
length 65 m, beam 9⋅8 m and draught 3⋅4 m (springs) and
2⋅1 m (neaps).
3
Local weather. Strong winds from the W to N may
raise sea level by up to 0⋅5 m, while strong winds from
other directions may depress sea level by 0⋅7 m.
In strong NE or SW winds the manually operated swing
bridge across the entry lock to Bassin Vauban (6.76) cannot
be operated and entry into the basin is impossible.
Gravelines − Harbour Entrance from NW (6.67)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Arrival information
6.69 1
Anchorage may be obtained off the entrance to
Gravelines in depths between 6 and 10 m, sand and shells,
with good holding ground. The anchorage should only be
used by vessels waiting entry to the port and is untenable
during strong onshore winds.
2
Anchoring is prohibited between the jetty heads and in
the area between beacons Nos 5 and 8, and beacons Nos 7
and 10, where there are submarine pipelines.
Pilotage. The port of Gravelines lies within the inner
zone of compulsory pilotage for Dunkerque, see 6.85.
Harbour
6.70 1
Layout. Avant-port lies along the Rivière Aa upstream
of the inshore ends of the jetties to Gravelines and has one
concrete wharf on its W bank. At Gravelines there is a
tidal basin which gives access to Bassin Vauban, a wet
dock.
6.71 1
Tidal streams. At a position 5 cables N of the jetty
heads the ENE-going stream begins about 2½ hours before
HW Dunkerque, reaching its normal maximum rate of 2 kn
at HW Gravelines (−0010 HW Dunkerque), although rates
of 3½ kn have been observed. Slack water of 15 minutes
duration occurs 3 hours after HW Dunkerque, thence the
WSW-going stream begins, reaching a maximum of 1¾ kn
between +0450 and +0550 HW Dunkerque.
2
Close off the jetty heads the streams probably begin
30 minutes earlier. Within the jetty heads the streams do
not exceed 1½ kn at springs.
6.72 1
Principal marks:
Square belfry (51°00′N 2°06′E).
Spire (4 cables ENE of belfry).
For marks at Calais see 6.35, and at Dunkerque see
6.54.
CHAPTER 6
142
Directions
(continued from 6.62)
6.73 1
General. The ENE-going stream is at its maximum rate
at HW Gravelines and larger vessels normally enter
Gravelines about 30 minutes before local HW. Due
allowance must be made for the cross tidal stream as the
entrance is approached, keeping well up to the head of
Jetée Ouest.
2
Because of the frequent changes in the banks and
channel entry is difficult and should not be attempted in
rough seas,
Fresh onshore winds may make entry difficult.
6.74 1
The route follows the appropriate approach to
Dunkerque (6.56 to 6.62) to a position NW of Gravelines,
thence directly to the entrance to the channel formed by the
jetty heads (51°01′N 2°06′E), passing SW of a light (2
triangles on metal structure, 14 m in height) marking the
end of a groyne which covers at high water extending
150 m from the head of Jetée Est. There are lights on the
jetty heads (Jetée Ouest yellow round tower, green top;
Jetée Est white metal post, red top, 10 m in height). The
jetties extend 700 m NW from the coast, almost to the
drying line.
2
The channel is about 15 m wide and marked by
numbered beacons. It winds between the sand and
mudbanks, which lie on either side within the jetties, and
leads to the tidal basin at Gravelines. The basin dries and
lies at an angle of 60° to the channel.
3
The tidal basin, 50 m in width but wider at its S end to
enable vessels to turn, leads to the lock gate which gives
access to Bassin Vauban. The sill of the gate is 0⋅6 m
above Chart Datum and the lock is 10 m wide and 28 m
long. A second smaller lock is not used. At neaps the gate
is operated from 45 minutes before to 45 minutes after local
HW and at springs 1½ hours before to 1½ hours after local
HW. There are tide gauges giving depth over the lock sill
either side of the lock and at the landing steps in Bassin
Vauban.
4
Access to the Rivière Aa and then the canal system, is
via lock gates, 6 m wide, sill 1⋅2 m above Chart Datum, at
the SE end of Bassin Vauban.
6.75 1
Useful marks:
Square church tower (50°59′⋅1N 2°07′⋅8E) standing
amid factory chimneys.
Belfry (50°59′⋅6N 2°08′⋅5E) in Les Huttes.
Old lighthouse (black and white diagonal bands)
(51°00′⋅2N 2°06′⋅5E) at root of Jetée Est.
Berths
6.76 1
Avant-port: a concrete wharf on the W bank at
Grand-Fort-Philippe is 170 m in length, dries 1⋅5 m sand
and mud and is used by fishing vessels.
Bassin Vauban: E quay is 205 m in length, W quay
185 m in length. In addition, the basin contains a marina.
Port services
6.77 1
Repairs to small craft. Gridiron for medium sized
fishing vessels in tidal basin, length 20 m and 2⋅9 m above
Chart Datum.
Supplies: water at the quays in Bassin Vauban; marine
diesel at Grand-Fort-Philippe and by road tanker in Bassin
Vauban; provisions.
DUNKERQUE
General information
Chart 323, 1350
General
6.78 1
Dunkerque is the centre of a massive port and industrial
complex, stretching 10 miles from Gravelines to the old
town of Dunkerque (51°02′N 2°21′E), and extending a
considerable distance inland. There are two ports, Port
Ouest and Port Est with their entrances 6 miles apart. They
are linked internally by a canal and by sea through the
Chenal Intermédiaire.
2
Paragraphs 6.79 to 6.88 deal with the services and other
matters common to both Port Ouest and Port Est.
Information pertinent only to Port Ouest commences at
6.90 and that to Port Est at 6.104.
Function
6.79 1
The port is the largest commercial port on the N coast
of France and the third largest port in the country. It is also
a cross-Channel ferry port of significance, second only to
Calais.
The population of Dunkerque is about 191 200.
Port limits
6.80 1
The port limits extend 10 miles W of Port Ouest and
include the Passe de l’Ouest (6.56) and 10 miles E of Port
Est and include the Passe de Zuydcoote (6.60), as well as
extending about 7 miles to seaward. The limits are shown
in full on Chart 323.
Traffic
6.81 1
In 2004 the port handled 2990 vessels with a total
deadweight of 60⋅0 million tonnes.
Port Authority
6.82 1
Port Autonome de Dunkerque, Terre-Plein Guillain (PO
Box 6534), F−59386, Dunkerque Cedex 1.
Directions for the approaches to Dunkerque commence
at 6.46.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
6.83 1
A VTS with radar surveillance is maintained for the
control of shipping, covering the waiting area at the
entrance to Passe de l’Ouest and all the entrance channels
to the harbour.
For details of procedure and communications see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Notice of ETA required
6.84 1
Requests for pilots should be sent at least 12 hours in
advance, or on departure from the previous port if later,
giving the vessels ETA at the point of embarkation and
vessel dimensions. Amendments to an ETA of more than
2 hours should be passed 6 hours in advance. ETA should
be confirmed 2 hours before the pilot boarding station.
CHAPTER 6
143
Pilotage
6.85 1
The pilotage area is divided into two zones, outer and
inner. The outer zone lies between the meridian of Calais
Main Light, 1°51′⋅2 E, and the meridian 2°27′⋅0 E and
extends 3 miles offshore from the drying line. The inner
zone covers the entrances to Port Ouest and Port Est.
2
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels which are 100 m in
length or greater, when transiting the outer pilotage zone,
for vessels which are 70 m in length or greater bound for
Port Ouest, and for vessels which are 50 m in length or
greater bound for Port Est. All vessels carrying dangerous
substances in bulk between the Dyck pilot station or the
E12 pilot station and the port of Dunkerque are subject to
compulsory pilotage.
3
The Master of a vessel may request the Dunkerque
pilots to extend their services outside the normal pilotage
limits to include the channels through the Bancs de Flandre
as far as Nieuwport, Oostende, and the Wandelaar pilot
station (7.13).
6.86 1
Embarkation. Depending on the approach, pilots are
embarked 1 mile SSW of Dyck Light-buoy (51°03′N
1°52′E) and in the vicinity of E12 Light-buoy (51°08′N
2°31′E), or, for smaller vessels, 3 cables NNE of the
entrance to Port Est. These positions are shown on the
charts. In bad weather boarding instructions will be passed
by radio.
2
Pilots may be embarked by helicopter at the discretion
of the pilot. See 1.47.
6.87 1
Arrival instructions. Unless otherwise advised, vessels
drawing more than 15 m should anchor 5 miles WSW of
Dyck Light-buoy and vessels drawing between 10 and
15 m, 2 or 3 miles WNW of the buoy. Other vessels will
receive instructions from the VTS. It is recommended that
large vessels and vessels constrained by their draught use
the services of the pilot in order to anchor.
For further details see 6.63.
2
Caution. While the pilot is boarding care should be
taken not to drift down onto Dyck Light-buoy as the
stream setting onto the buoy can be very strong.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for full
details of pilotage including the procedure for embarking
pilots by helicopter.
Regulations
6.88 1
Anchoring, fishing and stopping. Except in emergency
or with the permission of the Harbour Master, anchoring,
fishing and stopping are prohibited in the channels through
the Passe de l’Ouest, Passe Est (Westdiep and Passe de
Zuydcoote) and Chenal Intermédiaire between Port Ouest
and Port Est. Additionally, anchoring and stopping are
prohibited in a 1½ mile wide approach channel extending
from the Dunkirk pilot boarding position in the vicinity of
Dyck Light-buoy to the commencement of the narrow
buoyed channel at DW5 and DW6 Light-buoys. Within the
approach channel fishing is prohibited also in a small area
between Dyck and RCE light-buoys. See chart for details.
2
Fishing is prohibited in the turning area, shown on the
chart, 2 miles NW of the entrance to Port Ouest.
3
Manoeuvering in the access channels. Vessels entering,
leaving or crossing the access channels described above
must make contact by VHF radio with other vessels
proceeding along the access channels. The former must
pass astern of and at a safe distance from the latter.
6.89
Constrained vessels, that is those with a draught greater
than 10 m or length greater than 230 m, should exhibit the
lights or shapes prescribed by Rule 28 of The International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
1
Dredgers maintain constant VHF watch. In addition to
the lights and shapes prescribed by Rule 27(b) of The
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972), they exhibit when operating on the S side of the
channel a black cone by day and a green light by night,
and on the N side of the channel a red cylinder by day and
a red light by night.
2
Tankers. In addition to the general regulations for
tankers and other vessels carrying dangerous cargoes at
1.88, such vessels are not permitted to proceed E of Dyck
Light-buoy without a Dunkerque Pilot embarked, except
that vessels less than 100 m in length and unable to embark
a pilot due to weather, may, with the permission of the
Harbour Master, proceed through the channel. All vessels
are permitted to proceed to the waiting anchorage area
(6.63) to the W of Dyck Light-buoy.
DUNKERQUE-PORT OUEST
General information
Chart 1350
General
6.90 1
For general information concerning Dunkerque as a
whole see 6.78 to 6.80.
Position
6.91 1
Port Ouest (51°02′N 2°10′E) is 6 miles W of the city of
Dunkerque.
Function
6.92 1
The port is principally used as an oil and bulk terminal.
In addition, there is a container terminal and a ferry
terminal with Ro-Ro facilities.
Approach and entry
6.93 1
Entry to the port is through a dredged approach channel
which leads from the junction between the Passe de l’Ouest
and Chenal Intermédiaire to the harbour entrance.
Limiting conditions
6.94 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel is dredged to
20⋅0 m which reduces to 19⋅0 m within Avant-port.
Deepest and longest berths are the Flandre Fuel
Terminal (6.102) and the Quai à Pondéreux (6.102) in the
Western Bulk Terminal.
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 5⋅4 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅4 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 360 m and
300 000 dwt. Avant-port is designed to accept vessels
drawing up to 22⋅0 m, but depths may vary and the
Harbour Master should be consulted with regard to vessels
approaching the maximum draught.
Arrival information
6.95 1
Port operations, pilotage and regulations. See 6.83 to
6.88.
Tugs are available.
CHAPTER 6
144
Dunkerque − Port Ouest from SSE (6.96)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Harbour
Layout
6.96 1
Port Ouest is tidal and consists of a large Avant-port and
basins. Avant-port is 1½ miles wide and extends 1 mile
from the coast. It is rectangular in shape and formed by
Digue du Ruytingen and Jetée du Clipon on the E side and
Jetée des Huttes and Jetée du Dyck on the W side. The
entrance to the port faces NW. Avant-port, with Flandres
Fuel Terminal on its W side, leads S into the Bassin de
l’Atlantique. The basin is 1½ miles long and about 3 cables
wide, with the Western Bulk Terminal in its SW corner and
Darse de la Manche, around which are situated the ferry
and Ro-Ro terminals, on its E side. This area is known
collectively as ‘Port Rapide’.
Tidal streams
6.97 1
See 6.52.
Principal marks
6.98 1
See 6.54.
Directions
(continued from 6.57 or 6.62)
General
6.99 1
Movements in and out of ‘Port Rapide’ are unrestricted
day or night. Restrictions exist for vessels over 280 m
using Flandres Fuel Terminal and for vessels over 270 m
using Western Bulk Terminal, depending on their length
and in the case of Western Bulk Terminal, the direction of
berthing. The requirement to use tugs is the same for both
terminals and is based on vessel tonnage. Tugs are in
attendance 45 minutes before the programmed time of
berthing from the vicinity of DW13 Light-buoy (starboard
hand) and DW14 Light-buoy (port hand), about 2 miles
WNW of the harbour entrance.
Entrance to Avant-port Ouest
6.100 1
Leading lights:
Front light (white column, green top, 9 m in height)
(51°01′⋅7N 2°11′⋅9E).
Rear light (similar structure, 20 m in height) (600 m
SE of front light).
2
The alignment (120°) of these high intensity sector lights
(119°−121°) together with two beacons (radar reflectors),
which stand on the leading line, 2 cables and 4 cables NW
of the front light, leads from the E end of the Passe de
l’Ouest through the dredged entrance channel, passing (with
positions from the front leading light):
3
Between DW 15 Light-buoy (starboard hand)
(2¼ miles WNW) and DKB Light-buoy (W
cardinal). The tidal stream indicator buoy (6.52) is
3 cables WSW of DW 15 Light-buoy. Thence:
NNE of a buoy (N cardinal) (2 miles WNW), which
marks the N extremity of a submerged spur
extending N from Jetée des Huttes, thence:
CHAPTER 6
145
4
To the entrance (1½ miles WNW), where the channel
is 450 m wide between the heads of Jetée du
Clipon and Jetée du Dyck, on which stand lights,
Jetée du Clipon (white round column, red top,
23 m in height), Jetée du Dyck (white column,
green top, 23 m in height).
Avant-port to Bassin de l’Atlantique
6.101 1
Directional light (51°00′⋅0N 2°10′⋅8E). The white sector
(166°−168°) leads through a fairway marked by light−buoys
(lateral) from Avant-port to the S end of Bassin de
l’Atlantique, passing (with positions from the directional
light):
2
Through the swinging area (2 miles N), which is
950 m in diameter and dredged to 19 m. The limits
are marked by light-buoys and lights in line (162°)
(front light (white hut, 5 m in height) (1⋅4 miles
N), rear light (white hut, 12 m in height) (115 m
SSE of front light) indicate the centre of the
swinging area. Thence:
3
ENE of Flandres Fuel Terminal (2 miles NNW)
(6.102). The channel to the S is dredged to 17 m
and marked by light-buoys (port and starboard
hand). Thence:
4
Between the inner breakwaters (1⋅3 miles N), 360 m
apart, at the head of Bassin de l’Atlantique and on
which stand lights (both breakwaters, metal post
on hut, 4 m in height). Darse de Loon-Plage is
close S of the E breakwater. Thence:
5
WSW of Darse de la Manche (1 mile N) (6.102),
which leads to the W end of the Canal des Dunes
leading to Port Est. The canal has a depth of 3⋅5 m
and is used by barges and harbour service craft.
Thence:
6
To a position off the Western Bulk Terminal at the S
end of Bassin de l’Atlantique.
Berths
6.102 1
Flandres Fuel Terminal is a finger pier extending ENE
from Jetée des Huttes, with a depth alongside of 23⋅0 m.
The terminal is capable of handling vessels up to
300 000 dwt.
Darse de Loon-Plage is used by harbour service craft.
Depths are variable.
2
Darse de la Manche, comprising Quai de Ramsgate,
Quai d’Alsace and Quai de Lorraine has four Ro−Ro berths
for cross−channel ferries.
Quai de Flandre, a container terminal, is 1200 m in
length and can accommodate vessels up to 15⋅5 m draught.
3
Western Bulk Terminal is 870 m in length. At its N end
is the Quai à Pondéreux Ouest, which is 340 m in length
with a depth alongside of 23 m. The S part of the terminal
is used by vessels supplying alumina to the aluminium
works close W.
Port services
6.103 1
See 6.130.
DUNKERQUE-PORT EST
General information
Chart 1350
General
6.104 1
For general information concerning Dunkerque as a
whole see 6.78 to 6.88.
Position
6.105 1
Port Est (51°03′N 2°21′E), which is entered 6 miles E of
Port Ouest, consists of an Avant-port and a number of
enclosed basins extending about 4 miles W of Avant-port.
Function
6.106 1
The port handles all types of cargo.
Approach and entry
6.107 1
The port is approached directly from the Rade de
Dunkerque through an entrance lying between the heads of
breakwaters.
Limiting conditions
6.108 1
Controlling depths. Avant-port and the approach to
Écluse Charles-de-Gaulle are dredged to 13⋅5 m.
Deepest and longest berth. Bassin Maritime (6.124).
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 5⋅4 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅4 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled by day is length
289 m, beam 45 m, and draught 14⋅2 m depending on tidal
conditions. By night the maximum size of vessel handled is
length 260 m, beam 40 m and draught 13⋅5 m.
Weather. Fresh winds from between NE and NW cause
a heavy sea in the entrance to Avant-port and a scend
within the harbour.
Arrival information
6.109 1
Port operations, pilotage and regulations. See 6.83 to
6.88.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
Layout
6.110 1
Avant-port leads directly to Port d’Échouage on the E
side of Port Est, and to locks on the W side which give
access to several very large basins.
The major lock on the W side of Avant-port, Écluse
Charles de Gaulle, leads through Bassin d’èvitage (Est) a
large swinging area to Bassin Maritime which runs WSW
for nearly 3 miles behind the seawall and parallel to the
coast, with quays on its S side.
2
At the W extremity of Bassin Maritime there is a second
swinging area with Bassin de Mardyck running 7 cables to
the S. A lock on the W bank of Bassin de Mardyck gives
access to the Canal des Dunes (6.101), while a lock at the
S end of the basin gives access to the canal system of
Northern France.
3
To the SE of Bassin d’èvitage (Est), Chenal d’accès,
dredged to 13⋅2 m, leads to Bassin d’évolution. Within
CHAPTER 6
146
Dunkerque − Port Est from N (6.110)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − French Hydrographic Office)
Bassin d’évolution there is a ship repair yard and two
floating docks on the NE side and berths for oil tankers on
the NW side.
4
Bassins de Freycinet, which consists of six separate
basins, lie to the S and E of Bassin d’évolution.
Vieux-Port, to the SE of Bassins de Freycinet, consists
of three basins. It is entered through a narrow channel,
Pertuis d’Amont at the E end of Bassins de Freycinet.
Lock signals
6.111 1
Movement signals controlling entry exhibited at each
end of the three locks as follows:
Signal Remarks
Green fixed light, green
flashing light
Enter lock, secure on side
indicated by flashing light
Two red lights Entry prohibited
When permission to enter a lock is about to be given, the
red light on the side of the lock to which the vessel
should secure, starts flashing.
6.112 1
Sound signals requesting locks or bridges to be opened
are as follows:
Lock Signal
Écluse Charles de Gaulle 1 short, 2 long blasts
Écluse Watier 3 long blasts
Écluse Trystram 2 long blasts
6.113 1
Exutoire des Wateringues discharges water into the
Chenal de Trystram through a sluice (51°03′⋅0N 2°22′⋅1E).
This discharge of water may affect passing vessels. A red
light over a white light is exhibited when the outflow is
gravitational and a quick red flashing light when it is
pumped.
6.114 1
Storm signals (see 1.106) are exhibited by night only
from the signal tower at the root of Jetée Ouest.
Tidal streams
6.115 1
Rade de Dunkerque. About 5 cables off the entrance to
Port Est, the ENE-going stream commences 2 hours before
local HW, obtaining its maximum rate at HW, which at
springs is 2½ kn. HW slack occurs 4 hours after HW,
thence the WSW-going stream commences 15 minutes later
reaching its maximum rate, at springs 1 kn, 6 hours after
HW. With W winds HW slack extends up to 25 minutes,
but with E winds reduces to as little as 10 minutes.
2
Caution. Frequent accidents are caused at Port Est by
the failure to appreciate the effect of the wind upon the
tidal streams.
6.116 1
Avant-port. From about 30 minutes before HW to
1½ hours after, there is an area of turbulence off Jetée Est,
which produces a NW set of up to 1½ kn along the jetty.
At this time the outer part of Jetée Est is covered by the
tide and part of the eddy enters Avant-port. Some of this
eddy flows out through the entrance channel and the
CHAPTER 6
147
remainder into the W part of Avant-port. A second eddy
occurs from 4 hours after to 4 hours before HW, but is less
defined and limited by the shore and Jetée Est. It does not
have the same effect in Avant-port, merely flowing along
the jetty. Apart from these eddies the streams in Avant-port
are weak.
6.117 1
Channel to Port d’Échouage. The streams are complex
but the rates less than in Avant-port. Between 2¼ hours
before to 30 minutes before HW, a stream enters the E side
of the channel, which is augmented by the eddy flowing
over the submerged head of Jetée Est, producing a
localised eddy up to 1 kn in Avant-port. Following this a
diffused out-going stream, running counter to the eddy
entering the channel over the submerged head of Jetée Est
and strongest on the E side of the channel, continues until
5 hours before HW. The streams then run true to the
channel and there is little outflow until 3 hours before HW
when the out-going stream is confined to E side of the
channel until 2¼ hours before HW.
2
The stream is generally out-going between the times of
local HW and LW and at its strongest when the pumping
station of Exutoire des Wateringues discharges water (see
6.113). This produces a strong eddy off the entrance to
Écluse Trystram and along the quay on the N side of Port
d’Échouage.
Principal marks
6.118 1
See 6.54.
Directions
(continued from 6.59 or 6.61 or 6.62)
General
6.119 1
The best time for vessels over 180 m in length and
draught 10 m to enter Port-Est is at slack water at the
pierheads, which is either about 3 hours before HW or
2 hours after, depending on the actual tidal prediction and
the weather conditions. These vessels have priority over
other commercial vessels which may enter and leave at any
time, and which in turn have priority over harbour service
craft, fishing vessels and recreational craft.
Rade de Dunkerque to Avant-port Est
6.120 1
Channel marking lights:
E front light (white metal column, red top, 6 m in
height) (640 m NNE of common rear light).
W front light (white metal column, green top, 6 m in
height) (640 m N of common rear light).
Common rear light (grey pylon, 30 m in height)
(51°02′⋅8N 2°21′⋅0E).
2
The E front light in line with the rear light (185°) and
the W front light in line with rear light (179°) mark the
limits of the entrance channel leading from the Rade de
Dunkerque to Avant-port. The entrance to Avant-port
(51°03′⋅6N 2°21′⋅1E) is 1¼ cables wide and lies between
the heads of Jetée Est and Jetée Ouest, both of which are
painted with white reflecting paint. Jetée Est is partially
submerged at HW, but light-beacons indicate its position. A
light (6.54) stands on the head of Jetée Est. Jetée Ouest is
constructed of rocks to within 50 m of its head, on which
stands a light (6.54). The tidal stream indicator buoy (6.52)
is moored 4 cables WNW of the head of Jetée Ouest.
Avant-port provides direct access to Écluse Charles de
Gaulle and Écluse Watier.
Avant-port Est to Port d’Échouage
6.121 1
Leading lights. The alignment (137°) of the following
lights leads from Avant-port through the channel, dredged
to 5 m, to Écluse Trystram and Port d’Échouage, noting the
possible outflow from Exutoire des Wateringues (6.113):
Front light (white column, red top, 5 m in height)
(51°03′⋅0N 2°22′⋅0E).
Rear light white column, red top, 8 m in height)
(114 m SE of front light).
Chenal d’acces
6.122 1
Leading lights. The alignment (291°) of two leading
lights (51°03′⋅3N 2°19′⋅7E), standing on the seawall of
Bassin Maritime, leads through the channel from Bassin
d’évitage, which lies immediately W of Écluse Charles de
Gaulle (6.123), to Bassin d’évolution.
Access to the enclosed basins
6.123 1
The following locks give access to the enclosed basins:
Écluse Charles de Gaulle, which is on the W side of
Avant-port, can accept vessels up to a maximum
length of 289 m, beam 45 m and draught 14⋅2 m in
favourable conditions, see also 6.108. The lead-in
jetty on the N side of the lock has a light (white
tower, green top, 7 m in height) at its head. The
lock can be operated at all states of the tide.
2
Écluse Watier, to the S of Avant-port is approached
by a channel dredged to 7 m, which is bounded to
the E by a drying bank with a light−beacon
(N cardinal) at the head of the remains of an old
jetty. The lead-in jetty on the W side of the lock
has a light (green triangle on green pylon, 16 m in
height) at its head. The lock has a useable length
of 230 m, a width of 32 m and a depth over the
sill of 8 m. It can be operated at any state of the
tide, but, if there are winds from NE to NW
around the time of HW, its use may be suspended
to avoid damage to the lock from the scend in the
harbour.
3
Écluse Trystram, is approached through a channel
(6.121) and has a useable length of 150 m, width
23⋅5 m and a depth at the sill of 5⋅0 m. It is used
for small craft and when Écluse Watier is not
available but is subject to the same weather
limitations.
Basins and berths
Bassin Maritime
6.124 1
From E to W the main berths are:
A finger pier providing a grain terminal for vessels
up to 250 m in length on its N side and berths for
coasters on its S side.
Quai Usinor, about 720 m long, which has two berths
for bulk vessels up to 115 000 dwt.
2
A T-shaped quay, 627 m long, for vessels up to
115 000 tonnes carrying bulk cargoes on its N side
and coasters on its S side.
Quai de Grande Synthe, 650 m long, for vessels up to
80 000 tonnes carrying bulk cargoes and general
cargo.
CHAPTER 6
148
Bassin de Mardyck
6.125 1
The berths in the basin serve a number of industries and
from the NW side are:
Stocknord with berths either side for petro-chemical
carriers up to 100 000 tonnes.
2
Close E of the wharf a tanker terminal for vessels up
to 100 000 tonnes.
To the S berths for inland barges.
On the E side of the basin there are berths for vessels
carrying mineral products and for handling dredged
aggregates.
Bassins de Freycinet
6.126 1
There are six basins, numbered 1 to 6, which are
separated by moles. The basins provide up to 50 berths, but
vary in depth, so that depending on the basin, vessels with
draughts between 6⋅5 m and 12⋅0 m can be accepted. The
largest basin, No 6 can accept up to nine vessels drawing
12 m and also has container berths and two Ro-Ro berths.
Nos 1 and 2 basins give access through a lock to the
general canal system.
Port Pétrolier BP
6.127 1
The oil terminal, which lies N of No 6 Basin can accept
tankers up to 250 m in length and draught 12⋅5 m.
Vieux Port
6.128 1
Lying to the SE of the Bassins de Freycinet and
approached through Pertuis d’Amont, Vieux Port comprises
Bassin de la Marine, Bassin de l’Arriére-Port and Bassin du
Commerce. The docks are used by fishing vessels and
recreational craft.
Port d’Échouage and inner basins
6.129 1
The Port d’Échouage and inner basins, lie to the SE of
the approach channel (6.121) from Avant-port. There is a
shipyard on the NE bank of the Port d’Échouage and the
remainder of the berths are used by fishing vessels and
recreational craft.
Port services
Repairs
6.130 1
The repair yard in Bassin d’évolution is capable of
carrying out repairs of all types. There is a floating dock
and two dry docks. The largest dry dock is 310 m in length
and 50 m wide and can accept vessels up to 289 m in
length, beam 45 m, draught 6⋅5 m and 170 000 dwt. The
floating dock can accept vessels up to 180 m LOA and
32 m beam.
Other facilities
6.131 1
Hospital; deratting and exemption certificates issued;
de-fuelling and reception of oily wastes.
Supplies
6.132 1
Fuel oils at the fuelling piers in Avant-port Ouest and
Bassin d’évolution, elsewhere by lighter, rail or road
tanker; water at all quays; fresh provisions and supplies.
Communications
6.133 1
Dunkerque is connected to the French and Belgian canal
and river network.
DUNKERQUE TO OOSTENDE
APPROACHES TO OOSTENDE
General information
Chart 1873, 2449
Routes
6.134 1
The main approach route (6.145) to Oostende is from
the N, commencing at Wandelaar Pilot Station (51°22′N
2°43′E), thence between Ravelingen and Wenduine Bank.
The coastal route (6.146) from the WSW leads from the
Passe de Zuydcoote, through Westdiep and thence Kleine
Rede.
2
Oostende may also be approached from the NW (6.148)
through Negenvaam and Grote Rede, or Negenvaam,
Noordpas and Westdiep, then as for the coastal route. The
latter route is mainly used by vessels approaching
Nieuwpoort, which lies on the coastal route from the WSW.
It is possible to approach Oostende from the ENE
passing over the coastal bank. This route requires local
knowledge and is not described.
Topography
6.135 1
The Belgian coast is heavily cultivated and fronted by
low ranges of featureless sand dunes. The towns and ports
along the coast and a few churches inland can usually be
identified for navigational purposes, but care is needed to
correlate the visual and charted marks.
2
The coast is fronted by a shallow bank extending up to
5 miles offshore or long shoals running parallel to the
shore. Beyond the coastal bank lie the shoals at the NE
extremity of the Bancs de Flandre (6.3).
Depths
6.136 1
Other than marked wrecks, the least charted depth on
the routes described occurs close NW of the entrance to
Oostende. See 6.163.
Firing practice area
6.137
1
Firing practices take place within a sector centred on
Nieuwpoort Lighthouse (6.54) and extending up to 12 miles
offshore, as shown on the chart.
Warning signals are displayed from a mast 2 cables E of
the light and have the following meanings.
Signal Meaning
One red ball over a red
flag
Range in use out to 2½
miles
Two red balls over a red
flag
Range in use out to 7½
miles
Three red balls over a red
flag
Range in use out to 12
miles
CHAPTER 6
149
2
Warning signs, with the words AANDACHT
-ATTENTION-ACHTUNG, are exhibited from the E side
of the entrance channel to Nieuwpoort when firing is in
progress.
Exercise area
6.138
1
An area which may be used by vessels engaged in
mine−hunting exercises is indicated on the chart centred on
51°19′N 2°54′E. At times this area may be extended to
include the area between Wenduine Bank and the
approaches to Oostende.
Pilotage
6.139 1
For pilotage services from Wandelaar see 7.13 and from
Dunkerque see 6.85.
Traffic regulations
6.140 1
Schelde and Estuaries Vessel Traffic Services. Vessels
are required to participate in this service, which covers part
of the approach from the N to Oostende. The limits of the
scheme are shown on the chart. See 7.16 for details.
Traffic separation scheme
6.141 1
The West Hinder TSS, which leads to the Scheur and
thence Westerschelde, lies to the N of the Bancs de Flandre
along the boundary of the area described in this chapter.
For details of the scheme see 2.47.
Rescue
6.142 1
There are Coastguard stations at Nieuwpoort and
Oostende which maintain constant watch. Rescue equipment
is maintained.
Lifeboats are stationed at Nieuwpoort and Oostende.
Tidal streams
6.143 1
On the Bancs de Flandre the tidal streams set NE and
SW, with a rapid turn of the tide. The maximum rate on
the NE-going stream is 2½ kn, on the SW-going stream the
rate is generally less. See also 6.52.
2
Closer inshore the streams set in the direction of the
coast, reaching their maximum rate about the time of local
HW. The spring rate in both directions is 2 kn.
See information on the charts and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
Principal marks
6.144 1
Landmarks:
For marks in vicinity of Dunkerque see 6.54, and for
marks at Oostende see 6.174.
Major lights:
2
Dunkerque Jetée Ouest Light (51°03′⋅6N 2°21′⋅0E)
(6.54).
Dunkerque Light (51°02′⋅9N 2°21′⋅9E) (6.54).
Nieuwpoort Light (51°09′⋅3N 2°43′⋅8E) (6.54).
Oostende Light (51°14′⋅2N 2°55′⋅8E) (white concrete
tower, blue diagonal stripes, 58 m in height.)
Oostende Main Light (6.144)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − J E J Marshall)
Directions
Chart 1873
Approach from the north
(continued from 2.48)
6.145 1
From the vicinity of the Wandelaar Pilot Station
(51°22′N 2°43′E) situated in the centre of the West Hinder
Precautionary Area (2.47), the route leads 6½ miles E,
thence 1 mile SE, thence 4 miles S and finally 3½ miles
SSE to a position NW of Oostende harbour entrance,
passing (with positions from Oostende harbour entrance
(51°14′⋅4N 2°55′⋅1E)):
2
Between SWA Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°22′⋅3N
2°46′⋅3E) and MBN Light-buoy (N cardinal)
(51°20′⋅8N 2°46′⋅3E). Thence:
3
Between A1 Light-buoy (safe water) and
Oostendebank Noord Light-buoy (51°21′⋅2N
2°52′⋅9E), then E of Oostendebank Noord
Light-buoy, which lies 1 mile NE of the NE point
of Oostende Bank as defined by the 10 m depth
contour. Thence:
4
Clear of the Nautica Ena Light-buoy (N cardinal)
(4 miles NNW), marking a wreck. There are
wrecks, some marked by buoys or light-buoys to
the NW of Wenduine Bank (7.41). Thence:
5
Between Oostendebank Oost Light-buoy (port hand)
(3½ miles NNW) and Wenduinebank West
Light-buoy (W cardinal), 5 cables E. Oostendebank
Oost Light-buoy is moored 1 mile E of
Ravelingen, a number of patches on the S end of
Oostendebank. Wenduinebank West Light-buoy (W
cardinal) is moored off a wreck at the W end of
Wenduine Bank (7.41) which extends 11 miles
ENE. Thence:
6
ENE of Buitenstroombank Light-buoy (N cardinal)
(2¼ miles WNW) to a position NW of the harbour
entrance, 5 cables NE of Binnenstroombank
Light-buoy (E cardinal).
CHAPTER 6
150
7
Caution. A heavy sea breaks over Middelkerke Bank
and Oostende Bank during N gales and alters the depth and
position of shoal patches.
(Directions for Oostende continue at 6.175)
Coastal route from the west south west
6.146 1
From a position at the NE end of the Passe de
Zuydcoote (6.60) between E 12 Light-buoy (S cardinal)
(51°08′N 2°31′E) and E 11 Light-buoy (starboard hand),
1 mile S, the coastal route leads 16½ miles ENE through
Westdiep and thence Kleine Rede to a position NW of the
entrance to Oostende Harbour, passing (with positions from
Nieuwpoort Harbour (51°09′⋅4N 2°43′⋅0E)):
2
Between Banc Smal (6.60) (6½ miles WNW) and
Trapegeer (6½ miles WSW), which lie respectively
along the NW side and SW side of Westdiep at its
W end. Trapegeer Light-buoy (starboard hand) is
moored on the NE side of Trapegeer. Broers Bank,
which forms part of the coastal bank and dries,
lies close SE of Trapegeer Light-buoy. Thence:
3
SSE of Nieuwpoort Bank (3 miles NW), which is
narrow and extends 7 miles NE from the
light-buoy along the NW side of Westdiep.
Nieuwpoortbank Light-buoy (W cardinal)
(4½ miles WNW) is moored at the SW extremity
of Nieuwpoort Bank and also marks the E side of
the entry point of vessels joining Westdiep from
Noordpas (6.148). Wk 4 Light-buoy (S cardinal)
(2½ miles NW), marks a wreck to the SE of the
bank. And:
4
NNW of Oostduinkerke Light−buoy (N cardinal)
(2¼ miles W) marking a wreck which lies close to
the N side of Den Oever, part of the coastal bank.
Thence:
NNW of Nieuwpoort.
(Directions for Nieuwpoort continue at 6.155)
The route continues:
SSE of Weststroombank Light-buoy (port hand)
(2 miles N), which is moored at the SW end of
Stroom Bank, thence:
5
SSE of Stroom Bank (5½ miles ENE), which is a
narrow ridged sandbank about 1½ miles off the
shore and running parallel to it. Zuidstroombank
Light-buoy (port hand) is moored on the SE side
of the bank. The track passes through Kleine Rede
(6.166). Thence:
6
SSE of Binnenstroombank Light-buoy (E cardinal)
(51°14′⋅5N 2°53′⋅6E) to a position NW of the
entrance to Oostende Harbour.
6.147 1
Useful mark:
Church tower (51°06′⋅2N 2°39′⋅2E) at Koksijde.
(Directions for Oostende continue at 6.175)
Approach from the north−west
(continued from 2.48)
6.148 1
From the vicinity of the Wandelaar Pilot Station
(51°22′N 2°43′E) and situated in the centre of the West
Hinder Precautionary Area (2.47) the route leads 13 miles
SSW through Negenvaam and Noordpas to Westdiep
(6.146), rejoining the coastal route (6.146). This route is
more usually followed by vessels making for Nieuwpoort.
The route passes:
2
NW of Middelkerke Bank (51°18′N 2°43′E), which
runs 6 miles NE from its junction with Oostende
Bank (6.145) (51°16′N 2°43′E). The bank is
marked at its NE end by MBN Light-buoy (N
cardinal), on its NW side by Middelkerkebank
Light-buoy (starboard hand) and at its S end by
Middelkerkebank S Light-buoy (port hand). LST
420 Light-buoy (W cardinal) marking a wreck is
moored at the SW extremity of the bank, and:
3
SE of Kwinte Bank (51°16′N 2°38′E), which lies
parallel with and 1½ miles W of Middelkerke
Bank. Kwinte Bank is marked at its NE extremity
by KB Light-buoy (N cardinal). Thence:
SE of D1 Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°14′N 2°39′E),
which is the entry point to Noordpas, the channel
running between Banc Smal (6.60) and Nieuwpoort
Bank (6.146), thence:
4
NW of Nieuwpoortbank Light-buoy (W cardinal)
(51°10′N 2°36′E) and into Westdiep (6.146), where
the coastal route (6.146) may be joined.
(Directions continue for Oostende at 6.176 and for
Nieuwpoort at 6.155. Directions for the E approach to
Dunkerque are given at 6.60)
Side channels
6.149 1
Uitdiep is the channel between Middelkerke Bank
(6.148) and Oostende Bank (6.145). It offers an alternative
to Negenvaam (6.148) and runs parallel to it about 2 miles
to the E. There is no buoyage on either side of the
channel, except for Oostendebank West Light-buoy (W
cardinal) (51°16′N 2°45′E) moored at the SW end of
Oostende Bank.
2
Grote Rede (51°14′N 2°50′E) lies to the NW of Stroom
Bank (6.146) and may be used as an alternative to Kleine
Rede (6.146) to approach Oostende, but the NW side of
Stroom Bank is not buoyed and Baland Bank (51°13′N
2°46′E) at the W end of Grote Rede should be avoided.
Nieuwpoort
Chart 1873
General information
6.150 1
Position. Nieuwpoort (51°09′N 2°43′E) is 15 miles ENE
of Dunkerque and 8 miles ENE of the boundary between
France and Belgium. The town is about 2 miles from the
coast on the S bank of the River Yzer.
Function. There is a small commercial and fishing port
at Nieuwpoort. It is is also a centre for recreational craft.
The population of Nieuwpoort is about 7000.
2
Approach and entry. The approach from seaward lies
between two parallel pile piers, thence a passage of about
2 miles along the River Yzer to the town, where the small
port is situated.
Port Authority. Waterschoutskantoor (Marine
Commissioner), Langestraat 89, 8450 Nieuwpoort.
Limiting conditions
6.151 1
Controlling depths. Least depth in the harbour channel
is 2⋅6 m.
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 4⋅8 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅1 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 82 m and
draught 5⋅2 m at HW springs.
CHAPTER 6
151
Nieuwpoort Harbour Entrance (6.150)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Henderyckx Fotografie)
Arrival information
6.152 1
Port radio service is maintained. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Notice of ETA required is at least 6 hours before arrival
at Wandelaar Pilot Station for vessels embarking a pilot and
6 hours before arrival Nieuwpoort Roads for vessels exempt
from pilotage.
2
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels carrying
dangerous or polluting goods in bulk, or which are empty
but not gas−free, and for all other vessels exceeding 80 m
LOA. Pilots are available from Wandelaar Pilot Station
(7.13).
Tugs are not available.
Regulations. Power driven vessels within the harbour
are subject to speed limits, which are indicated on notice
boards.
Harbour
6.153 1
Layout. The harbour is formed by the mouth of the
River Yzer. The commercial and fishing quays lie on both
banks of the river some 2 miles from the entrance. There
are two large yacht marinas, one on either bank close N of
the commercial harbour.
2
Traffic signals. International Port Traffic Signals are
used to regulate vessel traffic at the entrance. These signals
are exhibited from the signal tower at the inner end of
West Pier (51°09′⋅2N 2°43′⋅3E). See The Mariner’s
Handbook for details of traffic signals.
3
A red stop light (the word “STOP” in a red circle on a
black background) is exhibited at the entrances to the yacht
harbours and the inner harbour, indicating to departing
vessels that the channel is not clear.
4
Small craft signal. By day two black cones, points
together, and by night a blue flashing light, exhibited from
the signal tower, indicate that craft under 6 m in length or
under oars are prohibited from leaving harbour. This
restriction is in force when the onshore wind is force 3 or
more or the offshore wind is force 4 or more.
Yachting buoys (special) are laid off the harbour during
summer months.
5
Tidal streams See 6.143.
6.154 1
Major light:
Nieuwpoort Light (51°09′⋅3N 2°43′⋅8E) (6.54).
Directions
(continued from 6.146 and 6.148)
6.155 1
From a position NW of the harbour entrance (51°09′⋅4N
2°43′⋅0E) direct approach to the entrance may be made.
The entrance lies between the heads of two pile piers on
which stand lights (both piers, white round towers). The
piers project about 550 m NW from the coast, thence the
channel through the River Yzer leads 1½ miles SE to the
port. The channel is marked by piles (white top) some of
which are lighted.
CHAPTER 6
152
2
Kattesas Leading Lights (51°08′⋅2N 2°44′⋅7E) (each a
white metal post, red bands) in line bearing 175° aid in the
approach to the inner part of the harbour.
Berths
6.156 1
The commercial part of the harbour has 1200 m of
quays and berths for 35 fishing vessels.
Port services
6.157 1
Repairs of a minor nature only.
Other facilities: deratting, exemption certificates only.
Supplies: fuel; water; provisions.
Communications. The port has access to the
Nieuwpoort-Dunkerque canal and thence to the canal
system of NW Europe. There are also direct canal links to
Brugge (7.87) and Ypres.
OOSTENDE
General information
Chart 1873
Position
6.158 1
Oostende (51°14′N 2°55′E) is on the Belgian coast
24 miles ENE of Dunkerque.
Function
6.159 1
The port is a cross-Channel ferry terminal, a medium
sized commercial port, a fishing port and a recreational
centre.
There is a naval base at Oostende.
The population of the town is 67 300 (2001).
Approach and entry
6.160 1
The approaches to Oostende are beset by numerous
banks and shoals and there are several approach routes
which are described at 6.145 to 6.148. The final approach
from seaward is through Rechtstreekse Kil, the channel
leading from Grote Rede (6.149) to the harbour entrance,
which lies between piers.
Traffic
6.161 1
In 2004 the port handled 3739 vessels with a total
deadweight of 13⋅8 million tonnes.
Port Authority
6.162 1
AG Port Oostende, Slijkensesteenweg, 2, B−8400
Oostende.
Limiting conditions
6.163 1
Controlling depths. Voorhaven, the outer harbour, is
dredged to 8⋅0 m but there is a least charted depth of 5⋅5 m
at a distance of 8 cables from the harbour entrance close to
the alignment of the leading lights (6.175).
Deepest and longest berth is Cockerillkaai (6.177).
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 4⋅6 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅1 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 170 m.
Local weather. It is not advisable to enter harbour with
strong winds from the NW, through N to NE.
Arrival information
Port radio
6.164 1
A port radio service is maintained. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Notice of ETA required
6.165 1
At least 6 hours notice of ETA at the Wandelaar Pilot
Station is required.
Anchorages
6.166 1
Grote Rede provides anchorage in depths from 8 to
10 m, sand and mud. A good berth is 313° from Oostende
Cathedral twin spires (6.174) distant 2¾ miles. A second
anchorage, 5 cables to the SE, is shown on the chart.
The holding ground in Kleine Rede is indifferent,
especially near the harbour entrance and it should only be
used as a temporary anchorage for vessels about to enter
harbour.
Pilotage and tugs
6.167 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels carrying
dangerous or polluting goods in bulk, or which are empty
but not gas−free, and for all other vessels exceeding 80 m
LOA. Pilots are available from Wandelaar Pilot Station
(7.13).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Tugs are available.
Harbour
General layout
6.168 1
The harbour consists of a narrow outer harbour or
Voorhaven which broadens out 5 cables inside the entrance
to form a turning basin.
There are a number of basins, tidal and non-tidal,
leading off both sides of the Voorhaven. Demeysluis at the
SW end gives access to the Oostende-Brugge canal.
Traffic signals
6.169 1
International Port Traffic Signals are used to regulate
vessel traffic. These signals are exhibited from the signal
station at the head of East Pier (51°14′⋅4N 2°55′⋅2E). See
The Mariner’s Handbook for details of traffic signals.
2
A yellow quick flashing light is exhibited in addition to
the normal traffic signals when it is required to keep the
dredged channel between the entrance and Demeysluis
(9 cables from the entrance) clear for cross-Channel ferries.
This signal is repeated on the mast on the S side of the
entrance to Montgomerydok (51°14′⋅0N 2°55′⋅4E). When
this light is displayed above a red light on the mast at
Montgomerydok, vessels wishing to leave Montgomerydok
or Visserijdok must stop and wait within the dock.
3
Special traffic signals are exhibited at the entrances to
Montgomerydok and Vissersluis. Under a yellow quick
flashing light are two traffic boards, the top one with red
arrows, the bottom with green arrows. These boards
indicate the right of way to departing vessels.
4
A yellow quick flashing light above a red light is
exhibited on the W side of the navigation channel
indicating the right of way to vessels departing from the S
end of Voorhaven.
CHAPTER 6
153
6.170 1
Dock signals are exhibited from a signal mast on the W
side of Demeysluis (51°13′⋅6N 2°55′⋅8E). No signal (day)
or a blue light (night) indicates the lock is closed. A black
ball (day) or two blue lights vertically disposed (night)
indicate that the lock is open.
2
When the canal sluices are operated, a current of up to
1 kn can occur in Voorhaven, which makes berthing
difficult. An orange light is exhibited from the fixed bridge
spanning the S end of Voorhaven when the sluice is about
to be operated. This light is changed to red when the sluice
is open.
6.171 1
Small craft signal. By day two black cones, points
together, and by night a blue flashing light, exhibited from
the flagstaff at Montgomerydok, indicate that craft under
6 m in length or under oars are prohibited from leaving
harbour. This restriction is in force when the onshore wind
is force 3 or more or the offshore wind is force 4 or more.
6.172
1
Yachting buoys (special) are laid off the harbour during
summer months.
Natural conditions
6.173 1
Tidal Streams. HW Oostende is about 55 minutes
before HW Vlissingen. The ENE-going stream begins about
2¾ hours before HW Vlissingen, maximum rate 2½ kn. The
WSW-going stream begins 2¾ hours after HW Vlissingen,
maximum rate 1 kn. The streams generally set along the
line of the coast, except at the turn from the ENE-going
stream to the WSW-going stream when they tend away
from the coast.
2
See also information on the chart and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
Climatic table. See 1.225 and 1.235.
Principal marks
6.174 1
Landmarks:
Harbour Radar Tower (51°14′⋅3N 2°55′⋅5E).
Tower block (51°14′⋅0N 2°54′⋅9E).
Cathedral (51°13′⋅8N 2°55′⋅3E) with twin spires.
Saint Jozef Church (51°13′⋅5N 2°54′⋅8E).
Major light:
Oostende Main Light (51°14′⋅2N 2°55′⋅8E) (6.54).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 6.145, 6.147 or 6.148)
Entrance channel
6.175 1
Leading lights:
Front light (X topmark on white metal framework
tower, red bands, 18 m in height) (51°14′⋅1N
2°55′⋅5E).
Rear light (similar structure, 30 m in height) (175 m
SE of front light).
2
From a position NW of the harbour entrance, the
alignment (128°) of these lights leads through the centreline
of the channel between the piers. The pierheads are 165 m
apart and lights (each a white round tower) are displayed
from the pierheads. The narrow entrance channel, which is
only about 75 m wide, curves 4 cables SSE to enter
Oostende Harbour Radar Tower from NW (6.174)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − J E J Marshall)
Voorhaven, passing the entrances to Montgomerydok and
Visserijdok.
East Pierhead Light and Signal Station from W (6.175)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − J E J Marshall)
Access to the enclosed basins
6.176 1
The following locks give access to enclosed basins:
Demeysluis, at the SW corner of Voorhaven gives
access to the commercial basins Vlotdok, Houtdok,
Zwaaidok and thence via Doksluis to
Oostende-Brugge canal. The lock is 130 m in
length, 17⋅2 m wide and has a depth over the sill
of 4⋅2 m.
2
Visserssluis (51°14′⋅1N 2°55′⋅7E), which is 91 m in
length, 16⋅5 m wide and has a depth over the sill
of 4⋅5 m, gives access to Visserijdok the fishing
harbour.
3
Mercatorsluis (51°13′⋅9N 2°55′⋅4E) at the S end of
Montgomerydok gives access to Mercator Yacht
Harbour. The lock is 38 m in length, 12 m wide
and has a sill depth of 1⋅2 m.
CHAPTER 6
154
Entrance to Oostende Harbour from NW (6.175)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − HMS Blazer)
Basins and berths
6.177 1
Natienkaai on the W side of Voorhaven has berths for
high speed ferries, passenger and freight ferries and a
cruise ship terminal, the latter being 250 m long with depth
alongside of 10 m.
2
Cockerillkaai and Deepwaterkaai on the SW side of
Voorhaven extend 700 m beyond the entrance to
Demeysluis and have depths alongside from 8 to 10 m.
Cockerillkaai has accommodation for cruise or general
cargo ships. Deepwaterkaai has a Ro-Ro berth.
Zeewezendok, a tidal basin on the E side of Voorhaven
has two berths for Ro-Ros.
3
Vlotdok with 1350 m of quay together with the smaller
Houtdok and Zwaaidok are enclosed docks connected to
Voorhaven by Demeysluis and the Oostende-Brugge canal
by Doksluis, the latter accepting vessels up to 110 m loa
and 17 m beam. They are used for the import of general
cargo, principally timber and building materials.
4
Visserijdok with 1350 m of quayside is an enclosed
basin on the E side of Voorhaven and is an important
fishing harbour.
Montgomerydok, the old tidal harbour, is used almost
exclusively as a yacht harbour, as is Mercator Dokken,
entered through the lock at the S end of Montgomerydok,
which is operated for 3 hours either side of HW.
Port services
Repairs
6.178 1
All types of repairs can be carried out. There are two
patent slips, the larger is 70 m in length and can accept
vessels up to 1000 tonnes.
Other facilities
6.179 1
Hospital; deratting (arranged through Antwerp); compass
adjustment.
Supplies
6.180 1
All types of fuel; water; provisions.
Communications
6.181 1
There is access by canal for small craft to Ghent and
also to the NW Europe canal system.
There are motorway and high speed rail connections to
Brussels and Paris. Oostende airport is 6 km from the town.
NOTES
155
NETHERLANDS
BELGIUM
W
E
S
D
T
E
E
R
C
H
S
L
E
Vlissingen
Vlissingen Oost
Breskens
Braakmanhaven
Terneuzen
Brugge
Zeebrugge
Blankenberge
Oostende
Hansweert
Antwerp
Gent
Brussels Steenbank
Pilot Station
Wandelaar
Pilot Station
Waaslandkanaal
Dks.
Zandvliet
7.87
7.60
7.44
7.276
7.289
7
.
1
0
4
7
.
1
1
0
7.20
7
.
229
7
.
2
4
2
7
.
1
0
2
7
.
1
0
1
7.122
7.149
7.51
7.239
7
2
.
69
7
.
3
1
0
7.197
7.205
7
.
1
7
6
7
.
1
8
8
7.319
7.267
7
.
1
8
9
7
.
2
4
2
7
.
1
0
9
1874
1872 &
1874
1874
120
120
110
120
120
120
120
120
120 &
1874
139
139
1630
1872
1205
1874
3°
3°
4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich
30´
30´
40´
40´
50´
50´
50´40´
50´40´
10´
10´10´
10´
10´20´
20´20´
40´40´
20´
20´
20´30´
30´
51°
30´
51°
156
Chapter 7 - Westerschelde and approaches
157
CHAPTER 7
WESTERSCHELDE AND APPROACHES
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 110, 120, 139, 1872, 1874, 3371
Scope of Chapter
7.1 1
The chapter covers the approaches to Westerschelde
from the Wandelaar (51°22′N 2°43′E) and Steenbank
(51°45′N 3°12′E) pilot stations and the outer banks which
lie W of the pilot stations, within the area bounded to the
W and N by the Hinder and Maas TSS. The latter are
described in Chapter 2. Thence the river itself is described
as far as Antwerp (7.289) and the passage by river and
canal from Antwerp to Brussels (7.319).
2
The Vessel Traffic Services Schelde and Estuaries
(VTS-SM) lies within this area and a brief description of
the service is included in this chapter.
The major ports of Zeebrugge (7.60), Vlissingen (7.122),
Vlissingen Oost (7.149), Terneuzen (7.205) and Antwerp
(7.289) are also described.
Approach Routes
7.2 1
Three main channels of approach lead between the
banks, which encumber the outer parts of the estuary. They
are:
Wielingen (51°23′N 3°15′E) (7.40), the approach
from the WSW which lies off the coast of
Belgium and Netherlands and runs parallel to it.
2
Scheur (51°24′N 3°08′E) (7.37) the deep water
channel approaching from the W, which lies N of
Wielingen and converges with it at S−W
Light-buoy (51°24′⋅2N 3°18′⋅2E). A channel
(51°23′N 3°10′E) runs SE from Scheur to
Zeebrugge.
3
Oostgat (51°30′N 3°28′E) (7.104) which approaches
from the NW and lies close to the coast of
Walcheren (7.113).
Deurloo (51°29′N 3°27′E) (7.109) is a minor approach
channel, little used, which approaches from the WNW and
joins with Oostgat at its SE end.
The three main channels are marked by light-buoys.
Deurloo is marked by buoys.
Topography
7.3 1
Westerschelde (7.113) provides the approach to the
Dutch ports of Vlissingen, formerly known as Flushing,
(7.122), and Terneuzen (7.205) and the Belgian port of
Antwerp (7.289), which is connected by canal to Brussels.
The outer part of the estuary is known to the Dutch as
Zeegat van Vlissingen.
2
The S side of the estuary is formed by the coast to the
ENE of Oostende (6.158), which runs 19 miles to the
border with Netherlands and thence a further 6 miles to
Breskens (51°24′N 3°33′E). The Dutch section of the coast
is called Land van Kadzand. The coast fronting Land van
Kadzand is mainly steep-to and has groynes extending from
it. The Belgian coast is low and skirted by sand dunes and
the flat cultivated land behind the dunes is protected by a
dyke. Much of it is built-up and in the summer the beaches
are lined with bathing huts.
3
The SW coast of Walcheren (7.113) forms the N side of
the estuary. It runs 8 miles SE from Westkapelle to
Vlissingen (51°26′N 1°35′E) at the mouth of the river. The
W end of Walcheren is protected by a large stone dyke, the
Weskapelsche dijk. The coast consists of sand dunes and
there are numerous stone dams and wooden groynes which
are built out at right angles to the shore and are
conspicuous on radar.
4
The main fairway through the Westerschelde winds
continually on the passage up river to Antwerp. Initially the
river is much encumbered by sandbanks, many in the
centre of the river which give rise to a number of
secondary channels.
Outer banks in the Approaches to
Westerschelde
General
7.4 1
There are a number of off-lying banks to the N and W
of the area described in this chapter, which lie in the
approaches to the Schelde and have depths of less than
10 m and in some cases less than 5 m, over them. The tidal
stream greatly influences the depth and shape of the banks,
which in calm weather may often be indicated by tide rips.
Winds of force 5 or more cause the sea to break heavily on
the banks, especially when the wind is from the NW.
2
Although scattered they are dangerous, not simply
because of their shallowness and liability to change, but
due to their distance from the coast where navigation
becomes less certain. The precaution of taking soundings
should be observed.
Description of the banks
7.5 1
Fairy Bank (51°24′N 2°20′E) as defined by the 20 m
depth contour extends 9 miles NE. Fairy S Light-buoy
(S cardinal) is moored at the SW end of the bank and on
the N boundary of the West Hinder TSS.
7.6 1
Westhinder is a shallow and narrow ridged bank, with
depths of less than 6 m near its N end. From its S end
(51°23′N 2°26′E), 4½ miles E of the S part of Fairy Bank,
it extends 14 miles NE. Westhinder Light (51°23′⋅3N
2°26′⋅4E) (2.47) stands at its S end and close N of the N
boundary of the West Hinder TSS. Track Ferry Light-buoy
(special) is moored 5 cables E of the N end. The bank may
be indicated by tide rips.
2
Westhinder Light should be given a wide berth due to
strong tidal streams in the vicinity. See information on the
charts for details of tidal streams.
7.7 1
Noordhinder is a dangerous narrow sandbank with its S
end (51°35′N 2°34′E) lying 1 mile WNW of the N end of
Westhinder, from whence it extends 7½ miles NNE. The
bank is steep-to on both sides.
7.8 1
Oosthinder (51°35′N 2°40′E) is 1½ mile E of the N
part of Westhinder and runs 10½ miles N.
CHAPTER 7
158
Bligh Bank (51°37′N 2°47′E) a narrow sandbank, which
lies about 3 miles E of Oosthinder, runs roughly parallel to
it for a distance of 12 miles.
7.9 1
Thornton Bank (51°34′N 3°00′E) lies with its SW end
2½ miles SE of Bligh Bank. It extends 13½ miles NE and
is marked at its SW end by SW Thornton Light-buoy (safe
water). Thornton Bank Light-buoy (N cardinal) is moored
1 mile NW of the most shallow part of the bank. In good
visibility from the NE end of the bank it is possible to see
the W end of Walcheren (7.113) by day and Westkapelle
Light (7.99) by night.
7.10 1
Rabsbank (51°36′N 3°08′E) is a continuation NE of
Thornton Bank, with its centre 4 miles NE of the most
shallow part of Thornton Bank. Rabsbank Light-buoy (safe
water), which is moored at the NE end of the bank, is
flanked by two buoys (both special) 100 m to the NW and
SW respectively to enhance identification by radar.
7.11 1
Akkaert Bank extends 10 miles NE from SWA
Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°22′⋅3N 2°46′⋅4E), which is
flanked by SWA1 and SWA2 Buoys (both special) moored
2 cables NNE and E respectively to enhance identification
by radar. The bank is further marked by Akkaert NE
Light-buoy (E cardinal) at the NE end of the bank.
2
Goote Bank (51°27′N 2°51′E) lies 2 miles NW of
Akkaert Bank and runs parallel to it. It is marked by Goote
Bank Light-buoy (E cardinal) on its E side.
Pilotage
General
7.12 1
Pilotage in the Westerschelde is compulsory for all
vessels carrying dangerous or polluting cargoes in bulk or
which are empty but not gas−free. For other categories,
pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 80 m LOA. Vessels
with a draught exceeding 5⋅5 m proceeding inwards from
Steenbank to Vlissingen Ost via Ostgat (7.104) are subject
to compulsory pilotage also.
2
There is considerable traffic in the Westerschelde and
the services of a pilot are recommended. Requests for
pilots should be sent at least 6 hours in advance, to ‘pilot
VTS Steenbank’ or ‘pilot VTS Wandelaar’ in the case of
Belgian ports or ‘pilotage Flushing’ in the case of Dutch
ports and stating the appropriate boarding station. The ETA
should be amended if it becomes more than 2 hours in
error.
3
The ETA of towed vessels of more than 100 m in
length, 30 m beam or draught 8 m should be sent at least
24 hours in advance.
River pilots board off Vlissingen.
4
The pilot station for Vlissingen is at Koopmanshaven
(51°26′⋅4N 3°34′⋅6E), which is close W of the port.
See also Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Wandelaar Pilot Station
7.13 1
The pilot vessel for the Wandelaar Pilot Station cruises
in the vicinity of 51°22′⋅3N 2°43′⋅0E. At night this vessel
beams a light at an angle of 45°.
Pilots for LNG tankers bound for Zeebrugge board
1 mile E of AZ Light-buoy (starboard hand) (51°21′⋅5N
2°37′⋅0E). During the boarding operation VTS will request
all other traffic to keep a minimum of 5 cables clear of the
LNG tanker.
2
VHF contact should be established with Pilot VTS
Wandelaar at least 1 hour prior to arrival. Belgian pilot
boats have a black hull with a white number on the bows.
The funnel is yellow and by day they fly a red flag with a
white letter ‘P’ inscribed.
3
Pilot transfer by helicopter (1.47) is carried out in an
area bounded by:
51°26′⋅9N 2°31′⋅1E
51°26′⋅9N 2°46′⋅3E
51°20′⋅9N 2°46′⋅3E
51°21′⋅4N 2°31′⋅1E
For procedure see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Steenbank Pilot Station
7.14 1
Pilots provided by the Steenbank Pilot Station board
about 1 mile W of Schouwenbank Light-buoy (safe water)
(51°45′⋅0N 3°14′⋅3E). ETA should be sent to Pilots/VTS
Steenbank and vessels should contact the pilot vessel at
least 1 hour before embarkation of the pilot.
2
By day Dutch pilot boats fly a blue flag with the letter
‘L’ inscribed. By night lights are in accordance with the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
(1972), additionally a white flare is shown at intervals of
10 minutes.
3
In order to separate traffic, vessels approaching the pilot
station from the NE should keep Buitenbank Light-buoy
(safe water) (51°51′⋅2N 3°25′⋅7E) and Schouwenbank
Light-buoy (safe water) (51°44′⋅9N 3°14′⋅3E) on their port
hand. Vessels disembarking pilots should, after
disembarkation, proceed NE through Schouwendiep, passing
between SBO Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°50′⋅0N 3°30′⋅0E)
and Bollen Light-buoy (W cardinal) (2 miles E) and then
join the traffic off Hoek van Holland. See Chapter 9.
4
Pilots embark from helicopters about 1 mile N of the
pilot station. For procedure see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1). See also 1.47.
Shore based pilotage
7.15 1
If on account of bad weather or other cause, pilotage is
suspended at Wandelaar and Steenbank Pilot Stations, the
Master should contact VTS-SM (7.16) 30 minutes before
entering the area in order to choose from the following
possible courses of action:
Pilot transfer by helicopter
Shore based pilotage (SBP)
Waiting or anchoring offshore.
2
Shore based pilotage is a radar controlled pilotage
service and is conducted in English or Dutch on VHF radio
for vessels bound for Dutch or Belgian ports.
3
From Wandelaar Pilot Station, using Scheur and
Wielingen, the service is limited to vessels under 175 m in
length and 8 m draught but excluding vessels which are
carrying dangerous or polluting cargoes or which are empty
and not gas−free. There is no shore based pilotage for
Zeebrugge.
4
From Steenbank Pilot Station, using Oostgat, the service
is limited to vessels under 115 m in length and 6⋅4 m
draught but excluding vessels carrying dangerous or
polluting cargoes or which are empty and not gas−free.
Vessels which exceed these parameters but comply with the
criteria for Wandelaar shore based pilotage can obtain SBP
on the route Schouwenbank Light-buoy (51°45′⋅3N
3°14′⋅3E)—Westpit Light-buoy (51°33′⋅6N
3°09′⋅9E)—Akkaert NE Light-buoy (51°27′⋅3N 2°59′⋅4E)
CHAPTER 7
159
thence via Scheur and Wielingen to Rede van Vlissingen
(7.101).
5
The Master must acknowledge the receipt of each
message and repeat the courses and speeds given and, on
request, repeat any other messages sent. If the Master
deviates from any advice given by the pilot, he must
immediately inform the pilot this is the case and of the
action he is taking.
6
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Vessel Traffic Services for Schelde and
Estuaries
7.16 1
From the approaches to the Wandelaar and Steenbank
pilot stations, the Westerschelde as far upriver as Antwerp
is controlled by VTS Scheldemond (VTS−SM). Vessels are
required to report to the VTS 30 minutes prior to arrival at
the outer limits of the area. Reporting positions are shown
on the charts; for details see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1).
Regulations
Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 1990
7.17 1
See Appendix 4.
Vessels constrained by draught
7.18
1
The following are considered to be vessels constrained
by draught and are required to show the signals prescribed
in Rule 28 of The International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972):
In the channel from Scheur upriver to Blauwgaren
Light (51°19′⋅3N 4°17′⋅0E), those with a length
greater than 200 m and a draught greater than
10⋅0 m.
Upriver from Blauwgaren Light, those with a length
greater than 170 m and a draught greater than
8⋅0 m.
2
In Oostgat, those with a length greater than 170 m
and a draught greater than 7⋅5 m.
In Terneuzen−Gent Canal, those with a length greater
180 m and a draught greater than 10 m.
Quarantine
7.19
1
Inward vessels from an infectious or contagious port and
bound for a Netherlands port in Westerschelde or on the
Terneuzen-Gent canal should show by day International
Code flags ZV and by night two white lights in a vertical
line. See 1.96.
2
Inward vessels from an infectious or contagious port and
bound for a Belgian port, except Gent, should, upon
entering Belgian waters, show by day International Code
flags TM and by night an all−round green light.
WEST APPROACH TO WESTERSCHELDE-ZEEBRUGGE AND BRUGGE
WANDELAAR PILOT STATION TO
REDE VAN VLISSINGEN
General information
Charts 1872, 1874
Route
7.20 1
From Wandelaar Pilot Station (51°22′N 2°43′E) which
lies in the West Hinder Precautionary Area (2.47), there are
two routes, one to the N of Akkaert Bank (51°23′N
2°50′E) and one to the S, to the entrance to Scheur,
13 miles ENE, thence the route runs a further 20 miles in a
generally E direction to Rede van Vlissingen (Flushing
Road) (7.39) and a position SSE of Vlissingen.
2
Vessels drawing less than 8 m may, depending on the
state of the tide, use the route through Wielingen (7.40) to
the S of Scheur, which converges with Scheur at the S−W
Light-buoy (N cardinal) (51°24′⋅2N 3°18′⋅2E), 9 miles W of
Rede van Vlissingen.
Topography
7.21 1
See 7.3. For Outer Banks see 7.4 to 7.11.
Depths
7.22 1
The depth in mid−channel in Scheur and its continuation
in Weilingen is about 15 m.
Depths in Wielingen before it converges with Scheur are
between 6 m and 8 m.
2
The approach channels to Westerschelde are surveyed
annually and continuous maintenance dredging is carried
out in Scheur and Weilingen. The latest information on
depths should be obtained from the pilot or VTS-SM.
Pilotage
7.23 1
See 7.12 and 7.13.
Traffic Regulations
7.24 1
Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 1990. See
Appendix IV.
7.25 1
Rede van Vlissingen Precautionary Area encompasses
the principal fairway of the river in the vicinity of Rede
van Vlissingen and extends from 4 miles W of Vlissingen
Main Light (51°26′⋅5N 3°34′⋅5E) to 4 miles E but also
includes the Sardijngeul fairway inwards of OG14
Light−buoy. A separation line whose purpose is to separate
inbound and outbound traffic is established S of Vlissingen
as indicated on the chart. Minimum width of the fairway N
and S of the separation line is 4 cables and 6 cables
respectively.
2
A flashing yellow light exhibited from the radar tower
located on the waterfront at Vlissingen indicates that there
is an incoming vessel in Sardijngeul (7.104). Outgoing
vessels should avoid proceeding to the W of the light
(51°26′⋅3N 3°34′⋅6E) (7.108) at the head of
Koopmanshaven W mole until the incoming vessel is clear.
A vessel proceeding to sea and intending to use Oostgat
shall, when in Rede van Vlissingen, exhibit an all−round
green light or display flag O of the International Code of
Signals.
3
Within the precautionary area, fishing vessels should not
impede other vessels and should give way. Anchoring is
CHAPTER 7
160
prohibited except in the authorised anchorages shown on
the chart.
4
Caution. Rede van Vlissingen is an extremely busy
focal point for shipping. In addition to normal inbound and
outbound traffic, there are ferries plying between Vlissingen
and Breskens, vessels changing pilots off Vlissingen and
vessels entering and leaving the anchorage areas (7.43).
Occasionally, large vessels which have anchored in
Everingen (7.190) need to turn safely in the Rede van
Vlissingen before continuing their passage upriver.
7.26
1
LNG tankers bound for Zeebrugge will be escorted by
a patrol craft and, between the pilot boarding position
(7.13) and the berth, VTS−SM will notify all other vessels
of her position. All vessels must pass at least 2 cables off
the LNG tanker. Between S3 Light−buoy (51°24′⋅3N
3°02′⋅9E) and Z Light−buoy (51°22′⋅5N 3°09′⋅9E) no other
vessel may overtake or cross ahead of the LNG tanker
unless they have her consent and also that of VTS−SM.
Between SZ Light−buoy (51°23′⋅6N 3°07′⋅6E) and the
harbour entrance the LNG tanker will be secured to four
tugs. After passing Z Light−buoy, a fifth tug will be in
attendance and Zeebrugge Port Control will co−ordinate all
shipping movements in order to maintain a minimum
passing distance of 2 cables.
LNG tankers are considered to be vessels constrained by
their draught and shall display the appropriate signals in
accordance with Rule 28 of The International Regulations
for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
Submarine pipeline
7.27 1
Zeepipe Gas Pipeline runs NW from a position close E
of Zeebrugge as shown on the chart.
Exercise areas
7.28
1
Two areas which may be used by vessels engaged in
mine−hunting exercises are indicated on the chart; Zone
NB1 (Westhinder) centred on 51°28′N 2°40′E and Zone
NB10 (Wenduine) centred on 51°19′N 2°54′E.
A circular area with radius 4 miles centred on 51°29′N
2°50′E and indicated on the chart is used occasionally for
the detonation of ammunition and practice mines.
Rescue
7.29
1
Offshore lifeboats are stationed at Zeebrugge and
Breskens (51°24′N 3°34′E). Inshore lifeboats are stationed
at Cadzand, near Wielingen Sluis (51°23′N 3°23′E),
Westkapelle (51°31′N 3°26′E) and Breskens.
2
A constant lookout is maintained by the coastguard at
Zeebrugge and at Blankenberge (51°19′N 3°08′E) during
bad weather.
Tidal streams
7.30 1
Westerschelde estuary. Tidal streams to the W of the
estuary are rotary anti-clockwise and there is little
difference in the direction and rates of the streams
throughout the area. The NE-going stream runs from 1 hour
before to 3 hours after HW Vlissingen and the SW-going
stream from 1 hour before to 3 hours after LW Vlissingen.
The maximum spring rate is 1¾ kn and at neaps is 1 kn.
These maximum rates can be expected from 1 hour before
to 1 hour after HW Vlissingen and again from 5 hours after
to 5 hours before HW Vlissingen.
2
Tidal streams in the middle of Zeegat van Vlissingen
(7.3), the Dutch name for the outer part of the estuary, are
more or less rotary in an anti-clockwise direction. Near the
NE coast of the estuary the streams are still rotary,
anti-clockwise, but less so than in the centre, due partly to
the proximity and direction of the coast. To the SE off the
coast between Oostende and Zeebrugge the streams are
nearly rectilinear and run in the direction of the coast.
3
The times at which streams begin and their directions
vary considerably in the different parts of the estuary. Close
to the river entrance spring rates are 2½ kn and at neaps
1 kn, but further to seaward the rates are less. Both the rate
and direction are affected by strong winds.
4
About 7 miles W of the entrance the in-going stream
begins at −0400 HW Vlissingen and the out-going stream
at +0215 HW Vlissingen. About 2 miles W of the entrance
the in-going stream begins at −0500 HW Vlissingen and
the out-going stream at +0115 HW Vlissingen.
See also information on the charts and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
7.31 1
Rede van Vlissingen (7.39). The in-going stream begins
at −0515 HW Vlissingen, mean rate 1½ kn, and the
out-going stream at +0100 HW Vlissingen, mean rate
2½ kn. The in-going stream is strongest during the fourth
and fifth hour, known locally as ‘De Run’.
2
Off Vlissingen the in-going stream begins 45 minutes
and the out-going stream 2 hours later than the in-going
and out-going streams in Sardijngeul (7.97). There are tide
rips off the W side of Vlissingen when the last of the
out-going stream meets the in-going stream from
Sardijngeul.
3
Between −0600 and −0515 HW Vlissingen, when there
is an in-going stream in Sardijngeul and an out-going
stream in Rede van Vlissingen, the stream from Sardijngeul
runs S across the river entrance and outwards off the S
shore of the estuary.
4
Between −0100 and +0100 HW Vlissingen when there is
an out-going stream in Sardijngeul and an in-going stream
in Rede van Vlissingen, a part of the in-going stream from
the S shore of the estuary turns N and runs outwards in
Sardijngeul, whilst the outer part runs into the river.
5
The turn to the N occurs inside the river entrance, but
later, as the in-going stream slackens in Rede van
Vlissingen, the stream runs N across the entrance. The
streams which run N and S across the entrance are usually
weak.
6
Off Vlissingen Oost the in-going stream begins at −0450
HW Vlissingen and the out-going stream +0115 HW
Vlissingen. These streams lose their strength rapidly
inwards. The first and the last of the out-going stream off
Vlissingen Oost runs W along the Walcheren coast, while
there is an in-going stream in mid-channel.
Effect of the wind
7.32 1
Strong and prolonged winds from seaward cause an
in-going current and raise sea level in the river entrance. In
consequence such winds increase the rate and duration of
the in-going stream, with a corresponding reduction in the
out-going stream. Winds from landward have the opposite
effect. The effect of these winds lingers for some time after
they have ceased to blow.
2
Quantitative information concerning the wind effect on
the tidal stream and sea level is not available, but the effect
is greatest when the wind blows along the line of the
CHAPTER 7
161
stream, both with and against it. Both streams and sea level
are probably affected for a considerable distance up river.
Principal marks
7.33 1
Landmarks:
Nieuwe Sluis Lighthouse (black 8-sided metal tower,
white bands, 22 m in height) (51°24′⋅4N 3°31′⋅3E).
For marks at Zeebrugge see 7.76 and for marks at
Vlissingen see 7.139.
2
Major lights:
Blankenberge Main Light (51°18′⋅8N 3°06′⋅9E) (7.48).
Zeebrugge Leopold II Dam Molehead Light (grey
round tower, 22 m in elevation) (51°20′⋅9N
3°12′⋅3E).
Westkapelle Light (51°32′N 3°27′E) (7.99).
Other aids to navigation
7.34 1
Racons transmit from:
KB Light-buoy (N cardinal) (51°21′⋅2N 2°42′⋅9E).
MOW 0 tide gauge (51°23′⋅7N 3°02′⋅7E).
MOW 3 tide gauge (51°23′⋅4N 3°11′⋅9E).
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 2.
Directions
(continued from 2.48)
Wandelaar Pilot Station to Scheur, passing S of
Akkaert Bank.
7.35 1
From Wandelaar Pilot Station (51°22′N 2°43′E) the route
leads 13 miles ENE to entrance to Scheur, passing:
Between SWA Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°22′⋅3N
2°46′⋅4E), marking the SW end of Akkaert Bank
(7.11) and MBN Light-buoy (N cardinal), 1½
miles S, thence:
2
Between A1 Light-buoy (safe water) and
Oostendebank N Light-buoy (N cardinal), marking
the N end of Oostendebank (6.145), thence:
Between S2 Light-buoy (port hand) and S1
Light-buoy (starboard hand), 1¼ miles ESE, to a
position between S4 Light-buoy (port hand)
(51°25′N 3°03′E) and S3 Light-buoy (N cardinal),
7 cables SE.
(Directions continue at 7.37)
Wandelaar Pilot Station to Scheur, passing N of
Akkaert Bank. Route Vaargeul 1.
7.36 1
From Wandelaar Pilot Station (51°22′N 2°43′E) the
route, called Vaargeul 1, leads 5 miles NE then 9 miles
ESE to the entrance to Scheur, passing:
2
Between GZ Light-buoy (S cardinal) (51°24′⋅3N
2°44′⋅5E) and VG Light-buoy (W cardinal),
1¾ miles SE, thence:
Between VG1 Light-buoy (N cardinal) and VG2
Light-buoy (S cardinal), 1½ miles N, where the
track rounds to E, thence:
3
Between VG4 Light-buoy (port hand) and VG3
Light-buoy (starboard hand), 5 cables S, thence:
Between VG6 Light-buoy (port hand) and VG5
Light-buoy (starboard hand), 5 cables S, thence:
N of VG7 Light-buoy (N cardinal), to a position
between S4 Light-buoy (port hand) (51°25′N
3°03′E) and S3 Light-buoy (N cardinal), 7 cables
SE.
Scheur
(continued from 7.35 or 7.36)
7.37 1
Caution. There is considerable traffic in Scheur and
special care is required in the vicinity of SZ (51°23′⋅6N
3°07′⋅6E) light−buoy at the junction of Scheur and the
approach channel to Zeebrugge. Attention is also required
at the W and E ends of Scheur where traffic converges or
diverges.
7.38 1
Scheur entrance to Rede van Vlissingen. The route
runs 20 miles in a generally E direction through Scheur to
Rede van Vlissingen, passing:
2
Between S4 Light-buoy (port hand) (51°25′N 3°03′E)
and S3 Light-buoy (N cardinal), 7 cables S, at the
entrance to Scheur. Wandelaar, a shoal, lies on the
S side of the entrance. MOW 0, a tide gauge on
which there is a light, stands on the N side of the
shoal, close W of a light-buoy (N cardinal)
marking two wrecks. Schooneveld, a shoal, lies to
the N of the entrance.
3
The route then follows the channel through Scheur,
which is marked by light−buoys (lateral; numbers prefixed
S) as far as S−W Light-buoy (N cardinal) (51°24′⋅1N
3°18′⋅2E) at the junction of Scheur with Wielingen, thence
by lights−buoys (lateral; numbers prefixed W). The route
passes (with positions from MOW3 tide gauge (51°23′⋅4N
3°11′⋅9E)):
4
N of Ribzand (2¾ miles W) a shoal. SZ Light-buoy
(E cardinal) is moored on the NE side of the shoal
close W of the junction of Scheur and the
approach channel to Zeebrugge.
(Directions for Zeebrugge continue at 7.77)
The track continues:
S of Vlakte van de Raan (3½ miles N). A wreck
marked by Samselbu Light-buoy (W cardinal) lies
on the S side of the shoal about 5 cables N of the
channel. Thence:
5
N of Bol van Heist a shoal on which stands MOW3
tide gauge (lighted), thence:
N of S−W Light−buoy (N cardinal) (4 miles ENE)
marking the junction of Scheur with Wielingen
(7.40), and;
S of Bol van Knokke (5 miles ENE) a shoal with a
least depth of 3⋅6 m over it. MOW4 tide gauge
(lighted) stands at the W end of the shoal. Thence:
6
S of Steel Traveller Buoy (S cardinal) (5½ miles
ENE) marking a wreck with a swept depth of
10⋅2 m, thence;
Clear of Fort Maisonneuve Light-buoy (W cardinal)
(6 miles ENE) moored 1½ cables NW of a wreck
with a swept depth of 12⋅1 m, thence:
7
S of Sluissche Hompels (9 miles ENE) a shoal with a
least depth of 2⋅9 m, and;
N of Sea Blue Buoy (N cardinal) (9 miles E) marking
wrecks with a swept depth of 11⋅5 m, thence:
N of Kruishoofd (51°23′⋅7N 3°28′⋅3E) a prominent
part of the dyke on which there is a disused
lighthouse. Steen Buoy (N cardinal) marking an
obstruction with a swept depth of 6⋅2 m is moored
5½ cables NNW.
Chart 120
7.39 1
From a position in mid−channel N of Kruishoofd, at the
W limit of Rede van Vlissingen Precautionary Area (7.25),
the ENE course commenced in Scheur continues for
CHAPTER 7
162
approximately 5 miles to a position in mid−channel SSE of
Buitenhaven, passing (with positions from Vlissingen Main
Light):
2
SSE of Wielingen−Noord anchorage (3½ miles WSW)
(7.43) marked on its S limit by W6 and W8
Light−buoys (port hand), thence:
NNW of Wielingen−Zuid anchorage (2½ miles SW)
(7.43). W9 Light−buoy is located on the N
boundary of the anchorage area close NW of
Nieuwe Sluis Light (7.33) and is covered by a
narrow white sector of this light, thence:
NNW of Breskens ferry harbour (2½ miles SSW)
(7.51). A prohibited anchorage area (7.53) in the
harbour approach is marked at its NW corner by
Songa Light−buoy (starboard hand). Thence:
3
SSE of the seafront at Vlissingen on which stand
Vlissingen Main Light and Sardijngeul Leading
Lights (7.142). Sardijngeul, an important fairway at
the inner end of the N approach to Westerschelde
(7.90) converges with the main channel close W of
Vlissingen and is included in the Precautionary
Area (7.25). Thence:
4
NNW of Flushing Road West anchorage (1½ miles S)
(7.43) and Flushing Road East anchorage (2 miles
SE) (7.43). SS1 Light−buoy at the NE corner of
the latter anchorage marks the beginning of Schaar
van Spijkerplaat (7.188) a side channel. Thence:
To a position SSE of the entrance to Buitenhaven.
(Directions continue for Vlissingen at 7.140 and for
Westerschelde at 7.185)
Wielingen
Chart 1874
General information
7.40 1
Wielingen crosses the approach channel to Zeebrugge.
Vessels navigating in Wielingen and those entering or
leaving Zeebrugge may be using different VHF frequencies.
There is a concentration of traffic where Wielingen joins
Scheur in the vicinity of S−W Light−buoy (51°24′⋅2N
3°18′⋅2E).
In bad weather there may be heavy seas on the outer bar
(51°22′N 3°00′E).
Directions
7.41 1
From Wandelaar Pilot Station (51°22′N 2°43′E) the route
leads 12 miles ESE to Wielingen and thence 10 miles
farther ENE through Wielingen to the junction with Scheur
(7.38). The route passes:
2
Between SWA Light-buoy (W cardinal) and MBN
Light-buoy (N cardinal), thence:
Between A1 Light-buoy (safe water) (51°22′N
2°53′E) and Oostendebank N Light-buoy
(N cardinal) (1½ miles S), thence:
Clear of A1-bis Light-buoy (safe water) (51°22′N
2°58′E), thence:
3
Between SWW Light-buoy (port hand) (51°22′N
3°01′E) on the SW side of the shoal and WBN
Light-buoy (starboard hand) (1 mile ESE), which is
moored on the N side of Wenduine Bank (51°19′N
3°01′E), a shoal fronting the coast between
Oostende and Zeebrugge. The track rounds to ENE
through Wielingen following the channel. The N
limit of the channel is a line extending ENE from
SWW Light-buoy passing close S of Nippon
Light-buoy (S cardinal) (2¾ miles ENE). The S
limit is a line extending ENE from WBN
Light-buoy through Z Light-buoy (starboard hand).
4
The route then follows the fairway through Wielingen,
which is marked by light-buoys, passing (with positions
from MOW 3 tide gauge (51°23′⋅4N 3°11′⋅9E)):
NNW of Blankenberge (5 miles SW) (7.44), thence:
SSE of Ribzand (2¾ miles W) (7.38) and clear of A2
Light-buoy (safe water), thence:
5
Across the entrance channel to Zeebrugge (1¼ miles
WSW) (7.77). Z Light-buoy (starboard hand) on
the N side of Zand and WZ Light-buoy (W
cardinal) lie on the S limit of the fairway either
side of the entrance channel. Thence:
6
N of Paardenmarkt (4 miles ESE) a long narrow ridge
which lies up to 1½ miles offshore. There is a
spoil ground on the N side of the shoal marked by
Br & WZB Oost Light-buoy (special). Anchoring
and fishing are prohibited in an area, shown on the
chart, on the W side of the shoal. Thence:
7
Between S−W Light-buoy (4 miles E) and W1
Light-buoy (starboard hand) where Wielingen joins
with Scheur (7.37).
Useful marks
7.42 1
Water tower (51°16′⋅5N 3°02′⋅5E).
Water tower (51°18′N 3°04′E).
Wenduine Church (51°18′N 3°05′E).
Water tower (51°20′⋅5N 3°16′⋅1E).
Anchorages
7.43 1
Westhinder anchorage area. See 2.49.
Wielingen−Noord anchorage is situated N of a line
joining W6 (51°25′N 3°27′E) and W8 Light-buoys on the
N side of the fairway. The anchorage is primarily intended
for tankers and vessels carrying dangerous cargoes. The
holding ground is not good and the anchorage should not
be used in bad weather. The limits of the anchorage, shown
on the chart, are marked by light-buoys and buoys.
2
Wielingen−Zuid anchorage is a general purpose
anchorage, intended mainly for vessels over 14 m draught
waiting for the tide. The anchorage, which is shown on the
chart, lies S of the fairway between the disused lighthouse
at Kruishoofd (51°24′N 3°28′E) and Breskens Ferry
Harbour. The holding ground is not good and the
anchorage should not be used in bad weather.
3
Flushing Roads anchorage (51°25′N 3°36′E) lies S of
the fairway to the NE of Breskens (51°24′N 3°34′E). The
limits of the anchorage, shown on the chart, are marked by
light-buoys and buoys. The anchorage is divided into an E
and W part. The smaller E part is designated for small
sea-going vessels carrying dangerous cargoes. The
anchorage is open to the W and in strong winds vessels
should anchor in Put van Terneuzen (7.212).
4
Prohibited anchorage. See 7.53.
Blankenberge
Chart 1874
General information
7.44 1
Blankenberge (51°19′N 3°08′E) is a popular Belgian
seaside resort. A few fishing vessels still berth in the small
harbour but it is mainly used by recreational craft.
CHAPTER 7
163
Limiting conditions
7.45 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel, which lies
between breakwaters, and the harbour itself, have depths
between 1⋅8 and 2⋅0 m. There is a digital display on a
board at the end of the E breakwater, which shows depth
in the channel in decimetres with respect to approximately
the level of LAT.
2
Mean tidal levels are not available for Blankenberge.
The tidal range is about 5 m at springs and 3⋅7 m at neaps.
Local weather. Following strong winds from the SW a
bar forms across the harbour entrance. The bar is normally
cleared by dredging.
The approach to the harbour is normally safe except
with strong winds from the NW when the sea breaks over
the shallow shoals fronting the coast.
Arrival information
7.46 1
Pilots are not available.
Regulations. In the entrance channel speed is restricted
to 8 km/hour and in the harbour 5 km/hour. These speed
restrictions are indicated on notice boards.
Harbour
7.47 1
Harbour. The old harbour runs ENE off the entrance
channel. The yacht marina is entered from the SW side of
the old harbour. Both harbours are tidal.
There is a promenade pier about 1 mile NE of the
harbour. A light (metal pedestal) is exhibited from its head.
2
Small craft signal is exhibited from a mast close W of
the Main Light (7.48) when craft less than 6 m in length
are prohibited from putting to sea. For details of signals see
6.171.
Yachting buoys (special) are laid off the harbour during
summer months.
Tidal streams. Off Blankenberge the E-going stream
begins at −0335 HW Vlissingen and the W-going stream at
+0245 HW Vlissingen. The spring rate on the E-going
stream is 2 kn and on the W-going stream 1½ kn.
7.48 1
Major light:
Blankenberge Main Light (white concrete tower, black
top) (51°18′⋅8N 3°06′⋅9E), which stands on Comte
Jean Jetty.
Directions
7.49 1
Leading lights:
Front light (red X on metal mast, 5 m in height)
(51°18′⋅7N 3°06′⋅9E).
Rear light (metal mast, 8 m in height) (81 m SE of
front light).
2
The alignment (134°) of these lights leads across
Wenduine Bank (7.41) and thence through the entrance
channel to the harbour. The entrance channel is formed by
two stone piers, which project about 270 m from the shore.
A light (white round tower) is exhibited from the head of
each pier.
7.50 1
Useful marks:
Blankenberge Main Light-tower (51°18′⋅8N 3°06′⋅9E)
(7.48).
Blankenberge Church (51°19′N 3°08′E).
Cupola of the pier (51°19′⋅4N 3°08′⋅2E).
Breskens
Chart 120 plan of Breskens
General information
7.51 1
Breskens (51°24′N 3°34′E) lies on the S side of the
entrance to Westerschelde, 2½ miles SSW of Vlissingen. It
has two harbours, a ferry harbour and a small commercial
harbour, 6 cables ESE of the ferry harbour. A regular ferry
service with Vlissingen is maintained.
The harbour is state owned.
Limiting conditions
7.52 1
The depth in the ferry harbour is 6⋅0 m.
The depth in the entrance to the commercial harbour is
5⋅0 m. There are depths between 3⋅1 and 4⋅6 m in
Westhaven and Oosthaven.
Traffic regulations
7.53
1
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in the
approach from the NNE to Breskens (51°24′N 3°34′E). The
area is shown on the chart.
Harbour
7.54 1
There are two landing stages in the ferry harbour, used
exclusively by the Breskens/Vlissingen ferries.
The commercial harbour is divided by a quay into
Westhaven and Oosthaven. Westhaven has a jetty 260 m in
length, depth alongside between 4⋅1 and 4⋅6 m, which is
used by small sea-going vessels. There are also berths for
working cargo alongside the quay that separates the two
parts of the harbour. Oosthaven is used by fishing vessels.
2
There is a yacht marina on the E side of Oosthaven with
depths between 3⋅0 and 4⋅8 m.
Tidal streams
7.55 1
Tidal streams run strongly off the entrance and there is
an eddy with the in-going stream, but there is no special
difficulty in entering the harbour.
See also 7.31.
Directions
7.56 1
Ferry harbour. The entrance, 150 m wide, lies between
the heads of two moles on which stand lights, W mole
head (black and white metal mast, 11 m in height), E mole
head (black and white metal mast, 10 m in height).
7.57 1
Commercial harbour. The common entrance to
Westhaven and Oosthaven is 100 m wide and lies between
the heads of two moles on which stand lights, W mole
head (grey metal mast, 5 m in height), E molehead (grey
mast, 5 m in height).
2
Caution: Breskens is liable to silting and dredging takes
place in the spring and autumn, but prior to dredging
depths in Oosthaven may be up to 2 m less than charted.
The Harbour Master should be consulted for the latest
infomation on depths.
7.58 1
Useful mark:
Grain silo (51°23′⋅8N 3°33′⋅9E), which stands on the
arm separating Westhaven and Oosthaven.
CHAPTER 7
164
Port services
7.59 1
Repairs. There is a slipway for small vessels and a
small repair yard.
Supplies: water at the main jetty and at the fish jetty.
Rescue: An offshore and an inshore lifeboat are
stationed in Breskens (7.29).
ZEEBRUGGE AND BRUGGE
General information
Chart 1874
Position
7.60 1
Zeebrugge (51°20′N 3°12′E) is situated on the Belgian
coast about 5 miles WSW of the border with Netherlands.
Function
7.61 1
The port handles considerable container, Ro−Ro and
bulk traffic and is a trans−shipment hub for coastal and
river traffic. Principal commodities handled include vehicles
and forestry products.
Zeebrugge is the sea terminus for the Boudewijnkanaal
(Zeebrugge-Brugge Canal) (7.87).
The population of Zeebrugge together with Brugge is
116 559 (2001).
Topography
7.62 1
The port is entirely man-made and lies between very
large breakwaters which project nearly 2 miles to seaward
of the low-lying Belgian coast.
Port limits
7.63 1
The limits of the port are defined by the breakwaters
and to seaward of a line drawn between their heads.
Approach and entry
7.64 1
A dredged approach channel, Pas van het Zand, leads to
the harbour entrance from the NW. The approach channel
is joined from either Scheur (7.38) or Wielingen (7.41).
Traffic
7.65 1
In 2004 the port handled 7401 vessels with a total
deadweight of 79⋅8 million tonnes.
Port Authority
7.66 1
Maatschappij van de Bruges, Zeevaartinrichtingen NV,
Isabellaan 1, 8380 Zeebrugge, Belgium.
Limiting conditions
7.67 1
Controlling depths. The approach channel, Pas van het
Zand, which branches SE from Scheur is maintained to
15⋅5 m over a width of 300 m. Within the outer harbour,
the principal fairways and several of the larger basins have
a maintained depth of 15⋅0 m.
2
The approach channel and outer harbour are subject to
silting. The Harbour Master should be consulted for the
latest information on depths.
Deepest and longest berth The deepest berths are in the
Zuidelijk Kanaaldok (7.85) and the longest berth is
Flanders Container Terminal (7.84).
3
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 4⋅4 m; mean neap range
about 2⋅8 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled in the outer harbour is
length 350 m and beam 55 m. Within the inner harbour
vessels up to 400 m in length, beam 48 m and draught
15⋅5 m can be accepted. The Harbour Master should be
consulted for the latest information.
Arrival information
Port operations
7.68 1
Zeebrugge participates in the Vessel Traffic Services for
Schelde and Estuaries. See 7.16 for details.
Notice of ETA required
7.69 1
Request to enter harbour should be made 1 hour before
arrival at Z Light-buoy. For further details see Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Anchorage
7.70 1
There is anchorage 2 miles ENE of the harbour entrance
in depths of 8 m, clear of Wielingen (7.40) and the area in
which anchoring and fishing is prohibited, 2½ miles E of
the harbour entrance and shown on the chart. The latter
area has been used for dumping explosives.
2
Anchorage may also be obtained in good weather in
Ribzand (51°23′N 3°08′E) between Scheur and Wielingen.
Pilotage and tugs
7.71 1
See 7.12.
Tugs are available.
Regulations
7.72 1
There are special regulations in force regarding the
movements of LNG carriers. For those which affect other
vessels in their prescence see 7.26.
Harbour
General layout
7.73 1
The artificial harbour is enclosed by two large
breakwaters. The E breakwater extends 11 cables NNW
from the shore then turns WNW for a further 9 cables. The
W breakwater lies nearly 2 miles WSW of the E
breakwater and runs parallel to it for 13½ cables before
turning to the NE for 1 mile.
2
Inside the W breakwater land has been reclaimed for
two container terminals, the Ocean Container Terminal
Hessenatie Zeebrugge (under construction 2005) and the
Flanders Container Terminal. Flanders Container Terminal
is on the SE side of Albert II Dock. Leopold II Dam forms
the SE limit of the reclaimed land. The LNG Terminal lies
within the E breakwater, being sheltered to the N and W
by the LNG Dam.
3
The layout of the many quays SE of Leopold II Dam
can best be seen on the chart.
Two locks connect the tidal outer harbour with the inner
harbour, which is connected by a canal, Boudewijnkanaal,
about 5 miles in length to the harbour at Brugge (7.87).
CHAPTER 7
165
Zeebrugge (7.73)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Henderyckx Fotografie)
Traffic signals
7.74 1
Entry and departure. International Port Traffic Signals,
which control vessels entering and leaving the harbour, are
exhibited from the head of the western breakwater and also
from the tower at the head of Leopold II Dam. See The
Mariner’s Handbook for details of the signals.
Zeebrugge W. Breakwater − Light
and Traffic Signals (7.74)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − HMS Exeter)
2
The following signals are used when vessels carrying
LNG are entering and departing.
On the
seaward side
On the
landward side
Meaning
Green light over
2 red lights
Three red lights LNG ship inward
bound for LNG
terminal. Entry only
with definite
permission.
Departure prohibited
Three red lights Green light over
red light over
green light.
LNG ship outward
bound from LNG
terminal. Departure
only with definite
permission. Entry
prohibited
3
Lock signals are exhibited at the entrances to the locks
as follows:
Day Night Meaning
Black ball Green over red
light
Lock is being
prepared
Two vertical
black balls
Green over red
over green light
Lock is ready
Tidal streams
7.75 1
About 2¼ miles NE of the harbour entrance the E-going
stream, mean direction 075°, begins at −0310 HW
Zeebrugge. The W-going stream, mean direction 253°,
begins at +0210 HW Zeebrugge. The spring rate in both
directions is 2½ kn.
CHAPTER 7
166
2
Off the harbour the E-going stream begins at −0300 HW
Zeebrugge and at springs has a mean rate of 2 kn from
2 hours before to 1½ hours after HW Zeebrugge, with a
maximum rate of 4 kn at −0100 HW Zeebrugge. At neaps
the mean rate is 1 kn from 2 hours before to 1 hour after
HW Zeebrugge with a maximum rate of 2 kn.
See also information on the charts.
Principal marks
7.76 1
Landmarks:
Water tower (51°19′⋅8N 3°11′⋅8E).
Leopold II Dam (51°21′N 3°12′E), which has a
light-tower and signal mast at its head (51°20′⋅9N
3°12′⋅3E) (7.33). A large radar tower is 600 m
WSW of the head.
2
Conical church tower (51°20′⋅4N 3°14′⋅2E) at Heist.
Major light:
Zeebrugge Leopold II Dam Molehead Light—as
above.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 7.38)
Approach channel to harbour
7.77 1
Outer leading lights:
Front light (white column, red bands, 22 m in
elevation) (51°20′⋅8N 3°13′⋅2E).
Rear light (similar structure, 45 m in elevation)
(890 m SE of front light).
2
The alignment (136°) of these lights leads through the
approach channel from its junction with Scheur (51°24′N
3°08′E), thence through the entrance to Zeebrugge harbour,
passing (with positions from the harbour entrance (51°22′N
3°11′E)):
3
NE of Ribzand (3 miles NW) (7.38) marked at its NE
extremity by SZ Light-buoy (E cardinal), thence:
Through the junction with Wielingen (1½ miles NW)
(7.40), marked on its S side by Z Light-buoy
(starboard hand) and WZ Light-buoy (W cardinal),
thence:
4
Through the harbour entrance which is 3½ cables
wide and lies between the heads of E and W
breakwaters on which stand lights and traffic
signals (7.74). The E breakwater has numerous
wind generators along its length. Thence:
5
To a position on the leading line about 5 cables inside
the harbour entrance. The limits of the fairway on
the NE side are indicated by light-buoys (port
hand) and on the SW side by light-buoys (port and
starboard hand). An area dangerous for navigation
lies on the NE side of the fairway between the
heads of the E breakwater and the LNG Dam,
1 mile SE. It contains a bird sanctuary.
6
Caution. The buoyage in the approaches changes
frequently to reflect the current state of the channel.
7.78 1
Inner leading lights:
Front light (white metal pylon, red bands, 11 m in
height) (51°20′⋅4N 3°13′⋅0E).
Rear light (white building, red bands) (520 m SSE of
front light).
2
The alignment (154°) of these lights leads between the
head of Leopold II Dam and LNG-Dam to the centre of
the harbour from whence there is direct access to the berths
in the outer harbour and the two sea locks which are used
to enter the inner harbour.
Harbour leading lights
7.79 1
Albert II Dok:
Front light (51°20′⋅6N 3°10′⋅6E).
Rear light (155 m SW of front light).
The alignment (232°) of these lights leads along the axis
of Albert II Dock (7.73).
7.80 1
Westhoofd:
Front light (white concrete column, black bands)
(51°20′⋅4N 3°11′⋅7E).
Rear light (similar structure) (200 m SW of front
light).
2
The alignment (220°) of these lights leads from the
centre of the harbour E of Leopold II Dam to NE end of
Westhoofd (7.84) at the intersection with the alignment
193° (7.81).
7.81 1
Front light (white concrete column, red bands)
(51°19′⋅9N 3°11′⋅7E).
Rear light (similar structure) (188 m SSW of front
light).
The alignment (193°) of these lights leads along the E
side of Westhoofd.
Sea locks
7.82 1
Zeesluis Pierre Vandamme (51°20′⋅2N 3°13′⋅0E), the E
lock is 500 m in length, 55⋅4 m wide and has a depth over
the sill of 15 m.
West Lock (51°19′⋅7N 3°11′⋅9E) is 220 m in length,
19⋅7 m wide and has a depth over the sill of 5⋅5 m.
Useful mark
7.83 1
Zeebrugge Church (51°19′⋅9N 3°12′⋅4E).
Berths
Outer harbour
7.84 1
Wielingendok enclosed NW by the W breakwater and
SE by the broad expanse of OCT container terminal, has a
dredged depth of 10⋅0 m. At its head is a finger pier with
two Ro-Ro berths.
2
Ocean Container Terminal Hessenatie Zeebrugge on
the NW side of Albert II Dok (51°21′⋅2N 3°11′⋅2E) is
under construction (2005) and will have a quay length of
995 m and an alongside depth of 15 m.
Flanders Container Terminal (51°20′⋅9N 3°11′⋅5E) on
the SE side of Albert II Dok has 900 m of quays with
alongside depths of 12⋅7 to 13⋅7 m.
3
Leopold II Dam (51°20′⋅5N 3°11′⋅5E) on its inner side
provides berthing over a length of 1570 m, with depths
alongside of 7⋅2 to 10⋅5 m. There are Ro-Ro berths for car
ferries at the root of the mole.
4
Westhoofd (51°20′⋅3N 3°11′⋅6E) is a broad quay in the
SW corner of the harbour and is used as a container and
Ro-Ro terminal. It provides seven major berths with an
overall quay length of 1770 m, with depths alongside of
13⋅0 to 15⋅0 m.
5
Albert I Dok (51°20′⋅1N 3°12′⋅3E) lies on the E side of
the entrance basin leading to the West lock. It is used by
recreational craft.
Militair Tijdok (51°20′⋅3N 3°12′⋅4E), used by the
Belgian Navy, consists of two basins.
CHAPTER 7
167
6
Zweedse Kaai (51°20′⋅4N 3°12′⋅6E) lies on the W side
of the entrance basin to the E sea lock, Zeesluis Pierre
Vandamme. The quay is 825 m in length, with a depth
alongside of 13⋅4 m and has three Ro-Ro berths.
Britanniadok (Werkhaven) (51°20′⋅6N 3°13′⋅3E) lies in
the SE corner of the outer harbour and is a terminal for
cross-Channel Ro-Ro services.
7
LNG Terminal (51°21′⋅2N 3°13′⋅0E) lies to the N of
Britanniadok and has a jetty length of 320 m with a depth
alongside of 13 m.
Inner harbour
7.85 1
Zeesluis Pierre Vandamme (7.82) leads into the
Connection Dock which runs 1 mile S then 8 cables W to
join Boudewijnkanaal (7.87). Noordelijk Insteekdok, which
has a Ro-Ro berth, runs N from the connecting dock and
has 1130 m of quays with depths alongside of 11 m.
2
Zuidelijk Kanaaldok has a car terminal with two Ro-Ro
berths on the E side and two general cargo and bulk berths
on the W side; both sides having an alongside depth of
18.0 m. In 2005 work was in progress extending the dock
farther S.
West Lock (7.82) gives access to a turning basin off
which run Prins Filipsdok, is 560 m in length with a depth
of 8⋅4 m, and the former Ferrydok, which is 500 m in
length with a depth of 8 m. The turning basin leads to
Boudewijnkanaal, but the approach to the canal is normally
made through Zeesluis Pierre Vandamme.
Port services
7.86 1
Repairs of a minor nature can be carried out.
Other facilities: hospitals at Brugge and Blankenberge;
deratting exemption certificates only issued.
Supplies: all marine fuels by barge or at fuelling berth
on Leopold II Dam; water at all berths; provisions.
Brugge
General information
7.87 1
The port of Brugge (51°14′N 3°13′E) is 5 miles S of
Zeebrugge and linked to it by Boudewijnkanaal. At its
most narrow the canal is 70 m in width and it has a depth
of 7⋅1 m. Depths in the canal may be less than charted and
the Port Authority should be consulted for the latest
information. At Dudzele, 3½ miles S of Zeebrugge, the
canal is crossed by a lifting rail bridge, navigation span
40 m in width, and 200 m farther S by a lifting bridge,
navigation span 30 m in width.
2
In 2004 the port handled 384 vessels with a total
deadweight of 1⋅2 million tonnes.
Harbour
7.88 1
The canal gives access to three basins, which from W to
E are Nijverheidsdok (depth 8⋅0m), Groot Handelsdok
(depth 6⋅0 m) and Klein Handelsdok (depth 7⋅6 m).
Together the docks provide about 1570 m of quays used for
berthing. A lock at the S end of Groot Handelsdok
connects with the Ghent-Oostende canal and hence with the
whole network of West European waterways.
Port services
7.89 1
Repairs of a limited nature can be carried out.
Other facilities: hospital; deratting exemption
certificates only issued.
Supplies: marine fuels; water.
NORTH APPROACH TO WESTERSCHELDE
General information
Charts 110, 1874, 1872
Routes
7.90 1
From Steenbank Pilot Station (51°45′N 3°13′E) the route
runs 15 miles SSE to entrance to Oostgat, whence the route
runs a further 10 miles in a generally SE direction to Rede
van Vlissingen (Flushing Road) (7.39), following the route
through Oostgat (7.104), and its continuations SE, Galgeput
and Sardijngeul.
2
Deeper draught vessels should follow an outer route
(7.101), known as the West Circuit, which leads outside the
coastal bank and runs 9 miles SSW, passing between
Rabsbank and Middelbank, thence 14 miles SW through
Westpit before turning E into Scheur (7.37).
Deurloo (7.109) is a minor channel inside the coastal
bank.
Topography
7.91 1
See 7.3. for description of coast.
The coastal bank, which on the N side of Scheur
extends 20 miles to seaward, closes the coast to the NE and
by the latitude of Westkapelle (51°32′N 3°27′E) is only
6 miles off the coast.
7.92 1
To the NE of the Outer Banks described at 7.4 to 7.11
lie the following banks:
Schaar (51°42′N 3°10′E), which lies 2 miles N of
Rabsbank (7.10) and extends 8 miles NE into
Schouwenbank (51°47′N 3°24′E) (8.16), which extends a
further 12 miles NE.
2
Middelbank (51°41′N 3°20′E) a ridge, extends NE from
Rabsbank (7.10) with Steenbanken (51°40′N 3°24′E) a
shallow ridge of hard sand and broken shells, about 9 miles
in length, to the SE. A dangerous wreck (51°37′N 3°17′E),
marked by a buoy (W cardinal), lies on the SW side of
Steenbanken.
Depths
7.93 1
Depending on the precise route taken, depths in excess
of 15 m can be maintained on the West Circuit (7.101).
The approach to Oostgat leading over Steenbanken has
depths of less than 7 m on the leading line. Within the
narrow fairway formed by Oostgat (7.104), Galgeput and
Sardijngeul there are depths of more than 8 m in
mid−channel but lesser depths exist closer to the sides.
2
The approach channels to Westerschelde are surveyed
annually and the pilots should be consulted for the latest
information.
Pilotage
7.94 1
See 7.12 and 7.14.
Masters are recommended to employ pilots on the routes
described in this section.
CHAPTER 7
168
Traffic regulations
7.95 1
For Rede van Vlissingen Precautionary Area see 7.25.
For Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 1990 see
Appendix IV.
Rescue
7.96 1
See 7.29.
Natural conditions
7.97 1
Tidal streams. The first of the in-going stream runs in
the direction of Oostgat, Galgeput and Sardijngeul, but as
the tide rises it runs in a more S direction across the
coastal banks to seaward of the channel. In the same
fashion the out-going stream runs NNW across the coastal
bank, but as the tide falls conforms more to the direction
of the channel.
2
The in-going stream begins in Oostgat, S of Molenhoofd
(51°31′N 3°26′E) at +0540 HW Vlissingen, but begins
progressively later to the SE and at the river entrance
begins at −0515 HW Vlissingen. There is a similar delay
on the out-going stream, which begins in Oostgat, S of
Zuiderhoofd at −0130 HW Vlissingen and off the river
entrance at +0100 HW Vlissingen.
3
The maximum spring rate of the tidal stream in Oostgat
is 2½ kn.
North of Raan (7.38) the in-going stream runs in the
direction of the channel between −0200 HW Vlissingen and
−0030 HW Vlissingen and the out-going stream between
+0430 HW Vlissingen and −0600 HW Vlissingen.
Otherwise the tidal streams conform to those in Oostgat.
4
See also information on the charts and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
7.98 1
Effect of the wind. See 7.32.
Principal marks
7.99 1
Landmarks:
Water tower (51°34′N 3°30′E) at Domburg (8.24).
Spire (3 cables SW of water tower at Domburg).
Westkapelle Lighthouse (square stone tower, red metal
superstructure, 52 m in height) (51°32′N 3°27′E).
Molenhoofd Lighthouse (white metal mast, red bands,
7 m in height) (51°32′N 3°26′E).
2
Spire (51°30′N 3°29′E) at Zoutelande, which is
visible above the sand dunes and has a windmill
and several houses close by.
Steeple (51°30′N 3°37′E) at Middelburg. In good
visibility the steeple can be seen outside the banks
on the approach to the estuary.
3
Kappduinen leading light-towers (51°28′⋅5N 3°31′⋅0E)
(7.106).
For marks at Vlissingen see 7.139.
Major light:
Westkapelle Light—as above.
Other aid to navigation
7.100
1
Racon transmits from Schouwenbank Light-buoy
(51°45′⋅0N 3°14′⋅3E).
Directions
Steenbank Pilot Station to Scheur
7.101 1
From Steenbank Pilot Station (51°45′N 3°13′E), the
route (West Circuit) leads 9 miles SSW, thence 14 miles
SW to a position 2 miles W of the entrance to Scheur,
passing:
Between Schaar (51°42′N 3°10′E) and Schouwenbank
(51°47′N 3°24′E) (8.16). SBZ Light-buoy (S
cardinal) is moored on the SE end of
Schouwenbank. Thence:
2
Between Rabsbank (51°36′N 3°08′E) (7.10) and
Middelbank (51°41′N 3°20′E) (7.92). Rabsbank
Light-buoy (safe water) is moored at the NE end
of the bank and is flanked by two buoys (both
special) 100 m to the NW and SW respectively to
enhance identification by radar. Thence:
3
Through Westpit (51°32′N 3°10′E), the channel
running between the coastal bank and Rabsbank.
The deeper water lies on the W side of the
channel. Westpit Light-buoy (safe water) is moored
at the NE end and Wreck 13 Light-buoy (S
cardinal) (51°29′⋅0N 3°06′⋅5E) on the SE side of
Westpit. Thence:
4
SE of Akkaert NE Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°27′⋅3N
2°59′⋅4E) moored on the NE side of Akkaert Bank
(7.11), thence:
To a position about 2 miles W of the entrance
(51°25′N 3°03′E) to Scheur, where the route
through Scheur is joined (7.38).
Approach from the North West to Oostgat
7.102 1
From a position close SE of Schouwenbank Light-buoy
(safe water) (51°45′N 3°14′E), which is 1 mile E of
Steenbank Pilot Station, the route leads 14 miles SSE to a
position at the N end of Oostgat. A number of light-buoys,
described below, lie on or very close to the route and it is
recommended that they are left to port, that is inbound
vessels pass to the SW, and outbound vessels to the NE of
the light-buoys. The route passes (with positions from
Noorderhoofd Light (51°32′⋅4N 3°26′⋅E)):
2
NNE of Schaar (51°42′N 3°10′E) (7.92), thence:
Over the SW extremity of Schouwenbank (51°47′N
3°24′E) (7.92), clear of SBZ Light-buoy (S
cardinal) (51°42′⋅5N 3°16′⋅6E), thence:
3
Across the SW end of Schouwendiep (9½ miles
NNW) (8.16), which lies between Schouwenbank
and Middelbank (7.92), and clear of Middelbank
Light-buoy (safe water) which is moored in the
centre of the bank. Thence:
4
Leading lights:
Noorderhoofd Light (red round metal tower, white
band, 16 m in height) (51°32′⋅4N 3°26′⋅2E),
standing on the NW extremity of Walcheren.
Westkapelle Light (51°31′⋅8N 3°26′⋅8E) (7.99),
7 cables SSW of Noorderhoofd Light.
5
The route continues on the alignment (149½°) of these
lights, passing:
Over Middeldiep (8½ miles NNW) (8.18), a deep
channel about 2½ miles wide lying between
Middelbank and Steenbanken (7.92). Thence:
6
Clear of Magne Light-buoy (N cardinal) (8 miles
NNW), which marks a wreck on the NW side of
Steenbanken, thence:
CHAPTER 7
169
Clear of MSB Light-buoy (W cardinal) (7 miles
NNW) which is moored in the centre of
Steenbanken, thence:
7
Across the NE extremity of Steendiep (6½ miles NW)
(8.19), a channel lying SE of Steenbanken, which
gives access to Westgat (8.35).
(Directions continue for Roompotsluis at 8.35)
Between Kueerens or Domburger Rassen (4 miles N)
and Kaloo (3½ miles WNW), passing clear of
Kaloo Light-buoy (safe water) (3½ miles NNW)
and ENE of OG3 Light−buoy (starboard hand),
6 cables SW, marking a shoal patch, thence:
8
ENE of OG5 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (2 miles
NW), which is moored close NE of a wreck.
Tojaro Buoy (E cardinal), marking a wreck, is
3 cables WNW of OG5 Light-buoy, thence:
To the N end of Oostgat in the vicinity of OG
Light-buoy (safe water) (1½ miles NNW).
9
Caution. With strong sustained W winds there is a
heavy ground swell over Kueerens and in W gales the sea
breaks over the shoal in places. Even a slight wind, when
it is against the tide, causes a confused sea to rise quickly.
7.103 1
Alternative approach to Oostgat: Steenbanken, which
is the shallowest part of the route described in 7.102, may
be avoided by following the route, which leads 8 miles
SSW from Schouwenbank Light-buoy (safe water) (51°45′N
3°14′E), thence 8 miles ESE passing:
ESE of Rabsbank Light-buoy (safe water) (51°38′N
3°10′E) (7.101), thence:
2
The route rounds to E, passing (with positions from
Noorderhoofd Light (51°32′⋅4N 3°26′⋅2E))
S of ZSB Light-buoy (W cardinal) (8 miles WNW),
moored at the SW end of Steenbanken, thence:
N of OG1 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (5½ miles
NW) moored on the SE side of Steendiep, thence:
To the vicinity of Kaloo Light-buoy (3½ miles
NNW), rejoining the route above.
Oostgat to Rede van Vlissingen
7.104 1
Oostgat, which continues into Galgeput and Sardijngeul,
is the channel, about 5 cables wide, lying between the SW
coast of Walcheren and the extensive coastal bank. From its
N end the channel leads in a generally SE direction
10 miles to Rede van Vlissingen. Oostgat and Galgeput are
marked by light-buoys and buoys (lateral: numbers prefixed
OG) and Sardijngeul by light-buoys (lateral: numbers
prefixed SG).
7.105 1
OG Light-buoy to Molenhoodf. From the vicinity of
OG Light-buoy (safe water) (51°34′N 3°25′E) the route
leads 2½ miles S to a position SW of Molenhoodf, passing
(with positions from Westkapelle Light (51°32′N 3°27′E)):
2
Between Noorderhoofd Lighthouse (8 cables NNW)
(7.102) and OG-GR Light-buoy (E cardinal)
(1½ miles NW). The light-buoy is moored at the
NW end of Bankje van Zoutelande, which dries in
its S part and lies along the SW side of Oostgat.
Thence:
3
To a position in mid-channel (8 cables WSW) on the
alignment (072°) of Molenhoofd Light (white
metal mast, red bands, 7 m in height) (5 cables
WSW) with Westkapelle Light (7.99). Off
Molenhoofd, where the channel narrows to
3½ cables, the pile heads are fitted with radar
reflectors to assist navigation.
4
Caution. Within this stretch of the channel, even light
winds can cause a rough sea, particularly when the wind is
against the tidal stream. The sea moderates quickly farther
offshore.
7.106 1
Kaapduinen Leading Lights:
Front light (yellow square stone tower, red bands,
14 m in height) (51°28′⋅5N 3°31′⋅0E).
Rear light (similar structure, 13 m in height) (220 m
SE of front light).
From a position SSW of Molenhoofd Light (5 cables
WSW) (7.105) the alignment (130°) of these lights leads
3½ miles SE through Oostgat to a position in mid-channel
SE of Zoutelande Light (1¾ miles SE) (7.107).
7.107 1
Leading lights:
Zoutelande Light (red square stone tower, 13 m in
height) (51°30′⋅3N 3°28′⋅5E).
Westkapelle Light (7.99) (1¾ miles NW of
Zoutelande Light).
2
From a position SE of Zoutelande Light the alignment
(326°) astern of these lights leads 1½ miles SE to the SE
end of Oostgat, passing between the Kaapduinen Leading
Lights and OG-DL Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°28′⋅2N
3°30′⋅6E), which marks the S end of Bankje van
Zoutelande on the N side of the junction with Deurloo
(7.109). The alignment of these lights leads to the SW side
of the channel and they should be left slightly open to
maintain the channel centreline.
Chart 120
7.108 1
From the SE end of Oostgat the route leads SE across
the entrance to Deurloo, which is about 6 cables wide.
2
Sardijngeul Leading lights:
Front light (white and red pile) (51°26′⋅4N 3°34′⋅1E).
Rear light (red triangle point up, white bands, on red
and white mast) (550 m ESE of front light).
3
From a position about 2 miles WNW of the front light
the alignment (117°) of these lights leads through Galgeput
and Sardijngeul to a position about 2½ cables WNW of the
front light, whence there is direct access S to Rede van
Vlissingen. The channel lies between the coast and the two
shoals Elleboog and Nolleplaat and is only 100 m wide in
places. Fort de Nolle, a prominent point on which stands a
light (white metal column, red bands, 6 m in height) is
8 cables WNW of the entrance to Sardijngeul.
4
Cautions. Sardijngeul lies in the precautionary area off
Vlissingen, see 7.25.
Vessels entering Sardijngeul from the SE during the full
out-going stream should guard against the stream crossing
the entrance.
Large vessels should avoid passing one another in
Sardijngeul. Vessels with the stream should wait for those
clearing against the stream.
Side channels
Charts 110, 1874, 1872
Geul van de Rassen and Deurloo
7.109 1
Geul van de Rassen runs 2 miles S from its entrance,
marked by OG-GR Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°34′N
3°25′E), to Deurloo. It is marked by buoys (lateral:
numbers prefixed by GR) and lies between Botkil Rassen
to the W and Bankje van Zoutelande (7.105) to the E.
CHAPTER 7
170
2
Deurloo, a minor approach channel to Westerschelde, is
used mainly by fishing vessels. The channel runs 5 miles in
a SE direction from DL-GR Buoy (E cardinal) (51°31′⋅0N
3°24′⋅4E), which is moored on the S side of Botkil Rassen,
and joins Oostgat in the vicinity of OG-DL Light-buoy (E
cardinal) (7.107). The channel is marked by buoys (lateral:
numbers prefixed by DL).
Passage by night or in poor visibility is not
recommended.
Geul van de Walvischstaart
7.110
1
Geul van de Walvischstaart (51°29′N 3°24′E) is a small
craft channel, marked by buoys (port hand), which runs
6 miles SE from GvW2 Buoy (port hand) (51°30′⋅9N
3°20′⋅3E) to GvW-SP Buoy (W cardinal) (51°26′⋅8N
3°28′⋅3E).
Spleet
7.111
1
Spleet is a short passage (51°27′N 3°28′E) having depths
less than 5 m which runs SE from Deurloo and meets with
the inward end of Geul van de Walvischstaart (7.110) at
GvW−SP Buoy. It is marked by buoys (lateral: numbers
prefixed by SP).
Anchorage
7.112 1
Schouwenbank anchorage (51°47′N 3°20′E), 5 miles
ENE of Steenbank Pilot Station, is used by vessels waiting
to enter Westerschelde. Depths in the anchorage are greater
than 20 m and the bottom is coarse sand and shell. The N
corner of the anchorage area is marked by SBW
Light-buoy (W cardinal) and the S corner by SB−Anchor S
Light-buoy (special).
2
Vessels intending to use this anchorage should inform
Steenbank pilot vessel.
WESTERSCHELDE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1874, 120, 139
7.113 1
The Westerschelde is entered between the Dutch ports of
Vlissingen (51°27′N 3°35′E) (7.122) and Breskens (7.51),
2½ miles SSW of Vlissingen. From its entrance the river
winds in a generally E direction 34 miles, then SSE for
13 miles to Antwerp (7.289). Brussels (7.319) is a further
24 miles by river and canal beyond Antwerp.
2
Initially the river runs between the Dutch provinces of
Walcheren and Zuid Beveland to the N and Zeeuwsch
Vlaanderen to the S. The river crosses into Belgian territory
near the locks at Zandvliet and is then known as the
Schelde.
Passage planning
7.114 1
Time of arrival. If proceeding to a river berth at
Antwerp the advice is to reach the berth at least 1 hour
before HW, so that the vessel can be turned and berthed
bows down river. The disadvantage of having the stream
under the vessel is offset by the greater depths throughout
the river passage.
2
It may be convenient for vessels of a suitable draught to
proceed up river during the out-going stream to ease
steering on the tighter turns. The berth should be reached
at the start of the in-going stream, so that the vessel may
again be turned and berthed bows down river. However it
is reported that there may be difficulty steering in the
vicinity of Hansweert (51°26′N 4°00′E) and Bath (51°24′N
4°12′E) at the change of the tide due to shallow water and
tide rips.
3
Passage down river should be planned against the
in-going stream, adjusted to give adequate clearance in the
upper reaches.
7.115 1
The main fairway, which is well buoyed and lighted,
should be used. The alternative or side channels, although
buoyed are not lighted, and should only be used by those
with local knowledge.
7.116 1
Navigational aids. Stretches of the main fairway
through Westerschelde are covered by the narrow white
sectors of sector lights. The appropriate coloured sectors
also show when a vessel is to port or starboard of the
sector covering the fairway. Turning points may be
indicated by the change of colour when passing from one
sector to another.
2
Light-buoys in the main fairway are laid in depths of at
least 5 m. Due to the frequent changes in the channel
alterations to lights and buoys may be carried out at short
notice.
Depths
7.117 1
In the main fairway and all the alternative channels
depths are subject to change. The critical area in the main
fairway is between Gat van Ossenisse (51°23′N 3°57′E)
and Pas van Rilland (51°23′N 4°13′E).
2
Latest information on depths may be obtained from
VTS-SM or the pilots. Between 2007 and 2009 the Dutch
and Belgian authorities will widen and deepen the river so
that a depth of 13⋅1 m will be available upriver as far as
Antwerp.
Maximum size of vessel
7.118 1
In 2005, vessels with a draught of 15⋅39 m could reach
Antwerp on a single tide and those drawing 15⋅54 m on
two tides. Vessels drawing 12⋅30 m could depart Antwerp
independent of tide.
In 2005, vessels up to 335 m LOA and 55 m beam
could navigate the river as far as Antwerp.
CHAPTER 7
171
2
In marginal cases it is advisable to check the permitted
draught for a particular vessel with either VTS-SM or the
pilots.
Vertical clearance
7.119 1
Power cables (51°21′N 4°16′E) with a vertical clearance
of 69 m cross the river close W of the entrance to
Zandvlietsluis and Berendrechtsluis.
Pilotage
7.120 1
See 7.12.
If pilotage is suspended at Wandelaar, Steenbank or in
Rede van Vlissingen the following signals are exhibited
from the pilot station (51°26′⋅5N 3°34′⋅5E) at Vlissingen:
Pilot station All vessels Small vessels
only
Wandelaar Green light Two horizontal
green lights
Steenbank Red light Two horizontal
red lights
Rede van Vlissingen Red light over
green light
Green light
over red light
Tidal streams
7.121 1
General. In the outer part of the river the tidal streams
run between the sands until the latter are covered when the
tidal streams run across the sands. Farther up river the tidal
streams follow the line of the channel. The maximum mean
rate in both directions is 2½ kn.
Full details of the tidal streams for each stretch of the
river are given at 7.183 and 7.247.
VLISSINGEN
General information
Charts 120 plan of Vlissingen
Position
7.122 1
Vlissingen (51°27′N 3°35′E) or Flushing, is a Dutch
port, which lies at the SW end of Walcheren. The town
still retains its old fortifications along the seafront.
Function
7.123 1
There is a small commercial port, which is also the
seaward terminal of Kanaal door Walcheren (8.102). The
port also handles ferries which run from Breskens across
the entrance to Westerschelde.
The population of Vlissingen is about 40 000.
Approach and entry
7.124 1
The approach to Vlissingen is direct from Rede van
Vlissingen (7.39) to the harbour entrance which faces SE.
Port Authority
7.125 1
Zeeland Seaports, PO Box 1056, 4388 ZH
Oost-Souburg, The Netherlands.
Vlissingen (7.122)
(Original dated 1994)
(Photograph − Aerophoto Schiphol)
CHAPTER 7
172
Limiting conditions
7.126 1
Controlling depth. See 7.143.
Deepest and longest berth is on the W side of
Buitenhaven (7.143).
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 4⋅5 m; mean neap
range about 3⋅0 m.
Abnormal water levels. The highest observed water
level at Vlissingen is 2½ m above MHW and the lowest
level 0⋅8 m below Chart Datum.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
7.127 1
For VTS in the Schelde and Estuaries see 7.16.
Notice of ETA
7.128 1
See 7.12.
Pilotage and tugs
7.129 1
For details of pilotage see 7.12 to 7.15.
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
7.130 1
For details of Rede van Vlissingen Precautionary Area
see 7.25. For Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 1990 see
Appendix IV.
Quarantine
7.131 1
See 7.19.
Harbour
General layout
7.132 1
The port consists of Buitenhaven, the outer harbour,
which is tidal and extends 7 cables N. Buitenhaven gives
access at its S end through two locks to Binnenhaven, the
inner harbour. Kanaal door Walcheren is approached
through Binnenhaven. There is a shipyard on the W side of
Binnenhaven.
Ferry traffic
7.133 1
Large double-ended ferries run regularly between the
ferry terminal at the SW end of Buitenhaven and Breskens
(51°24′N 3°33′E), on the S side of the Westerschelde
entrance.
Vlissingen from SSE (7.132)
(Original dated 1999)
(Photograph − Sky Pictures)
Binnenhaven Buitenhaven
CHAPTER 7
173
Traffic and other signals
7.134 1
Traffic signals are displayed from the mole (51°26′⋅4N
3°36′⋅1E) on the W side of the entrance to Buitenhaven.
By day a red flag, by night a red light close to the red
light marking the mole, prohibit entry to all vessels. From
the same position a red and a green flag by day, by night a
red and a green light, indicate that entry is prohibited to
vessels with a draught exceeding 6 m.
7.135 1
Sound signals may be made by vessels about to enter
Buitenhaven as follows:
Signal Meaning
3 long blasts About to enter Buitenhaven
4 long blasts Request to pass the locks
Long blast, short blast
repeated 3 times
One tug required
Long blast, short blast
repeated 4 times
Two tugs required
7.136 1
Sluicing signals. When sluicing is taking place a blue
flag with the word ‘Spuien’ is shown from the lock
(7.141). By night the signal is three red lights formed in a
triangle point up.
7.137 1
Storm signals are shown from the lock entrance.
See 1.105.
Natural conditions
7.138 1
Tidal streams run strongly off the entrance to
Vlissingen. For tidal streams in Rede van Vlissingen see
7.31.
Climatic table. See 1.225 and 1.236.
Principal marks
7.139 1
Landmarks:
Water tower (51°26′⋅9N 3°34′⋅0E).
Saint Jacob’s Church (spire) (51°26′⋅6N 3°34′⋅5E),
which is conical.
Windmill (51°26′⋅5N 3°34′⋅9E).
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 7.39)
Approach
7.140 1
From a position SE of the harbour entrance (51°26′⋅4N
3°36′⋅3E) in Rede van Vlissingen (7.39), there is direct
approach to Buitenhaven. Lights are exhibited from both
moles, E mole (white post, green bands), W mole (white
post, red bands, 7 m in height). Buitenhaven gives access to
the double tidal locks which lead to Binnenhaven and
thence Kanaal door Walcheren.
2
Caution. The approach to Buitenhaven from seaward
takes an inbound vessel across busy W−going traffic.
Mariners should observe Westerschelde Shipping
Regulations 1990 (see Appendix IV).
Tidal locks and sluice
7.141 1
The locks are operated day and night, provided the
difference in the levels inside and outside the locks is less
than 3⋅4m on the in-going stream and 3⋅25 m on the
out-going stream.
2
The large lock is 138 m long, 22⋅5 m wide with a depth
of 5⋅4 m on the sill. The small lock is 65 m long, 8⋅0 m
wide with a depth of 3⋅0 m on the sill.
There is also a sluice close S of the locks, which has a
width of 34⋅4 m and a depth at the sill of 8⋅5 m. It is
operated at slack water on request.
Useful mark
7.142 1
Vlissingen Main Light (red metal framework tower,
11 m in height) (51°26′⋅4N 3°34′⋅5E) stands at the
root of the W mole at the entrance to
Koopmanshaven (7.145). The rear light of the
Sardijngeul Leading Lights (7.108) stands at the
head of the same mole.
Basins and berths
7.143 1
Buitenhaven is 1310 m long and 274 m wide and has a
maintained depth of 9⋅5 m. There are sloping stone walls
on the E and N sides.
On the W side of the basin there is a jetty for coastal
tankers, a general cargo quay, length 300 m, and the
landing stage for the Vlissingen-Breskens ferry. On the E
side of the basin there is a T-jetty which can accommodate
tankers up to 50 000 dwt.
2
The N end of the basin has a depth of 5⋅0 m. It
comprises a pier for barges, two Ro-Ro berths and a base
of the Royal Netherlands Navy.
7.144 1
Binnenhaven has two basins, Binnenhaven 1 and 2,
which are 390 m in length, 100 m wide and have a depth
of 7⋅3 m. Depths within Binnenhaven vary between 7⋅3 m
and 8⋅2 m. Kanaal door Walcheren (see 8.102), runs from
the NW end of Binnenhaven to Middelburg and Veerse
Meer. There is a yacht marina on the E side of the
approach to Kanaal door Walcheren.
7.145 1
Koopmanshaven (51°26′⋅4N 3°34′⋅6E) a small tidal
harbour is used by the Pilotage Service. Michiel de Ruyter
Marina is located in a small non tidal basin at NE end of
Koopmanshaven.
Port services
Repairs
7.146 1
Repairs of all types can be undertaken at Vlissingen
Oost see 7.173. There is a shipyard on the W side of
Binnenhaven which, undertakes new construction. It has
five slipways and two dry docks.
Other facilities
7.147 1
Hospitals; compass adjustment; reception of oily wastes;
deratting exemption certificates only.
CHAPTER 7
174
Supplies
7.148 1
Marine fuels by barge or at fuelling berth in
Buitenhaven; water at some berths or by water boat;
provisions.
VLISSINGEN OOST
General information
Chart 120 plan of Vlissingen Oost
Position
7.149 1
Vlissingen Oost (Sloehaven) (51°28′N 3°41′E), 3 miles E
of Vlissingen, is a large harbour complex.
Function
7.150 1
The port has an LPG terminal, a coal transhipment
facility and a tanker terminal and also handles container
traffic.
Approach and entry
7.151 1
The port is approached directly from Honte (7.185),
which is part of the main fairway. The entrance faces SSW
and the centreline is indicated by leading lights.
Traffic
7.152 1
In 2004 the ports of Vlissingen and Vlissingen Oost
handled 3633 vessels with a total deadweight of
33⋅0 million tonnes.
Port Authority
7.153 1
Havenschap Vlissingen (the Port Authority of
Vlissingen), Engelandweg, PO Box 1056, 4388 ZH
Oost-Souburg, The Netherlands.
Limiting conditions
7.154 1
Controlling depths. For depths on the approach see
7.22 and in the basin see 7.166.
Deepest and longest berth. The longest berth is in
Quarleshaven and the deepest berth in Kaloothaven. See
7.166 and 7.170.
2
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 4⋅4 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅0 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is 310 m in length and
draught 15⋅2 m.
Arrival information
Port operations
7.155 1
For Vessel Traffic Services in the Schelde and Estuaries
see 7.16.
A port radio service is maintained by Vlissingen Oost.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Notice of ETA required
7.156 1
See 7.12.
Pilotage and tugs
7.157 1
For details of pilotage see 7.12 to 7.15 and 7.23.
Harbour or river pilots if required are embarked off
Vlissingen. The pilot station is situated at Koopmanshaven
(51°26′⋅4N 3°34′⋅6E), close W of the port.
Tugs are available.
Regulations concerning entry
7.158 1
For details of Rede van Vlissingen Precautionary Area
see 7.25. For Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 1990 see
Appendix IV.
2
Vessels over 220 m in length and draught 12⋅5 m are
required to approach Vlissingen Oost at slack water (about
1 hour after HW Vlissingen) and maintain an under-keel
clearance of 1 m. During the entry the visibility must be in
excess of 2500 m, the wind less than force 7 and the vessel
must not have any defects which affect its safe navigation
or steering.
Quarantine
7.159 1
See 7.19.
Harbour
General layout
7.160 1
Quarleshaven, a basin stretching 2 mile NE from the
entrance, has two arms, Bijleveldhaven running NW from
the head of the basin and Van Cittershaven, about 1 mile
inside the entrance, running 1½ miles SE.
Tidal streams
7.161 1
See 7.31.
Principal marks
7.162 1
For marks at Vlissingen see 7.139.
Directions for entering harbour
7.163 1
Entrance Leading lights:
Front light (green mast, 4 m in height) (51°27′⋅9N
3°41′⋅0E).
Rear light (green metal mast, 9 m in height) (100 m
NNE of front light).
2
From a position SSW of the harbour entrance in Honte
(7.185), the alignment (023°) of these synchronised lights
leads through the harbour entrance to Quarleshaven and
thence the intersection with Quarleshaven Leading Lights
(7.164). The harbour entrance lies between two moles, from
each of which a light (white concrete column, 5 m in
height) is exhibited. The navigable channel through the
entrance is 200 m wide.
7.164 1
Quarleshaven Direction light:
Direction light (black mast) (51°28′⋅4N 3°43′⋅4E).
From the intersection with the entrance leading lights
(7.163) the alignment (059°) of this light leads through
Quarleshaven.
7.165 1
Van Cittershaven Direction Lights. The white sector
(124⋅4°−124⋅6°) of the direction light (51°26′⋅7N 3°43′⋅3E)
at the SE end of Van Cittershaven, leads from the
intersection with the Quarleshaven Leading Lights (7.164)
into the basin.
CHAPTER 7
175
Vlissingen Oost from W (7.160)
(Original dated 1999)
(Photograph − Sky Pictures)
Quarleshaven Cittershaven
The white sector (304⋅9°−305⋅1°) of the direction light
(51°27′⋅9N 3°40′⋅5E) on the NW side of Quarleshaven
leads out of Van Cittershaven.
Basins and berths
7.166 1
Quarleshaven is a basin 2 miles long with maintained
depths of 12⋅5 m and 13⋅8 m. There is a container terminal
with a frontage of 920 m and depths alongside of 12 and
13⋅3 m on the NW side of the basin. There is a Ro-Ro
berth to the NE of the container terminal. Eurogas
Terminal, with 4 berths for LPG tankers, is situated on the
SE side of Quarleshaven, near its head. A quay used by an
aluminium works is located close NE of the entrance to
Van Cittershaven. Two pairs of mooring buoys spaced
300 m apart, 3 cables N of the entrance to Sloehaven, are
for cargo transhipment.
7.167 1
Bijleveldhaven at the E end of Quarleshaven is a basin
800 m long and 300 m wide with a depth alongside of 9 to
10⋅5 m. The quays handle refrigerated products and steel.
7.168
1
Westhofhaven a basin at the E end of Quarleshaven and
adjacent to Bijleveldhaven, has 300 m of quay with a depth
alongside of 10⋅5 m. It handles fresh and refrigerated
produce.
7.169 1
Van Cittershaven is a basin 1½ miles long, from 250 m
to 300 m wide with a maintained depth of 15⋅5m. There is
a turning basin near the middle with a depth of 16⋅5 m. An
oil refinery with six berths for coasters and inland barges is
situated at the E end.
7.170 1
Kaloothaven a basin off the SW side of Van
Cittershaven is used for the import of coal and can
accommodate bulk carriers up to 150 000 dwt. The
alongside quay is 250 m in length, depth alongside 10⋅5 m,
but with floating cranes placed between the vessel and the
quay the depth available is 17⋅5 m.
7.171
1
Kraayerthaven a basin extending NE from Cittershaven
is the location of Port Scaldia with a quay of 600 m and
depth alongside of 13⋅5 m for bulk and general cargoes.
7.172 1
Tanker jetty. The jetty is situated 3 miles SE of
Vlissingen Oost at Hoek van Borssele (7.185). The jetty
can accept tankers up to 100 000 dwt, length 280 m and
draught 15 m.
Port services
Repairs
7.173 1
Repairs of all kinds can be undertaken at the repair yard
on the NW side of the harbour, 8 cables inside the
entrance. There are two dry docks and a floating dock. The
larger dry dock is 215 m in length, width 29⋅7 m, depth at
the sill 8⋅65 m (MHWS), and can accept vessels up to
45 000 dwt. The floating dock can accept vessels up to
90 000 dwt.
Other facilities
7.174 1
Tank cleaning; oily wastes can be accepted; see
also 7.147.
CHAPTER 7
176
Supplies
7.175 1
Marine fuels by barge; water at the quays; provisions.
REDE VAN VLISSINGEN TO TERNEUZEN
General information
Chart 120
Route
7.176 1
From a position in the main channel to the SSE of
Vlissingen (51°27′N 3°35′E), off the entrance to
Buitenhaven, the route follows the main channel, which
runs through Honte (7.185) and the W part of Pas van
Terneuzen (7.186), 11 miles in a generally SE direction to a
position off Terneuzen (7.205). The initial part of the route
runs through the Precautionary Area, see 7.25.
2
For use of alternative channels see 7.115.
Topography
7.177 1
This stretch of the river varies in width between 2 and
4 miles, but is much encumbered by drying sandbanks, so
that the fairway is very winding and narrow in some
places. The river is subject to strong currents and both the
direction and depth of the main channel are subject to
change.
Depths
7.178 1
See 7.117.
Hazards
7.179
1
The fairway through Drempel van Borssele (51°24′N
3°43′E) (7.186) is narrow and local cross currents may
cause difficulties for large or deep−draught vessels.
2
Crossing traffic may be encountered at the junction with
the following secondary channels:
Everingen (7.190) in the vicinity of PvT−E
Light−buoy (W cardinal) (51°24′⋅5N 3°42′⋅7E).
Schaar van Spijkerplaat (7.188) in the vicinity of
PvT−SS Light−buoy (E cardinal) (51°24′⋅1N
3°42′⋅4E).
Springergeul (7.189) in the vicinity of PvT−SPR
Light−buoy (N cardinal) (51°22′⋅8N 3°42′⋅9E).
3
Upriver of No 17 Buoy (starboard hand) (51°22′⋅5N
3°43′⋅5E) vessels preparing to enter Braakmanhaven (7.197)
and Terneuzen (7.205) will secure to tugs and vessels
entering or leaving these harbours may be encountered also.
4
Background lighting around Braakmanhaven and
Terneuzen can make vessels’ navigation lights difficult to
discern.
Pilotage
7.180 1
See 7.12 to 7.15.
Traffic Regulations
7.181 1
For Rede van Vlissingen Precautionary Area see 7.25.
For Westerschelde Shipping Regulations 1990 see
Appendix IV.
Westerscheldetunnel, submarine power cables and
pipelines
7.182
1
Westerscheldetunnel, submarine power cables and
pipelines cross the river between Ellewoutsdijk (51°23′N
3°49′E) and Nieuw Neuzenpolder (51°21′N 3°47′E) (7.186)
as shown on the chart. Care should be taken not to anchor
in this area.
2
The landings of the submarine cables and pipelines are
marked by beacons (special) and several beacons (special)
indicate their locations on Middelplaat (7.186).
Tidal streams
7.183 1
Pas van Terneuzen (7.186). Off Terneuzen the in-going
stream begins at −0430 HW Vlissingen, which is
45 minutes later than off Vlissingen, and the out-going
stream at +0130 HW Vlissingen, which is 30 minutes later
than off Vlissingen. The spring rate in both directions is
2½ kn.
2
Everingen (7.190). Off Ellewoutsdijk (51°23′N 3°49′E)
the in-going stream begins at −0500 HW Vlissingen and
the out-going stream at +0130 HW Vlissingen.
Minor channels. The streams begin earlier in minor
channels and over the sands than in the main channels so
that:
3
By −0500 HW Vlissingen the in-going stream runs in
Vaarwater langs Hoofdplaat (7.189), Vaarwater
langs de Paulinapolder (7.189) and S into
Braakmanhaven (7.197) and on the N shore
between Hoek van Borssele and Ellewoutsdijk. The
out-going stream is still running in Pas van
Terneuzen and Honte (7.185), where it runs to the
N shore joining the out-going stream from
Vlissingen Oost.
4
By −0430 HW Vlissingen the in-going stream begins
off Terneuzen.
By +0100 HW Vlissingen the out-going stream runs
from Braakmanhaven, Vaarwater langs de
Paulinapolder and Vaarwater langs Hoofdplaat and
close inshore midway between Hoek van Borssele
and Ellewoutsdijk. The stream is slack in Rede van
Vlissingen, but the in-going stream is still running
in Honte, Everingen and Pas van Terneuzen.
5
By +0130 HW Vlissingen the out-going stream
begins off Terneuzen and Ellewoutsdijk.
The in-going stream runs generally E and S between the
sands in the river following the channels, but later as the
tide rises across the sands. The out-going streams run
generally W and N across the sands, but as the tide falls,
along the channels.
6
Off Hoek van Borssele and probably in the main
channels the spring rate is about 2½ kn in both directions.
Principal marks
7.184 1
Fifteen windmotors (51°26′⋅4N 3°42′⋅1E) at
Vlissingen Oost.
Chimney (red lights) (51°26′⋅0N 3°43′⋅0E) at the
nuclear power station near Borssele.
For marks at Vlissingen see 7.139.
Directions
(continued from 7.39)
Honte
7.185 1
From a position in mid−channel SSE of Buitenhaven, the
route leads NE, thence E and SE through Honte for a
CHAPTER 7
177
distance of 4½ miles until WSW of Hoek van Borssele
(51°25′N 3°44′E). The channel is marked by light−buoys
and buoys (lateral: numbers in sequence commencing at the
seaward end of Honte).
2
The initial course is NE with Schone Waardin Light
(51°26′N 3°38′E) ahead, or at night within a green sector
(024°−054°) of the light, until NW of H−SS Light−buoy (N
cardinal) whence inbound and outbound traffic converge in
a single fairway at the seaward end of Honte. A narrow
white sector (023°−024°) of Schone Waardin Light covers
H−SS Light−buoy. Thereafter the route leads E then SE
passing (with positions from Borssele−Noordnol Light
(51°25′⋅5N 3°42′⋅7E):
3
SSE of Schone Waardin Light (3¼ miles WNW) (red
mast, white bands; 5 m in height), thence:
N of Hompels (2½ miles W) a shoal patch. Stella
Buoy (W cardinal) marks the location of a wreck
at the SW end of Hompels. Thence:
4
SSW of the entrance to Vlissingen Oost (2 miles NW)
(7.149) and across the E boundary of the
precautionary area (7.25). Kaloot, the area SE of
the entrance to Vlissingen Oost, is relatively higher
ground with a number of windmotors, which are
situated along the line of the coast. The white
sector (109½°−128°) of Borssele-Noordnol Light
leads through the N part of Honte. Thence:
5
NE of Spijkerplaat (1 mile W), a shoal which lies in
the centre of the river and extends SSE from
Hompels, thence:
SW of Borssele-Noordnol Light (red post, white
bands; 7 m in height), which stands at the head of
a pier, 8 cables NW of Hoek van Borssele, thence:
6
To a position WSW of Hoek van Borssele (8 cables
SE). A tanker jetty (7.172), marked by a light at
its NW end, lies close SE of Hoek van Borssele.
West part of Pas van Terneuzen
7.186 1
From a position WSW of Hoek van Borssele (51°24′⋅9N
3°43′⋅6E) the route leads 6½ miles S and SE through the
W part of Pas van Terneuzen, that part of the main fairway
between Hoek van Borssele and Terneuzen, which is
marked by light-buoys and buoys, to a position off
Terneuzen (7.205), passing (with positions from the
entrance to Braakmanhaven (51°21′N 3°46′E)):
2
Through Drempel van Borssele (4 miles NW) a short
and narrow passage between Spijkerplaat (5½ miles
NW) and the NW extremity of Middelplaat
(1½ miles NE). The white sector (001½°−007½°)
astern of Borssele−Noordnol light leads through the
passage, which is marked by PvT−E Light−buoy
(W cardinal) at its N end and PvT−SS Light−buoy
(E cardinal) at its S end. Thence:
3
W and SW of Middelplaat (1½ miles NE) a very
large mudbank in midstream which dries, thence.
4
E of Hooge Springer (4 miles NW) an island on the
E side of Hooge Platen (7.39).
5
Nieuw Neuzenpolder Leading Lights:
Front light (white vertical bar on white mast, black
bands, 4 m in height) (51°21′⋅0N 3°47′⋅2E).
Rear light (black and white metal framework tower,
14 m in height) (365 m SE of front light).
6
The route continues on the alignment (125°) of these
lights through the SW part of Pas van Terneuzen towards
Braakmanhaven, passing:
7
NE of Lage Springer (2 miles NW), a drying flat,
thence:
NE of Braakmanhaven (7.197), whence a mid-channel
track within the white sector (115°−120°) of
Veerhaven Light (2¼ miles ESE) (7.187) should be
maintained, thence:
NNE of Nieuw Neuzenpolder (close E) on which
stands an industrial complex. Two prominent
chimneys associated with a chemical works, stand
on the E side of the complex. Thence:
8
SSW of Middelplaat (1½ miles NE), thence:
NNE of Schelde Jetty (6 cables E) (7.204), formed by
four dolphins (lighted), thence:
To a position N of Terneuzen (1¾ miles E).
7.187 1
Useful mark:
Veerhaven Light (lantern on black and white post,
10 m in height) (51°20′⋅6N 3°49′⋅6E).
(Directions continue at 7.261 and
for Terneuzen at 7.220)
Side channels
Schaar van Spijkerplaat
7.188 1
Schaar van Spijkerplaat (51°25′N 3°38′E), an alternative
to Honte (7.185) should only be used by day and with
local knowledge. It is buoyed but not fully lighted and
leads from Rede van Vlissingen (7.39) along the N side of
Hooge Platen (7.39) and between Hooge Springer (7.186)
and Spijkerplaat (7.185) and joins the NW end of Pas van
Terneuzen.
Vaarwater langs Hoofdplaat and Vaarwater langs de
Paulinapolder
7.189 1
Vaarwater langs Hoofdplaat (51°23′N 3°36′E) is deep,
but narrow and leads from Breskens (51°24′N 3°34′E)
(7.51) 6 miles in a generally E direction to its junction with
Pas van Terneuzen (7.186). It runs between the coast of the
estuary to the S and Plaat van Breskens (7.39) and Hooge
Platen (7.39) to the N. The E end of the channel with
depths of less than 5 m is known as Springergeul. The
channel is marked by buoys, but is not lighted and is
mainly used by inland and pleasure craft. A wreck with
swept depth of 4⋅2 m lies 1½ cables E of SPR No 6 Buoy
(port hand) (51°22′⋅8N 3°42′⋅4E).
2
Vaarwater langs de Paulinapolder (51°22′N 3°43′E),
marked by buoys, is the continuation SE of Vaarwater
langs Hoofdplaat. Depths at the E end are less than 5 m.
Hoofdplaat (51°22′⋅5N 3°40′⋅0E) lies on the coast 4
miles ESE of Breskens and Paulinapolder, a small drying
harbour, a further 3 miles ESE.
Everingen
7.190 1
Description. Everingen (51°24′N 3°45′E) is the broad
continuation E of Honte (7.185) and runs between the coast
of Zuid Beveland to the N, and Middelplaat (7.186) to the
S. Rug van Borssele, a detached shoal lies along the N side
of Everingen at its W end. The channel is 7 miles long and
runs in an ESE direction connecting Honte with Middelgat
(7.270). The W and central parts are deep but the E part,
Geul van Baarland, shoals to 3⋅0 m.
7.191 1
Route. Everingen provides a more direct route up river
than Pas van Terneuzen (7.186) and is used by river craft
but due to the frequent changes in depths local knowledge
is essential for safe navigation.
2
Borssele-Everingen Light (white round structure, red
band, 5 m in height) (51°24′⋅7N 3°44′⋅1E) stands on the
CHAPTER 7
178
coast close E of the N entry point of the channel, with PvT
E Light-buoy (W cardinal) (7.186) (9 cables WSW) on the
S side of the entrance. Thereafter the channel is marked by
light-buoys and buoys (lateral; numbers prefixed E).
7.192 1
Zuid Everingen (51°22′N 3°49′E), marked by buoys
(lateral) and with depths over 6 m but liable to change,
connects Everingen with the E part of Pas van Terneuzen.
7.193 1
A naval exercise area, shown on the chart, lies between
Rug van Borssele and Ellewoutsdijk (51°23′⋅2N 3°49′⋅0E).
Anchorages
7.194 1
For anchorages in Rede van Vlissingen see 7.43.
7.195 1
Everingen (51°24′N 3°45′E) (7.190) provides good
anchorage in its W part. Five anchor berths, A to E, are
shown on the chart. The berths may be used by any vessel,
but A is normally reserved for gas carriers or tankers not
declared gas−free.
Caution. See 7.182.
2
Zuid Everingen. An anchorage (51°21′N 3°50′E) with
depths ranging from 3 to 8m is located at the S end of
Zuid Everingen. Its limits are marked by buoys as shown
on the chart.
7.196 1
Springergeul Anchorage (51°22′N 3°44′E) lies on the
W side of the fairway. Its limits, which are shown on the
chart, are marked by buoys. The anchorage may be used by
vessels up to 145 m in length.
Braakmanhaven
Chart 120 plan of Braakmanhaven
General information
7.197 1
Braakmanhaven (51°21′N 3°46′E) is situated on the W
side of Nieuw Neuzenpolder, which separates it from the
port of Terneuzen, 1½ miles E. The harbour only handles
chemical products and serves the Dow Chemical Plant
which lies on the W side of Nieuw Neuzenpolder and is
approached directly from Pas van Terneuzen. The harbour
is part of the port of Terneuzen, see 7.209 for Port
Authority.
Limiting conditions
7.198 1
Controlling depths. The entrance to Braakmanhaven is
dredged to 11⋅8 m. Within the harbour there are depths of
between 5⋅2 m and 14⋅6 m.
2
Deepest and longest berth is the Dow Ocean Dock
(7.202).
Tidal levels: are as for Terneuzen, see 7.210.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 280 m and
100 000 dwt.
Arrival information
7.199 1
Port radio. Traffic in Braakmanhaven is controlled by
Terneuzen Radar and it is obligatory for vessels to report to
Terneuzen Radar when entering, leaving or shifting berth.
Vessels bound for Braakmanhaven are required to make
additional reports to those required by Vessel Traffic
Services Schelde and Estuaries (7.16). See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
2
Pilotage. For details of pilotage see 7.12 to 7.15.
Pilotage is compulsory in Braakmanhaven.
Tugs are available but should be ordered well in
advance.
3
Regulations. Movements are prohibited in
Braakmanhaven when the visibility is less than 500 m.
Vessels should keep an under-keel clearance of at least
10% of their draught and those drawing more than 10⋅5 m
may only enter at HW, when the tidal stream is slack.
4
In general vessels of less than 125 m in length are
required to take 1 tug, those between 125 and 200 m take 2
tugs, those between 200 and 225 m 3 tugs, and those over
225 m use 4 tugs.
Vessels berth bows NW at Ocean Dock but must carry
out any swinging manoeuvre clear of Ocean Dock.
Anchors may be used for manoeuvring, but are not
allowed to lie thereafter.
Harbour
7.200 1
General layout. The harbour extends 7 cables S from its
entrance which faces N. There are two jetties for berthing
on the E side of the harbour. A bight in the harbour to the
SW provides a swinging circle.
2
Traffic signal. A red light is exhibited below the lights
on either side of the harbour entrance, when movements
through the entrance are prohibited.
Tidal streams see 7.183.
Directions for entering harbour
7.201 1
Leading lights. From a position in Pas van Terneuzen,
N of the entrance (51°21′⋅0N 3°45′⋅9E) to Braakmanhaven,
the alignment (191°) of the following synchronised lights
leads through the harbour entrance, which is 225 m wide
and marked by lights either side, W side (green metal post,
white bands, 7 m in height), E side (red post, white bands,
7 m in height) to the centre of the harbour from whence
there is direct access to the two jetties:
2
Front light (black metal post, white bands, 6 m in
height) (51°20′⋅3N 3°45′⋅7E).
Rear light (similar structure, 14 m in height) (60 m S
of front light).
3
Turning area. There is a turning area, 400 m in
diameter, off the head of Dow Ocean Dock on the SW side
of the harbour. The centreline (211½°) of the area is
indicated by the white sector (210½°−212½°) of a light
(51°20′⋅4N 3°45′⋅4E).
Berths
7.202 1
Dow Ocean Dock in the SE corner of Braakmanhaven is
350 m in length, with depths of 14⋅6 m and 14⋅0 m on
either side and can accommodate vessels up to 280 m in
length. It is connected to the shore by a gangway bridge.
There is a T-headed jetty to the N of Ocean Dock which
has 3 berths for vessels up to 140 m in length and
15 000 dwt. Barges can also berth on the E side of the
jetty.
2
In the SW corner of Braakmanhaven there is a container
berth about 200 m in length with an alongside depth of
6⋅5 m.
Port services
7.203 1
See 7.228.
Schelde Jetty
7.204 1
Schelde Jetty (51°21′⋅0N 3°47′⋅3E) projects from the N
shore of Nieuw Neuzenpolder fronting Pas van Terneuzen,
CHAPTER 7
179
Braakmanhaven from SSE (7.200)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − Sky Pictures)
6 cables E of the entrance to Braakmanhaven. The jetty
also serves the Dow Chemical Plant and provides 1 berth
only for vessels up to 200 m loa and 22 500 dwt.
2
Vessels over 5000 dwt and gas carriers over 2500 dwt
berth stem the in-going stream. Difficulties may be
experienced from 2 hours before to 1 hour after LW
because of the irregular tidal stream in the vicinity.
3
Submarine cables cross the river W of the jetty and
submarine pipelines E of the jetty. The landing places are
marked by beacons (special). K Buoy (special) is moored
on the S side of the river close E of the cables. Because of
these cables and pipelines anchors may not be used when
berthing.
TERNEUZEN
General information
Chart 120 plan of Approaches to Terneuzen and Terneuzen
Position
7.205 1
The port of Terneuzen (51°20′N 3°49′E) stands on the S
bank of Westerschelde, 14 miles up river from the entrance.
It also stands at the entrance of the Terneuzen-Gent Canal
(7.229), through which sea-going vessels can reach the
Belgian industrial centre at Gent.
Function
7.206 1
It is the third most important port in the Netherlands and
is surrounded by a busy industrial complex. The port
handles all types of cargo.
Approach and entry
7.207 1
The port is approached directly from Westerschelde.
Access to an inner harbour and the Terneuzen-Gent Canal
is through locks.
Traffic
7.208 1
In 2004 the port handled 1814 vessels with a total
deadweight of 16⋅3 million tonnes.
Port Authority
7.209 1
Zeeland Seaports, PO Box 132, 4530 Terneuzen, AC,
Netherlands.
Limiting conditions
7.210 1
Controlling depths. The entrance to West Buitenhaven
is 200 m wide and has a depth of 11⋅6 m. Within the
harbour the depth is 11⋅4 m.
Deepest and longest berth is in Massagoedhaven (Bulk
harbour) and Zevenaarhaven (bulk and general cargo)
(7.227).
2
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 4⋅8 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅4 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is limited by access
to the locks. The largest lock, Westsluis (7.222), can handle
vessels up to 265 m in length, beam 34 m and draught
(fresh water) 12⋅2 m.
Arrival information
Port radio
7.211 1
The port radio station at Terneuzen broadcasts
navigational information every hour, including details of
vessel movements in the port.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details.
Outer anchorage
7.212 1
Put van Terneuzen (51°20′⋅7N 3°51′⋅3E) provides good
anchorage for vessels when W winds make anchorage in
Rede van Vlissingen (7.43) unsuitable. The anchorage may
CHAPTER 7
180
Terneuzen from SSE (7.214)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − Sky Pictures)
Westsluis
Oostsluis
Middensluis
Terneuzen−Gent Canal Zevenaarhaven
be used by vessels up to 290 m in length. Two lettered
berths, A and B, are shown on the chart.
2
The two narrow white sectors (146½°−149½° and
194½°−197½°) of Othenepolder Light (51°20′⋅2N
3°51′⋅5E), crossed by the narrow white sector
(075½°−079°) of Margarethapolder Light (51°21′⋅0N
3°53′⋅1E) indicate the berths.
Tidal streams are strong off Terneuzen, for details
see 7.183.
Pilotage and tugs
7.213 1
Pilotage. For details of pilotage see 7.12 to 7.15.
Tugs are available but should be ordered well in
advance.
Harbour
General layout
7.214 1
The port of Terneuzen consists of four separate harbours,
which are Braakmanhaven (7.197) to the W, then West
Buitenhaven (7.220) and Oost Buitenhaven (7.223) both of
which give access to Terneuzen-Gent Canal through locks
and finally to the E Veerhaven (7.226), an old ferry
harbour now used by small harbour craft and yachts. Other
than Braakmanhaven, which includes Schelde Jetty (7.204),
all the major berths at Terneuzen (7.227) are in the Inner
Harbour, which is on the E bank of Terneuzen-Gent Canal
close S of the locks.
Traffic signals
7.215 1
River traffic warning signals. When one or more
sea-going vessels are about to proceed from either West or
Oost Buitenhaven into the river, an orange flashing light is
exhibited from a post on the E molehead of West
Buitenhaven (51°20′⋅6N 3°48′⋅8E), until such time as the
vessels have entered the river.
7.216 1
Traffic signals. When West or Oost Buitenhaven are
closed to traffic a second red light is exhibited below the
fixed red light displayed on the E side of each entrance. In
addition to this light and in fog, a sodium light is exhibited
near to the fixed green light displayed on the W side of
each entrance.
CHAPTER 7
181
2
When entry is prohibited to Veerhaven a red flag is
flown by day from the W molehead; at night a second red
light exhibited below the fixed red light at the E entrance.
7.217 1
Vessels constrained by their draught, that is 10 m,
and/or a length greater than 180 m, must show the signals
in Rule 28 of The International Regulations for preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972), while in the outer basins, the
locks and the Terneuzen-Gent Canal.
Lock signals
7.218 1
The following signals, as seen by an approaching vessel,
are shown on both sides of the lock heads:
Signal Meaning
R
R
Entry prohibited, lock not tended
R Entry prohibited
R
G
Entry prohibited, but will soon be
permitted
G Entry permitted
R
RR
Sluicing in progress
2
A vessel lying in a lock will be shown a red light from
the sides of the lock if it is not clear for departure and a
green light from the sides of the lock when it is clear to
depart.
In fog both lock heads are marked by sodium fog lights.
Tidal streams
7.219 1
See 7.183.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 7.187)
West Buitenhaven
7.220 1
General. Normally West Buitenhaven can be approached
safely on both the in-going and out-going streams.
However, in extreme conditions, such as a strong wind, a
deep−draught or a large, empty vessel, the advice is to wait
for slack water, which occurs from 1 hour before to
30 minutes after local HW and LW.
2
When leaving on the in-going stream bound for
Vlissingen it is advisable to start the swing before leaving
West Buitenhaven. This advice also applies to vessels
bound up-river on the out-going stream, but it is not so
critical in this case.
7.221 1
Leading lights. From a position in Pas van Terneuzen,
N of the entrance (51°20′⋅6N 3°48′⋅7E) to West
Buitenhaven, the alignment (192½°) of the following
synchronised lights leads through the harbour entrance,
which lies between mole heads and is marked by a light
(grey metal mast, 7 m in height) on each side, and thence
the navigable channel, which is 200 m wide with a depth
of 11⋅4 m, to the centre of the harbour which gives direct
access to the two locks:
2
Front light (white lantern on mast, 9 m in height)
(51°20′⋅1N 3°48′⋅5E).
Rear light (similar structure, 8 m in height) (88 m
SSW of front light).
West Buitenhaven is 8 cables long and between 3 and
3½ cables wide. There are mooring dolphins on both sides
of the inner part of the basin.
7.222 1
Locks. Except in extreme conditions the locks, which
give access to the Inner Harbour and the Terneuzen-Gent
Canal, can be approached at all states of the tide.
2
Westsluis is 335 m in length, 38 m in width and has a
depth on the sill of 10⋅2 m. It can accept vessels up to
265 m in length, beam 34 m and draught 12⋅2 m (fresh
water). Vessels over 245 m in length or beam greater than
33 m require special permission to use the lock. Vessels are
not allowed to transit the lock if the river water level is
more than 2 m above MHW.
3
Direction lights. The line of bearing (153½°) of the
white sector of the direction light (51°18′⋅4N 3°50′⋅0E)
leads to Westsluis from West Buitenhaven and the line of
bearing (333½°) of the white sector of the direction light
(51°20′⋅5N 3°48′⋅4E) leads to Westsluis from the Inner
Harbour.
4
Middensluis is 140 m in length, 18 m in width and has
a depth at the sill of 5⋅0 m. It can accept vessels up to
115 m in length, beam 16 m, draught 6⋅5 m and 8000 dwt.
Oost Buitenhaven
7.223 1
General. Oost Buitenhaven and Oostsluis are intended
mainly for inland waterway craft, and special attention has
been paid in the construction of the basin and lock for
barges being pushed by tugs.
7.224 1
Approach. From a position in Pas van Terneuzen, N of
the entrance (51°20′⋅6N 3°49′⋅1E) to Oost Buitenhaven the
approach is directly to the harbour entrance, which faces N
and is marked by lights both sides (grey metal mast, 7 m in
height), and thence the navigable channel through the
basin, which is 100 m wide and has a depth of 5⋅0 m and
gives access to the lock at the S end of the basin.
7.225 1
Oostsluis is 258 m in length, 24 m in width and has a
depth at the sill of 3⋅9 m. It can accept shallow draught
barges up to 95 m in length, and small sea-going vessels up
to 70 m in length and draught 4⋅0 m. There are waiting
pontoons on each side of the basin, stretching 500 m N
from the lock entrance.
Veerhaven
7.226 1
From a position in Pas van Terneuzen NE of the
entrance (51°20′⋅6N 3°49′⋅7E) to Veerhaven the approach is
directly to the harbour entrance, formed by two moles,
which faces NE and is marked by lights (both sides grey
metal mast, 7 m in height). Vessels up to 80 m in length
and 9⋅5 m beam are permitted to use Veerhaven.
Veerhaven is used by harbour craft, fishing vessels,
inland waterway craft and recreational craft.
Berths
Terneuzen Inner Harbour
7.227 1
Westsluis leads to the W branch of the canal and
Middensluis and Oostsluis into the E arm of the canal. The
two arms join close N of four basins which form the inner
harbour. From N to S these basins are:
2
Noorderkanaalhaven, with depths up to 7⋅5 m, has
170 m of berthing on its N side and 192 m on its
S side.
CHAPTER 7
182
Zuiderkanaalhaven, with depths up to 7⋅2 m, has
225 m of berthing on its N side and 230 m on its
S side.
3
Massagoedhaven, with depths up to 12⋅2 m, has
806 m of berthing for bulk carriers. There is a
Ro-Ro terminal S of Massagoedhaven, with a
depth of 7⋅2 m.
Zevenaarhaven, with depths up to 12⋅2 m, has 1800 m
of berthing. There are two Ro-Ro berths in
Zevenaarhaven.
Port services
7.228 1
Repairs. There is a floating dock for repairing stern
gear or bowthrusters. It has a lifting capacity of 420 tonnes.
Repairs to hull and engines in the shipyard branching E off
the canal.
2
Other facilities. Hospital; deratting, exemption
certificates only; reception of oily waste by barge.
Supplies: Water from barge; marine fuels by lighter;
provisions; stores.
TERNEUZEN-GENT CANAL
General information
Chart 120 plan of Gent
Description
7.229 1
The Terneuzen-Gent Canal is 17 miles long and runs in
a generally S direction through the Netherlands and then
Belgium. The joint Netherlands/Belgian Customs House lies
on the W side of the canal, near the border close S of Sas
van Gent. There is a quay where inland waterway traffic
bound in both directions must clear Customs.
2
The canal is crossed by swing bridges at Sluiskil
(51°17′⋅6N 3°50′⋅1E) and Sas van Gent (51°13′⋅8N
3°48′⋅5E) and a leaf bridge at Zelzate (51°12′⋅0N 3°48′⋅1E).
The reported time for the passage from Terneuzen to Gent
is 2½ hours.
There are branch canals at Sluiskil, Driekwart (51°16′N
3°50′E) and Sas van Gent.
Controlling depth and width
7.230 1
Depth throughout the length of the canal is 13⋅5 m.
The Netherlands part of the canal is 150 m wide, bottom
width 62 m, and the Belgian part 200 m wide, bottom
width 100 m.
Vessels bound for the branch canals (7.229) are
restricted in draught to between 3⋅5 and 5⋅0 m depending
on the particular branch canal.
Power cables
7.231 1
Power cables span the canal at Doornzele (51°07′⋅9N
3°46′⋅3E) and 1½ miles SE at Langerbrugge. The vertical
clearance of the lowest cable is 47 m.
Maximum size of vessel
7.232 1
The dimensions of the largest vessel permitted to use the
canal are governed by Westsluis (see 7.210).
Traffic regulations
7.233 1
Vessels whose length exceeds 245 m or beam 33 m are
subject to special regulations when transiting the canal. The
Terneuzen Port Authority (7.209) should be consulted prior
to any transit.
2
A number of reporting points are established along the
length of the canal. These points and the procedure to be
followed are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
3
A small anchorage marked by light−buoys (special) in
position 51°11′⋅0N 3°48′⋅0E is reserved for tugs.
Speed limits
7.234 1
Speed is limited as follows:
Draught Netherlands section Belgian section
km/hour (kn) km/hour (kn)
10 m or more 9 (4⋅9) 10 (5⋅4)
4⋅5 to 10 m 12 (6⋅5) 14 (7⋅5)
4⋅5 m or less 16 (8⋅6) 18 (9⋅7)
Bridges
7.235 1
General. The width of the navigation span of each
bridge is 60 m. The vertical clearance below the fixed part
of the bridges is 6⋅5 m and, below the opening span, 7 m,
except Zelzate, which is 8⋅5 m below the opening span.
Gauges on either side of the bridges indicate the clearance.
2
If the visibility is between 250 and 500 m, the bridges
will only be operated for vessels equipped with working
radar and VHF. If the visibility falls below 250 m the
bridges are not operated.
To avoid holding up road traffic at peak times the
bridges at Sluiskil and Sas van Gent are closed from
Monday to Friday 0740−0800 and 1640−1700.
7.236 1
Bridge signals are exhibited as follows:
Left Centre Right Meaning
R R Passage under and through
prohibited
R Y R Through passage prohibited;
passage under permitted but
oncoming vessels may be met
R Y
Y
R Through passage prohibited;
passage under permitted;
oncoming vessels prohibited
R
G
R
G
Through passage prohibited but
will soon be permitted; passage
under prohibited
G G Through passage permitted
When the bridge is not tended the single red light is
replaced by two red lights disposed vertically.
2
In addition to the signals above at Zelzate two green
lights permit passage up to the bridge, a red and a green
light permit passage up to the bridge for vessel with a
beam of less than 16 m and two red lights prohibit passage
up to the bridge. The lights are disposed vertically.
3
The bridges are not opened until approaching vessels are
within 500 m of the bridge.
Sluicing signals: Sluiskil and Sas van Gent exhibit
similar sluicing signals to those given at 7.218.
Directions
7.237 1
Apart from the leading lights below no other directions
are given.
CHAPTER 7
183
The alignment (212½°) of the following lights leads
from the NNE to the entrance of Zijkanaal E:
Front light (51°14′⋅1N 3°48′⋅4E).
Rear light (150 m SSW of front light.
2
The alignment (010°) of the following lights leads from
the SSW to a position W of the entrance to Zijkanaal E:
Front light (51°14′⋅4N 3°48′⋅6E).
Rear light (150 m NNE of front light).
Berths along the Terneuzen-Gent Canal
7.238 1
Sluiskil (51°17′N 3°50′E) has a quay 395 m in length,
depth alongside 10 m.
Sas van Gent (51°14′N 3°48′E) has a quay 210 m in
length with a depth alongside 7⋅2 m adjacent to a chemical
factory. In 2004, the berth handled 41 vessels with a total
deadweight of 183 375 tonnes.
2
Zelzate (51°12′N 3°49′E) has a quay 1050 m in length,
depth alongside 13⋅5 m, on the E bank of the canal
alongside a steel works. The quay can accommodate the
largest vessels able to use the canal.
Gent
General information
7.239 1
Position. Gent (51°04′N 3°45′E) is situated at the S end
of the Terneuzen-Gent Canal. It is connected by inland
waterways to Antwerp and Brugge.
Function. It is a very large Belgian port with a large
industrial hinterland. The population is 224 685 (2001).
2
Traffic. In 2004 the port handled 2950 vessels with a
total deadweight of 34⋅2 million tonnes.
Port Authority. Gent Port Company, John Kennedylaan
32, B-9042 Gent.
Berths
7.240 1
The port has 8½ miles of quays, with depths alongside
ranging from 3⋅2 to 13⋅5 m. The principal docks lie on the
E side of the canal. From N to S they are:
2
Rodenhuizdok (51°08′⋅8N 3°47′⋅5E), which has 790 m
of quays with a depth of 13⋅5 m alongside. The
dock deals mainly with grain cargoes, but there are
also two tanker berths for vessels up to
80 000 dwt.
3
Mercatordok (51°06′⋅9N 3°45′⋅3E), which has 1830 m
of quays, with a depth alongside of 13⋅5 m. The
dock can handle vessels up to 60 000 dwt and also
has four berths for barges.
4
Alphonse Sifferdok (51°06′⋅0N 3°44′⋅8E), which
handles general cargoes and has 4740 m of quays,
with a depth alongside between 12⋅5 and 13⋅5 m.
There are two Ro-Ro berths in the dock.
5
Grootdok (51°05′⋅0N 3°44′⋅1E), off which run
Noorddok, Middendok and Zuiddok. Together the
docks provide about 6800 m of quays, with depths
alongside of 13 m. The docks handle general
cargoes.
6
Kluizendok (51°09′⋅5N 3°46′⋅0E) on the W side of the
canal has about 1500 m of quayside with a depth alongside
of 13⋅5 m.
Port services
7.241 1
Repairs of all types can be undertaken. There are two
dry docks used for repairs, the largest is 130 m in length,
13 m in width and has a depth over the sill of 5⋅25 m.
Other facilities: compass adjustment; hospital; deratting
exemption certificates only issued; oily waste reception
facilities.
Supplies: marine fuels by barge or road tanker; water by
barge; provisions; stores.
TERNEUZEN TO ANTWERP
General information
Chart 120, 139
Route
7.242 1
From a position in the main channel off Terneuzen
(51°20′N 3°49′E) the route follows the main channel,
which runs through a series of curving reaches comprising
the E part of Pas van Terneuzen (7.262), Overloop van
Hansweert (7.263), Zuidergat (7.264), Overloop van
Valkenisse (7.264), Nauw van Bath (7.265) and Pas van
Rilland (7.266) as far as the entrance to Zandvlietsluis and
Berendrechtsluis. Thence the river runs past further lock
entrances and finally to the river berths off Antwerp. From
Terneuzen to the river berths off Antwerp, following the
river, is a distance of 34 miles and the general trend is
ESE.
Topography
7.243 1
Off Terneuzen the river is about 2½ miles wide and
remains much that width as far as Bath (51°24′N 4°13′E),
20 miles up river from Terneuzen. This stretch of the river
is encumbered by sandbanks, which lie centrally within the
river and give rise to a number of alternatives to the main
channel. Above Bath there are no further central sandbanks
and the river narrows considerably to be only 2 cables wide
off the river berths at Antwerp.
2
The land either side of the river is low-lying and
embanked for much of its length.
Depths
7.244 1
See 7.117.
Traffic regulations
7.245 1
Speed should be reduced when passing Doel (51°18′⋅6N
4°16′⋅1E), Krankeloon (51°15′⋅3N 4°18′⋅0E), Oosterweel
(51°14′⋅4N 4°22′⋅9E), the river berths off Antwerp, the lock
entrances and works in progress.
Submarine cables and pipelines
7.246
1
Submarine cable areas cross Gat van Ossenisse (7.263)
and Overloop van Hansweert (7.263) as shown on the
chart.
Three submarine pipelines cross the river at the S end of
Pas van Rilland (7.266) as shown on the chart.
CHAPTER 7
184
Care should be taken to avoid anchoring in the vicinity
of the above. See 1.64.
Tidal streams
7.247 1
Off Terneuzen see 7.183. The following paragraphs give
general information on tidal streams. The pilots should be
consulted for local conditions.
7.248 1
Overloop van Hansweert (51°24′N 3°57′E). The
in-going stream begins at −0415 HW Vlissingen and ends
at +0100 HW Vlissingen, when the stream is slack. The
out-going stream begins at +0200 HW Vlissingen and may
cause a set to the W, especially when the drying banks
either side of the channel are still covered. The in-coming
stream merges with that from Middelgat at the N end of
Overloop van Hansweert.
7.249 1
Middelgat (51°24′N 3°55′E). The in-going stream
begins at −0345 HW Vlissingen and runs very strongly
especially in the last two hours. The out-going stream
begins at +0215 HW Vlissingen. An eddy forms at first
close to the N shore. The mean rate in both directions
is 2½ kn.
7.250 1
Off Hansweert (51°27′N 4°00′E) the in-going stream
begins at −0400 HW Vlissingen and the out-going stream
at +0200 HW Vlissingen. The mean rate in both directions
is 2¼ kn. The tidal streams are strong both into and out of
Hansweert Harbour.
7.251 1
Zuidergat (51°23′N 4°02′E), Schaar van Waarde
(51°25′N 4°03′E) and Schaar van Valkenisse (51°23′N
4°06′E). The in-going stream begins at −0400 HW
Vlissingen. See also tidal streams off Hansweert and Bath.
7.252 1
Nauw van Bath (51°23′N 4°10′E). Both in-going and
out-going streams begin earlier on the N side. The in-going
stream is strongest on the S side and the out-going stream
strongest on the N side, especially when the drying banks
are still covered. The in-coming stream still runs on the S
side when the out-going stream has begun on the N side.
There is a difficult cross stream from Geul Zimmerman
(51°24′N 4°09′E) just before HW especially at springs.
Streams run strongly through Schaar van de Noord
(51°23′N 4°11′E).
7.253 1
Off Bath (51°24′N 4°13′E) the in-going stream begins
at −0540 HW Antwerp, which is 1¾ hours later than in
Rede van Vlissingen, with a mean rate of 2 kn. The
out-going stream begins at +0200 HW Antwerp, 1½ hours
later than in Rede van Vlissingen, with a mean rate of
2½ kn.
7.254 1
Above Bath the in-going stream is strongest on the E
side of the river and the out-going stream strongest on the
W side of the river.
7.255 1
East of Ballastplaat (51°21′N 4°14′E) at +0600 HW
Antwerp an eddy runs S. Above Ballastplaat the in-going
stream is strongest from −0200 to −0100 HW Antwerp and
the out-going stream strongest from +0500 to +0600 HW
Antwerp, with the mean rate in both directions is 2½ kn.
7.256 1
At Ouden Doel (51°20′N 4°16′E) an eddy runs S from
+0600 HW Antwerp and continues until the in-going
stream, which is very strong, begins.
7.257 1
Off Lillo (51°18′N 4°17′E) the in-going stream begins at
−0525 HW Antwerp and the out-going stream at +0020
HW Antwerp, with a mean rate in both directions of 2 kn.
7.258
1
Off Kallosluis (51°16′N 4°18′E). In the vicinity of Plaat
van de Parel (51°16′N 4°19′E) a strong set towards
Kallosluis may be experienced during the in-going stream.
7.259 1
Off Antwerp (51°13′N 4°24′E) the in-going stream
begins at −0440 HW Antwerp and the out-going stream at
+0050 HW Antwerp, with a mean rate in both directions of
2 kn, but the stream can reach 3 kn.
Tide gauges
7.260 1
Tide gauges are formed by horizontal boards, 0⋅3 m
apart, painted alternately red and white. Zero on the gauges
equates to Mean Lower Low Water Springs. These gauges,
the majority of which are lighted, are sited at:
Hansweert (51°27′N 4°00′E) (7.276), on a lighted
dolphin (yellow post) 7 cables NW of the harbour
entrance.
2
Perkpolder (51°23′⋅9N 4°01′⋅6E) (7.283).
Marlemonsche Plaat (51°22′⋅7N 4°09′⋅9E) (7.265).
Bath (51°24′⋅0N 4°12′⋅6E) (7.287).
3
Prosperpolder (51°20′⋅9N 4°14′⋅3E), Pas van Rilland.
Tide gauge (51°21′⋅0N 4°16′⋅2E), 4 cables WNW of
the entrance to Zandvlietsluis.
Liefkenshoek (51°17′⋅8N 4°17′⋅1E).
4
Kallosluis signal station (51°16′⋅1N 4°17⋅9E) (7.301).
Boerenschans adjacent front leading-light beacon
(51°15′⋅1N 4°19′⋅9E).
Borgeweertpolder (51°14′⋅2N 4°22′⋅2E).
Oosterweel light-beacon (51°14′⋅4N 4°23′⋅7E).
Directions
(continued from 7.187)
General
7.261 1
The river above Terneuzen is winding and the navigable
channel narrow in places. The main fairway is well buoyed.
Many lights are sited on the banks of the river, some of
which are in pairs to provide leading lines. Some lights are
exhibited by day. Buoyage is constantly moved to meet
changes in the channel and light sectors are also adjusted,
in some cases before amending notices to the chart have
been published.
2
In parts of the river there are alternative channels, which
are described after the main directions. They are buoyed
for day navigation and may be used by vessels of a
suitable draught, but due to frequent changes in depths, in
date local knowledge is essential for safe navigation.
East part of Pas van Terneuzen
7.262 1
From a position in the main fairway N of Terneuzen
(51°20′N 3°49′E) the route curves 3½ miles ENE to a
position NW of the Eendragtpolder leading lights, passing
(with positions from the front light (51°21′⋅4N 3°54′⋅3E)):
SSE of the entrance to Zuid Everingen (2 miles W)
(7.192), and:
2
NNW of the anchorages in Put van Terneuzen
(2 miles WSW) (7.212) and Othenpolder sector
light (black round metal framework tower, white
base, 4 m in height).
CHAPTER 7
185
Eendragtpolder Leading Lights:
Front light (white mast, black bands, 5 m in height)
(51°21′⋅4N 3°54′⋅3E).
3
Rear light (white post, green bands, 18 m in height)
(283 m ENE of front light).
The alignment (074½°) of these synchronised lights,
which are also shown by day, leads through deep water on
the NW side of the fairway, passing:
4
NNW of Margarethapolder Light (structure with green
and white bands, 12 m in height) (9 cables WSW),
whence a mid-channel track should be followed,
thence:
To a position NNW of the Eendragtpolder leading
lights.
Overloop van Hansweert
7.263 1
From a position NNW of the Eendrachtpolder leading
lights (51°21′⋅4N 3°54′⋅3E) the route leads 6½ miles in a
generally NNE direction through Gat van Ossenisse and
Overloop van Hansweert, that part of the main fairway
between Pas van Terneuzen (7.186) and Hansweert, which
is marked by light-buoys and buoys, passing (with positions
from Hansweert Main Light (red metal framework tower,
white band, 8 m in height) (51°26′⋅4N 4°00′⋅5E):
2
NW of Platen van Hulst (4½ miles SSW), which
fronts the E bank.
Schore Leading Lights:
Front light (white structure, red bands, 4 m in height)
(51°27′⋅2N 3°59′⋅4E).
Rear light (red metal mast, white bands, 20 m in
height) (480 m NNE of front light).
3
The alignment (021½°) of these synchronised lights
leads through Overloop van Hansweert, passing:
ESE of Rug van Baarland (3½ miles SE), a drying
bank, thence:
W of the entrance to Schaar van Ossenisse (2 miles
SSW) (7.271), thence:
4
Between Platen van Ossenisse, drying banks (2 miles
SW) where the route rounds to ENE on entering
the white sector (061½°−078°) of Hansweert Main
Light, thence:
SSE of the junction with Middelgat (6 cables WNW)
(7.270) marked on its S side by OH-MG
Light-buoy (S cardinal), thence:
5
Out of the white sector of Hansweert Main Light to a
position S of Hansweert (7.276).
Zuidergat and Overloop van Valkenisse
7.264 1
From a position S of Hansweert (51°27′N 4°00′E),
within the white sector (320°−334°) astern of Hansweert
Main Light, the route leads 4 miles SE and SSE then
4 miles E through Zuidergat and Overloop van Valkenisse,
to join Nauw van Bath (7.265), passing (with positions
from Groenendijk Front Light (51°22′⋅3N 4°02′⋅6E)):
2
SW of Kruiningen (7.283) (3¾ miles N), where the
route rounds to the SSE. An embankment between
the E mole of Hansweert and the W mole of
Kruiningen is marked by buoys (special).
Groenendijk Leading Lights:
Front light (white post, black band, 4 m in height)
(51°22′⋅3N 4°02′⋅6E).
Rear light (white lantern on black post, 14 m in
height) (572 m SSE of front light).
3
The alignment (167½°) of these lights leads through the
N part of Zuidergat, which is the shallowest part of the
fairway, in particular between the E section of Platen van
Ossenisse and the NW end of Plaat van Walsoorden,
passing:
ENE of the E section of Platen van Ossenisse
(3½ miles NNW), a drying bank on which there is
an islet, and:
4
WSW of the entrance to Schaar van Waarde (3 miles
N) (7.272) marked on its W side by ZG−SvW
Light-buoy (W cardinal), thence:
ENE of the entrance to Schaar van Ossenisse (7.271)
(2 miles NNW) marked at its E end by Perkpolder
Buoy (E cardinal), thence:
5
ENE of Perkpolder (2 miles NNW), a former ferry
harbour, thence:
ENE of Oude Hoofd Walsoorden (1½ miles N), a
mole projecting 2 cables into the river, off which
there are eddies. A sector light (black lantern,
white band, on dolphin, 12 m in height) stands at
the head of the mole. Thence:
6
WSW of an obstruction, position approximate, depth
less than 5 m (1¼ miles N) close N of 48A
Light-buoy (port hand).
ENE of Walsoorden (7.284) (8 cables NNW), where
Bocht van Walsoorden rounds to ESE. The channel
here becomes deeper and narrower, and is reported
to be difficult for long deep−draught vessels. And:
7
W and S of Plaat van Walsoorden (1¼ miles NE), an
extensive drying flat in the middle of the river,
thence:
NNE of Groenendijk front light.
8
From Bocht van Walsoorden, Overloop van Valkenisse
curves gently E around the S of Platen van Valkenisse, an
extensive drying bank in the middle of the river, to connect
with Nauw van Bath (7.265). There are no leading or
sector lights on this reach and the channel buoyage is the
best guide. South of Overloop van Valkenisse the coastal
drying banks are protected by a dyke at the E end of
which is Speelmansgat Light (51°22′⋅0N 4°06′⋅1E) marking
the entrance to Speelmansgat (7.285).
9
Caution. In 2004, shoaling had encroached into the
fairway between No 53 Light−buoy (starboard hand)
(51°25′⋅0N 4°01′⋅6E) and No 53A Light−buoy (starboard
hand) 5 cables farther S. The alignment (167⋅5°) of
Groenendijk Leading Lights passes over No 53A
Light−buoy and the 10 m depth contour in this vicinity.
Nauw van Bath
7.265 1
Leading Lights:
Middenketel (front) Light (red pedestal, white band,
10 m in height) (51°24′⋅0N 4°11′⋅2E).
Noordketel (common rear) Light (red pedestal on
concrete piles, 13 m in height) (683 m NE of
Middenketel Light).
2
The alignment (044°) of these lights leads through the
W part of Nauw van Bath the continuation of the main
fairway above Overloop van Valkenisse, passing (with
positions from Middenketel Light):
NW of Marlemonsche Plaat (1½ miles SW), a drying
bank, thence:
3
NW of the anchorage (1½ miles SW) (7.275) off the
entrance to Schaar van de Noord (7.274). A radar
tower (1 mile S) stands on a small artificial island
on the S side of Schaar van de Noord. Thence:
SE of the entrance to Geul Zimmerman (1¼ miles
SW) (7.273), thence:
CHAPTER 7
186
4
SE of Westketel Light-beacon (red post, 11 m in
height) (7 cables SW), where the track rounds to
the ENE on entering the white sector
(055°−065½°) of Oostketel Light (7.266) (3 cables
ENE), which leads round the NW side of Plaat
van Saeftinge (5 cables SE). Plaat van Saeftinge
lies in the centre of the river and forms the S side
of the main fairway as it curves from NE through
E to SSE, thence:
5
SSE of Middenketel Light where the track rounds to
the E on entering the white sector (075°−087°) of
Reigersberschepolder Light (red and white
pedestal, 5 m in height) (7 cables E), which stands
close SW of Bath (7.287), thence:
To a position S of Oostketel Light (7.266) (3 cables
ENE).
6
Caution. The bend in the channel off Bath is reported to
be difficult for long and deep−draught vessels, especially if
opposing traffic is met.
On the outside of the bend there is a training wall which
covers and is marked by buoys (port hand: Letters A to E
prefixed by 66).
Pas van Rilland
7.266 1
Leading Lights:
Oostketel (front) Light (red pedestal, white bands,
10 m in height) (51°24′⋅1N 4°11′⋅8E).
Noordketel (common rear) Light (7.265) (344 m NW
of Oostketel Light).
2
The alignment (310°) astern of these lights leads NE of
Plaat van Saeftinge (7.265) to the N entrance of Pas van
Rilland where the track rounds to the SSE on entering the
white sector (342°−349°) astern of Reigersbergschepolder
Light (7.265), passing (with positions from Noord
Ballastplaat Light-beacon (black beacon, red daymark and
lantern (51°21′⋅4N 4°14′⋅8E)):
3
ENE of Zuid Saeftinge Light-beacon (black pedestal,
white band, on beacon, 11 m in height) (1¼ miles
WNW). A training wall marked by buoys (special:
odd numbers prefixed ZS) extends 8 cables NNW
and SSE of the beacon. And:
WSW of Ballastplaat (6 cables NW). A training wall
which covers runs along the W and S side of
Ballastplaat.
4
Caution. Pas van Rilland is subject to considerable
change due to constant silting of Plaat van Saeftinge
(7.265) on the NW side and Ballastplaat (above) to the SE.
Depths are maintained by dredging.
Zandvliet
7.267
1
Zandvliet Leading lights:
Front lights (51°20′⋅7N 4°16′⋅3E).
Rear light (red rectangle, white bands, on red mast)
(270 m ESE of front light).
The alignments (118⋅1° and 117⋅7°) of these lights, or
(118⋅4°) of the directional light in the same location as the
front lights, lead to a position W of Zandvlietsluis and
Berendrechtsluis the N entrance to Antwerp Docks, passing:
2
SSW of Noord Ballastplaat Light-beacon on the
drying edge of Ballastplaat, thence:
SSW of Nordzee Container Terminal (6 cables ESE),
and:
3
NNE of Plaat van Doel (8 cables SE), a shoal, the N
edge of which is marked by light-buoys (starboard
hand). A training wall, marked by a buoy (special)
at its N end and by a beacon (triangular daymark,
point up) at its S extremity and which is
submerged at HW, runs along the E side of the
shoal. Ouden Doel Light-beacon (white square,
black stripes, on black beacon) stands near the
middle of the training wall. The line of bearing
(155½°) of Blauwgaren Directional Light
(51°19′⋅4N 4°17′⋅1E) leads through the fairway
between the training wall and the Europa
Container Terminal (7.305). Thence:
4
To a position 7 cables W of the lock entrances, where
the line of bearing (100½°) of a Moiré directional
light on the central pier leads towards the locks. A
power cable, vertical clearance 69 m, crosses the
river 3 cables W of the central pier.
5
Caution. Vessels bound for the locks take their tugs off
Noord Ballastplaat Light-beacon. Thereafter vessels should
proceed with caution due to other vessels entering or
leaving the locks or berthing and unberthing from the two
container terminals to N and S of the lock entrances.
7.268 1
Useful mark:
Two cooling towers (red lights) (51°19′⋅5N 4°15′⋅7E),
part of a nuclear power station.
Zandvlietsluis to the river berths off Antwerp
7.269 1
From Zandvlietsluis (51°20′⋅8N 4°17′⋅2E) to the
commencement of the river berths in the vicinity of
Royerssluis (51°14′⋅4N 4°24′⋅1E) is a distance of 10 miles.
The main fairway and the entrance to some locks are
indicated by a series of leading and sector lights and the
fairway is also marked by light-buoys (port and starboard
hand), which are all best seen on the chart.
2
On the W bank, 2½ miles upriver from Zandvliet, is the
entrance to Deurganckdok (7.304) a large tidal basin still
under construction (2005).
The central entrance to the Antwerp Docks, provided by
Boudewijnsluis and Van Cauwelaertsluis (7.301), is 5 miles
up river from Zandvlietsluis and Kallosluis (7.301) the
entrance to the dock complex on the W bank, is 6½ miles
up river.
3
The Pilotage building and the Schelde Navigation
Offices are both situated 6 cables S of Royerssluis on the S
side of the former entrance to Bonapartedok. In front of the
latter building stands a memorial to seamen who died in
the World Wars. It is customary to dip ensigns when
passing the memorial.
Caution. Crossing vessels and vessels waiting their turn
to lock in, may be encountered off all the lock entrances.
(Directions continue at 7.317)
Side channels
Chart 120
Middelgat
7.270 1
Middelgat (51°25′N 3°55′E), formerly the main fairway
from Pas van Terneuzen (7.186) to Hansweert (7.276) has a
least charted depth in mid−channel of 4⋅7 m (51°27′⋅0N
3°57′⋅6E). The channel is marked by light−buoys and buoys
(numbers prefixed by MG).
2
From a position at the S entrance point to Middelgat,
marked by GvO-MG Light-buoy (S cardinal) (51°22′⋅0N
3°54′⋅4E), the route leads initially NNE then E and SE for
a distance of 8 miles to a position off Hansweert, passing
(with positions from Baarland Church (51°24′⋅5N
3°53′⋅0E)):
CHAPTER 7
187
3
WNW of Rug van Baarland (2¼ miles ESE) (7.263)
and its extension S to the entrance of Middelgat,
thence:
ESE of Hoek van Baarland (1 mile SE) and offshore
shoals to the S. A radar tower stands on the
embankment 5 cables NE of the hoek. Thence:
4
ESE of the entrance to the disused ferry harbour at
Hoedekenskerke (1½ miles ENE) which now has
berths for yachts. The white sectors of a light
(003°−019°) and (203°−210½°) on the head of the
breakwater covers the buoyed channel W of Platen
van Ossenisse (7.263). Thence:
WNW of Brouwerplaat (2½ miles ENE), thence:
5
NW and N of Molenplaat (3¼ miles NE), where the
route rounds to the E in the white sector
(074°−092½°) of Schore Front Leading Light
(7.263), thence:
SW of Schore Front Leading Light (4¾ miles ENE),
thence:
To a position S of Hansweert (5 miles ENE) where
the route through Zuidergat (7.264) is rejoined.
6
Caution. Two submarine cable areas cross Middelgat as
shown on the chart.
Schaar van Ossenisse
7.271 1
Schaar van Ossenisse (51°25′N 4°00′E) is a narrow
winding channel, with depths of less than 1 m, which runs
from close N of Hoek van Ossenisse to Perkpolder (7.283).
Chart 120, 139
Schaar van Waarde
7.272 1
Schaar van Waarde (51°25′N 4°03′E), runs SE from the
N end of Zuidergat (7.264). It is buoyed and only used by
small craft. Due to frequent changes in the channel it
should not be used without local knowledge. Its
continuation SE, which is not buoyed, is Schaar van
Valkenisse.
Geul Zimmerman
7.273 1
Geul Zimmerman, (51°24′N 4°07′E) is an unbuoyed
channel which runs along the N coast from Schaar van
Waarde to Nauw van Bath (7.265). It is subject to
considerable change.
Two breakwaters extend 4 cables from the N bank either
side of the submerged village of Valkenisse in position
51°24′⋅1N 4°05′⋅8E at the W end of Geul Zimmerman.
Chart 139
Schaar van de Noord
7.274 1
Schaar van de Noord (51°23′N 4°11′E) is a shallow
channel, which is not buoyed and leads across the S side of
Plaat van Saeftinge (7.265) from Zuidergat (7.264) to Pas
van Rilland (7.266). The channel is changeable and because
of shoaling not suitable as a safe passage for shipping,
although, with local knowledge, it may used by small craft.
Anchorages
Charts 120, 139
7.275 1
Anchorages listed below are not all indicated on the
chart and are normally used only in emergency or as a
temporary waiting anchorage prior to entering a lock. Some
of the anchorages are in the fairway.
2
W of Hansweert (51°27′N 4°00′E) off Kapellbank,
where there is some shelter from NW winds.
SE of a line from Kruiningen (51°26′N 4°02′E) to
ZG-SvW Light-buoy (W cardinal), 7 cables S of
Kruiningen, at the entrance to Schaar van Waarde
(7.272).
3
At the S end of Nauw van Bath (7.265), there is an
anchorage area (51°23′N 4°10′E), which is shown
on the chart. Limits of the anchorage are marked
by buoys (special, numbers prefixed by MA).
Depths within the anchorage are liable to change
and there are strong tides.
4
Off the small drying harbour of Hedwigepolder
(51°21′N 4°14′E), NW of Plaat van Doel (7.267),
to the S of a line between No 85 Light-buoy
(starboard hand) and No 85A Light-buoy
(starboard hand).
Off Liefkenshoek (51°17′⋅8N 4°17′⋅1E) S of the
leading line (283°) and between No 92 Light-buoy
(port hand) and No 99 Light-buoy (starboard hand)
but well clear of Liefkenshoektunnel.
5
Between Meestoof Light-beacon (red square, white
stripes, on black beacon, red lantern) (51°16′⋅6N
4°19′⋅3E) and No 94 Light-buoy (port hand),
6 cables SW of the light-beacon, and E of lights in
line (039°) shown on the chart.
6
Off Oosterweel (51°14′⋅4N 4°23′⋅0E) to the S of the
leading line (091°) and between No 116
Light-buoy (port hand) and Oosterweel Light (red
square on column) (51°14′⋅4N 4°23′⋅7E).
Hansweert
Chart 120
General information
7.276 1
Description. Hansweert Harbour (51°27′N 4°00′E) gives
access to the Kanaal door Zuid Beveland (8.109) and acts
as a customs station for vessels bound from Belgian to
Dutch ports. There is a quay in the harbour.
7.277 1
Approach and entry. Hansweert is approached directly
from the Westerschelde. The entrance to the harbour lies
between two stone moles, 79 m apart. Hansweert Main
Light (7.263) stands on the W molehead and a light (grey
column, 5 m in height) is exhibited from the E molehead.
Limiting conditions
7.278 1
Controlling depths. Within the harbour there is a depth
of 3⋅5 m. Depth alongside the quay is 5⋅5 m.
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 5⋅1 m; mean neap range
about 3⋅6 m.
Maximum size of vessel which can enter the canal is
length 140 m, beam 14⋅5 m and draught 4⋅75 m.
Harbour and locks
7.279 1
Layout. The harbour consists of two basins separated by
a pair of locks, the inner basin giving access to the canal
itself. The harbour is surrounded by sloping stonework, but
vessels may secure on pontoons, both above and below the
locks.
7.280 1
Traffic signals are exhibited close N of Hansweert Main
Light and are visible from the Westerschelde and inside the
harbour. An isophase orange light over a white light
indicates that traffic is proceeding upstream, with lights
CHAPTER 7
188
reversed that traffic is proceeding downstream and with an
isophase orange light above and below the white light that
traffic is proceeding in both directions.
2
An isophase orange light, visible only from the river,
indicates that traffic is proceeding out of the locks.
7.281 1
Tidal streams. See 7.250.
Port services
7.282 1
Repairs of a limited nature can be carried out. There
are two slipways, the larger being 90 m long and 12 m
wide, and two floating docks, the larger being 110 m long
and 14⋅8 m wide.
Supplies: fuel by barge; water by barge or at berths on
the canal side of the lock.
Minor harbours
Kruningen and Perkpolder
7.283 1
Kruiningen (51°26′N 4°02′E) and Perkpolder (51°24′N
4°01′E) are former ferry terminals on opposite banks of the
river.
Walsoorden
7.284 1
Walsoorden (51°23′N 4°02′E) consists of two basins
approached through a common entrance. The N basin,
Tijhaven, dries and is only used by small craft. The S
basin, Diepe Haven, is suitable for small sea-going vessels.
The alignment (220°) of the following lights leads through
the harbour entrance, formed by moles from the heads of
which lights are exhibited (both grey column, 4 m in
height):
2
Front light (white rectangle on grey post, 8 m in
height) (51°22′⋅9N 4°02′⋅1E).
Rear light (red triangle, point down, on grey post)
(60 m SW of front light).
Baalhoek and Paal
7.285 1
Baalhoek (51°22′N 4°05′E) and Paal, are small harbours,
both of which dry and lie on the S side of Overloop van
Valkenisse (7.264). Approach is from Speelmansgat
(51°22′N 4°06′E) at the N end of which there is a narrow
passage between training walls marked by Speelmansgat
Light-beacon and a pair of buoys (cardinal).
The harbour at Paal is used by small recreational craft.
Zimmermanpolder
7.286 1
Zimmermanpolder (51°24′N 4°09′E), which dries, has a
mound of drying rocks to the S of its entrance.
Bath
7.287 1
Bath (51°24′⋅0N 4°12′⋅5E) is the Netherlands customs
station where river barges from Belgian ports bound for
Dutch ports are cleared. These vessels anchor off the small
drying harbour, which has a pier to the E.
Doel
7.288 1
Doel (51°18′⋅6N 4°16′⋅0E) is the Belgian customs and
quarantine station on the W bank of the river, with Lillo,
off which the customs vessel anchors, 1 mile SE on the E
bank. Both Doel and Lillo have a small craft basin which
dries and which is used by recreational craft.
ANTWERP
General information
Chart 139
Position
7.289 1
Antwerp (51°14′N 4°25′E), Antwerpen in Flemish and
Anvers in French, is 70 miles from Wandelaar Pilot Station
(7.13) and 12 miles into Belgium from the boundary with
The Netherlands.
Function
7.290 1
It is the most important port in Belgium with 130 km of
quayside and has a very large and varied import, export
and transit trade.
The population is 445 570 (2001).
Topography
7.291 1
The city lies along the E bank of the Schelde and from
the river presents a fine aspect. There are numerous public
buildings and a celebrated cathedral, reportedly the noblest
Gothic structure in Belgium. Downstream a vast industrial
complex has been created along the banks of the river and
within the hinterland of the docks.
Approach and entry
7.292 1
The approach is from either the Wandelaar Pilot Station
(7.13) or Steenbank Pilot Station (7.14), thence the
Westerschelde and Schelde lead directly to the river berths
at Antwerp or the locks, which give access to the extensive
wet docks.
Antwerp is also the S terminal for the
Schelde-Rijnkanaal (8.114).
Traffic
7.293 1
In 2004 the port was visited by 15 371 sea−going
vessels and handled 152 million tonnes of cargo including
6⋅1 million teus. Port Authority
7.294 1
Antwerp Port Authority, Havenhuis, Entrepotkaai 1,
B-2000 Antwerp.
Limiting conditions
7.295 1
Controlling depths. See 7.118.
Deepest and longest berths are in the Kanaaldoks
(7.303).
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 5⋅5 m; mean neap range
about 4⋅0 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. See 7.118.
Arrival information
Port radio
7.296 1
Antwerp port operations and information service
provides traffic information for the harbour area including
its locks. It is a separate organisation to
VTS−Scheldemonde (7.16).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details.
CHAPTER 7
189
Pilotage and tugs
7.297 1
Pilotage. For details of pilotage see 7.12 to 7.15.
Tugs are available. For vessels proceeding to the river
berths off Antwerp the use of two tugs is recommended.
Harbour
General layout
7.298 1
There is an extensive network of non−tidal docks on the
E side of the river to the N of the city, which are accessed
by five locks. Within the docks there is 4½ miles of quays
for sea-going vessels and a further 3½ miles of quays for
inland waterway vessels.
Deurganckdok (7.304) is a large tidal dock on the W
bank extending SSW from close S of Doel (7.288). In
addition, there are a number of berths within non−tidal
docks on the W bank, some of which are still under
construction. Kallosluis (7.301) gives access to these docks.
2
The riverside berths bordering the city on the E bank
stretch for over 3 miles upriver. Imalso Yacht Harbour
(51°13′⋅9N 4°23′⋅7E) is a large marina on the W bank
opposite the city centre.
Entry into locks
7.299 1
Turn numbers for passage through the locks are
allocated in rotation and signals at each lock entrance
indicate the turn number of the vessel to enter the lock.
Requests should be made on VHF radio for a turn number
as follows:
For Zandvlietsluis and Berendrechtsluis on passing
No 65A Light-buoy (starboard hand) (51°22′N
4°08′E).
2
For Boudewijnsluis and Van Cauwelaertsluis on
crossing the boundary to Zandvliet Radar (51°21′N
4°14′E).
For Royerssluis on passing No 116 Light-buoy (port
hand) (51°14′N 4°22′E).
Tidal streams
7.300 1
See 7.259.
Locks
Layout
7.301 1
From N to S the following locks, all on the E bank
except Kallosluis, give access to the wet docks and basins
(dimensions in m):
Lock Length Width Sill
depth
Remarks
Zandvlietsluis
(51°20′⋅8N
4°17′⋅2E)
500 57 13⋅1
Berendrechtsluis
(close S of
Zandvlietsluis)
500 68 13⋅5
Zandvlietsluis from W (7.301)
(Original dated prior to 1999)
(Photograph − Foto Guido Coolens n.v., Antwerpen)
CHAPTER 7
190
Boudewijnsluis from NW (7.301)
(Original dated prior to 1999)
(Photograph − Foto Guido Coolens n.v., Antwerpen)
Lock Length Width Sill
depth
Remarks
Boudewijnsluis
(51°16′⋅7N
4°20′⋅0E)
360 45 9⋅9 Only
vessels
less than
45 000 tons
Van
Cauwelaertsluis
(close S of
Boudewijnsluis)
270 35 9⋅4
Kallosluis
(51°15′⋅8N
4°16′⋅8E)
360 50 11⋅4
Royerssluis
(51°14′⋅5N
4°24′⋅2E)
180 22 5⋅9
Kattendijksluis
(3 cables S of
Royerssluis)
110 24⋅8 3⋅0 Lock
disused
Warning lights
7.302
1
Blue lights are exhibited from signal boards at the
entrances to Zandvlietsluis and Berendrechtsluis (7.301)
when the sluice channel in either lock is in use. When the
light is on there is a risk of a cross-current in the approach
to the locks, and a request can be made to the lock−keeper
to interrupt the slucing if a ship has difficulty in entering
the lock.
Basins and berths
East bank dock system
7.303 1
The spine of the system of interconnecting wet docks on
the E bank is formed by Kanaaldoks B1, B2 and B3,
which have depths up to 16⋅7 m and run over 5 miles SSE
from their main entry point, Zandvlietsluis and
Berendrechtsluis, in the N. In all, these docks provide some
18 000m of quays. Delwaidedok, 2200m in length and
depth 16⋅7 m, lies on the E side of Kanaaldok B2. The S
entrance to the Schelde-Rijnkanaal runs N of a turning
basin to the E of Zandvlietsluis.
2
Boudewijnsluis and Van Cauwelaertsluis give access to
the S end of the Kanaaldoks and several large docks which
radiate from E to S. The largest dock is Hansadok, with
10 550 m of quays with depths of 15⋅2 m. Churchilldok has
depths of 16⋅2 m and 5440 m of quays.
3
To the S, Royerssluis gives access to a number of docks
of which Albertdok, with nearly 5000 m of quays and
depth 9⋅5 to 11⋅6 m is the largest. Most of the remainder of
the docks are quite small in comparison, many used by
inland craft, and have depths varying between 7⋅1 and
9⋅5 m.
CHAPTER 7
191
West bank dock system
7.304 1
An industrial area, which incorporates a dock system is
under development on the W bank.
2
Deurganckdok, a tidal basin on the W bank is a
container terminal. The dock is 2600 m long, 450 m wide
and has a project depth of 16 m. In 2005 the dock was
partially in operation with works in progress in the
remaining area.
An overhead power cable with a vertical clearance of
83 m spans the entrance to the dock.
3
Waaslandkanaal runs W from Kallosluis, and has other
docks branching from it. Doeldok, with 5400 m of quays
and depth 18 m, is the largest dock. In 2004,
Verrebroekdok was partially complete with 3000 m
available for general cargo.
Three overhead power cables span the entrance to
Waaslandkanaal; least clearance is 64 m. A tunnel crosses
beneath the canal close W of Kallosluis.
River berths
7.305 1
Container terminals. The Europa Container Terminal
lies on the S side of the entrance to Zandvlietsluis and
Berendrechtsluis, and the Noordzee Terminal to the N of
the locks. The Europa Container Terminal has five berths
for container vessels and one Ro-Ro berth; there is a quay
length of over 1500 m with a maximum depth alongside
which is reported to be 13⋅5 m. The Noordzee Terminal has
1100 m of multi-user berths.
7.306 1
The river berths are divided into two parts, Old River
Quays those which lie up to 2 miles above Kattendijksluis
(51°14′⋅2N 4°24′⋅3E) and New River Quays which extend a
further mile above the Old River Quays. Together the two
parts provide 29 numbered berths, shown on the chart, with
depths alongside of between 5 and 10 m. Visiting warships
may berth at Nos 21, 22 or 23 berths, which have a
reported jetty height of 7⋅5 m above Chart Datum.
2
There are some tanker berths immediately above New
River Quays, with depths up to 9 m alongside.
Caution. A prohibited rectangular area 500 m long
running parallel to and extending to about 100 m from the
E bank exists adjacent berths Nos 19 to 21. Within this
area the use of anchors and of propellors for turning is
prohibited. The area lies over two tunnels laid beneath the
river bed.
Port services
Repairs
7.307 1
Repairs of all description can be carried out. There are 6
dry docks of varying sizes; the largest is 312 m long, 50 m
wide and is capable of taking vessels up to 200 000 dwt.
Other facilities
7.308 1
Medical centres at all port facilities; hospitals; deratting
and exemption certificates issued; oily waste reception
available.
Supplies
7.309 1
Marine fuels by barge; fresh provisions; stores; water at
the quays.
ANTWERP TO BRUSSELS
General information
Belgian Chart 104 (See 1.31)
Route
7.310 1
From Antwerp (51°14′N 4°25′E) the route to Brussels
follows the River Schelde for 6 miles above the New River
Quays (7.306) to the mouth of the River Rupel. The
Zeekanaal van Brussel naar de Schelde is entered through
Zeesluis Wintam, a lock close W of the river mouth. From
Zeesluis Wintam the canal runs for 18 miles to Brussels.
Depths
7.311 1
The canal as far as Willebroek, about 5 miles from
Zeesluis Wintam, is over 6⋅5 m deep, but above Willebroek
it is shallower.
Locks
7.312 1
There are two locks on the Zeekanaal van Brussel naar
de Schelde. Zeesluis Wintam (51°07′N 4°18′E), the entry
lock, is 250 m long and 25 m wide. Vessels up to 150 m in
length, 20 m beam and draught 8⋅8 m can use this lock.
Zemst Lock which is 8 miles above Zeesluis Wintam is 275
m in length and has a width of 25 m.
Bridges
7.313 1
Several lifting road bridges and swing or lifting rail
bridges cross the canal between Zeesluis Wintam and the
fixed bridge between Avant-port and the inner basins at
Brussels. The vertical clearance when the lifting bridges are
raised is 31 m. The rail bridges are only opened when rail
traffic permits and waiting at these bridges must be
accepted.
Pilotage and tugs
7.314 1
Pilotage is not compulsory but if local knowledge is not
available then it is essential to take a pilot. Pilots are
requested through Pilotage Office Antwerp who arrange a
pilot for the Upper Schelde, thence a canal pilot takes over
in Zeesluis Wintam for the passage to Brussels. Requests
for pilots should be sent 24 hours in advance of the
vessel’s ETA at Antwerp.
2
Tugs must accompany vessels with a draught greater
than 5⋅8 m and other vessels if required. The tugs do not
tow vessels but hold them in mid-channel when waiting for
bridges or locks to open. The tugs normally join at Zeesluis
Wintam. Ship’s ropes must be used.
Traffic regulations
7.315 1
Within the canal sea-going vessels have priority over
barges, and N-bound sea-going traffic has priority over
S-bound sea-going traffic.
Tidal streams
7.316 1
During the in-going stream there are marked eddies on
the River Schelde, especially at the confluence with River
Rupel.
Some of the surface eddies run in the opposite direction
to those a metre or so below the surface.
CHAPTER 7
192
Directions
(continued from 7.269)
7.317 1
General. The following has been obtained from the
reports of vessels visiting Brussels:
If possible the passage should be planned to arrive at
the junction between the Rivers Schelde and Rupel
at slack water, +0100 HW Antwerp, avoiding this
part of the river from 1½ hours to 1 hour before
local HW and again from 4 to 5½ hours after local
HW.
Within the canal the slope of the sides is too gradual
to allow vessels to berth alongside the canal bank.
Large numbers of barges, some of great length, are
likely to be encountered in the canal.
2
Above Willebroek vessels drawing 4⋅5 m or more can
expect to experience canal effect.
7.318 1
Directions. The fairway of the River Schelde above
Antwerp lies roughly in the centre of the river but a shoal
patch with a depth of 4⋅8 m over it lies in midstream
7 cables ENE of Bornem−Wintam Light (51°07′⋅3N
4°17′⋅9E). The channel is marked by lights and light−buoys
(lateral).
Brussels
General information
7.319 1
Position and function. Brussels, Brussel in Flemish and
Bruxelles in French (51°52′N 4°22′E), is the capital of
Belgium and the province of Brabant and is also host to
the headquarters of the European Union; population
964 405 (2001).
2
Port Authority. Port du Bruxelles, Place des Armateurs
6, B1000, Brussels.
Limiting conditions
7.320
1
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels up to 106 m
in length, beam 14⋅75 m and draught 5⋅8 m can reach
Avant−Port, Brussels.
Harbour
7.321
1
The harbour consists of four basins. The Industrial Basin
and Avant-port serve sea-going vessels and are over 120 m
wide, with a depth of 6⋅4 m alongside. There is a turning
basin at the NE end. Two inner basins, Bassin Vergote and
Bassin Beco, divided from the outer basins by a fixed
bridge with a vertical clearance of 6⋅3 m, are used by river
craft and barges. There is access from Bassin Beco to
Canal de Charleroi and the interior.
Port services
7.322 1
Repairs of a minor nature can be carried out.
Supplies: marine fuels of all types at 12 hours notice.
Fresh water in Avant-port.
NOTES
193
122
122
1874
110
110
110
110
132
133
132
1630
1205
120
120
Z
a
n
d
k
r
e
e
k
s
l
u
is
W
E
S
T
E
R
S
C
H
E
L
D
E
K
l
a
n
a
a
d
o
o
r
W
a
l
c
h
e
r
e
n
V
e
e
r
s
e
M
e
e
r
Zeegat van
Zierikzee
O
O
S
T
E
R
-
S
C
H
E
L
D
E
Kanaal door
Zuid Beveland
ANTWERP
Bergen op Zoom
Bergsediepsluis
Roompotsluis
C
oa
s
t
a
l R
oute
Zeegat van
Brouwershaven
Zeegat van
Goeree
K
e
e
t
e
n
M
a
s
t
g
a
t
Z
i
j
p
e
Goereese Sluis
Haringvlietdam
H
A
R
L
I
I
N
V
G
E
T
S
p
u
i
Moerdijk
Haringvlietbrug
Krammersluiz
en
Philipsdam
V
O
L
K
E
R
A
K
Volkeraksluiz
en
H
o
l
l
a
n
d
s
c
h
D
i
e
p
Dordtsche
Kil
For limiting conditions see For vertical clearance see Schelde - Rijnverbinding
Zeelandbrug
NETHERLANDS
Hoek van
Holland
Westkapelle
G
R
E
V
E
L
I
N
G
E
N
M
E
E
R
8.109
8.118
8.101
8
.
119
8.134
8.79
8.144
8
.
4
1
8.3
8.4
8.114
8
.
3
7
8
.
3
5
8
.
3
9
8
.8
6
8
.1
3
5
8.64
8.70
8
.
4
1
8
.
1
0
2
8.36
8
.8
8
.
4
1
8
.4
1
8
.8
4
8
.
1
0
2
8
.
4
1
8
3
5
.1
8
.
4
1
8.55
8
0
1
3
8
.86
.
4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich
30´20´
20´
40´
40´
50´
50´
10´20´
20´30´
30´40´
40´
51°
30´
52°52°
51°
30´
30´
50´
50´
40´
40´
20´
20´
194
Chapter 8 - Westkapelle to Hoek van Holland and Dutch inland waterways
195
CHAPTER 8
WESTKAPELLE TO HOEK VAN HOLLAND AND DUTCH INLAND WATERWAYS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 110, 133, Netherlands Charts 1805, 1807
Scope of chapter
8.1 1
This chapter covers a number of minor routes used by
small sea-going vessels. The routes run from seaward
through inland waters connecting Westerschelde and
Antwerp to the Rhine. They are:
2
From Steenbank Pilot Station (51°45′N 3°12′E) (7.14)
to Oosterschelde (51°38′N 3°52′E) (8.41), thence
Volkerak (51°39′N 4°15′E) (8.65), Hollandsch Diep
(51°42′N 4°30′E) (8.71) and Dordtsche Kil
(51°46′N 4°38′E) (8.77), to the junction of the
latter with Oude Maas (51°48′N 4°37′E) (9.104).
3
From Zeegat van Goeree (51°51′N 3°57′E) (8.2)
through Haringvliet (51°48′N 4°10′E) (8.135) to
the junction with Hollandsch Diep where the route
joins that above.
The Schelde-Rijnverbinding (8.114) (Schelde-
Rijnkanaal), which runs from Antwerp (51°14′N
4°25′E) to Volkerak.
4
There are three alternative routes by inland waters.
Kanaal door Walcheren (51°30′N 3°37′E) (8.102)
links Vlissingen (7.122) at the W end of
Westerschelde to Veerse Meer (51°33′N 3°45′E)
(8.102), which leads to the central part of
Oosterschelde.
5
Kanaal door Zuid Beveland (51°29′N 4°00′E) (8.109)
links Hansweert in the central part of
Westerschelde directly with Oosterschelde.
Spui (51°48′N 4°18′E) (8.142) links Haringvliet to
Oude Maas.
6
There is a coastal route for vessels bound from the
vicinity of Westerschelde to Hoek van Holland, which is
described at 8.8 to 8.22.
Topography
8.2 1
The area between Westkapelle (51°32′N 3°27′E), the W
point of Walcheren and Maasvlakte, 33 miles NE, is formed
by three major estuaries situated between low-lying islands.
From S to N they are:
Zeegat van Zierikzee (51°37′N 3°40′E) between
Walcheren and Noord Beveland to the S and
Schouwen to the N, which leads to Oosterschelde
(8.41).
2
Zeegat van Brouwershaven (51°45′N 3°42′E) between
Schouwen to the S and Goeree to the N, which
leads to Grevelingenmeer (8.84).
Zeegat van Goeree (51°51′N 3°57′E) between Goeree
to the S and Voorne to the N, which leads to
Haringvliet (8.135).
3
Oosterschelde and Haringvliet are dammed at their
seaward ends by Oosterschelde Storm Surge Barrier
(51°38′N 3°42′E) (8.26) and Haringvlietdam (51°50′N
4°03′E) (8.121) respectively. There are sluices in both
through which the stream runs at a considerable rate.
Oosterschelde remains tidal, although the influence of the
tide is diminished by the barrier, while Haringvliet is
virtually tideless as the sluices in Haringvlietdam only
permit the discharge of water from the Maas and the
Rhine. Roompotsluis (8.36) in Oosterschelde Storm Surge
Barrier and Goereese Sluis (8.134) in Haringvlietdam
permit access to small sea-going vessels.
4
Grevelingenmeer (51°41′N 3°51′E) and the two lesser
estuaries of Veerse Meer (51°33′N 3°45′E) (8.102) and the
former Braakman (51°55′N 4°03′E) are completely closed
by dams at their seaward ends.
5
Within the estuaries there are a number of secondary
dams, which were built prior to the construction of the
major dams to control the tidal flow. They are Philipsdam
(51°40′N 4°10′E) (8.63), Grevelingendam (51°40′N 4°09′E)
(8.84) and Volkerakdam (51°41′N 4°24′E) (8.69), which
now serve as major road bridges and in the case of
Philipsdam separate the saline water in the outer part of the
estuary from fresh water.
6
See 8.7 for information on tidal levels in the estuary.
Limiting conditions
8.3 1
Limiting dimensions. Each route has differing limiting
dimensions, determined by the sizes of the locks, which are
described in detail in the directions. In outline they are:
From Dordtsche Kil to Oosterschelde, and thence to
sea, the limiting dimensions decrease to the W and S, so
that from:
2
Dordtsche Kil (51°46′N 4°38′E) (8.77) to Hollandsch
Diep (51°42′N 4°30′E) (8.71), which is not limited
by locks, see 8.42.
Hollandsch Diep to Oosterschelde they are restricted
by Krammersluizen (51°40′N 4°10′E) (8.64).
Oosterschelde to sea they are restricted by
Roompotsluis (51°37′N 3°41′E) (8.36).
3
From sea to Haringvliet by Goereese Sluis (51°49′⋅5N
4°02′⋅3E) (8.134).
Kanaal door Walcheren (51°30′N 3°38′E) (8.102).
Kanaal door Zuid Beveland (51°30′N 4°01′E) (8.109).
Schelde-Rijnverbinding (8.114).
8.4 1
Vertical clearance. Most of the bridges spanning the
inland waters have lifting sections.
For vertical clearance through the bridge crossing
Krammersluizen see 8.44.
Vessels using the Schelde-Rijnverbinding are limited by
a number of fixed bridges see 8.115.
Buoyage
8.5 1
The channels in the estuary are marked by numbered
buoys or light-buoys, which are often prefixed by letters
indicating the name of the channel.
In winter light-buoys may be withdrawn or replaced by
unlit buoys.
The direction of the lateral buoyage, which runs from
seaward, changes in Hollandsch Diep (8.71) at the S end
(51°43′⋅4N 4°37′⋅4E) of Dordtsche Kil (8.77).
Nature reserves and mussel beds
8.6 1
Large parts of the area are designated nature reserves,
which are subject to numerous and differing restrictions.
Other areas are designated mussel beds in which anchoring
CHAPTER 8
196
or touching bottom is prohibited. The boundaries of the
nature reserves are normally marked by buoys (special) and
those of the mussel beds by beacons. Care must be taken
not to confuse these marks with those marking the fairway.
National charts should be used if it is intended to depart
from the marked fairways, anchor or land.
Tidal levels and tidal streams
8.7 1
The storm surge barrier (51°37′N 3°42′E) (8.26), which
closes off Oosterschelde is open to tidal influence and
allows about 75% of the original tidal movement within
Oosterschelde as far as Philipsdam (51°40′N 4°10′E) (8.63)
and Oesterdam (51°29′N 4°13′E) (8.114). Veerse Meer
(51°33′N 3°45′E) (8.102), Volkerak (51°39′N 4°17′E) (8.65)
and Grevelingenmeer (51°45′N 4°00′E) (8.84) are sealed by
dams at both their E and W ends and are virtually tideless.
2
Haringvliet (51°48′N 4°10′E) (8.135) and Hollandsch
Diep (51°42′N 4°30′E) (8.71) are both closed off, but are
open to the discharge of the upper rivers, which is
controlled by sluicing so that the tidal range is limited to
0⋅3 m. There is a very weakened tidal influence through
Spui (51°49′N 4°20′E) (8.142) and Dordtsche Kil (51°46′N
4°38′E) (8.77), but the apparent tide has no relation to that
in the North Sea. There is no in-going tide in this part of
the estuary, normally the out-going tide is of little
significance except when the discharge from the Rivers
Rhine and Maas is exceptionally great.
3
In Spui and Dordtsche Kil, which are still influenced by
the tides in the North Sea the in-going stream sets from N
to S and the out-going stream the reverse. However these
streams are greatly affected by the water height in
Haringvliet, the sluicing programme and the discharge of
the rivers. When the latter is great no out-going stream will
occur in either channel and the stream will run from N to
S throughout the normal out-going stream period.
Maximum stream rates are normally 2 kn on the in-going
stream and 2½ kn on the out-going stream, but in extreme
circumstances the in-going rate in Dordtsche Kil could be
appreciably higher.
4
The Oosterschelde is the only part of the estuary that is
still salt water.
The latest Tide Tables and relevant tidal atlas
(Stroomatlas) published by the Netherlands Hydrographic
Department should be consulted.
WESTKAPELLE TO HOEK VAN HOLLAND-COASTAL ROUTE
General information
Chart 110, 122
Route
8.8 1
From a position about 4 miles SE of Steenbank Pilot
Station (51°45′N 3°12′E), which is to the NW of
Westkapelle (51°32′N 3°27′E) the coastal route leads
27 miles NE to a position W of Maasvlakte Light (9.33) on
the S boundary of the Maas Centre Precautionary Area
(9.11).
Coastal banks
8.9 1
The coastal banks, as defined by the 10 m depth
contour, extend up to 6½ miles offshore and there are
drying patches up to 2 miles offshore. Beyond the coastal
bank a series of offshore banks, with depths less than 10 m,
run NE-SW parallel to the general trend of the coast.
Between the offshore banks there are deeps which provide
the principal routes for vessels on passage.
Controlling depths
8.10 1
Depending on the route selected depths over 13 m can
be maintained.
Pilotage
8.11 1
For pilotage from Steenbank Pilot Station see 7.12 and
7.14.
Inshore traffic zone
8.12 1
An Inshore Traffic Zone lies to the S of Maas West
Inner TSS and Maas Centre Precautionary Area. The W
boundary of the zone extends NNW from the Schouwen
coast (51°44′N 3°42′E). The area should be avoided by
power driven vessels of more than 20m LOA bound for
Maas Centre Precautionary Area (9.11).
Rescue
8.13 1
Lifeboats are stationed at Stellendam (51°50′N 4°02′E),
Noordland (51°37′N 3°41′E) and Westkapelle (51°31′N
3°26′E).
Tidal streams
8.14 1
The offshore tidal streams run NE-SW parallel to the
coast and are rotary anti-clockwise. The streams change
gradually as the estuaries are approached see 8.31 and 8.48.
The offshore streams are strongest in the NE-SW direction
when the streams in the estuaries are slack. When the
streams in the estuaries are strongest the offshore streams
are weak and tend to run directly towards or away from
the entrance. The spring rate in both directions is 1¾ kn.
2
See also information on the chart and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
Principal marks
8.15 1
Landmarks:
Tower (51°41′N 3°42′E). A second smaller tower,
visible above the dunes, is 5 cables NNE.
Goeree Light (red and white chequered tower on
platform on piles) (51°55′⋅5N 3°40′⋅1E).
Major lights:
Westkapelle Light (51°31′⋅8N 3°26′⋅8E) (7.99).
2
West Schouwen Light (grey round stone tower, red
diagonal stripes on upper part, 50 m in height)
(51°42′⋅5N 3°41′⋅5E).
Westhoofd Light (red square tower, 52 m in height)
(51°48′⋅8N 3°51′⋅8E).
Goeree Light—as above.
Maasvlakte Light (51°58′⋅2N 4°00′⋅9E) (9.33).
CHAPTER 8
197
Directions
Schouwendiep to Maas Precautionary Area
8.16 1
See 8.13.
From a position about 4 miles SE of Steenbank Pilot
Station (51°45′N 3°13′E) the route leads 27 miles NE to a
position W of Maasvlakte Light (9.33) on the S boundary
of the Maas Centre Precautionary Area (9.11), passing:
2
Through Schouwendiep (51°43′N 3°20′E), which is
about 1 mile wide and runs NE. It lies between
Schouwenbank (51°47′N 3°24′E) to the NW and
Middelbank (51°41′N 3°20′E) to the SE. SBZ
Light-buoy (S cardinal) is moored at the SW
extremity of Schouwenbank, SD2 and SD4 Buoys
(both port hand) on the SE side of the bank and
SBO Light-buoy (E cardinal) at its NE extremity.
Middelbank Light-buoy (safe water) is moored in
the centre of the bank and MW Light-buoy (W
cardinal) towards the NE extremity of the bank.
Thence:
3
NW of MN Light-buoy (N cardinal) (51°48′N
3°30′E), which is 5 miles WNW of the entrance to
Brouwershavensche Gat (8.20), the channel leading
through Zeegat van Brouwershaven (8.2) to
Grevelingenmeer (8.84). Thence:
NW of Bollen Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°50′N
3°33′E), which is moored at the NW end of a
small bank, thence:
4
SE of Goeree Light-tower (51°55′⋅5N 3°40′⋅1E)
(8.15), thence;
5
NW of SG Light-buoy (safe water) (51°52′⋅0N
3°51′⋅4E), off the entrance to Slijkgat (8.131), the
main channel through Zeegat van Goeree (8.2).
(Directions for Slijkgat continue at 8.131)
The route continues:
To a position on the S boundary of the Maas Centre
Precautionary Area, W of Maasvlakte Light
(51°58′⋅2N 4°00′⋅9E) (9.33).
8.17 1
Useful marks:
Noorderhoofd Light-tower (51°32′⋅4N 3°26′⋅2E)
(7.102).
Steeple (51°34′N 3°30′E) at Domburg.
Church tower (51°34′N 3°33′E) at Oostkapelle.
2
West Schouwen Lighthouse (51°42′⋅5N 3°41′⋅5E)
(8.15). The lighthouse is reported to be difficult to
see in some conditions of light.
Verklikker Tower (51°43′⋅5N 3°42′⋅3E).
(Directions for Maasgeul are given at 9.37. Directions
for the coastal route continue at 10.10)
Alternative channels
8.18 1
Middeldiep (51°40′N 3°20′E) is a channel about
2½ miles wide, which is inshore and runs parallel to
Schouwendiep (8.16). The deep is marked by a buoy and
light-buoy on its SE side, which lies along Steenbanken
(7.92). A wreck, marked by a light-buoy (N cardinal), lies
on the NE side of Steenbanken. Middelbank (7.92) is to the
NE of Middeldiep.
8.19 1
Steendiep (51°36′N 3°18′E) is a channel to the SE of
Steenbanken, and about 2 miles inshore of Middeldiep
(8.18), running parallel to it. The channel is marked by
buoys. The entrance to Westgat (8.35) runs E from
Steendiep.
2
Both channels merge with the coastal route, keeping
WNW of Banjaard (51°43′N 3°33′E) (8.25), marked on its
seaward side by MBJ and NBJ Buoys (W cardinal), and
Ooster (51°48′N 3°43′E), marked on its seaward side by
Ooster and SH Light-buoys (W cardinal).
Side channel
Brouwershavensche Gat
8.20 1
Brouwershavensche Gat (51°45′N 3°44′E) is now sealed
off completely by Brouwersdam (8.84) and apart from BZ
Buoy (N cardinal) (51°44′⋅5N 3°38′⋅0E) moored on the S
side of its entrance, not marked. The channel runs along
the N side of Banjaard (8.25), then the N coast of
Schouwen, which is formed by dunes and fronted by
groynes projecting from the coast to the edge of the coastal
bank as far as the S root of Brouwersdam. To the N of the
channel, Zeegat van Brouwershaven is filled by shallow
banks, principally Ooster (51°48′N 3°43′E), Kous (51°47′N
3°46′E) and Aardappelenbult (51°48′N 3°48′E). The banks
dry for some distance offshore.
8.21 1
Useful marks:
Verklikker Tower (51°43′⋅5N 3°42′⋅3E).
Church tower (51°44′N 3°47′E) at Renesse.
Church tower (51°43′N 3°48′E) at Noordwelle.
Church tower (51°44′N 3°51′E) at Scharendijke. Two
windmills stand between this church tower and the
one at Noordwelle.
Anchorage
8.22 1
There is an anchorage area (51°47′N 3°20′E) ENE of
Steenbank Pilot Station. See 7.112 for details.
STEENBANK TO OUDE MAAS VIA OOSTERSCHELDE
APPROACHES TO OOSTERSCHELDE
General information
Chart 110
Routes
8.23 1
Zeegat van Zierikzee (51°37′N 3°40′E) (8.2) may be
approached from Steenbank Pilot Station (51°45′N 3°12′E)
(7.102), whence the route runs 9 miles SE to Steendiep
(51°36′N 3°18′E) then a further 3 miles E before dividing
around Hompels (8.25). Westgat (8.35) leads into Oude
Roompot, which together run 10 miles N about Hompels
and Roompot runs 10 miles S about Hompels. Both routes
terminate at Roompotsluis (8.36), which gives access
through the storm surge barrier (51°37′N 3°41′E) to
Oosterschelde (8.41).
2
Zeegat van Zierikzee may also be approached from
Oostgat (51°33′N 3°25′E) (7.104) to the S whence the
route runs N across Kueerens or Domburger Rassen before
joining Westgat or Roompot as required.
Geul van de Banjaard (51°42′N 3°33′E) (8.40) joins
Westgat from the N.
CHAPTER 8
198
Oosterschelde and Roompotsluis from S (8.26)
(Original dated 1992)
(Photograph − Aeroview B.V., Rotterdam)
Topography
8.24 1
The N coast of Walcheren, which forms the S side of
the estuary is fronted by sand dunes. Between
Noorderhoofd Light (51°32′N 3°26′E) and Domburg,
2½ miles NE the dunes are low and only prominent at a
few isolated points. To the NE of Domburg the dunes are
higher.
2
The W coast of Schouwen on the N side of the estuary,
is a sweeping curve, also formed of dunes. The SW corner
is embanked and very steep-to.
Coastal shoals
8.25 1
Shoals, some of which dry in places, cover the whole of
Zeegat van Zierikzee (8.2). Kueerens or Domburger Rassen
(51°36′N 3°35′E), which extends up to 5 miles offshore
fronts the NE part of the coast of Walcheren. Hompels
(51°37′N 3°35′E), a shoal area, lies centrally in the estuary
between Roompot and Oude Roompot, with Noordland
(51°39′N 3°37′E) a shoal to the N of Oude Roompot. The
W coast of Schouwen is fronted by Banjaard (51°43′N
3°33′E), an extensive shoal, which extends 6½ miles
offshore.
Oosterschelde storm surge barrier
8.26 1
The storm surge barrier (51°37′N 3°41′E) closes the
Oosterschelde to shipping from seaward except for access
for small sea-going vessels through Roompotsluis (8.36).
The barrier runs about 4 miles in a N direction from the W
end of Noord Beveland across two artificial islands,
Noordland and Roggenplaat to the W end of Schouwen.
The latter lies at the W end of a shoal (8.25) of the same
name. A road runs along the top of the barrier.
2
The barrier has 63 openings, each about 40 m wide,
between large piers fitted with metal gates, which can be
closed to prevent flooding, thus closing off Oosterschelde
completely. The openings ensure that Oosterschelde remains
a salt water estuary with about 75% of the previous tidal
movement.
Depths
8.27 1
In 2004 there was a least depth of 7⋅6 m in the middle
of the channel leading through Westgat and Oude Roompot,
but changes in the course and depths of the channels may
be expected due to the periodic closing of Oosterschelde by
CHAPTER 8
199
the storm surge barrier. There is a least depth of 6⋅2 m in
the outer harbour at Roompotsluis.
For the latest information Dieptestaat van Nederland,
which is regularly corrected by Netherlands Notices to
Mariners, should be consulted.
Pilotage
8.28 1
For pilotage from Steenbank Pilot Station see 7.12
and 7.14.
Prohibited areas
8.29 1
Due to the very dangerous tidal streams in the vicinity
of the storm surge barrier, there is an area either side of
the barrier in which passage is prohibited. The limits of the
area are marked by buoys (special).
Rescue
8.30 1
See 8.13.
Tidal streams
8.31 1
In the entrance to Zeegat van Zierikzee the in-going
stream runs in the direction of the channels, but later as the
tide rises runs more directly inwards across the shoals and
drying banks. Similarly the out-going stream runs directly
outwards at first, but later, as the tide falls, in the direction
of the channels.
2
In the middle of the entrance to Zeegat van Zierikzee
(51°39′N 3°29′E), between the offshore and the estuary
streams, the tidal set is as follows:
Between −0600 and −0500 HW Vlissingen there is an
out-going stream across the entrance setting SW
outside the entrance with a mean rate of 1 kn.
3
From −0400 HW Vlissingen, as the entrance is
approached, so the stream turns S and SE forming
the in-going stream and by −0220 HW Vlissingen
the stream runs directly into the estuary, setting E
with a maximum rate of 1 kn.
From −1 hour to +1 hour HW Vlissingen the stream
rotates from ENE to NNE and the mean rate
increases to 1¼ kn.
4
The out-going stream becomes established across the
estuary at +0200 HW Vlissingen setting NNE and
the mean rate gradually reduces to ¼ kn. At the
same time the stream runs NNE outside the
entrance, turning N later.
At +0500 HW Vlissingen the stream sets W with a
mean rate of ½ kn, while outside the entrance the
stream turns to the WSW.
5
Off Roompot (51°36′N 3°41′E) the maximum rate on
both the in-going and out-going streams is 3 kn.
See also information on the chart and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
Tidal levels
8.32 1
At Roompot-Buiten (51°37′N 3°40′E) the mean spring
range is about 3⋅2 m; mean neap range about 2⋅3 m.
Local weather
8.33 1
In strong W to NW winds heavy breakers occur on the
shoals in the estuary, particularly at half tide.
Principal marks
8.34 1
Landmarks:
Water tower (51°34′N 3°30′E), N of Domburg.
Tower (51°41′N 3°42′E) (8.15).
Major lights:
Westkapelle Light (51°31′⋅8N 3°26′⋅8E) (7.99).
West Schouwen Light (51°42′⋅5N 3°41′⋅5E) (8.15).
Directions
(continued from 7.102)
Steenbank Pilot Station to Roompotsluis
8.35 1
From Steendiep the route runs 3 miles E to the entrance
to Westgat, which together with Oude Roompot runs
10 miles in a generally E direction N of Hompels (8.25) to
Roompotsluis, the access through the storm surge barrier
(51°37′N 3°41′E) (8.26) to Oosterschelde (8.41). The route
passes (with positions from Roompotsluis (51°37′N
3°41′E)):
2
Between ZBJ Buoy (W cardinal) (51°39′N 3°23′E)
and OG-WG Light-buoy (W cardinal) on the SE
side of Steendiep, thence:
3
To the entrance to Westgat (9 miles W), which is
marked by WG1 Light-buoy (starboard hand) and
WG2 Buoy (port hand). Thereafter the channel,
which is 3 cables wide, leads through Westgat and
is marked on both sides by numbered buoys and
light-buoys, prefixed WG, and one light-beacon
WG4. Banjaard (8 miles NW) lies to the N of
Westgat and Hompels (4 miles W) to the S.
Thence:
4
Through Oude Roompot (3 miles WNW), the
continuation ESE of Westgat. The channel is
marked on both sides by numbered light-buoys and
buoys, prefixed OR.
Leading lights:
5
Front light (51°37′⋅3N 3°40′⋅7E).
Rear light (280 m ENE of front light).
The alignment (073½°) of these synchronised lights
leads through the entrance to Buitenhaven and NNW of the
buoys (W cardinal) marking the limit of the prohibited area
(8.29). Roompotsluis is 4 cables ESE of the entrance.
Roompotsluis
8.36 1
Vessels up to 95 m in length and beam 14⋅5 m can use
Roompotsluis. Maximum permitted draught at LAT is
3⋅2 m. Permitted draught at other states of the tide is 3⋅2 m,
plus or minus the difference of the tidal state with respect
to LAT. A fixed bridge with a vertical clearance of 18⋅2 m
at LAT crosses the lock. The lock is closed between 2200
and 0600, except on Tuesday and Wednesday nights when
it is open throughout the night.
2
ETA at the lock and other information must be passed to
the lock keeper well in advance. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Roompot
8.37 1
Roompot is an alternative channel to Westgat and Oude
Roompot (8.35). In 2004 there was a least depth of 6⋅4 m
in the channel. From a position (51°38′N 3°26′E) between
WG1 Light-buoy (starboard hand) and WG-R Buoy (N
cardinal) the route, which is marked by buoys (lateral;
numbers prefixed by R), leads SE and E passing S of
Hompels (8.25), which may be marked by tide-rips, and
along the N coast of Walcheren and Noord Beveland,
CHAPTER 8
200
which are now joined by Veerse Dam (8.102). The channel
then turns N and joins that through Oude Roompot on the
approach marked by the leading lights (8.35) which lead
through the entrance to Buitenhaven.
2
The main channel to the E of the storm surge barrier is
also known as Roompot, see 8.50.
Useful marks
8.38 1
Noorderhoofd Light-tower (51°32′⋅4N 3°26′⋅2E)
(7.102).
Steeple (51°34′N 3°30′E) (8.17).
Church tower (51°34′N 3°33′E) (8.17).
West Schouwen Lighthouse (51°42′⋅5N 3°41′⋅5E)
(8.15).
Verklikker Tower (51°43′⋅5N 3°42′⋅3E).
(Directions continue at 8.49 and 8.92)
Side channels
Oostgat to Roompot
8.39 1
From a position about 2½ miles NW of Noorderhoofd
(51°32′⋅4N 3°26′⋅2E) the route leads 5 miles ENE to
Roompot (8.37), passing WNW of OG-DR Light-buoy (W
cardinal) (51°34′⋅4N 3°25′⋅1E), whence the channel is
marked by numbered buoys (starboard hand) prefixed DR
to the junction with Roompot.
Other channels
8.40 1
Geul van de Banjaard (51°42′N 3°33′E) is a narrow
channel, which runs S across the outer edge of Banjaard
(8.25) and joins Westgat. It is marked by light−buoys and
buoys (lateral: numbers prefixed GB).
2
Krabbengat (51°37′N 3°41′E) is a narrow unbuoyed
channel which runs S close inshore off the W coast of
Schouwen. It leads to the N end of the storm surge barrier,
which is closed to access and has a prohibited area (8.29)
to its W.
OOSTERSCHELDE TO OUDE MAAS
General information
Netherlands Charts 1805, 1807
Description
8.41 1
Oosterschelde leads ESE between Schouwen (51°42′N
3°48′E) and Duiveland (51°40′N 4°00′E) to the N and
Noord Beveland (51°35′N 3°48′E) and Zuid Beveland
(51°30′N 4°00′E) to the S. The estuary divides around the
W extremity of Tholen (51°35′N 4°00′E).
2
The main channel runs to the N of Tholen to Krammer
(51°40′N 4°08′E), where Grevelingendam (8.84) closes off
Grevelingen (8.84) to the W and Philipsdam (8.63)
similarly closes off Volkerak (51°39′N 4°15′E) (8.65) to the
E. This part of the channel forms an entrance to the River
Maas. The channel continues E through Volkerak and
Hollandsch Diep (51°42′N 4°30′E) (8.71) to Dordtsche Kil
(51°46′N 4°38′E), which leads to Oude Maas (9.104). The
channel forms part of the inland waterway route linking
Rotterdam with the Westerschelde via Kanaal door Zuid
Beveland (8.109) or Kanaal door Walcheren (8.102) and
Veerse Meer (8.102).
3
For a description of the route S of Tholen, which leads
to Bergen op Zoom, see 8.86.
Limiting conditions
8.42 1
From Oosterschelde to Dordtsche Kil, the limiting
dimensions increase to the E and N, so that from:
Sea to Oosterschelde they are restricted by
Roompotsluis (51°37′N 3°41′E) (8.36).
Oosterschelde to Hollandsch Diep they are restricted
by Krammersluizen (51°40′N 4°10′E) (8.64).
2
Hollandsch Diep (51°42′N 4°30′E) (8.71) to
Dordtsche Kil (51°46′N 4°38′E) (8.77), which is
not restricted by locks they are length 175 m,
beam 25 m and draught 7⋅8 m.
Depths
8.43 1
Within Binnenhaven, on the E side of Roompotsluis
(51°37′N 3°41′E) (8.36) there is a charted depth of 5⋅4 m.
Elsewhere on the route described depths are in excess of
6 m.
Changes in the course and depths of the channels may
be expected. For the latest information Dieptestaat van
Nederland, which is regularly corrected by Netherlands
Notices to Mariners, should be consulted.
Vertical clearance
8.44 1
There is a vertical clearance of 11⋅9 m through
Zeelandbrug (51°37′N 3°54′E), but a bascule bridge at its
N end gives unrestricted clearance over a width of 35 m.
There is a vertical clearance of 15 m under the fixed
bridge which crosses Krammersluizen (51°40′N 4°10′E).
Small craft locks at Krammersluizen and Volkeraksluizen
(51°42′N 4°25′E) have vertical clearances of 18⋅5 m and
18⋅3 m respectively.
Movement reporting
8.45 1
There is a VTS station at Wemeldinge (51°31′⋅0N
4°00′⋅5E) which has radar surveillance of Oosterschelde.
Vessels are required to maintain VHF radio communications
with the station while navigating in the Oosterschelde.
2
The keepers at all the locks and the bascule bridge in
Zeelandbrug have VHF communications. Vessels intending
to pass through the locks or bridge should report to the
keepers in good time. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1) for details.
Explosives dumping ground
8.46
1
An explosives dumping ground in which anchoring is
prohibited is situated close SW of the entrance to the canal
leading to Zierikzee (8.53); the limits of the area are shown
on the chart.
Nature reserves and mussel beds
8.47 1
See 8.6.
Tidal streams
8.48 1
The in-going stream in Oosterschelde runs first in the
direction of the channels, but as the sands cover then it
runs more directly inwards. The out-going stream runs in a
similar manner but in the opposite direction. However the
streams are always stronger in the channels than across the
sands, so that although the stream may run across a
channel, the division between the direct stream and that in
the channel is always apparent.
CHAPTER 8
201
Position Time from
HW
Vlissingen
Remarks
Off Zierikzee
(51°38′N 3°53′E)
−0430
+0125
In-going stream
begins
Out-going stream
begins
Zijpe
(51°39′N 4°06′E)
−0410
+0205
In-going stream
begins
Out-going stream
begins
Off Wemeldinge
(51°31′N 4°00′E)
−0450
+0135
In-going stream
begins
Out-going stream
begins
2
On the N side of Oosterschelde between the E end of
Roompot and Philipsdam the streams run directly through
the deep channel.
After passing through the narrower part of Oosterschelde
the rate decreases and is imperceptible at the head of
Oosterschelde (51°28′N 4°13′E).
The tidal streams in many of the side channels run
strongly.
For tidal levels see 8.7.
Directions
(continued from 8.38)
General
8.49 1
From the Oosterschelde Storm Surge Barrier (51°38′N
3°42′E) (8.26) to the junction between Dordtsche Kil and
Oude Maas (51°48′N 4°37′E) the route follows a series of
named channels, which are marked by buoys and
light-buoys and in places by sector lights, for a distance of
41 miles in a mainly ENE direction. The route also passes
under a bridge and through the locks in two dams. The
channels, dams and bridge are described in sequence from
the storm surge barrier in paragraphs 8.50, 8.55, 8.56, 8.60,
8.63, 8.65, 8.69, 8.71 and 8.77.
2
After each paragraph describing the channel there are
descriptions of the numerous small ports and harbours
bordering the channels. The berths associated with the
Moerdijk Industrial area are described separately at 8.79.
Roompot east of Storm Surge Barrier
8.50 1
Roompot, the principal channel, continues to the E of
the storm surge barrier curving 8 miles SE, ENE and ESE
to the N passage through Zeelandbrug. It passes ESE of
Neeltje Jans a drying shoal immediately E of the storm
surge barrier, S of Roggenplaat an extensive drying shoal
on the N side of the estuary and N of Vuilbaard, the drying
central shoal.
2
The entrance to Zierikzee (8.53) is 1 mile W of
Zeelandbrug.
8.51 1
Geul van Roggenplaat (51°39′N 3°47′E) is a channel
marked by numbered buoys, prefixed GvR, principally used
by vessels working on the barrier. It runs W from
Roompot, between Neeltje Jans and Roggenplaat, to the
prohibited area (8.29) to the E of the barrier.
8.52 1
Hammen (51°41′N 3°49′E) entered from the E end of
Roompot, runs N of Roggenplaat and is marked by
numbered buoys prefixed H. Its W end is closed by the
barrier. The white sectors (344°−347°, 103°−110°) of
Flauwerspolder Light (white daymark, black band on metal
framework tower, 3 m in height) lead through the E part of
Hammen and the white sector (245°−253½°) of Burghsluis
Light (8.54) through the W part.
2
Schelphoek (51°42′N 3°48′E) is an extensive, drying bay
on the N side of Hammen whose mouth is almost closed
by dykes. There is a small inner harbour at the head of the
bay.
8.53 1
Zierikzee (51°39′N 3°55′E) is approached from the E
end of Roompot (8.37) through a canal, 1½ miles long,
bottom width 12 m and depth 2⋅4 m. The entrance to the
canal faces S and is formed by two masonry piers on
which stand lights (W pierhead red round pedestal, white
band, 6 m in height) (E pierhead grey beacon, 4 m in
height). An explosives dumping ground (8.46) lies close
SW of the entrance to the canal. A lock, 1 mile from the
canal entrance, has a width of 12⋅5 m and a sill depth of
2⋅3 m.
2
There are two basins, each 500 m long and between 25
and 30 m wide, which can accommodate vessels up to
50 m in length in depths between 2 and 2⋅4 m. Much of the
harbour is devoted to recreational craft which are present in
great numbers during the summer months.
Water and fuel can be obtained.
8.54 1
Burghsluis (51°41′N 3°45′E) has a small harbour 300 m
long and 100 m wide. The entrance, 40 m wide, faces E
and is formed by moles. A sector light (mast on red
column, 7 m in height) stands on the head of the S mole.
There is a commercial quay 280 m in length, which
provides a drying berth for vessels up to 50 m in length.
Zeelandbrug
8.55 1
Zeelandbrug (51°37′N 3°54′E) connects Noord Beveland
with Duiveland, 2½ miles NE. The bridge is supported by
54 pillars numbered from N to S and vessels are
recommended to pass eastbound between 14 and 15 and
westbound between 12 and 13 (see 8.92 for S route). Tide
gauges give the vertical clearance in the centre of these
spans, which are indicated by yellow fixed lights.
2
A bascule bridge forms part of Zeelandbrug and is
situated 2 cables from the N shore. Dolphins mark the
approach on either side of the bridge and the outermost
dolphins exhibit a violet light. Vessels that are difficult to
manoeuvre are recommended to pass through the bridge
1 hour either side of HW or LW Zierikzee.
See 8.44 for vertical clearance and further information.
Keeten
8.56 1
Keeten (51°36′N 4°00′E) runs 5 miles ESE from
Zeelandbrug S of Duiveland and N of the W point of
Tholen and the small drying harbour of Stavenisse
(51°36′N 4°00′E). Duiveland is fronted to the SE by
Slikken van Viane a drying shoal which is steep-to and lies
either side of Hoek van Ouwerkerk (51°37′N 3°58′E) on
which stands a light.
8.57 1
Engelsche Vaarwater (51°36′N 3°55′E) is a channel
marked by numbered buoys and light-buoys, prefixed EV. It
runs 2½ miles N-S and is the principal channel linking
Keeten with Oosterschelde (8.41).
Leading lights:
Front light (red structure, white band, 5 m in height)
(51°37′⋅7N 3°55′⋅5E).
CHAPTER 8
202
2
Rear light (red square on white mast, red bands, 13 m
in height) (300 m NNE of front light).
The alignment (019°) astern of these lights situated at
De Val (8.59) leads through Engelsche Vaarwater.
8.58 1
Brabantsche Vaarwater (51°34′N 3°58′E) is a channel
marked by numbered buoys prefixed BV, about 1½ miles E
of Engelsche Vaarwater (8.57), which also links Keeten
with Oosterschelde. The central shoals of Galgeplaat and
Vondelingsplaat lie between the two channels. Witte Tonnen
Vlije is a narrow buoyed channel connecting the NE end of
Brabantsche Vaarwater with Keeten.
8.59 1
De Val (51°38′N 3°55′E) is a former ferry harbour,
which dries in places and is used now as a refuge harbour
for small craft. Leading lights (8.57) stand on the E side of
the harbour.
Mastgat
8.60 1
Mastgat (51°37′N 4°04′E) is the continuation of the
channel and leads into Zijpe (51°39′N 4°06′E) and thence
Krammer (51°40′N 4°08′E). Together they run 6 miles NE
between Duiveland to the NW with Tholen and then Saint
Philipsland SE, to the lock in Philipsdam. The banks of the
channel are steep-to for the most part.
8.61 1
Krabbenkreek a buoyed channel runs SE from Mastgat
to the small harbours of Saint Annaland (51°36′N 4°07′E)
and Saint Philipsland (51°37′N 4°10′E).
8.62 1
Zijpe (51°39′N 4°06′E) Entry to the ferry harbours at
Zijpe and at Anna Jacobapolder is prohibited.
Philipsdam
8.63 1
Philipsdam (51°40′N 4°10′E) extends about 3 miles NW
from the E extremity of Saint Philipsland to
Grevelingendam (8.84) and separates Krammer from
Volkerak. The river above the dam is fresh water and
tideless.
8.64 1
Krammersluizen the lock system in Philipsdam can
accommodate sea-going vessels up to 110 m in length
(193 m for pusher vessels), beam 22⋅8 m and draught
4⋅75 m. There is also a lock for recreational craft.
See 8.44 for vertical clearance.
Volkerak
8.65 1
Volkerak (51°39′N 4°17′E) is the general term to
describe the fairway, which runs 10 miles in a generally E
direction from Philipsdam to Volkerakdam. It is in two
parts, Zuid Vlije which runs from Philipsdam ESE between
the coastal shoals fronting Saint Philipsland and
Overflakkee, to the N entrance to the
Schelde-Rijnverbinding (8.114) and Noord Volkerak, which
leads to Volkeraksluizen, the locks in Volkerakdam. At its
E end Noord Volkerak curves to the N and divides around
a bank. The access to the locks is to the E of the bank and
a training wall runs along this bank on the W side of this
channel. The channel to the W of the bank is Hellegat.
Oost Hellegat leads N between the bank and the entrance
to the locks.
8.66 1
Oude Tonge (51°41′N 4°13′E), which has a small
harbour lies on the N bank and is approached through a
channel, depths between 1⋅7 and 2⋅0 m, marked by buoys
(lateral) and thence a canal.
8.67 1
Steenbergsche Vliet is a buoyed channel, which is
entered close E of the N entrance to the
Schelde-Rijnverbinding, leads S to the small harbour of
Benedensas (51°38′N 4°15′E) and thence by canal to the
towns of Steenbergsche and Roosendaalsche, 6 and 21 km
distant respectively.
8.68 1
Galatheese Haven (51°40′N 4°19′E), a former ferry
harbour and Ooltgensplaat (51°42′N 4°22′E) lie on the N
bank and the refuge harbour of Dintelsas (51°39′N 4°23′E)
on the S bank.
Volkerakdam
8.69 1
Volkerakdam (51°41′N 4°24′E) extends across the NE
end of Volkerak (8.65), sealing it from the junction
between Haringvliet (8.135) and Hollandsch Diep (8.71).
The central part of the dam, Spuisluis, is fitted with lifting
gates, which allow water to flow from Haringvliet.
8.70 1
Volkeraksluizen on the E side of the dam consists of
three locks each 326 m in length, 24 m wide and with a sill
depth of 6⋅25 m. There is an approach basin with waiting
berths either side of the locks, that to the S has a depth of
6 m and to the N of between 5 and 6 m. A smaller lock for
recreational craft, which is closed during the winter, is
situated on the NW side of the dam. The locks are crossed
by a road bridge, which links with Haringvlietbrug (8.144).
The section of the bridge over the E lock is moveable, but
not operated in winds force 8 or more. The locks are
operated day and night and the lock in use is indicated by
a white flashing light alongside a white fixed light near the
entrance.
Hollandsch Diep
Chart 133
8.71 1
Hollandsch Diep (51°42′N 4°30′E) runs 8 miles in a
generally E direction from Volkeraksluizen and
Haringvlietbrug (8.144), 1 mile NW of the locks, to its
junction with the S entrance to Dordtsche Kil (8.77). It is
marked by buoys and light-buoys, prefixed HD. Initially
the channel lies on the S side of Hollandsch Diep, but
crosses to the N side of Sassenplaat (51°42′N 4°35′E), an
island and nature reserve, 1½ miles SE of the entrance to
Dordtsche Kil.
2
Zuid Hollandsch Diep is a deep narrow channel to the S
of Sassenplaat, which gives access to the industrial
complex at Moerdijk (8.79). Zuid Hollandsch Diep is
marked by numbered buoys and light-buoys prefixed ZHD
and is prohibited to recreational craft.
3
The extension to the E of Hollandsch Diep is Bergsche
Maas (9.132), which is crossed by three bridges at its W
end. The recommended passages through the bridges are
95 m wide with a vertical clearance of 9 m and these are
indicated by lights and radar reflectors mounted on stakes.
The W part of Bergsche Maas is known as Amer (9.138),
and leads to Nieuwe Merwede and thence the Rhine, but
CHAPTER 8
203
the preferred route to the Rhine is via Dordtsche Kil (8.77)
and Merwede River.
8.72 1
Willemstad (51°42′N 4°26′E) can be identified by a
prominent town hall with a large white windmill close E. It
has a harbour on its NE side with an outer and inner basin
and a yacht basin to the E of the inner basin. There is a
quay 200 m in length in the outer harbour with depths
between 2⋅3 and 3⋅5 m alongside. There is a harbour, with
depths between 4 and 5 m, for working craft close W of
the town harbour.
8.73 1
Noordschans (51°41′N 4°32′E) is a narrow channel
entered between stone dams, which runs 4½ cables S from
the S shore of Hollandsch Diep. There is a large yacht
basin to the E of the entrance and the S part of the
channel, known as Haven van Klundert is also used for
yacht moorings.
8.74 1
Numansdorp (51°44′N 4°26′E) has a harbour entered
through a small channel 6½ cables long. A stone dyke lies
on the W side of the entrance channel. There is a lock
close to the channel entrance and there are berths for
yachts N and S of the lock.
2
Veerhaven Numansdorp is 7 cables W of the lock and is
a former ferry harbour, now used as a yacht harbour. It is a
basin 420 m long and 55 m wide and can accommodate
vessels drawing up to 2⋅5 m. Dolphins line either side of
the harbour and there is a quay 70 m in length at the head
of the basin.
8.75 1
Strijensas (51°43′N 4°35′E) is entered between two
stone dams. The outer basin, 400 m in length, is used for
yacht moorings and there is a large yacht basin on the E
side of the outer basin. The depth in the outer basin is
between 1⋅7 and 2⋅8 m, and in the yacht basin between 0⋅8
and 2⋅3 m.
8.76 1
Moerdijk Haven (51°42′N 4°37′E), which is at the E
end of Hollandsch Diep, close NW of the town of
Moerdijk (8.79), is 350 m in length and 45 to 75 m wide.
Berths are on the E side of the harbour only and yachts
berth at the head of the harbour. There is a large industrial
complex and port facility W of the town, see 8.79.
Dordtsche Kil
8.77 1
Dordtsche Kil (51°46′N 4°38′E) runs 5 miles N from
Hollandsch Diep (8.71) to Oude Maas (9.104). Willemsdorp
(51°44′N 4°38′E) stands on the E side of Dordtsche Kil
close to its S entrance. A sector light (post, 10 m in height)
stands on the E side of the S entrance to Dordtsche Kil,
thereafter the fairway, about 75 m wide, is indicated by five
successive sets of leading lights, which are best seen on the
chart, as well as beacons on the shore.
2
Vessels up to a length of 175 m, beam 25 m and draught
7⋅8 m may use Dordtsche Kil, but vessels exceeding 135 m
in length or beam 17⋅5 m must obtain prior permission
from the Harbour Coordination Centre Rotterdam. Large
vessels may be required to have tugs in attendance during
passage through Dordtsche Kil.
3
Vessels drawing more than 7 m are required to show the
International signals for vessels restricted in their ability to
manoeuvre.
A power transmission line with safe vertical clearance of
48 m crosses Dordtsche Kil in position 51°45′⋅8N 4°37′⋅6E.
Dordrecht (9.116) (51°49′N 4°39′E), situated close E of
the N entrance to Dordtsche Kil, stands at the junction of
several waterways which lead to Nieuwe Maas (9.60),
Rotterdam (9.84) and the Rhine (9.137).
8.78 1
Bruggehof (51°43′N 4°38′E) is a yacht harbour situated
on the E side of the S entrance to Dordtsche Kil (8.77).
Moerdijk
Chart 133
General information
8.79 1
Moerdijk (51°42′N 4°37′E) has an industrial area and
port facility to its W, which mainly handles oil and
chemical products. The approach to the berths from either
Dordtsche Kil (8.77) or Hollandsch Diep is E of
Sassenplaat (8.71) and through Zuid Hollandsch Diep
(8.71), from whence there is direct access to the berths.
Passage W of Sassenplaat is prohibited.
2
The Port Authority is Industrie en Havenschap Moerdijk,
Steenweg 100, 4782 AS Moerdijk.
Limiting conditions
8.80 1
Deepest and longest berth is in Westelijke Insteekhaven
(8.83).
Mean tidal levels see 8.7.
Density of water is between 1004 and 1000, depending
on the state of the tide and the amount of fresh water
being carried down by the river.
2
Largest vessel handled. For vessels which approach
from seaward via Oude Maas (9.104) and Dordtsche Kil
(8.77) maximum length is 175 m and beam 25 m.
Maximum draught in fresh water is 8⋅5 m plus or minus
the expected water level with respect to NAP but may not
exceed 8⋅9 m. NAP at Moerdijk is 0⋅1 m less than chart
datum. See 8.77 for prior notice of larger vessels.
Arrival information
8.81 1
Port operations see 9.9.
Pilotage For pilotage from Steenbank Pilot Station see
7.12 and 7.14. For Maas pilotage see 9.3.
Regulations see 9.16.
Directions
8.82 1
See 8.71 for approach from Hollandsch Diep and 8.77
for approach from the Dordtsche Kil.
Harbour
8.83 1
There are three basins, Insteekhaven Roode Vaart,
Centrale Insteekhaven and Westelijke Insteekhaven. The
basins are about 5 cables apart and run SSE from the S
shore of Zuid Hollandsch Diep. There is a T-shaped tanker
berth to the W of the basins, which is 180 m long and has
a depth alongside of 10⋅8 m.
2
The largest basin is Westelijke Insteekhaven which is
1 mile long and 200 m wide. Within the basin there is a
depth of 9 m.
A lock at the head of Insteekhaven Roode Vaart gives
access to Roode Vaart, a yacht harbour, and to the canals.
Grevelingenmeer
Netherlands Chart 1805.7
8.84 1
Grevelingenmeer runs 10 miles approximately E-W
between Brouwersdam (51°46′N 3°51′E) and
CHAPTER 8
204
Grevelingendam (51°41′N 4°09′E). The latter runs 3 miles
ENE between Duiveland and Overflakkee and closes
Grevelingen the former channel through Grevelingenmeer
from Volkerak (8.65), apart from a lock at the SW end of
the dam. The lock is 125 m in length, 16 m wide and has a
depth at the sill of 5⋅5 m. Brouwersdam completely seals
Grevelingenmeer from Zeegat van Brouwershaven (8.2) and
the North Sea. Grevelingenmeer can therefore only be
entered through the small lock at its E end and is of little
importance other than as a water sport and recreational
area.
2
The water in Grevelingenmeer is now fresh and
maintained at a constant level. Many of the original banks
have become islands, cut off from one another by the
channels and creeks which still exist.
8.85 1
There are a number of recreational harbours in
Grevelingenmeer as well as facilities for recreational craft
on many of the newly formed islands. These are all shown
on the national charts. Brouwershaven (51°44′N 3°55′E)
and Bruinisse (51°40′N 4°06′E) can handle coasters up to
65 m in length.
A lifeboat is stationed at Ouddorp (51°48′N 3°56′E).
OOSTERSCHELDE TO
SCHELDE-RIJNVERBINDING
General information
Netherlands Charts 1805.8, 1805.5, 1805.9, 1805.10
8.86 1
Description. From the Oosterschelde Storm Surge
Barrier (51°38′N 3°42′E) (8.26) the route runs 20 miles in a
generally ESE direction through Schaar van Colijnsplaat
(8.92), which passes under the SW part of Zeelandbrug
(8.55), and then Oosterschelde itself to Bergsediepsluis the
lock in the N end of Oesterdam (51°28′N 4°13′E) (8.114),
thence a further 2 miles to the junction with
Schelde-Rijnverbinding, passing Zandkreek (8.105) at the E
entrance to Veerse Meer (51°33′N 3°41′E) (8.102) and
Wemeldinge (51°31′N 4°00′E) at the N end of Kanaal door
Zuid Beveland (8.109).
8.87 1
Depths. There is a depth of 6⋅1 m (51°36′⋅4N 3°52′⋅8E)
on the W approach to Zeelandbrug, otherwise depths in
excess of 7 m can be maintained until the close approach
to Bergsediepsluis where depths decrease markedly. The
lock is restricted to vessels with a maximum draught of
2 m.
8.88 1
Vertical clearance is 11⋅9 m through the navigation
spans of Zeelandbrug (8.55).
8.89 1
Movement reporting. See 8.45.
8.90 1
Nature reserves and mussel beds. See 8.6.
8.91 1
Tidal streams. See 8.48.
Directions
(continued from 8.38)
Schaar van Colijnsplaat
8.92 1
Schaar van Colijnsplaat (51°37′N 3°50′E) runs 7 miles E
along the N coast of Noord Beveland, from the
Oosterschelde Storm Barrier to Zeelandbrug (8.55). Vessels
are recommended to pass westbound between pillars 40 and
41 and eastbound between 38 and 39 (see 8.55 for N
route). The channel is marked on both sides by numbered
buoys prefixed SvK.
8.93 1
Sophiahaven (51°36′N 3°43′E) is a small harbour
protected by moles on which stand lights. Within the
harbour the depth is 5 m. There is a marina on its S side.
8.94 1
Colijnsplaat (51°36′N 3°51′E) is a fishing and
recreational harbour, which is about 500 m long and 80 m
wide. Depths within the harbour are between 2⋅4 and
2⋅9 m. The harbour is approached from the E through a
channel to an entrance between moles on which stand
lights. The fishing basin is at the E end of the harbour with
the recreational harbour to the W.
Oosterschelde
8.95 1
Oosterschelde runs 13 miles in a curve from S to E from
Zeelandbrug (51°37′N 3°54′E) (8.55) to Bergsediepsluis.
The channel runs close to the E coast of Noord Beveland
and the N coast of Zuid Beveland and W and S of the
shoals to the W of Tholen and then S of Tholen. Engelsche
Vaarwater (51°36′N 3°55′E) (8.57) and Brabantsche
Vaarwater (51°34′N 3°58′E) link Oosterschelde with
Roompot (8.37) and Keeten (8.56) respectively to the N.
Zandkreek (51°33′N 3°54′E) (8.105) links Oosterschelde to
Veerse Meer (8.102).
2
Initially Oosterschelde is wide and deep, but narrows off
Gorishoek (51°31′⋅5N 4°04′⋅6E), the SW point of Tholen.
Above Gorishoek the channel splits into a number of
narrow creeks most of which terminate in Verdronken land
van Zuid Beveland (the submerged land of Zuid Beveland),
except for Tholensche Gat (8.101), which leads to
Bergsediepsluis.
3
Useful mark:
TV tower (51°30′⋅7N 3°53′⋅2E).
8.96 1
Dortsman (51°33′N 4°01′E) is a narrow channel marked
by buoys prefixed D, which runs E from the S end of
Brabantsche Vaarwater (8.58), passing N and E of
Middelplaat.
8.97 1
Kranen (51°34′N 3°54′E) is a small harbour with
facilities for yachts.
8.98 1
Goessche Sas (51°32′N 3°56′E) a small harbour stands
at the entrance of the canal which leads to Goes, 2½ miles
SW. The lock which gives access to the canal is 50 m long,
8⋅5 m wide and has a depth at the sill of 1 m. The canal is
limited to craft drawing 2 m or less. There are facilities for
yachts at both Goessche Sas and Goes.
8.99 1
Wemeldinge (51°31′N 4°00′E) see 8.112.
8.100 1
Yerseke (51°30′N 4°03′E) is divided into two basins by
a mole. The basins are entered separately, the N basin is
used by fishing vessels and the S is a yacht harbour.
Yerseke is approached through Schaar van Yerseke, which
runs SSE from Oosterschelde and is marked by buoys
prefixed SvL.
2
Leading lights:
Front light (51°30′⋅0N 4°03′⋅4E).
Rear light (grey post, 11 m in height) (180 m SSE of
front light).
CHAPTER 8
205
The alignment (155°) of these synchronised lights leads
through Schaar van Yerseke.
Tholensche Gat and Bergsediepsluis
8.101 1
Tholensche Gat (51°31′N 4°10′E) is a steep-to narrow
channel, which runs along the S coast of Tholen to the E
of Gorishoek (8.95). The channel has been divided by
Oesterdam (8.114), with access through the dam provided
by Bergsediepsluis, which is restricted to craft 34 m in
length, beam 6 m and draught 2 m.
2
Leading lights:
Front light (white daymark on grey structure, 3 m in
height) (51°29′⋅7N 4°13′⋅6E).
Rear light (black daymark, white band on grey
structure, 5 m in height) (332 m ESE of front
light).
3
The alignment (119½°) of these lights leads through that
part of Tholensche Gat to the E of Oesterdam to the
junction with Schelde-Rijnverbinding (8.114) and for those
vessels bound for Bergen op Zoom to the alignment of the
leading lights which lead through Bergsche Diep (8.118).
ROUTES THROUGH INLAND CANALS
KANAAL DOOR WALCHEREN AND
VEERSE MEER TO OOSTERSCHELDE
General information
Netherlands Charts 1803.8, 1805.2, 1805.3
Description
8.102 1
Kanaal door Walcheren (The Canal through Walcheren)
runs 8 miles NNE from the NW end of Binnenhaven,
Vlissingen (7.122) to Veere (8.107) where it joins Veerse
Meer.
2
Veerse Meer runs between Noord Beveland to the N and
Walcheren and Zuid Beveland to the S. It was formerly
used as a waterway, but has been closed off at its NW
entrance by Veerse Dam (51°35′N 3°38′E) and at its E
entrance by Zandkreekdam (51°32′N 3°52′E) and is now a
tideless lake, used extensively for recreational purposes.
There are locks at Veere which give access to Kanaal door
Walcheren and in Zandkreekdam which gives access to
Oosterschelde through Zandkreek. From Veere through
Veerse Meer to Zandkreek (8.105) where it joins
Oosterschelde is 9 miles.
Limiting dimensions
8.103 1
Binnenkeersluis (51°27′⋅0N 3°35′⋅2E) at Vlissingen and
the larger of the two locks at Veere (51°32′⋅5N 3°40′⋅1E)
can accept vessels up to 130 m in length and beam 18 m.
Maximum permitted draught is 4⋅5 m as far as Middelburg
(8.106) and 3⋅7 m to Veere (8.107). Zandkreeksluis
(51°32′⋅6N 3°51′⋅8E), the lock in Zandkreekdam, can
accept vessels up to 130 m in length, beam 19⋅7 m and
draught 3⋅5 m. The maximum permitted draught in Veerse
Meer is 3⋅7 m in summer and 3⋅0 m in winter.
Bridges
8.104 1
The canal is crossed by five swinging bridges, which
have a minimum through passage of 19⋅3 m. Normally
bridges may be opened between 0600 and 2200 and on
Sundays and holidays between 0700 and 1100 and 1700
and 2100. Opening times also take into account the
Netherlands Railways timetable.
Directions
Veerse Meer to Oosterschelde
8.105 1
The direction of the buoyage is from E to W in the
fairway, which may be navigated by day or night. It is
marked by beacons, numbered from Zandkreeksluis.
Starboard hand beacons exhibit green lights and port hand
beacons exhibit red lights. The safe passing distance off the
beacons is 20 m.
2
Zandkreek is the buoyed channel, which leads 2 miles E
from Zandkreeksluis to the junction with Oosterschelde. It
is marked by numbered buoys and light-buoys, prefixed Z.
Harbours
Middelburg
8.106 1
Middelburg (51°30′N 3°37′E) has an old harbour on the
E side of Kanaal door Walcheren, 7 cables NE of the town,
where vessels discharge at The Loskade, Arnekanaal, an
inlet basin 800 m in length with depths of 4 to 5 m. It is
used by small sea-going vessels and serves an industrial
complex. There is a swinging area for vessels up to 50 m
in length, longer vessels must proceed stern first to their
berth.
Veere
8.107 1
Veere (51°33′N 3°40′E) was formerly a considerable
port, but is now of little significance. It has two harbours,
Buitenhaven at the N end of Kanaal door Walcheren and
Stadshaven to the NW of the town. The latter is used by
yachts. Buitenhaven runs 4 cables SSW to the locks at the
entrance to the canal. The sides of Buitenhaven slope but
are faced with pile-work near the locks where vessels can
berth. There is a shipyard on the NW side of Buitenhaven
and the harbour contains a lifeboat station also.
2
Veere can be distinguished by a tall church (51°32′⋅8N
3°40′⋅0E) with a square tower and dome-shaped roof and
the town hall (51°32′⋅9N 3°40′⋅1E) with a slender tower.
Other harbours in Veerse Meer
8.108 1
There are minor harbours devoted almost entirely to
yachts, at Kamperland (51°34′N 3°42′E), Oranjeplaat
(51°31′N 3°42′E), De Omloop (51°31′N 3°44′E), Kortgene
(51°33′N 3°49′E) and Wolphaartsdijk (51°33′N 3°49′E). In
addition small basins and jetties for yachts have been
constructed in many places within Veerse Meer; these are
shown on the national charts.
KANAAL DOOR ZUID BEVELAND
General information
Chart 120, Netherlands Chart 1805.4
Description
8.109 1
Hansweert Harbour (51°27′N 4°00′E) (7.276) gives
access to the Kanaal door Zuid Beveland. The canal, which
is 4 miles long, has been cut through Zuid Beveland
CHAPTER 8
206
between Hansweert and Wemeldinge (51°31′N 4°00′E)
(8.112) and carries inland water traffic from Antwerp,
Terneuzen and Gent to Rotterdam. Two opening bridges
cross the canal, both have a vertical clearance of 8⋅5 m
when closed and 10⋅2 m when open.
Maximum dimensions
8.110 1
The canal can accept vessels up to 140 m in length,
beam 14⋅5 m and draught 4⋅75 m.
The depth in the canal is 4⋅8 m.
Locks
8.111 1
The two locks at Hansweert, Nieuwe Oostsluis and
Nieuwe Westsluis are each 180 m in length and 24 m wide.
At Wemeldinge (8.112) there is direct access to
Oosterschelde.
Wemeldinge
8.112 1
Wemeldinge (51°31′N 4°00′E) lies close W of the N
entrance to Kanaal door Zuid Beveland. The harbour
entrance formed by moles faces N and is 70 m wide. A
mole, which covers at its outer end, extends NE from a
position close E of the harbour entrance. The seaward end
of the mole is marked by a buoy (starboard hand).
2
Depths within the harbour are maintained by dredging.
The sides of the harbour slope, but vessels can secure to
mooring posts or pile-work both above and below the
locks.
8.113 1
Traffic signals. A yellow occulting light is exhibited
from the W molehead to warn river traffic that vessels are
leaving the harbour.
SCHELDE-RIJNVERBINDING
General information
Charts 139, Netherlands Charts 1803.4, 1803.9, 1807.3, 1807.4
Description
8.114 1
Schelde-Rijnverbinding (Schelde-Rijnkanaal), is both a
canal and a dredged channel, which runs 20 miles N from
the turning basin to the E of Zandvlietsluis (51°20′⋅8N
4°17′⋅2E) (7.303) to Volkerak (8.65) and in so doing
connects the port of Antwerp with the Rhine. The canal is
mainly used by inland and recreational craft and to a
limited extent by small sea-going vessels.
2
The canal is in three parts:
Kreekrak, the S part of the canal, which runs initially
through Belgium for 2½ miles close E of the
embanked coast in the vicinity of Bath (51°24′N
4°13′E), then across Zuid Beveland to
Kreekraksluizen (51°27′N 4°14′E) (8.116), where
the canal enters Oosterschelde. This section of the
canal is 5⋅0 m deep.
3
Oosterscheldrak, the dredged channel across the E
end of Oosterschelde, which runs from
Kreekraksluizen to a position close NW of
Molenplaat (51°29′⋅5N 4°14′⋅0E). This section of
the canal is 7⋅0 m deep and is marked on both
sides by beacons at intervals of 5 cables.
Oesterdam close W of Oosterscheldrak isolates it
from Oosterschelde and its tidal influence. The
dam runs from Zuid Beveland across Verdronken
Land van Zuid Beveland to W of Molenplaat,
where it turns NW encompassing the E part of
Tholensche Gat (8.101) and thence to Tholen.
4
Eendracht, the N part of the canal, lies between
Tholen to the W and Noord Brabant to the E. It
runs about 10 miles N from close NW of
Molenplaat to the intersection with Volkerak
(51°39′N 4°17′E) (8.65), where it joins the route to
Oude Maas. This section of the canal is 6⋅0 m
deep.
Vertical clearance
8.115 1
The canal is spanned by nine fixed bridges. The
minimum vertical clearance is 9⋅1 m.
Locks
8.116 1
Kreekraksluizen (51°27′N 4°14′E) comprises two
parallel, similar locks, 24 m wide, divided by inner gates
into a N section 210 m long and a S section 150 m long.
Sill depth is 5⋅0 m on the S side and 4⋅1 m on the N side
of the locks. The entry gates are lifting gates and serve as
bridges when closed. A white isophase light with a white
light is exhibited from the central revetment to indicate
which lock is in use.
2
Vessels using the locks are required to report by VHF
radio on passing Bath (51°24′N 4°13′E) N-bound and
Tholen (51°32′N 4°13′E) S-bound. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for details.
Vessels awaiting entry to the locks lie as directed by the
lock-keeper. Waiting moorings are available, but there are
no line handlers.
Netherlands Chart 1807.2
Tholen
8.117 1
Tholen (51°32′N 4°13′E) has a refuge harbour close S,
which may only be used by transiting vessels and not for
commercial purposes. Landing jetties are on the NW and E
sides of the harbour. Nieuwe Haven (51°31′N 4°13′E), a
narrow winding channel, originally led from the E end of
Tholensche Gat to the harbour at Tholen, but now joins
Eendracht close S of the harbour.
Bergen op Zoom
8.118 1
Bergen op Zoom (51°30′N 4°16′E) is approached
through Bergsche Diep, which extends E from the
intersection (51°30′N 4°13′E) (8.114) of Tholensche Gat
and Schelde-Rijnverbinding. The channel, which is 5 m
deep, is marked by numbered buoys, prefixed BD, and its
centreline is indicated by several successive pairs of leading
lights, best seen on the chart.
2
Theodorushaven, the harbour at Bergen op Zoom, is
entered through a lock, Burgemeester Peterssluis, which is
120 m long, 12 m wide and can accept craft of 4 m
draught. There are berths for working cargo in the harbour
as well as berths for yachts and fishing vessels.
CHAPTER 8
207
ZEEGAT VAN GOEREE TO OUDE MAAS VIA HARINGVLIET
APPROACHES TO HARINGVLIET
General information
Chart 110, with plan of Slijkgat to Stellendam
Description
8.119 1
There are two channels through Zeegat van Goeree, the
principal channel Slijkgat (8.131), which leads into the
estuary from the W and runs close N of Goeree, and Rak
van Scheelhoek (8.132) from the NW, which runs along the
W coast of Voorne. Both channels lead to Goereese Sluis,
the lock in Haringvlietdam (8.121), which closes off the
estuary. Most vessels using the lock are bound to or from
Dordrecht (9.116).
Topography
8.120 1
The NW coast of Goeree is bordered by sand dunes,
which appear as a group of white hummocks when seen
from a distance. The coast of Voorne to the NNW of
Haringvlietsluizen is fronted by low dunes which extend to
Zwarte Hoek (51°53′N 4°02′E), the W extremity of Voorne,
and thence a further 4 miles to the NW.
2
Hinder is an extensive shallow coastal bank which lies
between Goeree and Voorne and virtually fills Zeegat van
Goeree. There are drying patches on the bank, in particular
Ribben and Hinderplaat, 1½ miles W of Zwarte Hoek.
Hinder Light-buoy (W cardinal) (51°54′⋅6N 3°55′⋅4E)
marks the W side of Hinder.
Haringvlietdam and Haringvlietsluizen
8.121 1
Haringvlietdam (51°50′N 4°03′E) extends 1500 m SW
from the coast of Voorne, thence Haringvlietsluizen,
1050 m in length, in which there are 17 openings fitted
with sluice gates extends to the coast of Goeree.
The lock, Goereese Sluis (8.134), is situated at the SW
end of the barrage and there is an outer and an inner
harbour either side of the lock.
Sluicing
8.122 1
When there is a heavy outflow from the River Rhine
and the River Maas there is a very strong sluicing stream
through Haringvlietsluizen. From 30 minutes before sluicing
takes place until the end of sluicing three red lights in the
form of a triangle are exhibited from pillars spaced along
the length and on both sides of the dam.
2
Caution. During sluicing it is advisable to keep at least
300 m clear of the sluicing gates. The prohibited area off
the sluice gates is indicated by buoys (special). During
sluicing water level in Haringvliet may fall by as much as
0⋅5 m in one hour.
Depth
8.123 1
There is a least charted depth of 3 m in the Slijkgat
channel.
Pilotage
8.124 1
For pilotage from Steenbank Pilot Station see 7.12 and
7.14.
Rescue
8.125 1
See 8.13.
Tidal streams
8.126 1
The tidal streams off Zeegat van Goeree are complicated
by the fact that an intermediate stream runs between the
clear offshore stream and the in and out-going streams in
the estuary itself. This intermediate stream is established
about 10 miles offshore in the vicinity of 51°54′N 3°40′E
and sometimes runs in the opposite direction to the
offshore stream. Should this occur then the separation of
the streams is marked by a clear line of ripples. The table
below sets out the relationship between the intermediate
stream and the in and out-going streams.
2
See also information on the chart and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern Portion.
Time from HW
Hoek van Holland
Remarks
−0530 Intermediate stream is S-going.
Out-going stream turns N inside the
intermediate stream.
Stream is about slack in Slijkgat.
−0330 Intermediate stream changes direction
NE and N.
In-going stream begins.
Stream runs ENE in Slijkgat and SE
off Voorne coast.
+0100 Intermediate stream is N-going.
Stream in the entrance is slack and
about slack in Slijkgat.
+0330 Intermediate stream is W-going and
changing gradually to SW.
Out-going stream begins and runs
WSW in Slijkgat and NW off Voorne
coast.
8.127 1
The streams run generally in the directions stated, but
this varies with the state of the tide. Near LW they run in
the channels, but as the tide rises the streams run
increasingly across the shoals. Similarly as the tide falls the
streams run increasingly in the channels.
2
The mean rate of the stream is 1 kn outside Hinder
(8.120), but gradually increases within the estuary and is
also dependent on the sluicing programme through
Haringvlietsluizen.
3
The out-going stream runs for 7¾ hours and the in-going
stream 4¾ hours. When the out-going stream is running the
division between the discoloured water from the estuary
and the clearer water of the North Sea is plainly visible.
With strong E winds the division may be found well
outside Hinder.
Tidal levels
8.128 1
See information in Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1. At
Haringvlietsluizen (51°50′N 4°02′E) the mean spring range
is about 2⋅6 m; mean neap range about 1⋅8 m.
Local weather
8.129 1
A fresh wind against the in-going stream in Slijkgat
causes a heavy sea, but this moderates as soon as the
stream turns.
When there is a strong SW wind and the offshore
stream is setting SW, it is advisable not to enter the estuary
until the stream is setting NE and there is an in-going
CHAPTER 8
208
stream, when the sea abates and there is less danger of a
ground swell.
2
Strong W to NW winds cause a heavy ground swell on
the off-lying banks and in the channel and it is dangerous
to enter the estuary. Hoek van Holland (9.60) is a safer
alternative.
Principal marks
8.130 1
Landmarks:
Goeree Light-tower (51°55′⋅5N 3°40′⋅1E) (8.15).
Major lights:
Westhoofd Light (51°48′⋅8N 3°51′⋅8E) (8.15).
Goeree Light—as above.
Maasvlakte Light (51°58′⋅2N 4°00′⋅9E) (9.33).
Directions
(continued from 8.16)
Slijkgat to Goereese Sluis
8.131 1
From a position in the vicinity of SG Light-buoy (safe
water) (51°52′⋅0N 3°51′⋅4E) the route leads ESE through
the outer part of Slijkgat, which is marked by numbered
buoys and light-buoys (port and starboard hand) prefixed
SG and runs 8½ miles in a mainly E direction to the outer
harbour of Stellendam, which leads to Goereese Sluis,
passing (with positions from Westhoofd Light (51°48′⋅8N
3°51′⋅8E)):
2
Clear of wave recorder post Ha 10 (3 miles N) on
which stands a light (yellow pile), thence:
NNE of Westhoofd Light (8.15), thence:
3
N of Kwade Hoek (5 miles ENE), the N point of
Goeree, where the inner continuation of Slijkgat
becomes Noord Pampus. In this part of the channel
the numbered buoys are prefixed P, thence:
4
To the entrance to the outer harbour at Stellendam
(6½ miles E), which faces NE. Goereese Sluis
(8.134) lies in the SE corner of the outer harbour
at the SW root of Haringvlietsluis.
Caution. Off Kwade Hoek the channel is very narrow
and buoyage the only guide.
(Directions continue at 8.140)
Rak van Scheelhoek to Goereese Sluis
8.132 1
Rak van Scheelhoek (51°52′N 4°03′E) is the channel
which runs SE along the coast of Voorne to Haringvlietdam
(8.121). Thence the route leads SW parallel to the face of
the dam, keeping clear of the prohibited area off the sluices
(8.122), to the outer harbour at Stellendam and Goereese
Sluis (8.134).
The channel is marked by buoys (lateral: numbers
prefixed R).
Harbour
Stellendam
8.133 1
Buitenhaven (51°50′N 4°02′E), the outer harbour of
Stellendam lies on the seaward side of Goereese Sluis and
is used by fishing vessels as well as acting as the approach
to the lock.
Binnenhaven, the inner harbour, is also used by fishing
vessels. There are two jetties, each 170 m long, on the W
side of the harbour and a quay 130 m in length on the S
side of the harbour.
8.134 1
Goereese Sluis (51°49′⋅5N 4°02′⋅3E) is 144 m in length,
16 m wide and has a sill depth of 3⋅9 m. Moveable bridges
span the outer and inner lock gates. These bridges have
vertical clearances when closed of 13 m and 6⋅5 m
respectively.
The lock operates 24 hours a day on weekdays until
2200 on Friday, but is restricted to 0800−2000 at weekends
and, on Sundays only from November 1st to April 1st, to
0800−1000 and 1600−1800.
HARINGVLIET
General information
Netherlands Charts 1807.6, 1807.7, 1809.6
Description
8.135 1
Haringvliet is the general term used to describe the area
between Haringvlietdam (51°50′N 4°03′E) (8.121) and
Haringvlietbrug (8.144), 15 miles ESE. The channel through
Haringvliet runs from Goereese Sluis (8.134) and connects
with Hollandsch Diep (8.71) and thence Oude Maas. Spui
(8.142) is a side channel which leads from the N side of
Haringvliet to Oude Maas.
2
Since Haringvlietdam was completed the area is virtually
tideless, see 8.7 for details of tidal levels.
Exercise area
8.136 1
There is a naval exercise area, shown on the Dutch
chart, 1 mile NW of the island of Tiengemeten (51°44′N
4°18′E). Vessels should not anchor or fish in the area.
Nature reserves and mussel beds
8.137 1
See 8.6.
Measured distance
8.138 1
A measured distance is charted on the National charts,
on the N shore opposite the E end of the island of
Tiengemeten (51°44′N 4°18′E). It is marked by three pairs
of beacons.
Running track 119°/299°.
2
Distance. 1 km between W beacons and centre
beacons and 1 mile between W beacons and E
beacons.
Vessels using the measured distance fly the International
Signal SM.
Tidal levels and streams
8.139 1
See 8.7.
Directions
(continued from 8.131)
Haringvlietdam to Spui
8.140 1
The numerous shoals in Haringvliet are marked by
beacons (port and starboard hand) which stand on the 2 m
depth contour. There may be more beacons than those
shown on the chart.
2
From the inner harbour (51°49′N 4°03′E) at Stellendam
the main channel leads 7 miles in a generally ESE direction
to a position off the entrance to Spui. Deltageul, marked by
numbered buoys prefixed DG, leads E from the dam and
splits around the island of Slijkplaat (51°48′N 4°09′E). The
main channel passes N of the island through Lens off
CHAPTER 8
209
Hellevoetsluis (8.145), and then Spui (8.142), which is
approached through the buoyed channel of Beningen
(51°48′N 4°12′E). From Lens the main channel as far as
Haringvlietbrug is marked by numbered buoys and
light-buoys prefixed HV. Aardappelengat, marked by
numbered buoys prefixed A, runs to the S of Slijkplaat to
Middelharnis Haven (8.146), before rejoining the main
channel SE of the island.
8.141 1
Useful marks:
Hellevoetsluis Main Light (white tower, red top, 18 m
in height) (51°49′⋅2N 4°07′⋅7E).
Tower (51°50′⋅3N 4°07′⋅4E).
Hoornse Hoofden Light (grey structure, 5m in height)
(51°48′⋅3N 4°11′⋅0E), exhibited from the watch
house on the dyke.
Spui
8.142 1
Spui (51°49′N 4°20′E) is a minor channel with a least
depth of 3⋅8 m (2005) in mid-channel, which runs 9 miles
ENE from Haringvliet (8.135) to Oude Maas (9.104).
There is a residual tidal stream in Spui, see 8.7.
Spui to Haringvlietbrug
8.143 1
From a position off the entrance to Spui (51°47′N
4°13′E) the main channel leads 8 miles in a generally ESE
direction to Haringvlietbrug (8.144). The channel splits
around the island of Tiengemeten (51°44′N 4°18′E), which
runs 4 miles ESE. Haringvliet passes S of the island, but
the deeper channel is found in Hitsertse or Vuile Gat,
which passes N of Tiengemeten and is marked by
numbered buoys prefixed VG. Both channels unite ESE of
Tiengemeten and lead to Haringvlietbrug.
2
To the E of Haringvlietbrug the channel enters
Hollandsch Diep (8.71) and vessels join traffic from
Volkeraksluizen (8.70)
8.144 1
Haringvlietbrug (51°43′N 4°24′E), 1150 m in length,
spans the E end of Haringvliet. It is supported by ten
pillars, numbered from the S and has a bascule bridge,
through passage width 35 m. The bridge is open for
30 minute periods from 0700, 0930, 1300, 1600 and 1900,
but only on receipt of prior notice of 1 hour.
2
Vessels passing through the fixed spans of the bridge
should proceed beneath the spans which are indicated by
yellow fixed lights, while fixed red lights indicate that
passage is prohibited. The centreline of the navigation
spans is 111°−291°.
Vertical clearance varies between 10⋅7 and 12⋅8 m and is
shown on unlit tide gauges adjacent to the spans.
(Directions continue at 8.71)
Harbours between Haringvlietdam and Spui
8.145 1
Hellevoetsluis (51°49′N 4°08′E) has four harbours,
Heliushaven to the W, then Het Groote Dok in the old part
of the town and to the E Koopvaardijhn and Tramhaven
which share a common entrance. Koopvaardijhn gives
access to Voornsche Kanaal, now dammed 4½ miles from
its entrance. Tramhaven is reserved for ferries and there are
berths in Het Groote Dok for vessels up to 80 m long,
beam 13 m and draught 3⋅5 m. Otherwise the canal and
harbours are used by yachts.
2
The authority is Gemeente Hellevoetsluis, Oostzanddijk
26, 3221 AL Hellevoetsluis.
Deratting and exemption certificates issued.
8.146 1
Middelharnis Haven (51°46′N 4°12′E) is entered from
the SW end of Aardappelengat (8.140) through an entrance,
53 m wide, formed by piers, which leads to a former ferry
harbour and the canal to Middelharnis, 1½ miles inland.
Depths are up to 6 m in the outer harbour and 3 m in the
canal and Middelharnis. Yachts berth in the old ferry
harbour, in the canal and the harbour at Middelharnis.
Harbours between Spui and Haringvlietbrug
8.147 1
The small harbours at Stad aan’t Haringvliet (51°45′N
4°15′E), Den Bommel (51°43′N 4°17′E), De Put (51°46′N
4°18′E), Nieuwendijk (51°45′N 4°19′E) and Hitsertse Kade
(51°44′N 4°22′E) are primarily yachting harbours. There is
a ferry service between Nieuwendijk and Tiengemeten
Harbour on the N coast of the island.
9.84
9.116
9
.13
9
.
3
6
9
.
3
7
9.41
9
7
2
.
9
7
4
9
1
0
4
.
.
Maas
North
TSS
H
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v
a
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H
o
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l
a
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N
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e
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e
W
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w
Rotterdam
N
i
u
e
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e
M
a
a
s
O
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s
Dordrecht
Maasvlakte and
Europoort
E
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W
a
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Hinder
North
TSS
Maas West
Outer TSS
Maas West
Inner TSS
M
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e
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l
H
H
H
H
Inshore
Traffic
Zone
110
132
16301630
132
133
110
122
1205
3°
3°
4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich
52°52°
30´
40´40´
50´50´
10´10´
30´
30´30´10´
10´
10´50´
50´
40´
40´
40´
40´
20´
20´
20´
20´
Chapter 9 - Hoek van Holland to the Rhine
210
211
CHAPTER 9
HOEK VAN HOLLAND TO THE RHINE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1630, 132, 133
Scope of chapter
9.1 1
This chapter describes the route from the Noord Hinder
Junction Precautionary Area (52°N 3°E) (2.54), which runs
56 miles in a generally E direction through Eurogeul (9.36),
Maasgeul (9.37), Nieuwe Waterweg (9.60) and Nieuwe
Maas (9.60) to Rotterdam (9.84). Vessels with a draught of
less than 17⋅37 m use the Traffic Separation Schemes which
lie on each side of Eurogeul, see 9.10 to 9.11. Oude Maas
(9.104) is described from its junction with Nieuwe Maas
(51°54′N 4°19′E) to Dordrecht (51°49′N 4°40′E) (9.116).
There is also a general description of River Maas (9.132)
and River Rhine (9.137).
2
For vessels using the coastal route approaching from the
S see Chapter 8 and for vessels from the N see Chapter 10.
The ports of Europoort (51°57′N 4°08′E) (9.41),
Rotterdam and Dordrecht are also described.
Topography
9.2 1
The 10 m depth contour in the vicinity of the Hoek van
Holland (51°59′N 4°08′E) is between 1 and 2 miles
offshore. Thereafter the seabed slopes very gradually and
the 20 m depth contour is generally 20 miles offshore.
Eurogeul and Maasgeul are maintained channels across this
shallow coastal stretch, which lead to Nieuwe Waterweg.
2
Following the implementation of the Delta Plan (1.160),
which closed off three of the four main estuaries of the
River Maas, Nieuwe Waterweg, the most N of the
estuaries, is the only major waterway open to seagoing
shipping.
Pilotage
General
9.3 1
Pilotage is compulsory for all seagoing vessels over
70 m in length and vessels of any length carrying
dangerous cargoes.
For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Requests for pilots
9.4 1
Requests for pilots and other matters concerning pilotage
on arrival should be sent to PILOTVTS ROTTERDAM.
Apart from the request for a pilot and the time and place
of embarkation, the signal should contain the vessel’s
dimensions, cargo, any defects affecting seaworthiness and
her destination.
2
Changes in the reported ETA exceeding 1 hour should
be reported immediately.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details.
9.5 1
Vessels with a draught between 207 and 226 m are
recommended to use a Selected Route, which is set out in
the Netherlands Hydrographic publication Deep−Draught
Planning Guide, see 2.63. Such vessels are also
recommended to embark a pilot off Cap de la Hague
(49°44′N 1°57′W) for the passage to Europoort. The
request for a pilot should be sent 48 hours in advance of
the vessel’s ETA at the embarkation position, which is
13 miles N of Cap de la Hague (see Channel Pilot). For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
2
Vessels with a draught of more than 174 m are
deemed to be vessels constrained by draught and are
required to enter port via Eurogeul and Maasgeul approach
channels. If a Deep Sea pilot is not already embarked,
these vessels will embark the pilot in position 52°00′N
3°00′E; 8 hours notice of ETA is required.
In both cases pilots are embarked by helicopter, see 9.8.
9.6 1
Vessels with a draught of less than 174 m should
request a pilot 6 hours before their ETA at the pilot
boarding station stating if pilot embarkation by helicopter is
required, see 9.8.
2
The pilot vessel is stationed 1 mile S of Maas Center
Light-buoy (52°01′N 3°54′E) and has a black hull with
PILOT on both sides. There is also a launch which cruises
in the vicinity of Noorderdam (52°00′N 4°03′E) with a
yellow hull and PILOT on both sides. By day these craft
display a blue flag with the letter L and by night the
signals in accordance with The International Regulations
for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).
Hoek van Holland − Pilot Boat (9.6)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Shore based pilotage
9.7 1
Generally the pilot embarks to carry out his pilotage
duties, but if pilotage has to be suspended, normally when
the sea conditions make boarding hazardous, then suitable
vessels may be offered shore based pilotage. Such pilotage
is only available between the normal pilotage boarding
CHAPTER 9
212
position and Maasmond off the Traffic Centre Hoek van
Holland (51°58′⋅9N 4°06′⋅7E). Vessels with a draught of
more than 14⋅3 m and tankers exceeding 120 m loa are
unsuitable for shore based pilotage. Tankers laden with
hazardous or pollutant cargoes under 120 m loa will be
refused shore based pilotage if the master is unable to
communicate properly in Dutch or English, or has not
called at the port on a regular basis.
Pilot embarkation by helicopter
9.8 1
Communication with the helicopter is by VHF. For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Vessels using the service must have a suitable landing or
winching area and employ the correct operational
procedures. See 1.47.
2
Netherlands authorities state that in theory helicopter
operations can be undertaken by day or night in winds up
to 55 knots and visibility more than 1200 m. Severe
turbulence, icing and extreme motion will render the
service unavailable.
3
For vessels with a draught of less than 17⋅4 m transfer
positions, shown on the chart, are to the N of Maas North
TSS (52°07′N 3°55′E) and either side of Maas West Inner
TSS (52°00′N 3°40′E).
Traffic regulations
Vessel Traffic Service
9.9 1
A VTS scheme is maintained which covers the area
from the Eurogeul Approach (52°N 3°E), about 38 miles
offshore, then Nieuwe Waterweg and Nieuwe Maas as far
as Brienenoordbrug (9.67), as well as the Oude Maas to
Km 998. The whole area is divided into four regions, each
with its own traffic centre. The regions are further divided
into sectors with their own VTS operator and VHF radio
channel. Radar surveillance is maintained for the entire
area. The Harbour Coordination Centre, Rotterdam acts as
the central traffic control.
Vessels navigating within a sector should maintain
continuous watch on that sector’s allocated VHF frequency.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Routeing measures
9.10 1
Traffic Separation Schemes. Eurogeul and Maasgeul,
which together form the deep water channel, are reserved
for vessels with a draught of 17⋅4 m or more. The W and
E sections of Eurogeul run through the separation zone of
two TSS’s, which are for the use of vessels of a lesser
draught. These are Maas West Outer TSS (51°58′N
3°14′E), which runs 5 miles E from the E side of Noord
Hinder Junction Precautionary Area (2.54), and Maas West
Inner TSS (52°01′N 3°41′E), which runs 7 miles E to the
W boundary of the Maas Centre Precautionary Area (9.11).
There is crossing traffic in the area between the two TSSs,
see 9.12.
2
Maas North TSS (52°07′N 3°56′E) runs 3 miles N from
the N boundary of the Maas Centre Precautionary Area.
The TSS’s are shown on the charts.
9.11 1
Maas Centre Precautionary Area (52°02′N 3°54′E)
extends about 12 miles NW from the entrance to Europoort
and is shown on the chart. Maas Center Light-buoy (safe
water) (52°01′N 3°54′E) is moored near the focal point of
the precautionary area.
2
Vessels within the area should proceed with caution
where the traffic flows merge. If not compelled to follow
the deep water route vessels should avoid passing through
the area, shown on the chart, which is 1 mile in diameter
close N of Maas Center Light-buoy. Unless the
circumstances dictate otherwise, vessels should keep this
circular area on their port side.
3
Anchoring is not recommended in the area in order to
give maximum searoom to vessels on passage or embarking
pilots.
The area to the SW of the Maas Centre Precautionary
Area is an Inshore Traffic Zone, see 1.8.
9.12 1
Crossing traffic. Through traffic should avoid the
precautionary area and cross the traffic flow to and from
Maasmond at right angles N-bound between E7 Light-buoy
(special) (51°59′N 3°30′E) and E5 Light-buoy (special),
3 miles WSW and S-bound between E5 Light-buoy and E3
Light-buoy (special), 3 miles WSW of E5 Light-buoy.
2
Small craft which require to cross Maasgeul are
recommended to do so W of a line joining MV Light-buoy
(W cardinal) (51°57′⋅5N 3°58′⋅5E), MV-N Light-buoy (N
cardinal), 2½ miles NNE, and Indusbank N Light-buoy (N
cardinal) a further 4 miles NNE, as shown on Chart 122.
These vessels should report their intention to cross and
maintain listening watch on VHF while crossing. It should
be recognised that large vessels constrained by their
draught to the deep water channel and which show the
appropriate signals in accordance with the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) cannot
be expected to give way to other vessels.
APPROACHES TO HOEK VAN HOLLAND
General information
Charts 1630, 122, 132
Route
9.13 1
From the vicinity of 51°58′N 3°00′E on the W side of
the Eurogeul Approach Area (9.36), the route runs 33 miles
ENE then 7 miles ESE to Maasmond (9.38) at the entrance
to Nieuwe Waterweg (9.60).
Controlling depths
9.14 1
The deep water channel reduces in depth from 27⋅2 m in
the Eurogeul Approach Area, to 24⋅4 m and 24 m in
Eurogeul, which is flanked by an area dredged to 22 m.
The maintained depth in Maasgeul is 23⋅4 m and this
reduces to 22⋅8 m in Maasmond.
2
Depths are in excess of 17 m on both the inbound and
outbound lanes of Maas West Inner TSS and increase
thereafter as Noord Hinder Junction Precautionary Area is
approached.
Maximum permitted draughts
9.15 1
Vessels with a draught of over 17⋅4 m are considered to
be constrained by their draught. These vessels are obliged
to use the deep water channel and show the signals
prescribed by the International Regulations for Preventing
CHAPTER 9
213
Collisions at Sea (1972). After entry into Maasmond
vessels bound for Nieuwe Waterweg with a draught
exceeding 9 m and vessels bound for Calandkanaal with a
draught exceeding 10 m also show the signals for vessels
constrained by their draught.
2
Vessels up to a draught of 20 m may enter at any time.
Vessels over this draught are constrained by the tide and
receive advice on their time of entry, see 9.16.
3
The maximum permitted draught in favourable
conditions is 22⋅55 m, but vessels loading to this draught
should make prior arrangements with the harbour
authorities and act in accordance with the Deep−Draught
Planning Guide published by the Netherlands Hydrographer
(2.63).
Vessels constrained by the tide
9.16 1
In-bound traffic. Constrained vessels are issued with a
set of tidal window tables, which indicate the time the
vessel may pass the entrance to Eurogeul (51°58′N 3°10′E).
The tidal window depends on the vessel’s deadweight,
cargo and draught and also takes into account expected
wave and tidal levels during the passage. They are
calculated so that the vessel is able to navigate safely in
the channel within certain speed limits, which from
experience are 8 to 11 kn in Eurogeul and 6⋅5 to 8 kn in
Maasgeul.
9.17 1
Outbound traffic. In this case the tidal window depends
on the draught of the vessel and allows an under-keel
clearance of 15% of the draught in Maasgeul and 20% in
Eurogeul, which includes an allowance for the reduction in
the available depth of water due to low frequency waves
(periods of 10 seconds or more) the potential energy of
which does not exceed a specified level of 150 cm
2
.
Pilotage
9.18 1
See 9.3 to 9.8.
Local knowledge
9.19 1
Although the approaches to Europoort and Nieuwe
Waterweg are well marked, local knowledge is essential.
Traffic regulations
9.20 1
Vessel Traffic Services see 9.9.
Routeing measures see 9.10 to 9.12.
Traffic signals
9.21 1
Traffic signals are displayed day and night from the
signal station at the Hoek van Holland (51°59′N 4°07′E),
which is situated 7 cables ESE of the root of Noorderdam.
Vessels carrying dangerous cargoes
9.22 1
Vessels carrying dangerous cargoes should display by
day Flag B of the International Code and by night one all
round red light.
Prohibited anchorage
9.23 1
Anchoring is prohibited 600 m either side of the
centreline (112°) through Maasgeul (9.37) for a distance of
3½ miles to seaward of the harbour entrance.
Hook of Holland Traffic signals (9.21)
Storm signals
9.24 1
The signal station at Hoek van Holland displays storm
signals which are directed inland. See 1.105.
Rescue
9.25 1
An offshore lifeboat is stationed at Hoek van Holland.
Rescue equipment is maintained.
CHAPTER 9
214
Tidal information and effects of the weather
9.26 1
General. Off the entrance to Maasmond (51°59′N
4°03′E) during the out-going stream the line between the
discoloured river water and the cleaner waters of the North
Sea is plainly visible. It may well extend 7 to 8 miles to
seaward in strong E winds, but at other times may only be
a short distance offshore.
2
The wind only influences the rate of the streams and not
its direction. Strong SW winds cause a strong NE-going
stream and a weak SW-going stream. Conversely strong
NW winds cause a strong SW-going stream and a weak
NE-going stream.
3
Strong and continued winds from the W, particularly the
NW, raise water levels along the Netherlands coast, while
strong and continued winds from the E have the opposite
effect.
9.27 1
Sea conditions in the approaches. The wind and tide
strongly influence the sea conditions in the approaches to
Maasmond and in storm conditions may make entering
harbour hazardous. The main effects are:
2
Storm force winds from the NW cause a rough sea
with a possible ground swell at the time of LW.
They also cause a strong SW-going stream while
hardly any flows NE. Wave heights may
exceed 6 m.
3
Storm force winds from the SW cause lesser seas but
a very strong NE-going stream and a weak
SW-going stream.
A ground swell often arises during a SW-going
stream.
A confused sea occurs near the harbour entrance with
a strong tide running against the wind. Entry is not
recommended in these conditions.
4
With storms from the NW the most favourable time of
entry is 1 hour after HW Hoek van Holland, when wave
heights are reduced. Reducing speed to let the waves run
faster than the vessel is recommended in these
circumstances. With storms from the SW the most
favourable time of entry is 2 to 3 hours after HW Hoek
van Holland.
9.28 1
Effect of wind and river state on tidal streams and
levels. The timing and actual tidal levels in the waterway
depend greatly upon the wind and state of the river. The
main factors are:
2
When the river is running at full spate the out-going
stream at Hoek van Holland and Masssluis
(51°55′N 4°15′E) can exceed 6 kn.
During spring tides and with strong W to NW winds
the duration of the in-going stream is increased
and the river level may increase by 1 m or more.
3
When there is a high river outflow and the prevailing
winds are from the E and S, then there may be
little or no in-going stream at Hoek van Holland.
Further upriver the rate and duration of the
in-going stream are reduced. River levels are less
than with W winds.
4
When the river outflow is low then HW and LW levels
are about 0⋅1 m below predicted heights. When the river
outflow is high then HW and LW levels may be over 0⋅1 m
above predicted heights.
The highest water level recorded in the entrance to
Nieuwe Waterweg is 3⋅9 m above MHW and the lowest is
1⋅2 m below Chart Datum.
9.29 1
Tidal streams. Normally the tidal stream does not place
any restrictions on entry or departure from Maasmond.
Outside the breakwaters the in-going stream runs ENE
towards Noorderdam and then turns E and runs between
the breakwaters.
2
The out-going stream begins to run W from off the
breakwater heads but 1 hour later turns SW and continues
until:
Interval from HW
Hoek van Holland
Remarks
−0530 Stream changes direction clockwise
to W
−0330 Direction about N
−0230 Direction ENE in-going stream
begins
3
The out-going stream continues to run along the inner
side of Noorderdam after the in-going stream has begun off
Zuiderdam.
4
In the entrance to Maasmond (51°59′N 4°03′E) the
streams set as follows:
Interval from HW
Hoek van Holland
Remarks
−0230 In-going stream begins
+0030 In-going stream at maximum, spring
rate 2½ kn, neaps 1 kn
+0215 Out-going stream begins
+0530 Out-going stream at maximum,
spring rate 3 kn, neaps 1½ k.
5
See also information on the charts and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea, Southern Portion.
9.30 1
Tidal signals are exhibited from the signal station
(51°58′⋅9N 4°06′⋅7E) at the Hoek van Holland. A green
over a white light indicates a rising tide and a white over a
green light that the tide is falling.
Ice
9.31 1
Access from the sea to Rotterdam is stated to be open at
all times. However delays may be met and sometimes
vessels cannot unload when the navigation higher upriver is
closed.
Principal marks
9.32 1
Offshore marks:
Europlatform (51°59′⋅9N 3°16′⋅5E) (white deckhouse,
red stripes on white metal column, red bands), a
light tower with a helicopter platform also used as
a weather observation post.
Goeree Light (51°55′⋅5N 3°40′⋅1E) (8.15).
9.33 1
Landmarks:
Two chimneys (51°57′⋅6N 4°01′⋅6E) at Maasvlakte
(9.33): numerous windmotors in the vicinity.
Flare (51°58′⋅2N 4°02′⋅3E): numerous petroleum
storage tanks about 7 cables NE.
Major lights:
Goeree Light (51°55′⋅5N 3°40′⋅1E) (8.15).
Maasvlakte Light (white tower, black bands, 62 m in
height) (51°58′⋅2N 4°00′⋅8E).
CHAPTER 9
215
2
Other aids to navigation:
Racons transmit from:
Noordhinder Light-buoy (52°00′⋅1N 2°51′⋅1E) (2.54).
Goeree Light—as above.
Maas Center Light-buoy (52°01′⋅1N 3°53′⋅5E).
Directions
(continued from 2.54 and 2.69)
General
9.34 1
The route described follows the deep water route, which
is only for the use of vessels drawing more than 17⋅4 m or
length 250 m, as far as the Maas Centre Precautionary
Area. From the vicinity of 51°58′N 3°00′E on the W side
of the Eurogeul Approach Area (9.35), the route runs
40 miles in a generally E direction through Eurogeul and
then Maasgeul to Maasmond (9.38) at the entrance to
Nieuwe Waterweg (9.60).
2
Smaller vessels use the Maas West Outer and the Maas
West Inner TSS (9.10) and join or leave Maasgeul to the E
of MO Light-buoy (safe water) (52°01′N 3°58′E). The
traffic lanes run parallel to the deep water route, with the
W-going route between 2 and 5 miles to the N and the
E-going route between 1½ and 6 miles to the S. The
Separation Zone and the outer limits of the TSS are shown
on the chart. The S limit of the TSS is marked by MW 1,
MW 3 and MW 5 Light-buoys (all starboard hand) and the
N limit of the TSS by MW 2, MW 4 and MW 6
Light-buoys (all port hand).
Eurogeul Approach Area
9.35 1
Eurogeul Approach Area (51°58′N 3°06′E) lies on the E
side of the Noord Hinder Junction Precautionary Area
(2.54) and is entered from the Deep Water Route (2.63).
The embarkation point for pilots transported by helicopter
is in its NW corner. Eurogeul Approach Area stretches
10 miles E-W and leads to the W end of Eurogeul (9.36).
2
Vessels with a brief wait only for the tide or a pilot and
therefore unable to anchor in DW2 (9.40), may remain
underway in the W part of the approach area.
Eurogeul
9.36 1
Eurogeul (52°00′N 3°32′E) runs 25 miles ENE, partly
through the separation zones of Maas West TSS (9.10),
from its W entry point marked on its S side by Euro
Light-buoy (safe water) (51°58′N 3°10′E). The channel is
600 m wide and is flanked on both sides by dredged areas
300 m wide, which are of lesser depth than the central
channel (see 9.14). Numbered light-buoys, prefixed E, mark
the S side of the outer area as shown on the chart. The
outer areas allow a greater safety margin and should be
used by vessels up to a draught of 21⋅35 m when meeting
and overtaking. Deeper draught vessels should keep to the
central channel at all times.
2
There are two turning areas along Eurogeul, each with a
diameter of 2700 m. The first is midway along the length
of the channel between E7 Light-buoy (special) (51°59′N
3°30′E) and E9 Light-buoy (special), 3 miles ENE, and the
second is ENE of Maas Center Light-buoy (52°01′N
3°54′E). The latter turning area may also serve as
emergency anchorages for deep−draught vessels.
3
Caution. For crossing traffic see 9.12.
Maasgeul
9.37 1
Maasmond Leading lights:
Front light (white concrete tower, black bands)
(51°58′⋅9N 4°04′⋅9E).
Rear light (similar structure) (6 cables ESE of front
light).
2
The alignment (112°) of these synchronised sector lights,
visible day and night, (101°−123°), standing on the W end
of Splitsingsdam (9.38), leads 6 miles ESE through
Maasgeul to the entrance to Maasmond, which lies between
the heads of Noorderdam and Zuiderdam. Lights stand on
the heads of both breakwaters (Noorderdam: red tower,
white bands; Zuiderdam: green tower, white bands. Both
structures 31 m in height with helicopter platform).
3
Maasgeul is 600 m wide at its W end, close N of Maas
Center Light-buoy (52°01′N 3°54′E), but narrows to 500 m
at the harbour entrance.
Caution. For crossing traffic see 9.12.
Maasmond
9.38 1
Maasmond (51°59′N 4°03′E) is the entrance of the Maas
and runs from the heads of the breakwaters to
Splitsingsdam, 1½ miles ESE. Splitsingsdam divides the
channel into a N branch leading to Nieuwe Waterweg
(9.60) and a S branch leading to Calandkanaal (9.53).
Breeddiep (51°58′⋅2N 4°07′⋅4E) is a small channel at the
SE end of Splitsingsdam connecting Nieuwe Waterweg with
Calandkanaal. It may only be used with prior permission,
but because it is narrow and there are strong tidal streams
in its vicinity its use is not recommended.
Useful marks
9.39 1
White tower (51°59′⋅5N 4°07′⋅4E) charted as an
observation post.
’s-Gravenzande Church (52°00′⋅3N 4°09′⋅6E), tower.
Monster Church (52°01′⋅3N 4°10′⋅2E), tall truncated
tower.
Ter Heijde Church (52°01′⋅8′N 4°10′⋅1E) tower.
(Directions continue for Calandkanaal at 9.53, and
Nieuwe Waterweg at 9.72)
Anchorages
9.40 1
The following anchorages are available:
DW1 (52°06′N 2°47′E) is a long term anchorage for
deep−draught vessels on the NW side of Noord
Hinder Junction Precautionary Area. Vessels may
remain at anchor in this area under the most
extreme conditions.
2
DW2 (51°56′N 2°55′E) is a short term anchorage for
deep−draught vessels waiting for the tide or a
pilot. It lies in the centre of Noord Hinder Junction
Precautionary Area and is marked by light-buoys
(special) at its NE and SW corners.
3
Outer 3 (52°01′N 3°19′E) lies at the E end of the N
separation zone of Maas West Outer TSS. It may
be used by vessels up to a draught of 17⋅4 m, but
which are too deep to anchor in Maas West 4 or
Maas Noord 5.
4
Maas West 4 (51°47′N 3°46′E) lies close SW of
Maas West Inner TSS and may be used by vessels
with a draught of 12⋅2 m in the N part of the area
and 9⋅15 m in the S part of the area.
CHAPTER 9
216
Maasmond from WNW (9.38)
(Original dated 1993)
(Photograph − Aeroview B.V., Rotterdam)
Nieuwe Waterweg
Calandkanaal Beerkanaal
Maas Noord 5 (52°07′N 3°50′E) lies close W of
Maas North TSS and may be used by vessels with
a maximum draught of 13⋅75 m. It is fouled by
numerous obstructions.
EUROPOORT AND MAASVLAKTE
General information
Chart 132
Position
9.41 1
Europoort (51°57′N 4°08′E) together with Maasvlakte, to
the W of Europoort, lie to the S and SE of Maasmond
(9.38).
Function
9.42 1
The two port facilities form a deep sea harbour designed
to accommodate very large vessels. The main cargoes
handled are oil, ore, grain and coal. There are also facilities
for the transhipment of cargo between inland and sea-going
vessels.
Approach and entry
9.43 1
From Maasmond (9.38) Europoort is approached through
Calandkanaal (9.53), which runs ESE along the NE side of
Europoort. Beerkanaal (9.54) runs S from the W end of
Calandkanaal and gives access to the berths in Maasvlakte.
Traffic
9.44 1
The port complex of Rotterdam, which includes
Europoort and Maasvlakte, is one of the largest and busiest
ports in the world. See 9.88 for details of traffic.
Port Authority
9.45 1
See 9.89.
The Authority is also responsible for the approaches to
the port and Nieuwe Waterweg.
Limiting conditions
9.46 1
Controlling depths. For depths in the approaches see
9.14. The depth in Calandkanaal as far as Petroleumhaven
No 7, 6 miles ESE of the entrance to the canal, is 21⋅7 m.
Beerkanaal is dredged to a depth of 22⋅6 m.
CHAPTER 9
217
2
Deepest and longest berths. Europoort-Petroleumhaven
No 7 (9.58); Maasvlakte-Mississippihaven (9.57).
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 1⋅9 m; mean neap range
about 1⋅5 m.
3
Maximum size of vessel handled. Europoort can
accommodate vessels up to the maximum draught permitted
to use the port, see 9.15. Vessels up to 350 000 dwt can be
handled.
Arrival information
9.47 1
Vessel Traffic Services see 9.9.
Routeing measures see 9.10 to 9.12.
Outer anchorages see 9.40.
Pilotage. See 9.3 to 9.8.
2
Tugs are available. When entering Europoort tugs are
normally made fast just inside the breakwaters.
Local knowledge see 9.19.
Regulations concerning entry see 9.16. Main engine
power is required for shifting berth in either Europoort or
Maasvlakte, unless permission to the contrary has been
obtained.
Harbour
General layout
9.48 1
Europoort and Maasvlakte form a massive port complex,
which stretches 10 miles ESE from the harbour entrance.
Maasvlakte, much of which is formed from reclaimed
ground, is a block about 3 miles by 2 miles immediately to
the S of the harbour entrance. It has five major basins as
well as other berthing facilities and can accommodate the
largest vessels capable of entering the port.
2
Europoort is separated from Maasvlakte by Beerkanaal
(9.54) and is a strip, generally about 1 mile wide but much
narrower in places, which runs 7½ miles SE being bounded
to the NE by Calandkanaal (9.53) and to the SW by
Hartelkanaal (9.55). Europoort may be considered in three
sections. The W section has facilities for bulk carriers, an
oil tanker terminal and a basin for more general cargo
together with a harbour for inland vessels. In the mid
section there are several oil tanker terminals
(Petroleumhavens) and berths for vessels carrying chemicals
and petro-chemicals. The E section near Rozenburg consists
of two basins, one used by inland vessels and the other as
a container and Ro-Ro terminal and for petro-chemicals.
Traffic signals
9.49 1
For traffic signals displayed at the Hoek van Holland
signal station see 9.21.
Storm signals
9.50 1
The signal station at Hoek van Holland displays storm
signals which are directed inland. See 1.106.
Tidal streams
9.51 1
See 9.29.
Maasvlakte from NE (9.48)
(Original dated 1999)
(Photograph − Aeroview B.V., Rotterdam)
CHAPTER 9
218
Principal marks
9.52 1
Two chimneys (51°57′⋅6N 4°01′⋅6E) (9.33).
Chimney (51°56′⋅7N 4°06′⋅5E).
Three chimneys (51°56′⋅1N 4°10′⋅0E).
Directions
(continued from 9.39)
9.53 1
Leading lights:
Front light (white concrete tower, red bands)
(51°57′⋅6N 4°08′⋅7E).
Rear light (similar structure) (550 m ESE of front
light).
2
From a position in Maasmond (51°59′⋅4N 4°02′⋅6E) the
alignment (116°) of these synchronised leading lights
visible by day and at night (108½°−123½°) leads S of
Splitsingsdam to Calandkanaal, passing NNE of the
entrance to Beerkanaal (9.54). When about 1½ miles inside
the entrance, the centreline of the canal should be followed.
Calandkanaal runs 8 miles in a generally SE direction to
Rozenburgsluis (51°53′⋅6N 4°13′⋅8E), which gives access to
Hartelkanaal (9.55). The lock is 329 m in length, 24 m
wide and has a sill depth of 6⋅5 m. It is spanned at each
end by bascule bridges, which when closed have a vertical
clearance of 3⋅5 m. Calandbrug, a lifting bridge with a
through passage 50 m wide and vertical clearance of 48 m
when open, crosses Calandkanaal 4 cables N of
Rozenburgsluis. The bridge is not operated in fog.
3
Cautions. Traffic signals control entry to both Nieuwe
Waterweg and Calandkanaal, see 9.21.
Prior permission is required for vessels to turn in
Maasmond when proceeding from Nieuwe Waterweg to
Calandkanaal, or the reverse.
Beerkanaal
9.54 1
Leading lights:
Front light (red and white chequered post, 4 m in
height) (51°56′⋅4N 4°04′⋅7E).
Rear light (similar structure, 8 m in height) (50 m S
of front light).
2
The alignment (192½°) of these synchronised leading
lights (visible 185°−200°) leads from a position close E of
the entrance to Calandkanaal (9.53) through Beerkanaal,
which runs 2 miles S to the entrance to Hartelkanaal (9.55).
The alignment (258°) of synchronised leading lights at
the W end of Amazonehaven lead from Beerkanaal into
Amazonehaven (9.57).
3
The narrow white sector (248⋅5°−250.5°) of a light (red
and white chequered post) at the W end of
Mississippihaven leads from Beerkanaal into
Mississippihaven (9.57). The narrow white sector
(068°−071°) astern of a similar light at the E end of
Mississippihaven also leads through the basin.
4
Caution. A gas pipeline crosses from Maasvlakte to
Europoort at the E end of Mississippihaven. An oil pipeline
crosses Beerkanaal close E of Petroleumhaven No 8.
Hartelkanaal
9.55 1
Hartelkanaal is entered from the S end of Beerkanaal
(51°57′N 4°05′E). It runs 12 miles in a generally ESE
direction, S of Europoort, and joins the Oude Maas (9.104)
in position 51°52′N 4°20′E. The canal also provides a link
to Hartelhaven (9.57), 2 miles W of the entrance.
Hartelkanaal is used by inland craft and small sea-going
vessels.
2
Depth in the canal is between 5⋅1 m and 5⋅5 m. Power
cables with a safe vertical clearance of 48 m span the canal
9 cables E of the entrance. Submarine cables and pipelines
cross at several locations.
Rozenburgsluis (9.53), which gives access to
Calandkanaal (9.53), is 6½ miless ESE of the entrance.
3
Suurhoffbrug, (51°56′⋅3N 4°06′⋅5E), Dintelhavenbrug
(51°56⋅2′N 4°08′⋅6E), which crosses the entrance to
Dintelhaven (9.58), and Harmsenbrug (51°54′⋅2N 4°12′⋅8E)
are all lifting bridges, but they are unmanned and 2 hours
notice is required for them to be opened. Hartelbrug, near
the E end of the canal, has a vertical clearance of 10⋅9 m
where it crosses a storm surge barrier. The bridge also
crosses the W entrance to Grote Hartelsluis where there is
a section that opens.
Voedingskanaal
9.56 1
Voedingskanaal is entered from the W side of Oude
Maas (9.104), close S of the entry to Hartelkanaal (9.55)
and about 1¾ miles S of the junction (51°53′⋅6N 4°19′⋅2E)
of Oude Maas with Nieuwe Maas. The canal is entered
through Voornsesluis, which is 68 m in length, 7⋅5 m wide
and has a sill depth of 3⋅7 m. The canal runs parallel to
Hartelkanaal for a distance of 5 miles before entering
Brielse Meer, an inland lake. The canal and lake are mainly
used by recreational craft.
Basins and berths
Maasvlakte
9.57 1
From N to S the principal basins and berths in
Maasvlakte are as follows:
Yangtzehaven. The N side of the basin is dominated by
Maasvlakte Olieterminal (MOT). Petroleumhaven No 8 at
the E end of the terminal has two T-headed jetties with
depths alongside of 22⋅6 m, which can accept partly loaded
tankers of 350 000 dwt. In 2005 entry to the inner part of
Yangtzehaven basin was prohibited on account of works in
progress.
2
Europahaven. In 2003 work was in progress on the N
side of Europahaven, with plans to develop Ro-Ro facilities
at the E end and oil refining and chemical production at
the W end.
The S side of Europhaven with depths alongside of
15⋅6 m and a quay length of 2500 m comprises two
container terminals.
3
Amazonehaven. The N side of the basin is a container
terminal. The S side is a bulk cargo terminal principally for
coal and ore with depths alongside up to 20⋅6 m.
Mississippihaven. The N side of the basin is a bulk
cargo terminal with depths alongside of 21⋅9 m.
4
Hartelhaven. at the W end of Mississippihaven is a
relatively shallow basin with an average depth of 4⋅9 m and
is used for the transhipment of bulk cargoes to inland
barges. The S end of Hartelhaven leads into the
Hartelkanaal (9.55).
Europoort
9.58 1
Situated at the extreme W end of Europoort
Petroleumhaven No 6 is approached through Beerkanaal.
The basin has several tanker berths including a pier for two
VLCCs with a dredged depth of 21⋅2 m on each side.
2
The majority of berths for seagoing vessels in Europoort
are approached from Calandkanaal. Ertskade at the N end
CHAPTER 9
219
of the W section is a bulk cargo terminal notable for the
import of iron ore for transhipment to Germany, having a
quay length of about 1000 m and depth alongside up to
22⋅7 m. Beneluxhaven is a basin which virtually isolates the
W section from the rest of Europoort. The basin, in which
the depth is 20⋅7 m in the entrance reducing to 6⋅7 at the
head has Ro-Ro berths and also handles grain in bulk and
tankers. Immediately W of Beneluxhaven is Dintelhaven,
which is approached through Hartelkanaal (9.55) and
provides berths for inland craft mainly carrying ore to
inland Europe.
3
The mid-section of Europoort is devoted to oil tankers
and vessels carrying chemicals. The major berths are, from
the W, Petroleumhavens Nos 4, 5 and 7. In addition to the
Petroleumhavens, there are alongside berths for vessels
carrying chemicals and LPG.
4
The E section of Europoort near Rozenberg consists of
two basins, Brittanniëhaven and Seinehaven. The former,
with depths up to 11⋅7 m, has a Ro-Ro berth, a container
terminal and also handles petro-chemicals. Seinehaven is
SW of Rozenburgsluis (9.53) and is used by inland craft
and coasters.
Port services
9.59 1
Port services are common with Rotterdam, see 9.100 to
9.103.
HOEK VAN HOLLAND TO ROTTERDAM
NIEUWE WATERWEG AND NIEUWE MAAS
General information
Charts 132, 133
Description
9.60 1
The fairway from Hoek van Holland (51°59′N 4°06′E)
to Rotterdam runs ESE and then E for a distance of
16 miles. Initially the fairway follows the Nieuwe
Waterweg from Maasmond (9.38) to its junction with Oude
Maas (9.104), from whence it becomes Nieuwe Maas.
2
Nieuwe Maas continues upriver for a further 7 miles
beyond Rotterdam to a position 2 miles E of IJsselmonde
(51°54′N 4°33′E) at the confluence of Lek (9.139) and
Noord (9.118).
Topography
9.61 1
Generally the fairway, as defined by the 10 m depth
contour, is about 2 cables wide, but narrows to about
1 cable in the vicinity of Rotterdam. The 10 m depth
contour is quite close to the river banks, which have been
stabilised along most of the length of Nieuwe Waterweg.
This stabilisation takes the form of embankments and
groynes. The latter are marked at frequent intervals by
light-beacons.
Depths
9.62 1
From its entrance to Botlek (51°53′⋅1N 4°17′⋅2E) (9.77)
depths in excess of 13 m can be maintained on the
centreline of the fairway. Between Botlek and Waalhaven,
5 miles E, depths of 12⋅1 m can be maintained. The depth
reduces to 10⋅5 m between Waalhaven and Maashaven,
1½ miles further E. Thereafter the depth in the fairway
reduces to 6 m as far as the entrance to Hollandsche IJssel
(51°54′N 4°34′E).
Maximum permitted draughts
9.63 1
As far as Botlek the maximum permitted draught is
13⋅4 m. This reduces to 12⋅2 m for Waalhaven (51°54′N
4°26′E) and then 10⋅4 m for Maashaven (51°54′N 4°28′E).
The maximum permitted draught as far as Hollandsche
IJssel is 6⋅4 m. The draughts given are for HW, at LW
1⋅2 m must be subtracted from the HW draughts.
2
Vessels drawing 13⋅7 m may be given special permission
to proceed to Botlek.
Bridges
9.64 1
Erasmusbrug (51°54′⋅7N 4°29′⋅2E) a fixed road bridge
with a bascule section at the SE end, is the first bridge
across Nieuwe Maas. The fixed section has a navigable
width of 200 m and a vertical clearance of 11 m, while the
bascule section is 50 m wide with a vertical clearance of
2⋅4 m when lowered.
9.65 1
Willemsbrug (51°55′⋅0N 4°29′⋅8E) a fixed road bridge,
close E of Rotterdam, spans the river from the N bank to
the island of Noordereiland (9.74) and has a vertical
clearance of 10 m.
9.66 1
Koninginnebrug (51°55′N 4°30′E), a bascule road
bridge, and a lifting bridge span the narrow waterway
between the island and the S bank. The through passage
width is 50 m and the vertical clearance of the lifting
bridge when elevated is 45 m. Opening times of the bridges
can be obtained from the harbour authorities by VHF or
telephone.
Vessels over 600 grt are required to have tug assistance.
9.67 1
Brienenoordbrug (51°54′⋅2N 4°32′⋅6E), a road bridge,
spans the river 2½ miles above Willemsbrug. The main
span is 28 m wide and has a vertical clearance of 23 m.
There is an opening section on the N side of the bridge
with a through width of 50 m.
Pilotage
9.68 1
Pilotage. See 9.3 to 9.8.
Vessel traffic service
9.69 1
See 9.9.
Prohibited anchorage
9.70 1
Anchoring is prohibited within 10 m of the
embankments and in the vicinity of submarine cables,
pipelines and tunnels. It is also prohibited within 250 m of
the entrance to Maassluis (51°55′N 4°15′E), as shown on
the chart. Warning boards indicate other areas where
anchoring is prohibited.
Tidal streams
9.71 1
The rates quoted below are those that obtain under
average conditions. They can vary greatly depending on the
amount of water coming downriver. See also 9.28 and 9.29.
CHAPTER 9
220
2
Near Maassluis (51°55′N 4°15′E), about 6 miles from
the entrance to Nieuwe Waterweg, the streams set as
follows:
Interval from HW
Hoek van Holland
Remarks
−0200 Out-going stream ends.
In-going stream begins.
HW In-going stream at maximum rate,
springs 2 kn.
+0200 Slack water.
+0230 Out-going stream begins.
+0500 Out-going stream at maximum rate,
springs 3½ kn.
3
Near Schiedam, 6 miles further up-river, the times of
in-going and out-going streams are not much changed, but
the maximum rates are lower, 1¾ kn on the in-going
stream and 2 kn on the out-going stream.
At Rotterdam (51°54′N 4°29E) the times are about
30 minutes later than at Maassluis and the maximum rates
further reduced to 1½ kn on both the in-going and
out-going streams.
4
The sub-surface streams, about 7 m below the surface, in
the river are stronger than the surface streams. In the lower
part of the river they begin later than the surface streams,
but by Vlaardingen (51°54′N 4°21′E) begin simultaneously
with the surface streams.
Directions
(continued from 9.39)
Nieuwe Waterweg
9.72 1
From Maasmond the fairway runs 10 miles in a
generally SE direction to the junction with Oude Maas.
Leading lights:
Front light (red tower, white bands) (51°58′⋅6N
4°07′⋅5E).
Rear light (similar structure) (450 m ESE of front
light).
2
From a position in the harbour entrance (51°59′⋅6N
4°02′⋅2E) the alignment (107°) of these synchronised
leading lights, visible by day and at night (099½°−114½°),
which are situated at Berghaven (9.75) leads through
Maasmond (9.38) and N of Splitsingsdam to Nieuwe
Waterweg.
3
From a position abreast the Hoek van Holland Signal
Station (51°58′⋅9N 4°06′⋅7E) the line of the fairway should
be followed. A storm surge barrier is situated in position
51°57′⋅3N 4°09′⋅7E.
Leading lights:
Front light (red circle on dolphin) (51°56′⋅1N
4°13′⋅0E).
Rear light (metal mast) (325 m NW of front light).
4
The alignment (326°), astern, of these lights leads
through the fairway from a position about 1 mile NW of
Maassluis (51°55′N 4°15′E) to a position W of the entrance
to Maassluis whence the line of the fairway is followed.
Leading lights:
Front light (black tower, white bands, 4 m in height)
(51°54′⋅0N 4°16′⋅3E).
5
Rear light (similar structure, 12 m in height) (260 m
WNW of front light).
The alignment (282°), astern, of these lights leads from
a position about 1 mile WNW of Botlek (51°53′⋅1N
4°17′⋅2E) past the entrance to Botlek and thence to the
junction with Oude Maas (9.104), which runs to the S,
while the fairway continues to the E through Nieuwe Maas.
(Directions continue for Oude Maas at 9.114)
Nieuwe Maas to Rotterdam
9.73 1
From the junction with Oude Maas (51°53′⋅6N 4°19′⋅2E)
the fairway lies centrally in the river and runs 6 miles in a
generally E direction to Rotterdam (9.84). The banks of the
river are lined with berths and basins.
Nieuwe Maas above Rotterdam
9.74 1
From Rotterdam the Nieuwe Maas continues 6 miles in a
generally E direction to its junction with the Lek (9.139).
Noordereiland (51°55′N 4°30′E), an island close E of
Rotterdam, is the site of the first bridges (9.64) spanning
the Nieuwe Maas. The narrow waterway between the island
and the S bank, known as Konings Haven, has a depth of
6⋅8 m. It is crossed by lifting bridges (9.65).
2
Off IJsselmonde (51°54′N 4°33′E) the Nieuwe Maas
continues ESE, but also branches NE to form Hollandsche
IJssel, which is crossed by a storm barrier 1 mile above its
junction with Nieuwe Maas.
3
Two miles further E Nieuwe Maas divides into the Lek
(9.139), which eventually becomes the Lower Rhine
(9.139), and Noord (9.118), which connects Nieuwe Maas
with Oude Maas (9.104).
For details of the River Maas and the River Rhine see
9.130.
Harbours, basins and riverside berths
Nieuwe Waterweg
9.75 1
Hoek van Holland. Berghaven (51°58′⋅6N 4°07′⋅4E) is a
small basin used by government craft, pilot vessels and an
offshore lifeboat (1.128). A Ro−Ro terminal used by North
Sea ferries, is SE of Berghaven, with other deep water
jetties to its SE used by the Royal Netherlands Navy. In
2004 there were 1034 calls by ferries at Hoek van Holland.
9.76 1
Maassluis (51°55′N 4°15′E), which can be identified by
a conical church tower in the town, has an outer and inner
harbour connected by a lock. The outer harbour, used by
pilot vessels, is 300 m long, 50 m wide and has depths up
to 4⋅7 m.
2
Entry at night, when the tidal stream is running strongly
is not advised.
A ferry runs between Maassluis and Rozenburg on the
SE bank.
There is a slipway and workshops, which undertake
minor repairs, in Hellinggat, off the inner harbour.
Botlek
9.77 1
General. Botlek (51°53′⋅5N 4°17′⋅2E) lies on the S
bank, 2½ miles above Maassluis. It comprises two major
basins off which run a number of smaller basins. The port
handles bulk cargoes of ore, grain, coal, fertilisers and
chemicals and also has berths for tankers. It can
accommodate vessels up to 270 m in length and draught
13⋅4 m, with prior permission 13⋅7 m.
2
Vessels drawing less than 11⋅3 m can enter the port at
all times except from −0430 to HW Rotterdam. Vessels
with a draught between 11⋅3 and 11⋅9 m can enter at either
slack LW or HW, while vessels in excess of 11⋅9 m draught
CHAPTER 9
221
can only enter at HW slack. Vessels over 200 m in length
can only enter at slack water.
9.78 1
Berths. The SW basin, known as Botlek, has seven
smaller basins running from it, of which St Laurenshaven,
with 1694 m of quays and depths for the greater part
between 8⋅9 and 13⋅9 m, is the largest.
The S basin forms Petroleumhaven No 3, has depths of
11⋅9 m and can handle tankers up to 50 000 dwt.
9.79 1
Port services. See 9.100.
Nieuwe Maas, ports of Vlaardingen and Pernis
9.80 1
Vlaardingen (51°54′N 4°21′E) lies on the N side of the
fairway, 1½ miles E of the junction with Oude Maas. There
is an old harbour, used by yachts, consisting of an outer
and inner basin connected by a lock, which is crossed by a
road and rail bridge. The outer basin runs N for 425 m, is
between 30 and 40 m wide and has a depth of 3⋅7 m.
2
The entrance to Koningin Wilhelminahaven, a basin in
which there are depths of up to 5 m, is 2½ cables ENE of
the old harbour.
Fuel and water can be obtained in both basins and there
are repair facilities at Vlaardingen.
9.81 1
Vulcaanhaven (51°54′⋅3N 4°21′⋅8E) is a basin 4 cables
E of Koningin Wilhelminahaven. An oil depot lies between
the two. The harbour handles coal, ore and phosphates and
has a ship repair yard in its N part. There are a number of
mooring buoys in the basin, the E part of which has a
controlling depth of 11⋅3 m.
9.82 1
Pernis. Petroleumhaven Nos 1 and 2 are situated at
Pernis (51°53′N 4°21′E), which lies on the S bank. The
entrances to the two basins are 7 cables and 1⋅7 miles E of
the junction with Oude Maas.
2
Petroleumhaven No 1, the W basin, runs 9 cables S with
a branch to the SW, has 14 main tanker berths and can
accept vessels up to 247 m in length and draught 11⋅8 m.
Petroleumhaven No 2 runs 5 cables S then branches E
and W. It has 12 main tanker berths and can accept vessels
up to 247 m in length and draught 12 m.
Schiedam
9.83 1
The berths at Schiedam (51°54′N 4°24′E) lie on the N
bank between Vulcaanhaven (9.81) and Rotterdam. The two
principal basins Wiltonhaven (51°54′⋅3N 4°22′⋅9E) and
Wilhelminahaven, 5 cables E, are both used for ship repairs
and ship building. A windmotor (white cylindrical tower,
two-bladed rotor) stands on the coast midway between the
two basins.
2
Spuihaven, a yacht harbour, is close E of
Wilhelminahaven and Voorhaven, 3½ cables further E gives
access to the canal system.
ROTTERDAM
General information
Chart 132, 133
Position
9.84 1
Rotterdam (51°54′N 4°29′E) lies on the N bank of
Nieuwe Maas, 16 miles upriver from Maasmond (9.38).
Function
9.85 1
The Port of Rotterdam is the centre of a huge port
complex which handles both sea-going vessels and inland
craft. In the latter case it acts as the terminus for the Rhine
Navigation, handling the trains of barges, which use the
inland waterways. It is the port of the Ruhr for the import
of ore, grain, coal, fertilisers and oil and the export of Ruhr
coal. The port is primarily therefore a transit port, but it
also handles large quantities of general cargo.
2
The population of the urban agglomeration of Rotterdam
is 1⋅1 million.
Port limits
9.86 1
The port of Rotterdam extends 4½ miles upriver from
Schiedam (51°54′N 4°24′E) to a position about 1 mile
above Noordereiland (51°55′N 4°30′E) (9.74).
Approach and entry
9.87 1
The port is approached from seaward through Nieuwe
Waterweg (9.60) and Nieuwe Maas (9.60). The port can
also be approached from the E via the River Rhine, which
gives access to Germany, France and Switzerland, and
through the Rhine-Danube link to the Black Sea.
Traffic
9.88 1
In 2004 the port of Rotterdam including Europoort was
visited by 84 884 sea-going vessels and handled 352 million
tonnes of cargo including 8⋅3 million teus.
Port Authority
9.89 1
Havenbedrijf Rotterdam NV, 15 Galvanistraat, PO Box
6622, 3002 AP Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Limiting conditions
9.90 1
Depths. For depths in the Nieuwe Waterweg and
Nieuwe Maas see 9.62.
Deepest and longest berths. Prinses Margriethaven
(9.97).
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range
about 1⋅5 m.
Maximum draught of vessels see 9.63.
Arrival information
9.91 1
Vessel Traffic Services see 9.9.
Outer anchorages see 9.40.
Pilotage. See 9.3 to 9.8.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
General layout
9.92 1
The Port of Rotterdam lies on both banks of Nieuwe
Maas. There are basins open to the river on both banks,
although the larger basins lie on the S bank, and riverside
berths, mainly lie on the N bank.
Natural conditions
9.93 1
Tidal streams. See 9.71.
Climatic table. See 1.225 and 1.237.
CHAPTER 9
222
Rotterdam − Erasmusbrug from SSW (9.84)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Aerophoto−Schiphol B.V.)
Directions
9.94 1
See 9.72 and 9.73.
Berths
General
9.95 1
The major berths at Rotterdam are listed below by name
with an indication of their primary use. Depths vary at the
individual berths and are best seen on the chart.
North bank from West to East
9.96 Name Type
Merwehaven (51°54′⋅3N 4°25′⋅0E) General cargo,
Ro-Ro berth
Keilehaven
Lekhaven General cargo
Ijsselhaven (51°54′⋅3N 4°26′⋅0E) General cargo
Schiehaven General cargo
Lloydkade River berth
St Jobshaven Offshore craft
Parkhaven (51°54′⋅3N 4°28′⋅0E) Offshore craft
From Parkhaven a series of river berths run 1½ miles
NE, in the order Parkade, Westerkade, Willemskade,
Boompjes and Oosterkade.
South bank from West to East
9.97 1
Eemhaven (51°53′⋅7N 4°23′⋅8E) is a basin which runs
1⋅2 miles SSE from its entrance. It has a shipyard on its W
side close S of the entrance and three major branches
shown below:
Name Type
Prins Johan Frisohaven General cargo, 4 Ro-Ro
berths
Prinses Beatrixhaven General cargo, containers, 2
Ro-Ro berths
Prins Willem
Alexanderhaven
Container terminal
9.98 1
Waalhaven (51°54′⋅0N 4°26′⋅1E) is a basin which runs
1½ miles SSE from its entrance. The berths within the
basin are formed by eight numbered piers, which provide
facilities for working general cargo, coal, ore, grain,
fertilisers and a container terminal mainly centred on Piers
5, 6 and 7 on the W side of the basin. Pier 2 has two
CHAPTER 9
223
Ro-Ro berths. Apart from the alongside berths there are
mooring buoys in the basin which can provide 22 berths.
9.99 1
East of Waalhaven there are two smaller basins,
Maashaven (51°54′N 4°29′E) and Rijnhaven, 4 cables NE,
which handle general cargo. Holland Amerika Kade is a
river berth on the N side of Rijnhaven.
Port services
Repairs
9.100 1
There are a number of shipyards in the vicinity of
Rotterdam, which can undertake repairs of all types. In
addition to dry docks, the largest of which at Botlek can
accommodate vessels up to 500 000 dwt, there are floating
docks of varying lifting capacities ranging from 500 to
25 000 tonnes.
Other facilities
9.101 1
Compass adjustment is carried out by the Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Riverstraat 12
(Westerkade). The Institute also publishes weather charts
and tests chronometers and other navigational instruments.
2
Deratting and exemption certificates issued at
Rotterdam, Europoort/Maasvlakte (9.41), Botlek (9.77),
Maassluis (9.76), Schiedam (9.83) and Vlaardingen (9.80).
Medical. Central Public Health Building; Institute of
Tropical Diseases; Hospitals.
3
Oily wastes can be accepted at most berths in the
Petroleumhavens and tank cleaning can be carried out at
Botlek and Schiedam. There is also a mobile tank cleaning
facility.
Supplies
9.102 1
Marine fuels of all types from barges or from shore
installations in the case of tankers.
Water at most berths or by waterboat. Water can also be
supplied at the anchorages off the Hoek van Holland by
barge.
Provisions and supplies are available from numerous
contractors.
Communications
9.103 1
Rotterdam is the centre of a network of inland
waterways formed by canals and rivers. Water levels are
broadcast daily on the local radio stations, in particular if
the level on the Waal falls below 4 m or on the Rhine and
Hollandsche IJssel below 3 m. Least depths are also
displayed from notice boards on the river banks.
2
The most important connections are to:
German Inland Waterways through Noord (9.118),
Boven Merwede (9.138) and The Waal (9.138)
with a least depth of 2⋅5 m. An alternative, shorter
route but with a least depth of only 1⋅2 m is
through the Lek (9.139) and Lower Rhine.
3
Belgian Waterways through Noord, Dordtsche Kil
(8.77), Hollandsch Diep (8.71), Volkerak (8.65)
and Kanaal door Zuid Beveland (8.109). Volkerak
also gives access to Schelde-Rijnkanaal (8.114) and
thence Antwerp.
4
Amsterdam through Noord, Merwede and Merwede
Canal with a least depth of 3 m. There are other
routes but of lesser depth. For Amsterdam see
North Sea (East) Pilot.
Wegwijzer voor de Binnenscheepsvaart (Guide for Inland
Waterway Shipping) should also be consulted.
OUDE MAAS TO DORDRECHT
OUDE MAAS
General information
Charts 132, 133
Description
9.104 1
From sea Dordrecht is approached via Nieuwe Waterweg
(9.60) and Oude Maas. From its junction (51°53′⋅6N
4°19′⋅2E) with Nieuwe Waterweg Oude Maas runs 15 miles
in a generally ESE direction to Dordrecht, between Putten
and Hoeksche Waard to the S and IJsselmonde to the N. At
Dordrecht Oude Maas divides into Noord (9.118) and
Beneden Merwede (9.138).
2
Oude Maas also gives access to Hartelkanaal (9.55),
Spui (8.142) and Dordtsche Kil (8.77).
Least charted depth
9.105 1
There is a least charted depth of 7⋅0 m (51°52′⋅4N
4°19′⋅9E) on the centreline of the fairway.
Maximum dimensions
9.106 1
Vessels using Oude Maas are restricted to a draught in
fresh water of 9⋅45 m. Vessels with a length greater than
175 m, or beam 25 m, or draught in fresh water exceeding
8⋅8 m must request permission to navigate to Dordrecht
from Harbour Coordination Centre Rotterdam (HCC) or
Regional Traffic Centre Dordrecht (RTC) 24 hours in
advance. The message should include the vessel’s
dimensions and ETA Oude Maas.
2
Vessels with LOA greater than 135 m and draught
greater than 7 m are considered restricted in their ability to
manoeuvre in Oude Maas and should show the signals
prescribed by the International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972).
Bridges
9.107 1
Between its N entrance and Dordrecht the Oude Maas is
spanned by three lifting bridges.
2
Botlekbrug (51°52′⋅3N 4°19′⋅8E), 1½ miles S of the
junction with Nieuwe Waterweg, has a vertical clearance of
43⋅8 m when open, 5⋅8 m when closed, and a through
width of 54 m. The bridge is close N of the entrance to
Hartelkanaal and vessels should proceed with caution where
the traffic flows converge.
3
Spijkenisserbrug, 8 cables S of Botlekbrug, has a vertical
clearance of 43⋅9 m when open, 11⋅4 m when closed, and
the two opening spans are each 80 m wide.
4
A road bridge and a rail bridge (51°48′⋅7N 4°39′⋅0E),
approximately 50 m apart, span Oude Maas at Dordrecht,
NE of the port. The through passage, on the Dordrecht side
of the river, is 44 m wide and has a maintained depth of
5⋅2 m. The road bridge has a double bascule opening with
a vertical clearance when closed of 10⋅5 m. The rail bridge
has a lifting section with a vertical clearance of 45⋅5 m
when open and 5⋅6 m when closed. Tide gauges either side
CHAPTER 9
224
of the two bridges indicate the vertical clearance. Strong
currents can occur through the bridge spans, especially on
the out-going stream and with high water level in the upper
rivers. The two bridges are considered as one for opening
which is only done on request, during fixed periods
determined by the railway time table.
5
Requests for the bridges to be lifted should be passed on
VHF. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
details.
Power cables
9.108 1
A power cable with a safe vertical clearance of 43 m
spans Oude Maas at 51°50′⋅6N 4°22′⋅8E, 2 miles SE of
Spijkenisserbrug.
A further power cable with a safe vertical clearance of
48 m spans Dordtsche Kil (8.77), 2 miles S of Dordrecht.
Pilotage
9.109 1
See 9.3 to 9.8.
Vessels of more than 150 m LOA or 25 m beam or
7⋅5 m draught are considered to be tide-restricted. In
general, Botlekbrug will be passed at slack water and the
pilot boarding time adjusted accordingly. For tidal streams
see 9.71 and 9.112.
Vessel traffic services
9.110 1
See 9.9.
Beyond Km 998 VTS is controlled by Regional Traffic
Centre Dordrecht (RTC). For details see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Signals by vessels
9.111 1
Vessels entering Oude Maas from Nieuwe Waterweg
should sound three long blasts followed by one short blast
if approaching from seaward and three long blasts followed
by two short blasts if approaching from the direction of
Rotterdam.
Tidal streams
9.112 1
The tidal streams run strongly in the N entrance to Oude
Maas. See also 9.71.
2
At a position 2 miles E of the N entrance to Spui
(51°50′N 4°26′E) the in-going stream begins at HW Hoek
van Holland −0100 and the out-going stream at HW Hoek
van Holland +0245. The mean rate on the in-going stream
is 1¾ kn and on the out-going stream 2¼ kn. The in-going
stream from Spui joins the in-going stream through Oude
Maas E of Berenplaat (51°50′N 4°25′E), similarly the
out-going stream divides E of Berenplaat.
Principal marks
9.113 1
Church (51°48′⋅9N 4°39′⋅6E), high truncated tower.
Road and rail bridge (51°48′⋅7N 4°39′⋅0E) (9.107)
spanning Oude Maas.
Directions
(continued from 9.72)
9.114 1
Huis te Engeland Leading lights:
Front light (post) (51°52′⋅8N 4°19′⋅7E).
Rear light (post) (115 m SSE of front light).
2
The alignment (157½°) of these lights leads into the N
entrance to Oude Maas (51°53′⋅6N 4°19′⋅2E) from Nieuwe
Waterweg. Thereafter the fairway runs 15 miles to
Dordrecht and is marked by numbered buoys and
light-buoys, prefixed O. The centreline of the fairway is
indicated by a series of leading lights and sector lights,
which are best seen on the chart.
3
Between its N entrance and Dordrecht, Oude Maas is
joined by several major waterways. From W to E they are:
Hartelkanaal (9.55) (gives access to Calandkanaal
(9.53) through Rozenburgsluis), 2 miles from the
entrance.
Spui (8.142), 6 miles from the entrance.
Dordtsche Kil (8.77), 13½ miles from the entrance
and close W of the port of Dordrecht.
Harbours
Zwijndrecht
9.115 1
Zwijndrecht (51°49′N 4°37′E) is situated on the N bank
of Oude Maas, N of the junction of the river with
Dordtsche Kil. Three narrow basins, Swinhaven,
Drechthaven and Develhaven, with depths ranging between
2⋅4 and 3⋅4 m and each about 750 m in length, run NNE
from the river. Two smaller basins, Schokhaven and
Uilenhaven, depths 3⋅0 and 3⋅1 m respectively, lie to the E.
The basins are used by inland craft.
DORDRECHT
General information
Chart 133
Position
9.116 1
Dordrecht (51°49′N 4°40′E), one of the oldest towns in
Holland, stands on the E side of Oude Maas at the junction
of a number of important waterways.
Function
9.117 1
The port at Dordrecht serves seagoing vessels and is
also a busy centre for inland navigation.
Approach
9.118 1
The principal approach for seagoing vessels is Oude
Maas (9.104), which leads E from its junction (51°53′⋅6N
4°19′⋅2E with Nieuwe Waterweg (9.60), a distance of
26 miles from Hoek van Holland. Oude Maas also provides
access to the sea via Spui (8.142), a distance of 29 miles
and via Dordtsche Kil (8.77), a distance of 35 miles.
2
Oude Maas divides at 51°49′N 4°40′E close N of
Dordrecht, into Noord, which provides approach from
Nieuwe Maas (9.60) and Lek (9.139) to the N, and
Beneden Merwede (9.138), which is the main route W
from the Rhine (9.137).
3
Dordtsche Kil (8.77) joins Oude Maas at 51°48′N
4°37′E, close W of Dordrecht and is the approach from the
S from Hollandsch Diep (8.71), which itself gives access to
Oosterschelde, Westerschelde and Antwerp. The latter is
40 miles from Dordrecht via the Schelde-Rijnkanaal
(8.114).
4
There are no Admiralty charts for Lek and Beneden
Merwede and Netherlands charts for small ships should be
consulted.
CHAPTER 9
225
Entry
9.119 1
Entry into the port of Dordrecht from Oude Maas is via
a narrow channel, Krabbegeul (51°48′N 4°38′E), which
runs 4 cables SSE between Krabbepolder and Krabbegors.
Traffic
9.120 1
In 2004 the port handled 961 vessels with a total
deadweight of 3⋅6 million tonnes.
Port Authority
9.121 1
Havendienst Dordrecht (Port of Dordrecht), Merwekade
56, 3311 TH, Dordrecht.
Limiting conditions
9.122 1
Controlling depths see 9.105.
Deepest and longest berth is in Wilhelminahaven
(9.126).
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 0⋅9 m; mean neap range
about 0⋅4 m.
Maximum size of vessels see 9.106.
Arrival information
9.123 1
Vessel traffic services see 9.9.
Pilotage see 9.3 to 9.8.
Tugs are available.
Harbour
General layout
9.124 1
The harbour for seagoing vessels lies SW of Dordrecht
and consists of several basins which lead off Krabbegeul
(9.119). Wilhelminahaven may be identified by the large
cranes on the W quay.
Tidal streams
9.125 1
The in-going stream runs E through Oude Maas and
joins the in-going stream running N through Dordtsche Kil
off Krabbepolder (51°48′N 4°38′E). The out-going stream
divides at the same point.
The in-going stream begins at HW Hoek van Holland
+0005, mean rate 1¼ kn and the outgoing stream begins at
HW Hoek van Holland +0335, mean rate 1¾ kn.
Basins and berths
9.126 1
There are three main basins:
Wilhelminahaven to the NE which has depths of
9⋅5 m and a jetty 290 m in length and can
accommodate sea-going vessels. There are a
number of mooring buoys in Wilhelminahaven.
Julianahaven to the SE, which comprises three
smaller basins, maximum depth 9⋅0 m. It is used
mainly for handling mineral oils and chemicals.
2
Mallegat, which lies to the W of the other two basins
and was originally a channel which has been
enclosed by dams at both ends to provide a N and
a S basin. There are depths of 9⋅0 m in the N
basin.
3
There are a number of riverside quays on the NW side
of the town, which run along the SE bank of Oude Maas
and provide berths for coasters. Behind theses quays are a
number of basins used mainly by harbour craft and yachts.
4
On the NE side of the town and on the S bank of
Beneden Merwede are two basins, Merwedehaven No 1
and No 2 (51°49′N 4°43′E), which provide berths for
inland craft. Merwedehaven No 2 has depths of up
to 5⋅0 m.
Port services
Repairs
9.127 1
Repairs of all types can be undertaken. There are four
slipways and a patent slip. The patent slip can accept
vessels up to 118 m in length and beam 14 m. There are
four floating docks used only for repairs to propeller and
rudder.
Other facilities
9.128 1
Hospitals; deratting and exemption certificates issued;
reception of oily wastes.
Supplies
9.129 1
Marine fuels by barge; water at the quays or by barge;
provisions and supplies.
RIVER MAAS AND RIVER RHINE
General information
Chart coverage
9.130 1
There are no Admiralty charts covering the rivers above
Rotterdam and Dordrecht and the relevant national charts
should be used.
Description
9.131 1
The River Maas, augmented by the River Rhine,
discharges through four main branches. Following
implementation of the Delta Plan (1.160), the three
southern branches have been closed to seagoing vessels by
dams and sluices which control the discharge of the rivers
and prevent flooding from tidal surges. They are described
at 8.2. The northern waterway, Nieuwe Waterweg, is used
by large sea-going vessels and described at 9.60. The inner
waterways remain and are used extensively by inland and
recreational craft.
2
This section gives a brief description of the two
principal rivers. Vessels navigating the two rivers should
consult the appropriate national publications. In particular
vessels navigating the Rhine are required to carry a copy of
the river regulations titled in Dutch Rijn Vaart Politie
Reglement and in German Rheinschiffartpolizeiverordnung.
Special regulations apply to yachts, which are given in a
French publication titled Service de la Navigation du Rhin.
CHAPTER 9
226
River Maas
9.132 1
River Maas, which is called The Meuse during its
course through France and Belgium, rises in the French
Department of Haute-Marne and is navigable by river craft
below Verdun, about 60 miles S of the border between
France and Belgium. The river follows a winding course in
a N direction through Belgium and into The Netherlands
until it reaches Mook (51°45′N 5°53′E), 5 miles S of
Nijmegen, where it follows a generally W course,
eventually dividing at Heusden into the Bergsche Maas and
the Andelse Maas. Bergsche Maas runs 25 miles into
Hollandsch Diep (8.71) and thence the sea. Andelse Maas
runs 11½ miles in a generally NW direction before joining
the Waal (9.138).
2
Close W of Mook, the Maas-Waal Kanaal, which runs
8¼ miles NNW, connects the two rivers. The two rivers are
also connected at St Andries, 35 miles below the
Maas-Waal Kanaal, by a canal only 5 cables in length
which runs between a harbour on each river.
River Rhine, River Waal and Lower Rhine
General
9.133 1
The principal route from Rotterdam through The Rhine
is via Noord (9.118), Merwede (9.138) and Waal (9.138).
This is a busy route used by many barges, pusher craft,
tugs and self-propelled vessels, but the trains of five to six
barges are gradually being superseded by compact
pusher-trains of four specially constructed barges. During
the summer months modern passenger vessels cruise the
Rhine.
2
The channel width varies with the height of the river but
can be as little as 45 m in places. A vertical clearance of
11 m under the many bridges is a safe working figure.
There are gauges painted on bridge supports to indicate the
actual vertical clearance as far as Nijmegen. Above
Nijmegen the bridges have a greater vertical clearance than
those downstream of the town.
Pilotage
9.134 1
Unless thoroughly acquainted with the river the services
of a pilot are essential. Pilotage is compulsory upstream of
the boundary between the Netherlands and Germany. Pilots
can be obtained from Rotterdam or Dordrecht.
Depths and water levels
9.135 1
Water levels. Low water levels prevail on the Rhine
from Basel to Bingen, 200 miles downstream of Basel, in
January and February. High water levels occur over the
same stretch of the river in June and July following the
thaw in The Alps.
High water levels occur from Bingen to Bonn, 70 miles
further downstream, in March as a result of the spring
floods.
9.136 1
Depths in the different sections of the river vary
considerably over the seasons. There are gauges along the
length of the river which give the water level. As a guide
in normal years, 2⋅5 m can be maintained as far as Köln
(via Merwede and Waal), 165 miles from the sea.
Thereafter depths reduce progressively to 1⋅7 as far as
Karlsruhe, 180 miles upstream of Köln and to 1⋅2 m on the
final stretch of the navigable river between Strasbourg and
Basel.
River Rhine
9.137 1
River Rhine (Der Rhein or De Rijn), one of the most
important of Europe’s rivers, rises in the Swiss Alps and
runs over 700 miles to the sea. The river flows through
Lake Constance in Switzerland before flowing on to Basel.
From Lake Constance to its mouth at the Hoek van
Holland it is marked by Kilometre posts with the final post
(1032 km) standing on Noorderdam (51°59′⋅1N 4°05′⋅7E).
The river carries about a fifth of all the overseas trade of
Germany and is navigable from its mouth, a distance of
550 miles.
2
At Basel, just in Switzerland the Rhine runs N through
the plains of the Upper Rhine, forming the boundary
between France and Germany for a distance of 200 km.
Mannheim, about 310 miles from the sea is a large inland
port, which can be reached by sea-going vessels. Below
Mannheim, the river is impeded by the Taunus Range and
turns W through a steep sided gorge before again turning N
and cutting its way through the mountains. At Koblenz,
about 220 miles from the sea the river valley becomes
wider, only to narrow again near Bonn, 195 miles from the
sea. From Düsseldorf, 135 miles from the sea, onwards the
river runs through the great industrial region of West
Germany. On crossing the border with The Netherlands,
about 70 miles from the sea, the river divides into a S
branch, the River Waal (9.138), and a N branch, the Lower
Rhine (Neder Rijn) (9.139).
River Waal
9.138 1
River Waal runs 43 miles in a generally W direction,
where it is joined by the N branch of The Maas, Andelse
Maas (9.132). The two rivers continue 5½ miles W under
the name Boven Merwede where it again divides into a S
branch Nieuwe Merwede and a N branch, the Beneden
Merwede. Nieuwe Merwede runs 13 miles SW to
Hollandsch Diep (8.71), joining Amer, which is the name
of the W Part of Bergsche Maas (9.132). Beneden
Merwede runs 9½ miles W to Dordrecht, where it again
divides into Noord (9.118) and Oude Maas (9.104). See
9.118 for routes onward from Dordrecht.
Lower Rhine
9.139 1
Lower Rhine (Neder Rijn) runs 9½ miles in a generally
NW direction to Arnhem. Just above Arnhem, the River
IJssel forks N to IJsselmeer (see North Sea (East) Pilot).
From Arnhem the river flows 27 miles generally W, where
it takes the name Lek, and continues W to be joined by
Noord (9.118) where the combined rivers became Nieuwe
Maas (9.60).
NOTES
227
110
132
122
122
132
1205
10.13
1
0
.1
1
10.11
10.11
1
0
.
1
0
Hoek van Holland
NETHERLANDS
Scheveningen
Maas North
TSS
4°
Longitude 4° East from Greenwich
52°52°
10´20´25´
25´
10´
10´
50´
10´20´
Chapter 10 - Hoek van Holland to Scheveningen
55´50´
55´55´
55´
05´
05´
05´
05´
15´
15´
228
229
CHAPTER 10
HOEK VAN HOLLAND TO SCHEVENINGEN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 132, 122, 1630
Route
10.1 1
From a position about 1½ miles WNW of Maasmond
(9.38), an inshore route leads 12 miles NE to
Scheveningen. The offshore route leads initially NNW to
Maas North TSS thence NNE and E to Scheveningen, an
overall distance of about 17 miles.
Topography
10.2 1
Broad sand dunes front the coast, which is protected by
groynes along its whole length. The low wooded country
inshore of the dunes presents a monotonous aspect only
relieved by the towers of village churches and the buildings
at Den Haag, the capital city.
For a description of the coast NE of Scheveningen see
North Sea (East) Pilot.
Depths
10.3 1
The 10 m depth contour parallels the coast 1 mile
offshore, with the exception of several shallow patches,
having a least depth of 7⋅2 m, lying between 2 and 5 miles
NNE of Nieuwe Noorderdam Light (51°59′⋅7N 4°02′⋅8E).
Submarine pipelines
10.4 1
An oil pipeline and a gas pipeline, shown on the chart,
run 22 miles NW from the coast off the Hoek van Holland
and Maasvlakte to Rijn Field.
A gas pipeline connects production platform P18−A
(52°07′⋅7N 3°56′⋅3E) to a production well 5½ miles SE.
A submarine pipeline runs 5 miles NW from the coast
close SW of Scheveningen and terminates at Houtrust
Light−buoy (special) (52°10′⋅1N 4°09′⋅8E). Tubes project
vertically up to 3⋅5 m above the pipeline within 1½ miles
of the shore. See also 10.23.
Pilotage
10.5 1
Pilotage is compulsory in the Maas pilotage area for all
vessels over 70 m in length and all vessels carrying
dangerous cargo.
Pilots are not required for vessels in transit crossing
Eurogeul (9.36) or small vessels in transit crossing
Maasgeul (9.37) at the recommended crossing places.
See 9.12.
Traffic regulations
10.6 1
A VTS and other traffic regulatory measures are in
operation in the approaches to Nieuwe Waterweg. See 9.9
to 9.12.
Rescue
10.7 1
An offshore lifeboat is stationed at Scheveningen and an
inshore lifeboat at Ter Heijde (52°02′N 4°10′E). Rescue
equipment is maintained at both stations.
See 9.25 for rescue off the Hoek van Holland.
Tidal streams
10.8 1
See Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: North Sea Southern
Portion and information on the charts.
Principal marks
10.9 1
Landmarks:
For marks at Hoek van Holland see 9.33.
Major lights:
Maasvlakte Light (51°58′⋅2N 4°00′⋅9E) (9.33).
Scheveningen Main Light (brown metal tower, 30 m
in height) (52°06′⋅2N 4°16′⋅1E), which stands
5 cables E of the entrance to Scheveningen.
Directions for inshore route
(continued from 8.17)
10.10 1
From a position in Maasgeul (9.37), 1½ miles WNW of
Maasmond (9.38), the track leads NE along the
recommended crossing for small craft (9.12), as shown on
the chart, to a position close NW of Indusbank N
Light−buoy (N cardinal) (52°02′⋅9N 4°03′⋅6E). Thence the
track continues NE to a position close NW of Sch
Light−buoy (safe water) (52°07′⋅8N 4°14′⋅1E) moored at
the fairway entrance to Scheveningen. The track passes
over an oil and a gas pipeline (10.4) as shown on the
chart.
(Directions for Scheveningen continue at 10.30)
Directions for offshore route
10.11
1
From a position in Maasgeul (9.37), 1½ miles WNW of
Maasmond (9.38), the track leads initially NNW for 5
miles to the entrance of the NNE−going lane of Maas
North TSS (9.10). The track passes (with positions from
Nieuwe Noorderdam Light (51°59′⋅7N 4°02′⋅8E)):
2
ENE of MO Light−buoy (safe water) (3¼ miles
WNW) moored on the E side of Maas
Precautionary Area (9.11), thence;
WSW of MN1 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (2¾ miles
NNW), thence;
WSW of MN3 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (5½ miles
NNW) moored at the SE corner of Maas North
TSS.
3
The track continues NNE for 3 miles through the
NNE−going lane of Maas North TSS to a position E of
CHAPTER 10
230
P18−A platform (9 miles NNW) positioned in the
Separation Zone at the N end of Maas North TSS.
(Directions for passages N continue in the North Sea
(East) Pilot)
4
From Maas North TSS the track leads 9 miles E to a
position in the vicinity of Sch Light−buoy (safe water)
(10¾ miles NE) moored at the fairway entrance to
Scheveningen. The track passes over an oil and a gas
pipeline (10.4) laid in a depth of about 21 metres.
Useful marks
10.12 1
The useful marks between the Hoek van Holland and
Scheveningen are described at 9.39.
(Directions continue for Scheveningen at 10.30)
SCHEVENINGEN
General information
Charts 122, 1630
Position
10.13 1
Scheveningen (52°06′N 4°16′E) is 9 miles NE of the
Hoek van Holland.
Function
10.14 1
The port is used mainly by fishing vessels and also has
a Ro-Ro terminal and a marina.
The town is a seaside resort and a residential area.
Approach and entry
10.15 1
The port is approached directly from seaward and
entered between the heads of two moles which extend NW
from the coast.
Traffic
10.16 1
In 2004 the port handled 1565 vessels with a total
deadweight of 8⋅9 million tonnes.
Port Authority
10.17 1
The Harbour Master, Gemeentelijke Dienst Stadsbeheer,
Visafslagweg 1, 2583 DM, Scheveningen conducts the
operation of the port.
Limiting conditions
10.18 1
Controlling depth. There is a depth of 7⋅3 m in the
entrance to the inner port.
Deepest and longest berth is in No 1 Haven (10.34).
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m and mean neap
range about 1⋅3 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is length 163 m and
draught 8⋅2 m.
2
Local weather. It is dangerous to enter harbour in
strong to gale force winds from the NW, when the wind
and sea are astern.
Arrival information
Vessel traffic service
10.19 1
A VTS is maintained for the control of shipping, with
radar surveillance out to a range of 9½ miles from the port.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Notice of ETA required
10.20 1
ETA of vessels should be reported at least 48 hours in
advance and confirmed by VHF one hour before arrival in
order to obtain instructions on entering harbour.
Anchorage
10.21 1
There are two charted anchorage areas, 5 cables E and 4
miles N of Sch Light-buoy (10.10). Vessels should report
their intention to anchor in these areas to the Scheveningen
Traffic Centre (10.19).
Pilotage and tugs
10.22 1
Pilotage is provided by Pilot Maas (9.3) and is
compulsory for vessels of 120 m in length and over.
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
2
Tugs are available.
Anchoring and fishing prohibited
10.23 1
Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in an area, shown
on the chart, about a mile wide and extending 2 miles to
seaward. Sch Light-buoy (safe water) (52°07′⋅8N 4°14′⋅1E)
marks the seaward limit of this area, which includes both
the submarine pipeline (10.4) and the leading line (10.31)
through the harbour entrance.
Harbour
General layout
10.24 1
Buitenhaven, the outer harbour lies between the moles
and leads to Voorhaven, which gives access to the inner
harbour comprising three basins in which the berths are
situated. They are No 1 Haven to the NE of Voorhaven, No
3 Haven to the SW and No 2 Haven to the SE, which is
approached through a narrow channel leading off No 1
Haven.
Sluicing
10.25 1
A lock in the SE corner of No 2 Haven is used as a
sluice from the former canal leading to The Hague. When
sluicing is in progress 3 red lights in the form of a triangle,
point up, are exhibited by night. By day the same 3 red
lights are exhibited together with a blue sign displaying the
word SPUIEN.
Traffic signals
10.26 1
Traffic signals are exhibited from a mast on the Coast
Guard VTS Centre situated on the N side of the entrance
to Voorhaven. A red over a white light indicates that entry
is prohibited and a white over a red light that departure is
prohibited.
2
A yellow flashing light indicates that one or more large
outward bound vessels are leaving the port. The light
continues to be exhibited until the vessels clear the moles.
CHAPTER 10
231
Scheveningen Entrance (10.24)
(Original dated 1995)
(Photograph − Aerophoto−Schiphol B.V.)
A red light displayed from the inner end of the passage
leading into No 2 Haven indicates that vessels are
prohibited from departing.
Tide signals
10.27 1
Tide signals are exhibited from the same mast as the
traffic signals (10.26). A green over a white light indicates
a rising tide and a white over a green light indicates a
falling tide.
Tidal streams
10.28 1
At a position 1 mile NW of the harbour entrance a
SW-going stream runs from 4 hours after HW
Scheveningen to 3 hours before HW Scheveningen, with a
maximum spring rate of 1½ kn. A NE-going stream runs
from 1 hour before HW Scheveningen to 2 hours after HW
Scheveningen, with a maximum spring rate of 2½ kn. Slack
water is about 2 hours before and 3 hours after HW
Scheveningen.
2
HW Scheveningen is 25 minutes after HW Hoek van
Holland.
See also Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: North Sea
Southern Portion, and information on the chart.
Principal marks
10.29 1
Landmarks:
Scheveningen Main Light (52°06′⋅2N 4°16′⋅1E)
(10.9).
Scheveningen − Coastguard VTS Centre (10.26)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
CHAPTER 10
232
Kurhaus (52°06′⋅8N 4°16′⋅9E) with a dome-shaped
roof. A row of hotels and other buildings front the
coast in the vicinity of the Kurhaus.
2
Scheveningen Promenade Pier (52°07′⋅1N 4°16′⋅8E),
which is 335 m in length and marked by a light
(concrete tower, 33 m in height) at its NW
extremity.
Major light:
Scheveningen Main Light—as above.
Scheveningen Promenade Pier (10.29)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 10.10 and 10.12)
General
10.30 1
The moles cause strong tidal streams across the harbour
entrance and it is advisable to pass through the moleheads
at a reasonable speed, biased to the up-stream side. During
the NE-going tidal stream there is a counter eddy along the
NW mole which causes vessels to sheer to starboard as
they pass through the entrance. Large vessels are
recommended not to enter harbour at the time of HW when
the NE-going stream is at its maximum rate.
2
The most favourable time to enter harbour is at slack
water, see 10.28.
Once inside Buitenhaven, speed must be reduced quickly
in order to make the turn towards Voorhaven, which should
be entered at slow speed.
Sea to Buitenhaven
10.31 1
Leading lights:
Front light (grey metal mast) (52°05′⋅8N 4°15′⋅6E).
Rear light (similar structure) (100 m SSE of front
light).
2
The alignment (156°) of these synchronised lights,
standing on the SW side of Voorhaven, passes:
NE of two light-buoys (N cardinal and S cardinal)
and two buoys (special), lying 1 mile NW of the
harbour entrance, thence:
SW of KNS Light-buoy (W cardinal) marking the
sandbank to the N of the entrance, thence:
3
Through the harbour entrance which is about 150 m
wide and formed by two moles extending 3 cables from
shore. The SW molehead is marked by a light (green
tower, white bands, 8 m in height) and the NE molehead
by a light (red tower, white bands, 9 m in height).
4
Caution. Vessels navigating in the area prohibited for
anchoring and fishing (10.23) should not remain in the area
any longer than is strictly necessary, particularly in poor
visibility.
Buitenhaven to Voorhaven
10.32 1
Leading lights:
Front light (grey post, 3 m in height) (52°05′⋅9N
4°15′⋅9E).
Rear light (similar structure, 9 m in height) (50 m SE
of front light).
2
The alignment (131°) of these synchronised lights,
standing on the SE side of Voorhaven, leads through the
original harbour entrance, formed by moles, where the
fairway is 75 m wide. Thence the entrance to Voorhaven,
75 m wide, from which there is direct access to No 1 and
No 3 Havens and via a narrow passage on the W side of
No 1 Haven to No 2 Haven. Similar, synchronised lights
(metal column, 4 m in height) stand on the moleheads and
either side of the entrance to Voorhaven.
3
Caution. At the onset of the out-going stream from the
inner harbour the outflow may push the bows to starboard
in the entrance to Voorhaven.
Useful marks
10.33 1
Radio masts (52°05′⋅7N 4°15′⋅5E).
Peace Palace (Vredespaleis) (tower) (52°05′⋅2N
4° 17′⋅7E)).
Congrescentrum (tower) (52°05′⋅5N 4°16′⋅9E).
Basins
10.34 1
Voorhaven with berth Adriaan Maaskade, 125 m in
length, on the N side is used as a turning basin, having a
diameter of about 200 m.
No 1 Haven, to the NE of Voorhaven, with depths of
7⋅0 m, has a Fish Auction Quay on its NW side which is
340 m in length. The quay on the opposite side is 350 m in
length and can accommodate vessels up to 160 m in length
with a draught of 7⋅0 m.
2
No 3 Haven to the SW of Voorhaven, has a depth of
5⋅0 m and provides a Ro-Ro berth for vessels up to 145 m
in length.
No 2 Haven, entered through a narrow passage 1 cable
in length, has depths of 3⋅0 m and can accommodate
vessels up to 80 m in length. There is a yacht harbour in
the SW part of the basin.
Port services
Repairs
10.35 1
There is a shipyard at the SW end of No 2 Haven and
two similar slipways which have a lifting capacity of
1100 tonnes and can handle vessels up to 60 m in length
and beam 9⋅5 m.
Other facilities
10.36 1
Compass adjustment see 9.101.
Reception of sludge from fuel oil purifier available.
Supplies
10.37 1
Marine fuels by lighter; water at the berths; stores and
provisions.
NOTES
233
The
Naze S
u
n
k
Inner
Gabbard
Galloper
North
Falls
South
Falls
NE Spit Pilot
Station
P
n
a
r
C
i
c
h
n
l
e
s
n
e
K
n
o
b
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
O
a
z
e
D
e
e
p
K
n
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Chapter 11 - Thames Estuary
234
235
CHAPTER 11
THAMES ESTUARY
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1183, 1610
Scope of chapter
11.1 1
This chapter describes the main ship channels into the
Thames Estuary leading to the River Thames and the River
Medway. The Through Route, which runs N-S and lies
between the estuary and the Dover Strait TSS, is also
described.
2
The coastal waters on the NW side of the estuary from
The Naze (51°52′N 1°17′E) to Foulness Point (51°37′N
0°57′E) are described in Chapter 14 and those on the SW
side from North Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E) to Garrison
Point (51°27′N 0°45′E) in Chapters 12 and 16.
3
Information general to all the channels is given in
paragraphs 11.2 to 11.27. Information particular to an
individual channel is given immediately prior to the
directions for that channel.
Port of London
11.2 1
The Port of London, which is under the jurisdiction of
the Port of London Authority, comprises the tidal waters of
the River Thames to a position about 2 miles above
Richmond Bridge (51°28′⋅4N 0°18′⋅2W). The seaward
limits, which are shown on Chart 1183, extend NE from
Foulness Point (51°37′⋅0N 0°57′⋅2E) to Gunfleet Old
Lighthouse (51°46′⋅1N 1°20′⋅4E), thence SSE to a position
(51°26′⋅6N 1°25′⋅4E), which is 4 miles NNW of North
Foreland (4.129), and finally W to Warden Point
(51°24′⋅8N 0°54′⋅4E).
2
The following are excluded from the limits:
Any part of the Thames Estuary under the jurisdiction
of Medway Ports (16.4).
River Lea or Bow Creek (15.113) under the
jurisdiction of Lea Conservancy Board.
Limehouse Basin and Grand Union Canal (15.114).
3
Havengore Creek (14.75) above the seaward side of
Havengore Bridge.
A few small docks and marinas.
Port of London Authority
11.3 1
The office of the Chief Harbour Master of the Port of
London Authority is at London River House, Royal Pier
Road, Gravesend, Kent DA12 2BG.
Navigational aids
11.4 1
Direction of lateral buoyage in the Thames Estuary
changes from that along the coast; the details are shown on
the charts.
Routes
11.5 1
The outer approaches to the Thames Estuary are
straddled by a line of narrow, dangerous shoals, known as
the Outer Banks, which run 50 miles NNE from Tail of the
Falls (51°14′N 1°44′E) to an unnamed shoal whose N
extremity (52°06′N 1°59′E) lies 15 miles E of Orford Ness.
There are a number of navigable channels through the
shoals, the principal one being Falls Gap (51°33′N 1°53′E),
which is 8 miles wide and lies between South and North
Falls. These channels and shoals are described in the outer
passage directions (11.34).
2
Ten miles W of the Outer Banks lies the E edge of the
shoals which encumber the estuary itself. The main ship
channels which lead between the shoals are described from
11.38 to the end of the chapter.
3
Banks and channels are well marked by buoys and
beacons. Landmarks standing on the low lying shores of
the estuary are often obscured by poor visibility.
The main ship channels through the Thames Estuary and
its approaches are shown opposite.
Topography
11.6 1
The low-lying marshland of Foulness Island (51°36′N
0°54′E) is protected by a coastal embankment which
continues 1½ miles SW of Havengore Creek (51°33′N
0°51′E).
Depths
11.7 1
The seabed of the Thames Estuary is known to be an
area where water depths can change considerably due to
the mobility of sand banks. In view of this the Port of
London Authority undertakes frequent periodic surveys of
depths in the recognised buoyed channels and anchorages.
Elsewhere surveys are carried out less frequently and
mariners are advised to navigate in those waters with
caution.
Information on depths in the main ship channels through
the Thames Estuary is given as follows:
2
Sunk, Black Deep, Knock John Channel, to Oaze
Deep (11.41).
Sunk, East Swin or King’s Channel, Barrow Deep,
Mouse Channel to The Warp (11.42).
Fisherman’s Gat to Oaze Deep (11.75).
3
Princes Channel to Oaze Deep (11.75).
The Warp (11.43).
London VTS (11.18) should be consulted for the latest
information on depths.
Under-keel clearance
11.8 1
Masters should ensure that adequate under−keel
clearance has been allowed bearing in mind that tidal
ranges vary within the estuary (11.24) and the possibility of
negative surges (11.25). General factors affecting
under−keel clearance include squat, block coefficient,
tenderness, windage and sea conditions.
2
See The Mariner’s Handbook and the Annual Summary
of Admiralty Notices to Mariners for further information.
Sunk Precautionary Area
11.9 1
Sunk Precautionary Area is established in the vicinity of
Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E) and includes the pilot
boarding station for Haven Ports, Thames, and Medway.
Mariners are advised to navigate with great caution in these
congested waters.
CHAPTER 11
236
Firing danger area
11.10 1
Shoeburyness Artillery Ranges. Experimental firing is
frequently carried out from the area between Shoeburyness
(51°31′N 0°47′E) and Foulness Point, 8½ miles NE. With
certain exceptions, no vessel may enter or remain in the
Inner Danger Area at any time. Entry to the Outer Danger
Area is prohibited when the area is in use as indicated by
red flags. For further information contact Shoeburyness
Radar Control or see the Range Byelaws. VHF Channel 16
should be monitored when in the vicinity. See Admiralty
List of Radio Signals Volume 3(1).
Explosives dumping ground
11.11 1
A disused explosives dumping ground, shown on the
chart, is centred on 51°47′⋅7N 1°29′⋅7E, 4½ miles SW of
Sunk Light-float.
Pilotage
11.12 1
Full details of pilotage regulations for the Thames can
be found in the Port of London Authority publication
Pilotage Directions 1999.
Port of London Authority Pilotage area
11.13 1
The seaward limits of the area, as shown on the chapter
index diagram, correspond with the seaward limits of the
Port of London Authority (11.2), shown on Chart 1183,
with an extension of about 12 miles NE to cover the outer
parts of East Swin or King’s Channel and Black Deep. The
extension is defined by a line from Gunfleet Old
Lighthouse (51°46′⋅1N 1°20′⋅4E) to Long Sand Head
(51°48′⋅0N 1°40′⋅0E) and thence to 51°36′⋅0N 1°23′⋅0E.
The inner limit is on the River Thames at Putney Bridge.
The area is divided into two sections as follows:
2
Outer Area, the waters to the E of Sea Reach No 1
Light-buoy (51°29′⋅4N 0°52′⋅6E).
Inner Area, the waters of the River Thames from Sea
Reach No 1 Light-buoy to Putney Bridge.
Compulsory pilotage
11.14 1
In the outer area pilotage is compulsory for:
Vessels greater than 50 m LOA which are passenger
vessels or vessels carrying hazardous or pollutant
cargoes in bulk.
Vessels greater than 90 m LOA.
Vessels greater than 50 m LOA with an operating
draught of greater than 6 m.
2
Vessels greater than 50 m LOA with an operating
draught of greater than 4 m when restricted
visibility exists, or develops, within the whole of
the London Pilotage District or that part through
which the vessel in question has planned its
passage.
3
In the inner area pilotage is compulsory for:
Passenger vessels or vessels carrying hazardous or
pollutant cargoes in bulk.
Vessels greater than 80 m LOA.
Vessels greater than 50 m LOA with an operating
draught greater than 5 m.
4
Vessels greater than 50 m LOA with an operating
draught greater than 4 m when restricted visibility
exists, or develops within the whole of the London
Pilotage District or that part through which the
vessel in question has planned its passage.
Vessels greater than 50 m LOA which intend to
navigate upriver of Margaret Ness which is the E
limit of the Thames Barrier Control Zone.
5
Pilotage is compulsory for certain tugs with tows as
defined in the Pilotage Directions 1999 (11.12).
Vessels of 160 m LOA or over, or 11 000 grt or over are
required to use berthing pilots for all oil wharves and
jetties at Thames Haven, Coryton, Canvey Island, or
Canvey Gas Terminal. See also 15.15.
Vessels not subject to compulsory pilotage may request a
pilot if they wish.
Requests for pilots
11.15 1
Requests for pilots should be sent to London VTS
(11.18) 24 hours in advance or on leaving previous port if
later, confirming the ETA 8 hours before arrival. Thereafter
VHF contact should be made with the appropriate boarding
station; NE Spit Pilots require 2 hours notice of arrival and
Sunk Pilots require 3 hours and 1 hours notice of arrival.
2
Thames pilots can be embarked at European ports or
other United Kingdom ports: notice required is 5 days.
Pilot boarding stations
11.16 1
Vessels with a draught exceeding 10 m and vessels
approaching from N and E embark the pilot at the Haven
Ports, Thames, and Medway boarding station, 3½ miles E
of Sunk Light−float (51°51′N 1°35′E).
2
Vessels approaching from S and E with a draught of less
than 10 m embark the pilot at the NE Spit Pilot Station,
3 miles S of NE Spit Light−buoy (51°28′N 1°30′E).
3
Any vessel with a draught of less than 6 m which takes
a London pilot at the Haven Ports, Thames, and Medway
boarding station will be subject to a surcharge.
4
In adverse weather, when the pilotage service is
suspended, the pilot may be embarked at a more sheltered
location as advised by London VTS.
Vessels which are subject to compulsory pilotage in the
Inner Area but not the Outer Area, embark pilots either in
Oaze Deep in the vicinity of 51°29′N 0°59′E, or, for
vessels using Mouse Channel, in The Warp in the vicinity
of 51°31′N 0°57′E.
5
Vessels for which pilotage is compulsory proceeding
upriver of Crayford Ness change pilots at Gravesend.
Vessels for which pilotage is not compulsory in the Outer
or Inner Areas but which are proceeding W of Margaret
Ness will embark a pilot at Gravesend.
For further information see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6(1).
Regulation of traffic
Vessel Traffic Services
11.17
Sunk VTS is an information service for all vessels
transiting the Sunk Precautionary Area (11.10). Such
vessels are required to report to Sunk VTS on VHF and
maintain a continous listening watch on that channel until
transfer to London VTS. Positions of reporting points are
shown on the chart.
Vessels anchored in Sunk DW Anchorage (51°54′N
1°40′E) and Sunk Inner Anchorage (51°50′N 1°30′E) must
maintain a continuous VHF watch on the Sunk VTS
frequency also.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
CHAPTER 11
237
11.18 1
London VTS. A vessel traffic services scheme is
provided throughout the area within the jurisdiction of the
Port of London Authority (11.2). Two stations provide the
service; Port Control Centre London at Gravesend, which
covers the area from the seaward limits to Crayford Ness
(51°29′⋅0N 0°12′⋅7E), and Thames Barrier Navigation
Centre which covers from Crayford Ness to the upper limit
of jurisdiction. Radar surveillance is provided from the
outer limits of the port and upriver to Greenwich.
2
All passenger vessels, tugs and other vessels over 40 m
in length or 50 grt are required to participate and maintain
VHF watch with the appropriate station. These vessels are
designated Reporting Vessels.
3
Vessels over 20 m in length, bunker barges and vessels
engaged in fishing are required to maintain a listening
watch and pleasure craft are encouraged to participate.
There are also a number of local VHF stations listed in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) which deal
with berthing and docking requirements.
4
Vessels are required to give 24 hours notice of ETA at
the seaward limit of the VTS area, or, upon leaving the
previous port if the passage time is less than 24 hours.
Reporting points are shown on the charts. For further
information see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Anchoring
11.19 1
Vessels should not anchor, except in emergency or for
the purposes of manoeuvring, in the channels of the
Thames Estuary or the River Thames.
2
Information on the availability of berths within an
anchorage can be obtained from London VTS, who should
be informed whenever a vessel anchors in a designated
anchorage or if a vessel anchors, in emergency, in a
fairway.
3
Designated anchorages in the Thames Estuary are
described at 11.72 and 11.93. Anchorage for small vessels
may also be found in Margate Road (12.16).
Port of London Bye-Laws and General Directions
11.20 1
The Port of London Authority is the statutory body
which exercises jurisdiction over the port. Extracts from the
Port of London River Bye-laws, General Directions for
Navigation in the Port of London and Dangerous
Substances in Bulk Bye-laws are at Appendix II.
Emergencies
Emergency procedures
11.21 1
Incident reports. London VTS (11.18) must be
informed by the quickest means of any of the following:
Being involved in or sighting a collision, grounding,
stranding, or in a navigational incident, or an
accident, fire or explosion, or in a pollution
incident, or aviation incident, or
2
There is a machinery or steerage breakdown or fault,
or
Persons are injured or recovered from the water, or
lost overboard, or in distress, or in need of
assistance.
11.22 1
Major incident procedures. With the exception of SAR
(11.23), the Port of London Authority is responsible for all
incidents and port emergencies. The river and estuary has
been divided into three emergency management areas and
the following codewords apply:
POLASEA: Outer Estuary to Sea Reach No 1
Light-buoy.
POLACAP: Sea Reach No 1 Light-buoy to Crayford
Ness.
POLARIVER: Crayford Ness to Upper Reaches.
2
In any of the above situations all vessels should
maintain current communications, minimise all radio traffic
and be prepared for traffic regulation instructions.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(1) for
further details.
Rescue
11.23 1
The main coastguard station covering the Thames
Estuary is Thames Coastguard MRSC (callsign “Thames
Coastguard”) at Walton-on-the-Naze (51°51′N 1°17′E),
which co-ordinates all SAR activity E of Canvey Island.
See 15.21 for details of London MRSC.
2
Any SAR alert on the tidal Thames should be raised via
one of the following methods:
“MAYDAY” or “PAN-PAN” or other call on VHF
Channel 16.
Dialling 999 and asking for Coastguard.
3
In addition there are coastguard stations at Margate
(51°24′N 1°23′E), Herne Bay (51°22′N 1°08′E), Whitstable
(51°22′N 1°02′E), and Clacton-on-Sea (51°47′N 1°09′E).
Coast rescue equipment is maintained at all these stations.
See 1.110 for details of stations.
4
All-weather lifeboats are stationed at Margate and
Sheerness (51°26′N 0°44′E). Inshore lifeboats are stationed
at Margate, Whitstable, Sheerness, Southend,
Burnham-on-Crouch, West Mersea and Clacton-on-Sea. See
1.123 for details of lifeboats.
Natural conditions
Tidal range
11.24 1
The tidal range varies in the estuary, so that at Harwich
(51°57′N 1°17′E) the spring range is 3⋅6 m and 2⋅3 m at
neaps, while the figures at Margate (51°24′N 1°23′E) are
4⋅3 m and 2⋅5 m and at Southend−on−Sea (51°31′N 0°43′E)
5⋅3 m and 3⋅3 m.
2
Tide gauges are situated at Walton-on-the-Naze (51°51′N
1°16′E), Margate, Shivering Sands Towers (51°30′N
1°05′E), Southend-on-Sea and Tilbury (51°27′N 0°20′E).
Tide gauge readings may be obtained from London VTS
(11.18).
Negative surges
11.25 1
Negative surges (1.184) due to abnormal weather
conditions may cause the sea level to fall 2 m or more
below the predicted level. For further information see
Admiralty Tide Tables Volume 1. London VTS broadcasts
tidal information including negative surge predictions.
Tidal streams
11.26 1
Between Orford Ness (52°05′N 1°35′E) and Kentish
Knock, 25 miles S, there is little difference in the times at
which the streams begin. However off North Foreland,
15 miles S of Kentish Knock, the streams begin 1½ hours
later. Farther W in the estuary the streams begin
progressively later and off the entrance to the River
CHAPTER 11
238
Thames and River Medway are 1¼ hours later than in the
outer estuary.
2
The tidal streams run across the outer part of the estuary
and are generally rectilinear running in a SSW (in-going)
or NNE (out-going) direction. Farther in the estuary the
streams run in the direction of the channels tending to
divide and run in the channel either side of a shoal, but
this varies depending on the depth over the shoal and near
HW the stream may run unhindered across the shoal.
Towards the side of a channel there may be eddies,
especially off projecting points of the sands and shoals, and
off the entrance to a swatchway the stream may differ
considerably from that in mid-channel. In the swatchways
the streams are usually more or less rotary and weaker than
in the main channels.
3
See also Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-Tidal
Charts: Thames Estuary and information on the charts.
Currents
11.27 1
Except after heavy rain, there does not appear to be an
appreciable and permanent river current. Even after heavy
rain, the current soon disappears in the outer estuary.
Strong currents can occur during and after tidal surges
and these may augment or oppose the tidal streams.
THROUGH ROUTE AND APPROACHES FROM THE EAST
General information
Chart 1183, 1543, 2052, 1610
Route
11.28 1
From a position E of Aldeburgh Napes (13.15) (52°10′N
1°43′E), the through route leads about 60 miles S between
the inner and outer line of shoals which straddle the
approaches to the Thames Estuary. The route is generally
about 6 to 8 miles wide but narrows to about 4 miles at its
S end. To the N it connects with the coastal route off the E
coast of England (see North Sea (West) Pilot) and to the S
it connects with the SW−going lane of the Dover Strait
TSS (2.5).
2
The main ship channels into the Thames Estuary may
also be approached from the E (11.36) across the through
route.
Depths
11.29 1
Charted depths are in excess of 17 m but numerous
wrecks with lesser depths over them lie W of the track,
especially off Aldeburgh Napes (13.15) and Shipwash
(13.29). A wreck with a swept depth of 15⋅5 m lies in
position 52°07′⋅6N 1°52′⋅4E.
Sandwaves
11.30 1
Sandwaves form between Long Sand Head Light-buoy
(51°48′N 1°40′E) and South Ship Head 6½ miles NNW,
close W of Outer Passage, see 11.39.
Firing practice area
11.31
1
A firing practice and mine disposal area with a radius of
1 mile is centred on 51°22′⋅5N 1°38′⋅4E. For further details
see 1.21.
Principal marks
11.32 1
Landmark:
North Foreland Lighthouse (51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅6E)
(4.132).
Major lights:
Orford Ness Light (52°05′⋅0N 1°34′⋅5E) (13.13).
Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E) (13.76).
Foxtrot 3 Light-float (51°23′⋅8N 2°00′⋅6E) (2.51).
North Foreland Light—as above.
2
East Goodwin Light−float (51°13′⋅2N 1°36′⋅4E) (red
hull, light-tower amidships).
South Goodwin Light-float (red hull, light-tower
amidships) (51°08′⋅0N 1°28′⋅5E).
Sandettié Light-float (red hull) (51°09′⋅4N 1°47′⋅1E).
Other aids to navigation
11.33
1
Racons transmit from:
N Shipwash Light-buoy (N cardinal) (52°01′⋅7N
1°38′⋅2E).
Sunk Light-float—as above.
S Galloper Light-buoy (S cardinal) (51°44′⋅0N
1°56′⋅4E).
Outer Gabbard Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°57′⋅8N
2°04′⋅2E).
2
NE Goodwin Light−buoy (E cardinal) (51°20′⋅3N
1°34′⋅1E).
Foxtrot 3 Light−float − as above.
East Goodwin Light−float − as above.
Sandettié Light−float − as above.
MPC Light−buoy (special) (51°06′⋅1N 1°38′⋅2E).
Directions
(Directions for passage from N are given in
the North Sea (West) Pilot)
Through route from the north
11.34 1
From a position E of Aldeburgh Napes (52°10′N 1°43′E)
(13.15), about 11 miles NE of Orford Ness the through
route leads 60 miles S to a position SE of East Goodwin
Light−float (51°13′⋅3N 1°36′⋅4E) at the junction with the
SW−going lane of the Dover Strait TSS, passing:
2
W of the unnamed shoal (52°03′N 1°59′E), which
runs 5 miles N-S, thence:
E of Shipwash (51°57′N 1°37′E) (13.29), with N
Shipwash Light-buoy moored at its N end. E
Shipwash Light-buoy (E cardinal) is moored off its
E side. Thence:
3
W of Inner Gabbard (51°54′N 1°54′E) a long, narrow
shoal running 10 miles N-S. The shoal is marked
at its N extremity by N Inner Gabbard Light-buoy
(N cardinal) and at its S extremity by S Inner
Gabbard Light-buoy (S cardinal). A meteorological
mast (11.37) stands near the middle of the shoal.
CHAPTER 11
239
Outer Gabbard, with Outer Gabbard Light-buoy
(11.32) moored 2 miles SSE of its N end, lies
4 miles E of Inner Gabbard. Thence:
4
W of The Galloper (51°47′N 1°58′E), a narrow shoal
running 6 miles NNE-SSW, marked at its N end by
N Galloper Light-buoy (N cardinal) and at its S
end by S Galloper Light-buoy (S cardinal).
Thence:
5
E of Long Sand Head (51°46′N 1°37′E) (11.51), with
Long Sand Head Light-buoy (N cardinal) moored
off its NE extremity. There are noticeably heavy
swells over the head. Thence:
6
E of Kentish Knock (51°39′N 1°37′E), which is about
8 miles in length and dries in its central part.
Kentish Knock Light-buoy (E cardinal) is moored
off its E side and S Knock Light-buoy (S cardinal)
off its S end. And:
7
W of North Falls (51°39′N 1°56′E) a shoal, thence:
W of South Falls Head (51°28′N 1°50′E), marked by
Falls Head Light-buoy (N cardinal). The shoal
extends 15 miles SSW to the Tail of the Falls,
which is marked by South Falls Light−buoy (S
cardinal) (see below). Thence:
8
E of Drill Stone (51°26′N 1°41′E) over which there is
a strong tide rip. It is marked by Drill Stone
Light-buoy (E cardinal), which is only 3½ miles W
of South Falls.
The course continues SSW, passing:
ESE of NE Goodwin Light−buoy (E cardinal)
(51°20′⋅3N 1°34′⋅1E) moored at the NE extremity
of Goodwin Sands (4.76), thence;
9
WNW of South Falls Light−buoy (S cardinal)
(51°13′⋅9N 1°43′⋅9E). The buoy should be given a
wide berth due to strong tidal streams which might
cause a vessel to be set down onto it, thence;
ESE of East Goodwin Light−float (51°13′⋅2N
1°36′⋅4E) (11.32) marking the E side of Goodwin
Sands.
Thence course is adjusted to enter the SW−going lane of
the Dover Strait TSS and having regard to Rule 10 (c) of
The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at
Sea (1972).
11.35 1
Alternative route from the north. Vessels may
approach from the N passing W of Aldeburgh Napes
(13.15), thence E of N Shipwash Light-buoy (N cardinal)
before rejoining the route in 11.34, E of Shipwash.
Caution. There are strong tide rips, indicated on the
chart, to the NNE of N Shipwash Light-buoy.
(Directions continue at 2.60)
Approaches from the east
11.36 1
There are a number of gaps in the offshore shoals which
provide access to the main ship channels in the Thames
Estuary or join with the through route. The recognised
channels from the N are:
2
N of Outer Gabbard (11.34) marked on its E side by
Outer Gabbard Light-buoy (E cardinal), thence N
of N Inner Gabbard Light-buoy (N cardinal) at the
N end of Inner Gabbard (11.34). There are tide
rips off the N end of Inner Gabbard.
Passing between The Galloper (11.34) and Outer
Gabbard, thence S of S Inner Gabbard Light-buoy
(S cardinal) at the S end of Inner Gabbard.
3
Between The Galloper and the N end of North Falls
(11.34), which is known as Four Mile Knolls or
North Falls Head.
Through Falls Gap (51°32′N 1°52′E), which is
8½ miles wide and lies between South Falls Head
(11.34) and North Falls Tail, the S end of North
Falls.
Useful mark
11.37
1
Meteorological mast (lighted; 80 m in height)
(51°56′⋅6N 1°55′⋅3E).
ROUTES INTO THE THAMES ESTUARY
ROUTES FROM THE NORTH EAST
General information
Charts 1183, 1975, 1607, 1609, 1606
Description
11.38 1
The area known as Sunk is the point of entry from the
NE to the two main channels, Black Deep (11.53) and East
Swin or King’s Channel (11.59), which lead SW through
the Thames Estuary to the river itself. Sunk lies between
South Ship Head (51°53′N 1°34′E) (13.79) and Long Sand
Head (11.51), 7 miles S. Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E)
(13.76) is moored in the centre of Sunk.
2
The main deep−water route through the Thames Estuary
leads initially 8 miles in a generally SW direction from the
Haven Ports, Thames, and Medway Pilot Station
(51°51′⋅5N 1°40′⋅4E), following either the Sunk or the
Trinity DW route to the NE end of Black Deep and thence
a further 29 miles in a SW direction through Black Deep,
Knock John Channel and Oaze Deep to The Warp from
whence there is direct access to either the River Thames or
River Medway. Directions for this route are at 11.53 to
11.56.
3
An alternative route for vessels of lesser draught, which
lies to the NW of the Black Deep route and runs parallel to
it, leads through East Swin or King’s Channel to Barrow
Deep, Mouse Channel and The Warp. Directions for this
route are at 11.59 to 11.64.
Minor side channels through East and West Swin (11.65
and 11.67), Middle Deep (11.69) and Knob Gat (11.71) are
also described.
Sandwaves
11.39 1
Sandwaves form in Sunk and reach their maximum
amplitude after periods of calm, settled weather and neap
tides. The sandwaves are reduced after a period of E gales.
2
Deep−draught vessels should take note of sandwaves
which form between Sunk Light-float and Long Sand Head
Light-buoy (N cardinal) 4 miles SE. Depths may be less
than charted.
For a full description of sandwaves see The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Depths
11.40 1
General. There are frequent and rapid changes of depths
in the main ship channels which lead through the Thames
Estuary. The following paragraphs identify the main shoal
CHAPTER 11
240
areas which lie close to the recommended routes, but for
the latest information on depths the charts and London
VTS (11.18) should be consulted.
Deep−draught vessels normally pass Sunk Light-float not
later than HW Sheerness −0400, if they are to proceed
upriver on one tide.
11.41 1
Sunk, Black Deep and Knock John Channel to Oaze
Deep. In 2004 there was a least depth on the Sunk DW
Route of 12⋅8 m about 8 cables S of Sunk Light-float
(51°51′N 1°35′E); least depth on the Trinity DW Route
was 11⋅6 m about 6 cables S of Trinity Light-buoy
(51°49′⋅0N 1°36′⋅4E). See also 11.39.
In 2002 there was a least depth in Black Deep of
13⋅8 m, 1 mile NNE of Black Deep No 8 Light−buoy
(51°36′⋅4N 1°20′⋅4E); least depth in Knock John Channel
was 12⋅4 m (2005) in position 51°32′⋅3N 1°07′⋅5E.
However, there was a depth 11⋅3 m on the line of the port
hand buoys between Knock John and Knock John No 2
Light−buoys.
11.42 1
Sunk, East Swin or King’s Channel, Barrow Deep
and Mouse Channel to The Warp. In 2004, there was a
least depth in King’s Channel and Barrow Deep of 12⋅5 m
over a wreck in position 51°40′⋅8N 1°18′⋅2E but in Mouse
Channel there was at least a depth of 6⋅2 m.
11.43 1
The Warp (11.64), is the focal point for all routes to
both the River Thames and the River Medway. In 2005, in
the fairway between W Oaze Light-buoy (W cardinal)
(51°29′⋅1N 0°55′⋅4E) and Sea Reach No 1 Light-buoy
(special) 2 miles WNW, there was a least depth of 11⋅2 m.
In the fairway between W Oaze Light-buoy and Medway
Light-buoy (safe water), 1¾ miles WSW, there were depths
of more than 15 m.
2
Depths within The Warp are irregular and may vary
from time to time under different conditions of the river
and the weather.
Traffic regulations
11.44
1
Deep and shallow draught channels. To reduce the risk
to deep−draught vessels resulting from traffic congestion,
passage through Black Deep and Knock John Channel is
normally restricted to vessels with a draught of over 6 m.
Vessels of less than 6 m draught should normally use the
alternative route through Barrow Deep.
2
See Appendix II for General Directions for Navigation
in the Port of London (2003).
11.45
1
LNG vessels. Within Port of London limits, except in
Knock John Channel, LNG vessels are to be considered as
Specified Vessels as defined in Direction 3 of The General
Directions For Navigation and the provisions of Direction
14 in respect of separation, passing and overtaking apply.
See Appendix II.
2
In Knock John Channel between Knock John Buoy
(51°33′⋅6N 1°11′⋅4E) and Knock John No 5 Buoy, 2 miles
WSW, a one−way only traffic flow will be imposed during
the transit of a LNG vessel, with a separation of 1 mile
ahead and 5 cables astern of other vessels. Opposing and
overtaking traffic will only be permitted if the other vessel
remains outside the buoy line and has received the prior
agreement of the LNG vessel and the approval of London
VTS.
Precautionary areas
11.46 1
A precautionary area exists where Black Deep (11.53)
and Fisherman’s Gat (11.83) meet in position 51°36′N
1°20′E. Mariners should navigate with great caution in this
area, where traffic from Fisherman’s Gat joins traffic in
Black Deep.
2
A second precautionary area exists in Oaze Deep (11.56)
between Shivering Sand Towers (11.48) and Sea Reach
No 1 Light-buoy, 7½ miles W. Mariners should navigate
with great caution as deep-draught vessels with limited
manoeuvrability, as well as crossing traffic, may be
encountered. Anchoring is prohibited in this area.
Tidal streams
11.47 1
In the vicinity of Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E) the
tidal streams are rectilinear, setting SW and NE.
Close to Knock John Tower (51°33′⋅8N 1°09′⋅7E)
(11.48) the tidal streams are irregular and more or less
rotary. Otherwise the streams run in the direction of the
main channels, with spring rates up to 2½ kn.
See also 11.24 to 11.27, information on the charts and
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-Tidal Charts: Thames
Estuary.
Principal marks
11.48 1
Landmarks are listed under the channel to which they
are most applicable:
East Swin or King’s Channel:
Gunfleet Old Lighthouse (51°46′⋅1N 1°20′⋅4E),
disused, standing on the SE side of Gunfleet Sand.
Radar mast (51°48′⋅5N 1°12′⋅9E).
Gunfleet Old Lighthouse from SE (11.48)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
2
Black Deep and Knock John Channel:
Meteorological mast (lighted) (51°35′⋅6N 1°23′⋅1E).
Knock John Tower (51°33′⋅8N 1°09′⋅7E), an old sea
fort on the SE side of Knock John, near the tail of
Sunk Sand.
CHAPTER 11
241
Knock John Tower from ENE (11.48)
(Original dated 2001)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
3
Oaze Deep:
Shivering Sand Towers (51°30′N 1°05′E), a group of
six concrete pile structures, elevation 17 m,
standing on Shivering Sand.
Shivering Sand Towers (11.48)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Red Sand Towers (51°28′⋅6N 0°59′⋅4E), a group of
seven concrete towers, standing on S side of Oaze
Deep and similar in appearance to Shivering Sand
Towers, 3½ miles ENE.
Red Sand Towers (11.48)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
4
Middle Deep and West Swin:
Lattice mast (51°36′⋅1N 0°56′⋅3E) (14.59).
Two lattice masts (51°35′⋅6N 0°55′⋅6E) (14.59).
5
The Warp:
Gas-holder (51°32′⋅0N 0°47′⋅3E).
Radio mast (51°31′⋅4N 0°46′⋅6E).
Major light:
Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E) (13.76).
Other aids to navigation
11.49
1
Racons transmit from:
Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E).
Barrow No 3 Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°42′⋅0N
1°20⋅2′E).
Sea Reach No 1 Light-buoy (special) (51°29′⋅5N
0°52′⋅6E).
Directions for Sunk to River Thames entrance
via Black Deep
Sunk to Black Deep
11.50 1
From the vicinity of the Haven Ports, Thames and
Medway Pilot Station (51°51′⋅5N 1°40′⋅4E), there are two
recommended routes, Trinity DW Route and Sunk DW
Route; both are shown on the chart.
Trinity DW Route
11.51 1
From the Haven Ports, Thames, and Medway Pilot
Station, the route leads 8 miles SW to the NE end of Black
Deep, passing (with positions from Sunk Light-float
(51°51′N 1°35′E)):
SE of Sunk Light-float, thence:
SE of Trinity Light-buoy (S cardinal) (2¼ miles SSE).
A wreck lies close N of the light-buoy. Thence:
2
NW of Long Sand Head (5½ miles S), which dries in
parts and over which the sea breaks. Long Sand
Head Light-buoy (N cardinal) is moored NE of the
head and Black Deep Light-buoy (port hand) off
the NW side of the head. Thence:
To the entrance to Black Deep (6½ miles SSW),
which lies between Long Sand Head and Sunk
Head, 2 miles W.
Sunk DW Route
11.52 1
From the Haven Ports, Thames, and Medway Pilot
Station, the route leads 3 miles W then 6 miles SSW to the
NE end of Black Deep. The E part of the track lies 4
cables S of the deep−water route for Harwich. The track
passes (with positions from Sunk Light-float (51°51′N
1°35′E)):
2
SE of Sunk Light-float, thence:
NW of Trinity Light-buoy (S cardinal) (2¼ miles
SSE). A wreck lies close N of the light-buoy.
Thence:
NW of Black Deep Light-buoy (port-hand) (4 miles
S) moored off the NW extremity of Long Sand
Head, thence:
3
SE of the submerged remains of Sunk Head Tower
(5¼ miles SW), which lie on the N part of Sunk
Head and are marked by Sunk Head Tower
Light-buoy (N cardinal), moored close N. Thence:
To the entrance to Black Deep (6½ miles SSW).
Black Deep
11.53 1
From its entrance (51°45′N 1°31′E) Black Deep runs
17 miles SW to the entrance to Knock John Channel. Black
Deep lies between Sunk Sand to the NW and Long Sand to
the SE, both of which dry in parts. The fairway, which is
marked by light−buoys (lateral), is generally 1½ miles wide
but narrows to 5 cables at its SW end. It is normally
restricted to vessels with a draught of over 6 metres.
11.54 1
Useful marks:
Sunk Beacon (51°39′N 1°21′E).
SW Sunk Beacon (51°37′N 1°15′E).
NW Long Sand Beacon (51°35′N 1°18′E).
These beacons are of similar appearance.
CHAPTER 11
242
Knock John Channel
11.55 1
From its entrance (51°33′⋅7N 1°11′⋅5E) Knock John
Channel, which narrows to slightly less than 2 cables, runs
5 miles in a generally SW direction to the entrance to Oaze
Deep. A recommended route for deep−draught vessels
through the SW part of the channel is shown on the chart.
The route passes (with positions from Knock John Tower
(51°33′⋅8N 1°09′⋅7E)):
2
NW of Tizard Bank (1¾ miles ESE). Knock John
Light-buoy (port hand) is moored off the NW side
of the bank. Thence:
SE of Knock John Tower (11.48), which stands E of
the drying part of North Knob, a shoal marked on
its SE side by odd numbered light-buoys, thence:
3
NW of Knob Shoal (1½ miles S), which is marked on
its NW side by even numbered light-buoys, thence:
SE of Mouse (3 miles WSW), a shoal marked by SE
Mouse Light-buoy (starboard hand) (4¼ miles
SW), thence:
4
To a position NW of Knob Light-buoy (safe water)
(4½ miles SW), which is moored at the junction
with Knob Channel (11.91) where the two
channels join to form Oaze Deep.
Oaze Deep
11.56 1
From a position NW of Knob Light-buoy (safe water)
(51°30′⋅7N 1°04′⋅3E) the recommended track for
deep−draught vessels, shown on the chart, leads 5 miles
WSW through Oaze Deep, where it joins the route which
leads out of Knob Channel (11.91). Thence the combined
route leads 1 mile W to a position on the S side of The
Warp (11.64) and direct access to either the River Thames
or the River Medway. Most of the route lies within the
Oaze Precautionary Area (11.46). The track passes (with
positions from Red Sand Towers (51°28′⋅6N 0°59′⋅4E)):
2
SSE of Oaze (1½ miles N), a shoal marked on its SE
side by Oaze Deep Light-buoy (starboard hand),
thence:
NNW of Red Sand Towers (11.48), thence:
3
SSE of SW Oaze Light-buoy (S cardinal) (1½ miles
WNW), which is moored close to the SW corner
of Oaze, thence:
N of East Cant (12.64) (2 miles WSW), marked on its
N side by E Cant Light-buoy (port hand), thence:
4
To a position S of W Oaze Light-buoy (W cardinal)
(2½ miles WNW), whence there is direct access to
Sea Reach No 1 Light-buoy (special), 1¾ miles
WNW at the entrance to Yantlet Channel (15.25),
which leads through the entrance to the River
Thames, or Medway Light-buoy (safe water),
1¾ miles W at the entrance to the River Medway.
11.57 1
Useful marks:
Cant Beacon (51°27′⋅8N 0°55′⋅4E), in ruins.
(Directions continue for Yantlet Channel at 15.25 and
for the River Medway at 16.28)
Side channels
11.58 1
Sunk Sand may be crossed by small craft in several
places, for which the chart is the best guide. Local
knowledge is required to use these channels, which are
unmarked and subject to changing depths.
Directions for Sunk to River Thames entrance
via Barrow Deep
East Swin or King’s Channel to Barrow Deep
11.59 1
From the vicinity of Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E)
(13.76) East Swin or King’s Channel leads to Barrow Deep
(11.61), the principal channel, and three minor channels,
Whitaker Channel (14.63), East Swin (11.65) and Middle
Deep (11.69). The channel is wide and navigable without
difficulty and lies between Gunfleet Sand to the NW and
Sunk Sand to the SW. It leads 12 miles SW to the entrance
to Barrow Deep, passing (with positions from Gunfleet Old
Lighthouse (51°46′N 1°21′E)):
2
SE of Gunfleet Sand, which runs 13 miles WSW
from its NE extremity, which is marked by NE
Gunfleet Light-buoy (E cardinal) (6 miles NE). The
sand dries in places. And:
NW of the submerged remains of Sunk Head Tower
(6 miles W) (11.52), thence:
3
SE of Gunfleet Old Lighthouse. Gunfleet Spit
Light-buoy (S cardinal) is moored of the SE side
of Gunfleet Sand, 1 mile SE of the lighthouse.
And:
NW of W Sunk Light-buoy (W cardinal) (4 miles
ESE), moored off the NW part of Sunk Sand
(11.53). From this point the route for East Swin
(11.65) diverges to WSW. Thence:
4
To a position (4¼ miles S) between Barrow No 2
Light-buoy (port hand) and Barrow No 3
Light-buoy (E cardinal) at the entrance to Barrow
Deep.
11.60 1
Useful marks:
Gunfleet Beacon (51°47′N 1°21′E), in ruins, awash at
HW.
Mast (lighted) on Gunfleet Sand (51°43′⋅6N
1°11′⋅8E).
Barrow Deep
11.61 1
From its entrance (51°42′N 1°21′E), Barrow Deep leads
16 miles SW to Mouse Channel (11.63) and thence to The
Warp (11.64). Barrow Deep lies between Sunk Sand to the
SE and Barrow to the NW. Barrow dries. It is divided by
Barrow Swatchway (11.70) with East Barrow and Barrow
to the NE and West Barrow to the SW. The channel is
marked by light-buoys, odd numbered to NW and even
numbered to SE.
11.62 1
Useful marks:
East Barrow Beacon (51°38′N 1°13′E), on the SE
side of East Barrow.
Barrow Beacon (51°37′N 1°08′E), off the SW side of
Barrow.
SW Sunk Beacon (51°37′N 1°15′E).
Mouse Channel
11.63 1
Mouse Channel (51°32′N 1°01′E) leads for 1½ miles
WSW across a bar at the SW end of Barrow Deep. The
channel is marked by SW Barrow Light−buoy (W cardinal)
(51°32′⋅3N 1°00′⋅3E) and by Barrow No 14 Light−buoy
(port hand), 5 cables farther S. For depths see 11.42.
The Warp
11.64 1
From Mouse Channel, The Warp leads 5 miles WSW to
Sea Reach No 1 Light-buoy (special), at the entrance to
CHAPTER 11
243
Yantlet Channel (15.25), which leads through the entrance
to the River Thames. West Swin (11.67) also leads into
The Warp on its NE side. The Warp is bounded to the NW
by Maplin Sands (11.67) and to the SE by Oaze (11.56).
(Directions continue for Yantlet Channel at 15.25 and
for the River Medway at 16.28)
Side channels
East Swin Channel to The Warp
11.65 1
East Swin. From a position NW of W Sunk Light-buoy
(W cardinal) (51°44′N 1°26′E) the route leads 8 miles
WSW through SW part of East Swin or King’s Channel
(11.59), which lies between Gunfleet Sand (11.59) to the
NW and North East Middle, to the entrance to East Swin.
The route through East Swin leads 8 miles in a generally
SW direction, passing (with positions from Barrow Beacon
(51°37′N 1°08′E)):
2
Between Whitaker Light-buoy (E cardinal) (4½ miles
NNE) and N Middle Buoy (N cardinal), 1 mile
ESE, thence:
(Directions for Whitaker Channel are given at 14.63)
SE of Whitaker Spit (14.63) (3 miles N), marked on
its SE side by S Whitaker Light-buoy (starboard
hand), thence:
3
NW of The Middle (2 miles N) which runs along the
SE side of East Swin and is marked on its NW
side by W Hook Middle Buoy (port hand). The
Middle, together with North East Middle, run
14 miles curving SW from Barrow No 3
Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°42′N 1°20′E). North
Hook is that part of the shoal lying between The
Middle and North East Middle. Thence:
4
SE of Whitaker Beacon (isolated danger) (2¾ mile
NNW), thence:
SE of Foulness Sand (14.63) (3½ miles WNW), the
NE part of Maplin Sands (11.67), marked on the
SE side by NE Maplin Light-buoy (starboard
hand), thence:
5
Across the swatchway (2½ miles WSW), which leads
from the S end of East Swin to West Swin and
lies between Maplin Sands and Maplin Spit,
thence:
6
To a position between Maplin Bank Light-buoy (port
hand) (2¾ miles SW), moored on the NW side of
Maplin Spit (11.70), and Maplin Edge Buoy
(starboard hand), 6 cables WSW, moored on the E
side of Maplin Sands.
7
Cautions. Local knowledge is required for the passage
through East Swin, which is only suitable for small craft.
There are a number of unmarked wrecks and
obstructions SW of Maplin Spit, which are shown on the
chart.
11.66 1
Useful mark:
Saint Mary’s Church (spire) (51°36′N 0°54′E) at
Churchend.
11.67 1
West Swin. From the swatchway (51°35′N 1°04′E) at
the S end of East Swin the route leads 6 miles SW through
West Swin to The Warp (11.64), passing (with positions
from Blacktail East Light-beacon (green framework tower)
(51°31′⋅8N 0°56′⋅4E)):
2
SE of Maplin Sands, which lie along the whole of
NW side of West Swin and are marked on their E
side by Maplin Light-buoy (E cardinal). Maplin
Sands extend about 3 miles offshore from the coast
between Foulness Point and Shoebury Ness. The
sands dry and shelve gradually towards the coast.
The outer edge is irregular and steep-to except at
its E extremity. Thence:
3
NW of West Barrow (5 miles ENE) which lies along
the SE side of West Swin. The shoal, which dries,
is marked on its NW side by West Swin
Light-buoy (port hand) and at its SW extremity by
SW Barrow Light-buoy (W cardinal). Thence:
4
To a position SE of Blacktail Spit, on the SE edge of
Maplin Sands and on the N side of The Warp
(11.64). Blacktail East Light-beacon and Blacktail
West Light-beacon (green framework tower)
(9 cables WSW) stand on the spit and Blacktail
Spit Light-buoy (starboard hand) is moored SE of
the spit.
5
Caution. There are numerous posts for military purposes
on Maplin Sands. Obstructions to navigation and beacons
of no navigational significance, some exhibiting lights at
night, may also be encountered.
11.68 1
Useful mark:
Great Wakering Church (spire) (51°33′N 0°49′E).
(Directions for Yantlet Channel continue at 15.25 and
for the River Medway at 16.28)
Middle Deep
11.69 1
Middle Deep (51°39′N 1°10′E) lies between East Barrow
(11.61) to the SE and North East Middle and The Middle
to the NW. It is entered from Barrow Deep (11.61) N of
Barrow No 5 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (51°40′N 1°17′E)
and runs parallel to East Swin (11.65) joining with the
channel at its S end as it crosses the swatchway. The
channel through Middle Deep is not buoyed and should
only be used with local knowledge.
Barrow Swatchway and South West Reach
11.70 1
Barrow Swatchway (51°36′N 1°10′E) lies between
Barrow and West Barrow (11.61) and leads from Barrow
Deep (11.61) to South West Reach and thence to West
Swin (11.67). From its E entrance (51°36′⋅6N 1°11′⋅3E),
1½ miles NNE of Barrow No 9 Light-buoy (E cardinal) it
runs 2½ miles WSW to South West Reach. The reach lies
between Maplin Spit, which dries, and West Barrow. It runs
a further 2½ miles SW to Shoe Hole, a deep at the NE end
of West Swin.
2
Neither Barrow Swatchway nor South West Reach is
buoyed and passage should not be attempted without local
knowledge. Moreover, Barrow Swatchway is subject to
severe siltation. See also 11.7.
Knob Gat
11.71
1
Knob Gat (51°33′N 1°07′E) is a narrow channel which
leads 2 miles SW to connect Barrow Deep (11.61) with
Knock John Channel (11.55). The channel, which is
unmarked, has a least width of about 3 cables and lies
between North Knob (51°33′N 1°08′E) and the E extremity
of Mouse, close SW.
CHAPTER 11
244
Anchorages
11.72 1
The following designated anchorages are shown on the
chart.
Sunk DW Anchorage (51°54′N 1°40′E).
Inner Sunk Anchorage (51°50′N 1°30′E).
Black Deep Anchorage (51°38′N 1°21′E).
2
Knob DW Anchorage, comprising berths K1 (51°31′N
1°03′E) and K2 (51°31′N 1°05′E) for VLCCs only
and K3 (51°30′N 1°04′E) for LNG tankers only.
Oaze Anchorage (51°31′N 1°00′E).
Southend and Warp DW Anchorage (51°31′N 0°54′E)
including berths W1 and W2 for vessels nominated
by the Port of London Authority.
11.73 1
Two anchorages, shown on the charts, provided for
vessels required to anchor in reduced visibility, are:
Barrow Deep (51°42′N 1°18′E).
Shivering Sands (51°30′N 1°08′E).
ROUTES FROM THE SOUTH−EAST
General information
Charts 1606, 1607, 1609
Description
11.74 1
From the vicinity of North East Spit Pilot Station
(51°25′N 1°30′E), the River Thames and the River Medway
may be approached through either Princes Channel (11.85),
and Oaze Deep (11.56), or, for deeper draught vessels,
through Fisherman’s Gat (11.83), Black Deep (11.53),
Knock John Channel (11.55) and Oaze Deep.
2
The through channels may also be approached directly
from the E (11.36), or from the NE through Knock
Deep (11.87).
The North (11.89) and South (11.90) Edinburgh
Channels are unmarked and no longer used by commercial
shipping.
Depths
11.75 1
General. See 11.7 and 11.40.
Fisherman’s Gat, Black Deep, Knock John Channel
to Oaze Deep: In Fisherman’s Gat there is a least depth in
mid−channel of 8⋅3 m (2004) but depths of less than 8 m at
the sides of the channel.
Princes Channel to Oaze Deep: In 2004 there was a
least depth of 5⋅3 m in the buoyed channel over the bar
(51°29′N 1°08′E) at the W end of Princes Channel.
Traffic regulations
11.76
1
To reduce the risk to deep−draught vessels resulting
from traffic congestion, passage through the Black Deep
and Knock John Channel is normally restricted to vessels
with a draught of over 6 m.
Vessels of less than 6 m draught should normally use the
Princes Channel unless access is limited by tidal or weather
constraints when clearance to use Black Deep and Knock
John Channel via Fisherman’s Gat may be requested from
London VTS.
2
See Appendix II for General Directions for Navigation
in the Port of London (2003).
Precautionary areas
11.77
1
See 11.46.
Wind farm
11.78
1
A wind farm project known as London Array and
comprising 300 wind turbines is to be developed over a
large area encompassing the N part of Long Sand, Kentish
Knock and Knock Deep. Fisherman’s Gat Channel (11.83)
will fall outside the S limit of the wind farm: Foulger’s Gat
(11.88) will be within the limits of the wind farm but will
remain open for the passage of small craft.
Historic wreck
11.79
1
An historic wreck (51°31′⋅8N 1°14′⋅8E) in South
Edinburgh Channel is protected by a restricted area 100 m
in radius. See 1.86.
Tidal streams
11.80 1
In Princes Channel the tidal streams are nearly
rectilinear. In the fairway, S of South Shingles (51°30′N
1°13′E), the W-going stream begins at −0610 HW
Sheerness with a mean direction of 280°, spring rate 1¾ kn
and the E-going stream at +0030 HW Sheerness with a
mean direction of 095°, spring rate 2 kn.
2
In Knob Channel, N of Shingles Patch (51°33′N 1°16′E)
the tide is rectilinear also, the W-going stream beginning at
−0500 HW Sheerness with a mean direction of 250°, spring
rate 1⋅5 kn and the E-going stream at +0100 HW Sheerness
with a mean direction of 085° and a spring rate of 1⋅8 kn.
3
In Fisherman’s Gat in position 51°35′N 1°22′E, tides are
rotary clockwise. When strongest they run in the direction
of the channel with a spring rate of 1½ to 2 kn but at other
times relatively strong sets across the channel may be
encountered.
See also 11.24 to 11.27, information on the charts and
Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-Tidal Charts: Thames
Estuary.
Principal marks
11.81 1
Landmarks are listed under the channel to which they
are most applicable:
Fisherman’s Gat:
Meteorological mast (lighted) (51°35′⋅6N 1°23′⋅1E).
Princes Channel:
North Foreland Lighthouse (51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅7E)
(4.132).
Shivering Sand Towers (51°30′N 1°05′E) (11.48).
2
Knock John Channel:
Knock John Tower (51°33′⋅8N 1°09′⋅7E) (11.48).
Major light:
North Foreland Light—as above.
CHAPTER 11
245
Directions from North East Spit Pilot Station
to River Thames entrance
Route through Fisherman’s Gat to Oaze Deep
(Continued from 4.133)
11.82 1
North East Spit Pilot Station to Fisherman’s Gat.
From the North East Spit Pilot Station (51°25′N 1°30′E)
the route leads N for 6 miles passing:
E of NE Spit Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°27′⋅9N
1°29′⋅9E), thence:
E of the Tongue DW anchorage area (51°31′N
1°29′E).
2
Thence the track alters NW for Fisherman’s Gat, a
distance of 5 miles.
Useful mark:
Outer Tongue Light-buoy (safe water; racon)
(51°30′⋅7N 1°26′⋅4E).
11.83 1
Fisherman’s Gat (51°35′N 1°22′E) leads 4 miles NW
across the S end of Long Sand and connects Knock Deep
to Black Deep. It is normally restricted to vessels with a
draught of over 6 m. The outer end is marked by Outer
Fisherman Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°33′⋅9N 1°25′⋅0E),
the inner end by Inner Fisherman Light-buoy (port hand)
(51°36′⋅1N 1°19′⋅9E). The channel, which is marked by
light-buoys (lateral: numbers prefixed by “Fisherman”), is
about 3 cables wide.
2
Black Deep (51°37′N 1°20′E). From a position at the
inner end of Fisherman’s Gat, the track enters Black Deep
(11.53) and proceeds 6 miles SW to its junction with
Knock John Channel.
Useful marks:
NW Long Sand Beacon (51°34′⋅8N 1°18′⋅1E).
SW Sunk Beacon (51°36′⋅6N 1°14′⋅7E).
Knock John Tower (51°33′⋅8N 1°09′⋅7E).
(Directions for Knock John Channel and Oaze Deep
are given at 11.55 and 11.56)
Charts 1607, 1609
Route through Princes Channel to Oaze Deep
(Continued from 4.133)
11.84 1
North East Spit Pilot Station to Princes Channel.
From the vicinity of North East Spit Pilot Station (51°25′N
1°30′E), the route leads 3½ miles N, passing clear of NE
Spit Light-buoy (E cardinal) (51°28′⋅0N 1°29′⋅9E) marking
the extremity of NE Spit, thence 4 miles W to a position N
of Princes Approach Light−buoy (safe water) (51°28′⋅6N
1°23′⋅6E) at the entrance to Princes Channel. Princes
Approach Light−buoy should be passed on the port side.
11.85
1
Princes Channel provides the most direct route to the
River Thames from the E and SE and is normally used by
vessels with a draught of less than 6 m. From a position N
of Princes Approach Light−buoy (safe water) (51°28′⋅6N
1°23′⋅6E), the route through the channel leads 14 miles W
to Oaze Deep (11.56). The channel is marked by
light−buoys (lateral) and passes (with positions from
Shivering Sand Towers (51°30′N 1°05′E) (11.48)):
2
S of the remains of Tongue Sand Tower (10¾ miles
E) which is marked by light−buoys (N and
E cardinal). Outer Princes Light−buoy (S cardinal
is moored 1 mile SW of the tower. Thence:
3
S of Shingles (5 miles E), a shallow bank extending
along the entire N side of the channel, thence:
N of Tongue (6½ miles ESE), Ridge (5½ miles ESE)
and Pan Sand (3½ miles ESE) which together form
a narrow shoal that dries in places, extending E
from the NE side of Kentish Flats (12.23), thence:
S of Shivering Sand Towers, marked on the S side by
a light-buoy (S cardinal), and N of E Redsand
Light-buoy (port hand) (7 cables SW) to Oaze
Deep.
11.86
1
Useful marks:
Pan Sand Beacon (S cardinal) (51°28′N 1°10′E).
South Girdler Beacon (51°28′N 1°07′E), in ruins.
(Directions for Oaze Deep are given at 11.56)
Side channels
Charts 1607, 1975
Knock Deep
11.87 1
Knock Deep (51°39′N 1°33′E), which lies with Kentish
Knock (11.34) to the E and Long Sand (11.53) to the W,
provides an alternative approach to Fisherman’s Gat (11.83)
from the NE. It is approached from the Through Route
(11.34) as it passes E of Long Sand Head and, from that
position, runs 16 miles in a generally SSW direction to the
entrance to Fisherman’s Gat. The channel is at least 2 miles
wide and straight, but is not buoyed and should only be
used when the position of the vessel can be accurately and
reliably fixed.
See 11.78.
Chart 1975
Foulger’s Gat
11.88
1
Foulger’s Gat (51°38′N 1°26′E) is a narrow channel for
small craft about 3 miles long which runs N to S across
Long Sand connecting Black Deep to Knock Deep. The
channel is marked by Long Sand Outer Light-buoy (safe
water) (51°36′⋅0N 1°26′⋅3E) at its S end and Long Sand
Inner Light-buoy (safe water) (51°38′⋅8N 1°25′⋅6E) at its N
end. Depths of less than 5⋅0 m exist in mid−channel.
See 11.78.
Chart 1606
North Edinburgh Channel
11.89
1
North Edinburgh Channel (51°33′N 1°20′E) curves
between Long Sand to the N and Shingles Patch to the S, a
distance of 5 miles from the entrance to its junction with
Knob Channel in the vicinity of Shingles Patch Light-buoy
(N cardinal) (51°33′⋅0N 1°15′⋅4E). The channel is
unmarked.
South Edinburgh Channel
11.90 1
South Edinburgh Channel (51°32′N 1°15′E) lies between
Shingles Patch (11.91) to its NE and Shingles (11.91) to its
SW. It leads 3 miles NW joining Knob Channel (11.91) to
the SW of N Shingles Light-buoy (port hand). The channel
is not buoyed. An historic wreck surrounded by a restriced
area is situated on the NE side of the channel (11.79).
Charts 1607, 1609
Knob Channel
11.91
1
From a position at the NW entrance to North Edinburgh
Channel, Knob Channel leads 8 miles WSW to Oaze Deep
(11.56), passing (with positions from Knock John Tower
(51°33′⋅8N 1°09′⋅7E) (11.48)):
2
NNW of Shingles Patch (4 miles ESE), marked on its
NW side by Shingles Patch Light-buoy (N
CHAPTER 11
246
cardinal) and at its NW extremity by N Shingles
Light-buoy (port hand), thence:
SSE of Tizard Bank (2 miles SE), marked on its SE
side by Tizard Light-buoy (S cardinal), thence:
3
NNW of Shingles (3½ miles SE) a shoal marked on
its NW side by Mid Shingles Light-buoy (port
hand) and at its W extremity by NW Shingles
Light-buoy (N cardinal), thence:
4
SSE of Knob Shoal (1½ miles SSW) marked on its
SE side by NE Knob Light-buoy (starboard hand)
and at its W extremity by SE Knob Light-buoy
(starboard hand), thence:
5
Between Shivering Sand Towers (5 miles SW) (11.48)
and Knob Light-buoy (safe water), 1 mile NNW, at
the junction of Knob Channel with Knock John
Channel, thence:
To Oaze Deep (11.56).
Chart 1606
Alexandra Channel
11.92 1
Alexandra Channel (51°30′N 1°10′E) leads WNW from
the W end of Princes Channel into Knob Channel passing
N of Girdler, a small shoal patch close SW of Shingles
(11.85). The channel is unmarked.
Anchorages
Chart 1607
11.93 1
Tongue DW Anchorage (51°31′N 1°29′E), lies to the E
of Outer Tongue Light-buoy (safe water). The limits of the
anchorage are shown on the chart. Anchorage for small
vessels may be found in Margate Road (12.16).
NOTES
247
1607
2482
2571
1609
1606
2571
2572
1827
1828
1607
3683
1205
1
2
.
2
2
1
2
.
5
4
1
12.35
12.17
1
2
.5
5
2
.7
1
2
.
57
1
2
.
6
6
1
2
.
5
9
North
Foreland
Overland Passage
H
o
r
s
e
C
h
a
n
l
n
e
F
o
u
r
F
a
t
h
o
m
s
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Princes Channel
S
o
u
t
h
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
G
o
r
e
Ch
a
n
n
e
l
Broadstairs
Ramsgate
F
a
v
e
r
s
h
a
m
The Nore
The Cant
Warden Point
Milton
Creek
Whitstable
Margate
E
a
t
a
s
S
w
l
e
Isle of Sheppey
NE Spit
Pilot Station
Q
u
e
e
n
'
s
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
1°
Longitude 1° East from Greenwich
30´
30´20´
20´
10´50´
10´50´
30´
30´
20´20´
51°
51°
Chapter 12 - North Foreland to the Nore and East Swale
248
249
CHAPTER 12
NORTH FORELAND TO THE NORE AND EAST SWALE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1607, 2482
Scope of chapter
12.1 1
This chapter describes the two inshore routes from North
Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E) (4.129) to The Nore (51°29′N
0°48′E) (15.25) (Chart 1185) which are used by small
sea-going vessels. The S of the two routes leads through
South Channel (51°24′N 1°21′E) (12.32) thence Gore
Channel (12.32), Horse Channel (12.32), Overland Passage
(12.32), Four Fathoms Channel (12.64), The Cant (16.28)
and finally The Nore.
2
The alternative is Queens Channel (51°28′N 1°20′E)
(12.66) which connects at its W end with Four Fathoms
Channel (12.64).
3
The N coast of Kent between North Foreland and
Warden Point (51°25′N 0°54′E) (16.28) on the Isle of
Sheppey (16.3) is also described together with East Swale
(51°21′N 0°54′E) (12.46) as far as Milton Creek (51°22′N
0°46′E) (16.114).
Topography
12.2 1
North Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E) (4.129) stands on the
NE extremity of Kent whence the coast curves to the W
and runs 15 miles W to Whitstable (12.35), which is
3 miles E of Shell Ness (12.54) the E point of the Isle of
Sheppey. East Swale is entered between Whitstable and
Shell Ness. From Shell Ness the N coast of the Isle of
Sheppey runs 3½ miles NW to Warden Point.
2
The coast is fronted by shallow flats and sands which
dry up to 1 mile offshore and there are isolated but
extensive drying patches throughout the area covered in
this chapter.
Depths
12.3 1
London VTS (11.18) should be consulted for the latest
information on depths within the area.
Pilotage, traffic regulations and rescue
12.4 1
The S limit of the Port of London (11.2) runs E from
Warden Point and parallel to and 3 miles N of the coast of
Kent as shown on the chart. For pilotage in the Port of
London Authority area see 11.12 and for traffic regulations,
emergency procedures and rescue see 11.18 to 11.23.
2
The East Swale lies within the area of jurisdiction of
Medway Ports (16.4). For pilotage in the Medway see
16.10 and for traffic regulations, emergencies and rescue
see 16.11 to 16.15.
Wind farm
12.5
1
Kentish Flats Offshore Windfarm comprises 30 wind
turbines in a diamond−shaped area centred on 51°27′⋅6N
1°05′⋅7E, as shown on the chart. Lights (special) and
obstruction lights are displayed from eight turbines at the
corners and sides of the area.
Submarine cables
12.6
1
A submarine cable corridor, limits of which are shown
on the chart, extends S from the offshore wind farm (12.5)
to the mainland at Herne Bay (51°22′N 1°06′E). Anchoring
and fishing in the corridor are prohibited.
NORTH FORELAND TO MARGATE
General information
Chart 1828
Route
12.7 1
From a position E of North Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E)
(4.129) in the vicinity of Elbow Light-buoy (N cardinal)
the route leads 4 miles WNW then 2 miles W to a position
N of Margate.
Topography
12.8 1
Between North Foreland and Margate the coast is
formed by cliffs fringed by rocky ledges, and runs 6 cables
NNW to White Ness, thence 7 cables NW to Foreness
Point, whence the coast runs 2 miles W to Margate.
Depths
12.9 1
Depending on the precise route taken, depths in excess
of 10 m can be maintained.
Submarine cables
12.10
1
Several submarine cables, used and disused, extend NE
from Joss Bay, 4 cables NNE of North Foreland Light
(51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅7E). The cable landing place is marked by
a beacon (yellow diamond topmark).
Rescue
12.11 1
Margate Coastguard station is at Foreness Point. Coast
rescue equipment is maintained. For details of stations see
1.122.
A VHF direction finding station, controlled by MRCC
Dover, is situated at North Foreland Lighthouse. See 1.113
for details of the direction finding service.
An all-weather and an inshore lifeboat are stationed at
Margate. For details of lifeboats see 1.123.
Tidal streams
12.12 1
From −0120 HW Dover until +0045 HW Dover the tidal
streams run N and W from The Downs (51°13′N 1°27′E)
and into the Thames Estuary, but after this the N-going
stream meets an E-going stream from the estuary until
+0440 HW Dover. From −0450 HW Dover until −0120
HW Dover the streams run W into the estuary and S to
The Downs.
2
Near the land between North Foreland and Foreness
Point (51°24′N 1°26′E) the stream sets to the NW between
−0120 HW Dover and +0045 HW Dover and is then
irregular with considerable turbulence until +0440 HW
CHAPTER 12
250
Dover. Then the stream sets SE until −0450 HW Dover,
when it becomes weak and irregular until −0120 HW
Dover.
3
See also Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-Tidal
Charts: Thames Estuary and information on the chart.
Principal marks
12.13 1
Landmarks:
North Foreland Lighthouse (51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅7E)
(4.132). The ruins of Kingsgate Castle are 5 cables
N of the lighthouse.
Building (51°22′⋅9N 1°24′⋅3E). From the N this
building appears as the highest and most prominent
mark between North Foreland and Herne Bay,
12 miles W.
Building (51°23′⋅2N 1°22′⋅5E) (12.19).
2
Major light:
North Foreland Light—as above.
Directions
(continued from 4.133)
12.14 1
From a position E of North Foreland (51°23′N 1°27′E)
(4.129) in the vicinity of Elbow Light-buoy (N cardinal)
the route leads 4 miles WNW then 2 miles W to a position
N of Margate, passing (with positions from North Foreland
Lighthouse (51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅7E)):
2
NNE of Elbow (3½ miles E) (4.133), thence:
NNE of North Foreland (4.129). A submarine
pipeline extends 2 miles ENE from a position close
N of North Foreland. Thence:
3
NNE of Longnose Ledge (1⋅3 miles NW), where the
route rounds to the W and passes through Margate
Road, which lies between the coastal bank and
Margate Sand. The latter dries and runs about
7 miles WSW and is marked at its NE extremity
by E Margate Light-buoy (port hand). Longnose
Ledge is composed of chalk rocks and extends NE
from Foreness Point drying up to 3 cables from the
point. Longnose Buoy (port hand) is moored to the
N of the ledge. Outfalls extend 3 cables NNE and
1 mile NNE from the point and are marked at their
extremities by a buoy (N cardinal) and a
light-buoy (port hand) respectively. Botany Bay
lies between White Ness and Foreness Point,
7 cables WNW and Palm Bay lies W of the point.
Thence:
4
To a position N of Margate (2½ miles WNW).
12.15 1
Useful mark:
Margate Stone Pier (51°23′⋅5N 1°22′⋅7E) (12.20).
White Ness Tower (51°23′⋅2N 1°26′⋅5E).
(Directions continue at 12.32)
Anchorage
12.16 1
There is an anchorage in Margate Road (51°25′N
1°25′E) which is sheltered from S winds. Depths are
between 11 and 16 m and vessels should anchor about
1 mile offshore and as far W as draught will permit.
White Ness Tower from E (12.15)
(Original dated 1998)
(Photograph − Naval Party 1016)
Margate
Chart 1827 plan of Margate
General information
12.17 1
Margate (51°23′N 1°23′E) is principally a seaside resort
town. It has a small harbour which dries and which is used
mainly by recreational craft.
The population of the town is about 57 000.
The harbour is owned by the Margate Pier and Harbour
Company.
Limiting conditions
12.18 1
Controlling depths. The approach to the harbour dries
2 m and the harbour itself to about 3 m in some places.
However depths may vary according to the prevailing
winds.
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 4⋅3 m; mean neap range
about 2⋅5 m.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels take the
bottom, mud and sand, at LW but vessels up to 3⋅5 m
draught can lie alongside the head of Stone Pier at HW
springs.
Harbour
12.19 1
The harbour is formed by Stone Pier, which protects it
from the N. The entrance faces W. There are moorings for
small craft in the harbour.
Principal mark:
Building (51°23′⋅2N 1°22′⋅5E), 4 cables SW of the
root of Stone Pier.
Directions
12.20 1
The harbour is approached from seaward passing
between the head of Stone Pier, on which stands a
lighthouse (stone tower, 20 m in height), and a beacon (red
and white, can topmark), 2 cables W of the head of the
CHAPTER 12
251
Margate from NW (12.19)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
pier, marking the E side of Nayland Rock. Thence there is
direct approach to the harbour from the W.
Port services
12.21 1
Facilities: hospitals with helicopter landing sites.
Supplies: water; provisions and supplies of all kinds.
MARGATE TO WHITSTABLE
General information
Chart 1607
Route
12.22 1
From a position N of Margate (51°23′N 1°23′E) (12.17)
the route runs 12 miles in a generally W direction, roughly
parallel to the coast, through a series of channels to a
position N of Whitstable (12.35).
Topography
12.23 1
Initially the coast to the W of Margate is formed by
cliffs which are broken by several bays. The cliffs are
fronted by rocky ledges which dry up to 4 cables offshore.
Thence the coast as far as Reculver, a coastal village
7 miles W of Margate, is low and flat and fringed by a
sandbank which dries up to 5 cables offshore. This part of
the coast is fronted by groynes and sluices. The Minnies
(51°23′N 1°17′E), a ledge of drying rocks extending
2 cables offshore lies at the junction between the cliffs and
the low coastline.
2
Between Reculver and the town of Herne Bay (12.45),
3 miles W, the coast is formed by earth cliffs up to 30 m
high and fronted by a drying sandbank which extends up to
3½ cables offshore. Beltinge Bay lies between Reculver and
Herne Bay. The low coastline fronted by sandbanks
continues as far as Whitstable, 3½ miles W of Herne Bay.
Studhill Bay and Tankerton Bay, both slight indentations in
the coastline, lie between Herne Bay and Whitstable.
3
Kentish Flats (51°27′N 1°08′E), as defined by the 5 m
depth contour extend up to 6½ miles N of the coast. There
are many shoal patches over the flats, which are bordered
to both the E and W by drying patches.
Depths
12.24 1
Depths vary in the channels. There is a least depth of
4⋅1m in South Channel at its W end. From Gore Channel
to Overland Passage there is a least depth (2005) of 1⋅0 m
in mid−channel between E Last and Hook Spit Light−buoys
(51°24′N 1°12′E) (12.32).
Local knowledge
12.25 1
The route described can only be used by small vessels.
Local knowledge is required.
Movement reporting
12.26 1
Vessels, both inbound and outbound, are required to
report to London VTS on crossing the boundary of the Port
of London to the S of Spaniard Light-buoy (E cardinal)
(51°26′N 1°04′E).
Submarine cables
12.27
1
See 12.6.
Oyster beds
12.28 1
Oyster beds occupy a considerable area of the seabed
between The Reculvers (51°22′⋅8N 1°12′⋅0E) (12.31) and
Whitstable, 6 miles W. Vessels grounding on these beds are
liable for damages.
Rescue
12.29 1
There are Coastguard stations at Herne Bay and
Whitstable. Coast rescue equipment is maintained at both
stations. See 1.110 for details of stations.
An inshore lifeboat is stationed at Whitstable. See 1.123
for details of lifeboats.
Tidal streams
12.30 1
The stream in the E approach to South Channel
(51°24′N 1°21′E) (12.32) is nearly rectilinear. See also
12.12, Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-Tidal Charts:
Thames Estuary and information on the chart.
Principal marks
12.31 1
Landmarks:
Building (51°23′⋅2N 1°22′⋅5E) (12.19).
Two towers (51°22′⋅8N 1°12′⋅0E), known as The
Reculvers.
Water tower (51°22′⋅1N 1°08′⋅5E).
Block of flats (building) (51°22′⋅3N 1°07′⋅3E) at
Herne Bay.
The Reculvers from NE (12.31)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
CHAPTER 12
252
2
Offshore mark:
Lattice tower (lighted) 77 m in height (51°26′⋅8N
1°04′⋅7E).
Directions
(continued from 12.15)
12.32 1
From a position N of Margate (51°23′N 1°23′E) (12.17)
the route runs 12 miles W, roughly parallel to the coast, to
a position N of Whitstable (12.35), passing (with positions
from The Reculvers (51°22′⋅8N 1°12′⋅0E) (12.31)):
2
Through South Channel (5 miles ENE), which
includes Margate Road (12.14) and lies between
Margate Sand (12.14) to the N and the coastal
shoals, in particular Nayland Ledge (6 miles ENE)
which extends 7 cables offshore. SE Margate
Light-buoy (E cardinal) is moored at the NE end
of the channel. There is a tendency for a bar to
form at the W end of the channel in the vicinity of
Cliff End Banks, which are patches extending
across the channel. S Margate Light-buoy
(starboard hand) is moored on the NW side of
these patches. Thence:
3
Through Gore Channel (2 miles NE) the continuation
W of South Channel which lies between Margate
Hook and the shoals bordering the coast, formed
mainly by Reculver Sand, which dries 8 cables N
of The Reculvers. There are rocky ledges on
Reculver Sand including Black Rock, which dries.
A stranded wreck, marked by a buoy (port hand),
lies to the S of the channel on the drying line of
the coastal shoals. There are also drying patches
close N and E of the buoy. Margate Hook on the
N side of the channel, dries and is marked on its S
side by Margate Hook beacon (S cardinal) (2 miles
NE).
4
Between E Last Light-buoy (port hand) and Hook
Spit Light-buoy (starboard hand) marking Gore
Channel at its W end (1¼ miles N). Thence:
5
Through Horse Channel (2 miles NW), an unmarked
channel, the continuation W of Gore Channel.
Woolpack, a shoal, lies to the N of the channel.
Copperas Channel, which is unmarked, lies S of
Horse Channel. Thence:
6
To a position at the W end of Overland Passage
(4 miles WNW) to the N of Whitstable (12.35).
Overland Passage is unmarked and runs 6 miles
WNW from Horse Channel to Four Fathoms
Channel (12.64). Pudding Pan lies on the N side
of Overland Passage and Studhill and Clite Hole
Bank to the S. Concrete boulders lie on the bottom
of these patches. An outfall, marked at its seaward
end by a buoy (port hand) extends 1 mile NNE
from the coast, 1 mile W of Herne Bay. East
Spaniard (6½ miles WNW) at the W end of
Overland Passage, on its N side, is marked on its
SE side by Spaniard Light-buoy (E cardinal).
Middle Sand is 2 miles W of East Spaniard;
between the two shoals there are a number of
charted wrecks and obstructions.
7
Caution. There are no good leading marks on this route.
12.33 1
Useful marks:
Spire (51°22′⋅4N 1°18′⋅4E) of the church at
Birchington, which stands on a rise.
Clock tower (51°22′⋅4N 1°07′⋅6E) standing on the
shore near the centre of Herne Bay.
(Directions continue for East Swale at 12.53 and
for passage W at 12.64)
Anchorages
12.34 1
There is anchorage in the narrow part of South Channel
off Westgate-on-Sea (51°23′N 1°20′E), which is partially
protected from the N. The recommended berth, shown on
the chart, is in a depth of 12 m, sand and mud, 1½ miles
NNE of Birchington Church Spire (12.33).
Anchorage is available for small craft in Gore Channel,
in a depth of 7 m, 4 cables SSE of Margate Hook Beacon
(51°24′⋅2N 1°14′⋅3E).
2
There is anchorage 2½ miles N of Whitstable Harbour in
the vicinity of Columbine Light−buoy (51°24′⋅3N 1°01′⋅3E)
and Whitstable Street Light-buoy, 4 cables SSE, in depths
between 3 and 5 m, mud. There is also anchorage in depths
between 3 and 5 m, 3½ miles NE of Whitstable in the
vicinity of 51°24′⋅5N 1°05′⋅0E.
Whitstable
Charts 1607, 2571 with plan of Whitstable
General information
12.35 1
Position. Whitstable (51°22′N 1°02′E) is 16 miles W of
North Foreland (4.129).
Function. It is a small port and also the centre of an
oyster fishery. The population is about 32 000.
2
Topography. The town lies at a point where the trend of
the coast changes from W to SW forming Whitstable Bay,
the head of which is a drying bank of fine sand and mud,
extending 1 mile offshore called Whitstable Flats. East
Swale (12.46) is entered on the W side of the bay.
3
Traffic. In 2004 the port handled 67 vessels with a total
deadweight of 121 504 tonnes.
Port Authority. Canterbury City Council, Harbour
Office, East Gate, Whitstable Harbour, Whitstable, Kent
CT5 1AB.
Limiting conditions
12.36 1
Controlling depth. The harbour dries and vessels take
the mud at LW. A depth of 4⋅9 m at MHWS is maintained
in the harbour.
Longest berth. East Quay (12.43).
Tidal levels see information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range in approaches to Whitstable
about 4⋅9 m; mean neap range about 3⋅0 m.
Maximum size of vessel handled is 95 m in length and
draught 4⋅9 m at HW springs and 3⋅85 m at HW neaps.
Arrival information
12.37 1
Port radio is operated. For details see Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6(1).
Notice of ETA required is 12 hours.
2
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 50 m in length.
Pilots board at NE Spit Pilot Station (51°25′N 1°30′E)
(vessels over 80 m LOA) or at Whitstable Street
Light-buoy (N cardinal) (51°24′N 1°02′E) (vessels between
50 and 80 m) and are provided by the Medway Pilotage
Service, see 16.10 for details.
Tugs can be arranged but 24 hours notice is required.
CHAPTER 12
253
Whitstable Harbour from NW (12.38)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
Harbour
12.38 1
General layout. The harbour consists of a narrow tidal
basin facing NW, with a smaller tidal basin running SW
from its head. There is berthing at all the quays which
form the harbour.
Traffic signals. A fixed red light exhibited below
Whitstable Main Light (12.42) indicates that the port is
closed.
12.39 1
Principal marks:
Building (28 m) (51°21′⋅8N 1°01′⋅7E).
Building (34 m) (51°21′⋅3N 1°01′⋅7E).
Church tower (square with flagstaff) (51°21′⋅3N
1°02′⋅4E).
Church tower (51°21′⋅5N 1°01′⋅5E).
Church tower (51°21′⋅7N 1°02′⋅3E).
Directions
12.40 1
Approach. It is advisable to arrive off Whitstable Street
Light-buoy not later than 1½ hours before HW.
The line of bearing 165½° of the dolphin (51°21′⋅9N
1°01′⋅5E) on the W side of the harbour entrance, which lies
in the green sector (156°−178°) of the light exhibited from
the dolphin, leads from a position W of Whitstable Street
Light-buoy (N cardinal) (51°24′N 1°02′E) to a position NW
of the harbour entrance, passing:
2
ENE of Columbine Spit (51°24′N 0°59′E) (12.54),
marked at its NE extremity by Columbine Spit
Light−buoy (starboard hand), thence:
ENE of Pollard Spit (51°23′N 0°59′E) (12.54),
marked at its N extremity by Pollard Spit
Light-buoy (port hand), thence:
3
WSW of Whitstable Street, (51°22′N 1°02′E) an old
causeway, but now a hard drying ridge which
extends 1 mile from the coast. A buoy (special)
marks the seaward end of an outfall, 2 cables W of
the root of Whitstable Street. Thence:
W of Oyster Light-buoy (port hand), moored 4 cables
NW of the entrance, thence:
4
To a position close NW of the entrance to Whitstable
Harbour.
12.41 1
Directional light. The bearing (122°) in the white sector
(120½°−123½°) of the light (metal framework tower) in
position 51°21′⋅8N 1°01′⋅7E leads through the harbour
entrance, between East and West Quays. Lights are
exhibited from metal poles at the heads of the two quays.
Caution. A beacon (N cardinal) is located ½ cable
WSW of the head of the West Quay. There are yacht
moorings in the vicinity.
12.42 1
Useful marks:
Tankerton Castle (51°21′⋅9N 1°02′⋅1E).
Whitstable Main Light (white mast) (51°21′⋅8N
1°01′⋅6E).
Berths
12.43 1
The four quays have a total length of 680 m, providing
8 berths. East Quay has a length of 228 m. Fishing vessels
use the SW corner of the harbour.
Port services
12.44 1
Repairs of a minor nature only.
Other facilities: deratting exemption certificates only
issued.
CHAPTER 12
254
Supplies: water at the quays; marine fuels by road
tanker; supplies and provisions.
Minor harbour
Herne Bay
12.45
1
Herne Bay, (51°22′N 1°07′E), a seaside resort, is
protected by a curving breakwater, 600 m in length, which
extends W to a point about 200 m offshore, and a pier, on
which stands a pavilion, extending 75 m N from the shore.
Lights are exhibited from the end of the breakwater and the
pavilion. The harbour dries.
About 6 cables N of the pavilion stands the remains of
the old pier head, from which a light is exhibited.
2
An outfall, marked by a light-beacon (red beacon on
black dolphin) at its seaward extremity, extends 3½ cables
N from the coast on the E side of the town.
There is a slipway 1 mile W of the pier. Yacht racing
marks are laid off the town during the summer months.
Herne Bay from E (12.45)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
EASTERN PART OF THE SWALE
General information
Charts 2571, 2572
Route
12.46 1
East Swale is approached from the vicinity of Whitstable
Street Light-buoy (N cardinal) (51°24′N 1°02′E) and is
entered between Columbine Spit (51°24′N 0°59′E) (12.54)
and Pollard Spit (51°23′N 0°59′E) (12.54), whence the
route runs 10 miles in a generally W direction to the
causeway at Elmley Ferry, close E of Milton Creek.
2
Vessels bound for Milton Creek (16.114) and Ridham
Dock (16.114) normally approach by West Swale.
Topography
12.47 1
The N coast of Kent from Whitstable (51°22′N 1°02′E)
(12.35) to the entrance to Faversham Creek (12.56), 5 miles
W, is low and embanked in places. The coast is backed by
higher ground which lies about 1 mile inland. The SE and
S coasts of the Isle of Sheppey (16.3), to the N of East
Swale, are low, except for higher ground around the
villages of Harty (51°21′⋅5N 0°54′⋅0E) and Elmley,
4¼ miles W of Harty.
2
Initially the channel is quite wide and maintains a width
of between 1½ and 2 cables between the drying lines as far
as Spitend Point (51°21′⋅8N 0°51′⋅0E) (12.55), but above
the point the channel is narrow and intricate.
Depths
12.48 1
Depths in excess of 2 m can be maintained as far as
Spitend Point, but above the point the main channel leading
to Elmley Ferry (12.55) has a least depth of 0⋅2 m.
Oyster beds
12.49 1
The whole of the entrance outside the channel to East
Swale is occupied with oyster beds, which continue either
side of the channel through East Swale. Vessels grounding
on these beds are liable for damages.
Pilotage and traffic regulations
12.50 1
See 12.4.
Tidal information
12.51 1
See 16.107, information on the charts and Admiralty
Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-tidal Charts: Thames Estuary.
Principal marks
12.52 1
Landmarks:
Saint Clement’s Church (51°23′⋅8N 0°54′⋅5E) (chart
1607).
Stranded wreck (triangular topmark) (51°20′⋅5N
0°53′⋅8E) on the W side of the entrance to
Faversham Creek.
2
Pylon (51°20′⋅2N 0°53′⋅9E), second similar pylon
280 m W, which carry the power cables crossing
Faversham Creek.
Chimneys (51°21′⋅8N 0°45′⋅4E).
For marks at Whitstable see 12.39.
Directions
(continued from 12.33)
12.53 1
Caution. The buoys marking the channel through East
Swale are shifted as necessary to mark changes in the
channel. The channel should not be attempted at night.
12.54 1
Whitstable Street Light-buoy to Faversham Creek.
From a position between Whitstable Street Light-buoy (N
cardinal) (51°24′N 1°02′E) and Columbine Light−buoy,
4½ cables NNW (starboard hand), the route leads 5½ miles
following the channel in a generally SW direction to a
position off the entrance to Faversham Creek (12.56),
passing:
2
SE of Columbine Spit (51°24′N 0°59′E) a narrow
tongue of mud and sand, which dries and extends
2 miles NE of Shell Ness. The spit is marked on
its SE side by Columbine Spit Light−buoy and
Ham Gat Light−buoy (both starboard hand). And:
3
NW of Pollard Spit (51°23′N 0°59′E) composed of
mud and sand, which extends 2 miles N from the
coast and is marked at its N extremity by Pollard
Spit Light-buoy (port hand), thence:
CHAPTER 12
255
Faversham Creek from NNE (12.56)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
4
SE of Shell Ness (51°22′N 0°57′E), which is the SE
extremity of Isle of Sheppey (16.3) and the NW
entry point to East Swale, whence the track lies
mid-channel. Thence:
5
To a position between Faversham Spit Buoy (N
cardinal) (51°20′⋅8N 0°54′⋅2E), marking the
entrance to Faversham Creek (12.56), and the
light-buoy (starboard hand) 1½ cables NE. A
wreck lies 1 cable NW of the light-buoy.
12.55 1
Faversham Creek to Elmley Ferry. From a position N
of the entrance to Faversham Creek (51°20′⋅6N 0°53′⋅9E)
(12.56) the route continues 5 miles in a generally W
direction to the causeway which crosses the river close E
of the entrance to Milton Creek (16.114). The channel is
marked by numbered buoys and is reasonably wide as far
as Spitend Point, 2 miles WNW of Faversham Creek,
where it narrows to about 150 m in places and runs
between extensive drying banks. Small craft moorings lie
on the S side of the channel for about 1 mile WNW of
Faversham Creek. A beacon (port hand) marks a scrubbing
dock at the W end of the moorings. Fowley Spit light-buoy
(E cardinal) is moored 4 cables SSE of Spitend Point on
the N side of the entrance to South Deep, which leads to
Conyer Creek (12.58). Elmley Buoy (starboard hand) is
moored 1 cable E of the causeway at Elmley Ferry and
North Ferry (starboard hand) and South Ferry Buoy (port
hand) 1 cable W of the causeway.
2
Caution. The direction of the lateral buoyage changes to
the W of these two buoys.
Side channels
Chart 2571 plan of Faversham Creek
Faversham Creek
12.56 1
Faversham Creek, which dries, winds 2 miles in a S
direction to Faversham (12.57). The entrance, marked by
Faversham Spit Buoy (N cardinal) is 1 cable wide,
thereafter the channel is marked by numbered buoys (port
and starboard hand) and beacons. Oare Creek, which dries,
branches SW from Faversham Creek, 4 cables inside the
entrance to the latter.
2
The creek is under the jurisdiction of Medway Ports
(16.4).
12.57 1
Faversham (51°19′N 0°54′E) at the head of Faversham
Creek has a small harbour occasionally used by coasters.
Water may be impounded in the upper part of the creek by
dock gates at the swing bridge in the town.
Mean tidal levels: MHWS 5⋅6 m; MHWN 4⋅5 m; no data
on LW levels.
Chart 2572 plan of Conyer Creek
Conyer Creek
12.58 1
Conyer Creek (51°21′⋅3N 0°48′⋅9E), which dries, runs
7 cables in a generally S direction to the village of Conyer.
The channel is marked by buoys. The creek contains two
yacht marinas.
WHITSTABLE TO THE NORE
General information
Chart 1607
Route
12.59 1
Four Fathoms Channel (51°26′N 0°59′E) (12.64) runs W
from Overland Passage (12.32) to The Cant (16.28) and
thence to the W end of The Warp (11.64), where it joins
the Medway Approach Channel (16.17) or Yantlet Dredged
Channel (15.25) as appropriate.
Topography
12.60 1
The NE coast of the Isle of Sheppey between Shell Ness
(51°22′N 0°57′E) (12.54) and Warden Point (16.28),
3 miles NW, is low and bordered by an extensive drying
bank of sand and mud which extends up to 1¾ miles
CHAPTER 12
256
offshore. For a description of the coast W of Warden Point
see 16.18.
2
The 2 m depth contour runs parallel to the drying line,
about 1 mile to seaward. Four Fathom Channel, so called
because of its depth at HW springs, runs between the 2 m
depth contour and further shoals to the N, some of which
dry.
Depths
12.61 1
Apart from several charted obstructions there is a least
charted depth (2001) of 2⋅1 m in this channel.
Tidal information
12.62 1
See 16.107, information on the chart and Admiralty
Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-tidal Charts: Thames Estuary.
Principal marks
12.63 1
Offshore marks:
Red Sand Towers (51°28′⋅6N 0°59′⋅4E) (11.48).
Lattice tower (51°26′⋅8N 1°04′⋅7E) (12.31).
Directions
(continued from 12.33)
12.64 1
From a position N of Whitstable (51°22′N 1°02′E)
(12.35) in the vicinity of Spaniard Light-buoy (E cardinal)
(51°26′N 1°04′E) the route runs 5 miles W following Four
Fathoms Channel, which is quite narrow as shown on the
chart, thence 3 miles NW across The Cant (16.28) to a
position at the W end of The Warp (11.64), passing (with
positions from Warden Point (51°25′N 0°54′E)):
2
S of Middle Sand (4½ miles ENE), which dries and
extends E into East Middle Sand, which also dries,
thence:
3
S of Middle Sand Beacon (safe water) (4 miles NE),
which stands between Middle Sand and Red Sand,
thence:
S of Red Sand (4 miles NE), which dries, and:
N of Shell Ness (3 miles SE) (12.54), thence:
4
S of Spile (2¼ miles NNE), which dries and is
marked at its SW extremity by Spile Light-buoy
(starboard hand), whence the track rounds to the
NW at the W end of Four Fathoms Channel.
Thence:
SW of East Cant (3 miles N), on which stands the
ruin of Cant Beacon, thence:
5
NE of Beacon F (orange triangle point down)
(3 miles NNW), which stands on The Cant (16.28),
thence:
To a position at the W end of The Warp (4 miles
NNW) whence there is direct access to the
Medway Approach Channel (16.17) or Yantlet
Channel (15.25) as appropriate.
6
Caution. Several charted wrecks and obstructions lie off
the S side of Middle Sand.
(Directions continue for Medway Approach Channel
at 16.28 and for Yantlet Channel at 15.25.
Directions for Swatchway are given at 15.31)
Anchorages
12.65 1
There is anchorage for vessels of less than 4 m draught
between East Spaniard (51°26′⋅6N 1°03′⋅4E) and Middle
Sand, 5 cables NW.
Vessels of lesser draught may anchor S of Spile
(51°26′⋅6N 0°57′⋅1E).
QUEENS CHANNEL
General information
Charts 1607
Description
12.66 1
Queens Channel (51°28′N 1°18′E) provides an
alternative route to the Thames Estuary from the SE. The
channel is not buoyed and is more in the nature of a bight
encircled by shoals, which is terminated at its W end by
Kentish Flats (12.23). Shallow passages over Kentish Flats
lead farther W to connect with Four Fathoms Channel
(12.64).
Depths
12.67 1
Depths within Queens Channel are irregular but decrease
to the W and by Pan Sand Hole (51°27′N 1°10′E) (12.71)
at the W extremity of the channel are less than 5 m.
Thence there are depths of less than 3m on the passage
leading W from Pan Sand Hole.
Submarine cables
12.68
1
See 12.6.
Tidal information
12.69 1
The tidal streams in Queens Channel to the N of
Margate Sand are nearly rectilinear. See information on the
chart and Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-tidal
Charts: Thames Estuary.
Principal marks
12.70 1
Landmarks:
North Foreland Lighthouse (51°22′⋅5N 1°26′⋅7E)
(4.132).
Building (51°22′⋅9N 1°24′⋅3E) (12.13).
Building (51°23′⋅2N 1°22′⋅5E).
The Reculvers (51°22′⋅8N 1°12′⋅0E) (12.31).
2
Water tower (51°22′⋅1N 1°08′⋅5E).
Building (51°22′⋅3N 1°07′⋅3E), a block of flats.
Offshore marks:
Shivering Sand Towers (51°30′N 1°05′E) (11.48).
Lattice tower (51°26′⋅8N 1°04′⋅7E) (12.31).
Major light:
North Foreland Light—as above.
CHAPTER 12
257
Directions
Queens Channel
12.71 1
From a position between NE Spit Light-buoy (E
cardinal) (51°28′N 1°30′E) and E Margate Light-buoy (port
hand), 2½ miles WSW, the route leads 11 miles W through
Queens Channel to Pan Sand Hole at the W end of the
channel, passing (with positions from Pan Sand Beacon
(51°28′N 1°10′E) (11.85):
2
N of Margate Sand (6½ miles ESE), thence:
N of Wedge (4 miles ESE), thence:
S of Tongue (3 miles E), thence:
S of Ridge (1¾ miles ENE) (11.85), and:
To Pan Sand Hole (½ mile S), which lies S of Pan
Sand (11.85) and Pan Sand Beacon (S cardinal).
Pan Sand Hole to Four Fathoms Channel
12.72 1
From a position at the W end of Pan Sand Hole
(51°27′N 1°10′E) direct approach may be made to Four
Fathoms Channel (12.64), 6 miles WSW, via Overland
Passage (12.32) and passing SE of Spaniard Light-buoy (E
cardinal) (51°26′N 1°04′E).
See caution at 12.64.
Anchorages
12.73 1
There is good anchorage in Pan Sand Hole in depths
from 5 to 8 m, close S of Pan Sand Beacon (51°28′N
1°10′E).
There is anchorage on the N side of Margate Sand
(51°26′N 1°20′E), which is sheltered from S winds.
1543
2695
2052
2695
1594
2693
2693
1491
1205
1
3
.
8
2
1
3
.
2
9
1
3
.
7
9
1
3
.
3
0
13.121
13.143
13.98
13.85
1
3
.
1
1
1
1
3
.
1
21
1
3
.
49
13.35
1
3
.5
1
3
.80
Ipswich
Southwold
NP 54
North Sea (West) Pilot
Orford
Ness
The
Naze
Walton
Backwaters
Harwich
Felixstowe
River Stour
R
i
v
e
r
O
r
w
e
l
l
R
i
v
e
r
D
e
b
e
n
Orford Haven
S
h
i
p
w
a
y
S
l
e
d
w
a
y
Haven Ports, Thames & Medway
Haven
Pilots Station
Outer Banks
1°
1°
1°
2°
2°
52°
52°
30´
40´50´
50´
50´50´
20´
20´
10´
10´
10´
20´
10´
20´
Longitude 1° East from Greenwich
30´
Chapter 13 - Southwold to the Naze
258
259
CHAPTER 13
SOUTHWOLD TO THE NAZE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 1610
Scope of chapter
13.1 1
This chapter describes the coast from the NW limit of
this volume, 2 miles S of Southwold (52°20′N 1°41′E) to
The Naze, 30 miles SSW and the coastal passage between
these points. The Outer Banks, a chain of dangerous shoals
extending 50 miles S from position 52°05′N 2°00′E,
15 miles E of Orford Ness are described at 11.5.
2
The ports of Harwich (13.98), Felixstowe (13.85) and
Ipswich (13.121) are also described.
Topography
13.2 1
The coast between Southwold and Orford Ness (13.15)
15 miles S, thence between Orford Ness and Woodbridge
Haven (13.49), 9 miles SW is mainly low, although there
are modest cliffs and grassy banks either side of
Woodbridge Haven at the mouth of the River Deben.
Landguard Point (13.80), 4 miles SW of Woodbridge
Haven, is on the E side of the mouth common to both the
Rivers Orwell (13.136) and Stour (13.111), which forms
Harwich Harbour. Close within the point lie the ports of
Harwich and Felixstowe.
2
Walton Backwaters (13.143), an extensive area of
low-lying islands, mud flats and creeks, forms the coast
between Harwich Harbour and The Naze, 4 miles SSW,
a cliff.
3
The 20 m depth contour lies within 5 miles of the coast
as far as Orford Ness. Thereafter it opens from the coast
and is 11 miles E of Landguard Point. The approach to
Harwich is encumbered with off-lying shoals and a broad
coastal bank, through which runs Harwich Channel, a
fairway maintained by dredging.
Direction of buoyage
13.3 1
The general direction of lateral buoyage off the coast
points N, however the local direction alters off Orford Ness
(52°05′N 1°35′E) to the SW and W into the Thames
Estuary.
Details are shown on the charts and Chart 5500.
Tidal streams
13.4 1
The tidal streams run generally in the direction of the
coast and are given in detail in the directions.
See also the information on the charts and Admiralty
Tidal Stream Atlas and Co-Tidal Charts: Thames Estuary
and Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas: North Sea, Southern
Portion.
SOUTHWOLD TO ORFORD NESS
General information
Chart 1543
Route
13.5 1
From the vicinity of 52°17′N 1°44′E, ESE of Southwold
(52°20′N 1°41′E), the route leads 13½ miles SSW to a
position ESE of Orford Ness.
Topography
13.6 1
The shingle beach to the S of Southwold is broken by
Dunwich Cliffs (52°16′N 1°38′E), which are remarkably
light in colour and rise abruptly from the beach at the N
end of Dunwich village. Thence the coast reverts to a
shingle beach to Thorpe Ness, 5 miles S of the cliffs.
Aldeburgh, a small seaside town, a further 1¾ miles S,
stands at the foot of a steep bank. Sudbourne Beach, a low
shingle beach, runs 4 miles S between Aldeburgh and
Orford Ness.
Nature reserves
13.7 1
There are nature reserves situated 2 miles S of Dunwich
(52°16′N 1°38′E), at Minsmere Sluice the entrance to
Minsmere River, and at Orford Ness. Access to these
reserves is controlled.
Lobster pots
13.8 1
Lobster pots are laid off Aldeburgh (52°09′N 1°36′E)
and the coastal bank 2½ miles NNE during the summer.
Historic wreck.
13.9 1
A historic wreck lies in 52°15′⋅2N 1°38′⋅4E and is
protected by a restricted area of radius 100 m. See 1.86 for
regulations affecting such wrecks.
Dumping ground
13.10 1
An explosives dumping ground, now disused and shown
on the chart, lies 12 miles E of Orford Ness.
Rescue
13.11 1
There is a coastguard station at Aldeburgh (52°09′N
1°36′E), where rescue equipment is maintained. See 1.122
for details of stations.
An all-weather lifeboat is stationed at Aldeburgh,
together with an inshore lifeboat. See 1.123 for details of
lifeboats.
Tidal streams
13.12 1
The tidal streams run in the direction of the coast. At a
position 2¼ miles E of Orford Ness the SSW stream begins
at −0550 HW Dover and the NNE stream at +0020 HW
Dover.
CHAPTER 13
260
The spring rate on the SSW-going stream is 2½ kn and
on the NNE-going stream 3 kn.
See also information on the chart and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas: North Sea, Southern Portion.
Principal marks
13.13 1
Landmarks:
Southwold Church (tower) (52°20′N 1°41′E).
Water tower (3 cables W of Southwold Church
tower).
Sizewell Nuclear Power Station (52°13′N 1°37′E), a
square building which stands on a grassy bank
close N of Sizewell Village.
Sizewell Power Station from SE (13.13)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
2
Water tower (52°10′⋅8N 1°36′⋅9E), a square
castellated red brick tower. A second conspicuous
water tower, which appears as a dovecot with a
windmill alongside it, is 2 cables WNW.
Radio masts (52°06′⋅1N 1°34′⋅6E)
Orford Ness Lighthouse (white round tower, red
bands, 30 m in height) (52°05′⋅0N 1°34′⋅4E).
3
Tower (52°06′N 1°32′E) (Chart 2052). The prominent
ruins of Orford Castle are close W of the tower.
Major lights:
Southwold Light (52°19′⋅6N 1°40′⋅9E) (North Sea
(West) Pilot).
Orford Ness Light—as above.
Other aid to navigation
13.14
1
A racon transmits from Orford Ness Lighthouse - see
above.
Directions
(continued from North Sea (West) Pilot)
13.15 1
From a position ESE of Southwold, the route leads
13½ miles SSW to a position ESE of Orford Ness, passing
(with positions from Thorpe Ness (52°11′N 1°37′E)):
2
ESE of Dunwich Bank (5 miles N) and Sizewell
Bank (1½ miles NE), which run parallel to the
coast about 1 to 1½ miles offshore abreast
Dunwich and Sizewell. The banks, with depths of
less than 5 m over them, are covered by the red
sector (shore-210°) of Orford Ness Light and the
red sector (001°−032½°) of Southwold Light.
Light-beacons stand at the seaward ends of four
Orford Ness Lighthouse (13.13)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
submarine pipelines which extend up to 3½ cables
seaward from Sizewell Nuclear Power Station.
Thence:
3
ESE of Thorpe Ness a rounded, ill-defined point,
12 m in elevation, with the village and seaside
resort of Thorpeness 5 cables SW. A coastal bank
with depths of less than 5 m over it extends 1 mile
E of Thorpe Ness. The bank is also covered by the
red sectors of Orford Ness and Southwold Lights.
Thence:
4
Depending on draught, clear of Aldeburgh Napes
(4 miles ESE) a detached shoal with depths of
10 m over it. The shoal is 4 miles in extent and
lies parallel to the coast. Thence:
5
ESE of Aldeburgh (1½ miles SSW) a small seaside
town, which is used by fishing boats, and stands at
the foot of a steep bank. Cables, marked at their
shore end by three beacons (white, red top,
diamond topmark, 7 m in height) extend SE from
the coast close S of the town. An outfall also close
S of the town, extends 7 cables SE to seaward. It
is marked at its seaward end by a buoy (special).
Thence:
6
ESE of Aldeburgh Ridge (4½ miles S) an offshore
shoal which dries and is marked on its E side by
Aldeburgh Ridge Light-buoy (port hand). The
shoalest part is Onion at the S end of the shoal.
Thence:
7
To a position ESE of Orford Ness a low rounded
point, on which stands a lighthouse (13.13). A
number of radio masts stand about 1½ miles N of
the point, but they are experimental and their size
and position vary.
CHAPTER 13
261
Clearing bearings
13.16 1
The line of bearing 346° astern of Southwold Lighthouse
(52°19′⋅6N 1°40′⋅9E) passes E of Aldeburgh Napes.
For vessels approaching Aldeburgh the line of bearing
315° of Saint Peter’s Church (tower) (52°09′N 1°36′E)
passes between Aldeburgh Napes and Aldeburgh Ridge.
The line of bearing 230° of Bawdsey Cliff (52°00′N
1°26′E) (Chart 2052) open SE of Orford Ness passes SE of
Aldeburgh Ridge.
Useful marks
13.17 1
Walberswick Church (tower) (52°19′N 1°39′E).
White cottages (building) (52°15′N 1°38′E) standing
on Minsmere Cliffs.
Radio mast (red light) (52°11′N 1°36′E). A TV mast
stands 7 cables WSW.
Benjamin Britten Memorial (52°09′⋅6N 1°36′⋅4E).
Martello tower (52°08′N 1°36′E).
(Directions continue at 13.29)
Aldeburgh − Benjamin Britten Memorial (13.17)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − Kevin Bagwell)
OUTER APPROACHES TO HARWICH
ORFORD NESS TO HARWICH CHANNEL
General information
Chart 2052
Route
13.18 1
From a position ESE of Orford Ness (52°05′N 1°35′E)
the principal route leads 7 miles SSW thence 2½ miles SW
through Shipway (13.29) to a position in the vicinity of
Harwich Approach Light-buoy (safe water) (51°56′⋅8N
1°30′⋅7E), which is moored on the N side of the dredged
channel leading to Harwich Harbour.
2
The alternative routes through Sledway (13.30) and
Hollesley Bay Channel (13.31) are also described.
Topography
13.19 1
Orford Beach, a low shingle beach, curves 5 miles WSW
from Orford Ness to Orford Haven (13.35) at the entrance
to River Ore (13.35). Hollesley Bay (13.33) lies between
Orford Ness and Orford Haven. To the S of Orford Haven,
Bawdsey Beach is a continuation of the shingle beach as
far as Boathouse Point, 2¼ miles SSW. Bawdsey Cliff,
reddish in colour and 12 to 15 m high, extends from close
S of Boathouse Point nearly to Woodbridge Haven (13.49),
1½ miles SW, at the entrance to the River Deben (13.53).
The cliff, alternating with grassy bank, continues S of
Woodbridge Haven to Cobbolds Point, which is bluff and
rounded and lies 1½ miles SSW of Woodbridge Haven.
Thence the town of Felixstowe lies along the coast which
runs 2¾ miles SW to Landguard Point (13.80), the E
entrance point of Harwich Harbour.
2
Initially the coast is fairly steep-to and the 10 m depth
contour only lies a few cables offshore. Further S the 10 m
depth contour diverges from the coast and lies about
6 miles E of Landguard Point. There are a number of
detached offshore shoals with depths of less than 5 m over
them, principally Whiting Bank (52°02′N 1°32′E) (13.30),
Bawdsey Bank (52°00′N 1°34′E) (13.29), Cutler (51°59′N
1°27′E) (13.30) and Shipwash (51°57′N 1°36′E) (13.29).
Direction of buoyage
13.20 1
See 13.3.
Depths
13.21 1
A detached sandwave formation (see The Mariner’s
Handbook) extends NE from Bawd Head (52°02′N 1°36′E)
at the N entrance point to Shipway. Depths over the
sandwaves are less than 8 m and subject to change. Apart
from the sandwaves, depths in Shipway are in excess of
11 m.
Traffic movement
13.22 1
In the approaches to, and in the Harwich Deep Water
Channel itself, crossing vessels, deep−draught vessels and
HSC may be encountered.
Vessel traffic service
13.23 1
See 13.63.
Rescue
13.24 1
There are coastguard stations (1.122) at Shingle Street
(52°02′N 1°27′E) and Felixstowe (51°57′N 1°20′E). Rescue
equipment is maintained at both stations. A National
Coastwatch Institution lookout post (1.115) is located in
Martello Tower P (51°56′⋅9N 1°20′⋅1E).
2
An all-weather lifeboat and an inshore lifeboat are
stationed at Harwich. See 1.123 for details of lifeboats.
There is a VHF DF station at Bawdsey which is
controlled by Thames MRSC. See 1.113 for details of VHF
DF system.
Natural conditions
13.25 1
Tidal streams follow the line of the coast. Except off
Orford Ness where the streams are stronger (see 13.12) the
spring rate varies from 1¼ to 2¼ kn. The NE-going stream
tends to be stronger than the SW-going stream.
CHAPTER 13
262
2
Spring rates in Hollesley Bay Channel are 2 kn in each
direction. In Sledway and Shipway the SW-going stream
sets at 1¾ kn and the NE-going stream at 2 kn and 2¼ kn
respectively. The tidal streams follow the direction of the
channels.
See also information on the chart and Admiralty Tidal
Stream Atlas and Co-Tidal Charts: Thames Estuary.
13.26 1
Overfalls may be encountered at the N entrances to
both Shipway and Hollesley Bay Channel, in the latter case
particularly on the NE-going stream.
Principal marks
13.27 1
Landmarks:
Orford Ness Lighthouse (52°05′⋅0N 1°34′⋅4E) (13.13).
Tower (52°06′N 1°32′E) (13.13).
Buildings (52°05′N 1°33′E) with pitched roofs
standing on a shingle beach.
2
Water tower (51°59′N 1°20′E) (chart 2693).
Saint John’s Church (spire) (51°58′N 1°21′E).
Major light:
Orford Ness Light—as above.
Other aids to navigation
13.28
1
Racons transmit from:
Orford Ness Lighthouse (52°05′⋅0N 1°34′⋅4E).
N Shipwash Light-buoy (52°01′⋅7N 1°38′⋅2E).
Directions
(continued from 13.17)
Shipway
13.29 1
From a position 52°04′N 1°39′E, ESE of Orford Ness
(52°05′N 1°35′E) the route leads 7 miles SSW thence
2½ miles SW through Shipway, which varies between 1½
and 2½ miles wide, to a position about 2 miles ENE of
Harwich Approach Light-buoy (safe water) (51°56′⋅8N
1°30′⋅7E), which is moored on the N side of Harwich Deep
Water Channel leading to Harwich Harbour, passing:
2
ESE of Bawd Head (52°02′N 1°36′E), the N
extremity of Bawdsey Bank, which extends 6 miles
SW from the head and lies on the W side of
Shipway. The sea breaks heavily over the ridge on
the N part of the bank. Depths on the S part of the
bank are very uneven and less than 5 m. NE
Bawdsey Light-buoy (starboard hand) is moored
1 miles SW of Bawd Head, Mid Bawdsey
Light-buoy (starboard hand) is moored on the SE
side of the bank and S Bawdsey Light-buoy (S
cardinal) is moored off the SW end of the bank.
Thence:
3
WNW of North Ship Head (52°01′N 1°38′E), noting
the overfalls which lie N of the shoal (13.26).
North Ship Head is marked by N Shipwash
Light−buoy (N cardinal). Shipwash, a long thin
shoal, extending 8½ miles SSW, lies on the E side
of Shipway. The S part of the shoal has depths of
less than 1 m and dries 6 cables SSE of W
Shipwash Light−buoy (51°57′⋅1N 1°35′⋅9E). NW
Shipwash Light−buoy (port hand) and W Shipwash
Light−buoy (port hand) are moored on the W side
of the shoal. Thence:
4
ESE and SE of Bawdsey Anchorage (51°58′N
1°32′E) (13.84), thence:
To the pilot boarding position about 2 miles ENE of
Harwich Approach Light-buoy, from which there is
direct access to North Channel (13.78) or Harwich
Deep Water Channel (13.79).
Sledway
13.30 1
From a position SE of Orford Ness (52°05′N 1°35′E)
the route leads 7½ miles SW thence 2 miles SSE through
Sledway, which is about 1½ miles wide, with depths in
excess of 6 m, to a position on the N side of Harwich
Deep Water Channel in the vicinity of Harwich Approach
Light-buoy (safe water) (51°56′⋅8N 1°30′⋅7E), passing:
2
NW of Bawd Head (52°02′N 1°36′E) (13.29) and
Bawdsey Bank (13.29), which lies along the SE
side of the channel, thence:
SE of Whiting Bank (52°02′N 1°32′E) which extends
4 miles along the NW side of the channel and
which dries in the middle. NE Whiting Light-buoy
(E cardinal) is moored at the NE end of the bank
and SW Whiting Light-buoy (S cardinal) at the
SW end of the bank. Thence:
3
SE of Cutler (51°59′N 1°28′E) a shingle bank marked
on its E side by Cutler Light-buoy (starboard
hand), thence:
WSW of Bawdsey Anchorage (13.84) marked at its
SW corner by S Bawdsey Light-buoy (S cardinal)
(51°57′⋅2N 1°30′⋅2E) thence:
To a position 5 cables W of Harwich Approach
Light-buoy (safe water).
Hollesley Bay Channel
13.31 1
From a position SE of Orford Ness (52°05′N 1°35′E)
the route leads 4½ miles SW through Hollesley Bay
Channel, which has depths in excess of 6 m, thence 2 miles
S to join the route through Sledway (13.30), passing (with
positions from Orford Ness):
2
NW of Whiting Bank (13.30) (3 miles SW), guarding
against the overfalls N of the bank (13.26).
Whiting Hook Buoy (port hand) marks the NW
side of Whiting Bank, thence:
SE of Hollesley Bay (13.33) (4 miles WSW), thence:
SE of Orford Haven (13.35) (5 miles WSW), thence:
3
NW and W of Flagstone (4½ miles SW), the SW end
of Whiting Bank, thence:
To the SW end of Sledway where the route joins with
that through Sledway (13.30).
The route SW through Hollesley Bay Channel lies in the
white sector (038°−047°) of Orford Ness Light.
Useful marks
13.32 1
Martello tower (52°00′N 1°26′E).
Radar tower (51°57′⋅7N 1°21′⋅4E)
Gas storage tank (51°57′⋅2N 1°19′⋅4E). An occasional
flare, burnt from a tall chimney 100 m NW of the
tank, is readily distinguished at night.
Martello tower (51°57′N 1°20′E).
(Directions continue at 13.80)
CHAPTER 13
263
Anchorages
13.33 1
Hollesley Bay provides anchorage within Whiting Bank
(13.30) in depths of between 6 and 10 m, bottom mud and
clay but sand close to Whiting Bank where the greatest
depths are found. The anchorage is open to the N and NE
and there is no protection S of the line of bearing 290° of
Hollesley Church (52°03′N 1°26′E) (chart 2693) where the
bottom also becomes foul and irregular.
13.34 1
Sledway. There is good anchorage 1½ miles NE of
Cutler Light-buoy (51°58′⋅5N 1°27′⋅5E) (13.30) in a depth
of about 12 m as shown on the chart.
Orford Haven, River Ore and River Alde
Charts 2052, 2695 plan of Rivers Ore and Alde
General information
13.35 1
Description. Orford Haven (52°02′N 1°28′E) is entered
at the SW end of Hollesley Bay and stands at the mouth of
the River Ore. The river runs within a low narrow spit
4½ miles NE to Orford, whence it becomes the River Alde
and continues within the spit for a further 6 miles. It then
turns abruptly W and continues a further 5½ miles to Snape
at the head of navigation, the limit of tidal influence and
the first crossing of the river.
2
North Weir Point is the SW extremity of the spit, which
is about 8 cables at its widest point, but less than a cable
elsewhere. The spit is low and prone to flooding.
The Rivers Ore and Alde are navigable by small craft
only.
3
Nature reserves. The narrow spit from North Weir Point
(13.35) to Stony Ditch, 4 miles NE, is a nature reserve.
Landing is not prohibited but can disturb wildlife. The NW
side of Havergate Island (52°04′⋅5N 1°32′⋅0E) (13.46) is a
nature reserve where unauthorised landing is prohibited.
Boyton Marshes to the SW of Havergate Island is a bird
sanctuary.
4
The spit between Stony Ditch and Slaughden, 4 miles
farther N is a National Trust reserve. Access is from Orford
Quay only, where the Trust has a visitors office.
13.36 1
Controlling depths. The bar at the entrance to Orford
Haven is formed by a shifting shingle bank and depths
over it are subject to change, especially after strong
onshore winds. In 2004 the least depth in the channel
across the bar marked by seasonal buoys was 0⋅6 m.
13.37 1
Pilotage is not available.
13.38 1
Local knowledge is required for navigation inwards of
Orford Haven Light-buoy (safe water) (52°01′⋅6N 1°28′⋅0E)
and assistance can be obtained from Aldeburgh Yacht Club.
Buoyage is seasonal only and the buoys are moved to meet
frequent changes in the position of the channels. However,
on occasions the buoyage may not reflect the most recent
changes to the channel.
13.39
1
Submarine cables and pipelines, their landings marked
by beacons, cross the River Ore close upriver of Orford. A
submarine power cable crosses the River Alde in position
52°06′⋅1N 1°34′⋅1E. Anchoring in the vicinity of these
features is prohibited.
13.40 1
Rescue. See 13.24.
13.41 1
Tidal streams. Offshore the SW-going stream begins at
−0600 HW Harwich, becoming the in-going stream at the
bar at −0545 HW Harwich (1 hour after local LW). As the
river is ascended so the in-going stream begins later.
Offshore the NE-going stream begins at HW Harwich,
becoming the out-going stream at the bar at +0035 HW
Harwich (1 hour after local HW).
2
The streams offshore and at the bar are strong with rates
up to 6 kn. There is considerable turbulence in the vicinity
Orford Haven from S (13.35)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − Air Images)
CHAPTER 13
264
of the bar when the offshore streams set at different
directions to those within the drying banks.
13.42 1
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. At Orford Quay (52°05′⋅4N 1°32′⋅3E) the mean
spring range is about 2⋅2 m and the mean neap range about
1⋅2 m.
13.43 1
Principal marks, approaches:
Bungalow at Shingle Street (52°02′⋅2N 1°27′⋅3E).
Orford Ness Lighthouse (52°05′⋅0N 1°34′⋅4E) (13.13).
Chimney (52°03′⋅5N 1°27′⋅6E).
Martello tower (52°01′⋅8N 1°26′⋅9E), close S of the
village of Shingle Street.
13.44 1
Principal marks, within the river:
Orford Castle (52°05′⋅7N 1°31′⋅8E) (13.13).
Orford Church (tower) (52°05′⋅7N 1°32′⋅1E).
Five lattice radio masts (103 m high) (52°06′⋅5N
1°34′⋅7E).
Martello tower (52°08′⋅3N 1°35′⋅8E).
2
Saint Peter’s Church tower (52°09′⋅3N 1°36′⋅0E).
Water tower (52°09′⋅2N 1°35′⋅7E), often hidden by
trees.
Silo (52°09′⋅4N 1°35′⋅4E).
Iken Church tower (52°09′⋅3N 1°31′⋅5E).
Snape Maltings (52°09′⋅8N 1°29′⋅8E).
Directions
13.45 1
Approaches and entrance. From Orford Haven
Light−buoy (52°01′⋅6N 1°28′⋅0E) moored at the SW end of
Hollesley Bay Channel (13.31) the track, which is marked
by seasonal buoys (lateral), leads NW across the bar for
about 5 cables. Close inshore, the track alters N for about 4
cables to follow a narrow channel between the spit
extending SSW from North Weir Point and the shore. See
13.38.
Useful mark:
Coastguard Radio Mast (52°02′⋅1N 1°27′⋅2E).
2
Depending on draught, entrance is best attempted
between 2 hours after local LW, when the drying banks are
visible, and local HW. The out-going and in-going streams
run from 1 hour after the times of local LW and HW
respectively.
3
The entrance is dangerous in strong onshore winds,
especially on the ebb which runs strongly out of the river
at springs.
13.46 1
River Ore. Long Reach runs 2 miles NE from the river
entrance as far as Havergate Island, where the river divides.
The Narrows and Main Reach lie S and E of the island and
Lower, Long and Short Gull reaches to the W and N. The
two channels combine NE of the island and the river then
runs 7 cables N to Orford. Depths are generally in excess
of 3 m, except within the entrance where there is a 0⋅5 m
shoal patch 1½ cables N of North Weir Point. The banks of
the river are low-lying, featureless and in most places
protected by an embankment. They should not be
approached too closely as they are fringed with drying mud
flats.
2
Butley River, entered at the N end of Lower Gull, is
accessible to small boats for about 2 miles from the
entrance. Boats moorings and anchorages are located within
the river, but anchoring above Gedrave Cliff is prohibited
due to oyster beds.
13.47 1
River Alde. Above Orford, where the River Ore
becomes the River Alde, the river continues through a
number of reaches for about 4 miles to Slaughden. Depths
are in excess of 3 m, except at The Horse, 7 cables S of
Slaughden, where the depth reduces to 1⋅8 m. The river
broadens out considerably to the W of Westrow Point,
1 mile WNW of Slaughden, with extensive mud flats either
side of the fairway, which becomes tortuous. It is marked
by withies (red can to port and green flag or twig to
starboard). Depths reduce to the W of Slaughden and are
less than 0⋅5 m beyond Iken, 3 miles WNW of Slaughden.
The tidal barrier and limit of navigation is close W of the
Snape Bridge, which is 1½ miles beyond Iken.
13.48 1
Landing places are at Orford Quay (52°05′⋅4N
1°32′⋅4E), Slaughden Quay (52°08′⋅5N 1°36′⋅0E) and Snape
Wharf (52°09′⋅9N 1°29′⋅9E). Water, fuel and provisions can
be obtained in the vicinity of the landing places. Orford
Town Trust through its Harbour Master controls the river
from Orford Haven to 1 mile above the town.
2
There are small boat moorings along much of the length
of the river. Anchoring is prohibited in the vicinity of small
craft moorings at Orford and Slaughden and near shellfish
beds in position 52°08′⋅0N 1°35′⋅6E.
Woodbridge Haven, River Deben
Chart 2693
General information
13.49 1
Description. Woodbridge Haven (51°59′N 1°24′E) is
formed by the outlet of the River Deben (13.53), which
flows into the sea SW of Bawdsey Cliff (13.19).
The river is navigable as far as Woodbridge, 7½ miles
from the sea. The small town stands on the W bank of the
river and has several quays, which dry and were once used
commercially but now mainly by recreational craft.
2
Controlling depths. The bar at the entrance to River
Deben is constantly changing in depth and position. In
2005, the controlling depth was 0⋅8 m.
Pilotage. The Harbour Master at Felixstowe Ferry, close
inside the entrance on the W bank, will act as pilot.
3
Local knowledge. Entry into Woodbridge Haven at any
state of tide is not recommended without extensive local
knowledge, the entrance channel being narrow, steeply
shelving and changeable, particularly after gales. The
buoyage may not reflect the most recent changes to the
channel.
The entrance is dangerous in strong onshore winds,
especially on the out−going tide during springs. See note
on the chart.
Rescue. See 13.24.
13.50 1
Tidal streams. Formal tidal studies are not available,
but it is probable that the in-going stream at the bar begins
at +0545 HW Harwich and the out-going stream at −0015
HW Harwich. As the river is ascended these times are
later, so that at Woodbridge the in-going stream begins at
−0430 HW Harwich and the out-going stream at +0100
HW Harwich.
2
Both streams run strongly in the entrance, reaching 3 to
4 kn during springs. Within the River Deben the tidal
streams are more moderate.
3
Tidal levels. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables
Volume 1. Mean spring range about 3⋅2 m; mean neap range
about 1⋅9 m.
CHAPTER 13
265
Woodbridge Haven (Deben Bar) from S (13.49)
(Original dated 1997)
(Photograph − Aerial Reconnaissance Company)
13.51 1
Principal marks:
Bawdsey Manor (51°59′⋅3N 1°24′⋅1E).
Martello tower U (51°59′⋅1N 1°23′⋅5E) surmounted
by a flagstaff.
Martello tower T (51°58′⋅7N 1°23′⋅3E).
Directions
13.52 1
From the vicinity of Woodbridge Haven Light-buoy
(safe water) (51°58′⋅7N 1°24′⋅6E) the approach is W for
7 cables to Mid Knolls Buoy (starboard hand) (not charted)
at the inner end of the passage across the bar, passing N of
East Knolls Buoy (porthand) (not charted) at the outer end
of the passage. From Mid Knolls Buoy the buoyed channel
leads 6 cables N to the river entrance off Felixstowe Ferry
(51°59′⋅3N 1°23′⋅4E) (13.54).
2
Depending on draught the optimum time to enter the
haven is on the in-going stream at half−tide.
Caution. The buoys are moved frequently to conform
with changes in the channel.
13.53 1
River Deben has low-lying banks and the channel to
Woodbridge, which is 7½ miles in length, passes through
broad mud flats and saltings. There are small boat
moorings along much of the river. A ferry crosses the river
close inside the entrance and there is a disused submarine
cable, which is marked at its landing places by beacons,
close above the ferry landings. Horse Sand, a drying shoal
marked at its N extremity by a buoy (port hand), lies close
N of the entrance. From 3 miles below Woodbridge the
channel is marked by buoys (lateral).
13.54
1
Landing places are at Felixstowe Ferry (51°59′⋅3N
1°23′⋅4E), Ramsholt Quay (52°01′⋅4N 1°21′⋅8E),
Waldringfield (52°03′⋅2N 1°19′⋅9E), Kyson Point
(52°04′⋅7N 1°18′⋅8E) and Woodbridge (52°05′⋅4N
1°19′⋅4E).
HARWICH HAVEN PORTS AND WATERWAYS
APPROACHES FROM SUNK AND
ENTRANCE TO HARWICH HARBOUR
General information
Charts 2052, 2693, 1491
Harwich Harbour
13.55 1
Harwich Harbour (51°57′N 1°18′E) is the only
land-locked harbour between the Humber and the Thames
which affords complete shelter from all winds. The harbour
gives access to:
2
The Port of Felixstowe (13.85).
Navyard and Harwich International Port (13.109) at
Harwich.
Mistley (13.120) and Manningtree (13.119) on the
River Stour (Chart 1594), 8 miles W of Harwich.
Ipswich (13.121) on the River Orwell 8 miles NW of
Harwich.
The approach is accessible under all weather conditions.
CHAPTER 13
266
Route
13.56 1
From the vicinity of the Haven Ports, Thames and
Medway Pilot Station (51°51′⋅5N 1°40′⋅4E) the route leads
3 miles W, thence 2 miles NNW to the entrance to Harwich
Deep Water Channel, thence 4½ miles N and NW through
the channel to a position within the channel S of Harwich
Approach Light-buoy (safe water) (51°56′⋅8N 1°30′⋅7E)
thence 7½ miles W following the channel to a position S
of Landguard Point (13.80), whence the channel rounds to
the N for a further 2 miles into Harwich Harbour where
direct approach can be made to the berths at Felixstowe
and Harwich.
Controlling depth and maximum draught
13.57 1
The Harwich Deep Water Channel is dredged to 14⋅5 m
as far as the entrance to the River Orwell. Vessels with a
maximum draught of 13⋅1 m may enter harbour at any time
and those with a draught up to 15⋅0 m at HW.
Direction of buoyage
13.58 1
See 13.3.
Recreational craft
13.59
1
Several large yacht marinas are located along the banks
of River Orwell and at Ipswich. Although recommended
tracks for yachts have been established to keep yachts away
from Harwich Deep Water Channel and the Felixstowe
container berths, mariners are advised to exercise vigilance
and caution. See 13.72.
Pilotage
13.60 1
Pilotage for the ports of Harwich, Felixstowe, Ipswich
and Mistley is provided and operated by the Haven Ports
Pilotage Service. Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over
50 m in length, except those vessels 100 m in length or less
which operate exclusively within the port area. The pilotage
area lies within the limits of the Harwich Haven Authority
and is shown on Chart 2052. The area comprises the
Rivers Orwell and Stour and extends seaward to the W
side of Shipwash (51°57′N 1°37′E) and includes all the
Harwich Deep Water Channel and the S end of Shipway.
2
Vessels requiring a pilot should send their ETA 24 hours
in advance or on leaving their last port if later, confirming
at least 8, 3 and 1 hour in advance. The boarding position
for vessels is at the Haven Ports, Thames, and Medway
Pilot Station in position 51°51′⋅5N 1°40′⋅4E).
3
Vessels of less than 180 m LOA and 8 m draught may
embark the pilot at the Haven Pilots boarding position, 2
miles ENE of Harwich Approach Light-buoy (51°56′⋅8N
1°30⋅7′E.
4
For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6(1).
Sunk Precautionary Area
13.61
1
Sunk Precautionary Area is established in the vicinity of
Sunk Light-float (51°51′N 1°35′E) and includes the pilot
boarding station for Haven Ports, Thames, and Medway.
Mariners are advised to navigate with great caution in these
congested waters.
Vessel traffic services
13.62
1
Sunk Vessel Traffic Service is an information service
for all vess